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" i>iiie6 «( (fecoriMu e«( pro pirtrjrf m"n" 
"Thu Bbitbst MiN I .v.- nmw »kd ihi mn P.otct Soldibi." 






Biity-nlnp. by 

In the Clcrk'f office of the Disti-lct Court of the United Slotes for the Soutlierii 

^t of S 

>y Go Ogle 


'O D ER-Cri ZENS, 




>y Go ogle 



Prefiice ,....,.^ , .__-..- ,.. - ^tosil 

iDtrodnclOTj Keujarke t-.n. .^ — - -- 3sto j;it 


A gWrions Hetrospect; Origin oIUib KEAjturJ^Biilri aHielr'HelalionBBEa 
Conriectloiifl in tMs Conntij, BEd their MiitoW-4*811aOonB. 

CHAPTEK H., a! to 35 

TheKEAEiTT and Watts Famlliei and Iheir ConiiBtOons;ai«lr Ciril and 
Military services. 

CHAPTER ni 3fito46 

The Springtide of Tenth: Chilflhooa, hoylmod, jonth unfl BfluoBlitm W 
Philip Kbubiit. The child Father to the Man. 


lo the Sadaie at last — Liontenant Phuip JLbasss'b Hint mHltair temee at 
the Par Weet in 1931—16311, with XoHcea of the froatier HetUementBBbDut 
that period. 

CHAPTER V eatosa 

A repreaealatiyc American — Lientenant Keabbt Ht the I'tench Mlliioir 
School of Sanraur. The Feast of Kings ; TnellUi MSpht StstivitieB — A 
Ball given by an American Officer In rrmice 'wDrthrM commBmoratlon 

CHAPTER VI......... SatoW 

El Tell and El Sorsons; Franceln Atrion— AdeBcriptlonofihe'UioatrBof toe 
tilitlea between the French aofl Natives jn Ai^ere; lis Climate, phjet- 
cal appearance, and a con »i As ration of the principal hislfiiloa] events 
which preceded Lieutenant KeabbI'S service in that region. 


ThronsliElBlban — The passage of the Atiaa MonntalnB, throngh the Qales 
of Icon, by Marshal ViL^E BaB tie Duto Hf Orleans, One of the most 


Over the Monsaia to Medeah and Millanah — The AMcan BnHlo BbovB the 
Clouds ; Campaign ot 1839, and Oampaign of 1810 ; lientenant Philip 
KEiRNT's •'Baptlam orPiro" on Ihe PJaina cf McMdJah Bnfl nl the 
Chelifl, at fhe Siege of Milianah and PaBSaRe of tie Moneaia. 

CHAPTER IX , lUtojas 

Prom the Misalsaippi to the Rodiy Monntalne — The Bipefllljon Bt IBM, 
from Fort Leavenworth, along lie " Oregon Trace," lo the Sonlh PasB, 
thence to Bent'a Port, and homewardsaloi^ the "Santa Pe Trace" to 
the starting place : with beantlfol nolle 
tram the Correspondence of a dlgtinEtiished Anny O; 



CHAPTER S ]23tol3i 

The Meilcan War— Captain Philip EEiKur in Moiioo and his tamone com- 
pany, moonted on Iron Greys ; hi8 eervice along the Hio Grande In ^846; 
eelection of hie company aa the body-gaarilol' Majot-General Soott at 
Tera-Cmz ; The DLnnerat Pnebla ; " An aim fur abrevet ; " the pnranit to 
Rio Frio ; Uic irat Americans in arms on tlxe Rim of the Baain of Mesi- 
co ; the CcOBsIng of the Pedregal. 

CHAPTER SI 186 to 151 

he Gurita San Antonio: Charge of the One Hnoared— The battlo of 
ChurnbUBco; Keabni's famoua charge of two miles with 100 American 
dragoooB, through 5,01)0 Mexican Infantry and Caialry — Cuplain Philip 
KEiRsr the first man, sword in hand, to enter Mexico — one of the moat 
andacions feats recorded In military hiatoiy, which " has no parallel in 

CHAPTER xn isatoia 

Home, sweet home — Sword presentatton to Brevet-Major Philip KEABur. 

CHAPTER xm ISitolB'; 

The Golden Gate and Victory of the Eogao Biver — One of the moat brilliant 
feata of Indian fighting performed by our old Army. 


KBiimr a Wanderer: "Honna the world " — " KBiRST, in Paris, rendered 
important service to' the Loyal North, In 1859—' 60." 

CHAPTERXV Ifiltoia; 

The lullan Campaign of is'sil; KEiiiBy. a Volunteer at Solferino; decorated 
with the Cross of tha Le^on of Honor. 

CHAPTER Xyi 181 to 30! 

"The Type Volunteer General of the War: " Keahht'b retnm to America in 

European HiaWiry, 

CHAPTER XVII 201 to 21 

A Model Brigadier and Pattern Brigade Coraraandec, Philip KeaBh-t, "the 
13th Brigadier U. S. V., on the Original List of Generals of that Bank," at 
work, making hts fhmons 1st New Jersey Brigade ; KEiENY's Views m 
regard to carrying on War. 


Plane aufl Correspondence ; Keahnt foretella the Greatness of Ghast. 

CHAPTER XIX 2a8to25 

The Second Aflvance to Manasses, occupation ot the Rebel campa and 

tivc of aotivo operations; Reports with Liata of those who dlatingnished 


Irritants and Afsnaaives ; Poison and Antidote ; BEiRtd thanked by the 
Sew Jersey LeglBlatnre. 


tnm\ Alexandria through Torktown to Williamsburg; Keahnt in command 
otthe 3d (afterwards lat) Division, M Corps, Army of the Potomac, Com- 


C0KTENT8. ill 

CDAPTEEXXIl 263 to 298 

The Battle or Willlflmfburs, Monday, May 5, 18(i2;"KEAKNT, the last to Icavo 
York1oi\ii. the first up to eato Hooker;" KEAiisr's flrel maHnfficent 
uiipearanCK on the battie field; Kepnlao ronierted into victory; His 
glorloQs aspect and iiifluODCe in & figM: Anecdotee. Incideula, Corres- 
pondence and Heports. 


EsEBTLi GnATlA, EiC Dipljiry Volunteer Generals. 


Tte Peninailla Campaign No. 1; Seven Pines and Fair Oaks; Keabht a 
proptiGt as well as a General and a Soldier; LetterF, Anecdotes, Inei- 

CHAPTEBXXV 330 to 339 

Peninsula Campaign No, S; Fait Oake to Oak Gtove to Malvern Hill ; The 
Seven Days' Battles: Oak Grove, MechaoiCFville, Gaines' Mills. SavBffe 
Station, White Oak Swamp, Qlendale, Malvem Hill; Correspondence, 
Parallels, Beniarkable OccurreuceaaDdBeports. 


Companion and Supplementary, a partial review of the Peninsnla Operations 
on the Left; Popular prononoss to eza^eratlon; KBiBNi's practical fore- 
sight and ability ; The BEiam Patch, Diamond and Cross, and Badge or 


KfivelaUona of the Truth, 

CHAPTEE XXVni 38fito41)3 

Pope and the "Annyof Virginia;" From the Eapidan to Warreuton ; Kkabky 
again in the Bold ; KEiBBr'9 division the first, of the Army of the Polo- 
mac, up, in line, for the reUef of Pope ; Pope vindicated. 


Pope and the "Army of Virginia ;" Something on the ever ready, fighting, 3d 
Corps ; Kbabnt's final Correspondence and last Report ; Kbabkt's little 

CHAPTER XXX 41)7to433 

Chantilly — A striking siample of a socond-clasB decisive battle ; SiONKwiij, 
Jaokbon ae/ealed ; The Atmy of Virginia saved ; Redeeming Vlctoiy of 
the Union Troops, and startling Death of KEAnNT. 

CHAPTER \\y \ 43ilo48l 

Death and Burial of " the bravest man I (Scott) ever Snew, and the moet 
perfect soldier;". Charming Reminiscences fiom Kesrhi'b Comrades 


ThoBpilogne— A sumruingupof the characteristics of Majot-GeneralPmLiP 
EiABiTT, ntth Interesting anecdotes throughout his careei^ 




"Tbat elegantfarce in hietorj, which chsracterlzedTAciTiia andPLUTABca, seema to 
tiSTe disappeared In our time; OBrtBinly iD biographieg. * • * WJien Icom- 
paia tiie preaent Sketcli witli the Ideal wbioh I had concoiTOd, it ia wltli actual timiditj 
that I ypntnre to pnhlish it. A perfect biography I cannot indeed prepare, since the 
Count (ScQAUiiBUBa-LiPFE) carefully kept eecret the majerlty of his greatest deeds. 
• • • It was my simple intention to portray oTen hla character us a cxnomander 
and arulor (organizer) from the ataad-point of his magnanimity, and establish every trait 
of this pictnro with anecdotes. Yet even such a sketch, at least with my powers, can be 
nothing more than n fragment. Ferhaps I may claim that no one at a preTlona lirae 
could have produced eomparatlvelj as complete a history of the Count's eareer as Ibis 
one. Lest any one should find fault, or occasion for it should appear, I did not embofly 
much information which I actually posaeaaed. I do not urge thia as a satisfactory ci- 
ease for Ihe fanlts of my work, but simply as a reaaon why they merit pardon, end on 
that account I pray the indulgerice of the poblic." 

The preparation of this Biography, or rather Biographical Sketcli 
of the Military Career of Major-General Philip Keakst has been 
looked forward to for six years, not only as a sincere pleasure, bnt 
as a solenm duty. Almost all the nolicea of this distinguislieiS 
General, ■which have appeared in the diffei-ent papers and periodi- 
cals, were httle more than the amplifications of the sketch of liim pre- 
pared by the writer for the New York Times in 1861. This sketch 
grew into one more worthy of the subject in the columns of the 
New York Citizen of January 25th, 1867, and Fehroary 1st and 8th, 
1868, On the ITth of Januaiy, 1868, Cortlandt Paeseh, Esq., 
counsel, and intimate friend of the deceased General, delivered au 
Addi'ess before the New Jersey Historical Society. This noble tri- 
bute of friendship was afterwards fiirnished to the editors of the 
Northern Monthly Magazine, and appeared in the three numbers of 
that periot^cal for November and December, 1867, and February, 
1868, It was subsequently pubhshed, by request, as a pamphlet of 
forty-nine pages. Mr. Pabkek had free access to all the papers in 
the possession of the immediate family of the General, and the results 

>y Go Ogle 

of hia labors are equally interesting as a charming composition and 
as a valuable contribution to hiatory. To it the writer of the present 
work is indebted for much connected with the last year of the hero's 
life, especially extracts from lettei-e, etc. Otherwise the facts herem 
presented are altogether new, and the riews of Genei-^ Keabnt are 
derived from pereoual and confidentiiJ int«rcom-se fi-om boyhood to 

The writer hesitated for a long time before resuming the pen, feel- 
ing that nothing could be done which deserved the name of a biog- 
raphy until certain letters, documents, and books could be obtained 
and examined. Manuscripts, et«., etc., are known to have existed 
which have eluded the anxious search of the historian. The kind- 
ness of friends, and an examination of con-espondence, lias filled some 
of the minor gaps, but others still exist, one of which is General 
Keaksy's Algei-ian experience, as glorious to himself as interesting 
to the public. On his return to the United States he wi'ote an ac- 
count of his African campaign, which was "privately printed." Not 
a copy of this, however, is to be found, although dihgent search has 
been made in every quarter-, where an exemplai- onght to have been 
preserved. Most of his coiTcspondence was, donbtless, among the 
papers of an aged relative, his mother's sister, one of the most loyal, 
noble, and generous of women, deceased in June, 1866. This was 
either committed to the flames by her, or burned after her decease 
as a sacred trust not to be violated when the gi-ave had closed ovei- 
both, the one who wrote as a son to a mother, and the other to whom 
the confidential letters wei'e addressed. A valuable letter, which was 
in hand last fall, baa likewise i^appeared, whether destroyed or 
stolen for the autograph, since it possessed a signatui'e in fidl, a very 
rare thing with Keakni's letters, who generally signed "Phil," 
or " K." 

The author of these pages was the only cousm of Genera! KEAHffT, 
on his mother's side, brought up with him in the house of their ma- 
ternal grandfather, Hon. John Watts. This excellent man. General 
KeiIENt's grandfather, was ennobled by his benevolence. His best 
memorial is a grand charitable institution which he endowed in the 
city of New York. Mr. Watts was a monument of affliction, in 
that he had seen his wife, six handsome, 0&ei, and gallant sons, and 
four daughters precede him to the gi-ave. One childless daughter 
survived him and three grandcbildi-en. General Keaeny, his sister, 
Mrs. SIacomb, who died in Em-ope 30th April, 1852, and the writei-. 

>y Go Ogle 

Pectiiiai- associations intensified the ties which umt«d the survivors, 
«oIe reproaentatives of a race which had occupied so prominent a 
position in tiie annals of their native State for nearly a century "in 
troublous, times." In youth the pursuits of General Keaknt and 
Uie writer of these pages were identical, and it waa to the house of 
the latter that the former returned from time to time to talk over the 
sti-ange adventures experienced in a remarkably checkered career. 
Together in 1834 they visited Europe, and the majority of the opin- 
ions expressed herein are founded on personal recollections. If 
affection, admii-ation, stnfcs, in common, interchange of thoughts, 
intercourse without reserve, and a memory remarkable for its te- 
nacity can enable any one to produce a reliable biography, the follow- 
ing may be considered authentia As a patriot, as a pubUc officer, 
and as a soldier, Philip itEAKNT was a grand example, worthy of 
study, imitation, and commemoration. As an officer in the service 
of our country, his glory belongs, particularly, to hia native State, 
from which he waa appointed to the United States Army. As a 
General, unsurpassed, wherevei' and whenever he was tried for cour- 
age, fidehty, self-sacrificing, energy, and ability, his glory is equally 
the property of the whole country. As West Point had nothing to 
do with his achievements, as he owed nothing to its training, to its 
cast influence, to its academic hne of thought, or to its terrible pre. 
judices, he may be considered a magnificent type of a Voluntefei' sol- 
dier, for fi'om private life was he appointed to .his fif st commission ; 
from private life it might be said he agdn sprang into the saddle in 
1846 — since he recaUed his resignation to partake in the glories of 
the Mexican war — and fi-om private life abroad he returned home to 
reaasiune his uniform and assist in saving his country. Aa a Volun- 
teer-, he participated m the dangers and fatigues of a campaign in 
Africa which carried the tricolor tln-ough the "Gates of Iron " and 
over- the Atlas into the strongholds of Abd-el-Kader. He partook 
in the operations of that campaign which laid the bams of the pre- 
sent Kingdom of Italy, and a Major-General of American volunteers, 
he died on the field of battle. Thei'efore to the Volunteer Armies 
of the United State8,.and more particularly to the officers and sol- 
diers of his unmei^te commands— especially that nonpareil New 
Jersey Brigade which he created, and that glorious Fir«t Division of 
theThu-d Corps of the Army of the Potomac at whose head he fell — 
are these pages dedicated, with the deepest .and warmest gratitude 
of the author. 

>y Go Ogle 



Field-Marshal Mekot'b epitaph on the battlc-fleld o£ NordUngen. where he fell, 1643. 

A TvONDEKFOi. epoch haa closed. Thia generation ebmds like 
epeotators around the upheaved ruins — not yet settled — of an uu- 
pai'alleled moral as well as physical' earthquake. Even as at the 
period of the great French Revolution of 1789 (1793), humanity 
has made one of its gigantic strides, in advance, which comperieat« 
for the inaction of ages. Not that human progress ever stands 
still, but at titties it almost seems to, do so, groping its way along 
like one still half asleep, or like one just awakened from a lethargic 
or dragged slmnber. Happy he who has enjoyed the advantages 
of occupying a stand-point whence to observe, with a philosophic 
view, the phases and the marvels of the convulsions ; more fortunate 
he who has associated with the heroes, the martyrs, or the victims 
of the catastrophe, and haa the abOity and leisure to collect and pre- 
pare for grander histories the details of the tempest he has wit- 
nMsed, and the words, the gestures, the deeds of those who towered, 
like peaks irradiated with the snn of glory, amid the coUiding storm- 
clouds, freighted with thunder and devastation. 

In a retired quarter of the metropoUs of the " Babylonish Cap- 
tivity of the Papacy" stood an old building, once the convent of St, 
Marcel, since the first Empire transmuted into a " Suecnrsale " of 
the " Grand Hotel" at Pai'is, devoted to the reception of the mva- 
lids of that ai'my which had borne the tricolor, the emblem of popu- 

>y Go Ogle 


Ijtr triumph, tlirougli conquered capitals, east aad south, to the re- 
motest bounds of civilizatJoii. In its cool garden and along its cor- 
ridors had grouped and walked, fighting their battles over again in 
interchange of recollections, heroes who had marched and combattcd 
OTer the fieiy sands of Egypt, the classic soil of Italy, the castle- 
crowned moontains of Germany, the dreary bogs i-eclaimed by 
Teutonic feudalism, the nigged ranges of the Iberian sierras, and 
the snowy steppes of Russia, Around this gai-den, shutting them 
in from the industiy of social life, whose blessings and comfoi-ts 
they had renoimced for the fascinating career of arms, rose high 
walls, which formerly closed in the members of the church mHitant, 
the monkdom of the cloister, scarcely greater strangers than the 
monkdom of the flag to the busy and comparatively happier world 
of every-daylife. Bat unlike the dispossessed fi-iars, the vision of 
these invalids was not bounded by bare walls, suggestive of no 
thoughts save those connected witli the dull monotony of monastic 
life. Thickly strung together, like a zone of jewels, fi-om the rich 
mine of the military annals of France, dose side by side, a sei-ies of 
sruEAi. TABLETS cxtendcd around the garden, devoted to the immor- 
talization of glorious deeds and of heroic eools, that recalled the 
triumphs in which the veterans had participated — triumphs whose 
narration had made their watcii-fires the centres of epopees as grand 
as the sti-ophes of Ossian. What a glorious seclusion, i-edolent with 
the pei-fume of patriotic devotion, brilliant with the lustre of militaiy 
achievements, musical with the eulogies of the heroic deadl 

What a contrast to these tablets, those tablets set in the walls of 
the old ducal palace which commemorate the Arnolds, the Davises, 
the Stepsenses of that Republic which once contested the empire of 
the Mediterranean with the twin sister of the Adi-iatic, and left me- 
morials of its commercial daring in lands which are scarcely now 
accessible to European enterprise. 

Yet both these classes of monuments should be preserved with 
equal care, for they establish the ti-uths of History, and maintain 
them against the flattery of sycophants, the chaogcs of political 
opinion, or the venial pens of prejudiced or pohtical writers, 
changing, as one we have seen, with the hour and with personal 

This httle book seeks to erect a memorial to one of the most 
striking figures in the great American Conflict to crash the 
" SLAVEnoijJERs' Rebellion." Its pages present a sketch of the 

>y Go Ogle 


career of one of the men most prominent for their ability, theb in- 
fluence, theii' pi-owess, and theii- genius for waiv 

The student of American History, in his quiet hbrary, suiTOnnded 
by such works, whether rude or pohshed in their language, Still 
careful in their presentation of tmths, is like the visitor in the gar- 
den oftho "Succursale" (at Avignon), of the " Hotel des Invalides" 
at Paiia. He can abandon himself to the reflections engendered by 
the stories of the R«belIion, and as he tm-ns from shelf to shelf, and 
sanntei-s thi-ough the historic pages, the eyes of his mind can con- 
template cOMMEMOKATivB TABLETS, sot Up On the walls of hls im- 
agination, some, like those of Kbakxy and of Ltox, presenting exam- 
plea of patriotism and .aelf-sacriflce ; othei's, such as those of Lee 
and Davis, recalling evil men, prominent in the leadership of treason 
and of sin, but none the less remai'kable or worthy of consideration 
as beacons on that reef of crime on which a confiding section went 
to wreck and ruin. 

Contemplating and reflecting, before him will pass a panoramic 
series of the actions of the Rebellion. Each Biographical Sketch 
will serve as a portrait in the gallery of word-pictures, and ever and 
anon a prominent figure will start into life, if the pen of the biogra- 
pher is equal in its power to the part played by his hero in the mag- 
nificent procession of the wai- pageant 

To future students of history such biographies, however imper- 
fectly written or faulty in their style, will prove of incalculable 
intei'est; to future writers of history, of inestimable value. To 
every one who contemplates, like a pMosopher, the changes which 
our national organization underwent in five years (1860-65), every 
work connected with the cataclysm will be of value, as a i^ecord and 
a memento of what human wifl, single or combined, ewing but ener- 
getic, can aecompfish to injure or to presei-ve ; while the general 
story and its results will serve and operate as a warning ag^st the 
misdirection of human efibrts in the futm'e to deface or destroy a 
national structure, faulty in some of its details, but sublime in its 
general conception ; an edifice purified from the stains of slavery, 
and renovated through the patriotism of the loyal men of all sec- 
tions, destined to stand, with open doors, a refiige and an asylum to 
the oppressed and suffering throughout the world. 

The history of the " Slaveholders' Eebellion " is the record of 
3 treason without a parallel in its criminahty : a treason against 
God's best ^fts, against Fi-ee thought, Fi-ee action, a Fi'ee laud — 

>y Go Ogle 


a treason against the People — whose voice, when it uttei's its will 
with determination, but without violence, is the voice of God. 
Those who, like Kgaknit, led the van for the People ; who, with- 
out ambitious purposes, laid down their lives for the People ; who 
bore the burden and heat of the day, and "pEwd the last full mea- 
Bui'e of devotion " that theii- country might live ; soldiers, patriots, 
maitjTB — such indeed were ohampioas of Liberty. One of the 
grandest of these was Keaknt, and this book is a memorial of him. 
He deserves the best monument of which the pen, pencil, or chisel 
is susceptible. But the hero will not despise any memento, how- 
ever humble, which is the result of the best efforts of the author and 
a tribute of his affection. 

>y Go Ogle 

From tba orlgiuol grand eqiiestrion portrait In tliB pcasesBion of tbe Anthc 
as tlio best llkeniisa by tb« Oeneral's family. 

>y Go Ogle 






" This chivalrio figure looka aa though it had just leaped from the 
centre of a medieval battle-piece." 

Though living in these modern and proaaic days, his bearing is 
essentially romantic ; he looks the knightrerrant Such a rider on 
such a steed takes the mind back to the days when the badge of 
nobility was skill with the sword and grace in horsemanship ; when 
to be a gentleman was to follow the profession of arms ; when the 
joust and the tom.-nament assembled all the beauty and all the valor 
of feudal monarchies ; when 

"Kine ami twenty kniglita of fame 
Hnng their shields in Branksome Hall, 
And quitted not their harooea brigtt, 
Neither by day, nor yet by night ; 
Bnt carved at the meal 
"With gloves of steel. 
And drank the red wine through the helmet barred." 

These words ai-e full of truth, suggestive. 

There is scarcely an individual endowed with the power of obser- 
vation, who, while examining a collection of modern or recent por- 
ti-aita, has not been struck with the peculiar- face and bearing of some 
one or other of the individuals presented, who, notwithstanding the 
costumes and accessories, seems out of place among the pictures of 
cotemporaries. Cei-tain striking peculiarities of feature or expression, 
surest the idea that a mistake has occurred ; that the likeness of 

>y Go Ogle 



one distinguiahed in tlie days of cliivalry has fallon into the hands of 
& Vandal, to whose parse or whim the painter has sa^iificed his ai-t 
as well as the ti-uth, and concealed the armor, dinted by.ciraeter 
or falchion, beneath the stiff and ungra«efiil costume of this century. 
No one who has haa ever studied the lineaments and expression of 
Philip ICeaent, his cari-iage, his beai-ing on foot or seat in the sad. 
die, but must appreciate this, and acknowledge in their hearts that 
his soldierly face and knightly pei-son would look more appropriate 
under the morion and the mail of Fra Mokbalb, of dv Guesclix, or 
of Bayard, or in the plumed hat lined with steel, and polished 
bi'eastplate of a Rupert, a Mokthose, or a Dundee ; nor deem him in 
the saddle nnwoi-thy of Sir Eichakd Verxon's glowing description 
of that "Imp of Fame," who, on the field of Agincoui-t, so glorious 
to his manhood, declared : 

" And be it death procldmed throughout our host 
To boost of this, or tako that praise from God 
Which is lUs only " — 

Thus spake Sir Richabd ; 

" 1 saw young Harry — with his bearer on, 
His cuisaes on his thighs, gallantly ann'd, — 
Rise from the ground like feathered Mercniy, 
And vanlted with such case into his seat 
As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds, 
To torn aud wind a fiery Pegasus, 
And witch thu world with noble horacralmship." 

Wandering through the galleries of Europe, the writer has more 
than once been startled at recognizing in a grand equestrian picture, 
or an exquisite military portrait, something which recalled a friend 
or relative distinguished for those qualities which indicate the natural 
soldier. Any one who was intimately acquainted ivith Major-General 
Pinxip Kearst, and the race from which he sprang, or with which 
he was connected, can understand this feeling. 

In the P:dazzo Spiuola, in Genoa, there is a magnificent painting 
by Va}j Dyke, hung on hinges, which, when swung out fi'om the. 
wall in order to present ita beauties in the most advantageot^ light, 
both horse and rider, nearly natural size, seem to stand out fi-om the 
canvass and become instinct with life. It is one of those incompara- 
ble equestrian portraits, regarded as almost priceless gems of art, in 
which the rival of Rcbens and of Titian peculiarly excelled- Such 

>y Go Ogle 


a portr^t, in fact, to one who knew Mm weO, would at once recall 
General Keabny. In hira, mounted on Ids favorite gray chai^ei', 
Moscow, the gi'eat painter would have welcomed a subject worthy of 
his genius, and have handed him down to posterity in all the biilhancy 
of his design and colormg ; and fiction would have seized upon him 
as ite hei'o, and have commemorated his career in verse lite the 
" Max PiccolomJni " of Schilt-er, or in romance like the Claverhouse 
of "Old Mortality." 

This is no over-drawn picture. On some public occaeion, at a bail 
in the Grand-Ducal (Pitti) Palaee, in Florence, Keaeny appeared as 
a Knight Templar, clothed from head to foot in chain armor. To 
dance gracefiiUy — and gracefully he did dance— under sUch a weight 
of steel, proved what immense physic^ power he possessed. The 
writer has a sleeve of chdn m^, taken from one of the catacombs 
of Egypt, which belonged to a Crusader. Each link is rivetted 
separately, and the whole suit was worth a prince's ransom. This 
sleeve weighs four and a half pounds. The whole tunic must have 
weighed over eighteen pounds; tlie entii-e suit over fom- times that 
number. Under this weight lijiAKNr waltzed aa lightly as if clad in 
silk, and wore it so aptly that the illusion was perfect. To the com- 
pany it seemeii aa if one of those haughty chevaliers had risen from 
liis tomb to grace the festival, or as if one of their effigies had stai-ted 
into life. 

Agam, at a fancy ball — ^unequalled ever in the city of New York 
— given by Commodore John C. Steveks, Keaknt was conspicuous 
as a Kabyle chieftain, in a perfect costume, which ho had probably 
captmSd in Algiers. So correct was it in every detail, that from his 
belt swung a severed head imitated to the life, or rather death, in 
sugar, but nevertheless so corpse-Uke that he was compelled to lay, 
it aside fr-om the hon-or it excited. On this occasion likewise, had 
one of Abd-el-Kader's kalifas or beys appeared in the ball-room, he 
could not have looked and played his part with greater grace and 
tact than did the American Volunteer, who may have crossed steel 
with the original under the shadow of the Atlas. 

"Though an American by birth, and intensely American in his 
sympatlaes, Genei-al Philip Kearsy carried in his veins blood that 
distinguishes the leading nations of Em-ope. 

" On hia father's side he was Ii-ish, and thence he derived his im- 
pulsive, roving, danger-courting blood, the temper that never stops 
to count odds nor c^culate chances. 

>y Go Ogle 


" On his mother's side thei-e were two divei-ee elements not often 
combined In one person — ^the sti'ong native sense, and the shrewd 
common sense of the canny Scot, and the fieiy nature, the love of 
pomp, splendor and beaaty, the ai-dent soul and the chivah-ic bear- 
ing of the Gaul." 

Close investigation, however, would lead to the conviction that 
the Keabnts M.'e Scotch-Irish, for the name is cei-t^nly GEelic The 
cousin and executor of oui- hei-o has a family tree, showing all the 
marriages as far back as 1506, and traces back the family long an- 
terior to that date, to two brotherfi'who first settled in Ii-eland. The 
name was originally O'Cleabman, which, he says, meant " soldier." 
Keaent, m its original spelling, Ceaenach, in Gselic or Celtic, does 
signify "soldier."* The name must have been derived from some deed 
of not« in war, for all private names are in one sense derivatives. 
Keaknt was thus not only a soldier by name but by natm-e, and a 
tnie inheritor not only of the designation but of the spirit of his 

It is seldom that a man bom to command, and imbued irith all 
the peculiai' chai-acteristics of a military leader — ^that is, one who 
would be selected from the crowd as a soldier-born— -who has not 
spr-ung from a race of soldiers, or been brought np amid military 
associations, or who has not in his veins the blood of those races 
which instinctively produce soldiers, for such races do undeniably 
exist Prominent among them is the CeMc race, which has been 
tempered by the Frank {pure Saxon), or Gothic blood in France, 
and by the Gothic in Spain. 

This ia peculiarly the ease with the French Huguenots, whose 
Strongholds and recruiting grounds were in those pai-ts of France 
which were originally the seats of Norman, Eui'gundian, or Viso- 
gothic power-. From the former stock came the de Lanceys. If 
any family of this State ever shone in arms, in times which tried 
men's souls, and proved their loyalty in every way it was possible 
to do so, it was these same de Lanceys, who, either through its 
own scions or connections, saw almost every male in the field fi-om 
Brigadier-General down to Cornet; a family, whose descendant 

• "EEiBSsUatermslgnlftinsBOldierainlrish HiBtory. Ae f or the turm O'CLEAnmit 
KBAnm. the inqniBitive reader is reTerrcd to Dr. Keatinq's Hletorj of Ireland, where the 
Senealogj of the O'KKAaNra ia to befoucd " In Giclic "Clur" means -'ffallant" or 
•' Orase,'' nai "mah," '•hand." Consequenlly Kkaukt O'Cliae-han donbtleas signified 
"the soldier of, or with, the brave hand." "CaiRHAoa" is litewine translated "tiie- 



died Upon the field of Waterloo, Colonel and Quartei-master-Gec- 
eral on Wellington's staff, evincing with his dying breatli an un. 
selfish solicitude for the life of his commander, more precious to 
Ms country and the world than his own, dying a death which was 
worthy of the purESt days of chivalry— that is, of that chivahy 
which romance has invested with such a glorious halo, and which 
did actually exist in cei-tain individuals, of whom, perhaps, the 
most genuine, or rather the best known examples, were Batakd 
and MoNi'HOSE. 

Phiup Keaksy was indeed a Huguenot* — not a Puiitan. Glory 
was the breath of hia nostrils. 

Although no one will deny that the Irish blood has fight enough 
in it, it is very qu^tionahle if the Watis' blood and all its affilia- 
tions and connections — among these the Keabnys — did not get the 
greater part of then- military instincts, their war-motor power, from 
the DE Lancets. The spirit of these latter was the yeast to make 
everything tending to soldiership ferment in the different families 
into which it was infiised. This de Lancet blood was a grand one.* 
Fi-om the moment the first of the name arrived in New York it 
made itself felt. As statesmen, aa they would justly be termed in 
the Old World, or as politicians in this country — before the term 
"politician" implied something derogatory— or as soldiera, they 
exerted the most astonishing influence in the Province or Colony 
of New York. No one who has examined into its records wiU 
pretend to deny this. Exiled for opinion's sake, the English gov- 
ernment acknowledged their worth by giving them high employ- 
ment, which their services, their zeal, courage and fidelity, even to 
the death, proved that they deserved. 

*" There waa a great difference, however, to be remarlted between ttem (tbe Huguenot 
soldier) and tlie religioaa inaorgents o£ more nottbem coonttles ; for tbongii beta tba 
steruorfnnaaclam which characteitzed ScoUand and England not long before and tbo 
wilder Imnsinations and foncifnl enthnsiasma of the fareonth, were oocaBionally to be 
found in indWidntilB, the greit mass were entltelj and deddedly French, posaeBsing tlio 
chamcter o[ light and somewhat thoughllesB gayety, bo peculiar to tliat Inflllferent and 

"Thua. though they 
caitBS which to them 

both pro JOT and atrlf e, till some other cauBe should teprodnce 
Tigor to either. 

" They eat in eronpa, then, round Urea of an old apple-tree or two which thoj had puUetl 
down, and drank the wine, procnred, it mnet be ackuowledged, by Tariona different 
means ; but thongh they sang not, as perhapB they might have done under other eiraim- 
ttoncea, nothing else diatinguished them from any other partj of gay French Soldiers 
•jarouaing after a laborlons day."— JiHEa' " DDaDBHOT." 



John "Watts, the second of that name — for his father, by the 
addition of an " s," changed his name Wait to Watts ; while his 
mother's family Biroultaneously by dropping an " s " from Nicoi-ls 
became Nicoll— was the first of the family born in this country. 
By position, property, marriage, and ability, he became one of the 
most influentiii citlzena of his native city and of the oolony pre- 
vious to the ll«volution, and occupied a place in the iirst rank of 
the provincial leaders. He was a prominent membei- of the General 
Colonial Assembly, Chairman of several of the most important 
Committees, Member of the King's Council from 1756 until 1782, 
when the connections between the Thirteen Colonies and the 
mother counti7 was dissolved. Had the party mth which he 
linked his fortunes been succeasftil, he was destined to fill the 
gubernatorial chair, which had been occupied by his brother-in-law, 
the eminent James de Lancet, and by the no less extraordinary 
Cadwaixader Cotjjen (grandfather of the wife of his son, John 
Watts, Junior), one of the '■ celebrities " of this State, especially 
notable as a physician, philosopher, inventor, historian, and magis- 

Although a consistent Loyalisl^for which he suffered the confis- 
cation of his property and died in exile in Wales— he distinguished 
liimeelf -while in office by upholding the popular rights, and when 
neither Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, nor any other Member of 
the Council dared, or would do so, he withstood the arbitrai-y de- 
mands of the Earl of Loudon, in regard to biUeting ti-oops upon 
the citizens of New York, and "spoke his mind in favor of the 
people." He was one of the ori^nal Founders and Trustees, in 
1734, of the New York Society Library ; in 1760 he presented its 
first clock to the pablio Exchange of his native city; and in 1770 
he became the first President of the New York City Hospitak 

He was a coadjutor in all the political triumphs of his brother-in- 
law, Lieutenant-Governor James de LAscBr, " an ornament to his 
coimtry," one of the most remarkable men the State has ever pro- 
duced, "whose biogi-aphy is the history of our Colony, from the 
period he reached man's estate to the day of his death." Through- 
out his long career, Joax Watts afforded him the cordial and 
active support of his energy and influence, and when a sudden 
death deprived the Colony of de Lancet's capacity for government, 
he continued for thirteen yeai-s to act in accordance with his prin- 
ciples and carry out his sagacious views. 

>y Go Ogle 


Hon. JoHs Watts, Senior, maiiied Anne, the second daughter 
of Stephen de Lancet, who immigrated to N^ew York in 1686, 
They were the grandparents of Brevet Major-GeneraJ Stephen 
Waits Keaeny, XJ. S. Army, and great-grandpafents of Major- 
General Philip Keaent, U. S. Volunteers. 

Robert Watts, the eldest son of the preceding, manied Lady 
Maet, daughter of William Alexander, Earl of Sterling, Major- 
General in our Revolutionary Army, Theii- daughter, again, 
married her cousin-german, John Watts Keaknt, The son of 
thia latter, Phiup John Keakkt, bom and bred in the State of 
New York, was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, Major of the 
lltli New Jersey Volunteers, having proved himself a brave and 
able officer. His commission of Lieutenant-Colonel had been 
made out and was ready for the signatm-e of the Governor of New 
Jersey, to be issued to him in case he survived. IJiihappUy, he 
could not i-allj from the amputation of his leg, and died in New 
York city, aged twenty-one years, 9th August, 1863. His career 
proved that he was a worthy scion of that race and name which 
had already given two Major-Generals to their country, 

Stephen, the second son of the John Watts, first named, was a 
brilliant officer in the Anglo-American Army. Already at the age 
of twenty-two he was the Major of the intrepid batallion o'f IjOyal- 
ists, known as the " Royal New Yorkers," or " Johnson Greens," 
raised by his brother-in-law, Sir John Johnson, son of the famed 
Sir William Johnson, who waa knighted and created Major-Gen- 
eral for resplendent service, more particularly for his victoiy over 
DiESKAU, at the head of Lake George, in 1755. He afterwai-ds 
captured Fort Niagara in 1759. Sir John Johnson by his con- 
scientious loyalty probably ha^ai-ded more in the cause of the 
Crown than any other American, His domains, which were con- 
fiscated, were the fairest and most extensive of any colonist, 
except the estate of Lord Fairfax, in Virginia, After the 
Revolution he held the position of Superintendent General and 
Inspector General of Indian AS'ah's in British North America, 
likewise other high trusts. His wife, Maey Waits, daughter 
of the fii-st John Watts, of the city of New York, was 
made a prisoner and confined at Albany as a hostage for the 
good conduct of her husband. She was one of the most re- 
mai-kable women of her day, as conspicuous for the power of her 
mind as for those other qualities which most adorn her sex, and to 

>y Go Ogle 


<uoh an eitent had she won the affeodon and le.pcct o( her hn«- 
band's " faithful Mohawks," that they threatened the most temWe re- 
prisals in case that she suffered the leaat injury. Her daughter, 
Catheeinb Mama, married Major-General Bowes, who was killed 
at the storming of Salamanca. Before the breach was rendered 
practicable. Lord WuiitBOTOn determined on an attempt at escahde. 
"In this unfortunate attack Major-General Bowis and one htodred 
and twenty men fell. The condnct of this gallant officer had been 
on all occasion conspicuous. In leadiug on the sKrmmg party he 
received » wound, which was no sooner dressed than he returned to 
the post of honor, and died gloriously hi the service of his conntiy. 
The monument of a soldier can bear no prouder epitaph than the re- 
cord of such facts." 

Her eldest son, Wiluam Johnson, was Lieutenant-Colonel ot the 
28th Eeghnent of Foot, B. A. jinother son, jAjms.fellonthesame 
occasion with his brother-in-law, Major-Beneral Bow«s, and g»I 
kntly supporting him, by hie side. 

In 1777, when Sx. Ledger entered the Mohawk Valley to co-oper- 
ate with Bonoomi Sibeken Watts commanded the sixty picked 
mai-ksmen who constitnted the British advance-guard, and cleared 
the way for the invading column. He was second m command at 
the battle of Oiaskany, fonght 6th August, 1777, near the month ot 
thecreekbear!ngthatname,betweenEome and Utica,m this State. 
It is a mooted question, even not yet determined, whether Su- John 
Johnson was Genera!-m-Chief in this action ; but if he had been so, 
and if his conduct had equalled the terrible resoluteness of his young 
brother-m-law, the result of the conflict would have been still more 
disaatrous to the colonisui, who lost their General and half then- 
troops engaged The two most distmguished officers on the field, 
Majoi-Qeneral HiuKEEiiEE and Major Watts, were both shot 
through the leg. The wound of the former terminated flitally. The 
latter, left for dead upon the field, recovered fi-om his faintness, 
orailed to a brook or creek to skke the thmst occasioned by his 
dangerous wound, and was actually found two or three days after- 
ward with his leg in a shocking condition by some Indian scouts, 
and conveyed to the British camp. He lost his limb, but long sur- 
vived the operation and his exile in Enghmd. 

Thhi battle of Oriskany, celebrated in history and romance, m 
prose and pooti-y, was the most bloody, for the numbers engaged, 
and the most obstinately, contested at the North dni-mg the Eevoln- 



tion. It was as momentous in its effects as a side issue can be, and 
with its twin-combat styled, in eiiror, Bennington, on the "Wal- 
Joomscoick, an affluent of the Hudson, in the State of JVew York, 
decided the tate of Burgoyne. 

Anne, the eldest daughtei- of this Major Stephen "Watts, mai'ried 
Major Johnson, of the British Army, cousin of Lord Palmerston, 
late Premier of England, and hia eldest son, John, was a Captain 
in the same sendee. This Captain John Watts was present at the 
battle of Bladensbm-g, at the capture of Washington, and at New 
Orleans. He was also Vice-Governor, or Deputy Warden of Wal- 
mer Castle, one of the Cinque Poi-ts, of which tho Duke of Welldjg- 
ton was Warden. The "IronDube" havmg died at Walmer 
Castle, Captain John Watts had charge of the remams of the 
"world's conqueror's conqueror," Mid accompanied the body to its 
last resting-place, in St. Paul's Cathedi-al, London. These facts, as 
well as those similar ones which follow, are interesting to show how 
tho Watts and de Lancey blood had an affinity with tho army. 
Many more curious connections of the family of Waits could be 
noted, but for fear of tji'ing tho readei-'s patience wb will return to 
the consideration of the de Lancey line, proper, which, in itself, is 
almost sufficient to occupy the space which was originally aaaignod 
to this branch of the subject. 

In Fi-ance there were two distinct species of nobility, the 
nobility of the Sword and the nobility of the Kobe. The former 
occupied a much higher rank in society than the hitter. The 
events of the last century have con-ected this prejudice, and except 
in times of a gi-eat war, like our civil war, the sword yields to the 
robe or toga. In Europe it is not even yet so. The db Lanceys 
belonged to the ancient nobility of France. They were hereditaiy 
soldiei-a, and their property "fief was probably hoiden by the feu 
d-il sei-vice of the bannei- or lance, hence their surname de Lancey.' 
A cion in this gallant raee died as a Mestro de Camp (l e. Colonel, 
according to the old French title, of a cavalry regunent) of the Life 
Guards or Houseliold troops of Louis XIV, at the battle of Mal- 
plaquet, so glorious to the Fi-ench ai-my, although compelled to 
abandon the field to Maelbohough. From this race sprang' 
S-fEi-HEN DE Lancet, father of Anne, wife of Hon, John Watts, 
Senior, hei-einbefore referred to. Her sister man-ied Admii-aJ Sir 
Peter Waeeen, K. B., who commanded the expedition that took 
Louisburg, the key of the French insular possessions in Noi-th 

>y Go Ogle 


Ameiiea- Her brother, James de Lancet, was a Captain, B. A., 
and liei' nephew was James de Lancet, Lieutenan^Colonel of the 
1st Dragoon ttuarde, B. A. Her brother, the greatuncle of 
Major-General Stephen WArrs KjiAHNr, was Brigadier-Goneral 
Oliver de Lancey, of the British Army, who, from his entrance 
into railitarj- life, was pre-eminent for gallantly. He commanded 
the New York Colonial troops almost tJiroughout his life. In the 
Fi-ench war of 1756 he was a Colonel, and led the New York 
Pi-ovinciala In Aheeceombie's campaign, and received for his ser- 
vices in this wai- the thanks of the Colonial Assembly, equivalent 
to our Legislatiu'e. 

His daughter, Stjsan, mai'ried Lieut enant-General Sir "Wirj-iAM 
Dbapee, K, B., Knight of the Bath, of the British Anny. Another 
daughter, Chaklotte, manled Field-Marsha] Sir David Dcndas, 
K. B., Commander-in-Chief of the British Army. Another daugh- 
ter, Anna, raaiTied Colonel John Hakris Crhoee, commandant of 
his fathcr's-in-law, Genei-al de Lancet's, 1st Battalion. He was the . 
gaOant defender of Fort 96 in South Carohna. No Loyalist 
ofBcei' performed more responsible or ai'duous duty with greater 
credit The Genei-aJ'a son and namesake, Oltver de Lancet, Jr., 
rose to be Lieutenan^Genoral in the British Army. The famona 
Pi-ime-Minister, Pitp, the younger, appointed him Barrack-Master 
General of the British Empire. Be was also Colonel of the 17tli 
Light Di-agoons, a veiy high honor in England, and in 1796 
Member of Parliament. With him ended one branch of this 
glorious family. 

Stephen, the youngest son of General de Lancet, Senior, com- 
manded the Ist Battalion of New York Volunteers during the 
Revolution, held that rank in the British Army, and in 1797 was 
Governor of the British Island of Tobago and its dependencies. 
The two daughters of the latter manled : Susan, fia-st, Colonel 
WnjjAM Johnson ; second, Lieutenant-General Sib Hudson Lowe, 
Knight Commander of the Bath, the Governor of St. Helena during 
Bonapaete's captivity there — ^the f^thful servitor of his country, 
calumniated by pi-ejudiced writers, who would not sift out the 
trath, so nobly vmdicated in William Forstth's History of the 
Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena, (New York : Hai-per Bros., 

1863) ;— Cmaklotte, Colonel Child, British Army. Tlteir 

brother was Colonel Sir William Howe de Lancey, "the excellent 
Quarter-Maater-General," on the'staff of Wellington at the Jaattle . 

>y Go Ogle 


of Watei-loo, in which he was mortally wounded " in the middle of 
the action." He died the death of a hero. The following is too in- 
teresting to be omitted in the life of Major-General Philii' Keaent, 
as it I'egai'da a ne^- kinsman whom he greatly resembled in mag- 
canimoas characteristics, " The Duke's personal staff, who had 
shared so many glories and dangei's by the side of theii- com- 
mander, fell aroimd him in rapid snccession. The Pi-ince of Nas- 
sau, one of his aids-de-camp, received two balls. The gallant 
General de Lancey waa struck with a spent, cannon-ball while ani- 
mating and leading back to the chai'ge a battdion of Hanoverians 
who had got into confusion." 

Here permit the wiiter — who is of Hollandish or Dutch descent, 
and right proud of a raee which has produced the best soldiers 
and sailora on record, from the days of Julius CjeSak and Phak- 
S4LIN, through nineteen centui-ies of unsurpassed patriotism and 
renown, down to Hasselt and Antwebp in 1831—2 — to make a re- 
mark in justice to his people, and put the saddle on the right horse. 
Prejudiced authors have stated that the Dutch and Belgian ti-oops 
(then united under one crown, that of Holland) behaved the worst 
at Waterloo. The exact contrary was the fact As a general thing 
they displayed remarkable tenacity. It was some of the Gei-man 
contingents who behaved so badly in this campaign, and none so 
shamefully as a re^ment of Hanoverian cavaliy, the " Cumber- 
land Hussars," whose "dastajrdly conduct" caused them to be 
subsequently disbanded and their Colonel cashiered. The Dutch, 
under Cuassee, " the bayonet Genei-al, ' who won immortal honor in 
1832 for his defence of Antwerp against overwhelming numbers 
of French and Belgians, faced the music, like the Dutch infantiy 
at Flem-os, 1700, and at Almanza, 1707, and did as well as any 
English, not only at Quatre-Bras — a fight in its relation to our 
Gettysburg, equivalent to Euforc's magnificent stand on Oak 
Ridge, let July, 1863, but in that — 

But to retm-n to General de LANCEy " He exclaimed as he fell, 
' Leave me to die ; my wound is moi-tal ; attend (or look) to the 
Duke, and do not waste that time on me which may be usefully 
employed in assistmg others.' These orders were too promptly 
obeyed, and, when on the following morning, the bloody field was 
traversed, he was found yet living, and to the satisfaction and joy 

>y Go Ogle 


ofbia friendB, hopes — faIlacioasonee,a]a8! — were entertained of hia 
recovery. He was lemOTed to the village of Waterloo, and Lady 
DE Lancet, who bad anived at Bmssels a week before the battle, 
had the sad consolation to attend her dying husband, wlio espii'ed 
six days after the battle — a mai-tyr probably to hia generous dis- 

His fate ia eushi'ined in the verse of Sir Waitee Scott, f xsl of 
bis poem,. " The Field of Waterloo :" 

" Period of honor as of woes. 
What bright careers 'twas tMne to- close I — 
Marked on Eby roll of blood what names 
To Britain's memory, and to Fame's, 
Laid tbere, their last immortal claims I 
Thon saVst in seas of gore espire 
Redoubted Picton's soul of lire— 

De Lanoey cMnge Lov^s bridal wreath 
Far lawrelsfrmn tlte /land ofdeash — 

Aii'l though her gimrdifln angel's shield 
Fenced Britain's hero throngh the field. 
Fate not ihe less her power made known 
Through his friend's hearts to pierce hia own I" 

The second son of Stephen de Lancet, Petek of the Mills, like- 
wise filled a conspicuous place in the early annals of New York. 
He married Euzabeth, daughter of the distinguished Colonial 
Governor, Cadwaliadek Coi-den, and settled upon a large estate 
known as the "Mills," on the Bronx Eivei', at West Farms, West- 
chester County, State of New York. He became the ancestor of 
that branch of the family knoivn as the " Westchester de Lancets." 
Petbb de Lancet of the MUls, like all the rest of boa LoyaJ famUy, 
suffered through his fidelity to principle. 

The following beantiful lines were written by a stranger, an 
Englishman, wbo visited the old de Lascey Manor, in Westchester 
County, State of New York, about fouiteen mUea &om the city of 
Kew York, expecting to find some memorials of that gallant, 
courtly, and eminent raee still existing. But alas ! in the same 
manner that war, exile, confiscation and death, had smitten and 
scattered the proud owners, so had flood fii-e, and improvement (?) 
laid waste or altered their once ornate possessions. A pine, tow- 
ering in its native majesty, alone survived to mai'k tbe spot where 

>y Go Ogle 


once a flom'ishmg Loyal family exhibited its stately hospitalities 
or enjoyed the sweets of a home, the abode of prosperity and 
ability, A contrast so marked, between the past and present, 
moved even an alien, and in poetic numbers he recorded hig sym- 
pathy and chi'ouicled the desolation :" 

" Wljere gentle Brans, clear minding, flowa 

His shadowing banks between ; 

Where biossom'il bell and wildii^ rose 

Adorn the brightest green ; 

Mcmarlal of the fallen great. 

The rich and honor'd line. 

Stands h^h in solitary state 

De Lakcbt's ancient pine. 

" There, once at early dawE arrayed. 

The rural sports to lend. 

The gallant master of the gUde 

Bedeck'd his eager steed ; 
AM once the light-foot maiden came. 

In loveliness divine. 

To sculpture ivith the dearest name 

De Lancet's ancient pine. 

" And now the stranger's foot explores 

De Lakcey'8 wide domain, 

And scarce one kindred heart restores 

His memory to the plain ; 
And just like one in age alone. 

The last of all his line 
Bends sadly where the waters moan — 
Db Lancet's ancient pine. 
" Oh greatness I o'er thy final fall. 
The feeling heart should mourn, 
Nor from Db Lahcet'b ancient Hall 

With cold rejoicing tarn : 
No 1 no I the geu'rous stranger staja 

Wlien eve's calm glories shine, 

To weep — as tells of other days 

Db Lahcei'S ancient pine." 

pETEE DE Lancet's eldest daughter, Aiice, married Raiph Izakd, 
of Sonth Carolina, who shone as a patriot and a statesman in our 
Revolutionary struggle. Their son, George, (set down as Ralph, 
Junior, in the family tree) Izard, rose in 1814 to the rank of Major- 
Geueral in the United States Army, which he entered as Lieuten- 
ant of the regiment of Artillerists and Engineers in 1794. This 
gallant officer experienced the same fate in 1814, which waa in- 

>y Go Ogle 


tended for Tati.or ia 1846-7, and was esperieneed by Hooeeb 
before Gettysburgli in 1863. He had just completed allthepre- 
p3i-ation8 to which is due the defeat of the British at Plattsbiu'g, 
in 181i, when he was superseded by Macomb, just as Hookek was 
eiipei-aeded by Meade. 

Petek's daughter, Susanna, maiTied Colonel Thomas Baeclay, 
B. A. His son, James, was colonel of a regiment of Loyalists, and 
died in axile. Another son, Waeken, displayed such gallantry 
when only fifteen yeai-a old, in the battle of White Plains, 1776, 
that he was made a Cornet of the 17th British Light Dragoons at 
that early age. 

Jane, fouith daughtei- of Petbk de Lancey of the Mills, manied 
Hoa John Watps, Junior, then Recorder of New York, afterwards 
founder of the Leake and Watts Oiphan House. The bridal fes- 
tivities at Union Hill, in the borough of Westchester, on the eve- 
ning of 2d October-, 1775, were sufficiently gay to receive a con- 
spicuous notice in the "Gazetteer" of the day. These were the 
grand-parents of Major-General PijnjpKEAENY. This John Watps 
will be referred to more at length hereafter. 

Many others of the family distinguished themselves in official 
positions, and even some of those who chose a military eai-eer 
may have been omitted in this notice. Not a few of their de- 
scendants sei-ved with honor in th Union ranks during the last 
mil wai'. Three gi'eat-gi-andchildren of this pan-, brothel's, came 
out of the struggle with the U. S. brevets of Colonel for services, at 
the age of twenty-one, Lieutenaatr-Colonel, at eighteen, and Major, 
at nineteen. 

That the men of the race whose blood flowed in the veins of 
Major-Genei-als Stephen Waits Keahny and Philip Eeaknt rose 
to such high commands, speaks sufficiently for their ability and fit- 
ness for the profession which they selected and in which they shone. 
That the women of that same race chose soldiers for their partnei-s, 
testifies in what du'ection then- predilections ran. Their children 
were worthy of their mothers ; those mothers " worthy to bear 

Major-General Philip Kearxt had a double portion of this blood, 
through his grandmother and great-gi-andmother. 

Will any one deny that his cai-eer was worthy of the most 
glorious of his ancestry ? 

>y Go Ogle 



" An atfBctiooatB regiird for the 

aemory ol onr forefslhera i> n 

tnral to the heart; It Ig 

an pmotioa totflllj diatiDct from p 

denied, It la true, to 

our perBonal acgnointanoe, but tlie 

iglit thoy abed dnring their li 

es survives within their 

tombs, and wm mvurd trnr ecarcb, 

£ we BSplote them. If the vi 

-taee of Btrangers ho so 

attractive to ne, tow infinitely m 

re BO shonld be those of onr 

ownMndred; and with 

what aaanional energy should tha 

precepta ol onr parents influon 

salve generations, each 

bearins testimony of a virtoons, ua 

efnl, and honorable life to the 

truth ana inflnoace." 

As EAKiT-aa 1716 we find a Keaent settled in Monmouth connty, 
Now Jei-aey. He came from Ireland, and was a man of note. His 
Boa, Philip Keaknt, was an eminent lawyer, who died 25th of July, 
1775, a little less than a year before the Declaration of Independence. 
One of his sons, Francis, entered the Royal service, and was a cap- 
tain in the corps of Colonel Beverit IIobinso;^, known as the Loyal 
American Regiment of New York. In 1782 he appeal's as a Major 
in Aixen's Corps of Pennsylvania Royalists. He rose to a Lieuten- 
antrColonelcy, went to Ireland after the war, married, and would seem 
to have settled and died there. This family were very particular 
about the spelling of their name, and if such a thing were possibJe, 
the General would turn in his grave with indignation if he knew 
that his name was written and printed with two E's, Kearney , 
instead oi Re amy. 

Pnn.iP Keaknt, the son of the first Philip, " removed to Newark, 
and left children, whose descendants ^e set down as living in New 

>y Go Ogle 


York." He was the grandfather of Brevet Major-Goneral Stephen 
Watts Keakni", XT, S. Army, and of Philip, the father of Major- 
General Philip Keakny, Jr., XT. 8. Volunteers, the patriot, mart.jr, 
and subject of this biography. 

Stephen AVatxs I-Ceakitt was a student of Columbia College, in 
the city of New York, in 1812, and would bare graduated in the 
summer of that yeai'. As soon, however, as it became a certainty 
that wai- must ensue between the United States and Great Britain, 
he applied for and obtained a commission in the IT. S. Ai-my. On 
the 12th of March, 1812, while still in his eighteenth year, he was 
appointed from ITew York let Lieutenant in the 13th XT. S. Infan- 
tiy. He distinguished himself particularly in storming a British 
battery, and thi-oughout the assault on Queenstown Heights, 13th 
October, 1812. , Lieutenaat-Colonel Christie, commanding his regi- 
ment, himself wounded in this action, pi-esented young Keakny with 
his sword on the field of battle for the cool and determined manner 
with which he executed the coramandwhich devolved upon him. A 
companion in arms states that as " Ist Lieutenant of Captain Ogil- 
vie's company, he (S. W. E.) enjoyed, at an early age, tho ehai-actei' 
of high promise his after yeai's developed. He was made prisoner 
on this occasion, and sent to Quebec," and was long detained in cap- 
tivity. He became Captdn in AprU, 1813, Brevet-Major in April, 
1823, and Major in May, 1829. Upon the organization of the 1st 
U. S. Dragoons, he was appointed their lieutenant-Colonel, 4th 
March, 1833, and Colonel, 4th July, 1836. On the SOth June, 1846, 
be was commissioned Brigadier-Gfeneral, was placed in command of 
the Army of the West, and made the conquest of the Province of 
New Mexico. He received the Brevet of Major-General, United 
States Ai'my, for gallant, and meritorious conduct in New Mexico 
and California, to date fi-om the battle of San Pascual, 6th Decem- 
bei', 1846, in which he was twice wounded. He commanded the 
combined force, consisting of detachments of sailors and of mai'inea 
and of dragoons, in the battles of San Gabriel and Plains of Mesa, 
8th and 9th of Januaiy, 1847,- and was Governor of Califomia from 
the date of his proclamation, Ist March, 1847, dowu to June of the 
same year. On the 31st October, 1848, he felt a victim at Vera 
Cruz to illness contracted in the course of his arduous service dm'ing 
the Mexican war. Like his nephew, Major-General Phiup Keakny, 
he died for his country. 

The General's brother, Akchibald Kennedy Keaent, who died 

>y Go Ogle 




1st July, 1868, in New York city, aged 83, was a Lieutenant in the 
r. S. Navy dui-ing the war of 1812, '15. He cominanded a division 
of ^nboats stationed in the Lower Bay for the protection of New 
York hai'bor. 

Commodore La^vkesce Keaknt, U. S. Navy, was a second cousin 
of the preceding and third cousin of his nephew, Major-General 
Philip Keaknt. 

PHILIP KEAENY, the subject of this biographical sketch, who 
fell a Division Commander at Chantilly, Ist September, 1862, was 
bom, according to the majority of accounts, the 2d of June, 1815 — 
his brother-inJaw, whose wife, Susan Kearnt, had the Family Bible, 
says the 1st June, 1814, which collateral cii-cumstanees would go to 
prove was the correct date— at No. 3 Broadway, in the Fkst Ward 
of the city of New York, which, together ivitb the adjoining building. 
No. 1, was formerly owned by his great uncle, Hon. Aechibald 
Kessedy, then Captain, B. N., who manied Miss Aske Waits, 
eldest sister of Hon John Watts, Jr., who purchased, in 1792, sub- 
sequently lived and died in No. 3. 

No. 1 Broadway was built by this Captain KEfTKEDx, and stood 
nest to the glacis of Fort George. It was an elegant mansion, and 
only rivaled by one other in the city, that of Hon. William Wai.- 
TON, Esq., in Queen Street, now IVanklin Square, who married 
Marlv de Lascey, niece of the first Johs Waits and cousin of the 
second. Mr. Waiton's affluence, and generous enteitainment of the 
British oificers, led to the taxation of the colonies, and eventually to 
the Revolution. While the British held New York, the first story 
of No. 3 served as a Post Office, the slits remaining evident in tlie 
doors down to 1836. The company-rooms, lofty and spacious, were 
in the second story When public entertainments were given, theao 
latter were connected with the grand apartments in No. 1 by a stau-- 
case and bridge. These two buildings were among the very few 
that escaped the great fii'es of 1776 and 1778. ' 

Hon. Jons Watts, Junior, maternal grandfather of Major-Gen- 
eral Philip Keaeny, was a man more ennobled by his generosity 
and benevolence than he could have been by any hereditary titles or 
honors. He founded and endowed the Leake and Watts' Orphan 
House, in the city of New York, one of the noblest and purest acts 
of benevolence, taking into consideration aU the facts connected with 
its endowment, in the whole list of om- country's elemosynary insti- 
tutions. In regard to this, a reader wiU pardon the quotation from 

>y Go Ogle 


a speech, at one of the AnniverBiiry Meetings : " There is yet another 
whose name we are accustomed to associate mth that of John G. 
Le\kb, and who deserves no less oar admiration and our gratitude. 
Had he been less magnanimous, less generous than he was, this 
, happy home, these invaluable privileges, would not have been ours. 
Through an informahty in the will, the money devoted to the erec- 
tion and support of this institution might have become the property 
of John Watts. His it was by inheritance and nndisputed right. 
But he was ono of those men whose heart extent of riches cannot 
nan-ow or degrade — who retain, amid the lusuiies and opulence of 
fashionable hfe, noblo and generoia influences. He knew that his 
claim to this property was uncontested; yet without reluctance, he 
yielded it to fuliil the benevolent intentions of its donor. Leake 
and Watts — theu- names are fitly associated, and worthy of being 
transmitted to the latest posterity. The rare benevolence of the 
one, the stern integrity of the other, are qualities which tlie Philan- 
thropist and Christian will delight to contemplate, and which a]l will 
unite to admire. They stand out in prominent relief, 'in a depraved 
and sordid age, in evidence that there are always sph-its which 
delight to bless and improve their race." 

This Orphan House is at once a magnificent monument to John 
Watts, the actual donor of its funds, and — through the designation 
he modestly and honorably gave it, sharing the honor by placuig his 
own name second to that of anothers in the title — a memorial of his 
bosom fi'iend and connection, from whom the money was originally 
derived. It is also a witness of Mr. Watts' sorrows, since the pr&- 
pei-ty came to him through his finest son, Robert, who scarcely 
lived long enough to acquire legal possession of it, and died before 
he had the opportunity of enjoying thismagnificent bequest of the 
brother-in-law of his greal-aunt, Mahoabet Watts (married to 
Major RoBEKT Wiluam Leake* of the British Army), and the friend 
and fellow student of his father. 

This Mr. Waits was a man as remarkable for his manly charac- 
ter as for his generosity. He was full of "saving, common-sense,'' 
"that most uncommon kind of sense." In his famous "Thoughts," 

*ItoBEiiT Leaks, tlie father of Major Eobebt WiLiiiM Leake, was an oiBcorwho 
had seen much and Tarled aersice. ile was wounaad and Jimimed is tlic battle o£ Deflio- 
gon, in 1143. where bis horse wia shot under him, and he was ensaged at Culloden, on tba 
Rojal Bide, in 1740, His loyalty wns rewarded with the post of Commissary-General to 
tba toccea in North America, and in 1757 ha waa acting as Commisaary General to the 
ormy oommanaed by tbo ill-fated Bniddocit 

>y Go Ogle 


Pascal, the dtepest of thinkers, and acuteat of mathematieal rea- 
Boners, whose scientific dG\elopment of tlie proofs of Chi'istianitj', 
or rather the demonstration of its truths, is marvelous in its clear- 
ness and resultiTeness, declares "common sense is enpenor to 
genina." Besides being pyssegsed of such admirable judgment, he 
was a man of iron will, and, with his keen activity of mind and body, 
out of place undei- the new order of things, since he could not stoop 
to court popularity, as public men are compelled to cringe and bow 
to obtain it in these days. Nevertheless, although he shrunk from 
oiEce, he was called upon to fill several positions of dignity and im- 

He waa the last Royal Recorder of the city of New York ; was 
a Member of Congi-ees in 1793-5 ; was thrice unanimously elected 
Speaker of the 14th, 15th, and 16th Sesaiona of the New York 
Lc^slature— January, 1791, January, 1792, and November, 1792 
—and waa Judge of Westehestei- county, 1802-8, etc. Disgusted 
at the measures resorted to by his pohtical- opponents — measures 
founded on hereditai'y antagonism which has outlived the com- 
petitors — he withdrew from pubhe life, as he deemed no position 
woi-thy an honest man's efforts which compelled him to pander to 
the meanest prejudices of the mob to win theu- votes. Thencefor- 
ward his attention was devoted to the care of hia lai-ge estate and 
the vast interests confided to him. 

Young Philip Keakny inherited a great many of the peculiari- 
ties of his grandfather, his genei-osity, enei-gy, determination, love 
of horses, and wonderful horsemanship, for at the age of eighty- 
seven, when most old men are incapable of any exertion, Hon, 
John Watts was not only a splendid, but a venturesome, rider. 
Upon one occasion a horse-dealer brought him an animal to try, 
which turned out to be a violent and unbroken colt, which sprang 
into the air, rearing and plungmg as soon as Mr. Waits was in the 
saddle. Through all its struggles he sat unmoved, and when the 
animal had become quiet, dismounted as calmly as if nothing had 
occurred. , 

When a boy, young Phil Keaknt waa a reckless rider and a 
perfect horse-killer. He rode just as fearlessly over the worst as 
over the best roads. Upon one occasion, often adverted to in the 
family, while quite a little chap, eight or rune years old, he fright- 
ened his father almost to death, galloping hia horse furiously for 
milea over au old corduroy road fiill of holes and inequalities. It 

>y Go Ogle 


must have been an extraordinary feat and escape, since it -waa 
olten refeiTed to by men who were too bold ridera themselves to 
dwell upon anything which was not something astonishing m its 
display of dai-ing. 

Neithei- Philip Kearny, fathei' nor son, were residents or citizens 
of New Jersey, in the strict sense of the word. The father mherited 
a country house near Newark, but his home was. in New York. 
About the year 1820 he had a house at Greenwich, on the Korth 
River, about the foot of the present West Twentieth street Gen- 
eral KE,iKNY's mother, Susan W/.tts, at that time, was in very deli- 
cate health. She was a lovely character, and a charming, handsome 
woman. She died while the General waa still quite young. About 
1827, Philip Keaknt, Senior, lived on the east side of Broadway, 
nearly opposite to Morris street, then called Little Beaver Street or 
Boaver Lane. His nephew, who fui-nishcs the iaets, thinks that 
Mi-s. Keaeny died here, but she must have died long before this 
for the writer, who can recall facts and faces farther back than that 
date, has no recollection of her.* 

At one time it ia likely the Keaent family lived in Greenwich 
street, just in the rear of No. 3 Broadway, doubtless on made lota, 
part of the river front belonging to the Watts' property, whose 
garden extended originally to the river. In fact, the waves at his^h 
tide and dm-ing a stonn broke over an extension of the back piazza, 
thrnst out to the west like the stem of a X, about midway the 
prraent block, between Broadway and Greenwich streets. 

While Phil Keaesy was still ,in college, his grandfather, seeing 
his inclination for the ai'my, offered to secure to him $1,500 a year, 
a very handsome allowance in those days for a young man, if he 
would study for the minis try. " Mr. Watts thought the mmistera 
had a good, safe time," and as he had lost all his sons, he did not 
wish the eldest of his only two gi-andsons to be exposed to the vicis- 
situdes of a cai-eer which had cost him the most brilliant of his own 
sons, George. Piul Kearnt declined his grandfather's liberal 
offer, and as he was compelled to choose a civil profession, selected, 
much against his will, the Law, and fulfilled the usual com'se in the 
ofEce of the Hon. Peteii Augustus Jat. 

Thus, it will be seen, that one of the most dashing officers that 
ever lived came vciy near being made a clergyman. The same 

•" She died in March 1623." Q. H. K. for E. K. July II, 1608. 

>y Go Ogle 

1st U. S. Liglit Dragoons. 
Aid de Camp lo Bhib. Gen, Winfield Scott, iit Chippewa, etc., 18H 

>y Go Ogle 



thing occuiTcd with regard to Hooker, who was destined by Ha 
fathei- for the Church. A strange coincidence that "Fighting Joe" 
and "Fighting Phil" aoldiei-8 born, genei'als by instinct, com- 
niandei-s of rival divisions in the same coips, naiTOwly escaped an 
exchange of tbe uniform of the army for the robes of the Church- 
militant HooKEK often alludes with humor to the overthrow of 
his father's cherished plans, when he received hia appointment as a-. 
Cadet to prepare himself for the saddle mstead of the pulpit 

Having alluded to George Waits, this would seem to be an 
appropriate place for presenting a sketch of this distinguished 
officer, who was a perfect type in eveiything, form, feature, dispo- 
siUon, mmd and service, of his nephew, Genei-al Phiijp Keaknt, 
like him destined a generation afterwai-ds to fill his pLice as Aid to 
General Scott, and seiwe with him in another war equally glorious 
to both. 

On the 18th March, 1813, he was appomted from Kew York 
Third Lieutenant of the 1st U. S. Light Dragoons, and promoted 
to a Second Lieutenancy 13th August, the same year. Shoi-tly 
riiei-wards General Scott selected hhn as an aid-de-camp, and as 
such he acted in the campdgn of 1814. He was breveted First 
Lieutenant for "gallantry and distinguished service in the battle of 
Chippewa, 5th July, 1814, and for distmguished serv-ice in BeowxV's 
Sortie from Fort Erie." When the cavah-y was reduced aflei- the 
wai", he was retained. May, 1815, in the 1st TJnited States Infentry, 
but being a " horsebactman " by natui'e, he could not stand the 
pedestrian service, and resigned the 15th January, 1816, 

The followmg conversation, had with Lieutenant-General Scotp 
15th April, 1865, taken down at the time, afterwards submitted to 
and approved by him, is all-sufficient testimony of that distmgoished 
General's estimate of his two aidsHie-camp, uncle and nephew, who 
not only looked alike, but were alike in eveiy quality which makes 
and adorns a soldier : 

'^Lieutenant George Watts, of the United States Dragoons, 
Major, by courtesy, was my aid-de-camp during the campaign of 
1814. He was of a very afiectionatc nature, and a very brave 
man— it might be said the bravest of the brave. He looked very 
like Philip Keaknt, his nephew, likewise, subsequently, my dd-de- 
camp. If one man is more brave than another, Philip Kearnt was 
that man. He was the bravest man I ever knew, and a perfect 

>y Go Ogle 


"Lieutenant George "Watts, my Aid, saved my life on the 
morning before the battle of Chippewa. The circumstances are 
as follows : At the mouth of Street's Creek, ^yhich empties 
into the Niagara River, immediately ailjacent to the battle-field 
. of July 5th, stood a house occupied by a Mrs Street. As there 
were no males belonging to her family, she had applied to me 
:^r protection, and I bad given her a safe-guai'd, which was 
perfectly respected, and she made money by selling milt and differ- 
ent artidea to the American troops. She invited me to breakfast 
with her, and I accepted the invitation. I had just prcpai-ed my 
fii-st cup of coffee, and was about to raise it to my mouth, when I 
experienced the truth of the proverb, that ' There is many a slip 
'twixt the cup and the lip.' My Aid, George Watts, persphing 
very freely, had risen fi.-om the table and stepped aei-oss the room 
to another table, near the window, to get his pocket-handkerchief 
out of his di-agoon helmet, or casque,, which he had previously 
placed there. My cocked-hat lay upon the same table, and I lost it 
in consequence. Looking out of the window, he tm'ued to me and 
said, quietly but significantly, ' In three minutes the house wUl be 
siwrounded by Indians.' I set down my untasted coffee, rushed 
£:om the room, cleared the piazza and steps with one bound, and 
I'an ' like a man ' for the bridge which communicated with our onoi 
side of the stream. Thus, George Watts, by his promptness, saved 
my life, for the whole thing had been arranged by Mi'a. Street with 
the intention of murdering and scalping ma She had given the 
signal by waving something from the house as soon aa we Iiad sat 
down to breakfast. 

"The same night after my victory at Chippewa, I made Mrs. 
Street's house our hospital, and its rooms and the court-yai'd, in 
which I had caused tents to be pitched, were filled with our wounded. 
When I visited the house I found the treacherous woman and her 
daughter, a very pretty person, engaged in attending to the wants 
of the wounded British officers in the second story. I saw the lat^ 
ter carrying refi^ahments to a wounded British officer to whom she 
was engaged to be maWted. As she had been moving through the 
rooms filled with blood from injuries and ampntations, her dress was 
completely drenched to the knee. Both mother and daughter 
avoided cat«hing my eye, and I avoided any attempt to make them 
catch mine ; for they were women, and, as such, I could not feel ven- 
geance, although they had attempted to compass my death. As I 

>y Go Ogle 


said before, upoa this occasion I owed my life to Lieutenant 

That affectionate remembrance of his aids had not waiped hiB 
judgment in after yeai-B is proved by the exti'act of a letter fi'om him 
to General Bko^vn, dated Queenstown, Upper Canada, 15th July^ 

"I cannot close this account of meritorions conduct without men- 
tioning the great services rendered me by those two gallant young 
soldiers, Lieutenants Worth and Watts, my aids. There was no 
danger they did not cheerfiilly encounter in communicating my 
orders, and by theii- zeal and inti-epidity won the admii-atlon, as they 
had before the esteem, of the whole brigade. They both rendered 
essential services at critical momenta by assisting the commandants 
of coi-ps in forming the ti'oops under ciroamstancea which precladed 
the voice from being heaid. Then- conduct has been handsomely 
acknowledged by the officers of the line, who have joined in request- 
ing that it might be particularly noticed. 

(Signed) W. Scorr." 

His opinion of Kearnt has been too often expressed in official 
reports, conversation and lett«i-B, to need any repetition hei-e. 

RoBEKT Watts, the eldest brother, living, of Geokge, the di'a- 
goon, entered the United States Army 31st July, 1813, as Captain 
in the 41st Eegiment of Infantry ; but none of the family seem to 
have taken kindly to foot service, and he resigned in the same yeai'. 
He was afterivaa'ds a Major of Volunteer Cavalry during the war of 
1812-15. Thrown from his horse in the execution of a rapid move- , 
ment, his whole command in column rode over him at speed, yet, 
strange to say, when picked up not a horse's hoof had tonched him. 
General Scott spoke of him its a remarkably handsome man. He 
is still i-ememberod by his cotemporaries as the handsomest man of 
his day in the city of New York; and one who had the opportunity 
to know him by long experience, declared that he possessed a per- 
iect temper, like his aunt. Lady Maky (Watts) JoHss(Hf, whoso 
playful humor exhilarated the whole household." 

>y Go Ogle 



" He WBS a lovely yoath,— I gaesa 
The panther In the wUdarneae 

Was not so fair as he 1"— WoBpaWOBTH. 
" When a yonnker up I grew, 
Saw one day a granfl review, 
Colors flyins, set me dying 
To embark in life bo new."— Old SONa. 

While the Keaent family lived in Broadway opposite Morris 
street, young Phil Keabny was a papil at ITitoed'3 school, on the 
west side of Broadway, on the comer of Cedar street. At that 
time he waa very fond of drawing pictures of soldiers and designs 
of armies on his slate. Sometimes he condescended to caricatm'es 
of Mr. Uffokd and his school-feUowa. He always had a gi-eat talent 
for drawing, and eometimea he drew well, that is, whatever was 
connected with military matters or horses. Some of his sketches 
of soldiers possessed considerable merit. If memory serves, he 
produced eqaestiian groups which were spirited. 

Phhjp Keabny was never a very strong or robust boy, nor given 
to any violent exercise, except riding on horseback. In the sad- 
dle he made up for hia ordinary quietness of demeanor. When- 
ever he could get a horse he rode furiously, in fact he was a regu- 
lar horse-killer. 

What he was in early years is clearly depicted in a letter of the 
Eev. Dr. Ogilbv, who officiated with so much eloquence and feel- 
ing at the floral decoration of his gi-ave, in Trinity churehyai-d. 
New York city, by the members of Post Phil Kea,rny, No. 8, 
G. A. E., of the Department of New York, on Sunday, 1st June, 

" In my boyhood wo were neighboi-s, and, at times, playmates. 
My recollection of h'rn is that of a mild and gentle boy, whose 

>y Go Ogle 


dark eye was distinguished rather for softness than for that fire 
which kindled it in later life. I remember, when I heard of his 
eooBpicuous gaUantiy in the Mexican war, I was astonished, and 
said to myself, 'Can this be the gentle boy of my early remem- 
brance T I never met him afterwards until we were brought to- 
gether by the hand of death. In the midst of the war he came 
from the thickest of the fight to bury a child who had been strick- 
en down in the apparent security of a peaceful home. Such is our 
mortal life ! I officiated at the funeral of the child, over the same 
grave upon which the flowers were so soon strown upon the dost 
and ashes of the father." 

At a later date he was sent to Round Hill School, at Korth- 
ampton, Maas. , the noted institution kept by Dr. Joseph G. Cogswell, 
afterwai'ds the world-wide knowji Superintendent and Organizer of 
the Astor Library, and Mi-. George Banckoet, now Minister from 
the United States to the Noi-th Gei-man Confedei-ation, the Ameri- 
can historical wi-iter. Dr. Cogswell seems to recollect him well 
while under his charge. " In atiswer to your inquiries about Majoi-- 
General Philip I^eabsy, while a youth at Round Hill School," he 
replies, " I can only say that he then evinced none of the mUitary 
spirit which in after life marked his career with such a halo of 
glory. He was remarkable for his gentle and amiable character, 
his great docility, faithfid observance of the school regulations and 
for hia devotion to his studies. He took high rank as a scholar, 
and was greatly beloved as a pupil. Wlien the school was opened at 
Cold Spring by Dr. Beck and Mr. Watsox, and he left Round Hill 
and became a pupil of it, it may be that a militai'y spii-it was 
already stuTing within him, and on that account he wished to be near 
Weat Point ;* or that, being so near that gi-eat nursery of militai-y 
heroes, he there caught the spu-it which became his passion and 
made him one of the bravest and gi-eatest of our gi-and cap- 

At the sn^eation of Dr. Joseph G. Cogjswbll, certain questions were ad- 
dressed to the Jleverend John Lbb Watson in r^ard to th« acliool-boy career 
of Generid Keaeny after he left Round Hill, Northampton, Mass. To the 
kindness of that gentleman is due the following statement, which is very interests 
ing, although Mr. Watson falls into n general error in regard to Keabkt'S 

raise ; West Point bad Dothing to 

>y Go Ogle 


erer having been a cidet.' Kbaen-y was placed at the PhiEpstown school iu 
May, 1830. Ho entered Columbia College as a Sopliomore, in the fall o£ that 

It is reasonable to sappose the latent militarj- element in Kearny's structure 
■was kindled hy the " blare of bngle and roll of drum " from across the river, 
juat as the same martial notes rouse up the Cadets to their daily routine of drill 
and study. Doubtless his martial instincts responded la the dariou's call, jost 
BB AltTHUR's ' ' war-horse neighed as at a friend's voice," when 

" Par off a SDlilary trnmpet blew." 

This and no more. Thus much justice must concede, and truth then refuses to 
allow any more. It is much more reasonable to believe that General SCOTT and 
the other ofSccrs vi^ting the Philipsfown school, attracted by hia family resem- 
blance, spoke to Keabnt of those gallant spirits of his race who had shone or slill 
were shining in arms, whereupon feelings kindred to theirs awoke to life in the boy's 
mind, feelings like germs buried in the earth, which only required aeddent and 
light to germinate, grow, flower, and fruit in great deeds. 

Philip Kbaeny eanie to our school at Philipstown, in the Highlands, in May, 
1830, with the intention of preparing himself for admission to Columbia College, 
New York, in conformity with the wishes of bis friends. For a time he pursued 
hia classical studies with great diligence, and gave much eneouxagement as to his 
future progress. Bnt it soon became evident that all his own incUnations tended 
towards a military education. The Academy at West Point, with all its animat- 
ing sights and sounds, was constantly before his eyes ; several of his school-fel- 
lows were preparing for examination as Cadets ; an officer of the Academy came 
over every day to instruct om: papils in Mathematics ; there was considerable in- 
tercourse between (he officers of the Academy and ourselves, and also between (he 
pnpila who had relatives on eilher side i and, besides that. Colonel Thayek anil 
General Scott, both of whom had relatives under our care, visited our school at 
stated periods. All these circumstances combined to fill the mind of Keahnt 
with a strong desire, or rather with a perfect passion for a military education ; 
and at last he came and told ns that "he could not see his way to study for 
College any longer ; that he never should be good for anything nnloss he went 
to West Point, and that he would thank us very much if we would inform his 
friends of the state of the case." Accordingly we advised his friends that it 
would not be wise or prudent to thwart his inclinations. 

During the short time that Kbaeny was with us we became very much at- 
tached to bim. In hia conduct and character as a boy, the often-quoted line of 
WoBDSWOBTH scems peculiarly to apply to him, " The boy was father to the 
man." Snch as he was with us and among his sehoohnat«s, he continued to be in 
after life in hia brilliant career as an ofScor of our gallant army. He was bold 
and daring even (o recklessness ; fond of all manly sports.; the best gymnast in 
the school ( an excellent horseman, and an indefatj^ble pedestrian. He was 

podlive ho never was tore." A. S. W., Bret. Hni.-Qen., U. B. A. 

>y Go Ogle 


alwava obedient ajid rc'i l i£o1 to his instrnctora, end entirely submissive to nu- 
thontv Vs to the state of li s jnoraJ or religiona chnracter, nt tJiat time, I do 
not now feel mjscli eomjetent to express any opinion, • » ■ 

I believe that tins comj rises idl my xecollectione of " the hDyhood of PhU-IP 
KEiBNl \Vhil<,I las lector of Uta<:e Chnrch, Newark, New Jersey, (from 
alont 1846 to ISsi ) I frequently met him, and he often toolt occasion to say 
ho V much he was indebted to Dr Beck and myself for the excellent training 
that he received dariog the time that ho was at the " HigMaad School,"— as he e:;- 
presaed it—" the most critioal period of his life j" he said that " it made a man 
of him," I havo only to add that I took much interest in Keabny'S life as a 
Boldier, and during the war of the rebellion I followed his course through all hia 
military operations, up to the time of his last battle i and when I read the ac- 
count of his death I could not but call to mind the words, which, in his sehool-boy 
days, were so frequently on his lips. 

Keaent was seven or eight yeai-s older than the wi-itei-, and as 
he was always kept away at boarding-school, it was not until he had 
reached the age of fifteen that the latter 's reniiniBcences of him 
commence. About the year 1830 he came to reside with his 
gi-andfather, Hon. John Watts, in whose house the writer was 
bom and brought up. Thenceforward they were constantly to- 
gether for six or seven years. Even at that time Keakny was 
veiy peculiai-, proud and shy, and averse to those associations 
which youths of his age genei-ally form from impulse rather than 
from judgment. His companions were selected, with all the cool- . 
ness of maturer age, for qualities wluch suited his prejudices — and 
these extended to cveiything. In the choice of friends, he was 
regulated by his own arbitrary ndes of what they should be, 
rather than what they were. He was fond of di-ess, and exdeed- 
mgly neat and careful of his pei-son, and always affected a sort of 
militaiy cai-riage or touch of something military in hia costume, so 
that any observer would have said, " There goes a soldier in civil 
clothes, or one intended by natm-e for a soldier." In corroboration 
of tlus, the following quotation fram a letter to the writer is appo- 
site : " When we were on om- way home, at West Pomt (the 
boats never landed at Cold Spring, where Keaeny was at school) 
we saw a young gentleman step on board with a Mediterranean 
cap on (you remember that cap) : I thought that that cap could 
only cover Philly's head, so up I jumped, and the young gentle- 
man tm-ned his head, and much to our mutual deUght, it proved to 

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be good Phu, on hia way to town to spend a week ; so we joined 
company, and I had the satisfaction of having him with me for a 
week. He is coming to town in about two weeks to be examined 
before he euters college." ■ ' 

One of the first remarks of Keabny's, which the writer remembers 
wae, that whenever he owned a pair of horses, they should be named 
Tilly and Count Zippe. Although so much younger, he was 
sufficiently read in history to be astonished at Keabny's partiality 
for two generals, the most marked, perhaps, in military histoiy for 
qualities not only du-eet!y opposite each other, but differing from 
those of the vast majority of leaders of armies. Subsequently, how- 
ever, when militaiy reading became a passion, it was no longer diffi- 
cult to undei-stand why Kearny selected these men as his favorites. 
The youth was father to the man. Keakny was already thinking. 
When close after-study made thou- characters known, the predi- 
lection was no longer- sui-prising. Tilly, whom his great antago- 
nist, GusTAvus Adolmius, styled the " Old Devil," on account of 
his cruelty, and .the " Old Coi-poral " fl-om hia strict attention to 
drilling, was a thorough soldier. As an organizer and as an ad- 
ministrator he had no superior in his era, the first fom-teen years 
of the " Thirty Tears' "War." As a general he was unconquei-ed, 
nnfil new tactics, now mateiial, new men, grown great in their ex- 
perience under- a new order of thmgs, appeared in Germany. Hia 
command-in-chief, for nearly a quarter of a century, was a career of 
■victory, rmtil Gtjstavus shattered and rained the magnificent army 
which TiLLT had cr-eated, at Leipsic, in 1632, and finished the work 
by putting an end to his antagonist's fame and life at the Lech. A 
persecuting piiest (it has been stated that he was an aiEliated 
Jesuit), in his intolerant bigotry, perfectly chaste as regarded 
women, sober, uncompromising, in hia self and general discipline 
he was in many respects a consummate commander. With hhn 
originated the expression, " a ragged soldier and a bright musket." 
Doubtless Keakny liked him because he was a stem and sagacious 
disciplinai-ian, one who knew how to knead a discordant p 
into that fanaticized unity which makes an army a machine, i 
sistiblc to everything bnt another ai-my inspu-ed with ideas more 
potent in their influence than mei-e fanaticism, and sufflcieatiy dis.. 
ciplined to execute simple manceuvres and maintain cohedon. 

As to his second favorite, Keaest had, much in common with 
Count Ln'PE, a quick temper, a rough tongue, an open hand, a 

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compassionate heart, an a^ute, active mind. To their sick and 
wounded both were equaUy attentive, and their supei-vision of their 
camps and hospitals was only limited by their other pressing du- 
ties. Those who will study the hfe of Count LnwE, after they 
have read these pages, wUt find that Keakny had not studied the 
German in vain. They will perceive that he understood what was 
needed in a general, when he left the beaten track of popular 
opinion — dwaya fondei- of "shams," or " would-be' 8," or "but- 
chers," than real generals — ^to pick out and appreciate a man so 
gi-eat in his influence on his times, and greater in the paris he was 
called upon to play than most of those to whom such prominent 
positions have been intrusted. A soldier who won, enjoyed, and 
retained the esteem and confidence of Fbedebick the Great, king 
and hei-o, and of Posibai., the great Portuguese minister, the 
EicnuLiEU of his century, must have been one fai- above his fellows, 
at least in some grand properties, if not in the startling magnitude 
of a Fekdixand of Brunswick (under whom he served for some 
time as general of artilleiy) in the capacity of handling a huge host 
to advantage ; or of a Ziethen or a SEroLrrz, mai-veloue in their 
specialty, and unsurpassed in the world's history as creators and 
leaders of cavalry — still equal to either, if not superior, in a combinar 
tion of qualities, which made him shme in the high and difficult 
posts to which he was called by public opmion as the peraon best 
fitted to fill them. 

Count WiLLiAit OF ScHAroiBDRG-LiPPni, sometimes styled Count 
LippE-BucKEBUEG, was a general of an entii-ely difierent type fi-om 
Tilly; but as a disciplinarian, as a tactician, as an artillerist, and as 
a commander, m his sphere, he is chai'geable with scarcely a single 
error of judgment The ofBcer who could convei-t " Westphalian 
peasants into Prussian soldiers," and " fifteen hundred ragged, ill- 
paid Portuguese vagabonds, commanded by officers as poor, idle 
and beggarly as themselves, into ordinary soldiers," worthy the 
name and capable of beating good troops, must have understood 
his business thoroughly. 

Two anecdote of him attest bis coolness and self-confidence ; 
During the year 1758-9, he greatly distinguiebed himself as a 
general of the Hanoverian aitillery (to whose command he had 
been appointed by George H.), under Prince Feedinasd of Enins- 
wick. One day he invited a number of Hanoverian officers to 
dinner, and while the company were in the full enjoyment of the 

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entertaimneiit, cannon-shotB were heard, and several balls flew 
about the tent. The company started to theii- feet, exclaiming 
that the French were at hand. The Count pacified them as far as 
regarded the enemy, althoagh it is doubtful if his explauation left 
hia guests -with undiminished appetites. "Do not be alarmed, 
gentlemen," .said he, "I wished to convince you how well I can 
rely upon the officera of my artiHery. Accordingly I ordei-ed them, 
■while we were at dmnor, to practice atthe flag-staff over my tent." 
Whether the guests did feel at ease after this explanation is ques- 
tionahle. But tho cannon-balls contmued to fly about, and, if 
memory serves, one stoiy runs that a final shot, hy hitting the 
main support of the pavilion, brought the whole structure down upon 
the company and put an end to the fi-olic. Had one of our generals 
indulged in such dangerous sport, he would have been considered 
a lunatic, and Mr. Stantos would have been down on him in a 
trice for waste of ammunition and material The Count, however 
was not crazy. There was a pei-fect method in his madness, and 
he won the respect and admiration of every sovereign and com- 
mander under whom he served— so much so, that Joseph, King 
of Portugal, one of the most bigoted of Roman Catholics, was 
willing to pm-chase the sei-vices of a rough, uncompromising Pro- 
testant by concessions and gratuities rarely made even to the most 
transcen^Jant genius — concessions, in the case of Count Lippe, which 
circumstances rendered a necessity. When he quitted Portugal, 
the king conferred upon him extraordinaiy honors, and gave him 
magnificent presents: six golden cannon, each weiglung 82 pounds 
mounted on ebony carriages, heavily ornamented with silver, a 
button and aigrette of diamonds for hia hat, and the royal portrait 
set with the same precious stones. To these the King of England 
added a swoi-d mounted with diamonds. 

By "Practical Strategy,"— a term used by an expert in the mili- 
tary ai-t, which di'ew down upon the wiuter, in 1862, the thunder 
of the oldest West Point Pi-ofessor,— by Practical Strategy 
afterwards cai-ried out in so masterly a mannei- by Roseciians and 
Sherman— Count Lippe, in 1762, g^ned for himself immoi-tal 
renown, without even ventuiing to bring his badly organized Por- 
tuguese troops into direct collision with the Spaniai-ds. Merely 
by skilful manceuvi-ing, the selection of positions and encamp- 
ments by the English and Portuguese, the admirable Spanish army 
was checked, and prevented ftom making an attack with advantage, 

>y Go Ogle 


till, at lengtli, weakened by sickness and want, it was obliged in 
antumn to retire from the kingdom. 

In 1776, when a new war seemed imminent between Spain and 
Portugal, the Queen llegnant of the latter kingdom desired that he 
should reasaume the command of her ai-my. Feeble health, the 
gi'eat^t di-awback to a general — Marshal Couijt Saxe, says, "a 
general must possess robust health" — would not permit him again 
to take the field. 

Fear was somethiog unknown to Count Lippe.* A second 
anecdote proves this. A similar one is toid of General Seyes, 
better known as Soliman-Pacha, a French convert to Islamism, and 
right hand to Ibrahim-Pacha, in making that Egyptian anny which 
conquered the Tm;ks eo gloriously at Iloms and at Beylan in 
1831, at Konieh in 1832, and agam at Nezib in 1839. 

One day, while Count Lipi'e was strolling through his camp, a 
Portuguese soldier, incited by insane religious fanaticism, or, per- 
haps, instigated by a bigoted priesthood, fired at him with an ab- 
gnn, ■ The ball passed through the Protestant general's hat. With- 
out quitting the spot he called several officers about him. Hia 
officers be^ed him to withdi'aw. JJo; he determined to maintain 
his position until he could discover the rascal, At length he spied 
him out just as he was taking aim a third time, from hia tent. 
Count Lippe ordered him to be hung.upon the spot. The Regi- 
mental Chaplain insisted upon being allowed to administer extreme 
unction to the culprit before he was executed. The Count refused, 
and the intended assassin was run up instanter, unshriven — a fear- 
ful fate for one of his faith. 

That Pinr.ip Keabns, at the age of fifteen, selected two such char- 
acters as his heroes, proves that ho had already read and thought 
discreetly upon military matters, since both Tilly and Count Lippe 
were distinguished rather for scientific and solid properties than 
for dash and brilliant qualities, 

Nevertheleas, by a strange contradiction, although Keaent thus 
selected men of thought for hia favorites, he always wiahed to be a 
Hnssar, particularly, as he admitted, on account of the jaunty dress 

* " i^urr^ Iiannie cr gar nk^t," 

The writer has hoard it stated, or else some one wrote ont to one of the family, that 
KBABNTiraB sent out of Italy, in 1S59, for his too raeb eclf-cxposare. Aa will be shown 
tram his owd letter, ho cuiue very sear esperiendug at Solterino the same fate that be 



and attractive service of that coi-ps. Moreover, in youth, the 
tactics he affected were reckless cavalry charges, although convinced 
by theoretical experiment that they were made in vain against the 
resistance of a steadfast infantiy and the Are of a capable artillery. 
In aftei- life, when he aspired to a general's commancl, he had lost 
all his predilections for cavahy. "An officer who commands a 
cavalry regiment" — ^was about the amount of what he said — " has to 
perform double dnty. He has in fact to diill two regiments 
instead- of one, the one of bipeds and the other of quadmpeds ; and 
I don't know but that the lattei' is the easiest to make and manage." 
While General Kgakny and the writer lived together in the 
house of their gi-andfather, from 1829 to 1834, almost all the leisure 
time of both was spent in mimic campaigns, with armies composed 
of frona four to sis thousand leaden soldiers with perfect ti-ains of 
artillery, and even other adjuncts of a well-provided host. Battles 
were fought according to a digested system, which even regulated 
what proportion of those knocked down by the mimic Are of 
musketry or ai-tilleiy should be considered as dead or too severely 
wounded to take part in the rest of the campaign, and how many 
as slightly wounded, and how. long the latter should be looked 
upon as remaining in the hospital before they were again available. 
The firing was done with small spring-guns, one shot for each can- 
non, one for each regiment jir separate detachment of infantry and 
so many for each line of sharp-shooters. When the fii-ing, altei-- 
nating, had gone through both lines of battle, the different bodies 
were moved a shorter or longer detei-mined distance, according aa 
they belonged to the different arms, over spaces dictated by tho 
real relative speed of the different seiwices, whether light or heavy 
cavahy, light or line infiuitiy, field or reserve ai-tillery. This was 
not loft to hazai-d, but according to a written or stipulated code. 
Field works and permanent fortifications were constructed of paste- 
board, and the irregularities of ground represented by piles of books 
and similar objects, built np in accordance with agreement before 
operations commenced. One siege lasted a number of weeks, and 
the tidy, dearly-beloved, and respected old house-keeper, wife* of a 

• Mts. F T Tliis (tdmlrable woman deserves moro than a paaalng notice, A 

sad BDd eventful life was Hers. A dobt of gratitufle Is due to her, tor an affection and 
fldiiUtj, motUerty, as great as rare, of nearly thlrty-flve years, to the Watts famllr. 
ShoU was General KsiBNT'a appreciation of her deTotion to his grandfather and race, 

erty, enftblcd her to live coneistently with the position in life which ehe ivas entitled to fill. 

>y Go Ogle 


formei- Bwoi'd-master at West Point, was driven almost wild by the 
accumulation, of dust, and the appropriation of huge dining-tables 
of solid mahogany, the pride of her heart, whose oiling and polish- 
ing absorbed the greater part of her time. Every other kind of 
table or flat piece of furniture was impressed, which could be drag- 
ged out of its pla«e and made available to eke out the theatre of 
action. She could scarcely be pacified at the subsequent disorder 
of the apacious rooms and the prohibition, strictly enforced, against 
sweeping and dusting, lest the bustle should knock down or dis- 
arrange the soldiers. Fleets of paste-boai-d were even attempted, 
but mai'itime operations could not be made to work, since many a 
pellet which hit the sides of a vessel would level all on board, and 
then a quan-el would ensue as to how many were killed and how 
many wounded, which often ended in a fight, and put an end to 
mimic hostilities until the actual hostilities, between the leaders, 
were settled and the wounded honor of either orboth was appeased. 
A very forcible shot fi-ora one of the spring-guns, close at hand, 
against a paste board ship, had the same effect as the impact of one 
of Faeeagct's vessels, when they butted the iron-clad " Tennessee" 
in the Bay of Mobile. All the poor little leaden soldici-a wei-e 
knocked off then' feet and a number overboard. As the question 
of how many knew how to swim and how many ought to be 
drowned was never taken, into consideration, when the code of pro- 
cedure was drawn up, it led to so much argument, that the bellige- 
rents came- to the conclusionof NAP0i,E0N,tliat it was as useless for 
them as for him to attempt the emph-e of the sea^ Kearny con- 
tinued to enjoy this amusement even while he was in college, and 
perhaps still longer. When he began to go into society, he took 
so much pains with his dress, and spent so much of his time out of 
the house, that he gi-adually relinquished a game which had given 
him such great dehght and occupation for years. 

He used to sleep under an old but very fine engraving of 
Napoleon Bl'onapaetb, tri-color in hand, at the bridge of Lodi, per- 
haps for the purpose of deriving insph'ation from the picture in hia 
dreams. Strange to say, throughout all the miUtaiy talk which 
occurred, the wiiter has no i-emembrance of his discussing Napoleox 
or his Marshals, with the exception, perhaps, of one, Sucjiet. His 
favorite generals, at that time, were almost all those who figured 
in w^ars prior to the rise of Natoi.eon. One reason may have been, 
there was such a total disagi'eemeut as to their excellence that no 

>y Go Ogle 


satisfactoiy result could be arrived at by uny discussion ; whereas, 
the achievemeuts of those who had flourished at previous dates 
■were themes which could be canvassed without degenerating into 
opeu ruptures — ^i-uptures which, in after years, gi-ew out of difler- 
. ences hardly more important, and yet occasioning long estrange- 
ments that were only healed by temporary absence. In such cases, 
mutual respect, affection and still higher sentiments of esteem, 
brought the cousins together again, and everything went on as 
pleasantly m if no unkind feeling had ever arisen. 

After passing thi-oogh Columbia College, in New York, and study- 
ing Law in that city, he accompanied the writer to Europe in 1834. 
There his only idea seemed to be looking at soldiers and their 
manrauvree. He would be out of bed with first dawn, to wander 
forth and watch the exercises of a regiment of cavalry. Ai-tillery 
he never had any eye or taste for, and then bat very little for 

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" Aronse je, my comrades, to horBe I to iorse I 

To the field dud to treedom we gnide I 
For there a man feels the ptlde of bis force, 

And there Is the heart of him tried. 
No help to him tiero by another is shown, 
He stands for himaolf and himself alone." 

SoniLLIlIt'S "WALLBHaTEDl'gLtiaBIt." 

" Fangh-a-hnllagh— cloar the nay, boja 1 
Kever did our gallant corps 
Yield an inch of gronnd behind them. 
Give an inch of gronnd before." 


On the 3d September, 1836, the death of his grandfather, Hon. 
JoHX Watts, set young Philip Keaeny free, at last. For several 
years he had been chafingundertherestraintsofcivillife, like a caged 
eagle or panther. At once he exerted all his interest to obtain a com- 
mission in the United States Cavalry, and on the 4th (8th) March, 
1837, was appointed Second Lieutenant of the Ist U. S. Dragoons, 
commanded by his uncle, Stephen Watts Keaent. 

This able and gallant officer had onlybeen commissioned Colonel 
of this "model regiment" on the 4th of July of the previous yeai', 
but he may be said to have commanded it from the &st. Yee, to 
him is due the organization of the first real cavahy which 
the country possessed since the general disarmament after the 
■war of 1812-15. It is true that Heney Dodge, a sagacious fron- 
tiersman, an experienced ranger, and a gallant man, was its first 
Colonel, and Stephen Watts Keaksy only its first Lieutenant-Col- 
onel, but the latter was the ci'eator and soul of that magnificent little 
body of cavalry, whose superior or equal has never been seen on 
this continent 

"If ever there was a soldier by nature," are the words of one of 
his classmates in Columbia College and fellow officers in the war, an 

>y Go Ogle 


tincle of the writer, who commanded a company in the regulai' ser- 
vice, dm-iog the wai- of 1812-'15, before be was of age, "if ever 
there was a man whom I considered really chivalrous, in fact, ajiAN 
■n all that that noble term conveys, that natural soldier and gentle- 
man was Stephen Watts KEAiinr." 

Upon the receipt of his commission, Pinr.ip Keaen^ immediately 
abandoned the enjoymentof all the luxm'ies placed at his command 
by the inheritance of a splendid fortune — equal at this time to 
$1,000,000— and stai-ted for the West to join hia command at 
Jefferson EaiTacks, on the Mississippi, 12 miles below St. Louis, in 

It has been more than once stated in print, in this connection, 
that Jefpebson Davis was Captain in the regiment at the time 
Phil Kearny was Lieutenant, This ia an error. Davis became 
let Lieutenant, 4th March, 1833, and Tvas Adjutant in 1833-4, but 
resigned in 1835. Still, themoral to be deducedis the same asif they 
had met or simultaneously served. Well might Paekee exclaim, 
"How widely divergent their subsequent paths of life and thought !" 
Colonel Beackett in his histoiy of the U. 8. Cavalry, says, "It 
would, no doubt, have been much better for the countiy had he 
(Davis) been tilled during that period ; but it was designed other- 
wise, and he resigned on the 30th June, 1835, Davis, as a cadet, 
manifested a proud, haughty, and cold disposition, which he seems 
to have retained through life. He is eminently selfish, and has 
no friends aside from those who can be of use to him Neverthe- 
less, it must be admitted that he was a good officer, and gained the 
respect of those with whom ho was thrown in contact." 

What a contrast, the histories of Keaeny and of Davis. Kearst 
after an honorable life — a life of patriotic duty, fulfilled to the 
uttermost — and a heroic death, was buried in the tomb of his 
fathers, amid the tears and lamentations of a people and its army, 
both of whom loved and admu'ed him, and appreciated the great 
loss which they had sustained. Davis, aftci- rising to the bad 
eminence which he sought to attain, fell, like Lucifer, from his 
height of pride, and contbues to exist, lite the arch-spirit of evil, 
the object of scorn to every good and honest man throughout the 
universe. He presents an example of great gifts peiTerted for the 
pei-petration of the greatest crime of which a man is capable — trea- 
son : in his case a double treason, not only against his countiy, but 
against God's most precious gift, Liberty ; treason, for the estab- 

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lislinient of slavery, and the Bnbstitntion of slavery, with all ite 
evils, for freedom j treason against the country that educated and 
made him, whicl(, his great gills, with nobler aims, might have illus- 
trated and glorified, as did the dead Kearny; a country which the 
misapplied inteUeetnal powers of himself and paity pei'sistently 
labored to beti-ay and to desta-oy. 

From lOtb June, 1837, to 2lBt May, 1839, while Keabnt re- 
mained West of the Mississippi, he devoted himself with great 
ardor to mastering the details of his profession. During a poi-tioa 
of this time, 22d August, 1838, to 10th April, 1839, he was aid-de- 
camp on the staff of Brigadier-Genersd Henet Atkiksos, who com- 
manded in that region, and had his headqnartera at St Louis. 

Active service in the line, as well as on the staff, gave Keaent 
an opportunity of a course of double instruction, similai- to that of 
young staff officers in the French araiy, who, after being educated 
in theii- own peculiar duties, serve for a stated period with the dif- 
ferent arpe to ac4uire a practical knowledge of each. KEARNf'a 
after life proved that he profited by his opportimities. Thus he 
became proficient in details which can never be acquired for sub- 
ordinate positions (line or field) by theory, or any amount of study. 
A general, boi^n with the genius for command, may so fit himself 
by study for a high station, that a very little practice, good sub- 
ordinates, and an efficient staff will enable "his genius to compen- 
sate for the want of experience," as in the cases of Lucullus, 
Spisola, Gustavus Adolphus, Toestenson, Conpe, Fredeeic, and 
Napoleon. But this never can be the case with a line or field officer. 

Let us see what one of his comrades says of Keaent at that 
time: "I recollect him only as an active, energetic subaltern of 
cavahy, dischai'gjng efficiently all professional obligations, and ia 
personal bearing observing the most gentlemanly courtesy towards 
his peers ; always bi-ave, and generous to a degree that won for 
him the admiration and esteem of all who knew hitn." 

What changes have taken place since Keaeny joined his first 
command on the banks of the Mississippi ! At that time the Jef- 
ferson Ban-acks were as far out of town, as regarded St. Eouis, as 
one of the southei'n tier of Westchester vUlages was to New 
York in the be^nning of the century. Then, the population of St. 
Louis did not esceed, if it equalled, 10,000 souls ; and it is doubtful if 

Louis and its subui'bs do at the present day. 

>y Go Ogle 


" The City of St. Louis," to quote a letter of an officer, a friend of 
KEAR>rT, written a few years afterwards, " extends over a large 
apace — large enough for twice as many inhabitants as it contains. 
Many of the shops are small wooden structures; not a few lots are 
still unoccupied, and about them, as about the whole town, there is 
an air of dirtiness, as if the city had gi-own up rapidly from the soil, 
and was not yet fi'ee from much, adheiTng mud. And such a busy 
Stir as there was in the streets, and in the hotels ! The people that 
thronged the latter appeared to be generally intelligent, genteel- 
looking persons, who had come West probably for making invest- 

The same officer, a very distinguished loyal general during the 
late war, makes the following remai-ks, worthy of preservation, in a 
letter dated June 6th, 1857, while on his way to jom the army, 
ostensibly sent out to subject tbe Mormons to onr institntions, which 
it did not do. The ai-my was only used in the interests of slavery. 
The writer of the letter resigned in disgust ; but even then he pro- 
phesied that triumph which God has vouchsafed to Fi-eedom. One 
of the first prominent victims of the late struggle was tlie com- 
mander of those ti-oops, that able Aijsert Sydney Johnston, the 
hope of the Slavocrats, who did not do their work negligently in 
1858-'9, or whenever he bad an opportunity to do it. 

"Chicago— with its 109,260inhabitantBin 1860— 250mUes to the 
northeast of St Louie, where Keaeny was stationed in 1837-'9, was 
still httle more than a settlement, grouped around Fort Dearborn, 
and the house of the Lidian agent. These were tbe only edifices to 
be seen there in 1832," the year when the writer quoted entered 
West Point, and the Black Hawk War broke out. "In 1840, Foi-t 
Dearboi-n bad entirely disappeared, and Chicago contained 4,853 

In 1837, the " Father of Waters" had still a population peculiar 
to itself Arks, broad-horaa and flat-boats, of more or less primitive 
construction, barges and keel-boats, drifting with the cun-ent, or 
navigated by a class of men rough and i-ude, but intellectually strong 
as they were physically powei-fbl — a class which produced Abraham 
liincoln — had not yet been superseded by steamboats for the general 
transportation of merchandise. 

Keakny hved to see changes, which to predict would have been 
set down as madness. Fort Leavenworth, on the border line between 
Missouri and Kansas, was then far, far out in the wilderness, Wheu 

>y Go Ogle 


Kbaknt returned from Europe and his Algerian campaign, it was a 
sort of nucleus, around which border progress — the pen came near 
Wiiting civilization, of which, in its trae sense, it is very doubtftd 
if there is very much on the border— had just begun to aggregate 
itself. All beyond was wilderness, in the trae sense of the word. 
Then the one re^ment of di-agoons, which superseded Dodge's 
"Border Rangers," sufficed to keep the Indians in awe. Kow 
thanks to civilization and it« inevitable whiskey and conti-acts for 
the benefit of pohtica] favorites at Washington, then- control, in the 
slightest degree, tasks the brains of a Lieutenant-Genera] and an 
army ahnoat as numerous aa that which fought four grand battles in 
the valley, and captured the capita] of Mexico. 

When Keaknt next appeared upon the frontier, in 1845, Fort 
Leavenworth had become a great frontier depot. St. Louib had 
over 60,000 inhabitants, Missomi over 500,000. Before he died, 
those sparsely populated re^ons, whose protection constituted his 
first chief duty, had become thickly peopled States. Missouri alone 
could boast of 1,182,012. Beyond these a tier- of new States had 
grown up, and can-ied civilization 500 to 900 miles farther on to the 
plains, which, in 1837, were the domain of the Indian, the Buffalo, 
and the Trapper, 

>y Go Ogle 


" Dreaded in batUe and loTed in halL" 

■ Bold ss thou In t 

he fight, 

thou In 




■f my might." 


■ Prepare ! 


it, and, costly let it be. 

And in m 




the East of delicacy yields, 


Worthy c 



Ight fleia. 

ierful goblet 

Shall rois 


ulB." * 

* *.— Fbow*. 

" Tbo banquet wails our preBence ; festal joy 
Laughs in the mantling goblet, and the night, 
niuminad by the tapera' daazliog beanta, 
Eivalc departed day." — Baoww, 

" There was a aonnd of rerelry by night, 
And " Sanmnr'a " capital had gather'd tben 
Ber beauty audhet chiialry, and bright 
The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men ; 
A Ehouaand hearts beat happily ; and when 
Uuaic arose with its voluptaoua swell, 
Soft eyes look'd love to cyca "which spabe again, 
And all went merry as a marriage boll, — Ckilcb Habold. 

As mentioned in the preceding chapter, "the First Re^ment 
TJ. S. Dragoons waa the first corps of the cavalry arm established 
by the government, aft«r the general disarmament snbseqnent to the 
■war of 1812-15. Conseqnently, at the time of its organization, 
and for several years aiterwards, no complete system' of cavalry 
tactics had been provided." Joel Roberts Poinseit — Secretary 
of War under Martin Van Bdren, 1837-1841 — conceived the 
idea, in the first year of his term, of sending out to France thi'ee of 
onr dragoon officers, " for the purpose of going through the regular 
course at the "Royal School of Cavalry," at Saumur ; who, on 
their return to this country, were to compile a work on Cavahy 
Tactics, moulded OB thatof the Frenchsystem, but so modified as "to 

>y Go Ogle 


8uit the wants of our own service." The three officers selected were, 
1st Lieutenant, William Edstis ; 1st Lieutenant, Henet S. Turner, 
and Ist Lieutenant, Philip KEAH>rr, Jr. The result of their labors 
was the Cavalry Tactics, printed by order of the War Department, 

at Washington, and beaiicg date 10th Febrnoiy, 1841, three 

weeks before the close of Mr. Poinsett's term of office. Colonel 
Bkackett, in his Histoiy of the U. S. Cavalry, remarks : " The 
system of Cavalry Tactics adapted to the organization of the Dra- 
goon Eegimonts, was authorized by Hon. J. R. Poinsett, Secretary 
of Wai', on 10th Februaiy, 1841. It ia mainly a translation of the 
tactics of the French service, and has not been yet improved upon, 
though seve]-al attempts have been made, which have all proved 
failures. I believe almost every cavaiiy officer of experience con- 
siders the tactics of 1841 as far superior to anything which hae yet 
been introduced into our service." 

Pursuant to orders, Philip Kearny left his regiment to proceed to 
Washington, D. C, 21st May, 1839, and there i-eceived farther or- 
ders, dated 9th August, 1839, to proceed to France on special duty. 

" The Three " sailed from New York m August, and " aii-ived at 
Fontainbleau October 1st, 1839, where they found the IT. S. 
Minister, Mr. Cass, on a visit to the roy.^ family, then residing at 
the Chateau, in the midst of one of the iinrat forests in France, 37 
miles S.S.E. of Paris. They were presented at Couil by Mr. Cass, 
and had eveiy reason to be satisfied with then- reception. They 
dined twice at the Chateau, and accompanied the king to a i-eview of 
troops at the Camp of Instruction." On the 8th October "the 
Three" were at Sanmur, but Keaent, after remaining there a short 
time, " obtained a leave of absence, and accompanied the Duke of 
Oi-leans, eldest son of Louis Philippe, on one," if not two, " of his 
CMnpaigns in Afi-ica." The incidents of that campaign — ^which will 
be treated of in full in subsequent chapters — were given "in a fidl 
and most interesting report," made at the time to Major-tleneral 
Scott, commander-in-chief of the U. S. Ai-my, by Lieutenant 
Keaunt, who, after his retui-n from Europe, was attached to the 
staff of that General as aid-de-camp, thus succeeding, in regular or- 
der of genei-ations, as it were, to a position of honor held by hia 
uncle, Geokge Watts, of the Ist U. S. Light Dragoons, duringthe 
campaign of 1814. 

But the reader may say, Where is Saumur? and what of the 
Military Academy ? The question is a just one. 

>y Go Ogle 


Saumur, about one hundred and seventy miles southwest of 
Paris, is a cheerflil place, gleaming from afar with its white bnild- 
ings, and one of the most picturesque towns, in its quaint struc- 
tm-es, towers, pinnacles, and spii-es, on the Loire. It stands on the 
left bank of that i-iver, and prior to the "Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes," 24th October, 1685, was one of the eti-ongholds of the 
Huguenots, or Protestants of Fi-ance, who were driven forth from 
theii' native country, or worse, by that iniquitous deci-ee. Two 
centuries ago it was the capital of a ^strict in the province of 
Anjon — ^known as the " Saamiu-ois." The confines of this petty 
government presented exactly the outline of one of those dehoioua 
peai-8 for which France is so celebrated, and Saumur was situated 
at the apex or root of the stem. Its capjui'e by the Vcndeans, 10th 
June, 1793, was one of the grandest exploits of that mai-vellous 
effort of loyalty and honor. 

