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THE PERSIAN MANUAL. 



CLARKE. 



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THE 

PERSIAN MANUAL, 

A POCKET COMPANION 

i]<rTEin>Ei) TO 

TAOIIilTATE THB BSSBlTriAIi ATTAHTMENTS OF CONTEBSnra WITH 
PLUBlJCy AM) COMFOBINa WITH ACCFEAOY, IX T^^ua^t^a^ 
GBACEPUL OF ALL THE LANaUAaSS aFO£:£:y 
THE EAST. 




PART L— A CONCISE GRAMMAR 
LANGUAGE, 

With JExercises on its more prominent peculiarvties, together with 

a Selection of Useful Phrases, Dialogues, and Subjects for 

Translation into Persian, 

PART n.— A VOCABULARY OF USEFUL 
WORDS, 

ENGLISH AND PERSIAN, 

SHOWING AT THE SAME TIME THE DIFFBEBNCE *0F IDIOM 
BETWEEN THB TWO LAKOUAOBS. 



BY 

CAPTAIN H. WILBERFQRCE CLARKE, 

Sogal Engineers. 

LONDON: 
Wm. H. ALLEN & CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. 



1878. 

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I 






LONDON : 
GILBEET AND EIVINGTON, PEINTEB8, 

52, ST. John's squaes, e.c. 



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TO 



Pg mth f. Si €., 



WHO ENCOUSAGED ME IN 



BOYHOOD, YOUTH, AND MANHOOD, 



THIS WOBE 18, WITH AFFECTION, 



XK8CBIBED. 



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PREPAOE BY THE AUTHOR. 



This work is divided into Two Parts : — 

Part I. Section 1. The Grammar. 

99 2. Progressive Lessons and Exer- 
cises. 
f, 3* Miscellaneous Dialogues and 
Exercises. 

Part H. Vocabulary. 

2. Sections 2 and 3 of Part I. and the whole of 
Part II. are entirely original. 

The Grammar is, in part, compiled from the Per- 
sian Grammars by — 

Dr. Lumsden, LL.D., 1810. 

Mirza Muhammad Ibrahim ShirazT, 1841. 

Mr. A. H. Bleeck, 1857. 

Dr. D. Forbes, LL.D., 1862. 
Its arrangement is entirely new ; much original mat- 
ter has been introduced ; jand the whole rendered as 
concisely as possible. 

The Exercises and Sentences (English to be turned 

.,yit,zed by Google 



X PREFACE. 

into Persian) have been taken from Dr. Forbes' 
Manual of Hindustani. It was considered that these 
exercises and sentences were possibly as good and as 
well arranged as any others which could be devised, 
while, by adopting them for this work, the student 
would have the advantage of being able to compare 
the Hindustani with the Persian idiom. The great 
success which Dr. Forbes' Manual of Hindustani 
has obtained was a further inducement to adopt the 
same plan. 

3. The aim throughout this work has been to 
gather under each sentence as many useful idioms^ 
expressions and synonyms as possible. That portion 
of a sentence which may be represented by other 
equivalent expressions is enclosed in brackets ; 
and the equivalent expressions — also placed within 
brackets and separated by semi-colons — ^are put at 
the end of the sentence. Thus, on page 126 of the 
Vocabulary, against the word "robbed,'' it is to 
be understood that the expressions '' duzd burda ;" 
" dast-burd-i-duzd gardida;" "ba sirkat rafta;" 
" duzdida shuda," may each be substituted for the 
expression " ba duzdl rafta," in the sentence. 

This plan of rendering the sentences will, it is be- 
lieved, give great aid to the student in mastering 
the language. He will see at a glance the several 



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PREFACE. XI 

ways in which a sentence, may be rendered, will 
observe the force of words, and will be able to com- 
pare idiom with idiom.* 

4. It has been customary to regard Persian as a 
language easy of attainment ; this is far from being 
the case. A certain degree of proficiency may easily 
be reached ; but to obtain a thorough knowledge of 
the language is exceedingly difficult, owing to — 

(a) The vast number of words (said to be 80,000) 
in the language ; 

(b) The ambiguous expressions in which a Persian 
delights ; 

(c) The want of translations ;t 

(d) Want of properly qualified teachers. J 

That there are defects in this work is most readily 
allowed ; yet all that care and labour could do to 
prevent error has been given to the task. The critic 
will remember that this is the first attempt ever 

• In his Hindustani Manual Dr. Forbes rendered the English 
sentence in one way only. For Hindustani this may he suffi- 
cient ; hut a rich language, such as ^the Persian, requires more 
generous handling. 

t The only Persian hooks translated into English are— the 
Gulistan, the Anwar-i-Suhaili, and the Shah-Namah. 

X This is a most serious difficulty as regards Persian and 
Arahic. 



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XU PREFACE. 

made by anyone to bring out a work, systematically 
arranged, treating of the rendering of English into 
Persian. 

6. At the present time, the only books which at- 
tempt to treat of the rendering of English sentences 
into Persian are the following :— 

{a) " The Persian Miinshi/* by Dosa-Biya,i Su- 
rabji, a Parsi. 

This book contains 1117 sentences, rendered in Hindustani, 
SIndhI and Persian. The sentences are not arranged alphabetically, 
nor so as to express the, rendering of a certain dominant word; 
they are simply grouped together under six heads, — Introductory, 
Mercantile, Medical, Judicial, Military and Miscellaneous. 

The work is roughly lithographed on bad Indian paper. The 
renderings in lithographed oriental character ai*e not easy for a 
beginner to decipher. But for the arrangement and the way 
in which it is got up it would be an excellent work. It can 
be obtained from Messrs. Thacker and Co., of Bombay, for 
6i rupees. 

(b) " Modern Persian," by an Officer of the Hai- 
derabad Contingent, revised by MirzaZainul !A.badin 
Shirazi. 

This is a small book, printed in Bombay in 1871 ; it contains 
1769 sentences, without any arrangement whatever ; the vowel 
points in the oriental character (which is not transliterated) 
have all been omitted, making it very difficult for a beginner to 
pronounce the words. It may be obtained from Messrs. Thacker 
and Co., of Bombay, for 10 rs. 



^.gitized by Google 



PREFACE. Xm 

(c) "The Conversation Manual/' by Captain G. 
Pluntett, E.E. 

This is a book, printed in London, containing 670 sentences 
and a bare liat of 1500 words, which are rendered in Hindustani, 
Pushtu and Persian. Homan character only is used. It is a 
small book and necessarily covers but a small extent of each of 
the three languages. It may be obtained from Messrs. Richard- 
son and Co., Comhill, London, for 6 rs. 

The three books, briefly described, labour under 
one defect, which is, that each sentence is rendered in 
one-way only. The student is not afforded the op- 
portunity of contrasting idiom with idiom, word with 
word ; nor of exercising his powers of observation. 

The Persian Manual now offered to the public 
contains: — 

In Section 2, Part I., 665 sentences. 

3, Part I., 333 „ 
In Vocabulary, Part II., 1969 „ 



Total number of sentences, 2857 

This nimiber 2857 represents the actual number 
of English sentences rendered into Persian; but 
almost every sentence is expressed in several ways. 
The actual number of Persian sentences probably 
amounts, at least, to 2857 x 3 = 8671, all methodi- 
cally arranged. 



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XIV PREFACE. 

A bald list of words is of little use ; the student 
requires to know how to use them."^ It is hoped that 
a study of this Manual may save the student much 
unnecessary drudgery with a native teacher; and 
that the tables of Persian weights and measures, the 
digest of regulations regarding examinations in Per- 
sian and Arabic, and the lists of Persian and Arabic 
books may prove useful. 

6. I here beg to record the service which I have re- 
ceived, in. correcting the proof-sheets of this work, 
and generally in bringing it out, from — 

(a) Maulawi Allah BaMish, who passed twenty- 
five years of his life in Persia, acted as Arabic in- 
terpreter during the Abyssinian campaign, and is 
now Instructor in Persian in the High School of 
Karachi in East India. 

(b) Shai^t Muhammad Sadik, Hajiu-1-haramain, 
a native of Tahran, who served me in the Abyssinian 
campaign, and followed my fortunes at divers seasons 
in India.f 

I mention the names of these men not only be- 
cause they deserve to be named, but also as a gua- 

* This is especially the case with regard to Arabic words used 
in Persian. 

f " Hajiu-l-haramain " is the title of a Musulman who has 
made a pilgrimage to Makkah and Madlna. 

' .,yit,zed by Google 



PKEFACB. XV 

rantee that the Persian renderings of the sentences 
are idiomatic as well as grammatical. 

7. The student's attention is drawn to the excel- 
lent manner in which the Work has been got up by 
the Publishers. I freely acknowledge the great 
obligation under which I rest for the care and trouble 
which they have exercised. 

H. WILBERFORCE CLARKE, 
Captain, R.E. 

Karachi, May 1877. 



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( 2) 


THE PERSI-ARABIC ALPHABET. 


1. 2. 


3. 


i. 


6. 


6. 


SAKI. 


s. 


POWZI. 


COUBIirXD 
FORM. 




1 


i 


1 


Pinal. 


Medial Initial. 


Ui\ alif 


1 


a, etc. 


C..U 


I 


1 


• !, 


u. 


> 


v' 


t^*« 


V 


h 


c^ 


^ ^ 


'^. f 


^\ 


A 


>-* 


^ 
^ 


cre^« 




P 




^ 
? * 




v"!" 


J 




.* 

>. 


J <e 


o 


t 


ICa 


I -^ 


-^ J 


^ji 




>^ 




^S« 


ci^ 


■ .? 


V*A 


tX 


-*: 


^Jj 


4iA-i. 


^ 


ji* 


>.-^.y»»» 


C 


J 


t 


& 


> 


^f 


/ 






c^ cic 


Z 


ch 


t 


s. 






c 




J 
i-^^ 


^s* ^ 


C 


h 


t 


s. 


> 


r^-* 




^ 


>^ 


^>M« 


c 


M 


t 


& 


^ 


c^ 


t 


r^^ 


> 


JU dal 


^ 


<; 


^ 


J. 


i 


^u 


Xi> 


iji 


.»■> 


Jli zaZ 


i 


z 


'^ 


J 


J 


ib 


U^ 


> 


w 

re; 


^^ re 


J 
J 


r 
z 
zh 






J 


> 








j;^-.- sin 


o- 


s 


UT 


-. 


ft 


^k 


U-? 


J-i 


^ 

J 


rj^ shin 


* 


»h 


* 


A 


* 

Ml* 


J-k 


J^. 


JJtJ 


j^ 



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1 

THE PERSI-ARABIC ALPHABET. 3 


1. a. 


8. 


4. 


5. 


! 




p 




OOXBIirBB 


BXSKFLmCXTIOVe. 








VOSM. 




vim. 


POWBB. 


1 


3 


^ 










S" 




S 


S 


FinaL 


MediaL 


IhitiaL 








fe 


s 


3 








^L 8dd 


u* 


« 


u- 


^ 


40 


u-t 


o* 




040 


^U zdd 


(> 


? 


i> 


^ 


40 




u^ 


>* 


Jy^ 


t5> to,^ 


k 


f 


i 


k 


t^ 


J J 




c^: 


'^ 


Jji> zo,e 


> 


i? 


i 


k 


^ 


kW 


u. 


> 


> 


, 






'~~^ 








-"» 


OJ 


«.^ 


^ 'ain 


-e 


'a,etc. 


t 


« 


fi 


t^ 


f!- 


Jjl^ 


J-c 


^ gkavn 


t 


i^ 


t 


« 


^ 


6 


6"" 


C5f^ 


jli 


^fe 


<^ 


/ 


ui 


A 


f 


uj\r 


u;5r 


JL 


J/ 


^U kaf 


'J 


* 


J 


A 


i 


jv 


ti' 


>- 


Jj 


^%kaf 


e). 


it 


dl 


< 


r 


e)U. 


elu 


c^ 


/ 


^-^ gof 


^ 


9 


^ 


< 


^ 


^. 


1^;, 


^ 


i 


^\Um 


J 


I 


/ 


I 


) 


JL. 


J^ 


w 


vJ 


jgfji mifn 


r 


m 


r 


^4. 


•• 


r^-. 


C 




CT 


^ nun 


u> 


n 


c; 


Ai 


-»i 


u>» 






(^ 


j\j wato 


i 


w 


.J-] 


-> 


j) 




y. 


.IJJ 




^ Ae ' 


t 


h 


ji 


n 


A 


.U 


aJ 


w 


J* 


^y^ 


^ 


y, etc. 


^? 


"t- 


-li 


*;w- 


^- 




k 



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4 PEONUNCIATION OP THE LETTBES. 

2. It will be observed that I, J, ^3 jy jyjf^y ^^ 
not alter in shape^ whether initial, medial, or final; 
neither do they unite with the letter following to 
the left. The letters ^, fe, do not alter ; but they 
always unite with the letter following to the left. 
The eight letters peculiar to Arabic are — \JL^, ^, 
^^, t, b, c, J. They appear only in words 

purely, or originally, Arabic. The four letters pecu- 
liar to Persian are i^, ^iji vlJ* 

Peonunciation op the Lbttirs. 

3. CL> ^ The sound of this letter is softer and more 
dental than that, of the EngUsh ^; it is identical 
with the Sanskrit Tl. 

\JL> 8 is sounded by the Arabs like th in the 
words thick, thin ; by the Persians as « in the words 
sick, sin. 

^ ch has the sound of ch in the word chwrch, 

_ ^ is a strong aspirate like h in the word AowZ; 
it is uttered by compressing the lower muscles of 
the throat. 

^ kh has a sound like ch in the word loch, as 
pronounced by a Scotchman. 

4> (2 is more dental than the English d. 

4> fij is sounded by the Arabs like th in the words 
thy, thine ; by the Persians as s; in zeal. 



^,y,t,zedbyLjOOgle 



PEONUNCIATION OF THE LBTTBM. 

. r is sounded as r in the French word pardon. 
J zhia prononnced like j in the French word jour / 
or as s; in the word custtre. 

fjl ah is sonnded as in shwn, shine* 

ijff 8 has a stronger and more hissing sound than 
our «• 

^ji z ia pronounced by the Arabs as a hard d or 
dt ; by the Persians as z. 

)o,)Dt and z in Persian are sounded like kzj t, and 

JZ. 

i gh ia like the letter r as pronounced by a 
8<ytchman. 

^ k resembles the letter e in eup, ccdm, 

yl) hia sounded like h in Mngy kalendar. 

si/ g is sounded like g in go, giv6; never as gr in 
gem, gehUe* 

J I is sounded like I in Iww. When alif is com- 
bined with it^ the two take the form of S or ^. 

^^ n at the beginning of a word^ or syllable, is 
sounded like n; at the end of a word or syllable, if 
preceded by a long vowel, it has a soft nasal §ound 
Kke that of n in the French word garfon. When 
followed by the labials v^ 6, .i^ p, <— ^/> ^t assumes 
the sound of m, as in the word jm^, gumhad, not 
gwnhad. 

X A is an aspirate like h in hecvrt, hcmd ; but at 
the end of a word, if preceded 'by the short vowel 



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6 PRONUNCIATION OP THB LBTTEES. 

a (Jatha), it has no sensible sonnd^ as in JLitj^ dand, 
''a grain /^ In this case^ it is called j^iit* -JLfc 
hd^e-mukhtafi^ or ohscure h. 

In a few words^ where the fatha is a substitute 
for the long vowel alif, the final s is fully sounded ; 
as — 

iJS^ shah [for »Lt shah] " a king/' 
au mah [for «U wfiA] ''a month/' 
», raA [for »h rah] " a road/' 

It is sounded in SJ (^a%, ten/' and all its com- 
pounds. It is imperceptible in the words ^S hi and 
&&- chi, with their compounds, whether conjunctions 
or pronouns. A Persian word ending in the obscure 
s h will have the h omitted when written in 
Boman characters ; as i^U rvama [not namah] ^^ a 
letter," or ^' written communication/' 

4. It is difficult to distingoish between the 
sounds of the letters forming one of the following 
groups : — 

lb -, I c L CL> )o^JC J {jo ^j, \±j 

The Persians never attempt to pronounce them 
as the Arabs ; they content themselves by sounding 
them accDrding to the Persian letters, to which they 
most nearly assimilate. 



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VOWELS AND OETHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS. 7 

Observation — 

5, When s and h, or z and h^ represent two 

^& 

separate letters following each other, as in J4-.I 

cbs^haly ''more or most easy/' and .Ifcfl az,hJaT, 
'' plants/' a comma will be inserted, as shown in 
the exampleg. 

At the end of Arabic words « A is often marked 
with two dots, thus », and sounded like t. In such 
words the Persians generally convert the I into 
\JLJ t; sometimes they leave the i unaltered, and 
frequently they omit the two dots, in which case 
the letter becomes imperceptible in sound. 

Vowels and Orthoqkaphical Signs. 

6. The primitive vowels in Arabic and Persian 
are three in number. 

The first is called &ar^ fatha, and is written 
thus - , over the consonant to which it belongs. It 
is represented by the letter a in calendar. 

The second is called ijuJ hasra, and is written 
thi^ ~ , under the consonant to which it belongs. It 
is represented by the letter t in sip, or fi/n. In the 
Boman character it is represented by t unaccented. 

The third is ^u^ zammay which is written thus 
- , over its consonant. Its sound is like that of 11 
in the words pull, push ; or like 00 in footy hood ; 



-'^'-- 



8 VOWELS AND OBTHOOHAPHICAL SIGNS. 

its sound is never that of u in use, perfume. In the 
Boman character it is represented by u unaccented. 

In Persian these three short vowels are called 

respectively— 

•^ 
j^j zahar, "above/' 

jjj zer, "beneath/' 

^jJlu peak, " in front/' 

7. When a consonant is accompanied by one of 
the three yoweia, fatha, kasra, or zamma, it is said 

to be CJjSK^ mutaharrik, or moveable* 

In Persian and Arabic, the first letter of a word 
is always accompanied, or m,oveable, by a voweL 
When, in the middle or at the end of a word, a 
consonant is not accompanied by a vowel, it is said 
to be ^U sahm, quiescent, or inert. Thus in the 

word A Jy« ma/rdum, the ^ is moveable by fatha ; 
the . is inert, having no vowel ; «> is moveable by 
zamma, and, finally, the ^ is inert. The symbol - , 
called aJ»^ jazm, is placed over a consonant to 
show that it is inert, as in the example At^j^ mar- 
dum, " a man.'' 

In Persian the last letter of a word is generally 
inert ; hence jazm is omitted. 

..gitizedbyLiOOgle 



r 



IX)NG YOWEI^ OE LBTTEBS OF PBOLONGiLTIOV. 9 

The Consonants \, c, ^, and ^. 

8. At the beginiiing of a word or syllable I (aUf) 
depends for its soand on the accompanying vowel. 

c (^am) depends for its sound on the accom* 
panying vowel; its place of utterance is in the 
lower muscles of the throaty thus :— 

are different in sound from 

V^l dh^ c^) Hb, s^ «&• 

^ iymn) has the sound of ti; in the words ire^ 

.The modem Persians pronounce the u^iw lilre v 

in words such as ^yt shavam, ^^y» shavi. 

f^ {ya) is^ in sound, like y in the words you, 
yet. 

Long Vowbls ob Lettebs of Pbolongation. 

9.. When I , inert, is preceded by a letter move- 
able by faiha, the fcMa and ciUf coalesce and give 
a lengthened sound, as^l^ Tear, "woAf' the sound 
is like that of a in vxir* 

AUf, inert, is always preceded by fatka; hence 

•.,yit,zedbyLjOOgle 



10 LONG VOWELS OR LETTBRS OP PROLONGATION. 

(dif^ not beginning a word or syllable, has always a 
lengthened sound. 

10. When ^, inert, is preceded by a consonant 
moveable by zamma, the zamma and ^ coalesce and 
form a sound like u in rvle^^ 

When ^* inert, is preceded by a consonant, 
moveable by fatha, the fatha and ^ coalesce, and 
form a sound Hke ou in somid* 

When^, inert, is preceded by a consonant move- 

* When J is preceded by -;. , moveable hj fatha and fol- 
lowed by alif, the sound of j is almost imperceptible, as 
in the words — 

i^l^ khwdh, " sleep," pronounced kk^db. 

^1^ ihwdham, " I desire," pronounced ih,dham. 

In such cases the j will not be sounded, and in the 
Eoman character it will be represented by w. 

When J, preceded by ^, moveable hj fathoy and some- 
times by zamma, or kasra, is followed by any of the nine 

letters : — (^ »Uu*u*Jj'*V» *^® J 
occasionally loses its sound, as in the words : — 

^ pronounced khqd, not Maud or Jcbawad. 
^ji. pronounced Wmd, not ]chud, 
jji*^ pronounced M?*A> not Mkiwesh. 
This rule applies only to words purely Persian. In the 
Eoman character, the w will in such words be omitted, and 
the vowel marked with a dot, as ihud. 



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8UMMAB.Y. 11 

able by Jcdsra, no union takes place^ and the ^ retains 
the sound of w^ as Lm (sitoa) . 

11. When f^ (yd), inert, is preceded by a con- 
sonant moyeable by Tcasra, the Icasra and yd unite 
and form a long vowel, like % in the word mcLchme* 

This sound of yd^ is called i^^e m'aruf, ^' &miliar 
ya/* In Persia yd has sometimes the sound of ea 
in the word hea/r ; this sound is called yd,e majhiil, 
'' unknown yd,'^ or yd,e ^ajami, ». e* " Persian ya.*' 

When f^ (yd), inert, is preceded by a consonant 
moyeable hy fatha, the fatKa and ^ unite and form 
a diphthong like ai in the German word kaiser, or 
as t in u^e. 

When i^ (ya), inert, is preceded by a consonant, 
moyeable by zammaj no union takes place ; and the 

yd retains its sound of y, as in the word «mjJl« 
muyasscuTy '^ obtainable/^ 

SUMMABT. 

12. Prom what has been said we haye : — 
Three short yowels, Jj had, S> bid-, Jj hvd ; 
Three long yowels, JU had, jji* hid, dj> hud ; 

Two diphthongs, i3Jj &ai(2, Jy havd; 

Two long vowels peculiarly tna/feuZ, ^'unknown,^* or 

o o 

'qjatM, ''Persian,'^ Jjj hel,j^j roz. 



— .^. 



12 BULES FOE BEADING. 

RULES FOR READING. 

13. There are very few Persian works, mannscript 
or printed, in which all the vowels are marked. 

The primitive short vowels -,-,-, as well as 
. and . are almost, always omitted* The following 
remarks may be of service : — 

(a) The last letter of every wox^ is inert, hence 
the mark . (Jdzm) is omitted. 

(b) The short vowel - (fatha) is of more frequent 
occurrence than kasra or zamma; hence, in print- 
ing, it is omitted. 

(c) The short vowel - {fatha) should be supplied 
for every consonant in a word, except the last and 
those marked with «, or one of the vowels. 

(d) The letters I, ^, ^f , are generally inert, when 
not initial; hence they are not marked with jazm. 

(e) When ^, i^, not initial, are moveable conso- 
nants they are marked with their proper vowels. 

(/) When ^ (imw) or ^^ (ya) follow a consonant 
unmarked by a short vowel, or by jazm, they have 
the majhH or ^aja/m sound ; as — 

jy< mor, " an ant." | -j-t sher, " a lion.*' 

{g) Whqn ^ is preceded by a consonant moveable 
hy zamma, and ya by a consonant moveable by kasra, 
the sound is m'aruf, or known ; as— 

(>jMi Hid, " gain.'' | ^ Mr, " milk." 



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EULBS 70B SEADIKG. 13 

(h) When wdw and ya follow a consonant marked 
with jazm, they are consonants, and are sounded 
as^ (w) and ^^ (y), 

(%) When waw and ya follow a consonant, move- 
able hyfatha, they form diphthongs ; as — 

^y> kcLum, '^a tribe/' | jJ^ scUr, "a walk." 

14. Some symbols have still to be noticed. They 
are : — madda, hamza, tcmwin, tashdid, the definite 
article of Arabic nouns, and wasla, 

(a) sjb« {madda) [«^] signifies extension, and 
when placed over an aiif gives it a broad and open 
sound, almost equivalent to that of a in water. The 
madda is used to avoid the meeting of two alifa^ at 
the beginning of a word. 

Thus, instead of c-jl I , the Persians write i-jT ab, 
"water/' 

(6) Jf^bjb (hamza) [J or 1] is used, instead of alif, 
when one syllable of a word ends with a vowel, 
and [according to our ideas of orthography] the 
following syllable begins with a vowel ; that is, vir- 
tually with an aiif. Thus we have : — 

iji P^i^} instead of j^jU ; * 

<jJU fa Ada. instead of sjlU • 
" • • 

In Persian the sound of "hamza is that of alif; in 
Arabic the sound of hamza is that of 'am. Strictly, 

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14 "RULES FOR RBA.DINO. 

hamza ought to be used whenever a syllable, begin- 
ning with a vowel, is added to a root in the way of 
inflexion, as ; — 

^ JoJ didem, '^ we saw/' from root, did ; 
^Jjj hadl, ^^ badness/' from root, had. 

This rule is seldom observed. 

Practically, hamza in the middle of a word is 
equivalent to our hyphen in such words as re-open. 

At the end of words, terminating in the imper- 
ceptible s , hamza has the sound of e. 

In the Boman character, hamza will be repre- 
sented by a comma betweeii the vowels, as in » jJU 

fa,ida* 

(c) ^yo (tanwtn) [-, ;, -] signifies the using 
of the letter ^. It is formed by doubling the 
vowel point of the last letter of a word. The vowel 
is then pronounced as though it terminated in ^n. 
In the Boman character it will be represented by 
n. In Arabic, tanwtn serves to mark the inflexion 
of nouns ; thus the symbol : — 

1 (double zamma) marks the nominative") . « 
^ (double kasra) marks the genitive > , ' 
^ (double fatha) marks the accusative J 

In Persian only the - (double fatha) (accusative 
form) is used, and that adverbially ; as — 



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KULE9 FOE BSADINO. 15 

ULm^c taMminan, '* by valuation.^' 
li'UJl ittijukan, '' by chance/' 

The symbol i (double fatha) requires oZ^, which, 
however, does not prolong the sound of the last 
syllable. 

The I is not required when the word ends with 
- (hamza) or i, as : — 

%^ shai-an, " willingly,'^ 

^4^ hikmatan '' skilfully ;" 

nor when the word ends with ya, surmounted by 

alif [in which case alif only is pronounced] ; as, 

J^ hawc^an, *' lovingly/' 

Without tanmn the aiif is sounded like the alif 
of prolongation, as : — 

Jj'^- ta'm '' God/' 

jjkc 'ukba/'eni/' ''futurity/' 

In the Roman character this symbol will be repre- 
sented by a or a. 

{d) 43JJJU {tashdzd) [-], or *' corroboration/' 
doubles the letter over which it is placed; as — 
A/^ khurram, "joyful;" s^^sst^ Muhammad, 
(^) JI; this Article is used only before Arabic 

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16 SUBSTANTIVES, ADJECTIVES, AND PRONOUNS. 

Nouns. If the Noun begins with any of the fourteen 
letters vsj ^^^^jJ[^[J^u^U^^^Jtj 
the J of the Article assumes the sound of the initial 
letter of the Noun, which is then marked by taahdtd; 
thus — 

j5^JL)l, ''the light/' is pronounced (wi-n5ru. 

^j**4«iJl " the sun,'' is pronounced ashrshams. 

^jjijJI '' the faith," is pronounced ad'din. 

The J must always be written, though it has lost 
its own sound. 

- When the Noun begins with J the J of the 
Article is omitted, and the initial J of the Noun is 
marked by taahdid, as :•— 

ibJI al'lailatu, " the night," instead of ibJJ! . 

(/) Jl^^ {wasla) [-], implies conjunction, and is 
only inscribed over an initial dUf, in Arabic Nouns, 
to mark union with the preceding vowel ; as — 

^j^jJL«j^Lx«l amirvrl'mumimnj ''Commander of 

the Faithful." 

^4xJI JLc SodOhU'd-dm, "Saladin, or Peace 
of Religion." 

SUBSTANTIVES, ADJECTIVES, AND PRO- 

NOUNS. 
15. The Grammarians of Arabia and Persia 



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eXNDEB,. 17 

reckon three parts of speech : the NouHj ism ; the 
Verb, fi^l ; and the Particle, ha/tf. 

The Noun includes" substantives, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and participles. 
The Verb agrees in its nature with ours- 
The Particle includes adverbs, prepositions, con- 
junctions, and interjections. 

0]sin)BB. 
16. Males* are masculine, females are feminine, 
and all other words are of no gender. 

* Animals have different names to express the male or 
female; thus— 

^ mard, " a man." 
j«j ptsar^ " a son." 
^j^ ihitru9, •* a cock." 



jj3 aany " a ^oman." 
^j duUktar^ " a daughter.'' 
jjl^ mdkiyan, " a hen." 
^ji-* meshy " an ewe." 



-jc jfMchy "a ram." 

Animals have sometimes^ ('tar), ''male," and t^U 
(mdda\ " female," aflixed or prefixed to them, as :— 

jjj^ sher-t-naTf "a 
lion.»' 

-4^^^"^^] a bull 
j\Q nar^dw ) 

Arabic Nouns frequently form the feminiAe bj adding 
the imperceptible » (A), as : — 

eUl ina/tifc, " a king." | a^' waZi^a, " a queen." 

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»^Up^ sher-inrndda^ '' a 
lioness." 

j\?8^U mdda gdw, " a cow." 



(18 ) 

FOEMATION OP THE PlURAL. 

17. Nouns denoting rational beings form the 
plural by adding ^1 (an) to the singular, thus : — 

.iXj padar, '' a father/' pliMr, iJj'H P^<^^' 
.4>U mada/r, " a mother,'' jpZwr. ^J^jC\^ madwrdn. 

Nouns denoting animals usually form the plural 
by adding an, sometimes ha, as : — 

1 « . ,, ( P^«*^- J^^ ««P«^- 

C^w**) asp, a horse/ V *^*^ 

c^ rrmrgh, ''a bird/' „ . i:;^/* mv/rghan. 

A '^'"" 1 "ac»mel,"[ " '^'f^ *'^"^'^"- 
JL^! uahtwr \ I „ UJL^ shuturM, 

Nouns denoting inanimate objects form the plural 
by adding ha to the singular, and rarely an ; as— 

JJ kalam, '' a pen," plur. IfJJ halamha. 

JJ jfttZ,. " a flower," „ Lfi^ ^tJAa. 

^^ rpZ. Ifla^i) dvrakhtlia* 

\£,^jd {dvrakht), a tree,"] ,^. _. ,^^. 

V w ^*p^j^ dirakhtan. 

Observations on the Affix an, 

18. If the noun ends in 1- (a), or ^ (fi), or j (o), 
the letter ^^ is inserted before \j;l {an) to prevent 

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FORMATION OP THS ^LTTItAL. 19 

the hiatus. Sometimes^ though rarely^ the letter <r 
is omitted after j ; as — 

Ub d^na^ " a page,*' plur. ^Ulib donayan. 

mjljj pa/ri-ru, " fairy-faced/' plur. ^J^^^i pari* 
ruyan* 

y^\i huzii, *' the arm/' plwr. ^^^J<i Imuwon. 

In nouns ending in obscure % (%), the x is changed 
into 1^, as : — 

ijJi^ firishta, "an angel/' phir. ^JJjJS^J firish' 

tagatu 

^ bcuihcha, ''a child/' plur, ^^LCoc laehchagan. 

Sometimes the t is retained ; as — 

»4)j^ mwrda^ '^ dead," ^W. ^Jitdj^^ mwrdahgan. 

When % is preceded by a long vowel the plural is 
formed in the usual way ; 



sl^jlj pddshahy "a king," plur. ^IftltjU pad" 
shahan. 

Obsebvatioks on this Affix id. 

19. In nouns ending in the obscure < (h) the s 
disappears; as — 



iuU nama, ' a letter," j^Zur. L^U namaiha* 
jciU- ^ona, " a house," „ lyiU- Xr^^^^^^^- 

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20 FORMATION OP THE PLURAL. 

If the » is preceded by a long vowel, the t is 
retained; as — 

xK rah, " a road/^ phjt/r. Ux]^ rahha. 

FnffAL Obsbevations. 

20. Arabic words may have the Persian or the 

Arabic form of plural ; thus — 

Sing. Fersian PI Jrahie Fl 

• ^ ( v*-^Uc *awa,ih 

defect . . C-^vAc ^aib Lo^ ^aibhd \ ' ^' * ^ 

viceroy • C;^Jli na,* ^^j^rM.ilan c-jly 'mwob 

a book . c-jU^ fci^ft ^jli^ UiSblia k^ hit^h 

a labourer, Jw^U 'dmU JLk 'dmUan XUc 'omoZa* 

In imitation of the feminine plural of Arabic 
nouns, names applicable to females, or to things 
without life, sometimes form the plural by the aflSx 
CL^l {at) or C5jV. (^2/^^) ^ ^s^" 

a favour . . nawdzish nawdzishdt 

an anecdote . nakl nakliydt 

When the word ends in imperceptible » (A) the 
affix becomes s^J^ ijdt), the letter » being omitted; 



as- 



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POBMATION Or THE CASES. 21 

Plur. 



a letter, or ^ , - .-. 

. .. C fi^i'n^f^ namam 

written commnmcatioii j *^ 

,y namishta nawishtajat 

a fort yUa k^Uajdt 

These terminations, at, iyaty and jot, are con- 
sidered vulgar, and are rarely used. 

FOBMATION OF THE CaSES. 

21. There is only one declension of Persian 
Nouns; it is extremely simple. The cases are 
formed as follows : — 

(a) The Accusative, by adding h {ra) to the nomi- 
native (singular or plural); often the ra is omitted, 
and the accusative has then the same form as the 
nominative. 

(6) The Dative, by adding ra to the nominative ; 
and sometimes [omitting rd] by prefixing ha, " to*' 
or '' for/' The prefix ij (ba) is chiefly used when 
an accusative, requiring rd, occurs in the sentence. 

(e) The Vocative, by jprefamg the interjection j^l 
(at) to the nominative; and sometimes, in poetry, 
{[omitting oi] by adding alif, as : — 

J^ ^^\ ai mard, " O man I'' 

li-, J dostd, " friend I'' 

SjJlj btJhuld, *' nightingale I'' 

"^ ^.yitized by Google 



22 70BMATI0K OF THE CASES 

{d) The Ablative, by prefixing to the nominatiye 
(singular or plural) the preposition J I (az), 

(e) The Genitive, by the juxtaposition of two 
substantives ; the thing possessed comes first, with 

its final letter sounded with hasra, called ^TijmS 
ii,S^Li^ kaara^e izafat ; thus — ' 

CJJl«^;m*j pisar^i-maliky " the son of the king/' 
'^^ -^ 

W^AU f**j ^-jS hitdb'i'pi8ar'-i''malik, " the book 

of the king's son/' 

If the governing word ends in I or j the Persians 
use (1) ;^ majhul with - hamza; (2) or • hamza 
alone with ^ hMra, expressed or understood ; as — 

jSi ^Ur or jSj ^^l^ jay0 padar, " the place of 
^ the father/' 

dyo ^ or dj^ t^U pa^e mard^ " the foot of the 
man/' 

-, ^Mij *j|^ or y*»j ^^jj^ rti,0 j?i«ar, " the foce of the 
son/' 

J^ Ipjj or J? j^^ buye gvi, '' the scent of the 
rose/' 

In practice, when ^^ majkSl is used, - hrnnza is 
suppressed; as J^ ^^U jja,e moflrd;^ ^^^j rii^episa/r. 

If the governing word ends with the obscure 
3( (h), or the long vowel ^^ (i or c), the Persians 



— ^d' 



DECLENSIOK OF NOUNS. 



23 



use the mark • hamza with ^ hoira expressed or 
understood; as — 

dj^ ^iXiU- Manage mard, ''the house of the man/' 

\ljd S'^U nmhi^e darya, '' the fish of the sea/' 

lijo- »xJJb botuZa^a ^^tM2a^ ''the servant of God/' 

Observe that both - and ^^ are pronounced as 
yafi majkuL 



22. 



DECLENSION OP NOUNS. 
Eard, " a knife/' 



Nom 


Sing. 
. fcSri. 


Plur. 
hdrdha. 




1'" i'lcdrd. 


i-hardha. 


Gen. 


I i^ e-Mrd. 


e-hardhd. 




^ * e-Mrd. 


e-Jeardhd. 


Dat. 


hdrd-rd. . 


Mrdhd-rd, 


ff 


6a ftard. 


ha ledrdhd. 


Ace. 


ftar(i-ra. 


hdrdhd'-rd. 


9f 


ferd. 


hdrdha. 


Voc. 


ai hflrd. 


ai Mrdha. 


Abl. 


az Icard. 


az Icdrdha. 



Similarly, every substantive may be declined. 
The only questions to be satisfied are, whether ^^\ 
(an) or U (lid) is to be added for the plural, and 



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24 THE ABTIOLB. 



j^J^ mardBf a certain man,^' 
^j z<me, '^ a certain woman/' 
^\jS hitabe, " a certain book/' 

If the nonn ends in s quiescent^ the symbol • 
(hamza) may be added; 



^ bachcha, " a child/' 

As^ bachcha^e, " a certain child." 

If 4f be preceded by long alif, ^^ (yd^e majiml) is 
retained^ as : — 

sliJU padshahy " b, king." 
^<fcltfc)U padahdhe, " a certain king," 

Observation* — Since an abstract nonn is formed 



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I 



whether ", v^, or - is to be used for the geni- 
tive. {Vide pars. 20 and 21.) 

TIIE ARTICLE. 

23. In Persian there is no Article. 
dj< mard, may signify ''man/' or '' the man/' 
according to the context. 

A substantive may be made definite by adding ya,e 
majhuly or yd,e wahdat, i.e* the yd of unity, thus : — 



ADJECTIVES. 26 

by adding ya with kctsra, i.e. ya,e ma'ruf, to any 
adjective, or appellative noun, ambiguity may oc- 
casipnally arise. Thus the difference between— 

jjtlijli hadahdhe, "a certain king/'. 
^^Ltjli badahahMy " sovereignty,^' or '' royal/' 

can be distinguished; but it often happens that 
the mark hasra is, through negligence or custom, 
omitted. In such a case the context alone can 
indicate the proper meaning. 

ADJECTIVES. 

24. Persian adjectives are indeclinable ; in con- 
struction they follow * their substantives, to which 
they are connected by ^ Oeasra), ^^ (ya^e majhSl), 
or - (hamzaX as : — 

ulioi J^ nuMrd^'nek, '' a good man." 

u-;y>- ^ft. ru,e l^Sby " a fair fistce." 

liS^ «Jub 6flwuia,e Muda, " a servant'of Gk)d." 
Dbgbees of Compabisok. 

25. The comparative degree is formed by adding 
jj (ta/r) to the positive, and the superlative by 

adding ^^Ji {tcmn), as : — 

• See p. 90, 

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26 ADJECTIYES. 

L-?^ i^tti, "fair/' | Jjj^ khSbta/r, "fairer/' 

^JLy^ khuhtann, " feirest/'* ' 

Arabic adjectives (if triliteral) form the com- 
parative and superlative degrees by prefixing I to 
the triKteral root, as : — 

^^*w^ hasan, " beautiful/' 

^J>**^\ akscm, " more, or most, beautiful/' 

fJiac aztm, " great/' 

Jacl a'zam, " more, or most, great/' 

Generally the Arabic adjectives in Persian form 

the degrees of comparison in the Persian manner ; 

as — 

fazl, " excellent/' 

afzal'tar, or /afZ-^or (Pers.) | "more excel- 

afzal (Arabic) ) lent/' 

fazUtomn (Pers.)7 a . „ . „ 
^ 7 / A !_• \ C inost excellent/' 
afzal (Arabic; ) 

* Tar and tofin may be written with the word or sepa- 
rately ; tarin is sometimes contracted to in; as — 
^^ WAin, " best," for ^^ Hhiarin. 
Tar and tarin are also added to prepositions and adverbs ; 

r, " upon," hm^ar, " higher," hartarin, " highest ;" 
r,^below" af^^or, " lower," «cr<ariii, " lowest/' 

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bar, " 

aw. 



( 27 ) 


PRONOUNS, 


26. First Person — ^* mem, " I/' 


Singular. 


Flural 


Nom, man. 


md. 


f- irman. 


" i-md. 


Gen. j ^^ e-m<m. 


^f e^md. 


V- e-mcwi. 


1 e-md. 


Dat. mora . 


mJd'rd* 


„ ba m(m. 


ba md. 


Ace. man-d. 


rm^rd. 


Voc. (nil.) 


(nil.) 


Abl. a^; ma/n. 


az md. 


„ ba mem. 


bd md. 


fy ba/r mom. 


ba/r ma. 


Second Person— y lu, "thon/' 


Smguhr, 


Flural 


Nom. ^ii. 


ehumd. 


r- i^tu. 


" i-ahunid. 


Gen.] 4^ e-^. 


f^ e-shumd. 


(ie-^. 


t e-shamd. 


Dat. turd. 


sJmmd'rd. 


„ 6a ^. 


ba shumd. 


Ace. turd. 


sh/iimd'rd. 


Voc. ai <«. 


ai shumd. 


Abl. az tu. 


az shumd. 


yy bd tu* 


bd shmnd. 


yy bar tu. 


bar shwmJdm 



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28 





PRONOUNS. 


Third Person—^! o, ''he/' 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Nom, 0. 




eshan. 


hw,. 




" i-eshdn. 


Gen. }^^ 6-0. 




^ e-eshan. 


(le-o. 




t e-eshan. 


Dat. o-ra. 




eshan-^. . 


^^ &a 0. 




ba eshdn. 


Ace. o-rfi. 




eahan-ra. 


Voc. (nil.) 




(nil.) 


Abl. az 0. 




az eahm. 


„ 6a 0. 




bd eshdn. 


,, fear 0. 




ba/r eshdn. 



The third person has^ in the singular^ the form 
^^y wm, and sometimes ^^] o,e ; and^ in the plural^ 
^U^l oshdn and ^Lt shdn. 

When the third person represents a lifeless 
thing, the demonstratives ^T <m, and ^^1 in, with 
their plurals, t^i I anM and l^Jbl inhd, are nsed, as 
will presently be seen. 

27. The possessive pronoun may be rendered by 

the suffixes — 

^ ^ ^ 

• J am, my; UL^I at, thy ; ^^| ash, his. 

jj;U man, our ; ^^^U ^n, your ; ^It «Aan, their. 



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PBONOUNS. 29 

When the noun ends in ] or ^ long^ the I of the 
termination is rejected and ^^ inserted in its place; 
as — 

^U payam, my foot. 

CL^^ muyat, thy hair. 

When the nomi ends in quiescent s , cdif is re- 
tained ; as — 

JioU- kkanO'CMn, my house. 
CL^IajU- kAana^at, thy honse. 
^1^l»- khafoa'dshy his house. 

In other cases oZif is rejected; as — 

^j^ pada/ramy or ^^^«>^ pada/r^mcm, my fether. 

d^J^ padarat, or y ^*3j jjoior-t-^fi, thy fether. 

^^j*y> padwroksh, or j' it3o podfcw-i-o, his father. 

\J^*H l>^«^*"^a^> or U jiij pada/r-i-ma, our 

father. 
{Jh*H P<^<^'i'^^9 or Utf^jJo j7(u2arnwAiima, your 

father. 

their fether. 

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80 PRONOUNS. 

RsoiPRocAL Pronoun, j^ khud, " self 

28. ma/n khuda/m or mam, khud, I myself. 
tu khudat or tu khudy thou thyself. 
Mudash or a Mud, he himself. 
md Mud'i-man or ma khud^ we ourselves- 
shumd khud-i'tan or shuma Mud,* you yourselves. 
eshan Mttd-i-shan or eahSn kky d, they themselves. 

The reciprocal pronouns are thus used : — 
hitdb'i'Mudam, my own book. 
kalam-i'Mydat, thy own pen. 
asp-i'Mudaah, his own horse. 
jdmha,e kkud-i-mdn, our own cups. 
Maran-i'Mud'i'tan, your own asses* 
8<mdukha^e kAud-i-shan, their own boxes. 

Dbmonstrativb Pronouns. 
29.f ^J in, this (for persons or things). 
l^bl inAo, these (for persons or things). 

• These forms are rarely used. 

t When ha is placed in close connection with an or in, 
the madda of Jfand the initial alifoi ^1 are replaced by 
d; as — 

^\s» hadan^ to that. | ^ja 5aJin, to this. 

After the words Jar, «on;" i/or, "in;" ajr, "from;" 
oAt2if, " like," the initial ^ of j1 , ^JiL^ , ^1 and the madda 



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PRONOUNS. 81 

^;U)l fnoTi^ these (for persons only). 
^ I 57?., that (for persons or things). 
Iji I dnha, those (for persons or things). 
^U I dnan, those (for persons only). 
Examples — 

*5/* (i^' '^ WKwrf, this man. 
«^ vT* i:rf' *'*' 'f^o/rdan, these men. 
e-;lii' ^T 5n K^, that book. 
If*'^ J^ o% Utdhhd, those books. 

When ^^Uri is prefixed to a notm, so as to form 
oneword> it is sometimes changed into ^1 im; as 

im/ruz, ''this day;" imshab, "this night/' imsal, 
" this year/' 

Interrogative Pronouns. 
80. There are three in number : 



of jr are' rejected, when they are closely connected with 
the preceding word ; as— 

yj^ chiin o, like him. 
^\^ dar an, in that. 
^JlJi dar in, in this. 



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jj^ dar 0, in him. 
^jlZjji bar eshdn, on them. 
jlj\ az Of from him. 



82 



PRONOUNS. 



Ajt, who? Id/ra, whom? to whom? (appli-'J 

cable to persons.) f Sing, or 

cAi, what? chvrUy what? to what? why?! Plural. 

(applicable to things.) J 

hidam, which ? out of any number ; as — 

kuddm shaMs, which person ? 

huddm rah, which road ? 

Indbfinitjb Pronouns. 
31. These are all indeclinable. 



chand, some. 

yoke, one, some one. 

shakhSy a person. 

Teas, some one. 

hechy any. 

hwmay all. 

tcme chound, sundry 
individuals. 

houTy eYerjy all. 

ha/r anhi or Aar&i, who- 
soever. 

har hudam, whosoever, 
whichsover. 



harchiy whatsoever* 
ha/r huja or harja, 

wheresoever. 
harhaSy everybody. 
hcui'yaky everyone. 
hardily both. 
ha/r cMzy 'whatsoever 

thing. 
ha/r shah, every night. 
har ruz, every day. 
ha/r wakty whensoever. 
baha/r hal, however. 



Belative Pronouns. 



32. There are no Relative Pronouns ; the parti- 
cles iS hi, for persons, and A»- chi, for things, are 



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THE VERB. 33 

sometimes regarded as relatives. This matter will 
be considered in the Syntax. 

THE VEEB. 

33. There is only one conjugation. 

All the tenses are formed from the root, or from 
the infinitive, as will be seen &om the followiDg 
example of the Verb ^j^OJ^ rasidaai, ''to arrive 



9f 



'^UV 


rcuf. 












Tenses 


OF THI 

AorisL 


! Boot. 




it 


I may, 


or can 


, arrive/' 




Singular, 




Plural. 




1. 


rasam 




rasem. 




2. 


TOM 




rased. 




8. 


rasad 




rascmd. 






Present Tense. 




ti 


I arrive 


, or am 


arriving.*' 



1. mt'rascvin mt^rasem. 

2. mi-rasi rm^rased. 
8. vrn'rasad mi^rasand. 

8 

^zldTy Google 



34 THE VBEB. 



Simple 


Future. 


^ I shall, will. 


or may arrive/' 


Singular. 


Tlwral. 


1. bi-rasam 


hi'rasem. 


2. hi-rasi 


bi-rased. 


3. bi'Tosad 


hi-raaamd. 


Imperative. 


" Let me arrive/' 


1. rasam 


rasem. 


2. ras 


rased. 


3. rasad 


rasamd. 



The Noun of Agency is formed by adding «jj« 
{anda) to the root; as — 

rasanda, ''the arriver/' 

The Present Participle is formed by adding ^T ; 
as j^U^ rasauy ''arriving/' 

The Causal Verb is formed by adding omdam,, or 
andan, as:— • 

^joSU; rasamdan, " to cause to arrive/' 

^^viJLi^ rasandam, "to cause to arrive/' 

Observations. 
34. The Simple Future diflfers but little from the 
Aorist* 



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I 



THE VERB. 85 

Native grammarians call that tense the Aorist 
which is here styled the Simple Future, and they say 
that when the Aorist (our Simple Future) is used in 
the subjunctive mood, the particle bi is omitted, as : — 
bi'bdsAam, I be. | bdsham^ I may be. 

The Simple Future is most often used as follows : — 
I promise that I will come, 
v)*ada ml-himam ki biydyam. 
The second person (singular and plural) of the 
Imperative has frequently the particle bi prefixed; 
thus — 

arrive thou, bi-ras \ arrive ye, bi-rased. 
When the first letter of the Imperative has zamma 
for its vowel, bi may become bu ; as — 
do thou, bu'iun. 
The third person singular of the Imperative may be 
rendered benedictive by lengthening the vowel^^>^a 
of its final syllable ; as — 

let him arrive, rasad. 
O that he may arrive ! rasdd. 
Similarly — 

kunad, from iardan, '^to do,'' makes iundd, 
shavad, „ skudan, ^' to become," makes sAavdd. 
dihady „ dddan, " to give,'' makes dihdd, 
btwad, „ budauy " to be," makes buvdd or bad, 
garddnad „ garddnldan^ '^ to cause to become," 
makes garddnad, 

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36 TENSES FEOM THE INFINITIVB. 

Except in poetry^ and on occasions of particular 
formality, it is rather pedantic to use this benedictive 
form. The Aorist is more frequently used. 

Tenses feom the Infinitive. 
35. Preterite or Indefinite Past, 

"I arrived." 
Singular. PluraL 

1. rasidam roHdem. 

2. rasidi rasided. 

3. rasid rasidand. 

Imperfect. 
*' I was arriving/' 

1. mtrrasldam ml-raaldem. 

2. mi'rasidi mi-rasided, 

3. mi-rasid mi'-randand. 

Past Potential or Habitual. 
" I might arrive/' " I used to arrive/' 

1. rasidame rasideme, 

2. rasidi rasidede. 

3. raslde rasidande. 

Compound Fufmre. 
'' I will anive.'^ 

1. khwdham rasid khwdhem rasld 

2. khwdhl rasld khwdhed rasid. 

3. khwdhad rasid MtpdAand rasid. 



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pketebite pabticiplb. 37 

Observations. 

36i In the Imperfect ^^ {hamu) is often pre* 
fixed instead of mi . 

The Past Potential is formed by adding yd,e majAul 
to all the persons of the Preterite, except the 2nd 
person singular. 

In the Compound Future^ the auxiliary is the 
Aorist of the verb kkipdstan^ " to wish/' root kAufdk. 
The letter ^ is not to be sounded (see p. 10). 

Pebteritb Paeticiplb. 

37. sjomj^ Tosida, " arrived,*^ or " having arrived.'' 

The following three tenses are derived from the 
Preterite Participle. 

Per/eel Tense, 

'• I have arrived.'^ 

- Singular. Plural. 

1. raslda^am rasidaem. 

2. raslda I rasida ed. 

3. rasida ast rasida and. 

Pluperfect Ttsnse. 
. " I had arrived." 

1. rasida budam rasida iddem. 

2. rasida budi rasida buded. 

3. rasida bud rasida budand. 



88 FSBSONAL TEilMINATIONS. 

Future Perfectl 

" I shall have arrived/^ 
Singular, Phral, 

1. rasida hdsham rasida hdshem. 

2. rasida hdshi raslda bashed, 

3. raslda hdshad raslda hdshandm 

Similarly, every verb in Persian may be conju- 
gated. In all the tenses the termination of the 
2nd person singular is ya^e m^curuf. 

In the terminations ^ (em) jj {ed) (1st and 2nd 
persons plural), ya,e majhuL is sounded.* 

Personal Terminations. 
38. These are — 

Singxilar. Plural, 



A a/m, am. 
> or ^1 «, art. 
u) asty is. 



▲jil em, are. 
6j\ ed, are. 
jJl and, are. 

The personal terminations may be joined to a 

* An educated native of Shiraz informs the writer 
that the terminations em, ed — 

(1) should properly be pronounced Im, Id, 

(2) may „ „ em, ed, 

(3) may never „ „ aim, aid. 
The sound of e in the 2nd case is that of ea in " bear." 



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PBESONAL TERMINATIONS. 39 

pronoun, adjective, or substantive. In compo- 
sition — 

(a) The initial aiifia omitted ; as — 
j^t^jSi ^^ man shdgvrd am, I am a scholar. 
tXiilw ^tiol eshan nek amd, they are good. 
^,^... ;'.U\^ ^1 sultmi ast, he is Sultan. 

(h) If the word ends in obscure x (^), alif is 
retained, as ; — 

c:.^>m1 2$4>Jb ^1 handa ast, he is a slave. 

(c) If the substantive be an abstract noun, as, 
ha^tiy ^^ existence,^' dUtrty ^' boldness,^' shadt, ^^glad- 
ness,^' the final ya of the noun is omitted ; as — 

^SJI ^ tu shad-t, thou art glad. 
\^--j^''^ jl dUzr ast, he is bold. 
^^jjLmA hastem, we are, or exist. 

(d) In the case of the pronouns si "who?" a:^ 
"what?" the final » is omitted, and the initial alif 
of the termination is changed into ya ; as — 

\,£^^M*j^ last, who is it ? 
C^amO^ chist, what is it ? 

(tf) If the word ends in ^ {waw) or ! {cilif)^ the 

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40 THE VEUB " BUDAN." 

initial cXif of the termination is changed into ^ ; 
as — 

JUli) daimyam'y I am learned. 

^lib dandyem, we are learned. 

ci^Wj)^ Lyj^'v. Ar^i<& ruyastf he is fair-&ced. 

-jjlilt) ddnayij thou art wise. . 

In the 3rd person singular and plural^ yd need not 
be inserted ; as — 

/Mb rayast or [Mb rUst, he is fair-faoed. 

ddndyast or ddndst, he is learned. 

ddndyand or ddndnd, thej are wise. 
39. . From § 38 we have : — 



Singular, 
fi, I am. 
Aasti, thou art. 
Aasty he is. 



Plural. 
Aastem, we are. 
hasted, you are. 
ha'atandj they are. 



40. The verb badan, *'to be/' root, bu or ia#A. 

Tenses faom the Boot. 

Aorist. 

" I may be.'' 

Singular. Plural. 

1. bdaham^ baahem. 

* The form buwam, from the root bu, is also used* 
FtVf^ paragraph 34, p. 35. 

~"^^ .,git,zed by Google 



THE VEI^B ** BUDAN/' 41 

Singular. Plural. 

2. bdskl bdshsd. 

3. bdshad hdshand. 

Present, 
mi-'bds^am, " I am/' &c. 

Simple Future, 
bu'bdsham, '^I shall, will^ or may be/' &c. 

Imperative. 

1. (no first person) bdsAem^ let us be. 

2. £<^^, be thou. bashed, be je. 

3. - bdshad or 5a^, t)^t him be bdshand, let them be. 

Present Participle (not in use)^ bdshdn, being. 
Noon of Agency (not in use)^ bdshanda, be-er. 

Tenses mlom the Infinitive. 
Preterite, or Indefinite Past. 

"Iwas.*' 
Singular. Plural. 



1. 


bedam 




badem. 


2. 


bedi 




boded. 


8. 


bad 


Imperfect. 


badand. 




m-bndam, " I was 


,"&o. 



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42 THE VBBB '^SHUDAN/' 

Past Potential or Habitual, 
budame, " I might be, or used to he/* &c. 

Compound Future, 
khwaham bud, ^' I shall or will he/' &c. 

Preterite Participle, badaj '' having been,'* ^^been." 

Tenses feom the Peetebitb Participle. 

Perfect Tense, 

buda am, *' I have been," &c. 

Pluperfect, 

buda budam (not in use). 

Future Perfect. 

buda bdshaniy ^^ I shall have been/^ &c. 

41. The verb shudan (for sAudan) ''to be^' (passive), 
root shaw. 



Tenses from the Root. 


Aorist. 




^arnaybe.'* 




Singular. 


Plural. 


1. shavam 


shavem. 


2. shavi 


shaved. 


3. shamd 


shavand. 


Present Tense. 




fm-shavam, '' I am,'^ 


&e. 



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THE VBEB " SHUDAN." 48 

Simple FiUure. 
bi-shavam, '^ I shall or will be,'' &c. 

Imperaiive, 

1. (no first person) shavem^ let us be. 

2. shaw, be thou. shaved^ be ye. * 

3. shavadf let him be. siavand, let them be. 

Present Participle (not in use) sAavdn, " being." 
Noun of Agency, shavanda^ '*be-er/' or ^^become-er." 

Tenses feom the Inpinitivb. 

Preterite or Indefinite Past, 
"I was." 

1. shudam iAudem, - 

2. skudi skuded, 
S« 8Aud shvdand. 

Imperfect, 
ml'shudamy " I was/' &o. 

Past Potential or Habitual, 
mi-^Audame, ''I might be/' &c. 

Compound Future. 
hhwdJiam ahud^ " I will be/* &c. 

Preterite Participle, sAuda/^'hsmng been/^ 

Tenses pbom the Preteeite Paeticiplb. 

Perfect Tense, 

shuda am, " I have been," &c. 

"""" ' .,yit,zed by Google 



44 CAUSAL VERBS. 

I Pluperfect Tetue, 

' shuda budaniy I had been^ &c. 

Future Perfect. 
9huda bdshanif I shall have been, Sec. 

THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

42. The Passive Voice is formed by prefixing the 
Preterite Participle to the tenses of the verb sAudan, 
" to be, become ;" thus — 

Present, 

" I may be struck." 
Singular. Plural. 

1. zada skavam zada skavem. 

2. zada shavi zada shaved. 

3. zada shavad zada shavand. 

and similarly for the other tenses. 

CAUSAL VERBS. 

43. These are formed by adding ^j;«3jj1- amdan 
or ^jjJl 1 andan, to the root of the primitive verb ; 
thus — 

Jastany '^ to leap," root, jah ; jahdnldan or jahdn- 
dan, " to cause to leap," root, jaAdn : gashtan, " to 
become," root, gard; garddnidan, *'to cause to be- 
come," &c., root, garddn. 



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( 45 ) 
NEGATIVE VERBS. 

44. A verb is rendered negative hj prefixing the 
: particle si na, ^' not /' 



fcSOMy or 43J^ ^ na rasid, he did not arrive. 

With the imperative the particle A« {ma) is em- 
ployed in like manner ; as — 

Kj^ji ^ ^^ L/vi^ ^^ purs, ask not. 

bljuo or 4)U« ma &a(2^ let it not be ! God forbid I 

Observations. 

When the particles a:> (6i), ^ (na), au (ma) are 
prefixed to a verb beginning with aiif, not marked 
by Tnadda, the initial alif is omitted, and ya is 
inserted in its place. 

• The ya takes the vowel of the rejected alifs 
thus — 

\^0^\^\ cmdaMt, he threw. 
ei^^ljJui nayamddkht, he threw not. 
Jil uftam, I may fall. 

Jlfi^ biyuftam, I shall &11. 

jUil an^fSr, consider. 

j\ijd^ maycmgar, do not consider. 

J ; , ~L,yit,zedbyG0Dgte 



46 NEGATIVE VBBBS. 

If the verb begins with I the I remains, but 
the madda is rejected ; thus — 

dj] arad^ he may bring. 
djljjj hiyarady he will bring. 
.1 avy bring thou. 
.bj Hyary bring thou. 
j\j^ mouyar^ do not bring. 
djUo nayaradf he may not bring. 

In the older poets the di {na) often unites with 
the following I without the intervention of ya ; 
as — 

J^U namoul, '' h© came not/' for J^UJ noAjamad, 
"he came not." 

45. The personal terminations (§ 38) arc conjugated 
negatively, as follows : — 

Singular. Plural. 

^ nayam^ I am not. ^i^ nan/em, we are not. 

^jj or >«xJ naytj thou joU na/yed^ you are not. 

art not. jJuJ nayand, they are 

Tiist, he is not. not. 



The substantive verb ha^tam is conjugated nega- 
tively, as follows :— 



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BOOTS OF YfiBBS. 47 

Singular. Plural. 



JumjJ vSsiam^ I am 

not. 
^JujJ^ msttj ihou art 

not. 

nut, he is not. 



>jXmJj nf d^^m^we are not. 

tXJJUijJ rusted, jou are 

not. 
jJlLiJj t^^^otuJ^ they are 

not. 

46. Interrogation is usually expressed by the tone 
of the voice. In writing, the word dya^ '' whether/' 
is prefixed to a question, or the word yd na, '^ or not/' 
aflSxed.* 

ROOTS OF VERBS. 

47. Infinitives in ^J {^dan) are preceded by the 
long vowels I (o), - (a), ^^^ (e), ^1 (^), or by the 
consonants J (r), ^^^ (w). 

Infinitives, in ^ {tavi) are preceded by -;. (^), 
U- {«), LT W>'-^(/)- 
Hence the following rules : — 
(a) Infinitives in ^j1 {fldan), ^*3j (tdan), and 

*'Did your father go there? pidar-ushumd dnjd raft, 
yd na f Do you know Persian ? d/yd ihwmd farn ml- 
ddned? 

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48 


BOOTS OP VEEBS. 




1 


those "whicli 


have fatha before the dan. 


reject 


these 


terminations for the root ; as^* 




' 



VEEB. 



pnrstdan, 
dzhadan, 



to bring forth 

to create^ 
to come, ^ 
to choose, 
to embracej 
to give, 

to hear 



to lose 

to see^ 
to strike^ 
to stitch^ 

to take 



{zddanf ") 

zdyldan } 



to send^ 
to ask^ 
to sew. 

Exceptions.* 

zddanf 

zdyldan 

d/rldan, 

dmadan, 

guzldan^ 

gddan^ 

dddan, 

shunldan 

sAunudan 

%hunuftan 

kuskddan 

kushudan 

didan^ 

zadan^ 

akMdan, 



{Bitddan 
sitd'i 



9itdndanf 



EOOT. 

firisL 
purs, 
dzh. 

zd. or 



za^e. 
dfrln. 
dy€. 
ffMzin. 
gd or gd^. 
dih. 

sAinau. 

hishdyC. 

hln. 
zan. 
akMn. 

sitdn. 



* Verbs marked thus (f) are regular. 



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UOOTS OP TBEBS. 



49 



(b) Infinitives in ^Jj (iidcm) reject that termina- 
tion, and substitute I (a) or ^_^1 (a,e) for the root, 
as: — 

YEBB. BOOT, 

to praise, siiudan, sitd^e. 

Exceptions, 

budan^ bu or hash. 



( shvdan for 



to be, 

to become , , , 
(^ smaan 

to draw, tanndan^ 

( skunudan 

to hear < shvmdan 

(^ shunuftcm 

to neigh, zinHdan^ 

to reap, durudan, 

to slumber, ghunudan^ 



shau, 
tamm. 

shunau. 

zinau. 
dura, 
ghunu. 



(c) Infinitives in ^i> {dom), preceded by re or 
nwn, reject the termination dan for the root, as : — 



VERB. 

to cherish, 
to dig, 

to bring, 
to count, 



parwardan, 
iandaUy 

Exceptions, 

dwardan,f 
shimurdm^ 



ROOT. 

parwa/r. 
lean. 



awar or ar. 
shimdr, 
4 

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60 


ROOTS OF VERBS. 


TERB. 


ROOT. 


to carry. 


burdan, bar. 


to do, 


hardan^ kun. 


to die, 


murdauy mir. 


to entrust, 


sipurdan, sipdr. 


to offend. 


dzurdan, dzdr. 


to squeeze. 


qfskurdatt, qfsAdr. 


(cO Infinitives in ^ {torn), preceded by ^ (kh). 


reject the termination, and change ^ into j for the 


root, as : — 




VERB. 


ROOT. 


to throw. 


anddkAtcm, anddz. 




Exceptions. 


to cook. 


pukhtan^ paz. 


to draw a sword, dkhtaUy dkh. 


to recognise^ 


shindkhtatiy ' skitids. 


to snap 


' gusekhtan ^ ., 
' ^ — [ gusil. 
1^ gmastan ) 


to weigh 


sukhtan ) 
\ sanjidanf ) •^' 


(e) Infinitives i 


m ^ (tan), preceded by |^, 


reject both tan and 


sin for the root, as : — 


VERB. 


ROOT. 


to live, 


zistan, zi. 



byLjOOgie 



BOOTS OP VERBS. 



51 



Exceptions, 



VERB. 






ROOT. 


to bind, 




bastan, 


land. 


to break, 




shikastaUy 


sAikan. 


to desire, 




khwdstan^ 


khwdA. ^ 


to diminislij 




kdstan, 


kdA. 


to escape. 




rastan, 


HA. 


to grow 


{ 


ruBtan 
rUyldan 


■ rfl,.. 


to join. 




paiwastauy 


paiwa^id. 


to know, 




ddnistan, 


ddn. 


to leap. 




jaatattf 


JiA. 


to place 




nisAdatan 
nisAdndanf 


- nisAdn. 


to rise. 




khdstan, 


Hez. 


to spin 


{ 


ristan 
riahtan 


ris. 


to sit down. 




nisAoitan, 


nisAm. 


to split, 


1 


guaastan 
gmekktan 


gtml. 



to wash. 



sAustany 



iAufi. 



if) Infinitives in ^ (tcm), preceded by ^, 
reject tcmj and change the shin intOj , as : — 



VERB. 

to have. 



ddsAtan, 



BOOT. 

dor. 



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52 



ROOTS OP VEEBS. 



VERB. 

to become, 

to embrace 

to elevate, 
to kill. 




Exceptions. 

gashtarty 

dghoshtan^ 

gddany 

afrdshtan^ 

htishtan, 

hishtan 

htlidan 

Auhldan 

sirishtaUy 

kdsAtafiyf 

kishtany 

risktan 

rlstan 

nawishtanj 



ROOT. 

gard. 

dghosh. 

gdfi. 

afrdz. 

hush. 

Ail or AisA. 

sarlsA. 

kdr. 

hdr. 

ris. 

nawls. 



{g) Infinitives in ^ (tcm), precedod by uJ, 
generally reject tcmy and cbange uJ into l-^ , as , 
" to shine,''* taftcm, root, tab. In some verbs the 
uJ remains unchanged, as : — 

* We may add : — 



VERB, 




BOOT. 


to deceive, 


fareftan 


fareh. 


to obtain, 


ydftan 


ydl. 


to beat. 


huftan 


huh. 



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i 


EOOTS OF VERBS. 


58 1 

1 


i 

VERB. 




BOOT. 


to weave. 


haftariy 
ExeeptionB. 


Idf. 


to accept. 


pazlrafiafiy 


pa^T. 


to bore. 


mftauy 


9vft and %umh. 


to conceal, 


nihuftany 


nihufb. 


to disturb. 


dskuftany 


dshab. 


to dig. 


i' Tzdftany 
\ kandafty'\ 


hdyO 

kan. [kand. 


to dig a canal 


., farkandany-\ 


farkan and far- 


to expand (as 
a flower) 


• ahuhuftan. 


siuhif. 


to go. 


raftany 
C sUnuftan ^ 


ran. 


to hear 


J ihunudan > 
(^ skunidan J 


shinau. 

j 


to sweep. 


raftany 


rah. 


to seize. 


giriftan. 


gir. 1 


to speak. 


gnftauy 


go and go,e. \ 


to sleep,* 


khuftany 


kkusp. ' 


If the preceding rules, with their exceptions, be j 


learned, no difficulty will be found 


in conjugating any ■ 


Persian verb. 




t 


• We have also— 


• 


VEEB. 




BOOT. 


to sleep, 


Jckwabidan 


MwoJ. 


to sleep, 


hhusbidan 


hkuth. 



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( 54 ) 



INDECLINABLE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

48. Adverbs. 

(1) Number: — 



hare ) 

7,. X once. 
yakbar ) 

duhavj twice. 

(2) Order:— 

naMvstm ^ 

awwald ( 

awwal martaha [ 

a/uwaim J 



first. 



duvmm 

duwumin 

saniyd 



secondly. 



(3) Place:— 

inja, here. 

az tnjuy hence. 

in 8U y , . ,, . 

_ . „ /this way, this 
$n janib > 

'' A direction, 
m iofitaj ) 

anja, there. 

az anja, thence. 

. ., / that way, that 
an iamb } 

. . I direction. 
an taraf ) 



si bar, thrice. 
ham bar, seldom. 



sivmm 

siyum 

siyumm > thirdly. 

siyiim maHaba 

salisd 

chahdrvm ^ 

chahdrumin f 

chahurum martaba l 

rahVan ) 



f 



damn *) 



within. 



without. 



andarun ) 
berun ") 
birun ) 
fa/ro \ under, be- 
farod ) neath. 
bald, over, upon, above. 
har hujd U, wheresoever. 
hechjd, somewhere. 
hech jd na, nowhere. - 



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INDECLIKABLE PAKTS OF SPSBCH* 



56 



Interrogation : — 

hu? where? 
huja? "Jwhat place? 

hudam jd ? f what way ? 
kudofm ta- fwhat direc- 

raf? ) tion? 
chand ? how many ? 
ckiguna ? in what way ? 
chun ? how ? 

Time present : — 

dkniin ^ 

hmnn r now. 

halcm J 

f^ just now, 

this in- 

stant^this 

very mo- 

^ ment. 



hcMmndomi 
in zamdn 
harrun zamdn 
ha/m ahnun 




chird, why ? 

bardie chi? \ ^ 

bachi sabab?) n 

\ count i 

chi kada/r, how much? 

what quantity? 

fcai, how ? when ? 



irwruZy to-day. 
imshah, to-night. 
imsdl, this year. 
h(moZy yet. 

shdmgdh, in the evening. 
bdmddd ) in the mom- 
sahrgdh ) ing. 



peshtn \ . 
, ,_ f anciently. 

diruzy yesterday. 
dtshab, yesternight. 
jpdr sal parin, last year. 



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56 



INDECLINABLE PARTS OP SPEECH. 



Time to come : — 

farday to-morrow. 

ruz'i'dtgar) _ _ 

7- » >-tne next day. 
dig(w ruz ) "^ 

fa/rda shah, to-morrow 

niglit. , 
shal^'i'digar, the next 

night. 
pas fa/rda shah, the night 

after to-morrow. 
pas fa/rda, the day after 

to-morrow. 
sdl'i'dzgar, the next year. 
mah-i'diga/ry the next 

month. 
hafta,e digar^ the next 

week. 

Time indefinite :— 

barhd ^ 

bisiyar bar f often, many 
hisiyar I a time. 

muharra/rar^ J 
gah-gahy occasionally. 
gah wakte, sometimes. 
zud, soon. 



sal-i-ayanda, the coming 

year. 
mah - i - ayamda, the 

coming month. 
hafta,e aycmda, the 

coming week. 

ba'd az in ^ 

sipas f henceforth, 

aya/nda I in future. 

pas az in ) 

^ankarzb ) 
, ' . _ ,. >• presently. 
aar tn zudz ) ^ "^ 

fi'hfawr^ immediately, 

fi'l'kal > instantly, di- 

hh zudi ) rectly. 



nadir y rarely. 

hameshay always. 

paiwasitty constantly. 

har ruz 1 ^ .. 

c daily. 

ruzana ) "^ 

ha/r hafta ") 

> every week. 



haftagi 



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INDECLUTABLB FAETS OF SPEECH. 



57 



Time indefinite {continued) : — 



kamtary very seldom. 

har mdha 

mahiyana 

liar sala ) 
_,. _ c every year. 
sahyana ) 



r monthly. 



ha/r da/m ) every mo- 
dam ha dct/m ) ment. 
ha/r ^ 

digar \ again. 

dtga/r-har J 



Qaantity : — 

cmdahy a little. 

hisiyaTj much. 

himy little* 

Jvrawcm') , -, .i 
•^ ^ > abundantly. 
wafir ) 



khailly greatly^ macli. 
hafij suflBciently. 
haSy enough^ only. 
hamtny even this, only, 
even. 



Doubt :— 

shayody perhaps. 
hdshady it may be. 



tawanady possibly. 
huMky peradventure. 



AfSrmation : — 



f certainly. 



hamcina 

har Qytna 

he shah ^ 

te shah f undoubtedly. 

he shuhha ) 



hlhattay verily. 

hehama cA«a, without any 
doubt whatever. 

he sakhtay without arti- 
fice. 



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58 INDECLINABLE PAETS OF SPEECH. 


Negation : — 




ha/rgiz, ever. 


hech chiZy nothing what- 


na, no, not. 


ever. 


nmtlakan, not at all. 


hech huddm, none what- 


hech, not any. 


ever. 


hech wakty at no time. 


hech hzs, no person. 


bi hech wajh, in no wise. 


hech baby on no account. 


Comparison : — 




ziyadat ^ 


kamtarin, least. 


beshtar f 


kuchaktar ") ,, 
khwrdtar ) 


afzun "^^^^ 


fuzun ) 


misaly alike. 


bisiyartar, much more. 


rrmsawiy equal. 


aJcsar ^ 


rmiwUzz, parallel. 


aghlab > most. 


rii ba ru ) 


beshta/nn J 


mukabil > opposite. 


hamtar ) , 
akal r^"- 
kuchak 1 „ 
Murd j 


rrmhazi ) 


muwazm 1 of the same 
ham wazn ) weight. 


Arabic nouns in the oca 


iMative case are used adver- 


bially, as : — . 




i^dan, purposely ; mt 


liarraran, repeatedly. 



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■ 

IKDBCLINABLB PARTS OP SPEECH. 69 


Examples. 


! 49. I went to see him 


man yak bar ba Mdan^ash 


once^ 


raftam. 


Once upon a time be went 


hare ba didan^asA raft. 


to see him. 




\ I went to see him once 


man yah bar ba didan-ash 


only. 


raftam o bas. 


He was only two hours 


p du sSat ba man bad o 


with me. 


bas. 


God only knows. 


kJmdd mi-ddnad o bas. 


' You asked of me alone y 


shumd hamin tanhd az man 




pnrslded. 


\ I do not exactly recollect ; 


durust ddr khatir-am nlst ; 


it might have been mid- 


ml'tawdnist hi zuhr bd- 


i day. 


shad. 


Think well ; perhaps it 


khub ia^ammul bi-hun shd- 


may come into thy re- 


yad baMatir-at biydyad. 


collection, 




Whyy because just as I was 


chird Hy chun man mahra- 


returning disappoint- 


mdna az dar-i-shnmd bar 


edly from the door of 


ml-gashtam jamc^e az 


i your house, I saw a 


dnhd-rd dar hUcha di- 


number of them in the 


dam. 


street. 




i For I have often seen them 


chi man bisiydr didaam 


eating their food at 


hi eshdn dar sd^at-i-du 


two o^clock, 

1 

i 


ghizd ml'khurand. 



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60 indeclinable pabts of speech. 

Intbrjections and Prepositions. 
50. Regret or sorrow : — 

af%o% ) 1 • I ai, a sigh ! 

dar egh ) \ haif^ pity ! 



Grief, distress/want :— 

amdn, O quarter ! 
farydd, cry ! 



beddd^ injustice ! tyranny! 
ya/raJbby Lord ! 



Admiration, real and feigned : — I 



afrln, create ! {L e. O Lord, let us have more.) 

marfiobdy welcome ! 

tabdrak alldh ) ^ , . , , , , 
T 7, 1 r Grod is blessed I 
bdrak alldh ) 

alldh ahbar^ God is omnipotent I 

alldh kddir^ God is powerful ! 

alldh iarwiy God is beneficent ! 

mdshd alldh, God has willed 1 

inshd alldhy please God I 

Lamentation, mourning :^ 

fishm ) lament ! oh ! wdfi ) ■ . - 

J", - h T , - .,. ^ oh, misery! 

afghan ) alas I wa waila ) '' 

Hatred, contempt :— 

«/, fie! 

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1 



INDECLINABLE FAATS OF SPEECH. 61 

Call to attention : — / 

ainak ^ 

hdn V lo! behold! hark! 
hain ) 
aiyO\ 



My brother^ I regret, is afsos barddaram ki ha skid^ 
very seriously ill, dat bimdr ast. 

How well, as God willed, aap-i-sAumqi d^ruz mdsAd 
yesterday did your horse alldA chi khub damd ! 
run! 

Prepositions. 

51. Prepositions are placed before the simple, or 
nominative forms, both of Nouns and Pronouns. 

" My father went from home to the market,'' 
Pidar-am az khdifui ba bazar raft. 

They are :-— 



az^ from, by, 

bd^ with (in company 

with). 
bar^ abar^ on, upon. 
ba, in, by, to. 



fe, without. 
td, up to, as far as. 
juz, except, besides. 
dar, in. 



52. The rest of the Prepositions are, properly, Sub- 
stantivesy or Adjectives. 

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62 



INDECLINAJiLB PAETS OP SPEECH. 



(a) The following require to be followed by the 
zer-i-izafaty or sign of the genitive case. 



nazdlkly vicinity. 
bemn, out. 
andaruny in. 
kahly before. 
hc^dy after. 
jihaty toward. 
jdnihy side. 

hdhaTy lardyCy for, on ac- 
count of. 
siwdyCy except. 



bdldy upon, aloft. 
pdylfiy down. 
fardz or zahaty above. 
zevy below, beneath. 
fv/rudy down. 
peshy before, 
joflw, after or behind, r 
aufi^ towards, side of. 
miydriy between. 
pahluy by the side. 
nazd or nazdiky near. 

(b) All the above in para, (a) may take az before 
them, except ba'dy which takes az after it. 

ip) The following take azy before or after them, at 
the option of the speaker, as : — 

az paSy from behind ; pas azy after, then, afterwards. 

azpesh or pesA aZy before. 

az berun or berun aZy from without. 

az baghair or baghair aZy except. 

When az is used after the preposition, zer-uizafat 
is omitted. 

{d) The preposition ba may be prefixed to all the 
foregoing, but not to the five following: — 
sipasy bardyey bdhaty kably ba'd. 



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Iin)ECLINABLE FABTS OF SPEECH. 63 

Examples, 
(e) under the ground, zer-Uzamln. 
above the tree, hdld,e darakhL 
near the city, ha nazdii-i-sAaAr. 
after that, paz az an, 
before me, pes A az man (time) ipesA^uman (place) . 

Conjunctions. 
58. The simple Conjunctions are : — 



«7a* or 0, and. 

niz, Aam, also, likewise. 

ffar, agar^ if. 

y&y either, or. 

juzy except. 

magar, unless, rather. 



cAiy My for, as, whether. 
amma, leAin^ but. 
balM, but, on the con- 
trary. 
cAu, cAnitf when. 



• The rule for pronouncing the conj unction ^ , "and," 
is as follows : — 

When it connects sentences and clauses it is pro- 
nounced wa, as — 

he came and went, dmad wa raft. 

When it connects words in a phrase it is sounded as o, 

sometimes as u ; for example : — 

- T . , . f Tuz 9hab, 

day and night { , _ 

y ruz u ihab. 

In transcribing it into the Boman character, ^ will bo 

rendered as o; but the student must remember the rule 

given above. 



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64 indeclinable parts of speech. 

Compound Conjunctions; 
wagar, and if. 
wale^ walekin, and but. 
agarchiy garchi, although. 

Conjunction and Preposition. 
hajuzy excepting. 
hdham, bdham, together. 

The union of Adjectives, Prepositions, Adverbs, 
Pronouns, as : — 

harchand, although, notwithstanding. 
Aarchandkiy „ „ 

bindbariny because, therefore. 
zlrdy „ „ 

zlrdkiy „ „ 

az Injihat, „ „ 

ziuTu, „ „ 

az in sababy „ „ 

hd,l an kiy whereas, inasmuch as. 
jpesh az an hi, before that. 
ba'd az an ii, after that. 
Examples, 
He asked everybody ex- az Kama has pursid magar 

cept me, az man. 

I was awake, but thou man beddr budam ammd tU 

wast not, na budi. 

The sun will scorch thee aftdi tu-rd khwdkad aokht 
if thou goest abroad, agar berun bi-ravi. 



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( 65 ) 












NUMERALS 


. 






1 64. 

1 


Caedinal Numbebs. 






1 








-'O o 






^ 




1 




t^yl^ 


n 


IG 


9 








yi.y 






^ 




2 






1 V 


17 






3 




SiSylJt 


f A 


18 


^ 








^c i 






M 




4 




»•>> 


n 


19 


o^ 








G 






^* 




5 






p» 


20 


A * 




6 


^O 


C^»<*i.J» 


r 1 


21 


o ^ 






/ 


/ O^ 






1 CUa» 




7 


S^i 


C^<*<jj 


rr 


22 


! o ^ 








^ 




' 




* A 


8 




^ 


r*» 


30 


^ 




9 




^ 


i*» 


40 


^ 








v^ 






)fi> 


1. 


10 




. »Vi 


6 • 


60 


, *^o 








o^ 






1 »4);b 


M 


11 




Cl^MOfr 


1 • 


60 


^Kj^^ 








'o-^ 






»j;y 


Ir 


12 




i>tlAft 


V • 


70 


1 ^o 


. 




- 


*" 






"•^ 


1)" 


13 




«>ll£jb 


A* 


80 


^o ^ 








^ 






1 '''>/w 


ll« 


14 




oji 


\ • 


90 


1 •o o • 








-^ 






1 »o;JU 


l« 


15 




iV^ 


I'f 


100 


1 






. . /^.. 


5 





66 



DAYS OF THB WEEK. 






U I 






o 

A A 



6*» 

1#» 



101 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 






1* 



700 
800 
900 

* 1000 
10,000 

100,000 



65. The numbers occurring between the tens are 
formed by adding the smaller number to the decade 
conjunction o, as : — 

ihaat o shisAy sixty and six. 

To find the precise date (Christian) corresponding 
to any given year of the Hijra. 

Let M =: Mussulman date in years. 
Let E =? required English date in years. 
Then E = M X 0-970225 + 621-54. 
This is exact to a day. 

Days op the Week. 



Sunday, yak shamba, 
Monday, du shamba, 
Tuesday, si shamba. [ba. 
Wednesday, chahdr sham- 



Thursday, jpanj shatkba, 
Friday, cUtina. 
Saturday, sAatnba. 



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( 67 ) 
DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

66. SUBSTANTIVBS. 

(a) The Persian names of Agents are formed by 
prefixing nouns to contracted participles active^ as : — 



a seller of roses^ 


guUfarosh. 


a cooker of broth ^ 
(».^. the cook), J 


•t 


ash-paz. 


a shoemaker. 


hafsh'dnz. 


a hatter. 


kullah'dvz. 


a saddler. 


ztn-sdz. 


The contracted participle 


is sometimes corrupted, 


as: — 




Bdfiy a corruption of man, contracted from mdnanda, 


'^ a remainder.^' 




Gar and ^dr a form of idr 




Observe that ^ar signifies a maier, and that ^dr 


indicates a performer. 




Examples. 


a gardener. 


bdgh'ldn. 


a porter (doorkeeper), 


dar-bdn. 


a jailor, 


zinddn-bdu. 


a goldsmith, 


zargar. 


a blacksmith, 


dhangar. 


a potter. 


kuzagar.^ 


an attendant, 


khidmalgdr. 

n^^^\^ 



68 



DERIVATION OF "WOEDS. 



Nouns of Place. 

{b) Gdh is added to the noun^ as : — 

a bed, 

a resting-place, 

a throne-chambep 

capital of an empire 

the evening, 

halting-place, 

untimely. 



Mwab-gah* 
manzU-gah* 

takht-gah. 

sh^emrgah, 
farud^gah. 
begah. 



(tf) The affixes istan, zar^ hada^ dan, sar, IdM, 



may be used, as: — 
a rose-garden, ' 
a salt place 

an idol temple, 

a fire temple, 

a penholder, 

a mountainous country, 

a rough, stony place, 

a demon-haunted place. 



gvUstctn, 
noumak'Zwr. 
shura-zar. 
but kada. 
abash hada. 
kalam dan, 
Jeoh sar* 
sang lakh, 
dew lakh. 



Diminutives. 
57. A diminutive is formed by adding one of the 
fdur affixes \^ , si , A^ and ]f to a noun. 



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DBEIVATION OF "WORDS. 69 

(a) The affixes yiJ y.si and s only are used in 
tbe case of rational beings^ as : — 

a small man^ mardak. 

a small woman^ zanak, 

a small girl^ dukhtwrak. 

In an endearing sense, as : — 

My poor dear little child tiflak-i'man bimar asi. 
is sick, 

(b) In a contemptible sen^e ^ is used. 

O thou fellow ! ai mardLka. 

Why, this woman ! of zanaka. 

(c) In the case of persons not grown up it is 
sufficient to add s (A) only, as : — 

a naughty boy, piaara, 

a good-for-nothing girl, dAikhta/ra. 

(d) The only affix used in ]bhe case of an irra- 

tional being is ViU , as : — 

a small horse, aspak^ 

a small ass, Marak. 

At the same time the adjectives kuchdk or khwrd 
may be used, as : — 

a small horse^ aspah-irlcuchaJc. 

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70 . DBEIVATION OF WORDS. 

The aflSx may denote pity, or compassion, as : — 

the poor tired ox, gawak-i-Masta, 

the poor wretched ass, khcvrak-ir-miskin. 

It is usual, however, to add yl) (&) to the gene- 
ric noun,* as : — 

poor little creature, haiwdnak. 

poor little bird, murghak. 

poor jaded beast, haiwandk-irMasta, 

the weak miserable animal, janwarahi-za'if, 

(e) The affixes sJL) and jc^ are used with inani- 
mate objects, as : — 

a little pond, hauzak, 

a small garden, haghcha. 

(/) The affix UJ is used when a noun is to be 
applied in an unusual way, as : — 

significant wink of the eye, chashmak. 
clapping the hands, dastak, from dast^ the hand. 
listening by stealth, goshak, „ gosh^ the ear. 
making a somersault, pushtak, „ pusht, the back. 

* The word murgh applies to all birds. 

,y „ Jkaiwdn „ „ domestic animals and fish. 
„ 9> jdnwar „ „ wild beasts, reptiles, and 

vermin, 
„ ,y gardshanda „ reptiles only. 

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dsrivation of woeds. 71 

Absteact and Veebal Nouns. 

58. An abstract noun may be formed from an 
adjective, simple or compound, or from a nomiy by 
the addition of yae ma'ruf, as, ^^^ . 

(a) Prom an adjective : — 

goodness, nekt^ from ne\ good. 

the possessing of the world, royalty, jahdn dart, 

from jahan ddr, world-possessing, 
idleness, bekart^ from bekar, idle. 

(ft) Prom a noun : — 

friendship, dosti, from dost, a friend, 
manliness,^ mardi, from ma/rd, a man. 
entertainment, mihmani, from ndhman, a guest, 
sovereignty, tfid^AaA^, from badshah, a king. 

^ If the primitive word ends in obscure t, the s is 
suppressed, and the letter f^ is inserted, as : — 
sadness, azwrdagl, from azurda, sad. 
infa&iy, bachchagt, „ bachcha, a child, 
slavery, bandagt, „ banda, a slave. 

59. Verbal Nouns are formed by changing ^j of 
ihe infinitive into .1 , as : — 

speech, guftar, from gufian» 
motion, ro/lar, „ raftcm. , 
seeing, diddr, ., dtdan. 



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72 DBRIVATIo^' or words. 

This termination occasionallj gives the sense of 
agent^ as : — 

/^seller, /cha/ridar, from kha/rid(m. 

^ pvurchaser, "/aro>^^, „ fa/rokktcm. 

The third person singular of the preterite may 
be placed (a) before the imperative of the same 
verb, (6) or before the third person singular of the 
preterite of the same or another verb, as :— 

(a) conversation, guft-gUyO, or guft-o-gUye. 
search, jvshju, 

buying and selling, khanrid o fwrmh, 

(b) buying and selling. Ma/rid o fa/rokhi. 

, . ( amad o raft. 

coming and going < , , , 

C amad o shvd. 

(c) To express suitableness, ^c yd^e ma'ruf, or 

yd,e Uyakaty is added to the infinitive} as : — 

fit to be done, iarda/nh 
M to eat, kkurdam,u 

(d) A noun may be formed from the root by 
adding ^ (i) or ^ (ish) as :— 

speaking, conversation, go J, from go, root of gufta/n. 
creation, afnnish, from afnUy root of afridan. 
burning, inflammation, sozish, from soz^ root of 
sokAtan* 



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DERIVATION OP WOBDS. 73 

motion^ goings path^ rawi, from rau, root o( rafiom* 
knowledge^ iomt^ from dJan^ root of ddniatan^ 

ie) The root itself may be used^ as : — 

ardom*^ 80z, from soJtAtan, to bum. 
grief, ranj, ,, ranjidan, to grieve, 
know, ddUj „ danista/n, to know. 

(/) A noun may be formed by adding viil , ^1 
(peculiar to verbs in udan) or » , as : — 

inflammation, sozah, ' from soMtcm, to bnm. 
an order, fa/rman^ „ fwrmudanyUy order, 
trembling, latza, „ la/rztdan, to tremble. 

Adjectives. 

60. Adjectives denoting possession, plenty, mix- 
ture, are formed by adding to nouns the particles 
T, }>^, sa^^y yjf\, ^^, vliU, J^, j^ and J^^, 
as: — 

learned, ddna^ from ddn^ know. 

ashamed, sAarmsdr, ,, sAarm, shame. 

sorrowful, ghamgin^ „ gham^ sorrow. 

bashful, aharmdgi/nj „ aharmy shame. 

wealthy, daulatmand, „ daulaU wealth. 



^,g,t,zed by Google 



74 DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

frightful, khauf-ndky from khanfy fear. 

(ddnisAwar, or') 
learned j >7- • z - f « ddnisA, hnowleige. 

golden, zarin, „ i?ar, gold. 

(b) The particles UT, ,^^;*J^*> , f^*> , l-* i ^U* , 
^^ and ^L added to nouns forna adjectiyes de- 
noting similitude^ as : — 

like musk, mushkdsa. 
like the sun^ Murdis. 
like magic, sihrsd. 
^ like dust {i.e. humble), kkdk-^dr. 
like the moon (i,e. beautiful,) mdhwoBh. 
like the sun, khurshld-sdn. 

(e) The particles /dm (j>dm, lodm), gun and in 
denote resemblance in respect to colour^ as :-* 

black-coloured, nyah-fSm. 
rose-coloured, gul^gun. 
emerald-coloured, zumurradfn. 
ruby-coloured, Pat-fdm. 
tulip-coloured, Idla-gun. 
azure-coloured, db-gun. 

id) Some adjectives to express fulness and com- 
pleteness are repeated, the letter t being inserted 
between them, as : — 



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DERIYATIOI^ OF WORDS. 76 

brimful, lahdlaby from lab^ lip. 

entirely, sardsary from sar, head. 

of varioos colours, gvndgiint from gUfiy colour. 

(e) Adjectives may be formed from nouns by 
^ding ^ ya,e ma^ruf^ as : — 

Persian, Irani {'ajaml)^ from irdn i^ajam), Persian. 

Indian, hindiy from hind, India. 

of the city of Shiraz, ahirdzi, from sMrdz, city of . 

Shlraz. 
of the city of Ba|^dad, baghdddtj from baghddd^ city 

of Baijidad. 
a town, shahrly from shahr:^ a city, 
of the sea, bahrl, from bahr^ sea,. 

(/) Tte particles^l^ and *Jl are added to denote 
fitness, as : — ' 

fit for a pr^ice, sAdhwdr or shdhdna. 
fit for a maniac, dewdna, 
fit for a man, marddna. 
fit for women, banana, 

{g) The ordinal number is formed by adding um to 
the cardinal, as : — 

the seventh, haftum^ from haft^ seven, 
the twenty-seventh, VUt o haftnm. 

The three first ordinals are exceptions to this rule, 
as : — 

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76 DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

i 

first, naMusiin, awwal. 
second, duwum or duyum. 
thirds aiwum or siyum. 
book the firsts bab-UawwaL 

(h) By adding s to a noun^ preceded by a numeral^ 
a compound adjective will be formed, as : — 

of one dfl.y's duration, yoA; rtiza, from yak ruz, one day. 
one year old, yak sdla, from yak sdl^ one year, 
a man aged 30 years, mard si sdla, from mard si sal. 
fickle, da dila, from du dil, two hearts. • 

Vbbbs. 

61. The principal derivative verbs are causal verbs, 
and are derived from Arabic roots by adding idan, 
as: — 

to seek, to send for, talabidan, &om ialaby search, 
to understand,/aA«^a«,&om/aA»», understanding. 

Adverbs. 

62. A list of Adverbs has been already given (see 
p. 54). 

Adjectives ending in ana and fodr may be con- 
sidered as adverbs, as : — 



in the manner of a pedes- 
trian, piydda-wdr. 



wisely, ^ahldna. 
bravely, diltrdna. 



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( 77 ) 

COMPOUND WORDS. 

63. Substantives. 

{a) Two nouns may be used in juxtaposition in the 
reverse order of the genitive, the sign of izd/at being 
rejected, as: — 

the counsel-book, pand-ndma. 

the day-book, ruz-nama, 

the cook-house, bdwarcM-Mdna. 

the battle-field, razm^dA. 

the asylum of the worlds jaAdn-pandA. 

ib) Two contracted infinitives may be used, con- 
nected by ^ , as : — 

speaking and hearing (i.e. conversation), gt^oilunld. 
coming and going, dmad o raft^ dmad o sAud. 

(c) A contracted infinitive with the corresponding 
root may be used, as :— 

conversation, gtffi o go or gufb-go. 
BeBich,just ojUj oijust^u. 

(d) Two substantives of the same, or of difierent 
significations, may be used, as : — 

boundary and region {i.e. empire), marz o bum. 

water and air (i.*e. climate), db o Aawd. 

growing and increasing {i.e. rearing), noiAw^ o numd>. 

■"■""■^ "] .,git,zedbyLjOOgle 



78 COMPOUND WORDS. 

(e). An infinitive preceded by U is rendered nega- 
tive, as : — 

the non-hearing, nd shunidcm. 

U corresponds with the English prefixes un^ in or non. 
si „ „ negation wo, not. 

(/) A numeral and a substantive may be used, as : — 
the afternoon, si-pahar. 
a quadruped, cAahdr-pd^e. 
Sunday, yak-sAamba. 

Adjectives. 

64. Compound Adjectives may be formed as fol- 
lows : — 

(a) Of two nouns, both Arabic, both Persian, or 
one of each, as :— 

fairy-faced, jOflf* rukhsdr ox pari riiye. 

angelic disposition, malah akhldk. 

lion-hearted, sAer-diL 

generous disposition, iarim taV. 

rose-bud mouthed, ghuncAa daAdn. 

ruby-lipped, yafcut lab. 

army numerous as the stars, anjum sipdi 

kingly pomp, sultanat dastgdA. 

justly disposed, addlat d/in. 

melancholj-mindedj mahzUn kkdtir. 

' ^.yitized by Google *~" 



] [ ' 

j COHPOTOn) WOEDS, 79 

i 

jessamine-scented, saman bu,€i 
perspicuous in epeeeh,/aslh ialdm. 
resembling the sea, daryd misdl, 
eloquent in discourse^ baRgh kkitdb, 

(d) Of an adjective prefixed to a noun^ as :— ' 

; handsome-faced, khub ru^. 

\ pure-hearted, safdil. 

simple-minded, sdUm (^alb, 

well-disposed, pdkiza khu^. 

right-minded (benevolent), nek maizar. 

pleasant chanting, khnth ilium. 

ugly-faced^ zisht ruyC. 

hard-hearted, sanpm dii. 

sour-browed, turush abru. 

pure-minded, sdf zamwr. 

pure-natured, pak tmat. 

black-^eyed, siydk cAashm. 

sweet-tongued, shirm zabwn, 

red-&ced, eurkh rv^. 

grey-haired, sa/aid mu,e. 

iU-tempered^ iaj kkulj, 

bitter in speech, talkk guftdr. 

sharp-witted, tezfahm. 

swift-footed, iohuk Mtr, 

ill-mannered, Md ravisA. 

pure-natured, jpa* iabVaL 



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80 COMPOUND WORDS. 

of good morals^ nek aMldk, 
clear in judgment, rushan 'akl. 
broken-hearted, sAikasta dil. 
distressed in heart, tan^ dil, 

{e) Of a verbal root added to a substantive or 
adjective, as : — 

world-conquering, jahdn^glr. 
enemy-enslaving, *adilw-'band. 
pearl-scattering, durr-afshan. 
amber-scented, 'atnia/T'dghi, 
hero-overthrowing, mard^afgan. 
t heart-afflicting, dil-azdr. 

rose-scattering, gul-qfsMn. 
assembly-adorning, moflis^d. 
soul-refreshing, rUk-dad, 
fault-forgiving, khajd-bakhsh. 
delight-increasing, hahjaUafzd. 
town-disturbing, shahr-dshub. 
being covered with dust, ghubdf'dlud. 
blood-shedding, khan-rez. 
being mixed with honey, ihahd^dmez. 
world-illuminating, glVinifruz. 
fear-increasing, wql^haUafzd. 
dread-inspiring, dilUhaUangez, 
battle-seeking, ya«^-yw. 
early rising, sahar-khez^ 

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COMPOUND WORDS. 81 

self-indalging; tan panoar. 
light-spreading, ziyd gustar. 
straDger-cherishing, gharib niwar. 
heart-expanding, dil-ikusM. 
perfiime-diffusing, 'itr-bez, 
soul'Cre2kting, jdn-afrin. 
sweet-singer, khiuh khwan, 
rank (of battle) breaking, saff sAiian. 

