(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Personal and family names; a popular monograph on the origin and history of the nomenclature of the present and former times"

GE'NEAIOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00674 4830 



Personal and Family 

Names 



A Popular Monogra'ph on the Origin and History of the 
Xomenclature of the Present and Former Times 



HARRY ALFRED LONG 

Glasf/o^i' School Board 



"Names?" Could I unfold the influence of names, which are the most 
important of all clothings, T were a se(?ond Trismegistus : "— Carlylk. 



LONDON: HAMILTON, ADAMS & CO. 

GLASGOW: THOMAS D. MORISON 

EDINBURGH: JOHN MENZIES & CO. 

1883 

REPUBLISHED BY GALE RESEARCH COMPANY, BOOK TOWER, DETROIT, 1968 



Library of Congress Catalog Card 
Number 68-26584 



1474561 



pcDicatcii 



THE TEACHERS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

AND SPECIALLY TO 

THOSE UNDER THE GLASGOW SCHOOL BOARD 

BV A 

F EL L O W W O R K ER . 

THE A UTHOR 



PKEFACE. 



About the year 185G my attention was specially directed to 
the study of personal names, and circumstances at that time 
led me to concentrate attention upon this field of literature. 
Having laboured therein for the period of about fourteen 3'C'ars, 
the result was produced in a work entitled " The Names We 
Bear." So little did I expect my book to take the market 
that it was brought out privately. Howbeit, the edition of 
two thousand copies was not long in the hands of readers 
when a succession of complimentary critiques and encouraging 
notices began to flow in from both sides of the Atlantic. 
Frequent applications for the work from far and near induced 
me to put forth extra exertions to produce a work yet more 
worthy of the subject and of our times. After thirteen years 
additional labour thereat, I venture to come before the public 
again as an author and to ask the patronage of the general 
community. This may be regarded as an entirely new work, 
being rewritten throughout, and in extent exceeding the pre- 
vious volume by about one-half. 

Much study is but an effort to make the past present. 
What else does the Historian, whether in ordinary prose or in 
epic poem? the Geologist, when unfolding the stony pages of 
primary deposits ? the Dramatist, if presenting the lives and 
actions of the heroic dead, than revivify past ages, or rather, 
re-present the illustrious departed, whose memory man trea- 
sures ? Educated men cannot rest while the past remains 
unveiled. My book is a tiny eftbrt to reproduce the great 
actors of past generations in greater numbers than history 
can take cognisance of. Much of this work refers to periods 
when as yet the history of nations, passed under review, was 
unwritten. Even when national life and action found a re- 
corder, that historian only chronicled in broad outlines the 



G PREFACE. 



facts brought out in the growth of an empire or the clash of 
battle. History makes known what patriarchal clansman 
founded a kingdom, but not who marched to the tented field, 
not those who shared with him the perils involved in rearing 
an infant nationality. In this book will be found the names 
of hundreds of the rank and file who fought in the battle 
of Hastings. 

Nor should the bearing of this study upon a more thorough 
understanding of the nomenclature of geography be lost sight 
of. Thereby will be seen evidences in physical and political 
geography that the designations of countries, mountains, rivers, 
districts, towns, villages, hamlets, are associated with the names 
of persons whom we daily meet, suggesting to the thoughtful 
mind most interesting topics regarding the histories of families 
and places. 

And further, like all other products of the earth, language 
is variable, transitory, and subject to loss. In this study of 
words, readers will recover archaic forms of speech, obsolete 
expressions, and colloquially lost words will reproduce them- 
selves in unlocked for and refreshing forms. 

One of the many difficulties in composing a work of this 
type is overcoming dryness, which, if unconquered, however 
meritorious the book may otherwise be, its utmost attainment 
is to be shelved for reference. In view of this fact the 
author has constantly had before his mind the desirableness 
of presenting a work, on the one hand readable by reason 
of explanations being presented in a popular form, and yet, 
on the other, scholarly. 

The writer hopes that the verdict passed upon his second 
effort will be as encouraging as that kindly accorded to his 
previous work. 



Glasgow, July, 1883. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface --.----.-. 5 

CHAPTER I. 

The Philosophy of Personal Names - - - . 9 

CHAPTER II. 

The Origin and Formation of Words — vr - - - 13 

CHAPTER III. 

Personal Names - - - - - - - - 27 

CHAPTER IV. 

Biblical Names—???*, of.h, oni, and i - - - - - 49 

CHAPTER Y. 

BiuTii Names --------- 80 

CHAPTER VI. 

Names of Women - - - - - - - - 100 

CHAPTER VII. 

Local Names - - - - - - - - . 119 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Patronyms on Gentile Names - - - - 154 

CHAPTER IX. 

German Mytholo(;ical Names 164 



8 CONTENTS. 



chaptp:r X. PAGE 

HiERONYMS — Names Mythological . . . . 181 

CHAPTER XI. 

Names derived from Animals - - - - - 197 

CHAPTER XII. 

War Names --------- 212 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Names derived from Trades ok Titles - - - 231 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Patronymics --------- 268 

Superaddenda --------- 307 

Index ---------- 309 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY 



NAMES 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY 

NAMES. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERSONAL NAMES. 

The subject of the following work is a branch of nomenclature 
known as the study of personal names. An objection to atten- 
tion thereto in this utilitarian age is the vis inertice which 
this preface is written to overcome. " Cwi bono ?" cries the 
objector, " what end is answered thereby other than the satis- 
faction of barren curiosity?" Such objection must be fairly 
met, which is readily done in the following words. 

By this study we obtain a more accurate view of the con- 
struction and power of our language. A new tield of thought 
is entered upon. Besides by it many words are prevented 
from being lost which are links necessary to unite the verna- 
cular of to-day with obsolete forms of speech. For, through 
ignorance of this branch of education, we, though having the 
same words, yet, being unaware of their meaning and force, 
would virtually be without them, inasmuch as we should be 
in the position of one looking upon cuneiform writings not 
having the cipher whereby to interpret them. Belshazzar saw 
the mysterious words on the plaster, but they were inanimate 
signs until Belteshazzar inspired them with a life of meaning. 
This study throws much light upon British hi^ory. If the 
literature of Britain were to perish, and only our names re- 
mained, very many of the mighty deeds which have made this 
country what it is might be fairly elaborated therefrom. It 
lifts the historic veil higher than the ordinary historian can. 
He records the births and deaths of kings, sieges fought and 
battles won ; but it minutely details the precious things of 
home, love, worship, and the social condition of the toiling 
million, of which matters history takes little heed. The pen 
of the historian is a jet of flame, dazzling at day-dawn ; the 
science of names is many sparklets at the noon of night. But 
2 



10 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

apart from such considerations, we cannot allow that the desire 
to know why I am named as I am is vain curiosity, any more 
than it is vain to ask whence I came. The extreme utilitarian 
might as justly say, " What boots it whence you came ? The 
true questions are : What you are, and what you will be." This 
is only two-thirds true, inasmuch as the / am of to-day is 
built equally with the luill he of to-morrow upon the tvas of 
yesterday. Can it be a matter of indifference what a human 
being is called, seeing that Infinite Wisdom named, before 
birth, Ishmael, Isaac, Josiah, Cyrus, John, and Jesus, — not to 
mention those changed by God after birth ? If, then, the 
name, involving its meaning and surroundings, was, if it be 
lawful so to say, a subject of Divine consideration, on what 
defensible principle should the meaning of my name be to me 
a matter of indifference ? The Providence which counts hairs 
has more to do with names than the unthinking multitude 
suspect. Many acts of highest heroism and historic interest 
found as lowly an origin as that of the suggestion afforded by 
a name. Of such cases several illustrations are given in the 
body of this work. No word appeals so powerfully to the 
spirit within us as our proper name. The Rabbi of Galilee 
stood at the grave of His friend whom He called from Hades 
by name, though had He said, " Man, come forth," the j^ower 
would have been the same, but the love manifested would not. 
In like manner, when a sorrowing disciple yearned for a glance 
at the body which had so lately passed through its bitter bap- 
tism, she was called to recognition of Him as related to her, 
not by saying, " Woman," but " Mary." As illustrating the 
affection involved in knowing by name, nothing can be more 
appropriate than the negative evidence of the four biographers 
of Jesus. They represent Him as not addressing Judas once 
by name. So, in like manner, God makes no mention of the 
name of either Laban or Balaam, when revealing their respec- 
tive messages to them. The passage where it says, " Judas, 
betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kiss," upon the autho- 
rity of that king of critics, Tischendorf, should be given, 
" Friend, betrayest," &C.; agreeing with the mode in which the 
king addressed the man not having on a wedding garment — 
" Friend, how camest thou," &c. Nor was it by chance, but 
on the principle under consideration, that, in the three lists of 
the Apostles, Judas is the last mentioned. There is no more 
certain proof of the favour of God than the reduplication of 
the name of the person addressed, whether by Jehovah in the 
Old Testament, or Immanuel in the New. It begins at Gen. 
xxii. 11, "Abraham, Abraham," and concludes at Acts ix. 4, 
" Saul, Saul." Only one woman had this high distinction con- 
ferred upon her, " Martha, Martha." This view of names allies 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERSONAL NAMES. 11 

them more closely to persons, giving all pertaining to their 
use an air of grandeur and soleumity. Some think the name 
of a man is to be viewed in the same light as street names or 
the numbers of houses, simply as a distinction given on busi- 
ness principles. Not so. However common-place or even 
comic the appellation of a hunian being may now be, from the 
very fact of union with one who is the offspring of God it is 
dear to the bearer and those who love him; yea, even sacred, 
by reason of relationship to a deathless being. There are fallen 
names as well as fallen persons, but not the less is each of high, 
nay. Divine origin. I was deeply affected in reading the expe- 
rience of an educated convict as to the pang suffered when, 
instead of being called Charles, a name endeared by associa- 
tions of home, religion, and love, he was roughly called No. 
44. It is the Chridian name, not the surname, which appeals 
to profounder emotions. The private soldier on the battle- 
field and the common sailor on the perilous flood are commanded 
by surnames, but it is the dear one in the arm chair by the 
fireside that is addressed by his Christian name. 

" Peace to these pangs ! Mother ! put forth 
Thine elder, hoUer claim ; 
And the first word I hear in heaven 
May be — my Christian name." 

He who knew nature thoroughly — what was in man — did 
not say, Peter, lovest thou Me ? but, " Simon, son of Jonas, 
lovest thou Me ?" Take the compound appellation Simon 
Peter, and Simon would be what we term the Christian name. 
Being imposed by parents in circumcision, it would be familiar 
and sacred. Jesus brought out the family relationship more 
strongly by saying, " Son of Jonas." The surname tells of 
ancestry, business, struggle, dignity, heroism, office, it is our 
world name — but the Christian name speaks of father, mother, 
home, love., familiarity, heaven, God. And yet in this work 
they are not distinguished, forasmuch as the surname of one 
is the Christian name of another ; but this in no way weakens 
the charm of it to its possessor. Whatever it hiay be, it is the 
most personal and precious part of the entire appellation. 
Should he have many Christian names — a sentimental mistake 
■ — that one by which he is most generally addressed will con- 
tain the talismanic power. Pride will, at the baptismal font, 
select many names. Nature, at home, elects one, and that is 
the Christian name. This phrase originally meant that name 
which was given to the recipient when he became a Christian. 
Our missionary records teem with illustrations of my meaning. 
Surname is a form of Supernomen, above the name — as John 
Williams — where Williams, being given to the person over and 



]2 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

above John, is termed his surname. Some authors are of 
opinion that sur, above, is to be taken in its most literal sense, 

inasmuch as the surname was formerly written 1^},^ 

Observe. — The arithmetical sign for equality ( = ) will be 
used to indicate that two or more names are synonymous or 
nearly so, as Herschell = Kouli Khan, i.e., that the former 
name was originally used in a similar sense to that which was 
primarily given to the latter. Con. stands for connected with, 
Ab. for abbreviated, Pats, for patronymics, Dhn. for diminu- 
tive. Names under explanation will be given in large type as 
DUPANLOUP. A colon (:) will be placed to signify " means," as 
Balloon : (means) great ball. When a name is followed by a 
word or words within a parenthesis, the word or words are 
added to suggest some well known instance of its use as Land- 
seer (painter). It is not professed that meanings herein given 
are infallibly correct. The basis of this book being etymolo- 
gical analysis and comparative nomenclature, the value of any 
statement of the meaning of a name is to be measured by inter- 
nal and external evidence in respect thereto, as well as by 
authority. Britain being placed between northern ice floes 
and southern fruit fields, birds and fishes make for our island 
in their migration to and fro as to a half way house. Hence 
we possess a more varied fauna than any other spot on the 
globe of equal dimensions. Just so with regard to nations — 
Gaels, Romans, Saxons, Danes, Norsemen, Normans and Jews- 
led by ambition, driven by necessity, or urged by hope, have 
made for our Island. The consequence is our nomenclature is 
the fullest and most mixed of any known. This in the order 
of Providence is needful for this land was destined to supply 
the United States and our fifty colonies with names. Yet for 
this reason the analysis of a directory is very difficult, and in 
giving the meanings of so great a number, it is hardly possible 
there should be no mistake. 



( 1^> ) 



CHAPTER TI. 

THE ORIGIN AND FOliMATION OF WORDS. 

UR. 

Before the study of names can profit, it is necessary to be 
acquainted with the way in which words are formed. This 
preliminary chapter Avill, therefore, be devoted to elucidating 
that subject. But lest our reader should think he is being- 
invited to seat himself in standard four, the motto of this 
chapter shall be a fragment of Plato in Cratylo, by Taylor, 
upon the assumption that to study a subject which engaged 
the close attention of that immortal founder of the Academy 
cannot be unworthy of a scholar, "Do you know on what account 
Fur was so called ? Consider whether this is not of barbaric 
origin — for it is by no means easy to adapt this to the Greek 
tongue ; and it is manifest that the Phrygians thus denominate 
fire, with a certain trifling deviation." We read in the earliest 
recorded history extant, that Abram migrated from Ur of the 
Chaldees. The Chaldees, among whom he dwelt, worshipped 
fire, the symbol of the Invisible God, who is Light. These 
ancient pyrolatrians correspond to the Guebers of the current 
time. A change of religion is of rare occurrence in the 
history of nations. Forms of government have been held as 
very convertible : dynasties have been changed like garments ; 
even languages yield to the action of time, but religion is 
nearly as inelastic as rock. The Reformation was a moral 
miracle, without parallel in all the ages of the past. Yet in 
^ome unrecorded manner, and for reasons wholly unknown, 
the Chaldees passed from being fire-worshippers to the grosser 
form of made image-worship, while, on the other hand, the 
aboriginal Persians became pyrolatrians. Plence, in the time 
of Daniel, they are found worshipping gigantic idols, and 
punishing recusants by casting them into fire, and that in no 
less than five cases, viz., Zedekiah, Ahab, Shadrach, Meschech, 
and Abednego. Now, no fire-worshipper would pollute, accord- 
ing to his notions, fire with flesh. So, then, when Daniel was 
to suffer as a criminal, it was in a den of lions. In those ages, 
when the sun received special honours in any locality, such 
centre of heliolatria was named from the fact, as Bethshemesh : 
house of the sun ; Bethshan : house of the shiner ; Heliopolis 
(On): city of the sun = Luxembourg, and, nearer home, 
Greenock : sun hill ; Tinto : fir-e hill, which coincides as nearly 



14 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



as possible with Dunedin : hill (of) fire. These all formerly 
being sun-worship centres. 

Ur (of the Chaldees) : light, brightness, burning, primarily 
spelled Aiur, gives 

Ur (Gaelic) : fresh, new as though just out of the fire, as we 
say " bran new " for burn new. From the Chaldee Ur we 
have 

Urijah : (whose) light (is) Jehovah, ah. to Uriah (Hittite). 
Uriel : (whose) light (is) God. 

" The Archangel Uriel, one of the seven 
Who in God's presence, nearest the throne." 

Jair : he (will) enlighten. Probably given to a child in the 
hope he would be the light of the house = Ecolampadius. 

Jair gives Jairus. In some cases Jair: a river =r Brooks, 
as in Jordan : river of Tflowing from) Dan. Of course, 
these Jairs, though spelled alike, are different words like our 
corn : fruit of e'arth (con. kernel), and corn : horn like. 

HoRUS (Egyptian Apollo) : the light, whence Orosius : son 
of Horus, protected by that god. 

Aaron : great light (of household) = Hausschein, takes 
form Haroun, as in Haroun al Raschid : Aaron the just. 

Areli (m) : lights of God, born at appearance of stars. 

From Aiur comes the old Persian adjective Arta: great, 
applicable to the sun, then to altar flame. As Artabanus : 
having charge of altar flame, temple servant == Abdul Medjid. 

Artaphernes : great shepherd, con. Holofernes : head 
shepherd, chief commander. 

Artaxerxes : great king = Maharajah. From Arta in its, 
connection with light we have 

Artemis : Diana, Selene ; the shiner, the moon giving 
Artemesia (Carian) : daughter of Diana. 

Artemis is usually given as perfect, but this is preferable. 

Aridatha : great by birth, of noble descents Burns, 
Childers. Also from Arta, the Punic favourite we have 

Hamilcar : great melech, king. It is also the root of the 
Latin, Arduus : lofty, through the Celtic Ard ; Airt : quarter, 
whence wind ; AiRD. From the same we obtain 

Ardeo : to shine, to burn, to glitter. Allied is the Celtic 

Aodh : fire, ardour, whence Edui : men burning for the 
fight, also — 

Aidan (St.) : fiery one, ready for battle = Brown, whence, 
nominally, another saint, viz. — 

Hayes, and Hay, the latter being identical with High and 
Arta. Originally — 

High : the towering of the altar flame. This Aodh gives — 

Hugh, the most prolific and ancient of British names,. 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. 15 

being a pet with Gaels, Irish, and Cymri. It is thoroughly 
aboriginal, being common in the Highlands, Ireland, and 
Wales long before the dawn of authentic history. It simply 
means heat for tight, battle ardour. 

Hugh is followed through its ramifications in chapter on 
Patronymics. 

Ard, AiHD, Ardeo, Arduus, Dunedin, and the ancient name 
Arthur are forms of Arta, which primitive word gives the 
endings — 

Art, Ard in such words as WiSHART : of a wise nature. 

Ballard : of a bold nature ; Maynard : of a manly nature. 
In such cases a flavour of highness, greatness, superiority is 
generally supposed. This ending, for the two are truly one, 
gathered diverse meanings as it passed into diflerent nations, 
places, and languages, but they all fairly find their germ in 
arta. This is corroborated by observation upon — 

Hamilcar (Carthiginian general), which in the Punic is a 
form of 

Ha-Melk-Art (Sidonian Hercules) : the great king, in 
which melk for melech. It looks unreasonable to say that 
the affix in Wishart and Hamilcar are identical, but 
philology shows such to be the case. Without violence to 
accuracy, we may say that arta is equivalent to the better 
known 

Augustus : sublime, co7i. altar service from Auruspex (from 
avis specio), who told events by condition of bird-victims. 

Guzman is formed on Augustus, as though august man. 

Arthur is identical with those ancient Milesian names — 

(M')Artney, (M')Arthv, M'Carthy, and (O)Hart. This 
origin is corroborated by comparing these from Arta : great, 
with the old Amalekite name from Ag, a primeval Semetic 
word for fire, and root of Ignis, whence 

Ignatius (martyr): son of fire^ fiery, choleric ( = Banna- 
tyne), con. — 

Agni, the Hindoo god of fire. Now, this Ag doubled gives 

Agag : fire ! fire ! ! alluding to the pyramidal altar flame 
destroying the victim and soaring aluft. Thus it was Balaam 
was made to say : " His King shall be higher than Agag." 
Self-sacrifice shall overtop the slaughter of others, as resur- 
rection triumphs over death. 

Agag is the only Amalekite name known, but, nominally, 
he had cousins, as — 

Og (Bashan) : high, tall. Had his royal highness lived now 
he might have been called 

Lum : tall as a chimney, for Low : a flame, gives 

Lum : a chimney, up which the low goes. We might pro- 
bably claim 



IG PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Ogyges (aboriginal Greek k'ng) : tall, or using it figura- 
tively, exaltado, a magnate. The chief gate of Thebes was — 

Ogy-gia : lofty, which was also the name of an island, and 
so = our Hoy: high, out of the water. Plutarch calls Ireland 
by this name Ogygia. The Hibernian 

HoGAN, Hagan are probably of og, ag origin in the sense of 
exalted, the son = EGAN, which consult. 

Guzzi (Father) is an Italian diminutive formed on Hugo 
from Hugh. 

Huguenot: little Hugh, a commonplace fellow daring to teach 
religion, and — 

HocHE (general) = Alt, Alter, Ullman, all men of high 
standing comes very near to the Arta idea. 

The Chaldee Aiur also gives the beautiful word Mar-garites : 
a pearl, whence — 

Margaret, similar to Peninnah : pearl or coral, and 
Achates (fidus) : the agate. Ispah : jasper, fair as. The 
original form is — 

Mervarid : child of light. By a charming fiction the 
oyster was supposed to come up from the dark sea bottom to 
worship the moon, and when doing so it received a drop of 
congealed dew, which formed the pearl. Some derive the 
word from Mergret : grit of the sea. From it — 

Margaredon ;" bastard "), in the sense of pearl of knights. 
Many other derivatives from Margaret will be presented in 
their order. From Aiur we have — 

Urim (and Thummim : perfections) : lights, shining from 
the precious stones on the pectoral of the consulted priest. 
Also, from Aiur — 

Seraph : to burn, wlience Saraphim : burning ones (snakes), 
Seraphim : burning ones (with love), ardors. 

Ardor : a seraph, con. Aiur, Arta — 

" From among 
Thousantl celestial ardors, where be stood 
Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, up springing light 
Flew through the midst of heaven." 

From Aiur is also derived the name of an inferior order of 
angels. 

Orphanim, much spoken of among Jews, almost unmentioned 
by us, " Seraphim, cherubim, orphanim, hallelujah !" 

Ner : a lamp, a lightgiver, from Aiur, whence the well- 
known 

Abner : father of Ner, probably like him. " They buried 
Abner in Hebron." Aiur tends to form Or, as Orfah, the 
Turkish name of the town and district of which Abram was a 
native. Also gives 

Orion: son of fire = Zoroaster, Pyrosporus : seed of the 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. 17 

fire. One of the Persian titles of tlie sun is Arsa : burner, 
from Aiur, whence 

Ai:si:s (Persian king) : burner, destroyer = Agag, Apollyon. 

Orion was Nimrod's title after deification, as was 

Alorus : god of fire = Agni. From Aiur, also the beautiful 
name — 

HouRl : flashing-eyes = Lapidoth : lamps, eyes like. The 
Greeks transferred Ur into their languages in the form of 

Pur : fire. Note Aiur, Ur has a tendency to take on the 
consonants p, h, f, v. These are cognates (born together), pro- 
duced by the same organs, the lips, and hence termed labials. 
Pur gives 

Pyrrhus (Epiriote king) : red headed, or ruddy = Roy, 
Redmond and Flan. 

Pyramus : inflamed (with love of Thisbe). " First Pyramus 
must draw his sword to kill himself; which the ladies cannot 
abide." By change of a vowel we have 

Perseus : lightning, burner = Barca (also from Ur) and 
Arses. 

Barca, the Carthaginian gave name to Barcelona. The 
name is cognate with 

Barak (Deborah): whose spear glittered like lightning = 
Llewellyn, and dagger from day. 

Alborak (Koranic angel) : who went like lightning. 

Pyrois (one of mares of the sun) : daughter of fire, quick 
mover. 

Pyre : the funeral pile, — 

" For nine long nights, through all the dusky air, 
The pyres, thick flaming, shot a dismal fire." 

Pyrites : fire stones; Lithos : a stone, to lites, then ites. 

Empyrean: the ethereal heaven = Ouranos : burning like 
the lambent flame of the Aurora Borealis, heaven, whence 

Urania : heavenly (muse), in which the root Ur becomes 
prominent. Ouranos, Air, Aur are formations upon Aiur, as 
is Ether for Aither, from the old verb Aitho « I burn. In 
Porphj^'os, purple is reduplicated as though written pur, pur, 
OS : son of a very fiery colour, at least that is its literal meaning. 
Hence the anti-christian philosopher — 

Porphyry: dressed in purple = Peploe : clad in peplum. 
The word is also applied to red granite. " Within the which 
(labyrinth) a number of columns and statues there be, all of 
'porpyrit, or red marble." Hence the title of Byzantine 
Emperors — 

Porphyrogenetl^s : born in imperial purple, or in the 
porphyry palace, the Alhambra of the Greeks. 

ZoPYRUS : fire of Zeus, destroying like lightning = Barak, 



18 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Perseus. The Greeks had yet another word for redness, pro- 
bably traceable to the patriarchal Aiur, Ur, viz., Erythros, 
whence — 

Erythras (son of Perseus): flaming = Astrafiammanta : 
flaming star. 

Erytheia (also from it) : ruddyish, from which Hercules 
took the oxen of Geryoneus, 

Erythean Sea was the name the sons of Javan gave to the 
Red Sea. From same source — 

Erythematous: inflamed, reddened by disease. Aiur, Ur 
varied to Er gives 

Thermos : heat, whence Thermopylie : hotgate, pass at 
which were warm springs. Warm is identical with Therm-os, 
so that — 

Thermopylae = Warmbrunn, in Silesia. A Persian district 
is known as 

Gurmsir : warm region. Therm, Warm, Gurm are essentially 
one. Again Aiur, Ur to Er gives 

Erinnys (eris nous) : fur^j of the mind, ire of the soul. 

ERis = Fury, from Euro, from Pur, from Aiur, Ur. The 
Latin for anger is 

Ira, whence Ire, is undoubtedly from Ur. Ira = Hatred, 
from Hate, from Heat. In like manner the Cornish Forkhan 
means both fire and hatred, being as to first syllable a form of 
Pur. In corroboration, it may be observed that a title of 
Odin is 

Brown : burning (for the fight) = Erinnys (of course 
literally). Also from Pur — 

Pyrosporus: seed of the fire = Zoroaster (archimagus). 
The former alludes to the birth of Bacchus, the latter to fire 
worship, and each is literally = Orion : fire son. 

Zoroaster, con. Zero : semen ; Zemindar (dominus) : seed 
lord, a Hindoo farmer. " May not the name of the Nereid 
Mara (Od. xi. 32G) express the phosphoric flashing of the 
surface of the sea, as Maira expresses the sparkling of the 
dogstar Sirius ?" If so, Mara and Maira are claimable as of 
the seed of Ur. Again Pur gives 

Parsee : ^ pyrolatrian. These Pai-sees are called Guebers, 
Giours, by the Mahometans. Some claim as of this source 

Fars, giving Faristan : land of the Parsees. 

Aurum: gold, the shining metal is from Aiur; whence also — 

Aurora (rosy fingered) : golden hours, con. Horologe : hour 
discoverer = Clock : that which clicks. It is highly probable 
that Fire is from Pur, It is called Vuur by the Danes. The 
Swedes call it Rod. In New Guinea it is For. Of 

That, Pur, Vuur, For and Fire are in essence one word 
ramified, there seems little doubt. Focus : the hearth, gives 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. If) 

Fuego : fire, (Spanish) Terra - del - Fuego : land of fires, 
volcanic. 

Curfew : cover fire ; Fuel : (good for the) fire. After Feu : 
fire, of the French v^e have the Italian Fuoco : fire. Pur gives 
Purus : cleansed by fire ; our Pure : cleansed. 

Puritan : a catharite, who keeps to the 2>ure word without 
notes or comment. 

Purgo : I cleanse ; when by adding s Spurge : a medicinal 
plant, whence 

Spurge : an herbalist. Purus gives Puer : a boy. Varro 
says : " So called because free from vices acquired by imita- 
tion." Puer takes the dim. Puella : a girl ; and Pupilus : a 
little boy, one under tuition, as boys ought to be. 

Orbius Pupillus (Grammatist of Beneventum) : little 
orphan boy. Pupil when applied to eye is so called because 
one seems to see a little boy therein. Pupil exactly answers to 

Lad : one led, giving La (dde) ss = Pais Paidos : one led. 

Pedagogue : a child leader. That Pure is identical with 
Puer by no chance coincidence is made probable by analogy, as 
seen in the language of nature. " In the Delaware language, 
a youth is called Pilape, a word compounded from the first 
part of Pilsit : innocent ; and the latter of Lenape : a man, 
which, therefore, means innocent man." 

Purgatory : place of purgation, and many other derivatives 
from Purgo. 

Uro : I burn, almost traces itself to Aiur, Ur, whence LTrn : 
receptacle of human ashes. 

Inure : to burn into, to make used to. The smith's hand is 
inured to labour by handling hot iron. 

Adure : to burn up. " A degree of heat which doth neither 
melt, nor scorch, doth mellow and not adure." 

Urtica : a nettle (needle), so called from its inflammatory 
quality. 

Combustible : that which may be burned, from Ustus, 
from Uro, from Ur. The Com is a form of Cum : with, while 
b is formative. Ustus gives 

Locust (locus ustus) : burnt place. Loc\ists leave the 
country in a condition like to that of its being burnt. " A 
fire devoureth before them ; and behind them a flame burneth." 

LOCUSTA (poisoner) : woman living in marshes, bare places. 
Allied to Ustus we have the Italian names — 

FoscARO, FoscANi : dark coloured, swarthy = Swartz. 
Hence too — 

Obfuscous: a dun brown (an old Oxonian colour). Ur also 
gives 

Areo : to be dry, on which is formed Torreo : to be parched, 
torrid (zone). 



20 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Torrent : a water course subject to drouth = Ghau ; though 
some give it from Terra : earth, a land flood. 

ToERANCE (when not from Turra: a tower) ; Torrentius = 
Waters, Borromeo (bore) : persons living near such. 

Areo : to be dry, gives Arena : sand, where gladiators fought, 
sand being thrown to absorb blood, and prevent slipping. 

Area : a court-yard, an open space where corn was dried. 
Aiur gives Ardeo : to burn, whence Ardent : inflamed, and 

" Arson ab ardendo," is the malicious and wilful burning of 
the house or outhouse of another man. From Areo, also 

Arunda : a reed, a dry plant, whence Aruu : reedy, sedgy 
stream, whence 

Arundel (ian Marbles) : a settler thereon. This is some- 
times given from 

Hirondelle : a swallow, but similitude has inveigled the 
guesser. 

Ferveo : to boil, to seethe, to make hot, is also from Pur. 

Fervent : zealous ; Ferment : to effervesce. Fever is clearly 
from Ferveo, meaning in a fervid state of body. 

Febrifuge : herb to make fever flee. Fever is a zymotic dis- 
ease, a fermentation of the system. 

" A feuer it (jealousie) is cotidian 
Which every daie wol come aboute 
Where so a man be in or cute." 

Pruriency : itching heat through feverish state of blood is 
from Pur by transposition. Burke, in an oration against Pitt, 
told that statesman, " He had a 'pruriency of taxation that 
seemed to infect his blood." Changing p into its cognate / and 
reduplicating Pur, we have — 

Furfur : bran, brown, so called from colour. To it, too, we 
trace 

Fornax : a furnace, an archway like a furnace roof. 

FoRNARius (Italian) : f urnaceman, a baker ; and giving 

Fornication : the act of frequenting the habitations of har- 
lots, which, in Rome, were under archways. Milton, in his 
" Reason of Church Government," says : " She gives up her 
body to mercenary whoredom under the fornicated archways 
which she calls God's house." 

Forceps : a flre-rake, a fire-comb, now shears. Capio : I take, 
to Ceps and Pecten : a comb, to fex. Ur transposed gives 

Ruber : red ; Rubus : a bramble, producing red berries. 

Ruby : red (coloured gem) ; Rubric : red (letter service). 

RuTiLius (consul) : carroty-pated = Pyruhus. Rutilent : of 
a red colour. " Parchments coloured with this rutilant mixture." 

RuFUS, RuFFiNUS, BuRRHUS (Pretorian guardsman) = Red- 
head =Redmoxd, Flan. 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. 21 



Biretta, is con. herewith, being so called in respect to colour, 
as Alb : white. Purus gives Puto : I judge, prune, dress vines, 
think. Hence — 

Amputation : the act of cutting round about, ambiputo. 
Here it is pertinent to trace the rise of ideas, as well as the 
formation of words. Pur : fire, is observed to cleanse ; hence 
Purus leads to consider a quality of fire, cleansing. Puro gives 
Puto, con. the purgation of vines. Now, to purge trees involves 
thought, whence by another abstraction we have Puto : I think, 
giving Compute to reckon, which contracts to Count : to ex- 
pect through reckoning. What a gulf between yire: and expec- 
tation — yea, between Aiur and Count, yet both are bridged 
by these processes. Pur turns up again in the German — 

Purpuroth : red as purple, in wdiich there is a triplication 
from the root Ur. 

Feursbrunt : empyrosis, conflagration it is duplicated. The 
words con. 

Roth : red, are many in English, as Penrith : red hill, gravel 
hill = 

Radcliffe, Rawcliffe. Rotherhithe : red hyde, harbour. 
Rutland : red land, sandy soil = Damascus. 

Ridley : red field = Rowley, Riley, Rothacker. With the 
French Ur becomes 

Rouge: red; Leeoux: the red (headed) = BuRRHUS. Through 
the French and Italian we get the following names applied to 
iiorid complexion or redness of hair : — 

Rouse (bravo !), Rous, Rousseau (Jean Jacques), Rossi, 

Rossini (composer), Rossetti, Rust (bishop of Dromore). 
Doubt attaches to 

Rossi, Rossini, Rossetti, as they are derivable from Ross, 
which consult. 

Russell is from a Norman town, yet that town may be 
named from some notable red headed person. 

Rust (rubigo) : brown or red coloured oxide of iron, is clearly 
of Ur descent. 

" Whole provinces 
Appear to our sight then, even leek 
A russet-mole upon a lady's cheek." 

To return to German offshoots of Ur, we have 

Rothschild : red shield, a wounded crusader. In the Span- 
ish we have 

Rosso : red, as Cape Rosso : red cape. Also Braza : a burn- 
ing coal, charcoal. 

Brazier : pan containing burning coals. From this Braza we 
have the name 

Brazils, producing red coloured wood. The English 



22 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Brazier: brass worker, has nothing to do with brazier, 
except form. 

Burra, Borrico, names given to mules from their being a 
reddish brown colour. " The Burra plied her feet most nim- 
bly, and shortly after nightfall brought me to a village about 
two leagues from the river's bank." " I had the appearance 
of a person between sixty and seventy years of age, and drove 
before me a Borrico with a sack of Testaments lying across 
its back." Burra, Borrico = French 

Saure : yellowish brown colour, whence Sorrel, Sord, Saurin 
(Miss) : auburn tressed = 

Flavius and the Milesian Sorley (M'^) =: Xanthus and 
Jacinta. 

" For a roan-gelding, twelve hands liigh, 
All spurr'd and switch'd, a lock on's hoof, 
A sorrel mare." 

Xantippe (wife of Socrates) : a sorrel mare. Sorrel found 
in meadows, and eaten by boys, means sour plant. Burrel 
Roan, Sorrel = 

Hamor : a ruddy ass from Hamar : to be red, inflamed, from 
which 

Alhambra : the red, Arabic palace literally = Porphyry (built). 
The man 

Hamor w^as probably so called from the ass, that being, in 
the East, a symbol of wisdom because of its strength and 
patience. The judges of Israel rode on white asses to signify 
wise judgment. So Jesus entered Jerusalem on an ass " where- 
on never man sat." What He has He must have xoholly or it 
cannot be holy. " The sepulchre that Abraham bought for a 
sum of money of the sons of 

Emmor, the father of Sychem." Hence Amorites : descend- 
ants of Hamor, Emmor. In the Erse we have Aiur, Ur in 
Lough Dearg: red lake = Ery thean (sea). 

In Irish names Ur assumes the form Roo, as in 

O'Connor Roo : the red headed eldest son of Connor, for 
none but tirst-born sons were allowed the O. Similarly we meet 
with 

RouRKE (Teddy O'): the red = RuFUS. Roo and Rourke 
form, in England — 

Rook, Roe, Rowe, when not from Rue : a street. We have 
many words in English directly, indirectly, or by combination 
from Ur, as — 

Roan: reddish brown = Burra. Rose, which simply means 
red though it be white. 

" Four yoked stedes full different of hewe, 

The first was sord, with mane as reed as rose.''' 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. 23 



Rose : a cultivator, a nobleman's gardener. Out Parch and 
Burn are variations of Pur. Burn gives Brimstone : stone that 
burns. 

Burnish : to make bright as though burning. Burnish is 
identical w^ith Furbish : to polish, w^hence the worthy — 

Frobisher: a whitesmith, polisher of metal. " Furbish the 
spears, put on the brigandines." The French Brun, and the 
Brown, are forms of Burn. The Parisian — 

Le Brun is only Brown of English borough ubiquity. So 
the engineer 

Brun ELL is but = Brownell, each being = Brunette: of a 
brownish complexion. From the same prolific source we have 
Borell, whence 

Burwell : maker of borrell cloth ; also means wearing it, 
humble conditioned. Chaucer says : — 

" Had they themselves but light to see the ropes 
And snares of Hell, which for their fate are dresst, 
Because they pill and poll, because they wrest, 
Because they covet more than barrel men." 

Bruin, the Alpine bear, is a form of brown. Bronze is to 
make metal brown. 

Auburn hair is yellowish brown, being to ladies what Sorrel, 
Sord, Roan, Brindle, are to horses and dogs. 

Brindle : of a burned colour. Brand : a partly charred stick. 
" A brand plucked from the burning" and grafted into the true 
vine. Brindle, Burned = Ustus. 

Bran-new, originally said of iron fresh from the fire. 

" Armado is a most illustrious wight, 
A man oifire new words, fashion's own knight." 

Brent: the brand goose, neck having a black and white 
mark round it as though it had been branded, burned. Gives 
name to hunter of it. 

Brent. Brand : to mark with charcoal. Brunt : where 
fight rages hottest, as in " Brunt of the battle." Brandy : 
burned wine, y for Vin. From Ur the Welsh get Rhudd : red, 
whence Ruddle : red ochre. 

RuDD = RouRKE. Ruthlan : red bricked temple = Alhambra, 
con. Scanlan : old temple, church. 

Ruddock : little red (bird) = Robin, also from Ur and uncon. 
Robert. Hence, too — 

Red : fire colour ; Ruddy, for rudly, for redly, for red like. 
Hertford is a form of 

Herudford : red ford = Sandyford and Radford. Raw, 
Rear ; red, uncooked. 

Roast : to redden. Some derive this from Rotir : to turn ; 
but twisting the jack is accidental, reddening essential. Scorch 



24 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

smells too strongly of fire for us to allow it any origin but an 
igneous one. 

Ordeal : purgation, ti-ial by fire. " A custom not difiering 
much from these (in use among the Greeks) that was practised 
in this island by our Saxon ancestors upon the same account, 
and was therefore called the fire-ordeal, for ordeal in Saxon 
means purgation. The manner of undergoing this test was 
thus : the person accused passed blindfold, with bare feet, over 
certain ploughshares made red hot, and placed at equal dis- 
tances." A king of JNorway, named Magnus, came to Scotland 
in his bo3'hood, and stayed here until he attained maturity. 
Returning, his nobles denied his identity, which he proved by 
ordeal, and was therefrom called Barefoot. Any so called 
here do not trace their pedigree to Magnus: great, (Mc) 
Manus, but their ancestors, being tried by ordeal. There is a 
firm at Boston known as 

DiscALZEADO, an Italian word meaning bare-foot, a dis- 
calceated monk. The philosophy of .monastic bare feet is this: 
Barefooted signifies p()or = 

Lackland, Landless, Pair. " Now, this was the manner 
in former times in Israel concerning redeeming (land) and 
concerning changing (estates) for, to confirm all things ; a man 
plucked ofi" his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour," thereby 
intimating right to walk over it, else he would trespass. A 
bye-law of the Temple forbade any to enter sandalled. All 
must go barefooted to the All Possessor. " Put ofi" thy shoes." 
Where God is manifest there is the Temple. " Put shoes on 
his feet" = restore his landed property. Bare feet meant, in 
the symbolism of religion, — 

" No foot of land do I possess, 
No cottages in this wilderness, 
A poor wayfaring man." 

Koh-i-noor : hill of light, shows our old friend Ur in Noor 
in far ofi" India. Compare it with Ner : light ; and Kohistan : 
the hill country. 

Nureddin (favourite Arab name) : the light of religion, 
suggesting : " Let your (religious) light so shine." The Mogul 
Emperor, 

Gehanguire : conqueror of the world, took to himself a 
bride called 

Mher-UL-Nica, a name indicating superiority. The former 
part is con. Major : greater, and is seen to advantage in 

Maharajah : great king. Of his uxorious gallantry he 
changed her name to 

Nourjehan : the light of the world. The former part of 
his name is the latter part of hers, so that they were nominally 



THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF WORDS. 25 

as well as personally married. When she died he erected that 
famous mausoleum to her memory known as 
Taj Mahal : the crown of the harem, — 

" With the Light of the Harem his young Nourmahal." 

NouRMAHAL : great light, beauty = Olympia. 

Taj con. Dagh : a mountain ; as Daghistan : hill country, so — 

Stephen from Stephanos : a crown, allied to steep. As we 
have already seen, the Gaelic received tribute from Ur, to 
which we add as follows — - 

Ruadh: red, as Ruadh-abhuinn (avon), contracts to the 
better known 

RuTHVEN : red river = Rio Colorado. Hence to Roy : red 
(headed). 

We now summarise whereby it is seen that from the 
Chaldaic Aiur or Ur of the Hebrew, we obtain directly, in- 
directly, or by combination with other roots, the following 
words — 

Hebrew : Ner, Areli, Abner, Alorus, Barak, Hamor, Beor, 
Emmor, Urijah, Uriah, Uriel, Jair, Jairus, AarOxN, Urim, 
Seraph, Saraphim, Orphanim. 

Arabic : Nureddin, Nourmahal, Nourjehan, Koh-i-noor, 
Alborak. 

Egyptian : HoRUS. 

Persian (ancient) : Artaphernes, Artaxerxes, Arta- 
BANUS, Aridatha, Arses, arta, mervaid, arsa. 

Persian (modern) : Gurmsir, Parsee, Ears, Faristan, houri. 

Punic : Barca, Hamilcar, Ha-melk-art. 

Turkish: Orfah. 

Papuan : Eor. 

Greek : Orion, Orosius, Artemis, Artemisia, Pyrrhus, 
Pyrois, Pyramus, Perseus, Urania, Porphyry, Zopyrus, 

PORPHYROGENETUS, ErYTHRA, ErINNYS, PyROSPORUS, MaRA, 

Maira, Eris, Thermopylie, Erytheia, pyrites, ouranos, por- 
phyros, erythros, thermos, pur, pyrolatria. 

Latin: Aurora, Pupillus, Rutilius, Rufus, Ruffinus, 
Burrhus, Edui, ardeo, arduus, furo, ira, aurum, fuscus, focus, 
purus, purgo, puer, puella, pupilus, fornax, uro, urtica, ustus, 
areo, torreo, arena, arson, russus, arunda, ferveo, febrifuge, 
furfur, forceps, purpura, forfex, ruber, rubus, puto, rubigo. 

Italian : Locusta, Foscari, Foscani, Fornarius, Rosetti. 

Spanish : Brazils, rosso, braza, borra, boirico. 

French : Leroux, Rous, Rufus, Rousseau, Saurin, Hugue- 
not, rouge, saure. 

German : Rothacker, Rothschild, purpuroth, feursbrunt. 

Irish: (M')Artney, (M') Arthy, Hart, Sorley, Hugh, 
Rourke, Roe, dearg, roo. 
3 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



British : Arthur, Rudd, Ruthlan, rhucld. 

Cornish : Forkhan, 

Danish : Vuur. 

Gaehc : Aidan, Hayes, Hay, Ruthven, Roy, Hugh, 
Dnnedin, ard, aird, rnadh. 

English : Margaret, Margaredon, Spurge, Ballard, 
WisHART, Brown, Brunelle, Burwell, Rose, Frobisher, 
Arundel, Radcliffe, Rawcliffe, Rook, Rowe, Torrance 
(Latinised) Torrentius, Ridley, Riley, Rudd, Arundel, 
Penrith, Radcliffe, Rawcliffe, Rotherhithe, Hertford, Radford, 
borell, bruin, auburn, brindle, biretta, brand, rose, parch, burn, 
burnish, brimstone, sulphur, fervent, ferment, pruriency, com- 
pute, count, rust, russet, sorrel, sord, roan, brent, brunt, ruddle, 
ruddock, robin, raw, rear, scorch, ordeal, pyre, air. warm, 
empyrean, erythematous, puritan, pupil, purge, spurge, 
purgatory, urn, adure, inure, arson, ire, combustible, locust, 
area, obfuscous, ardent, torrid, torrent, fever, fuel, fornication, 
ruby, febrifuge, parch, rubric, rutilent, furbish, bran, brandy, 
bran-new, purple, red, ruddy, curfew. 

Truly, Ur is a patriarchal word, nor is here all his progeny. 
There are few scholars who could not treble the presentation. 
Howbeit, our object is to illustrate the formation of words 
and genesis of ideas, to do which these may suffice. HoAvsuch 
words passed from language to language is not here to be 
considered farther than to say that probably in the early ages 
it was entirely by word of mouth, in later times by oral inter- 
course and by manuscript, but in the last days by word of 
mouth, writing, printing, and wiring. Socrates and Plato dis- 
cussed the origin of Pur in Athens when its ancestor Aiur, 
Ur had been exercising an influence upon language for twenty' 
centuries ; we are considering it twenty centuries later. Our 
stand point is our superiority. They were giants standing on 
a plain, we, men pedestalled on the accumulated experience of 
four thousands of years. They knew not Abraham, and were 
unacquainted with the science of language as now understood. 



( 27 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

PEESONAL NAMES 

PRECEDE all others with respect to time. Adam was a personal 
name. Not only does this kind claim priority as to order, bat 
it could as to number up to the Christian era. Since then 
local, trade, and war names have left personal appellations far 
in the minority. Names of this type are, in the nature of 
things, non-transferable. Thousands of persons might get 
their name from the same locality (as Scott from Scotland), 
but not even two could be called Jacob, Moses, Virgil, except 
through a second-hand use of one of those names by adoption 
or popular application. Of course this is the outcome of so 
many personal names being obtained at birth and the nativity 
of no two children being born in identical circumstances, not 
even twins, as is seen tjy the remarkable case of Jacob and 
Esau. This is a period when more knowledge is extant on 
nearly every subject than in former ages ; yet in this we differ 
from the ancients. Then, as a rule, every man knew the 
meaning of his name ; now, as a rule, not a man in a thousand 
knows whether his name is local, personal, ancient, or modern. 
Of course, personal names are fairly divisible into three classes 
— physical, mental, and moral : the latter having respect to 
habits and manners. Howbeit, seeing that my reader can dis- 
tinguish at once under what head to place any explained name, 
and yet more because it is convenient for philological purposes 
to link the three together, I have so done. Of those deemed 
most important as to meaning or historic association, the 
following is a typical selection. 

Ada:m is the same word as Edom, and con. Dam : blood, as in 
Aceldama : acre of blood. Rabbinical tradition assures us 
that he was named from being made out of a sandy soil, like 
that on which Damascus = Sandy (Beds.) and Pascovitch, was 
built. It more probably means ruddy, like the Welsh 
Griffith and the Irish name Corcoran : rosy, like Ruddiman 
and the gallant Scarlett, but answers most accurately to 
Rhodopis: rosy-cheeked, like Flann: ruddy, giving Flanigan: 
young Flann, Flinx, Clancy, Glancy, M'acklin = Flanigan, 
and Linn. Adam means generically man = anthropos, homo, 
on, as male or female. Ondedieit: man of God, a religeuse = 
Gother (bishop) : a good man. Eve, Eva is the English form 
of Chavah : living, life giving. Ap.el : vanity, vapour, breath. 
" Hchel, hehelim, all is hehel !" Cain: possession, "I havo 



28 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

cainecl the man," the Lord " promised should bruise that cruel 
serpent." " Jehovah cained me in the beginning." Abiel : 
father of strength, strong = Amoz. " Ner, the father of Abner, 
was the son of Abiel." Abialbon : the same with augmenta- 
tive 071 " Ahialhon the Arbathite," man of Hebron. Gabriel : 
strength of God, very strong, man of God, cor* to Gebbie, as 
Michael to Mickie. Michael : who like God ; Carmichael : 
dear to Michael, con. Carus : cherished one, whence Cherry, 
Darling, Mavourneen. 

Algebar : the strong (a title of the great hunter) "Nimrod 
began to be great in the earth," varies to El Geber, Algebra, 
and Gibberish: science to the ignorant. "Near the student 
stood an antique bronze lamp, with strange figures carved 
upon it. It was a magic lamp, which once belonged to 
the Arabian astrologer El Geber." Tel-el-kebir : strong hill, 
earthworks, con. Tellus : earth. Gibbar : manly = Andrew, 
Wight. The Biblical names for a man are Ish (sexual), 
Adam (generic), Enosh (sickly), Gebar (strong). " The 
children of Gibbar (were) ninety and five." Akbar (Mogul 
Sultan) = Nervus : strong, from Neuron : a bow string, 
whence our nerve. Nero : strong ; Nervander : a nervous, 
strong man. Hence also Nerva (emperor), MiNERVA (goddess) : 
strong ones = Bias (one of seven wise) : full of vital energy, 
con. Bios : life, whence Vis : force == Bree. Kraft (George 
Wolfang) : strong, powerful, con. Kratos : power. Iphis : 
strong, much used by Greek women, means strong as a python. 
Iphigenia : strong born, or of pythonic descent, or daughter 
of Iphis from Ophis : a serpent. Alcimus : strong. 
" Alcimus commanded that the wall be pulled down." This 
is con. Elk : strong (deei), Auk : strong (bird). But, observe, 
some of these strong may be political. Alcman (lyric poet) : 
strong minded. Craterus (general) : powerful = Kraft. 
Adrastus (king) : powerful, co??. drastic and draiu. OuTRAM : 
very strong, gives Tram, from one of that name invent- 
ing tramways. Agasthenes (king of Elis) : very strong. 
Lasthenes: stone strong, passive strength = Peter, con- lithos, 
lapis. Leosthenes : strong as a lion, active, strength. Har- 
POCRATES (Egyptian) : strong as a harpy. Hippocrates 
(hippocras) : horse strong, Valens : strong through health. 
Valentinian : healthy, strong, con. Convalescent : grow- 
ing strong. Hales (judge): a hale man, whole = the 
Milesian name Fallon and the English Merry : not jocund, 
but joyous through exuberant health. Valentine is given by 
some good writers as a form of Galentine, con. Galliardi 
and Gay, all meaning happy through good health. The latter 

'•'■ Ccr. for corrupted to, as Alexander cor. Sand}'. 



PERSONAL NAMES. 29 



becomes Jay (Bath). Waldo (Waldenses) : powerful, con. 
Wield = ZuiNGLE, ZuiNGLiUS : he who sivays, rules, each is 
a sceptre wielder, swerver, swayer. 

Kerex-happuch: horn of stibium, beautiful eyed = ORPAH. 
Keren gives Keras: a horn, whence Corona: a crown; Cervus: 
a stag, whence Cervantes: swift as a deer = DEERFOOT. Cor- 
nelius: son of a crowned man, powerful, of a dynasty. Horns 
were symbols of royalty. " I will make the horn of David to 
bud." The Cornelian gens was the most powerful in Rome, 
hence names thereupon are widely spread. Thus Corneille 
(dramatist), CoRNARO (Italian noble), Korniloff (killed at 
Sebastopol) : son of Cornelius. CoSTA : ribbed, strong ; 
CosTiGAN : son of. Compare Ironsides (Edmund with Costa), 
Costa Rica : rich coast, the coast is a rib. Sforza (duke of 
Milan) : man of force, con. Fortis : strong, whence Le Fort : the 
strong. From Fear : vir, gebar, a strong man in the Celtic. 
Fergus : man of strength, Forgie = Forbes {con. vis.), Forbie, 
FoRDYCE : man of wisdom, though some gives this, man of 
the south. Farquhar : a champion, a strong man. Forsyth : 
man of peace = Sweeny con. Syth : peaceful. Kilsyth : his 
cell. Ferrar, Ferrie : tall, strong man. Fearghal : a 
strong man, gives (0) Ferrol. Tremfear: strong man, gives 
the better known Trayner, and Trimble, which also means a 
strong man, and probably is the source of Turnbull, Trumbel. 
FORLONG: man of the sea. FiRGiL: a man of family = Gentil: 
a gentleman, a man of gens. Fergus = Angus : one who is 
strong. Carrickfergus : his rock. Fermanagh : the men of 
Monagh. Fermoy: men of the lowlands. Stark : strong, brave, 
con. Stirk, Starch, and = Bald: bold. Each mean stark-naLked, 
hald of clothing, ready for fight. Bree (Dr.) : strong, so also 
Breen, when not formed on Brian. Andrew: virtuous, manly, 
a gymnast = Manly, gives Dandie (Dinmont) = Anderson, 
whence dandy. Tetrander : a four square man, well-built 
= Area : four. Periander (one of seven) : very manly = 
Wight: strong, wight like, manly. Doughty: able to do, 
formidable. Do gives deed, dead (do-ed), death (do-eth). 



doughty, — 



Lordynges, lysten, and you shall here, 
You shall well heare of a knight 
That was in warre full ivyght, 
And doughtye of his dede." 



Wight is con. weight and sway. Tom Doughty was Sir 
Francis Drake's pet sailor, his Tom Bowling. Swithin (rain), 
Sueno, Swaine : strong man, able to sway things or persons, 
con. ZwiNGLE, s wither, swivel, and Swires (smith). Varro 
(the learned) : a manly man, from Vir and = Wight. 

Albinus (Governor of Britain): of a pallid countenance = 



30 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Blake: bleached, when that is not Welch. Constantinus 
Chlorus: Constantine the pale, as Donald Bane. Sullivan 
(from Bain : white) : fair eyes. The Ban and Boyne were so 
called from their bleaching properties, if not con. BoYD, which 
consult. The Elbe and Albula, from their whiteness. Arge- 
lander: white man = Le Blond: the fair, Blount, Blunt, 
Blondin (rope), Blondell (harp), also therefrom. Guin : 
white, Gowan : a daisy. Nell Gwynne (the Welch Venus) : 
Ellen White. Gown : white garment. But Guinness (porter) 
is formed on M'Gee Inness : M'Gee's island, about = Skerratt 
(scar) : a rock : dweller on a rocky islet ; Sherries : rocky 
isles. Ince, Innis : an islander. Flathinnis : island of the 
brave. Innis gives Insula (Lat) Isola (It) : an island, whence 
Isolated: lonely. Winne, Guin, Bianco, Banco, Snow, 
BiANCHi, Blanc (Louis), Blanche, Blanchard : all fair as 
a banshee. Mont Blanc = Snowdon = Mount Niphates, con. 
NiPHEUS : very fair = CHiONE: snow white, con. Hiems, 
Chiems : snow time = Winter: wind time. Gam (David) 
Game, Cham (caricaturist) from Cam : crooked. Cameron : 
crooked nose ; Cambell : wry mouthed, tortured into Campo 
Bello : field of fight. Cam also gives Akimbo : arms at an 
angle. Cam : river. Cam also Camera : a chamber, arched, 
covered roof. 

