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Full text of "Persian self-taught : with English phonetic pronunciation"

MarH-orotisrb' self-Tauirht Series. 



PERSIAN 
SELF-TAUGHT 



For 

TOURISTS 

TRAVELLERS 

STUDENTS 

&c., &c. 



(PERSIAN ROMANIZED). 






Conversational Phrases. 

Travel Talk: Train, Boat, Hotel, 
Meals, Shopping, &c. 

Commercial Terms. 
Vocabularies (classified). 
Persian Handwriting. 
F .ementary Grammar. 
' toney. 
llustration of Coinage. 

WITH PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION 



Wrapper 



NET. 



Cloth 



NET. 



By 



SHEYKH HASAN. 



LONDON: 



E. MARLBOROUQH & Co., Ltd., 51 & 52, Old Bailey, E.C.4. 



\ 



r" ''* 
"AI U 



Ess 








KGSB U3RAR*. 



v'V 



u 




SILVER? 

Tooman d& fok Tooman 




COPPER 

Sbabee Sbabee 



PERSIAN COINS. 



Page 96. 



\RLBOROUGH'S SELF-TAUGHT SERIES 




(IN ROMAN CHARACTERS) 
WITH ENGLISH 

PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



CONTAINING 

THE ALPHABET, TRANSLITERATION & PRONUNCIATION; 

OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR ; 

CLASSIFIED VOCABULARIES AND CONVERSATIONS ; 
TRAVEL TALK, TRADE AND COMMERCE ; 

PERSIAN HANDWRITING ; 

THE NUMERALS, MONEY, WEIGHTS & MEASURES; 
&c., &c. 



SHEYKH HASAN, 



LONDON : 
E. MARYBOROUGH & Co., 51, OLD BAILEY, R.C. 

1909. 
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



PEEFACE. 



THIS volume is primarily intended to supply & working and 
practical knowledge of the Persian language, for the benefit 
of those who have not the time or the inclination to master 
the grammar, and yet require to use the spoken tongue for 
purposes of business or pleasure. With this object in view it 
supplies many vocabularies of words carefully selected to suit the 
needs of those holding communication with Persia and the 
Persians, classified according to subject, and a large number 
of colloquial phrases and sentences of a practical character, 
similarly classified. Throughout these sections of the volume 
the Persian words are given in the romanized form, and the 
English phonetic pronunciation is added (in the third column) 
in accordance with Marlborough's system of phonetics for which, 
of course, the Publishers alone are responsible a system which 
has grown out of long experience, and is of so simple a nature that, 
by means of it, a stranger to the language, who knows English only, 
can read off the words at a glance, and thus easily make himself 
understood amongst Persian-speaking people. An outline of the 
Grammar is added for the use of students of the language. 

The work thus forms a useful and valuable handbook of Persian 
for tourists and travellers, commercial men, naval and military 
officers, students and others. We may add that the Persian 
language is very sweet, and compared with other languages is 
easy to master. It has a complete literature of its own. It is not 
spoken in Persia alone, but in Afghanistan and many parts of 
India, and is the official language of some of the courts of that 
country. It is also used in Turkish Arabia (Baghdad), and by 
educated people in Russian Turkestan. 

. The study of Persian is almost essential to one who wishes to 
learn Hindustani and modern Turkish, as the former of these 
contains about 40 per cent, and the latter about 25 per cent, of 
Persian words. 

SHEYKH HASAN. 
Cambridge, 1909. 



CONTENTS. 



THE ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION, Pages 7 to 11 . 

The Alphabet 7 

The Persi-Arabic Characters 8 

Remarks on the Alphabet 10 

The Romanized Characters, with Phonetic Pronunciation 11 

PRELIMINARY NOTES 12 

VOCABULARIES. Pages 13 to 52. 

Animals, Vegetables, etc. 15 18 

Animals, Birds and Fishes ... 15 

Flowers, Fruits, Trees and Vegetables 17 

Insects and Reptiles 16 

Colours 18 

Commercial and Trading Terms 33 

Correspondence 36 

House and Furniture 28 

^Tankind ; Relations 21 

Human Body, The 22 

Cooking and Eating Utensils 26 

Dress and Dressing 26 

Food, Drink and Smoking 24 

Health 23 

Numbers: Cardinal 38 

Collective and Fractional 40 

Ordinal 39 

Parts of Speech. Pages 41 to 52. 
Adjectives 

Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions 

Verbs 

Post-office, Telegraph and Telephone 37 

Professions and Trades ... 30 

Times and Seasons 18 

The Persian Months 20 

Town and Country ... ... 20 

Travelling by Land 31 



CONTENTS. 



Travelling by Sea 32 

Washing List 28 

World and its Elements, The 13 

Land and Water 13 

Minerals and Metals 14 

OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR. Pages 53 to 64. 

Adjectives ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Adverbs 64 

Conjunctions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

The Izafat 54 

Noun 53 

Prepositions 63 

Pronouns : Personal, Possessive, Relative, Interrogative 5659 

The Verb 59 

CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES & SENTENCES. Pages 65 to 92. 

Commercial and Trading 88 91 

Correspondence, Post, Telegrams, etc. 82 

Enquiries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 70 

Expressions, Useful and Necessary Idiomatic ... 65 69 

Expressions of Emotion, etc 69 

Health 80 

In Town 84 

Money-Changing 91 

Notices 83 

Post, Telegrams, etc 82 

Shopping ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 86 

Time, The 81 

Travelling. Pages 71 to 80. 

Arrival 74 

Hotel, The ... 75 

Meals 78 

Railway, The 71 

Steamboat, The ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Useful and Necessary Idiomatic Expressions ... 65 69 

PERSIAN HANDWRITING ... 93 

Specimen of Persian Handwriting (The Lord's Prayer) ... 94 
The Lord's Prayer in Romanized Persian, with lifceial 

translation 95 

MONEY: Persian Coins ... 95 

Equivalent Values English, American and Persian ... 96 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 96 

POSTAL CHARGES ... 96 



PERSIAN SELF-TAUGHT. 



THE ALPHABET. 

THE Persi-Arabic letters at first sight appear very be- 
wildering to Europeans, and are a frequent cause of 
stumbling to many who would find a knowledge of 
the language of immense importance to them. It is to- 
meet this difficulty that the Eomanized characters have 
been adopted in this work. 

Students who desire to study the wonderful literature 
of the East at first hand, must, however, overcome this 
initial difficulty, and to do this the best plan is to copy 
each letter repeatedly, and with care, until it is fixed in 
the memory, only two or three being dealt with at a time, 
and not the whole alphabet. In this way one is surprised 
how soon the characters in their various positions become 
familiarized to the mind. 

Having mastered the alphabet, the words given in the 
vocabularies should next be learned, pronouncing the 
phonetic aloud, and writing the word from memory in the 
Persi-Arabic letters, which can then be corrected by 
reference to the following tables. In this way the 
rudiments of the language will be easily acquired. 

The letters and sentences are written and read from 
,-iyht to left, as in all thi Semitic languages the Persi- 
Arabic being one of these although it should always be 
borne in mind that the Persian language proper is not of 
Semitic origin, but is akin to the old Sanskrit. 



THE ALPHABET IN PERSI-ARABIC 

WITH ROMAN CHARACTERS. 

Letters marked with * are Arabic characters, and the words in which they 
occur are Arabic. 



Kaine. 


Detached 

Form. 


Forms used in Combination. 


Roman Characters. 

(For Phonetic Pronuncia- 
tion, see p. 11.) 


Final. 


Medial. 


Initial. 


alif 


1 


L 


L 


1 


a 


1)6 


L_> 


<-+ 


A 


) 


b 


pe 


L_J 


y-* 




5 


P 


te 


ei> 


o 


* 


) 


t 


ce 


. * 
j 


^ 


i 


J 


s 


jlm 


G 


? 


s. 


Oh 


j (&s j in jeicel) 


chlm 


2. 





s. 


* 


ch (as ch in church) 


he 


C* 


# 


s. 


ft, 


h 


khe 

dal 


t 
^ 


j 

A 


s 

A 


:>. 

3 


kli (a guttural ns- 
piiate like ch in 
tlie Scotcli /oc/<) 
d 


zal 


i 


A 


JL 


i 


z 


ray 


J 


J 


S 


} 


r 


?.ay 


J 


s 


) 


j 


z 


jay 


J 


} 


} 


J 


j ("as s in^/^^. ?, or 
y in French jar (Jin) 



Name, 
sin 


Detached 
Form. 


Forms used in Combination. 


Roman Characters. 

(For Phonetic Pronuncia- 
tion, see p. 11.) 


Final. 


Medial. 


Initial. 


y* 


u~ 


~ 


Ml 


S 


slim 


& 


b* 


.i. 





sh 


sad 


^* 


M- 


* 


*, 


S 


zad 


L^* 


U^ 


-i 


-i 


Z 


tay 


^* 


Ja 


k 


t 


t 


zay 


fc'* 


JQ 


b 


b 


z 


ayu 


f* 


c, 


- 


- 


a 


ghiiyn 
fe 


I 9 


f 


i 
C 


. 

i 


gh (as g in ^ood, very 
guttural) 
f 


qaf 


(J * 


e 


fi 


5 


q (very guttural) 


kaf 


d 


di 


C 


sT 


k 


gaf 


^ 


< 


r 


f 


g (as g in ambiguity} 


lam 


J 


J 


^ 


j 


1 


mini 


r 


r 


- 


- 


m 


nun 


u 


^ 


* 


J 


n 


vav 


J 


j 


J 


J5 


V 


hay 




_ s. 


t * 


T 


h 


yay 


L? 





A 


I 


y 



1U 



REMARKS ON THE ALPHABET. 

The Persian alphabet contains no vowels, properly so called. 
The short vowel-sounds are indicated by (*) zabarr, ( ) zeerr, 
(') pish. The first is a short (a) as in at; the second (zeerr) 
short () as in effort ; the third (pish) gives the short (u) sound 
something like the sound of ou in should, or of u in the French 
plume pronounced short : ex. I, *, I, pronounced respectively ma, 
me.'i, men. When the long vowel-sound a, as in art, occurs at the 
beginning of a word it is indicated by the sign (") madd, placed 
over I as in *y adam, j^l amad, but elsewhere in a word it is 
indicated simply by 1 as in jli, shad (glad). There is no sign in 
Persian for the vowel (o) as in -no'e, but (a) with (') zabarr, 
followed by (v) is pronounced as (o) : ex. .^.1 oder (paternal uncle), 
(i..l orang (throne). 

U (y) following any letter with (_) zeerr, is pronounced as 
long I, i. e. as double ee in sheep : ex. ( j\^\ eerdn (Persia), >_^~>.i 
deeshab (last night). There are two other signs, namely () 
djazm, and (") tashdeed. The first of these is placed over any 

letter which is followed by no vowel-sound, as over > s in ,-^J, 

raftan (to go); the second doubles the letter over which it is 
placed, as over j; in (_pUi3 pronounced naq-qdsh (artist). These 
vowel-signs are in fact never used in Persian writing, but 
their omission causes no ambiguity, as any doubtful word i& 
determined by the context. 



11 



THE ROMANIZED CHARACTERS, 

WITH PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



Phonetics 
used 



Like the English a in at 

As a long in art 

Like ai in rain 

As b in but ... 

As ch in church 

As in English 

As e in egg 

As / in friend 

Like the g in ambiguity 

Like the English in good, very guttural ... 

Aspirated, as in English 

As i in bit 

As ee in deed ... 

As j in jam ... 

As 2 in azure ... 

As /i in keep ... 

A guttural aspirate like ch in the bcotch lodi 

As in English 

As in English 

As in English 

As o in hope ... 

As in English 

A deep guttural 

As in English very ; always to be pronounced 

A sibilant, as in sister 

As in shine 

As in tutor 

Short, as on in should, or u in French plume 

As oo in ;//oon 

As in English 

As in you 

As in zodiac ... 

* Pronounce " eu " as one sound, and short. 



12 



PRELIMINARY NOTES. 



Persian equivalents. It is necessary to point out that in the 
third part of the book, "Conversational Phrases and Sentences," 
the Persian equivalents of the English phrases are given in the 
second column, and not merely a translation of the English 
words. How different the equivalent and the literal translation 
may be is shown by the few instances where both are given. 
(See i>. 65.) 

Pronunciation. The student will do well to master the 
pronunciation at the outset. The use and value of each 
phonetic sign adopted are shown on page 11, and should be 
carefully noted. 

Marlborough's system of phonetics is based on the principle 
of one sign, one sound, and conversely, one sound, one sign. 
The particular use of each English letter in representing the 
sounds of the Persian characters should be learnt, and each 
must always be pronounced in the same manner (one sign, one 
sound). 

To facilitate the correct pronunciation of the short vowels, 
the words in the vocabularies have, to a great extent, been 
divided up by hyphens, but these divisions do not always 
correspond with the true syllables ; e.g., sad urn, pronunciation 
written " sad-eum " (properly " sa-deum ") ; neyah, pronunciation 
written " neg-ah " (for " ne-gah "). 

In such words as " daste man," where the letter e stands for 
Izafat, it will be noticed that it is represented by i in the third 
column (dast-i-man) to remind the reader that it is Izafat. Where 
c does not stand for the Izafat it is denoted by " e " in the 
the third column also. 

The conjunction va (and) in such words as dast va pa (hand 
and foot), rooz va shah (day and night), is pronounced eu in 
conversation, like the French *.i in plume ; (dasteu-pa, roozeu- 
shah). 

In all questions the intOrrogative (aya) is inserted. In 
conversation, however, i/> is often omitted, the question beinp 
inferred from the inflexion of the voice. 



VOCABULARIES. 



The World and its Elements. 



English. 



(Jefidn va anaser-i-oo.) 

Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 



Air 


liavci 


hav-a 


x cloud 


air 


abr 


, cold 


sard 


sarrd 


darkness 


tdrlkl 


ta-ree-kee 


earth 


klidk, zamln 


Mak, zameen 


east 


sharq, mashreq 


sharrq, mash-req 


' fire 


dtash 


a-tash 


fog 


meh 


rneh 


frost 


sannd, sard 


sarr-ma, sarrd 


s heat 


yarm, yannd 


garrm, garr-ma 


/ light 


roshan 


ro-shan . 


lightning 


barq 


barrq 


/ moon 


mdli rnah 


north 


shemal shem-al 


rainbow 


qos-i-qazali qos-i-qaz-a 


shade 


say ali 


sa-ya 


sky 1 dsemdn 


a-seni-an 


south 


janub 


jan-oob 


/ star 


setdrah 


se-ta-ra 


storm 


killdk, tufan 


koo-lak, too-fan 


^ sun 


khnrshld 


AV/eurr-sheed 


thaw 


yakhdb, barfab 


ya/i/t-ab, barrf-ab 


thunder 


ra'd 


ra'd 


weather 


hard, db-va-havd 


hav-a, a-beu-hav-a 


t west 


fjhai'b, niaghreb 


/7//arrb, maf//i-reb 


wind 


bad 


bad" 


world 


jehcin, dnnyd 


je-han, deun-yil 


Land and Water. (Zamm va ab.) 


Bay 


khalij [daryd /r/ta-leej [darr-ya. 


beach 


kandre dari/d, label ka-na-ri darr-ya, lab-k 


cape 


daindi/hdJi dama-///m 


cliff 


neshib, surdzlri nesheeb, sa-ra-zee-ree 


coast, shore 


sdliel, Icaran 


sa-hel, ka-rfni 


hail 


tarjarij 


ta-garrg 


y i ce 


yakh ya/r/( 



14 


English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


island 


jazlrah 


jaz-ee-ra 


/ lake 


darydchali 


darr-ya-cha 


* land 


zanrin, khushkl 


za-meen, /c/teush-kee 


/ mud 


gel 


gel 


f rain 


bdrdn 


ba-ran 


, river 


rud, nahr 


rood, nahrr 


yt rock 


sang, sakhrah 


sang, saM-ra 


x sea 


daryd 


darr-ya 


^ snow 


barf 


barrf 


/ stream 


i&y 


joo-y 


tide 


jazr-va-madd 


jazr-eu-madd 


^ water 


db 


ab 


waterfall 


abshdr, favvdrah 


ab-shar, fav-va-ra 


wave 


moj 


moj 


Minerals and MetalS. (Maaden va flezzat.) 


s- Brass 


berenj 


berrenj 


bronze 


mafragh, <-hodan 


maf-ra/y/t, cho-dan 


cement 


dhak, sdruj 


a-hak, sa-rooj 


clay 


lajan, gel 


laj-an, gel 


coal 


zugliale sang 


zeu-///<a-li sang 


^ concrete 


gaj, dhak 


gaj, a-hak 


. copper 


mes 


mess 


diamond 


almds 


al-mass 


/ glass 


shlshaJi 


shee-sha 


sold 


zar, teld 


zarr, te-la 


granite 


sange sumdq 


sang-i seu-maq 


,- iron 


dhan 


a-han 


, cast 


dliane db shudah 


a-ban-iab sheu-da 


, wrought dhane kuftah,muzdb 


a-han-i koof-ta, meuzab 


lead SM7-6 


seurrb 


lime 


gaj, dhak 


gaj, a-hak 


marble 


marmar \ marr-marr 


mercury 


jivah 


jee-va 


pearl 


murvdrld 


meurr-va-reed 


s silver 


slm, nuqrah 


seem, neuq-ra 


slate 


sange lohdh 


sang-i lo-ha 


- steel 


fuldd, puldd 


foo-lad, poo-lad 


} stone 


san;/ 


sang 


tin 


arzlz 


arr-zeez 


zinc 


rily 


roo-y 



15 



Animals, Birds and Pishes. 

(Hayvdndt, inurqhdn va mdlwyan.) 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



Animals 


haivdndt 


hay-va-nat 


bear 


khcrs 


Ar/ierrss 


bull 


gdi'e-nar 


gavi-narr 


calf 


gtixdlah 


goo-sa-la 


- cat 


gttrbah 


geurr-ba 


cattle 


chehdr-pd, dardbb 


che-harr-pa, da-vabb 


^ cow 


mddah-gdv 


ma-da-gav 


' d og 


tag 


sag 


i donkey 


khar, nldgh 


/r/tarr, eu-la^^ 


elephant 


fit, pU 


feel, peel 


fox 


rubdh 


roo-bah 


o;oat 


buz 


beuz 


/ horse 


asb 


asb 


lamb 


barrah 


barra 


lion 


slrir 


sheer 


monkey 


maimun 


may-moon 


/ mouse 


mush moosh 


mule 


astar, qdter 


as-tarr, qa-terr 


ox 


gav 


gav 


Pig 


khuk 


/c/took 


rat 


mush, mushe-buzurg 


moosh, moo-shi-beu- 


seal 


sag-mdhl 


sag-ma-hee [zeurg 


sheep, a 


gusefand 


goo-sef-and 


tiger 


babr 


babr 


turtle 


Idk-pusJtt 


lak-peusht 


whale 


nahang 


na-hang 


barking 


vat/h-vagh 


V&gJi-v&gk 


birds 


murghdn 


meum/Aanv 


blackbird 


sdr 


sar 


eagle 


nasr, uqdb 


nasr, eu-qab 


lark 


chakdvuk 


chak-a-veuk 


owl 


bum, jug hd 


boom, jeu^/td 


parrot 


tutl 


too -tee 


sparrow 


gunjushg 


geun-jeushg 


swallow 


parastak, chelchelah 


parras-tak, chel-chela 


swan 


r/hu, qdz 


ghoo, qaz 


fishes 


mdJtei/dn 


ma-heyan 


cod 


mdhei/e qod 


ma-hey-i qod 



16 

English. " Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


crab 


Icharchang 


/t/tarr-chang 


eel 


mdr-ni d/ii 


marr-ma-hee 


herring 


slkdh-indfei 


shah-ma-hee 


lobster 


hharcliang 


/c/tarr-chang 


oyster 


(jushe-iiid/il 


goosh-i-ma-hee 


salmon 


azad-mdhi 


a-zad-ma-hed 


sea-fish 


niaheye-danja 


lua-hey-i-darr-yti 


trout 


maheye-qezd-ala 


ma-hey-i-qezel-a-la 


turbot 


jaria 


ja-reess 


game 


sliekdr 


shek-ar 


grouse 


seyah-alna 


se^'-ah-see-na 


/ hare, rabbit 


khargush 


/r/tarr-goosh 


partridge 


kabk . 


kabk 


pheasant 


tiirany, tazarv 


too- rang, ta-zarrv 


snipe 


nuh-deraz 


neuk-de-raz 


herd 


yallah, ramah 


gal-lab, ra-mah 


hoof 


sum, 


seum 


poultry 


tui/ ft r 


teu-yoor 


^ chicken 


juja/i 


joo-ja 


cock 


k/uinlx 


Meu-rooss 


duck 


murghdbl 


meurr-///ta-bee 


goose 


qdz 


qaz 


. hen 


murgh 


meur,//t 


^ turkey 


pil-iiniryh, buqala- 


peel-meurrpr/t, boo-qala- 




nnln 


moon 


Il\SCCtS and ReptileSs (Janavar va kerm.) 


Ant 


uiur 


moor 


bee 


zanbur 


zanboor 


beetle 


khazuk 


Wtazook 


butterfly 


shah jtarak 


ahahparak 


caterpillar 


*a.ttf>a 


sad pa 


tiea 


kail; 


kayk 


, % 


malms 


makass 


frog 


ghfik 


(7/took 


gnat 


pashxhuh 


pash-sha 


grasshopper 


m a la k /i 


mal-aA:/i 


insect 


paranda/i, janavar 


parranda, ja-navarr 


lizard 


silsemdr 


soo-sem-ar 


x mosquito 


pasJishah 


pash-sha 


silkworm 


kerme-pllalt 


kerrm-i-peela 



17 


Englisn. Persian (rornanized). Pronunciation. 


snail 
snake 


halziin 
mar 


halzoon 
mar 


spider 
toad 
wasp 
worm 


ankabut, kartanah 
ghuh, qurbdqali 
zaribtir 
kerm 


ankaboot, karr-tan-a 
ghook, qeur-baqa 
zan-boor 
kerrm 



Flowers, Fruits, Trees and Vegetables. 

(Gul, mlvaJi, deraklit va sabzi-alat.) 

(For Shopping, see page 80.) 



Flowers 


gulhd 


geulha 


lily 


susan, zanbaq 


soo-san, zanbaq 


rose 


gul, gule surkh 


geul, geul-i seur/cA 


tulip 


Idlah 


la-la 


violet 


banafshah 


ban-af-sha 


fruits 


mlvah jat 


mee-va jat 


apple 


sib 


seeb 


apricot 


zard-dlu, qaisl zarrd-aloo, qay-see 


cherry 


gilds 


gee -las 


currants 


zereshk 


zerreshk 


/ fig 


anjir an jeer 


grapes 


angur 


angoor 


x lemon 


llmu 


leemoo 


lime 


derakhte-llmu 


derraM-ti-leenioo 


melon 


kharbezah 


A7tarr-bez-a 


nut 


funduq 


feundeuq 


orange 


turunj 


teu-reunj 


peach 


shaftdlul hulu 


shaftaloo, heuloo 


pear 


giddbi 


geulabee 


pineapple 


dndnds 


a-na-nas 


plum 


dlii, dluchah 


aloo, aloo-cha 


strawberry 


tute-ferangl 


tooti-ferran-gee 


walnut 


jgerdu 


gerrdoo 


trees 


derakhtdn 


derraMtan 


ash 


zabdn-gunjitsluj 


zab-an-geun-jeushg 


beech 


alash 


al-ash 


birch 


ghusha 


t/Aoo-sha 


/- leaf 


barg 


barrg 


oak 


deraklite-balut 


derraM-ti-baloot 


palm 


derakhte-khurmd 


derra/^-ti-Wieurr-nia 


pine 


deraklite-kdj 


derraM-ti-kaj 


vine 


tdk, niaiv 


tak, mayv 


Persian S.-T. C '.} 



18 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


vegetables 


sabzl-dldt 


sabzec-alat 


asparagus 


mdrchiibah. 


mar-chooba 


beans 


lilbeyd, bdqll 


loo-beya, baqlee 


/ beetroot 


chughundur 


cheu-/7/teun-deur 


cabbage^ halatn 


kal-am 


carrot havlj 


hav-eej 


cauliflower kalame rilsl 


kalam-i roosee 


celery karafs 


karrafs 


i cucumber l-heydr 


/Jtey-ar 


f lettuce 


k&hu 


ka-hoo 


onion 


peydz 


peyaz 


peas (green) 


mash 


mash 


potatoes 


slbe-zamlnl 


seebi-zam-ee-nee 


spinach 


exfandj 


es-fan-aj 


/ tomato 


bddenjdn -fe > - a nyl 


badenjan-ferran-gee 


turnip 


shalyham 


shal-^rAam 


Colours. (Eang-Ud.) 


(For Shopping, see page S3.' 


< Black 


seydh, mushgl 


seyah, meush-gee 


/ blue 


dbl 


abee 


^ brown t&mrang flA*^** 


rieem-rang 


crimson *nrkh, Idkl 


seur/c/t, la-kee 


dark (deep) tlrah, tund, sir 


teerah, teund, seer 


* green sabz 


sabz 


grey khdkestarl 


/cAa-kes-tarree 


light (pale) roshan 


ro-shan 


pink gull 


geulee 


purple 


arghavanl 


arr-#Aav-anee 


x red 


qermez, surkh 


qerr-mez, seurAVi 


scarlet 


sur kit, 


seur/tA 


violet 


banafsh 


ban-afsh 


t white 


sefid 


sef-eed 


/ yellow 


zard 


zarrd 


Times and Seasons. (Ogat va mosemM.) 


(For Conversations see p, 81.) 