The Royal Cavahy School, transferred to this city fi-om Angers 
towai'ds the close of the preceding century, is located to the south- 
west of Saumiu-, and covers quite a large space with its buildings, 
riding-schools, and grounds for exercise and drill. It is destined 
to receive officers, non-commissioned offlcei's (fi-om three hundi-ed 
to four hundred of this grade), and even picked riders (caoaliera). 
They are instructed in every branch of information appropriate to 
their Arm, and, after a complete cooj-se, ai-e distributed tln-ough all 
the cav-alry regiments in the army, to difiiiee a complete knowledge 
of the horse and horsemanship and the best method of imparting 
instruction according to a uniform system. 

It is somewhat curious, just as our three young American officers 
wei-e sent to complete theii- militM.y education at the Royal School 
of Cavalry, at Saumur, so Pitt and Wellmgton took a course of 
lessons at its predecessor, the " Academy of Equitation," at An- 
gers ; the latter, in 1785-1787. Thus the bitf«i-est and the most 
successful enemy of France laid the foundation in a French Mili- 
tary School of that knowledge of war which led the latter — "the 
Iron Duke" of after years — through Vimiei-a, Vittoria, and Water- 
loo, to Paris. 

"While at the Cavalry School at Saumur, Lieutenant Keabnt de- 
termined to give an entertainment which would not only do honor 
to himself but to his country. He was incited to doingthis by the 
generous sentiment which he felt for the attentions he had received 
and in order to make some adequate return for the civiUties shown 

>y Go Ogle 



by the dva and jnflitary mthoritieB of tie place to the three Am<^ 
lican officers resident among them. 
The Btoiy of this ball is as follows: 

On "Twelfth Night," (1840)— an anniversary kept m Enrope 
with almost as mnch exactitude as Christmas— General nn Bnicit, 
in command at Sanmur, gave a patty at his residence. ^ 

Formerly " Twelfth Night," or the •' Eve of the Fcstaval of the 
Three Kings," was one of those periodical seasons which have always 
been consecrated by Emopean nation, to amnscment and festivi^. 
Thus we find Bakeotz and Hbemskisrck imprisoned amid the 
Artio' ice, on the coast of Hova Zembla, during that teiTible winter 
of 1596-7, expending their hist httle supply of wine m pigmy 
bumpers to the kmg of the festival, and with a oonrage and spirit 
without example, indulging in all the customary meiainent of 
home, which they seemed destmed, hi all human probability, never 
to revisit, and when they were, to all appearances, within the jaws 
of destruction. 

The Twelilh Night king was a potentate, with authority and 
functions somewhat similar to those exercised by the King of Mis- 
rule in Old English Christmas revels. Among the more elevated 
and refined classes of society, this festival assumed a stately char- 
acter, and became susceptible of very great display. The selection 
of King and Qneen was generally left to chance and deteimined by 
a bean, which was placed in a cake, cut and distributed in pieces 
before the supper. The drawer of the slice oontainmg the bean 
became King or Queen, and was privileged to select a partner to 
shai'e bis or ber temporary regal honors. All di-ank to his or her 
majesty, who reigned and received homage fiom every one dmmg 
the evening. Jn this custom origmated the French title of the 
festival. The Feast of Kings ("La Fete de Eois), for which the 
revolutionary government of 1793 substituted, "The Merrymaking 
of those without breeches, i e. Eadical Democrats" ("&• Fele da 
Sam Calolta"), through theh hatred of anything savormg of 
royalty. Before the disastrous close of the reign of Loms XVL, 
the French monai-cb and his nobles waited on the Twelfth Night 
king. This proves the hnportanoe given to the occasion in former 

Kium was "prevented by mdispositlon from attendmg the 
paity at the house of General ni. Bhack on Twelfth Night," wtot» 
the first of "the Three," who kept a sort of journal of what tram. 



pired, "'VVTienthecaltewascut, some of the ladies sent him a piece 
with the bean in it, and from that the ball originated. He first in- 
tended to give a party at the assembly rooms, but the idea gradually 
expanded, and when he was offered the gi-and rooms of the school, 
be put the whole thing in the hands of some French officers, with 
' cai-te blanche ' as to expense. The result was a ball which 
eclipsed even the grand ball given by the city, some years before, 
to the Ducheese deBerri, and which seemed to be the only notable 
event on record when we aiiived thei'e. The rooms were heauti- 
ftiUy decorated under the superintendence of General db Brack, 
who was an artist. The supper was sent fi-om Paris by one of the 
most celebrated restanratem's ; flowei-s in profusion came from An- 
gersand other- places," "each lady on entei-ing received a bouquet of 
the choicest flowers in an elegant silver- holder," " and witli the ma- 
sic of the iine brass band of the school, and an excellent sti-ing-band 
from the city, nothing was wanting to make the whole affair a per- 
fect success. Applications wei'e constantly received for invitations, 
many fi-om a great distance, and if it had been delayed much 
longei-, the rooms would not have held the crowd. Kearsy em- 
ployed an ai-tist who was present to make a picture of the ball, a 
copy of which he presented to General de Brack," 

Kearnt's ball "was gotten up in a style of magnificence that was 
wholly unprecedented in that part of the countiy"— these are the 
words of another eye-witness, the second of "the Three." It was 
"given llthFebruary, 1840, and presided over by the Commandant 
of the School, General de Brack," whose wife Kearny selected as 
the Queen of this substitute Twelfth Night merry-making celebra- 
tion, and it was attended by all the prominent people of that parti- 
cular section, and by many from Paris and elsewhei-e. It was in 
evei-y respect a brilliant affair, and procured foi- General Kearny, 
from the inhabitants, the most enthusiastic acknowledgments, for 
the hberality he had displayed in thus conti-jhuting to their enjoy- 
ment. An artist was engaged to make a picture of the scene on 
canvas. In this he was very successful in giving admu-able like- 
nesses of sevei-al prominent individuals." 

The only discrepancy, in the recollections of those who participated 
in the festivities, is as to whether the town or the giver of the fete 
employed the artist who executed the pictiu'e which commemorated 
this graceful evidence of Kearny's patriotism and gi-atefid appre- 
ciation of the com-tesies of the Fi-ench govei-nment and officials, bnt 

>y Go Ogle 


more particularly the attention of the ofBcer in command. At all 
e^-entg, by whomsoever commanded, the original picture, or a copy 
of it, was a prominent object, at^the time of the Greneral's death^ 
among the paintings which adorned his spacious and elegant man- 
sion, at Belle Grove, on an elevation opposite Newai-k. This 
building stands on the site of a conntiy residence whicli, prior to 
the Revolution, belonged to his grand-aunt, whose husband built and 
dwelt in No. 1 Broadway, a veiy fine building for its date and the 
young city of New York, and originally owned the adjoining No. 3, 
in which KBAitur was bom. 

This painting is on too small a scale to do full justice to the occa- 
sion, but it affords some idea of its splendor, atti-ibutablc in a great 
measure to the variety, grace, and elegance of the numerous uni- 
forms of the Turkish, Polish, American, and Fi-ench officers belong- 
ing to the different arms and services, which filled the room — uni- 
forms, of whose i-ichness and contrast, our people, accustomed to 
the universal sameness of our present blue, tame and simple, can 
have no idea whatever. At that time the Turkish and Polish mUi- 
tai-y costumes wei-e still, if not the moat sei-viceable, the moat strik- 
ing in Etivope. They were susceptible of any amount of decora- 
tion, almost as much bo aa the Hungarian, with its plumea, em- 
broidery,jewela, lace, buttons, jacket and dolman. All that is most 
attractive in the di-ess of the Chasseurs d'Afrique — to which Kearst 
was afterwards attached — was borrowed from the Polish; eveiy- 
thing which looked well andyetwas8ei'viceab!e,just astheZooavea, 
was modeled on the Turkish military costume. All that was re- 
jected was those details which were in reality unmilitary and un- 
fitted for active service. All that was good and good-looking yf^a 
retained. And,. yet, Keaent told the writer that his own unifonn, 
that of the American Light Dragoons of thirty yeai-s ago, was as 
effective and imposing as any in the room. Doubtless he made it 
so, although it was very jaunty in itself. The coatee, blue, double- 
breasted, was not a frock, but cut in a much more gi-aceful fashion; 
the collai-, cuff and tm-n-backs, bordei-ed with lace and omaioented 
and ti-immed with gold, pantaloons, blue-gray mixture, known as 
hght army-blue, with two stripes of orange cloth up each outward 
seam ; the cap, such as the French term " shako," with drooping^ 
white hoi-se-hair pompon, or rather plume, silver and gold ornaments, 
and gold foraging cords and tassels. The latter conld be detached and 
worn over the coat and around the neck, producing the effect of aa 

>y Go Ogle 


fUguilette. The sash waa silk net, of a deep orange color, wliicli, if 
made in Prance, as the writer has seen them made, shone in the 
glancing lights like a waving zone of gold. Thus Kearnt de- 
scribed it, and thus oui-o£5cei-a did' not make a bad show among the 
dazzling di-esses whu-Ung in the waltz, or polka, or promenading 

When Kearny resigned, in 1851, the same striking and elegant 
uniform was still worn by our Di-agoons ; and the writer will never 
forget his expression and manner, when he came back in 1861, and 
saw some of his own regiment agdn, in Washington, after the 
lafse of ten yeai-s. " I left them," sdd he, " a set of elegant gentle- 
men, and now I come back and find tliem a set of dirty black- 
guards." The Dragoons at the National Capital certainly did not 
present an attractive appe^'ance in May, 1861 : especially in the 
borrid felt hat of an "Italian bandit," — as some one styled it — 
which Jefpeesoh Davis, while Secretaiy of War, had clapped on 
their beads. 

That this ball mu^t have been something extraordinaiy, there can 
foe no doubt, from the glowing accounts given of it by those wbo 
were present, and Keakny's lavish expenditure, doubtless, did make 
a strong impression on a people so susceptible to display as the 
French, particulai'ly at that period, when extravagance had not 
attained the vast proportions it has reached under Louis Napouson. 
That it most have cost a very large sum, is eei-tain, fi.-om the hon'or- 
stricken expression of Keakny's agent, when called upon to remit the 
necessaiy moneys. He threw up his hands, as if the young repre- 
sentative of American munificence had lost his senses, 

>y Go Ogle 



The following letters, received from the U. S. War Department, 
Washington, D. C, arrived too late for incorporation, and are 
therefore printed and added entire. The author hereby acknowl- 
edges the assistance of Brevet Major-GJeneral E. D. To^vksend, 
Assistant and Acting Adjutant-General TJ. S. A. 


Sir;— L«t me take tho liberty of consaltiag with you, (aayoa am the officer to 
wliose cliargo the General has entrusted us), on the course that I had best pursne 
whilst at Saumur, to answer the end that govemmont has in view in sending me 
abroad. And to do so let me firat eipiaia the organization and the origin of our 

At the close of our late war with Great Britain, in 1815, our caralry n 
were disbanded. In 1833, afteroneof our Indlanivarshsd proved the necesaity of 
having cavalry on the frontiers, ours, the First Regiment of Light Dragoons, was 
raised. It was organized, not by squadrons, but by companies, each company hav- 
ing a captain and a first lieutenant and a second lieutenant. It ivas oGiiieced 
principally by officers taken from the infantry. Everything was new to them. 
The cavalry regulations for the mantsuvres were token from the French, almost 
literally translated. But as for police and the internal administration of the regi- 
ment, and everthing else of that kind, there was no other precedent than as far aa 
the experience our officers had had whilst in the infantry— some had been in for 
many years ; the present Colonel for mote than twenty years, having served dormg 
the war. 

Through tho zeal of our officers, and from onr being fcept constantly actively 
employed in sending detachments through the Indian country, onr system and 
diseiphne has been rendered nearly complete. But as in cavalry, which, lil;e the 
French, has been kept progressing in perfection ever since the great wars of 
Europe, everytbing useless has been rejected, and everything requisite is practiced 
in the best manner. ■ It is for the purpose of roaldog a statement of the differ- 
ences that exist between onr own and the French cavalry, that I have been sent 

My object is to remain at Saumur for sis months, for the purpose of acquiring 
the French lat^uage, becoming instrncted in the use of the sword, and of arms 
pertaining to cavalry ; to follow a course of riding, but rather the " pratique" than 
the theory, and more especially for gaining ideas generally, to assist me in the 
more thoroughly visiting and making ohservadons on the regiments themselves. 
Secondly, to visit some of the best dragoon and light cavaliy regiments ; proposing 
also, should it be advisable and meet with the approval of our Secretaiy of War, 
to visit the regiments in acdve service in Africa. 

The result of these observations is intended to make known to our government, 
and more pardeularly to the Colonel of onr regiment, tho differences that exist in 
the organization, in the nian<?nvrea, in the police, in the administration, and in 

>y Go Ogle 


all the internal regnlntions of tlie French cavalry and our own. Also, to inform 
myself of the course pursued with tbo soldier from his joining as a recruit till 
admitted to the Eqnsjlron. 

Your advice as to the consideration of the above points will be esteemed a great 
favor and tindoess b; 

Your obedient servant, 

^ , „ Semna Lieutenant First Dragormt. 

Lientenant-Commandcr MiOHAtro, 

InttructOT of the School of Cataln/. 


SA^TXTm, October IC 

SlB; — We arrived here last Monday a week, and reported to general Brack, 
tbe commandant of the school, on tte following day. 

I Iiave not written to you before, from my not having had anything satisfactory 
to communicate. I am now happy to say that, at least as far as I am concerned, I 
will bo enabled to accomplish at Saumur the objects proposed. As I understood 
from yon in our first interview at Washington, it was your intention. In sending 
lieutenants Eusns and Tubsbk, that they should remain one year, and accom- 
plish in tliat one year, as far aa they were able, the studies pursued by the students 
in the course of two years — the usnal tflrm at Saumur. 

For myself, I had the highly gratifying honor to have been selected or^nally 
with the same intent, but finding myself situated in a manner that rendered my 
stay in the army uncertain, I considered myself in honor bound to explain to yoQ 
the circumstances. I had the satisfaction to find that my motives were understood, 
and the iionor of being sent abroad on a leave of absence, having military subjects 
for it8 pmpose. 

I have repeatedly regretted that your being obliged to leave Sarat^a eo imme- 
diately aftei- your arrival (which I had not been aware was your intention) pre- 
vented my seeing yon to coaverae with yon in a more particular mamicr as to the 
predse disposition of my timo whilst abroad. 

At Washington, yon spoke of my entering Saumur under the sanction of onr 
government, and remaining there with the others for a few months, and then, by 
traveling, to make myself acquiuntcd with the interior economy, and all that was 
connected with the French cavaliy, by observing, as an eye-witness, what was 
actually practiced in the best raiments — communicating the same to yon un- 
oHicially, by letters, or by a private report on my retnm— thougli, as I nnder- 
Btood it, rather by accumulating facts, by which yourself and our Colonel \vonId 
be enabled to institute comparisons between the utility of tlie practices of onrown 
and the French regiments. 

I think that in our conversation you did not fix a precise time for my stay at 
Saumur, but rather left it to myself to remain a few months. Had I had a 
second interview with yon on this subject, I would have requested you to name 
the precise timo. But as that did not occur, and to fix on a precise time in ad- 
vance ivas necessary for regulating my studies here, I determined it at sis months, 
that being about the time you would have recommended, and decidedly the period 

>y Go Ogle 


best adapted, for the objects for wMdi I have come abroad. For six months 
conld not be more sorviccably spent than in mastering the French language, 
a,vailing myself of the riding-school, and becoming instructed in the sword exor- 
cise, and in the uso of arms proper to cavalry, and more pardcnlorly the gaining 
ideas to enable me to study roost advantageously the re^monts that I shall af ter- 

Tho (fcaes of St. Cyr, and all foreign officars (there are at present here two o£ 
the cldevanl Polish and Turkish services), are put under the immediate direc- 
tions of one of the Instructors.- We have teen placed under the charge at Lieu- 
teuanf-CommnQdor MlCHAUD, an officer who stands high in his profes^on, and 
who, even in this short time, has evinced a degree of polite attention that merits 
our sincere thanks. 

Finding that onr situation generally, and more particularly my own, was niA 
fnlly onderstood, I wrote, as to a friend, to this Mr. MlOHAUD, explaining, in a 
few lines, the nature of my mission. This was translated into the French by our 
Professor of that language, an Englishman, but one who had been recommended 
to OS as being thorongWy master of the French from a fifteen years' re^denee. 
A copy of the same accompaziiea this comfnnnication. It was handed to General 
Brack ; he approved of it, and under bis authority Mr. Michaud told me that 
he understood and . entered fully into my views, and would, through Ma instruc- 
iioua, enable me to attain the objects I proposed. Let me take the liberty of as- 
Burin^j you that there could not be rendered a greater favor, both individually and 
as from the Institution, than this permitting me to pursue an unusual course at a 
school where, as at West Point, there are none but regular classes. The coarse is 
two years, and each year and part of a year has ila particular branches of study ; 
and on my part, let me assure you that, if assiduity and seal for my profession 
will avail anything, an opportunity like this shall be improved to the utter- 
In my letter to Mr. Michaud, you will perceive an allusion to my visiting 
some of the French reeiments serving in Africa. Should you have no positive 
objoctioos, I think that this and the particular regiments that I visit had better 
be left to the advices that I may gain in conversation with General BEAcat — an 
officer who distuignishcd himself whilst in (he Imperial Cavalry, and also mth 
other officers here. 

In the course of a few days, Messrs. EuSTta, TuESsa or myself will give yon a 
more concise account of the school ; as a cursory remark, I inform yon that there 
are two classes of officers among the students here. The class to which we shall 
be attached, though their course does not commence till January, is that com- 
posed of the 4^«e« of St. Cyr— St. Cyr being a preparatory school for the Infantry 
and Cavalry officers. Thoaewhoare intended for the Cavalry, after finishing their 
course here, are sent to Saumur to learn Cavalry duties. The other class of stu- 
dents are called the " Officers from the Re^ments," that is, they are officers who, 
before coming here, have already served for some years with their regiments. 

BeM.des the department of Instruction are three other military branches con- 
nected with the Institution ; onoisthoSchoolforKon-CommisaionedOfflcera— the 
best and most capable of the privates being selected and sent here to he prepared 
as non-commissioned officers for their regiments. The second branch is for the 
instruction of their cavalry bands — boys — tlie sons of Oendames and old sol- 

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diora being sent here, fo be rendered luuaieioaaprcvioustobcing admitted info the 
repmental bands. The effect ot it is plainly visible ; nnd I doubt if the English 
bands, tliough su3tidned at enormona expense by the ofBcers, ean equal the Flench, 
Tlie third branch is the School for Farriers. It may be added, though not 
appertaining so immediately to the military, (hat there is connected with the 
school a very large Government Haras, nnmbcring Bomo as beantifnl animals ca I 
have ever seen, many of them Arabs, many, too, of English blixxl, all being des- 
tined for the use of the Institntioo. 

Sir, again let me apolo^ze for tlins BddresBing yon unofficially, but such I 
believe is your desire, and is the onlj mode for an officer conununicafing direct 
with the War Department. 

Sir, with all respect, &c, 

Your most obedient servant. 

The Honorable 


BecTitary of War, Waihiagton, 

>y Go Ogle 



"iBpcakof Africa." 

" Beliold tie African, 
That traverses tlio tasI Nnmidlan deserta 
Inijaeetofpruf, and lives upon his 1>ow.— 

AcDiaoH'B "Cjto." 



Sicily waa considered the training ground of the Roman and 
Carthaginian armieg, contending for the Empire of the Mediter- 
ranean. Algiers has been the training gronnd of the French Army 
— dreaming of another Em-opean career- of conquest and spoliation 
like that which they enjoyed under the First Napoleon. The 
present French ruler seems nevei- to have forgotten a remark made 
by Frederick toe Great: "That if he were King of France, not 
a shot would be fired in Em-ope without his permission." It is a 
very hard school; it forged and tempered the steel-heads of those 
columns which did the iighting in the Crimea^ who stormed the 
heights at Alma; bronght succor at Inkerman; captured the 
Malakoff, and wrested victory from the Aush-ians in 1859, from 
Monte Bello to Solferino, 

Although a tropical land, the vicissitudes of the temperature are 
as fearful as those which convert iron into steel. In the mountmn 
regions, only a short distance from the coast, the changes are almost 
incredible. In the reti-eat of the first expedition against Constan- 
tine — 23d November to 11th December, 1836 — the French suffered 
as much from snow and cold as they did in other years from heat 

>y Go Ogle 


Thia retreat, in many of its liardships and pei-ila, was a repetition in 
miniature of tho retreat from BIoscow, 1812. Indeed, some of the 
old officers declared that during this campaign of seventeen days 
they liad encountered in Africa the icy cold of Moscow and tbe 
bottomless mud ofWai-saw. No wonder Kearny did not con- 
template the mire of the sacred soil with a dread equal to that 
offMcCr-ELLAN, after floundering through that of Barbaiy, road- 
less, and soaked with the continual and sevei-e rains of that KOnti. 

During the second siege of Couatantine, which was successful, 
one French regiment was exposed "for fifty liours, without rest or 
sustenance, to a pelting storm of snow and rain." 

Lieutenant Raasi.opf, of the Danish Ai'tillery, a very prominent 
officer, who, lite Keaeny, participated, as a volunteer, in the cam- 
paigns of 1840-41, relates a very interesting anecdote of this reti-eat, 
from commencement to end a series of the most feai-ful sufferings, 
labors, and privations. One of his friends, who was -present, told 
him that after twenty-four hours of almost insupportable miseries, 
be mustered his energies to enable him to live through the coming 
night, which promised no alleviation of them, standing, leaning 
agamst his horse and holding him by the bridle. Two pri\-ate sol- 
diers, wrapped in their cloaks, had lain themselves down in the deep 
mud at his feet After they had remained quiet in this uncomfor- 
table position for some time, one of them suddenly roused himself 
into a sitting position and exclaimed : " Well, I declare, I wonder 
what they are playing at the Varieties Theatre (in Paris) to-night," 
after which he sank down again into tho sleety steh and slumber 
of exhaustion. When the day broke, Raaslopp's fi'iend sought to 
awaken the two sleepers, but in vain. They both slept the sleep 
which knows no waking. What an illustration of the careless dis- 
position of French soldiers, and imder such circumstances 1 

Then ^ain, during the operations in summer, the heat almost 
surpasses belief. In some of his letters, Kearny ^oke of men and 
horses falling dead around him from the heat under a burning sky, 
like the heaven of brass prophesied to the Israelites as a curse. 
Notwithstanding, the French ti-oops were called upon to undergo 
marches and privations — such as it is almost Impossible to conceive 
that men can survive, especially during the season of the Simoon, 
or wind from the desert Life at times becomes a burthen to thom, 
and the exclamation is quoted as made by more than one : "I wish 
that the Bedouins would grow out of the ground by millions and 

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put an end to us all." All this, ho(7ever, roalizeu the truth of the 
proverb, "Fatigue and piivation render the soldier careless of 
danger," and, or yet make the best soldiers. 

The writer can speak, to some extent from personal experience, 
in regai-d to the climate in the fall. Suffering from a diseaae of the 
chest, he made a trip to Algiers in 1851, in the latter part of the 
month of November, which Castellae, an old African campaigner, 
Bty!es"the Father of Tempests " {lepei-e des tempetea). The party 
experienced the tnith of this remark. They looked forwai-d to a 
trip over summer seas of not over forty-eight hours' duration. 
Vain hope I Worse weather and more wicked seas were never encoun- 
tered on the ocean. It was not only tempestuous, but the wind was 
intensely cold and peneti-ating, one of tiiose tei-iible piercing north- 
westers, descending from the snow-clad Cevennes and Pyrenees, 
which share dominion with the Mistral, whose ci-adle is the ever- 
lasting snows and glaciers of the Alps. These are the winds which 
render the south of France so dangerous to persons affected witii 

weak lungs, and make the navigation of the " Gulf of the Lion " 

not " of Lyons," as it is now written — so perilous during the late fall, 
winter, and eM"ly spring. 

The Merovee left Marseilles, 15th November, at 2 p. il, in one of 
these gales so fierce that the steamer, instead of putting forth on 
its du-ect course, crept along the French coast not five miles from 
the land until off Cape Creux, one hundred and eighty-five miles, 
where the mountains are thrust forth just north of the Gulf of Ro- 
sas. Thence the vessel was steered for the straits between Mijoica 
and Minorca, passing insight of the former and of Cabiera — i dtn 
of horrors for the French prisoners taken by the Sjaniaids duimw 
the Napoleonic wars — and then dh-ectly south fot Al^iei s where it 
arrived on the 18th, about 11 p. m., having consumed eighty three 
hours in accomplishing what the passengers were assured would 
take only forty-eight. Amid all the discomforts of this passage, 
there are incidents which linger on the memory like glimpses of 
fahy land. On the 17th the passengers had a majjoificent view of 
the Spanish coast, with the Pyi-enees rising in all then grandeur, 
one sheet of glistening snow, like a vast successitn of pyiamids 
of polished PenteHcan marble, and on the night of the l-th m per- 
fect coatrast, the shores of Majorca — where the beat oranges eaten 
m France ai-e gi-own — were plainly visible, all bathed in lovely 

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Finding Alters anything but a snitable place for an invalid, and 
the temperatm-e entu-ely dependent upon the sun, which did not 
shine auspiciously, since it poured almost the whole time, the party 
determined to seek a more propitious chmate. While the sky is 
elouded and the rains fall, fires ai-e indispensable for those who do 
not enjoy good health and are accustomed to such a comfort ; then 
when the sun does come out, the contrast makes the heat almost in- 
Buppoiiable, While in Alters, the party saw all that was to be 
seen ; ascended the mountain Sahel, in the rear of the city, looking 
down upon the plain of the Metidjah, where Piin. Keaent fought 
in 1840, the last time that the Arabs ventni-ed a descent into the 
fertile lowlands, between the Sahel and the Lesser Atlas, an intervale 
varying from fiileen to twenty-five miles in width — ^many remem- 
bered an American officer who distinguished himself the last time 
the Arabs descended into the plain — drove in and out the diffei-ent 
gates through the new and stupendous foi-tifications, aid along the 
splendid railitaiy roads ; climbed to the rampai-ts of the Emperor's 
Fort ; visited the son of the last Mufti, himself an old man, at his 
villa a few miles outride the walls, who did not think much of the 
French, but seemed to have the highest respect for the broadsides 
— ^which he had heard — ofEngland and America; threaded the lanes, 
and roamed through the Cazbah, the former palace of the expati-i- 
at«d Deys; in fact viewed everytlung except the interior of a 
mosque — and that no one cared to enter for fear of cold, or adding 
to it, from walking on damp floors wdlh bare feet — a sacrifice visit- 
ors must make to their curitraity, since everyone bad to take off his 
boots or shoes. 

The i-eturn passage occupied nearly five days, in consequence of 
a sacceesion of fierce blows. The Merov^o sailed from Altera on 
tlie 20th, at 1 p. m., in the height of a strong Libecchio or south- 
westei', and, with a heavy sea ranning, steered toward the Islands 
of Majorca and Ivica, passing so close to the former tliat the city of 
Palma — its capital — was distinctly seen. On the 22d, 2 p. m., when 
oif the Gulf of Rosas, the Mistral burst from the N. E. like a 
thunderbolt upon the steamer, with the fmy which makes it a terror 
at this season to those who navigate these watei's. The tempest 
and the sea leaped into existence sunultaneonsly, aa if they had 
been evoked by the wand of. an enchanter, and the vessel was 
struck down and deluged with water in an instant. No descrip- 
tion can do justice to a veritable Mistral, or give a just idea of its 

>y Go Ogle 


powera. A very ugly heavy sea rose lite magic. Almost the fli-st 
filled the whole deck, crowded with soldiers, well, sick, and wounded. 
The captain hoisted jib, put the helm up, wore ship, and ran for 
the port of Palamos, as the nearest safe harbor, Rosas not being 
sufficiently good holding ground. While rounding to, the lightiron 
boat was almost rolled over, the gunwale went under, decks flooded, 
wind howling; but once before the gale, all right, although the sea, ' 
bright green, foam-crested and streaked, followed like a wall, 
threatening to poop the steamer — that is, break over the stern — 
and sweep the decks, and reared like a wall before. All the time 
the sky was as serene and beautiful as possible, and the sun shone 
in all its brilliancy ; meanwhile the wind raging like fury. With 
the first gust the captain remarked : " The Mistrao" — so they call it 
in their patoia — "was a good broom; it swept the sky clean." And 
80 it did, and visibly, diiving before it the dense masses of clouds 
like vast flocks of sheep himted by dogs, and in a veiy few minutes 
the vault above was one vast expanse of blue, undefiled by a single 

Palamos seemed quite a prettyplace^ orrather a series of villages 
than one continuous town — with houses and churches constructed 
of stone — ^pictm-esquely disposed around a circular bay, well pro- 
tected from the prevailing winds. Some of the houses were on the 
beach almost at the water's edge, the others a little back in the 
gorges of the bills — apparently well cultivated and handsomely 
wooded — which surrounded the harbor like the wall of an amphi- 
theatre, while the main town at the Eastern extremity of the bay 
has a mole and breakwater sheltering quite a commodious although 
small port. There were a number of vessels at anchor hei-c, one a 
bavk, the rest large-sized coasters. On Sunday, 22d, 6 p. m., after 
twenty-four hours' detention, the wind having subsided, the Mei'o- 
v6e put to sea, but, at the same spot as the day before, off Cape 
Creux, was assailed by a second and sevei-er edition of the Misti-al, 
and di-iven back to Palamos. On Monday morning, 23d, 2 a. m., 
anchor was weighed a second time, and at 11 p. m. on the 24th the 
party landed in Marseilles in another rain storm. This is a worse 
climate than America. When it don't rain, oh, how it blows, so 
cold, 80 bitter cold ! A calm, quiet, joyous day, and clear sunshine, 
seem incompatible. Rain and lowering skies and murggy, warm, 
damp weather, with pouring or soaking rain, always go together. 
On board the steamer there were said to be five hundi-ed soldiers, 

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mostly inTalids, many with constitutions prosti-atecl witli African 
fever, Whetlier di-enched from the waves, which bi-oiie over the 
vessel, or the rain, which fell in floods, succeeded in the Gulf of 
Perpignan by the Mistral, which — while it broomed the sky of 
clouds and unveiled the sun — brought with it the piercing cold of 
the Alpine snows and glaciers, these soldiers had no shelter what- ■ 
ever, for five days, but a sail stretched across the bow, simply to 
break the force of the icy gale. 

Allusion has been made to the condition of the five hundred invalids 
on board the Merov^e, during the return trip. This was nothing to 
the crowd on the passage to Algiers: it seemed as if therewas scarce- 
ly an inch of the deck but was occupied with soldiers, colonists and 
tiieir wives, children, and all those who could not afford to pay for 
better- accommodations. The tempestuous weather was bad enough 
for those unaccustomed to it, but it was the intense cold that made it 
80 terrible to these exposed human beings. The wind, descending 
from the snow-clad Alps, Cevennes, and Pyrenees, penetrated hke 
"gimlets of ice;" and it was' stated in Algiers that onboard a naval 
transport, the " Pluton," from Toulon, loaded with troops, which put 
into Minoi-ca, one or two men died from the efiects of the cold, and a 
number of othei-s — "a dozen" was the word used— -were so severely 
frost-bitten as to become, comparatively speaking, invalids for life. 
These troops were not either sick or wounded, retm-ning from 
Algiers with broken constitutions — ^who make the ti-ansit, whatever 
may be the state of the weather, without shelter on the open deck — 
but healthy reinforcements from the mother country. 

Lamping, a Gei'man officer, who served in Africa in the " Foreign 
Le^on," who spoke from experience, testifies, that " a pickled her- 
ring has more space allotted to it in the barrel than a soldier on 
board a French (MediteiTanean) steamboat." 

"Dm-ing the summer the sarface of the Mediterranean is almost 
as smooth as a muTor. The blue transparent water loots so gentle 
and harmless that one can scai-cely believe in the terrific powers 
wliicb slumber in its bosom In the later autumn it entirely alters 
its chai-aeter : storms, and frequently even hun-ieanes, render the 
Afncan coasts the most dangei-oas in the world." 

The changes of temperature in the province of Algiers itself, 
present contrasts just as startUng as the sea which bathes its shore. 
In mid-summer the thermometer rises to 100°, and in the whiter in 
the mountain regions, snow stonns rage with violence. As a rule. 

>y Go Ogle 


m the spring and early fall, and always dui-ing the summer, the 
exti-eme heat is constant in the plains and valleys. Amid the 

■ mountains, however, Sudden storms occur when the thermometer 
falls, to such a degi'ee that the soldiers suffer as much from the cold 
and wet as they had previously from the heat and drought. In the 

- fall, winter, and spring the rains are very cold, and often of long 
continuance. Theauthorof "A Summer in the Sahara," writingfrom 
Medeah, 22d May, 1853, records that even at that late period "Winter 
still kept his foot planted on the white summits of the Mouiaia," and 
on the 28th October, 1840, the summit of the Djebel Mouzaia, or 
else the Beni Sala, visible from the north through the Pass 
of Tenyah, is represented hte a glistening pyramid of frosted silver. 
This must be the mountain, Nador, alluded to by Castellani;, 19th 
Koveraber, 1840, which rises to the north of Medeah.' He says, 
" the last platoons of the rear-guai-d disappeai-ed behind Mount 
Nador, The last image, the remembrance of France, seems to have 
withdrawn." These, however, maybe exceptional cases, although it 
would seem not, since a desertei" related the following curious 
anecdote of the Emu-'s" troops, who occupied that pass in October, 
1840. " The Ai-ab Regulai's in order to protect themselves against 
the cold, stuckeaeh one his leg into the wide pantaV>onsof hisnext 
neighbor, and thus lay down to sleep, chained or trowsered together, 
aa it were, in one mass." Had the alarm been sudden, "The 
Philistines su-e upon thee," they must either have been all captured 
or slaughtered. Fortunately, they had time to disengage them- 
selves before they were attacked by the French ti-oops. This 
proves, however, that it must have been exceedingly cold to compel 
acclimated men to resort to such an expedient to keep themselves 
warm in the presence of the enemy. 

Raaslofp, at another' place, furnishes statements which prove what 
a fearful mortality attends the campaigns in this fitful climate. In 
1840 — the year when Keaknt won his spm-s, and first saw fire — ■ 
during the months of July, August, and September-, thei-e was a 
monthly average of 14,000 sick, and during the last five months of 
that year 7,000 died in the military hospitals in Algiers. This does 
not include those who were sent back to Pi-ance to die or i-ecover 

In the year 1841, the number of days during which patients wei-e 
on the sick list amounted to 2,269,588. These, divid&l by 75,000 
men, give 31 days in the hospital for every military man in 

>y Go Ogle 


Algiers. During this same yeai-, the mortality in the hospitals in 
Africa was 7,812, to which mnst be added 484, who died on their 
passage back to France, or in the hospitals there. Total, 8,296, or 
over 11 1-2 pei' cent of the effective force of the army. 

As to the moi-tality and suffei-ing among the beasts of burthen, it 
was almost incredible. Not a single expedition took place which, 
when it tei-miuated, might nothaye been justly termed disorganized 
in a far greater degree than our own deal- Army of the Potomac, on 
the 2d September, 1862, when, toelerate the rehabilitating powers of 
McClellan and his favorites, it was i-epresented to be in such a 
shocking condition. If any officer wishes to appreciate the hard- 
ships of a soldier's life, be has onlyto make one campaign in Atrica, 
to comprehend all its labors, privations, hardships, and dangers — ^tho 
worst, since the climate engenders diseases which assail the body 
thi-ough the mind as well as thi-ough the ordinaiy channels. One 
of these is nostalgia, or home-sickness, to which Eaaslopp and Lamp- 
ing both feehngly allado. The other is that inexplicable depression 
of spurts — ^very similar in its effects to the preceding, bat yet not 
altogether the same, which too often converts a slight or cm'able 
wound into a dangerous one, or mortal, such as neither surgeon, 
medicine, nor any amount of care can aJleviato. 

To show of what indomitable stuff Pen. Keaent was made, 
when he left Saumm- to proceed to Altera he was so ill that he had 
to be carried to his carriage, and one of his comrades wrote out to 
the United States that "he would not be at all suiprieed if Keabnt 
left his bones in Afiica." Whether it was that intense mental 
excitement overcame any physical weakness, there was something 
astonishing in the manner in which the elhnate of Algiers, so 
trying or fatal to the majority, agreed with him. One of his rela- 
tives i-efers to this at the tune, quoting from one of his letters, that 
while he was dashing about and fighting for the love of the thing 
tmder the bm-ning skies of Africa, when men and horses were fal- 
ling around him from the effects of the intense heat, he was. breath- 
ing in health and strength, and returned home in robust health. 

Having thus endeavored to present a clear idea of the climate of 
that region in which France forms the nerves and sinews of her 
army, as bad, if not worse, than the majority of the weather which 
our armies had to encounter, the reader may desire to know some- 
thing in regard to the French comjnests and wars in Northern 

>y Go Ogle 


lu M3y-J"uly, 1830, General BocEMOfrr landed a French army, 
and captured Algiei-s. By this conquest the French obtained a 
colony, fertile and accessible, which they had long coveted, and con- 
siderable plunder. It is questionable whether they have ever derived 
any other benefit from it than the formation of an army, which, as 
iar as it goes, shows it has no superior. Down to 18i5, the con- 
quest was hardly more than nominal, although the campaign in 
1840, in which Keaknt pai-ticipated, gave some very rude shocks 
to the native powers of resistence. In 1836 occmi-ed the first 
expedition against Constantine which ended in disaster. 

Up to this time Abd-ei/-Kabei;, although a powerful chief, had 
not become the supremo leader of the Ai-abs, although he had 
opposed the French with ability and intrepidity, especially in the 
west, for several years. There, in 1832, before Oran, he expe- 
rienced a Gettysburg defeat m a conflict which lasted thi-ee daj'S, 
like OTir own great battle for national existence. In 1835 he 
seemed to have established a regular' governmeut, and even to have 
i-econstraeted the Arab nationality. During the succeeding years 
he gained great desultory successes over the French. These, on the 
Sd May, 1837, concluded with him the Treaty of the Tafna, which, 
while it conceded great advantages to the Arab Chief, and afforded 
him the amplest opportunities to consolidate his power, left them 
free to turn then- arms against Constantme and i-eatore then- ntUi- 
tary credit by the capture of that pla«e, 13th October, 1837. This ■ 
was a happy stroke, both of anna and of policy, for the French, since 
tiieir influence had suffered gi-eatly by then- ^ure noder its walls. 

The subsequent campaigns of 1840 and 1841 may be said to have 
broken the confederated power which Abd-el-Kader had consoli- 
dated. Then the campaigns of 1842 and 1843 wei-o directed agamst 
the individual tribes, and soon brought them to reason. 

"When Damremont, the French Governor and Commander-in- 
Chie^ was killed before Constantine, 12th October, 1837, at the 
moment when his plansfor the capture of the city were on the pomt 
of being crowned with success, the command devolved upon Valee 
by the unanimous voice of those highest in rank, as well as by right 
of seniority. Ho realized the truth of the dying words of the heroic 
Colonel Combes, who fell in the ti-iumphant storming. Pierced with 
two balls, this officer of the old Romantype reported the success of 
the movement, which he had directed and led, and closed the 
account with these words : " Happy," said he, to the Royal Duke of 

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Nemoura, "liappy are they who ai-e not wonnded to the death (or 
mortally); they will live to enjoy the triumph — i. e., or reap the 
rewards." Then he withdrew to hia tent, and the next day the 
army had to deplore his decease. received the prize due to 
Dajiremont, just as too many in om- late civil war assumed the 
km'els which ought to have been hung on the tombstones of the 

For the capture of this African stronghold — the prize of so much 
blood and suffering — Valee was raised to the dignity of Marshal 
. of France, and made Governor-General of Algiers, His power was 
despotic, and his disposition did not move him to use his authority 
with gentleness. W. von Raasloff, a distinguished representative 
of the Danish Artillery, afterwards Minister or Political Agent 
from Denmai'k to this coimtry, hereinbefore quoted, who made the 
campaign in 1840 under him, and another under Bugeaud, would 
seem to represent him as one of the most severe and most unfeeling 
of men. If his charatiter is not overdi-awn by this writer, be might 
almost be styled pitiless. 

Raaslofp relates two anecdotes of Valee, the first of which 
occurred while he was serving in Spain during the time of 
Napoleon ; of the second of these the Danish Volunteer was an 
eye-witness. The one proves that Valee had no genei-oua 
appreciation of the nobility of manhood, the other that he had no 
sympathy for the grandeur of that fortitude which Napoleon de- 
clared to be the first of military virtues. Keaent himself related 
another incident, which shows such a hard heart, that it is to be 
hoped that memory has been treacherous. Upon one occasion an 
hospital had been established in a position which the Marshal had 
selected for his headquarters, or else the cries of the woundecl dis- 
tui-bed him. He at once ordered them to be removed out of ear- 
shot ; and that night the Ai-abs made a dash, or stole within the 
lines, and cut off all their beads. This, however, was about the 
substance of the story. Whether this be trae or not, the old Mar- 
ehal was a pitiless disciplinarian. His Napoleonic contempt for 
human life, as Raaslofp styles it, would not be tolerated by our 
soldiers in this country. 

Yet it waa, perhaps, well that Kearnt saw his first real service 
under such a man, who, with ali his faults, was a commander of 
very great ability, and the " creator of the French Artillery " of hia 
day. It taught him the difference between the true and the sham. 

>y Go Ogle 


the " Man of L-on " from the want of appreciation, of men, and the 
" Man of Iron " from the inexorable demand of the hour, the latter 
the man for the ci-isia of a nation. He eould apprehend al! that was 
great in Vales; and lay it to heart as an example to be followed, 
and appreciate all that was unworthy of imitation, as exemplified 
by his speech to the Ddke of Okleans, when the young Prince 
bade adieu to his troops after the expedition through the "Iron 
Gates." Amid tJie profound and general emotion, was 
beard to exclaim: "Now it is time to die. After having counted 
three sona of the King in my army, and having seen two under 
fire, nothing is left for me but to quit (deckoir)." 

Abd-bl-Kadeb, which signifies "Servant of the Almighty," and 
refers to his samtly extraction and religious education and claims, 
a true representative of Arab ability, was a politician of no mean 
capacity, and a General well adapted to develop and direct the 
warlike and fanatic tribes which acknowledged his authority. His 
personal appearance was alone sufficient to inspii-e respect. The 
writer had ample opportunities of judging of this. He was intro- 
duced to him in 1851, liad rooms adjacent to him in the same hotel 
in Maraeiiles, and saw him again iu 1852 at Avignon. At this time 
be w^as about forty-iseven years of age. No portrait begins to do 
justice to his beauty — if each a term can be applied to a man ; 
although it is just in his case, for very few women could surpass 
Mm in the delicacy and regularity of his features. Select the hand- 
somest portrait ever exhibited of this Arab Chieftain, and it falls 
far short of the original in the prime of manhood, since no painting 
could give any idea of the gentle expression of his eyes and coun- 
tenance in repose, nor of its fii-e when ai'oused. 

As Kearny's report of his experiences in Algiers, made to Major- 
Goneral Scott, on his return in the fall of 1840 — although diligent 
search has been made in former years, and even after this was partly 
written — is not to be found among the archives of tbe War Depai-t- 
meot nor elsewhere, and as all documents, letters, and memoranda 
relating to his sei'vice in Africa appear to have been desti-oyed, 
therefore a tenacious memory, the narratives of cotemporM-ies, and 
a series of flrst-class works on Algerian affairs, are the sources from 
which the following cliapt«rs or narratives have been compiled. 
ThatKEAKSY went to Algiers with the Duke op Orleans was always 
undei-stood; that he passed the Gates of Iron with that Prince ia 
stated by a military historian j that he was at the storming of the 

>y Go Ogle 


Pass at Mouzaia is testified by the Prince de Joinville, brother of 
the Dtike op Orleans that he displayed great gallantly and forti- 
tude is borne witness to by his immediate commander aod com- 
rades. Many of the incidents can be corroborated from the remin- 
iscences of the wi-it«i-, who had them from Keaeny himself, from 
references in letter's, and from conversations in Europe and Afi-icS 
with participants in the campaign of 1840. The descriptions of the 
operations themselves, and of the localities ai-e from the b^t his- 
torical works upon the subject, or from the narratives of volnnteers 
who took pai-t in the events which they describe. The operations 
in the fall of 1889, and of the spring and summer of 1840, were 
among the most glorious for tiie I\-ench arms in Africa. In Octo- 
ber, the Duke of Orleans achieved a moral military triumph which 
will evei' be coupled with his name — the passage of the "Iron 
Gates of the Atlas." The marvelous deft threaded by the French 
column was justly considered impracticable for an ai-my, much more 
ao for one carrymg with it any kind of ailillery or material. The 
natives wei-e almost justified in believing that no armed opposition 
was necessary to render it unfortunate, since nature itself had done 
all that was requisite to make it dreadful andpeiilous, and a single 
shower could not only render the bold adventure impossible, but 

uttei-ly destructive. The belief that the Roman Legionaries 

those universal and in-esistible conquei-ors, who have left traces of 
their iron-banded occupation throughout Noi-thern Afi-ica, in what- 
ever quarter the French have penetrated — had never achieved the 
passage of these "Iron Gates," must have been a great bcentive 
to the Duke and to his troops. To accomplish what the Romans 
had not, was indeed a superlative honor. At all events, the fact 
was well established, that if the Roman Eagles, at some unknown 
date, bad gone through the " Iron Gates," no other military ensign 
had passed through except the Gallic Cock, eleven yeai's afterwards, 
to be superseded by the Imperial Eagle. 

In the ensuing year the same young, gallantPrince achieved even 
greater fame by a purely military triumph at the Pass of the Mou- 
zaia, since the Gates of Iron were not defended ; whereas the Col 
de Mouzaia, scai-cely leas strong by natm-e, was held by a strong 
force of Abd-el-Kadek's best regular troops, likewise an ai-my of 
irregulars, admirable shai-pshooters, all inspired with the courage 
of fanaticism, which, in such a natural forti-ess, could not have 
been overcome but by the discipline of picked veterans win- 

>y Go Ogle 


THEOtren el bibak! 

"H Tieita eneuite rAIgSrio on il obtint d'occompHEncr le Doc d'Obleahb, comme aide- 
de-camp bonoraire, pendant la cumpngne dee Fortes de Fer." 

DB TBOBBiaxs, li 390. 

"To tiaTeraethe Black Mountains from Neuatsdt to Frcjbnrg, it I3 neceaaHry, f or thB 
space of two bonts, to travel along n narrow Tallej between perpendicnlar rocke. This 
VBllej', or rather Una cresice, at ths end of which mns a torrent, is onlj a few pacea wide, 
and Is named the ' Valleyof HelL' Bythia terriblB defile tho greater part of tlio French 
army (under MOBBAD, in 1798,) traversed the Black Forest, witli an onemj' [the Austrian 
armj) on its front, on its flanka, and in ita rear. It was of this valley that Marshal VmnAM, 
hi 1700. wrote the following concise note to the Elector of Bavaria, who pressed ViiLiita to 
cross the Black Forest and join him: ' This Valley of Nonstadt, which yon propose to me' 
<a the Toad which the people call the ' Valley of Hell.' Well, il jonr HighneBs will pardon 
me the osprcsslon, I am not devil enonjih to pass throngh it'^—Campagnes de Moreaa ; 
QasSs '-Annals nft/ie Ware," S43,l, B,60. Comparo MnBBiY's " Handbook for Soulhem 
Gtrmaay," S87. 

" Come on, we'll quickly find a earer footing, 
And something like a pathway, which the torrent 
Hath waBh'd since winter." — Manpbbd. 

Ix the summer and early fall of 1839, the" despatches from the 
Generals in Algiers to the Home Government plainly demonstrated 
that hostilities, sooner or later, were inevitable. Abd-el Kadek 
seemed to look forward to a renewal of the war as the only method 
of maintdnmg his authority over the Confederation of Tribes, 
which he had labored so long to bring about and consolidate. 
IVIarshal Valee, Governor-Genei-al of the French possessiims, was 
pei-feetly willing to accept the gage of defiance, and was even will- 
ing to provoke the Emii' to throw it down that he might take it ap. 

This state of affairs soon became known in the army, and thus, at 
an early date, Kearny became apprised of what was going on in 
Africa. He at once applied to the French Government for pei- 
mission to accompany an expedition into the interior, and make a 
campaign under generals who had already won a reputation where- 

by GoOglc 


ever a soldier's name was known and reapected. Hie request waa 
acceded to, and whether as an honorary aid on the staff of the Duke 
OF OnLE.tMS, or as a supernumerary officer attached to the finest 
light cavahy re^ment in the service, he had an opportunity to 
acqnh'e, under the best conditions, a practical militaiy knowledge, 
and learn the utmost which a soldier is called npon to endure. 
These gratifying appointments gave him a delightful position and 
protected him against the prejudices entertained' by the aged com- 
mander-in-chief against foreign officei-s, whose presence in his camp 
was exti-emely distasteful to him. They annoyed and bored him. 
Such, at all events, was KEAitNr's opinion. And armed with despotic 
power, and gifted with an nnamiable disposition, it is not likely that 
he would have made the American volunteer's seiwice particulaiiy 
agreeable to him, had the yonng transatlantic dragoon been forced 
to come in du-ect contact with him, or without the intei-mediation of 
powei-fiil and willing protectors. 

. In the fall of 1839 an expeditionary coi-ps was assembled in the 
province of Constantine, whose constituents were brought thither 
partly in ti-ansports, direct from Fi-ance, and pai-tly from Algiers. 

The command-in-chief was assumed by Slarshal Valee. Under 
him the Duke of Okleans had a fine division. To the staff of the 
latter Lieutenant Phiup Keakny was attached as an honoraiy aid- 
de-camp.* The Mai'shal and Royal Duke privately resolved to 
undertake with this corps the somewhat adventurous march trom 
Constantine, along the Akkaba precipices, through the Jujura 
(DjorcJjora) to Algiei-s — adventurous, indeed, for if Abd-el-Kader, 
or any of his dependents (which latter, at that time, the Fi-eneh had 
no longer any right to trust), with a mei-e handful of then- people, 
had undei-taken to bar the way, at certain defensible points, the 
French column, totally destitute of any resources except those 
which it carried with it, would have been placed in a most desperate 
position ; nay, more, if only a few days of rain had occurred, the 
principal defile would have become totally impassable. When all 
these risks are taken into consideration, this mai'ch seems like a 
bravado, since no real advantages could be obtained through it, 
while, on the eonti-ary, as long as Abd-ei^Kadek bad not ratified 
the Convention of Tafiia, which regulated the boundaries of the 
French and his own jurisdiction, and had not publicly acknowledged 

* De TBosRUHD'a ■' Qimtre one do Compagaes, etc,' 1, 393. 



it, tliia mai-cli could only eei-ve still more to excite tLe inimical feel- 
ings of tlie Arabs wlio adhered to the Emu-. This march has been 
represented by the French as an act of takmg possession of the 
countiy ceded to them ; but "such an interpretation of it can only 
exciteasmile," for the reasonthat at times theFreneh troops advanced 
with such celerity that they appeared more like a body of fugitives 
than aa army of conquerors, and because they scarcely left any more 
ti-aces of then- passage through the greater pai't of the country tra- 
Tei-sed than a ship of its course through the ocean. 

Until the Fi-eoch ai-my had actually mai-ched thi-ough the district, 
which they were about to attempt, the most wonderfiil representa- 
tations and the ni(«t fabulous descriptions of its defiles wei-e received 
with most implicit faith in France. The foUowmg relation is com- 
piled from various authentic sources, but particularly from the jour- 
nal of an offieei- who pai-ticipated in whatever gloiy accrued to the 
expedition, which, m many respects, was truly glorious, since almost 
every human success is dependent upon fortune, and it required a 
concurrence of the most fortunate accidents, the favorable co-opera- 
tion, not of men alone, but of nature also, not merely to make it 
successful, but to prevent it from being disastrous. 

This description will show what exti-eyie difaculties the expedi- 
tion bad to overcome, and how well it was adapted to exalt the 
impressionable minds of the Fi'ench, so easily excited and affected 
by elevated and extraordinary ideas. 

The renown of this exploit will be forever connected with the 
name of the Duke of Ohleans, the pet of the nation, but especially 
of the Army of Africa, whose dangers and privations he had so 
often shared in ISSS, 1839, ISiO-— an army which not only looked 
up to him as an able and courageous leader, but confided in him 
as the true and acknowledged friend of the soldier. 

On the 24th October, 1839, the expedition was at Setif, seventy- 
nine miles west«outh-west of Constantine, directly south of the Gulf 
of Bougia. The troops believed that they were destined to open 
the communication between Setif and Bougia, through the most 
impoi-tant Kabyle ti-ibes, which dwelt in the moiintama around the 
latter port; an operation of the gi-eatest consequence as regarded 
the affairs of the province of Constantine. The Kabyles, with 
whom the feint of negotiations was initiated, did not show them- 
selves so much opposed to laying out a road thi-ough their land as 
the French authorities had expected. 

>y Go Ogle 


On the 25th October the colamn marched in a i^rection which 
etill kept up tho idea that the objective was Bougia. On the 26th, 
early in the morning, the coui-se was changed, and after a mai-ch of 
two hours a joyftd murmur suddenly arose throughout the column, 
, for the soldiers of the advance guard had discovered that they were 
not on the road to Zamoiu-ah — a small town northwai'dly and west- 
wardly of Setif, occupied by Turks, which 'had submitted to the 
Fi-enoh — but were " going it loose " in a more southerly du-ection 
towai'da El Biban, that awful pass renowned for ages. In a moment 
the cries, "Alters!" "ElBibanl" "Les Poi-tes de Fei-!" "the 
Iron Gates !" were in every mouth. Without orders the soldiei-s 
quickened their pace ; from front to rear the music of its favorite 
song resounded in each regiment There was no more fever in the 
column. The brave French felt no more sickness, no more fatigue; 
no one considered the countless iiiBculties which they had to 
encounter, or the weakness of the column, or the mountain brooks, 
which a single shower could swell into torrents, and thus render 
advance and reti-eat equally impossible. The wildest enthusiasm 
took possession of the troops, in which the leadei's perceived a sure 
token ofabi-illiant result. 

Now that the aeci-et was out, the most important aff^r was to ee- 
cnre, by the rapidity of the march, those advantages which had al- 
ready been won through the astute and scrupulous silence of Mar- 
shal Valee, and make the most of them. In two.days, 26th and 
27th October, the expedition had accomplished over sixty miles, and 
already on the evening of the latter day, the peaks of El Biban 
were visible. On the 28th, the divisions, commanded respectively 
by the Duke op Orleans and General Galbois, sepai-ated, the 
former inclining to the left and sooth, while the latter wheeled off 
to tho right into the plain of Medjanah, in order to secure the good 
will of the Turks of Zamourah for the French, and to finish the 
necessaiy preparations for establishing the great military camp at 
Setif, firat occupied by the French, under the same General Galbois , 
in 1838. It. had r^ned on the morning of the 28th, and the col- 
umn did not move again until this ram had ceased, since its contin- 
uance would liave rendered the defile of E! Biban impracticable. 
The column consisting of a single division, that of the Duke op 
Okleaks, comprised 2,351 foot, of the 22d of the Lino and of the 
famous 2d and 17th Light Infantry, 248 cavalry detachments, from 
the 1st and 3d Chasseui's d'Afr'ique — ^to the formei- of these Keak- 

>y Go Ogle 


NT was attached— and Spahis ; and 250 men of the more scientific 
corps, engineer troops (Sappers andMiners), one company, and artil- 
lerists with fom- 12 poandermountain-howiti;ers, onthe pacli-saddle 
system. Each soldier can-ied provisions for eis days, and sixty cai-- 
tridges ; 800 head of cattle and sheep followed the division. The 
Administration (Field Commissariat) had the precaution to add a 
reeerve supply of provisions for seven days more. Proud and ex- 
alted at the very idea that they were about to eolvo a military prob- 
lem which the Roman lemons had never dared to nndei-takc, the 
troops advanced with alaciity. 

Aiter a difficult march — severe upon the troops on account of the 
obstructions encountered, rather tlian the distance ti-aversed — in 
the bed of the Oued-Boukheteun, the mountain valley all at once 
began to contract, and grow more and more narrow ; gigantic, sav- 
age-looking masses of rock, heaped the one upon another, rose np 
before the troops and restricted the sphere of vision in the most 
peculiar manner. Next the column had to labor along a rough 
foot-path, up ascents almost perpendieular, succeeded by descents 
ahnost as precipitous. The spade and the pickaxe of the Sappers 
and Miners were continually called into action to render these 
praetieabie for the cavalry and pa«b-mules, especially those of the 
artillery. Each time that the column had attained the plateau 
which crowned the wild summit of one of these ridges, thoy hoped 
that the baiTier was surmounted, but on arriving at the crest, the 
soldiei-s beheld new peaks present themselves like an immense sea 
of rocky waves, clothed with wild woods and crowned with cactus 
and aloes. 

At length they plunged into a deep defile, and all at once found 
themselves hemmed in on every side by gigantic walls of limestone, 
which, a few moments before, they had not been able to discover, 
piled up in isolated and detached fragments, several hundred feet 
in altitude, their outUnos sharply drawn agamst the blue sky in 
Strange and fantastic shapes. Farther away, towards the east and 
west, all these isolated peaks arrayed themselves into parallel 
ranges of gray or swarthy limestone, leaning, as it were, against 
abrupt granite supports,* the latter shooting up perpendicularly to the 

• Uoone need be snipriscd nt theaa limestone walls, teing propped np by still mora 
BtnpenaonawallB of granite, sliice primiirj limestone, associated wtlli granite. Is of the 
same age ond has the same origin. They are riutonlc. There Is a temtiikahla mslanoe 
of this in the Highlands, on the Hodeon Biver, near Sing Slug, and at Cruger's Station. 

>y Go Ogle 


height, in some places, of 800 or 900 feet, m others, of more than 
1,000 feet, whose crest hue, broken by long intervals, illuminated 
by the light of the sun, presented the aspect of an immense ram- 
part with colossal embrasures. These walls, which seemed to real- 
ize the fable of Atlas, and support the azure vault, were not more 
than from 40 to 100 feet apai't, and ha5 the effect of appearing to 
close in upon each other in order to fruatrate any attempt to ad- 

After a rough and almost scarped descent^ the troops found them- 
selves in the wildest position Jt is possible to conceive, in a httle 
patch of green, shaped like a pointed egg, or rather the orbit of a 
comet, cut off at the butt by angular rocks, most savage in their 
aspect, while the whole contour was surrounded, except where the 
rifts afforded entrance and exit, by almost unappreciable walls of 
limestone, whose summits, at an immense height, overhung their 
bases, craning over as if to see what was passing beneath them, 
and along the naiTow track, which, agiin and igiin, crossed the 
thread of water known as the Oued Boukheteun Tiiis streamlet, 
after it leaves the mountains, recenes the name of the Oued- 
Eiban. A feeble brook in the dry seison, after heavy rains it be- 
comes a wild torrent, which fills the whole defile 

The ellipse of vei'dnre, just described, constitutes a sort of vesti- 
bule or entrance-com't to the "Gates, and can be compared to 
nothing but a narrow trap or deep kettle, in which an enemy could 
have overwhelmed the column with the greatest ease, shooting 
down the troops from the surrounding cliffs, slaughtering them 
like poultry—" tame ducks " is the word in the journal generally 
followed, in a coop, without their being able to inflict the slightest 
injury in return. Tte exit is a split, not over eight feet broad, 
ciefii vertically through the beetling Titanic cliffs — the loftiest, of 
reddish granite, the lowest of gi'ay or dark-hued limestone. 

This split was the FIRST lEOlf GATE. 

After passing through this opening, the column had to stiing 
OQt along a muTOW path formed by the disintegi-ation of the maily 
portions of the rock, and clamber over hnge blocks of chalk, 
almost filling the gigantic fmrow between the pai'allel walls, which 
seemed to spi-ing up to meet the sky. The Second Ieon Gate was 
soon reached, and, twenty paces" faithor on, the Third ; both of 
these, like the First, cleft as perpendiculai-ly as if cut with a plumb- 
line, but so naiTow that there was scarcely room for the passage of 

>y Go Ogle 


a loaded pack-mule. Fifty paces farthei- on, again, the Foitrth Iron 
Gate was eaeountered, a little less narrow than the three previouB 
ones. .Three hundred paces farthei- on, the defile proper ceases, 
and opens into a beautiful and gracious valley. 

How many centuries must have elapsed before the waters of a 
little brook could have worn down this abyss,* whose wonders are 
not susceptible of a description which can afford, to any one who 
has not seen them, a just idea of the reality — an abyss which in all 
time has received the title of the Ikon Gates op the Atlas, and 
whose passage has been regarded with awe ! The domination of 
the countiy would abnost seem to appeitain to the master of an 
army which dared to attempt, and succeeded hi passmg them, in the 
attitude of a conqueror. 

Through these Iron Gates the van-guard hurried on, the Marshal 
and Duke op Orleans with their staffs (including KEAEsr) 
leading, amid the triumphant clangor of militaiy music and the 
jubilant shouts of the soldiery, which seemed to make the very 
rocks tremble. The only trace of this interesting expedition which 
remained behind upon its stage was the simple inscription, engraved 
by the sappcra upon the natural walls of the pass: 

"Armee Fkancaise, 1839." 

About seven or eight hundi-ed feet beyond the fourth Iron Gate, 
the defile enlarges, and opens into such a smiling and peaceftd val- 
ley that nature seems to have placed it at this point for the express 
pui-pose of cheering up the sou! i-endered extremely melancholy by 
the gloomy depths of the preceding gulf, so unearthly and so savage 
as most abate the courage of the manliest with an iiresistible sensa- 
tion of awe. 

That he accompanied the column which forced its passaffe 
through tbc«e famous Gates of Iron must have been a never-endiu" 
som-ce of congratulation to Keaent ; fof while it was received in 

• "ItappeatBtamottiatonBofthe best proofs of the'yonth of our globe, or of its 
papalntlon, at nil events, le tliat its surface gold lias not been eshaustcd. Gold is fluoli an 
essential to eiviiization that if the world were as oU as some believe, it would have been 
exhaQste<l long ago. These ore the words of Brigadier-General J. W. P., one of the 
acutBst of obscrvere and a very scientific man. After visltlns that strange passage on the 
route from Foil Leavenworth, throngh Fort Laramie, to the South Pass of the Rocky 
Monntains, known as the 'Devlla-s Gate,' he writes: ■ It looks, at first view, as if that 
gentle, peUacidetrenm (the "Sweet Water") iiad worn a passage throngh the Iinrdgianite— 
• * but on aelosereKaminationlmaaconflrmed in a previous oplDion, that the 
channels ot rivers are formed for them oflener than thej am bj them."' 

>y Go Ogle 


France as a glorious achievement of her armies, it had a moat bene- 
ficial effect upon the tribes of Algiers, who looked npon the Fi-ench 
as something more than hnman for having dared to attempt it 

As soon as the soldiers — carrying in their hands leaiy branches, 
torn fi-om the scattered palms, which counted theii- growth by cen- 
turies, and grew here and thei-e among the rocks — issued forth into 
this lonely dell, they saluted with shouts of joy and welcome, that 
sun which they had completely lost sight of in the previous abyss, 
whose rays now alfliost blinded them. Here they halted for a space 
to rest, and under the influence of recollections, fresh and vivid, of 
the awful scenery which they bad trayei-sed, these brave men soon 
forgot all their fatigues in communicating to ea«h other impressions 
made upon them by the wondera they had witnessed. 

Militerily, to occupy or bar the Biban Pass would be impossible, 
since it can be turned, but for the light infantiy to do so, would 
have required some days, when every minute was precious. The 
Dtike op Orleans did eveiytliing that the military art teaches to 
get possession as soon as possible of the ferther end of the defile, and 
thus, in a measure, to insui-e the safe pass^e of the column. For- 
tunately, all the measures which foresight indicated were superfluous. 
Not a single enemy showed himself. The expedition was favored 
with the finest weather, and nothing surpassed the joyous sense of 
relief in which the ai-my passed the first evening out of this Brob- 
dinagian trap. 

The next^y, the 29th Octobei-, the division which had bivouacked 
on the bank of the river Makalou, six miles north of El Eiban, ti-a- 
versed an immense forest, and finally reached another beautiful val- 
ley, bordered by the chain of the Jurjura. Here Marshal Yalee 
derived int«lhgenee, from letters seized npon captured measengei-s of 
Abd-bl Kadec, that the Kalifa (Lieutenant) of the Enur had estab- 
lished himself on the plateau of the Fort of Hamza, in order to bar 
the road to Algiers agamst the advancing division. 

To frusti-ate this movement, the division made a foreed march on 
the 30th, thi-ough a country so destitute of drinkable water, and so 
abundant in salty, that the native styled it the "Thirsty Way." 

Meanwhile, the Ddke op Orleans pushed ahead, with two or 
three companies of picked infantry, the whole of the cavah-y, and 
two mountain howitzers, in the direction of Hamza. This fort 
occupies a position selected with judgment. During the period of 
the Tui-kish domination it was a phwse of such importance that the 

>y Go Ogle 


Deys ahraya maintained a strong garrison within its walls. This 
was by no means due to any military perceptions of their engmeers, 
for the Romans, unsmpassed in their occupation of keypoints, built 
a foit there, named Aazea, coeval with their first invasion of the 
countiy, which was confided to a garrison of veterans. Tradition 
ascribes, however, the foundation of Hamza to a king of Tyi-e, who 
fiourished nine centuries before the Christian era. The last -account 
belongs to fable rather than Iiistoiy ; bat the Fi-ench wei-e only fol- 
lowing the footsteps of the Romans, who won moi-e than one signal 
victory nndei- its ancient walls, which dominate a vast plain at the in- 
tersection of three valleys, the first leading towards Algiei-s, about 
fifty-five mil^ to the northwest ; the second towards Bougia, from 
seventy to eighty miles to the northeast, and the third to the Gates of 
Iron (El Biban), from foi-ty to fifty mUes to the eastward. To the 
westwai-d again, a road crosses through a depression, or " Col," of 
the Jurjni-ah to Medeah, fifty-five miles to the west by sonth on an 
air line.* 

When the Fi-enoh column arrived on the heights of the Oued 
(Stream) Hamza, the hills on the opposite side were covered with 
mounted Arabs, who broke and fled without firing a shot as soon 
as they were chai-ged by the French cavahy. This must be the ac- 
tion which serves aa the basis for the anecdote of Count St. Marie, 
for it does not appear that the Arabs had any artillery with thorn 
in the other actions in the open field in which the Duke was pre- 
sent, nor is there any account of warlike opposition at any previous 
time during the advance of the expedition : " One day, at sunrise, 
the rocks called the Iron Gates in the Bibans were covered with 
Arabs, defendmg the passage of the defile. The Duke op OatEiNS, 
enveloped in a brown burnous, appeared on horseback at the head 
of the first attacking column. In the midst of a shower of grajje- 
ahot, ordering the charge to be sounded, he was the first to reach 
the guns of the Arabs, which he compelled them to abandon in 

The fort of Hamza was found deserted; 150 Arab regulars, 
thrown into it as a garrison, had abandoned it. The foi-t, which 
had been a square, with bastions at the corners— the French es- 

•It U eitramely difficult to locate placBa on tlie maps, for tbo reason tHat the 

tHemBelvea, Engllsli and FrencU, and French and aeml-offlcial FrencH, mo not OQlj dis- 
oordaut &B to names, but na to locations. 

>y Go Ogle 


prossion ie a " starrj'-sqaai-e," (carr6 etoUS)—vra& little bettei- than 
a mass of ruins. The revetments had either fallen or were in a 
miserable condition, so aa scarcely to hold together or sustain them- 
selves. The interior constructions were nothing better tlian heaps 
of rubbish. Five cannon were found here, three of which were 

Having completed the destruction of this once important strong- 
hold, the French resumed their march, expecting to be attached at 
any moment by the tribes which acknowledged the authority of 
Ani>-EL-KADKE, whose tenitories they had now entered. They did 
not meet with any resistance of the slightest consequence until, on 
reaching a plateau along one of the affluents, of the Issen, they 
found themselves in face of a body of cavah-y and quite a numei-ous 
array of infantiy. The Duke op Orleans, having placed some 
companies in ambush, turned the Arabs with his cavaby, and drove 
them agamet the companies m resei-ve. These, did not fire until 
the Arabs ahnost ran agamst the muzzles of their muskets. Then 
the French poured upon them anch a slaughtering volley as put 
them to flight with quite a severe loss ; a few shells from the moun- 
tain howitzers cleaned them out enth-ely. Eaasloff calls this a 
' brilhant afl'air, and adds, as if they constituted more formidable 
obstructions, that the column ci-ossed a number of mountain 
streams, which m less favorable weather might have proved hn- 
passable. Some of these traverse the Biban Pass itself. One is 
an affluent of the Adousse, which empties into the Gulf of Bou^a, 
All are capable of being transformed by a single heavy shower into 
raging torrents. 

The same difficult!^ attended the march of the next day, 1st 
November, and it was late m the evening before the column, worn 
out by the terrible fatigues which they had undergone, reached the 
camp of Fondouck, where the division Ritlhieke, sent out from 
Altera to escort them in, awaited then- arrival. Thus ended an 
excm-won— which deserves the title of a "military promenade" 
rather than any more serious term— of seven days, through a coun- 
try bristling with perils, inhabited by a population which had al- 
ways inspired the previous rulers of Algiei-s with the gi-eatest di-ead 
and causedthem the liveliest disquietude for the stability of their 
power. The distance accomplished was not in itaelf so very great, 
ranging fi;om ISO to 200 miles, but the natural difBcnlties overcome 
made it more trying and laborious than an ordinary march of 

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double the distance. The news of the siiecesaful arrival, of the 
column m Algiers occasioned, not only in the colony but ihrouo-h- 
out France, the liveliest joy and enthusiasm, which, to compre- 
hend, a man must ^preciate the dangers which actually impended 
over it, verily, like the sword of Democles. 

The route followed by this comparatively " little band " led 
through warlike and inimical tribes, from whom no assistance, 
m t]\e shape of the necessaries of life, could be expected ; but 
on the contrary, open hostilities at any moment. The whole of 
the country traversed was in the highest degree difficult, and the 
unforeseen oocnpation of the "Iron Gates," or even a few heavy 
showers, might have proved the ruin of the division. Tlie 
country itself, and its resources, were only known by report 
through the accounts of the Arab guides, who were little to be 
depended on. Such critical circumstances constitute the great- 
est charm, however, of war, and elevate the soldier, not only in 
his own eyes, but in those of his comrades and countrymen. 

When the column arrived at Algiers, the enthusiasm was 
indescribable. The Dokb of Orleans gave a grand banquet 
to the whole division in the square of Bab Azum. Thus, in the 
beginning of November, 1837, joy reigned in Algiers, and the 
future was forgotten — while the storm-clouds were gathering 
over the Colony, which burst with a suddenness and fury aa 
terrible as unexpected. No one surmised that this apparent 
triumph was the forerunner of the greatest disaster. It is im- 
possible, in such awork as this, to go further into anything like 
a historic consideration of the causes which led to the ensuing 
campaign, in which Keakny was conspicuous, and made the 
American name glorious through his fortitude and his valor. 
Abd-eitKadbk— who knew that every action which tended to 
elevate the French in the opinion of the natives depreciated 
his own influence in an equal degree — had been waiting for a 
pretext, and was glad that an excuse was now given Mm for 
the resumption of hostilities, by this expedition through the 
" Gates of Iron." He held his forces all ready in the leash, 
and now he let them loose in all the fury of fire and swoi-d upon 
that beautiful plain of the Metidjah, which embraces Algiers in 
its arc of luxuriant fertility, whose either extremity bathes its 

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Terdnre in the sea. No declaration of war preceded the iiiburst 
of devastation. Up to the very gates of Algiers swept tlie 
Arabian cnvalry in the prosecution of what they deemed a " Holy 
War." The Emir's fury fell, not only upoij the scattered gar- 
risons beyond the reach of succor; upon the colonists who saw 
the fruits of years of patient toil disappear in a moment in 
flame ; but also upon the native tribes who had submitted to 
the French and had refused to arm against them. Years after- 
wards, the sad mementoes of this erruption were still visible in 
the Metidjah, and the colonists had not yet recovered their con- 
fidence in the protection of the French govei-nment, for the po- 
litical horizon could scarcely have seemed more serene, on the 
evening of the 30th November, 1839, and yet with the dawn of 
the nest day the hordes of Abb-el-Kadek poured down from the 
Lesser Atlas, and, except within the lines of Algiei-s, left nothing 
behind them but corpses, ruins and ashes, A!S who survived 
were dragged into captivity. It is said that Marshal Valeb 
was not disappointed at this turn in events ; and if those who 
treat of the French Dominion in Algiers are correct in their 
judgment of his character, it was very likely that ho was 
pleased at the opportunity of adding to his military renown by 
a successful campaign at the close of his life. The idea expressed 
bv Raasloff, the Danish eye-witness, is equivalent to this: 
"The Emir precipitated the hostilities which Marshal Vales 
had invited," Raaslopf's exact words are: "Valee and 
AoD-EL-KAnEB wished to bring on the war."* 

Keibsv accompanied the Uafca of Ocleans to AEcloa In tHe Pall ot im, tula cbaptet 1; 
exped'ltiona of the French Army In Algiers. Althongh acaroely attended with aiiyblooD 

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"Major-Qeneralp.KBAifflT, * • * at the age of twenty-two, accepted t.lie 
commiasion of Seeona Lientenant First DragooDs, and booh after was seat to Europe by 
the goverament, to stuflj and report npon the French cavalry tactice. 

"To accomplish this object he entered the military school at Sanmnr, Prance and 
from thonce went to Africa, whore he joined the First ChaeaonrB d'Afriqno, 86 a volun- 
teer. By his daring eiLploils he attracted tlie attenttoL of the French army, and was pie- 
eented lyith the Cross of the Legion of Honor."—" MiHtary and Satial History of the 
Bebeillm in the UaiUd States ;'' by W. J. Tenhet." , 

"A troisheiireadu matin le canon donna le signal. 'Allorts, tufanls,' s'sctie te Duo 
D'OKLBiSa. ' lee Arabes nous atlenHent ft la France nous TegardtP Etlcs troupes 

gravissant lesrochera s'emparent dn premier plateau oil elles font une halts. EnsultB 

commence Tesealade dn plton. La rcsiatanca fnt terrible, la premleri 

annonsft la prise d'on dea mamelosn. A ce moraens IB soleil, sa degageant de eon voile do 
tencbies, cchilrB les amies de ta montagns. et I'on pant admu^c d'une part Jes efloria 
presqua aurhumttinea de noa aoldals, qui ue se laiasent arreter par anoune oralnlB ; d'antre 
part, lo calma et le aang-froid dea Araboa, qni penchts sur Y ahtme l'o!tl attentif, "le doigt 
Bur la dtlente dn fosii, atteudent, immobUea, le moment da vlser jnste et bicn. La Sd 
Leger, enconrage par la voii ei pnisaante dn gOnSral Cuiuoiniimii, redouble d' ardenr 
et le drapoau fransals est arbot£ snr la crEte la plna eleveo."— Zo ComUeae DnoBOJOWssi's 
"mitoire de PAlgerle." 

'■The Federals fouEht not less Srmly [at Williamsburg], encouraged hy their chiefs, 
HooKEB, nKisTZELaiH, and Kkaiiny. Keabnt In especial, who loat an arm in Meslco 
and foa^M wiilt the French at tlie Mouzaia, and at Sol/erino, haa displayed thefimst 
courage."—" The Army of the Potomac," by the Pbiboe dh Joihyille. 


In December, 1839, Valek, having received strong reinforce- 
ments from France, gladly aceqjted the defiance of Abd-el Kadf.ii, 
and recommenced hostilities. He divided his troops into different 
columns, and launched these forth against the enemy in every 
dii-eetion. Every where the Fi-ench resumed the offensive gloriously. 

As the First Chasseurs d'Afrique played a distinguished pat in 
several of the first engagements which followed, it is but fiiir to 
suppose that, as Philip Keakst was attached to this regiment, the 
young American volunteer, with the daring and dash wliich wan 
always conceded ns peculiai'ly Lis own, had a share in its dangera 
and honor's. 

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■ It was a fortunate thing for Philip Keaent that, although he had 
an honorary poaition on the staff of the Dcke op Orleans, for 
actual service, his place was with the First Chasseurs d'Afrique ; and 
still more fortunate that their commander was Colonel le Pats de 
BocRjOLLY — afterwards Lieutenant^General and Senator of France. 
Tlois chivalrous officer, directly the reverse of his superior in dispo- 
sition, %yas a perfect gentleman. He was a grand specimen of the 
French colonel of TOmance. Through his family, position, and per- 
sonal chai-acter, he stood equally high. Intimate associations with 
him, demonstrated at once what a French gentleman should be to 
fill the character asciihed to the grand and true nobiHty of the " old 
school,". and also what a gentleman actually was. To his inferiors in 
rank he was as kind, generous, and forhearing as he was inde- 
pendent, fierce, and resolute towards his superiors, maintaining bis 
own rights and those of his subordinates against the presumption of 
higher rank with a dignified determination which would not yield 
an inch to the encroachments of authority. KeaeVi always spoke 
in the highest terms of Colonel ij; Pats db Boukjollt, and the 
latter— -to whom the writer caiTied a letter of inti-oduction, in 1851, 
&om his cousin — rememhered his volunteer companion-in-arms as 
a valued friend, testifying the warmest feelings towards him, and an 
affectionate pride in the fame and success of his subsequent career. 
The writer has heard him translate to his aid and company the his- 
torical eulogies of his former pupih 

It was of inestimable advantage to Ke.\ent to be attached to the 
Fu-st Chasseui's d'Afi-ique, which " had always been a favorite regi- 
ment, brave and tiiamphant in the field ;" " indefatigable, enter- 
prising — a model light cavahy." The Duke op Nemours, second 
son of Louis PmuppE, generally wore its uniform ; the Duke op 
Ar.iiALE, a still younger son, shared all its dangers. This shews 
how highly this coi-ps was esteemed. St. Mahle, a reliable author- 
ity, testifies that " the Colonels who have had the command of the 
Fu^t Chasseurs have always been men of family, fortune, and 
education. The consequence is, that the officers are received into 
the best society, wherever they go." This proves that Colonel le 
Pats de Boukjoli-t could not have held the position he occupied 
had he not been the " elegant gentleman" and thorough soldier he 

The first collision of a year — ^which numbered twenty successful 
engagements — tgok place in the early part of December between 

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the camp of the Ai'ba and the course of the An-oueh (Han-ach), 
about eighteen miles southeast of Algiers, where a force of 1,200 
Hadjouts — audacious robbers, practicing the tactics of the ancient 
Numidians — were encountered by a column, consisting of detach- 
inenta of the Fifty-second Line Infantry and of thelat Chasseuis, 
chai'ged, completely beaten, and scattered. 

About the same time, towards the end of December, 1839, the 
regular batallions of the Emir made, an attack upon a conYoy 
betweea Boul'arick — a fortified camp and small village on the 
Harrach, in the middle of the plain of the Metidjah — andBlidah, at 
the foot of the Little Atlas, twenty-nine miles south by west of 
Algiers, on the direct road to Medeah. These Arabs were like- 
wise chai'ged home by the French and driven into a ravine, where 
they experienced a considerable loss. Let no one undervalue these 
sons of Northern Africa — descendants of the ancients Vandals, 
who, in AD. 697 drove the Romans out of Africa — of whom it has 
been said "the very men partake of the natui'e of the lion." 

A few days afterwards, on the last day of the year 1839, the 
united forces of the Kalifas, of Medeah, and of Milianah, Lieu- 
tenants of the " Modem Jugoi-tha," — as Abd-el-Kadek has been 
appropriately styled — suffered a complete TOUt, This was the first 
time that the Emir's newly-created regular infantry had an oppor- 
tunity to measure themselves with the French invadei-a in the open 
field. They occupied a position chosen with no small degree of 
military capacity, between Blidah and the Chiffa. The ravine of 
the Oued (river, bed of a river, 6r defile) El-Kebirwasoccnpied by 
Abd-el-Kadek's regular mfantry, supported by fi-om four thousand 
to five thousand cavahy. The ground was very favorable for 
defence, and the Arabs were well posted. The inequalities of 
the gi-ound served as intrenchments for the Kabyles, who are excel- 
lent markamen, and do terrible execution with their long gims or 
rifles, which will carry almost as far 3& European wall-pieces. 
Their position enabled them to deliver a plunging fire opon the 
Fi'encb, whose counter volleys proved almost ineffectual. Marshal 
Valbe, who commanded the French column in person, soon became 
satisfied that the only way to decide the affair ,was at once to resort 
to cold steel. He accordingly launched the Twenty-third Line 
Infantry, and Second Light Infantiy — a famous regiment, com- 
manded by the no less famous CnANGAitNiEE, surnamed by his 
troops the " Iron Head" — also the First Chasseurs d|Afi.-ique, against 

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the enemy. The ravine itself, which covered their front lite a vast 
dry ditch, and the steep acclivity beyond, was overcome with im- 
petuosity, and the aasaUants soon foimd themselves face to face 
with the Emir's regnlai-s, who had contracted their lino to meet 
the French faii-Iy and eqnarely. Fortunately for the latter, the 
Arabs, like the Wahabees, dread the " long uail " at the end of a 
musket ; and the French charge, with that weapon, which tests the 
solidity of aline, overthrew.that infantry which Abd-ei^Kader had 
taken ao much pains to organize, and hnrled it back upon the cav- 
alry, to whom it communicated the disorder. In a few minutes 
there was no more resistance ; every Arab was seeking safety in 
flight. The enthnaiastic intrepidity of the French horse and foot 
rendered any fmther attempt to make a stand unavailing. The field 
of battle was covered with the corpses of the Arab infantry and 
cavahy ; over four hundred dead wei-e coimted. Three flags, or 
military ensigns, five hundred muskets, and a piece of artdlleiy, were 
the trophies of the day. Colonel ts Pays de Botirjollt led the 
charge which captured this gun, a present from the French Govern- 
ment to Abd-el-Kadeb on the conclusion of the last tmce. With 
a short-sightedaesa about equal to that of our Washington authori- 
ties in regard to the Indians, as a rule, and towards the South in 
1360-61, the Home Government at P-ms, although they knew 
that the Emir would not long keep quiet, made him a present of a 
section of field-ai-tillery. As BouBJoLrT said with an u-onical smile ; 
" They gave him guns to shoot down then own troops with." 

Raasloff calls this again a "brilliant afl'air," and Al ison says : 
"This success, though not on a great scale, was very impoi-tant as 
restoring the spu-its of the troops, and giving the turn to a long 
train of disasters." CASTELLASECaUsOued-el-Aleg "thetomb ofone 
of the regular batallions of the Emir." 

Colonel Le Pays db Bodkjollt was veiy pi-oud of his share in 
,a conflict which was better known in Fi-ance as the affair of Oued. 
el-Aleg. In this officer's cheerful study or reception-room, orna- 
mented with trophies of his Algerian campaigns, glistening in the 
sunlight which floods the apaitment through the broad expanse of 
windows opening to the sunny east, in Paris — ^where the writer met 
several oiEcers who had served in Africa with Keaeny, and had many 
pleasant things to say of him — hung, in 1851, a gi'and painting of 
the capture of AnD-Ei^KiDER's cannon. In this, Bol-ejoi.i.t, in 
the uniform of his regiment and splendidly mounted, leads the 

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charge, Bpurriiig his white barb to cut down the artUleiy men at 
the gun. Changaboteh, -who led the infantiy, claimed a lion's 
share of the honor of the day, and a duel was considered.imminent ; 
but Valee — flattered in Bouejolly's report as having accompanied 
the cavalry—conceded the gloiy to the First Chasseurs d'Airique. 
In the painting, however, the infantry are seen in the back ground 
with Marshal Valee at their head, following np the success in 
another quarter. 

From the admirable sketch of the life of Keaekt, by a distin- 
guished New Jerseyraan, it would appear as if one Colonel Gtjie, 
and not ib Pats de Boiikjolly, commanded the First Chasseura 
d'Afrique while Keabny was attached to them. This is an eiTor. 
BoimjOLLY continued Colonel of the First Chasseurs d'Afrique 
until 21st June, ]8i0, when he was made Marechal-de-Camp — 
synonymous with General of Brigade, By that time all the hard 
fighting was over, as the second engagement at the Col de Mouzaia 
was on 15th June, 18iO, when the army was retracing its steps. 

If BouRJOLLT had not been in command, and a<!tually with his 
regiment, at this time, he never could have made such a display in 
a picture, since ao hmidred witnesses would have started up to 
disprove his claim to the honor. 

In November, 1851, the writer was standing on the ramparts of 
the Emperor's Fort — built by Charles V.— which dominates the 
city of Algiei-a, and commands a partial view of the rich plain 
which spreads itself, clothed in all the luxm-iance of tropical vege- 
tation, from the shores of the deep blue Mediterranean to the dark 
blue ranges of the Atlas ; whi!e standing there and looking down 
upon the plain of the Metidjah, most interesting to the native of a 
Hoi-thern clime in its palms and natural featm-es peculiar to this 
land of stoiy, a stranger' approached him and prefacing his words 
with a military salute, remarked: "Monsieur," pointing to the 
south, "has been there." "No; this is my fii-st visit to Airica." 
" Are you not an American ? Did yon not serve in the Chassem-s 
d'Afrique?" "No; I only arrivedin 'Algiers yesterday." "This is 
strange; I thought you were an American ofBcer who sei-ved with 
that regiment, to which I belonged." This mistake of identity 
led to an explanation, and the soldier then went on to express hia 
admiration for Keakny for his dash and hia daring. "He was a 
veiy brave man," said he ; "I have often seen him charging the 
Arabs with hia sword in one hand, his pistol in the other, and his 

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reins in his teeth." Such testimony from an old African trooper 
tells the whole story, and it was coiToborated by others. Several 
officers who had sei-ved with him, who were encountered on the 
passage between Algiers and Marseilles, were loud in his praise. 
One, who was a Marechal-de-Logis (Quaitermaster's Sergeant of 
Cavalry) in one of the companies of the First Chasseurs d'Afi-ique, 
which made the campaigns of 1839-40 (in 1851 a Lieutenant in the 
same regiment) spoke of him in about the same terms as the old 
soldier who thought that he recognized Kbaks(t on the summit of 
the Chateau de I'Empereur. It wonld requii'e too much space to 
follow Ke,veny through all the details of hia Algerian experiences, 
it will be sufficient to note the most remarkable. The best proof 
that he profited by all that he saw is the development of ability 
disclosed in the last year of his life, when he had attained a posi- 
tion to show how great he really was, and how much greater he 
might have become had he gurvived. 

In Algiei-s he learned the enormoua capabilities of a well-trained 
infantry. lie never could speak in terms of sufficient commenda- 
tion of the French Light Infantiy. He said that then- conduct 
was something magnificent, their coolness combined with enthusi- 
asm; their oi-derly disorder; accommodating discipline to the 
ten'ibly broken and difficult ground on which they had to operate j 
their mdividual mtelligence and combined action. He was justi- 
fied in his eulogies, for no country ever possessed a more perfect light 
infantry than that which so often scaled the Atlas and cleared the 
way for the columns and trains. Fine as the cavaliy was with 
which he seiwed, noble its deeds, and wonderful its endurance, it 
was ever the light infantry for which he reserved his enthusiasm. 
This was just, for if ever there was a difficult country to gain 
gi-ound in against an intrepid foe — which only needed scientific 
ti-aining and good weapons to secure their independence— that 
country was the Atlas. ' 

To rcstram the natives the French were obliged to maintain an 
army of 100,000 men. Pulszky, who bases his statements on 
authentic documents, sets down this number, and adds that the 
colony costs France $20,000,000 a year. The biogi'apher of Mai-- 
shal Valee admits that he had an army of 57,000 strong, excellent 
troops, no one can deny. He had gu-dled that poi-tion of the plain 
of the Metidjah, which had been colonized and brought under cul- 
tivation, with a chain of camps, forts and block-houses } and yet in 

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FoTember-December, 1839, "all the Province of Algiere was in 
volved in a general blaze." In 1840 the natives were driven bact 
appai'ently across the Lesser Atlas, defeated and disorganized. 
Notwithstanding, in May, 1841, they were back again in the Metid- 
jah, and slanghtered a whole company — 49 men lost their heads, 
and one hid in the bushes, severely wounded — the garrison of a 
block-house, not more than nine miles from Algiers, nor three from 
Delhi-Ibraliim, a considerable military post, not more than three 
or four mUes W, by S. of that city. Well might Lamping exclaim : 
" So you may judge tolerably well of what is meant by the French 
territory." A people who could defend their independence with 
such indomitable pertinacity were antagonists worthy of any 
troops in the world. Where would the South be now if thoy had 
evinced a like unconquei-able spirit under disadvantages as dispro- 
portloned and odds as -overwhelming. 

The combats already desci-ibed, as well as minor collisions, 
taught the Emir that it would not do to risk the troops, which had 
cost him so much labor to organize, in any moi-e pitched battles. 
Many times his banner was descried in the plain floating over his 
scarlet batallions and squadrons in the distance, but on all occasions 
the combat which the French sought diligently was refused by 
then- leader. 

On 25th April, 1840, Mai'shal Yalee determined to caiTy the 
war into the interior, and on the 27th mai-ehed from Blidah upon 
Mcdeah. Between these two places rose the mountain of the Mou- 
zaia, 5,117 feet high. To afford some idea of the difficulties which 
the invader had to encounter, the new military road from Blidah to 
Medeah, laid out in the most scientific manner, crosses the Chifi'a no 
less than sixty-two times. Nevertheless, this road, a marvel of engi- 
neering, becomes impassable at times in winter, and its mainten- 
ance requires constant repairs. Like the Khyber Pass, in Af- 
ghanistan, it might be the grave of an invading army in the hands 
of an enemy which knew bow to combine their efforts and avail 
themselves of the natural difficulties. The i-oad by which Valee 
advanced was doubtless that followed by the Roman legions. 
It is longer and even more difficult than the new one con- 
structed by the Fi-ench. It crosses the Col de Tenyah, or rather 
Col de Mouzaia, for Tenyah simply signifies "Peak of the Moun- 
tam." The defile Tenyah begins about nine miles west of the 
Haouch (farm) of Mouzaia, which again is about fifteen miles fi-om 

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Blidah, and twenty^five from Algiers. It requires a peaceable 
march of two hours to reach the neck or cleft of the mountain 
through which the road crosses. Lampikg, who climbed it more 
than once in the course of the various campaigns in -nhich he was 
engaged, saya that from the foot of the Col de Mouzaia up to its 
highest point, is full seven hours' march when no resistance is en- 
countered. In May, 1840, that ascent which required seven hours 
in peaceful times, was to be mjsde under a constant fire of sharp- 
shooters, each of whom selected his man. On both sides, the defile 
is partially cultivated, but the greater- portion of the naiTow path, 
traversed by many rivulets, leads through a rough thicket, some- 
times inteiTupted by bold lime cliffs. Towards the crest of the 
range it becomes continually nan-ower ; the cliffs from both sides ap- 
proaching each other so closely that scarcely four men can march 
abreast ; finally two conical rocks form a kind of natural gate. Be- 
sides all this, the road clings in many places to the sides of a pre- 
cipitouB mountain. In the depths below, to the right, so far down 
that its murmur can scai-cely be heard in the dry season, in summei- 
trickles a thread of water, in winter roars an irresistible torrent; 
while to the left hand soar the rocky cUfifs. In the distance— as 
seen through the pass— soars the snow-capped peak of Kador, be- 
neath which nestles the objective of Mai-shal Vaij:e, Medeah, em- 
bosomed in the hixui-iant groves of fruit-trees, the fragrance of 
■whose flowers, in their season, ai-e said to be sickening to those who 
seek their cool shelter to sleep over night Raasix-ft, the distin- 
guished Danish officer who, like Keabnt, served aa a volunteer 
under, in his interesting work, published at "Altona" in 
1845, furnishes a view of this defile at the instant when the French 
troops were forcing it, in October, 1840, climbing the serpentine 
track which clings, mid-air, to the precipice, with the Kabyles, con- 
spicuous in their white "boumous" or cloaks, firing upon them 
from every covert afforded by the overhanging or projecting 
rocks. At fii-st sight a soldier would agree with Pri.szKT that fifty 
resolute men might, here, detain an army for several days. Facta, 
however, have demonatrated the ti-uth of Marshal BtfgeaWs ad- 
dress to his officers at OrleansviUe that " an army which knows how 
to obey, an army which knows how to suffer, is the hope and strength 
of the country ; the time will never come when it wiU be fotmd 
wantin" to France." Accordingly, in 1830, Mardchal-de-Camp 
(Bri-'a^er-General) Achakd, with a smgle batallion of the S7th 

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Infantry of the Line, carried tlie Pass of the Mouzaia, althongh it 
was defended by 2,000 Tuika, Kabyles, and Arabs. The foremoat 
of the French rushed ,with fixed bayonets into what seemed the 
very jaws of death; bnt,*says Lamping, the Arab or Bedouin, the 
Kabyle, who is great and admii-able at the houi- of death, who 
neverbagshialife orutteraan unmanly complaint, has "a holy hor- 
ror of the bayonet." Achaed's Infantiy bnrst through the African 
ranks with a heroism which had its pai'aliel in that of the four 
Hungarian batallions, which under General Guyon, eai-ried the 
Branyiszto Pass, 5th February, 1849. 

Keaknt was now to witness and have a share in an exploit simi- 
lar to that of Gtjyon's, which was almost dramatic in its effects, if 
death had not nnade it sublime. The Peince de JoiNviLLE,.in his 
" Army of the Potomac," refers to Kjjaent's participatiou in this 
severe fight on the Mouzaia, which he couples with Solferino, as if 
V> have been thei-e was indeed something to speak of. 

From the Ist May, starting from the " Tomb of the Christian" — 
a ruined monument, so styled, in reality an ancient bm'ial-place of 
the Manritanian kings, — till the 12th of the s.^me month, when the 
army reached the foot of the northern range, proper, of the Atlas, 
every mile of the advance had been won by a combat. The 
march was one continual skiiTniah. The column might almost 
have been said to have cleaved its way onward as a ship ploughs 
through a head sea, only the waves were not impassive adversaiies, 
but surges of hregulai' cavaliy, which made incessant and hM.Tassing 
attacks on the French flanks, front, and rear, and returned shot for 
sliot, and cut of yataghan for slash of sabre. In repelling these 
assaults, the First Chasseui-s, to which Kearnit was attached, were 
invariably successful, executing a number of brilliant charges. In 
one of these, the DtJitp op Acmaie, the youngest sou of the king, 
made a dash with a single company of this regiment and achieved 
a brilliant success, by the rapidity and hardihood of his mancenvre. 

The manner in wliich the Arab horse ai-e aecustomed to fight 
accounts for the old soldier's description of Keabnt's conduct on 
such occasions, " charging with his sabre in one hand, his pistol in 
the other, and his reins in his teeth." The Bedouin, or Arab horsej 
hover round a column all day with wild yeUs of "Lu-Lu," gallop- 
ing up without order, within 80 or 100 yards of the Fi-ench sharp- 
shooters, " and discharging their idfles, at full speed. The horse 
then turns off of his own accord, and the rider loads his piece as 

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he reti-eata ; and this ia repeated again and again all the day 

"The Bedouins never wait for a close enconnter hand to hand 
ichen charged by oar cavalry ; they disperse in all directions, but 
inatantly retui-n. The only difference between thorn and the Nu- 
midians, of whom Salldst says, ' They fight flying, and retreat, 
only to retura more numeroua than before,' is, that the Numidians 
of old fought with bows, and the Bedouins with rifles." 

"This kind of fighting ia equally dangei-ous and fatiguing to us, 
It ia no joke to be fii-ing in all directions, from sunrise to sunset, 
and to march at the same time, for we seldom halt to fight at our 
ease. The general only orders a halt when the reai'-guard is so 
fiercely attacked as to require reinforcements. Any soldier of the 
reai'-guard who is wounded or fatigued has the pleasant prospect of 
falling into the hands of the Bedouins, and having his head cut off 
by them. One comfort is, that this operation is speedily pei-formed . 
two or tliree sti-okes of the yataghan are a lasting cure for all pains 
and son-ows." 

Abd-ei. Kadek had neglected notiiing which could render the 
defence of the Col de Mouzaia successful. To the natra-al bulwarks 
of tliis formidable pass, he had added abattis, entrenchments armed 
with batteries, and a strong redoubt, on the very culminating point 
or principal peak. To man these works he bad drawn together 
large numbers of troops, and especially all the sub-clans of the gi-eat 
and valiant tribe of the Mouzaia, These last had always shown 
themselves the most intrepid of the Arab infantry whenever the 
French had forced the passage of the Col. The veiy geographical 
position of this toibe of the Kabyles had won for it the highest 
consideration from the Tm-ks, while they governed Algiei-s. It 
depended du-ectly on the Agaa of the Capital ; it had received 
lai'ge concessions of fine land in the plain ; it was exempted from 
tribute of all kmds ; and was charged with a sort of supervision 
over the other mountain tiibca. 

On the 12fh May, at 3 o'clock in the morning, the Ditoe op Oe- 
i.EANS, pointing to the crest of the Mouzaia — seven houj-s' march 
from the foot of the mountain — and the entrenchments which crowned 
it, crowded with defenders, whose white garments glistened hke 
silver in the rising sun — addressed these word^ to the Fi-ench 
soldiers, impatient to begin ; " My boys, the Ai-ahs are expecting 
us, and France is looking on." Then he gave the signal for the 

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In an instant the scarped flank of the rocky heights Tras covered 
irith French soldiers, leaping, climbing, monnting almost at a 
ran. The drams beatjtheclarionesonndedthecharge; the officers 
animated the men with their voices and by their examples. Tfae 
first column gained the lowest plateaa without much difficulty. 
There they found themselves before thi-ee lofty swells, or rounded 
elevations, disposed in echelon, each ci-owned with a formidable 
redoubt. At this point the resistance was terribly resolute. From 
the rampai-ta of these natural forts, strengthened artificially, the 
Arabs delivered a plunging and murderous fire upon the assailants. 
Between these, three masses of rock thrust themselves forth at 
intermediate points, which afforded covers to the enemv, 
armed with "long rifles, which cai-iy almost as far as wall pieces!" 
Thus sheltered, the Ai-abs kept up a continual and lively direct and 
ci'08s-£i-e upon the French, who, to overcome the ascent of the 
abrapt rocky steep, were obliged to cling to eveiy projecting rock, 
to every bush, and consequently wei-e unable to reply. Soon a 
tMck smoke enveloped the mountain like a cloud, and nothing 
mjjre was visible to the rest of the ai-my below. This state o£ 
affairs lasted several hours. Dming this time nothing was heard 
but an almost continual roll of musketry, to which the artilleiy 
added then- reports like smgle and severe claps in a thunder storm, 
and ever- and anon, as the fire slackened, the pragi-ess of the 
attack could be distinctly measured, by the responses of the 
drama and bugles of the Second Light Infantry, higher and 
higher-, amid the cloud which enveloped the mountain. At length, 
about mid-day, a peculiar flourish of clarions or bugles announced 
a decided success. The Second Light Infantiy had canled' the 
second and commanding peak. 

Then the two other columns moved in turn, and began to ascend 
the heighte nndnr the fire of the enemy. The column Lamoeicieke 
having made itself master of a wooded ridge which extended to 
the right of the peak, the Arabs, who wei-e dislodged by this success, 
came together again in his reai-, and posted themselves in a ravine. 
Ey this disposition they were enabled to stop the march of the 
column d'Hoddetot, with which the Duke or Orleans advanced. 
At once the young general ordered the soldiers to unsling their 
knapsacks and make a bayonet charge. To this the Arabs opposed 
such a vigorous resistance that all the ti-oops in succession became 
engaged. The very staff was obliged to cat in and defend them- 

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selves. General Schramm, Chief of the Duke's staff, fell wounded 
at the side of the Duke op Orleans, and other officers were hit. 
Fortunately a battalion of the Twenty-third succeeded, in auiea- 
Biu-e, in turning the ravme. They rushed with the bayonet upon 
the Ai-abs, wbo, taken in flank by this unexpected attaek, disbanded 
and fled. 

Meanwhile, the first column Duvivieks had ai-rived at the foot of 
the main redoubt. There they were received with such terrific 
disohai-ges of musketiy that even these veterans recoiled. It was 
now three o'clock in the afternoon. Por twelve houi'S these brave 
men had not ceased to march, to climb, and to fight. On all sides 
the men were falling, overcome with heat, fatigue, and thirst, A 
last efi'oi-t remained to be made, the most important of all, and the 
least indecision would have compromised the success of a day so 
heroically begnn. General Ch.vngabotee comprehended this critical 
moment, and tui-ning towards the Second Light Infantiy, he placed 
his sword nnder his arm as coolly as if on the exercise ground, and 
gave the order-, " Foi-ward." At the sound of his voice, so reas- 
aui-ing in its calmness, the dnims beat and bugles sounded the 
chai-ge, the ranks reformed, the soldiei-a i-ushed upon the redoubt, 
some succeeded in making a lodgment within the entrenchments. 
The Arabs, thus vigorously assailed, defended themselves no less 
resolutely, but at length, attacked on all sides, they began to waver, 
then to yield ground, and finally fled before the French, who swept 
everj'thmg before them. Then the tricolored flag, planted on the very 
summit of the Atlas, was saluted by the roll of all the drums, the 
flouiiahes of ti-umpets, and the enthusiastic shouts of the army. 

The Col de Moazaia was gallantly carried, (after a desperate fight 
like that of Hooker's at Lookout Mountain " above the clouds,")* 

• BiTTLBS iBovH THE CLonns Bra not so rare as miinj thint. In 1603. there was not 
only a battle fonglit, but a campaiKn oarriea on, on a lefel wltb tbe limit of perpetual 
snow. Mar BUftl CatihjlT, " Pcrete Peniie," a term applied a oentBrj afterwards to Hipo- 
IBOS, eBWbllalied bis camp on tHe summit of the Cottian Alps, near FenOBttelloa, a spot 
atlU renowned 1b mililaij annals as the " Pre de Catiaei." The remoanta ot tho French 
and Sardinian Bntrenohments are still to be discerned amid the snow. In the previous 
century the same nations encountered in as elevated regions, and pitched their tents amid 
tie clondB, nnder tha lamons Lbsdiouiehbs and Prisok Tbouab oi" SiTOY, grandfather of 
the great Pbihce Eugenio von Savot, as he wrote his name in the languages of the three 

In ITO, OB tlte aM Mareb, MiBSEUi defeated the Anatriane on tha snmmlt of the Julian 
Alps, when cavalrj cHarged and artillery manffliiTred on fields of ice, while the Infantry 
waded to the attack through deep snow drifts. Some of the fortiessaa whlcli constituted 
tlie "Armoarof Piedmont" are on peaks bo loltj that their garrisone oftenbasied intlie 
Bnnaliine, when the lower world was entitelj ehnt ont from tham by strata of dond*. 

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and Medeah occupied. This Algerian " battle above the clouds " 
was as much more romantic in its incidents than oui- own, as the 
Atlas Mountams exceed in altitude the Lookout range, but not 
more glorious. The disposition of the ground simply made the 
effect finer. 

So much space has been given to the consideration of the de- 
tails of this battle of the Col de Mouzaia, because it very much resem- 
bled our own battle of the South Mountam, 14th September, 1862, 
which the writer looks upon as the most brilliant feat of arms in 
the long list of glories which the Army of the Potomac can claim 
as their own. The success in the Tenyah Pass, as in that sunny Sun- 
day fight in Turner's Gap, depended on the possession of a peak to 
the right of the road: onlytheAlgerianPeakwas 960 metres, 3,200 
feet in height, and the Maiyland, 1,000 feet. Lamoeicieee and 
Chanqarniee had noble representatives in Meade and Dotibi.eday, 
andDnviviEEin poorRENO. The Dtikb of Orleass, the hero of the 
day, might have been proud of such a substitute as Hooker ; but 
in McClellan, Valee had a very poor proxy. It would have 
been well for the former if he had possessed a little of the latter's 
iron will and seveiity. ■ 

ITiere is a gi'eat parity of circumstances between the advance of 
McClellaiit, from Washington, through Frederick, to Antietam, 
and of Vaiee from Blidah to Medeah, besides the mere fact that 
in both, a mountam i-ange, vigorously defended, had to be over- 
come. It took McClellan twelve days to advance forty-five miles, 
over excellent roads, and tbi-ough an open and friendly countiy, 
without opposition — ^Valee, the same length of time to fight his 
way fifteen miles through an extremely difficult country, against the 
opposition of every soul in that country who could bear aims ; 
■when every hour brought a skirmish, and every day a bloody con- 
flict McClellan had ample supplies, and ti'oops double the num- 
ber of his adversary. Valee could depend upon nothing except 
what be could caiTy with him, and the Ai-abs outnumbered him at 
least two to one, fighting on their own soil, every inch of which 
was well known to every man, with a virulence and courage which 
the rebels might equal, but could not surpass. When Valee did 
come in contact with the enemy enti-enehed and admirably posted 
in his mountain foi-ti-ess, he inflicted such a defeat upon him as 
needed no second battle, no indecisive Antietam, to effect his object, 
the capture of Medeah. Keaeny might have told all this to Mc- 

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Clellan, and have afforded him the beneSts of Ms experience, had 
be been permitted to have access to him, or had his counsels been 
listened to, even if they were not accepted. It is needless to go 
farther, although McClelcan is chai-geable with a total want of 
sti'ategy at South Mountain, for he could have turned the rebel po- 
sitions there through Braddock's Gap, a course that would have ob- 
viated a hard day's fight, and have produced far greater results, 
with a much less sacrifice of life. But, Valee, if not a man of 
genius, was a capable and experienced soldier. No wonder that 
Keakny, when he looked upon, looked back, as he 
wrote, with deep regret upon the absence or want of such brilliant 
commanders as those under whom be had seen the great African 
chain conquered and crowned with the ensigns of France. 

Abd-el Kadek's ti'oops, thus driven from their position — selected 
with 80 much address, fortified with so much care, and defended 
with so much resolution — fell back into the " Wood of Olives," an- 
other strong post. This is a nan-ow tongue of land, separatuig the 
water of the ChifFa from those of Oued-el-Djer, or Djels, midway be- 
tween the Co! do Mouzaia and MedeaL Here another short, but 
severe combat ensued, in which Changahnieb again distingnishod 
himself and dislodged the Arabs with some loss inflicted upon 
them, and impressed them with still stronger convictions of the fu- 
tility of fiu-ther resistance to such ti-oops as he commanded. On 
the 17th May, the French army advanced down the Southern slope 
of the mountain and occupied Medeah, one of the objectives of the 
Fi'ench operations. The other was Milianah nest to be assailed. 
These keypoints occupy the same position, relative to Algiers, to- 
wards the south-west, as Conatantine, towards the east by south, 
and constituted Abd-el-Kacee's chief strongholds in this du-ection. 

Medeah is situated on a plateau on the summit of the Lesser At- 
las, surrounded by a belt of gai-dens and enormous gi-oves of fruit 
trees, particulai'ly oranges, almonds, and olives; all the tropical 
, frnits, however, ai-e produced in abundance. It is one of the old- 
est cities in Airica, of Koman origin ; and an immense aqueduct, of 
Roman construction, clothed with creeper's, winding like a serpent 
and following thelevels, still conveys to the town the water of the 
mountain spiTngs, and feeds its numerous fountains. It was once 
very populous ; and this aqueduct and other Roman remains attest 
its former importance. 

The plateau upon which it is'built has a rapid descent towards 

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the valleys of the sea-coast, while it slopes more gently down in the 
dhwction of the desert, so that the to^yn may be said to look into the 
Sahara- Its altitude above the sea is 3,018 feet. This plateau 
sinks sheer down on two sides, and these precipices make it 
susceptible of easy defence. A rather high stone wall, one mile in 
ch'cumference, encompasses the town, pierced by five gates, two to 
the north, and three respectively to the south, east, and west. These 
gates, in 1840, were weakly defended by a few loopholes. Above 
the south gate two old 8-pounder Spanish culverins weve mounted, 
which were captured by the French, and preserved as trophies. Like 
Algiei's, Medeah has a Casbah and a veiy pretty palace, the i-esidence 
of the former Bey of Titteri. 

Such was the first purely Arab town which Keaknt saw, and 
thence he could look down into the gi-eat desert, of which such 
wonderful stories had been told. Here he had an opportunity to 
note the mai-ked differences in the climate of Algiers. In winter 
the weather is very cold, and in summer the heat is excessive. But 
when does the summer commence? The militaiy author of a 
"Summer-in Sahara" speaks, 22d May, 1853, of "winter still hav- 
ing one foot planted on the white summits of the Mouzaia, eight 
miles N.N. W. of the town;" and Pulszky alludes to the snow cap- 
ped mountains, which cool the hot and diy winds of the desert. The 
mountain Ouansei-is, 5,904 feet high, easOy seen fi-om Medeah, 
sixty-five miles to the southeast, in January, 1842, was all white 
with snow ; and some sharp needles of the Jurjura, or Djordjora, 
about the same distance to the eastward, are covei'ed with snow 
the whole year round. 

Castellase, in describing Mascara, still farther to the south, but 
on the same range, says, "the climate is frightful during the winter 
in this part of the country ; snow, rain — rain which beats upon the 
tent like strokes of a stick — ^hail, winds, and every irregulai-ity of 

At Medeah, thi-ee mountain ranges seem to come together ; one 
fi-om the west, one fi-om the north, and one from the east. Towards 
the south, had the human vision sufficient i-ange, Kearny might 
have beheld the Great Desert — not altogether so in reahty, since ' 
French military exploration has proved it to be an ocean of sand, 
thickly dotted with islands of va-dure and fertility, with abundaut 
water, at no very great depth, responding to art^man wells — for, 

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as before stated, Mede.ah, from the elevation of its site, overlooks 
all intervening objects in that direction. 

Lamping, who campaigned in this country in 1840-1, remarks 
that the ti-act of country muet have been thickly peopled at some 
former time, judging from the cemeteries which heand his comrades 
saw in theii- mai-ohes in the diati-ict of Medeah. 

"These are genei-ally near the tomb of a laai-about, and of enor- 
mous extent : tliey might truly be called cities of the dead. The 
graves are all exactly alike ; no distinction seems to exist among the 
dead. All are cai'eiully covered with masonry, to keep the jackals 
from scratching up the bodies ; and indeed no one can wonder that 
the Bedouins should wish to rest undisturbed in death after such 
restless, wandering lives. Each grave was marked by a large up- 
right stone, but no date told the dying day of bim who lay beneath 
it, no escutcheon proclaimed his biith and descent." 

On the 20th of May, Valee — ^having left behind bim in Medeah 
a garrison of two thousand fom- hundi'ed men — retraced his steps 
across the Atlas to the fann of the Mouzaia, at the foot of the 
mountain, on the Northern side. The indefatigable Emii- did not 
permit the peaceful prosecution of this march. A veiy severe 
attack upon the rear guai'd occun-ed on the 20th, in the "Wood of 
Olives," in which tliat picked body ofmen, the Riflemen, (Chasseurs 
cV Orleans, or de Vtncennes) suffered such teri'ible losses that it 
might have been looked upon as destroyed as a battalion, and as 
such it t«6k no further pai-t in this campsugn. The first period of 
the great spring operations was ended- The Dtjke of OiiLEAsa 
and the DmE of Aumale, both of whom had evinced the highest 
distinction in the discharge of their functions, bade adieu to the ai-my 
to retm-n to France. All the disposable ti'oops were now brought 
together, and every possible preparation made for the next move- 
While the French were straining every nerve to reorganize their 
columns, Abd-el-Kader was not idle, and Bought by able disposi 
tions to render hie numerous but scattered forces available for a 
protracted defensive. One body remained in the neighborhood of 
Algiers to harass the temtory around this city ; a second maintained 
the blockade of Medeah ; a third was posted in the lowlands along 
the River Cheliff to obaei-ve and obsU-uet the advance of a Fi-ench 
column upon Milianah ; while a fomth was posted at the bridge of 
El Cantara, which spanned this rivei- to the west of llilianah, on 
the route to Mascara and the province of Oran, 

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On the 5th June, the French cohimn, ten thousand strong, started 
afresh from Elidah ; pressed forward from the west end of the pLiin 
of the Metidjah into the Atlas; on the 7th passed the Cap or Col 
de Gfontaa — about fifteen miles east of Milianah, and about eighteen 
miles west of Medeah— and on the 8th captured MUianah after a 
short but brisk engagement, fortunately in time to aiTest the con- 
fiagi-ation, kindled by order of Abd-bl-Kadee. This, but for 
the efforts of the French, would shortly have laid the whole 
place in ashes. Like Kotopsciiin, Abd-ei^Kadek resolved to 
destroy his Moscow with fire rather than leave it in a condition t^> 
tempt the retm-n of its own population, which he had di-iven forth 
to settle in a more inaccessible place, or to serve as a permanent 
sheltei- to the invader. An immense convoy of ammunition and 
provisions had accompanied the mai'ch of his troops, pai-tly to sei-ve 
as a supply for a garrison of three thousand men, which Valee 
established in Milianah, and partly to re-victual Medeah, and thus 
enable its garrison to hold out thi-ough the winter. 