Ancus (Martins): crooked arm, con. anchor, Ancona : 
built on an angle of the coast. Boyle (philosopher) is often 
rendered, affected by boils, but is purely Milesian, meaning- 
peril, probably born in a time of danger. Balloch, Brochie 
(captain) : spotted = PiGOT : speckled = Pym, Plm (Hampden) : 
pimpled. Sylla : " As to his figure, we have the whole of it 
in his statues, except his eyes. They were of a lively hue : 
fierce and menacing ; and the ferocity of his aspect was 
heightened by his complexion, which was strong red inter- 
spersed with sjwts of tvhite." An Athenian droll drew the 
following jest upon his complexion, — 

" Sylla's a mulberry strew'd o'er with meal." 

SuLPicius : red-spotted face, gives Sulpice (St.) Varius, 
Variolus (brain) : troubled with small-pox, marked with 
variola. Nevius : birth-marked, or pustuled, from Novus : 
new, — 

" Was there no milder way but the small-pox, 
The very filthiness of Pandora's box ? 
So many spots like naeves on Venus' soil." 

Neve: a nephew = Nepos, con. Neece : its fem. Nevins : 
bighanded. Ronquillo : rough voice, from Raucus, whence 
Rook = Belcher : bawlcher, con. Bull: that boos, makes 
much noise = Grogan, Fogarty = Creek, Craick : war 



PERSONAL NAMES. 31 

whoopers, con. Cricket : noisy insect ; Crack : to make a 
sharp noise ; Corncrake : noisy bird in corn. Gavazzi 
(padre) : loud laugher. Sometimes Gelasius (pope), Gelee is 
given as its correspondent, but it means servant of Jesus, 
being identical with the Scotch Gillis. 

NoBAH : loud voiced :" JS^obah went out and took Kenath, 
and called it Nobah, after his own name." Purcell : little 
mouth = BoccACio. Blcesus, gives Blois (house of), Blasius, 
Blase (wool comber's St), Blas (Gil) : babblers, blabberers, 
stammerers all = Balbus, Balboa (first European who descried 
the Pacific). These = the Milesian Lalor : stammerer. Such 
do not necessarily point to impediment in speech, but were 
also applied to sorcerers using strange words in a muttering 
way, and so answer to Hallosheth : enchanter, whisperer. 
" Next unto them repaired Shallum, the son of Htdohesh, the 
ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters." 
Halohesh (identical with former) : a charmer, banner, for 
ha,rm is to hurt by a charm. Ahenobarbus : brass or 
copper -coloured beard = Barbarossa : red -beard, Thor-like, 
Bareboxes: bonny beard. Pogonatus : bearded — Skegg: 
shaggy beard. These answer to the Irish names Vesey, 
VosE, VosEY. Bellus: beautiful, gives Baliol, belle, Bel- 
LOTT (lieutenant) = Formosvis (Pope), well made = Frame. In 
some cases. Frame : a stranger. Trebelli : very beautiful 
= Bravura, Kali (goddess): black, beautiful, con. Kalos: 
beautiful, and Coal : beautiful (mineral). Calcutta : Kalis 
temple. Callisto (Lycaon's daughter): most beautiful. CosMO 
(de Mcedici) : beautiful, adorned, con. Cosmos : beautiful order 
of the universe. Cosmetic : beauty aider. Comb : hair beau- 
tifier. EuTAXiA : she who decently arranged her garments, 
con. Syntax: arrangement of sentences. Tactics: good arrange- 
ments. PULCHERIA : fine skinned, con. PelHs : skin = Vashti 
(Persian Venus). CcECUS : blind, Cecil, Cecilia : dim sighted 
= Cecchi of the Italian and the Hibernian Keo, but not 
Keogh: a horseman, con. Cochrane. Scipio : a staff", to his 
blind father, con. Sceptre : staff", for a patriarch to lean on. 
ZiscA (Bohemian patriot) : one eyed — Tuerto, con. Torso : 
twisted. GUERCINO : one who squints = Strabo, whence stra- 
bism ; but Schiller (poet), pften given as equivalent, is merely 
a cottager, one dwelling in a shiel, hut, and so = Shields. Eu- 
ROPA: big-eyed beauty = Boris, Glaucus,Glaukopis: grey-eyed 
= Gray, Glass. Pekah: open-eyed. "Pekah went up to Jer- 
usalem to war against it, but could not prevail." Cincinnatus 
(dictator): hairy at birth, Crispus (orator), Crispin (St.) = Croly, 
Curley (Dan.) : for curly, all having curly polls = Krollman. 
NoTMAN (when not a neat herd): having the hair neatly cut, a 
round head. Sherlock : sheared locks = Pollard : polled for 



32 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

tonsure = KoRAH. Whitlock : white headed = Canutius, 
Chanzy, in some cases = Vane (Sir Harry), Faine, Bain. 
Petifer: iron footed, a hard kicker, assumes odd form of 
POTIPHAR. Edipus (of Colonna) : swelled foot, PoDiO : little 
footed, 02h of Patagon, Fuss. Vierfuss : four-footed, running 
as swiftly as a four-footed animal. Plancus (consul) : splay- 
footed. Splay for display. Pansa (and Hirtius): foot-spreader. 
Pansa expanded his feet, Plancus displayed them. Dasipo- 
Dius = Broadfoot. Scaurus: weak-ankled, or club-footed. 
Necho (Pharaoh), Claudius (Caesar) : lame, shut in, enclosed, 
Claudo : I shut, varies to Clodius, Claude (Lorraine), Glad- 
use. Tamerlane (Tartar) : Timour the lame. Timour : iron, 
constitution = Haran (& Co.) Zillai : iron of Jehovah, His truth 
and invariability. This metal (lit. the ringer, singer, sounder) 
was used by Hebrews to symbolise truth and firmness, reli- 
ability ; we say " True as steel." Barzillai : son of Zillai. 
" Now Barzillai was a very aged man, even four score years 
old." Talhiran (king of Picts) ; iron forehead. Taliesin 
(Pictish king) : brow shining like iron. These show hiran, 
our iron, came in before historic times, and a good forehead 
was regarded as an element in manly beauty. But we return 
to our cripples. Cruickshanks (Bacchus) : bow-legged. Long- 
shanks : much daylight under the crutch. Kortman : a short 
man = Stunt, Paul, Pettit, Ninian, and Minghetti. Curt- 
hose : short legs, con. Corti (count) = Short. Krupp (guns): 
a cripple. Varus: straddle, prewM-icator, as though trying to 
walk both sides of the way at once. Gracchus: gracile, 
slender, hence Grouchy (marshal), Grucchio = Macros: long, 
withered, emaciated, gives Almagro (and Pizarro) : the thin. 
Caunt (champion) : gaunt, ge want, thin by hunger = the 
French Laridan. Gourko (general): a cucumber, which, 
being a long fruit, was applied to a long person. Perhaps con. 
Ghirkin (gourdkin) : little gourd. 

Awley : tall as a willow ; hence (Mc) AULAY, (Mc) AULIFFE, 
suggesting Ornan. Hazzard, Hagger: haggared, hacked, 
hagged, cut thin = Caunt. Labeo (lawyer) : thick-lipped, con. 
Label : instructions attached to bottle-lip, gives Labienus : son 
of Labeo. Silas (when not contracted from Sylvanus), Sil- 
ENUS, Simon (when not Hebrew) : simioe-like, hemi, semi, half- 
nosed = Harim : snub-nosed, bent upwards. " The children of 
Harini a thousand and seventeen." Harumaph : flat-nosed. 
" Next unto him repaired Jedaiah, the son of Harumaph." 

Courtney (curt nez) : short-nose = Camoys : nez retroussd, 
nasus retro = Simon. 

" This wenclie thikke and well i-growen was, 
With camoys nose and eyghen gray as glas." 



PERSONAL NAMES. 33 



Cappon, Grossteste (Lincoln bishop): Mazzixi (young Italy), 
Chubb (lock), Fronto, co7i. Frond: that part of tree that pushes 
to the front, and the Sclavonic Golawtscheff, each answer to 
Broadhead, Greathead, the German Kopf (scoftee), and our 
Tait (archbishop). Kean : head, Canmore, (Mc) Cann, Can- 
tankerous : head full of fight. Dolgoruky (Russian noble), 
Macrochier = LONGIMANUS ( Artaxerxes) : long-handed. Male- 
BRANCHE : bad arm, failing in battle, the op. of Armstrong 
Plato: broad-backed = Scltdmore, Skidmore. Clegg: big 
built. Cleghorn = Benmore : great hill. Daft (cricketer) 
deaf man = Absurd: answer from a deaf mun. Dee, Doo 
Dow (Neal), Dove, Dibden (sea songs), Dunn, (Mc) Dougall 
dark Gael, Dowall, Dugald, Doul, Dwyer (giving Diver) 
wearing a black skirt, are variations played upon Dhu : dark 
whence Darn : dark. Darnley (Mary) : a dark avised man 
Tarn : dark water, deep pool. Roderick Dhu : Roderick the 
dark, Duff, Duffy, (Mc) Haffy, which becomes Guffie : all 

swarthy. 

" These are Clan Alpine's warriors true, 
And, Saxon — I am Eoderick Dhu." 

Hence, too, Dour: one who scowls, looks black, con. Adour = 
Blackwater, and Atreus: blackavised, whence Atrides: sons 
of Atreus, con. Atramentum: ink. 

Niger: black, gives Nigger, Nigritia = Caramania: country 
of the blacks = Mauritania : the Morian's land, the op. of Kor- 
dofan: the white man's land. NoiR (shot), Neri (Philip) : dark 
visaged. Vallesneri : dark valley. From a botanist so 
named the plant Vallesneria is so called. Foscoli, Fuseli, 
Fuesli, Peleus (father of Achilles) = our Black when that is 
not a form of Blake. Appeles (painter) : con. Peleus, very 
dark, Pelops : black face, giving Peloponnesus : island of 
Pelops, now Morea, for Romea : south Roman, from it, too, 
Roumelia, Roumania, Erzeroum : land of the Rouman, from 
Aretz : earth, con. Aro : to plough. RousTAN (politician 
French) : Roum stan, or Rouman. tEsop : burnt face, an 
iEthiop = Pelops, Cush, African = Terentius Afer : Terence 
the African = Africaner of mission fame.* Cape colonists, 
born of European parents, are termed Africanders. Schwartz 
(Indian missions): swarthy, gipsy-like = Crone, Cron (Mc) 
Crone. Ocyroe: quick runner = Light, Lightbody, Gal- 
letly = Swift : strong runner. Ocyroe, con. Ocean : swift 
flowing. But Truebody: a faithful messenger. 

HiPPOTHOE, HiPPOTHOUN, HiPPOTHOUs : swift as a horse, con. 
Nasithous : swift as a ship. " My days are passed away as 
the swift ships." Althea (huntress) : the swift (in the chase). 
Tachus (Egyptian king): quick (runner), tachydromus = Snell. 
ASNAPPER : the swift, Assyrian title of the sun. " The nations 



34 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

whom the great and noble Asnapper brought over." But the 
Milesian Napper (Tandy) : baby taken by an ape to top of 
Tralee church steeple, Tandy is Dandy, De Andy : son of 
Andrew =^ Anderson. Parnach : nimble, leaper, runner = 
Lapper, when not a trade name. " Elizahom, the son of Par- 
nach," clearly is con. Pharnaces (Pontic king) : quick, active 
= Wix, Wicks, Sprye, Thrale, Grady, Nym. Csesar's famous 
dispatch, " Veni vidi, vici : I came, I saw, I conquered," was 
saying, I was too nimble for the quick man. Pharper is Phar 
phar : swift, swift, " Are not Abana and Pharpar rivers of 
Damascus?" Abana: stony from Eben: a stone. Such names 
differ little from our modern Allan, Snarey: the swift. 

AURELIAN (gave name to Orleans) : golden-haired = Flavius, 
which was to Roman knights what Chloe was to Greek 
dames. Flavius gives Flavel, Favel, and is = Boyd, which, 
conjoined with Hugh, gives (Mac)EvoY : yellow - haired 
Hugh = SoRLEY and Saurin: sorrel headed. Flaccus: flap- 
eared, whose ears are flaccid. But Flack : son of Lake. 
Grant : great, grandee, magnate. Grandius (mathematician) : 
full grown, bigman, the op. of Paulus. Mitchell : mickle, 
from much, identical with Meikle = Groot, Grote (historian), 
Grotius (Hugo), forms of great, as is Groat : great (piece of 
money). Great, from Grow, whence Grass — Cress, from Cresco : 
I grow. Big : that which is bigged out, built. Meikleham, 
Meiklem : great house = Gresham, Cheese, House, Brian, 
con. Chateaubriant : Bryant's Castle. 

Grant, Mitchell, Meikle, Grote, Grotius, Moir, More, 
Story, (M')Manus, Magnus, Muir : the sea; Moor: un- 
cultivated land, all mean great. The puzzling name ACE = 
House, while Audus : living in the old house. 

Juvenal (satirist), Junius (critic), Junot (marshal), Jong, 
Juncker, Yonge (Miss) = our Young. Vaughan, Petit 
(Petticoat : little coat), Paulus, Paul, Minutius (killed at 
Cannoe): minute person; Smee : small; Smickros, Kenyon : 
a dwarf = Kort; Basset, Bisset: all = Little, Short; how- 
beit, Mee : man of Meath. Names of this class are often 
adjectives inverted and used as nouns, as in the case of 
Long. " A young gentleman of the family of Preux, an 
attendant on Lord Hungerford, being of remarkably tall 
stature, acquired among his companions the sobriquet of 
Long Harry, and became the founder of a family who bore 
Long as a surname." The Romans had Longus, as is plain 
from Longinus (on the sublime) : descended of LoNGUS, and 
LoNGiUS (whom tradition says lanced the side of Jesus) : son 
of LoNGUS. It assumes the form of Laing, Lang in Scot- 
land, and in Germany Lange, but this in France is L'ange : 
the angel (passion play), yet Long is used in the French, as 



1474561 

PERSONAL NAMES. 35 



is seen in name of one of the unfortunate Jeannette crew, 
Belong = LoNGius of the Latin, from which they received it. 
In the Chinese Long : fortunate. In the Celtic Long : a 
sailor. Forlong : man of the sea. Lochlong : ship lake. 
So with Dun : a hill ; Dunum : a fortress ; we have Long- 
dunum, Londinum, London : ship fortress, the fort up to 
which ships come. As with Henry Long, so fared it with 
John Little. Will Stukely loquitur, — 

" This infant was called John Little (quoth he), 
Which name shaU be changed anon ; 
These words we'll transpose ; so wherever he goes 
His name shall be called Little John." 

LiTTLEJOHN = Pettitjean : very common across the Channel. 
Hakketan : little. " Johanan, the son of HaJcketan, and with 
him a hundred and ten males." JoKTAN is varied as to form, 
but similar as to meaning : little born. " Unto Eber were 
born two sons : the name of one was Peleg : for in his days 
was the earth divided ; and his brother's name was Joktan." 
Peleg : division, whence Pelagos, Pelagus : the sea, the land 
divider. Archipelago : chief sea, containing most Greek 
islands. Phalec is the Greek form of this name, as given in 
Luke's genealogy. Joktan = Piccoli (giving Piccolinimi), 
Cade, Nina (Cardinal), Ninion (brother of Jas. 2nd.) : a 
daisy, a little dear = Ninion, con. Mignonette: little, little 
plant ; all these come under head of what the Negroes call 
piccaninnies, wee folk = MiNGHETTi and Ninian (St.) 

Murphy, Morphey (chess) are sometimes given as meaning- 
scrofulous = Gareb : scabby, scautty, leprous. " Gareb, an 
Ithrite, Uriah the Hittite : thirty and seven in all," — 

" Whose band-less bonnet vailes his o'ergrown chin, 
And sullen rags bewray his morphew'd skin." 

Whereas Murphy and Morphey are healthy Milesians, con. 
Moriarty ; an admiral, from Muir : the sea, from Mor : great. 
Morrisey : message from the sea ; Marmaduke : a sea leader, 
captain. Leiper, in like manner, has been sacrificed to cant 
(explaining names by sound) and made to mean a leper, but 
means carrying Scottish banner, with leopard thereon, being 
the exact correspondent of the Italian Leopardi (pessimist), 
similar to Beresford : bear, bearer, 

SiDELAS (Ptolemy) : silent, little speaker = Tacitus : taciturn 
= Moody, Mudie : mute = Offa (Mercian king). " He was 
dumb until twelve years old." El Mudo (Spanish painter). 
" He was mute as a mackerel." Still (bishop) = the foregoing. 
But Sidetes (Ptolemy) : a huntsman, con. Said : fortunate in 
the chase ; Bethsaida : house of hunters, fishers. The follow- 
ing express shining, brightness, glory, or fame. Glory is an 



36 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

abstraction, but it was primarily a visible property — glare, 
glory, shining. It manifests something admirable in the 
physical nature (strength, speed in man, beauty in woman), 
mental (intricate calculations, high poetic powers, or the inven- 
tive faculty), or moral (always some form of self-sacrifice). 
In religion, glory promised to believers is nothing foreign put 
upon them, but moral character revealed. Glory is from 
Clar-us : glare. The Greek idea of glory was being spoken 
of in remote ages, fame (from Phemi : to speak), renown (i.e., 
being re-named). The sons of Abraham meant by glory, the 
revelation of God. The difference between true and false glory 
is elegantly illustrated by Milton in his description of Satan, 
who, falling, was defigured from a star of high magnitude 
into a faxed star, whose meteoric flash soon fades, — 

" At last, as from a cloud, his fulgent head 

And shape star bright appeared, or brighter clad 
With what permissive glory since his fall 
Was left him, or false glitter." 

Lucifer (his well-known title) : light bringer, originates in 
the analogy between angels and stars ; as the morning star. 
Phosphorus: light bringer, exceeds other stars, so he the other 
angels. Venus leads stars through the arch of heaven, so he 
misled angels. Luke : shining, glorious, gives LiciNius, 
Lycidas, Lucius, Lucretius, Lycias (when not a man of 
Lycia), Lucan, Lucanus (if not men of Lucania), Lucipor : 
Luke's boy, slave. The Romans called slaves after their 
masters, by adding Puer : a boy, in the form of Por. In the 
late Slave States slaves were called boys until aged, and then 
were termed uncles. Lucania : grove country : C07i. Lyceum : 
the grove (where philosophers met). 

Lucy, when masculine as (Shepstone) signifies good at pike 
catching. Helios : the sun, lit. shiner, entered the Cambro 
British as Houl, whence Howell, Howlett, as exceeding in 
glory, answering to Samson = Pharaoh : the sun, con. Pur : 
fire, Phos: light. Also from Helios: shiner, we have charming 
Helen: skin shining with health, radiant with beauty, giving 
Helena, Eleanor, when not formed on Ellen, the fern, of 
Allen. Slick (Sam) : sleek skinned, skin soft and shining. 
Helen is given by some from Hellas : Greece, and so meaning 
a Greek lady, N^'^mphas (Col. iv. 15) : a handsome fellow, 
shining with beauty, fern. Nympha, whence Nymphs : beauties, 
shiners, so pretty women were termed stars. Electra 
(daughter of Atlas) : drawing (by beauty). Electron : amber, 
from Elein: to draw. Phosphorus, Phcedrus, Photinas, 
Nymphas : all more or less brilliant. Pasiph.'E : all shining, 
the sun. Phcebus : light of life, the sun, fern. Phcebe : the 
moon. The German Schon : beautiful, means shining, as 



PERSONAL NAMES. 37 



Sheen (Richmond): beautiful = WiNTHROP: winsome thorp = 
Nain and Schomburg (died at the Boyne) = Gastox : beautiful 
town. Cicero gives LuciNA as identical with Luna : the 
moon, both from Luceo : I shine, so Selina (from Selene : the 
moon) = Clara: shining, takes the Italian from Chiara. 
Clarify : to make clear. Claret : clear wine. Clarinda : 
fancy names herefrom. 

Bert, Bertie, Bertha are Germanic synonymes to fore- 
going, as seen in Adalbert (Hungarian apostle), Ethelbert 
(king), Albert, Albrecht : noble and bright. Albert gives 
Bert, from which Bertholet, Bertholon (chemist), Berti, 
Bertoli : Italians, and our English names Bright and Burt. 
Dagfin: fair as day = jEMiMAH gives Daffix, wrongly given 
from David. 

Hercules : glory of Hera, Juno, Ercole. From him forty 
cities were named Heraclea, whence Heraclitus : native of 
Heraclea. Heraclidoe : descendants of Hercules. The same 
demi-god gives Herculaneum. Cleon (tanner) = famous, 
glorious = Bright (John) = SHiMEi, from Shem: a name, one 
whose name is often mentioned, Cleombrotos (king) : glory 
of mortals. Ambrose (Milan) : not mortal. Ambrosia : food 
of gods. Pericles (the Olympian) : very glorious. Olympus : 
all shining, like the Olympian gods = Cleopas, Cleophas, 
Clopas : all glory. Empedocles : whose glory remains, — 

" He, who to be deem'd 
A god, leap'd fondly into Etna's flames." 

Perhaps his name was his ruin through ambition to realise 
it. Damocles (sword): glory of Damon. Damox (tanner): 
conqueror. " A certain Persian, whose mother was a widow, 
was called by his neighbours, Nauari : he who has nothing. 
The mother sees in her son germs of greatness, and to urge 
him to its development, transposed two letters of his unwel- 
come appellation, and called him Anuari : the brilliant, the 
illustrious." He so signalised himself as to become worthy of 
his latter name. A Turk named Nouri = Anuar, was im- 
prisoned for helping to murder Abdul Aziz, 

Ahmed, Mahomet, Marmoud : glorious. " He shall give 
you another Paraclete : comforter," from Kaleo : I call, as 
of Him who intercedeth, Mahometans give it from Kleos : 
glory, claiming Paraclete : glorious one, as alluding to 
Mahomet when foretold by Issu : Jesus, From this Arabian 
sham we have the old English for an idol, Maumet. " Little 
children, keep yourselves from Maumets." Stilpon (chief 
Stoic) : shining, glorious = Japhia (king of Lachish) : illustrious. 
Clytus (slain by Hector , Clitus : sons of renown, 

Cleostratus, Herbert : glory of army, but Hubert 



38 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

(O'Grady) : s^lorious Hugh. Sophocles : glory of Sophilus. 
SoPHiLUS = Wiseman, Sophia : wise woman, con. Sophomore. 
CUTHBERT (ken, couth as in uncouth) : bright, famous for 
knowledge, cor. odd to say, to Cudd}': an ass. Cunard (line) : 
ken hard, very cunning. Redpath (reed, rad, rath-bert bright, 
pert) : famous adviser. Dyce (Sombre), Deas (lord) : wise, 
Fordyce : man of wisdom = Froude : wise through age, 
experienced. Frodobert, Flobert: famous for wisdom. 
Clack, Clow also mean wise, and = Clever, common in the 
south of England. Krishna (god), Carshena: illustrious, 
shining. " The next unto the king was Carshena." 

Nabal : a fool, he who fails, falls, is deceived. Bal is 
identical with Fal in Fallo : I deceive. Fool : one beguiled. 
From Guile : deceit, we get Gull, Guilty. " The serpent 
beguiled me." Sottenville (con. Sot : who sits long drink- 
ing) : fool in town = Verdant Green. Slav is the Russian and 
Polish correspondent to Cleos. Greeks applied such names 
generally, in infancy, Muscovites only in after life. Dobroslav 
(Polish noble): good glory = Agathocles, if not glory of 
Agathos : yet if not, still = Eucleos, whence Euclid (of 
Megara) : son of Eucleos. Ladislaus, Wladislav : glorious 
chief = Clearchus (retreating myriad). Jaroslav (Crimean 
prince) : glorious George. BoLESLAUS, BoGOSLAV : the glory 
of God = THEOCLES, Thecla. Suwarrow's famous dispatch to 
Katharine clarifies the name, — 

" Slava Boga ! slava vam ! Krepost Vzala yia tarn, 
Glory to God ! glory to you ! Ismael is our's." 

Eadoslav (Bosnian king) : glorious Conrad. Petroslav : 
glorious Peter. Pauloslav : glorious Paul. Names given to 
distinguished soldiers. Sclavons use Mir with a similar force, 
though in a less exalted sense, as Cazimir (Polish king) : 
good commander, con. Ukase : a command. Paulimir 
(Radoslav's grandson) : Paul the prince, the good. Vladimir, 
Waldemar : princely ruler. To come near home, we have 
Leofrik : rich in love, fond, Leofingstan : most loved, 
Livingstone (Africa) = Frithestan. Former con. love, latter 
fi'iend. 

LiEBiG (chemist) : loved = MuNGO (St.), from w^hich Strath- 
bungo : valley of St. Mungo. Liebrood : lover of the cross, 
con. Holyrood = Santa Cruz. Darwin : dearly loved, a nurse 
name = Darling: little dear. In the IGth and 17th centuries 
a mania came upon the learned to transmvite names so as to 
make an exodus from vulgarity by changing their appellations 
from the vernacular into classical equivalents. Thus Gerard : 
firm spearman, thinking his name meant amicable, exchanged 
it for Erasmus : amiable = Erato. Not content with one 



PERSONAL NAMES. 39 



after the fashion of plebians, he went in for a triplet, adding 
Desidekius : desired, to be desiderated, takes diia. Diderot. 
His name then stood Desiderius Gerard Erasmus. And he 
rested. The fun and wonder is that the then best Greek 
scholar in Europe could make such a fiasco. Gerard : a bold 
spearman = Garnet (noth: bold) and Garibaldi. But as "A 
prophet hath," &c. The unknown is winsome. Desiderius : 
nearly = Cupid (Cupio : I desire), who causes cZe.sw'e. 

Swartzerd : swarthy earth, peat soil = Adrian (Atra : 
black) = Darnley, became Melancthon : of same meaning, 
and con. Autocthones: sprung from the earth itself, so ancient. 
SoLANDER (however) : one who hunts the soland goose. 
Konigsberg : shot up into Regiomontnus = Villeroy, our 
Kingston. Brooks (our Waters, Beck, Goole) became 
Torrentius. Woodman disguised himself as Xylander = 
FiDDAMAN. WHIT3IAN (our White) enlarged himself to Arge- 
lander (astronomer). Reuchlin (con. auld Reekie : old 
smok}'- = Rekiavick : vapour town) became Capnio. Haus- 
SCHEIN : house shiner, light of family (beautiful name), was 
learned fool enough to augment into Ecolampadius : house 
lamp = the pretty but little known HousGO : house joy. 

BoECE from Bois : a wood (dweller) followed suit in Scot- 
land by becoming BoETHiUS. A French writer of the 17th 
century, remarkable for his pompous style, was Gueuse : a 
beggar : to assimilate his name to his gorgeous diction, he 
assumed that of his estate, and is known to the world as 
Balzac. Some idea of the troubles befalling men through 
name changing may be gathered from the following distress- 
ing narrative. " Some gentlemen of our nation travelling in 
Italy, and passing through Florence, there in the next church 
beholding the monument and epitaph of the renowned English 
knight and most famous warrior of his time, there named 
Joanne Acutus, have wondered what John Sharp this 
might be, seeing in England they never heard of any such : 
his name rightly written being indeed Sir John Hawkwood, 
but omitting the H in Latin as frivolous, and the K and W 
as unusual, he is here from Hawkwood turned into Acutus, 
and from Acutus returned in English again unto Sharp." 
Hawkwood : wood frequented by hawks, similar to Hapsburg 
and Gladstone. Power, Poe (Edgar) from Le Poer : the 
poor = Lackland : without estate == Poor, Puir, Landless, 
living names originally used by monks going barefoot to inti- 
mate poverty. Had the Prodigal Son come home shod, that 
would have signified that he had not forfeited his estate. 

Bellamy : fair friend (when not local), from Amicus : a 
friend, from Amo : I love con. Cm : mother, and Amen : nour- 
ishing faithfully. Bellamy becomes Lammie, when that is 



40 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

not for Lambie = Dilk, nurse names. Beldam : fair lady, ulti- 
mates in meaning a hag. It is common in England, and seems 
to be a case of bar sinister. Philemon : kisser, affectionate, 
fromPhilema: a kiss, from Philo : I love = PHiLO (JuD^US: 
the Jew). " Salute one another with a holy philema." 

OnEsimus : profitable, assisting. " I beseech thee for my 
son Oneshnus, which in time past was to thee unprofitable, but 
now profitable to me and to thee." Philetus: beloved, co%. 
Philter : a love potion. Philologus : lover of the word, 
nearly identical with Philologist. Philixna = Amanda : one 
beloved. Diphilus (whence the proverb " Diphilo tardior") : 
doubly loved. Triphilus : most beloved = Gold, Goudie, Pre- 
cious : nursery names given by affectionate mothers. Three, 
in many languages, is used with the force of a superlative, so 
Triton : loud tone, high-sounding main, an allusion to his 
buccinic conch and waves breaking on the shore. 

" ^Yllat are the wild waves saying?" 

Trebelli: very beautiful = Tryphos A: very shining, excell- 
ing in beauty. Terpander : an out-and-out man. Tetrander : 
four man, square built, like Hercules Farnese. Agapetus 
(pope) : esteemed, loved. " These are spots in your agapoi." 
Graine : loved, connected with the sun, in the sense of beauti- 
ful, 80 = Helen, Olympa, Nympha, and other shining ones. 
Caro (Italian poet), Carus, Carf:y (missions). Cherry, Cheery, 
Caradoc, all mean cherished, beloved, last, Romanised into 
Caractacus, cot. Cradock. Preu, for Preux : valiant. Play- 
fair (speaker), a form of playfellow. Eligius (St.) : eligible, 
princely, gives Eloysius, whence Loyson (Pere) : son of Eloy- 
SIUS, Aloysius (patron St. of R. C. schoolmasters) : of the elect, 
elite, from Lego : I choose, whence Legion : a thousand chosen 
men, or thereby. 

Pendergast, cor. Pendergrass: receiver of guest = Lieb- 
guest, t'on. Prender: to take. Meagher, Meara: hospitable = 
Polyxena, Xenophilus. Flattery : royal chief = Vortigern. 
Coghlan: man wearing a cowl-HooD. Brady, (Joe): stupid, 
it is not only = but identical with Brutii, from Brutus, con. 
our Brute: stupid, in contrast with man. Driscoll : false 
story, allusion unknown. Lucas : wages, from Cas : money 
= Issacher. If a birth name, the Milesian and Hebrew 
strangely coincide. Cassidy : treasurer, money holder = 
Orders. Mulvaney, Feeny, from Fioun : vinum, tdne, 
given to = BiBERius. Vans, Vance (from Uain, Erse for a 
lamb, in the accusative Gin con. Ovis) : a lamb-like man = 
Agnew (Andrew), but Lamb : carrier of flag emblazoned with 
Lamb (of God ) = Christopher. From Uain, Gin: a lamb. 
Vannan : a little lamb = LAMMiE. Frederick: peace rich. 



PEB80NAL NAMES. 41 

peaceful because no foe to kill, gives Fritz, Ferry (Jules). 
Frizzle, Gratian (emperor): gracious person. Grenoble (Polls) • 
city of Gratian. Commodus: obliging, acco??W7ioc?ating, courteous 
= Curtis (gunpowder). Severus : harsh, severe = Sitwarrow 
(general). The Roman and the Russian justified their names. 
Titus: honourable, Tatian, Tate, Titian (painter), Titiens 
(Madame), El Tato : the honourable = Hoxorius. Ethel: 
noble. Athelstan : most noble, Huddlestone (locality from 
man), the German form Adler : an aristocrat, Edlin and Udal, 
come of Ethel, as does (Edgar) Atheling : of noble birth = 
Childe (Harold) : the vt^ell bred. These suggest Ethelrida : 
noble councillor,/^)?!., of Ethelred, gives (St.) Audrey, whence 
Tawdry: vulgar fine. Aridatha (Esther ix. 8, con. Arta: great, 
high) : of high birth = Tiridates (king) : nobly born, as Burns 
and Baring: bairns, born ones of superior origin = Childers. 
So, too, Childeric : ruling son, noble governor, Childebert : 
glorious son, great by descent. These about = Brevvin (Grant) : 
beloved ruler, re con. rex. And so Infanta: royal daughter, 
Spanish princess, fern, of Infant : royal son, whence Infantry : 
his soldiers. Fauntleroy (enfant le roy) : king's son, Rene (roy 
natus) = Infante and like to Knight: a son (emphatic), {con. 
Gnatus), an imp, a scion = Chitty. These are to be arranged 
with such names as Upp, Hopps, Zoon, Ingo, Impey, Hemp, 
KiDD, Ing, Ingle, Magot, Hogan, Maccus, all meaning son by 
excellence, answering to O in Irish names, as O'Hara : eldest 
son of Hara, his heir. Hence the Yankee puzzler, Mullhare: 
bald. Hare or Hara. Seed was anciently used with the force 
son, supreme, most noble ofispring. It is so used in the first 
prophecy on record : " The seed of the woman," &c. And not 
less so in 

Zoroaster: seed of the fire = Pyrisporus: seed of the fire, but 
yet more notably in (S) Porus (fought Alexander) : the seed, 
con. "Spore: the productive substance of cryptogamic or flower- 
less plants." Arsamenes (satrap) : strong minded = Eumenes : 
remembering well, benevolent = Clement, con. mens : the 
mind. Agamemnon (king of men) : remembering much — 
(M) Nestor: rememberer, con. Mnemonics: science of memory, 
Amnesty: not rememberings Man assah. Eumenides: daugh- 
ters of Eumenes, Furies, but used through superstitious fear 
in sense of benevolent goddesses. (M) Nemesis : avenging 
remembrancer. Arsinoe (queen) : strong minded, con. Arsenic: 
strong poison, and Nous : the mind. 

Alcman (lyric poet) and Alcinous (host of Ulysses) : strong 
minded. HuGiBERT (con. Hugo), Hubbard (mother) : mind 
bright, clear thinker, gives Hobart (town), Hubert (wrote 
on bees), about = Kenrick: keen, rich, learned. But Kendrick 
(M') Hendrick formed on Hendry for Henry. Kenneth 



42 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

(German savan) : learned, kenneth, one of cofjjno.scenti, a 
gnostic in literality. Quaxt, Kant, Kunth, Cundle (when 
not a war name) : all ken, are cunning. OcHUS (Darius) : 
wise = Froude. Pindar (Theban poet) : man of head, con- 
noisseur. CoNON (Athenian) : man of nous, noun, mind as 
Arsinoe. Mentor : rich in mental endowments, a guide, 
Hachmoni : very wise, a magus. White (in some cases) : 
witty man, a Saxon M.P., one attending Wittanagemot ; meet- 
ing of the witty. 

Buddha (becomes Fo): learned = Milesian Lacey (Sir Evans 
de). Botan : country of Buddha. This w^as not his name but 
title of Sackya Mouni, who originated the Buddhist religion, now 
vstagnant. Lepidus (triumvir) : witty. " Some elegant figures 
and tropes of rhetorick frequently used by the best speakers, 
and not seldom even by sacred writers, do lie very near upon 
the confines of jocularity, are not easily differenced from those 
sallies of wdt, wdierein the Icpid way doth consist." Dcedalus 
(invented sails) : cunning. Lefroy : the cold, frigid, con. 
Refresh : to make cool. Bengel (lexicographer) : timid. 

AsYNCRiTUS : not to be judged with, incomparable, beyond 
criticism, nonpareil. ^SCHYLUS (tragedian) : shame faced, 
modest = ^schines (for the crown), though it is capable of 
an opposite meaning, viz., baseness. Sophronicus (father of 
Socrates) : of a wise mind, modest = Pudens : shame faced, and 
Sempronius (consul) : sound minded. Aristogiton : best 
neighbour = Beauvoisin, con. Vicinity, from Vicus : a village. 
Many names imply moral or social goodness, as Agatho, 
Phelim, Goode = Good. Gother, the Scotch Duguid = Greek 
Euergetes, and the Latin Boniface. "The kings of the 
Gentiles exercise lordship over them ; and they that exercise 
authority over them are called benefactors." Was that an 
allusion to Ptolemy Euergetes ? Maynard : of a man's nature, 
manly, humane. 

Agathos : good, from Ago : I drive. With the Greeks he 
was good who drove avt^ay cattle from the enemy, as Caffres 
yet do. So our Turnbull : turner of English cattle on to 
Scottish pastures, if it be not a formation on Tremp.le, 
which consult. Best is beatest, he who beats all. Beat, 
beater (our better), beatest, contracted to best. Evander: 
good man = Guzman: a monk, as our English Goodman. 
EuPATOR (title of Mithridates) : good father, whence Eupatoria. 
Trebonius (friend of Ciiesar) : very good. Bonus : good, gives 
Boniface = Duguid, Bohn, Boning (son of Bohn), Bonnet, 
Bonner (bon air): good manners == Debonnaire (Louis): of 
good manners, polite = Urban, Townley. Lebon: the good = 
Medoc, whence Madox. Probus : of probity, one approved. 
Justus : who does right, Josselyn = Dice (Horce), Dicearcus 



PERSONAL NAMES. 43 

(Messinia) : just judge. Fry (Elizabeth) : free, kindly, affable, 
gives Frew, con. Fraulein : free woman. These belonged to 
the order, called a thousand years since, Frelungi. 

Charles means whatever Carl, Churl formerly meant — 
strong with a flavour of roughness which time has rubbed out. 
We say Tom cat, Germans, Carl cat. Churlish does not 
necessarily mean sour, dour, but rough, boorish, colonial. 
Charlesworth : the carls dwelling = Boorhaave. 

" The miller was a stout carl for the nones, 
For bigge he was of brawn and eke of bones." 

Karl Ritter : Charles Knight. Carloman = Charlier (vir), 
Karolyi (count) Carolus, Caroll, Carolina : country of 
Charles. Carlos (don) Harley, M' Arl = Carloving and 
Carlowitz : son of Charles, Caroline, Charlotte, its ferns. 
Charlemagne, Charles the magnificent. Clement (pope) : 
man of clemency, gives Menzies, Menschikoff : Clement's 
son = Mendelsohn. 

Follett is no dim. of fool, but of Folley (sculptor) : a rock 
= FoLi. Fell : rock dwellers, hillsmen. Packe : a deceiver 
= CoSBl (slain by Phineas) : one who cozens = DoLON (slain 
by Diomedes) gives Paxton. Spooner : enticer, allurer. 
Spooney : easily gulled. GuLLiVER (De Foe) : one who 
beguiles, gulls his audience ==Alazon. Varley (electrician) : 
cautious, wary. Hilarius (bishop of Poictiers) : given to 
hilarity. " Hilary term begins." Hilary = L' Allegro : the 
cheerful, man of alacrity. Glarus is formed from Ecclesia and 
Hilarius: church of Hilary, and gives Glares. Giocondo 
(built bridge of Notre Dame) : jocund, jocose, jovial from Jove. 
At first sight looks = Merryman, but that = Carloman, for the 
merry is an outcome of rejoicing in strength. Merriment 
comes of exuberant health manifesting itself in laughter, 
singing, leaping. Gay (poet), Jay (Bath), Galliardi = 
Hales : healthy, hearty. Letitia : frolicsome, joyous, Lettice. 
Faustus (Doctor), Fraustulus (exposed twins) Faustina 
(Antony's wife), Festus, Faust, Fust (printer): joyous through 
favourable circumstances = the following well known names 
Felix, Felicia : felicitous persons = Eumerus (Cyrenian) : 
w^ell fated. Jamin (son of Simeon) : adroit, dexterous, lucky, 
con. Benjamin, this about = Said, SADi,/em. Haidee : happy, 
lucky in hunting, root of Sidetes : huntsman, is seen to 
advantage in (Port) Said, Bethsaida : house of hunting. 
EuTYCHUS, Tychius, Syntyche (last = Felicia): lucky Greeks. 
Again Said = Ha yard, Harvard (they have, hap), Gluck, 
Habo, Eddy, Luckie (and sometimes) Rae : all favoured by 
Fortune, and so = Securius : cheerful, happy, w^ho puts care 
(cura) aside (se). Secure abbreviates to Sure : free from 



44 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

anxiety. CuRius (Dentatus) : a man full of cares, who meets 
troubles half way. Sadd : heavy hearted, set countenance. 
Sadness is settled grief. Pentheus (Theban) : who grieves, 
whence Penthesilea : taking away sorrow by her charms, con. 
Nepenthe: (herb): no grief. Tristam : of a tristful, gloomy 
face = MoRNY (due) : mournful, melancholic. Some authors 
give Tristam : a herald, con. tryst. 

Shandy (gaff) : wild, uncontrollable, always in a shindy = 
WiLDERSPiN : self-willed. Malateste : an Italian name cor- 
responding with foregoing and Headdy, Pertinax : a man 
of pertinacity, and such are usually impertinent. The early 
Christians said " Vere Severus, vere Pertinax:" truly severe, 
truly obstinate. Ignatius (St.) : fiery, whose wrath soon 
kindles, gives Ignazio, Inigo (Jones). Ballantyne, Banna- 
tyne : fiery child. Tyne for Tan : fire. Beltane : May : fire of 
Baal. 

Grig : fierce, Griggs, (M'')Gregor (uncon. Gregory), Angli- 
cises to Grierson, where the Highlander doffs the garb of old 
Gaul. Saad (Arabian favourite) : joy, through luck in hunt- 
ing, is seen in this con. Mohammed Bex Hassax Saad 
Eddin : Mahommed, the son of Hassan, the joy of religion. 
So the great warrior, Saladix : goodness of religion. Aladdin 
(lamp) : the religious. Futher Eddeex : glory of religion. 
Fadladeex (Lalla Rookh) : the whiteness, purity of religion. 
Names combining with Deen : religion, are in daily use among 
Arabs. 

Gatling (gun) for gadling : a gossip, who gads, goes from 
house to house. Go gives gadfly, goat, Gadsby, guest, gate, 
con. Ghaut : a pass. Eustace (Flemish count) : standing 
well, firm, constant, gives EusTACHlUS : (eustachian tube) == 
Stitt, Stout, Steady, Constant : standing by one in 
war or peace, /em. Constance. These = Eckhardt : oak hart, 
figuratively, true = Amox, Amex, Ameexa (Bou). Coxstax- 
TIXE : son of Constance, Constantinople : city of Constantino, 
and CoxsEDiXE is a common name in England corrupted 
therefrom. 

Raymoxd, Raymext (rince mouth): pure mouth, truce keeper 
= Verus: man of veracity. Drouix (de Lhuys) : truth win, 
winning honourably. Al Seddek : the just. " He was also 
termed Al Seddek, or the Testifier to the Truth, from having 
maintained the verity of Mahomet's nocturnal journey." 
Zadok (high priest), Sadoc (Sadducees) : just, are identical 
with foregoing Arabic name. Zedekiah : justice of Jehovah. 
" The king of Babylon made Mathaniah, his father's brother, 
king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah." 
Expressing his opinion of the act by the name. Mathaxiah : 
the gift of Jehovah. Mattax, Matthew, Matty (meddle- 



PERSONAL NAMES. 45 

some) : a gift, child given in answer to prayer. Lysimachus 
(general) : loose strife = Puritan name, Makepeace, and German 
Friedman. Lysander^ Freeman and Frew. Symmachus, 
looks like fighting with, querulous, but signifies commilitis : a 
fellow soldier. Hutin (Louis) : the quarrelsome. Irene 
(empress), Ireneus (bishop) : peaceable = Solomon. " In the 
Greek empire a certain otiScer had the title of Irenarch, nearly 
corresponding to our Chief Justice of the Peace." Winifred 
(well) : winning by peace. Ferdinand : venturesome, takes 
form Hernand as in Hernandez or Fernandez (Juan), son 
of Ferdinand. 

Carpo : fruitful as to offering = Eschol : grape cluster, big 
family man. PoLYCARP (martyr) : much fruit. " Herein is 
my Father glorified that 3^e bear karpon folun." Christian 
fathers should have spiritual sons. Plus : one who has made 
an atonement, gives Pio (Nono), BiOT, BiOTTi, Biagotti 
(Italian dims.) Pious : fond of parents. " The pious Eneas." 
Pasiteles, Praxitiles: all finished, accomplished, good all 
round, Praxedes : active, business like, practical. Zao : I 
live, gives ZoiLUS (critic), Zosimus (emperor), Zeno (philoso- 
pher), Zenas (lawyer), Zeus (Jupiter): full of life = Wicks, 
Sharp, Smart, Grady. 

SaiART : brisk, active, who can smite quickly, out of army 
sunk into meaning gay. Smart : sore, the result of being 
smitten. Smart = Nym and Spry, sprightly. Zenobia (queen) : 
life sustained by Zeus, con. Biology : science of life. Eneas : 
praise = JuDAH = Laudius : who receives applause, gives Lo 
(St.) Vasa (Gustavus) : keen, bold, originally Wass, whence 
Wassing : son of Wass, giving Washington (Sussex) : town 
of the descendants of Wass : bold, con. Vasa. Trypho (the 
Jew) : Trophimus : one nourished, a foster child = Foster. 
When from Phos : light, means very glorious, trebly bright. 
Shelah : prolific = Carpo, Non, Eschol, Abraham : father of 
a great multitude. Kirwan : dark avised=Dow, Dee, from 
Dhu : dark, whence Donald : dark haired, Dundonald : 
Donald's Castle, (Mac)DoNALD varies to (Mc)Whannell. 

Peabody : handsome as a peacock, fine fellow, and conse- 
quential. Hennesy (Pope) : impetuous, heady, irritable. 
PuRDiE : proudie, little. Feely, Filshill : men of great 
teethe Tooth (ritualist) and Mordaunt. Gates (Titus), 
Oatts, are from eat, in the sense of gigantic, gluttonous = 
Jute, Turnus, Jotun : giants with an absorbing appetite. 
Oats (corn) means edible. Our eat and the Latin edo are 
from Eo : to go. Eat is the going of the jaws, and jaw : that 
which goes = Gueule. It is strange but true that jaw philolo- 
gically = Janus : he on whom the year (gir, gyre, time circle) 
goes, turns. Let us present the matter thus : eo, eat, oats. 



46 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



edo, jaw, Janus, Gates, Oatts. In keeping with above glutfcons 
we have Swageman : he who assauges at meals and begins 
ac^ain. Tankey : pugnacious, quarrelsome. Bowditch in his 
"Suftblk :Natnes," Boston, 1860, says that it is probably 
connected with using the tankard. I knew a family oi this 
name. It is good English, and is preserved in combination 
with the Celtic for the head, viz., Can, in Cantankerous: 
thraw, cussed, head full of quarrelling. Can varies to Kean : 
head = KoPF (M') Cann : an Irish warrior given to cutting off 
heads. Kanturk : the boar's head. KiNTOR : Hillhead. 
Canmore:' great head = Chubb: chubby headed. Lento 
(lenis : soft) : man of lenity, tender hearted, Lentulus : 
descended from. Mansi (mansuetus, manus suesco, sequor) : 
suave as to manners, kind, obliging = Bonner. Wordie : a 
boaster, one of many words = Alazon. 

SOBRIQUETS, NICKNAMES, AND INSEPARABLE SURNAMES. 

Sobriquet from super : above, is applied to grotesque appella- 
tions given to persons in addition to their proper name. Nick- 
names are names given with a contemptuous nick of the head, 
because of some peculiarity real or supposed in the appearance 
or character of those to whom they are applied. Often such 
are biographies crowded into a word. When attributed to 
the members of a dynasty they play the part of an ordinal. 
We say George the First, Second, Third, Fourth. No Greek 
would tolerate this. He added the patronymical or descriptive 
appellation to each wearer of the purple. Thus, Seleucus : 
shining, brilliant, con. Selene : the moon, gives Seleucidce : 
descendants of Seleucus, from him also Selucia (on the Orontes): 
city of Seleucus. The following are some of the cognomens 
fixed on members of that race of kings : — Epiphanes : the 
illustrious, con. Epiphany : glorious appearing. The Jews 
called him Epimanes : the maniac. Callinicus : splendid 
conqueror, by irony, his reign being feeble. Ceraunus : 
thunderbolt, by a sarcasm on his weakness. PoGON : bearded 
= Barebones : beard bonny, and the Milesian Vesey. Gry- 
PHUS : the griffin, griper, rapacious = Harpalyce : harpy wolf 
= Cybiosactes : scullion, mean, avaricious. Of course Seleucus 
is understood before each. 

So with the Grreco-Egyptian dynasty of the Ptolemies. 
Lagus: the hare, the timid = Zippor : a bird, gave name to 
race called Lagide : sons of Lagus. Soter : saviour, preserver 
= Hafiz, Hafid: given by Rhodians whom he helped. 
Euergetes (eu): doer of good = DuGUlD, con. evangelist and 
energy. He was so called by the Egyptians for rescuing their 
Gods from Cambyses. Philopater : lover of father. He was 
a parricide. Another of the dynasty was Philometer : lover of 



PERSONAL NAMES. 47 



mother. He hated her. Physcon : big bellied (con. Physics : 
study of nature) = Wamba, avomba = Micklewaim. " The bairns 
hae nae meal to put in their warae." Also answers to Panza 
(Sancho) : paunchy = Hogarth (caricaturist) : hog girth, as 
big round as a grass fed pig. But Pansy (flower) : thought, 
Pensee from Pendeo : I hang. We naturally hang our head 
when thinking, meditating, but hold it up when recollecting. 
Pansy : pensive (flower). To the Hogarth class belong 
Carnot and Carno (of the French) : flesh3^ con. Carnis : flesh 
= Crassus and Grasselli. Lathyrus : pea nosed, wart upon it 
= Cicero, from Cicer : a vetch. Lamyras : the buffoon, who 
puffs out his cheeks, so making them big. Sidelas : the silent 
= Mudie, Moodie, Still, Tacitus, Dumah. Sidetes : the 
huntsman, con. Said, Bethsaida and Jagard. Poliorcetes 
(Demetrius) : destroyer of cities, con. Police, Politics, Policy. 
Nor were the Romans in the rear of the Greeks as to 
nicknames. One of their witty hits was changing two 
letters in Tiberius Nero and so making it Biberius Mero : 
drinker of wine = BiBULUS (consul) and Feeny, Mulvany. 
There is a flourishing name in Italy, BEViLACQUA = our Drink- 
WATER, which some claim as a form of Derwentwater, howbeit 
the name is teetotal not local = the German Lobwasser : love 
water, and accurately answering to the great French Boileau 
from Bibo : I drink, whence Bevor : drunk out of in battle. 

Witty France produced a heavy crop of sobriquets. Each 
Louis had his, as Begue: stammerer = Mutter: Lalor (Shiels), 
though Lalor of the Greeks is a title of Apollo: eloquent. 
Debonnaire : of good airs, manners = Bland, Curtis. 
Such names are found scattered through all history, as Cato 
Censorius : the critic, judge, censor, census taker : Mutius 
(Scaevola) : the left-handed. Scaevus : unlucky, signs observed 
to left hand of augurs, but afterwards applied to unlucky 
words, as Mors : death, and then to improper language, whence 
Obscene. Diodorus Siculus : the Sicilian. Sicily was called 
Trinacria : three - cornered. Dionysius ExiGUUS (brought 
reckoning from birth of our Lord, A.D., into use) : the thin, 
spare = Caunt, Almagro, Macros, Long, Laridan. Eric Blu- 
TAXT(Swedish king) : of the bloody axe, con. Blott,Haco. Har- 
dicanute: Canute the bold, similar to Hardy (captain): bold. 

Gaffer (Gray) : grandfather = Nana (Sahib) = Aves, Anax, 
Laveau. Aves: aged, con. ^vum: an age, Co-eval: same age, 
Ave ! age to you = Hail ! health to you, con. Hales : healthy = 
Valens, giving Valentine, Valentinian, con. Vale : farewell, 
i.e. may you be strong. From Avus, Avunculus : less by age, 
giving uncle, aunt. So Nepos : a nephew, neipce, niece, and 
Neff (Felix). 

" Ho ! why dost thou shiver and shake, Gaffer Gray?" 



48 FEB SON AL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Hugh Capet (founded Capetian dynasty) : the cap, kepi 
wearer, the monk's cap used for covering tonsure. Heraclitus 
Physicus : the naturalist, physician, watcher of growth, con. 
Phuo : I grow, giving Phyllis : verdant, flourishing, and 
Apphius, Appius (Claudius), Apphia : fruitful = Blastus : a 
sprout = Chitty = Florus (Gessius), Flora, Florence: all 
flourishing like verdure, suggesting Ramolini (Napoleon's 
mother) : little branches, like Raimes, Ramage : branches, 
one living where birds are heard singing in trees = FoULiS : 
where the foulis do singe. Suggestive of Craib, Crabbe 
(poet) : a branch, applied to a clan returning from battle with 
branches in their helmets as a token of victory. Nomos : law, 
gives Numitor : legislator, and NuMA Pompilius : Pompilius 
the law-giver = the Greek Theseus. Pompilius : son of Pom- 
PEY : fifth born, con. Penta. TuLLiUS HosTlLiUS : Tully the 
warlike. The Irish TuLLY = Torrance and Flood, when not 
meaning tower dweller. Ancus Martius : the warlike, Mars- 
like, con. Martin = Ptolemy. Ancus : crooked-armed, sug- 
gests Bossue : boss-shouldered. Ancus yet lives in the word 
Ancona : city on sea bend = Reach in England, (Mc) Skimming 
in Lowlands, and Coudereau in France, ours applies to bend 
of stream. The word is also in Anchor : bent iron, angular 
grappler. Genoa is con. Gonia : an angle, Gonu : a knee, 
being at a bend of coast. Tarquinius Priscus : of the old stock 
= Beith, Coll. Tarquinius Superbus : the proud, who held 
himself above others. 

Tarquin : the archon, ancient, ruler = Anax. Constantine 
Paleologus : old stock speaker, having a brogue. Constantine 
Copronymus : dung name, because when being baptized he 
defiled his clothes, con. Copros : dung, Coprolite : dung stone. 
Lalla Rookh : tulip-cheeked (Moore). Lorenzo de Medici : 
Lawrence of the Medicean family, at Florence. Medici : phy- 
sician, medical man. Medeor : to cure by Median herbs. 
Michael de la Pole (chancellor) : Michael of the pool = 
Pool, Pollock, Glasspole. La Belle Sauvage : forest 
beauty, lady of the park, a form of Isabella Savage. Rob 
Roy : red-headed Robert, similar to Redmond : red Edmond. 
Caelum O'Glen : Galium of the glen, as 9 o'clock, 9 of the 
clock. Maccallum More : the great M'Callum, Argyll. 
Marco Polo (Venetian) : Mark Paul. Tam o' Shanter : Thorn 
of the Shantie farm, broken down barns, old buildings. Clym 
OF THE Clough : Clement of the clifl" (outlaw). From clifl, Clow, 
Clive (India) = Folly, Fell = Du Halde : of the hold, usually 
a rock = Sternhold : living in a stone hold, castle that could 
not be burned. 



( 49 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

BIBLICAL NAMES. 

Our Scriptures supply names to nearly half of civilisation. 
As well kick at Fate as at the Book. Eclectic, sceptic, agnos- 
tic are alike indebted with believers thereto for names of 
themselves or friends. In many cases these were indirectly 
derived from that sacred source when the recipient was uncon- 
scious of such origin and continues to be so life through. As 
in ordinary affairs, it consists with wisdom that all actions 
should be interpenetrated with religion rather than that cer- 
tain acts should be viewed as secular and others as sacred, so 
it seemed good to blend biblical names with common through 
this book, consequently no exhaustive chapter will be devoted 
thereto. Yet, on the other part, seeing it is of Divine appoint- 
ment, founded on human nature, that one day should be mora 
especially devoted to things sacred, so there seems a propriety 
in setting apart one chapter entirely to this subject. 