Time 


raqt, hang dm 


vaqt, han-gam 


/ day 


ruz 


rooz 


fortnight 


du-haftah, nimmdh 


deu-haf-ta, neem-mah 


, hour 


sdat 


sa-at 


4 minute 


daqiqah 


da-qee-qa 


! month 


mdh 


mah 



19 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


quarter (8 mths.) 


seh-mdliah 


sem-il-ha 


second 


dam, sdneyah 


dam, sa-neya 


/ week 


haft ah 


haf-ta 


, year 


sal 


sal 


day-time 


vaqte-ruz 


vaqti-rooz 


afternoon 


asr 


asr 


dawn 


tnlue dfetdb, subh 


teuloo-i afetab, seubh 


evening 


vaqte-ghiinlb, masd, 


vaqti-f//teu-roob, rnasa, 


mid-day, noon 


zultr [sham 


zeuhr [sham 


midnight 


Mxfe-shab 


nessfi-shab 


/ morning 


Kiibit, bdmuddd 


seubh, bameudad 


/ night 


skab 


shab 


sunrise 


tuliie-dfetdb 


teuloo-i-afetab 


sunset 


flliurilbe-dfetdb 


^Aeuroobi-afetab 


holidays 


ta'tUhd \ ta'teel-ha 


Christmas 


molude-hazrute ud 


moloodi-hazrat-i eesa 


Easter 


Id 


eed 


Good Friday 


jiiutahe-aziz 


jeumah-i-azeez 


days of the week 


riizhdi/t' haftah 


rooz-ha-yi hafta 


Sunday 


yekthanbah 


yek-shanba 


Monday 


dushanbah 


deu-shanba 


Tuesday 


sehshanbah 


seshanba 


Wednesday 


cheJidrshanbah 


che-har-shanba 


Thursday 


panjshanbAh 


panj-shanba 


Friday 


jumah, ddlnah 


jeuma, adeena 


Saturday 


skanbah 


shanba 


months, the 


vidhhd 


mah -ha 


January 


jdnreyeh 


cfui-vey-eh 


February 


fevreyeh 


fev-rey-eh 


March 


ntdrs 


marss 


April 


dri'll 


avreel 


May 


meh 


meh 


June 


juan 


seu-an 


July 


jueyyeh 


seu-ey-yeh 


August 


d/jhitst 


a-^/(eust 


September 


teptambr 


septambr' 


October 


oktobr 


oktobr' 


November 


nuvdnibr 


neuvanibr' 


December 


desambr 


dessjinibr' 


seasons, the four 


cJiehdr-fasl 


che-luir-fassl 


spring 


belidr 


be-har 

.- . 



c* 



20 



English. 



Persian (romauized). 



Pronunciation. 



summer 


tdbestdn 


tabestan 


autumn 


pdlz 


pa-eez 


winter 


zemastdn 


zemas-tan 


to-day 


emrilz 


emrooz 


to-morrow 


fardd 


farrda 


morning 


fardd-sub/i farrda-seubh 


to-night 


emshab 


em-shab 


twilight 


shafaq 


shaf-aq 


yearly 


sdleydnah 


sa-leya-na 


yesterdf.7 


dlruz 


deerooz 



The Persian Months. 

Tbf Persian months are lunar, and therefore do not correspond with 
those of European nations. The names of the months are : 

Unabbreviated . 
muharram-ul-haram 
safar-vl-muzaffar 



rabi-V'8-sam 
jainddey-al-a,Tval 
jam adey-fix-xain 
rajab-ul-marujjab 
sha' ban-ul-nmazzam 
ramazan-ul-mubara k 
shavvdl-ul-miikarram 
zel-qa'dat-ul-haram 
eel-hajjat-ul-h/iraiii 



Colloquial (phonetic). 
mill i fir -ram 
saf-arr 
rab-ee-eul-av-val 
rab-ce-eus-sa-nce 
jam-a dey-al-av-val 
jam-d dey-as-sd-nee 
ra-jab 
slia'ban 
ramazan 
shav-vdl 
zel-qa'da 
zel-hajja 



The first day of Muharrani-ul-harani is the beginning of the year 
Hejree (A.H. Anno Hegira), i.e., the Muhammadan era. 



Town 

Bridge 

building (edifice) 

bush 

corn 

country 

ditch 

farm 

fence 

field 

footpath 

forest 

grass 

hap 



ai\d Country. (Shahr va mulk.) 



pul 

amdrat 

demhhte-kiichek, bu- 
ijanditui \tali 

main I all at 
kliandaq, yod 
kexhtzar, mazraah 
sadd, hasdr, dlvdrah 
sahrd, Jceshtzdr 
peyddah-ro, rdke- 
jangal [peyddah 
geijdh, alaf, sabzah 
alafe-hhuslig 



peul 
amarat 

derraM-ti-koo-chek. 
gan-deum [boo-ta 

mam-lak-at 
Man-daq, god 
kesht-zar, rnaz-ra-ah 
sadd, ha-sar, dee-va-ra 
sah-ra, kesht-zar 
pey-a-da-ro, rah-i-pey- 
j an -gal [a-da 

gey-ah, al-af, sab-za 
al-af-i-/f/teushg 



21 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


hut 


kulbak 


keul-ba 


inn 


uianzelgdh, kdrvdn- 


man-zel-gah, kar-van- 


lane 


ktichah [sard 


koo-cha [sa-ra 


market 


bazar 


ba-zar 


meadow 


cka man 


cham-an 


mile 


mil 


meel 


mill-wheel 


charkhe-dseyd 


charr-A/ii-a-sey-a 


monument 


neslidnak, yddegdr 


nesha-na, ya-de-gar 


palace 


darbdr, qasr 


darr-bar, qasr 


police-station 


eddrahe-naznieyya/i 


ed-a-rah-i naz-mey-ya 


prison 


zenddn 


zendai^ 


river 


rud t^JifrT^j&fi 


rood 


road 


rdli, kuckah 


rah, koe-cha 


school 


dabustdn, maktab 


da-beus-an, mak-tab 


shepherd 


chupdn, skabdu 


choo-pan. sha-ban 


shop 


dukkdn 


deuk-kam 


street 


kuckah 


koo-cha 


town 


sha/ir 


shahr 


valley 


darrak 


darra 


village 


dek 


deh 


well, & 


ajjj.anbdr zJrieJb 


ab-an-bar 


wood, a 


jamjal 


j an -gal 


Mankind ; Relations. (Banee-adam ; khecsn.) 


Aunt (paternal) 


ammak 


ani-ma 


aunt (maternal) 


kkdlak 


/,7ta-la 


boy 


pesar 


pessarr 


brother 


harddar 


barna-darr 


, wife's 


barddar-zan 


barra-darr-zan 


child [aunt) 


baC'kcliah, kudak 


bach-cha, koo-dak 


cousin (son of pat. 


pesar-atninak 


pessarr-amma 


(daughterof do.) 


dukktar-amniak 


deuM-tarr-amma 


(sonofmat.aunt) 


pesar-kkdlak 


pessarr-Ma-la 


(daughter of do.) 


dukktar-kkdlct k 


deu/cA-tarr-^Aa-la 


daughter 


dukktar 


deuM-tarr 


ilaughter-iu-law 


arils 


arrooss 


family 


zan-va-backchah , 


zan-eu-bach-cha/ Ma- 


father 


pedar [khdneddn] ped-arr [ned-an 


father-in-law 


pedar-zan i pedarr-zan 


girl 


duklitar, dttstctzirh deuM-tarr, doo-shee-za 


grand-daughter 


navvddak nav-va-da 



22 

English. Persian (roinaiiized). Pronunciation. 


grandfather 


bdbd, jadd- 


bfi-ba, jadd 


grandmother 


jaddak 


jad-da 


grandson 


navvddak 


nav-va-da 


husband 


shohar 


sho-harr 


, sister's 


kkdfiar-shoJifir 


/t/ta-harr-sho-hari' 


/ man 


mard 


marrd 


marriage 


arusl 


arroo-see 


f mother 


mddar 


nia-darr 


mother-in-law 


mddar-zan 


ma-darr-zan 


nephew J 


bardda r- zddah, 


ba-ra-darr-za-da, 


niece v 


khdhar-zddah 


/c/ia-harr-za-da 


parents 


pedar-va-mddar, ab- 


ped-arr-eu-ma-darr, ab- 


relations 


k/nsh, aqvdm \_avain\ khe&sh, aq-vam [avaya 


sister (elder) 


khdhare buzurg 


/.Aa-harri beu-zeurg 


- (younger) 


khdhare kuchek 


/t'Aa-harri koo-chek 


, husband's 


shohar-khdhar 


sho-harr-/cAa-harr 


, wife's 


khdhar-zan 


/cAa-harr-zan 


son 


pcsar, farzand 


pessarr, i'arr-zand 


son-in-law 


ddindd 


damad 


uncle (pat.) 


amii, oder 


amoo, o-derr 


- (mat.) 


ddl, khdlu 


da-ee, /c/ia-loo 


widow 


blvah \ bee-va 


widower 


zan-murdah, blvah 


zan-meurr-da, bee-va. 


- wife 


zan, aifdl 


zan, a-yal 


woman 


zan zan 


The Human Body. (Veujood-i-ensanee.) 


(For Sentences on "Health" see p. 80.) 


Ankle 


gliuzak 


#/joo-zak 


, arm 


bdzn 


ba-zoo 


/ back 


jmsht, kamar 


peusht, kamarr 


^ beard 


nsh 


reesh 


body 


tan, badan, vujiid 


tan, badan, veu-jood 


bone 


ustuhhdn 


eus-teu-/fMn 


bowel 


rudah 


roo-da 


brain 


maghz, dama;/// 


ma/7/iz, dama^/t 


breast, chest 


slnah 


see-na 


chin 


chdnah 


cha-na 


- ear 


gush 


goosh 


elbow 


drenj 


a-renj 


' eye 


chashm, dldah 


chashm, dee-da 


face 


ru, chehrah 


roo, cheh-ra 



23 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation 


finger 


angmht 


an-geusht 


foot 


pa 


pa 


hail- 


iijttfrj yizTi /I'l/t^-' 


zeulf, gee-soo 


hand 


dast 


dast 


head 


tar 


sarr 


heart 


del 


del 


kute 


zdnu 


za-noo 


leg 


leng 


leng 


limbs a'zd 


a'za 


lip lab 


lab 


liver jegar 


jeg-arr 


lungs <t//s/t 


sheush 


moustache sebil 


se-beel 


mouth dalidn 


da -ban 


neck ijardan 


garr-dan 


nose 


hiMi, daiiidgJt 


bee-nee, dam -sty /i 


shoulder 


shdnali 


sha-na 


side 


paldu 


pah-loo 


skin 


pust 


poost 


stomach 


shekam 


shek-am 


throat 


galu 


gal- oo 


thumb 


shast 


shast 


toe 


anguslit<;-pd 


an-geusb-ti-pa 


tongue 


zabdn zab-an 


tooth 


danddn 


dan-dan 


wrist 


bande-dast 


ban-di-dast 


Health. (Tan-dcureustee, Sahhat.) 


(For Conversations, see p. 80.) 


Ambulance 


khastali-khdnahe- fr/tasta-/rAa-nah-i-saf- 




safarl arree 


bandage 


dastmdle-marham dast-ma-li-marr-bam 


bite 


gazidat/i, gazesh gaz-ee-dag-ee, gaz-esh 


blind 


kiir koor 




kuftagl, khastat/l koof-tag-ee, Mas-tag-ee 


burn 


sukhtaijl sooA.7i-tag-ee 


chemist 


attdrl, davd-lrfidnah at-ta-ree, da-va-Ma-na 


chill, cold 


sarmd, c/idj/sh \ sarr-rna, cha-ish 


corns 


plnah, ndxiir pee-na, na-soor 


cough 


surfah 


seur-fa 


cure, to 


sltafd-ydftan shaf-a-yaf-tan 


dentist 


danddn-sdz dan-dan-saz 



24 

English. Persian (romauiised). Pronunciation. 


diarrhoea 


eshdl ess-hal 


x disease, illness 


ndhhushl \ na-/;/teu-shee 


doctor 


hakim 


hak-eem 


doctor's fee 


haqqulqadame hak- 


haq-qeul-qad-am-i hak- 


faint, to 


ghash-kardan \lm 


r//iash-karr-dan [eem 


/ fever 


tab 


tab 


fracture 


shehastagl 


shek-as-tag-ee 


gout 


neqrcs 


neq-ress 


headache 


dardc sar 


darr-di sarr 


hospital 


mariz-hh&nah 


mareez-/^a-na 


ill, sick 


nakhush, biindr 


na-/.-/<eush, bee-mar 


indigestion 


sue-hazm 


soo-i-hazm 


inflammation 


eltehdb 


el-te-hab 


^ medicine 


detvM^Hi, davd 


darr-man, dav-a 


ointment 


mttrham 


rnarr-ham 


pain 


dard 


darrd 


pill 


hah 


hab 


poison 


zahr 


zahr 


poultice 


zamdd 


zam-ad 


prescription 


nushhah 


neus-/c/ta 


scald 


suhhtagi 


soo/c/i-tag-ee 


sea-sickness 


ndkhushye-daryd 


na-A-/teushy-i-darr-ya 


sore throat 


darde-galu darr-di-gal-oo 


sprain 


plchesh, dard 


pee-chesh, darrd 


tonic 


ma'jun 


ma'joon 


wound 


zakhm 


za/r/tm 


Food, Drink and Smoking. 


(KJieurdan, noosheedan va deiiklidn.) 


(See also Vocabularies, pp. 15 to 18, and Conversations, p. 7S.) 


* Bottle 


sliisltfrh, butrl 


sheesha, beutree 


*- bread ; , brown 


ndn ; ndne-jo 


nan ; nani-jo 


^ breakfast 


chdic subh 


cha-ee-i seubh 


x butter 


karah 


karra 


cake 


Icumdj 


keumaj 


cheese 


panlr 


paneer 


cream 


sarshlr 


sai-i'-sheer 


/ dinner 


sham 


sham 


drink 


nusli'idan 


noo-shee-dan 


^ beer^ 


dbe-jo^ 


abi-io 


chocolate 


sliokolat . shokolat 



25 

English. 1'ersiau (romanizcd). Pronunciation. 


x coffee 


qahvah 


qahva 


lemonade 


limondd 


leemonad 


/ milk 


shir sheer 


soda-water 


dbe nia'dan, abc abi nia'dan, abiqal-yii- 


/ tea 


dial [qalyabi cha-ee [hoe 


/ water 


db 


ab 


wine 


sliardb 


sharrab 


/ egg 


tukhme-murgh 


teu/>/(-mi-meurr///t 


/ flour 


ard 


urrd 


, jam 


murabbd 


meurab-ba 


meat 


gftsht 


goosht 


beef 


gilshte-gdv 


goosh-ti-gav 


beefsteak 


kabdbe-t/dv 


kaba-bi-gav 


fat 


shah m, roghan j shahm, ro-///mn 


lamb 


gfishte-barrali goosh-ti-barra 


lean 


gushte-bt-roc/han, goosh-ti-bee-ror///an, 




mdhichah ma-hee-cha 


mutton 


gttshte-gwefand ', goosh-ti-goosef-and 


pork, bacon, ham 


(liixhte-Jthilk goosh-ti-/c/iook 


sausage 


inaveyah mav-eya 


veal 


gushte-iinsalali 


gooshti-goosala 


mustard 


kliardal 


/./((iiT-dal 


oil 


rotfhanc-zaitun 


ro-^f/fan-i-zaytoon 


onion 


peydz 


peyaz 


pepper 


felfel 


felfel 


pudding 


shlrlnl, J t al-v a 


shee-reenee, hal-va 


/ rice 


berenj 


berrenj 


rice pudding 


shlr-berenj 


sheer-berrenj 


salad 


sdldt 


salat 


salt 


namak 


namak 


smoking 


dukhdn 


deu-Man 


cigar 


slgdre-barg 


seegari-barrg 


cigarette 


slgar 


seegar 


matches 


kebrlt 


keb-reet 


pipe 


ehubuq 


cheu-beuq 


tobacco 


tanbaku, tittun 


tanbakoo, teuteun 


soup 


ash, abe-yusht 


ash, abi-goosht 


sugar 


shakar, qand shak-arr, qand 


supper 


sham 


sham 


vegetable 


sabzl-alat 


sabzee-alat 


vinegar 


serkah 


serr-ka 



2G 



Cooking and Eating Utensils. 



English. 



(Zeuroof-i-tabkh va team. 

(For Shopping, see p. S'i.) 
Persian (romauized). 



Pronunciation. 



Basin 


k&zah 


kasa 


coffee-pot 


qahvah-jusli 


qahva-joosh 


corkscrew 


sJuxhah-gusltd 


shee-sha-geusha 


cruet-stand 


namakddn 


namak-dan 


/ cup 


J'cnjdn , estekdn 


fen-jan, estek-an 


decanter 


tunic 


teunk 


dish 


dori 


doree 


/ fork 


changdl 


chan-gal 


frying-pan 


tdvah 


tava 


glass, tumbler 


f/llds, jdni t qadah 


gee-lass, jfim, qada 


kettle 


ketri 


ket-ree 


knife 


hard, clidqu 


karrd, cha-qoo 


oven 


kurah, ujdq 


koo-ra, eu-jaq 


, plate 


bushqdb 


beush-qab 


saucepan, pot 


dili 


deek 


saucer 


na'lbaki 


na'1-bakee 


serviette 


pish-gir 


peesh-geer 


spoon 


qadniq 


qa-sheuq 


, table- 


qdshuqe-buzurg 


qa-sheuqi-beu-zeuvg 


, tea- 


qdshuqe-chdl 


qa-sheuqi-cha-ee 


, table-cloth 


ruye-mlz 


roo-yi-meez 


teapot 


chdlildn, qurl 


cha-ee-dan, qoo-rec 


tray 


slnl 


see-nee 


/ wine-glass 


f/lldse-shardb \ geelasi-sharrab 


DreSS and Dressing. (Eal;ht va rakht-pooshee.) 


(See also Washing List, following, and Shopping, p. Sti.) 


Bath 


liammdin 


ham -mam 


boots, shoes 


kafsh 


kafsh 


braces 


shalvdr-baml 


shal-var-band 


brush 


indhilt-pdli'kun 


ma-hoot^pak-keun 


buckle 


saijak 


sa.gak 


button 


(lukma/i 


deuk-ma 


cap 


kuldh 


keulah 


cloak 


abd, kherqcth 


aba, Merrqa 


coat 


kulajah, sanldri, 


keu-laja, sarr-da-ree, 


comb 


shdnah \_jdket 


shfiP [ja-ket 



English. 



Persian (romauized). 



Pronunciation. 



dress materials qumdsh qeumash 


x cloth pdrcbah, qunidah parcha, qeumash 


cotton 


chelvdrl, chit chel-varee, cheet 


flannel, -ette 


fan ally ah fan-a-lee-ya 


lace 


ghaitdn, bdjtali [tan /-//taytan, bafta 


linen 


zlrjdmah, rakht, ka- zeerjama, ra/r/<t, kat-an 


muslin 


malmal, tanzib 


malmal, tanzeeb 


silk 


abrishum, atlas 


abreesheum, atlas 


velvet makhmal 


maAVi-mal 


/ wool pashm _^j 


pashm 


, dress (lady's) 


r-akktz-zaniinah 


ra/c/t-ti-zanana 


dressing-gown 


tandiiq- (or rakht-) 


sandooq-/.-/*ana, ra/,7t- 




khdnah 


Mana 


/ evening dress 


lebdse-shab 


leb-a-si-shab 


gaiter 


pdtdbah 


pataba 


garters 


bande-jurdb 


ban-di-joo-rab 


gloves 


dastkash 


dast-kash 


hairpin 


giaband 


geess-band 


hat 


kuldJi, shdbqaJt 


keu-lah, shab-qa 


jewellery 


javdher, -dldt 


jav-a-herr, -alat* 


bracelet 


daxt-band 


dast-band 


brooch 


gul, yule-slnaJi 


geul, geuli-seena 


ring 


angusktar > au-geush-tarr 


neck-tie 


gar dan-band 


garr-dan-band 


needle 


suzan 


soozan 


overcoat 


sard an, abd 


sarr-daree, a-ba 


parasol 


dftdb-garddn 


aftab-garr-dan 


pins 


sanjdq 


saujaq 


pocket 


jib 


jeeb 


purse 


Itif : keef 


rain-coat (waterpr.) 


mushamma', bdrdnl meu-sham-ma', baranee 


razor 


tigh teegh 


sandals 


pdpush, sarpdl pa-poosh, sarr-paee 


scissors 


meqrdz, qaicln meq-raz, qay-chee 


sewing cotton 


nafch, khaydtah nakh, 7.7ia-yata 


skirt 


daman daman 


/ soap 


sdbun 


saboon 


spectacles 


ainak 


aynak 


tape 


bdftah baf-ta 


thimble 


angushtdnah angeush-tana 


., tooth-brush 


danddn-shur dan-dan-shoor 



28 


English. Persian (romauized). Pronunciation. 


towel 
trousers 
umbrella 
watch 


hvll vfv-tf-tw^CcA 
shalvdr 
chair 
sdat 


ho-lee 
shal-var 
chatr 

sa-at 



Washing List. (Fehrest-i-ralikt.) 



Aprons, pinafores pishglr, hoh peesh-geer, ho-lee 


bath- (dressing-) ; rakhte-hammdm 


raM-ti-ham-mam 


, blankets [gowns patu 


patoo 


bodices 


smah-band 


seenah-band 


caps 


kuldh 


keulah 


chemises 


plrdhan , qamls 


peera-han, qam-eess 


collars, lace 


yaqahe-zandnah 


ya-qa-i-zanana 


, linen 


yaqahe-ferangl 


ya-qa-i-ferran-gee 


coverlets 


lehdf le-haf 


cuffs 


dstln, xare-dstln asteen, sarri-asteen 


drawers, pairs of 


Kir jam ah, shalvdr zeer-jtlma, shal-var 


dresses, gowns 


festdn 


festan 


flanne! 4 waistcoats 


jerlqah, f anally ah 


jerreeqa, fana-leeya 


neckties 


garden-band 


garr-dan-band 


night-shirts.-clresses 


rakhte-shab 


raM-ti-shab 


petticoats 


festdn, zlr jamah 


fes-tan, zeer-jama 


pillow-cases 


rilye-bdlcsh 


roo-yi-balesh 


^ pocket-handker- 


dastmdl 


dastmal 


serviettes [chiefs plshgir 


peesh-geer 


sheets sham ad 


sham -ad 


. shirts. \plrakane~fevMtgl 


peera-han-i-ferrangee 


pyjamas (suits) 


rakhte-shab 


ra/f/<-ti-shab 


_ socks, pairs of 


jilrdb, yekjuft jurdb 


joorfib, yek jeuft joorab 


stockings, pairs of 


jurdbe zandnah 


joorabi zanana 


table-cloths 


riiye nnz 


roo-yi meez 


towels 


holl, dastmdl 


ho-lee, dast-mal 


under-vests 


plrdhan 


peera-han 


House and Furniture. (Khanah ra meukhallafdi.} 


'For Shopping see p. 86.) 


/ Arm-chair 


sandall, kursl 


sanda-lee, keurr-see 


basket 


sabad, zanbll 


sabad, zan-beel 


/- bed 


rakhte-khdb, baftar 


raM-ti-Mab, bastarr 


. bedroom 


utdqe-khdb 


eutaqi-/r/iab 


bell 


tang 


zang 



English. 


29 

Persian (romanized). 


Pronunciation. 


blind 


pardah 


parr-da 


book-case 


ketdb-khdnah 


ket-ab-AAana 


> box 


sanduq 


sandooq 


, broom 


jdriib 


jaroob 


candle 


shaMe* 


sham-e' 


candlestick 


shame' dan 


sham-e'dan 


carpet 


J'arsh, qdll 


farrsh, qalee 


ceiling 


saqf 


saqf 


cellar t^ 


makhzan 


maM-zan 


f chair 


Randall 


sandalee 


chest of drawers 


sanduqe-raklit 


sandooqi-raMt 


chimney 


bukhdrl, dudkash 


beu-Maree, dood-kash 


4 clock 


sdat, sdate-divdr 


sa-at, sa-at-i-deevar 


r coal 


zughdle sany 


zeu-^rAali sang 


* counterpane 


lehdf 


le-haf 


cupboard 


darganjah 


darr-ganja 


curtains 


pardah 


parr-da 


cushion 


mukhaddah, bdL'sh 


meu-Mad-da, balesh 


dining-room 


sufrah khdnah 


seufra Mana 


door 


dar 


darr 


drawing-room 


tdldr 


talar 


electric light 
fender 


cherdghe barq 
plshe-bukhdn 


cherra^/i-i barrq 
peesh-i-ben -/,7aree 


floor 


martabah 


marr-tabba 


garden 


bdijh 


bagh 


gas-light 


cherdylie gdz 


chera/7/t-i-gaz 


grate (fire) 


manqal 


man-qal 


key 


kalld 


kaleed 


kitchen 


matbakh 


rnat-baM 


lamp 


lampd 


lampa 


larder 


darganjah 


darr-ganja 


library 


ketdb-khdnah 


ket-ab-Mana 


/ lock 


quft 


qeufl 


/ looking-glass 


dyenah 


a-yen-a 


matches 


Jcebrit 


keb-reet 


passage 


rdhro, ddldn 


rahro, dalan 


piano 


peydno 


peya-no 


picture 


shakl, surat 


shakl, soorat 


poker 


dtashkash 


a-tash-kash 


roof 


bdm, pushte bdm 


bam, peush-ti-bam 


room 


utdq 


eutaq 



English. 



Persian (romauized). 