Slilianah, situated about eighty miles west-south-west of Algiers, 
nestles in the bosom of the monntains, surrounded on all sides by 
an abundance of water, the greatest of blessings in this tonid clune. 
Towai-ds the north and west the ground is flat, with a gentle descent 
to the plain of Cheliff. Towards the east and south it smks precipi- 
tously from the wall of the city down mto a very deep valley, 
which, full of the most beautiful gardens, p-esents a prospect from 
the town which can scai-cely be exceeded in beauty. This valley 
of the Cheliff was to Milianah— the Richmond of AeD-EL-KADiai— 
what the Shenandoah Valley was to the rebel capital. It was his 
gi-anaiy ; the soil scarcely needed the hand of mdustry to produce 
the richest crops. Magnificent harvests rewarded the rude Arab 
frrigation. On these two last mentioned sides (eastwai'd and southr 
ward) Milianah, Uke Medeah and Constantioe, is not susceptible of 

Milianah, the andent Maniana, is anothei- evidence of the sti-a- 
tegical engineering of the Romans. Its site, like every other 
selected by that wondei-ful mihtary nation— of whom it was said: 
" A God must have instructed them in the art of wai-"- rendered it 
a military post of the highest importance. When Abd-ei^Kadek 
consigned it to the flames, it was indeed the Emii-'s Moscow. It 
was his chosen city, which he had destined to become the center of 
Ai-ab industry. There he had constructed his forges ; and all his 

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grand establislunents, since situated on a detached mountain p!atea«, 
even as if on a eomice, {" en comiche") ita position was admirably 
calculated against any attack, except tbat of European discipline 
and artillery. Handsome houses, flagged with marble, with gal- 
leries in the second story, supported by graceful columns and 
magnificent Moorish sculptures, attested the opulence of the ancient 
inhabitants. Four miles to the northeast, the mountain Zakkar 
towers to the height of five thousand and thirty -one feet, the sixth 
peak of the Atlas in altitude. From its flank bursts forth abundant 
fountains of the purest water, not only sufficient to supply the town 
below — built on a spnr of the lofty som-ce — but susceptible of fur- 
nislung motive power to a large number of manufactories. When 
the French entered by the Gate of Zakkar, all that remained of 
thia comparative magnificence was the palace of the Emu- and a 
few other buildings. 

Lamping speaks of Milianah as besieged and taken by the French 
on this occasion : 

" One half of the besiegers assailed the town from below, while 
the rest, having planted some cannon on a height commanding the 
town, poui-ed then- shot down upon it. When AnD-EL-KADnai saw 
he could hold the place no longer, he determined to retreat by the 
only gate which was left still free, and first rode, sword in hand, 
through the streets, cutting down every one who would not follow 
him. Nearly all effected then- retreat in safety, and most of the 
families settled on the northern slope of the Lesser Atlas." 

This bears out tho writer's recollections of Keakny's account of 
these operations; he always spoke of this capture as the sie^teofMili- 
anali, and referred to the cemeteiies— such as excited theast onish- 
mcnt of Lamping — in connection with this service. He said that 
one of these old Tui-kish graves made a capital place to sleep in dur- 
ing the investment. The head, foot,and side stones atonce afforded 
shelter fi'om the wind, and kept a man from rolling out. Wrapped 
in his cloak, or bumous, he often slept soundly and comfortably 
over one of the formei- inhabitants, sleeping still more soundly 
underneath him. Casteu-ane refers to a "cemetery which received, 
in 1840, an entire garrison." It is situated at the foot of the walls, 
and as this is one point fi-om which the town was assailed, it is very 
likely that this is the spot to which Keakny referred. 

Having left a garrison of three thousand men in Milianah, Vatee 
marched thence, 12th June, through the Djendel — the district of 

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country between that town and Medeah. Down to 1841 these 
towns had been, as it were, advanced posts of French-A&ican occu- 
pation. After that time they became the basis of French occupa- 
tion in Algeria. Tliis movement was for the purpose of supplying 
Medeah, and in order to do so, it was necessary to cross a spur- of 
the Col de Mouzaia, the third time this spring, but now from south 
to north, and not, as previously, from north to south. 

On this occasion the Zouaves — imitation Ai-abs — moved with 
more celerity than the real natives, and were beforehand in the oc- 
cupation of the pass. By a manoeuvre which proved that Abd-el- 
Kadeb was an intuitive General, the Emir surpassed the experi- 
enced leaders of the French in their own profession, and came near 
involving the whole column in destruction. Finding that he could 
not anticipate the French Light Infantry, he hurried foi-ward his 
Arabs, parallel to the French, in perfect silence, under the blind of 
a i-ocky ridge. Simultaneously, 15th June, both reached the sum- 
mat of the mountain. The van and main body were permitted to 
pass urmioleated, but the rear-guard was saluted with an unex- 
pected volley from an invisible enemy. This fire covered the 
ground with dead and wounded. Profiting by the surprise, the 
Arabs threw themselves upon the French, a,nd a hand to hand com- 
bat ensued, in which the Arabs, four times repulsed, returned as 
often to the attack. Bayonets, modeled after the yataghan, were 
crossed with the original weapon, swords with the long and keen, 
but rude and home-made dagger of the Arabs, and the discharges of 
the rifles and muskets were answered by pistol-shots, muzde to 
muzzle. Of the 800 Zouaves and Chasse -s de Vincennes, on 
whom as usual the brant of the combat fell, 120 were killed, and 
800 wounded. Raasi^pf says 32 dead, 290 wounded ; and adds 
that it required a lively fli'e of Artillery to bring off the remains of 
the rear-guard. While any soldier must admire the disciplined 
courage of the French troops, he cannot rofiise the highest meed of 
admiration to Abd-ei^Kadbk and the regulars he had formed. 
Again and again the Emu- led these regulars to the chai-ge, and, 
judging from results, it would have gone very hard with the French 
if the Arab chief had had a competent artUlery, with which to an- 
swer that of the French Marshal. Valbe having suppfied Medeah, 
again dispatched Cuangaknieb back to Milianah with 5,000 men, to 
escort a convoy of provisions. He was agmn attacked by Abd-eit 
Kadek, and only repulsed the Emir after another severe engage- 

>y Go Ogle 


ment. It was now the end of Jnne, and the heat had hecome so 
intense that farther operations wei'e impo^ible, and on the 5th July 
the ai-my was placed in summer quarters, men and animals pretty- 
well used up. The cavalry sent over from Franco was so thorough- 
ly disorganized, that of the ten squadrons there was no longer any 
trace; and efen the Chasseurs d'AfKque, mounted on Moorish 
barbs, the artillery and train, could only parade a very few horses 
■which were in serviceable condition. Of the men, 7,000 died from 
disease between August and December — a moi-tality of about one- 
eighth, without counting those who fell in battle, or had already 
succumbed fi-om sickness during the thi-ee previous months. 

Nevertlieless, the return of the hot season brought with it no 
repose for the troops — is the remark of the Doke of Atjma.le. The 
summer and antaran passed in supplying the posts which the Prench 
had occupied in the spring, an operation as difBcult and as murder- 
ous aa thch" conquest had proved. The bullets of the foe, the 
cUmate, and incessant fatigue, thinned the ranks of the soldiery, and 
as a just compensation, carried off very many of the officers. 

The DoKE OF AuMALE, in his historical sketches of the Zouavea 
and Foot Chasseurs or Riflemen — ^theu- real title might be ti'ans- 
lated African Foot Cavalry — ^Paris, 1855, says it would be impos- 
sible, in a succinct nan-ative, to describe all the combats which took 
place during this bloody campaign on the plain of the Metidjah; at 
the Col (pass) of Mouzaia; at the foot of the Chonouan ; in the valley 
of the Cheliff; on the Ouami-i; at the Gontaa. Every day was 
marked by an engagement, every inch of ground was disputed. 
The cavaJry of all the tiibes of the provinces of Algiers and of 
Orau, supported and kept in hand by the Emir's "Meds" — the 
name given by the Fi-ench soldiers to Abd-el-Kadek's regular- cav- 
ahy, clad entirely in red or scarlet — inundated the plain ; every 
passage of the mountain was defended, by the Emir's regular infan- 
ti-y, and by thousands of Kabyles. 

This insures the fact that Keaknt learned his business in a very 
bai'd but thorough school, for the lightest of the French trooper's 
duties in Africa is less like a military promenade than many deemed 
the worst in European soldiering. For foititude, as well as for gal- 
lantry, he won eqnal consideration, and in one of the marches (when, 
imder a torrid sun, water was so scarce and thh-st so bm-nmg that 
the men threw themselves down to lick up a puddle) Keaeny 
marched on foot to add his example to those a^'orded by his regular 

>y Go Ogle 


eomradoa. Moreover, on thia occasion, when many had to be 
brought in on ambulances or vehicles, he came in among the fore- 
most on foot, high in sphit, however exhausted in strength. It is a 
gi-eat pity that his joui'nal of these trials is lost, for this expedition, 
although "illustrated by so many deeds of glory," waa attended 
with no results adequate to its hai'assing labors, inasmuch as the 
French columns on their return to the coast were followed by the 
Arabs of Abd-el Kadee, who swept -with fire and sabre the plains 
between the Atlas and the capital of Algiers. Nevertheless, it 
taught Keaent many a lesson, turned to accoimt in his after- years ; 
in his Mexican campaigns ; his expedition against the Indians of 
Oregon ; and that yeai- of aervic« against the rebels — lessons which 
bore fiTiit in the admirable discipline and police of his First New 
Jersey Brigade, and in the example he set to the officers and men 
of the ai-my ; an example imitated bo honorably by Bekrt, who 
followed his type to glory at ChancellorsvOle, and Birney, who, up 
to the end of the war, helped to make the reputations of others, and 
win successes of which the rewards were reaped by immediate 

Paws, April sotli, laiO. 

Sib ; — I have the honor to ittEorm yon, tliat I left Sacmnr on the 35tli of March, 
since which time ill health has obliged roe to remain at tliis place In aceoraanco 
with my letWr to. yon of October 16th, 1839, after remaining ottacliei to the 
Cavalry School at Samonf for six months, for the purposes therein mentioDed, I 
taTO left it to carry oat the objects proposed when I came abroad : that is, to, by 
personal examination, mate nlyseU acquainted with the practices of cavalry regi- 
ments in the French and otlicr services. In that same letter I mentioned that I 
thought it would be profitable to via.t the regimenta serving in Africa, as there 
alone would I have tbe opportunity of observing troops in active service in, the 
field. Tbia present spring's campaign, under the Due d'Okleans and Marshal 
Vaiee, has presented an occasion which I am anxious to improve. It is true 
that yon have not agnifled yonr opinion to roe since receiving my commomealion, 
but as you hod laid ont no system of travels for roe in particular, when I left 
America, I presumed that had it not met with your approbution, you would 
have signified the same to me. Indirectly and nnoffieially, however, I have heard 
that in respect to the plans in my letter, you made no objections ; though, indeed, 
Eo unofficially has it reached me that f would not bo justified in an ordinary ease 
in considering it an authority, biit in my peculiar situation it is a circumstance to 
aid me in maldng np my determination. Were tho campaign a thing I conld see 
some months later, I would bo far better SJitisflcd in waiting till I beard from yon 
e.'jplicitly, and till my health, which has been extremely delicate, was in a greater 
measure restored to mo. But that cannot be, na after tiie middle of June all 
active operations cease, and do not recommence till late in fall, or the ensuing 

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j^eflT; and tbat this is B subject more TTortby of my attention than aught else, I 
am fnlly persuaded of from what service I hOTe had in the Bragoons, and more 
espedally froro ovir Colonel's high opinion of the ends to be obtained by an exam, 
ination of nhat a tJieatrc of war must constantly present. 

It is, sir, witli extreme regret that I find mj^olf withont written intructions for 
myself, and directions to our Minister at this Court, to exercise his inflnenco ia 
my behalf, for I am thus obliged ki go as a mere private officer traveling, instead 
o£ an accredited agent of the public, which throws in my path obstacles, where 
there otherwise would bo none. Might I thcu ask for instmctionB, it would be 
more satisfactory, as assnring roe of your approval of snch plans as I may Imve 
laid down, or giving me orders to pursue another course. I shoold think it most 
advisable for me, in the course of the ensuing summer, after my return, to ho 
present at the Camp of Instructlou at LunSviile, where, annually, five to six 
thousand cavalry are assembled ; and, also, to visit the German and English Cav- 
alry, As the system of schools varies always essentially from tiie pracdces in 
regiments, I have refrained from sending conamunications to the Department 
which might he incorrect in their conclusions, as applied to the French Army 
generally, and wait mitil I have studied regiments in detail. Still I have seen 
Eufflcient to be convinced that though the rreoeh theory of tactics is the most per- 
fect, and tJiough (as they are allowed by all nations) their manner of going 
through a campaign is the least harrassing and destructive of soldiers, that here 
the study of their army stops, i'or their grooming and the stato of their horses, 
their stables, and everything that refers to them, their quarters, and everj'thiag 
pertaining to high discipline in garrison and military neatness, are everywhere 
here wretched in the extreme — to a degree that would not be tolerated nor dreamt 
of in the most slovenly company of our whole re^ment. These points must hi 
studied in England, where, perhaira, they are carried toanexccss,and in Germany 
where, both in the Prussian and Austrian cavalry, I believe it mast he perfect. 

Sir, I leave I'aris to-morrow. The campaign was to have opened on the SOth 
April (to-day), and I indulge tiie hope of, by rapid traveling, not being more than 
a week behind hand. 

I have the honor to he. 

With high consideration, 

Yom- obedient servant. 

Alotehs, 7th May, ISKI. 

Gbnekal : — I take the liberty of sending you this letter at tho same time that 
I transmit to you fhe letters of General Cass, Ambassador of the United States 
near His Majesty the King of the French, addressed, the one to yourself, the other 
to General Viscount de RnMii})NY, in the hope that you will hare llie kiudncss to 



obtain for me an antborizatbn from His Higlmess tlie Duke of Oeleaus, or 
from Marshal Valbe to join the first expedition which can take place during the 
time I can remain in Altera. 

I would not have taken the liberty to make this reqneat if I was not an officer 
sent oat by the Government o£ the United States, with the object o£ Btndying my 
profession in Enrope in order to introdnce improvements into oar Cavalry. 
With, this intention I have been attached for the li^t seven months to the BoyaJ 
Cavalry School at Saumm' ; and I am one of the three officers admitted by the 
Government in last October. At present I have the permission of my Govern- 
ment to travel during the rest of the year, to observe the praetieablo working of 
the regiments themselves. In doing so, I am entirely free to dispose of my time 
OS seems mrat advantageons to myself. Still as onr ambassador has no positive 
instrnctiona from onr Govemment to prefer this request to the French Govern- 
ment, he considered that the letters addressed to you and to General EcmignT 
(with whom he had the honor of being acquainted) would be sufficient to obtain 
this authorization, if such a request was a proper one to be granted. A severe 
sickness prevented ine from arriving in Africa before the departmre of this 
expedition, bnt if it should last some time longer I would be happy to join it 
immediately. In any event, I request your intermediatioQ to obtain for me an 
anthorization to join the nest, even if it consists of only a single regiment. 

This request is not made with the intention of annoying yon by joining the 
General's staff, which must always be sufficiently numerous, but to attach myself 
to some regiment of Cavalry which belongs to an Army Corira. 

I have the iionor to be, with the highest consideration, 

Tour very humble and veiy obedient servant, 
LieaUnant Dragoons, Uitilsd States Army. 

AloieBs, Mar8tlj.lSJ0. 

Sir ;— I liave the honor to inform you that I arrived here yesterday, the 7th of 

I was unable to leave on the 31st, as I had expected. General Cass changing his 
intention as to applying for me for an authorization from the French Minister of 
War to join the intended espedition; moreover, I was detained two more days, till 
(h6 24thof May [April], in waiting for the private letters be had offered me to 
Generals SCHEAMM and BUM3GNY, and which were necessary as introduction to 
their notice. This made me too late for the packet from Toulon of the 37tb, and 
it only leaves weekly. 

Our Consul here, Mr. Jacrous, has, since my arrival, exercised in my behalf 
the influence he has ; but, as I had not an authorization from the Ministor o£ War, 
the commandant of the place, Colonel DE Makbngo, did not feel himself entitled, 
though nnxious to serve me, to grant me a pass to join the army, but forwards by 
to-day's express, my letters for me. As I find that the army left on the 30th, 
from Blida, and the conmiunications are impracticable bnt for lai^e convoys and 
escorts, I have little reason to bo flattered with the hopes of an answer being in 

>y Go Ogle 


ttine to be of the service I hud iopfiil. As the letters Grencral CA33 favored me 
with to General Schbamm imdto General Komigny did not cater at idl into the 
details of mj having been sent obroad by Govommont, and the objects of mv 
travels, I felt necessitated to aecompan/ Ihem by one from myself, appWing to 
General SOHEAMM, who is Chief of the Staff of the Army of Africa, to obtain for 
me from the Marshal Vaibb or the Due d'Orleass (though ho is here only acting 
as tt subordinate General) an authorization to join any expedition, that might take 
place whilst I remnined in Africa — in fine, ft permission to be at liberty to pass 
wherever I might please in Africa, I herewith send you a, copy of the same. 

Snccessf nl or not in this or any other endeavor I may make whilst abroad to 

obtain those ends for which Government has sent me, believe me. Sir, as always 

actuated by the truest zeal for the serrico, and. it is in this that I rest the hope, in 

some dcgrco, to make up the deliciencies of knowledge and the want of experience. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

With the h^hest sense of respect, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) P. KEARNY, 

Lieutenant First Dragoom. 

Ai/HEiis, July lat, 1S40. 
Snt; — I hare the honor to report myself aa just returned from the late expedi- 
tion in the province of Alters, Africa, under the orders of Marshal, and 
at the same time transmit, to bo forwarded to the Secretary of War, a letter 
— [letter and report both lost] — detailing some observations made whilst with 
the JTrench troops. 

, I have the honor to be. 

Your most obedient servant, 
(Signed) P. KEAENY, Js., 

Lieutenant First Seglmeal Dragoons. 
General R. Jones, 

AdHalant Beneral United Statee Army, Washlnolon, D. C. 

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" Well pleseed. conM we pnreoe 
Tbe Atuo, from bl9 biilh-place in the clonda. 
So near tte yellow Tiber's— aprlnglDg np 
From bis f onrfonntnlDS oD tho Apeniime, 
That moaaCaia-ridge. a sea-mark to the ships 
Sailing on elllier sea." Koosna' "iTitr." 

In the fall of 1840, Lieutenant Phiijp Keakny returned ironi liia 
European mission, having done honor to Mr. PomSEi-r's selection of 
him as well as to the American name. He was almost immediately 
appointed aidnSe-camp to Major-Gienei-al Alexahdee Macomb, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the United States Army. This distinguished 
officer is best known to the American people for his decisive victoiy 
at Plattsburgh, 11th September, 1814, when, with one thousand 
five himdi-ed Eegnlara, aided by a body of three thonsand militia 
and volunteers — under Generals Moeks, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, and Strong — from New York and Vermont, he repulsed and 
defeated an army of from foni'teen thoasand to fifteen thousand 
British yetei-ans, fresh from triumphs over the troops who had 
conquered Europe, under the leading of Napoleon and his chosen 
Lieutenants. Keaknt retained this position until the death of 
Gteneral Macomb, which took place, at the Headquarters of the 
Army and Capital of the nation, 25th June, 1841. From October 
to December of that year he was on duty at the United States 
Cavalry BMTaeks at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Thence he retmiied 
to Washington as aid-de-camp to Major-General Winpield Scon, 
nest Commandei'-in-Chief of the United States Army. , With him 
Kearnt remained — "dispensing elegant hospitality" — from Decem- 
ber, 1841, to April, 1844, when he was refieved and ordered to 
join Ids company. On 12th May, 1844, he was with his i-egimeiit 
at Fort Leavenworth, and was enabled by his expeiieoce in Africa 

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to prepare hia immediate command for efficient service against the 
Inilians.and the projected display of our military strength upon the 

In May, 1845, Colonel Stephen Watts Keaent, with five com- 
panies of his regiment, the First United States Di^agoone, made a 
march to the South Pass at the summit of the liocky Mountains. 
This was the first mihtaiy expedition which struck out so far from 
the settlements into the Indian country. Its object was to awe 
the savages and thus afforf protection to the emigrants who were 
crossing the plains in great numbers on their way to settle in Ore- 
gon. The writer is indebted for some particulars of it to Major 
Alex-vndee Sabanac Macomb, brother-in-law to General, then 
Lieutenant, Phiup Keakny, whose tent-mate he was on this 

The incidents of this military promenade are the more familiar 
to his mind, and afibrded the Major greater pleasure, since he found 
himself once more among old friends and associates, having sei-ved 
three years with the First Dragoons before he was ti-ansfen-ed to 
the Second Regiment, and thence as aid-de-camp to the staff of his 
fiither, Major-General Macomb. The many agreeable reminiscences 
connected with the novelty of the trip, the jokes among comrades 
on the march and by the camp-fire, would naturally make all who 
sui-vive look baek with pleasure to the period when they were still 
young and fresh enough to enjoy an excursion which waa accom- 
panied with just enough danger to season it. 

The staff of this ex^seditionary column con^sted of; 

Lieutenant Hexey S. Tdkner, Adjutant and Acting Assistant 
Adjutant-General of the Thii'd Military Department on the expedi- 
tion thi-ough the Rocky Mountains, and at the headquai'tors in St 
Louis, Missouri, 1845; Captain First Dragoons, April 2d, 1846; in 
the war with Mexico, 1846-'47, as Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the Army of the West, pai-ticipating in the combat of San 
Paseual, California, 6th Decembei', 1846, where he was wounded by 
a lance; Skirmish of San Bei'nardo, California, 7th December, 
1846 ; Passage of the San Gabriel River, California, 8tb Januaiy, 
1847; and Skirmish on the Pldns of Mesa, 9th Januaiy, 1847. 
He resigned, 21st July, 1848. This gentleman is (1868) President 
of the Union National Bank of St. Louis, Missouri, and the author 
has to thank him for much interesting information. 

He waa Acting Assistant Adjutantr^eneral on the Staff of Brig& 

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iJier-General Atkinson at the same time that Pinup Keaknt was 
attached to the same military faraUy as Aid, in 1839. 

Lieutenant Jasies Henet Carlbton, Quai-termaster, afterwards 
E rigadier-GeneraL 

Lieutenant Wiltjam Benjamin Franktjn, Topogi'aphical En- 
gineer. Tliis veiy able, scientific man, aftei-wards rose to the rant 
of Major-General of Volunteers, and commanded, first a Corps, and 
then a Grand Division ia the Army of the Potomac, afterwards the 
Expedition to the Sabine Pass. * * w iS ;:i :- 

His division compi-ised the famous New Jersey Brigade, made and 
commanded, from 14th August, 1861, to 2d May, 1862, by General 

G. J. De Caiup, Sm-gGon, since dead. 

The five companies of Dragoons were commanded respectively 

Captain Philip St. George Cooke, now Brigadier General aad 
Brevet Major General U. S. Army; author in 1862, of a new- 
book of Cavalry Tactics, 

Captain Bbsjaiiin D. Moore, killed 6th December, 1846, in a 
chai-ge upon the Mexican Lancers at the battle of San PascuaL 

Lieutenant William Edstis, afterwai-ds, 1845, Captain of 1st 
Dragoons, resigned 1849. He was the son of Bi-evet Brigadier 
General Abram Eustis, who served in the war of 1812-'I5, who 
died Colonel of 1st IT. S. Artillery, at Portland, Maine, 1843. He 
was a very fine officer, and Hookek says he owed a great deal to 
his training. Captain Edstis is still living, a prominent civil 
engineer at Natchez; Mississippi, and has shown great kindness in 
assistinf the writer in the pi-eparation of chapter on the Ball at 

1st Lieutenant Philip Keaeni. Keakkt, Eustis and Tcekee 
while in France, and at the cavaliy school of Saumur, ti-anshited 
the French Cavalry Tactics, which in 1841 was adopted for the F. 
S. Di-agoons, and published by order of J. R PoiNSErr, Secretary 
of War. 

Lieutenant Philip Kearny's command was a fine company, under 
good discipline, and evinced in eveiy respect the influence of its 
commander, who always had the power of infusing a high military 
sphit into hia men. 

>y Go Ogle 


Thia commaiid, 1st U. S. Di-agoong, took up ita lino of March 
from Fort Leavenworth about the middle of May, as eoon as the 
grasa was sufficiently gi'own to afford good grazing for the animals. 
Fifty head of sheep and twenty-five head of oxen were driven with 
the column undei' charge of the commissary, by order of Colonel 
Kearny, "always a provident officer, so that the officers and men 
were furnished with fresh beef and mutton, every now and then, un- 
til they got into the buffalo country." It is more than likely, how- 
ever, that this foresight was due to the lessons learned by lieuten- 
ant Keaent in his Algerian campaign, for, according to Lieutenant 
Lamping, (Oldenburgh Semce, author of the "French in Algiers," 
who sei-ved as a private for some time in the Foreign Legion, and 
participated in a great number of severe expeditions,) "besides 
what rations were loaded on mulM, eaoh soldier carried nine days' 
provisions, consisting of ship biscuit, rice, coffee, and sugar. Bread 
and wine are not given on a campaign, owing to the very limited 
means of transport, for it would be impossible to use wagons and 
the number of mules and donkeys required to caiTythe provisions, 
for a march of five weeks is great enough as it is. Cattle ai-e driv- 
en, and during an expedition each soldier is allowed double rations 
— that, ia one pound of meat daily." 

The tactics adopted by the French generaJs in Afi-ica afford capi- 
tal lessons for the warfare on our plains, nor are tho habits and 
usages of the semi-barbarous tribes of Africa, or those of the 
Tm'cos, which won sueb a name in the Solferino campaign— a corps 
organized by tho French — very unlike the Americau savages, even 
in the treatment of the dead. Both as a rule torture the living 
captive, and the Kabyle carries off, as a pendant at hia saddle bow, 
the whole head of a fallen enemy ; whereas the Indian ships off the 
scalps to ornament his person or accoutrements. The Indian is the 
most sensible, for the Hc^p is easily preserved, and more merciful, as 
far as life is concerned, for, if rescued in time, a scalped man 
may sm-vive ; a man with his head wholly or even half severed off, 
certainly not. Moreover a dead-head ia a ghastly object at beat, 
and soon becomes unpleasant unless salted or smoked, as practiced 
by the Dyaks of Borneo, who set as great a value on the heads of 
their enemies as the Kabyle, and take aa much pains to secure them 
and more to preserve them longer as cherished ornaments of their 

" The bivouac of a French column in Africa usually forms a perfect 

>y Go Ogle 


square, modified, of course, by tlie ground; the infantry, who are 
outside, lie in double file behind their piled arms. Each battalion 
eenda out one company aa an advance post, and another company 
remains within the lines as a picket. The baggage, artilleiy, and 
cav^y are placed in the middle. The cavalry do not fm-nish any 
outposts as horsemen, especially in broken gi-ound, as they are too 
much exposed to the fire of the Bedouins and Kabyles, who steal sin- 
gly tonrards us. The infantry, on the conti-ary, can more easily bide 
themselves, and by laying their fiices close to the ground can hear 
the slightest sound. This is essentdal, as the Bedouins and ICabylea 
upon a!l fours, like wild beasts, faU upon single outposts, or shoot 
them fi-om a distance when they can see them ; for which reason 
the outposts change their ground after dart, to deceive the enemy. 
They generally draw back a little, leaving theh- watch fires burning, 
wliich enables them to see whatever passes between them and the 

The line of march followed was that which is called the "Oregon 
Trace," along the Korth Fork of the Platte Elver. At Fort Lara- 
mie, what Hve stock remained were left to fatten, as bison were 
now at hand. At this Fort commences the ascent of the mountains ; 
it is very gradual, and quite practicable for wagons. Along the 
valley of the Sweet River, fat bufialoes were met in abundance. 
About the 1st July, the command reached the summit of the South 
Pass, and the troops were mustered at the head waters of the rivers 
wliich flow thence into the Pacific. The return mai-ch was by the 
same route as far as Laramie ; thence along the base of the moun- 
tdns to Bent's Fort, undei- Pike's Peak, a considerable trading post 
near New Mexico, and thence again along the Sante Fe Trace, to 
Fort Leavenworth. The troops aiTived in splendid condition, hav- 
ing accomplished a distance of about two thousand thi'ee hundred 
miles in ninety-nine da.ys, without the loss of a man by accident or 
sickness, and with the expenditm'e of but a few horses. 

Genei-al Stephen Watts Keaknt held a council with a lai'ge de- 
legation of Sioux warriors at Foi-t Laramie, and this display of 
troops, at this date, so far out from the settlements, had the desired 
efi'ect, and for some time to come the emigrants were not molested 
by the Indians. 

The following notices of prominent objects encountered along 
this march westwai-ds, although not compiled from the correspon- 
dence of Keaksy or ofBcei-s attached to the expedition of 1845, 

>y Go Ogle 


are, nevertheless, pertinent. The reader will find them graphic 
and interesting from the peculiar manner in which things seen are 
presented and commented on. They are from the pen of a common 
friend — an officer who distinguished himself in the Mexican war 
— ^who ti-averaed, a few yeais aflei-wards, the same route fol- 
lowed by the expeditionaiy column, while things remained in about 
the same condition, and long before those great changes ocemTed 
which made such a stride in advance, in ten years, as would have 
cost half a centuiy for their accomplishment in the Old World, 

About one hundred miles west of Fort Leavenworth, that fertile 
soil, which attracted into Kansas such vast numbers of immigi-ants 
with its proliflo yield, changes its character and becomes less and 
less prolific. 

TOBT Leavbnwoeth. 

" The load is pretty nearly occupied nt last — that is, the good lanil ; for, from 
about a Iinndred miles "irestwacil of this point to the Eocky Mountains— a distance 
of Eomo five or six hundred miles — the soil is said to be icry poor ani not wortli 
occnpyii^. There is probably more waste arable land in the Continent of Asia 
now than there is in North America. 

" The prairie is a heaving, swelling ocean of grass, mingling mistily with tho 
sky, like tlie unbounded sea. In the ravines — or rather troughs ot this sea — are 
occasional streams, or perhaps scries of water-holes, bordered with a thin skirt of 
trees. All else is grass. A strange absence of animated life is observed. A soli- 
tary wolf now and then ; one antelope ; a few doves and larks ; two or three crows j 
a few other birds, one tond, one lizard, and some eat-fish, are almost lie only living 
things, except grasshoppers and flies, that we have seen in the entire distance tra- 
versed, Not until two or three days since did we be^u to see even the wreck of a 
bnffalo, their bleaching, decaying skulls and hones then beginning to appear scaf^ 
teredhere and there npon this their vast and ancient pasture ground. Their car- 
casses, as we advanced, became more numerous, mitil at length, yesterday, we saw 
faeces of their furry skins, recently torn off, scattered about the deserted lodges of 
the Pawnees." 

[Some eighty miles east of Fort Kearny, about midway between 
that post and Fort Leavenworth, upon the left or north bank of the 
" Little Blue," a branch of the Republican River.] 

" After a soaking day's march, the rain-clouds of the day are reth'ing in the dis- 
tance, with low-muttered thunder ; the lightning flashes out, as of a sumracr'a 
eve, at various points of the horizon ; and small masses of clouds move slowly over 
the twilight sky of the west, as if surveying the field of battle of the day. The 
air is mild and warm, and the cricket is filling the stillness of the night with its 
pleasant song. 

" Not the least pleasant part of the march, to my ear, is the harvest hymn of the 
insects, which raise a constant strain of thanksgiving— a joyous fritinancy of song — 

>y Go Ogle 


for tie ripo weed-seeds that grow along the road, for tlie coad is bordered with 
■weeds. As if in fulfilment of Iho cnrso pronouneed upon man, they spring np, uot 
only where bo tills tte land, but even where his" wagon-wheels haVe plowed. 

" The column as seen in the distance, moving aeross the prairie, presents the 
appearance of n Email blaeki^ head, (for the regiment looks email in such un- 
bounded apace,) followed by a very long whitish tail. This tail is the baggage- 
train, lor the wagons, drajvn by six mules oachjOre roofed with white cotton covers. 

" The Platle Kver, upon the right bank of which we are encamped, is by far 
the greatest curiosity that we have seen. It seems to be nearly a mile wide, and 
yet it is so shallow that one may wade across it Its current is all filled witli sand- 
flats and little islets. It is but very little below the geiferal level of the country. 
Eightalong the edge of the stream is a little ridgeof sand, and then several miles 
hack is a larger ridgo. The land between these ridges is very level and is all sand, 
except a little covering of black vegetable mould. The horses lick this soil In a 
way that shows that there is something saline in it ; and it is here, perhaps, that 
the bnfEalo finds salt, or its substitute. It is said that if holes be dng in this soil 
for water, the water is cool and pleasanter to the taste than the river water, but 
that it is certain death to drint it. The country is very level, and the Great Pacific 
Eailroad, if ever built, may run along the Platte, from its mouth, above Fort 
Leavenworth, to where it takes its rise in the Rocky Mountains. There is not so 
much timber, however, but that even ties, as well as rails, wonld have to be brought 
from a distance. 

" Our road stiH leads ap the right bank of the Platte, which still remdna as 
great a curiosity as ever. Im^ine an immcaae dit«h dng through the rolling, 
undulating prairie from west to east — from tiie Rocky Mountains to the Missouri 
Eivcr — some several miles in width, and two or three hundred feet in depth, and 
jon can form some idea of the valley through which the Platte rmis. The river 
itself is in the middle of this valley, and consists of a mile or more in width of 
shallow threads of water running among sand flats and small islands. The banks 
of the river are but a little aljove the water, while those of the valley are deeply 
seamed and gullied, and look like chains of ru^cd mountains. On the precipitous 
slopea of soma of the deep guUiea there are clumps of cedar, reminding one of the 
belts of fir trees that are lifted up into the cold, thin dr by tha loftiest mountains. 
JJowbere else is this eedar seen here. The smooth, wide, and nearly level bottom 
valley ia verdant with rich pasture, and along the course of the river, on either side, 
numerous h^ds of buffalo are seen grazing. 

" At one of our encampments a buffalo was noticed wading across the river 
towards US, and some of the men couched in -the grass to lie in vrait for him. On 
he came, boldly and determinedly, though occasionally stopping to look at our 
camp. Numerous mules and horses were feeding peacefully there, and this seemed 
to reassure him. Presently, reaching the shore and mouuling the bank, he stop- 
ped a while in half surprise to gaze npon the novelty of the scene before him. 
Tliaro he stood, with his shaggy front lifted up high, in a boldness of relief and 
an untamed spiritedncss of attitude that gave him, I assure you, a. most magnificent 
ajipearanec Pong 1 went a rifio : and tha noble brute but barely blinked. Whang I 
went another ; and now hestarta on the run for the inland priarie. But whang 1 
whang 1 1 whang 11! go the tire-arms — pistols, moaketoons, and rifles of all sorts. 

>y Go Ogle 


Pierced with namerous balls, tlio amazed animal stops again to gaze ; and so do 
his pnrsners stop, half-frightened at the blood and fierceaess c£ his looit. Again 
he Blarta to run, and a^aXn hia pmrsuera renew their fire, until at length, exhausted 
by his efforts to escape, and from the loss of blood from his many wounils.ho falls, 
tumbles down upon the plain, and oat tho butcher sallies with steel and knife to tut 
him up." 

[Camp near Coui-t House Kook, two hunSred and forty miles 
west of Fort Kearny, on the North Platte.] 

" Court House Rock is a castle-like mass of limestone, which proliablj: received 
its name from tliose with whom a couct-tonBe was considered as the grandest of 
all efliiicos. Near by it are two other masses, which from this point look like pyra- 
mids. There is a solidity, repose, durability, and a gradual aseoudiug of tho 
thoughts towards heayen in tho pyramid, that doubtless gave that monument a 
great retroactive effect upon the eharacter and manners of the Egyptians. How 
serene is the expression of the face of all their ancient statues I 

" ' Chimnoy Hock,' a little to the west of tho preceding freak of nature, onght 
to be called ' Monumental Koek,' for it is perfectly like a monument. The valley 
of the river opened out there, nod this monnment, as it stands on tho slope of the 
right bank of tho valley, overlooks an imraenso level region of conntry, and can 
ho seen from a great distance. As we struck our camp and marched by it early in 
the morning, wo entered, among numerous other resemblances to works of art> 
such as temples, palaces, pyramids, domes, towers, tmrota, and buttresses ; and 
finally, after a march of some twenty miles, an immense wall, not unlike a city's 
wall, extended across the way, rismg to the height of five hundred to one tliousand 
feet above the river, and through which there is a lofty gate-way.* Through this 
gatc-wi^ we passed, while a hawk was hovermg around its summit, as if around a 
mountiun's crag. So like the ruins of a Babylon or a Eamac, or some such city, was 
the entire scene of this day's march, that when, at an early hour, the cry of the 
wolf, like that of the jackall, resounded through the stillness, the illusion vras 
almost perfect. And then the reflection arose — where'a the difference between 
this, nature's mockery of art, and art itself , since, some once-mighty Thebes, where 
myriads of hnman bdngs have swarmed, and where human art has run its course, 
what now remains but exactly such shapes as these ? The primeval stillness that 
rests upon the one could hardly be distinguished from the pall of oblivion that has 
settled over the other. 

''Trom the gateway on, our route "tias noi presen'tccl much tft'iniews'f; "riBllig 
almost void of animal life, and scorched with drouth. 

"We have passed through tho lofty gatoivay of Scott's Bluffs, and encamped 
among the mocft ruins. These when the morning dawned, sfifewed to a beautiful 
eif ect, dome, pyramid, turret, tower, monument and battlement, rising in calm re- 
pose amidst the grey light. And when two Indians came riding over the scene, 
like any two Arabs over the ruins of a Kamao or a Nineveh, the illusbn for a 
moment was complete. There was a charm in this apparent playful effort of in- 

• This ia almost tlie same lusus naiwd aa the " Iron Gates" of the Atlas, only this Is 
single and tli[»e are quadmple. 

>y Go Ogle 


telllgence on the part of nature that was quite captivating. Here, before tiie lin- 
mau race was creatBd— before man was born — Natore had mimicked beforehand 
his proudest seats of empire. From the lofty walls in the west to the monument 
in the east (which needed only the iigure of a roan upon it with folded arms, in a 
pensive mood, to be complohi), the distance was more than twenty miles ; gmng 
a grand idea of lie vaBtnesa of this irony of nature at the grajideur of man. It 
is in a wilderness which will probably never become much peopled, and the 
Bandy, shallow Flatto flows away in mock commercial importance in the dbtance. 
Our good mother, Kature, seems to bo in a very kindly, amiable mood, when she 
can be thus so seriously facetious at our expense. 

"If you have been in Canada again this summer, you may probably have fallen 
in with some Sioux Indians ; for, if I am not mistaken, they used to reside about 
the great lakes, and have gradoolly retired from these before the ailvance of the 
white man. They estenii now along the Piattc far up into the Kocky Mountains, 
A party of those which met us as we were coming away fom Laramie, fur- 
nished the column considerable arouscment It consisted of an Indian and his 
wife and two small children. The man was mounted on a horse, with a boy astride 
behind him. He wore a soldier's cap with a feather stuck in it, and by his side 
hung a lai^o dragoon's sabre. He looked pretly fierce and warlike, hut behind 
him was another horse which he led by a lariat. Two lodge-poles wore attached 
to both sides of this horse, at one end, while at the other they trdled upon the 
groundi ami upon a staging, fixed upon these poles, rode his wife and a small 
girl. It was as odd a compromise between savage and civilinod life as over was 
scon. The addition of an axle-tree and two wheels to the poles wonld have been 
an effort at civilization absolutely beyond the Indian's capacity; yet he seemed to 
be, naturally, as much of a man in every respect as we are. ■ * 

" We have passed several lai'ge collections of lodges, and there is now one just 
above me, and another below ; for the Indians still come here, as has been their 
wont, to intercept the buffalo when they come down from the prairie to drink in 
the Platte and roll their huge carcasses in the sand and mnd. • • • But 
their white conical lodges, the original of Sibley's tent, seen amidst the green 
margin of the Platte, look pretty. Near them, always, are tripods, formed of 
three poles tied together at the tops, from which arc suspended quivers and a 
white shield. In time of war, however, the shield is red. It is a tasty, picturesque 
sight, and I suspect that it ori^nated with the Canadian French, who, from mari- 
tal alliances with the Sioux, seem to follow them westward into the mountdns. 
" This Point (Fort Laramie) appears to ho the center of the buffalo-robe trade — 
not that the buffalo are numerous here, but that tho trade naturally finds this as 
one of its centers. 

"lam told that the robes ate prepared by the Indian women, andthat a great 
deal of patient labor is bestowed upon them. To tan the robo they put upon the 
hairless side a preparation made of the.brains, liver, and marrow of tho animal j 
and the skin is made supple by being drawn repeatedly athwart a rope. 

" Already these robes have become comfortable, for, though the days are very 
warm, the nights are cold. We are at an elevation of four thousand two hundred 
and fifty feet above the level of the sea — an elevation at this latitude which ought 
to render it pretty cool the year rooni 

>y Go Ogle 


"Fort LiirnBiie, for an outpost, is a pretty place. It issitoated in a Virge basiQ 
through which a clear large Btream, called Laramie Forts, flows, skirted mth cot- 
tcffl-wood trees. A bridge across tliis stream ; tho white edifices of the post ; the 
muueroos mea and animals of the military corps now assembled here; the blue 
peaks of momitajos seen in the irest — all these form a scene which, come npon ia 
so wild and desert a region, looks odd, interesting, and beautiful. 

"The westernmost of the Jlocky Mountains, ' Laramie Peak,' will soon bo peer- 
ing at us over the intervening Mils." 

[Camp two hundi'ed and fifty miles west of Fort Laramie. "| 

" At length wa haye left the Platte, which we had followed so Ions;, and strnek 
across toone of its tributaries, which we are still on, and which is called the Sweet 
Water. It is a fine, lai^ moontain brook, dean, sweet, mnacftl in its tinbble, and 
atocfeed with fish ; but not i tree or shrub is seen along its course. Its course is 
ircta the S.W., and it is one of the remotest tribntarics of tho Mississippi. We 
shall still follow it several days up the South Pass, where its head source is not 
far firom that of other brooks which flow westward into the Pacific. 

"A few hours before arriving upon the hanks of this stream, we passed through 
s region where potash occurred in the greatest abundance. There were several 
poads lying along our route that had become dried up, nod the potash that was 
left in them looked like that which is seen in tho potash kettle after the lye has 
been evaporated. It lay in large dots, so that hundreds of tons might have been 
shoveled up. 

" We are at length among tho Eocky Mountains indeed, and if you were to see 
them you would admit that they merited their name. Sach nnde, bold masses of 
granite I have never before seen. They rise as abruptly from the sandy soil around 
them as if from the waters of tlie sea — no debris lie scattered down Iheb- ades, 
only a few stuntijd cedar or pine dot them here and there, and small patches (sf 
grass among iiie rifts invite the mountain sheep— alt else is cold, bare, massive 
granite. But what is remarkable, such only is the case with these mountains, 
that for the last foiir days have appeared on onr right — those on our left have 
been covered with soil, and seemed black with fir forests from their crests half 
way down thdr flanks — the rest of their height being brown with grass. 

" To-day we have been In sight, almost all the time, of Fremont's Peal^ It is 
anmgoof mountains, rather than apeak, andiscovered with anow; a garland of 
beautiful ciunulus clouds has hmig round its brow all day." 

[Camp at " Red Buttes," about fifty mUes N. W. of Laramie 

"The Sweet-Water is rather an interesting stream. Forsome thirty or forQ' 
imlea of its course it runs along the base of a chMn of granitic hills. At last it 
nms throogh them in a chasm about one hundred feet wide and two or three 
hundred in depth. It looks, at first view, as if that gentle, pelludd stream had 
worn a passage through the hard granite — tliat after dallying along thrar bi^e for 
a wliilo, as might a young girl with an old bald patcd man, it finally bolted right 
through them, and went laughing away in freedom into the open country beyond; 



bnt on a closer examinntion I was confirmed in a previous opinion, flint the dian- 
nela of riyers aro formed for them of tener than they are bg them. TMs strange 
passage through tie rock is called ' The Devil's Gate.' " 

[Summit of "South Pass," East slope.] 

" I wrife you from file banlia of a hyaliue stream skirted mth gold 11 w% 
The pure crystalllae Swect-Wal«r runs away ia romping glee towards th 1 t t 
Gulf of Mexico, • * • . » Ih Wmd 

Siver Mountains, from whoso flanKa it pours, are looking down upon ns n ly 
from the northwest. There ia something snblime in being at ft p t am 
mountains, so far inland, from near which go forth to such widely dista m hs, 
three sneb Iwgo livera as the Columbia, the Mississippi, and the Colorad It la 
like being ia the immediate scene where Nature ia carrying on one of h. "rand 
est operations. 

" We left Iho Padfic Springs at smmao this morning, and by ten 1 t w 
were drinking your health in a cup of water from this fine streajn. From Green 
liiver to this point the country seems like one huge swell, as of the sea, the as- 
cent and descent being very gradual and forming an easy roiwlway. The road for 
a part of the distance to-day was strewn with cornelians ; but the country is the 
same dreary desert as over. Does it not seem strange that sach large rivers shonld 
head on a region so dry and barren. 

"The country, otherwise, is nninterestii^ ; it is a lifeless waste, glaring in bar- 
renness and aridity to an nnpitying sky. The stunted sage bushes look like the 
stray poils of beard on a witch's chin, making the barrenness look doubly barren." 

LFord on Green River, 110, West Longitude.] 

" We encamped for two nights upon tho Sweet Water, finding considerable 
grazing for our lean and hungry animals ; but finally, at ahont ten o'clock A. M,, 
on the 25th, we crossed the dividing line to the Pacific Spring, which flows away 
in a small, clear thread of water to tiad its vray at last into the distant Gulf of 
Cnlifomln. As wo looked hack there was a ridge of high land which separated ns 
from our eastern homes." 

" The height above the seaat fhatpointof the ridge aver whichfhe road leads is 
about 7,500 feet, considerably over a mile, and yet so gradually had we attained 
this elevation that we never should have suspected ; and, indeed, we should never 
have known that we wore among mountains at all, were it not for the snowy snm- 
mita of the Wind River Range, which rose immediately on our right ; for the 
ftbrnpt rooky heights, which I mentioned to you in my last, we had left behind and 
out of sight. 

"And thus we came through what is called the South Pass. After a long, 
gradual ascent, we then commenced the. descent, which is a little more rapid than 
the ascent, but still pretty gradual. And oar road has been descending most of 
the way since, a distance of some sixty (60) miles, hut through such barrenness 
ftnd desolation as you could hardly concdve. The land is but a waste of sand, sparsely 
dotl«d with mid sago and grease wood, both small shrubs. Hardly ft tree is ftny. 
where to be seen, and only onco in a mile or two alocg the road." 

>y Go Ogle 


[Summit of the " South Pass," West Slope, one thousand miles 
from Fort Leavenworth.] 

" We arc on a deeplj' farrowed etream, the Big Sandy, wMch winds throi^li, 
withoot fertilizing, the soil. The rabbit, the sage hen, and the raven, or a, Isirgn 
species of crow, are all the animals met with Belund us rose the Wind liivcr 
Monntains, and how beantlfully did thej lool. ono mommg when the sun 
ficst shone upon them ! Their lofty summits, ahrouded. with clonds and snow, 
and yet lit np by the Enn, gave forth a wacn^ bnt benevolent smile, well befit- 
ting snch a benefactor of mankind as poured from its flank; the three great 
Btreams, the Oregon, the Colorado, and the Mnooun. Before ns, as we advanced 
towards the north, arose the chain called the JJmtah Monntams. linnning east 
and west, they presented their northern slopes to »a, and they were covered ivith 
far more snow than are the southern slopes of the Wind River Range, though the 
former are more than one hundred miles to the southward of the latter — the dif- 
ference arising from a difiorenoo in exposure — the ono being to the north and 
the other to the south. 

" The solemn, serious beauty of the Uintah mountains, their Eummits covered 
with snow, standing like a vast hydrant ponring forth rivers of water, again 
arrest my gaio. 

"At length, at about II o'clock, A.M., to-day, we reached the vei^e of the right 
hank of Gf cen River. The valley through which it runs is pretty wide, and the 
enclo^ng banks are steep and precipitous. The view below hurst upon us all at 
once ; and after such barrenness, how beautiful it appeared 1 

"There is a solemn joy in these mountains that lifts uyi the heart as in a temple 
of worship, where the winds and the streams are the mu^c of the choir, and the 
hoar peak seems preaching holy Sabbath to the land." 




" In priMBBB of time, wiea your Western tenitorlea are perfectly sottled from tta Ohio 
to tlie Missjeslppl, which in time cannot f^ to be perfected ; and when your Weetern 
ond Sonthem colonies become in population aa numerous as tbe aanda of tbe sea — 
then will fhe richoa of PotosI attract the attention of the Americans to the conqueet 
of Mexico and Pern. Thfs la an object which, from the magnitude of its wealth, is 
cert^D in time to take place; hut as that cannot happen for at least fiftj or an ban. 
dr«(l years, 1 thlnt, gentlemen, we should not poatporie taking a part of the wealth 
of that conntty immediately; therefore I freely offer my services to the Congress on 
such, an expedition; and on my honor, I will serve them as faitbfnlly aa I have ray 
king and country, "for I am a soldier of fortune." So, taking the bottle, I filled a 
glass, and drank to an expedition against the Goldeti Spaniard. My toast waa pro- 
ductive of mach laughter, mirth, and good hnmor, together with many ohservations 
on the situation and wealth of the Spanish colonies so contij^nous to them ; and 1 am 
inclined to believe, that at that time even the company did not think that the poaseBslon 
of the wealth of Mexico was qnite eo dlfBcnlt, or reqnired so many years' application and 
stBdy, aa to anive at the knowledgeof the Philosopher's stone,"— "£(/«, Ailtienttirei, 
aad Opinions" of ani by ColoaA GBoaaa Hahoeb. Loniion, lEOl. 

Lieutenant Philip Keabnt was too much of a real soldier to be 
able, after having tasted the excitement of actual sei-vice, to submit 
to the constraints, the indolence, and monotony of gaiTison life. 
After his return fi-om Alters he chafed under the restraints of in- 
activity for nearly five years, hoping all the time for something to 
occur which would give bim new oppoi-tunitiea for distinction in 
active service. 

Notwithstanding war seemed imminent with the Mexican Confed- 
eration, in 1845, it was scarcely conceivable that a power like 
Mexico, which had been utterly foiled in its invasion of Texas, in 
1835-'6, which had suffered a miniature Waterloo at San Jacinto, 
21st April, 1836, at the hands of a thousand undisciplined frontiers- 
men, would dare to rush into a war with F.uch a gigantic power aa 
the United States, upon a mere question of national honor — for the 
posBOBsion of Texas had become a mere question of honor. 

Whether from the same reasons which actuated Worth, or be- 
caase his promotion had not corresponded with his hopes or meiit, 
or from the persuasion that his services were imdervalued, Keaeni 

>y Go Ogle 


ott the 2d April, 1846, tendered his resignation, which was accepted 
as of the 6th of that month. Had he dreamed that a war was upon 
us, he would never have done so. 

No sooner, however, had the clash of arms resounded fi-om the 
Rio Grande, and the national banner been unfurled amidst the 
blaze of battle, than Kearky, like Worth, sought to recall his 
resignation, and apphed to the goyernmcnt to be restored to his 
former rank and position. 

On the i-ecommendation of Major-General Scorr, Commander-in- 
Chief, and Brevet Brigadier-General Roger Jones, Adjutant-Gene- 
ral U. S. Army, he was reinstated in the army on the 1 5th April, 
I8i6. It was not until the 9th July, that he was enabled to join 
his regiment, having been employed in the meantime in recruiting 
his company up to the war-footing. He was determined that it 
should be a model troop in every respect, not only in men, but in 
horses, and he repaired to the West, where he knew he could find 
BucTi mateiial as he wanted — material which he had seen put to the 
test of a march of two thousand three hundred miles, and come out 
of the trial first proof. With a hbei-ality which distinguished 
every prominent action of his life, he detei-mined to augment the 
government bounty out of his own private pui-se, in order to obtain 
not only first-class men, but first-lass animals. His principal re- 
ci-ttiting ground was Illinois, and at the State Capital, Springfield, 
he fell in by accident with a resident lawyer, who was looked upon 
as a rather eccentric, but earnestly patriotic man, by name Abraham 
Lincoln, who was touched bythe enthusiasm of the young dragoon 
officer, and zealously agisted him in carrying out his plans. This 
eccentric man, as he was styled, was afterwards, " Honest Abk," 
President of the United States, and the Lieutenant Keaeny, whom 
he assisted in raising that model company of dragoons, was iiis 
appointment aa a Brigadier-Genera], one whom he always styled 
"his GENERAL;" one whom he destined for the highest command, 
when an untimely shot put an end to the life of the man of bis 
choice, as unexpectedly as the shot of the assassin, Booth, put an 
end to his own, so precious to his country. 

When Kearny reached New Orleans, on his way to Mexico, the 
appearance of his command attx'acted the attention of the whole city, 
who were in a condition to judge of the relative value of troops, 
since the majority of those destined to earn such distinction in 
Mexico, passed thi'ough the streets of the "Crescent City," 

>y Go Ogle 


The New Orleans Tropic devoted quite a space in its columns 
to Keakny and liis dragoons, from which the following is an extractu 
The rest of the ai-tjcle is even moi-e compUmentaiy, but needs no 
quotation here, as it is altogether personal and refers to events in 
the life of Keaent, with wliich the reader is already a<3qaainted. 

" Lieutenant Phiuf Keaknt, nephew of General Stephen Watts 
Ke,vkny, anived here day before yesterday with as fine a company of 
cavalry as was ever seen in New Orleans ; the horses, ninety in 
number, are all gi'eys, and beautiful in the extreme. The men are 
picked and noble-looking fellows. The trappings of the horses and 
the accoutrements of the riders are all that the most fastidious com- 
mander could wish." 

Keahny was not despatched into Mexican tenitory until October, 
1846, when the fighting for the year was over. 

His first service was along the Rio Grande, where he did not come 
in contact with the enemy. What strack him most, while in the 
neighborhood of Camargo — and he often referred to it as some- 
thing marvelons — was the vast extent of the bmial-gi-ounds devoted 
to the interment of the American soldiers. His investigations led 
him to believe that the same influence which produced such fatal 
effects in the French ai'my in Africa, was the cause of the mor- 
tality among our ti-oops — that is,_ nostalgia, or home-sickness, which 
was attributable, however, to a different origin. Fi-ench soldiers, as 
a general thing, have few ties which bind them to their homes, and 
it is rather the deprivation of those gay distraetiona and familiar 
Bcenes that biingson, in Africa, where there is scarcely any allevia- 
tion of theii' laboi-s and sufferings, that awful depression of spirits 
which proves so fatal to life. In the case of our Western volunteers, 
who wei-e mostly men of family, and accustomed to comforts of which 
an Eui-opean soldier would nevei- di'eam, it was actuaiy home-sick- 
ness. This moral miasma took a strong hold npon om' Western 
volunteers, and populated vast cities of the dead, similai- to those 
ai'Ound Medeah and Milianah, which have attracted the attention of 
others besides liiAENY, who have campaigned in the Atlas. This 
nostalgia seemed to exei'cise compai'atively no effect upon the 

Kearny, with his company, did not _-join Taylor until after the 
capture of Monterey, and the advance of the army of occupation to 

Major-General Scott having completed his plan of operations. 

>y Go Ogle 


baaed upon the capture of Vera Cruz, and the advance from that 
port directly upon the Mexican capital, a lai^ge portion of the troopa 
under General Taylor were withdrawn from the line of the liio 
Grande and marched to the coast, to be embai-ked for the newpoint 
of concentration- 

The general public, who have not participated in military opera- 
tioua, suppose that it is a light task to follow and relate the every 
day action of an oiBcer and make it interesting. To fumieh a mere 
djary would be easy, but aach a narrative would be almost devoid 
of interest. The soldier and line-officer are almost indistinguisha- 
ble paits of a grand machine, from which the killed and wounded 
fall off like chips or filings, unnoticed, except by those who are 
immediately interested in each individual. An able General com- 
pared those who fell to the paiings of a man's nails, so little wei-e 
they missed, and of so little account were they among the casualties 
of a great armyandaprotractedeompaign. It is only when fortune 
accords to a man the opportunity to achieve a deed of high emprise 
that the histoiian can lingei- upon the picture, and make him a 
prominent object in the vant and ci-owded panorama of a war. Wo 
sh.'vll see KEUiSY enjoying one of the fortunate occasions, and pro- 
fiting by the opportunity to its utmost extent. Meanwhile, it is all 
sufficient to say that in the ordinary routine of duty, he did his 
share of it thoroughly, and in every position and on every occasion 
won the approbation, as he had always enjoyed the respect, of his 
saperiore, as weli as of his comrades. 

On Taylor's line of operations Keaeny had no chance to shine, 
but he was neither unnoticed nor forgotten. In the latter part of 
November, when Scott determined to withdraw about five thous- 
and troopa from Tayi.or, his first selection was couched in the fol- 
lowing words : 

"YouwOl • * put in movement for the mouth of the 
Ejo Grande the following troops ; 

About five hundred regular cavaliy of the First and Second Regi- 
ments of Dragoons, including Lieutenant Keakny's troop." 

■•.- - * :S * * * * * :^ 

These four words from such a man aa Scott were in themselvea 
no small meed of praise. The very fiiet that Scott thus designated 
him by name was a high encomium. Such a man andsuch a troop 
he wanted tor himself Kearny had previously served under his 
immediate eye. He knew the young soldier thoroughly ; knew 

>y Go Ogle 


ttat in him he had a weapon of approved temper, appropriate for a 
crisia, and in his troop a select body of soldiers, for, disciplined by 
Kearny and inspired by his example, they could not be otherwise 
than good soldiehs. 

" Including LietOenant Keakht's troop ;" foor words, but signi- 
ficant as an oration. We shall see that whenever Scoir did let them 
loose they did their duty better than well — that when Keaknt waa 
left to himself, the young Captmi wreathed his brow with laurels 
as immortal as those due to the conquest of a country by ten thous- 
and men, which has elevated Scorr to the fii^t rank as a General — 
a conquest which will be remembered in the militajy history of our 
country as one of its maiwels, when subsequent battles, attended 
by a slaughter of as many men as constituted the whole force under 
WiNiiELD Scott's command, are unnoticed or forgotten. Results 
dignify actions. In Europe, Scott would have been overwhelmed 
with dignities and rewards, whereas he was repaid for an achieve- 
ment, which added new lustre to our national escutcheon, with an 
ingi-atitude which disgraced a Demoa-atic administration in the 
eyes of the whole world. 

Before his connection was severed with the " ai-my of occupation," 
KEAENYwas entrusted with a duty which very neai-ly cut short 
his career and nearly added his nante to the hst of victims of the 
assassin tactics of the Mexicans. 

About the 11th January, 184", Lieutenant John A. Richet, 
Fifth TJnited States Infantry, beai-er of despatches for General 
Taylor, started fi'om Saltillo towards Victoria. Having passed 
through Montei-ey, he arrived, the 13th January, at the small town 
of Villa Gran, Here he separated himself from his escoi-t — con- 
sisting often Dragoons — and entered the town for the pui-pose of 
purclismg provisions. Alone and unsuspicious of danger, he was 
lassoed and murdered under the most atrocious and cowai-dly cir- 
cumstances. The despatches which he bore were taken fi-om his 
person and at once transmitted to Santa Anna. From the infor-- 
mation derived fi-om these, the Mexican commander-m-chief became 
possessed of Scott's plans, and learned to what an extent Taylor's 
army had been depleted to complete that collecting on a new Une 
under General Scote. The result was, he struck at Tatlou. 
Thus, had it not been for the murder of Richey, the battle of Buena 
Vista — on which it might be said the subsequent operations of the 
whole Mexican war pivoted or depended — ^would never have been 

>y Go Ogle 


fought. Buena Vista was one of the deciaive battles of the world, 
aa events tui-ned out, for in many respects it waa the battle of the 
Mexican war which gave us auriferous California, and determined 
the whole future of this continent. 

The reader may ask what has this to do with Keaest? This 
much : he narrowly escaped at this timo ' the fate which befell the 
unfortunate Richey ; and had a similar and impending cast of the 
lasso encU'cIed his throat with the same successful aim, there would 
have been an end of this biogi-aphy and of one destined to fill a 
prominent place iu the gallery of American Generals, Patriots, and 

On his anival at Vera Cruz, the splendid condition of Kearnt's 
company — ^he was promoted to a Captaincy in December, 1846 — 
coupled with the fact that its commander had formerly been hia 
aid-de-canip, induced the general-in-chief to constitute it his 
body-guard. This connection with headquarters prevented Keabnt 
from participating in any of the cavalry engagements which occur- 
red between om- Dragoons and the Mexican horse, which attempted 
to harass oui' army anjJ hinder the progress of the siege. 

When the city surrendered, Keaesy escorted his victorious chief 
on his tiiumphal entiy, and he used to dwell with exultation on the 
Fuperb appearance of his men and horses in that ovation, 
due to the scientific generalship of Scott. He said that his men 
felt as much pride in the matter as himself, and were up the gi'eater 
pai't of the previous night :fiji'bishing theii- ai-ms and accoutrements 
and cleaning then' horses, so that the latter " shone like glass bot- 
tles " when pai'aded the next morning. Kearny was always 
exceedingly partial to iron gi^oys, and no horses in the world look 
better than those of this color when in high condition and properly 

On the advance from Vera Cruz, Keaknt was always with Gen- 
eral Scott, and saw little or no flghtmg. That he profited by the 
lessons in strategy taught by that superlative commander, at the 
expense of the enemy, the future proved. Napoleos held Turesne 
in the highest esteem as a finished general, and this campaign was 
caii-ied on in the highest style of Ture>j},-e. After the battle of 
Cen-o Gordo he was detached in pursuit, and it was reported at 
the time that he came near captui-ing Santa Anna. 

The writer recollects perfectly Keaeky's account of one chase 
and its incidents ; but it may have occuiTed on one or another 

>y Go Ogle 


1st U. S. Draeoone, Meiloo, 1847. 
m porlrait in iJOfsosBiou ol Author. 

>y Go Ogle 



1 (at Tepealiualco? or after Pucbla), when Keaunt was 
sent out with a flag of truce in order to try and open communica- 
tions with the defeated anny. 

The follo\ving letter from an officer, an eye-witness of the inci- 
dent, a fi-iend of Kearny, refers to the pm-euit aftei- Cerro Gordo, 
which occurred about this time. It also alludes to an interesting 
fact, which Las been related, to show that Keaemt, like a great 
many other soldiers of his stamp, was, to a certain extent, a fatalist, 
and put implicit faith in his star- : 

" In Mexico he (Kearny) commanded a company of horse of the 
First Dragoons, which accompanied General Scoit's movements in 
his mai-ch from Vera Cruz to the Capital. At the battle of Cerro 
Gordo he, followed up in advance the pursuit of the retreating 
enemy. I remember seeing him in full career after them. His 
horses were all' white (grey), and showed that they had received 
the care and attention for which the First Dragoons, hia uncle's 
regiment, were honorably distinguished ; but for the want of proper 
forage in the bai'ren strip of tierra calienU thi-ough which the 
army had beai marching and operating for several days, they had 
become vei-y much reduced in condition; and consequently, in the 
rapidity of the pm-suit, not a few of them tumbled down headlong 
upon the road, never to rise again. It was a sad sight to see ani- 
mals dying in that way in those days, but the service during the 
late war got quite beyond these scruples, whole squadi-ons of horse 
being wasted with as much dash and recklessness as though the de- 
struction of property were a great merit. 

" The nest incident that I remember in the career of General, 
then Captain Keaent, occun-ed among a party of officers at a hotel 
in Puebla. These officers were dining together a ahoi-t time pre- 
vious to the continuance of the march of the American army upon 
the city of Mexico ; and the conversation turned upon the approach- 
inw conflict. Captain Keakny spoke with a great deal of feeling, 
with an earnest unaffected thirst for glory, and said he would give 
his left arm for a brevet. The army moved not long afterwards, 
aiid in the very first day's battles in the valley of Mexico, Captain 
Tvp.A RTiT pursued the routed enemy again, up to the very gates of 
the city, and there lost his left arm, by a shot from the enemy 
within the walls. It is needless to add, that he received a brevet. 

" My pen has dwelt thus long upon the theme, because of the 
particulai' pleasui-e which I have dw.ived from the intercourse which 

>y Go Ogle 


I have happotted to have with him. Take him aJtogcther, I have 
seldom met with a more agi-eeable gentlemsB, or a more chivalrio 

It is said that Keaknt remarked, before he went to Mexico, that he 
felt sure that lie would not lose his life, that he would retm-n alive, 
but that he felt eqnally assured that he would lose his left ai-m. 
Napoleon had implicit faith in his star, and actually pointed out, on 
more than one occasion, the very star which, according to his 
belief, presided over his destiny. Presentiments are very common 
among military men, and a great many instances are related in 
which they are known to have come true, without affecting their 
conduct, however. Desaix is a curious instance of this. When 
he joined the army of Italy, in ISOO, on his retm-n from Egypt, he 
remarked that he was afraid the bullets in Europe would not know 
him again, ajid he fell at Marengo, a few days subsequently, the 
very first battle in which he was engaged and almost immediately 
after be came under fire. 

In the advance fi-om Jalapiv, Keaenk had few opportmiities of 
displaying his superior soldiership, but it was only from lack of 
opportunity. As a common friend recently remarked of him : — 
"High soldiei-ship, as inhiacase, exhibited itself often, in attention 
to a multitude of minute details, which inspire confidence and tell 
in the hour of action. This enabled him with his troops to pene- 
trate to the very gates of the city of Mexico, where he lost ha arm. 
While the ai-my lay in Puebla he performed several daring recon- 
noissances, by which he procured much valuable information ; but, 
as the enemy avoided combats, there was no special opportunity to 
add to his laurels." 

Shortly after the dinner alluded to, at which Keaent expressed 
his willingneHS to pilrchase a brevet at the price of the very ai-m he 
actually expended in obtaining one, he was entrusted with a mis- 
sion of some danger and importance, over whose i-emembrauce he 
was accustomed to laugh heai-tiiy when he recalled the details of 
the " Run." 

While our ai-ray was at Puebla di-illing and organiang into that 
irresistible machine which, like the beast "with great iron teeth'' 
in the vision of Daniel, "brake m pieces," and trampled in the 
bloody-mire every antagonistic armament, Scott, on the 11th July, 
1847, resolved to take some action in behalf of the American pris- 
oners held by the Mexican authorities. These wei-e Majors Gaises 

>y Go Ogle 


and BoKtA?n>, Captain Cassius M. Clay, and their assodateB, cap- 
tured at Inoamacion, near Buena Vista, in the preceding January, 
likewise passed midshipman Eogees, taken in December, 18i6, 
near Vera Cruz, and since then imprisoned as a spy. 

To Captain Philip Keakny was entrusted the proposals for an 
exchange, and he was sent fonpard with two companies of dragoons, 
under a flag of ti-uce, to endeavor to communicate with the Mexican 
military authorities. 

At seven a. m., 12th July, Keaknt started out, accompanied by 
the Semmes who afterwai-ds became a traitor to his flag, and made 
hia name notorious as a bmiier of merchantmen, until his career in 
the Alabama was closed by the destruction of thatCorsaii-bythe 
Kearsage, commanded by the glorious Winblow. 

Kbaknt expected at this time to be able to continue on, and enter 
the city of 31 exico, and trotted on rapidly, filled with the glad hopes 
of caiTying good news to his imprisoned coimtrymen, while enjoy- 
ing the glorious scenery, for which the journey to the Aztec Capi- 
tal is almost without a rival. As he proceeded, to his right soared 
the Maliuohe, " the storm-gatherer of Puebla," whose rugged peak 
seiTed as a barometer to the inhiibitants of that city, and, beneath 
it, sfci-etched away the plains of Tlascala, while to his left the pictur- 
esque pyramid of Choiula stood out against the clear blue sty ; 
while over all towered the eternal snow^owns of PopOicatapeti 
and IztaccihuatI, which look dowo, at the same time, into both the 
valleys of Puebla and Mexico. 

What thoughts mnst have passed through the "Knightly" mind 
of KEA.ENT, thus pressing onward in the track of Coetes. 

Ten miles from Puebla, the Black River (Mio Prieto) was ci-ossed, 
and as much farther on again the dragoons dashed into the village 
or town of San Martin. As they approached this small but popu- 
lous place, there was an awful stir, and forth fluttered a body of 
Mexican Lancers abont eqna! in number to the American detachment, 
vlio " vamosed the ranch " in such a huny as to leave behind their 
'^^gige, and even some of their party, who broke ofl" and took to 
the bushes. Among these were Cahalieo's son, a Lieutenant- 
Colonel of cavalry, and two or three of his men. The youth was 
eventnally looked up by two -of his papa's aids, subsequent to the 
tennination of the chase, and conducted back in safety to the pa- 
rental wing. These aids, with half a dozen blanketed lanceros, 
returned, under eseoi-t of Keaknx's di-agoons, to San Martin, to 

>y Go Ogle 


recover their geueral'e baggage and to hunt around for the missing 

Away went the Mexicans, consisting of about seventy lancers, 
led by Generals Canauzo (formerly President ad interim of Mexico) 
and PoBTiLLO (who had disgraced himself by bis prominent action 
in the Fansino massaci-e (Fannin!) in Texas in March 1836. The 
Mexicans left in such haste, and spmi-ed so furiously, that Kbaekt 
described the road over which they traveled 3& resembling one on 
which a flmTy of early wet snow had feUen, so whitened was it with 
the froth flakes which fell from the horses, urged to the uttermost 
by the merciless Spanish spur. 

As Keakny did not care if the chase lasted to the gates of the 
capital, as that was Ms objective, he held in after he found that fear 
had lent wings to the enemy, and contented himself with keeping 
them in sight. It was Ainswoeth's Dick Tuhpin's ride to York 
over again In the plural. Keaknt caught a glimpse of them at the 
Pnente (bridge) de Tezmolucan, eleven miles from San Maitin ; and 
at Rio Frio, about eleven ftii-ther on — making forty miles accom- 
plished since mounting — came in fufl sight of the two generals 
pursued, then winding away np the heights beyond the Cold Eiver 
{Rio Frio). By this time the Mexicans had somewhat recovered 
their senses, or felt that their horses had the heels of the pui-suers 
for they halted, as if to investigate the white flag conspicuously dis- 
played ; then, seemingly, not liking the appeai-ance of the escort, 
resumed their flight. This inspection, throngh glasses, doubtless, 
was repeated several times, till disa-etion seemed the better part of 
valor, and away they went, as if convinced of the troth of the old 
saying, "the devil (American) take the hindennost" if he can 
catch him. As Keaknt's men had been in the saddle for ten hours, 
and all chances of overhauling the red pennons had passed away, 
the Captain halted at an inn at the bridge across the Rio Frio, and 
sent forward a Mexican on a fi-esh horse to catch the fiigitives. 

In an hour or two this native intermediary returned, accompanied 
by an aid of General Portillo, who protested against Kearny's 
further advance, but entered into an aiTangement, in behalf of his 
superior, for a meeting on the following morning, when Keaent 
was to ride forward, accompanied by Skmmes, as an improvised aid, 
and five dragoons. So, amid good cheer and much merriment, 
evoked by the rapid " change of base" efiectedbythcAztec chiefs, 
the night passed very pleasantly, clouded by only one di'awback. 

>y Go Ogle 


that the protest of the Mexican officer precluded a glimpse of the 
Valley of Mexico, which, in all its glorious beauty, was visible from 
a range not more than ten or eleven miles beyond their place of 

The next morning, 13th July, Kearsv, with Semmes, the latter's 
servant, and one di'agoon to carry the white flag, rode forward to 
meet General Poetillo, who was encountered just beyond the HiO 
of Sleep, { Cuesta dsl Sueno) with five lancers, who, with liis two 
aids, made his party eight, when seven was the stipulated number. 
I'oRTiLLO — like Louis XI. of France at his interview with Edwaed 
IV. of England, on the Bridge of Picquigny, across the Sorame, 
29th August, 1478 — had no idea of giving his adversai-ies a chance 
of "gobbling" him, if a little addition of force could prevent it, 
even though contra mares. Pobtiixo, after mutual salutes and 
e.>^lanalions, refiised permission for Keabny either to continue on to 
Mexico, or even to proceed any farther, although the glorious vision 
of the basm of the capitd could be witnessed from a crest only seven 
or eight miles in advance. He feelingly reproved Kkaeky for the 
" unchivalric " manner in which the lattei' had hunted him out of 
hia comfoi-table quarters in San Mai-tin, and gently protested against 
Buch an obliviousness of the amenities of wax, then kindly ofiered 
to take charge of the despatches of which Keaeny was the beai-er. 
As there was nothing else to be done, this was agreed to, and 
Keaeny, not to be outdone in politeness, escorted the general as 
far as Portillo would permit him: half-way back to his detach- 
ment, whom, it appeared, had been originally left or stationed in 
San Martin as a picket of observation to watch the movements of 
General Scott and his troops, or more likely to collect the reports 
of spies in Puebla and foi-ward them to Santa Anna. 

ICeaeny desci-ibed Pokhllo as Semmes does in his " Service 
AJloat and Ashore" only somewhat more mu-thiully, or less re- 
spectftdiy. Semmes says, "he waa a good-looking man, rather 
stout (it is to be feai'ed dashing Phil rendered this 'punchy'), of 
about fifty yeai-s of age, and quite dignified and gentlemanlike in 
his manners." The effect of the lattei- part of this description is 
marred by the additional remarks that the stout and gentee! general 
" not being well dressed," "being mounted on a small pony," hav- 
ing " a somewhat vilhunous expression of countenance," — which, 
adds Semmes, " I did not wonder at so much when I was informed 
by onr guide that he had been a prominent actor in the massacre of 

>y Go Ogle 


Fannin") — disadvantages which must have required an awful 
amount of dignity to compensate for them, and I^jsaeny's recollec- 
tions of PoETiLLO, if memory servesjwcre very much aiin to Mr. 
Pickwick's Idea of bulky Mr. Tupman's putting "himself into a 
green velvet jacket with a two-inch tail" to attend Mi-s. Leo Hun- 
ter's fancy ball. Indeed the meeting of KEAimy, on hia sixteen 
hand horse, (he always rode a very large horse, and Sejdies was 
mounted on an elephantine animal,) and Pohtillo, on his pony, re- 
calls that of Chaeles the Boij>, on hia noble charger, with Lotus 
XL, on his little ambling palfrey, when the effect was almost 
grotesque. The i-eader who does not recognize the simile cannot 
have read "Quentip Durward," by Sir Walter Scorr. If he has 
not, he wUl thank this allusion if it leads to a perusal of that charm- 
ing novel. 

Thus KEAiiNT jnst came short of being the first of oar gallant 
"Boys in Blue," to visit pacifically, but "in arms and under banner," 
the Mexican Capital, into whose gate he was destined to cut hia way 
only four weeks Later (20th August), as a conquei-or, inside of 
which his comrade. Major Mills, was actually killed. 

No reader, however intelligent, can comprehend military opera- 
tions without good maps. Even with good maps it is difiicult to 
comprehend details without some acqaaintaffce with tactics and 
terms. Consequently, there is no attempt made in this chapter to- 
follow the movements of the army, and readers are i-efen-ed to 
Maksfield's generalized and Ru-ley's detailed but partial, or pre- 
jadiced, "Histoiy of the Mexican War ;" likewise Sekjies " Sei- 
vice Afloat and Ashore," very interesting and instructiij^, as well 
as other works, not so accessible, but worthy of examination as the 
records of a Conquest as memorable as that of Coktez. 

When Scott had abandoned the idea of making a direct attack 
on Mexico from the cast, and accomplished his remai-kablo move- 
ment, favored by I'rovtdence, the direction of his renewed opera- 
tions iras from the south. Two battles wore fought on this line 
prior to the Ta^nbuya Armistice. The first at Contreras, August 
19th and 20th ; the second at Chnrabasco, August 20th, 1847. 

Between these t*vo villages, to the west and north, about nine 
miles apart by the road and the villages of San Antonio and San 
Angustin Ilapan— the latter about six mUes east of ContreriK — lay 
the volcanic region called the "Pedi-egal." 

This Pedregal was thrown up in sharp rocks and broken pieces^ 

>y Go Ogle 


in such a manner that the Mexican officers su[ipoRed it to be im- 

"South of the Capital the great thoroui^hfare is the Acapulco 
road, which enters the city along the causeway and at the Garita of 
the San Antonio. A line of entrenchments had been commenced, 
connecting the fortified hacienda of San Antonio, sis miles south 
of the city, with the position of the Mexicalcingo. i>om the im- 
mediate vicinity of the hacienda, the Pedregal extended west to 
the mountmns. The Pedregal waa an obstacle of no ordinary 
natm-e to military operations. A vast field of lava, interspersed 
with a few patches of arable land, it was practicable for the jiaesage 
of any troops at but few points, and entirely impracticable for cav- 
alry or ai-tillery, except by a single mule-path," 

This lava field was rent by chasms, which intersected it with 
their rifts In such a manner that to worm a way across it, even in 
the day time, w^ a work of time, difficulty, and pei-il j and yet it was 
absolutely necessary to reconnoitre it, as it lay between the wings, 
or grand divisions, of the ai'my. The credit of this difficult opera- 
tion baa always been given ■to the ai-ch-rebel LeEj when an officer of 
the "United States Engine«r^ and ho is said to have been the only 
officer who made tiis way aowss the Pedregal ; but the writei- under- 
stood at the time that Sbaeky was the one who first traversed this 
extremely difficult and pei-ilous ti'ack on horseback, and was the 
first thus to link the combinations of our sepai-ated divisions 
through the information which he caiiied across. Keaknt, on his 
return from Mexico, dwelt upon this exploit as one of the most 
difficult he bad. ever achieved. KEAiJuy, if not the first, was certainly 
one of the first who succeeded in doing so. It was wonderful 
how he succeeded in accomplishing the feat, as be mado bis way 
ovcPat night — .moonHght, however, it is true — leaping his horse 
over the clefts, which nobody but a fearless rider like himself would 
ever have di-eamed of attempting. 

>y Go Ogle 


" Half a league, bait a leagno, 

Half B laastna onword, 
All in the Valley o£ Deoth 

Bode the * one ^ hmidred, 
' Charge,' ivHB the cap«^a"e cry; 

Th^rs not lo reason why, 
Thelta not to make reply, 

Theira hut bs do and die. 
Into the Valley o£ Death 

Bode the ' one ' hundred 

" CaBnon to right of them, 
Caanon to left of tbem, 

Cajinon 'liefore' them 
Volley'd and thundered ; 

Btormed Ht with shot and eholl, 
They that had Etrack so nell. 

Bode thro' the jnn'a of Death, 
Half a ieagoe back again, 

np from the mouth of Hell, 
All that wAB left of tbem, 

I.e<tof 'ona' hundred. 
" Honor the bravo and bold 1 

Ldi^ Ehall tho talc be told. 

Tea, when onr babea are old- 
How they rode onward," 

"WhilB Clavebhodhb, who, like a hawk perched ona rock and eyeii^ the time to 
pounce on its prey, had watobed the oFent of the action from the opposite bank, now 
paBned the bridge at the head of hia cavalry at full trot, and, leadins them in eanodrons 
through the intervals and round tlie flaftka of the Kojal infantry, formed Ihem on the 
moor, and led tbem to the charge, * * • their broken aplrfta and dia- 

heaitflned coutsge were unable to endore the charge of the cavalry, attended with all its 
terrible accompaniments of sight and aound ; — tha rush of the horses at fall speed, [he 
shaking of the earth nndcr their feet, the glancing of the swords, and waving of the 
plumes, and the fierce shouts of the civaliera. The front ranks hardly attempted one ill- 
directed and disorderly Are, and their rear was broken and flying in contnsion ere the 
charge had been completed; and in less thauSTe minatea the horsemen were ulsed Hlth 



them, cutttng and hewing wltliont merer. • * * Their swords dninlc 

deep of Blaughter among the nareaisling fngitivea. Scrfiama for qiiartBr were only 
onawered bj the ekouta with which the pursuers accompanied their blows, and the whole 
ScM ytresented one genutal scene ol caafused slaughter, QlghC, and pursnlt." 

Scott's "Old Mortality.''' 

"ThaaacieejBotCoKTKSliEhled up with triomph. Turning qnicltly aronnd to the 
cavaliers at his Bide, among whom were Sanuoval, Olid, AivAnADo, and Avila, ha 
poinlcdontthechiaf, eiclaiming: ' There is onr mart I Follow sndaupport me r Then 
cryins hie war-cry, and striking hia iron heel Into his weary stead, he plnnged headlong 
into the tlildcesl of the prosa. His enemies fell back, taken by surprise, and dannted by 
the ferocity of the attack. Those who did not wore pierced through with his lance, or 
home down by the weight of hia oharger. The cavaliers followed close In the rear. On 
thoy swept with tho fury of a thunderbolt, cleaving the solid ranka asunder, atrewing 
theh^ path with the dying and the dead, and bonndlns over every obstacle in the way." 

• • • " The guard, overpowered by the so 

little resistance, but, flying, communicated thslr own panic t 
logs of the loss aoan spread over the field. The Indians, filled with co 
thought only of escape. In their blind terror, their nombets ungmentei 
They trampled on one another, fancying It was the enemy In their rear." 

Fbescoti'b " ConQtesl of Mexico. 


However honorable and pleasant a poaition it maybe to command 
the body-guard at headquartera, in the society of mon pre-eminent 
in ability and position, it is not the place for a yoang officer to win 
fame. Inforeigneountries and in royalties — where favors (7rop into . 
hands not entitled to receive them, to the prejudice of those who 
have borno tho bm-thcn and heat of the day, who have deserved 
and not obtained — a post around headquai'ters, is a capita] place 
to get a decoration or an advance step in rank. Unfortunately, it is 
too muoh so in this country, but not in anything to the same degree 
as abroad, since the army at large see clearly and judge honestly, 
and only acknowledge that soldiership as of the true ring and 
genuine stamp which haa undergone the baptism of blood and the 
purification of the fire of battle. The reputation which is sought 
at the cannon's mouth is the true glory of the soldier. Kbabnt 
knew this. He bad yearned to shine in his proper sphei-e, the 
front of battle. The man who could offer his left ai-m as the piice 
of a brevet, as he had done among his fellow-officers at Puebla, 
was the man to court danger as a coy misti'ess. Like Korneb, 
when he indited that "Sword Song," which will live forever, he 
must have often toyed with the "iron bride" which hung at his 
thigh, and prayed to see her shining face blush with the blood of the 

>y Go Ogle 


"Thou sword at my left Eide, 
What means thy flash of pride ? 
Thou smitest so on me, 
I tako delight in thee, 
Hurrah 1 

" The clanging trmnps betray 
The blnshiag bridal day ; 

When cannons fur and wide 
Shall roar, I'll fetch my bride, 
Hurrah ! 

" Tes, in my sheath I clash ; 
I long to Rlemn and flash 

In battle, wild ajid proud, 
Tis why I chish so loud. 
Hurrah !" 

Tiironghout tlie advance from Vera Cruz to this moment, when 
his ardent ivishea weve to be gratified, his heart must liave leaped 
whenever the signal to charge was blown and beaten, with the 
strong desire to answer it with the spur and the appropriate order. 

On the 18th August, a reconnoisaance was diade by four of tho 
engineer corps — three of whom afterwards became notorious rebel 
geuersda — with a support of cavalry and infant^. An engagement 
or skirmish ensued, in which Khabst <istinguiahed himself, and 
enabled the engincei-s to perform their duties with success and 
i-esults. This service was of sufficient consequence to deserve a 
special mention in Scott's officLal report. 

It ia sm-prising how irresponsive to the deeds of our own eoldiera 
are the lyres of our poet«. The world has read with admiration 
the "Charge of the Six Hundred" at Balakiava; but how few 
would have ever heard of that feat of " derring do " had it not been 
sung by the poet lam-eate of England. And yet the chai'ge of Cap- 
tain Philip Kearxy, at the battle of Churabusco, was as worthy 
the genius of Tekntsos as the chaige of the Light Brigade " into 
the jaws of death" in 'that Crimean valley, with three armies aa 

To appreciate the mai-vel of dash and bravery, it is necessary to 
understand the theatre in which it was displayed. Our little army 
less than nine thousand men all told — it has been set down at six 
thousand fighting men, as the Kebels counted then- forces — small 
indeed in its numbers in comparison to the magnitude of its 

>y Go Ogle 


, but great incTeed in the Buccesses it achieved — awoke 
from their bivouacs on the morning of the 20th Angust, 1847 
with the assarance of victory ; that whatever their General willed 
them to do, would grandly by them be done. 

In front of them, in the heart of the enemy's country, occupying 
the vUlage of CLurubusco, and in a chain of fortified positions 
— strong in the natural dispositions of the gi-ound, still stronger in 
the art with which it had been fortified, and even stongor yet in 
the oatnumbering forces — were disposed twenty-seven thousand to 
thu-ty thousand Mexican troops, backed by the population of the 
city of Mexico, who could turn out, if they willed, fifty thousand 
males capable of bearing arms. These forces, outnumbeiing ours 
four to one, or at least three to one, held the village, of solid con- 
atruction; and scattered buildings ofstone, along their line of battle 
lined the dykes, and almost impervioas hedges of thorny maguey 
or cactus lurked in the extensive plantations of tall m^ze, and filled 
the field-works with their small arms and artillery. The flat land 
was broken and difficult, and rendered more so by the enclo9i:rc8, 
morasses, and canals or ditches which covered it with a net- 
work of obstacles. 

" The ground on which the troops operated " — is the language of 
the gallant Worth — " ofi'the high-road, is remarkably intersi-cted ; 
loose soil, growing grain, and, at brief intervals, deep ditches, for 
the purpose of drainage and iiTigation, These ditches vary from 
six to eight feet in depth, about the same in width, with from thiee 
to fom- feet of water — the reverse banks lined with the enemy's 
light troops. 

" When I recur to the natirre of the ground, and the fa«t that the 
division (two thousandeixhundredstrong, of all arras) was engaged 
from two to two and a half hours in a hand-to-hand conflict with 
from seven thousand to nine thousand of the enemy, having the 
advantage of position, and occupying regular works — which our 
engineers will say were most skillfully constnicted — the mind is 
filled with wondei' and the heart with gratitude to the brave officei-s 
and soldiers whose steady and indomitable valor has, imder such 
circTunstances, aided in achieving, results so honorable to our coun- 
try — ^results not accomplished, however, without the sacrifice of 
many valuable lives." 

Through this ground, and the Mexican line-of-battle, ran several 
One of these- passed through the village of Churubueco. 

>y Go Ogle 


All of these united mth tho causeway of San Antonio, which 
bisected the field-of-battie in a direct line, almost north and south, 
and terminated five and a half miloB distant in the Grand Plaza of 
Mexico, upon which front the National Palace and Cathedral. At 
the junction refeiTed to, and the apex of the right and acute angled- 
triangles formed by them, was the bastioned bridge-head (Tete de 
I'ont) on the Churabaseo River. This was held by a strong gar- 
rison with three pieces of heavy artillery. 

It has been the fashion to decry the Mexicans as soldiers, although 
the Spaniards and French found them foes which proved worthy of 
th^ steel. Like the Turks, and their cognates, the Arabs, Kabyles, 
and Moors, every people of Spanish blood have proved themselvea 
most tenacious in the defense of foitificationa and walled towns — 
witness Sarragosaa. 

This the French experienced before Paebia in 1863, and the cap- 
ture of thia city was considered of sufficient importance to justify 
the elevation of General Foeey, its captor, to the dignity of 

Tho Mexican engineers understood then- business thoi-oughly, 
and it is admitted that the works which they threw up for the 
deffflise of then- capital were of exceeding strength, and " admh-a- 
ble both in their construction and locality." Tho bridge-head was 
a beautiful work, solidly and scientiScaUy constructed, with wet 
ditches and embrasures andplatfoi-ms for a large armament. More- 
over, it was flanked by a massive stone church or convent, sur- 
rounded by strong field-works mounted with heavy guns. 

Previous to the battle of Churubusco, Captain Keaest could 
restrain himself no longer, and had requested permission to partici- 
pate in the impending action. This was gi-anted, and with hia 
command, Company F, First United States Dragoons, was detached 
for general service, and ho was attached to tlie division of General 
Pn.LOw. He was now watching the course of events, and, like 
Ddsdee at " BotliweU Brig," biding his time and opportunity. 

MeanivhOe the roar of Mexican musketry — "more than twenty 
thousand muskets were continually discharged with a rapidity which 
^owed the stern determination of the enemy " — " was the greatest 
noise of all the din of battle ; it was continued and terrific, disown- 
ing the noise of the artillery, the shouts of the combatants, and the 
groans of the wounded." 

Despite the severity of such a &'e, and the fearful play of the 

>y Go Ogle 


artillery, our ti-oopa forced their way aci-ose the river. At the snnie 
time a vigorous assault was made upon tlie bridge-head. The gar- 
rison, so to speak, finding their position tarned and in danger of 
being taken in reverse, thus cutting off their retreat, slackened the 
"paj-ticulariy spiteful" fire to which Ripley feelingly alludes, atid 
after a short conflict, abandoned the work, and fled over the bridge 
in the rear towards the city, 

Previoi^ to this time Eeasnt had been able to effect nothing. 
He had accompanied Piixow in his advance from Coyacan, a vil- 
lage fai-ther to the east or left on the Rio (River) Churubusco. He 
had experienced a " great difficulty" in getting his horses across tlie 
broken country, partially inundated, and the deep and intervening 
ditches, to the causeway, but had succeeded in doing so. There he 
was joined by a ti-oop of the Third Dragoons, commanded by Cap- 
tain A. T. McReynolds. During the course of the action, a gallant 
attempt was made to turn the Mexicans with this small body of 
horse, and with them assail the loft flank of the enemy. The deep 
ditches which traversed the " wide and marahy fields" prevented the 
caiTying out of this manceuvre, and the cavalry, after inefl'ectual en- 
deavor's to execute it, wei-e compelled to return to the causeway, 
and there await the development of events. As soon as the bridge- 
head had been caiTied, Filia)w says : " I then let him loos" Furi- 
ous was his charge upon the retreating foe, dealing death with the 
uneiTing sabre." 

Before Kearnt, however, could bring the " unen-ing sabre" into 
play some time elapsed. The Dragoons had to make their way 
through the mass of obstacles which encumbered the causeway be- 
fore they could operate or even form. To the left of the bridge- 
bead the huge wagons, which composed the Mexican ammonition 
.train, were crowded together in the road leading from Churubusco, 
which entered the work from the west, or its right, immediately 
along the bank of the river. Every draught animal attached to 
these had been killed, and the passage was almost blocked up by 
the mass of wagons, war material, and dead men and animals, shat- 
tered and thrown together by the answering fii-es of assailants and 
defenders. To heighten the confusion, one of the powder wagons 
took fire, and threatened an immediate explosion. Th^ would have 
been most disastrous in the tiari-ow space completely jammed with 
the bloody wreck and rubbish of war, through which our advancing 
cavahy had to pick and force their way. With a reckless daring 

>y Go Ogle 


Bome of the soldiers on the road deTOt«d themselves to the prescrv- 
ation of then- comrades. They climbed into the burning wagons, 
tore out the ammunition chesta already kindled into flame, and tum- 
bled them into the ditch before the fire could rea«h their contents.* 
A path thus frayed for him by' this exertion of heroism, Kearny 
waa now enabled to extricate Lis di-agoons, and get them forward 
on the causeway, where it was partially cleai-. The retreating Mexi- 
cans had meanwhile made good use of then- respite, and had ah-eady 
placed a distance of ovei' a mile and a half between themselves and 
their pm-auers. As soon as he had space, KEAEurformed his troop, 

• "More of the New York Boja. Wo moat gladly give place to tliefollowinsailditloiinl 
leaf In the ohaplat of glory worn by Naw Torlc, for that iier sons have proved thcmsulves 
worthy of Bach a mother i 

" Wo hardly know how wo conld have omittefl the name of the gallant KEAHsr, (or it 
has often been on onr Ifps with words of admiration and praise.but we can hardly I am cut 
it, Bince it alEorda us this opportunity to lay before out readers BUch details as tbe foil ow- 

To the Editor of the Courier and Enquirer : 

"Allow me to add a slith to the names of the gallant 'N«w Yorkers,' whom jr.a ^n 
justly mention with admiration, aahaTing, nnder the folda of the American flag, 6oaiii.a 
With their blood the soil before the city otMosieo. 

"1 know the omlsaion waa accidental, and tlierefore recall it to yonr recollection : I ,il 
Inde to Lientenant (now Captain) Pmup KEiiiNr, of the FiTBtDragoonB, as chivalioiiB 
an oiUcBT ayver wore spar or belted sabre. 

"Having served ten years in thefar West with hiaro^ment, with the eseeptlon of two 
pasacd in Prance, nndar tha reqolBition of Government, during which bo served a c«iii- 
paiga with the army in Africa, he was nbont to resign his commii^eion and retire to liia 
estates, when the country was startled by the battle of Palo Alto, 

"Hastening to Washington, he arrived in time to withdraw his reaignation, and was cm 
powered to raise hb own troops. He immediately applied himself with allhis encr^zlus 
tothetaek, and by lavbh cicpenditures of bis own addition to the bounty oliiiul 
by Government, he was soon at the head of a body of picked men superbly mounted. 

"Joining General Soott at Vera Cruz, his troops wore made his body-guard, and ]i,ir- 
ttdpated at tha battle oC Oerro Gordo, enduring, in common with tha rest of the anr.y, 
the fatigues and esposiu^s up to the city of Pncbla. 

" At the battle of Churubuaco his Dragoons (It is nnneoeasary to say that he was at their 
head) were In the thickest of the t^ht. 

" Charging upon tha retreating masses of the enemy, and exposed to the mnrderoue dis- 
chargoof four batteries, belching cross-flres of ball and grape-shot, besides an incosijint 
torrent of musketry from all sides, his arm suddenly fell helpless at his aide, shattered by 
a ball a little below the shoulder. Although safferiug intense pain, and bleeding profusely, 
he still retained his position and command, till, becoming fiunt, he reeled In bis saddle, 
and was only prevented from falling by the hold of one of hts dragoons. 

" From exhaustion and loss of blood he soon swooned entirely away, and being placed 
in a blanket, waa carried to the rear of his men. 

" The nest day his arm was amputated, and at the last acconnts he was doing well. 

"My acq.uflintanca la slight with Captain E,, mnch more so than with Lieutenant 
SoHHTLiR IliHiLroN, the only other of the genUeuien that you mention whom I have 
the pleasm^ of knowing, but whoso elegance and modesty in tho drawing-room fully pre- 
pared me for his gallantry in the field of battle ; but. slight aa it is, I felt bound to call 
yoarattentiantowhstldoubtDot wasKuaccidental omission." & 



and galloped fm^oiisly after. His original force, small as it was, liad 
only been angmentod by a single platoon, under Captain Keek, who 
was accompanied by Colonel Haekey without a command- The 
column overtook the Mexicans about a half a mile outside the 
Garita (Ban'ier or Gate) of San Antonio Abad, through which the 
causeway enters the city. Beyond this commencod the subm-bs of 

Into the dense mass of thonsands of the enemy — Santa Anna and 
several other gencrala were involved in the tumult — Keaeny plunged 
his command. It is not probable that it exceeded 100 horsemen. 
It could not have comprised over a hundi-ed and fifty horsemen, 
volunteers included, had his ranks been full, after daducting 
casualties and sick — ^victims to the enemy, campaigning and climate. 
It plunged into the Mexican armed crowd, just as one of the Brig- 
antines of Cortes crushed its way onwai-da tlirough the midst of the 
enormous fleet of Aztec war canoes on a like sunny May-day (1521), 
326 yeai-9 previously ; or just as Coetes himself, with his devoted 
band, chai'ged home, and wrested victory out of defeat. 

" Oat of this nottle danger we plucked the flower safety," 

at the famous battle of Otompan, or of Otumba, on the 8th July, 
1520. Or perhaps, even more like the charge of Claverhouse, at 
Bothwell Bridge, after the gate and barricade had been battered 
down by the artillery and cleared by the infantry ; when that model 
trooper of the day followed up the Covenanters until his "Life- 
Guai-d'a swords were blunted and their horses blown." 

The sabres of the dragoons scattered death and dismay through 
the Mexican soldatesca, and hewed theii- way onwards with as fatal 
effect aa the light broadsides of the vessel of the Conquistador 
through the fleet of their Aztec forofathei-s. Those of the crowd 
who were not cut down or ridden over, either threw themselves 
into the ditches on either side of the causeway, and dispersed over 
the fields, or else jammed tliemselves, in a confused mass, into the 
entrance of the barrier. 

A batteiy or lunette, mounting two gang, defended the Garita.* 
The garrison — either bewildered and terror-stricken at the wild 

♦ Tiera was a regular line ot defences from the Nino Perdido Gnte to that of San An- 
tonio. There tte Hue Mopped. To the left or east of it woa a lunette eonneeloil, n quar- 
tet of mile farther on, a priest's oap or swallow-tall, detached, and ahont a qnartfic of a 
mile to tlie ieft of thia again a simple redan ot fleche.—" «i;j allached to OJtcial Seport." 

>y Go Ogle 


tumult, which surged upon them ia all the panic of a rout, instead 
of the assured victory they had been promised, or determined to 
make good their position regardless of their own people — now 
opened their Are upon fiiend and foe, dealing death promiscuously 
amid the crowd. 

Unfortunately, while this charge was progressing with so much 
success, General Scon — unaware of its success or opportunities — 
had despatched an order to aiTest the pursuit, fearful that it might 
be carried too far, and compromise what had been ginned. As soon 
as this order reached Colonel Haknet "he caused the recall to be 
sounded from the real'." Amid the thunder of aitilleiy and the 
shouta and cries and uproar of the flight, the notes of the bugle were 
either unheard or unheeded by those in advance. Those in the 
rear, however, gradually obeyed the signal, and small parties con- 
tinually dropped off, from time to time, as the trumpet notes which 
conveyed the order made themselves heard. Thus, those who held 
on their adventurous way were soon reduced to " three or four sets 
of fours." With this hand-full, Keabnt kept on as undauntedly — 

aa if he had been followed by the whole force with which he 
launched out upon the enemy. In this he was accompanied by 
Miyor Mills, of the Fifteenthlnfantiy, who had joined his squadron 
aa a volunteer aftei- participating in the fiei-ce struggle in which hia 
own regiment had its Colonel wounded and one-third of its force 
cut down. 

Just in front of the Garita a ditch had been dug neai'ly across the 
causeway. . Although numbers of the Mexicans had been precipi- 
tated into this cut by the pressure of the mass behind, it was yet 
impassable for men on horseback. Perceiving that the Mexifan 
mounted officers — mingled with the flying crowd — abandoned their 
animals to make their way across this obstruction on foot, Keaknt 
threw himself from his saddle, called upon his men to follow, dashed 
across the ditch, and threw himself into the midst of the Mexicans, 
to enter the battery with them. He was nobly supported by two 
officers and about a dozen dragoons. It is a sorrow and a shame 
that American Ilistory has not preserved the names of all these 
men. From the context it would appear that the ofF.cers were Cap- 
tain Andrew F. McEEyMOLDS, Third U. S. Dragoons, from MicM- 

>y Go Ogle 


gan, who was severely wounded on this occasion, and Lieutenant 
John Lorimek Geahak, Tenth TJ. S. Infaatry, like Major JIiu^, 
serving with Captain Kearny, and " attached" to his command, also 
severely wounded. It is a very curious fact that Keahnt, McRei"- 
Norjia and Graham, were all three uijui-ed on this occasion, in the 
left araL Major Mit.tjj fell, slain at, or, as claimed, inside, the very 

Kearny always had a confused idea of what occurred at this 
juncture, and yet he preserved a distinct recollection of many inter- 
eating incidents. He said that when he threw himself into the 
press, hewing his way over the rampart and into the batteiy, he 
distinctly saw one Mexican oiEcer pointing him out to the infantry 
in the work, and by his gestures, ui'ging the men to take good aim 
and shoot him down. Tho features of this officer seemed to have 
been impressed upon his mind with such vivid force that he could 
have recognized him subsequently. The jam soon prevented 
Keaemt fi.'om using his weapons, and it appeai-ed as if a hundi-ed 
hands had bold of him at once ; othei-wise, the pressure itself ren- 
dered his sword arm powei-less. How ho extiicated himself he 
never could tell. When he found himself fi-ee, his leather baldrick 
or ci-oss-belt — to which his officers' caitridge -box was attached — was 
gone, likewise his pistoL It had been torn off in the struggle to 
get free, likewise his waist-belt; yet he could not remember how or 
when. This may be readily conceived, when the reader calls to 
mind that a cannon had been belching forth death almost in the 
face of Kraent and his little band, striking down Americans and 
Mexicans on either hand. Thns fell the gallant Major Miles; thus 
the staunch McEeykoijjs and Graham were disabled. 

Nothing saved Kearny and the survivers of his party but the 
panic, inspu'cd by his audacity. Terror-stricken, the Mexicans at 
the moment when he was in then- power seemed to have shrunk 
back appalled. They either abandoned their guns or ceased to 
charge and dischai-ge them ; and even the musketry discontinued its 
Are. It was the very churm of battle, a whirlpool of human life. 
But the thunder of the tempest had a pause. Had Eeakny been 
foBowed by the number with which he commenced this charge, or 
had no signal of recall been blown, and had he been supported by a 
force of infantiy, he could have made his way into the city, and 
Mexico, most probably, would have been captured that day. From 
the Garita of San Antonio to the Grand Plaza ia leas than a mile 

>y Go Ogle 


and thi-ee-qiiai-ters, and within tbe barrier there was not a single 
defensive work, and no organized defenders had there been any. 
All was indiscrinainate panic, consequent confusion and flight. 

The following extract fi-om the " other side," or Mexican History 
of this war, ia too complimentaiy to justify its omission. The 
reader will pardon its inaccaracies, since the Mexicans, from their 
own showing, were in no condition to see things clearly or relate 
them accurately : — 

" General Santa. Anna, with his staff and General Ai.cokta, re- 
tu-ed also from tihis place" — ^the Villa or Village of Portales, about 
three-quarters of a mile in the rear of the bridge-head, "which still 
was contested." "Hemisedhimself with the cavalry,and, desperate, 
gave the whip to some of the officers, who fled. On the causeway 
a horrible disorder was seen ; all were confounded, and pushed one 
another, and ti-ampled one another undei' foot. 

" The American di'agoons, mounted on fleet horses, coming up 
to our rear-guard, increased the &ight, by crashing those whom thuy 
met in their way. General Santa Ansa reached the Garita of San 
Antonio, and aftei- him, the rest of ours, cut to pieces, mixed «p 
with some of the enemy's di'agoons, intoxicated with blood. The 
men at the guna discharged some grape-shot among these, and the 
infantry, feeling that their entrance was now covered, opened a 
thick fire along the causeway, animated by the presence of Gener- 
als Santa Anna, Alcokta and Gaona, who personally commanded 
them. At this moment an American officer, in an uniform of bhie, 
peneti-ated through the low earthen rampai-t, mounted on his horse, 
sword in hand, dealing sabre-blows, and falling wounded on the 
esplanade." [Mark this : inside the San Antonio Gate must be 
infen-ed from the Mexican account.] " Many swords were drawn to 
kill him ; but the othera also hastened to defend htm on seeing him 
fall. He rose crippled, radiant with valor, and smiling at the feli- 
city of being at the Gates of the Capital." 

This officer was Philip Eeaesy!* 

• "Itlsnot often that w^proaisaHieenlogiiini. We do not consider every offlcsr who 
comes bttck wounded a iiero. That epithet must bo won by mora tlian mere bravery— it 
bsloBgB only to bravery in the eieese; patience nnder fatJgne; unmutmating endor-incs 
of pain, and an ardent thirst (or gloij. 0£ all the offlcers who have fonght under onr 
banners, no man has shown all those cliaracteriatica mote fnlly than Captain Searny. 
Yet no voice here has been lond in his praise, no city newspaper has invited pnblic atten- 
tion to his Eallanlry, and called upon the citizens ofhia native place to do him honor. If 
the Btotj of his chaise at Chnrnhusco he not exaggerated, certainly there ia no canae to be 
aho^n why be should receive two brevetE, at did Captain May. Captain Kuhkt is in 



Finding himself alone, but free, Keaiott comprehended his situ- 
ation at once, that nothing was to be done but get out of the scrape 
as soon as possible. He accordingly retraced his steps along the 
causeway on foot. It would have been fortunate for him bad he 
continued to do so, for be had scarcely withdi-awn when the Mexi- 
cans remauned their guns, and commenced firing grape down the 
road. Unluckily, Keaeny encountered one of our dragoon horses, 
whose rider had been killed, sprang into the saddle, and attempted 
to spur him into a gallop. But the animal was done up, and whe- 
ther from exhaustion ot wounds, could scarcely hobble along. An- 
other discharge of grape now tore down the causewaj-. While on 
foot, the first missiles passed over bis bead. Fii'ing too high was a 
common fault of tbe Mexicans, They seem to have often auned 
along the line of metal, without allowing for the dispart Being 
elevated in the saddle, a single ball took efiect and completely sliat- 

Ene fiealth, bnt we regret to learn that Llentenant GBinAM, who accompanied the charge 
ana ahared in his roiefortune, has not reooyered from tho effect of hie wonnfl, for the 
want of atfenUon, but has jnet passed throagh s dans^orous illness. We hope thej may shortly again In the saddle. To show that we Lave not es^geratcd the merit of 
Captain Keahbi, we suhjoln a description of hia and Ms troop's share at the battle of 
Chnruhnsco ; 

"The charge of Keahni's dragoons upon the flying maasea of the Meilcans in tie 
battle of CUurnhnsco is one of the most brilUant and decisive feats which have occurred 
in the war. As soon as our troops hafl carried the formidable <oie de ponf by which the 
avenue leading to the city was laid open to cavalry, Captain KEiRNi's dtagoons rnahed 
npon the fljinK masBcs oi the Mesicans wllti an impetnoBitj andtotj wMoh made amends 
for the ocflntiness of thar numOers, anSliore thorn liacVt in coninBion upon ftie town. Tka 
enemy had upon the causeway a force of cavaliy fourfold that of our own, but the nar- 
rowness of the avenue prevented him from availing himself ot this snperioritj, and re- 
duced the conflict to those ainf-Je-handed issncs In which the Mexicans must ever yield to 
our prowess. The audacity of the onset of KEiBST's troops Btraolt dismay to tho host 
which fled before them. The retreat became a confused rout, and tho causeway was 
blocked np by the entangled masses of the enemy. But even through this obstacle the tri- 
umphant dragoonsforced thelrway.tramphng down thoae whoeacaped thetr relentless 
sabres. Scattering thefr foe before them, the dragoons came at last within reach of the 
formidable batteries which defended the gates ot the city, and a murderous fire was opened 
npon them, which was even more terrible to the fugitive Meilcans than to the dragoons. 
The latter continued their pnrsnit up to the galea of tlio city, and were shot down ormade 
prisoners npon the very parapets ot its defences. This was the moment, if ever, that 
Gen. Scott might have entered tho city, had the Instant possession of it conf orme 
preconceived designs. Already had the inhabitants of the town set up the cry t 
Americans were npon them, and the whole population was stricken defenceless Ij 
terrors. But the dragoons were recalled from the pnrsnit, and the snrvivofa of that des- 
perate charge withdrew, covered with wounds and with honors . 

" In every narration ot the events of Chumbnaco we have seen this charge and 
ot KEiRNT'a dragoons commemorated and applandefl. but it appears to have im 
the Meiioons far more than the popular mind of onr own countrymen. In varioui 
which we have seen written by them from the capital, they speak rf the audacity of the 
dragoons as terrible and almost snpematuraU"— ffew Orkant Picayune, Nov. Elsf, 1S47, 

>y Go Ogle 


tered tlie bone of Kearny's left arm, between liis elbow and shoul- 
der. He described the pain as excruciating, but still was able to 
keep the saddle. The flow of blood, however, soon brought on 
such exhaustion, that he was about to fall wbcn he came across a 
group of oui- soldiers. They staunched the blood aa well as they 
were able, placed him in a blanket, and carried hiiti to the hospitaL 
He sufiered terribly until an operation was pei"fonned ; and he often 
said no words could express his sense of relief aa soon as the arm waa 
amputated. While Surgeon De Leon was at work, General Pieece, 
of New Ilampshire, held his head. Keaent often spoke with grati- 
tude of the feeling displayed on this occasion by the future President. 
Thus had his presentiment been realized. He had saved his life, 
but lost his left arm as he foretold. Nor had the words, lightly 
spoken at the dinner in Puebla, fallen unheeded to the ground. 
He had won his brevet, and paid the price with his left arm. 

This was the end of Keakny's sei-vico in Mexico ; bi-ief, but how- 
glorious ! He was not at that time the robust man he afterwards 
developed into, nor was his wound an ordinary one. Scarcely any 
of the arm was left, it was taken off so near the shoulder. Before 
the stump was healed, Scorr was in Mexico, reveling — if the con- 
sciousness of a triumphant issue due to his superior generalship is 
not thus con-ectly construed, what is? — in the halls of the Mon- 

On the I3th September, Mexico was virtually captured; on the 
14th, "Old Gloiy" waved over the National Palace, and Soott en- 
tered the city amid the acclamations of his soldiers. 

Captiun J. W, P , Fourth U. S. Artilleiy, seiTing as Infan- 
try, stood with the remains of his regiment, drawn up in the Grand 
Plaza when Scott entei'ed. The old General, the hero of two wai-a, 
waH in fuO and splendid uniform. Conspicuous above all the rest 
towei-ed the gi'and Commander-in-Chief, as magnificent a specimen 
of an American as he was an illustrious example of a general. Be- 
hind followed an ^eort of dragoons, grand men on tall horses. 
As the honored Chief entered the open square, a loud hui-rah, a 
shout such as can issue from none otherthan Anglo-Saxon throats, 
burst from the troops already drawn up there. Brandishing their 
sabres high in air, the dragoons responded with a like manly hur- 
rah i and the old walls and buildings .echoed, until they seemed 
to shake, to such victorious cheera as no Latin or Hybrid race can 

>y Go Ogle 


Sut the first man who had entered, sword in hand, tJiegate Oj 
hat captured capital, was Captain Philip Keakne. 


"Arriting here, Hie 18th (Anguat), Worth's division and Harney's caynlry 
were pushed forward a league to reconnoitre, and to carry or to mask San Antonio, 
on the direct rond to tlie capital. This village was fonod strongly defendod by 
field works, heavy guns, and a nnmerous garrison. It could only he turned by 
infantry to the left Over a field of volcanic rocks and lava ; for, to our right, the 
ground was too lioggy. It ivas soon ascertained, by the daring en^neers. Captain 
Mason, and Lieutenants Stevens and TowEG, that the point could only be 
approached by the front, over a narrow causeway, fljmked with wet dikHies of 
great depth. Worth was ordered not to attack, but to threaten, and to mask the 

"The first shot fired from Sam Antonio (the 18th) killed Captain S. Thohkton, 
Second Dragoons, a gallant officer, who was covering the operations with his 

" The same day a reconnoissance was commenced to the left of San Augnstin, 
first over difficult mounds, and farther on over the same field of volcanic rocks 
and lava which estiiid to the mountains, some five miles from San Antonio 
towards Magdalena. This reconnoissance was continued to-day by Captaiu Lee, 
assisted by Lieutenants Beal'be&ahd and Tower, all o£ the engineers, who were 
joined in the afternoon by Major Smith, of the same corps. Other divistons 
coming up. Pillow's was advanced to make a practicable road for heavy artilleiy, 
and Twiggs' thrown farther in front to cover that operation ; for, by the partial 
reconnoissance o£ yesterday. Captain Lee discovered a large corps of observation 
in that direction, with a detachment of which his supports of cavalry and foot, 
under Captain Keaeny and IJeatenant-Colonel Graham, respectively, had a suc- 
cessful skirmish." (Compare Semmes' "Service Afloat and Ashore," pages 378 

Major-Otnerat Scott's OjHciai ^''poJ'i, No. h.ofilK "Batllei of Contreraa and Chum- 
bvgeo," Executive Dociimmts, No. l. page SM. 

"Arriving at Coyoacan, two miles by a cross-road from the rear of San An. 
tonio, 1 first detached Captain Lee, engineer, with Captain Kearny's troop, First 
Dragoons, supported by the rifle r^;iment, nnder Major LoRlSG, to reconnoitre 
that strong point ; and next despatched MajotvGieneral Pillow, with one of the 
brigades, (Cabwali^Ahbh'b,) to make the attack upon it, in concert with Major- 
General Worth on the opposltti side." 

Mqjor-aeneral Soott's O^eiai Beport. Ibid.. 2fo. 39, page 309. 