No people,of any age,combined God's name and attributes with 
their name so much as did the Hebrews, Israelites, Jews. Take 
Old Testament names and compare them with those now used 
among Jews and two notable facts forthwith force themselves 
upon the observer. They alone, as distinguished from " the 
seventy nation," entwined the Divine name with their own in 
combinations so varied that a Jerusalem directory of B.C. 700 
would only be less valuable than the Bible. The Jews no 
longer so act, presumably wholly or partially because some 
organic change in respect to them and the Divine name has 
taken place. That civilised nations could not now tolerate 
names varied from the parental stock, that Cohen's sons and 
daughters must be Cohens, does not cover the position, because, 
as in the Church of Rome, there is the recognition of the reli- 
gious as well as the civil name : in like manner were the Jews 
anxious to act as they once did, no government in the world 
could prevent them. Not only do they not now so use the 
word Jehovah in conjunction with biographical changes, but 
there is one name they avoid — Joshua, or, as we British term 
it, Jesus. It is hard for the sceptic to account for this name 
being disused after the first century of our era other than the 
way Christianity accounts for it, viz., Jews looking upon it as 
accursed, and consequently to be avoided, while most Chris- 
tians view it as too sacred for application to even the best of 
the sinful sons of Eve. Thus, between hatred and awe, the 



50 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

name Jesus became the heritage of Him to whom, in the 
highest sense, it can alone apply. We have shown that Jesus 
is a formation upon the word Jehovah, which former has been 
corrupted until it means hypocritical, as is seen in the too well 
known words, Jesuitical and Jesuitique of our neighbours the 
French. Yet, though the name Jehovah has been in use thous- 
ands of years, it, like Him of whom it is the sacred sign, has 
suffered no change. At one time Jove was thought to be a 
formation therefrom, but scholars agree that as Dies : a day, 
becomes Jour, so Dios : divine, becomes Jove, and Dios-pater : 
father Jove, becomes Jupiter. And yet Theos : God, has been 
arrogated by the basest of men, as Antiochus Theos : Antio- 
chus the divine. So, too, Theos is applied to gods whose 
feigned stories are best untold. Now, as no man ever took to 
himself the title Jehovah, He who said : " Thou shalt not take 
the name of Jehovah, thy God, in vain," must surely have 
watched over it with jealous care through His love to man, 
for if nothing unpolluted were left to us, whereof shall Jacob's 
ladder be made ? how we travel the upward towards Him ? 
Considering the vile uses to which the words Lord, God, Christ, 
Jesus, have been applied, who can doubt that the peculiar name 
has been preserved like the uncorrupted manna in the golden 
pot in the ark of God. Jehovah : I am, i.e., unvaried by time 
or conditions ; He to whom there is neither accession nor 
diminution of knowledge, happiness, power, or love ; He who is 
"without parallax or tropical shadow;" " He in whom is light 
and no darkness at all." The sun has spots, diamonds have 
flaws, creatures their foibles, Jehovah none. Whether this be 
ideal or real no sceptic can conceive of a being comparable 
thereto. One grander is not only impossible but unthinkable. 
Nay, there is only One. The man who thinks sublimely lands 
ultimately in the thought — God. The Hellenistic Jews called 
this name Tetra-Gramviaton, because consisting of four letters. 
It was unused by pious Jews in conversation, they substituting 
El or Adonai therefor. Nor was this mere superstition, but 
a high form of wisdom. Similarly through awe of the Divine, 
inspired w^riters use the personal pronouns where we should 
reckon them inelegant, but their defence is they feared to 
mention His great name too often less familiarity should breed 
undeserved contempt. I turn by the merest chance to Job 
xxiii. where the weeper uses pronouns instead of the Divine 
name twenty-seven times, but the word God only once, and 
Almighty once. Much the same is seen in the book of Psalms, 
as also in the New Testament. Illustrations of this awe 
abound in all parts of it. Turn to 1 John ii. 25 to end. 
"And this is the promise that he hath promised us, eternal 
life. These things have I written unto you concerning them 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 51 



that seduce you. But the anointing which ye have received 
of him, abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach 
you : but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, 
and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye 
shall abide in him. And now, little children, abide in him : 
that when he shall appear we may have confidence, and not 
be ashamed before him at his coming. If ye know that he is 
righteous, ye know that everyone that doeth righteousness is 
born of him." 

Theos was not corrupted so much because men are wicked or 
given to change, as because changing it at all the meaning must 
degrade. Thus Diabolis : accuser, slanderer, whence Diable, 
Devil, starts existence with a low meaning, whereby it may 
be raised. Thus we have devil, devilled, devilish, used in 
anything but a bad sense, as " He (a horse) is a devil to go." 
" He (a man) is a devilish (very) good fellow." The fact is as 
Jehovah is the holy name any change must needs be down- 
wards. Satan : adversary (of God and man) is much grander 
in conception and use than Devil. One of the most blessed 
titles applied to God is Despot : foot binder, he who governs 
without consultation. Despots are divisible into good and bad. 
Every father of a family, every captain of a ship, teacher of a 
school, is a despot, as is the Empress of India over Hindoos. 
Souls under the apocalyptic altar, cry, " How long, Despot, 
holy and true dost Thou not avenge our blood ? " But so ill 
used has despot become, and in such ill savour is it that few 
of us lind pleasure in applying it to God, although that aged 
saint Simeon did, " Despot, now thou lettest thy servant 
depart in peace." Now I can go home and die. 

The Hindoo for God is Ram, whence Ram-Bukah : the gift 
of God == BoGDAN from Bog : God in the Sclavonic. When the 
word Jehovah enters into composition with personal names it. 
assumes the forms of jah, ah, a, and is used either as a prefix 
or a postfix. The highest compliment ever paid to a woman 
(if it be lawful to term things so sacred compliments) was 
when the Almighty said, " As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt 
not call her name Sarai (princess, aristocratic woman), but 
Sarah (" princess of Jehovah, greatest princess "). There the 
Lord takes part of his name and adds it to that of His 
nominee. Consult Israel. We find it again in combination 
with the name of a woman, Ex. vi. 20. Jochabed (con. 
ICHABOD : where is the glory ?) : Jehovah's glory, perhaps an 
inspired promise of the Lord's power being manifested out of 
weakness. After the manifestation of the Almighty in the 
bush (God delights in paradoxes of speech and action) the 
cases in which the Divine name combines with the names of 
men become numerous, as Abijah, Abi : (whose) father (is) 



52 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Jehovah = Joab. To me these are wonderful names. Nowhere 
is it revealed in the Old Testament as lawful to call the 
Eternal by so familiar an expression as Father. What prophet, 
which psalmist so addresses Him ? Jesus was the first man 
who taught men so to address God. Howbeit, He did not, as 
our authorised version and revision lead us to suppose, teach 
us to say " Our Father," which puts the second table of the 
decalogue before the first, placed brotherhood before father- 
hood. The Lord's prayer in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin places 
Father before our, and should do so in English. However, 
Father of us would now sound strange. Theology and reason 
have been sacrificed on the altar of idiom. The Greek and 
Latin churches have Fater emoon and Pater noster which is 
true teaching. By such names as Abiah we know what the 
Scriptures do not explicitly teach that pious Israelites 
approached God with holy boldness, so that it is clear the 
spirit of adoption whereby we cry Abba : Father, wrought, 
though faintly, from Exodus to Pentecost. 

Shixab (Admite king): shining of the father, glory of = 
Cleopatra, which may mean glory of the country = Lambert. 
Shin is essential with schon, shine, sheen, skin, sun, all mean- 
ing that which shines, is beautiful. Abiel, Eliab : God (my) 
father. Abibal (Hiram's father) : my father (is) Bael. 
Abiathar : (whose) father (is) left. Father dying during 
infancy of son. Nadab : liberal, benevolent = Giffard : of a 
giving nature. But Amminadab (chariots of) : a willing 
people, may be noble people = Aristodemus : best of the 
people, and Protesilaus: first of the people. Nabal : rough, 
boorish, churlish, dour, con. falls and fool. " The nahal shall 
no more be called nadib." — Isa. xxxii. 8. 

Abinadab : father of liberality, free with heart to feel and 
purse to help. Abigail : (whose) father rejoiceth (at her 
birth), con. Haggith. Abihu : (my) father (is) He = Elihu : 
(my) God (is) He. Abimelech : (whose) father (is) king, of 
royal descent = Fauntleroy (banker) : for Enfant le roy = 
FiTZROY. But Faunt: a fount. Abram, Abiram : high 
father, a patriarch. Abraham : father of a multitude, gives 
Ibrahim (pacha),^ Braham (singer), Abbema (French), Bram- 
well : Abraham's spring. Maberly (poor man's friend) : 
Abraham's field. Tabraham, Tabram (de Abraham) : son of 
Abraham. From Ab : father. Baboo (Hindoo title) = Sire, 
Sir, and the Arabic Ali Baba (forty thieves) : the father. 
Baboo applies to Hindoo gentleman in his civil capacity. 
Sahib to distinguished natives of India and foreigners, 'if 
military men. 

Abishalom, Absalom : father of peace, born in quiet times 
= Bishlam. Jehoshaphat, Shaphatiah y : Jehovah's j udge = 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 53 



Adoxijah, in the sense of God bringing out of trouble, con. 
SUFFETES : Carthaginian judges. Adon becomes Dan : a judge, 
whence Daniel: judge of God = Eliphal, Theocritus, used 
passively with the force judged of God, helped by. Hence 
Daniels, s formative. Amariah : (whom) Jehovah spoke (of), 
promised, from Amar : to speak, whence Amiral (some tall) : 
commander, becomes Admiral. From it the Arabic title 
Emir-al-Omrah : commander of commanders, generalissimo = 
Phicol (Philistine) : mouth (of) all, whom all obey, con. Pi- 
hahiroth : mouth of Hiroth, pass so called. Omar Pasha is a 
double title. We have Omar : a commander, word giver, Gen. 
xxxvi. 11-15, the Mosque of Omar now in Jerusalem, and 
lately had Omar Pasha, general of Abdul Medjid. Omriah, 
Omri : commander of Jehovah, greatest general. Puah : 
mouthy, wordy. 

Uz, Amoz : strong = Hales : hale, strong by reason of 
health. Uzziah, Amaziah y : strength (of) Jehovah, very 
strong, con. Uzziel : strength of God. Amittai (Jonah's 
father) : amen (of) Jehovah, God keeping faith. A common 
name in Arabia still is Amoun (Ben) : amen (man) = Fidelius : 
faith keeper. Ameen-edden : faithful in religion. Athaliah 
(queen), Athlai (Bebai's son) ^ : whom Jehovah afflicted. 
Ezer: help, gives Ezra, EsDRAS = Alexis when Alexius: 
son of Alexis. Ebenezer : stone (of) help, con. Ben : a son. 
Ebony : stone wood. AzARiAH, Joezer )> : helped of Jehovah, 
that happening to the father about the time of son's birth, 
Elazarus : helped of God = Azareel, Aziel, Azrael (death 
angel of the Koran). Eliezer (Damascus) = the Arabic 
Asrallah. Lazarus (form of Elazarus) gives Lazaroni : 
beggars like Lazarus. Lazaretto : lazar house, instituted for 
lepers and contagiously diseased. Lizars : medical attendant 
on Lazaretto. Lazy : lying about like Lazarus. So ill and 
idle are the same word. 

Elisheba (Aaron's wife), con. Sabbath and meaning oath of 
God, i.e., God remembering his oath to Abraham, hence 
Elizabeth, Eliza, Elsie, Bet, Betty, Babington: town of 
St. Elizabeth's church. Baruch : blessed = Beatus, fern. 
Beatrice for Beatrix. Barachel (Elihu's father) : blessed 
(of) God, by increase of family. Berachiah : blessed (of) 
Jehovah. Ben : a stone, gives Banah : to build, whence 
Benahiah : built (of) Jehovah, increased in family. " When 
I prophesied Peltahiah, the son of Benahiah died." Bath : 
daughter, eldest girl. Bathoni : daughter of my sorrow. 
Bathiah : daughter (of) Jehovah, His worshipper. Bath- 
SHEBA : seventh daughter. Pekah : open eyed = BOPIS : ox 
eyed, the opposite of Myotis : lady shutting her eyes peep- 
ingly, winsomely. Pekahiah : (whose) eyes Jehovah opened 



54 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



(to see divine visions). " Pekahiah, the son of Menahem, but 
Pekah, the son of Remaliah, a captain of his, conspired against 
him." Remaliah : exalted (of) Jehovah, from Rama : high. 

Elijah : God (is the) Lord, Elias, Ellis, Elliott, Elleston: 
town of St. Elias. Joel : Jehovah (is) God, Elijah is a creed 
in a name, and should be read by the light that lit on the 
altar on Carmel. " How long hop ye between two opinions ? 
if Jehovah be Elohim, follow Him." Elisha: God (is) 
saviour, is like thereto, forming Eliseus. Hod : praise, glory, 
t'on. Laudo and Plaudo, whence Explode : to make a loud noise 
like may persons clapping hands. Ehud (judge) : one praised 
= ^NEAS. Ep.exetus : praiseworthy. ISHOD : man, praised for 
his beauty. Abihud: father (of) praise, worshipper = Theosehes. 
HoDAViAH^ The Hebrew idea of glory 

Hodijah > praise (of) Jehovah, is nearness to God, the 
Hodevah 3 Greek fame, the Roman 

applause. " Augustus, when dying, canvassed for the applause 
of those who were round his bed." 

J ■ known, loved, approved of by Jehovah. 

" Depart from me, I never hneiv you." 

Jedidiah : beloved (of) Jehovah, con. Dido, David, and = 
Deocarus : cherished by God. Jehoikim : Jehovah appointed. 
Eliakim : God appointed, con. Jachim : firm. No stranger to 
Israel could know the difference between these two unless 
under Hebrew teaching. A beautiful illustration of " I will 
give him a new name," showing power over and interest in. 
Jehoidah : knowledge (of) Jehovah, loved of God, cor. Jaddua 
(high priest). Aram : high, becomes Ramah : brae top, be- 
comes Aramathea, and Ram: man of dignity, "Then was 
kindled the wrath of Elihu of the kindred of Ram." 

Jehoram Joram: Jehovah exalted = Jeremiah : raised (of) 
Jehovah, cor. Jerry. Adoniram (QGd) : the Lord (is) exalted, 
Ahaz (dial of) : seen (by God). " I have seen, I have seen the 
affliction of my people." Jehoahaz : beheld (of) Jehovah, 
con. Ghazi (ghau) : valley of vision, beautiful dale. Micaiah : 
who (as) Jehovah? Michael: who (as) God? "Who is 
like unto Thee, Jehovah among the elohim ?" From latter 
Miguel (Don), Macclesfield: Michael's field. Carmichael : 
dear to Michael, Mike, Micky, and Moke: a donkey. This is 
a pet name with the Irish, who view it thus :— As Michael 
conquered Satan, the first Protestant, and drove the rebel 
angels from heaven, f-o the Pope conquered Luther and excom- 
municated Protestants. Thus it means conqueror of heretics. 

Nahum: a comforter. Noah : consolation (to parents) = 
Menahem. Nehemiah : comforted (of) Jehovah. From same 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 



root Maxes: consolator, Maxichceus: son of Mani, whence 
Manieheism. Elimelech : God (is) king, the Lord reigneth. 
Elizur (conversely), Zuriel : God is a rock, unchangeable. 
Pedahazur : rock of redemption, con. Padon : redeemed. 
" Gamaliel, the son of a Pedahazur." Zurshaddai : rock 
Almighty. From Zur: a rock, we get Soor, whence Syria: 
country round Tyre, Sirocco : Syrian wind = Libecchio : 
Libyan wind, Suristan: Syrian land. Ammishaddai : people 
(of the) Almighty, covenant ones, those under the shedder, dis- 
poser. Ammihud : (one of the) people who are praised, "Am- 
miJmd, king of Geshur." Shemer: guarded, kept, gives 
Samaria : hill of Shemer. Ishmerai : guarded (of) Jehovah = 
Theophylact : God guarded, con. Phylactery : protection, sign 
of God's keeping. 

Tebah : confidence of parents = Greek Elpis : hope, and 
Iinsh DiGXUM. " His concubine whose name was Keumah, she 
bare Tebah." Reumah : lady, superior woman, exaltado, from 
Ram : high. Jehovah-rophi : (the) Lord, (the) healer. 
Raphael : healer (of) God, sent to heal, whence Raffles 
(Sir Stamford) from whom the largest flower in the world is 
called Rafilesia. Jehovah-nissi : (the) Lord (my) banner. 
Jehovah-tzkixu : (the) Lord (our) righteousness, con. Sadoc : 
just, gives Sadducees : disciples of Sadoc, identical with 
Tunisian Bey, Sidik=Jasher (book of), con. the dim. 
Jeshurux : little just one, darling because of goodness. 
Zaccar: mindful. Zechariah : remembered (by the) Lord, 
hence Zachary. Zeruiah (ye sons of) : balsam (from) 
Jehovah, pleasure giving birth = Mordecai. When Ah for 
Ach: brother, begins a name, it is generally used figuratively, 
as Ahitub : good brother, worthy person, con. Tabeel : good- 
ness (of) God. " Let us set a king in the midst of Jerusalem, 
the son of TabeaV We, too, have Goodbrother. 

Ahixoam : brother of pleasantness, good company = BUOXA- 
PARTE, Ledru. Ahimelech : king's brother = Noble, for 
notable, from Noto : I mark. Ahiam : mother's brother, 
maternal uncle. When born like him. Ahab : father's 
brother, paternal uncle = Brodersex : son of brother. 

Ahimoth : "brother of death, sickly born, con. Mors, Mars, 
Mavors. Ahitophel : brother of foolishness = Brutus : dull, 
stupid. Hazelelopoxi : give shade, thou who regardest 
me, con. Zill Allah : shadow of the Almighty, Persian title. 
" The name of their sister was Hazelelponi." Blessed name. 
Bezaleel : (under) (the) shadow (of) God. " He that dwelleth 
in the secret place of the Most High shall abide tender the 
shadoiu of the Almighty," con. Zillah, Zalmox. Zalmuxna : 
shelter forbidden, he who shows no quarter. Shalom, Salmon, 
Selim : peace. Salaam : to bow, wishing peace. Shalmaxeser : 



56 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



peaceful prince, con. Sar, Israel. Shemuliel : peace (of) God, 
friend (of) God, as Abraham. Shelomi : peaceful man. 
Shelomith : peaceful woman, nearly = Shulamite: peaceful, 
filled with love, the bride, the Catholic Church. " Return, 
return, Shulamite ; return, return, that we may look upon 
thee." Some derive Shiloh from this root and give it = 
Pacifico = Shiloni : peacemaker. The Samaritans give the 
famous prophecy of Jacob, " The sceptre shall not be taken 
from Judah, nor a leader from his banners, until the Pacific 
shall come." But Shiloh : sent (of God), identical with 
Shiloah, Siloam : (water) sent (through strong arches). 
Apostle : sent from (the Lord Jesus). Missionary : sent (by 
the Church) = Envoy : sent (by Government). 

Solomon : very peaceful, forms Suleyman (Pacha) in 
Turkey, Slomax, Somax in England. From Salem also we 
have Islam, Moslem, Mussulman. Istamboul : city of peace 
(boul polls), the Arabic for Constantinople, and = Islambad : 
city of the faith, Hindostan. Solomon = Pacificus : the 
pacifier, and the Irish Sweeney : peaceful, but not Frederick : 
peace rich, one who makes peace by putting enemy so that 
they cannot fight. El : God, the strong one, Elohim : strong- 
ones, first met with in composition in Mehujael (Lamech's 
grandfather) : struck of God, greatly afilicted. " We did esteem 
Him stricken of God and afflicted." Mahaleel : praise (to) 
God, CO H. Hallelujah : praise Jah. HiLLlL : singer, he who 
lilts. Lilt: to sing jerkingly and spontaneously. The two 
great rabbis of Hebraism were Hillil and Shammai. Shammai : 
named, famous = Inclytus, con. Shem; a name. Ad : one, solus. 
Bedad : solitaire, lonely. Hadad : one, one, the sun god, 
Sol : the sun, con. Solus : alone. " Hadad, the son of Bedad, 
who smote Midian in the field of Moab." Beor : a torch = 
Flambard : flaming sword, glittering like flame. " Balaam, 
the son of Beor, hath said." Ammiel, conversely Eliam : 
people of God. Balaam: a foreigner, not of the people = 
Outremer: a stranger, one from beyond the sea. Calcol : 
sustenance (of parents) = SciPio : sceptre, staflT of his blind 
father. But Calcot, for Caldecot (English) : cold house, 
open to winds = Balfour. 

Darda : pearl (of) wisdom, wisest = Hachmoni : very wise. 
Debir: an oracle. " Dehir, king of Eglon." He would be 
good at advising, and so = Eubulus and Alfred. Deborah 
(a bee, i.e., patient, industrious, others give) : eloquent woman 
= Chrysostom : golden mouth, Chrysologus (St.) : golden 
discourser = BiLSHAN: son (of the) tongue = Phuvah : mouth, 
con. Phicol. 

Phinehas (Cozbi) or Phineas : serpent-mouthed, persuading 
to evil, as the worm did Eve, from Pi or Phi : mouth, and 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 57 



Nahash : a hisser, serpent. " Thy two sons, Hoplini and Phi- 
neas, are dead." Tidal : who is feared = Aldred : whom all 
dread, whence Mrs. Stowe's Deed. " Tidal king of nations/' 
i.e., a mixed people, as Abyssinia : a mixture. Pamphylia: all 
tribes intermixed. ZiZA : full-breasted, abundance (of milk), 
whence Jaziz : he will bring abundance. " Over the flocks 
was Jaziz, the Hagerite," Hagarene. What name could be 
better for a shepherd ? Ardox : a fugitive, who flees to high 
place, con. Arduus = Phygellus and Fleming. " Caleb had a 
son named Ardon." Agee : a fugitive, con. Hagar. " Sham- 
mah, the son of Agee." Arvad {con. Ardon) : place of fugi- 
tives = Flanders : fleers = Servia : country of runaway serfs, 
slaves. " The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mari- 
ners." Balak : licking up, destroying. " Now shall this 
company lick up all that are round about us, as the ox licketh 
up the grass." Ishmael : heard of God, had three sons, viz., 
MiSHMA : hearing, con. Ishmael, Simeon, Dumah : silence, 
con. Dumb: silent, Massa: patience. The rabbis weld these 
into a proverb — " Hear much, say little, bear much." Gama- 
liel (at feet of) : reward from God. Birth name. " The fruit 
of the womb is His reward." GoLlATH : an exile, an emigrant 
= Gales : of the Gaels, strangers. Neal : new Gall. Metan- 
aste (neuphonic) : city changer, con. Astyanax : city king. 
HiNNOM : lamentation (of parents), born in bad times = Beriah, 
con. Hinnio : I neigh, Hinny : bred of a horse. Whine : to 
lament. " The border went up by the valley of the son of 
Hinnorn." Ghau : a valley, and Hinnom gives Gehenna : 
hell, con. Gehazi. Izhar : anointed = Messiah, Christ, Uxor : 
a wife. The Romans anointed the door lintel under which the 
newly arrived bride passed, whence from Unguo ; I anoint, we 
have Unguent, Unction, Uxor, Uxorious : inordinately fond of 
wife. 

Jamin : dexterous, adroit, right-handed, strong = Stark, 
Starkey (stark naked) : stripped for battle, made strong as 
David was by throwing off armour. When men so did they 
were called by the Saxons, Bold : bald. con. Yemen : the south, 
to the right is Benjamin : son of my right hand, honour, 
strength ; if not, Benjamim : son of my days. Lot : a veil, a 
secret worker, artful, gives Lotan (duke). Lot con. lid, clot, 
clod, cloud, lotto, lottery : all covers. " Behold, I have given 
thy brother a thousand pieces of silver, he is to thee a lot to 
thine eyes." NiMSHi : drawn out, elected, one of the elite = 
Eligius, Aloysius, and con. Moses. Reuben : see ! a son, 
from Reu : to see, whence Ruth : fascinating. Rehum : he who 
looks pitifully, also from Reu, where it slides into the English 
Ruth : she who rues, pities through seeing. Jerahimeel : (he 
will obtain) mercy (of) God, i.e., God will look at him. Ikkesh 
5 



58 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



(son of Ira) : crooked = Crooks, Gam, Bossue. Probably used 
figuratively for a deceiver = Svoo2iER and Hindoo Thug: a de- 
ceiver. Packe (whence Paxtox : Packe's town) : a deceiver, 
cheat, subtle scamp. 

Sheba : an oath, sacred, rest-giving. " A man of Belial, 
whose name was Sheba" Ashbea : I swear, adjure. "The 
families of them that wrought fine linen of the house of 
Ashbea." Amos: a burden, gives Amasa : burdensome one. 
"Absalom made Amasa captain of the host instead of Joab." 
Amasiah : burden (of) Jehovah, sustained by God. " Koll thy 
burden on Jehovah, He will sustain thee." Thaddeus : who 
praises = Pyat : a pious man, atoned for, exjnated. The French 
have Thade, but Thady (Irish) : a poet. The Italians Tade- 
ONI : great Thade. Habakkuk: a w-restler, embracer, he who 
wrestles with God and embraces His promise. Zacchiah : 
(the) Lord (is) pure, Zaccheus, con. Saddoc. " Zaccheus, make 
haste and come down." The Romans rarely had the natives 
of conquered counti-ies to be chief publicans, hence some 
scholars attempt to derive Zaccheus from a Latin root, but in 
vain, seeing he is " a son of Abi'aham." Chuza (Herod's 
grieve) for Chuziah : (the) Lord seeth, con. Gehazi, also given 
as meaning Seer : he who sees what is commonl}^ hidden. 

Sosipater, Sopater (Berea) : father saver, who protected 
him. Onesimus : beneficial, profitable — a runaway slave. 
Onesiphorus : profit bringer — his master. 

AsYNCRiTUS : not to be criticised with another, incomparable, 
none such. Lysias (Claudius) : liberator, con. Analysis : loosen- 
ing, separating. Liberius : one freed = Freeman, from Libero : 
I loosen, gives Liberty. Lysimachus : looser of strife = the 
Puritan name Makepeace. Penthesilea (Amazonian queen): 
who by her charms takes avxiy grief. Aquila (Paul's fellow 
weaver): an eagle = Herxe, twisted into Onkelos. Zohar, 
Zerah, Zorah : dawn brightness, birth bringing hope. " If it 
be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight ; 
hear me, and entreat for me to Ephron, the son of Zohar." 
Zorah, the Danite, had a descendant named Manoah, who had 
a son whom he named from Shemesh : the sun. Samson (with 
the augmentative on) : splendid sun, glorious man. 



Zerahiah ) -r 1 , . +1, T 1 • T • 1 A " The 

IZRAHIAH jJ^^l^ovah arises, the Lord is my Light, ^j^^^^ 

of the Lord is risen upon thee." Eutychus : lucky, fortunate, 
gives through the French Toy = Gluck, Luckie, con. Syntyche 
= Felicia, Edith : fortunate ladies. " There sat in the window 
a certain young man named Eutychus." Sacar: hire = the 
Irish name Luc AN : one hired, whence Issacher. Peulthai : 
wages or reward of Jehovah. " Moreover, the sons of Obed — 
Edom Sacar the fourth Issacher the seventh, Feidthai 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 59 



the eighth, for God blessed him (with many sons)." That Avas 
a paying family. Parmenas: who remains with you in trouble 
= Constance. Parmenion (Alexander's friend) : son of 
Parmenas. 

Amal : labourer = Bauer, and root of .^milus: a worker. 
" The sons of his brother Helem (were) Zophah, and Imna, and 
Shelesh, and Amal." Zophah : an early riser = our Early, 
con. Zephon : great watcher. Aner : an exile, expatriated = 
Goliath. " The men which went with me, Aner, Eschol, and 
Mamre." Eschol : a cluster (of grapes), he who has many 
children. " Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine." Mamre : 
rising, lifting up, wJio causes the rise of his clan. Lemuel 
(king of Massa) : consecrated (to) God = Allgood. Bethuel : 
virgin (of) God, pure man, con. Bethulia = Parthenope : maiden. 
Enoch, Hanoch : dedicated, a devotee. " The sons of Midian 
city (were) Ephah, and Epher and Hanoch." Helem : ham- 
merer = Schmidt. "The sons of his brother Helem." 

Iddo : long lived = PoLYBiUS, Macrobius. " Iddo the chief 
at the place Casiphia." Iddo : timely, born when expected, 
"Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo." Iddo: 
loving, con. Dido and David, of the class Erastus : amiable, 
Pbiletus : worthy of friendship, Philemon : beloved. " Of 
the half tribe of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo, the son of Zechariah." 
Three different persons whose names are diverse in the original. 
Jachin : He (will) establish (the covenant with us). " Of the 
priests Jedaiah, and Jehoiarib and Jachin." Uzzah : strong, 
like a goat butting, powerful in attack. AzAZ : strong, strong 
= BoAZ. " He set up the right pillar, and called the name 
thereof Jachin ; and he set up the left pillar and called the 
name thereof Boaz." 

Jehishai: grey headed = Chanzy, Canutius, Hoare : who 
is hoary. Hoar : white, as hoar frost. JoKTAN : small (born) 
= Cade. " Who hath despised the day of joktoM things." 
Jural : joyful sound, giving Jubilo : I rejoice. Jubilee : time 
of joy. " Juhal was the father of all such as handle the harp 
and organ." Kallai : a runner = Curtius (Quintus), Snell, 
Swift, Sharp, Podargus. Kedar: dark skinned = Tartan, 
^SOP : an Ethiop. " Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil the 
men of the east," i.e., the descendants of Kedar. Kedemah 
(son of Ishmael) : swarthy, man from the east=CADMUS 
(alphabet). Lo-ammi : not my people, con. Ammon : my people. 
Lo-RUHAMA: not looked on, without mercy. Names of mystical 
children of Hosea. 

Matri : a gaoler, watcher = Gaylor, Ward. " The family 
of Matri was taken." A name of interest, as gaolers were few 
among orientals, their punishments being awfully summary, 
as cutting off" the hand for theft, etc. Madai : middle (land), 



60 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

gives Media, Medes, probably Medius: the Middle, and Medeor : 
to cure by Median herbs, whence Medicine : the healing art. 
Isaiah {con. Hosea. His name was a sign to Israel) : salvation 
of Jehovah, shamefully cor. to Easy (midshipman). Maphish 
(son of Ishmael) : soul, active == Quick, Grady. Chavah : life, 
living, our Eve, giving Eva. 

Orex, Orxan : (tall like) an ash = PiNUS: pine tall = 
Rowan, Tann : a pine, Longfellow. Peleth : swiftness, a 
runner = Galletly, Trotter, Light, gives Pelathite. " Bena- 
hiah was over the Cherathites and Pelathites," i.e., the slashers 
and runners, light infantry. Pethuel : vision of God, he 
whose eyes are opened so that he sees God. Penuel, in 
the N. T. Phanuel : face of God, to whom He manifests 
Himself much. " Balaam, the son of Beor, hath said, and the 
man who had his eyes shut, but now opened." Poratha : lot 
given, born on a lucky day, con. Purim : lots, Pur = FoRTTTNA 
as though Sortuna : born according to Sors : lot. Fortunatus 
from Sors : a lot, and Natus : born. " The Jews slew 500 
men . . . and Poratha." And the odd thing was he should 
be slain on a day chosen by Pur: lot. RiBAi: adversary, 
antagonist = Satan. " Ittai, the son of Ribai." Seth : ap- 
pointed, ordained to be progenitor of men, which Abel seems 
not to have been. " God hath aiipointed to me another seed 
instead of Abel." SiPPAi, Saph : doorkeeper, who stands on 
the threshold = DuRWARD, Salmon, Usher, Lusher. "At 
which time Sibbechai slew Sippai that was of the children of 
the giants." Sibbechai : thicket man = Broglie, Forrest, 
Woods, Savage. Tebaliah : immersed (of the) Lord, 
baptized of God, consecrated for an otiice. " Tebaliah (was) the 
third." 

ZiCHRi, Zithri : remembered, illustrious = EuPHEMius : well 
spoken of, con. Zechariah : remembered of Jehovah. " The 
Lord remembered Noah." Melech : a king, a fighter who 
drives pell mell, who maids. Melchiah (Pashur's father) : 
(my) king (is the) Lord, varies to Melechias. Malchus : royal 
= Ablmelech : of kingly fatherhood, noble descent = Aridatha 
(co7?.Arta: great), Tiridates (king) = our Atheling. 

Mithredath (treasurer) : gift of Mithras, in Greek, Mithri- 
dates. Mithras : mother, like Cybele and Diana, applied to 
the sun as producer. Adramelech (Syrian Apollo) : brilliant 
king, the _ sun = Horus. Anamelech (Syrian Hercules) : 
powerful king. The former worshipped under the form of a 
peacock. The sun sees much, has many eyes. Anamelech was 
worshipped as a horse. Compare with story of Argus {con. 
Ergon : work) : sharp, acting quickly with his eves, as 
Podargus: swift-footed (Hector's charioteer), Podarce = 
Golightly. Moloch (dreadful king) : king (god of Moab). 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 61 



Melchizedek : righteous king, con. Sadoc : just = Justus: 
who does right. Manasseh : amnesty, causing to forget, 
" God hath made me forget all my toil." Neith : wisdom, 
skill in weaving, the Egyptian Minerva, whence Asenath : 
belonging to Neith, a wise person = Apollonius : son of 
Apollo, wise. Zaphenath : who receives Neith, wisdom, is 
inspired. Nitocris (Chaldee Queen) : Neith's victory, one 
overcoming by wisdom. Paaxeah : who flies pollution, an 
allusion to flight from Potiphar's wife. Joseph was not the 
only man so called. It was applied to an Egyptian nobleman 
150 years before. 

PoTiPHAH : priest of the bull. Potipherah : priest of the 
sun = HoPHRAH (Pharaoh). When Zaphenath married Asenath 
it was like to like, wise to wise. Shaddai (El) : the almighty 
shedder, disposer of life, judge of men, dividing unto them 
severally, even as He will. The farther we go back in 
language the nearer we approach a use of words common to 
those who are now many nations. Who would think when 
speaking of a water shed, or shedding of the hair (crease), that 
he was using a word so near akin to a name of God ? "Man, 
who made me a judge or a divider over you ?" Shaddai : 
the shedder = Parce : apportioner, con. Upharsin : divided. 



OF THE ENDINGS IM, OTH, ONI. 

Little comes of telling what names mean unless hoiu they 
come so to signify be made clear. This sub-Chapter on 
" Scripture Names" is an effort to present the how in a pleasant 
form. It will not be a formidable array of dry words culled 
from the book of Chronicles, like ammonites from limestone, 
but a lively presentation of the laws and ways by which words 
in general and names in particular are formed. 

The Hebrews used three numbers : — Singular, indicating one 
thing ; Dual, for two of same kind ; Plural, to represent more 
than two. The Greeks also had a dual, but its form was 
fading when the Christian era began. Hence it is not met 
with in New Testament proper names. Though the dual was 
then obsolescent in Hebrew and Greek (for it was waning in 
the former), it was active in others, as in the Sanscrit, the 
sacred language of India. It is now wanting in all Indian 
languages derived from the Sanscrit, as French, Spanish, 
Italian, Portuguese are from Latin. The dual was common in 
the Syriac of the first century, whereas now only two words 
of that number are colloquial in Syria. William Von Hum- 



62 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

boldt shows its use among the aboriginal Indians, extending 
from Patagonia to the verge of the Arctic, where Esquimaux 
converse by its aid. One European nation retains it, Lithuania. 
Russia is discouraging its use ; hence it follows the dual will 
soon cease to be used in Europe, where it only existed as an 
exotic, never flourished as a native. Plural forms are less 
likely to become obsolete. The dual is a grammatical conven- 
tionalism, the plural an essential part of language. Howbeit, 
time does not make it fade in all places. The Arabs have it 
in vigour. The Arabic enjoys as wide a geographical range 
as any on the earth, English only excepted. It is spoken with 
variable purity over the vast regions of central and northern 
Africa, Persia, Syria, Hindostan, the Indian Archipelago, and 
that peninsula which has, for forty centuries, sheltered the 
unconquered sons of Ishmael. Through the Moors, Arabic 
tinged the Spanish and Portuguese. Even English is enriched 
thereby, for thereto we owe the words Alcohol, Alcove, Algebra, 
Chemistry, Crimson. 

IM. 

The Hebrew Im (Dual) was formed by adding im or aim 
to the singular, as Pharah : to be fruitful, Ephraim : doubly 
fruitful. Elegantly applied by Joseph to his son. Bethlehem 
Ephratah : Bethlehem the fruitful, another being in Zebulun. 
Euphrates : fructilier, whose water makes fruitful. Adah : 
ornament, crown, Adithaim : twofold ornament. " Lamech 
said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice." Doth : 
a well, Dothan for Dothaim : two wells. Dathan : well-owner 
= Wells. Eglon : a fat calf = Galea, Medcalf. Eglaim : 
two heifers. " Eglon was a very fat man," a John Bull. 

HuR : a cave (dweller) = Cavour, Wemys, Hume : trog- 
lodytes. Horonaim : double cavern. " Aaron and Hur stayed 
up his hands." " From Zoar (they shall go) unto Horonaim, 
as an heifer of three years old." Kir: dyke, wall, enclosed 
dwellings. " Kir made bare the shield." Kirtan : double 
city = Dupple (German) and Medina (Arabic). From Kir, 
Carthage: walled, Castra : a camp, Caer, Cahir, Kerr, Iscariot. 
Mar: bitter, Marath : to rebel. NiMROD : he who is very 
bitter, a rebel. Merathaim : double rebellion. " Go up against 
the land of Merathaim," Babylon. Nahar: a river = Rivers. 
Naharaim : two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, as Doab : be- 
tween Ganges and Jumna, so Senegambia, Senegal and Gambia 
rivers. Aram-naharaim : highlands between the two rivers. 
" Eliezer took ten camels of his master, and departed ; and he 
arose and went to Aram-naharaim." Septuagint calls it 
Mesopotamia : midst of rivers, now called by Arabs Aljezireh : 
the island, identical with Algiers. Mitzr : Egypt. Mizraim : 



BIBLICAL NAMES. Q2 



double Egypt, upper and lower. " The sons of Ham, Cush and 
Mizraim." 

Aph : the nose. Appaim : nostrils (nose thrills), two breathers. 
Nahor : snorting, breathing hard, easily made angry, suggests 
Stertinus (eighth wise man) : snorter, snorer = Nares and 
Nasonius (Ovid): nosy, big nose. An irritable person is called 
by orientals " a man of nose." " The sons of Nadab, Seled and 
Airpaim." Shair : to separate, whence our sheer, share, shire, 
shore. Shaaraim : double gates, to a town. " The wounded 
of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim." Shahar : 
to dawn, the separation of gloom, its dispersion. Shaharaim: 
double dawn, joyous birth. "IShaharaim begat children in the 
country of Moab." Mahanaim : two camps, hosts. 

" Not that more glorious, when the angels met 
Jacob in Mahanaim, where he saw 
The field pavilion'd with his guardians bright." 

Shunem : two resting places, good repose. " Elisha passed to 
Shivnem, where was a great woman." 

Hebrew differs from English not only in having a dual, but 
two kinds of plural — -one masculine, the other feminine, dis- 
tinguished by their endings. The masculine ending was irti. 
It was exceedingly common, having a wide range as to time 
and space. Hence the Saxon en, as house, housen — hose, hosen 
— eye, een — shoe, shoon, " These men were bound in their 
mantles, their hosen, and their caftans." Hozier (admiral) : 
maker of leather buskins and leggings, same word as Chaucer. 
So Chicken : fowls, plural of chick : a fowl, the modern s is 
added. Chickens being now orthodox. New words are plural- 
ised by s or es, unless they are frum classic languages, as 
Chasm : a gaping, an opening, Chasmata : openings (between 
stars). In two instances in the Bible, im is grafted upon 
Greek words, as Allophim: gauyim, those of other tribes, con. 
Pamphylia : all tribes. Sanhedrim : those sitting together, con. 
Cathedral : seat (of a bishop). In Arabic, im varies to in, as 
Bedowee : a desert dweller, llanero, karooman. Bedouin : 
dwellers in the desert. " The only noise heard from time to 
time in the city is the galloping of the steed of the desert : it 
is the janissary who brings the head of the Bedowin, or w^ho 
returns from plundering the unhappy Fellah." Here Bedouin 
should be Bedowee. Fellah : a boor, labourer, takes the plural 
Fellaheen. Here in, een, identical with our ine in swine, for 
sowen, and en as shoon for shoe-en. " Put on yovir Sunday 
shoon." Sometimes plurals are used intensitively, as Naib : a 
noble. Nabob : nobles, very noble, as possessing the good quali- 
ties of many nobles. The following are a few'^instructive cases 
of its Biblical use : — 



64 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Ail : strong. Elira : strong ones. " They removed from 
Elim, and encamped by the Red Sea." Eloali : great ador- 
able One. Elohim : the Triune Almighty. El : God., forms 
Allah. " Hear, Israel, Jehovah thy Elohim is one Jehovah." 
Anak : long necked, tall. Anakim : descendants of Anak, 
where hn is patronymical as ide in Lagide : sons of Lagus : 
the hare. Ayah : to overturn, ruin = Abaddon. Avim : desert 
dwellers, resident where they had destroyed all. '• The Avim 
which dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzah, the CapJdorim, 
which came forth out of Caphtor, destroying them., and dwell- 
ing in their stead." Caphtor : a watch tower. " Have I not 
brought the Philistines from Caphtor?" The Avim were de- 
structive tribes wanting in skill ; so, then, they were bounded 
by Azzah : a strong place. Boch : to weep. Bochim : tears, 
weepers. " The people lifted up their voice and wept. And 
they called the name of that place Bochim^ Charash : to cut. 
Cherathites : slashers. Charashim : cutters, engravers. " Ser- 
aiah begat Joab, the father of the valley of Charashim ; for 
they were craftsmen." Chamar : to be black, con. Ham : hot, 
black = NiGEK, prophetic of his dwelling, Africa. Chemarim : 
black men, men clothed in black, neri ; the priests of God were 
dressed in linen, pure and white. " Josiah put down the Che- 
marim w^hom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense. 
CUSH, CUSHAN : an ..'Ethiop = ^SOP: a negro, who has a burnt 
face. Cushistan : Ethiopia. CusHi : dark skinned = DuFF. 
" Zephaniah the son of Cushi." Cushim : Ethiopians. " He 
shall lead Cushim captives, young and old, naked and bare- 
foot." 

Dedan : leading forward (to increase of family). Dodanim : 
Dedanites, gives Rhodes : island of the Dodanim. " The sons 
Javan, Elishah and Kittim, Tarshish, and Dodanim." From 
Elishah comes Elis, a city of Greece, which country was called 
Kittim by the Hebrews. Balaam said, " Ships shall come from 
the coast of Kittim." Eber, Heber : beyond, hyper, super. 
Ibri : from the other side = Hebrew: Euphrates-passer, an 
emigrant. Ebronah : passage (of the Red Sea). Abarim : 
passages, ghauts : passes, identical with gates. " Get thee up to 
this mount Abarim and see the land." Hillel: who lilts to 
God's praise. Hallelim : praises. "Abdon, the son of Hillel, 
<lied and was buried in Pirathon." " Sing ye Hallelim." 
Melek: a fighting king. Malluch : kingly descent = Cree 
and Rene. Melakim : kings. 

MoPH: anxiety, a weakling at birth. MuppiM : anxieties, 
weaker than the other. Nathan: given (by God), a prayed' 
for son. Nethinim : devotees, giving themselves without 
reserve to God's service. " We certify you, that touching any 
of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinim, or 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 



ministers of the house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose 
toll, tribute, or custom upon them." Nephes : to stretch out, 
to increase. Nephusim : expansions, spreadings, big family, 
" The children of Nephusim returned from Babylon." Nimrah : 
pure water. Nothing to do with Nimr : a leopard. Nimrira : 
flowing waters. " The waters of Nimrim shall become 
desolate." 

Oreb : a raven, a dark one. Orbim : dark ones, Arabs. 
" The ereh and the morning were the first day." Creation 
begins with the evening, that redemption may end with the 
resurrection morning." Erebus (from ereb), who married 
Knox : night. " As dark as Erebus" " Orbim brought him 
bread and flesh in the morning." Elijah fed by the Bedouin. 

Kapha : a giant, transposes to Harapha (Samson Agonistes). 
Rephaim : giants or descendants of Rapha. " Moza begat 
Binea : Rapha was his son." " Chedorlaomer smote the 
Raphaim in Asht&roth Karnaim, and the Zuzitn in Ham, and 
the Emim in Shaveh Kirithaim." Five plurals and a dual. 

Keren : cornu, a horn. Karnaim : two horns. Ashtaroth 
Karnaim : two-horned moon, where Astarte was worshipped as 
a moon in crescent. Chedorlaomer: Chedor, the servant of 
Lahmi, the god of the Susanim. Satan : adversary, enemy. 
Satanim : accusers. " Now, the Lord my God hath given me 
sabbath on every side, so that there is neither satan nor evil 
occurrent." Seir : rough, applied to rocky, scrubby districts = 
Thrace, Trachonitis, Garrioch, Badenoch. Seorim : roughs, 
barley, because of spicular form, said of satyrs, goats, demons, 
and comets, the latter called by the Saxons faxed (hairy) 
stars. " Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir ; Esau is Edom." 
When the Shepherd sends the goats to the Devil, it is rough 
to rough. " Owls shall dwell there and seorim dance there," 
goats shall caper over fallen Babylon. 

Sephar : a book, learned therein, gives Saphir (Adolphe) = 
Booker, takes fern. Sapphira (not from the sapphire). Sephar 
exactly corresponds to Surat (E. I.) : a book, place of pundits 
Sepharvaim : books, scribes, place of learned men, a college. 
Shaphat: a judge, skilful in counting = Richter : reckoner. 
Shophetim : judges, sanhedrim = Sufletes : Carthaginian sen- 
ators. " Where are the gods of Sepharvaim?" " Thou shalt 
not revile the Shophetim." Seraph : burning (with love). 
Seraphim : angels, ardors, burning ones. " Cherubim know 
most. Seraphim love most." Saraph : burning (with thirst), 
the dipsas. Saraphim : burning ones, serpents, inflamers. 
" Moses made a saraph of copper, and put it on a pole." " Who 
led thee through that great and terrible wilderness, wherein 
were saraphmi and akrahhim',' scorpions. " The coast of the 
Amorites, from the going up to Akrabbim, from Selah," the 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



rock. Cherub : celestial, gives Cherubixi (friar). Cherubim: 
heavenly ones. " John was a burning and a shining light/' 
burned with love and shone with instruction, a combination of 
seraph and cherub. Sheber : a breach, so named because 
born when the men of Ai made a breach in the ranks of 
Israel. Shebarim : breaches. " Maachah, Caleb's concubine, 
bare Sheber." " For they (the men of Ai) chased them from 
before the (city) gate even unto Shebarim," for there they 
made breaches. 

Shilhah : a missive weapon, con. Shiloh : sent, gives. 
Salah : a dart. " Arphaxad begat Salah" Methuselah : 
man of dart = DowD, DowDS. Shilim : armed men, place of. 
But Sala (Augustine) identical with Hall and Salmon, 
saloon, hallkeeper. " Lebaoth (lions) and Shilhim," cities of 
Judah, and fighting ones too. Shittah : a thorn, the acacia. 
Shittim : thorns. " I will plant in the wilderness, the cedar, 
the Shittah." " They pitched by Jordan from Beth Jesimoth, 
even unto the plains of Shittim," place of acacias. Sokh : a 
shelter, a booth. Sukkim or Suckathites : tent dwellers. 
" The people were innumerable that came with Shishak out of 
Egypt : Lubim (Libyans), Sukkim and Cushim (NegroesJ." 
The families of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez : Tirathites, 
Shimeathites, and Suchathites." Zeeb : a wolf, a terrifier = 
Guelph : 3^elper. Zeboim : place of wolves, or hyasnas. " Make 
them as Oreb and Zeeb." " How shall I make thee as Admah ? 
how shall I set thee as Zeboim ?" 

Shupham : an adder, glider, coluber (con. labor) = Elops and 
Gleed. Shuppim : serpents. " Shupimn also and Huppim, 
the children of Ir." Zephath : a watch tower = Migdol, whence 
Magdala, giving Magdalene. " They slew the Canaariites 
that inhabited Zephath." Zophim : watch towers, con. Zephox 
= ViGiLANTius. " Balak brought Balaam into the field of 
Zophim." 

The following are found in our authorised version only in 
the phu'al : — Emim : terrors, very terrible. " The Emhn 
dwelt therein in times past, a people great and many, as tall 
as the Anakim." Gammadim : pygmies, dwarfs, wee folk like 
Ghoorkas. " Gammadim were in thy towers " defending Tyre. 
Gerizim : cutters, allusions to fruitfulness and what follows it, 
reaping and pruning. " Thou shalt put the blessing upon 
Mount Gerizim, and the curse upon Mount Ebal." Eb: a 
stone, gives ben, ebony, Ebenezer, Abana : stony river, Ebal : 
stony hill, " And some fell on stony ground." Blessing 
and fruitfulness, curse and barrenness always conjoin. Gebim : 
pits, caves, troglodytes = Horites. " The inhabitants of Gebim 
gather themselves to flee." 

Naphtallm : wrestlings of God, severe pangs in childbirth. 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 67 



" Of the tribe of Napldalim were selected twelve thousand." 
Telaim : young lambs. " Saul gathered the people and 
numbered them in Telaim." " He shall gather Telaim with 
his arms." Zamzumim : ze, zu, zummers, noisy ones, like 
Bos : an ox, booer, Moo-cow, Zebub : a fly, Tungri : old name 
for Germans because they gave tongue when going into battle. 
Compare such names as Belcher : bawlcher, Beli : bellower. 
Creek : who cries as he goes at the foe. Croke, Croker, 
giving Crockett, also means swashbucklerism. Grogax : 
roarer, shouter. " Giants dwelt therein in old time, and the 
Ammonites call them Zamzumim. So the Zulus get their 
name from their war-cry : Usutu, howled in a style which 
none but a Kaffir can. Their great organiser was ChaivA 
(murdered 1828): the Ere brand = Flambard, Beor. He was 
uncle to Cetewayo : doomed one. Zamzumim answers to Zulu 
in a most remarkable manner, clearly illustrating how names 
originate and tribes obtain their designations. 

OTH. 

The feminine ending otk had a more contracted range than 
IM. Had is said, has might be, for we yet have it in many 
Anglo-Saxon words as Moon, vias., Monath, fern., our Month. 
The following examples illustrate its use in Biblical i)roper 
names : — 

Alam : hidden, a virgin, secluded in the harem, veiled, is 
applied to unknown period, hidden time: "From olam to 
olam thou art God." " The Earth with her bars was about me 
for olam." Applied to eldest as Elajvi. Alamoth : virgins, 
pure men, free from idol service. " Behold alam shall conceive 
and bear a son and shall call His name Immanuel." Olam, he 
whose years are hidden, was to come of alam. " For the sons 
of Korah: a song upon Alamoth." Alam^PARTHEXOS: virgin, 
goddess, Minerva, Parthenon : her temple. Parthexia = Vir- 
ginia, Bethulia (female names). Parthexos (Sciote monk) 
= ViRGixius, Bethuel; virgin of God = ExoCH. Immaxuel, 
Emaxuel : God with us, disguised to Maxuell. Arabah : 
desert plain, gives Arabia, Arboth : desert plains. " The 
border went up to Beth-hoglah, and passed along by the north 
of Beth-arabah." 

Atarah : a crown — Adah : head ornament, a tiara, 
Ataroth : crowns. " Jerhameel had also another wife whose 
name was Atarah!' Ail : strong, Allox : an oak, robust 
man, Elox : a terebinth. " Elon the Zebulonite judged Israel." 
Elox = EcK. Elath : oak trees. " At that time Rezin, king 
of Syria, recovered Elath." Chislox : Arm confidence (of 
parents). Chisloth : confidences, bulwarks in which people 
trust. " Elidad, the son of Chislon." " Unto the border of 



68 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Chisloth-Tabor." Fortified city at foot of Tabor. Gath : a 
wine press. Gittite : native of Gath. Gethsemane : wine press 
valley. Gittitli : harps used by wine pressers when making 
merry. " To the chief musician on Gittith." 

Hazor (con. Az: strong): an enclosed village, Hazeroth : 
villages. " The people journeyed from Kibroth-hataavah unto 
Hazeroth." Kab : the grave, a cave, sepulchre, Kibroth : 
graves (Hataavah : lusters). Aram : high, Jaram : to be high 
= Augustus. Jerimoth: high places = Bamoth. Former 
figurative for one in whom we trust, latter local. " Rehoboam 
took him Mahalath, the daughter of Jerimoth, the son of 
David, to be his wife." 

Jerah : to tremble, to shake like a tent curtain, very shy. 
Jerioth : tremblings. " Caleb begat children of Azubah, his 
wife, and of Jerioth." Kedemah : eastward, beginning, where 
the light dawns, Kedemoth : beginnings, co7?. Cadmus: an 
eastern, as Sterling : son of eastern man. " Jetur, Naphish, 
and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael." " 1 sent 
messengers out of the wilderness of Kedemoth unto Sihon." 
Jetur : nomadic village built by men seeking pasture, hence 
Tturea, nearly = Numidia : pasture or grazing land. Kir: a 
wall, Caer, Castra, Kerr, Pinkerton from pen : a hill, caer : a 
fortified place, ton : a town, meaning a strong city set on a 
hill. Kirioth : walls, bulwarks = Gederoth. Iscariotes : (Ish) : 
a man of Kirioth, as Ishod : a man of glory, fine made, now 
IzoD. 

Lib : a lion, from Leba : to roar, Lebaoth : lionesses = 
Leontopolis : city haunted by lions. " Lehaoth and Shilhim 
and Ain and Rimmon ; all these cities are twenty and nine." 
Mar : bitter. Mare : the sea, bitter water, Marath : bitterness, 
Meraioth, Maroth: bitternesses. "The son of Zadok, the 
son of Meraioth." "The inhabitants of Maroth waited care- 
fully for good." Mahar : to behold. Mehazioth : visions, 
con. Gehazi: ghau of vision, beautiful valley = Belcombe. 
" Mehazioth, the son of Heman." 

Nain : pleasant, the opposite of Mar : bitter, Naioth : 
pleasantnesses, opposite of Maroth. " He went into a city 
called Nain." " Samuel and David dwelt at Naioth." Nain 
= WiNTHROP : winsome thorp, dorf = Sheen. Nebo : budding, 
fruitful. Naboth : f ruitf ulnesses = Ephraim. Nebaioth (moun- 
tains) : very fruitful. "I will give thee the vineyard of 
Naboth." " The rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee." 
Rabbah : great (city) = Mecklenburgh : Muckleborough. Rab- 
bath : great cities. " Appoint a way that the sword may come 
to Rabbath of the Ammonites." Rehob : open space, street 
enlarged = Straduarius (violin), con. Rehabiah (grandson of 
Moses) : enlarged of Jehovah, the Lord's freedman = Freeman. 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 69 



Rahab (harlot): free woman = JuNGFRAU : young free woman. 
Rehoboam: who makes the people free = Publicola, Liberator 
from Libero : I loosen, whence Liberal : bond breaker, or 
socially, who loosens his purse strings. " David smote also 
Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah." Rehoboth : 
places, spaces. " Isaac called the name of the place Rehoboth, 
and he said — ' For now the Lord hath made room for us.' " 

Naamah : a fascinating woman = Belvidera, co7i. Nain, 
Naomi. Naamoth : localities of amenity. " The sister (first 
woman so tern^ed) of Tubal-Cain was N'aamah." Saba : a 
host, con. Sabre : army weapon. Sepoy : swordsman, Sabaism : 
worship of the host of heaven, sun, moon, and stars, Sabaoth : 
armies, Jehovah Sabaoth : Lord of armies, infinite in reserves 
and resources. Sokh : a booth. Succoth : tabernacles. " The 
fifteenth day of this month shall be the feast of succoth." The 
men of Babylon made Succoth - benoth : tabernacles of 
daughters. Ben : a son, Benoth : daughters. The harlots of 
Astarte, the Syrian Venus. 