{d) Of a past-participle added to a substantive, 
as: — 

shame-stricken, khajlat zada, 
stricken with darkness, zulmat zada* 
experienced, yai^« dlda. 
„ „ wdk'ia dida. 
one who has been tried in battle, jang azmuda. 
one who has laid a snare, dam nihdda. 
one who has endured affliction, mihnat kashlda. 

(e) Of 2k substantive with the prefix b, as : — 

possessed of wealth, bd-jndL 
cheerful, bd-rdmUh. 

(/) Of a substantive with the prefix ju as : — 

senseless, be khirad. 

without discrimination, be tamir, 

heartless, be dil. 

6 

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82 COMPOUND WORDS. 






unjust, be imaf. 








careless, he hah. 




• 




in*eIigious, he din. 








ig) Of a substantive with 


the 


prefix >a. 


"to- 


gether/' ''with/' as:— 








being in the same house, 


ham-khana. 




„ associates. 


9> 


suhhat. 




w » 


if 


rah. 





„ • „ „ umr. 

„ ,, „ nishin. 

„ bed-fellows, „ hiatar. 

„ confidants, „ rdz. 
„ in the same school 

{i.e. school-fellows) 

„ intimate, „ dam* 

sympathising, „ dard. 

a playfellow, „ bdz. 



]■■ 



mahtah. 



(h) Of a substantive with the prefix ^ , as : — 

of little value, ham-hahd. 
thin-bearded, „ rish. 

of little resource, „ may a. 

with little experience, „ tajriba. 

(i) By prefixing U to (1) an adjective ; (2) a ver- 
bal root ; (S) a past participle ; (4) a substantive. 



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COMPOUND WOKDS. 8S 

(1) To an adjective, as : — 

impure, nd pdk. 

of impure intention, ndpdi'Tde, 

(2) To a verbal root : — 

igpiorant, nd ddn, 

(3) To a past participle : — 

not commended, nd ntuda. 

(4) To a substantive : — 

worthless, nd kdr, 

not according to one^s desire, nd kdm. 

unmanly, nd mard. 

Veebs. 

65. Persian Verbs may be added to Substantives, 
Adjectives, Participles, Prepositions and Adverbs, 

{a) To substantives, as : — r 

to seek justice, ddd Mwdstan. 
to mix colours, ran^ ameMtan., 
an opinion, rd^ zadan, 

(b) To an adjective, as : — 
to do good, net warzldan, 
to become sick, blmdr thudan. 

{e) To a participle or noun of agency, as :— 
to become a searcher, jvyanda gardidan. 
to sit smiling, k^anddn nishUtan. 



-'- -a- 



84 C6MP0UND WORDS. 

(d) To particles, as : — 

to come in, dar dmadan. 

„ rise up, bar khdstan, 

„ sit down,yaro niahiatan. 

,j soar upwards, bald jparidan, 

„ go up, bald rqftan, 

„ come down, pd^in dmadan. 

(e) The verbs iardan, sdMtan, farmndan and no- 
mudan are often used with substantives and adjectives 
in the sense of making, as :— 

to make an order, huim iardan, 
„ make content, khushnvd sdkhtan. 
„ pay attention, iliifdt namudan. 
„ peruse a letter, mutdla'a/armudan. 

(f) The verbs ddshtan and zadan are sopietimes 
used in the sense of making, as : — 

to keep watch, pds ddshtan. 
„ make search, talab ddshtan, 
^ „ express an opinion, rd,e zadan. 
„ speak, haraf zadan. 

(ff) The verbs khurdan and dldan are used in tho 
sense of " to suffer,^^ or ^^ e3q)erience,'' as : — 

to grieve, gham khurdan. 

„ be grieved, ghussa khurdan. 

„ {eel regret, ta^assiff khurdan. 

,_,__^_g^_ 



COMPOUND WORDS. 85 

to suffer afflictioD^ mihnat didan, 

,, smelly huy€ didan, 

,y experience kindness^ i^dn didan. 

(A) The following verbs are chiefly used in com- 
pounds : — 

to brings dwardan. 
,f become (passive)^ sAudan, 
„ „ (to turn), gashtan. 
„ „ ( „ ),gardidan. 
jy bear, burdan, 
„ be, budan. 
„ come, dmadan, 
„ devour, suffer, khurdan. 
„ do, make, kardan, 
„ draw, undergo, ka^hldan* 
„ find, ydftan. 
„ have, ddahtan, 
„ make, sdkhtan. 
„ ovAetyfarmudan. 
„ see, didan. 

„ strike, zadan, 

„ sit, uishistafi, 

„ search, yi^^a^. 

„ show, namudan. 

„ take, giriftan, 

„ wish, ask, kkujdit'an. 



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86 COMPOUND WORDS. 

Exampl€9^ 

to apologise^ ^uzr Mwdstan. 
„ assault^ hujum dwardan. 
„ appear, tdli^ dmadan, 
,, be astonished, muta'ajfab gardldom. 
p, y, J, sAudofi. 

,y „ ic^ajjuh kardan. 

„ „ „ namvdan. 

yy yy y, dOSktaU, 

yy yy ^ ttj oh wiffdrdan, 

to be beneficent, ihsdnfarmudan. 
yy be bereaved, hijrdn dtdan. 
yy believe, Htikdd ddahtan. 
„ „ „ namudan, 

„ ,, „ dioardan, 

„ ,i „ kardan, 

yy complete, tamdm hxrdan, 
„ ,, yy farmudm. 

yy „ „ sdkhtan, 

yy yy yy namudan. 

yy envy, Imad burdan, 
„ expect, intizdr iashtdan. 
„ „ „ kardan. 



burdan, 

w if yy 

jj „ „ ddsAian, 



yf « « 

namvdan. 



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COMPOUND WOEDS. 87 

to expect, nmntazif gardldan, 

yy yy „ budafl, 

yy yy ^^ SAudalt, 

^^ yy ^^ nisAistan, 

yy find (others) disappointed^ mahritm yaftan. 

yy find fault, ^aihjustan. 

„ be grieved, ghussa khurdan. 

„ take profit, nafa^ giriftan. 

„ return, niju* namudan, 

>, be sorrowful, maghmun hudan 

The student should observe the difierent ways in 
which the verbs ^^ To be astonished/' " To believe,^' 
*' To complete,'' " To expect," are rendered. 

Thus intizdfy " expecting/' takes the active verbs 
Tcardariy hasMdan, namudany &c., while muntazir, " one 
who expects," takes the neuter verbs budan, sAtidaUy 
gardidan, niskiatariy &c. 

Similarly the other verbs may be rendered. 



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( 88 ) 

SYNTAX. 
Aebangement of Words. 

In prose compositions the nominative is put first, 
tlien the object or complement, and, lastly, the verb, 
as: — 
the mughal purchased the mu gha l tuti-rd kharid. 

parrot, 
Timur arrived in India, Umur ba MnduHdn rasld. 

Words and phrases denoting time, manner, &c., 
when they apply to a whole sentence, are placed first, 
as: — 
one day, in a certain city, ruzey dar shahrCj darweshe 

a darwesh went to the bar duhdn - i - bakkdle 

shop of a certain trader, rqft. 

When the complement to a verb is a complete sen- 
tence it is put last, as : — 

that man said, '' Do you an mard guft^ mard dhmdk 

consider me a fool V^ mi-pinddri ? 

a certain king saw in a jpddshdhe dar khwdb did hi 

dream that the whole tamdm - i- danddnhdyC^ 

of his teeth had dropped nftdda and. 
out. 

When the object is qualified by a relative sentence 
the object is placed before the verb, and the qualify- 
ing phrase after it, as : — 



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A&UANGEMENT OF WOEDS. 89 

I have heard of a king^ padsidke-rd ahunldam M 

who issued the order for ba knshtanl -e- aslre 

the executing of a cer- ishdrat hard, 
tain captive. 

they relate of one of the yake-rd az muluk-i-'ajam 

kings of Persia, that he l^ikdyai kunana H dasU 

extended the hand of i^taidwul ba mat^^a^i' 

usurpation over the pro- yat dardz hard. 
perfy of the people. 

Construction of Substantives, Adjectives, and 
Pebpositions. 

Adjectives are indeclinable. 

The adjective usually follows the noun which it 
qualifies, as :*^ 
a good man feairs God, mard-uMub az kkudd mi- 

taraad, 
my black horse was in the asp-i-siydA-i-man dar la- 
stable, loila bad. 

When the noun is in apposition, the adjective may 
either precede or follow the substantive. 

The word immediately before the verb has usually 
yd,e mclfvf!^ as : — 

thy father is a good man, padar^i-tn mard-Ukhab 1st ; 

or,padar4-tu khub mardlat, 

* The full form is : padar-i-tu thub marde agt, in 
which yd^e mahjul is used. 



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90 ABBANQEMENT OF WOEDS. 

London is a great city^ landan shahr 1st buiydr 

hizurg ; or, landan bui^ 

ydr shahr 'i^buzurglst; 

or, landan bisiydr buzurg 

shahr 1st ; or, landan 

shahr "i'bisiydr buzurg 1st. 

If the adjectiye express more than a simple quality^ 

such as. good or bad^ or if it be of Arabic origin^ it 

should be placed after the noun^ whether expressed 

before or after the verb, as :— 

thy servant is a bad man, naukar-i-^tu mard-usharlr* 

1st; or^nauhar-i-tu mar- 

distsharir. (It would be 

wrong to say, naukar-u 

tu sharvr mard^st). 

Adverbs should be placed immediately before the 

adjective ; sometimes the second noun may intervene, 

as: — 

England is a very good ingland mamlakat-l-bisU 
kingdom, ydr khyilst; or, ingland 

bisiydr mamlaJcat-i-Mab- 
Ist; or, ingland khaill 
khub mamlahate ast; or, 
ingland mamlahate ast 
khaili khub, 

• Sharir is Arabic. One might say : — 
nauhar-i-tii had ma/rde ast. 



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ABRAKOEMBNT OF WOBDS. 91 

When the Qd]ective precedes the substantive, it will 
be noticed the mark of izq/ht is not used. In Persian 
this construction is called the inverted epithet. 

The names of places and rivers are placed q/ier the 
words city, town, &o,j with the isdf at between them, 
asi'^' 

the river Euphrates^ darya^e fa/rat. 

The izafat sometimes supplies the place of the con- 
j unction J as: — 
a mistress with rosy cheeks ydr -i- gul ^izdr-i'sMrin 

and honied speech, suMan, 

Two nouns, in common use, sometimes omit the 
izafat; they are : — 

a companion, master ^ ., 

a possessor of, endowed with ) ' ' ' 
head, top, extremity, sar^ 

as: — 

a possessor of wealth, sahib mdl. 

possessed of skill, , sahib hunar. 

fountain-head, sat chasAma. 

head of the way, sar-rdA. 

source of wealth, capital, sar-mdya. 

The following noun is used with the Arabic al^ 
'Hhe'':— 

a lord, master, endowed with, zu. 

' ' .,yit,zed by Google 



93 COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 

I 

as: — ! 

possessed of dignity^ xU^l^aldl, 

possessed of motion^ zH-l^haraiat. j 

possessed of life^ z^rl-haydL 

Alexander the Greats xu-'l-lcamain. 

(two-homed or powerful). 
The following noun, similar to those just mentioned^ 
takes the izq/xU, as : — 

people belonging to any "j I 

profession, an inhabi- I 

tant, lord, master, wor- T * ! 

thy, fit, endowed with J 
as: — j 

veiled, a/U-i-hijab. ' 

an artificer, ahl-i-aan^at. I 

a councillor of state, ahUi-dewdn. | 

a traveller, aM-i-siydhat. \ 

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 
Any noun with a particle prefixed to it may become 
an epithet, as : — 

a man possessed of wealth, mardri-bdmdL , 

Some epithets consist of several words, as : — i 

a country taken in war, mulk-ubajang girifta. 

a slave with a ring in his ear, banda,e halka bagash^ 

the All-wise, who endows hahint-usuMan bar zabdn > 

the tongue with speech, dfrln. j 

i 

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( 93 ) 

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

! Numeral adjectives precede the substantiyes to which 
I they belong. The noon must always be in the singular 
\ number^ as : — 

i a thousand men^ Aazdr mard (not) hazdr marddn. 

twenty brave men, bist mard-udildwar (not) Kst 
'- marddn^i^ildwar. ' 

; The greatest number should be expressed first ; the 
I rest following in the same order, as : — 

two hundred and fifty-four du sad o j)anjdA o chahdr 
i thousand seven hun- hazdr o haft $ad o hashtdd 

dred and eighty-three du H gusfaiid. 
I sheep, 

i From eleven to nineteen, however, the smaller 
number is expressed first. (See p. 65.) 

A definite noun may be used in the plural number 
; to answer the cardinal number, as : — 

the men were two thou- marddn du hazdr biidand. 

Band, 

Sometimes a phrase from the Arabic is introduced 
as an epithet to a Persian substantive, as : — 

' a darwesh whose prayers danoesh^i-mustajabu'd' 

are answered, da^wdt. 

1 a man sincere of speech^ mard-i'sddikt^l^kaul harl^ 

generous of soul, mu-n-mfs. 

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94 COMFABISON. 

The adjective pronouns an, *», precede their sub- 
stantives. 

Some adjectives of a pronominal nature^ as Aama, 
"all/' di^ar, "other/' cAand-^ " some/' or " several/^ 
precede or follow their substantives; for example : — 

all the people, Aama marduman ; or, mar- 

dumdn-i'Aaffia. 
the other woman, dlgarzan; or, zan-i-digar. 

some, or several days, chand ruz ; or, ruz-ir-chand. 

COMPARISON. 

The word than after the comparative degree is ex- 
pressed in Persian by az^ as :— 

more splendid than the sun, roahantar az dftdh. 
women are more delicate zandn ndzuk-tar az mar- 
than men, dan and. 

Sometimes bih, "good,'' in the positive form, is 
used, when denoting comparison, for " better," as :— 

silence is better than evil- khamoshl hik az sukkan-u 

speaking; but speaking had ast ; wa mkhan-i'-nek 

weU is better than bih az khdmoshi. 
silence. 

The superlative degree governs the genitive as : — 



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COMPARISON. 95 

the best of men^ neitartn^Umariumdn, 

they say that the mean- got/and ki kamtann-i-jdn" 
est of animals is the ass^ * war an khar ast. 

The same rule applies to superlative forms from the 
Arabic, as : — 

the most illustrious of the ashrc^-Uambiyd. 
Prophets, 

The particles called prepositions are few in number. 
The most common are :— 

Az, " from/' bd, "with/' bar, ''on/' ba, ''in, into,'' 
be, "without," id, "till/' "as far as,">4r, "except/' 
" besides," and dar, "in/' 

Prepositions take the simple or nominative form of 
a noun or pronoun after them, as :— 

from Bagdad to Shiraz I az baghddd id shirdz bd 
will go with thee, tu khwdham raft. 

Such other words as are used like prepositions 
require zer-i-izafat^ as : — 
near the minister, nazd-i-wazir ; or, ba iiazd- 

i'Wazir, 
above his head, bdld^e sarasA, 

before me, pesA-i-manj or, dar peah^ 

p-man, 
under the earth, zer^i-zamin. 

I ., - 

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( 


96 


) 


PRONOUNS. 


The aflBxes are : — 






JBers, Sing. 




mur. 


1. my ^1 o/m,y 




our ^j^U wan. 


2. thy cLpl aty 




your ^j^u ^w. 


3. his 1^1 ashy 




their ^U sAan. 



Mention has abeady been made (see page 28 Gr.) 
of the use of these affixes when attached to nouns. 

It will be sufficient in this place to add that the 
plural terminations are rarely used ; and that when 
the noun to which the affix belongs is in construc- 
tion with an adjective^ the affix is usually added to. 
the adjective, as : — 

thy dear life, 'vmr-i-azizat. 

The affixes ^1 , ei^' , ^1 may be employed to 
denote the dative and accusative cases to me, to 
thee, or me, thee, &c., as well as the possessives my, 
thy, his. 

The affixes may be joined to the verb which 
governs them, or to any word* in the sentence, 
as: — 

* Except the simple prepositions and a few of the 
conjunctions, aa wa and yd. 



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PBONOUNS. 97 

the porter did not admit daaia-nam raha na Jca/rd. 

me, 
the earth has so much Mak-ash cJmnan hukhv/rd. 

consumed it. 

Sometimes there is ambiguity ; thus, in the first 
sentence, dwrhd-nam, by itself, might mean my por- 
ter. In a case of this kind the context must be 
considered. 

The reciprocal pronoun J^ corresponds to our 
pronoun self, as : — 

I myself, man Miid, 

thou thyself, tu Mud, 

It may be the nominative to ant/ person of the 
verb, the termination of the verb showing sufficiently 
the sense, as : — 

I myself went, khud raftam. 

they themselves went, khud rafiund. 

It is used as a substitute for a possessive pronoun, 
as: — 
the goldsmith went to his zargar ha khanate khud 

house, raft. 

I was coming from my man az hdghri-khud dma*. 

garden, dam. 

Zaid beat his (ovm) slave, Zaidghuldm-i-khud-^dzad. 

Zaid beat his {another's) Zaid ghuldm-^i-o-rd zad. 

slave, 

7 

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. 98 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 


The affix khudash is used 


in the third person smgu- 


lar, as :-r- 




I saw Zaid in his {own) 


Zaid-rd dar khdncL/f khud- 


house, 


aah didam. 


j 
Demonstrative Pronottns, In and an. 


When the name of an 


irrational being, or of an 


inanimate object has been mentioned, and reference 


is afterwards made to it by a pronoun (as it or ihey\ 


in and an, with their plurals are used, as : — 


the lion said the painter 


sAer gufb musawwir-i^in 


of it was a man, 


insdn ast. 


the wise men were at a loss 


huhamd az tdml-i-dn ^c^'iz 


in the explanation of it. 


mandand. 


The phrases aw-£-«m», dn-i-tu^ az dn-i-man, az dn- 


i-tu, &c., are equivalent to the English words, mine, 


thine, &c., ^.s : — 




the throne of Egypt is 


masnad-i-misr dn-i-tusi. 


thine, 




whose house was this ori- 


in khdna awwal az dn-i^ 


ginally ? 


kibud? 


he said, that of my grand- 


guft az dn-i-jaddam. 


father's, 




when he died, wnose did 


chun hi-guzasht az dn-i^ 


it become ? 


iisiud? 



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DEMONSTEATIVE PBONOUNS. 

he said^ that of my fa- guft az dn-i-pada, 
ther's, 

ii and ^ are simply connectiyes^ not rela^ 

tives, as : — 

I saw a prince who pos- malik^zada-rd dMam hi 
sessed wisdom^ ^akl ddsAt. 

After Hf o is understood, " that he" 
the fool who sets up a ablate ki o (usually writ- 
camphor candle in a ten h>) ruz-i-raskan 
clear day. siama^-uidfuri nikad. 

Example in the genitive :— 

many a renowned person- bos ndmwar hi zer-i-zamin 
age have they deposited 
beneath the dust, of 
whose existence {lit.y 
that of his exist- 
ence) no trace remains 
on the face of the 
earth. 

Again : — 

I am not he whose back 
you will see in the day 
of battle (lit,y that you 
should see my back). 



dafn harda and ki az 
(usually written kaz) 
hoBtiyaBh ha ru,e zamln 
yak nishdn na mdnad. 



an na man hdsham hi raz- 
i'jang bml pmhUi-man, 



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100 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

Example in the dative : — 
(thou) to whom my ai hi sAaMs-i-manat hakir 
person appeared eon- namicd, 
temptible (^lit, that 
my person appeared to 
thee), 

Example in the accusative : — 
he whom I beheld all fat, an ki chvn pista didam 
like the pistachio nut ash Kama maghz, 
(lit., he that I saw him). 

Example in the ablative : — 
that (proceeding) in which an ki dar wai mazzina^e 

there is suspicion of Mf^tf ^*^« 

danger. 

The terms harhi, harcAi correspond respectively to 
" whosoever/^ " whatsoever." Harhi refers to rational 
beings; harchi to inferior animals or inanimate objects. 

For example : — 
whosoever shall wash his harki dast az jdn hiahiiyad, 
hands of life, the same harchi dar dil ddrad bi-- 
will utter whatever he goyctd> 
has on his mind. 

When a substantive is expressed after har, the par- 
ticle ki may follow, as : — 

everything which, har chlz ki. 

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DBMONSTEATTVB PEONOUNS. 101 

When yd^e majhul is added to a noun, followed by 
ki or chi, the substantive is rendered more definite, 
as: — 
envy is such a torment hasad ranje ast ki az masA- 

that it is impossible to akkaUudn juz 6a marg na 

escape &om its pangs tawdn rod. 

except by death, 

The particl es ki and _gj^ when used interrogatively, 
are to be considered as substantives, as : — 

whose horse may tluit be P an agp^-ki hdahad ? 
to whom are they speaking? kird mi^goyand ? 
who are they ? eihan kiyand ? 

on account of what are you az baiar-i-cAi dmadal ? 
come? 

r 

for what did you go ? chird rqfU f 

The particle td is frequently added to numerals ; 
it implies individuality, as : — 

I have two or three let- man ham du si td kdghaz 
ters to write {Ut,, two ddram binaioisam. 
or three individual let- 
ters). 

When two nouns come together, so as to form one 
compound word, the genitive is formed by adding az 
to the first noun, which should be made definite by 
a ffixi ng yd,e wahdat, or by prefixing a numeral, as : — 

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lOa CONCOED OP VERBS. 

a sword of steel, shamaAlre az fulady or 

ihaKmhlr-irfuladl, 
two swords of steeL, du sAamsAir az/aldd. 

Concord of Verbs. 

If the nominative to a verb be expressive of rational 
beings, the verb will agree with its nominative, as : 

the brothers were vexed, harddardn ranjidand. 

Two or more nouns, in the singular, require a 
plural verb, as : — 

the goldsmith and carpen- zargar wa najjdr hutdn-rd 
ter seized the images, giriftand. 

If the nominative to a verb be expressive of irra- 
tional beings, the verb is usuallt/ in concord with its 
nominative ; but sometimes it is in the singular, 
as: — 

four horses were killed, cAaAdrasp husAta sAudand; 

or, cAaAdr asp huaAta 
sAud. 
the animals of the forest jdnwardn-i-besAa dwdz na- 
made a noise, mudand. 

When two or more nouns (expressive of distinct 
genera) have a common verb, the verb will be in the 
plural, as : — 

Ljigitized by VjOUk i-- 



i 



CONCOBB OP VERBS. lOS 

the horse and the ass are asp wa khar az yak jina 

not of the same genus, nlstand, 

a horse, an ass, and an ox aspCf wa khare^ wa gawe 

were killed, kmhta shudand, 

t 
1 In respect to nouns representing inanimate objects, 

i the verb is sometimes made to agree with its nomi- 

i native, sometimes put in the singular. 

. It is not absolutely necessary to use a verb, in the 

j singular when the nominative is in the plural; at 

j the same time, the verb is often so used, especially in 

j the passive voiccy by eminent writers and correct 

1 Bpeakers. In the Active Voice the verb should usually 

: agree with its nominative. For example : — 

! the houses of the people khdnahd^e mardum khar ah 
were destroyed, shudand ; or, khdnahd,e 

mardum khardb shid. 
the houses of this city are khdnahdye In shahr bisiydr 
very small, kuchak and; rarely, 

khdnahdye In shahr bisi- 
ydr kuchak ast. ■ 

If several nouns representing distinct classes of 
objects have a common verb, the verb will be in the 
plural, as :— 

water, fire and earth ar^ ad, dtash wa khdk az az- 
of opposite nature;^ ddd-i^yak digar and. 

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104 CONCORD OP VERBS. 

If, however, tney be of the same quality or clasSy 
the verb may be in the plural, but is usually in the 
singular, as : — 

in our garden grapes, figs, dar bagh-i^md angur wa 
and apples are not to be anjlr wa aeb ydft na ml' 
found, shavad; or, rarely, na 

mi'Shavand. 

at this season snow, rain, dar in mausim haraf wa 

hail, thunder, and light- bar an wa tagarg wa ra'd 

ning frequently come wa bark mukarrar bdham 

together, ml-dyad; or, rarely, la*- 

dyand. 

If the nouns be expressive of things which have no 
material existence ; e,g,y time, day, night, joy, grief, 
&c., the verb is usually put in the singular, as : — 
grief, joy, death, life, all gham wa ahddi wa marg 

come from God, wa zindagi Aama az 

khudd mi'dyad. 
manliness and generosity jawdn-mardl wa muruwat 

make this demand, chunln iktizd mi-kunad. 

When a numeral precedes a noun the latter does 
not require .the plural termination ; yet if the noun 
express a rational being, the verb will be in the 
plural, as : — 
ten darweshes will sleep dak darwesk dar giUme 

on one carpet, bi-khuspand, 

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CONCOKD OP VBEB8. 105 

Irrational beings and inanimate objects take the 
verb in the singular, as :-r- 

a hundred thousand horses sad hazd/r asp hdzir'sAud. 

were ready, 
there were two thousand du Aazdr ghurfa wa hazdr 

rooms and a thousand aiwdn bad. 

vestibules, 

Nouns of multitude, denoting rational beings, are 
followed by verbs in the singular or plural, according 
to the unity or plurality of the idea conceived in the 
mind of the speaker, thus : — 

to the just monarch the shdhinshdh^'ddil-rd ra- 

people is an army, ^lyat lashkar ast. 

a gang of Arab thieves td,ifa,e duzddn-i-'arab bar 

had settled on the sum- aar-i-kohe niahista bU" 

mit of a certain moun- dand. 

tain, 
the whole nation through khalke ba ta^assab bar.o 

partiality flocked to gird dmadand* 

him, 

The rule for addressing persons is as follows : — 

Among persons in the same sphere of life you is 
used. 

Between' intimate friends, either you or thou. From 
a superior to an inferior, thou ; but if the inferior be 
an independent person, it is better to use you. 

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106 GOVERNMENT OP VERBS. 

Kings are addressed in the third person singular, 
sometimes third person plural. • The phrase *^ His 
Majesty^' is used, not ^^ Your Majesty.'' Sovereigns, 
when speaking of themselves, say, "His Majesty,'* 
never " I '' or " We." In writing they use '' We." 

Great personages address eaoh other in the third 
person singular. Inferiors speak of their superiors in 
the third person singular. 

It will have been noticed that where several nouns 
have a common verb, the conjunction wa, ^^ and," is 
required. 

Sar and kama take the noun in the singular ; Aar 
takes the verb also in the singular ; Aama in the plu- 
ral, as : — 

all the people came, , Aama has dmadand. 

In speaking of exalted personages the plural verb 
is used, as : — 

if the king wishes, agar pddaAdA kabulfarmdyand. 

The verb is used in the singular, when speaking 
of God. 

Government op Verbs. 

An active verb does not, as a rule, require that its 
complement should have the sign of the accusative 
case. For example : — 
O, cup-bearer, bring a adkiyd aaghir^'sAarab bU 

goblet of wine ! ydr. 



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GOYkRmasHT of verbs. 107 

the darwesh preserved tie darweah aang-rd ba Mud 

stonein his possession, niffdA ddahU 
a certain villager had an ass, dikkdne khare ddsAt. 
the people of the garden mardumdn-ubdgh khar^rd 

used to beat the ass^ ml-zadand. 

When the accusative case is used indefinitely, rd is 
omitted. When any ambiguity would arise from its 
omission^ rd should be inserted, as : — 
the goldsmith struck the zargar najjar-rd zad. 

carpenter, 
the man slew the lion, mard aher-rd kuahU 

In these cases rd is obviously necessary. In the 
case of compound verbs, rd is never added to the 
substantive (see page 86). 

When rd is used to denote the dative case, its 
insertion is absolutely necessary, as : — 
I gave a book to that man, ^n mard-rd kitdbe dddam. 

In this case kitdbe^ the accusative, is indefinite, and 
the dative case is expressed by rd. 

When a verb governs an accusative and a dative 
case, rd cannot be used for both cases. If the accuaa- 
tive requires rd the dative will be expressed by ba. 
For example : — 
let them give the ruby to laH^-rd ba dn zan dihand. 

that woman, 
give me the book, kitdb-rd ba man bi-dih. 

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108 60VBENMENT OP VEEBS. 

When the object is in a state of construction with 
another noun or with an adjective, and from its nature 
requires rd, that termination is added to the latter 
noun or adjective. Moreover, however complex the 
sentence may be, rd should be placed at the end, as :— 
I saw Zaid the son of the 2jaid pisar-i-wazir-rd di- 

minister, dam. 

one of the kings of Khu- pake az muluh-i-khurdsdn 

rasan saw in a dream Snlidn Mahmud-i'Sa- 

Sultan Mahmud, the haMagm-rd hakhwdh 

son of Sabaktagin, did, 

they sent forward several tane cAand az marddn-i- 

individuals from among wdki^a dlda wa jang 

men who nad seen ser- azmuda-rd hi-firistdd- 

vice and had expe- and. 

rienced war, 

The termination rd is often used in the sense, ^^in 
respect of,^' as : — 
they relate a story with re- zdlime-rd hihdyat Icunand, 

gard to a certain tyrant, 
I have heard of a darwesh, darweshe-rd ahunlda am. 

After a generic noun, used generically, rd is omit- 
ted,* as: — 

* Generic nouns may be used in three ways : definitely, 
indefinitely, and generically. Thus we may say either 
the man, the bird ^ a man, a bird ; or man, bird, with 
reference to the entire species. 



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GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 109 

Greediness brings both doer drad tamof murgh wa 

bird and fish into the mdhi ba band. 

net, 

The rd is equivalent to the definite article ^' the^' 
used definitely, and is, therefore, omitted after generic 
nouns. 

If, however, the noun is in construction with ki, the 
noun is considered definite, and rd must be added, 
as: — 
bring, O Sufi,, the cup Siffl biydr hi d^ina sdfast 

which is pure as a Jdm-rd. 

mirror, 

In the old Persian writers the accusative is formed 
by prefixing the particle mar to the noun, as : — 
I saw the man, mar mard-rd dldam. 

The particle rd is sometimes used in the sense of 
of the genitive, as : — 

Zaid^s head, Zaid-rd sar. 

a certain person had lost yalte-rd dil dz dost rafta 
his heart, hud. 

When an indefinite noun occurs at the commence- 
ment of a sentence rd is required, as : — 

I saw a holy man, pdrsdye-rd didam. 

Sometimes rd is omitted, as : — 

I had a companion^ raflke ddsktam. 



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110 GOVBENMEKT OP VERBS. 

The pronoims and the Arabic word fiildn, '' such a 
take rdf as : — 



I saw fchce, tii»rd dJidam. 

I saw such an one, fuldn-rd didam, 

such a person has eon- fuldn shakhs khud-rd pin- 
cealed himself, hdn karda ast. 

The rd is always used in the case of specific nouns, 

as : — 

Zaid struck Omar, Zaid ' Vmr-rd zad. 

The pronominal suffixes reject rd^ as : — 

I said to him, guftam-oAh. 

Sometimes rd is used, as " Gulistan/' book iii. 
tale 8 :— 
(one of the sages) prohibi- pisar-ashrrd nahi kard az 

ted his son from eating hisii/dr khurdan, 

too much, 

Again, Firdiisi^s " Shah-nama^' : — 

he gave arms and money aildh wa dirham ddd laah-^ 
to his army, kat'dsh-rd. 

When an entire phrase is used in apposition to a 
noun, rd is placed at the end of the phrase, as : — 

I saw ^Ali (may Allah be ^AU {raziyu^l-ldh ^anhv) 
pleased with him !) in a rd ha khwdb dldam. 
dream, 

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GOVEENMENT OP VBEBS. Ill 

When an adjective is placed in apposition to a noun^ 
rd is added to the noun^ as : — 

I saw a tyrant asleep^ zdlime-rd khufta didam. 

The verbs bdyistan, to be necessary ; sAdyistan, to be 
fit; tawdnistan, to be able; are used impersonally, 
as: — 

it is necessary to do^ bdpad hard. 

it is proper to say, skdyad guft. 

one may do, tawdnad hard 

The root of tawdnistan is more frequently used, 
as: — 

one may do, tawdn hard. 

Some impersonal verbs take a nominative of cog- 
nate meaning, as :— 

it rains, ha/rdn mi-idrad. 

Cr*ad sadd ml-zanad; or, 
it thunders, J j^ad ml-ghurad. 

[tundar mlHundad, 
it lightens, hark mi-darakhshad. 

Two tenses of the Potential Mood, present and past, 
can be formed by adding the contracted infinitive to 
the aorist and preterite of the verb tawdnistan^ " to 
beable'^:— 

I am able to go, tawdnam raft 

I was able to go, tawdniatam raft. 

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112 GOVERNMENT OP VEBBS. 

The verb khwdstaUy *'to desire/' is similarly used, 
as:— 

I will go, khpaham raft. 

If the infinitive precede the governing verb, it takes 
the full form, as : — 

I cannot do this deed. In kdr Tear dan na ml-ta' 

todnatn. 

When the infinitive and its governing verb are 
separated by an intervening clause, the full form is 
used, as : — 

it does not become persons dbnd^e jim-i-mdrd na skd-^ 

of our sort, in the pre- yad dar hu^srat-i-pad- 

sence of kings, to speak %hdhdn juz ha rdsli 

other tiian the truth, aukhan gufian. 

Often after kkwdstan, sAdpiatan, bdyistan, and ta- 
wdnistan, the present subjunctive with the particle ki 
is used, instead of the infinitive, as : — 

I wish to go, ml'khwdham hi bUravam, 

it is proper that I should ahdyad ki di-Mwdnam. 
read, 

This construction is sometimes necessary, for the 
sentence turd hdyad zad might stand for — **I must 
strike you,'* or " you must strike/' 

The infinitive is often used as a verbal noun, in 

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THE T£NS£S. 113 


which case the noun which follows is put in the geni- 


tive, as : — 




from the arrival of spring 


az dmadan4'baAdr, az rqf- 


and the departure of 


tan4'daij aurdk-i-^' 


winter the leaves of our 


ydt 'i-md mi- gardad 


lives are folded. 


tai.^ 


The Tenses. 


After verbs signifying '' 


to command/^ " to order,'' 


the perfect tense is used to 


imply that the order given 


was immediately carried out, as : — , 


the king gave orders to 


pddsJiah farmUd td o-rd 


put him into prison, 


dar zinddn nihddand» 


the sage commanded that 


I^Hm farmud td ghu- 


they should throw the 


Idmrfd ha daryd anddkh- 


hoy into the sea. 


tand. 


If the fiilfilment of the order was not immediate^ 


the present subjunctive is used, as : — 


(the king) commanded 


bi-farmvd ki musdrc^at iu- 


them to wrestle. 


nand. 


he gave orders so that they farmud id ustdd-rd khiVat 


bestowed a robe of ho- 


ni'mat dddand. 


nour and a reward on 




the master. 




• To become rolled up 


; to close, tfli gardidan. 
8 



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] 14 THE TENSES. 

In narration^ when a second verb occurs after a 
verb in the preterite, the present, or aorist, is used, 
as : — 

the young tiger saw that palang hachcha did ki id" 
he has not the power kat ^ i » mnkdtoanuxt na 
of resisting. ddrad. 

In recounting a conversation the very words of the 
speaker are used, as : — 

9atim told her that he Hdtim o-rd gvfb H na 
would not eat, khwdham khurd. 



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( 115 ) 




SECTION IL 


COM 


POSITION OF SENTENCES. 


Lesson 1. 




Substantives. 


man. 


inard; ddam; mardum; insdn. 


father, 


jpadar ; wdlid ; ab ; abu ; (paieots) 




wdltdain. 


husband, 


shaiihar ; zauj ; ihasm. j 


brother, 


barddar; ajch. ' 


son, or child. 


pisar; walad ; (child) ttfl; ibn. 


boy. 


kodak; jf(/Z, (plur.) aJf/S/ ; bachcha. 


anunal. 


jdnwdr ; jdnwar ; haiwdn-i-gbflir ndlik ; 




(beast of prey) naMcAlr; (wild beast) 




wahah, tplur.) tmthush. 


horse, 


asp; markab ; faras. 


house,. 


JsMna; kad; buJCa; makdm ; mdkdn ; 




bait; maskin ; ma,wd; (hut) kulba; 




(building) Hmdrat; (palace) mahall. 


pen, 


kalam. 


dog. 


sag; kalb. 


elephant, 


r^hpii. 


woman. 


zan; (married lady) Mdtun; (lady of 




rank) begam. 


mother. 


mddar; wdlida. 


wife, 


zan; zauja. 


sister. 


1 ' iliwdhar (elder). 
\ ^ hamshtra (younger). 


daughter, 


duMktar; sahlya. 


girl, 


duihtarak ; zan-i'Shabdb. 


1 thing, 


chiz ; shot (plur.) ashii/d. 


1 mare. 


mddiydn. 


1 table, 


mez. 

__ __ r^ J 



116 



OF ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES, 



book, kiti^ ; daftar ; jarldat 

fox, riibdh, 

cow, mddah gdw; (cattle) hakar or mawdahu 

Adjectives, 
good, khuh ; nek ; bih ; taiyah ; nafia. 

bad, wicked, bad ; ihfirdb ; Midbls ; fdhish ; f&sid. 
p:reat, large, kaldn ; buzurg ; *azlm ; azam ; kabir. 
little, small, ihurd ; ibipdr ; kotah (cad, pr kdsir had 

(stature). 
lazy, 8U8t ; tamhal, 

wise, ddnd; *aklmand; ddnishmand; zakl ; 

khiradmand. 
ignorant, ndddn ; nd fahm ; jdhil ; nd khwdnda, 

swift, tez; chust; chdldk ; tezrau; chdbuk. 

high, lofty, buland; *dlt. 

handsome, Hiub-surat ; hasln; zebd; marghfib; khush 

shakl; ijiush haikal; kabul-surat ; 

Jamil ; wajth, 
ugly, bad'Surat ; bad haikal ; zisht ; karxhu-U 

» manzar ; taVat-i-nd-mauzun ; shaklU' 

l-maVun; kabih-surat; nd khush taVaU 

EXAMPLES. 

In barddar-i-man asL 
an pisarat ast. 
in ihdnahd,e eshdn and, 
in ihdna,e padaram ast, 
dn ctsp-i-barddar-i-^tu ast] 

or [^tust]. 
in rnddar-i'dn mard ast, 
dn ihwdharat asL 
asp-i'ihwdharat tezrau ast, 
in kalam bisiydr khub ast 
dn kitdb bisiydr khub asL 

( zan-i'kotah'kad ast, 

\ zanak ast 
padar-i'O buzurg bud. 



this is my brother, 
that is your son, 
these are their houses, 
this is my father's house, 
that is your brother's horse, 

this is that man's mother, 
that is your sister, 
thy sister's horse is swift, 
this pen is very good, 
that is a very good book, 

she is a little woman, 

his father was a great man, 



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OF COMPABISON. 



117 I 



your sister was very hand 
some. 



khwdhar - 1 - <« mah-^ash 

bud, 
ihwdhar - i-tu mdh'tatat 

bud, 
ibwdharat bisiydr marghub 
bud. 
my brother's horses were aspdn-i-barddaram nihdyat 

extremely swift, tez-rafidr biidand, 

their children's books were kitdhhd^ebachchagdn'i'eshdn 
very good, bUiydr Mkub budand. 

Exercise, — ^I am that man's brother. This woman is 
my brother's daughter. That boy is my brother's son. 
This is my sister's book. That man is this boy's father. 
These houses are very lofty. That girl's mother was 
very wise.' Your father's horse was very swift. My 
brother's children are handsome. My sister's daughters 
are very good girls. That man's brother's wife was a 
very ignorant woman. That was a very handsome 
woman. This boy is very lazy. These girls are very 
lazy. These women w^re excessively ugly. The man's 
horses were very small. They are very bad husbands. 
She is a bad wife. They are very bad wives. 



Lesson 2. 
examples. 

the elephant is larger than ftl az asp haldn-tar ast. 

the horse, 
the fox is smaller than the rubdh az sag Mturd-tar asU 

dog, 
the horses are swifter than aspdn az fildn tezravrtar 

the elephants, and. 

ffil az hamajdnwdrdn buzurg 
the elephant is the largest j ast. 



animal of all, 



j fil buzurgtarin-i'hcmia ini 
V. tvdndt ast. 



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118 



OP INTERROGATIVES. 



the elephant, the horse, and 
the dog, are wiser than 
all other animals, 



( fll^ asp, sag az ama jd w- 

wardn-i'digar ddnd^tar 

and. 
]fily asp, o kalh az Kama 

haiwdndt-i'digar zakd" 

wat'tar ddrand. 



Exercise. — The cow is mora lazy than the horse. 
These men are more wicked than dogs. The boys are 
more ignorant than the girls. The horses and the dogs 
ar^ handsomer than the elephants. My pen is better 
than your pen. This boy is wiser than that boy. My 
father's horse is swifter than your brother's mare. Our 
dogs are swifter than your horses. The men are worse 
than the women. The fox is wiser than the dog. This 
pen is the worst of all (worse than all). This woman is 
the handsomest of all (more handsome than all). That 
girl was much wiser than her mother. She was the 
wisest of all the girls (wiser than all the girls). 



Lesson 3. 



EXAMPLES. 



who is that man ? 
who is this woman ? 

who are these boys ? 

who are those girls ? 
whose house is this ? 
whose children are these ? 
whose books are these ? 
whose daughter is she ? 
where is my father ? 
where is his brother ? 
where are your father's 
horses ? 



5- 



an ddam hist ? 
%n iidtun kist ? 
in kodakdn klstand? 
m atfdl klstand? 
dn duJsJktardn klstand? 
In ihdna,e Hst ? 
In hachchagdn-i-klstand ? 
In kitdbhd,e klstand ? 
duUttar-i-klst ? 
padaram kujd ast ? 
barddarash kujd ast ? 
aspdn-i-padar-i'Shumd kujd 
and? 



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OF INTEREOGATIVES. 119 

where are my brother's hitdbhd^e hachchagdn-i-har- 

children's books ? ddar-i-man kujd and ? 

where may be that man's mddiydn-v-mddar'i'dn ddam 

mother's mare ? kujd bdshad? 

is this your house ? dt/d, in Mkdna^e shumd cist ? 

was that my father's horse ? dydy an asp-i-padar-i-man 

bud? 

may this be my sister's dt/d, mez'i'ibwdhar'i'man 

table? hdshad? 

how many pens will there chand l^alamhd kbwdhand 

be? bud? 

what-like books will they kitdbhd,e chi kism ihvpdhand 

be? bud? 

Exercise, — Where is your brother? Where is this 
man's mother ? Whose son are you ? Whose horses 
are these ? How many houses are there ? What sort 
of book is this ? Is that your sister's table ? Is this 
pen yours ? Where had you been yesterday ? Where 
will these children be to-morrow ? When will you be 
at home (in the house)?. Was your fkther at home 
yesterday ? Will your brother be at home to-morrow ? 
Were my two books on the table yesterday ? Where 
are his four sons ? Have his three daughters been at 
home ? Were there seven horses there yesterday ? Will 
there be eight men in the house three days hence ? Were 
there five or six dogs there two days ago ? What ia 
this thing ? What animals are these ? Is that animal 
a horse or a cow ? 

Lesson 4. 

day, roz ; yaum. 

city, shahr; balad (i^lur. bildd). 

( daryd ; rUd-khdna. 
^"^^^^ I (canal) nahr. 
forest, besha; bddiya; (desert) daaht; sdlfrd; bi- 

ydhdn kd*-t'basit, 
a plain, maiddn^ 



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120 


OP INTRANSITIVE VERBS. 


water, 


db; (drinking) dh-i-zuldl; (dirty) dh't-mukad- 




dar, or manjal db ; (iced) ab-i-yaik. ; (pure) 




saUaUl 


; (impurity of) kadurat; (purity of) 




^uzubat 


; (boiling) db-i-ddgh.; (warm) db- 




i-malul ; 


• (still) ^'i-ihufia; (running) db- 




i-rawdn 


. 


fish, 


mdht; samak. \ 


street, 


kucha. 




night. 


shab; tail 


, 


a boat. 


mdshuya ; 


zaurak ; safina ; hishtX^e Jchurd, 


a tree. 


daraiht ; 
shdih. 


shajar ; (young) nihdl ; (branch) 


a road. 


rah; rah; 


(high) shdh-rdK; shdrC : jdda. 


fruit, 


mewd ; bar ; samar (plur.) asrndr, \ 


bird, 


paranda ; 


murgh ; t^iir (plur.) j(wy»r. 


name. 


ndm; ism. 




people, 


ahl; ins; 


insdn; haiwdn-i-ndtik. 




Intransitive Verbs. 


to stay, dwell, 


' mdndan. 

[ manzil ddshtan ; adkin bUdam. 


to come. 




dmadan. 


to go, 




rafian. 


to run. 




daimdan; pdyidan. 
C JshwdbidarL 


to sleep. 




(. ihushidan. 


to arrive. 




rasidan ; wdrid or wurud shudan, 
Cjdri shudan. 


to flow. 




< rawdn shudan. 
( sail-i-db shudan. 


to proceed 


» advance. 


pesh rafian ; muhaddam shudan, 
(pas pa shudan. 


to retreat, fall back, 


< 'akab dmadan. 






(. mutadkib shudan. 


to sit. 




ntshastan. 


to return. 




bdz or pas gashtan. 



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OF INTRANBITITE TERBS. 



121 



to die, 



/ murdan, 
I wafat yaftan, 

ha jahan-i-bdki raftan. 

tntikal kardan. 

(ready) hajdn amadan. 



EXAMPLES. 



I am staying in the eity. 



my father dwells in that 
house, 

we came from the forest 
yesterday, 

we will go to the city to- 
morrow^ 

the bird was sitting on the 
tree, 

where are you going ? 

whence does this riverflow? 



do these men sleep in the 
city? 

where does this road lead^ 
to (go to) ? \ 

is the fish in that river 

very iarge ? 
who were those that were 

sitting underneath the 

tree? 

Exercise. — The forest near the city is very large. 
How many men are sleeping beneath the tree ? The 
road towards the forest is not very good. The horses 



man dar ehahr ml'manam. 
man dar shahr manzil m»- 

daram. 
man dar shahr mhunat 

[paziram'], [ml-ddram.l 
padaram dar an [M^na] 

tashrif mi - ddrand. 

[^manziL'] 
di ruz az besha ma dmadem, 

md farda ha ahahr khwdhem 

raft, 
mu rg h hdld^e ahakh-i'da' 

raiht mi^ishast. 
kujd mp-raved? 
az kujd In [daryd rawdn 

ast] ? \rud - khAna mi - 

ravad^ 
%n mardumdn dar shahr mi- 

ihwdhand ? 
' in rdh ha-kuddm jd sar mi- 

kashad? 
. in rdh ha-kujd mi-rasad ? 
dar an daryd mdhiydn hi- 

siydr huzurg and ? 
dndn kistand ki zer-i-da- 

raiht nishasta hudand ? 



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Google 



122 



OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



were running from the plain. The water flows from 
the river into the city. In that forest there were many 
large trees. The boats on the river are coming towards 
the city. How many boats are there ? There will be 
250 hoi*ses on the plain to-morrow. There were 2500 
men on the large plain near the city yesterday. A 
hundred and fiffy men have retreated from the river 
towards the forest. The horses are dying on the plain, 
and a hundred men died yesterday within the city. That 
man stayed nine days in my house. I slept one night in 
the forest, but I will not sleep there a second night. 
The water is flowing from the river into the streets of 
the city. The men are advancing towards the city. The 
fruit on these trees is very good. Where do all these 
people come from ? What is the name of that city ? 
What is the name of that river which flows from the 
forest ? What is the name of the street in which you 
dwelt ? The people were sitting beneath the trees. 
When did you an'ive in this city ? When will you 
return home ? 

Lesson 5. 

Substantives. 

oready nan. 

butter, tnaaka; kara; zuhdaU 

wine, shardh; mat; hada; sahbd ; (fermented 

liquor) Hiamr. 
tea, chd or chd,e ; (urn) samdwar. 

breakfast, (very early) ndshta; (between 11 and 

12) nahdr; (about noon) cAa^A^ 
dinner, shdm; tadm-i'Skdm ; (food) khurish ; 

khordk ; ghizd ; dshdm ; ma^ishat. 
knife, kdrd; (penknife) chdku. 

fork, changdl. 

meat, gosht ; (cold meat) goshtt-skctbina or 

gosht't-sard ; gosht-i-shabrndnda. 
milk, shir ; (cream) sar-i-shir ; zabd, 

rice (boiled), (raw) birinj ; (cooked) chaldw^ 



\ 



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OF TRANSITIVE YERBS. 123 

plate, bushkdb ; - rikdb ; tahdk ; (large) kd^ ; 

(cover) sar posh-i-kab, 
spoon, kdshugh. 

sugar, shakar, kandy nab at; (sugar-cane) not- 

shakar ; (loaf) kulla,e kand ; (refined) 

kand^i-mukarrar. 
a letter, khatt ; rukda ; risdlat ; (royal) ndma ; 

(official) kliatt-i'Sarkdr ; (private) 

khatt-i-khdnagi. 
news, khahar ; akhbdr ; €ldm. 

Adjectives. 

clean,sq/^* pdk; pdJnza;naztf 
pure, ittdlis; mah^; jchulus 
ready, taiydr; muhaiyd 



cold,«arc?; (intense) ^am^art 
hot, garm ; hdrr 

sweet, shirin 



Verbs. 

. . C shindundan. 

' \ shtndw kardan. 

to bring, dwardan, 

to make (prepare), j f ^.^«^- z • - i. ^ 

\r r y> ^ tatyar or muhaiya kardan, 

to eat, iirurdan, 

. J . t_ C khurdan. 

to drink, t««;MAida«. 

to eat and diink, akl wa sharbfarmudan, 

to make, do, kardan, 

to place, put, nihddan. 

C burdan, 
to take away, \ bar ddshtan. 

(. bar giriftan. 
to call, talabtdan* 

to learn, dmokhtan. 

( dddan. 
^ . ^ 3 bakh^htdan. 

^ * y 'indyat kardan. 

\ *aia kardan; arzdnl ddshtan. 



--^' 



124 OF THANSITIVE VERBS. 

Cguftan, 
to say, tell, < harf zadan. 

(. sukhan gujian, 
/ dldan. 

to see, look, \ ^^^^^a hardan. 

I mu aiyana kardan, 

V muldhaza hardan. 

^shunldan; isgid kardan. 
xq i^ J shunudan ; gosh hardan. 

* y shinuftan. 

\i8tima namUdan, 

to strike, P^t"-^ 

( zaro zadan. 

to read, Ichtpdndan. 

to write, nawishtan ; rakam or tah- 

rlr hardan^ 
to take, girtftan ; (seize) daat dar 

girehdn zadan. 

EXAMPLES. 

be is bringing bread, o nan mt-drad. 

we drink water, . ( »»! !*-:«*'"4 '«r**«'T' 

( ma ab'i'zulal mt-naushem. 

they drink wine, eshdn shardb ml-naushand. ! 

my brother will drink cold harddaram dh-i-sard o sdf \ 

pure water, iiyodhad khurd. | 

make tea, j ^(^^ f^^^f^ ^'^''' \ 

I cha oi'Saz. 

bring a spoon, hdshugke hiydr. I 

give me some meat, kadre gosht mard bt-dth. \ 

bring a knife and fork, hdrde o changdle biydr. I 

make breakfast ready, nahdr taiydr bi-hun. i 

bring a clean plate, bushkdb'i-sdf biydr. ! 

when will you get dinner hai shdm-rdihwdheddward? 

ready ? 

will you drink wine ? shardb ihtpdhed MkVrd ? 

what will you eat ? chi l&k^dhed Murd ? 



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OP TRANSITIVE YERBS. 125 

Exercise, — ^Do you eat any fruit ? Bring me some 
* tea, sugar, and milk. Put a knife and fork on the table 
for my father. Cool (make cold) some wine for us. 
Prepare dinner for six people. You will bring ns some 
rice and milk. Will you give me some wine and some 
cold water, that I may drink ? Do you drink tea ? Will 
your brother drink wine ? Bring us three knives, three 
forks, three spoons, and three clean plates. He reads 
very good books. He writes a letter to me every day. 
She was writing letters when I came to her house. He 
hears good news of him. We were reading their letters 
when they arrived. Tell us all the news of the city. 
I will tell you the news of the city when I return. Give 
us some bread and butter. 

Lesson 6. 

• examples. 

put the water on the table, ab-rd bar mez [bi-nih']. 

[^bi-guzdr,^ 

C shakar-rd [bar ddr], [bar 
take away the sugar, < gir.^ 

( kand-rd bi-bar, 
give me the wine, shardb-rd ba-man bi-dih, 

clean (make clean) the plate, bushkdb-rd sdf bi-kun. 
cool the water, db-rd sard bi'kun. 

Exercise, — The dog is drinking the milk. They were 
putting the water on the table. Who has taken away 
the sugar ? He is cleaning the plate. They are cooling 
the water. Take away the meat and put the wine on 
the table. Put the water near me on this table. The 
dogs will drink the water. Beat (or strike) that idle 
boy. He was eating the sugar and drinking the wine. 
I shall see him to-morrow. We shall see them to-day in 
the city. If they see us here, they will beat us very 
much. We shall not see that man, if we remain in this 
house* 



dbyGoUX^^ 



126 of transitive verbs. 

Lesson 7. 
examples. 

^0 bar mez tadm-i'lshub nU 
he has placed good food \ Jidda asU 

upon the table, 1 o bar mez khurtah-i-nafis 

\ guzdshta aat. 
she has made tea, an zan chd taiydr karda ast 

mj &ther has drunk all padardm tamdm shardb-rd 

the wine, ihurda ast. 

we drank cold water, ma db-i-sard Mky^rdem, 

who has eaten the rice ? birinj-rd hi khurda ast ? 

he called all the servants o hama naukardn-rd anda^ 

into the house, run-uihdna ialalnd. 

we had given very good md mardumdn-rd bisiydr 

bread to the men, ' khub ndn ddda budem. 

the women ate bread and zandn ndn o shir khurdand. 

drank milk, 

Exercise, — Have you learned the Persian language ? 
I have read a few pages. Have you seen the city of 
Teheran ? You have made the voyage of the sea, what 
wonders did you see there ? I may say what one of the 
sages said, " The wonder that I saw on the sea was this, 
— that I came safe to land.'' How much money have 
your friends given you ? My &ther gave me an order 
for one thousand nipees. How much did you give to 
the man ? How many rupees did he demand of you ? 
He demanded ten rupees, and I gave him three rupees 
and a half. Have you prepared breakfast ? Have you 
prepared a good dinner for two people ? Have you put 
the bread on the table ? 

Lesson 6. 
to be able, tawdmstan ; root tawdn. 

EXAMPLES. 

C zabdn-t-md ml-tawdnad 
he can (or is able to) speak j guft. 

our language, j o zabdn-'i-md guftdn mt-tO' 

\ wdnad. 

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OP VERBS. 



127 



' shumd nawishta,e mard 

Jcjiwandan ml-tawdned ? 
daat-i'khatt'i-inan khwdn' 

dan mtrtawdned ? 
8iwd,e shumd kase In-rd 

khwdndan na khwdhad 

tawdnisL * 

kadre dar zahdn-i-inglisl ml" 

tawdnad harf zad, 
' eshdn az khurdan fdrigh 

shuda and. 
I eshdn az tandwuUi'tja dm 

parddkhta and. 
eshdn-rd az tandwuUi'tddm 

Jard g hat hdsil shud. 
^ shumd az nawishtan Jurigh 

shuda ed ? 
^ dar hin't-rasidan-i-many 

eshdn az ihwdndan fdrigh 

shuda budand. 
wakte hi man rasidam e- 

shdn, &c. 
ha^mujarrad - 1 - rasidan - 1 - 

man^ eshdn, &c. 

Exercise, — When he had done writing the letter, then 
I came away from the house. When you come (t. e. shall 
come) here to-morrow, I shall have done reading the 
hook. Can you swim across this river ? I cannot swim 
at all, but my brother is an excellent swimmer. So great 
was the darkness that I could not see anything. The 
ruler of this village cannot speak English, but he can 
speak Persian well. I hope I shall be able to learn 
the language of this country in the space of six months. 

* " Come punctually," wakt-i- [mauOda'] hiyd. [mdhUd ; 
mnCaiyan.'\ 



are you able to read my 
writing ? 

no one will be able to read 
this but yourself, 

he can speak a little 
English, 



they have done eating, 



have you done writing r 



they had done reading when 
I arrived there, 



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128 OF VEHBS. 

Lesson 9. 
to rise, ihastan, root ihfiz. 

to begin, giriftan. „ glr, 

to allow [dadan. „ dih. 

' Xguzdshtan, „ guzar. 

EXAMPLES. 

he arose and began to say, o bar JcMst wa guftan girift, 

they began to read, eshan khwandan giriftand. 

you began to eat, shumd khurdan gtrifted. 

he allows them to come dar Jchana eshdn-ra ijazat't- 

into the house, dmadan dihad. 

i«* u;«, «« ( o-^« raftan bi-dih, 

let him ff o, < - » • - 7 • i • J 

° (. o-ra bi-guzar kt bi-ravad. 

he IS allowea to come, ■< t. ^ • - j -a 

( o rukhsat-i-amadanyafta asL 

he will allow us to do what harchi md mi-ihwdhem, o 

we like, rdwd ddrodki rndbi-kunem. 

Exercise, — He sat down, and began to tell this story. 
One man began to say, I shall not be able to eat this 
bread. Another began to say, I will not allow the 
children to read these books. He will give you leave to 
walk in this beautiful garden every day. My father 
is allowed to go to Shiraz on account of transacting 
(making) business. Go to my brother's house, present 
to him my compliments, and biing home my saddle. 
Strip off your clothes, swim across this river, and bring 
itie boat to this side. 

Lesson 10. 

examples. 

he is in the habit of read- (^ ^f'' sabdyddaUi-ik^dnr 

dan darad. 



t 



iDg every mornmg, ) , ,_, .,,. , 

° •' ° \ o har sabah mi-kkwanad* 

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OF VERBS. 129 

^ har ruz ckize mashk-i- 
he is in the habit of writing \ nawishtan ddrad. 

something every day, j o har ruz chtze 'ddat-i-na- 
(^ wishtan ddrad, 
he used always to give o hamesha ^hagird-ra *ddat' 
(make) this injunction to i-tdkid rnhkard. 
the scholar^ 

/* man zabdn-i'/drst dmokhtan 
I wish to learn the Persian \ mi^ihwdham. 

language, i mard arzu^e amoihtan-i- 

V. zahdn^i-fdrst ast. 
what do you wish to say ? kuddm sukhan guftan ml' 

kliwdhed ? 
I wish to write a letter, M^itjt nawxBhtan mt-ilLfpdk' 

am* 

Exercise. — I am accustomed every day to rise at the 
dawn. He is in the habit of dining every day at two 
o'clock. We make it a practice to read three hours in 
the morning. I wish very much to learn the language 
of this country. Do you wish to read this book ? It is i 
necessary to learn the Arabic language in order to speak | 
and understand well the Persian. It is desirable to 
know the language of the country in which you are | 
dwelling. 

LES.SON 11. 
EXAMPLES. ! 

^ an ddam-rd ki kusht ? 
who killed that man? < kuddm kas katl-i-dn ddam 

(. karda ast. 
he has placed all the things o hama chtzhd bar mez 
on the table, . [nihdda'] asL [jguzdshta,^ 

lay mj watch on the shelf, saat-i-man har tdk \h%- 

guzdr'\, [6t-wift.] 
9 



130 



OF VERBS. 



dinner, 
write a. letter for me, 

he has cut down all 
trees in the garden, 



Keshan tamam shani'^d hi'l- 
they have eaten up all the \ hull kikvrda and. 

j eshdn sham tamdm tandwul 
[^ karda and. 
az bard,e man UtiaUfi ^*" 
nawis, 
r tamdm darajcht hi dar hdgh 
the J ast, burida ast, 

J hama darakhthd^e hagh^rd 
\ munkatV karda aaU 

Exercise. — ^Put all the things on the table. That man 
has killed my companion. Has he written out the two 
letters, as I told him ? The king said to the soldier, 
Cut off this man's head in my presence. Throw out the 
water from this basin. They all spoke out, saying. We 
will not sit down in your house unless you make an 
apology for this conduct. His father, mother, brothers, 
and sisters have all died. The goat has smashed the 
looking-glass with his horns. He has lost a great sum 
of money (very many rupees) in gambling. You will 
sit down in this room until I return from the king's 
audience (darbdr). The dog has eaten uo the whole of 
the butter. Who has cut down that fine wfee ? 



Lesson 12. 
examples. 



I read my book, 



thou readest thy book, 
he reads his (own) book, 



man kitdb'i-iliud''rd mi- 
' khwdnam. 
' til kitdb ' i ' Mmdat mi- 

khwdni. 
tu kitdb - t - Mud mp- 

khwdni. 
kitdb ' i " Jchndaah mi- 
ihv^dnad. 



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RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS. 131 

she reads her (own) book, an zan kitdb-i'Tckud-rd mi- 

khtodnad. 
we have seen onr father, md jot£?ar-t-[M«c?] dida em. 

[ichyd't-mdn.'] 
have you written your shumd khatt-i'khud'rd na- 

letter ? wiahta ed ? 

the goldsmith and carpenter zargar o [najjdr'] ha shahr- 
went to their (own) city, t- kh^d - i-shdn raftand, 

[^darrudgar.'] 
the women feed their (own) zandn hachchagdn-i-khud'i' 
children, shdn mi-parwarand. 

Exercise. — Did you see your father yesterday ? Bring 
your dogs here to-morrow, that we may go a-hunting. 
Wait in this room till I shall have done writing my 
letter to your master. Give my compliments to your 
master and say that Mr. F. is not at home. Why do you 
beat your servants in that manner ? In my country 
every man considers his own house as his castle. My 
friend is gone to his native country for the benefit of his 
health. The judge said to the plaintiff, Go and take 
your money from the woman. The plaintiff came back 
and said, Sir, I cannot get my money from this woman. 

Lesson 13. 

examples. 

where did you find this dog- in jdnwar ki najis misal-i- 

like, unclean animal ? sag ast kujd ydfted ? 

„ „• ^ iM ^ _^ , f misal-i-shumd ddnd. 

a wise man like you, ■<,■,-,-,__ 

•^ ( hamcnu shuma dmia. 

what-likeanimalsarethese? \ *" ^^^''^} "*? 'T- T^^^ , 

( znjanwaran misal-t-ki and ? 

he took up a very large o sange hisiydr kaldn bar 

stone, ^ ddsht. 

a fine-looking stag came in dhu^e Jslmsh manzar ha 

Bight, na^,ar dmad. 



- d^ 



132 EXFKESSIONS OF SIMILITUDE. 

^ zart't'Siyak mtsal-i'dew, 
a black woiDan like an \ zan-i-siydh misal-i-gMl* 
ogress, 1 zan-i'Btydh miscd-i'ifriU 

\zan'i'8iydh misal-i'jinn, 

Exercise. — Her face was fair as the moon, her eyebrows 
, were like a bow, and her hair {lit. hairs) black as night. 
Her form was straight as the cypress, her lips red as the 
kanduri (a beautiful red flower), and her feet delicate as 
the flower of the lotus. She was beautiful as ZulaiTchd^ 
and faithful as LaiR. The young prince was handsome 
as Yumf, The king was wise as Sulaimdn, just as 
Nauskirwdn, liberal as Hdtimy and brave as Bustam, 



Lesson 14. 

* 

to drink, naush-t-jdn farmudan, 

to come, tashrtf dwardan. 

to have an mclination for, Hkwdstan mail kardan, or 

mail ddshtan ; md,il 

shudan. 

iman mail-i-db ml-kunarrt, 
man ab-ra mail m-karum. 
man do mt-ihtpaham. 
man ba ah [rnaile ddram"]. 
^ \riid,il mt'Bhavam.'\ 

examples. ' 

C man ]chud o^rd "khwdham did. 
I shall see him myself, \ man ihvdam o^d khwdham 

( e?Mf.* 

C an zaniiud ihtpdhad dmad f 
will she herself come ? \dn zan kivudash ihwdhad 

i, dmad ? ^ 

* These forms are rarely used. 

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RESPECTFUL FORMS OF ADDRESS. 



133 



(shumd ih^dfarda Hwdhed 
will 70U come yourself to- j dmad ? 
morrow ? / shumd khud-i'tdn farda 

\ JchwdTied dmad ? ^ 
will you, sir, come to- shumd khyd tashrtf Jchwdhed 



morrow ? 



award ? 



how is the health of your f ^^^^y-^i^^^i^ 



honour ? 



will you, 
wine ? 



sir, drink any 



shmnd ihud kadre skardb 
naush'i-jdn Jchwdhed far- 
mud, 
jandb khud mail-i'Shardh 
kbwdhand farmud, 
(jandb'i'dli ha kursi tashrtf 
may it please monsieur to\ bt-ddred? 

sit down, 1 hismi'l'ldh hi-farmdyed (at 

V the time of eating). 

^ mizdj - 1 'jandb - i - *dli b a 
how is the health of your \ ihatrtt/at ast ? 

highness ? 1 mizdj - 1 -jandb - 1 - *ald ba 

V ^dfiyat ast ? 

Exercise. — ^I am going there myself this n&tj day. 
Will you come yourself to-morrow ? If he himself 
cannot give the money, perhaps his brother will be able 
to advance it for him. We do not wish to appear our- 
selves in this business. I am your worship's faithful 
slave. I have sought for the child in your honour's 
garden. Your worship's (master's) dinner is ready. 
Master's palki {yulg. palanquin) is now at the door. 
You, sir, are my father and mother ; there is no one in 
the world, except your honour, who will assist your poor 
miserable slave. Where is the native country of your 
highness ? Will your majesty ride on the white elephant 
to-day ? 

* This form is rarely used. 



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134 



USB OP THB INFINITIVB. 



Lksson 15. 
bxamplbs. 

/ tU'Td ha 



you must go home, 



\ raftan hdyad. 



khnnayB Hmd 



I must buy a good horse, 

do not commit such folly, 
do not go to that country, 



I do not now intend to go 
to Persia, 



hat/ad ki tu ha khanate Jchud 
V. hi-ravu 
az hard,e khvd asp-i-kiub 
mard hdyad khaihd. 
C chunin himdkat ma kun, 
< dar chunin hddiyaye zaldlat 
(^ ma rau, 
haddn mulh ma rau, 
ilhdl ha Iran irdda,e rafta% 

na mirddram, 
hdlan mard irdda ha raftan^ 

i-irdn ntst, 
aknun man irdda^e raftan- 

i-ajam na ddram. 
ilhdl az hard^e rafian-i-fdrs 
irdda na ddram. 
Exercise, — We must not do evil to th^ end that good 
may result. That wounded soldier must not eat so much 
fruit You must read three pages of this bck)k every 
day. Do not speak more nonsense. Never strike your 
horse on the head. Do not strike your dog in that 
manner. Do not drink any of the foul water of that 
river. When do you intend going to Europe ? He is 
about to travel in Persia (Fdrs), Arabia ('Araft), and 
Turkey {Bum). She does not mean to remain in this 
country after the cold season. The officers do not intend 
to go to the tiger-hunt. 

Lesson 16. 
Use of the Relative. 

EXAMPLES. 

that which you say is all dnchi shumd mi-goyed, hama 
true, rdst aaU 



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USE OF THE BBLATIYE. 



135 



speak plainly whatever 
comes into jour mind. 



the man whom you saw in 
the city yesterday died 
this morning, 



the letter which you wrote 
to me has not arrived, 

where there is a rose there 
is also a thorn. 



I as you act, so will you 
I experience. 



wherever you go, thither 
will I also go, 



as the master, so will he 
the scholars. 



dnchi dar dil-i-tu bi-dyad^ 

sdf hi-go, 
dn mard ki shumd o-rd dar 

shahr di ruz dided imruz 

subh murd. 
marde ki o-rd di ruz dear 

shahr dided^ imruz dam-i- 

subh [wafdt ydff\, [ba 

jahdn-i-bd/d raft.'} 
ihatte ki ba-man nawishted, 

na rasida ast. 
ba-jde ki gul ast, Jchar ast, 

dnchi mi'kdriy bi-duravi. 
dnchi mi-kuni, biydhl. 
harki shdHk - « - mazarrate 

kdrad, mewd^e manfa^at 

kujd chinad. 
har jdyC ki tu ravi hamrdh" 

i'tu ihwoham bud. 
har jd,e ki tH ravi [^akab-i- 

talkbwdham dmad. [inu- 

ta dkib'i-tu ; darpai,e fw.] 
dnchi ustdd bdshad, shdgird- 

dnash bdshand, 
dnchi mu^allim * bdshad, 

taldmizash bdshand. 
hamchU zdghi hamchd bach' 

cha. 
^ hamcha mA, hamchu shdna. 



Exercise. — That very foolish young man has lost in 
play all the money that his father had given him when 
he left home. They hroke to pieces all the furniture 



^ master, mudarris ; inu,addib : pupil, talrniz, (plur.) 
taldmiz ; muta*allim. 



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ON OSIENTAL PHRASEOLOGY.. 



which they found m the people's houses. The king 
highly approved of the horses which yoii sent to him 
last year from Arabia. Why have you not done what 
I told you ? The officer rewarded the soldier who saved 
his life. Have you made a copy of the petition which 
the villagers brought to me yesterday ? At the root of 
the very tree under which you are now standing there is 
buried a potful of ashrafu. The servant whom you 
recommended to me is a great rascaL 



chess, 

checkmate, 

check, 

card, 

card-maker, 

cheating, 

a cheat, dagha hdz ; ghadddr 

dice [h'ahat; kimdr 

to bet, 

to checkmate, 

to be checkmated^ 

to gamble, 

to lose a game, 

to win a game, 
to play at cards, 
to play at dice. 



Lesson 17. 

On Oriental Phraseology, 

shatranj 

mat ; shah 

kisht 

ganji/a 

ganjtfa sdz 

dagia hdzl 



game of hazard, kimir 

gambler, kimdr bdz 

knight (at chess),/ara« ; asp 
opponent (in a game), harif 
pawn (at chess), piydda 
king „ shah 

queen „ farzln; wazlr 
bishop „ ptl; fil 

castle „ ruih 

ahart kardan, 
m^t kardan. 
mat shudan, 

( kimdr bdihtan, 

\ bdzl bdihtan, 

( bazl bdkhtan. 

\ bdzl na ydftan. 
bdzl ydftan, 
ganjlfa bdkktan. 
kimdr bdjchtan. 



EXAMPLES. 

my brother said to me that barddaram ba-man guftf hi 
he was going to the desert pas farda ba dasht-i-be^ 
of Persia next day, daulat ihpdham raft. 



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PBOGBESSIYE LESSONS AND EXBBaSEK. 137 

he told me to go home, o mard guft hi ha khdna,e 

Jsh^d hi-rau. 

did he not tell you that he dt/dy o ha shumd na guft hi 

had lost all his money at man hama pul-i-khud-ra 

play ? dar hdzl hdUktam 7 

he says that his parents o ml-goyad hi wdHdainri-- 

have died, man wafdt ydfta ast, 

ask him whether that horse ^ az o hi-pura ki an asp az 

be his own or not, dn-i-o ast yd na ? 

he says it is assuredly his o ml-goyad ki alhatta az dn- 

own, t-maro aaU 

Exercise. — My master sends you his compliments, and 
desires me to. say that he cannot come to see you to-day, 
as he is busy writing. I told him, that if he would 
prove to me that he did not charge me more than the 
market price (or price current) for the grain, then I 
would give him the sum he asked. I wrote to my friend 
this morning, and told him that I would send him the 
book in a day or two, if he did not require it sooner. 
He told me that he had suffered great hardships on the 
jou^ey ; that he had been robbed of part of his property, 
and obliged to »e\\ the rest in order to pay his expenses 
during his way home. He wished to come here this 
morning to see you, but he told me that his horse was 
dead, and tlierefore he could not come. 

Lesson 18. 

bring breakfast, nahdr hiydr* 

bring dinner, sham hiydr. 

bring bread, nan hiydr. 

bring milk, shir hiydr. 

give sugar, {^shakar^ hi'dih, \kand or 

nahdt,2 

» « Whose wiU it be ? " kird hdshad ? 



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PROGKESSIYE LESSONS AND EXEBCISES. 



eat your dinner, 
drink milk, 
light the lamp, 

light the candle, 
bring the shade, 
put out the candle, 
raise the shade, 

don*t forget, 

come here, 
come near, 
where do you come from ? 

where are you going ? 



. shdm-i-khud hi-Jchur. 
shir hi'lnausK]^ [TchurJ] 
chirdgirrd roshan [bi-kuii]'- 

\hiydfroz.'] 
shama^-rd roshan hi-kuru ' 
fdniis hiydr, 

shamcC-rd khdmosh hi-han, 
fdnus [bar ddr]. [bar glr."] 
C dn-rd fardmosh ma kun. 
< az ydd'i'dn zamdne gbafil 
( ma sJiau, 
in jd hiyd, 
nazdlk biyd. 
ahumd az kujd [mtrdyedl? 

\ta8hrif mv-dred ?] 
ahumd ha kujd [mi-raved^ ? 

[tashrif mi-bared; ka- 

dam rang a mi'farmdyed,^ 
chd,e [taiydr hi-kun']. [bU 

adz,'] 
ha rdst [bar gard^* [^>« 

hi'kun,'] 
ha chap [bar gard"]. [ru^e 

biydr ; ru^e bi-nih.'] 
ha khdna,e khud zud hi-rau. 



make ready the tea, 
turn to the right, 
turn to the left, 

go home quickly. 

Exercise. — Who is bringing the breakfast? Sir, I 
have brought the breakfast. What is there to-day for 
dinner? They eat good bread and drink fresh milk. 
Have you lighted the candles ? Bring us some tea, 
sugar, bread, and milk very quickly. Where have all 
the servants gone to ? Sir, they have all gone home. 
When will they come back ? When you go there, you 
will first turn to the left and then to the right. Ask 
these soldiers of what regiment they are. What is the 
name of the officer ? At what hour to-morrow morning 
will they march for Ispahan ? 



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PBOGRESBIYE LESSONS AlTD EXESCISES. 139 


Lesson 19. 


move straight on. 


rdst bi-rau. 

rdst bar bint bt-rau. 


call the porters, 


mazdurdn-rd bi-talab. 


take away the table, 


mez-rd [bar dar], [^bi-bar."] 


take away the things, 


asbdb-rd bi-bar. 


raise the table, 


mez-rd [bar ddr"}, [Ji-^w*.] 




f ihflbar-ddr bdsh. 


be careful. 


< hoshiydr bdsh. 




^nigdh ddr. 


what is your command ? 


hukmat chist ? 


get ready the carriage, 


kdliska [totyar] hi-kun, 
{^dmdda.']^ 




it is of no consequence, 


muzdyafca nUU 


are you at leisure ? 


dydy ba ahumdfardghatast? 




.mard mu^df bi-farmdyed. 




lutf Jcarda mard [mu^df 


• 


bi'farmdyed']. [ma*zur bi- 




dared,"] 


be pleased to forgive me. 


, az ru,e Hndyat mard ma^zur 
\ bi'ddred. 




Imarhamat karda mard mu^dj 




J bi'farmdyed. 




I az ru,e talattuf ^uzr-i-mara 




\ kabul kuned. 


bring a little bread. 


kadre ndn biydr. 


have you made the bed ? 


shumd [^bistar'j'rd gustarda 




ed? *[raMM*-MM.] 


fasten the door, 


dar bi'band. 

dar mukaffal bi-hin. 






' eshdn [kadim'] and, [derina; 


they are old. 


kuhna,"] 




I ^ shaihsdn-i-kadim and. 


court dress, rakht't-saldmi. 


to set off on a journey, raiht bar bastan. 



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PBOGBESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



this is a misfortane, 
they are ignorant, 
bring my book, 
bring my shoes, 



^in [6ac?l hakitt ast [^kam,'] 
eshdn jdhildn and. 
kitdh-i-man hiydr, 
[kafsh~\-i'man biydr. \^pd 
' posh, pa ajtdvy or pd^e 
zdr, or pd,e ddn, or muza,] 
ha hazdr hi-rau, 
kadre gosht hiydr, , 



go to the market, 
bring a little meat. 

Exercise. — Sir, all the porters have come. Tell them 
to put the things in the carriage. Have you fastened 
the door of the house ? When I shall be at leisure 
I shall see him. Has the servant brought the meat 
from the market ? Have you put my books on the 
table ? Sir, pray forgive me, I had forgotten. Well, 
do not forget agaiu. What a great misfortune this is ! 
Sir, I have brought your shoes. I am not at. leisure to 
see him to-day, tell him to come early to-morrow. Who 
is that old man who is standing near the door ? 

Lesson 20. 

who are you ? shumd ktsted? 

why are you come? chtrd dmaded? 

««„ «r;ii o«« «^«,«fv,;«« +^ ( shumd chlze kkwdhed gvft. 

you will say sometning to \ , _ _ , , ^\ j ? • - 

•^ . •^ ° < shuma mi'khwahed k% mar a 

(^ chlze hi-goyed. 

^ mafd ma ranjdn. 

dast az man ddr, 

I tai^lifam ma dih. 

I mora mutakhallifma shau, 

mard dar • mashakkat may- 

anddz. 

[daro^a^e'] pesh ihidmat' 

gdrdn - i-mard bi-talab, 

[^nds^tr-i.'] 

^ misfortune, ofat; bald; sakhti ; musihat ; ahiddat ; 
tird'hakhti; dshUb ; nakhat ; dsih; sammd. 



me. 



don't be troublesome, 



call my house steward^ 



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PBOGBESSIYE LESSONS AND EXEBCISES. 



141 



order dinner, 

I will go out, 

bring mj clothes, 

please come quickly, 
repair the warehouse, 



f sham hiydr, 
I sham ha mez nigah ddr, 
J sham ha mez nig h ddr, 
\ sham ha mez hi-guzdr. 
I huhnti'i'dwardan'i'Shdm hi 
\ dik. 
man, ha kdre, herunJchwdham 

raft. 
* rakhut-i-poshidan-i-mard 

hiydr, 
zud tashrif hiydred, 
marammat'i' khanate tijdrat 
hi'kuned. 



bring the newspaper, 

is this the very thing ? 
tbey are all there, 
who is he ? 
is any one there ? 
say that again, 
how are you ? 



f aJchhdr hiydr. 
Lai 



naraf\ 
\jdnih7\ 



Jch h art hiydr. 
in chlz hi-ainihi hamdn ast. 
eshdn hama dnjd and. 
hist? 

dydy dnjd Tease ast? 
hdz hi-go, 
chiguna I? 6v chi taur I? 

akwdlat chi taur ast ? 
farda man Jchpdham raft, 
in [rdh'] hi-rau, 
dn [rdh'] hi-rau. 
f ' top sar shuda ast ? 
\ top zada ast ? 
Exercise, — Who is that man, and why has he come 
here? Is the newspaper come to-day? Where have 
you put my clothes ? Has the Ichdnsdmdn yet returned 
from the market ? Tell me when he comes back. Sir, 
the Ichdnsdmdn says there is no good meat in the market 

* rakhut is the plur. of rakht^ apparatus, apparel. 

C top-rd sar dddan; tuf angora sar dddan. 
■ to fire, •< top-rd sar kardan. 

C top-rd zadan. 



we shall go to-morrow, 
move this way, 
move that way, 

has the gun fired ? 



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PROGRESSIYE LESSONS AND EXEBCISSS. 



to-day. Carry the books and newspapers to the ware- 
house. What will he say to you to-morrow ? How is 
he to-day ? He says that he is now much better. The 
pun in the fort is fired every morning at dawn, and also 
at the end of evening twilight. Such is the custom of 
this country. 

Lesson 21. 

send for the palanquin ^az bard,e ^ama7%e rowan 

quickly, zud bi-firist. 

has the master risen? dyd, sdhibat az khwdb [^bar 

ihdsta ast^' [beddrshuda 

astJ] 
this is a very fine fruit, In mewa [lazlz\ asU \nafls ; 



this is wonderful news, 
we are hungiy and thirsty, 
he is a careful man, 



they are great rogues, 

the whole land is level, 
his heart is grieved. 



is your business now com- 
pleted? 



in aJMdr-i'^ajib aat 
md gursina o taahna em. 
o shakhse [dur andesK] ast 

[hoshiydr; bd khabar ; 

sdhib'i'intibdhJ] 
^eshdn kaldn [bad ma^dsK] 

and, \aubdsh ; dundn o 

kiasls himmatdn ; fdsifcdn; 

ishrdr ; nd-kasdn.'] 
hama zamin [^bardbar^ ast, 

[_kamwdr ; musatiahJ] 
dil'i-o [maghmiim] ast. [ran-^ 

jida ; mukaddar ; maliil ; 

majruh.'] 
ilhdl kdr-iskvmd [tamdm 

ahuda ast] ? \ba itmdm 

raatda dst'] 



^ Litter for an elephant, *amdri. 

Litter for a ciimel, haudaj\ or kajdwa (for women). 

A palanquin, ^amdriye rawdn. 
* Victuals, ki/df-i-ma^dsh. 



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PROGBBSSIYE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



143 



is the proof of it strong ? 
she is very impudent^ 



the sky is quite clear, 
these are mischievous chil- 
dren, 
he received gi*eat punish' 
ment, 

they all remained hidden, 



his heart is restless, 

ne is a fool, 

this paper is moist, 

who is making a noise? 
what aire you saying ? 



( sahut'i'dn amr mazbut ast ? 
\ dalll-i'dn kdr kdmil ast ? 
C o hisiydr guatdkh cist. 



o hisiydr he adah ast. 
dsmdn Jchub musaffa ast. 
in hachchagdn [skojclk] and. 

[muzirr.'] 
o {^sazd"] hisiydr ydft, 
[siydsat ; ta*zib ; 'akUbat ; 
'ikdh,] 
eshdn hama [nihufta"] man- 
dand. [^poshida ; dar 
pinhdn.'] 
r khdfir -i-o [muztarib ast], 
\ [jani' mst.] 
J dil-i'O hekardr ast. 
\^dil'i-o dar iztirdh mt-dydd. 
o \cJmalf\ ast. [^ahla ; 

nd'ddn ; nd-fahm.^ 
iw kdghaz [tar^ ast. [^nam- 
.ndk.'] 
( ki \shor'] ml'kunad? [saut ; 
\ sadd; ghaughd.'] 
I shumd chi ml-goyed? 
\ shumd chi harf mirzaned? 

Exercise. — Sir, the palki is ready. Bring me some 
paper, that I may write. Ask that man if his master has 
yet risen. What is the name of this fruit ? Is there 
much fruit on that tree ? I shall come home when I have 
completed my business. Do not make so much noise 
there. You said that these men were great liars. You 
say that you are very careful. The fool says everything 
that comes into his heart ; but whatever comes into the 
heart of the wise, the same remains hidden. The news 
from the army this week is by no means favourable. The 
man who brings the news is a very great rogue, and those 
who believe him are fools. 



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PKOGBESSIYE LESSONS AND EXEBCISBS. 



speak easy Persian, 
whence are. you come ? 

go away, you have leave, 

go not there again, 

put us on shore, 

who lives there ? 

go on straightforward, 
bring some wine and water, 
cool the water well, 
the dinner is on the table, 

what is your name ? 

he is very clever, 

wake me very early, 

it is fair to-day, 

he has made confession, 
make a signal to the porter 

for coming here, 
have patience a little, 
send them to my house, 

sprinkle a little water, 
turn back that leaf, 
tie their hands and feet, 






r' 



Lesson 22. 

far8t,e [salts'] ht-go, [dsdn,"] 
az hijd dmada ed? 

ran [mura Tchkha s ed], 
\shumd-rd ruJshsat cist ; 
shumd imkhsat ed,"] 
dn jd bdz ma rau, 
Ctad'-rd ha 8dhilpd,in bi'hun, 
} md-rd ha kindra,e daryd 
(^ hi-guzdr, 

(dn jd ki manzil ddrad? 
dn jd hi mi-mdnad? 
dnjd kuddm kas manzil 

ddrad? 
rdst hi-rau. 

kadre shardh o dh hiydr, 
db-rd hisiydr sard hi-kun, 
ahdm {har mez] ast, [mu- 

haiyd.^ 
ndm-i'Shumd chist ? 
hisiydr hoshiydr asU 
hisiydr ^aklmand ast. 
shu'Hr ast. 
mard \wakt-i'SuhK] heddr hi' 

kun. l^ald-S'Sahdh; bdm" 

dad,] 
imrUz ruz-i ^ [hakdri] ast, 

[musaffa,] 
ikrdr karda ast. 
hahammd I ishdrat^i-dmadan- 

t'[inrjd]hi'kun. [intara/.] 
^arra sahr hi-kun. 
eshdn-rd ha khdfM^e man hi" 

firist, 
fcadre dh hiyafskdn. 
dn warak-rd hdz hi^garddn, 
dost opdyS oshdn bi-band. 



^ his 
< hiSi 
{^0 zi i 



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PBOGBESSIYE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 145 

Exercise. — You say that the Persian language is very 
easy. He put them all ashore, there yesterday. Have 
you well cooled the wine and tlie water ? Tell me when 
the dinner is on the table. Why did you not wake me 
very early, as I told you ? If you forget another time, 
then you will get great punishment. Have they seen 
our signal for their coming here ? Send the wine and 
water to mjr house. We do not live there. These boys 
are very clever. He has made no confession as jet. 
Who has torn the leaf from my book ? The magistrate 
caused the prisoners to be bound hand and foot. 

Lesson 23. 
put those rupees in the bag, ' dar [I:^a] an rupiydhd 

bi-guzdr, [jtb,"] 
there is a fakir at the door, bar dar darweshe istdda ast 
he is very intelligent, o bieiydr zaJci ast. 

this is very good bread, in ndn bkiydr ihub ast. 

come back this way, ba in rdh bdz d. 

move a little slower, andake dhtsta bi-rau. 

come, take off my boots, hiydhafsh'i-manpdyinbi'hun. 

come out of the house, az ihdna berun biyd. 

wash your hands and face, dast o ru,e Jchud bi-lshue']. 

[shu,'} 
he has many friends, o bisiydr dostdn ddrad. 

what benefit will there be dar an amrchifdyida Jchtpdh- 
in that? ad bud? 

^ eshdn bisiydr gham Jchurda 
they have suffered mnch\ and. 

sorrow, 1 ba eshdn bisiydr gham rasida 

(. ast. 

a bag for money or letters, kisa. 
a cut-purse, kisa bur ; (thief) duzd ; (highway- 
man) rdh'zan ; tarrdr. 
a purse-bearer or letter-carrier, ktsaddr; kdsid. 
a purse, surra. 
a letter-bag, a letter, Jcharifa. 

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146 



FROGRESSIYE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



he has got a long beard, 
what bird is this ? 

he is a great drunkard, 

they are decidedly guilty, 

whose field is this ? 
there are many files here, 

they have great prudence. 



how many people were 
present ? 



rish't'dnrdz ddrad, 
' in kuddm murgh dst? 
^ In murgh chist? 
' bisiydr shardbi ast 
bisiydr [ahardb khwdr'] 

aat. [shardb khur; Mtam- 

mdr^ * 
yaklnan eshdn [nwjrim] and.^ 

[mukassarJ] 
tn kisht €u: klst ? 
tnjd bisiydr magasdn and. 
eshdn bisiydr [^dkibat an' 

deshi] ddrand. [hazar ; 

hazm ; ihtirdz.l 
eshdn bisiydr ihtiydt bajd mt- 

drand, 
chand mardumdn hdzir bud- 

and? 



Exercise. — How many rupees are there in the bag ? 
Bring water, that I may wash my hands and face. I 
have suffered much sorrow on your account What is 
the name of this fine bird ? These flies give me much 
trouble. That /aAir has a very long beard. Give him 
a rupee and tell him to go away. Tell him that if he 
makes such a noise another day, I will punish him 
severely. Where do your friends live ? Are all the 
people present to-day ? His friends afford him one 
hundred rupees a month. That man is quite innocent. 
There are many very fine trees in that field. These men 
never speak the truth ; I cannot- place any reliance upon 
what they tell me. 



* eating, or consuming, khitr. 
devouring men, mardum khur. 
inheriting, mirds khur. 



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147 



Lessox 24. 



there is no oil in the lamp, 

praj give me a sample, 
this is a mere stratagem. 

Inhere is his shop ? 
have 70a got a rope, 

the king sat upon the throne, 

his voice is good, 

what sort of animal is this ? 
what is your advice ? 
what is your age ? 
send the palki near me, 

give me the whip and hat. 



bring water for washing the 
hands, 



hech rughan dar chiragh 
nut, 
C mard namuna,e [^inayat'] bi- 
\ farmdyed, \lutf.'\ 
infakat [AtZa] aat, \ddm; 

fareh ; mdkr ; zar^,"] 
dukdn-i'O kujd aat? , 

* dydy shumd raasane dared? 
C^bddshdh bar taiit julus 
\ farmud. 

1 bddshdh bar taJcht nishasU 
V bddshdhJdliS'i-takht gardid, 
i dwdZ'i'O ihush asU 
\ In shaMs khush alhdn ast, 

in haiwdn kuddm kism oat? 

saldh'i'Shumd chui? 
■ 'umr-i'Shumd chist? 

nazdri-man 'amdri^e rawdn 
hi'firist, 

[tdziydnci] o kuld^e mard 
bi-dih. [chdbukj] 

db'i'd<z8t shuye biydr, 

• db'i-dast short btydr, 

db az bardye skustan-t'dast'i' 
man biydr. 



* string, rishia; a dependent, rishta ddr, 

rope, rassan; thick rope, rassan-i-kuluft ; thin rope, 
rassah'i-bdrik or rishtah 

• to sit, to sit down, to ascend the throne, ywfti* kardan. 



to wash i *^^*<*w> ^^^^ «^^»* or ahii, 
' ( shoridan^ root shor. 



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148 FROGBESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 

^ mizdj'i'Sharif cMguna ast ? 

dhwdUi'janab chi taur ast ? 

, . 1. 1^1. -i 1 mizdj'i-mukaddas chiguna 

now IS your health ? \ a^t? 

tahVat-i'C^la chiguna ast ? 
^mizdj'i'shumd chiguna ast? 
rmiswdh o sOda^e danddn 
give me the tooth-brush and j short hi-dih, 

powder, ) miswdh o safu/'i-danddn 

\ shUyC hi'dih, 
bring a ffait of clothes, * i/ak ddst-rakht-i-poshtdan 

hiydr, 
bring ink, pen, and paper, ^murakkdb^ kalamy kdghfiz 

hiydr, 
C an asp az dn-i-ktst? 
whose horse is that ? \dn asp az kist ? 

(^ an asp mdUi-ktst ? 
who is that European ? dn farangt klst ? 

Exercise. — One day, in the summer season, a king and 
his son went a-hunting. When the air became very hot, 
then they placed each his cloak on the back of a certain 
jester. The king, having laughed, said, "Now, jester, 
there is an ass's burden on thy back." The jester gave 
answer, " Verily, your majesty, I bear the burdens of 
two asses." 

Lesson 25. 

whose house is this ? \ !^ ^^^ mdU-ktst? 

I m KRana az an-i-ktst ? 



* best suit of clothes, yak dast-raJcht-i'lcCla], \hihtar 
or kashang,'] 

•blotting paper, \ f«»4«2-f-'««'-«*^«J *«*\ 

*=» ^ ^ ' t kaghaZ'i'murakkao khusak ktm. 



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FBOGBSSSIVB LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 149 

this soil is barreiii 



they are very avaricious, 

this rupee is adulterated, 
its shape is bad. 



in zamin [wairdn] aaU 

[shora-^mJ] 
eshdn hmydr [tavfCt] and. 

[haris^ 
tn rupiya hdsid asU 
surat'udn bad [haikat] asU 
[shakl; haiyar.'] 
the English language is zabdn^i-ingU8i\mu8hkit\ ast. 
diflSicidty , \mighlak,'] 

( khdna,e *ankahutpdk hi^kun. 
brush off the spider's web, } tdr-t-ankahut pdk bi-kun. 

( lu^db-i-ankabut pdk bi-kun. 
( * chi [toAsir] karda ast ? 
what crime has he com-\ [iiaifa.] 
mitted ? J az o chi takstr sddir shuda 

V. ast? 

f bar sdbZ'Zdr bisiydr shabnam 
I ast. 
there is .much dew on the } bar kdh bisiydr shabnam 
grass, J uftdda ast, 

f bar giydh bisiydr shabnam 
\ 'bdrida ast. 
now they are very helpless, ilhdl bisiydr [be 'ildj"] and, 

[Id *ildj ; Id chdr.'j 
what business are you injd chi kdrmi-'kuned? 
' doing ? 

behuda got,e o dkhir na 
ddrad, 

there is no end of Us] ^^W^^^li^^^^ ^ 

chattering, { 7^*' ['M*'*^'^.] 

®' ^ makdldt'i-muhdl am£Z wa 

makaula,e mustahtldtt'i-o 
ikJUitam na ddrad. 



* right and wrong, sawdb o khatd. 



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150 FROGBESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 

( eshdn hisiydr *uzr kardand. 
they made much apology, < eshdn dar makam-i-Ctizdr 

( dmadand. 
my parents have gone to wdlidain-i-man ha Icfi dna^e 
their house (other people's oskdn rafta and. 
house), 
there are many fruits in dar dn hdgh hisiydr mewahd 

that garden, and. 

I have a headache, { sar-umandard mUkunad. 

where did you hear thb shumd kujd in jhabar^d 

news ? shunided ? 

it is late, let us depart, der ahvda asty hiyd ki md 

bi-ravem. 

Exercise, — They thus say, that in a certain house a 
tiger and a man saw a picture, in which the man was 
drawn as victorious, and the beast subdued. The man 
said to the tiger, " Dost thou see the bravery of the man, 
how he has overcome the tiger ? " The tiger gave 
answer, " The painter was a man : if a tiger had been 
the painter, then the drawing would not have been in 
this manner." 

Lesson 26. 

he has a liver complaint, o bimdrtye jigar ddrad. 
this is a fine season, In mauaim khub ast 

sow that seed in the garden, ^ dar bdgi dn tuibm-rd hi' 

kdr, 
Co \dard]'%'danddn ddrad. 
he has a toothache, < \waja\'] 

(. danddn-i'O dard mi-kunad, 
there are many playthings dar bdzdr bisiydr chizhd^e 
in the bazar, bdzlcha and. 

^ a field, mazrcC ; zarcC ; zird^at ; to sow a field, kishtan, 
root kdr. 



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PBOGRESSIYE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



151 



[kdrj-i'Shumd chist? \jpesha; 

hash; iahtighdl.'] 
In tarjuma hisiydr khub ast. 
^ mukaddamaye o imruz 
\ Jchwahad shud, 
J [kaziyay']e o imruz ruju' 
\ khwdhad shud, [murdfa*a.] 
^d^at' i'Shumd khub mi-ravad, 
in shama\e moml asL 
[kirdyoye} mdahuya chi Jca- 
dar ast ? \uJTaUi'7[ 
r chand sd^at ast ? 
\ chi wakt ast ? 
kuld kahd,e mard sdf kun, 
az bard,e yak ruz kirdya 

chi kadar ast ? 
pardahd bar ddr, bushkabhd 

bi'bar, 
^d^at'i-mard bar mez bi- 

guzdr. 
In mewa bisiydr talMk ast 
chird [Ma/a ecf] ? 
[baham bar dyed; ric,e 
darham mt-kashed ; dar 
]chashm mi-dyed ; chin 
ba jahin shuda ed,'] 

Exercise, — One day, a stag, from fear of the hunters, 
having fled, entered within a certain cave. There a 
large tiger having gone, seized and began to eat the stag. 
At the time of dying, that helpless animal said, in his 
own heart, '^ Alas, what a great misfortune is mine ! I 
fled hither from fear of man, and now I have fallen into 
the claws of an animal whose cruelty is even greater 
than man's." 



what is your occupation ? 
this translation is very good, 

his case will come on to-day, 

your watch goes well, 
this is a wax caudle, 
how much is the fare of the 
;boat ? 

what o'clock is it ? 

brush my hat and coat, 
what is the fare for a day ? 

lift up the blinds, take away 

the dishes, 
place my watch on the table, 

this fruit is very acid, 
why are you angry ? 