" Aa soon as the tele de pont was carried, the greater part of Worth's and 
I'illow'h forces passed that bridge in rapid pursuit of the flying enemy. These 
distinguished Generals coming up with Brigadier-General Shields, now also 

>y Go Ogle 


victorious, tho three contiaiied to press upon the fu^tlves to mthin n mile anS a 
hulf of the capital. Here Colonel Harkey, with a small part of Ma brigade o£ 
tayalry, rapidly passed to the front, ajui charged tho enemy up to the nearest 

" The cavalry chai^ was headed by Captain KEAEtNT, of the First Dragoons^ 
Laving, in Bqnadron, with his own troop, that of Captain McBbysoldb, of tlio 
Third — making the nsnal raeort to general headquarters j hut, being early in the 
day attached to general sen'ice, was now under Colonel Harney's orders. The 
gallant Captain, not hearing the reeaS that had heen sounded, dashed up to the 
San Antonio gate, sahring in his way all who resisted. Of the seven officers of 
tha squadron, Keakky lost his left arm, McQ££NOI>ds and lieutenant Lokizlier 
Gbaham vrere both fieveroly wotmdod, and IJenlonaiit R. S. Ewell, who suc- 
ceeded to the command of the escort, had two horses killed midcr him. Major F. 
D. MlLl£, of the Fifth. Infaatry, a volonteer in this charge, was killed at the 

Xajor-General Scon's OJJicial Seport, IZiia., JXo. 32, page 315. 

" Captain Keakst, of the First Dragoons, commanding a squadron composed 
of his own and Captain MoEetnolds' companies, was on duty with my division 
durii^ the action, and made his way with great difScnlty across the wide and 
marshy fields and deep ditohes. Seeing no field for the action of Ms fine squadron 
until the lele de pont was carried, I bad held him in reserve. I then let him Iooso_ 
Furions was his charge upon the rofieating foe, dealing death with the unerring 
sabre, until he rcoclied the very suburbs of the city, and drew from t'le enemy's 
battories at the garita n heavy and destructive Arc, by wMch the gallant Captain 
lost his left arm ; and Captain McEbtnoldS, Third Dragoons, who nobly sus- 
tained tho daring movements of Ma squadron commander, was also wounded in 
the left arm. Both of these fine companies soatained severe losses in tlieir rank 
and file also." 

Major-Qeniral PiLmw's Offlcial lieport. Ibid., pagsS4S>-'U 

" The reports of Major Sumneh, commanding IHrst Battalion, and Lientenant- 
Colonel MOOUE, commanding Second Battalion, wMch I have the honor to forward 
herewith, will show in what manner the other troops and squadrons of my com- 
mand were employed. The three troops of horse, brought by me on the field, 
beii^! ordered away in different directions. Major Sumneo and myself soon found 
ourselves without commands. I then employed mj-self with jaj stail in rallying 
fu^tives and encouraging our troops on the left of the main road. Major Scmseh, 
towards the close of the engagement, was placed by the general-in-cMof in ehai^o 
of the last reserve, eonsistii^ of the riflo regiment and one company of horse, and 
was ordered to support the left. TMs force was moving rapidly to take its posi- 
tion in line-of-battle, when 'the enemy broke and fled to tho city. At tUs 
moment, perceiving that the enemy were retreating in disorder on one of ilio main 
causeways leading to the city of Mexico, I collected all the cavalry in my reach, 
consisting of parts of Captain Kbkb'S company, Seeocd Dragoons, Captain 
KbAbny's company. First Dragoons, and pursued them vigorously until we wero 
halted by ttie discharge of the batteries at their gate. Many of the enemy were 
overtaken in the pursuit and cut down by our sabres. I cannot speak in terms 

>y Go Ogle 


too complimentary oi the manner in wMch the charge was executed, Mj only 
difficulty wnB in restrMning the impetuosity of my men and officers, who seemed 
to Tie mtli each other who should be foremost in the pnraniL Captain Khakny 
giillaatly led his Bquadron into the very intrenchments of the enemy, and had the 
misfortune to lose an arm from a grape-shot fired from a gun at one of the main 
gates of the capital. Captain McUetsolds and Licufonant GJtAHflM wei'e also 
wounded, and lieutenant Ewell had two horses shot under him." 

Cotoiei William: 9. HiRNET'a Official Seport, Hid, page Zm. 

"Retamof killed, wounded, and missing of the army nnder the immediate com- 
mand of MaJoivGeneial Wibfiewj Scott on the 19th and SOtU August, 1847. 


Tirat Dragoons, Company F (Kbaksy's) — Prirates Patrice Haei, Jambs 
McDonald, McBnopiir, Johs IIittbb. 

"Tiling Dr^oons, Company K (MoRbyholdB') — Privates Edwabd Curtis, 
AuausTDS Debsoll, Gbobob Duvbb. 


" Krst Dragoons, CompanyF(KEAKSY's)—Cap(iiirt Philip KBABSY.seMrtiy, 
iosi left arm; Lieutenant Lobimeb Gbaham, (Tenth Infantry,) altaeked, 

" Third Dn^oons, Company K (McKbkjolds')— Captain A. T. McReys jldr, 
severely ; private Cowden." 

Smalt Sxcciillva Document, -To. U Decembar 7, 1817, page 431. 

>y Go Ogle 


' • * " BohoM my sncuose in jour service," 
le.ricblyinlaiaivith goM. 

and the Abbe prodnced a long leather 

'Yon are," aalfl Mobtbedil, openios the case, 
an the hilt, aod I dicw Iiack dazzled withlt; Inst 

and proflucins a sword ; the light fell 
ro ; it was covered with Atones, appm- 

.Ij- o£ tHo most ooBtiy valiia. Attached to the hill 
letters ol gold, was Inscribed, • * i 

was a laMo of pnrple velvet, on whlcb, 

'Tie a aword o£ Spain " 

, • • 

"BeHoldl Ihai 
A better never did itself euj 


Upon a soldier's thigh : 


After his return from Mexico, in December, 1847, decorated 
with the loss of hia left arm, and honored with a brevet — ^which he 
had won as justly as ever a brevet was earned — ^for distinguished 
gallantry in action — for which, alone, such a distinction should be 
confen-ed — Mftjor Kearnt was on recruitjng service in the city of 
New York from May, 1848, to July, 1851. Dm-ing this period, for 
the fii'st time in many years, he was settled down in the midst of 
his few surviving relatives and many friends, and happy in his own 
home, built on a portion of the country seat of his gi'eat-grand- 
father on his mother's side, Honorable John Waits, senior. He 
used to speak with delight of this period, when he was " master of his 
own establishment, his nice garden, and pretty play-ground for his 
children," in his native city. 

Daring his Bojoura in New York, a compliment was paid him which 
he always seemed to i-egard as the most welcome token of his fellow 
citizens' appreciation of his military services. A great many per- 
sons at the time, especially New Yorkera, did not think that the 
government had taken sufficient notice of Kbabsy's gallantry 
at the Gates of Mexico. Many officers had received two breveta 
for far less conspicuous merit In fact, such was the injustice 

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shoiTii that one of tlie finest officers in the service returnGcl Lis 
brevet in disgust. Philip Ke.uisy was a member of the Union 
Club, a body of gentlemen, which comprised numbei-s of the first 
men of the city, both as to position and inteDigenca This body of 
repi-eaentative citizens determined to present a " costly and superb 
testimonial" of their feelings towards their fellow-membei- " for 
gallantly during the Mexican War, but especially at Churubasco." 
This testimonial was a "magnificent sword," which was indeed 
magnificent for the time when it was made. As a rich and chaste 
specimen of ai-t it has never been exceeded, although naore money 
lias been lavished upon similar presentation gifts in recent yeai-s. 
" The guard was formed by a lai-ge spread eagle in gold, holding in 
its beak the head of a serpent, the folds of which constituted the 
guai'd, which was studded with agates. The handle itself was solid 
silver, richly chased, and it was fastened to the blade of "the ice- 
brook's temper," arabesqued and polished in perfect taste. 

"The scabbard, which was also of sold silver, was relieved with 
ornaments in gold and etchings. In a long ovai was a sketch of 
the battle of Chm-ubusco, where Captain Ke.vest lost his left arm, 
and within a circle, the word "CHtTBUBusco." Upon one of the 
bands was a representation of Hercules ci'ushing the Serpent, and 
on another a mihtary device, admii-ably arranged. The folloiving 
inscription shows the pui-pose of the giii : — " Presented to Captain 
Panip Keaent, Jr. , First Regiment U. S. Dragoons, by his Friends 
and Associates, members of the Union Club, New York, 1848." 

The aword was enclosed in a curiously contrived ease of black 
walnut, which was worthy of the weapon it contained. 

When his body lay in state, prior to his interment, in the parlor 
of his mansion at Belle Grove, this sword was clasped in the anns 
of the dead soldier, closely pressed to that bosom which had twice 
been decorated by the hands of foreign sovereigns, for the same 
pre-eminent soldiei-ship that won the exquisite weapon for the 
fallen wanior — a weapon his patriotic right arm never again could 
wield for the country he loved 80 dearly, the countiy for which he 

>y Go Ogle 



SiB Waltkb Scott's ' 

In midsummer, 1851, Kearny received orders to join his com- 
pany in California, and sailed for San Fi-ancieco in August of that 

Thither he was not unwilling to proceed, as he wished to look 
after some very laige investments made for him by an agents but 
■without his knowledge. These turned out very unfortunately, and 
swallowed up a fortune. Nevertheless, as lucky in hia daring specu- 
lations as in hia mOitary daaheB, he more than retrieved the loss 
while at the " Golden Gate." 

The writer has reason to be well acquainted with all these circum- 
stances, for to him, as to a brother, in preference to all others in the 
world, Pmi, Keaeny came for assistance in difficulties for which he 
was in no way responsible in honor nor called upon to remedy, 
except through that high sense of chivalry and regard for his name 
widch always distinguished hia actions. Prostrate from typhoid 
fever and almost powerless, the writer was still happy to be able to 
accomplish all that was necessary, and this fact is mentioned simply 
to demonstrate the mutual confidence and affection at crises which 
existed between hia cousin and himself 

It was during this pei'iod of Eeaent's residence in New York 
that he experienced that attack of varioloid — taken in the discharge 
of his duty — ^wliich was almost as severea'sthe worst fonn of small- 
pox. He was veiy deeply scarred in consequence of this disease, 
and through it a complete alteration was wrought in his appearance. 
Kot only wei-e his features affected, but a. complete physical change 
occurred. From thia time forward he began to spread and develop 
into that magnificent figure of a trooper which attracted the atten- 

>y Go Ogle 


tion of every one who saw Lim as he lay upon tlie embalming table. 
From this time, also, that reBeniblance between the cousins, which 
had so often attracted notice, terminated, and was no longer 

Major Philip Keaent had scarcely been transferred from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific coafit when he demonstrated the ti-uth of 
what has so often been clauned for him, that he seemed destined to 
shine in whatevei' he undeiloot. His summer campaign of 1851, 
against the Rogue IHver Indians, was one of the naost telling blows 
ever delivered by our army in this harassing warfare. These sav- 
ages at that pei-iod were the moat wiclced, most warlike, and most 
difficult to subdue of all the tribes on our Pacific coast What 
rendered them more formidable was the fact that they occupied a 
district which intercepted all intercourse between Oregon and Cali- 
fornia ; scattered along and across the direct road, north and south, 
on the banks of the Rogue River, which drains a rugged, moun- 
tainous wilderness, and flows as a general thing west and pei-pen- 
dicularto the coast, emptying into the Pacific, twenty miles south 
of Port Orford, and fifty miles north of Crescent City. 

Much information in regard to tlus expedition is derived fi.-om 
Major-General Runjs Ingalls, Chief Quartermaster for so many 
campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. At that time he was 
stationed at Fort Vancouver, on the Washington shore of t!ie 
Columbia Rivei-, where he fitted out Major Keaent. To use his 
language, " this handsome campaign opened that country. " It has 
often been commented upon with surprise how Keabmy, one^rmed 
as he was, kept his saddle on all occasions, even when the march 
lay along mountain tracks most dangerous, and often seemingly 
impracticable for a. soldier on horseback; ti'acks diificult enough 
for the sure footed mules. The principal engagement was that of 
the Table Rock, laid down on the maps as Fort Lane, about mid- 
way between Eoseburg, north, and Crescent City, south. The 
fonner (Roseburg) is the residence of Job Lane, as he was famili- 
arly styled, then Governor of the Territory, who wi^ote to Kearny 
one of the most flattering letters which can reward an officer who 
has succeeded in solving a difficult and dangerons problem. He 
gave him the gi-eatest credit for the ability with which he had 
plaimed, and the resolution with which he had executed his opera- 
tions. The fight at the Table Rock was a complete triumph. It 
awed the savages, pacified the distrifit, and aceomplisbed the great 

>y Go Ogle 


object in Yiew, making the route safe between our farthest north- 
western territory and California. On this occasion a very gaOant 
officer fell — Captain Stewart, who passed through the whole Mexi- 
can war with distinction, unscathed, to die at the hands of a miser- 
able Indian, shot through the body with an arrow by that savage 
whom he had rashed forward to save from the j«8t foiy of our 
troops. The torture which preceded his decease must have been 
teiTiiic, as was testified by his reply to Major Keaknt's question, 
"Stewart, are you suffenng much?" "Suffering! I feel as if a 
red hot bai- of iron was thrust through my bowels." 

Major Keakny took the greatest pride in the letter which he 
received from Governor Lane of Oregon in relation to these engage- 
ments and their happy results. This letter he exhibited to the 
iviiter when next they met with an honest exultation, such as he 
seldom displayed, as an acknowledgment of his able and brilliant 
soldiership. This letter, like all the I'est of the testimonials which 
Kearnt received from time to time, is no longer to be found. 
As soon as the present work was projected, a letter was addressed 
to Governor Lane in the hope that a copy of it might have been 
preserved by him. The following is the Governor's reply, but it 
cannot approach the concise elegance with which he expressed hia 
commendation in the ori^nal document: 

EosEBUEG, Oregon, April 27lli, 1868. 
Gekebjii. db PETSTER: 

SlO;— Iregret myinahility (ofomishyouacopy of the letter yon mention in 
yours o£ tie 31st January,* but it affords me ploasoro to supply, as well as I cim 
from memory, a brief statoiucnt of the conduct, iu Oregon, of the late Geaeral 




SlB:-Th« perai 

u Ig the Murfn. co-heir 


biosraplier of MaJoi-GeneriJ 

About then 

or 1853, mj coonein, Ge 

ion Major United 


10 Hfdmo. having JUBl 

rotiimed (rem the 

li csmiislgn SRiJi 





for tlie Vigo 

If lr«»ll«tariglil.jt>u stale. 



lawloBS tribes 


ir Territory o( wl 

liecntite. What 


know not If JO 


would oblige 

. glte 

, can ™u not give 


DraTs biography. 

YouTBHlj- atlen 


edli^ly oblige me, cjii 


ropBtly BpeciUiM phase in Uie 


Veiy reBPeelfuny. 







KKAltST, the important results ol which induced from myself the merited fompli- 
Dient to which jou allude. 

During the summar of 1851 Major Pini, Keaeny received orders to proceed 
■with two companies of United States Dragoons, Captnms Stewart and Walkeri 
from Oregon to some point in CaMoraia. En route, be was informed of a recent 
attack of the Rogue lUver Indians, in which they sueceedod in lulling quite a 
nnmbcr of miners, and doing other mischief. 

These Indians were at that time the most warlifco and formidable tribe on Iho 
Pacific coast. Never having fenown defeat, they were exceedingly bold in tlieir 
depredations npon the miners and Bettlers, and were the terror of all. Major 
Kkabny determined, if possible, to give them tiatUe, and finally found them, three 
hundred braves strong, in the occupation of an excel'ient poation. Ee ordered an 
attack, and, after a. sharp engagement, succeeded in dislod^ng them, killing, wonnd- 
ing, and capturing fifty or more. It was bere that the lamented, brave, and bril- 
liant Stewart fell. The Indians retreated across Rogue River, and feeling that 
(hey had not beenaulBciently chastised, the Major concluded to pursue them, and, 
whilst in the prosecution of this purpose, I joined him. He followed until the 
Indians made a stand quite favorable to themselves on Evans Creek, about thu:ty 
miles distant from the scene of their late disaster. Here he again attacked them, 
killed and wounded a few, and captured about forty, among the latter a very import- 
ant prisoner in the person of the Great Chiefs favorite wife. By means of this 
capture, and these successes an advantageous peace was obtained. Being an eye- 
witness, in part, of Kbaknv's movements aud action, I con, with great truth, and 
do with no less pleasure, bear testimony to his gallantry as a soldier and his ability 
as an officer. I was then, and stUl am, sensible of the great good secured to 
Oregon by his achievements at that particular time. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Joseph Lank. 

>y Go Ogle 


WefollOH in Ws flight; 
ParemeU awlille to him and fhea, 
Mj native land— Good Night !" 

Bmos'B "Chlide narola." 

•Sir, to a wise man all the world's a foil : 
It is not Italy, nor France, nor Europe 
That must lionnfl me, U my fates call ma forth; 
Tet,Iprotest,iti8no aalt desire 
Of seeing conntrleB, shifting for a religion, 
ITor any ditaffection to the state 
Where I v>ae bred, and unto wMch I owt 
Ms dearest ptott, hath brought me imV 

B. JoHssoN'fl •' FoJponf." 


After tliat gloriously successful campaign against tlie Rogue 
River Indians, in whioli Governor Lang boars such explicit testi- 
mony to hia enterprise, gallantry, and efficiency, Keabnt was sta- 
tioned in different pai-ts of California. All his own letters, which 
were exceedingly able and interesting, have been eithei- lost, mis- 
laid, or destroyed ; but the writer has been able to find a series of 
intimatioDB from the only surviving relative on his mother's side, 
his aunt, in which his movements are constantly refeiTed to. 

In one, written out to Europe on the 7th October, 1851 : " I re- 
ceived a letter fi'om Major Phil this morning, he desires remem- 
brance to you; he is at his quarters in the beautiful Valley of So- 
noma (in Northwestern California), well contented with the balmy 
breezes and the society of some right pleasant officei-s — is going to 
take a look at Southern California; expects to receive the accept- 
ance of hia resignation about the middle of this month, and then 

>y Go Ogle 


comes home. I am sony for this ; I had set my heart upon your 
meeting him on the top of the Pyramids ; now you must not go 
until next year, when you and Phil can take a fresh stait from 
If ew York. I think that will he delightfuL We can all think serious- 
ly about it when the Major cornea to New York." 

On the 14th November, the same coiTespondent vrote : " I have 
received another letter from the Major ; still enjoying himself to the 
full, expecting now daily to hear that hia resignation is accepted, 
and be off to France by -way of China, India, and Egypt; a snug 
way to get to Paris. He has a great deal of mihtary parade, guard- 
mounting at nine and a half in the morning, dreas foot parade at 
i-etreat, with trumpets sounding, sometimes with full band (military 
doings), from day-break until nine at night, tattoo. His advice to 
have a post established at a cei-tain point has been approved by 
General Hitchcock (Fort Lane, on the Rogue River scene of Iiis 
victory?) on his visit to Oregon." 

Keaexy's nextletter, dated 14th November, 1851, spoke of sailing 
the next day in the United States ship-of-war Vincennes, as a guest 
of the Commander, Captain Hudson, to the Sandwich Islands, from 
thence to proceed to Cldna, Calcutta, Bombay, where he expected 
to aiTtve in AprU, 1852. 

As intended, he saOed in the Vincennes, for China, stopping on 
the way at the Sandwich Islands. On the 7th December, 1851, he 
was at Honolulu, "He had the upper and second story in a dcw 
cottage with a piazza ranning around ; the native family (a chiefs) 
occupied the lower. He breakfasted with them, or in his own 
apartments, and dined at a French restaurant. The Vincennes, a 
noble ship, struck the trade winds in four days, then went on dash- 
ingly, making, for hours at a time, twelve knots." 

Hence, Keaent went round the whole world, and met with a 
gi-eat many strange and interesting adventures. He visited a great 
many places, whither Americans very seldom go, except in the pur- 
suit of gain. He appears to have stopped at Ceylon, and on his re- 
turn was full of his stories of strange lands, but always declared 
that he had seen no such scenery — which united all those beauties, 
which afforded Jiim the most pleasure, — as the banks of the North 
River immediately opposite the glorious CatskUls. 

Again and ^ain, while at Tivoli, and standing on our pine- 
clothed shore, with our magnificent mountains before his eyes, our 
majestic river at his feet, and the mormur of air, of trees, and of 

>y Go Ogle 


waves whispering music in hia ears, he was wont to exclaim : " I have 
been throughout theworld, and, after all, when I get back here and 
look around me, I feel I have seen nothing more beautiful, nothing 
so beautiful elsewhere." Or, as he remarked at another time, "The 
more I gaze upon this scenery, the more it satisfies. One can dwell 
in its midst, or return to it again and again, without its tiring. It 
is aatisfyingly lovely. Always the same in its. features and effects, 
yet ever changing in its expression, and ever presenting some new 
or hithei-to unnoted charm." 

In the spring of 1853, Keaekt was in Paa^s, where the writer 
met him in the full enjoyment of the society of the distinguished 
ofBcers with whom he had served under the torrid sun of Afi-ica, 
and with whom he was destined to aeiTe again under the scarcely 
less burning sky of Italy — soldiers in the highest sense of the word, 
who appreciated him as a glorious type of an American soldier. One 
of these was that cavalry Gteneral Morris so oft«n mentioned in 
orders for brilliant feats of arms. When Keaeny first knew him 
be was Major of the Chasseurs d'Afrique. Since that time he had 
risen to the rank of General of Division in the Cavahy of the Im- 
perial Guard. Between 1840 and 1853 he had distinguished him- 
self on numerous occasions, particularly at the capture of the Sma- 
lah (camp) of Abi>-ei^Kaiieii, at the battle of Isly, and in the 
Crimea. Kearny was attached to his staff, as volunteer aid, at the 
battle of Solferino. 

Although decorated by the loss of his arm, and by universal 
acclaim a brilliant cavalryman, few men bore theii- honors with 
more diffidence. For a man who had done and seen so much as 
Keaknt, his deportment was entirely devoid of ostentation. It 
was at this time that he inti'oduced the writer to one of the best 
ai-tUlery officers in our seiTice, a man of rare gifts, an able and 
fluent writer, whose con-espondence is well worthy of preservation, 
for the beauty of its desciiptions of scenery aa well as the elegance 
of its style. This officer also published an admirable ti'anslation of 
a French political work which, if the ordinary class of onr miser- 
able politicians ever read, might have served as indications to en- 
able tbem to avoid the shoals on which our countiy was nearly 
wrecked in 1860-'61. When the writer began to coOect notes for 
this work; a letter was received from the party immediately before 
alluded to, an extract from which is extremely interesting, as it 
refera particularly to the time when all three met in Paris : 

>y Go Ogle 


"Tonrs * • • requestiog to bo informed of any incidents in tlie life of 
General Kbarnt ' * lias just been rocoived. I regret tliat I am not 
able to furnish jou with any that would probably bo pofaeaaed with ajiy gcnoral 
iutereat. My intercourse with him, though not infrequent dating our period of 
military service, was always of a casual nature ; yet I saw him in many traits ol 
character that won my esteem and kind regard. Ho was marked by a generous 
disposition, exhibiting itself at times in an affecting mood of self abandonment, 
and even deaolateness, which was coloulated to ^ve one a deep and attractive inter- 
est iu him. He had some of the very best trdts of the soldier ; he was gallant, 
ambidoos, devoted, entecpriaing, decided, and einbued with a thorough love for 
his profession. Though possessed, in many respects, of sonnd sense and good 
jndgmont, yet there are some incidents of his life, known to me only in vagne, 
general outline, that seem to border on tho romantic. • * •■ 

It was in the spring of 1853, I thiufe, that he. Lieutenant Baskheab, of the 
Navy, and myself, were at a reception of English and Americans ^ven by the 
Emperor Napolkou IH., at the Toilleries. I was much struck at the bearing of 
Major Kbarnt. He had then left the service, but still bore the title, and for the 
ocearaou, wore the nniform. He was introduced to the emperor by oor own min- 
ister, Mr. Rives I and when his name and services were being mentioned, he 
shrank as if from modesty and bashfulness, although a lost arm showed that he 
had not shrunk in the face of the enemy." • • • 

Keaknt subsequectly returned to the United States, and devoted 
considerable time to embellishing his country-seat, Belle Grove, 
■which he had recently purchased. It is on the Passaic, imme- 
diately opposite to Newai-k, and on ita commanding site he after- 
wards consti'ucted his elegant mansion, which he gradually filled 
with the finest statuary and choicest paintings. For his means, 
KEAKNYwas a munificent patron of American ait, and his collection 
contained several masterpieces of native chisels and pencils. Their 
aggregate display he never lived to enjoy, for he had scarcely 
brought them together in his New Jersey home, when he resumed 
his unifoiTn ; and it is very doubtful if, living, he ever had an oppor- 
tunity to admii-e all his gems of ait together-, although the body of 
the hero lay in slate surrounded by them. 

An enthusiast in eTeiythinghe undertook, it was about this time 
that he turned his attention to the finest wool-bearing sheep. In 
the selection of his animals he spared no expense, and it is doubtful 
if there was a finer Sock for its size in the United States. 

He also paid some attention to cattle, but it would seem that his 
investments in this line were not fortunate. One cei-tainly was not, 
and he vei^ soon relinquished the idea of forming and maintaining 
a herd. He visited the writer's neighborhood several times to esam- 
ine the magnificent Devons at " The Meadows," owned by the 

>y Go Ogle 


brothers Wainwiiight, both of whom, like Kea.eny, relinquished 
the sweets of happy homes to serve and save their country. The 
elder, William P. "Wainwkight, a Christian gentleman, commanded 
the Seventy-sixth New York Volutiteei-s, a vciy fine regiment, with 
great distinction. The younger, Chaklbs S. Wainweigiit, a very 
able, practical man, commanded the Fh^t New York Artillery, a 
corps sm-passed by none in the sei-vice. Both brevet«d Brigadier- 
Generals for gallant and conspicuous service, survived the friend 
whom they admired. We shall see the younger, referred to by 
Keahnt, as displaying nnusnal gallantry and capacity at the battle 
of Williamsburgh. 

KEARnr always and earnestly desired to settle on the banks of 
the North River, Several of the sites which were the objects of 
his choice ai-e for natural positions and peculiar charms unexceeded 
by any in the most beautiful district of the Hudson, between Hyde 
Park and the boundary line between Duchess and Columbia Coun- 
ties. One of these sites is the prominent Turkey Point on the west 
bank of the River, about three miles below Sangerties. Keaknt 
never desired to settle in New Jersey, and he did not actually begin 
to build on the Passaic until he found himself unable to purchase 
any one of the places which suited hla ta^te on the Hudson. Con- 
cerning this the writer can speak with certainty, for his own agent, 
at the request of Kp.aknt, was employed to negotiate and attempt 
the purchase of one magnificent site in Red Hook and another in 
Hyde Park. Besides these, a number of others were examined, and 
in two cases, Keaknt offered higher prices than were actually re- 
alized for the same property afterwards, when sold. 

It has often been the occasion of remark that Kearnt did not 
visit the Crimea to witness the siege of Sebastopol 1853-'5. Tliis 
is easily explained. His business reqmred his attention aftei' his 
return home in 1853 in consequence of his frequent and protracted 
absences, and he was detained for a long time in consequence in 
this country. Subsequently accident — severe injuries from the 
fall of his horse through a bridge — and circumstances beyond his 
control prolonged his stay on this side of the Atlantic. Nothing 
but insurmountable obstacles would have kept him from witnessing 
and participating in the grand drama of suffering and peril in the 
ti-enches, and on the blood-stained heights before Sebastopol. The 
atmosphere of such a charge as that of Balaklava would have been 
as congenial to his instincts as fire to the fabled Salamander, or to 

>y Go Ogle 


the actual " Salamatider," the nickname applied to the British Gen- 
eral CoTTS, of King William's Ware, whose elements seemed to 
be danger and the exchan^g fires of opposing batteries and lines. 
Keaent, however, was one of those restless dispositions which 
cannot bj-ook any repose, however charming, provided it afforded 
none of that excitement which, to him, was the very breath of his 
nostrils. He suddenly started ofi", in 1856, to be present at the cor- 
onation of the Emperor Alexandbk at Moscow, and nothing could 
exceed big graphic description of the fetes which attended the cere- 
mony. He seemed to experience a vivid satisfaction in his recol- 
lection of the military displays in which he participated and the 
pomp of which be was a spectator. He also made a tour through 
Spain, and, previously, to prepai'e himself for it, apphed his energy 
to mastering the Spanish language. Tlus was characteristic of the 
man, and although the writer cannot speak with certainty as to all 
the foreign tongue which he understood, be was certainly profi- 
cient in Fi-ench, and was acquainted with the Italian and Spanish — 
veiy likely, the German also, in a less degree, since he took a great 
deal of intei'est in the military matters of Germany, and visited 
Prague, to be present at some gi'and reviews which were held near 
that city. It is very curious, but when, in 1852, the writer reported 
in favor of the gray uniform and system for the designation of rank, 
which in many respects was identical with that adopted by the Re- 
bels, this color and system received the full endorsement of Keaent, 
who dwelt with emphasis on the superior advantages of grey," 

• * * " Bl-bk la now {:SB4) the national mllitarr color of nearly the whola cItII. 
iMd world. The United States, France, Belgium, Holland, Sweden, Pmasia, Greece, Swit- 
zerland, Beveifll ot the minor Gerinao States, Spain and GreatBiilaln, in many branches of 
their eervicee, Naples, States of'the Chnrcli, Pleflmont, Tuscany, Turkey, and even Tanis, 
have adopted the dark bine cost, with some little difiercnce of ornament What objection 
can there be to the asBumption ot the well-known moK-GSKr as tbe imiform of tho Bute 
of Kew Yorft ! None is more beautiful or striklns than the old national qket, faced and 
trimmed with biiglit yellow somewhat similar to the dress of the Volllgenrs. orPoot-Kifle- 
men {See 1 lOOi, O. S. Army Regalalions 1847). The Tyroleae and Austrian Riflemen, 
likewise the Modenese, wear a similar grey with a Bhade of bine, which makes a Tery sim- 
ple and handsome BiUt. Likewise the Noble Gnard of Tnscany. With their gold embroi- 
dery and splendid appointments, tbe latter's was the richest uniform • • ■ abroad. 
A light bluish-grey tanic, and darker pantaloons, coostftnte the undress nniform ot Aua. 
trion General Officers. But a month since, and the English War-SIinistry adopted a jiroy 
uniform tor their Ught Infantry and Kfies, very airollar to that of the Austrian Cacclatoti, 
or Sharpshooters. 

Iron.grey, the coat ligbter than the tronsera, would make a yery handsome uniform tor 
onr generals and staff-offlcers. and at once distinguish them from the regulars of tqual 
grades. As it is abroad, accnatomed constantly to see the nnlfomi of the United Slates 
Army and Savy, it Is impossible for foreign officers to appreciate the trifling changes 

>y Go Ogle 


founded on wliat he had observed at the grand Austrian r 
He laid particular stress upon the rapidity ■with which the powder 
emoke swallowed up lines in grey, and rendered them invisible to 
aa antagonistic force. That this was the fact had previously been 
shown by experience and statistics. 

In 1859 and 1860, KEAKNr resided in Europe, and in the latter 
year Edivin de Leo!T, "late confidential agent of the Confederate 
Department of State in Europe," in his "Seci-etHistory of Confede- 
rate Diplomacy Abroad," admits that Keaenx rendered important 
seiTice to the Loyal North while in Paris. This ia his language : 
"While the interregnum in the diplomatic representations lasted, 
by the lagging on the stage of the reluctant veterans of Mr. Buch- 
asan's Ministers, before the new ones had arrived to represent the 
views and wishes of Mr. Lracom's administration, one Minister 
made himself wonderfully active, at both the Enghsh and Frenoh 
foreign offices ; and in other places where public opinion was to be 
influenced. , This waa Mr. Sanford, then, as now, Minister to Bel- 

wWch doslgnata tlic Stole Berrtce This often places aStatfioOcetfnan unpleasant posi- 
tion, ana tenders a long and embarraaalng explaaation necossarj, nnlosBliQwiBlica to 
practice deception and sail under false colore. 

Over and above tho manr cogent reasons argod, • • the following addi- 

tional recommendatlona may not ba wlthont wflght. At morning and evening twilight; 
In foggy, mnggy, and rainy weatlier, a body of men tlrns clothed would be undiati ngii isb- 
able at a vctyEhort distance, and amid the smoke of battle thay wonld ba swallowed up 
at once inthe clouds of kindred hna. Grey and yellow, or gold, foim the richeat dress in 
tlie world ; witSont bullion, It is tho cboapcst, taking into conaiderotioti its setvici^ability, 
it is national to a great degree, and last, nat least certainly, it is i/ie least fatal to its viearer. 
Grey, It Is staled, waa the nniform of tho English troops In the reign of WiLUAH III., 
and is now again adopted by the Light Infantry on aoeonnt of Its euitaSlencsa for corps 
exposed to practiced marksmen, and, themselves, asaignod to the dangerous duty of shntp- 
shooters. It Is now worn by tho Austrian riflemen, and good reasons must have dictated 
the choice, for It waa not appropriate to any pcovlnco of the Empire. 

"It wonld appear, from numerous observations, tbal soldiers are hit, during battle, 
according to the color of their dress, in the following order : Jied, Ike moatfatal; ("our 
scarlet is more distin^iahabU Ihaii any O-her color (Datit's " Campaign of 1815, 
page 160)/ the kast fatal, Aiutrlan grey. T!te proportions are: red, la; rtjte-green 
7,- SroiwiG; AuelTiaa Ntiieh-gre;/. &■" (Jaebsoh'b /tmraof, JVo. 105.) 

General Philip KEiRSY stated that, during a aham fight be saw at Prague, in Bohemia, 
In XS61, In which aeventeen thonaand men, with tMrty-fonr pieces of arliUery and Brocket 
hngade wore engaged, he was particalarljatmok with the admirable fitnesa of the BREr 
DBKSS of the Austrian riflemen, of which a full battalion, about one thousand, were act- 
ing as sMimiBheta ; at times Invisiblo, when the powder-smoke rolled over the field, dis- 
appearing in ItB curling clouds on account of the similarity of their uniform, and again 
appearing when least espected like phantoms, as the breeze, aided by the movements of 
the combatanla, drove aside the suiphnrous canopy. He added, be was astonialied nt the 
facility with which they wers lost to view, and that uulfotms of grey cloth, for riili-;m?u, 
had not been maintained in this as well as in every other country whore military propriety 
orappropriatenoes of dtoBs is the object of constant and Bcmpnions attention," Brigadier 
General SIB Bx.Ta\aa!B,Bei>ort of labi; Biaumsnall,pageSL 

>y Go Ogle 


^um, bat who gave himself a roving commission, and worked in- 
defatigably, some said obtrusively, on the Noi-thera side. So om- 
nipreaent and so brisk was he in his movements, that some wicked 
wag dubbed him — the 'Diplomatic Flea;' and though perhaps open 
to the charge of over-zeal, or officiouBiiess, he certainly was one of, 
if not the most efficient advocate of the Noi-thern cause in Europe. 

" Generai. Fremont, who was then in Europe, also threw the 
whole weight of his name and influence on the Korthern side, as 
didalao &en. Phu, Keakny, whose aodcU qualities had given Mm 
influence in certain circles in France. The great horde of Ameri- 
cans resident abroad possessed but little weight or influence, either intelligence, culture or distinction of any kind. They were 
chiefly people of good incomes, who left home because they found 
themselves — or ima^nod themselves (good) — of more consequence 
abroad ; and at the commencement of the war it was rather 
theii- style (1) to affect sympathy with the Southerners, as representing 
the more aristocratic side" (better). 

It is veiy curious, but equally true, that in whatever character, 
Kgarny undertook. to shine, he always played his part well; his 
hospitality was princely, his equipages and horses inferior to none 
in style, beauty, and qualities. His taste was chaste and elegant, 
and in his appreciation of the beauties of nature, nothing could ex- 
ceed "his delight in them or his judgment in the selection of points 
of view. Since his resignation in 1851, his wanderings wei'e worthy 
of a more lengthy notice, for he reveled in perils, in the gratifica- 
tion of his mstinetfi, from which the majority of even the boldest 
men would have shrunk, or at all events, have but rarely indulged 
their fancies. It is very unfortunate, as noted more than once be- 
fore, that his correspondence between 1851 and 1861 seems to have 
entirely perished, since Kbaent wrote well, and desci-ibed what he 
saw concisely but with a peculiar force, which rendered his descrip- 
tions " woi-d-pictures." Had he ever written a book, it wonld have 
been a gallery of word-pictures, for, as he often deolin-ed, the people 
of our day demand and will not be satisfied with any other style 
of writing. 

Thus, all the pains possible have been taken, to follow the hero 
of this sketch throughout all his various wanderings, and it is to be 
regretted, for the sake of the reader, that so few data fi-om the hand 
of Eeakny have rewarded the diligent search made for them. 

>y Go Ogle 


Judging from what has been preserved, or what still lingers on the 
memory, they wonld have amply repaid perusal, and hie letters 
alone, edited with care and judgment, would have constituted in 
themselves not only an agreeable and instractive book, but, like 
Michelet's "Life of Ltither" — constructed almost entirely from 
hia correspondence — would have presented the best word-portrait 
of Keakny, and tlie most attractive and eatiaiaetorj lUaloiy of hJa 
remarkable career. 

>y Go Ogle 




"In thy faint Blnmbersl bytheshave watcbea, 
And beara (bee murmnr tales of iron war ; 
Bpeak terms of manage to tby hoanding ateed ; 
Cry, courage I to the field I and Ibou haat talk'd 
Of salliea and letirea ; of trenches, tents. 
Of palUsadoee, frontiers, parapeta ; 
Of basllislcB, of cannon, culverln. 
Of prlaonera ransomed, and of soldiers Bl^n, 
And all the cucteut of a beady fi'bt" 


"The sMnfng taf^ea of war are fled, 

The bannere furl'd, and all the epitngtly blaze 

Insensibly it vanished from my tbouglit.'' 

YocBa'B "BnsiiuB." 

Paris, 14th July, 1859. 

"Mt two inonths' absence has been all that a 111011317 man could 
have desired — a school of such grandeur as rarely occurs, even here 
in the Old World — and the drama has been complete. 

"Leaving Paris the day after" (10th June) "the emperor, I 
arrived just two days before bim (14th July). 

" I have roamed about evei-ywhere, and in the day of Solferino, 
Iwas not only present with the line of our cavalry skirmishers, 
(but) as toell in every charge that took place. That day I was 
mounted from sis in the morning till eleven at night — scarcely off 
my horse even for a few minutes — depend on it, he was a good one. 
The cavalry of the guard came np some sixteen miles ia full trot 
and rapid gallop to take our places, under fire ; for there was a gap 
we had to stop. I remaned until I saw the Mincio passed and 
Peschiera invested, and the whole Austrian army demoralized and 
broken up. 

>y Go Ogle 


"The night before the battle I had a imraculoua escape, having 
been inveigled by false guides into the midst of the Austrian maeseu.* 

"There are seven American oflieei-a following the Piedmontese 
army. I am going to the baths of Homburgh for awhile. Paris 
is very warm, more so than I have ever known it. My health has 
been exeelieut nntil I arrived home. When at Tmin I had a coup 
de sohil. 

" The peace has taken ua by surpi-ise — it ia in consequence of 
some underhand and revolutionary moves of Count Cavoub, which 
Uie emperor had to put a stop to. 

" Veiy traly, yours, "PniLL." 

When General Keaent i-eturned fi-om Italy, while in conversation 
with the wiiter, he expressed the ntmost admiration for the French 
army, and their doings at Solferino, he seemed to feel that the 
Austrians might have won the battle, or maintained their position, 
had they held out with greater tenacity or been aware of the condi- 
tion aud dislocation of the Allies. The reader may remember that 
quite a stampede was reported, just as occurred at Wagram in 
1809, and according to the journals some of the French ti-oops did 
not stop until they reached Brescia. The presence of Napoi.eok 
in. in front of Solferino, at the erieia, electrified the Fi-onch, and 
a renewed attack, fed with fresh troops, can-ied the keypoint of the 
Austrian position. Then, the scale long poised, declined, deciding 
the victory against Fkancis Joseph. 

The letter with which this chapter opens, written within three 
weeks after the gi'eat battle to which it refers — a battle in which 
General ICearnt so distinguished himself aa to win (a second time) 
the cross of the Legion ol Honor — covers the whole ground; tells 
the whole story. 

Kearny, like others of his race, was a very unequal man in his 
conversation. At times he was pai-ticularly reticent, and seldom 
prone to narrative. In referring to his military service, he usually 
alluded to it incidentally and as a means of illusU-ating a question 
under discussion, or to give point to an argument, rather than dh'ectly 
as a matter in which he was personally interested. 

' General KEi 

■KNT had jaBl flnch anottor halr-br 

eaath eseapB af 

'terGtenflale. SOth June, 


Btilly, 1st SeptJcmbor, ISea, a simila 

I plnnge into t 

.at Mm his Ufa.- Dfml>Uest,Mvsa 

mmnalt? made KsAiur 


1 a charmed lifs. 



It is very doubtful if he himaelf evei- kept mncli, if any, record of 
hia service." Wton it pleased him to shine in convei^sation, he 
shone, but unless he chose to talk upon the subject of his own 
selection, under the spur of some immediately occurnug excite- 
ment, he i-etii-ed within himself or chatted on indifferent subjects. 
Thia may have been real modesty, because he did not ivish to seem 
to boast of what he had passed through. In this he very much re- 
sembled the Count Lippf so often refer 'el to a 1 ' f il Tl ' ' 
th t I il P h p 1 y 1 ttl k t U 1 t 1 

a.f ddhmltfthLt tmwihbp 


1 p h p ly 

d d h m It f th 



w! w t h 1 th 


9 th y t t 


c p f b t 

t th t th A tn tl 

f th 

P torn t 


dm t ftl 

t Ills s — ^lui. th 

my f th P torn t y Js — w d t t d th 

thr hth d m t f tl Id th 1 1 m dll 

fth t 1 m t th hth ■d w t th d 

frmth f t~ 1 htU ft t irf tl S tl — 

that, as a rule, — certainly as long as they were west ot Milan, and 
always as regarded the inhabitants of cities, towns, and large villages 
— they (the Austrians) were fighting in the midst of a population 
hostile to them, and friendly to the Allies — a population which did 
aO they could to deceive the one, and assist the other with reliable 

Greneral — then Major — Keaknt was fully able to judge of the 
diificultiGS which attended the preliminary movements of tue Aus- 
trians. The spring of 1859 was one of flooding rains and freshets, 
in a countiy more susceptible tlian almost any other to inundations, 
The Austrians were greatly blamed by those who pretended to be 
judges, as well as by the majority of quidnuncs, for not advancing 
at once to Turin and dictating terms to the King of Sai-dinia. This 
opinion is such as might be expected from parties not acquainted 
With the theatre of war.t Doubtless the Austrians might have 

• One ot hiB friends, who served with Mm In Mesleo, and afterwanlB aeBooiatcd wfth 
himfuPariB.remarltod In a letter— "Of his service In Algiers, I know but little; simply 
that he served SB an officer In the French osvalry, I believe, and that Is all. I iloabt even 
whether he hlmseU ever kept mnch record of It." The Bame observation holds good to 
ills whole career. 

t Had the Sardinians fallen back on Genoa, and the Fienoh reinforcements landed ot 
tiiat port, the Ailles conld hare token the Austrlana In the reac, and tlie roaalt voold have 
been another Marengo. 



moved with more energy, but that enei-gy would have been incon- 
fiisteot with t methodical methid of carrying on war according to 
pnnc ] lei an 1 lies of stiategy with the disposition of the peoplei 
and w tl the const t t onil chi icteristica and traditions of their 
am y Had they pi n^ed forward into a country intersected by 
nve s anl streams wh h n vey rainy seasons oveipass their 
b nls and co vert wh le distr eta into vast shallow lakes, the 
whole army might have been caught in a trap and so entirely ruined 
that the Allies could have blockaded their fortresses and taken pos- 
session of whatever they deemed expedient, or that the German 
Confederation would haVe permitted. 

The theatre of war on which the French and Sardinians first 
encountered the Austriana is said to be one which waa seldom trav- 
ersed by tourists, but was visited by General Kearny in 1834, in 
just such a wet season as in 1859. The following remarks, com- 
piled from a joui-na] kept at that time, may be interesting to show 
the obstacles which impeded the movements and operations of the 
Austrians without hampering the counter-operations of the Allies, 
■whose lines of supply — railroads and capital highways — ^both resth 
ing on secure bases, were not affected by the same exti-aordinary 
difficulties as those of their enemy. 

Kearny could thus judge from personal observations of the ter- 
rible impediments to military movements which result from long 
continued and excessive r^ in the gi'eater part of the basin or low- 
lands between Turin and Milan.* 

In August, 1834, Kearnt stai-ted fi-om Genoa for Milan, intend- 
ing to cross the Simplon into Switzerland, but was compelled, on 
reading the Lago Maggibre, to turn back npon Turin, by way of 
Novara — ^where Radetszky defeated the Sardinians in 1849. Heavy 
rains preceded and accompanied this journey. It is needless here 
to dwell upon the loveliness of the scenery through which he climbed 
to the summit of the Apennines, since the interest of the matter 
on hand begins with his anival upon the monotonous plains of 
Lombardy, when the intervening summit shut out the last glimpses 
of the azure Mediterranean. Soon afterwards the party looked 
upon a turbid flood, or lagune, into which the overflowings of the 
rivers had converted the level countiy as far as they could see. 

• Keadorenlioiildboarin mina tha 
dikes or, u we term them, leveeb 



While amid the mounttdnB they had echoed each other's admiration 
of the effects of a heavy thunder-storm — -whose heneficial results in 
temperingthe air rendered their ride the more delightful, while the 
reverberations roOing through the gorges seemed like answei-lng 
roars of pai-ks of artilleiy — little di-earaiug that the consequences of 
storms, such as had broken upon them and varied the attractions 
of the journey, would render its prosecution impossible. As soon 
as the party came in sight of the Scrivia,tliey found that instead oi 
aE insigniflcant, fordable stream, it was nishing furiously towards 
the Po, and had been converted into a Mississippi, covering the 
country for one league on either side of its usual channel ; the 
neighboring villages rising up in the midst like so many miniatures 
of Venice, Some distance beyond Novi, where the more elevated 
grounds subside into the level, on the spot where Jodbekt was de- 
feated by SuwAKROW and slain, in 1799, Kearny's can-iage met 
postilions who had just traversed the gi'ound with the King of 
Wurtemberg, They informed him that many of the bridges were 
under water, and that they had been compelled to pass one at full 
gallop, fearing it would give way before they could get over. lo 
many places the road was hub-deep; the fertile fields were hidden 
beneath a tawny flood, and where it had subsided from an even still 
greater previous rise, slime and sand, brought down from the 
mountains, disfigured theu- cultivation. Turning aside towards 
Alexandria, the driver sought to avoid the inundation by a more 
elevated detour and by a country road, but found that he had not 
bettered his condition, so dii-ected his horses again towards Tortona, 
ivhei-e the bridge was still practicable. The situation was by no 
means satisfactory, and Kearny's party were actually stunned by 
the exaggerated accounts of the freshet. AiTived at the Bridge of 
Tortona it was with dilEculty the travellers were permitted to pass. 
Theirs was the last carriage over, and piints in the wi-iter's posses- 
sion at this day are stained with the muddy water which invaded 
the trunks on the rack behind and under the bos in front En- 
gineers m charge of the long bridge across the Scrivia — about one 
thousand feet in length — ^were in doubt if it had not already yielded 
somewhat to the violence of the sti-eam, which, as the tourists hui-- 
ried across, roared against the abutments, and wet them with its 
foam. It was no agreeable promenade, for at intervals the stmo- 
tui-e, which must have been very strong to resist the current, 
trembled beneath the shock of trees and timber, brought down 

>y Go Ogle 


agdnst it, as if they had been so many battering rams. Beyond the 
river, the causeway waskaee-deep with water, running so violently 
that it was difficult at times to keep straight ahead. The bed of the 
Scrivia at low water ia a vast waste of gravel over 1,200 feet wide ; 
the stream itself being ordinarily from 300 to 400 feet in width." 

The night Keahn'y arrived at Tortona the waters subsided, and 
thence to Milan the route was uninterrupted. Tliis sho^vs how 
suddenly the affluents of the Po swell, overflow, and subside. As 
regards the Po itself, a Piodmontese soldier, engaged as a servant, 
related that while encamped with several battalions upon the upper 
part of that river, it rose so suddenly in one afternoon, that had 
not the commanding-general received notice of its menacing aspect 
from a peasant, the whole force must have been overtaken in the 
night and many drowned. 

Prom Tortona the road continued through a low country, inter- 
. sected by many ton-ents, whose passage always presents dangers ia 
rainy seasons The trees andcropswere ever present proofs of the! 
wetness ot the rank, although tecund, soil, which is scarcely drained 
by a network of camU At the willow grown, mai'sh-bordered 
Po, the travelers found the conntiy pfople repairing a bridge of 
boats, foui of whn,h, ti^'ethei with a mill, had been carried away 
by the freshet Both the Po and Ticino wci-e so swollen at this 
time that they seemed almost impassable barriei-s to the move- 
ments of any laige body of tioops 

Continuing the jouiney on northwirda from Milan, along the 
Oloua and Ticino, KEARsr and his friends arrived at Ai-ona, only 
to find the town so invaded by the Lago Maggiore that they irere 
forced to go ashore from the can-iage as from a boat, by means of 
a plank resting upon a sill of the Hotel della Posta. Here they 
learned that the passage of the Simplon was impossible ; that rains 
had occasioned such destruction that bridges and whole \Tllage9 
Jiad been swept away ; and the party were actually compelled to re- 
trace then- steps towards Turin, to get across the Alps by Mount 

Keaeny was now about to traverse the very ground fought over 
by the present belligei'ents, which had been the arena of the world 
since HANNmAi, halted under the immense cypress of Somma, said 
to be two thousand five hundred years of age, under which Kearnt 
had stood a day previous. This wonderfiil tree, one of the largest of 
its species known, stands on the field on which 0.C. 217) that great 

>y Go Ogle 


strategist of the world defeated the drenclied and half-frozen legiono 
of SciPio, for the cont«3t took place in winter. Twenty-thi-ee feet in 
girth, it rises to the height of one hundred and twenty-one. Ha.x- 
MiBAL reposed under it, Julius C,E3A.s visited it, and Napoleon re- 
spected it, altering his road to spare such a living monument of the 

From Arona, Kearny traveled through 01 eggio to Novara, whose 
fortifi cations, once so important, were, in 1834, pai'tially dismantled. 
Between this pla«e and Oleggio, the road was bordei-ed by rica 
fielda and swamps, which render the ooimtiy cold and unhealthy to 
its population, and mortal to strangers. Thence to Turin the coun- 
try changed its character, and became at times woody, vai'ied, and 

Having thus traversed the western portion of the fighting ground 
of 1859, Kearxt knew from actual smwey that it was not wonderful 
that BO little had been accomplished by the Anstrians. The best proof 
of the admirable engineeiiag of the invaders was, that they did 
move their hundred thousand troops and maintain them in a coun- 
try which, in a rainy season, resembles the bottomless lands of the 
Netherlands, and is often converted into a district as much the do- 
minion of water as of solid ground. 

Snch were the difficulties which the Austrians had to encounter 
when hostilities commenced, or rather, at the only time when a 
forward movement could have placed them in the heart of the Sar- 
dinian territory, and made them, with energy and generalship, 
masters of the situation. As American readers, however, will 
doubtless take but little interest in a campaign which, grand as it 
was, was dwarfed by our own groat civil war of four years, and by 
the " Seven Weeks' War," in which Prussia inflicted a much more 
overwhelming defeat, at Sadowa, in 1866, upon Austria, than that 
of Solferino, in 1859, the following remarks will be confined to the 
principal collisions along the route upon which the Emperor, the 
Imperial Guard, and, consequently, Keakny operated. 

The following table of comparative chronology of the events of 
the two campaigns in Italy, 1803 and 1859, conducted by the two 
Emperoi-s, Nak)leon I. (while Fii-st Coas,ul) and Napoleon III., 
may be of interest, although there is no comparison between them 
as to the ability shown. The campaign of 1800 was a stroke of 
genius, based upon a plan, to which three, if not four of the finest 
military minds in Em-ope, Carnot, Mokeau, Marescot, and 

>y Go Ogle 


BnosAPAKTE, cotitribiited their ideas. Several generals of great 
ability co-operated with the suggestion of their especial experiences ; 
among these latter, Marmont, to whom was due the successful 
transportation of the artillery aci-oss the Alps. The campaign of 
1859 displayed no genius, but a great amount of brilliant and des- 
perate fighting, in which the talents of experienced officers could 
l>e brought to bear with combined power under the direction of a 
Supreme authority, endowed with uncommon common-sonse,* or the 
feculty of profiting to the utmost by the peculiar ^&s of counsellors 
and subordinates. 

Kearny joined the French army at Alexandria, and there, with 
his nsnal liberality, gave a grand dinner to the cfficcrs with whom 
he was associated — ^what the me^eval war-hero mignt have termed a 
"festival of swords," but those of the present era must more appi-opri- 
ately style the "festival of missiles." As KBAKNTwas attached to the 
Cavalry of the Guard, he took no personal part in the subordinate 
engagements, although he was an eye-witness of all that opportunity 
peiTQitted, and a keen observer of the events of the compaign. An 
American gentleman who accompanied him to Italy, wi'ites that 
even " in Paris, he (Keakst) was much distinguished for the accu- 
racy of his knowledge of military affairs, and his acquaintance with 
the strategy of the modern wai'S." With these facta established, 
what a pity it is that his correspondence from Italy in 1859, has 
disappeared beyond recovery, in an equal degree with the report 
of his experiences under the same flag in Algiers in 1840. 

left M^ lOth.— Napoleon left Paris. 
'■ I3lh.— Hia arrival at Geiioi, 

" Iitli.«)th French Army crossed Monnt " lath.— NiPOtEOS HI. nt Alejisnaris 

St. Bomard. with his army. One hnndrod 

** SOth,— NspoLEON I. crossed Moant SL and fifty thousand Preuolk in 

Bernard. Italy. 

" MBt— SistJ tlloUBBnd French in Lorn- " SDth.— Battlo of Monlohcllo. 

bardy. ^"„.^^*^ \ EngaeemcntB at PalcBtro. 

Jmio ad.-NAPOLEos L entered Milan. J^ne Isl- 1 ^ ^ 

» Bth.— Battle of Montehella, in the Pass " 4th.— Battle of Magenta. 

of the Stradella. " 7th.-NiP0i.Eos IIL entered Milan. 

" Jlth— Batllo of Mareof-o. Death of " 9th.— Combat of Molesnaao, Imilns 
rESAijt. ■ conqnercd Lomlwrdy in forty 

*• IBth.— Conyenlion of Alexandria, hav- days, dating from tlie day ha 

ing reconquered Italy in forty joined the army, 

days. " eilh.— Battle of Solfarlno, 

July Sd-aa.— NjiPOLIoN I. back in Parla. Jnly loth.— Peace of Villa Franca, 

" ICth.— Natoleoh IIL back in Parla, 



Notwithstanding the discipline of the opposing armies, wiiich 
ought to have been perfect if mere drill could ensure perfection, 
the fact is worthy of note, that the Austrians, two hundred and 
fifty thousand sti-ong, appeared to have no settled plan, and in 
almost eyery case the antagonists happeripd to meet " when no 
general battle was expected," just aa the Federals and Rebels ran 
into each other at Gettysburg. Montebeilo resulted from a recon- 
noissaiice on the pai-t of the Austi-iana; Magenta grew out of a 
combination of accidental circumstances, as far aa its magnitnde 
■was concerned ; and Solferino likewise. This is the view of one 
who followed the armies, who constantly refere to the " strange 
tactics of the Allies," "the slackness of pm'suit;" remarks that they 
" did what they had done all along — advanced in the track of the 
Austrians," and eompai-es this "advance," which onght to have 
been a sharp following-up of a worsted enemy, to " a military 
promenade in a rich country, by easy stages, not yet too hot," and 
in another place, "to an agreeable promenade in the park." The 
strategical movements, as regarded time, might be set down as 
"perfect failures." 

Throwing aside the skirmishes and actions, which actually had 
little or no effect upon the main campaign, there were only three 
battlea fought. 

In the first, Montebeilo — 20th May — the Allies had every reason 
to plume themselves on the result. It was a fair stricken field, and 
the Austrians were worsted in their trials, with every arm, and in 
eveiy position. 

This first action occurred upon a theatre whose glorious reeolleo- 
tiona must have inspired a people much less alive to such impres- 
sions than the French with almost invincible courage. It was 
upon the same field of Montebeilo that Lannes and Yigtoh, on the 
9th Jane, 1800, defended the Pass of Stradella, a strate^c key- 
point, against the Austrians, and enabled the French forces to con- 
centrate for the battle of Marengo, fought five days afterwards. 
This vietoiy was due more to Desaix — who purchased it with his 
life — and in a lesser degree to Kellekman, the younger, and Mar- 
MONT, than to Kapoleos L The latter could not agi ee for m my 
yeai-s, either upon what took place or even what he wanted to 
appear shoiild have taken place. The defeit of the Austiunu, 
however, whether dne to Desaix or to Napoi^eon, qv. e the whole 
of Piedmont, Lombai^dy, and the Milanese mto the hands ot the 

>y Go Ogle 


French, and as KBU.eauAX aald upon the field, of J»i3 charge, it 
placed the Imperial Crown upon the head of the iiret Napoi.eon", 
■whose nephew and succesaor was awaiting the issue of the conflict 
of Montebello at almost the same distance from tho immediate field 
of action as his uncle fifty-nine yeara previously. 

The credit of this victory, won 20th May, 1859, although it must 
be shared with the Sardinian cavalry, whose chai-ges were brilliant, 
was due in a great measure to Gleneral Forey, who had fallen, in 
some degree, under the displeasure of Loms Napoleon in the 
Crimean aimpiugn. This General amply redeemed himself. Ameri- 
cans will remember him for his capture of Puebla in Mesico, 16th- 
19th May, 1863, for which he was raised to the dignity of 

Montebello waa a battle of charges and counter-charges — ^very 
much of the same stamp as Ligny, 1815, which was won by hard 
fighting. This contest is, moreover, remarkable from the fact that 
the French reinforcements — like those of the Rebels under Kirbt 
SMmi, whose arrival decided tlie firat battle of Ball Run, 21st July, 
1861, In their favor — ^were brought to the veiy field in rail- 
road trains, and that the troops actually commenced a desultory 
fire upon the enemy fi-oin the windows of the cars. 

The battle-ofPalestro, although creditable to the Sai-dinians and 
their King, and to the Zouaves, was comparatively a side issue. 

At Magenta the gi-apple was long and doubtfuL As at Torgau, 
in 1760, as at Marengo in 1800, the Austrian commander-in-chief 
telegraphed in mid-battle the gain of a victory. Everything tni-ned 
upon the profitable employment of time. As at Aspem in 1809, 
the question was purely one of capacity to follow up a success. 
The slow Austrian was again no match for the quick Frenchman, 
who profited by the respite. Moreover, the Austrians lacked such 
men as our Iugalls to supply them. They displayed gi-eat intr&- 
piility, but they fought on empty stomachs. The Fj-ench brought 
up iresh troops on decisive points, and hurled them upon troops 
physically and morally exhausted, and ao, throughout the history 
of the two nations, immense battle-fields were decided at particular 
points by mere firactions of the hosts engaged. For a long time 
the result was very doubtfiil. Genera! McMahon, created Mai-shal 
and Duke of Magenta, "saved the French army," and decided the 
victory, which was scarcely a victory, if the Austrians, according 
to custom, had not abandoned the field before the question was 

>y Go Ogle 


wholly fought out The moment they commenced to retire tlie 
effect was the same as though they had boen thoroughly defeated- 

At Solferino — 24th June — at one time aiffairs went very much 
as at our first Bull Run, while the hard fighting lasted, and the 
slightest inclination in the scales of fortune, either one way or the 
other, might have decided the result differently. As at Wagram, 
in 1809, a panic was repoi-ted in the reai- of the French. Genei'al 
Keaknt always a^d, while he exalted to the skies the courage and 
conduct of the Fi-ench, that it was a "touch and go" matter, and 
that if the advantages enjoyed by the Austrians had been duly 
employed as they should have been, the victory must have remsuned 
with them. It wss very much like Gettysburg, with a different 
result. The Austrians occupied a fine position, and if the hearts 
of their men had been in their work, as those of the Army of the 
Potomac were, four yeai-a afterwai\3s, in their work, Italy would not 
now be a United Kingdom. 

The French were altogethei- as confident and determined as the 
Hebels ; their heai-t was in the business before them, and they 
triumphed. Had our ti'oops held the heights of Solfei-ino, the 
superiority of the men would have compensated for the inferiority 
of their leaders. Solferino realized the remark of Hajor-General 
Eeckwitii, B. a, a Waterloo veteran ; " That every battle comes 
down to the last ten minutes, and that army wins which has ten 
minutes the most fight in it." Kbakky, throughout life, always 
seemed to have not only the decisive ten minatea fight in him, but 
ten minutes more to spare. Had the Aaetrians fought at Solferino 
as the English at Inker-man, "a soldier's fight," as the English com- 
mander admits, the French would not have had the ghost of a 

This, the decisive battle of the campaign, in many respects 
resembled onr third day's fight of Gettysburg, pi-ovided the ridge 
we occupied had formed a comparatively stjught line of ten or 
twelve miles, instead of a fish-hook of not over five miles in the 
extent of its curve. The Sardinians occupied the same relative 
position as the coipa of the rebel Ewell ; Benedeck's corps repre- 
senting oor extreme right on Gulp's Hill. 

BiiSEDBCK was posted not far from Lonato, where the first Bona- 
parte, on the 3d August, 1796, signalized himself by frightening 
four thousand Austrians into laying down their arms to a detachment 
of about twelve hundi'ed Fi-ench. The knowledge of this exploit 

>y Go Ogle 


mnat have steeled the nerves of the Sardinians — many of whose 
forefathers served under Napoleon I — to an inti-epidity akin to such 
high-souled determination, Castiglione, a little to the northwest 
of Solferino, was the scene of one of the French Republican vic- 
tories of the aame date as the preceding. This is credited to 
Napoleon, but in reality was due to Ai:giereau. When Bona- 
parte "spoke only- of retiring aci'oss the Po, it was on the eamcst 
remonstrance of Atjgeeead that the resolution of marching against 
the enemy was adopted." Auoejieau's resolation led to the vic- 
tories of Lonato and Castiglione, and when that General was made 
a Marshal and a Duke, his title waa derived from the latter, the 
fiiild of his victory. Here agMn the Austrians threw up the game 
before it was decided, and their subsequent retreat proclaimed the 
triumph of the French. 

The Heights of Solferino were to the Austiians what the prolon- 
gation of CemetJjry Ridge — where Webb met the shock and fmy 
of the top high-tide wave of the " Slaveholder's Rebellion" — was 
to the Array of the Potomac. 

Pickett's charge was a repitition of the onset of the Foot Chas- 
seurs and Volunteers of the Imperial Guard, which succeeded, 
captiu'ed the key-point, pierced the Austrian center, and decided 
the battle. PiciiEiT failed for the veiy reason that Makesque suc- 
ceeded. The Ai-my of the Potomac saved itself Intuitively the 
Union troops streamed to the menaced point to feed the fight. On 
the contrary, the Austrians did not reinforce or replace the ex- 
hausted defenders of Solferino. Their ai-my went to ruin in con- 
sequence, just as the Army of Northern Virginia would have gone 
to rain then and there on that 3d July afternoon, had Picketts' 
repulse been followed up with energy ; fully justifying the remark of 
the rebel sympathizer, the British Colonel Freejiantle : 

"It is difficult to exaggerate the critical state of affairs as they 
appeai-ed about this time. If the enemy, or their general, had 
shown any entei-prise, there is no saying what might have happened. 
Genera! Lee and his officers were evidently fully impressed with a 
sense of the situation." 

In this battle the Austrian cavalry played the same pai-t as 
BuPOKD in the disasti-ous fight of Oak Ridge, 1st July, 1863. 
John Buford, to your honor let it ever be remembered, that with 
your cavalry division of 2200 men (A, B. J. 152) you held at bay one- 
third of Lee's ai'my until the First Coj-ps came up ; fought in support 

>y Go Ogle 


of the infantry all through that Bultiy summer day; and when all 
seemed to have gone to wreck, you presented such an imposing 
front to the successful enemy, as enabled the beaten troops to 
establish themselves on Cemeteiy Ridge! "The steadfast front of 
BuFoiic's cavalry in the flat to the loft of our position, deterred the 
enemy ii-om purstung." 

The Austrian cavalry exhibited the same self-sacrificing devotion. 
' The Brigade Mensdokff* boldly advanced into the plain of Medole, 
on the Anstrian left, to draw the fire of the French artiDery upon 
it, and thus to extricate the Austrian artillery — subjected to a front 
and flank fii-e — from the awkward position in which it found itself. 
The cavalry succeeded in this act of noble devotion, and accom- 
plished its object, although at a heavy loss. 

About 2 p. M. the cavalry of the Imperial Guard, under Morris, 
to whose staff Keaent was attached, came up to relieve the Second 
Corps, McMahon, fill the gap left by the advance of that corps, 
and connect the Fomth Corps, under Marshal Nisr, with the Thu-d, 
under Cahrosert. This advance of this magnificent body of horse 
was represented in a spirited sketch from the pencil of M. R. dei.a 
GiRONSERRiE, Lieutenant in the Dr^oons of the Empress Eugenie, 
published in the Paris "Illustration." They came up. Chasseurs, 
Dragoons, Lancers, Cuirassiera, in column of squadi'ons, having 
accomplished six leaguesf at full trot or gallop, in the midst of hor- 
rible clouds of dust, aei-oss a country very " impra^rtieable " for cav- 
aliy, and assumed a position in front of the Austrian infantry. 
These last attempted to make a break when the Light Brigade of 
Chasseurs d'Afrique and Guides were let loose upon them. At 

r, 18!3, (lislinKiiIehed htmself at the head of a body of cavalry, hovetingnpon all the 

Could this be the same man, ettlt a bold dragoon, and, like B£DET2ET, an eBterprieliig 
leader, In a green old ^e, 

t This WM notWngtothaezplolts of the Mounted Troops of the " Inimitable TonaTEH- 
BOH." (&TUiaT'a metorij of In/antrv, page ^.f "Will the cavalry of the present day 
march flttoen miles" (German; sixty to aevsnty-flve English) " and ilght a battle, ai did 
the cavalry ot ToasTENSou In 1015 (aSd November, 1044.) atlnlerboli.'' C'Steikmktz's 
3!askeiri/ Ingtructloa for the Cavalry Carbine and Pistol, page U). For this battle of 
Interbok, see S. W. de Fs ToEaTBHSOH, page III. What made the achievement of the 
Swedish Cavalry the more wonderful, they performed this march ■' on one fodder" 'Tim- 
STBNaos to Wbasbel, S4tli Novpm\>er, 1H4), and nothing saved even the remnant of the 
Imperialists, which escaped, l)in the complete exhaustion of the victor's animals. Tfear 
Jutarlmk (Atjsoh, iv. lij, I.), the Prussian Landwehr, many flrmed with pllics (Bdheub's 
Bluoiieb, hi. 138-40), gave the "bravest of the brave," Net, a thoroagh boating, and 
placed the name oC BuiAn ofDenneivitz In Che rank of Fruesia's greatest heroea. 



tbe same time General Morkis supported this movement witli his 
Lancers, Dragoons, and Cuirassiers. The Austiian infantry were 
completely overthi-own, as well as the Dragoons of the Austi-ian 
Imperial Guard and the Hungaiian Hussara, reputed the finest 
cavalry in Europe, who attempted to save their comi'ades on foot^ 
When the order was despatched to the Chasaeui'S d'Afrique to 
make tlieir biilliant onset above referred to — ^likewise depicted by the 
Chevaliei' Giaccomelij in the "Illustration" — Keaioty requested 
pei-mission from General Morkis to go foi-ward and witness this 
charge of his old comrades of Afiica. Keaeny had beheld how 
they chsffged the Kabyles and Arabs ; he wanted to see if 
they could scatter and slaughter the Austi-ians in a like peculiar 
way." " Wlieri the charge took place he (Keakny) participated in 
it, holding his bridle in his (ee(A, with his characteristic impettt- 
osity." " Among the officers in this charge I can only remember " 
— continnes the letter of a Boston gentleman who accompanied 
Kea-ioty to Italy — " Jerome Bosaparte Patterson," a West Point 
gradnate, and American, from Baltiniore. " Twenty-iseven officers 
and non-commissioned officers were among the killed and wonnded" 
of the Chasseurs. A relative, formerly an officer United States 
Dragoons, adds, that " General Morkis slightly i-eproved Kearny " 
for thus allowing his ardor to carry him away, but, as Kearny says 
in his own letter that he " was not only present with the line of our 
(French) cavalry skirmishers, but as well in every charge that took 
place," the reproof was doubtless that of a fond father, who, fearing 
tiie loss of a daring boy, reproves the act in such an evident tone 
of admiration as to nerve and stimidate to greater deeds of daring 
gallantry. This brief refei-ence to Eearny, flUed out by his own 
sententious avowal, constitutes him a grand figm'e in the glorions 
pai-ticipation of the Cavalry of the French Imperial Guai'ds in the 
tremendous conflict of Solferino. It shows that an Ameiican Vol- 
unteer played his part with sufficient distinctioti and audacity to 
attract the attention and win the applause of an army of which it 
was remarked, in one of their pi-evious invasions of Italy, that they 
in;irched to death with as gay a disregard of life as if they had the 
assurance of rising again irom the dead to renew the stitjggle the 

• The French Cavalry " did little or nothing on that oocaBion ' (the Italian War of ISoft). 
The French Cayfllrj was positively wnstod on the march, renderefl unfit for action, and 
rciliicwd toinsignidcant dimenBiona. (Stbinmbtz, 31-3, "Miacellnntea Mllitfllres. by Gen- 
eial QtUQd, Pteeidont of the Cavulrj Commiaaion at the Freuch War Officii, p. 30."} 



next day, or like the ancient British who "made their boast 
that they exposed their bare bosoms and white tunics to the lancea 
and swords of the men at arms with as much confidence as if they 
had been born invulnerable." 

It is very curious that the Auati'ians contemplated the veiy 
movement which Meade, according to Warkkn, had in view on 
the 2d July at Gettysburg, to tmn tlie rebel flank, and that the 
rebels actually attempted, 2d July, p. m., when so signally checked 
by SicKi.Es. In both cases, Gettysburg and Solferino, the idea of 
tuning was abandoned, and the affair came down to a parallel 
fight, culminating in an attempt to pierce the center, which in the 
former case failed, and in the latter case succeeded. 

Thus General Keabny, who had commenced his education for a 
general's command jn Africa, with the study of a war with light 
tTOOf*, and took his next lessons in the Mexican war in grand tactics 
and ati-ategy — most beautifully carried ontinToRENNE style, although 
on a small scale as regarded numbers — completed his course of in- 
sti-uetion in a campaign on the grandest scale, since the Allies and 
the Austilans bi-ought on the battle-field at Solferino almost, if not 
altogether, double the nnmbers engaged on our side or the Rebels' 
in any battle duringthe " Slaveholdei-s' Bebellion." It is true that 
the numbers we had on paper at Chaucellorsville and at the Wil- 
derness approached somewhat those of the opposing armies at Sol- 
ferino. A gi-eat proportion of these could be as little counted as 
actually engaged, as the coipa of 20,000 men under Jerome Na- 
poleon, which was on the march towards the scene of conflict on 
the Mineio (1859), or the army of the AitciinuKE Johk at the epoch 
of Wagram, 1809.* Had the latter- brought his forces into action, as 
he could have done with ease had he intended so to do, their co-op- 
eration would have settled the fate of the First Napoleos, and obvi- 
ated all the horrors of 1812, especially at Borodino and the Bere- 
sina; of 1818, particularly at Leipsic; of 1S14, and of 1815, at 

RcEMER in his charming book " On Cavalry" says, that all the 
actions of the campiugn of 18.59 were decided by bayonet charges.f 
This would have been totally impossible in our war, for the charging 

* "An AnsWisn army, to the end of ttma, will never cease to bo procrflatinBtin;;-" 

(Cliare' Wins, 2d Ssrlts, iv., SS. 
+ RoiMEB'a '■ Cavalry ; lli Hietory, Managaaent. md Uses in War." Chap. iii. 113- 

>y Go Ogle 


column, if of any extent of front, would have been annihilated at 
a distance by the avtilleiy or musketiy fire. This is proved by the 
(our) medical returns. Hancock's charge at Williamsburgh, of 
which so much was said at the time, was a myth.* McClellan i-e- 
ported it as he reported everytliing. His system of laudation was 
nothing more than a part and parcel of his system of self-deception, 
an exuberance of kind-heartedness. In his injustice (charged in 
Kearny's lettei'S in 1861-'2, and from the Peninsula), if nothing 
else, he did resemble Napoleon. Hancock should not object to 
having the tnith told about Williamsbui'gh. He is a brilliant sol- 
dier, a»d can afford to discard laureis not actually won, since he 
Is entitled to so many which he did win fairly and magnificently. 
Kearny's militaiy education was now completa He had pre- 
pared himself thoroughly for a general's command. How he dis- 
charged the duties of that position when caOed upon, the eountiy 
well knows. 

For his brilliant soldiership in the campaign of Solferino, 
Keaknt received the Cross of the "Legion of Honor"| from the 
French Empei'or. He was very proud of this distinction, because 
he was the _/irs{. American who had ever been thus honored for 
military sei'vice. 

Little did Kearny dream when he saw one hundi-ed and forty 
thousand to one hundred and fifty thousand French and Sardinians, 
marshalled along a fi'ont of ten to twelve miles, that he would live 
to see within three years one million five hundred thousand free 

• His llrat lanrelB were gained at WilliamabufK; bat tUe atoiT of a Kdchrated chaise 
that ES'o him the day's applause and McClellan'a encomium of tha -'anporh Hancoci,' 
wasaltogetherficUtlous. Tha musk 
pai'jns of a 2fon-combafant," by G 
»« TltOBRiiHD.L MI ; Capt, Blake, 34, /ec. 

+ It has bson stated, and the statement has been repeated by Amorican nritfltB, and a 
French military author, also, who onght to have iinown whether the fact was so or not, 
■that Philip KEiBNT received tho Cross of the Legion Honor from Lonis Philippe, f«r 
his gallantry In Algiers In (183B!) 18*1. Thewrlterisofopinionthfltthisfspartlyafactaiia 
partly an error. Kkab^it was at that time an ofBcerin the military service of theUnlled 
States, snd consequently amid not accept any foreign docotatloo. That the story la cur- 
rent, and has been repeated by a gentleioaii who had ample opportunities of knowing the 
truth, renders it Eory probable that Lotria Philippe, on the lecommiiodntioii of his aons, 
the DOKE OP OBLEiBs. who commanded a dWlsion and corps, with whom Keaknt Betvod 
in Africa, and the DtrEE d'Adkale, who served with the very regiment to which Ebaekt 
was attached, offered KBAitNY the cross, which his miUtary obllKations to the United 
States compoUed him to refnsc. KEAEUr was too modest a man to mention snch a fact 
himself, but donbtleee this la a true explanation of the case. Although he was the fiwt 
American who ever reeoivod the Cross of Honor (or militaTy aemice, was he the first 
nbo received It for gallantry in aelion T 



Americans of the Xorth, tnai'slialled along a line of fifteen hundred 
miles against from five hundi-ed thouaand to one million supporters 
of slavery and their savage allies. Much [ess did he dream when 
he saw the conflision which reigned at times in the vast trains ac- 
companying, the French artnyand sometimes precluded the advance 
of troops, when rapid movements were indispensable to decisive suc- 
cess, that he would see ai-mies, as great as ours, fed with the regu- 
lai-ity of a family ; and that same Eui-cs Ingails — who fitted out his 
litrJe expedition against the Rogue Biver Indians in 1851 — in 1861 
-'5 feeding the Army of the Potomac, and moving trains more 
numerous than those of the Allies, over roads so bad that no Eui-o- 
pean quartermaster could conceive their badness, with almost the 
cei-tainty of a well regulated machine. Keaeny could appreciate 
and exemplify the nobility and extent of American courage. He 
was yet to learn the scope and gi'andeur of American intelligence 
as applied to logistics or military intendancy, in which the French 
wwe hitherto supposed to excel all other nations. 

>y Go Ogle 

"the ttpe volunteek general of 

Leilflnder, tllgender Stcahl dum Folnrto 1 " 

STOLBBEo'a " Od« to 

"A Governor not too m-perfect would have recognized this GusTAVua, 
■what his purposes imd likelihoods were; the feeling would have been, chei^keil by 
due ciruuinspeetneas, ' Cj), flij/men/ lei m foSoio (Ma m(m ; let us live aad 
die in the cause tliU man, goes for. Live othervrise with honor, or die otlter- 
icise with lionor, me cannot, in the pass things have come to.'" 

Caetlb'3 Fredbbic the Gei!*t, I., 3iO. 
"And ■raiflthiB tumult KlTBLi heard frpmfw 

"The trade of war demanils no satnta," 

Sia WALTin Scott's "Abbot." 
"ThlsWltPOT— sdtlzenof Bremen, first Grand Master at the Knights Hotpltolera— 
Raanotb; birth a nobleman, but hie deeds ncre noble." 


"Wab is a difficult adence, which cannot be mastered by experience alone ; its 
principles and rules require earefvl study and reflection. Lcaaons picked up at 
random are {-enerally uncertain or ernjueoDs, often costly to him who receives 
them, and aimost always fatal to the State. "Whatever arjrnment," saya 
Washington, "may be drawn from particular examples, superficially viewed, 
a thorough examination of the sobject will evince that the art of war is l>oth 
comprehensive and complicated j that it demands much previons stndy, and that 
the possession of it in its most improved and perfect state is always of great 
moment to a nation." NapOLBOK I. admitted, after fourteen campaigns and un- 
paralleled sneccsscs, that e(r^eri«uce in war, famSUdrii^ ^nith the eom^t, and 
tlie hett deedoped tear-U/ce virtues, were insu,ffideni to form good officers ; and 
regretted that most of Ms generaU /lad nolhad opportuniUea to aaguire the iheo- 
retieal knowledge Viey were so miieh in need of. Fredebio II. tliought in 
like manner, and in a characteristic letter, which he wrote to General Fouquet, 
he remarked i "0/ wflai lise is experience if it is not guided hy bsflectjos ?" 
EtEMER's " Cavairy; Its Uses," &e. 

>y Go Ogle 


' ' Rcailing and Discoarse are reqnisite to make a soldier potf ect in the Art Mili- 
tary, Ixm great sotna' Mi praelical knowledge may be." 

MosK, Duke of Alhermarle. 

"By the FortugneBB law " (when Portugal was a country whose inflaence was 
felt) "every person was bonnd to serve in this fon» " (militia, called Ordoncn. 
aas) "for the defence of the country, from eighteen to sixty years of ^e. They 
were organized in battalions of tvfo hundred and fifty men each, uider the com. 
mand of the chief landed proprietors of the district, and, invaviabi;/, whether 
against the Moors or Spaniards, rendered more important sermeea to their coun- 
try tlian Hie regular army." Stuaet's " Eiatory of Infantry." 

" No r^pilar army, but every citizen a soldier." 

Motto of the Swisi Confederacy 
"Militore nihil est, ecd sapere necesseest." 

iJiwnon. axiom, from " Lea Eoolviiimii de Ligne," by 

Colonet Lavelaine de Maubbuqb. 

On the ISth Juno, 1816, the I'mssian visitors at Carlsbad got np a festival in 
.honor of the anniversary of Belle Alliiinee (Waterloo), bat, already, anionij cer- 
tain classes, had 1818 (the upriang of the Gennaii People) been so completely 
' forgotten ihat the aristocracy wished to celebrate the occasion entirdy distinct from 
the citizens, " Nonsense 1" with an oath, said Bldchbb, and attended the ban- 
quet of the Qtiiens, although their invitation was subsequent to that of the Caatfi, 
to which he seemed to Iwlong. " Badges of honor, titles, dignities, rewards, pre- 
cious and various, have fallen to my lot," spoke BlUCHBE, in answer to the toast 
in his name, " bnt I find the most gratifying recompense in the love of my fellow, 
citisens, in the respect of my associates, and in the conscionsness of having done 
my diity." Then he repaired to the entertainment of the Yunkehs (equivalent 
as a. rule, iDith gloriaufi—is it profane to say god-like — exceptions, to the caste of 
Federal officials), and expressed himself with JSmcHER-like clearness ; " The 
sons of citizens and nobles"* (parallels in thdr own conceit, are to be found in 
plenty in this country), " have fought out this conflict (Germany's War of Libera- 
tion), side by side, with equal bravery ; and, therefore, should they now dance, and 
ttssodalc, and rejoice over {he victory together, like brothers," 


Several of the greatest generals noted in history ivere bom great captains, de- 
veloped their immense powers by study, and stepped from civU life or authority 
into military commands on the grandest scale. LircDmjs, in antiquity, is the cx- 

• Wss tbere no exhibition of this exclnsIroneSB of caste exhibited during our great wart 
The teaflet will (liid in TowsasBD's " Campaigns of a " Ifan-aMniataar thu iollovilas 
ficntenca, at paffe SOS; "Hot the least among the caneea of tlia North's ineflldenoj will bo 
found the Ul-feellngbetueea tbe prof eetlonal and civil soldiery; a R^ular contemns a 
Volunteer; a VolnnteBi hates aRegnlar." The writer Has heard similar fllpresBlons of 
oijinion and teeltngfrom Volunteer officerfl who aorved with markeddlBtlnction. Butthoro 
wtfce god-lika exceptions to any asaumption of anperioritj among the Regulara ; among 
these Mnjor-Qenetala Hooker, llFHPHREva, PiBiaiSTOH, and many ochera, friends, whom 
every patriot delights to cherish and honor. 



ample quoted by Fkrdbbio the Gbel4.T. But it is needlesa to refer to such 
distant times. SpmoLA, Cromwell, Clakb, the Gkeat CojniE, are well 
known esnmpiea ; but the most remarkahle, perhaps, is Lord Clivb. " The fame 
of those who solidned Antiochus and Tigeanes grows dim when compared with 
the splendor of the exploits which the Yodbo English Advestubi^b achieved 
at tliG head of an army not eqtial in numbers to one-half a Roman Legion. His 
name stands high on the roll of conquerors," "but it is found in a better list, on 
the list of those who have done and suffered much for the happiness of mankind." 
" It is hard to say whether he appears with more Instre as the hero whose single 
exploilB laid the foundation of a mighty empire, or as the governor whose resoln- 
tion and int^;rity stamped the characters which have given stability and perma- 
nence to its power." "LoED Clive's genivsfor tnaTiBasinitiMive ; M had UiAe 
iniiruetlon, and no coumeV/m, for he wm one of the few men whoae conduct 
wai(Uway»dlrecUdby the dictate g of Ilia ovm mind, aaA-whasa decisions were, 
therefore, secret. Like all great men, he took counsel only of himself ; and like 
the first of the C-^iSABB, the talents of other men could add little to his genius. He 
was bom a leader; and the great Lord Chatham pronounced him to he a 
hea'sen-born general ; iat without experience, or heing much versed in military 
affairs, he had snrpassed all the officers of his time. Be mas, in truth, e&mpeBed 
to form himself a» tneH a« his officers and hia army ; and it is said that, of the 
eight officers who commanded under Idm at the defence of Arcot, only ttco had 
ever been, in action, <md four out of the eight were mere factore of the (East 
India) Company, indaced by Clivb's e^^ample to volunteer their servicer. But 
although nothing is known of the steps he took to prepare himself for military life 
in yonth, he was early remarkable for a hold and adventurous spirit. An aversion 
to control marked his boyhood and bis maturity Ho certainly de- 
voted much of his time, on his arrival at Madras, and for the first five yoais of his 
residence there, to reading, during which period he must have acquired a consid- 
erable amount of knowledge. It would be unreasonable, therefore, to suppose 
that he was wholly indebted to his genius — nor are, indeed, men ever so — yet, 
doubtless, like all great minds, he conid not only devise and decide, but he could 
conmiunicate his ardent spirit to his followers, and awaken a devotion which can 
atone be acquired in war by great natural qualities. The East India Company 
never had a more zealous, npright, and efficient servant ; and it is without ques- 
tion that Great Britdn mainly owes her Eaatern Empire to Lohd Clive." 

Alison, Macaulat and Lieut.-Gen. Hon. Sin Edwabu CuaT. 

Major Piui-ip Kearny, decorated for resplendent soldiei-sliip 
abroad, bi-evetted for gallant and meiitoriotis service at horeie, whose 
empty sleeve was a continual reminder wliicli rendered words 
superfluous to tell that he liad won hia honors in "tbe fore-iVont of 
the heady fight " — had finished hia most thorongh course of prep- 
aration for a Gieneral's command. Having reached the age of 
forty-six years, htf was now about to prove that the time devoted 
to pei-feotittg himself ia his profession had not been thi-own away. 
Ilia quickness of eye and peculiar faculty of acqiui-ing at a glance 

>y Go Ogle 


a complete knowledge of the topography of any field of action — 
hie uneiiing military sagacity — had as much to do with winning the 
Cross of the Legion of Honor, as his dash and intrepidity. In 
that shoii, sharp, and decisive Italian campaign of 185!), ho had 
developed as much mind as action. 

In the fall of 1860, and during the ensuing winter, startling 
events, treading upon the heels of events no less momentnous and 
unexpected, revealed the mournful fact that the peace which had 
blessed our countiy with half a centiuy of prospei-ous development 
without a parallel, was about to terminate. The crisis towarda 
which all the great events of American histoiy had been tending, 
from the formation of the Govei-nment to the election of Abraham 
Lincoln, was at hand. The blackness which portended the tem- 
pest hung ovei- the land. All hopes that the clouda would dieperee 
had given way to an almost awful awaiting of the bursting of the 
storm It broke in the roar of the cannon which opened on Fort 
Sumter; but the menace of the preceding ominous thunder had 
been heard long before that artillery flashed forth the signd that 
" peace had ascended to Heaven." 

No sooner had the tocsin of alarm resounded across the Atlantic, 
than Kearnt's pati-iotism responded to the appeal. ITiere needed 
no fiery cross to summon him to aims. His own ardent spu-it 
answered the invocation of his menaced Fatherland as InstMitly as 
the explosion of a gun follows the application of the match — as 
instantly as beacon was wont to answer beacon when the English 
coast or Scottish border was menaced by the foe. 

Keakny had always looked forward to an opportunity of shining 
in wai- under the flag of his countiy. Eat his wildest dreams had 
never pictured that he was to loom up the grandest militaiy fignro 
of a civil war in the United States, in whose presence all previous 
civil wars were to sink into insignificance. 

Alas, the stage on which Kearny was so greatly to deport him- 
self the theatre in which he was to display so admu-ably the results 
of his natural gifts when matured by experience, was no longer tlie 
Teil and the Atlas, the Alps and the Milanese, Africa and Italy, 
but his own dear country, convulsed byaHebellionbegotten of the 
"Barbarism of Slavery;" more barbai-ous in the spirit it had eii- 
gendei-ed that the savageness of the Kabyles, sti'angere to Christian- 
ity, against whom he had first flashed his sabre. 

He was now about to di'aw his sword, not against the Mexican, 

>y Go Ogle 


the enemy of the United States ; nor the Indian, the opponent of 
civilization ; nor the Austiian, the foe of liberal ideas ; but against 
traitoi-8 as criminal as those who linked their fortunes to the im- 
piouB Cataijne; against pati-icides, who aimed their murderoua 
eteel against the Constitution and the laws — the integrity and the 
very existence of then- native land. 

His patriotism was all aflame ; a pati^otisra which ordinaiy minds 
can scarcely conceive; a patriotism which veiy few men have 
sufficient magnanimity to appreciate. To him the word "Father- 
land," or " native country " were not mere expressions or empty 
words. His associates had hitherto been chosen fixim that class of 
men — many of these Southerners, and their affiliations or connec- 
tions, who were looked upon In Europe as the finest, nay, the only 
types of Amej-ican gentlemen — lor few men, however independent 
in theii' line of thought, can reason with Burns: 

" Tl:a rank is but tlic guineiiB sl/tmp, 
The Hum's the gold for n' that [" 

Or with Wtcherly: 

"I weigh the MAN, not his tide; 
'lis not the king's stamp can make the metal better," 

The majority of the ablest officers who beti'ayed their country, 
and broke their oaths of allegiance, had been his companions in 
arms. The reader will remember that three, who rose to high 
commands in the rebel army, one to the highest, were with him 
upon the firat occasion in which he distinguished himself in Mexico, 
that reconnoisance which Scott styled the gi-eatest of the campaign ; 
and Stonewaix Jackson's chosen successor in command, was with 
our hero in his charge into the veiy gate of the Aztec capital. His 
style of life, his taste for art and display, yea, it may as well be ad- 
mitted, his strong inclination for luxm'ious and elegant ease, were 
more consistent with the habitudes of Southern than Northern life 
and manner of living. 

But there is often a depth of feeling in individuals of this typo 
which falsifies the judgtnentof ordinary men. Cavour was an ex- 
ample of this. lu the bosom of the man of the world and the " lion 
of society" beat the heart of a patiiot ; of a statesman, as alive to 
tlio interests of his country, as a Franklin or an Adams or a 
Washington. The flame may not have been as pure, according to 

>y Go Ogle 


the superficial judgment of the world — because the wor'd judges 
simply by the outside — ^but it was as ardent and luiselnBh. Self 
disappeared before the questioqi of codntky. " What am I," ex- 
claimed Keaeny, "if no longer an American ?" This exclamation 
summed up the whole argument. He, the soldier, who had served 
all over this Continent, had learned what a magnificant empire 
a«tnowledged our sway ; he, the wanderer, who had traversed land 
and sea, had learned what nationality meant "Gives KOMAuts 
SUM " had been the watchword wliich carried a citizen of the greatest 
Bepublic of antiquity safe andrespected throughout the thenknown 
world. Iteoabled him to brave the despot on his throne, and daunt 
the savage in his wild. Tears aftei- that gTand old Republic had 
lapsed into a centralized absolutism — God grant that such be not 
the fate of ours. St. Paul, the time exemplar of a Chi-istian gen- 
tleman, the greatest exaraplar of manhood, owed his safety to his 
declaration to the Centui-ion and Chief Captain that he was & free- 
born Roman citizen. Even so KJEAENt felt with regard to bis 
birthright: "X am. an American citizen, was Ms boast, his de-, 
fence, and Ms pride." "He loved his countiy, its gi-and present, 
its almost infinitely grandra,' future. He saw the crumbKng of 
foreign empires, the worthless trial of foieign gieatne«s. He saw 
dearly how all that was old was destined to sure deeny, and how 
much the world was to owe to the freedom the educttion, the eiv- 
iliaation of the American Republic. And then, too, America was 
his count]^. To her he had awom allegiance Foi her he had lost 
his arm; for her ho had braved death on e\ery battle-field from 
Vera Ci-uz to Mexico, and at the hands of the treacherous savage. 
And so to save the nation, to do his part to secure her existence, 
and to put down villainy and insanity, which threatened her life, 
thoughdissuadedbyaU his military friends in I'aris, he hastened 
to give all the energies of his nature to the cause of his dear countr}'. 
Those who conversed with him and knew the thoughts of his heart, 
those alone can know how firm and unalloyed was the patriot- 
ism which brought him home." 

" We parted in Paris, in 1860, — " are the words of a letter from 
an officer who seiwed, in 1859, with the Sardinians, as Kearny did 
with the French — " and I returned home, and I remember his last 
request was to let him know the state of affairs in the United States. 
As soon as the secession of the Southern States appeared inevitable 
J informed him to that efiect, and received for answer that he 

>y Go Ogle 


would immediately return home to offer his services to tlie Admin- 
istraHon in the war ; concluding by saying that he had no trust or 
confidence in the Southern men or measures from the start, and that 
they were unfit to govern themselves, even If they should succeed in 
establishing their independence, as there was nothing practical 
about them." General Muffling, in his " Passages from My Life" 
has (page 267-'8) an apposite remark in this connection: "The 
great mass of the French people are very intelligent, bnt there are 
many vain, egotistical, and quan-elsome individuals amongst them, 
jcAo must he summarily dealt with. One who yields appears to 
them weak ; he who changes his measures, inconsistent and trifling." 
Kearny saw through the Southerners as Muffijng did the French. 
It is a pity that our government did not act in 1865 as Bluciikr and 
MoFPutfo did in 1815. The matter would have been settled, if blows 
became absolutely necessary, at the cost of a score or two of lives ! 
This wouid have established tranquility and secui'ed its continuance. 
There would have been no- more talking of renewing the struggle, 
but peaceable if not cheerful obedience to the inevitable. 

"I suppose you ai-e already familiar with the cool treatment he 
received from the government on his application for service, and he 
seemed on mace than one occasion to me to think seriously of giving 
up all hope of employment by the action of the Admiiiisti-ation, b ut 
persevered until his claims were aehnowledged." 

At that time it was not thought necessary to have trained sol- 
diei-s to command our raw levies, and theu- merits were never fully 
acknowledged throughout the war, or Kf.abnv's " splendid eonp 
d^wii ; his quiet judgment, sang-froid, and prompt decision; his 
electric influence, with his soldiers and splendid valor, would have 
been sooner acknowledged- 
Early in the spring of 1861, on receiving the fii-st reliable intelli- 
gence of his country's imminent peril, Kearny broke up his luxii- 
rioiw estabhshment in Paris, took ship tor the United States, and 
without the loss of an hour, as soon as he amved in New York, 
proceeded on to Washington to offer his sei-viees to the President. 
Well may his eulogist declare, that he was not welcomed as he 
should have been. It was with Kearny as it had been with many 
an able man before him. He was rejected because the mine of un- 
told preciousneas was concealed beneath the modest demeanor in- 
separable from trae gentility and heroism. Even so, Ferdinand II., 
ISmperor of Austria, rejected Koniosmarck, a man very much akin 

>y Go Ogle 


lo Kearny in hia military qualifications. Even so, Louis XIV. 
refused with scorn the sei^vices of Prince Eugene, the greatest 
general ever thus v6uoh3afed for the salvation of Austria. Even so, 
Fkedekic the Great turned his back upon Laubon, because he 
did not like his books ; and loai'ned by sad expei'ienoe that he had 
driven into the enemy's ranks the most dangerous adversaiy and 
the ablest general the King encountered in his whole aubseciuent 
career. Each of these monarchs were akin to hira. 
"whose hand, 

Like tho base Judean, threw a pearl aivay, 

Richer than all his tribe." 

But although Keaknt was like to KosiGSMiRcit, and to Prince 
Eugene, and to Laudon in his eminent ability, his spirit was none 
of theu-s. Undesei-ved mis-appreciation and rejection could not 
ai'm his hand against the authority which would not recognize his 
merit, nor glue his sword to itfl scabbard. From the President of 
the United States he turned to the Governor of his native State. 
The reader will remember that, when the Federal Government 
first called upon the loyaJ Executives to furnish their appropriate 
quotas of troops, it was generally understood that the different 
Governors wei-e to be permitted to appoint a number of general 
oflicei-s, in proportion to the namerical force organized within their 
jurisdictions Thus it was — through ioca! political influence — that 
John A. Dix obtained his Major-General's commission. 

TTp to this time Keaknt had never clamed to be otherwise 
than a citizen ot the " Empire State." He was a New Yorker, 
born and bied liike his uncle — Major-General Stephen WATrs 
Kbarvi — bef >ie him he had been appointed to the United States 
ai'my from Kew. Yoik. The majority of his interests lay in liis 
native city, derived from ancestoi-s who never had any connection 
with another State. Consequently, on the adrice of Lieutenant 
General Scott, he hastened back from the Capital of the nation to 
the Capital of his native State, there to prefer his claims for 
appointment as a General — due to him as a citizen of acknow- 
ledged talent, of experienced ability, of tried valor, who had praved 
himself under his own and foreign ensigns, always, everywhere, 
" every inch a soldier." 

His life-long career, his very record of service, ought to have 
been sufficient to have obtained for him one of the foin- Major or 
Brigadier-Generalships to which the State of New York was enti- 

ty GoOglc 


tlei Tliat his araval was not unnoticed, and that the man him- 
self was well-known, Is demonstrated fey the following article, of 
which a copy was furnished for this work as soon as its preparation 
was made known. 

" Among the lute anrivuls, we notice tbe name of lha,t (UstingDislicd officer. 
Major KKARNy, late of the army. 

- ' Major Keaeny, after an absence of two or three years, returns home to 
offer his servicea in the support of onr Governmeiit asuX the flag nnder which he 
hns so nohly battled. He ie now at Albany, ui^ng upon the Govecnor hfs 
claims to a high position in tJte Volunteer forae of the &ate. In this connec- 
tjon, it will not he amiss to state what have been Major KSasnt's services auil 
mintary experience. 

"He entered onr army in 1833 as Lieutenant of Dragoons, and for years served 
on our Western frontier, under tbat able and distinguished olTicer, Stephes 
Watts Keaeny, then Colonel o£ First Dragoons, and afterwards in connection 
■with Commodore STOcmON, the Conqnerorand Militaiy Governor of California. 
Major Ke^uiny afterwards served in the war with Mexico, and lost an arm in a 
gallant charge at the City of Mexico. General Scott mentions hiio as among 
' the bravest of the brave.' 

"In addition to his almost constant military duty in tbis country, he had the 
glory of serving a campa^n in Africa, under the DuKB d'OELBANS, and still 
later he served with the French Cavalry at ScHferiuo, and received from the Em- 
peror public acknowledgment of his service and bravery, anil a decoration of the 
Legion of Honor. 

"Few men have seen more active service, and still fcivcr of onr countrymen 
have ever witnessed the movements of such large and splendid armies. 

" His valuable experience should not lie refused at this time, when ice are so eadly 
in want of e^eHenced eommnnd&rs without A taist op tbeason. Such is 
Major Kbakny, Hia time, his fortune, his great experience, are freely ollercd, 
and should be accepted hy M» naihe Slate." 

Kearny bora with him to Albany a certificate from Lieutenant- 
General Scott, Commander-in-Chief of the United States army, of 
which the following is a copy : 

WAauiNoioN, May 1, ISfil. f 
To fill Excelling) Gowmor MouaiM, o/ Sea York: 

SiE : — I b^ leave to suggest Major Philip Kearny, of Nein York, late a 
distinguished officer of the army, for a high commission in the Nev) York Toh- 
vnteers. Major Kearny's long and valuable experience in actual military service 
seems to commend him as a useful as well aa a valuable commaniler and disciplina- 
rian. He is among the bravest of the bravo, and of the highest military spirit and 

With the highest respect. 

Your Exceilency'B 

Moat obedient servant, 
i.Signed) Winfieu) Scott. 

>y Go Ogle 


It would scarcely be believed that the claims of such a man were 
ignored in favor of individuals who had scai'cely more to reconi- 
inend them than the presumption with which they prefei-red their 
applications, and the want of principle with which those applications 
were pressed and backed by ignorant politicians, and worse. The 
lettei's of many of our inliuential citizens, men of acknowledged 
judgment and worth, received no moi-e attention than the testi 
tnonial of General Scott, of which Keabny himself justly wrote, 8th 
May, 1864: "General Scorr's letter to Governor Morgan is cer- 
tainly very strong, and I presume it is the only testimony of the 
kind that he hiis ever extended to any individual," Keauny chafed 
teii'ibly under the treatment to which he was subjected. 

But why linger on this theme, so disgracefitl to that body of mm 
who had the power to pat the " right man in the r^ght place," to do 
their duties by their State and country, and did it not. Tliey w- 1 ■■ 
politicians ; that stamps their action. Sufficient to say, Governor 
MoKGAS was not to blame — a gentleman, an able man, an upright 
Governor, whose talent for organization was felt thi'oughout the 
whole war. 

Kejected by his naUve State — would that the fact did not blemish 
its record — KfiAitsr returned to Washington. To the eternal 
honor of New Jersey and her citizens, they could appreciate him. 
Let him who doubts this read the eloquence of one of her eons and 
compare it wi'li the feeling language of that Memoi-ial Addi'ese fi'om 
the pen of another — one to whom his appointment was subse- 
quently due — one who prepared and delivered a noble tribute to 
Kka,rny's memory, which the writer will freely quote with grate- 
ful acknowledgments — Coktlandt Parker, Esq., of Newark,* the 
counsel and friend of the patriot soldier, whom he know how to 
appreciate and commemorate : 

" Mote nearly than any other, he (KBARuy) represented in his views and 
theory the popular conception as to the method upon whidi the »ai' should Lie 
fouglit. He reflected, moreover, more truly than any other high commander, 
the exalted, unselfish, uncaleulfiting patriotism which glowed in the hearts of 
the people. His fiery nature took affront at every attempt to dwarf the grand 
connuest into anything else than a strn<^Ie for the snhlimo principle of nation- 
ality. He had no confidence in politicians, but little respect for digiiitarieB, no 
love for anything bat the cause. Intriguers, cowards, inartinetB, small men essay. 

• NoplrthiscnniliLitoraln thia patHofLc wort be (orgotton.— Pet. HiL3TE.ib, Eaq.. 
and 11, N. Conukb, Esq., o£ Newark, Naw Joraey. 

>y Go Ogle 


ings bi crowd down great ones, he dctestefl mth implocable detestation. Bat to 
coaray;e ami iijiriglit inaiiliiieas, he lii'ted his hat with instinctive rcvcioi^ce. loT 
the snldiar, whctticr oifiter or private, who cherished a ganuiiio pride in liis pro- 
foBsioii, and lal ored, only for dotj's sake, to excel in eicrj rcqniremeiit of the 
service, he had esteem Tiiil>onnded — not alivays esliiMted, indeed, hj outward net, 
but none the less tannine anil profotiQd. In tiattlo, Kerci' as u lion, on paraile 
soinctimcs ^tem and inipetnoua, nlino to a m h tal, by the 

lieiiside of tlic woundeil and djmg, his en g nd his as soft as 

a woman's , oien hia touch liad healm,' n C n h n aw luin with the 
hood of pride npon his face, judged liini neap Ii e of en n They (iid not 
know how, nndcr all the liard crost, th e a ked h te d es ho ightfulnesa 
for the liealth, comfort, and lives of h -on n n h ou f h own purse, 
he ministered to their wnnts; how, even inhh of>a .hn^tsof home 
and idndrod, like flushes of sunshine, illumined the stony, stoical miture ; how, 
in the battle-pauses, ho was wont to pen mejsiiges of cemomhcanco from the 
gh.istlJost Hold to thoie who, afar oif, watched his plume with solicitude and 
affection. It is no wonder, indeed, thitt men misjudged him ; he lind no mirror 
set ill his breast that ail the world might see and know his thoughts ; rather, ho 
was reticent, reserved, snrmnndod by a linutcnr wliiuh few men cared to pene- 
trate ; and so, in the estimadou of all but a few intimate*, bo sufToreil a sort of 
inaityrJom, when he should have bean crowned a kiny; of men," 

" And so Pnii.ip Kearny, after ireeks of waiting at the docvs of 
tlie New Yovk Exeuutive, jostled by political intriguers, turned 
aw.iy in perfect disgust, absolutely unable, since lie could not 
be a private with one ai-ni, to mid a place where be coulJ serve the 
country he hiul come three thousand niilfes to tight for. 

".AuLiident phiced a Jersey fi'ieiid io possession of the fact that 
he W.1S in America. 

" The noble fii-st brigade of three year's troops was then gathering 
for the field, from which so few of them returned. It was evident 
at a glance that all such men needed was a leadei' who couldappre- 
ciitte their merits. Without Major Keaknv's knowledge, this friend 
hiistened to urge his appointment to command them. It was a 
matter of much more difliculty than he imagined. 

Looking back, it seems inconceivable how it could have cost so 
much exei-tion to aecui-e the appointment of such a man to such a 
place. It took nearly three months t ■ accomplish it. Not till Bull 
Kun had illustrated our need of educated, expeileneed soldiers was 
it done. And how, in the meantime, did the restless spirit of the 
patriot hero chafe at the delay — tor he knew his own capacity and 
appreciated the chiiractei- of the war. Sure that the nation would 

* Foster's " Kew Jersey and tbe Kebclliaa." Chapter SLY. SOl-'S. 

>y Go Ogle 


eventually trinmph, he kiwjw, then, ncTei-tbaless, that it was all which 
experience has found it to be." 

Then the NEWS of BULL RUN came. 

The writer cannot close this chapter without making a few re- 
marks in regard to Bull linn. Never was a battle more misrepre- 
sentfid or misunderstood. The panic which occurred neither origi- 
nated with the troops who were engaged, nor those who did ihe 
hard Sighting, nor did it assume its disgraceful proportions through 
them. The whole matter was more or less intentionally misrepre- 
sented by sneh as Mr. Russell, who ought to have known better, 
and HIS story not the story read all over the world in the col- 
umns of a paper enjoying the most extensive circulation, a paper 
the most hostile to the North, and the most deliberate detractor of 
its people aud of its armies. 

H:id Mr. RussEi.L been as well read in militaiy matters as he as- 
sumed to be, and was believed to have been, he would liave refrained 
fi'om using his pen so freely, since foreign history contains more 
disgi-aeefui panics among her regular troops than occun-ed at Bull 
Run among our militia. Major-General Barnard, United States 
Engineers, refers to a number of instances of these unaccountable 
panics, dissolutions of armies, or " debacles," as the Fi'ench say, in 
his work : " The C. S. A. and the little of Bull Run." The writer, 
also, immediately after the occui-rence and before the general had 
taken up his pen, wi-ote several articles in vindication of our men 
and collected a number — which might easily be increased tenfold — 
of instances of panics in regular ju-mtes foi- exceeding that of the 
21st July, 1861, in our aggi'egation of raw troops, for could 
scarcely be termed an ai-my in which the regiments had only been 
brigaded for the fii-st time on their march towards the enemy, and 
had never been maufeuvered togetlier as brigades or divisions. 
" Passing over without comment or consideration the plans and 
action of General McDowei.i^ critica] examination wUI disclose the 
truth that it was no want of courage and conduct on the part of our 
privates that lost the battle; thefaultlay with their immediate officers 
and with men who have strangely escaped the blame, and risen to 
high commands." Moreover.had our rear-guardorreservedivision 
been brought into the field, or even a part of it, to counteract the 
effecls of the arrival of Kikby Smith, Bull Run, instead of a defeat, 
would have been a victory, haS not God foi'^e welfare of the couu- 
tiy willed it otherwise. 

>y Go Ogle 


On 28tli Auguat, 1640, the Scotch forded the Tyne at Newhurn, 
■ and attacked the Enghsh army, 6,001) strong, "which fled with a 
speed and disoi-der unworthy of their national reputation." 

At Tippermuii', lat September, 1644, the defeated Lowlanders, 
volunteers, fighting for the House of Hanover, accustomed to the 
use of arma and bred in a warlike age, fled so precipitately that 
"man; broke their wind, and died in consequence." 

At PhUiphaugh, 13th September, 1645, the army of Montrose, 
after live resplendent victories, won a;^ainst great odds, was anni- 
hilated in an eqaal degree to that of de Gcebmant, at Tuttlingen. 

At the Pass of Killecrankie, 17th June, 1689, Ci.avbrhouse, 
with an army of undisciplined Highlanders, dissipated a regular 
army of Anglo-Scotch ti-oops, under a ti'ied and reliable general, 
MacKay, The flying regulars abandoned cannon and everything 
else ; two regiments alone stood fast (like our resei've), while all 
the rest were routed. 

On Sunday, 13th November, 1715, an engagement took place at 
Sherifiinuir, between the loyal Anglo-Scottish army under the 
Duke oF-AKtiYLE, and the rebel under the E.iri. op Mar, which 
was the counterpart of Bull Run in many pai'ticulars. The EAitr, 
victorious on the left, nevertheless drew off to Ardoch ; while the 
Duke, equally successful on the right, withdrew to DumbJane. On 
both sides the left fled, while the right maintained their ground. 
The English General WnrrHAM " fled almost to Stirling Bridge," 

At Preston, 20th September', 1745, the English li-oopa either 
laid down their arms, or ran ; and the witty Lord Kerr observed of 
their commander, Sir John Cope, "that he believed he was the 
first general in Europe who had brought the Jii'st tidings of his 
own defeat." 

About the same remark was addressed to the Count of Cler- 
mont, Commander-in-Chief of the French, i-outed at Crevelt, 23d 
June, 1758, when spurring into Neuss, he demanded, " if many of 
his runaways had passed that way." " No, my lord ; you are the 
first — far ahead." 

Two or three more British achievements in this lino may not be 
unacceptable to American readei-s. When Russell touched up hia 
account of Bui! Run in colore bon-owed from the privilege of ro- 
mantic nai-rative, had he forgotten the stern facts of the "Race of 
C:istlebar," or the "Caatlebar Races," where 1,150 French and 
" some few of the malcontent peasantry," (Gust), or 800 French 

>y Go Ogle 


and about 1,000 peasaiita, with two light guna, (Gordon), 
attaclced, 27th August, 1798, 2,000 or 3,000 English regulars 
(Cust), with 14 pieces of ai-tillery iu a good poKition. The English 
troke and ran ; some to Tuam, 38 miles from the field of battle, 
tliat same night, and an officer with 60 riflrfnen, in 27 houi-s made 
good his race to Athlone, 80 miles from Castlebar, None of our 
men heat that. 

Take Plattsbtirg, 11th September, 1814, as another nice exam- 
ple, whei-e Macomb, with 1,500 regulai's and about 1,500 militia 
and volunteei-9, defeated or drove back 12,000 Ei'itiah regulars, 
" with a most excellent train of artillery " (these are the British Gen- 
eral Gust's figures), the veterans of many wai-s, .and the conquerors 
of Napoleon's best generals and ti'oops in Spain. General Smith, 
U. A., OQ page 186 of his " Precis of the Wai's of Ganada," says : 
" Several veiy efficient and excellent brigades were foi-waided fi'om 
Bordeaux, from the Duke of Wellington, to Canada." 8o that 
these, the veteran conquerors of veteian conquerors, were soon to 
be repulsed by i-aw American tioops of the line, volunteers and 
militia, defending the line of the S'u^nac, a stream which, if in 
the same condition, as stated, that it vas when the writer saw it, 
ought to have been forded in line of battle, like the Tagliamento 
by the French, 16 March, 1797. The result of this action was tlie 
precipitate retreat of the British army, leaving beiiiud them their 
sick and wounded to the humanity of the Americans. Gen. Gust 
admits that a panic occurred among the British troops in the attack 
on Fort Erie. But scarcely anything equals the results of White- 
tocit's operations in Buenos Ayres, when the British general not 
only capitulated and abandoned his own field, but, to save liis beaten 
army — beaten through the incapacity of their own commander — 
yielded the previoiB glorious conquest of Sir Samuel Auchmdty, 
which was not endangered. 

All Ibught-out, mis-handled troops are liable to panics ; and 
shame to him who, on that account, charges cowardice on the 
Anglo-Saxon race. 

Such reference to the past is only justifiable to meet the asper- 
sions and unmerited sarcasms of a people who egged us on to the 
Great American Conflict, and then wickedly abandoned us; agovern- 
mcijt " Perfide Albion,", which, when our nation, in its agony asked 
for a cup of cold water for the sake of common lineage, and lan- 
guage, and liberty, took a sponge, dipped it in vinegar, and thi-ust 

>y Go Ogle 


it upon our ]ips at the point of tlie spear, as an American poet 
■ phrases it, wounding, as well as outi'aging humanity, in the North- 
ern People. 

There is no braver people on the face of the earth than the Eng- 
lish nation, and wei-e there no other proof on record, their conduct 
during the great India Rebellion, and their prompt suppression of 
it, would exalt them to the pinnacle of human fame as Christhin 
Boldiei's, the ti'uest types of purest cliivalry. But we, Americans, 
are not behind them, and therefore RcssEii'a repi-oach desei-ves a 
Roland for his Oliybb. 

The preceding are English catastrophies ; but let not Continental 
nations forget that theii' records t«em with eqiially soiTowful disas- 
tei-8, which an invidious consideration would assign to the deficien- 
cies of race, whereas they ai'e chargeable to the inexplicable, and, in 
most instances, temporary feebleness of humanity. 

Without dwelhng on Agincourt, 25th October, 1415, where the 
chivalry of France and sixty thousand men at ai-ma melted awijy 
before two thousand English hoi'se and ihii-teen thousand Enghsh 
infantry, like a loose snow wreath in a warm spring rain, whoae 
drops, in this case, were English cloth-yard arrows ; or refening to 
medieval panics, review the many pai-allels in war since the intro- 
duction of gunpowder, which revolutionized the military ait. 

At Montlhcry, ]5lh July, 1463, Loms XI. met Charles the 
Bor.D. The former with his French triumphed on the left wing; 
the latter with his Burgundians on the centre, and on the right. 
Loms XI. abandoned the field, but nothing more, and saved Paris, 
his capital, as the Unionists did in July, 1861. What makes thia 
parallel to Bull Run more apposite, " the roads were thi-onged with 
fugitives, flying from those who had fled with equal precipitation in 
other directions." One Royal officer never drew rein lill he reached 
Lusignan, one hundred and sevewty-five miles, in Poitou, and a 
Ducal cavalier never spared spur till he was at home one hundred 
miles to the northward, in Hainault. 