Shem : a name, one heard of = Cleox (the tanner), Inclytus. 
Aram : to be high. Ram : exaltado, from former Syrians called 
Aramaeans. Shemiramoth: most exalted, Semiramis (female 
Napoleon). Tob : good, fertile soil = Aleppo. Tabbaoth : 
goodnesses. " The children of Tabbaoth." 

The following in the plural only : — Behemoth : beasts, great 
beasts, plural used as an augmentative. " Behold, now, Behe- 
moth, which I made." Megilloth : canticles, little songs, lilt- 
ings. Mazzaroth : zodiacal signs, twelve constellations. " Canst 
thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season ?" Pi, Phi : mouth, 
as Phicol : mouth all (obey). PuAH : mouth, an orator 
when Tnas., chatterer when /em. These may be said to be 
from the Hebrew P, which was shaped like a mouth. PuAH 
a loquacious person of the /em. gender. Hur: a cave, Horonite 
cave dweller. Pihahiroth : mouth of caverns. Shigionoth 
many-stringed instruments. " Habakkuk, the prophet, upon 
Shigionoth.' 

ON, UN, ONI. 

These endings do not refer to number but are suffixed to 
nouns, verbs, or adjectives, as augmentatives. Thus from 
Zabal : to dwell, Zebulun : a dwelling-place with an intensified 
force, i.e., very fond of dwelling there. " Now will my hus- 
band dwell with me." Ayal : a stag. Ajalon : a great stag. 
Gibeah : a hill, curved ground, con. Gibbus : humped, like the 
moon in crescent. Gibeon : a high hill. " Sun, stand thou 
upon Gibeon ; and thou moon, in the valley of Ajalon." Ail : 
strong, Allah : strong God. Helon : very strong. " Eliab, 



70 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



the son of Helon." Alam (as a verb) : to hide. Almon : hidden 
(by trees). 

Am: people, Anion (No): great (many) people = Puebla : 
populous, but MiLCHOM : king of the people. Some have it 
great king, for MiLCHiON, from Melech: a fighting king. 
Ammon : (of) my people. Ammishaddai (Dan's son) : the 
Almighty's people, one of. Ammon (David's first born): very 
amen^faithful one. "Art thou better than No-Amon, that was 
situate among the rivers ?" Nile branches. 

En : a well, con. Een : eyes, ^non : much water, great many 
streams. " And John also was baptising in jEnon, near to 
Salim, because there was much water there." Ross (when ori- 
ental) from Rosh: head, Rosconi: great head, leader = Cappon. 

Azaz : to be strong, Azmon : very strong (fortifications). 
" The border shall fetch a compass from Azmon unto the river 
of Egypt." Bathar : to divide, Bethuel : separated to God, 
a patriarchal Nazarite. Bithron : great division, hills and 
dales. " Abner and his men walked all that night through 
the plain, and passed through all Bithron." Kiydh : destruc- 
tion. Chidon : great destruction. Nakhah : to smite, Nachon: 
smiting very much = Thresher, Smith, "When they came 
to Nachon s threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put forth his 
hand." He was called Nachon because he owned a Nachon : 
place of much smiting with the flail. That place was then 
called Chidon because there Uzzah was destroyed. There is a 
climax — touching, smiting, destruction. Kasal : to be firm, 
Chesalon : firm confidence (of dwellers in its strength) = 
Chisloth. " Mount Jearim, which is Chesalon." Oren : an ash, 
as tall as, Ornan : an exalted personage, lit. a great ash = 
Rowan. Kileah : to destroy, Chilion : consumption, destruc- 
tion by disease. Maleah : to be diseased, con. Mails : bad, 
Mahlon : great infirmity. "The name of his two sons Mahlon 
and Chilion." 

Dan : judgment. Madon : great contention, that which is 
greatly striven for before the judge. Shamar : to guard, 
Shimron : vigilantly guarded. " He sent to Jobab king of 
Madon, and to the king of Shimron." Dag : a fish = NuN, 
NoN : a fish, symbol of productiveness. One of the letters of 
the Hebrew alphabet. " Non his son, Jehoshuah his son." 
From Dag we have Tagus : prolific in fish = the African 
stream. Great Fish river. Dagon : great fish = Grampus, 
Rabba-dag. " Now, Jehovah had prepared rahha-dag to 
swallow Jonah." Dum : to be silent, gives Dumah = Moody, 
MuDiE. Dumb gives Dumps : time of muteness. Dimon : 
place of undisturbed silence. " The waters of Dimon shall be 
full of blood." As though the prophet said, It shall be no 
more Dimon but Damon, from Dam: blood, lit. red, as 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 71 



Aceldama : acre of blood, Edom, Idumea, Adam, Damascus : 
sandy soil = Sandy (Beds) : red gravelly earth = Pascovitch. 

Eghel : a calf. Eglon : great fat calf = Galea, Medcalf. 
Epher : a young hart, Ephron : great = Cervoni : great stag, 
line deer (" Cervoni lies"). " Abraham weighed to Ephron 
the silver." Ephron = our Buck and the German Bock. 
Ezeb : to form, Ezbon : well framed, fine fellow = Ishod, 
Brayo, Izod, and Arba: four, a square built man, like the 
Hercules Farnese. " Sarah died in Kirjath-arba (city built by 
him) which is Hebron." To the order of the fine made belonged 
Esau : formed, made, finished. " The first came out red, all 
over like an hairy garment ; and they called his name Esau." 
Hair is only expected on the well grown. The moral of 
Esau's superior make as compared with Jacob is : — The wicked 
are best at first, worst at last. One apparently begins well, 
the other truly ends well. " The sons of God Ziphion and 
Haggi, Shuni and Hezhon." Zepha : to look out. Ziphion : 
sharp sighted, good spy = Spiers. Zephon : a watcher, 
guardian angel, — 

" Ithurief and Zephon, with wing'd speed 

Search through this garden ; leave unsearch'd no nook ; 
But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge, 
Now laid perhaps asleep, secure of harm." 

Zeeb : the golden wolf, terrifier, howler, Zibeon : great 
wolf, rapacious man = AUT0LYCUS. "Esau took Aholibamah, 
the daughter of Anak, the daughter of Ziheon, the Hivite." 
Of a bad breed she. Haleb or Heleb : fat, fertile, Helbon : 
very fertile, Aleppo : fat soil, Galba (emperor) : fat as a calf, 
the Roman John Bu11 = Lippo (Memmi) thought to be formed 
on Philip, but means a plump man = Turnus : a jotun, big eater. 
" In the wine of Helbon and white wool." Geda : to cut down, 
Gideon : a powerful feller. " The time would fail me to tell 
of Gideon." Sheraesh : the sun, Samson : splendid sun. " Of 
Barak and of Samson." Gen : a garden, Gennessaret (con. 
Sarah) : princes garden, very fertile, Ginnethon : plant 
protector = Jardine: gardener. Pi: mouth, Pison : great 
mouthed, wide spreading river. " The name of the first is 
Pison." Gihon : great breaking forth of waters = Swale 
(Yorks) : swelling with rain.s. " The name of the second is 
in Gihon." 

Kedar : dark. Cedar : dark foliaged. Kedron : very dark = 
Douglas, Blackwater. " Over the brook Kedron." Quosh : 
a bow ; Kishon : bending, winding much = Meander : river of 
Meonia, Crombie, Carron and Ilissus : helix .shaped, running 
like a cork-screw = Serpentine. " That ancient river, the river 
Kishon." Banan : to make a tremulous sound, like water run- 
ning amongst stones, Arnon : loud soundins: = Rio Sonora. 



72 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Hhakam : to be wise, Hachmoni : very wise, a magician. 
" David's uncle was a counsellor, a wise man, and a scribe ; and 
Jehiel, the son of Hachmoni, was with the king's sons." 
Laban : white, a fair man = Blondin, Finigan, Bain, Lebanon : 
very white (with snow). " His fruit shall be like Lebanon," 
much. The idea is the same as in Polycarp : much fruit, large 
family = !N ON, Nun, Eschol. Pathah : to be open, like a 
mouth, PiTHON : great enlargement, of territory. " The sons 
of Micah were Pithon and Melech." Padhah : to redeem, 
Padon : great redemption. " He returned from captivity. Pro- 
bably received his name through parental belief in return." 
Pim : to be perplexed, Pinon (duke) : distraction. Perhaps 
born when parents were in sore distress, like Mary, Beriah. 

Shamar: to guard, Shemer: a watchman = Ware and Ward, 
Shimron : vigilant guardian = Zephon. " Job and Shwiron, 
the sons of Isaacher." Aman : to support, nourish, be faithful 
to = Foster, Truman (Hanbury, Buxton & Co.), the last con. 
GoTTREU (Thohick) : one who trusts God. Amnon: very true, 
Ammittai : the amen, said of Jehovah. "These things saith the 
Amen," the faithful The underlying thought in Pater, Fader, 
Father, Amen Am (mother), Emma : nurse, is one, viz., feeding, 
sustaining, being as true as a good nurse to a baby. Cazab : 
to deceive. COSBI (Phineas) : great deceiver, subtle, artful. 
Gashan: to lay waste territory of enemy ; Shimon : great desert, 
despopolado. " The sons of Shimon were Amnon and Reu- 
mah." Shamah : to hear (Ishmael, Samuel), Simeon, Simon : 
much heard, listened to with acceptance. " Because the Lord 
heard she called his name Simeon." Simon gives a dim. in 
the French SiMONOD, whence Monod. Simon when Greek, as 
SiMONiDES : son of Simon, is from Hemi : semi, half, meaning 
half nosed, con. Simioe : monkey kind, snub-nosed. Nasa : to 
lift up, Sion : very lofty = Altamont. " Mount Sion which is 
Hermon." Hor : hill, giving Oros : a mountain, whence Oron- 
tes : a mountain stream = Torrens (terra) : a land flood. Her- 
mon : lofty peak. Some con. Shemesh : the sun, with Sion : 
much ^hone on, a hill having a sunny aspect. Tsayah : to be 
dry, Zion : very dry = Durley : dry field, Dryden : dry valley. 
" We wept when we remembered Zion." Sharah : to shine, 
Sirion : great shiner, a metal cuirass, " Which Hermon the 
Sidonians call Sirion, and the Amorites call it Shenir :" the 
shiner, con. Schon : beautiful. Sheen (Richmond): shining, 
beautiful, Skin : the shining part. But Schinner (cardinal) 
is none other than our Skinner who takes off the pelt. Zill : 
shadow (Zillah), Zalmon (captain) : great shadow, comfort. 
Zalmunna. Salem : peace, Solomon : very peaceful = Salmoni. 
Shar : to be smooth, Sharon : great plain, llano (loco piano), 
savannah. " Who has not heard of the rose of Sharon ?" 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 73 

Jasher (book of) : righteous, Jeshurux : entirely righteous, 
then used as of affection to a good child in the sense of darling. 
From the Hebrew augmentative we have the Italian ONi, ONE, 
the French on, illon, and the English ON, 00N = Celtic more. 

" GiORGO (George) was called Giorgone, or great George, 
from a certain grandeur conferred upon him by nature, no less 
of mind than form." Carrion : great Charles. " Carrion had 
a complete ovation in La Somnambula." Fabroni : great 
Fabius. Italians affect descent from Roman aristocrats. 
RlCCOBONi : great Richard. Tassoni (Rape of Bucket) : great 
Tasso. Alberoni (cardinal) : great Albert. Lorenzo for 
Lorenzoni : great Lawrence. Sacchoni (cardinal) : great 
Isaac. Veneroni, for Vigneron : great vine, family man = 
Eschol. Vignette (frontispiece : artistic piece in book front : 
a little vine. Castiglione : great castle, dwelling in, the op. 
Castriotto (George) : little castle, his true name and title 
SCANDER Beg : Alexander the Bey. Pecci (cardinal) : eater, 
paunchy = Pansa, Pacchioni (of Reggio) : great eater. Tam- 
BRONI (Joseph) : big drummer. Borroni : great torrent, con. 
"Bore, of the Ganges." Borromeo (St.) : living on banks of a 
bore, torrent, that hears every thing before it = Torrentius. 

Albis : fair, pale = Bain, Albon, Alboni : very pale, cor. to 
the grotesque Allbones. The Italian queen of song being 
corpulent, the Parisians said, " Alboni is an elephant that has 
swallowed a nightingale." Pordenone (painter) : great gate- 
keeper = Salmon, Portman: who had gate rights, a citizen. 
Caput: the head, Cappon : great head = KEAN, Tait, Canmore. 
Pectus : the breast, as in petto, Petion (bastile breaker) : big 
chested. Taglioni (danseuse) : great cutter, slasher, pre- 
historic war name, con. Tagliapietra : stone splitter, who 
smashes stone helmet. Belongs to neolithic age. Sclater : 
stone slitter = Latta: lath splitter. Tagliabue : buffalo 
killer (bos) = Tuvee (vacca) : slayer of cow. These con. 
Entaglio : art of cutting precious stones. The Latin nations 
affect the o, as it makes words sonorous, hence oni is often 
used formatively, mere verbal padding. Thus Lazaroni : lazy 
ones, is formed on Lazarus. Macaroni : food foi^ the happy, 
con. Mazarin: a pastry cook. Pellon: great Peter = English 
Perowne, French Perillon. Perillon is thus analysed Per 
(for Peter) il (for filius) on : son of great Peter. Crebillon 
(French Eschylus) great Crib, which Crib: basket maker. 
Masillon (divine) : great Thomas. Mabillon (benedictine) : 
great Abraham. Philipon : great Philip, the French equivalent 
for Phillimore, FiLMER, RousiLLiON: great Russell. Bibron: 
great bibber, drinker, con. Bevilacqua (Italian) : water 
drinker =:Drinkwater. " According to the naturalist, M. 
6 



74 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Bihron, the sand lizard," &c. Sandon : great Alexander, 
Sandy. " A few years ago, Dr. Tardieu was blamed for the 
facility with which he signed the certificate of insanity for 
the unhappy advocate, Sandon." 

Sands (George): sandelier, sandal maker = Gracy : brogue 
maker. Tardieu : slow footed, tardigrade, the op. of 
Podargus, Swift, Flett, — 

" He to my tardy feet shall lend 
The swiftness of the roe." 

Dillon (when French) : great David (when Irish) : great 
flood, born at time of. Our use of this augmentative may be 
illustrated thus : Ballo : I throw, Bakena : a whale, the 
thrower, Ball : a missile, with dim. becomes Bullet or Ballot: 
little ball, but by assistance of our old friend oni, swells into 
Balloon : great ball. So from Bouche : the mouth to BufF, we 
have Buffoon : great cheeks, puffing them out in fun. Opera 
Bouffe : buffbnic acting and bucolic music. Cartoon : great 
card, chart = Magna Charta. Caisson: great chest, con. Cash: 
metal money that goes in a box. Cash : caisson maker = Ark, 
Arkwright : makes box for archives. = Lagoon : great lake, 
con. Lagos : lake district of Africa = Lachlan : lake land= 
Fermanagh : lake country. Gabion : great cave, hollow to be 
filled, con. Cavour, Cave : troglodytes. Saloon, Salon : great 
hall, con. Ingersoll, co7i. Entresol. Alp : a mountain. Alb : 
Britain, Albanach : son of the mountain. Albion : great 
Britain, Albany: north Britain. Patagon (Spanish) from 
Planta : foot-sole, pad, means great footed, Patagonia, Broad- 
foot (Bertha), Dasipodius, Oedipus (Colonna) : swelled foot, 
the op. of PoDio : little foot, man with. The name Peed 
(for pied de boeuf): slow footed, walking like a cow. The 
French contrast it with PiEDLEU (pied de loiip): swift footed, 
like a wolf. Peed forms Pay, whence Payson and also gives 
the dim. Peddie : little Peed, so that in literality Payson = 
Peddie. Vierfuss : f ourf ooted, flat = Piedleu. Proudfoot: 
foot of the Pryd (hill). Pryd-hill = Beaumont : pretty hill. 
The augmentative on with variations entered the (5reek. 

Ergon : work, gives Urge : to move, to work, as goad to 
an ox, George : earth worker, Argos : cultivated all round. 
Argus : sharp, good worker. Energy : working actively. Ergo : 
therefore, Organ : a work by excellence, Organon : great 
work = Magnus Opus. Peri (very) was used by (Greeks to add 
intensity of meaning, like on, oni. Peri and er : very manly, 
con. Andrew = Fergus and Agenor (Phenician King) : agan- 
aner, very much a man. Menander : a man indeed = Barron, 
Mannus, Wight, Bravo. Pericles: very glorious, much 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 75 



spoken of = Semiramis. Perigonus : true son = Icilius, 
Patrobas, Shixab, each of whom was sides up with his father. 
The Greeks also used Bous : an ox, for big, as we do bull. 
Bucephalus : great head, Bopis : big eyed. Bulimy : ox hunger, 
hungry as a bull. The Celts, and from them the Saxons, used 
More : great, as Canmore (Malcolm) : great head = Tate (when 
•from the Normans), Chubb (locks), Mazzini (Joseph), great 
mazzard. Oranmore (lord ) : great fountain = Lismore : great 
leas, meadows, garden. CoXMiR : great dog, noble warrior. 
Consult DoiG. MoRVEX (ben) : great mountain, Ben More = 
Grammont. Brithmor : great Briton, as Franconi : great 
Frank, a* magistrate. Cathmor : great in battle, con. Kath- 
leen : battle eyed, eye sparkling like a warrior going into 
combat. Whitmore : great man, from White : a man, Wight. 
WiLLiMORE,WiLMER: great William. But LoNGWiLL = LoNGUE- 
ville, Langton. Oberon : great elf, comes thus, Albis : white, 
Alva (duke): white man. Elf : a fairy = Banshee : white 
woman, from Bain : white. Oberon was a puck coming out 
of hill side by moonlight to play tricks. Hence PuXLEY : 
field haunted by fairies, and PooK : a fairy, very pretty, a 
common name. 

" This PucJc seems but a dreaming dolt, 
Still walking like a ragged colt, 
And oft out of a bush doth bolt 

Of purpose to deceive us. 

" And leaving us, makes us to stray, 
Long winter nights out of the way ; 
And when we stick in mire and clay, 

He doth with laughter leave us. 

" Do you amend it, then ; it lies in you : 
Why should Titania cross her Oberon ? 
I do but beg a little changling boy 
To be my henchman." 

Papillon (Norman knight) : campaigning with a great tent, 
exactly = Pavilion. Certain sacred names we should never 
expect to find in directories, on door plates, and public house 
signs, are so found. In the New York Directory we have 
several persons called Christ : anointed = Messiah, Uxor and 
O. E. H(eland, and Gott : God, identical with Goth : good in 
fighting. How comes this ? From the mediaeval passion plays. 
Successful personators of any character as Virtue, Hope, 
Faith, Scripture, or parties mentioned in the Bible often 
took the name of the character as a surname. Thus in 
Germany he who took the part of Satan was called Teufel, 
TuFFiL : devil, or Manteufel : man devil, identical with 
Mandeville, from which Maundrel: to tell absurd stories like 



76 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Sir John. Amongst the French Satan wore wings and was 
called Lange : L'ange, the angel. Doubtless if Joseph Muller 
had played Christ as cleverly seven hundreds of years since 
as he did last year at Oberammergau, instead of being known 
as Muller he would be called Christ. Gott, God, Goode, 
GoTHER enter largely into British names, so Gothrum : famous 
Goth. King Alfred stood as godfather for him, having his 
name changed to Godman : goodman = Evander, whence 
Godmanchester : Goodman's camp. So Godalming (Surrey) : 
almshouse of Goda in the field. Goda is /em. of Goode : man 
of God, and Goda : godly woman. Godard : of a godly 
nature, con. Godiva : God given. Gossip (God sib) : akin 
through God, con. Sibbald : bold kinsman. Sebley : field of 
a kinsman. Gossip is ecclesiastical as is Novello : one passing 
his novitiate in a religious house — New, Newcomen : new 
comers, NovATlAN (heretic) : lit. son of a novice. 

Flowers : Easter born when flowers were scattered through 
church = Flourens, Lorelias, as Llorente omits initial /. 
These = Foster, though the last is heathen, having to do Math 
the worship of the Saxon goddess corresponding to Astarte. 
It is still in use. " The master of the ship, Robert Foster, was 
drowned." Ecclesiasticism also gives Marnoc (St.) : devoted 
to Mary, whence his cell Kilmarnock. MuRROCH (Mc) is equal 
thereto. So (Mc)Ilvride for (Mac)GiLLiBRiDE : servant of 
St. Bridget, to whom we owe Hebrides : islands of St. Bride, 
from chapel on coast. Scotch fondness for gil is seen in 
GiLKisoN for GiLKiNSON = Wilkinson, and M'Gill : son of 
Gill or Gil. 

But we have unconsciously glided from names Biblical into 
names common through ecclesiasticism. Alas ! that this should 
so often happen in actual life. We have been true to nature, 
but she is faulty. We atone by concluding our chapter with an 
essay upon the word God. The Greeks called Him Theos : 
placer, arranger, systematizer, who brings cosmos (order) out 
of chaos (confusion). Hence Thetis (mother of Achilles), 
Theta (Sun's mother) = Mithras : mother of light. Theos in 
combination with Doron : a gift,suppliesTHEODORUS,THEODORE, 
Tudor, which get mixed with Gothic words from Theod : 
people, whence Theoderic, Derrick, Dirk, which suffer more 
confusion Avith the Celtic Darach, Darrach : son of an oak, 
strong = Hf.lon, Eckius. Derringer: oaken spear, who 
being famous for pistols suggests Pistol, which in the time of 
Shakespeare meant pistolier = carbineer. Theos gave the 
Romans Deus, whence the French Dieu, the Spanish Dios, 
and the Italian Dio, and Deity to us. Goodbye : God be with 
you = Adieu (Fr.) and Addio (It.): I commend you to the 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 77 



keeping of God. Before Christianity was introduced among 
the Celts he was known as Baa-ul : life all, haa identical with 
Bios : life and ul with all. When the Celts were Christianised 
they called Him Dia, in the plural Dy. Seventy millions in 
Europe know Him as Bog, whence Bogdan : gift of God = 
Theodorus and Elnathan. Bogoslav: glory of God = 
Theocles, Thecla, Hodijah. Bogatsky: city of God = 
Allahabad : the habitation of God. By the time Bog reached 
western Europe it sank into Bogey : a nursery terror. The 
generic name amongst the Egyptians was Thoth : God. As a 
rule the name of God in all languages is expressed by four 
letters or less. It is so with Jehovah, Adonai, Allah, Theos, 
Thoth in the original, while Zeus: living one, Gott, God, 
Bog, Deus, Dio, Dia, Tin, Ti, Tu, Tuis (last four supposed to 
be connected with Tuisco and the idea of earth born), As, Az 
(these two mean strong), Ad (one) all divine names plainly 
come under the rule of the Tetragrammaton : four letters. 
Tewson, Tuson are common names in England, meaning of 
divine descent = Dioscuri : sons of Dios, Jupiter. Either so 
or they mean Tuesday born, sacred to Tuisco. Tew also is 
in daily use. Seeing the name of God might have been ten 
lettered as Omnipotent. But is four — Why ? 

UM). 

Eastern nations have yet another augmentative, and, if 
brevity is the soul of wit, it is the wittiest used by man. We 
have seen that the Hebrews have two forms of the plural, as 
we have childre-n- horses, they have seraph-im (mas.) ashtaroiA, 
gxiiith (fern,.). From im, by omission of m, they formed a 
very complimentary intensitive ending, thus Bab : great, 
Babba?! : very great, RABBONi(m) : a teacher equal to several 
masters. Mary used it well when saluting her risen Lord as 
" Rabboni ! " for His rising from the dead was an effective way 
of teaching " I am the life." So IsHi(m) : a noble man = 
many men = Nabob plu. of Naib : a noble one giving the word 
of command. Sometimes ISHI : my man, i.e., husband. Arabi 
(m) = many Arabs. The scamp j ustified his designation. When 
it is Turkish, Arabi : driver of an arabah cart, and then = 
Wagner. This augmentative has become common all over 
civilisation, as is seen by such names as JosEPHi(m) : the best 
of the Josephs, equal many of them. JACOBi(m) : superior to 
any named Jacob. SiMEONi(m) : a better man than any called 
Simeon. Every observer of men and manners can enlarge 
this list of exaniples. 

Reu : a shepherd, who looks after sheep. REi(m) : who 
watches like many shepherds. Shem : a name, famous Shimei 



78 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



(m) : much spoken of = Semiramis. " Nathan the prophet, and 
Shimei and BeL" Ur : Hght, joy, URi(m) : great light (of 
family) = Housego, Ecolampadius. " See, I have called by 
name Bezaleel, the son of Uri" As Bezaleel : (under) the 
shadow of God, these two may be said to be the light and 
shade of Bible names. Ur : light. ARELi(ra) : the lights of 
God, born when the stars appeared. SHUNi(m) : great 
sleeper, long in bed and loud at it = Stertinus : great snorer. 
Zephon : (his brother) : great watcher. Both sons of Gad. 
Ah : brother. Ahi (m) : a brother indeed, or my dear brother. 
He was grandson of Guni. Gen : a garden. GuNi (m) very 
fruitful, great family man = EsCHOL, Polycarp. Carmi (m) : 
vineyards, very prolific. A son of Eeuben. He bred in 
Egypt like a fish (Nun). Carmel : the vineyard of God, a 
very fruitful hill. ZiMRl (m).: vine with many branches = 
Zethar : an olive. Family men. Az : strong. Uzzi (m) : 
very strong. " Bukkie begat Uzzi." BuKKi (m) : dispersions, 
scatterings, he who scatters the enemy. EzER, Ezra, Esdras : 
strong helper. EzRl (in)== the help of many. Ben: a son. 
Bani (m) : worth ten sons. " The children of Bani, 642." 
Dad : dear. DoDAi (m) : very dear, con. Dido, David, 
Jedidiah : dear to Jehovah. " Over the course of the second 
month was Dodai." 

Hush: quick. Hushai (m) : very swift = Podargus, 
Galletly, Lightbody. " HusJiai the Archite came to meet 
David with his coat rent." Hod : praise, JuDAH : who is 
praised. HiDDAl (m) : who praises very much, great psalm 
singer = HiLLEL. 

Meribah : strife. Jeribai (m) : contentious, cantankerous, 
querulous. Jerubbael : let Baal contend. Ribbai (m) : great 
fighter = Polemox. Ittai (m) : fine strong man. " Ittai the 
son of Bahhai, out of Gibeah." Naomi (m) : fair as many 
daughters, con. Naaman, the handsome Syrian. Pi : mouth. 
PuAH : talkative. Paarai (m) : an awful jabbler. Ziph : a 
watch tower. Ziphon : very vigilant. Zephi (m) = manyon 
guard. Shemer : a watchman. Shimri (m) : a very faithful 
guardian. Salem : peace. Shalmai (m) : very peaceful = 
Solomon. 

Gemalli (m) : many camels, possessor of = Polymeles : 
many sheep. Shilhi (m) : carrying many arrows in his 
quiver, or darts, con. Shiloh : sent, con. Methuselah : man of 
the dart. Not brave like swordsmen. Naphtali (m) : wrest- 
lings of God. " Of the tribe of Nephthalim 12,000." Hachmoni 
(m) : very wise man indeed. Quosh : a bow. Kishon : very 
winding. KiSHi (m-dual) : the double bow, a bow in the 
clouds appearing when he was born = Kushahiah. Elioeni 



BIBLICAL NAMES. 79 



(m-dual) : my eyes (een) are to God (El). He had seven sons, 
and gave each a religious name. His last born was Anani (m) : 
prophecyings, foretellings, given when His words were ful- 
filled. Ghor : a valley. Gehazi (m) : valley of visions, where 
one sees many things to please. 

Laban : white = Bain. Libni (m) : very pale = ALBON, 
Alboni, Chlorus. Sin : a bush. Sinai (m) : much bushy 
undergrowth, the o^j*. of Penrod. Zacher, Zaccur : having a 
good memory = Mnason (" an old disciple)." Zichori (m) : 
exceedingly attentive. Zecharih : remembered of Jehovah. 
RosH : head, leader. Rashi (m) = many captains, suggests 
Rabboni (ra). 



( 80 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

BIETH NAMES 



Are of high antiquity. Their age often prevents discovery of 
the attendant circumstances in which such were given, so that 
even when the meaning of a birth name is known, its appro- 
priateness being unknown, our information receives no great 
increase. Names of this class are generally souvenirs of faith, 
hope, prayer, or gratitude, developed into expression by the 
birth of an immortal whose destiny is veiled by a mystery 
which time only can uprear. In the nature of things national 
history could not take cognisance of all births, but if able, 
unless we knew the circumstances under which a child 
appeared, the mere name would be small gain. As it is impos- 
sible that biography can be co-extensive with history, the mass 
of mankind must pass away unrecorded. Clio cannot take 
office as Registrar- Generaless. She tells, in some cases, the 
gross amount, but never the digits which go to form it, informs 
us that Napoleon marched on Moscow heading half a million 
of men, but the historic Muse is silent as to who the rank and 
file were. The million cannot reach the van and be visible to 
all save by a combination of circumstances and possession of 
faculties that meet only in a few persons. In other words, the 
many cannot be known, must be anonymi. Hence, famous 
names are to those unknown as one blade of grass to a wide 
meadow. Yet those we have are samples of what we lack. 
By them we know the principles employed in nomenclature by 
all nations now civilised and in many yet savage. As it was 
customary with parents to name children at birth as recorded 
Gen. xxix., xxx., the probabilities are, that nearly all names 
were originally of this class. Nor may we lose sight of the 
pious Hebrew deferring that act until the eighth day, while 
the classic Greek and law-abiding Roman conferred the appel- 
lation on the ninth or tenth days. " Circumcised the eighth 
day," because seven days complete the weekly circle, so that 
the eighth day is the first portion of a new period of time. 
The child was then pictorially regenerated, entering into rela- 
tionship with the covenant people, before which it was on a 
level with Gentiles. So Jesus rose from among the dead on 
the eighth day, for first and eighth are identical, — the former 
having respect to this week, the latter to last. He rose on the 
first or eighth to begin a new life on a new day. So, also, as 
to the number saved in the ark. Eight souls bedn a new 



BIRTH NAMES. 81 



world. Eighth new, in biblical symbolism. Few birth names 
descend to our age, most being exchanged for names won. Our 
nomenclature may be enriched as to number by birth names, 
of whose meaning no man knoweth. If any such they fitted 
periods when names were simple and descriptive, and, as a 
rule, became obsolete at the death of their original possessor. 
In case these won a great name, that given at birth lived by 
adoption of admirers, but more a life of sound than of sense. 
That nature urges to name at birth is seen in the case of our 
great ancestress who, when she brought forth the first born of 
many brethren, called him — 

Cain : possession. " I have gotten the man from the Lord," 
him whom He promised." " Jehovah cained me in the begin- 
ning of His way." Many of her daughters since named their 
offspring with the same yearning hopefulness, like poor Eve, 
to be distressed by blighted hopes. Her bitterness of disap- 
pointment was indicated when she called her next born Abel, 
Hebel : vanity. " All is hebel." Of the millions who fol- 
lowed her example, the following illustrations may suffice : — 
IsHMAEL, ISMAEL : God shall hear. " As for Ishmael I Jtave 
heard thee." Samuel, Shemuel, Ellshama : heard of God, 
gives ScHAMYL (Circassian) Smollett (Tobias) : little Sam- 
uel, SiMNEL (Walter), Simson, Simpson, Sam, Samson (when 
English), but not Sambo, from Zambo (Spanish) : bandy- 
legged. Abenbrod (evening bread) : born at time of family 
taking supper. Abendroth (evening red) : born at ruddy sun- 
set. Anastasius : born at anastasis, resurrection, Easter, gives 
Anstey (Chisholm), Stacey = Pascal (Blaise): passover time 
born when pascal (suffering) lamb M^as eaten == Paschasius 
(abbot of Corbie, 844, first to use the word Transubstantiation), 
Paschino (Roman cobbler ; had shop near statue of gladiator, 
to whom young fellows compared him : hence pasquinade), 
Paraskeva (Russian lady) : born on Easter Sunday. Span- 
iards called Easter-day Pascua Florida, as they then scattered 
flowers on the church floors. Florida (U.^.) discovered on 
Pascua Florida, a.d. 1518. Fleury (cardinal), from Flos, floris : 
a flower. Llorente (inquisition), for Florente : flourishing = 
Tantalus, Flourens (Gustave), all Easter- born save Tanta- 
lus. Pace eggs are Pascal eggs. As the chicken comes out of 
the egg, so Christ out of the sepulchre. Eoster : born when 
the goddess Eoster (Astarte) received special honours. This 
name is in common use in this form and also as Hester, and 
is the ancient heathen correspondent to the foregiven. Theo- 
PHANIUS : time of God's manifestation to magi by the star, cor. 
Tiffany = Epiphanius : epiphany born, Jan. 6th. The Italians 
cor. it to Befana, whence Bettana. These = Bertha : bright 
born. The Eastern church calls that season theophany, which 



82 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

the Western church terms epiphany. Tradition rnakes the 
wise men, corresponding to Europe, Asia, and Africa, naming 
them Gasper : the jasper stone, Balthazar : treasure master, 
Melchior : kingly, royal. These are the three kings of Col- 
ogne. The first gives the well known Gasparde. In the 
Middle Ages children were often called from saints days on 
which they were born. 

ViGiLANTius: born at vigils. Salverte : born when the 
" Salve Regina " was being chanted. Tolliday : on St. 
Olave's day, gives Tully, when English, Tooley Street named 
from St. Olave's church. Crouch, Cross : at crouch mass, 
December 18th, con. crutch. Francia (dictator): born 
September 17th, feast of St. Francis Stigmata. Loveday : on 
da\' appointed for making up quarrels and grievances. 
Haggai : feast of the Lord, born at, " Shimeah, his son 
Haggiah, his son." From Hagh : a feast, Hadji : feast 
keeper, pilgrim, a maji who went from feast to feast, so 
Hagar : a stranger (Egyptian), con. Hegira : era of Ma- 
homet's flight, July 16th, A.D. 622. Hagarenes : strangers, 
gauyim. Haggith : parents rejoiced at his birth like those 
keeping hagh. " Then Adonijah, the son of Haggith, exalted 
himself, saying, I will be king." 

Jerah, Jaroah: born at appearance of ivanderer, the moon, 
so called because of its phases. Lebonah (from laban: white) : 
at moon's appearing. Hodesh : a new moon = NuMENius. "He 
begat of Hodesh, his wife, Johab and Zibi." "For this cause we 
choose ]^u7nen'i us, son of Antiochus," con. Mene : numbered. 
" Mene, Tekel, Upharsin." Moon : numberer. Almanack (all 
moon ac) : giving all moons. So Kronos (Saturn), gives 
Chronos : time, as that star told time. Meniscus : little moon, 
lunette, glass. Menology : register of months. Mensis : a 
month (moon-eth). Menstruum : solvent caused by the moon. 
Mensuration : numei^ation of months. The Hebrew name for 
the moon proper, Jerah : the wanderer, is supposed to give 
Jericho : city where the moon received special religious 
honours, as Greenock : from Graine : the sun. MooN = the 
foregoing upon which is formed the baronial MoHUN : born at 
appearance of the queen of night. Kushahiah : bow^ of the 
Lord (from Quosh : a bow, whence Kishon : winding river = 
Ilissus : helix river, and KiSH : bird snarer = our Snarey, for 
snarer) : born when a rainbow was visible, which parents 
accepted as an omen that the little stranger was connected 
with the covenant. KiSHi (m) : double bow, born when a rain- 
bow was seen. 

Virgil (Publius Maro. Correctly Vergilius) : at appearing 
of constellation Vergilice, from Ver : spring, con. Vergulta : a 
rod which buds in spring, giving Verger : who carries rod. 



BIRTH NAMES. 83 



Hereby we are taken to the days of astrology. Maro's wife 
suffers the hour of nature's need. He, husband and augur, 
watches the starry host, eager for a prophetic index of the 
child's future. The wished for message, " A man child is 
born," comes, and at the same time the Vergilice rise above the 
horizon, indicating fruitfulness and inciting hope. Maro 
salutes his son with the omen Vergil ! Vergil ! ! This name = 
Gad : a troop, cutting through, an eventual success, fortune. 
The sun sets over the western wilderness, and the gloaming 
slowly veiled the tents of Jacob. Zilpah labours, Leah watches. 
A voice in the tent said, " I have gotten a son." The sky 
searcher cries Gad ! Gad ! ! Areli (m) : born when the lights 
of God appeared, the stars rose. This tribial designation = 
Said, Felix, Fortunatus, Bonheur (Rosa) : good hour. 
Bona VENTURA : well come, Festus, Luckie, Gluck : lucky 
names. Long, when Chinese. From Gad Azgad : strong in 
fortune. " The children of Azgad, 1222." Such names more 
or less verge on astrology. Metternich (statesman) : at 
middle of the night, con. Nachman : night watchman, and = 
the well-known French Minuit. We also find in common use 
MiTNACHT : born at night's noon. 

Shema, Shimeon, Simeon, and Simon : heard (of God), gives 
simony (Simon Magus), Symes, Symington (where church of 
St. Simon), Simpson, Sims (Reeves), Ximenes (cardinal). 
" Because the Lord heard that I was hated." These answer to 
Aratus (con. Oro : I pray): prayed for = DESlDEHlLTS : much 
desired. Shammuah : heard of the Lord = Samuel. Asher: 
blessed, happy, assumes the modern form Asser = Beatus : 
blessed, whence Beatrice. " Happy am I." But Ashet = 
Zoppi : maker of pie dishes, and Varsari (George). Judah : 
praise, one spoken well of = ^NEAS, gives Judas, Jude, Judith, 
Judy, Judd, Judson, Judeus (Philo) : the Jew, Jewell 
(bishop). Jukes, Judea, Jewry, Ghetto, but Juler: a jeweller, 
a trade name, and JuLES : of the Julian gens, and Julian 
(apostate) : son of Julius. 

Baptista and Battista: June 24th. John the Baptist's day, 
gives Batti, Babty, Battini, Zita (all in Don Juan), Baptist, 
Gambetta for Gian Baptista. Noel, Nolan (captain), and 
Naulet: December 25th, natal day of Jesus. Natal (Port) 
discovered by Vasca de Gama, Christmas Day, 1497. Carna- 
tion (Gypsy name) : at time of Incarnation. Annunciata 
(Spanish lady) : March 25th, feast of Annunciation gives 
Sunter. I have met with it in Yorks. Concetta and 
Concha : December 8th, named in honour of Immaculate 
Conception. Immaculato : unspotted, also born December 
8th. Since decree of December, 1854, thousands of children 
have been named Immaculato, the English of which is Affleck: 



84 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



without flick. Dolores: in honour of seven dolours of Mary, 
gives Lola (Montes). Ladyman : March 25th, Lady-day, con. 
ToPLADY and Nostrodamus (astrologer) : Notre Dame, Nuestra 
Senora, our lady = Mario : devotee to Mary. Ladybird : insect 
having five spots upon wings, thought sacred to five wounds, 
stigmata, of our Lord. 

" Ladybird ! ladybird ! fly away home, 
Tlae daisies have shut up their sleepy red eyes." 

Marigold : her gold, sacred flower. Tobermory = Motherwell 
and Lady well: spring sacred to B. V. M. Trmplemore: Mary- 
kirk. The oath Marry ! means by Mary. Mary : bitter, born 
at a time of bondage, hence Miriam, Miriamne (Herod's wife), 
Maria, Mariana (Sp. Jesuit), Marat (French red), Moll, 
Molly (Bourne), Mollison, Malkin : a cat. Marionette : little 
Mary dancing. Marian (Maid), Mariott, Marry att (captain), 
Maro (monk, whence Maronites), Mar, when it does not mean 
illustrious, when it does, gives Merling : son of the illustrious 
= Patrobas. Murroch (Mc) : a Maryite ^ (Mc) Marry, (Mc) 
MuRCHiE, Murchison = Murtogh: dedicated to Mary, though 
in some families it means an admiral, sea leader. To these add 
Damian (John): son of the mother, devotee to B.V.M. Among 
the Latin race thousands of men are named Mary. We have 
all possible variations of her names and supposed titles applied 
to a man child. Some Bourbons have twenty such inanities 
instead of an honest healthy Christian name. Such is Gloriosa : 
the glories of Mary. Pio Nono's name in English was John 
Mary Thomas Smith. We now have the Infanta Mercedes : 
mercy of the mother of God. " I was accompanied by my 
aide-de-camp, Colonel Solis, and the Generals Cordova and 
Alaminos. Don Enrique de Bourbon was accompanied on 
the fatal morning by Don Frederico Bubio, Don Emigdio 
Santamaria, and Don Andrez Ortiz." SoLis : a southerner, 
from Sol : south, as Solano : hot south wind. RuBiO = RuFUS, 
RuDD = Emigdio (amo Deus, Dio) : lover of God = Godfrey. 
Santamaria : holy Mary. Andrez : son of Andrew = Ander- 
son, born on St. Andrew's Day, November 30th. Who would 
suppose that this religious company were on for a duel ? To 
these we may yet add Marr (music) and Maris, besides others 
too numerous to mention. 

LoMAS, Lamas: loaf mass, Lammas, born August 1st, time 
of offering first fruits. Middlemass is cor. from Michaelmass, 
and cor. into the less distinguishable name of Middlemiss : 
September 29th. Quartermass (local): living where four 
seas meet. Midwinter: December 25th, the secular corres- 
pondent to the ecclesiastical Noel, but before the former there 
was in use Yule and Yuill : born when the yule log was 



BIBTH NAMES. 85 



burning in honour of Jul, at time of winter solstice. Genaro 
(Naples) : January born. Eio Janeiro : riyer of St. Januarius, 
discovered by Cabral in 1499. Whitgift (archbishop) : Whit 
Sunday born (whit-for white, dressing in) = Pentecost : born 
on seventh Sunday after Easter. Innocent : at Childermas, 
December 28th, in commemoration of Herod's slaughter. 
SUNTION is the old English Assumption : born August 15th. 
Cream (for Careme, from Carnis : flesh, as Carnival : farewell 
flesh) : lent born. TousSAiNT and Ognisanti : on November 
1st, All Saints Day == Milcent (de mille Sanctis). Mortimer 
and Mutimer : death of martyrs, day observed in memory of, 
wrongfully given as Mortimer: dead sea, a pilgrim calling 
thereat, this being a cant fancy, guess by sound. Faith : born 
October 8th, St. Faith's Day. Hegel (Hegelian philosophy) : 
born at time of hail-storm. Sabbathias (Zwi, Pretender to 
Messiahship, A.D. 1641): Sabbath born, con. Sabbation : river 
not running on Sabbath. Shabbathai : Sabbath born. " Shah- 
hethai, the Levite, helped them." Pausius and Pausanius : 
born on day folks j^ctused from labour, con. Paulus, Paul : 
little, who has paused in growth, allied to Parvus, Pauper, and 
our English Little: at birth = Pettit, Klein, Minnoch, and 
Minion. 

KuRiAKOS (Iconium), Cyriacus, Cyril (Jerusalem), and 
Cyr (St.) : on Lord's day (kurios) = Dominic (dies dominicalis). 
Domingo discovered on Lord's day by Columbus, 6th De- 
cember, 1492, cor. to the English Downie. To these Spanish 
writers add Mendez, whence Mendoza = Sontag (Madam) : 
Sunday born. In the West Indies negroes name piccaninnies 
from their birth day, thus, — Quashee : Sunday born, QuA- 
sheba, if a girl. One Quashee discovered the virtue of a 
medicinal plant, from him called Quassia. So common is 
Quashee and Sambo that they are generic for any unknown 
negro. Macready (tragedian) : Wednesday born, Mercredi : 
Mercury's day, but M'Cready is a formation upon that prolific 
name Reid. There is actually a Micklereid (much, muckle) : 
greatest of the Eeids, the Reid, Lundy is of tfen given Monday 
born, Luna dies, but is formed on London, and means a 
Cockney. London (Robert) flourished in 1180. Proof that 
then London was small. Freytag (Nuremburg) : Friday 
born = Friday (my man) = Juba, Couba, negro names, giving 
to the yellow girls JUBINA, CUBINA. Friday is the next most 
sacred day after Sunday all over the world, save in Scotland, 
where it is set apart for courtship and marriage, which is in 
keeping with pre-Christian times, as the day was specially 
sacred to the Norse Venus, Freya, Frigga. In many families 
Free means Friday born, given by Freya ; but Freeman : 
freedman = Frew, one of the Freelungi. Mittag : midday 



86 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

born = Mesembria, con. Mesembryanthemum : flower bloom- 
ing at midday. The above = Doubleday : born at a mid- 
summer's noon. Noon, Nun (when English) : born at nones. 
Laud (Archbishop) : at lauds, time of praise. Laudo from 
Plaudo : to clap hands, whence explode : to make a noise like 
hand clappers. Prime : at primes, first service. But Prim 
(General) : first born. Mattens : born at matins, matutinal 
service, morning worship. Mezzanotte (Italian) : midnight 
born = Metternich, Cockshot: born when the cock shuts 
the day. Sometimes a form of Cocksholt : wood frequented 
by cocks. Holt becomes shot as Aldershot : alderholt, wood. 
Photius : son of light, born when day is dawning. IvIanius : 
born at mane: morning = the better known TiTUS Manlius: 
son of the morning = Lucius : son of daylight (lux). 
Morganroth : born when sky began to redden, good omen. 
DoLLiNGER (theologian) : day-linger, born at tiviVight, betiveen 
lights, i.e., of son and moon = Ahishahar : dawn brother = 
Shaharaim : two dawns, mid-dawn = Zerah ' (Ethiopian), 
Zarah : dispersion (of darkness). Dollinger is often met 
with in the dearer form of Dallinger. Novelists would be 
hard put to it to fancy names more poetical, so much does 
fact outstrip fiction. Dago and Tagg (when German) : 
born at daybreak, con. Dagger : flashing, glittering like the 
day; in some cases = Alba, Alva : born when day whitens. 
Dagobert : glorious as the day. Bertheim : when born the 
brightness of the home = Housego. Mezzofanti (cardinal) : 
half an infant, very small at birth = Paulus, Minnoch, and 
con. Vent, Ventriss: little, infantile as to size. Moab : of 
the father. Ammon : my people. Their issue was absorbed 
or perished, but the Jew remains to the fore. Thomas : a 
twin = DiDYMUS (con. dis bis) = Zwi : two. Gemmell {con. 
Gemini). Twinn : one of twain. Thomas gives Tamassier 
(Rose). Massena (Marshal), Masson, great Thomas, Mas- 
SEY, Mace (when not mace bearer), Mastai (count), Tam 
(O'Shanter : of the shanty farm, old buildings), combines 
with Agnello, Anello : an angel, as in Massaxiello, 
but Giotto (s O) is from Angliotto : little angel, a nurse 
name. Thomasina as a /cm. is becoming common. In the 
Gaelic we have Omish, as in M'Omish = Thompson, so 
(M') Coomee, (M') Cumber = Tomson. The conventional mean- 
ing of Thomas in the Middle Ages woukl be born on his day. 
The following are actual family names = foregoing, viz., Twa, 
Couples, Doubles. Vopiscus (Syracuse) : one who lives of 
two = AHiMOTH: brother of death, twin brother died. Ham- 
medatha : a twin. " Haman, the son of Hammedatha!' 
AvENTiN (St.) for Adventinus : happy event, advent, welcome. 
Bonaventura (St.) bonny advent. 



BIRTH NAMES. 87 



Dentatus: born with teeth, con. Indentures : indented parch- 
ment. Fairbairn, Fairchilds, Faiers : like Moses, beauti- 
ful from the womb = EsAU: perfect, well formed, hair upon 
his body showed his perfection to which others grow. When 
it is given Esau : hairy, the name is confused with Seir : 
rough, goat-like, Seorim : satyrs, demons. Properjohn : John 
wlio was a tine baby. But Littlejohn : small at birth = 
Little of us, and Zuar of the Hebrews. " Oh, let me escape 
thither (is it not a little one ?). Therefore the name of the 
city was called Zoar." " The son of Zuai^ shall be captain." 
Flann : ruddy at birth = Edom. Scarlett (heavy dragoon), 
Rose, and the German Roth. 

JoLiFFE : jolly child, from Liffe : son, one loved, life of 
parents, liffe, life, love. Goodliffe : child devoted at baptism 
— Hosius, Allgood : hallowed, so Cunliffe, Wickliffe. 
KosKiuSKO (Poland): weak boned = Holbein (painter): hollow- 
bones. Tola (judge) : a worm, weak, little. " I am a tola, 
and no man." Gebar : strong (man) is its contrast, Gabriel : 
the strength of God, very strong. TiCKEL (friend of Addison) : 
feeble, trembling, made into Kittle : shaky, delicate, critical 
in Scotland, as " It is a kittle point." So Tiddler (Tom's 
ground) : all of a totter. Tottie : a little girl. 

" weake life ! That does leane 

On things so tickle as th' unsteady ayre." 

Aram (Eugene) : weakly born, feeble baby. But Aram 
(Biblical) : high. Hagab : a grass hopper, locust, Agabus 
(prophet) : little at birth. Amoz : strong, robust, from Az : 
strength, probably applied to strong infant. Saul : asked for : 
" Saul died and Baal-hanan reigned in his stead." Gen. 
xxxvi. 38, The first place his worship is implied. Baal- 
HANAN : born of the grace of Baal, con. Hannah : grace. 
Achbor, Akbar : a mouse, small child = Musculus (reformer) : 
a little mouse, identical with muscle. Symbolic meanings 
were attached to mice, now lost, hence their mission to afflict 
Philistines. Rats and cats are unmentioned in Bible. Dancer 
(Daniel), Dauncy, Dancy : who is dauncy, nigh to death, 
done, born more dead than alive. From do comes death 
(doeth), dead (doed), dauncy, done. 

Cade (Jack) : born little. Cad pig : least of litter. Cadet : 
younger tjrother = puny, puisne, post natus. Puny gives Pony : 
little (horse). Some give Cadet from Capdet from Caput : the 
head. Cade. " We John Cade, so termed of our supposed 
father, Dick. Or rather, of stealing a cade of herrings." Cask 
is formed on cade and casket on it. Of all English names it 
answers most closely to Paul : one whose growth has been 
arrested, whence Paoli (Corsica), Palafox (Saragossa), . 



88 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Pablo (Fanque), Pawley, Paley : Paul's field, dedicated to, 
Polk (president), (Mc)Phail, Paulus (Sergius), Paulicians : 
followers of Pauline epistles, ancient puritans. Semple : born 
January 25th, feast of St. Paul's conversion. Agrippa : sharp 
pains, <4ger, regrotat, acer. De las Penas: born of great pains, 
is the Spanish equivalent. Jabez corresponds. " His mother 
called his name Jabez, saying, ' Because I bare him with 
sorrow.' " Tahrea : delaying cries, slowly born — " The sons 
of Micah were Pithron, and Melech, and Tarea." Varies to 
Terah whence Teraph : an image, Teraphim : household gods. 
Some have Teraph a form of Seraph, as Tekel : weighed, is 
identical with Shekel : a weight. Cordus, Corder (Maria 
Martin), Cordelia : born slowly. Leah : wearied, fatigued 
mother to give her birth. " The name of the elder was Leah." 
= Cordelia. Bilhan (Ezer's son. Gen. 36) : terror, conster- 
nation (of mother in labour). Bilhah is its fair fevi. Ahab : 
father's brother, when born had features of his uncle = our 
Farebrother : father's brother, born like him. IsHNi : like 
his father, the born image of papa. Aharah (son of Benjamin): 
after his brother, as Jacob after Esau. Another of the names 
like Nun : a fish, breeding like one, telling how prolific the 
Hebrews were in Egypt. Ulysses (named of Autolycus) : 
anger with, odious to, annoyance at. Grandpa in ill skin. 
Cadena (Sp. lady) : born August 1st, feast of Peter's chains, 
from Catena : a chain, whence concatenation. Azmaveth : 
strength of death, implies mother died = Todleben (Sebastopol): 
dead alive, child lives, mother dies. "Over the king's treasures 
was Azmaveth." 

Ichabod : inglorious. " She named the child Ichahod, say- 
ing. The glory is departed." Ishod: glorious man, fine shaped 
male child, con. last and Judah, becomes Izod, Izett = Bravo. 
Hophni : little fist = PYGME: the fist (size when born), con. 
Pugno : I fight, Pugil : a champion, pugilist, Pygmalion 
(Tyrian king) : son of Pygme. Trepoff (shot by Nihilist) : a 
foundling discovered on tveppe : the steppe, moor, wilderness, 
son of the steppe. Benoni : son of my sorrow. " It came to 
pass as her soul was in departing (for she died), that he called 
liis name Benoni." This being an evil omen Jacob made it 
Benjamim : son of my days = Shanegan (Irish) : old man's son. 
Benjamin : son of my right hand is con. Yemen : right hand, 
south. To a man in Hebron looking due east Syria was 
reckoned north (left hand) and Arabia south (right hand). 
Gives Ben, Binney, Benson, howbeit Bendigo is a form of 
Benedict. 

Nephtalim, Naphtali : the wrestlings of God. " With the 
ivrestlinys of God have I wrestled." Adding the Divine name 
gives superlative force : Piver of God (Bog, Euphrates), Moun- 



BIRTH NAMES. 89 



tain of God (Benledi, Sinai). Hush : to hasten gives Hushai 
(David's friend), Hushah (Hushathites) Hushim, (Dan's son), 
HusHAM : all prematurely born. " When Jobab died, Husham, 
of the land of the Temanites, reigned in his stead." The 
Kaffirs name children on same principles. For example, a 
child is sometimes called by the name of the day on which it 
was born, as Robinson Crusoe called his servant Friday. If 
a wild beast is heard to roar at the time the child is born, this 
circumstance would be accepted as an omen, and the child 
called by the name of the beast, or by a name representing its 
cry. If the animal heard were the hyena, which is called 
iynpisi, the name of the child might be either Umpisi, or 
TJ-HUHU, an imitative sound representing the laugh-like cry 
of the beast. A boy, whose father prided himself on the num- 
ber of his stud, called his child Uso-Mahashe : father of 
horses, as their number would be increased by the time he in- 
herited them. A girl, whose mother had been presented with 
a new hoe, was called Uno-ntsmbi : daughter of iron. Pandi 
(Zulu king) got his name from impande, an esculent root in 
use among the Kaffirs. Hyena : is from Hus : a sow, whence 
Sw^, whence soiv, soiu-en, swine. The daughter's name con. 
the hoe, compares well with Barzillai : son of iron. 
" Barzillai, of Regelim, brought beds to David." Many 
Biblical names are illuminated by being studied from the 
Kaffir point of view. 