Pronunciation. 



seat 


nimtakht 


neem-taMt 


shovel 


khak-andaz 


A7/ak-an-djiz 


sideboard 


dulab, 


doo-lab 


staircase 


ma' jar 


ma'-jarr 


f stairs 


pellah 


pel-la 


> table 


rnlz 


meez 


table-cloth 


ruye-mlz 


rooy-i-meez 


tiles 


sufdl 


seu-fal 


tongs 


anbur 


an-beurr 


verandah 


ghuldm-yardesh, 


gfAeulam-garrdesh, ay- 


, wall 


divdr [aivdn 


deevar [van 


wardrobe 


sandiiq-khdnah 


sandooq-Mana 


/ window 


panjarah 


pan-jarra 


water-closet (w.c.) 


khald, dbrlz J Ma-la, abreez 


Professions, Trades, etc. (Sandye', kasb va ghayreli.) 


(For Shopping see p. 88 ) 


Actor 


bdzigar 


bazeegarr 


actress 


bdzlf/ar (zan) 


bazeegarr (zan) 


architect 


me' mar : me'-mar 


artist 


naqqdsh naqqash 


baker 


ndnvd ' nanva 


barber > hairdresser 


dalldk dal-lak 


bookseller 


kctdb furmh ket-ab feu-roosh 


butcher 


qassdb \ qas-sab 


carpenter 


najjdr , naj-jar 


,. chemist 


davdfurush, attar dav-a-feuroosh, at-ar 


confectioner 


gannddl qannadee 


/ cook 


dshpaz ashpaz 


dentist 


danddn-sdz dandan-saz 


doctor 


hakim hak-eem 


farmer 


barzeyar, zdre 1 


barr-zeg-arr, za-re' 


fisherman 


say y ad, mdhlglr 


say-yad, ma-hee-geer 


fishmonger 


mdhl fit rush 


ma-hee-feuroosh 


florist 


gulfurush 


geul-feuroosh 


governess 


mudlrah 


meudeera 


greengrocer 


sabzl-furush 


sabzee-feuroosh 


hatter kaldh-furush 


keulah-feuroosh 


j eweller ! ja cdher-furush 


java-herr-feuroosh 


lawyer vakil 


vakeel 


rnaid-servant kiilfat 


keulfat 


messenger ' qased 


qased 



31 

English. Persian (romaiiized). Pronunciation. 


money-changer 


sarrdf 


sarraf 


nurse (female) 


tidy ah 


da-ya 


optician 


ainah-furmh 


aynak-feuroosh 


photographer 


akkds 


ak-kas 


physician 


tabib, hakim 


tabeeb, hak-eern 


policeman 


polls 


polees 


porter (light) 


hammed 


hammal 


printer 


tdbe' 


ta-be' 


servant 


nokar 


no-karr 


shoemaker 


kafshduz 


kafsh-dooz 


singer 


khdnandah 


/./(fmanda 


student 


talabah, slidiierd talaba, shagerrd 


surgeon 


jar rdli jar rah 


surveyor 


ndzer, sarkar 


nazerr, sarrkar 


tailor 


khaiydt 


/f//ay-yat 


teacher [keeper 


maallem 


meu-al-lem 


tradesman, shop- 


Jcdseb, tdjer 


ka-seb, ta-jerr 


watchmaker 


sdatxdz 


sa-at-saz 


Travelling by Land. (Safar-i-kiuushkee.) 


(For Conversations see p. 71.) 


Arrival 


raxtd ra-seed 


arrive, to 


rasulan ra-seedan 


bag 


klfe-dastl 


keef-i-dastee 


bill 


hesdb 


hessab 


box, trunk 


sandiiq, ydkhddn sandooq, ya/r//daii 


bridge 


esyalah, pul, kandr 


ess-galla, peul, kanar 


bridle 


dahnah, jelo 


dahna, jel-o 


cabman 


kdlezkahchl ka-leska-chee 


carriage 


kdleskah, durushi/ah ka-leska, deu-reush-ga 


coach 


arrddah 


arrada 


coachman 


arrddahchl 


arrada-chee 


cushion 


bdletlt, iiiukhaddali balesh, meu-A7<adda 


depart, to 


raft an, harakat-kar- raftan, harakat-karrdan 


departure 


azliuatjiarakat [dan azeemat, harakat 


engine 


mdshln 


ma-sheen 


expenses 


kltarj, tnasraf 


Wtarrj, massraf 


fare (charge) 


kerdyah 


kerra-ya 


guard 


I'dsebdn 


paseb-an 


guide 


da III, rahbar 


daleel, rahbarr 


hat-box 


qftti/e-ktddh 


qoo-ty-i-keulah 



82 

English. Persian (romaiiized). Pronunciation. 


hotel 


mehmclnkhdnali, lio- 


meh-man-AVmna, hotel 


interpreter 


tarjuman [tcl 


tarr-jeuman 


key 


kalld 


kaleed 


landlady 


sdhebahe-k/tdnah 


sfi-heb-a-i-AViana 


landlord 


sdheb-klidnak 


sa-heb-A:/(ana 


lavatory 


khald, dbriz 


/.Viala, abreez 


lock 


9*fl 


qeufl 


luggage 


asliyae', asbdb 


ash-ya-e', ass-bab 


office 


hujrah, edarali 


heuj-ra, ed-ara 


payment 


ta'deijah, add 


ta'deya, ada 


porter 


darbdn 


darrban 


railway 


rdhe-dltan 


rah-i-a-han 


carriage 


utdq, vdflon 


eutaq, vagon 


station 


gar, estdseyon 


gar, estaseyon 


receipt 


qabz 


qabz 


reins 


jelo, an an 


iel-o, anan 


strap 


bande-hlf bandi-keef 


ticket 


belli bel-eet 


tourist 


saiydh say-yah 


train (railway) 


utdq, rayon 


eutaq, vagon 


waiter 


nokar 


no-karr 


waiting-room 


tttdqe-entezdr 


eutaqi-entez-ar 


whip 


shalldg 


shal-laq 


Travelling by Sea. (Safar-i-daryd.) 


iKor Conversations see p. 73.) 


Anchor 


lanyar 


lan-garr 


berth, cabin 


utdq 


eutaq 


- (in a harbour) 


Idiii/an/dh 


lan-garr-gah 


boat (ship) 


l;axlttl 


kashtee 


bow 


save kaahtl 


sarri-kashtee 


captain " 


ndkliudd, cdfjltdn 


na-Meuda, capeetan 


compass 


qutb, qeblah-ncmd 


qeutb, qebla-nem-a 


crew 


malldli 


mallah 


custom-house offi- 


giimrukchl 


geum-reuk-chee 


deck [cer 


sathae-kashtl 


sat-ha-i-kashtee 


flag 


bairaq, alam 


bayraq, alam 


helm, rudder 


sukkdn 


seuk-kan 


landing-stage, pier 


esgalah, sdhel 


ess-galla, sa-hel 


lifebuoy 


ru-dbl [nils 


roo-abee 


lighthouse 


cherdgh, fandr, fd- 


cherra^/i, fanar, fanooa 



English. 

mast 

oar 

pilot 

port, harbour 

porthole 

- for gun 
rope 
sail 

seaman, sailor 
sea-sickness 
ship 

steamboat 
steersman 
stern 
steward 
voyage 



as 

Persian (ronmnized). Pronunciation. 


dakal 


dakal 


pdnl 
dalll 


paroo 
daleel 


bandar 


ban-darr 


panjarah 

pemjarahe tub 
tandb 


pan-jara 
panjara-i toob 
tanab 


bddbdn 


bad-ban 


malldh 


ruallah 


ndkhusheye-daryd 
kashti, jehdz 
kashtye-bukhd r 
sukkdnchi 


na-Meu-shey-i-darr-ya 
kashtee, je-haz 
kasht-yi-beu-/cMr 
seuk-kan-chee 


tahe-kashtl 


tah-i-kashtee 


mubdsher, qahvahchl 
safare-daryd 


meubasherr, qahrachee 
safarri-darr-ya 



Commercial and Trading Terms. 

(Estelahat-i-tejaratee va kasb.) 



itions see pp. SS to ill .) 



Account 


liesdii 


, current 


hesdbe-jdn 


, joint 


h esdbe- m ush ta ra k 


of sale 


hesdbe furush 


, to close an 


hesdb-mafruyli- 




hardan 


, to settle an 


hesdb parddkhtan 


acknowledgment 


qabz, sanad 


advance (of money) 


naqd 


advice, letter of 


aklibdr ndniah 


agency 


vekdlat-khdnah 


apprentice 


slidgerd 


arrangement 


qardr 


arrears 


bdql, tatemmah 


assets 


amvdl, ddrdl 


authorize, to 


havdlali-kardan 


average 


ruye-ham~raftah 


balance(remainder) 


tatemmah 


balance-sheet 


surate hesdb 


bank 


ban It 


bankrupt, <a 


rar -s/iekaxtaJi 


Persian S.-T. 



hessab 

hessabi-jaree 
hessabi-meushtarak 
hessabi feuroosh 
hessab-mafroo^/t - karr- 

dan 

hessab parr-da/c/t-tan 
qabz, sanad 
naqd 

aA7(-bar nama 
vek-alat-Mana 
sha-gerrd 
qarar 

baqee, tatemma 
amval, dara-ee 
havala-karrdan 
rooy-i-ham-rafta 
tatemma 
soorat-i hessab 
bank 
varr-shekasta 



English. 



Persian (rcmanized). 



Pronunciation. 



bearer 

bill (account) 
of exchange 
of lading 
bond, in 
bonded goods 

book-keeper 
brokerage 
business 
buyer 
cargo 

carriage (freight) 
cartage 
catalogue 
charter a ship, to 
claim 

clerk (customs) 
commercial travel- 
company "ler 
complaint 
contract, a 
cost, insurance and 

freight (c.i.f.) 
credit balance 
creditor 
customs duties 
damage 

damages, to claim 
date, at 3 months' 
debit and credit 
-debtor 
deed 

deliver, to 
delivered free 
demurrage 
director 

discount ; to 
dividend 
dock and harbour 

dues 



haunl 

JlMdb 

bardt 

suratc-anbijdc i 

mui/di/yad 

mdle-ni iiqayt/ad-dar- 

r/innntk 
daftar-ddr \llyah 
ujrate dalldlt, dalld- 
Jcar, ddd-va-setad 
klmrldar 

mdl, ashyde', wati~e { 
gdrl 

kerayalie-a rrddah 
felt rext 

kaahti IccrayaJt-kar- 
talab [dan 

nurzd 

tajere-saiydr 
sherkat, kumpdnl 
da' rd, xhek&yat 



kha r]f-];v r,]ija/i - ra 

bliiiah 

tateniina/ic /tcxdb 
talablidr 

gumruk, bdj [zeyan 
zarar, Ichasdrat, 
mutdlebalic zarar 
se-mdhah [kardan 
qarz-va-talab 
qarzddr, ntaqnlz 
sanad 

tasliw-kardan 
bl-kerdyah tasllm 
kerdyahe kaxhtl, ar- 
raiss, mudir [ziyah 
tanzil ; kardan 
hessah, bahrah 
kerdyahe anbdr va 

csijdlah 



ham el 

hc-.-^siib 

bariit 

soorat-i-ash-yae' 

meu-qay-yad 

m all- meuqay y ad - d a r r- 

geumreuk 

daftarr-dar [lee-ya 

euj-rat-i dallalee, dalla- 
kar, dad-eu-set-ad 
Mareedar 

mal, ash-yae', matae' 
garee 

keiTa-ya-i-arrada 
feh-rest 

kashtee kerra-ya-karr- 
talab [dan 

meerzi 

ta-jerri-sayyar 
shurr-kat, kompanee 
da'va, shek-a-yat 
rneuqfi-vel-a 
Ar/Hirrj - i - kerra-ya-eu- 

beema 

tatemma-i hessab 
talabkar 
geurn-reuk, baj 
zararr, /c/iasarat, zeyan 
meutaleb-a-i zararr- 
sem-a-ha [karrdan 

qarrzeu-talab 
qarrz-dar, maqrooz 
sanad 

ta..s s - leem-karrdan 
bee-kerra-ya tassleem 
kerra-ya-i kashtee, arr- 
ra-eess, meudeer [zeeya 
tanzeel; tanzeel karrdaiy 
hessa, bahra 
kerra-ya-i anbar eu 

ess-gala 



English. 


85 

Persian (roinanized). 


drawer (of bill) 


tainasxiik Jaltandah tai 


duty, export 


ffinnruk 


-kimruj gei 


free 


b^-;/ KIII rule be< 


, import 


/jHiitntl. 


a nirfid gei 


, liable to 


gnni rnk-ddr 


enclosed, enclosure 


malffif 


in: 


endorse, to 


emzd-kardan em 


endorsement 


enr~.Ci, pusltt-qabz em 


exchange of money 


sarrdr-khdnak sai 


factory 


hdi'-likdnah ka 


firm, the 


tfierkat 


sh 


forwarding 


ha ml, ersdl ha 


forwarding agent 


hand-ra-naqlchl b:; 


gross weight 


jaiii'e-vazn jar 


guaraiueo, a 


zanidnat [qabzl za 


l.O.U. 


tamasank, xauad, tai 


imports ; exports 


rti rcddt 


; sdder&t vft 


income 


waildkhcl 7 n, 


information 


Miabar, 


ctti'liic' kit 


insurance 


bimali 


j 1)B< 


- broker 


(Utlldlc 


li'niiali da 


- company 


koiitjiun 


!< bunali ko 


policy 


bliiia/t-i 


diintlt. be 


- premium 


tt /rate I 


Linnli eu. 


draft 


<jab:c' blnia/t qa 


, telegraphic 


blind he 


trl'irrdfl be 


insure (against), to 


biiiKt/i-lcardait be 


interest 


ton: ' 


tai 


lease 


cjilni/i 


(;- 


leaseholder 


vwxta'j 


IT me 


letter of eivdit 


zamdnat-n&Hiah /.a 


liabilities 


ma* fill yat 11 u 


load, to 


]mnil-k(irdan ha 


loss 


tttrar 


za 


manager 


sarkdr, 


iitubasher sa 


market 


bd:ui' 


ba 


- , foreign 


qainiate-kharejali qa 


, home 


qa inut te-dakhelali qa 


day 


nerklw-nlz ne 


dues 


ejdralic-bdzdr ej- 


prico 


iu'rkhe-bd:ar ne 



Pronunciation. 

tamasseuk da-handa 

geum-reuki-.vAeurooj 

bee-geiim-renk 

geum-reu-ki veurood 

geum-reuk-iliir 

mal-foof 

em-za-karrdan 

emztl, peusht-qabz 

samlf-AYaina 

kar-/,7/ana 

sherrkat 

hanil, e.T-sal 

haml-eu-nacjl-chee 

jam'-i-va/.n 

zamanaf, 

tamasseuk, saiuul. qabz 

va-retl -at ; j-fi-den at 



r, et-tel-ae* 

ilallali beema 
kompanee-i beema 
beema-nama 
euj-rat-i beema 
qab-zi l>eema 
beema-i tel-gerrafe<* 
beema- karrdaii 

,nzeel 

-ilra 

meus-ta'jerr 
/.anianiit-nfuna 
massoolee-yat 
liauil-karrdan 
zarrarr 
sarrkfir, meu-basherr 

ilzar 

qaymat-i-A7/a-rej-a 
qaymat-i-da-/iAel-a 
nerr/,7(-i-rooz 
ej-ara-i-i)azar 
nerr/.7/-i-bazar 

D* 



3G 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



negotiable, saleable 


indlt!-fnn~i.xii infil-i-feu-roosli 


order (for goods) 


tahrll-namah tahveel-uania 


packing 


bar baiidi, bdrlu*li'i 


bar bandee, bar bastan 


partnership 


shardkat 


sharakat 


payable 


dddani, add-shuda- 


dadanee, ada-shendanee 


per cent., 10 


sadi-dah jti\ sadee-da 


percentage 


dar-sad 


darr-sad 


price 


qaimat, nerkh 


qaymat, nerr/f/i 


, net 


bl-tanzil 


bee-tan zeel 


, wholesale 


(jaiuiate yckjd 


qaymat-i yek-jfi 


price-list 


fehrcste-qaimat 


feh-rest-i-qayiaat 


property 


mull:, 111 dl, ddrdl 


meulk, mal. dara-ee 


quotation (of price) 


zekre qaiu/at 


zekr-i qaymat 


ready money 


piile-naqd 


pooli-naqd 


receipt 


rasid, (jabzc-i\(x!<l 


rasseed, qab-zi-rasseecl 


rent 


kerdynh 


kernT-ya 


representative 


vakil 


vak-eel 


retail 


khurdah-fnrush 


A7teurr-da- feu-roosh 


salesman, seller 


furushandah 


feu-roo-shanda 


sell, to 


fur&th-kardan 


feu-roosh-karrdan 


settling day 


ruze-va'dali 


roozi-va'da 


share 


Jtesdb, Kahm, (jcsiimt 


hessab, sahm, qessmafe 


shareholder 


sharll:, salnin sharreek, sahcem 


ship, to 


hamle-kaxktt-kardan haml-i-kashtee-karrdan 


shipping charges 


her ayah e kasltti j kerra-ya-i kashtee 


house 


bdr-kunandali 


bar-keu-nanda [derr 


solvent 


imi'tabar, mwjtader 


meu'tab-arr, meuq-ta- 


stock 


samidyah, naqd \ sarr-ma-ya, naqd 


stockbroker 


dalldle-bardt 


dallali-barat 


trade (in general) 


d:dd-va-sctad, tejdrai 


da-deu-set-ad, tej-arat 


underwriter 


zdituu 


zamen 


warehouse 


anbdr 


an-bar 


wharf 


bandar 


bandarr 


wharfage 


kliarje-bandar 


/i/tarr-ji-bandarr 


wholesale 


yelijd-furuslti 


yek-ja-feu-rooshee 



Correspondence. (Meukiiaberah.) 

(Tor Conversations see p. S2 ) 

Address envdn, adra* [dan envan, ad-rass 

address, to neceshtan, ferestd- 

blotting-paper kd'.tliaze-dbkask 

date tdnhk 



[dan 

uev-esh-tan, ferresta- 
ka-<//(az-i-fibkash 
taree/f/j 



87 

English. Persian (romanized). PrannneffttlOn. 


envelope 


pdkat 


pftkat 


ink 


murakkab 


nieu-rak-kab 


inkstand 


davdt 


dav-at 


letter, note 


kdghaz, ndtiuili 


ka-;//<az, nama 


letter-box 


sanduqe ^z<-s 


sandoo-qi peust 


note-paper 


hoLfjhaz 


ka-///taz 


, sheet of caraq 


yarraq 


. pen (nib) -ntre-(oi:noke-)qalam 


saiTi-(no-ki-)qalam 


, fountain- /]alam-feran</l \ qal-am-ferran-gee 


penholder tlastahe-qalam, 


das-ta-i-qal-am 


pencil 


in i'd ad 


medcid 


penknife 


qalaintardsh 


qal-am-tarrash 


> seal 


inuhr 


ineuhrr 


sealing-wax 


lah 


lak 


signature 


emzd, tasdl't 


emza, tas-deeq 


write, to 


neveshtan 


nev-esh-tan 


writing 


nevlsandaijl 


nev-ee-san-dag-ee 


writing-desk 


mlze-ketabat 


meezi-ket-abat 


Post-office, Telegraph and Telephone. 


(Peust-Mianah, telgeraf va telefon.] 


(For Conversations see p. S2.) 


Book post 


puste-amdnat 


peust-i-am-anat 


destination 


mahall 


ma-hall 


excess postage 


ezdfahe pust 


ez-a-fa-i peust 


letter post 


pnst 


peust 


money order 


bardte-pust 


barrat-i-peust 


newspaper wrapper 


laffdfah 


laf-fafa 


number of order 


numrahe bardt 


neum-ra-i barat 


parcel post 


puste-amdnat 


peust-i-am-anat 


postage stamp 


tambre pust 


tambr-i peust 


post-card 


varaqahe puatl 


varraqa-i peustee 


poste restante 


tavassute pustkJid- 


tavasseu-ti peust-AV;ana 


postman 


chdpdr [nah 


chapar 


post-office 


chdpdr khdnalt 


chapar ArMna 


post-paid 


ujmte-pitst-dddah- 


euj-rat-i-peust-dada- 




s/t uda 


sheuda 


prepay, to 


p'aliakl dddan 


peeshak-ee dadan 


register, to 


se/dreshi-kardan 


sefa-reshee-karrdan 


registered letter 


kayhaze sefareshl 


ka-^r/taz-i sefa-resh-ee 


registration fee 


itji'ate-sefdreslii 


eu j -rat-i-sefii-reshee 


reply paid 


ujrate-ja cdb-dddah- 


eu j -rat-i-javab-dada- 


[slmdah [sheuda 



38 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



ring up, to 
telegram 
, cost of 
telegraph form 
- messenger 

office 
, to 
telephone 

call-office 

number 

to 
weight ; over - 



x&ng-zadan 

telyerdf ndmah 
pfde telgei'df 
kdgliaze telijerdf 
telyerdfchi 
telijerdf-hJtd n ah 
telgerdf-liardan 
telefon 

telefon-khdna li. 
numrahe telefon 
telefon-hanlan 
razn ; sangln 

Cardinal Numbers. 



zang-zad-an 

tel-gerraf naina 
pooli tel-gerraf 
k&gh&z-i tel-gerrfif 
tel-gerraf-chee 
tel-gerraf-AVtana 
tel-gerraf- karrdan 
telefon 
telefon-Mana 
neum-ra-i telefon 
telefon- karrdan 
vazn ; san-een 



6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
18 
14 

16 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 



yek 

du 

seh 

chaJtdr 
pan/ . 



haft 



null, 
dak 
ydzJalt. 



yek 

deu 

seh 

cha-har 

panj 

shesh .. 

haft 

hasht 

neuh 

dah 

yaz-dah 



(A'dad-i-meutlaq.) 

26 bist-va-xlwsh beest-eu-shesh 



davazilah davaz-dah 
see/-dah v ' 



chahdrdah cha -har-dah 
i o pdnsda/i panz-dah 
shdnzdah 
he f dah 
hijdah 
nuzdah 
r . blst 
r i 

blst-va-yek 
du 
,, seh 
chahdr 
panj 



shanz-dah 
hef-dah 
heej-dah 
noo/-dah 

beest 

beest-eu-yek 
,, deu 
,, seh 
,, cha-har 
,, panj 



27 
28 
29 
30 r 
31 

33 

34 

35 r 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

50 

51 

GO 

70 

80 

90 

100 

101 



,, seh 
,, chahdr 
o ,, panj 

,, K/ll'-xIl 

,, haft 
,, haxht 
,, nnk 
elicit el . 



, , haft 

,, hasht 

,, neuh 
see 

yek 

,, deu 

, , sell 

,, cha-har 

panj 

,, shesh 

,, haft 

,, has! it 

,, neuh 
che-hel 



,, -ca-yek -eu-yek 
,, -va-dn -eu-deu 
panjdh pan-jah 

-ra-yeJf pan - j ah -en -yek 



sJiast 

haftdd 

hashtdd 

navad 

sad 

sad'va-yek 



102 sad-va-du* 

110 xad-va-dah 



shast 

haftad 

liashtad 

na-vad 

sad 

sad-eu-yek 



When pronunciation is omitted, it will be found given previously. 



3 ( J 



Persian (romanized). 



Persian (roiuj Prouauciatioo. 



Ill aad-va-ydzdah 
11 '2 Kod-va-davdzdafi 


190 sad-va-nauad 
200 dnnst deuvee?: 


120 xad-va-bist 


300 sm/'/ 


see-sad 


121 sad-va-blst-ra ->, 


400 chehdrsad 


che-har-sad 


122 sad-ra-bist-ra-i-i 
130 sad-va-s7 


500 pdnsad 
600 shc*h-*ad 


pansad 
shesh-sad 


140 sad-va-cheJui 


700 haft-sad 


haft-sad 


150 sad-va -paujdli 
160 sad-va-shast 


800 ha*Jit-sad 
900 nuli-sad 


hasht-sad 
neuh sad 


170 sad-va-haftdd 


1,000 /mcar 


haz-ar 


180 sad-ca-hashtdd 


10,000 dah-hazd 


r dah-haz -ar 



100,000 xad-hazar 

500,000 pansad -lui^'tr. kurur 

1,000,000 wiejZyaw 

1908 A.D., kazar-va-nu/isad-va- 
haxht milddi, 

corresponding to mubibcq bd 

1H26 A.H. 



ua .-sheshf hejri 



siul hazur 

pansad-hazfir, keu-roor 
melyan 

haz-ar-eS^neuh-sad-eu- 
hasht meeladee, 

meiAiibeq ba 

ha/.-ar-eufice-sad-eu-beest- 
eu-sheshi hej-ree 



Ordinal Numbers. (.4'rf t w-j-ras/^.) 


First \yektim, a mil 
second duvvitni 


yekeum, av-val 
deuv-veum 


third sei'vimi 


sav-veum 


fourth chehdruin 


che-ha-reum 


fifth 
sixth 


panjinn 
nJteshtim 


pan-jeum 
shesheum 


seventh 
eighth 
ninth 


Jtaftnm 
hash tutu 
nuhum 


liaf-teum 
hash-teum 
neu-heum 


tenth 


daltum 


da-heuin 


eleven I/ 
twelfth 


ydzdahum 

davdzdahuin 


yazda-heum 
davaz-da-heum 


thirteenth. 