At Tuttlingen, Thirty Yeai-s' Wai', 24th Novembei-, 1643, an army 
of eighteen thousand veterans, French and Franco-Gei-man, was juBt 
wiped out by twenty thousand Germans. The foi-mer lost a mar- 
shal, four thousand killed and wounded, seven thousand prisoners, 
and pretty much all then- material. Night alone stopped the pm'- 
Buit, and saved a remnant. 

In 1702, 14th October, at Friedlingen, Villars had gi'eat diffi- 

>y Go Ogle 


culty in rallying the conquerers (liis own French) running away 
from the beaten Impeiialists. 

In 1704, the rout after Blenheim, and in 1706 those after Turin 
and RamiUies wei-e not moi'e terrible than the flight after Bull Run, 
and these three occuiTed among troops accustomed to conquer, and 
vet«mns formed in long and constant wars. 

At Lenthen, or Lissa, 5th December, 1757, thirty-three thousand 
Pmssians attacked ninety thousand Austrians in a fortified position, 
of whom twenty-three thousand five hundred were taken prisoners, 
sis thousand five hundi'ed wei'e killed or wounded, and not over 
thirty-seven thousand came togetlier again of the remainder, who 
fled across the mountains. On the 19th, the Pmssians captm-ed 
seventeen thousand six hundred and thiity-five more Aiistrians in 
Breslau, so that Frederic, in three weeks, used up or took nearly 
twice as many of the enemy as he had numbers to achieve this 
marvel. A month to a day before Lissa, 5th Novembei", 1757, 
Fkedebic, with twenty two thousand Prussians dispereed, like chafl[' 
before the wind, sixty three thousand Fiench and Franco Gei-mans, 
" his cavahy sweeping Soubibe and Hildbiikghausen (their gener- 
als) from the face of the earth." It was not neai' so bad as this at 
Bidl Run — let our calumniators malce all the misrepresentations of 
which the incidents are susceptible in regard to our loyal army — yet 
the allied aimy was composed of trained soldiers, and ouis of mihtia, 
or their equivalent. 

What will oui- depredators say of the panic among the victorious 
French after Wagi-am, 1809; among their veterans at Albuera, 
1811, or again after- Solferino, 1859 ; or of the routs of Winkowo* 
in 1812, or of the catasti'ophy of the Katshach, or of Dennewitz, or 
of Lcipsic, 1813, or Vittoria, in the same year; or of Maemont's 
coipa after Laon, in 1814, or 'of that " sauve qui peut! " the worst 
of all, after Waterloo. 

Did space pennit, page after page might be filled wilh such refer- 
ence, from Narva, fought 30th November, 1700, in a Russian snow 
stoiTo, down to that famous "day of the Pass of Cambrills, 15th 
June, 1813," under the tonid sun of Spain, of which Greneral Oust 
says (2, IV. 54) : " The best of the stoiy was, that all (thi-ee) par 
tics van away (Gen.) Maukice Matiiieu (French) ran away, (Gen.) 

• C1I3I-B Wan, ill Series, rv., aoi; Qsiniii'a Militarn Eaii ani Moral Meam, 307. 

>y Go Ogle 


Sib John Mtirray (Engliali) ran away, and so did (Marshal) 
SucHET, (French). He (Suchbt) was afi'aid to strike at Mckfatj 
knew nothing of Maurice Mathied, and had not even been able 
to communicate with Tarrajona," (besieged, which he came out to 

>y Go Ogle 


'■ O vous, jsunes EuertietB, qui brulant de valeor, 
PretB a vous sigDSler dans lea champs de I'honnenr, 

K'aUez point voua flatter, novices a" In cuerte ; 

Tous fermes dang vo« rangs en eilonee immobiles, 
L'aell flx« eur le chef, a eea ordres docile!, 
Atl«ntirs a ss vols, a'il cnmmande, ngiesezi 

ApprenOK a charger vos tnlies liomlcides ; 
Arancei fletmcnt a granda pas inttepidea, 
Sans floller, nans ouvrir et aana rompte voa ranEI ; 
TlrezpsrpeiotonsenobserysntTOB tempsj 
I^mplt MTts iTigvielaile et pltins 4e vigilance 
Anx poslei daut aur Toaa doit ronlcr la derense, 
Attendez le flgnai et marehoa aans tarder 
lura commander," 

" After the giorions cavalry stroke at HaynaH, SBlli May. 1813, Ilie king of Pruaaii 
Mid, emmWinSwlfe. to BLncHEnin Strelilen. "Xou had quite a fayorablc, handsomf 
ftpht at Haynaii, hnt as a drawback piifTered qnilo a lose of mj; Guarda." "Yotit 
Ma]e6tj," answered Blccheh, "I am heartilT fnrrj for Ihe losa of eo niniiT gallant tbl- 
lows, but nnder such circumstances, the head of a Guardsman (regnlar) is of no mow 
consequence than that of a Landwehrman (voiunleer)." 

BiBSEi's " BLtrciua," ), 
" The Rhine alone the armiea stayed. 

Some argned ' yea,' some arsned ' no'— 
Old Butcher cnt them short, with ' Go, 
Bring elafi'-maps here. To enter France 

Kopiaca'a " Bldchbb on Che & 



Now that New Tobk had rejected Puil. Kearny, had 
rejected the " Type Volmiieer General of the War," New 
Jersey adopted him. Henceforward, Philip Kearny belongs 
to New Jersey. New Yorkers have no claim to his pre-tminent 
honors, escept through his blood, birth and The laurels 
which Kear.vy won in 1861-2 must be hung on the trophy of 
the State which was proud to number him among her repre- 
sentative men, and extend to him the rights of a son and a 
citizen, God bless her for it 1 The only error she committed 
was when she gave up his remains for interment in this, hia 
native State, which had disowned him, instead of retaining 
them for deposit amoug her own dead heroes and in her own 

On the 21st July, 1861, the North lost the battle of Bull 
Run ; but the rebels did not win any thing but the possession 
of the field, for the gain was altogether with the North. It 
cemented the free States; it awakened the people to the neces- 
sity of organizing a proper army; it taught the government 
that they could no longer trifle with events. 

The reverse which Kearny's prescience had foreseen, only 
fitimulated his patriotism. He no longer stood upon rank or 
right. He proclaimed his willingness to lead a regiment or 
even to take a subordinate line-command in any which should 
be raised. But the hour had come and the man, 

Li>rcor.N, who had by this time recognized in the one-armed 
applicant for a generalship that Captain K e b n t whom he 
had assisted in raising his famous troop for the Mexican war, 
determined to pay no moi'e attention to the suggestions of any 
one in this regard, but act in accordance with his own sound 
common sense. Accordingly, on the 25th July, 1861, the com- 
mission was dated 7th August, 1861, ho appointed Major Philip 
Keaksy Brigadier-General, with rank from 1 7th May previous, 
which placed Kkaent "twelfth on the original list " of officers 
of that grade, and assigned him to the command of the First 
New Jersey Brigade, in Franklin's Division of the embryo 
Army of the Potomac. 

It has always been an interesting question whether volunteer 
troops would fight better if organized into brigades and divi- 

>y Go Ogle 


eions by States, or if distributed, without regard to tlieir oriirin, 
by regiments into brigades coiLiprising troops from different 
sections. It lias ever been the writer's opinion that the massing 
together of the troops from each State, in a State uniform and 
uader a State flag, would be the wisest course, since it would 
develop the highest feelings of State pride, and tiius make the 
troops from one State anxious to sui-pase those from another, 
creating a generous rivalry, which must inevitably be produc- 
tive of the most beneficial results. 

These arguments in favor of a thorough State organization 
were urged upon Governor Hunt in 1850, and doubtless New 
York would have had a simple but elegant uniform of her own 
had it not been for officers who wished to maintain one identical 
with that of the United States. This view of keeping the troopa 
of each State distinct was a favorite one with Philip Kearjuy, 
Fortunately, to enable him to carry out his idea, the first four 
regiments furnished by New Jersey had not been distributed to 
different commands ; consequently, Keaksy was enabled to eet 
to work at once, with all his energy and experience, to make 
this homogeneous body of Jerseymen soldiers worthy of him- 
self and of their State, and an example to the country of into 
wliat superlative troops a grand officer can transmute willing, 
patriotic, and brave citizens. 

Keakny's New Jersey Brigade wm composed of the First, 
Second and Third regiments from this State, which had reported 
to General Scott at Washington, on the. 29th of Jane, 1861, 
These three were joined by the Fourth Regiment N, J. V. — the 
latter aceorapatiied by a New Jersey battery of six pieces, under 
Captain WitLiAM Hexamek — which reached Washington on 
the 2l8t August, 

" Wilhin tweoty-four houra arter receiving notice' of hia appolntniecl,* he 
(Kearny) joined the troopa at Aleiandria. 

"The Jersey brijrBde happened to be lying; together. Therefore, in spite of 
a itroHg desire, oa the part of the then Secretary of War, to eeparate Ibem, in 

* " On Satntdsy the docision of the GoTemmetit waa taken ; on Sunday we ohialneil 
ie Maje?[y ; on Monday we came down to Parltament, and at this very 

while I hi 


e, Brilis/t tiKKips are on ihdr 



order to abolish Stale pride even in such a matter, he was able to procure him- 
Belf to be aasigDed to their command, and entered upon hiu duties nith coDstl- 
tutiutial alacrity. 

"Those who bad most strongly urged the appointment of General Keaent 
had no expectation that he would possess snuh eieellenoe as he immediately 
diaplared ; his dash, his chivalric braver;, his generosity and Isvieh expendi- 
ture of bis large wealth to make hia troops compars Favorably with others. 

"There was no idea of his talents as ao organizer; his fervid enthusiasm 
for his profession ; his close study of the art of war, and intimate floquaiotauce 
with its history; hia masnetio lEfluence over men ; his intuitive perception of 
character; bis strategic genius, and hia slmoat more than conscientious devo- 
tion to hia military duty. 

" But a Bingle mouth revealed all those qualities for which drcumstances 
would present the eihibition. Personally and intimately acquainted myself 
with the leading offioera of hia finest regiment, I was astonished to find that 
his first letter, written a week after knowing them, photographed their char- 
acters as if he bad always been their companion. 

"At!d he addressed himself with such energy to the improveroent of his 
brigade, that, in three months, it was confeesedly the best disciplined around 
"Washington. ■ 

" His severity, sometimes brusque, often eccentric, at first made him unpopu- 
lar. But the men soon saw he was less indulgent to the shorteomioga of 
officers * than to theirs; that he studied their comfort and aimed at their 
improvement. But officers and men soon found that there was but one path 
to his good will I one way of escaping severity — the full and punctilious dis- 
charge of duty, and that, if they were equal to its requisitions, they were not 

• " When the troops ocenpied MafllsoD Sqnare," after the riols In 1863, " I oltea 
walked np thora and talked with the soldiere. In reply to my qneetion, to one of 
Ihem, if he had served under General KEAHNT,lie replied: 'Yes. and a splendid 
General bo was ; bold as a lion and Ml of flght.' 'Was he Itkcd by tbe men?' 'And 
fare te was, by all.' 'Was he not very strict 1' Mnd he w<a hard m tfis nun. i>t yaj 
own name's not KEiKNET, iiii Men, Ae teas a d—a ileal iiader on Ms cffcert. and neeer 
spared htmse(f in camp or te finht, dan or night.' Letter of R. W. — .—, a eonaln, both 
of PniL, KEiKNT and the writer, to whom tho latter is indebted for several new facts 

"Mahshal Sisi, he was a strict disciplinarian, and bafl. as he blmjelf related, 
been brought ap in a strict aebool. A French general haTin^ attempted to ezcnse 
some disorders In bis corps, or the grounds nf not wishing lo eieroiBeBBTsrily towards 
tbe liJIce™, MAtTBiCB saldr 'You arc a. young aolfllet, Jfons^eur le ffsnero;. and douoi 
yit ton™ thai fiirbiarmce UmarOi Ou omcKBs may Mtneilnas be leverUy towards the 
£OLDtBB3, by rendering panlshmants noceBsarj that attention on Iboir pari might have 
averted. Even I, when colonel of cavalry, was ordered by old General Beckenbort, to 
follow for three flajs on fool. In rear of mj own rej-itoent, In conseqaence of some 
disorders committed by the men : and yet I was the son of a Itlng, and a ikvorile son, 
too. This was, no doubt, sharp practice." Uajor-Qen. Mnoainii's Kographies of 
Celehrated Soldiers, 2es. 

>y Go Ogle 


only eppreciated, but most geoprously applauded; while any thing lilte shun- 
ning diitj met wilh moBt terrible rebuke. Aod they saw that he required 
nolhiug but what be hiniself did ; that daya and nights were speci fitting bim- 
Bfilf for greater duties, or carefully attending to their heat inlereata. 

" Aud BO Boon they came to lote him, worship him. They would go with 
him any where, reposiug without question on bis judgment." 

The language of a friend, ivhoae admiraCion and affection 
has sui'vived tiie death of its object, has airea<3y been quoted. 
Let the reader now compare the opinion of a stranger, one who 
only knew Kbakst through his record of service, and the 
opinions of those who served with and under him: 

" As the Army of the Potomac gradually assumed the form of an orderly, 
Bjstemaljo body of troop?, with admirable appoiutments and thorough diad- 
pbne. in the fall of 1361, when General Kkaksy was only a Brigadier, there 
were not wanting those, evan then, who saw in the one-armed Jerseyman 
qualities that fitted him, rather than the cautious, unready McClbllan, to 
oommauil the maguiflceat army of nearly two hundred thousand men, and 
hurl It against Bithmond. 

"Looking back, now, as we can historically, upon the leaders of that host, 
we are justiSed in Bajiug that he was the wisest, the most experienced, Ihe 
bes' read, the most sagacious, aa well as the bravest and most dashing officer 
in all that army. For twaniy-sii years he had followed the profession of 
arms, in the spirit and with the chivalry of a knight of the middle ages. Had 
he lived a few centuries earlier, he would have ridden by the aide of Louis 
the Niuth, or fought the Saracen, shoulder to shoulder, with RicnanD CmuR 
DE Lion. At Mangnsco he would have miagled his blood with that of the 
Chevalier Biriio) the braveit and the most worthy." At Rocroy, at 
Freiburg, and at Nordl ngen the great Coide would have found in him a 
brother hero, as intrepid and fierce m the onset, as skillful in tactics, as gay 
and as gallant as himself, wheu the festivities of victory succeeded the toils 
of war. 

" Those whose attent on was caught bv hia dashing horaemanship, his 
martial figure," the jaunty PicJinoutese cloak, trimmed with ABtrackan 
lamb's wool, and loaded with Brindenburj,8 and cord," "and tho gold Isce 
with which hio unifirm was all aglow were not aware how firm, cool, 
sysiemalic and thoroughbred a soldier waa to be found in General Kbarnt. 
In this respect he resembled the Bayabd of the Army of Northern 
Virginia,' Stonfw4LL Iacesos who won so much repute for swift marching 
and fierce onset that few save him aa he deserved to have, credit for as 
much ability and strategy as L"e or any other of the generals." 

Lest the world should suppose that such encomiums were 
the offsprings of a vivid imagination, inflamed by passion, filled 

>y Go Ogle 


With the knightly figure of Pmi. KEAExy.and ringing with the 
reverberating praises of men dazzled with his gallantry — with 
the " galantuomo" of America — the following private letter 
written by a very intelligent sergeant in the Firet New Jersey 
Brigade (after KEAKjfr had been in command of it several 
weeks, and while it lay near Alexandria) is a convincing proof 
that the reality was equal to the ideal in this case. Yes, indeed, 
that the reality which so seldom equals the ideal, in the case 
of the " American Batard," actually surpassed, far surpassed it : 

"Aa regards our General, I will endesTor to give jou some of the trsita of 
hia cliaracter in ooncecliOD with bis command, let. He is unliriup in his 
efforts to promote Ihe comfort and well-being of liis men. For inatance: I 
was sifludiag tiiB other day engSEed in ennversation with Dr. Sucki.ey. iha 
Bdirade-Siirgeon, who, by the way, ia a first-rate man, having been in ihe 
United Srales service for the past fifteen years, when one of Gen. Keahnv's 
orderlies rode up and placed a small pacliet in hie hand with the Genernl's 
compliments. The doctor opened it, aod foucd wrapped up in a nolo tweutj- 
fiT6 dollars in gold, the note saying it came from General Keak^y (or Dr. 
SucKLEY to use for luxuries for the patienta in the hospital under hia (Dr. 
Sitckley's) charge. ' There,' paid the doctor, 'that ia fifty dollata ha has sent 

"2d. His diaoipline ia of the stricteat kind; there is ne-rer any 
thing bice domineering or arrogance about him, yet he will havo hia rules aud 
regulations carried out, as to drill, etc., to the very letter. 

"The brigade is fast approaeliicg what I should jutlga to be ita legitimate 
and proper standard of military perfection, under his Dncessing endeavors to 
nialiP it what he says it shall be, if the officers and men will only bear a 
helping hand, namely, the most useful and efficient in the service. 

"3d. When we came over into Virginia, the officers cared little, and of 
course the men carpd lesB, about doing things by syetem, even that while we 
were giationed at Camp Olden. Trenton; but under his guidance no persnn 
would helleve that this was the same body of troops; perfect order about 
every thing, men took neater, and appear to better advantage on parades or 
reviews, and drill better. In fact, there has been a complete revolution of 
every thing appertaining to the whole brigade. 

'' 4lh. I can compare his popularity w-it,h the men to nothing else bnt to the 
French army in the days of Napoleom I; they almost worship him, and 
would follow wherever — follow, did I say? no, they would go wherever hs 
poi'its as the path of duly. 

"6th. Their confidence in his military skill is unparalleled in the history 
O^lhis cnuntry since the days of WaseiNGtOiT. He seems to have every little 
itOQi of military education and stratagem, neceasary to hs need in such a 



campaign aa ihis, at his finger's ends, and, no matter wl,st he may bo doing, 

cular, he will (rive eirher just as il' he hod been ihiukiug of nothing else thun 
the subject siigKPSted by the qii^alion; in a word, he \a a niiliiary man in Iha 
etnciesi sense of thai tf-rm. His peruBptioo of the capaoUiliea of a man for 
auy work he may be wanted for is as quick aa lisrhtniiifr, and he only needs a 
glance. He is also very strict about members of other brigades comiutr icaido 
onr linea without paaaea, and we have had ordera to arrest any puch found on 
the roads, or in any of the camps, nhile we nmy be on patrol duty; also, aaj 
of our own men found outside oar lines, wilb'iut paases from tl.eir colonels. 
You can judge, by thess iostanceB, aomewhat of bis character as a diaciplin- 

"I think I have written quite enough to convince any person of his fitness 
for the responsible post he now oecupiea. The question used to be a^ked, 
before he came, ' Who shell lend ns on?' but now it is, ' When shall we be led 
to meet our enemies 7' There are no fears of the result of such a meeting for 
an instant crossing our minds. Our Goal success is sure. Perhaps many will 
fall before it is attained. I may be of the number; but if I should, I wish all 
my friends to know that I fell at my post < f duty, trusting in Him who alone 
ia able to save from sin, who is on our side, aiding in putting down the most 
Wucli.haarted and damnable rehellioa the world ever knew. But I fear I 
ahall weary you with this long dry letter, I am well and hearty aa ever, and 
can still lift my eyes to the hills whence comelh our salvation. May God 
prosper our arms and nerve our arms for the great work before us." 

Within twenty-four hours — as stated — after receiving the 
notice of his appointment, Kear^ay joined his troops in front 
of Alexandria, and estahlished his headquarters in the Episcopal 
Seminary, about three miles to the south of that venerable but 
intensely rebel city. At this time the rebel commander-in-chief, 
Joseph E, Johnston, had his headquarters in Centerville, but 
his advance occupied positions from which not only were the 
spires of the capital and the dome of the capitol visible, but 
Arlington Heights were actually within cannon shot of his out- 
posts. One of the points held by the rebels was on Munson's 
Hill, not more than six miles north-west of Alexandria, and 
Kearnt was urged to witbdraw from the position he assumed 
as too dangerous to be maintained. Well might Kbaknt 
declare that he held the very outworks of the Union lines, and 
made his brigade in the very presence of the enemy. " Do 
they forget," * * are Kearny's own indignant words, 
" that I, on the heels of Bull Run, faced the enemy with a 

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Jersey brigade in advance of all the others, against all, McClel- 
LAN * * et id omtie genxis, nearly forcing me back to the 
Seminary. Do they forget me at Manassas ? My Jersey bri- 
gade that inflicted witb panic the retiring enemy?" His Third 
regiment was among the first of our troops to come into direct 
collision with the pickets of the enemy and to suffer loss iu its 
ranks from rebel bullets. 

" While thus promoting the efficiency of hU brigade in drill, comfort, and 
health, m which he succeeded wonderfully, he kept them all alive to the fact 
that they were soou to fight. General MoCLELLiN had given orders to with- 
draw thsir outpOBtB to a line near Washington ; General Kbahnt espostulatsd 
Bucoess fully, and kept hia troops consUntly on the watch. They were the 
yanguard of the army. Hia object was to generate military vigilance." 

" The experience of the brigade during the fall and winter 
months was marked by but few incidents of importance, the 
time being mainly occupied in driU and the ordinary camp du- 
ties. There were now and then occasions, however, when the 
tedium was relieved by movements which served to test the 
mettle of the troops and prepare them for the dangers and hard- 
ships of future campaigns. The Third Regiment was amon" 
the first to come into direct collision with the pickets of the 
enemy and to suffer loss in its ranks from rebel bullets. On the 
20th August, this regiment, while reconnoitering near Cloud's 
Mill, fell into an ambuscade, and lost two men killed and four 
wounded. On the same day a company of the Second Regi- 
ment had a skirmish with a body of the enemy, in which one 
man was wounded, the rebel loss being twelve in killed and 
injured. On the 29th of September, General Kearnt made the 
first important demonstration which had had been since Bull Run 
in the nature of reconnoissance in force, the troops consisting of 
the First Brigade, Hexamer's battery, and a company of 
Colonel Young's Kentucky Cavalry. The object of the move- 
ment being to ascertain the character of the enemy's works on 
Munson's Hill, some distance from our lines, where he was sup- 
posed to be strongly fortifying, the expedition was conducted 
with the greatest caution, and, the troops behaving with the 
greatest steadiness, though within shelling distance of the 
enemy, it was eminently successful, General Kkakny obtaining 

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precisely liie information he wanted, and information, too, whicli 
proved of the greatest value aa a guide in future operations. 
On the loth of October, a detachment of the First Regiment fell 
in with the enemy, mainly cavalry, and after a brisk skirmishi 
in which they emptied a nuiiiber of saddles, retired with the loss 
of three or four killed. Those ekirmishes were only important 
in so far as they trained the men to vigilance and celerity of 
movements, though they undoubtedly gave a spice to the other- 
wise dull and monotonous life of the camps." 

While thus kept in enforced inaction, Keakny's active mind 
was continually dwelling upon the best plan of operations, 
although that military sagacity and acquaintance with military 
love, which had excited the surprise and admiration of the 
French Generals, was neither invited nor suffered to participate 
in the councils of McClellax. It is a curious fact, which the 
writer heard remarked in the fall of 1861, that McCleixan 
seemed to put more confidence in his German division than any 
other in his army, and no one had more access to him than its 
commander, except some especial favorites, not one of whom 
maintained his relative position in the Army of the Potomac 
longer than a few months after McClellan lost his own. 

As it may interest the reader to know what Kearny's views 
were in regard to the prosecution of the campaign in Virginia, 
the following may be considered as a sort of epitome of his 
opinions. It is founded on conversations, letters, in which 
military considerations were .too much intermingled with private 
matters to permit their insertion, from remarks repeated by 
common friends, and his own indorsement of suggestions laid 
before him from time to time. To sum the whole matter ap, 
Kearnt was very much of the same opinion as Lord Napier 
— the one who has just acquired so much celebrity by his suc- 
cessful Abyssinian campaign— that "the way to defeat an 
Asiatic army is by going straight to their heads, on every 
occasion," Upon which a critic remarks: "We suspect this 
re-mark contains the first principle of successful war every- 

This is undoubtedly so, provided the "forwards," or "have- 
at-them" is subordinated to the immutable laws of Strategy 

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and Tactics, and to tlie rules of Peactjcal Strategy,* wliiuh 
always involve the hardest kind of fighting, when the favorable 
opportuii ty presents itself. This was invariably the case with 
everygeneral who has left a great name behind him, and nothing 
hurlud the first Napoleon from his throne but that persistent 
hammering — feints and blows — inaugurated by Bluciiku, 
Tvhieh made him the idol of his Prussians, of all the soldiers he 
commanded, of the whole allied ai-my, and a greater favorite 
with the English nation than even their own greatest man, the 
"IronBuke" himself. 

During the fall and winter, while the Army of the Potomac 
in a surfeit of plethoric incapacity, was lying in the mud ai'oimd 
Washington, while McClellan was weaving those airy fabriL-a 
of ambition which resulted in the sacrifice of as fine an arma- 
ment as ever obeyed the ordei-s of one man, and in his own 
ultimate difficulties and removal, Keaeny was engaged in mak- 
ing that famous New Jersey Brigade which was the admiration 

of.the army, a biugade of which Brigadiei'-Genei'al C. S. W 

■wrote, on the 21st April, 1862, from the camp before York- 
town: "I am much inclined to think that Keaeny's brigade 
is the best in the whole army ; also that New Jersey has iu all 
respects fitted out her troops better than any other State. We 
have one brigade of Jersey troops in our (Hooker's) division, 
BO I can judge somewhat." 

The following note is evidence that the State of New Jersey 
itself was not backward in doing its peculiar duty. Would 
that all the other States had emulated such a noble example : 


Sit £!twaKwi(^, GODemor Oldeii (ly JVsw Jersey) : Sia ;••••** 
I tnbB this ooOBi-ioii, yonr Eiooliency, to express to job the great aaralratlon IVom all, 
mljLtaiy and civil, who ohserve as, of the moal liberal judicious, and enduring natn™ 
of all our equipment* and other army snppliea. As a General Officer, eommandiug 

* Pkactical Stratebt.— '■ I readily accept from yon this e^tpresslon. II compriaea 
alt that can be said or written npon skill m war. and I agree with ynu that Ihis it heet 
erinced by sparing the lives of Its Instinment? as much B8 poBSibie. " Lien of the 
IFnoiws." by General Hon. 8m EnwiRD I'ust, B. A., 18(IB; "Letter Dedicatory," III. 
[Compare '■ Fraetlcal SIrotegy," as illuBtrated l)y the AchievemeDta of Field Mamlial 
Tbaun, by J. W. DE P., 1863.] 

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The greater part of the time bcfure the Amy of the Potomac 
moved to coramit that fatal error, the march up the Peninsula, 
whirh had its origin in mistaken judgment, its unsuccessful 
execution through incompetent hamlling, and its results in a 
series of disasters, hall-fough^out battles, or unimproved vieto- 
■ ries, little better than defeats, except that so many thousands of 
the best rebel troops were swept from the board by the valor 
of our soldiers, not the generalship of their chief— General 
Kbaemi- was engaged in a correspondence in regard to the best 
plan of operation to be adopted. Kbaeny was always in favor 
ol' a direct advance upon Iticlimond on the line afterwards fol- 
lowed by Gbant. This, as we enjoyed the command of the 
Cliesapeake and its tributaries, would have enabled the fleet 
to supply the army as it moved onward through the various 
estuaries which penetrate so far as to almost ob °iate the neces- 
sity of any line of supply by land, or which, at all events, by 
constantly affording new bases of supply, necessitated only very 
short and easy wagoning transportation. 

Three plans were discussed in a correspondence with Kearny. 
The first was to mask Manassas with a sufficient force to 
ensure the safety of Washington and hold the enemy in that 
quarter in complete check; and, promptly, with the balance of 
the Army of the Potomac thrown forward in echelon, fall upon 
and capture the rebel forces along the Potomac, engaged in 
blockading that nver or in support. This was veiy^much 
in the spirit of Carnot's plan of operations in the year 
1793,* when ho. restored confidence to the Republican ai-miea, 
and converted defeat into victory. 

•C.BNOT.-Otie of .He moBl remarkable and Biicces.mi of the comWaalionP of (ho 
wars nf the Preoch Rei-iilution. eiecmed in 17n3. and due lo Carkot, may b* tak™ ag 
the first maniple of llie manner uf applyini- the Principle 1 nf Strategy, viz. ■ " To 
have, a? Ilie object of all operations and maiKenvres, tlie brinKinff the mass of the 
forcca sncceBPively into collision with fractione of the enemy." Carnot involved tha 
Prlneipla il) alone in his combination, and sen. Ihe entire unoccnpied French arm. to 
Dunkirk, with orders that, as .oon w the marked nnmerlcal superiority tbn* e'ven 
on that point should have decided the victory, to proceod lo the nest of the seven 
points" (and armies), ■■ and when the maf, of the French again bronghl. into collision 
wilh a fraction of the enemy, should have again given victory, to proceed lo the neit, 
and so on. (Cubt. I, 4, 1793, 152--3.) 

By this means the mass of the French was bronght into Collision with ftactiont of 
thecnemy, in the (bllowing maDnet: 




The second way aketclied out was to divide tlic army of the 
Potonaac into two bodies, the smaller to move down or rather 
up the Shenandoah Valley, cleaning out the enemy aa it ad- 
vanced ; the other and larger body to follow the line of the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad, the left wing on the line 
through Fredericksburg, both operating simultaneously and 
dependently. A junction was to be made through Gordons- 
ville or Charlottesville, and thence a combined blow delivered 
from the North and West upon Kichmond. This was said to 
have been Geant's original idea in 1864., Such was very much 
the system on which Eosecbans acted, which carried him from 
Marfreesboro' into Chattanooga, and closely resembled the plan 
which carried Shebmam from Chattanooga to Atlanta. Such 
was a course parallel to that of Gbast — Shebidan taking care 

1 The Duke or Tosk and FaaiTia were beaten— the Ibrmer embarked, the latter 

2. The array paseed to Menin, and tlie Pkibce of Ohakbe was beaten. 

3. The Itrtny arrived at Maubeuge, and Claihfayt eipetleneed a defeat in return. 

4. The army proceeiled to tlie Vosgce, and tlie Ddke of Bkuhbwick, being in a 
minority, was liliewiso defeated. 

B. The army having joQicd that of tlie Rhine, cbased WcRMBEn from the neighbor- 
hood of atrasburg. 

Hance, one of tbo most remarkable and beet manceuTres in the wars of the French 
Revolution iB nothing more than a simple dednction Irom Ptinetple I. The object 
Cabnot had, when Ibrmlng the combination, appears to havo been notliing else than to 
bring the mass of the French into collision with sncceselve fractiona ol the Coalition- 
ists. Thin combination was good, because It was in aecordanie with one of the prin. 
eiples of strategy ; had it been In aceordanCB wLtli two, it would bave boon much 
better; it with the three first prindijles, as ftir as possible under llie clreumstances, 

Th8 five i^lctories prodncoSan imperfect though a great result; because tbe enemy, 
being attacked in front he was driven back on bta natural and prepared lines of retreat. 
It appears that the Principle 1 might have been involved to tbe i 

iciple 3 In 

n, in tbe formaCioi 

., in the foliowing manner : After Ihe victory of Dunkirk, the French army. 
Instead of attacking all the while In ((ont, and thus losing the best part of the fruit? of 
vlcfciry, should take the Mose, with its five fortified towns, as (he base of manienvres, 
*nd thus intercepting Bbhiowski. CLiiHPaiT, and tbe PmncK of Obanoe from their 
commnnications, attack them In renerse. or even in r*or, defbat them (which wonld he 
an easier task than to defeat them in tVont), and drive thorn as vigoronsly as possible 
away from their linos of retreat. 

CiBBOThaBrecelved. generally, great honor for his combination, and merits it; for, 
&om the ordinary proceedings of the great majority of generals of his day, it is greatly 
to be feared, that, in almost any other hands than his, tbe additional army might have 
been divided into seven parts, and sent to reinforce the seven armies." — " Elenuntarj 
TreatiM oa Strategy," by Eownj Yates, B.A., London, 1855. (Second edition, pp. 14-1':.) 

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of the rebels in the Shenandoah Valley — after he had worked 
through tlie "Wilderness" and Htriiek home at the Army of 
Horthcrn Virginia, in Petersburg-lliehmond. 

The third plan was to make Norfolk the base of operations, 
and march on Richmond through Tetersburg, In the last two 
cases a sufficient force was to be left to cover Washington, which 
was to co-operate with the main body at the proper time and 

The Shenandoah Valley was never to be left open, but a suffi- 
cient force was to be stationed therein to close it against any 
such attempta'as were made from time to time by Jackson and 
his successors. Rosecrans was sent into the Shenandoah Val- 
ley to gather together, in 1862, the forces sprinlded about at 
random, and provide for the safety of the capital and the purg- 
ing of that channel of disaster, which was a constant scene of 
disgrace, until fiery Phil. Shbeidan swept through it with the 
besom of destruction, with the steel to the bosom of the rebel 
army, and the "torch to the roof" for the rebel supplies, which 
latter course the French critic da our war, Roussillon, declared 
"should have been applied at the outset," and which was with- 
held only too long for the safety of our troops and of Washing- 
ton, and for the honor of our arms. This Shenandoah Valley, 
was, indeed, one of disaster and disgrace to the North, through 
utter want of that "practical strategy" which distinguishes key 
points and eliminates the useless while conserving the beneficial. 
Whether correctly or not, it has been stated that, " Winchester 
was' taken and retaken seventy-sis times ;" whereas it should 
have been taken by Patterson, or rather by his motor, in July, 
I86I, and never afterward suffered to relapse into the power 
of the enemy. 

During the winter and early spring, a correspondent, etimit- 
lated by the questions and approbation of General Kearnt, 
was continually studying out the feasibility, the details and 
parallels of his firat two propositions. In August, 1861, a de- 
tailed account was published of the campaign of the Austrians 
against Eugene Beaithaknais, in I81.3-'U, which was almost 
analogous throughout to Kearny's second plan; and likewise 
the winter campaign of G^erget, which was similar in its 

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ejects. This systpin tcfts exactly the one followed by Napoleon 
in 1 797, whon he with his main army advanceA directly through 
Friiili, while Joubkkt tunied the Austrian right through the 
Tyrol; prouiscly as Kgarsy's secondary army should have 
operated in the Shenandoah Vailey. 

The same combined and simultaneons action, althongh not 
immediately subordinate, as in 1797, occurred in the campaign 
in which Napoleon operated in Germany, and Massena, in 
Itiily, in 1E05, and again in 1809, under the Viceroy Eucene 
in Italy; N by, working in together to the same ends on the 
Tyro], and Marmost from Dalmatia. In 1813 the game was 
reversed, and the French plan was put in execution against 
themselves with like soccessful results. 

The campaign of 1813 was a perfect reproduction of the cam- 
paign of 1797, only in 1813, the Austrians from the east, under 
Hiller, were pressing westward on the direct line followed by 
Napoleom, sixteen years previous, with Fe^tnek, flankinir 
through the Tyrol, retracing the steps of Jourert down the 
Adige. Had our arraies operated simultaneously through the 
Wilderness and up the Shenandoah, the rebels could not have 
maintained themselves at Manassas or at any intennediate point 
on the line of the Orange and Alexandria railroad. Had ihey 
attempted to do so, they would have found themselves in the 
same predicament as the Russians in their retrenched camp at 
Drissa, on the Dwina in 1812. 

Aft.iT the conflagration of JMoBCow when Kdtusoff operated 
upon the French flank along the Toluga road, the game was 
reversed, and the combined operations which should have cul- 
minated on. the Beresina, to the utter destruction of the French 
only failed through the tardiness of Admiral Tschitcuagoff 
and General Wittgesbtein. 

JOMiNi remarks, " without doubt, the fault of Admiral Tschit- 
CHAGOFP in a very great degree contributed toward their 
extricating themselves from the scrape. * * * It is a ques- 
tion which should be most admired, the plan of operations 
which brought the Russian armies from the extremity of Mol- 
davia, from Moscow and from Polotsk to the Beresina, as to a 
rendezvous in time of peace, which only just fell short of effoot- 

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ing tlie capture of their redoubtable adversary, or the admirable 
constaney of the hero thus pursued, which succeeded in forcing 
a paesage." 

A similar result to the one proposed was indicated by the ' 
simple occupation of Gallicia by SCHWAHTZBuiiEKa in 1813. 
(Charras, Gmrre t^e, 1813, iv. 100, etc.) The French ha.1 to 
abandon Poland at once and fall back behind the Elbe. Then, 
had Prussia been ready to move, the French would certainly 
have been thi'own back, with ease, beyond the Khine. 

A French army could have lived off the Shenandoah Valley, 
which would have obviated transport ; the Union army ought 
to h.ave done so. 

In 1814, Blucheb's line of advance of the Army of Silesia 
was equivalent to the " forwards " of an army up the Shenandoah, 
the main army of the Allies representing ours under Grant in 
the Wilderness. 

Massena, as admitted by Napieb, need never to have fought 
the battle of Busaco, 1810, which he lost, had he turned Wel- 
iTNGTON at the fii-st, through the Valley of the Mondego, to the 
right, or as be afterward attempted to do, when too late, 
through Boyalva, to the left.* As an example of this couise, 
take Grant's campaign of the spring of 1862. Albert Sydney 
JoussTOS was at Bowling Green; the capture of Forts Henry 
and Donelson threw him back two hundred miles, beyond the 

In fact, the grand tactics, wbose successful carrying out 
General Keabnt witnessed at the Co! de Mousaia, in 1840, 
was an exact type of the stragetical plan MoClellan should 
have followed, only on a grander scale, and more extensive, but 
not more ditRouIt theatre of action. Napoleon III conceived 
similar moves in 1 859. Why they failed is incomprehensible, 
considering the generals and troops be had under his control. 
At a later date, writing upon the same subject. General 
Kearny says : " It would have been so beautiful to have pushed 
after the enemy, and in doing so, isolate Fredericksburgh, carry 
it easy, occupy that road,, and thus turn those river batteries ; 

•Hakpebs' Alison, III, LIX.343-'50, especially 350, Col: S. 

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all the while near enough to Washington in case of any attempt 
upon it." 

Then aa to reconnoissances in force, Kbaent exactly agreed 
with GuEOwsKi (recall Napoleon's demonstration the night 
before Waterloo to discover if the English were retreating or 
determined to stand the hazard of the morrow's die) : 

"McClellan acts aa if he had taken tho oath to sorae hidden 
and veiled deity or combination, by all means not to ascertain 
any thing about the condition of the enemy. 

"Any European, if not American old woman — in pants, long 
ago would have pierced the veil by a strong reconnoisaance on 
Centreville, Here 'All quiet on the Potomac' " 

"And I hear generals, West Pointers, justifying this 
colossal offense against common sense, and against the rudi- 
ments of military tactics, and even science. ' Oh noble, but 
awfully dealt with American people ! ' "* 

Had McClellan ever read the extraordinary military career 
of Joes Cavaliek, with which Keaksy was well acquainted, 
and of which he often spoke, he would have understood the 
enormous advantages enjoyed by Lee, occupying a central 
position in a mountainous country, well known to him and his 
subordinates, and have provided against them, as Ghant 
eventually did, or any general would have done. Cavalier, 
it is true, was a marvel of genius, a heaven-horn general. A 
peasant by birth, and bred a baker's apprentice, before the ag,e 
of twenty he became general-in-chief of the Protestants of 
Languedoc, with no other knowledge of tactics hut.what he had 
picked up hy watching the manceuvres of troops in the streets 
of Anduze, or acquaintance with strategy except through the 
inspiration of common sense. He never had over three thousand 
men in hand and actually engaged in a body under his com- 
mand, and never wanted more, but he kept that number always 
complete, every one of which was a picked and tried soldier. 
Like Stonewall Jackson, he was a fanatic, and his troops 
were thoroughly fanaticised, fighting with the baiter around 
their necks, and worse. 

•GmowaKi-s ZMacj, 1. On. CompoM S7, m, 133, etc., nltll Luxa^'i "Uiiltea 

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This, together with a discipline of iron, quadrupled their 
strength. Even all this, however, without the genius of Caya- 
I.TKE, would have accomplished notiiing. To and fro, like 
.Frederic the Great in the Seven Years' War, he shot like a 
shuttle, and either paralyzed, held at bay, or beat sixty thou- 
sand Royal troops, of whom twenty thousand were veterans, 
cavalry as well as infantry, well supplied with artillery, com- 
manded by one Marshal of France, three able Lieutenant- 
Generals, three Marechav^-de- Camp, and three Brigadiers, no 
less distingaished. Marshal Montkevel estimated Catauer's 
numbers at twenty thousand, although they never exceeeded 
three thousand, "forged in the fire of battle and tempered in 
the sweat of marches," Cavalier was constantly victorious in 
isolated encounters, until a simultaneous concentrated move- 
ment nearly destroyed his column at Ifages, when he descended 
from his mountain fastnesses into the lowlands, cutting loose 
from his base, Nevertheless he did not succumb to any force 
of arms, although he must have finally been worn out by con- 
stant hammering. He fell a victim to a diplomacy, which, in its 
deceit, resembled that which put an end to the Algerian war 
by the seizure of Abd-bl-Kadee — and terminated the Seminole 
war by a similar treacherous capture of Osceola, As it was, 
the necessity of crushing him promptly and matching his genius, 
forced Louis XIV to send into the south of France the finest 
soldiers and best officers at the disposal of the French Minister 
of War, The English critic speculates with horror upon the 
effect of the presence of those generals and troops in Germany, 
but eapecially at Blenheim, both of which Cavalier kept fully 
employed in distant Languedoc. Had Cavalier never risen 
or been less than he was, the sun of Louis XIY would not 
have set in disgrace, and his motto of " Nec Plueibus Impae," 
" not an unequal match for numbers," might have been realized 
in an empire as extensive as that of Napoleon; and, as it was 
based on religion, more durable. 

Indeed, the failure of the English fleet, under Sir Cloudeslet 
Shovel, to co-operate with Cavalier frustrated the grandest 
plan of the Camisard leader and his adherents. Had the Eng- 
lish captains succeeded in establishing a communication with 

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the Cevenol leaders, and furnishing them with the tiyedcd sup- 
plies, it is almost impossible to calculate thtj enormous results 
■which might have followed. 

But the reader may say, what has this to do with o«r war S 
Everything. The plan of operations which finished Cavai.ieu 
was the plan of Kearny who was worthy to be named with 
ViLiARs, who ended Cavalier's career as Grant ended Lkf.'s. 
Incessant aetivity, simultaneous attacks of converging columns, 
allowing no respite, high-souled magnanimity blended with 
soldierly decision — no " pottering, half-hearted nesa," but Blu- 
ciiER-like "forwards," everywhere, wheo the tide had turned, 
and was on the rise; and it was on the rise in the winter and 
spring of 1862, 

Keaent knew all this well. He was thoroughly posted in 
military history. Hia information in this regard surprised 
generals of the highest rank and ability abroad. Nevertheless, 
he could take advice from outsiders, and thankfully avail him- 
self of the industry and ability of others, even if they i?ld not 
bear the trade-mark of the National Military Academy — that 
Academy, the glory of our country in its grand men, whose 
natural greatness it so greatly develops; the damage to our 
people in the caste-influence, and prejudices it has engendered; 
a curse almost, in particular cases, in its little men, by permit- 
ting them to claim weight for their opinions on exhibiting the 
original stamp of its mint. Sending a man to West Point who 
h^ not soldierly instincts in him, does not make him a soldier, 
any more than the mode of officering the English church makes 
good Christian ministers. It ci'eates a caste like the Egyptian 
priesthood, whose members claim for every one within the pale 
all the dignities and emoluments of the office; in which indi- 
viduals may possess the spirit, but it would not be natural to 
believe that the whole did. 

Alas ! were not all of Kb:arny's forebodings, founded on the 
apathy and mismauagement of that fall, winter and spring, 
fully realized in the sacrifices and incapacity of the ensuing 
Lod autumn ? 

>y Go Ogle 



Taaas. Thej tai onrpoHcy and cbII it cowardice; 

Forestall prexcien 

ci:, and es 

teem no acl 


1 cartB. 

That do fiontrlvB 1 


them on. 

bj measm 

t toll, the < 


Why, thia Sath no 

t a flDger') 


Thej call this Njd 

So that the ram. 11 

■ down (he 


For the great swii 

IS and rod 


B polae. 

Tbej place befoie 

he engine. 

Or tboi^tluCwlU: 


ees of thel, 

By reasoti i-uide b. 



(• wbich Euliseqnently clapsei 

V on the 


!.e made. " wDf time sqn«ud 

ered. absol 

utoly lost 

iiiE of Waterloo, after his 
(by Napoikob; ; and 
oftuu in war, losseu of this kind nan never be repaired." 

CHiRRig' " Hieloire de la Campasne tie 1S15, Waiaioo." 

'■In this the King of France [Lincoln] eFlabliBhed his own headquarters [WasMng- 
eon]. He did not himeelf pretend to ha a »ddler, fliriher than a natural indilTercnce to 
dauger. an^ much sagacity qnalifled htm to be called each ; but he was alivays careftl 
to oniploy the most ektllful in that profession, and reposed in them the conlidence they 
merited." Lincoln, it is stated, used to call K-k-r-h-y "his general,"— ^umiin iJur- 

Many persons have supposed that Keaknt's unfavorable 
opinion of McClellan was subsequent to those displays of 
inability — that is, inability to adjust, direct and fight so vast 
a force as the country confided to him ;* in fact, to fill com- 
mL'nsurately the immense role to which circumstances, to retard 
and ripen events, assigned him — an inability which paralyzed 

one whose conscqn nccs wcra felt to the end, was the defoctlve and iiijuriouB oi^anialt- 
tinn given to the Army of the Potoroan in the winter of 18Gl-'3. It was most nnforlnn- 
»te. that. wiW tlufiimt men and maieiita trrrfunUhea la any army of the world, (hat 
■rmy shonld hays boon orRaniKed with so little reference to the rales of wargoveminj 
the oritaniKation of armies," &c.,&c. Major-General A. PLBiBAHTON'a Snpploraontary 
Report. Eismine carefully pages 3 to 6. 

>y Go Ogle 


our army at the best season of the year for active operations. 
Tliia surmise is not correct. Already, in the fall of 1801, 
KEAE^fT appears to have lost ail confidence in iiim, from the 
fact that McClellan seemed to have lost all confidence in his 
troops. Writing fi'om his, the headquarters of the New Jersey 
Volunteers, at the Episcopal Seminary, near Alexandria, Decem- 
ber 8, 1861, he observed : 

" I am in favor of sending for one of them " [referring to some eiperlenced 
P reach general], "because I find that General McCLBLiAN is too diatruatfiil 
of his forces Since Baker's alTair (Ball's Bloff) to adopt liie trae keypoint in 

April 16, 1802, he sums np the matter : 

" Indeed, I have been deadly oppoasd to the river plan, as uncovering Wash- 
ingMn, without a single advant^e. Besides, MoClblIiAN is too slow to 
mancauvre out of a scrape." 

Keaent's soldiership was always too prompt and energetic, 
not only for McClellan, but for those immediately over him 
in command. Had Keai{ny's advice been followed, Kkaesy's 
"practical strategy" would have manceuvrcd the rebels out of 
their insulting positions in front of Washington the fall before 
the spring they did evacuate them, and almost as soon as they 
showed themselves there. His subsequent occupation of Man- 
assas was, perhaps, taking the times and all the other attending 
circumstances into consideration, ono of his most brilliant acts. 
It was not appreciated, because never properly brought before 
the people, and because the people, as a rule, appreciate no 
result of soldiership which is not purchased with lavish profus- 
ion of blood. 

When BuKNsiDK went to Albermarle Sound, he supposed the 
blow was aimed at Norfolk. " If Burnside takes Norfolk," he 
said, in effect, "be has the key of Richmond in his hand, and 
can go in through Pctersbarg, if he. only knows how to turn it." 

Nevertheless, Kbaent was anxious to give McCleixan every 
possible chance, as is shown by the following communication, 
which has not yet been published. 

It was written 15th December, 1861, at his headquarters in 
the Seminary, near Alexandria. 

>y Go Ogle 


'■is I have » * 
bt^l^d my diaj^ppoiultEietiC &] 
Du lime to guard you sad, t. 
widi his pUua, whatever tt 
from one policy to anotbe 
wro'ag ia eiptUiiig Scon- 
uudaunted teuiperHmeQt for 
althotii^h it may have turnei 
and slowly. These minor < 
His high mora!, military am 
been preserved by the admi 
wiih vciluDteers as insaders. 
yuu U> be assured against i 

pure charactar of Mr. Lincoln, which all beliere id, I do not think that his 
ttilmiuistration would survive a second Bull's Run. I am convinced that 
Mcl^LELLiN feeU this, nud is rendered over-oaulious by it. But all ahow him 
cousummateabtlities — that is, tsientB.f I certain Ij admit it myself. I deny 
him one spark of miiilary genius, and yet an nndaunWd, sober courage. 

■' lie Las been wofully wrong, politically; for, in the eyes of foreign govern- 
ments, our inaction can only pass for pusillsniraity. He was equally wrong an 
to i.liB temperament of his tronpa. They have less discipline today (mine 
addiiionally, from iDJudJcious interference, in takicg from me artillery and 
cavalry merely to leave them an uncontrolled bad eiample in our midal) from 
UEwless reviews, which their good sense tells them is nonsense, and out of 
place for ao array that has a slain to wipe out, and frcm the Continuous gui 
Vive in which we kept, until after Bakee's affair, and which has subsided into 
the idleness of winter quarters without the boldness of avowing it. Equally 
in an ill-judged delay, as a matter of season in October the roada were firm 
(lod in this noiintry the mere wood roads, out of season, are impassable), the 
days were long, the temperature genial, nor was there an excuse on the plea 
of material — our batteries were completed, our eavalry more than sufficient. 
As to numbers the enemy increases his force even more rapidly than we do. 

• ProBsian "Seven Weeks Wor," in 18BG. euhsequent to the SJavcbolderB Eabellton. 
Closed 1805, eerUinly dlBproved this if oar Great Civil War bad not already done eo. 

t "I entertain a very high oplaion of 'a talents; bnt lie always appeared to 

me to want what Is better than abilities, viz.; sound eense. Tlicre Is ahvay» some 
mletaten principle In what he does. Slh Angast, 1818, and again, lath June, 1814. 
* • "if he had less pride and more common sense, and ronld have 

carried hie measure Inlo ezecntlon 88 he onght to have done, it would have succeeded " 
Wblliboton, " rich in saving common sense." Thie bears out the old adOBc, " com- 

(he moment, is Ibe beet wisdom I know," HohackWalfolk. "Fine sense and eiallcd 
Benss are not half bo nsoflil as common sense." Adbwahlee. Pabc*!. hBB som* very 
cnrioiis and apposite remarks on geometrical minds. Chap. IX. | IH., worthy of con- 


222 raoGRAPny op major-general philip keaent. 

And here whs a false elementary cnrnputaMoD by the getiernl. Aiici il u-gg 
SIcGlcllan's plBTj to have opened the panie at thai time. The mist.Bi. of 
B*Kett uimerv.d Mm. He d,d Dot d»re to truat hiB tro.:pa ,r il,.y f„il«i ^, 
th«M flrso s«.p. The Ifflioj. details .b to a m,.ve detailed al l.i,g,l, i„ army 
orders to the coramaTid (..iilj the last care, whea «11 eUo has bee., arra„Ke.i), 
proved incontesiably that fuuii was ihe case, in fnrty-ei^ht homs alter I 
aa-eried that ihs day of the campai|;n was indt^Mitdy posipnued. 

■' ITowever, General McClellan U not such a maa of universally allowed 
taleu.s aot to have his oiva determii.ed line of policy. It is ,l,«t I deprreate 
.-Merrrnnj. w,tb him no« that I write, lest I .nay have beet, previously „.i^ 

'■Stott is gone, and none more likfly than McCij;u,an remains. All ara 
eq.iaily untried. Military habit of mind and praciioe of necessary military 
elements may have instincl, Euei^y, militarily dir.clsd, may be 
second nature. The logic of military compr. hension may eiirpaes all oHier 
analy.-is — all of which loake good subaltern geneTals— but genius alone can 
suffice for operations of hundreds of tbousands, over a epace of uear a wniia- 
eiit; and that man is yet to prove himself. 

'■I have flnii'hed all my p^ptr, and I fear have hored you with a vpry long 
letter. My health hus a regi.lar break-down, but I will soon be up. With 
best regard," etc. 

It is seen that in closing his letter Keaent aUiidps to liis 
health. It is a great mistake to suppo.«e that Kearny oiijoyed 
robust health. The only time that he ever seemed to I)e free 
from the moat distressing attacks was while he was in Africa 
and engaged in active service in tlie presence of the enemy, feel- 
ing, as it were, the grating of his blade. While at Sanmur, in 
1839-'40, he was often confined to his bed; when in Italy, in 
1834, he was dangerously sick. 

He used to remark that it might be said he had lived upon 
calomel; or again, that he liad taken calomel enough to kill a 
horse. People were often deceived in regard to his condition, 
from the fact that his energy rose superior to his bodily ailments 
the moment that duty called him into the saddle. Days of con- 
stant exposure and activity were often succeeded by sleepless 
suffering, when nature most demaniled the recuperation of re- 
pose. He aged terribly during the short period of his general- 
ship, and was very grey when ho fell. 

Again he wrote, still from the same spot seven weeks after- 

>y Go Ogle 


Lamp SBMlVim "Va Fi-Hruirj 8 1862 

"Tours * * • ha^o been recBivsd It was a truly militarj 
treat, and evinced what I claim for you as a spirwlite ra talenta a wo der ul 
coiumiiud ofVaam from the past, with a geiiiuB in their adaptatioD tn nvolve 
particular theories for a future 

" Yi>u have placed GiEiiGiiY a cimpatgu m a most unpressive hght before 
ue. I htid read the Bame boik and had ilruoac torgotieu it I r^sd it, 
althouah an American officer mo e as apoiiiicd Uieme, at bestouly iLataciL- 
Oil lUtit, and without panieular referenoa to the map, 

" After one general glance at it, for main poiuts, yuu prove that ynu atudied 
it iu the light of strategy. One ihing is certain ; it was a Winlei-'s Caiiipaii/n 

•• Still, there is much that is different, if you adduce it aa a Sb-ateyy, thiit is 
appllcdhle to ourselves. I do not regard it as such, further than aa a proof 
of the power of Overcoming obataclefl. 

"GtEBGBT's army was never more than what would be two to three or four 
of our divisions, the Austrians small in proportion; whereas the theatre of 

"Ojr «rmiea are about 400.000 to 500,000 of a side, and although eitending 
:ross 1,000 miles, being intersected by mountain', are both separate and 
lited, at lexst admit of no manceuvring around our enomy. 


■' It is very oertniu that this ia also McCi.ellan's. One ia led to suppose so 
from the ag^^Io me ration of forces there. They are nearly two'thirds in eseeaa 
of the enemy, besides the Sotilta. 

"Thnt ihe enemy must fall back, beaten or othermse, and Tennessee lie 
overrun (provided, as would be the case, we detach some 50,000 picked men 
from this army to the West, McClellan going in person), and Netr Orleans 
taken, ia a certainty. 

"The only question which would arise are, in the first place: BKAUREflAHO 
would occupy the Alleghaniea, and prevpnt any entrance into Virginia, with 
far mora facility than he ever doea at Manassas, In the second place, if 
Bbaukegakd is gifted with genius (and those who know him intimately, with 

>y Go Ogle 


a life-long experience, although they deny it, in their hearts accord it to him), 
he may, when our armies are launched well South, operate himself in our 
rear, and with a last effort in Tennessee jeopardize, if not destroy, our previ- 

"I roairitBin, therefore, thul, although the river couraos and its commercial 
iraportence point out the Valley of the MiBsissippi fur ua to adopt aa our line 
of ope ration a, that Eichmond, though at present the more difficult and 
apparently phy-ically, ' maleiidlement,' the less important, is, in fact, the 
ohject we should strive for; ' materkUement,' also, because, that taken, 
Virjrinia would l>e fouod full of Unionist. 

"North Carolina would declare itself so, without a blow. We then hsve 
the debouches of the Alleghanies iu our favor, fiuee their population is with 
us, and form the key-point of the corners of the Middle States and Southern 
Stales, we paley all, overrun the still rebellious, demand New Orleans and the 
Uississippi banks to reassume agaiust facLionista, their comforts, their com- 
merce, their welfare, and their peace. 

" So much for my reasoning. The problem I consider nearly reduced to the 
tactical, and I ivould like you lo consider this, aad tfill me bow best to dis- 
lodge the people from Manassas. 

"For myself I Bay, that it is even now to be done as it would have been mHCh, 
better done in Septemljer,'iG October, even in November, viz., rapidly lo mask 
ManassuB, and simultaneously with troops from all quarters, even Baltimore, 
TbU on JonxsTos. lie and all beyond him would be out off, or get back nifiat 
rapidly into Manassas. We cotild lake end hold Winchester,^ and ihfu com- 
mence a turning move, cutting the rebels from the Rappahannock; all this 
while offering them a pitched battle. If they themselves disposed (Uioy 
would ba fiirced) to come out of their intrenchments at Mauossas to get it. 
We are superior to them, and I do not see why, in masses, we should not fijht 
as well, and if we are to be beateu, then the oftener we are beaten the sooner 
we will learn to tight. It is the history of all Ijeaten people, who have mea 
and money in auperaban dance. 

'■ Another plan seems in me to mask Manassas towards tbeir right, and 
then with forty thousand mon, destroy their thirty thousand men pouth of 
UB from Occoquan Creek to Aquia, &o. This, also, would most probably force 
them to Sght iu the open fli-ld, and then to seize Fredericksburg aud thua 
communicate with eipeditions up the York river, or James and {al'-hongh it 
has some fearful difficulties) thus attack Richmond almost from the rear 
(from the north and north-west). 

* The reader H'ill see herein foreshaaowed Bsioo's Eentncky campaign of 1; 

December ISlli and IBtli. ]S». 

t Wtnohester was conaidered an important stmgetic point before the Eev. 
and was fortifled at the earifeet date of tbe Anelo-Colonial-French Ware. '■: 
or Gen, Okjham," Edinburg, IWi. 

>y Go Ogle 


" Now I am very aosioua to tave you give me your views pro and con, and 
as to feasibiliiies. !□ the idleaess ol' our camps, we the poor generals, diecuss 
ad UMlam, all these plana, inasmuch as General McOlellan'i^ policj iB to 
exclude every one from bis presence. At first there were a few generals 
adnillted to s»e him (about the time of his reviews). Latterly there is nobody. 
Some generals, as, ic, &c., have not seen him at all, except at 
th"8e reviews, and the others almost not at all. This quality of reticence and 
secrecy are valuable qualities in a man like Louis Napoleon, or in one of 
genius — a quality other than mere talents — but I consider it most unfortunate 
in UcClellau, Talents he has ; genius ho has not. The trifles in the army, 
w a, swell to essentials from their utter mismanagemeat, prove 

h M C B N (even if from our great resources he succeeds) is at the anti- 
p d genius, which, like the first Napoleok, could dispense, if he 

d, w h 1 aid, since in the midst of a campaign, he could regulate the 
pp s of a newly organizing regiment. So far * * * from 
y b g able to advise for large bodies of men, cone that tnow you 

w d a m If there exists a preventive, it is that you take the world 
a much by force instead of receiving it in practical working 

h as human nature constitutes it. But I have not the slightest 
d b h your friends will gradually be able to bring your utility more 

Again, Kkaeny wrote from Alexandria, on the 19tli February, 

" Saturday evening I received a telegraph notice of the serious illness of 
'ABCHiE'(his idolized son). I look forty-eight hours' leave, arrived home 
Sunday at dawn, comforted Agnes, I believe witnessed a favorable change in 
the disease" (typhoid fever) " of my boy, and left on Monday at 11 p. u. 
Arrived yesterday in time to take my place, at 10 a. m. on the Board, I had 
b-en detailed to (clothing and uniform), and at night went to my brigade. * * 

" I have to Ihunk you for four interesting letters, although not meeting fully 
my hopes. I had hoped that as to passing pieces in the mud that you would 
have been able to have remembered to have joined in your extensive reading 
positive fects as lo what had beeu used. 

" The printed matter you sent me was most interesting. You have a won- 
derful faculty of Introducing and printing for the public, subjects that ate 

''The notions are good; as lo certain points; as to masking I^Ianassas, it 
may have been originally yours, but it also belongs to General McDowelTj and 

" It spoke for itself; the moment you could not force them. As to the idea 

of Albemarle Sound, I' know that it was yours a long while since. I am 

quite ready to suppose, that you were treated thus * * * precisely 

because you had given to him, or others (his stafQ ideas which struck him as 


>y Go Ogle 


feasible; that he intended to adopt tbeni, (or they might hove coincided with 
his actual plaiic,) aiid leaned lest by an iulervieur, lie niight betrwy the 
importance he flilHCbed to them ; or it might truly be, that he is ueoessurily 
BO overworked, that he ould uot Hod time to see you, 

■'Tlier* is bo miiclL itidiaoretion, even treachery, chat McC has made 

a rule to see few officers. 

" HiiisrzELMAN aud most of the generals never see him; I Ihink that he is 
wrong, for much esonpes him tliat ouRlit to be done, and espeo'MlIy since lie 
is an enginper; and tiiipe bo has brought so many olher engineera, and put 
ti'em m bitrh places, win are as ignorant as liimself. I soroetimfs.thjnk, ihal; 
C. F. Smith, and Grant, and EnELL will cut him out, Blthoogli I am quite 

ready to believe that no person surpassed MeC as a man of gre t tal- 

aiiti, as a msthemii,ticiaQ and calciilntor. He is slao a man of real coiiraae, 
aliUonsrh I Bnd io many occasions that he has been guilry of ' lalonve^-mi.' 

Bun ill! allow that McC is a superior man, I am sorry to ?By, that I 

think, that he wanla first what Geoeral Scott eicslled all military men 
in, his geaijis for command (Ibe iunale knowledge of handling men), and yet 
you are of the opinion that Scott was overrated. 

'■ I refer you to the Freucti ScliooL of Generals, where eiin and tacti^l pow- 
ers nf naitid flevate the officer, and are regarded as procuriog succesB fur innre 
than strategic snb;I'-tj'. For myself, I know of no one short of Napoleon, in 
this century that has equalled ScoTT; and it is to be remembered ihat he led 
bis men to the bayonet chaise, at a period when all had been in the habit of 

Befiire closing this chiipter, a couple of paragraphs from the 
Address of Coktlandt Paekek, Esq., are too apposite to bo 
omitted — even although they embrace what may Beem to be a 
repetition of ideas already presented — since they contain extracts 
from Phil. Keabxt's letters, reflecting on passing events: 

" And BO the autumn of 18SI rolled on ; Kearny, ami a few like him, impa- 
tienily longing for ihe order to advance; Ball's Bluff cheekiof! and rtehiyiug 
it, aod carrying sorrow and almost, dismay to the hearts of the Norihern 
patriots; Draneaville, psrlmlly reassuring Ihera, the victories South and west 
invigorating tlie recolntion of the Nation; General McClellan bustling hither 
and t.hither, reputed busy and suncessful in organization; the Cabitiet, the 
PrBsidsut and the Nation, waiting long, at first with full, then with scarce 
half confidence in the oommandiug Genera!, for the moment whan, with the 
advaucs of the Army of the Potomac, the haughty Confederacy should dis- 

" It was not long, however, before the lyni-like perception of General 
Kbabny saw the truth as to his commanding General, and he expressed it, 
□lit iDsubordinately, but confidentially, and with many cautious and generous 



hopea that he might be mistaken. In Octoher, 1801, he writes: 'I see a 
vacillation in his great ohjeete, allowing small objects to intrude.' ' That Gen- 
eral McClellan.' he writes, in February, 1362, ' hn3 had full sway for his great 
speciaiite — talents of calculation and long-headedaesB — is most fortunate for 
him and the oountrj. But the United States alone, of all countries, could have 
supplied by her wonderful virgin resources for a want of genius of command 
which would, early in September have decided, by timely fighting and maneuver- 
ing, V!h"t we were doing ■aov) by dead montenimn. Fifty thousand more troops 
on the Potomac would have maneuvered the enemy, with sure succeaa, oiit of 
ManassiiH iu Septpmber last; England would not have Insulted ns; foreign 
powers not been doubtful of us ; the greatness of ike American naiJie been more 
immsdintdy vindicated, and the terrlBc expenses been saved by a speedy termi- 
nntion of the war.' March 4th, 18G2, he speaks more decidedly: 'Although 
there ia no one eiactly to replace McCi.ellak, I now proclaim diatincily that, 
u nie as « chief, a line officer not an engineer, of military p»-e5%e (success under 
fire with troops), ia pnt in command of the Army of the Potomac (leafing 
McClellan the minor duties of Seneral-io-Chief), we will come in for some 
awful diS'Ster; the only person to take bis place is General 0. F. SunH, in the 
Army of Kentucky.' 

"Up to this time be and General McClellan had never clashed. These 
opinions were the result of his observation, and very much of his conviction 
thai BjU'b Bluff was really an advance from which McClellan shrunk back 
and threw the blame on General StOMB unjustly — scared by the flrst disaster. 
Nut long after he saw biniself what he deemed evidence of t!ie inferiority of 
MoClbllan's genius, aod thenceforward he was decided in his depreciation 

>y Go Ogle 



" New Jbksey Binia, Ihe bold nna Irne, 
Though email the Stale, the men (hough ftw, 
They prov'd, In eighteen siity-two, 
They'd deeds of Boventy-ali ontdo; 
Hew Jersey Bluea. je bold and Irae, 
Were worthy Keaknit, KEiENT jonl" 

Jl the troopB from this State (Kew Jersey), thelc £s11aiil conduct during tli 
, the command existed, rendcrod Invaluable aid to the National cause. " 

Capt. Ulake's " T/iree Years to t/if Army." 

" Now Is the winter of onr discontent 
Made slorinus aummer by thla ■ son ' of York." 


"And now he writes + • for hie rcdrosa : 
Sweet acrollf to fly abonl the streets of Home I 
What's this, hnt libelling against the Senate, 
And blazoning onp injustice everywhere f" 

The fall of 1861 had been wasted. It was a season admirably 
adapted to military movemente. This is admitted by all the 
generals who testified before the Committee on the Conduct 
of the War. The winter also had drifted away in inaction. 
McClellan, "from hie comfortable house in Washington, is- 
sued orders to all the military forces of our country," while, 
throughout, the rebels continued to flaunt their insulting ensigns 
within sight, not only of our camps, but almost of our Capital. 

>y Go Ogle 


TIlis they may be said to have blockaded (in the same degree that 
Scbaatopol was besieged), since their batteries commanded the 
Potomac, and menaced any foraging parties — sorties, in fact 
— which ventared beyond our lines. Even Drainsville, so 
highly honorable to oar ai-ms, had been a mere sporadic effort, 
altogether without results, except the glory acquired by the 
troops engaged. That which had made Keabnt most indig- 
nant at the outset was the rebel occupation of Munson's Hill,* 
aiid a friend, in constant communication with him, recorded that, 
if his suggestions had been attended to, or bis proposition bad 
been accepted, the enemy would have been driven out at once, 
ignominiously, if not actually captured. As on so many other 
occasions, Kbaent's proposition to move out against them was 
made known to the rebels by some traitor within our lines 
almost as soon as it was suggested ; and they availed them- 
selves of this, so as to render the contemplated manceuvre as 
unnecessary as unadviaable.f 

The spring at length arrived. The general-in -chief now 
talked of moving, in the worst season for military movements, 
after having wasted the best, since it is indisputable that, as a 

* " C*Mr SHEllMAII," Washington, Sept. HT, 1961. 

"Tho rebel flag is now wflvingln Bight of the Preeident'B house. I, myself, saw it, 
though unable to distinguish the coiors. Ths plscB is Munson's Hill, three and a half 
or four miles from the ctty. Daily sticmiahea take plncB In hearing of the city ; even 
now I hear the report of mnsltetrr in the ilistflnce, and perhaps some good soldier has 
tollsn in defense of hi* country, while I have been writing these three lines."— SWWicr'a 
Letter, by iTnii MnrTUBB Post. 

tThat we made no reconnolaaitnces In force at this time la most astonishing, ntlflrly 
Ineipiicable. Gcrowski, In his Diary from March, 1861, to Mnrcli, 1983. refers to this 
atpagelSt: " McClellab actsas if he liad taken the oath to some hidden and veiled 
deity or combmation, by all means noKoaseerlain any thing aboutlhe condltJon of the 
enemy Any European, * • Jong ago wonld haye pierced the veil by a strong 
reoonnoi'sance on Ceutreyillo. Here 'All qnlet on the Potomac.' And 1 hear Gene- 
rals • • jnsti^Ing this colossal offense against common sense, and against tha 
ruiliments of mtillary laiHcs, and even science. Oh, noble, bnt awMlj dealt with 
American people." 

On the subject of reconnolsaances the military reader is referred to " Theorie Gene- 
rale d-s Ketonnalssances MiliUires, mise en Concordance avec le Hegloracnt sur la 
Service des Anneea en Campagne et dcfluile des Pratiques les pins usltees dans les 
.Qnerres Modernea; ouyrage corapose pour S. A. It. le Cno de Brahant, et offertaca 
Prince en mannserlt lUustre ; par YiCTOB-SBVEBi^t Sobieski be Jskina, Capltahie com- 
mandant la Us batl*iie 8e Regiment d'Artillcrie Bol^e, ex-premier Bleve de 
I'Ecole, d'appllcation de Varsovle. LIbrarle Milltaire. de J. DcuAisi (Ancienne UaiBoa 
Ansolin), Sue et Passage Dauphine, 80, Paris, France." 

>y Go Ogle 


rule, our flnost weather is in the fall, especially that lovely 
period "Indian Summer," when the balmy atmosphere of the 
epiing is tempered by the bracing coolness of the autumn. 

In the second week, " the Ides of March," the rebels evacuated 
Manassas, but not altogether, as they still held their immense 
works with a rear guard and made a display of maintaining the 
poet.* According to their own acconnts, their detei-mtnation to 
do BO waa not influenced by any action on our part. To those 
who place implicit faith in official reports, there is no benefit to 
be derived from the discussion of their motives. It is not likely, 
however, that they abandoned such scientific and extensive 
works as they had erected at Ccntreville and Manassas, if they 
had not been kept thorouglily advised of the contemplated 
movements of the Army of the Potomac. Joe Johkston, who 
had succeeded Beaukbgakd in the chief command in front of 
Washington, at the close of January, ] 862, was not the man to 
abandon an inch of ground which could be contested with ad- 
vantage.! As Keaknt's i-eport, in regard- to his participation 
in that admirably executed advance which drove their rear 
guard out of their immense works was " suppressed" * * 
by McClellan,§ it is very likely that he had accomplished 
much more and deserved far more credit than his superior, pre- 
judiced and partial, was willing to bestow upon an independent 

* AccordlQg to TOWHSEND-S cyclopedia, vol, H, SI, 62: qaoHns Herald, lS(?i Msreb, 
1888, etc.: Ths rebels n.lvanced to Vieona to cover preparations for retreat. Kesunx 
was sent to gnard the pnrty rebuilding the bridge at Beck's (Burke'?) Station. MBrch 
lOth. Vienna, according to the map at hand, le on)j la miles due west ol Waebingtoa. 

i See '• Battli FUlda iif l/ie South," chap. Kiz.pas^iei and ie&.'i. 

% COBTnANnT Parkeb, General KiABBr's particular friend and counsel, at page 13, 
o( " Philip Eearht, Soldier iBD Patriot." uses these words: • • "General Mo- 
Clbllik suppressed his report, as If not entirely pleased with the oecuirence." The 
writer applied to the War Department through Inflnentlal friends (to whom he tenders 
hip wannest thanks for their assistance), and all the replies agreed aa to (here being no 
ench report to be fouad. In MoClellan'b own report, at the place where Ihe evacna- 
tlon i» relterred to (pages 1^ " Enemy's Worto of anrfBsorJfomwsiH," etc., to page 1S3, 
where the subject of Manassas Is dismiesod) General Kearny's name la not mentioned, 

own especial report, which is not to be fouud, nor those of his aubordinates, of which 
copies are anncied to this chnpler. 

Since this waa written, an officer of the United Stales Amy, holding a Major-Gene- 
ral's command at that time, remarked that ha had heard the Kiaeni report (referred 
to) apoken of and dlscaased. 

>y Go Ogle 


tliinker, out-spoken, and filled vfith ideas antagonistic to his 

Ill the preparation of that portion of this biography which 
relates to the occurrences of 1802, it was determined that 
Keaeny himself, eye-witnesses and disinterested narrators 
should be permitted, as far as possible, to tell the whole story. 

"Iq March, 1863, the rabela evacuated Manassas, basteDed thence by the 
enterprise and dush of General Kearsy. It ie but justice to cotice this, for 
his reports never saw the light. IndeGd, that affjir, iuateHd of helping hia 
advancement, evidenily and moat wroiiKfully rswrded it. We will ttll Che 
Etnry in his own worda, under date of March 12, 1B52 ; 'I was on the Uni- 
form Board ;* dined wiih the Prince Db Joihvillb on Thursday ; the next day 
leisurely got up and went to the ferry to go to camp. I was just goiag on 
board the 'steamer when General Suuner got off, and aaid quite eiciledly and 
flurried to rae. ' Why, your brigade ia off; ordered to Burke's Station to relievo 
General Howakd in guarding a railroad party.' I hurried to camp; found 

the brigade still there ; went to Fhanklis's headquarters ; he was in W , 

and. by telegraph, sent ua varying orders from moment to moment, as if all in 

W were undecided. Finally, late in the day, orders came to take fiirty- 

eight hours' rations, and be prepared to remain two d^ya at Burke's. It was 
three o'clock | the troops looked elegantly, and although the march was awful 

• Tha foUowing letter in lonnection with this Uniform Board has interest, inasmuch 

Militin can prndiice officers of the hishest capacity na well as West Point. It is not 
well to forget that ths MlUtla. In the r«mouE defence of Lillo, rivolJed the Keenlars led 
by the (Bmoaa Bodfflbeb; und llib has been the case often elsewhere, even in onr 

Civt SmiMiBT, Janjuarg 31, ISBS. f 

" Yonr most Interestlnfi letter atill affords mo inhjcot of reflection, and, etrange to 
My, the BnRNami eipedition eeems to be about to realize yonr project as to Albemarle 
Sonnd" (the adTanceon KIchmond, through Petersburg, from the base of Korfolk). 

•■ I think tliat I thanked you for the [utcrestinj; eslracts yon lOnvarded me from the 
nsofal translations made by you from the German. • • • It was a noble pearl before 
conceited • t * * • i haue recently been thrown Into contact, most agreenWy, 
with Oeneral Buttebfield. He seems a charmins jfentleman and of the right mute- 
rial. L give yon credit for yonr discernment to him. He has been brout-ht ftirward 
entirely by regular otBcers, ■ ' • and Iherefore 'olely on bis merits. I have ever 
said (hat his Twelfth resiinent was one of the most superbly set np regiments that I 
have CTer seen in any quarter of the globe and pnnclpally composed of raw men (so 
mnch the better for him with his good discipline) • • * The Sonth must crack and 
crash." • » • 

Again he speaks delightrully or the same Oci eral Mb Apr ], 1603 : -I saw onr noble 
friend BnTTBRnELD yesterday ; he was Gonoml in th" 1 renches. He la bound (0 be a 
very distinguished ofHoer ; he has a peculiar gill or admmiatratton, and great military 
spirit, and is a noble'hearted fellow." 



owing to the rpada, they kept up their spirits. It waa four o'clock, daybreak, 
when I arrived at Burke's. I slept an hour, mounted a fceah horse, aud jral- 
loped about until twelve witb General Hoivahd and others, atudjing my 
poaitioQ, I was then galioppiug about, eioepl; a cap for two iiours, on olher 
fresh horses, till nine at night. The oeit day I ascertained by negroes tliaC 
the enemy were preparing to leave. I immedialely pushed on with my troops 
and inanceuvered in all directions, all which resulted in my driving them back 
everywhere. I kept applying for orders, which were not sent me, but atil! I 
kept on. General McClellan's whole movement has been thus brought 

'' 'I was tJiG flrst to enter the stronghold at the Junction. My Third New 
Jersty planted their flag, and I was returning to Ceutreville when I met 
General MoOlbllajt and all his staff, and aome two thousand horse, approach- 
ing with sk rm she a, as f we were Seceas on stt * They had done he an e 
thi^g in advauc ng to Fa rfaz Lo rt Ho se wh cti I had taken so[ae t\sen y 
ibur hours prev ous y 

According, to a Ph ade ph a correspondent The smoke was s 1 r n 
from the black ru ni of the numerous quarters and storehn aes re^nt v h cd 
Some of the quarters wh h had not been hred were fl led w th art a es of 
value, whch tne had not perm tted her owners to i^rry away Tiers 
were prov s ons onongh to last the reg n ent for we k and o "■o d qu^l 
The men were not s ow to approp ate what lay bef re them A ong 1 r 
things found wpre 1 arrela of sgi.t al eady co ked bv the fire Uane 1 
Kearny -nai w h the advance all dav ani ea e the men free aocfci^ (o 
everything left beh ud As ho rode nto the wo ks alter the r oo pat on 
and drew up a onf of ur ne ft of, h s cap nder the St ■"anlbt p^^ 
three rounds of applause welcomed the hero of Cherubusoo and the San 
Antonio Gate. 

"In approaching Manassas on this occasion, General Kearnt expanded his 
brigade over the country, so as to make the enemy think hiin the van of the 
whole army. Hence they made a precipitate retreat leaving the very mea! 
they were about to make untasted, for the use of their adversanea It was a 
bold, skillful, and energetic movement, and deserved i commendation which it 

• ■' General McCi,rc,HN, sdvanoine In conaeqnence 

of Information received from 

General Keshht, accompanied by his staff and two thoc 

Lsandlior-e wa» met bj General 

Keabst aa He was rptuming to Centrevllle. The advi 

mcing party ha,l.k,™i«h.r» in 

front, and wore altogether nnpropnrcd, Ijnt of course gri 

ially ileUghted, to find thai thoy 

had encountered, not Secessionists, hat thoir own troc 

ip9,"-JFewarti)ai^ AaTtrlUer 

" I am glad enough to hear that the Jersey Volunteers 

under General Keibnt's com. 

;b in adva 

otlier part of tbe army in that direction ; and when General MoCiellan and his staff 
■were on their way, they met GeuEi'ft] Kearnt returning, and when General McDoweli 
reached the villase he found it in possession of part of General Kkabny's bttgsde, as 
bofore stated, 
"lanisoglad that tliie wasafect." — E. W, l,.,litk March, iWi. 

>y Go Ogle 


did not receive. Hia Diyision commander, he thought, evidently disliked it, 
and General MoCLBLLiN suppressed hia Report, as if not entirely pleased with 

Compare with the foregoing the account of a war-correspond- 
ent, who accompanied this advance : 

"The occupation of the three succeasiye pointa— Pairfai Court-Houae, 
Centreville and Manassaa — has neither been fully cor accurately staled. 
They were all taken poaaeasion of without bloodshed; but not without danger 
aud daring. 

■• The 2d New Jeraey regiment reached San.ester'a Rail Road Station on Sun- 
day (9th March), hetweeu three and four P. h., over eleven miles in advance 
of any other part of the army in that direction, and by the boldness of the 
movement led the rebel forces in that neighborhood to believe that a large 
national force was at ita back, and both rebel cavalry and infantry were seen 
by the regiment to fly at its approach. 

■' In the meantime the New Jernej troops, under Captain Tan Sickle and 
lisutenaut Holt, advanced by the Cross Eoada upon this village, and took 
pnsseaaion of it ahout SJ p. m. Sunday, the bulk of the rebel cavalry retreat- 
ing before them. 

" Troops were left at the junction of the Croaa Road with the old Braddook 
Road, with orders to advance cautiously towards Centreville. 

" Tlie next morning an advance guard of the 1st regiment, conaisting of 
Company B, entered Centreville, followed by the remainder of the regiment 
about 11 jLm. 

" The same day (Monday) the 3d New Jersey scouted the country in front 
of gangster's Station, and at 7^ Tuesday morning entered Manassas. 

" Cooking area were found still burning, and even coffee pots on them boil- 
ing, food spread out on tables, Ac, with other evidenoea of hasty leave-taking, 
and, for once, of a movement on our part being made without the rebel's pre- 
vious knowledge. A large quantity of subaistence stores, small arms acattered 
about, lenta, &^., were alao left behind. The cannon had all been removed, 
and some of them replaced by logs of wood painted In imitation of their pre- 
deeeaaora. The rebel'a cars were heard by our advanced troops running ril 
daySuLday — now supposed to be engaged in withdrawing their artiUerj- 
Coi. AvERiLL, acting Brigadier, made a reconnoisance on Manaasas Plains on 
Monday night, but did not enter the fortifications at the junction." 

There was just enough fighting to show what might have 
been done had Kearny been let loose on the 7th, instead of 
being pulled to and fro by see-saw orders. 

One of the most brilliant cavalry exploits of the Groat Ameri- 
can Civil War occurred daring these brushes with the enemy's 

>y Go Ogle 


rear-guard. This waa the charge of First Lieutenant IIaksy B. 
IIiiiDiss, of New Turk city, with a sergeant and twelve men of 
the 1st N, Y. (Lincoln) Ciivatry, Kbaesy had " oi-dered him 
to move forward cautiously and feel the enemy's position." 

On Sunday, 9th March, he fell in with the pickets of the 
enemy, a score in number, and drove them in, till finally he was 
suddenly surrounded by a hundred and fifty of the enemy. The 
alternative was to cut hia way out, or to eui-render at discretion. 
*' Will you follow me?" said the unshrinking officer, "To the 
death ! " was the unanimous reply ; and through the rebel ranks 
they hewed their way, turning not to the right or left till they 
emerged from the forest at Sangster's station, the enemy either 
fleeing or laying down their arms before them. After this daring 
action, and while making their way to the camp, with thirteen 
prisoners, one to each man, one of the skulking assaains, who 
had laid down his arms, seized his musket and shot the retiring 
officer dead upon the spot. 

The ball entered the back, near the top of the shoulder, and 
passed out through the neck under the chin, severing numerous 
blood vessels, whose profuse bleeding soon closed the career of 
one of the most promising men in our army. 

Lieutenant Hiddes was possessed of the most manly beauty, 
beloved by all who knew him, and by none more than his com- 
panions in arms. 

General Keaknt has stated that this charge has not been 
surpassed in gallantry by any during the war, and it is the 
general theme of conversation among those cognizant of it in 
Washington and Alexandria. 

According to another account, " Keaent", who saw the whole 
movement, declared it to be one of the most brilliant he had 
ever seen, and took each man by the hand on his return and 
compiimeoted him for his bravery," 

With a praiseworthy liberality, which, had it been imitated, 
would Jiavo filled our country with the moat interesting memo- 
rials of the war, Hidden's family had a large picture painted 
of this little affair, which sparkles like a gem of the first water 
amid so much paste. The picture is a study in itself, from the 
attention paid by the artist to costume and accessories. It 

>y Go Ogle 


hangs on the staircase of the New York Historical Society, and 
iu its»?lf is a valuable piece of history. 

As this advance and occupation of Centreville and Manaseaa 
was a very important incident in Keaeny's career, and 
one almost unknown to his countrymen, too much evidence 
cannot be brought together in establishing the fact beyond 
doubt or cavil. John S. Fosteii, in his "New Jersey iu the 
llebcUion," presents the following statement : 

" Meanwhile the torpor which had characterized tho War Department, and 
operawd as a check upon ali movemefltB ia the fleld, had been dUaipated by 
the aeleotioQ of Ei^wiN M. Stanton, a man of rough but inexhaustible ene^ 
as Secreiarj, ia plsce of Simos Cauehon, and a vast army haying been 
secumulaied on the south of the Potomac, on the Slth of January, 1662, aa 
order was issued by the Preaident, directing General McDlez.lan to 'iinpfi all 
the disposable force of [he Brmy,' on or before February the 2ad, fur the smz- 
ure aad oc'ciipalion of a point upon the railroad Qorth- west ward ol Manasaaa 
JuiietioQ. The Commander m Chief, however, hy iuducing the Preaident to 
coiiseM to an adcacee upon Richmond, by nay of the Peninsula, obtained a 
practical BiispengioQ of this order and no advaooe, consequently, was made 
at the time designated by the Kwutive Ali this time, however General 
KB^ttNY, restive under constrained maotiOD wss watching with sleepless vigi. 
leuee f,r opportunity to show the folly of luactnity, and at length he realiKed 
hia desire. Oa the 7th of Mtrch bia Brigade was ordered to Burke's Station, 
on the Orange and Aieiaodna railroad for the purpose of guarding a party 
of Ubo-ers, and reaching there, on the followiug day, made an estended 
r«connoifflaiicB of the country for several miles around. SubsequenUy, he 
was informed by some negr>e-, that the enemy was preparing to leave Ma^s- 
Baa,* Be was not shw to nU vpon thi3 hint. 

"Apprising General Frankiis of the information received, but without 
awaiting rrders, he at once pushed on with his troops, throwing out skiriBish. 
ers over a wide extent of country, and driving steadily before him the scat- 
tered pickets of the enemy. On the 9th the Second and Third Regiments, 
with a squadron of the Lincoln Cavalry, occupied Sangster Station, a point on 
the Alexandria railroed, abont five mites from Bull Bun and nine from Manas- 
sas Junction : the Fourth Regiment acting as support to the advance. Here 
they surprised a detachment of Rebel cavalry, killing three, and capturing a 
lieutenant and eleven men, and losing one officer of the cavalry, killed at the 
first fire. The First Regiment had, meanwhile, advanced to Fairfax Court 
House, whence, on the morning of the 10th, a detachment under Uejor Hat- 

-I'tilf '"",lr'"""f'"' ""* *"'" *""'" "''™"i<"' <" tl>«i' ''I-'ter ramp. wa. com. 
plofed or. this very day," 8th March, lfi(i2,-FosTe.,. pa« 71 to te.l na.-.. ™-«.. ■> n... 

>y Go Ogle 


FIELD and Captaia Yas Sickle was sent forward to Centreville, which place 
waa entered about noon — tlie remainiier of the regiment eomine up sbortl? 
after, under Lieutenant-Colonel McAllister. On the sanie daj, the remainder 
of the brigade, pushing cautiously forward, reached, and at ten o'clock in tho 
rooming, entered the abandoned works at Manasaas Junction -^ eight eompa- 
nieaof the Third Regiment being the first to take poaaesaion, and hoist the 
regimeotal flag. The withdrawal of the enemy at this point had evidemlj 
been precipitate, and an immense amount of hospital and commissary stores 
was found, together with eighty baggage- wagons, several locomotives, fonr o( 
five cars, two hundred tents, and other property of value. Among the trophiea 
were also seven flags, one of white silk, with the motto, 'Carolinians in the 

Pield Traitors, Beware,' and another bordered with heavy silver fringe, 

with the inscription, ' State Rights : Sic Semper Tyrannia.' " 

Any Olio who ia familiar with the granii operations of war, 
will perceive that Kearny's advance on this occasion, very 
moch resembled one, with which every one who pretends to be 
acquainted with military history, ought to be aware, that of 
Setdlitz on Gotha, in 1767. 

At the same time, tho sudden abandonment of their hutted 
camp by the rebels, calculated to have been capacious enough 
for 60,000 men, and presenting certain evidence to a soldier's 
eye, that it had recently sheltered 30,000, resembled the flight 
of tho Syrians, in the days of King Joram. These had been 
investing Samaria, and reduced it to great straits, when they 
became impressed Vith the idea that they were about to be 
attacked by overwhelming numbers, and fled for their lives, 
leaving their camp even as it was. 

About two thousand two hundred and fifty years after this 
occurrence, during the Italian war of 1848, something similar 
took place, when that obstinate octogenarian, Radetselt, ate up 
CiiAELES Albert's dinner at Codogno. 

Neither of these are the case in point referred to. The ex- 
ample of Setdlitz, however, is apposite almost to ihe letter. 

In October, 1757, the French and Franco-Germans advanced 
with the expectation of getting possession of Torgau, Witten- 
berg, Leipsic, and especially Dresden, depots as important to 
Prussia at that period, as Washington* to us at all times. 

• General Mitcheli,, in Wa "Biographies of Eminent Soldiers," Fbideric the 
GEiiT, page 306, says the delay of Marshal SonBiSE at Halberatadt caved Msgaebnr^, 
wboae loss to PruBeia weald have Twen eqnlvalont to tHat otWashington In onr case. 

>y Go Ogle 


On the 13th {l9lh) October, Sktdlitz, an ofScer most famoua 
as a leader of cavalry, was detached by Frbdebic the Great, 
to watch the enemy. Remarkable as he was in the conduct 
of his own proper arm, Seydlitz displayed equal capacity ia 
the direction of every other, and of all the arms combined. 

It is more than likely that several of the victories credited 
to Fkbdekic were due to the generalship of Seydlitz, his eye, 
head and hand; Freyberg, in 1762, certainly was in this union 
of qualitiee. Keaeny closely resembled this Prubsian. Both, 
bred cavalry officers, were as sagacious strategists and as per- 
fect tacticians as they were hard fighters. It is nioie than 
probable that Fredekic's greatest defeat at Cunersdorf might 
have been averted, or greatly lessened in degree, had not Sbyd- 
UTZ been stricken down, severely wounded, even as Keakny 
was killed, at a crisis. 

In advance of the main Prussian army, the dispositions of 
SEYDLrrz, which cleared the French out of Gotha, were elegant, 
Frederic cannot repress his admiration.* 

Just as Keaknt, in approaching Manassas, expanded his 
brigade over the country, so as to make the rebels imagine he 
was the van of the whole Union army, even so Seydlitz dis- 
posed of his cavalry force on the I3th (19th) October, 1757. It 
would seem that he spread his hussars over an extensive front, 
vast in proportion to bis numbers, with his dragoons — who 
skirmished on foot as well as mounted — in the second line, so 
as to give the idea that he was followed by a large body of 
infantry, deployed in line of battle.f Meanwhile, his supports 
were posted so as to be able to protect his retreat, in case the 
enemy discovered his strategem. The French and their Ger- 

• "An J other general," says Fbbdebic, " escept Sbiclitz would haye applauded hlm- 
eeif to have eBCSpBd, In such a gituaUon, without loss. Setdlitz would act have been 
eatisQed n-Hh himaelf. had he nut derived g&ln. The example proves that the capacity 
and foctitnde of the general, are, In war, more decisive than the nnmber of hlg Iroope. 
Amanof mediocrity, who should perceive himself under Buchcltcumstaneea, discouraged 
liy thenwfal appearance of the foe. would have retired as he approached, with the loss of 
half hlB men. In a Bkirmiah of Ihe rear gnard, which the superior eavalry of the enemj' 
would have been In hsBto to engage. The artHil nse made of the regiment of dra^raonfi; 
extended and shown Ui the enemy at a distance, was highly glorious to General SBmiiTz 
In so difficult a EltnMlon." 

t Compare pages 44-4S— General Setplitk, a Military Biography, by Captain Robert 
NEVitr-E LiwLEY, ad Lite Guards; London, W, Clowes & Sens, 14 Charing Cross, 
For private circulation only, 1853. 



man allies were convinced that no less than the whole Prua^ian 
army was npon them. They abandoned Gotha precipitately, 
leaving behind them, prisoners, booty,' and the very dinner of 
their Commaoder-in-Uhief. 

The exalted opinion of Frederic himself, in regard to this 
achievement, is fully borne out by Napoleon in his "observa- 
tions" on this campaign. "Souiuse at onee transferred his 
head-qaartcrs to Gotha, and occupied the town with eight thou- 
sand grenadiers and a division of cavalry. He had scarcely 
installed himself therein, when SBYDLirz dispo-ing his tifteen 
squadrons in a single rank (or line), marched boldly npon the 
head-qaarters, which hastened to save itself as qnickly as 
possible, in the dii-ection of Eisenach. The eight thousand 
grenadiers retreated, after firing a few shots; the head-quaiters 
ba'To-ago, and prisoners fell into the hands of the Prussians. 
This shameful event was the prelude to Rosbach." Even as this 
dash of Seydutz into Gotha, was the prologue to Rosbach, even 
80 Kkakny's stoop on Manassas, might and should have been 
the prelude to a grand victory and a decisive campalgti, had 
McClbllan permitted him to follow it up. As he said on anothtT 
oecasion, " If you once whip, you must always whip. It becomes 
a way of doing the thing." In the same manner that SEYi>Lnz 
ewept down like an eagle with wide extended wings, upon 
GoLha, even so Kearsy made his bold, skillful, and energetic 
movement on Manassas, and gobbled tents, small arms, stoi-os, 
prisoners, booty, and trophies; among these seven flags, one of 
white silk, belonging to a South Carolinian corps, and, accord- 
ing to a private account, another, the flag of a Georgia regiment. 

A cotemporaneous letter states, that Kearny's brigade was 
eleven miles in advance of any other troops. 

According to a Major-Gene ral, who followed in the track of 
Kea n and 1 Hth March, from Fairfax Court 

IIoiis — 

.•Tl m li d worka at CentreviUe and Manaasas, and 

flgij, 1 te andirifc, many toola, spsdca, etc., antl onn- 

gideps p W k II the tenia and barrRcka, pretty tnuoh." 

rpij nd sful movement of Kkarst invites 

and will reward reflection. Reader, soldier or civilian, is it 

>y Go Ogle 


probable that a general like Joe Johnston would have aban- 
doned commissaiy's stores, war matei-ials, some of which were 
articles difficult to replace, and left behind him flags, and even 
his unburied dead* in the hospitals, unless the evacuation of liia 
works had been hurried by a sharp aggressive ? That general 
who conducted his reti-eat, dui-ing the Atlanta campaign, so as 
to rival that of tho Allies after Lutzen and Bautzen, in ]813, 
and loft not a linchpin behind for Shkeman, was not the man to 
yield any booty or trophies except under compnisioc.f 

III the first place, it is useless for the rebels to deny what fol- 
lows, becaujje it is the sworn evidence of unbiassed' witnesses, 
and what Mc.CLEt.LAN himself admits, must be conceded by his 
friends. "I should judge," sweai-s I. S. Poitee, "as far as lam 
able to do so, that the troops had left there in great haste. 
Several hundred barrels of flour, that they had attempted to 
destroy by burning, lay there in a pile partly consumed. There 
was also a part of a train of cars there, partially destroyed. 
Among other things, I found a very complete printing office, 
with press, types, forms standing, an imposing stone, army 
blanks, etc., and I should think a little newspaper had been 
printed tliere. They left tents standing, both at Manassas and 

Bayard Tatloe testifies that the last of the rebels left Cen- 
treville on Sunday morning, and there were a few left at Manas- 
sas Junction on Monday as late as 2 p. m. 

John T. Hill, a resident at Centreville, swore that General 
Johnston returned to that place on Saturday evening, staid all 
night, and left on Sunday morning, Cth March, by the way of 
Stone Bridge, which was then blown up. He had with him 
2,000 Infantry and 2,000 Cavalry. They moved off in a huiTy, 

• SSB Beporl Col. SmpsoN, id N, J. V., attached. 

t To the reafler who may not bo BmiliHr with tho oporattons In IB13, ft is dne to 8tat« 
that the Allies withdrew ea defiantly that Napolboh conlfl j-ain no nd vantsRo over them. 
In an ebnllltlon of iDdignation, or ill temper, he sacrificed some of his test troopB in a 
reckless charire upon tholr rear-guard, near Rctchenbach, and exposed himself and 
staff no recklessly that his ftvorlte, Dmioo, and General Kieqkner were killed by s 
oannon hall, following on just behind litm. The noble conduct of the Prussians and Rua- 
atana draw (hrth, then, the bfller eiclamatloa, '■ What I afier snch a bnlchory, no resnlt ( 
Ho prisoners! Those fcllowa will not leave ua a nan; they rise iiom thrii aalie. 
When will this be done?" 

>y Go Ogle 


and if our troops had been quicker, and had continued their 
march, tliey would have caught this rebel rear-guard, Manas- 
sas was not burnt till Monday, lOth of March, 

MoClellan (11th March) corroborates all this : "Tlieir move- 
ment from here (Fairfax Couit-Houso) was very sudden. They 
left many wagons, some caissons, clothing, ammunition, personal 
baggage, etc. Their winter-quarters were admirably constructed, 
many not yet quite finished." 

What a pretty little fight swift-footed Kbaknt might have 
had with deliberate Johnston had the former been allowed to 
move just one day sooner. Both had about the same numbers, 
and the superiority possessed by Keakny in artillery and infan- 
try, would just have made up for the advantage of position 
enjoyed by Joiisston. Had ^tkithSsX (Fate) so decreed, it 
might have furnished the handsomest episode of the war, and 
if Keakny had won would have been the entering wedge to 
great results. If, aa usual, on the one hand, the rebels had rein- 
forced their rear-guard, Kbaeny would likewise soon speedily 
have been reinforced, for there were plenty of troops — good 
men and ti-ue — within supporting distance, burning for a fight. 
Here, as so often. Time was against fls. Had it favored, the 
decisive battle might have been fought in 1862, just where we 
suffered such a physical reverse in 1861, 

McClellan's own language demonstrates the correctness of 
Keakxy's views, as expressed in his letter — that the true plan 
was to mask Manassas with a sufficient portion of our grand 
army, and then pivoting on Alexandria sweep round to the left 
and gobble or destroy all the dispersed divisions of the rebel 
army* occupied in maintaining the blockade of the Potomac, 
and cantoned all along the right bank of that river and occu- 
pying Fredericksburg, Thus, one by one, aa events developed 
themselves, they equally and simultaneously proved not only 
the con-ectness of Keakny's views and predictions, but showed 

*" H«, General E.RBT S>nTH, told me tlm 

t MoClemak might prohalilr hate dest 


the Southern army with the greatest oass ( 

luring the flrst winter, and withont ni 


^re 5o mnch over^lated by their easy (ri 

M MsnassM, and their array had dwindled 

away."— 7««« Months Itt the Southern i 


AjiHi- J«w, 1883, by Lient.-Col, Fbebicah' 

TLB, Coldetream Gnarda. 



that lie was a great strategist, in whose mind the map of the 
theatre of war was displayed. He was not only capable of 
estimating the intrinsic value of positions, but their relative 
bearing to eaeli other. Then, when the fighting actually com- 
menced, hia perfect comprehension of tactics, and their practical 
application was equally shown, even as his plan (detaUed in a 
letter — destroyed among others, by a relative since dead) for 
the capture of the rebel force on Munson'a Hill was supercili- 
ously whistled down the wind, to his great chagrin. Even so 
were his plans for the capture of Manassas, and the rebel force 
in that position, regarded as the vain imaginings of a military 
dreamer, if they were even listened to with consideration. Had 
Keaent been allowed to advance on the 7th March, according 
to Napoleon's method of formulating chances, the odds were 
ten to one in favor of his trapping Job JoDKSTOJf ; a capture in 
itself equivalent to a victory. 

As it was, even with his celerity and boldness, he reaped no 
benefit before the public, and his report, whose publication 
would have been' a partial act of jnstice, was not only suppressed 
but must have been kept back, or subsequently destroyed, since 
no copy is reported as to be found in the archives of the war 
otflce, nor in any publication by authority examined, although 
the reports of hia subordinates are on file at Washington and 
were kmdly furnihhed to assist in the prepai^tion of this work. 

To say that KEiR>-r bore these slights and wrongs with 
philosophical equmamity would be doing injustice to the high 
spirit of the man, and, considering all the reports which were 
spread abroad prior to his appointment, the only wonder is, 
that in'^tead of writing as bitterly as he did, he did not write 
more so and more.* 

irsaTON eiperionced the flifflculty in » greaWr degree, Imt how did the "Iron Duke" 
meotltr Rcad]?o.S10, "Selection! from the Blspalchea and General Ordetaof Field 
MM»h»l the Dnke of Wellington," page 453 : 

„ , .^ . LonZAM". loth Mareh^ 1S21. 

Ti) iRe Sari if Itverpoo! ; 

-lam sore your Lordship doeE not eipect tliat lot any other ofBcErin command of 



The great error that Keaknt committed was in not coiiflning 
hie ci-iticisms to those by whom they were deserved, but in going 
out of his direct course to reflect upon those who felt kindness 
and admiration for him. Still, as he doubtless never intended 
that these letters — " epistolaiy soliloquies " — should come 
before the public, success would have modified his views ; and 
if he bad risen to the high command for which he was destined, 
when death strack him down on the threshold of fortune, he 
was too loftily magnanimous not to have forgotten the injuries 
done to the brigade and division commander. Had he lived, 
the very letters, for which he has been so much blamed by many 
would have passed through the fire into thin air like many of 
his bitter speeches, sarcasms, which, although in a measure 
deserved by those at whom they were aimed, were the expres- 
sions of a wounded spirit, rendered extremely irritable by sick- 
ness, suffering, over-work and calculated misappreciation. Thus 
one wrong begets another, and McClellan's injustice to 
Kearny, evinced by the suppression of his report (if Mr. 
Pakkbk is correct as to the fact), in regard to (he operations of 
his brigade and their occupation of Manassas, was the source 
of all that was temporarily unloveable and unlovely in a gener- 

ous nature 

tplends It™ 

nld not Tie d 

one if atte 


Bd, and thE 

, attempt « 




endeavor by m 

1 individual 

to deprive 


1 Britieli p 


iiice, ( 

jf which t 

Goycrnment a 

ee to depri' 

ve Iheii. I 

1 every thi 

in my power, 

by way of «i 


;, ai 

Id have be 

en very ban 


lely abused for 


think of pre 

venting oiBccri 

, from writ 

,lng to tliei 


nalnly have , 

none from 

iQ officer of Ibia anny. 


dentlally com 

nmnicated ti 

) liis frier 

in England 

; uid 1 have 1 

that it n 


elrenlsted from one of tHe otBcera, wi 






aiB-I hasten lo lay before job a report of the morementB of the squadroa (Com- 
panles A and H) of ibe Flrnt New York (Lincoln) Cavalrj, »lifle attacUed to jonr 

Leaving onr camp at threo p. m„ Thnraday 
tiie Litllo Eivet Turnpike, fDraisljing the ad\ 
the rear gnard, in charge of lieutenant Thom 
my comznand was constantly employed in Ecoutlng, bearing orders, etc. At fonr o'clock 
A. M., of Friday I reached Bnrk's Station, and was assigned my camping groaiid. 
Shortly after daylight my entire sqnadron was drafted away in squads of from five to 
twontymeneach, toactaBvldetteBandscoutBin thevIciQityof Burk'BStation, andto 
operate with the TarlouB inftntry reijimenUof jonr brigade, being enHject lo the orders 
of their nereral colonels. On Saturday, Captain Jonks, with fifteen men, accompanied 
jonrselt on an estended visit to all the pickets and sentries of yonr command. This 
datacbment, accompanied by yourself, also made an extended reconnoissance along the 

myself, Lieutenants Hidben, AiEXisjiEB and THOMeoM, was detached in small parties, 

morning the usual number of pickets and orderlies w 

sconting service towards tbe Occoquan ; liie report is forwarded hetenith. At the 
same time, Captain JoMBS, myself, LieutenantB Hidues and Thomsoh reported, with 
twenty men, to yourself. Lieutenants Hiedek and Thomjom mora dispatched to the 
different picket stations to obtain more mounted men, and shortly after reported to 
you St Fflirfai Station with an additional force of thirty men. At thispointLleutenant 
Alesakdek also reported from his scouting expedition, thus Incroaslne my command 
to seventy men. While awaitlns the arrival of the infiintry, my younj- officers were 
dispatched with men in every direction to look for the enemy, who was known to be near 
no. When the infiintry came up, myself, Uaptain Jones and Lieutenant Thomson were 

Old Braddock road. Lieutenants Hiuden and Aleiahdbb accompanied you to Sanga- 
ter's Btatloa, as detailed in Lieutenant Alisahdbh's report. From Payne's Church I 
dispatched Lieutenant TnOHPSOH to you with a report of my movements. I subse- 
quently received orders from you to advance to Falrfai Court House, in company with 
a dclflohment of infantry, and soon arrived at that place, approaching it cautiously, to 
find that it had been evacuated by the enemy but a short time belbre. Shortly after- 
wards I returned to Fairfhi Station, arriving there at dark, and received orders lo 
occupy Payne's Church for the night. I was here joined by Lieutenants Ai-EKiKBEK 
and TuoMraoK, and their detachments. I here learned of the glorious death of Lieut- 
enant HinnKH, of my company. He was a splendid officer and a courteous gentleman, 
whose loss is deeply felt by all who knew him, bnl by none more than myself. 

On Monday morning I was forced to return to Burk's Station with my entire command 
for the purpose of obtaining forage for my jaded horses. In the afternoon I was die- 
patched lo Headquarters with orders. Lieutenant Albsasdeh with fifteen men was 
ordered lo accompany you to Centrevllle, which he did, entering that strongly fortified 
place with you in advance of any other Union troops. Subseguently Captain Josis 
received orders to follow you with the remainder of the squadron and did so without 
loss of time. An extended reconnoissance was tben made towards Bull Run by Lieu- 
tenant Alkxaneer, who learned that the rebel forces were but a few hours in advance. 
That night the squadron returned to Payne's Church to await ftirther orders. On 
Tuesday morning I received orders tVom you to take a poeilion beyond Sangster's 
Station fOr the purpose of holding the railroad to that point. At four V. k.. I returned 
toPayne'sChurch, and be tore my men could diamonnl, was ordered to march to Manas- 

>y Go Ogle 




1 BtroDgliold, wh 

le on eve 

y »tde VSB f 

UDd eviden 


y had laS 

en a hasty depB 


fl few hours 




nee during the night by Ih 

e spproac 

h of seTeral 



of the si: 

try. Wa 

hortlj arier daylight on Wedneadfly by the 


within onr lines of several conira 

baudf, an 

d when we 

thirty nesroes had 

soaght our protenllon— e 

me of them 

having walked twe 


miles tbe 


night. On Wed 

eaday aft 


rted to yon 


ition which my comma 







on elusion. 


thanks lo the offlc 

qnadron fo 




ormlng the ard 

d of them. 


est, the name 

SangsCer's SlaClon 

nohly sn 



>nt charge at 

on the 8tl 

Corpora! E. LEWIS. 
Oompany B.siiicfpmniBtea lo Ss Sergeant. 

Omponji ff, sinee promoleii lo ie Corporal. 

Company H. since promoted lo be CorjKTol. 

Con^Ktnj/ ^, ffince promoted to de Corporal. 
Private MICHAEL O'NEAL, Company H. 


N CAMERONf. •• " 


Private Wilboh alone captured three prisoners, compelling them to lay down their 
nae, and accompany him iiom tho field. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Toar oljedlent servant, 
(Signed) J. K. STEARNS, 

CapCahi Commatuling Sfpiadrm. 




Ciar Seminabt, Va., March IB, lB6iJ. ( 

Sir; Iproceedto fumlaii to the Iloailqnarlera of the First Brigade, General Fbank- 
Lin'H Division, a detailed account of the jooi'ementB of this regiment dating the past 
wtek, while apon its march towards Manassas and vicinity. 

Parsnant to Brtaada orders (escepting Captain Til'e Company, doing picket dntj- at 
tha time), repaired to the Brigade parade, on Friday, the lib Instant, at one o'clock p. 
a., where General Keabht's commaud was formed. The regiment was provided with 
the shelter tent, six days' rations, forty rounds of hall cartridge issued to each man, 
and in the cartridge boxes, together with thirty eitra rounds to each man, trans- 
ported by the quartermaster. With the knapsflcte packed, and thus provldefl, the 
rofiment. In company with the test of the brigade, proceeded on its march to Burk's 
Station, on the Orange and Alexandria ralltoad, by way of the Little Rivet turnpike 
and the Old Btaddock road, reaching Its destination about midnight, after a long and 
tedious march, the road after leaving the turnpike, being considerably obstmcted wiUi 

On the march, the flank companies, commanded by Captains Close and WXLDBICK, 
were detached and placed under the command of Lieut. Colonel Bbows of the Third 
Regiment, constituting with similar companies ftom other regiments, a light battalion 
In advance of tha hrtaade. The remaining seven companies under my command 
encamped at the station that night, and remained there till the morning, Sunday, the 
Bthinsiant, when by order of General KBiBNT, we proceeded up the railroad to Falr- 
(ItK Station, leaving two companies, under Captains Wiebecke and Stoil, at the rifle- 
pits, constructed by the enemy ia rear of the station. From this point a scout of 
twenty men, ujidar Lieutenant Vrbeiakb, accompanied by two mounted dragoons, 
proceeded In the direction of Fairfei Court House, while tha balance of Lieutenant 
VREELiND's company, under Lieutenant Blswett, skirted the dense wood adjoining 
the station on the north. Communication was at once opened with Colonel Tatioe in 
command of the Third Regiment, in advance at Sangster's Station, and with Colonel 

position, two companies. Captains Bishop and Hopwoon, under command of Major 
Rteiwoh, were sent fotwatd to act as flankets for Colonel Tailob's command. 

About eleven o'clock i. «., I received information that the enemy's pickets had been 
driven back by a detachment of cavalry Just in ftont of Colonel Tatlok'b Regiment, 
and at the same time was ordered lo withdraw the companies acting as flankers, also 
Lieutenant Blewett's command, skirting the adjoining wood, and proceed with my 
battalloB to the support of Colonel Tatmb, which order was promptly eseculed. 
About two p H I was ordered with my command, oonsistmg of five companies, lo take 
position in line of battle on a oommanding hill just in advance of Colonel Tatxok's 
regiment, and hold it until the darkness of the evening would enable me to withdraw 
without being observed. This hill was the picket-station cccnpled by the enemy, and 
from which our cavalry bad Just driven thorn, and was but little more than five miles 
from Manassas Junction. 

About seven p, m., I left this position (the companies retiring behind the bill separ- 
Bloly). and proceeded back to FaltfBx Station, where we encamped in company with 
the Third Regiment, and where we remained nntil the morning of Tuesday, the llth 
instant, when, pursuant to orders (the flank companies and the picket company having 
now rejoined us), we took up our line of march to Ealrfiis Court House, and entered the 
town with band playing. Here we encamped upon the ground selected by Colonel 
SiMPBOB for this regiment, and remained In camp thete until Friday, the Hth iuetoot, 
when, in company with the whole brigade, at seven p. M., we struck our tents and took 

returned In good health and full of enthusiasm, created by the moYcments of this 
brigade during Its absence from camp. 

>y Go Ogle 


A single cnsaalty occnrred durine onr absence; Captain Dc»n's company iva 
detailed by Colonel TiTLoa, commanding tbe post at Faltfas Slatlon, on Monday, Ih 
10th instant, aa a gnard for Uie erection of the telegraph ftem the Station to the Cout 
Honee. A prliato of thia company, Thomas W. Snuooa, was accidentaUjahotthrougl 
the head while removing his mneket from the ftacl;, snd eipired in a few moments. 
Yonr obedient servant, 
(Blguedl, J. M. TUCKEH, 

Cdone! S6co!ui JltgliMnl Meie Jersey V'llunleeri. 
To Captain J. M. Wilbon, 

CiKT Neai 

Sib: In pnrsnaace of order this moment received, I have the h 

leers, during the march of the last week towards JIanaesa 
Left Camp Fort Worth, Friday, March T, 1803, abont foui 
Brigade (General Keabni's); that niglit marched to Barlfs, twelve miles, and 
bivoaaclied. The 8th, Third Regiment marched to camp near railroad, one mile eael 
of Fairfai SUtton, and reUeved the picKct of the Slity-fonrth New York State Volun- 

New York Regiment, towards Occoquan; returned to PalrtSs Station about noon. 
Soon after, received orders ftom yourself in person to take some flye companieB, or parts 
thereof (balance of our regiment being picketed to gnard onr left flank and Fatrlks), 
ana proceed by raUroad anfl march npon Sangster'a Station, three miles east of Bull 
Hun, About lialf a mile this side of Sangeter's tlie enemy apiieared, in reeonnoiterin^ 
parties of cavalry and some inlBntry. on the right and left of the roilrond. They felt 
backaa onr flankers advanced. Tbe regiment marched steadily nntil the advance 

cb 111. isea. i 

to report the 


Jersey Yolun 


with the First 

reached 8a 

ngsler's; there, in 



e ana fey yonr 


ra, they occupied a corn- 



on the 



right of the 

my orders, of the F 

k Cavalry, H 

men and on 


nnder Firs 

LicnlBnant Hidden. J 

St bet 

re leaving the 

ad, I ordered 

to advance 

in the open fields and re 


re, and If the 


was not greatly superior 

ho might charge t 

nt off at a br 


■ol, nor did he 

1 be charged info 


f their pi eke 

■ The enemy bel 

g sreatly 

superior in 



ago of cover 


gallant charge, but drove thee 



aiild retreat. 


g arms and m 

any knap- 

miseioned officer. They proved to be the First Maryland Regiment. Very soon afier, 
the Second Re^menC of KEittNi's Brigade came up and joined us ; they occupied the 
ground of tho enemy's picketing re^ment nntil night, when a small company was left 
to guard Sangater'a Station until nest day. That day— 10th instant— by yonr orders, 
eight companies of the Third Regiment marchea upon Union Mills late in the day, ana 
bivouacked tbe same night beyond Sangater's Station. At Ibar a. h., the lltli inatanl, 
oontinedthe march; arrived at Bull Bnn and found the bridge partially burned— it 

Junction. Arrived at half-past nine A, H., previously havlngdeployed into line of battle 
and sent Captain Gibsos, with a flank company of skirmlshere, Into the place. Wo 
found it deserted, escept by a few citiieoB.with two orthrec wagons, loading the spoils 
left by the rebels. The flag of the Union was instantly hoisted npon the flag-staff of 
one of the enemy's works ; about whicli time yon Joined our regiment, npon which, by 
yonr order, had been conferred the honor and great satis&ction of boiating the Ameri- 
can ensign upon the notorioiis hold of the rebels. The regiment, hy yonr orders, 
marched the same day to Centrevllle, where they arrived at sunset. The following 

>y Go Ogle 


orniDR, 13th instant, reln'rned to Fsirfci Slatinn, end the seme day to Fairfei Court 
ouse. Kemalnefl at Falrfir Court House until the 14tli Instant, at six p. m., at whicU 
me the regioieut marched nith the brigade under yonr orders to our present camp at 
art Worth, airivias at hair-past one t. H.. 15tli instant, baclng been detained nearly 
le hour in crossing Cameron Hun. 
The regiment Blood the march remarkablr well. 