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PBOGBESSIVB LESSONS AMD EXERCISES* 



Lesson 27. 

this is a very difficult busi- m hdriisiyar \mu8likxT] ast 
ness, [dushwar ; muta^azzir ; 

muta^asstrJ] 
^ eshdn hisiydr fareli and, 
thev are very artful \ eshdn kadam dar hddiya,e 

^ # gb^<*''* ^^ hufrdn nihdda 

\ and. 
that is a very beautiful ( an hdgh hisiydr [zxbd'] ast. 

garden, ( \_Jchub drdsta.'] 

this cloth is very coarse, in pdrcha hisiydr [^durusht] 

ast [kuluft.'] 
C dydy shumd kdhil-i-kdr ed? 
are you fit for the business? < dyd^ shumd sazdwdr-i-kdr 

i ed? 
it is colder to-day than az di ruz, imruz aard'tar 



yesterday, 
this line is better. 



his heart is very sorrowful, 

she is dumb and deaf, 
this story is all a lie, 

these are fine raisins^ 

he has a large house, 

this room is well lighted, 

this room is very lofty, 

how long is this cloth ? 



asL 
in satar hihtar ast. 
dil'i'O ghflmgin ast. 
giflm bar o [gMlib astl, 

\mustauli ast.'] 
pareshdn kh/dtir o pard' 

gamda dil ast. 
an zan gung o kar ast. 
in kissa hama darogh ast» 
( in keshmish hisiydr [M^Ob'] 
X and, \nafis.'] 
o 1shdna,e kaldn ddrad. 

hujra i^Oh roshan karda 

shuda ast. 

utdk iMb roshan ast. 

in Jmjra hisiydr buland ast. 

in pdrcha chi kadar Idardz"] 

ast ? [*ari|f.] 
in pdrcha chi fcadar tUl 

ddrad ? 



V Kfiam 
C in hujn 
< shud 
( in Utdk 



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PROGRBSSIYE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 153 

these are very wicked in hachchagan hisiyar sharir 
children, and, 

his disposition 18 cruel, J "^irat-i-c he rahn, ast. 
they are lazy and negligent, eshdn su8t o gh'^Jil and, 
they are of a very stern eshan hisiydr [saMkt t<^Va(\ 
disposition, and, [durusht HiuH ; 

tundihu; hadihii'^ 

Exercise.-'^ln a dark night a blind man, having taken 
a lamp in his hand, and a jar on his shonlder, was going 
along in the market. Somebody said to him, ** O fool ! 
in thy eyes day and night are alike ; of what nse is a 
lamp to thee ? " The blind man, having laughed, said, 
** O you great blockhead ! do you imagine that the lamp 
is for my benefit ? No, it is entirely on thy account, 
that thou mayest not break my jar amidst the darkness/* 



Lesson 28. 

this pen is too sdflk, in i:alam hisiydr narm a8t% 

this paper is very coarse, * in hdgifzz hisiydr [hdufi] 

ast, [zihhir^ 
this letter is ill- shaped, in haraf \had surai\ ast, 

[had Mojt.(.] 
fshumd hisiydr ahista mi' 

yon speak yerjr slowly, j .j^tba bisiySr ahUtagi 

\ mi-goyed, 
can you speak English ? zahdn-i-ingUsi haraf zadan 

mi'tawdned ? 
descend, otherwise you will [pdyiv^ hiyd, vmma shumd 
fall, ibspdheduftdd, \^farod.'\ 



1 thin, fine, hdrik ; ndzuk, 

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154 



PBOORESSIVS LESSONS AND XXERCISES. 



you must go with me, 
take away this bundle, 

it is cloudy, yea, it rains a 
little, 

see, has it cleared up a 

little? 
we know it all, 
they know a great deal, 
he gave me much trouble, 

why do you laugh without 
cause? 

they have annoyed us' very 
much, 



this is not my house, 



allow me to smell that 
flower, 



hdyad hi ha man bi-raved, 
in hasta bi-bar. 
'mruz sa^bt astf balki 

kadre mi-bdrad. 
) imruz sahdbi ast, balki 

taraahshuh darad, 
bi'bin hi fiadre sdf shuda 

ast, yd na ? 
md kama ml'ddnem. 
eshdn bUiydr mi-ddnand. 
mard bisiydr [^taHlif] 

ddd, [zuhmat.'] 
ahumd be aabah chird mi- 

ihanded? 
' eshdn hidrd bisiydr iashwish 
ddda and, 

z kirddr-'i^eshdn muna^' 
ghis 8huda em. 
in khdna az dn-i-man nist, 
in Htdna az mdl-i-man nist, 
in Hkdna az milk-i-man nisU 
' lutf bi-farmdyed ki \buje 
dThgul'Tdbi'-binam]. [gfU* 
rd ha bi'binam ; gul-rd 
bu bi-shinavam.^ 
az ruye lutfbHye dn gul bar 
giriftan mard bi^diked, 
apply oil to that chair, dn kursi^rd rUghfin bi-mdU 

open the lock of that door, kufi-i-dn dar-rd wd kun. 

Exercise. — ^A very poor man went to a very rich man 
and said, " We two are sons of Adam and Eve (Adam o 
ffawd), therefore we are brothers; you are very rich 
and I am very poor ; give me a brother's share." The 
rich man, on hearing this, gave to the poor man one 
kauri. The poor man said, " Oh, sir ! why do you not 
bestow upon me a brother's share? " He replied, ^'Be 



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PROOBSSSIVE LESSONS AND BXSBCI8S8. 155 

content, my good friend ; if I give all mj poor brothers 
one kauri each, I shall not have anj remaining." 

Lesson 29. 

some of onr soldiers have Faze sar-bdzdn-t'ind majruh 

been wounded, ahuda and, 

beat that lazy boy, an Jcodak^i'Sust-rd hi-zan, 

dig up that underwood, an daraTchthdje khurd-rd 

bar kan, 

having said this, he de- in guft o [raJsi^at girifi]. 

parted, [rawdna shud,] 

wring the moisture from the C^^rf"^*" f'^l ^'' 3''^' 
clothes, j [t^r;namnak-] 

' C azjajnaha [nam] biyafanar. 

they sleep carelessly (sound- C eshdn ghdfildna mi-kkuspand, 
ly), \ eahdnghdfildnarni'ilkVO'hand. 

y^haX is the amount of your janCyB hiadb-i-ahumd chlat? 

bill? 
a wasp has stung me, ^ zambur mard [jgazidal^ oat, 

[nesh'zada.'] 
what is the tonnage of this xn jahdz chi kadr bar bar 
. ship ? mi'ddrad? 

f ilftiydj'Uin kadr^i'kJiabar' 
I ddri chist ? 
what need is there of ^so ! ihtiydj-i-in fyidr^i-hifdz^at 
much care ? ' \ chht ? 

r In kadar ihtiydt chi ma^lahat 
\ ddrad ? 
what is the price of these ktmat-i'ln chtzhd chlst ? 
things? 



( magaS't^'asaL 
' a bee < fnagas-i'Shahd. 

(. magas-i'ambagin, 
purified honey, ^asal i^musaffd. 



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156 



PBOGBESSIYB LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



what is the depth of this 
tank? 



what is the difference be- 
tween these two ? 



' *umuk'i-in kauz cht kadr ast?' 
In yamhugh chi fcadr ^amii: 

ast f 
'ma hain-i'tn kar du faraf: 

chist ? 
dar miydn-uin har du td 

tafrlk chiat? 
I miydfiri'tn har du tufdwat 

chtst ? 
^, chifarak az in baddn ast? 

Exercise. — ^A person went to a scribe, and said nnto 
him, " Write a letter for me." He said, " There is a 
pain in my foot." The man said, '' I do not wish to send 
yon anywhere, why are you making this unreasonable 
excuse ? " The scribe replied, " You are speaking the 
truth ; but when I write a letter for any person, then I 
am always sent for to read it ; for nobody else is able to 
read my handwriting." 



Lesson 30. 



this army does not know its 

exercise, 
between you two what 

fighting is there ? 



in Ioshkar kawd^id-i-ihud 
na mt'ddnad. 

md bain-i'Shunid har du 
{^kaziya'] chist? [cTau^; 
takrd,e ; ma*raka ; mujd' 
dilat mundza^at ; jang 
ojadal harh; mundhisha 
o mukdhila; nmlshdiiba o 
mu^dtihd^ 

dar in hitdb chand [bdbhd'] 
and ? [faslhd.'\ 

ibar in asbdb hech [_kasr'] ast ? 
\ka;^l hasr.'l 
in asbab-rd chand pill tanzil 
mhkufiand ? 



L this book how many 
chapters are there ? 



PB06RESSIVB LESS0K8 AND EXERCISES. 



157 



the dmm beats every day 
in the fort. 



dar hisdr har ruz [koa hofta 
mi'Shavad]. [tihl ml" 
zanand,'] 
dar kiW har yaum duhul ml' 
nawazand, 
this boy is mach loved by in kodak hisiydr 'aztZ't-md 

us, ast. 

in this tank are there any dar In \hauz\ hech mdht ast? 

fish? [aJb-gir; hirkaj] 

make a hole here in the injd dar zamtn [magiidke] 

earth, bi-kan. {jgaudeJ] 

I caught a fish with a rod, hd ddm mdhi,e girt/tarn. 

r in rnddah-gdw-rd shdi^kd 

this cow has no horns. ■< - - ■» » - i-Ttr- 
biiio ^uw xxiw XXV iiuxxiD, ^ ^^ madah-gaw shakhha na 

K, ddrad, 
of what kind is this cloth ? tn [pdrcha'] chi kism ast ? 

\toJka:\ 
do you intend going to dyd^irddayeraftan-i-faran^' 

Europe ? Utdn mi-kuned ? 

hang up this lamp in the ^ dar ddldn in fdnus-rd [mU" 
hall, 'allak bi-kun.^ [biydwez.'] 

do you go by land or by ha ihushkt yd ba tarl 
water ? IJvipahed raft ? 

Exercise. — ^A certain hare having gone to the presence 
of the tigress, said to her, " O tigress, of me every year 
there are many young ones, but of you, during the whole 
of your life, there are no more than two or three." The 
tigress, haviuj^ smiled, replied, " What you say is very 
true : of me, indeed, there may be only one young one in 
all my life^ but that one is a tiger." 



* hall, ddldn ; aiwdn» 



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158 pbogressivb lessoks akd exercises. 

Lesson 31. 
there is no lock to your ^ ^^^j^. ..^^^^ - ^^^ ^ ^ -^ 

^ (■ «d. 

there is much mud on the bar lah't-daryd hiBxydr 
river side, {ibilah'] asU [gil; shor; 

wahal.'] 
how many passengers were dar an jahdz chand ^dhirdn 
in that vessel ? hudand ? 

( tamdm'i'liujra Tchush hu kar- 
,, , , . :i \ da shuda asL 

the whole roomwasscented, j tamam.i-^jramu'atjarkar. 

[^ da shuda ast. 
are you the owner of this di/d, mdlik-uin Jchdna ed ? 
house ? 

C az \8U8t%] nuksdn asU [th* 
from idleness is loss, < mdl; tagUdfalJ] 

(. naiija^e kdhilt nuksdn ast, 
such as you will do, so will harchishumd khtvdhed kardy 
you find, khwdhed ydft, 

ftaslim khubtarin-i-musdhib 
I ast. 
resignation is the best com- 1 taalim a^lgHartn-i-m isdhib 
panion, j aaU 

t taslim yake az khubtarin-i' 
\ musdhibdn asL 
the world is the house of C [dunyd'] lsidna,e fareb ast. 

deceit, X [^kurraye arzJ] 

the fruit of rashness is re- C natija,e [td'jU'] tauba asU 

pentance, \ [be tadbirt ; talxiwwar]. 

patience is an excellent C sabr kamdl khulk asU 

quality, \ sabr 'aZi khaslat asL 

temperance is excellent parhez Mub dawd asU 

physic, 
hearing is better than shunidan az guftan bihiar 

speaking, asU 

from labour results great- natijaye mihtnat buzurgt asU 
ness, 

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PBOOSESSITE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



lo9 



Exerci8e.^^A certain old woman had a goose which 
every day used to lay an egg of gold. One day the old 
woman thought in her own mind, thus : '^ If I increase 
the food of this goose, then she will every day give two 
golden eggs." Having thus determined, the old woman 
began to give the goose every day as much food as she 
could eat. Now, after some days, the goose having be- 
come very fat, gave no more eggs. 



Lesson 32. 



such as you speak so will 
you hear, 



this world is the harvest 
for the next, 

contentment is the key of 
repose, 

to be ignorant is death to 
the living, 

moderation in everything is 
best, 

to the wise a hint is enough, 

death laughs at expecta- 
tions, 

assist your brother in 
distress, 



very frequently medicine is 

sickness, 
God is upright and holy, 



dnchi tu goyt, bt-shinavu 

in dunyd kiaht - 1 - ^dlam-i 

\^akabat] <ut ['aZam-t- 

dkhir ; sardje jawaddm ; 

ddru'l-hakd; *ukhdi] 
^ jahdn - t -fdnt khirmdn'i' 

jahdn-i'hdki ast. 
kiind^at [ifcaZid-t-araw] ast, 

[musabbib'i'rdhat ; wajh- 

i-aish,'] 
jdhil shudan mauUt-zindagi 

ast. 
[ausat'i-a^wdl] bihtar ast. 

[i'tiddl.'] 
^dfcil-'rd ishdrayB bas ast, 
bar ummed [maw<] mi-Han' 

dad, [fl;7.] 
barddar - 1 - M«d - rd [dar 

hdlat-i-sakhtx^ madad bi" 

dih, [dar hdlat-i-ihtiydj ; 

dar muhtdji,'\ 
aksar aukdt dawd bimdri 

ast. 
alldk ta*dl^ [hakkopdh"] ast, 

[rdst-bdz o mukaddar.'] 



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160 



FBOGBESSIYE LESSONS AND EXESCISES. 



man becomes kDOwn from 
his Cionduct, 



from prohibition desire in- 
creases, 



fortune does not 
with wisdom. 



increase 



adam az mu*amala,e Jchud 

mashhur mi-shavad, 
ddam az *amalhd,e khud 

t mashhur ml - shavad"]. 
shuhrat mt-ydbad.'] • 
' az man(£ kardan khwdkish 

ziydda mt-shavad, 
I az muzdhamat khwahish to- 

rakki mt-paztrad. 
az *akl {^nafaka'] ziydda na 
mt'Shavad, [rozina ; 

Exercise. — One day a large bull was grazing in a field, 
when a conceited fiy came and sat on one of his horns. 
The fly began to say in her own mind, ** I am very heavy, 
and if I remain here, assuredly the bull will not be able 
to lift his head from the ground." Then the fly said 
aloud, *^ O bull, I am afraid I am giving you great in- 
convenience ; if so it be, then speak out, and I will 
immediately depart." The bull answered, " O fly, be not 
uneasy on my account, for I was not in the least aware 
of your being there till you spoke to me.** 

Lesson 33. 

during this month much dar In mdh bisiydr bdrdn 

rain fell, uftdd, 

send a servant there, an jd [naukarel hi-firisU 

[muldzim; thddime; chd- 
kar.2 
sit under this tree, zer»i'in darakht bi^nishin. 

( klmat'i'in ddndhd,e durr 
what is the price of these \ chist ? 

pearls ? 1 ^tmaf-t-tn ddndhd,e mar- 

\ wdrtdchtst? 
bow heavy will this stone wazn^i'ln sang chi kadr mi- 
be i shavad ? 



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PBOGRESSITE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



161 . 



what is the name of this 

village ? 
bring the riding-horse, 
brush the curtains well, so 

that no mosquito may 

remain, 

clean the shoes well, 



tn [dik'] 



chi8t? 



[mmiza^ ; karyaJ 
asp-i'SawdrUrd biydr, 
jparda-rd khub biyafshdn td 

ki pasha^e na mdnad, 

(kafakhd-rd Jchfi^ [?4/3 ^*" 



\ kun. \jpdk^ 

i kafshkd'rd siydh rang hi- 

C dih. 

( bdyad ki [kariTn] bdshem. 



\ ' [musJifik.] 
n 8h 



ast, ki 



uftd* 



we ought to be benevolent, . ,j^^^.i.^^iy^sn 

\ karhn bdshem. 
we have fallen into great dar mushkildt-i-kaldn 
diificTilties, da em. 

/az tufun bisiydr jdhdzhd 
many ships have been \ nuksdn kiurda and. 
damaged hy the storm, j az t^^fdn ba bisiydr jahdzhd 
[^ nufisan rasida asL 
he every day drinks new o liar ruz skir-i-tdza mi- 

milk, ' naushad. 

to sit still is better than ba Jcifimoshi nishastqn az 
quaiToUing, bar kkdstan ba kaziya 

bilitar ast 

grind this wheat in the miU, f * far Jisiy a tn f^llahiifaB 
^ ' (^ dar astya tn ghalla bi'Sao. 

do you know who is his shumd mi-ddned ki [t<?aH^]- 
agent ? i-o ktst ? \gumdshta ; 

nd^ibl\ 

Sxercise, — ^A man went, for the purpose of seein^^ a 
certain person, to his house, at the time of midday. 
That person, from his own house, saw the man coming, 



^ village, dihf or dih ; plur. dthdt. 
* to grind, adbxdan or daidan. 



11 



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PROGRESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



and said to his servants, '^ When he asks where the 
master of the house is, vou will say that he is now gone 
to dine with some one." In the meanwhile, the man 
having arrived, asked, " Where is the master of the 
house ? " They said, " Our master is gone out." The 
man said, <' A great fool he is to have gone out of his 
house in the midst of such heat." The master of the 
house, having put his head out of the window, said, 
" You are a very great fool to wander ahout at this time: 
for I have been all day in my own house." 



Lesson 34. 



buy two candlesticks for 
me. 



this cat has large claws, 

take away this counterpane 
into the other room, 

is this place in the district 
of Shiraz? 

I will show you a beautiful 
picture, 



your signature is necessary 
to this bond. 



* az hardyC man du ^adadri- 

shamaddn hi-Tchar, 
(with glass shades) bajihat- 

i-man yak juft-i-pdyaye 

lata hi'Tcharid, 
In gurha kaldn [jpanja] ddr- 

ad, [nakhun; khanj.'^ 
dar hujra,e digar in Ithdf 

bi'bar. 
dyd, dar 'aldka,e Shtrdz in 

mauza ast. 
manshumd-rd taswtre [hasin'] 

Hv^dham namud. [ina- 

khul; marghub ; nddir; 

ma^kuL'] 
ba in tamassuk dastkhatt-i" 

shumd [zarur] asU [Id" 

zim ; malzum.\ 



* one pair of candlesticks, yak jv/t-i-shama^ddn ; i.e., 

two articles, 
one pair of scissors, 'adad'i-mifcrd^ ; i.e., one article. 



—'^- 



PROORESSIYS LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 163 

to-day there is a guest in imruz dar ihdna,e eahdn 

their house, mihmane asU 

,.,,., , ^ ( \ atdl%k'\'i-'tn kodak kist? 

who 18 this boy's governor ? | L f ^^vj^jj^ 3 

7 bistydr der shuda ast md-rd 
I ba khdna,e khud rajlan 
it is very late, permit us to J hi'dih. 

go home, j hisiydr der shuda ast [hiyd'] 

f ki ha Jchdna hi-ravem. 
\ [ijdzat bi-dik.'] 

- .,. /x.. .1. . i^(darinmu*dmala[zulm']a8U 

m this affair there is much ) n- • - i.^ i - h\.- - 
, < ibtaiyar berahmi ; btaiyar 

cruelty, ^ ^^ muruwati.] 

tiiey commit oppression of eahdn [zulmyi-kar kism mi- 
every sort, kunand. [^jaur ; sitam ; 

be ddd."] 

we have at present a long m wakt md safr'i-dardz 
journey, dnr pesh ddrem. 

Exercise. — A certain feeble old man having gathered a 
load of wood {literally sticks) in a forest, was carrying it 
to his own house. After having gone some distance, the 
old man became very tired, and having thrown down the 
burden from his shoulder on the ground, he began to cry 
out, '^ O Angel of Death, deliver me from this misery ? '* 
At that very instant the Angel of Death stood before 
him, and said, '* Why have you called me, and what do 
you want with me ? " On seeing this frightful figure, 
the old man, trembling, replied, '^ O friend, be pleased to 
assist me, that I may lift once more this burden upon my 
shoulder : for this purpose only have I called you." 

Lesson 35. 

have you a glass for holding ^ dyd skumd bardie giriftan' 
the medicine? ' i-dawd finjdn'i'Shisha 

dared? 

^ a glass-blower, shisha~gar. 

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164 



PBOGRBSSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



man has reason, a brute 
none, 

please give me a letter of ^ 
introduction, 

why do you write with a 

bad pen ? 
of these two which is the 

best? 
I will take the business from 

you and give it to him, 

your going there is not 
necessary, 



he is well versed in science, 



he is very learned and 
intelligent, 

this will be best of all, < 

tell me what he is saying, 
tell the groom to get the 
horse ready, 



insdn *akl ddrady haiwdn na, 

' az ru,e lutf mard sifdrish 

ndma bi-dih'ed. 
az aar-i-lutj mard sifdrish 

ndma marhamat bi-kuned. 
ba'kalam-i-bad chird shumd 

mt-nawtsed ? 
az in kar du td kuddm bihtar 

ast? 
man az tu *amal khipdham 

girift o hado khwdhatn 

ddd, 
an jd raftan-i'Shumd zarur 

nist, 
* dar Him khuh wdkif asL 
az Him khub mahdratydfta 

ast. 
dar Him khub mahdrat 

ddrad, 
bisiydr 'dlim ast o tez-fahm. 

in [bihtarin-i-hama^ khwdh- 
ad bud, [az hamabihtarJ] 
hi-go ki o chi rni-goyad, 
mihtar-rd bi-go ki asp taiydr 
bi'kunad. 



Exercise. — In a country of Kashmir a certain merchant 
had an Abyssinian slave whose skin was as black as 
charcoal. One day in the winter season the slave took 
off his clothes, and having taken up some snow, he began, 
with great labour, to rub it on his body. During this, 
his master came that way, and having seen this curious 
circumstance, said, " What are you doing here ? " The 

* experience, wdkif kdri; tajriba kdrJ. 



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PROGRESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



165 



slave answered, " I am rubbing my body with snow, so 
that I may become white like the people of this country." 
His master, laughing^ said, '^ fool, do not labour in 
vain ; your body may, indeed, dissolve the snow, but 
your skin will not thereby become white," 



Lesson 36. 



I also wish to go out, 



why do yon climb the tree ? 

when will you be able to 

depart ?^ 
is the saddle on the horse. 

or not ? 
we will return in a few 

minutes, 
if dinner be ready, bring it, 

give my compliments to 

your master, 
do you know this man ? 
he has acquired much 

science, 
he has amassed much wealth, 



fman mi'khyoaham hi betUn 

bi-ravam, 
1 man ntz berun rajtan mi- 

khwdharn, 
I mard ntz trdda,e berun 

raftan asL 
man kkwdkish-i-bei'un raftan 

ddram, 
chird ba dirakht bar ml- 

dyed, 
kai judd ahudan khyodhed 

tawdnisU 
bar asp zin [^basta"] ast yd 

na ? [karda shudaJ] 
md dar chand [daktkd] bdz 

khwdhem dmad. [ZaAj?a. j 
agar [«Aam] taiydr ast 

biydr. [ihurish, ibJ^irf^kJ] 
[8aldm\i-man ba sdhib-i- 

khud bi'dih. [ta^lim.'] 
ahumd in mard^rd mt^ddned ? 
o bisiydr Him f^dsil karda 

ast, 
bisiydr daulat jamxC karda 

ast. 



* To leave a person, az hose [jvddl^ shudan. [^rukhsat'] 
To leave a town, az shahre rul^at shvdan* 



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166 PROGRESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 

come, let us two have some btyd, hi md har du hdham 

talk, - ffufi-gii hi-hunem. 

will one horse be able to dyd in kadr bdr-i-girdn yak 

draw so great a weight ? asp mt-tawdnad kashid ? 
you go on, we are coming, ahfmd pesh hi-raved, ki md 

\ha7a\ miydyem. [dar'pai,'\ 
these things are come from oe waldyaUi-farang In chtz* 

Europe, hd rasida and ? 

, , ,, .^ ( md kujd shah ha sar hi- 

, ^. X 1 X f Uhdlmd-rdJursat-uhdzintsU 

we have no tmie to play at \ .^'^.^ ^ jursat^Mzt na 

P^^^^^*' ( 'ddrm. 

Exercise. — One day an ox was grazing in a field in 
which several young frogs were playing. By chance one 
of the young frogs was crushed under the foot of the ox, 
and died. The other frogs having seen this, went home, 
and having told their mother what had occurred, they 
then said, '^ mother, we never before saw so large an 
animal." On hearing this, the old frog, having distended 
her belly very much, said, "Is he as large as this?" 
The young ones replied, " Assuredly, he is much larger 
than that." She then, having distended herself twice as 
much, said, " Is he so large ? " They answered, " O 
mother, he is a thousand times larger." The old frog, 
however, through pride, continued to distend her body 
more and more, till at last her skin burst, and she died. 



Lesson 37. 

he has scalded his foot, o pd,e M-Ud-rd ha dh-i- 

sozdnida asL 



pa,e i 
[garm'] 
[ddgii ; 



josh.] 

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PROGBESSIYS LESSONS ANP BXEBCISES. 



167 



all these knives are rusty, { ^^^J^ fj^iftl"^ ^^^^""^ 
these children are scream- In bachchagdn hama ruz 

ing all day, [shor o g hut] mUkunand, 

[ ff kau ff hd.j 
we were seeking for this all md tamdm ruz bard,e in 

day, ' just o ju ddshtem. 

have you sealed your letter? di/d ibatX-i-hh^d'-rd muhr 

[harda ed\ ? \zada ed."] 
our house is shaded with Midna^e md dar zer-i'Sat/Uye 

trees, diraihUhd ast, 

it is raining, give us shelter, aknun bdrdn mt-bdrad, mdrd 

pandhe bi-^ih, 
go forward there, and stand an jd pesh bi-rau o ba 

still, ihdmoskl btyist. 

bring out these things from az 'amdrl^e rawdnin cktz-hd 

the palki, btydr. 

speak loud, then I shall hear ba dwdz-i-buland bi-^go hi 

you, bi-shinavam. 

what do you call that in an ehtz-rd dar zabdn-i'fdrst 

Persian ? chi mi-goyed 7 



Exercise, — ^From the house of a certain person, a bag of 
rupees was stolen. The owner of the money gave in- 
formation to the judge of that city. The judge im- 
mediately called before him all the people of the house ; 
but after much investigation he was unable to detect the 
thief. At last he said to them, '^ This night I will give 
each of you a stick one cubit in length, and it will so 
happen that the stick of him who is the thief will become 
one inch longer than those of the rest." Having thus 
spoken, the judge gave each a stick, and dismissed them. 
During the night, the thief being afraid, said to himself, 
" If I cut off one inch from my stickj in the morning it 
will be of the same length with the rest." Thus, having 
considered, he cut off an inch from his stick, and next 



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168 



PROGRESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



day attended, along with the others. The judge, having 
looked ^t the sticks, thus discovered the thief. 



Lesson 38. 



set up something as a shelter 
from the sunshine, 

he agreed with me this 
time, 

you exercise yourself in 
writing and readings 



on hearing this news they 
were much frightened. 



how much indigo will this 
chest contain ? 



they are all offended with 
one another. 



bard,e tdhtah-i'dfidhpandhe 

bar dr. 
in wakt barman muwdjik 

dmad, 
in wakt ba rd,e man 

[muwdfihi'] shud. [muttO' 

dar nawiahtan t> khwdndan 

Mkud-rd mashdk bi-adz, 
, az ahuntdan - 1 - in-ibabar 
eahdn taraldand, 
az ahunidan't' in-khabar 
[darhdlat-i-pareahdnt dm^ 
adarhd], [dar hdlaUi-izti- 
rdb dmadand; dahahat 
wa pareahdni bar oahdn 
muataull ahvd, or iatild 

' dar in sanduk cki kadr nil 

HcWdhad ganjtd ? 
' dar in sanduk cki kadr nil 
khwdhad dmad 7 
% sanduk cki kadr nil 
ijiyydkad girift. 
hama az ^ak digar [kkafa'] 
ahuda and. lahakar 
raw/.] 



to vex, pareakdn kardan. 



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PROGRESSIVE LESS0N6 AND EXEROISES. 169 

tell the coachman not to kdlishahdn-rd bi-go hi chan- 
drive so quick, dan [zud^ na rdnad, [tez 

or tund.'\ 
I md batnakr ofareh az dckst-i- 
l dushman [rihd shitdaem]. 
we have escaped from the ) [7^hd,t ydfta em ; jdn ha 
hands of the enemy, \ aaldmat hurda ^m, J 

[ md az dasUi-dushman ha 
\ htla kkalds shuda em. 
the whole city has been tamdm ahahr [fftarjc^ shuda 
flooded, ' ast. [^giiartk ; daryd 

hurdJ] 
put these two trays to- in har du kdh-rd ha ham 

gether, hi-guzdr, 

with this our joy will be * hadin khusht^e md ziydda 
increased, khwdhad ahvd. 

Exercise, — ^A certain person having a pain in the 
stomach went to a physician, and said, " For God's sake, 
doctor, give me some physic, otherwise I die from a pain 
in the stomach." The doctor asked him what he had 
eaten that day. The man said, "Merely a piece of 
burnt bread.** On hearing this, the doctor said, " Let 
me look at your eyes." Then, having called one of his 
servants, he said, ** Bring me the medicine for the eyes." 
The sick man, on hearing this, screamed out, " O doctor, 
is this a time for your joking ? I am dying from a pain 
in the stomach, and you talk of medicine ^r the eyes. 
What connexion is there between medicine for the eyes 
and a pain in the stomach ?" The doctor replied, " I 
wish, in the first place, to make your eyes sound, for it 
is evident that you are unable to distinguish between 
black and white, othei'wise you would never have eaten 
burnt bread." 

* joy, skddmdnt; farah; khurramt : ^arah; mubdsatat; 
imbisdi; nishdi. 



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170 



F&OOB£8SIVB LESSONS AND EXEBCISES. 



Lesson 39. 



we liave much I'educed our 

expenditure, 
this money must be sent 

back to him, 

the commander-in-chief has 
pardoned a soldier, 

rule your paper, then write, 



all the people have died 
with hunger, 

they have fallen one upon 
another, 

splice these two ropes to- 
gether, 

they live in great affliction, 
or through much toil, 

he has built a house on the 
bank of the Euphrates, 

he drove the chariot two 
parsang, when one of the 
wheels broke. 



md kharck-i'khud-rd hiaiydr 

ta khf tfkarda em. 
In pul ba o ^arur wapas 

hdyad kard. 
' sipah'Sdldr az taksir-i'Stpd' 

hiyB dar guzdskta <z8t, 
6ipah'8dldr 8ipdht,e'rdTnu^df 

karda asU 
kdg&az - i -MsMd-rd awwal 

[miatar bi-kun] pas hi" 

ncojoia. [khaW hi-kcLshJ] 
hama mardumdnaz [^rstn- 

<igi murdd] and. \Ju* 

hajdn dmadaJ] 
eshdn [dar-ham^uftdda and. 

\har yak digarJ\ 
m har du rasaan-rd hd-ham 

dtgar hi-paiwand, 
ha miknat-o-mashakkat-i' 

hiaiydr eahdn guzrdn mi^ 

kunand. 
ha lab - t - daryd,e fardiy 

^imdrate ta*mir karda aaU 
Vad az rdndan-i-duparaang^ 

yake az pdyahd^e kdliaka 

[ahikaaC\. [har dmad.'\ 



Exercise. — Two women were quarrelling with one 
another about a child, and neither of them had any 
witness. Having gone before the judge, the one con- 
tinued saying, ^* The child is mine ; " and the other also 
was saying, " The child is mine, O your worship, give 
me justice." The judge, being helpless, sent for the 
executioner, and said to him, *^ Of this child make two 



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PBOGBESSIYE LESSONS ANB EXERCISES. 



171 



pieces, and give one to each of these women." On 
hearing the order of the jadge, the executioner drew the 
sword, and was about to cut the child in two. During 
this, one of the women stood still, and said nothing, but 
the other woman, weeping aloud, said, " O sir, do not 
kill my child ; if such is justice, I give up my claim. 
For God's sake give her the child." On hearing this, 
the judge became convinced that this indeed is the real 
mother. To her he gave up the child ; and to the other 
woman having given punishment, he ordered his people 
to expel her from the country. 



Lesson 40. 



why should we run away, 
there is no danger there ? 



he has abandoned his late 
friends, 



they went to Europe six 
months ago, 



on hearing a statement of 
this sort, they began to 
laugh, 



gardener, sow the seed of 
this flower in the garden, 



dnjd Ichatra hech nist, pas 

chird md hi-gurezem ? 
doatdn-i'kadim-t'iiiUd'rd 

guzdshta ast 
musdhibat'i'dostdn^u sdhika- 

rd ha dtl-i-HiMd inkdr 

karda asU 
az ydrdnri'Bdbika suhbat kaia' 

karda ast 
pesh az in shish mdh eshdn 

ha mfdk'i'farang raftand. 
'az shunidan-i'in suiianhd, 

[^bunyddyt'khanda nihd- 

dand. [hind,'] 
h*adaz shunidan-i'in chunin 

suiianhd eshdn khandl- 

dan [^giriftand], [aghdz 

kardand ; agii^dz nihad" 

and ; shwni^ kardand^ 
ai hdghhdn dar bdgh 

[pikhm]'i'%n gulb i-kr. 

\hazr; hasrJ] 



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172 



PROGRESSIVE LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



he has taught us with great 
labour, 

by the grace of God we 
have found repose, 

it is very cloudy, perhaps 
it will rain much, 

he has amassed much wealth 

and property, 
in this house there is a hall 

and three rooms, 

how long is it since you re- 
ceived this news ? 



o md-rd ha miknaUi-hisiydr 

\jLmokhta\ ast. [^dars 

ddda.^ 
md az fazl-i'MkU'dd dram 

ydfta em. 
imriiz hisiydr [sahdhi] ast^ 

shay ad biaiydr bdrdn 

khwdhad bdrid. [cdfr 
- muhtty or abr muhtt-i- 

dsmdn.2 
o bisiydr daulat o mdljama* 

karda ast, 
dar in J^dna yak ddldn o si 

hujra and. 
chand wakt ast ki in akkbdr 

ba shumd rastda ast ? 
Vad az dn ki in akhbdr 

giriftedy chand wakt guz- 

ashta ast? 



Exercise. — ^A fox having seen a crow sitting on the 
branch of a tree, with a fln6 piece of cheese in his mouth, 
began to think in her own heart, " How shall I get this 
delicious morsel into my own possession ?" She then 
said aloud, '* O Master Crow, I am quite delighted to see 
you this morning : your elegant figure and black feathers 
have entirely fascinated my heart. Will you sing to me 
one of your charming songs, so that the pleasure of my 
ears may be like that of my eyes ?" On hearing this 
flattery, that foolish crow opened his mouth that he 
might show his skill in music. As soon as he opened his 
mouth to sing, the piece of cheese fell upon the ground. 
The fox immediately seized it« and walked away, saying, 
" My dear friend, your voice is a little out of tune to- 
day : pray remain silent till I have gone some distance. 
In the mean time, receive this advice of mine — Never 
pay any attention to the words of those who flatter you.'* 



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PBOORESSITE LES80NS AND EXERCISES. 



173 



Lesson 41. 



they live with their parents, 

we have taken a walk on ' 
the bank of the river, ^ 

for how much will you sell 
(this) to my master ? . 



is there anything t9 be had 
there for eating and^ 
drinking ? 



are you at all aware where 

they are gone ? 
remain here until we return, 

the knife fell from my hand 
into the river, 



eshdn hd wdlidain^i-khud 

mt'fndnand, 
' ha lab'i'daryd md [^gashta^ 

em. [gardtda.'] 
^ ba sdMUi-^aryd md [«afr] 

karda em, [tamdsha.'] 
ba [sdhib~\-'i''mxin ba chatid 

Icimxit In rd kkwdhed fa- 

roJshjt ? * \wali n'imat ; 

murabbi ; kjmddwand-i- 

n*imat,'] 
yd hech chtz bard,e khur- 

dan o naushidan hdsil mU 

dyad ? 
dyd hech chtz bardie khurdan 

o naushidan [muyassar 

mUshavad] ? \ba-ham wi- 

rastd ; dast ydb misha- 

vad."] 
hech m^alumat ast hi hama 

kujd rafta and ? 
hamin jd [^j-man] td hi md 

bdz bi-gardem. \bdsh.'\ 
kdrd az dast-i-man [dar] 

daryd uftdd, [ba,'] 



^ to walk to see anything, bardie sair raftan, 

to walk, or ti-avel, for amusement, aair kardan. 
■ heir apparent, wali,e 'ahd. 



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174 PROGBESSIVE LESSONS AND EXEBCISES. 

in speaking Persian, onr dar mihan guftan-uzabdn- 
general fault is in not i-fdrsi kusur-i-md in ast 
pronoancing each in- hi md hasbu-l-ma^mul har 
dividual letter fuUj, lafz ha tafrti talaffuz na 

mi'kunem, 
a man who cannot speak the ^ shdkfyse Jd dar diydre sulcu- 
language of the people nat pazir skuda bdshad 
among whom he sojourns wa zabdn-i-ahliydn-i'dn 
maj sometimes be in mulk na ddnadj pas 
danger of starving, tarsast ki shdyad az [^r- 

ainagt] kkwdhad murd, 
\be dzuka.'\ 
he tells you to speak to him o mUgoyad ki dar zahdn-i- 
in his own language, man bi-go. 

Exercise, — A certain washerman had an ass, which he 
used to let go in a garden for the purpose of grazing. 
The people of the gai-den used to beat the ass, and drive 
him away from thence. One day, the washerman 
fastened around him a tiger's skin, and said, " At the 
time of night go you into the garden to graze, and do not 
make any noise." Even so, every night the ass in the 
tiger's skin used to go into the garden. Whenever the 
people saw him by night, they used to think for certain 
that this was a tiger. One night the gardener himself 
saw him, and from fear he went up into a tree. In the 
mean time, another ass which was in that neighbourhood 



' do you live there ? shumd dn jd sukHnat pazir hasted 7 

( dnjd sukunat pazir ast. 

he lives there, < dn jd o maskan ddrad. 

{^dnjd maskan-i-o ast. 

^ in kitdb mard pazir ast. 

T v\r fi^* \^ \r j*^ kitdb mard matluh ast, 
X iiKe tnis DooK, < ^^ ^.^-^ ^^^. ^^;^- j ^^^ 

[^ in kitdh^rd pasand ddram. 



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PROORESSIVE LESSONS AND EXEBCISES. ^ 175 

made a noise, and the ass of the washennan, on hearing 
that, also: raised his voice, and began to bray in the 
manner of all asses. The gardener, on hearing his noise, 
discovered what he was. He came down from the tree, 
and having thoroughly beaten the ass, he drove him out 
of the garden. Hence, on this subject the wise men have 
said, " For asses silence is best." 



^.yitized by Google 



176 



A LIST OF USEFUL WORDS. 



an axe, 


tabar. 


baker, 


iiabbaz; ndnpaz; nan hd. 


button, 


tukma; dukma; gira. 


bald, 


kal; daghsar; dagk-sar. 


bath, 


hammdm. 


basin, 


(metallic) pasht ; lagan ajtdha; 




(baked clay) kdsa. 


99 


(holder) tasht ddr. 


bed furniture, 


raiht'i'ihwdb. 


bedstead, 


khwdb-gdh ; chahdr pd,e. 


bed. 


bistar. 


blanket, 


chddar-i'pashmtna. 


basket, 


(wicker) sapad ; (grass) gtra. 


bracelet, 


dastina; dastwdna; 'alankii dost; 




mfzad. 


bottle, 


(glass) shisha; Qiig)kuza; (earthen- 




ware) surdht. 


broom, 


miknasat ; jdrub; jd-ru; ruftan-rub. 


bellows. 


minfaMk ; tannur-tab. 


butcher. 


kassdb. 


bundle. 


basta; dasta. 


bag (leathern). 


ambdn or amhdna; (carpet) iiMrjtn. 


canvas. 


palds. ' 


coat. 


kabd ; durrd*aL 


coat (great). 


farghul ; labdda. 


china-ware, 


kdsa'Chim. 


cup. 


finjdn ; piydlu ; tas ; jdm / (goblet) 




kadafk. 


chair. 


kursu 


chair bfench, 


sandali; (bench) sandal. 


counterpane. 


lihaf. 


cork, 


disdm; saddd-i-agidr. 


cork (screw), 


peck. 


carpet. 


farsh; giltm; bisdi; (prayer) sij- 




jdda ; (decapitation) nat'. 



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A LIST OP USEFUL WORDS. 



177 



clothes, 



cord, 
candle, 

99 

chandler, 
candlestick, 



pdrcha; Itbds; poshdk;Jdma; hiswat; 
(patched) Jchirka ; dalk ; jdmaye 
zhanda; dalk-i-murakka ; (honour) 
kiil'at; (religious) ii^rdm. 

rismdn. 

shama' ; kandiL 

(wax) 8ha7na\e mumu 

shama* sdz. 

shama* ddn. 



cloth. 


pdrcha ; taka ; (broad) mdhut ; 




(striped) ^Mre/; (brocade) rfi^a^ ; 




(damask) dibd; (dimity) dcmit/di; 




{thick) jdma,e hanguft. 


cooking-pot, 


deg ; mrf-i-pujchtan (sing.) 
1 . zuruf-i'puklktan (plur.) 


cook, 


ashpaz; tabbdih. • 


crumb. 


reza,e ndn. 


chapter (of a book), 


bdb;fasL 


corn, 


^alla. 


cotton, 


pumba. 


compliments, 


saldm ; du'a o saldm. 


cupboard, 


paimdna-gdh ; ganj'tna ; tdk-i-pai- 




mdna. 


door. 


dar ; darwdza ; bdb. 


ewer, 


ibrtk. 


engraver, 


kalam-kdr; hakhdk. 


envelope. 


lifdfa. 


furniture. 


sdmdn'i'khdnagt ; kjidnumdn; IsMn- 




mdn; rakht-i-kidna. 


fan, 


bdd-zan; bdd-kask ; mirwaha. 


fire- works, 


naft-anddzt ; dtash bdzu 


firewood. 


hezum ; hima. 


fire, 


dtash ; ndyirat; (flame) zabdna ; 




(spark) akhgar; shardr ; dtash^ 




para ; ghuncha,s arghawan. 


gutter. 


hadar-rau; ndv-ddn. 


glass-ware, 


db-gun. 




12 



,yit,zed by Google 



178 


A -LIST OP USEFUL WORDS. 




grocer, 


bakkdL 




gum, 


samagh; samagh-i-ardbu 




glove. 


dast tdba; dost afrdz ; dastdna; 
dastposh. 




house, 


C (master of) kaUMvadd; kad-klwdd; 
( 8dhib-t-huka\ 




99 


(hold) khdnddn ; (estahlishment) 
lawdhik-i-thana. 




host, 


tnezbdn ; sdMb-i-da^waU 




hospitality, 


mihmdnu 




hat, 


kuldh. 




hammer. 


chdkiif ; chakush; mitrakaU 




hand-saw. 


dast-ar. 




hand-mill. 


dast as. 




hotel, inn, 


8ard,e; ihdn; umrud-gdh ; farod-- 
gdh;^ ribdt. 




kitchen. 


matbaich. 




knife, 


(clasp) chdku ; (table) kdrd. 




» 


(pen) kalam tardsh. 




•key, 


kalid; miftdh. 




light, 


roshani ; nur. 




leaf. 


(of a book) warak. 




)> 


(•f a tree) barg. 




letter (of 


condol- ta^ziyat ndma. 




ence), 






lock, 


kufl. 




» 


(pad) kufl-t-rumu 




99 


(intricate) kufl^i-waswds. 




match, 


kibrtt. 




mat. 


boriyd; hasir. 




mirror, 


dytna ; db-gtna ; sajanjal. 




nail, 


mekh; mismdr. 




needle, 


suzan. 




naphtha. 


nafi. 




napkin. 


dastmdlcha ; dasUjchwdn, 




oven, 


tannur ; (stove) tun ; mankal ; 
dtask'tdb. 





A LIST 


OP USEFUL wbllDS. 179 


pocket, 


jih; within the pocket, tu^e jtb. 


potsherd, 


"khazaf-reza. 


pot (flower), 
earthen vessel, 


\ ihazaf; sifdlin. 


potter, 


Jskazafi; sifdUgar ; gil-gar. 


^ pincers. 


minkdsh. 


pitcher, 


sabu; khum. 




1 ' dihliz-ukhdna, 
\ pesh-gdh. 


portico. 


pipe, 


(water) dh-rah; mtzdb ; mirzdh; 




(tube) lula. 


pantry, 


rtkdb-kkdna ; tasht-ddr Jshdna. 


pin. 


sanjdk. 


a porter, 


hdmil; hdmmdL 


paste, 


sirUh. 


pencil. 


kalam-i'Surb ; aiydhi'ddr kalam ; 




kalam'i-stydk t-ddr. 


papa. 


pdpd. 


pope. 


rim papa. 


i-azor. 


ustura. 


stick (walking), 


chub'i'dastu 


stafl; 


'asd. 


scissors. 


mikrdz. 


saucer, 


nalbaki; tabakcha; ttshtari. 


shirt, 


pairdhan; kamis. 


scale, 


mtzdn; iardzu; (beam) shdhxn; 




(pan) kafa. 


sheet, 


chddar. 


screen, 


parda. 


shade, 


fdnua. 


sash^ 


kamar-band; miydn-band. 


shawl. 


ahdl. 


skirt (of dress), 


ddman. 


satin, 


atlas. 


silk. 


db-resham ; db-reshtm ; harlr; ihazz ; 




(painte<l)/>flrni^an; (stuff) wasjiA. 


sock, 


jurdb ; pd-tdba, 

. . . . r^ f„ 



, — ' 

180 A LIST OF USEFUL WORDS. 


Signature, 


dast'ihati ; sahth. 


sack, 


juwdl ; juwdlif. 


a scribe, 


kdtih ; namaanda ; mu^rrir. 


seal, 


muhr. 


slate. 


lauh. 


spring (of water). 


ab-Miez; chashma. 


screw (turn). 


pech-kaah. 


towel, 


dast-mdl ; badan-i-Jckushk kun. 


turban. 


dastar ; 'amdma. 


trousers. 


Shalwdr; pd,ejdma; zer-jama. 


title (of a book). 


ism-i-kitdb. 


tape, 


naJch; fit 


tavern. 


mai-kada; khum-fchdna ; Miflrdhat. 


table (cloth), 


eufra. 


tray. 


khwdn ; khwdncha. 


9) 


(cover) Jcltwdn-posh. 


threshold, 


dstdna. 


thread. 


rishta. 


tumbler. 


tsttkdn. 


loots. 


auzdr ; dost ajrdz. 


tongs. 


dast-pdndh ; ambur» 


tailor. 


hhaydt. . 


velvet, 


makhmal. 


vessel. 


zarf, (plur.) zaruf. 


window. 


ghurfa ; daricka. 


wool, 


pashm. 


ward-robe, 


pesh'-pd. 


wheat. 


gandum; (stalks), darakhUi-gan' 




dum. 


washerman. 


gdzur. 


to arrange, 


bar chidan. 


to bathe. 


ghusl kardan. 


5> 


(another) ghusl dddan. 


to knock at the door. 


dar zadan ; kalka.e dar zadan. 


to light a candle. 


shama^-rd dfrokhtan ; shama^-rd 




roshan dddan. 


to make the bed, 


bistdr gustardan. 



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A LIST OF USEFUL WORDS. 



181 



to put on one's 
clothes, 

I to sew, 

I 

to stitch, 

to spread the table- 
cloth, 
to spin, 
to thread a needle, 

to thread pearls, 

to thread rubies, 
to extinguish a fire, 
to take fire, 
to set fire (to a 
house), 



poshdk poshidan ; lihas dar bar kar- 

dan; Itbds zadan ; jama dar %arw 

bar kardan, 
doihtan, (root) doz ; (to hem) 

sajafkardan. 
aiiidanf (root) akhtn ; (to pipe) 

sahij kardan, 
sufra guzdshtan; or, sufra gustav" 

dan, 
rishtan, (root) rts. 
rishta ba suzan anddHtan ; suzan-rd 

nakh kardan, 
( durr suftan. 
\ durr munsalik kardan, 
Idl munsalik kardan, 
dtash nishdndan. 
dtash girt/tan. 
JchJoLna-rd dtash zadan. 



.,g,t,zedbyUOOgle 



182 



CONVERSATIONAL TERMS. 



Good night ! 

Peace be on you ! 

Good morning ! 

Praised be God ! 

And on you be peace and ( 

the bleesiug of God ! ( 
God bless you ! 
God be with you ! . 
On whom be the peace of 

God! 
Blessing on him ! 
May it be well I 
No, by God ! 

With heart and soul, 

The great and glorious God, 
*In the name of God the 
merciful and. compassion- 
ate ! 
* To God be praise andglory ! 



* There is no power, 
virtue, but in God, 



nor 



masdfU^l'khatr / 
aaldm *alaikum ! 
sabdhu-l'khair / 
al hamdu'li'lldh ! 
'alaikumU'S-saldm o 

rahmatu4-ldh I 
khudd hdfiz-i-shumd ! 
khudd hamrdh-i'Shumd I 
rahmatu'l'ldhi ^alaihi! 

'alaiht'S-saldm ! 
khair bdshad f 
Id wa-l'ldh ! 
ha jdn o dil. 
ha ^ar o chashm. 
ha chashm, 
ha jdn o minnaU 
khudd^e 'azza wa jalla* 
hismi -I- Idhi - r - rahmani- r- 
rahim I 

li'l-ldhi'l'hamdu wa-Umin- 

natu! 
Id haula wa Id kuwata ilia 

bi-l-ldhu 



^ These expressions are in common use. As they are 
at once common and peculiar they are given in character. 



iuuSI ^ «3^i ^ 

^ ^ '^ 



dbyGoogk 



CONYEBSATIONAL TEB2IS. 183 

The student should note : — 

(a) The use of wasla, 

(b) The use oifatha, as a final termination, in the 

words azza^ jalla, haula, kuwata. 

(c) The use of zamma, as a final teimination, in the 

words, hamdUf minnatu. 

(d) That 4l)i is pronounced as alldh ; that 4) li-l'lahi 

is contracted from aUV, in respect to which the 

following remark is important : — 

" When the particle J is prefixed to a noun 
beginning with J, which, when definite, ought 
to have the article : the initial alij of the noun 
disappears, and (in order to avoid the meetiug 
of three J*8) the laud of the article is dispensed 
with, or represented by tashdxd,^ 



d by Google 



184 



SECTION m. 



Lesson 43. — Ok Breakfast. 

aabaf: chihil o stwum dar ndshtd. 



get the breakfast equipage 
ready, 

toast some bread, and butter 
it properly, 

does the water boil ? 

give me a clean cup and 

naucer, 
give that gentleman another 

cup of tea, 

make it strong enough ; and 
by putting in it plenty of 
milk and sugar you will 
always make it good, 
provided the water be 
actually boiling, 

bring the cold meat, fowl, 
ham, tongue, salt fish, 
rice, and split pease in 
the twinkling of an eye, 



give me a cup of coffee and 
a little more sugar, 



^ lawdzima^e chdsht taiydr 

j sdmdn wa asbdh'i'chdsht 
\ bi'Sdz, 
fcadre ndn ha dtask garm 
bi-kun ha khub tarah 
maska-ash bi-mdL 
( ay a db bajosh mt-dyad? 
\ dyd db mt-joshad ? 
finjdn nalbake sdf mard 

bi'dih, 
an sdhib^rd Jtnjdn-i-digar 
azchdbt'dih. bardyednsd- 
hibyah finjdn-i'Chd biydr. 
chd-rdbardbardurust bi-hun^ 
az anddkitan-i'Shir-i- 
bisiydr o shakar hamesha 
khub lazxz ml'-ahavad, 
ha sharte ki db joshida 
bdshad. 
gosht-i-shabina, murgh, ran- 
i-ihuk-i-namak-zaday za- 
bdn, mdht,e namkin, 
khushka o ddl-t-rmin- 
skarik ha chaskm zadan 
hiydr. 
finjdn-i'kahwa o kadre 
(andake) ahakar-i-ziydda 
mard bi-dih. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 185 



boil some eggs, but do not 
let them get hard, 



set the egg-cnps and salt- 
cellar on that side, and 
the tea-pot and cofiee-pot 
here, 



what a blockhead you ai 
to require repeated orders < 
for such things ! 



bring bread, biscuit, sweet- 
meats, cake, &c., 

you know I cannot drink 
tea without cream, 

the bread is very bad, and 
full of sand, 

discharge the baker if he 
ever dare to send such 
bread here. 



chand dandle tuTchm-i' 
murghrrd josh bi-'dihj 
magar dn-rd sakht shudan 
ma dtk. 

chand dandle haiza hi- 
joshdn [^amma mmpukhta 
bdshand] or [awiwa ma 
\ guzdr ki saTsht shavand"], 

tu]slm'i'''nurghrddnha o na^ 
mak'ddn ba dn taraf bi- 
guzdr o chd-'ddno kahwa' 
dan ba in iaraf, 

' chi kadar ahmak ed ! ki 
bardie in chuntn chizhd 
bar bdr hukm mt-khwdked, 
chi 8dn abla ed/ ki bardie 
m chuntn chizhd ahumd' 
rd [bdr bdr hukm dddan 
bdi/ad']. [zarHrat-i-hukm^ 
i-mukarrar bdshad.^ 

nan, kulicha, lau^iydt, nan* 
i'khush^ waghairaf biydr, 

shumd mi-ddned ki chd be 
imdgh na ml-tawdnam 
naushid, 

nan btsiydr bad ast, o pur 
az reg. 

agar ndn^az bdr-i-digar 
jur,at - i 'firistddan - i - 
chuntn ndn bi-kunad^ o-rd 
ma'zul kun,^ 



* Or, mura khkha s bi-kun ; maukufbi-kun. 



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186 lUSCSLLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



' dhe hi az an In chd sdihtf't 
shvda ast bardhar na 
joshtda[mazanamt-dihad\, 
[bi'l-kull maza na ddrad; 
bad fam ast; fam na 
ddrad,'] 
In ddndhd,e tukhm-t-fnurgh 
tdza ntstandy az hi [or 
Jcujd] dwarda ed, siwd^e 
baiza^e -Jchdnagt hargiz 
bar mfra maydr. 



the water with which this 
tea is made has not been 
boiling ; it has no taste 
at ally 

these eggs are not fresh ; 
from whom have you 
brought them? Never 
bring any to the table 
but those that are laid at 
home. 

Exercise, — One night a kdzi found in a book that who- 
ever has a small head and a long beard is a fool. The 
kdzi^ having a small head and a long beard, said to him- 
self, " I cannot increase the size of the head, but I will 
shorten the beard." He sought for scissars, but could 
not find them. Having no other course, he took half his 
beard in his hand, and carried the other half towards the 
lamp : when the hair took fire, the fames reached his 
hand ; upon which, letting go his hold, the beard was 
entirely consumed, and the Jidzl overwhelmed with shame, 
as it verified what was written in the book. 



almond. 


bdddm. 


apple, 


seb.. 


apricot, 


zarddlu. 


beet-root, 


chu ghundur ; pdzhu» 


burrage, 


pudlna. 


capers, 


turuahx^e kabar. 


cherry, 


dlU'bdlu. 


citron, 


turunj. 


cocoa-nut, 


\' ndrjiL 

\ jauZ'Uhindu 


cress (water). 


tara,e tezak. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND SXEBCISES. 187 


cuny, 


kaurma. 


date, 


ihurma ; (green, ripe) rutah^ pi. ariab. 


fig, 


anjir. 


fruit, 


mewa; samr. 


garlic, 


sir. 


grape, 


angur ; (bunch of) ihusha,e angur; 




(small bunch) tilinga,e angur. 


herb (odoriferous) 


rihdfiy (plur.) riydhln. 


kernel, 


ma^. 


leek, 


ganddna. 


lemooi 


limu ; (lime) limu,e kdgiazu 


mango. 


amba. 


melon. 


(musk) iharhuza; (water) hindu* 




wdna. 


mushroom, 


kdrch. 


nectarine, 


hulu. 


onion. 


piydz. 


orange. 


iurunj. 


pea. 


bdkildye musK 


peach, 


shaft dlu. 


pear. 


ndshpati. 


pepper, 


(white) filfiUi-ahia^ ; (red) Jilfil-i' 




surih; (black) filja-i-aswad. 


pickles. 


turush. 


plum. 


dlu ; (mogul) bdlu-zard. 


pomegranate. 


andr; rumdn. 


quince. 


bih. 


shell. 


post'i'jauz. 


thjrme. 


ipdr ; tarihUn. 


i walnuts. 


gtrdu ; (peeled) magiz - i - jauz 


1 

1 


girdu. 


an omelette. 


Hkdglna. 


flour. 


drd. 


tolajap^egg. 


tuUm dddan ; tuUm nihddan. 




( ha stih hardan ; kabdh kardan. 
' gusht kofta ba stih, nihddan. 


to roast, 


to fry, 


biriydn sdkjtan. 



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188 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISBS* 



to poach an egg, 
to fry an egg, 
raw, 
cooked, 



haiza gawaza kardan, 
baiza nlmru kardan* 
khdm. 
pukhta. 



Lesson 44.— On Dinneb. 



sahak chihil o ckdhdrum dar ta'dm. 



tell the cook to have the 
dinner ready at three 
. o'clock, 

sir, dinner is ready, 

where is tlie soup and the 
soup-spoon ? 

bring a hot- water plate, some 
bread, potatoes, greens, 
asparagus, cabbage, cauli- 
flowers, turnips, carrots, 
cucumbers, 

let me have a clean plate, 
knife, fork, spoon, salt, 
mustard, vinegar, pepper, 
horse-radish, olive-oil, 
sauce, and everything of 
this sort, 

let me have of every sort 
of vegetable on the table 
daily, and tell me the name 
of each, 

what do you call that vege- 
table ? 



[^ash paz'\'rd hukm bt^ih ki 
.khurdk'i-sham ba wakUu 
sd^at'i-st taiydr bi'kunad, 
[tahbdkh ; mutdbbikfL] 

sdhibdj sham taiydr asU 

shorba o kaskiiffk-i-shorba 
kujd ast ? 

hishkaP-i-db't-gann, kadre 
nan, dlUj sabza, asfardj, 
karam^kalla, karam-kal' 
la,e shuguftay shalgham^ 
gazar, k^iydr, biydr, 

az bardie man bnshkdb-i-sdf, 
kdrd, changaly kashu g h , 
namakf khardil^ sirka, 
filfil, tttrb-i'tezy raugkari' 
uzaity turshi o waghaira 
az in kism biydr, 

kar ruz az bardie man bar 
sufra sabza^e har kism 
bi-guzdr, o az ndm-i-har 
chtz nishdn bi-dih. 

dn baklat-rd chi mt-goyed? 



.,git,zedbyLjOOg[e 



MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXBBCISES. 189 



get one dressed for me 
every ^daj, and tell me 
the name of each as I 
eat it, till you see I can 
call for everything of this 
sort hy its proper name, 

do so with everything else, 
as this will he a capital 
plan for learning and 
digesting this useful 
tongue, being at once a 
meal and a lesson, 

bring some beef, mutton, 
veal, fish, fowl, and veni- 
son, 



can you dress Peraian 
dishes well? 



what fruits are in season 
now ? bring me some of 
each sort, 

to-morrow we shall dine in 
the country, send every- 
thing in time, 

will this meat keep so long 
in this weather ? 



now you may all depart, 
you have leave, 



har ruz bard,e man yake hi" 
paz, ha wakt-i-kkurdan' 
t-o az ndmaah nishdn hi-dth 
td ki ha shumd rrCalum 
shavad ki man nam-t-tn 
guna chiz hardhar giri/tan 
mi'tawdnam, 

ha har chiz ham hadin taur 
bi-kun, zxrd ki hard^e a- 
mokhtan o ydd ddshtan-i^ 
zahdn-i^muftdhisiydr khub 
tajwize khwdhad bud, ki 
ham sahak o ham tahak ast, 

kadre gUshUi^gdw, gusht-i- 
gusfandj gushUi^gusdla^ 
gusht - 1 - mdhi, gusht - 1 - 
murgh, wa gusht -i-dhu 
biydr, 

shumd tcCdm chu ahl-i^fdrs 
ha tarah'i'khUh mi^ta- 
wdned pukht? 

[mauaim - 1 - kvddm mewd 
ast?'] kadre az har kism 
biydr. [m wakt mewd^n 
kuddm kdsm rasida bdsh- 
ad?] 

fardd heruti'-i^shahr sham 
khwdhem khurd^ har chiz 
{_bar wakt] hi-Jirist. [Ja 
wakt.] 

dyd dar in mauaim in goaht 
td ha in ^adar der tdza 
Mwdhad mdnd? 

ilhdl shumd hi-ravedy rukh- 
sat ast. 

in wakt shumd taahrif bi^ 
hared^ mura khkh ased. 

.„it,zed by Google 



190 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXSRCISB8. 



Exercise. — A pei-son said to his serraBt, " If you see 
two crows together earlj in the morning, apprize me of 
it, that I maj also hehold them, as it will he a erood omen, 
wherehy I shall pass the whole day pleasantly." In 
short, the servant saw two crows in one place : he in- 
formed his master ; but when the latter came, he saw 
only one, the other haying flown away. He was very 
angry, and began to beat the servant ; at which time a 
friend sent him some victuals. The servant said, ^' O my 
lord I you saw only one crow, and have obtained victuals ; 
had you seen two, you would have got a beating." 

Lesson 4o. — On Naming, Telling, Speaking, &c 

sabak chihil o panj dar ndmldan o guftdn. 



what is the name of this ? 
what do you call this thing ? 

what do they call that in 

Persian ? 
can you tell me where Mr. 

lives ? 

tell me the name of this in 
your own language, 

do not tell any one what I 
said to you about that 
book) 



he would not tell me which 
of the two was yester- 
day's or to-morrow's 
lesson, 



ndm^i-tn chtz chist ? 
shumd in chtz-rd cht [mi- 

goyed ?] [mi-ndmed,'] 
dn-rd dar zahdn-i'-fdrst chi 

mUgoyand ? 
mard mi-tawdned guff l-t 

sdkib-t-Juldn kujd manzil 

ddrad? 
dar zahdU'i'Mmd mard az 
ndTTiri-in chtz nishdn bi-dih, 
az hdhat-i'dn kitdb dnchi ba 

tu gufiam ba kase ma go, 

/marzi,e o na bud hi bi^oyad 
az tn har dii sabak kuddm 
sabak't^iruza bud, yd 
hiddm sabak - t "fardd 
khwdhad bud. 

^ ^ ba man guftan na mi- 
ihwdhady ki az In har du 
kuddm sabajc-i'dtruza, o 
kuddm az fardd khwdhad 
bud. 



dbyGoogte 



MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



191 



your servant does not mind 
what you say to him, 



tell him he is a great rogue, 
and that he is always 
telling his master no end 
of lies. 



well, I will not speak to 
him, as I may get angry 
and beat him ; but give 
him his wages and dis- 
miss him. 



what did he say when you 
told him to remain till I 
returned ? 

he said he had business, and 
could not possibly remain, 

did you ask him of what 
nature the business 
was ? 

yes, I did ask ; but he said 
it was an af&ir of secrecy 
which he could not 
divulge, 



' ba dnchi ahumd mt-'goyed 
naukar - t - shumd muta- 
wajjih nlat 

' naukar-t'-shumd bar hukm^i' 
shumd [mutawajjih na 
mi'8hava(f\, [khaydl na 
mi-dihad; gosh na mi' 
dihad.^ 
o-rd bu-go ki tu bisiyr 
aubdshi wa hamesha a 
sdkib'i'kkud \darogh, az 
hadd ziydda mt-goyt'\. 
[daftar -i- darogh m%» 
kushd^iJ] 

bisiydr khub^ man -ba o 
sukhan na khwdham kard 
az in sabab ki skdyad 
khashmndk shavam, o o-rd 
bi-zanam ; ammd shumd 
o-rd muwdjib-ashbi-dihedf 
rukhsat kuned, 

chi gufty wakte ki shumd 
hukm ddded ki td bdz 
gashtan-i-man [injdbdsh'] 
or [bi-mdn']* 

guft ki mard [)fcar] ast, o 
mannamt'tawdnam mdnd. 
[^shugile,'] 

az purstded ki kdr^at chi 
bud? 

bale, man az o purstdam, 
lekin guft ki [kdr-i-maJch' 
/t] ast, dn-'rd zdhir na 
mi'tawdnam kard, [aw- 
khan'i'parda.'\ 



^.yitized by Google 



.192 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



they speak English among 
themselves and Persian 
with us, 

they will know him to be 
a foreigner, though he 
speaks tlie Persian very 
grammatically, 

could I speak the Persian 
I would With pleasure; 
but, alas, I cannot join 
two sentences together 
in that tongue, 

you will be able to speak it 
in a few months, and you 
ought to practise speaking 
it with every one who is 
able to tell you how to 
speak it well, 



how much I regret not to be 
able to .understand what 
they say, 

I take the liberty to inform 
you that nothing but 
practice will enable you 
to speak with fluency, 



[^darmtydn - t - kkud-i'Shdn] 
zabdn-i'inglisi . ml-goy- 
and, bd mdfdrsi. [^d- 
ham.'] 

eshdn ihwdhand ddnist hi o 
[yAair mulkl^e] ast agarchi 
zahdn-i-fdrst ha kd^ida 
mi-goyad. \jfhar%bU''U 
watne.'] 

agar zabdn - i -fdrst mi- 
tawdnistam guft ha Jehu- 
shi mt-guftam, ammd 
afsos ! ki dar-dn zabdn 
du jumla bdham na ml' 
tawdnam sdkht. 

dar ^arsa^e chand mdk shumd 
hardhar MkV)dhed tawdnist 
guftj ammd hdyad ki bd 
har sha khs ^e ki az sihhat- 
i - kaldm agdh tawdnid 
namUd mukdlima bi-kuned 
isfimdl-i-maahk'-i'fyxraf 
zadan karda bashed. 

hieiydr ma ghm um am ! ki 
dnchi eshdn mi-farmdyand^ 
bafahm^-manna mt^dyad* 

Qgarchi gustdlcM cisty ha 
shumd izhdr mi-kunam ki 
ha juz mashk dtgar chiz 
tawdndt^e guft-gu • ha 
tarrdri na mUbaHshad. 



Exercise. — A poet went to a rich man, and bestowed 
great praises on him ; at which the latter, being pleased, 
said, " I have not any money at command, but a large 
quantity of grain : if you come again to-moiTOW I will 
give you some*" The poet went home, and early the 
next mpming went again to the rich man, who asked him 



— ^' 



MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 193 



why he was come. He answered, "Yesterday you 
promised to give me some grain, and I am now come for 
it." The other replied, " You are an egregious fool ; 
you delighted me with words, and I have also pleased 
you ; why, therefore, should I give you any com ?" The 
poet went away ashamed. 

Lesson 46. — On Visiting, Shopping, &c. 

sahak chikil o shishum dar^mulakdt kardan o Jchartddrt, 

( nazd-i-man \j)dlki2 hiydr, 
\ [takht-i-rawdn,\ 



bring the palki near me, 
take me to Mr. 's, 



send the footman on' before 
to see if the gentleman 
be at home or not, 

bring the palki close to the 
door, 

go as fast as you can, 

ask if the gentleman has 
gone out, and when he 
will return. 



give my compliments to 
your master, and give 
this note to him when he 
returns, 

you have lost the road to 

Mr. 's house ; this is 

not it: 

ask the people in that house 

to show you the way, 
go to the China bazar. 



mara ba Jclidna,e sdhib-t' 
Juldn hi'bar. 

piydda^e-rd peek bi-Jirist, ki 
dyd'jandb-i-mirzd ba khd- 
na taskrif ddrand yd na. 

nazd'i'darwdza pdlki My dr. 

ha harchi tamdmtar ba [<a'- 
jW] bi-rau, [^ujlat"] 

bi'pura, dyd sdhib berun 
rafta, o agar rafta and kai 
hdz [Jchtpdhand dmad^, 
[tashrif Ichypdhand d- 
ward."] 

saldm-i-man ba sdJjtib't-khU' 
dat bt-rasdn, wa wakte 
ki bdz bi-dyand, in 
kkatp, ba oskdn bi-dik, 
' rdh't-khdnayC sdhib-i-fuldn 
gum karda ed ; [In nist 
ki mi-raved']. [m rdh 
khatd ast2 

az mardumdn-i-dn Jchdna 
fdh bi'purs. 

ba bdzdr-i-chini bi-rau, 
13 



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194 MISCELLANEOUS BLAL06UES AKI^ EXERCISES. 



keep on this side or on that 
side, 

take care you do not go 
near that bull, 

keep clear of that dust on 
the road, 

let that chair go on before, 

keep behind my brother's 
chair, 

why do you pass any gentle- 
man's chair in that way ? 

bring the umbrella to this 

side, 
do not go near the carriage, 
put down the palki, 
stop, I am going to this 

shop, 
what is the price of this 

book? 
I will not give so much, 

I won't give half the price 
you ask, 

I do not want the book, 
but if you sell it very 
cheap I may purchase it, 

I have no cash about me, 
but if you will follow me 
you will receive your 
money at my house, 



tn iaraf yd tin tflvaf hi-^ir. 

Jchahar-ddr hi nazd-i-dn ndr 
gaw na ravl, 

az [M5ib]-«-mA ba hindr 
hash, igard.'] 

bi^guzdr hi an kursUrd pesh 
hi'-harand, 

dar pat [or ^akahl-i-kurshe 
barddar-am bdih. 

chirdbadn parak azpahlu,e 
kursi^e huddm sdhib mU 
guzaru 

ba In tarafchatr biydr. 

naad'i-kdliska ma, rau, 
pdlki pdjtn bi-guzdr,. 
istdda bdahy ba Indukdn mt- 

ravam. 
klmaUi'tn kitdb chist ? 

dn kadar \chandln'] klmat 
na ihwdham ddd, 

dnchi kimat ki ahumd 
mi'khwahed nisf-i-dn nlz 
man na kiyfdham ddd, 

mard zarural-i-kitdb nlst, 
ammd agar arzdn kh. tph- 
edfarokhtf shdyad ki bi- 
kharam. 

[nazd'i'khud'am put nt«f,] 
agar ahumd ^akab-i-man 
fchpdhed dmad, ba khdna^e 
man khwdhed ydft. [ba 
fchud pul na ddram."] 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 195 

bring the book with you, kitdb ham rdh^i-khttd btt/dr, 
and then receive its price, o pas ktmaUaah bi-gir. 

Exercise. — One day a tyrannic king having gone out 
of the city unattended, saw a person sitting under a tree, 
of whom he inquired, " What is the character of the 
king of this country ? Is he oppressive or just ? " He 
answered, " He is a great tyrant." The king said, *' Do 
you know me?" He answered, "No." The king re- 
joined, " I am the monarch of this place." The man was 
terrified, and asked, " Do you know who I am ?" The 
king said he did not. He rejoined, " I am the son of 
such a merchant ; three days in every month I lose my 
senses, and this is one of those three days." The king 
laughed, and ended the conversation. 

COLOURS— ran^Aa. 



ashy, Ishdkistari. 


green, 


sahz; aUtzar. 


azure, ab-gwn ; lajaward. 


red, 


surih 


colour, rang. 


rusty. 


zangari. 


black, sti/dh ; aswad ; shum. 


violet. 


binafsh. 


blue, ^ kahud. 


white. 


Bafaid ; abya?. 


blue, indigo, ' nil. 


yellow. 


zard. 


brown, gandutn-gun. 







Lesson 47.— On Walking, Riding, &c 

* sabak chihil o haftum dar sair o sawdru 

he is gone out somewhere az bardie [^gashtari] ba ja^e 
to walk, rafta ast, [sair; tamdsha.'] 



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196 MISCELLANEOUS DLAXOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



I shall go out also, and 
walk round the fort, 

in my country people walk 

a great deal, 
can ypu walk much ? 

I like walking on foot very 
much, and, were I not 
lame, I would walk out 
with you, 

walking in the open field 
when it is cool is highly 
beneficial to health, 



do not walk among that 
grass, lest you tread on 
a suake, 



is the horse ready ? 
put the saddle wel on, 



hold the bridle till I be 
fairly mounted, 

take up the stirrup one 
hole, 



man niz herun ifiwdham raft 

gird'i'kila* ihwdham 

gashU 
dar mulk-t-man mardumdn 

hisiydr mi-gardand. 
shumd pd-piyada hisiydr mi- 

tawdned gaskt ? 
pd'piydda raftan hisiydr 

pasand ddram [mukhwd- 

ham], o agar lang na 

bUdam man ha ham rah^ 

i'Shumd mi-gashtam. 
' tvakte ki mausim sard ast 

dar maiddngashtan bard,e 

fabVat bisiyuT mujtd ast 
darmiydn dn ^alaf-zdr ma 

gard \ki pdyat bar mdre 

nayuftad], 
[_ki pdyat bar mdre na 

ihurad,"] 
[^ki pd,e turd mdre na 

zanadJ] 
asp taiyar ast ? 
bar asp zin ba khUbi bi-band ; 

asp-rd zin ba khttbi kun. 
td man bar ztn bardbar bar 

dyam^ lag dm girifta bdsh, 
ligdm^rd bardbar bi-gir td 

man muhkam sawdr sha- 

vam, 
ba kadar-i-yak surdkh-t- 

digar [rikdb bald hi' 

gir], [^sdkat-rd kotdh bi- 

kun,"] 



* winter, zamistdn. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 197 



see that the reins are strong 
and kept in constant re- 
pair, 

here, you groom, hold the 
horse, I must dismount 
for a little, 

take care, hiB will get out of 
your hands, 

see, is that ground proper 
for the horse to go over, 

coax him that he may not 
be restive, 

put a clotk over the horse's 
eyes, 

where is the saddle-cloth, 
crupper, the bit, belly- 
band, housings, &c. ? 

examine the place carefully, 
and see how far the water 
comes up. 



you must not give the horse 
water now whilst he is 
so very warm, 

is this.a quiet horse for the 
road ? 

does he stand fire ? 



bi'btn hi zamdmhd kawi and 
yd nay o hamesha dnhd-rd 
marammat karda hash, 

ai sdyis ! asp-rd hi-gtr ki 
mardy bard,e andak fur" 
sate pdytn shudan bdyad. 

Tchabar ddr ki asp az dast-i^ 
shumd na gurezad. 

bi'btn ki an zarriin mundsib-i" 
raftan-i'CLsp ast yd na. 

o-rd nawdzish bi-kun^ ki 
khirq, na shavad. 

bar chashmhd,e asp parda 
bi-guzdr [or bi-hand']. 

ztn-poshy dumchiy dahana,e 
lag dm, tang, ajldl, wa^ 
ghaira kujd and ? 

an jd^e-rd ba khabarddrl 
muldhaza hi-kun "o [w'a- 
lum bi-namd^ ki db td 
kujd ml-rasad. [muttali* 
shau.'] 

asp-rd dh na bdyad dad td 
ki in chuntn garm bdshad. 



asp 



bardie rdh raftan in 
sdlim ast, yd na ? 

az dwdz-i-top o tufang [ram 
na mi-kunad^ ? [_na ml- 
ramad,'] 

o-rd bi-garddny ba khubi 
mdlish'i-o bi-kun o [Ma- 
barddr bdsh ki m kdr, ba 
zimma,e tUst'] ki sard na 
gtrad, [Jchabar ddr,"] 

Exercise. — A learned man used to attend a mosque. 



walk him about, rub him 
well down, and take care, 
at your peril, that he 
does not catch cold, 



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198 MISCELLANEOUS DIAtOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



and preach to the people. One of the congregation wept 
constantly. One day the preacher said, "My words 
make a great impression on this man's heart; which is 
the reason of his crying so much." Others observed thus 
to the man who wept : " The learned man does not make 
any impression on our minds ; what kind of a heart 
must you have to be always in tears ?*' He answered, 
*' I do not weep at his discourse, but I had tk favourite 
goat, of which I was exceedingly fond. When the goat 
grew old he died : now, whenever the learned man 
speaks and wags his chin, the goat comes to my remem- 
brance, for he had just such a long beard." 



STABLE TERMS— <far bah'i'[tstahar]. [tcavila.'] 



bay, kakar ; surkh. 

black, adkam ; skabdez, 

chesnut, kuviait 

dun, kuran ; samand. 



grey, 

piebald, 

white. 



khing. 
ablak, 
nukra. 



Forage — *alaf. 



barley, 


jau. 


sabza ; 


giydh; 


giydh 'i- 


bran. 


Jtazim, 


ajch^ar. 






corn. 


ghalla. 


grass. 


kdh ; giydh. 


gram. 


ndjchud. 


hay, straw 


9 


kdh. 


grain, 


ddna. 


purslain, 


giydh' 


i-namndk. 


greengrass 


(barley) M«w;»rf; 










Parts op i 


L'HE Horse 


» 




back. 


pusht 


hoof. 




sum. 


chest, 


8tna, 


leg, 




8dk. 


ear. 


gosh. 


mane, 




aydl. 


eye, 


chashm. 


neck. 




gardan. 


forehead, 


peshdnh 


shoulder, 




shdna. 


foot, 


pd,e. 


thigh. 




shalwdr. 


head. 


sar. 















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MISCELLANEOUS BLILOGUES AND EXERCISES. 199 



a broker, 

farrier, 

rider (good) 

bucket, 

cart, 

a colt, 

dung, 

halter, 
horse, 



leather, 

peg (to which to 

fasten the heel 

ropes), 
stinmp, 
I shoe, 

saddle cloth, 
tether, 
whip, 



(horse) daUdUi-asp ; sauddgar^i-asp, 

rCal-'hand. 

shah sawdr ; chdbuk sawdr, 

taghdr ; dalw, 

^ardba ; (carriage) kdlisha, 

fchung ; hurra. 

(horse) sargln-i-asp ; (cow) sargtn- 
i^gdw. 

nukhta ; pdldhang ; pdlhang. 

(trappings) sdz-o-yardk-i-aap ; (har- 
ness) raUkt'i'kdliska; (cloth) 
gardanu 

poatin; charm. 

gur me Tcfi , 



rikdh ; (leather) rikdh-duwdl; sdkat 

n^al; (shoeing) n*al-banflu 

namad zin ; namda. 

iawila; tula; tasma. 

tdziydnd; to whip, tdziydna zadan. 



broad, 


'ari?. 


beautiful, 


makhuL 


clean and straight, 


pdk rdst 


cheap, 


arzdn. 


dear, 


girdn. 


expansive, 


pahan. 


elegant form. 


Ukush-^hakl ; khush anddm. 


graceful action, 


iiiusk harakat. 


hand, 


wajab ; (half) nim-wajab. 


open, 


wasV, 


quiet, 


saltm ; gbfirib ; fyiltm. 


quick, 


chdldk. 


slender. 


bdrik. 


tall. 


buland. 


taper, 


fiaidmt. 



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1 

200 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AMD KU6BCT8E8. 


_ 

vicious, 


sharir. 


wide, 


kushdda. 


horse, 


(pleasant-paced) asp-i'Shah gam ; 




(slow-paced) asp-«-^am raw; ham- 




rah; (fleet-paced) asp't-bad pd^e 




rawdn. 


to curry (a horse), 


asp timdr kardan. 


to dismount, 


1 ' az asp pd,tn dmadan, 
1 az asp pd farad dmadan. 


to drive, 


dar kdliska nishasta asp rdndan. 


to graze, 


chartdan. 


to gallop, 


tdkhtan. 


to goad a horse, 


bar asp mahmez zadan. 


to leap, 


jastan. 


to be lame, 


langidan. 




( bar asp sawdr shudan. 


to mount. 


X bar asp ba zin bar dmadaru 




C bar asp ba zm bar nishastan. 


to neigh, 


ztnudah. 


to ride. 


sawdr-i'dsp budan; sawdr shudan ; 




sawdr raftan. 


to stumble. 


laglkzidan ; (a slip) laginish. 


to understand 


asp shindkhtan. 


horses. 




a thorough bred 


asp't-arabi^e Jshdlis [or khdss] ; asp- 


Arab horse. 


i'tdzt. 


blood. 


(good) khush rag ; asil ; (bad) bad 




rag ; (mixed) du rag. 


good marks, 


khush nishdn. 


Lesson 48. — On Sporting, 


sahak chihtl o hashtum dar hab-i'Shikdr [or nai^cAir]. 


is there much game 


in this dar in \nawdhi] bisiydr 


neighbourhood ? 


shikar ast ? [atrdf ; 


' 


dkndf.'l 



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HISCELLANBOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 201 



there are wild buffaloes in 
abundance, a few tigers, 
and all kinds of smaller 
game. 

in every field there are par- 
tridges, and that swamp 
is full of water- fowl, 

clean all the fowling-pieces 
well, and put up a few 
bullets also for the large 

' guns, 

call some of the villagers to 
show the nsual haunts of 
the game« 

behind that copse there are 
two wild buffaloes ; do 
you fire at the one to- 
wards the left, I shall 
take the other, 

you have hit the mark, but 
I have missed, 

how many birds have you 
kiUed ? 

do you think there is any 
game here, or any beast 
of prey ? 

when it gets cool, towards 
the evening, we shall go 
to that wood ; perhaps 
we may see. something 
or other, 

if you can swim, bring out 
that duck ^d those two 
geese : the duck has 
dived, but will soon 
appear again. 






hisiydr gdmesh - t - daahti, 
chand sher q said az har 
ffism and, 

dar har kisht hahahdn and 
an tdldh az murgkabt- 
ydn pur ast. 

hama tufanghd ha Jchubi 
sdf hi'kun o nxz bardie 
tufang hd,e'kaldn chand 
gululahd bi^guzdr, 

chand [c?tA^ana«]-ra hi- 
talab nishdn dihand ki 
kujd shikdr mi-mdnand. 
[ahUUdih; nafrdn,'] 

pdS'i'dn besha du gdmesh-i- 
dashtt and, shwnd ba an 
gdmesh ki ba chap ast 
tufang hi-zaned, man bd 
rdsU 

shumd nishdn zada ed, o man 
ihatd karcta am, 

chi kddar murgiidn [kushta'] 
ed? {zadaT^ 

aydj shumd mt-ddned ki tnjd 
saide ast, yd nakhchtre, 

chun kartb - » - wakt - z- shdm 
sard khwdhad shud^ ba dn 
hesharmd khtpdhem raft ; 
bdshad ki ehlze digar bi- 
binem. 

agar shumd shindmUtawdnsd 
kard, dn bat wa dn har 
da icdz bar dred ; bat 
ghpta khurda ast zud ba 
naz^ar Jshipdhad dmad. 



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202 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



give me some small shot and 
a tnrnscrew ; this powder 

. is damp, — drj it a little 
in the sun. 



take the people with yon, 
and beat all the bnshes 
well, 

keep close there, I see a 
tiger near that bush, 



why do yon fire in that 
careless manner ? you 
will wound the country 
people, 

take a good aim, do not be 
confused, but lodge the 
ball in the tiger's head, 
otherwise we are all dead 
men, 

have you brought the fish- 
ing apparatus with you ? 
there are some good 
fishing stations here, 



mard kadre sachima bt-dik o 
pech-gard; in bdrut[nam' 
ndk astj ; o-rd dar dftdh hi" 
guzdrki kkuskk bi-shavad, 
[nam girifta ast\ or [nam 
kasKida ast] 0T[tar8huda 
ast], 

mardumdn^rd ham rdh-i' 
khnd bt-gir o beska^rd ha 
ichubi bi'-zan. 

dnjd [poahxda bdsK] ki nazd- 
i"dn dirakkt share mi- 
binam. [pinhdn shau ; 
adkit bdsh,'\ 

chird ba dn chundn be kha- 
bari tufang mi-zaned 7 
dihl^dndn - rd zakhnt 
khwdhed kard. 

shiat-rdkhub bi-gtrypareshdn 
ma bdahy ammd dar sar^-i'- 
sher gulula bi'-zan ; wama 
hi'ddn kihama [murdagdn 
khwdhem bud^^ [khwdhem 
murdy or mt-mtrem.^ 

tawdzima^e mdht-gir ba 
ham rah - 1 - khud - 1 - tan 
dwarda ed; in jd bardie 
giriftan - 1- mdhi bisiydr 
jdhd^e Jchuh and, - 



Exercise. — ^A woman was walking, and a man looked 
at her, and followed her. The woman said, " Why do 
you follow me ?" He answered, " Because I have i^len 
in love with you." The woman said, " Why are you in 
love with me ? my sister is much handsomer than I am ; 
she is coming after me ; go and make love to her." The 
man turned back, and saw a woman with an ugly face. 



\ 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 203 

BeiDg greatly displeased, he went again to the other 
woman, and said, " Why did you tell a falsehood ?" The 
woman answered, " Neither did you speak truth ; for if 
you are in love with me, why did you go after another 
woman ?" The man was confounded, and went away in 
silence. 



NAMES OF ANIMALS- 



animal. 



99 



flesh-eating, 

grazing, 

flying, 



„ stinging, 
„ four-footed, 



jdnwar; jdnwdr; haiwdn. 
daranda ; sabd* (sing. saW). 
charanda ; (creeping) gtrdshanda, 
paranda) murghan ; tair (plur. 

tuyur). 
gazanda, 
chdr pd ; (stall-fed) ^alaf-khur. 



antelope, 
beast, 



baflialo, 
camel, 

calf, 
cattle, 

cat, 
dog, 
dragon, 
elephant, 

fox, 



Quadrupeds. 

dardz-gosh; himdr ; kkar; uldgh ; 

(wild) gor ; gor Jchar. 
dhu ; (deer) ktran ; (stag) gawazn. 
(wild or tame) hahimat (sing.) ; 

(wild) bahd,im (plur.); vmhsh^ 

(plur. wahush) ; (of prey) nak]i- 

chlr, 
gdmus ; gdo mesh, 
shutur; ushtur ; (riding) hukkti ; 

(hump of) kahun, 
gu8 dla. 
haiwdndt ; mawdskt (plur. of md^ 

ahlya). 
gurba. 

sag J Jcalb ; (pup) tula* 
(izkdakd, 
fit; ptl; (trunk of) MMrlum ; 

(elephant body) pil tan. 
rubdh. 



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204 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 


goat, 




buz; Tchasi ; hurk; (kid) ghflla. 


jackal, 




ahaghdl ; shaghdd. 


hare, 




Mar-gosk. 


liog, 




il^inztr; Mk^Jc ; gurdz ; (hedge) 
Mkdr-puahU 


leopard, 




palang. 


lion, 




sher ; zaighflLm; asad ; s^arghdm; 
hizhar ; saM ; (fierce) sher-i- 
zhiydn ; aher-i^sharza. 


mule, 




fcdtir ; astar. 


mouse, 




mush. 


mongoose, weazel 


, rdsu. 


mole. 




mush^i'hur; mushak; (squirrel) 
mushak'i'parrdn* 


monkey, 




huzina; buzna ; maimun. 


panther. 




palang; (small) yuz; (tiger) sher. 


rhinoceros. 




karkaddan. 


sheep. 




gusfand. 


wolf, 




gurg. 
* Birds — paranda. 


bird, 




(fabulous) simurgh ; *ankd ; rukhkK 


bat. 




shab-pdra ; shabpara ; shab pur. 


bustard. 




hdlwdd. 1 


crow, 




zdgi ; (raven) ghurdh. 


cock (dunghill), 


ihurus. 


fowl. 




murgh; (water) txtu ; murgidbt; 
(young) chuza. ; 


liawk. 




bdz; (sparrow) mush-gir ; bdsha. 


* wing, bdl 


; (feather) par. 


strong of 


wing 


\ fiawl bdl; tez-bdl ; jandh-i'istiJdL 


beak of a 


bird, 


minkdr. 


to peck a1 


(a thing), bar chize minkdr zadan. 


to expand 


the 


wings, bdl afshdndan. 


to moult, ^ 


par rehhtan. 


to build a 


nest, hdludan ; dshiydna hardan. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AKD EXERCISES. 205 


nest (bird's) 


> 


dshtydna ; dshiydn. 


nightingale. 




hulbul ; 'andaltb ; 8h(ib-ihwdn* 


owl, 




bum ; chughfi ; kohan ; kokak ; ko- 
kanak. 


parrot, 




mi. 


pelican, 




rakham ; (heron) mdht - Hwdr ; 
(crane) kalang. 


peacock, 




tdyus. 


partridge, 




kabk ; (note of) kahkaha ; (moun- 
tain) kabk'i'dari. 


pheasant, 




tazarv; tadarv ; (quail) tthu. 


pigeon, 




kabutar ; kuku ; (green) kabutar-i- 
aabz rang; (ring-dove) fdMkta; 
fdkhtaye mutavowak; mutaimuaka; 
(tumbler) kabutar-^-mu^allaku 


sparrow, 




kunjaskk; ^usfur. 


swallow. 




bdlwdh ; abdbin. 


vulture. 




kargas; nasr; (eagle) ^ukdb; (falcon) 
ahdhin; shdh-bdz ; (kite) zag^an, 

' Insects. 


ant. 




mor. 


bjBe, 




zamhur-i-asaU 


beetle. 




kushtak. 


cricket. 




shab-gir. 


fly, 




magas; (butter-) parwdna; fardsh ; 
. shah-para. 


flea, 




kaik ; shab gaz ; (tick) kdna ; 
(louse) shubsh. 


I hornet, 




zambur-surMk' 


locust. 




malaih; (grasshopper) malaHk-i-^ 
piydda. 


, mosquito, 




pasha^e kurak ; (gnat) 7mmd, 


1 


sting. 


nesh. 


' 


stinger, nesh-zan. 


• 


striking with a sting, neah-zanu 



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206 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGCRS AKD EXEBCISES. 



moth, 
spider, 
spider's web, 
wasp. 



parwdna. ' 

'ankabut ; sher-t-magas, 
khdna,e 'ankabut ; tdr-i- ankabut, 
zambur-i'Zard ; zambur-i-kdjir ; zax 



zambur- 
bnra. 

Reptiles and Fishes. 



'alligator, crocodile, 
chameleon, 
frog, 
lizard, 
leech, 
millipede, 
snake, 
scorpion, 
tortoise, 
turtle, 
worm, 

fish, 



nahang ; sher-t-dbl, 

buk alamun; abu-kurrat. 

gbJikf ^afdcH. 

karfash. 

zalu. 

jdnwdr-'i-hazdr pd^e. 

mdr ; (large) a/'a ; (python) awl. 

kazh dum ; 'akrab, 

kashtuk ; kashaf. 

sang^pusht ; stpar-posh. 

(silk-) ktrim'i'bdddma; (glow-) 
kirim-i'Shab tdb; (earth) iiaraftn. 

mdht ; (torpedo) rcUdd; (oyster) 
sadaf; (scales of) pvlak ; (crab) 
kalankhdr; hharchang ; (whale) 
hut ; (porpoise) Ubiik-i^daryd. 

Lesson 49. — On Travelling. 

sabajfi chihil o nuhum dar siydhai [or aaiydht]. 

how many stages is Shiraz ahlrdz az %n ahahr chand 



from this town ? 
is your boat ready ? 

are all your people ready to 
go a voyage to Mecca ? 

what is the hire of this boat 
for two months ? 



az tn 

manzil [ast'] ? \ddrad^ 
dyd mdshuhye ahumd taiydr 

aat? 
^ dyd Kama mardumdn - 1 - 

ahumd ba aafr kardan^i- 

k'aha taiydr and ? 
az bardie du mdh kirdya^e 

in kiahtt chiat ? 



* the auu of one's life, k'dba^ejdn. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 207 



at which hour does the tide 
serve to go up the river 
to-day ? 

as soon as the tide serves, 
let the boat be taken a- 
bove the shipping to such 
a ghdf^ where we will 
embark in the even- 
ing, 

we must not commence, 
such a journey without 
being provided with 
every necessary and com- 
fort, few of which are 
procurable on the way, 

both to avoid expense and 
inconvenience, we must 
reduce our baggage to as 
small a quantity as pos- 
sible, 

I am not going by water, I 
• prefer going by land, 

we must have everything 
well packed, to guard 
against all accidents, 
which occur frequently 
by the carelessness of 
servants, independent of 
those common to all 
travellers, 

come, chairman, in whose 
service are you, and when 
did you arrive in 
BallLb? 



vmruz ha chi ad^at ah hdld 
mi-'ravad hi md ha daryd 
raftan ml^tawdnem ? 

ha mujaj^rad-'i'mundsih shvr 
dan-i-madd mdshuh hdld^e 
jahdzkd ha fuldn ^uhur~ 
gdh hi-gtr^kiimakah mwdr 
shavem. 

h idun - i "inaujud shtLdan'i' 
admdvri'Safir o waghaira 
zariiriydt in chuntn safr 
kardan na hdyad, zird ki 
dar rdh hisiydr chlzhd 
kam ^dastt/dh'] mi-shavad. 

az hardje kam kharch wa 
parheZ't-'taiMlf mundsib 
astf ki dar adman ha 
har kadar ki tawdnem 
takhfif namdyem, 

az daryd na mUravam, halki 
rdh - I - khuahki paaand 
ddram, 

bar hama wdki^dt nigdh 
ddshta bdahem ki az 
ghafilat'i-naukardn wdkC 
mi-ahavad [^aiwd,e har^ 
wdriddte ki bar muadfirdn 
mt-ufiad md^rd hdyad 
kihama aahdh-rd ha tarah' 
i'kkub hi'handem, ['i7a- 
wayB dn hama.^ 

at hammdll ahumd naukar^ 
i-ktated, o kai ha balth 
raaided? , 



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208 MISCELLJKSOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEECISES. 



how many other chairmen 

are with you ? 
desire the people always to 

pitch the tents near water, 

and, if possible, under 

trees, 

are they all your country- 
men only, or your rela- 
tions ? 

what tribe of chairmen is 
there here who make 
more money than the 
rest? 

what district is this village 
in, and who is the magis- 
trate of it ? 

how very highly cultivated 
the country is, through 
which we passed to-day ! 

tell the proprietor of that 
village to send some of 
his people in the evening 
to beat up the game for 
us, 

take care that everything is 
paid for, and that no 
violence be used against 
the villagers. 



hammdldn'i-digar hamrak" 
i'Shumd chand nafarand? 

mardumdn-rd hi-go ki hame- 
sha nazd-i'dbj o agar mum'- 
kin ast zer - i - dtrakhthd, 
khaimahd iatdda bt-kunand 
[or bar pd bi-kunand^. 

eshdn hama ham-watandn-i- 
shumd andy yd khweshdn^ 
i'$humd ? 

kuddm tdytfc^,e hammdldn 
ast ki az digardn ziydda 
pul hdsil ml'kunand ? 

xn dih dar kuddm ta^allvJca 
asty hdkim-i-dn kist? 

mulke ki md az an imruz guz- 
dshta em [^chi dbdd ast^ ? 
\6hi bisiydr m^udri* ; maz- 
rH* ast.'] 

zamtnddr-i'dn dih'-rd bi-go, 
ki ,ckand mardumdn -i- 
Jshud-ash-rd ba wakt-i- 
shdm bi-firistad ki eshdn 
bardie masaid - rd gird 
biydwarand. 

Tchabarddr ki ilmat-i-har 
chtz ddda shavad^ o ba 
dihkdndn \^zabar dasti\ 
karda na shavad, [^zt^lm ; 
tazallum.'] 



Exercise, — ^A miser said to a friend, " I have now a 
thousand rupTs, which I will bury out of the city, and I 
will not tell this secret to any one besides yourself." In 
short, they went out of the city together, and buried the 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 209 

money under a tree. Some days after, the miser went 
alone to that tree, but found no signs of his money. He 
said to himself, "Excepting that friend, no other has 
taken it away; but if I question him, he will never 
confess." He therefore went to his house, and said, " A 
great deal of money is come to my hands, which I want 
to put in the same place ; if you will come to-morrow, we 
will go together." The friend, by coveting this large 
sum, replaced the former money, and the miser the next 
day went there alone, and found his money. He was de- 
lighted with his own contrivance, and never again placed 
any confidence in friends. 