AiAH : howler, hooter, schirler : a vulture, hawk, or kite = 
U-HUHU. " But the king took the two sons of Rizpah, the 
daughter of Aiah, whom she bore to Saul." The wife suffers 
in her harem, her husband goes forth, and seeing a vulture 
hovering, calls his newly born daughter Aiah. Thackombau 
(Fiji king) : evil to Bau (the island). The Wesleyans craned 
him up from a cannibal into a christian. Proculus (opposed 
Probus) : born while father was procul, afar. Apicius (wrote 
on pleasures of eating) : born out of the house, A'po oikos. 
From Oikos : a house, OEcumenical Council : a council called 
from wheresoever a house is. Astor (Astoria) : Thursday 
born, dedicated to the Asir Thor = Donner and Toxner : 
born on Thursday, and marked with his hammer. Tewson 
(auctioneer) : son of Tuisco, Tuesday born. By a mythological 
fiction, which was grafted on to Christianity, when a child 
was born on a day connected with a god, if a male, he was 
called the son of that god, all to the glory of the family. 
Cesar (Julius) : from Cosdo : I cut, coesus : cut, born by in- 
cision, whence that operation is called Coesarian. Nonxatus : 
not born, before the death of his mother, "Raymond 
Nonnatus was born at Portel, in the diocese of Urigel in 
Catalonia." Nepumuk (St. John) : born at Pomuk, in Bohemia. 
7 



90 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Nevus, Nevius, Nevins (when not big fisted) : born with a 
birth mark. Noevus, from Novus : new. Certain new arrivals 
were named in the prosaic form of numeral adjectives, as 
Protogexia (Deucalion's daughter) : first born girl — Prima 
(Romulus's daughter) = Prim (Madrid) = Protus. These = 
Lane (le ane, antiqus : old. When not Irish): eldest = 
Maximus, Massimo : chief by birth, maximus natu. Frederick 
7th being a great admirer of the Roman generals Fabius 
Maximus and Scipio Einilianus compounded them calling 
his son Maximilian : patient and valiant. In Psalm xc. 2 we 
read, " From olam to olam thou art Elohim." 01am : hidden, 
veiled, gives Alam : a virgin, one veiled. Jonah was in sheol 
for olam as he lost count of time, it was veiled from him. 
Applicable to hills whose duration is hidden, or to eternity. 
It is then applied to anything old. Shem gave it to his eldest 
son Elam : first born, Elymas : Persia, Elymais : capital of 
Ulam: as above. " His sons were Ulam and Rakem.'' Jether 
and Jethro : excellent, excelling in age. " He said unto 
Jether, his first born, up and slay them." Reuben : Reu : see, 
whence Ruth : desire of eyes, Ben : a son. " Reuben, thou 
art my first born, my might, and the beginning of my strength, 
the excellency of dignity, the excellency of power." Hence 
Rubens (painter), Rubini (physician). Sonneborn : a son 
born to parents who had previously, in despair, adopted a 
son. Sir, Sire : father, Siret = Excellency : excelling by 
years, and presumably by knowledge. Zelophehad : first 
rupture = Bec;her : ripe early, giving^BECHORATH, BiCHRi : my 
first born. " Becher is called Bered in Chronicles." " Zelophe- 
had had no daughters." Secundus : second (born) from 
Sequor: to follow, gives Secundinus : son of Secundus (St. 
Patrick's companion) called by the Irish St. Sechnall, whence 
Maolseachlan : bald to, disciple of Sechnall, tortured to 
Malachi (of the golden collar) being supposed = the Hebrew 
Malachi : messenger of the Lord. 

Vashni (son of Samuel) : second born, probably a sister first. 
Shilsha: third son. "The sons of Zopah. Shammuah and 
Shilshea" = Tiers (French statesman) = Tertius, whence Ter- 
tullus, its dim. which is foolishly given, in some works, very 
earthy. Quartus : fourth (son) = Codrus (Athens) = Reba 
(Moabite king), but as Reba is a transposition of Arba : four, 
and that is applied to a square built, handsome man, Reba 
may mean fine made. Tetricus (almost emperor) : fourth son. 
QuiNTUS : fifth (son), gives St. QuENTiN, Quintillian : son of 
Quintus, also Quinze (when French) : fifth birth. Pompey : 
fifth (son) though given from Pompeii, said to have been founded 
by Hercules with great pomp, con. Penta : five, Punjaub: five 
river country. Punch: made of five ingredients, Pampeluna 



BIRTH NAMES. 91 



for Pompiopolis : city of Pompey. Caesar's rival had a son> 
viz., Sextus : sixth, Xystus (pope), hence Sistine (chapel)- 
The Roman = Hebrew Sheshai (son of Anak). Septimus: 
seventh (son), con. September: seventh month = Barsabas : 
seventh son, Bathsheba: seventh daughter. Octavius: eip^hth 
(son), Otto when Italian, Otto (roses) eighth essence. From 
Octo we get Ides : eight days after Nones. NoNUS, Ennius 
(Calabrian poet) : ninth born, con. Noon : ninth (hour), from 
which Luncheon for Nuncheon : noon-day repast. Decius 
(patriotic devotee), Decimus : tenth child, con. Decade : ten 
years. Quince (when Spanish) : fifteenth by birth. Imogen: 
"last born — Telegonus and the Italian Sezzi = Posthumus 
(postremus) : last. Our great Will took it to mean Posthu- 
mous : born after father was in ground. 

" What's his name and birth? 
I cannot delve him to the root : his father 
Was called Siciliiis, who did join his honour 
Against the Romans, with Cassibelan ; 
But had his titles by Tenantius, whom 
He served with glory and admir'd success : 
So gain'd the sur-addition, Leonatus : 
And had, besides, this gentleman in question, 
Two other sous, who, in the wars o' the time, 
Died with their swords in hand, for wliich their father 
(Then old and fond of issue) took such sorrow 
Tliat he quit being ; and his gentle lady, 
Big of this gentleman, our theme, deceas'd 
As he was born : The king, he takes the babe 
To his protection : calls him Postluimius Leonatus, 
Breeds him and makes him of his bed-chamber." 

SiClLlus is a form of IciLiUS : equal son, as good as his father 
(cow. Isosceles : equal legs) = Pat ROB AS. Servius : preserved, 
foundling = Geryon and Trepoff. In those ages infanticide 
was not considered immoral. PlAZZA : a foundling discovered 
in a portico. Leonatus : lion born, of warrior parentage. 
Moses : drawn out = NiMSHi: chosen, elect, taken out of, sug- 
gesting Hydrogenes : water begotten, Hydrogen : water pro- 
ducer. Moses was his Egyptian name, his Hebrew appellation 
is lost. The Rabbis say it is one of these :— Chabar, Jecothiel, 
Jared, Ahizamach, Abisuco, Abigedur or Schemiaia. But 
which ? In Arabic, and cognate languages, it varies to MusSA 
(Pasha Silistria) or MoussA. 

" The gleams miraculoiisly shed 
O'er Moussas cheek when down the Mount he trod 
All glowing from the presence of his God." 

Hence Moyse, Moss, Moseley, Mowatt (when they do not 
mean a little hill = KNOWLEs), Mozart (king of composers) but 
Moss (local) = Petley : living on a peat field, whence Moss- 
man, Mosscrop, Mossgrip = Petman : turf digger. In this 



92 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

case MossMAN = Cespedes (Spanish), but sometimes stands for 
a moss-trooper, moor robber, Bishlam: born in time of 
peace, con. Salaam : to bow and wish peace. " In the days of 
Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam." Galal : rolled (reproach from 
parents, barrenness), con. Gall us : a cock, crows when darkness 
is rolled away, Globus : any round thing. Beriah : calamity, 
born in. " He called his name Beriah, because it was evil with 
his house" = Mary from Mar : bitter = Harms (pastor) : born at 
an evil time. Achilles (tendon) : without the lip, dry nursed 
= Gallic (deputy), Lactantius (Latin father) : brought up on 
milk. NoRRiss, Nurrish : one nursed, fostered = Foster, but 
sometimes used actively for a nurse. 

Giordano (Bruno), Jourdax (marshal), Jordan : baptised 
with Jordan water = Santhague : holy water. Haldane : 
half Dane, of Saxon mother and Danish father. Gollacher, 
Gallagher : born of a strange woman, con. Gael. Gallyon : 
son of an Englishman. Englishmen were called Gaels : stran- 
gers, 700 years ago in Ireland, where the three last were 
originally born. D'AuBiGNE (Reformation) : of an alien, be- 
comes Dabney. Branchus : throat, con. Bronchitis : disease 
of throat. Varro says — " The mother of Branchus being in 
child, dreamed the sun entered into her mouth and passed 
through her belly ; whence the child was called Branchus 
from Bronchus : the throat." Archemorus : beginning with 
death. His death foretold by Araphiarus as soon as he was 
born. The Nemean games were solemnised in his memory. 

Charilaus : people's joy = Demochares, so named of 
Lycurgus. Desiderius (pope), Didier, Diderot : child greatly 
desired = Brammante (architect), Samuel, Saul, and Aratus. 
Macbeth : son of life, whose birth enlivens parents = Haggith. 
Samborn and Winterborn are not nativity names, but mean 
sandy 6i^r7i = GRiESBACH and winding 6urji = CR0MBiE. In 
some cases Burns is not from Burn: a brook, and so = 
Brooks, but con. bear, bairn, born, meaning emphatic bairn, 
of noble descent = Tiridates and Gnatho : the son, con. 
Knight, David : beloved, a pet, con. Jedidiah : beloved of 
Jehovah, gave to Carthage Dido : beloved (woman) and to us 
the fem. Vida, Davie (fought in war of independence), Davy 
(Humphrey), Davies, Dawe (painter). Daffy (elixir), Davis, 
Davitt (land leaguer), Taffy, applied to a Welshman from 
St. David, as Sawney, a Scotchman from St. Andrew, and 
Paddy, from St. Patrick, though some good authors insist on 
having it from St. Palladius. Dakin, Dawson = Davidoff. 
Dillon (M.P.), Dilkie, Dilk, Dilly : little David. The Arabs 
have Salmah Eben Daoud : Solomon, the son of David, and 
Schah Daoud : king David. "All Israel and Judah loved 
David," 



BIRTH NAMES. 93 



HOBAB : beloved. " Yea, He hohabed the people ; all his 
saints are in thy hand." Wine: beloved. "My ivinsome 
deary O ! " = Mungo (St.). Winnoc : little dear = Darling 
and Winnie (the waif). These are nurse names, as Medad : 
loved, Eldad : loved of God, greatly beloved, and Dad. 
" There ran a young man, and told Moses, and said, Eldad and 
Medad do prophesy." Such are Dearlove, Sweet, Angel, 
Angliotto : little angel. Love, Baby, Burns, Enfant, Infant, 
Petts, Precious, Pettee, Golding, Zeresh (Haman's wife): 
golden, GoLDiE, Gowdie, Good, Goode, Goodchild,' Spes, 
Hope, Elpis : whence Elpidias : son of hope, and the Milesian 
name DiGNUM, which signifies hope (of parents). Zepho : 
watched for (by parents), co7i. Zephon : watcher, guardian. 
John (world known) is composed of Jehovah : I am, and 
Hannah : grace. From latter Hanan : merciful, and Hanne- 
THON: free gift. Hananiah, Ananias, Ananus: Jehovah's 
grace (given by). Hanno : gracious, Hanun (shaved ambas- 
sador). Hannibal (Carthage) : (born of the) grace of Baal. 
Ann, Anne, Annville : Ann's town. Danville : of it. Anna- 
polis: her city. Nannuci (Italian), and Nina: little Ann. 
Shush : the lily (white), gives Shushan : the city of lilies, 
planted round it ; compounding with Hannah, gives Susannah, 
Susan : beautiful as the lily and gracious, Suke, Sue. 

The awful word Jehovah: I am, unchanging, contracts to jah 
and ah in composition. Thus Jah and Hannah: Jehovah's grace, 
gives Johanna, Johannes, John, Jean, as St. Jean d'Acre : St. 
John of Accho. Prujean : prudent John. Grossjean : great 
John = Meiklejohn : John who thinks much of himself. 
(M') Fadyan : long John, cor. to Faddan. Jockie, Jockey : 
little John = Jacket, Jock, (M') Geoch : Jock in kilts. 
Froissart tells that, — " Henry, Duke of Lancaster, on his 
return to England, entered London in courte Jacques of cloth 
of gold, a la fachion D'AUraayne." These Jacques, when 
little, were called jacquette by the French and Jacket by us. 
Jacket : properly means a retainer wearing one. Jack sug- 
gests poverty, and servitude, or inferiority, as jackass, jack- 
pudding : a buffoon, jackanapes, who travelled with bear and 
monkey. Jack : instrument for roasting, formerly a boy 
called a turn spit. In Italy (Don) Giovanni, Giannone : 
great John, Giovanetti, Vanelli : little John = Jantje 
(Dutch). The name John applying to beloved disciple, or the 
Baptist, is in double favour, and was given to children born on 
either of their days on the calendar. So fond are Italians of 
it that they combine it with many names in the forms yian, 
giam, as Giambianchi : white or fair John, becomes Zam- 
bianchi (defended Rome in 1849). Giambatista : born June 
24th. Gambetta, Tista, Tita. Sometimes patronymical, 



94 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

GiAN- Antonio : John, son of Anthon3^ Gianfigliazzi : John, 
son of Azzi. Giovanni, cor. to Gianna, forms Zanoni : great 
John, which cor. to Zany : a merry andrew. Zan for John 
wives Zampa (musician): John's father, Zanpere = Arabic Abri 
Yahya. Zanchius (Jerome) : John's son (filius) = Zancoff. 
The Mexicans call him Jontli. The Hungarians have Guy, 
whence Guyon (Kars) : great John. Germany has Hans, 
whence Heyne, Hanks, Hancock, Handley : John's field, 
attached to his church, Hans-wurst: Jack sausage. The 
Dutch say Jan, Jansen (spectacles) = Johnson. The Spaniard 
prefers Juan, Don Juan : lord John Juanito : little John = 
Vanelli. Bobo Juan : booby John. The Celts had Am, 
Gin, Owen, Shane, Shan, the two latter formed on Ain as 
though Shane : the John. Shane gives Shenkin, Shoneen : 
Jackie, Johnnie, a boy. Strichen, Strahan : John's strath, 
valley. Eussia has Ivan, Czentiyanny : St. John's (Cathedral, 
Moscow). Wales rejoices in Evans, Jones, the latter being, 
after Smith, the commonest name in Britain. The men of 
Portugal delight in Joame, whence Gomez = Johnson. In 
Persia it is Yohannan. The Greeks have Giannakes. In 
India, through the Mahometans we find Jehan, as Jehansi = 
our Johnstone: John's town, where his church. The following 
all means son of John, Hannefan (enfant), Upjohn, Janzoon, 
M'^Geoch, Hansom (cab), Ivanovitch, Ivanoff, Fitzjohn, 
Bevan, Bowen, Zancoff (Bulgarian), Jannceus (of John 
Hyrcanus), JuxoN (bishop), Jennings, Shenkin, Jenyns 
(Soame), Jenkins (aged), Jankowitz, Jehanputra, Zanchius. 
Who shall lay to the charge of John that he is Malthusian ? 
The following mean John's town, Ainsworth (dictionary), 
GoNViLLE (college), Hamburg, Van Amburg : of Hamburg, 
Johannisburg (wine), Shenstone, Jambol (bol for Polls: a 
city). Shajehanpore : king John's town. In its /em. form 
we get Johannah, Jane, Jean, Jinnie, Janet, Jeanette, 
Jenny, Joan, "Jeanette and Jeannot : little Jane and John." 
So that John interpenetrates more than twenty languages. 

Hafiz and Hafid : saviour = Soter (Ptolemy) = Salvator 
(Rosa), con. Salvador (island). Hosea : saviour, whence 
Hosanna : save thou, forms with Jehovah. Joshua : greatest 
.saviour = Hafiz - Allah : saviour of God, whence Jesus 
(Greek), IssA (Arabic), Jesus (English) : saviour of Jehovah, — 

" Such the refined IntelHgence that flow'd 

In Moussa's frame ; — and, thence descendincr, flow'd 
Througli many a Prophet's breast ; in Issa shone, 
And in Mohammed bm-n'd." 

The letters I.H.S. do not stand for Jesus Hominum Salvator : 
Jesus the saviour of mankind, but are an old Saxon abbrevia- 



BIRTH NAMES. 95 



tion of Jesus, whence Jesuit : of the society of Jesus, giving 
Jesuitique : hypocritical. 

" After that came his brother out, and his hand a-kahhed 
Esau, and his name was called Jacob:" heeler. From Kabh : 
heel, Kibes : chilblains, swellings caused by cold, blain, blown, — 

Falstaff : — " Well, sirs, I am almost out at heels." 
Pistol : — " Why, then, let hibes ensue." 

" Esau said is he not rightly named Jacob ? for he hath suj)- 
•planted me these two times." The figure is taken from 
wrestling : Sub : under, Planta : sole of the foot. Supplant : 
to place a foot under that of an antagonist, and so trip him, 
taking his place, — 

" He wonder'd but not long 

Had leisure, wondering at himself now more ; 

His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare ; 

His arms clung to his ribs, his legs intwining 

Each other, till supplanted on his belly prone 

Reluctant, but in vain." 

Planta gives Patagon : great foot = Fuss, op. of PoDio (Italian) : 
little foot, whence Patagonia : country of great footed people. 
Lucto : I strive, struggle. Luctator (luttator) : a wrestler. 
Reluctant : wrestling back, antagonising. Satan suffered a 
greater grip than he could give. 

Jacob is identical with Akkub: insidious. " Akkiib was a 
porter, keeping the wards of the thresholds of the gates." 
Same as Akabi (starved rabbi), Jaakobah (David's hero), 
Dacobi (1 Esdras v. 28). Yakoub (Khan), Jacobus gives 
Jacobin : one meeting in St. James' Monastery. Jacobite : 
follower of James II. Hence, too, Cobb, Cobbett, Cobbin. 
CoBELL, CoBOS, Copp, CoppiXG : SOU of Cob for Jacob = Cobez, 
which corresponds to the name of the Russian general Skobe- 
LOFF. Here we seize upon the latter part of name, but by taking 
the former syllable we obtain the softer name James, whence 
Jamie, Jemmy, Jamiesox = Gimsox. The Spaniards have 
Diego, giving Diaz = Jamiesox, also Iago, as Santiago (city 
of St. James) : our Jagg, Jaggard when not = Huxter. San- 
tiago = Jagielski (s KoumissJ : town of St. James. The 
Highlanders have it in the form of Hamish, In Ireland it is 
Shamus (O'Brien). France has Jacques, as Jean Jacques 
Rousseau: John James Russell, Jacquelixe, Jacquard (loom) : 
identical with Jaggard. Giacomo prevails in Italy, and this 
shared by Spain, as Compostella : Giacomo Apostolo : (city of) 
James the Apostle. Como from Giacomo is common in Italy. 
St. James has charge of all Spain. 

" To thee fervent thanks Spain shall ever outpour ; 
In thy name though she glories, she glories yet more 
In thy thrice-hallowed corse, which the sanctuary claims 
Of high Compostella, 0, blessed St. James." 



96 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

English pilgrims were named Cockle from visiting this 
shrine. 

" He shows St. James' cockle shell ; 
Of fair Montserrat, too, can tell." 

Also to this prolific James we trace Jex, Jockell (when not 
horse warrior = Emly), Lapide (Cornelius A.) = Jamieson, 
SiPPELL, wherein there is only one letter for a philologist to 
hold on by. As Sar : a prince, is root of Sarai : a princess, 
and also of Israel ; prince with God, it follows that grand- 
mother and grandson were allied by name as well as by blood. 
Sar, Czar, Herr, Dar (Hindoo for lord), Mar (Syriac for 
lord) all have an originally similar meaning, one who marshals, 
puts men into line of battle, a military organiser. Now though 
Jesus named Peter who afore was Simon, and therefore it is 
not of nativity, yet it seems half a pity to dissever him from 
his con-freres James and John, so we will say Peter : a stone, 
a man firm yet moveable, one built in, but not built on, a 
lively stone quickened by The Living Stone. Peter con. to 
Pier: a jetty, a mole. Petrrea : rock (city) = Selah. Arabia 
Petroea : Arabia the stony. Peter gives Petrulla, Petronius, 
Perkin (Warbeck), Parkins, Parkin, Parkinson, Purkiss, 
Parnell (obstruction). Parr (old), Pereira (Dr.), Piers 
(Gaveston) Pierce, Perron (cardinal), Peroni (last two) : 
great Peter. Pirrett : little Peter, Perry (when not a trade 
name, one making liquor from pears), Pedro (don), Perez = 
Pierson and Petronius, Pietro, Peruzzi, Perugino, from 
Perugia from Peter, and Petrarch (poet). (St.) Petersburg: 
Peter's city, Petro-paulski : city of Peter and Paul, Peterloo : 
Peter's meadow, lovj lying. Its French form is Pierre, which 
is patronymical, showing how high Peter stood in Gallic 
favour. Eassompierre (general) : Bassom, son of Peter, Robes- 
pierre (terror): Robert the son of Peter, Dampierre, Dampier: 
Daniel, son of Peter. From last Damper : Australian bush meat. 
" At the sixth attack, Dampierre, at the head of a picked de- 
tachment, charged a redoubt." 

Lkvi : joined, Levite : of Levi's tribe, Leviticus : law of 
Levites, Leviathan : joined scales, crocodile of Egyptians, being 
largest animal of the Nile applies to any big thing. " This 
time will my husband be joined to me." Nathan : given (of 
God), Nethinim : given ones, devotees, Nat, Nathaniel: 
given of God = Jonathan : Lord given. Theodorus, Theodo- 
sius, Theodotus = GoDiVA (Coventry) : God given. Mattan, 
Matthew : a gift, son. " From the wilderness they went to 
Mattanah. There the Lord gave luater." Mattaniah : (son 
whom the) Lord gave. Matthew gives Madai (Florentine 
confessors), Matys (Quintin), Mathwin, Maddison, Mac- 
Math = Matthews for Matthewson, Maitland : glebe 



BIRTH NAMES. 97 



dedicated to St. Matthew, Maddox, Mattock (some claim last 
two as forms of Welsh Madog : beneficent = Boniface). "Do 
you know Matthew Mattocks?" Matthias, Matthiah: gift 
of Jehovah. Zabad: a gift, as Elzabad : God gave = ZABDiEL 
answers to Zebediah, Zebedee : gift of Jehovah = Zabdiah, 
Zabdi : the Lord's gift. Issue in answer to prayer. IsAAC : 
laughter, gives Hyke, Hicks, (M')Kissock, Nye, Nykix, Sacy 
(French). Hicks, when Hibernian, means doctor, surgeon, 
HiCKiiocKS : son of doctor = MacLay. 

These Oriental demonstrations of joy correspond to our 
Occidental Hauschein : a baby whose birth makes the house 
to shine. This German name was Greecised into Ecolampa- 
DIUS : lamp of the house =:Umbreit (job) : home brightness. 
We English have one (London Directory) corresponding, 
HouSEGO : house joy ; and the French have Bertheim : 
brightness of home. These names, and such, supply the poetry 
of onaraatology, name giving or knowing. 

Thamah : laughing, joy of parents, welcome baby-girl. HuL- 
DAH : a weasel, a little active girl. " So Hilkiah, the priest, 
and Ahikam, and Achbor, and Shaj^haoi, and Asahiah, went 
to Huldah the prophetess : (now she dwelt in Jerusalem in 
the college) : and they communed with her." What a mena- 
gerie met in the Jewish Girton: — Achbor : a mouse, Shaphan : 
rabbit, Huldah : a weasel. 

TiRAS : desire (of parents). Youngest son of Japhet, sup- 
posed to give name to Troas. This is the first record of a long 
line of yearners for offspring. It answers to WuNSCH : much 
wish for, and such names as Sheal (son of Bani) : prayer, and 
Shealtiel (Ezra's father) : asked of God = Samuel. Bass : 
little (at birth), Bassetti : very little = Petty, Pettit. Ibri 
(son of Merari): (born) beyond (the Red Sea). Bythesea 
(commanded a man of war in 18G9): found by the sea = 
WiTTON : son of the wood, foundling in some cases = Groves. 
Parrish is also a foundling name, as is the Italian D'Ondes : 
of the waves, found on shore, con. Unda : a wave, whence 
Undine : a nereid, sea born, suggesting the widely known 
Aphrodite: daughter of foam. Irish Protestants call their 
sons William when born July 12th, while Irish Catholics call 
theirs Patrick when born March I7th. 

Taphath : a drop (of myrrh), applied to small infant girl, 
then to short steps, then to a little girl making them, means 
a regular little dear. " Which had TcqjJiatk, the daughter of 
Solomon, to wife." Myrrh, from Mar: bitter, gives Myrtle, 
Smyrna: (town amidst) myrrh plants. Pere-ET-Mere 
(French): loved by father and mother, precious pet = DEAR- 
LOVE : dearly beloved. " In the list of decorations in the 
Moniteur cle I'Armee appears the name Pere-et-Mere. The 



98 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

gallant bi-sexual receives the Legion of Honour for good 
conduct during several campaigns." Ampere is same as above 
in converse order, though it is given as identical with empire, 
and applied to a man belonging to the German empire. To 
him we trace the abbreviation, etc., called by English rustics 
Hampersand, i.e., Ar)ipers and, so used in his shorthand. 

CoPRONYMUS : dung name, con. Coprolite : dung stone, a 
nickname given to son of Greek Emperor, because while being 
baptised he defiled his baptismal robes. He was akin to 
Palceologus : old style speaker, having a brogue. Not only 
have we children named from birth-day, but also from birth- 
month, as Lavrilliat: April born. Herbest, Harvest 
(sermons) ; born at time of gathering in of herbs. Davoust 
(marshal) : August born. May (in some cases) : May born. 
The favourite month with the worshippers of Baal of old and 
Mary now. Halliday {con. Halidom : holy dame, B.V.M.) : 
born on a holy day. The notion that this was got by crying 
Halli (holy) day ! when going on a raid is absurd as it implies 
the Hallidays came to fighting age without a name, or that 
this one took the place of their birth name. In the latter case 
what was that ? Gentles, Gentleman : of a gens, clan, high 
birth = Burns. 

METRONYMICS. 

Some few masculine names may be traced to mothers. These 
though looked askance at by refined moderns took the place of 
patronymics with the Lycians. From the maternal side we 
have our Devlin, and the ancients had Vespasian : son of 
Aspasia, indicating filial afltection. Aspasia : an amazon from 
Asp : a horse. Ibbotson (of course our's) : son of Elizabeth. 
Dyson : son of Dy for Diana, but is capable of being placed 
with Dyball : one of a bold people, in which case = DoDDS. 
Nelson may be son of Nell, Ellen, or from Neil. Let him 
have the benefit of the doubt for the sake of the old sea lion. 
Sue (Eugene) looking so like Susan means sweater, con. 
Sudor from Hudor: sweat, water. Una (an Irish name of 
soft sound) : born at time of famine, gives Unitt : son of 
Una. Marriot, Marryatt (novelist) are from Mary, but 
plead it is religiously, not socially. Vye is claimed as son of 
Sophia, but pleads for its being a formation on Devizes. 
M' Janet and M'Jannet: looking so like son of the girl. 
Janet is of the gens John, meaning literally son of little John, 
Jannet = Littlejohn. Talmage (Brooklyn) is nothing but 
a name I met with in Toronto, Tallmadge : son of tall 
Margaret, Madge, exactly = Margerison (soap manufacturer): 
son of Marjory. De Witt is of Woods, son of a man so named, 
but is capable of being local, and meaning of the wood. 



BIBTH NAMES. 99 



MoLLisoN : son of Mary in the vulgar form of Moll. Emmet 
(Irish) is held to be of Emma. Centuries ago when as yet the 
terrors of the Registrar-General had not set in, family lady 
names were exchanged for those having no bar sinister. 
Nations dwelling in small groups, as Tartars, Arabs, Indians, 
often cherish names from a mother in preference to one of 
paternal origin. Curiously, the Arabs reverse the laws of 
onamatology by taking names from children. This applies 
especially to birth of a first-born son. When an heir to tent 
and camels is called Suleyman for Solomon, his father 
becomes Abu-Suleyman : father of Suleyman, and his mother 
Om-Suleyman : mother of. This Om is our better known 
Ma, turned round as Ab is Pa, and is con. Eminia, Amen, all of 
which may be rendered, faithful, nourisher. Fudle- Allah : 
God's bounty given by, is the Arabic correspondent to 
Nathaniel. Abu-Fudle-Allah : father of the daughter 
given by God's grace. Zill Allah : the shadow of God, is a 
title of the Shah. The former portion is absolutely identical 
with ZiLLAH (Lamech's wife) except the/<?rrt. ending. Zillah: 
woman shaded (by ringlets). Zalmon : great shade, protector, 
comforter. How strange that a word used at the gate of Eden 
should still be in daily use. But fashions change less on the 
banks of the Euphrates than on those of the Seine. ZiLTHAl 
for ZiLTHAiAH: shaded, protected of the Almighty. Ayub 
said, " Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night 
in which it was said. There is a man-child conceived." Arab 
wives being childless, call themselves by that name, they 
would give a son if they had one, as Cm- Ayub : mother of 
Job. Job, Ayub, Ayoub (Khan): sobber, weeper = Aj ax, an 
imitation of the eh! ah! ! oh! ! ! of distress. This could only be 
the proper name of the man of the land of Uz by chance 
coincidence (which is most unlikely), by prophecy (as unlikely), 
or is 2^ost mortem from his sighing and sobbing. The true 
translation is Job : sobber. Then we must record the noble 
Mahometan name Abu-Beker : father of the virgin, viz., 
Ayesha, suggesting Bethuel (father of Rebekah) : daughter 
of God, a virgin = Parthenos, Virginius, a pure man, con. 
Bethulia : daughter of God, a pure w^oman, applied to the 
city besieged by Holof ernes, in the sense of not violated. 
Abulfeda: father of reconciliation, peacemaker = the Puritan 
Makepeace and the monastic Pacifico. Here Ab is figura- 
tive, as in Abishalom : father of peace = Lysimachus : looser 
of strife. Abu-Horeira : father of the cat, applied to a friend 
of Mahomet's who was fond of cats = the Italian Gattina, 
Gatty. Demon is a family name found in the United States, 
and means son of a monk, whence Demonico, of the Broad- 
way, N.Y. 



( 100 ) 



CHAPTER VI. 

NAMES OF WOMEN. 

In remote ages when " one person, one name " was the rule, 
the appellations of women were as varied and independent as 
those of men. However, when mononysm fell out of use, 
their place was generally supplied by appending a feminine 
ending to masculine names. Christianity did much to lessen 
the names peculiar to women. Obeying the spirit of its 
teachings, the bride signifies dependence upon her husband by 
renouncing her maiden name and adopting the name of him 
who adopted her. This helped to consolidate family ties, but 
resulted in the loss of designations peculiar to women. By 
consequence, feminine names have so diminished, as to neces- 
sitate the formation of new ones, which is effected thus : — 
Victor gives Victoria, Augustus, Augusta, and we even 
meet with Adam, Adamixa. Writers on physiology say that 
woman is man modified, that man is the essence of humanity, 
women the accident. They must answer for the truth and 
gallantry of such averments ; yet their theory is corroborated 
by this specialty of philology, — words expressing man, luoinan, 
male, female, besides giving us proper names, more or less 
express sexuality. The Hebrews said, Ish : a man, Isha : a 
woman, a maness. From Ish the well known Iscariotes : man 
of Kirioth, not far from Bethlehem, for Judas was the only 
Jew proper among the apostles, the rest of the twelve being 
Galilean. From Isha we have Eshton : uxorious, a woman 
chaser. " FsJtton begat Beth-rapha." From Ish, Jeshishai : 
descended from an aged man = Benjamim, Shanegan. Some 
high authorities gives Isis (Eve, a goddess) : the woman. So 
Baal : lord, master, Baalath : lady, mistress. The Greeks said 
o anthropos : a man, e anthropos : a woman. Anthropos : 
turning up the face, whereby man is differentiated from the 
lower animals. No cow ever views the sky, no horse sees the 
stars. In Latin we have Vir : a man, ViR-GO : a woman, 
ViRGiNius : a pure man, Virginia : a pure woman. Hence 
our virgin means more than maid, the latter applying to 
females only, the former to either sex. " For they are virgins." 
The Dutch say Boer : a man, Moer (ma, mater) : a woman. 
Our Man : one of mind, con. mens, " Mene." Woman is 
wifman, the man who weaves, in contrast with spearman. So 
Pais (a boy) : one led, Paiduetics : science of leading, instruct- 
ing, Pusa : a girl, Pusilla : a little girl. Pusillanimous : having 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 101 

soul of a little girl. Lad: one led, Lad-ess, Lass. Younker: 
a young man. Younkster : a young woman. Former obsolete 
in England, though used in the United States, while latter is 
applied erroneously to a boy as a troublesome lad is called 
vixen, properly pertaining to a girl. Mas. Fox, fern. Vixen. 
In the Italian we have Zita : a girl, Zitella : a little girl = 
Pusilla, — 

" Gentle Zitella, whither away? 
Love's ritomella, list while I play." 

In the catalogue of Burns, Gates, & Co. we read, " Life of St. 
Zita 3s." 

Seeing the woman's rights section of the ladies are full 
sail on the franchise, they should take action on being 
merely nominal terminations of the rougher sex, so far as 
names go. In like manner the titles of women are usually 
formed upon those of men, as Dominus : a lord, Domixa : a 
lady = Don, Donna, when aged Duenna. So our English 
Lord : loaf afForder, Lady. So with the Tartars, Khan : a 
lord, as Cawnpore : Khan's city, Kokhan : hill country of 
Khan, Kanham : a lady. Rajah : a king, Rani : a queen, 
as our Rex, Regina, Roy, Reine. In respect to kin, we have 
Nephew, Neice, as though Nepos (Cornelius), Neipce. Nepos 
gives Nepotism : favouring relatives. So also from Avus : 
aged, a grandfather, in which sense Nepos is also used, con. 
JSvum : an age. Coeval : living in same age. Avunculus : little 
grandfather, ab. to Uncle, fern. Aunt. Avus gives Aves = 
Gaffer (Gray) and Pappus, the former Latin, the latter Saxon, 
the last Greek. 3Ias. Gaffer, /em. Gammer (Gurton): grand- 
mother. Isha, pusa, pusilla, zita, zitella, domina, regina have 
a final in common. The classical designation of the quarters 
of the globe, and almost every country upon it so ends, as 
Europa, Asia, Africa, Australia, America, Britannia, Caledonia, 
Scotia, Cambria, &c. This ending is clearly derived from the 
Biblical ah wherewith most recorded names of women in 
Genesis end. Chavah : living (Hebrew form of Eve), Adah, 
Zillah, Sarah, Milcah, Reumah, Maachah, Rebekah, Leah, 
Bilhah, Zilpah, Deborah, Aholibama, Shuah. Feminine names 
are rarely mentioned in the Bible. There are only five female 
names to ninety-five of men in the Old Testament. In the 
New Testament the proportion is more favourable to the 
weaker, as though women were to be more active Christians 
than matriarchs and Jewesses were in making known the 
ancient form of worship. Who was Noah's wife. Lot's, Job's ? 
It is an old platform joke to say Mrs. Noah ; an old Sunday 
school puzzle, Who was David's mother ? We should naturally 
suppose that in narratives such as those of Elijah and the 



102 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Zarephath widow, Elisha and the Shunamite woman, whose 
sons these prophets brought again from the dead, their names 
would occur. Similarly we know the sons Mary bare to 
Joseph, in the order of nature, were James, Joses, Juda, and 
Simon, but who knows the names of His sisters ? Who were 
the sisters of Abel and Cain ? As it is in the Bible, so it is in 
every national history and in all genealogies. In the Scrip- 
tures, because woman led the van of rebellion. In secular 
history, because woman is the weaker, whereas history records 
the deeds of the mighty. The following illustrations will fully 
exemplify what is meant by the feminine ending being in ah, 
a, or e. In doing so our motto will be the form used by a 
Roman matron when first entering her lord's abode — 

Ubi Caius ibi Caia : where you are Master I am Mistress. 

Aba (Gothic for a man, as Abbs : head) gives Ebba (queen 
of S.S.) : a woman. From her, Epsom : Ebba's home. 

Andromachus : fighting man, Andromache (Hector's wife). 

Andromedes : commander of men, Andromeda (rock). 

Angel : a messenger, celestial, Angelica, Angelina. Dan- 
gerous names to give a baby of the female persuasion, as the 
woman might not fit. 

Agathos (pope) : good = Goode, Agatha (St.), Aggie. 

Amala : unspotted, virgin = Afflick, Immacolato. 

^milius : a worker = Emily, Amelia, Mill. 

Alethius : true = Ameena (Bou), Fidus, Alethia, Letty. 

Alexander : helper of man, saving in battle, Alexandra, 
Alexandrina. 

Alfred : counselling like an elf, Elfreda = Sybella. 

Athel : noble, Adela, Adelina (Patti), Adelaide (queen), 
Ethel, Adelgonde : noble warrioress = Matilda, Brunhilda, 
Bellona, 

Athelgif: noble gift, royal bounty, Ethelgiva. But Elgiva, 
elf gift, beautiful as a fairy. " At the coronation of Edwy, 
the king retired from the revelry of the banqueting hall and 
sought the society of his wife and her mother, having espoused 
Elgiva, the daughter of Ethelgiva, a lady of royal descent. 
Odo urged Dunstan to bring back the king." Elgiva accur- 
ately answers to the Persian name Perizada : born of a peri, 
beautiful at birth. 

Appius (Claudius) : fruitful, having issue, Apphia (primitive 
Christian). 

Agrippa (Vipsanius) : who gave sharp (acer) pains. Agrip- 
PINA (Nero's mother). 

Augustus (Octavianus C?esar) : sublime, awful, majestic, 
Augusta. 

Bland : profoundly polite speaker, Blandina (martyr). 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 103 

Bravo : a fine man, Bravura : a splendid woman. 

BuDD : victory, BoADiCEA (Iceni) : victrix = Victoria fern. 
Victor. 

Charles : strong man, Carolus (Latin), Carlos (Span.), 
Charlotte, Carlotto, Lotta, Lottie, Caroline, Carry. 
" Lotta intends to make the tour of Europe this season." 

Cassander (Macedonian king): glorious man = CLEANDER 
and Androcles, Cassandra (daughter of Herculea). This 
cass is supposed to come from the Sanscrit verb, Kash : to 
shine, whence Krishna : glorious. Castor (Jupiter's son) : 
shining one. Hence, also, the beautiful name Cassiope 
(Andromeda's mother): bright eyes = Lapidoth and HouRi. 
The Castalian fount of Parnassus and Caspian (sea), are 
thought to be from kash. The former gave out shining streams, 
the latter phosphoric brilliancy. To kash we trace 6'asiteros : 
tin, whence Cass/terides : islands producing shining metal. 
Hence to Cassis : a helmet, a shining head-dress, from which 
Cassius: helmeted, or glorious one. Probably the Scotch 
Gass and the English Cash are also from this source, being 
British equivalents to Krishna and Cassius. But Casca 
(gave the first blow) : old = Priscus, not an aged person, but 
of old stock. 

Celestine (St.) : heavenly minded, Celestina = Himmelina. 

The well known Cecilia (sacred music) is generally given as 
fern, of Cecil (Burleigh), from Ccecus : a blind man, but it is 
fern, of Caiquilius : son of Caiquil : lord of the land = 
Tanaquil, from Stan : country, con. Thane : land (lord), 
Thana : a lady. Tanagra : lady of the Greeks, daugliter of 
vEolus. In "Juventus Mundi," Mr. Gladstone gives JEolus : 
patterned, variegated, tartan plaid like, referring the meaning 
of name rather to dress than variation of the wind. This 
view throws light on the sale of Joseph. Ancient slaves wore 
one colour, freemen two, lords three, etc. One meaning the 
brothers of Joseph attached to his coat was, it meant he was 
more highly bred than they, the sons of concubines, Bilhah 
and Zilpah. By selling him for a slave they would get one 
colour a head. 

Christian : consecrated to Christ, Christina, Kirstie, 
Christiern (Danish king) : christened when that was excep- 
tional = OsiANDER, Allgood, CHRISTIANA : a christian woman, 
Kersley : Christ's field, dedicated land. The European nations 
to our north use Christian as the opposite of demoniac, we of 
brute. In Alpine districts imbeciles are called Cretins : Chris- 
tians, harmless ones. Diocletian had no objection to Nazar- 
enes being termed Chrestians : followers of Chrestus (a 
philosopher so called): liberal, gentle, kind, but made it a capital 
offence to be termed Christian from Christ : anointed and 



104 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

appointed of God. Thus war raged round a letter. Was it to 
be e or i ? Never did so much hinge on so little. Jesus and 
the Sadducees contended over one word (am, not was), Matt, 
xxii. 32. Paul staked all on s, Gal. iii. 16 (seed not seeds). 
Christos is still common in Greece, whence Christopulos : 
Christ's servant = Gilchrist. From Christ w^e have Christie 
(M.P.), Christy (minstrels). Ten years since the chief brigand 
of Epirus was a wretch named Christ. There are thousands 
of Germans named Christ, some of them American innkeepers; 
in their case the name was originally obtained by playing the 
part of our Lord in a Morality Play. 

COUBA, JUBA (Negroes) : Friday born, CuBlNA, JuBiNA. 

Creon (Corinthian king) : head, chief, prince, Creusa (wife 
of Eneas). 

Dan : a judge, Dinah (Jacobites both). 

David : beloved = Mungo, Vida, Dido. Former modern. 

Debor: an oracle = IIeid, Aristolbulus, Deborah (pro- 
phetess) = Sybilla. 

Dios, Divus : a god, divine, Diana, Diva (prima donna), 
Dione, Juno. 

Drusus : fruitful, as though watered with dew like Eden, 
Drusilla (wife of Felix), often given as having an eye like a 
dew drop, which is poetic but incorrect. 

Erne : an eagle, Arnabella. Arnheim : home on mountain 
frequented by eagles. 

Ephron : a roebuck, Orpah (" kissed her") : deer-eyed = 
Dorcas. 

Ethelburg : noble protector, Ethelburga, a high favourite 
with Saxon ladies. 

Eusebius : a pious man, Sabina : a pious woman. 

Faustus : lucky, prosperous, Faustina (wife of Antoninus). 

Felix : fortunate, successful, Felicia (Hemans). 

Feliculus: playful as a kitten, romper, Felicula (martyr). 
Felicula differs little from Gattina : she cat. " An Italian 
indictment of the Papacy by Petrucelli Delia Gattina, M.D. 
of the Italian Parliament." 

Flavius (Josephus) : yellow-haired = Boyd, Sorley, gives 
Flavia, answering to Jacinta the /em. of Hyacinth. 

" His fair large front and eye sublime, declared 
Absolute rule ; and hyacintliine locks 
Round from his parted forelock manly hung 
Clust'ring but not beneath his shoulders broad." 

Fulvius : foxy-haired = Rousseau, Fulvia. 

Gaffer (Gray) : grandfather. Gammer (Gurton) : grand- 
mother. 

Georgius: earth worker, Georgina. Georgium Sidus: star 
of Kincf Georo-e. 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 105 



Hermosus, for FoRMOSUS: well shaped, Hermosa = Pul- 
CHERIA : good looking. The Latin/ is represented in Spanish 
by h, hence from Ferrum we have Herrera : iron worker, 
farrier. 

Herod : son of a hero, Herodias for Herodiah. 
IIludwig : a warrior who is loudly spoken of, Heloise. 

Hugh: full of battle ardour, Hughina, like the Russian 
fern, oivna. 

Hupatos (from Upo : under, subordinate to the S. P. Q. K, 
Acts. xiii. 7) : a deputy, Hypatia = Consuelia : the consul's 
lady. Consul : a consulter, one who sits with, takes part in 
a sederunt. 

Idas : a son, Ida, Ouida : no body's daughter. 

Iddo : loved (son), Jedidah : beloved (daughter). 

James : heeler, becomes Jacques, and gives Jaqueli.ve. 

John, Johannes : the grace of God, Jane, Johannah,. 
Vanka. 

Jehudi (Nethaniah's son): a Jew, Jehudijah (Mered's 
wife; : a Jewess, Judith. 

Lars : a lord, one of the lares {et penates), Lartia : a lady. 

Lawrence : laurel crowned, Laura, Lauretta, Loretto 
(Our Lady of). 

Lord, Laird, Layard: loaf afForder, Lady. 

Latimus : a man of Latium, a lowlander, Lavinia (young). 

Lcetus : joyous, she who lilts, Letitia, Lettice, Lettie. 

Louis (Hludwig) : famous victor, Louisa. 

Lucretius: son of Luke, Lucretia, Lucrece, Lucetta, 
Lucia, Lucy. 

" Lucetta, as thou lov'st me, let me have 
What thou think'st meet, and is most mannerly." 

Mahlon, Malon, Mahli : sickly, invalid, Mahlah (Zelophe- 
had's daughter). Probably to Mahli should be traced mains, 
mal, malady, me (in Megrim : disease of the cranium), as the 
primitive idea of badness would be weakness. 

Mac : a son {con. Maggot: rapid breeder), Mab: a daughter, 
Mable, Mabel, which some resolve into Ma-belle : my beauty. 

Maoch : oppressed (with troubles), Maachah. 

Mar : a lord {con. Maranatha : the Lord cometh), Martha : 
a lady. 

MoNiCHOS : a solitaire, dwelling alone, Monica (Augustine's 
mother). 

Naaman : handsome, NAAMAH = Ruth: fascinating. 

Naarai : a youth, Naarah : a damsel = Puer, Puella. 

Olympus : shining, glorious, like the Olympic gods, 
Oly^mpia : majestic, Junonic. 

Ophelius (ovis) : a shepherd, Ophelia : a shepherdess = 
Patti, con. pastor. 
8 



106 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Peter : a rock, not easily moved, Petrulla. 

Philip : lover of horses, good rider, Philippa, Felippa, 
Philippova. 

PoRCius : a swineherd = Howard : hog warden and Suarius, 
PoRCiA (Cato's sister). 

Priscus : of the old stock, aristocratic as to pedigree, 
Priscilla. 

Pi : a mouth, a good speaker (the Hebrew letter Q. Seen 
to advantage in Pi- Hahiroth, mouth : mouth of caverns), PuAH : 
a talkative woman. It is exactly = Bouch (Tay Bridge), con. 
Rebuke : to shut the mouth. 

Shepher : bright, handsome, Shiphrah = Hermosa, HELEN. 
Pit AH and Shiphrah were midwives, and who can conceive of 
a name more true to fact than for a midwife to be called 
PuAH : a chatter box ? PuAH neatly contrasts with PuY- 
parlier (sane lunatic) : little speaker = Tacitus (tacit), 
DuMAH (dummy), Moody (mute), Mudie, and the English 
bishop Still. 

QuASHEE : Sunday born. Quasheba (con. Quassia). 
Raham : merciful, Rehumah : compassionate lady = Ruth 
(when English, from Rue : to pity). 

Ram : high, dignified, Reumah : lofty dame, haughty woman. 

Robert : famous counsellor, cor. to Robin, Robina. 

Rosh : head, RosHEXA, Roxana (Alexander's Persian 
princess). 

Said (Port) : fortunate, happy, Haidee = Felicia, Faustina. 

Sar : a military prince = Sahib, Sarai, Sara, Sarah. 

Sepher : a book, learned = Booker, Bucer, Sapphira. 

Theocles : glory of God (seen in gift of child), Thecla. 

Theos : divine, deity, God, the placer, Theia, Thia (mother 
of the sun), Theta, Thais : divine daughter. 

Theron (and Asjxisia) : harvest man, Theresa (Nostra 
Rex). 

Thor : Asiric bull-god, ToRAGA : celestial cow adored by the 
Hindoos, and Thora. 

Wendell : of Vandal descent, a confirmed wanderer, 
Wendoline. 

WiLHELM : protected of Will, Wilhelmina, Minnie. Some- 
times Minnie : a female minnie singer, who kept old times and 
persons in mind. 

Zabad : a gift, baby boy, Zebudah : a girl, Zebediah : given 
of Jehovah. 

ZiPPOR (King of Moab) : a bird, timid = Bird and Vogel, 
ZiPPORAH : birdie, pretty and timid. 

ZoRAH : whose birth is like sunrise, Dzohara (Arabian 
Venus) = Helen. 

The endings i, e, ie and a are identified with the Biblical 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 107 

ah. Those in e are rare compared with those in a. E was a 
favourite Greek ending, bat a found favour with the Jews. 
Alcithoeus: quick runner = Rhesus, Light, Galletly = 
Alcithce. 

Allan, Allayne : quick runner = Swift — Ellen, but 
Helen : shining, glorious, shining skin through health = 
Graine : glorious for beauty, con. Helios : the sun, is Greek, 
whereas Ellen in English from the Goths. 

Antiopus: against the face, antagonist, Antiope (Amazonian 
queen). " I withstood him to the face, because he was to be 
blamed." 

Bernicius : bringing victory, born at time of conquest, 
Bernice. 

Blanch : white pale, blonde = Bain — Blanche = Banshee. 

Harpalycus (Thracian king), compounded of Harpy : 
ravisher, snatcher, and Lycus : a wolf ; who comes down on 
foe like a wolf on a flock — Harpalyce (princess). 

Merops (King of Cos): dim sighted = Cecil, and in some 
families, the Irish Key, Kee — Merope (married Sisyphus). 

PoDARGUS (ergon, urge, urgent) : swift footed (Hector's 
charioteer) Podarce. 

Leucippus (Daphne's lover) : a white horse, Leucippe. 

Thessalonica (Philip's daughter) : born at time of victory 
over the Thessalians. In her honour the city to which Paul 
wrote was so called. 

In addition to the Indo-Germanic feminine endings a, e, ie, 
or y, mere tints and shades of ah, we also have the Biblical 
ending eth, as shading off" of our old friend oth, the form of 
the fern, plural. From this source our Saxon ancestors 
obtained ath. They said, mas. Moon, fern. Monath. Ead : 
happy = BoNHEUR — Edith = Haidee, Felicia. Edgar : lucky 
spear, is from same, and con. with Allodial: fee-free farm, in 
contrast with Feudal : subject to feu, fee. Hodder : an 
allodial farmer. From ead also Eadie = Fortunatus, rather 
than a nick-name formed from Adam, as Addie. Godfrey : 
lover of God = Amedeus, Theophilus — Godfrith. Lind : a 
serpent. Lilith (for Lind-ith) : graceful walker. " It is an 
old Talmudical legend, mentioned among other writers by 
Burton, in his ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' that a snake was 
transformed into a wife for Adam at first, and named Lilith ; 
that, because her offspring turned out snakes also, she was 
superseded, and Chavah (Eve) created in her place ; and that 
it was in jealousy that she resumed the serpent's form, and 
tempted Eve to fall." 

Reu (Hebrew) : to look upon, as Reuben : look ! a son — 
Ruth : fascinating. Rue (English) : to pity, Ruth : a com- 
passionate woman. The ith ending is very common in holy 



108 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

writ, as — Haggai : born at feast time, exultation of parents, 
Haggith (David's wife). 

HiLLEL (rabbi) : praise, Mahalath (Esau's wife) : praise 
singer, she who lilts, whose voice is like a stringed instrument. 
This is con. with Zul : a musical instrument, whence ZULEIKA : 
she whose voice is like a zul, silvery toned lady. DzOHARA, 
ZuLEiKA, and Haidee, fern, of Said : lucky, are the three 
favourite names for daughters and brides through all Persia, 
Turkey, Arabia. Zuleika, Mahalath = Melpomene : whose 
voice is sweet as song. 

JuDAH: one who is praised = ^NEAS, Judith (Holof ernes). 

Naarai: a youth = Junius, Yonge, Youngman, Naarath : a 
rising city. " The border went down from Janohah to Ataroth, 
and to Naarath, and came to Jericho, and went out at Jordan." 

Shelomi: a peaceful man, Shelomith (Zerubbabel's daugh- 
ter). Applied to church. 

Shimei : famous = Cleon, Shimeath = Semiramis. 

Shimri : a watchman, Shimrith : a female ward. 

Charles : strong, Charlotte (Bronte), Carolus, Caroline. 

Henry : home ruler, Henrietta (Carrachiola, of monastic 
fame). 

Antoinette is, literally, little Antoine. So Charlotte: 
little Charles, Henrietta : little Henry ; applicable to sons, 
daughters, or even wives of Antoine, Charles, Henry, as 
they are all physically less than those from whom named, 
when first so called. Harry (not a form of Henry) : one who 
harries, plunders, Harriet. 

Eliza for Elizabeth: the oath of God, she who is in 
covenant with God, having the assurance of His oath, gives 
Lizzy, Lisette, Ibbott, Gisella, Elsie, Isabella: beautiful 
Eliza, whence Bella, Bel. Seizing on the last syllable of 
Elizabeth we get Betty, Bessie, and Bet. 

John: the grace of God, given by, Joan (pope), Jane, Janet, 
Jinny, Jeanette : little John, Jeanot : little Jane, Juanita, 
Anita (Garibaldi), Gill for Jill ("Every Jack has his Gill "). 

Joseph : He (God) shall add (another child, viz., Benjamin), 
con. Asaph (who sang with the cymbals) : gathering, gives 
Joses (brother of James the less), Jose, or Josey, " Lopez, 
wounded, was called to surrender, but refused ; then a cavalry 
corporal, by name JosE Diablo : Joseph, the Devil, killed 
him. Caballero was a little distance away, surrounded by the 
Brazilians," etc. Joseph also gives Jessop, Jaaps, Jopson, Jebb 
(Joshua), Beppo, the Italian for Joey, Epps (cocoa), Pepys 
(diary), and the following ferns.: — Josephine (imperatrice), 
Jessie, Jessica (violet bank), Finette, Guiseppe (the ItaHan 
form of Joseph), gives Guiseppina. 

Francis: an Italian speaking French, similar to Irish 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 109 

Griggs (when not from (Mc) Gregor) : learned in Greek, gives 
(San) Francisco : city of St. Francis, Frances, Fanny = in the 
Spanish Panchita. Hence Secchi (Jesuit astronomer) = 
Francicello : little Francis. 

The Celts, whether Bretons, Britons, Pictones, Picts, Gauls, 
Gaels, Irish, Welsh, or Manx, had no names for women 
formed on those of men, as Cassandra on Cassander. In- 
stead of so forming them, they gave names of a highly 
poetical, but natural cast, indicating striking peculiarities 
of the lady as to person or manners. Such names faded 
away as Christianity became a living power among the 
Celts. A child being presented for baptism, the priest was 
careful that a name should be given that would consort with 
religious propriety. He then frowned down their beautiful 
appellations, urging changes on Biblical or Calendar names 
conveying no spark of meaning, whereby nationality and 
the genius of their language was discouraged. In heathen 
times there were as many names as women, now a score covers 
one half used by British women. The Celtic style being true 
to the heaven-implanted instincts of men, would have saved 
us from absurdities so common that they escape unnoticed. 
The idea of calling a girl Mary Robertso-n-, addressing a young 
lady as Miss Hardman, or coolly terming a matron Mrs. 
Properjohn ! Except such be accepted as elliptical expressions 
they are ridiculous. Howbeit, we cannot enjoy the use of the 
double name system without its drawbacks. The following is 
a selection of female Celtic names used before the Christian 
era. It is to be regretted that more have not come down to 
our cold utilitarian age : — 

SuiLGORUM : blue eyed, con. Sullivan, and Cairngorm : blue 
mountain = Glaukopis (for a Greek lady) and Glaukus (killed 
by Ajax) for a man = our Gray. 