Very respectfully, etc., 
(Signed), &. W. TAYLOR, 

CMmd Third Nefo Jsrsey Vdanlias. 
Brigadier- General P. Eeibst. 

(toflmuBidijii; First Byigade, FranHin'a Diviekai. 

HKinquARTEIlB FonnTH New jEEaEr VoinsTEEM, I 

1, FrioiMa'i JHviabin. Army of the Iblomac : 
lave the bonor to make the following report of Ibe moycments ot the 
nt ot Xew Jcreej' Volunteers, ainco the Ith lustaoL On that day it 
lo march wlti the other regiments of the brigade to Butk'B Station, on 
and Oran^re railroad, fourteen miles from this camp. The regiment lea 
St three p. a., and in cousequence of its being the rear guard of Ibe »bolc brigade, 
iDcludiug tbo wagons, and the very bad state of tho cross-road from Anondale, It did 
not rencb its destination till fonr o'cloct lie nest morning (8th) ; everything, however, 
having been brought up In good order. The regiment was immediately put in position 
by yonr orders, as a movable force, to attack the enemy at any point he toiglit present 
himself; tho three other regiments oconpringe]i(;ible positions on tho approaches to 
the station from the south, west and north. In the anemoon, by yont direction, I 
accompanied you In a reconnoiesance of the country abont the place for several miles ; 
the objeet being to become thoroughly acquainted with tbe roads, so as to be ready to 
meet the enemy at any point ; and In parting with mo you gave me my orders for tha 

reported to yon that the rebels were sending away their gnns and olhet property, and 
were about leaving their fortiflcations. Ton thought their representations such as to 
cause a more tborough questioning, and directed me lo conduct it. I did so ; putting 
down the result In a letter to you, which you dispatched Immediately to General Fbakk- 
LiN. Directly after this, you ordered the brigade to move forward towards Sangster's 
Siallon. seven miles up tbe railroad, and within three miles of Bull Bun. Tbe Third 
New Jersey was directed to take the advance along the raUroad; Ibe Second New 
Jersey, in echelon, at proper distance, to support the Third; the Fourth New Jersey 
similarly disposed to support the Second ; two companies of the First New Jersey lo 
flank the railroad by the Braddosk road to the north, and the remaining companies of 
the First to hold Burk's Station. In this way the advance was cautiously made as Ihr 
as Fairfta Station, a distance of four miles. Beaching this place, 'he brigade, by your 
direction, was again advanced (hrther forward cautionsly; the different regiments 
occupying the Sims relative position, hot the Thirdmovingmore directly on Sangster'fl 
Station; the Second taking position on the right of the railroad, ahouta mile beyond 
FairfHi Station, at the lead-colored house on eminence ; the Fourth at the litUe church 
at Fairfai, to guard the road leading toFairlki; the First regiment remaining osbefbro 
at Burk'e Station, and the Braddoek comers. At this time the rebel oavalry could be 
very plainly seen with my glass at about one and a-balt miles off to the north-west, 
posted behind a fence in front of a wood. Up to this period 1 had, hy your direction, 
accompanied you la the t1«ld. Leaving me to go foniard to join tha Third in Iha 

>y Go Ogle 


adysnca, you directed me to take coiomana of the Second and Fourth, and alve ordei 
according to tbe exigonciea aa they might occnt. Soon after, 1 heard the advam 
engaged with the enemj, and receiving an order ftom jou ihrungh Aeslsianl Adjuian 
Gcnsral Wilson to posh forward the Second to the bamt railroad bridge to 

changes accordingly, and then rode foiwa 

liant charge which bad jnst been made hj a smal) detachment of Captain Steabns' 
company of Lincoln Catalty, which formed your escort, against a large body of the 
rebels, said to he one hundred and flfly atrong, by which they were totally ronted, and 
fourteen made priEonets, among them a Lieutiiiant Sievast, late ftom WeEt Folnt. 
Ton immediately ordereil me to join my regiment, and with tl, two companiea of the 
First New Jersey under Major Hatfield, which had been ported at tGeBruddock road, 
midway between Fairfki Station and Fairflix Court House, and a company of the Lin- 
coln Cavalry, nnder Captain Sieibms, to take Fairfex Conrt House. I promptly 
returned to my command, found it eager for the work, and ordering, at the Brad dock 
road. Major HiTriELD and command of two companiea of the Flret, and Captain 
STEASsa, to join me, I diBpatched Lieutenant-Colonel Hatch, Fourth New Jersey 
Volantocrs, with two companiea of tho Fourth New Jersey, and Captain Stiabns' com- 
pany of cavalry, to make a detoor to the left, lo ent off the enemy in his rotreat from 
Fairlhi Conrt Iloueo hy the CentreTilla road. The enemy's pickets were seen between 

neighborhood. Waitingtill the properUmetomalio the disposilions come oot simul- 
taneoDsiy at Fairbx Court Ilonee, I took immediate command of tbe balance of my 
forces, and had the pleasure of seeing LientenantColonel Hatch jnst m position to 
cut off the retreat of the enemy while I was ready to presB him in front. Skirmithera 
were thrown out to the front and on either ilanli on an advance, and jnst before enter- 
ing the town, when the opportunity admitted, the main body was deployed Into line of 
battle. Unfbrtnnalely for the real teat of onr troops, wc fonnd to onr surprise, no 
enemy, the great body having left, as t learned from the inhabitants, some lime in 
October, and only the scouts and pickets, who had been seen in the morning, having 
occupied it since. This fact, howei 

tors of the military feme of Jersey 

By yonr direction, I immediately wrote a dispatch to Genera! rnAKKXiH, reporting 
onr occupation of Ffllrfai Court Honse, and yon then left me with instmctlona to hold 
possession of the town with the Fonrth New Jersey. This I did till the neit morning. 

Firstteglment by that road to Cenlrevllle, I left the town with my regiment, took 
position at the "Coruers," remained there all night, and neit morning retnmed, by 
your direction, to the vicinity of Fairfax Conrt House, where I selected the camping- 
ground for Iha hrigade, Hera we remained till tho afternoon of the 14tb Instant, when 
receiving an order at five o'clock from General Headquarters to return to this post, the 
whole brigade moved at aii, and reached our destination after midnight. 

I think it proper to state, that when at Fairfai Court House, on the 13th inatanl, with 
Aaalstant Adjutant-Oeneral Purdt, and Assistant Adjntant-General Wilsob and other 
officers, and a squadron of dragoons. I yisltod the battle-gronnd at Manassas, of alst 
July last, and at the recent headcLuarters of the Confederate Army of the Potomac, a 



bnildins saia to belong to a Mr. Weib. 1 found a large number of offlciul oocumonts. 
among them tte original order ot General Beiureqabd, dated Jul; SOlb, promulgating 
■' conadenlially " to the commandeti ot bngadea Us plan of battle for tbe next daj. 
Accompnnjing this was the order of General Joseph E. Johnston, approring the plan 
and directing it to be carried into execafitm. I also fonnd the ovIglnAl report of Lieuten- 
ant AxEXSNnEB, Eugineer Corps, General Staff, giving a elate oi en t of the prlsonera 
and wODuOed, and of tbe proiterty found after the battle. The leaving Uiese important 
docnmentB, like tbe other property which I bsw ecatteted around, shows with what 
haate the rebels mast have retreated before onr forces ; but what discovers the perfect 
panic which must have ensued, is thofiicl, which I witnessed, of their having left foar 
deaa bodies, laid unt In their hospital dead-houfle ready for interment, but which thoy 
had fbrgotten or neglected to bury. 

Very respectfully submitted, 
;Signed). J. H. SIMPSON, 

Co/oad f\mrlA A"sio Jerse;/ VolunUeri. 


Ciue Keaunv, March 17, IdSii. f 

Captain J. K. Stkahns, 

tWimuiiiiini/ Qwipany " H" Beamd Sqaaiirtm ; 
SIB— I have the honor to report that in obedience to orders received Ihim Bragadler- 
General KEABNy, I marched from Bnrk'a Station on the morning of the 9th instant, 
tvith twenty men. My orders were to proceed to the Pobicli road, and scour the country 
right and left, which I did as &r as Brtmstone Hill, 1 then relained to Ely's, where I 
learned from the officer commanding the pickets of tho Third New Jersey, thatat-qnad 
of rebel cavalry had just driven in two of hie pickets. 1 immediately started in pnr- 
Buit, and having followed there about three miles, returned to Falcfai: Station, and 
reported the circumstance lo the commanding General. I was then ordered by tbs 
Genemi to accompany him to Sangster's Station, and on arriving there to occupy a road 
loading to the right, going Into a hirge wood ; my orders being to intercept a large body of 
rebel in&ntry from getting in there. It was about this lime that the brilliant charge was 
msdoby Lieutenant Hidden of out regiment. General Kearht then rode np and 
infornied me that Lieutenant Hidden had fallen, and was perhaps only wouiided, and 
ordered ine to charge with my parly and drive the enemy into the woods, and procure 
the body, if possible ; we did so, Lieutenant Thompson and myself, and recovered tho 
Imdy. I then relntned to Fairfti Station aud reported to you. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient eervanl, 
(Slgnedl, WM. ALEXANDER, 

Second lAfitenimt arid Adjutant First Battalion. 

To Captain James M. Wilson, 

Asddmt Adjutant- antral. First BHgade: 
Sia— I have the honor to forward tho inclosed reports eoncoming the First Regiment, 
First Brigade, Franklin's Division, nnder the immediate command of Lientenan^ 
Colonel McAllister— being myself at tho time unable to ride on liorseback on account 
of [beumaticm, but was in tbe dcld during the time making myecll' ss useful as pus 
Elble under the circumstances. 

Very respectfully, 

Vour obedient servant, 
(Signed), A. T. A. TORBEET, 

Colonel First Begiment New Jersey Vottivieen, 

>y Go Ogle 


FiBST KEaiHENT NSff Jebski Volubtekbs I 
Camp Seuibart, Va., Marcll n, IStS. ( 

Coloael Fine Begimsnt Ifem Jersey Votimteeri; 
In accoiflance with your request I herewith tmnemit to jon a report of iba 
mt8 or our regimeot Bller leaving tliiB place for Burk'B Staiion. ou Friday, 

a our brigade flrJlt-gronnd and marched across to the Little river turnpike, on 
i of anandaia. I was ordered to send forward oar two flank companies, leaving 
corapauy being on pkkct). We reached Bark's Station abont ohc 


8th; on 





3 along 

tbe edse ol 

' the HI 


After General Howakd's b 

rigade loIT, wi 

; wore o 


to take 

■ a poaltiot 

1 along 


joda north of the t 

all road, 


ch order 

I exccn 


iiy. I then 


to the e 

1 gronnds, 

placed 1 



: night 



LE'a ho 

e started at once. 

another c 

■o com] 

janles. nnd. 

ind of Msjor Hati 

i old Braddoek road. Id 



ey started without 

delay, li 

ng me bnl 

;r two o'cli 

bring in 


k'b hoB 

rci up 


ilroad to support C 

olonel S 


must thf 

: chnroh 


airi^ Station, 

thai, I did not see Colonel Simpson, bnt met General Keabnt, whoordcred mc to march 
up to Farr's Cross-roads, leaving one company— company K— at Paine-g Chnroh ; with 
the remainingfourcompantesIarrivedatFarr'scross-readsaboutflve o'clock i-.H,(!lth>, 
and formed line of battle, ani3 remained in that position nntll onr GcmcrDl arrived from 
Fairfas Court House, when be told me to encamp there for the night ; lo he on tho 
alert; that it was an important point; that tho on cmy were in the neighhorhoofl ; and 
if attacked, hold it until reinforcements came to my aid. I put out pickets np the 
Centrevllle road one and a half miles; also down the Falrfti roadtowarfls Puine's 
Church, and also, towards Fairfei, We were vigilant that night, but were unmolested. 
About eight o'clock nest morning (Iflth) received a verbal orflct from General Keakbt, 
by his Lieutenant Babhaiid, to throw tbrward sconts In rear of Centrevllle, 
and am happy to say, I soon found a corporal and three men ready and willing to under- 
take this apparently dangerous enterprise. In about an hour afterward I received an 
order to send forward towards Centrevllle one company. I immediately ordered com- 
pany B, Captain Van Sickell, to push forward; and, in accordance with our Generara 
instructions, had a communication kept up with me, and through me, with General 
Kkabnt, by Captain Vah Sickeu, pending back a man every three-quarters of a mile 
that he advanced. Between twelve and one o'clock tho General ordered me to advance 
with onr roglmontto Centrevllle, which I did— Captain Van Sickeu, and Lieutenant 
Tabtiiii. with company B, having reached that place befbre we did, and some houra 
ahead Of any other troops. 
Permit mo to say here, that onr reglms 

liespectftilly, yotir obedient servant, 

LieulOianl' (Monel Firet SegtmeiU New Series Folanieert. 



First Rboimebt New Jeesei- Volunteehb, > 
CiMP Semisurt, V*., Match n, IBM. f 
To A. T. A. Toubeet, 

Cdon/l First Regiment New Jersey Volunteers.- 
Sin — On Sunday mocning, March Oth, I was ordered by General KEiHNi to take two 
compaaieB and proceed toFatt'a Crojs-roade, bytlieOiaBraddockroHd, sad there wait 
fnr rcinforcenicnts trom Fairftlx Station. I arrived at the CroEG-roade abont Doon. M; 
comioatHl consisted of companies B and B. At the Cross-roads we diseemed the enemy'B 
cavalry od a hill near the Conrt Hodbd ; hat, having positive orders to remain st the 
Crois-roadB, I did not feci at liberty to pnrs ne them. However, I sent out a email 
detachment, nnfler command of Lieutenant Tabtum, fn order 10 get as near the enemy 

fonnd that the onemy wna moving back and forth from the Court HODSe to theold Brad- 
dock toad, a distance of about one mile. 

At four o'clock tbe Fonrtli New Jersey, under Colonel Sihpboh, came up, when we 
marched Co the Court Hoaee—the two companies under my command were deployed as 
Bkirmisbors. When near the Conrt House, by order of General Keabbi, we marched 
on at (touWe-jHici, and I may also add that the enemy did the same, only in an opposite 
direction. I then received orders from General Kejkht to march bacl: to the CtosB- 
roada and Join my regiment, and there bivouacked for the night. 
Very respoctfally, your obedient servant, 

JftD'oc First Eegiment Jfetc Jersey/ Volunieerl. 

CiMF SBuiBARr, Va., March n, ISHS. f 

(Mmel First Itegimnit 2Vew Jersey Volwileers: 

SiE— I have the honor to report that I was ordered by Lieutenant-Colonel McAiiiB- 
TRR, on Monday morning, 10th Instant, at half-past eight A. h., while stationed at Farr'a 
Ci-oss-roads, Co take my command audproceed cautiously up the Braddock road towards 
Centrevillo, and after passing our piekete, to send out an advance guard ; which I did, 
sending Lieutenant WtLLiAM H. Tahtck on with fourteen men. I was also fnmisbed 
with four cavalrymen, to act ai a patrol, and to report to him at inlervals, bb we pro- 
cueded. I received the first communication from Lieutenant Tastdu when at Cedar Rnn, 
which I forwarded to Llentenant-ColonelMcALLiSTEB. saying that ho bBd poBBesBion 
of five contrabands, and had caught up with the four scouts sent in advance. Lieuten- 
ant Tantuii halted with hla guard until I brought up my reserve ; ho then advanced 
«bnut a mile, when I received word that appearances were lavorable, to come on with 
all possible dispatch, as he would be hi Centreville in an hour. The message I immo- 
dlalely sent to Lieaten ant-Colonel McAlubtsb, and proeesdedou. Lieuteimnt TAHTm 
arrived at Centreville about half-paet eleven A. u,. where be Immediately posted tmx 
Bentries in different places In the villago— one at each of three torts. 

1 arrived there at flfleon minutes afler twelve o'clock, noon, and took possession oT 
Genernl JouNSTON's headquarters, and there awaited the arrival of the First Regtment, 
which came In about four o'clock F. H. 

The New York Forty-fourth Eegiment arrived at about half-past three o'clock f. ■. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed], S. VAN S) 

Capiairt Company B. First Sigiment Neta Jcrmy V 




Hy bans auil antidote, are both before me." 

The neglect of McClellan to take advantage of this sue- 
ceaa (detailed in the preceding chapter) by immediately follow- 
ing up the retiring and, to all appearance, surprised enemy 
completely satisfied General Kkaeny of his (McClellan's) 
incompetency. From thenceforward his opinion of him was 

" The stupid fact ia (he wriUs March nth, 1862), tbat, not content with let- 
ting me and otherB push on after the panic-striokea enemy, fighting him a big 
battle, and ending the war — for his panic promised ua sure sutcesa — 
McCi^LLAN, so powerful with ligvirea, but aoweak with men, has brought us 
alt back. It ia bo like our good old nureery atorj — 

"The King of FrancB, witli twice ten thousand men. 
Marched np the bill, and then marched down again," 

The reault will he, that, in Southern character, they will more than recaperale, 
more than think ua afraid of a real stand-up flght, meet us at the prepared 
points, posaibly play ugly tricks at the capital, and nonpiua or force ub to fight 
with the worst of chances against us; and all this, because when HcCtiiLi^K, 
out of confidence since bis failure at Ball's Bluff, despairing of a direct attack 
on Uanassas, invented, with the aid of engineers (men who are ignorant of 
soldiers), the plan of tnrnit^ the enemy by a sea-route, instead of availing 
hiniaelf of the good luck of the enemy's retreat, thinks that he must still 
adhere to his sea-plan, like the over-atnfTed glutton who thinks he must crura 
booauae he has in hand an ' embarras lUs rkhesses.' " 

March 31st he writes, sketching a campaign'* for the enenly, 
which was not attempted till Pope's time : 

•"The warotlsofl broke ont; ana tUePraseiane, proud of their former ISniB, look the 
aula against Napoleon, MiBSKNnacK, then a colonel, was QDartermaster-General 
to Princa Hohenlohe's army, and, as the Btorm-clnRd>> of battle drew on tjiwarda 
each othor. foretold, wUh wonderM cloameBB, accuracy and precision, the ruin which 
the measures In progress were certain to bring nponthe army and the contitrj ! Lniiking 
hack to these terrible times, trying the BFowodand registered predictions deliverer! 



'■Our preaent affair is a terrific blvmder. Icatead of followiDg up, overtak- 
ing and whip pi3([ the enemy as Ihey retired panio-stiieken, he is attempting 
so affair of rivers. I (io not know his full means of action; but I do kcow 
that, if opposed with etiterprise, the Southern army, recuperated under the 
plea of our evading a real fight, will seize Centreiille and Msnasaas, juat in 
rear of foroes left on the Rappahannock, cut them off, restore the tminjured 
railroad, steam via Harper's Ferry to Baltimore and WaBhington, and be bacic 
in time to meet us before Richmond ;* because the batteries on the York and 
James rivers, if as formidable as the captured resources of Norfolk should 
have made thorn in gims, will oblige us (if we have no iron-armored gunboats) 
to land our hea^-y pieties and take them piecemeal (besides especding thus gratu- 
itously much bloodf), all which takes time. I oau only account for this absurd 
movement from General MoClellan and his advisers not having Bufficienl 
Bimplicity of character. It would have been so beautiful to have pushed 
after the enemy, and, in doing so, isolate Prederidtabui^. carry it easily, 
occupy that road, and thus turn those river batteries, all the while near enough 
to Washington iu case of any attempt on it. They will leli you that it was a 
want of Bubsisteoce, etc. This only proves bow unpractical McClellan and 
his advisors are. And it is precisely from a mismanagement of these simple 
details iu our own camps on the Potomac that I have the more and more 
learned to distrust him entirely. However, JoiissroN is a very slow man, and 
our resources are enormous, so we must win, and McClellan will, no doubt, 
pass down in hi.^tory as a great general. What annoys me the most is, that 
he has stupidly blundered in carrying out his own plans. We should, at 
least, have kept the enemy impressed with the idea of our direct advance, and 
withdrawn division after division in the stealthiness of night, and under the 
curtain of strong corps " 

This was an cail> Jaj fin such criticism. They meant what 
Geant afterwards piinfii]l> txecuted. Some 200,000 men lay 
'round Washington then The rebel force was barely 40,000. 

day aflcr day by Mas^fkbach, 


,:an coun. 



nt events, 

we are. in proCiiie languagea. 

bound to coi 

ttfeas that 

iverapoke before 

porfecl spirit of propbecy. All that he / 

' Intho 

Hme way Von Bclow.— Gen. 



♦ •■ Maeszha," he (SonviHo 

PF) fays, in a 

idnmontheenbjact, "Ma 

no object 

la waiting for us when be c 

an beat na 

He will 

first throw blm 


bo him, and 

and that will pp 


enough for blm." How juat 

was the p. 


-Gen. Mr 

TCHKLL'a "Biogr 


+ "Tbe celebralfid Sodvab 


Tuelty, bi 

icause be alwa^i 

(tormed tortreanes Inetead of 

inveatlng them and ei 

larving oi 

It the inhabits nil 

1 and tb« 

Barrlaou*. The old boro showt 


etical ca]< 



never occasioned bo much Iobi 


Bides, any long Beige, dlK- 

gingsnd approacbef , and tbe 

starving oi 


e shut n] 

p tn a fotlrees. 

ThlE for 



The direct advance would have been necessarily overwhelreiing ; 
no manceuvers could have resisted it. Looking back, and with 
the knowledge we now possess, we know that, undertaken then, 
the direct advance must have been speedily successful, econo- 
mizing rivers of blood and thousands of lives. Saya Pollaed 
in his Lost Cause, page 2B2 : 

"On March laE, 1S62, the number of Federal Iroops ia and about Waslime- 
ton had increased to 193,142 at for dulj, with a graad aggregate of 221,387. 
Let ua see what was in front of it on the Confederate line of defense. Gene- 
ral Johi^tOk had in the campa of Centreville and ManasBBS leas than 30,000 
men - Stonewall Jackson had been detached with eleven skeleton regiments 
to amuse the enemy in the Shenandoah Talley. Such was the force thai 
Btood in McClellak's path, and deterred him from a blow that, at that time, 
nught bava been fatal to the Southern Confederacy." 

We have said that seemed but ill satisfied with 
the sudden and skillful movement of Keaesy upon Manassas. 
Perhaps it was in consequence of this ; but, whatever the rea- 
son, in a few days after he tendered him a command {to which, 
as numbered fourteen on the list of brigadiers, he was long enti- 
tled) of a division, vacated by the promotion of General Sum- 
nek to a corps. General Keakny was more than glad to accept, 
only desiring that, inasmucb aa his First Jersey Beigadb had 
been perfected by such toil, expense and zeal, he should be at 
liberty to carry it with him, exchanging it for one of Sumner's, 
which lay close by Fbanklin, and the consent of whose briga- 
dier was obtained. General McClellan did not discourage 
the project, but General Franklin at once rejected it, upon 
which General Keaent, feelmg hts Jersey Elites to be a trust 
especially confided to him, and realizing their adoration of him, 
most generously deoUned the proposition, and, ranking many 
division generals, remained with hia brigade. This conduct 
waa rewarded, as might readily be expected. As soon as it 
was known, in spite of orders to avoid all demonstrations, the 
enthusiasm of his brave boys could not be restrained. His 
appearance was the signal for irrepressible cheering.' His 
men would have followed him, or gone at his bidding any- 
where, against any odds ; " nor did a Jersey soldier ever for- 

>y Go Ogle 


Another writer thus expresses the same idea, but in such ele- 
gant language that it will bear insertion, even at the risk of 
repetition ; 

"Juat about the time the overland advance was thus abandoned for 'an 
affair of rivers,' General Keaiiny was offered the oomoiand of a division. He 
was more than glad to accept the boDnr, on one condition ; that the ' Jersey 
Blaea' should be embraced in his command. McClellak was not unwilling, 
but Franklm rejected the proposition, and EEABur determined to remain 
brisadier and command bis own brave boys. The effect of this decision 
on his brigade can be imagined. It gave hini boundleaa control over their 
sympathies and their conduct. He could not ride down the line on parade 
without arouainE cheers from every eompanj-. They would have followed him 
(as his Dragoons did follow him up to the gat« of Meiioo, and as his men did 
always everywhere until he fell at tbeir head) into the charge at Ealaklava, 

* Caonon to right of them, 

Cannon IieWnd Iham 
VoUoyed and thundered.' '■ 

With all this, the step caused General Kearny much regret. 
His subordination to men of much less military experience 
than his own perpetually annoyed him. He had strong 
reliance upon his own powers, a reliance which was by no 
means conceited, and which was afterward strongly justified. 
Feeling himself equal to almost any task, he could not help 
longing to take the place of some one of those whom, in his 
confidential correspondence, he styled his " inferior superiors." 

It was some alleviation to his disappointment, and the state 
of harassed feeling which his inferior position occasioned, to 
find himself valued as he was by New Jersey and its Legis- 
LATUHE. How much its patriotic Executive regarded him he 
was not then aware, and his correspondence betrayed an unjust 
opinion upon that subject. 

But the PresB, the People and the Legislature of New Jer- 
sey, all exhibited their admiration and attachment for him in 
Bueh a manner as could not be otherwise than gratifying. 

On the 20th of March, 1862, the Legislatuee passed a reeo- 
LurroN, declaring — 

>y Go Ogle 


" That Naw jEBflB:r TdghSy appreciates the disialerested fdelity of- General 
Phimp Eearny, in declining proffered promotion rather than separate himself 
from the command of Jerseymen inlrailrd to Mm." 

On the 28th of the same month, a set op eesolotions was 
passed, in the following terms : 

"ResoLTBD, That to the New Jbbset VoLn.VTBERS belongs the praise not 
only of choking the retreat of t!ie Federal Forces retiring from Bull Jlun, and 
greaSy aiding in tlie preservation of the National Capital from capture, but also 
ef advancing, -aTtsapported, on the Bciel stronghold at Manassae, and compelling 
Us precipitate abandonment; and that OeneraiKs&Rsr deserves the JOarm approval 
and thanks of the Nation for his boldness in making this advance, and this skillful 
strategy he displayed in its execution. 

•' Resolybd, That havin.g already testified oar high c^reoialion of the self- 
sacrifice and fidelity to his trwt, which led General Kearny to dediste promotion 
rather than leaxe his Brigade, we nov> express ow regret at the existence of any 
tiich necessity, and respectfully suggest to Stose in aatkerity the propriety {unless it 
be inconsistent viiffi ftt public interest) of combining all the Nbw Jebsby Tboops 
im the Potomac into one Division, and placing the same wider the command of 
General Kbarnt, whose devotion to his soldiers, care for their comfort and disci- 
pline, and brilliant qualities as an o^er, entitle the country to his services in a 
higher position than the one he now occupies. 

" Resoltbd, That a Copy of these SesoluHons be forwarded to the Hokorablb 
rma SeCrbtaky op War." 

The idea contained in the second of these resolutions was a 
favorite one with General Keabny, who believed our troops 
would flght better if brigaded by States ; but the fear that State 
pride might occasion dissension made the plan unpalatable at 

• Thin chapter ia qnotea entire (with the exception ofae nows ana of one paniKrapli 
from the pen of Joseph B. Lymah. Ebii.). from the Addrkss of Cohtlshiit Pahkek, 
Esq.. entitled : "PatUF Kiabst, thb Soidikb and Patbiot." Newark, New Jeney, 

Uarcu, isee. 

>y Go Ogle 


" Ms ships ace raadj, and 

Kri"""'""""'--"" "■"-•• '--■ 

nieces should be loft Iq flie lines, which abonia keep up afire • * to amnae i 
eZy "event tl.emfrem™.poc«Beh,s retreat. • * All ttin^l.«mgtl,u. diB- 
posea, Le decamped secretly in the mght."-Ec8E3 de Goebbe. 
" Are Tou content to 1.6 our goneral T " 


Tub " Af&lr of Rivers" ™ Jeciaed on fa March. It TO 
not nntil April that it «» carried into mecntion. So much 
has been .aid and written hy war-oorrcBpondents, pamphleteers, 
military critic, sensational and historical penmen, that it is 
needless to discnss or enter into details, cicept as to K.inHT. 

This expedition, conceived in weakness, was a cnpple from its 
birth Misbcotten, its lot was misfortune and its end hamilia- 
tion Nevertheless, from it. commencement to it. tennmation, 
it was a .lotions ehmactcric in the life of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and in the career of the majority of the snbordmatc eom- 

"° Onth"e nth April, K.amt embarled on board of the splen- 
did steamer -Elm City," and on the 2.3d April fo.nd hrmself 
in the estnaryof the, or Poqno.m nver, which opens 
into the Chesapeake, jn.t below the mouth of the York river. 

to General KEJBBr he wa^ near AleTSndria, especting eTery 

. ■ .. *„ .^-^-.-^o on nrrler to "o down the river ; at last came an order lo go 

honr and minnte to receive au ..°„^,;. -^d OraoBe railroad, and thai way to 

shipping for YorMown. We retnrneQ. sip s ^^ ^^^ 

■■ -.X. W. sallsd, ..psOUe """;""■'",.".".» it, aaJ a.a.-J 1. 

Pocosln. or Ponuosin Bsj, whets we are Btiu, ana p .^^^^^ siBe."-JWKllte Zsfttr 

ffell. after some flslay, w 
>r Ponuoain Bsj, wher 



Here he was "kept waiting to land, and fretting himself over 
the want of practical skill which, as he said, sickened his sol- 
diers by cooping them on the transports, because they dared 
not hazard a landing under fire." 

It was not until 30th April that he was permitted to disembark. 

While " cribbed, cabined and confined " on ship-board, a 
vacancy occurred in the command of the 3d Division (foi-merly 
C. S. Hamilton's) of the 3d Army Corps, Heintzelman's. 
Keaknt now deemed it due to himself, his friends, the army 
and the country, to accept this step. Amid grief, ill-concealed 
and heartfelt on his own part, and amid the tears and lamenta- 
tions of the troops he had made his pride and his worshippers,* 
he was relieved of his old and assumed his new position 2d 
May, 1862, at the head of the 3d Division, whose title was 
changed to that of 1st Division on the 3d August following. 
Its position waa alongside of that commanded by Hooker. 
Both of these were encamped in close vicinity to the ground, 
one and a half miles S. S. E. of Yorktown, where the tents of 
Generals Lincoln and La Fatette were pitched and the park 
of American Artillery was established dui-ing the memorable 
seige of Yorktown in IJSI, whiohafiixed the seal to the liberties 
of our country. Keyeb' Corps lay in advance of the headquar- 
ters of Washington and EocHAiiBEAu ; these latter in rear of 
the park of French Artillery, about two miles south by east 
of the beleaguered town,| 

•"In battle, the Toioe of the man whom the eoldier loTes nerves blB heart, and, 
rather than forfeit his esteem hj flight, he will remain at hts post and die. * » * ■ 
And.thls n-ae the secret of Keabht's popularity In hla divliiion ; and among the thou- 
Baud camp trsdiliona of that singular and gifted man, there ia not one of needless 
crnelly to aoldiera in the ranlts. For them he had always the looks and Ian- 
cheer; while Ibr his officers he had often such words of biting, httterecom as 
leral Eearnt could utter — Killing on them lilte angry flashes of lightning 
irm-clond. And in all the army I know of no sach devotion lo a general ea 
waseshiblted hy the men of Kbarht's Division."'— "Tfte Fmmsular Campaign iu 
Tirgl'da, etc.," p. iH, hy Rev. J. J. JUeks. 
t "Yorktown was of especial interest to ns, hecanse in that place and its Iromedleto 

tlonary history. The dlviBionsnnder Generals Kearny and HooKKBencampedon the 
grounds where had been spread the tents of General WAsnnroTos and General Li Fiv- 
BTTE. We dally looked out upon the plain where had been witnessed the combats 
and struggles which compelled the final snrrenaer of Yorktown to our forces. The old 
lines of entrenchments and mounds of redoubts look like ft chain across the field."— 
" TAi Peninevtar Compaignin Virginia, etc.," -p, 140, byRev, J. J, MiUKs, 



Here " Fighting Joe " and " Figlitiog Phil,"* who had won 
brevets "for gallant and meritorious conduct " in the Mexican 
war, fighting a foreign enemy to maintain the national honor, 
now again tecarae associated in arms in the great American 
Conflict, to preserve the Nation's life, on the very spot where 
the shouts of triumph first proclaimed to the world the accom- 
plished birth of our Nation, 

The following was the composition of Keaeny's Division, as 
furnished through the courtesy of Major-General E. D. Town- 
bend, Assistant and Acting Adjutant-General U. S, A., to whom 
the writer is indebted foi many similar acts of kindness : 

" Brigndier. General P. KE^RSYwaa relieved from command of the 'New 
Jersey Brieade ' and sBaumed coramand of the 3d Division (formerly Haiol- 
TOS's), 3d Army Corps, May 2, 1BG3. 

" Name of DiviBion changed to l3t DiriBion August 13, 1862. 


" BritcBdier-Geceral Chas. D, Jameson', commBcding until June 13, 1862; 
Brigadier-General J. C. Robissok commanding from June 14, '62, to Septem- 
ber, 18S2. 

"Troops — First Brigade — 

" 57Ui Pennsylfania Vela, Transferred to 2d Brigade Auguat 12. 1362. 

" esd Pennsylvania ¥olfl. 

" 105th Pecnaylvania Vols. 

" 87th New York Vola. Relieved from duty with Diviaion August 23, '62, 

" 20th Indiana Vols. Joined Brigade June JO, 1863, 

" Brigadier-General D. B. Bihnbt, commanding. 
" Troops — 
" 33th New Tork Vols. 
" 40tii Hew Tork Vols. 

" 101st New Tork VolB. Joined Brigade June 9, 1862. 
" 3d Maine Vols. 
" 4th Maine Vola. 

" 99th Pennaylvajiia Vola, Joined Brigade July 6, 1862. 
" 67th Pennsylvania Vols. Joined, from let Brigade, August 12, 1862. 

" Fighting Dah." Itlenc 

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'•Brigadier-General ElKAii G. BBRBr commttDdmg, until August !9, 1862] 
Colonel 0. M. PoE, 2d Michigan Tola., commanding ftom August 20, 1862, lo 
Septemlier, 1362. 

" Tboops — 
" 3d Michigan Vola. 
" 3(1 Michigan Vola. 
" 5th Michigan Vols. 
"37th New York Vols. 
" Jat New York Vola. Joined Brigade June 3, 1862 

"Ahtillhrt op DrvisiOK: 
" Compaur O, 2d United States Artillery. Relieved July 18, 1862. 
" Company B, 1st New York Artillery. Relieved June 5, 1862. 
" Company E, let Rhode Island Artillery. 
" Company K, 3d United States Artillery. Joined July 18, 1862." 

YorktowQ was evacuated on the night of the 3d of May. 
Eleven thousand men under General Mageudee (who adopted 
here the etrategem of Keaent when approaching Manassas, 
and extended his little force over a distance of several miles, so 
as to give it the appearance of large numbers), had delayed 
nearly 90,000 infantry, 50 batteries of artillery, 10,000 cavahy, 
and a seige train of 100 guns, from the 4th day of April pre- 

This fact is proof enough of the correctness of Kearny's 
opinion, both as to the injudictousness of the route and the la^k 
of comprehensive generalship in his commander. 

On the night (3d May) Ysrktown was evacuated, one of 
Kbaent's new brigadiers, Chaeles D. Jameson, "General of 
the Trenches," was the first to discover the fact, or, at all events, 
the first to enter the enemy's works, at 6 a. m. on the ensuinir 
day. On the 4th, towards midday, Stoneman, with the cavalry 
and some light batteries, got oiT in pursuit of the rebels ; at 
early noon (10 a. m. ?) Hooker moved. Eeaent did not start 
until 9 A. M. on the 6th. Between the Divisions of Hookee 
and Kearsy strung out Sumner's corps of abont 30,000 men. 
When Stoneman, Hooker and Sumneb marched, on the 4th 
it was a bright, sunny, or fair May day for Virginia. In Hook- 
er's Division the men threw away all superfluous baggage, in 

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consequence of the heat, and some actually dropped down from 
the same cause. It was not only hot, but dusty. What a con- 
trast when Keaeny's turn to advance came on the morning of 
the 5th, The rain commenced falling, sprinkling, about dark, 
on the 4th, increasing in violence until about 11 p. m., when it 
set in for a regular storm. During the night it was not heavy 
enough to wet through the blanket covering the writer's inform- 
ant, but towards morning (3 a. m.) it increased in violence,* 

After daylight (5th) rain fell in torrents. The roads had become 
soaked with water and were perfectly horrible — ankle deep for 
the men, and, seemingly, bottomless to the artillery. The dif- 
ferent commands and arms, between Torktown and Williama- 
hiirg, between Kearnt and Hookee, became intermingled. 
The confusion, worse confounded, was hourly aggravated by 
the weather, the mud and the muddled condition of affairs in 
the rear, in the direction of the movements : Witness Heutt- 
zelstan's statement, that he had orders from McCleixan him- 
self to assume command at the front ; whereas Sumsek was 
actjing under exactly similar instructions from Makct, Chief of 

On the afternoon of the 4th, Stoxkmaj* ran into, or overtook 
the rebel rear-guard, beyond Whiitakek's house, between three 
and four miles this side and in sight of Williamsburg. The 
pursued stood at bay, turned upon and repulsed the pursuers. 

Here there is as much confusion in the accounts of what fol- 
lowed as there was confusion reigning among the dislocated 

eierclsed ao great an inflnenoa on evcnls ™d coat ub precloua lime, when Time was 
THE element of succeas. It mfsbt alraoat bo said tliia rain eaved Bichmond. It jnsti- 
Setl theroniBrk attributed to General Dix, that, " the acaaoa was even yet ton early for 

Into a qaickssnd." Tlia driszle commenced iVomll tolSp. a. on the^tli, and at 3 A. 
M., 5th, tbe rain came down in earnest. Twoive bonra of ateadj down-poor waa snffl- 
clent to convert tlie ftce of tiia country info a qnagmire, in wbict, according to Captain 
CuintEs H. Scott, *tli New York Independent Battery, the horaea aanlt to their tneea. 
and another Informant goes further, aterrins that the men, even, fonnd the mnd iaie<i- 
deep. De TBOEBiiHB apeake of artillery horses as "Mllod, or drowned in tiieir har- 
ness" In the mnd on the Bth, and of advancing "to the battle throngh an ocean ot 
mire, amid wearied teams, and In the midst of an ineritable disorder, which left aiiag- 
glcr? enoi^h in the rear." How mncb does this add to the glory of Kueuy, In that 
he carried his men tUrongh aU this Into the field to save a lost battle, an acblesemeiK 
almostequal to thatacoompliehed by the resolution of Blucbeh at Waterloo. 

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commands. About B,30 p. m. Sumner, with Smith's Division, 
came up; but nothing seemB to have been done. Darkness 
shut in upon the opposing forces before Hookee got into posi- 
tion. Then the Union forces bivouacked in the woods and the 
rain, which had just commenced, and slept in the consequent 

It was nearly midnight when the van-guard of the Army of 
the Potomac sank down to rest — if such a suspense could be 
termed rest — under the most trying circumstances for soldiers 
young in active campaigning. It was a terrible initiative for 
the Army of the Potomac, with a battle certain at the breaking 
of the day. Still, they stood it nobly, and proved, as was said 
of other troops on other fields, " that it took an awful dea! to 
take it out of them," 

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" lit (Llentcnant-General, or Oenetal of Division, the COCNT UK LoBOE), gave Ms 
onlcrs with a coolaeas which made it eaey to see that he Is the relation (nephew) or 
thetucumparahleM, deTuhennk. (Major-Gencral Phil. Keabst was nepHew of tlie 
admirable Brfeadier-General, Brevfil Major-Qeneral, Stephen Watib KsAJiNy.) He 
had 1 horse liUled under liini (this occorred to P. K. at Fair Oaka). If God had taken 
him finm ns (at the battle ol WilliamaburK) everjtliinH waB lost." Smsset'a BisMro 
de Loaaiia, 1!., 164. 

" And now, my eon, let me enjoin ;on that wIiaieBeT you hear tie tuaiKi of OeneraU 
HiNcooK and Keabsi «i«i(io«ai. ivspect and revere them, for nejier was AmericaifnolBr 
morelieautifWilsiSiistratedt/iaiibvtlieu Generak m the fiM If WUSiaiuburgl" "Blege 
of WaahlngUin." Captain Adahb. 

" After (he hattJo of St. QuinUn (Anj-uat 10, 16«1 EMiNDKL Pbilibekt had France 
at hie dlBCretloa. Hod hia counsels been instantly followed, the Spanish armynonld 
have dictated Us own terms before or within the walls of Paris.' But the narrow • 
• • • • mind ot pHTLip II frDBlrstod the victory, and tlie great opportnnitv waa 
lost. It Is well known that when ChjkiesV received tho first lidinas of the alorions 
battle, in his rellrement at TuEle, ho made up his mind that his son most be tn (nil 
march upon Paris ; and when fallen from his espectation, 1^ sunk into one of hie fits 
of decji gloom, and reftised to open fiirther dispatclies." Gallenga's Ilutorv of 

eorganized behind Zomdorf. 

liSBhoatiag — 'irnchairea. folloip me f ■ We poliow,' answered his brave • • 
men with one accord. His well known voice was In their ears ; his gloiions esample 
beamed before them. 

'■ Dashing throngh the gaps in Ihe Prussian line, the whole mass • • ruBhed 
npon the foe. The Hnsslana slightly disordered, as before, by their own successes, 
eoald not withstand the onset : • • fled in confnsion, and were driven in iha 
moiass nnderQusrtschen." Capt. Lawlet'b Gen. SeydUts. 

" William (in of England) lost the ftnilB of his victory at the Boyne by not press- 
bastions, or ontwotkB, with only seven iron cannon, a garrison of twelve hundred men, 
and a cowardly governor, arrested his career bnt a siuHle day. Three more days 
elipBedbeforehisentryinto Dnblin, a distance ot twenty- two miles onlj. He thus 
gave his enemies leisure to retreat and opportanlty to reorganize. Even then, it was 
not too late to press and pnrene ndUi his whole force. The fortifications of Limerick 
hadmoldered lo decay; he gave the Irish time to repair and add to Ihem. He divided 
hli forceB, sending Douglas with ten thonsand men to besiege Athlone, while he with 
the remainder marched sonthnard along the coast. Before Athlone, DonsLAS sustained 
a signal defeat. William himself did no more than take Wexford, which was betrayed, 
and Clomnel, which was ungarrlsoned— petty conqncsts, IntBrposing delay, when eipe- 
dition.was essential." O'Conob'b ■' MUitary History of Oie IHeh NaUoa." 

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We jwwi know that the Sikh power was completely broken by the mpeated heavy 
hlowa of MuDKI, Febozesuab, ALiwaL ana SOEBios; hnt aach was not then the gene- 

the governor-general againat eroaslng the Sntlej ; as some of them said, ' only to be 
driven hBCk with disgrace.' Better men declarsd that we had not means lo lay aiege to 
Gohindgerh and Lahore, and that, without such means it wonld he iujudicioua ta ci'oea. 
While Urns presaed on tho epot, there hafl heen for some time as ImpreBsivo SQKgea- 
tlone from IrrespoBalhle persons elsewhere to advance and haiard all in the Punjub, 
hefore oor train and ammnnition had come np. The governor-genorarB practical com- 
mon sense steered him ealfely between Iheae eitremes. Ho waited an hour beyond the 
arrival of the siege-train ; he felt that all now depended on 2Smc, on closing the war 
before the hot season coiila set in on onr European troops, entailicg death in ahuodred 
shapes on all ranks, and tho ospcnacs of anolher campaign on the Govetument." 8m 
Hesht MoSTQOMEBr LiWEENCE'a Sssays, ^Hilars arid B/HOaii, written in India; 
London, 1S69. 

"The Prince (of Wahlstadt, Blooheb) had a very prompt and penetraling ey 
he said, 'That village there, those heights, or that copse must he taken,' or 'tl 
that wing, or the center mnat advance. In order to prevent euoh one oranothern 
in every caae the order was apposite, and perfectly practical. In aach wise, aloM 
the battle of Laon, the key to (the captnre of) Paris (in 1314) won. Natoieob hi 
eiertad all his might to break the right wing and center (of Blucbeh), and get pi 
Bion of tho direct road to Laon. The Prince patiently ohaened the changes i 
atmggle, even until evening; at length he apoke: "Now It is lime to pot an end t 
he took ont his watch and gave tho order accordingly, ■ to m 

permit.' A decided victory was the resnll, in which Yoke had the greatest share." 
BiESKB'a Blucher. 

It is very questionable if any portion of the Army of tlio 
Potomac ever fought as well — perhaps "well" is not the word 
— rather, ever showed more bulldog pluck than ILeintzelman's 
corps at Williamsburg. Not that this glorious army did not 
fight marvelously well on other occasions; but Wellington 
admitted that troops green to Are often face death with more 
reckless enthusiasm than veterans who have learned from expe- 
rience the folly of exposing themselves needlessly. . The "Iron 
Duke " spoke of the young British ofBcers who had never been 
under fire before, hastening to meet death at Waterloo as gaily 
as if they were going to a hall. Perhaps one reason for this 
apparent indifference arises from the fact that men of a brave 

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nation do not learn, before they have gone through one sharp 
battle, to appreciate its dangers. 

Lieutenant Lamping — so frequently quoted in the chapters 
relating to Kearny in Algiers — who served with the French 
Foreign Legion in Afi-ica, uses the following language in regard 
to his " baptism of fire ;" 

" This was my first battle in the open field, and I cannot say 
that it made much impression upon me. My imagination had 
pictured the terroi-s of the scene so vividly to me that the real- 
ity fell far short of it, I was moreover prepared for it by all 
manner of perils by land an*d by sea. I have frequently ob- 
served that men of lively imagination (and accordingly most 
southrons) have a greater dread of fancied than of real dangers. 
Before the decisive moment arrives, they have exhausted all the 
terrors of death and are prepared for the worst. The cold, 
phlegmatic northerner, on the contrary, goes with greater cool- 
ness into battle, but often -finds it worse than he expected," 

Marshal Ney, after explaining to General Ditmas his manteu- 
vres at Latren, in 1813, which decided the day, added: ".I had 
only battalions of eonsoripts {new levies), and I have reason to 
congratulate myself on it ; and doubt whether I could have 
done the same thing with the old Grenadiers of the Guard. I 
had before me the best of the enemy's troops, the whole of the 
Prussian Guards ; our bravest grenadiera after having twice fail- 
ed, -would, perhaps, not have carried the village ; but I led these 
drave childrm Jive times to the charge, and their docility, per- 
haps, too, their inexperience, served me better than veteran 
courage; the French Infantry is never too young." 

It is curious to contemplate the effects of the same causes 
upon different individuals, and the reader will find a result simi- 
lar to that at which Lamping reached by a different process of 
thought, in one of the actors at Williamsburg, quoted a little 
furthor on. Brevet Major W. B. (then Second Lieutenant in the 
Fifth Excelsior) describes Williamsburgh (where he commanded 
his company) as the hottest fight he ever was in, Chancellorsville 
coming next in severity ; Gettysburg, in his opinion, fell far 
short of both, although hia brigade (Excelsior) did the hardest 
kind of fightmg on the second day {2d July, Thursday), on the 

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left, repulaing Longstkeet's turning movement. The lines were 
closer together -when they exchanged fires at "Williamsburg 
than on any other occasion. He himself cut down and preserved 
a sapling, which only made a good stout cane, yet, nevertheless, 
had been hit by nine bullets. 

Major C, S. W., First New York Artillery — who made his 
dnhut in this battle, served throughout the war with distinction, 
and was brevetted Brigadier-General at a time when brevets 
were indeed worth something — has often remarked thatthe 
troops, on this sombre May day, marched up under fire just as 
lines are represented going into battle in pictures. It is very 
unlikely if he exposed himself with sach total disregard of self 
again. Keaent often spoke of this officer's conduct on this 
occasion, and, highest commendation for an old soldier, said 
that the green volunteer behaved as well as any regnlar (mean- 
ing veteran) could have done. 

There are many reasons why our troops should have behaved 
well at Williamsburg. They had been disgusted with lying 
in the mud throughout the previous fall and winter, blockaded, 
as it were, or held in check by aphantom enemy, whose unrecdity 
had been dissipated by Keaest's sudden dash on Ceotrevilie 
and into Manassas. They burned to avenge Ball's Bluff; Drain- 
ville had taught them what a vigorous attempt to do something 
could accomplish. The inaction before Torktown had not im- 
proved their temper ; they felt their strength ; they knew their 
capability, and they longed to measure themselves with rebels 
who had vanished from the battle field, which they claimed as a 
great Southern victory, and vaxs not, and had eluded them in 
those fortified lines where Coknwallis surrendered to Wash- 

Fortunately, the troops who led the Union advance np the 
Peninsula had been attempered into a steel lance-blade, whose 
point was that " Fighting Joe " who crowned a long series of 
desperate conflicts by the escalade of Lookout Mountain, that 
nonpariel " battle above the clouds." 

HooKEK led his men into action and disposed of them with 
the calm intrepidity of a practised leader. His presence held 
bia men up against fearful odds ; and when they had to give 

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ground (his single division had to sustain the attack of far out- 
numbering forces, gradually increasing to quadruple its own. ; 
we took prisoners from forty rebel regiments), he became a sort 
of Providence, exercising an influence of which none but the 
bravest of the brave are capable of; so that his troops gathered , 
around him as a centre and a strong and unshakable tower, to 
make their iaat desperate stand. Still, even he could not have 
held them up to such work had not the troops felt, had not each 
soldier known, that the man who was coming up to relieve them 
was that fearless twin-spirit, who would do all that could be 
done to convert a momentary check into a victory. They knew 
that Kearst would strain every nerve ; that he valued "Fight- 
ing Joe," and that Hooker valued " Fighting Phil." Together 
they had fought in Mexico ; amid manifold perils they had 
learned to estimate each other at their fuU worth ; and they 
relied upon each other with the assurance only such men can 
feel and inspire. Hard pressed, and aware that his troops were 
nearly exhausted, Hooker felt — and so expressed himself— 
abandoned by those who should have been the first to support 
him. In anguish of spirit at his needless loss — needless had he 
be«n duly succored— he recorded his sense of this abandonment 
in language which, however bitter, the people feel was very near 
the truth: "History will not be believed when it is told that 
the noble officers and men of my division were permitted to 
carry on this unequal struggle from morning till night, unaided, 
in the presence of more than thirty thousand of their comrades 
with arms in their hands. Nevertheless it is true." 

Hooker was perfectly right, and acted in strict accordance 
with the principles of war, when he attacked the retreating 
rebels at Williamsburg. He would have violated those rules 
had he not done so. To press home a retreating foe is just what 
our generals always ought to have done, and just exaotly as 
Hooker did. The rebels also, in this fight, were true to their 
principles- never to shun a fight when they expected to be able 
to do a greater proportional damage to us than they thought we 
could do to them ; and to reinforce their rear guard to insure its 
being able to make a decided stand even though they sacrificed 
that rear guard, as at Falling Waters, so that they saved their 

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loaiii »rmy and tkeir material None of tbeip general, seemed 
to T.tae human life; tnt then they almys required an equiva- 
lent for their prodigality of Mood— always, exeept at Settys- 
bur». There, however, for the first time, L«P acted upon open 
gromd, where his actions could he discerned; and there he 
demonstrated that he was not the general hi. admirer, claimed 
Mm to he, and that all Ma reputation had been bmlt up on tho 
ability of his subordinates, and the error, and negligence of hi. 
opponents. ■ 

But enouifh of this argument. Hookeb did attaet, and 
bravely, in the same spirit that She»mah, two year, aftei-ward 
(27th June 1864), assaulted at Mountain, olaimmg 
that his daring feat « produced good fruits and demonstrated 
to eeneral JoimsiOK (who commanded on the Peninsula m May, 
18«2) that I would assault, and that boldly." HoonE.'s dm.ion 
seemed about to eiperience the fate of the assaulting column 
amid the Georgia AppallacMans, and wouM have done so had 
he not had Phil. Kearht to appeal to for support, and Pbiu 
Kearkt to respond to his appeal and to answer promptly and 
eiacienlly the summons of Hoorer for the reinforcements 
necessary to prosepve and maintain hi. soldierly honor and Ms 
diviaion's e.-cistcnee. 

Tlie facts are these: Through storm and mire, and loitering 
after loitering regiments, brigades and divisions, HooRRR sent 
word back to K.»R«T, furtheat in the rear, to hurry forward. 
Other regiment, intervened, but his trust waa in Keabst. 
" Tell Hooker I am coming," said Kearny, whose division was 
the last to leave the lines at Torktown. These were his word. 
to the aid who brought Mm Hoorer's measage ; and Ke-arst, 
the last to whom such an appeal, under ordinary oireum.tances, 
would have been made, was the first to come up and save 
Hooker. Tos, saved Hooker in every sense of the word a« 
SiEVEmos testUes m hi. history of the " Eiteelsior, or Sickle. 

Brigade." . tt t v -i 

Captam F. E. G. wrote as follows in this connection : i had 
not the honor of fighting under yonr illustrious relative, the la- 
mented Bhil. Kearnt, but I did have the honor of seeing him 
on more than one battlefield ■, and especially do I remember the 


May 5, 1862. 

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joy I experienced on seeing him come up the road at the battle 
of Williamsburg, I cheered him then, standing in mud a foot 
deep, with the tears trickling down my cheeks for joy. He 
saved our division, and who eaa tell how much more ? " 

" I shall never forget," said Brevet Major W. B., " the arrival 
of the brave General Keabnt and his troops at the battle of 
Williamsburg, on May 5, 1862. I at that time was a second 
lieutenant, in command of my company (Company I, Fifth Regi- 
ment, Excelsior Brigade). The Excelsior Brigade, except one 
regiment — the Second Excelsior Seventy-first New York Vol- 
unteers — together with the rest of Hooker's division, had been 
engaged in the battle, and at the time of Kbaeny's reaching 
the battle field the whole division was well fought out, as the 
list of killed and wounded will attest. We had been forced 
back a full half mile from where we had fought in the morning, 
and our wounded in the hospital were in great danger, not only 
from capture, but since the enemy's projectiles were visiting 
them. When General Kearnt arrived, he passed through our 
lines and soon retook the lost ground, and, after a short but gal- 
lant fight, he made the battle of WOliamsburg a victory. 

" When the Excelsior Brigade was forced back at the battle 
of Williamsburg, May 5, 1862, two guns were left loaded and 
primed, all ready to fire, by the artillery, but no artillery-man 
was there to fire them. A second lieutenant belonging to 
Company F, Fifth Regiment, Excelsior Brigade, by the name 
of Squier (a brother of Mr. Squiee, so long connected with 
Frank Leslie's paper), discovered that the guns were loaded 
and stood by them; and when onr troops had fallen to the rear 
of these guns, and the rebels, hard pressing them, made their 
appearance, he pulled the lanyards, and the rebels, not forget- 
ting the days of masked batteries, thought it was all a Yankee 
trick our falling back, and they immediately retired ; and before 
they recovered General Keabnt had an-ived, and then the day 

There is no question but that Keaent fully appreciated the 
work before him from the outset. Brevet Brigadier-General C, 

S. W establishes this when be states that be saw Keaeky's 

division drawn out ready to move on the first intimation, long 

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before any orders -were issued to that effect. De Tbobeiaxd 
says tliat from the start Kbakst felt that " Stonema;^ had the 
whole rebel rear guard on his hands" on the evening of the 4th, 
and that Heintzelman's aid confirmed the exactitude of Keak- 
ndt'b conjectures when, next day, about 11 a, m., this aid en- 
countered the advancing succors, westward of the Brick Church, 

Full justice has never been done, hitherto, by any historian 
of the war, to the battle of Wiiliamsburg. In many of its fea- 
tures it was one of those conflicts which ought to be remembered 
in the catalogue of decisive battles. It decided one fact — that 
the men of the North were not the men which their detractors 
had pictured them ; that if any people on the face of the earth 
would fight and stand up to their work under every disadvan- 
tage. Northerners would ; that they would fight aa well as 
Southerners, if not better, and endure as much, if not more. 
They were no longer qttieites (citizens), but milites (soldiers). 

In this battle Keaesy showed himself also in his true colors. 
If any man doubted that he would fulfill all that report had 
ascribed to him, that doubt was set at rest forever. He justi- 
fied the opinion of one of those generals (whose name the snarl- 
ing but capable Gueowski declared "ought to coiruscatc as 
the purest light of patriotism for future generations ; one who 
never fails where honor and patriotism are to be sustained"), 
Major-General A. A. Humphkeys, now Chief of Engineers — 
who wrote "that Keaknt's action, by universal testimony, was 
magnificent." The words of Blxiciiee's biographer, Biebkb, in 
regard to his hero, will apply with equal force to Keaksy, an 
identically parallel character : " Fifteen years Bluchek lived in 
his retirement very happily [Kearny spent ten years in luxu- 
rioua ease] as he declared, and yet proved (when the time came) 
that, with his characteristic resolution, whatever he willed to 
do he could accomplish." 

" One memorable fact which you ought not to forget in your 
narrative of that fight," are Hookek's own words in a letter to 
the author, was that Keaeny's division was the last to leave York, 
town, and was the first to come to my assistance." The reader 
must almost have been in such a predicament to conceive the 
- fiery impatience of Kearny, as ho waded rather than marched 

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forward, appreciating the due need of his friend, like Damou 
flying to save his Pythias, under the suspended as. The rever- 
berations of the battle — like the thunder of a tempest afar oiF 
— deadened into an ominous hum by the distance, the interven- 
ing forests and the pouring rain, must have inflamed his deter- 
mination to press on, and have quickened his ardent thirst to 
make the name he knew he only required the opportunity to 
win, had flot the necessity of straining every nerve to gain the 
field before it was too late to resene Hookee, roused his fiery 
nature into almost superhuman energy. Then, after he had 
passed the brick church, the cannon shots that almost immedi- 
ately began to " lob in " from the still unseen guns, soon told 
their own tale. " Lob in " is an ultra English expression, but it 
is very significant, denoting the heavy or lazy fall, into mud, 
distinctive of single shots at long range. These were soon suc- 
ceeded by the spiteful rattling, roll and crash of the musketry 
nigh at hand, and then Eeaent's division, stooping upon the 
furious battle field, realized Voltaire's description of Cumeee- 
land's infantry at Fontenoy : 

"On the wlngB cf the wind, like a atorm-clond its ranks, 
Bearing lightning and thandcr aod d?ath in Its flanks." 

Kor was his conduct to Hooker less generous or worthy of 
note. Like BotTFPLEKS at Malplaquet, he would not supersede 
Hooker on the field of hia glory, but left him the direction, as 
the hero of Lille yielded the first place to Vili^es ; even as 
OuTEAM waived hia rank in favor of Hatelock, and allowed 
the latter to complete the task he had ao nobly begun, of reliev- 
ing Lucknow ; even aa Niel, the superior of Havelock, was 
content with being hia coadjutor and with lending him all the 
assistance in hia power in achieving the success of a cause both 
had so greatly and nearly at heart. 

In regard to the hour when Keaent got on the ground, 
there has been a great deal of discussion. Keaeny himself says 
2 p. M. One of his aides-de-camp, in a letter from the battle- 
field, fixes 2l30 p, m. Subsequently, in conversation, the same 
aid stated that Keaent ordered him to keep the time, and he 
did so ; that the actual record was lost, but that he knew that 
Keaent got up at 2:30 P. M., and that bis regiments were en- 

>y Go Ogle 


gaged at 3 P. 3L Heintzelman testifies to the earlier hour of 
2:30 p. M, ; and the Evening I'ost's war correspondent corrobo- 
rates Keaent's own opinion of 2 p. m. Were not this all-suffi- 
cient to establish the Keaknt side of the controversy as to time, 
the following method of arriving at the truth is unanswerable, 
becanse it is confirmatory evidence, unbiassed and totally disin- 
terested — a perfectly mathematical method of demonstrating 
the truth like a proposition : 

Major, then Lieutenant, W. B. (who distinctly remembere 
Kbaknt's arrival on the field, working or jerking the stump of 
his left arm as he was accustomed to do when excited) declares 
that he did not come up until 4 p. m. The major admits that 
the fight commenced at 7 a. jl Hookee states 7:30 a, m,, in 
his report; but it is well known that he brought on the fight by 
a daring reconnaissance with his staff as soon as it was light. 
It, is almost certain it began at an earlier hour — about daybreak. 
De Teobeiand says that Heintzelman's aid charged with seek- 
ing reinforcements stated, when they met, that the fight had 
lasted over four hours. This was at the Brick Church. From 
this point to Fort Magruder was three miles in an air line; to 
the real fighting not over this distance by the road. Giving 
De Trobeiand from one hour and a half to two hours to over- 
come all the intervening difficulties, and become engaged, brings 
it down to I p. M. He says he had been actively engaged for 
about an hour, when a rapidly-developing fire on his left hand 
relieved his mind. This was Kearny, at 2 p. m. Consequently, 
De TROEBiAsn, a disinterested witness, proves that Keabsy 
was not only on the field but had brought quite a large portion 
of his force into action by 2 p. ir. As Keaent's reports are 
very det^led, it is needless to enter iurther into the develop- 
ments of the battle, and the reader's attention is now invited to 
some interesting statements from the correspondence of the 
general and his friends. The following letter, written almost 
on the battlefield by one of Keaent's aids, will give a pretty 
fair general idea of the fight, and prove of interest as a contem- 
poraneous narrative, thrown together almost by the light of the 
confiict : 

>y Go Ogle 


" I am sale. You must have heard of our action by this time, 
though I Ijnow at first the papers did not know any thing of it. 
On the day of the battle (Monday, 6th), we were encamped 
about two miles beyond Yorktown, on the road to Williams- 
bnrg. General Heintzeluan, with Hookek's division, was in 
advance. We were ready to start early, but did not, on account 
of awaiting orders. We commenced our march at about eight, 
and it wHs with great difficulty that we could get on, the roads 
being very bad on account of the rain which had fallen since 
three o'clock a. m., and continued most of the rest of the day. 
Just before we reached the Brick Church, orders came that we 
should advance as fast as possible, that Hookke was hotly 
engaged. General Kearny, after giving his orders to He 
generals, moved on ahead to investigate the roads. After he 
had gained a full knowledge he retui'ned to the redoubt thrown 
up, which at one place commands the main road, though not 
the one which we took, which tatter was a cart-road, enteriag 
the main road behind {i. e. turning) the redoubt. 

" As soon as Berry's division came up, the General leading, 
we shortly after i-eached General Heintzblmanj" who, with 
Hooker's assistance " was holding up the Excelsiors, who had 
done well in the earlier part of the day, but were disheartened 
by heavy loss. General Heintzelman, when he saw it was 
useless to endeavor to get them to advance, ordered General 
Kearny to advance, wlio was only too glad to do so. General 
Kearny and General Hooker (who, by the way, earlier in the 
day had a horse shot under him) led, followed by their staffs; 
then came General Berry's brigadga 

" Let me now describe the country, and then the action ; let 
me also mention that it was owing entirely to Kearny's coming 
up when he did, that the day was won. The road to Williams- 
burg is almost entirely through the woods, except in one or two 
places. Whei-e the battle (actual fighting) took place, was on 
the confines of the woods ; here the rebels had dug rifle-pits, 
which they covered or protected with abatis. Behind these 
were works — that is, several forts. 

[Here follows an original rough draft of it, drawn on the field, 
which was the clearest that was sent home or published.] 

>y Go Ogle 


" Being on the staff, I saw most of the actioo, for my duties 
calliBg me hither and thither enabled me to observe more than 
oae whose position was more stationary. 

[The writer was engaged in his appropriate duty at the front 
during the fighting, and after the fray was over attending to 
the wounded, and collecting and bringing forward the dead, 
among them two comrades on the staff.] 

" Just before you reach the open country, you come to a hol- 
low, and on the left of the road a stream {emptying unto Col- 
lef'e creek, an affluent of the James.) General Keaknt rodo 
himself up to the cannon, which, placed on a little rise, com- 
manded the road (these guns were at the time unsupported) so 
aa to see on what ground he was to act. He then rode to the 
left' of the road, the bullets whizzing around us. Ikting says 
of "Washington, that after the first fight he wrote to his 
brother, ' the bullets whistled around me, and really the sound 
was delightful.' When spoken to in after years in reference 
to this gasconade, he remarked that ' if he had said so, it was 
when he had not heard many.' Kow this was the first time I 
had heard the bullets whistle, and I can tell you it is not 
delightful— not even pleasing. But though the eound does not 
become familiar, the thoughts getting engrossed, you forget the 
sound, or rather forget to hear them. 

■ " General Keabnt ordered General Beket to occupy the 
woods to the left and a little to the right, which he did. This 
movement retook onr lost pieces, or rather some of them. 

" On our right was De Trobeiand's (55th N. Y. V., the 
Laeayetie Guard) and some other troops of Hooker's division. 
It appears, from what I can learn, that Hooker kind of stumbled 
upon the enemy's works in the morning. Major Charles S, 
WArawRiGHT placed his guns and silenced the battery of the 
enemy. The enemy's fire was very heavy upon his (C. S. W.'s) 
gunners, and the supporting regiment was driven from the 
tnms, or whether Hookee thought it better to lose the guns, so 
as to prevent the enemy's fianking him, I do not know. 

" Well, when we came up we gained steadily on the enemy. 
We reached the scene of action about half-past two ; the fight- 
ing ceased at sis-thirty or seven ; wo having followed the enemy 

>y Go Ogle 


to his ramparta. At daybreak General Keaent, leading with 
Brigadier-General Birney's hrigade, took Fort Magruder. 
General Jameson, another of our brigadier-generals, marched 
on and entered Williamsburg, throwing out one regiment as 
skirmishers, supported by the rest beyond the town. At abont 
noon we received orders to remain near Williamsburg. 

" Two of our aides were killed, A. A. G. Jambs Wilson and 
Lieutenant Baknakd. They were killed leading an assault ; 
the first shot throngh the head with the ball of a fowling rifle, 
most likely by a haltbreed Indian. After the battle we found 
several dead, and the prisoners said there was a company of 
them used as shai-pshooters. Baknard Was ehot through the 
abdomen. He lived a little time, and was perfectly sensible. 

" General Keaent exposed himself continually. At one time 
he and Lieutenant Moobe and another of his aides were in 
advance of our guns when one of our soldiera cried ' take care, 
sir, they aim at yon.' They had scarcely time to turn their 
horses when a volley whistled by. At another time he rode up 
to the Fire Zouaves, whose Colonel it is feared is taken prisoner, 
saying ' where is your Colonel, boys.' * We don't know,' was 
the response. ' Well then follow me,' and he led them to a gal- 
lant charge.* Continually he exposed-' him self. Our men were 

Lton at WilBOn'B creek, and it wonld he aa jnrt 

to charge him wMi reckleas eipoBure 

gallantry. Both felt that example wae 

■ the necearttj Qf the Hour and forgot eelf in 

canae and connliy. ''To caU the dea 

iths of Ltoh and Bakib '011111817 Bnicide,' aa 

on the dead, agalnat which they cannot defend 

g safely at home and knowing nothing of the 

clrcnmfUmces. and never Laving Been 

actire Beryice, to write and pnbiish each an 

not bo forgotten. They maalhe led. Ton cannol order tliem forward and oipect them 
10 go alone. Ton cannot station them in a heavy fire and eipect them to remain with- 
out flinching, nnlcsa aupportefl and controlled, thonRh they he the brayest men on 
earth, Biample is every thing ; a Bingle word, the tnraing of a hair may sway them, bo 
aa to make all the difference between a tight and a flight, and thi9 is not from ficUe- 
neas. They are intelligent and reasoning beings. They are not afraid to do whatever 
yon are not afraid to lead them in yonraelf. Bnt If they BUBpect yon of flinching, there 
is something frapoaeiWe or eomething going wrong, and they are like sheep withont a 
shepherd. Thns may one firm man anpport a whole corps, and that one must be their 
.eader. They absolutely lean on him, relying on his superior Judgment, and Ihua can 
hecontto! them in time of emergency, after they have learned the power of hla support, 
»nd not before, They giadnaliy learn this mesmerically, unerringly. Inesperienced 
troojiH mnst be led. and yon all know the vital Importance of their having officers reli- 


276 BioGiiipirs' op major-ge!o:r4L philip KEARsr. 

brave. We Lad five regiments engaged contending against 
great odds. Our loss in killed, wounded and missing is over 
four hundred. The enemy's is very much greater, A com- 
missary, a naere boy, said he wisbed to go into tbe figlit. He 
is a crack shot, and he scarcely reached the fighting before a 
rebel fired, the ball gracing his hair. As the rebel was near he 
dropped the rifle, drew a revolver and shot him dead, saying it 
was a shame to use a rifle where a pistol could be used. Another 
boy went into the fight. Before going they tried to persuade 
him not to go, but he would, saying, ' I am good at a shot, and 
if it comes to the bayonet I shall see what I shall do.' He was 
found after the battle with a rebel's bayonet thi-ough him, and 
his through the rebel, both lying together where they had 

WiUiamsburg, while it was one of the most glorious, was one 
of the most extraordinary kind of fights that was ever fought. 
ScMXEE, the highest in rank on the field, one of the bravest 
and the most patriotic of men, did nothing of any consequence, 
and what little he did do, was rather injurious than beneficial- 
Impetuous to a fault, in general, oq this occasion he displayed a 
want of energy whichis almost irreconcilable with his subsequent 
determination at Fair Oaks. HEiNTZLEaAN exhibited a magna- 

able and eqnal to any emergency, wlio in sll eoolnesa 
to be r«9h and when to be merely conrageona, sna can 1 
ThoB fdr I hare spoken only of new Eoldiers. Bnt eye 
Qdence in their leaders, and still lal«r, even after they 1 
themselves, yon cannot always slay in the rear anfl ei 
tieir thorough worli, however mnch they may feel the j 
them np. Thete are times when the tonRheet veterans 

machines hesitate and stop, althongh the mighty presence of Napoi.eon hlmsel/ be 
there to force them on I He wae a model of cool courage and of caution, and knew 
well the necessity of gnardlng his own personal safety, Tet Kapoieon In person was 
obliged to lead hU bravest men over tho bridge of LodI, and again at Areola and at 
Waterloo, In the last grand charge of the Old Guard. Helblt tho dire necessity of leafl- 
ing them hiioself, and ho mshed to theh' head, bat hia officers selied him and forced Sun 
back. Had they left him to fbllow hU own instinct, he might have turned the fortnnes 

BeMnd all this comes the grandest consideration of all, God guides tho balla, and a 
man la really as safe in the front as In the rear. When his earthly mission Is fulfillefl, 

All things work t<^ether for goofl. Lton's death was more usefal than hla longer 
life wonld have been, else Providence wonld have detained him here. Newspaper 
critics and some otfiers have lost sight of this. Pages 88, 89 and 40, '• /Soldiers' Letltrt," 
by Lynn Mintckn Post. 


after they have 
.re learned full e 

is necessary 
.onfldenCB in 

L ftont to do 

ill flinch and the 




nimlty which, while admirable as a quality, was out of place at 
this time in one who was not only the ranking officer, but the 
one placed in charge by the Commander-in-ohief. The greatest 
^art of the battle was ordered by the division-general youngest 
in rank, and it was not until the very close that Keakisy, 
Hooker's superior, aasnmed his righte. Strangest of all, with 
two Major-Generals on the ground, and from 36,000 to 38,000, 
perhaps even, at the close of day, 45,000 men present, 8,000 men 
did all the figliting, and came near being beaten, with 30,000 
who scarcely fired a shot, within a few hundred perches ; who 
had only to have shown themselves, as determined to act, to 
put an end to the engagement almost as soon as it commenced. 
A simple strategic movement, early in the morning, such as 
Hancock made late in the afternoon, jnust have manceuvered 
the rebels out of their position with ecarcely any fighting, by 
an effort of what Deckee would style practical-strategy. The 
result was, Hooker who ought to have played only a subordi- 
nate part, and KEARtTY, who ought never to have been allowed 
to play any part at all, became the heroes of a battle which was 
one of the most glorious for the Union arms, and the most 
obstinately contested of all in which the Army of the Potomac, 
in whole or in part, was engaged during the four years of the 
war. Williamsburg was fair stand-up fight. It was " a fight 
of giants," as FEAifcis I, said of IVtarignano, in an arena of 
clearing, encompassed by the primeval woods. What is grander, 
it was of MEN, of Americans, and amid that fearful whirlwind 
of battle, as was remarked by one of ^he bravest, Keaksy was 
the noblest figure in this, his first battle for freedom and nation- 
ality — " magnificent." And as he shone in this, his first, he 
ehoae in every one afterward, through all to the last, when he 
laid down his life for his country, feeling like Husyadi, the 
Magyar hero and patriot, " It is allotted to every one once to 
die ; it is a debt we owe to nature ; but to die the death of a 
hero for Fatherland and Faith, it is a grace which the All-Power- 
ful only accords to His elect. God is with ns— charge 1 " 

God was with us, indeed, at Williamsburg, only as ZiETaEN 
declared to Fkkderick the Great whfln the latter despondingly 
remarked, " The days of miracles Were past." " Tet Ho, the 

>y Go Ogle 


' Ancient of Days,' atove, holds us up. He will not let us falL" 
He 3id hold us up. In this sense, the fallen at Willarasburg 
■were only the victims on the threshold ; those who fell at Five 
Forks the expiation at the altar. Then came triumph, freedom, 
a restored Constitution and country! Kbabny was to fall 
while the sun was rising amid clouds ; Wadswokth at his set- 
ting, amid golden glories, the promise of a halcyon mom about 
his crimson disk. 

was the cry of 1862; and in 1805 He gave it, full measure, 
heaped, poured out into the bosom. Alas ! if only the whole 
nation had been as true to themselves and to Him as Kbaent 
and his peers 1 

The battle ground of Williamsburg is very peculiar, and, if 
strongly occupied and held and well defended, presents a better 
tield-position than Torktown. The head waters of College 
creek, which empties into the James, and those of Queen's creek, 
which flows into the York, were less than a mile apart, and there 
is actually leas than two miles of available front to move upon, 
free from great natural obstacles.* Across the relatively unob- 
structed spa«e of three miles the rebels had constructed thirteen 
defensive works ^ five, six or nine redoubts, and four to eight 
open works, according to different plans consulted -— whose 
erosB-firea would sweep every foot of ground by which they 
could be approached. About the centre stood Fort Magruder 
a strong bastioned fieldwork, mounting thirteen guns, situated 
about one mile south-oast of Williamsburg, at the fork of tho 
Yorktown and Warwick roads. In addition to this, the rebels 
had protected their position by heavy and extensive slashings 
— in fact, the forest was felled for a breadth of nearly half a 
mile — aad moreover stood under cover of the woods ; whereas 
our troops had to wad<j. to the attack throngh mud like glue, and 
over a clearing six to seven hundred yards wide, advancing 
almost without shelter. 

>y Go Ogle 


The rebel position was indeed ■well adapted for tlie delivery 
of a defensive battle. It is true that it could be turned l>y the 
York river; but what did that turning amount to, when th« 
movement was eventually made in the lukewarm way in whieh 
it was attempted? The object of the rebel Oommander-in-chief 
was to delay General McClkllan. He had arrested his advance 
for nearly a month, before Yorktown. lie had no reason to 
doubt he could accomplish a. similar result at Williamsbui'g ; 
and, judging of the future from the past, he would have done 
so had any general but one of the Hookek type led the pursuit, 
and any general but Kbaknt fiown — in Hookkr-Keaknt style 
— to his assistance. 

The effect of the victory of Williamsburg ia now well knoiin. 
Riehmond was thrown into consternation* by the result. That 
victory, followed up, would iiave given us the rebel capital. 
That this crowning triumph was not achieved, was due to the 
only one by whom it could have been been achieved — AIcClel- 
LAN. Common sense, go-ahead leaders, like Toestensos or 
Traun or Elucheb or Changaenibr, or any one of the French 
Generals who made a mark in the Algerian campaign, in which 
Kearnt first learned his business, would have utilized his vic- 
tory, as ToEBTENSOX always profited l>y success, as Tueesite 
bowled the Allies out of Alsace, as Teaus backed Feedebic oni 
of Bohemia, as Blucube swept every thing before him in 1813, 
1814, and 1815, and as Changaexiee, when he had no cannon, 
gathered up his infantry and hurled them like a gigantic missile 
at the Arabs, exclaiming, " There is my artillery." 

Almost the whole of the fighting — that is, the severe fighting — 
which constituted Williamsburg a battle, not a mere affair of .'i. 
roar-guard, occurred in the belt of partially cleared ground in 
front of Fort Magrnder. The hard fighting was also confineil 
to the division of Hookee from daylight, or 7 or 7^ a. m., to 2 
or 2^ or 3 p. m., unsupported ; after that time, to his own .-ind 
about one brigade of Keaent's arriving division. 

•SeeCarleton's " FollowiiiR the Flag," pp. 83, Si, efc, referring to PoUard'a '-Sec- 
ond Tear of tbe War," p. 39, etc. ; LoBSing's " Civil War In America." vol. U., p. 3*1. 
etc., sDd otber cotemporsneons publications; "BfbeHlon Beaird," Vol. V, Doc, psje 
S5(J); Qreklbt 11. !aE-'6; TBNNinr,SK,1 1; Aieott, 11, K, referring to "Repotton 
(He Conduct of tbe War." lb., 1, 391. 

>y Go Ogle 


It is very doubtful if first and last the XTnioiiista had 8,000 
men. actually engaged in this immediate portion of the field. 
Oil the Yorktown road — at the Adams or Whittaker House, 
where another road branches off to the east or right, by which 
Fort Magmder can be turned, and taken in rear to the right, 
uiidin the rearof Hookbk's right flank— Sumner massed his 
corps. His action or inaction is UEintelligible," ' It is said that 
Ma dispositions were made against a supposititious line of battle 
in. his front, and to his right, where he imagined the rebels were 
posted in force, maneuvering directly against him, and that he 
considered the attack upon Hooker was nothing but a feint, 
which grew, through circumstances, into an actual engagement. 
SciiNEB is dead. He was a true man ; brave, patriotic, and whole- 
hearted ; bat, on this occasion, he could not have erred in a 
greater degi-ee than he did. The true point of attack was to the 
right of where he stood, and against the extreme rebel left, where 
IlAitcoCK did assail Hill, and with a withering point blank 
volley, blew him away. Our left center and left should have 
menaced while being refused. It would appear that there was 
an impression upon the minds of Heintzleman and Sumnee, 
that the ground between them was an impassable swamp. Grant 
that. From the disposition of the ground, this was an excus- 
able error of judgment for the moment; — but only for a 
moment — since a trial, a reconnoissance, out of fire, such as 
IxBARNY made this very day, more than once under fire, would 
iiiive dissipated the delusion. The whole country is very flat, 
aiid owing to heavy rams, was then covered with water j but 
what impediment was that to a searching endeavor to unite the 
wings of the dislocated Federal force, and act with generalship 
aud common judgment ? Let that go, however. 

Had SmiNER acted differently, Kbaent would never have 
had this fine opportunity to display himself in all the grandeur 
of Ma complete soldiership. 

As for Heintzi.eman, brave as steel, and generous and self- 
forgetting as brave ; the soldiers will never forget him for 

•SuH*B^ conduct on thle occftBion, was not nnllko that of SKHECBntH'sat CasssDo, 
2(Kh April. ]199. Mitchell's "Blograpbiea of Eminent Soldiers." ScwiEOrr, HI ; 
BBHTtteiEBK'a "MemnlreBi or Soityesibs MlUtalreS,"!, 33, 33; HARras'B AUlsoa,!!, 
as ; Tarna' History of tha French Revolation. II, 433, 

>y Go Ogle 


not forgetting thein. When tbey were exhanated in body 
aud despondent in spirit, before Keaeny showed himself, 
he felt that something must be done to cheer them. So, 
gathering up the scattered bands, be ordered them to play. 
" Play," said he, " play I it's all you're good for. Play, 
d — n it. Play some marching tune I Play Yankee Doodle, 
or any doodle you can think of; only play something," * 
" General Hientzleman," says private James R. Bpbns, in 
his little book, — " The. Battle of WiUiamsbwg " — " however, 
ordered several of the bands to strike up national and martial 
airs, and when the Strains of the familiar tunes reached the ears 
of the wounded, as they were being carried from the field, their 
cheers mingled with those of the soldiers (Kearny's)! "^^^ 
were just rushing into action. The effect, too, was great on the 
other side, for some of the prisoners stated that when they 
heard the bands strike up ' Hail Columbia,' and heard our sol- 
diers cheer, they knew that victory would be ours. 

■ The bands dli3 p1fl7 bo metrily 

And when ' HaU Cotambia ' was heard, 
We soon forgot onr caroa.' " 

In front of Hooker and Kearny it was butcher work, iden- 
tical with Aberckombie's assault on the advanced works and 
lines of Ticonderoga, in July, 1759, in which the peerless Lord 
Howe fell, and the flower of the British forces perished in vain, 
Lord Joes Muekay's lEghland regiment losing nearly one-half 
its privates, as well as twenty-flve ofiicers, slain on the spot, or 
desperately wounded. Compare this with Kearny's and 
Hooker's list of casualties, and it will at once be comprehended 
that the slaughter at WUliamaburg was even more severe than 
at Ticonderoga; although that engagement of the past is looked 
upon as a marked example of desperate bush-whacking and 
hard fighting.^ While this was the state of affairs on tho left, 

■ Compare Captain Buke's '■ ThTseyears in t}ie Armg (jf the I^olemac," page 78. 

t Fortunately for hia (HooKsa'a) lanrele, General KBiiwr, a aplendld old Tflteran, 
who had seen eervice under the French in Algiera, came to his aid and restored Uis 
battle to the Federals. " SriOKB'e Storg cf the Anierieaa War." London, 1868. psgo 58. 

i Oat or 16,000 men (Cnat. 1, S, l«9), Juat abotit the namtier Hooker and Ssissv 
nomlnallr had, Abeucbombie lo^t 3,000 killed and woacded {Cast, 1, S, 283) and was 
defeated. Onr loss on this occasion waa abont one-eighth heavier, and we were soc 
cesanil, althungh EooE^n and Kejbht did not have on hand over 9,000 men. 

>y Go Ogle 


in the center or right, m front of SumneS, there was aii oppor- 
tunity of displaying fine generalship.* With part of his front 
protected by a ravine and branch of College creek, he could 
Lave launched such a column against the ememy's left, as must 
have swept away opposition, swung round, taken the whole 
rebel line of defence in the rear, and captured a targe number 
of prisoners. 

It might have been made very much the same kind of fight 
as Count ScHAtTMBTjEO Lippb, once delivered, in 17G2, when he 
found, himself with a detachment of six hundred infantry and 
cavalry in the presence of 2,000 Spaniards, who suddenly issued 
irom a wood on which he was marching. He instantly recalled 
to mind the fact that there was a large pond in the neighbor- 
hood, on the road by which he had come up. In front of this 
body of water, so as to screen it, he posted his two hundred 
cavalry, in a single rank ; Lis infantry three deep, as usual at 
that date, constituting Lis other wing. The Spaniards extended 
their line so as to outflank him on both wings. The Count 
meanwhile fell back briskly on the pond, then passed his cavalry 
in the rear of his infantry to the opposite extremity of his line. 
Thus the water became a substitute for half of his front. This 
maneuver enabled him to outflank the enemy, to attack them 
(RosBACH fashion) before they could i-emedy or meet the man- 
teuver, and to roll up one wing before it could be reinforced 
from the other. Thus the Spaniards were completely beaten. 

As to the numerical force of the rebels at Williamsburg, it is 
very difficult to arrive at any correct opinion. The English 
author of the " Battle Fields of the South " says (page 204) : 
" LoNGSTBEBT Commanded on our side, and I know did not handle 
more than twenty-five thousand men." These words would 

■ A day or ttro aaer the battle, KsABKr rude up to Hooker's HcBdc|Darlf rs and 
relatad as follows, in the presence of a common tViond, Itom whose lips tlie siatetnent 
was taken aown in writing. He said "I have just seen StrmiKB; Sumnkb eaid tliDtthe 
battle of WilUaraabarg was not nnderatood ; that McClbllan had considered it an 
attalr of the heads of columns, while Hookkh claimed that Ihe attack was made apon 
him (Hooker). It wa» on the contrary a real pitched battle in which 7 ISuhser) mw 
iaminmimd." This KKiBNT emphaalied. "The attack on HooEEBwaa a mere feint. 
Theit tnlenUon w»a lo break through onr centre, bnt I (S^traKH) fmstrated their 
design, and had my men drawn up in Ave Itnee, 30,000 men, air, in five lines, one line, 
two linea, throe lines, four linea, five lines; " counting them off on his Augers; Keirni 
imitating ; " seeing the dispositions I had made, they did not dare to attack," 



justify the question, how many did Longbteeet have at hand, 
under his command, whom he did uot handle ? Such indirect 
language would bad any one to suppose that it was used on 
purpose to convey a false impression. Still, as he sets down 
the Union force at forty thousand, no great esaggeration, if 
any, it is fair to believe that he desired to state the exact truth. 
The writer has heard General Hookbk estimate the rebel 
strength at "from seventy to ninety thousand, but nearer the 
latter than the former number." Any such estimate is not 
borne out either by subsequent revelations or any published 
aiithority. Ilia own opinion is that the rebels had from fifteen 
to forty thousand engaged," the former number, early in the 
morning, the latter before the action closed. Brev. Major W. 
B — , of Hooker's division, had in his own hand the order 
regulating the retreat of the rebels. The rear-guard was to 
consist of six thousand men. It is most probable that Stone- 
mas ran into this force on the afternoon of Sunday, 4th. 
HooKEK encountered, first, the same troops, doubtless reinforced 
next day, Monday, 5th. A portion of the rebel army did march 
through Williamsburg, but countermarched and returned to 
feed the fight. As we took prisoners from forty regiments, it 
is equitable to suppose that at this early stage of the war, 
before any great battle had been fought, the rebel regiments, 
comfortably housed during the winter, and at home, had not 
been depleted eufiiciently to fall below 750 each. This gives 
thirty thousand — Cakleton's estimate. Concede, however, 
that Johnston or Longstkeet did not have over twenty-five 
thousand men, that number in a first class intrenched position, 
such as they occupied, ought to have repulsed and soundly 
beaten ba^;k thrice if not four or five times as many, according 
to the rule of war applicable to such conditions. Taking their 
own view of the matter, every additional fact makes the Union 
victory more remarkable and glorious. The rebel Generals, as 
a rule, performed marvels in one respect — they moved their 
troops during an engagement, with such celerity, to menaced 
points, that scarcely any battle occurred in which a single one 
of their regiments could complain that it was not " put in," or did 
not have all the fighting that any reasonable body of men could 

>y Go Ogle 


desire. It is aa equally difficult task to arrive at a correct esti- 
mate of the Union force which performed any service at Williams- 
burg, In answer to an application to Hookke, that distinguished 
General replied that he had about eight thousand men; his 
Adjutant- General states that the morning report returned 7,300 
present — and even if Kearny had brought up his whole divi- 
sion, he would have had only aa many more. The straggling, 
however, inevitable from the condition of the roads, often knee 
deep for men and horses, hub deep for carriages, had reduced 
his force greatly, and even his leading brigade (Berry's) had 
scarcely become hotly engaged when the rebel vim grew grad- 
ually less and less virulent ; the ni^ht shot in, and the fighting 

Taking Hookee's estimate as correct, this would not give 
over twelve to sixteen thousand men, without counting those 
under Hancock ; but Hookbk seems to forget that in conse- 
quence of the weather and condition of the roads, the flooded 
fiat-lands, the woods and the broken ground, the straggiing 
must have been enormous; it is bad enough in all forced 
marches, even in dry weather and on dry roads. Kearny oould 
not liave put in one-third of his men, because the same causes 
which must have somewhat diminished Hooker's effective 
force, contributed, in a much greater degree to decrease the 
numbers which Keaeny could have had in hand after such a 
forced march* as he had been compelled to make, 

• The following Is illustrative of a Bimllar marcb, and wortbj of comparison : '■ One 
of tha worst features is the elate or tbe weather. • • • At Wcickau, that same day, 
(Snndaf), rain began, ' * * and on Monday, 19tb (December, 1740), there was such 
a pout of rain as kept most wayfarera, though it could not the PmsBian aroiy, within 
doors. Rain in plni^os flillcn, and felling throngb tliat blesaed day, making roada iuio 
mere rlvsr» of mud. The Prnseian hosts marched on all the same. » * * Bain still 
heavier, rain as of Noah, continued througli tlilB Tuesday. • • ■ This march for 
tha reanvard of tile army • • • is thonght to be the wettest on record. Waters 
all out, bridges down, the country one wild lake of eddying mnd— up to the Suae toe 
many miles tjigethet ; up to the middle for long spaces ; sometlmaB even up to the chin 
or deeper, where your bridge was washed away. The PruBsians marcbefl through it as 
If they had baon slate or iron. Bank and flle. nobody quitted hia rank, nobody looted 
sour in the mce ; they took the pouring of the sklas and the red seas of teiresttlal 
llahid as msttars that mast be; cheered one another with Jocosities, with choral 
snatches (tobaoco, I consider would not bam), and swaslied nnwoariedly forward. Ten 
tours some of them were ont, • • • ten to flfteen miles waa the average distance 
come." Caklti^'s 'i/ykdrich The Seomd,' vdlame 3, pagee 148,119. 

>y Go Ogle 


Conaeqaently, after a dispassionate consideration, twelve 
thoasand seems to be a generous estimate of our effective force 
" handled," to borrow a word from the statement of an oppo- 
nent. Conceding that IIookek's view is correct, and he finally- 
had the whole rebel army on his hands, that army, according 
to the rebel returns, comprised fifty-three thousand effectives. 
As HooKEK remarks, afterward, " I have some valuable papers, 
relating to this fight, which I have obtained from rebel sources," 
it is reasonable or just to suppose that he speaks with the 
highest authority when he says that by the time Kearny came 
up he was fighting the whole rebel army on the Peninsula, and 
it was that whole army that Keabnt's shock decidedly defeated. 

Keeping this fact constantly in view, and another, which it 
would be difficult to disprove, that certainly not over ten to 
twelve thousand Unionists, at the utmost, fired a shot on that 
Moody Monday, 5th of May, 1662, Williamsburg becomes 
elevated into all that McClbllan claimed for it afterward, " a 
complete success," It is worthy to rank with the South Moun- 
tain battle, to the north and on our right, in Fox and Turner's 
Gaps — where again Hooker commanded, Keabsy having 
fallen — which the writer looks upon as the finest battle of the 
Army of the Potomac, considering the smalt portion of it 
brought into action, the disadvantages under which it labored, 
and the enormous advantages of position, as at Williamsburg, 
enjoyed by the rebels. 

A calm survey of all the circumstances must justify the deci- 
sion that too much praise cannot be awarded to Hooker for hia 
audacity and tenacity at Williamsburg, Nor can less praise be 
lavished on Keaesy, since had he not brought up a portion of 
liis division, rushed it in, disposed it, fought it, and exposed 
himself as he did. Hooker must have come to grief. N"o won- 
der that McClellan, at a later date, too late, however, to coun- 
teract the impression made by his previous dispatches, giving 
the whole credit to Hancock,* felt compelled to do tardy Jus- 

* As Boon as It was di^orered tbat the Confederates had nitlidrswD, a column wqb 
eent in pnrauit. It camo np witb the retreating rear-gnard at WiUiamplinrg, now rein- 
forced froni JoHNSTOH's army. LoNoSTHsaT's aiviaion, which had already passed 
beyond the town, retraced ite steps to aid in resisting tlie attack, and for ninf honrs 
HnoKKS'a division aime made head against the whole Confederate force. That General 

>y Go Ogle 


tice to tlie real heroes of the day ; that is, if honor won in the 
hottest fire against great odds and under tremendous diifieul- 
ties, conatitutes t^e highest glory of an offieer or of a soldier. 
A commander-in-chief may rest his claims to the gratitude and 
rewards of his country on brain work, moral audacity, and able 
dispositions, but the subordinate general must display far dif- 
ferent qualities, physical courage, fertility of expedient, coolness 
and rapidity of thought under fire, and calmness, all which 
united, inspire the soldier with confidence in himself and his 
superior, comtempt of death, and the detennination to succeed 
or die. 

At a later date, when it was too late, however, to counteract 
the impression made by his previous dispatches, giving the 
whole credit to Hascock, McClellas wrote as follows : 

Caup, 19 Miles feou Willi AMSEiriio, ) 
May 11, 18G2. f 
Hon. E. M. STAjrroN, Secretary of War : 

Without wflititig further ofSeial reports, which have not yet reached mc, I 
wish to bear testimony to the splendid oonduot of HooKsn's and Keahny's 
divisionB, under coauaaiid of General Heiktbelhas, in thobattieof Williamfl- 
burg. Their bearing was worthy of veteranB. Hooeeb'b division for {^) 
houra gallantly withstood the attack of greatly superior numbers, with very 
heavy loss. 

Keakny arrived in time to restore the fortunes of the day, and came most 
gallantly into action. 

aaya, " Hietorj will not Tie lielieved when it le told tliat the noble offlcers and men of 
my alTlsiou wore permitted to cttrrj on this nneqnal Btrngjle from morning nnlil night 
nnaldea, iu the presence of more than ai.OOO of their comtafles, with arms rn their 
hands ; neTertheleea, it is trae." The entire loss dntfng the day was 2,32S, of whom 
45B were killed. 

GenecaJ Hookir was jaetified In this hitler complaint. It has been reported that ho 
was relieved by a bayonet cliarge made Tjy Hancock ; but there tmal hase been an wrw 
tn tkis assertion. The troops by whom it wftB aald to ha^e been made first encountered 
the enemy about 4 p. k,, of the precedingaftemoon (Sunday, 4Ui May). It was a drizzly 
day, and the men marched forward In no small conflxslon, over leaves in the wood?, 
slippery with the rain, oyer fallen treep, and across ravinoa, so that It was imposeible 

pitch-aark ; the 43d New York Bred by miechancc into a Feansjlvanla tegiraenl. Nest 
day the Ibrmer had to be withdrawn and another New York and Maine regiment pnt in 
Its stead. All the morning <Monday, Bth May), heavy flring was heard. It was that 
which HooKEE was enconntering. Hascock's troops lay in line of battle from 1 r. m., 
to 4 p. Ji., when they receded before a fWint attack of a North Carolina regiment, aWed 
hy a flank attack of the Twenty-fonrtb Virginia. "Ilistary of Oie Americon Civil 
War," by Jons WnJJAU Deafss, M. D., Ii.L.D., New York, 1S68, vol. S, pages 350-832. 

>y Go Ogle 


I abal! probably have occasion to call attention to other eomrnanda, and wish 
not to do injustice to them by mentioning tlieni now. If I had had the full 
information I now have in regard to the troops abOTB-named, when I first tele- 
graphed they mould hare been specially mentioned and commended. lapoke 
only of what I knew at the time, and I slmll rejoice to do full justice to all 


Major- General Coinmanding. 

C 1 Kk e t forces in this battle were entirely dispro- 

p h ess. He entered with fire regiments, from 

all wl 1 n y m n had straggled, leaving him, at the first, 

h m f n h u iiid nine hundred men. In his eorreapon- 

" We daahed in at double-quick, our band playing, and rather teokleaa of 
myseir, I located my men right, leading them off personally from the word ' go.' 
At the outset, seeing that time was precious, I charged back the mass of the 
enemy's sharp -ahootera, who thought the field their own, our pieces having 
been abandoned by the gunners, with only two eompauiea, barely eighty men. 
But I remembered that such things had been done before, and had no alterna- 
tive, for my regiment had never, lYom morning, been allowed to close up, and 
BO off I went, too conspicuous from my showy horse [killed under him at Fair 
Oaks], and for several hundred yards down the roads, with briading abatis ou 
each aide, filled with the enemy's markamen. This, like all other thinga, only 
succeeded because the enemy presumes them, few as they are, the precursors 
of crowds behind." 

Kbaeny wrote home on the 5th and 8th: " We had a. rather 
unexpected' and severe afiair on the 5th instant, attended with a 
great deal of hardship afterward." He then went on to apeak 
of his " embarrassment," which no one but himself observed, 
" from having been placed in command on the 2d of May, and 
the battle on the 5tb, and the move {not his division, but Stone- 
man's) from Torktown on the 4th instant, I never had a chance 
to know men nor officers." Then, in his rattling way, but 
never intended for the public eye, he criticized the movements 
previous to his arrival on the field, and adds : i' Still it was 
wonderful to think that the troops would stand fighting so long. 
For ourselves, we went in as a dog takes a plunge, and swims, 
of course! I must say, that the men, all (and most of the offi- 

>y Go Ogle 


cers), were truly gallant. The wounded were not carried off 
the field. In one regiment I had nine officers killed and wounded 
in nineteen i 1 lost four hundred and fifty in five regiments." 

" It was a source of the deepest mortification to General 
Keabst that his services on this occasion seemed entirely unap- 
preciated by his commanding officer. When the battle took 
place, General McClbxlan was far in the rear. The importunity 
of Governor Spbaguk prevailed on him to go to the front, and 
be arrived in time to witness the gallantry of Hancock, engaged 
far on the right, and who, charging with his whole brigade just 
at dusk, contributed, with the loss of only thirty men, to the final 
victory. The entire Federal loss was two thousand two hundred 
and twenty-eight. Two-thirds of this fell upon Hookkb, the 
rest upon Kearnt, demonstrating where the real fighting liad 
been ; yet, in his first bulletin. General McCleli-an, though 
informed by his own aid of the facts {so Keaent says), abso- 
lutely failed to mention either Hookee or Kbabnt, to their 
great and just indignation, for the success at Williamsburg evi- 
dently saved the array. Huddled in confused masses, the artil- 
lery fastened in the mud, the infantry straggling and wading 
through the woods, the cavalry, bnggage-wagong, and all the 
paraphernalia of an advance confusedly edging along through 
miry roads, panic would have been ruin. Scarce any of tlie 
troops had ever been in action, and, had the enemy biien victo- 
rious, a panic would have been almost unavoidable, and Geneiiil 
Keaent felt that he had prevented this by the utmost hazard 
of his person. He was not proud of recklessness, but he knew 
that there were times when exposure was essential. "It is 
trae," he writes, " that I was fearfully exposed ; for wlulst the 
entire regiment would be sheltered by logs, I was the only offi- 
cer mounted and quite in view ; the only object aimed at by 
many hardly fifty feet from me,* I could not do otherwise, for 
we had the largest part of the work before us, and very few to 
do it. It was not useless recklessness ; it saved the day." 

• "With bra™ Phil alnnebefore me, leading onhla man, and daBhlng deetmoti 

on along 

the lioBj, Sa yon know that Bome rebels, taken priaonoR, aaid ther and othf 

ordered to Are, and in every way try « liiH thai General nitH one arm, doing i 

mischief F'-E. IF. Z.. 30ffi .Vnj. ISfiS, JT, T. 



McClellan readied the front just before tlie battle ended ; 
»nd, as bis attention was called esclnsively to the operations of 
Hancock, on the extreme rigbt, who had executed a sucoessHil 
flank movement, by which he had gained a position that com- 
manded the rebel line, he received the priocipal commendation ; 
■while Hooker and Keaent, who, by downright hard figbtiug, 
involving the loss of twenty per cent, of their forces present 
and under hot fire, had first held and afterward cari'ied the 
field on the left of the line, were not mentloced at all in the first 
bulletin of the Commanding General. 

"The fii-st time I saw Kearny in the array," writes Brevet 

Brigadier-General C. S. W , " was on Saturday, May ,1d, 

1862, about four o'clock p. m. He had just been given Hamil- 
ton's division, and was looking for his command. 1 told him 
where it laj', and put him on the road. WAira (De Petstbk, 
his volunteer aid) was with him at the time. The division was 
then the Third, of the Third Corps ; but soon after, when Frrz 
JoHX Porter's division was made the Third, Kearny's division 
was numbered the First, of the Third Corps. 

" Oa Sunday, May 4lh, when Hooker's division moved out t-o 
support the cavalry, Keakny had already broken camp, and had 
his division- massed in the open ground beyond the saw-mill. I 
do ttot think that be had received any orders at that time, but 
always supposed that he moved his men, on his own responsi- 
bility, into a position where he could use them tlie instant orders 
did come. 

"The hour at which Keaest's division arrived at the front 
at Wiiliamsburg has always been a disputed point — he claim- 
ing to have been there at least two hours earlier than Hookek 
and I set his arrival,* Whatever the hour was, it was some 

• '■ ' Pray, CaptslD [TiTxoB. of SroiRT's CfiTalry],' 6«id I, ' where did yonr men 
[rebels] ehow any enperiority to ours [Onion troops t] • 

" ■ Wby, I think In every battle yet ningl.t, and now bere [SaTOge Station], more Ihan 
at wmiamaburg. We fonght yon wftb onr rear gnard ; we had no eipeclHtlon of 
beinc; able to do more tbaa hold you In check TinUI the main body of onr forcen were 
out of harm's way. But when your Generals wero bo eaelly checked, this emboldened 
ns lo hurty bact rainforcemenls and attempt greater thuige, and I do believe that if we 
had resolved to make a final stand at Williamsbnis, we could hsve bound jon there 
another month, and then tlia heat and fever would have flnlahed the work we begin.' 

•'■Captain,' I replied, ' you know that the battle of WUliamahnrg was mainly fouglit 


>y Go Ogle 


time after the enemy had captured the two batteries I had out 
beyond the felled timber (slashing). Our troops had recovered 
entire possession of the road, along-side of which I had planted 
another battery, and we had repelled two separate attacks of 
the enemy. 

■ " The last of these had been by a column up the road, and 
had been broken almost solely by the fire of the Fourth New 
York Battery. After the attacking column was broken, detached 
squads from it, and single individuals, worked their way up 
behind the felled trees on the left of the road, until they were 
able to make it very hot in the battery, had any occasion arisen 
for opening fire. I had made two applications for some infantry, 
to keep these fellows quiet, but got none, our division being 
then about out of ammunition. On going back a third time, I 
found the head of Kearny's division and Kbaknt himself. On 
repeating my application to him, he at once gave me two com- 
panies of a Michigan regiment. Jmention this as a sample of 
the quickness with which he look in the state of avoirs, and the 
promptness of his orders to meet them. 

" Before putting his men into position that day, Keaknt sent 
most of his staff to the right and left to examine the ground, 
and, leaving the remainder Vith his orderlies, he rode alone out 
on the road far beyond our skirmish line. I did not see him go 
out, or know that he had gone; so, on perceiving a horseman 
coming in, thought it must be some one from the rebels. Why 
he was not killed then I cannot imagine, as the rebels held the 
whole of the felled timber to the left of the road, bnt I did not 
see a shot fired at him.* 

leral Eeabnt and Hakcock rendered very 
BD they reftcbed tbs ficid. Wo hod not so 
_ inrs were »ll the dieadTantageB of position, 

IntrenchmentB, and Btrong earthworlna, and we had to debonch into the fields In yonr 
front, ovor a narrow neck of land. T ou had every advanUge that men ehonld ask — the 
Btonn was dtenchine and disheartening; our artlUety was enjtiJfed in the rand — jet, 
notwithstanding all these things, General Hookzr, with the aid of three or font regi- 

of General HiNcocK, you were driven from the field. In the ftrejigtb of yonr Intrench- 
mentB, yon ought to have held out agamst 50,000 men.'"— CTajAiinJfnj-**' ^^ Peninsula 
fiwnjMiffra," page 287. 

•"As soon a3 possible, howerer, KEABNr and Heihtzilmah pnHhed forward his 
ffuppott ; and now EEiRsr petfotmed one of those brilliant feats which made him the 



" When he first came up, General Heistzblman asked him 
if he had not better let General Hooker aid him, as he was a 
Btrangev to his command? Kbakst replied, 'General, I can 
make men follow me to hell.' 

" Two days after the fight at Williamsburg, I saw Keaent 
cross the plain in front of that town, at a time when a good 
part of ilia division was scattered over it. I have seen but one 
other general in our army whose presence excited so much 
enthusiasm among the men as was shown for Keaknt at that 
time, by the troops he had not been with a week. * * « « 

" So far from being a hap-hazard, dash-ahead man, I saw no 
general who was more cautious on the march, or took more 
pains to know his ground before putting his men into a fight. 

" This, together with the quiet working of his mind when 
under fire (a very rare quality with the bravest men), and his 
inspiriting appearance in a fight, were his most striking quali- 
ties, so far as I noticed them. 

" When in the middle of a battle, his appearance certainly 
filled my heau ideal of a general better than any thing I ever 
saw. It made the blood thrill through one's veins, and would 
inspirit men, if any thing could." 

When the anxiously-awaited succor, brought up by Keaent, 
arrived, that General — accompanied by Major, afterward Biiga- 
dier-General, Chaeles S. Wainweioht, Division Chief of Artil- 
lery to Hooker, and Tiiompsos, Second Artillery, his 

own Division Chief of Artillerv — dashed forward on the road 

model soldier of his ditision. In order to disclose to liis troops the concealed position 
of the enemy, and to eihaust (draw) their Are (like RmoELEr, ptevjone to Mix'a 
chargo at RpBttca de la Palma). he aononncad his determination to ride in front of the 
enemy's lines. Sarroanded by his aids and officers, he dashed out into the open Held, 
and, as If on parade, leisnrely galloped along the entire fiont. Five thousand gnns 
were pointed at him ; the balls fell around him like hail ; two of hts aids dropped dead 
at his side ; and before he reacted the end he was almost alone. He secured hy this 
has&rdoas eiploit what he aimed to accomplish — the uncovering of the enemy's posi- 
tion ~ than riding back among hia men. he ahonl«d, "Ton see. my boys, wbero toflte.' 
His forces held tbelr own until Hahcock, by a flank movement, compelled the retreat 
of the enemy within their works. 

" All the soldiers and officers of tbls portion of the army not only spoke of Hooseh 
and Keaihtt as displaying on that day the most brilliant soldierly qnalities, but like- 
wise commended, In the highest terms, the coolnOES. discrimination and conrage of 
General HEIHTZBL1UH." — Jlfijrfo ■ Peninsular Campaign," JWffSlST. 

>y Go Ogle 


leading direct to Fort Magruder, to reconnoitre the positions of 
the enemy. They Lad advanced some distance beyond tlieir 
own mcD, when a battalioQ or more of rebels rose from the 
slashing in Hoe of battle, and poured volley after volley upon 
them, as fast as they could load and fire, at a distance of not 
over two hundred and fifty yards. As the enemy started up, 
Khaesy wheeled his horse and galloped back, followed, " the 
devil take the hindmost," by the other two officers. Strange 
to say, although the bullets pattered and hissed around, like 
drops in a tropical storm driven by a fierce wind, not one took 
efiect, except to gouge out a channel in the hoof of Miyor Wain- 
■weight'b horse. 

On this day, Kbaeny had a third narrow escape. He spurred 
into a little cleared space, midway the slashing, and, looking 
round like an eagle in search of prey, shouted out to his own 
men to show themselves and drive the rebels out of their cover. 
Responsive to his appeal, a few Union skirmishers rose on 
their side of the felled timber. They had scarcely made their 
appearance, when a whole rebel line of marksmen jumped to 
their feet from their lairs, and fired simultaneously, with delib- 
erate aim, at the "one-armed devil." It was afterward well 
known that in this, and subsequent engagements, the rebel offi- 
cers exhorted their marksmen to take cool and careful aim at 
the " one-armed devil," who seemed to delight in setting them 
at defiance, Kbaeny shook his stump at them, as he was wont 
to do when excited, and galloped away unscathed. Not a mis- 
sile touched his person or his horse. 

Thus, the battle of Williamsburg ended in establishing the 
character of the Army of the Potomac, but particularly of 
Heihtzelman's (the Third) Corps ; in elevating Keaeny and 
Hooker to the first place in the estimation of the American 
free people, as generals and soldiers of the finest type, for 
ability, influence and gallantry ; in winning the concession from 
McClellan that their troops had gained a complete and glorious 
success; but, alas ! in nothing further ! no trophies fell into the 
hands of the Union commander ; no results followed the prodigal 
libation of blood and life. When the news arrived of the battle 
■ fought, the victory won, and the subsequent paralysis through 

>y Go Ogle 


McCtELLiN, the writer pronounced a judgmont, recorded and 
attested, which events juatifled.* McClbllan demonstrated 
himself a failure; the Staff which our Executive and the Nation 
had selected to prop the cause of the North and guide its armies, 
had proved a Pharaoh's reed. Witness the thousands of vic- 
tims to the camp diseases, to the Chickahominy malaria, the 
thousands wasted in infructuose battles. Phil. Kearny had 
predicted all this ; his predictions were, one by one, verified to 
the letter, in the blood and ashes of our bravest and most pre- 
cious. Two months more and the Unioh army had been misled 
back — not driven back — to the James ; humiliated through its 
chief — not conquered, or dishonored io itself. Within three 
months it was back whence it started, as had been foretold that 
it would be by more than Phil. Kearny. Let the reader who 
doubts this obtain Emil Scqalk's " Summaij of the Art of 
War" {J. B. LippiNCOiT & Co., Philadelphia), of which the 
first edition was published about the time of the "Affair of 
Uivera," or Peninsula campaign was definitely resolved upon. 
Examine carefully " Example," pages 25, 33, particularly that 
wonderful map, which, had it not been prepared and issued six 
months before the events it prefigured, culminating in Antietara 
(another battle, indecisive, like Williamsburg, through the like 
fault of the very same supreme commander), would be almost 
an after-delineation, of the flow and ebb of the campaign, Aiml 
— September, 1862. 

That neither Hookee nor Kbabny was to blame for the 
result, their voices, their actions, the wounds of the one and 
the death of the other abundantly attest. 

Khakny's troops were the first to enter the abandoned works 
of the rebels, and detachments of Kbaknt's division were the 
first to advance on the morning after the battle of Williamsburg, 
and friends of the writer, who were engaged there, state that a 
skirmish, of greater or less magnitude, occurred. As no response 
has been made to published calls for information, this fact is 
merely mentioned to show that Kbaknt and his ofiicers and 
loea were always on the alert, and that if he did not go ahead 
it was no fault of his. 

>y Go Ogle 


WiLLiaiuBUBr), Mny B(«, 1863. f 

Camain ; I hsve the honor to report, that, on receiving orders on the Wa, at 
nine i. b., the Division took up Its line of march, and shortly after came npon the 
crowded colnmns before us. 

Ai ten and three-quarters i. «., an order wa? received from General Scmher Ui pass 
all others and proceed to the eupport of General Hookkb. already engaged. 

With difBcnlty, and mnch loss of time, my Dtyision at length made ite way throngh 
the masses of troops and trains that encumbered the deep, muddy, single doflle, until, 
at the "BrickChurch,"my route was to the left. At one and a half p. b.. within three 
and a half miles of the hattle-fleld, I halted my column to rest, for the first lime, and to 
get Ihe lengthened fiies In haad before committing them to action. Captain Moses, of 
the Qeneral Staff, with great energy, assisted mo in this effort. Almost ImmeflLately, 
howcTer, on oraor from QenectU Heintzklbah, oar " knapsacks were pDed." and the 
head of the column resumed Its march, taking the "double quick," wherever the mnd- 
holes left a tooting. Arrived at one mile from the engagement, yon, in person, bronglit 

(hjmBiBBEY'B, Ihe Second— to BuppoclEaoBT's Horse, to the loft of thepoBitlon. 

Appro*ching nearer the field, word was brouglit by an Aid-dg-camp thai Hookeb's 
cartridges were eipeoded ; and with increased rapidity wo entered nnderflre. Having 
auickly consulted with General Hookeb, and received General Heestzelban's orders 
as to thopointofonset, I at once deployed Bbrbt's Brigade to the left of the Williams- 
burg road, and BiBNEir'B on the right of it — taking, to cover the movement, and to 
support the remaining battery, that had ceased to fire, two companies of Poe's Regi- 

were passed, and our regiments promptly commenced an unremitting, well-dirccled 
fire. However, from the lengthening of the files, the gap occasioned by the withdrawal 
from the column of throe regiments, and the silence of this battery, I jctMi was left no 
alternative than to lead forward to the charge the two companies of the Second Michi- 
gan Volunteers, to bear back the enemy's sklrmiBbers, now crowding on otir pieces. 
This duty was performed by officers and men with superior intrepidity, and enabled 
Uajor Wainwbiobt, of HooH^a's Division, to collect his artillerists and to re-open fire 
from the several pieces. A new support was then collected fiMm the Fifth Jerseys, 
who, terribly decimated previously, again came forward with alacrity. 