Hvtdahum 


seez-da-heum 


fourteenth 
fifteenth 
sixteenth 


chehdrdahum 
pdnzdahum 
sh&mdahum 


che-har-da-heum 
panz-da-heuui 
shanz-da-heaui 


seventeenth 
eighteenth 
nineteenth 


hefdahnin 
hljdahum 

mlzdahitin 


hef-da-heum 
heej-da-heum 
nooz-da-heuin 


twentieth 


bistnni 


beesteuui 



40 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


twenty-first 
twenty-second 
thirtieth 


blst-va-yekum 
blst-va-duvvum 
slum 


beest-eu-yek-eum 
beest-eu-deuv-veum 
see-earn 


thirty-first 
fortieth 


sl-yekum 
chehelum 


see-yek-eum 
che-hel-eum 


fiftieth 
sixtieth 


panjdhum 
shastum 


panja-heum 

shasteum 


seventieth 
eightieth 
ninetieth 


kaftaduni 
hashtddiwi 
navadum 


hafta-deum 
hashta-deum 
nav-ad -eum 


hundredth 


sadunt 


sad-eum 


two hundredth 


duvistuiii 


deuveesteum 


two hundred and 
fiftieth [sixtieth 
three hundred and 


duvist-va-panjahum 

nsad-va-shastiini 


deu-veest-eu-panja- 
hemn 

see-sad-eu-shasteum 


thousandth 


kazdrum 


haz-a-reum 



Collective and Fractional Numbers. 

(A'ddd-i-jame 1 va Jcasr.) 

ham-ah 

harr-dcu 

asr 

neem-asr 

jeuft 

deu-bar 

deu-jeeu 

neem-deu-jeen, yek-dast 

hasht yek, seumn 

bari-aVval 

che-har yek 

qeu-rasa-- 

neem, nesf 

yek-bar, yek daf-a 

qes-mat, sahm 

yek charak, yek reube* 

beest 

bari-deuv-veuni 

tak, va-hed, farrd 

seuls, seh-yek 

bati-sev-veum 

* For cups nnij! glasses. 



s All 


liamah 


both 


hardu 


century, a 


asr 


, half -a 


nim-asr 


couple, paii- 


j'(f* 


double, twice 


dabdr 


dozen 


dujln 


, half-a- 


nlm-dajw , ych-dast* 


ek'hth, one- 

O " 


hasht yek, snnni 


first time 


bdre-avcal 


fourth, one- 


chehdr yek 


k r ross, a 


qurasah (Euro.) 


> half, a 


nlm, nesf 


once 


yekbar, yek da/ah 


part, portion 


qesmat, saJnu 


quarter, a (j) 


yek charak; yek rnbe' 


score, a 


but 


second time 


bare duvviim 


single 


tak, vahed, fan! 


third, one 


suls, seh-yek 


third time 


bdre-sevvum 



41 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


threefold 


seh-ld 


seh-lfi 


three-quarters 


seh-c/idrak, seh-rube 1 


seh-chiirak, seh-reube' 


twice 


du-bdr, diL-dafah 


deu-bar, deu-dafah 


twice as much du-barabar 


deu-bara-barr 


the whole, all the tamdm, hamah 


tarn -am, ham -ah 


AdjCCtivCS. (Sefdt.) 


iFor Grammar of Adjectives see p. 55.) 


Able 


tavdna, muqtader 


tav-ana, meuq-taderr 


afraid 


tarsu, tarsndk 


tarr-soo, tarrs-nak 


lonely 


tan/id, vahld 


tanha, va-heed 


^ another 


dlgar, ghair 


deegarr, </Aayr 


awkward 


nd-mundseb 


na-meu-naseb 


"-bad 


bad 


bad - 


S beautiful 


zibd, qashang 


zeeba, qashang 


>* big 


buzurg 


beu-zeurrg 


bitter 


talkh 


tfilkh 


blind 


Icur 


koorr 


broad 


pahn, gushdd 


pahn, geu-shad 


busy 


mashghul 


mash-7/tool 


certain 


muhaqqaq 


meu-haq-qaq 


cheap 


arzdn 


arr-zan 


clean 


pdk, tdmlz 


pak, ta-meez 


clever 


mdher, ustdd 


ma-herr, eus-tad 


cold 


sard 


sarrd 


common (ordinary) 


ddl 


Tidee 


convenient 


rdhat, dsiidah 


rfi-hat, asooda 


cool 


khunuk 


Meu-neuk 


damp 


nam 


nam 


dangerous 


khatarndk 


/r/tat-arr-nak 


dark 


tar, tdrlk, khlrah 


tar, taveek, Meera 


deaf 


kar 


karr 


dear (expensive) 


fjerdn 


gerran 


deep 


god, amlq 


god, ameeq [ye 


different 


jure-dlgar, mug/idyer 


joor-i-deegar, meu-^/m- 


difficult, hard 


sakht, mushgel 


s&khi, meushgel 


dirty 


cherk 


cherrk 


distant 


dur 


doorr 


dry 


khushk 


Meushk 


dull (of weather) 


tdr, tank 


tar, tareek 


x- early 


zud 


zood 


easy 


dsdn 


a-san 



42 

English. Persian (romanizetl). Pronunciation. 


empty 


khdll 


/lAalee 


even (smooth) 


Jtaiuudr, Diiistan 


hamvar, rneus-tav-ee 


S false 


ditnlyh, kezb 


deu-roo^/t, kezb 


x fast (quick) 


fund 


teund 


fine (small) 


zarlf 


zareef 


M (beautiful) 


qasha/ng 


qashang 


flat 


sdf, miimttah 


saf, meu-satta 


UK foolish' ^ 


dyvdnakr-drvaTtfti/i 


deeva-na, deeva-nagee 


foreign 


yharlb, blydnali 


//Aareeb, beegana 


free 


azad 


azad 


fresh (of eggs, etc.) 


tdzah 


taza 


full 


pnr 


peurr . 


funny 


ajlb, yharib 


ajeeb, ^Aarreeb 


general, customary 


ddl, marsilm 


adee, inarr-soom 


/ glad 


shad, maxrftr 


chad, mas-roorr 




khub 


Moob 


grand (splendid) 


all, buzury 


alee, beu-zeurg 


hard (solid) 


KCikht, seft 


saMt, seft 


healthy 


se/i/ii 


seh-hee 


heavy 


sanyin 


san-geen 


,- high 


Inland 


beuland 


honest 


ditnist-kdr 


deu-reust-kfir 


"--Ihot _i 


ya nn 


garrm 


* idle 


tanbal 


tanbal 


ignorant 


ndddn, jdftel 


nadan, ja-hel 


important . 


wuhemin 


meu-hemm 


impossible 


nd-ntumken 


nfi-meum-ken 


inconvenient 


nd-rdhat, bi-n>asraf 


na-ra-hat, bee-masraf 


interesting 


mufid 


meufeed 


just (equitable) 


mdnand, mesl 


manand, mesl 


kind 


me/irbdn 


mehr-ban 


lame 


lany 


laug 


"^large, great ""*- 


baznry 


beu-zeurg 


late 


dlr 


deer 


left (hand, etc.) 


chap 


chap 


light (in weight) 


sabuk 


sab-euk 


s little, small 


khurd, kucJiek 


/c/ieurrd, koo-chek 


/ long 


derdz 


derraz 


loose 


thill 


sheul 


loud 


biitaiid 


beu-land 


many 


hangar 


bes-yar 



43 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


more 


blshtar 


beesh-tarr 


much 


zcydd, besydr 


zey-ad, bes-yar 


narrow 


tang 


tang 


necessary 


Idzeni, darkdr 


la-zem, dai'r-kar 


, next 


dyandah, dlgar 


a-yan-dah, deegarr 


old (of things) 


kulmah 


keuh-na 


- (of persons) 


plr 


peer 


opposite 


ru-be-ru 


roo-be-roo 


other 


dlgar 


deegarr 


painful 


dardndk 


darrd-nak 


polite 


muaddab 


meu-ad-dab 


/ poor 


faqlr, weskln 


faqeer, meskeen 


pretty 


zlbd, khmhgel 


zeeba, fe/teush-gel 


proper (correct) 


sahlh, rant 


sa-heeh, rast 


pure, unadulterated khale*, tamlz 


Ma-less, tameez 


queer 


gharlb, ajlb 


f7/tarreeb, ajeeb 


quick 


tund 


teund 


quiet 


dsudah, dram 


asoo-da, arum 


rare 


kamydb 


kam-yab 


raw (uncooked) 


khdm, ndf>nkhtah 


Mam', napeu/t/i-ta 


real a si, haqiql 


assl, haqee-qee 


rich tavangar, glianl 


tavan-garr, ;//ianee 


right (proper) durust \ deu-reust 


ripe (of fruit) rasldah raseeda 


rough ndhamvdr, khashen na-hamvar, Mashen 


round <jtrd, mudavvar gerrd, meu-dav-var 


rude 


bl-adab bee-adab 


safe 


sdlem. am'in salem, ameen 


/ same 


hamln, yeksdn hameen, yeksair . 


shallow pdydb, b't-uuui pa-yab, bee-eumq 


short (in length) kiltdh kootah 


silly ahmaq 


ah-maq 


simple sddali 


sa-da 


sleepy khdb-dlud 


Mab-alood 


* slow kund, yacdxh 


keund, yav-ash 


small kuchek 


koochek 


, .-ot'fc norm. 


narrm 


, solid sakht sa/r/it 


/ 

><;LTV ghaumdk, (ihatn>jni <//tammik, ^r/iam-geei 


^ sour , turxli teurrsh 


- .i-cial wakhstis ma/Wi-soos 



41 

English. Per ,ian (romauized). Pronunciation. 


square 


cJte/tdr-i/ushah 


che-har-goosha 


stiff 


kJuishk 


A7ieushk 


still (tranquil) 


drain, rdliat 


aram, ra-hat 


/ straight 


rdst, mnstaqim 


rast, meus-taqeem 


strange 


biydnah 


beega-na 


x strong 


qavi, zurmand 


qavee, zoor-mand 


stupid 


ahmaq, fjlj 


ah-maq, geej 


>* sweet 


xhirin 


sheereen 


tall 


buland-qad 


beuland-qad 


/ thick (in size) 


kulitjt 


keu-leuft 


tight 


tang 


tang 


troublesome 


zahmatddr, pur zah- 


zahraat-dar, peurr zah- 


/ true 


rdst [mat 


rast [mat 


r . uncomfortable 


nd-rdhat 


na-rahat 


/ unhappy 


nd-shdd, mutaassef 


na-shad, meuta-assef 


unkind 


nd-meJirbdn 


na-mehr-ban 


unwell 


bi-damdf/h, ndkhush 


bee-dama^f/i., na/c/ieush 


- urgent 


fori, mitsta'jal 


foree, meus-ta'jal 


/ useful 


mufid 


meufeed 


useless 


bl-fdyedali 


beefa-yeda 


usual 


ddl 


adee 


vain 


khud-pasatid 


A7<eud-passand 


various 


tn ukhtalef, jiir bejur 


meuM-talef, joorr be 


^ warm 


(jar in 


garrm [joorr 


weak 


zalf, Idghar 


za-eef, la-r//<arr 


well (in health) 


ciidq, tan-durust 


chaq, tan-deu-reust 


whole 


/icimah, taindm 


hama, tamam 


wide 


ijushdd 


geu^shad 


^ worth "(in value) 


arzandaJi, Idyeq 


arr-zandah, la-yeq 


worthless 


ndldyeq 


na-la-yeq 


wrong 


ghalat 


<y/tal-at 


- young 


j avdn 


jav-an 


Verbs. (Afal.) 


(For Grammar of Verbs see p. 59.) 


To accept 


qabul-kardan 


qabool-karrdan 


_f add 


feamm-kardan 


zamm-karrdan 


admit (allow in) 


Vpazlruftan 


pazee-reut'tan 


,, allow (permit) 


ezn-dddan 


ezn-dadan 


. answer 


javdb-dddan 


javab-dadan 


arrange (in or- 


tartlb-dddan 


tarrteeb-daxian 


__^ arrive [der) 


rasldan 


raseedan 



45 

. 

English. Persian (ronianized). Pronunciation. 


to ask 


pwsldan 


peur-seedan 


x assist 


kumak-kardan 


keumak-karrdan 


bark 


vaghvagli - kardan 


v&gh-v&yh - karrdan 


_ ,, bath 


hammdm-raftan 


hammam-raftan 


,, beat 


zadan 


zadan 


^ become 


shudan 


sheudan 


_ ,, begin, tr. d~ intr. 


dyhdz-, bend-, or 


a-gh&z-, bena-, ebteda- 


aJLA^v K *.***- 


ebted d-kardan 


karrdan 


believe 


bdvar-hardan 


bavarr-karrdan 


,, bend 


pichidan 


peecheedan 


bite 


gazldan 


gazcedan 


,, boil (water) 


juslidndan 


jooshandan 


,, boil, intr. 


jiish Idan 


jooslieedan 


borrow 


qarz-kardan 


qarrz- karrdan 


break, tr.d-intr. 


sliekastan 


sliekastan 


bring 


dviirdan 


aveurrdan 


build 


enshd-kardan, sdkh- 


ensha-karrdan, sa/c^-tan 


^ buy 


kliaridan [tan 


/c/iareedan 


., call (waken) 


blddi -kardan 


beedar-karrdan 


^ , carry 


burdan 


beurrdan 


change, tr. 


avaz-kardan 


avaz-karrdan 


, intr. 


avaz-shudan 


avaz- sheudan 


,, choose 


entekhdb-kardan 


ente-Mab-karrdan 


climb 


bdld-raftan 


bala-raftan 


/ ,, collect, tr. 


jarn'-kardan 


jam'-karr-dan 


, intr. 


jam'-shudan 


jam'-sheudan 


_ come 


dmadan 


amadan 


,, come in 


tu dmadan 


too amadan 


consent 


rdzl-shudan 


razee-sheudan 


cough 


surfah-kardan 


seurrfa-karrdan 


_,, count 


shumurdan 


sheumeurrdan 


cry, weep 


geryah-kardan 


gerr-ya- karrdan 


,- , cut 


buridan 


beureedan 


' dance 


raqsidan 


raqseedan 


,, decide 


qardr-dddan 


qarar-dadan 


__ die 


murdan 


meurrdan 


dislike 


napasandldan 


na-pasandeedan 


dismiss 


daf -kardan 


dat' -karrdan 


do, make 


kardan ^' '*'' : -i 


karrdan 


doubt 


ihubhah-karda* 


sheub-ha-karrdan 


,, dream 


khabdldan ) /.-/m-b-deedan 



46 

English. Persian (romauized). Pronunciation. 


io drink nushldan noo-sheedan 


^ dry, tr. 


khushk-kardan /c//eushk-karrdan 


-. eat 


khurdan Meurr-dan 


,, engage ajir-kardan 


ajeerr-karrdan 


explain ; baydn-kardan 


ba-yan-karrdan 


,, faint yhash-kardan ^//tash-karrdan 


fall ' n f tad an ' euftadan 


ieel 


hess-kardan hess-karrdan 


- fill 


pur-kardan [tan peurr-karrdan 


. ,, find 


paidd-kardan, ydf- 


payda-karrdan, yaftan 


finish 


tamdm-kardan 


tamam-karrdan 


'' fish 


md!:l-(/ereftan 


ma-hee-gerreftan 


^,.,, fly 


parldan 


pareedan 


follow 


dunbdl-kardan 


deunbal-karrdan 


^ . forget 


furdniush-kardan ' faraaioosh-karrdan 


"7 forgive 


bak/ishldan ba/i/t-sheedan 


gain 


ta/ifill-kardan tahseel-karrdan 


,, gather (pick) 


chldan cheedan 


,. get (obtain) 


gereftan 4 


gerreftan 


s_,, get up ; barkhdstan 


barr-A-Aastan . 


(from bed) blddr-shudan 


beedar-sheudan 


^ give dddan 


dadan 


^ ,, go raftan 


raftan 


. go away (travel) : safar-kardan 


safarr-karrdan 


guide rahbari-kardan 


rah -baree-karrdan 


hang, tr. 


arlhhtan 


avee/i7t-tan 


s- have 


ddshtan 


dashtan 


^ ., hear 


shanldan 


shaneedan 


^ help 


riunJ&d'kardan 


madad-karrdan 


., liire (a servant) ajir-kardan 


ajeerr-karrdan 


., liit ; tfann-kardan 


garrm-karrdan 


,,, hold (contain) . slidmel-budan 


shamel-boodan 


^ be hungry * ; yurusnak'budan[dan 


geu-reusna-boodan 


hurt one's self \hudrd-i-anjah-kar- 


/Vteudra-ranja-karrdaa 


interfere i mtuldklielah-kardan 


meuda-A;/iela-karrdan 


_ . interpret 


tar/uitiah-kardan 


tarr-jeuma-karrdan 


, invite 


da'vat-kardan 


da'vat-karrdan 


join, tr. 


malhaq-kardan 


meul-haq-karrdan 


_, keep (things) 


ncydk-ddshtan 


negah-dashtan 


^ ,, kill 


kiifthtan 


kenshtan 


knock ' kul'ldan koobeedan 



47 

English. Persian (roniauizcd). Pronunciation. 


to know 


dSnestan 


danestan 


,, label 


neskdn-kardan 


neshan-karrdan 


last 


davam-kardan 


davam-karrdan 


laugh 


khandulan 


ArAandeedan 


lead 


rd/tnemdi-kardan 


rah-nem-aee-karrdan 


- learn 


ydd-fjercftan 


yad-gerreftan 


lend 


qarz-dddan [dan 


qaiTZ-dadan [bcedan 


lie down 


deraz-shudan,khdbl- 


derraz-sheudan, kh-d,- 


lift 


bulanil-kardan 


beuland-karrdan 


light (a fire) 


roshan-kardan 


roshan-karrdan 


like 


paxandldan 


pasandeedan 


live (reside) 


eqdmat-kardan 


eq amat-karrdan 


lock 


qufl-kardan 


qeufl-karrdan 


look at 


negdh-kardan 


negilU-karrdan 


look for 


ntimtazer-bUdan 


meun-tazerr-boo'lan 


,, lose 


ijuin-kardan 


geum-karrdan 


,, love 


dfixt-ddshtan 


doost-dashtan 


,, make 


s&kJttan 


saAVttan 


make a mistake 


sahv-kardan 


sahv-karrdau 


,, manage 


eddrah-kardan 


ed&ra-karrdan 


mend 


ta'inir-lcai'dan 


ta'meerr-karrdan 


,, mix, tr. 


dmlkhtan 


Jimee/tVi-tan 


,, move, tr. 


junbdndan 


jeun-bandan 


, intr. 


junbldaii 


jeun-beedan 


object 


e-e'terd':-kardan 


e-e'-teraz-karrdan 


,, oiler 


taqdim-kardan 


taq-deem-kavrdan 


omit 


li <tzf- ka nlan hazf-karrdan 


open, tr. 


bdz-kardan baz-karrdan 


, intr. 


bdz-xlmdan bAz-sheudan 


,, order (at shop) 


sef&resh-dddan 


sefaresh-dadan 


(command) 


fartnndan 


farrmoodan 


,, pack 


bast an 


bastan 


pay 


pardaJchtan 


parrda/i-A-tan 


,, perspire 


araq-kardan 


araq-karrdan 


pick up 


barddslitan 


bari'dashtan 


(learn) 


dmfikhtan 


amoo/^A-tan 


play 


bdzl-kardan 


bazee-karrdan 


pour 


rlkhtan 


reeWt-tan 


,, prepare 


hdzer-kardan 


hazerr-karrdan 


prevent 


mdne'-shudan 


mane'-sheudan 


,, promise 


va'dah-dddan 


va'ila-dadau 



48 

English. Persian (rouianizeii). Pronunciation. 


j to pull 


kasliidan kashetdan 


push 


takdndan takandan 


/ put, place 


guzdshtan 


geuzashtan 


,, put off (time) 


ta'khlr-anddkJttan 


ta ' /f/ieerr-anda/.Vi-taa 


, ,, rain 


bdrldan 


bareedan 


^ raise 


buland-kardan 


beuland-karrdan 


x read 


khdndan 


/c/mndan 


receive 


fjereftan 


gerreftan 


recommend 


toseyah-kardan 


to-seya-karrdan 


,, refuse 


rad-kardan 


rad-karrdan 


/ remain, stay 


mdndan 


mandan 


remember 


ydd-dvurdan 


yfid-aveurrdiin 


repay 


paa-dddan 


pas-dadan 


/ rest 


rdhat-shudan 


ra-hat-sheudan 


'_ return, fr.-^ 


bargarddndan 


bar rgarr- dan dan 


, intr. 


baryashtan 


barrgashtan 


ride 


savdr-nhndan 


savar-sheudan 


,, ring> tr.d'intr. 


zaiiff-zadau 


zang-zadan 


/ run 


dacldan 


dav-eedan 


save 


rehdndan 


re-hand an 


x sa y 


yiiftan 


geuftan 


/ see 


dldan 


deedan 


seem, appear 


nemudan 


nem-oodan 


/ send 


ferestddan 


feres -tadan 


sew 


dtlk/Uan 


dooM-tan 


share 


taqsim-kardan 


taqseem-karrdan 


,, shave (beard) 


rlsh-tardshldan 


reesh-tara - sheeda 


shine 


tdbidan 


tabeedan 


^ show 


neshdn-dddan 


neshan-dadan 


^ shut, tr. 


bastan 


bastan 


sing (of persons) 


(dvdza h -) khdndan 


(avazah-) Mandan 


,, sit (as European) 


neshastan 


neshastan 


sleep 


khdbldan 


Mabeedan 


smoke (pipe, &c.) 


kashldan 


kasheedan 


,, sneeze 


atsah-zadan 


atsa-zadan 


sow 


kdshtan 


kashtan 


x spend 


kJiarj-kardan 


Marj-karrdan 


spoil (injure) 


zadah-(khardb-)kar- 


zada- (Wiarab-) karrdaa 


stand 


istddan [dan 


eestadan 


start (set out) 


harakat-kardan 


harakat-karrdan 


/ steal 


duzdldan 


deuz-deedan 



TJ 
English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


to Stop, tr. 


negah-ddshtan, negah-dashtan, ineu- 




niuattal-kardem attal-karrdan 


, intr. 


vd istddan va eestadan 


,, sweep 


jdrub-kardan jaroob- karrdan 


,, swim 


shand-kardan shana-karrdan 


,, take 


barddshtan,<jereftan barrdashtan, gerreftan 


,, take care 


deqqat-kardan deq-qat-karrdan 


_- talk, speak 


harf-zadan harrf-zadan 


tear 


darldan 


dareedan 


,, tell, relate 


revdyat-kardan 


revayat-kamlan 


j thank 


ta&hakku r -/cardan 


tashak-keurr-karrdan 


think 


fek r- (kheyd 1-) ka rdan 


fekrr- (fc/ieyal-) karrdan 


,, throw 


anddkhtan 


andaAr/i-tan 


., tie 


bastan 


bastan 


,, touch 


dast-zadan 


dast-zadan 


,, travel 


safar-kardan 


safarr- karrdan 


try 


tajrubah 


taj-reuba 


,, -turn, tr. 


garddndan 


garrdaudan 


, intr. 


gardldan garrdeedan 


,, understand 


j'ahmldan 


fahmeedan 


use 


este'mdl-kardan 


este'-mal-karrdan 


,, wait 


sabr-kardan 


sabrr-karrdan 


walk 


gardexh-kardan 


garrdesh-karrdan 


want 


naddshtan 


nadashtan 


warn 


khabar-dddan 


Mabarr-dadan 


,, waste, tr. xdye'-kardan 


za-ye'-karrdan 


watch pdldan 


pa-eedan 


,, wear, put on, tr. pushldan 


poosheedan 


., wear, intr. 


davdm-kardan 


dav-am-karrdan 


weigh, tr. 


kashldan, vazn- 


kasheedan, vazn-karr- 


wipe 


pdk-kardan [Iranian pak-karrdan [dan 


/ ,, wish 


khdstan Mastan 


work 


kdr-kardan kar-karrdan 


wrap 


pichdndan [dan peechandan 


yawn 


khamydzah-kashl- Mam-yaza-kaaheedan 



Persian 8.T. 



E 



50 



Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, etc. 



(Zarrf, harrfe-atf, zameer, va ghayreh.) 



English. 



(For Grammar gee pp. 63 6.) 

Persian (roinanized). 



Pronunciation. 



About (nearly) 


taqrlban, nazdlk taq-reeban, nazdeek 


, above 


bald bala 


according to 


band-be, nazar-be bana-be, nazarr-be 


across 


az-meydn, sare, ruye az-meyan, sarri, rooy-i 


/ after 


ss, ba'd pass, ba'ed 


afterwards 


pasazan, ba'dazdn passazan, ba'd-azan 


, again 


du-barah deu-bara 


against 


bar-zedd, bar-kheldf 


barr-zedd, barr-Melai' 


/ ago 


pish 


peesh 


almost 


taqriban 


taq-reeban 


already 


hanuz hanooz 


also 


ham, hamchenln 


ham, liam-cheneen 


although 


ar/ar chek 


agarr cheh 


altogether, quite 


hamah, Indian 


hama, keul-lan 


^ always 


hamlalia/t hameesha 


/- among 


meyan meyan 


and 


va 


va 


^ anybody 


harkas, harlteh 


harr-kass, harr-keh 


x anything 


harcheh, harcldz 


harr-cheh, harr-cheez 


x any time 


harvaqt 


harr-vaqt 


f anywhere 


harjd, Jiarkujd harr-ja, harr-keu-jfi 


around 


atraf, dor, dorador atraf, dorr, doradorr 


as much as 


dn-qadr an-qadrr 


at 


dar 


darr 


^ at last 


dkhar, dqebat 


a-Marr, a-qebat 


/ because 


zird, chunkeh 


zee-ra, choon-ke 


/ before 


pish, plsh-az 


peesh, peesh-az 


/ behind 


pusht 


peasht 


^ below 


pdln 


pa-een 


/ beneath 


pain, zlr 


pa-een, zeerr 


besides 


juz, magar, yhair-az 


jeuz, inagarr, ^Aayr-az 


/* between 


meyan 


meyan 


but 


ammd 


amma 


by 


bd 


ba 


certainly 


albattah, mutlaq 


al-bat-ta, meut-laq 


daily 


ruzdnali, yomlyah 


roozana, yonieo-ya 


down 


zlr, pdln 


zeerr, pa-een 


downstairs 


pain 


pa-een 



51 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


during 


dar-utiiia, dar-zarf 


darr-asna, darr-zarrf 


early 


zud 


zood 


either... or 


yd... yd 


ya...ya 


, especially 


makhsusan 


maA-^-soosan 


even 


agarche, hatta 


agarr-che, hatta 


/ everywhere 


hamahja, harjd 


hama-ja, harr-ja 


except 


mcujar, jnz 


magarr, jeuz 


/ far 


dur 


doorr 


for, COM/. 


zird, chunkeh 


zeera, choon-keh 


/ lor, prej>. 


bard;/ 


baray 


/ from 


az 


az 


/ here 


Injd 


eenja 


, how ? 


cheh-yfmah? -rjadr? 


cheh-goonah ? -qadrr ? 


how long ? 


chand-muddat ! 


chand-meuddat ? 