COUNTRIES AND TOWNS. 



Aleppo, ' 

Bassora, 

Bushir, 

Bokhara, 

Bagdad, 

Balkh, 

Baalbec, 

Canaan, 

Constantinople, 

Damascus, 

Greece, 

Ispahan, 



Jerusalem, 

Khiva, 

Kashgar, 

Khorassan, 



halb, 

basra, 

hushahr ; dhushaht. 

bujch^rd, 

baghddd, 

balkh* 

ba^albah. 

kan^dn, 

istamhul; kustuntuniyd^ 

dimishk, 

yundn, rum. 
C isfahdn ; ispahdn^ 
\ sipahdn, 

{yaruaalam, 
kuda; arshalm^ 
makdis. 
baiiu-l-mukadda9^ 
khaiva, 
kdshgiar^ 
khurdadn. 

U 

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210 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 


Mecca, 


C maka, kibla. 
{k'aba. 


Shiraz, 


shirdz. 


Turkey, 


rumtya^y mulk-Urum. 


Yemen, 


yaman. 


SEAS AND RIVERS. 


Aral, 


bahru'l'dral, 1 


Azov, 


bahru-l-abyaz. 


Black Sea, 


bahrvrUaswad. 


CaspiaD, 


. gang ; bahrU'l-iiazar. 


Euphrates, - 


fardt 


Indus, 


C daryd^e sind. 

\ abdsin ; db-i-hind. 


Nile, 


rud-i-nxL 


Persian Gulf, 


C bahru'l'fdris. 
XHtaiy-i-fdrs. 


Red Sea, 


bakru-l-ahmar. 


Tigris, 


( dajla. 

\ nahrurs-salam. 


anchor, 


langar. 


admiral, 


amiru'l'bahr. 


abyss. 


lajjat; ^dkuL 


a boat. 


mdshuh; safina ; zaura^; 




(skiff) bust. 


a blow. 


lutma; (of waves) taldium. 


compass. 


kutb numd. 


chart. 


naksha,e bahr. 


cable, 


zanjir-i'langar ; katdj. 


captain. 


nd khudd ; kiahti-bdn. 


cabin (of a ship), 


' dabm, 
'\dabusa. 


capstan, 


dhanjad» 


dock. 


gudi; sindr. 



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UrSCELLAHEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCI8S8. 211 


drowned, 


magtruk. 


a drowning person, 


gbpLrik, 
*umuk. 


depth, 


ferry. 


' ■ ma'abar, 
] db-guzdr. 


ferry-boat, 


kishtt^e guzdra. 


horizon, 


ufk (plur. dfdk). 


light-house. 


mandr ; /anus ; fanur ; wia- 




ndra. 


leadsman, 


raimdnackiye ah. 


loadstone. 


sang-t-maknatts; dhan-^ubd. 


mast of a ship, 


.tir-i-jahdz ; situn-i-jahdz. 


maritime, 


bahrt. 


navigation, 


malldhat. 


oar, 


haltsa ; (blade of) pala. 


port (sea). 


kishti gdh ; bandar. 


pilot, 


rah numdye jahdz. 


rudder. 


sukkdn; du/mbal^i" kishti 




Tshfillcu 


rock (in the sea). 


koh. 


rigging, 


auzdr-i-jahdz. 


rower, 


halha-zan. 


sail. 


bdd bdn. 


sea, 


bahr; kalzan; (ernore) sdliil; 




(gulf) MLaUj ; (stormy) 




bahr-i-maahauwash ; ma-' 




ihshush ; tamawumj. 


fudU 


milh; namak; (being) ma/a- 




hat. 


sailor. 


malldh. 


storm. 


tu/dn. 




' jahdz-i'duibflnu 


steamet*. 


• markdb'i-dtashu 




t kishtl^e dudx. 


ship, 


jahdz ; kishti ; (deck) path^ 




i'jahdz; (sides) azld'-i-^ 




jahdz. 



212 MISCELLANEOUS DTALOOUES AND EXERCISES. 




1 ahindwar ; ahindr, 
\ skindb. 


a swimmer, 


swimming, 


shina. 


wharf, 


Jurza ; farud-gah-i-jahdz. 


water. 


ah. 


„ shallow. 


db'i'tunah. 


„ deep, 


db-i-'amik. 


„ running. 


db-i-rawdn. 


„ still, 


dh-i-giflir mutaharrik. 


wave. 


mauj (pi. amwdj). 


, wind. 


hdd; (cold, boisterous) hdd- 




i'Sarsar, 


„ stormy. 


hdd'i'tund. 


„ fair. 


hdd'i'shuHa. 


„ adverse. 


hdd'i-mukhdlif. 


„ hot, 


hdd'tsamum. 


„ -vane. 


had-numd. 


whirlpool, 


g%rd'dh;warta; dh-i-gardtsk. 


north. 


shamdL 


south. 


janiib. 


east, 


mashrik. 


west, 


magkrib. 


north-east. 


md baivri'Shamdl o mashrik^ 


south-east, 


md bain-i'janub o mashrik. 


to blow (like the 


waztdan. 


wind). 




to coil a rope. 


rassan pechtdan. 


to embark. 


bar kishtl sawdr shudan. 


to founder. 


1 jE&arA; shudan. 


to let go the sail. 


( )dd-bdn pdytn hardan. 


to let go the anchor, 


langar kardan. 


to row. 


halisa zadan. 


to swim. 


shind kardan. 


to steer the ship. 


fahdz-rd garddmdan. 


to set sail. 


bdd-bdn bar ddshtan. 




^ ba zamin chaspidan. 


to strike (ground), 


} ba zamm nishastan. 




( ba koh ilvurdan. 



^. 



MlflCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES* 213 



to fall to pieces, 
admission ticket, 



* railway ticket, 

theatre ticket, 

free pass by rail, 
bank note, 



para para shudan. 

madkbal ndma ; sanad'i'' 
madkhal, 
f kdgJkfli'i'rasid'i'kirdyafeft.^ 
\ na/ar \az rdh-i-dhani], 
1 sanad - 1 - kirdya^e ^ardha^e 
\ dukhdnu 

madMicd ndm/i^e Uarndsha 
gdK], \mazhar7\ 
C aariad - 1 - mu^dft^e kirdya^e 
X ^ardha^e duMdnu 

bardt. 



L|:ssoN 50. — ^WiTH a MunshL 

sabak panjdhum dar guft-o-gu^e ma bain shaih?^ azfarang 
mu^aXUmri'fdrsu 



mnnshi sahib, I am very 
glad to see you ; why 

• have you been absent so 
long? 

have you brought me the 
works of Sa'di ? 



munshl sdhib man az dtdan- 
i'Shumd bisiydr khusham : 
chird in kadar muddat 
ghair hdzir mdnda ed ? 

(zz bardie man kulliydt [or 
asKdr'] - 1 - so^dl dwarda 
ed? 



* For the part within brackets we may use — 

az 'ardba^e [dtasht], [duiJidni ; dudiJ] 

Similarly we may say for the steamer ticket — . 

az jahdz'i-dtaahi, 
az markdb'i'dukhdnh 
az kishttyB dudi. 



dbyGOOgl 



214 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEKCISES. 



can you teach me both the 
Persian and Ai'abic lan- 
guages ? 



what are the best books ? 



do not allow me to pro- 
nounce badlj, 

do not use so many hard 
words, 

tell ^ me a short history, or 
the news of the day ; for, 
unless we conrerse much 
together, how can I learn 
to speak? 

your business is to teach 
me the real pronuncia- 
tion and practice of the 
language, 

is this correct or not ? 

pray, sir, in your opinion, 
is the Arabic or Per- 
sian language the more 
difficult ? 

as to the difficulty of the 
Arabic there can be no 
doubt, but it is more 
necessary than the Per- 
sian ; we therefore are 
striving to learn it. Can 
you teach us ? 



' mard har du zahdn farsl o 
*arab i mUtawdned dmoJcht? 

' mard [ta^ltm-i-har du za- 
hdn'] mi'tawdned dad. 
[dar har du zabdn ta^lim.'] 

' dyd hihtartn'i'kitdhhd ku- 
ddm and ? 

\ kuddm az kitdhhd bihtar 
'ast? 

'mard bad talaffuz kardan 
ma dih. 

I ma guzdr ki man bad talaffuz 

bi-kunam, 
chandtn lafs^hd^e mushkil ha 

kdr naydr (or maydr), 
mard kissa,e khurd yd 
aUkbdr-i-mruzhd bi-go: zx- 
rdki agar bisiydr guft-o-gu 
baham na khwdhem kard^ 
[chigunoL] guftan ArAya- 
ham tawdnist \chi tixkir,'] 
kdr-t'Shumd in ast, ki mard 
bardbar talaffuz o iafimdl' 
i'Zabdn biydmozed, 

tn bardbar asty yd na? . 

sdUbd dar rd,e shumd ku- 
ddm muahkil-tar ast ^arabi 
yd fdrsi ? jawdb - t - tn 
auydl bi-farmdyed, 

ba niabat - i-mushkildt - 1 - 
zabdn-i-arab shakk nist, 
magar az zabdn-i-fdra 
zarur-tar ast ; az in sabab 
in-rd koshisk-i-dmoHtan 
mt-kunem. dyd mard dors 
dddan mi-tawdned ? 



^,g,t,zed by Google 



inSCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AKD EXEBCISES. 



215 



do say, in your idea, for the 
person who has trans- 
actions of all sorts with 
both the low and the high 
throughout Persia^ of 
these two languages, viz. 
Arabic and Persian, which 
is the most requisite ? 

in regard to the mere 
Arabic words which occur 
in the language, they are 
not so very difl&cult,bu t the 
masculine and feminine, 
with the discrimination 
of pronunciation in the 
pure Arabic, to learn 
them is so arduous a task, 
that no one as yet hath 
properly acquired it, nay, 
never will ; for perfection 
in science is like an en- 
chanted bird, which, the 
more one tries to catch, 
the farther that imp flies 
from him, 



in acquiriog the Persian 
tongue, what is your 
advice? Speak candidly, 
that I may learn the lan- 
guage accordingly, and 
remain eternally obliged 
to you on that account. 



shumd ha khdydl'i' Jcfi tid chi 
mi-goyed, bardie shakhse 
hi mu^dmalafe har kisniy 
ha adnd o a^l4 har du dar 
tamdm-i-fdrSy ddrad . ku- 
ddm zabdn [^zarur'] ast, 
dyd *ar<zbi yd fdrsi? 
\ldzim^ 

ha nishat'i - alfdz - 1 - *arahi 
ki darmiydn - t - zahdn 
wdkC mi'Shavandf chand- 
dn mushkil nist ; am- 
mdf az tashJslnS'i-muZ' 
akkar o mu^annaSyhd ma^-i 
tamiz'i- talaffuz-i-Hidlis • 
^arabi chanddn sakht kdr 
aat, ki hech kaa td tn wakt 
ha khuhi hdsil na karda 
aat ; halki, kase na 
kkwdhad kardy az tn 
sabah ki kamdl-i^Hlm 
misal ' i ' paranda,e [af^ 
sun sdz^ asty ki har 
chand kase koshish - 1 - 
akhz-i-o mx'kunad dn 
kadar dn kdfir az dast 
dUrtar mi^shavad. [wiw- 
sahhar.li 

ha nisbat'i'dmoiitan'i'Za' 
hdn-i-fdrsi chi farmdish 
mUdihed? ha saddkat hi" 
goyed tdki man ha muwd' 
fik-i-dn zahdn hi^dmozam; 
o az dn sahah, (zz shumd 
[mamniin'\ td rUz-i-kiyd^ 
mat hdsham. [ihsdn^ 
mand; mashkur,'] 



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216 HI8C£LLAH£OU8 DIAI^OOUSS AHD SXSRCI8KS. 



if 70U obtain an acquaint- 
ance with the inflections 
of words, which is to be 
attained from the gram- 
mar only, your progress 
will then soon be com- 
plete. 



it is true ; for we can 
neither apply the words 
properly, nor do we know 
the reason of their appli- 
cation, without the gram- 
mar, 

sir, your remark is just ; 
and I am surprised that 
other English gentlemen 
do not think the same 
way, 

in European languages we 
reckon eight or nine 
parts of speech ; in Per- 
sian you reckon only 
three, viz. the noun, the 
verb, and the particle, 



agar az garddn^-alfdz 
tnuhdwara shumd muttaJ^ 
[or wdkif] khwdhed shud 
hifakat az sarf o nahw 
hdsil nii-shavad ['tYmiya^- 
i^ahumd zud kamdl khwd" 
had fftrift.^ [V/imyat- 
i'Shumd kdmil khwdhad 
8hud.'\ 

rdst <i8ty zird hi md alfdz- 
rd ba khubt istCmdl kar- 
dan na mt-tawdnem^ o 
be sarf o nahw [jfan*]- 
. i'istCmdl'i'dnhd na mi' 
ddnem. [wajk,'] 

sdhibd, kaul'i'Skumdrdst ast^ 
o man ta^ajjub mt-kunam 
ki sdhibdn-i'digar chunin 
[wa rni-andeshand']. [ArAo- 
ydl na mt-kunand; ba 
gkaur na mi-parddzandJ] 

dar zabdnhd,e farang md 
haft yd nuh kism-i-kalimat 
mishumdrem^ ammd dar 
zabdnri-fdrai sirf si kism^ 
ifani ism^ oJCl^ o harf 



Exercise, — A horseman went to a city, and hearing 
there were many thieves in the place, said to his groom 
at night, " Do you sleep, and I will keep watch, for I 
cannot I'ely on you." The groom answered, " Alas I 
my lord, what words are these ? I cannot consent to be 
asleep and my master awake." In short, the master 
went to sleep, and three hours afterwards awoke, when 
he called out to the groom, "What are you doing ?" 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 217 

He answered, " 1 am meditating how God has spread the 
earth upon the water." The master said, " I am afraid 
lest the thieves come and you know nothing of it." He 
replied, " O, my lord ! rest satisfied, I am on the watch." 
The horseman went to sleep again, and awaking at mid- 
night, he called out, " Holloa, groom ! what are you 
doing ?" He answered, " I am considering how God has 
supported the sky without pillars." He replied, " I am 
afi'aid that amidst your meditations the thieves will 
carry away the horse." He replied, " 0, my lord ! I am 
awake ; how can the thieves come?" The cavalier 
again went to sleep, and an hour of night remaining, he 
awoke, and asked the groom what he was doing. He 
replied, " I am considering, since the thieves have stolen 
the hoi'se, whether I shall carry the saddle upon my head 
to-morrow, or you, sir." 



Lesson 51. — With a Persian GrriCER. 

sdbak panjdh o yahum dar guft-o-gu^e ha sarhahge farsu 

the recruits will go to ball sipdhiydn-i-natc-rdl^harshdm 
practice every evening, bard,e mashk - 1 - ntshdn 

zadan hdyad raft], [Ja- 

yad ki ha kawffid'i- 

gulula anddzl hi'-ravand,'] 

there will be an inspection ^farda 'ala-s-sahdh [^mu'd" 

of arms to-morrow mom- yana^e asliha] khwdhad 

ing ; see that they are aU hud ; hi-hin ki dnhd hama 

very clean, durust sdj hdshand, 

[^numd^esh - 1 - asliha ; or 



muldhasa^e asliha,'] 



^ asliha^ plur. of aildh^ military arms. 

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218 MISCELLANEOUS DIAXOQUE8 AKD EXERCISES. 



take care that the super- 
numerary arms are clean- 
ed every day, 

bring me a written report 
of the company daily, 



when was 
listed? 



this 



man en- 



Jchaharddr hi [aslih^e 
afzud'\ har ruz sdfkarda 
shavand. [^dsliha^e ziydd ; 
aaliha^e zd^idJ] 
[ruz marra ittild^ ndma^e 
dasta^e sipdhit/dn hiydr, 
[har ruz ittiW^i-na- 
wiahtaJ] 
huddm wakt in sipdhi mu- 

Idzim shuda bud ? 
ndm-i'in ^askart hat ddkhfl- 
i'^aftar-i-lashkar shud ? 
chand muddat in sipdhi 

mukarrar shuda bud? 
ha shdna mazbdt, kunddk-i- 

tufang bi-guzdr, 
* ha anguaht - 1 - miydna ko" 
mdn-rd mazbut bi'-kash, 
( dasta^e sipdhiydn - rd dar 
into J sifarik bi-kun. 

1 munkasim-i'dasta^e sipdhi- 
\ ydn-rd ba si kism bi-kun. 
the company will wheel in dasta kaji [ba sdrat-i-nard 



press the butt well to the 

shoulder, 
pull the trigger strong with 

the middle finger. 



tell off the company 
three sections, 



echelon of sections, 



at what time does the bat- 
talion march to-morrow 
morning ? 

how many men are for 
piquet to-night ? 



pray, sir, to what regiment 
do you belong ? 



bdn] Mtfpdhad shud, [ba 

mdnind - i - zina ; or ba 

misal-i'zina.'] 
huddm wakt fauj-i-piydda- 

gdn farda subh kUch 

khwdhad kard ? 
chand sipdhiydn imshab ba 

tildya and ? • 
sdhibdy shumd ba kuddm 

fauj [ta^allult] ddred ? 

[ildka; nisbatT] 
sdhibd, shumd darhuddmfauj 

[mansab ddred]? [mu- 
karrar ed!\ 



* angusht-i-shahddatf fore-finger. 



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HISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 219 



is your whole regiment at 
present on duty here, or 
elsewhere ? 

do you know where it was 
fii*st raised ? 



what rank do you hold, and 
how long have you been 
an officer ? 

what is your pay, and do 
you receive the whole 
monthly or not ? 

under such officers as you 
in our army, how many 
menare generally placed? 



when you are stationed any- 
where in the country, 
does the magistrate of 
the place where you are 
on duty ever make you a 
present of anything, or 
not ? 



pray tell me, when any of 
your soldiers are guilty 
of oppression on the 
country people, what ^ 
steps do you take to 
prevent such an offence 
again? 



dar in ruzhd m jd tamdm 
fauj muta^aiyin a8ty yd 
dar jd,e digar ? 

shumd mt'ddned, kujd dar 
awwal in fauj \mukaTrar'\ 
shuda bud? [bdr pd; 
jama\'] 

kuddm *ukda dared, o [az 
ckandruz'] ^uhdaddrbudd 
ed? [az kaiJ] 

muwdjib ' i ' shumd chtat, o 
mdhdna tamdm mx-gtred^ 
yd na? 

zer dast-i-^uhdaddrdn mi- 
sal'i'jandb, dar fauj-n- 
md chand sipdhiydn hasb- 
U'l-m^amul guzdahta mi- 
shavand ? 

wakte hi dar mulh bajd^e 
[mukarrar'] mi - shaved 
hdkim - « - mauzd chize 
in* dm gdhe mi-dihad, yd 
na? [muta'aiyin;ta^aiyin 
hardaJ^ 

( mihrbdni karda bi-^farmdyed 
ki chun kase az sipdhiydn' 
i'ShumA bardih^dndn^lm 
bi'kunad o mujrim sha- 
vad, dar rafcH kardan-%^ 
dn jurm chi [fikr'] mi" 
kuned? . [tadbir,'] 
wakte ki kase az sipdhiydn^ 
i-shumd bapilm kardan bar 
dihkdndn mujrim mi-sha- 
vad, dar da/a kardan-i^dn 

\ jurm chi mi-andeshed ? 



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220 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND XXEBCISES. 

does a soldier's continuance or tulu%e dftdb td 8d^aU 

on gnard last from siin- i^uhri-suhh sipdhx [pa«- 

rise till nine o'clock, or hdnt] mx-kunady yd td 

till twelve o'clock ? zuhr ? [bar makdm-i" 

pdsbdnt tawakinif.'] 

have you clearly understood hama tukhandn ki man gufia 

all that I have said, or am, shumd ba khubifah' 

not ? mida ed^yd na? 

be not in the least apprehen- dar jawdb dddan ba man 

sive in answering me ; hech andesha ma kuned, 

speak whatever you please karcki mt-ihwdk^d be lait 

without reserve, I will o la*all bi-goyed ; hargiz 

not take it in the least bad na iiiwdham burd, 
amiss, 

Exercise. — ^A certain man went to a darwesh, and pro- 
posed three questions : First : Why do they say that 
God is omnipresent ? I do not see Him in any place ; 
show me where He is." Second : " Why is man punished 
for crimes, since whatever he does proceeds from God ? 
Man has no free will, for he cannot do anything contrary 
to the will of God : and if he had power, he would do 
everything for his own good." Third : " How can God 
punish Satan in hell-fire, since he is formed of that 
element ; and what impression can fire make on itself?" 
The darwesh took up a large clod of earth, and struck 
him on the head with it. The man went to the kdzi and 
said, " I proposed three questions to such a darwesh, 
who fiung a clod of earth at me." The kdzi having sent 
for the darwesh, asked, '^ Why did you throw a clod of 
earth at his head, inst^id of answering his questions ?" 
The darwesh replied, " The clod of earth was an answer 
to his speech : he says he has a pain in his head ; let 
him show the pain, then I will make God visible to him: 
and why does he make a complaint to you against me ; . 
whatever I did was the act of God, — I did not strike him 
without the will of God, — ^what power do I possess ? 



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SnSCELLANEOUS DIAXOGUES AND EXERCISES. 221 


and as he is formed of earthy how can he suffer pain from 


that element ?" 


The man was confounded, and the kdzx 


highly pleased 


with the darwesh's answer. 


Lesson 52.- 


—Military Affairs — Afyjoal-i-jang. 


accoutrements. 


mz yardk-i'Sarhdz; (halberd) harba. 


aUy, 


madad gar. 


ambassador, 


rasul ; elchl ; aafir; mursaL 


ambush, 


hamin ; (ambuscade) kamingdh. 


arms. 


aildh; sildh-i-jang. 


n 


(to ta^e off) az hadan sildh ktishddan. 


99 


(to put on) bar badan aildh [poshtdan]. 




Idrdstan; bastan.^ 


armed. 


musallah; (to be) aali^a bar badan 




ddshtan. 


armourer. 


dhangar ; aildh-sdz ; (armoury) aildh' 




kkdna. 


army, 


laahkar; *aakar ; jaiah. 


arrow. 


tir; paikdn. 


artillery. 


top'i]^dna,\{ho,ti^rj)ta'bi,at; marcha. 


attack, 


hamla; yuriah. 


battalion, 


fauj. 


battle. 


. jang ; kdr-zdr. 


w 


(axe) tabar zin. 


bayonet, 


aar niza,e tufang. 


a blowj 


alia; lapna; allu 


a bow. 


kamdn ; luxua. 


brave. 


bahddur; dildwar; ahujd* ; zu-ah" 




ahujd'at 


bravery, 


ahujd^at; diliru 


camp. 


hb.lmargdh'i^mikkar ; mu^aakar. 



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222 inSCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 




cannoD, 


top. 




captain. 


sardar-i-jamd^at ; gad-basku 




captive, 


CLSir ; girifidr-i'jang. 




cartouche, 


toshddn ; klf ; (cartridge) JUhang. 




clean, 


sdf; he zang ; mujallu 




coat of mail, 


jaushan. 




commandant, 


kila' ddr ; mu>asJctr, 




company, 


jamd'at'i'sad laakaru 




comrade, 


mushdrik ; shank ; rafik. 




conquered, 


magklub ; makhur ; maftuh ; musaih- 
hhflr; (conquering) fasiiir ; (con- 
queror) kiahwar-kushd ; mansiir. 




council of war, 


mashwarat't-jang. 




court martial. 


'addlaU 




coward, 


nd mard ; huzdil ; kam jurat ; jahdn* 




cowardice, 


fid mardi ; huzdilu 




crime, 


ihatd ; taksir. 




defeat. 


ahikast. 




deserter. 


gurezaiida ; mafrur ; manjuz. 




detachment, 


dasta^e lashkar. 




dirty. 


zang dluda; gifiir mujalli ; palld; 
gifiltz. 




discipline, 


nizdm; zaht o rahUi-lashkar ; inti- 
sidm. 




ditch. 


tarak ; khandali ; maghdra. 




drum. 


koa; tabL 




enemy. 


duahman. 




executioner, 


jalldd. 




fine. 


jurmdnd; jartma; musddira. 




flag. 


niahdn; hairak; (standard) rdyat. 




flank. 


(right) maimana; (left), maiaara; 
(centre) kalb ; (wing) ^ana A. 




ford, 


ubur-gdh; pd-ydb ; db-guzdr. 




fort, 


fiila' ; hisn ' i 'hastn ; hisn-i-mattn; 
(citadel) hisdr; (impregnable) Jwn- 
i-ghair madkhal ; hisn-d-mumtanCu" 
l-wusul ; hisn-'um'LmtanVu "d'dvr 





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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 223 




Jeliul ; (a small turret) hurj. 




(plur. huruj); (trenches) morchal; 




muhdair; (a refuge) maldz; maljd; 




ma^kiL 


general, 


pesh-dhang; pesh-rau. 


gladiator, 


sildh'Shor ; shamshir-bdz ; shamshir 


gun* 


zan, 
tufang; mad fa' ; (rifle) tufang-i-ndb- 




ddr ; (barrel) lula ; (hammer) 




kdshluk; (equipment) adz o yardk- 




i'top ; (carriage) 'ardba,e top; 




(foresight) pesh bin ; (back sight) 




pas bin; {^ight) bin-i'tufang ; (shot 




large) gula,e top ; (cock) chakmdk ; 




(bullet) ghulula ; (powder) bdriit. 


helmet (iron), 


tark ; Jckud ; rnaghfar. 


horse and foot. 


sawdr o piydda. 


hostage, 


yarghamdl; girau; kafil. 


hurler (quoit;, 


charkk anddz. 


inspection, 


muldhaza ; mu*aiyana ; (inspector) 




ndsiir. 


interpreter, 


mutarajjim ; tarjumdn. 


irregular. 


be zabt ; be nask / be nazm. 


kit, 


chu yardk ;- asbdb-i-sipdhtydna. 


ms^azine. 


makhzan ; (powder) bdrut-iMna, 


march, 


kucL 


a mediator, 


miydnji ; mydnddr ; wdsit; wasit. 


mediation, 


mydnagi; tawaamt; waadtat. 


military profes- 

SI ATI 


aipdh garu 


SiUii, 

military tactics. 


nasm o nask-i-aakar. 


mud. 


fchildb ; Idye; gil. 


a muster. 


ihzdr; (to) ikzar-i-fauj girifian. 


mustered. 


aaff'Zada, 


mutineer. 


bdgM; munharif; tugiiiydn-afroz. 


mutinous, 


hdghi; faaddi. 


mutiny. 


haghflwat; faaddj inhirdf. 



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224 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 


news. 


ihabar; (doubtful) afwdh. 


neatral, 


giair-i-muta^dllak ; musdwi; hejdmb^ 




ddru 


neutrality, 


tasdwt ; 'adm-i'jdntff'ddri. 


officer (military), 


(commanding) ^uhdaddr-t-mukhtdr ; 




(commander - in - chief) amtru - « - 




nizdm ; (general) sipdh - sdldr ; 




(lieut.-gen.) amir-i'tomdn ; (major- 




gen.) amir-i-panj; (colonel) sartlp; 




(lieut.-coL) sarhang ; (major) yah-- 




var ; (captain) sad-bdsht ; (lieut.) 




ndfib ; (seijeant) 'uMaddr - 1 - 




khurd. 


omen, 


shugun; fdl. 


parade, 


edn; kawd'id. 


pass (mountain). 


darra ; gusar-gdh-t-koh ; shi^b - 1 - 




jabal ; ma^bar-i-koh. 


passport, safe 


kdghaz'i'amdn ; khatt'i-rdMdri ; ba- 


conduct, 


rdt-i-salaml. 


pay, 


tankKwdh; muwdjib ; mushdhira ; md" 




hiydna; {sLTrea.rB)bakiyaye muwdjib ; 




(advance of) peshgt^e tankhwdh ; 




(pension) idrdr. 


peace. 


sulL 


piquet, 


tildya;(YB,iig\i&rd)talVat;mukaddama. 


pistol. 


tamancha; (revolver) mudahrij; tam- 




anchayB shish ]chJdnaddr^ 


plunder. 


glkanimat; g&drat ; yaghmd; tdrdj. 


punishment. 


siydsat; sazd. 


pursuit. 


ta^dkab. 


quarter. 


alamdn; amn; amdn. • 


recruit, 


tdza-^askaru 


regulations. 


d,in. 


retreat, 


(to) hazimat namudan; paspd ahudan; 




pusht dddan ; pas ntshastan; firdr 




kardan ; ru,e ba gurez nihddan. 


review, 


tnuldhaza,e JcawdHd. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOiiUES A»[D EXERCISES. 225 , 




a rocket, 


gulula,e kiz ; tlr-chariif, 




a runaway, 


haztmaii. 




safety, security, 


amn; amdn. 




respite, 






sentence of court- 


fatwgi. 




martial, 






sentinel. 


pdS'hdn ; (the ^ard) kashtk. 




shield. 


eipar. 




siege. 


muhdsara. 




soldier, 


aarhdz ; stpdhi ; ^askari ; (horse) 
sawdr; (experienced) kdr»dtda ; 
kdrdzmuda; wdki^a-dida; (service) 
jang-dzmuda. 




spear, 


naiza; mza. 




spur, 


makmez. 




spy, 


jdsua ; (scout) taldba; (spying) to- 
jasms. 




store, 


ambdr. 




surrender. 


iaslim ; (to) chtze^rd iastim kardan. 




surrendering, 


sipar anddzt. 




a sword. 


shamshir; (scabbard) miydn; ghildf. 




99 


(belt) kamarband-i'Skcmshtr. 




a tactician, 


nasakchi; (tactics) 'ilm-i'drdyish-t- 
lashkar mansub. 




tax. 


hhirdj : mahsul; wazVat ; katVat. 




terms of peace, 


ihardyit'i'Sulh. 




treaty, 


'ahd-ndma ; *ahd o paimdn noma. 




» 


(of peace) 'uhd o paimdn ndma^e sulk. 




treasure. 


ganj ; iM^^na. 




tribute, 


ihirdj. 




tiTice, 


muhlat ; tawakkuf-i-jang. 




trumpet, 


buk; kamd. 




victory. 


fath; nasr; zafr; (victorious) mu- 
zaffar. 




war, 


jang harb; muhdrabat; razm. 




ff 


(articles of) [kawd'tdyi-jang. [a,tw.] 




warrior, 


jang ju ; zor dwar ; jar^ dwar ; 

15 



226 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISBS. 



wound, 
the wounded, 
wrestler, 
to raise the stan- 
dard, 
to hit the mark, 

to collect an 
army, 

to punish (a per- 
son),. 

to pursue the 
enemy, 

to pitch a tent, 

to strike a tent, 

to stick in the 

mud, 
to proclaim (by, 

beat of drum), 
to proclaim, 
to consult, 

to draw a sword, 
to plunder, 

to ravage, 

to besiege, 
to march, 

to attack. 



masdff dzmuda; (for religion) 

mujdhtd. 
zakhm; resk ; jardhat 
zakhmtt/dn; majruhdn. 
kushti'bdz, 
[nasb'i-rdi/at'\ kardan, [rdyat bar 

pd.] 
[nishdna-rd'\ zadan. [ba hadaf; ba 

dnidjJ] 
lashkare jama* kardan. 

[kase-rd'\ siydsat kardan / stydscU nO' 
mudan; 'ukubat kardan, 
r ta^ dkub'i-dushman kardan, 
\ darpai,e du8hman\budan\, [uftddan^ 
j ^akab'i'dushman giriftan, 
\ dar ^akab-i-duahman raftan. 
C khima istdda kardan, 
X ihlma zadan. 
C khima bar anddlc^tan, . 
( ]c]nma bar kandan. 
C ba wahal giriftdr ahudan. 
\ dar kasa'at mdndan. 

manddi [kardani* [zadan; dddan^ 

[mashhur'] kardan. \tashh%r,'\ 

ha kase \mashwarat\ kardan, \maS' 

lahat ; tadbtr.'] 
dkhtan (root dkh), 
mdl-rd ghdrat kardan; mdl-rd ha 

yaghnia \burdan^. [idwardan,'\ 
vmlk-rd [pd mdl kardan^ \wc^rdn 

sakMan.'] 
jd,e-rd muhdsara kardan, 
kuch kardan; (advance) pe^A raftan; 

kadam peshtar guzdshtan, 
bar kase hamla kardan. 



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UISCELLANEODS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 227 



to fortifj, 

to fire a gun, 
to wound (a 

person), 
to cross over a 

river, 
to advance, 

to arrange, 



to blow up, 
to cock a gun, 



to escalade, 

to flash in the 

pan. 
to hold out to 

the last, 
to impress, 
to stockade, 
to storm, ' 



jd^e-rd [hisg.r] kardan, [muhasir] ; 

(form square) bury hastan, 
bar kase tufang-rd khdlx kardan, 
(kase-rd) majruh kardan; zakhmt 

kardan. 
( az daryd guzashtan, 
I az daryd *ubur kardan, 
(obliquely) mahrif o ghflir^i-nizdm 

pesh rajflan. 
(a battery) murchafe top-khdna a- 

rdstan; (intrench ments) [morchdl'] 

sdkhtan. [kandak or Misfindak.'] 
ba bdrut kase-rd ba hawd [burdan]. 

[afgandan; dddanJ] 
chaknidk-rd sar pdya dwardan ; (half 

cock) chakmdk-rd bar nim pdya 

kashtdan, 
nird'bdn bar diwdr guzdshtan, 
[tufang o chaknidk'] gul kardan. 



td nihdyat hdlat-i-ldchdrx dar muhd- 
Jizat koshish namildan, 

kase-rd ba sttklkra giriftan, 

jd^e dar sangur kardan, 

bar kila* yurish dwarda [musa khkha r'\ 
namudan [taskhir'] ; kila^ az hamla 
Jath kardan ; (storming party) 
kasdne ki yurish burda az rakJ^a 
kasd'i-ddkkil'i'jdfe kunand. 
to stand a charge, tdb-i-hamla^e du^shman ddshtan. 

Exercise, — Certain Arab merchants went to a king of 
Persia, and exhibited some fine horses for sale. The 
king liked them very much, and bought them. He gave 
the merchants two lakhs of rupis over and above the 
purchase, and told them to bring more horses from their 
own country as soon as possible. The merchants upon 



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228 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND ENERGISES. 

this agreement, took their leave. One day afterwards, 
the king being exhilarated with wine, said to the wazir, 
" Make out a list of all the fools in my dominions." The 
wazir represented that he had already done so, and had 
put his majesty's name at the very head of the list. The 
king asked why so. He replied, " Because you gave two 
lakhs of rupis for horses to be brought by merchants, for 
whom no person is security, neither does any one know 
what part of Arabia they belong to; and this is* a sign 
of the greatest folly." The king said, " But if the 
merchants should bring the horses, what is then to be 
done ?" The wazir answered, " Sire, if they should be 
such fools as to bring the horses, I will insert the names 
of the merchants at the head of the list, and your 
majesty's name will in that case occupy only the second 
place." 



Lesson 53. — With a Head Servant. 

sabaf: panjdk o siwum dar guft-o-gu^e md bain shakhse 
farang o dai'ogiaye khudddm. 

. do you speak our language ? dyd ha zahdn-i-md snihan 

mi-goyed ? 
yes, sir, I can speak a little hale^ sahib, man kadre 
English, zabdn - i - inglist mi^ta- 

wdnam guft, 
I have not yet learned to td [AaZ] zabdn-i-fdrst guf- 
speak Persian, tan naydmoJchta am, 

[hanozJ] 
Caknun kujd manzil ddred? 
where do you now live ? \ ilhdl bud o bdsh kujd [mi- 

( kunedl ? \ddred^ 
pray ^hat is your name ? ndm-i-shumd chtsty o ndm-u 
let me know also your [mdlik'yi'ihud ba man 
master's name, bi-go. [arbdb.'] 



MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 229 



how long have you been in 
that gentleman's service ? 



where is your native coun- 
try, and how far may it 
be hence ? 

do people in general go 
there by land or water ? 

what is the most important 
article of trade in that 
country, and what things 
are produced in greatest 
abundance there ? 

are your parents alive or 
not, and do you ever go 
to see your relations and 
friends ? 

do you know at what rate 
copper sells in the 'market 
here ? 



az chand wakt [dar naukart,e 
an sahib muldzim huda 
ed"] ? \dar (or ha) nau- 
kart,e an sahib vnashghul 
ed,'] ' ** 

\wafan]'%'8humd hujd ast, o 
az tn jd chi kadar dur 
bdshad ? \_zdd - bum ; 
maulid,'] 

az rdh'i-khushkt yd tart, 
hama mardumdn aksar 
dnjd mt-ravand? 

dar an mulk kuddm jins 
ld,iktar-i'ttjdrat ast, o 
kuddm cRiz ba [afzHni] 
dar dn jd paida mi-sha- 
vad ? \ka8rat ; firdwdnt; 
afzd^ish.'] 

* wd lidain - 1 - shumd zinda 
and, yd na, o ba muldkdt 
kardan - t - khweshdn o 
kartbdn o dostdn gdke mt*- 
raved, yd na ? 

dyd mt'ddtied in jd ba ku- 
ddm nirkh dar bdzdr mis 
farokhta mi-shavad ? 



* visiting the sick, ^ayddat kardan, 
visiting one's spiritual guide, ziydrat kardan-i-murshid, 

kadam bos shudan-i-wdli- 
dain, 
visiting one's parents, i kadam bosa dddan-i-wdli- 

dain, 
ziydrat kardan-i-wdlidain. 



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230 MISCELLANEOUS DLAL06UES AND EXERCISES. 

what, cannot you even say muCajjibaniy hi skumd na 
that one penny's worth mi-tawdned gufty hi dyd 
of copper will be the wiw, ha kadar-i-ydk fils^ 
weight or size of a penny harahar-i-wazn o anddz- 
or not ? * i-yak fils JclkVdhad hud, 

ydna? 

do you know nowadays at dar %n ruzkd ha chi nirkh 

what rate a quart of milk yak asdr-i-sktr dar shahr 

sells in the city, and in fqrolchtami-ahavadyOdar 

the country for how dihdt ha ckand ? 

much ? 

C shumd^rd rukhsat ast ? 

, . \ shumd mura khkha s ed. 

you may now depart, j ^^^^ - „4^^(;w.^j^«i]. 

V. [_8haved.^ 

Exercise.^ — ^A certain king had a wise wazir, who re- 
signed his office, and employed himself in worshipping 
God. The king asked the nobles what was become of 
the wazir ; they answered, that having quitted his exalted 
station, he employed himself in serving the Deity. The 
king went to the wazir, and asked, '^ O wazir, what offence 
have I committed that you quitted my service ?" He 
answered, " Sire, for five reasons have I done this : 
firstly, because you used to sit and I remained standing 
in your presence; now, I serve Grod, who has commanded 
me to sit at the time of prayer : secondly^ you ate 
whilst I was looking on ; now, I have found a Providence 
who eateth not himself, but sustains me : thirdly, yon 
slept, whilst I watched ; now, I have a master who 
knows not slumber, but protects me whilst I rest: 
fourthly, I was always afraid, that if you should die I 
might experience some misfortune firom enemies ; now I 
serve a God who is immortal, neither can enemies do me 
any injury^: fifthly, with you I was afraid, that if I 
should have committed a fault, you would not have for- 
given me ; but He whom I now serve is so merciful, that 
if I commit a hundred sins every day he pardons me." 

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MISCELLANEOUS DLA.L0OUES AND EXERCISES. 231 



Lesson 54.— Between a European Doctor and a 
Persian Patient. 

tctbak panjah o chihdrum dar gufi-o-gu^e met bain tabib,e 
dzfarang wa bimdr-i-fdrBi, 

' ahumd-'rd [ckt] shud ? \chi 
'am.] 

mard bi-go, [^hdlat-i'skumd 
chtst']? [cAt dard dared,'] 

az chand bimdr buda ed ? 
' ba atmval, ba chi sural tab 
girt/led ? 

ba awwaU ba chi surat tab 
shumd-rd girift ? 

ba awwaly chigHna tab ^dri^ 
shud ? 

ba bisiydr sardiy wa [larza], 
wa dard ' i ' anddmy wa 
dard'i'Sar wa ihsds-i- 
pusht chundn hi lease db- 
i'Sard bar sulb-i-manfaro 
mi-rezad. [ra^sha; irti^- 
dsh; kusha^rlratJ] 

h'ad az chande ^arak az 
a*zd bar dmad, har d,ina 
mard bisiydr ifaka [or 
shifd] baJshshtd, o dar 
Jchwdb raftam, 

[dawd] chi kism khurda 
ed? \tabb!\ 

hech [pai dar pai"] na 
khurda am. [mutawdtir ; 
ba ihtiydtJ\ 

hdyadkishumd dawdyB [ka- 
wi] bi'khured, \mukawwi; 
pur zor i musjiil ; is^hdlJ] 



tell me what is the matter 
with you, 

how long have you been ill ? 



how did the fever attack 
you at first ? 



with great coldness, shiver- 
ing, pains in all my limbs, 
headache, and a sensation 
in my back as if one were 
pouring cold water down 
my backbone, 

after some time a perspira- 
tion broke out, which re- 
lieved me much, and I 
fell asleep, 



you 



what medicine have 

taken ? 
none with any regularity, 



you must take some active 
medicine. 



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232 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



I suppose you have no 
appetite, 



let me feel your pulse, 
put out your tongue, 



I suspect there is something 
wrong with your liver. 



let me well examine it ; 
does that pain you ? 



yes, that is the very spot 
where the pain is most 
acute. 



ffUtndnfldram hi 8humd''\rd 
ishtihd ni8t\, [ishtihd 
na dared,"] 

tasauwar ddram hi skumd" 
rd khwdht8h-t'ta*dm nist. 

nahz'i'khud^i-tdn-rd ihsds 
kardan mard bi-dihed, 

dast'i'khud-i'tdn hiydr ki 
nabz'i-skumd bi-'binam, , 

zabdn-i-khud berun bi-kash. 

zabdn-i'lchud-rd badar bi- 
[nama], [dwarj] 

zabdn-i'ihud nishdn bi-dih. 

rdyB man ast ki dar jigar- 
i-shumd chTze bimdrt ast. 

gumdn kunam ki [dar jigar- 
i-shumd chize 'aib ast]. 
[shumd - rd marz^i-jigar 
{'driz shuda ast) (ast).] 
iba kMbl dn-rd didanam 
bi-dih ; az tn [darde ihsds 
mt-kuned] ? \fishurdan 
dar badan - t - shumd 
darde ast, or mi - 
gtrad.2 

bi-guzdr ki tashkliiS'i'jigar 
ba , khubi bi - kunam ; 
fishu^rdan badan-i-shumd 
dard mi-kunad? 

jigar-i-shumd-rd ba . khtibi 
musha khkh as kardan bi- 
dihed; az mdUdan-i-dast- 
i-m^n dafde mahsus^ or 
maUUm mi-shavad ? 

bale dar ham in jd [dard 
ziydd] ast. [^ain-i-dard; 
ranj ba shiddat.J 



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MISCELLANEOUS DL/LLOGUES AND EXEBCJSES. 233 



have you any heartburn ? 



you must use mercuiy both 
inwardly and by friction, 
until a salivation is pro- 
duced, 



do whatsoever you please 
with me, for I have great 
confidence in your pre- 
scriptions, 

I shall send you some medi- 
cines ; and you are to 
take them in the evening 
according to my instruc- 
tions, 

do not be persuaded by 
native doctors to take 
their medicines, 

I am well convinced they 
will do you no good, and 
they may do you much 
injury. 



' ahumd^ra sozish-i-dtl aat ? 

aozish'i'dil [ddred\ ? [kar' 
da ed.'] 

skumd - rd bimdn,e soziah-i' 

dil *driz shuda ast ? 
^ dil-i'Shumd sozish ddrad ? 

^ hdyad hi ahumd [zlbak ha 
hdr hiydwared] [or 
dawdle jtwa hi-lcliured'] 
ha har du surat darun 
ha mdlish berun td 
[kt lu*dh naydyad]. 
[dahan - t - skumd na 
jo8hadi\ 

harchi mi - itwdhed hi- 
kunedf ztrd hi man har 
hikmat - 1 - skumd hisiydr 
xHimdd mt-ddram for mt- 



hard^e skumd cklze dawdkd 
khwdkam firistdd ; hdyad 
ki ha wakUi'Skdm muwd- 
Jik-i'farmdyisk't-4nan [fta 
kdr dwared]; [ha 'am<il 
dwared; istCmdl kuned.'] 

az targhth't'tahthdn-i-mulk' 
i'fdrs dawdkd,e eskdn na 
Mured. 

mard hi^l* hull yakin ast 
kt eskdn skumd-rd keck 
fdyida na kkyjdkand dad, 
skdyad skumd-rd hisi^ 
ydr ranj hi-'dikand. 



* inwardly and outwardly, hdtinan o ^dkiran. 

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234 MISCELLANEOtrS DIALOGtrES AND EXERCISES. 

Persian doctors frequently iahtbdn-i-fdrsi ^umiiman 
administer our medicines, mu^alijahd,e tnd istCmdl 
but they are utterly un- mt - kunandy magar az 
acquainted with them, dnhd hi-l-kull na wdkif 

and. 

Exercise. — One of the kings of Persia sent a skilful 
physician to the prophet Muhammad (upon whom be 
peace !). He had been some years in Arabia without 
any one having come to make trial of his skill, neither 
had they applied to him for any medicine. One day he 
came to the prince of prophets, and complained, saying, 
" They sent me to dispense medicines to your companions, 
but to this day no one hath taken notice of me, that I 
might have an opportunity of performing the service to 
which I had been appointed." Muhammad replied, " It 
is a rule with these people never to eat until they are 
hard pressed by hunger, and to leave off eating whilst 
they have a good appetite." The physiciau said, " This 
is the way to enjoy health." He then made his obeisance 
and departed. The physician begins to speak when evil 
would result from his silence ; either when there is 
eating to excess, or when death might ensue from too 
much abstinence. Then, doubtless, his speech is wisdom, 
and such a meal will be productive of health. {QulistdT^ 
chap. ilL, tale 4.) 



NAMES OF PARTS OF THE BODY. 

arm, hdzu; (-pit) haghL 

back, pusht ; (bone) sulb. 

beardy riah; khaft : (whisker) zamma. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 235 



» belly, 

bladder, 

blood, 

body, 

bone, 

bowels, 
brain, 
cheek, 
•chin, 

countenance, 
down, 
ear, 
elbow, 

eye, 



face, 



foot, 

gall-bladder, 
gums, 
hair, 

hand. 



batn (plur. hatnan) ; shikam, 

zihdr ; shdshaddn ; masdna, 

khun, 

paikar ; hadan ; jism ; tan ; vmjud, 

ustukhwdn; azam; (collar) tarj^u- 

waU 
rudah ; butndn ; (navel) ndj. 
dimdgi; maghz, 
Hzdr ; 'driz ; rukhsdr, 
zanaich ddn; zanakk ; (dimple of) 

chdh-i'Zanakh. 
tald'aL 

jchatt-i'Sabz ; nahdUi'driz. 
gosh ; (lobe) hand gosh, 
drzan; mlrfak; (joint) mafsil-i^ 

bdzu, 
chashm ; (blue) azrak chashm ; 

(-brow) abru; (-lash) mizhgdn; 

(-lid) parda^e chashm. 
rti,e; paikar; bashra; stmd, 
angusht't'dasht ; (thumb) ibhdm ; 

shusU 
musht, 

pd,e ; pa ; (heel) 'akib. 
zahra, 

lisa (pliir. lisa). 
mu,e ; (moustache) fatha; sabU; 

(ringlet) zulf. 
past; yadd. 



* to creep as an insect, ha shikam raftan. 
wind in the bowels, bdd-i-shikam. 
sensualist, shikam parwar ; shikam banda; 
batin, , 

' to wag the chin, to talk, zanakh zadan. 



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236 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 


heady 


ear; (foTe^)jabin; jabhd; ndsiya; 




peshdni ; 8%md. 


heart,. 


dil; kalb; zamir ; iMfir, 


heart, lungs, liver. 


ahshdy plur. ; ^ha, sing. 


spleen, intestines, 




joint. 


mafsil; Hzw» 


knee. 


zdnu. 


leg. 


sdk ; pdfB ; (ankle) shitdlang. 


limbs, 


anddm; a^zd (sing. ^izw). 


lip. 


nabdt ; lab; (upper) Za^t-ia^am; 




(lower) lab^i-zmn. 


liver, 


jigar. 


lungs, 


shush. 


mouth. 


dahan. 


neck. 


gardaru 


nerve. 


'asab (plur. a^sdb). 


palate. 


kdm. 


palm of the hand. 


kaf. 


shoulder, 


shdna; dosh; (joint) a'saJ-t-aAa»a ; 




mafsil "i-dosh; (blade) katif, 




or kit/. 


side, 


pahlu; (rib) danda. 


» skin. 


post 


stomach. 


hausila; mi*da. 


thigh, 


rdn. 


throat, 


halk ; gulu ; (windpipe) hanjar. 


tongue. 


zabdn; lisdn. 


tooth. 


dand. 


vein. 


'irk (plur. 'uruk). 


wrist. 


8d*id; ma'sim. 


* skin, raw hide, post, or 


a snake's slough, post-i- 


pust. 




mdr. 


the shell of a nut, post-i- 


leather, posttn. 


jauz. 




a furrier, posttn doz. 


to flay, post handan. 





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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 237 


aloesy 


fiftr. 


cancer. 


ihwara; saratdn. 


cholera, 


haiza; wahd ; 8adma,ewabd. 


a cold, 


zukdm; chdhtah; (to have) zukdm 




ddshtan; (to catch) cAaAt(ian. 


colocinth, 


fawj?aZ. 


convalescence. 


shifd. 


a cough. 


surf a ; (whooping) sty ah -surf a; 




(to cough) surfa kardan ; surjt- 




dan. 


cramp. 


tamaddud. 


delirium. 


hazx; hazidn-umahrur ; (delirious) 




', haziydn; mad-hoak. 


diarrhoea, 


shikam -jdrt ; jiriydn - 1 - shikam ; 




itldk. 


a doctor, 


tabib (plur. atibbd) ; haktm; (horse) 




battdr. 


drops)', 


istiskd; (cupping glass) shdMi-i' 




hajdmaU 


fever. 


tap ; tab ; (heat of) hardrat 


giddiness, 


daurdn ; daurdn dar sar. 


gout, 


nikris. 


gripe. 


peckish. 


lancet. 


neshtar. 


leper. 


pis; juzdm; mabrus ; ahUi-baras; 




(leprosy) baras ; plsi. 


mfedical art, 


libdbat» 


medicine, 


dawd ; ddru ; (pill) habb, plur. ku- 




bub; (powder) safuf; (alum)a^-t- 




zdj'i'Safaid ; (castor oil) kinatu ; 




raugkan - t - bedanjir ; (opium) 




afyun; tirydk; (quinine) gina; 




(antidote) tirydk. 


ophthalmia, 


ramad^ 


a patient, 


himdr; mariz ; (disease) inarz; 


* 


bimdri; ranjuri. 


plague. 


id'un; wabd. 



238 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



plaster, 
a purge, 
rheumatism, 
slime, 

to feel weak, 

to feel stronger, 
to feel better, 

to feel quite well, 
to have jaundice, 
to have small-pox, 
to have chicken-pox, 
to have fever spots, 
to be teething, 
to be prevalent, 

to purge, 

to swell, 

to try a remedy, 

to vomit ; or to wish 
to vomit, 

he is getting worse. 



he is getting better, 



TnarhaTJi; zamad, 
jalldb ; mushil ; shikam-rdn, « 
wajd'-'i^muJ!astL 

halgham ; (clamminess) luzujaU 
C dar hadan nakdhat md'lum shu- 

< dan, 

(^ zcHf mahsus kardan, 

dar hadan kuwat ziydda shudan. 

az awwal kadre [bihtar budan"], 
[ifdka maHum shudan.J 

sdlim shudan, 

yarkdn berun dwardan. 

ablate chichak berun dwardan, 

zabrak berun dwardan, 

tabkhdl berun dwardan, 

danddn berun dwardan. 

g]mlib budan ; jdrl shudan ; kuwat 
ddshtan ; istUd yd/tan, 

jalldb dddan; (to take a purge) 
jalldb giriftan, 

waram kardan. 

^ildj'i'Viarze kardan. 
( kai kardan, 

\ kase-rd [kai] shudan, [tahauum^'] 
I dil'i'kase [barham Mmrdan"], [ta- 
v^ hauwu' shudan.l 

bimdrt,e o [^uruj'] ddt^ad, [ziyddati ; 
ru ba tarakkt,^ 
C bimdrtfe o ru ba [tanazzul] ddrad. 

< [nuzul,'] 

(^ bimdrt,e o kam mi-shavad. 



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HISCBLLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 239 



Lesson 55. — Between a Civilian and a Sarishta.- 
DAB, OB Native Official. 

sabak paiydk o panjum dar gufUo'gu^e ma lain 'dmile az 
farang o sdhib-i-diwdn. 



pray, my friend, are you 
somewhat versed iu the 
revenue department ? 

what do they call a lease, 
and what its counter- 
part? 

have you any other names^ 
for the rate or rent ad- 
justment of lands, ? 



should you not recollect 
another word for the 
rate, then explain the 
nature of it in detail, 



do the farmers pay the 
revenue to government 
hy instalments, or in the 
gross ? 

does this species of revenue 
I come in before , or during, 
I or after the crop ? 



dostd ! mard hi-farmdyed hi 
az kdr4'\tahsildd7n'\kli,uh 
wdkifedydna? [waAswZ.] 

\kahdla,'\e zaniin chi chtz-rd 
ml-goyandj o kabuliyat 
chtst ? \ijdra ndma,'] 

bard,e band o bast wa 
[iiiro;] ndm - » - digar 
ddred ? \mdl - guzdrl ; 
madkhul ; maddiJ^il ; 
mahsuL'] 

agar lafz - 1 - digar bardie 
khirdj ba ydd-i-shumd na 
mi-dyad, hakikat ^i'dn 
[^tafsilwdr baydn bi- 
kuned], [mufassal takrir 
bi-'kuned,] 

dyd kisht-i-kdrdn ba sarkdr 
kkirdj-rd [_ba aksdtya ba 
yak jumia'] mt'dikavd, 
[az kaYdr-i-kisthd yd 
mujmil,'] 

in kism-i'pul'i-iJiirdj peak 
yd darmiydn, yd bcCd 
az fast ba khizdna [mi- 
rasad'] ? [mi-razdnand,'] 



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240 MISCELLANEOUS DIAL06T7ES AND EXERCISES, 



does free land, or that not 
assessed, pay anything at 
all to government, or not, 
by way of acknowledge- 
ment ? 



who used to settle formerly 
the assessment of the 
several districts ? 

,in what respects do^s the 
county registrar differ from 
the town or village 
clerk ? 

pray tell me the true state 
of what are called shikami 
portions of a village or 
farm, 

is any paper called a deed 
of abdication or rejection, 
and what does it 
imply? 

in these days, when con* 
stables are put over any 
landholder, is dunage ex- 
acted, or not, and to what 
amount ? 



, az zamtn-i-ld'Tchirdj^yamu^' 
o/T, chize khirdj ha sar- 
kdr ha taur-i-tuhfa tnt- 
dthand, yd na ? 

az zamtn-i Id-Tchirdj huddm 
mdl-guzdri taur-t-pesh- 
kash ha sarkdr add mi" 
namdyandf yd na ? 

az zamtn-i-ld'-iirirdj kuddm 
rusukhiyatf ha taur-i-hi- 
ddya, sarkdr hdsil mi-na- 
mdyady yd na ? 

kdbl az In hand o hast-i- 
khirdj - 1 - zamtn kuddm 
shakhs mukarrar karde ? 

darmiydn - t - kdnungo o 
paimdfish kunanda cki 
farak ast ? 

asl haktkat't- an kafa^e 
mauz^ay yd mazr'a ki dn- 
rd shikami mt-goyand hi' 
farmdyed. 

hech kahdla,e tark kardan 
yd Id-d^awgi ast yd na^ o 
nCanx^e dn chxst ? 

dar m zamdn, wakte ki 
harhiddmin zamtnddrdn 
muhassildn (or ahUi-ihti- 
adh) mu^aiyan (or mu- 
karrar) karda rni^sha' 
vand talahdna falah mt- 
shavad yd na, o ha chi 
Jcadr, 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 241 



^in the country does the con- 
tracting farmer or the 
landholder receive the 
sustenance money ? 

what is the name of the 
paper which contains an 
account of the tanks, 
orchards, houndaries, &c. 
of any village ? 

they call it muwdztna, or 
boundary .sketch, 

why does a servant call 
himself sarkdr^ khalifa^ 
mihtar^ &c. 

that he may appear a great 
man in the eyes of his 
master and of the other 
servants, 



dyd dar ta^alluka naf" 
oka ba [riiustdjir^ mi" 
shavadj yd ba zaminddr 7 
[multaztm,'] 

ndm-i'dn kdgiflz ki dar dn 
tafslUi-tdldbhd ^alafzdr^ 
haddhd,e mduz^a andy 
chi bdshad ? 

muwdzina ya^ni nakshoye 
zamtnyd kdgJkaz- i-[hadd'\ 
bandi mi'goyand.[raicba.j 

chird naukare khud - rd 
khitdbhd.e 'iszat, ycCni 
sarkdvy khalifa, mihtar o 
wa-ghaira^ mi-dihand ? 

ztrd ki dar na^ar-i-mdlik-i' 
khudf wa nazd-i-sdyir-i- 
naukardn [mu'azzam bi' 
bdshad^, [buzurg m'aliim 
bi-shavad ; buzurg bi" 
namdyad; mu^azzaz bi' 
bdehadJ] 

Exercise, — ^A certain lawyer had a very ugly daughter 
who was arrived at a marriageable age ; but although he 



* a farmer, hatrds; kisktkdr; kdshtkdr; dihkdn, muzdr^x ; 

falldh ; (of taxes) ijdraddr, 
harvest, hasdd; (time of) hasddat ; (a reaper) hassdd 

or hdsid (pi. hussdd) ; (autumnal — of rice) fasl-i^ 

iharif; (spring — peas, barley, wheat) fasUi-rabV ; 

(wheat) fasl-i-gandum. 
to sow, kishtan or kdshtan ; zird^at kardan, 
a green field, kisht zdr; (sown) mazra' ; mazrcHa. 
9k mehdoWy ^alaf zdr ; murghzdr, 
a plough, kulba ; a ploughman, kulba rdn, 

16 



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242 HISOELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



offered a considerable dower and other valaables, no one 
was inclined to wed her. Brocade and damask, and 
pearls and jewels, will appear disgusting on a bride who 
is ugly. At last, through necessity, he naarried her to a 
blind man. It is said that, in the same year, there 
arrived from the island of Sarandip (Ceylon) a &mous 
physician who could restore sight to the blind. They 
asked the father, " Why do you not have your son-in-law 
cured ?" He said, " Because I am afraid that, if he 
should recover his sight, he will divorce my daughter, 
who is now his wedded wife. It is best that the husband 
of an ugly woman should be blind." {Gulistdn, chap. il. 
tale 47.) 

Lesson 56. — On General Business. 
sabak panjdh o shishum dar gufUo-gu^e mu^dmala,e *dm. 



Here (speaking to a servant), 
take the draft, and bring 
the money: be quick, 

what must be done ? it is 
now eleven o'clock, 

be quick, that I may have 
the money in time, 

let me have it by one o'clock, 

go to the counting-house, 
and speak to the head 
accountant, 

tell the accountant to take 
bank notes, and pay the 
amount of the draft, 

the money must now be sent 
to Mr. 



at muldzim hardt hi^gtr o 
pul hiydr : zud shav. 

chi hdyad hard? aknun 

sd^at-i-t/dzdak ast, 
zud kun ki bar wakt pul ha 

dast'i-man hi-rasad (or 

hiydyad). 
ha sd'at't-yak dn-rd ha man 

hi-rasdn. 
ha muhdsih khdna hi-rau, o 

ha muhdsib'i-a^zccm bi-go. 

ha muhdsih bi-go ki dast 

dweZ'i-sarrd/a (or sar- 
» rdf'khdna) bi-gtr o pHl- 

i'dn add kun (or hi-dih). 
hdlan hdyad ki shumdpiil ha 

sdhih'i ' fuldn hdyad fit' 

iatdd. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DL&XOGUES AND EXEBCISES. ^43 



request Mr. to order 

what remains to be paid 
in before three o'clock, 



have you ever been to 
Mr. 's garden ? 



sir, I go that way every 
day, 

you must go there imme- 
diately, else nothing will 
be done, 

send some one tp hire a boat, 

I will go to Karachi to-day, 

go to the bazar, and buy a 
pair of globe lanterns, 

who will collect the bills ? 



ha fiilan sahib *arz bi-kun hi 

hukm bi-kunad ki dnchi 

bdki ast pesk az si sd^at 

[^ddda shavad'], [*atd 

karda shavad ; marhamat 

karda shavad »'\ 
' gdhe az bardie tafarruj4- 

hdgh'i-fuldn sdhib rafta 

l? 
gdhe [multafit\ - 1 - bdgh - « - 

faldn sdhib shuda %? 

[mutawajjihJ] 
sdhibd ! har ruz az dn 

rdh {jguzar"] mt-kunam, 

[^tthicr ; murHr,'] 
JiA'faur dn jd shumd - rd 

bdyad raft wama hech 

chiz shudan na mi-ta- 

wdnad. 
az burdyC kirdya kardan-i- 

mdshUh nafare bi-firist, 
man imrUz ba kardchi 

khwdham \raft], [shydJ] 

ba bdzdr bi-rau, o dH td 

fdnus - « - mudawwir bi- 

khar, 
kuddm kas pHl - t - hisdb 
jama' khwdhad [^kard^? 

[namild,'] 



Exercise, — There was a king, who had no son ; he 
tried many remedies and expedients, but derived no ad- 
vantage whatever from them ; he was, therefore, greatly 
dejected, but would not discover the cause of this to any 
one. By chance a strolling mendicant arrived ; he then 
disclosed this his affliction to him, on which the holy 



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244 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 

man wrote out a charm, and thus prescribed : '^ After 
dissolving this in rose-water, you must drink it along 
with your queen ; and on your having a son, you must 
call him Mihr Muntr, bestowing on him every science, 
and all sorts of accomplishments ; but beware of marrying 
him against his consent." Having thus directed, he 
wandered away. This divine prescription being dissolved 
in rose-water, the king and queen drank it off, and by its 
blessed influence they had at last a fine healthy boy. 
Whatever the pilgrim had enjoined respecting him was 
all put in practice. 



Lesson 57. — In continuation. 

^ sdbak panjdh o hafium dor muttasil-umazbur. 

Harunu-r-rashid is clever in hdrunu-r-rashtd dar[tahsil- 
collecting bills, i-karz hoshiydr ast"], 

[husul - I - karz fitnat 
ddrad; or wusul-i-wdm 
Jchub makdrat ddradJ] 



f dar matlab-i-md sahak^ 
dar matlab-i-bdld,e, 

I dar matlab'i'peshtn, 
^ in continuation. ( dar matlab-i-mazkur. 

I dar fnatlab'i-mazbur, 
dar matlab't-rndkabL 

, dar matlab'i-mausuf. 

In place ofmatlab, the following words may be used: 

makdla, from kauL , tafstr, 

mabdhs or bahs. ta/§iL 

baiydn: zikr. 

talfrir. guft o gu. 



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mSCSLLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND B:8:SB0ISS8. 245 



it is very difficult to get 

m()ney of such a one, 
I have been to the bazar : 

sugar is now 3^ ounces a 

rupee, 
it will be better to wait a 

few days, and then buy 

the cloth, 
of what use are such people? 

they know nothing of 

business, 

I understand business — ^I 
am not easily imposed 
upon, 

raisins are six lbs. for a 
rupee, buy about one 
thousand rupees' worth, 



there is no understanding 
the bazar prices, 

in Shiraz the bazar rate is 
scarcely for two hours 
alike, 

I made a deposit ; to- 
morrow I shaU see them 
weighed, 



az ckunin akdkha pul yaftan 
mushkil aat. 

man dar bazar huda am; 
nirHt-i'Shakar fi rupiya 
81 ntm uktya ast. 

td chand ruz sabr hardan^ o 
Vad az an pdrcha-rd 
khartdan hihtar asL 

[in mardumdn ha cki kdr 
mirdyand ?] keck kdr na 
mi'ddnand. [t» mardu" 
mdn be kdr and,"] 

man kdr mUddnam ba dsdn 
fareb na mUkhuram, 

kiahmtah ahish rati ft 
yak rupiya faroihta mi", 
ahavady ba kadar-i-yak 
hazdr rupiya [Marid hi- 
kun"], \bi - ibflr ; tJyxrid 
bi-namd,'] 

nirkh-i'bdzdr yaksdn ntst. 

nirkh - « - bdzdr mukarrar 
ntst. 

tabdil - t - nirii - « - bdzdr 
maHum na mi-shavad, 

dar shlrdz nirkh-i-bdzdr td 
du so* at ba mushkil yak" 
sdn mi-mdnad. 

in chizkd ba amdnat guz" 
dshtamy [/arda wazn 
Mwdham kard'], [jtesh 
rti,e khud farda wazn^ 
ash khwdham kard; ru 
ba ru,e Mud farda wazn- 
ash Mypdham did,'] 



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246 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISES. 

see that you are not imposed thaharddr hi shumd fareb 
upon, na Mured. 

have you compared them ba namuna dnhd-^rd mukdbil 
with the sample? do they karda ed ? \muwdfik 
agree ? and ?] [m misal-i'dn 

mt-mdnad.'] 

two or three packages are du si basta az kism-i-aH^ 

superior, . ast. 

go and procure a pass for bi-rau o az bardie chizhd 

the things that are ready, ki taiydr and Jchatt-i' 

rdhddri jkdsil kun. 



Exercise. — When the prince hecame a man, he one 
day took leave of his father and went away to enjoy the 
chase, where a hcautiful deer came in sight, grazing on a 
plain, with a golden collar round its neck. He then 
gave these orders to the people who were with him : — 
" You must manage to catch this fawn alive, — sun*ound 
it on all sides ; if we thus get it, so much the better ; 
otherwise, the person over whose head she boundiug 
escapes, must put his horse to full speed after it." Just 
as they had completely encircled it, the deer all at once 
made a spring over the prince's own head ; the rest 
checked their horses' reins, while he spurred his horse 
hard at its heels: She bounded away at such a rate as 
to leave ihQ attendants many miles behind, and at last 
outrunning him, vanished from his sight. He then 
stopped in amazement, himself he knew not where, and 
his followers far away ; neither had he a place to lodge 
in, nor enough of the day left to return. 



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UISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 247 



Lesson 58. — In continuation, 
sdbak panjdh o kashtum dar zthr-i-mazkur. 



get a boat, and send 4hem 
on board the ship, 

sir, the captain's agent 
said the goods cannot 
be shipped to-day, 

don't mind what the agent 
says, but mind what I 
say, 



sir, as you bade me, I am 
going. 



go and ask the head ac- 
countant when the ship 
sails, and bring me word, 



servant, call the cashier, 

how much was collected 
yesterday ? 

keep the money by you, 
don't pay away any, 



mdshuh hi-gtr o ckizhd-rd 
bar jahdz bdr kun, 

sdhibd, kdr-guzdr-i-nd Jehu- 
dd guft hi tmruz asbdb bar 
jahdz bdr skudan na mi- 
tawdnad. 

dnchi kdr-kun tn%-goyed bar 
an [ma ahinau] [Jckaydl 
ma kun, or gosh ma 
kwri\; magar dnchi man 
mi-goyam ba [gosh-i-jdn 
bi-shinau']. [gosh o dil bi- 
shinau,"] 

sdhibd, [chundnchi farmuda 
ed ba mutdbik^i-dn^ ml- , 
ravam. [ba mUjib - 1 - 
farmdn,"] 

bi^rau o az muhdsib-i- 
aHzam bi'purs ki jahdz kai 
[langar khwdhad bar 
ddsht]j jawdb biydr, 
[rawdna khwdhad shudJ] 

ai nafar, khizdnchl-rd bi^ 
talab» 

dt ruz chi kadar pul jamcH 
shuda bad ? 

^pHl-rd nazd'i'khud nigdh 
bi'ddr, ba kase hech ma 
dih. 



^rnake this money your charge, In puUrd hawdla^e 
ih¥d bi'ddr ; pHl-rd nazd-i-khud amdnat ddr. 



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248 MISCELLANEOUS DL^OGUES AND EXERCISES. 



what is the discount on the 
Company's paper ? 



' * sad rupiya^e Icdghfiz - t - 
diwdn-rd clii kasr wit- 
gtrand? 

|/t sad rupiya^e bardt-i' 
Kampani bahddur chi 
kadar tanztl mt-hunand? 

^ dor kdgiaZ'i-diwdn ft sad 
shish tumdn sud mt-gar^ 
dad, agar bi-tbared du 
tumdn skisk kirdn kasr 
ast; yd bi-faroshed du 
tumdn mm, 
agar kdghaz - 1 - bar at - t - 
diwdn, ki ft sade shish 
tumdn sud mi^ihandj bi' 
iiared du tumdn o shish 
kirdn kasr ml-g^rand ; 
agarbi-faroshed^i saddH 

\ ntm tUmdn wazVat ast. 
' in chahdr hazdr tUmdn bd 
m^a dn pul ki az karzhd 
wusUl karda shuda ast 
bi-gir o bardt-i-diwdn bi- 
Jchar. 
ba muwdfik'i'Sar ndmahd,e 
in kiuiat [rawana] bi- 
kun. [rawdn,'] 

Exercise, — While in this perplexity, the eyes of the 
prince lighted on a dwelling, and thinks he, " Well, let 
me at least learn to whom this house belongs." He then 
beheld a venerable aged darwesh seated there, to whom, 
after salutation, he observed, " With your leave may I 



if you purchase the Com- 
pany's paper of six per 
cent interest, the dis-, 
count is two tumans six \ 
ku*an ; if you sell, it is 
two and a half tumans. 



take these four thousand 
tumans, with what money 
has been received for 
bills, and buy Company's 
paper, 

send these letters as direct- 
ed, 



* Sindh and Punjab Bailway Company. 
jama'at-i-rdh-i'dhaniyB Sindh o Panjdb, 

• a debt, ^ar^ (plur. kuriizdt) ; debtor, kar^ddr. 



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MISCELLANBOUS DIALOGUES AND EXBBCISES. 249 

remain all night here?" /^ By all means, my child," 
replied the venerahle man, **the house is at jour 
service." Having quickly given the necessary directions 
for his guest's repast, as well as the horse's grain and 
fodder, when done abo with entertaining him, he asked, 
" Pray who are you, young gentleman, and why have you 
come here?" He then related the whole of his late 
adventure. In the mean time, what does he see ? Lo ! 
on a splendid throne, four fairy queens, exquisitely 
beautiful, dad in rich brocade, and oov^red from head to 
foot with jewels and precious stones, suddenly descended, 
who, having alighted, made their obeisance to the 
reverend sage, and seated themselves respectfully in his 
presence. 

Lesson 59. — In continuation. 

Bobak panjdh o nuhum dar mubdhcLsa^e mcushur, 

bring those goods in bullock az gumruk Jchdha an aabdb- 
carts from the custom- rd dar 'ardba^e gdw 
house, [guzashta"] biydr. [kar^ 

da; nihdda; barddshta,^ 

ishumd-rd ba har chtz 
mutawajjihshudanhayad. 
bay ad k% ahuma ba har 
chiz [multqfit bt-shaved^. 
[tawajjuh bi^kuned.'] 
put the store No. 2 into ^ asbdb khdna^e duwum 
order, and eee that there durust bt-kun, wa khabar- 
is no damage, ddr ki nulfisdn na shavad. 

^ an armoury, saldh-J^dna. 
a counting-house, [muhdsibyHioTM, {J^iadb*'] 
a bank, aarrd/^khdna ; sarrdfa, 
a factory, kdr-^Ushflna^, [^dA.] 
an office, daftar-Ukdna. 
a post-hojise, manzil-khdna. 



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250 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



if you don't look to every- 
thing! who else will ? 



I am going oat, let me see 
everything ready when I 
come hack| 



door-keeper, are the count- 
ing-house accountants 
come ? 

who is at work in the iron- 
factory ? 

sir, nobody is yet come, 

how is this, not yet come ? 
— what time of day do 
they mean to come ? 



this is. the case every day, 

and therefore Mr. 's 

work is not yet done, 



when they come to-day, we 
will settle this business, 

Saladin is speaking to me 
daily about this work, 

when they come send them 
to me, 



agar ekumd [ba] har chlz 
nazar na khwdhed hard 
hi ihwdhad kard ? \dar^ 

, man berttn mi-ravam b*ad az 
dmadan'i'lchudam hama 
chtzhd bardbar [witt'ai- 
yana'] bi-kunam, [mU" 
ahdhtda ; muldhasa,] 
I man hdlan berun mUravam^ 
ihaharddr ki pesh az 
dmadan - 1 - man hama 
chtzhd taiydr bdahand. 

at darbdn ! muhdsibdn-i' 
muhdaib - khdna dmada 
and? 

dar kdr -Mana,6 dhan 
kuddm kas kdr mi-kunad? 

sdhibdy kase ila hdl nayd' 
mada asL 

chiguna [ast\ hi kase nayd" 
mada aat, ba kuddm sd^at' 
i-ruz eshdn irdda^e dma^ 
dan mUddrand, ' [itti/dk 
mi-ufiad,] 

har ruz chunln \_a8t\ o az 
in sabab kdr-i-Juldn «a- 
liib td hanoz tamdm na 
shuda ast. [^ittijuk mt" 
shavad,^ 

wakte ki imrUz dyand ma in 
kdr-rd [^faisal'] fchtpdhem 
kard. [faisala; tasfiyaJ\ 

faldku-d'din har ruz az 
bardie in kdr ba man gufi 
gd mi-kunad. 

dar wakUi-dmadan eshdn^rd 
ba man bi-JirisU 



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MISCELLANS0U8 DIALOOI7X8 AND SXBRCISES. 251 



Exercise. — The sage remarked, " Wdl, this was not 
your visiting-day here, pray tell me on what account you 
have come." They replied, " Worshipful saint, there is 
a princess named Badar Munir ; we intended to pay her 
a visit, this is the road, and we could not find it in our 
hearts to pass by without first paying our respects to you." 
He then said, ^* Good, do take this prince also along with 
you ; he will at all events see whether Badar Munir 
is more lovely than the ladies of his palace, or they fairer 
than she." To this the fairies agreed, and having handed 
him to theu' throne, fiew away, and in the twinkling of 
an eye reached the palace of Badar Munir. The instant 
that Mihr Munir discovered that angel's face, bright as 
the moon, he became enamoured with her, while she also 
admiring his radiant countenance, and flushed by love's 
mi^ic bloom, shone resplendent with the chaims of a 
damask rose. 

Lesson 60. — In continuation. 



sahak shastum dar 
how long are those Europe 
goods to lie at the custom- 
house ? 



sir, without an invoice to 
know what tiiey are, how^ 
can I bring them ? 



different sorts of goods pay 
difierent rates of duty, 



makalaye md kohl, 

id chand dar [^gumruh'] an as- 
bdbkdye farang khwahad 
mdnd. [Jaziyat-khdna,'] 

sdhibdy haghair - i -Jihrist-i" 
chizhdf chiguna sdmdn 
dwardan mi-' tawdnam^ 
ki m'alilm am nisi ? 

sdhihd^haghair'i'fdrd-i^irsdl 
az bardie shiriakhtan chi- 
guna asbdb mustakhlis mi' 
tawdnam kard ? 

ba asbdb'i'-kism-i'mukhtalif 
mahsUlfark ddrad. 

ba har kiam'-i-asbdh mdksuU 
i'digar ast. 

mahsUl - 1 - har maid* judd 
judd ast. 



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262 MISGELLANSOUS DIALOGUES Ain> SZSRCISES. 



by opening the boxes and ' 
seeing their value, you, 
will be able to under- 

' stand, 



sir, I cannot myself open 

the packages, 
in opening the packages, the 

goods may be injured, 



Here, take the invoice and 
go directly, 

sir, I am going ; please to 
give me the invoice. 



at two o'clock the custom- 
house officer came and 
opened the boxes, 

when I have signed each in- 
voice, I will give them to 
the accountant to be 
copied, and then send 
them to you, 

clerk, copy these, and give 
them to the sergeant, 



i 



az kashddan-i'Sandukkd wa 
az muldhaza,e ktmat-t- 
asbab ha shumd [inkishdy] 
]chwahad shud. [mvn- 
kashtf.'] 

az kushadan-i-sandukhd wa 
tdkhmina kardan^i-klmaU 
i-asbdb skumd-rd m'alum 
khtpdhad shud, 

8aff.ibdy tanhd sandukkd na 
mi'tawdnam hushdd, 

az kushddan-i-bastahd shd- 
yad [nuksdn^i-asbdh sha^ 
vad\, [ba asbdb nuksdn 
ra^ad.'] 

ai nafar I Jihrtst-'i-'asbdb bu 
gir ofi-l'faur bt-rau. 

ai nafar ! fard-i-aBbab bi' 
gir ba zudt bt^rau, 

fdhibd, ilhdl mi - ravaniy 
ndhrbdni karda fard-'i" 
irsdl Ptndf/at'\ bi^/armd" 
yed. [marhamat ; *atd.^ 

ha sd^at-i'du [^uhdaddr"]- 
i-makdf dmad o sandHk" 
hd kushdd. ['awt'/.] 

wakte ki ba kar fard dast 
khatt khwdham kard dn-rd 
ba muhdsib, az bardie nakl 
kardan khwdham dddy wa 
pas az dn ba til khwdham 
Jlristdd, 

[kdttbd /] in-rd nakl bi'kun 
ba hawdladdr bi-dih. [at 
muharrir^ 



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MISCELLANEOUS DLAXOGUES AND SXBBCISB8. 253 



call a blacksmith, and open 
the boxes ; compare the 
yalue and quantity of the 
goods with the invoice, 
then make them tight 
again, 



ahangar'Td hi'talab o san^ 
dukhd-rd bi'ktbshd ; kim^ 
at o wazfi'l-asbab hd 
bijah mukabil bi-kun, ba*d 
<zz dn* bdz [bi'band']. 
[band Jcun,'] 



Exercise. — Three watches of the night glided away in 
snch pleasure, harmony, and delight, as human tongue can- 
not express. When these four fairy damsels were about 
I taking leave, they addressed the prince thus: ''Come 
along." He being pierced to the heart with the arrow of 
love, replied, ** I will not go ; if you must set off, by all 
I means depart." On representing this to Badar Munir^ 
I that she might persuade him to take leave, they perceived 
I that she also had no desire to let him away. In this 
I perplexity they observed, " Now what is to be done ? if 
we leave him, how shall we show our faces to the holy 
, man ? and if we convey him hence in the present posture 
I of affairs, she will be offended ; the best advice is to wait 
I a little longer, till both begin to slumber." After this, 
with the fatigue of sitting up, both got a-nodding ; they 
then gently and artfully raised him on the throne, and 
I with some philter lulling him asleep, flew off with him. 

Lesson 61. — In continuation. 



sabak shast o yakum 

sergeant, when you have 
signed your name, give 
them to the cashier, 

the officer having entered 
the particulars of every 
case in his book, and the 
duty on each article, 
wrote the amount, 



dar matlab-i'peshtn. 

at hawdladdr wakte ki dost 
khatt karda bashed dnhd' 
rd ba tahwil-ddr bi-dihed, 

fdhib-kdr-i-a^ld dar kitdb-i- 
khud mutafarrikdt wa 
mahsai'i-har jins sabt 
karda mablaghdt - rd 
[darf] namud. [tahrlr ; 
mastur ; taafjr; irkdm; 
indirdj ; mundarajJ] 



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254 MISC1SLLANBO08 DIALOGUES AJSD EXERCISES. 



taking the invoice, I had to 
go again, and show it to 
the head officer, 

having done all this, it had 
struck four o'clock, and 
the custom-house was 
shut, 

the next day I delivered 
the invdce to the officer, 



having examined the value 
of the articles, and their 
duty, he signed it, 



afterwards, paying the duty 
to the cashier, having got 
an order for a pass and 
cleared the cases, I hired 
coolies, and brought them 
away, 



accountant, I will not give 
a farthing to the custom- 
house people or the 
policeman at the wharf, 

accountant, why did you 
not go to the police-office 
and get a pass ? 



i*ldm-ndma girifta mard ha 
huzur-i'dmil-i ' [huzurg'] 
hdz raftan wa namudan z a- 
ruruftad. [ci^zara; aHa.~\ 

ha^d az tamdm kardan-t- 
tnhd sd^at-i'Chahdr shud 
gumruk'kkdna band gar- 
did. 

ruz'i'dtgar fihrisUra [ha 
dmil'i'mukdta^at hawdla 
kardam]. [ha hawdla,e 
^drnil - I - gumruk - khdna 
kardam,'] 

h(Cd az muldha^a kardan-t- 
kimat'i-asbdb o mahsul-i- 
dnhd dost kkatt bar [fih- 
rist'] kard, [taHika ; 
fard.'] 

hdd az add namudan-i- 
mahsul ba sarrdf Jmhra-i- 
ijdzaUndma ydftam ; san- 
dukhd mustakhlis kardam 
wa hdmildn-rd (or ham- 
mdldn-rd) ba muzd girif- 
ta ba khdna dn asbdb-rd 
burdam, 

(U muhdsib, ba ahl-i-gumruk- 
khdna yd ba yake az ahl- 
i'ihtisdb-i-furza [dirame'} 
na ilLtpdham ddd. [pa- 
shize,'] 

ai muhdsib, chird ba da/tar 
khdna^e zabt o raJjf-t- 
shahr bardie ydftan-i- 

Eijdzat]'ndma na ra/ti ? 



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UI8CELLANE0US DIALOGUXS AND EXERCISES. 255 

Exercise. — On their arrival, they delivered him to the 
good father, and with his permission returned to their 
own mansions. By dawn of day, when he (the prince) 
awoke, neither the sparkling dome nor its refulgent orb 
was there ; he heaved a deep sigh, and calling, " Alas, 
Badar Munir !*' again fell into a doze, from the effects of 
the potion upon him. Soon after, when a watch and a 
half of the day had elapsed, on the appearance of a crowd, 
the darwesh from circumstances guessed that these must 
be his attendants, and 'having called them, he consigned 
him to their charge. His companions were of course 
gratified by finding him ; but noticing his condition, they 
got alarmed about what reply they should give the king, 
and thus interrogated the good anchorite : *' Please your 
reverence, why is our prince thus distracted?" "Ask 
himself," said he. On hearing this, they accosted the 
prince in the following words : " Son of our sovereign, 
why are you thus beside yourself ? '* 



Lesson 62. — In continuation. 

sabak shast o duwum dar hahs'i-mazbur. 

sir, what can I do ? for two sdhibd ! chi kunaniy az du 
or three days I have not si ruz mardfursat-i-chash- 
had a moment's leisure, mak zadan na buda ast o 
one can't get a thing done fauran ha ^addlat [chize 
at onee at the court, na tawdn hard']. [kase 

heck na mi' tawdnad 

hard,"] 
if I don't go myself, nothing haghoir raftan - 1 - Jchudam 
is donOf [hech karda na mtsha-' 

vcui]. [hech na wi-sAa- 

vad ; hech kdr bar na mi'' 



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256 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



sir, I know, five days ago, 
you wrote to Shiraz that 
the things would be for- 
warded to-morrow or 
next day, and no pass is 
obtained, 



how can they go ? they can't 
be sent without a pass, 

is the order for screws gojie 
to Shiraz factory ? 



they promised to send them 
to-day, 

if they don't come this 
evening, you go there be- 
fore gun-fire, 



for want of these screws the 
bales of cotton are lying 
loose, 

no one knows when the 
vessel will sail. 



have you collected the bills 
I gave you yesterday ? 



sahthdf man muddnam ki 
panj ruz pesh az tn ba 
shiraz nawishta edhifar^ 
da yd pas farda chtzhd 
Jiristdda khwdhad shud, 
wa hdl dnki heck ijdzat' 
noma hdsil na shuda 
ast, . , 

pas chiguna baffhair-i'ijdzat 
ndma tawdnand raft ? 

dyd hukm bardie sdihtan-i- 
pechhd ba kdr - lchdna,e 
dhani^e shirdz rafta asty 
yd na? 

eshdn wa'da kardand ki 
imruz [^bi-Jirtstem], [an 
chlzhd'rd khwdhem firis- 
tad.'] 

agar dnhd imruz sham na 
rasand pesh az wakt- 
i'top zadan dn jd bi^ 
rau, 

ba sabah'i '[na bUdan-i-'y 
pechhd bastahd,e pumba 
[u^a]* uftdda and. 

^[^adm-i-maujildiye,'] ^[be 
band:"] 

kase na mi-ddnad ki Jahdz 
kai [langar bar khwdhad 
ddsht]. [rawdn ihwdhad 
shudJ] . 

Jthrist-i-mutdlabdt ki di" 
ruz shumd-rd dddam dm- 
hd-rd [mujtami*'] karda 
ed? ijam' ; firaham; 
hahamJ] 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 257 

sir, I have given in the at khvddwandf an kadr-i-myr 
money for all you gave tdlihdt ki badin handa az 
me, huzur [dado] shuda hud 

majmu^afe pul - i - an 
ddkhil'i-kkizdna^e *dmira 
karda am. [^sapurda ; 
hawdla karda ; tahwU 
karda'] 

Exercise. — The prince neither distinctly articulated 
with his mouth, nor opened his eyes, all that he raved 
being, "Alas, Badar Munirl" In short, they placed 
him in the palki, and conveyed him with fear and 
trembling to the king, to whom they stated the matter 
80 : " May it please your majesty, yesterday afternoon a 
lovely fawn came in sight, and the prince, after forbidding 
U8, set his horse after it himself at full gallop ; we 
nevertheless followed at a respectful distance. She took 
shelter in so wild a wood, that the prince escaped our 
sight entirely, though we were all following him with 
our eyes ; besides which, darkness overtook us, and we 
being helpless, passed the whole night in that place ; but 
rising by daybreak we continued our inquiries ; at last 
we found him in this distracted condition, at the lodge of 
a hermit there. When we inquired of him, he also gave 
us no information whatever, though we naturally con- 
jecture that the person's name which is mentioned must 
be one with whom the prince is in love." 

Lesson 63. — In continuation. 

sabak shast o sivmm dar ffoft'O-giiye mausitf^ 

do you know where Na- najmu-d-dtn kujd ast, shumd 

jamudin is ? mi-daned ? 

sir, I heard he is not coming sdhibd ! man shuntda am ki a 
to-day ; his brother says imriiz na mi-dyad; hard- 
he has a fever, dar-ash guft ki o tap 

karda ast. 

17 

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258 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 



how does he mean to do his 
work ? he has a fever 
daily, 

was the cloth examined 
yesterday, and placed to 
Muhammad All's ac- 
count ? 

sir, it is entered in the 
waste-book, not in the 
ledger, 

why so, if he objects to the 
brokerage, how is it to be 
settled ? 



sir, I will thank you to 
settle it with him ; he 
does not mind us in the 
least. 



make out the account of 
what cloth he has pur- 
chased up to this time, 

balance the account, leaving 
out the cloth bought 
yesterday, 



chiguna kdr-i-Jchud-rd ml' 
hanady hi o har ruz tap 
ddrad, 

nirkh-i-pdrcha-rd diruz dar^ 
ydft karda, shumd ddkk- 
il' i - hisdb'i - muhammad 
*ali karda ed, yd na ? 

sdhihd! ddkhil'i'kkasra shU' 
du asty magar ddkhil-i' 
tafrtk-ndma na shuda, 

chird agar ftirdz-udaldlat 
kunad, chiguna [hand 
o hast] khwdhad shud? 
\_mukarrar ; munfasiL] 

ai sdhih ! man \_az shumd 
ihsdnmand ] * khwdh am 
shud agar hd o faisala^e 
dn mu^dmala khwdhed 
kard; \o ha sukhan-t-man 
heck wazn na ml-^ihad],^ 
' ^[mamnun'i-ihsdn'i'Shumd. ] 

\k% kaldm-i-man nazd' i'O 

wazn na mt-girad.] 
|*[o su]chan-i'mard hech ha 
khaydl - i - khud na ml- 
drad.~\ 

*[o ba sukkan-i-man hech 
Vtind na mi-kunad,] 

hisdh^i-dn pdrcha ki o td in 
zamdn Jsharlda ast hi'kun. 

pdrcha^e diruza \dar 
hisdh naydwarda] tamsil 
hisdh pdrcha,e peshma 
hi'kun. J[wd guzdshta ; 
dar guzdshta,] 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 259 

' * hisah-Uo ha cfk air-i-tamsU 
dddan na hdyad guzdskt, 
the account ought not to } dar hisab-i-o jam' wa khctrck 
remain unbalanced, J waza' namuda hagJuoLir-i- 

nawishtan-i-hakdyd dn-rd 
na bdyad guzdsht, 

Exercise. — The king then tenderly began : " My child, 
if you will discover your affliction, we shall then consider 
of a remedy for it." After much entreaty, he returned, 
" O my dear father, the only specific I want is Badar 
Munir ; possessed of her I would recover." They next 
interrogated about her address and residence.* The prince 
sorrowfully said, " I know not, indeed." He rejected all 
food, continued day and night heaving deep sighs, and 
weeping bitterly. Witnessing this distress, his parents 
also were sorely afflicted, and kept beating their breasts 
in such anguish for their son, that the affairs of the state 
were running fast into disorder and confusion. The 
minister was a prudent man, and thus remonstrated to 
his majesty : " Let not your highness be so woe-begone, 
but attend as usual to the interests of your kingdom ; 
your slave is despatching messengers in every direction ; 
should a princess of the name be found anywhere, we 
may then get the prince married to her ; if the parents 
agree with a good grace, all is well ; if not, why, let us 
force them." 



* outstanding balances, hakdyd^e hisdh, 
a remainder, residue, bakiyat (plur. bakdyd). 



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260 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 

Lesson 64. — In continuation, 
sahak shast o chahdrum dar zihr-i'mazkur. 



the account of shawls, hand- 
kerchiefs, baftas, &c., 
which have been agreed 
for, is all settled, 



there is nothing else due to 
him ; if you please to 
compare Dr. and Cr. you 
will see, 



Kasim accountant, what are 
you doing ? see that the 
accounts are correct, 

I am afraid there are errors 
in Saladdin's last year's 
account. 



hisdh'i-shdlhd, daat mdlhd^ 
bdfta wagiaira [ki ku 
mat'i'dnhd faisal shuda 
bad ha sar-anjdm raslda 
ast"], \ki dar ktmcU 
faisal shuda bUd ba 
anjdm rastda ast,'] 

^ az md o-rdhech dddani nist; 
agar az rdh-i-mihrbdnt 
jarrCa o wdsil-rd [mukdbir] 
khwdhed kard^ khwahed 
fahmtd, {tan^lr ; tanwil ; 
tathxk.'] 

' ai kdsim muhdsib ! chi mi- 
kuned? bi-bin ki J^dbhd 

tdurust^ andj yd na, 
saklh.^ 
man mi-tarsam ki dar hiadb^ 
t'par 8dla,e saldku-d-din 
[^gifllathd'] wdki* shuda 
and. \_agkldt»2 



^ compare this with that. 

in chiz-rd ba dn cJiiz mukdbil bi-kun. 

mukdbila,e In ckizhd bi-kun. 

in chiz wa dn chiz-rd mukdbil bi-kun. 
' to correct, amend, sahxk kardan. 

authentic news, sahth khabar. 

excellent proof, sahihu'Waiydr. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 261 



I can't make out what 
sugar,coffee, sugar-candy, 
and raisins have been 
purchased, 

sir, here is nothing without 
a written order ; the 
accounts agree with what 
is written, 



that's not what I mean. I 
say it's not clear what 
belongs to each account. 



sir, there is no fear about 
that — I have by me the 
accounts of sales and pur- 
chases, 

tell me what is the amount 
of Saladdin's account — 
what quantity and kind 
of articles. 



ihabar na ddram, hi chi 
kadar shakar, kahwa, na^ 
bat kiahmisk kharida 
shuda aaU 

sdhibd ! bojjfhatr'Uhukm'nd' 
ma,e huzur heck ddkhiUU 
hisdb na shuda ast ; 
hisdbhd ba dnchi nawishta 
shuda ast [muwdjikl and. 
[mutabik; bardbar,"] 

fdn matlab'i-man nxst, balki 
mx-goyam hi dnchi ba har 
hisdb ta^alluk ddrad, dn 
sdj nCalum nist. 

^man in na mi-goyarjiy balki 
matlab-i-man dn ast ki 
ta^allukoye har chiz ba 
har hiscA'i'\^ald haddah'] 
sdf nCalttm nisL [inuta- 
farrikaJ] 

sdhibd! ba nisbat-i-dn hech 
khaufnist, man hisabhd,e 
Miarid farokht ddram. 

mard jarrC - 1 - hisdb- i -said' 
hu'd'din bi-go, wa kadar 
kism^i-asbab^ash nishdn 
bi'dih. 



Exercise. — This plan was applauded by the sovereign, 
and scouts were accordingly sent to all quarters, with a 
requisition in due form. One of these emissaries found 
his way to Badar Munir^s country, and on making the 
requisite inquiries there, he learned that her situation was 
still more deplorable, by pining at the absence of her 
lover. On this the fleet envoy, quite x)verjoyed, entered 
the presence of her illustrious father, and presented the 



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262 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 

formal request to him; who, though drooping with 
sprrow for his daughter, on reading the contents of the 
paper, hecame much exhilarated. He instantly, without 
loss of time, preparing an answer, delivered it to the 
messenger, with this injunction, " Do you quickly proceed 
hy night and by day till you deliver this from me." The 
purport of it was thus : " The friendly epistle hath 
reached us, in which you solicit my daughter Badar 
Munir^a hand for your son Mihr Munir, to which I have 
consented : it is now incumbent on you to reflect, that 
the sooner you arrive for the nuptials, so much tlie 
better : you will therefore be pleased to make no delay, 
nor take any trouble about the bridal preparations." 



Lesson 6S. — In continuation. 



sir, wait a moment, the 
articles had on the 4th 
instant are not entered, 



Mr. 

morrow 

ready ? 



sdbak shast o panjum dar makdlaye md kdbl, 

* sdhibd'! kadre sdbr hi-far- 
mdyed ; ashdh'i'tdriJch'i- 
chahdrum -i- mdh - I - hdl 
[dar kitdh nawishta] na 
skuda ast. [ddkhil-i- 
hisdh ; mckdkkH I -i - da/- 
tar; ddHkil-i-daftar ; dar 
daftar fcaid ; dar hisab 
mundarij ; dar daftar 
indirdj ; darj-i-hisab/] 
fuldn sahib farda [«aw;ar-t- 
jah.dz\ khwdhad shud ; 
ay a hisdh-i-o taiydr ast? 
[dar jahdz rawdnaJ] 



will sail to- 
is his account 



* current month, mdh-i-hdl. 
current year, sdl-i-rawdn. 



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MISGELLANEOTTS DIALOGUES AND EXE41CISES. 263 



it is here, sir ; the amount 
due from him is 56,411 
rupees, 



give me the account ; I will 
go on board the ship, 
settle it, and get the 
money, 

you come with me, then I 
shall have no trouble in 
explaining, 



Kudrat-Ulla, bring the 
waste-book, journal, and 
ledger with the book of* 
sales- with you, 



sdhihd! hisdh hamxn ast mob- 
lagh ki az o [rctsidani] 
ast panjdh o shisk hazdr 
ckakdr sad o ydzdah 
rupiya ml'bdshad, [mu- 
tdliba,'] 

ha man hisdh-i-o bi-dth^ 
man barj'ahdz rafta,fatsal 
khwdham kard, wa mab- 
lagh-rd ihwdham girift. 

hamrdh'i-man hiyd hi mard 
[hech zuhmat-i'fahmdish' 
i'dn na Hiwdhad shvd.'] 
[^hech zuhmat dar tafsil- 
i' dn na hdshad ; hi 
man dar takrir-i'tafsil-i- 
an hisdb hech zuhmat na 
baramJ] 

, * kudrat alldh ! 

kitdb'i-ydd ddsht, waste- 
book. 

kitdb - i-muta/ar- ^ 

rika, I . , 

hitaUtafrli, fJ"'^™*'' 

kitdb-i-ruz - ndmay ) 

kitdb-i-madkhal o 
maJshrc^, 

kitdb'i'dmadanV o 
kharch, 

kitdb'i'farosh, sales-book 

hamrdh'ukhud biydr. 



ledger. 