SuiLMALDA : meek-eyed. Suilaliun : beautiful eyed = 
Dorcas, Zibiah, Cassiope. Lanshuil: full-eyed = Bopis 
(bous ops) : ox-eyed. 

CoULAVA : soft-handed, womanly, con. LifF, Loof : the hand. 

Galava : milk white, con. Gala : milk. Galaxy = Via Lactea. 
BoSMiNA: soft palm, similar to Mulier: a woman from Mollis: 
soft. 

OiCHOVA : tender virgin, compassionate maid = Ruth : who 
rues for others. 

Coalmin : soft haired, fine tresses = Zillah : shadow, made 
by ringlets. 

CooLAULiN: beautiful hair = Jacinta, Aurelia: gold tressed 
women. 

Malvina : smoothly browed ; similar to Talhiran : iron 
browed. 



110 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Flamina : softly mild = Lentula. Agandica: snow faced = 
Chione, con. (C)Hiems: snow time, winter: also = the English 
Snow, and Blank (Bristol), whence Blanket : a woollen cover 
made by him, and sometimes = Blake : bleached. 

EvmcHOMi (Ossian's wife) : the tender, merciful Evir. 

RosGRANA (Fingal's first wife) : a sunbeam, con. Graine, 
Greenock. 

Gaolnandona : the love of men, she after whom men 
search. 

FiNELLA : white shouldered, con. Costorphine : fair Chris- 
topher. 

Strinadona : contention, she for whom men strive. Upon 
a centigrade kalometer (beauty measurer) on which an aged 
warrioress from the ranks of the king of Dahomey's body 
guard would stand at zero and Venus at 100, Strinadona 
would run the instrument up to 96. 

Bridget : strong, con. Bkee : a braw man, gives Bride 
(M') and Hebrides : islands so called from a religious house, 
visible from the sea, dedicated to St. Bridget. 

Colleen Bawn : fair maid = Britomartis. From Callan (t) : 
a lad, we have Colleen, like lad, lad-ess Callan becomes 
CULLEN = Haflin: half a man. The Bawn, con. Bane: white, 
whence Bann and Boyne : brown streams that bleach linen. 
So Bain: a bath from Bane white, because it makes white, — 

" By the clear lakes of Killarney, 

Walk'd a youth, one fine summer morn, 
Who softly was whisp'ring blarney 

To one whom he called Colleen Bawyi.'" 

RowENA: white skirt, con. Gowan (daisy): white flower. 

Geneveive (St.): wave-foam, whiteness of the sea = Aphro- 
dite : froth of sea, con. Gwyn (Nell) : white, fair (the Welsh 
Venus), con. Rowena. 

Kathleen (erroneously taken as a form of Catharine) : 
beautiful eyed, feni. to Kathlin : battle eyed, a man looking 
at his foe. Cathlin gives Cattle, Catt, uncon. with Vacca 
or Felis, as Codd uncon. the fish being from Cody for 
MacOdy,— 

" Kathleen Mavourneen ! the gi'ay dawn is breaking, 
The horn of the hunter is heard on the hill ; 
The lark from her light-wing the bright dew is shaking, 
Kathleen Mavourneen, what ! slumbering still." 

When translating grammatical feminine names, as dis- 
tinguished from naturally feminine, we must refer them to their 
proper masculine, or embarrassing absurdities may turn up. 
Thus Ursula may not be made to mean a little she bear, nor 
Feliculus : a little she cat, but they must be presented as 



NAMES OF WOMEN. HI 

the /ems. of Orson: a bear (hunter) = Su-agros, and Feli- 
CULUS : a little cat, a wonder to climb. Probably the honour- 
able Scotch name Etty is fashioned on Eadie, and that not 
from Ady from Adam but from Ed, Ead : fortunate, whereas 
Ettie may be taken from any of several feni. endings. Some 
philologists claim Etty as con. Ithai (" Itthai, the son of 
Ribai, of Gibeah"), or, which is the same, Ittai (" Ittai,the son 
of Ribai, out of Gibeah") : living one, vigorous, distinguished. 
Owing to the small choice of female appellations, high 
flown dames are often at their wits' end to avoid such as are 
trite, as Margaret, Janet, Jessie, Sarah, Mary. Hence the 
array of Celestina's, Arabella's, Angelina's, Stella's, and a pro- 
fusion of jingling inanities met with in fashionable circles. 
Another device of the upper ten is to make family names 
baptismal, as Wortley Montague, Dormer Stanhope, Bulwer 
Lytton. This is better, as names become monumental of the 
once departed but ever dear. If the dead were great, their 
name is inspirational as well as monumental. Our deathless 
Hood describes, as no one else can, the pangs of fashionabilities 
when name-hunting, — 

" Now to christen the infant Kilmansegg, 
For days and days it was quite a plague, 

To hunt the Hst in the Lexicon. 

And scores were tried, hke coin, by the ring, 

Ere names were found just the proper thing 

For a minor rich as a Mexican. 

Then the babe was cross'd and bless'd amain, 
But instead of the Kate, or Ann, or Jane, 

Which the humbler female endorses, 
Instead of one name, as some people prefix, 
Kihnansegg went at the tail of six, 

Like a can-iage of state with its horses." 

Absorption of maiden names by husbands is not yet accom- 
plished in all civilised communities. In Borrow's charming 
work, " The Bible in Spain," we read, " Drenched in perspira- 
tion, which fell from my brows like rain, we arrived at the 
door of Juan Lopez, the husband of Maria Diaz." These are 
the commonest of Spanish proper names. Juan Lopez = John 
LupsON, and Maria Diaz (received paternally as to Diaz) = 
Mary Jamieson. Thus we have Le Lubez : the Lopez, there 
being so many like VoN Robert : the Robert. 

Husbands and wives have different names in the Azores. 
The following are some of the best known lady names : — 

LiNDE : either a serpent or a lime tree, eon. Lindsay : lime 
tree island, a woman moving gracefully like lime branches 
moved by wind, or a serpent, sinuously, fascinatingly. This 
became so high a favourite with Germans as to become .syno- 



112 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

nymous with maid, as Lintrude : maid of truth = Fidelia, 
Emma : amen nurse, faithful to her charge. 

Adelind : noble maid, con. Athelstan. 

Fredelinda : peaceful maid, con. Frederick. 

Rosalind : beautiful as to face, graceful as to form. 

Belinda (bel linda) : beautiful maid. 

Esmeralda : beautiful as the emerald (Spanish lady), pairs 
with Margaret: a pearl, wave-born beauty = Aphrodite. 

Zeenab, Zenobia : father's ornament = Cleopatra. 

ACHSAH : an anklet, beautiful as. EuCHARiS: happy-grace, 
winsome, graceful, con. Eucharist. 

Euphemia : well spoken of, con. Polyphemus (cylop) : much 
spoken of. 

EuLALiA: good speaker, w^ho speaks charmingly =Zuleika. 

Polyxena : much given to hospitality. " If she have lodged 
xenoi." 

Tryphena, Tryphosa : over nourished, pampered, cockered 
(carefully cooked for), delicately brought up == Delilah, 
Cocker, Cockerell. 

Some writers give Tryphosa from Phos : light, and so thrice 
brilliant = Trebelli : very beautiful. 

Laodike : who obtains justice for the i^eople by intercession, 
whence Laodicea, now Latikia (cigars). 

Sophia (Santa) : wise woman, gives Vye, con. Sophist : pre- 
tender to wisdom. 

SoPHONiSBA : of a wise life, con. Biology : science of life. 

Agnes: a maid, she who has begotten no child, chaste = 
Jezebel : without cohabitation. Agnes takes the odd form 
of Nest. In the R. C. church, Agnes is given as from Agnus : 
a lamb, and stands allegorically for the triumph of innocence, 
as Margaret for triumphing by faith. 

Katharine, Catherine (giving the Irish pets Kate and 
Katty) : pure, stands for intellectual devotion, while 

Barbara : a stranger = Xeno, stands for artistic devotion. 
Of these four by far the most prolific in supplying names is 

Margaret, which some good writers give from mer grit : 
grit of the sea, giving Marjory, Marjoribanks (the banks 
and braes of Marjory Bruce), Meg, Madge (Wildfire), Maggie, 
Goton, May, Moggy ; hence also Magpie for Margaretspie, the 
German pet name Gretchen, and Peggy. 

Tallmadge : tall Margaret, son so called from mother being 
born out of wedlock, gives Talmage = MoLLisoN and Mar- 
GERISON : son of Marjory. 

Agnes = Parthenia, Virginia, Bethulia is identical with 
Agno (nymph who nursed Jupiter) : a virgin, having for 
its mas. correspondent the builder of Amphipolis, Agnon, 
Virginius, Bethuel, Parthenos : men of pure life. 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 113 



LucRETiA: a spinster, for so say high authorities, but it 
seems better to make it a fe7n. of Lucretius. 

Penelope : a web. The former symbolises a maid, this a 
wife. 

SiNDONiA : a spinster, maker of fine linen, con. Sinde, the 
best linen coming from India = Clotho and Woman for wif 
man. 

FiLATRiCE : a spinster, thread spinner, con. (rank and) file. 

GissELDA : golden Hilda, precious maid of that goddess. 

HiLDEGARVE : guarded of the Asir Hilda, con. Matilda : 
Hilda's maid. 

Olgar (Russian princess) : holy, consecrated, con. Hosius, 

OSIANDER. 

Emma : a nurse, one cherishing, germane with Amon, Amen, 
mamma, and is credited with Emmet, but that is more ration- 
a,lly derived from Emly (eoch miles) : a horse soldier. 

Walpurgis (from Walburg, a fortified town) : guarded by 
modesty. 

Himmelina: heavenly = Celestina : celestial (maid). 

HiMMELTRUDA : heavenly truth = EvANGELiNE. 

Angelina : angel like = Cherubini : one of the cherubim. 

Shakar-lab (Hindoo) : sweet kisser, lit sugar lip = our 

Saccharissa, and con. Issacher: wages, sweetness. The 
wages of the labourer is the sweetness of his toil. " Leah said, 
God hath given me my hire ; and she called his name Issacher!' 
Our words Saccharine and Sugar are from this source. Pliny 
says — 

" Saccharum Arabia fert, sed laudatius India," 

which in the grocer's language means : We can give a good 
^article from Muscat, but this Calcutta sample is the best in 
the market. 

Clarinda, Clorinda, Clarissa, Clara : clear skinned, 
hearts, blondes. 

Clorinda is a compound, in some cases, of Clarus : clear, 
and Lind : the lime, meaning fair and graceful. But Clara 
has no connection with Clarence (duke of) that being from 
Clare, Suffolk, latinised Clarentia, while Claridge means a 
rig, ridge, hill cleared of timber = Clarendon (constitutions of). 

Alicia, Alice : captivating = Rebekah : a rope with a 
noose, a female lasso (which a lass might be), Rebecca, Becky : 
fascinators cut short. These ladies may fairly be compared 
with MiRABEAu, Bravo, Beauregard, Formosus, Arba, 
Horace : handsome aspectable men whom we like to look at. 

Evangel : gospel preacher, from Euangello : to tell good 
news, gives 

Evangeline : one who has believed = Vivian : revived, 



114 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

regenerated Gospel : God's spell, charm, turning the cruel to 
be kind. 

Dam, Dame : mother. Former now limited to animals, 
latter to aged persons. 

Madam : my mother, being the correlative to Monsieur : my 
sire, father. 

Mademoiselle, Damsel : miss, little lady = the German. 

Frau: a free woman, as Jungfrau : mountain where the 
young woman perished. 

Fraulein == Virginia, Parthenia, con. Freischutz : free 
shooter. 

Rosabella : beautiful as a rose, an artificial name, if not an 
artificial flower. 

RosAN : Annie, like a rose = Flora, Bloomer, Thalia : all 
flourishing with youth and beauty, suggesting 

MiRAFORA (countess) : sweet as a thousand flowers (mille 
flora). 

Rosamund (neither rose of the ivorld nor pure rose) : 
defended by Rhoss. 

Orabell, Arabella (not beautiful altar, but from Oro : I 
pray): prayerful woman = the mas. names Bede, Gotobed, 
Eusebius. 

Annabella : beautiful Annie, often taken from Hannibal, 
but no European, to say nothing of Christian, would name a 
child after an African idolater. 

Chloe : green herb, flourishingly juvenile, C07i. the imperial 
Chloros (Constantine), of which it is a kind of fevi. (when 
Cambrian). 

Cordelia : Jewel of the sea, co7i. Lear (king) : sea king, 
and Lloyd : extended, invading, as waves do the shore. 

Eve (British) is from Aoifie, daughter of Lear, whence 
Evelyn, from which Devlin : of ancient British royal stock, 
whence also Evesham : .A.oifle's house, as likewise Effie 
(Deans). Devlin is identical with Dublin by chance coinci- 
dence. 

Nanny, Nancy, are from the Asir Baldur's wife. 

Nanna : daring, usually given as from Ann, Hannah. 

Zibiah, Tabitha, Dorcas, Orpah, Orphah (Ur : fire) : all 
Houris : had eyes like does, deers, gazelles, and moved grace- 
fully. " In the seventh year of Jehu, Jehoash began to reign ;. 
and forty years reigned he in Jerusalem, and his mother's 
name was Zibiah of Beersheba." 

Jael (Heber's wife) : a kid, a tender one, soft eyed. Similar 
Syren : (she who) draws, answers to the foregoing, con. 
Syringe : water drawer, Syrtes : quick (moving) sands draw- 
ing in ships. 

Amanda : one loved, amiable woman, like Amy. 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 115 

Edgiva : happy gift, con. Allodial, and = Samuel, and such. 

Elgiva : elf given, fairy like, con. Alfred, Elfhida. 

GoDivA (Coventry) : God given = Ueodanda, Dorothy. 

Anonyma : woman without a name, a beauty without 
breeding. 

Incognita : unknown (to society), unintroduced. 

Perdita is now used in the sense of a lost woman, a 
charmer waltzing to 'perdition, though used by Shakespeare 
in another sense. The last three are rather epithets of soiled 
doves than names of women. 

Eclecta: chosen one (2 John 1) = Nimshl Some maintain 
that this is a name. 

KuRiA, Cyria (a good fern, to Cyrus) : lady = Martha, who 
is the only woman that had the honour of her name being 
recorded in the Bible in a double form. " Martha ! Martha ! ! 
thou," etc. " The presbyter unto the elect lady." 

Dame : lady, Damian (St. John) : son of our Lady = Nostro- 

DAMUS. 

Stratonice (wife of Antigonus) : victory of the army, born 
at time of triumph. 

Euodia : good journey, given by a father returning from a 
perilous journey when a baby daughter was presented to him. 
Eunice : good victory, con. Nicanor = Victor. 
Lois : agreeable (to look at) = Ruth, when Hebrew. 
Parthenia: a virgin = Ayesha, Agnes, Cora, Corinna (who 
competed with Pindar) : con. Parthenon : temple of Minerva 
the maid. 

Miranda : admirable woman = Mira (star), con. mirror, 
mirage, — 

" Admired Miranda ! 
Indeed, the top of admiration ; worth 
"What's dearest to the world ! Full many a lady 
I have eyed with best regard ; and many a time 
The harmony of their tongues hath unto bondage 
Brought my too diligent ear : for several virtues 
Have I like several women : never any 
"With so full soul, but some defect in her 
Did quarrel with the noblest grace she owed, 
And put it to the full. But you, O you, 
So perfect, and so peerless, are created 
Of every creaturess, best." 

We may compare the designation of the Kenite Jael : a kid, 
to the Spanish Cabrera : a goat. " Divine service was per- 
formed by a former Catholic priest named Cabrera." Of 
course, con. Capri : goat island, Caprice : action without reason. 
Aholibamah : tent on the high place, who dwells on high, 
not poor. " Esau took wives. . . . Aholibamah, the 
daughter of Anah." Anah : spring discoverer, its root being 
En : a well, con. Een : eyes, circular wells are like eyes. 



116 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

EizPAH : a live coal, glowing with love, seraphic. 

ZiLPAH: drop of myrrh, pleasing as aroma does — MoRDECAl: 
bruised myrrh. 

Peninnah : coral, pearl, glittering with beauty, the Biblical 
Margaret. 

Zeruah : stricken (with leprosy). " Jeroboam, whose 
mother's name was Zeruah, a widow woman." 

Zeruiah : stricken of Jehovah, " Now Joab, the son of 
Zeridah, perceived that the king's heart was towards Solomon." 
As her husband is not alluded to though she is often referred 
to, it is supposed he was, what rustics terra, no better than he 
ought to have been. " The grey mare," etc. 

NoADiAH : meeting with the Lord, one receiving revelations. 
" He said unto Balak, Stand here by the burnt offering, while 
I meet the Lord yonder." " My God, think on the prophetess 
If'oadiah." 

Zeresh : a star, splendid with beauty = Stella. " When 
Haman came home, he sent and called for his friends, and 
Zeresh his wife." 

Shethar-Boznai : star of splendour = the Italian beauty. 

AsTRiFiAMMANTE : flaming star, cometic in splendour. 

Zethar (one of seven eunuchs of Vashti) : a star, identical 
with Shethar. 

Esther : a star, aster. Stars being all the rage in the court 
of Ahasuerus, she took this Persian name in the place of 
Hadassah (Hebrew) : a myrtle, conveying the same idea as 
Mordecai. 

AsTARTE : star goddess of the Syrians = Venus when morn- 
ing star. 

Vashti : beautiful = Pulcheria. "To bring Vashti, the 
queen, before the king, with the crown royal, to show the 
people and princes her beauty, for she was fair to look upon." 

Pulcheria: fair skinned, from Pellis: the skin. Skin is 
identical with Schon : beautiful (by brilliancy) and shine. 
Beauty is either from the healthy shining of the skin or from 
shape, as 

Formosa : beautifully formed, like the Medicean Venus. 

Venus : she who causes men to come (Venio : I come) = 
Syren. Cupid : he who causes desire, con. cupidity: covetous- 
ness. 

Keziah : pleasant as the odour of cassia. 

Keturah : pleasing like incense. A class of Eastern names 
suggested by the fact that fragrance, odour, aroma are propor- 
tionate to warmth of climate. The violet of Scotland is less 
highly scented than that of England, and the English violet 
less odorous than that of France. 

Grace (Darling) : she who has found favour = Hannah. 



NAMES OF WOMEN. 117 

Patrocinio (Sor) : who has obtained grace through her 
patron saint 

Sor, Surr : sister. Sororcide : sister killer. Its correlative 
is Fra (Paoli) = Friar (Tuck), Free (mason), Frater : brother. 

Dolores : sacred to the dolours of the B.V.M. 

AiMEE, Amy: amiable, beloved = Love, Dearlove. One of 
the wild women of Cambridge was Amy Stockings. Stock- 
ings : a stocking weaver, root stick, stitch. 

Praxidice : doing justice, con. Praxiteles : finishing per- 
fectly, con. practice, telos. The acquired name of the king of • 
Greek sculptors. 

Dora : a gift, a baby girl born when issue was much desired, 
sometimes used in sense of gifted, con. Polydor (Virgil) : 
much gifted, like Polyhistor : very learned. 

Pandora : all gifts, the mythic name for " gifted Eve." Dora 
oddly enough corrupts to — 

Dolly. 

" Dolly Dobson, how do you do ? 
Nicely, thank you, how are you ?" 

FuLViA: brown haired, auburn tressed, another shade of 
Flavia, Roman ladies. 

Phenissa (Dido) : (Syro) Phoenician woman. That land was 
so called from Phoinix : a palm tree, whence the mythic bird 
which, growing old, took a brand from the altar and lighting 
its pyre, composed of aromatic plants, was burnt to ashes, 
when a young phcenix arose from its ashes, to live, like its 
mother, for a hundred years, when it would pass through the 
same process of acquiring immortality by centuries. This ideal 
bird is elegantly used as a sign for fire insurance associations, 
which guarantee that your house being burnt a new one shall 
arise from its char. The myth originated in young palms 
growing round the decaying stock of the parent plant, bird 
and plant having an identical or similar name, Phoinix or 
Phoenix. 

Violet: little sweet (flower). Violin: sweet (music), Violet 
= the fashionable Ioanthe : violet flower. 

MiGNONNETTE : little little (dear), con. Minion : a favourite, 
a pet, little one, one who mmisters to another's pleasure, iden- 
tical with NiNiAN (St.). 

Sybel, Sybella (Theosboule : giving divine counsel = Theo- 
BULUS, of which Sybella is a fair /em. 

Medina : lady medium, who goes in for the golden mean. 

Una : one, truth, as truth makes unity = Truman, but better 
yet Ameena : an amen man. The Bou in the case of the Tuni- 
sian Kroumir Bou Ameena is a form of Bey for Bashaw, for 
Pasha : king's foot. 

DuESSA : double-minded, contrasts with Una. 



118 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Elissa : deficiency, imhospitable, con. Ellipsis : a want, a 
contrast to Polyxena. 

Florimel : honey flower, sweet as both = Mirafora. Here 
we have fancy names oricjinated by Spenser and found in his 
" Fairy Queen," When Una is pure Irish, it has the sad mean- 
ing of born in famine. 

NoRAH (the pride of Kildare) : of honourable birth = Honor, 

HONORA. 

DULCINEA : sweet one, con. Dulcimer : sweet (music). 

DuLCiBELLA : sweet and fair, good-tempered belle. 

FiLOMENA (filia) : daughter of the moon, fair as, child of 
light = 

Selena, con. Selenite : sparry gypsum. 

Philomela : love of song, applied to the nightingale. Some- 
times a name is elaborated from a letter, as — 

Peggy from Margaret (g), Nina from Ann (n), Dick from 
Richard, (d), Ulick : little William (1), the ick from ig, from 
egan from Eoghan : young, son. 

AzLTBAH (queen) : forsaken, what would be called in Glas- 
gow a grass widow, an expression taken from the Church 
granting divorces by grace, the husband yet living. 

Hephzibah (queen) : my delight is in her, Epsy. 

NiTOCRis: Neith the victorious, Wisdom victrix. The Baby- 
lonian queen was named from the same goddess as Joseph's 
wife. 

Schole: dilettante idleness, gives School: place of idlers, for 
so scholars were thought by muscular labourers. 

ScHOLASTicus : an idle, stupid fellow, Scholastica (nun's 
name) : a humble unconceited woman. 



11! 



CHAPTER VII. 

LOCAL NAMES. 

" In ford, in ham, in ley and ton, 
The most of Englisli surnames nm." 

Enchorial or local names are more frequent amongst the 
moderns and western people than amongst the ancients and, 
especiall}^ the orientals. Names derived from places were 
rarely used by Greeks, less by Hebrews, least of all by Arabs. 
They are common in France, more so in Germany, most so in 
England. There is scarcely one city, town, village, or hamlet 
in all England, if built before a.d. 1200, which has not sup- 
plied proper names to several families. This simple method 
of naming individuals from localities was esteemed too prosaic 
to be fashionable with the polished Greek and the trope-loving 
oriental. Such appellations tell nothing of the man as sage, 
worshipper, or warrior ; individuality is swallowed up in 
locality, personality in place, in a place common to noble and 
mean. When society was consolidating in Europe many 
personal names were derived from estates, which brought in 
the aristocratic or, at least, the laird element. Such names 
with an attachment as De, Du, Van, Von, or " of that ilk" in 
the sense " of that same " — person or place — as Buchanan of 
that ilk : Buchanan of the place so-called, M'Leod of that 
ilk : M'Leod of the M'Leod clan, generally indicate names 
originating in landed property. Yet proper names of local 
origin were descriptive to a certain extent, and for a short 
time. In cases where they did not die with the first bearer, 
they merged into family names. Names, however simple as to 
origin, may be ennobled. Hampden is inseparably associated 
with love of liberty, combined with a sacred regard for con- 
stitutional rights, and yet it means only a valley dwelling = 
HovEDEN (chronicler) for Howden. And Tresham (Nov. 5) 
simply means a gentleman having three houses, similar to the 
less known Tooby (twa) : two dwellings. 

Local names may become lofty landmarks in a nation's 
history. The world will not forget Milton and Pitt any more 
than Homer and Pericles. The mention of Milton calls forth, 
as with the touch of a fairy wand, all known of the scholar, 
statesman, poet. Augustus does no more. Number men like 
street houses or cavalry horses, and some numbers rise to being 
symbolic equivalents for the most revered names recorded on 
the scroll of fame. On the other hand, let each of us bear an 
appellation equal to the grandest known to the most powerful 



120 FEB SON AL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

nations, nearly all will be consigned to oblivion directly their 
late wearers are consigned to the tomb. When imperial 
Rome, and its vast empire, was in its decadence, such titles as 
Panhypersebaste : above all named Augustus, and AuGUS- 
TULUS : most august, were flourishing. Such bombastic 
appellations suflfer total eclipses when bracketed with Moses 
or Plato. Proper names are variable exponents whose value 
changes with the life of its owner. No grandiloquent title 
merging into a name can ennoble the native little. No im- 
personal or unpoetic cognomen dooms the naturally great to 
take a lower grade than their actions assign them. Cicero com- 
plained of being known only through himself, not ancestry. 
Possibly had he been known by pedigree he would have been 
known onl}"- thereby, in wdiich case his ancestors would have 
been known rather than he, and the world would have been 
his orations the poorer. A Roman " Lord Dundreary " would 
hardly reach A.D. 1883. No dandy is immortal. Men joke 
about him for three generations. 

In this chapter, indeed throughout my work, localities giving 
names to persons are rarely identified, as many, e.g., Milton, 
Newton, Walton, Fordham, Brooks, etc., are common to scores 
of places. To determine from which of these a family took 
its name is the business of the biographer or genealogist, not 
of the etymologian. If the translation of a Post-Office 
Directory teaches anything, undeniably it teaches this — 
primitive Europe was an aflfair of woods and forests. Indeed, 
the observation is extensible to the world as we shall soon 
show. The coming catalogue of names connected with trees 
and their undergrowth does not contain one tithe of those 
arrangeable under that head. Howbeit, we are necessitated to 
lead oft' with water rather than wood for reasons that will 
forthwith be obvious. 

We have a name Beck : a small stream, taking the diminu- 
tive of Beckett: a smaller stream, Aborn: at the burn. 
This name Beckett had in the middle ages and some families, 
the prefix At, shortened to a, thus A'Beckett (Thomas) meant 
Thomas living at the little Isrook. This at and attan, when 
plural, and a will be found to have attached themselves to 
trees and streams most parasitically, thus — Attwood : living 
at the wood. And even Attree. This at preserved names : 
it was a philological mordant. Poor men during the Wars of 
the Roses had one name. Say John. He resided in respect 
to a village in his vicinity at the wood, whereupon villagers 
spoke of him as Joh7i at the ivood, which by lingual shrinkage 
became John Atwood. A similar process took place in France 
in relation to Jean Dubois = John Woods. Thus we have 
Akaster : at the camp. So Addenbrooks ('s hospital) : at the 



LOCAL NAMES. 121 



brook = A'Beckett. Adden for atten. Nash for Attanash. 
Bias, Tash : at the ash = Dormer (Stanhope) : of the ash = 
Dashwood — Nattrass: at the ash, and the Desormeaux 
(historian), and the odd sounding AsnBASH = Ashwood and 
Tash WOOD. So Nelmes for Attanelms : at the chns, as Napps : 
at the aspen (poplar) tree, Burnap : trees running by poplars. 
That litigious fellow John Noakes is John at the oaks, written 
NoKES, as Nock : at the oak = Biask and Attack (Samuel) : 
con. Lilac: lilyoak. Similarly Byack : dwelling by an oak. 
So we have Amor for at the moor = MLTTR, Moor. The Ger- 
mans have Siebeneicher= the English Snooks : seven oaks. 
The Hebrew Oren: an ash, gives the Latin Ornus : an ash, 
whence the French Orme. 

It is not always clear whether a name is from Orme : an ash, 
or from Orm (worm) : the serpent of Asiric mythology. Thus 
Ormeston : town of Ormes. Orm : tree or god. Araunah : 
a large ash, stout tall raan = PiNUS, whence Pixelli. Ornan : 
great ash. " Rear an altar unto the Lord in the threshing 
floor of Araunah the Jebusite." " Lo, David gave Oman for 
the place 600 shekels of gold." Both names to one man who 
was of lofty porfe= Rowan, with which Ornan is identical, 
gives RouNTREE and Rounsiwell : a spring among rowans. 
AsHBY, AsBY : dwelling among ash trees. Ashby - de - la - 
ZoucH : the Ashby family, living near the stock of a 
notable tree = Stock (Simon) and Tronchet : a trunk, con. 
Truncheon : great trunk. Fraxinus : the ash, gives through 
form frene, Freville = Ashton. Dufresnoy, Dufraine : 
Defraine : of the ash tree. A Mr. Fiveash died 1859. 
AscHAM (Roger) : ash tree home, suggesting Occam (Dr.), 
YocuM: oak home = the Polish Dombrowsky (general) Van 
Neck : of the oak, Eekhout : oak wood. Ackman = Dryan- 
DER. Delle Rovere (Julius II.): of the oak (robur). Asplen, 
for Aspling : son of the asp tree, timorous, trembling like pop- 
lar leaves. " Trembling like an asp" leaf. Apps : an ash. 
Napps = Nash. Aspinwall : ash field, Avith a fountain there- 
in. Apsley (Pellat) : ash field. Eddaic mythology, teaching 
that Adam was made out of an ash, that tree of renown be- 
came a favourite apart from its use or beauty. Thus ^SCIN- 
gas : sons of the ash, and Ashman: of ancient lineage = Priscus. 
BusHNELL (Horace) : mansion in a wood = PYBUS, Bosom. 
Chatterton (Bristol boy) : cottages in a wood = Boycot (ted). 
BOSCAWEN (admiral) : house surrounded by alders, suggesting 
Trim (corporal) : elder. Elder : tree growing to a great age. 
Dauney : an alder. But BosTWiCK, looking so like a home in 
a wood : house near a creek. Edgewood (Miss) : living at 
edge of Epping forest as gypsies yet do = Edge and Outhout: 
having an outer edge of wood in a hut. Edgecombe : first 
9 



122 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

house in the valley, suggesting Indicott : last house in the 
village. Ellwood, Ellenwood : elm wood, sacred grove. 
Sacred among Saxons as they held Eve was made of elm. 
This gleams side-light on the Israelites worshipping in groves. 
Sometimes Ellwood is a contraction of Ethelwood for Ethel- 
WALD : noble defender. In Switzerland Edgewood is Unter- 
walden: under the forest = Underwood : under protection of 
a forest, from blast. Wedgewood (Etruria) : frequented by 
widgeons. Scrope is scrub, whence Scruby : dwelling among 
scrubs, shrup = Scroggie : scrubby. ScROGGS (Giles) = Stubbs, 
Stobo : living where the trees have been stubbed. Broglie : 
a thicket. So Bavey : low copse wood, whence bavins, faggots 
were got = Busembaum (Jesuit) : tree among scrub, under- 
growth, nut tree = CopSEY : living in a copse = CuTBUSH. From 
Kopto : I cut, wood cut at intervals. These = the Milesian 
Money : scrub land, Moneymore : great heather and shrub 
land. Drinan : a blackthorn. But Cork = Marsh, Marston. 
The city of Cork was built on marshy soil. Cork, Marsh = 
Venn : a fen man = FENNER (when it does not mean hunter) = 
Fenian, Fenimore (Cooper) : a fenman. Heenan is synony- 
mous with Money and Marsh. Quagenbosh : a wood on a 
bog, con. Quagmire. Wodton, Yoddam, Besom, Bosom (bois 
ham) : town in a wood = Kirjath- Jearim : Carthage in a forest. 
Walton for Wald-town = Walworth (mayor) and Walz, 
VoLTZ = Woods, Wadrapp : wood raven, Wallenstein : 
wood covered hill. These = the Polish Osinski : city among 
trees = Wolski (waldski). Ski or sky : a town, gives Marian- 
ski : town of the B. V.M = Maravilla (cocoa). Jablonowsky 
(prince): town among hazel = Calton, con. Dunkeld : hazel 
hill = Luz, con. Lusitania. Dembinski : town among oaks = 
Acton. Bogatsky (divine) : city of God=Theopolis, and 
Baltimore : city of the great god. Bog the Sclavonic for God 
gives our nursery terror, Bogie ; hence also the name of the 
river Bug, the Sclavic Euphrates. Bogoslav : the glory of 
God = Theocles, Thecla. Bogdan : the gift of God = Theo- 
dore. 

But we must away from the Poles and back to the trees. 
CoYLE, con. Gael and Caledonia (Kill in composition). Few, 
Waltz, Walters (in some cases), Frith (" Frith and fell : " 
wood and hill) = Greenwood, Witt, Witty, Widdows, or 
Wette (de), Whit, White (in some cases), With, also answer 
closely to Greenwood : a plantation. " Bind me with seven 
green withs," hazel, or ash. With wrong: a winding wood. 
Beckwith: brook running through a wood = Wedderburn. 
The Scotch prettily render " He who is born to be drowned 
will never be hanged," by " The water will nae wrang the 
widdie." The widdie was a with twisted into a halter 



LOCAL NAMES. 123 



WiDMORE : a great wood = Guyyon, which gives Thynne. 
Whidden : wooded valley = \Vhitcomre, Whiteside: living 
side of wood. Weatherhead : at woodhead = Woodhead. 
Weatherby: dwelling in a wood = Woods, Boddam, Busked, 
DuGUiD, Ittem, Whittem, Holtum, Holsted, (M')Quiddy. 
May not Galloway be from Gallovia : great forest of the 
Gaels ? Dust (Forest, Horst, Hurst, Hust) : of the wood. 
Miss Deeks marries Mr. Dust against her father's advice. 
Being ill used she came to the old house at home at two 
o'clock A.M. with a thud at its door. Old Mr. Deeks pro- 
truded his head from bedroom window, and replying to 
entreaty for entry, said, " No, no. Go back to your husband. 
Dust thou art, and to Dust shalt thou return." Our word 
Basket is from the Britons who called it Basged, of which 
ged = whid, wood. Kitt is not from Christopher, being pre- 
historic, and means wood-dweller = Kelt. Foskett : dyke 
wood. Applequest is applewood, and Appleton = Jablonsky : 
town among apple trees. Ledwith : a wood in which there 
is a laid, a wear, regulating water supply. Laid is obsolete, 
but gives Ladle : liquid regulator. Laidlaw : a hill on which 
is a laid, reserve of water. Hence that grotesque looking name, 
Shakelady : shaggy, bushy ground where there is a laid. 
Hence the name Lade (Bulloch & Co.): one resident near a dam. 
One of the reasons we have so many names from trees 
is that they were objects of worship on this island till A.D. 
400. Perhaps this would account for such names as BoM = 
Tree. The odd looking Fitts = Woods. Carurthen : camp 
wood = Cashow (shaw). Whitherow : a vagrant who sleeps 
in woods and preys on farm yards. Sometimes simple wood- 
land names assume absurd forms as CoCKSWOLD : a wood 
frequented by cocks, becomes Cuckold, Guiteau (Garfield), 
Vidocque, Guy, Tanguye : pine wood, Guido : wood dwellers 
con. Balguy = WiTHHAM WooTON, Guiox (line) : great Guy. 
Balquidder: town in a woodland district. Such = Groves, 
Fiddiman, Fiddes = Woodal\n. Wittikix : baby found in a 
wood. Torfid : Thor's wood, where the Asir hero was 
worshipped, becomes Trufit. Groves, the French corre- 
spondent of which is Aubusson : at the grove, may not be 
simply local, as sometimes it signifies grovekeeper to a god. 
Sometimes Nimmo (nemus) = Groves. In Germany we have 
Luther's great battle ground Wittenberg : wooden fortress = 
Tyrwhitt, originally like those made by the Britons of newly 
felled trees. There lived Cranach (Lucas) exactly = the Irish 
Crannage and Crannatch, each meaning son of a tree. These 
are aboriginal names, suggestive of the Stone Age, when men 
dwelt here on artificial islands, each known as a cranage, 
because built of wood on piles. 



124 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

In England we have Witney : wood island. Askwith : 
ash wood. Wither (George, poet) : wood dweller. In the 
Sanscrit Vid : know, Rigveda : ruling knowledge (con. Rego : 
I direct), is the most ancient sacred book of India. This is 
our wit and wood ; it entered the Greek in Ideo : I see, 
whence Idea : seen mentally. Ideo entered the Latin with 
the V, Video : I see. The other form of its meaning gave Ida, 
whereon Paris judged Venus, Juno, and Minerva ; Ida simply 
meaning woody (mountain), nearly = Sinai : bushy, covered 
with undergrowth and Wallenstein. Vid is probably the 
root of Vetus : old and wise, aged as a tree, and learned as 
those who studied in nature's oldest library — the pathless 
woods. Connected herewith is Liber, the inner bark of a tree, 
and Liber : a book, bark made = Boc : the beech from which 
our Book was made, both word and thing, gives Pharnam- 
BUCY : a ferney field in which are beech trees. Wittanagemot : 
witty men's meeting, oddly corresponds to Eisteddfod : the 
wood setters, Welsh forest parliament. Wittan being next 
derivative from Wid, Vid : wood. Vedder = Woodman. 
How strange a thing is life ! knowledge is still from the tree 
though evil is inseparable therefrom. But the curse was taken 
away by that other Tree, so that now man shall have the 
knowledge without the evil. Fid, fod, vid, wood, ket in 
basket are one, con. Fiddle : instrument made of wood. The 
f in Scot is identical with d in wood, meaning wood dweller = 
Greek names Hylas, Hylgeus, Hyllus : son of the wood = 
Crannage, Cranach. Withcraft : a tree progagator, and 
WiTCRAFT : learned in timber. Gwyet, Guit, Quid, Guy, 
Guion, Gyot, Guido, Vetus, Veda, Ida, Fid, Fod, Vid, Witt, 
Hout, With, all have to do with wood. Hepwith (hips) = 
Hedges. Gwyder : a druid, learned in Celtic, the letters of 
which are taken from trees. Here we have the true idea of 
Druid : leader, head of the learned, from dre tvid. Pliny was 
the first to derive Druid from Drus : an oak, probably misled 
by the word Hamadryad : living with an oak, as long as. 
Philological bellwetherism caused him to be followed until 
scholars asked how would Celts name their learned from 
Greeks ? Druid as nearly corresponds to our D.D. as the 
diflference of circumstances can be conceived to allow. 

Wit : wood gives Widness : wood island = Witney, and the 
preposition With, as " You will go with me," united to. Also 
Withers : that part of a horse where shoulder and body unite, 
suggesting Withers = Widdows. Coyle : a wood, gives 
QuiLTY = Woods, and Kells when not from Cell of a saint. 
KiLLiGREW : eagle's wood, Kilburn : brook running by a 
wood. Bois : a wood, gives Boisson : great wood = Matto 
Grosso: primeval forest of the Amazon = Chacemore, Widmor, 



LOCAL NAMES. 125 



GuYON. BusHELL (bois ville) = Wooton. Trenton : town 
among trees. Bushel : a wooden measure in contrast with 
Peck : a poke, a bag. Ambush, Ambuscade : lying wait in a 
wood. Bosjesman: bush dweller = BussMAN. Buoy : wooden 
float. Boz, Baum, Tkee, Boos, Bosh (Ten), Busiinell (Horace), 
Beza, Dubois, Kells, Quilty, Busby, Boyle, Bysshe (Shelley), 
De Witt = Van Houten, Withers, Widdows, Guy, Balguy, 
GuiDO, ViDOCQUE, are all of the woods. But Woods may be 
as local as Atwood, or may be = Gwyder, Druid. If modern 
the former, if ancient the latter, and greater. Bosdet, Bost, 
Boscowen, Bosquet (general): a little wood. Grafton: grove 
town. Bosquet is Bouquet : now flowers, formerly evergreens, 
a buss, con. Boscobel : beautiful wood, con. Burbush (burg), 
Burbage, Boswell, Beville (when not beau ville) = Bambek 
(beamber) = Wooton, Pybus. Foulis, Foules : living where 
the foulys do sing, as the German Vogelsang, though some 
prefer it from Folium: a leaf, living among = Ramage, Raimes, 
from Ramis : a branch, con. Ramolini (mother of Napoleon) : 
little branches. These lived near groves frequented by the 
songsters of the wood. Sylph : a wood nymph = Silvanus, 
which abbreviates to Silas. Silvis : a wood, gives Savage 
(when not Irish), Sage, Savigny, Saville, all men of the 
woods unless Sage, when from Sagus : wise, as in Le Sage : 
the man of sa^rctcity. Lignum : a wood, usually applied to 
undergrowth, gives LiGXY and De Ligny = Atwood. Free- 
house is met with, meaning house near a notable tree = Baum : 
a tree, whence beam, gives Bamfylde (Moore Carew) : tree 
field = WooDLEY. Baumgarten : an orchard, Bombarson : 
son of Baumgarten, Bumpstead : place of trees. Baumtree 
and Attree are living names. Shaw {con. Shade); a little 
wood. Crayshaw : wood frequented by crows. Fanshaw : 
haunted by fawns, deer. Enshaw, Ensor, Hinshaw : by 
herns, herons. Herne (the hunter) : heron taker, if not an 
eagle. Harwood : hare wood. Scrimshaw (screen) : shaw 
sheltering a village, similar to Hinton (Jack) : behind (a hill) 
town. 

Gladstone (W. E.) for Gladstein, from Gleed : the glider, 
a hawk = Gliddon (geologist) and Falkenstein : a hill fre- 
quented by hawks, as Gladsmuir = Falkland : moor haunted 
by kites, gleeds, hawks. Rubenstein (composer) : hill visited 
by ravens, Arnsteen: by eagles. Falk (laws) = Hap: a hawk, 
Hapsburg : hawk tower, frequented by. Forest is from Foris: 
abroad, meaning outside of city, woods are far from busy 
haunts, — 

*' In somer when the sJiawes be sheyne, 
And leves be large and long, 
Hit is fulle merry in (eyre foreste 
To hear the fouly's song." 



126 FEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Forest abbreviates to hurst, as Lyndhust (lord) : lime tree 
wood = Leibnitz and Poniatowski (prince) : dwelling in a 
Forest, Hurst, generally applied to gamekeepers = Ranger. 
Bradhurst = Bradspiaw, but not Braidwood, for brad applies 
to that part of a stream which overflows, so becoming brad, 
broad. Bradford : where folks fare, ford, the brad, Bradley. 
Bradlaugh (Charles): flelds subject to flooding = Nugent,. 
NoA, con. No: I swim, swampy, con. Noyades : drownings. 
Walkinshaw : wood through which a path runs. Broad- 
hurst nearly answers to Brocklehurst : wood by a brook. 
Braddon (Miss) : hill, fort near a brad. Dewhurst : wood 
frequented by deer = Fanshaw. Ringwood (New Forest) : 
king's wood. Soho (shaw haugh) : a wood in a valley. 
Lennox : elm growing district. Holt, Olt : a wood, a hold, 
place defensible = HouT = Woods, whence Hood (when not a 
cowl wearer), and Vanhouten : of the wood. Hollinshed : 
living near head of holly grove, as Aikenhead : at head of 
oak grove = Pencoit : head of wood = Weatherhead. Aiken- 
siDE (Mark): side of oak grove = Whitside, Whiteside, 
Woodside, and likewise Side, j^er se : hillsider. These range 
with Walton, Bamberger, and Woodstock when Bamberger 
is not forest hill (living on), or a forest shepherd. BuXTON 
(Fowell) : town among beaches = BuxTORF (lexicographer). 
Similar in meaning is Delafaye, Dufailly, Dufoy (de fagus), 
and Debl^ke, who cling to the beach. Broglie (general) : a 
coppice = Tallis : wood often cut. Talboys : wood cutter, as 
Telfer : iron cutter, helmet cleaver, at full length it stands 
Talliafero, and cor. to Tolvie. 

Hope : a narrow vale formed by the bases of hills 
almost meeting, leaving but a small level, gives Hope 
(John), whence " Band of Hope," not of hope. Hapgood, 
HoPGOOD : fruitful valley = Buncombe, Gehazi : ghor of 
vision, one we like to look at. Hopley (Susan) : field in a 
hope. Stanhope: stony dell = Standen. Hoppet (when 
not from Hob for Robert) : little hope. Lothrop : low lying 
valley. Hyslop, Haslop, Hlslop : hazel-dell. Dunoyer : of 
the nut tree. Kirkhope, Kirkup: church on the hope = 
HoBKiRK, and the Welch Landells : temple or church in a 
dell, con. Scanlan : old church. Trollhope : a hope wherein 
is a hollow inside of a hill. When Trollop : slattern, from 
trail ; one who trails her dress. Tudhope : fruitful valley = 
HoPGOOD, Coneyhope : valley haunted by rabbits. Wallop : 
a hope with a well, spring in it = SpRiNGDALE. Wauchope : a 
hope through which a wall, dyke, vallum, is carried, becomes 
Walkup, Waccup. Hopeton, Hopetown =: Dalton. H aslam : 
hazel home = Easterhazy (prince), originally Estord Derhazy: 
eastern hazel home = the Spanish Avelanno, the French 



LOCAL NAMES. 127 



CowDRAY and our Hazlewood = Luz. Haswell : spring 
among hazel bushes. Hazlitt : hazel lot. Haslam : home 
among hazel trees. From Ail : strong, Allon : an oak, strong 
wood, giving Allonville = Aoworth. Worth is a defended 
place. HoLDSWORTH : a fortified place in a wood, from Wear, 
whence Ware, Ward. 

From Quercus : an oak, literally a fine tree, we have 
Chene : an oak. Oak is from Eke : to grow, to increase, 
so that it means a tree that grows (as to age) above others. 
Duchesne (actress), Duquesne (admiral) : of the oak = 
Vanneque, and Della Rovere (pope), con. Eck, Eckius: 
son of oak (or of Eck)r=DARRACH. Glans meaning either 
fruit of tree (acorn, oakcorn), or the tree itself, gives 
Glanville: town among oaks = GLENFiELD (starch): oak 
field. Glean : to gather corn, meant gathering acorns. 
Gland : an organ shaped like an acorn. Glanders : a corn 
gatherer for cattle. Glenfield = Oakley, but Hockley : 
high field = AiRD, con. Airt: quarter whence wind blows. 
Holyoak (George Jacob) : an oak growing in a monastery, 
the same as Hollyhock Ach = Ogg : an oak, Hogben : 
oak hill, Ogburn : brook running among oaks. Holms 
(M.P.) : from holm oak, a formation on holy. In some cases 
Holm : a river island, con. Chisholm : gravel river island. 
Braddock (general) : broad oak, or one growing near a brad. 
DiMMOCK : little oak. Aitken, Aiken : robust, oaken, strong. 
EiCHORN (German savan) : oak hill. Akroyd : oak ridden, 
oaks stubbed up, gives Dacroy : son of Akroyd. Shorrocks 
(captain) : shorn of oaks, exactly = Radax : rid of oaks. 
SouTHACK: south oak, Nock : at oak = Attack, but Knock, 
Knox = Hills, Tell (William), Knell. Snooks: seven oaks, 
Kent, becomes Senex = Siebeneicher. Chenevix (French), 
cor. to Chennecks (chene vicus) = Acton: oak town. Cheney 
(bishop), Chiniquy (Father). Dara, Adair (when not from 
Alasdair, Alexander) : an oak. Kildare : oak grove. Saron 
(king), Sharon (Turner), Sarony: an oak. Darroch, 
Darrach : son of an oak = Saronidas : a dryad = Ackman, 
Dryander. De Lolme (historian) : of the holm oak. 
Cassagnac : place of oaks. Trelawney : oak grove town. 
Higgins, Higginbottom : a dale where the mountain ash 
grows. Shoebottom (Shaw) : a wood in a dale. Auckland : 
oak land. 

Dumas (novelist) : of the mast, beech. Dufailly (general), 
DuFOY : of the beech. Layfayette : little beech. Fagus : 
the beech, from Phago : eat = Mast con. masticate. Beechy 
(captain), for beechley : beech field. Bacon : one feeding pigs 
on beech mast. But Beach (Hicks) from the bee. Treffry 
(Eternal Sonship) : three beeches. Quarterfages (naturalist) : 



128 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

four beeches. Cinqualbre : five peach trees. Beechenhaugh, 
BiCHENO: haugh of beech trees, con. SoHO (shaw haugh). 
Haugh gives Hawes (when not from Hal, Harry) = Denman : 
valley dweller. Deguignes : of the vines = Vignoles, con. 
Vignette : a little vine, a frontispiece of vine leaves. DuNOis 
("Partant pour la Syrie"): of the nut tree, gives Noise. 
CoRYLUS (shepherd): a filbert tree. Figaro: a fig tree = 
Olynthus (Gregory). Dupin : of the pine = Von der Tann, 
Tangye = Fichte. Pinelli, Spinoli (Spanish general), Spinoza 
(pantheist Jew), con. Spina : a thorn, and signifies dwellers in 
a spinny, answering to such names as Stobo, Scroggie, Bade- 
NOCH : overgrown with bushes. To these add TuRNHAM (for 
Thorn home): dwelling among bushes = DoRNER, suggesting 
Thorney, Cambs. But we have such living names as Thornes 
and Spinner. Curzon : a vine stem, vine dresser. 

LiNN^us (Swede) : a lime tree, so called from Lind : a 
serpent, because it waves like it. Lindsay : lime tree island. 
Tilly (when not a weaver from Tela : a web) : a lime. Tillot 
(archbishop) : little Tilly, or a growing lime. Tilroyd : cleared 
of limes. " This unfortunate man was named Morgan Tilroyd, 
and was by trade a jeweller." Laura (Bridgman) : a bay, a 
laurel = Daphne, takes the dim. Loretto (Our Lady of): 
little laurel grove. More (sometimes) : a mulberry tree, a 
dark fruit con. Amaurosis : dimness, darkness of the eyes, 
con. Mauritania : the Morian's land = Soudan, Karamania, 
Nigritia. Morosini (amoroso) : dim sighted = Cecil. Tamar : 
a palm, literally straight, applied to a majestic woman, gives 
Tamarind — ind for India, as in Indigo : plant from India. 
" One daughter whose name was Tamar." Ithamar (son of 
Aaron) : land of the palm, born among palms. Vernet 
(Horace) : an alder = Dauney. 

WiLLOUGHBY : dwelling place among willows = Salignac 
(salix, sauch) and De Saulcy, con. Aulay : tall as a willow, 
Sauchiehall : house in an osiery. These con. Sales (Francis 
de : though some give his name as a form of cells, cloisters), 
Sayle (governor), Sarsfield (Aughrim), Saumarez, Soult 
(marshal), when not from Solvo: I loose, and so = Freeman : 
freed : all dwellers among the osiers. Osier : water plant, 
con. Ooze and Ouse. Willow gives Wily : river with willows 
on banks, whence Wilton, which gives Wiltshire, wherefrom 
Wilsher (cricketer). Wycherley (William): witcii elm, 
used by witches in their incantations. Birch (favourite Celtic 
tree, giving h of their savage alphabet) : may not mean simply 
a tree, but a man of ancient stock. Birchenhaugh . birch 
dale, gives Brisco. Aube : white wood. Vanloo : of the 
wood, sometimes = Vanderveld (painter) : of the field. 
Dougherty, DocHARTY: high dwelling among oaks= Vanneque. 



LOCAL NAMES. 129 



We must cease planting and commence hewing. As 
European emigrants clear Minnesota and Manitoba, so were 
our primeval woods cleared by continental emigrants passing 
the Channel in coracles, or later invaders of the aborigines. 
Field is simply felled, so Fold, Fauld(.s) : an enclosure. When 
the Saxon felled trees he enclosed his land therewith. Field 
= RoDEN : land ridden of timber = Thwaites, for so Norsemen 
called their clearings. Littlethwaite : small clearing, gives 
LiLYWHiTE (batter). 

Applethwaite : clearing planted with apples, giving Heb- 
BLEWHITE. MiCKLETHWAiTE : great clearing, Holroyd : 
cleared of holt, w^ood = Grubb : trees grubbed up = Stubbs, 
wrongously fathered on Stephen. Olcott (colonel) : cot in 
a hott. Blumenroden: blooming field, flowery mead = 
Bloomfield (" farmer's boy "). Rodney : field through which 
a brook runs = Burnley. Penrod (ben rid): hill cleared of 
timber. Nesselrode (diplomatist) : cleared of nettles = 
Thistlethwaite, or Swaite = Ducardonnet : of the thistle 
field and Chardon. Joelah : removing of oaks, a man so strong 
he can remove oaks. "Joelah and Zebadiah, the sons of 
Jehoram." So the French Purlieu : purus locus. " In Henry 
III.'s time, the Charter de Foresta was established : so that 
there was much land disafforested, which has been called 
'purlieus ever since." Purlieu = Clarendon : a hill cleared = 
Claridge, Penrod. Coleridge (Samuel) : cold hill = Balfour: 
cold town, exposed to winds = Coldham, Collop : cold hope. 
But Winthrop, that one might be excused for supposing it 
means windy dwelling, and so = Trewent : wandy dwelling, 
con. Pennygant : windy hill (Throp, a transposition of Thorp, 
Dorf, as Apthorp : the abbot's dwelling) : winsome, beautiful 
dwelling = Sheen, Nain, etc., Balfour pairs with Fordyce : 
cold south, one dw^elling where there is southern aspect, yet 
cold. Purlieu, the oj-x of Ronge (holy coat), Ranke (his- 
torian). Range : rank with timber. Lumm : a clump of trees. 
Lumsden (provost) : a valley in which trees are in clumps, 
groups, nearly = Walden : woody valley. Parley (Peter): 
Peter's field = Peterloo, suburb of Manchester half a century 
since, like Vanloo, Waterloo. Woodley = Bousfield (bois). 
Hatfield: heathfield = Hedderw^ck : dwelHng among heather 
= Hatherley = Garfield (president): gorse, furze, fern field, 
con. Farnworth = Brackenbury. Claverhouse (Dundee) : 
clover field house = Fetcham : home among fitches. Clover, 
from Cleave : to divide. Clover = Fraise : strawberry, from 
f rango, fraga, f rasa. Fraser : strawberry planter. Cres- 
SINGHAM (betrayer) : home in a cressfield. But Gresham 
(merchant prince): gross home = Meikleham : big house = 
Casaboni, Casaubon: bonny house = Brian (O), whence 



130 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Chateaubriand : palatial castle. Bryant (Araer. poet) and 
Barney (thought to be from Barnabas) are therefrom ; Brad- 
bury and Ingersoll (con. Entresol: entry of hall, saloon) 
also applied to palatial residences, dwellers therein. As also 
House : the chief house, which assumes the form Ace, Audus : 
old house. Tetley : fruitful field, con. Tudhope, and o/x of 
Barley: bare, barren field. Felton : town in a field. Fulton : 
foul town, dirty roads = Foulmire (Cambs.), and ojx Clinton: 
clean town. Felton = Townley, Leighton, Kempton and 
Burleigh, from bury, though this last may mean a judge, 
from Byrlaw : laws made by neighbours (near boors), whence 
Bylaws : local regulations. 