/ how many 


chand 


chand 


how often 


chand-bdr 


chand-bar 


however 


bchar-lidl 


be-harr-hal 


/ immediately foran, zild 


foran, zood 


/ in dar, tuy 


darr, tooy 


indeed 


haqlqatan 


haqee-qatan 


/ inside 


andarun, tinj 


andaroon, tooy 


into 


darmeydn 


darr-meyan 


just (exactly) 


mdnand, med manand, messl 


nearly 


taqrlban taq-reeban 


neither... nor 


nah...nah na...na 


/ never 


han/ez, hlch-raqt 


harrgez, h'eech-vaqt 


/ next 


difjar, dyandah 


deegarr, a-yanda 


notwithstanding^. 


sarfe nazar sarrfi nazarr 


, conj. 


maahdzd 


ma-a-haza 


/ now 


aknun, hCdd 


aknoon, hala 


of (belonging to) 


az 


az 


of 


-i- (Izdfat) 


-i- (iz-a-fat) 


/ of course 


albattah 


albat-tah 


often 


khaill 


Maylee 


on, upon 


ruy, sar ' 


rooy, sarr 


only 


tanhd 


tan -ha 


opposite 


ru-be-ru 


roo-be-roo 


S or 


yd 


y 


, over 


blsh-az, sare, ruyc 


beesh-az, sarri, rooy-i > 


j perhaps 


shdyad shayad 


probably 


shdyad, ehtemdl sha-yad, eh-tem-al 


E* 



52 

English. Persian (romauized). Pronunciation. 


quietly 


ahestagl, drdnri 


a-hesta-gee, aramee 


rather (somewhat) 


qaclrl, kaml 


qadree, kamee 


recently 


mndklik/iaran meu-afc/i-/r/taraii 


scarcely 


bd-dushvdrl, ba-deushva-ree 




bd-zahmat I ba-zah-mat 


seldom 


gdh-ydh,kam,nddei- gah-gah, karn, naderr 


since, prep. 


az-dn-vaqt 


az-an-vaqt 


since, conj. 


chunkeh 


choonkeh 


/ slowly 


ahestarji, yacdshakl 


a-hesta-gee, yavashakee 


so, thus 


chenin, chendn 


cheneen, chenan 


/ sometimes 


ba'zi raqt, gah 


ba'zee vaqt, gah 


/ somewhere 


ba'zi jd, jdl, bejdl 


ba'zee ja, ja-ee, beja-ee 


/ soon 


zud 


zood 


still, yet 


hanuz 


hanooz 


than 


az 


az 


that, conj. 


keh 


keh 


then 


pas, ba'd 


pass, ba'd 


/ there 


dnjd 


anja 


therefore 


bendbarin, lehdzd 


bena-barr-een, le-haza 


through 


sar-td-sar, tddkhar 


sarr-ta-sarr, ta-a-Marr 


/ till, until 


td 


ta 


x to 


be 


be 


/ too (too much) 


besydr, zeydd 


bes-yar, zeyad 


too (as well) 


Jiani, Jiamchenln 


ham, ham-cheneen 


towards 


siiy, samt, ru-be 


sooy, samt, roo-be 


/ under 


zlr 


zeerr 


unfortunately 


badbakhtdnah 


bad-baM-tana 


unless 


mar/ar, elld 


magarr, el-la 


s up, upwards 


bdld, sar 


bala, sarr 


upon 


bald, ruy 


bala, rooy 


usually, generally 


ddatan, umuman 


adatan, eumooinan 


well, adv. 


khaill, be-khubl 


AViaylee, be-A7toobee 


y when ? 


kai ? 


kay? 


/ where ? 


kujd ? 


keujil ? 


while, whilst 


vaqtl-keh 


vaqtee-keh 


why? 


cherd / 


cherra ? 


with (together) 


bd, hamrdh 


ba, hamrah 


within, adv. 


dar-tft, ddkhelan 


darr-to, da-/<;/iel-an 


tyet, as yet adv. 


hanuz 


han-ooz 



OUTLINE OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

THE NOUN. 

All nouns in Persian are of one gender. They form their 
plural by adding ^j) an or U ha, the former for persons, the 
latter for things. 

EXAMPLES. 

$.* mard, man. e^-V* warffrra, men. 

i_>\^ ketdb, book. U i_>L5 ketdb-hd, books. 

But U ha is now generally use/L for both classes. 

The accusative is formed by adding 1. rd to the singular or 
plural. * 

EXAMPLES. 
JS qalam, pen. 1^ Js qalam rd, pen. 

U JS qalam hd, pens. \. U J5 qalam Jid rd, pens. 

This termination has also the force of the definite article., 

EXAMPLES. 
..Ap 1. cb td^'/i ra didam, I saw <7i garden. 

^jjj cb bdgh didam, I saw a garden. 

In the singular the indefinite article is indicated by the 
ending (j, pronounced e. 

EXAMPLES. 
I. a horse. 



se/Ic? as6i, a white horse. 
But when the adjective follows the noun ^ is attached to it also. 

EXAMPLE. 
asb-i-sefldl, a white horse. 



54 



THE IZAFAT (denotes possession). 

The izafat signifies possession ; it is denoted by the sign (__) zlr 
and is used in the following three wuys : 

1. The genitive is formed by adding the izafat to the governing 
noun, which usually precedes the governed noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

j$ \J& Jialld-i-dar, the key of the door. 
Up. o^o derakht-i-khurma, the tree of the date. 

But when the word ends in a vowel or ^ v l semi-vovvej, ii 
takes the form (j pionounced yi. 

EXAMPLES. 
^jl^a. tclji. khuda-yi-jehan, the God of the world. 

b.i 15.. roo-yi-daryd, the surface of the sea. 

2. When several adjectives form attributes to the same noun 
they are connected by the izafat or by the conjunction J va. 

EXAMPLES. 
j-jy*. f.j, J.) oJ>-,J derakht-i-gul-i-surkli-i-kltocll, a good red 

rose tree. 

^j->. -. .. J.f oi-.o derakld-i-gul-i-surlih va kJwobl. a good 
red rose tree. 

3. Personal pronouns are connected with nouns by the izafat, 
thus forming possessive pronouns. 

EXAMPLES. 

^ cj^.> dast-i-man, my hand. 
Ui ^U pay-i-shuma, your foot. 



1 When (/) j[)?s/j is followed byj t), it is pronounced as oo i 



ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives usually follow nouns, and in this case are connected 
\vith them by tiie izafat. 

EXAMPLES. 

> ,. i_j'o5 ketdb-i-arabl, the Arabic book. 
Jlj! ico kdyhaz-i-engefatfi, the English paper. 
The termination \. rd for the accusative is added to the 
adjective only. 

EXAMPLE. 

^A.jJ*. 1. , c ij. I_A:L> ketdb-i-arabl rd kharldam, I bought an 

Arabic book. 

But if there are several adjectives I. rd is only added to the 
last. 

EXAMPLE. 



arabl rd kharldam, I bought 
a large well-written Arabic 
book. 

A few adjectives sometimes precede the noun, to which is then 
generally added the indefinite article ^ (y), and the izdfat is 
mostly omitted. 

EXAMPLES. 

y>- khoob mardl, a good man. 
JJ bad tihahil, a bad town. 
Adjectives often precede nouns, forming compounds. 

EXAMPLES. 

(jli. jo bad. khulq, of bad temper. 
kJiush rang, of fine colour. 



56 

The degrees of comparison are formed by adding the termina- 
tions^? tar for the comparative, and ,-OiJ tarln for the superlative. 

EXAMPLES. 

I2ifjj> buzurg, large. J, ( ^)'r > - buzurgtar, larger. 

CJ J/ s^Stp. bu.yurgtarm, largest. cH/^- behtarln, best. 

Than is expressed by jl az. 

EXAMPLE. 

*"** J' J c'l>^ djavanl.ar az kama, younger than all. 
The superlative construction, as in English, is with the 
genitive. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
ij* man, I. U> ma, we. 

jj !?, thou. U- shuma, you. 

jt ?Z, he, she, it. c-'^ 1 .' hdn, they. 

jS is used when speaking to inferiors in rank or age, other- 
wise Ui, , as you in English. 

The personal pronouns are declined as nouns except that the 
accusative of ^ man (I) is L* mard instead of I. ^ rnaji ra. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

These are either the same as the personal pronouns or the 
following shorter forms can be used, as also for the accusative of 
the personal pronouns : 

ist pers. Jt am, my, me. ^U man, our, us. 

2nd uyl at, thy, thee, ^ tan, your, you. 

3rd ,, <_pl ash, his, hers, its, him. ^ ..1 sAa, their, them. 

EXAMPLE. 

dast-i-man, ] 



my hand. 
dastam, 



57 

The short form of possessive pronoun added to the word 
preceding the verb has the force of the accusative of the 
corresponding personal pronoun. 

EXAMPLES. 

vil-ash kun, ) 

!-let him go. 
u-rd vil kun,) 

oio ^ miblnam-at, ) T 

" t> II see you. 

^u> ^> \. J tu-rd-m~il>inam,) 

The accusative of possessive pronouns is formed as in nouns 
by the addition \. ra. 

EXAMPLE. 

1. ..w o-j^ dast-i-man rd,) 

. _ |-my hand. 
I. ^-o dast-am-rd, j 

To form the plural la Aa is added to the nouns. 

EXAMPLE. 

^ L/U ^^-^ sluimslur-hd-yi man,} 

hny swords. 
^U ,^i. shamshtr-ha-m, J 

The possessive case is often denoted by JL* mdl (property). 

EXAMPLKS. 

OA-.I ..w* JU> &.Sl-. ^pl m khdna mdl-i-man ast, this house is mine. 
o-'^- JU c'j ^1 'an bdghmdl-i-slmmdst, that garden is yours. 
The six reflexive pronouns are : 

+sj*. khudam, myself. ,jL.sy:. khudimdn, ourselves. 

ci)j- khtidat, thyself. eJ^ff" kliuditan, yourselves. 

^jy*. kliudash, himself, her- ^ll.iy*. khudishdn, themselves. 

self, itself. 

N. B. Personal and possessive proi;ouns must be replaced by 
reflexive when they refer to the same subject. 



58 

EXAMPLES. 
man khudamrd rriishuyam, I wash myself 

I.J.S J/s-sy*- j-M. (j* man padar-i-khudamrd dldam. I saw my 
father (not ..jj^l -.jj ^). 

The following are demonstrative pronouns, declined as nouns : 
^pl In, this. 
^1 an, that. 

O V^A lamlv, this same one. 
^UA human, that same one. 

v^s.** ,-v^*. chunln, hamchunln, such a one as this. 
ehundn, hamclmndn, such a one as that. 
Jtamcliu. soj such. 
chandtn, chanddn, so much. 



RELATIVE PEONOUNS. 
&b /?-;', who, that, accusative I..1 . . . . S; 5^. cA?, which, ^?' .... 

X^ ^ V 

<5, or ^pl . . . . 6 Id . . . . ash. 

EXAMPLES. 

w ^* war<^ K sarashrd shikastn budand, 
tl.e man whose head they had 
broken. 

i3C-Jo koliska ki charkhashrd sdJchtand, 
the carriage, the wheel of which 
they made. 

The relative pronouns & ki and . chi are often connected 
with the demonstrative pronouns. 

EXAMPLES. 

j.b Jo J ..^.l In Id p iil ddrad, this one who has money. 
ki faqlrast, that one who is poor. 



59 

When a noun is followed by a relative sentence defining it, 
a (j yi is added to the noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

&S (jij* mardl ki, the man who ..... 
&j !, (jf~>. pisarl ra ki, the boy who .... (accusative). 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

These are the same as the relative pronouns: & ki, who; 

is. chi, what. 

EXAMPLFS. 

JLJ>| si ki dmad, who came ? 
jj^.^>. >. chi khurdld, what did you eat 1 

THE VERB. 

In the Persian verb theiv is only one conjugation. 

All verbs are formed from two principal parts, the infinitive 
and impei ative. To these the same terminations are added for 
all verbs. 

1. The auxiliary verb c oy budan, to be, has infinitive c oo 
budan : imperative (_pb bas/t ; but some tenses are derived from 
the radical ^^A hastan, and in this respect are slightly irregular. 

INFINITIVE o ojj budan, TO BE. 
Indicative (icea/cer form). 

Present. 
J am, I am. *;! im, we are. 

^1 I, thou art. Jo! Id, you are. 

ast, he, she. it is. Ail and, they arc. 

Prettinf (stronger form). 

hastam, I am. ^ * liastim, we are. 

hastl, thou art. J^~A hastld, you are. 

/<ai, he, she, it is. JJ^~A hastand, they are. 

Present negative. 
nistam, I am not. <~^^ wi*, tlmu art not, &c. 



60 

Preterit?. 

jy. budani, I was. AMv* *>**>. biidlm, we were. 
jj> 6tfl, thou w^ist. fyf> .xoy budld, you were. 
jy. 6iZd, he, s-he, it wasi / ' JJ jjj budand, they were. 

Imjyerfect. 
~3j~.A mibddam, I used to be. &c. 

Perfect. 

> 6<7(Za am, I have been. v>! x^.j 6w<ia ^m, we have been. 
o 6 c/a i, thou hast been, jol x.jy 6itc7a it?, you have been. 
i, he has been, jjl j^> 6(i<iaan<f, they have been. 



biidam. I h;id been, &c. 

Future. 

Future formed with the auxiliary verb ( .^\y^ khaslan, and 
the shortened infinitive ^jj 6uc?. 

^y Vkl^>. khaJiam bud, I shall ^> ^^^ A;7ia/m6;7^,weshall 

be. be. 

oo ^W* khalu bud, thou wilt jo juJkL-*. khdhld bud, you will 

be. be. 

jc jJiL-fc khahad bud, he will ^ AJiAly*. khdhand biid, they 

be. will be. 

Infinitive. 
(j^j budan, } 
;4 hastan, 



i- to be. 
M 



Past Participle. 
s.jy_ buda, been. 

Imperative. 

, / be ! (thou), for the other persons subjunctive 
present is used, so for all verbs. 



61 

Subjunctive present. 

^U basJiam. I may be. *^ !j . bdshlm, we may be. 

^.b bashl, thou mayest be. J^b bdshld, you may be. 
jui>U bashad, he mny be. jj^b bashand, they may I.e. 

Imperfect. 
^L*j> mlbasham, I might be, &c. 

For the pluperfect ..^y. budam, ^j^> mlbudam, ^ib ^j> 

basham, may lie used. 
jU &dd, may he, she, or it be, is used as optative to express 
a wish : ex. ^b jL> i^c umrat diraz bad, may your life be long. 

2. The auxiliary verb ^j^ shudan, to become, is regular, 
and therefore forms its present indicative and subjunctive from 
the imperative ^i. sho, but the other tenses from shortened 
infinitive j-i shud. The final ^ v in ^, sAo is pronounced as 
v before a vowel : ex. f ^ sJutvatn. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. 
PJ.?J> inltliavam, I become, &c. 

Preterite. 
..j^ shudam, I became, &c. 

r 

Imperfect. 
mishudam, I became, &c. 



j^ shuda am, I have become, &c. 

Pluperfect. 
iAi shuda budam, I had become, &c. 

Future. 
aU:>. kliiiham shud, I shall become, &c. 

INFINITIVE. 
.xi. shudan, to become. 



62 

Present Participle. 
sjjji, shavanda, becoming (very seldom used). 

Past Participle. 
sJJI. shuda, become. 

GERUND. 
(JA.2. shudanl, what ought to become. 

Subjunctive present. 
p*2* sTiavam, I may become, &c. 

Imperfect and pluperfect the same as in the indicative, and so 
for all verbs. 

3. THE REGULAR VERB. 

All infinitives end in ^ dan, or ^ tan. 

To conjugate a verb we must know its infinitive and impera- 
tive. The imperative of verb whose infinitives end in ^jj Idan 
are formed by cutting off this termination: ex. ^j^i^- bakhsh- 
Idan, to present ; imperative [ j^s^- bakhsh, present. 

From the imperative are formed : 

(i) The present indicative by prefixing j> -ml and adding 
the termination ^ am, ^ I, .x. ad, &c. : ~J^- ^ ml-bakhsh-am. 

12) The present subjunctive by prefixing w bi, as .^^s.-^ 
bi-bakhsh-am. 

All other tenses are formed from the shortened infinitive 
jwy^s.- 3 - bakhsJud. 

PARADIGM OF THE REGULAR VERB 

Active voice. 

\ 

Infinitive r+^f giriftan, to take, to size. 
1 Tmpertitive ..J yir f take! 

1 In colloquial Persian it is usual to prefix i_> b before the impera- 
tive, as^-JO biglr, &c. 



63 

Indicative present. 
*.A~* mlglram, I take. &c. 

Preterite. 
t^jj giriftam, I took, &c. 

Imperfect. 
f^sj^jo mltjiriftani, I took or I used to take, &c. 

Perfect. 
J s^jy girifta-ai/i, I have taken, &c. 



. 
j i^jgirifta budam, I had taken, &c. 

Future. 

^A^ klialium girift, I shall take, &c. 



.^9^5 giriftan, to take. 

Present Participle. 
5 J^J^ ylranda, one who is taking. 

Pas Participle. 
izjji girifta, taken. 

GERUND. 
( J~^iJ^ giriftarii, what must Le taken. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Space will not allow us to give in detail this part of Persian 

grammar, but the following list gives a few of the most 
important : 

j * Jar, at. \ ~$ . j dar kiltsa, at the church. 

ji tu, in. ,jlla! (jy tuylutdq, in (into) the room. 

&j Li, to. ^jS s^> bi hama kas, to everybody. 

^ /-it, on. ;..* _c ; r?7?/t mt^;, on (at) the table. 



64 



M sar, on. 

b 6a, with. 

_> &Z, without. 

CB^ * 

jl a^, from. 

\5 ta, to. 



15 td bi, up to. 
sb pain, bottom. 

ilb bald, upon. 



sar i O'tasJt, on the fire. 
L.J o w b 6 mem fo'v/a, come with me. 
o**-; ,J 57 zalimat, without trouble. 

-^ *-^ 

* j^l p .-J jl az tabrlz dmadam, I came 
from Tabriz. 



y 



blrun, outside. ..^1 
barayi, for. -.j 



it is far from Teheran 

to Rasht. 

td bi blriim, until we may see. 
pdlni kticlia, at the bottom 

of the street. 

bdldyi dirakht,upon the tree. 
blruni shahr, outside the 

town. 
barayi tu ferestddam. I sent 

for you. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 
For these, see Vocabulary, pp. 50 to 52. 

ADVERBS. 

There are no adverbs properly so called in Persian. Their 
place is taken by nouns, with or without prepositions, or by 
adjectives. 

EXAMPLES. 

u.^-, j In sabab, without reason. 



-s*. bi khubi, well. 



asudagl, safely. 



Arabic adverbs with terminations I an, are also used. 

EXAMPLES. 

takhmlnan, approximately. 
UJu yaqinan, certainly. Ulc yhaliban, mostly. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES AND 
SENTENCES. 



Useful and Necessary Idiomatic Expressions. 

(Kale mat va jeumlahdy-i-meustalah meufeed va Idzem.) 
English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 







taldmun-alaikuni 


salameun -alaykeum 


Goo 1 morning 




i.e. Peace be upon you 




afternoon 




[This salutation is used 




' 




on all occasions. The 




j CloA 




answer is: 




,, evening 




alaiknm-us-saldi 


alaykeum-eus-salam 




I 


i.e. Upon you be peace] 






' 


ahvdlc shumd che/t 


ahvali sheuma che 






torast ? 


torr-ast ? 


How do you do ? 




i.e. How is your condi- 
tion ? [To inferior] 




i 




ahvdle sktLrtff shu- 


ahvali shareefi sheuma 


How are you ? 




md cheh torast ? 


cbe torr-ast ? 




i.e. How is your august 








or sacred health ? [To 






V 


superior. 




Good night (to one shabe shv/nd bekhair shabi sheuma be-fcAayr 


going to bed) 


i.e. Your night be blessedj 


Thank you (answer alliamdulelldh 


alhamdeu-lel-lah 


to, HOW are yOU?) J - e - Thanks to God 




Thank you. Thank lutfe shumd zeydd 


leutfi sheuma zeyad 


you very much 


[zeyad 


[zeyad 


No, thank you 


nah, lutfe xhuind 


nah, leutfi sheuma 


Don't mention it 


zahmati wist 


zahmatee neest 




i.e. It is no trouble 




Thanks for your 


: besydr zahmat 


bes-yar zahmat kashee- 


trouble 




kashldid deed 


It does not matter 




zararl naddrad 


zararee nadarad 


I can scarcely ask 


agar cheh khejdlat 


agarr che Mejalat mee- 


(asking a favour) 


mikasham 


kasham 


"""Please do 




befarmdld 


befarrma-eed 


You are quite (in- 


khaili khush dma- Maylee fc^eush amadeed 


deed) welcome 




did 


(Do) just as you 


hartor mail ddrid harr-torr mayl dareed 


please 


[ddrid Fdareed 


You are quite right rdst mlfarmdid, haq rast meefarrma-eed, haq 


Take as much as befarmdld har qadr befarrma-eed harr qadr 


you please 


mail ddrld rnayl dareed 


Persian S.-T. 


F 



66 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



It is lucky that... 

As you know 
It must be done 
What are you ( 
doing ? | 

Please come back 
Come here [soon 
I have come on 
business [come? 
When will you 
Will you come ? 
Where are you 
Go and look [going? 
What is the mat- 
ter ? 
As soon as possible 

Oh no! thatisnotso 

If possible 

What does this 

I don't know [mean? 

I don't quite under- 
stand 

I haven't the 
slightest idea 

I have never seen it 

I haven't seen you 
for a long time 

Who said so ? 

I will speak to him 
about it 

He won't hear of it 
He cannot be relied 

en 
He is honest and 

hard-working 
You must not do 

that 



ba/t/i- 



asbdbe khush bakh- asbabi /cAeush 

tlst keh... teest lie... 

chendncheh mlddnld\ chenan-che meedaneed 
bay ad beshavad ba-yad beshavad 

chehmlkunl? [To inf.] che rneekeunee ? 
cheh mlkunld? [Sup.]' che meekeunecd ? 
lutfan zud bargard ! leutfan zood barrgarrd 
bey a Injd \ bey a eenja 

man bardye kdr \ man bara-yi kar ama- 

dmadam dam 

kai kkdlild dmad? kay Maheed amad ? 
a-ya /c/iaheed amad ? 
keuja meeraveed ? 
bero negah keun 
che /c/tabarast ? 

sheud ? 
harr qadr zood 

meumken-ast 
na ! chen-een neest 
agarr meumkenast 
een ya'-nee che ? 
man nameedanam 
man deureust namee- 

fahmam 

man heech nameefah- 
mam [dam 

man ura hlch nadl-\ man oora heech nadee- 
muddatlst shumdrd meuddateest sheumara 

nadeedam 
kee geuft ? 



aya khdhid amad? 
kuja miramd? 
bero negdh keun 
cheh khabarast ? 

cheh shud ? 
har qadr zud keh 

mumkenast 
nah! chenln nlst 
agar mumkenast 
in ya'nl cJieh? 
man namlddnam 
man durust naml- 

fahmam 
man hlch namlfah- 

mam [dam 



nadidam 
kl (juft ' 



che 
ke 



man bd u dar khusu- 
se u harf khdham 
zad [kard 

U qabul nakhdhad 

beh u khdter jam' 
namitavdn shud 

u bd namus va kdr 
kunast 

nakun, shumd nabd- 



yad In 
bekunld 



kdr rd 



man ba oo darr Meu- 
soosi oo harrf Ma- 
ham zad [karrd 

oo qabool na-Ma-had 

be oo Materr jam'- 
nameetavan sheud 

oo ba namoos va kar 
keun-ast 

nakeun, sheuuia naba- 



yad een 
keunecd 



kar 



be- 



67 



English. 



Persian (roinaniied). 



Pronunciation. 



Do not tell anyone 
I will do my best 

I can do without it 

It will do after- 
wards 

It will do at your 
leisure 

Be careful 

I will bring it for 

you 

Do you want this ? 
I don't want that 

I want an answer 

[answer ? 
What is your 
Wait a minute 
Do you like this ? 
I like it very much 

How do you like 
it ? [at once 
Kindly let me know 
You are very for- 
tunate [anxious 
You need not be 
It is too difficult 
It is well done 

[address ? 
What is your 
My address is... 
Give me his address 
He lives in... 