* To be written thus : — kudratu-l-ldh. 



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264 MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXEBCISBS. 



show me the amount of 
what is due to and from 
each of the shopkeepers, 

it appears to me all the 
accounts are in confusion, 



my 



hark you ! are all 

things ready ? 
sir, some one has taken 

money for them ; no 

doubt they will be here 

by two o'clock, 

when they come, send them 
immediately to the new 
landing-stage, 

it is now high water, I can't 
wait longer^ 



^ pul'i-madkhal o harz-i-har 
dukdnddr ha man nisJidn 
bi'dih, 

ha man hi-namd mablagkat" 
i'dad sitad'i'har dukdn- 
^ ddr, 

mard [mt'namdyad'] hi hama 
ktsdb darham harham 
asU \mjClummt'Shavcid,\ 

ai nafar! hama ckizhd^e 
man taiydr and, ydna? 

ai sdhib I Juldn nafare bardie 
an kdr mahlagh giTifta asU 
yakln ddram ki karlh-i- 
sa'at'idu Injd kh^dhand 
[bud']. Irasid,"] 

* wakte ki hi-rasandfi-Ufaur 
ha ma^abar-i-nau bi-firist. 

aknun madd bald ast, ziydda 
az m.[faM«^] «« w»t- 
tawjaviam kard^ [c^; 
tawakkaf.'] 



Exercise. — When the bearer of such cheering intelli- 
getice delivered the letter into the minister's hands, he 
forthwith conveyed it to the emperor's court ; and when 
his majesty cast his eyes over the lines, he felt his heart 
glow with renovated vigour. In short, he was supremely 
happy, and accordingly ordered a reward for the bringer 
of these glad tidings. That day, in every house over the 
whole city, there were great rejoicings, and the king 
thus instructed the minister : " I will set out on such a 



^ it is high-tide, madd bdld asU 
it is low ti^Q^jazr pdyin aaU 



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MISCELLANEOUS DIALOGUES AND EXERCISES. 265 

day to celebrate the auspicious marriage of Mikr Munlr ; 
in the mean time, get all the equipage immediately ready 
for the royal nuptials, as well as the necessaries for our 
journey." In that period every requisite was prepared, 
and the king set forth in great pomp and splendour, along 
with his army, with a retinue and procession so numerous 
and resplendent, that a detail here would prove too 
tedious. In a few weeks he entered the other's territories 
with becoming grandeur and dignity, with flying colours 
and bands of music, and thence, having accomplished the 
object of his journey, he returned to his own capital in a 
very splendid manner, bringing with him his son and 
daughter, attended with melody, pleasure, and delight. 



17* 



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PERSIAN MANUAL. 

PAET n. 



VOCABULARY. 

ENGLISH AND PERSIAN. 

The following selection of phrases will be found to answer 
two distinct purposes: 1st, To exercise the student in 
readily turning into Persian every possible variety of 
English expressions; 2nd, To serve as a vocabulary of 
useful words, each sentence containing a leading word, 
arranged according to the order of the alphabet. 

A. 

ahandoned'-'^le. 

Abandoned— The crew having abandoned the ship, had 
run away. — maUdhdn jah&x-ra guzcuhta (mafrur gaahta) 
budand, (firar karda; ru ha firar nikada,) Or, 
maUdhdn tark-irjahaz girifta gureWkta budand. 

Abate — He does not abate me one diram. — o {yak diram 
kam) ba man na mt-kunad. {uMJlf-i-ydk diram) Or, 
o az an kimat yak diram az man kam na mt-gtrad. 

Abide — Abide with me a few days. — ba man ckand roz {bi- 
maned.) (tashnf bi-ddred.) Or, chand roz In {banda)-ra 
az svMat-i-lsk'ud mamnun bi-farmdyed, {jstiaksdr ; fidwl.) 

Ability — He possesses great ability.— o bisiydr {kabUlyat 
ddrad), (kdbil ast.) Or, o dar Him- kdmil aat. Or, o ba 
kamal-i-*Umiyat raslda ast. Or, o sdhib-i-ib^Udgh) ast, 
(isti'addd.) 

Able — He is an able man. — o {^ib-u.a9wad) ast (mi40- 
ta'idd; mdhir; ahlri4st^addd.) 

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368 able — accompUsh. 

Able — Are yon able to do this? — in kar mvtawaned 

hard f Or, shuma mt-tawaned ki in kar bi-kuned ? Or, 

shuma fcabiJtyaP'irtn kar kardan dared ? 
Absekt — I have been absent ten days. — dah roz (ghflvr- 

^ifir) buda am. (JJM?ir na,) Or, ghflibat-i-man td dak 

roz tul kashlda ast. 
Abstain — We ought to abstain from committing evil. — 

vruirra hayad la az had-kan (parhez bi-kunem). {baz 

biyayem; dost birddrem.) Or, nicirra az kdr4rshani {dost 

kotdk) bdyad kard, itoQannvb,) 
Absubd — It is absurd to speak thus. — chunxn gxijtan 

(behuda) ast. (ld-ya*nt; 'abas.) 
ABUNDAKOE-^Take as much as you please ; I have abun- 
dance. — har kadar ki ikfpahed, bi-gtred ; man {ha kasrcU) 

ddram. (ba ifrat; ba wajur ; ha wafrat; ha firdwdm; 

hafar^.) 
AbyssiniaiJ — That is an Abyssinian slave. — o (^ii2am)-t- 

I^Bhiast. (banda; zar-irkharid ; mamluk; *abd.) 
AcADEMT — He goes to an academy daily.— o rozmarra ba 

madrassa ml-ra/vad. 
Accede — Do you accede to what I propose, or not? — 

dnchi mtrgoyam kabuL mt-kftned, yd na f 
AccENiv-I still retain my Persian accent. — td hdl lahja.e 

zahdn4-f3r9i ddram. 
Acceptable — The book you sent me was acceptable.— 

kitabe ki ehumd ba man Jiristdded (pasand^dd) bud. 

(pasand; matbu' ; makbul.) 
Accepted — He immediately accepted my oflFen — ofi-lrfaur 

suihan-i-mard {kabul kard), {pasnraft; ijdbat kard.) 

Or, hamdn sd'aX bar sukban-i-man rdzl shvd. 
AcooMPAKY — Except you accompany me, I will not go. — 

man bagbfidr {hamrrdhtje) shuma na kbjpdiiam raft. 

(rqfakat'i-; sy^bat-i-.) Or, man na ml-ravam td dnki 

shumd hamrdh'irman naydyed. 
Accomplish — I was not able to accomplish my wishes. — 

man {ba murdd-i-ihud rastdan) na tawdnUtam. (anBU,0 



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account— o^^um. d80 

ihud bar Mr awardan; urnmed-i-ihud ha anjam rasanl- 

dan; gul-i-murad'irii,ud'ra chuUm.) Or, mudda'Syam 

az dastam bar naycbnad. Or, makfudam hasU {ftayor 

mad), (na ahud,) 
AoGouMT — Have you an acccmnt with him ? — shvmd ha o 

hisabe dared ? 
Accu8£D-^He is accused of robbing his master.— fcar o 

tu^mat-i-duzdl kardan-uaifid,e MLnd-ash amada ast. Or, 

tibktnat har an shatcks nihada and ki o inalri'malik'i'khud' 

ra duxdlda ast. Or, an has ha tu^mat-i-duzdi kardan-i' 

afjiia,e Mkvd (giriftdr amada) aat. (mai'un gardtda; 

muUahim gardida; nuimuh gaskta,) 
Accused 'I am accused of breach of my word, personal 

levity, and weakness of judgment. — man ha tanakis-i- 

i^atd wa Jdtiffat-i'Zdt wa roMkatrirra^e manmb gardtda 

am. 
Accustom — ^Accustom yourself to read and write dar 

Jihipandan wa nawishtan ihud-rd maskdk hi-kun. Or, 

{i&t%mJaJ)4^khy)dndan wa nawishtan hirkun, {rabi ; sawdd.) 
Acid — This fruit is very acid. — in mewa fchflik (turush ast), 

. (talfchl darad.) 
Acquaintances-* He has mauy aequaintances.-^o hisiydr 

(idshndydn) ddrad, {musdkibdn ; rufafcd ; munisdn,) Or, 

o ha m4xrdumdn'i-hisiydr ma'rifat dkrad. 
Acquainted — I am acquainted with all. — man hamorvd 

mt-shindsam. Or, man hd Kama (wdkif am), {ma*rifati 

ddram; ru shinds hastam.) 
Acquibei>— He has acquired great knowledge.-^o 'tZm-t- 

wdjir (hdsU) karda ast, (paida; andoMkia-) Or, o 

tafalt-i-Hlm ha darja^e kamJal karda ast. 
Acquitted— He has been tried and acquitted. — murdfa^a^e 

o tamdm shud wa chlze bar o sdhit naydmad. Or, tah- 

fsti^t-iro kardand wa lekin az (adm-irsabuti rihd.l yaM; 

{^uhda^e dnjurm herun dmad.) ^ 

Action — A good action deserves our praise.— ;^7-t-n^& 

(tdfii4'afnn wa ta^in) ast. (wdQihu-lrtaWlf,) 



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370 acHve — admitted. 

AoTiYE — He is exceedingly active in that business. — o dar 
an kar binyar {chcUak) ast. {ahatir; kar-ran; tez-kdr; 
ehust; tez-datt,) 

Adjacent — This is adjacent to that. — tnhadSnmuttasil ast. 

Adam — The angel of God expelled Adam and Eve from 
paradise.— ^m^to,0 ihuda az bihisht adam wa hatowa-ra 
iihrdj hard. Or, malaku'l-hakk az jannat adam wa 
iawworra {badar kard). (jild kard; herun kashid,) 

Angel — The angel of death seizes upon all men.— ma^Aru- 
l-maut (janri'har insan mt-girad.) (kabisiirlrarwak asL) 
Or, axrajH ajj^irjan-i-hama-rd mt-girad. Or, ajal Skkir 
ha hamu kas murasad. Or, hama kas-ra CQal firdr mi* 
rasad. Or, ma hama ^alufa^e m^rg hastem. 

Addition — He has received an addition to his salaiy. — o 
izdjafi mvshdhira.e hfrnd ydfta ast. Or, bado izdfa^e 
muwmib nmda ast. Or, ctar tankhwdh^-^ (tarafcki) gar- 
dida ast. (afzuni ; ziyadatl.) 

Address — Pray can you tell me his address ? — sakihd^ m- 
skan-i-iMtdb wa nam wa makamrash farmildan ml- 
tawdned ? 

Adjourned — To-day's meeting is adjourned till Monday 
nQjX.^^mujUs'i-imroz ta du shamhaye dyanda maukufast. 
Or, m^aifiH-imroz td du shamba,e dyanda mu^attal karda 
and. 

Adjust — Let us first adjust this matter. — {Myd td atcwal 
miL^arraryi-in kdr-rd bi-kunem. (bi-guzdr ki awwal rafa* 
wa ruju.) 

Admirable — This is admirable writing*— -?n khatt bisiydr 
{nafis\ ast. (Mkusk-ihatt.) 

Admire — I greatly admire him for his great leaming.^- 
man az kamM-i-ilm-ash bisiydr ta*ajjub ddram* 

Admit— I do not admit what you say. — man dnchi shwma 
ml-goyedy {kabul na ddram), (niansiur na mi-kunam.) 
Or, man fcdjl-i-kaul-i'shumd nlstam. Or, bar dnchi 
shumM ml^oyed man kd^il nlstam. 

Admitted — May a stranger be admitted?— ^^ano-ra dar 



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€duU — affecting. 271 

fit ja yazat'i-^dathil shudan) ast? {madtbfll kardan; 
daihl kardan; dvUM kardan; tadaMMkul saiiktan.y 
Or, ghflrJbe-ra rukhsat ast ki da/r tnjd bar yabadf 

Adult — A school has been opened for adult persons. — ma*- 
tabe az bard,e ahaMksdn-i'bdligi, bar pa shudu ast. Or, 
ta'lim-hJ0na,e'Ta bajihat-i-naujawanan bindniJiada and. 

Advance — Can you adTance me this sum ? — In pfU ba 
taur-irpeahgi mara mtrtawaned dad. 

Advanced— The enemy had advanced ajs far as ShirSz. — 
dwkman td ba ahahr-i-shtrdz peak ra/ta bud. 

Advantage — Of what advantage will that be to me? — asi 
an chifdjda ba man ikfpdhad rasid ? Or, an ehtz chi 
manfa^at-am kfiwdhad boM^hld? Or, az an kdr ehi 
zaraft Isbwdkam bast ? Or, In kdr ba jihat-i-man chi ma- 
vJafC ddradf Or, dn ba dard-i-man chi dawd ddrad? 
Or, aa dn chiz chi tamattu* ba man Ichipdhad rasid ? 
Or, dn chiz chi m/tnfa*at ba man ru khwdhad namud ? 

Advebsitt — She has long been in adversity. — dn zan td 
muddat'i-m€idiid dar mustbat uftdda ast. Or, dn za*ifa 
td wakt-i'dardz ba bald girifidr buda ast. 

Advertise — ^You had better advertise the sale. — bihtar ast 
ki UhtiMr-irifarokM) ba bdzdr-ir^drnm bv-kuned. (harrdj; 
mazdd.) 

Advice — ^What is your advice in this aflFair ? — dar In mu- 
^dmala sa^dh-i^htand chlst ? Or, dar In amr chi maslahat 
ml-^ddned)? {diked; kuned,) Or, dar In kdr chi 
(mmi'izat) mvhlned ? {sawdh.) 

Advisable — ^Do you think it advisable ta do so ? — dyd 
shumM in chuntn kdr kardan (mundsih mt-hined) ? {mas- 
lahat ml-ddned.) Or, In chuntn kdr kardan nazd-i-shumd 
maslahat ddrad ? 

Affected— He affected a great show of kindness. — dn 
shdkhs ^dhiran ^dtir-ddrife Jirdwan wd namud. 

Affecting— This history is iSecting. — m hikdyat {dard- 
dmez) ast. {^am-angez.) Or, in mi^al dar kase (a^ar 
mJrkunad). (da/r mv-girad.) 



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272 affection — agent. 

AFFEonoN-^He shows great affection for the people.-*o 
bar mardumdn-i-kkud binyar muhabbat mt-kwiad. Or, 
ba *awamu-n^nds une44amam ddrad, Or» <Hra (tUfat)' 
i-hatigi ba ahlA-muJk att. (hatMdSri.) 

Affibmed— He affirmed this to be a certain fact— o ba 
yaff%n guft Id In wihfin {§ahih) ast. (hakikl; rast.) Or, 
bar §adai:at4^ {j^abit mavd), (j:a,tm nishast; istij^tal 
girifi) 

Afflicted— He on hearing the news became greatly 
afiSicted. — o az shuntdan-i-in Ichabar binyar (jMreshan) 
shud, (mutaraddid ; paraganda-dil; mu^t^ribb; mu- 
shawwath ; ear garden,) Or, ba ietiTnd''i-ln wakCa khaUl 
fyiircm gaeht. Or, ba*d az ieghfii kardan-irtn kaijiyat {dU- 
aeh soi&t). {blkti^rgtUbun-iehadtfe o burtda gaskt.) 

Affliction — They have suffered great affliction.-— «sAan 
(ranjyi'firawan kaehlda and, (nuhnat ; *azab ; giflm.) 

Afbaid— T am afraid to go there. — az raftan-i-dn ja (mora 
kbfluf aet). {ihaufmvgtram; lihfiuf ddram; nvuihftw^firf* 
am ; ml-tanam,) Or, man ml-tartam ki anjd bi-ravam. 

Afford— I cannot afford to give so much monthly wages. — 
ehandan muehahira ba ehtand na mv4awanam dad. Or, 
man na mlrtawanam ki m fcadr-irmuwdjib mahahana ba 
ehuma bi-diham. 

Affobd — Pray afford me your assistance. — mardmadad 
bi-farmayed. Or, mihrbanl karda, mora daetgvn bi4amed. 
Or, lutffarmuda, mard pusJUt bi-farmdyed. Or» az ru^e 
iltifdt ba man himdyat bi-kuned. 

Affront-— I do not wish to affront him.— o-ra {thoffi 
dddan) na muMLP^ham. [ba Islaaehm dwardan,) Or, man 
na mp-kkyfdham ki o az man ranja-tlk^ir gardad. 

AoE — Her age is not more than ten years. — ^vmr-i^n 
duf^tar az dah sal (ziydda) ntet. (beshtar; mtUajawiz.) 

Agent — ^Do you know who is his agent ? — ayd ehumd ml- 
ddned ki {gtimdehtd),e o Met ? {wcJcU ; kar^guidr ; fWU* ; 
'dmil.) 

* ySf fl is only osed in granmuu*. 

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agitated — almanac. 973 

Agitated —Standing before the court, he began to be much 
agitated. — wakte ki o dar ^adalai istad (o-ra bidydr larzish 
girift). (bidyar larga bar anddma^ uftdd; dil-ash 
tajndan girift ; Jchfiuf wa hiras bar o mastauli shvd.) 

Agree — J agree to what you say. — anchi ahumd mugoyed 
(kabul ml-kunam). {manp,ur mirdaram ; bar an ri?d ml- 
diham.) Or, bd mmudjikat'i'kaul'i-shumd dar dmada 
am. Or, ba shwnd dam-i-muwdfikat ml-zanam. 

Agreeable — His company is very agreeable. — rafd^aX" 
ash pasandtda asU Or, mujanasat-i-o pasand-hhfliir ast 
Or, unsiyat-i-om^irffkub ast. Or, aa mukhfiliiat-i-o has-i- 
bisiydr paidd ml-shavad. 

Agreement — ^What agreement had you with him ? — bado 
chi ^uhda wa paimidn basta ed ? Or, bado ehi (wa^da) 
harded? (ta^ahhvd ; €tirdf-ndma,) Or, bado chi fuirdr- 
dad ba 'amal dwarded ? 

Agreed— They agreed to a rendezvous at that place*— 
eskdn ba yak d^ar mi'dde nihddand. 

Air — The air of this country is very unfavourable. — ab o 
hawd,e In mutk bisiydr nd (sdz-hdr) ast. {muwdfili.) 

Alas — Alas ! it is all true. — qfsos ! In hama rdst ast. 

Alike — The two are perfectly alike.- — in ha/r dutdba yah 
digar hi-lrkuU, mtishabbah and. Or, dar muskdhahat-i-m 
ha/r du td sar-irmu^efaral^ nut* Or, In har du 'a2^ kuH-i- 
iidl misal^-yak-digar and. 

Alligator — I saw an alligator in the Euphrates. — dar 
rud'ib^na.e fardt yak (ydhangeyrd didam. {timsdhe.) 

Allow — Allow me to go with you. — bi-guzdred Id ham-rdh-i" 
shrnnd bi-ravam. Or, lutffarmuda, mard ham-^dh-i-ihud 
hirbared. 

Allow — Do not allow delay. — ta,aMkt'''(rawd)ma ddr. (jd,iz.) 

Allowance — He made me an allowance of ten rupees. 
-—0 dah rupiya ba mmi dastun ddd. Or, (wajh-i-kifdfyi' 
man ba Icadar-i-dah rupiya ddd. (m^ishat ; idrdr ; wazjifa.) 

AT.MATfttn-^HaYfl you got this year's almanac ? — (toA^tm-i- 
ifMol) dared? (tanjlm44msdla.) 



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^74 eUphabst — amwer. , 

Alphabet— I have not yet learned the alphabet. — <a haiMiz 
(huruf'i'tahajjl nayamoWkta am), (dor aJbjad ta*Um na 
yafta am; aUffid.pd nn danam.) 

Aloud — Speak idoud, that I may hear you.— 5a awaz-i' 
buland bi-go ta twra hi-shina/vam. 

Alteration — What alteration shall I make? — ha ehi taur 
In-ra (fahdif) hi-kunam. {tabaddul; tagkavyur; tt^ml; 
^raf; inkirqf.) 

Altebed — It is now done, and can't be altered.— iZAoZ 
tamam ahud, hech tabaddul ahudan na mt'tawanad. 
Or, aknun ba itmam raaidaagt, ba hech wajh {taghflxyur 
shudavl) na mt-tawanad. {nmbaddal gasktan; muto- 
gkaiyir ahudan ; munkanif gardidan,) 

Amassed — He has amassed great wealth. — an ka$ kisiyar 
datdat jam' karda oat, 

Amoukt — The bill will amount to 500 rapees.— ^'am*-i-^a6 
panj sad rupiya buda baahad* 

Amount — What is the amount of your bill?— ;;am'-i-Ataa6-al 
chlat ? 

Amazed — I was amazed at the amount. — aa janC^i-Maah 
biaiyar (ta*ajjub kardam). (muta'ajjib ahudam; miito- 
haiyir ahudam ; ^ran ahudam.) 

Amuse— Amuse yourself awhile in the garden. — kadre der 
ba bagh maahgiUl bi-aJum. Or, chande (tafam^-i-raw^a 
bi-nama), (J^ud-rd ba boatdn dar iahtigbfll bi-dar.) 

Ancient — Shiraz is an ancient city. — ahtrdz ahahr-i-kadtm 
aat. Or, ahlrdz ahahriat kadtm. 

Anobt — Does this make you angiy ? — in auihan akuma^ra 
{kbflahmrnak mv'kunad)f {ghmz ml-dikad.) Or, az In 
auMym ahumE-rd Hyjiahm ml-dyad? Or, az In aukhan 
ahumu (fiiaiz mt-ared) f {ikaakm mUkuned ; dar ^ussa 
mi-ahaved; mutagiifliyur mt-ahaved; mxUagkaiyiz ml- 
ahaved ; iahr mt-gired ; baham bar ml-dyed,) Or, az tn 
sulshfim *aiah'irahuma tdlih ml-ahavad f Or, bar In 9i4sbm 
ikaahm ml-gired f 

Answeb — Can you give an answer to this question ?— -^aifo^ 



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answer — ajsprehmded, 275 

f>tn 9U,al ml-tawaned dad f Or, az jawah-i-ln mjal hose- 

ra muUafiz farmudan mi-tawaned ? 
Answbb — This will answer my purpose. — m ha Tcar-i-man 

Jtkrpahad ihurd. Or, in ha hashA-mtjdda! -i-man Jshpakad 

bud. Or, az %n ijrS,e kar-i-man tlkwahad shud. 
Anxious — I am very anxious to get there, — man hisiyar 

(mushtafc-am ki an jd hirravam), (ishtiyak ddram ki an 

jd hi-rasam.) x 
Aktwhebe — J have not seen him anywhere. — man o-rd 

hech jd na dida am. Or, hd o heck jd {middfcdt na 
- karda) am, {muldkl na nhvda,) 
Apoloot — He made no apology for his misconduct— *o az 

bard.e had raftd7%e ]tkud hech i^vzr na kard). {'uzr 

naydward; mu*dfi na Mkwast; ma'zrat na kard; i^tizdr 

na kard.) Or, o har had raftdri,e Mmd istighfdr na guft. 
Appeal — ^He made an appeal to Government. — o ha sarkdr 

rujfV'irmurdfa^ate Mmd kard. 
Appeab — ^He will not appear personally in this husiness. — 

o dar In amr khud-rd (poshtda) ihwahad ddsht. (tnakhft.) 

Or, dar in 'am^il ru-posh ihwdhad shud. Or, o dar In 

kdr ha zdt4-ihMd zdhir na thwdhad ahud. 
Appears — ^It appears to me very strange. — m hdrharumar* 

i-man hisiyar (ajih mi-ayad), (ffharJb ast; nadir aat.) 

Or, man az in kdr muta'ajjib-am. Or, az In kdr mard 

ta'ajjvh mt-dyad. 
Applicahok — He made an application to the judge. — o ha 

hakim-i^hara^ ^arz kard, (In writing, ^anza,) 
Appbaised — His goods will be appraised and sold. — ha^d az 

takhmtn asbab-uo ha {harrdj) farokkta khwdhad shtid. 

(mazdd.) Or, ha^d az ta^aiyun-i-ktmat sdmdn-ash ha 

farosh ihwdhad rasld, 
Appbehbkd— I apprehend you have made a mistake. — man 

mt-fahmam ki shumd gkalat karda ed. Or, (dar fdhm-i" 

man mt-dyad) ki Moita M^urda ed, (mafhum-am mu 

shavad.) 
Appbehendeih- HiB was apprehended and put into prison. 



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d76 appropriated — arrested. 

— giriftar shud, tea mahbus gardid. Or, ethan o-rd 
girif^r karda dar kazd-khana andaiitand. 

Appbopbiated — Ho has appropriated all his property to 
this purpose. — o az borate In kar hama mitkiyat-i-l^^ 
ask (ffuzashta) ast. {maihsus karda,) 

Approve — Do you approve of what I say ? — anchi ml-goyam 
{skymd pasand ml-kuned), ya na ? [shuma-ra pasand ml- 
ayad ; dar na^ar-irshkima pasandida mt-dyad ; dar sama^ 
i-/baM2Z-t-«^uma VM^^fHad ; ha ra,e skumd muwafikat ml- 
kunad; ha rnahaU-i'kabul'i'Shuma mafirun ast.) 

Ababio — He teaches the Persian and Arabic languages. — 
o zabanha,e farsi wa *arabi mt^mozanad. Or, o dar 
'ajjamtwa *arabi {taHlin ml-kanad), (tadns mi-kunad; 
dars ml-dihad.) 

Abches — ^There are five arches in the veranda. — dar pesh- 
ihana panj iak ast. Or, dar aiwan pamj nUhrab ast. 
Or, dn pesh^ak panj kamdn ddrad, 

Abduohb — ^This is on arduous undertaking. — murtakib 
shudan-utn kdr mvMal ast. Or, irtikab-irin amr {dushwar 
ast). {ishkal ddrad,) 

ABOTjE-:^Let us argue the point together. — hiyd ki md 
hdham bar tn nvkta {mubdhasa hi-kmem), (hahs hi' 
hmem ; hurhdn birnamdyem ; doLU bi^dihem ; htyjat biy- 
dwarem.) . , 

Arguments — ^He uses very strong arguments. — o bisiydr 
kawi datUkd ha kdr ml-dwarad. Or, o daJuyilrirbisiyar 
kam trad mukunad. Or, sabdt-ir{mtutaiiim) isti^mdl mu 
kunad. {(cdfim; muJfkam; mufiam; ustutodr,) Or, an 
kas hurhdnhdye idtjH ddrad. 

Arithmetic — I am now learning arithmetic. — Uhai wian 
'Um-i-isiydk) mi-ihyifdnam. (hisdh.) Or, ilhdl man 'tZm- 
vriydzt mt-dmozam. Or, ftrfrkal dar ^ibn-i^flkdyat ta'Um 
mt^dbam. 

AmsY — The king was at the head of his Brmj.-^-iddshdh 
ha sar-irlashkaryi-klmd bud. {malik pesh-raUyS *askar,) 

Arbested— -He was arrested for debt by ESsim.— -ia sabab- 



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arrival — OMemhly. 977 

i-kar^ {o az dait-i-kasim ^iriftdr ikud), {kadm (M-a 

girifidr hard.) 
AfiBiYAL — Have you heard the news of his arrival? — ayd 

shumd khabar-j^rastdanyiuh ihunlda ed ? (wurud ; rem- 

dagi; makdam; wdrid shtuian.) 
Abt — I am not acquainted with that art. — €iz (or bar) an 

hunar [wdkif fulyam). {wuiiUf na ddram,) Or, daridn 

(san^at) makdrate na ddram, (Jann, pi. /uniln.) 
Abtful — They are very artful. — e9Mn hiaiydr {hUorbdz) 

and. (ruh^irbdz; J^ufckorbdz ; du ru; ntrang-parddz ; 

gurpaz) Or» eshun ddm-i-fareh wa daghd mlrguttarand. 

Or, eshdn majnvC-i-fasM wa makr wa majmu^a,e zirk wa 

ffhadr and, 
Abticlbs — They deal in various articles.— m^oh dar ma0^ 

irhar nan Ujdrat mt-kunand. Or, eahan pUawar hastand 

(inalrirjuzi) mi-faroahand. {ajnds-4riklfriia,) Or, eshdn 

tvQJdr and mdl-i-kulU mu/aroahand. 
As — ^Has he repaired the cco'ria^e as I told him? — ha 

mvjih^guftan'-i'man {marammatyi-kdUska karda ast, ya 

na ? (tajdid,) 
Ascend — Let us now ascend the mountain. — biyd td U-hdl 

haVdyB koh hi^avem. 
Ask — ^Ask him what is his name. — {az o bi^rs) ism-ishtma 

cktst ? (o-rd bi^purs.) 
Ass — To whom does that ass helcmg ? — an iiar az dn-U 

kist ? Or, niaUk-udn khflr Inst ? 
Assembled — The people of the villages assemhled. — 

ahlrirdUiat (;am*) shudand. (majmii; mujtamC ; mujam- 

ma!,) Or, rnardumdn'i-bidukdt(Jirdham)dfnadfmd. (gird.) 

Or, jamV mvLlcimdn-i'tiarya (ijtimd^) namudand. (jam'lyat.) 
AssBMBLY — I saw a great assembly of people. — man guroh* 

i-buzurge dtdam. Or, izhdihame Maiydr mtdd^a kar* 

dam. Or, jam^tyate kasir muskahida kardam. Or, (jt^t- 

ifa)e *agtm ba nagar-i-man amad, (Jam*; jama at ; 

vumra; kagrat'i'tMd,ifs ; mahJU, pi. mdhdJU; mc^ma^* 

imardvmlRn.) 



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378 assent — astonishment. 

Assent — ^I assent to your proposal. — man ra,e shumorrU 
kahut nH-kunam, Or, ba irada,e shumJa muttafik-am. 
Or, ma/i ha Jchpahish-i'Shumu kardr mt'{kunam). [giram.) 
Or, man mukirr'i-arzu,e shmnd hastam. 

AssBBTED~-He asserted that it is so. — o {ba yakin guft) hi 
ham chunin ast. [ikrdrkard; tahktk hard.) 

Assist — ^We ought to assist each other. — bayad ki yak digav' 
rd madad bi-dihem. Or, mard bdyad ki yak dlgar-rd (mu- 
'dtoin bdshem,) {mu'dwanat; imddd ; ydwari; pushtt; 
madad bi-kunem.) Or, bdyad ki murdd-i-yak digar-rd bar 
drem. 

Associate — ^Why do you associate with evil company? — ha 
suhbaUirbad chird {mukJiMlitat) mt-kuned ? (iihtiidt,; 
mvjdlisat; muwdsilat; tiff at; mttbdsharat ; mu*dsharat; 
murdjikat; uns.) Or, bd bad-rajtdrdn chird {ydr mv- 
shaved)? (mt^nishlned; mv^aiwanded; dam sdz ml4>dshed ; 
§uhbat ddred.) Or, chird dar tawila,e rinddnmi-bashed f 
Or, chird ba mardum-i'-shanr wa fattdn ikhtildt mt-warzed f 
♦Or, chird dar siXkri-suhbat-irsafikdn {ablahan, faromd' 
yagdn, kam-zarafdn^ subuksdrdn, kammagdn, bad-tlnatdn^ 
fidkisdnt hd-kasdn^ badrsigaldn, nqfas parwardn^ iMra- 
ruydn, tlrorrdydn^ turush-ruydn^ bahdna juydn, bad- 
ibuydn, mu^jibdn, ndkis-'akldn, taJMrguftdrdn, mardum- 
azdrdn, gadd-tdbd'dn ; na parhezgdn) mimsaUk ml-shaved ? 

Assure — I assure you there is no danger in that matter. — 
man ba shvmd rdst ml-goyam ki dar an mu^dmala heeh 
khauf wa khafar ntst, 

AssuBBDLT — Assuredly this is true.^yo^tn astkitn rast) 
ast. (be shakk in sddik; al hakk In haftf:; baibuda In 
sahih; ba sar-i-Mkudat In muhakkak.) 

AsTONisHMEKT — He manifested great astonishment on his 
part' — az paraf-i-lshud {ta^ajjubf-i-bisiydr feafctV)* kard. 
\tahaiyur; hairaU) \dshkdr,) Or, ma^lum ast ki to- 

* The mieanincB of these useful words, here grouped together, 
should be found m>m a Dictionary, 



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astronomy — aiuction* 270 

^iyur bar o (mustatUt) shud. (j^rifta.) Or» az tairaS' 

irkhwesh mtOa^iyir mdnd. Or, o angmhUrtaif^vyur ha 

dandan girift, 
AsTBONOMT — Are you acquainted vdiix the science of astro* 

nomy ? — aya aa Hlm-i-voQum {wakifed)f {ymf^f dared.) 

Or, aya dar Hlm-i-astar chize (mahurat) dared? {daihl.) 
AtONE — ^How shall I atone for this conduct? — ba jihat-u 

kaffara,e in bad rqftari chi bi-kunam f Or, ba chi taur 

takfir-i'%n khahasat- i-nafas'i-man bi-kunam ? 
ArrAGEED* — The enemy*s cavalry attacked us. — mwdtran-i- 

dushman bar md (hamlaY {kardandf. ^yuriah; tdiAt; 

ht^um,) ^burdand; dwardand.) Or, sawdrdnrirdushman 

bar md zadand. 
Attempted— He never attempted to learn. — o hargiz tan-i- 

thttd ba (ta'lim) na dad. {uHaJlum ; tadrU^ Or, o hi-lr 

hiU koshish'i'ihyuundan na kard. 
Attend — ^Let us attend to our studies. — biyd ki md ba 

sahafi'i'Mkud {tan birdihem), {khaydl bi-dihem ; shughl 

girem; masihghul Mshem; mtUawajjih bdshem; tawajjuh 

bi'kunem ; midtafit bi-shavem.) 
Attend — I have received notice to attend the court at ten 

o'clock. — ihzdr-nmna ba jiJtat-i-man dmada ast ki (peah-i- 

J^kim-ishara^) ba saati-dah kdzir bdsham, (criminal, 

dar mahkama.e mujrima; civil, dar m>a(tlcama,e mahsul; 

judicial, dar mahkama.e ^addlat) 
Attendance — ^Your attendance there is required. — hdzir 

shvdarv-irshumu dar dn jd zarur ast. Or, hdzir budanri- 

shumd dar dnjd azjumla.e zaruriydt ast, 
Attentiwi — She pays attention to learning. — dn zdyifa ha 

'Um Mitpdndan bisiydr {ma,il ddrad), (md,il mi-hdshad ; 

tawajjuh mirkunad; iUifdt mi-kuriad; mutawajjih mu 

shavad.) Or, dn zan dar tahsU-i-'Um {tan) ml-dihad. 

{dil; hhaydl) 
Auction — Do you mean to attend the auction? — aya ba 

harrdj khy)dhed raft ? Or, dyd irdda ddred ki ha mazdd 

biyraved ? 



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^80 authentic — awkward. 

Authentic — I believe the information is authentic. — man 

chunln mufahmam ki In Miabar sah^ ast. Or, man bar 

in ibflbar [ttimad) mt-kunam ki rast ast. (ttikad ; i*tibar,) 
Author — Who is the author of this book? — musannif-i-tn 

kitabktst? {mu,aUif ; naictsanda ; nalclband.) 
Authority — By whose authority do you do this ? — skumd 

ba ^ykm-i-kudam sJiaihs In *anud mi-kuned ? 
Avarice — There is no end to his avarice.^jtawwV-t-o {az 

hadd ziyadaf ast MJ^irs : imsdk; bukhid : baiti^-) ^(2S 

intikd ; be ghdyat ; Id Jfxidd ; be ^isab.) 
Avaricious — He is extremely avaricious. — o nikdyat(baihtt} 

ast. {IjMris; bdiiil; ^dmi\) Or, o abu-Uhirs ast. 
Average— What is the average of attendance at your 

school? — ba maktab khdna,e shumd (sardsan) ta'addd- 

irotfdX chi kadar ast. (takhmvnan.) 
Avoid — I cannot avoid going. — man az raftan (ihtirdz) na 

mlrtawdnam kard. (ijtindh; imtind' ; nafrat.) Or, man 

az raftan (Joidz na mt-tawdnam midnd). (sar bdz na mu 

tawdnam zad.) Or, man tark-i-raftan-i-dnja na mt-ta- 

wdnam girift. 
Awake — Awake me early in the morning. — ba wakt-i-pagdh 

mard beddr bi-kuned. Or, {'al^-S'Sabdh) m^rd ikdz H- 

kuned. (sdbuk ; bdm-ddd ; fayr ; tabashir-i-sabdi^ ; svhh- 

ir^adHi; fubi^-i-kdzib.) 
Aware — I was not aware of this.— wian az in wdkif na 

budam. {Myahar na ddshtam ; ift?^' na ddshtam ; muttaW 

na budam ; uDufsuf na ydftam.) 
Awful — How inexpressibly awful is the state of those who 

despise God ! — ^lat-i-dn ashkhds ki khvdd-rd ^aktr ml- 

ddnand chiguna (hatdnak) ast! (sahmgln; m^ihuf; 

haihatwdr,) 
Awkward — He is awkward at his work. — dar kdr-i-Jdmd 

(Mydm) ast. {ndkabU; mukmil; nd-shinds.) 
Awkward— This is an awkward circumstance. — irti^u'-t-tn 

watt at be wakt ast. Or, In ^aziya {ghair matbul) ast. 

(91a mundsib.) 



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axe — bariKrupt, 281 

Axe — Bring an axe, and chop this wood. — tabare biyared 
wa In (chub^rd para para bi-kurud). {Itezum-ra kafa^ 6t- 
kuned; hema-ra bi^shikaned; htatab-rd bi-bured; wahaid- 
ra munkatf bi-kuned.) 

B. 

Bachelor — Is he still a bachelor? — dya td m roz an 

shail^ (mujarrad) oat, {'arusi na karda; ^azab; ndkad- 

khuda.) 
Back — What has he got on his back ? — an kas bar pmhtr 

i'khud chi ddrad ? 
Bag— Put this money in the bag. — in pul-rd dar Qnsa 

bi-guzdr), (khartta bi-nih ; jama^ddn bi-^n ; jib biyan- 

ddz.) 
Baggage — The soldiers departed this morning with their 

baggage. — imroz sub^ 'askariydn ham rc^i^asbdb-i-Jchud 

rawdn shudand. 
Batl — ^Are you willing to become bail for him ? — ayd shumd 

mi'tk^dhed ki zdman-a^h bi-shaved ? Or, az laraf-i-o 

(zdman) Mkwdhed shvd ? (kafil,) Or, ^amdnat4-kliud az 

tarqf'i-o kahvl dared ? 
Balance — What is the balance of my account ? — (mxzdn)' 

irhisah'i-vnan chist ? (tam9il ; bakdyd,e,) 
Bale — Open the bale of cotton.— ^a«to,e jmmborrd (wd 

kun), (bdz kun ; bi-kmhd.) 
Ballast — That vessel has come in ballast.^— an jahdz {dar 

sabrd) dmada ast. (khdli.) 
Banish — We may now banish our fears. — Uhdl vid dah^ 

shathd^e khud-rd (yak iaraf kunem). (bar taraf kunem ; 

yak su nihem ; az dast rihd kunem.) 
Bankers — ^They are bankers in Sluraz. — eshdn mrrdfdn 

az shlrdz and. Or, eshdn dar shtrdz sarrdfi mtrkunand. 
Bankrupt — He has lately become a bankrupt — o dar %n 

rozha (dar) shikasta ast. (war.) Or, o dar in aiydm 

kkisdrat-i-hama mdl-i-ihud girifta ast. Or^ o^rd khisdrat' 

i-hama mUk-irMmd raslda ast. 



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d82 hare— beaten. 

Bare — ^We sat on the bare ground, — ma bar (zamin-i-ha- 

rahna) nishastem, (Jchak.) 
Babqain — ^You have made a bad bargain. — ekwnd mu^dha- 

dat-i-kabih karda ed. 
Babes — This dog barks at everybody. — In sag ha har shakhs 

('af-af) mt'kunad, ('aw-'aw ; nahbdh ; wak-wak.) 
Babbelb — I have sold my 20 barrels of flour. — man hist 

barmtl-i-ard*i'khud'Tdfarokhta am. 
Barren — This land is entirely barren. — In zamtn hi-l-kuU 

(sharabum) ast, {mdLi\ subrut; wairan; kahU^irzirWat na,) 
Base — ^Alas! what base conduct am I guilty of! — afsos! 

chi ^amal^i'bad azman sadir shvda ast ! Or, dareghh ! 

murtakib-irchi 'amal-i-nSsJidyista shtida am ! Or, woe ! chi 

^amal'i-(kabih) az wujud-iman sar bar dwarda ast! (Jasid ; 

shant; kanh; muhkir,) 
Basin — Bring some water in a basin. — kadre ah dor tasht 

biyared. 
Basket — Put these, things in a basket. — andarun-'i-sabad 

In chizhd bi-(gn2ar), {kun ; nih,) 
Bathing — I saw numbers of people bathing in the Eu- 
phrates. — jamM^lyat-i-khfiUke'-rd didam ki dar daryd,e 

fardt {ffkusl) ml-hmand. (tahdrat.) 
Bears — He bears this load on his head. — o har sar-i-l^md 

In bar, (m%-barad\ (kaml ml-kwnad.) Or, o bar sar-i- 

khud In haml guzdshta, hdmil-i-dn ml-bashad. 
Bore — ^You bore it very patiently. — shumd dn-rd ha {sabr 

tahammul karded). (istikldl bar ddsht namuded.) 
Beaten — I have beaten him twice in learning. — dar 

dmoihtan du bdr bar o{sabkat)karda,am. (burda; girifta.) 

Or, dar dars giriftan (du martaba az o bar dmada am), 

(du dafa' az o go,e burda am,) 
Beaten — The master has thoroughly beaten the slave.— 

mdlik g htddmri-khud-rd {klkub kqfta) ast. {be viuhdba zada ; 

zarb be muhdba zada; be muhdbafaro kqfta,) Or, tkpdja 

'abd^ikud-rd (kutak-Mri) karda ast. (pa ^arb-i^haihk 

ihurd khdm,) 



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beautiful — belong. 283 

Beautiful — This is a beautiful garden. m{bagiy4(Jchub 

s urate f ast» '([of Eden] jannat; firdaus; rauza ; *adan : 

[flower] bostan; gulistan; gulzar ; guLshan: [fruit] 

daiikat; baghcha; [kitchen] /?a/t;2?.) \dil-kiisha; dil-awez; 

dil-chasp; khush-nama ; Jarhat'bakhsh ; rahat-angez 

tqfrih-rasan.) 
Becalmed — The ship was becalmed four days. — jahaz fa 

chahar roz (sdkit) mand. (sakin.) 
Beckont- Beckon to him to come here. — ishdra bi-kun ki In 

jd biydyad. 
Become — He has lately become very proud. — o dar In rozkd 

bisiydr {nuigiknlr) shvda ast {jpur-gharur ; mutakabbir; 

mudammigJk ; jibbir ; nakhwat-kash ; khud-pasand,) 
Bed— He is ill and confined to his bed. — o bimdr ast wa 

bar bistar-i-khyd uftdda ast. 
Bee — I have been stung by a bee. — zambur-i-asl mard 

{nesh zada) ast. [gUzida.) 
Beg — I beg your pardon for what I haye done. — az dnchi 

karda am (*qfw talah mi-kunam). {istighfdr mi- sdzam ; 

mustaghfiT mi-shavam ; 'uzr mi-sazam.) Or, kalam-i-'afw' 

bar gyndh'am bl-kashed. Or, 'uzr-i-taksir-i-md-salafi-khyd 

mt-kunam. 
Beggar — There is a beggar at the door. — ba dar (faklre) 

istdda ast. (gadd,e ; sd^ile ; darweshe ; rawdnrldmdhe.) 
Began — I have began to speak English. — dar zabdn-i- 

inglisi sukhan guftan shurW kardd am. Or, dar lisdn-i- 

inglisi harqf zadan girifta am. 
Beginning — It has neither beginning nor end. — dn {awwal 

wa dkhir) na ddrad, (ibtidd wa intikd ; a^dz wa anjdm ; 

shuru^ wa khdtima ; mukaddama wa dkhir at.) 
Believes — ^He believes whatever people tell him. — bar 

dnchi m^rdumdn ml-goyand (i'tikdd) ml-kunad. [itibdr ; 

i'timdd; bdwar.) Or, ba ajwdh-i-dm mu'takide ast. 

(rmCtamide.) 
Belong — Does this knife belong to you? — In hard az dn-i- 

shum^d ast ? 

19 

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284 If^nd — heyrout. 

Bend— The ears of com, being ripe, bend to the ground — 

iip8haha,e gifida az pukhtagl ha su^e zamln (Jaro) mi- 

shavand. (rndM; kaj; mtttawajjih; multa^t) 
Benefit — ^Has the medicine afiForded you benefit? — in Hlaj 

shumd-ra {Jujida) karda ast? (tastr ; manfaat) Or, 

az m mu^cUaja (fajda dlda ed). (istlfada girifta ed,) Or, 

az ih^rdan-irln dawd shvmvHrd kadre taH^f-i-marz 

shtida ast f 
Beseech — I beseech you to pay attention, — (iUimas) mi- 

kunam ki shumd bodkin kdr dil bi-dihed. (istid^d,) Or, Utifat 

farmuda muUafit bi-skaved. Or, multafi ml-shavani ki 

dar In amr tan bi-dihed. 
Beset — He \b beset on all sides with business. — az har 

taraf ba kdr-i-bisiydr mashgiMl ast. Or, ba luima ap-aj 

dar kdr {mahsur) ast. {masruf) 
Bespeak — I am going to the shoemaker's to bespeak a 

pair of shoes. — ba dukdn-i-kafsh-doz mv-ravam tdfarmd,ish' 

i-sdk[ktanri-yak juft-u-urusl bi-diham. 
Best — I think it will be best to do so. — man chmiin mi' 

fahmam ki in chunm kardan (ansab) ast. {afzal; 

aidatar.) Or, maslahat-i-dn mt-binam ki In kdr ^din-i-^ 

sawdb ast. 
Bestow — lam a poor man, be pleased to bestow one diram. — 

man muhtdj-am dirame 'atd bi-farrndyed. Or, man hdjl- 

am pashize ba Uhflirat bi-dihed. Or, hdjatmand-am az ru,« 

lutj mam dirame Hndyat bi-kuned. 
Better — ^Mine is better than yours. — mdl-i-man aa mJoL- 

i-shumd hihtar ast. 
Beware — Beware of idleness and ignorance. — az ihmdl 

wa jdhUt ihtizdr bi-sdz. Or, az takdsui wa jdhiltyat pur- 

haza hash. Or, az tdkdhtd wa jahdlat (ijtindb) bi-kun. 

(ihtirdz.) Or, {susti) wa dwdragl-rd bi-guzar. (ba0M; 

kahili) 
Beyrout — I have been three years in Beyrout. — dar bayriU 

td si sal buda am. Or, hdlan si sdl giizashta ast ki tnan 

dar bayrut (mu-tawakkif buda am), (muiclm buda am; 



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bid— blessing. 385 

sakin shuda am; mutamdkkin shuda am; ikamat karda 

am ; sukunat dashta am.) 
_ Bid— Why do you bid me do this? — chird mard farma,ish' 

i kardan-irtn kdr mhkuned ? 
Big — ^How big is the book you speak of? — kitdbe hi zikr 

ml-kunedy chi kadar hujum ddrad ? 
Bill — Give me your bill, I will pay it. — hisab-i-ihud-ra 

barman bi'dihed dn-rd add ktpdham hard. 
Bind — Bind him hand and foot. — dost wa pdyash bi-band. 

Or, band bar dast wa pdyash bi-nih. 
Bind — Bind him neck and foot. — silsila dar gardan tea 

zanjir bar pdyash bi'{nih). {kun ; band,) 

Pinion him. — dast bar katif-ash bi-band. 
Bound— He has bound up the parcel. — dn kas {biikchayrd 

basta ast. (basta,) 
Bitten — He was bitten by a jackal. — yak shaghals o-rd 

{gaztda) ast.! {zaf^ml karda,) Or, o az sliaghdle gazida 

shuda ast. 
Blameable — ^Am I blameable in this ? — dyd man dar In kdr 

{mvi^assar)- am ? (tahslrwdr. ) 
Blame — The blame rests only upon me. — shcd.e man kase 

digar mukassar nlst. Or, tlzam-i-ln taknr khdss ba 

zimma,e man ast. Or, m jurm mahz az dast-i-man (bar 

dmada) axt, (sddir shuda.) Of, siu%e man kase dlgar 

(ilzdm-i-m kdr na ddrad), {malzum-i-m kdr ntst.) Or, 

ba juz'i-man kase dlgar miijnm na shuda ast. 
Blameless — ^No, without doubt you are blameless. — na, be 

shakk shumd (be fiusur ed). (ma'sUm ed.) 
Bled — ^After being bled he recovered. — ba*d azfasd kardan 

shifd ydft. Or, bad az rag zadan ifdka ydft. Or, bad 

az hajdmat kardan andake rdhat ydft. 
Bleeds — I have cut my finger, see how it bleeds. — angusht- 

i-Jsfiud-rd burida am, bi-bined (chiguna J^un az o lui- 

chakad), (chi taur ^un mi-dyad,) 
Blessino — By the blessing of God I am better* — ba fa^h 

i*aUdh ta'dl^ Icadre dram ydfta am. 

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286 blind— bottle. 

Blind— He is now quite blind. — anshakhs bi-UkuU {nd-blria) 

ast. {kur; zarvr ; a ma.) 
Blindfold — He led him blindfold through the city. — o 

chashm-ash bast wa o-rd gird-i-shahr garc&nld. 
Blossom — ^Where there is blossom we expect fruit. — ja,e 

ki shugufa ast, ummed-i-mewa ast. 
Blossom — This plant will soon blossom. — in nihdl zud (gid 

iktpdhad hard), (shugufa khwahad dad.) Or, In nihdl 

zud bar khwahad award. 
Blotted — He blotted the whole of his papers. — o bar 

hama k dgh az-i-khud dagh-i'Siydhi anddkhf. Or, o hanna 

kaghaz'i-khud-rd tasum kard. 
Blow — Blbw the dust, off your book. — az kitdb-i-ihud'at 

gard (fut bi-Jcun). (paf bi-dih; wd pak.) Or, kitdb-i- 

khud-rU bi-takdned. 
Blunder — You blunder continually. — shumd hamesha 

(sahw) mt'kuned. (khatd ; ghalat ; kusur.) 
Bolder — He is bolder than 1. — o a^ man (shvjd'tar) ast. 

(be bdktar ; shajttar; dildwartar.) Or, o az man 

ziydda shujd'at ddrad. 
Bolt — Fix a bolt on the window. — dar darlcha chifte bi-zan. 

Or, dar ghurfa darbande murattib bi-kun. Or, dar rauzan 

band-kasha,e kd,im bi-kun. 
Bond — ^He wishes to have a bond for this amount. — bardie 

In mablagk-i-pul, tamassuk mi-Jchwdhad. 
Bone — The dog has a bone in his mouth. — sag dar dahan- 

i-khud 'azme ddrad. 
Bookseller — I have been to the bookseller's shop. — ba 

dukdn-i-kitdh-farosh buda am. 
Born — He was bom before you. — o pesh az shirnid (paidd) 

sJmda bud. (maidUd ; zdda ; muZawallad.) 
Borrow — I want some money, from whom can I borrow ? — 

man kadre prU ml-khwdham az kuddm kas (karz) mi- 

tawdnam girift ? (wdm ; 'dfiyat.) 
Bottle — Put this oil into a bottle.-^n rau^fjkan-i'talii-rd 

dar (jsurdhi bi-guzdr) (kuza bi-kun.) 

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bottom — broken. ji87 

Bottom — ^Eead to the bottom of the page. — ta ba (intiha\e 

safha bi-ihwaned. (akhir ; anjdm; khatm; ikhtitdm; 

muntaha; td Id tah.) Or, sahiforra tamdm bi-hhwaned. 
Bow — Having made a bow, he sat — o (satdm hard) wa 

nishast, (sar-i'Miidmat bar astdn ddsht ; zamin-i- 

khidTTuU bosid; ihidmat hard; shart-irkhidmat ba jd 

award; rasm-i-adaJb wa tahiyatbajd award; sar-i-khidmat 

ba zamln nihad; alif ^drnaUi-libMd'rd chun nun kfiam 

sdkht.) 
Bows — Bows and arrows were formerly used in war. — {dar 

aiydm-i-guzaahta) tlr wa kamdn aslikdje jang budand. 

{sdbikan; dar aiydm4'8alaf ; dar wakt-i-peshin ; mukad- 

daman; pesh az in; kohl az m.) ^ 
Box — ^What shall I put in this box ? — dar in sanduk chi 

bi-{guzdfam), {kunam; niham) 
Bbacelets — ^That lady wears bracelets. — an bdnu ydra ha 

dost ml'hinad. Or, dn sdhiba mVzad ba dast mi-poshad. 

Or, an iMtun dast-biranjan dar dast ml-kunad. 
Branches — That tree has many branches. — dn shajar 

bisiydr {afanvn) ddrad, {furu\ sing, far' ; agh sd^e, sing. 

ghusu; fdjhd; shdkhhd.) 
Bbass — ^Don'tyou know brass from copper? — dyd birinjrd 

az mis na mlrddned ? Or, fark md-bain birinj wa mis 

na mi-kuned ? Or, far k-i-birinj wa mis na mi-ddned ? 
Bbave — His soldiers are very brave. — 'askariydn-ash khaili 

(shujd') and. {dillr ; jang-ju ; dmhman-kush,) 
Braveby — ^What bravery have they displayed ? — esJidn chi 

{shujWat namuda) dnd ? (dUdwarl z^dhir karda ; hirnmat 

izhdr sdkhta,) 
Bbaying — ^The ass is braying. — himdr (nahlk mi-zanad). 

(^ar'*ar mi-kunad ; mi-shorad.) 
Breadth — ^What is the breadth of that cloth ? — ['arzyi-^ln 

pdrcha chi kadar ast ?- (pahan ; kushddagi.) 
Broken — He has broken it in pieces. — o dn-rd {kkw^' 

khurd karda) ast. (pdra-pdra shikasta ; reza-reza 

gmeklita.) 



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288 broken — hdl. 

Broken — He has broken the agreement.— {M^2a^i-'aA<{ 

karda ast (nu^^ ; fasih-) 
Bbeath — I have run to such a degree that I am out of 

breath. — man chunin davnda am ki (nafs) na ml'tavoan-' 

am zad. [tanaffus; dam,) Or, mmi chundn dawtda 

am ki majcU-i-rurfs kashidan na {daram). (awaram.) 
Bbbed — These insects breed in the rice. — In kirmhd dar 

birinj paidd ml-shavand. 
Bred— He bred up his children in the best manner. — o 

atjdlri'khud-rd ha (tartk-i-ahsan parwarish dad), (afzalu' 

l-wajk tarbiyat kard ; bihtartn-irsUrat na4thw o nama dad.) 
Bbibed^Ho was bribed to commit tliat wicked deed.- — o 

rishwat girifta an kdr-i-shani 'kard. Or, ba jihat-ukdr-i- 

sham' o-rd rishwat ddda shuda ast. 
Bricks — Bricks are made of this kind of earth. — az m 

kwn-i'{git) khishthd sdkhta mlshavand. (MkUdb.) 
Brideoroom — I saw both the bridegroom and the bride. — 

har du darned wa 'arus dldam. 
Bright — ^Do you observe that bright star? — dyd dn {najm- 

i-mujalll)'rd mi-blned? {jntdrayO darafahdn; dkhtar-i- 

darakhshdn.) 
Broad. — How broad shall I make this mat ? — m (boriydy 

chi kadar (arl?)^ bisdzam ? \z^ii ; hdsir.) ^pahan ; 

wd§i\) 
Broker — He is by trade a broker. — o ba harfatdaUale.aAU 

Or, ba feasb baiyae ast. Or, pesha,e o daUalt ast. 
Brush — Here is a brush, where is the paint? — mjdkalam* 

i-mu astf ammd rang kujd f 
Bud. — ^These trees are beginning to bud. — %n daraJchthd 

shuguftan miglrand. Or, In ashjdr {dar shuguftan) and, 

(ba shuguftan dar dmada,) 
Build — I am going to build a house. — man makame ta^mvr 

khwdham kard. 
Bull — ^Are you not afraid of the bull? — dWf dn nar-gdw {rui 

ml'tarsed)? (shurrid-rd khauf nut: muMkauwaf na mt- 

bashed,) 



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bundle-^ake, S89 

BuKBLE— Where shall I put this bundle ?— In huteha-rd 
kujd lnr{0uzaram), (niham; kunmhi ddram.) 

Burden — The whole. burden rests upon me.— tamam bar 
bar man ast Or, man Jfdmil'i'tamam (uml^m. 

Burn — ^Bum this waste paper. — tn ka^gh^z-v-radd^a ba 
aiash bi-dih. Or, tn %irtas4'bekar'rd ba aiash U-soz, 
Or, In ySgtfix^-mvhra^^r'i-mardudrrU ba dtash biyanddz. 

Burst— They drank so much that they almost burst. — an 
kadar nausMdand ki (nazdtk bud ki shikam-ireshdn bi-tarkad), 
(dar tarJadan'Ushikam4-e8hdn chize na rndnda hud.) Or, 
esMn ba an fcada/r dahdmtdand ki m1^da,e eshdn kanb ba 
tarkidan bUd^ 

Burst— He burst open the door.— ^ darwdzorrd ikikasta 
todzkard. 

Bury — ^He is gone to bury his father. — o padar-i-khttd-ra 
dajh kardan rafta ast Or, (o bardie tOQhlz wa takfln) 
kardanrirWdUd-i-khud rafta asU (o bardie tadftn.) 

Business — He is come on business. — o bardie {shughtjB 
dmada ast, (Jcdre ; *amale ; f^djate.) 

Busy — He is now very busy, and cannot speak to you. — 
ilhdl (ba kd,r nuishglkul ast) wa ba shuma sukhan guftan 
na mi-tawdnad. (mashffkdl-i'Jchidmat ast ; ba kdr o bar 
isktighfll ddrad ; ba mu'dmila mushtaghfll ast ; dar band* 
i'lchpesh ast.) 

Buy — I am going to the bazar to buy paper. — m^n ba 
bdzdr az bard^ Jdkflrvdan-i'kdgiflz ml-ravam. 



Gable — That ship has lost her anchor and cable. — langar 

wa {kaUyi-dn jahdz har du gum shuda ast, {kaffij,) 
Gaoe — This cage is to keep birds in. — In kafs bardie nigdh 

ddshtan-i'paranda ast. 
Cake— Where did you get that cake ? — dn (kuHcha) az kujd 

ba dast-i-shumd rasid. {ka^k; bishm^t; (lurs; ragj^lfg 

pL rugiuj,) 



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ft 90 calamity — cash. 

Calamity — This will be to them a great calamity. — in 

(afat'i-^aziiny bar eshanwaki {Jchwahad shud).^ ^(8ad7na,e 

Jcalnr ; hala,e huzurg ; hddisa,e kaldn.) ^Qshyimhad uftad) 
Calumniates — He calumniates a person. — o dar postln-i- 

mardume im'(uftad). (ravad.) Or, o harf'i-kase ml-chinad. 

Or, ghibat-i-kase mi-kunad. Or, o dar 'aib giriftan-i- 

kase mi-koshad. Or, * o kase-ra ghflihat ml-kunad. Or, 

o kci8€-rd ba badi ydd ml-kunad. Or, o ndm-i-kase ba zishtt 

mi-barad. 
Calculation — Have you made a calculation of the cost ? — 

{hisdb)-i-kharjjam*kardaed? (takhmina; muwdzina.) 
Calf — The cc^w and calf were together. — mMa-gdw tea 

gusdla baham yak jd budand. 
Calm — The sea was quite calm. — bahr bi-Jrkull (be mavje) 

bud, (bi Id amwdj ; mitshauwish na.) 
Canvas — ^Where did you Luy this canvas ? — tn {jpaldsyrd az 

kujd Idkanda ed ? (pdrcfia,e kanu,) 
Capacity — He is a person of great capacity. — an shakhs 

bisiydr (kdbUtyat) ddrad, {istiddd ; firdsat ; idrdk; 

kuwat-i-m^adrika ; dirdyat ; ahliyat ; ddnish,) Or, an 

shakhs [darfirdsat kdmil) ast, (sdhib-i-fazllat ; sdhib-i-fazU 

i'kam^dl.) Or, 'akhnandi^e dn kas ba kamdl rasida ast. 
Card — ^He has sent me a card of invitation. — dn kas ruk\e 

dxCwat-rd ba jihat-i-m^an Jiristdda ast. 
Care — I have no care on that account. — dar. an sukhan 

(jparwd) na ddram, [fikr ; andoh: muzdyaka; diUtangl.) 

Or, az dn amr gtam na [ddram). (khuram.) Or, dar diU 

i-khud tafakkure-rd rah na diham. 
Carrying — I saw him carrying a load on his head. — man 

o-rd dJdam ki lidr bar sar guzdshta vii-ravad. 
Case — Have you no case for your razor? — dyd (ffhil3f-ut£g' 

i-daUdkiyrdnaddred? (jild-irustura ; miydn-i-marduda) 
Case — This is a very diflBcult case. — in murafcHa {jnmhki(l 

ast),' (ishkdl ddrad,) 
Cash — In cash and notes I have 100 dinars. — dar wajh-i- 

najcd wa bardt sad iHnar ddram. 

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east — chaff. ^91 

Cast — Cast away this clothing. — in libas-ra bar anddz. 
Castle — He lives near the castle. — nazdri-hisar mkunat 

darad. Or, fia'nb'i'{i:asr) manzU ddrad, (him.) 
Catalogue — Have you seen to-day's catalogue of the 

sale? — {fihrUiyirharraj-i'-imroZ'ra dida ed ? {fard ; fard- 

i-tafyU) 
Catch — Catch that bird. — an murgh-ra (aihs H-kun), 

(bi-gir.) 
Cause — ^Do you know the cause of this ? — (sababyi-in amr 

mi-ddned? (iUat; wdsita; mUjib,) 
Caution — ^What need of all this caution ? — hajat-i-ln chunin 

(Jchabarddri) chut? (dUr-andeshi ; 'akibaf-andeshi ; duv' 

bini; ihtiyat; hazar; ihtiraz; ta^lr; J^zain; ta,ammul; 

tadbtr,) 
Cautious — We ought to be cautious, and not to give offence 

to any. — fnard bdyad hi az zuhmat dadan-i-kase hazar bi- 

kunem. Or, marn bdyad ki td tawdnem az azlyat dddan- 

i-kase (khabarddr shavem). (hoshiydr bdsJiem ; hazUr 

shavem ;. sahib i-ihtiy at bdshem; muhtazir bdshem.) 
Cease — ^When will you cease talking ? — az sujchan guftan 

kai (fardghat) Tcbwdhed kard? • {maulcuf ; fardgh : tawai' 

kuf,) Or, kai tark-i-haraf zadan khyjohed (girift) ? {kard) 
Celebrated — He is a very celebrated poet. — o shdHre 

bisiydr (mashhur) ast. (ma'rvf; mausTtf ; ndmwar; mu'' 

az^am ; mamduh.) Or, o 'tdldnuiye shu^ard ast. 
Centre — Place thi^ in the centre. — In chiz-rd dar {miydn 

bi-gvzdr). (markaz-i-dd^ira bi-nih.) 
Century — This house has been built a century. — sadd sdl 

guzashta ast ki In Mkdna {ma^mur shuda asi). (-rd ta^mxr 

karda and,) 
Certain — I am certain of it. — man in-rd yakln mi^4dnam» 
Certificate — I have received from him a certificate of my 

capacity and good conduct. — man azoba nisbat-i-ftdhUiyat 

wa nek'rqftdr%,e khud (sifdrish ndm>a),e ydfta am. {dast 

aweza; liydkat ndma.) 
Chaff — ^Here is plenty of chaff, but no wheat. — In jd post- 

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dOS chcdn — cheap, 

i-gandiim JirSwan ast magar gandum na. Or, tn hama 

sahos ast (nishanyi^andum dar tn nUt, (asar.) 
Chain — ^Is this chain made of iron? — aya%nzanfir-{v'ahant) 

ast ? (az ahan sdkifa shuda.) 
Chalk — ^He writes only with chalk.— an has fakat ha gtU 

i'Safaid mt-nawtsad. 
Change — ^He is gone there for change of climate.^-a« bara^ 

{tabdUyirob o hawd an ja rafta ast, {ial^wti.) 
Change — I must change my clothes. — mara hdyad hi Ubca- 

iribud-rd (iwaz) bi-kunam. (badal; tabdU; ibdSl.) 
Changeable — His mind is changeable. — o muUdauwinu-fr 

tab' ast. Or, o sahiDu-l-kabul wa sahUud'tark ast. Or, o 

sjahitvA-havl wa idjmtU^mizdj ntst. Or, dUrash (be 

kardr) ast. [nd pdyaddr.) Or, o tdUmtoun dar iab* 

ddrad. 
Chapter — ^What chapter shall we read? — kuddm bah bi- 

Uhwdnam ? 
Character — He bears an excellent character.— o ndm-i- 

neko ddrad. Or, ,o (sdhib-i-Hzzat) ast. {zu-Wizzat; 

mu'azzaz ; mukarram.) 
Chakgoal — She draws pictures with charcoal. — dn zan 

tasmrhd ba zaghM mt-kashad. 
Charges — He charges very high. — o girdn kvmat ml- 

kunad. (khvifdhad^ 
Charitable — ^They are very charitable to the poor. — eshdn 

ba (ghanhdn karvrri) and, (muflisdn' rahim; mafiukdn 

sakhi ; mustamanddn sadkat-baJdyih.) 
Charity — He bestows a great deal in charity. — o bisiydr 

(khairdt) mvdihad, {sadka ; tasadduk ; zdkdt ; zakwat.) 
Charming — That is a charming song. — dn nagh.ma,e dil" 

fareb ast. Or, dn sarod-i-tarab-angez ast. Or, dn sama'- 

i'dilrdwez ast. Or, dn tarannum-i-dilfaroz ast. Or, az 

dn naghma kase-rd shor wa tardb dar sar rm-dyad. Or, 

az dn nagkma kase dar hdlat wa f,arab mi-bdshad. 
Cheap — ^These articles, T think, are cheap. — man ml- 

pinddram ki tn chtzhd (arzdn) and, (kam-klmat;^ siibuk" 

bahd.) 

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cheat — circmt. 293 

Cheat — ^They cheat whom they can. — eshan ha har kase ki 

mi-tawanandfareh mi-dihand. Or, eshan ha har kase ha 

kadar'i-makdur-i'khud [ghadr mi'kunand). {ghahn ml" 

sdzand ; hikt-hazl mi-kunand ; ghdhin mi-bashand,) 
Cheese — This cheese is not good. — tnpamr (ihuhnUt). 

{lih shvda ast^ 
Chickens — I 6awa hen with ten chickens.— man ?waA:t2/an«- 

ra ha mcC dah chvza dtdam. 
Chief— My chief reason for coining here was to see 

you. — man mahz az hardye dldan-i-shuma injd dmada am* 
Childhood— I have known him since his childhood. — man 

az {hm-i-tufuliya^t-ash) o-rd ddnista am, {oiydmA-kodor 

layash ; ^ahd-i-kjiurdiyash,) Or, az wakte ki o iifl bud 

man o-rd shindkhta am. 
Childish — These are but childish employments. — mfakat 

(hdzi,e kodakdn) ast» (kdr-^i-kodafn.) 
China — He has lately come from China. — dar in rqzhd az 

chin wdrid shvda ast, 
CfliPs — ^Why are all these chips here? take them away. — 

in khdshdk chird injd ast ? dn-rd har ddr. Or, m (ta- 

rdshhd) chird injd uftdda ast? dn-rd hi-har. (rezahd,e 
. chuh.) 
Chisel — Cut this stick with a chisel.^n chtih-rd ha 

mabza' hi-tardsh. 
Choice — It was his own choice to do so. — o m kdr ha 

khy)dhish'i-khud kard. Or, in chunin kdr kardan o-rd 

iMitiydr uftdd. 
Choose — Choose which of these two you please. — az in 

har du td ynke-rd (hi-guzln), (hirchin ; iMitiydr hi-kun ; 

kahul hi-kun,) 
Cinnamon — ^Mix some cinnamon with the other spices. — 

ham-rdh'i-dlgar masdlih ddr-chini (biydmez). (m^Milut 

hi-kun; tahhlit hi-kun; ikbtildt hi-kun; hi-l^isdnid,) 
CiBCLE — ^They all sat in a circle. — eshdn {dar surat-i-ddyira) 

nishastand. {halfca zada.) 
CiBcuiT — ^He is now judge of circuit — dn Uhdl i^kim-U 

dd,ir ast. 

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294 circulated — clock, 

CiBCULATED— They have circulated notices in all directions. 

— eshdn ha har laraf ishtihar-rd jdri karda and. Or, 

ba har taraf ittUa' ndmajat-i-eshdn ijrd ydfta and. 
Circulation — Has this coin been lonpf in circulation? — 
. tn zarb az bigiydr wakt murauwaj buda ast. Or, dyd 

bidydr sal ast hi in sikka {rd,ij buda) ast. (rawdj ydfta,) 
CiRCUMSTANCR — ^This is a curious circumstance — In so- 

niha,e 'ajtb ast. Or, m kaifiyoit-i'bisiydr nadir ast. Or, 

m a^wdlri-khsjciill ta*ajjub dniez ast. 
Civil — He is one of the civil servants of the Government. 

— yoke az 8dikibanri{amur'i-datdat) ast. i^amdUi-mam' 

lakat.) 
Civil — ^He is civil to every one. — o ba har kas (mvld,im) 

ast. (saUm; haUm; adlb; mu.addab; ^dhib-i-stduk ; 

Tchaltk ; sdhib-irodab ; mtUatlf; laiif.) Or, o ba har kas 

ta^jim ml'kunad. 
Civility — He received us with great civility. — o ba bisiydr 

(tawdzu*) bd md mtUdkdt kard. (khulk ; ikhtdk ; adab ; 

suluk; miUd.imat; muddrd; muddrdt.) 
Claim — Have you any further claim on that gentleman's 

estate? — bar imlak4'dn sdkib iddi*d,e digar dared ? 
Clever — She is more clever than he. — dn zan az dn mard 

{ddnaytar ast. {zakt; hoshiydr; kdr-guzdr ; maslahat- 

guzdr; pukjita.) 
Client — The attorney has \mtten to his client.— an toafnl 

ba muwakkHrirMiud nawishta ast. 
Climate — The climate of Europe is very fine, — ab o hawd 

az rmjUk'irmaghrib bisiydr Jchub ast. 
Climbing— He was climbing a tree. — o (bdldle dara^kt bar) 

mt-raft. (bar darakht bdld.) 
Clings — That child clings to its mother.— an farzand ha 

(madar-i-lsliud muchaspad). (gardanri-mddar-i'J^ud ml- 

awezad.) 
Cloak — Leave your cloak in the hall, — {bdld'posh,)-i'l^vd- 

rd dar ddldn bi-gvzdr. {farghul ; labdda ; jawdUk.) 
Clock — ^What is ^e time by the church clock? — ba sd'at-i- 



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clothe — comfort, j295 

(tsa-kada) chi sWat ast? (^ihadat-gah ; khdna,e ]ckydd; 

rruChid ; sijdorgah ; masjid ; jami\) 

It is near two o'clock.— Aanft ba scCat-i^du ast. 
Clothe — They clothe the naked and feed the hungry. 

— (barahnagdny-rd mi-poshdnand wa ,[gurdnagdnf'Td 

ihurish ml'dihand. \ariydndn; ^dnydn.) \ja\Cdndn: 

jdyidn; mujidn.) 
Clouds — There are many Qlouds, it will rain heavily, — 

(cUyr) bisiydr ast bdrdn khub Jchpdhad band, (m egk : 

sahdb; ghfiim.) 
Coaches — Some people ride in coaches, others go on foot. 

— baze mardumdn ba kaliska sawdr ml-shavand wa ba^ze 

piydda ml-ravand. 
CoAKSE — This cloth is very coarse. — In pdrcha bisiydr 

(kuluft) ast, {salb ; hanguft ; jar*ab ; ndfij ; satildi. ; sitabr.) 
Cobweb — Sweep away that cobweb. — an parda^e ^ankabuU 

rdjdrub bi-kun. Or, dn {nasjU'l'*ankahui)-rd az Injd bi^ub, 

(malkdt.) 
Cold— I feel very cold. — man burudat-i-'azim ihsds mi-kun- 

am. Or, ward (8ardi),e bisiydr mahsusml'shavcid. (bard.) 
Collected — ^A great crowd was collected. — mMJma*44mzurg 

m^jmu' shud. Or, jamd'at-i-kasir (Jam") shitd, (mujtami ; 

mujammd'.) 
Collector — ^^He is now collector (revenue-officer) of Shi- 

raz. — o Uhal (tahsllddryi'Shirdz mu'aiyan ast, (muhassil ; 

bdzhglr ; khir^j-i-jarn'oltl ; jdmi^'irmahd§il.) 
College — Have you seen the new college ?-^madrassa,e 

nau) dlda ed? (ddru-t-'ilm-i-jadtd.) 
Colour — What colour shall I make it? — rang-i-dn chi bi- 

sdzam? 
Comb — Take a comb, and comb your head. — (shdnaY bi-gir 

wa muyat-rd {shdna birkunf. ^(masht; sarJshdra.) \masht 

bi-kun; shdna bi-zan,) 
Comfort — This affords me comfort in my trouble. — In dar 

{zahm^yam tasaUl mlrbakhihad. {tasdl ; ranj ; \zd.) Or, 

in chiz ^fnarhamddUri-majruJ^m) mtrbdshad.^ {tasaUl 



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^06 commanded — compare, 

baJsk^h-idU-hazin-am,) Or, In cJnz mar a ax taJchl^ 
takhflf ml-dihad. 

CoHiiANOED — He commanded me to go instantly. — an 
shakts ha inan hvkm farmud ki haman saat an ja hU 
rau. 

Commence — ^Let us now commence our work. — Hya ta 
[shuru^-i-kar-i-ihud) bi-kunem, {kar4'khydrrd ahwrvH.) 

Commend— I commend your prudence. — mun {ta^f^i- 
tamiZ'i-shumd ml-kunam. (tahsln; afrin; tausif; sitat' 
ish.) Or, imdyaZ'ishwna muwaJiktHr^d,e khudram mi- 
dyad. Or, hazar-i-sJiumu mard pasand ml-dyad. Or, 
dur-andeshife shumd-rd ta§wlb mt-namdyam. 

Commerce — Baghdad is a first-rate seat of commerce. — 
Bagkdad *uinda,e jd,e tijarat asU 

Committed— He was committed to prison. — o dar muKba^ 
firistdda shvd. Or, o dar kaidrkhdna mursU shud. 

Common — The common people speak thus. — mardurndn-i- 
*awdmm In chunln mlrgoyand. Or, in kaldm muhdwara^ 
*dmm ast. 

Communicate — Communicate this to him. — In suT^ltan bado 
[baiydn) bi-kun, {^ahir; izhdr ; ashkdra; fash ; huwaida.) 

Communicative — He appears to be Tery communicative. — 
ma'lum mlrshavad ki o (zabdn-i^ardz ddrad). {bidydr go,e 
a^t.) 

Companion — I have no companion. — man (mttsdhibe) na 
ddram, (muniae; mayUuse; hcan-suhbate.) 

Company — I am glad to be in his company. — kKfltir-irman 
ba mukhdlifat-i-o mail ddrad. Or, sukbat-ash giconlmat 
shurmram wa kfjidm^t-ash yagimd. Or,, ha mund' 
dimat'Osh r agh bat mi-(ddram), (kunam.) Or, ha ikktildt' 
i-o bisiydr mail mirddram. Or, az musdhiha^-ixsh jkkailt 
JdkushnHd am. Or, murdfikat-ash mard fchush ml-dyad. 
Or, sudri-sarmuye 'umr-am tmcU-i-o-rd mlrihymdram'. 

Compare — ^Let us compare my writing with yours. — biyd ta 
khatpi-mard ba JdyxlUi-shuTnd (dar ta>Mth bi-ddrem). 
(taahbih bi-kunem ; mukdbil bi-kunem,) Or, Uyd ki mM 
har dU Mi,aU-i'ikud-rd dar mlzdn-i-taswiyat U^ihem* 

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compass — conceit. 297 

Compass — ^A ship sails by the compass. — ha {wasi^a),ekiUlh 

numa jahdz rah mWavad, (wasUa,) 
Compassion — ^Why act thus? have you no compassion? — 

chira chunin Mr mt-kuned? shuma-rd (ruhm4it) na mi- 

dyad? {rdfym; shafkat; talatfuf ; tarrahum,) Or, chird 

ha kase chunin kdr mi-kuned ? dil-irshumd na ml-sozad. 
Competent — ^Are you competent to the work? — shumd 

UyakaUirln kdr dared? Or, shumd kabUri-in 'amal 

halted? Or, In kdr az dast-irshumd bar ml-tawdnad 

dmad? 
Complained — I have long complained of his conduct. — 

hisiydr aiydm {guzashta aat ki az afdUash(shikdyat) karda 

am, (ndUsh ; gila ; farydd ; shakwd.) 
Complaints — He is always coming with complaints. — o 

hamesha (daftar-i-shikdyat bdz) mv-kanad. (Jarydd ; 

nMish,) 
Complete — He is complete master of this language. — o dar 

xn zahdn kdmil asL Or, o dar In lisdn kdmiliyat ddrad. 
Compliments — Sir, Mr. sends his compliments to you. 

— sdhibd sdhib'irfutdn ha shumu {scUdm mi-rasdnad), 

{tasUm mi-dihad.) 
Comply — ^Unless you comply, what can I do ? — a^^ shumu 

rdzt nlsted chi bi-kunam ? 
Composing — He is now composing a grammar. — a UJ^ satf 

wa nahw (tasntf) mt-kunad. ifa.Uf.) 
Comprehend — I don't exactly comprehend this. — In mkhan 

{^-rd khuh na mi-fahmam). (dar 'akUUnan durust na ml- 

dyad.) 
Conceal — I cannot conceal this matter. — man na mi- 

tawdnam ki In sukhan-rd (pinhdn ddram). {nihufta 

kunam ; mastur kunam ; ikhfd kunam ; m akhf t ddram ; 

kitman or maknun ddram ; hi-posham,) 
Conceit — 'Let us not indulge conceit. — mard bdyad ki 

(kbi.^d'pasand na bdshem). (az Mkud na halem ; 'ujh dar 

sar na ddrem; dvnagirirbehuda na pazem; kh^yd-binna 

bdshem.) 



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298 conceited — confined. 

Conceited — That man is very conceited. — an sheikhs khaiU 

(mu'jib) ast. (mojfkrur ; Mkud-pasand ; Uhyd-ra^e; khyd- 

bin ; khyd noma ; mudammagh) 
CoNCKivE — I conceive you are iu the right — man ml-danam 

M shumd ha rah-irrasti ml-hashed. 
Concern — This business does not concern you. — In kar ha 

shuma [tcHaUuk na darad). ('alaka na ddrad; muta*aMki 

nut). Or,' dar in kar daMd-i-tasarruf-irshuma nlst. Or, 

shuifid dar. in kar dakhl-irtasarrrif na mi-tawdned kard. 
CoNCEBN — This has caused her much concern. — az in kai- 

Jiyat an zan bisiydr miUqfakkir gardld. Or, in amr 

8abah'i-iztirah'i-*azvm4'dn nisd shud. 
Conclude — It is time to conclude.— iZAoZ waikt'ir{tamam 

kar dan) ast. {khatm ; khatima,) 
Conclusion — This is the conclusion of the chapter. — in 

{dkhir)-i-bdb a>st. {khatm ; ikhfitdm.) 
Condition — My condition is better than his. — hal-i'man az 

ahwdl-i'O {bihtar) ast. (ahsan.) 
CoNDUCT~His conduct is to be commended. — raftdr-ash 

Vdyik-irtaWif wa tahsih wa dfrin ast. 
Conduct — Who will conduct us thither? — dnjd ki mora 

(rahbarl Hhwdhad kard) ? {khwdhad burd ; daUdlat 
' khwdhad kard.) 
Confess — I confess my conduct has been amiss. — man 

{Vtirdf) mi-kunam ki kirdar-i-man ma'yub ast. {ikrdr.) Or, 

m4in khud kdjU-am bar dnki dar in amr chize taiksir az 

man sddir shuda ast. Or, man mukiir-i-bad rqftdri,e 

khud hastam. 
Confidence — I place no confidence in what they say. — bar 

mkhanhd.e eslidn (lousUk-i-man nlst), {Ctihdr or i'timdd 

rui mlrkunam.) Or, i'ti/cdd-i-kaid-i-esljidn nazd-i-man birlr 

kiiU sdkit shud. 
Confined — He is now confined in jail. — o iXhal dar haid- 

khdna kaid karda shuda ast. , Or, o ilhdl dar moMas 

m,ahbus ast. Or, o aknun dar {sijn nihdda) shuda ast. 

(zinddn basta; kaid-khdna mukaiyid.) 



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confirmed — consUpied. 299 

Confirmed— Is the news confirmed or not? — In Myibar 
(sabit) shuda ast ya na? {Uihjitk; mukarrar.) 

CoNKUSBD — You have confused my work. — Icdr-i-marct 
{darham barham) karda ed, (pareshdn,) 

CoNFT3SED — He is confused. — an kas (sarastma) ast. 
(pareshan ; mutaraddid ; sa/r-gdrddn ; kairan ; miiztarib ; 
muztarir.) 

Connection — -'There is no connection in these sentences. — 
In jumlaha ha yak dlgar (rdsbat na ddrand). (bd ham 
munsaUk ndyand ; muntazim nayand ; *aldka na ddrand.) 

Conquered — He conquered the whole country. — o bar 
tcmdm muJk (tasaUut ydft), (mmaUit shud.) Or, zef-i- 
kukm-i-fchud tamdm diydr-rd dMr dward. Or, o sultanat- 
rd dar taxarruf-i-khud dar dward. Or, marndlik-i-atrdf 
(o-rd musaUoM shud), {dar kahz-iro dar dm ad) Or, o 
tamdm mtdk-rd (maftuh) kard. {fath.) Or, o mvta§arrif- 
ir-ndhiyat shud. 

Conscious — I am not conscious of having said so. — man 
ydd na (ddram) ki In chuntn sukhan giifta am. (mi- 
kunam; mi-glram.) Or, (dar yddri-man na mt-dyad) ki In 
chuntn gufta am. (ba ydd-am na ml-dyad ; man ba ydd 

' na ddram.) 

Consent — ^Do you consent to my proposal ? — ba rd,e4-man 
(rdzi hasted) ? (razd mtdihed.) Or, tajtbtz-i-mard kabfd 
mt'kuned ? Or, tadblr-i-mMn nuikbiU-^Midtir'trshumd ast ? 

Consent — She went without my consent. — ba^ghiidr-iiijdzat)' 
i-man an za'lfa raft, (izn; rukh§at : razd,e.) 

Consequence — That is of no consequence. — dn zarar na 
ddrad. Or, mu^dyaka.e In m*an% nlst. Or, dar dn 
mazdyaka nlst. 

Consider —I will consider it. — bar dn amr tajwtz lsh.tpdham 
kard. Or, dar bandri-dn kdr It^ifdham bud. Or, dar In 
su^an tasauwir Miwdham namud. Or, %n suM^an-rd ba 
mlzdn-irkiyds Jslkfpdham sanjtd. Or, dn-rd ba kadam-ir 
tafdkkur Mktpdham paimud. 

Consigned — The cargo of the vessel was consigned to him. 

ao 

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800 constitution — contrary. 

— tarnam har-i-jdlidz ha (hawala^e an has bud, (tahwtl ; 

sapurd ; tafmz) Or, taf'w^4'tamdm ma^mula,e jakdz- 

ra bado kardand, 
CoNSTiTOTioN — His Constitution is very strong. — tabtat-ash 

bisiyar (kau^) ast, {mmtai:%7h ; mazbui ; mustakiU.) 
Consult — ^Let us consult upon this subject. — biyd td dar 

in {ma^lahate ' ma4laiMt) bi-kunem, {amr mashwarat ; 

kdr folkh.) 
Contain — How much indigo will this box contain ? — dar 

In fonduk cki kadar nU Mii^dhad yunjtd. Or, %n fanduk 

chi kadar nil Mkwahad girift. 
Contempt — Treat no one with contempt. — dar kase {nazar- 

i-hikdrat) ma kun. {ba chaskm-i-istihkdr nazar ; tahklr ; 

kardhat). Or, kase-rd ba cha^shm-i-istikhfi^ ma nigar. 

Or, dar kase ba dida.e istikrdh ma bin. Or, kase-rd 

(kbt/Lrd) ma dan. (Mkwar; /^oArtr; ta^gMr : makruJi; 

karih,) 
Content — ^I am content with what I have. — har cki ddram 

(bar dn kdni* mubdsham), (bd an dar ml-sdzam ; bar dn 

kind' at mv-kunam ; aa dn pd,e kind' at dar ddman-i-saJu- 

mat mi'kasham.) 
Contentious — They are very contentious. — eshdn bidydr 

(Jitnorangez) and. (jang-ju ; nteza-ru; fasdd-dward; 

mufsid; sharir; 'arbadorMiu; Jckar-khaaha sdz.) Or, 

nizd' bar pa mv-namdyand. Or, ba jang-i-har kas 

mt'{khezand). (uftand.) Or, ha khildf wa inkdr-i-har 

kas ba dar mi-dyand. Or, da'wa,e mukawamat bar pa 

mlrkunand. 
Continual — ^There is a continual noise in this place. — dar 

In jd (shor) kamesha ml-m^dnad. (ffkavgha ; gtol ; giial- 

ffhala : hdw-hu; dshob.) 
Contracted— The Honourable Company contracted for the 

pai)er. — jamM'at-i^ahddur az hard.e m kdgiaz ijdra kard. 
Contrary — Contrary winds detained the vessel. — az bdd-i- 

mukhdlif jahdz bdz mdnd. Or, bad-i-fifiair'shurtajahdZ' 

ra (tau/cif) kard. {mutawakf^if.) 

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eontnvanc^^^etichm 301 

CoKTBiVANCE — By what contrivance shall we go there ?— 

ba kudam hUa ma an jd liiwahem raft? 
Convenient — Will your coming to-morrow be conyenient ? 

-—fardd amadan-i^humd (munSdb) khwahad bud? (rnvr 

wafik; shdyista.) 
CoNYEBSATiON — Are you fond of conversation? — ahau^i-ir 

guft^gu dared f Or^ aJidyik-i-mttkalima hasted T 
Convey — ^WHl you please to convey this article to him ? — 

aaru,e{luif^ In ckiz-rd bado lirroAdnedf {a^mf » talat- 

t:uf; mihfidm^ 
Convinced— I am convinced what you say is true. — man 

yo^tn ddram ki an chi shvmd ml-goyed rd$t ast^ 
Cooks. — Having no cook, he cooks for himself. — an shdfUts^ 

gMsd,e kliyd-rd Jsb^yd {mv^azad) ki tabba^ na ddrad, 

(bar 8tkh mi-kunad ; bar tdba biriydn mt-kunad.) 
CooT.EB — It is cooler to-day than it was yesterday. — imroz 

az diroz sard-tar ast. 
Copy — Please copy this for me. — lufffofrmuda bardie man 

(nafiiyi^n bi-kuned, (sawdd.) 
Cord-— Buy some cord, and tie these things together. — 

kadre (rism^an-i-bdrik) bi-Miared wa In chizhd-rd ba-ham 

bi'banded, {habal.) 
Core — Is there no eork to this bottle? — dyd in kuza^e 

shlsha (siddd) na ddrad ? (§imdm,) 
Corn. — ^There was great plenty of com last year. — dar sal-- 

i'ffvzashta (ghaUa.e Jirdwan paidd shud.. {maddMkil'i' 

gtaaUa bisvydr bud; ba ifrat gialla paidd 8hud.\ 
Correspondence — Have you any correspondence with him ? 

— shwnd ba o (murdsaiat) dared T (nawisht tea khwdnd.) 

Or, shumd larika.e rustU wa ra>8d\U ba o jdrl dared ? 
Corrupt — Society here is extremely corrupt. — ^bat-i- 

majUs'imardum-i-tnjd bisiydr (mazmum) ast, (mashniV ; 

makhzul ; m^ikbuh ; fdsid r muMklaf.) 
Couch — Move this couch into the other room. — in (raJit- 

i4stiraha£yrd ba utdk4'dlgar bi-bared. {shaft; shtxfta;. 

^fa ; mihdd f mdhdt ^\. muhud) 

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802 council — credit. 

Council — ^He is a member of the Supreme Council. — 

yoke az <M4rmajlu-ir(^u2ma) cut. {a'ld; i%.) Or, 

mushir-irmashwarcU-i'a'pam asL Or, an agha yoke az 

(mtuhdwirdn)4'kl^^ ^t. (mudabiran,) 
CouKSEL — Let us regard good counsel. — mora bdyad H 

(ma^lahat-i'nek kaJt^ ddrem). (az nafLhat-i-akUdn ru- 

hash na shavem.) 
Count — Count over the money I gave you. — ^mle ki man ha 

shumd dadam bi-ihumdred. 
Counterfeit — ^This is a counterfeit coin. — in ashraft kaib 

ast (gold). Or, w zarb-irstm daghal ast (silver). 
Cotton — ^This country produces much cotton. — dar tn 

mulk pumba,e bisiydr paidd mt'Skavad, Or, zird'at-i- 

pumba dar in jd ba if rat ast. 
CouNTBY — ^This is my native country. — In (waianyiman 

ast. (mavUd; wa^an-i-a^li ; mavt^n.) 
Couple — Buy for me a couple of razors. — bardie man juft- 

i'teffh-i-daUdkt birkhared. 
Courage — ^You possess greater courage than I. — shumd 

az man ziydda (shujd'ai) ddrad. {fdmmat ; m4irddnag% ; 

dH^i ; dWdwafi ; jur*at ; tajdsur.) 
Cbace — There is a crack in this basin. — in aftaba mu 

ddrad. Or, In lagan shigdf ddrad. Or, in tasht mu* 

dar shuda ast. 
CREATED^God created the world. — aUah-ta'dl^ getl-rd 

qfrid. Or, (hakk-ta^dl^) jahdn-rd az *adm ba wujud 

award. {hakk-irjaUa wa a*ll^; bdra; khudd.e 'azza tea 

jdUa; izdymusabbaburl-asbdh; musta'dn.) 
Obeatob — God is the Creator of all creatures. — Tskvdd 

khdlik'i-hama [khaJddk) ast. (kd.indt; maujuddt; maMir 

lufcdt.) Or, ^ni'-irhdl ma^nu'dt Mkudd ast. 
Credit-^ — I agree to give you three months' credit — shumdr 

rd td si mdh (dain) mtrdiham. (mukdri^at) 
Credit — This action does him great credit. — azinkdr o-rd 

bisiydr (ftihar) ^d§il mi-gardad, {*izzat; sharraf; db-ru; 

*azz wa wa^dr ; karam ; ikrdm ; ilfiirdm.) 



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creditor^ — cry. 303 

Gbeditobs — His a£Pairs are in a bad state, therefore he 

has called together his creditors. — kdr o har-ash mun- 

tashtr shvda cist Uhaza karz-kky^dh^n^irkli^drra talabtda 

ast, 
Cbeep — ^Look how these lizards creep along the wall. — 

bi-hln chiguna In (karfashan) bar diwar chaapan muravand. 

{kalpdkan.) 
Creeper — This is called a creeper. — In nihM-rd {arghfij) 

ml-ndmand, (bytlatvrlrhdrida.) 
Gbime — ^What crime has he committed? — o chi taJc^r 

karda ast ? Or, chi ku^ur az o sar zada ast ? Or, chi 

(Tshia^a) az o sddir shvda ast ? (zamb, pi. zunub.) 
Cbiticise — ^He will criticise our composition. — o {i^ld^i- 

ta^y)-irmard kktpdhad hard. (ta^hth-i-musaiiMada.) 
Crooked — That line is crooked. — an satar kaj ast. 
Crossed — He crossed the river. — az ab-ju^e guzasht. Or, 

{bar) rud *ubur kard, (az,) 
Crows — He rises when tne cock crows in the morning, — 

o ba {bdngyi-Miurus bar mi-Mifizad. {mVQarradrirdwaz ; 

shari'i-dwdz.) 
Crowd — There was a great crowd of people. — dnjd kaldn 

(izdihdmyi-Jsihalk bUd. (jani'tyat ; ijtima* ; jama* at ; 

majma\) 
Cruelty — They delight only in cruelty. — eshdn az {be, 

rakml) Mkushl h^il munamdyand, {sang-dUl; dH- 

azdri; sah'lyat; ^vlm; sitam.) Or, khaUl Miurraml 

gdhir mtrktmand ki ba digardn durushti ha {kdr barand). 

{'amal dwarand.) 
Crumbs — ^The birds will pick up all these crumbs. — par* 

andugdn In rezhd,e ndn khwdhand chid. 
Crushed— He was crushed under the carriage-wheel.— 

zer-i-charkbrir^ardha {maSyhuk sdklktd) shud, {takwtb 

sdkhta ; rafi§ karda,) 
Cry — ^What is the matter? why do you cry out so ? — chi 

halat ast ? chird chumn gbad wa shor ml-kuned 1 



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804 ^ eubiU — damp. 

*CoBiTs — ^The length of this stick is aboat four cubits. — 

{dard!dy,e In chub ^art& ba chahar {gazf att. ^t^ ; 

tawalat.) \8a*id; dost; miffak.) 
Cultivated— This land is cultivated. — In zamin (nuizru'') 

cut, {mcCmur ; abad ; zira!<xt karda shuda ; kishta ahuda.) 
Cunning — They are by nature cruel and cunning. — bi-t-p^ab' 

be rahm wa hanf and. Or, bi-la^l aang-dil wa ghadddr and. 

Or, bi-Unafa zalim wa na"ar and. Or, bi-z-zat be ahqfakat 

wa makkdr and. Or, ba khu dil aadr wa *aiydr and. 
Cups — They drink tea out of cups and saucers. — eshdn 
. chd bafinjdn wa TudbaM ml-^ynrand. 
Cubed — I have been cured by that physician. — man az 

an (tabib) shifd ydfta am. (piziskk.) 
CuRiou8-r>This is a curious shell. — In §adaf {*ajib) ast. 

{badi\) Or, In gosh-i-mdhi nddir ast. (ghfl/nb.) 
Curtains — ^Are there no curtains to this bed? — dyd tn 

bistar pasJia-pardn na ddrad ? (parda ; ndafat ; sajf.) 
Custom — Do you know how this custom arose ? — ehvmd mt- 

ddned chiguna %n rah o rasm (uftdd)? (paidd ahud; aar 

bar dward; aa/r bar zad; ru,e namud.) Or, Jstkflbar dared 

ki In rasm-rd hi (Jidd) kard? (iihPira*; wafa\) 
Cut — ^You have cut this pen so that it won't write. — %n 

kaHam-rd chundn ^ca^ karda edki az dn nawiahtan na ml- 

ahavad, 
Ctpheb — One and a cypher make ten. — agar ba hindaaa,e 

yak fifr ddda ahavad hindaaa,e dah gardad. 

D. 
Damage — ^Has the cargo received any damage? — dyd 

nuk^n ba {mahmula),e jahdz rasida oat? {pdr^ 
Damp — This house is very damp. — in hkana biaiydr {nam* 

ndk) ast. {namgln; martub ; martah^ 

• The breadth of one finger s= 2 barley ooms, end to end. 
n %i = 7 „ „ sidebyndob 

„ one hand == 8 „ „ end to end* 

„ »xhand5 = 4S „ „ „ „ 

I, „ = one cubit = 18 inches. 



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dancing — deceit. 305 

Dangikg — They spend tlieir time in singing and danc- 
ing. — eshan wakt-irkhyd-ra dar {sara.ldan wa rak^idan) 

ml-guzranand, {naghma pardakhtan wa rakf kardan; 

tarannum zadan wa rdki^ ihudan,) 
Dakoer — ^Why are you afraid ? there is no danger. — chira 

mtrtarsed ? hech Jckaiif'i'kkatar rmU 
Dabb — I dare not do as you say. — an chi shutnd ml-goyed 

jtMr^at-i-kardan na daram, 
Dabk — The night was very dark.^-8Aa5 Udyar (tanfe) hud. 