To these English may be added the French red, Fonyeille 
(Ulric), con. Foin, Fon, Foenum : fodder hay, whence Fen- 
nel, supposed favourite food of serpents. Mead = Lee, 
Leith. Cluny, Clunie, con. Clones = Meadows. Penny- 
CUIK: cuckoo's hill. Carlyle (Thomas): man of Carlisle: 
camp (Roman) beside the trench. Witherspoon : grazing 
place on spur of a mountain. Champollion (Egyptologist) : 
field of a man named Pollion : great Paul. Chantraine (con. 
Banunculus : little flower flourishing on wet soil where frogs 
delight to dwell) : living where the chant of frogs is heard. I 
have been in such a place and am slow to forget it. This sug- 
gests Canteloup (lord) : living where the howling of wolves 
can be heard. Danger : of Angers, France. Faulds : land 
enfolded. Sandyfaulds : grave! fields. Enclos (Madam de) : 
enclosed = Close, con. Cloisters : college enclosures. Strangely 
indeed this = the Roman Cohort from Cohors : a fold enclosing 
sheep. Men were put together for war like sheep in hurdles. 
This throws a gleam of light on Shepherd Kings : Xerxes 
numbered his soldiers by the cohort arrangement, placing them 
by turns in an enclosure as did Cetewayo his Zulu warriors. 
Stranger, Cohort is our word Court (when not meaning short): 
a castle, a place enclosed and defended as in Harcourt (Sir 
William): castle of Hariald in Normandy. Court = Worth 
(man milliner): a place wared, warded, defended = Guise : a 
fortified position, originally with felled trees. These suggest 
Pallavicini: living in the vicinity of ijcJcs, palings, enclosures, 
as in the English Pale in Ireland. So also Stack : living in a 
stocado, place staked = Stockwell (ville). Stocks, Stokes, 
Stocker, Stoke, Stowell (Hugh) for Stowville, abbreviates 
to Steele (Richard). Bostock (bois) = Walthamstow [wald 
ham stow). Stowe (David) : a place staked out. Comstock : 
dwelling in a valley. Steak (beef) : carried on a stick. Cope- 
stakes : staked out for cheap, cope, market. Though Copper- 
field (David): field w^here coppice, scrub, is regularly cut = 
CopsEY. CoppERTHORN = CuTBUSH and Cowperthwaite. Such 



LOCAL NAMES. 131 



project our thoughts to an age when England was a place 
of shanties, settlements, and log huts, as the name Settle 
= Seidlitz (powder) : where an emigrant settles ; so also 
SiEGEL, SiGEL clearly show. Barton : strong place to 
receive the produce of the land, what it did bear. Barton 
Worth, Ton, Town, Fold, Fauld, Burg, Stowe, Close, and Cot, 
all mean enclosures in some form. Invaders and emigrants 
first seized, then enclosed. Byre for cows may be added, as it 
is from Beorgan : to protect, whence Burgh, whence Burglary : 
breaking into a protected place. Enclosure underlies the idea 
of property whether landed or personal. Byars and Bouverie 
(Kilmarnock) = Cotton : cow enclosure, a byre, owner of one. 
CoEVELT (Flemish painter): cow field = Clontarf. Argos (the 
mother of Greek civilisation) : a clearing, thwaite, ridden, sohl, 
settlement. From Ergon : a work, con. Argo (ship), Argus 
(100 eyes), Arge (huntress) : sharp, active^ quick = PoDARGUS : 
swift footed. Con. Argives : Greeks, organ, organon : works 
in music or literature. Energy : putting work in. Ego: I, the 
doer, worker. Ergo : therefore. Argentum : silver, made 
white by work. Argil : potter's white clay. George : earth 
worker, Georgics : science of working the earth. Neighbour: 
near boor, is doing good work as a surname and forms a fine 
contrast to Malyoisine (bishop of Glasgow) : bad neighbour, 
best out of the vicinity, con. Pallayicini. We also meet with 
HousENEAR and Nigh. Ton: an enclosure is germane with 
Ten and Tun, the former allied to number of fingers closing, 
the latter encloses liquids. Hundred : hand reed, red, con. 
Ratio : reason, Reid : a counsellor, it gives the reason on the 
hand. Ton is found in a vast number of local names, as Smea- 
TON (engineer) : smith's town = Goyan = ZiNZENDORF (count) : 
tinsmith's dorf, thorp, town, Smee : small = Bassett, Bass. 
But Mee : a Meath man, (Mac) Namee : warrior of Meath. 
So (Mac) NULTY : an Ulster man. Larpent : the arpent, place 
to be ploughed, con. Aro : I ear, plough. 

From that ancient word La : low lying, we have Lateo : to lie 
hid, Latent : lying hid. Whence Latro : one who lies hid to 
rob, Ladrones: isle of thieves, Larceny: theftuous act, Latoxa: 
concealed goddess, Lagos : a hare because it lies close to the 
ground, hidden, Latium : low lying country, gives Latins : 
lowlanders = Girgashites : dwellers on clay land. Latinus : 
lowland king, and our Lee, Loo, Lea, Leigh, Laugh 
(Laughton = Felton), Lewes, Leslie, Lisburn, Lismore, 
Logan, (Mc) Lagan, Lowther, Leith, Lothian, Louder, 
Low, and that American puzzle Lo, are all persons re- 
sident on depressed meadow land, or under shelter of hills = 
Foote, Peden, Orispus, Platt, Flat, Poggio : living on the 
flat = Campobasso and the Hebrew Maachah : depressed, ap- 



132 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

plicable literally to one living on low ground, figuratively to 
any one in low spirits, and to either sex ; hence we find it in 
some cases a man's name, in others a woman's. In the literal 
force it corresponds to Cavagnac : dwelling in a hollow =r 
Cavan, Holland: hollow land, and Hollow: hole low. Van- 
loo is the Dutch for Meadows (Kenny), and Pratt (Orson), 
con. prado, paradise, prairie. Peden (Scottish worthy) : a 
clear plat, an open space = Paddock, which abbreviates to 
Park. Konigsfeldt: king's field = Kingsley (Charles). But 
Rawley, Raleigh (Sir Waiter) : roe field, land frequented by 
roes. Roe : rough deer. Roebuck : rough buck. And DuR- 
ley (looking so like deer field) : dry field, the op. of Softley : 
bog land = the cacophonic Bugg, whence Bugbee : bog dweller 
= MosHEiM: home on the moss = Marsh. Noa (chess) = 
Nugent : swampy ground, from No : I swim. Bugbee is 
positively cor. to Bugbed. 

Basilewsky: king's town. "A grand marriage is on the 
horison of the French aristocratic world, between M. le 
Comte de Galve, brother of the Duke d'Alba, and cousin 
to the Empress, and the charming Madame Bravura, daughter 
of 3Ir. Basilewski, who is famed in St. Peterburgh as being 
some twenty-five times over a millionaire." No name better 
illustrates the vanity and fastness of that time when Eugenie 
was queen of the fashions. Bravura : finely clad lady. 
" The Lord will take away their bravery." Bravura applies 
to a brilliant style of singing, but as a secondary application 
of the word, which belongs to the eye — Bravo! Bravo!!: 
Fine ! Fine!! Now finery is to look upon. Rio Bravo : fine 
river. Bravo : a handsome man, Bravura : a beautiful 
woman. 

Vanderkemp (African missions) : of the field. Kempen- 
FELT : an open country, champaign. A'Kempis (Thomas) : at 
the field = Atmor, cor. Amor. Campion : a fighter in an open 
field. 

" His sword was in his sheath, his fingers held the pen, 
When KemjJenfelt went down, with twice four hundred men." 

Astley : east field, Audley : old land, grass land lately 
ploughed. But Allen : a hound, then means swift, some- 
times applied to a stream, when to a man = Podargus, Light- 
body, Galletly: its fern, is Ellen. Berkley, Barclay 
(brought by Normans) : birch field. Brimley, Brinkley : 
fields on the brim, brink of the sea = CosTLEY: coast leioh = 
the great Orellana : meadow reaching from mountain top to 
river mouth, con. Oros : a mountain, and Llano for Loco piano: 
flat country. Nearly corresponding to the Gaelic Urquhart, 
Urket: margin, long coast, and the Gallic Larrieux, 



LOCAL NAMES. 133 



Larrive : Ripuarians, bank dwellers = the Saxon Rivers, 
Currant, and the Spanish Ribas. These suggest Sorby 
(Sheffield): dwelling on the shore = Sands, when local. 
Windsor : winding shore. Merton (and Sandford) : town on 
a mere or sea = Seaton, Balmerino. Hartley : deer field. 
Hurley, Harley (when English) : hare field, but Harley 
(Mc)Arly (Irish) : a form of Charley. Lesley, Leslie (leesley) : 
meadow land = Leland (antiquary) = Hoyle,Cowan,Cavanagh 
(Bernard), all = Cavagnac : living on cavernous land, con. 
Cavour : cave dweller. Meadows, Mead = Pritty, from Mow, 
mead, meadow : land that is mowed. Seen to advantage in 
" Barley?7iou'." Mow gives the comparative more, and the 
superlative most, as though moiv, moiuer, iiioest. Lee, Leith, 
Loo, Fogg, Fogo, and Pratt, from Pratum : a meadow, whence 
Prado, fashionable promenade at Madrid — Dupre : of the 
meadow = Green, from grow, Muspratt : meadow on a moor. 
Delafield (brewery) : of the field = Vanderkemp. Bancroft 
(historian) : bean croft, Croft : cultivated with craft, skill. 
Tofts : small farmer. " Ne toft, ne croft have I." 

Calcraft (carnifex) : kale croft, some claim it as a trade 
name, meaning maker of caltrops, to prevent advance of 
cavalry. In former case Calcraft = Wortley : a cabbage 
garden. Wort gives Wurtzel. Softley^ : living on bogland 
= Noa, Nassau, Marsh, Marston, Moneypenny: at head 
(pen) of bog where peats are cut. Denovan (dunavon) : 
hill by side of stream, identical with the Irish Donovan 
(Rossa). Gar VON (Garrough) : rapid stream. Dundee : 
hill by the Tay, Dee. Wynn : white = Finn. Wentworth : 
white dwelling made of pealed willows = Casabianca, con. 
Decazes : of the cottages, houses = Van Buren : of the Iboor's 
(houses). Casa : a house. Cheese, Chasuble : dress covering 
wearer, as cottage does a dweller. Cot is identical with 
coat : a cover, hence Coates : dwelling at cottages. Peti- 
COTE : little cottage = HuTT, Pycot : cottager (by). Cotswold 
(hills) : shepherds' huts on the wold = Shillinglaw, from 
Wald: a forest, as the wolds were wood covered = Ida. 
Garth : an enclosure (small), con. girth, girdle, garter, garden, 
yard, the last being the length of the king's girdle. Gart- 
shore : part of foreshore enclosed. Garscadden : enclosures 
used as cow pastures. Applegarth : an orchard = Baum- 
garten : beam garden. Hyde : as much as a yoke of oxen 
could plough in one season, called so because hidden by hedge 
rows. Malherb (poet) : bad pastures, op. Bonpland (com- 
panion to Humboldt): good land = DE la Vega : of the 
flourishing land, con. vege-table, from Vigere : to flourish. 
These = Lynch and Slade, — 



134 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

" It had been better for William a' Trent 
To have been abed with sorrow, 
Than to be that day in the greenwood slade 
To meet with little John's arrow." 

Though Lynch applies more accurately to meadow byastream> 
as the " Links of Forth." Compare William a'Trent with 
Thomas a'Becket. Sorrow for soreness of body. 

Many surnames are derived from those who originally bore 
them dwelling on mounds, hills, or mountains, or living in or be- 
longing to castles which were generally built upon such places. 
These carry the mind back to a time of baronial grandeur, 
when castles were too often centres of tyranny, but became 
the nuclei of civilization, around which the villain reared his 
thatched hut and the boor tilled his garth, while constitution- 
alism was dawning in our cities. Illustrative of such facts we 
have Altamont, Montalto, Mow at, Moet (and Chandon) : 
high mountain, Grammoxt, Montmagny : great mountain = 
MoRVEN, MoNTFORT (Simon de) : strong mountain, Tel-el- 
Kebir = Monte fixo, whence Muschet. Hohenzollern 
(Prussia) : high toll hill, whence black mail was levied from 
travellers. Similarly ToLAND (deist), a form of Tolan, Nor- 
mandy : applied to land over which if men passed they 
were tolled. Montague (mount acute) : sharp mountain = 
Spitzbergen = Egremont, and strangely inverted in Argument, 
a directory name, — 

" Confessing that he himself was a Montacute, 
And bare the arms that I dyd quarter on my scute." 

MoNCUR, MoNCURE (curt) : truncated hill=RAFTOR. Dunlop 
(Colin) : hill at bend of stream = Barskimning, Skimming = 
Reach, Engstrom : living at bend of stream. Dundas : 
fallow deer hill. Winslow : battle tumulus = Barrow, Cairns. 
Lamont : the fortress, a baron. Montes (Lola) : living in a 
fort, a castle = Terence (Latin and Irish) and Tyrell (Sir 
Walter), which latter becomes Traill. Carey : castle dweller, 
but Carus : loved, cherished. Montejo (Countess de) : little 
mountain, small fortress. Eugenie is also styled Countess de 
Teba. Teba from Tebanus : a hill. Teba translates Montejo. 
Montanus = Mountain = (Mc)Bean, gives the following dims. 
MoNTUCCio (Chinese dictionary), Mundella (M.P.), Mott. 
Delamotte : of the hill = Emmons : home on a mount. 
Montrey : royal mountain = Montreal. Dymond for dumont : 
of the mountain = De Monti. Battle of the Diamond, 1795. 
Diamond = Orontes : a mountain stream, con. Orestes: a 
mountaineer. Diamond is from the river, and is therefore 
uncon. Diamond : a form of adamant : unconquerable (as to 
hardness). Helmont (chemist) : spiral mountain, con. Ilissus : 
helix river. Montfaucon : mount or castle frequented by 



LOCAL NAMES. 135 



hawks = Hapsburg,Hap = Hawke. SoFalkenstein = Gliddon 
and Gladstone. Moncrieff: frequented by crows = CrifFel : 
crow fell. MoNTEiTH: fortress on the Teith. Montefiore 
(Sir Moses): flowery mountain = Blumenstein, and nearly 
answering to Oregon. Monteagle (lord) : hill haunted by 
eagles. Evremond : mountain frequented by bears. Mont- 
joy, MouNTJOY is simply a mound topped by a guide-post, or 
aught indicating the whereabouts to a French traveller. As 
the hill from which crusaders descried Jerusalem was a mount- 
joy, the word passed into an expression for a pilgrim who had 
succeeded in visiting the city of David. Langridge, Lang- 
horne, Longomontanus : long hill. Ticklepenny: living 
where a hill overhangs, Scoresby : dwelling on a scar. We 
have the name Score : a hill, a scar = Tallage, Scaredevil : 
villa on a scar, Marmont (marshal) : martyr's mount. 
Chiarmonte (pope) : clear mount = Clermont, Monte Video 
and Belvidere: beautiful view. But Belvidere, an Italian 
beauty, similar to Beauregard : fair to look upon. 

From the Erse for old, viz., Sean, Scean, Shan, we have 
Shand (lord), for Shandon (dun) = Oldcastle, Shantie : old 
tumble down places, Tam O'Shanter : Thom of the shanties, 
Shanigan (eoghan) : old man's son = Benjamin, Scanlan, 
Hanlon (oarsman), Hanlan : old church, con. Llanbryd : St, 
Bride's Church. Some Irish authorities make Hanlan : a 
champion. Sanquhar: old fortress = Shand. Sankey (and 
Moody) : a chronicler, he who records old tunes = Vieuxtemps 
(violinist). Seachlan (St.) : little old man. Carrick, Craig 
= Fell : a rock. Crackstone (looking like craggy hill, is 
very ancient) : splitter of rock helmet, Carrigheen (moss) : 
little rock. Melrose: projecting hill, Culross: back of a 
hill, rear of a wood = Hinton (Jack) : town behind a hill, 

Roslin : projecting point in a pool. Vanderbilt (con. bill 
of a bird) : living on a spit of land = Spite, con. Spithead, 
These differ little from (Mc) Nee, Ness, (Mc) Nish, Nest: 
living on a promontory, a peninsula, or an island near main- 
land, con, Nesos : an island, whence also the odd name Nast. 
Neasham : home on an island, Garioch : the rough district 
= Badenoch and Trachonites, Thrace. Garry, Garone : rough 
river, from Car : angular, whence Carron : very crooked, and 
therefore rough. These con. Yare, Yarmouth, Yair = Garry, 
giving Yarrell (naturalist). Yare also applies to a stream 
dammed in various parts so as to catch tish, Wemyss: a 
troglodite, cave dweller = Cavour (count), Lavotte : the vault 
= Cave. Wemyss becomes Hume, which becomes Home, 
Ham, whence Hamlet (Danish king). Our home was once, 
though not originally, a cave. These ancient names, out- 
reaching the chronicles of our country = Hor, Hur of the 



136 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Hebrews. " The Horites in their mount Seir. ' Seir : rough 
with bushes, like Sin (wilderness of) and Sinai. The Horites 
in Seir would be living like Wemyss and Hume in Badenoch 
and Garioch. Carvosso : a castle. ToRUOS (marshal), Tor- 
RiCELLi (barometer), Castriotto (George) = Tyrell : little 
castle, turret = Turretin, Tyrwhitt : wood castle. Carew 
(castra eau) : castle on water. Turracremata (cardinal), 
Torquemada (inquisitor) : burnt castle, incremated towers. 
Quemadero : the place for burning heretics, Madrid. 

Castelar (orator): a native of Castile. Eatican: head of the 
rath. Rat: a castle dweller. Rafflin: red rath. Castlereaqh 
(rath): king's castle. New Castile, Neufchatel = Newcastle. 
Old Castile, Torres Vedras = Oldcastle. Towers = Terence : 
castle king, a baron. Roche (con. rock) : a manor house, 
place approaching in strength to a baronial hall. Rochefort 
(Lanterne): fortified manor house = Mainwaring, Duroc, De la 
Roche : of the manor = Durocque. Lemas, Dumesnil : manse 
dwellers, con. Maison : a house, messuage. Holder: living in 
a stronghold. Sternhold: stonecastle. Holden (holt): wooded 
valley = CoMSTOCK gives Bolden (ap): son of Holden. Wilber- 
FORCE (emancipator) : Wilburg's foss, the trench of Williams- 
town. Loyola (Ignatius) and Xavier are named from Spanish 
castles. Xavier is Moorish for glorious = Cleon. Trench 
(Chenevix) : living near an entrenchment = Dykes, the Dutch 
Vandyke: of the dyke, vallum, wall, and Dieckmann. 
DiGBY : dyke dwelling. Thirlwall (con. drill, thrill) : where 
the Roman wall was broken through. Wallsend : where the 
wall of Adrian ended. Brand (when local) : a steep brae. 
Banks = Hills, " Ye banks and braes o' bonnie Doon." But 
Bankier : a banker, one exchanging at a bench = Ducange : 
of change. Bankrupt : ruptured bench. Branton : town on 
a steep = Van Brunt. Brltnton : Brown's town. Findlater 
(temptingly, likei^in; the end, de : of, la: the, ter : land = 
Finnisterre) : the white slope, con. Finella : fair Irish lady, 
Corstorphine : fair Christopher. Blair : cleared of timber, 
plain in a hollow = Roden, Field, Thwaites. Vass (when 
local) : a valley. Consult Vasa. Vaux : valleys, dalesmen. 
Duns (Scotus), Penn (Pennsylvania): Penn's wood, (Mc)Bean, 
CoLLis, ToRR, Tell, Knee, Knock, Knaggs, Knowles 
(knolls), Knollys, Fell, Fall, Tulloch, Tallow, Ragg, 
TuLLY, Teba, Montejo, Orestes, Montero (con. Montana), 
Mott, Peck, Peak, Airde, Law, Dunn, Barr, Howe, Toe, 
Tawse (bailie), Rigg, Rudge (Barnaby), Stein, Steinitz (chess), 
Hoche (general). Hook (Theodore), Hoorn, Horn (gives Cape) : 
hill dwellers, or named in connection with heights, Bigelow 
(papers), = Benmore. Winslow (syrup) : furze hill. Tor : a 
hill, con. Taurini : hill dwellers, whence Turin : city on a hill. 



LOCAL NAMES. 137 



Taurini = Helvetii : hillsmen, whence Helvetius : a Swiss. 
Sniveldy : snow hill. Dunbar : fort ou a hill = Hardcastle. 
SiDDONS (Mrs.) : south hill = Sidlaw. Utteridge (atridge) : 
living at the hill. Montmorency {con. Sierra Morenos): 
dweller on the brown (ling) hill, cor. to Mummery. Duncan : 
hillhead, gives (Mc)Donnac:hie, which becomes (Mc)Connachie. 
Doddridge (Dr.) : hill. Shadlaw (shedlaw) : a hill dividing 
districts = Shierlaw. Breckenridge : bracken hill, con. 
BRACKENBURY = Fernese Braes. Sherbourne; a brook divid- 
ing two parishes. So Sherwood : boundary forest. Hinshaw: 
sheltered behind a wood = Hinton. W.vlkinsh aw (quoits) : wood 
through which is a path. Shillinglaw: a hill whereon are huts, 
con. Shiel : a hut, Schiller (poet) : a cottier. South Shields : 
huts to south. Wardlaw (Ralph) : a hill on which watch is 
kept = Beaconsfield (betoken, from teach) = Flamestead. 
Laughton (sometimes) : town on a hill = Knowlton (pamphlet) 
= Hugtenburgh (painter), Hilton, Felsberg, Hammond (ham 
mound) : exactly = Emmons. Colville, Dunville, Dumville, 
all living in towns on hills. Toogood (torr) : a fruitful hill. 
Colville becomes Coville, Hackenberger : dweller on a 
hill covered with hedges, con. Hague : hedge dweller = Hedges 
= Headland: a boor dwelling near a hedge at top of field. 
Lambshead : head of the land. Head of land or wood, but 
sometimes physical. Hochheim, Higham (Ferrers), Hyam : 
home on high ground. Yelverton (major) : town where yaiuls 
come in, small harbour = Skiffingtox = Shipton (mother): 
when not sheeptown. Schaffhausen : ship houses, a portage. 

Every variation of hill seems to be discoverable in the 
London Directory. We might almost call it British geography. 
Thus Horsfall: a hill for horse grazing. Knox, Knee, 
Nee, Needham: home on a hill = Scaredevil, Scoresby 
(captain), Emmons, Steeper. Needles = Hills. Pinhorne (Sir 
John) = Hillhead and con. Pencoit, but Penclutha : Clyde- 
head. Clutha: lady of the Clyde. Crumpecker : round 
hill, con. Grumble for Crumble (crom peel) : circular tower. 
Hardacre : field on a hilltop = Inkpen (Ing : a meadow). 
Hartshorn: hill frequented by deer. Harlo'w : high hill. 
Pigfat (peak) = Langhorn. Pigfat con. Fadyan : long John. 
Lightstone : bright hill, noted for beautiful sunsets. Ragg 
gives RiGBY: hill dweller = Sheldon. Torr, Toe: a hill, 
TowELL, Tawell (quaker) : little hill. HoGGPEN : high hill 
= Altamont. After the following names town is understood. 
Aston, Easton: east. Wesson, Weston: west, con. Vast: 
the ocean west of the European continent. But Westley 
(Charles), not west field, being a form of Wellesley (Arthur) 
= Springfield. Waistcot: west cottage. Norton = Nor- 
BURY. Sutton: south == Sudbury. Dalton: dale = THAL- 
10 



138 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

BERG = CoMPTON, CoMSTOCK : in a comb. TiTCOMB (bishop) : 
little valley. Fancombe : frequented by fawns. Francombe 
(frenum) : ash tree valley. Duncombe : hill in a valley. 
Batterscomb : Batteur's dale. Batteur = Thresher. Combe, 
Coombe, Coombes : a valley, forms cuTnb, as Cumberland : 
land of valleys. A poet of that county says, — 

" There's Cumwitton, Cumwhinton, Cumranton, 
Cumrangen, Cumi'ew, Cumcatch, 
And mony mair Cums i' the county, 
But nin wi' Cumdurock can match." 

Welcombe : valley where is notable spring. Buncombe (bon) 
= HoPGOOD, Gehazi : valley of visions, beautiful sights, 
gives Bunkum, whence the Americanism, Bunkum : brag. 
Slocum (Podgers) : slough coombe, mud vale. Podgers : 
poddy, big in the body = Hogarth. Commisky (looking 
like a Pole, is Irish): watered valley = Dallas (esk), con- 
versely, Escombe. Isdale : dale through which a burn flows. 
Fallas: a hill w^ell watered. Randall, Handle : round valley. 
Featherstonhaugh (longest English name) : town of 
Frithestan, in the valley. Frithestan : most free, generous, 
liberal. Maxwell : St. Maccusville = Maxton. Maccus : the 
Mac : son, i.e., first born son. Howland : hill land = Kohistan. 
Dalhousie (esk) : field at corner of water. Bushton, Eishton: 
town among rushes = Rushbury. Rushout (hut) : a cottage 
among sedge. Kerse : a rush, living among. "I don't care a 
curse off a common." Denman : valley dweller. Eaton, 
Heaton, Hatton: on a heath, though sometimes Eaton = 
Waterston, at others a Hessian. 

Twistleton (twa) : near boundaries of England and Scotland 
= Borthwick, Borwick, Marwick (march) : border villages, 
con. Vicus : a village, giving Wicks : a villain, villager, when 
not local, means active, lively = Quigg. Marquis : who has 
charge of the marches, con. Marchioness. 

Murcia (Spain), Mercia (England), Mersey : bounding river 
= Orr, whence Orum : home on the boundary river. Mar- 
wooD: boundary wood = Sherwood : dividing forest. Mar- 
comanni : men defending the marches, Bismarck (prince) : 
end of bishop's jurisdiction, as Gravesend : where the SheriflT 
of London ceases to have jurisdiction, and Denmark : Dane's 
boundary. Margrave: the march greve, con. Reeves, Graves, 
BiSLAND : bishop's glebe. Twiss : wearing a twisted sash, 
ornamental belt, a warrior with his loins girded, prepared 
unto battle. Twi (birth name) : a twin, con. Twiss and twice. 
z becomes t, as Weiner Zeitung : Vienna Tidings, the Austrian 
Times. Seen, too, in Zwibrucken: two bridges = Deux Ponts. 
Caxton (printer) : Cage's town. Granton : town on a green. 



LOCAL NAMES. 139 



great, or Grant's town. If the first = Felton, Grenville ; if 
second, Granville, Mecklenburgh : raickle borough. Bigham: 
humble dwelling, home in a bigging = HuTTON. 

Langton, Langham, Longueville, Longwill!: straggling, 
lengthy town. Newton (Isaac),ViLLENEUVE (admiral), Neville, 
Newell, Newsham, Newsom, Newstead, Novgorod, Naples all 
mean new city, town or habitation. Alton (Locke) : old town 
= Utica. Konigsberg, Regiomontanus, Cunningham, Ville- 
ROY, Kingston : royal residences, the last sometimes meaning 
king's stone (Scone), where the coronation was held. Turton : 
near a tower = Wicks. Wollaston (chemist): east town on 
a wold. WoOLFiELD : wold field. But Woolard : wearing a 
hair shirt. " The naked truth of it is, 1 have no shirt, I go 
woolward for penance." Woolnoth : bold as a wolf. Wolcot 
(Peter Pindar) : cot in a wood. Panton : town approached by a 
bridge = Bridgeton. Chatterton (the noble boy) : Cedda's 
town. Warton : dwelling among rank vegetation, con. Wort 
as in Wortzel, and = Ranke. Wordie : cultivating a little gar- 
den = Tofts, sometimes means a boaster. Milton (John, when 
not from mill), Middleton, Mittendorf : dwelling in the 
middle of the town. Townsend : living at end = DuL0NG : of 
far away up. Burke, Broughs, Berry, Berri, in some fami- 
lies DuBARRY, Dewberry (du or de burgh) : burgesses to a man 

= ClTTIDINI, BORGHESE, BORGIA, BURGESS, BrOUGH, BrUFF, 

Burrows : persons having civic rights. But Borrows : a 
pledge, hostage = Homer. Ur]5AN, Urbane (itfifem.), Townley : 
refined, cultured, civic, not rustic. And Drybrough, Dryfruff: 
waterless town = Drayton. Civilise : to make into a citizen. 
Polite : city bred, not rustic as to gait or manners. Astu : a 
city = Stead, gives Astute : cunning. 

Metanaste : who changes cities, an emigrant. Astyanax : 
defender of city by intellect, its king, con. Senex: aged. Bury : a 
city,from Beorgan: to protect,co7i.Perga,Burgos, Pergamos,from 
last. Parchment. Burglar: who commits larceny on a protected 
place. Polls : a city, from Polus : many. Police : 'city wardens. 
Burdett (Francis) = Velpelt, Lyttleton (lord) : small towns. 
Guttenburg (printer) : good town. Whybrow ( Wyeborough) : 
on the Wye. Swedenborg (Emanuel) : town of the Swedes = 
SwEABORG. Sturton (when not on the Stour : muddy river, 
stirred up), for stor town, great = Meikleham, Gresha^i. 
Large (when Irish) : dweller on a hill side = Side (when Nor- 
man), for De Glarges. Bellamy, from Belesme, Normandy, 
is given as fair friend. Death : for De Ath : of Ath, Nor- 
mandy. Death is from Do and means done — it is do-eth, death. 
So some say, " I'll do for you." Ath = Ford, Athey : ford of 
Ae, Hugh, there slain. Atherton = Fordham = Overton, 
OvERBURY, Overend (and Gurney) : part of town near ferry 



140 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Ford from Faran : to go, whence Ferry. Athol : rockford. 
Arrol : high rock. Burford : ford to town famed for beer, 
over the Windrush. Crawford (Caerford) : castle ford, mis- 
taken for crow ford. Stafford : stream passed by help of a 
leaping pole. Stratford (strait) : narrow ford. Disbury 
from Diss, Norfolk. Beccles (bishop) : beck, brook running 
through leas = Brooklands. Cajetan (cardinal) : from Cajeta, 
now Gaeta. Cataline (conspirator) : Catillon, on Tiber. 
Janeway ('s tokens) : man of Genoa. Lubbock (Sir John) : of 
Lubeck. Liguori (St.) : of Liguria. Braby, Brabner, Bra- 
bender : men of Brabant. Napoleon : of Naples. Salmasius 
(op. of Milton), Seymour : of Semur, for St. Maure in French 
Flanders. Some have Semur (sine muros) : without walls, and 
get Seymour from sew, whence seamer, seamstress, semmit. 
Semmet, a trade name. One may be from the place and an- 
other from trade, only pedigree can decide. Somers: man of St, 
Omers. " There is not a town in Normandy which has not 
given name to some English family." 

Persons were named after their residences by non-residents. 
Lumner: Londoner, used a century since by Yorkshire 
dalesmen to indicate one of their number who had visited 
the metropolis. What would it signify in Whitechapel ! 
Lumner = LuNDiE (traitor), written in old charters de Lundie ; 
a Londonderry name, though its ill odour there has expelled 
it therefrom. Bordelay from Bordeaux. Marsigli (writer 
on Hydrostatics) : from Marseilles. Marseillaise (hymn) : 
sung by deputies from Marseilles. Bridges (algebra) : 
Bruges, con. our Brigton and Briggs. Jervis (admiral) : 
Gervaise in France, gives Jarvey : a coachman. Some families 
insist in deriving from Gar : a spear, and Fuss : impetuosity, 
but Gervaise may be that and give name to place. Toletus 
(Spanish ecclesiastic) from Toledo. Balbi (Spanish-Jewish) i 
man of Babylon, son of the captivity = Zerubbabel : seed of 
Babylon, hence Balboa (navigator). Wurmser (general) : of 
Worms = De Worms (Greenwich). Parrhasius (alchemist), 
Parris : of Paris. But Paris (Ida) : under the protection of 
Isis (goddess). Celsus (sceptic) : high, lofty, may be local or 
social, Paracelsus (alcohol) : very high, Danvers is De An- 
vers : of Antwerp, and Antwerp : at wharf. Lucchesi (sculp- 
tor) : Lucca. Pisano : Pisa. Gournay, Normandy, gives 
GuRNEY, meaning sometimes Spear new. Brimer (Toronto) : 
braes of Mar, a disguised M'Gregor. Coriolanus : man of 
Corioli. 

" Therefore be it known, 
As to us, to all the world, that Caius Marius 
Wears this war's garland : in token of which 
My noble steed, known to the camp, I give him, 



LOCAL NAMES. 141 



With all his train belonging : and fi'om this time, 
For what he did before Corioli, call him, 
With all the applause and clamour of the host, 
Caius Marius Coriolanus." 

Ilium, Troy's citadel, gives the great name lULUS (puer), 
whence Julius. " Julius, a magno demissum nomen Iwlo." 
Therefrom we have Castra Julia : camp of Julius, gives 
Trogilium, better known as Truxillo. Julian (apostate) : son 
of Julius = C(ESARI0N. Juliodumun : fort of Julius, gives 
Loudon (Poitou), suggesting Chilham (Kent) : home of Julius, 
nearly = Frejur for Frejus, for Frejules, for Forum Julii : 
market town of Julius. Hence also Julien (operatic king), 
Jules (Favre), the month July, island Jersey, Gilly : flower 
blooming in July, suggesting Genitans : June eating's (apples), 
Julia ending with Jill (Jack and). From Csesar we have 
Xeres, in Spain, whence Sherry, Troilus (and Cressida) : a 
thorough Trojan, compounded of Troy and Ilium, city and 
citadel, so a Trojan of the Trojans. Caiapha, at the foot of 
Carmel, taken by the Crusaders A.D, 1215, gave Caiaphas 
(Joseph). " High Priest for that year." Migdol : a watch 
tower, gives Magdala in the Decapolis, and the acropolis of 
Theodore of Abyssinia, whence Magdalen (Mary). Kir : a 
wall, Kirioth : walls, fortified, Iscariot : man of Kirioth, only 
apostle not a Galilean. Magdalen gives Maudlin (college). 
Maudlin : wersh and whining cant, Magdalena (river), 
Maudsley : field dedicated to Mary Magdalen, but Maud 
(queen) from Matilda : maid of Hilda. Jebus : place trodden 
down = Maachah = the Scotch Peden, the English Bottom 
(beat), the Italian Imola and Campobasso. Jebus and Salem : 
peace, give Jerusalem. " The man would not tarry that night, 
but he rose up and departed, and came over against Jebus, 
which is Jerusalem." Sometimes tortured into Hierosolyma : 
holy peace, at expense of history and languages. Maule : 
Thor's hammer man, applied to priest who broke the spine of 
a human victim with a hammer on a blood stone (altar), 
shortens to Male, giving Melville : town of' Male, and that 
may mean dwelling of Thor's priest. In some cases Male : a 
painter. 

The Savona river gives the martyric name Savonarola. Sav- 
ona con. Savanna : a meadow, the river bank being luxuriant 
= the illustrious Scotch preacher's name Irving : a stream hav- 
ing verdant banks. Cairney, Kearney (Kate, the pride of 
Killarney) : a river running by a notable cairn. Cairngorm : 
blue mountain, cairn shaped. " The blue mountains glow in 
the sun's golden light." From Cairn the French Carnac : 
place of cairns, but the Hibernian Carnegie is warlike, mean- 
ing victorious. Yet Pitcairn (Gaelic) : cairn near a quarry 



142 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

= Pitt = Manby (captain) : dwelling near a mine. Cameron 
vibrates between local and personal. If the former: curved 
projection on a river, if latter: crooked nose. Cam : crooked 
(river), whence Cambridge, and Camel, another crooked 
stream. Cam also gives Akimbo (arms). Camera: a 
chamber, curved roof, whence Camerarius = Chamberlain 
Crom : curved, gives Cromby : crooked stream = Kishon : bow 
shaped. Abercromby (Sir Ralph) : mouth of the Crombie. 
Crom, Crum (Ewing), Cramb : stones placed in a curvilinear 
form for the worship of Baal, Crom, or Ti-mor : great god. 
Of this origin Crumlish, Crumly : Crom's field. Crum = 
Dura, plains of. Douglas : dark gray (stream), con. Glass 
applicable to a grey-eyed man or to a stream. Kinglass : 
head of river = Penclutha, Penfound(t), and Pengelly. 
Glashan (Mc) = Becket, Brooks. Kinglass, con. Kinroy: 
red head. Water and the eye are connected physically, 
ideally, and as to language. En : a well, also means an 
eye. " Tamar put her widow's garments from her, and cov- 
ered her with a veil, and wrapped herself, and set in 
eynim :" the place of eyen, where men cast amorous 
glances, sheep's eyes. Our letter O is con. Eau : water. 
The eye is Ain (Heb.), Ops (Gr.), Oculus (La.), Occhio (It.), 
Ojo (Sp.), Oeil (Fr.), Oin (Celtic, identical with Hebrew). 
Hence Og : to look. Ogle : to look boldly, which adding go 
gives Goggles : eyes on the go, rolling. Goggle is an actual 
family name. Compare Oeil and Well. Now Eye, Eau, and 
are philologically one, and Well differs therefrom but little, 
Gve hundreds of years since it was spelled Oeil. As we get 
G from the camels head and neck, hieroglyphically, Camel, 
Gimel, so we may have O from the well. Notice : No punster 
is allowed after reading the afore written to say ! He may 
say aye ! But Ocella : a man with little eyes, — 

" Loe yonder doth Erie Douglas come, 
His men in armour bright, 
Full twenty hundred Scottish speres 

All marching in our sight : 
All men of pleasant Tivydale 
Fast by the river Tweede. 
' Then cease your sports,' Erie Percy said, 
'And take your bows with spede.' " 

DuFFUS: dark stream = Blagkwater and Donovan, when 
the don is not a form of Dun. Dufferin (lord) : dark third, 
a portioner of bog land. Glass may mean grey, water, a 
stream. Glass : man living near it, ice, glass or grey-eyed, 
whence Glasspole (pool). Ruthven: red river {co7i. Den- 
ovan) = Rubicon, Rio Colorado. "Lord Ruthven, pale and 
haggard from recent illness, and like a corpse in armour. 



LOCAL NAMES. 143 



followed Darnley." Riou, Ribas = Rivers. Rialto : deep 
river. Fontarive : rapid flowing spring = Fontarabia. 

" Brave hearts ! to Britain's pride 
Once so faithful and so true, 
On the deck of fame that died 
With the gallant good Riou.'* 

Carruthers : red castle, or fort = Rafflin. Cathcart : strait 
of the Cart, where it runs between narrow banks = Detroit. 
Kyle : living at straits, con. Calais: town on the kyles of Dover. 
Dalziel, beautiful meadow = Beaupre, Beauly. Dalrymple 
(Kate) : meadow by the winding pool. De Winton : of 
Winchester. 

Percy (earl) : from the Perche valley, it assumes the forms 
Pearse, Pierce. But the story of his being named from 
pushing a spear into a man's eye is all — but that's vulgar. 
He, or his ancestors, was called Percy before Alnwick Castle 
was founded. Chisholm : river island formed of gravel, 
living on. Roderic de Triana (first Spaniard that descried 
America) : Roderic of Trajan's town. Florence gives Fian- 
zuoLA (painter) : a Florentine. Dacre, thought to mean St. 
Jean d'Acre: St. John of Accho, is a Cumberland name, Deacre 
= Ager, Ages, Cluny, i.e., of the field, like Delafield. 
Hague : hedge. The Dutch Hague was the hunting ground 
of the Flemish nobles. It is con. Haag (Carl), De la Hay: 
of the hedge, boulevards. Haynau (Austrian hyasna) : new 
hedge = Quigley : a field surrounded by a quick. Hay is 
identical with High, and so is applicable to person or place, 
as is Barr and Celsus. Hence Hoy : island, high above the 
sea.= Ogygia, an old name of Ireland, from which also Ormond : 
east Munster, Desmond : west Munster. Deal : to divide, 
gives Dale : a division of the land ; in German, Thal. Thus 
Dalby, Dolby = Dalton. (chemist), Thalberg. Swanthaler 
(sculptor) : dale haunted of swans. Saverthal (songstress) : 
Savannah dale, meadow valley, con. Savonarola. Dalry : 
dale of the Rye — 

" Comin' through the Rye." 

Rye : a run of water. Hence Rye (Miss). Lilienthal : lily 
dale, con. Lilac: lily oak. Schonthal : beautiful valley = 
Vauban (bon) = Gehazi, Hopgood = Jolivau : pretty valley. 
Odell : dale of the Ouse. Sudden : south valley. Duval 
(Claude): of the valley = Delaval. Dalkeith (Buccleuch) : 
narrow dale. But Keith: one of Catti, con. Caithness. Catti: 
warlike, con. Cadogan. Glendinning : sheltered glen. Dol- 
liner : a dalesman. Norval usually given as northern vale = 
NoRDEN, but Norman's vale — 

My name is Norval ; on the Grampian hills," etc. 



144 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Grundy Grund : living on low ground = Maachah, Loo, 
Thurlow : Thor's valley. Shufflepottom : shaw field dale, 
a wood in a field in a bottom. Ramsbottom : a dale in 
which a kind of onion flourished that was called rhom, 
whence the name Ram. Winterbottom, Winterbotham : 
winding dale = Valletort, Shoebottom : small wood in a 
valley. Twisden : double dale, tiua, twice, ttvis. Winterborn: 
winding burn = CARR0N and Winterbach. Bottom differs 
little from Foote and Orispus : living at foot of hills = 
LowTHER and Moffat. Foothead: head of the valley = 
Percy, Percival. Bowden (booth den) : dwelling in a valley, 
con. Booth (general, S.A.), Beth, Bed, Abode, Abad, Bowers 
and Bothwell : abode of Gaels, strangers = Ballingall. 
Gallows : the Gaul's or strangers' haugh. Hadden : haugh 
den = Bowden, Swinehoe : haugh frequented by swine = 
SwiNFEN : hog bog. Marsden : marshy valley = Bugden 
("Mrs. Bugden's will"): boggy dale = Softley : where the 
ground sucks in = BuGG, NoA, Nassau. Tilden : lime tree dale, 
Tillinghast : lime tree wood. Eaden, Eden, Denny (eau) : 
valley through which a stream flows = Rodney, Isdale, Com- 
misky. But the Bible Eden : pleasure, gives Adonis and 
Aden on Red Sea. The foregoing contrast with Dryden. 
Howden : haugh den. Ho : a haugh. Sugden = Swindell : 
valleys frequented by swine. Denman (lord) : a dalesman = 
Thal, Deane. But Adean: at the dale. Camden (anti- 
quary) : where a camp has been. Lagden : low lying valley 
= Logan, Lagan. Walden : forest in a valley. Den, Din 
gives Dingle : little den, — 

" In dingles deep and mountains hoar, 
Oft with the bearded spear, 
They combatted the tuskj^ boar 
And slew the angry bear." 

Such a huntsman a thousand years ago was called Chaceporc, 
Mahon, Maughan, or Mahoney. Selden (antiquary) : spacious 
valley = Strathmore. Cobden (corn) = Percival : head of the 
valley. Vanner : a valesman = Vaux, Thal, Denman. Bro- 
die (sometimes) : house in a plain, a lowlander = Platt, Peden 
(at others) : an embroiderer, a subtle weaver : if Milesian, 
spelled Brody : opulent = Jesse (of Bethlehem), A man might 
be forgiven for supposing Blane to be local con. Dumblane 
("Jessie the flower of") and = Clarendon : blank of trees, but 
it is contracted from Bel Agneau (Franco-Culdee) : beautiful 
lamb (Jesus), con. Lamb who carried lamb standard, whence 
Lammie. In some cases these are nurse names of endearment. 
Bellarmine (theologian) : of the order of knights of the ermine, 
compounded with Bell ; beautiful. Lundt, Landt, Lund, Lan- 
DOR (Savage), Lowndes are forms of lands. Thwaites, 



LOCAL NAMES. 145 



SwAiTE and Brooklyn : broken land = Newland : newly culti- 
vated, the op. of AuDLEY. Our Den : a valley is formed on 
Stan : a country, as Belochistan : poor country, barren. Peris- 
tan : fairyland, peris. Palestine : country of shepherds, Philis- 
tines. Syria is Suristan : country of Soor, Tyre, and Tyre : a 
rock, Zur as Zurshaddai : whose rock is the Almighty. Tan- 
Sein (Stan Since) : a Chinaman. " That which grows over the 
musician Tan-Sein." Tanagra (daughter of Eolus), for Stan 
Graii : Greek land, Helenistic lady. Thana-Lartia (Venus): 
lady owning the country. Lartia fern, of Lars : a landlord, 
whence Byron's hero Lara, and " Lares et lemures." Tingi- 
tania : country about Tangiers. Lusitania (Portugal) : land of 
luz. Luz : the hazel. Suggests Calton : hazelnut town, Dun- 
keld : hill of hazel bushes = Luz where Jacob dreamed. Thane : 
stan (land) holder, con. Thanet. Firdusi (Persian poet) : para- 
dise. " Firdusi, although his own name was taken from j^ara- 
dise, usually employs for it only the word behhischt" Paradise: 
w^atered garden, co7i. Pre, Pratt, Pritty, Prairie, Dupre. 

Let us take to water again. Torraxce (when neither from 
Tor: hill, nor Turra : a tower) a torrent, a land flood, con. Terra : 
earth, land, country = Borromeo (St. Charles): living at the 
bore = Currant. Storar : great waters = Piso7i, coii. Story : 
great. Storm : great rhime. Storthing : great gathering of 
thinkers, for think and thing is the same thing. Tyndale 
{translator), Tyndall (scientist): dale of the Tyne. Tweddle : 
Tweed dale. Waddell, Waddle: Wear dale (Yorks). Wear, 
Weir, Ware: a waterfall, that ivards, guards the river from 
floods, nearly like Lade, Laidlaw. Sometimes Ware, and its 
variations from De Vere, when a war name : defender, warrior 
who protects = Muntz. But Waddle: to walk from side to 
side, is from Wade : to pass through water, and that from 
Weed : long grass, passing through. Drouin de Lhuys 
(diplomatist Fr.) : Drouin of the sluice. Similar to Sluse 
and Gush. Drouin : true win, fair conqueror. So Deles- 
CLUSE (exclusa) : of the sluice, that which excludes, shuts out 
water. Surtees : upon the Tees. Aufidus, a river of south 
Italy, gives Aufidius. 

" See liim pluck Aufidius down by the hair: 
As children from a bear, the Voices shunning him." 

Sul : the south, from Sol : the sun, as Puerta del Sul = South- 
gate, gives Sole, Solano (Lopez) : a southron = Southey 
(laureate). South = Surr, Sothern (Dundreary), Temanite 
(from Teman, Yemen : the south, con. Benjamin). Deccan : 
south (India). Soldene : southern lady. Plimsol (M.P.) : 
south of Plym. The wind Solano, not from Sol : the sun. 
Winds are named by the people from their observed direction, 



146 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

and not by philosophers observmg their origin. Solano corre- 
sponds to Libecchio : Libyan wind = Africus, and means the 
south wind. Sul also gives Soul, Soule = Deas, all southrons 
= SuTHER (bishop). Sutherland : south of Norway. Newsky 
(Russian) : town on the Neva. Sudanowsky : south of the 
Danube. 

" A multitude like wbich the populous north 

Pour'd never from her frozen loins, to pass 

The Ehene or Danaiv." 

Tober, Tiber (in the Celtic) : a spring, well, or stream 
flowing therefrom. Thus Tobermory : well of B. V. Mary = 
Motherwell. Tiber : a stream, a river, which was also called 
Albula = Elbe, from its whiteness, and Rii ma, because of cattle 
ruminatiiig on its banks, in which Ruma = Buchan, the Scotch 
corresponding well with Italy, Vitulii, suggestive of cattle, 
and much the same as Beotia, Boii. Tiber personified gives 
Tiberius (uios) : son of the god Tiber, whence Tiberias : city 
named in honour of the emperor which gave name to lake. 
From RuMA the twins Remus and Romulus, the latter being 
the dim. he probably was the smaller baby. We may trans- 
late their names sons of Riiraa. The imperial word Rome : 
city on the Ruma (as certainly as Cambridge from the Cam) 
gives Roumania, Roumelia, Morea (for Romea), Erzeroum : 
land of the Roman, Romaic (modern Greek), Rommany 
(Gypsy language), Romance (language of southern France). 
RouSTAN : of the Roman country. 

Burns (in some families) : small streams, rivulets. Barnet 
(battle of), Burnet (bishop), Beckett (A'Becket). Barnwell : 
a spring where the bairns (young men) met for gymnastic 
exercises. But Barnum (showman) : home near a barn, a 
field labourer. Coburn, Cockburn (some authors give 
CocKBURN, Coburn as forms of Colbrand), Brockle, 
Glashan, Donny brook (fair). Beck, Bach, Backie : brook, 
stream or streamlet. In America we meet with Back. 
Vanderbeckex : of the brook = the Irish Tully and Flood, 
similar to Borromeo : living where the water occasionally 
rushes in, as we speak of the Bore of the Ganges. Bicker- 
steth (Tatler) : station at a brook. Hepburn : hedge burn, 
similar to Brocklehurst : brook passing through a wood. 
Bachman = Brooks = Beck, last combining to form Clutter- 
buck : clear brook, the op. of Stour : stirred up, muddy, Stur- 
TON : (town on) the Stour. The Germans have Bach as Gries- 
bach (biblical critic), for Grossbach = Fulbrooke. Storar : 
great water. Achenbach : brook flowing by oaks = Wald- 
brook. " Herr Achenbach has produced Mendelsohn's St. 
Paul in a dramatic form at Dusseldorf." Meerbach : a brook 
running into the sea. Bolingbroke (sceptic) : small wood 



LOCAL NAMES. 147 



(bois) near a brook. Blumenbach (musical composer) : brook 
iiowinfT through blooming meads = English, FoTHERGiLL, 
GiLFATHER, GiLFEATHER : watcr running through fodder, 
cattle food, con. Blum, Bloomer (costume) : living in bloom = 
Mead, Mede, Meadows : that which is mowed. Rusubrook : 
brook among sedge, reeds, like Riddle, Riddal : reed, rush 
dale = Reidvale. Reuss (professor): rushing burn, RuYS- 
dale = Isdale, Risely: brookfield, Commisky (esk). Offen- 
bach (operatic writer): rapidly running brook = Fontarive. 
Schwarbach (swarthy) : dark water brook = Douglas. Beck- 
ford (millionaire): ford of brook = Fordham. Overton : 
ferry town. OvERiNG : son of Over. I knew a family so 
named. Over : a ferry (man), hence Hanover. 

BiRKBECK (mechanics' institute) : birch tree brook = the fatal 
Berezina : birch river. Birkett (hout) : birch grove. BiRKS, 
Birch : of an aboriginal stock = the Saxon Ashman. Risely : 
field through which water rushes = Reuss, Ruysdale. Syke : a 
run of water less than a beck, so called because it svxks in 
water from the hills, gives Sykes (Bill). Tichborne 
(claimant) : de Itchen bourn : of the Itchen brook, Hants. 
Brook : that breaks out of the earth, Brooks. Bourn, in the 
French Borne : a boundary. Labonde : at the boundary, 
brave = Lamarck (evolutionist) : at the marches, these may be 
called Marcommanni : men defending the coast line. " That 
bourn from which no traveller returns." Burnham : home on 
a stream. Burns (when local) = Mersey, Orr, Ure : bounding 
stream, con. Horos : a boundary, whence Horizon, boundary 
of vision. 

Oros : a mountain, district divider. Some give the rivers 
Orr and Eure : cold and so con. Balfour : cold dwelling. 
Orontes : a mountain stream. Orispus (American politician) : 
living at mountain foot. BoRD (pianos): living at border = 
BoRWiCK. MiCHAL : a little stream, joy giver. " The name 
of the younger was Michal." One of the Erse w^ords for 
water is Gill, giving Gully (game chicken) : a water course. 
GooL, the British for a canal or channel, Pickersgill (painter): 
pike stream. Pike : spike nosed. Cargill : camp, fort, hill 
by water = Crawford or thereby. Gill gives Gull, whence 
Cull, Golland, Yoland, Gilliland: well watered fields. 
MuNCASTER (Greek brigands, taken by) : mound caster, castle on 
a hill = Gordon : goat fortress, not to be confused with Mon- 
caster : monk's fortress, now^ Newcastle. Goulburn (bishop) : 
a combination of goal and burn: a dividing stream. Tregelles 
(commentator) : town on a stream. Pengelly (Kent's cave) : 
head of stream. Pencoit : head of wood. Penclutha : Clyde 
head, con. Pennygant : hill of winds = Schrekhorn : shrieking 
mountain. Stream in Norse words assumes the form of 



148 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Strom, as Stromness : stream island, projection into bore = 
Spithead. Maelstrom: mill stream. Stromier = Rivers, 
EiBAS, Reis, con. Race: where waters rush. Ankarstrom 
(assassin): stream in which ships anchor. Goldenstrom: 
gold flowing = Chrysorhoas. Stockenstrom (" Brave, if justly 
brave ") : a stoke (place s;.aked out) near a stream. Engstrom : 
angle of stream. Pembroke (pen) : a hill with brook at foot, 
con. Pennant: head of valley = Percival. Desaix (aqua): 
of waters = Waters, con. Aix-la-Ghapelle : waters of the 
chapel. (Mc)Lachlan, (O)Lochlin, Lachland: lake land 
dwellers, sometimes applied to the natives of Norway. Lewis 
(when local): lake land (island). Sutherland: land south 
of Norway : north way, road to pole. Stamford, Stanford : 
stony ford, stones placed to aid in fording. Stanback : a 
stony brook = Abana, from Eben: a stone. Rutherford: 
ford of the Ruther, tribe of Tweed, so called from gravel colour- 
ing =Sandford (and Merton). Stratford (le bow): street 
ford, old Roman road. Stafford : stream forded by leaping 
with a pole. 

" Pemhrolce and Stafford, you in our behalf, 
Go, levy men and make prepare for war." 

Ford = Wade, con. Invade : to go into. Finney (American 
divine): fen waters = Marsh, Marsham. Weller (Sam): a 
gulf where the water wells, boils up. Whalley (M.P.) : held 
with a spring in it. Wellhausen (critic) : a spring of water 
supplying houses = Pagan, con. Welcombe, Wallop. In 
vulgar fact these were village pumps, persons living near. 
Pege : a fountain {Pedao ex ge : leaping out of the earth), 
gives Pegasus : winged horse of the Muses whose heel by a 
kick laid open a spring. When Christianity was making way 
in the cities and great centres of population, rustics still stood 
by the old superstition which therethrough was called Paganism 
from Pagani : villagers, from Pege : a well, those who gathered 
round the village pump. Heathen : ethnoi, nations not Jews, 
gauyim, strangers. Pagan assumes the forms Payne, con. 
Paganism and Paine (Tom). Cholmondeley : cold mount 
fiekl, cor. to Chumly = Collop: cold hope = Caldicott and 
Balfour, 

By : a place, as Bye-laws : local regulations, gives Kirby 
(naturalist) : kirk village. Crossby (arithmetician) : dwelling 
near a cross. Derby (generally pronounced Darby, as in 
Darby M'Guire) : dwelling on the Derwent. Crossley, 
Grutchley : field where a cross is erected to do stations hy, 
con. Cruciger (reformer) : cross bearer, a crusader. " Luther 
was accompanied by Melancthon, Cruciger, and Jonas." 
Harlech (men of) : long stone. Leckie : stoney. Auchin- 
LECK : stony field, gives Affleck, when Affleck is Saxon : 



LOCAL NAMES. 149 



immaculate, unspotted, without a flick. Stanley (Penrhyn) : 
stone field = the great French ' La Peyroux : the stony. 
Penrhyn : head of promontory = Spithead. Steen, Stein : a 
hill, rock, stone. Arnstein : eagle hill. But Stone (some- 
times) : blood stone, sacrificial altar. Einstein : one stone 
(boundary). Alston : old -boundary. Frankenstein : rock 
fortress of the Franks. Vandersteen : of the hill = Hills. 
Folly, Foli, Fell, Foly : of the rock. Falshaav = Rockwood. 
RoKESBY : dwelling on the rocks = Duhalde : of the strong- 
hold. Vandeman (island) : of the mine, con. Manchester : 
camp quarry. Vallenstein : rocky valley = Stanhope. 
Standish (Miles) : rock surrounded by water (esk), dwelling 
on. Avallano : hazel valley. Leichtenstein : light stone. 
Weisenstein : white hill = Whitelaw. Staines : stones, 
living at boundary = Lamarck. Vanhouten : of the wood = 
BuiST, De la Bost. Vandeveer: at the ferry = Over. 
Vanduzee : dwelling by the shore = Sands when it is local. 
Eekhout = Oakwood and Boyack. 