So it seems 
Yes, I suppose so 
Do you speak 

English ? 
I am Ensrlish 



bekasl magu 

har cheh mumkenast 

khdham hard 
bi u mumkenast 
ba'd bekdr mlkhurad 

har vagt bekhdhld 

mishavad 
deqqat kun, 

mutavajjeh bash 
man ilrd bardye shu- 

md khdham dvurd 
(dyd) Inrd mlkdhld? 
(man) dnrd naml- 

khdham 
(man) yek javdb 

mlkhdham 
javdbe shumd chlst? 
yek daqlqah sabrkun 
Inrd mipasandld ? 
man urd besydr ml- 

pasandam 
dyd Inrd (urd) tm- 

pasandld? [bedeh 
lutfan zud khabar. 
shumd khaill khush- 

bakhtld 

muztareb nabdshld 
In besydr mushgelast 
In (u) besydr khubast 

adrase shumd chlst ? 
In adraxe manast... 
adrase urd bedeli 
u dar...eqdmat ml-\ 

kunad [shavad\ 
hamche ma'lum ml- 
drl, ball, (juijd 
(dyd) engellsl harf 

mlzanld ? 
man enqellsam 



bek-assee magoo 

harr che meumken-ast 

Ma-ham karrcl 
bee oo meumkenast 
ba'd bekar mee-A-Aeu- 

rad 
harr vaqt beAV<a-heed 

mee-shavad 
deq-qat keun, 

meuta-vaj-jeh bash 
man oora bara-yi sheu- 

ma Ma-ham aveurrd 
(a-ya) eenrameeMa-heed 



(man) anra 

ham 
(man) yek ja-vab mee- 

Ma-ham 

javab-i sheuma cheest? 
yek daqeeqa sabrr keun 
eenra meepasandeed ? 
man oora bes-yar mee- 

pasandam 
a-ya eenra (oora) mee- 

pasandeed ? [bedeh 
leutfan zood Mabarr 
sheuma May lee Meush- 

baMteed 

meuz-tareb nabasheed 
een bes-yar meushgelast 
een (oo) bes-yar Moob- 

ast 

ad-rassi sheuma cheest? 
een ad-rass-i man-ast... 
ad-rass-i oora bedeh 
oo darr...eqamat mee- 

keunad [shavad 

ham-che ma'loom mee- 
aree, baiee, goo-ya 
(a-ya) engeleesee harrf 

meezaneed ? 
man engel-eesam 
F" 



68 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


I don't understand 


man namlfahmam 


man nameefahmam 


I can speak a little 


man kamlfdrsl harf 


man kamee farsee harrf 


Persian 


mizanam 


meezanam 


I bad not time 


vaqt naddshtani 


vai[t nadashtam 


I really cannot 


liaqlqatan namitavd- 


haqeeqa-tan nameetava- 


wait 


nam muntazer be- 


na l m raeunta-zerr be- 


As you see [been? 


ml blnld [shavam 


mee beeneed [shavam 


Wbere have you 


kajd bildid.- 


keuja boodeed v 


Is it convenient to- 


ay a far da muinken- 


a-ya farrda meumkcn- 


morrow ? 


ast? 


ast? 


I will return it to- 


urd fardd barml- 


oora farrda barr-mee- 


morrow 


garddnam 


garrdanam 


Please let me know 


lutfan zud beman 


leut-fan zood beman 


immediately 


khabar bedeh 


AViabarr bedeh 


lie has already left 


u pish-az In raft 


oo peesh-az een raft 


He probably does 


u shay ad iiamldd- 


oo sha-yad nam-ee-da- 


not know 


nad 


nad 


This article wears 


In pdrchah davdm 


een parcha davam mec- 


well (clothes) 


mikunad 


keu-nad 


Do. do. (things) in pdrchah khubast 


een parcha Wtoob-ast 


Are there any book 


dyd dar... dukkane 


a-yadarr...deukkan-i ket- 


shops in...? ketdbfnrushl hast? 


ab-feurooshee hast? 


To be sure there are albattah hast 


albatta hast 


I enquired, but : man pursldam, am- 


man peur-seedam am- 


there was none ma hlch nabud 


ma beech nabood 


1 see you for the in avval dafah ast 


een avval daf-a ast ke 


first time [ing ? keh shumdrd mlbl- 


sheumara meebeenam 


Where are you go- kujd mlravld? \narn 


keuja meeravec;! ? 


Come here ; I have 


beyd Injd bd shumd 


bey-a eenja ba sheuina 


something for you 


kdr ddram 


kar daram 


to do 






May I ask who you 


bebakJishld dqd shu- 


bebaM-sheed aqa sheu- 


are, sir ? 


md klstld / 


ma keesteed ? 




i.e. Excuse me, sir; who 






are you? 




When do you re- 


kai beferanyestdn 


kay beferan-gestan 


turn to Europe ? 


barmlgardld ? 


barrmee-garrdeed ? 


Is anything the 


shumdrd cheh ml- 


sheumara che mee- 


matter with 


shavad ? or dyd 


shavad ? a-ya na- 


you? 


ndkhiixJiid / 


Meu-sheed ? 




i.e. Are you iil ? 




Who said so ? . 


kl fluft ? 


kee geuf t ? 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



Please wait 
You come as well 
I am told he re- 
turned yesterday 
That is the impor- 
tant point 
In that case it is 
all right [it 

There is no help for 
It is extremely in- 
convenient [ful 
You must be care- 
I did not break it 

Under what cir- 
cumstances ? 
What is the reason? 

There is no mistake 

about it 
You were certainly 

to blame [ion? 
What is your opin- 
Please make a note 
I say ! Mr.... [of it 
Without ceremony 
Speak louder, 

please 
Look ! 

Is it not beautiful? 
It is indeed grand 



lutfan sabr kunld 
shumd ham beydld \ 
man shanldam u\ 

dlruz baryasht 
In nuqtah muhem- 

mast 
dar In surat kdr 

khubast 
clidrah nlst 
In besydr ndrdhat- 

ast 

bdyad deqqat kunld 
man urd nashekas- 

tam 
becheh shart ? dar 

cheli khusus 1 
becheh sabab ? jahat 

chlst ? 
dar u hlch shubhah 

nlst 
shnmd sezdvdre sar- 

zanesh budid 
fekre shumd chut ? 
lutfan yddddsht kun 
dqd . . . bebln cheh 
bl takllf [miguyam 
lutfan bulandtar 

harf bezan 
negdh lean ! 
(dya) qashank nlst t 
haqiqatan besydr 

khubast 



leutfan sabrr keuneed 
sheuma-ham beya-eed 
man shanee-dam oo 

deerooz barrgasht 
een neuqta meuhem- 

mast . 
darr een soorat kar 

khoob&si 
chara neest 
een bes-yar nara-hat- 

ast 

ba-yad deqqat keuneed 
man oora nashekas- 

tam 
be-che sharrt? darr- 

che fcAeu-soos ? 
be-che sabab ? ja-hat 

cheest ? 
darr oo heech sheub- 

ha neest 
sheurna, sezavari sa,rr- 

zanesh boodeed 
fek-ri sheuma cheest ? 
leutfan yad-dasht keun 
aqa...beb-een che mee- 
bee takleef [goo-yam 
leutfan beulandtarr 

harrf bezan 
negah keun ! 
(aya) qashank neest ? 
haqee-qatan bes-yar 

Moob-ast 



Expressions of Emotion, etc. 

(Bayanat-i-meuhaiiyej vn gliayreh.) 



What? 

Indeed ! 

Stuff ! nonsense 1 

What a statement ! 

That is impossible 

That cannot be 



cheh ? 

haqiqatan ! vdqeati 
blhudah ! bima'nl 
cheh harfe ajlb! 
In ndmumken ast 
In namlshavad 



che? 

haqee-qatan! va-qe-an! 
bee-hoodal bee-ma'nee! 
che harrf -i-ajeeb! 
een na-meumken ast 
een na-meeshavad 



70 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



You 



surprise me 



Take care ! 
My fault 

Oh ! it is nothing 
[ am sorry 

- (asking pardon) 
What a pity ! 
It is a sad thing 
What a shame ! 
I am very glad 

Bravo ! well done I 
How fortunate ! 
How excellent ! 
I am very angry 
Hold your tongue 
Don't answer 
All right 
Oh dear ! oh dear ! 

Be off! 
It is no good 
Get out 
My dear 
Help I mercy I 



What do you say ? 

[To superior] 
[To inferior] 

Do you hear me ? 
Will you kindly 
Do you understand 

me ? [mean ? 
What does that 
What is that ? 
Can you speak 

English ? 
Do you know 

Mr....? 
Where is the...? 



shumd mard mnta- 
ajjeb mlkunld 

deqqat kun ! bepd ! 

taqslre man 

chlzl nut 

man mutaassefam 

bebakhshid 

haif '. afsu* '. 

In asbdbe taaxsufast 

aib ast .' aib rust ! 

man besydr khnxh- 
hdlam 

a farm! bdrakalldh! 

cheh khushbaklit ! 

cheh qadr a'ld! 

besydr klxishmnak- 

kam lirf bezan [am 

javdb nadeh 

khub ; besydr khub 

ai khudd! ai khuda! 

i.e. Oh God! 

gum sho ! jahannam 
In khub nut [sho !\ 
bero gum sho ! hero 
azlze man [biriin 
emdad ! amdn ! 



sheuma mara meuta- 
aj-jeb meekeuneed 

deqqat keun ! bepa ! 

taq-seer-i-rnan 

cheezee neest 

man meuta-assefam 

bebafr/i-sheed 

hayf ! af-soos ! 

een asbab-i-ta-asseufast 

ayb ast ! ayb neest ! 

man bes-yar. /c/ieush- 
halam 

afareen ! bara-kallah ! 

che /cAeush-baWit ! 

che qadrr a'la ! 

bes-yar Mashm-nakam 

kam harrf bezan 

javab nadeh 

Moob ; bes-yar frAoob 

ay /c/ieuda ! ay /feudal 

geum sho ! ja-hannam 
een khoob neest [sho 1 
berro geum sho ! berro 
azeez-i-man [beeroon 
emdad ! aman ! 



Enquiries. (Seuaiat.) 

1 cheh mifarwaid? che meefarrma-eed ? 



cheh miff ill / 

dyd mlskenavld ? 

lutfan 

dyd mlfahmld ? 

In ya'ni cheh ? 
In cheh chiz ast ? 
engelisl mitavdnid 

harf bezanld 1 
dqd...rd mishend- 

sld ? 
...kujdst / 



che meegoo-ee ? 

a-ya meeshenaveed ? 

leutfan 

a-ya meefahrneed ? 

een ya'nee che ? 
een che cheez ast ? 
en-gelee-see meetava- 

need harrf bezaneed? 
ftqfi ... ra mee-shena- 

seed ? 
...keu-jast ? 



71 



English. 



Persian (romanizedj. 



Pronunciation. 



What do they call 
that in Persian ? 
What is that good 
Who is that? [for? 
Who are you? 
Who is there ? 
What do you want? 
What have you got? 
What is the matter? 

Can you tell me? 
Why is that ? 
Who sent you ? 
What is your name? 
Why did you go? 



Inra dar fdrsl cheh 

miguyand ? 
In bar dye cheh khiib 
u kist / [ast ? 

shuma klstld ? 



dnjd kut? kist anja? 

cheh mlkhdhld ? 
, cheh gereftld ? 
. cheh khabarcut? cheh 
shud ? [guld ? 
, mltavdnld hem an be- 
i cherd {tad? 

shunidra kl ftinta- 
, name shuma chlst- 
l cherd raftld ? 



eenra darr far-see che 

mee-gooyand ? 
een bara-yi che A-/ioob 
oo keest ? [ast ? 

sheuma keesteed ? 
anja keest? keest anja? 
che mee-A-//a-heed? 
che gerefteed ? 
che Mabarr-ast ? che 

sheud ? [begoo-eed ? 
meetavaneed beman 
chera ? [tad ? 

sheumara kee feu-reus- 
nami sheuma cheest ? 
chera rafteed ? 



Xh.6 Railway. (Rah-i-ahan, or Shamandaferr.) 

(For Vocabulary see page SI.) 



To the station 
Here is my luggage 
Take it to the cloak- 
room 

I wish to regis- 
ter my luggage 
for... [weight 
The luggage is over 
Get my luggage 
Here is the ticket 
How many pack- 
ages are there? 
Where is the wait- 
mg-room ? 

- booking-office? 

- refreshment- 

room? 
lavatory ? 

- train for. . . ? 
Are you going by 

the express ? 
Show me a time- 
table 



be gar; be estdseyon 

in ashyde manast 

| Inra bebar be-utdqe 

ashyd 1 

man mikhdham ash- 
yde khudrd sefdre- 
shi beferestam be... 
ashyd' xanglnast 
ashyde mar a beydr 
lna*t belli 
j asbdl'hd chand pdr- 

chah ast 1 
utdqe entezdr ku- 

jdst ? [hand? 

belltrd kujd mida- 
utdqe mashrubdt 

hujdst? 
khald kujdst ? 
qatdre. ..kujdst ? 
dyd bd qatdre surat 

mlramd ? 
yek fehreste (jadva- 

le) vaqt bedeh 



be gar ; be estaseyon 
een ash-ya-i man-ast 
eenra bebarr be-eutaqi 

ash-ya' 

man mee-A.7ta-ham ash- 
ya-i Meudra sefaresh- 
ee beferestam be... 
ash-ya' san-geen-ast 
ash-ya-i marra beyar 
een-ast beleet 
assbab-ha chand par- 

cha ast ? 
eutaqi entezar keu- 

jast? [hand? 

beleet-ra keuja meeda- 
eutaqi mashroobat keu- 

jast ? 

khala keujast ? 
qatari...keujast ? 
aya ba qatari seurat 

meeraveed ? 
yek fehresti (jadval-i) 
vaqt bedeh 



72 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation 


When does the 


shamandafer kai 


shamandaferr kay mee- 


train start? 


mlravad f 


ravad ? 


Can I book through 


dyd mltavdnam yek- 


aya naeetavanam yek- 


to...? 


sarah be ... bellt 


sarrah be ... beleet 




beglram ? 


begeeram ? 


A first- (second-) ; yek belite darajahe 


yek beleeti darra-ja-hi 


class single ticket avval (duvvum) 


av-val (deuv-veum) 


to...? be... 


be... 


Return ticket belite dusarah 


beleeti deu-sarrah 


How much is it ? chand ast ? 


chand ast ? 


We want a sleeping ma yek utdq mlkhd- 


ma yek eutaq mee-Ma- 


carriage him keh j dye khdb 


heem ke ja-yi Mab 


ddshtah bashad 


dashta bashad 


A corridor carriage yek utdge rdhroddr 


yek eutaqi rahro-dar 


A corridor carriage yek utdqe rdhroddre 


yek eutaqi rahro-dari 


for ladies zandnah 


zanana 


A non-smoking 


yek utdq keh siydr\ yek eutaq keh seegar 


compartment namlkashand nameekashand 


Is this the train for... In qatdre...ast? een qatar i... ast ? 


Do I change any- ' dyd dar baine rdh f aya darr bayni rah ba- 


where? bdyad avaz kunam?< yad avaz keunam ? 


Where must I 


darkujdbayadbard-\ darr keuja ba-yad bara- 


change for...? ye. ..avaz kunam? 


yi...avaz keunam? 


Is this seat en- 


dya In jd yereftah aya een ja gerrefta 


gaged ? shudah ast ? sheuda ast ? 


There is no room Injdjd nlst [Icun eenja ja neest 


Call the guard ma'milr rd sadd ma'moor ra sada keun 


The train is just qatar aldn harakat qatar alan harakat mee 


going to start mlkunad keunad 


Open the door 


darrd bdz (vd) kun darr-ra baz (va) keun 


Open the window 


panjarah rd bdz kun 


panjarah ra bax keun 


Here is the station 


In ast estdseyon (ydr) 


een ast estaseyon (gar) 


Do we stop here ? 


dyd Injd khdhlm Is- 


aya eenja Ma-heem ees- 




tad? 


tad? 


Do we alight here? 


dyd Injd pain kha- 


aya eenja pa-een kh&- 




klm dmad / 


heem amad ? 


Do we change 


d;/d Injd utdqrd 


aya eenja eutaqra avaz 


carriages here ? 


avaz khdhlm kard? 


/cM-heem karrd ? 


How long do we 


cheh qadr Injd 


che qadrr eenja Ma- 


stop here ? 


khdhlm Istdd 


heem eestad ? 


Five minutes 


panj daqlijah 


panj daqeeqa 



73 


English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


My luggage is lost 


asbabe man gum 
shudahast 


asbabi man geura sheu- 
dah-ast 


vVhen it arrives for- 
ward it on to... 
Give me your ticket 

[To superior] 


vaqtl keh rctxid 
deferent be... 
belite khudra eltefat 
kunld 


vaqtee ke raseed befe- 
rest be... 
beleeti A/ieud-ra eltefat 
keuneed 


[Do. to inferior] 


belite khudra bede- 


beleeti A/teud-ra be-de- 


Here it is [To sup.] 

[Do. to inferior] 


be/armd [hid 
beglr 


befarr-ma [heed 
begeerr 



The Steamboat. (Kashtee, Jehaz.) 



(For Vocabulary see page s-j. 



Hire a boat 

I am going by boat 
When do we start? 
Send the steward 

to me 
What is the first 

cabin fare ? 
Please show me my 

berth 

Is this berth taken? 
[tain ? 

Where is the cap- 
I will engage the 

whole cabin 

Put my bag in the 
cabin [port? 

Have you your pass- 
W 7 hat is the num- 
ber of your cabin? 
I am in Number 3 

Will it be rough? 
The sea is rough 
Is she a good boat? 
Shall you stay on 
deck? 



yek kashtl kerdyah 

kun [vain 

man bd kashtl mlra- 
| kai khdhlm raft ? 
mubdsherrd bffercxt 

injd 
kerdyahe darajahe 

avval chand ast ; 
lutfan jdye mard 

nexhdn bedeh 
dyd In jdrd geref- 

tahand ? 

nakhuda kujast ? 
man tamdme in 
utdiji'd kerdyah nn- 
khdhatn bekunam 
klfe mard buyzdr 

be iitdq 

dyd talker all darld- 
ntimralie titciqe 

shuind clilst ? 
man dar numrah 
sell hastam \shnd- 
dyd kulak khdhad 
danjd kftldk ast 
d>/d kashteye kln'dnxt 
di/d shumd bdldye\ 

(sathahe) kashtl\ 

khdhld Istdd ? 



yek kaslitee keraya 

keun [vam 

man ba kashtee meera- 
kay A-Aa-heem raft ? 
meubasherr-ra beferest 

eeuja 
kerayah-i darra-jah-i 

avval chand ast? 
leutfan jayi marra 

neshan bedeh 
iiya een jara gerreftah- 

and? 

naMeuda keujast ? 
man tamami een eu- 

taqra keraya mee/. 7/fi- 

harn bekeuuam 
keefi marra beugzar be 

eutaq 

aya ta/.-kerali dilreed? 
neum-rah-i eutaqi sheu- 

ma cheest ? 
man darr neumra seh 

has-tam ^ [sheud? 
aya koolak A-Ai"i-had 
darr-ya koolak ast 
aya kashteyi /c/oobeest? 
aya sheuma balayi (sat- 

hah-i) kashtee Ma- 
heed eestad? 



74 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



No, I shall go 


nah, pain kkaham 


below 


raft [ast 


I feel very sick 


ahvdlam besydr bad- 


I am going below 


man miravam pain 


to my cabin 


be utdqe khudam 


anwe have dinner 


dyd dar kashtl sham 


on board ? 


midahand ? 


Shut (open) the 


panjarah rd beband 


porthole 


(bdz kuri) 


Here, boatman ! 


In qdyeqchlst ! 


How much to take 


chand mlgiri ward 


me ashore ? 


bebarl birun ? 


Please let me see 


hit/an tazkerahe 


your passport 


khudrd bedehid 



na, pa-een Ma-ham. 

raft 

ahvalam bes-yar badast 
man meeravam pa-een 

be eutaq-i /c/ieudam 
aya darr kashtee shfirn 

meeda-hand ? 
panjarah ra beband 

(baz keun) 
een qa-yeq-cheest ! 
chand mee-geeree mar 

ra bebarree beeroon? 
leutfan ta/-ke-rah-i 

/c/ieudra badeheed 



Arrival. (Raseed, Veurood.) 



(For Vocabularies see pages SI & 32.) 



Here is my luggage 

Where is the cus- 
tom-house ? 

Bring that trunk to 
the custom-house 

Have you anything 
to declare ? 

I have nothing 
dutiable 

Please give me 
your keys 

Here are the keys 

Is there a 'bus ? 

Call a carriage 

There is no carriage 
What is the fare to 

the hotel ? 
Tell the driver 

where to take me 



in ashyde man ast 
yumruk kujast ? 

in klfrd (sandfiqrd) 

beydr be yumruk 
chlzl gumrukl dd- 

rid? 
chize gumruk shii- 

danl naddram 
lutfan kalidrd 

bedehid 
mast kalld 
dyd injd gdrl hast/ 
yek kdleskah(duruslt- 

f/ah) sadd kun 
Injd kdleskah nlst 
kerdyah td hotel 

chand ast? 
bekdleskahchi begu 

mard kitjd bdyad 

bebarad 



een ash-ya-i man ast 
gaumreuk keujast? 

een keefra (sandooqra) 

be-yar be geumreuk 
cheezee geumreukee 

dareed ? 
cheez-i geumreuk sheu- 

danee nadaram 
leutfan kaleedra bede- 

heed 

eenast kaleed 
aya eenja garee hast ? 
yek kaleska (deureush- 

ga) sada keun 
eenja kaleska neest 
kerraya ta ho-tel chand 

ast? 
bekilleska-chee begod 

marra keuja bayad 

bebarrad 



76 



Xh.C Hotcli (Hotel, Mehmanklidnah.) 



English. 



(For Vocabularies see page 20 SO.) 
Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 



Is the proprietor 


sahebe hotel kujdst 


sa-hebi ho-tel keujast 


anywhere about? 


(injdxt) ? 


(eenjast)? 


Have you a room 


utdqe khdll (kerd- 


eutaqi /j/talee (kerra-ya- 


vacant ? 


yahl) ddnd? 


ee) dareed ? 


This room is too 


In utdq brsydr 


een eutaq bes-yar koo- 


small [room? 


kuche/c ast 


chek ast [reed ? 


Have you a large 


utdqe biiztirg ddrld? 


eutaqi beuzeurrg da- 


Show me a bed- 


yek utdqe, khdb ne- 


yek eutaqi AVtab neshan 


room 


shdn bedeli- 


bedeh ? 


I will take this one 


man mrd mlkltdbam 


man eenra mee-Ma-bam 


Have you no better 


utdge belttar miild- 


eutaqi beh-tai-r nada- 


rooms ? 


rld? 


reed? 


Have you not a 


yek utdqe kliunak- 


yek eutaqi /r/teuneuktarr 


cooler room ? 


tar naddrid: 


nadareed ? 


I want a large one 


man yek. utdqe bu- 


man yek eutaqi beu- 




zurg nilklidiuun 


zeurrg mee-/c/ta-ham 


Show me some nice 


yek utdqe khilbl ne- 


yek eutaqi /cAoobee 


rooms 


slidn bedeh 


neshan bedeh 


Are you the land- 


dyd sdhebe hotel 


aya saheb-i ho-tel sheu- 


lord? 


shwudld / 


ma-eed ? 


How much do you 


ruzl chand mlglrld? 


roozee chand mee-gee- 


charge per day? 




reed? 


Has my luggage 


dyd ashyde (asbdbs) 


aya ash-ya-i (asbabi) 


come? 


mard dvurdahand? 


marra aveurrdah-and'? 


Send the luggage 


asbdbe mara beferest] asbabi marra beferest 


upstairs 


bald 


bala [een) 


Put it down here 


buffzdr Injd (zamln^ 


beug-zar eenja (zam- 


Do you intend to 


khalll lihdhid 


Maylee /rM-heed mand? 


stay long ? 


mdnd / 




I shall stay a few 


du seh nlz khdb a in 


deu seh rooz A7ia-ham 


days 


mdnd 


mand 


I want to have a 


man mlklidham 


man mee-Ma-ham 


wash 


shustcshil knnam 


sheusteshoo keunam 


I want something 


man gnrusnah am, 


man geureus-nah am, 


to eat 


kh urda nl cheh ddrid 


/r/teurr-danee cheli dfi- 


Anything will do 


har cheh bdshad 


harr cheh bashad [reed 




zarar naddrad 


zarrarr na-darad 


Give me the key of 


kalule utdqe mard 


kaleedi eutaqi marra 


my room 


bedeh 


bedeh 



70 

English. Persian (romauized). 


A decanter of water 


yek tunk db 


What are the hours 


Injd cheh vaqt shdm- 


of meals here ? 


va-nehdr midahld? 


Lunch is at... and 


nehdr darsdate...va 


dinner at... 


sham dar sdate... 


There is no fixed 


vaqte muaiyan 


time 


naddrlm 


And breakfast ? 


va chdie subli, zlrc 




qal-ydnl? 


You can suit your 


liar vaqt keh bardye 


own convenience 


shunt a rdhat ast 


Can I dine in my 1 dyd mltavdnam. dar 


room ? 


ittdqe khudam 




sham bekliuram? 


Is the bed well 


dyd rakhtkhdb beha- 


aired ? 


vd dddah shudah 


Where is the w.c.? 


khald kujdst? [ast?\ 


I suppose you have 


dyd Injd hammdm\ 


baths here ? 


ddrld ? 