(tdr^ Or, ImL khaUi daijur bUd. 
Dabeness — They are in gross darkness. — eshdn dar 

(ztdmat) and. (^mat; gtUamat.) 
Date — What is the date of his letter? — tarikhri'takrir't- 

hhfltt'Osh chtst? 
Dawn — They rise at dawn. — eshan {ha wafcUi-mhar) bar ml^ 

iifixand. (damri-mbh; 'ald-f-saba^,) 
Day — ^What time of the day is it? — chi scCat ast ? 
Dead— I saw a dead snake on the roadside. — ha kmar-i- 

rah {mdr4>murda'ra) dMam, (af^.e-ra Id haiy) 
Deadly — ^Its wound is fatal; its poison deadly. — zakbrn- 

ash mvhUk aft ; zahr-asMkaMl). (hatdhal,) 
Deaf — ^He is deaf, and can hear nothing. — o (kar) ast, hech 

na ml-tawdnad shuntd. [tjumm ; a^mm ; gvrdn-gosh,) 
Deals — He deals honestly with eveiyhody. — ha har kase 

ha (rdst-bdia) suluk ml-kunad, {diyanat; Imdnddrl; 

8add(:at-kdrt ; ikbids,) 
Deab — ^The goods you have purchased, I think, are very 

dear. — an asbab ki shumd Jcharida ed, ba rd,e man 

hidywr (girdn) ast. (gtran-bahd; besh-kimat.) 
Deab — ^He is very dear to me. — ba dU-i-man bidyar (*aziz) 

ast. Or, man bd o muhaibhat^-kdmil ddram. Or, o 

{munisyi-dilram ast. (mahrum-i-raz.) 
Debtob-^A debtor is one who owes money. — kar^ddr kase 

ast ki {Ifcarz) ddrad. (warn; dmn; bidih^ 
Deceit — They only live by deceit. — eshdn fafi ba fareb 

(guzrdn ml-kmand). {aui^dt ba sar ml-burand; rozgdr 



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806 deceUfuL — deficient. 

mt-gtizranand,) Or, eskan ha {makr) zindagl ml-kunand. 

{dagka; taUns; ghohn; gifldr; kaid; makadat; ]skad*€U; 

f^w; zark; shaid; *aiyaf%.) 
Deceitful — ^What is there more deceitful than the human 

heart? — az dU4-insan hudam chlz (da^ct^azytar ast. 

{ghoMr; gifiiddr) 
Deceived — ^You have been deceived by them. — shuma 

hadeshan {majfMun skuda ed). {ghflhn khurda ed; 
. mughjSlata aaJshta shuda ed; tagiHt karda shuda ed.) 

Or, shuma az eshdn dagha yqfta ed. 
Decide — ^Let him decide this question. — hirguzar ki o (In 

m%Cdmalarra faisal) bi-kunad. (infisaid-m amr.) 
Declined — I asked him, but he declined. — num az o 

pursidam, magar o (inkdr kard). {razi na shad ; sar bdz 

zad.) 
Decreases — That article decreases in value daily. — roz ha 

roz klmat'Udn chtz (kam) ml^havad. (hahUt; sakit; 

kddd.) 
Decbee — A decree was passed for this purpose. — €lz hard^ 

In hvkme mukarrar skvd. Or, ha jifiat-iAn {kukni'i-kazS 

mu*aiyan gardld). {tavit^farma ijrd ydft,) 
Deduct — I shall deduct so much from his account. — az 

hUab-ash In kadarjtvl (kat) kfiwdham kard. (waztat; waz\) 
Defect — ^Do you see any defect in this ? — aya dar in hech 

(*aib) ml-btned f (pi. ^ayuh ; tawaffan.) 
Defence — He made his defence in court. — dar ^addlat 'uzr- 
. irkjiudra&k kard. Or, dar mahkama ma'zarat-i-lshyd-ra 

zdhir kard. Or, dar *addl(U {i*tizar)4'klkud'rd ha 'arsa^e 

zuhur award, (tazkiyat.) 
Defendant — The statements of both defendant and plain* 

tiff were heard. — kaldm'i-mudda'Valaihl wa mudda*t 

skunlda shud. Or, izjinr'i'{asdmi wa faryddt) Utimd* 

karda shad, {rdji* wa dMi.) 
Deficient — They are not deficient in sense. — eshdn {kam- 

*alcl) nayand. (kam-hausUa.) Or, dar tamtz kaml na 

ddra/nd. 



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deformed — demanded, 807 

Deformed— She is deformed in person. — badan-i-an zan 

(bad-shoM) <ist» (bad-haikal; karihthl-mauzar.) 
Defrays — ^Who defrays the costs of his learning ? — khjirch- 

i'dmokhtan-ash M ml-dihad? Or, ikhrajat-i-taltm-ash 

ki add niirhinad ? 
Dejected— His mind is much dejected. — diUi-o bisiydr 

(ranjida) axt. (dzurda ; pur -gh am ; pur-alam,) 
Delay — There is much delay in this — dar bdb-i-m amr 

(der) bisiydr ast. {tawakkuf; ta.akJitr : dirangl; mihlat; 

mvikus; tahdwun; taadhuL) 
Deuberate — This is my deliberate opinion. — m tajwlz-i- 

man {mustaklm) ast. (mtustakiU,) 
Delicate — Her hands and feet are very delicate. — dast wa 

j)d,e an ma*shuka bisiydr (ndzuk) ast (nafts; latlf; 

nigdrin; ndzanm.) 
Demcious — This is a most delicious morsel. — m lukma 

bisiydr laziz ast. Or, maza^e m lulema khaiM nafis asU 

Or, lazsat-iAn lukma m^rghub a>st. 
Delighi'Ed— I was greatly delighted to see him. — az 

dMan-i-o bisiydr kh>ushnud shudam. 
Delirious — The fever is so violent that he is sometimes 

delirious. — tab chanddn sakbt ast ki gdhe (be hosh) ml- 

shavad, (madhush; haziydn; hazzdr,) Or, buk/kdr 

chanddn muhrur a^t ki gdhe {p-rd giash m%-dihad), 

(hawdsS'irO mirbdzad,) 
Deliver — Did you deliver to him my message ? — -paigham' 

i-mxird bado {daded) ? (rasdnlded,) 
Delivered — He delivered his brother from much distress. 

— obarddar4'!di.yd'rdaz{hdlat-i'Miardb^najdt [bisi- 

ydr hardnt hkalds kard ; nd musWadat-irrozgdr rihdnld.) 
Demand — Have you any demand upon me? — dyd az man 

hech (dd'iya) ddred ? [da'wd ; iddUd ; bdz khyjdst.) Or, 

dyd az man chize iktizd ddred? 
Demanded — He demanded more thaa his due. — o az karz- 

i-khud ziydda (talabid), (talab kard; da'wd kard; dar 

MiVdat kard ; iddi'd kard.) 



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808 denies — despairs* 

Denies — He denies having said this. — o az guftan-i-tn 

sukhfln (inkar mt-^kunad), (munkir mushavad; iba mt- 

kunad; tanakur ml-kunad.) 
Depart — When do you intend to depart? — iradaye 

raftan kai dared ? Or, kai alwiddH khyi>dhed shud ? Or, 

m ja-ra kai alwida* JsJv^ahed guft? Or, az injd kai {tash- 

rlf Mvpahed hutd)? (mura khkha s HkV^ahed shud; kadam 

ranja hivu)ahed farmvd ; Hndnri-^eunmat murCatlf khyahed 

saJcbJ; ; riaik^at Mii^ahed farmud,) 
Depend — I cannot depend upon what he says. — an ehi o 

mugoyad bar an i^timad na mv-tawanam kard. 
Depends — ^That depends upon the state of my health. — 

an kdr ha tanrdurusti,e man {maukuf) cut. {nmtd'aUik ; 

munhasir.) Or, in svMym ha {fU^iyiman mutc^dUit 

ast. (sahthurlrbadan.) 
Depository — ^This is a depository for hooks. — In kiUidh- 

MiMna ast. 
Depth — ^What is the depth of this tank ? — ^wmni-i-tn hauz 

chW? Or, 'oml^-i-ln {ghfldir) chut? (ab-glr; ab^n; 

hurka; talab.) 
Desgbiptign — ^What description gave he of the place ? — 

o wasf-i-anja chi son kard ? Or, o anjcnra chiguna havyan 

kard? Or, o {sharKyi-an jd chiguna dad? {taffil; 

tafsvr.) 
Deserve — ^They deserve to he punished. — eshan (tajik-i-sasM) 

and, (musta^ikfc-ir'azdh ; ^dbU-i-tauMkh : sazdwdr-i'itab,) 
Desire — ^I will desire him to do so. — man i^ukm kh^akam 

kard ki o ham chuntn bi-kunad. 
Desire — I have a great desire to see him. — man ha didan- 

t-o {ishtiydfi-i'kdmil ddram), (mushtak hastam; skd^ik 

hastam,) Or, silsila,« shauk-i-dtdan-uo dar garddn-i-d^i- 

likyd ddram. Or, dor sar-i-dtddr-i-o mvMsham, 
Desirous — He is very desirous of seeing you. — o harass 

didanr-i-shum>d bidydr (arzumand) ast. (mushtdk,) 
Despairs — He despairs of accomplishing his ohject. — o 

{tawaii(:u* na darad) ki kdr-i-Htyd-rd ba sar rctsanad. 



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despaired — difficult, 809 

(ma.yus ast; nd ummed ast,), Or, o^a {wmmed-i-ha Bar 

awardanyirkar-i'Miyd mst. (rija-irsar anjam dadan ; in-' 

tizar-i'tarmm kardan.) 
DESPAiRiiD-^He despaired of life. — o dil-i-lchydrra az jark 

{bund), (bar ddaht.) Or, o dil-i-JchvLdrra azjdn bar girtft 

wa ba marg nUiad, Or, o dast-i-khyd azjdn shust. Or, 

tushna wa be nawa ru,e bar khak wa dU bar hoMk nihdd. 

Or, az zindagdnl jna,yu8 gashU Or, aa *umr wmmed bar 

kand. 
Despise — ^We ought not to despise any one. — bdyad ki md 

kase-rd (kjipdr) na ddrem, (S^lur.) Or, bdyad kimd az 

kase (mutanaffur na bdshem). (nqfrat or kardhiyat 

or tanqfur na kunem,) 
Destroyed — ^Your papers have been all destroyed. — kdghmz" 

hd,e ^humd hama {tahaK) shuda ast. (fchardb ; m/ikkrub.) 
Detain — Do not detain the servant any longer. — ihddim- 

rd ziydda az in (muntazir ma guzar). (dar intizfir ma ddr 

or guzdr ; mu^atjal ma ddr,) 
Determined— I am determined to do as you recommend. — 

(kasd) karda am ki ba ^b-i-nasThat-i-shumd ^amal bi- 

kunam, (tasmtm; ntyat; ^azm; mukarrar; vrada.) Or, 
. kamar boMa am ki &g. 
Dice — He was ruined by playing at dice. — o ba sabab-i' 

fcc^batairirbdzl tabdh shud. Or, o tarndm maUyat-i-hb^d* 

rd dar kir^r-bdz^ (talqf kard), (ba kawd dad ; ba bad^p- 

/and ddd ; ba hdlat-i-tabah rasdnid,) 
Dictionary — See if this word is in the dictionary. — dor 

kitdb-i-lvgiiat bi-bJn ki In Iqfg ast yd na. 
Different — People are of different opinions on the 

subject. — aa bdbaUi-in amr mardumdn (myihtaliftHr'rd,e 

and). {rd,e muihtalif ddrand; muUtfi^wr'Td^ ntstand; 

muiMlifurr'rd,e and.) 
Difficult — Do you think that the English language is 

difficult?: — dyd ta^auwir mi-kuned ki zahdnri-inglisl 
. (mushkit) ast ? {mugMaff ; gifidit ; drnkwdr ; mtUa^azzir ; 

muta^assir.) 



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810 dig — disagreement. 

Dig — Dig up this jungle. — In kharbunha az beMk bar kan. 

Diligence — It requires only diligence.— /oAraf (jidd o 
jihad) zarur ast, (koshish ; scUl ; ^ara^-rezl,) Or, bdyad 
ki shumd dar In kar ba 8abU'i'{istimrdr) mashgiiU bashed^ 
(mudawamat ; muwagabat ; istidamat,) 

Diligent — They are diligent scholars. — eshdn taHbdn-i^mu- 
jakid and. Or, eshdn talmJzdnd-mi^nat'kash and. 

Dim — Her eyes are become dim through age. — az sabab-i- 
piri zay-i-basdrat an zan-rd ginfta ast. Or, az ^bd'iS'i' 
kuhn-sdll chashm-irdn fartuta kam-nap^ar shuda ast. 

Dinner— -I must go now, it is dinner time. — wakt-i^hdm 
asU mard bdyad raft, 

DiBECT — ^This is the direct road to Shiraz. — In (ra^) ba 
Shirdz rdst muravad, (minhdj ; tank ; sabtl.) 

DiBECT — Please direct me where to find him. — azrah-i-mihr' 
bdnl ba man nishdn bi-dihed ki bado muldkdt kujd bi- 
kunam. 

Directions — I will attend to your directions. — man ba 
naslJ^at-i^htmiu mutawajjih khwdham shvd. Or, man 
muiabik-i'da^stururlr^amal'i'Shumd taicajjuh khwdham kard. 

Dirty — This roa4' is very dirty. — In rah bisiydr{0kalts) ast, 
{pur az khildb ; pur az waJial ; najis ; palid,) Or, dar in 
sirdt khas wa khashdk ast. 

Disadvantage — If you act thus, it will be to your dis- 
advantage. — in kism raftdr namudan dar bdb-i^huma 
nufisdn ddrad. Or, a>gar m chunln khpdhed kard, 
nukmn khy>dhed ydft. 

Disagree — They disagree with one another. — eshdn ba 
yak dtgar (mukhalyf and), (muJdktalif and; iihtUdf 
ddrand.) 

Disagreeable — On that account it is very disagree- 
able. — ba bd*i8-i-dn bisiydr {tid m/uwafikurt-tab') ast, {nd 
matbu*; nd marghubi nd mafcbul ; maskhut ; makruh^ 

Disagreement — They have disagreement. — darmiydn-U 

. eshdn (nd muwdfiicat) ast, [iihtUdf; nifdk ; be-Utifakl; 
naftt^,) 



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disappointed — disUke. 311 

DiSAPPo:^NTED^I was much disappointed.-— maTi bi-UkuU 

{mahrum) shudam. (he bahra ; nd ummed ; ma,yu8,) 
Dtsoharge — He is now able to discharge his debts. — haUm 

karzha,e kkyd^a add mt-tawdnad hard. 
Discipline — ^This army is without discipline. — m ^aakar 

fiaiod'id na ml-ddnad. Or, In Ioshkar (be kdriun) a^st, 

(Idnizdm; be d,in.) 
Discontinued — ^The custom is now discontinued. — Uhdl an 
. rasni (mansukk) ast. (mardud; matikuf; nd murauwaj.) 
Discourages — What you say discourages me. — JcauL-i- 

shumd mard (nd ummed) mi-kunad, [be dil; m>a,yus; 

tahiMilf,) 
Discourse — Come, let us hold a discourse. — biyd td rm 

(m>akdlima) bi-kunem, (kll-kdl ; gufi o shunvd ; guft o gu^e.") 
Discovered — I have not as yet discovered the thief. — td In 

wakt duzd-rd (na yafta aw), (jpaidd nakardaam ; ba dost 

naydwarda am.) 
Discovery — That is an important discovery. — dn (tjdd) 

bisiydr khub ast. (iilLtird\) 
Discretion — He has ability, but wants discretion. — o 

(kdbillyaty ddrad wa lekin (imtiyazf na ddrad. \liyd(uit ; 

^akl.) ^(tamtz ; intibdh ; ihtiydt.) 
Disguise — ^Let us not use disguise. — md-rdfareb kardan na 

bdyad. 
Disgrace — To do so would be a disgrace to us. — aa chuntn 

kardan db ru,e mJd rekkta Ickwdliad shud. Or, az chunin 

munkire md dar chdh-i-m/Vdl Mvwahem uftdd^ Or, infiH 

ha nid (maziUat) khipdhad dward, (eiUat; kardhiyat; be 

Hzzati; he hurmaM ; fazlhat ; ta'nat.) Or, In fi^l mard 

(makruh) Jdiwdhad sdkhjt. (midauwas.) 
Dishonest — They are very dishonest. — eshdn hhaiU 

(khdiin) and. (be-diydnat; Ichiydnat-kdr.) Or, khi ydnat' 

i-eshdn ma'ruf ast wa fasad-i-afsad zdhir. 
Dislike — 1 dislike their company very much. — murdfikat- 

i-eshdn bt-t-kuU pasand na ddram. Or, az mukfyaUtaUi' 

eshdn (ddr dUA-man najrat padld ml-dyady (kardhiyat 



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312 -dismissed — dissuade. 

or tannfur or kaiarat daram,) Or, dor sWc^^muwa- 
nasat4reshan munsalik shudan na mt-khwaham. Or, 
az mdndan dor fydka,e fuhbat^-eskan dilrom muUmaffir 
mlrshavad. 
Dismissed — ^Tbe king dismissed the coarden.'—padshSh 
ahL-i-darbdr-ra [mur akhkha s) kardand^ ^ndchsat : bar^ 



DisoBET — ^I cannot disobey his orders. — nrnn radd^fat' 
mdn-iro^a na mv-tateanam kard. Or, man hvkm-iuh na mi- 
tawanam shikast. Or, man na mt-tawanam ki (sar-i-khvd 
az J^alka,e inkiyad-ash bar Suwram). (^adiSri-hukmrOsh 
hirhinam ; giJSuhiya^e mutaba'at-i-o az dosh-i-kliMd biyan^ 
dazam,) 

Displays — Herein he display^ great talent. — dor in masla^ 
hat (isti^dadri-o tahir mtrshavad), (firasat-ash ba zukur 
mv^yad ; idrak^uh huwaida mi-ayad or gardad; zakdwat-- 
ash padtd ml-dyad ; majal-ash rakh mt-namayad.) 

DisPL£A9E n — ^Tbey became mudi displeased. — eshan bisiyar 
{nil khush) shudand. {mukaddar; ranjtda;- azurda;- 
tira,) 

Dispose — Can you dispose of tbese goods for me? — tn 
ashiyd bard,e man ba (tijdrat) farokhfan ml-tawdned f 
(satuid.) 

Dispute — ^Wbat is the dispute between you two? — md bain- 
i-shumd har du chi takrdr ast? Or, damdydn-i-shumd 
wa ehi {bahs) ast? (mubdhasa ; ibtihds;. kaziya; shor 
wa fasdd ; nizd* ; munaza'at; tandzu^;. khflr-khftsha ; 
mujddHa.) 

Dissatisfied — Why are you dissatisfied? — ehird {giair- 
rd?i) hasted ? {az In avir he rdzi; nd rdz,) 

Dissolves — ^The sun dissolves the snow. — dftdB yakh-rd 
guddzad. Or, partdb-i-sham^s baraf-i-nishasta-rd dh m7- 
kunad. Or, tdh-irkhurshed yakh basta-rd ^all ml-kunad. 

Dissuade — ^Cannot you dissuade him from doing so agaiuw — 
shumd (hTd {man' na ml-tawdned kard) Mo In chunln kdr 
bdz nakunad? {mdn€ na mi-tawdned ^ud,) 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



dUUmce — doses, 813 

Distance — ^What distance is the city of Bagdad from 
this place? — az inja shahr^irhnghdad chi mvfdsala daradf 
Or, ma bain in ja wa shahr-irhaghdad chi kadar {tufdwat) 
ast ? (hJd ; bald ; masqfat ; nuisahiit) 

Distended — Having distended his belly with food, he at 
' last peiished.^-shikaM'i-khud'rd pur az fa *dm Icarda (haldk 
shua). (faut shud; jdn-i-zindagtyash lab rez gasht ; safr-i- 
dkhirat hard; infUcal hard; rihlat namud; ba halakrasid; 
jdn ba hakjc tasUm kard ; jdn-ash bar amad ; az dotru-U 
fartd ba ddrurlrbafcd shitqft ; az jahdn-i-fdnt rajcht bar 
bast ; da% ajal-ra labbaik gxift ; az jdn widd' kard ; nearly, 
jdn-ash ba lab dmad ; ba jdn dmad) 

Distinct — His articulation is clear and distmct. — talaffus^- 
i-o 8df wa {^ahth) ast, (makhraj-ddr,) 

Distinguish — I cannot distinguish these two letters. — 
morbainri-in karaf har du (tafrik) na ml-tawdnam kard. 
(fork; imtijjdz; tamlz; mummyiz,) 

Distress — She is now in great distress. — akniin dn bdnu 
dar {mufibat-irshadid) uftdda ast, (saJchtt; igtvrdb^i- 
tamdm ; tang-dastl.) Or, ilhnl dn sddat (dUrdshufta) ast', 
(pardganda wa pareskdtt khdfir : khasta-khdfir,) Or, 
behbrirjarn'tyat-i'ib^tir'ash burlda ast wa guhirdrdm 
pazhmuda. 

Diversion — ^This is their diversion. — tn kdr (bdzt^y eshdn 
ast. {tafarruh-i-dil; nuzhat-i-Jshfliir ! nishd^-i-kalb ; tarab- 
i-diL) Or, az in kdr imbisdt-i^iab* hdsU mt-namdyand. 

Dividend— -A dividend on his estate will he paid the first 
of next month. — ba tdrtkh-i-ghurra^e vidh-i-dyanda (kist) 
az mdl-a^h ddda khwdhad shud. (maksam ; hissa ; pdra ; 
bakha^h.) 

Dock — ^The vessel is now in dock repniring.— ^aAa« Uhdl 
bardyii (marummat dar sundr) ast. (ta^mtr shudan dar 
ta*mir'Js!k^naye jahdz.) 

Di»CTRiNB — ^This is very strange doctrine. — In usuU-bisiydr 
*ajlb ast. 

Doses — ^He has taken two doses of this medicine. — o du 



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314 double — drove, 

jshurak az in dawa Hiurda ast. Or, o du ^abba^e daru 

girifta ast (pills). 
Double — Double this string, and then it will do. — fn 

rassan-irbank du td H-kun M Jdfdyat kfiwdhad hard. Or, 

m rassan {jmi^daf bi-kun) td ha kdr hirj^yrad, (d^ 

chandbi-kmi; ta^*lf hi-sdz; a£af hi-kun.) 
Double — Is this paper double ? — dyd In kdghaz du td ast ? 
Doubtful — It is doubtful if he will come. — dar bab-i- 

dmadan-ash (shakk) ast, (shabha.) Or, dmadan-ash 

tashMk ddrad. 
Prao — How can one horse drag such a load ? — yak asp 

chiguna In ckunin bar ml-tawdnad kashld ? Or, ba chi 

iaur yak asp kifdyat-irkashldan-i-tn bar mi-kunad ? 
Drain — There is a drain under the house. — zer-i-Jtkdna 

(badar-^au) ast. (db-guzar ; db-lula; jub; db^ah; 

bdlu'at.) 
Draught — Give me one draught of water.-— ^oA; {i:aird\e 

db ba man bi-dih, (Jur^a.) 
♦Draw — Make the figures, and draw a line. — hindasa bi- 

nams wa (M^O bi-kash. (satarJ) 
Drawback — Is there any drawback on these goods ?• — bar 

In asbdb hech (dasturt) ast ? (waztat, pi. wazdj^,) 
Dream — I thought thus in a dream. — dar khyodbe In 

chunln (dtdam), (Mkflydl ddshtam ; muhUm sakbtam,) 
Dress — He cares nothing about dress. — o az babat-i-libaS' 

i-Jsibiydfikre na ddrad. Or, o ba (jposhak) dUri-j^ud-ash na 

ml-dihad, (tahzib kardan; Ubds kardan.) 
Dressing — ^Wait a little, he is now dressing. — andake ^abr 

U-kunki o(libds mvposhad). (mtdabbis mt-gardad ; libds- 

irkhudrrd dar bar ml-kunad,) 
Drives — He always drives very fast. — o hamesha kaliska 

zud mlyrdnad. 
Drove — 1 drove a nail into the wall. — man meHttfi-rd dqar 

dtwar (zadam)* Qcoftam.) 

* Parallel line J^a^-v-mutawan, Bight line f^fiffti-muHaVm. 
Circular „ „ mustad^. Curved „ ^ nmiiffam^ 



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drum — eagerness. S 1 5 

Dbum — The dram is beat in the fort daily. — roz-marra 

tahl dar hissdr nawdMkta ml-shavad, Or» har roz naubat 

dar kWa mi-zanand. 
Dry — This house is exceedingly dry. — In hhdna ha gl0yat 

{khushJc) ast. {samil; §dmU.) 
Due — That note falls due to-morrow. — mi'ad-i-an hardt 

fardd tamdm khwdhad shud. Or, wada^e an dastrdwez 

fardd ha itmdm mi-rasad. 
Dumb — She is both dumb and deaf. — an zan ham (jgung) 

wa ham kar ast. (lul ; htikum.) 
Dunce — He has learned so long, yet he is a dunce. 

— muddat-i-m^adid khwdnda ast wa lekin hanoz ahtdye 

ast. 
Durable — Real and durable happiness is not attainable on 

earth. — dar In dunyd (rdhauirostt wa mmtai:im) mu- 

yassar nist, ('ahh-i-'ain wa pd,eddr; iarah wa nashat-i- 

hakl; *ishrat4-a8lt wa kd,im ; masarraUi-^lkl wa sabit; 

imMsdt-irmukhlis wa mustamarr,) 
Duty — Do these articles pay duty ? — ayd In ajnds muhsulr 

i-gumrvk dmand ? Or, ayd In ashdh gumrukl ast ? 
Dwarf — ^A dwarf is one who is little in stature. — shakhse-rd 

(kotdh-kadd) ml^goyand ki kadd-i^kotdh ddrad. (Jcasiru*- 

Ukadd.) 
Dwell — Dwell where he may, he is unhappy.— ^a,e ki o 

manzil d^rad rid klinsh ml-mdnad. 



E. 

Eager — ^He is eager to undertake the business. — o 
(miLshtdk) ha kdr kardan a^t. (shajk.) Or, o ishtiydk ha 
Tear kardan ddrad. Or, klitpdhish dMr<id ki'kdr ha zimma,e 
khyd glrad. 

Eagerness— He shows great eagerness to learn. — ha dars 
iAwdndan Jchwdhish-i-hisiydr {zdhir mt-kunad). (ml'- 
nam^yad.) Or, ha tadris dH-i-khud-rd ml-dihad 

ai 



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316 ean — eclipse^ 

Ears — ^You deafen one's ears by your noise. — ha shar^- 
shvmd goshhdje mardwn (para) mi-ahavad, (dartda.) 

Eabn — In this way I can earn ten rupees a month. — badln 
iaur man dah rupaiyafl tnah ^asU mi'tawanam hard. 

Earnest — ^You are not in earnest in what you say, you 
only jest. — shuma rust na mt-goyed, shaukhi mt-kuned. 
Or, dar guftdr-i-^huma sadakat nist baUci {tamaskhur) 
ma'lum mt'Shavad. (s^ardfat; mazdhat; hazal-hdzt ; ilb- 
dmezi; muidy aba-go, I ; badorgOyl; la&fargo,l; imbisdt,) 

Earnest — I gave ten rupees earnest money. — man dah 
rupaiya ba iar%k-ir(bai'dna) dddam. (ta'nb ; tamstk.) 

Earthenware — They manufacture earthenware. — eihan 
(zuruf-i-dfalt) ml-sdzand. 

Earthquake — An earthquake was felt lately in this neigh- 
bourhood. — chand roz guzashta dar m nawdhi larza,e 
zaviin bud. Or, kaU az in dar in maiaila {jumbuhY-i- 
zaiHjn (dmadf, Htazakal ; zalzala.) \uftdd,) 

East — Do you travel east, west, north, or south ? — dya ha 
'8u,e mathrik, yd maghrib, yd shumal yd janub wjr mi- 
hmedl 

Ease — He lives at ease. — o rozgdr-i-kkitd-rd da/r (j^usht) 
ml-guzrdnad. {^djahiyat; dram; 'aUh; fardghat: rdhaZ; 
taruCum; asd^ish; fdrigikurl'bdllgi ; farkliandar^i; 
Mkurrami; amn; vmbisdf,.) 

East — I will set you an easy lesson. — shumd-rd sabafi-i- 
(dsdn) khtpdham dad. (saJil ; ffolis ; as^hal.) 

Eat — [In Persia people eat according to their class, thus : — 
hakvnidn ser khurand ; 'dbiddn nlm ser khurand ; zdhiddn 
td sadd ramk 'khurand; ptrdn khwrand td 'arak bar dyad; 
jawdndn khurand td tabak bar gtrand.] 

Ebb — The tide has begun to ehh.—jazr'i-ab4-b€^r shuru' 
shuda aat. Or, db-i-bahr {jazr shudan girifta) ast. {dar 
ibtidd,e jazr.) 

Eclipse — There will soon be a solar eclipse. — ba'd az 
chand roz (kumf-i-dftdh wdfci') ^ipdhad shvd, (dftdb 
maijub; dftdb giri/td.) 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




edge — encourages. 

Edge — I saw him sitting, on the edge of the riv^ 

Hndr-i^nahr o-rd nishasta dtdam. Or, man o-rti 

ki ha lab4-rud nishasta bud. 
Editor — Who is the editor of this newspaper? — {muhta- 

mimyirin a}chjmr*ndrna last ? {rdkiin-'Mcakd,i* ; muharrir*' 

i-^hhar-nama : wakd^i-nigdr ; muwaUif.) 
EotJCATiON — She has written a book on education. — In 

'dkUa kitdbe dar bdb-i-tarktlhuta'ltm {tofnlf) karda ast. 

(taMf.) 
Effect — I gave him medicine, but it had no effect. — man 

o-ra ddru dadam, amma {a^sar na hard), {mu,a8sir or 

fd,idamand or az ofa,ida na shvd.) 
Eoos — I saw a bird's nest with four eggs. — ashiyana,e 

murgh. dtdam ki dar an chahdr haiza hud, 
Eleoant — Hers is an elegant house. — kh^na,e an zan 

pur takaUuf wa Mkush-nania ast. 
Eloquent — He is very eloquent. — o hisiyar (fasih) ast. 

(haligh; zaban-dwar ; suk£an-rdn; sukhan-guzdr ; Jasd- 

hat-^arddz; sarthuhkaldm ; sarfulrkaldm; ^dhUhi-bald' 

gifU.) Or, o bisiydr fasdhat ddrad. 
Empire — China is a large empire. — mutk-i-chin mamlakat- 

i'{wa^') ast, {mahsui; bastt; madid; mamdud; kushdda.) 
Employ — ^Who will employ such people? — bachunm ashkhd^ 

ki (shugif) khtpahad dad ? {Jcbidmat ; kdr o bdr.) Or, 

ckumn m^irdrnndn-rd ki {mmkgl0,) hhtpdhad kard? 

(mushtagkal,) 
Employer — ^Who is your employer? — {munVyyishumd 

ktst ? (dghd ; dkd ; kdr-farmd,) 
Employment — What is your employment? — (kdryi'shumd 

chut? (shughl : ishtighal; kasb; pesha; hirfa; sirm^at.) 
Empty — This house is empty, it has no tenant. — In Midna 

IsbJaM ast kirdyaddr na ddrad. 
Enclose — Enclose my letter in yours. — andar^-khatt-i- 

khyd rak*a,e mard bi-kun. Or, Muttid-ma/rd dar JcbaU' 

i-Wmd {maJfuf) bl-kwn. (tai; Ufdfa,) 
Encoubaoes — Your former kindness encourages me. — 

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318 emetmngemoA — engrmwer. 



ndkMM^ $aUka^ Mkuma mora mmmixi m»4ikad. Or, 
talaitirf'i-pe9kvi4^$kmitam4ara(jmr^)wn^ (tasalti.) 

Or, al[a/4r$alf'i'^kMma dH^^mara {istmuUat) mirkunad. 
(ta^n^ ha late.) 

Ekcouragemckt — ^This affords me eneonmgement — tn 
ba man {tasaUt) nurdihad. {isHmalat; takns ; taknk,) 

EnD — ^There is no end to his talking. — 1aUoal4rO intiha 
na dofod. Or, guHan ffuftan4-<Hra andaza nUi. 

£5pEAT0UR — I must endeaTOor to see him to-daj. — mard 
hdyad hi imroz iba mvlakat^io) scCl hi-ruanayam, {mu- 
lakat bdo; inuldkal4r{hra.) Or, bayad Id imroz ba [didar' 
(uh kofd birkunam). (shaif-i^muldzimHuh 'azm hi-»azam.) 

EvDOBSEMEHT — ^Tbis oote wants your endorsement. — m 
tamassuk dast-Hnaa-'Ushumd mtrMkwahad. Or, bar %n 
bardt fahth4^humu (zarur) ast. (lazim ; dar-kdr.) 

Ememt — ^The cat is the enemy of the mouse. — gurba ba 
mush *addwat4r(zdtt) ddrad. (jibiUl ; tai)u) Or, gurba 
wa mush hafiam az afUyat mvkhtaUf and. Or, mid bain- 
ugurba wa mush az sirisht (ikhUldf) ast. (hliilaf.) 

Enebgt — He goes to work with great energy. — o ba sar 
garml^ tamdm (ba) kdr mxishghUl mi'Shavad, (dar.) Or, 
o ba kuwat4-dil Mr mt-kunad. Or, az jdn wa dil saXe 
kdr mi^naWMyad. 

Engaoed— I have engaged him as my servant. — man 
o-rU ha tav/r-i-naukar (guzdshta) am. (mukarrar karda ; 
dar kdr mu*aiyan karda.) Or, man o-rd naukar ddshta 
a/m* 

Engagement — I have an engagement this evening, and 
therefore cannot accept your invitation. — imshab (shtighr 
le) ddram lihazd da'wat-i-shumd ijdbat na ml-tawdnam 
kard. (To dinner, da'wat-i-ziydfat ; to a dance, da'wat-p- 
^a^cf ; to a party, fete, da^wat-trmihrnanly da^wat-i-sii^bat.) 

England— Have you ever been in England? — dyd dar 
mulk-i-vnglistdn gdhe buda ed ? 

Engraveb — Send for an engraver. — {muhrkaneyrd hi- 
talabed, {f^kdke.) 

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«njoy — estaU. 819 

Enjot — ^I enjoy this season of the year. — az In maudm-i- 
sal ra^t mv-gtram. Or, az ni*rnat4'ha2^-pmau9im {muta- 
matt^) mushavam. (mutaUizziz.) 

Enteb — ^Who will enter this cave ? — dar In gbior ki ddHiU 
kkwahad shud ? Or, da/r In rnaghara ki {dakhj) MkV^dhad 
hard? {madkhal : dtikliiU ; tad akkkht d.) Or, dar In 
kahf ki dar J^li^ahad dmad ? 

Entirely — ^That news is entirely false. — an ]c^dbar bi-IrkuU 
darogh ost. Or, an afwd sar a sar kdzih ast. 

Equal — Is your writing equal to mine? — nawishta.e tu 
bar€U>ar'i-dmUjehati4'rnan mv-hashad? Or, dast-khflU- 
i-tu Vaf-i-harabartfe dast-khatpi'man mv-zanad? Or, 
tafmr-at ha tahnr'am (masdwl) ast ? {mutasawi.) Or, 
ral^am-at ha rakam-am samyat darad ? 

Envy — Envy is hateful. — hasad makruh asU Or, rishk 
kafi^ ast. Or, hasrat (kabth) asU {makbuh; mapnun.) 

Ebranjd — ^He went there, hut forgot his errand. — o an ja 
raft, fnagar paigidm{--i-kIkV^-^d fardmosh kard). {az ydd* 
OAh raft; -i-khyd-rd ma/nsl kard.) 

Erboneous — It is incumbent on us to forsake erroneous 
opinions. — mo-ra Idfim ast ki Mkayaldt-irmahdl bi-gtir 
zdrem. Or, zarur ast ki md {tOf^auwirdt-i-nd marhut az 
dost hi-dihem). (rd,ehd,e hdtil az sar hadar hi-hmein.) 

Erbob — ^Do you see any error in this writing ? — dyd dar 
In nawishta Inch ghalat ml-hmed ? 

Escaped — They escaped from prison. — az zinddn ru ha 
firdr nihddand. Or, az hahs gureMitand, Or, az mahhas 
rnafrur gashtand. Or, az sijn zahuf kardand. 

Especial — This is a matter of especial moment ; the rest 
is by no means essential. — in mukaddama hisiydr zarur 
€Ut, hdfst hech {mttzayafca nlst), {ihtiydj na ddrad ; zarur- 
at na ddrad,) 

Established — This law has lately been established.— In 
kdnun dar In rozha {rnu'aiyan) shuda ast, (mukarrar ; 
bar Jcardr ; mvQdwiz ; murauwaj,) 

Estate-^— He left all his estate to his eldest son. — o hama 



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3S0 etemai — example. 

mM^Mk^drra ha pi$ar4-^'sam bawa^yat dad. Or, o murd 
wa wa^yat hard hi inUak-i-man hajpuar-irhusMTg'am dada 
skavad. 

Eternal — ^They who fear God will obtain eternal happi- 
ness. — andn H az aillah4-ta*al^ tarsand rahat-i-'ukba 
Tikyjakand yaft. Or, anan ki az Maudd hhauf mpdarand 
'aish4-{muddm) ha^ mpnamdyand, {jdmd; tfibadi; Id ' 
fand ; bd bakd.) 

European — European articles are now plentiful. — ehtzhd.e 
fa/rangistdn hdlan (Jardwan) and, (yodfir ; ha if rat ; ba 
kasrat ; kastr ; ba wafur.) 

Even — Draw two even lines. — du MkaU-lrmutawdzi bt-kcah. 

£iV;iDENT — It is evident you are mistaken. — (zdhir) ast ki 
skwmd gicdatJ khwda ed. (wdzih; huwaidd; paidd; 
roskan ; dshkdr ; mtibaiyin ; ba wtiiuh) ' 

Evening — I expect to see him this evening. — man imskab 
mtddkdt'i'O'Td {inti^dr mt-ka^sham). {mufUaair mt-bdahamJ) 
Or, man imshah muntasiir'i-tashnf-drO mX-i^ham. 

Event — ^This is a melancholy event. — In wdhi^a gtflmndk 
ast. Or, In sdnihd maghmvm ast. Or, tn hddiea andoh- 
dgin ast. Or, in ittifak ranj-dwar ast. 

Evidence. — By the evidence produced in court, his guilt 
was proved. — ba gawdht ki dor *adalat dwardand jur- 
mmh ( 9€Udt) shud, {m^asbut ; sahut ; igbat ; sabdt,) 

Evil — His coming caused much evil to many. — az dmadan- 
ash bajam'4-ka8jr Jcabdhat rastd. Or, dmadan-ash mujih- 
{-(ranjyirtmds gardld. {mdldl ; dshob ; ddhiyat,) 

Evil — ^In this world evil and good are found. — da/r in 
jahdn badl wa neko,i bdham maujud ast. Or, dar in 
dunyd fsabd^at wa ^aldhiyat ydfta mi-shavand. 

Exalts — He neither exalts nor abases himself. — o na 
khweshtan-rd fuzum nihad na tan dar zabuni dihad. 
Or, na kJiyd-rd tarjih dihad wa na zabun sdzad. 

Example — That lady is an example to all around her. — 
dn bdnu bardie dtgar bdnuwdn (misale) a;st, {zarburl- 
mifiol; namuddr ; uwmudaj ; unmuzaj.) 



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exceeds — executed. 331 

Exceeds — He exceeds eveiy one in intelligence.— -o dar 
dana,l (bar Kama sabkat mi-harad), (az hama go,e sah- 
kat mvrahayad; az or hdr hama musSbil^at ml-kunad or 
harad,) 

Exceptionable — ^What you propose, I think, is exception- 
able in one particular. — anchi shmruL tajvjiz ml-hmed, 
dar Un yak da^lka {kahil-iri'Uraz) ast. (lafik-i-samyat ; 
mtLstapil^ Or, m^x^hate Id shumd ml-farmayed dar 
yak nvkta jdje (isti^nd) mi'bashiid, {€tiraf,) 

Exchange — I will give you this in exchange for that.-^ 
m>an ha 'iwaz-i-dn In chtz ha shvmd khwdham dad. Or,' 
man In chtz-rd ha an chla ha shumd [tahaddul) 1^¥)dham 
ka/rd. (hadal; *iwaz ; tahdU; istihadal.) 

Exchange — ^The exchange is a place where merchants 
meet to transact business. — hdzdr-gdh jd,e ast ki tdjirdn 
hard,e yrd^e kdr-i-Ujdrat jam* ml-shavand. Or, (mabdal) 
jd,e ast ki dar an sauddgardn ha jihat4-ddd o sitad 
hahdm gird ml-dyand, (mu^rtf,) 

Exchange — I have no desire to exchange situations with 
jou. — man Jckip^ish na ddram hi jd,e MLVd-rd ha jd,€ 
shumd hadal hi-kunam. 

Excite — ^Let us excite each other to study. — hiyd ki rnd 
yak dtgar-rd {tahrt§ ha ta'tim) hi-kunem. {taktrt^i-ta'llm; 
targlkth-irtadfis,) 

Excuse — Pray excuse my not having formerly vmtten to 
you. — aa 'adamri^nawishtan-i-man aa ru,e luif mxCzur hi- 
dared. 

Excuses — ^They made many excuses. — eshdn hidydr 'uzr 
(kardand), (dwardand; nihddand,) Or, eshdn hisiydr 
ma*zarat l^wdstand, 

EXECUTOR — Who is the executor to his estate ? — wafi\e 
[warsa^e o klst ? {irs ; mirds, ; rnawrusa.) 

Executed — Three men were executed for murder last 
Monday. — du shamha guaashta ha sahab-i-lihwnrafshdnl 
si mxirdurndn {tanah andaUkta) shudand. (ha dar kashlda ; 
9dldha zada.) 



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82d eapect — extract. 

EzPEOT — ^Do you expect to see him shortly? — muntaslr m»- 

bdshed hi o-rd zUd bi-bined. Or, mutateki* ml-bashed ki 

mtUakdt'i-o zud bi-kuned. Or, (mutarakkib mt-bashed) 

ki muldfcdt bado zud bi-kuned. {tawajcku* dared ; ummed 

dared ; mutawakki* or mutara^^ mt-bdahed,) 
Expelled — ^The king expelled him from the land. — bad- 

Bhdhfarmud ta o-rd aa diydr (ikhrdj) kardand, {jcbsjourij ; 

jila.e wafn; badar ; berun.) 
Expense — ^What will be the expense of doing this? — az 

kardanrirln kharch ckt fcadar J^yjohad bud ? 
EXPERIENCE — He has experience in business. — o dar kdr 

tajriba ddrad. Or, o da/r kdr {miLshakjc) ast, (ahlri' 

imtihdn,) 
Explain — If you ask, he will explain any part which you 

do not understand. — dnchi shumd na ml-fahmed a>gar az 

o ikipdhed pursid o {baiyan)4'dn Ishypdhad kard. (shark ; 

takrlr ; inkishdf; tqfslr; izhdr ; ta.wil; tabytn; kashf.) 

Or, agar az o istifsdr bi^farmdyed, mttskkHri-^humd ^aU 

MkV^dhad kard, 
ExpoETED — ^Much indigo was exported last month. — dar 

mdk4-guzashta nil-i-Jirdwdn az diydr (rawd'na) shud. 

{iJshrdj karda ; ridklri-iskdl karda ; irsal ddshta.) 
Exportation — These articles are for exportation. — In ajfids 

mwitakla ast. Or, In asbdb bard,e (nakl-i-isf^dl) ml- 

bdshad. (iMkrdj shudan az muVc.) 
Expressed — I don't know how this phrase is expressed in 

English. — man na mt-ddnam ki In (kaldm)-rd dar lisdn-i- 

inglisl chi sdn taijuma mt-kunand. {i§tildh; 'ibdrat; 

guftdr.) 
Extent — ^Tbis is the extent of their learning. — haddri-ta*' 

Itni-i-eshdn badmjd ast. Or, In muntahd.e sawdd-i-eshdn 

ast. Or, badtn (martaha.e) *%ilum-i-eshdn rasida ast, 

(mdya,e,) 
Extract — I showed you an extract from this letter. — man 

az In hkatt {intildk^) ihurndrrd namudam, (ijnuUe; 

(cc^'-'i^htda,) 



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€xtfavdganfr—fahe. 328 

ExTRAVAGAKT — ^His chUdren are extravagaiit.-^ar«an4an- 

iro (mtimf) and, {fa^uL-ktsarch ; mvhazzir ; bazU-mal 

mt'kun.) 
Eyebrows — ^Her eyebrows are arched. — ahruyanri-dn zan 

ha misdlri'mihrab and. 
Eyes — How can you write if you shut your eyes? — agar 

shuma chashm-i-lihyd-ra bi-banded ehiguna ml-tawdned 

natoishL 

F. 

Fables — ^This is a book of fables. — in kitdb-i-ki^a ast. 

Or, In kitdb (muahtamU) bar afsanaha ml-bdshad, (mti- 

ta^ammin^ 
Face — ^Her face is fair. — rang-i-ruye an bdnu (safaid) ast, 

(sapid.) 
Factory — ^Formerly there was an indigo factory here. — 

pesh az in (kdr-khdna^e nil) injd bud, (jd^e kdr o bdr-i-nil.) 
Failed — Had it not been for his assistance, I should have 

failed in my purpose. — agar o mard [imdddY na mi^namud 

{dar hu0Xmudda\e khyd mahrum shudame), \i^dnat; 

mu*dwanat; dast-giri; pd,e mardi; wasdtai; himdyat; 

madad.) ^kdmridU-i-man barnaydmade; ydd-i-man bar 

mv/rdd-i'dil na raside; jdm-i-arzuyam hamchundn pur 

mdnde,) 
Faintei> — From fatigue and hunger they fainted away.— 

az mdndagl wa gurdna^gi dar ghash amadand. Or, 

az kqft'irsafr wa fakih ghflsh giriftand. Or, az (be^ 

idfiati) wa ju* be-hosh shudand, (faro mdndagi; dar 

mdndagi.) 
Fair — It is now fear, you can go. — Uhdl dsmdn be sa^ 

ast, shumd mi-tawdned raft. 
Faithful — He is an old and Cedthful servant. — o naukar-i- 

iadim wa imdnddr ast. 
Fall — He was killed by a fall from his horse. — o az asp-i- 

khyd ba zamin itftdd wa murd. 
False — ^Be assured that the report is false.-— ^ajrfn kun ki 



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324 family— fauUen. 

In ]^iahar{darogh. os^, (jMya na darad ; az zewar-i-fidk 

mu'arrd ast ; l^il cat.) 
Family — He has a large family. — o 'iyal-irbisiyar darad. 
Famine* — So scarce was com in that dty, that it was feared 

there would be a famine. — dar an shahr ghalla chandan 

(ba kiUat) bud ki khauf-i-kaht wa khrnhk-saU bud, {kamx.) 
Fan — It is now cold, what need have you of a fan ? — UMl 

zard ast, zarurati,e bad-zan chut ? Or, halan matuim-i' 

zarma ast, ihtiyaj4^bad-kash) chist? {bdd-bezan; mir- 

waha,) 
Fascikated — She has entirely fascinated my heart. — an 

part-ru dUri-mara burda asL Or, an ma'shuka mara 

farefta karda ast. Or, ba muhabhat-i-an mah-rU giriftar 

dmadam. Or, an sarw-saht dil-am az dost rabiXda ast. 

Or, tnan dU az dost ddda,e an tndhwash hastam. Or, 

ta,ir4-dU-am aan/r-irddm^-un mushktnrbu,e gardida ast. 

Or, an dH-fareb mard az sat o pd dar ddm-v-'ishk-i-kind 

anddkhta ast. Or, dn (ndzntn) dil4rmard bi-lrkull ba khud 

kashtda ast. {saydd-i-saidri^Ut-u^dshikdn.) 
Fastened— Have you fastened the saddle on the horse ? — 

dyd bar asp zxn nihdda ed ? Or, ba asp zln-rd basta ed ? 

Or, asp-rd snn karda ed ? 
Fat — ^Are these sheep fat or lean? — In gusfandhd (fafUhf 

yd IdgMrf and ? \samin.) ^{naklf; zaft) 
Fatbebless — ^He died there, leaving a widow and five 

fatherless children. — o dn jd murd wa btwd-zan ba nuC 

panjfarzand yaVim guzdsht. 
Fatigued — I am very much fatigued with walking. — az 

gasht o gard man kofta am. Or, az bisiydr rafian mard 

(kqftagl) gMfta ast. (mdndagi.) Or, dar rah dar^ 

rdndam wa {mst) mdndam, {faro ; dar.) 
Fault — ^Those things are not yet ready, whose fault is 

it ? — in chtzhd hanoz taiydr nay and, J^afd az last f 
Faultless — ^Whois there &at is faultless? — kuddmkas (be 

kufur) ast. {md'fum; be tal^nr; be ibaid; be gunah,) 

* Plenteous year, sdl-i-fardii. 

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favour able — -figura Hve, 325 

Favourable — ^The wind on the river is favourable for going 

up the river. — hard,e raftan ha hald,0 nahr Md (muuajik) 

ast. (shurta.) 
Favour — Pray favour me with your address. — az ru,e lutf 

nam o nishan-i-khdria.e Jchud ha man hi-dihed. 
Favourite — This little hoy is my favourite. — in tiflak ^azlz- 

i-man ast. Or, m kodak {nmhhuhyiman asU (rMUluh,) 
Fear — We ought to fear God more than man. — md-rd 

hdyad ki md har Jcada/r ki aa mardumdn mi-tarsem ziydda 

az dn Mtfluf'i-ihudd ddshta hdshem. 
Fear — I would have gone there, but I went not, from 

fear of its being too late ere I arrived. — man dn jd mi- 

rqftame wa lekin az khauf-i-der dmadan na raftam. 
Feather — This feather is very beautiful. — m par hmydr 

(khuh-surat) oaU {hasin ; jamiL) 
Features — ^The features of these two are alike. — shakl-irin 

du td ha yak d^a/r {mttsktahl ast), (mushdbahat or 

ishtihali ddrad ; hdJiam mi-ihurad ; mum^fU or mushahth 

ast) 
Feeble — He is now very feeble ; he is unable to stir from 

home. — halan o hisiydr ^a'tf ast wa az makdm-4rkhud 

[.i^rakat) na mi-tawdnad kard. (taiarruk; jtimbish.) 
Feeds — The squirrel feeds chiefly upon fruit. — mush-i-par- 

anda hi-l-khassa har mewa zindagl mi-kunad. 
Ferry-boat — There is a ferry-boat at this place. — hadin 

jd {kishtt,e ^vhur) ast. (ma^har ; kishtt,e guzdra,) 
Fertile — The whole soil of that country is fertile. — tamum 

zamin-irdn diydr (ser-hasit) a^t, {zar-ihez; harumand; 

Itabil4rzira^at.) 
Fetch — Go, fetch some fruit out of the garden. — hi-rau 

Jcadre mewa az hagi biydr. 
Few — ^I know not if many or few were there. — man na mu 

ddnam ki dar dn jd kastr hudand yd jroZf Z. 
Fight — It is better to sit still than to fight. — l^mosh 

nishastan az har Muistan hajang hihtdr ast. 
Figurative — This is a figurative mode of speaking. — in 



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326 JUe— flatter. 

taur-i-guft-gu tamstlrainez att. Or, In tarz-i-kalam (mil- 

8ajj(i^)a8t. (mvrassa*; mukaUal; rangtn,) 
File — ^File the screw. — inpech-rd (sohan bi-kun), {bisa,e,) 
File — ^File these papers. — In kaglyizharra (rishta bi-kun). 

(dar misal lirguzWr ; ddktili-daftar bi-kun.) 
Fill — Fill this tub with water. — in hauz^-ckubin-ra az ab 

pur bi-kun. 
Final — ^The final dividend on his estate will be paid to- 
morrow. — farda {fdst44lkhirtn) az indak-ash ada karda 

khwahad shud. (maksamrumuM khkhi r.) 
Find — I have lost my pen, see if you can find it. — man 

kalam4'khudrra gum karda am, bi4)%7ied magar an-ra 

paida bi kuned. 
Found— I found it underneath the table. — an-rd zer-i-mez 

iyuftam), {paidd kardam.) 
Fined— If you do so again, you must be fined. — agar wakt- 

i'dtgar in chumn kdr birkuned (az shuma jurmdna girifta) 

Mipdhad shud. (ba shumZi musddi/ra nOidda) 
Finish — Help me to finish this letter. — dar {famam kar- 

danyi-m khatt ba man mudwanat bi-kun. (itmam.) 
FiBST — ^What is now the first thing to be done? — Hh^U, 

kuddm chlz peshtar bayad kard, . 
FisHEBMEN. — I saw somo fishermen laying their net — 

chand mdht-girdn-rd didam ki (iaw)M-t4ttS-ra m%-{rdhM- 

and).^ ^(shabka; nashbiL) ^(jgustardand ; guzashtand ; 

anddWjttand) 
Fit — He is not at aU fit for this work. — o iMyxk-i-ln kar 

mutlafcan nist. 
Fixed — ^What day have you fixed upon to go there? — 

bardie raftanbadanjd kuddm roz mt^arrar karda edf 
Flag — I have seen a fiag at the fort. — man *alame-rd dar 

kiPa dida am. 
Flat — ^What is the shape of the earth, round, flat, square, 

or oval? — 8urat-i-kura,e zamtn chi faur ast? (mudauwir), 

mu^tawi, murahba\ yd bais^auH. (mustad^r.) 
Flatteb — ^Why do you flatter me so? — ehird in chumn 



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flattery^fold. 827 

faur mara (hhushamad) mirkumdf {chaplml; to- 

maUuk,) 
FiATTBBY — ^We ought not to listen to the words of 

flattery. — na shay ad hi {ma ha SfokltjDbrMrM 

gosh bi-dihem), (nia mMk(inan4-^7MpluinrTa gosh bir 

kunem.) 
Flee — ^Whjr should we flee? there is no danger. — chira 

ma M-gurezem ? Tshfiuf nut. 
Fling — What flowers are these? fling them away. — in 

gulha chi iism and ? anha-rd biyanddz. 
Flint — Fire is produced by flint and steel. — az [chakrmk 

zadan) atash paidd mi-shavad. (^adddh wa fuldd.) 

[Tinder, Ifarrdka; soJchta.] 
Float — It is high water, the vessel will now float. — wafct- 

pmadd-i-ba^r ast, ilhdljahdz bdtd,e ab hhwdhad rafU 
Flooe — I saw there a flock of sheep. — man dnjd(jgi!aUd),e 

gusfand didam, (rama.) 
Floor — The floor of this room wants repairing.— /arra«^- 

i-tn hujra maramm^t (mt-khwdhad), (talab ast.) 
Floub — Bread is inade of flour. — nan az drd sdMkta w*- 

shavad. 
Flowers— You must not pluck these flowers. — shum^rd 

na shdyad ki m gulhd birchined. Or, In gidhd-rd chldan 

na bdyad. 
Flute — He can play upon the flute. — o nai.e Idbak tawdnad 

(damld). {nawdJdit; zad.) 
Flies — ^There are a number of flies. — injd m^agasdn pur mv- 

bdshand. 
Fly — ^He cut the parrot's wing, lest it should fly away. — 

o par4-tutj-rd (bund ki o naparad), {kandid td oparwdz 

na kanad ; bar kashld kio ba parwdz dar nayayad ; chid 

ki dar parwdz nayayad.) 
Fog — In the morning there is a thick fog here. — bdmdad 

injd buk]kdr-i-ghaliz mv-bashad. Or, nutria* e svhh injd 

nazhm-i-ka^slf ml-bdshad. 
Fold — Fold these things in paper. — In jihizhd-rd dar 



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328 foUow-^forfeU. 

kaghflz (maljuf li-kan). (lifafaU-kun; dor naward; tai 

hirkun; hi-pech,) 
Follow — ^You go before, I will follow. — -pesh hi^au man 

pas-i-tu kkwaham amad. Or, mhik bash man dar(^akaby 

i-tu lehtpaham amad. {pusht; pai,) 
Fond — I am not at all fond of that fruit. — an mewa muUak 

{pasand na daram), (mar a khush na mt-dyad; mard 

fchush ntst,) 
Food — What sort of food is this? — In {Jchurak) chi kism 

ast? [Idiurish; kUt; ta'dm; gMid.) 
Fool — He is a great fool. — o (akmaJke) ^as^rn ast, {abla,e ; 

nd-ddne; sddah-lavJ^; hevmkufe; kharife.) 
Foolishness — To be angry without a cause is foolishness. — 

be sahab (dar khashm drnxidarCj} (nd-ddntf ast. ^(ghussa 

shiidan; kahr giriftan; gha^b namudan; ru,e darham 

kashldan,) ^(ImIIw rangi; ihayalri-batil.) . 
Foot — Look at the horse s foot. — ba sum^-asp bi-hm. Or, 

*dar sum-4r<vsp (nazar) hirhmed, (nigdh ; muWhaza.) 
Forbid — Why did you forbid him to come? — chird az 

dmadan-irln jd o-rd (man* karded) ? {mmndna'at or naht 

karded ; mumtanV or mdnV bdshed.) 
Force — The stream now runs with great force.— ;;tnyan-i- 

nahr ilkdl ba zor mt^avad. 
Forehead — He fell down and cut his forehead. — o ba 

zamln uftdd wa peshdna^e ih^d-rd (majruh kard), (ka^a' 

or mimkaiV kard ; bund.) 
Foreign — ^He is gone to a foreign country^ — o ba muUc-i- 

ghair rafta a^t. 
Foretell — ^Who can foretell what will happen on the 

morrow ? — ki pesh mt-ta/iodnad guft ki farda az parda^ 

ghaib chi hddisa [sadir khwdhad shud)? (ru,e khwdhad 

ddd; wdkV Mkwdhad shvd; ba zuhur Mkwdhad paiwast.) 
Forfeit — ^For doing this you must forfeit a rupee. — az 

chunln kardan {ba shumd yak rupadya jarimdna dddam 

* ra^ in its in*oper plaoe, may be uBed instead of dar. 

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forget-^fountains, 829 

thpahad shvd). {az shtmia yak rupaiya jartma yafta 
khpahad shud.) 

Forget — Don't forget to tell him what I said to you. — 
anchi ha shumd guftam hatndn sukhan ha o H-goyed, 
{faramosh na kuned.) (nasi ma shaved,) 

FoBeivEN — If he had acknowledged his fault, I should 
have forgiven him. — agar o ha gundh-i-kkud (ikrdr karde 
man o-rd ma^zur dmhtams), (i'tiraf karde man ma'zarat- 
iro kdbul ddshtame,) Or, a^ar o har takslr4-Miyd kd.il 
shude man o-rd mu'af kardam£. Or, agar o knsur4- 
klmd zahir karde man az gundh-ash (dar gusashtame). 
(migifarat dddame,) 

Form — ^The form of the cjrpress-tree i^ quite straight. — 
shaHd-irsarw bi-IrkuU sahl ast. Or, kdmat-i-sarw H-l-kuU 
(if^dmat) ast, (rdst; kddm,) 

Former — ^Which part of his letter do you think the hest, 
the former or the latter? — kuddm hissa,e khatt-ash shumd 
avlgt-tar mlrddned^ {awwalin yd akhirln) ? [piakaddama 
yd mu.dkkira,) 

Formidable — The objections you make to my plan are 
indeed formidable. — {flirdz)-i'shuma, bar MkiLdf-irrdye man 
dar In sukhan fv-lrwdki^ sakht ast. (irdz ; ta'arruz ; 
vrdd.) 

Forsake — ^Let us not forsake our friends in their distress. — 
dar hdlat4-(pareshdnl) dastdn4-ldmd-rd na shdyad gu- 
zdsht. (pardgandagl; faro rndndagi; durmundagt; wd 
mdndagi; shikastagl; iztiraht; abtari.) Or, dar hdlat4' 
khastagl mu-rd az ashndydn (far dgk at na hay ad ddsht). 
(munkata* na hdyad shud; ka^a' na hdyad kard; inki0 
na hdyad kard.) 

Fortune — He has made a large fortune. — o mdl4rfirdwdn 
jam* karda ast. 

Foundation — The foundation of the house was laid. — (bun- 
ydd)'irJsbdna nihdda shud. {hmd; pdya; asds; mak'adat; 
kd'tdat.) 

•Fountains — There are fountains of water everywhere.— 



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330 free-'-'furrmh. 

har-ja chashmaha.e ah (jarl and), (mujra and; mvjrd 

or ijra darand.) Or, har ja {zah-W>) host. (chashina,e 

zaya.) 
Feee — ^You are free to do as you please. — hose manV-ir 

ahvmd na mtrshavad har chi mi-Mvivahed bi-kuned. Or, 

anchi dor 7nizaj-irjanab bashad bi-farmdyed. Or, anchi 

yhwahed be takalluf birkuned, 
Feebze — It is so cold to-day, I think at night it will 

freeze. — imroz in kadar sardi ast ki {gwndn dkram) ki ba 

shah zamln yakh basta khwdhad shud. (ihtimal ddrad.) 
Feeight — I have engaged the whole of this vessel's freight. 

an kadar ki mahmula ddrad in jahdz-rd ba ujrat 

girifta am. Ot.man {shartyi^mai^mulaje tarndm jahdz 

karda am. (ikrdr.) 
Feesh — ^These greens are fresh from the garden. — ?n tara 

az bdgh tdza and. 
Feeqdent — I have frequent opportunities of seeing it. 

— ba didan-ash mard {maukV) bidydr asL (fursat; 

kdbu.) 
Feiend — ^What shall I do ? I have nofriend.-^— cAt /cuwaw ^ 

man (doste) na ddram, (mukhlis; kkaltl; munis ; muhibb ; 

hablb; ydr; mushfik; shafik; mahnim-rdz'; ham-nafs.) 
Feiekdless — ^I am now entirely friendless. — Ukal man be 

dost hastam, 
Feightfdl — I have seen a most frightful figure. — {sTuikle 

haulndk) dldam. ihaikdU wahshatndk ; dew-slmd.) 
Feugal-^How does he manage his household affairs ? is 

he frugal or extravagant? — o umurdUi-lchjanag%,e ihud-ra 

chiguna ba saranjdm ml-rasdnad? (ba kifdyat yd ba 

fazull) ? (ba kind'at yd ba isrdf.) 
Full — Is this cask empty or full ? — In (barmtl) tihl a>st yd 

pur ? (khamhak,) 
Fulfilled — ^The purpose for which you sent me has been 

fulfilled. — kdre Jci bard,e an shumd ma/rdfirUtdded {tamam 

shuda) asU (ba itmdm or ba sar rastda,) 
FuENisH — ^How soon can you furnish these things ?- 

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Jumitfure — gUd, 331 

chlzha ha chi 'ujlat (muhaiyd) mi-tawaned hard, 

(maujud; muyassar; taiyar.) 
Furniture — He makes all kinds of furniture. — (rakht-i' 

khana) az har Msm ml-sazad, (asasu-lrhait,) 
Futurity — ^We cannot see into futurity.— ma (khdbar4- 

mustakbU) na ddnem, {ahwal4-dyanda.) 



Q. 

Gather — Gather up the crumbs. — rezdhd.e nan har chin. 
Gain — Do you expect much gain from this trade ? — az m 

pesha tawakku'4-sud-i-hisiydr dared 1 Or, az m hirja 

{mutarakkibyi-naf-i-Jirdwdn ml-shaved ? (mutarassid.) 

Or, rijd dared ki az In kash rrtdH-kaslr ha da8t4-{shumd 

khwdhad dmad), (khud khwdhed dward.) 
Garden — ^Why have you left the garden gate open ? — chird 

darwdza,e hdgh wd guzdshta ed ? 
Generosity — ^There are no limits to his generosity. — hadd- 

i'Sakhdwat-ash nut. Or, karm-ash (nd mahdud ast), \fiadd 

or intihd na ddrad.) 
Generous — He is very generous and gentle. — o sakhi wa 

narm-dil ast. Or, o karlm wa rahlm asU Or, o faiydz 

wa halim ast. 
Gentleman — ^Are you acquainted with that gentleman ? — 

baddn khdn-sdhih (ma^rifat ddred)? (dshnd.i dared ; ru- 

ahinds ml-hdshed.) 
Geography — He has composed a book on geography. — o 

dar Hlm-i'ijughrdfiyd) kitdhe tasnlf karda ast, (arz,) 
Get — Can you get me another book like that ? — misal-i-dn 

kUdh digare hard.e man (tawdned ydft)? [ha dast tawdned 

dward ; glr-i-shumd khwdhad dmad.) 
Got — ^You have got many books — give me one. — shumd 

kutuh-i-hisiydr ddred, yake az finhd ha man bi-dihed. 
Gild — ^Do you know how to gild paper ? — shurrid mi-ddned 

chiguna kagiaz-rd zar-afshdn mv-kanand? Or, dyd 

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332 gilt — grateful. 

tarklbe ki sahdffdn kitahhd-ra ha zar mvlamma* ml- 
kunand, skumd ml-ddned ? 
Gilt — He showed me a gilt picture-frame. — an shakhs ha 
man khdna.e taswlr-i-imvlamma* namud), {mutalld 
nishan dad) 
Girls — He has five children, three boys and two girls. — 

panj tdfarzand ddrad sijpisar wa du dukhtar. 
Glad — ^Are you glad or sorry on this occasion ? — dar hdb-u 

in sukhan kJiush ed yd ghamndk ? 
Glass — ^Take care, this will easily break, it is made of 
glass. — khahar-ddry In chlz ha dsdnt shikasta ml-shaivad 
az balur ast. 
Gloves — I have bought a pair of gloves. — yak juft'i{da8t 

posh) khaftda am. (dastdna ; dast-tdba.) 
Glue — ^Tell the carpenter to glue these two boards together. 
— ha darrudgar bi-go ki m du takhta ha sarish hdham hi- 
(paiwand). (chaspdn ; yak-jd hi-kun ; wa§al bi-kun.) 
Gold — Is this chain made of gold, silver, iron, brass, or 
copper ? — in zanjlr az zar, slm, dhan, birinj yd mis sdkhta 
shnda ast ? 
Goodness — Have the goodness to inform me. — az ru,e lutf 
ha man khabar bi-dihed. Or, tcUattuf farmuda mara 
{€ldm) bi-kuned, {ittUd' ; muttali\) 
Govern — Everyone does not know how to govern. — harkas 
hukm-rdnl kardan na ml-tawdnad. Or, tdkat-i-hukumat 
kardan har kas na ddrad. 
Governor — He is now Governor of Baghdad. — o Uhdl 

(hdMrfi)4'baghddda8t. [suba; wdl%e farmdn.) 
Grain — In this province much grain is produced. — dar In 
{kishwar) ghalla.e bisiydr paidd mi-shavad, (suba ; ziWa) 
Grand — ^Whose grand house is that? — In ihdnaye ('5ft- 

shdn) az dn4-kist? (raft ; wast ; *azlm.) 
Grant — Sir, be pleased to grant me this request. — sdhiha, 
az rUyB lutf 'arz-i-man kahul bi-kuned. Or, istid%e man 
ijdbat bi-farmdyed. 
Grateful — I am grateful for your kindness. — man az 



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gratified — guide. 833 

mihrhdnlye shumd mamnun am. Or, wan shakir-i-ihsdn- 

i-shumd hastam. Or, man az altdf-i-shumJd (shukr-guzdr) 

hastam, (ihsdnmand; mushkur) Or, az maddra.e 

shumu minnat pazir am. 
Gratified— Seeing such a school, I am much gratified. — 
' man az dtdan-i-chunln m^aktab khaWi (kiush) am, 

(masruir,) 
Grazing — The horses are grazing on the plain. — aspdn dar 

maiddn ml-charand. 
Great — ^You have done me a very great favour. — shumJd bar 

fnan minnat-i-kaslr (ddshta) ed. [nihdda.) Or, shumd 

ha man ihmnri-a'zamfarm'dda ed. 
Grief — He has caused much grief to his father. — o ha 

ptdar-i-khud (bidydr ranj) rasdnida ast. [shu'la.e ah,) Or, 

o mujih4-sar-mdya,e gham ha pidar-i-khyd huda ast. 

Or, o bd'is-i-m^aldlri-koMr ha wdlid-ash huda asU 
Grievous — This is a grievous calamity. — m (dfat-i-*aaim) 

ast, (musihat-irsangm ; hatd.e sakht,) 
Grind — Grind this wheat in the mill . — dar dsiyd In [ghalla- 

rd hiyds). (gandtmrrd drd kun.) 
Ground-rent — ^What is the ground-rent of this house ? — 

Tdrdya.e zamm-i-m khdna chist ? 
Grow — ^Many flowers grow in the Khan's garden. — guUid^e 

hisiydr dar hdfii-i-Mkdn-ir{wdld-shdn) mi-ruyand. (*dli- 

shdn ; bidand-makdn ; raftn-d-darjdt ; rafi'Vrlrjd.e-gdh ; 

evlala^e khdnddn ; 'azjimyrsh-shdn,) 
Grown — ^You have grown very tall since I saw you last. — 

az an wakt ki man shvmd-rd didam {tawilurl-kdmat 

shuda ed), {kadd-irtawll karda ed,) 
Guardian — ^Who is the guardian of this child? — murahU.e 

m tifiak Inst ? Or, (at5ZtA)-i-m sdgMr last ? (kaiyim.) 
Guess — Can you guess the meaning of what I say? — 

dnchi ml-goyam shumd ha maflab-i-dn ml-rased ? 
Guide — I went without a guide, though I had never been 

that road before. — a^archi haddn rdh gdhe kahl az In na 

rafta hudam he {rdh-har ) rawdna shudam, [rah-namd ; 

dalVrirrdh ; hddl; hadrika,) 

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334 habit —hard. 



Habit — He is in the habit of walking out early. — o *alfi-s- 
8aJ)ah *adat'i-{gardidan) ddrad, (gasht o gard.) Or, o 
ham-dad mu'tad ha gardidan ast. 
Hail — ^The house has a hall and three rooms. — tn khana 
yak datdn ddrad wa si hujra. Or, m makdm-rd yak 
aiwdn ast wa $i kamra. 
Hand — ^Take hold of his hand. — dast-ash hi-glr. 
Handkerchief — Give me a handkerchief. — {ru-male) ha 

man hi-dih, (dast-mMle,) 
Handle — ^The handle of this drawer is broken. — dasta,e 

Midnafi In m£Z shikasta shud. 
Handsome — In his appearance he is handsome. — o dar 
^urat [klkuh-sflrat) ast. {latifu-l-i^tiddl ; wajih ; hasm ; 
jamll ; ztbd-tala't ; zUbd-Tydyat ; hadtu-l-jamdl.) Or, o 
ha shakl nddiru-l-hum ast. Or, o ha shamd.il kamal 
:hahjat ddrad. Or, o ha haikal §^dyat-i' tidal wa 
nihdyatjamdl ddrad, , 

HaisD-writing — ^Do you know whose hand-writing this 

is ? — shumu ml-ddned ki In dast-khatt az kist ? 
jj^NG — Hang the keys upon the nail. — kalldhd ha mekh 

hiydwezdn. 
Happen — ^When did that happen ? — In hadisa kai hadis 
shud? Or, In wdkVa kai wdk€ shud? Or, kuddm 
wakt in ittifdk (shud) ? {uftdd.) 
Happiness — In this world no one enjoys perfect happiness. 
—dar in dunyd hech kas (rdhat-drtamdm) na ddrad. 
dsdyish-i-haklki ; tana'um-i-kdmil.) 
Happy — They who fear God here will be happy hereafter. 

dndn ki dar in jd az khudd mi-tarsand dar 'dkihat khush 

khwdhand shud. Or, an kasdn-rd {farhat)-i-'ukha dost 
Mwdhad dad ki dar In dunyd dar kltauf-i-khiidd ml- 
rridnand, (sa'ddat.) 
Hard— Is the lesson you have given me hard or easy ? — 

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hardship— health, S85 

sahake ki mara ddda ed aya {asan ast ya mushJdt). (yusr 

ast yd mughlak ; sahl ast yd mvdakkik.) 
Habdship — ^Tbis is a great hardship. — In sdkhUye *azlm ast 
Habe — The hare is a very timid animal. — kjiargosh Um/dr 

(buZ'dU) ast, (shutur-dil ; khd.if: tarsdn ; jabi,) 
Habm — Is there any harm in doing this? — dyd dar in 

ehunln kdr kardan (aibe) mtrhdshadf {rmk^dne; 

nmzdyaka,e,) 
Haste — I write in great haste to save the post. — man mt- 

kbvjdham ki khatte ha sdbU-p^hdpari {birfiristarnf- Uhazd 

ha {sur'aty-i'tamdm ml-nawisam, ^(rawdna bi-kimam; 

mvnrsal ddram ; irsdl ddram.) ^ta*jil; shitdh.) 
Hastened — They hastened away as fast as possible. — eshdn 

td ha makdur-irkb.'ud shitdftand. Or, ha sur'at harchi 

tamdmtar shudand. Or, ha ta^jU-i-tamdm rdh {gird gar- 

didand), (giriftand.) 
Hasten — ^You must try to hasten his coming. — dar hdh-i- 

tez rasldan-ash hadinjd shumd-rd sa't hdyad kard. 
Hasty — ^To act in a hasty manner is not wise. — dar kdr 

ta'jU kardan himdkat ast. Or, dar kdr musta'jU shudan 

az tarik-ir*akl ha'td ast. Or, dar umur ta'jU ha kdr 

hurdan az jdda,e dandyat dur ast. 
Hat — On entering the room he took off his hat. — ha 

{rnujarrad)-e'dMiU shudan-i-utdk kida.e khydr^d az ear 

ha/r ddsht, {shart*) 
Hate — ^Let us hate nothing but sin. — md'rd az hech ehiz 

na/rat na hdyad kard magar az gunah. Or, mdrra ha 

juz^i-ma'siyat az chize kirdhiyat na hdyad kard. 
Have — Have you any acquaintance witK that gentleman? — 

haddn dghd {ma*r^ate) ddred ? {shindsd,t,) 
Healed — His wound is now healed. — zaMm-ashpur shuda 

ast. Or, jarrdhat'i-o (mundamil shuda) ast, {indamal 

ydfta.) 
Health — His health is sound. — ^hhat-i-o ha hdl ast. Or, 

o tan-durust ast. Or, mizdj-i-o (mustaklm) ast, (ikhpiidl 

na ydfta.) 

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336 heap — hUU, 

Heap — ^Here is a heap of papers, put them away. — yak 

ambdr-i-kagiflz dor tnjd jam' shuda ast, {berun bi-har), 

(ba yak taraj bi-gazdr ; bar kindr birkun.) 
Hear — Hear what I say, then give ap answer. — dnchi ml- 

goyam (birshinau), ba'd az an jawab hirdih. {gosh kun 

or ddr ; mcamv! birkun.) 
Heart — ^The heart of man is inclined to evil. — dil-i4n»an 

ba ffunah-gdn {md,U mv-bdshad), {mail ddrad.) 
Heat — ^To-day the heat is veiy great. — imroz {hararat) ba 

shiddat ast. (ha/rur; gamu.) 
Heaven — In heaven is unspeakahle happiness, in hell 

unutterable woe ! — dar bihUht asd^ishe ast ki dar gt^an 

naydyad wa dar jahannum *azdhe ast aa baydn bald. 

Or, darjannat rahat in kadar ast ki dar tqf^U naydyad 

wa dar sakkar <dams ast ki iharh-irdn dar hita.e ta^rir 

na mi-gunjad. 
Heavy — ^This box is very heavy, how can I cariy it? — 

In sanduk khaiU sangin ast chiguna mi-tawdnam bar 

ddsht ? 
Heel — ^When walking I trod upon his heel with my foot 

— ba wakti-raftan pdyam ba ka*b-ash khyo'd. 
Height — What is the height of this wall ? — {lmldnd^)s %i 

diwar chi kadar ast ? (irtifd* ; bdldyl ; rafa't,) 
Heib — ^This large estate is without an heir. — in miUnyat- 

ir'azlm Id wdris ast. Or, m mirds-i-^'zam wdris na ddrad. 
Help — Can you afford me auy help in this affair oi 

mine ? — shuwM dar In amr ba m>an hech (madad) ml- 

tawdned dad. (mu'dwanat ; i'dnat ; imddd.) 
Herbs — ^They live only upon herbs. — eshdnfakat {tdra ml- 

khy.rand), {bar sabzahd zindagl mt-kunand.) 
Hide — The crows steal, and afterwards hide what they 

can. — zdghdn duzdi mi-kunand wa ba'd az an dnchi 

mt-tawdnand {pinhdn) ml-kunand, {ikh^ ; makhft ; 

poshtda.) 
HiLus — There are few hills in Eharazam. — dar mn/dk- 

i-Mvfarazam kohhd kam and, {jabal,) 

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hint "holy. 337 

Hint — ^You can just give him a hint of this affair — shuma 

dar bab-i-in amr o-ra ishara ml-tawdned kard, 
-HiEE — To ga there I must hire a palankeen and boat. — az 

hara.e raftan hadan jd mard takht-i-rawdn wa kishtl 

Hrdya hdyad hard. 
History — Have you read the history of Persia. — tdnkbrir 

'ajm mtUdla'a karda ed ? 
Hit — He hit me a very hard blow on the head. — o bar 

sar-am zarb-i-shadid (zad), (rasdnld ; koft ; ddd,) 
Holds — He holds his pen in the left hand. — o dar dast-i- 

chap kalam-i-khttd-rd mi-glrad. 
Hole — Make a hole in the ground here. — In jd dar zamin 

mo ffl^ dke bi'(kun). (kan ; kd^o ; zan.) 
Home — It is late, let me now return home. — (der) shud hi- 

guzdr hi man ha makdri^-i-]cliy^ani U-ravam, (taykhtr; 

dirang; tahdwun) 
Honey — I ate some honey out of the honey-comb. — kadre 

shahd az {klLdna.e shahd) khy>rdam. Or, kadre 'a^al az 

{ma^sdC) khyLrdam, (mahrdn.) 
Honour — He has obtained much honour. — o, *izzat-i-'astm 

hd^ karda ast. Or, o kusulri-takrim-irbisiydr karda ast. 

Or, {Hzz wa ihrdmyi-madld ha dast dwarda ast, (rqfa*at; 

dhru; sha/raf ; shardfat; wakar; ihtirdm.) 
Hope — I hope to have an interview with you very soon. — 

rijd ddram ki zud {shumd-rd) mvldkdt khwdham kard. 

(ha shumd.) Or, mard ummed ast ki dar andak roz mu- 

Vakat-i-man hd shumd khwdhad shud. Or, taras»udri-dn 

ddram M man *an kartb ha shumd muldki khwdham shud. 
Hospital — ^An hospital is about to be built there. — yak 

ddrursh'Shifd tdrmr shudanx ast. Or, yak {baitu-hmariz 

taiydr) shudant ast. {shifd-khdna bar pd,) 
Hospitality — They show great hospitality. — £shdn (mih' 

mdnddn\,e firdwdn mi-kuna/nd. (mihmdn-nawdzi ; ^yd- 

fcLt-ddrt.) 
HoLy — God is holy, just, and pure. — WvuM mu^addas, 

*ddU, wa pdk ast. Or, (aUah ta*algi) kudus, rdst-hdz, wa 



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388 humane — imagine, 

hakk ast. ('alimvrs-sirr ; rahburValam^iin ; yazdan-i- 
daddr; ddwar-idadar.) 

Humane — He is a man of a very humane disposition, and 
humble in his own esteem. — o marde ast saLlmu-t-taba' 
wa {khyd^a hakir mt-ddnad). {na-kh^d pasand.) 

HuMANiTT — He possesses great humanity as well as hu- 
mility. — {insamyat)^4-bi8iyar darad wa {hUndyat).^ 
\admiyat; m>ardumi; muruwat; hiss-i-bashriyat.) ^faro- 
tani; tawazu' ; masldm; Mmshv! ; khuzu : istikanat.) 

Hunter — ^The hunter is gone a-hunting. — {§aiyad ha §aid) 
rafta ast. {shikan ha shikar.) 

Hurts — It hurts his mind to see such wickedness. — az 
mvshahida.e In chunin {kabakai) dH-ash mx-sozad. {badi; 
shana'at.) 



Idea — I had no idea that you would come to-day.— <iar 
Miayalri-mmi na bud Id shtrnid imroz khwdhed dnuid. 

Idleness — ^They spend their time in idleness. — eshdn aukdt- 
i-Mmd-rd dar {kdhUl zWl mi-kunand). (tasdhUl mi-guz- 
drand ; sustl ba sar mi-burand ; lahw o Id'b ba bad mi- 
dihand.) 

Ignorant — They are ignorant and idle. — eshdn (nd-ddn wa 
sttst) and. {jdhU wa kdhil ; nd-shinds wa baftdl.) 

Illiberal — Such a sentiment is illiberal. — in chunin 
kkaydl {bdiH) ast. (bad a§l; na karim.) 

Illiterate — It is not good always to associate with illite- 
rate persons, — ba jdhUdn hamesha ^hbat ddshtan mu- 
ndsib nist. 

Image — There is an image in that temple. — dar dn but- 
Mldna hU ast. Or, dar dn §anamrkada §anam ast. 

Imagination — ^Whence arose this imagination? — az kujd 
in khaydl (paidd shud) ? (sar bar zad; sar bar dward.) 

Imagine — How do you imagine that I should agree to this? 



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imitation — important 339 

— chiguna {khaydl mt-kunsd) ki man In sukhanra kahvl 

kunam, (kiyas mt-gtred ; dor sar^i-ULyd dared.) Or, 

chiguna khayal mt-banded ki man hadm mkltan (mttt- 

tajik shavam), (itdfdk kunam.) 
Imitation — This is of wood, in imitation of stone. — in ehtz 

ha misal-irsang az'chub sdMkta shuda ast. Or, in ehtz 

ki (ishtibdhyi-sang ddrad az ehob sakhta shuda ast. 

(tashbih; shabih; mushahahat; mimidsUat,) 
Immense — The undertaking is hkely to be attended with 

immense expense. — aghlah ast ki dar in kdr Jcttarch-i- 

bisiydr khwdhad shud. 
Immortal — The body is mortal, the soul immortal. — hadan 

Jam ast wa ruk (baki), (Id-yamut,) 
Immovable — ^They are immovable in their opinions. — eshdn 

ba or dar tajwiz-i-khyd {mustakiU) and. (gkair-m'Ur 

taharrik.) Or, eshdn bar rd^e khyd mmtaklm and. 
Impart — It is our duty to impart knowledge. — bar md 

wdjib ast ki faiz-i-ta'Um bi-gmtarem. 
Impartial — ^An upright judge will be impartial. — hakim-i- 

(rdst-bdz 'ddit) mirbdshad. (be-riyd be-jdnib-ddr ; hakk- 

parast be-tarafddr.) Or, hdMnwnunfif-^mizdj ba nazar- 

i-taswiyat tarajain^d mi-blmid. 
Impassable — ^These mountains are impassable, having on 

all sides impenetrable forests. — fu*udr4-in jabdl ghair 

mumkin ast zird ki bar har taraf besha.e (mumtantvrd- 

dukhul) m%A>dshad. {dushwdr-gtizdr.) Or, in kohhd be- 
.guzdr and az in sabab Id bar har atrdfbesha,e Tndni'u^ 

dukhvl ml-bdshad. 
Imperfect — ^Everything in this world is imperfect. — har 

chiz dar in dunyd (ndki^) ast. (^aib-ddr; kd^r.) 
Impertinent — His behaviour is impertinent.— o dar wof '- 

(gustdkh) ast. (shanish. ; wakih,) Or, oMkl^k-i-o az adah 

(ba^id) ast. (mu'arra.) 
Important — ^It is very important to attend to this. — bisiydr 

zarur ast ki md bd in ^amdi (dU birdihem). {mtUawajjih 

bi-shavem.) 



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340 imparts^-dnaUentum. 

Impoets — Have you seen the exports and imports ? — ayd 

agbab4'dmadani wa raftanl dMa ed ? 
Impose — They impose on whomsoever they can. — ba har 

kase hi tawdnand {ghadr) ml-kunand. {fareb; ghqbn; 

makr,) 
Imposition — ^They practise every kind of imposition. — eskdn 

(dagjka)ye har taur mt-kunand. {makr; shayddt; haid; 

ghadr ; ghiobn.) 
Impossibility — How can I beUeve an impossibility? — 

chiguna bar (muhal) bdwar mi-tawdnam hard ? (giair-i- 

imkdnl,) Or, chize ki imkdn na ddrad chiguna bar an 

i'timdd mi-tawdnam kard ? 
Impossible — It is impossible for me to comply with what you 

say.— -(mtim/fin nlst) ki dnchi shumd mtrgoyed kahvl bi- 

kunam. (gk air mumkin ast.) Or, imkdn na ddrad ki ba 

hasb-iri8tida'd,e shumd 'amal namdyam. 
Impostor — ^He is a notorious impostor. — o (makkdr)-i^mash- 

hur ast. (ghodddr; ghdbin; 'aiydr; tardr,) Or, o 

(khadddyi^ma'ruf ast, (mundjik; oM-i-nifdk; solus; 

murdyi; mrddljid.) 
Impression — ^What he said made an impression on me. — 

sukhfin-ash dar dU-i-man {asar kard). (tdslr or sirdyat 

kard ; mu'assar shud ; jd,e girift ; khurd.) 
Improbable — ^What he tells me appears very improbable. 

r-^nchi mm'd ml-goyad (khildf-i-kiyds) ma'Vum ml-shavad. 

{be-ihtimdl ; nd-muktamU ; dur az 'akl.) 
Improper — To act thus would be higbly improper, and 

therefore imprudent. — tn chunin kdr kardan bi-l-kuU 

ghair munddb ml-bdshad wa az in sabah be tamizl. 
Improve — Can you improve what he has written?— aiw^t 

navdshta ast shumd dn-rd (i§tdh) ml-tawdned kard? 

(bihtar.) 
Impure — No impure person will enter heaven. — shakh$e 

{nd-pdk) dar jannat ddkhU na ihwdhad shud. {khflbUs ; 

shant.) 
Inattention — This has arisen solely from your inattention. 



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incessant — indecent, 341 

— Infakat az {t(ighaful)^4^humd (uftada) 'ast. '^{ghaflat; 

ffkafUl ; ihmal,) ^(ittifdk or wdk^ or hddis shuda,) 
Incessant — ^We have lately had incessant rain. — dar In 

rozhd dar In jd hdrdn (miUawdtir) bdrida ast. {^algt-l- 

itti§dl; mutta^,) 
Inch — Had this piece of wood been an inch longer, it would 

have done very well. — aga/r in chub da/r tuL yak jau 

dardz-tar ml-bud {Jdfdyat ml-kwrd), (ha kdr mi-khyrd 

or ml-dmad,) 
Inclination — He feels no inclination to study. — o mail ha 

tadfis dar dil4-khyd na ddrad. 
Income — Do you know what is hi3 income? — ma^Vum-i- 

shumd ast ki (madkhal)4-o chand ast f (diikhM ; dmor 

dam; dakhl : maddkhil.) 
Incomparable — This is incomparable writing. — Inkhatt (be 

nazlr) ast. (Id-sdm.) 
Incomplete — ^Your book is incomplete. — kitdb-i-shumd 

(nd-tamdm) ast. (ndki^,) 
Inconvenience — ^Will my staying here till the first of next 

month be any inconvenience to you? — dyd az mdndan- 

i-man dar. In jd td^ ha tdrik!i'i-gturra,e mdh-i-dyanda 

(ha shumd taklif khwdhad rasid) ? (dar kdr4-shum3 mu- 

zdhimat hhwdhad shud.) 
Inconvenient — ^It will be inconvenient for me to wait on 

you to-morrow. — -fardd bajihat-imuldkdt kardan-i-shumd 

ha man nd-munddhat (dast khwdhad ddd), {J}d^ Tchwdhad 

shvd.) 
Incorrect — ^Is what I say correct or incorrect ? — dnchi ml- 

goyam sahlh ast yd ghalafj 
Increased — My family has lately been increased. — az chand 

roz 'iydUi-man (mazld) shuda ast. (ziydda; afzuda; kaslr.) 
Increasing — There is a rumour of increasing the army. — 

afwd.e ziydda kardan-i-fauj mi-hdshad. Or, afwd ast ki 

dar ta^addd-i-fauj afzunl hh^dhad shud. 
Indecent — They speak indecent language. — eshmt kdldm-i' 

(Jdhish) mtrgoyand, (shanV ; tashni.) 

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343 independent — information. 

Independent — ^He is now independent of any one. — o U-Jr 
kuU ha hech has (rnuta*alUk ntst). (^Uaka or istigina 
na darad.) Or, o az hama has (mtistaghm) ast. {be 
ta'aUuk; ghair-muta'aUik), Or, o {pe ^aht wa raht) ast. 
(khud mukhtdr,) 

Index — ^Is there an index to this hook? — in kUah-ra Jikriste 
ast. Or, In kitab (t<tf8tlri^makala,e) darad? (tashrih-i' 
abwdb.) 

Indifference — ^This is not to he treated with indifference. 
— In kdr In chuntn ntst ki (gkajlat) birkwied. {musdkHat,) 

Indigenous — ^Is this an indigenous plant? — In nihdl az tn 
mvJk ast ? Or, paiddyiih-i-ln nikkl dar in ja ast ? 

Indigo — ^I was formerly employed in Mr. 's indigo 

factory. — sabikan dar kdr-kfyma^e nilrirsakiM-fuldn mash- 
ghul buda am. 

Indisposition — I heard of your indisposition last week. — 
dar hafta.e-guzashta €ihwdl4-m>arz4'Shumd isgifl kardam. 

Infancy — I knew him from his infancy. — man o-rd az 
(zanmnri-tufrMyatyash ml-shindsam. « (akd-i-klLurdi,) 

Infer — ^What do you infer from what he said ? — dnchi guft 
shumd az dn chi (natija bar dwarda ed) ? {kiyds kashida 
ed ; istiddl karda ed.) 

Inferiors — ^We must show kindness and respect to our 
inferiors, as well as superiors. — chundnchi md ba {mardu- 
m^n4-khdssy ba adab wa ta'ztm suluk mi-nanidyem ba 
*dmm niz bay ad hard, ^{khwdss; buzurgdn; zabar-dastdn; 
kibdr ; kabHrdn.) \*avDwdm; Jchurddn; sagMrdn; zer- 
dastdn; ?^ar.) 

Infinite — God is infinite in power and wisdom. — kudrat 
wa hikmat'i-MLudd (be intilm) ast, (nd-mahsur ; nd-mt^ 
tqndhi,) 

Influence — ^We have no influence over them. — md bar 
eshdn kudrat na ddrem. 

Information — Is there no one here that can give me infor- 
mation concerning this ? — kase dar in jd ntst ki mard 
az in amr (i'ldm tawdnad dad) ? (itiHd* tawdnad kard,) 

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ingana — insensible. 343 

Or, hose nlst ki dar in arm bar man roshan tawdnad 

sajiht? 
Ingana — How long have you been in Ingana? — (chand 

wakt) ast ki dar ingana bUda ed ? (az chand roz.) 
Ingenious — She is very ingenious. — an banu bisiyar {zarlf) 

ast. [sahib-i-firdsat ; zaM; hunar-mand.) 
Ingenuity — He possesses much ingenuity. — o {kiydsatyi- 

*az^m ddrad. (Jirdsat ; zard/at ; idrdk ; zihn.) 
Inhabitant — ^The petition was signed by every inhabitant 

of the village. — In *artza az har shakh^-drahl-i-dih dost- 

khatt karda shuda ast. Or, bar m 'anza har muklrn-i- 

kasba dast-Mkatt kard. 
Inhuman — ^Their disposition is inhuman. — mizdj-i-eshdn be 

(rahm) ast. (insdniyat ; marhamat ; muruwat,) 
Iniquity — They delight in all kinds of iniquity. — eshdn 

dar kardan-i-har nau*-i-fasdd {kfiUsh and), {sarur ml- 

kunand.) 
Injuby — 1 never did him the least injury. — man hargiz o-rd 

ziydn na (ddshtqjn). (dddam.) Or, man gdhe o-rd \tzd) 

na rasdnldam. [khal^l; badi.) Or, man hargiz haif 

bar na kardam. Or, man gdhe bar dU-ash (gazand) 

nanihddam. (m^arrat; zarar.) 
Injured — His* health has been injured by too great exer- 
tion. — az ziyddati,e mihnat sihhat-i-o {jcbMal) girifta 

ast. (nuk^n; mazarrat.) 
Injustice — He practises injustice towards all. — o bar har 

kas zttbn mi-kunad, {be-insdfl; tajabbur.) 
Innocent — They are all innocent. — eshdn az gundh pdk 

wa {mu'arrgt) and. {mvharrd) 
Inoffensive — These animals are inoffensive. — injdnwardn 

muzi nayand. 
Inquest — ^An inquest was held yesterday on the body of a 

person who shot himself. — shakhse ki khud-rd ba tufang 

haldk kard tahkikat-i-dn ahwdl diroz shud. 
Insensible — He is so ill that he is insensible. — o in 

kadar bvmur ast ki be-hosh ast. 



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344 insert — intellect. 

Insert — ^You had better insert this in your letter. — hihtat 

ast ki dar khatt-i-khud (m-ra bt-nawtsed). (in-ra darj hi- 

kuned; in ruk'a ddkhU bi-kuned.) 
Insignificant — How veiy insignificant is raan, compared 

to the Almighty! — insdn ha nisbat-i-Mkuddye 'azlm wa 

jaUU chi kadar (ncirchlz) ast I {be ma^ni; be mikc^r.) 
Insincere — His words are insincere. — sukhandn-ash (pur- 

riyd) and, {nd-muJMis ; na-sddik ; be-wafd ; rang-dmez.) 
Insolent — They behaved in an insolent manner. — esJidn 

be adabdna (siduk kardand). {pesh dmadand; l^rakat 

or ^anial kardand,) 
Insolvent — He has lately become insolvent. — kdbl az In 

an shakhs (war) shikoAta ast. {dar ; bar; wd) 
Inspect — Call a person to inspect this cloth. — saJiibe 

tamiz-rd bi-talah ki ba nazar-i-taf arras dar In pdrcha 

bi-nigarad. 
Inspection — The goods are all ready for yocir inspection. — 

ajrids az bardie {mu'aiyana,e shumd maujud) and. 

{nivtdhazaye shumd taiydr,) 
Instant — I will be with you in an instant. — man dar 

{chashmak zadan) nazd-i-shwrnd mi-dyam. {turf atu Vain) 
Instinct — Man acts from reason, animals from instinct. — 

insdn az *a^l JVl mi-kunad wa haiwdn az {jibiUat). 

{*aklri-haiwdnl.) 
Insiitutions — ^In Europe are noble institutions for com- 
municating knowledge. — darfarang az bard.e tadris4-*ilm 

Jchub tarkibdt kardr ydfta and. 
Instruct — Can you instruct me in this science ? — dar In 

*ilm ba man ta*lim mi-tawdned dad, {tarbiyat ml-tawdned 

kard.) 
Insured — I have insured the vessel for 50,000 tomans, and 

I have the insurance-policy in my possession. — dn jahdz- 

rd ba panjdh hazdr turmn bima karda am wa kdghaz-i- 

bvma nazdri-man ast. 
Intellect — She has a wonderful intellect. — dn bdnu idrdk- 

i-*ajib ddrad. 



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inteUiqence — intrusted, 346 



Intelltgence — How did you receive this intelligence ? — 

chiguna In khahar ha shumd rastd ? 
Intelligent — He is an intelligent man. — o mard-i-itez- 

fahm) ast. (zirak.) 
Intemperance — Intemperance hurts "body and mind. — 
^adm-i-iHidal hadan wa mizaj-ra (zarar) mi-dihad. {ma- 
zarat ; nuk^an.) Or, bad-parhezl jism wa tab'^d muzirr 

ast. 
Intention — Have you any intention to go to Europe ? — • 

hech irdda,e raftan hafarang dared ? 
Intercourse — There is no intercourse between us. — md 

hain-i-man wa tu hech (^ildka) nlst. (ta^alluk; nisbat.) 