The aaair was now fully and successfully engaged along onr whole Une, and the regi- 
ments kept steadily gaining gronnd — but the ■heavy strewn timber of the abatiia 
defied all direct approach. 

Introducing, therefore, fresh marksmen i^om PoB's Re^ment, I ordered Colonel 
HOBABT Wabd. with the Thirty-eighth New York Volunteers (Scott Life-GnardJ to 
charge down the road and take the "rifle pits" (In the center ot the abattis) by their 
flank. This duty Colonel Wabd performed with great gallantry— bis marOa! demeanor 
Imparting all confidence in the attack. Still the wave of Impulsion, though nearly suc- 
cessful, did not quite prevail — but with bravery, every point thus gained, was ftilly 
BUStained, The tm 1*11' of Colonel Riley's Regiment, the Porljeth New York Volnn- 
leera <lhe MozartB),was next eent for; and the Colonel, being t'a'ianf^ engaged In 
front, came up brillianlly. conducted by Captain Mindil, Chief of General BnoiEY's 
Staff. These charged up to the open space, and silenced some light artillery, and gain- 
ing the enemy's rear, caused him to relinquish his cover, Tho victory was ours. About 
this period General Jaubson brought up the rear brigade and the detached regiments, 
having previously reported them in the midst of a severe fire, A second line was 
established, and two columns of regiments made disposable forfrirther moves. Bui 
darkness, with the still drizzly rain, now closed, and thO regiments bteoaackid on the 
field they had won. 

>y Go Ogle 


moiagances dnritiE tlie night and the early patrols of the morn' 


works (which our pickets of Iho One Hundred and Fifth PennsylvaEiii, under Lientan- 
ant GiLBKBT, were entering with General Jasjcsou) the Fourth Maine Keglment, to 
erect thereon its standard and take poseeaiion in flill force. 

I have to mark ont for the high commendation of the Qeneral-tn-Chief, Generals 
Jamesos, BiHJrar and BKiuir, wh09e Boldicrljjndgmentwaa only eqimllealiy thcii-dis- 
tingmshed coarage. I refer you to their reporis to do jnstice to the names of the gallant 
officers and men nnder their imraeillate command. Having confined mjeelf principally 
to the center, the key of the positions, I report as having consplcuonBly distiagaished 
themseltea, imparting victory all aronnd. Colonels Foe, of the Second MicLlBan Volun- 
teers, and HoHiKT Waud, of the Thirty-eighth New York. 

Never in any action was the inflaence of the Staff more perceptible. AH were most 
etEcleut and defiant of danger. I especially notice Captftln Smith, A. A. General of 
General Beeht, and predict for him a career of usefulness and glory. 

My own Staff were truly my means of vision in this battle in the woods- I have to 
deplore the loss ofmj Chief-of-Stafi, Captain Wilson, who was kUled putting in execution 
my desire toe a general onset, at the period of the last charge, falling within the enemy's 
lines. Also, Lieutenant BiKNiED, late of West Point, at the end of the engagement, 
after having prevlonflly lost a horse. Captain William E. Stubdes, my Aid, was brave, 
active and judicious. Lieutenant Moobk, another of my Aids, renewed in this field his 
previous dietinction gamed aDtoad. My Volunteer Aid, Mr. Watts Be Fetsiee, boro 
bimKelf handeomely In this his first action. 

I have the honor to append the list of iaSed and wounded, ivhich, though not Impair- 
ing our fiitore efficiency, was a severe lose for the few engaged. 

Our batteries were on the field, but were not required, M^or Waisweiobt (Hooieb's 
Division)liavlng,byniBChpersonBlcabrt, resumed the fire of several pieces. But Cap- 
lain Thohpson, U. S. a., tho chief of my Division artillery, in the midst of a heavy fire, 
gave me the benefit of hia eiperiencc. 

CossoLiDAiEii List o 

), WonsDEu 

a MiS( 














?^i'4?i,|3iTcr|t5kyi,nntee s 













"V ery respectBilly, 

Yonrobedient servant, 
(Signed) F- KEARNY. 

Brig.-Gtu'l Cmamanilltig Third Diiiisirm. Third Corpn. 
To Chaitncey McKiktbb, 

Viyit and A. A., Qea'lSdntielmaa'e C 



CiMP Bebet, BAEHAJiayrLLE, Vi., May lOt/i. 1863. f 

StE: ThaeveDts wliich crowded on nsafter the battle of tUe Btli — Its Btomiy night — 
thecttre of the wonnded— tlie Bttenlions to the BlBin — the collection of the ttopbii^a 
— the mores of the neit day— having prevented my report, embracing the dlatin- 
f!iii9hod acts ot individnale, not Berving In my actnal presEBce, indnced me to request 
that the anpetlor suthorttj of the commander of tha corps wonld bo employed to use, 
on my ourtt, the separate repotts of those, my brigade commandera, who so ably sua- 
lained my efforts by their gallantry ; and who )0 amply fnlfilled the high prestige which 
they had won as Colonels of nohle regiments. 

The lists of the Sencrais of Brigades, comprises the Lames of the toUowIng offlcera 

riie right of my line consisted of the two regiments of the Second Brigade, General 
BiKNEV, the Thitty.eighth New Yorli Voinnteers, Colonel J. H. HOBiRT Ward, and the 
Fortieth New York, Colonel RtUEC — the other two regiments of this hrigado having, a 
mils hack, been detached to join Oeneral Emohv. The Thirty-eighth New York was 
the regiment that, sent for by me, charged down the road, and took the pits and abat- 
tis in flank. Colonel J. H. Hobabt Wabd has already been noticed by me, as one of 
the "brayestof the brave." He reports that, "Lieutenant-Colonel Strong certainly 
deserves mention for his galhintry. It wonld he unjust to mention any one line oOlcor 
befme another, when oZ behaved so well. This regiment lost one hnnfl red and twenty- 
eight men on ths 31st ot Jnly last, at Bull Kun." This day Ihera were nine offlcera 
kiUed and wonnded ont of nineteen in the reguncnt thai went into action, viz. ; 

Tlilrty-eigbth New York Volunteers lost — 

CALVIN S. DEWITT Captain Company I. 

WILLIAM SHARP Second Lieutenant Compioj H. S 


JAMES B. STEOTIS Lleulenant-Colonel. 

GEORGE W. DEWNETT Captain Company D. 

AUGUSTUS FRINK (Pnnkt) Captain Company H. 

SAMUEL C, DWYEE Captain Company K. 

R- J. MATSON First Lieutenant Company A. 

E. MILLEB Second Lieutenant Company B. 

W; SCOTT BecoQd Ijeolenanl Company A. 7 

Total otncerB killed and wounded '. 3 

Kolisted men killed B 

do do wounded 61 

do do missing 10 

TheFortiethEegiment, Colenel Eubt, perfonned noble and efficient services. Colo- 
nel RiiEV, with great spirit, held the right wing with half his regiment, after the 
'niiity-elghth and half the Fortieth bad been withdrawn to act nnder «ijr pFrsomd 
diraction. The part of ths Fortieth acting on the road against the central pits and 
nhattta— charging down the road Into the plain, passed beyond the enemy's flank, 
and drove off by their flre sevemi pieces of artillery, brought expresii!y ajainet them. 

Fortnne favored them. Their loss was — 

^d and wounded . . 



Knllat«d HMD killed S 

do do woBDded ^ 

JoUllofla _^ 

The batde od the lc!t of the line was a series of aasaulla by tbe enemy, and repHlse? 
taa outsets by ourselves — the frosli re-luforoements bj the enemy, contlnnally tending 
to oiit^nk us. Genetal Bkrhi was ever on tbe alert, and, by good arrangementB and 
pergonal esaniplo, influenced the ardor of all around him. IBs regiments fOHfiht roost 
des^peratcly. Their loss attests it. It acted partly in tbo woods to the left of tbe toad, 
and partly in carrying tbe abaltis. 

It was one of them. Colonel Poa's Second Michigan, mow direeUy wider my cOiUroi, 
wMcb maintained the key joint of our position. 

Two of its companies led off with the first success of tbe daj, whilst covering the 

Colonel Foe had already won a repntatlon In Western Virginia. He was a dUtlti- 
tingulshed officer in tbe U. S. Army before taking command of this regiment. 

merit It. Uia loss was — 

W, E. MORSE Captain Company P. 

WM. B. McCHURT Captain Company G. 

ROBERT D. JOHNSON Second Lieutenant Company A. 3 

Total officers killed and wounded 3 

Enlisted men killed IT 

do do wonnded ^ 

Total killed, wounded and missing _W 

TbB prlocipal lose on tbe left of the other two regiments (the fourth of the brigBde, 
Third Mlch^n, Colonel CHiMPtAiN. having been detached with General Emobt), 

HjTHiH, commanding tbo Thiny.sevcnth New York, on the estrerae left, was charged 
with guarding against the enemy's turning onr left flank. This dnty required v^ance 
and pertinacity. This regiment lost — 

JAMES F. MAGUIRE Captain Company B. 

^nLLIAMH. DKLACY Captain Company K. 

JOHN MASSY Second Lieutenant Company 0. 

EDWARD N. SHOWN Second Llenlenaut Company C. 

JAMES SMITH Second Lieutenant Company P. 

al officers killed and wonnded . . 

>y Go Ogle 


11 in the woofls. 

JAMK8 A. GUNNING SocondLici 

nENEYD. TERET Colonel. 

SAMUEL E. BEACO Lteutenant-Colonel 





In closing tMs Bopplemenlaiy Report on the location and meritB or individaals and 
regtoentB, It 1b proper to Include, altiouHh not attached to my command, General Gro- 
TEB, who, with an untiring courage, whilst moat of his man, having been relisTed Cy 
omarrivfll, wore taking the merited respite after their long bours of severe fighting, 
Btill brought up into line, alongside of ns, several hundred volnntaeis, who ibllowed 
his eiample, encouraging them to the flgbt. 

Thin report would also be Incomplete did I fell to mention the meiitarious services 
of onr Medical Corpa. They were everywhere, nndcr the greatest obsfacles, efficiently 
aiding Ihewonnded and establishing ambnlancea. One of them, Dr. J. H. Baiteh, 
one of Acting Surgeon-General Tbipleb'b Staff, Medical Inspector of Field Ambulances, 
assisted me greatly during the action by carrying orders. 

Sir, with the tnist that the division has done its duty, and falfllled your cipectatloiis, 
I hive the honor to be moBt respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

BHgadieT-Qs-aend Conmvmding WWilOn. 
To Captain Chauhot UcKieteb, 


Camp BEnnr, Babkbamstille, Vs.. May IMA, 1862. f 

TO hU Emdkm^ Austih Blaib, Qmeraor itf MMgan, : 

Sib — It gives mB great pieaBrn'o to address you, luoi 

slon conducted themselves In the engagement before ■Williamsburg on the 5th 
The Second, under Colonel PoK, and the Fifth, under Colonel Terby, hehave 

oolonela of those reglmenta, together with that of their general. General Beei 
mandlng the brigade, and also a copy of the one aent in by myself to Qenerj 
quartets, I alao send you a list of tba hilled and wounded. Colonel Poe eerv. 
Immediately under my own command, and the gallantry and soldierly qnalltie; 
played rendered him particnlariy conspicuous. Colonel Tebbi's Regiment tec 
pllof muchstrangth. after a severe contest, and held possession until the clof 

>y Go Ogle 


Teimysm's •' Ode to 


• No age liath teeQ, since natnre first began 

To work Jove'e wonderE, but hatli left beliind 

Some deeds of pmise for mirrors unto man, 

Whicli, more tban dreadful law?, have men incJinet 

To tread the paths of pnilee, escite Iha mind : 

Mirrors the thoughts ta virtue's due reepecle : 

Eiamplc hastens deeds to good effect?." 


* ' • the chief of knights."' ^^ 
•■ Von deB Lebena GHtem alien "'^'"^'' 


1st der Kuhra das hOchste docb I 

Wenn der Leib in Staub zetfallen 

Lebt tar groaee Kame noch." 

'■ A more l^arlesa man probably never lived." 

Am^tfl •' Hilton/ of the CivU War in Am, 

'.nc»." u, «. 

■'Forasaaind provide, are two worils which the general shi 
thooshts throughout every tnoment of his term of comma 
■• Sa-ivatia Mi&i/Urea." 

Woe:^ that master of logical persuasion and < 
conoeption of tlie direct road to the human heart b 
his recruits to remember that they were examples, one of his 
strongest arguments to induce them to shine as such was, that 
they were " compassed about ivith so great a cloud of wit- 
nesses." Wlio so surrounded by obsei-vers as the leader of an 
aiiny ? Every soldier, every officer must look to him, and grad- 
ually his greatness or his littleness will influence the mass. If 
he is alow, want of energy leavens tie wiole organization ; and 
it is hardly unjust to say, that the lethargy of the winter of 
1831-2 affected the Army of tho Potomac, until Geant and 
Shbeidan came and exorcised the direst enemy to great achieve- 
ments ia arms. How different was it in the First Brigade and 
the First Division Keaent commanded? It would be unjust 
to claim, and still harder to prove, that the noble spirits who 
emulated his example owed any of their personal rugged gran- 

ny GoOglc 


deur to Mm ; bat it is not unjust to say, and it is not difficult to 
believe, that, being by nature Bii.-;ceptible of great things, in his 
light, they kindled into greater brillancy, 

'■ Eiamplo is a liring law, whose sway 
Men more than all the written hiwa obey." 

The all-gloiious sun, as it burns in heaven, does not produce 
rival suns; but does not its light and heat impart biilliancy 
apd existeoue to creations almost as glorioas and exquisite, 
though in other forms ? And even so Kbarnt's " magnificent," 
" knightly," " brilliant " exanaple of soldiership inflamed all who 
followed him ; and in, and through the constellated radiance of 
his own deeds and those which had their origin in his inspira- 
tion, no wonder, as Dk Teobbiand says, he becamp a legendary 
hero, invested with a thousand memories in the bivouacs of the 
Army of the Potomac "Like begets like," is a, proverbial 
expression, and ceitainly those who held prominent positions 
under Kearsy lived and died and must aiways aliine as types 
of good and gallant volunteer commanders, even as he was the 
" type volunteer general of the war," Nay, moi'e, the Kew 
Jersey Brigade, which he made, to the last shoiie as a brilliant 
unit, a jewel of the first water, with the combined luster forti- 
tude, braveiy and discipline. To enter into a demonstration of 
this claim for bis whole command, would be to block out a vol- 
ume, and not a chapter. The problem can be proved by a few 
Btrikiog examples, as well as by many, if they all fulfill the 
same conditions and every requisite condition. 

The reader has seen Kearny's promptness on more than one 
occasion. At the first sound of alarm, he abandoned every thing 
and traversed three thousand miles of sea to ofier his sword to 
his country. Within twenty-four hours after his appointment, 
be was at the head of his brigade. He held the forlorn hope, 
or advanced post almost of our organizing great army of the 
war, without support, in the teeth of a victorious foe. He was 
the first into Mannassas, on the heels of the withdrawing rebels ; 
and he, the rearmost in the movement, through " an ocean of 
mud," was the first to throw himself, like an aigis, before 
Hooker, and save the first fair stand-up fight, of many houra' 
duration, perseverlngly contested, east of the Alleghanies. 

>y Go Ogle 


Reader, after studying his own, follow up the records of his. 
subordinates, and consider wlietber sueh an example, never fal- 
tering or paling, Itut ever growing huger and brighter, must not 
have had its effect. " By their fruits ye shall know them." 

George W. Taylok, of Hunterdon county. New Jersey, 
sailor, farmer, soldier, miner, and again soldier, commanded the 
Third Regiment from that State, in Kearny's First Brigade, 
and succeeded him in its command. Under the most trying 
cii-cumstances — for Keakst declared that his old Brigade was 
sacrificed — Taylor never flinched, but always, everywhere, 
displayed " the most indomitable courage." At Biill Run 
Kddge, August 27th, 1862, bis brigade was made to confront 
the " entire corps of Stonewall Jackson," and, as might 
readily be imagined, under such circumstances, was compelled 
to fall back with severe loss. Himself severely wounded, in 
marshalling his command and setting an example of honorable 
leadership, he was carried back to Alexandria, and on the very 
day, September 1st, 1862, thai Kearny breathed his last at 
Ohantilly, Taylor gave up his gallant spirit, another type volun- 
teer general. 

Tbe Brigadier who copimanded the First Brigade of Kear- 
ny's division was Charles Davis Jameson, a lumberman, born 
in Gorbam, Maine. This enterprising officer, as "General of 
the Trenches," showed the way into the rebel works at York- 
town. Inflamed by the example of his superior, Keaknt (at 
Manassas, on March 9th, 10th and 11th, 1862), at two a. m. on 
Sunday morning, May 4th, he led forward detachments of the 
Sixty-second Pennsylvania, Colonel Sam. Black, of the Twenty- 
second Massachusetts, Colonel Gove, of the Thirteenth New 
York, Captain Boughton, deployed as skirmishers, and clam- 
bei-ed over the parapets of Yorktown. General Jameson and 
Colonel Black were the first two men in, and unfurled the 
stars and stripes on the "great water-angle." In like manner, 
about an hour after midnight succeeding the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, the " eagle-eyed " Jameson, with a picket of one 
hundred and twelve men of the One Hundred and Fifth Penn- 
sylvania, one of Kearny's and his own regiments, took posseas- 
siou of Fort Magruder, and again this general was the first to 

>y Go Ogle 


eater the rebel fortifications. Continuing to display the same 
energy and intrepidity, Jamesos" fell a victim to tiie Chicka- 
homioy fever. He continued in command up to June 13th, 1862, 
and died, in the fullness of his glory, at Oldtown, above Bangor, 
Maine, November 6th, 1862, another type volnnteer general. 

The nest who claims attention in this con side i-ation is David 
Bei.l Birney, born in Huntsville, Alabama, who, either as a 
merchant in Michigan, as a lawyer or banker, or both, in Pliila- 
delphia, certainly enjoyed none of the advantages generally 
supposed to be indispensable to the formation of a general. 
Nevertheless, he showed himself an apt scholar, and after his 
distinguished coming oat of Williamsbarg, never falsified the 
opinion entertained of him by Keaksy, as an extrem.ely reliable 
and accompHshed soldier. It has been claimed for him by bis 
admirers, that he was the best volunteer general in the strictest 
sense of the word, after Kkarnt, developed by the war; and, 

as an ear-witness (Brevet Major W B ) reports, Weit- 

ZHL, a capital judge, said '■ Birnet handled iniantry lilie 
magic," Be this as it may, he certainly showed firstclass 
ability throughout his career of four years ; and when Sickles 
— another first-rate, and a typo volunteer general — ■ lost his leg 
at Gettysbnrg, Biknbt displayed all the attributes of a brave 
soldier and worthy commander, and did as much as any man 
could do to fi-ustrate the efforts of Longstbeet, and checkmate 
the turning plan of Lee. He continued to oecupy a high posi- 
tion and well-earned distinction down to 1865, when, seized with 
typhoid, or Chickahominy fever, the same which had destroyed 
Jameson, he relinquished the saddle only to return home to die. 
Like those previously cited, be laid down his life for Lis country 
in Philadelphia, leaving a noble record, another type volunteer 

The next in order was Hikam Geokge Berry, a native of 
Thomaston {now Rockland), Maine. Born a poor boy, and bred 
a carpenter, he worked himself up to the Mayoralty of his 
native city and the command of a division. Always reliable, 
always a grand specimen of a natural born soldier, his brigade 
was the first which, under Kbabxt, brought relief to Hookee. 
He distinguished himself in almost every battle in 1 862, and fell 

>y Go Ogle 


at Chancellors ville, crowued witli glory. lu this battle lie executed 
a real trmraphant bayonet-charge,* one which does not merely 

• '■ The Bn(isft«5Hi8r, an Aneeflotal History of [lie British Army," by. J. D. Stoc- 
ijDELKR, London, Ameo Comer, lUl. Bayoncl Charges, pp. 132-5. - It Ihcre is one snb- 
JDct npon wliicb, more than another, trritere have perpetuated the crvdest notions, and 
npon which the most enoneoua Ideas are still widely entertaiaed, ii is that of the Biro- 
siTCBi-RBSi'fSnea of infantry. The relalionaof moderacarapaisnaabonnd, it is true, 
with aceuunts of 'splendid bayonet charges ; ' hat did the reader ever come to a detail 
of the coaaict— or the actnaiity and its material results! Alter tlie 'War of the 
Siianlsh Snccession' and the Battle of Spltei. tbe infantry of all European nations lost 
the isato for close conflict, and the bayonet appears everjwliere more threaloning than 
murderoas. The Wars of the Eighteenth Century, with their Improved Are tactics, 
exhibit no more the steady old practice of fbrmei' days. Mattetx bczan Uien to termi- 
nate St the lery moment which had previously been Ilieir commencenient only. In the 

the most (ivocable gronnd, although the TtmENues and the CoNnfe had never fought 
otherwise.' He asanrea ns, moreover, 'that the old officers were qaite beside them- 
selves to see the decline of that good old custom.' Ckaklks Xn tried in yaln to dis- 
suada his Swedes from firing, and to give them a relisb Ibr falling to at once with the 
bayonet. Masshai. SiXB, after doacrlbing the tactics of his day, and informuig uB in 
what mannei' battles were opened, enddoiilylnqnires, ' And what happens then ( Why, 
both sides begin to flro, which is a misery to behold. At length Ihey advance npon 
each other, and, generally at fifty or aiity paces, more or less, one or tlie other btealis 
and runs. Doyou callthatsttackingF' 

"What says BaaENnOBST on the anbject! — ' Your lubrications of m 11 Hary relations 
malie it apjiear that all great actions are performed with the bayonet ; every one is 
threatened with the bayonet : generals command the chaise with the liayonet. But, in 
petts. It le taken for granted beforehand, that the opposite party will not wait for it.' 
In another place, he says ; ' For him who baa the right notlOD of this evohitlon, bayo- 
net charges are mainly a figure of rhetoric, ime maaih'ede jjor^, which means nothing 
more than one pariy rans on smartly, and tbe other leaves tbe field to him.' Hear, 
further, JOHim, in his 'Critical and Military History,' whose opinion is also, that 
bayonet attacks take place mostly in relations. The Arch-Duee Charles, no mean 
authority, says, in his 'Campaign ofl799': 'physical strength decides but seldom, 
pven In the greatest battles.' So weighty a word may be considered as espreesing 
pretty closely tbe real shape of the thing; and Hovbh states his conviction, that there 
are but ftew or no ciamples that the bayonet has been really resorted to in good earnest. 
It will scarcely be necessary to clle many examples in proof of the Justice of the 
ophiions of such authorities. Onr own wars, in Egypt and in Spain, illustrate their 
truth. At Alexandria, io ISOI. 'the splendid bayonet charge' of our gallant Twenty- 
sixth Regiment was not 'waited for' by the French, when Ibey were seen coming 
down through the smoke of their last volley. la the action near Pampeluna, already 
referred to, the French columns reftisea to stop for it. AtTalavcra it was not 'the 
weight of the chat^e' of the flrst battalion, of the gallant Forty-eighth, that saved 
the brigade of Guards from destruction when they had advanced too far — their well- 
direoledflre and timely advance were quite sufficient. Here and there, in a century, 

anomaly, or a remarkable deviation from the rule. The four deforce, which so much 
gratified the heart of the Gbeat FBEoaracK at Lowositz (1766), when tbe twobattsllons 
of BKVBBNand that of Biu,erbeck, denuded of cartridges, altera defense of five hoars 
fire of the Prussian led flank, crossed bayonets with the Austrian Croats and Grena- 
diers, and pricked them into the town of Lowositz. fonnd few or no subsequent imita- 



demonstrate against a routeci foe with cold steel, but overthrows 
him by it. To fire a volley at close quarters, which sweeps the 
field, and then run in upon a flying enemy, who sufier a few 

tors. A solilary, bat meagre attempt Is seen at Groee-Beeren in 1818, when Lieiit«r8iil- 
General Sieb, commaTidine: the Saxons, attscbed tu REONISB'e Seventh French Corpe, 
10 protect the retreat ot hi? division, led the Bason Hegimeot, Von Low, with fixed 
l;ayoii('ls(Iheit'D>askelE had been Eimikd by the rain), against the nearest advandng 
Pm^Elan column. And how did that come offF Both parties baited Eiiddenlj. and 
simultaneously, at a few paces from each otber — looked each other for a few momeBts, 
hesitatingly, in the liice, before they wonLa fall on. In obedience to the call ot their 
offloera. The conflict, chiefly with the butt-end of the mueket, lasted bnt a few mo- 
ments -~ General Sask did receive, himself, three bayonet wonnde ; lew others were 
given or received, and the Saxons broke, 

Ject of the bayonet — a sort of monomania. 

very gratifying to the nal 

not qnite in accordance wltb matter of (ho 

;t. Opposing regiments, ■ 

line, and charging with flxed bayonets, neve 

r meet and struggle band-l 

lo-foot : and this for the very best possible r 

ing that ' discretion ts the better part of ve 

ilor.' SmaU parties of mi 

cannot get ant of tbe way thet euongh. '1 he hattle of Maida is usually referrcti to s» a 
remarkable instance of a bayonetflght; neverthelees, the enflerers, whether killed or 
■woaoded, French or English, suttered from bullets, not bayonets. Wounds from bayo- 
nets were not less rare in the Peninsular War. It may be, that all those who were 
bayoneted were killed ; yet their bodies were selaom found. A cerlain flgbtiug regi- 
ment had the misfortune, one very misty morning, to have a large number of men car- 
ried oiFhya charge of Polish Lancers, many bein^ also killed. The commanding officer 
concluded they mnst all be killed, for his men posseeeed exactly the same spirit ae a 
part of the Frenco Imperial Onard at Waterloo — ' they might be tilled, bnt they could 
not by any possibility bo taken pritoneta.' He returned them all dead, acrj>rdlngly. 
A few days atletwarfl they re-appeared, to the astonishment of every body, having bcm 
swept off by the cavnlry, and had made Iheir escape in the retreat of the French army 
through tlie woods. The regiment hom that day obtained the ludicrous name of the 

MiTCHKu,'B"Jl5Bef JViipo&on,"n, lS3orlT3. "It is remarkable that the only isctt- 
cal regulation, or novelty, ever Introduced into the French army during tho warlike 
reign of Napolbon, should be dated liom DBben (just before the catastrophe of Lcip- 
sie). The science ot the taettcs^uslng the word in its proper sense — bad either 
ntfalned to the highest perfection l>efore his time, or he wanted the ability to improve 
it, even by a single stop. On the 13th of the month, the Major-Goneral is desired to 
circulate the following order: 'Issue a general order directing, that, from this date, the . 
infantry are to form only two deep, his Majesty having observed that no effect is pro- 
duced either by the Are or by the bayonets of the third rank,' etc. It was rather late, 
perhaps, to make this Important tactical discovery, and it wonld he Interesting to know 
when his Majesty ever saw any effects produced by the bayonets either of the first or 
second rank; for the world has yet to learn that these boasted military weapons were 
over nsed In &ir and manly combat. The overwhelming disaster which befel the 

show how (hr NiPOLBON's strategical skill exceeded his tactical knowledge." 



prods and escape (" three resolute rebels wbo stood to receive 
the bayonets," says BuEics, in his Battle of Williamsburg, page 
48, " were stricken down by the bayonet in Hancock's move- 
ment on our right in that conflict "), is not the grand blow which 
Jebsup gave the veteran British at Bridgewater, when be came 
up at the crisis of the day, arms port, then fired, and the two 
lines crossed steel, parried, thrust and slew, until Riall's old 
and tiied soldiers broke, sullenly retired, and yielded general, 
field and victory. On May 3d, 1863, when the Eleventh Corps 
had given way on the right of Chan cell orsvilie, broken and 
driven by the fufious practical strategy of Stonewall Jack- 
son, Hooker selected Bebrt's division, formerly his own, to 
stem the seemingly irresistible flood. "Go in General," said 
fighting Joe, " throw your men into the breach ; don't fire a 
shot — they can't see you — but charge home with the bayonet," 
Berry's boys did charge home, and held, for three hours, all 
their bayonets so boldly won. The next day the struggle was 
renewed, and the brunt fell again upon Bekbt, who, again and 
again, headed the charge of bis division, and, first to meet the 
foe, received a bullet which ended his grand career. Thus, in 
the arms of victory, as far as his division was concerned, Beery 
fell and died, another one of the purest and noblest of tlie type 
volunteer generals of our war — a finer West Point never has 

The last to whom any space can be given in this chapter is 
bold Tom Egan, of New York (Brevet Major-General at the 
close of the war), always ready, always efficient, and always 
successful where the result depended on gallant leading. After 
Kkaknt fell at Chantilly, September 1st, 1862, Egan, with the 
First, Thirty-eighth and Fortieth New York, all belonging to 
Kearny's division, executed a brilliant charge, which gave us 
the possession of the contested field, and had it been known 
that KsARNY had faiien (he was supposed to have been taken 
prisoner), he would have recovered the remains of the hero, 
and guarded it from desecration. 

This list might be enlarged greatly, but it is an episode in a 
biography of Keakny, and out of place there, except so far as it 
goes to show that his examplefoundor brought out noble imitators. 

>y Go Ogle 


Can West Point out-top six such volunteer generals m one 
command, generals who owed nothing to professional sway- 
within the academic halls,. or to drill upon that plain, sun- 
scorched in the dog-days, and wind-swept, like an Arctic steppe, 
in winter, trying out the weak and strengthening the strong to 
bear the honors and emolnments reserved to caste and gradu- 
ating at the Point ? 

"Was merchant or trader Sir Wilmam Peppeeell, the cap- 
turcr of Louishurg, the strongest fortress in America ; or Indian 
agent Sir William Joh>-son, the hero of Ticonderoga and real 
conqueror of Dieskau (a selection of Makshal Coujjt Saxk), 
and captarer of Niagara ; or surveyor and planter Washington, 
whose master strokes, the surprise at Trenton — "to America 
what Thermopyhe was to Greece " — and the blow at Trenton, 
which excelled it — " events sufficient," says Vos Bulow, " to 
elevate a general to the temple of immortality " — a pupil of any 
military academy ? No ! Was gentleman-farmer Schoylek- 
who paralyzed Bukgoyne and saved Fort Stanwix ; or black- 
smith-farmer-Quaker Greene, the deliverer of the Southern 
colonies from British tyranny; or surveyor Wayne, the cap 
turer of Stony Point; or lawyer and militiamap Sullivan; or 
sailor and farmer "Swamp Pox" Marion, who received little 
education, and " made no figure " in the Congress of his State ; 
or clerk and scrivener Williams ; or Sumtek, of whom little 
was known until he appeared as a lieutenant-colonel of riflemen ; 
or hold-fast Moultrie (like Crawford, of Cedar Mountain and 
Gettysburg), educated a physician ; or heroic Mercer, a Scotch 
emigrant boy, the hero-martyr of Princeton ; or intrepid 
Morgan, a teamster and fanner ; or Knos, or Willet, or 
Lamb; — was either of these Revolutionary generals a gradu- 
ate of an embryo West Point ? No, no ! Was lawyer and 
planter Jackson, who saved New Orleans; or lawyer Scorr, 
the hero of two wars ; or clerk Worth ; or militiaman Brown, 
the grand figure of the war of 1812 on the "Lines;" or Taylor, 
the winner of Palo Alto, Resaca de la PaJma, the capturcr of 
Monterey, and glorious conqueror of Buena Vista; or Wool ; 
or Jessup; or Gaines; or Harrison; or "Ught-house" artillery 
TowsoN ; or Pkesifer F. Smith ; or Stephen Watts Kearny, 

>y Go Ogle 


tlie makfir of our First Dragoons, as fine a regiment as ever 
paraded man and horse for inspection, the conquei-cr tf New 
Mexico and California; or Phil. Keakxt, " hero, patriot ami 
martp- " — was either a graduate of West Point or any military 
school? No, no, no! 

Would that the same pains and the imirense labor ivhich has 
bucn bestowed in collecting the statements of services performed 
by West Pointers had been devoted to civilian appointments to 
military commands since our country has had an army 1 The 
writer does not think that the people would blnsh at the com- 
parative columns, had every minor duty, we!l done, been cred- 
ited to the Volunteer as it has been to the graduate of West 
Point Such a task requires health and time, which the writer 
has not been able to give, and cannot concede ; otherwise it 
would have been, or be, a real labor of love, to which ho has 
been invited by one of the most distinguished men of our 

This chapter may be construed into a depreciation of educa- 
tion. Not so! Education, without bigotry, is beneficial in 
every profession, in some professions indispensable. But it 
should not be so imbued with prejudices as to constitute a bar 
to nneducated genius or sound judgment capable of making up, 
by God's especial gifts, for the want of experience and lack of 
technical education. The Procrustean bed of such an institute 
as West Point would rednce every thing to its own formulated 
dimensions — a process which is the hereditary foe of originality, 
and allows nothing not its own to be great, until compelled to 
do so by public opinion, or by the uncontrollable gi'catness of 
the thing itself. Several West Points, or the infusion of the 
military element into all our universities and colleges, with sus- 
ceptibility of subsequent entry therefrom, after competition, into 
the regular service, would remedy the evil, since one would be 
jealous of the other, and thus, through this division of senti- 
ment, outsiders would once in a while get their own — that is, 
the opportunity and credit due tlieni. The abolition of all 
monopolies will come through time and the 
the people. 

>y Go Ogle 



(No. 1.) 
■'Ana how. Ifl tlmndst, day bydaj. 
The hoi Bk J lianefng over all 
Bcnenth tbat sullen lurid pull, 




■ Give me my leBions 1 
Like mm of Rome, oni 
(A NaUoa'i Flower lay 
In yon feU shade i) ah. 

so, in 1 
, haple 

!■ cried. 

■Too late we learned lA<j SUr 1 o'crta 
(Of error or of Cite o'erharsii] 
Like ViBD», in tUe (ital marsD 

A deeper hue than dyi 
May lend is yours 1 yei 
The mua Viralnian an 

ng Fall 
b over all 

fteleritr: defence is s 


ed by delay." 

— O'Co 

" InraPiou Fucoeeda by te 
tary Sislorg of Ihs Irish NatUm, page 106." 
■■Bnt though the <Anglo-Dnlch) besiegers had crossed tie river (Shannon), and erected 

nected by a temporary bridge made their situation eitremely perilona. The portion on 
tlie right bank of the river miglit be oyerwielmed before ft could receive tnccor from 
the left, andmce vena, A council of war on the 17th, decti3ed that the eeigo shonld be 
InmeiintoB blockade — that the resources of the garrison shoulabe cut off, and a enr- 
render eipected ftom famine."— O'Cohor's •' MiMary Ilislor]/ qf (bs Ij'wh Nation," ITS. 
" Meantime the Carlists, made aware of hia (Esfartebo's) inactivity, performed an 
exploit that deservea to rank, both in conception and eieentlon, among the most bril- 
liant of military achievements." • • (Espabtbho had dislocated hlB command in 
March, isar, retaining 40,000 men, fitvlng 14,000 to General Evanb, of the British Legion, 
and 15,000 to General iBRORinaBH.) "Very heavy rain fell (as at i'air OaltB) flnrinf 
that (lay and the following, rendering the ground in the Loyola very heavy ibr artillery 
and cavalry, and even difficult for inftintry. The ground about Loyola Is at most times 
swampy. * " The CarlistB having thus disposed of Ibboeahreh (dlelocaled). fell on 
the Legion while EapABTERO "remained inaetive, leaving It to General Evans and 
iRHOBAKBiHto fight it onl.' • • As regards the Biploils Of the Carlielsln this affair, 
It is impoasibie to concede too much praiae to them. That their opponent? committed 
many and gtave errors In no way detracts from the merit dae to tbera. To lieie upon 
oiH55ior(unKy nin>r*!ii6s(S<<nwer!rt™rAnvKKBABT, ieoneof the hlghcBt attributes 
of generalehlp. To join to quickness of perception, proipptlfade of decision sod 
rapidity of eiecutlon, la given only to great leadera whose qnalities of command are 
iniora. T/iese things canmt be taaghl in tchoole.^' esuDBBSON's, " Solditr qf TiiTue 
gua™," n, I. lS-34. 

>y Go Ogle 


" Tbeu I^BSTOii tba^to Aoiuiunoh said. 
What JOYE hath hinted, what God pnta at 

'■Itis an Oia MilttarjMasim, • * • ■ lo husband Time.' • » * 
nu loss being so costly and Irreparable as to toea an oifporliinilp : whence Alkxandke, 
being aEked liDw he achieved so great thlnge In so sliott a time, answered, » • • 
■Aj not delaying,' " Obilbt'b " Homer's Hiatl," 1660. 

Onu^Y's "Soner'i Odysses," 1660. 
" In milllarj operationa Time I9 everything."— Wbllinbtom, BOth June, ISW. 

It 19 SO difficult to treat of the Peninsula Campaign, and avoid 
tlie absolute necessity of criticisms at every step, that, beyond 
an analytical review, the present work will be restricted, as far 
as possible, to Keabnt's Reports and Correspondence, 

In order to comprehend this campaign thoroughly, an accu- 
rate map, on a large scale, la indispensable. Furnished with 
such a one, any reader, interested in military subjects, who will 
take the trouble to study the country about Richmond, and 
acquaint himself in regard to the geodesical features of it, will 
comprehend at once that McClellan proved himself a very in- 
ferior general. Afterward, if he will take the additional troublo 
to examine and compare the campaigns in which Keaknt par- 
ticipated under Marshal Valee, General Scott, and Louis 
Napoleon, he will understand at once that Ebakny, with hia 
natural advantages and experiences, and capacity of practical 
application of both, must have been more fit to lead than to 
be led.* 

If he still doubts, let him read Kearny's correspondence in 
regard to these events, and then if his mind is free from pro- 
jndice he will at once appreciate the superiority of the subor- 
dinate and the inferiority of the commander. McClellait 
looked upon an , engagement (Williamsburg) which lasted all 
day,as "a little matter;" when Keaent from the first felt that 
HooKBS must have the whole rebel rear guard on his hands. 
After the battle, when glory was to be made of it for himself 

>y Go Ogle 


and friends, McClellan reported a "victory" as "a hard 
fought action," a " bril!iaiit engagement " against an enemy con- 
siderably superior in force to hie aiiny. 

On sound military principles, Johnston should not have 
fought at all at Williamsburg, because, if the expedition to 
West Point bad been despatcJied and carried ont with energy, 
the rebels would have been caught, as Frederic expressed it, 
" all unbuttoned," or, as Napoleon worded it, "Jlagrante de- 
licto" in the very commission of the act of folly or crime. 

It might be urged, in justification of Joonstok, that he had 
studied and comprehended McClellan. This, however, is an 
after thought, for McClellan did not exhibit himself in all the 
vividness of his true colors until after Williamsburg.* There 
it was that he demonstrated that he had no idea of the com- 
bined or relative force of the elements indispensable to the 
solution of military problems. Few generals who have been 
called to important commands, have ever shown so little per- 
ception of the inestimable value of the most important element 
of success in war — Time. " In War, faults may be remedied, 
but not those of Time." " The only antidote to the poison of 
his Jalse strategy in operating on the Peninsula at all was, 
rapidity of movement and d^h. In this case timk, therefore, 
was everything, and he maneuvered as if it was nothing." 

• It was MoCLBU.aN'B Inertia, oyer^iaiitloaB, over-estimBla of his adTerearj'B forces 
nnder-eBtimata of hia owe and their capabilities ; tla want of compretieiision of time, 

Ibe writer til predict tho faitara of tbe Peninsular Snmmec campaign of 166!, allnded lo 

b J Vae reBoll : 

Nb!w Yobe, oaotter 10, IS62. 
JiKE9 H. 'WooDB, Esq. ; 
SeAS 3iH-At yonr raqnest I recall toinlnd a conversation lield in your office with 

Bnto. In that contersatlon the GcnerHl advaneea hia opinion, given in a milifflrj point 
ofview,tliat,notwithEtandinBthe sncceBafnllBBue ofthe battle, still GenoralMcCLEtuAN 
woald be obliged to evacuate the Pcainenla, Several gentlemen present, yoB (imoni; 
the nnmber, combated the opinion, and rather ridiculed Ibe idea. The General, on 

hlB langnage ; " Gentlemen, jon maj laugh at mj opinion, jon may congratulate yoor- 
eelvos upon tho victory, hut, marli my words, General McClellan will be conlpellea lo 
evflcnatethe Poninanla." Tours tmly, 

R. P. B- — . 

[See DB Petbtkb'b " fftddve Oon^et*, No. 1, The Maryland Campaign of September, 

>y Go Ogle 


After the battle of Williamsbuig,* ■ill tliat 3I(,Clellan had 
to do to win "panic stricken " Rii-hmond, was to obey the pie- 
cepts of Marshal Saxb, which FKEDEEir exemplified thioughout 
Ilia whole career subsequent to his lesson at Mollwitz — which 
was to the Prussian army what "William aburg was to the Ai-my 
of the Potomac — but most notably after Leuthen or Lissa (the 
modern battle of which Leuctra and Mantinea were parallels in 
antiquity) ; and by Napoleon, before he became obese in body 
and mind ; press forward, with the point of the sword in the 
back of the retreating foe, and enter his capital or stronghold 
with his " handsomely " beaten and discouraged troops. Such 
action would have carried our line of advance through the 
healthy uplands along the James, and preserved for the country, 
if nothing more, those tens of thousands heroic men who fell 
victims to the malaria of the bottom lands in which McClbllan 
mired and stifled them and buried his own prospects. 

The result demonstrated Keaent's wisdom when he desii-ed 
U> make Norfolk the base, and the south side of the James the 
line of operations — ailer the Peninsula campaign was inevita- 
ble — and in ease that McClbllan was allowed to imitate (since 
he did not seem capable of originating) the disembarkation of 
tlie Allies in the Crimea, in 1854. McClellan's plan failed 
from the same lack of energy that chavaeterized every operation 
which he nndertook. A visit to the Crimea was all that he had 
ever seen of war on a large scale, and all the impression which 
that seems to have made upon his mind was, the scientific 
iethargy of the long-drawn-out engineering of the siege. It 
appeared as if fate had now determined that this lethargy 
should not only be imitated but exceeded. 

On the 5th May, Kbaknt saved the battle of Williamsburg. 
From that date until the 27th, McClellan wasted twenty-two 
days in moving his army fifty to sixty miles — a progress of 

•loresarfl to the acconnt of WilliamBbnrg, In Chapter XXII, Major-Generol Heintz- 
Er.MAK wrote; "Therithe pamphleta In which It orlgtnflUj appeared) contain the onTy 
Hoconnt I erer met with of the battle, or affair, of WilliamBbnrg.-' The veteran General 
sdderl soma noteB, bnt, as this chapter wae in print, they coula not he InBorted. Thia 
the pablishers regret as much as the nnlhor. Brevet Major-Oeneral G. Mott aleo 
remarked, 1q a Bubeeqiient letter; "lam like General IlEiNrzEmaN; the pamphlets 
contain the only (nccoant) of the hattlo of Wllllamphnre I Have eTer seen. I was Lient.- 
Col. of the 601 N. J. Vola. at that time ; made Colonel of the Wh from that date." 

>y Go Ogle 


about two miles per day — a sluggishness in May only to find its 
parallel in his September slackness in Maryland. Is it to be 
wondered at, that the wits of the army dubbed him the " Vir- 
ginia Creeper?" 

" And here I may point out on passing," is the remark of the 
Prince de Joinvillk, " a charactei-istic trait of the American 
people — that is as well in regard to the people as to an agglom- 
eration of individuals — delay. This delay in resolving and 
acting, so opposed to the prompitude, the decision, the audacity 
to which the American, considered as an individual, had accus- 
tomed us, is an iuesplicabte phenomenon, which always causes 
me the greatest astonishment. It is the abuse of the individuals 
initiative that kills the collective energy," etc, etc. Attention 
was invited to this paragraph by a distinguished general, by no 
means unfriendly to McClellan, with the observation, " Who 
could tbis be aimed at but the commander-in-chief? How could 
the Prince know the American people except through him ?" A 
prominent cavalry commander heard the Prince make the very 
same remark. 

Arrived in the immediate vicinity of Richmond, he posted 
his forces so as to violate one of the plainest rules of strategy, 
or grand tactics ; so as absolutely to invite that attack of Joe 
Johnston, which nearly crumbled one wing, or one-third of his 
army.* He acted as if totally unaware that there could be men 
in his front who would see quicker, think quicker, plan quicker, 
and act quicker than he could. There was one, however, 
Kearny, in the Union army, if no more, whose quick eyes com- 
prehended, and whose nimble pen prophesied the impending 

Oo ^ho 2Sth May, Keaknt f wrote to a correspondent : "And 
now to our present aifaira. Tiiey seem to move on tolerably, 

• "The best method of defenaing a river, says Dnmas quoting Von Bnlow, II. 196. 1 8 
Ihaij to hold the irniy assenibled at eomo distance from the shore and fall Tigoronsly 
upon tho enemy bb booh as he hsB afTeetea tlie croeeing." This proposition la Identical 
With that demonstrated b; Johnston. 

t The following totemporaneone anecdotoB of KEiBHT from Chaplain Msrks' Pen- 
Insnla Campaign in Virginia are graphic and Intereeting. • • « 

A, M. After reaching headrjnartere, learned of General (Seth) Williaub (Asst. ASJi.- 
Gen. A. of P.), that General Searny was npon the left wing of the army at BallimorB 
CtOBS-roada, and would cross the Chlckahomlny at Bottom Bridge, and that I wan faHj- 



but without vitality, and with hourly signs of a want of taleut 
and administration. We are likely to have a full battle in a 
very few hours, I confess myeelf not oyer sanguine with it. By 
mismanagement the army has lost one-third (by sickness and 
stragglers) since leaving Yorktown. Those brigades within my 
hearing only average about two thouaand, instead of over three 
thousand; they should be four thousand. But this is not all ; 
McClellan, most unfortunately, is putting up every three or 
four miles, or less, successive lines of rifle-pits, miles in length, 
thus too openly imparting to the soldjcrg his own personal dis- 
trust of them." In another letter ho writes thus; "We are 
on the eve of a great battle, which ia to decide the fate of 
Virginia. The enemy will fight well, although shaken by the 
defeat at Williamsburg. I presume that, after our lead off the 
other day, the rest of the army will fight well ; but McClbllait 
has been most injudicious, with his illHjrganized marches and 
easy permission to the men to escape home, or be sent back on 

Blteen nji!e« from my tcsiment. And here I may pause for a moment to boar teaUmony 

a ChriMlan. 

Page IW. Tbo foUowlng morDlng (EStli May) 1 reachefl oar encampment beyond the 
Chictnhominj, ana was gratlfled to leam that we were within ten miles of Kicbmond. 
I oonld not find tie lieBdqiiartora of (Jenetal Kbaubt, and therefore reported to Gene- 
ral Jamesob the condition of tlie eick ofour lirigada left behind, and requeeted that he 
would take Dea^ares to seed back Dnreci and tio«pluil stores. 

Veiy »oon cOet General Jamkbon rode to tbe headgilflttere of General Keabht and 
reported to him my statemeaL in a few miniitea an ord£r)ycamo into onr camp bearing 
a request from General Keabst, " that Chaplain Mar^ sbonld report himself at his 
lent,^* I confcHB I rode to his headquarters wlWi pfljjj misgivings, for I bad not 
reported, as commanded, to the General himself. When f came np to Lie teut door, I 
was oshered into his preeenco by an orderly — his &cot»s» ftowning, 

•■JKienBe mo, general," I Mid, "I did not tbinh in7r«po« of enfflciect con«eq.norce 
to authorize me to iroaUc yOD with it. and I deelgs*^a« aoon as 1 conld And your 
bBadqnstlers, to report to yon In person; Iratlu the mc(iptlliie meeting Gene ralJAHE- 
fON, I reported to him the condition of the sick In hyi^rigadfl." 

"Well,"ialdhe, "yon reported that slot men in my division were lying In the woods 
and in tents, fl long distance from any honse without apj medical attendance or nursea, 
and no one bad looked after them since wo left; is tha^ffl. air!" 

"Yes. sir." 

"Why, sir, did yon bring hack a report eo calculajAd U> demoralize and dishearten 
the army?" 

back mjself," 



the slightest pretext of siokness. McClkllan lias Ijeen too 
slow; lie should have annihilated the eoemy in Williamsburg 
before they could have reached the Chickahominy. XTntil 
■w-ithin three days he evidently had no fixed plan of action ; 
since then he has done better. The battle will be on "Wednes- 
day. Unless i» Bull Run, it will be full success ; if a Bull Run, 
I expect that my division will be the only one to escape. I 
have my men completely in hand ; they became very enthusi- 
astic for me, but I have seen so much mismanage to en t that 
nothing will take me unawares," We did have " a fult battle 
in a very few hours; it was the battle of Fair Oaks, called by 
the rebels Seven Pines." 

'■ Well, sir, why dlfl you not remain thi^re, and brinj io aU those sick men t liHw dij 
yoQ i^are Uy como ttway and leave Ihain? " 

■■ Sir," I replied, " I uaw tda last man brouglit in tefure I lert; every man froia the 
ieldn and irouda was in tlui liii><|>ita]." 

-Wen. air," rBlaiing a UtUa, "you must obey orders. 8sy nothing about this iu 
camp, chaplain ; eTorything relating to my aick man touches my heart. J'U LaTe occa- 
sion for yon agaic, chaplain, now go ; but hereafter obey orders." 

I howed and left the tent. From that hour General Kbabht was my wannest frieiid, 
and invariably treated me with tha greatest fclndneas. 

A. M. a—Pngo 1S5. -'About this time I received the following letter from Qoneral 

tha sick of his division, expressing as it does sentiments of humanity which add totho 
gluty of one of tho bravest of oui conimnudare. 

Dear Sin: t return you my grateful acknowledgroenta of your noble and enerRetic 
'■From long eiparlence in the fleld no one appreciates more sensibly tho eerviccyon 

"If there has been oi 

le point morn than another, where I have hitherio laboHo 
IsnccesBfuUy fBlfilJeamydDtles aa an officer, it JiBs been! 

)r the sick and disabled. I am thonkfSi! to And in you a sirong coofljator : 
am alitllomore ftee to aeparate myself from the carea of befUEOa the spot 
ant vlaitor of the hospitals. 

" The Kev. Dr. Makkb, Chaplain B3d Scgt. Fa. Vdla." 

Perhaps there is no graatot <jsemplitIcation of the incessant viglhince esercleed by 
Ganaral Keauny In evorytbing which could effect the health of his troops, thau tlia 
following order, which the wrlKr picked up by accident, at the auction of the effecta 
of a citizen of New Jersey, who, doabtless, had been one of KEAiuir'S First Brigade 
from that State. It Is very simple, and at first blush seems of little Importance, bat 
upon reflection It will speak volotnes In favor of that commander who, if he seemud 
" rnsl-iron " and led his man to doaperate ventures In the buttle fleia. neverlbelcsa 
ivatcheil ovtr their real welfare wltb the sollcltnda of a mma-i/, anil, therefore, a truly 

>y Go Ogle 


It is well lo reilect if the same volumes from which Keaunt 
had derived his in format ion were not equally open to McClbl- 


In the history of war it is seldom that a general is found who 
exhibits a greater oompound of caution, where that quality was 
the key to success, and audacity, when the opposite was the 
essential of the hour, than Fkedixand of Brukswick. 

Napoleon, in his observations on Feedinano's campaign oi' 
1758, remarks; "The duke, no doubt, made a brilliant t-am- 
paign, bat hia glory was so feebly contested that it would be 
smalt if he had not other and more solid titles to prove iiis 
talents and his ability. 

" (1.) Hia passage of the Rhine was contrary to every rale. 
He remained several days on the loft of that river separated 
from two-thirds of his own army. * * The plan of the duke 
was vicious. If Cubveet had succeeded in getting possession 
of the Bridge of Eces, his army would have been lost. * * 
(d.) The plan of the duke, at the battle of Creveldt, was con- 
trary to the rule ; ' Never separate one wing of your army from 
the other, so that your enemy can tbrust himself in the interval.' 
Feedinand divided his line of battle into three parts, separated 
from each other by long intervals and defiles. He turned j, 
whole army with a corps-in-the-air, not supjuorted, which (this 
corps) ought to bavo been enveloped and captured," 

considerate- rather," s title. 

often applied to 


who give an eari 

lost atle 


to the bodily health and coml 

If the men o 

onflded 1 

o their can 



the Btilcteet dticlpline, that tlier 

might realif 

leflte byenj 



erfeclly attni 




to dtechargo It : 


H.J. Bbisa 

>y. 3d, 11 


YoawUl be particular and 


that the men 

, of yonr 

Regiment b 

re not 

kept on 


B open air, darlne ciinrch Bcrvicc and the reading of tiie regnlatJcns, 
By order of 

Brleadier-Geneml KEAENY. 

(bile reflecting npon this snbject, the interest felt by Keaksi in tlie irelfiire 
n, that the onrioaa chance occarred which threw the above cfrCTdar or order 
Titer's way. WDon the eeason, espoenre andconseauent risk arc considered. 
■ to perceive what an immense onlonnt of sicknosB and eulEBring may iuiFe 
ented by this circnmatance ; and yet, how very, very fewofflcera take ■snch 



Let ns see if those remarks do not apply almost to the letter 
toMcCijitLAN. In the first place he did exactly what Napoi^os 
blamed the duke Ferdinand for doing. He massed more than 
two-thirds of his army to the north of the Chickahominy, send- 
ing one-third,* with only a single connection across that treach- 
erous stream, for tliat fearful storm of the afternoon and night 
of 30th May — almost unprecedented in the memory of man — 
swept away every other means of communication. 

Terrible indeed was that storm. The raan came down in 
tropic torrents, and the lightning descended not in flaslies, but 
in sheets of flame, seeming from time to time to envelop the 
whole bivouacs in its lurid glare. An officer of the Sickles, or 
"Excelsior" brigade, a truthful, matter-of-fact man, stated it 
was horrible to witness, and described the electric fire as rnn- 
iiing again and again along the line of stacked muskets, "tip- 
ping the points of the bayonets with flashes like jets of gas." 

As soon as Johnston knew of this dislocation of the Union 
line, he determined to attack, and coming out of Richmond, 
distant seven miles, he fell furiously on Casey's division, then 
partially entrenched near Fair Oaks, Gkeelbt is clear on the 
point, Casey fought very well for a time, but he was soon 
flanked, and his command crumbled away into a rout, exposed 
aait was to a galling fire in front, flanks and rear.f Keaest was 

•PaisoE EOGENB omea his great Tictory at Zenla, UOt, lo ?och a lilDiiilcr on the part 
at the Tnjks ; PRBDERICK IiKarly lost the battle otPrsgee. in 1757, bj leairiie the Prisch 
OS Akiiai,t DEsatu ot^ the right bank of tho Moldan, and did Imp th« fmitB of hia vie. 
tor;; tha ABRHoniiE CBAELsa could thanlL sach an impradence on tbe pari oISapo- 

]8(l9;aMBt Dresden, tnlSlS, the great tosa Boslalned b; tlie Anslriane vaa Dw!n<; to 
their wing being separated from tie teat of the Allied annj by a ravine not eqniTSlent 
to sach » Blresm as the Chickahomior. McCletxih repeated at Antietam bis total 
iQistulte In the PBtiinaula, Here, again, In Seplembor, his army was aBlraddle of the 
Itfuryland river as It was a cfiecal the Ctiefcahominy in May and June. He very nearly 
waifzed the aabeeqnent simile ofLmcoLN, of the oi on. or across, the fence, who toald 
neither use its horn* to gors not heels to kick. 

t" When I reached Despatch Station I learned that a balile was then In progreaa. I 
stopped at onr encampment, bnt fbnnd that all of General KXAnimr'B trflops had beeo 
hnniBdnp to the eeene of conflict." 

"Irannp the railroad towards tliefleid of battle. 11 was noif neflPthree P. M.; and 
utl/iaa^ow Station, one mito east of Savage Station, and two and a cinarterfrom Sevea 
Pines, r began to meet the wounded men, whfi, with broken arms, ahattered dngers, 
and fresh oats, were woiiderlnR to the rear, withont any deflnite pnrpose. "niey wero 
EiDatlj of General CasEr'a division, and being ilisabled, nben relieved hy Generals 
KEABirar' and HoOKin, they were at liberty to sceli aaccor ami unrglcal aid,"-CHjp- 
T.AiH AIakkb' Poilnmla Can^algii, page 1S7. 



ordered up to re-establish tlie criishf^d line. For two hoars and 
a half he fought gallantly agatust a confident enemy; convinced 
all the time that the true proceeding would have been to re- 
commence the attack from a firm second line, instead of an un- 
availing attempt to re-establish the first. But be complained 
that the injustice done to him at Williamsburg, by giving to 
another General the praise which was due to him and others, 
had dampened the ardor of his men and reduced their morah. 
K"othing is so contagious among troops as the influence of 
apathy or lethargy, or injustice in a commander, especially 
when the enterprising and audacious feel that their efforts and 
courage arc ignored and depreciated. Although unable to pneh 
the enemy, and at one time nearly surrounded, so that only one 
line of retreat into White Oak Swamp remained open, and tbns 
greatly threatened, Kearnt held hia own, and kept the field 
till the head of Sumner's column, having pushed across 
the Chickahominy Swamp, struck the enemy's line and sent 
him reeling in disorder from the parts of the field he had 

jtfonths before, Keaent had pronounced Johnston a veiy slow 
man for the offensive, although for the defensive and ofiensive- 
defensive he displayed a masterly ability {witness his retreat 
before Shkeman in ] 864) ; and the event at Seven Pines proved 
the truth of this estimate. Had the furious onset made upon 
Casey and continued upon Coticn, taken place at nine or ten 
o'clock in the day, the rout of the two corps would have been 
complete before reinforcements could have crossed the Chicka- 
hominy and its flooded swamps. But Keaent was able to save 
the day here, as he had before at Williamsburg, by hard-hitting 
and stubborn holding on at a critical time.* His own account 

•"Onr soldiers evereiKifee wlUi (he grestest aSml ration of the coolnean and brawry 
of Generati BEisTZLEirAH. Hooeek, Soxhek. Kearni and CoccB, General Booebb 
on UiU dsj- mttre than suptslned the repulation he had obtained at WiUtBmsbuiK. na 
poaeesjed of that clear-BlBhtednets, aud TOnraee. and prophetic prognostication cf the 
position and movementB of the enemy, which have eince placed him at the head of the 
Anny of the Potomac. General Eeabry eliomfd hinmff equal to energ emeigency, daring 
energ danger, and risking liis life In Ute tiwet Aaiardous poeiHem, Bis mm seemed to is 
capaf'k of^afaroAwj anything rnider hi) eye, for their eonfldmee in hit courage ond 7>im- 
lary courage teas vnbomidta. Ikaveofteaheard the men epeak at the amip-Jtres qf hisvn- 
roMed cootnen during both (if those dOi/s."'— Chaplain Makes' Peninsula Campaign, 
page 200. 

>y Go Ogle 


of the battle, thougli only a hasty dash written on the day fol- 
lowing, is lively and graphic : 

"As the battle came off quite unexpectedly yesterday, I 
hasten to send you a line, knowing how anxious you will be, 
and to say that I thank God that the great risks (for it was 
again a crisis of saving a runaway people) I ran have not re- 
sulted in even a light wound. I was visiting some friends the 
other side of the Chickahominy, some five or six miles oS, when 
a rattle of musketry was heard, and I instantly felt that I was 
concerned in it. So, mounting, I galloped back, and was just 
in time to lead my men some miles to the front, to save a huge 
corps that had run like good fellows at the first attack. This 
time it was an old acquaintance in Mexico, General Casey, 
whoso men gave way most shamefully — filling the roads from 
the battle-field to our camp, three and a half miles, and ran 
away worse than at Bull Run. I am used to many strange 
sights, but when I saw before the race of the fugitives a whole 
line of wagons going full tilt, I thought that many a pretty 
bold man might well Lave his senses turned. Then came a 
stream of fugitives, and finally they poured in, in masses. My 
superior (Ubintzelman) had pi-evioualy ordered me to leave a 
brigade in the rear. He then first sent to me to send away one 
brigade by the railroad, quite away from my control, and then 
a brigade np to the battle-field. I accompanied this, ordered 
up, at my own responsibility, my absent brigade (Jamesox's), 
aod pushed on at a fearfiil pace. I got under fire, as usual, and 
was sent to charge, while thousands of those I came to help 
were left quietly to be passed by, by me, and crouch down in 
the rifle-pits and fortifications. We put right in, and I drove 
back the enemy ; but McClbllau's injustice has changed my 
men. They followed me, after a fashion, but were cold and 
slow ; still, T won everything. When the enemy got behind tis, 
and tlie troops in the rear ran like sheep, I flew to them, hur- 
rahed at tbera, waved my cap, and turning them, led them into the 
fight again. I had hardly done this, when another large party 
of the enemy stole in behind my brigade, and I was nearly cut 
off from my own men ; but rushing to a wood near by I made a 
stand. However, I looked back at my recent borrowed followers, 

>y Go Ogle 


anfl foiinil them and all the others — Bome seven or eight thou- 
sand uf that line (Kbtes' Coi-ps) — running like good feliows, 
and masses of the enemy regularly but surely, rapidly and 
sternly pursuing them, keeping the only reported roads of re- 
treat. Thinks I to myself, I am cut off, mc and mine. 

"Most fortunately, I had that very morning examined, with 
a flue guide, all that secret, loeked-ap country of forests and 
swamps. I aaiv that they hoped to cut me off from retreat by 
getting between me and White Oak Swamp. By this time a 
regiment of mine, attracted by the firing in their rear, came 
along iu the woods. I charged the enemy in rear, and 
would have gained the day but for continuous reinforcements. 
But I fought them long enough to enable all my intercepted 
regiments to retire by a secret road throngh the swamp ; got 
back to my position — a very strong one, from which I should 
not have been taken — before the enemy arrived there, and again 
offered the rjole barrier, when all else was confusion. Still, this 
was not victory. It was the first time that I had not slept on 
the battle-field, and but for the mismanagement as to our battle 
at Williamsburg, I would have been victorious here too. Still it 
is most infecting to be sent for to restore a fight, and see hordea 
of others, panic-stricken, disobedient, craven, and downcast. 
Anywhere it is a disagreeable sight to see the wounded being 
carried off the field of battle, even from a victorious one. I 
have again had an aid wounded, and lost a beautiful bay colt, 
which was shot from under me. I was not so long, bnt at times 
more exposed than ever ; my colt being very fractious, kept me, 
while plunging, in a perfect current of cannon and rifio balls, 
and alone in the face of too many scamps who seemed to pick 
me out. It was at this time that my colt received his first 
woixnd ; an hour later he was killed under me, and I mounted 
the horse of an adjutant who chanced to follow." 

By way of illustrating the felicity of his military style, and 
the ringing eloquence with which he addressed his men after 
the smoke of battle had cleared away, two of his general orders 
are given, the first issued a few days after Fair Oaks, the 
second a short time after Malvern Hill : 

>y Go Ogle 


"General OtnJEBa No. 15. — Br»Te Regiments of the DiTiaion: you have won 
for ua a high reputation. The conDtry ia aaliafled, your friends at home are 
proud of you. After two bftltlea and victoriea, purchased with rouch blood, 
you may be counted aa veteraoa. I itppeal, then, to your experience, to your 
perBonal obBervatiou, to your hiah intelligence, to put in practice on the battle- 
field the discipline you have a,oquired in camp. It will enable you to conquer 
with more certainty and less loaa. 

2. Shoulder -atrapa and chevrona : you are matlced men, you mnat ever be 
in front. Colooela and Seld-officers : when it comes to the bayonet, lead tlio 
obarge; at other times circulate among your men, and auparvise. keep officers 
and men to their constituted commands, stimulate the laggard, brand the 
coward, direct the brare, prevent oompaniea from "huddling up" or miiing. 

3. Marksman: never in the fight cheapen your riflea; when you fire, make 
Bure and hit. In woods and abattis one man in three ia lo Are, the others re- 
aerve their loads to repel an onaet. or to head a rush. It ia with ahort rusbea 
and thia eitra fire, from time to lime, that mvich ground is gained. Each 
man up in Srst line, none deU^g, shaie danger alike — then llie peril aod 
loss will be small. 

4. Men: you brave individuals in the ranks, whose worth and dariog, 
unknown perhaps to your superiors, but recognized by your comrades, 
influence more than others. I keow that you eiist, I have watched you in 
the 2re; your merit is sure to have its recompenae. Tour comradea at the 
bivouac will report your deeda, and It will gladden your families ; in (he end 
you will be brought before the (your) country. 

5. Color-bearers of regiments ; bear them proudly in the fight, erect and 
defiantly in the Grat line. It will cast terror into the opponenta to see it sub- 
tained and carried forward. Let it be tlie beacon-light of each regiment. The 
noblest inscriptions on your banner are the traces of the balla. 

6. Again, noble divisions, I wish you suoceea anil new victories, until the 
cause of our aacred Union being triumphant, you letnm honored to your 

Camp nbab Hakrison's LiNHiNa-, July 7th 1S62. f 

" General Orders No. 27. — Brave Comrades; As one of jour Generals 
who has shared in your perils, so I sympathize in your cheers for victory 
when I pass. The name of thia Division ia marked. Southern records are 
full of you. In attack you have driven them, when assailed you have repulsed 
them. Be it so to the end. Kew regiments, we give you a name, engraft on 
it fresh laurels. 

Comrades in battle : Let our greeting be a cry of deSanoe to our foe ; after 
the fight, one greeting of victory tor oureelvea. This done, remember thai, 
like yourselves, I have duties of labor, in which I must move unobserved, as 

>y Go Ogle 


B, true brother [a hand and heart of ttiia oar Warrior-Divisiou- family. Sucoeas 
atcead you." 

Oil the same day on which he issued tins order, Jie wrote ns 
follows to a military friend in regard to the battle of the 31st 
of May, and then the affair of the following day: 

" Since then (5lh) we have had ncollier severe affair at Fair Oaks Station. 
I whipped all beluro me ; but 1,300 men out of 5,000 ; I was cut oiT, faced the 
Thirty .seventh Nbit York, Col. Hayjias, to their roar, attacked the aeeond 
line of the fnetay (from somo woods) In their right tear, after their firit line, 
having caved iu our center, had occupied our line of retreat, and swept by near 
quarter of a mile. It was ' pull Dick, pull Devil.' I gave time to the rest of 
the diviaioD to retire by a ' detour,' and at OQe time I flattered mjaelf that I 
would turn the tables on the enemy, but ibeir admirable conduot, and the 
musses still m reserve, enabled them to form a strong line and nearly surround 
U3 aa m a rine. It was at this time that I loat my beautiful four-year-old 
bay coll, a noble charger, aiiot in the jugular. However, as I knew from some 
very fortunate reconnoissanceB that very day (an old cavalry habit), certain 
blind roads through the awamp, I got off my people, and had them re-eatab- 
lifthed in the camp, fortified lines from which I had been most blunderingly 
aeiit forth — after the troops in fronc (Casey's Division) had reached my position 
(l>erore I started to go forward the three miles) in a most perfectly dilapidated 
coudition. * * » As for that matter, it amused mo not a little, when 
I arrivbd under fire, to Sad » * * whose men bad proved so light- 
heeled, all but Homa less active minded, who slill ' impaaaively ' lined certain 
rear rifle-pits, calmly looking as if he thought it all right for hia people to run. 
* * * With all my instinctive habit of going ahead, it did seem a little 
ridiculous to be sent for the whole of three miles to go in for otlier people, 
about as many hundreds of yards. A bristling abattis and dense copses, onee 
otira, now theirs, were perfect specimens of fire-work. But my Michigan 
Sharpshooters soon got employed in, the same way. Beery's Brigade, and soon 
al'ier, some fine Mouutain Boys from Pennsylvsuia, under General Jameson, 
and all worked to a marvel during two hours, * * * * whou the brilliant 
mnntEuveriug of tha Soulherners, with overwhelming numbers of 
men (I never saw such discipliue under fire, even with the French), msthe- 
raatically forCfd our center (ijie residue of Ketes' Corps, etc.) to cave in, and 
leave poor me in the lurch. My loss had 'ooau terrific — orcepting those of the 
Thirty-seventh New York, who helped us home — all received in victorious 
advance; but I at lenat, as the phraae goes, have the satisfaction of having 
counted on the Seld two of theirs for one of ours. Still, all this, though des- 
pi^rate fighting, unusual in war, unsurpassed in Europe, is conducive of no 
results. At Williamsburg, an unesampled success at a tremendous price, an 
afiUir that never should have been gotten into to that depth, resulted vamly, 
from McClbllan not pursuing and preventing their ' debris ' (wrecks) from 

>y Go Ogle 


crossing the Chickahoniiuy. It had been the SBine thing when thay retreaWd 
paaic-Btrii^Iien from Manapaas. The fi^lit on Saturday (30th May), although, 
aa a surpriee, — it threw back a corps that never should have been so blunder- 
ingly isolated anil advanood, — waa not a TicDory for them {ihough a defeiit for 
some of ub), since it found my diviaiou back in my entrenched camp, prepared 
to defy liiein, and since the day following, one of my brigades and other strong 
delachmenta under Sumsbb. drove back once mors thoir advance pests, whom 
they had left near ua, and which, if followed up, might have given forth fruit. 
Slill it was not. It only proves that McClellan * * * is utterly and 
ahaolutely unfit for his place, and is it surprising that it should be so, when 
one reflects that without haviug made any sensation in Mexico, that on a class 
repute for mathematics and railroad directorship in Illiuois, and the moat 
ridiculously trivial baby-fights in Western Virginia (where he never led) that 
he should have been lionized Into a chieftainship, which he has es:ercised with 
favoritism, injustice, • » * ever keeping himself purposely in the rear in 
critical aeasona to avoid the embarrassment of having to act and direct, when 
consulted. And I have only to add that we are now in a stupidly perilous 
condition ; for, with half of the aimy — with which he ia afraid to make the 6 (5^) 
miles to Richmond — he keeps this half of it e:tposed this aide of the Chiclia- 
hominy, with every bridge carried away by frashel, and impaasahie. If wo 
escape a disaster, it is that the loss of the secessionists, the other d:iy, was 
(notwithstanding their pluck) too severe to be tried twipe. They must hove 
concentrated against us on pointa vastly auperior forces.* I am sure that I 
could count as before me, from Bound and aieht, treble my people. It is true, 
that McClellan's ignoring ua * * haa diaheartened us all. SHU, if yott 
once whip, you mmt ahuays whip. It leoames a way of doing the thing, even when 
the heart is away, 

I have had again an aid wounded, a lieutenant Mallon. Poor Wit.son and 
Bk-Iisard can never bo replaced i warm in heart, devoted to m;, without 
guile, they were talented soldiera, such aa you rarely find among men." 

One anecdote from a participant in that momentous struggle 
is worthy of insertion. On one occasion, ■when General Mc- 
Clellan rode over to the left of oar lines in front of Richmond, 
examining General Heintzblman's position, Generals Keaknt 
and HooKEE accompanying him, he turned to the veteran corps 
commander and said: " What of your position here? Can you 
hold it?" HEiNTZELMArr, addressing his nearest subordinate, 
remarked: " What say you, General Hookeh?" "lean hold 
my position," replied Hookek, " against one hundred thousand 
men." "Well, Keaent, what say you?" "Well," rejoined 

>y Go Ogle 


Keaknt, "if the Kebels think they can take my position, let 
them come and try it." These answers are perfectly chavac- 
tei'istic of the two men. 

Before comtnitting the criminal error of dislocating his left — 
Napolbos's especial charge against Fbedinand op Brunswick 
— from whose fatal consequences McClhillan was alone preserved 
hj Kbakst's prompt and hard fighting, and by the patriotic de- 
termination of SuMSEE, whoae one-man-will served as a bridge 
over which the corps hurried on the afternoon of the 31st of 
May to preserve the Union lefl — McCi-kllan, meanwhile, had 
committed a second mistake. This is the very one to which 
Napoleon refers as the Duke's third violation of the rales of 
war. He projected his right wing from twelve to fourteen miles 
in the air on the plea of extending a hand to McDowell, 
whose most advanced outposts were from eight to twenty miles 
distant on an air line to the northward. 

At this time, McDowell's main army was at Fredericksburg, 
sixty miles distant, to which it was chained by the timidity of 
the government — a timidity of which McClellan was per- 
fectly well aware from the moment he assumed command — a 
timidity which his own over-caution ought to have made liim 
thoroughly appreciate — a timidity of which he again iiad 
proof April 5tb, while before Yorktown — a timidity which 
ought to have taught him not to compromise his own army in 
the hope of receiving any re-enforcements which would leave 
Washington uncovered. No man of true common sense, accus- 
tomed to judge of the future from the past, would have based 
any project on hopes of being joined by the " Army of Vir- 
ginia," as it was afterward named. 

Here the observer has a right to propound the question, could 
PoBTEE have maintained himself, when so dislocated, at Han- 
over Court House, until McDowell (that is, his army in force) 
arrived ? It is true McClellan claimed for him a " glorious " 
a " complete victory," and dispatched to Washington a jubilant, 
sivelling report, which Lincoln's common sense pricked with a 
single question. This glorious victory ~ totally destitute of 
result — on the right, 37th May, was succeeded on the 3Ist, by 
the surprise of the Union left, which resulted in the severe bat- 

)y Go Ogle 


ties of Fair Oaks and Seven Pines, already dwelt on. Tliat 
this surprise did not result in the destruction of our forces south 
of the Chickahominy, was entirely due to Kbaeny's bard 
fighting, and tenacious holding, and "vigilant" Sumnbe's 
resolution in crossing to the rescue. When the next day tlie 
battle was renewed and won, MoClbllan could or would not 
improve it. He could have followed the "broken and dis- 
pirited " enemy into thoir capital, which at that time had no 
defense except its army — an army thoroughly "beaten and 
demoralized," If any proof was necessary to demonstrate in 
the clearest manner that the administration were correct in 
refusing to allow McClellan to absorb McDowell's army, 
the non-improvement of Fair Oaks was all-sufficient. 



Sib — On tho3lBt ultimo, at Ihtee p.m., I received an oraerto eenfl aBrigfl^e of mj 
Di i i hy the railroad, W support Ketes' Corps, 8,iid to he severely enganea. 

Bin Brtgafle was aesignatod, and getting moat promptly under arms, adTanced 

at ly. 

C ptam Hunt, Aid to General HEiNrzEuiiiJ, arriving fiom the fleld, maije me aware 
f b d omfltnre of most of Caskt'S Division. The retiring wagons, and a dense 
t m f disorganized ibgitives. arrlvea nearly simultan(?anply. Ab h precaution, I 
rd d me picked MIelilgan Marksraen and a regiment to proceed ana occupy llie 
a wooas Ijoraering on tbe left of out position, to take in flank any pursuers, I, 
h oon received General Heintzeliiah's directions, to order rorwsrd, by tbe 

Wdl m b rg road, the remaning Brigade, and to retrieve tbe position tbe enemy bad 
d 1 ftom. lputmsseffail^heaaoflheai3waicedreeimen('taidfHtoi\vs,riwiik- 

td 1 y I also eentwrltten orders for Jamesoh'h BcigadB, campedatour(ffe-i?e.pi»i(, 
near Bottom's Bridge (three miles in the tear), to come up without delay. This order 
met with General Heintzelkah'b approval. On arrivhig at ibe field of battle, ive 
found certain zigzag rifls-pit« sheltering crowds of men, and tbe enemy firing IMm 
abattis and timber in their front. General Cabev remarked to me, on coming Dp: "If 
you will regain onr late camp, tho day nil! still be ours." I had but the Third Michigan 
up, but they moved forvrard with ahtcrity, dashing into the ftlled timber, and com- 
menced a desperate but determined contest, heedless of the shell and ball which rained 
upon them. This regiment, the only one of Bibhst's Brigade not engaged at Williame- 
burg, at the price of a severe loss, has already outvied all competiiora. Its work this 
day was compiele. This regiment lost ; — 

Thiivl Michigan lost — 
Otoioekskilled;— Captain S. A. JilDD, Company A, I 

md to renewed esertion, and heard the latter eiclaim as 
to the open battle-field, " Jfi/ men, follow me 1 " — LViws 

>y Go Ogle 


Company C G. W. DODGE, Oo' 

Tital officers kma ana wu-BH. 
Enll^tea men killed 

Enll=tca men mi-'^ 




ccmpany of 

flnr picked mati 

One ctmpany of flnr picked matkamen lo«t Ite Captain kUled Its Lltntenarl; 
wounded and twenty >li men I take plBHsiire In patticnlariiing Colonel 8 G 

J, C Skith and E s PiEBiE and Lieutenant & E JniiD The neit rL,linent that 
came ap, the Fiflh Michigan, again won leurels as fresh as those due tiiem for Wil- 
liamaburg. Italoag then was one bmiilrod and forty-four. Its loss this day: 

■Piftii Michigan losl — 
OfncEna KiLLEii: — Captain LEWIS ]!. QUACKENBrSH, Company H; Lieuten- 
ant and Adjutant CHARLES n. nuTCHiNoa 3 

OcfficEiBWOTTBDKD: — Lieutenant J. J. KNOX, Company D; Captains; — C. H. 

TKAVBKS, Company E ; WILSON, Company G ; MILLEB, Company K 4 

Total officers killed and wounded, 6 

Enlisted men wonndod 11a 

Enliated men missing, T 

Its nolilB officers did their duty. I directfid General Berbt, with hia regiment, to 
Inru the " Slashings " and, fighting, gain the open ground on the enemy's right flank. 
Thla was perfectly accomplished. Tlie Thlrty-seTenlli New York was arranged In 
column to enpport the attack. Its services In the sequel proved Invalnable. 

In the meanwhile, my cemalnhig Brigade, the One Hundred and Ptlth and Slsly-thli'd 
FennBjIvsniana, came ap under General Jahbson, the otkor two regiments havicg been 
diverted, one to Bibnet, and one to Peck. It I? believed that they did well, and most 
probably ntgent reaeoiia existed, btU 1 mosl respciAfvny eulmtt that it It to the disad- 
vantage of a eonsHltted eonaaand to ta&e jam from their hoMtaal leaders, im4 not to 
Ss (WSiSpiitdJ thoi a lirave, though weat Mnialim can accomiillah t/u same rtsvlte, 
v>lth tte regimsats ih«a allotted out to tRos) ivhom tliey ntithir A:n«u> wir hose fo«gkt 
under — at the sojne Oifie that it ^ndniahes IheftiU fegil-ijiiate sphere f^ tlte siBmnaiid^ 
(^ the SiDiOoa. Of these ceglmenis the One Hnndred and FiHh was placed in the 
" Slashing," now Tticated by the oblique advance of tbD Tblrd Michigan, ivhilst eight 
companies of the Siity-third Penneylvaulans, led by Ltentenant'Colonel Horqak. and 
niostapiritedlyheadedby General JiMEsoH, aided by his daring Chief of Staff, Captain 
FoTTBB, were pushed Uirongli the ahattls (the prrrtioni neter vnlU now oixvpUtl ^ 
VI), and nobly repelled a strong body of the enemy, who, thongh In a strong line, and 
coming op rapidly and in order, ]U6t failed to reach (to support) this position In time, 
but, who, nothing daunted, and with a courage worthy a united cause, halted in battle 
Brray, and poured In a constant heavy roll of musketry Ji;e. 

The One Hundred and Fifth lost — 
OFPiCEHBKlTXBIi; — Captain .TOHNC. BOWLING, Company B; First Lienten ant 
J. P, E. CUMMUSKY, Company D .,... + 9 

>y Go Ogle 


Officers wonNDED; — Colonel A. A. MCKNIGHT; Captuina: — L.C. IHJPF, Com- ' 
pany D; L.'W. OREESAWALK, CompanjE; R, KIRK, CompBnj P; A. C. 
THOMPSON, Company K; PiraD Ltoutenants: — S. A. CEAIO, Company B; 
C.C.MABKLE, Company E; JAMES! E. GAQQIE, CompaDy F ; Second Lieu- 
tenant A. J, SHIPLEY, Company E, 9 

Total offlccrs billed ana wonnded, H 

Enlisted men liUled, ,, (!7 

Enlisted men wounded 116 

Enlisted men misslnfi, Ki 

Total io33, 458 

SlMy-tlilrd Pennsylvania Volnnteera lost— 

Opfioehskiiliii:— First Lieutenant EENBT HCTKST, Company C, 1 

OiTFiCEnB wouHDED : — Lleutenaot-Colonel A. S. M. MOEQAN ; Adjutant GEORGE 
P. COETES ; Qnartermaeter W. N. OATM AKEE ; Captain JOBN A. DEINKES, 
CompanyB; First LSeulenaut T. L. MAYNAED, Company B; Second Lieu- 
tenant, L. I. MORBHEAD, Company G; Acting Second Lieutenant G. E. 

GEOSS, Company D 7 

Total oflcera killed and wonnded 8 

Enlisted men killed SI 

Enlisted men wounded, &J 

Enlisted men miffiiiK, ai 

Tills was, perhaps, near si ]£ o'clock, whea our center right, defended by troops of tho 
olher divisions, with all their nillin/^ees, could no lonfier resist the enemy's right-ceur 
tral-flank BtiackB, pushed on with determined discipline, and with the impnlsloii of 

dense hody of (he eneipy parsutng rapidly, yet in order, occupied the 'Williamsburg 
Toad, tliB entire open grotmd, and penetratlns deep into tlie woods on either side, soon 
interposed between my division and my line of retreat. B vias on tiiis oacoajon, Ihal, 
ieeini; layaelf cut cff, taul reli/iag on, Ihe lilg& discipline and determined valor ^ Hie 
Thirly-Ketnth Nevi Tor!: Voluiiteer»,' I faced than to Hie rear asaiiuit the enemy, and 
Tield die ground, allhougk so crUlcaUi/ i^aeed, and despUe tie masaei that gaHiered on 
and pagaed «a, c/tecked i&e enemy ia hia intsil <tf ciriMng «v off ogoin^ the White Oak 
S/manp. This enahied the advanced regiments, averted by orders, and this contest in 
tlielr rear, to return from their hitherto vlctortona career, and to retire by a remaining; 
wood path, known to one scants (the Saw Mill road^ until tlicy once mora arrived at 
and regained the impregnable position wa had left at noon at our own fortified division 
camp. The loss of the Thiri^'-savenih New York Is severe, via. : 
Thirty-sevenih Hew York ioet — 

OppiCERSBitLED; — Second Lieutenant W.J. FINNOK 1 

OPFICURS wotrUQED : -- Capt^na J. E. McCONNELt, A. J. DIGNAN ; First Lieu- 
tenant JAM^ KEELAN, Second Llenlenants JAMES H. MAEEEY, WM. 


Total otHcers killed and wounded, 7 

Enlisted men killed 12 

Enlisted men wounded Bii 

Enlisted men missing 2 

TolallOBs ~8X 

' " General Kearst led the charge of the Thirty-seventh New York which decided 

>y Go Ogle 


At WiUlamsliurg its loss was K ; it there formed oar oitrema left. Colonel HimiB, 
Its Colonpl, has erer been moet distinsnisliad. lie royived .this day bla ropnlatioii 
gained in Mexico, Adjutant Jameb DENinr. Caplata Jiiraa R. O, Bbihke, anfl lleuien- 


The detached brigade, nndor Biksei, had been ordered to anpport, by the rallroaa 
Biao -not to attack. It accomplished this Bnccesatnlly, for I nnderstand. that it ena- 
bled General Cottcu, who had been cut off wltli a brigade, to form a junction with the 
array. The Fifty-sevenili PennsylTOnia Volunteera (Jajhkboh'b Brigade) having beeu 
on fatigae, was ordered to report to General Bjsnei, and waa aerioualy engaged. ]ia 

lOEBS wouhded ! — Cotunel C T. CAMPBELI. ; Captain 

lanjB; Captain a S.CHASBi Ueulenant'E. I. mcSJ, CompaDy A,. 

Enhs men Isslng, 


I4rat MeuteDaot tEWIS PrrZGEBAJJ) ; 


Enlisted men wo 

mlrd Maine Volunteera lo8t - 

F1CER3 wocsnKni- Captain LAKEMAN, Company I; 

; Captain RICHMOND, 
lieutenant EASKEIA.. 

OompsnyK- _ 

EollBted men kll 


laakiE ' 




'. WliLIAMS; C 

£iilisted men mJsslnB:, ... 

Eigbu-sevenlh New York Volnnleere loat- 

lEEiCEES wounded: — Colonel B. A. BODOE; Osptain T.T. BAKEK, Compsny C ; 
Captain D.O. BBCKWITII, Company K; Plral Llenlenant D, A. FI.ABDBEAU, 
Company A ; Flisl LleUenant J. a OI/lTD, Compauj' O ; Second LleuHtnauI U. 

E, Company, A, i 

E>i<s1iei], and wounded tn Mexico. On the dlscomdtore of tbe right and centre, tie rall!ad 
uearllia saw-mill several liuudrtdsof Ihe fijgltlves. and was coming with them from there 
ssain to the field, when I directed them to aiiil<npBte Uieenpmyand man the Intrenched 
cnjup. In doing ttils.I particalsrlze anoble teghsest , the Flist Long Island I-egton, under 

I have again to dwell on (he Bsemplary coaddct of the brilliant oiHccts of the Staff. 
Captain Potteb. Gleneral Iamesos's Assistant Adjntant-Oeneral, who had alreadj- 
altractod notice at Wllllamsbnnr. was here as coosplcuously gallant as eitremely nsefal. 
I liai-B to regret the loss of Captain Smith, A. A. General of General BebuVb Staff— Iha 
premature Siteof one whose gallantry at Williamsburg made ma anticipate a oiireer 

ifreaC service, and was wounded. Mj- Aid, Captain stiibqk."s. was left to conduM GenerMl 
ISiBNEI. Captain MooBE was sent aner mj- Artillery, and was, asusual, active. I have 

the centre decided ' 

e suddenly i 

itopped bj 

.and by hearing 

port, the Thirty-seven 

Ir entire line. Bu 

good order. 

they effect 

d.have again, wli 

thin a very short perl 

oa, paid the 

and success by 

marked and seven 

: loss of near thirteen 

ir conspicuous good conduct, Oenetsla J 


atter aeled in an 

son the aflvan 

md.lB pla 

I add, in con 

very night, fte 

shins ftHward Ma 

hundred Michigan Mb 



lent ServanI 


















Ge IKs^BSY'sSiaff 


























.!«[ .!« 


I LLeuteiiKQt B. Mallos, AcUne A, J>. C. wounded. 

.ATED List of Kilibd, Wocsi>ed and MigaiKO in Thibi) Divraios. Third 





















— 8" 







gs. ™™Vs.;^vMnT' — ■■ — 





67 Bli 







Briffaaser Qentrat Cotitmandina TMrd In 

>y Go Ogle 


Tlio morning kise'd each sleeping flow'r 

And rose the ann in ianghty power 
On mied MalveiH Hill. 

It deepens !—'■ Forward "— " Fire again 1"— 

His veary ranifs inspire. 

The weary f Icpt— the tmmpet eonnd 

Had ceased, ana all was attll,— 
And heaven whs weeping o'er the gronnd 

GEOSOEio-ira, D. C, Cocrier's " BaUle qf Moment BiU.'" 
"In thiBcass" (if NiPOtBON abandoned Loban, after Aspem, 1809) "it was not for 
s retreat npon Vienna " (a few milea— in McCnELLiN's case the James river) " bnt for 
a retreat npon Strasburg" (the Potomac, to cover Waahington) "that it hehoved to 
prepare." TniEEg, a, ssiv, 838. 

" Said the General {'Stosewail Jacksoh') who la yonr general t" "Keabht, as 
brave a man as ever drew a aword, Co JOB know hiiH, general !" replied the wounded 
Union aolater adflceased ! "Oh. yes. well; yon aro led by a good oiScer." Makes, 361. 

• Chapters siiv and ikv were acfnally In print in September, 18B8, and had 
been BiBmlned (likewise many of the preceding and enbBeqnent onea) by an aecom- 
pllshed General If. S. A. That part of this, ssv, relating to Malvern Hill, was reviaed 
by a brilUant officer, who was present in the engagemont. For whatever errors, here 
or elsewhere, may bo fbnnd, the publishers are liable, as notes and references have 
been traneposed, sometitnee paragraphs, which errors It was impossible to correct, as 
the pages were stereotyped in aome inatancee before a revised proof was anhmitted. 
ThiB was eicnaedby the plaa of loss of papers in the mail. The writer Enpposing hia work 
would have been pnbliahcd last Autnmn, as agreed, allowed papers to got separalefl, 
and throngh the wiiifol negligence of a truBted party his memoranda of corrections 
and references disappeared or was willftilly destroyed to conceal a piece of negligence. 
TLie eiplanatlon ia due to himself, as he Is completing this work aa a volunteer. 



When McCleelan insisted upon the movement up the Peuin- 
sula, thereby, as far as he was concerned, uncovering Washing- 
ton, he had no right to suppose that the Capital would be 
entirely denuded of troops, and every man committed to tlie 
Icadersliip of one who could not handle the numbers he already 
had or employ them to advantage. McCLELLANhad condemned 
himself iu the Fall of 1 801, in the eyes of Keaent, and Keaent 
was not the only man in the country who saw through him. 
Was it likely that a general who allowed his army of 158,000 
men to be paralyzed for eight months by 50,000 inferior troops 
in Manassas, would have been less benumbed with nearly that 
number in the presence of 100,000 better troops, occupying a 
more advantageous position ? How the extension of his right, 
and its success was an excuse ; and it would seem as if McClel- 
LAN was always seeking excuses for his want of entei-prise.* 

An apathetic lull of twelve days succeeded the victory of 
Fair Oaks, when McClellan's dream of action in the dim 
future, was broken by a sharp cavalry masterstroke, which must 
have been a rude awakening. This was J. E. B. Stuabt's 
cavalry raid, which made a complete circuit of his army.f On 

• After Fair Cake, Subser asked fo be permlttea to go '"to Elclimond, and eaid wo 
cunld go In for tlie RelwJs wore thoroughly routed. Fits Jokh Pohtkk want np In a 
ImlloOQ^ and reporlfld that the Rebels were coming out. ThereQi>on McClellan 
expected an nllacb:, whereas it was Rebels running out in another direction, Dot to 
attack nB, but to gel away from us. HuiiLEnET admits that ,tlie Rebels thought they 

" + A few hoars, therefoi-e, after the English tents had been pilohod before Limerick, 

He took the road to KlUalOB, and oiosBedtha Shannon thoro. " • * lie learned in 
the evening that the detachment which guarded the Bogllsh sttlliery had baited for the 
night al)oiit seven miles fVom W&ijaji'h camp ; • • * tiat officers aod men Beamed 
to think themselves perfectly secure ; that the beasts had been tomed loose to graze. 

their hiding place. • • The surprise was complete. Some of the English sprang to 
theu'armBandmado an attempt to resist, but in vain. Aljoat sisty fell. One only was 
ialsen alive. The rest fled. The Tictorions Irish made a huge pile of wagons and 
pieces of cannon. Every gnn was staffed with powder, and fixed with its mouth in the 
ground, and the whole mass was blown up. • • The Kino guessed Ibe design of his 
brave enemy, and sent Ave hnndred horse to protect the guns. Unhappily there was 
some delay. • • • At one in tho morning tho detachment set ont, but had scarcely 
left the camp whBn a blase like lightning and a crash tike thunder announced to the 
wideplainof the Shannon that all was over. * • • Their (Irish) spirits rose and 
the besiegers began to lose heart."- MACirtAT'sHisioryfy Histoid, ill. 605-6. 
"He (BotLEJO) sent SiESFiELn with aplclted body of cavalry to Intercept the con- 


332 EioGRAPinr op majoh^esekal philip keaeny. 

the niglit of the IStli-14th June, this slash at his rear and com- 
munications ivas enough to startle any one, slow to decide and 
slower yet to plan. It set McClbij,an, doubtless, to thinking 
of his true base on the James, on the line indicated in the pre- 
vious fall by Keaent, on the line from Williamsburg direct to 
Ilichmond. Still, like Holgae, the Dane, in the vaults of Elsi- 
nore, he only woko up to ask, "Is it time;" or like Babbaeossa, 
in the cavern of the Thuringian Kylf-hauser Berg, awakened 
to ask " Whether the ravens still flew round the mountain." 
Eavena the general little bodt'd were about to fiy.* The 
reader has more than once seen Keaedty's prophetic words 
moat promptly realized. This was the case almost to the lettei-, 
before Fair Oaks. In the following communication he indicates 
that movement of Jackson which brought about that swift 
" change of base " or retreat to the James, which rendered the 
term almost synonymons afterwards with a flight. 

Under date of 22d June, Keaksy writes as follows : "I am 
BOrry that I cannot give you interesting news. Here we are 
again at a dead-look. Manassas over again ; both parties 
entrenched up to their eyes, both waiting for something ; 
unluckily, our adversaries gaining two to our one. Our last 
chance to conquer Richmond — for Dame Fortune ia reaentful of 
slighted charms — was thrown iway when our great battle of 
Fair Oaks was thrown away. We hi 1 ten [ ted the enemy to 
attack us whilst divided by the GhiLkahommy. Fortunately, 
he failed. The prestige, nearly Icat to u« bj our inaction since 
Williamsburg, waa once more m th lacenlancy. It only 
required McClbllai* to put forth moral force and his military 
might, and Richmond would have been our'f But no; delay 
on delay; fortifications, as if we were beaten met by stronger 


aloos bj- 

roads, 1 

rarprifed the escort encftioped a tu 


rltr. only t 




y, killed 

T dfsp 

ersed tho detBehinerl 

iTia^ loaded the' 


tlien laid t 


atlng wit 


iredai he retreated. 

wne ton 

ible. I 

)ir Joas 



ftat he 



to intercept tho 

return of 


'• ii, m. 

»™i,d dea 

LD'a troops to 



B Gosi 

«N'a "fffefoi™ 


criptlon of this 1 


Bee Victor Hnoo's 

; drama of 



■."Part I, 


3,KAni. s 


ng, pagoa SOS-'O. 



coimter-fortifi cations, on points previously neglected; undue 
concentration of our troops on points already over-manned, 
met by a network enveloping as by them ; supineness in our 
campa, met by daring forays by them ;* the boasted influence of 
our reserve artillery, counterbalanced by their availing them- 
selves of the respite to get up artillery even of greater calibre ;' 
the reliance on further troops from the north, more than met by 
reinforcements of two to one, by their recalling troops from the 
south. Indeed, eveiy thing so betokens fear on the part of the 
general commanding, and the enemy show themselves so 
emboldened that, with the numbers crowding up around us, I 
am puzzled to divine the next act of the drama, li inill be 
either another inea^icable evacuation, or the suffocation of this 
army hy the seizure of our communications when least eapected. 
The enemy wish us to attack. McClellan has proved by his 
fortifications that he is feeble. We are surrounded in front by 
a cordon of troops and forts. It is true that they will fail if 
they attack us ; but, if they do not do that, they will leave 
enough troops in our front, and crossing the Chickabominy, cut 
us of from our lines of communication and sustenance." \ 

With the modesty that is not often found, except with true 
courage, Gen. Kearny does not give, in this connection, the 

»" Bloody oonflicte,wlth cl onto tfiil iaenes, daily occnrred to obtain provtsion.whlch conia 
oulybeBecureil (or aithar army sword Inliand. A convoy, that tho Imperialists were ei- 
pecttng from s distance, coming Hpnader an escort of 1000 men, waspouncad npon on ths 
tmybythe Swedea, who, nnder cover of lie darkness of the night, secured It fortham- 

while 1000 wagons liiden with bread were of necessity burned to save them from recap- 
advantage of the Swedish cavalry, who touted several Anatrtan regiments with the loaa 
of about lOD men. Wallenstein, seeing theEs many checks and increasing difficulties, 
repented that he had declined lo haiard a battle at the beginning; bnt the increased 
sti-englh of the Swedish camp now rendered the thonght of making an attack npon it 
Impracticable, The king acted steadily upon bis favorite aslom, "that a good general 
with a small army eonld hardly ever be obllaed to fight, if he acted with dno vigilance, 
foreihonght and activity."— Ges. Cost's "Lives <if Ihe IFuiriore," JIK)0-lG*e, vol, J, 

■' Nothing li dona while something still remains to be done," , 

Bfler eitrflCt from Chaplain Mark's peninsular Campaign, as taken in connection 
with other facts, ahunilantlyteslifles. For tlieae the reader ts referred lo that moat 
Interesting book, as too lengthy for qnotatiun In this work. 

>y Go Ogle 


speech reported by an officer of Hooker's, a rival division, 
■which, he made to the Twentieth Indiana, 

" It should be preserved," says Major W— — B , " as a 

gem of battle eloquence, equal, in pith and brevity, to Stahke's 
famous words at Bennington." 

The enemy liad come in and taken a section of a battery on 
the left of the position held by Keaent, who saw at a glauco 
tlie extreme importance of recovering that part of the field. 
Dashing up to the first regiment he saw in line, he threw him- 
self at their head and shoated : " Twentieth Indiana, those guns 
must be retaken, or Phil, Keabny loses his other arm ! " 
The guns were retaken. 

On the 25th of June, a reconuoissance in force on the 
Union left brought on qnite a smart engagement, in which 
Keaent, originally sent to protect the left flank of tlic 
movement, participated with his usual gallantry. In half 
an hour after the skirmish fire began, Kearny and Hookee's 
divisions had become quite actively engaged, and the collision 
gradually assumed the magnitude of what our people styled the 
Battle of Oak Grove,* or "The Orchard," or "The Peach 
Orchard," or the " Second Battle of Fair Oaks." " This," says 
Chaplain Marks, " was the first of those grand and never-to-be- 
forgotten contests called the " Seven Days' Battles." 

Sib— I have tlie honor to forward Lbe reports of my three brigades for the 
skirmishing of tlie 25tli inatant. 

During these engageinents I remained at my redan, and only took personal 
part in the aame unfl towari evenini? 

I remained at bivouac with Bihney s brigade the entire night. 

I have particularly to commend General Robinson' and Colonel Brows, 
Tweciieth Indiana Volunteers C lonel IIats, Sisty-third Pennaylrania, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel BiCHi* E ghly sBTenth New York Volunteers, but not so 

»The atUcklu? column const ted of Grover's, Sickles' and RobinBon'a brigadea. 
GeneFal Kearny was sent to protect the left flank, and the Nineteenth MasaaehuBctts, 
Colonel Hicks, was ordered to advance and protect the right." • * • * "In half an 
hour the skirmlEh oitcaded along the entire line, and Keam; and Booker's diviElons 
were enganeiS in the llTcUestaetion ; and ?oon, from the arrival of fresh troopa ont>oth 
sides, the engagBmontassnmed the magnitnds or abattle," — Chaplain UAbx'B Paniu- 



ranch Ms regitnent; also, the firm, solid appearance of tlia First ITew York 
Volunteera, aa arriving at night and taking up poaition. 

The casualties have been principally in the Ttrentietll Indiana and Sixty- 
third Pennsylvania. 
I refer you to Brigade reports. 

Beapectfuily, your obedient aervent, 
(Signed) P. KEARNY, 

BrigaditT-Gfneral Commanding Division. 
To Captain C. McKeeyek, 

Chief of Staff Third Corps. 

"On the very evening of 25th of June, McClellan was 
awakened from the dream of rejoicing over what he tliought the , 
Buccesaful result of Lie preparations for the advance of his whole 
army — as inaugurated by Heintzblmam's gaining ground on 
the left — by the tidings that the right of his long straggling line 
of twenty miles was menaced — as Keaeny foretold fonr days 
previously would be the case — in flank and rear, by masses of 
the enemy ; that his communications could no longer be main- 
tained. The rebel generals seemed abont to repeat the mag- 
nificent stroke of Feedeeic and of Sbtdutz at Rosbach, by 
crushing the right of the Union line, some twenty miles long, 
rolling the whole army np, in upon itself, and ' bowling ' it away 
to destruction." 

JIcCLELLiN's panegyrist at a subsequent date, and accuser at 
this time, observes, in 1866, that McClellan's project of making 
a countei'-move, which he looked forward to on the 26th, had an 
illustrious precedent in Theenne's counter to Montbcuculi in 
16V4 (1675). This criticism overlooks the observations of 
Hapolbon in regard thereto. If Tuebnke made a brilliant 
move, his *" position was bad," and he laid himself open to a 
fatal blow. Had Montecuculi been as enterprising aa the rebels, 
and "employed six hours of the night in marching" direct 
upon the bridge which constituted Tteense's line of retreat, 
that blow would have ended the campaign. The Imperial com- 
mander threw away those six hours, and his chance of success 
was gone. McCi,ei,lan was in the habit of throwing away days 
instead of hours, and had never profited by an opportunity. 
He had taken no advantage of Keaent's brilliant move, 9th- 
10th March, which drove the rebels from Manassas, but turned 

>y Go Ogle 


back after a profitless fatiguing military promenade,* After 
Williamsburg, he had gone to sleep, as it were, and aitor 
Fair Oaks, when he might have followed the defeated rebels 
into Richmond, again he did nothing. He was yet to enjoy 
other favors of fortune, aiid to reject them. Forgetting " iliat 
Fortune is a -woman, avail youreelf of her favor while she is in 
the humor; beware that she does not change through resent- 
ment of yonr neglect." Afler the victory of Malvern Hill, as 
honorable to the corps commanders as Hohenlinden in 1800 to 
MoREAU, and, taking into consideration all its antecedents, very 
much the same sort of battle, he did worse than he ever had 
done ; after South Mountain it was the same ; at Antietam, 
worst of all. 

Is it likely that a commander who left everything to his sub- 
ordinates, and seemed incapable of combined action, could have 
conceived a plan which would have necessitated a simultaneous 
movement which demanded the manipulation of another army 
besides his own, such as he subsequently claimed was the inten- 
tion of the extension of his right, which led to the engagement 
at Hanover Court House. The public has a right to estimate 
a man by his employment or abuse of opportunities. From one 
exemplification of character, you may judge all, says the proverb. 

•Otto HEuaiHOER, in his " Am^koiist^e KrkysMMer." fUrnbhes Bome cnrions 
acts in rejatd to tlie hasty flight of the reliels from Slanassaii, lOth-iaih March, I&ia, 
This anthor Berved four anii a half years in a German Regiment, and belonged in 
IBfil-"a lo BLENKEn'e Division, which took part In MrCLiLLin's military ptomenafle 
through that Marehmnd. At page IS, he saja (11th March— Annam^fffc); "Here the 
enemy had his litrthest ontposts " (nearest Washington). * ■ " Scattered mnakets 
and camp-eqnipaae, or nteHsDs here witness to the hasty withdrawal of the enemy." 
Page in (16th March. JSiirjUt Court Bouse), "We fonnd plenty of first-ra(B gailers. 
which we appropriated," "The enemy at this time were perfectly supplied with every 
requisite." "The enemy had withdrawn very hastily IVom theao fearful fortifications 
at CentreTille and Manassas," Page 31, "No one could have desired a more comfort- 
able BOldierlng than the Confederates enjoyed, as tesliBed by tholr rough, hut wcll- 
Constmcted log-houses and Incalcalahle remains of food and camp ulonBils, broken 
bottles, Ac." Pages M-Sa. "Bomed ties, or Umbers, hroken and bent railB lay on the 
route of the advancing column ; likewise railroad locomotives amid a chaos of shat- 
tered cars, while the store-honsee on the railroad, partially destroyed and Burronnded 
by flove-ln, hall-dlled barrels of pork and rice, were the best proof of the wild Btght of 
I he Confederates." "About 4 p. M. we passed Manassas, the strong bulwark of the 
enemy. This hamlet, consisting of ten houses, was eitremely formidably fortified ; Ite 
lofty batttonE seemed almost beyond capture, and we could not comprehend the flight 
of the Confederates out of such strong entrenchments." PniL. Kicabhi', notwith- 
atandlng, did hurry them out )u his peculiar way. 



To believe that McClex-lan calculated on utilizing a junction 
with McDowell was to reverse the proverli, and conceive an 
act of energy exceptional to a whole career, characterized by 
almost timid caution. One remark further presents the moEt 
extraordinary phase : McClellas waa always asking for very 
large reinforcements, and, notwithstanding some were furaisbed, 
could not be induced to move forward decidedly ; and then, 
when he was ordered to withdraw from Harrison's Landing, he 
promised that if they would only give him an additional force, 
small in proportion to his previous demands, he would advance 
on Richmond at once. 

The battle of Mechanicsville, 26th — a glorious success for 
Reynolds and Seymour, says Cajjlbton,* who fought it alone, 
repulsing double their numbers-— seemed to have stunned 
McClellan. On the 24th, he had planned an aggressive, whicb 
was apparently inaugurated in Oak Grove on the 25th. On the 
28th, this aggressive had degenerated into a pure defensive. 
On that night he thought of nothing but retreat. The darkness 
of the ensuing nights of the 27th and 28th was lighted up by 
the bonfire of his stores. West Point went up in flames on the 
night of the 28th, and it might be said, tbat, by tbeir light, he 
commenced the withdrawal of the heavy guns and baggage, 
and changed his base in a manner which bore all the features 
of a flights 

On Fi-iday, 2Vth June, the attack upon oar right was re- 
newed in the battle of Cold Harbor, as it is styled by the 
rebels, or Gaines' Mills (Gaines' Farm, or Ellison's Mills), «s it 
is better known to us. In this Keabnx took no part. The 
victory was a formal one for the rebels, but was purchased at a 
frarful cost. This, the third of the Seven Days' Battles, was 
the first of those sis, styled in error, seven days' contests which 
was actually Sghting in ketkeat. 

By six A, M., 28th Jane, the whole Union army ^as on the 
south side of the Chickahominy. So far from this concentra- 
tion being a disadvantage, if McClellan, on that day, or the 

• " TUe nnlted efforts of the two Hillb and General Bkabch were nnt sufficient to 
diilodge the two brigades which held the position, Gnippis.MiKTinDAii and Miaee 
were ready U> lend aasiatanee, but were not cnjfflsed. Guiffin only fired a few shots." 
— ■' FoliM-ino (Ae flag," las. 



ensuing one, 29th June, had struck at Riclimond, the city must 
have fallen in five hours. 

This retreat, of which so much has heen made hy McClel- 
ian's admirers, was one of the simplest of military problems. was too slow and uncertain to project and execute 
any plan that would he in accordance with the first principles 
of war. On the 27th of June his grand army was still astride 
the Chickahominy, and Gaines' Mill was Fair Oaks over again, 
the attack being this time upon the half of the army on the 
north bank. As at Fair Oaks, utter rout and wide disaster was 
prevented only by the arrival, after sundown, of fresh brigades 
, from the other side, and by the wing of that dusky angel that 
hais saved so many a hard pressed army — Night, " Welcome 
night wrapped bis shattered wrecks in its preserving darkness." 
Under its friendly cover, the wreck of the right wing moved 
across that fatal swamp, and the morning of the 28th found the 
whole army where it should have been one month before, on 
the Richmond side of the Chichahominy. 

But, by this time, its commander, had relinquished the offeii- 
sive, and was aiming, not for success, but merely laboring to 
keep bad enough from becoming the worst possible. In the 
scenes that followed, McClellan had no division commander 
more efiective, prompt or trustworthy for a critical moment 
than Gteneral Kearny, * 

The army had only to fall back from fifteen to twenty-five miles 
tlirough a country which favored the movement. The rebels 

•"ImioticinEtli6brBverrof all the generals that have taken part inthe late liHttlas 
on the Peninsula, one of the foremost in rank is General KESRsr. Worfla are iiiadc- 
qnale to eapres? the daring and bravery of this general. He is always foremost in tha 
fray ; and many times was he obserred with his bridle in his teetli, while hia right arm 
(the only one he has), with a sword at the end of it, was cotting and slashing at a ftirl- 
ooatate among gconps orthe enemy. The rebels styled him the " One-armed Devil ; " 
Bud, after the batUe of WiHismsbnrg, I was told by rebel prisoners, during a conrer- 
sation with them, and on the night of the llshi, ha was closely watched by them and 
their oBcets, and that aome of thetrmost accurate sharpshooters were ordered to draw 
a bead on that '- one-armed devil there ; " yet they could not see blm ftU. Finally, a 
rebel colonel ordered his enOre regiment (according to their statement) to withdraw 
thoirllre from every I hing else and center it apon that officer with one arm; the ordor 
was obeyed, and the entire iegiment(theBtli Carolina) belched forth a volley at the one- 
arraed officer; bnt ha was prolectedbya juatcanse and an All-seeing Eye aboya, and 
was not seen to fhU from his saddle- Snch men are too preclons to their country, and 
iii the eyes of Ihelr Ood, lo ftU by a rebera bnllet." — (iVfics/Mjwr Slip.j 

>y Go Ogle 


had greater difficulties to overcome than the Union forces. Tho 
former were absolutely inferior in ourabcrs, and the latter had 
only to protect their rear and one flank, their left. If any ques- 
tion of the slightest magnitude required solution, it was the 
saving of the artillery and trains. There are plenty of exam- 
ples of vastly superior perils overcome uuder immeasurably 
greater disadvantages. A curious parallel may be recalled, 
which occun-ed during the "Thirty Teare' War," when, in 
August, 1623, Cheisiias of Bkitnswick, with an army com- 
posed almost entirely of raw recruits, " fought almost inces- 
santly in retreat throughout three nights and two days, over 
nearly thirty miles of river and marsh-intersected country." 
Eight times the Brunswickcrs reformed their lines of battle 
under an artillery fire, whose multiplied discharges, maintained 
with unusual fierceness for the epoch, " made the earth tremble, 
and the old walls they sought to defend quiver and shake again." 
All this, too, in the face of a superior veteran army led by Tiu.y, 
the best genei-al of the day. This prolonged contest is known 
as the Battle of Lohn, or Stadt-Lohn. 

Feedeeice's retreat in the third campaign (that in 1758), 
of the Seven Years' War, after he had lost all his artillery at 
Hochkirch, is another notable example. 

The retreat of Moeeait through the Black Forest, in 1796, 
very much lauded at the time ; that, again, of Sir John Mooee, 
which culminated In his victory of Corunna, in 1808, greatly 
admired by Napiee; that of Wellington, within the lines of 
Torres ViEDKAS, in 1810; that of Massena, out of Portugal, 
before Wellington, in 1811, were incomparably greater.* 

How much more glorious, although in miniature, Claosel's 
retreat from his repulse at Constantine in 1830. 

On Saturday, 28th June, there was an affair at Golding'e 
Farm, in which the rebels were repulsed with so much facility 
that they were actually deceived for a moment as to the reality 
of the withdrawal of the Union army.f 

» a better BimllB, psrliapB, is Ihe Seven Daj-s" Battle*. In Hetreat, of Prelbarg, 3d-9(]| 
AngOBt, 1614. whtch progreBsed aod termiDat«d very mucli hke our own " Summer 
Week of Figtiting," 25tli Juno to tlio IsC July, 186S ; STOSiiriLL JiCKaos represantlng 
tho impetnona Cosni. — Ctrar'a " Lives of the WccrriBrs," Ifl]l-1B7B, r. 13. 

t General KBAnuT (rojecd the swamp one mile higher than the usnal road, at Brack, 
ett's Ford, and about eaudoicn had secured all his traiuB and actillerj; and, artet 



On "the battle Sunday," 29th June, art engagement took 
place at Savage Station. In this Keaeht took a promLoeEt parL 

On Monday, 30th June, occurred the battle of Frazier's Farm 
{or Nelson's Farm, or Glendale), or New Market Cross-Roads. 
This resulted in a victory for the TTnion forcca, " The rebel 
troops became a mob, and fied in terror toward Richmond." 
A mournful wail was heard from Glendale during that long dis- 

sdvancloK in Becnrity a short dlelance, his sconte fell upon the enemy's picketB. and 
Ihere commenced a very brisk firing in the wonda In front. The reconnoissance mad9 
It certain that the Confcderatf^ fortes were neat us, and that an attempt to advance 
along the road wonld he hotly contested, and mij;iit hring on a general ongaBeiQent, 
General Kearki drew up hia men in the ordsr of battle until after night, and then. In 
thn darkness, sought to join the other divisions of the army. 1 have often heard the 
men and otBcerB of the army epeak of that niifht's marcli in the gloomy forest, where 
nothins could he seen hnt the Bash of the firc-flj. The mceriainty of the way, the near 
presence of the enemy, the thnnder of the battle not ISr from them, made this a night 
long to be remembered, and the most thoughtleaa were impres Ecd with sad antlclpa- 

To guard againBt the success of Each a demonstration (a flank movement), strong 
hodies of oar troops were maesed at important points on the several roads. On those 
leading from Hlciimond, fleneral Hmntzblmab, with the divisions of Generals Hooieb, 
KEiBwr, Sedhwick andMcCAU,, were placed. Onr trains and the advanciug trpops were 
to pass over Oie road to Turkey Bend or Malvern HIU, called Quaker Road. This road 
cnta at right angles the varions highways running from Eiclimond'eBet, and therefore 
Is the groat highway to James river from Savage Station. Along this rosd all the artil- 
lery troops and wagons of the annyhad to pass. It was the plan of the enemy, as soon 
aa they discovered the course we were taking, to cm in twain onr army, and to drive 
back Ohd capture such portion as could be severed from the main body. 