I want a warm 


man yek hammdme 


bath 


garm mikhdham 


Give me a piece of 


yek pdrchah (qdleb) 


soap 
Give me a towel 


sdbun beydr 
yek Itoli (qatlfah) 




beydr 


Where is the bell? 


zang kujdst ? 


Can you lend me 


yek juft pdpush 


some slippers ? 


bedeh ! 


I want a candle 


man yek sham' ml- 




khdham 


I think of leaving 


man kheydl ddram 


to-morrow 


fardd beracam 


Call me early in 


mard subhe ~ud 


the morning 


blddr kun 


It is chilly to-night 


emshab kJitmuk ast 


Put on more bed- 


lehdj'e dlr/ar bntjzdr 


clothes 




Send "boots" to me 


nokar rd be fe rest 


Call my servant 


nokare mard sadd 




kun 


Bring me a light 


yek charagh beydr 



I'ronunciatton. 

yek teunk ab 

eenja che vaqt sham-eu- 

ne-har meeda-heed? 
ne-har darr sa-at-i...eu 

sham darr sa-at-i... 
vaqti meu-ay-yan nad- 

a-reem 
eu cha-ee-i seubh, zee- 

ri qal-yanee ? 
harr vaqt ke barra-yi 

sheuma ra-hat ast 
ayfi meetavanam darr 
eutaqi /cAeudam sham 

be-Meuram ? 
aya ra,kht-kh&\) be-havil 

da-dah sheudah ast'? 
A;7iala keujast ? 
aya eenja hammam da- 
reed ? 
man yek ham-manai 

garrm mee-/c/ia-ham 
yek par-chah (qaleb) 

saboon beyar 
yek holee (qateefah) 

bey-ar 

zang keu-jast? 
yek jeuft papoosh 

bedeh ? 
man yek sham* mee- 

Ma-ham 
man Meyal daram 

farrda berrav-ani 
marra seubh-i zood 

beedar keun 
emshab ArAeuneuk ast 
le-hafi deegarr beugzar 

nokarr ra beferrest 
nokarri marra sada 

Ueun 
yek charra^A beyar 



77 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Make a fire 


dtash roshan kun 


atash ro-shan keun 


Put that outside 


mrd bugzdr blrun 


eenra beugzar beeroon 


Light the lamp 


lampdrd roshan kun 


lampara ro-shan keun 


Fetch my gloves 


dastkashe mard 


dast-kashi marra beyar 




beydr [kun 




Mend my stockings 


jurdbe mard rafo 


joorabi marra rafo keun 


Get me a mosquito 


yek pashshahddn 


yek pash -shah-dan 


curtain 


beydr beyar 


Why are you so 


c herd dlr kardld? 


cherra deerr karrdeed? 


late? 






Bring me a cushion 


yek bdlesh beydr 


yek balesh beyar 


What do you re- 


dqd cheh mlkhdhld? 


aqa che mee-Ma-heed ? 


quire, sir? 






Give me some hot 


qadrl dbe gann 


qadree abi garrrn beyar 


water 


beydr [kun 


[keuu 


Clean my shoes 


liafshhdye mard pdk 


kafsh-ha-yi marra pak 


I want a shave 


man riskamrd mi- 


man reeshamra uiee- 




khdkam betamsham 


Ma-ham be-tarrasham 


Is there a barber 


dyd dar In nazdlkl 


aya darr een nazdeekee 


about here ? 


dukkdne dalldkl 


deuk-kani dallakee 




hast? 


hast ? 


Send my boots to 


kafshe mard beferest 


kaf-shi marra beferrest 


be repaired 


ta'mlr kunand 


ta'meerr keunand 


Let this linen go 


In rakhtrd berakht- 


een ra/iAt-ra bera/i/it- 


to the laundry 


shur beferest [and 


shoorr beferrest 


My clothes are wet 


rakhthdye man tar- 


raMt-ha-yi man tarand 


Please dry them 


lutfan dnhdrd 


leut-fan anhara Meushk 




khmhk kun [kun 


keun [keun 


Brush my clothes 


rakhthdye mard pdk 


rafr/it-ha-yi marra pak 


.Are you going to 


dqd lebdse khude- 


aqa lebasi Meu : det- 


change your 


tdnrd avaz khd- 


an-ra avaz /r^a-heed 


clothes, sir? 


hld hard? 


karrd ? 


Let us have the bill 


hesdbrd beglrlm 


he-sabra be-geereem 


Is the luggage 


dyd ashyd' hdzer 


aya ash-ya' hazerr ast? 


ready ? 


ast? 




Send the luggage to 


ashyd' rd beferest 


ash-ya' ra beferrest 


the station 


be gar 


be gar 


Take rue to the 


mard bebar be gdr\ marra beb-arr be gar 


station 


(be estdseyon) 


(be esta-sey-on) 


I am pressed for 


vaqt naddram. 


vaqt nadaram 


time 


i.e. I have not time 





78 



English. 



Meals. (Kheurak.) 

(Tor Vocabularies Bee pages 24 to 21.) 
Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



Show me the bill- 


fehreste (ta'refa/ie) feh-resti (ta're-fah-i) 


of-fare 


ghazdrd beydr 


^//az-ara beyar 


Please bring tea 


lutfan dial va ndne 


leutfan cha-ee va nani 


and cakes 


shah-arl beydr 


shak-arree beyar 


What is your order? 


cheli mlfarmdld? 


che mee-farr-ma-eed? 


Please make me 


lutfan qadrl dial 


leutfan qaclroe cha-ee 


some tea 


durust kun 


deureust keau 


Bring me the teapot 


qurl rd beydr Injd 


qooree ra beyar eenja 


1 will make the tea 


man Icliudam mlkhd- 


man Meudam mee-&Aa- 


myself 


ham chdlrd durust 


ham cha-ee-ra deu- 




(dam) kunam 


reust (dam) keunam 


I am thirsty 


man tashnaham 


man tash-nah-am [ar 


Another cup of tea 


yek chdle dlgar beydr 


yek chaee-i deegarr bey- 


Give me some more 


qadri blshtar qand 


qadree beeshtarr qand 


sugar (milk) 


(shir) beydr 


(sheerr) beyar 


Put some more wa- 


qadrl db v& kun tu- 


qadree ab va keun too- 


ter in the teapot 


ye chdlddn (qurl) 


yi cha-eedan (qoort^e) 


Have you any fresh 


ay a karahe tdzah 


aya kara-hi taza da- 


butter ? 


darld ? 


reed? 


I am hungry 


man gurusnali am 


man geureusnah am 


It is quite uneat- 


In hlch khurdanl 


eenheech Meurr-dan-ee 


able 


nlst 


neest [neest 


It is undrinkable 


In nushldanl nlst 


een noo-shee-dan-ee 


Thisisquiteenough 


(In) basast 


(een) bas-ast 


May I offer you 


qadrl mdhl mail 


qadree ma-hee mayl 


some fish ? 


ddrld? [dyad 


dareed ? [mee-ayad 


It looks tasty 


In benazar kliub ml- 


een ben-azarr AVfoob 


Thanks, I will take 


lutfe fihumd zeydd, 


leutfi sheuma zeyad 


some 


qadrl eltefdt kunld 


qadree eltefat keunet'd 


Which do you pre- 


kuddmrd mail dd- 


keudamra mayl darecd? 


fer? 


rld? 




I prefer roast to 


man kabdbrd bedb 


man kab-abra be-ah 


boiled 


pukht tarjlh rw- 


peu/c/it tarr-jeeh 




daham 


meeda-ham 


Either will do 


har kuddm bdshad 


harr keudam bashad 


Is there any fish to 


dyd Injd mdhl paidd 


aya eenja ma-hee pay- 


be got ? 


mlshavad? 


da meeshav-ad ? 


Whatfish have you? 


cheh jur m,dhl ddrld? 


che joorr mahee dareed? 


There is none 


hlch naindndali a.s-f 


heech narnaadah ast 



79 



English. 



Persian (romanized). 



Pronunciation. 



Tell the cook to 
make chicken 
broth [cook 

He is not a good 

I have nothing to 
eat 

Is the soup ready ? 
[served) i 

Dinner is ready (or \ 

Do you like...? 

I must have them I 
fresh 

Give me a little, j 
please 

Will you pass the ; 
mustard ? 

Pass me the sauce 

Waiter, some bread 

What wine will you 
take, sir ? 

Show me the wine 
list 

Have you English 
beer? 

Open the bottle and 
bring it here 

Is this water fil- 
tered ? 

Is it good for 
drinking ? 

What meat is there? 

Give me a slice of 
ham 

Have you any roast 
beef? 

Do you prefer well- 
done or under- 
done? 

What will you take 
now ? 



bedshpaz begu qadrl\ 

dbe murr/h duriist 

kunad 

dshpaze khubl nlst 
in on hlch khurdanl 

(;i/taza) naddram 
ay a ash (abgusht) 

hdzer ast'- 
shdm hazer ast 
ay a . . . mail ddrld? 
agar tdzah axt 

i.e. If it is fresh 

lutfan qadrl eltefdt 

kun (bedeh) 
lutfan khardalrd 

eltefdt kunld? 
chdshnlrd eltefdt kun 
nokar, qadrl ndn 

beydr 
cheh shardbl mail 

ddrld? 
fehreste ' shardbrd 

beydr 
dyd dbe joye (blrahe) 

engeUs ddrld? 
shishahrd vd kun 

beydr Injd 
dyd in db tasfeyah 

shudah ast/ 
dyd In db bardye 

khurdan khub ast? 
cheh gushti ddrld? 
yek pdrchah gushte 

khuk bedeh 
dyd kabdbe gushte 

gar ddrld' 
kuddni rd mail ddrld 

pukhtah yd nlm- 

pukht? 
hdlii chclt mail dd-\ 

rid.' 



be-ash-paz begoo qad- 

ree abi meurr<y/t deu- 

reust keunad 
ashpazi Moobee neest 
man heech /c/ieurr-dan- 

ee (#/taz-a) nad-aram 
aya ash (ab-goosht) 

ha-zerr ast ? 
sham ha-zerr ast 
aya...mayl dareed ? 
agarr tazah ast 

leutfan qadree eltef-at 

keun (bed-eh) 
leutfan Marrdalra el- 

tefat keuneed? [keun 
chash-neera el-tefat 
no-karr, qadree nan 

beyar 
che sharabee mayl 

dareed ? 

feh-resti sharabra be- 
yar 
aya abi joy-i (beerah-i) 

en-gelees dareed? 
sheesha-ra va keun 

beyar eenja 
aya een ab tas-feya 

sheudah ast ? 
aya een ab bara-yi 

A-Aeurrdan khoob ast? 
che gooshtee dareed? 
yek parcha gooshti 

/c/iook bedeh 
aya kab-abi gooshti gav 

dareed ? 
keudamra mayl dareed 

peu/r/itah ya neem- 

peuA-At ? 
hcila che mayl dareed? 



80 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


A little of the fat 


qadrl gilshte roghanll qadree gooshti ro-^/ian- 




beydr 


ee beyar 


Give me some lean 


qadrl gushte mdkl- 


qadree gooshti ma-hee- 




cJtah bedeh 


cha bedeh 


Will you carve this 


In mitrgh rd taqslm 


een meurr^r/i ra taqseem 


fowl? 


kunld? [kun 


keuneed? [keun 


Change my plate 


bushqdbe mard avaz 


beushqabi marra avaz 


Will you have some 


qadrl slbe zannnl 


qadree seebi zameenee 


potatoes ? 


mail ddrld? 


mayl dareed ? 


Boiled (roasted) 


slbezamlnledb pukht 


seebi zameenee'i ab 


potatoes 


(surkh kanlah) 


peuA-At (senrkh karrdah) 


I am not fond of 


man chanddn md- 


man chandan ma-yel-i 


potatoes 


yele slbe zamlnl 


seebi zameenee nees- 




nlstani 


tam 


Hand me your 


bushqdbe khudrd el- 


beush-qabi AAeudra el- 


plate 


tcfdt kunld? 


tefat keuneed 


I will not take any 


mail naddram, 


mayl nadaram, namee- 


[some more ? 


namlkhdham 


Ma-ham 


Shall I bring you 


bdz mail ddnd- 


baz rnayl dareed '? 


I can't eat any 


dlgar namltavdnam 


deegarr nameetavanam 


more 


bekhuram [zeydd\ be-A;Aeurarn 


No, thank you 


nah lutfe shurhd na leutfi sheuma zeyad 



I feel ill 

I have a sore 
throat 



I have a head- 
ache 

I have caught cold 

I have a pain in 
my back 

I have a bad cough 

I have a pain here 

f 

You had better con- 
sult the doctor 

Are you not afraid 
of sunstroke ? 



Health. (Tandeureustee, SahJiat.) 

(For Vocabulary see page 23.) 

man ndkhusham, \ man na-Meusham, 
man hdl naddram \ man hal nadaram 
darde gain ddram, \ darrdi galoo daram, 
galuyam dard ml- galoo-yam darrd mee- 

kunad [nad,. keunad [nad, 

saram dard mlku- saram darrd rneekeu- 
darde sar ddram \ darrdi sarr daram 
sarmd khurdaliam ' sarr-ma Meurr-dah-am 
pushtam dard mlku- peushtam darrd mee- 

nad keunad 

surfahe badl ddram] seur-fah-i badee daram 
Injdyam dard ml-\ eenja-yam darrd mee- 

kunad keunad 

khiih ast behakiml khoob ast be-ha-keem 

ne&hdn bedehld neshan be-de-heed 
dyd az zarbe-dfetdb\ aya az zarrbi-afetab 

namitarsld? na-meetarr-seed ? 



81 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


What are you 


az cheh mitarsid? 


az che meetarr-seed ? 


afraid of? 






Please call a good 


lutfan yek hakime 


leutfan yek ha-keemi 


doctor for me 


khubi beydr 


Moobee beyar 


He will come im- 


aldn mldyad, aldn 


alan mee-a-yad, alan 


mediately 


khdhad dmad 


Ma-had amad 


The doctor has come 


hakim dmad 


ha-keem amad 


I wish to consult 


man mlkhaham khu- 


man mee- Ma-ham 


you 


damrd beshumd 


Meudamra besheuma 


[lit., I will show myself 
to you] 


neshdn bedeham 


neshan be -de-ham 


Let me feel your 


nabze shumdrd bebi- 


nabzi sheumara bebee- 


pulse 


nam 


nam 


How do you feel 


emruz ahvdle shumd 


emrooz ahvali sheuma 


to-day ? 


cheh tor ast 


che torr ast ? 


Much better, thank 


alhamdu lelldh 


al-hamdeu lellah May- 


you [tion 


khaill behtar ast 


lee beh-tarr ast 


Here is a prescrip- 


In nuskhah ast 


een neusMa ast 


Have it made up 


beferestld davdkhd- 


beferesteed dav-a-Ma- 


at a chemist's 


nah besdzand 


nah bessa-zand 


Where is there a 


davdkhdnah kujdst? 


dav-a-Mana keujast ? 


chemist's? [cine 






Here is the medi- 


In davdst 


een dav-ast 


This medicine is 


ruzl seh dafah az In 


roozee seh daf-ah az 


to be taken three 


davd (bdyad) be- 


een dav-a (ba-yad) 


times a day 


kurid 


be-Meureed 



The Time. 



(For Vocabulary, see p. 18.) 



Please tell me the 

time 
What time is it ? 

Ten minutes past 

seven 
It has just struck 

nine [ing 

The clock is strik- 
A quarter past one 
It is past one 
Half-past four [six 
Twenty minutes to 

Persian S.-T. 



(lutfan befarmdid) 

sdat chand ast 
cheh vaqt ast? or 

sdat chand ast ? 
dah daqlqah az haft 

guzashtah 
aldn sdat nuh rd 

zad 

sdat mizanad 
yek-va-yekrub' 
az yek guzashtah ast 
chehdr-va-nlm 
blst daqiqah be sJiesli 



(leutfan befarr-ma-eed) 

sa-at chand ast 
che vaqt ast ? 

sa-at chand ast ? 
dah daqeeqa az haft 

geuzashta 
alan sa-at neuh ra 

zad 

sa-at meeza-nad 
yek-eu-yekreub' 
az yek geuzashtah ast 
che-har-eu-neem 
beest daqeeqa be shesh 
G 



82 


English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


A quarter to eight 
By my watch 
Exactly 3 o'clock 
At what time ? 
9 a.m. 


yek rub'' be hasht 
bd sdate man 
tamdm sdat seh 
cheh vaqt? 
sdate nuhe subh 


yek reub' be hasht 
ba sa-ati man 
tamam sa-at seh 
che vaqt ? 
sa-at-i neuh-i seubh 


7 p.m. 
It is not late 


sdate hafte asr 
dlr nut 


sa-at-i hafti asrr 
deerr neest 


It is early 


zud ast 


zood ast 



Correspondence, Post, Telegrams, etc. 

(Meukhdberdt, peust, telgerdf, va ghayreh.) 

(For Vocabularies see pages 36 to 38; (or Postal charges, page 98.) 



Have no letters 
come this morn- 
ing? 

No, none have come 

He ought to be here 
by now [ing 

I have heard noth- 

Has the mail stea- 
mer arrived ? 

Go and see if the 
mail is in 

Are there any let- 
ters for me ? 

I have not received 
any letter 

Please post this 
letter 

Please forward my 
letters to... 

Please weigh this 
letter 

How much is the 
postage on these 
letters ? 

I am just going to 
read it 

Can you lend me a 
pen ? [pencil ? 

Have you a lead 



emruz subh Inch kd- 

ghaz dmadah ast? 
[dah ast 

nah, hlch naydma- 
u td hdld bdyest 

Injd bdshad [dam 
man chlzl nashnl- 
dyd kashtie pust 

dmadah ast/ 
bero bebln chdpdr 

dmadah ast 
dyd kdghazl bardye 

man hast? 
man kdghaz nage- 

reftam 
lutfan, In kdghazrd 

bedeh bechdpdr 
lutfan kdghazhdye 

mar a beferest be... 
lutfan In kdghazrd 

bekash 
ujrate puste in 

kdghazhd chand 

ast? 
man aldn mikhdham 

urd bekhdnam 
dyd qalamrd eltefdt 

mlkunld? 
dyd meddd ddrld? 



emrooz seubh heech 

ka-grAaz amadah ast? 
[ah ast 

nah, heech na-ya-mad- 
oo ta hala ba-yest eenja 

bashad [dam 

man cheezee nashnee- 
aya kashtee-i peust 

amadah ast ? 
berro bebeen chapar 

amadah ast ? 
aya ka^/tazee barra-yi 

man hast ? 
man ka-#7taz nagerref- 

tam 
leutfan, een ka-^/tazra 

bedeh bechapar 
leutfan ka-^/iaz-ha-yi 

marra beferrest be... 
leutfan een ka-^azra 

bekash 
euj-rati peusti een ka- 

grAaz-ha chand ast ? 

man alan mee-A-Aa-ham 
oora be-AAanam 

aya qalamra eltefat 
meekeuneed ? 

aya medad dareed? 



88 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


I want some note- 


man qadrl kdghaze 


man qadree ka-^azi 


paper [lope 


chdpdrl mikhdham 


chaparee mee-frM-ham 


Give me an enve- 


yek pdkdt bedeh 


yek pakat bedeh 


Where is the ink ? 


murakkab kujdst- 


meurak-kab keujast ? 


Lend me a piece of 


yek pdrchah kdghaze 


yek parchah ka^Mz-i 


blotting-paper 


dikash bemanbedeh 


abkash beman bedeh 


Get me some 


chand tamre pust 


chand tamri peust 


stamps 


bardye man begir 


barra-yi man begeerr 


Tell him to wait 


begu sabr kunad 


begoo sabrr keunad 


I will send a reply 


man javdb khdham 


man jav-ab Ma-ham 


later 


ferestdd 


ferrestad 


Can I send a tele- 


dyd mltavanam yek 


aya meeta-vanam yek 


gram ? 


t elgerdf be feres tarn? 


telgerraf beferrestam? 


I have received a 


man yek telgerdf az 


man yek tel-gerraf az. . . 


telegram from... 


. . .gereftam 


gerreftam 


Please send this 


lutfan In telgerdfrd 


leutfah een tel-gerraf-ra 


telegram 


beferest 


beferrest 


Has a telegram 


dyd telgerdf i bardye 


aya tel-gerrafee barra- 


come for me ? 


man dmadah ast? 


yi man amadah ast? 


I want a postal 


man yek bardie pust 


man yek barrati peust 


order 


mikhdham 


mee-Ma-ham 


The payee's name 


ndm, va adrase gi- 


nam va ad-rassi gee- 


and address are... 


randah...ast 


ran-dah...ast 


The sender's name 


ndm va adrase fe- 


nam va ad-rassi ferres- 


and address are... 


restandah...ast 


tanda...ast 


I am the sender 


manam ferestandah 


manam ferrestanda 


I am the payee 


manam glrandah 


manam geeranda 


Please cash this 


lutfan In askendsrd 


leutfan een asken-as-ra 


money order 


(bardie pust-rd) 


(barrati peust-ra) 


(postal order) 


khurd kun 


Meurrd keun 


This letter to be 


In kdghaz bdyad 


een ka-^Aaz ba-yad sef- 


registered 


sefdreshi beshavad 


areshee beshavad 


Registered letter 


kdghaze sefdreshi 


ka-^Aaz-i sefareshee 


Receipt for do. 


qabze sefdreshl 


qab-zi sefareshee 



Notices. (E-e'lanat.) 



Apartment 
Entrance 
Exit 

Furnished room 
Keep off the grass 



manzel, khdnah 

madkhal 

makhraj 

utaqe farnh shudah 

ruye sabzah maro 



manzel, 

mad -Mai 

maM-raj 

eutaqi farrsh sheuda 

roo-yi sabza marro 

G* 



84 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Knock ; ring 


dar bezan ; zang be- 


darr bezan ; zang bezan 


No admittance 


madkhal nlst [zan 


mad-Mai neest 


No smoking allowed 


dukhdniydt qada- 


deu-Manee-yat qada- 




ghan ast 


gh&n ast 


No thoroughfare 


rah bastah ast 


rah bastah ast 


Please do not touch 


lutfan dast mazan 


leutfan dast mazan 


Please wipe your 


lutfankafshe khudrd 


leutfan kaf-shi Meudra 


feet 


pdk kun 


pak keun 


Private 


khususl 


Meusoosee 


Public notice 


e-e'ldne umumi 


e-e'lani eumoomee 


Pull (i.e. open) 


va kun 


va keun 


Push (i.e. close) 


pish kun 


peesh keun 


Eefreshments 


mashrubdt 


mashroobat 


To be let, to let 


. . . kerdyahl, bar dye 


...ke-ra-ya-hee, ba-ra-yi 




kerdyah [ye furush 


ke-ra-yab [yifeuroosh 


To be sold 


...furukhtanl, bard- 


...feurooM-tanee, ba-ra- 


Unfurnished room 


utdqe khdll 


eutaqi Malee 


Walk in 


beyd tu 


beya too 



In Town. (Darr shahr.) 



(For Vocabulary see page 2U.) 



Where shall we go? 
Let us go [to...? 
Which is the way 
Where does this 

road lead to ? 
Go up the street 
Is it far from here? 
How far is it to...? 

Show me the way 

Turn to the right 

Go quickly 

Go slowly 

Go straight on 

Second turning to 
the right 

Take the first to 
the right and the 
second to the left 



kujd beravlm? 
beramm 

rdhe...kuddm ast? 
In rdh bekujd mlra- 

vad? 

kuchahrd hero bald 
dyd az Injd dur ast? 
cheh qadr rdh ast 

be...? [bedeh 

rdhrd beman neshdn 
bargard bedaste rdst 
tund hero 
dhestah (dram) hero 
rdst bero 
kuchahe duvvum 

daste rdst 
bero kuchahe avval 

daste rdst ba'd be- 

hucliahe duvruw 

daste chap 



keuja berra-veem ? 
berra-veem 
rah-i...keudam ast? 
een rah bek-euja mee- 

ravad ? 

koochara berro bala 
ay a az eenja door ast ? 
che qadrr rah ast be...? 
[bedeh 

rahra bernan neshan 
barrgarrd bedasti rast 
teund berro 
a-hesta (aram) berro 
rast berro 
koochah-i deuvveum 

dasti rast 
berro koochah-i avval 

dasti rast ba'd bek- 

ooclmh-i deuvveum 

dasti chap 



85 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Keep to the left 


az daste (tara/e)chajj 


az dasti (tarrafi) chap 


Cross the road 


kuchah ra, bugzar 


koocha ra beugzarr 


In what street is...? 


...dar kuddm ku- 


...darr keudam koochah 




chah ast? 


ast? 


Please tell me the 


lutfan nazdlktarln 


leutfan nazdeek-tarreen 


nearest way to...? 


rdhe...rd beman 


rah-i...ra beman 




neshan bcdeh 


neshan bedeh 


Is this the way to...? 


ay a rdhe...ln ast? 


ay a rah-i...een ast? 


Do you know 


dqd rd mishend- 


aqa...ra meeshenaseed? 


Mr. ...? 


sld ? 




I do not know any- 


kaslrd bem ndm 


kaseera be-een nam 


one of that name 


namlshendsam 


namee-shen-asam 


I know him very 


man urd khub ml- 


man oora Moob mee- 


well 


shendsam 


shen-asam 


What is his name? 


name u chlst? 


nami oo cheest ? 


Who is he ? 


u klst? 


oo keest ? 


He is an old friend 


u yek duste qadlmle 


oo yek -doosti qadee- 


of mine 


man ast 


mee-i man ast 


Where does he live? 


kujd mlneshinad? 


keuja meenesh-eenad ? 