Or, man ha tu mutaallik naydm. 
Interest. — I have no interest in this matter. — dar In amr 

mard hech (gharaz) nlst. {matlah; 'ildka.) 
Interfere — Why should we interfere in that affair? — 

chird dar dn amr {dakhl hinem)? {dakhU shavem; 

mukhill shavem ; dast-anddzt kunem.) 
Interpret — ^You must interpret what he says to me. — 

dnchi ha man ml-goyad bdyad ki tarjuma.e dn hi-kuned. 
Interpreter— If you Imow not the language of the country, 

you must use an interpreter. — agar zahdn-i-muLk na mi- 

ddned (mutarjim) nazd-i-khyd nigdh bdyad ddsht, (tar- 

jamdn,) 
Interrupt — I hope, sir, I don't interrupt you. — §dhihd 

ummedwdr-am la (mukhMri-shvmd na mi-shavam), {dar- 

miydn-i-sukhan-i-shumd na mi-uftam.) 
Interruption — Your coming here is an interruption to my 

business. — dmadan-i-shumd mujib-i-khalal-i-man ast. Or, 

az dmadan-i-shumd dar kdr-i-man kbolal mlruftdd. Or, 

amadan-i-shuwu dar kdr-i-man khalat mi-anddzad. 
Introduce — Shall I introduce you to that gentleman?— 

dyd shumd-rd muldkdt-i-dn jandh hi-kundnam ? 
Intrusted— He was intrusted with the whole business. — 

tamdm kdr hado (mufauwaz) shvda bud. (sapurda; 

tafwiz karda ; hawdla-karda.) 

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346 invaUds^oin. 

Inyauds — It is said a house will be built at Isfahan for 
the benefit of inyalids. — mugoyand hi dar Isfahan 'imarate 
az bara,e (mari^dn) ta*mlr karda khwahad shud). {Mr 
mdrdn; 'alUdn,) 

Invented — ^Who inyented this instrument? — tn alat ki 
(ijdd) hard f {iiitira^,) 

Invincible — The Amir imagined his soldiers were invin- 
cible. — dar khdyalriHimlr amad ki *askar-i-md (ghair- 
magMub) ast, dd^imyri-muzaffar ; ghfidr-manfar ; ghair- 
maihur,) 

Invitation — He has given me an invitation to dinner, 
and I have accepted it. — o mard dawatri-tadm karda 
ast, wa ijdbat-i'dn karda am» 

Involved — His affairs are much involved. — kdr-ash darham 
barham ast. 

Ibregular — ^These lines are irregular.— m satuf (rdst) 
nayand. [ha tafdwat rdst,) 

Island — The company have given permission to clear the 
island of Ceylon. — janClyat4-sauddgardn hard,e §df kar* 
dan-pjazirttfe sa/randvp tjazat ddda ast. 



J- 

Jail — He is to remain in jail one year. — td ha yak sal dar 

(kaid-khdna) khwahad mdnd. {mahbas; zinddn; mahhm.) 
Jester — Is that the king's jester ? — an kas {muskhara),e 

pddshdh ast ? bazla-bdz ; lu'bat-bdz ; latlfa-go.) 
Jewels — pearls, diamonds, emeralds, rubies, turquoise, 

cornelians, &c. — jawdhir — {durrhdYj almdshd, zamarrudr 

hd, {Wlha^y ptruza, *aktkdn, wagimira. \marwdrid.) 

^{yakuthd.) 
Join — Join these two boards together. — m du taMkta bdham 

bi-paiwand. Or, in du taMkta boryak-digar (bi-chaspdn). 

(ittiscUf or muntas^am, or munsalik, or muna'kid^ or 

mutarattib bi-kun.) 



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joke — keep, 347 

Joke — ^What I said was only in joke. — dnchi guftam fakat 

(bazla,e) bud. {mutayaha ; imbisdt ; zarafat ; mazahat 

mazdh; hazal-hazl.) 
JouBNET — I am now going to make a long journey. — Uhal 

m^rd safar-i-tawtl kardant ast. Or, mard ittifak-i-safar- 

i-dardz karjjUin uftdda ast. 
Jot— This news affords me great joy. — In khabar mard 

khushl.e 'ctzlm mtrdihad. Or, m khabar bdyiS'i'(taraby 

i-kastr-i-man ast, (nishdt; tafrth: khurraml, farh; 

fardlj, ; masarrat ; sarur ; buhjat,) 
Judge — How can I judge of bis character? I don*t know 

him. — chiguna dar bdh-i-raftdri.e o sukhan bi-goyam? 

man o-rd na mlrddnam. 
JuBT — The (English) judgesummed up the evidence, and 

the jury gave their verdict. — kdzl.e inglisl az gawdhdn 

tafdhhus karda klkflld^,e izhdrhdyS shuwdhid ba ru,e 

majlis (zdhir kard), wa majlis-i-'adalat fatwa dad, {bar 

khwdnd.) 
Judge — ^The (native) judge punished the delinquent. — 

kdzi.e bd8handa,e dn mtdk (takfirwdryrd sazd dad. 

(mujrim,) 
Juice — Squeeze some juice out of this lemon. — az In limun 

kadre 'arak hiyafskdr. 
Jump — How far can you jump ? — ba chi kadar mtrtawdned 

(jast) ? (khez-zad.) 
JuNioB — He is the senior, I the junior. — dn kas bdld-dast 

a$t, wa man zer-dast. Or, dn kas az man kaldn asty wa 

man khyrd. 
Justification — He says nothing in justification of it. — 

o az kirddr-i-khyd {*uzr) na ml-kunad, (ma'zarat.) 

K, 

Keep — Keep this money for me till I want it — In mMagh- 
iman na^i-Myd amdnat bi-guzdred td waku ki dar kdr- 
i-man dyad. Or, ui ptd-i-man ba {zimma,e) Myd bi-kuned 

23 

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348 Jcertiel — knoU 

id wakte hi ha kar-i-man hi-ikurad. (^wala.e,) Or, 

tn pul-i-man peshdkhud (hi-nihed) ta wakte ki, &c. 

(bi-ddred ; nigdh bi-ddred.) 
Kernel — Break this cocoa-nut and eat the kernel. — In 

ndrjU-rd bi-shikariy wa m agh z-ash bj-khur. 
KiLJj — It is sinful to kill animals without cause. — be sabc^ 

haiwdnat {ha katl rasdntdati khatd) a^t. (-m ktishtan 

hardm.) 
Kindled — They kindled a fire with straw. — ha kdh dtash 

dar dddand. Or, ha kijdshdk dtash (zadand)*^ {roshaUy 

or ishti^dl, or mushta^al kardand.) 
Kindness — They showed us very great kindness. — bar* 

md (lutfyi-'azim kardand. (makramat; marhamat; 

rifk ; Hrvdyat ; ihsdn ; talattuf ; mvldtifat ; ayddt ; 

tawajjuh ; shafkat,) Or, md-rd ha mahramiyat ikhtisds 

dddand. Or, bar md {ralym dwardand), {gjkamza^ 

maddra kardand.) 
Kingdom — We traversed the kingdom of Persia. — md 

^ubur-i'mulk-i'irdn kardem. Or, md az ^ajam *ubur 

kardem. 
Kiss — Give me a kiss, then fly your kite. — {ha man) hosa 

bi-dih, sipas k agh azak-i-khud bi-pardn. {bar sar va 

chashm.) 
Kittens — This is a heautiful cat ; she has two kittens. — 

In ghurha kAdill kfiuh shakil ast^ du bachcha ddrad. 
Knees — He fell on his knees and asked pardon. — o bar 

du zdnu nishast wa ^uzr khwdst. Or, o sar-i-ajz faro 

{kard) wa ^uzr-i-taksir kard. {award.) Or, o sar-i-jchud 

ha zamin-i-niydz nihdd wa ^afw khwdst. Or, o zamln-i- 

khidmat bosid wa mu*dft khwdst. 
Knife — Try if you can open this knife. — bi-btn ki In chdku- 

rd mi-tawdned hdz kardan, yd na. 
Knot — Here is a knot in this string ; loose it. — In jd dar 



* bd or bq!'mAj be used. 

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knouHedge-'-Uat. $49 

In riamdn gira ast, dn-rd bi-kushd. Or, tn rassan *€ikd 

ddrad, dn-rd hall bi-kun. 
Knowledge — ^What is wealth without knowledge !•— 6^ 

ddnish datdat chtst ! 
Know — Do you know what people think of him? — ayd 

ml-ddned ahl-irduniyd (o-rd chi taut ml-pinddrand ? {dear 

hdh4-o chi gumdn ml-barand.) 



LiABOUR — They labour hard for their living. — az bard,e 

guzrdnri'khud (niihnat mv-kashand). (mihnat ml-barand ; 

taUchhe mihnat mv^hashand; saihthe mihnat mi-khw- 

and.) Or, eshdn ha mushakkat-i-tamdn ma ash ml- 

kunand. 
Ijabourers — ^Here are fifty labourers employed. — in jd 

badin kdr panjdh mazdur [mashghul and), (ishtighdl 

ddrand,) 
Lakh — It will cost a lakh of rupees. — kharch-i-dn yak sad 

hazdr rupaiya khipdhad shud. 
LiAME — Being lame he walks with a stick. — ba sahab-i-langi 

ha madad-i-asd mi-gardad. 
Land — ^Will you go by land or by sea? — az rah-i-khushkt 

iipdhed raft yd (ha tari) ? {az rdh4-b(j^r.) 
LiAND — ^Where do you mean to land ? — kujd irdda^ (pa,in 

shudan) dared f (farud dmAxdan.) 
Landlord — ^Muhammad Husain is the landlord of this 

house ; I am his tenant. — Muhammad huisain mdUk-i-in 

khdna ast; man kirdyaddr-ash-am. 
Languor — I am overcome with languor. — bar man mdn- 

dagt ghdlib ast. Or, man mMghJivh-i-zc^lfi gashta am. 
Large — I caught a large fish yesterday. — dtroz (ba) dam 

mdh%e kaldn giriftam. (dar.) 
Last — I saw him last Tuesday. — man ba si-shafnha,$ 

gyzashta o-rd dtdam. Or, man az si-shamba,e guzashta 

o-rd na dtdam. 



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850 laugh — leave. 

LAUGH-r-Why do jou laugh without reason? — he sahab 
chira (ml-khanded) ? (kkanda shuma-ra mi-girad ; tabas- 
sum mi-kuned ; khanda shumd-rd mt-dyad.) 

Lawful — Is it lawful to do this ? — dyd in chunin kardan 
(rawd)a8t? {jd,iz; mubdh; mashru,) 

Laid — Having laid by his profits, he became rich. — o az 
jamC dwardan^^manafa^'i-'khud (tawdngar) shud. (datdat- 
mand; khuddwand-i-rozl : 8dhib4-dunyd ; sdhUhi-dauUu ; 
mustaghnl; ghflnl; khuddwand-i-ni^mat.) 

Lay — Let us lay aside everything that is evil.— ma-ra 
bdyad ki har shardrat-rd yak taraf bi-nihem. Or, md-rd 
bdyad ki har Jdvahdsat-rd bi-guzdrem. Or, md-rd bdyad ki 
har fahhdski rikd bi-kunem. Or, md-rd bdyad ki az har 
mandhiyat (bi-parddzem). (dost bi-kashem ; dost bar 
ddrem ; tajannvh, or, ijtindb, or, ihtirdz bi-kunem.) 

Leads. — That poor man is blind, another leads him. — an 
miskin nd-bind ast, digare rdh-bar-ash mi-bdshad. Or, 
an nd-kas a'mg ast, digare ^asd-kash-i-o mi-bdshad. 

Lead — Where does this road lead to ? — m rdh kujd (mi- 
ravad) ? (sar mi-barad.) 

Lean — Don't lean upon the table. — bar mez takiya ma 
(kun), (zan; sdz,) 

Leap— I saw a monkey leap over the fence. — dtdam ki 
buzina,e bar (sadd) jast zad. (barrier, bandrugh ; thorn- 
fence, khdr-handl ; stone-fence, diwar-i-sangl ; pale-fence, 
ddr-bazln,) 

Learn — You can learn faster than l.shumu az man 
jaldtar dmokhtan mv-tawdned. 

Lease — I took a lease of this house for five years. — In 
Ichdna-rd td ba muddat-i-panj sal (kirdya kardam). (ha 
kirdya giriftam ; ba ijdra giriftam) 

Leave — It is lato, let us now take leave. — der shuda ast, 
bi-guzdr hi mura khkTia j bi-shavem. Or, tahdumn shuda 
ast, ijdzat hi-dih ki rukhsat bi'{gtrem). (shavem.) 
I WAVE — It is said he intends soon to leave this country.— 
mugoyand ki irdda.e raftan az vn mulkjaldl ddrad. 

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Ud^Uberty. 351 

Led — He led so bad a life no one respected him. — raftar- 

ash In chunin had hud hi kase o-ra (^izzai) na hard. 

{ikram; ihtiram; tajcnih; makrimat ; ta^zim; hurmat) 
Left — He left all his business to his clerk. — hama kdr o 

bdr^'khud-rd {hawala,e muharnr hard), (dar or ha 

hawala.e katib dad,) 
Left — Being lame of bis right hand, he writes with the 

left. — chun ha dast-i-rdst lunj ast ha dast-i'chap mt- 

nawisad.^ 
LegibiiE — This writing is not legible. — m dast-JcJiatt 

khwdnda shudant nlst. Or, In dast-khatt mumkin nut 

hi khwdnda ahavad. 
Leg — He fell off his horse, and broke his leg. — az asp-i- 

khud uftddy wa sdk-ash shikast. 
Leisure — Sir, are you now at leisure, can I speak with 

you? — sdhibd shumd [fdr igh ed) : mard ijdzdt ant hi 

suhhane hi-goyam ? {-rdfursat ast ; -rdfardghat ast.) 
Lend — I am very poor, can you lend me a few rupees ? — 

nian khaili (mufiisyam, shumd mi-4awdned hi kadre put 

ha man karz hi-dihed ? (mafluh; m^skin; mustamm^nd; 

ff karib.) 
Less — My wages are less than his. — muwdjih-irwan az 

mushdhira,e o ham ast. 
Let — Why did you let loose the horse ? — chird a^sp-rd wd 

guzdshted ? 
Let — Let us see if we can read this book. — (dida shavad) ki 

m kitdh-rd khwdndan ml-tawdnem yd na. (hirhlnem.) 
Lkvel — The ground is quite level. — zamtn hi-l-kuU (mu- 

sattah) ast. {hamwdr ; hardhar.) 
Liable — By doing this you are liable to a penalty. — az 

chunin JVl ha shumM {siydsat Idzim) ml-dyad. (jtmndna 

jd.iz.) 
Liberal — He is exceedingly liberal. — o hisiydr kartm ast. 

Or, o nihdyat (saiM) ast. . (jauwdd^) Or, o khaili 

{sam^hat) ddrad. {karam ; futuwat ; jud o sakhd.) 
LiBBBTY — They were in prison, but are set at liberty. — 

./ 



yGood^ 



359 lieka—Uke. 

whan dor zindan budand, magar J^alan (riha,t) yafta 

and. (makhlasl; khalasl; ruzjdt,) 
liiCKB— By the deliciousness of the food the dog licks his 

lips. — sag ha lazzat-i-gosht daharM^yd Jchush ml-kunad. 
Licks — The dog licks water with his tongue. — kalb ab ha 

zaban mi-khw^- 
Lid — Lift up the lid of this box. — sar-posh-irln sanduk hata 

bi-glr. 
Lie — He thiiiks nothing of telling a lie. — har lease darogh 

hastan pesh-iro heck muzayaka nlst. Or, darogh. guftan- 

ra hech gunah na mi-fakmad. 
Lies — He lies down under the shade of a cypress tree. — 

o zer-i-sdya^e daraJcht-irsarw (Jch^drra daraz mi-kashad). 

(istirahat mtrkunad.) 
Life — ^Life is short, we ought now to prepare for eternity. 

— zindagi kam cut, md-ra hdyad hi fikr-i-^akihat hi- 

kunem. Or, *umr kotah ast, md-rd hdyad ki {ashab-i- 

dkhirat) taiydr bi-kunem. (az hard^e dkhirat zad-i^rak.) 
Lifeless — He fell to the ground lifeless. — o ha zamtn be 

jdn uftdd. Or, o ha zamvn he hosk uftdd, wa ba Jehak 

yak'Sdn gasht. 
Light — Is this package light or heavy ? — tn basta {subuUy 

oat yd (girdn).^ ^hhflif^') ^(sakU) 
Light — Tell him to light a fire. — o-rd bi-go hi dtash biydf- 

rozad. 
Lighten — ^We must lighten the boat, otherwise it will 

sink. — hdyad ki fnahmula,e kishti-rd zud mbuk birkunem, 

wa iUa dardb (faro ^yjdhad raft), (giark, or mustagi- 

rik, or m ug harrak^ or tna^ghruf: ih^fdhad shvd.) 
Lightens— It lightens very much. — bark ba ifrdt muzanad. 

Or, 9d,ika klifltlt fklrdarakhshad. 
Lightning — I was out yesterday in a storm of thunder 

and lightning. — man dlroz ba waitA-gharxdan-i^a'd wa 

daraMkshldan-i-sd.'iia herun budam. Or, man diroz dar 

zer-i'tufdn wa daraiAshtdan-irbark budam. 
Like — ^My house is Tery much like yours. — khdna,e manba 

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like— 'load. 353 

'ikana,e shumd (mumasilat) ddrad. (mushdhihat.) Or, 

hhana.e man {bar misalyi-khdna.e shumd ast. (ba or 

lid misal,) 
Like — I should like 'much to visit Europe. — {mara shauk- 

i'Jirdwdn) ast hi sair-i-rrndk-i-mughrib bi-kunam. (man 
. hisiydr shauk^ or ishtiydk ddram,) 
Limited — I am limited ngt to give more than one hundred 

rupees.— ;2;tya<:^ az yak ^ad rupiya ba man (parwdnagt) 

nist hi bi-diham. (ijdzat.) 
Lining — This cloth must have a lining. — in pdrcha-rd 

astar (zarur) ast, (Idzim; wdjib.) Or, in ahra astar 

mt'Ickwdhad. 
Links — How many links are there in that chain? — dn 

zanjlr chand halka ddrad ? Or, dar dn silsila chand td 

halka ast I 
Lion — A lion is stronger than a tiger. — asad az sher (zor- 

dward)tar ast. (katbi.) 
Lips — Her lips are red. — labhd,e dn zan (surkh) and, (la*l ; 

mtssal'i-marjdm. ) 
Liquid — Ts tiie medicine you speak of a liquid ? — dawd.e 

hi shwnd zikr-ash mi-kuned rakVc ast. 
List — ^Write a list of the things sent to Tihran. — ashyd 

ki ba tehrdn mursil shuda ast fihrist-ash bi-naivis. 
Listen — Listen to what I tell you. — dnchi ml-goyam gosh 

kun. Or, guftdr-i-man ba gosh-i-jdn bi-shinau. Or, 

kaul-i-man andar-i-gosh (bi-gir), (biydwar,) 
LiTEBAii — The translation is too literal. — In tarjuma ziyd- 

datar (harf ba harf) ast. {lafzl.) 
Little — Give me a little, I don't ask for much. — ba man 

kadre bi-dih, hisiydr na mi-ihipdham. 
Lively — He is of a lively disposition. — o khush {ab' ast. 
Live — I shall respect him as long as I live. — td dn ki zinda 
am {o-rd Hzzat) ihwdham kard. (ikrdm-i-o ; ta^zim-i-o.) 
Load — He told me to load the boat with indigo. — o ba man 

guft ki man kiskH-rd [az nil pur) bi-kunam. {ba nU pur 
bar.) 



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354 loaded — lose. 

Loaded — Is this gun loaded ? — aya in tufang pur ast f 
Loadstone — Do you know the virtue of the loadstone ? — 

khdssiyat4'[sang4-WMkncUts) ml-ddned ? (ahan-ruhd.) 
Loan — May I heg the loan of this book ? — az rdh-i-mihr' 

hanl In kitab-rd ha man i^driydt) khwdhed ddd. (ta*dr- 

rufan; ^driyatan; amdnatan.) 
Loaves — Tell the baker to give three loaves. — ha luln-paz 

hukm bi-dih ki o si nan bi-dihad. 
Lock — There is no lock to your box. — sandt^'i-shuma^-rd 

kufl nist). (kufl na ddrad ; he kufl ast) 
Lodge — Where shall we lodge to-night? — imshah kujd 

(manzil hi-ddrem)? (pd,m hi-shavem ; shah ha sat 

hiydwarem; hi-guzrdnem; mutawakkif hi-shavem; sukunai 

hi-pazirem ; mutamakkin hi-shavem,) 
Lofty — ^These rooms are very lofty. — in hujrahd hisiydr 

(hvland) and. (rafi\) 
Loiter — Why do you thus loiter away your time ? — shumd 

chird in chunin taur avkdi-i-khud-rd dar gJaaflat zdyi* 

mi-hmed ? Or, . shumd chird in chunin taur aiydm-i- 

khud-rd (ha hdd) mi-dihed ? {muft az dost.) 
Long — How long is this piece of cloth ? — in pdrcha,e jdma 

chi kadar {tawil ast). (dardz ast; till or tawalat 

ddrad,) 
Long — How long shall you remain there? — td ha chand 

roz dn jd khwdhed midnd ? 
Look — ^Let me look through your spying-glass. — hi-guxdr 

ki man ha durhm-i-shunid hi-hinam. 
Looking-glass — ^When you go to Shiraz buy me a looking- 
glass. — wakte ki ha shirdz hi-raved yak {d.ina) az hard,e 

man hi-khared, (sdjanjal.) 
Loose — Try if you can loose (untie) this knot. — koshish hi- 

kuned ki shumd in gira-rd (wa) kardan hi-tawdned, 

(hall; hdz,) 
Loose — ^The joints of this chair are very loose. — handhd^e 

In kursi hisiydr {sust) shuda and, (hazz ; shvU,) 
Lose — Take care you don't lose the knife I gave you.— 



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loss — mad. 356 

karde ki man ba shuma dddam Jckabar-ddr an-ra gum na 

kuned. 
Loss — He has met with great loss. — o-rd bisiydr Jchisdrat 

rasida ast Or, nuksan-i-firawdn bar o {uftada) ast. 

i^ariz gashta ; *a,id gardtda ; waki^ shuda ; wdrid shuda ; 

rasida.) 
Lost — He lost his way in coming from the city. — wdkte ki 

az shahr baz ml-amad rah gum kard. 
L0T8 — ^I purchased five lots at to-day's sale. — ba harrdyi- 

imroz panj 'adad-i-asJiiyd Jcharldam. 
Lots — They cast lots ; the lot fell on him. — kur'a afgand- 

and ba ndm-ash kura (uftdd), {bar dmad.) 
Lotus — This is the flower of the lotus. — xngui-i-nilufaraAt, 
Love — They have no love for each other. — eslidn bdham 

(mu^bat) na ddrand. {muwaddat ; uifat ; . unsiyat ; 

mu,dnasat; khuUat.) 
Low — ^This is a very low room. — tn hi^ra MkaUt (jpast) ast. 

(Jarud; nd-hdand.) 
Low — The pric^ he asks is very low. — ktmaUi-bisiydr kam 

mt-kh^dhad. 
Lower — Lower this hucket into the well. — dar chdh in 

dalw-rd pdyin bi^kun. 
Lucrative — ^Theirs is a lucrative employment. — kdr-i-eshdn 

bisiydr {naf) ddrad. (manfd'at ; inXijW ; fdyida.) 
Luggage — Put this luggage in the boat — dar zauraf: In 

asbdb-rd bi-guzdr. 
Lusty — He is now grown very lusty, — bisiydr {/arbih) 

gashta ast. (chWc.) 



M. 

Machine — What is the name of this machine ?— M??i-i-tn 

(san'at) chlst ? (dlat.) 
Mad — He was bit by a mad dog. — o az sag-i-diwdna gazlda 

shud. Or, sag-i-diwdna o-rd gazld 



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358 made — marriage. 

Made — He made me write the letter directly. — o az man 

fi-lrfaur khatt natmsdntd. 
Made— Having made a pen, he hegan to write. — kalam 

tardshtda naudshtan (girift). (shuru^ kard,) 
Magnificent — These are magnificent apartments. — In 

hujrahd kjiaili (Jdlishdn) and. (zu-l-rafa'at.) 
Maid-servants — He has two maid-servants. — o du{mashdta) 

ddrad. (hand-anddz; zan-naukar.) 
Make — Make haste and write the letter. — zud bash wa In 

Jdkati-rd birnawts. Or, In khjott fi-l-faur bi-nawts. 
Manages — Who manages his affairs? — kdr-iro ki{ml-kunad) ? 

(ba sar-anjdm mi-rasdnad.) Or, ki tartlb-i-muhimM-irO 

mi'kunad ? Or, add^e kdr-ash ba zimma,e hist ? 
Mankind — We ought to love all mankind. — mdrrd bdyad 

ki ba Juana insdn (dostt) bi-ddrem. (tdfat ; ikhfks ; 

muhabbat; una; istlnds; muwaddat; yaganagiyat.) 
Manner — He spoke to us in this manner. — badm(iaur)bd 

mu sukhan guft. {namat ; minwdl ; tank ; sabU ; wa^h ; 

doAtur; nahaj ; tarah.) 
Manure — This garden needs some manure. — In bostdn kud 

mi-khwdhad. Or, m bdgh zarurat-isargin ddrad. Or, 

in rauza-rd i^tiydj-i-sargin ast. 
Map — Show me a map of Persia. — ba man naksha,e Iran 

(bi-namd). (nishdn bi-dih.) 
Marble — This floor is paved with marble, and inlaid with 

turquoise.— /a7^A-i-m iMna {rukhdm anddihta shuda ast 

wa ihishthdye firuza dar dn sdkhta). {az marniar wa 

ihishthdye firuza mt-shavad,) 
March — The regiment will march to-morrow. — faujfarda 

kuch khwdhad kard. 
Mark — Put a mark on the paper that is yours. — kajj^kaze ki 

aa dn-i-shumd ast bar dn nishdn bi-kun. 
Market — I have been to the market. — man ba bdzdr (buda 

am), {rafta budam.) 
Marriage — When wUl his marriage take place ? — shddl.e 

o kai MkVfdhad shud ? Or, mundkahat kai khwdhad kard? 



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master — mereifuL. 867 

Or, ^akd-i-nikdh kai ihwahad hast? Or, o zane-ra kai 

dar 'akd-i-nikah khwahad award? Or, o kai juftekkwdhad 

girift ? Or, o kai zane khwahad khwaat ? 
Master — He is a very kind master (meaniug, teacher or 

preceptor). — o hisiyar mihrhan ttstade ast. 
Master — Is your master (meaning a European gentleman) 

at home ? — agifi.e shumd ba khdna mv-bdshad ? 
Mate — Call the carpenter and his mate now. — najjdr wa 

(rafik-a^h) hi-goyed Id fo^faur bi-dyand, [shdgird-ash ; 

wa dn ddm ki bd o ear o kdr bdshad.) 
Materials — How can they work without materials? — be 

sdmdn kdr chiguna mt-tawdnand kard ? 
Means — By what means can you do this? — ba chi tadbir 

in-rd mi-tawdned kard ? Or, shumd dar ddd,e m kdr chi 

dost ras paidd kardan ml-tawdned ? 
Mean — I mean to go to Bagdad to-morrow.— ^farda irdda.e 

rqftan (ba) baghddd ddram. (-i-.) 
Measure — ^Measure this cloth. — In pdrcha^rd (hirp(dmd). 

(gaz bi-kun,) 
Measure — This is a kind of measure. — In yak kisme ast az 

(makddr). [paimd,ish; anddza.) 
Meet — Meet me at Maulavi Said's house to-morrow. — 

far da ba khdna ,6 mxtvlawi sa'ld (ba man) mvldfcdt bi-kuned. 

(mard; bd man.) Or, az bardie mtddkdt (kardan-i-man) 

farda ba makdm-i-miUld sa^ld hdzir bdshed. (-am.) 
Memoirs — I am reading a book of memoirs. — Htdb-i-tazkirat 

mi-khwdnam. 
Memoranpum — Make a memorandum of this. — ydd-ddsht-i- 

in bi-nawis. 
Mbmobt — I have a bad memory. — hdfiza,e man mukaddar 

ast. Or, man tdb'-i-ghiobbt ddram. 
Mend — Tell the carpenter to mend this box. — ba darrudgdr 

bi-go ki In sanduk-rd (marammat) bi-kun, (ta^mlr,) 
Merciful— We ought ever to be merciful. — rad-rd bdyad 

ki hamesha (rahlm bdshem), (mushjik; shaftk ; muta- 

rahham,) Or, ma-rd bdyad ki ba har kas ba (rafym wa 



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358 merchandise — mischief. 

shafkat wa w>arh<imat suluk hi-namuyem). {muruwat wa 
futuwat pesh ayem.) 
Merchandise — This is an article of merchandise. — in jins- 

{-(tijarat) ast, (dad o sitad; sauddgan; haV-i-farokhtan 

wa kharJdan.) 
Merchant — He is now a merchant in Teheran. — o dar 

tahrdn (sauddgare) ast. (tdjire ; bdzargdne,) 
Met — I walked four miles and met no one. — chahdr mil 
^ raftam ha hech has mulakat na kardam. Or, chahdr mil 

mrasdfat kardam ha hech kas mutdki na shiidam. 
Method — What is the hest method (mode) of learning a 

language? — dar dmoMktan4-zahan kuddm tarik hihtar ast? 
Mid-day — I did not arrive there till mid-day. — td ha wakt- 

i-nlm-roz dnjd na rastdam. 
Middle — Shall I put it at the top, or in the middle? — in- 

rd hdtd hirguzdram yd darmiydn ? 
Middling — This paper is middling. — In kdghaz mutawassit 

ast. 
Mild — She is i^ild in temper. — dn sdhiba mizdj'i'(miLld,im) 

ddrad, (Jkallm.) 
Mind — I have considered this in my own mind. — man dar 

hdh-irin dar khdtir-i-khud (andesha) karda am, {fikr; 

tajwiz; ta.ammal; tqfaJckur.) 
Minded — Had you minded what he said, then it would be 

well. — agar ha dnchi o guft muttafik mt-shudedpas hihtar 

bude. Or, agar sukhan-ash kahbl ml-ddshted chi khush 

hude! 
Mines — Lead and copper are dug out of mines. — surb wa 

mis az (m'adan) kanda mi-shavad. (kdn,) 
Minute — I shall return in one minute.— dar yak daJctka bdz 

khwdham dmad. Or, dar turfatri-l-^ain mwrdja'at 

Mwdham kard. 
Mirth — They are full of mirth.-T-^s^an az khushl dar jama 

na mi-gunjand. 
Mischief — They are always in mischief. — eshan hamesha 

muzl and. 



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miserable — missed, 859 

Miserable — The wicked man is always miserable. — adam- 
irhad hamesha (dardmand) mi-manad. imunnaghis : 
manhus ; zaM ; shikasta-hcU mtiztarib ; muntashirr,) 

Misers — Misers never think they have enough. — diddle 
ahlri-tama' ba nVmaUi-dmtya pur na mi-shavad. Or, 
harisan ha jahane gursina and. Or, dida^e tang-i-hanSan 
ni^mM-i-dunya pur na mi-kunad. 

Misery. — They live in great misery. — eshdn dar hdlat-i- 
(kharabt) guzran ml-kunand, [miskmi; ^iisrcU; maska- 
nat; ziUat; shikasta-halu) 

Misfortune — He has met with a great misfortune. — bar o , 
ham bakhthe 'a^im uftdda ast. Or, bar o afat-i-huzurg 
ru,e ddda ast. Or, ba anwd^-i-fitnahd mubtala gardida 
ast. Or, zamdna o-rd hadaf-i'tir-i-batd sdkhta ast. Or, 
zamana sang-i-mtistbat az manjanik-i-baid bar sar-ash 
zcida ast. 

Misled— I was grievously misled by following your 
advice. — az paziraftan4-na8\hat-i-shurnd khatde saijkt 
khurdam. Or, az kahtU kardan-i-mashwarat-i-shumd 
I ihailt fareb khurdam'. 

Mismanagement — This is owing to your mismanagement. 
— az be tadhvn,e shurnd In chunin kdr wdki^ shud. 
Or, az be intizdmi,e shumd In ba zuhur dmada ast. 
Or, azmubdsharat-i-nd'}chair'i-shum>d In itiifdk uftdda ast. 

Misspend — ^We ought not to misspend our time. — wafit-i- 
khud-rd (zd,i^ kardan) mundsib nlst. (be fd,ida az dast 
dddan.) 

MiSKECKONED— I supposo you have misreckoned these 
rupees ; count them again. — {nuizinna ddram ki shumd 
dar shimurdan-i-tn rupiyahd ghalat) karda ed; bdz 
bi-shimdred, [gumdn ddram ki d<ir ta'ddd-i-in muhlaghdn 
sahw,) 

Misrepresented — He has much misrepresented the 
matter. — o In mukaddam^-rd bar {khbildf wd) namuda ast, 
{gifiir hakk nakl munkaUb; nd-rdst; mahdkat; *aks zdhir, ) 

Missed — They fired several times at a leopard, but missed 

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860 mined-^motion. 

it.— fca palang chand bar tufang (khali kardand), amma 

ihatd^ kardand. (sar kardand ; zadand) 
Missed — I missed him on the road. — man dar rah zdhil 

shudam, o-rd na dtdam. Or, sahwan nazar-uman bar o. 

nayuftud. 
Mistake — You mistake my meaning. — shumd matlah-i- 

mard gholat ml-ddned. Or, ba khatir-i'Shumd fiuoHnx^e 

maksad-i-m^n na nit-dyad. Or, shumd ba m/tghz-i- 

mvdd%e man namurased. Or, ba matlab-am ghalat mt- 

kunM. 
Mistrust — We should not mistrust without cause. — be 

sabab az hech kas {he Htibdr) shudan mundsih nlsU (bad- 

€tikdd; bad-gum^dn ; dar shvhha ; dar shakk.) 
Mix — Mix these together. — In har du-rd bdham (biydmez). 

(makhlut, or taM^lty or ddkhil, or jam^ bi-kun; ihisdn,) 
Mock— It is improper to mock any one. — bar hech kas 

{nakl) kardan mundsih nut, {tamaskhur ; tcHna ; istihzd ; 

mazak ; maskhara ; istikhrd : maza; kharida-rish ; maz- 

hak ; tagimt.) 
Modest — He is of a modest disposition. — o mizdj-i'Sharm- 

dgin ddrad. Or, tab'-i-dn shakhs mahjub asU Or, o 

{sharm-ru) a>st. (jidhib-i'lyiiyd ; khdshV.) 
Molest — They molest us very much. — eshdn mdrd {tash- 

wlsh-i-'azim mldihand.) (dikk or mushauwash or azdr 

mi-kunand; taklif or tasdV mt-dihand,) Or, eshdn bar 

hdl'i-md taarruz ml-kunand. Or, eshdn muta'arriz-i- 

hdl'i-md mushavand, 
Monet — I shall receive the money after one month. — 

(ba'd az inkizd.e yak mdh) pul ha dMst-i-man khwdJiad 

rasld, {wakte ki yak mdh munkazl khyDdhad shud.) 
Moon — The moon has not yet risen. — td hanoz mdhtdh bar 

na khdsta ast. [full moon, badr : mdh-i-chahdr ddh; 

new moon, m5A-i-waw; hildl; kurraje mdh; awwal-i-nidh,] . 
Motion — The motion of this wheel is very quick. — (iitara- 

katy-i-tn {chartEf bisiydr zud ost. \gardish ; jumbish ; 

tahwlt; inkirdz; taJparrvk; daur.) ^{'vjlat) 

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motive — mute. 361 

Motive — "What is your motive for doing tbis ? — chi (6a*w 

ast) hi %n kdr mukuned ? (ffuitlah or wajh or mudd'd or 

daiyat dared,) 
Mountain — Have you seen the Himalaya mountain? — 

aya koh-irhimalaya mushdhida karda ed ? 
Mounted — Having mounted his horse, he rode off. — bar 

asp-i-khyd sawdr slmd, wa bar tdkht. 
Mourns — The v^rhole country mourns his loss. — ba rndtam- 

i-marg-ash ahl-i'tarridm mtdk siydh mt-poshand. Or, az 

murdan-ash ahl-i-tamdm mvik {maghmum) shuda and, 

(jndtam zada.) 
Muddy — ^Why do you bathe in muddy water? — chird dar 

db'i-(mtikaddar) ghusl mi-kuned? (tira; mutakaddar ; 

muLawwas,) 
Mule — I have bought a mule for 200 rupees. — kdtire {du 

sad rupiya-rd) kharida am. (ba du sad rupiya.) 
Murdered — He was murdered by robbers. — o az dast-i- 

duzddn (kushta shud). {ba kail rasid ; munkatl, or katiU 

or maktuL shud.) 
Murmuring — ^They are always murmuring. — eshdn hamesha 

(shikdyat) mi-kunand. (gila; wa'wa^t.) Or, eshdn 

ddyirnvrl-aukat marmar ml-zanand. 
Music — Are you fond of music ? — dyd mushtdk ba (sarod) 

mi-bdshed ? {tashaiyud ; samu* ; tarranum ; maldhl.) 

Or, dyd (nagima-rd pasand) ml-ddred ? (Um-i-musiki' 

rd dost.)* 
Mute — I spoke several times, but still they continued 

mute. — man chand bdr guftam, ammd (khdmosh) rridnd- 

and. (sdkit; sakin.) 



* Kettledrum, fiaAr^ffra. "RarpfChang; barba^. 

Belly jaras. Guitar, sitdr. 

FouT-Btringed instrument. Flute, nai. 

rabdb. 
Trumpet, Jcamd,e; kamd; 
iomdi huk ; fur. 



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362 muttuil'-^neglecU 

Mutual — This will be for our matual benefit. — In {fd,idd,e 
tarafain) khypakad bud. (mttftd-i-janibain.) 

N. 

Naked— In parts of Persia little children are accustomed 
to go naked. — dar ba'ze nawah%,efdTS tiflagan {ha gaslUan 
dor i>alat'i-barhanagi mu^tad and), i^adat-i-gashtan dar 
Jfulat-i-'uryat ddrand ; 'uryan ml-bashand.) 

Name — This vessers name is the Zuleika. — ism-i-ln jahaz 
zuLaikhd ast. Or, In jahaz zulaikha nam ddrad. Or, 
badin jahaz zulaikha nam ddda and. Or, tn jahaz 
mv*ammgi ba ism-i-zvlaikha ast. Or, m jahaz ba ztdaiiha 
mamum gashtd asU 

Nation — All the people of this nation speak his praise. — 
hat kaum-i-ln muUc ta^rif-iro mi-kunand. Or, sair-i- 
'awammttrnrnas'i-tn balad Mkutbafe tahsin ba nam-ash mt- 
ilmfcmand. 

Nature — The tiger is fierce by nature. — sher az {sarishtY 
{muhibby ast. \zat ; jibiUat.) ^{tund-mizaj ; shaded.) 

Naughty — She is a naughty girl.-^— an dukhtarak (sharir) 
ast (shokh-chashm.) 

Navigation — Have you learnt navigation? — shumumallahl 
(amokhta ed) ? {yad girifta ed.) 

Necessary — Jt is not anyways necessary that you should 
go there. — ba hech wajh {zarur nlst) ki shuma an jd bi- 
raved. (Idzim or wdjib naydyad.) 

Need— I have need of your assistance. — ba madad-i-shuma 
(muhtdj) hastam. {hajat or ihtiyaj ddram.) Or, mard 
irndddri-shumd zarur ast. 

Needful — It is absolutely needful that I should go. — 
il^tiydj mai^z ast ki man an jd bi-ravam. Or, raftan-i- 
man az jumla^e zaruriydt ast. 

Neglect — Tliis is owing to your neglect. — az ihrn^t-i- 
shum^a InTa zuhur dmada ast. Or, az ta^dful-i-shumd 
in %Dak€ shuda cut. Or, az be-khfibari,e shumd In ba 
umkU' rastda ast. Or, az {tahdwunyishtimd in ba man- 



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negligent — number, 363 

iaba'e shuhud amada aat. {ghfiflat; mttsahilat; mvaa- 

maJiat; tamhU.) . 
Negligent — They are idle and negligent. — eahdn {tust wa 

Sl&afU) and, [battal wa kahil; bdtU wa muhmal; mu^attal 

wa musahU,) Or, eskan smtl wa ghafiat ml-(warzand). 

(kunand.) 
Neighboub — ^He is a neighbour of mine. — o {ham-8dya),e 

man asU {jar; jd,ir ; ham-dtwdr; ham-jawdr. Or, o 

{mutta^y%'khdna.e man mutawakkif ast, (kartb.) 
Neighbourhood — ^He lives in this neighbourhood. — o dar 

in hamsdya0 (sukunat) ddrad, (maskan,) Or, o dar 

In kurb (muklm) ast. {sakin; miUawakkif; sukunat- 

pazlr.) 
Next — ^We m\\ go there next month. — wa mdk4-dyanda 

dnja khwdham raft. 
Nib — I have broken the nib of my pen. — [zabdnyi-kalam' 

i'khyd sJdkasta am. (nok ; sar ; fdk ; nesh ; dam,)- 
Nipped — I nipped my fingers with the pincers. — an- 

gushthd,e khMd-ra ba minkdsh afshurdam. 
Noise — I cannot bear so much noise.— wan tdkat-i-m 

ehunin ghau^ha 7ia mi-tawdnam dward. Or, man 

tahammuli-chunin (rnashg&fiUa) na ml-tawdnam kard. 

(shaghf: g ka lgh ala : shor wa ghul; ghulgkul.) Or, In 

chuntn ghul-gkadar-rd mutahammil na ml-tawdnam shud. 
Nonsense — What they say is all nonsense. — dnchi ml- 

goyand Kama (wdhiydt) ast, [ydwa^go^l; behuda-go,t,) 

Or, eshdn suMkan-i-ikhiildt mirgoyand. 
Nonsuited — The plaintiff was nonsuited. — mukaddama.e 

mvdda'i [hMrij) shud, {rid manz,ur,) 
Nothing — ^He asked, but I gave him nothing. — o kh^jdst 

w(jt lekin pashtze na didam. 
Numb — My fingers are numb with cold. — az sarmd an- 

gushthd,e man {khushk) shuda and. (gifiir-irhiss wa 

jumbish,) 
Number — What number of persons were present ? — chand 

nafar hdzir budand ? 

U 

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364 numerous — object, 

NuMEBOcs — There are numerous errors in your writing. — 

dar natmhta,e shumd bisiydr ghalatha and. 
Nui^E — They took with them their little child and its 

nurse. — eshan tifl'i'kuchdk'i-Jchud bd ma* ddya ham^dh-i- 

tJmd'i'Shdn burdand. 
Nurtured — He was delicately nurtured. — o mutana"im 

bud wa say a parwarda. Or, dar n^mat wa rdhat wa 

dsdfish aukdt guzrdnid. 



Oars — How can the boatmen row without oars? — * 

baghair az (hallsahd)^ chiguna QiaXua-zandn)^ kashidan 

mi-tawdnand? \Mkdda; jqfddk ; majzdf; mikzdf.) 

^(malWMn,) 
Oath — In a court it is usual for witnesses to take an oath. 

— ma'mul ast ki gawdhdn hasbu-lrkdnun dar 'adalat kasam 

bi'JchuTand. Or, dar *addlat hasbu4-ma*mul shdhiddn 

saugand ml-lchyLrand. 
Obedience — ^You should pay obedience to his orders. — 

mundsib ast ki (mutdba^ atyi-hukm-i-o bi-kuned. (itd'at ; 

tjaat; mutdwaat; inkiydd.) Or^ mundsib ast ki shumd 

(mutVyi'hukmri^ bi-bdshed. {/armdn-barddr ; mutdbV ; 

tdbi^.) Or, wdjib ast ki shumM bar Ickott-^JO'rmmi-ash 

sar-i'ikud himhed. 
Obedient — Good children are obedient to their parents and 

obliging to every one. — -farzanddn-irarjimand tabi^4-v:dli- 

dain-i-khyd wa ba Kama kas (mutawdzi') mi-bashand. 

{nawdzish-numd ; khoMk: adab wa azurm-num^.) 
Obey — I must obey his orders. — m^rd bdyad ki hukm-ash 

ba jdbiydram. Or, mard bdyad ki (^uhudiyatyi-hukm-i-o 

bi'kunam,* {tctat.) 
Object — What was the object of your going there? — 

gkaraz-i-raftan-i'shumd dar dn jd chi bud ? 

* *ubudiyat is used to express obedience to God. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



oblige — offence. 365 

* 
Oblige— You should try to oblige your m&sier. —bay ad ki 

dar (razamandl),e aka.e Mmd koshish bi-huned. (khush- 

nudi)^ Or, bayad ki sdhih-i-ihyd-rd Mush bi-kuned. 

{masrur ; khmhnud.) 
Obsctoe— These words are obscure.— tn alfdz (muMak) 

and. {mu^amma; gh alk.) 
Obsolete— This term has become obsolete.- m utUdh 

ilhal (matruk) ast. {mansukh; muhmal ; mu'aital; 

bUa isti'mal.) 
Obstacle— This is an obstacle to mj learning.— Iw (maniy 

i-ta'llm'i-man ast. [mutaarriz; mawdni' ; sadd; mu- 

zahim. ; mumdni\) 
Obstinate— They are obstinate in their opinions.— ^sAan 

dar rd,e Jchyd bisiydr (khud-sar) and. (sar-kash ; muta'- 

assab ; ihyd-pasand ; mudnid; mutamarrid, gardan-kash.) 
Occasion — There was no occasion for your coming. 

dmadan-i-shumd dar m jd darkdr na bud. 
Occasioned — He has occasioned his parents trouble. o 

8ahab4-ranj4-wdlidain4'khud gardld. Or, o ba pidar o 

mddar4'khud (tasdt) ddda ast. (zuhmat; iztirdb; taklif.) 
Occupied — ^After another month, I shall have occupied 

this house twenty years. — ba'd az itmdm-i-mdh-i'digar 

bist 8dl kdmU khwdhad shvd ki dar in hhdna tawakkuf 

warzula am. 
Occurred— I don't remember this ever to have occurred 

before. — {dar ydd-i-man na mi-dyad) ki in chunin amr 

pesh az in ittifdk uftdd. (ydd na ddram.) 
Occurrence — This is a very remarkable occurrence. in 

amre bisiydr ('ajib) ast. (gtarib ; nadir; ta*ajjuhndk ; 

muta'ajjib.) 
Odd — ^This is a very odd kind of expression. — in kaldme- 

'ajib ast. 
Offence — ^What oflfence have I committed ? — chijurm az 

man ba wujud dmada ast ? Or, chi taksir az wujud-i- 

man sar bar zada ast? Or, ba chi ma'si mubtala gardida 

am? Or, chi ihatd az man sddir shvda ast ? 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



366 offending — oppodtion. 

Offenbiko — I cannot think of thns offending hira.- 

na mi'ib^oham hi o-ra tn ehmiln {ruMiusK) sazam. 

(ranja^khalir ; dUrazurda: tagkytz,) Or, mara paumd 

nut hi mujih-irdzdr^-MMiir-Mk shavam. 
Offered — Had I« known this before, I should have offered 

you my services. — agar kabl ax In In amr-ra mi-danistam 

hara,e imdad4-skuma hazir budame. 
Office — I am going to Mr. 's office. — ba daftar- 

}ckdna,eftUdn sahib mt-ravam. 
Officer — He is a European officer. — o sarhange az ahl-u 

Jarang ast, [Civil officer, 'uhdorddr ; manfab-ddr ; ^a$nal' 

ddr ; military officer, gipah-sdldr; sarddr.] 
Old — Once upon a time an old man and an old woman 

went to the forest to gather sticks. — bdre az bard,ejam* 

kardan-d'hezum ptr-marde wa ptr-zane dar besha rafiand, 

[Old man, /arfut; mard-i-kuhn-sdl: mard-i-sdl'Jckurda ; old 

woman, /arfti^a; ^ajur; zan-i-kuhn-sdl ; zanrisdl-khy^rda,] 
Omission — ^There is some omission in copying. — d>ar nakl 

kardan-irin chlze mdnda asL Or, dar sawdd kardan-i-ln 

chtze (faro guzdskt) shuda ast, (tark ; imhdl karda.) 
Omitted — I omitted to mention that. — man fardmosh 

kardam ki an suJcJkan bi-goyam. 
Omnipotent — God is omnipotent and omnipresent, — khudd 

(kddir wa ha/r jd kdzir) ast, {kirdagdr wa dar hama gdh.) 
Operate — How does this medicine' operate? — In ddrU 

chiguna {affar mi-kunad)? {tdsir ml-kunad; asar or 

tdslr ddrdd,) 
Opinion — ^What opinion do you form on this subject? — 

ba nazdlk-i-shumd dar bdh-i-in chi maslahat ml-bdshad ? 

Or, dar hdb-iln chi {kiyds mt-kuned) ? {rd,e mi-ddred) 

Or, dar tardzu.e 'akl-i-shurm in amr chi wazn ddrad t 
Opposite — His house is opposite to mine. — maJidm-ash 

(mukabiiyi-lcbanaye num ast. {muhdzl; ru-ba-ru; mu- 

wdzl; mutakdbU.) 
Opposition — He has met with much opposition. — bado 

muhhalifat'i-bisiydr {ru,e ddda) ast. [ruldk namuda; 

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oranges — overlook, 367 

%4d shuda ; ha ss^hur amada,) Or, bisiyar marduman 

bado (ta^arruz) karda and. Uhhtilaff ta'arruz; JcbHaf.) 
Oranges — I have brought some oranges. — man kadre 

narangl (awarda am), {khafida awarda am.) 
Orator — He is celebrated as an orator. — o fasthemashhur 

ast. Or, o siikhan-parddze-m.a'ruf ast,. 
Order — This is an order for a hundred rupis. — In borate 

ast az sad rupiya. Or, in sad rupiya-ra kdghaze-zar ast. 
Order — This school is without order. — in maktab be-{tartlb) 

ast. {intizam ; rabt o zaht.) 
Ordered — I have ordered the goods to be got ready. — mM% 

dar bah'ir(amdda) kardan-i-ajnas hukm karda am. (mu- 

haiyd; taiyar; mmta'id.) 
Oriental — He was well versed in oriental literature. — az 

^Um-i-mashrikt khub wdkif bud. 
Origin — ^Do you know the origin of this saying ? — {asiyi- 

In kalima mt-ddned ? {manshd; bwnydd; mahdd.) 
Original — ^This is not the original writing. — In tahrlr 

(aslt) nist, (asU; 'aim.) Or, m asl ntsty sawdd ast. 
Ornaments — ^They wear diflFerent kinds of ornaments. — 

eshdn {zewarhd),e kism- ba kism mi-poshand. (hulihd; 

tardzhd.) Or, eshdn pirdya.e farah ba tar ah [dar bar) ml- 

kunand. {bar badan.) 
Orphans — These children ar'e orphans — in atfdl yatim and 

(fatherless and motherless). Or, infarzanddn yasir and 

(motherless only). 
Overcome — ^We cannot overcome the enemy. — md bar 

dushman {gbMib shudan) na mi-tawdnem. {yhdlib 

dmadan ; dastyaftan.) Or, ma {bar diishman ghalihd) na 

ml-tawdnem kard. {dushman-rd maghluh or fath,) 
Overflowed — The river has overflowed its banks. — db-i- 

ndhr {az kindra bdld) dmada ast. {ba tughydn ; ba 

saildb.) Or, db-idaryd sail-rawdn buda ast. 
Overlook — It is better that you overlook his offence. — In 

bihtar ast ki {az khatd.e o chashm-poshi birfarrridyed), {az 
taisir-ash dar guzared ; zambash bi-baMsfihed ; kusur-iro-rd 
mu*af bi-kuned,) 

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868 overset — pardon. 

Overset — ^A sudden gust of wind overset the boat. — yak 
hargl tapancha.e bM safinorra bar garddnld. Or, yak- 
d-yak naf^t-i-bad kishtlrd (wdzk-gnn) hard, (nigun; 
munkalib; wdzh-guna.) 

Oxen — Whose oxen axe these? — tnmuwdshlydn az dn-i-kist? 



Packet — I have received a packet from Isfahan. — az 

Isfahan ba chdpari kkarifa.e kJ^u tvt (6a dast-i-nian 

rasida ast), {ydfta am,) 
Page — In what page of the book does the word occur ? — 

dar kuddm 8a/ha,e kitab an lafs^ [mi-dyad) ? {wakV ml- 

shavad.) 
Patnt — Where did you get this paint ? — dyd az kujd In 

rang [gtr)-i'shumd dmad ? (ba dast.) 
Painter — In former times, there lived in China a celebrated 

painter, by name Maui— d^r zamdn-i-salf nakkashe-mmh- 

hur dar muJk'i-chln bud ba nam rndnu Or, dar zarndn-i- 

sdbik (musaumre) maruf dar diydr-i-chin sukunat ddsht 

M ndm-ash mdnt bud, (surat-gare ; nakkash-parddze ; 

timsdl-gare,) 
Pale — He became pale through fear {literally yellow). — 

az khauf za/rd shud. 
Pamphlet — Have you read that pamphlet? — an risdla 

{khtpdnda ed) ? (muUd'ala karda ed ; mulahiza karda ed.) 
Panes — ^There are ten panes of glass in this window. — dar 

m gUstUrfa dah [fanrdyi^Jmha OAt, (khana.) 
Parcel — I have forwarded to him the parcel.— t^wio (bukcha) 

irsdl karda am, (pasta ; dasta,) 
Pardon — Sir, I beg your pardon. — sdhibd mard (mu'df 

bi-farmdyed), (mazur bi-ddred ; 'afw bi-kuned ; bi- 

ydmurzed. *) Or, sdhibd tdlib^-maghfirat-irshurnd hastam. 

Or, sdj^ibd jd,e ma'zarat mard bi-dihed. Or, §d^ibd az 

* imurzidan applies to seeking for forgiveness from Qod only. 

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parents — passengers, 369 

taksir-i-ind maza dar guzared. Or, ai sahib bar man bi- 

haJchshed, Or, sdhibd {*uzram bi-nihed). (mard bahil bi- 

kuned ; mard bihil bi-hmed,) 
Parents — He said that his parents had given him leave to 

do so. — guft ki wdUdain-i-man (jdzat-i-kardan-i-chunln 

kdr ddda budand. 
Partake — I invited him to partake of some fruit, but he 

would not. — man o-rd ba tandurul kardan-i-kadre mewa 

da'wat namudam, wa lekin o (inkdr kard). (aba or istikndf 

or kabul na kard ; sar bdz zad.) Or, m>an o-rd ba sharlk 

shudan-i-tadm dc^wat dddam, wa lekin o iWdz kard. 
Partiality — We ought not to show partiality in our judg- 
ment. — mard bay ad ki dar insdf {tarafddri,e kase na 

kunem),. {taraf-i-kase na girem.) 
Particdlar — I find I am mistaken in this particular. — ba 

[mafhumyam ml-rasad ki dar in nukta gh alat khurda am. 

(fahm.) Or, ma'lum-am ml-shavad ki dar in daklka 

sahw karda am. 
Partner — He is a partner in the house of Haji Hassan 

and Brothers — o dar jama' atd-hdji-hassan wa barddaran 

{sharlke) ast. (mushdrik.) 
Party — Each of them favours his own party. — har yak az 

eshdn tarafddri.e farik-i-khyd mi-kunad. Or, har yak az 

eshdn hawdddr4-{fankyi-khud ml-bdshad. {ahUi-tashdwar.) 
Pass — ^Have you got a pass for these goods ? — az bardie In 

asbdb iWiatt-i-rdh-ddrl^ dared ? (rawdna,) 
Pass — This coin does not pass in Persia. — In zarb dar Iran 

(murauwaj) nist. (rawdn, rd,ij.) Or, In sihka-rd durfdrs 

rawdj nist. 
Passed — He passed by him. — bar o guzar kard. Or, a» o 

guzasht. 
Massed — He passed that way. — o-rd guzar bar dn rah uftdd. 
Passage — A river intercepted their passage. — nahre cCzym 

bar guzari-eshdn uftdd. Or, ju,e db-i-buzurg bar mrnnarr- 

i-eshdn padld dmad. 
Passengers — That ship brought many passengers. — dn 



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870 passion — peqt. 

jahaz bisiydr ma^bardn award. Or, dar an jahaz musd- 
firdn-irkasj/r dmadand. 
Passion — One ought never to be in a passion. — hdyad Jd 

kase dar (gikaiz) naydyad. (ghussa ; kfiashm ; tashaddud ; 

taffiaiyur,) 
Passpobt — He has obtained a passport to go to Tabriz. — 

az bardie rqftan ha tdbriz (parwdna,e rdhdhrl) hdsil karda 

ast. {sunnad-i-rdh-ddrl ; gtuar-ndma ; bardti-zimmat.) 
Path — This path leads to the village. — ba dih In rah (sar 

ml-kashad), {sar ml-dihad ; ml-ravad,) 
Patience — It becomes us to exercise patience in adversity. 

— mdrd bdyad ki dar nmstbat (sabr) ikhtiydr birnamdyem, 

(burdhdri; saburl; shikeb,) Or, bdyad ki md dar a/at 

tahammvl bi-hmem. 
Patient — They are patient and peaceable. — esJuLn [sdhir 

wa rmdd.im) and. {saMm wa hoMm ; muhtamil wa saldh' 

andesh.) 
Patronizes — He patronizes whatever tends to the welfare 

of the country.— dar amre ki mujib-irbihbudtte muUe buda 

bdshad ha/r chi tamdmtar sd't mv-kunad. 
Pattern — You must give me a pattern to work by. — hayad 

ki ba man yak (namuna,e) bvdihed ki baddn kdr bi-kimam. 

(inmudaje.) 
Pause — In reading, you ought to pause where there is a stop. 

— bdyad ki dar ikipdndan {wakfyrd nigdk bi-ddred. ijd,e 

sukut.) 
Pay — I have had a month's pay beforehand. — man muwdjib- 

iryak mdh peshgl girifta am. 
Pays — He is a very just man, he pays all his debts. — o 

ddamri bisiydr (diydnat-ddr) ast fpurusfdt4-khudrrd add mt- 

kunad. (munsif-mizdj ; i,nidn-ddr.) 
Pecuniary — He will have only pecuniary loss. — nvtsSn-ash 

fafiof: dar nakd Mv>dhad shud. 
Peep — The windows are so small, one can but just peep 

through them. — ghnrfahd In ^adar tang and ki ka^sefafcat 

lamah mv-tawdnad zad). (Jamdsh mt-tawdnad kard.) 



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peevish — -permimon, 371 

Peevtsh — These children are peevish and perverse. — In 

atfdl {zajur wa kajru) and. (tez-mizdj wa *anid.) 
Penalty — For doing this you must pay a penalty. — az 

kardan-i-in kdr shumd-ra {jarimdna),e dddanl, MLV^dhad 

shud, [gharm : gkardmat : mtisddira.) 
Penknife — ^Lend me your penknife to cut my pen. — bardyB 

tardshldan-i-kalam-am chaku,e kkud ^driyatan hi-dihed. 
Pensive — His turn of mind is pensive. — dil-ash bi-z-zdt 

(mutafakkir) ast. (muta,ammil ; fikmrnnd.) 
Perceive — I perceive no error in your composition. — dar ' 

t€Lhrlr4'Shum.d hech ghalat (paidd na ml-tawdnam kard). 

na mllUnam; na ml-ydbam.) 
Perceptible — This blemish is not perceptible. — m ddgh 

[ ff^ air-mahms ast). (nd-dskkdr ast ; idhUri-idrdk nlst^ 
Perfect — ^Your vvork is now perfect. — ilhal kdr-i-shumd 

(kdmU) ast. (ba kamdl rastda ; ba itmdm rasida.) 
Perfection — ^We ought to aim at perfection, though we 

cannot attain it. — bdyad hi ba tai4il'i-kamdl koshish bi- 

kunem agarchi baddn na mv-tawdnem rasid. 
Perform — He generally promises, but he does not per- 
form. — aksar wa^da mlrkunad, wa lekin {ba jd na mh 

drad). (tamdm na ml-kunad ; ba itmdm na ml-rasdnad.) 
Perfume — ^The whole apartment was filled with perfume. 

— tamdm lyujra az {k]iush-bo) jmrshfid. (shamrni; rd,ihat; 

nafh; *itXf *o>f>iT) 
Perfumed — The house is perfumed by the fragrance of 

these flowers. — az shamma.e In guLhd tamdm Jctdna 

(mu'ambar) shud, (mu'attar ; mashmum ; tashmim ; 

mu0b; mutaiyab.) 
Perhaps — Perhaps this news may be true. — shdyad ki m 

Isbflbar rdst bdshad. 
Permanent — Is this regulation to be permanent? — dyd m 

{kdMa pd,eddr) khwdhad mdnd? (kdnun kd,im; a,m 

muhkam; zdhtfi-mustakm) 
Permission — I have permission to go for three months. — 

ijdzat'irrqftan td ba si mah. ydfta am. 

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872 permit — piety. 

Permit — Bring a permit for these goods. — ba jihat-i- 

bar ddshtan4-tn <ubab (ratudna), e hiyar? (parwana; ijdzat- 

nama,) 
Permit — Will you permit me to walk a little in your 

garden. — mara im khwahsd dad ki sd'ate dar bdgh-i- 

shumd (sair) kunam. (tamdaha ; tafarruh; dydlyat.) 
Perpetual — There is a perpetual flux and reflux. — *aiqL- 

drdawdm madd o jazr-irdb-i-bafyr ast. 
Perplexed — I am much perplexed in this business. — dar 

In mu^dmala bisiydr (mutaraddid) am. {muztarih; 

pardganda ; mushawwish ; hairdn.) Or, dar tn \imal 

man dar m^iztk-i-^ukda haMam, 
Persuasiok — I have done this deed through his persua- 
sion.— {a« targitbyash In kdr karda am. {ba tahn^; ba 

tahnk.) 
Pertinent — His answers are pertinent. — jawdbhd^e o 

(shdyista) and. (sazdwdr; muwdfik ; muLStaujib ; mundsib.) 
Petition — You must make a petition to the merchants. — 

bdyad ki sauddgardn-rd i^arz-i-bdl) bi-kuned. {^arzddsht ; 

'ariza; *am.) 
Phial — Have you a phial for the medicine ?-—bard,e ddru 

nigdh ddshtan shlsha'e dared ? 
Phrase — This phrase is very common. — In (kalima) bisiydr 

'dmm ast, {'ibdrat ; mustalah ; junda.) 
Physic — I am not fond of taking physic. — man dated 

giriftan (pasand) na ddram. (dost.) Or, man shd,iki- 

dawd khyrdan nayam. • 
Physician — Do you know what physician visits him ? — 

shumd mirddned kuddm tabib muldkdt az bardie mu^dlaja.e 

o mlkunad ? 
Pirce — Give me a small piece of paper. — mxtrd {tikka\e 

k dgh az bi-dih. (para ; reza ; kata' ; ruk'at.) 
Piety — He is a person of great piety. — o sdhib-i-{parsdS) 

ast. (kardm^t ; ittikd ; saldhiyat; takwa.) Or, o yoke 

az (sidhd) ast. (abrdr.) Or, tank-i-dn kas zikr wa shukr 

wa MiAdmM wa taat wa isdr, wa kind'at wa tOMhid wa 



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pilgrim — plan. 373 

tawakkul wa tashin wa tahammul ast. Or, o hidyar (dm- 

ddr) asL (salih; muttaki; zahid ; pqrhezgar ; muta- 

abbid ; parsd; aJd-i-ittika ; muwahhid.) Or, o yakin dar 

dil ddrad wa wara' dar din wa zuhd dar dunya wa shann 

dar chashm wa him dar tan. 
Pilgrim — The pilgrim is gone on pilgrimage. — an hdjt ha 

hajj rafta asL 
Pillars — His house is ornamented with pillars. — Jckdna- 

ash ha (situn)hd ardsta ast. {^rakn^ pi. arkdn ; ^amudf pi. 

'amdyid.) 
Pincers — I want a pair of pincers from them. — az eshdn 

yak 'adad-i-minkdsh mi-kkwdham. 
Pinnace — Whose is that pinnace now passing? — dndungi,e 

ki Uhal rah ml-ravad az dn-i-Mst ? 
Pit — I was near falling into a pit. — nazdtk bud ki man dar 

magMk hiyuftam. Or, dar {ghdr) uftddan-am chtze na 

rndnda hud, {hufrat.) 
Pity — The afflicted should excite our pity. — yndrd hdyad 

ki har (musibat-zadagdn) rahm hiydrem. (an kasdn ki 

ha ddm-i-hald mubtala and.) 
Pity — What a pity you did not tell me this \—(Jf4iif ki ha 

man khabar) na karded. [afsos ki ha man ittild, or 

mukhbir.) 
Place — What is the place called where he lives ? — m>akdms 

ki dar dnjd mkunat ddrad ridm-ash chist ? 
Plaque — The plague of this business is endless. — {mihnat 

wa mushaMkatY'irin kdr (intihd na ddrad)^, ^{zuhmat; 

tasdt ; dikkat.) ^Id4ntihd ast,) 
Plain — This writing is plain and easy to be read. — In 

rafiam §df ast wa (ha dsdni khwdnda mi-shavad). [h agh air 

ma^sur dar khwdndan mt-dyad; tashUu-l-m/utdlaa ml- 

bdshad.) 
Plaintiff — ^Who is the plaintiff in this affair? — dar In 

mudmala muddal klst ? 
Plan — Have you seen the plan of the building? — na>k8ha,e 

Hmurat dlda ed ? (middhaza karda ed.) 

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374 plane—foifUed. 

Flake — Smooth this board with a plane. — m takhta^e'Td 

ha randa {saf) bi-kun. (musattcih ; tastji..) 
-Plakks — ^Are these planks for sale? — ay a In takhfaha 

(faroihtani) and. (tnal-i-farokht ; jins-i-baP .) 
Plastebed — The inside walls are plastered with lime. — 

dlwardn andarun4^khdna ha M^amtr-i-ahak {astarkdri 

skuda ast). {kdh-gU shuda ast ; andd,ida and.) 
Plat — ^We have now no time to play. — nidra Uhdl fursat- 

i-hdzl nut. Or, md aknunfur§at4'hdzi na ddrem. 
Pleased — If he had informed me of this before, I should 

have been better pleased. — agar o pesh az In mard khabar 

mlrddd man ziyddatar (khushnud) hudame. [masriir ; 

ihurram; khursand ; khush-wakt.) 
Pledge — I pledge my word to act in this manner. — (*ahd 

o paimdn) ml-kunam ki In chuntn kffwdham kard. (ikrar.) 

Or, ha add,e in kdr kauL mtrkunam. 
Plentiful — This kind of fruit is plentiful. — In kism-i-mewa 

ha kasfat ast. 
Plough — I have an excellent plough and one pair of 

oxen. — {kulbay,e hisiydr khvh {naad-i-manf ast wa yak 

ji^t-4rgdw. \shiydr ; faddn.) ^(ddram.) 
Plough — ^When the rains arrive, I shall plough this field. 

— wakte ki hdrish khwdhad shud [har In zamln ktdba- 

rdnt) kiwdham kard. {zamm-rd twidr or faldhat or 

hars or shiydr.) Or, ha niausim-i-hdrish in zamln khpd- 

ham shiydnd. 
Poet — He is a poet; have you seen his last poem? — o 

shWire ast shiW-i-dkhirWrOsh (muidla'a karda ed) ? {ha 

mvtdla'a dwarda ed.) 
PoiNT^— This needle has no point. — In suzan nok na ddrad. 

[eye, sufdr.] 
Point — She has been at the point of death. — dn sdhiha 

kartburl^marg huda ast. Or, dn hdnu dar hdlat-i-niza 

huda a>st. Or, jdnd-dn khdnam ha lab randa hud. Or, 

az nafs4-un khdtun ramake mdnda hud. 
Pointed— Had you asked, I could have pointed out to you 

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politeness — postures. 875 

in what manner to act. — agar az man istifsdr mt-karded 

man tarJab-irln amr ba'shumd namudams. 
Politeness — He received us with great politeness. — o ha 

man ha (lutf-i-'a^lm pesh-am>ad), (tawa^^-i'kat^r suluk 

hard ; aMkldk-ihusna mvloikl shvd,) 
Pony — He rides out every morning on his pony. — o har 

siihh har (yahuye khyd sawdr) ml-shavad, {markah-i' 

khy,rd4-fchyd rdkih,) 
Poor — He is now become poor. — o U^al hisiydr (muflis) 

shud. {pardganda,e rosA ; masktn; mustammidnd; mur 

tazaHf; mvJjttaj ; maftuk; muta'attal; tahi-dast; fakir; 

he-nawd.) Or, o akmin dar J^lat-i-he-chdra^i uftada ast. 

Or, aknun az pdya,e davlat ha if Ids uftdda ast. 
Populous — Shiraz is a very populous city. — shirdz shahre 

ast hisiydr (md'mur), (dhdd ; dbdddn.) 
PoRTBAiT — I have his portrait in my possession. — man 

(taswlr-i-ruyash) ddram, (shabthrash; taswir^tala'aP- 

ash,) 
Possessed— Had I studied earlier, by this time I might 

have possessed much learning. — agar man kahl az m 

ta*llm ml-giriftam poA (tarakkl dar Him hisiydr namu- 

dame), (mahdrat dar ^Um hisiydr ydf tarns; dar *Um 

hisiydr mdhir shvdam£ ; 'dlim shvdame.) 
Possibility— There is no possibility of your getting there 

to-day. — (mumkin nist) ki imroz haddn jd hi-rased. (im- 

kdn na ddrad ;-suraZ na handad ; muhtajnal nlst ; ihtmal 

na mi-ravad,) 
Post — If the letter goes by to-day's post, you must send it 

to the post-ofl&ce now. — agar ml-khipaked ki Mkaft-i' 

shumd ha harid-i-imroza hi-ravad hdyad ki ilhdl ha harid- 

Mtdna U-firisted. 
Postaoe — ^What will be the postage? — mahstU-uMifltt'^ 

barid chi kadar ml-hdshad^? 
Post-master — I have sent word to. the post-master. — ha 

muMktdr4-hartd-M^na paiifkame firistdda am. 
Postures — The glare of anger was evident in his postures. — 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



876 pot — prediction. 

{asaryi-ihashm dar harakdt wa sukanat-ash paidd amad, 
(atash ; tab,) 

Pot — ^What is tliere in this earthen pot ? — dar m zarf-i- 
sifalln chtst ? [meXsXWc, filizzi,\ 

Poverty — Though in great poverty she is happy. — agarchi 
an zan dar (faldkatyi-shadtd uftada ast khush mi-baskad. 
(muflisl ; iflas ; fakr ; na-ddn ; tang-dasti ; tahl-dastt.) 

Power — It is beyond my power to understand this. — 
(iktidaryt-fahrnidan-i-ln na ddram, {kuwat; takat; 
takwiyat ; kudrat ; makdur ; majal ; istVdad,) Or, az 
hitayB fahm-am berun ast H in amr-ra bi-fahmam. 

Practicable — What you purpose, I think, is not prac- 
ticable. — dnchi irada dared ba rd,eyam glydr-mvmkin ast. 

Practice — ^Whence arose this practice ? — az kujd In {*ddat 
paidd shvd). (rasm bar khdst ; dastur sar bar award.) 

Practitioner — He is an effective practitioner, and a com- 
petent physician. — o jarrdhi-kdmU ast wa tabib4-{hdzik). 
(zafij.) Or, o ba zewdr-i-jarrdhl ardsta ast wa ba hyMya,e 
tahibt pairdsta. 

Praise — ^We ought not to praise the undeserving. — na 
bdyad ki md (baddn-rd madh) bi-kunem, (sharirdn-rd 
tahsln wa afnn wa sitd.ish wa istihsan.) Or, mdrd na 
bdyad ki bar (shantdn) zabdn-i-sand bi-kushdyem. {fa- 
hishdn; mufsiddn; fdsiddn; fdjirdn; bad-ma' ashdn; 
mudMrdn ; fdsikdn.) 

Precarious — Her health is very precarious. — mizdj-i-dn 
khdnam bisiydr (nd-kd^im) ast, (nd-mukarrar ; ndrmus- 
tamir ; nd-mmtakiU; 'alU; be-kiydm; be-sahdt ; giiair- 
i-mutasdhit.) 

Precepts — In the book which you gave me are many 
excellent precepts. — kitdbe ki ba man ddded dar dn bisiydr 
{ahkdmyi-afzal and. (nasthat, pi. na§dyih; pand ; andarz.) 

Predict — We cannot predict what will happen on the 
morrow. — w5 pesh na mt-tawdnem guft kifarda chi (ru,e 
khwahad ddd). (khwdhad uftdd; ba zuhur ihwahad drnad.) 

Prediction — Your prediction has been fulfilled — pesh-gofi^e 

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prefer — president. 377 

sJmma ha anjam raslda cut. Or, khabar-i-giaib-i-shumd 
sar anjam yafta ast. Or, gl^ib-gOyl^e thumd tamam 

shuda ast. 
Prefer — 1 prefer your house to my own. — man ihana,e 

sKuma az l£hana,e khyd bihtar mt-ddnam. Or, man 

kkana,e shumd-rd bar khanate khyd {tarjlh ml-'dtham). 

(ikhtiydr ml-kunam ; mt-guzlnam.) Or, man ikdna.e 

shumd-rd ha khdna.e kJiud dar kkuht mukaddam mi-ddram. 
Preferable — ^Which of these two is preferable ? — az In 

har du td kuddm pasandlda-tar ast ? 
Prejudice — We ought to get rid of prejudice. — rndrd hdyad 

hi {ta^a§suhra hi-guzdrem). {az rd^e be ddnish wa ta- 
fahhus bi-raJiem; az fikr-i-he-khahar wa tqftish ihtirdz hi' 

kunem.) 
Premium — He received a premium of 100 tumau. — o yak 

sad tumdn ha tarlk'i-in'dm ydft. 
Preparing — They are preparing to go to England. — eshdn 

bardie raftan-i-wUdyat (taiydri) ml-kunand. (tahaiyat; 

tabiyat.) 
Prepared — He prepared his speech. — o paslch-i'Sukhan- 

irkhud [kard), (parddkbt-) 
Prescription — ^The doctor wrote this prescription. — tabib 

in nuskha-rd nawisht. 
Presence — He said so in my presence. — badin taur{ru-ba' 

ru,e mun) guft. (bd wujud-i-^hzdr-i-man ; dar muwdjihat- 

i-m^n.) 
Present — The Amir of Samarcand sent this elephant to 

the Governor-General as a present. — amir-i-samxirkand 

ba taur4'(tuhfa)tn pU bardie fanridn-farmu mursilsdkht. 

(hadlya ; saug&dt ; pesh-kash.) 
Preserved — By your kindness my life was preserved. — 

ha Hndyat-i-shumd jdn-am (mahfuz) mdnd. (ba satdmM; 

m^hrus ; ma^uji.) 
Preserves — Are you fond of preserves ? — (murdbha)ha-rd 

pasand dared ? (ma'jun ; angvinna) 
President — ^Who is the president of that society ? — kuddm 

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878 presume — probable, 

has dar an (majlis mlr-irmajlis) ast f {anjumdn sarwar, 

janiaat ra,im-l-majlis,) 
FfiEsuMB — I presume, sir, you have lately arrived in this 

country. — ai agka ma^nna ddram ki shumd taza dar In 

diyar wdrid shuda ed. 
PbevIil — ^I could not prevail upon him to remain here 

longer. — (o-ra bar In na tawdnistam ddsht) ki dar In jd 

ziydda tawakkuf kunad. (p-rd taknk or targMb or tahris 

na tawdnistam kard.) 
Pbevalent — This disorder is at present very prevalent. — 

In inarz ilkdl bisiydr (ffMlib ast). {mastvlt ast ; ghaiiJba 

ddrad,) 
Prevented — I thought you might have prevented their 

going away. — gumdn ddshtam ki shumd eshdn-rd az bar 

gardidan marC ml-tawdnisted kard. 
Previous — ^You went previous to my arrival. — shurrM kabl 

az dmadan-i-man (rawdna shvded). (rah gird shuded; 

ru ba rah nihdded,) 
Price— What is the price of this ? Is that really the 

market-price (or price-current) ? — klmat-i^n shai chtst / 

dydfi-l-wdkV nirkh-i-bdzdr hamln ast? 
Pride — ^We ought to shun pride. — bdyad ki md az ghiarur 

(bl-parhezem). {ijtindh or tajannub bi-namdyem; ihtirdz 

bi'kunem.) Or, bdyad ki md (kliaydi'i-far'ujit) az sarbi- 

kashem. {kibr; takabbur ; nakkwat; 'ujvh ; pinddr; 

istighndJ,) 
Principal — Who is the principal in the business? — dar In 

mv!dmala kuddm kas [mukfktdr) ast f {maddru-l-muhdm,) 
Printed — ^The book will shortly be printed. — kitdb 'an- 

karlb matbu* khwdhad shud. 
Private — They held a private conversation. — eshan sukhan- 

i-imakbsft) kardand, {ba tanhd,i ; iMkfd ; khufiya ; khafi ; 

pinKdn.) 
Probability— Is there a probability of my seeing him ?— 

dyd {ihtirndl ddrad) ki man o-rd bi-bmam, {agilab ast.) 
Probable — ^That is not at all probable. — an bi-UcuU {ihtimSl 

na ddrad), {mutahammil nlst.) 

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procure — ^opagated. 379 

Pbocure — ^Where can I procure a boat? — aya kishti az 

kuja ha gir-i-man ml-dyad ? 
Pboduce — Thosfe articles are the produce of this country. 

— an ashiya dar In mulkpaida mv-shavand. Or, an apids 

paida,ish-i'in diydr ast, 
Peoduces — This garden produces nothing but weeds. — dar 

In ha^ hech paida na mt-shavad nuigar (kdh o khas). 

(kdh-i-ndkhara, ) 
Profane — -.They use only profane language. — eshan fakat 

kalimdt-i-behUda ml-goyand. Or, ba juz az sukhandn4- 

(nd-pdk) hech na mJ-goyand. (mutanajjis ; nd-shd^ista; 

paMd.) 
Profligate — He became a profligate. — o (fdjir) gardld- 

{fdsik ; shaki; zuba* ; aubdsh,) Or, o dar lahw o la'b 

vnashghyl shtid. Or, o fish o fajur agJkdz (kard). (nihud.) 
Promised — I promised to call upon him to-day. — man 

(wd'da) kardam ki imroz.nazd-i-o khwdhamraft. (^ahd ; 

ta'ahhud; haul.) 
Promoted — By this our happiness will be promoted. — az 

In khushl.e md (ziydda khwdhad shud). {bartar khwdhad 

gardld ; khwdhad afzud ; ru ba tarakki khwdhad nihdd 

*uruj khwdhad girift; afzun or buiand khwdhad shud.) 
Prone — Man is prone to err. — ddam md,il ba khapd ast. 

Or, dd>am ma.il ba gundh ddrad. Or, insdn murakkah az 

khatd o nisydn ast. 
Pronounce — ^Let me hear you pronounce this word. — 

talaffuZ'i-in lafz (ba ttian hirgo) ki bi-shinavam. (pesh-i* 

man zdhir kun.) 
Prononciation — Is my pronunciation correct ? — dyd talaf- 

fu^,-irman sahih^ast ? 
Proof — What proof can you give of this ? — chi dalil dar 

bdh-i-subut-iyin ddred? Or, in-rd ba chi tarik ba isbdt 

ml-rasdned ? Or, misddk-i-m dalil chi dared ? 
Prop — If you take away this prop, the roof may fall. — agar 

In (situnyrd bar kh,wdhed ddsht sakf Jchwdhad uftdd, 

(rukn; 'umud,) 
Propagated— rThis doctrine is propagated everywhere. — In 

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380 proper — prove. 

masla dar har ja (muravmaj ast). (rawaj ddrad ; ifaza 

karda shuda ast ; shdX shuda clsU) 
Proper — Do you conceive this to be proper ? — aya shuma 

ml'fahmed hi In (munddb) ast ? (ha ja ; Jjfoldl ; durust.) 
Proportion — You will have your proportion of profits. — 

shumd az trumdJV {his8a),e tamdm kh^ahed ydft, (bahra ; 

kismat.) 
Propose — I propose tht^t we share the loss between us. — 

man mi-goyam ki dnchi nuksdn mt-shavad dar an md har 

dU {mishtarik em), (sharik ml^bdshem ; shardkat ddrem,) 
Prosecute — ^Will you prosecute him before the judge for 

his offence? — hard,e khatd,e o shumd bar o ba kdztfidlish 

khwdJied kard ? 
Prosperity — He is now in great prosperity. — o dar In 

rozhd(bakh>tl'ydwar) ddrad. (nastb-i-kdmil ; tdlV-i-maimun; 

baklLt'i'himdyun ; cha^hm-i-daidat beddr.) 
PROSPEROUS^-His affairs are now very prosperous. — ilhdl 

umUr-ash ru ba tarakkl mi-nihad. Or, ilhdZ ba murdd-i- 

khud kdm-rdn ast. Or, aknun mMmb-i-matlub ha o ruih 

ml'tumdyad. Or, o ilhdl (bakhtiydr) ast. {nairumand ; 

bahramand ; bar-khurddr ; sa^ddatmand ; farkhanda-fdl) 
Prospers — In whatever he undertakes he prospers. — dnchi 

ki mt-kunad, dar dn (kdmrydb) mishavad. (Jtruzmand ; 

fatkmand.) 
Protect — It is a prince's glory to protect his people. — 

fahkr'i-shdh-zdda In ast ki ra'tyat-i-kkud-rd {ba hifd^at 

ddrad). (hifdzat or hirdsat or nigdhddsht kunad.) Or, 

jdh jaldl-i'pddshdh-zdda In ast ki {dar hab-i-raiyat-i- 

khud tarik-i-muJidfizat mar'l ddrad). (ha nigdhbdnt,6 

r^dyd.e khud miydn-i-murdkibat bi-bandad.) 
Protbotiox — They fled to the king for protection. — ba nazd- 

i-shdh hard,e pandh {ru bafirdr nihddand). {dar gurekhr 

tand.) 
Proud — They who are proud have little sense. — kasdne ki 

(magirur and kam *akl and), {ykarur dar sar ddrand 

'akl kam ddrand.) 
Prove — I can prove this to be true. — man sdbit m^i-tawdnam 

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proverb — purchased, 381 

kard ki in sahih ast. Or, man ha isbat mi-tawanam raaa- 

ntd ki in durust ast. 
Proverb — This is a common proverb. — in masale mashhur 

ast. 
Provided — Being in service all the time, haV^e you not 

provided for your family? — ayd in kadar-i-'umr dar 

naukari guzranided wa lekin ha jihat-i-'aiyal wa atfaJri' 

khyd chize jam' na karded ? 
Providence — Providence directs all things. — hukm-'irrizzdk 

har hama chiz (jari) ast, {mujiit ; da.ir^ Or, parwardigar 

ha/r hama makhlukdt hukm mi-kunad. 
Province — This disease affects the whole province. — in 

marz dar tamdm diyar (ishtiddd ddrad), {shiddat ddrad ; 

muntashir a^t ; ghalha ddrad.) 
Provision — Make provision for your journey. — hardte safar- 

irkliyd {fosha^e rah taiydr) hirkun, (zdd-irah dm,dda,) 
Provoke — He does everything he can to provoke me. — o 

har kadar ki mi-tawdnad mard [ha ghu^a mi-drad), {ha 

ktmhm o ha ghaiz mi-drad ; dtash-i-khashm mi-afrozad.) 
Prudent — She is a wise and prudent woman. — dn zan 

ddnd wa dur-andesh ast. Or, dn zan {rd,e munir) wa 

fikr-i-dur-andesh ddrad, (rd^e sd,ib; *akl-roshan; rd,e 

haizd wa ^aJkl-i-nurdni.) 
Pull — We must pull the boat along with a rope. — hdyad ki 

ma ha rassane kishti-rd hi-kashem. 
Pulse — ^Let me feel your pulse. — nahz-i-klkyd m>ard ihsds 

kardan bi-dihed. Or, hi-guzdred ki nahz-i'Shumd-rd ihsds 

hi-namdyam. 
Punished — You may expect to be punished for this. — 

muntazir hashed ki dar in amr (ha' anwd,e 'azdh wa nikdl 

mu*azzah Icbyjdhed gard^d), {sharhat-i-siydsat khwdhed 

chashid.) 
Pupil — I am reading a dialogue l)etween a pupil and his 

preceptor. — su.dl o jawdh ki mu hain-i-ustdd wa shdgird 

ba wukv! rasid mi-M-tpdnam, 
Purchased — If I had had sufficient money, I should have 

purchased the house. — agar pul (ba kifdyat mi-ddshtams 



382 purchasers — quality, 

khana Ifhartdame, (iktifd ml-kard; kifdyat ml-kard; 

kafi mt'Shud,) 
PuBCHASEES — There were few purchasers. — mushtarlydn 

bisiydr ham budand. 
PnRinED — Can you inform me how the heart may be 

purified ? — shumd ml-t-awdned gu/t ki chiguna dil pdk ml- 

tawanad shud ? 
Purpose — I purpose to consider this subject.— ^<iar dU4- 

khudam (kasd)^ karda am hi {tajwtzf-i-in mukaddama 

bi-kunam, ^(^azm; khiyal : niyat ; *aztmaU) \tahkik; 

tajassus; taftlsh ; te^ahhus.) 
Purpose — For what purpose do you do this ? — az hard.e 

chi kdr in-rd mt-sdzed ? 
Purse — He found a purse with five ashrafis in it. — kua,« 

(panj) a^shrafl ydft, {bd panj,) 
Pursued — Our soldiers pursued the enemy sixty miles. — 

'a>8kariydn-i-md td ba shast mil dar (pat,ey dushman 

{raftand)^, ^{'akab ; kqfd,e; ta'akkub.) ^uftdd^nd.) 

Or, kishkariydn-i-md td ba shast mU (ta*aikubyi-dushman 

kardand, (tcHakkub) 
Pursuit — ^Your pursuit of pleasure is fruitless. — i^aish ju,t)e 

shumd, befdyida ast. {rdhat-talabi,) 
Put — He put all his savings into the bank. — hama bakdyd^e 

khud-rd dar ^rrd/-khdnd (amdnat gtizdsht), {anidnaX 

kard ; wadtat nihdd ; taudV sdkht ; idd* kard.) 

Q. 

<3uALiFiCAT[0NS — He has many good qualifications. — o 
(liydkat-i-pasandida) bisiydr ddrad, (fazalri-karridl ; ittisaf- 
i-ahsdn; au^f-i-hamida ; tau^fdi-irfaiyah ; shamUyU-i- 
neko ; khisatdt-i-khub ; slrathd,e khush.) 

^Qualified — ^Are you qualified to do this work ? — shumd 
(fcdbiiyi-addye m kdr hasted ? (sazdwdr,) 

^Quality — Of what quality is this cloth ? — In pdrcha az 
kuddm kism ast 1 Or, m kirhoA kuddm nau* dJdrad ? 

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quantity — rails. 383 

Quantity — ^What quantity do you wish for ? — chi (kadar) 

mi-hhwahed? {mikddr; andkza.) 
Quarrels — ^They appear to be fond of quarrels.^wa'ZiZw 

mt-shavad) ki mail ha kharkhaska ddrand. {ha ta^uwir 

ml'dyad,) 
Quarrel — ^Why do you quarrel one with another? — {nizcC 

ma bain^i-yak-digar chird harpa) ml-kuned ? (mundkisha 

baham d^ar chird.) 
Quarto — Is the work printed in folio, quarto, octavo, or 

duodecimo? — kitdhe ha hardhar anddza.e ^ajha mathiV 

shuda ast, yd du warkd, yd chahdr warkd, yd si warkd ? 
Queen — The king and queen were both present. — malik wa 

m^ika har du dar an jd hdzir bUdund, 
Quench — ^Take some water to quench your thirst. — ha 

jihat-i'{intifd,e dtash-i-tushnagi) kadre dh hi-khyr. {dafa^- 

ir^aish; minhal-i-^atsh.) 
Quick — That vessel came quick. — an jahdz ha (ujlatyi- 

tamam dmad. (sur'at) 
Quicken — ^We must quicken our pace, if we wish to arrive 

there this evening. — agar dar dnjd im^hab rasidan ml- 

khwdhem tdzim ast ki (gdm ha shitdh bi-ynihem, {kadam 

ha 'ujlat hi' ; kadam ba sur'at hi- ; kadam sust na ; pd,e 

bati na ; pd,e kund na.) 
QuBLL — Give me a quill and a quire of paper. — yak kalam- 

i-par wa dasta^e kdghaz ha man 'indyat bi-farmdyed. 
Quit — ^When do you mean to quit this house ? — irdda.e 

(Jcidli kardanr4)'in khdna kai ddred? (iguzdshtan-i- 

ndkl az.) 
Quotation — This is a quotation from some other book. — 

in muntakhJdkihe ast az kitdhe digar. Or, m indhkub-ir 

kitabe digar ast. 

R. 

Bags — Paper is made of rags. — kdghaz az {latta)hd sdkhta 

ml-shavad. (pdrcha ; pina ; Jckirka ; Mkazfarat ; pargdla,) 

Rails — Some of the garden rails are broken. — kadre hi§8a,e 



384 rains — reason* 

haraKyi-hagh. shikasta shvda ast, {dar hazln; dara 

bazun ; hulkus ; jajlak ; ^adudri-chubln ; haddri-chubm.) 
Bains — It rains very fast. — bdran ha ifrat mi-bdrad. 
Raisins — ^Are you fond of raisins?— 6a kishmish (mail 

dared) ? {rnd,il ml-bdshed.) Or, kishmish dost dared ? 
Rank — ^What is his rank in tJie army ? — dar 'askar kudam 

*uhda dar ad ? 
Rapid— The stream is very rapid in the rainy season. — 

dar aiyawrirhdrish {saUyi-nahr tamdm sari asU (ijra ; 

rawdnagt,e ab.) 
Rabe — ^This is a very rare plant. — In nikdle ast hisiydr 

(shigaTJ). {'ajuba.) 
Rash — He is very rash in his conduct. — o dar kirddr-i- 

khyd bisiydr {ta'pL ml-hmad). (rmUahaumr or shitdhanda 

mi-hdshad.) 
Rascal — He is a great rascal. — o yake az aKL-i-fasadrirOzjim 

ast. Or, {fdside buzurg) ast, {tabdh-kdre buzurg : 

khablse rajvm; lawande kainr ; rinde khardb ; khafrake 

kaldn,) 
Rate — ^At what rate do you buy this cloth ? — ba kuddm 

nirjch In pdreha^d ml-khared ? 
Raw — It is not good to eat rice raw. — birinj-i-khdm khyr- 

dan kbub nut. 
Reach — I cannot reach so high. — ba %n kadar-i-bulandi na 

mi'tawdnam rasld. 
Reads — ^He reads eight or ten hours every day. — Jiar roz 

hasht yd dah sd'at mlrkhwdnad. 
Ready — Sir, the carriage is ready. — §dhibd kdliska taiydr 

ast. 
Real — ^This is all real, not show merely. — In hama haktkl 

na mujdzi ast. Or, In hama ma*nawi na furl ast. Or, 

in hama bdfini na zdhirl ast. Or, In hama az ma^n^ 

na az surat ast. 
Reason — ^What is the reason you cannot be silent ? — chi 

sabah ast ki {sdkit na mv-tawd'ned shud) f {svkut or 

MkOMOshi na mi-tawdned warzid.) 



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reasonable — rectify. -385 

Reasonable — ^What you say is reasonable. — anchi ki mi- 

goyed (m'akul) ast. (pasandlda,e 'akl; mustahsan; 

shafista ; nd-mutajdwiz.) 
Rebuilt — That house has been rebuilt. — an ihdna bdz-pas 

ta^mir karda shuda ast. 
Received — ^I received your letter, dated 1st March. — khapt- 

i-shumd mu.arrikha ghmra^e mdh-i-Mdrch ha dast-am 

rastd. 
Receipt — Give me a receipt for the money. — in pul-rd 

(rastde) ba man marhammat bi-farmdyed. {kabzu-l- 

wusul.) 
Recent — Is this intelligence recent? — m khabar (jadtd) 

ast ? {nav^khifiz ; nau-paidd ; nau-dwarda ; naurrasida.) 
Recipe — Tell me the recipe for this medicine. — nuskha,e 

In dawd ba man bi-namd. 
Reckoned — Have you reckoned what these things will 

come to ? — hisdh karda ed ki {jam')-i-kimat-i-in ajnds chi 

kadar khwdhad shud ? [majmiVa,) 
Recollect — I now recollect what you told me. — dnchi ki 

shumd ba man gufted ba ydd-am mzrdyad. Or, az dnchi 

gufted (mard ydd ml-dyad). {ydd mi-ddram,; ydd ml- 

dram ; ydd-am ast) 
Recollection — I have no recollection of his telling me it. 

— mmi ydd na ddram kioln sukhan ba man guft. 
Recommendation — Sir, be pleased to give me a letter of 

recommendation to that gentleman. — sdhibd sifdrish- 

ndma^e ba ndm-i-futdn dghd ba man Hndyat bi-farmdyed. 
Recompense — I desire no recompense for serving you. — 

az bardie khidmM-guzdri,e WkVd {ajar) na mirkhwdham. 

(pdddsh ; siUa ; \waz ; jazd ; ta*wiz ; muzd ; ujrat.) 
Reconciled — They two are now reconciled. — in har du 

muttafik shuda and. Or, In har du ba musdlihat bdham 

girdyida and. Or, in har du md bain-i-khud stdh o satah 

sdkhjXL and. 
Recovering — Have you any expectation of recovering your 

property ? — ummed dared ki mdl-i-kbud bdz khwdhed ydft. 
Rectify — If there be any mistakes, rectify them. — agar 

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386 reduced^-^egarded. 

dar in sahwe buda bashad, (islah bi-farmayed). (bar an 
kalam-i44lah bi-kashed.) 

Reduced — I have very much reduced my expenses. — dar 
ilchrajat'i'khud khailt (takkjij) karda am, (tankis.) Or, 
kharch-i-khyd-ra khaUt (maksur) karda am. (kam; 
miCkhfiffif; kaliL) 

Refer — ^To what do these words refer ? — m (kalirnat) dar 
bab-i-knddm ml-bashand ? [akwdl ; makaldt.) 

Reference — Can you give me a reference to any one ? — 
shakhse ml-tawdned namud ki ba shwnd (mcCrifat dashta) 
bdshad? (w^ktf buda.) 

Reflect — The more I reflect upon this circumstance, the 
more I regret it. — ckanddn ki dar In mukaddama ghaur 
mi-kunam an kadar ba man ranj ziyddatar ml-rasad. 
Or, har kadar ki dar m mu'dmala tayammul mv-kunam an 
kadar (ta,a8suf4-be8htar mard dost mt-dihad), (ziyddatar 
naddmat ml-buram; ziyddatar angushtd-tahassur ba dan- 
dan mi-gazam.) 

Refreshed— I feel much refreshed by the air. — az tn 
hawd ba m^n (khaiM tdzagl hdsil ast)^ (tardwat-i-'azlm 
ba husul-i'man ml-anjdmad; istirdhat-irwafur ba man 
rukh munamayad.) Or, az In bad tdzagt,e tamdm ihsds 
mi-kunam. 

Refund — He will be obliged to refund this sum. — bdz 
dddam,e in pul bar o wdjib Hwdhad shud. Or, m fuidar 
pul o-rd bdz dddani khwahad shud. 

Refused — He has refused what advice I offered. — naslhate 
ki bado dddam {kabul na kard). (na shinuft ; radd kard ; 
ba ijabat'Osh naydmad.) 

Regard — I bear him very great regard. — man o-rd (ta'ztmy 
i-wqfur mi-kunam. (taknm; ihtirdm; Hzdz; ihtiskdm; 
ikrdm ; hurmat ; martabat.) Or, man o-rd (mu^'azzaz) mi- 
ddram, (muhtarim; muhtashim ; mukarrim; muzim; 
mu^azzami) 

•Regarded — ^You ought to have regarded my advice* — ba 
nasthat4-man (iltifat) kardan ba zimma,e shumd zarur 

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regiment — repentance. 387 

hud, (tawajjuh.) Or, mashwArat-i-man max't dashtan 

ha shumd lazim hud. 
Regiment — His regiment is gone to Babylonia.— /at(;-a«^ 

ha Hrak rafta ast. 
Regret — I regret J did not follow your advice. — (pashe- 

mam ml-kliyram) ki ha maslihat-i-shumd iltifdt na kardam, 

(naddmat or hasrat mt-huram.) Or, ta,as8uf rmrkunam 

ki ha hasb-i-mashwarat-i'shumd *amal na kardam. 
Rejoice — I shall rejoice to see him. — az didan-i-o [kkushl 

mara hdsil khwdhad dmad). (khushnud khwaham shud ; 

khurramt ha man ru khwahad dad,) 
Regulated — These matters need to be regulated. — ha 

jihat-irin mudmaldt [inti^dm) tdzim dyad, {insirdm; 

nazm o nasak) 
Regularity — ^The business proceeds with regularity. — 

In kdr ha intizdm-i'tamdm (mi-shavad), (ha 'amal mi- 

dyad.) 
Remaining — ^There is no ready money remaining. — hech 

nakd hdkl nlst. 
Renew — I wish to renew the lease of this house. — kirdya- 

ndma.e In khdna jadid murta^sim kardan mirkhwdham 

Or, rakamri-kirdya,e In khdna tajdid kardan mt-kfiwdhamm 
RENT-;-The monthly rent of this house is fifty rupees.— 

kirdya.e In khdna (mdhwdrt) panjdh rupiya mi-hashad, 

(az kardr-i-muhe.) 
Repay — Can you lend me two hundred rupees for two days? 