FaiirEUN and Sumher held the rear, Slocbm was on (he left, and HEiNTZELHiN on the 
light. HoOEiR occupied a position on the Quaker Boad ; to his right, McCall, and again 
KEABsy tke extreme right. Those varions divisions were thrown Into these positions 
to protect our army, seeking Its new base, and to repel the ellorts of the enemy to 
break through our lines— a catastrophe which would have been futal to all that portion 
thus cut off from the main trunk. * * * 

The conduct of General Kbarst in this battle was the admiration of all his corps. 
He was everjwhere directing in all movements, imparting, by his preaence and clesr- 
BightednesB, the moat determined conrage to his men. Wherever the danger was 
greatest, there he pressed and carried with hfm a personal power that was equal to a 
reinforcement. In a pre-eminent degree, he poseeesed that military prescience, or 
anticipation of what was coming, and the point of an enemy's attack, which baa chat- 
aotertzed every great man who has risen to distinction in the art of war. » * • 

General Hrintkeuhn waa commander of the third army corps, all the regiments of 
which were engaged in this battle. Tor him all the officers and men had the deepest 
respect. He was always cool, and in danger pcrftctly aelC-possessed. A man of great 
kindness of heart, considerate of his men, temperate, wisely discriminating and just. 
There was felt in him, aa a soldier, the utmost confidence; without any of those 
knightly and brilliant qualities which made the names of Hookeb and Keahnit the syn- 
onyms of chivalry and daring, he was brave without rashness, and lifc-saving withont 
imbeciUty, dignified in demeanor, yet easily approached, and the fiiend of every soldier. 
—Chaplain Makes' "Peninsnla Campaign," pages 373-863. 

>y Go Ogle 


mal night, lit up by the red glare of torches flitting to and fro 
as the rebels gathered up their wounded. Ou this occasion, 
Kbakny held about the center of our line. 

The night before Malvern, that is, during the fierce conflict 

of Glendale, says Major-General B , Kbakst had ono of 

those escapes which must have led him to suppose that he bore 
a charmed life, exactly the same as occurred to him on the eve 
of Solferino, and coat him his life in the gloaming of Chantilly. 
He rode out, supposing McCall's line was a prolongation of his 
own to the left ; McCall had not brought his men up, and 
Kkakny dashed directly into a body of deployed troops, tiring 
briskly. He perceived at once that the skirmishing was after 
a manner different from our own, and made up his mind that 
he was in the midst of the rebels. Just then an officer came 
up, mistaking him for a rebel general, and asked what he should 
do now. Kbabnt, looking down at him severely, answered, 
** Do, Sir ! do as I have always directed you to do in such a 
case, Sir!" turned and rode quietly away, expecting every 
moment that the mistake would be ijiscovered, and that he 
would be shot.* 

During the retreat, Keaemt had relieved another division, 
aud assumed a position for the night. With the eye of a eoldier 
and a general, he had posted his artillery and distributed their 
supports, and now surveyed the approaches and his dispositions 
with the calm satisfaction of one who felt himself the master of 
the situation. Remember that this was jn the midst of the tur- 
moil and difficulties of (and such) a retreat. After this survey, 
he turned to an officer near by and remarked: "If they (the 

• The moet wonderfiil atoclei i 

l™ related Of 



lltterally beara 

the ctirattcr ot n " Salamcmda-: 

■ He was to 

m, and holding 

his bridle in his ieetli, «TeT;wher 

e doriDj the h 

otest of the flght. 

Tery near being taken at WMte 

Heirea iiirronnd 

ed by 

no fewer than 

thlrtj- of the rohola, bnt ftirlj en 

t hia way through them — Intne 

■& and 

aaliing if thoy 

thought "he looked the kiad of 

man to fell int 

en all love him 

for Ma nndaonted bravefy. but c, 

DmpUln a little of hl^ fefgoIKng 

that ei 


BMde nf caat-iron like himself. 

General HEQ.T2Ei,MiL psrfoni 

led hlB amy 1 

Sithfoilj and honi 

SBtly, . 

vhlle the oom- 

manderi of the fllTlsIons of the ( 

:otpii (General 

a EIUAE<T and HootEEs) ] 

in the pnhHc estimafion which they have eann 

: and 

o aught, escept pi 

17 this 

tribnto to the 

memoiy of one and the rising fiii 

ne of the other."- IJfmif^aiier Sups sei 

■it to Author.) . 



rebels) can drive me out of this position, they can call me a 

Jersey ." The concluding word was more forcible than 

orthodox. It was such speeches as these, indicating impertur- 
bable self-reliance and faith in himself and men, that gave the 
troops courage and confidence in times of doubt and peril. 

The reader must have remarked the testimony of General 
■Wainweight in regard to Kbaent's selt-possession and power 
of rapid, clear and conclusive thinking to the point under the 
heaviest and most stinging fire. In this imperturbable active- 
minded physical phlegm ho was only surpassed by his 
own fiery, headlong activity when a change of circumstances 
demanded a complete substitution of antagonistic characteris- 
tics. Such a combination of qualities, however strange they 
may appear to ordinary readers, should not be so to military 
students. Ctustavus, Tukennb, Tokstbnsoi^, Saxe, Fkedk- 
Kic, ZiETHEN, Setdijtz, Bluciier (thesc last three should 
he always named together),* Massbna, Soult, Radetzki, 
all possessed an aggressive power which was only surpassed 
by their resistive might when the time called for the one or 
the other in the superlative degree. From the earliest times, 
all grand types of the Anglo-Saxon, the Teutonic, or, more 
properly speaking, the Theotiscan race, have proved their 
greatness by the display of an attack like the lightning, and a 
resistance like a cube of granite, which was one of the emblems 
of the great Gustatus. 

In the finest specimen of the Saxon, Harold, who snccnmhed 
to fate, slain, ^ut not vanquished, at Hastings, there is a perfect 
exemplification of that fiery, nervous "forward" which is 
ascribed to the Celt, and that stubborn, fearless, anchored, or 
rooted, steadfastness which should render immortal the Dotch 
infantry of Fleurusf of Almanza, in fact, throughout King 
William Ill's wars ; of the English infantry of Fontenoy down 
to Waterloo ; and of the Prussian infantry, especially the Pom- 
eranian, of Fehderig, If we have a real portrait of Harold, 
and not an ideal one, ui Kim the general reader could recognize 

* BiESKE-e Blucher. lii-rV. 

>y Go Ogle 


Keaknt; Haeold, so mighty in. his onset, as at York victori- 
ous, so uashakable in his defensa at Hastings, until an airow 
through the head, shot at randonij ended his glorious life, just 
as one bullet out of a volley set fi-ee the spirit of Keakst" at 

Bnt it was not only on the battle-Held that Keaent displayed 
the superiority of his mind. He was prophetic in his common 
sense, and in his prescience he always found a reason and a solu- 
tion of what seemed, to lesser men, temerity. 

During the six days' retreat and the seves days' figuhkg, 
Keaent seems to have been the only general whose foresight 
is demonstrated hy recorded words; who perceived that the 
danger arose from moral feebleness in the direction which could 
be only met by extra exertion and provision on the part of the 
subordinates. Thus, he was always on the alert to make him- 
self perfectly acquainted with the roads, so that, if our move- 
ments were checked or choked on one, his troops could be 
extiicated on another, just as nature turns the current of tlie 
bipod by anastomosis into a new channel, when the regular- one 
is severed or closed by accident or violence. No one knew bet- 
ter than he the necessity of studying the topography of a coun- 
try, sinee a battery on a commanding knoll, or a little wood 
well slashed, or a gulley ivith an abrupt bank wisely occupied 
and well defended, might stop the march of a victorious column, 
He also knew that his men must, in such a rapid retreat (unne- 
cessary, as it turned out, as regarded the enemy, compulsory as 
regarded their gene ral-in-chief), must carry with them and npou 
them the means to feed themselves and to feed the fight. Thus, 
when he fell back from his original position on the railroad, his 
last care was to see that each man of his division had upon him 
not only the regular quantity of ammunition, but one hundred 
extra cartridges per inan stowed away upon his person. What 
was the result ? Keaexy never was driven, and, when in the 
White Oak Swamp, everything depended upon a continuous, 
well-sustained, heavy fire, his lines were able to respond to tl«i 
exigencies of the crisis, not out of their cartridge-boxes, not oat 
of their ordinary sapply, but ovt of the extra quantity imtJi 
Khich the prescience o/Ke^ent had leaded their pockets and 

>y Go Ogle 


tli^vf ham-rsacks. An officer of wonderfully tenacioua memory, 
who was in Heintz elm ax's corps, saya that nothing saved the 
Union army in the White Oak Swamp but those hundred 
rounds of cartridges per man, insisted upon and seen to/by 

Tttesday, 1st July, our "Boys in Blue "were drawn up on 
the pleasant estate of Dr. Caetee, known as Malvern Hill, and 
there the Army of the Potomac won a Hohenlinden victory 
which, under any other general, would have heen improved, and 
resulted in the capture of Richmond. Here Poktek's coi-ps 
coHstituted the extreme left of our line, whose shape resembled 
that of a bill-hook. Next to Poktek's came the division of 
Couch, then Keaent, then Hooker; to the right of these, 
SuaiNKit's corps, then Smith, then Slocum. 

The posting of our troops on that day was intrusted to one, 
of whom a friend — who served under him for many years — 
writes thus, confirming the report of every one who knew him : 
"Geijeral A. A. Humphekts was once Assistant in charge of 
the: Coast Survey office, and his survey and report of the Mis- 
sissippi river placed him, scientifically, at the apex of his corps 
and of the army, and, strange to say, after he got command of 
a fighting column, his courage and energy were equal to his 
mental attainments," 

The following is worthy of incoi-poration, as the facts are from 
the pen of one who greatly admired Keaeny, and spoke of him 
in the warmest terms — more particularly as it furnishes a com- 
plete account of the posting of our troops at Malvern Hill ; 

General A, A. Humphkeys* posted the armyatMalvem, with 
theexeeption of Poetbr's corps (the Fifth), and Couch's division 
of the Third Corps, which were already in position when he arrived 
on, the ground. The Head-Quarters of the army were at Hax- 
all's. Landing, About two o'clock a. m.. General McClellan 
sent, for General IIumphrets, to inform him that Sumner's and 
Hkintzelmak's corps were at Malvern, but not in positiod — 
(Pkanklin, an hour or so later, came in toward HasalPs with 
his, corps; Ketes' corps was already there) — and requested 
HuMPUEEra to proceed thither at daylight, and post the troops 
• SeeMaj.-Gan. BABNiBD's •' Penimtda Cumpoiffn," Note SI, page 81. 

>y Go Ogle 


as massively as he could. General IIumphrets had been over 
Malvern the day before, and over the ground to the right of it. 
This he did, sending up some of Keyes' troopB that he found 
coming toward Haxall's. H^ saw General Pokteb, and, accom- 
panied by General Hunt, commanding the Artillery Reserve of 
the Army, rode at once to Couch's Division, on the right of the 
Fifth Corps. The Fifth Corps was Tvell posted ; whether 
trenched or not was not observed. Then Humphreys saw Geo- 
efal Couch, and discussed with him the position as they rode 
over the ground. Some part of Couch's ground was slightly 

At his right, extending down toward the enemy a considera- 
ble distance, was a thick grove. This Humpheeys endeavored 
to have slashed, as he believed the enemy would use it as a cover 
in attack, which they did. The force he sent foi', to have it 
slashed, was otherwise occupied, and, as the next best thing, the 
woods were occupied by Couch as well as it could be. From 
Couch's position, he rode along the ground and selected the 
position for Heintzblman's and Sumner's Corps to occupy. 
By this remark, it is not intended to convey the idea that ho 
went into the details of the ground ; that, of course, was left to 
the commanders of troops. He sent the directions by aids to 
Kearny and Hooker, as Heintzelman was not on the ground, 
but had gone to see General McClellan, as had also Sumnee, 
It would appear that neither Heintzelman's nor Sumner's 
ground was trenched, except a small part of the right of the 
latter. General Barnakd joined General Humphreys In the 
course of the ride, and went over that part of the ground with 
him which Kearny's and Hooker's Divisions occupied. They 
parted, and General Barnard joined General McCi.EiiAs about 
half-past eight a. m., as General McClellan rode through the 
ground which Kearny afterward occupied. General Barnard 
continued with 6enera,l McClellak to the Head-Quarters camp ; 
and General Humphreys, with General Hunt, continued select- 
ing the ground for the line of battle, advising with Hunt for 
the artillery positions. 

They finally reached a point where it was necessary to descend 
from the hill of Malvern, where the position or country was 

>y Go Ogle 


open, and enter low wooded ground. Here General Hunt left 
General Humphkkts, and returned to his Reserve Artillery ; 
and the latter sent word to Poktbk, or Sumnme, or to the lat- 
ter's division commandera, designating the ground they were 
to oocapy. General McClbllan passed General Humphkkys 
on the hill, at the distance of two hundred or three hundred 
yards, so that he did not speak to him. He appeared to be con- 
versing at one time with Sumsee and Hkintzbuhan about the 
ground, as they stopped and pointed in different directions. It 
was not until Genera! Humphkeys had reached the vicinity of 
Haxall's that he had determined what grounds ought to be occu- 
pied between Malvern and the river. At Haxall's he saw Gen- 
eral McClbllan, told him what he had done, and what he 
proposed to do. He also saw General Franklin, and bad some 
conversation as to how his corps should be posted ; then passed 
to the corps, and saw General W. F, Smith ; pointed out a mill- 
dam where his right could rest, and gave him the compass 
direction by which to extend to his left through low wooded 
ground so as to unite with the troops on the hill; General 
Slocum's left (if memory serves) joined Smith's right, and the 
latter division closed in on the river, on the extreme Union 
right. Peck's division, of Keteb' Corps, supported on the 
right. He then rode rapidly up to Malvern, the artillery fire 
having begun, and went to see about connecting Smith's troops 
with Stjmnee's. With some difficulty he (Humpheeys) got Sira- 
NEE (after taking him over the ground) to extend his right to 
meet Smith, Humpheeys rode with Sumnek's extending troops, 
and, as they entered a field on one side from the looods. Smith's 
troops entered it on the other^from, the same woods, the two lines 
of troops being as exactly identical in direction as if they had 
been moving on a line marked out by instrmnents. Humpheeys 
had not ridden over the line before, though he had examined 
the ground in the vicinity closely. 

The exact coincidence was, of course, accidental, but it was 
somewhat remarkable.* Now, all the line through this wooded 

"Sncli remarkablo aecaratrof airecMon and -tlm^ constttutee, it is enid, tliB chief 
eicellence of the Prnaaian Inftntry. Precieion and ponctusllty ware tbe ptiacjpal 
causes of Uie euccosb of tha followers of tie Black Eagle dDring the "SeTon Wfeehs* 

>y Go Ogle 


ground, from the brow of the hill to the right, on the river, was 
trenched, and near the river the ground was open, and Slocum's 
front was, probably, not at all trenched, or not entirely. Hum- 
phreys did not give it his attention, but sent Major Duank, of 
the Engineers, with bis battalion, to slash in front of the mill- 
pond on Smith's right, as a main road, entered at this point from 
the crossing of White-Oak-Sw amp-Creek, the road by which 
Fraxkun's troops came in. Having completed the line, Hum- 
pukbts returned to Maivern Hill, where the cannonading was 
going on, but no infantry fire had as yet begun. He remained 
on the fronts of Heintzblman and Stjmsbr during the greater 
part of the rest of the day, as there were indications of an attack 
on Sitmnkk's right and Smith's left, a weak part of the line. 
Near this weak position, liowever, stood three of the hardest 
fighting men of the army, a trio, known as " Fighting Phil," 
"Fighting Job" and " Fighting Dan," lions at bay, the first 
since "dead on the field of honor;" the second, afterward 
severely wounded, holding his ground under a Ske desperate 
attack at Antietam; the third losing his leg, a year and a day 
subsequently, stemming tho fearful onset of Longstkeet 
and saving the position at Gettysburg. When the infantry 
fire began to bo sharp, or rather when the skirmishing 
began to be heavy, on Couch's front, he concluded that 
the battle was about to begin in earnest. This was about 
three and a half or four, not later than four and a half, p. m. 
From certain indications during the morning, he inferred that 
the fight would not begin until the afternoon, and had so ex- 
pressed himself to General McClbllaj*, to whom Humpheets 
now sent a brief dispat(nt%t^ting that he believed the fight was 
about commencing in earnest, and rode to Poktbk's position to 
meet him. McClbixan came up there shortly afterward, receiv- 

War" to 1868. Brsv. BriR.-Qen. W. P, W .who commanded theijeUiN. y. V. in 

ims. and Bladlad his proreasion as a eoldier in PraefJa, often related hia astonif hment 
at the precision of the movements dnring tlie grand mlHtary manceuvres aronnd Berlin, 
Ha Hid that be believed tliat, if a Prnssian linfi of batUe enconntercd an obstacle in 
their advance, and liad to break to paea it, aUbough the two wing? contlmjed on, sep- 
araled and ont ot filghl of each other for the distance of a mile, they wonld come 
togather with as much accnracy a? If the line had ramained nnbrokcD, with the danks 
in contact tbnn^hout the whole intervaL This (if remembrance Ib ooiract) ehowslho 
reliabaity of the Pmseian drfll. 

>y Go Ogle 


ing hie note just before reaching that point where Coucu had 
his fight. 

On the let July, at Malvern Hill, the Army of the Potomac 
won a Hohenlinden victory. This furious conflict, so destructive 
to the assailants, did not cease until about nine p. m., having 
lasted over five hours after it grew into the magnitude of a 
grand battle. The rebels were finally " driven to the shelter 
of ravmes, and woods, and swamps, ntteriy broken and despair- 

The worst of the story now remains to be told. After the 
Army of the Potomac had won such a victory, and the exulting 
troops looked forward to harvesting the fruits of their bloody 
toils, orders were given to retreat to Harrison's Landing. Then, 
and not till then, the bonds of discipline seemed to be unloosed, 
and a disorderly rush ensued, which justified the remark that, 
"in the storm and darkness, the Union Ai-my fled from a victory 
as though it had been a rout," * 

That night a circumstance occurred which recalled an incident 
connected with the defeat of the French army at Oudenarde,' in 
IV08. PiimcK EuGESE says: "The darkness of the night pre- 
vented our pursuit, and enabled me to execute a scheme for 
increasing the number of our prisoners. I sent out drummers 
in different directions, with orders to beat the retreat after the 
■French manner, and posted my French Refagee officers, with 
directions to shout on all sides: — Here Picardy! Sere Chamr 
pagne! Here Piedmont! T!ie French soldiers flocked in, and 

■ " On Uie eTenlngof Satnrdar, lis atth November, the King (James 11] called s roon- 
cll of war" (In Ms camp st Sallalmty, when in the presence of the Phisoe of Obassb 
and the tennre of the Eneilsh ctown depended on the reenlt, jnet as Ihc fiite of Rich- 
mond hnng on McClellan's decision on the evo of Malfera). "FEYEHaHiK, Ihe Hoyal 
Commaodet-ia-Chief, espresaed hi= opinion that It was eipedient for hie MBjeetj lo 
foil hack. DuNnss eatnesUy uphold a contraiy opinion, and entreated Jases to aUo\r 
him lo inarch at once and attack the Pbimoe or OHANaE. 

■■ Then out spoke gallant ClaTorhonae, 

And hl8 Bonl thrill'd vrild and high, 
And he ehow'd the Kin? his enhjects, 

And ho pray'd him not to 8y," 

The King dedded Ibr a retreat. Tho camp hroke np at Sallehnry, with all the eonlli- 
fionof afiight." Tlie resnltwae-JAaBSloBthisthrone, And Willuh, Prince of Orsn^, 
became Kinij of England. -General Hon. 5iB Edward Ccst's "iicee^ the RiiJTtors," 



I made a good harvest of them ; we took in all about seven 
thousand." * 

In our own case, after Malvern, the troops were intermmgled 
^o such a degree that an eye witness, an officer of Hooker's 
division, states that corps, division, brigade and regimental 
staff officers were stationed at certain points to disentangle the 
snarled skein and reassemble under their proper commanders, 
in designated localities, the armed and uniformed flood which 
was flowing multitudiuously and incoherently to shelter itself 
under the broadsides of the gunboats.f 

■ 'As to condition of roads and line of retreat, "dm narrow ]>ata" (Major W 

B "sgate), etc., see SnMNBK'e Teslinxonj; ■•S^mrt (f OOmmttlee en Me ConUvctt^ 

the War," fB.n 1. 1,365; Compare QsaBLBi U, 167, Teit and Sotea; Prof. Johb Wii> 
lAASDRiesa'a " ClfU War la Atnerka," 11, 414 and 416. quoting very strong language 
from the "'Stporl (f iM Comndttes oa the Coiuivet qf ihe War ;" Elakb'b " Three 
Years in the Army," 118, etc. ; - Dk Tbobbiaho, l^TB, paja well: "There (on Harri- 
son's FLantalion) the Army rallied itself like a ^pwrselced creai ; Ihie army which had 
sccotaplished its owa saliation of ilself and despite of every obstacle ; " Chaplain 
Mark's "Peninsula Ctoyjoij^n," aW; Chaplain Cudwoeth's ~ First Masiadmsetis," 833 1 
HaRPBB's " Hlst/^ rif Vie Great JJefteffion," 371 (1), etc.; Cooke's " Stobehali Jack- 
bos, a MHUarg Biography^' S57, etc. ; M^or-Qeneral Babnabd's "Feninmlar Cam- 
paign," Note 2! (to page 47), page 97. 1 3, etc., et«. 

t " The great battle of Malvern Hill was fonght jast to the dghtof ne, and I can eafel; 
say that I have never yet heard any thing like the thnnder of the artillery on tliat day ; 
it was one Ion", Incessant Kill ; viltea ice left the }>lace. the regiment) were leaving in a 
panic ; wagons, sfc* and «wijuied, ariSikry, oB In one Jumffo. ' Colonel Hibau ' 
(DnBTGA) vHmitl not tt^ us into such a disorffonitsed mass, and tee waited /iff" (he road to 
clear : he laid hewotild rather face the whole 8(mthem Confederacy than take his regiment 
into that rabble : and he backed his word by marching ns down the road toward the rebel 
position, and there we were obliged to stay trntll the road was clear enongh to march 
on and keep oar order. We oxperionced that day the hardest marching we have yet 
seen; in mod knee deep, fording streams to our middle, raining in torrents, and no 
place to eitdowu, unless we coDld sit in slosh afoot deep; and, to add toonr mlsfor- 
Innes, there was a hard ellppety bottom under the layerof slush, which made It as difS- 
cult to walk as if we were on ice, and we were continnally Miing down. Everybody 
and everything was wet throngh, and all tired out and half dead with the continued 
fatigue we had gone through,"— Soiaiers' Letters, edited by LmtA Minturn Post, pages 

" The battle was followed by a dark and stormy night, hiding the agony of thonaands 
who lay on the Mood-stained slopes of Malvern Hill, and in the copses and woodlands 
beyond. The rain came down in torrents. Neither Jackson, nor longstroet, norA.P. 
Hill, had taken part In this attack. It was made by D. H. Hill and Magruder. Some 
of their men slept through the tempestnons night within one hundred yards of the 
national batteries. With Ineipressiblo aptonlshmenf. when day broke, they cast their 
eyes on the hill from which they had been so fearfhlly repulsed. Their enemy had van- 
ished— the volcano was silent. Among the Confederates, everything was in the most 
dreadful confiieion. One of their Generals says: " The nest morning by dawn I went 
toaak tor orders, when I found the whole army in the ntnioet disorder; thonaands of 

>y Go Ogle 


" On the fleeing columns of the enemy," is the language of 
Chaplain Makks, " oar batteries and gunboats continued to 
fire until ten o'clock at night, throwing the sheila into the for- 
est ; for hours not a gun replied, and not even a courier darec^ 
to show himself in the open field, 

pcene of the most woeful and heart-rending confusion." 

" SBventh Day, Wednejdaj. Jnlj ad.-The retreat lo HarriBon'H I^naing, ool even in 
the awfal night that followed Ibis awfol battle, was not allotted to the national annj-. 
In leas tban two hours aflar tbo roar of the conflict bad ceased, ordere were given to 
resume the tetisat and march to HarriBon'B Landing. At mia'Mijft' lAe utterly exhavsled 
toldieri mere gr^H!/ IMr staggering w(ci/,al(mgaroiia Ofscrilied ae deejiende, in aUthe 
flOfj^iston i^fafieeina and touted army. There was but one narrow pass tlrougli which 
the armj conld retreat, and, though the distance was only seven miles, it was not until 
the middle of the neit daj that Harrison's Lauding was reached. The mnd was sctn- 
ally ankle deep all over the ground. The last of the wagons did not reach the selected 
site nntil after dark on the 3d of July. Tbo roar guard then moved into their camp, and 
everything was secure. The paralyzed Confederates made a feeble pnrBUil, and, on tbo 
6th, went back to Eichmond. Not without profound reluctnnce was the order to con- 
tinue the retreat to Harrison's Landing obeyed. General Ee*bny, than whom there 

officers r " I, Philip Kkaiwt, an old Bolaler, enter my solemn protest against this order 
lo retreat. We ought, Instead of retreating, to follow up the enemy and take Richmond. 
And, in full view of ail the responsibility of such a declaration, I say to you all that such 
an order can only be prompted by cowardice or treason." The French princes left the 
army early the nest morning; its condition was to all appearances desperate. They 
went on board a steamer, and 600a after departed for the north. The Committee of 

the army from Malvem to Harrison's Bar was very precipitate. The troops, upon thefr 
arrival there, were huddled together in ^reat confusion, the entire army being collected 
within a space of about three miles along the river. No orders were given the first day 
tor occupying the heights which commanded the position, nor were troops bo placed as to 
be able to resist an attack in Jbrca by the enemy, and nothing hut a heavy rain, thereby 
preventing the enemy fKim bringing np their artillery, saved the array from destruc- 
tion." There bad been sent to the Peninsula alwut one hundred and siity thousand men 
(150,500), On the 33 of July, alter this great army had reached the protection of the 
gunboats at Hatrieon's Landinir. McClellah telegraphed to the Secretary of War. that ho 
presumed he bad not " over 50,000 men left with their colors." Hereupon President Lin- 
coln (July Tth) went to Harrison's Landing, and found that there were about 96,000 men 
there. ■ *. • Thus ended the great, the lU-starred, the melancholy Peninsula eipedition. 
It had no presiding genius, no controlling mind. There was an incredible eingglehneea 
in the advance ; it actually gave the Confederates time to pass their Conscription Law 
and Tiring their conscripts into the fleld. The magnificent army, which had been ci-gan- 
Ized with so much pageantry at Washington, and moved down Chesapeake Bay with 
so much pomp, bad sickened in the dismal trenches of Torktown, and left thonsande 
npOQ thousands in the dark glades and gloomy marshes of the blood-stained Ohlcka- 
homlny. It is the testimony of the corps commanders that they were left as heft they 
might to conduct the fatal retreat. The General was importunately demanding of the 
government more troops, never using all that he had. Countless millions of money had 
been wasted; tens otthnusands of men had been destroyed. From the inception of the 
campaign to its end, military audacity was pitted gainst military timidity, prompttieas 



" The battlu was over, but the caimonadiiig stil! continued, 
and shells and balls of every kind tore through the wooda in a 
oeaseless whirlwind of fury. In the mean time, thousands of 
Confederates fled in the wildest disorder from the scene, and 
Md themselves in swamps and hollows ; soldiers without guns, 
horsemen without caps and sworda, came to the hospitals in tho 
battle field of Glendale, ' two and a half miles from Malvern,' and 
reported that ' tlieir regiments and brigades were swept away, 
and that they alone were escaped to tell the tale.' It is one of 
the strangest things, in this week of disiisters, that General 
McCleulan ordered a retreat to Harrison's Landing, six miles 
down the James liver, after we had gained so decided a victory. 
When this or<ier was received by the impatient and eager 

Bgainat pFocraetJoatioD, and the repnlt could not be otber thim it vm. The Confeder- 
ates it ContreTUle, In iuforior nnmbers. sad in contemptible works, h^ld McOi.eli.ui 
at bay. Tbey did the same st Torkkiwn. though he had much more than tea tiroes 
their strenBtli. -Prof. DHiPBR'B " djnl War itt ATnerica,'" vol. II, page 413, etc 

■' The countrj- In the vicinity of Harriaou'a Landing has been aptly termed the "Eden 
of Virginia;" bnt, when the army of MoCiKLnAK gathered ilaelf togethet the morning 
after the terrible battle of Malvern Hill, and moved toward the Landing, the ripening 
fielde of wheat and com, In aU their golden Inxariance. were trampled under foot. Hnd 
the boftntlfU! picture of plenty and peace paased like a mirage from the view, and, before 
the night of that day, the acene that presented itself defiea de»cripUon. It wae a deso- 
late Bight to behold tha remnant of that once splendid Army of the Potomac huddled 
together nndor the pelting storm, without abelter, without food, knee-deep In mud, 
weary and osbaneted, vainly eaeking a dry spot wlereon to stretch their sore and tired 
limbs. In aplte of the diacomforla of that day, one could scarce forbear »mtllDg as he 
beheld the soldiers plodding their way through the mnd. A step, and down they would 
go, leaving ahoea and boota ttehlnd them with placid resignation, knowing that it was 
nseleSB to struggle, and finally sinking from sheer eihanstion. Millione' worth of prop- 
erty waa destroyed upon the routo. In the fields, w^ous and commisaary stores of all 
kinds were piled together andburned, to prevent them from fklling into the bands of the 
enemy. Barrels of angar, coffoo, pork, rice, beans, and boxes of bread, were reckleaaly 
flnnginlo the road, or piled in maaseB and sotflre to. Public and prtvate stores shared 
the same fate. The luinries of the general were finng into the same blaze that con- 
was the order of the day, and everything that conld not be transported waa given over 
to the destroying element. 

When the soldiers witneased thia dire deatraction, they conld no longer donbt 
the mai-nitnde of their misforthne. Those hnming pilea were significant of defeat, 
and they turned their eyes, sad and displnted. In the fllreetion of the Landing, where 
were gathered tho transports that were Boon, they supposed, to take them from the 
Bcenea of their great disasUira. 

The rebel army were, however, in a far worae condition than onrsolvea. They 
were actually starving, and, fortnnately for ns, in the langnage of the Prubslan officer, 
Colonel EsTVAN, " they had no army with which lo pnrsne ne." Officers of every grade 

aboard the transports.— MeSiBABi's " Irish Sinih Massadfuseits" vol. 1, page 109, etc. 



army, const«mation and amazement ovei'whelmeil our patriotio 
and ardent host. Some refused to obey the command. General 
JMakitsdalk shed tears of shame. Even {Gbkei.ey 11, 167, [43 j) 
Trrz Joii2{ Poetek's devotion to his chief was lemponiniy 
shaken by this order, which elicited his most indignant protest." 

After the final clinch on the bloody slope of Malvei-n Hill, 
when the enemy recoOed, bleeding and crushed, from the 
unbroken and defiant Union line, Kbaent felt, through every 
fibre of his spirit, that a swift advance would have crushed the 
exhausted rebel force, and, by the seizure of its capital, dealt the 
Rebel Governmeut a death blow. The failure to seize any of 
these opportunities extorted from "the brave and chivalrous 
Keaent " the memorable words attributed to him in more than 
one popular history, which were uttered in the presence of several 
officers : " I, Philip Kearny, an old soldier, enter my solemn 
protest against this order for retreat. We ought, instead of 
retreating, to follow up the enemy and take Richmond; and, in 
full view of all the responsibility of such a declaration, I say to 
you all, such an order can only be prompted by cowardice or 
treason." * 

And, with all, hopelessness and despair succeeded the flush 
of triumph. In silence and gloom our victorious army com- 
menced retiring from an enemy utterly broken, scattered and 
panic stricken. 

And, when there was not a foe within miles of us, we left our 
wounded behind to perish, and any one witnessing the wild 
eagerness of oar reti-eat would have supposed that we were in 
the greatest peril from a vigilant and triumphant enemy. 

Up to the time when this chapter was actually in hand, many 
seriously doubted if that excellent man, Chaplain Maeks, had 
recorded the exact language used by Kbahhy, and the writer, 
in a previous brief biography of Keaent, expressed the follow- 
ing opinion :t " During the remainder of that ill-stari'ed and mis- 


GuKOwaKi. ] 

qnoting Or 


■ II,"lOT (4 
I PeonByh 

3,45); r 


inanJa Cam- 

LAS, he do 


.r Injnetice. 


The optnionB hereiD 

t. or tstlB. McClillah 

prejndlca agali 
eipreased are 

us I McClel- 
tonndod on 

ing if KraesiiKE is 



managed campaign (2d-25th June), General Keaeny did his 
daty, and more than hia duty, on all occasions ; but his spirit 
was fettered, and his hopes damped, by a growing disbelief, at 
first in the capacity, and at length in the loyalty, of the com- 
manding general. By loyalty, Keaknt could not have intended 
to convey the idea that McClkllatj was false to the Union ; for, 
if he had done so, he would have been found, like too many 
othere, in the ranks of the rebels in the field, or their abettors 
at home ; nor could he, as he is reputed (erroneously, I believe), 
to have in any way refiected on the personal courage of hia 
commander ; but, as an officer remarked, on reading the charge 
reported by Makes and Stphbk, and quoted elsewhere, he did 
Dot seem morally brave enough to 'go in ' like Gka2(t, and 
Shekman", and Thomas, and Rosecbans, and Shehidan, and 
' fight the thing out ' then and there, being deluded with the 
idea of the possibility of conciliating the rebels. He was, too, 
infected with the genius of what Kapoleos styled mezzo-termine 
(half measures), by Fbedkeic, 'haggling' to fight and drive 
them to the wall, which was the only fighting susceptible, then 
or ever, of securing speedy and assured victory." 

Since then, however, an officer of high rank in the regular 
ariny stated he was by at the time, and that Kbaeny made use 
of the same language attributed to him by Chaplain Masks. 
When the order was brought to Keakny, ho became so excited 
that '' he went on like a wild man " at the idea of a victorious 

Alma (Invasion (f the Crimea, IL 32, *0, M, ow. ; Major-General (B. A.) Georoe Beij.'b 
•■Stm^A Notes 0/ an Old Soldier," 11, IS3-181. etc.); or tlie AroMnko Chshles afler 
Aspom : or CHiniKS Albbbt after hia sncceaaoB at the opening of the Campaign ot 
lSt8 in Italy; or the Carllal General Gobeb when he forebore to enter Madrid, in 183T 
fHKSDEHsoN'a "Soldier qf Three §ueEns," vi. 4«) ; or any otlier general — and there 
have been bondreda equally guilty — who let " I dare not wait npon, I would." (Com- 
parB KiMOSLiKB II. 1B6 ; Toblsbeh I. 357 ; EiBoaLAKB n. 113-189, etc.) The encceas- 
f\il generalB of liiatorj ate tlioee who wooed Fortune aa the experienced Lotelace 
skilled in tJie wiles and daring ot conquest, and hj audflcfty and even pitiless aggrea- 
ston convert defeat— aa did BiUTA Anna Ma crowning vlctorj over the Spaniarda — 
into sictorj* It le not phyaical courage that wins the great priiea of glory, liul that 
morsl power (KiNnsLiKE II. 5S7), which by marvelona triumphB over phyaical proBtra- 
tion, by omnipotent wHl and akill, like the fearlefe eurgeon, cut to wltiln a hslrbreadth 
of deadly peril and wrest life and the fUtnre, as it were, from death. (RmosuEB II. 
413.) The OTSr-cacitioua operater deals like MoClellan; the reoponsibillty-assumlug 
Morr or CiBKOOBiN, like EEiKKT, Thomj.9, Gh«nt, SHEHroiH, Bluchkb, Sbydlptz, 
Fkedebic and other godlike parallels, eaamples ot Imitatora. 

>y Go Ogle 


army abandoning the field to a flying foe, and, in spite of every 
effort to restrain him, he gave vent to bia indignation in sen- 
tences, of which the one quoted was the most severe. Reference 
to his letters would lead to the just conclusion that Keaksty 
never meant cowardice, as it ia generally understood, but that 
mental quality which ruined Archduke Chables, and often 
springs from a mistaken view of policy or unwillingness to 
assume responsibility. Those who object to the forcible elocu- 
tion of passion, excited by wrong, not to self, but to country, 
should recollect that even the cold temper of Washington was 
roused to violent invective by the conduct of Lee at Monmouth, 
The following order shows Keaent did not think himself 
beaten : 

GENEa.iL Orders No. 21. — Brave eomradea, as one of your generals, who 
has aharod in your petila, so I sympathize in your oheera for victory when I 
pass. The name of this division is marked. Southern records are full of you. 
In attack yon have driven them ; when assailed you have repulsed them. Ba 
it so to the end. New regimenta : we give you a name; engraft on it fresh 

Comrades in battle, let our greeting be a cry of defiance to our foe; after 
the fight, one greeting of victory for ourselves. This done, remember that, 
like yourselves, I have ray dnliea of lahor, iu which I must move unobserved, 
as a true brother in hand and heart of this our Warrior Division family. Sue- 
cess attend you. 

Few officers had more skill than General Keabsy in develop- 
ing high esprit ch corps among men, so that every one in his 
command felt the honor of the division to be a personal trust 
committed to him. At first, his men wore a red patch ; after- 
ward, a device in the fonn of a Greek cross, called the Kearny 
cross. Such was the spirit, pride and discipline of his troops, 
that a Kearny cross became a sign of good character and a 
badge of honor, and every wearer of it seemed imbued with the 
spirit of their general's motto; 


ition, that, at the close of the battle on the 
era w»re bconght from General Heihtzki/. 




gnged the akiimisfaSTS o 
rhe brigades of General 
naWdllj- aenl {Orward In 

ilnesa In boldlns ttia ra 


FTTKO (KeabsVs) 

















»wL. ' : == 




















sm " ;: — - 











Bri|7n(Htr-l3cnfra! dmntandina Tfttrd Ctoi^ij, I 



































Brtsadler-Qeneriii Oynimandinu Dl 





















m. »....a™.i."' iSKSf. . . 







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Ontlie IwenW-eighUi of June, at miaalghttlrecelvea orders topreparet 
Toil Oa1i& Thia waa eieculed at alx a. u., Tegularly and without annoyani 
appeardng with distrust as we left, wLtliout preeanie. Mj dlvlaioD tben took i 
In the very etrongly tortlfied camp near Savage's. In the afWrnoon we rf 
aeaJn to retire actoBstheWhitfl Oat Swamp. This I eieouWd by the back (t 

>y Go Ogle 


pose of 


nting Ihe ene 


<m huirflng us 
hlmaelt. His r 

1. ColO! 




<wud tbe last, 

guard b 




^be Wl 

lit* Oak Swam 

P bridge 

■I'a Ford might 



josb) croaalng s 


':,T'-For3, ttor 

ee miles below j 

the Cmual it 

Barles aty reiu 


itloned gainst 

a arrlTlne ftoi 

B3 tliewmiam 

1 BlBHBV, with 



meral Bebbi t 



.,andlt iHlng 

malicfll whBthi 



■d It full enga 


t, after flsucees 



b of the 

advanced picke 

the Charles atr road, a space of near two nad a half miles. 

In taking op my Une of baf Ue. General Bobinson. with tho Firs! Brigade, was posted 
on (be left ; his left on the New Market road aupparting Thoupsok'b Battery, General 
BiRNBir divided tlie distance with him to the Charles aty road. General Bkbrv was In 
reserve. General Sloccu was to the right of my Hoe of battle ; Oeneral MCOail to Its left. 

P. «. it seemed to be fully developed ; but, as I code over to visit It, 11 did not seem to me 
to be unduly threatening, further than ftom the shape of his line— Its left greatly reflised— 

literally swept the slightly felling open apace wltJi the nompletest execution, and mowing 
tliem down by ranks, would cause the survivors a, momenlary bait ; but almost Instanlly 

alone be ehecked In their eareer by the gaps of the fWlen. KtUl no retreat : and again a 

attack, there must have been ten thousand; and their loss by arililery. although borne 
with such tbrtltude, must have been unusal. It was by scores. WItli the Irrepresslblllty 

fbreats sjid charged to take them; Tbe serving of this ba 
Ita sweep of grape and shell fHglitfolly destruotlve. With 
of battle, one pressing on Ibe other. Che enemy oama ftirwai 

Id dash scorching stfeams Into their very feces ; but still on the broken ftag- 
e firing of the artillery ceasefl, and muakot and bayonet were left to decide 



plLshed by the detarmlued cliacge uid rapid volleTS of Uiis foot. Tbe enemy, attbe uiu^ 

been gained, the Slxty-lhlnl PennsylTiuiia wag ordered to "lie low," and the battorj- once 
more reopened lis ceaseless work of aestmotion. 

the enemy hetofeened hia efforts as passed, by convertLng hts charges lolo an ordinary line 
flght of musketry, embrai^ng the whole ftont of the brigade. (Or. by this period, he wna 
enabled lo do ao, ftom Thompson'b pieces haying left the field after eipendlng ihelr grope 
and becoming tired of the ihtility of ronnd shot. 

It may have been then half-jjast seven p. m., fiiil day-ltght remained, and anticipating 
that the enemy, toiled in the attempt to carrj' the New Market road and adjacent open 

that my flttentioB was called there. I therefore left everything progreaslng ateadiiy on 
the left, and Tialted the entire line lo the right, notwithstandhig Ihat the line waa long, 
and that no reaerves (eioepting the weak Third Michigan) eiiatad. Theoheerthl manner 
and Bolld look of BiBHEV's-brlgiWle gave assnranoe of their readiness to bemeaaured with 

Half an hoar or torty minutes may have been thos passed. I then returned lo the 
extreme left of my line. ArrlTlng theri, i found that Colonel Eavs bad been relieved by 

brfeade, aent to me ftom Sdiiner's Corps, and which bad reported to General Kobinson-. 
Almost in the commencement of the action, within the flrat halt hour, as I had plainly 
(breaeen and warned my anperior. General Hbibtbelban, and General HirHPEHKYii, 

or in position or in close support. The Eighty-seventh New York Volunl*ec5 had been 
ordered byOeneral HEirrraKLiiAN to Brackett's Ford, and the Tirst New York Voiun- 

trophy o 

no of bis colors. 



lis positian 



its place, that b 

yom my right. 



«Aij,'a position aba- 

,y. I placed in i 

New Jersey Brigade. 

a true hands. 1 


that whilst the enen 

jrdlnary muskei 

rendered densei 


H-ky fogs of the amol 



parapet. Galloping 

back to fin 

n order, aroumstances denied this delay: accordingly I 

fled; rallying three several tlmea with fresh reintora 
until great heaps of their dead were lying like moun 



them to Bcaroe two hupdred to a reglineat, oblige me to jn 
decisive momenta. Still, they will not be repressed, and the I 
Fairbanks, was the first to poraue the eBemy. I regret, fii 

n nothing re^menta of the highest m 

to the action of mr artillery <Bflttery O, Sedoiid United Slates Artillery), it ha 
eqnaJfld for rapidity and prMiaion of Are, and coolaeas amidac great loss of n 

(Signed) P. KEABNY, 

Sriaadlcr-Oeaeral Oimmanding aJiJni D, 

IsiUlnnl ^(yufoiitOimerat Third Otrps. 







si lis tlie;Irs? recipiBnl. Hegalnedit at Edge mil."— General CUBX'B '•IMes oj 
Tt." 1611-1875. VoL 11, B72, Otirma CaoawKlL 

>y Go Ogle 



Although this work appears lat« in the autumn of 1869, it 
waa written in the Rummer of 1868, and the preceding chapters 
were in pnnt soon after. Had it been prepared at a later date, 
many of the views presented would have been much modified, 
but not in favor of the Commander-in-Chief who threw away 
his chances with as prodigal and reckless a defiance of Foitune 
as if the goddess had been inextricably chained to his chariot 
wheels, or as subservient to his will as Ariel to Prospero, 
When this work was finally passing through the press, May, 
1869, the writer visited Richmond for no other purpose than to 
examine the battle-fields around that city, where the Union 
leader of 1861-2 seemed desirous of surpassing the "Host 
Waster" of the Thirty Tears' War and elevate the worst 
miscarriage of the Slaveholders' Rebellion to a par with the 
failure before St. Jean de Losne in 1636. 

One of the party was an officer who served meritoriously in 
the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, and recognized these battle 
grounds as familiar scenes. All agreed that however a critic 
might have condemned McClbllan from official documents, 
nothing could have made that general's weaknesses so apparent 
as a visit to his line of positions along the Chickahominy. Or 
as one said, who had predicted his miscarriage, " he had never 
been so satisfied of McClellan's insufficiency* as to-day." 

Any one who will start out from Ricbmoiid on the Mechanics- 
ville pike, and make a ciicuit of the positions assumed by the dis- 
poser of the Army of the Potomao in May-July, 1862, any one, 
whether he be tyro or expert, laic or initiate, wUl return into the 
Rebel capital overwhelmed with the conviction that the plan of 
swinging into Richmond with the Union right, was to "take 
the bull by the horns," while, on the other hand, to " swing 
in" on the left was the correct and only course justified 
Ijy every conclusion, military, sanatory or practical, since 

• That Ihls epithet is not applied wLtiigut Buthorlty, the reader 1b referred lo The nmei" 

SwiNTOH, afterwarda Buthoc of the "OampafgnB of the Atmy of the Potomac i" Malor- 
Oeneral J. G. Baenabo-s CO. S. A.) "PeulnsiUar Campaign;" Densmw'h "Fremont 
andMcCi,BLI.AN: Their Political and Military Careers BevlBwed r and a number of oo- 
Wroporflty and anbseqoent publications in regard to the mDnrotm Peninsular feilure. 

>y Go Ogle 


" strategy is notliing more tlian oominoii sense applied to war." 
HooKEE, grand on any fieid which lie coiiid supervise ; Kearny, 
tried and tm^ on so many different fields, perfect soldier, 
admirable commander and excellent general; Heintzelman, 
honest, loyal, spirited, a capital soldier, trim-full of common 
sense; and even "worthy" Sumnek, all indicated the left as 
the point of vantage, and begged to be permitted to push in 
on that wing. Then, in May, up to the middle of June, there 
were no defensive works of any consequence, if any, on that 
front, and the natural disposition of the ground favore an assail- 
ant from the southeast and south of Richmond. This was 
admitted to the writer in that city. After advancing over a 
flat, certainly as advantageous for an aggressive as a defensive, 
the country becomes more open and subsides, in rolls, down 
into the suburbs of the Rebel capital, which lies uncovered at 
the met'oy of batteries on a high hill just south of it. From 
this hill the Union troops could hare shelled the city with ease. 
Along the Willnmsburg road, indeed, there are comparatively 
fall open fields to fight over, although in some directions, it is 
trie, it IS almjst a wilderness up to within three roiies of the 
city limits, and if those limits were correctly indicated by the 
drner even nearer on the east-southeast, where the largest 
of the five National Cemeteries is located (that which contains 
the victims of Lee's cold, apathetic, and Davis' concentrated 
barbarism, at Belle Isle and the Richmond city prisons), there is 
sheer fighting ground. This is two miles from the Rebel capi- 
tal, and near the Turnpike Gate and Oak-Grove-Family-Storo 
(1869). In this direction, and within this circle, the ground is 
broken, often favorable and never unfavorable to an assailant. 
When Heiittzklman's Corps, Keaent's and IIooker's Divi- 
sions, advanced on the 25th June and fought the " affair of 
THE PEACH orchard,"* McCLELLANf said, theso troops " are 

applied the muue bacfluse lliere were some peMb trees heceaboots, but pMCleulacly to 
dUllngulah it fmm tJie boltle of Seven Pines and pair Oats on theprecedlni aist May-lst 
are hurabup, aa much as tba god-tike attrtbutes of Ihe Rebel and tJie Napoleodfc glfta o^ 

>y Go Ogle 


■wlierc I want them." At that time Kearny and IIookek 
were pushing ahead gallantly down the Williamsburg road, 
and the latter went within four miles of Richmond. And 
Kbakny, properly supported l)y the troops in that quarter, 
could have gone in with ease had the Commander-in-Chief so 
willed it. 

And here, before turning from this quarter, where every 
thing invited success, the reader may desire to know what is 
the aspect of this portion of the country east and southeast of 
Richmond. To the New Yorker, as a rale, it appears to be a 
wilderness of scrub and jungle springing up from whitish or 
red Band or loam, recalling Eastern Long Island before industry 
and judgment took hold of its " barrens " and converted them 
into prolific fields. 

In the neighborhood of the " Coo! Arbors," or " Cold Har- 
faoi-s," " New " and " Old," between which there is a National 
Cemetery, it seems a desolate, poverty-stricken, almost unin- 
habited district. In May, 1869, one very extensive water- 
melon patch looted like a large field of white sea-sand blown 
into little ridges or ripples by tho wind. With the exception 
that the hUls were crested with sparse sprouts instead of marine 
wire grass, it resembled one of those flats lying just within the 
Dunes along the Long Island coast of the Atlantic. 

Through this wilderness, bare or tangled, and a deep and 
wide depression filled with rank vegetation, amid much lofty 
timber mingled with lowland trees, such as swamp oak, willow 
and black gum — a tree with a leaf like the maple and a bark 
like the cork or rock -oak — steals the Chickahominy. Like a 
venomous and treacherous reptile it serpentines, along the 
marshy flat, almost unobservable within the dense foliage which 
screens its subtle course. In its rage it suddenly swells like 
the deadly Cobra snake, hisses and lifts its augmented volume 
filling tho bottom land. And then, shrinking back into its chan- 
nel, or rather its lair, it leaves its borders covei-ed with a poi- 
sonous slime for the sun to convert into the deadliest effluvia, 
augmented by the decay of a rank vegetation fed by the muddy 
overflowing of the river — a miasma almost as fatal as the blast 

>y Go Ogle 


which smote the army of the Assyrian — a miasma which stung 
the Army of the Potomac and consigned so many of our thou- 
sands to graves along its dark shores, or left them infected to 
suffer on for years, or to fill at home the unnoticed graves for 
which their bodies had been prepared by needless exposure. 

Such was the fearful obstacle — the Chickahominy and its 
Bwampa — which McClellan interposed between his army and 
its objective, through his willfnl adherence to a plan which 
Les-coln's telegi-am of the 4th April should have demonstrated 
was no longer feasible. Thereupon a clearsighted man would 
have comprehended that he must depend, or at all events base, 
his calculations upon the means which he had on hand and upoa 

On the 5th May, the vietoiy of Williamsburg opened the 
direct road to Richmond; on the llth the self-immolation of 
the Merrimac cleared the direct ronte by water to that city and 
permitted tlie army to have a base, following it, npon the James, 
whither, after all, McCleleajt was compelled, or deemed that 
he was necessitated, to fall back. That McClet-i^n ^id not 
perceive liia true line of advance, was either because ho could 
not or would' not see things as they were, and seemed to be 
persistently determined to base his plans on things as he would 
or did see them, and as no one else did or could see them. His 
continual over-estimate of the Rebel force in his front is ^nc 
great proof of this fact, among many other attestations. 

A fair deduction frona. the consideration of the Peninsular 
Campaign from different stand-points is, that the commanding 
general was not up to the time or to his people. In that people's 
over-estimate of men they were alone false to their superiority 
to every other people of the present or past time. 

The proneness to exaggeration of which the human mind 
ia susceptible, is generally displayed in the greatest degree 
by the estimate put upon the military ability or prowess of 
an individual, or a nation, after a great success or a victory. 
This was particularly so in regard to the French after their 
Revolutionary successes. It amounted to almost a siipersti- 
tious awe, which it was deemed in vain to combat.* It was 

>y Go Ogle 


not until the Old Bluchee toppled over several of these 
traditional heroes and traversed the plans of even' Napolbos, 
■wiping out his "Army of the Bober," that men began to obtain 
again anything like " level heads " as to the fabulous French 
invincibility. So it was likewise in the Thirty Years' War in 
regard to the Old Corporal Tilly and his Veteran Tercios. It 
required a battle at Leipsic, and the still more wonderful passage 
of the Lech, to dispel the illusion, and the Swedes rose to fill 
the place relinquished by the beaten Imperialists and Bavarians. 
And thus, in like manner, nothing but a Jena could have shaken 
the faith of Europe in the armies which Fkedekic " the Nonpa- 
reil" had evoked and embattled; This ti-uth holds good more 
particularly as to McClellan, -who soared to greatness on a 
fictitious fame for West Virginia " baby iights," in which the 
real hero Roseceans, to whom they wei-e due, was ignored. 
That the first reverse at Bull Run did not depress our people 
more than it did, is one of the best proofs of the calm equipoise 
of Northern courage. Any other people would have been over- 
awed by the victory attributed to Southern valor, and, as such, 
trumpeted forth by prejudice as an evidence of SoutJiern superi- 
ority. That the North shook off the incubus sought to be 
imposed upon it, demonstrates that a Free and Educated people 
are insensible to the superstitious influences of the Old World, 
even as our American children are insensible to the fear of 
bogies and ghosts so terrible to the early life of other days and 

On the other hand, there are abundant indications in almost 
everything he said, wrote or did, that Kbaeny was ahead of 
bis surrouodinws and alive to the exigencies of the hour. Take, 
for instance, his conception of the necessity or influence of a 
distinctive badge, the " Keabsy Cross," or, more properly 
speaking, the Kearny Patch, The Cross was an afterthougiit 
of BiKNET, whereas the original Patch, or Diamoxd, from first 
to last, designated the Third Corps, whether while it remained 
a unit or afterward became a fragment, since the two divisions 
of this corps were first consolidated, in 1864, into one, which, 
while still retaining the distinctive badge of the Third Corps, 

>y Go Ogle 


bocame the third Division of the Second Corps, and, as such, 
continued up to the end under the command of Major-General 


Tliis matter of the Kbaknt Patch may seem to one of little 
consequence, but it is almost impossible to estimate its moral 
effect. At the battle of Bristow Station, Wareen acknowl- 
edges that numbers of stragglera who had been forced to fall 
out by reason of physical incapacity to keep up — not moral 
■weakness from unwillingness to " go in " — joined themselves to 
his command, and did their duty faitlifully. Estimating from 
causes and effects, according to the ordinary rale of judgment, 
Wabbbn was indebted to Keaksy for the assistance which he 
received on that occasion by those who wore that patch. 

According to officers of the Third Corps on the Peninsula, 
Keaent, about the time of the battle of Fair Oaks, directed 
his officers to wear a red patch or diamond as a distinguishing 
mark. As there were no red goods on hand for this purpose, 
Kearny gave up his own red blanket as material for these 
patches. Soon after, the men, of their own accord, cut pieces 
of the red lining out of their overcoats to make similar distin- 
guishing marks for themselves. Simultaneously with the idea 
of thspale/i for the officers, Kbarhy adopted a plain red flag 
to indicate his Division Headqaait«rs ; and soon afterwards 
Hooker assumed a simple blue flag for his, the second Divi- 
sion of the Third Corps. Although application has been made 
to different parties who served with or beside Keaent for more 
deflnite particulars, none but the following has been received. 
Keither did advertisements inserted in the newspapers inviting 
cooperation meet with a more satisfactory result. That the 
idea of the Patch or Corps Badge originated with General 
Keakhy, no one disputes or even doubts. The writer either 
received a letter from Genera! Birnby to this effect, in the Fall 
of 1862, or else some other friend transmitted to him a news- 
paper slip, both of which have either been lost, stolen or mis- 
laid. If spared, they lie amid a mass of similar documents 
and papers whose arrangement was intrusted to an incompetent 
clerk, who made confusion worse confounded. 

>y Go Ogle 


At all events, the idea of a division or corps badge ■wbich, 
first suggested itself to the practiced and practical mind of 
Keaent, although it owes its simple introduction to him, its 
after development is eqaally due to Major-General Buttickfield, 
when he became Chief-of-Staff of the Ai-my of the Potomac, in 
the Spring of 1863, His plan was finally perfected and. intro- 
duced by Major-General Hooker while in command of that 
glorious army.* This last distingnished officer deserves far 
more credit than he has ever received for many improvements of 
the highest utility in almost every branch of the service, but par- 
ticularly the staff, cavalry and artillery. In fact, the cavalry may 
be said to owe to him its first impulse in the rapid advance to that 
organiKation and efficiency, which soon afterward, under that 

iH df&igiiatlon, and adopts It. 

jrps, he.gave the <^rcle; SecoDd Corps, trefbll ; Third Ck>rpa. d 

tese croBa; sixth Corps. GiMlan erosB; Eleventh Co 

3dnigTiatedb;colors— red, white uid bine res pi 

B badges were to be notn, emblems of his thouehttuine 

of the conflict m. 
JOnm Ei 

Srmtt Coiona U. S. FMa. 



model cavalry officer, Major- General Alfred Pleasonton, ren- 
dered it so far superior to the boasted mounted troops of the 
South and finally a model of the practical serviceableness so 
admirably brought to bear by the able and gallant Shekidan-. 

When this work was nearly half completed, the -writer 
received a letter from Major George H. Hickman (who, as 
Adjutant of the 99th Pennsylvania Volunteers, performed good 
service in Bihuey's Brigade, under Kearny) : 

" During the ' seven days' fight ' before Richmond, General 
Kearny saw the Decessity of having some distinction mark by 
■which the officers and men of hia division could be recognized. 
Consequently, after the arrival of the division at Harrison's 
Landing, General Keaent issued an order, July 4th, 1862, 
illustrative of his design. Officers were directed to wear a red 
patch in shape of a diamond on the crown or left side of their 
cap, while enlisted men were to wear theirs in front of the cap. 
The order was eagerly and readily complied with. 

" Upon the death of General Keaknt, and Brigadier-General 
David B. Birnby assuming command of the division, he issued 
an order September 3d, 1862, announcing, in appropriate tenns, 
the death of our General, and directing the diamond red patch 
still to be worn. Without any official order, or concert of 
action on part of officers or men, the red patches were seen 
draped in mourning. It was a noted fact, and the subject of 
remark in orders, that during the retreat from Harrison's Land- 
mg, and the several marches and carapdgne, ending with that 
of Fredericksburg, a diamond patch was a rarity among the 

" It is related that Colonel McKnight, One Hundred and 
Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers (No, 9 on the roll of officers who 
received Kearny badges), who was killed in action at Clianeel- 
loraville, on May 3d, 1863, and whose body fell into the hands 
of the enemy, being observed to have on his Kearny medal, 
was, by order of the enemy's officers, buried with due respect." 

In this connection, the following paragraph clipped from a 
paper and entitled " The Kearny ' Rod Patch,' " seems peiti- 

>y Go Ogle 






" A correspondent with the Army of the Rappahannock 
learns from reliable authority, that whenever our men arc dis- 
covered by the rebels, and they are found to have upon them 
the Kbaiiny ' Red Patch,' if wounded, they are kindly cared 
for, and if dead, they are buried with all the honors of war ; 
their graves so marked as to be readily recognized. (Colonel 
McKnight, of the One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania, was 
so buried, his body followed to the grave with a guard of honor, 
many officers being present. A band played a funeral dirge, 
while over his remains was fired the usual salute due to an offi- 
cer of his rank.)" 

" The diamond red patch became very popular, and the men 
felt proud in wearing it. The contagion spread throughout the 
array, and in January, 1863, when Hooker took command, and 
BuiTEEPiELD became his chief-of-stafi; the general system of 
designating was adopted thi'oughout the army. 

" Our division being the First Division of the Third Corps, 
General Buttbrfikld, in his orders, directed that the color of 
the corps marks of the First Division should be red ; Second 
Division, white ; Third Division, blue. In thus making the 
selection, he allowed our division to retain its color, and thus 
made, in that respect, all the others subservient to it."* 

After KuAiyoY fell at Chantilly, his successor and imitator in 
the command of his division adopted what has been styled the 
" Keakst Cross." Kbaeny's own " battle-flag," presented by 
BiRNBY, is still preserved among the " Memorials of the War," 
in the collection of the Philadelphia Loyal League Club. It is 
folded in such a manner that no one can discover whether it 
is plain or bears any distinguishing mark in the centre, f 




ODd or loiengB. 



,ThMi,i.lslon received! 


EE's dlstribuUo 

pa badges,. 


iMcal patch, she 



KEiHsir, aooordlne So the s 

ment of Major 

» also Uie first 

a dlTialon headquaneis flas, 

ch bore the crof 


hat suhBeqn 

lenllT received 

ne, which flag Win iheclshod 



oceeded him, a 

5 dinpliiyeil al aiTlaion headqi 

erg aloDgslde 01 

OEEB's i>rde»," 



of Philadelphia are 

Flae. placed there h7 "■* offloera 


KBiHHY'B dlTil 


, M 

is mode or 

plain red banlli 




After McCldllan had fallen from his pride of place, and his 
successor, Buknsidb, had led the Army of the Potomac down 
to Fredericksburg (to attempt the overland route, which was 
one of those suggested by Keaent,* and actually followed by 
Geant), a number of the officers surviving, representing the 
regiments which had served under Major-General Philip 
Keaksy, met at the headqviarters of the Third Brigade, First 
Division, Third Coi-ps, in the camp near Falmouth, Virginia, 
on the 29th November, 1862. At this meeting a series of reso- 
lutions were adopted, expressive of the admiration felt by those 
present for their deceased commander. And it was determined 
to procure a medal or badge, the famous Keaknt Cross, of 
wliich a representation is herein presented, and means *ere 
carefttUy devised to prevent any one from obtaining or wearing 
this badge who was not entitled to display it in consequence 
of actual service in battle under the eyes or leading of the hero 
whose motto was to be emblazoned thereon. As an evidence 
of the care which has attended their issue to the proper parties, 
only three hundred and twenty-five officers had received them up 
to the date when this chapter was prepared. These names, a 
roll of honor, have been published in a very neat pamphlet, 
issued by Ball, Black & Co., the sole manufacturers of the 
" Keabnt Medal." 

In the meanwhile, Major-General Bienbt had likewise pro- 
, cured, at his own expense, a hronzc cross, f to be worn by his 

* Compare Articles, "Brron of Ghe CatnpaM. 
" JWr. ifusicH im iAe Frciieriiktburff soute to i 
Mew Torlt Times, IsT page, Thnraday, litli I 
Opornttoiw tn Virginia, in 15«4," by Brig.-Gen 
Mugarine, May, 1309, pages 30B-313. 

tBawiBiH roBBBATKMHK.— Brigadler-l 

commana tu might aistiDguish themaelves 

>y Go Ogle 


own division, previously tliat of Keaeny, of which a faa simile 
has been presented to the publishers. The obverse, in a scroll, 
bears the words " Keabny Cross," the reverse, " Biknet's 

In .July, 1863, the lamented Bibnkt sent one to the writer,* 
from which the accompanying representation was prepared, 
while that of the Keaent medal, hadge or cross, for officers, 
was photographed from that worn by Kearny's cousin and 
volunteer aid-de-eamp on the Peninsula. 

Few simple practical ideas have ever been productive of so 
much eifeetive good as tlie Kearnt Patch. Its introduction 
developed an amount of emulation which was productive of the . 
most glorious results. Nor was Bienet's liberality less remu- 
nerative in its incontivo to discipline and valor. Those who 
were fortunate enough to be entitled to the more beautiftil and 
costly Kearny medal, display them with a pride which is suffi- 
cient testimony of the love and veneration entertained for the 
brave and ahle soldier, in whose memory they were adopted 
and are worn. 

DTtngtbe oaatinniuico of the memoinble tlgbt Hi Frederlcfesbitrg. Tha 
Briga4e Orderly ? ) bad three horses sbot down under blm. II Is sacb 

fature dispoaaL— JT^wj^optr iV^ 
JUjf dear Oijieral: 
(ICQABN7) aul also of Fbbps 

I send you the Medsl, a very simple aBBir : but In giyiug a thousand at my own eipenae 
I had to be governed by econoinlcBl views, to a certain e.tent. However, I trust that It 
will please you and his ftmlly. 

have been ad^edaknce KEARC^7'B deatJi. l^derlcksburg, CbaucelloFsvlUe and Gettysburg 
sent thou&andsormy gallant IVHowBlo another world. Host In those three battles, killed 

and youwDuld be satisfied with (heir enthusiasm. X inuet confess, too. participating fully 

YOU13 tnily. 

>y Go Ogle 


WUatare wcloiionextf" *' Hunt led-legged part^dges, I suppose/^ (Wel 

the striking truth embodied in Bybos's lines was ever 

n a human being, that — 

" Qaiet to quick bnaoms is a hell," 
it was so in the case of General Kearxt. Never in the whole 
course of his checkered career can it be said that he enjoyed 
tranquillity of mind. It was as impossible for him to be physi- 
cally quiet as it is for the ocean to ceaSe ttf heave, or to be 
mentally at rest as it is for the air to pause in its circulation. 
His was a nature which was ever acting upon others and react- 
ing upon itself. His thirst for exdtement was no sooner grati- 
fied than he was possessed with a hunger for some other form oi 

>y Go Ogle 


activity to work off the tremeodous 'stimulus whioh rendered 
hira so nervous that it became an uttev impossibility to enjoy 
anytliing like repose of mind or body. Then it was that he 
would throw himself into the saddle and ride, like the Wild 
Huntsman, clearing the turnpike gates or highest fences, like 
Dick Turpin, to the outrageous disgust of bilked toll-takers or 
furious farmers, indignant at the trespass. With him it was a 
word and a blow. Only, as the old family nurse used to say, 
the blow generally came first. Indeed, it was under such 
accesses he would seize his pen and dash off those caustic let- 
ters which often grieved his friends aa much as they irritated 
the objects of his sai-casm, striking off word or pen-pictures, 
which embodied startling truths while they were invested with 
an exaggeration of bitterness which was the offspring of the 
Bame wild genius that characterized Gustave Doees' greatest 
work, his illustrations of the career of the " Wandering Jew." 
Nevertheless, with all this, Keabnt felt a perfect adoration for 
the beauties of nature, and e^ en while chafing under the inaction 
of Harmon's Linding, with our forces " boxed up like herrings," 
his letters demonstfite that he was susceptible to the charms 
of the surrounding sceneiy, and in his communications to rela- 
tives and friends at home his enthu'iiastic love of the beautiful 
found its expression in that tUent which he so eminently pos- 
sessed of writing descriptions of whit he saw, almost as vivid 
as pictures which present the object to the eye. His health 
suffered greatly at this time, and he never seemed to enjoy 
perfect health except in the Biddle, ind, in the saddle, every 
ride that he took through the campi wis a perfect ovation, such 
an ovation as that which proved to be the militaiy symphony 
that preceded the last scene of his glorious military drama. 
So constantly did these occur that he was compelled, in orders, 
to endeavor to restrain these testimonials of admiration and 
affection, the cheers and hurrahs with which the soldiers greeted 
the "Fighting General " of the army whenever he appeared.* 


>y Go Ogle 


Diemounted, hiB complaints returned upon bini with increased 
weight, almost as soon as his feet quitted the stirrups, and with 
them a depression of spirits, augmented by inaction. Then it 
■was that the "Fighting Phil. Kbaent," the "indomitalile," 
the " ubiquitous," the " heroic," became the prey of feelings 
engendered by his personal disappointments ; by tlie unsuccess- 
ful consequences of such a fearful waste of life and of resultless 
battles ; by the utter failure in his commanding general ; by 
the apparent want of appreciation of himself; and by what he 
thought himself compelled to believe, a semi-treasonable politi- 
cal creed; by a haughty disgust of the " smaJl men of small 
motives," who managed this great war. He was bitterly cha- 
grined at their incompetency to discriminate between capable 
and incapable men. This last misapprehension led him to think 
seriously that he should no longer consent to be their puppet. 
Above all this, however, an acute grief was gnawing at his 
heart, on account of the losses and almost ruin of his pet Jer- 
sey Brigade, the first from that State, which he had made, 
whose career of giory, infructuous, though so fearfally bloody, 
he had watched with the same anxiety that a parent accords to 
a sou whom he has educated himself, and sent forth to prove 
to the world the stuif which is in him, developed by the careful 
training of the best of masters. 

Nor would this work be complete did it fail to present some 
portions of General Kearny's Correspondence, which are dated 

3 ; Hfler the flght, o 

Thisc Abhv Corps, July 7, im. ! 



lever he preseiiW himself among the men of his sommand 

) bo allowed to pass quietly and unobserved. Immeaiatel. 

aiae, he has no nhjectli 


anaera of reelmentB wl 

11 please info™ IHe men ef the Qenewl'a request. 


AiBX, MOOEE,^.-*,^. ff. 


rtQvest tfi£tr men wot to eftfer Oifm! 9! Xet ueivcit** htt 



at IlaiTison's Landing. These letters, better than any other 
medium, will make the reader acquainted with the military 
character of the individual who dashed them off. Several 
are due to the preserving interest of Coetlandt Pabkek, Esq., 
to whom all who honor Kearny must feel grateful, for the care 
he has evinced in collecting so many valuable records of the 
best soldier of the period. 

" It will be more interesting, and more in accordance with 
our present purpose, to resume again the correspondence of 
General Keabnt, and thence derive our acquaintance with his 
military character, A letter of anxious inquiry has been written 
to him respecting the fate of Major Rteeson,* of Sussex, 
reported at first to have fallen. Under date of the 10th of 
July, from Harrison's Landing, he writes as follow : ' Your 
request as to Major Ryekbon's effects shall be attended to ; but 
I am glad to have it from reliable sources that he is a prisoner, 
and not dangerously though badly wounded. The siege of 
Richmond was raised, and her« we are drifting down the stream. 
How cui-ious all this verifioation of prognostications I so cor- 
rectly read, and yet feared to translate; so strangely coiTect 
have been my instincts in this ww as in previous ones. In 
Italy, in 1859, itwaS the same thing, and made mybettera some- 
times wonder; but this war is plain to those who, with expe- 
rffence, will take pains to lopk danger in the face, to leave little 
to mere hope, and r^msmber that a Southerti army can not 
afford to be idle. Ourcoming'here hifc been a most cowardly 
and unwise alternative. Th« battles on the left bank of the 
Chickahominy were mismanaged. I had been over there several 
days before, and ohserved to all around how we would be 
strategically f and tactically whipped ; attacked from an inland 

• Aft«wa 

Id Mil. 

Ml at the 

1 ■■ Wilderness " 

t '■ In tliB 

ot Ihe 91 

the close o 

third decad. 

prinolples.ot oHEnsive war hiu 



Honara). W 

netH b 

. of the Bat 

aing a s 

itruggleqf bodies of 1 

^btod sV>n. 

e walls or soma 

ea. The object aougHt 




onslr considered 

plans, >rliio 



ice 6f a campHlgn."- 


,1 Cdsi'8 "IJIva^lhe H-orrtw.," 



point not provided against, and be thrown down-liill, and tlien 
have to work up again, and be thus crippled and destroyed. 
It occurred so precisely. Then comes the fearful en-or of 
McClellan's want of nerve. Instead of instanter reducing his 
line of defense to a certain intrenched tSle-de-pont on the right 
bank, merely covering Bottom's Bridge and the Railroad bridge, 
and beyond which he never should have made a serious advance 
short of adopting an attack and mshing into Richmond by that 
side — a iSle-de-pont fully fortified and strong ; and crossing the 
night of the first, or certainly the second battle, when he could 
no longer have been deceived, all his troops, except the 10,000 
men requisite for the tSte-ds-pont, to the left bank, there to defy 
and give a general battle — and the ground was admirable for 
us ; then, in case of victory, recrossing and rushing into Rich- 
mond ; in case of defeat, retiring, as other beaten armies do, 
back along his line of communications, to his basis of opera- 
tions, be it to White House, be it to Williamsburg, be it to 
Yorktown ; thus always firm, always secure, always covering 
his own supply, always embarrassing his enemy by dravring 
them on when they have no transportation to follow, when they 
dare not leave Richmond too far. Instead of all this, as simple 
as the pursuit of the panic-stricken army running from Manassas, 
he loses head and heart, throws himself back on the shipping, 
and gulls the silly public with a hard name, namely, that bo had 
changed his base of operations. This is false, and by this time 
he knows it. Wo have no basis whatever to act on. As to 
ascending the James, when, after the successfal fight at Malvern 
Hill, he yielded the strongest battle-field that we have yet had, 
he gave to the enemy a fearfully strong position which debars 
our future advance. As to crossing the James river, that ie out 
of the question. It would result in nothing, but only the more 
endanger Washington. And now I distinctly assure you that 
there are ninety-nine chances in a hundred of Washington's 
being taken in less than fifteen days. Bat the falsity of the 
James river being a base of operations is this, that it is quietly 
known that, if there were full peace, the James river has been so 
effectively obstructed that it could not be cleared under many 
weeks; besides, gunboats are overrated. The enemy fonght 

>y Go Ogle 


very cowardly in the West, hence their success. In this reg;ion 
the rebels face full batteries on the open ground, hurting grape 
at them, and come up to the muzzles of the guns. This was 
the case on the 30th ult., on the New-Market road, where 
nothing but my so-calJed personal rashness in heading the 
Sixty-third Pennsylvania and a part of the Thirty-seventh New 
York, in leading them to the charge, saved my pieces. To me 
the most cruel thing of this war is the unhandsome attempt of 
crushing my military mastery of ray profession under the 
decrying epithets of rashness.* My best results of head would 
often fail but for the stimulus of my lead. No ; very far from 
having a base to act on, General McClellan has boxed us. 
You will soon hear of the James river being rendered impass- 
able for our supplies, and then, like drowned rats, we must soon 
come out of our holes. But it will be done with more awful 
sacrifices of useless because avoidable battles. We are fortify- 
ing hero again, unnecessarily so. It breaks the hearts of the 
soldiers, gives them the idea that they can not win fields, and 
yet, in a few days, sooner or later, we will have to burst through 
the network that the enemy are preparing around us, and, if we 
do not look out for Washington, that city will go. They 
will crush Pops, by leaving McClellan in ignorance of their 
departure, then for a foreign alliance, and good-night to the 
North, Even now McClellan's defeat will be likely to pro- 
duce this. His 'change of base' may cheat the American 
newspapers and fool the American people ; but the ignominious 
retreat, the abandonment of the sick and wounded, the aban- 
donment of stores, and loss of strategical supremacy can not 
be conc^'aled from the military eyes of France, England, nor 
elsewhere. So much for McClellan and the politicians. 

" 'P. S. — One curious fact : knowing the case of carrying off 
my sick and wounded from Fair Oaks (I sent them off early), I 
was ordered to unload them and abandon them ; but I did not. 

prl7KftpIB(?rsiiCMi5WM™-eeiTvu*ere. — Oapt. P (nneof theflnest nillltarrwcilersin 

ihta country, durlDB the years t8S»-'6 mllilary Editor of tbe Army and Navy Journal). — 



and carried them off, bat, although I had twenty empty wagons, 
waa prevented taking off those of another hospitai. Fortu- 
nately, they, too, principally got clear.' 

"I wUi not apologize," is the remark of Coetlandt PaRKEk, 
in his sketch 6f Philip Kearny, Soldier and Patriot, " for 
extracting this long letter. There is much in it to exhibit the 
peculiarities of General Kearny's character. Next to his sense 
of the disgrace inflicted npon the army at large, and the country, 
by the retreat which he so severely denounced, was his grief at 
the losses and almost ruin of his pet Jersey Brigade, upon 
whose fate he over looked with parental anxiety. ' I am sick- 
ened,' be writes in a letter of July 24th, ' by the falseness of 
the times, and the gratuitous sacrifice of the Jersey Brigade, is 
onongh to make me so. Why did not their division general go 
to command in person ? It waa his own part of the division 
( * * ), It was half of his -own provisional corps, and 
surely why not place it in the fight, even if he did no more ? 
There is some awful secret history to this * * division at 
Friday's fight, Tou will learn it in the end ; the battle which 
had been won, was lost by imbecility.' July 31st, he writes: 
' Major Ryekson ii home to tell his own story, and more have 
escajied than we counted on. I am much aifected by two cir- 
cumstances, the Ic-s of the colors of the Second regiment, and 
the suricndei of the Fourth, with scarcely a man hurt, all of 
which oply pro\es the want of confidence incident on a want 
of military management on the part of the noblest troops on 
the earth, my old brigade, in that disastrous battle of the 27th 
of June, on the Cliickahominy. General Taylor tells a sad 
story of it ; the brave Hexamek, of the battery even worse ; 
and yet McClbllan screens Poktbb, and Congress brevets 
him. As to their commanding general, I cannot understand 
how a general like him, with his legitimate division, one half 
of his command committed to fight under his own eycj in his 
very presence, and that he should have never taken charge of 
their welfare. At Williamfiburg, I engaged the enemy with 
but five regiments, and at Fair Oaks with but one brigade, and 
yet this is set down as rashness of my own person. I dislike 
to think of this, the noblest brigade in the army, frittered to 

>y Go Ogle 


shreds in a moment. How truly and honestly would I hare 
served under General Cook, had Jersey but united her soldiers 

" ' Our great anniversary is hardly past, recalling most pain- 
fully the uprising of the North at this epoch last year, till then 
mnch treachery, but not a reverse of arms. How vividly do I 
recall, in an oration I heard that day, the truthful tribute to 
General Scoir, as the only man who could have impressed with 
certain victory the mass of his conntrymen, who, had he been 
left in general control, would have mesmerieed ua with his own 
nnrivaled coiViction of succeas. But where are we now? 
Whither has gone the dignity of the finest army ever raised in 
the hemisphere, if I may not say the world ? All disappeared, 
as if wilted by the touch of some evO genius's wand. An armv 
victorious in retreat, even brilliantly so in the advance, and 
even in the false position into which it had been exposed, more 
lavish of blood than aught history presents on record; and yet 
all this timorously placed in a eid-desac of which the enemy 
holds the strings. 

"I am glad," he proceeds, " to hear you boldly mention the 
principle of drafts. Believe' me, without it, not only is tlie 
Union imperiled, but I will not answer for the existence of the 
Korth. The Southerners have long years proclaimed that they 
could of all people the best sustain a war. Is the North to 
shut her eyes to tJie past, and forget Sparta and the Helots, a 
fighting aristocracy, and the cultivator a slave? The slothful- 
ness of the North, the schisms of its politicians, the trifling of 
all — in fine, this crisis, dictated by small men of small motives, 
has developed in the South confidence, and increased venom 
and the activity of hopefulness, even more than the spasmodic 
action of despair. They have boldly launched into the experi- 
ment which Washington dared not, even for our sacred Revo- 
lution ; and they have invented the conscription, in which they 
have succeeded by terrorism, or as likely because, from our 
temporizing, the South is united to a man ; and thus from being 
weak, comparartively, in population, it is they who outnumber 
HS at present, and will do so the more each succeeding day. 
Do not be deceived by big words; w? have been blinded by 

>y Go Ogle 


them too long. Do not believe that you can stai-ve thorn \>j 
iatercepting raUroada, In the first place, the position of any 
railroad argues an unlimited concentration against the assailant, 
a speedy return to anothec quarter. But that apart, do not let 
us fiincy that if, for thirty years, all Germany was overrun by 
armies, living as they went; if that same country was more 
recently the theatre of war for twenty years of the vast forces 
of Napoleonic times, and with armies that moved with hardly a 
provision train, there is any starving an army in tlie heart of 
Virginia, where, cut what roads you may, you still have mani- 
fold branches near at hand. Besides, look out I the war will be 
carried into Egypt, and our own purae-strings will be unfastened 
with a vengeance. 

" Why we hesitate, I cannot imagine. It is fearful infatua- 
tion to wait. The people are ripe for it, as yoa remark. Of 
course they are. First, they are earnest as patriots ; and next, 
they have an instinct of the storm brewing in the horizon. 
Why the enemy leave us as long alone really embarrasses me; 
not but that it is very certain that their tremendous, nnparal- 
leled daring in facing our artillery has been attended with un- 
paralleled loss. Though successful on the Chickahominy against 
POKTEE ; unsuccesaful on the 30th of June, on the New-Market 
road ; by the spirited advance of the Sixty-third Pennsylvania 
and half the Thii-ty-seventh New York, which I led up against 
ten times onr number, who, unchecked by the ceaseless discharge 
of six pieces firing grape, nearly reached the muzzles as soon as 
ourselves; again unsuccessful at Malvern Heights, from ite 
amphitheatre shape, permitting a concentration of our over- 
numerous artillery (the only battle where it has come well into 
play), the result of all wliich was, for the moment, that they 
could no longer force their men to an immediate repetition. 1 
myself think that they can never repeat it, for it is nnusual in 
war; it is against the axioms of Napoleon as to the capabilities 
of human courage. Still, their losses, though surpassing ours, 
are more than made good," 

The same letter contains General Keaent's views on a ques- 
tion then much mooted — the employment of negroes in aid of 

>y Go Ogle 


the Union cause.* He says: "But besides drafting, it is time 
for us to deprive the enemy of tlieir extraneous engines of war. 
There is no more Sontliem man at heart than myself. I am so 
from education, association, and from being a purely unpreju- 
diced lover of the Union. But this is now no longer time fur 
hesitation. As the blacks are the rural military force ,of the 
South, so should they indiscriminately be received, if not seized 
and sent ofil I would not arm them, but I would use them to 
spare our whites, needed with their colore; needed to drill, 
that first source of discipline — that first utility in battle. But 
in furtherance of this, instead of the usual twenty pioneers per 
legiment, I would select fifty stalwart blacks ; give them the 
ax, the pick and the spade. But give them high military 
organization. We want bands — give twenty blacks — aaain 
mUitary organization. So, too, cooks for the compaoies, team- 
sters — even artillery drivers. Do not stop there — and always 
without arms — organize engineer regiments of blacks for the 
fortifications, pontoon regiments of blacks, black hospital cor^js 
of nurses. Put this in practice, and the day that, from Eni-opean 
interference, we have to look bitterness nearly iu the face, then, 
and not till then, awaken to the conviction that you have an 
army of over fifty thousand higMy disciplined soldiery — su- 
perior to double the number of our ordinaiy ran of badly dis- 
ciplined, badly officered, unreliable regiments now intrusted 
with the fortunes of the North. I would seek French oflicera 
for them, from their peculiar gift over ' natives.' In their own 
service they easily beat the Arabs — and then officer them and 

• Bmplotinothk CoNTBjiEimi3.-Erig.-GeQeralBiBHKr lately wrote lo Maj.-Weneml 
Kearht for insttucllons as to tlie emplojuienl of blacks. The following ie General 
KEiENT'a reply: 


>y Go Ogle 


surpass their own troops in desperate valor. Also, I should 
advise some Jamaica sergeants of the black regiments. As for 
the women, employ them in hospitals, and in making cartridges, 
etc. I know the Southern character intimately. It is not traiy 
brave. It ia at times desperate, invincible if successful — most 
dispirited if the reverse — is intimidated at a distant idea, which 
they would encounter, if suddenly brought to them, face to face. 
This idea of black adjuncts to the military awakens nothing 
inhuman. It but prevents the slave, run away or abandoned to 
us, from becoming a moneyed pressure upon us. It eventually 
would prepare them for freedom ; for surely we do not intend to 
give them to their rebel masters. In fine, why have we even 
now many old soldiers on the frontier gan-isona? Send there 
a black regiment on trial — not at once, hut gradually — by tho 
process I named above. Do this, and besides acquiring a strong 
provisional army, you magnify your present one by over fifty 
thousand men."* 

Again, on the l7th of July, he addressed his tried friend, O. 
S. Halstead, Jr., of Kew Jersey, better known, in the political 
world, as " Pbt IIaistbad." "Is it not strange, here is an 
army nearly strong enough to go to Richmond. It was t^tiite so 
when it arrived, but has lost the half of its numbers by sickness 
and imbecile administration of a commonplace, unmilitary * 
* * a weak-kneed General ; and also its losses in useless, but 
tetriUy severe battles, are heyond all European previous experi- 
ence. In honor to the Southerners I must say, that theirs has 
been even severer. Thbt face grapeshot, as Napoleon laid it 
down as an amom to be impossible. They are noble fellows. 
But our men have displayed ^( as much cmtrage, but have not 
yet been led against batteries. In their doing this, as a friend, 
though I say it, who should not, I beg you to make all remem- 
ber, that it was hy my personal influence going into the first 
line of fire, precisely as the French Generals have ever done, 

Kkarnt's idea of organiMne, mULtacUy, tlie blflcita was ahead gf any tiling nriginating In 
the Army of Ihe Potomao, but not fn advance of llie lommon fVlend of Kearny and hia 

>y Go Ogle 


* * * that FIRST gave tliis impulse of fighting to the array of 
McClellan. In return there is silence to my powers of admin- 
istration, my talents for high discipline, my perfect, business- 
like management of all ray quotas on a field of battle, and the 
stupid crowds take up the words prorapted to them by the 
eraissaries of the envious and others, ray enemies, and say — 
" Ah ! there is a worthless General, he exposes hiraself." " He 
is rash." "He must be an ignoramus." Our poor Jersey 
brigade was cut up, to pieces, from mismanagement (I refer you 
to General Taylor) in Pobtee's tight. The only iattU which 
we have yet lost — and this entirely owing to Pobtee's want 
of head. The country permitted an impregnable field, it was 
not developed. He used regiments and brigades with no con- 
certed action, and lost all * * * and yet McClellan, in 
the face of the President, gives [him] * + a promsional 
corps — and then the President gives him an advanced rank, 
WhUst _Zi the like unknown before in history — a successful 
division commander, am left ■« * * without recognition. 
Be sure if this army was in the hands of a man likely to save it 
(it is in a bad fis), I would pitch my commission to the winds 
and serve my countjy otherwise,"* 

Ten days afterward he addressed the following characteristic 
epistle to a young cousin, a New Yorker by birth, who had just 
been appointed a Captain in the Eleventh New Jersey Volun- 
teers. This gallant young man was mortally wounded at Get- 
tysburg and died, aged only twenty-one years, on the 9th of 
August, 1863, in St. Luke's Hospital, New York city, in coo- 
sequence of the amputation of bis leg, too long deferred for hia 
fragile constitution : 

" I am glad to find you in arms. I Eun trnlj aenBible to the kindoess of 
Gen, Stockton and Col. Sceanton, as well as to Ms Escellency the Gov- 
ernor. I most confess, that I woiHd have preferred you to have commenced 
aa a Lieutenant, for a Captdncy involves fearfalresponsibility — and JAaus 


Other letters 

of Kkabz. 

rr, verylnterestln 

.g and able productloaa they a 

le, might 



\d this chaplBt, hat It is not , 

|n«t to the dead t 

a publish wh«l 


thme desired 

to be made pnblic 

.had he lived. A 

e remarked in 1 


chapter, many of 

tions wore the re 

Hnlt of pain actu 

1 tempera- 




> haie them remembered if Bpok«n or uttered under liclta- 



mental or 


>y Go Ogle 


the vmghi of our military name on ray a/iimldere. But I do not say tMa to 
diacourage you. I am proud that you are in the aervice. ^ you display 
courage it will gracefuHy cover a mvliitude of ahori-comingi. You mnat 
have learned Bomething of the nature of men, as to controlling them with 
decisu>n but lUtle luiTilineat; mth discipline tmt juMice; but above alt with a 
careful watalifidneis of their rightt aad comforts— they (we i>ery graUfid, 
fa/r more so than the little one may do for them demrBei. As to perfecting 
yourself in your new powtion, never let it pass frojn your mind in what a 
false position a gentleman Is, m7«) Oisumea to be that which hs ia not. That 
jou necessarily must be so for a while is not your fault but that of the volun- 
teer a jstem, that takes new (men) instead of doing j ustiee to those who have 
served. In telling you all this, ray dear cousin, it is only to stimulate you 
to a high energy. Adopt a military carriage, and perfect yourself in the 
tactics and in army regulationa. Study them constantly. Add to this an 
Investigation of military law, and your course will be right, and a battle or 
so dashingly carried tlirough, will secure to you my warm sympathies and 
any assistance I can render you. We are still (within) about five and a half 
miles of Richmond. Continued alarms, now a shell booming in the air, now 
a brisk picket fight, now a foray by the enemy, and then again some grey- 
coats brought in Irom the other side. In our two battles of Willamsburg 
and Fair Oaks, my division is the only one that has been engaged (here 
some words apparently were omitted) in the two battles. Tliese two battles 
looked more like the picture books than any thing I had ever before seen, 
escept one small point in the battle field of Solferino. The slain were actu- 
ally piled up in heaps. My J^ichigan MarJcsinen are fearful with their I have also some Pennsylvania Mountain Men who are brave fel- 
lows, and some Mhine Woodmen, who seem at home anywhere in the 
■woods, -whether balls are whizzing by them or not. My Sew York regi- 
ments include the celebrated Hobaht Wakd Tliirty-eighth and the Mozaut, 
On the whole it is a very exciting life, but I never get over the feeling that 
after every battle I am as fearful of hearing of friends being killed in the 
opposite army as in our own." 

If his detention at Harrison's Landing was a short period 
of comparative rest and recuperation to General Keaknt, it 
was destined to be but a short Interval of repose. Within two 
weeks he was again in motion and on bis march to join Pope, 
He left tbe banks of the James with alacrity, for to take the 
field again was to him a renewal of life. It is true, that be was 
no longer buoyed np with those brilliant hopes of success -which 
animated him when he first took the field, still, his spirit was 
nevertheless elate with the prospect of once more participating 
in an active campaign, which promised, even if it held forth no 

>y Go Ogle 


Other incentives, a certainty of again meeting the enemies of his 
country and the traitorous foes to right and progress ; a certainty 
of fair stricken fields, where brilliant examples, stem intrepidity, 
and able generalship might undo, by hard fighting to the pur- 
pose, what had already been ill done by the sheerest incompe- 
tency — an inability to harvest by decision what had already 
been reaped in blood. 

Here the reader must leave Keaent for a few pages in order 
to consider what had occurred in the " Army of Virginia" 
between the date when the " Army of the Potomac" was coin 
pelled by its commander, not by the rebel foe, to commence its 
rapid retreat to the James, and the date when Keaknt was 
enabled to bring up hia division to the assistance of Popk. 
While Keakny lay in enforced inaction at Harrison's Landing, 
stirring events had lieen occurring in another quarter, whither 
tiie rebels had been permitted to direct those forces which 
should have been fully occupied, if not destroyed by Mc- 

Then, if ever, was justified that indignant outbui-st which 
Shakespeare places in the mouth of the hunchbacked but lion- 
hearted Richard III. Lincoln, when he learned of the breaking 
forth of Lee, might have addressed to McCleij:,an the very 
words which the indomitable Pi^ntagahet addressed to Stan- 

Kins Kichaed — " Wiere is thy power, then, to beat Ti'm back ? 

Wbere be fhj tenants and thy followere ? 

Are tliey not now upon the western shore, 

Safe-eonducting the rebels from their shipa 1 " 

Stakley — " No, my good lord, my friends are in tlic north." 

Kino Richard — " Cold friends to me ; wliat do they in the north, 

"VVten they should servo their sovereign in the west ! " 

>y Go Ogle 


( No. 1. ) 


.in, September loih, 1861.—" EtScaion Eecwd " JWorj/ of Boenls, Vol. ni., S2 G). 

Imna Army of the Potomao bad been driven from Che ftonto/KlohmoDil, Lad abandonpil 
be siege, uid had Intrenched Itself Id a deftaslve poalUon In liie malailous region of the 

the Capital perfectly aate."— McCleulan lo Ltbcolm, Angust aitii, 1835. 
■West."— LossiHB's CtBit War in America, ll.,48i 

granges all my plans. . . . Every indlviaoal general sddiesses 
nckl, not only about Ills own particular af&Ira, but abont geueral 
PB a rigbt to iDlrlgues, fOr bLs awn pleasure and advantage, %vhlcTi 
to direct snd to bind him. if the Anlie Coonoll would only leave 


B to yom' Kicflilenoy. I believe I h 


It was thB Emperor's 

ive beeged to bo eici 


Spain Is mncl 



ould have under lis oi 

■deis otH 


) will obey htm; not 1 

iomrades, who 

thlnS their merits 301 


s to the French Mini 

Ister of War, Ji 

ice of the Crown Prince [Haixbce], 



eDHt!eOfWlEMAB[POFB], . . . l 

feet, hi 

■ was very Umited. o 

ir, to speak m 

ore accnrateli', Ima^i 

d this 

the Emperor^ 



o act hi all things coi 


:b [Hai 



Although it doea not come ivithm the scope of this work, to 
enter into any detailed historical review of the operations of 
the " Army of Virginia," it is, nevertheless, absolutely neces- 
sary to present a statement of its operations after General Pope 
assumed the pei-sonal direction of it at Warrcnton, July 29th, 
1862. He received the command "with grave forebodings of 
the result," but with the assurance that the enemy wotild never 
detach from Richmond any considerable force for an advance 
upon Washington, so long as the " Army of the Potomac " re- 
mained at Han-ison's Landing, since as long as it lay there tlie 
rebel capital was in imminent danger. 

Any military student who faas examined accurate and de- 
tailed maps of the country between the Potomac, east, the 
liapidan, south, and the Bull Hun mountains, west, will see 
what an extremely difBcult task was assigned to Pope. The 
rebels were advancing along those mountains, using them par- 
tially as a screen, and yet Pope was compelled to cover Fred- 
ericksburg from twenty to thirty miles to the east, and entirely 
out of the line of their march.* The authorities in Washington 
and McCtELLAN must bear the greater share of the blame 
originally laid upon Pope. Indeed thoy, and not he, are res- 
ponsible for his want of success. Considering all the difBcul ties 
front and rear with which Pope had to contend, the only won- 
dei- is that he accomplished as much as he did. The latter 
should have clung to the rear of Lee, or at least have made a 
diversion, if he did no more. Lee manceuvred as if he deemed 
that the army at Harrison's Landing was deprived of all power 
of aggressive injury. 

Was he not right? was ho not justified in his conclusions by 
the result ? for McClbllan's whole action, correspondence and 
dispositions from the day when he landed on the Peninsula, place 
him in the same category with those French generals who, 
abounding in troops, but wanting in themselves, limited them- 
selves almost entirely to demonstrations on the western frontier 
of Prussia, during the " Seven Years' War." 

Imagine such a general as McClellas had proved himself. 

>y Go Ogle 


especially in Ids retreat to the James, in Pope's place, Would 
lie have held at bay one hundred thousand men flushed with 
success, with forty to fifty thousand, and have cheeked them 
for two weeks, disputing every inch of ground from Cul- 
peper to Pairfajs, fifty miles, holding back Lee's whole army 
on a line of from thirty to forty miles in extent of fi-oot ? Com- 
pare Pope's actiou with that of McClellan in the Peninsula. 
The latter retreated precipitately twenty-five or thirty miles 
which interposed between Mechanicsville and Harrison's Land- 
ing, although he had niimbei-s equal, if not very greatly supe- 
rior, to the rebels, and his lieuteoants held their own gloriously 
in every encounter. McClbllan had better troops than Pope ; 
better executive generals than Pope, until he was joined by 
Reno and Kbaent ; better means of supply, and heartier co- 
operation. Whatever may have been Kearny's personal 
feelings toward BIcClellas, he never flinched from his duty 
to him as his superior. The following may be cited as a speci- 
men of his style of expressing his sentiments in the field : 

" The conduct of General Keaeny m this battle (Glendale) 
was the admiration of all his corps. He was everywhere 
directing ail movements, imparting, by his ■ presence and 
clearsightedness, the most determined courage to his men ; 
wherever the danger was greatest, there he pressed and carried 
with him a personal power that was equal to a reinforcement. 
In a pre-eminent degree he poseessed that military prescience, 
or anticipation of what was coming and the point of an enetny's 
attack, which has characterized every great man who has risen 
to distinction in the art of war." {Chaplain Marks' " Peninsular 
Campaign," pages 282, 283.) 

Jiistice has never leen done to Pope.* The merits of the general 

ly had been brought, tbrouah Iha 



hava been lost sight of in the demerits of the individual, 
if demerits is a proper term for iinconciliatory manners and 
rough deportment. McClellan, as wisely observed by Chap- 
lain Maeks, won his popularity by demeanor more than by 
any thing else. "Much of tl^-e devotion of tbe army to 
General McClellan was owing to the fact, as he rode through 
the ranks, he always looked upon the men kindly ; and when 
ha had to press a soldier out of his way, it was never with rude- 
ness or insult." 

Poi'E, on the other hand, was undoubtedly sometimes, if not 
often, the exact reverse of this, if prejudice has not influenced 

•al had never been relieved, a 
>TdlnaTy pTocoeding. The Pent 
ttlons of Pope of disobedience t 
I sUte ofafMis lo be concealed 

'itDifbl lie waa Agbting battle aiter battle against ove 

lea indiscreet in iiis reflections on the generalship of hi 
] times more so, Ibis was not the moment for retaliation 
the aoiiller of the rfpuftilc, fU tfie fteod offter forlorn lutpe, i 
:e midst of the Are convereing upon him, he cried out fijr 
loteephia fiwtliold, how was he answetedT ■Itnowm 

i, at this time, passing through a i 
enlngWasiiingtoQ, was by no m 

^ pnbiio perlta, Bnoi^h has bean said to enable the reader to peroelve that aX Oii« 
snlons period the government was aotUiB under eonstraiut . . , Military criHcs 

aotwithaiAudlng hia general buoyancy, was snt^ect to paroxysms of deep depression. 
It despair, when be saw so much gallantry waated — well might his heart alnfe within 
irben hewss now sardonically told in allu^on to bis Ibrmec solicitude fbr the seat 
femmeut at the oulaet of the Penlosolar campaign, ' at ones to nse all due means to 
the capital perfectly satb.' " Frolbssor 30B.V William Dbafkb's Mutam V Ui^ 



the pen-portrait of the man. A friend and relative of the 
writer was present " at an interview just in the rear of the 
latter's (Keaeny's) division, on a alight eminence, at nightfall, 
about 9 p. M., August 29, 1862, the first day of the Second Bat- 
tle of Bull Run. Keabnt asked to have, his troops — whom 
he said had sustained hard fighting and were worn out — re- 
lieved by fresh ones," Such a request from such a man as 
Kbaest, should have been met with sympathetic courtesy and 
consideration, even if the exigencies of th'e service prevented 
POFB from acceding to it. Nevertheless, " the request was 
refused in rough terms," so much so as to leave the most pain- 
ful impression upon the mind of the narrator, an officer of high 
rank and position, who dwelt upon the interview with admira- 
tion, "in describing Keaeny's magnificent presence during the 
whole scene." 

Nevertheless, it would be highly unjust and nntrue not to 
express the conviction that Pope's tenacity saved Waahingtoii, 
imperiledbythepraeticalincapacityofHALLECK, and the languor 
or procrastination of McOieixan, aided in either case by the 
vacillation, feebJencsB, and utter want of comprehensive ideas 
and of strategic penetration among those who controlled events 
at the Capita!. All, however, coald have been remedied by 
will and alacrity on the part of McCleli^n, and more than one 
of his generals. Results distinctly demonstrated that these 
were wanting. Those who cannot, or will not judge by results, 
will, perhaps, pay as little attention to the following exti'act 
from the letter of an honest man, who served in a most respon- 
sible position on the staff of the Army of the Potomac for over 
three years, which throws strong light upon the subject : 

" On September 2d (this morning), General Pope, while on 
Centerville Heights, pointing toward four different encamp- 
ments, directed me to carry orders to Major-Generals Heint- 
ZEuuAN, SiGKL, Reno and Poetee. I found neither of these 
generals at the encampments indicated ; in fact, I was so misled 
by this indication by General Pope as to mate it three or ibur 
hoars before all the orders were delivered. 

"I rode up to one headquarter tent, and meeting General 
Feanklin, asked him the whereabouts of these generals ; he 

>y Go Ogle 


told me that there were other generals in the tent who, perhaps, 
might inform me. I found five generals in consultation, one of 
whom immediately replied to my inquiries by saying that they 
did not know anything about General Pope, or his generals."* 
SuCHBT, 01) the Var, in April and May, 1800, occupied an 
analogous positton to that of Pope, in August, 1862, Defeated 
by Elsnitz, but disputing every inch of ground, he clung so 
tenaciously to the Auatrians, and occupied their attention so 
thoroughly, that his diversion exercised a most important influ- 
ence upon the event of Marengo, and Napoleon acknowledged 
it. Massbxa's defence of Genoa operated in a similar and 
almost equal degree, although he was forced to capitulate. 
Both, by their obstinate resistance, gained time, the most 

arlsfn between bimBiid Sarsfletd. Possibly, upon his BrrlvaJ attbe camp, he may have 
rpproaehed SarsfleW with the nnneceasar}' and hopelesa deftDce of Ballymore, and of the 

to IJJO service, ia oerlain, but whether eiolted by these reproaches, or by the Jealousies loo 
freqasnuy aMeadsDt on camps, Is a speculation now enveloped in oliseurity."-0'CaNOE'B 
Jtfiii!aj-» HJtioi* D/(A« rrtjfi *o/Bm, p. 139. 

" The day Is (utf) repotted to have been intensely hot, and this oppressed Che aoldiera i 
many of the Cavaliers of nole, moreover, liad iWlen befljre tlie rebel artillery, which had 
been advantaeeously posted and well served. • • • At all events, when the day broke, 

about 1JW0 bcrse and foot, apparaiili/ quff^ unconcerned obot/t Rtj tafety at NBivbur^^ 
h mas HOI abms tweMn maes dMtint r'—Zivei qC the (Finriors qC the Olvu Wara of Jhwos 
Biifllmul, byOeneral tbe Hon. Sir Edwahii Cost, DCL. Londoa, John Mubbat, 

; Is very -Mrious, but the history of the Groat Civil War of England, like our own 
/eholdera' Eebelllon,' a contest between an aristocratic action and Uie People, was 
fie In eiamples of the pernicious efliBols of thejealo Dales between rival eommandera and 
&vorileB or adherents. The same was the case in the (Svii Wars of the French Mon- 

*ustrlan military records are full of similar rases, and, strange to say. it is insinuated 
[he suecesBes of bo® the Bonapartos, Emperors, in Italy, were owing to the &cilHy 

ided that, two of (be chiefs, over whom he gained Oie greatest advantages, were 
fe suspicion,' 'bot some of the subordinate oHlcers,eBpeoially of the staff, in that 

ssld, at Uilan, atler the war was over. Id alloslon to an 'article in a German nows- 

>y Go Ogle 


important element in military success ; Pope, likewise, gained 
time of inestimable value. He held in check for ten days tlie 
army which McCLELtAis had permitted to escape, and thus was 
let loose upon Washington. He saved the National Capital, 
and from the tuckler which he interposed, Lee glanced off to 
Frederick. This gave ten days more. Then the " Army of the 
Potomac," having absorbed the " Army of Virginia," threw 
back the rebels across the Potomac. . 

The Army of Virginia, in July, consisted of about 34,000 
infantry and artillery, and about 5,000 cavalry, of which a con- 
siderable part was in bad condition. ^' 

This force was stretched out along a front of forty miles, with 
its left resting on Sperryville, and its right on Fredericksburg. 
On July 14th, General Hatch had been directed to occupy 
Gordonsville, which, with Cbarlotteville, Kkarnt had indicated 
from the very first as strategic key-points to any overland 
advance upon, or operations against, Richmond.* Hatch failed, 
to execute this order, which would have enabled him to 
destroy the railroads which connect at Gordonsville, and was 
superseded in the command of the cavaliy by the mode! com- 
mander of that arm, glorious John Eupokd. 

On the 13th July, Jackson, with his own division, and that 
ofEwELT., had been ordered to Gordonsville, where he was 
joined on the 27th by A. P. Hili:. This accession augmented 
the forces in the presence of the Army of Virginia, on the 7th 
of August, to 35,000 men. Pope concentrated his infantry 
along the road from Sperryville to Culpepper ; his cavalry being 
thrown ten miles forward. On the 9th, occurred the battle of 
Cedar or Slaughter Mountain, or Cedar Run, whose results so 
alarmed the Federal authorities, that General Halieck tele- 

» The Engllsli author of the SaMlt-JItJds of the fSiiKft— qulle a fiilr book for b mba worJc— 
remarks, pase ^24, In this connection; "Babks, with a strong force of New EnBland 

detaeliniBols of caTalrj-«id Mtmerj-had penetrBled even so fer aouthwanl as Oonlonsvllle, 

ongly earrlsoned hy the enemy, they would oiroum! 
tear Irae la the Bommer of 13fi2, hon' peitectly o( 



graphed at once to McClellas to send forward General Buen- 
siDE with his corps — which had been brought from North 
Carolina to Fortress Monroe, and was lying there — to reinforce 
Pope through Fredericksburg. Five days previous to this 
bloody and indecisive conflict, on the 4th,* had 
been ordered to withdraw from the Peninsula, whereupon he 
became very bold, and made the abortive movement under 
Hooker to MalvSrn Hill. This apparent initiative occasioned 
the remark by Kkaent, who supposed that this was the first 
of a renewed advance upon Richmond, " that Hookee got all 
the good chances, and none fell to his share." As long as 
McClelean lay at Harrison's Landing, in his very strong and 
fortified position, Lee, with the main body of the rebel forces, 
remained in Richmond, to watch him and protect the rebel 

Indiscretion or treason in the Northern ranks revealed to 
MosEBYjf passing through the fleet of transports at Fortress 
Monroe, as a prisoner, that the troops assembled at thj.t point 
were not to join McCleilan, but were- destined, in fact were 
on their way, to reinforce Pope. Feeling satisfled, from his 
knowledge of its commander, that there was no danger to bo 
apprehended from the Army of the Potoma'c, wasting moat 
precious time at Harrison's Landing, Lee, as soon as Mosebit 
made his report, began to move northward. This was on the 
]3th of August. In the meanwhile Pope, who foresaw the 
coming storm, was losing reputation daily, through his strict 
observance of the orders of that general who had already given 
bim a very unfavorable character before the people, by father- 
' iug upon him a report which Pope declares that he never made. 
This report was the one in regard to the capture of 10,000 
prisoners during Haileck's own operations against Corinth, 
June 12th, 1862. Such a report Pope declares never emanated 
from him, and with some reason, since he says he w^ conflned 
to bis tent by sickness at the time. 

Pope did well in Virginia, considering the forces at his dis- 
position, and all his reverses were due to his honest endeavors 

>y Go Ogle 


to obey the orders daily trauamiued from Washington, and the 
positive assurances that he would receive cordial support and 
adequate reinforoements. The first was not given, and the 
second did not arrive either in the force promised or at the time 

Oa the 14th of August, the Army of Yirginia was reinforced 
with 8,000 men of Buenside's Corps, under the gallant and 
reliable Reno, from Falmouth, four days after Halleck tele- 
graphed that the enemy was orpssing the Rapldaii in large force. 
Pope, thereupon, was making preparations to push forward, 
when, on August 16th, his cavalry captured J. E, B, Stuart's 
Adjutant-Gteneral, on whom was taken an autograph letter of 
General Leb, dated Gordonaville, August I5th, which reve^le^ 
the rebel intention and Lee's plan to overwhelm the Army of 
Virginia before it could be reinforced by any portion of the 
Army of the Potomac. This left Pope no other option than to 
fall back upon a stronger position, and await the arrival of the 
expected support. Even the British Colonel Fletcher, in his 
Sisiory of the American War, virtually admits that Pope did 
well ; that he accomplished his retreat in good order behind the 
Rappahannock; and, during the 20th, 21st and 22d of August, 
foiled every attempt of the rebels to pass that stream, although 
they tested eveiy ford. The " English Combatant," author of 
the BatUe-Ftelda of the Sottth (page 425), speaking of the retii- 
ing of the Union forces back toward the Rapidan, or Rapid- 
Anna, does justice to the movements in these words: "This 
was generalship." Captain Noyes, an eye-witness, whose 
peculiar duties gave him opportunities of seeing everything, 
confirms this in his " Bivouac and BaUle-Meld.''' 

Three precious days had thus been gained, since every day 
that Lee's advance was delayed was of incalculable value to 
the country. Finding that he could not force the passage of 
the river Rappahannock — which rose seven feet,* in consequence 

>y Go Ogle 


of a heavy rain on the night of Angust 22 — Lee determined 
to throw Jackson round Pope's right, the movement hciug 
screened by the Bull Run mountains. 

During tliat ten-ible night of the 22d—" the darkest night 
he ever knew," according to Brevct-Col. Paine — occurred 
that raid of 1,500 cavalry under Stuart, who stole around 
Pope's flank, juat as the same leader had made the circuit of 
MoClellan two months previous in the Peninsula, and captured 
Pope's headqnarter wagons, at Catlett's Station. This exploit 
made a great noise at the time, and augmented the causeless 
ridicule heaped upon the Union commander, because his uniform 
coat was captured. Even had his whole personal baggage from 
his undershirt to his overcoat, even had his whole camp become 
the prey of the enemy, such a misfortune need not have had 
any effect on the campaign. At Jamkau, March 6, 1645, in 
one respect the decisive battle of the Thirty Years' War, the 
imperial light cavalry got possession of the Swedish cainp, 
without affecting the military or political result* in the slight- 
est degree. After the Swedes had won the victory, their 
cavalry cut down the marauders and re-captured their booty. 
At MoUwitz, 10th April, 1741, the Austrian Iloi-se renounced 
chaj'ging, and " the Hussar part did something of plunder to 
rearward," at a moment when every bayonet and sabre was 
needed in the opposite quarter. At Chotusitz, May 17, 1742, 
and again at Soor, September 30, 1 745, the Austrian light troops 
made themselves masters of the Prussian camp. But this undue 
diversion of so many cavalry doubtless gave Feedeeick the 
victory, which he deemed cheaply purchased by the loss sus- 
tained through the plundering of the Croats, Pandonrs and 
such like. 

At Arbela, B. C, (October l), 331, tho Persians who had 
broken or permitted to traverse the Grecian line, could have 

wanla gceur si OMntUly). that lUe river had risen seven feel, aod wss no longer fbrflaWe. 
Eiacllr aach waa Uie case with Pope oq the ^Ih August, I8S2, when he inl^naed lo ccose 

passed, Jaceson had throw 
palgn ^ad clianged. 

• OEUEB'sHJitorynrifts S 
IIuropeeDe," Sec 3, pHges 211 



overwhelmed the left wing under Paemenio, already hard 
pressed, had they not amused themselves with the pillage of 
Alexandee's camp. When the rest of the array of Dabiub 
hnd been dissipated, Pabmenio cut up the marauders, and, 
despite the temporary occupation of his camp, Alexander 
triumphed and became master of Asia, 

At ForaoYa, or the battle of the Taro, 6th July, 1495, the 
Stradriots or Albanian light cavalry gave the victory to the 
French by turning aside to pillage their camp. 

Unfortunately, however, among Stu art's spoils were the mapa 
and memoranda of the Topographical Staff, and worst of all 
Pope's dispatch-book. This revealed to Lee not only the plana 
of the "Union general, but the disposition of his forces and their 
comparative feebleness. Well may the historian, Guernsey, 
remark, "When that unnamed negro, accidentally encountered 
in the dai'kness, guided the Sixth Virginia cavalry to Pope's 
tent, he was potentially fighting the battles of Groveton and 

This was one of those interventions of Providence which men 
style accidents,* such as decided Anghrim and the fate of Ire- 
land, 1691, by the hand of an outraged husband, a pedlar; 
Denain and the fate of France, 1712, through the casual stroll 
of a " priest and civic functionary ; " Mollwitz, 1741, through the 
meeting in the snow of the Prussian Aid, Saldern, with a-farm 
laborer sent in search of a clean shirt /or an Austrian trooper; 
Catholiseh-Hennersdorf, 1745, by the guidance of a miller's 
boy; Vittoria, 1813, through the information of "a brave 
peasant ; " Waterloo, through the piloting of a' shepherd's lad. 
But a still more apposite parallel is that pilotage of " an humble 
and unknown individual," " a Piedraonteee peasant," who found 
the French army of Fkancis I. pounded in the passes of the 
Alps, and by his guidance rendered the defeat of the Swiss at 
Marignano or San Donate, September 13-14th, 1575, possible, 
and the conquest of Italy an accomplished fact. 

On that nigi^t of darkness and storm, Major-General Pnnjp 
Keaent's Division, which had landed at Alexandria 1:30 p. 

>y Go Ogle 


M., 21st, nas at Burke's Station, having left Hanison's Landing 
oa the 15th of August, amj marched tlieuce, via Jones' (Soan's) 
Bridge (August 15th), " which we (the 3d Corps) were to hold 
till the troops had all started from our old camp at HaiTison's 
Bar." On the IBth, via Dinscund Bridge, Keaknt fell ba<;k 
to Barhamsville, and Williamsburg (iTtli), to Yorktown 
{20th), sailing thence August 21st.* Keaent's division and 
Meade's Pennsylvania Reserves were the fii-st troops from the 
Araiy of the Potomac to reinforce — that is, effectively., in the 
face of the enemy — the Army of Virginia. 

The disclosures of Pope's dispatch-book developed at once to 
Lee the practicability of turning the right of the Army of 
Virginia, getting in its rear, capturing its supplies and cutting 
it off from Washington. The execution of this hazardous 
stroke of generalship was confided to the audacious and ever- 
ready Jackson. It was nevertheless fraught with peril, and 
had Pope been reinforced, as he expected to be and shouid 
have been, the biter would have been bit, like the Saxons at 
Kesseldorf, in 1746; like the Russians at Austerlitz, in 1805; 
and like the French at Haynau and at Culm, in 1813 ; and like 
CiiAKLEs Albert at Novara, in 1849. Had the Army of the 
Potomac, as a unit, supported the Army of Viiginia, as did the 
divisions of Reno, Keaeny, Hooker and Meade, the star of 
SroNEWAiL Jacksos would have set on the same field where it 
rose and gave him a name.f 

On the 22-23d of August, while Pope was revolving in hia 
mind a good pla