Quite near 


besydr nazdlk 


bes-yar nazdeek 


Are Mr. ...and Mrs. 


(dya) dqd..va mdddm 


(aya) aqa. . .va madam. .. 


...at home? 


...khdnah hastand? 


Ar/tana hastand? 


Have you a card ? 


dyd kdrd ddrid? 


aya kard dareed ? 


Give him my card 


kdrde mar a bedeh beu 


kardi marra bedeh be oo 


I will call again 


man dubdrah (bdz) 


man deubara (baz) Ma- 




khdham dmad 


ham amad 


Does he expect 


dyd u muntazere 


aya oo meun-tazerri 


you? 


shumdst? 


sheumast ? 


He is expecting me 


u muntazere man ast 


oo meun-tazerri man ast 


I have an engage- 


man bd u yek va'- 


man ba oo yek va'dah 


ment with him 


dah ddram 


dararn 


Good morning 


saldmun alaikum 


salameun alaykeun 


How do you do ? 


ahvdle sharlf? 


ahvali sharreef ? 


Very well ; I am 


alhamdu lelldh, 


al-hamdeu lellah, 


very well 


besydr khub 


bes-yar Moob 


I must go 


bdyad beravam 


ba-yad berravam 


Good-bye, farewell. 


} 




Good morning 


[khudd hdfez 


Meu-da ha-fez 


(evening, night) 


) 




Saddle my horse 


asbe rnard zln kun 


asbi marra zeen keun 


Call the dog 


sagrd sadd kun 


sagra sada keun 



86 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Do not forget to 


alafe asbe kiichek rd 


alafi asbi koochek ra 


feed the pony 


fardmush makun 


faramoosh makeun 


You haven't fed 


shumd be-u khurdk 


sheuma be-oo /i/ieurak 


him 


(alaf) nadddld 


(alaf) nadadeed 


Can you take me 


dydmltacdnld mard 


aya meetavaneed marra 


to a good hotel ? 


beyek mehmdnkhd- 


beyek meh-man-A;Aanah- 




nahe khubl bebarld? 


i A:/ioobee bebarreed ? 


Is there an inn 


dyd dar In nazdikl 


aya darr een nazdeekee 


about here? 


kdrvdnsard hast? 


karvansara hast ? 


What is the name 


name In deh chlst' 


nami een deh cheest ? 


of that village ? 






What sort of a road 


cheh jur rdhlst? 


che joorr ra-heest ? 


is it? 






Which way am I 


az kuddm rdh bay ad 


az keudam rah ba-yad 


to go ? [way 


beravam? 


berravam ? 


You are in the right 


hamin rdh rdst ast 


hameen rah rast ast 


You are quite out 


shumd rdhrd gum 


sheuma rahra geum 


of the way 


kardahid 


karrdaheed 


I want to be off 


man bay ad beravam 


man ba-yad berravam 


When do you start? 


kai miravld? kai ha- 


kay meerav-eed ? kay 




rakat mlkwnldl 


harrakat meekeuneed? 


Have you hired a 


dyd shumd kdleska- 


aya sheuma kaleskah-i 


conveyance ? 


he khudrd kerdyah 


ArAeudra kerra-ya 




kardahid? 


karrdah-eed ? 


I shall go by cart 


man bd delljdn khd- 


man ba delee-jan AVia- 




ham raft 


ham raft 



Shopping. (Khareed.) 

(For Vocabularies see pages 15 to IS, & 24 to 31.) 



I want some silk 

This silk is very 

dear 
This material wears 

well 
I will guarantee it 

I don't guarantee it 
Please show me 
some gloves 



man qadrl abrishum 

mlkhdham 
In abrishum khaill 

gerdn ast 
In pdrchah khaill 

davdm mlkunad 
man zamdnat mlku- 

nam \namlkunam 
man Inrd zamdnat 
lutfan chand juft 

dastkash beinan 

neshdn bedeh 



man qadree abreesheum 

mee-Ma-ham 
een abreesheum fc/tayiee 

gerran ast 
een parchah Maylee 

davam meekeunad 
man zamanat meekeu- 

nam [meekeunam 
man eenra zamanat na- 
leutfan chand jeuft 

dastkash beman 

neshan bedeh 



87 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


How much is this 


In sanduq chandast? 


een sandooq chandast? 


cabinet ? 






May I see it ? 


(beydr) beblnam ? 


(beyar) bebee-Ham ? 


I want to see that 


man mikhdham In 


man mee-Ma-ham een 


screen 


pardah rd beblnam 


parrda ra beb-eenam 


I should think it 


guyd hamln khiibast 


goo-ya hameen AVtoob- 


would do 




ast 


What is the lowest 


qaimate dkher chand 


qaymat-i a-Merrcband- 


price ? [sive ? 


ast? [ast? 


ast? 


Is this vase expen- 


dyd in zarf gerdn- 


aya een zarrf gerranast? 


I will select the 


man az hamah beh- 


man az hama beh-tar- 


best from among 


tarrd az meydnelnhd 


ra az meyani een -ha 


these 


seed khdham kard 


seva Ma-hani karrd 


I want to see some 


man mikhdham ba'- 


man mee&/ia-ham ba'zee 


curios 


zl antlkhd beblnam 


anteek-ha bebeenam 


Are they really 


dyd Inhd haqiqatan 


aya een-ha haqee-qat- 


genuine ? 


axland.- 


an as-land ? 


I don't think it is 


man gumdn naml- 


man geuman namee- 


genuine 


kunam keh In asl ast 


keunam keh een asl ast 


How old is this 


dyd In zarf cheh 


aya een zarrf che qadrr 


vase ? 


qadr kuhnah ast? 


keuhnah ast ? 


May I choose for 


dyd mltavdnam khu- 


aya meetavanam Meu- 


myself ? 


dam sevd kunam? 


dam seva keunam ? 


May I show it to 


dyd mail ddrld urd 


aya mayl dareed oora 


you? 


beshumd neshdn 


besheu-ma neshan 




bedeham ? 


be-de-ham ? 


Please give me 


lutfan beqadre dah 


leutfan beqadri da ta 


about ten 


td bedeh 


bedeh 


This suits me, but 


in bekdre man mlkhu- 


een bekari man mee- 


the price is too 


rad ammd qaima- 


Meurad amma qay- 


high 


tash khaill gerdn 


matash kh&ylee ger- 




ast [dddam 


ran ast [dam 


I have ordered it 


man urd sefdresh 


man oora sefaresh da- 


It is not new [more 


In tdzah nlst 


een taza neest 


I don't want any 


dlgar namlkhdham 


deegarr namee-Maham 


It is dearer than I 


In gerantarast az 


een gerran-tarrast az 


thought 


dncheh man khe- 


an cheh man Meyal 


[made 


ydl kardam 


karrdam 


This is native- 


In male ddkhelah ast 


een niali da-/c^el-ah ast 


This is cheaper 


In arzdntarast 


een arrzantarr-ast 


That is imported 


dnmdle khdrejah ast 


an mali Ma-rej-ah ast 



88 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


This is a still better 


In qadrl behtarast 


een qadree beh-tarr-ast 


one 


[khurad 


[ee-Meurad 


It won't. do at all 


In hlch bekdr naml- 


een heech bekar nam- 


I must have it 


man urd bdyad be- 


man oora ba-yad be- 




kharam 


Marram 


How much do you 


Inrd chand miguld? 


eenra chand meegoo- 


ask for it ? 




eed? 


I can't let you have 


namltavdnam kam- 


namee-tava-narn kam- 


them for less 


tar bedeham 


tarr bed-e-ham 


How much do you 


chand mlkhdhld 


chand mee-Ma-heed ? 


require ? 


\bekharam 


[be -Marram 


I will buy this 


man mrd mikhdham 


man eenra mee-Ma-ham 


How do you like this 


mrd mlpasandld? 


eenra meepas-andeed ? 


I don't like any of 


hlchyek az Inhdrd 


heech-yek az een-hara 


these 


namlpasandam 


namee-pas-andam 


Do you want any- 


dyd chlzl dlgar mi- 


aya cheezee deegarr 


thing else ? 


khdhld? 


mee-Ma-heed ? 


Nothing else to- 


nah emruz chlzl di- 


nahemrooz cheezee dee- 


day [worth ? 


gar namlkhdham 


garr namee-Ma-ham 


How much is this 


In chand mlarzad? 


een chand mee-arr-zad? 


Send the things to 


Inhdrd beferest man- 


een-hara beferest man- 


my hotel 


zele man 


zel-i man 


What name, sir ? 


dqd, bendme keh? 


aqa, ben -ami keh ? 


address, madam? 


bekujd, mdddm? 


bekeuja, madam ? 



Commercial and Trading. (Tejdrat va 

(For Vocabulary see page 33.) 



May I show you 
my samples ? 



I can sell at... 

I can't come down 

in price 
It is impossible to 

sell at that figure 
I will consult my 

partner and let 

you know 



dyd mail ddrld 
nemunahdyamrd 
beshumd neshdn 
bedeham? 

man be...mitavdnam 
befurusham 

namltavdnam kam- 
tar bedeham 

beln qaimat furukh- 
tan mumken nlst 

bd sharlke khud 
mashvarat mlku- 
nam va beshumd 
khabar mldaham 



aya mayl dareed nem- 
oona-ha-yam-ra be- 
sheuma neshan be- 
de-ham ? 

man be...meeta-vanam 
befeuroosham 

nam-eeta-vanam kam- 
tarr be-de-ham 

be-een qaymat feurooM- 
tan meumken neest 

ba sharree-ki Meud 
mashvarrat meekeu- 
nam va besheuma 
Mabarr meeda-ham 



89 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


We will consider 


ma fekr khdhlm 


ma fekrr Ma-heem 


the matter 


J <ard 


karrd 


We have none in 


hlch hdzer naddrlm 


heech hazerr nadareem 


stock 






I will assume the 


man masullyatrd 


man massoolee-yatra 


liability 


qabiil ddram 


qabool daram 


I am afraid I shall 


mltarsam In mdl 


meetarr-sam een mal 


lose on the sale 


zarar bekunad 


zarrarr bek-eunad 


of the goods 






I want some 


man chand mastu- 


man chand mastoora 


samples 


rah mlkhdham 


mee-A:/ia-ham 


Submit samples 


nemunahe...rd beje- 


nemoonah-i...ra befer- 


of... 


rest 


rest 


The goods are in- 


mdlhd az nemunah 


mal-ha az nemoo-nah 


ferior to samples 


pasttarand 


past-tarrand 


Show me several 


chand jur masturah 


chand joorr mastoorah 


patterns 


neshdn bedeh 


neshan bedeh 


How many hands 


chand kdrgar ddrld? 


chand kargarr dareed? 


do you employ ? 






I employ forty men 


chehel kdrgar ddram 


che-hel karrgarr daram 


There is a steamer 


yek kashtl dar esga- 


yek kashtee darr es-gal- 


at the jetty 


lah hast 


ah hast 


What cargo have 


clieh mall dar kashtl 


cheh malee darr kash- 


you on board ? 


ddrld? 


tee dareed ? 


I want a cargo boat 


yek kashtle tejdratl 


yek kashtee-i tejara-tee 




mlkhdham 


mee-Ma-ham 


Is there accommo- 


dyd dar kashtl ba- 


aya darr kashtee barra- 


dation for pas- 


rdye musdferln 


yi meusa-ferreen ra- 


sengers ? 


rdhatl hast? 


hat-ee hast ? 


Is food prepared on 


dyd dar kashtl khu- 


aya darr kashtee khen- 


board ? 


rdk mldahand? 


rak meeda-hand ? 


When can you de- 


agar man sefdreshl 


ag-arr man sef-areshee 


liver if I give 


beshumd bedeham 


besheuma bed-e-ham 


you an order ? 


kai mldahld? 


kay meeda-heed ? 


I cannot give you 


man namltavdnam 


man nameetav-anam 


an order 


beshumd sefdreshl 


besheuma sefa-reshee 




bedeham 


bed-e-ham 


I wish to cancel the 


man mlkhdham sefd- 


man mee-Ma-ham sef- 


order 


reshrdfaskh kunam 


areshra fasM keunam 


You must come 


aliumd bdyad khaill 


sheurna ba-yad A:/iayle 


down a great deal 


takhflf bedehld 


ta/cA-feef bed-e-heed 



90 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


I can't buy at that 


bein qaimat nann- 


be-een qaymat namee- 


figure 


tavdnan bekharam 


ta-vanam be-A/iarram 


What is your bot- 


qaimate dkhere shu- 


qaymat-i aMerri sheu 


tom price ? 


md chand ast? 


ma chand ast? 


Well, I will give 


khiib ! man be 


Moob ! man be...mee- 


you... but that is 


mldaham ammd In 


da-ham, amma een 


my last bid 


qaimate dkher ast 


qaymat-i a-A;/(err ast 


If you care to accept 


agar beln qaimat 


ag-arr be-een qaymat 


this figure let me 


qabul kardld 


qabool karrdeed Mab- 


know 


khabar bedehld 


arr bed-e-heed 


Have the goods 


mdlhdforan bekash- 


mal-ha forran be-kash- 


shipped at once 


tl haml shud 


tee haml sheud 


Better keep back 


behtarast keh mdl- 


beh-tarr-ast keh mal- 


the goods till the 


hdrd negdh ddrld 


hara neg-ah dareed 


next steamer 


tdjehdze dyandah 


ta je-hazi a-yandah 


When will you be 


kai khdhld bargasht? 


kay A-/ia-heed barrgasht? 


back ? [toms ? 






Where is the cus- 


gumruk kujdst? 


geumreuk keujast ? 


Is there an answer? 


javdbl hast? 


jav-abee hast? 


Tell him to wait 


begu sabr kunad 


beg-oo sabrr keunad 


He need not wait 


Idzem nlst sabr ku- 


lazem neest sabrr keu- 




nad 


nad 


Ask him to come in 


begu beydyad tu 


beg-oo be-ya-yad too 


I will go myself 


man khudam khd- 


man Meudam Ma-ham 




ham raft \ravid, 


raft [berrav-eed 


You need not go 


shumd Idzem nlst be- 


sheuma lazem neest 


Have you shipped 


dyd mdlhdrd bekash- 


aya mal-hara bekashtee 


the goods ? 


ti dddid* 


dadeed ? 


There are errors 


In hesdb chand jd 


een hessab chand ja 


in the account 


sahv ddrad 


sahv darad 


You have over- 


shumd az man ze- 


sheuma az man zeya- 


charged me 


yddl gereftid 


dee gerrefteed 


This is a clerical 


In sahve mirzdst 


een sahvi meerr-zast 


error [error 


\kardam 


[karrdam 


I have deducted the 


man sahvrd menhd 


man sahv-ra men-ha 


It is more than we 


In zeyddtar az dnast 


een zey-ad-tarr az an- 


arranged 


keh qardr guzdsh- 


as t keh qarrar geu- 




tim 


zashteem 


Send in our account 


hesdbe mard beferest 


hessabi marra beferest 


I want a detailed 


man yek hesdbe mu- 


man yek hessabi meu- 


account 


fassal mlkhdham \ fassal mee-fcM-ham 



91. 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Here is a cheque 
for your account 
Will you accept a 
bill? 


in bijake talabe 
shumdst 
dyd bardt qabul ml- 
kunid? 


een bee-jak-i tal-ab-i 
sheumast 
aya barrat qab-ool mee- 
keuneed ? 


These goods must 
be carefully packed 


In mdlhd bdyad 
bd deqqat bastah 
shavand 


een mal-ha ba-yad ba- 
deq-qat bastah shav- 
and 


Put this mark on 
the boxes 
The boxes must be 
iron-bound 


In nwhdnrd buyzdr 
ruije sanduqhd 
In sanduqhd bdyad 
dltan - bandl be- 


een neshan-ra beug-zar 
roo-yi sandooq-ha 
een sandooq-ha ba-yad 
a-han-bandee besh- 




shavand 


av-and 


The boxes must be 
tin-bound 


in sanduqhd bdyad 
be halabl gereftah 
shavand 


een sandooq-ha ba-yad 
be hallabee gerref- 
tah shav-and 


Trade is good 
Trade is dull 


bazar ravdjast 
bdzdr kasddast 


ba-zar ravaj-ast 
ba-zar kassad-ast 


He has become 


u varshekastah shud 


oo varr-shek-asta 


bankrupt 
The firm is in liqui- 
dation 


In tejdratkhdnah 
bastah khdhadshud 


sheud 
een tej-arat-/f/iana bas- 
tah Ma-had sheud 


[lit., will be closed] 

Are these notes 
good? 


dyd In askendshd 
Ichuband? 


aya een as-kenas-ha 
Mooband ? 



Money-Changing. (Tabdeei-i-pooi.) 



(For Tables of Money see pp. 95 & 96.) 



Where is tnere a 

money-changer ? 
Can you give me 

change ? 
Yes, sir ; what 

change do you 

want ? 
Will you give me 

Persian money ? 
Please give me 

bank-notes [in... 
Give me the amount 
Please change this 

into small money 



dukkane sarrdfl 

kujdxt? 
dyd pul khurd ml- 

kunld? 
balldqd! chehsekkah 

(pul) mlkhdhld? 

pule Iran bedehld? 

lutfan askendse- 

bdnk bedehld 
pule... bedehld 
lutfan inrd piile 



deuk-kani sarrafee keu- 

jast? 
aya pool &/teurrd mee- 

keuneed ? 
bal-ee aqa ! che sek- 

ka (pool) mee-fe/ia- 

heed? 
pooli eeran bed-e-heed ? 

leutfan as-ken-asi-bank 

bed-e-heed 
pooli... bed-e-heed 
leutfan eenra pooli 



khurdah bedehld? Meurrda bed-e-heed 



92 

English. Persian (romanized). Pronunciation. 


Will you cash this 


dya In bljakrd 


aya een beej akra Meurrd 


cheque for me? 


khurd mlkunld? 


meekeuneed ? 


What exchange on 


mazannahe . . . engells 


maz-an-nah-i....en-gel- 


English money? 


chand ast? 


ees chandast ? 


Please change me 


hit/an In yek aske- 


leutfan een yek as-ken- 


an English bank- 


ndse bdnke enyells- 


asi banki en-gel-ees- 


note 


rd khurd kunid 


ra Meurrd keuneed 


I want change for 


In askendsrd khurd 


een askenasra Meurrd 


this note [it ? 


kunid 


keuneed 


How will you take 


cheh pull mlkhdlild? 


che poolee meeAVtaheed? 


Can you give it me 


agar ddrld teld bede- 


agarr dareed tela 


in gold? 


hU ? [in gold) 


bedeheed ? 




(i.e. If you have, give me 




I will take it in gold 


teld mlkhdham 


tela meeA;/iaham 


Can you change me 


(aya) mltavdnld yek 


(aya) meeta-vaneed yek 


a sovereign ? 


lira khurd kunid? 


leera Meurrd keuneed? 


I am sorry I 


mutaassefam, naml- 


meuta-assefam, namee- 


cannot 


tavdnam, nah 


tavanam, na nada- 




naddram 


ram 


I haven't enough 


piile khurdah dn- 


pool-i A;/ieurrda anqadr 


change by me 


qadr naddram 


nadaram 


I have no more 


dlgar pule khurdah 


deegarr pool-i Meurrda 


change 


naddram 


nadaram 


Where is the nearest 


dukkdne sarrdfl 


deuk-kan-i sar-rafee 


bank? 


(bank) ktijdst? 


(bank) keujast? 


Give it me in bank- 


askendse bank ' 


askenas-i bank bed- 


notes 


bedehld 


eheed 


This is a Bank of 


In askendse bdnke 


een askenas-i bank-i 


England note 


engells-ast 


engelees-ast 



93 



PERSIAN HANDWRITING. 

At first sight there appears perhaps little or no difference 
between the written and printed characters of the Persi-Arabic 
alphabet. There is a certain amount of variation, however, and 
if the student will carefully examine the illustration of Persian 
penmanship, given on the following page, he will readily per- 
ceive the points of difference. He should particularly note 

1. In manuscript the usual signs of tashdeed (") and djaqm () 
are generally omitted. 

2. The combined form of the letter & is generally written 
thus: initial ^ instead of A, ja> * as - & ; medial o instead 
of 4, i^-il^i A^J. as ,j.iUi iU* ; final instead of s., &3l>. s as 

jii. X 

With these exceptions the letters are written very much the 
same as in the printed characters. In the Shikastah or cursive 
hand many peculiar forms and combinations of letters occur 
which can only be learnt by practice. Letters which should not 
be connected with a following letter are ^ ^ : ^ i .s 1 ; they are 
generally written combined in Shikastah only, and the dots 
distinguishing the various letters are frequently omitted. 



/y ^ 94 

Specimen of Persian Handwriting. 

[THE LORD'S PEAYEB.] 




95 
THE LOED'S PB&YEB. [TEANSLITEEATION.] 



[The following is the romanized form of the words of the Prayer, as given on the 
preceding page, with the literal English translation interlined.] 

Ay pedar-i- ma keh dar asemani muqaddas bad nam-i tu. 
Father of us who in sky Thou art, sacred let-be name of Thee. 

Beyayad malakut-i- tu. Ejra-shavad eradat-i- tu dar 
Let-come glory of Thee. Let be carried out wish of Thee on 

zamln chenancheh dar aseman-ast. Emruz ruzey-i- mara 
the earth even as in the sky it is. To-day daily-bread of us 

bema berasan va gunahan-i- mara bebakb.sk chenancheh ma 
to us send and sins of us forgive even as we 

gunahan-i- anhara keh bema takhattl mlkunand 
the sins of those who against us trespass do 

mlbakhshlm. Mara bemaqam-i- emtehan mayar va mara 

forgive. Us to a place of trial bring-not and us 

az sharir khalasi bedeh. Chera keh turast malakdt 
from the Evil-one release give. Because that Thine is Sovereignty 

va jabarut va jalal ela abad-el abad. Amin. 
and Power and Greatness to all eternity. Amen. 



MONEY, WEIGHTS & MEASURES. 

MONEY. (Pool.) 

Shahee, a COPPEE coin = about a farthing 

qeran (20 shdhee), a SILVER coin = about 4|d. 

manat (the Russian rouble), SILVBE = about 2 shillings 

tooman (10 qeran}, SILVEB - about 4s. 

ashrafee, a GOLD coin = about 8s. 

leerd (about 50 qeran), the English sovereign, GOLD = 1 
emperidl (the Russian imperial), GOLD ... ... = about 1 

Copper coins are known as pool-i-seydh, i.e., black money, and silver 
coins as pool-i-sefeed, white money. 

Bank-notes are in circulation, of the value of 1, 5, 10, 25 tooman, etc. 

The standard is silver and fluctuates considerably. 
THE RATE OF EXCHANGE. The English sovereign is usually exchanged 
for about 50 qeran or 5 tooman. It is on this basis that the table on page 
96 is calculated. 



f L 






96 



English & American Money, with Persian Equivalents. 



ENGLISH. 
8. d. 

50 

5 

1 

10 

5 

2 



AMERICAN. 
dols. c. 

250 00 

25 00 

5 00 

2 50 

1 25 



t. q. 

250 
25 
5 
25 







= 12 10 
= 65 



d. 



6 
3 
1 
0* 



AMEBICAN. 
dols. e. 

50 = 

25 = 

14- 

: O = 

2 = 

1 = 



1 tooman (t.) 10 queran (q.) = 200 shahee (s.) 



PEESIiN. 
t. q. 8. 

5 

2 10 

1 5 

12 

4 

2 



[The above equivalents are subject to fluctuations in the rate of exchange.] 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Bohr (A of a zarre') 

gerah (J!B of a zarre') .... ... 

chary ek or charak ( of a zarre') ... 

neem zarre' (% zarre') 

zarre' 

farrsang or farrsakh (6,000 zarre') 



(Meqyas-i-tool.) 

= IJinch 
"... '-* == 2 inches 



= 1-1377 yard 
= about 3| miles 



oz.) 



A farrsang is "the distance a mule can walk comfortably in an hour." 

WEIGHTS. (Vazn.) 

Gandeum (a wheat corn) ... ... ... = 

neukheud (a small chick pea ; 4 gandeum) 

mesqal (24 neukheud) = 

seerr (16 mesqdl) 

chdryek or charak (160 mesqdl; J TWOTO) ... = 
wow (Tabriz 1,000 mesqdl)... ... ... = 

(Saqat 640 mesqdl) .. 

(Shah 1,280 * mesqdl) 

kharrvdrr (100 Shiraz man) = 

The mesqdl is the standard of weight throughout Persia. 
man is the Treaty man. 

CAPACITY. There is no measure of capacity in Persia, everything 
being sold by weight or number. 



83 grain 

m ounce 

88-32 gr. (nearly 

2-944 oz. 

1-84 Ib. (lib. 13oz.7dr.) 

11 lb.8oz. 

7-36 Ib. (71b.5oz.12dr.) 

14 Ib. 11 oz. 8dr. 

736 Ib. 

The Saqat 



POSTAL CHARGES. 

LETTERS. 

For INTERNAL Letters : 

About 3 mesqdl (or about \ oz.) costs 5 shahee (about l^d. 
For INTEKNAL Post-cards, the postage is 3 shahee (about fd.) 
For FOREIGN Letters: 

About 3 mesqal (about oz.) costs 18 shahee (about 3Jd.) 
For FOREIGN Post-cards ... 6 (about 

TELEGRAMS (INTERNAL). 

For 10 words, including address, 2^ qerdn (about Is.) 
For every additional 10 words or less than 10, 2 qerdn (about 9j 

William Brown & Co. Limited, Printers, Ac., London, E.G. 



A |H.'j!^ "" "iii inn Hill illil lllji lij 



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