I will repay you in two days. — dyd shurrid mahlaph-i-du 

^orf rnpiya ha (mudda£)-i-du roz ha man karz mv-tawdned 

ddd ? ha'd az 'ar§a,e du roz add khwaham kard, {wa'da ; 

mau^id; midd; paimdn; ikrdr ; taahhud) 
Repeat — I now repeat what I told you before. — dnchi kahl 

az In guftam^ ilhdl (mtikarrar mlrkunam), (i'ddat or 

takrdr mi-kunam ; hdz or ha takrdr ml-goyam ; zikr-irdn 

sukhan hdz or hdz muzakira ml-kunam,) 
Repentance — Hereafter our repentance will be useless. — 

dar 'ukha tavha kardan fd^ida na. khwdhad ddd. Or, dar 

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888 repented — request. 

akhirat [ta.ih shudan) sude na darad. {nadim shudan ; 

nadamat kashtdan.) 
Repented — Had I acted as they advised me, I should have 

repented of it very much. — agar man ha hasbu-l-na4ihat- 

ireshan *amal mv-kardam nddim mtrshudam. Or, agar 

ma^lihat-i-eshdn ha 'amal ml-awardam, pashemdn ml- 

shudam. Or, agar ha maskwirat-i-eshdn iktidd kardame 

1j£L8rat MkWdame. 
Repetition — This is a repetition of what was said before. 

— dnchi kohl az In {tazkara ydfta) ast i'ddat-i-dn In ost. 

[gu/ta shuda) 
Reply — What reply do you make to my question? — ha 

mdlri-man chi jawdh mi'dihed ? 
Report — I have made a report to Mr. on this. — man 

ha jvJjdne sd^ih har in (i'ldm namuda am), (ittild^ or 

khahar ddda am.) Or, m^n /uldne sdJyib-rd dar bdb-i-tn 

amr {ha *arz rasdnida am), (muttali' karda am.) 
Reported — It is so reported. — In chunin dar qfwdh uftdda 

ast. Or, chunin taraJp In khahar ishtihdr ydfta ast. Or, 

chunin nau! zahdn zad-i-dmm shuda ast. 
Represent — I will represent the subject to him. — man 

hadin kaifiyat o-rd muttali^ Miwdham sdkht. Or, man 

8urat-i'iM pesh-i-o khfpaham nihdd. 
Reproached — His conduct was reproached by many. — ha>se 

har kirddr-ash (nvatdniat) kardand, {mu*dtibat; tcCn; 

mazammat; tauMkhi sarzanish; zajr ; 'itdb; ta*annut; 

maldm; fanz; iftird; tayuh; tashni ; nikohish; ta'ytb.) 

Or, hose har kirddr-ash ta'na zadand. 
Reproof — Their conduct deserves reproof. — afdl-i-eshdn 

IdyikyirHtdh ast, (mustaujib ; fardkhyr ; shdydr ; darkhur ; 

sazdwar,) 
Reproved — He reproved them very sharply. — o har eshdn 

hdng zad. Or, o hadeshdn (ha ^aldbat) guft, (sakt ; ha 

durushfi.) Or, o eshdn-rd ha khuJn mu,dkhinat kard. 
Request — What request did they make? — eshdn chi 

{istida*d) namudand ? (darkhwdst ; iddVd ; iktizd ; talah.) 

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request — respected, 389 

Kequest — I request of you only this one favour. — az shuma 

fakai In (Hndyat) mi-khyoaham. {rafat ; talattuf,) 
Resembj.^! — These two very much resemble each other. — 

m har du ha yak-digar bidyar mi-mdnand. Or, ui 

har du {mu8hahik)ye yak-digar and, (mushtabih ; imsdl ; 

misal ; mumdsU ; mushabih,) Or, in har du ha yak-digar 

taMnk ddrand. 
Reserve — You will reserve for me three copies of your 

book. — si (nuskha.ye kitdh-i-hhyd hard.e man (nigah 

ddredf. \muntdsikli.) ^ak-taraf hi-nihed,) 
Residence — Is that the place of your residence ? — ay a in 

(maskin)-i-shuind ast ? (jd,e tawakkuf; jd,e sukunat ; jd^e 

hud o hdsh ; jd,e tamakkun ; makdm ; makdn.) 
Resigned — He has resigned his former oflBce. — az 'uhda.e- 

peshin-i-khyui {istighfd girifta) ast. {dost harddr shuda ; 

tark girifta ; tark gufta,) Or, rnan^h-i-sdhika-i-khydHrd 

(tark) karda ast. {'itizdl.) 
Resist — You cannot resist his claim. — da'wd.e o-rd radd na 

mi-tawdned kard. Or, shumd-rd hd dawd.e o imkan-i" 

mukawamat na tawdnad rridnd. Or, daf-i-da*wd,e o na 

mi-tawdned kard. Or, mutdliba.e o az shumd mundaf na 

tawdnad shud. Or, har mutdlihaye o Vtirdz na mi-tawd- 

nod award. 
Resistance — The enemy fled without resistance. — dushman 

mukdbila nd-karda {gurekhty {firdr kard ; mafrur shud ; 

ru ha firdr nihdd.) 
Resolute — They are resolute in their purpose. — eshdn 

har irdda,e khud {kd.im) and, (mustaktm; mustahkam; 

mahkum; sdhit-kadam; mushit; miUawassik ; rdsikh : 

mustakU.) 
Resolution — To do this requires resolution. — dar in kdr 

(istikWri-mizdj wdjih) ast. (^azm-i-musammam Idzim; 

niyat'i-ustuwdr zarur ; irdda.e mustakim Id-bud,) 
Resolved — I am resolved to do so no more. — kasd karda 

am ki in chunin hdz na khwdham kard, 
respected — He is everywhere respected. — ha har jd ki 

mi-ravad (^izzat wa Jyurmat mi-hindd), (ha Miidmat-ash 

.,yit,zed by Google 



390 respect — revive, 

ikdam mtrnamayand ; ha ikrdm-cish pesh mi-ayand ; o^a 
taknm wa ta^s^vm wa ikrdm mt-namdyand ; o-rd ha 'izzat 
wa lywmuU stUuk ml-namdyand.) 
Respect — I pay great respect to what he says. — dnchi 
ml-goyad man o-rd (wakdr) mi-diham. {wa>k\) Or, man 
sukhan-iro-rd (tauklr) mv-kunam. {tauki.) 
Rest — ^I had no rest last night. — dl shah {Wtwdh-am na 
girift). (yak Idhkza na khwdbulam ; yak daklka chashm- 
am barham na guzdrdam ; dar cha>8hm-am khwdb na 
gasht ; khwdbam na burd.) See Sleep. 
Restored — I have restored more than I took away. — har 
kadar Id giriftam ziydda az dn (bdz) dddam, {wdpas ; 
pas,) ' 

Result — ^What was the result of your deliberation? — 
natija,e mashwarat-irshumd chi taur [ha wuku* dmad) ? {ha 
wuku' anjdmld; ha zukur dm^; ha f,uhur paiwast; sat 
ha 'arsa.e shuhud kashid.) 
Result — From this measure many benefits will result. — 
az In tadhirmmtfa^atri-wafur (dast khyjdhad ddd). {tdhsU 
or hdsU khwdhdd shud ; ha Jya^uL klky>dhad anjdmld ; ha 
dast Tchwahad uftM.) 
Retain — Can you retain this in your memory ? — in-rd ha 
ydd-i-khud ml-tawdned ddskt? Or, in-rd ha madrika^e 
Mkud saht ml-tawdned kard. 
Retire — At ten o'clock the company began to retire. — 
ha sd'at-irdah mahfil {harkhtvdst). muhaidat or tabd^id 
kard; bdz gasht,) 
Return — ^When do you propose to return. — irdda.e (mwd- 
ja*at) kai ddred? ['aiidat; mu'dwadat,) Or, 'indn-i- 
'a^vmat kai mun'atif khtvdhed karfl ? 
Revised— I have revised what I had written. — dnchi 

naudshta hudam bar dn nazar-i-sdni karda am. 
Revive — Trade is now beginning to revive. — tijdrat ilhal 
bdz raunak giriftan aghdz mi-kunad. Or, bdzdr-i-tijarat 
ilhdl bdz garm ml-shavad. Or, sauddgarl aknun fu ha 
tarakkl ml-nihad. 



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rewarded — roars. 891 

Kewabded — The General rewarded the soldiers. — sipdh- 

sdldr \tskariydn^d irCdm bakhahld. 
EiBAND — Tie this with a rib'and. — In-rd ha (kur) bi-hand. 

(sharbad.) 
Rich — That merchant is very rich. — an tdjir khaili (tawdn- 

gar) ast. {ghanl ; mustaghni ; munHm,) Or, an sauddgar 

{nVmat'i-begirdn) ddrad, (daulat-i-hekiyds ; mM-i-fird- 

wdn^ Or, an bayyV safyib-i-dunyd or khuddwand-i- 

nVmat asU) 
BiGHES — What are riches to him who has no heart to 

make a right use of them ? — az daidat-ash chi fd,ida ki 

o In ckunln himmat na ddrad ki dn-^d ha sarf-i-jd^iz 

kharch namdyad. Or, shakh^e-rd ki dil-ash ha Wtarch-i- 

jd,iz md.il na buda bashad, az dunyd chifd,ida ? 
Blddle — Can you tell the meaning of this riddle ? — {ma^nl,e 

In chtstdn hall) mi-tawdned kard? {^ukda,e mu'ammd 

TjmU ; tna'nlye In mu^ammd-rd tashnJjL.) 
Rides — ^He rides on horseback every morning. — har roz 

ha wakt-irfubh har asp sawdr ml-ahavad. Or, roz-marra 

'al^'§-sdhdh {rdkib'i-asp) ml-shavad. (marhib-i-markdb,) 
Ridicule — They ridicule serious counsel. — har ^aldh-i-nek 

(tamaskkur) mirkunand. (taskhur : istihzd.) 
Ring — She has lost her diamond ring. — an sdlyiba angush- 

tari ha nagln-i-almds4-khud (gum) karda ast. (Jikddn,) 
Rings — The bell riugs daily at twelve o'clock. — har roz ha 

wakt'irnof-roz (jaras nawdkhta) ml-shavad, (zang zada ; 

dard dard.ida,) 
Ripen — This fruit is beginning to ripen. — In mewa ha 

pukhtan dmada ast. 
Rise — If you wish to be a good scholar, rise early every 

day. — agar khwdhish-i-fdzil shudan dared *ala-$-§i^dh az 

{khyjab beddr shaded), {bistar-i-khwab har khezed.) 
Risen — The price of indigo has risen lately. — az 'arsa.e 

kalib kimat'i^itl ru ha {afzuni) nihdda ast, (tarakki, 

izdiydd kasrat ; ziyddatl,) 
RoAiM — ^The sea roars loudly. — hdhr mutamawwij mi" 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



393 robbedr—rust. 

shavad. Or, hakru-l-muhil {mvtdlatim mv-shavad.) {mvHudij 

mi-shavad ; ha if rat ml-ghurad.) 
Robbed — He has been robbed of all his plate. — hama tcuht- 

i-nukraye o (ba duzdl rafta) ast. (duzd burda ; dast-hurd- 

irduzd gardlda ; ha sirkat rqfta ; duzdlda shuda,) 
EocE — The ship ran upon a rock, and was lost. — jahaz ba 

koh Mmrd wa {ghark) shud, (pdra-pdra; mughrak : 

giarik; mustaghrik ; darahjaro; shikasta.) 
Roof — ^The roof of the house fell in. — (sak/yi-khdna ha 

zamin uftdd» [bam,) 
Roots — Those trees were dug up by the roots. — dndarafsttha 

az bekh {bar dwarda) shuda hudand, (kanda.) 
Rope — Make the boat fast with a rope. — saflna^d ha 

(mikwade) bi-band, (rassan ; J^abl.) 
Rub — Rub your hands with this leaf. — dasthd,e khud-ra 

haMn barg-i-daralcht bi~mdled. 
Rudder — The vessel ran upon a sand-hank, and lost her 

rudder. — jahdz (bar tal-i-reg bar dmad wa sukdn-asik 

shika^t. Or, jahdz ba taudra,e reg nishast wa {dumha[)-€uh 

shikari. {khjoUa; khaldsha,) 
Ruined — By these deeds he will in the end be ruined. 

— dkhirvrl-amr az In kdrhd {tahdh) khipdhad shud, 

[talaf o tdrdj ; khastOrhdl; shikasta hdl; he %ar o sdmdn; 

pareshdfi ; pd,e mdl.) 
Rule — ^What rule do you observe in study ? — dar ta^Um-i- 

*Um-irkhud kuddm kd,ida nigdh dared ? Or, dar tadrts- 

i-Hlm-irkhud ba kuddm dastur {multajit ml-shaved) ? {iUifdX 

or mail or tawajjuh ml-kwned ; mM.il ml-shaved.) 
Ruler — God is the ruler of the universe. — qfrtnanda,e 

jdhdn hdkim-irjahdn ast. Or, khdlik-i-makhllikat dawar- 

i-kdjiridt ast. Or, sdnV-i-masnudt farmdndih^i-^dlam cut. 

Or, rabbu-l'dlammn k!vusrau,e maujuddt ast. 
Run — Run after him and call him back. — dar ('akabyash 

hirdawed wa o-rd bdz bi-khwdned {pai; kafd.e.) 
Rust — This knife is covered with rust — In kdrd<ba zang 

dluda ast. Or, i» chakw-rd morehdna Mmrda ast. 



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sad — satis/action, 393 

S. 

Sad— This is indeed a sad misfortune. — In fi^wakV 

(rmLStbatyir'azim ast, (holly at ; ziUat,) 
Saddle — He is used to ride without a saddle, — {'ddat-ash 

ast) hi h a^h air-i-zln sawdr mishavad. (o *dcUU ddrad.) 
Safe — I heard of his safe arrival in London. — man shunl- 

dam ki dar shahr-i-landan (ha khair o*afiyat) todrid shud, 

(ha aman o dmdn; ha aihhat; ha salamat; sdldman o 

ghdriinan.) 
Safety — We may live here in safety.— dar In jd ha 

(saldmat) hi-mdnem. (amn; dmdn; drdm ; *dfiyat ; 

amniyat ; hifdsiat,) Or, dar In jd ha pdyC kardr jdda,e 

istikdmat hi-paimdyem. 
Sail — This hoat has neither mast nor sail. — m kishti tlr 

na ddrad na (bdd-hdn). (shurd' ; kaWa,) 
Sailobs — Sailors visit different parts of the globe. — mal- 

tdhdn sair'i-mulkhd.e {mukhtalifj-idunyd ml-kunand, 

(muta/arrik,) 
Salary — His salary is 500 rupees a month. — muwdjib-ash 

panj sad rupiya ast. Or, o mu8hahira,e panj sad rupiya 

ddrad. 
Sale — There will be a sale of salt to-morrow.— /arda 

harrdj'i-namak khwdhad shud. Or, fard^ namak ha 

harrdj farokhta khwdhad shud. 
Saleable. — These articles are not saleable. — In ajnds kdhiJr 

i-farokht nayand. 
Same — ^Yours and mine are both the same. — chlze ki az dn- 

i-man ast wa dn chtz ki az dn-i-shumd ast har du (yak- 

sdn) and. (ala'S'Sawtya ; mutasam,) Or, chlz-i-shumd 

wa chtz-i-man har du yak kism ast. Or, dshiyd,e rrid har 

du az yak nau^ ml-hdshad. 
Sample — Show me a sample of the rice. — ha man namuna,e 

birinj hi-namdyed. 
Sand — This rice is full of sand. — In hirinj az reg pur ast, 
Satisfaotiok — ^Your book has afforded me much satisfao- 



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894 satiety — sea, 

tion. — az muidla^aye Idtdb-irshuma bisiydr khushnudt 

hd^ namuda am. 
Satiety — He saw you to satiety. — o az dudanri-tu ser gar- 

dida ast. Or, az dtdanri-tu seri bado ru dwarda ast. 
Save — Save this for to-morrow. — m-rd bard,efardd nigah 

bi-ddred. 
Saved — I have saved my friend from a very great danger. 

— dost'i-ktkydam-rd az kkatra,e muhUk [ba saldmat 

badar dwarda am), (najdt dddam ; m^ahfuz ddshta am,) 
Saw — Tell the carpenter to saw this board in two. — dar- 

rudgar-rd bi-go ki In taMita-rd ba drra do para bi-{Jcunad). 

(kun,) 
Sating — This is an old saying. — In {makdt)4'kadtm ast, 

{kaul; guftdr; sukjian,) 
Scarce — ^These articles are now scarce. — In dshiyd (kam- 

yah) and. (ghfdr-fd.iz ; giair ka^lr ; lid-ydb ; nddir ; 

ghfiirib,) 
Scatteb — Scatter this seed on the ground. — In tnkhm-rd 

ba zamln [biyafshdned), (bi-pdshed ; bi-kdred,) 
Score — I have bought a score of sheep. — (bistaje) gusfand 

kharida am, (jbist *adad4,) 
Scorn — He treated my advice with scorn. — nasihat-i^mard 

(hakdrat kard), {haklr ddnist; ba istikrdh shwuft; 

istikhfdf kard ; kirdhiyat kard,) 
Scrape — Scrape the ink off your pen. — dz kalam-i-kbud 

murakkab (pdk kun), {bi-khardsh ; Tyikk kun,) 
Scratched — I have scratched my finger with a nail. — 

angusht'i'Uk^d-rd ba mekhe khardshlda am. 
Scrawl — ^Why do you scrawl on my paper? — chird bar 

kdghaz'i-man kKaU'i-{ldLdm) ml-kashed ? [rid husn.) 
Scream — These children scream all day. — in atfdl tamam 

roz ghirew mtrzanand. 
Screws — This lock is fastened on with screws. — In kufl az 

peek (band) karda shud. (murattab ; mutarattab,) 
Scribe — ^This is the village scribe. — In kdtib-i-karya ast. 
Sea — The ship will go to sea txymorrow,— far ddjahdz (ba 

bafkr rawdn ihwdhad shud). (langar hkwdhad bar dMsht,) 

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seal — seized. 895 

Seal — What did you give for that seal ? — az bara.e an 

muhr chi ddded ? ^ 
Sealed — Have you sealed your letter ? — bar khatt-i'Tchyd 

{muhr karda ed) ? (Jchatm or muhr zada ed,) 
Seams — There are no seams in this cloth. — in libas darz 

na darad. Or, da/r In jama dozishe nist 
Search — I had a long search to no purpose. — man ta ba 

muddat-i-madid just oju.e be-fd,ida kardam. 
Seabchino — I have heen searching for this all day. — man 

tarnam roz (dar talash-i-tn bUda am), {tafahhus-i-^n 

karda am ; tajassus4-in dashta am.) 
Season — This is a pleasant season of the year. — In mausim- 

irsal MiMsh ast. 
Sea-shore — We walked by the sea-shore. — m^ ba sahiH- 

bahr pa-piyada (sair) kardem. {tafarruj.) 
Secret — They keep all things secret. — hama chiz {nihan) 

ddrand. (pinhdn ; poshlda ; makhfi ; ikhfa ; mastur.) 

Or, sirre ki mt-darand ba kase darmiydn na ml-^nihand). 

[drand goyand.) 
Section — ^You will find this in the fourth chapter, fifth 

section. — dar foal - i -panjum - i - bob - i - chahdrum m-rd 

Jskfodhed yqft. 
Secure — ^You may remain here secure. — shum>d dar In jd 

(awian) bashed, (ba anidn ; ba saldmat ; ba khairiyat ; 

musaUam; sdlim; ba'dfiyat.) 
S££ — X Bee, the trouble I take to teach you is useless. — 

man ml-ddnam ki miknateki dar taUm-i-shumdml-kunam 

be-sud ast. 
Seed — Sow this seed in tne garaen. — tn (bazr) dar bdgh, 

bi-kdr. {barz ; barza; tuhhm.) 
Seek — If we seek for knowledge, we shall find it. — agar 

ialab-i-'Um bi-kunem Ji-lrwdki* hd^U khwdhem namud. 
Seized — ^The police officer seized him. — shahna gvnftdr-ash 

namud. Or, *asas akhz-ash namud. Or, yoke az ahH- 

ihtisdb (mJakhuz-ash namudy (dar wai dweMkt ; dast dar 

gvrebdn zad ; o-rd girift.) 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



396 select — serves. 

Select — Select what things you choose. — an chizKd.e hi 
shurrid ml-pasanded {bi-gyzmed). {ifcbjtisas bi-hmed; 
hirchmed ; isHnbdi birkuned.) 
Sell — I intend to sell my old hooks and buy new ones. — 
ka^-irdn ddram hi kutviMrhuhn Ivfarosham tea kuttib-i- 
nau bi-kharam. 
Send — I send my servant to Tehran once a week. — man 
(khddimy-i-khyd-rd ha ^ahrdn ha hafta yak bar (mi- 
firistarnf' '^(khidniatgdr ; muta'aUik ; hdjib; mvldzim; 
naukar ; cJidkar ; rahi,) ^rawdna mi-kunam; irsdl or 
mursil ddram.) 
Send — The king said, Send for the executioner. — bddshdh 
' farmud Hjalldd-rd hi-talah. Or, Mkusrau hvkm dad td 

kijaUdd-rd hi-talahand. 
Sense — She possesses much sense and judgment. — an zan 
(akl-irjirdwdn)^ ddrad wa {^d,e durustf. '^{zamlr'i- 
munir; firdsat-i-mustalfkam,) ^tamiz4-§d,ih ; dirdyut- 
i-J'ardkli.) 
Senses — It behoves us to keep our senses under control. — 

mMrd hdyad ki hawdss-i-khyd^d dar zabt bi-ddrem. 
Sentiments — My sentiments agree with yours. — dar tn 
amr rd,e m^n ha rd,e shumd (mvttajik ast), (muivdjik 
a^st ; muwdjikat or ittifak ddrad.) 
Separation — How long is it since their separation? — 
chand muddat ast ki (jvddX) darmiydn-i-eshdn uftdd. 
(Jardk ; mufdrikat ; maJijufi ; hijrdn; farkat; tafrakat ; 
hijr; mvhd'idat ; kafjCat?) 
Separate — They live in separate houses. — eshdn dar 
klkdna.e (mukhtalif) stikunat ddrand. ('a/(i hida ; muta- 
farrif: ; judd.) 
Serene — The sky is serene and clear. — dsman (khUb sdfj 

ast wa nurdni. (he sahdb ; nd tdrtk.) 
Serious — ^Are you serious in what you say ? — dnchi mi- 

goyed sanjtda ast yd na. 
Serves — Ivory serves for various purposes. — ^dj dur kdrhd^e 
anwd' mi-dyad. Or, (dj) ha kdrJid,e anwd* mhUkurad. 
{danddn-i-pU.) 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



$ervice — tikare, 397 

Serviob — I have been in his service ten years. — man dar 

mrddzimat-ash td ha dah sal {has^r buda am), (miydn-i- 

Miidm^nt hoAta am ; muLdzim buda am) 
Set — I set off to-day for Ehaiva. — man imroz ha samt-i- 
. fchawa mi-ravam. Or, man rdJid-kkaiva imroz {tai mi- 

kunam), (ka^a' mi-htmam ; mi-pamtayam.) 
Set — I have set the trap in the place you told me.—^d,e 

ki ha man nUhdn ddded dar dn jd dam (gustarda am). 

{nihdda am ; ruah karda am.) 
Settle — I will now settle my account.— wian Uhdl hisdh-i- 

Miyd^d {he hdk) kfa^dham hard, {faisdl' ; rqfa\) 
Severely — He was punished severely. — o *azdh4-alim ydft. 

Or, 'akuhat-irshadid bado rmtd. Or, ha (ta'ztby-i-sakht 

(giriftdr)^ dmad. \ikdh ; mu'dtahat.) ^giriftdr or 

mubtald or mdkhus or aslr or mukaiyad shtid.) 
Sew — Sew these two together. — m har du-rd hdham (hi- 

dozed), {talfiki birkuned ; rafu bi'Sdzed ; jfkarzat bi-kuned.) 
Shade — Sit in the shade of this tree. — dar zer-i-ysdya^e 

In darakht bi-mshlned. (sUl.) 
Shaded — My house is shaded with trees. — khdna^ man ba 

darakhtdn (sdyaddr) ast. {muisaUal shuda.) 
Shake — Shake the boughs of the tree. — {slmkhhd^^e 

darakkt (bi^umbdnedY. \fwnV ; afdrvin^ sing, fanan ; 

a§rhsd,e, sing, givsun.) ^mtUaharrik bi-sdzed; -rd 

hardkat bi-dihed.) 
Shake — Shake off the dust on your clothes.^dmahd.e 

kh^d-rd az fc&afe bi-takdned. 
Shake — Shake hands. — biyd ki mJd hdham mu^dfiha hi- 

kunem. 
Shame — ^What, have you no shame? — dyd (sharm) na 

ddred? (ihajlat ; haiyd; nang ; inJVdl.) Or, dyd 

khajaUU na mt-{kashed) f (bared.) 
Shape — ^Do you know what shape the earth is ? — ml-ddned 

ki haikal-i^rz chisdn ast ? 
Shabe — He has received his own share out of the propertr . 

— i'tsfa^e Mmd az imldk ydfta ast. Or, o kismat-i- 

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398 

kh^d az mcH hmvl karda ast. Or, o-rd hakra,e az mil' 

kiyat ha hu^ dmada asU 
Shave — I am just going to shave. — halan kajamat kardan 

mi-khwdham. 
Shed — The sun shed his beams over the earth. — {shu^la.e 

mikr) ha ru,e arz uftdd. (shu'd'-i-shams ; lawdm^'i- 

khygrshed,) Or, c^tdh tab-i-kliyd^d ha ru,e zamtn 

(afgand), (gustard; rekht : pdshid,) 
Sheet — Give me a sheet of paper. — yak {taMkta,)a kdghflz 

ha man hidih, (warai: ; fard,) 
Sheix — I have found a beautiful shell. — man {^adafe khush- 

nunid) ydfta am. (gosh-i-mdhtje hasin.) 
Shelter — ^It rains fast, let us shelter ourselves. — baran 

(saMkt) mi'hdrad hiyd ki pandh hi-glrem, (ha zudi ; ha 

ifrdt; tund,) 
Shines — ^The sun shines with great power to-day. — imroz 

tdh-i'dftdh hisiydr (hdrr) ast. {mcihrur ; skadid ; gakkt ; 

tahandu.) 
Shoot — Do you know how to shoot with arrows ? — shumd 

tir (anddkhtan) mt-dJdned? (rihd kardan; zadaii,; 

anddzl,) 
Shorten — Can you shorten this? — shumd (inrrd ihwd) 

ml'tawdned kard ? (In the case of a speech. In «iiMan- 

rd takdmr.) 
Shoulder — ^He has an epaulet on his shoulder. — o har 

(doshyi'hhyd nishdne ddrad. {shdna ; kitf.) 
Show — Please show me the book you spoke of. — kitabe ki 

shiand zikr-ash karded az ru^e Hndyat ha man (nuAan 

hi-dihed). (hi-^nam^dyed.) 
Sick — He has been sick (or ill) a long time. — az muddat-i- 

dardz lUmdr ihuda ast. 
Sigh — Why do you sigh ? — chird dh mi-ijcuned) ? (kashed.) 

Or, chird nafs-i-sard az dil har ml-dred ? 
Sign — ^This is a sign of rainy weather. — In ^aldmate {hdrish) 

ast. (malar,) 
Sign — ^Please to sign this paper. — ax ru,e talaituf bar In 

kdghaz (dast-khatt) hirkuned. {fahti^.) 

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dgnifies — sky, 399 

Signifies — ^It signifies little what they say. — Unchi ml- 

goyand hech (rmizdyaka) na darad, {zarar.) 
Silk— This is a silk manufactory. — in kdr-MLanate ab- 

resham ast. 
Silliness— What can be greater silliness than to think 

thus? — az In chunin Mkayal bastan kiiddm (kimdkat) 

ftiyddatar ast f (sddagi; rakakat ; JiycUat.) 
Similar — My case is similar to yours. — hdl-irman {ha 

misaiyi-hdlat'i-shumd asU {mtishtabih ; mushabih.) 
SiNCERE^His love towards us is sincere. — muhahhat-ash 

ha ma ha ikhlds ast. Or, muwaddat-ash ha ma ha 

saddkat ast^ Or, muwdtdt-ash hd vm khaU§ ast. 
Sincerity— He is a man of sincerity. — o (rdst-hdz) a.st. 

[pdk'hdz ; pak-ru; mukhlis : ydk-jihat; ikhld^-mxind ; 

salimU'l-kalh ; khali^u-JrmukhUs ; saddkat-gustar ; §addkat 

pesha; mrnhkufu-l-kalb.) Or, o §dhib4'(rdst bdzi) ast, 

(ikhld§ ; saddkat; sidk.) 
Sings — She sings very sweetly. — dn zan JcbMb (ml-sardyad). 

(sarod or ta^hannl or tarannum or zumzuma rnVkunad ; 

sarod or tarannum ml-zanad,) 
Singular — Their religious opinions are singular. — khayd- 

Idt-v-maehah-i-eshdn i^ajlb) asU {*ajdh, pi. *ajd,ib; (fiarlb ; 

nadir.) 
Sinking — ^The boat is sinking. — kishtl dar ah faro mt-ravad. 

Or, kishtl (mustag&rak) mi-shavad, {ghflrk ; maghruk ; 

gharik.) 
Sins — No man is so just that he sins not. — kase In chunm 

(munsif-mizdj) nist ki gundh na kunad. (pdk-bdz; 

khudd'tars; neko-kdr.) 
Sit — Sit down, and see if you can understand this or not. — 

(bi-nishined) wa bi-blned ki in-rd fahmidan mi-tawdned yd 

na, {tashnf hirddred ; takd'id H-kuned ; hi-farmdyed,) 
Size — ^What size is the book you speak of? — kitdhe ki sikr- 

oaK mi-kuned chi kadar {hvjum ddrad) ? (kaldn or killat 

ast) 
Sky — The sky is overcast. — dsrmn ha zulmat-i-sahab poshtda 

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400 ileep — sorrow. 

asL Or, dpihr ha abr-i^ydh gcishta (ist. Or, gumbad-i' 

charJcK ha megh, tank shvda asU 
Sleep — I had no sleep all last night. — duhah kjtwaham na 

(girift), (hurd,) Or, dishab yak dam khwab dar chashm- 

am na {gaaht). {amad,) Or, dUhah khwab mara na rabud. 

See Rest. 
Smarts — The cut in my hand smarts very much. — zakhm- 

i-daat-am ha i/rat dard mt-kunad. 
Smell — ^Let me smell that flower. — bi-guzar ki an gvd-ra 

(bi'boyam). {istishm^m or ishtmam hi-kunam; hu,e bi- 

gtram; hu,e bi-bmam,) 
Smeli, — These flowers are without smell. — in guUid (Mus^- 

ho) na darand. (ra.iha ; nashwat ; Hir ; l%bat) 
Smoke — The house is full of smoke. — khdna az dud pur 

ast. 
Smooth — This is smooth paper. — tn kagkaz-imv^ra-dar ast 
Snarl — These dogs snarl at one another. — in sagan ftf* 

yak-digar (khur-khur mlr-zanand), (jgkarish or harir mh ' 

kunand.) 
Snatched — He snatched it out of my hand. — az dast-am 

In chlz (rabud). (giushld.) 
Sneeze. — You sneeze, because you have got a cold. — ba 

sabab'irzukdm ki dared (ml-atsed). {'atsa mtrzaned ; 

*at8dn mlkuned ; ml-mfled ; shinusha mikuned^) 
Soldier — He is an experienced soldier. — *askan,e masaff 

dzmuda, jahdn-dida, safr-karda, kdr-dlda, bark-i-sham- 

sher-i-jadal ba chashm dlda, ra'^d^i-kos-i'dUawardn ba 

gosh-i-o rasida, ast. 
Solicit — May I solicit, sir, this one favour. — at sdi^ agar 

mcCzur dared man ha iMdm>at {'arz kunam). {Utwids 

kunam ; muUamis parddz shavam.) 
Something — I wished to tell you something, but have 

forgot what. — man ml-khwdstam ki ba shuma sukhane 

bi-goyam wa lekin/aramosh kardam. 
Sorrow — This occasions me much sorrow. — In ha man 

JchaiH alam mi-rasdnad. 



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soiTy — spends, 401 

SoHEY — I am sorry for my offence. — man ha sabab-i'taksir- 
i-hhyd {kiaUl ranjlda am). {ta,assuf mtrkliy>ram; 
maluL-am; dU-azurda am; tang-dU-am; andok-zada am; 
mcLghmum-am; m^hztm^am; ha ddm-i -gh am girif tar-am : 
dasUirtagiabun bar zanu,e Ichyd mirzanam,) 
SoBT — Sort these papers. — m kawaghazaUra (^ala-Jjidda 
bi-namdyed). ^(^a^t f^idda bi-chlned ; fdsm, tear bi-ddred ; 
kismat birkuned.) 
SoBT — Is this the sort you wanted ? — kisme hi mi-Jchwdhed 

In ast ? 
Soul — The soul must be happy or miserable. — zarur ast 

ki rui ha asd,ish mdnad yd ba ranj, 
Sound — I hear the sound of music— {dwdz-i-soz o sdz) 

ml-shinavam, ' (shor or ghaugha^e mustkl.) 
Sour — That fruit is sour, don't eat it. — dn m£wa turusk ast, 

ma khy,T, 
Space — ^Leave more space between the lines. — dar miydn- 
irsutur {farke ziydda) bi-guzdred, {tufawate m^zld ; 
fdsUaye afzun.) 
Space — In the space of three months. — dar {'arsa),e si 

m^h. (muddat.) 
Spare — He besought them to spare his life. — o az eshdn 
istid%e jdn baIsEshi,e khud namud. Or, o Utmds kard ki 
eshdn az sar-i-jdn4-o dar guzarand. 
Spark — A spark of fire may set in flames a whole village. — 
\chun dtash'i-andak dar ishti'al dyad) tamdm dih bi'Sozad. 
yak zarra,e sharrar; yak dtashpara ; yak izhak.) 
Speaks — He speaks the Persian language well. — bazabdn-i- 
fdrsl khub haraf ml-zanad. Or, dar zabdn-i-'ajami khush 
sukJian ml-goyad. 
Specimen — Show me a specimen of your writing. — 

namuna.e dMst-khatt-i-khud bi-namd. 
Spectacles — They wear spectacles, — eshdn ^ainak ba 

istVmdl mi'd/rand. 
Spends — He spends his money as fast as he procures it. — 
har kada/r pul-irkhud zudml-yabad dn kadar zud{kharch 



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403 spices — stammered. 

ml'kunad). {mi-rezad; ha had midihad; sarf or israf 

or talaf or tasarnif or iUaf ml-kunad,) 
Spices — They trade in different kinds of spices. — eshan 

(a^sriaf'iymasalihhd mi-faroshand. {taTaJjrtarah ; ah- 

samri-; anwcd-i- ; muTchtalif.) 
Spill — Take care you don't spill the ink. — khahardar 

{murdkkahY {na rezed)^. ^(roshndyi ; midad ; siydhl.) 

^{irmhah na kuned ; na poshed^ 
Spite — He has done this merely out of spite. — o In kdr ha 

8ahah4-{khv^mat) karda ast. {'addwat; dushnam; km; 

ia(:ad; bad-khwdhl : klndwari ; hughz : had-andeshi,) 
Split — Having split the cocoa-nut, his friend and himself 

drank the milk. — jauz-i-hind^-rd (skakk karda) o kkud tea 

dost-a^h sklr-i-dn jauz khyrdand, [shigdfta; tarktda; 

chWC'zada; munsharij sdkhta : shaktida; saftida; darida; 

ta'tjt karda ; mufarrij sdkhta,) 
Spoiled — ^You have spoiled my paper. — shurnd kdghaz-i- 

mard (kharah) karda ed, (makhruh ; tahdh,) 
Spot — There is a spot of ink on your clothes. — jdmahd,e 

shumd d dgh e siydh ddrad. Or, har kiswat-i-^hunid ddghe 

murakkab ast. 
Spread — Spread this mat upon the floor. — in haslr har 

zamln (hi-gmtared), (farsh hi-kuned ; hi-kkwdled.) 
Spread — Having spread a net at night, he caught many 

birds. — ha shah {shahaka),e gustarda parandahd ha 

kasrat ha dam dward, {sha^rat ; hihdlat,) 
Spring — The weeds spring up very fast here. — dur In jd 

kdhe ndkdra ha zudi mv-royad. Or, dar in jd sahza.e 

hegdna ha ta'jU (wujud ml-glrad), (paidd mt-shavad; 

mi'dfamad.) 
Stag — That is a stag of twelve tine. — dn gavcazne ast ki 

dawdzda shdkh ddrad. 
Stairs — He was sitting on the stairs. — o har (nirdbdn) 

nishashta hud. (zlna; saUam; markdt; m^raj; ma^a'd,) 
Stammered — Perhaps he stammered. — magar (luknate) 

andar zahdn-ash hud. {bukunate.) 



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stand — stir. 403 

Stand — ^When you read stand in your proper place. — wakte 

ki mtrM.y^a7ied dar makdm-i-khud [kd,im bashed), {biyuted ; 

kiyam bi-kuned ; istikdmat warzed.) 
Stared — They all stared to see me. — eshan hama mard 

dida {bd chashm-i-lpishdda nigristand). (wd nignstand ; 

nigdh zadand ; lamak kardand ; na^ar-i-tez or nazar- 

irdakik kardand; latd zadand.) 
Starving — ^The people were nearly starving. — nazdik bud 

ki mardumdn az {gursw4igt) bi-mlrand. {ju\) 
Station — He is a person of high station. — o $dhibe (rutba) 

ast. (darja; martaha; man^ab ; sharaf ; manzUat; jdho 

jaUdl; tamkln; Hzzat; nisdb ; makdm-i-^dU.) 
Stay — She intends to make a long stay there. — an zan 

kasd ddrad ki dar dnjd td ba (der) bi-mdnad. (muddat-i- 

madid.) 
Steady — He still continues steady to his purpose. — Ha-hdl 

ba irdda,e khud {kd,im) ast. (mukirr ; mtisammim; 

mustakil; ustawdr ; jpdyaddr ; sabit-kadam.) 
Steals — The jackal steals what he can lay hold of. — 

shaghdl harchi ml-ydbad ba duzd^ bar ddshta mt-ravad. 
Steep — The bank of this river is very steep. — kindra.e in 

nahr bisiydr [nashib-ddr ast). (sardshtb ast; ganwa 

ddrad.) 
Steer — Can you steer a vessel? — dyd jahdze (rdndan) 

ml-tawdned? [sukhardan; zabtkardan.) 
Stick — He walks with a stick. — o yak ckub-i-dastidar dast 

girifta sair ml-kunad. 
Stiff — This paper is too stiff. — in kdghaz nihdyat (durusht) 

ast. (sakht.) 
Still — Cannot you be still for one moment? — dyd yak 

Idi^za (sdkit na ml-tawdned mdnd). (mkut na mx-tawdned 

warzed.) 
Stir — I am now so weak I can scarcely stir. — il})M in 

chumn kamzor-am ki ba dushwdri iarakat ml-kwnam. 

Or, iHM In chunln za^lfu-l-badan-am ki ba sakhtl taharruk 

mi'kunam. 



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404 store — stumbled. 

Store — He has great store of learning.— o {kkazdna),e 

*azlm'i-ilm ddrad, [maJchzan; ma'dan!) 
Stoby — I did not hear that story. — man an {kissd) na 

shunldam, [sar-guzaskt ; ddstan; f^ztya; iadis; nakl; 

afsana; JfUcayat,) 
Straight — Is this ruler straight? — ayd In mistarrast ast? 
Strain — Strain this milk through a cloth. — In shtr az 

pdrcha {hi-palu,ed). (biyaf shared ; hi-fishured ; tarunk bi- 

sdzed ; bazl or saf bi-Jcuned.) 
Strakoeb — I am a stranger here. — man dar Injd (jgfharibe) 

am. (ghoire; ajndtH^e; begdna,e; shatlre.) 
Straw — ^Where can we get straw ? — kdk az hjiQd ffasUri-ma 

mv-dyad ? 
Strength — I have hut little strength. — zor dar badan-am 

ham ast. Or, man dar jism takwiyat kam ddram. Or, 

tdkat dar ajzd,e badan-i-man ru ba takdsur nihdda ast. 
Stretch — Stretch out your hand. — dast-i-Jsliyd'7^ dardz bi- 

kuned. 
Strikes — I will go as soon as the clock strikes. — ba 

mujarrad-i-nawdkhtan-i-sd^at man Mnpaham raft. 
Struck — He struck him with a stick on the head. — o bar 

sar-ash chube zad. 
Stripped — They stripped him and took away his clothes. — 

eshdn jama az tan-i-o kashida burdand. Or, eshdn o-ra 

(barhna) karda libdS'Osh burdand. ('uriydn ; be poshdk. ) 
Strong — They are strong and healthy. — eshdn (katn) wa 

tan-durust ml-bdshand. [kawJ-jttssa ; rnazhutw-l-badan; 

tawdnd; nairumand.) 
Stuck — Getting into the hoat, he stuck in the mud. — o ba 

wakt-i-sawdr-shiidan'i'kishtt dar khUdb dar m and. Or, dar 

hlne ki o dar kishti bar dmad dar wakhal (faro) shud. 

[nasb; midsik ; 'alak.) 
Study — They study all the day long. — eshdn tamdm roz 

(tadris) ml-kunand, (taff^sU-i-idum ; mutaala.) 
Stumbled — I stumbled in running across the road. — wakts 

ki man az rah *ubur ml-kardam {^dma ba man rasxd). 

{sakut kardam ; sakfat ydftam ; sdk;it shudam.) 

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rnhdue-^mck, 405 

SoBDUE — ^We ought to subdue our passions. — mara bdyad 
hi khwdhishhdye nafsdm^e Miyd-rd (dar kahza^e khud 
ddrcm). (zabt bi-kunem,) Qr, bdyad ki md nafs-i-Mmd' 
rd (tdskhir bi-sdzem), {ma^lub or zer or ta^fhaUub or 
tamaUuk or istirkdk or mtis akhkha r bi-kunem,) 

Subject — ^What is your advice on this subject? — dar m 
amr (chi ma§lai>at ml-bmed)? (chi §aldi ddred; rd,e 
shuvrid chist) Or, dar mashwarat-i-ln TnaidliJp chi tadblr 
mi-{kuned) ? {diked.) 

Submitted— They submitted to the conquerors. — mhdn ba 
gMllibdn w/at^ mdndand. Or, eahdn asir-i-fyukm-i- 
ghdlibdn dmadand. Or, dar taff^t-i-hukm-d-gjidlibdn dma- 
dand. Or, {inkiydd)'i''hukm4-ffhdlibdn kardand, (itd'at,) 
Or, khud-rd ba arbdh4-taghaRub {tasLvm) kardand. {lati- 
Idm; istisldm.y 

Subscribe — ^Will you subscribe to this publication? — In 
ta^lfa-rd dast-ihaU khwdhed kdrd ? (i.e. subscribing to 
the principles of the publication.) Or, az bard,e khartd' 
i-in ta^lfa kimat-i-iissa ki ba zimma,e shumd dyad add.e 
Jchwdhed kard 1 (i.e., subscribing for the purchase of the 
publication.) 

Subsistence — He has a subsistence only. — o kut td-yamut 
ddrad. 

Substitute — Some people write on leaves as a substitute 
for paper. — ba^ze mardumdn ba Hwaz-i-kdgJ^z bar barghd 



Succeeded — ^With your assistance I have succeeded. — ba 

mu'dwanairi-shumd {man kdm-yab shvdam). {ba murdd-i- 

khy d rastda am ; bahrormand shuda am ; flroz gashta am.) 
Success — ^We have had little success in our work. — dar m 

kdr md kam (/ath-yab) shuda em. {bahrormand ; bakhti- 

ydr) 
SuccESsoB? — ^Who is to be his successor?— (A:a,m makdrn)- 

ash ki khwdhad shod, {jd-nishin ; ndyib-mandb) 
Suck — ^The squirrels suck this fruit. — mush-i-paranda In 

m^worrd {makk ml-kashad). (tama^a§ ml-sdzad ; tamaz- 

zaz ml-kunad.) 

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406 mffer — mre. 

Suffer — He did not suffer me to sell the goods. — ijUzat4^ 
JaroMkixtnA-ashdh-am na dad. Or, o mard na guzasht ki 

man asbab-ra bi-faroaham. 
Suny— Will this kind suit you?* — in kism (jpasand4*shumd 

ml-dyad)? {ba shumdpasand ml-ayad,) 
Suitable — ^Your advice appears suitable.-— ?ia«tAa*-i-«^t«»i5 

{mundsib ma'lum) mishavad, {shdyista zUhir; Idyik-i- 

mafhum ; saaawdr huwaida.) 
Suits — I have but two suits of clothes. — man fakafi do 

{dctsiyi-jama ddram. Or, ba juz az do rakht-i-poskak 

libd8-i-digar na ddram. 
SuMMEB. — It is now the summer season. — In maimm-i- 

(tdbistan) ast, (tamuz ; garma ; saif.) 
Summons — He has received a summons to attend the court 

to-morrow. — hiikm-iMMa bado rasida ast Id fardd dar 

'adalat hdzvr gardad. Or, bard,e i^dr-io <M-i-*adaiat 

Vldm-ndma firistada a8t» 
Superintends — ^Who superintends this work? — (muhtor 

mimyi-ln kdr Jmt f (muntazim ; munsirim ; nazim ; kdr- 

kun ; ndzi/r ; kdr-farmd; kdr-guzdr ; mundzir,) Or, {ijra),e 

kdr ki mv-kanad? [ihtwidl; intizdm; insirdm; sar- 

bardhl,) 
Supplicate — ^It will then be in vain to supplicate.— an 

iro^t [tazarrvi!) kardan mufid na khwahad shud. (Utwids; 

ibtikdl bd rijd ; niydz ; ikba ; iftikdr tawajjuh,) .. 
Supply — Can you supply me with these articles ? — shumd 

In chlzhd m^iujud karda ba man mv-tawdned ddd ? 
Support — He has no means of support. — [aabdh-i'ma'tshat) 

na ddrad, {zaruriydt-i-ma'dsh ; rakht-i-rozi ; idrdr-i-rizk.) 
Support — How does he support his family? — o parwansk- 

i-{lawdhikdn)4'fchyd chi taur mi-kunad ? {muta'aUikdn ; 

Hydl wa afjdl; kabd,il.) 
Suppose — I should suppose you are mistaken. — man {mt- 

ddnam) ki ghfllaf karda ed. [gunvdn ddram ; ml-fahniam,) 
Sube — I am not sure that it is so. — {mard yakln nut) ki in 

chunln ait. {yakln na ddram ; ba yaklnam na mt-dyad,) 

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mrety — sword. 407 

Surety — 1 am his surety. — man (zaminyash mt-basham. 

{kafil; zamln; zamnddr; z^%m; mbir,) Or, zamdnat'l-o 

ha zimnia.e khud mi-giram. 
SuEFACE — ^We saw a dead body floating on the surface of 

the water. — ma {Lashe) ha ru,e ah didem. (na'she; 

murda,e ; jindza^e ; maiyate.) 
Surprise — I felt great surprise on hearing this. — ha 

mujarrad^utimd^'irln mkhan (muta^ajjib shudam). {'ajab- 

nak or taHajjvh-ndk or hairat-agin or mutahaiyir or 

hairan shudam ; ta*ajjub or *ajab kardam.) 
Surprised— He would have been greatly surprised had 

you told him this. — a^ar In sukhan hado ml-gufted o ta- 

'ajjub'ir'azim mlrkard. 
Surrounded — I am surrounded with difficulties. — man ha 

mushkUdt {giriftdr) shuda am. (maksur ; mv^tala ; aslr ; 

miJilf, ; mustahsir ; mahdt ; ha^ir karda.) 
Suspicion — I have no suspicion that he has done this. — 

man (guman na daram) ki in chunln karda ast, [shubha 

or s^nn or shakk or tawahhum na ddram; dar guman 

nayam ; wahm na ml-buram.) 
Swarm — ^Look ! here is a swarm of bees. — bi-bin dar In jd 

yak ambohri'm4igasa7i4-*asljam* shuda ast. Or, bi-hln dar 

Inja magamn-d-'asl pur shuda ast. 
Sweep — Sweep away this litter. — in Mas oMiashdk hi-rubed. 
Sweet — The sugar-cane is very sweet. — naishakar Miub 

shirln ast. 
Swelled— My foot swelled greatly. — pdyam bisiydr (dmas 

kard). {mutawarrim- shvd; voaram kard; dmdsid; 
manfukh or shdk or muzma^id gasht.) 
Swim — Can you teach me to swim ? — shuma mard (shind- 
wart) mi-tawdned dmokht. {shind kardan; shindwish; 
shind\) 
Swings — This parrot swings upon a wire. — m tutl bar tare 

kafs nishasta khyd-rd mtjumbdnad. 
Sword — I will draw my sword. — man {shamsher)'irlckvd-ra 
az miydn berun Miyodham kashld. {husdm; 8am§dm.) 

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408 system — terminate* 

Or, man teghri-Tdkyd-ra az giiilaf berun Ichwahayn hat 
award. 
System — They teach without any system. — eshan ta'lim-i- 
he-kd,ida mt-dihand. 



Take — Come in, and take oS jom cloak.— andarUn hiyayed 

labada az badan-i-Mkyd bar hashed. 
Takes — He takes medicine usually once a month. — o dur 

har mJah yak bar dawd {ba ^ddat) ml-khurad. {hasburl- 

mu^tdd; hasbu-l'mamuL ; i^asbu-l-dastur ; ba hasburl- 

isti'mM.) 
Taken — Having taken the fort, they entered the city.— 

eshdn kila-rd (ba kahza.e khyd awarda) dar shahr ddkAU 

shudand. {taskktr or aihs or fath or maftuh or musaki- 

khar karda; kushdda.) 
Talk— They talk incessantly.— «8^an {^al^-lAttisal) suJchan 

mv-goyand, {jpai dar pai ; mutawatir ; mutawaU; mnUa- 

rddif,) 
Teacher— The same teacher that taught you, taught me. 

mu'alUme ki ba shumd tallm dad man nlz az o ta'llm 

giriftam. Or, mvdarrise ki ba shumd dars dad o ba man 

nlz dars dad. 
Tear— Mind you don't tear your new book.— tj%^ kun 

ki kitab'irnau-i-kbud-rd na dan. 
Tell Tell me where 1 may meet with him. — ba man bU 

go ki man bd o kujd (mtUdkl ihw^ham shvid). (rmddkdt 

khwdham kard ; ml-rasam.) 
Teni> ^This will tend to increase our knowledge. — In ba 

afzuni,e tahsU-i-'Um mard (wa,iZ) khivdhad salcht^ [muta- 

wajjih; rdghih,) Or, az In kd.idu ^Umri-md ru ba afzuni 

khwdhad nihdd. 
Term — It is now term time, the court is open. — In icakt-i- 

darbdr ast 'adalat {maftuh) ast. {makshuf; wdz; bdz.) 
Terminate — When do you expect this affair will ter- 

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thanks — Hmber. 409 

minate? — dar khayal-i-shumJa chiguna ml-ayad H In 
mukadcUima kai [anjam Mkwahad yaft)? {ha itmdm 
khwahad rasid; tamam or faisal or munfasU or munkata* 
or munkazl khwahad shud; infisal or inkizd Mk^pahad 
yaft.) 

Thanks — Sir, I return you many thanks. — §ahibd man 
hisiyar (shykr-guzaryi-shumd mi-basham, (ihsdnmand; 
mihnat-jpazir ; imtindn-pazlr ; 'ntarhtmri-minnat ; murta- 
hirn-i-ihsdn,) Or, sdhibd man az 'uhda^e In indyat 
herun na mt-tawdnam dmad. 'Or, §dhibd tauk-i-minnat- 
irshumd dar gardan anddkhta am. Or, hisiydr ahukr-i- 
nVm^-i'Shumd mi-goyam. 

Thatched — This house must be thatched anew. — In 
khdna-rd az sar-i-nau bd kdhbin bay ad poshid. Or, sakf- 
i-in khdna az sar-i-nau bd kashsh durust bdyad kard. 

Thick — Do you wish for thick paper or thin ? — kdghaz-i- 
(dtirushlY ml-khu)dhed yd (bdrtkf ? \zaft ; sifabr.) 
\nizdr.) 

Thought — They exercise no thought on the subject. — dar 
In amr {rd,e khud na mi-drand). (^ aJd-i-khyd-rd dakhl 
7ia mi-dihand ; akUi-Mtyd-rd dakhl4-ta^armf na ml- 
dihand; kiyds or fikr or t<xfakkur or khaydl na mt- 
kunand.) 

Threatens — He threatens to punish them. — o badeshdn 
{tahdld)-i-sazd ml-dihad. {taMiwlf ; tdd ; tahadud ; 
tawakkum; wa'id.) 

Tide — ^The tide has begun to flow. — ilhal m>add (dar agi^z) 
ast. {shuru* shvda.) 

Tiger — There is a tiger in that forest; also a tigress, 
together with two young ones. — dar an besha shere nar 
ast balki sher-v-m,dda ha ma do bachcha. 

Tilled — This ground has never been tilled. — in zamtn 
hargiz (shiydr karda) na shiida ast. (zird'at kwrda; 
kdshta.) 

Timber — ^Where shall we procure timber ^ — az kujd (shah- 
ttr) khwdhem ydft. (Jshfl^hab.) 

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410 time — transported. 

Time — Youth is the time . of learning. — (shahab) wakt-i- 

dmokhtan ast. {shdblhat ; ihabb ; 'unfawau-i-shabdb,) 
Tired— I am quite tired. — man bisiydr {dar-manda) shtida 

am. {m^i'tub; wd mdnda.) Or, (taUdsstdyi-bisiydr dar 

vmjud-i-man rdhe ydfta ast. (mdndagi; tdkdsur; tasd- 

hiliyat.) 
Title — This is a title only. — in fakai (kh^abe) ast. {sat- 

ridma,) 
Tobacco — They smoke tobacco. — eshdn tambdku ml- 

kashand. 
Tolerable — This is tolerable writing. — in khflU (^5- 

yukrd) mt-bdshad. (mukdrib.) 
Torches — ^We travelled by the light of torches. — ba 

roshani.e mash'alkd ^safr kardem. 
Tossed — ^The boat was tossed with the waves. — ba sabab- 

irtaldtumri-amwdj kishtt (tah o bald) ml-shud, (zer o 

bdld.) 
Touch — ^Touch this with your finger. — ba angusht-i-kh^d 

In-rd (lams) bi-kuned. {m^iss ; mumdsoit ; imsds ; mvjtass.) 
Toys — ^There are plenty of toys in the bazar. — dshiyd,e 

bdzicha dar bdzdr bisiydr ml4>dshand. 
Transact — ^They transact different affairs there. — eshdn 

dar dn jd kdr o bdr az har kism (ml-kunand). (ba 'ami 

mv-drand.) 
Transferred — ^That money has been transferred to me. — 

dn put ba man (sipurda) shuda ast. (hawdla karda; 

wad'iyat niJuUla.) Or, dn put dar ta^voU-i-man dmada 

ast. 
Transgressed — ^We have transgressed God's commands. 

— ma az hadd-i-hukm-ir kh'U dd (kadam berun nihdda em), 

(berun rafta em ; gnzashta em). Or, mM az fyukm-i-tzd 

(tajdwuz) karda em, (^adul.) 
Translate — Translate this into Persian. — tn-rd dar zabdn- 

i'fdrs tarjuma bi-kun. 
Transported — He has been transported for life. — o kaid- 

i-ddfimurl'habs ydfta jUd-watan karda shud. Or, o habs- 

i-da^imu-lr'umr ydfta nafiUi-watan karda shud. 

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travelled — tumbled, 411 

Travelled — ^We travelled all the way on foot. — md tamdm 

rah pa piydda raftem. 
Tbavelling — He is travelling in Persia. — o (safr-ifdrs 

mv-kimad. {darfdrs dyajjut,) 
Tkeads — He treads so softly, I don't hear the sound of 

his step. — In chunin ha dhistagl ml-ravad H (dwdz-i- 

kadam-ash ha gosh-am) na ml-rasad. {saddle pdyash ha 

sama'-i-man.). 
Treacherous — Their conduct is very treacherous. — eshdn 

dar Jdrddr-i-kkud hisiydr {d agh a bdz) and, {khd.in ; 

glaadddr; ghadir ; ha khiydnat; fareh-hdz ; hamlai ; 

mughaddar ; ghadur : daghal-zan\) 
Tremble — I tremble with fear. — man az Tchauf ml-larzam. 

Or, az khauf har man (larza) mustavll mi-shavad. (rd'sha ; 

irti'dsh ; 'arwd ; ^a^at.) 
Trial — His trial will take place to-day. — imroz mukad- 

damxi.e o (dd^ir) khwdhad shud, (pesh ; rnju\) 
Trifle — Why do you thus trifle away your time ? — shvmd 

chird ha in taur aukdt-i khyd-rd [rd.egdn) az dast ml-dihed, 

{muft; hefdyida.) 
Trivial — This is but a trivial affair. — in amr4'{]shafif) ast. 

(suhuk; he-mdya; he-wazn ; he-mikdar,) 
Trouble — He gives them much trouble. — o hadeshdn 

{zahmatyirfirdwdn mi-dihad, {dikkat; takhlif ; ta§d%* : 

saklat; mihnat; takaUuf.) 
Trust — I am not anyways afraid to trust him. — man 

hech muzdyaka na ddram ki (haro i'timdd) hirkunam. 

(i^tihar-irO.) 
Truth — ^I am convinced what he says is the whole truth. — 

yakln mi-ddnam harchi ki o mi-goyad kulli rdst ast. 
Trying — It is of no use trying to do this. — dzmdyish-i'in 

kdr ha man hefd,ida a>st. 
Tumbled — They tumbled over one another. — eshdn har 

yak dlgar (uftddand). {munhadim shvdajid; galattd- 

and ; inhiddm kardand,) 

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412 tune — undertake. 

Tune — Her voice is a little out of tune. — dwaz-ash kadre 

(nd sdz) ast. {be rang ; nd mauzUm.) 
Turn — Turn over this leaf. — tn warak M-garddned. 
Twist — ^Twist these cords together. — m rassanhd bdham 

(bi-peched), (bi-tdbed; fatal bi-sdzed; biydred; charJch 

bi-icuned,) 

U. 

Ugly — This is an ugly shaped letter. — m harf (nd zthci) 

a^st, (zisht; bad-^urat; bad-shdkl; habih; makruh,) 
Umbrella — I have left hehind my umbrella. — (chatr)-i- 

Miyd-rd dar pas gvzdshta dmada am, (sdyabdn ; dftah- 

gir ; dftdb-garddn ; shamst.) 
Unanimous — They were unanimous in their opinion. — 

eshdn dar rd,e khud {muttafik) budand, (yak-jihat ; yak- 

dil ; hamadz ; yak-kaul ; yak shaur.) 
Uncertain — It is uncertain whether I shall go or not.^ 

mukarrar nist ki man dar an jd bi-ravam yd na. 
Unbecoming — To act thus is unbecoming. — in chumn kdr 

kardan {rid mundsib) ast, {nd skd^ista ; ghair-i-muwajik ; 

nd ld,ik,) 
Unchangeable. — God only is unchangeable. — mahz ihudd 

ta'dl^ {bar kardr) ast, (Id yazdl ; Hid taghaiyur ; dd,im 

wa kdyim,) 
Undergo— Why do you needlessly undergo all this 

trouble. — chird be-zaruratan In Kama {takltf mukashed). 

{mihnat mi-barddred ; zuhmat ml-bared ; tasdV or dikkat 

mi-kuned,) 
Understand — I do not understand your meaning. — matlab- 

i'shumd (na mi-fakmam), (ba fahm-i-man na mi-dyad ; 

mafhum-i'-man na mi^gardad,) Or, muddad-i-shumd dar 
fahni-am na mi-dyad. Or, fahm-i-fahwdye shumd na mt- 

kunam. 
Undertake — Will yoXi undertake to manage this business ? 

— intizdm-i-ln kdr ba gimma,e khyd {^'^dhed ginft)! 

(kahUl khtpahed kard.) 

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unexpectedly — unsearchable, 418 

Unexpectedly — ^This letter came unexpectedly. — m mu- 

rasala (nd gaMna) wdrid shud, (be-khabar,) 
Unfit — He is wholly unfit for the task assigned him. — 

kare ki bado hawdla shuda ast da/r add^e an bi-l-kull (nd 

ld,ik aet), (adm-i-Uydkat ddrad ; nd kdbU ast.) 
Unfubnished. — The house is unfurnished. — an khdna 

(drasta ntst). {rakhit or lawdzimdt or sdmdn na 

ddrad) 
Unhappy — She is quite unhappy on this account. — az in 

jihat an zan {bisiydr ranjlda-khdtir) shuda asU (*aish-ash 

muna^figMi ; 'ishrat-ash talkh ; an zan dU-tang o magir 

mum andoh-dgln o ghamnak.) 
Unhubt — ^Through God's mercy we escaped unhurt. — ba 

fazl-i-khudd md az (mazarat mahfuz) mandem, (zarrar 

ma^n; azlyat mahrus,) 
United — Our sentiments are united. — rd^e md (muttafik) 

ast. (muttahid ; ba ittifdk ; bd ittihdd,) 
Unjust — Do you conceive this to he unjust? — dyd shumh 

khaydl mi-banded ki in, {be in^dfl) ast ? {nd hakfi; be dddl; 

khUdf-i-ma'dUat ; khUdf-i-shar .) 
Unkind — ^We should not he unkind to each other. — bdyad 

ki md ba yak-dlgar {be rahm) na shavem, , {be muruwat ; 

be marhamat ; be shafkat ; ghair-tanrahhum) 
Ungrateful — He is ungrateful. — o (kdjir-i-ni'mat) ast. 

{nd sipds ; nd hakk-shinds ; nd shvkr-guzdr^ Or, o '^ddat- 

{'{kufrdn-irni^mat) ddrad, {kufr-v-ni^mat ; kufrdnu^n- 

na'm.) 
Unlawful — To .do so is unlawful. — In chunin kardan 

{kbUdf-irshar') ast. {nd mashru' ; nd hafek.) 
Unlock— Unlock the door. — kufl-i-darwdza {wd kun). (bi- 

kushd ; az or ba kalxd bi-kushd,) 
Unreasonable — Their demands are unreasonable. — dawd- 

hd,e eshdn {bejd) ast, {be i'tiddl; mutajdmz; ndma'kul; 

rid jdyiz,) 
Unsearchable — ^The ways of God are unsearchable. — 



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414 unspeakable — uttered. 

hikniat4'altah-ta^ala az {idrdk-i-ma berun) ml-bashad. 

(fahmri-md ba'ld.) 
Unspeakable — Our joy is unspeakable. — khushl^e md az 

hadd-i-baiyan berun ast. 
Unsteady — His mind is very unsteady. — dil-ash bisiydr 

(be kardr) ast. (nd kd,im; be sabdt; nd ustuwdr; be 

istikldl.) 
Unwilling — ^I am altogether unwilling to go there, — ba 

raftan-i-dn jd bisiydr (nd rdz) hastam, (nd khushntid ; 

be dil : nd khwdh.) Or, az raftan-i-dn jadaregh. (ddram). 

(ml-kunam ; ba man ml-dyad.) 
Unwise — It were unwise not to agree to this. — az In kdr 

(inkdr kardan) nd ddnl ast, (sar bdz zadan; ihd or 

daregh or istinkdf or nakaf or ikrW kardan; bdz 

istddan,) Or, m kdr-rd nd kabuL kardan be wukyfi 

ast. 
Unworthy — He has proved himself unworthy of your 

protection. — az kirddr-ash (sdbit shuda) ast Jd o Id^ik-i- 

himdyat-i-shvmd nlst. (ba isbdt raslda; masbut or 

mubaiyin or huwaidd or wdzih or zdkir shuda; ba 

wuzuk paiwasta.) 
Upper — Are there any upper rooms in this house ? — dyd 

In khdna(-rd tabake faukdni ml-bdshad) ? (tabake bald 

ddrad.) 
Upright — ^They are upright in their dealings. — dar mu*- 

dmatdt-i-eshdn {amdnat-guzdr) and, (§ddik ; rdst-bdz ; 

saddkatkdr ; diydnat-ddr,) 
Urged — No one urged him to do so. — hech kas ba chunin 
kdr kardan o-rd (taJsdza) na kard, (izHrdr; dmdda; 

targhlb ; iktiza ; tafyrls.)' 
Urgent — This business is urgent. — In kdr o bar (zaruri) 

ast. (mutakdzl; mvhram ; muhimm; bajjad.) 
Use — Of what use is this? — In ba chi kdr ml-idyad)? 
(khy,rad ; bandad ; paiwandad.) Or, In ba chi sud ml- 
baMvihad ? Or, m chi sud ddrad ? 
Uttered — I never uttered such a word.— man m chunin 

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vain — vexation. 415 

sukhan gahe bar zdban nayawardam. Or, man zikr-i-ln 
chunln suMian ha/r zahan na randam. Or, m chunin 
mkhan az dahan-i-man (bar) naydmad. (berun.) Or, 
' man in chunin kaldm gahe takallum na kardam. 



Vain — He exerts himself in vain. — o be fdyida koshish 

mtrkUnad. Or, o ranj-i-behuda mtrbarad wa 8a%e be 

fd.ida mvkwnad. 
Value — I yalue his friendship greatly. — mun kadar-i- 

dostlyash bisiydr mv-ddnam. Or, m>an vlfat-i-o-rd 'aziz 

ddram. Or, muwaddat-i-o-rd sarrndya.e zindagdnl mtr 

shumdram. 
Value — ^What is the value of these precious pearls? — 

kimat'ir{durrhd,e yatlm) chtst ? {marwdridhd,e ahdhwdr.) 
Valuable — These things are valuable. — m chizhd bidydr 

(samipi) and, (girdml; girdn-mdya; klmatl.) 
Vanity — ^He is full of vanity. — o pur az ghurur ast, Or» 

dar-sar bisiydr khaydl-iAJihyd farosht) ddrad. (khud- 

bmi;Mvd'parastl;MLudrpasandX; takahbur-i-^ujub]; kibr; 

istighndji; za!m; zvUm.) 
Vabious — There are various opinions about it. — dar bdb-i- 

In amr [rd^ehd^e mukbJioMf) and, (ikhtiMf-i-akadm ; 

ma^iaJpathk^e mutafarriki) 
Vabnished — This chair has not been varnished. — bar in 

kurai lak maltda na shuda agt, 
Ventubed — Confiding in his luck, he ventured all his 

property on this risk. — ba/r nasib-i-Jcb^yd €timad karda 

Kama mal-irthydrrd dar makdm-i-MLai'''^ {afgand). 

(anddiit-) 
Veeily — ^Verily I cannot believe you. — -fi-Jrwaki' ha/r shvmd 

i'tim^dd na mi-tawdnam kard. 
Vexation — I meet with nothing but vexation in thift 

business. — dar In amr ba juz az tasdV hech chlz (Aa^)-i- 

manna mv-dyad. {gir; ba dost ba ^d^ ; ha hu^SL,) 



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416 vice — voyage. 

Vice — They make no distinction between vice and virtue. — 

(nid bain-irihuhif wa fazl fark) na ml-kunand, (kubh az 

kusn tafrik; darmiyan-i-shantat wa khuln tafdwat; 

imtiydz-i'badi wa nekOft,) Or, nid bain4-(*aib wa htmdr) 

tamlz na ddrand. (kahahat wa husnat ; sharr wa khair ; 

ma*fiyat wa Hffat ; khuhdsat wa 'ismat.) 
Vigilant — We should be vigilant in avoiding evil. — bay ad 

ki md dar U^rdz kardan az badi (beddr) bdshem, (mun- 

taMh ; hoshydr; dgdh; mmtaikiz.) 
Vindicate — He cannot vindicate his conduct. — dar hab-i- 

raftdr-i'khud hech*uzrna mtrtawdnad award. Or, dnchi 

ki dar raftdr ast az an bd *vzr khydrrd Jehald^ na mi- 

tawdnad kard. 
Violate — I must not violate the orders of the government. 

— bdyad ki man (nd-farmdnt^e) hukm4-dariiat na kunam. 

{'adul-; *adm-i-ita!aX; rid'farmd barddru) Or, bdyad ki 

man az farrndn-irriydBat (muldyEilifat) na kunam. {sar- 

kaskt; gardan-kashl ; tcHdru^; €rdz ; ta'arruz,)- 
Violent — His temper is very violent. — o mizdj-i-{kbfl8hm- 

ndk)ddrad. (ffiazub ; gj^azab-nWc ; argA(^'i^ ; c^Sfkoda.) 

Or, {df,ash)'mizdj asU (tund; tez; sakht,) 
Vietuous — ^Let us always maintain virtuous conduct. — 

bihtar a»* ki mu {raftdr-i-nek maddm ikhtiydr bi-nairidyem). 

{ba kliasdldt4''aftf dd,imurlraitkdt 'ddat bi-glrem,) 
Visit — I am going to visit him. — man (bard,e) mtUdkat-i-o 

mt-ravam. (ba sharaf^,) 
Voice — She has a fine voice. — dwciz-i-dn sdhiba {kku8k)tist, 

(fibat-dmez ; nann o hazln ; {(xiyibu-l-add ; taiytb-lahjat). 

Or, dn zan zabdn-i-shtrln ddrad. 
Volumes — ^Is the book in one or two volumes ? — in kitdb 

yak jild ddrad yd do ? 
VoiAGE — He is now on a voyage to Bushir. — o Ukal ba 

buthvr az (rdh-i-tan) ml-ravad, (taf^-i-bahr.) 



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wajfer — warraviXed, 417 

W. 

Wafer — Please give me A wafer. — ^inayat farmuda ha man 
(kutaje) hirdihed, (chize az bard.e chaspanidan,) 

Wages — ^What wages do you receive? — shuma chand 
i^ujrat) mi-yahed? (mazduri; muzd; talah; daily 
yaumiya ; rozlna ; rozana ; monthly mushaharat ; vidhi- 
yana,) 

Wait — Tell him to wait in this room. — ba o hi-goyed Id dar 
In kamra (tnuntas^r hashed), [intizar hi-hmed ; chande 
tawakkiifhi-kuned; andakebirmaned; mutawaJ:kif hashed,) 

Waiting — I have heen waiting for you two hours. — td ha 
du saat {inUzdr-i-shumd kashida am), {hard.e shumd 
muntazir huda am; do chashm ha rdh-i-shumd ddshta 
am; chashm-i-Jchud-rd nargiswdr ha ahdhrrdh-i-shumd 
nigrdn ddshta am ; hara.e shumd mvtawakkif huda am ; 
ha jihat-i-shumd tawakfcuf karda am.) 

Wake — ^You must endeavour to wake early.-— «AMma-ra 
'algi-8'^dh az bistar bar khdstan bdyad. 

Walk — Do you mean to walk or ride ? — shumd pd piydda 
rah rqftan ml-Miwdhed yd (sawdr) ? (ba sawdri.) 

Wall — The garden wall has fallen. — dtwdr-i-bdgh {uftdda) 
ast, {manhadim shuda; inhiddm ydfta; az pd dar 
dmada,) 

Wandered — I have wandered in all directions over the 
country. — ha ham^a iaraf-i^uUc {sair karda am), (siyd- 
hat or tafarruj karda am; gashta am; ga/rdtda am.) 
Or, man jawdnib-i-diydr ba kadampaimuda am, 

Wani^ — I want much to see him. — man o-rd didan hmydr 
ml'MkV^ciham, 

Warehouse — This is his warehouse. — In (jctfl^na^e ajnds)4-o 
ast, {ashdh'khdna : ambdr-khdna : karbaj.) 

Warped — This tahle is warped. — m mez {kaj) shuda ast, 
(khamlda; mu^aiowij; kozh; munham,) 

Warranted — ^The horse is warranted without blemish. — 
(wa*da karda) shuda ast kiln asp 'athe na ddrad, (karar 
ddda ; ikrdr karda ; ^amanat-i-ln wa*ni girifta.) 

.,yit,zed by Google 



418 waste — whistling. 

Waste — Why do you waste your paper ? — chird kaghaz-i- 

khud-rd (tazyi) mtrkuned ? {zd,i ; fcharab ; makhrub.) 
Watch — I watch an opportunity of going there. — man ha 

jikat-i-raftan-i-dn jd {mauka\e ml-lnnam), (kdbu ml- 

juyam ; muntazir-i-fur^at mi-hdsham ; mutara^ssid'irwakt- 

i'shdyista mi-bdsham,) 
Watch — ^Your watch goes remarkably well. — sd*at'i-shumd 

ha tarah-i-khub mi-ravad. 
Wax — These candles are of wax.-^» shamlid az mom 

sd kh ta shuda a>st. 
Wear — I wear a suit of clean clothes every day. — har roz 

daste jdma^e sqf (mt-posham), (dar har mukunam.) 
Weaves — He weaves the kind of cloth we wear. — kisme 

pdrcha ki ma ml-poshem dn shakks ml-bdfad. 
Week — He will return in a week. — dar *arsa,e yak hafia 

(murdja'at) khwahad kard, {riiu'dwadaX ; 'udat,) 
Weeps — He weeps because of the death of his son. — ba 

sabab-i-rihlat-i-pisar-ash {mi-^nMad), (ndla o ah or 

giriya o zdri or shor ojigihdn or ashkhdn ml-kunad,) 
Weighed — Has this sugar been weighed? — m shakar 

(sanjtda) shuda oAt. (wazn or tarttl karda,) 
Weight — What is the weight of this stone? — In sang chi 

(wazn) ddrad ? (sanglnl ; sanj ; hdr ; saklat,) 
Welcome — ^You are welcome. — shumd {khdsh) dmadaed! 

(boriiair.) Or, murhabd! Or, markabaM o sahlan ! 
Well — ^Tell them to dig a well here. — badeshdn hi-goyed 

ki dar Injd chdhe bi-kanand. 
Well — I understand well what you say. — anchi ki shum^ 

mlrgoyed (dar fahm-i^man khub mt-dyad), (man ba 

kh0i mv-fahmam.) 
Wet — This paper is very wet. — in kdglyiz hisiydr (nam) ast. 

(tar; nam^ln; martvb; namrnak,) 
Wbispebei) — I whispered that to him. — man an suf^kfm 

ddr gosh-ash {ahista) guftam. (ha dhistagi; ba Mkflfiya; 

ba nihuftagu) 
Whistling — I heard somebody whistling. — shaH^^fu 

shuntdam ki (faflr mt-zanad). (safdr mt-kunad.) 

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whole — wounded, 419 

Whole — ^You are welcome to the whole. — agar tchwahish-i- 

shuma bashad Kama hi-gired. 
WiDEB — I want some cloth wider than this. — man kadre 

parclia az In *anztar mi-hkyjaham. 
Window — The bird' flew out at the window. — ^aranda az 

dartcha (parwdz hard), {parwaz kundn raft ; partd^) 
Winter — I like the winter season. — mara [marmm-i-sarma) 

pasand ml-ayad, (shitd ; zamistdn,) 
Wisdom — She possesses much wisdom. — an zan {*aklyi- 

kdmil ddrad, {firasat ; fitra^ ; dirdyat ; kiydsat,) 
Wise — ^They only are wise who fear God. — mahz an kasan 

{'afilmand) ml-bashand ki tars-i-khuda ddrand, (dkil; 

dand; zuVakuL; sdhih-i-idrdk ; muhakkak) 
Wish — What is your wish ?---khwdhish4-shumd chut ? 
Wish — They wish to remain here. — eshdn [mi-khwdhandy 

ki dar In jd bi-mdnand. (tamannd or drzu or irdda or 

shauk ddrand.) 
Witnesses. — Has he any witnesses? — o (gawdhe) ddrad ? 

(shdhide.) 
World — This world was created by the power of God.— ^ 

ba kvdrat-i-Mdhi In dunyd (ba wujud dmad). (paidd or 

dfrlda shvd) 
Wonder — Nobody can evince wonder at this. — hech kas door 

m (*ajab) na mi-tawdnad kard. {shiguft ; ta'ajjub.) 
Works — She works to support herself and family. — dn zan 

ba jihat-i-parwarish'irMkWjIr-ash wa atfdJri-khud mihnat mi- 

kunad^ 
Worship — ^We worship one God only. — md (parastishyi- 

khtiddye wdkid ml-kunem. (*ibddat; tWat; bandagl; 

namdz,) Or, md mu'takif-i-taulyid mt-bashem. 
Worthy^ — T am not worthy of so much kindness. — m^n 

lU^ik-irin kadar-i-mihrbdni ntstam. 
Wound — Deadly venom was extracted from the wound. — 

az zakhjn {zahr-i-Jfidthi) bar dwarda shud. [samwri-halhal ; 

ma^dmrnr-i-haldhal.) 
Wounded — Some of our sepoys were wounded. — -ba'ze az 

iashki/riydn-irrnd {majruh gashtaiid), (-rd jarrdhat rasid,) 

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420 wrecked — zealous. 

Wrecked— That ship was wrecked, — dnjahaz {tabah) shud. 

(takhrib; inhiddm ; zer-i-ah faro zada ; shikasta; ghark; 

ffharik : mmtaghrik) 
Write — ^Let me see if I can write as well as you. — hi- 

btnam ki man ha misal-i-shumd khush khaft nawishtan 

mi'tawanam yd na. 
Wrong — ^You have bought the wrong kind of seed. — shumd 

bazr dz kism-irdlgar kharida ed. 



Yard — This stick is a yard long. — In chub yak gaz dardz 

ast. 
Years — He is ten years old. — o ba *umr dah sola mi- 

bd^had. Or, 'umr-ash dah adl asL Or, o dah sdl 'umr 

ddrad. 
Yellow — ^That appears yellow. — an zard {ma'lum mi- 

shavad). (ml-namdyad,) 
Yesterday — ^Yesterday it rained much. — dt roz bdrdn ba 

{shiddat) bdrid. {ifrdt.) 
Young — She is quite young. — an zan (nau-jawdn) ast. 

{bamd,) Or, nvewa,e ^wnfawdn-i-Bhahdh-ash nau raslda 

ast. 
Youth — In the season of youth. — dar (aiydrnyi-jawdnl. 

(*a}id; daur ; rnaudmri-bahdr ; zamdn.) 



Z. 

Zeal— He showed great zeal. — o {sar-garmi\e Jirdwdn 

zdhir kard, {jfhabt; ghabta; gkairat; *a§abiyat; 

^amtyat.) 
Zealous — They are very zealous. — eshdn bidydr (sar-garm) 

and, {ghd.ir; ghayur; Bhd,ih; muddwin; mudmin; 

mutahauunrJ) 



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zephyr, 421 

Zephyr — The breath of the zephyr feels pleasant to us. — 
badri-^aha ha ma Mtush mi-dyad. Or, rih-irjanubt ha ma 
khush mahsus fhi-shavad. 



The book is finished, by the aid of the Merciful King, in 
the year 1877. 

tamm^tUrl-kUah ha *aunti-l-mMtkU'l'Wahhab f% sannat 



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EXAMINATIONS, 



Ik Ikdia there are the following examinations in Persian and 
Arabic, at which persons other than members of the Indian Civil 
Service (see note, page 160) may present themselyes : — 

1. — The Second or Higher Standard* in Persian, 
or Arabic, 
(a) The books which have to be read 



ABABIC. 
*Ajabu-l-*a^'d,ib.^ 
Nqfhatu-l'i/amcm (1st part). 



PEBSIAN. 

^Ikd-i'fful 

(Selection of the Gulistan.) 
^ Jkd-i-^naMZum. 

(Selection of the Bostan.) 

(b) Half of an ordinary octavo page of plain English has to be 
rendered into : — 

Persian or Arabic, 
(e) Manuscripts in Persian or Arabic have to be read fairly and 
, translated readily. 

The reward for passing is, in 

PBB8IAN. I ABABIC. 

Bs. 500 I Bs. 800 

(d) Conversation with fluency, and with such correctness of pro- 
nunciation, grammar and idiom as to be at once intelligible, 
has to be carried on with a native.^ 



• So called becaoM it oorresponds with the cxunination ityled the Second, or 
Higher, Standard in HindoBtani ; there is no examination in Persian or Arabic by 
the First or Lower Stardard. 

t Bxcept in Bombay, this portion of* the test is, in Arabic, omitted. 



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424 

2. — Standard of High Proficiency, 
(a) The books which have to be read are :— * 



FEBSIAK. 


ASABIC. 


Gulistdn, 


ll^wdnu-f-fofa. 


Bostdn, 


Nafhatu'lryaman, 


Anwar-i'SuhaiU. 





ABABIC. 

HatMndtah, 
JaimuT'ndmah, 
Makdrndi-i- Hariri, 



(b) A passage of moderate difficulty, half of an octayo page in 
length, not taken from a text-book, has to be rendered into 
English. 

(c) An English paper of moderate difficulty has to be translated 

accurately and idiomatically. 

(d) Similarly, a paper of English sentences has to be rendered. 
Beward for passing in 

PERSIAN. I ARABIC. 

BS.1&00 I Bs.2000 

3. — Examination for a Degree of Honour, 
(a) The books which hare to be read are : — 

PBBSIAN. 

Al^lak^i'jaldU. 
Inahdye Abu-l-fazl, 
Sikandar ndmah, 
Dttodn-i-Hdfig, 

(ft) Two octayo pages, one in prose, the other in verse, selected 
from some difficult work, not a text-book, — have to be 
translated with accuracy into English. 

(e) A difficult passage from English has to be rendered with 

accuracy, elegance and neatness of expression, and with 
perfect correctness of spelling and grammar. 
(d) Conversation has to be carried on with idiomatic accuracy 
and fluency.* 
Keward for passing in 

PEBSIAN. I ABABIC. 

Rs. (4000) I Rs. (5000) 

* Except in Bombay, this porUon of tbe test is, In Arabic, omitted. 

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425 

4. — In the Province of Sind, there is a Special Examination 
in Persian, 

The books which have to be read are i — 

(a) Gulistan. 

First Four Chapters of the Anwar-i-Suhaili. « 

(b) A passage, in ap easy narrative style, not taken from the text- 

books has to be translated into English. 

(c) An English paper of easy narrative style has to be rendered, 

intelligibly and with accuracy of grammar, into Persian. 

(d) A paper of English sentences has, similarly, to be rendered* 
(«) Conversation, with accuracy and fluency, has to be carried on 

with a native of Persia. 
Eeward for passing -(1000) Bs. 

Remarks, 

Examinations 1, 2 and 3, are regulated by Q-. G. O. Military 
Department, No. 734 of 9th September, 1864 j and No. 294 
of 24th March, 1866. These orders of Government relate 
to the following languages : — 

Hindustani, Sanskrit, Bengali, Burmese, Assamese, Panjabi, 
Pushtu, Uriya, Guzerathi, Mahrathi, Canarese, Tamil, 
Telugil, Malayalam, Sindi. 
As well as to Persian and Arabic. 

In respect to Pushtu the following Government order specially 
applies : — 

G. G. O. MiUtary Department, No. 733 of 15th July, 1873. 

The Special Examination (4) in Persian for the Province 
of Sind is hosed on: — 

General Department, Bombay Castle, No. 2741 of 22nd Septem- 
ber, 1874 ; and No. 1122 of 14th April, 1875. 

A person, who intends to serve in India, would do well to apply 
to an Indian Agent, in London, for copies of these orders. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



426 

The GoTemment of India and the Governments of Madras and 
Bombay may, in addition to the pecuniary rewards abeady 
noted, award a gold medal to any officer, who is reported to 
hare passed an examination, in any language, with extra- 
ordinary merit. 
No officer wlU obtain rewards for passing the tests of the Second 
Standard, or High Proficiency, whose period of actual residence in 
^dia, exceeds 10 years ; nor will any officer receive any reward for 
passing the test for the Degree of Honour, whose period of actual 
residence in India exceeds 15 years. 

Examinations for Degrees of Honour, Certificates of High Pro- 
ficiency and for the Second or Higher Standard, will take place at 
Presidency Towns. 

The special examination in Persian for the Province of Sind, will 
take place at Bombay ; travelling allowance for the journey from 
Sind to Bombay and return will be given. Length of service is no 
bar to any one's appearing. 



Bules for the examination, at Fort William, of Candidates other 
than Her Majesty's Indian Civil Servants. 



1. — A general examination is held by the Board of Examiners 
monthly, usually the 1st Monday (not being the 1st or 2nd) of the 
month, to which military officers and aU gentlemen,* authorized by 
Government to be examined by the Board, are admitted. 

2. — ^Applications for examination from Military Officers are to 
be made to the Adjutant-General of the Army, or the officer in 
charge of his office at the Presidency; and, from all other gentlemen 
in the public service to the Head of the Department, in which they 
may be serving at the Presidency. 

Candidates, in their applications, are invariably to state their 
addresses. 



* Offieera In tho Public Works and Education Departmenti and officers of the 
Bengal Police Battalions. Otber gentlemen by order of tlie Govermncnt of India, 
in the Home Department. 



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4=27 

3. — ^All applications are to be forwarded, in sufficient time to 
reach the Secretary to the Board, on or before the 25th, or [if for 
the High Proficiency Examination, or for a Degree of Honour] on, 
or before the 20th of the month preceding that in which the ex- 
amination is held. 

4, — Examinations commence at 11 a.m. ; and all papers are to be 
deUrered to the Secretary by 4*0 p.m. Candidates arrirag after 
11*15 a.m. are excluded from the examination. / 

5. — Candidates are to sign' their names legibly on each of their 
exercises. 

6. — No Candidate can present himself for examination by the 
same standard at two consecutive monthly examinations ; or, by the 
High Proficiency test, or for a Degree of Honour, until three 
monthly examinations, or four months, have intervened from the 
date of the examination at which such Candidates may, have been 
examined and failed to pass. 

7. — Special examinations are not granted except by the order of 
Government. 

8. — Candidates are not to call on the Secretary to the Board, or 
any of the Examiners, for the purpose of ascertaining the result of 
their examinations. 

A copy of the Board's report, embodying the remarks of the 
Examiners on his oral and written exercises is sent to each Candidate 
as soon after the examination as is practicable. 



Extract from the Proceedings of the Government of India in the 
Foreign Department. 

No. 1470 P, dated Fort William, 13th August, 1874. 

Observations. — In the dispatch above quoted. Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State dwelt on the necessity for encouraging officers 
employed in. the Political Department to study Persian and Arabic 
languages. 

Probably such encouragement could most effectually be afforded 
by holding out some reasonable prospect of employment to officers 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



438 

who devote themselves to the study of these languages. -In the 
opinion of the Honourable the President in Council, however, it is 
impossible to give any definite promise of Employment in the Poli- 
tical Department as a reward to officers who pass examinations or 
even high examinations in Arabic and Persian. 

Other qualifications must necessarily be regarded as of even 
greater importance than linguistic attainments. At the same time 
a thorough knowledge of these languages should be allowed much 
weight in the selection of Candidates Civil or Military for employ- 
ment in the Political Department. 

2. The President in Council deems it necessary that officers who are 
hereafter appointed to the Political Service without having passed 
the High Proficiency or Honour tests in Persian or Arabic should, 
after their appointment pass a linguistic test of a higher standard 
than that now demanded. 

Under Foreign Department Resolution No. 541 P, dated 17th 
March, 1871, officers in the Political Department are at present 
required to translate a passage of Persian into English and a passage 
of English into Persian. They are also required to hold with 
moderate fluency a conversation in Persian, and to read with fair 
facility a Persian manuscript. 

In order both to raise the present standard of qualification and 
to bring it into accordance with the standards recognised under the 
Civil and Military Examination Bules, the President in Council 
considers it necessary to prescribe that in future officers appointed 
to the Political Department in and below the grade of 1st 
Class Pblitical Assistant shall be required to pass either in 
Arabic, or in Persian, by the High Proficiency test ; further that 
such officers if employed in Turkish Arabia, the Persian Ghilf and 
Muscat shall be required to pass a colloquial examination in Arabic; 
and if employed at Zanzibar, a colloquial examination in Arabic or 
Swaheli, even though they may have already passed in Persian ; and 
if employed in the Continent of India, a colloquial examination 
either in Hindi, or the local vernacular of the place where th^ are 
serving. If such officers be appointed to Burma, they will be 
required to pass the High Proficiency test in Burmese, but will not 
be required to pass in Arabic or Persian. 

3. When the exigencies of the public service require the employ- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42^ 



meni of an officer in any of the higher posts of the Political De^ 
partment, Gbvemment reserves to itself the right of appointing anj 
officer whom- it considers to possess the best general qualifications- 
eren though he maj not have passed in these languages. 

'But for the retention of appointments in and below the grade of 
1st Glass Political Assistant, it will be essential that officers hereafter 
appointed shall haye passed or shall within three years from date of 
appointment pass the tests above prescribed, besides qualifying in 
the other subjects laid down for examination in the Political De- 
partment. 

To officers above the grade of 1st Glass Political Assistant neither 
these rules, nor the rules contained in the Eesolution No. 541 P, 
dated 17th March, 1871, are applicable. 

In August, 1874, the number of officers belonging to the Indian 
Service who had passed the tests for the Degree of Honour and 
High Proficiency was as set forth in the following Table : — 



Dedgnation uf 
Officer. 


Nature of Examination, 


REMARKS. 


Degree of Honor. 


High Proficiency. 


Persian 


Arabic 


Persian 


Arabic 


Indian Givil- 
Service Men 

MilitaryOfficer 


nil 

• 
6 


nil 
nU 


14 
19 


2* 
3t 


♦These two officers 
also passed the test for 
High Proficiency in 
Persian. 

fTwo of these officers 
)a8sed the test for 
iigh Proficiency in 
Persian. 


Totalinlndia. 6 


nil 


33 


5 



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•430 



Under Notification of the 24th March, 1870, by the Gbyemment of 
India, the rules for the examination of members of the Civil 
Service of India are as follows : — 

A Civil Servant, attached to the Upper Provinces, may present 
himself for the High Proficiency Examination in Persian or Hin- 
dustani: if attached to the Lower Provinces, he must pass in 
Bangali or Uryah before he can compete in Persian or Arabic. 

Until he shall have obtained the certificate for High Proficiency 
in Persian or Hindustani' (or Bangali or Uryah, as the case may be) 
he is not permitted to present himself for distinction in other 
languages. He may compete for a Degree of Honour without 
obtaining a certificate of High Proficiency. 

He is not allowed to present himself more than twice at any 
examination ; but, if specially recommended by the Examiners, he 
may appear a third time. 

He is not allowed to present himself for the High Proficiency 
Examination after the lapse of 7 years, nor for the Degree of 
Honour Examination after 10 years, from the date of his first 
arrival in India. 

No exception will be made on account of leave of absepce, &c. 

Examinations will be held on the first Monday in 
January I July 

April I October 

of each year, at the Presidency towns. 

Application to be examined must be made 3 months before the 
date of the examination. 

A Civil Servant desirous of attending examinations for prizes for 
the study of the Oriental languages, is allowed leave of absence on 
full pay for one month before the examination ; if he passes the 
examination, he is allowed another month. This leave of 2 months 
counts as service and residence. The amount of leave is not to 
exceed 2 months at one time, nor 12 months in the aggregate. 

The tests for High Proficiency and the Degree of Honour exami- 
nations are the same as those for Military Officers, or persons not 
belonging to the Indian Civil Service , but the rewards are different. 



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431 

The reward for passing — 

PSBfllAN. Akabic. 

{a) The High Proficiency Examination is Es. 2,000 — 2,000 

(J) The Degree of Honour „ .4,000 — 4,000 

There is no examination by the Second or Higher Standard for a 
member of the Indian Ciyil Service. 

These rules affect particularly the members of the Ciyil Service 
of Bengal ; in the Presidencies of Madras and Bombay they are 
modified by local regulations. 

A member of the Indian Civil Service should obtain : — 
Besolution, Financial Department, No. 2,749 of 24th September, 
1864, by the Gbvemment of India ; Letter, Home Depart- 
. ment, No. 4,127, of 10th September, 1870, from the Govern- 
ment of India ; Notification of 24th March, 187Q, by the 
Q-ovemment of India; Notification No. 49, of 4th September, 
1874^ by the GK>vemment of India. 



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A SELECTIOK FBOM 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S CATALOGUE 

OF BOOKS IN THE EASTEEN LANGUAGES, &c. 



HINDUSTAKI, HINDI, &c. 

Forbes's Hindustani-English Dictionary in the Persian 

Character, with the Hindi words in Nagari also; and an 

English Hindustani Dictionary in the English Character ; both 

in one volume. By Bttscan Forbss, LL.D. Boyal Svo, 42s. 
Forbes's Hindustani Grammar, with Specimens of Writing 

in the Persian and Nagari Characters, Beading Lessons, and 

Vocabulaty. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 
Forbes's Hindustani Manual, containing a Compendious 

Ghrammar, Exercises for Translation, Dialogues, and Yocabnlary, 

in.the Boman Character. New Edition, entirely revised. By 

J. T. PiiATTS. 18mo. 3s. 6d. 
Forbes 's Bagh o Bahar, in the Persian Character, with a 

complete Vocabulary. Boyal 8vo. 12s. 6d. 
Forbes's Bagh o Bahar in English, with Explanatory 

Notes, illustrative of Eastern Character. Svo. Ss. 
Forbes's Tota Kahani ; or, •* Tales of a Parrot," in the 

Persian Character, with a complete Vocabulary. Bojal Svo. 8s. 
Small's (Rev. G.) Tota Kahani; or, "Tales of a Parrot.' 

Translated into English. Svo. Ss. 
Forbes's Baital Pachisi: or, "Twenty-five Tales of a 

Demon," in the Nagari Character, with a comptete Vocabulary. 

Boyal Svo. 98. ^ 

Platts' J. T., Baital Pachisi; translated into English. 

Svo. Ss. 
Forbes's Ikhwanu s Safa; or, "Brothers of Purity," in 

the Persian Character. Boyal Svo. 12s. 6d. 
Platts' Ikhwanu S Safa; translated into English. Svo. 

10s. 6d. 
Platts' Grammar of the Urdu or Hindustani Language. 

Svo. 12s. 
Forbes's Oriental Penmanship ; a Guide to Writing Hin- 
dustani in the Persian Character. 4to. Ss. 
Forbes's Hindustani Dictionary, the Two Volumes in One, 

in the English Character. Boyal Svo. 368. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Wm. H. Axlen & Co., 



Forbes's Smaller Dictionary, Hindustani and English, in 
the English Character. 12s. 

Forbes's Bagh o Bahar, with Vocabulary. English 
Character. Ss. 

Singhasan Battisi. Translated into Hindi from the San- 
scrit. A New Edition. Beyised, Corrected, and Accompanied 
with Copious Notes. By Sxed Abdoolah. BoyalSyo. 128. 6d. 

Eastwick's Prem Sagur. 4to. 30s. 

Akhlaki Hindi, translated into Urdu, with an Introduction 
and Notes. By Syed Abdoolajs. Boyal 8yo. 12s. 6d. 

Sakuntala. Translated into Hindi from the Sanskrit, by 
Ebedgbic PnrcoTT. 4to. I2s. 6d. 
SANSCBIT. 

Haughton's Sanscrit and Bengali Dictionary in the Bengali 
Character, with Index, serving as a reversed dictionary. 4Ao. SOs. 

Williams's English and Sanscrit Dictionary. 4to.,cloth. £3 3s. 

Williams's Sanscrit and English Dictionary. 4to., cloth. 
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Williams's (Monier) Sanscrit Grammar. 8vo. 16s. 

Williams's (Monier) Sanscrit Manual ; to which is added, 
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Gough's (A. E.) Key to the Exercises in Williams's Sanscrit 
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Thompson's (J. C.) Bhagavat Gita. Sanscrit Text. 5s. 

FEBSIAN. 

Bichardson's Persian, Arabic, and English Dictionary. 
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Forhes's Bengali Reader, with a Translation and Vocabu- 
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Richardson's Arabic, Persian and English Dictionary. 

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Beresford's Arabic Syntax. Royal 8yo. 68. 



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