Wink, Winks, Winkle : field corner, land gushet, living at 
corner house = Engels. Rip Van Winkle : Rip of the corner. 
Rip (from Ripa : a bank. Ripurarian (Franks) : living on 
Rhine banks. Arrive : to reach the bank by swinmiing or 
sailing). Banks : bank dweller. Bentham (Jeremy) : bent 
home, dry grass stalks. Bentley (lexicographer) : bent field, 
living in. Langham, Langton (Steven) : long straggling 
village. 

Marsham (Mrs.) : home in a marsh = Mosheim (historian and 
the op. of Drayton (Polyolbion) : without wells. Polyolbion: 
much about Britain. Drayton answers to Dryburgh : 
ill supplied with water. Mossman = Petman, Petley, Moss 
(when not formed on Moses) : residing on turf land. Moss- 
crop, MossCRiP : turf cutter, Muspratt : meadow on a moss. 
Moss trooper : galloper over the moss. Moss = Heenan, Cork 
(and sometimes) Ross, Bugg : bog brothers. Divorty : living 
in a turf thatched hut. Cespedes (Spanish General) : resident 
on uncultivated ground = the foregoing, and such as Ferney, 
Farnie, Farnworth: fortified place on fern land. Furnival: 
ferney valley. Heath, Ling, Broom, Broomhead = Muirhead 
and Hedderwick: heather dwelling. Booth, Bowtell (in 
some families) Battle: dwelling place, bothie, con. Bethlehem: 
house of bread, Dalbeth : dwelling in a dale, Bothwell = 
Ballingall, Allahabad : God's dwelling, Khorsabad : Cyrus' 
dwelling, Bedstead : place of. Correggio (painter) : king's 
house (casa), con. Canova (sculptor) = Newhaus. Lachaise 
(pere): the house = House, common in England. Malthus 
(Malthusian) : malt house. Bacchus (if local) : bake house, 
born in, or there dwelling. Duffus: pigeon cot. House forms 



150 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Hustings: little house, Hussy: house wife. House = Lach- 
AiSE, Maison. Housego : house joy. Wic for Vicus : a 
dwelling place, gives Fenwick : village in the fens = MAiiSHAM, 
Venn, Marston, con. Berwick for Aberwick : village at Tweed 
mouth. 

York (captain) Yorrick (poor) : Urewick, on the Ure, and 
Ure : bounding stream = Orr as Orwell : dividing brook. 
Orum : home on the Orr. Bevil (beau), when not from bois 
= Bristol : bright stow = Winthrop, Sheen, Nain. Wads- 
worth : among wad, where lead ore is found. Waddy 
(Samuel): wad field. Wordsworth (Excursion): among rank 
vegetation = Warton (M.P.) and Wordie, when not a boaster. 
Thorp : a village where roads intersect, whereat a cross was 
erected, con. Thwaites : a clearing, Twysden : double dale, 
and Carfax : four roads. In German, Dorf. Sibthorp 
(colonel): Sigbertsthorp. Sigbert: glorious conqueror. Cal- 
thorp: cold dwelling = the Highland Balfour and Collop. 
Apthorp : abbot's house = Tabbey : at the abbey. Newdorf 
= Newton. Zinzendorf (count): tin smith's town. Tischen- 
DORF (" Codex Sinaiticus ") : carpenter's village. Faircloth : 
beautiful clough, pine glen = Hopgood. Clough forms Clow, 
The Dutch form is Kloof, as Bloomenkloof : flowery glen, 
con. Blumenstein. Milton, Middleton = Mitdorf, Midden : 
a dungstead, means middle of property wherein was deposited 
what was useless in the house=Trivial (tres via): three cross 
roads where scraps were flung. 

Hamilton (haugh mill town) : a town having a mill in a 
haugh. Haugh gives Ho, Hawes = Denman. Soho : shaw 
haugh. Hawley : field in a haugh. We meet with Haugh 
for Hague, Haag. Hedges = La Haye, but Hayman : a hedger 
and ditcher. The Hibernian Cinnamon : old turf dwelling on 
a moor = Divorty. Muirhead = Panmure and Bromhead, 
con. Pencoit : woodhead. Lambshead for lands-head. Head- 
land, cor. Headlam : head of land, ploughed, applied to a 
squatter who pitched his hut at the hedgerow at field top. 
Moffat (Bosjesmans) : moor foot. Morpeth : path across the 
moors. Morley: moor field = Hatherly, Hedderwick = 
Landells, when not from Lann: a church, temple, enclosure 
= Lanyon: little enclosure = Closet, co7i. Landes, on French 
coast. Amor : at the moor. Mulholland : mill of the little 
wood. Lloyd : grey or extended sea, living near = Morgan, 
Vanduzee, and Von Eeaumer, and Bythesea: a shore 
foundling. Bat Shore (Jane), con. sewer, seneschal: high 
servant. Saumarez : salt marsh. Shiels (Lalor) : huts 
where persons are shielded. Greenshields : huts among 
trees = Shelton, Sheldon, Hutton (algebraist): living in a 
village of huts = Coats and Van Buben. Hammond, Emmons : 



LOCAL NAMES. 151 



home on a hill, artificial. Chisuolm : gravel island, in a river. 
On a sea island, Skerrat, con. Scar, Skerries, Skerryvore 
(more) : great rock, Hebrides. Score, Scokesp.y : rock 
dweller. Barry (sometimes) : bare island, but usually a hill, 
C071. Bar : a son, Chaldee, exalted. Sometimes Barry : bare, 
barren hill = Risk, con. Rise = Brae. Barry (eau) : head of 
stream = Pengelly, co7i. Pool : a stream. Castlebar : castle 
on the hill = HARDCASTLE (aird). Barry (Welsh): son of 
Harry = Parry, Harrigan. Barry gives Barrow : funeral 
mound. Enters France as Bar-le-Duc : the Duke's citadel. 
DuBARRY, Dewberry : of the castle. Barrie : castle dweller 
= Terence. Styles: at a style, Penn : a hill, gives 
Pennant : living at hill foot, or head of the valley = the odd 
FooTHEAD. (Mc)Bean (Sawney) : dweller on a ben = Slevin, 
Alpin (clan), con. Albyn, Albion, Alps. It is Americanised 
out of sorts into Halpin, 

QuiNCY (when local): quince tree plot = Plumstead and 
Plum for plum grower. I know persons thus named. Car- 
stairs : lands attached to a caer, car, castle, con. De Chair 
(middy): of the castle = Akaster. Acquaviva (general of 
Jesuits: running water = Currant, Prideaux, Waters. An- 
STRUTHER : stream passing through a strath. Latter part gives 
Struthers = Dale, con. Strabane : white strath. Summer- 
LEE : field sown with spring wheat. Trelawny (Cornish) : 
vale grove town, Trevannion : house in a hollow = Ho yle = 
Cayour C071. Cavan, germane with Cavus : hollow, and the 
old verb Caw : to which, arch, curve, giving Corb : a chariot, 
Corve : a cawed up basket, (M')Caw: war charioteer, Cormac: 
son of a chariot = Antiochus : swift as a chariot = Podargus : 
swift footed = Light, Lightfoot, Lightbody : a swift messen- 
ger. CuRRAN : a reaping hook, a scimitar, a scythe. Cavanagh 
(Bernard) : round hills. Cave, Volta : vault dweller = 
Wemyss, Hume, Home : troglodytes all. So France supplies 
Cavaignac : dweller in a hollow, " depression de terrain" = 
Maachah and Campobasso. Isbister : dwelling among ice. 
Ootterell : feudal villein, holding land by paying a fee = 
Van Meter, Tennant. Haviland : land on which oats are 
sown. Haversack : bag for oats, forage. Knapsack : carried 
by Knapp : the knave, servant. Castra : a camp, square forti- 
fications, gives Chester in Saxon counties, Cester in Danish, 
Caer in Welsh, and Cahir in Irish, abbreviating to Carr, Kerr 
in Scotland, con. Kir (" Made bare the shield") of Palestine. 
Kerridge : camp hill = Muncaster. Pinkerton: town on a 
fortified hill. Locus : a place, bye, and Plana : flat, give Llano: 
a flat place, strath, whence Landes, Lannes (marshal), com- 
bining with Oros : a mountain we have Orellana (eponyme 
of the greatest river known) : possessing a mountain side reach 



152 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

ing to the edge of the sea = BRiMLEY, Eveleth, Costley, 
SoRBY : shore dwellers = Vanduzee. From Llano and Magnus, 
Magellan (magellanie clouds) : great plane. Phao : I shine, 
gives Pharos : a light house, shiner, whence Ferrol, Fairhead: 
headland where there is a light house, born near. Meers, 
Merrick (mere wick) : village near mere or sea = BALMERiNO, 
Seaton, Say : sea near. When Say is French : maker of 
armour padding, con. Sole : silk. Ditchen : of the Itchen 
(river) = Tichbourne (claimant). Pool, Pallas, Glasspole : 
living on land watered by pools. Barras : living at edge of 
wood, at a barrier = Edgewood. In some cases Barras = Ber- 
ryer : man at barriers taking toll = Delaporte : of the gate, 
con. LocKPORTE : who had charge of a city gate, and Dela- 
place : a freeman, having gate liberty. 

Seidlitz (powders), Siegel (mother) : a settler, squatter, 
newly arrived emigrant = Neal. Ingersoll (colonel) : palatial 
abode having a portico entry, con. Entre-sol = GRESHAM, House, 
Lachaise : the house. Some names assume almost a comic 
aspect, as Peasoop, which is nothing more than a ho2)e in which 
peas are cultivated. So Essip (ais, e.sk), which becomes Esop : 
a hope through which water runs. Peticote : little cottage. 
Pycot : a hut. Pad : living at or near a rath, to which belong 
the names Rat, Ratter, Ratto: rath, castle dwellers = Carey. 
Eatican : head of the rath = Kexealy. Raffin : white rath. 
Eyno, Rynn: spit of land running into sea = Spite. Shil- 
lingsworth : fortified huts (shiel) on a meadow. 

TJttermare: coming from beyond the sea. From Ecclesias : 
a church, we derive Eaglesham = Kirkham, Eccles, Eagles, 
Eggleston, Eggs, and Eels. Fancy Eagles, Eggs, and Eels 
meaning a church! Inches, the parent of many a joke = 
Innis, Ince : an islander. Bugbee is only bog dwelling (by). 
Yett is one living near a park gate. Fane (not from Fanum : 
a temple) = Bain : fair, giving Faneuil (hall): little Fane. 
Maxum = Maxwell : the abode of Mack: the son. Long- 
worthy, Langtry (Mrs.), Longstreet : long straggling dwell- 
ings. GooDENOUGH (haugh) = Thoroughgood (thal-er): 
fruitful valley. FoGO, Fogg = Meadows, Pratt, Grgenevelt : 
green field. 

As already seen, Normandy suppHes England with a large 
proportion of names, as Dangerfield, cor. from D'Angerfield. 
Anger: man of Anjou. Homer is from St. Omers, as is 
SoMERs. Blois gives Bliss (burnt). Baskerville (Norman 
Irish) for Bacqueville : town on a stream, co7i. Beck: a 
brook, whence Beckett, cor. to Pickett. Bews (when not 
from Hugh) is from Bayeaux. Bellew: beautiful waters, 
gives Bellows. Boyle (philosopher), Bullis (bois ville) = 
Wootton. Devine (Norman Irish) is from William Devin : 



LOCAL NAMES. 153 



of the vines = ViGNOLES. Varden (Dolly), Farthing (ver dun): 
Greenhill, Vermont, Valdeloge : strong dwelling, cor. to 
FuLLALOVE, and con. with lodger. Irons (Joseph) from Airan, 
in Normandy = our Govan : smiths' town. KiRK (when not 
Scotch) : living near an oak (quercus). Million is from Melin, 
Normandy. Moneypenny (magnepeine): living on land taking 
great pains to cultivate. Moton (M.P.) : town on a mound, 
cor. to Motion. 

Peto: man of Poitou, whence also Pointer. Portwine, 
from Poitevin. Warboys (verbois) = Greenwood. Stagno 
=:PoND, cor. to Stanhow, while Pond contorts to Pounds. 
ToLER : tower dweller = Rat, Carey. Hussey is a directory 
name from House: living in the principal house = Ace, 
Auge (aqua, eu) = Waters, as Bellew : beautiful waters, 
cor. to Bellows, and contracts to BLb;w, whence Bleuett. 
Cardwell (cardon ville) : thistleton = Chardon. Eccles : 
a church, DiGGLES. Dixie ("I wish I Avas in Dixie") is 
Normanised from Diss and = DiSBURY. Wesleyan ministers 
think the Norfolk people poor and hard. A standing con- 
ference joke when a young preacher is appointed to the 
Diss circuit is, "He is cZisappointed." Tarrant, Tarry, Tarr : 
living near a tarn, deep dark lake on a hill. Casa : a house, 
gives Caznoye, Canova: near house. Cheese = Meiklem: 
great house, one living in the house of that village = House. 
A lady named Cheese was presented to her Majesty at a 
levee, and was voted one of the creme la crerae. Rowell 
Troad well) : living on road to a sacred spring. Mirrilees : 
miry fields. The great Melancthon : black earth = Peats, its 
latter part, con. THON = our Clay, Fields. The family name 
Balnaves, from Ben Nevis : mountain snow. Radstock : 
1 idden of trees and staked for culture. This Rad con. Rath : 
a fort, a place cleared of trees, with which it was fortified. 
(Consult Tyrrwhitt. Fowne (s gloves) : living amidst grass 
land. Foenum : fodder. 

In this work there is no chapter on human names derived 
from flowers, such not being comprehended in the less poetic 
one on locality or that on trades. Had we one on flowers 
it would have been headed by Djuleep (Singh) : the rose. 
Singh : a lion. He was fair to friends, but dreadful to foes. 

Flowers have but lately, in the world's histor}^ been a 
[towerful factor in refining men, and therefore supply few 
names. 

11 



( 154 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PATRONYMS OR GENTILE NAMES. 

Propriety suggests our making an addendum to local names 
by illustrating personal designations on the wider scale of 
nations, whereby light is not only reflected upon individual 
origin, but that of a people, and, at the same time, side lights 
are thrown upon the geographical expression by which 
countries are known where such nations are located, and thus 
new interest attaches to the study of geography, and its con- 
nection with history is seen more clearly. A woman may 
marry her name away, a man may change his by law, or dis- 
guise it through caprice, but nations are not subject to such 
vicissitudes. Witness the world honoured name Britain : in 
all probability given thereto by Phenician sailors. The 
learned generally hold that when the Tyrians were trading 
for tin with Cornwall and the Cassiterides, they termed the 
country Brittistan : the stan, country, of the Britti, whence 
our Britannia. On our copper coinage we have Victoria D.G. 
Britt. Reg. F.D. Not Brit. The t is doubled to indicate the 
implied plural form of our great empire. So also we have 
Lusitania for Luzistan : hazel land, from the same brave 
seamen. (Gen. xxviii. 19.) So, too, Phenicia : land of the 
Phoenix: palm tree = Palmyra. Buckowina = Buckingham : 
beech tree country. Grenada : pomegranate land. Pome- 
granate : grained apple-grain, becomes gren. No such nation 
as the Lusi was known, and a king so named is purely 
mythical. Neither invasion by Roman, Saxon, nor Norman 
has driven the proud old name of Britain from national 
nomenclature. Nay, in the Tyrian ages Brittistan covered but 
a fringe of our south coast, now the name Britain covers a 
congeries of nations unified under one tri-colour. 

The names of persons derived from countries are termed 
Patronyms, from Patria : fatherland. The following is a 
selection of the more instructive and better known : — 

AusoNius (tutor to Gratian) : an Italian = Vitalian. 

Brett : a Breton, native of Brittany = Bris (St.) In respect 
thereto our country is called Great Britain. 

Briton : pretty, fine made = PRYD (Welsh), Area (Hebrew), 
Olympas (Greek), Bravo (Italian), Prettyman = foregoing. 
Hermosus, Formosus = IsHOD : man of glory, fine made, 
becomes IzoD and Izett, generally rendered fair. But Prittv 
(pratum), from the Normans and = Meadows. 



PATBONYMS OR GENTILE NAMES. 155 

BuRGOYNE (general), Burgtn : a Burgundian. The Bur- 
gundians were named from their weapons, as were many 
other nations. Their name is con. Bore : to pierce, an allusion 
to their lances, and Gon : war, as Gondemar : glorious warrior. 
So then, 

Burgundians : war piercers, those who break through the 
ranks of their enemy with lances = L'Ouverture (Dominican 
warrior) : the opener = Talleyrand (diplomatist) : who cuts 
through ranks. 

Barbara: of Berber descent, a stranger = Gershom, and 
L'EsTRANGE, but Strange is a French form of the Scotch 
Strang, as though Le Strang. 

Lamoriciere, Maurice, Morriss: of Moorish descent. 
From Maurice the isle Mauritius. 

Mauritania : stan of the Moors, dark people = Nigritia : 
Negro land, Soudan of the Arabs = Caramania (con. Caracal: 
dark eared wild beast) = Hindostan, Hind, Sind, Sindbad (the 
sailor) : a native of India, con. Allahabad : the abode of Allah. 
From Moor con Amaurois : darkening of eyes, and gives 
Mohair, as also the Morian's land, Murillo (painter) : little 
Moor. 

Numidia : land of nomads, graziers. Nomad : one who 
seeks Nome : pasture. 

Palestine : stan of the Philistines, .shepherds. Pales : 
wanderers = 

Gael, Gaul : forest dweller, con. Coyle : a wood, whence 
CuLYER = Savage, Congal : brave stranger, lit. dog Gaul. 
Neal, Neil, were originally Nageal, Nageil, n answering to 
new, seen better in Nagle, Nigell : new Gael, i.e., an emi- 
grant =Newcome : a stranger. Hy Nial (nine hostages) = 
O'Neil. Neil assumes the odd form of Nile. Dhu : dark, 
whence Dun : dark ; Dee, dark river, giving Donkey : dun 
coloured, DuFFUS : dark water, in combination with Gael, 
gives DuGALL, DuGALD, DowELL, DoUL : dark Gael. Galyon: 
.son of a Gael, an Englishman. Half a millennium since the 
Irish called us Gaels: strangers, thus Gallocher: half Gael, 
half Sassenach. Fingal (prince of Mo wen): fair Gael. Ogal: 
young Gael, whence Ogilvie : Ogal's by, dwelling. Hence, 
too, Gales, Gault, Galt, Gall (phrenologist) Gallie, Wale, 
Wallace (Elderslie) : a form of Gallois. Cornwallis : com- 
pounded of Kern : a foot soldier, and Gallois. Galloglasses : 
blue Gaels. " The Galloglass succeedeth the horseman, and he 
is commonly armed with a scull: shirt of mail, and a Galloglass 
axe. The Irish do make great account of them." To the 
Gaels we owe Galloway, Argyle : high places of the Gaels, 
con. Arch, high. Bothwell : their bothie, dwelling = Bal- 
lingall. Wales (Pays de Galle): Cornwall: promontory of 



156 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



the Gaels. Waloons : continental Gaels or Gauls, Caledonia 
for Galedonia, Deucaledonian sea: black sea of the Gaels,. 
from vessels being wrecked there. So the Turks call Pontus 
Euxinus, the Black Sea. Ortegal = Argyle : cape of Gaels. 
Sinigaglia, f rom the Galli Senones. Galatia, for Gallo-Grecia: 
inhabited by Gauls and Greeks. Gallant (accent on first 
syllable) : brave as a Gaul, though some have it a form of 
Gallant, which is also claimed as the source of Valentine, 
Gallant (accent on second syllable): polite as a Gaul. Golosh: 
sabot worn by the Gauls. So Cravat from the Croats, whence 
also Kratts : a native of Croatia. Gala and Galoon are also- 
Gallic, telling of display, characteristic of that nation. Wal- 
nut : foreign nut. Wallflower : foreign flower. As Coyle, 
Coile : a wood, gives Gael, so we derive therefrom Celt. 
Kelt : a wood dweller. But Kelt : an arrow head, a flint axe, 
is from Celtis (Latin) : a chisel. Coyle properly means cover. 
Forests were that to men as they yet are to beasts. Kilt : a 
cover = Quilt. Hence Celtibri : Celts on the Ebro. 

Franks : free, not subjected to the Roman yoke. Ripuarian 
Franks : dwelling on ripe : Rhine hanks. Rip (Van Winkle) 
was a ripuarian, where boats arrive. Frank gives Franconia, 
Frankfort, France = Liberia. Enfranchise: to make free, to 
put among the Frelungi. Feringees : Turkish for Europeans 
not of their faith. Francis : an Italian speaking French. 

Gascoigne (judge) : a native of Gascony, becomes Gaskin. 
From the Vascones we have Vasquez : son of a Gascon. Vasco 
(de Gama) : a Gascon, a Basque, one living near the Bay of 
Biscay. Bay, Bas-que, Vas-co, Gas-con, are essentially one: 
But our Bascome : a wooded combe, valley. Gasconade : a 
boast, suggesting Rodomont (con. Rota and Mons) : mountain 
mover, our Italian boaster's appellation, whence Rodomontade 
= Gasconade. Gascon also forms the well known Gaston. 
We abbreviate gasconade to gas. " That is all gas." 

Goth is identical with the words God, Gott, Good (fighter) 
as pugilists say, " He's a good man ; can punish heavily." Geta 
(son of Severus), Gcethe (poet) : a Goth. Hidalgo is Filius : 
son, De : of, Al : the. Go : Goth ; a Spanish nobleman. Massa- 
gcete : great Goths, or Scythians. Gothland = Catalonia for 
Gotholonia. Moeso-Goths: Goths of Mcesia. Ostrogoths: east- 
ern Goths. Visigoths : western Goths, to whom we owe the 
word and name Bigot, whence, sometimes, Pigott. They 
were unitarian and gave neither heed nor quarter to the ortho- 
dox. France owes them Cagot (canis Goth) : a dog of a Goth, 
a hypocrite. We use Goth for spoliator, ignorant, unappre- 
ciative of art. The Gothic order of architecture was an imita- 
tion of their shady forest dwelling in the Caucasus. 

Helvetius (Physician) : a Swiss, a native of the hilLs. Hel- 



PATBONYMS OB GENTILE NAMES. 157 

vetia (so called by dwellers on lower parts of Rhine) : hill coun- 
try. Helvetii, Aliobroges, Hernici, Taurini : highlanders, Swiss : 
sweaters = Labrador : country needing great iahour ; so called 
by trappers and fur dealers. 

Huns : hounds, like Cagot. So termed by the people whose 
lands they invaded because of their hound-like looks and 
•actions. They call themselves Magyars. Humboldt (cosmos): 
bold as a Hun. Hunniades (conquered Amurath) : son of a 
Hun. Hence, too, Hungary. 

Erigena : native of Erin, Irish born. Erin = Hesperia : 
western, and (M')Iniernie : man from west, and con. Hibernia, 
Juverna. 

ScoTUS (Duns) : a Scotchman = Scott (Sir Walter). Duns : 
a hillsman, gives Dunce = (by irony) Duns Scotus. 

GiRALDUs Cambrensis : Gerald the Welshman = Walsh : 
welch. 

Inglis, Englisch (chess) = Langley, Laxglois: the English- 
man. 

Jarman, Jermyn, Lallemand : a German, spearman. 

Holland: of the hollow land = Hole, Hoyle. Hollow: hole 
low, Neath : low, Netheuby : dwelling on low ground = Leith, 
Latham. Olander (Dr) : a Dutchman. 

FiAMiNGO, Fleming, Flanders : of the Flemings, so called 
from their tleeing after some prehistoric battle. 

Hatto : a Hessian, and Pruce : a Prussian. 

Denmark : boundary of the Danes. Denchfield : Dane's 
field. Denforth : living on the Dane's road. Danby : Dane's 
dwelling. Dagmar (princess) : glory of the Danes, though it 
looks = Dzohara : glorious as the daybreak. Dagbrod : power 
of the Danes. Haldane : half-bred Dane. Danskin : of 
Danish origin. Dent (Strand), Denton : Dane's town. 
CIruden (concordance) : slaughter of the Danes. Dana (Am. 
poet) : a Dane. The force of the word dane or den is not 
easily given. One view is, it is ultimately derived from 

Dagh : a hill, Daghistan : hill country, as it is supposed that 
when lirst known to civilised men they were called 

Daci, Dacians : hillsmen, uncivilised mountaineers. Under 
this name they fought their way from the Caucasus to the 
North Sea. When they settled in the Cimbrian Chersonesus, 
the land lying low, it was called 

Den : down, Denmark : low lying marches. 

POLIGNAC (cardinal) : a Pole. Poland : a plain. Cossacks : 
go&t people, climbers. 

Frisby : man of Friesland. 

Braby, Brabazon, Brabender : man of Brabant. 

Lombard : long battle-axe, con. Halbert, Halberdiers. " The 
balberts hewe on bed, the browne billes bruise the bones." 



158 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Brisbane : bone bruiser, brown bill man, Halbert : stone 
broad (axe), pre-historic. From Lombard (pawn shops) the 
word Lumber : timber, anything in the way. 

PiCTS : pike men, PiCTON : great pike man. Pictones : 
Gaulish pike men. Puy-de-dome : peak of dome-shaped hill. 
Poictiers and Picardy are also con. therewith. PiCHARD (ard) : 
piked height = Egremont, Montague. Sometimes Pichaud ; 
a beggar, from Peto : I seek, petition. Sometimes the name 
of Peto : a seeker after bread. Picard : native Picardy. 
But Picador (bull fighter) : gilded pike. Pict has been given : 
painted, stained with wood. Tatooing was resorted to (1) for 
protection from gnats, (2) adornment, (3) distinction of clans, 
and classes, as plaids afterwards, (4) to terrify in battle, (5) 
to honour the gods by their symbols, so when God, assuring 
the daughter of Zion of his love, says, "I have engraven 
thee on the palms of my hands." As nearly all ancient nations 
tatooed, so doing would not strike legionaries as distinctive in 
the Picts. Their pikes might. We had Picts or Picti insular 
and Pictones continental. So Britons on this island, and 
Bretons on the continent, arguing a community of language 
and origin — parts of the great Celtic family. 

Fife : a Pict, autocthonal to Scotland. 

Vandals : wanderers, con. Baino : to go, wend, wind, w^ent^ 
wand-er, wond-er (mental wandering). Vado : to go, invasion 
= anabasis, Wendell (Philips): Vandalic, of an old stock, all 
more or less involve to and froism, or at least motion. Anda- 
lusia for Vandalusia. 

Suevi : swayers, going to and fro(m). Sway implies a forth- 
put of power in wielding weapons, and is allied to swing, 
swim, swift: manifestations of strength. It is con. Zwingle, 
Zuinglius (latinised), Sueno, Swayne, Swain, Swing, Swisher^ 
Swift, (St.) Swithin : forthputters of strength, vSwither : to 
sway mentall3^ Swivel : a hinge. Swap : to change hands. 
From the Suevi we get Suabia, Sweden. 

Rossi (the) obtained their appellation from the Sclavonic 
word Rossica : scattering, dispersion, nearly = Sparta : scattered 
village, and Diaspora : Jews dispersed like seed among the 
Gentiles. "Will He go to the diaspora?" The Rossic 
manner of life was similar to their nomadic neighbours, the 
Tartars. Of course Russia is from the Rossi, while Prussia i.s^ 
Bo-Rossi : near the Rossi. 

Turk, Turcoman : wanderers. From Turk, Dragoman : an 
interpreter. 

Pelasgi : wanderers, con. Planaomi : to wander, whence 
Planets : wandering (stars). Pales : a shepherd, lit. a wanderer, 
gives Palestine: stan of the Pales, Philistine. Pales also gives 
Palatine (hill) : settlement of the Pales. Hence Palace : build- 



PATRONYMS OB GENTILE NAMES. 150 

ing on the Palatine. Palestrina (composer) : from island 
settled by the Pales, of the old stock = Priscus (Mc)All. 

D'Oyle, Doyle, Oil : speaking the language of Provence 
(the province), as distinguished from one speaking after the 
manner of Languedoc (lingua de oc). The former speech was 
Attic, the latter Doric. 

Wallachia : shepherd country, wanderers = Palestina, gives 
Wallach, con. Gaul, Walls : a pilgrim, Wallet : pilgrim 
carrying a scrip : scrapbag therefrom termed a wallet. 

Bulgaria from Vulgarii, tribe from the Volga. 

Servia : slave country. Fugitives from Roman slavery. 

Saracens : descendants of the matriarch Sarah, hence 
Sarcenet : made by them. Of course, in this, as in many 
cases else herein, the reader must take the article, as do 
merchants, at their own risk. 

Hagarenes : of Hagar. " The tabernacles of Edom, and the 
Ishmaelites ; of Moab, and the Hagarenes." 

Sabeans from Sheba : a captive, a caitiff. " And the Sabeans 
fell upon them." 

Allimans : all men, each a man emphatic, gives AUmayne, 
Allemand. So, too, 

Illinois (American Indians) : men, par excellence. Similarly 

Guanches (unique aborigines of the Canary Isles) : men = 
Muysa, a nation of Central America, on Humboldt's authority. 
There is a tribe of Negroes calling themselves 

Bubees : men, which our sailors render Boobies. There was 
a primitive people located near the Caspian called 

Mardii : men, whence Mardonius (brother-in-law to Xerxes). 
Not far therefrom was Hyrcania, whence the surname of the 
Maccabean hero John Hyrcanl'S, from his victories over the 
Hyrcanians, as SciPio 

Africanus : conqueror of Africa, victor at Zama. The 
great convert 

Africaner, and the more classical Terentius Afer : 
Terence, the African, are also therefrom. Europeans having 
offspring in South Africa, those so born are called Africanders. 

Andrew (Greek) : a man emphatically = Dring, Whyte 
(English). The legislators 

Menu (India), Minos, Mannus (Asir), con. Mens : mind, and 
mean men mentally. 

Man was formerly a title of honour, as was woman among 
the Hebrews. " Woman ! behold thy son." " In French law, 
haron and femme denote the sa.me a.ii vir and femina. And 
in the laws of the Salians, AUemans, and Ripuarians, baro, or 
varus et femina occur for a man and a icornan." Hence 
our name and title 

Baron : a superior man. Baron, Vir, Boar, Bear : strong. 



160 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



virile. From boar, tlio verb Farrow : to bring forth a litter of 
pigs. 

Queen : a woman of political power, Quean : of bodily, a 
virago, 

Ish : a man, Isha : a woman, Isis (goddess) : the woman, 
Eve deified. 

Marconianni : march men, similar to Ukraine Cossacks : 
border guards, as 

Margrave : border sherifi". Marquis : charge of marches, 
Marchioness, its fern. 

Bismarck : bishop's boundary. Markham : home on the 
march, Merton. 

Jutland : land of the Jutes, giants, great eaters, as all giants 
were thought to be. 

Tedesco (eon. Theod, Teuton) : Italian for an Austro- 
German. 

Austria (our brother) : eastern realm, but Australia for 
Austral (southern) Asia. 

Strauss ("Leben Jesu"): an Austrian, in some cases, or 
con. Struthio : an ostrich. 

Pamphylia : all tribes, a mixture of different clans. 

Triphylia : three tribes, viz., Epeans, Eleans, and Arcadians. 

Tribe is from Trees : three, it is Oscan, Etruscan, and 
Roman clans welded. 

Abyssinia: a mixture, so called by Arabs, who claim being 
of one blood. 

Falashas is the name its natives own. This word answers 
to Hebrews : emigrants. Hebrew, Falasha, Nigel, Nu (actual) 
convey the same idea. 

Ghez, or Itopia (for Ethiopia : burnt face) is what the 
Abyssinians call their country. 

CusH: swarthy, black-a-vised = iEs0P: a Cushite, ^-Ethiop. 
" Can the Cushite change his skin ?" 

Soor, Zur : a rock, gives Syria, Suristan : the country round 
Tyre, for Soor, Zur, Tyre, are one word. 

Ephrem Syrus : Ephraim the Syrian, Tyrian, as 

Duns Scotus: Duns the Scotchman. This Duns gives 
dunce, as folks called a fool Duns in irony. 

Sicambri: strong for victory, co7i. Sig: victory, as SiGlSMUND: 
victorious defender. 

Heruli : men of the Here : army, warriors. Zeuss and 
Grimm say 

Cherusci : swordsmen = Saxones and Cherithites : slashers. 

Teutons : numerous, con. Theod people, Germans who were; 
also called 

Tungri : men who gave tongue, uttered loud war cries when 
encfao:incr = 



PATBONMYS OB GENTILE NAMES. 161 

Zamzumiin and Zulus, who both do or did swasli-buckler 
work. 

Belgii : populous, the many, con. Vulgus : the common people. 

Dutch : from the great Asir Tuisco. Deutsch, cor. Deitch, 
does not mean Dutch, but Tuesday born, dedicated to Tuisco. 
DiTTMAiisn : ])utch boundary, Dittmar : glorious as Tuisco. 

Mexico: from worship of Mexetla, the American Mars, and 
so 

Mexican = Mammertine: son of Mayors, Mars, co2i. Mors: 
death. 

Parthians : horsemen = Achaians, con. Eaciirax : a horse- 
man. From Asp, Persian for a horse, Aspimirtas : lover of 
horses, good rider = Philip. 

Ispahan : place of horses, as Spain from Span (Phenician) : 
a rabbit, and so : overrun with rabbits as certain parts of 
Australia are. Spain gives Hispaniola : little Spain, Spaniel : 
dog of Hispaniola. The Phenicians gave names to Mauritania, 
Tingitania (Tangiers) Lusitania, Spain and Britain. 

Italy : cattle country, con. Vitulus : a calf, con. Veal. So the 

Boii : men of cattle and Beotia : land of oxen = Clontarf 
(taurus) : bull meadow = Oxley, Huxley (scientist). 

Norman : north man, native of Norway: north way, Norval: 
Norman's dale. 

Sclavi: glorious = Hellenes. Conquered by the Genoese they 
gave us the word Slave. 

Slovacten (Junius, 1809): a Sclav, speaker of their language. 

Helenes : shining ones, whom we call Greeks, which name 
they repudiate, as the natives of our western principality do 
being called 

Welsh, Walsh : stranger. Hence W^elcher, who losing 
makes himself strange. 

Cimbri, whence Cambria, con. Sicambri, is what they prefer 
being called. 

Denmark was formerly the Cimbrian Chersonesus: peninsula 
of the Cimbri. 

Chersonesus : golden island, having advantages of an island 
yet with a continental connection. 

Scythians and Scoti primarily : woodmen, forest dwellers, 
and secondarily wanderers. " The Scythians were divided 
into several nations or tribes ; they had no cities, but con- 
tinually changed their habitations." Some of them made a 
raid upon Palestine, where taking Bethshan : house of the 
sun, the Grecised neighbours called it Scythopolis. 

" How came the Gypsies into Spain ? 
Wliy look j-ou : 
They came with Hercules from Palestine, 
And hence are thieves and va.cjabonds, Sir Alcalde, 
As tlie Simoniacs from Simon Majnis." 



1G2 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Early in the fourteenth century certain unknown wanderers 
appeared in Europe. Separated from the people, upon whose 
lands they intruded, by language and habits the learned and 
ignorant were equally at a loss to know whence they were. 
An opinion arose that Egypt was the cradle of these anonymous 
refugees. This theory receiving general acceptance, they were 
called 

Gypsies (Gypsey is an actual family name) : emigrants from 
Egypt. They called themselves 

Zincali or Zingari, words identical to a philologist. It was 
observed that in stood for India, as ind does in 

Dindon (DTnd) : of India, a Turkey cock. So Indigo : 
Indian plant, as 

Indicopleustes : who had sailed to India. The z proved to 
be a formation upon d, while the terminal syllable is of similar 
force to er, as in slater, swimmer. Now call is just kaliy 
identical with coally, con. Kalos : beautiful. Kali : black 
goddess, Hindoo beauty. So then 

Zingari : coally men of India. Further investigation brought 
to light that Gypsies were fragments of Hindoo tribes driven 
from the peninsula by the chronic wars about the time of 
Genghis Khan. They are yet termed 

Zingari in Turkey and Persia, Zingani in Russia, Zinguener 
in Germany, and Zincali in Spain. The well known 

Gadsby : dwelling place near which Gypsies, gadders, 
encamp. Nations were generally named in relation to war. 
Countries, when not called from their people, usually derived 
their appellations from their products or appearance. Many 
communities were designated after the manner of our regi- 
ments, from the pet weapon used. As we have 

Fusileers from the fusil, musket ; Grenadiers from the hand 
grenade, so 

Hernicia from Hern : a sword = Sicarii : sabreurs. Thus, too, 

Quirites : spearmen = Dorians. The old Scotch Spiers : a 
quirite, a spearman. This is not philological ly con. with Qui- 
rinal : oak hill, as Viminal : osier hill. So likewise 

Samnites: dart men. We might say Dowds : a Samnite, 
Spiers : a Quirite. We have seen that the favourite weapon 
of the 

Burgundians was the lance. May not Lauxce (and his dog) : 
a Burgundian ? 

Lancelot : little Lance, or son of a Lance, or son of a sol- 
dier = 

WiCKLiFFE, but not meaning little lance, as usually given. 
Barbarian mobility is shown in the following names : — 

Numidians, Vandals, Berbers (shepherds, gave name to Bar- 
bary), Walloons, Scoti, Celti, Turcomans (or mani). Pales, Suevi, 



PATBONMYS OB GENTILE NAMES. 163 

Wends, Wallachs, Scythians, Falaslias, Hebrews, Pelasi^i; and 
to the wanderers by land we may add the sea rovers (robbers), 
Vikings and Walmer, the former signifying sons of the fiord, 
ford; the latter: wanderer of the main. We should commit 
shipwreck on the rock Similarity by saying 

Barbarian : a native of Barbary, as Bowditch does in his 
work on names when he has Dalby : doll of a boy. The 
Greeks termed those barbarians who spoke a language un- 
known to them, however humane they were. " The barbarous 
people showed us no little kindness." Foreigners seemed to 
Greeks to say bar-bar, mere babbling. Thus the Dutch called 
an African tribe 

Bosjesmans : bush men, Hottentots, for they seemed to con- 
tinually say hot and tot. After a similar type the Arabs stig- 
matised certain Africans as 

Kaffirs, Caffres : infidels, miscreants, not Mussulmen. 

Catia (in the Crimea) : city of infidels, Giaours, Feringees. 

Gueber = Parsee : a fire worshipper, non-Moslem. Gueber 
is root of Giaour. Compare 

Caffa with Istamboul (islam polls) : city of the faith. 

Kaffiristan (N. E. of Afghanistan) : country of infidels. 

Tyre corresponds to Soor : a rock = Selah. 

Petrea, Selah : rock built city. From Said : a hunting 
station. Sidon (aug.) : great Said, and also Zidon, whence 

Zidonians : dwellers round the fishing and hunting station. 
We have the Spanish historic name Sidonia (de Medina) : a 
crusading man. The Tyrians called the country round Tan- 
giers 

Tingistan, which the Romans softened into Tingitania, as the 
Latins delighted in the terminal a. 

Oberdank (Irridenta): an upper Danubian. 

Onderdonk (contractor) : man of the lower Danube. 



164 ) 



CHAPTER IX. 

GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 

vVhen as yet Celts roamed the wide plains of Europe, before 
the heroic ages of Greece had passed away, Providence cradled 
mighty nations in the Caucasian mountains that were des- 
tined to overflow into the fruitful fields of the west, and 
possess lands then held by effete or infirm aboriginal races. 
These were the Ases, ancestors of the great Anglo-Saxons, 
who, on account of traditionary prowess and wisdom, were 
deified by their warlike and politic descendants. In the 
language of the East, Koh means a hill, whence Kohistan : the 
hill country = Montana. Koh and Ases gives Caucasus: hill 
of the Ases. Not only do they give name to that mountain 
barrier, but to the fairest region of the earth, viz., Asia: land 
of the Ases. Certain of their tribes were known to the 
Hebrews, Greeks, but most to the Romans, as Scythians. Thus 
we have Sarsechem : Scythian prince, Scythopolis : Scythian 
city, previously called Bethshan : sun house = Heliopolis. One 
of the earliest Asiric leaders was SiGGA: victorious, con. Seco: I 
cut, he cut in, was a slasher — Slagg. Sigga enters into the com- 
position of many personal and national names indicative of the 
warlike propensities of its bearer, or if not from the warrior 
Sigga, yet from the same root whence his name sprung. Such 
names are Sigbert, Sigbrand, Sigismund, which consult. 
The Ases descended from the sides of the Caucasus and in- 
vaded Asia and Europe thousands of years since, as hundreds 
of years ago Highland clans made raids on the lowlands, and 
the Circassians devastated Russia from the same stronghold. 
It was the Asirs who fought ancient Persia before the 
victorious scimetar had been wrested from Elam by the 
brilliant Greek. The great name Chosroes means warrior 
of the Ases. Though they failed in their Persian invasion, 
lasting proofs of virtue were left on the field of fight. That 
the Ases were a primeval race is evident from the following 
considerations. In the Hebrew, Persian, and Arabic languages, 
az or as means strong. Thus Amoz : robust = Andrew, Azaz, 
strong, strong = Stally : strong as steel. " And Bela, the son 
of Azaz." BoAZ: in strength, never breaking down, not faint- 
ing. " Solomon set up the left pillar, and called the name 
thereof Boaz." Uzzl\h : the strength of the Lord, gracious 
strength (is given). UzzAH (Peres) : strong person. Perhaps 
his strength occasioned his death, he thinking a man could 



GEBMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 165 



hold up, if strong, the ark of God. It is seen to advantage 
in Gaza: a fort, strong place, sometimes Gaza: a goat, strong 
at butting. May there not be a deeply inlaid allusion thereto 
in these words : " But the Philistines brought him down to 
Gaza," the strong man caged in a strong place ? In the Hebrew 
this az passes into ezer, ozar: help, for strength is the sole 
source of help. Abiezer : father of help, bringer of assistance. 
"There was also a lot for the children of Abiezer." AzuR: 
a helper. "Hananiah, the son of Aziiv, the prophet," varies to 
Ezra, Esdras with unchanged meaning, but shines most in 
Ebenezer : stone of help. Now, from this az, as strong, we 
have Ases : strong ones, probably the Persian for a horse 
Asp : strong one, and the better known Amazon : woman, 
.strong, very, from Am, Om : mother, woman, az : strong, 
and on, an augmentative common to most languages, ancient 
or modern, as seen in Pison from Pi : mouth, and means river 
with a wide mouth, debouchement, and Salon : great hall. 
So that Amazon : very strong woman. The story told me at 
school, " They were called amazons from a : alpha privative, 
and maza : the breast, because these women cut off their right 
breast the better to draw the bow," was indeed drawing the 
long bow. Salverte gives Az : strong, in the Persian as 
derived from As of this people, but the converse is true, as 
Az for strength was one of the first used by men. Long after 
Greece had run through its splendid career in politics, war, 
and philosophy, the wives, sisters, and daughters of the Ases 
met their husbands, brothers, and sons in full retreat before 
the superior discipline of the iron-clad Roman legions, led by 
the dread Marius. Instead of receiving them to their home 
encampment with tears, these amazons drove them back to 
battle with slings and spears. Strabo in his seventh book on 
geography, speaks of the J.spungi living on the shores of 
Pal us Mceotis, sea of Azof. That lake was probably so called 
from the Asir race. What if Azof : sons of Ases, its shore 
dwellers ? Their country was Aspungitani : Asir land. The 
tani from stan, as Beloochistan : poor country, ill to cultivate. 
One Asiric clan was called Aspasii from Asp: a horse = 
Parthian. From it Hystaspes (Darius): possessing horses = 
ASPIRMYRTAS : rich in horses. Pharnaspes : commander of 
horses, or chief horseman ^Archippus, Marshall. Thus 
Aspasii may mean Ases on horseback, and Aspasia : an 
amazon, whence Vespasian from his mother. Some centuries 
before the dawn of the Christian era they gathered their forces 
from the Asiatic slopes of the Caucasus, and moved west as 
far as the Tanais : the Don, which seems to have been their 
Kubicon. Tanais (probably) : Tan Ases. Asir land, telling of 
its waters shutting in their country. This they passed about 



166 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

200 B.C., slowly fighting their way t.hrough the Celts until 
they reached the Elbe A.D. 90, and the Isle of Thanet a.d. 
449. While some of the Asir nations broke up the Roman 
empire, purifying the corrupted southern lands, others fulfilled 
their destiny by invading Britain and founding an empire 
combining that liberty with bravery and stern superiority 
which characterise the old Caucasian stock. They reached 
America a.d. 1490, for the crew\s of the three ships which 
ploughed the virgin waves of the western seas were the sons 
of Visigoths and Lombards of Asiric blood. One section of 
the Teutons won Sadowa in that annus mirahilis, a.d. 1866, 
another cabled the stormy Atlantic, so that between their 
nations there should be no more sea. Their last sublime act 
was to make an iron road from the Atlantic to that greater 
sea men call the Pacific, A.D. 1869. They are now about to 
mingle the waters of the two oceans by a ship canal. The 
Asir will play Colossus with a continent for his foot hold. 
When at the beginning of the Christian era the Caucasian 
braves arrived at the storm beaten shores of the Northern sea 
they did not blanch thereat, though the sight of ocean was 
ijuite new, but forthwith built war ships and became kings of 
the sea, as they had been of the land, Vikings : sons of fiords. 
The Gael, too, had ventured upon the perilous Deucaledonian 
v5ea but in a tiny coracle, and rarely beyond a distance covered 
at starting by the eye. What can more forcibly illustrate 
their reckless nature than the fact that their HofF: temple, 
was on an island in the bosom of the black north sea called 
by them Fosetisland, but by Christians since, Heligoland : holy 
land. Imagine the Israelites, into whose tremulous souls Hit- 
tites struck terrors, had they had their (the) temple placed in 
such a sea ! Here the ancestors of Blakes, Cooks, and Nelsons, 
and the long line of our sea lions, braved ocean's fury, not of 
necessity, but battle gladness and the wild excitement of 
gamblers who love risk. Their Hoff was uncovered, as they 
esteemed it unlawful to worship their Asiric ancestors under 
raen-built-roofs. Here their priest called Hoffman, Blott, 
Blood, sacrificed victims conquered in battle and rowed from 
the mainland. " The many blood-stones scattered over the 
continent and isles of Europe are blott's altars." Of their 
gods, Odin was first and oldest, governing all things : and 
though the rest of the gods were powerful, yet they served 
him as children serve their father. 

Odin : one = Hadad. Sometimes he was called 
Woden : from Wod : mad, furious, inspiring men with 
warlike fury. He was represented completely armed, and 
with a drawn sword. His worship here is manifested by sucli 
names as 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 167 

Wansborough : Woden's town, VVanstead : Woden's place. 

WoNFOR : Woden's ford. His favourite temple was called 

WiSBY : holy dwelling, often mistaken for Ouseby : dwelling 
■on the Onse. Woden was also called Gautr, whence 

Gautrey : his worshipper. Sometimes he was known as 

Grimr : strong, terrible. Grim death is strong death, re- 
minding us of one of David's heroes, Azmaveth : strong as 
<leath, con. Mors. To this name of Woden's attribute is to be 
traced 

Grimm (Jacob), Gr^me (Grim's dyke), Graham and 

Grimbald : bold as Grimr, whence Grimaldi (Joey), 

Grimstone (snuff) : altar of Grimr, besides 

Grimmond : protected by Grimr. But in the Celtic 

Graham : sullen, morose, gloomy. Another of his titles was 

Brown : fiery, impetuous, burning for the fight. He also 
had the titles Bulmer and Bruce, whence 

BuLAVER (Lytton) and Bruce (Bannockburn). Odin is also 
known as 

Julvatter : Jul's father, in whose honour the Yule log was 
burned. 

YuiLLE : born while the Yule log was burning. One of his 
sons was 

Tuisco : earth born, gigantic, ancient, heroic. Some claim 
Tuisco as identical with Theos, Deus, Dieu : divine. To hira 
w^e owe the word Tuesday : Tuisco's day. On the third day 
human victims were sacrificed in his honour. From him the 
people of Holland are called Dutch. 

Hertha, our Earth, was his daughter, and the hearthstone 
was his family altar. From her we have 

Hardwidge and Hardwicke: Hertha's dwelling, her temple. 
On each shoulder of Odin sat a raven, one being termed 

HuGiN : forethought, provident, whence 

Hogg : thoughtful, wise, as also Hugo, Huyghens (astrono- 
mer), Ugo (Bassi), Ugolini, Eugene (Aram) and Eugenie 
(Imperatrice). The other raven was 

MuNNiN : memory, afterthought, whence MuNNS when not 
a form of Edmond. The raven on Odin's shoulder was stamped 
on the Danish standard. Woden, Frey, and Thor constituted 
the Asiric triad, answering to the Hindoo Trimutri and Bibli- 
cal Trinity, tri unity. The Danes rendered to Odin the hyper- 
dulia of their service, the Norwegians gave highest honours 
to Thor, while the Swedes gave their supreme worship to 
Freya. This last was an hermaphrodite, adored as Freyer 
mas., Freya, /em. To him or her we owe our word Friday, as 
Wednesday is due to Woden. Connected with such worship is 

Freytag (Pictures of German Life, 2 vols.) : Friday born. 
The tag or dag, for day, is con. Dagger : flashing like day, used 
swiftly. 



168 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Tagg (when not a trade name : maker of metal tags previ- 
ous to use of pins) : a daggerman = Dudgeon : great dagger. 

Dagobert : bright as day, very glorious. 

Freya : loved one, formed from Freon : to love, whence 
Friend. 

Freymuth : having the spirit of Freya, amative, a lady 
killer. 

Frigga : goddess of love and marriage, the Norse Venus, 
from same root as is 

Godfrey : lover of God, Geoffrey, Jeffry, in Ireland 
Sherry. 

Freyvvood : grove where Freya received divine honours. 

Freymont, Freemont (president) : protected by Freya. 
Some claim these as meaning hill frequented by fairies. The 
fays, in this case, were made out of the sound of the name of 
the goddess 

Freyer : lover, according to Asir lore slew the demi-god 

Beli : bawler, whence Beales, co7i. Belcher for bawlcher. 
The sacred book of this Norse mythology was called Edda : 
old, ancient, which gives a description of the Eddaic Pantheon, 
wherein Thor sat at its centre, higher than the other deified 
Ases, having on his left hand seven stars. Thor's chariot was 
drawn by two goats, and the rattle of his chariot wheels on 
the welkin caused thunre, thunder, Thor's noise. From him 
we have the name 

Thurso (Caithness) : Thor's dwelling. He presided in the air 
generating wind, showers, or fine weather. From him Thursday, 
when his blood (priest) honoured the god with the blood of 
men. Sometimes he was represented with a hammer, instead 
of a sceptre, accompanied by a Wolf and a Bear, which were 
deified through connection with him. Newly born children were 
dipped in running streams and marked on the forehead with 
his hammer. How strange that pious Hebrews should receive 
a similar mark, our T, for Torah : the law, of which the letter 
n represents the word Torah, meaning : this man keeps the 
law. " He called to the man clothed with linen, having the 
writer's inkhorn by his side : and Jehovah said unto him, Go 
through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a n (tau) T upon the 
foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the 
abominations that be done in the midst thereof." How 
supremely strange that every year millions of children are 
signed with the sign of the cross that they may be gospel 
observers. Thor's hammer was called 

MiOLNER : the miller, crusher, whence MiLNER. 

Maccabeus (Judas), Mace (Jem), Maule (Justice), con. 
mallet, Martel (Charles), Schlegel, all mean hammer wielder. 
flavoured by Thorine vim rather than as the peaceful smith. 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 169 

In all likelihood the name of this god means strong, and is the 
root of Taurus : a bull, whence 

ToRO : bull tamer. As to the god himself we may say 

Thor : Asir bull. From his name we have 

ToRAGA : celestial cow, adored by Hindoos, it is a fern, of 
Thor. " Le toit du temple du Toraga est orne de quatre 
taureaux dor(^s." Compare these four gilded bulls on the roof 
of her temple with the winged bulls in the portico of the 
Assyrian temple at Khorsabad. Compare Toxa^-ga from Thor 
with Yir-go from Vir. These names are mementoes of pre- 
historic times. Many personal appellations are allied to bull 
worship, as 

Knatchbull : son of the bull, forms Kxobel, con. Knight, 
con. Gnatus : born = 

Apion (opposed Josephus) : son of Apis, the Egyptian bull- 
god. Thor was our bull-god and Brahm that of Hindoos. 

Serapis : Apis hidden, the constellation Taurus, Thor : the 
bull-god, below the horizon of the Nile. 

Serapion : son of Serapis, of divine genealogy. 

Apis, Thor, Brahm, the human-headed bull of Assyria, 
and the Sinaitic calf are various embodiments of one idea. 
Divine strength manifested through creaturehood. Thor and 
Theos differ in this, the former became the symbol of brute 
strength, the latter was essentially connected with holiness in 
Himself, justice towards His creatures. There are few 
languages of the old world not supplying their quota of taurine 
personal names. Howbeit, personal names are more deceptive 
than ordinary words, and so the name-hunter sometimes fancies 
he has bagged a genuine bull of Thor descent, whereas it may 
be only local. Such is the modern Roman 

Basvecchi (Pietro), teasingly like Vacca : a cow, yet means 
living near old foundations of Roman wall, con. Civita 
Vecchia : old city, and also con. 

Basetti : a dwarf, near the base, earth. The names 

Coe (captain) : a cow, Cowie, Bullen, Boleyn (not from 
Boulogne), are mysteriously con. with this ancient symbolic 
worship — serving the sign instead of the Thing signified. 

Thorold : protected of Thor's power, becomes Thurtell, 
Tyrell (Sir Walter), and has for its first form Thorwald, 
whence 

Thorwaldsen (sculptor) : son of Thorwald. 

Thurkettle, Kettle : having charge of Thor's kettle used 
in divination for incanting by weird women as in Macbeth. 

Toner : of Thor, born on Thursday, or during thunder. 

Thorburn, Thoburn : Thor's bear, con. Bernstein : hill 
frequented by bears. 

Thurlow : Thor's sport, good at throwing Thor's hammer. 
12 



170 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Thorgar : Thor's spear, a good shot. Torsleff : loved of 
Thor, brave fighter. 

Thurstan : the stone vt^hereon human victims were slain on 
Thursday, a priest, takes forms, Tunstan, Dunstan (St.), 

DUXSTONE. 

ToRQUiL : Thor's pledge to fight, con. guild. 
Trufitt (fid. wid.) : Thor's wood, priest presiding over his 
grove = Groves when not local. 

AsTOR (library): Asir Thor, the divine Thor. Thursday 
born. In the symbolism of the Valhalla, Thorine, strength and 
fire (active principle), were intimated by placing a fiint on a 
pedestal. In later ages, " The Flindt god was formed lyke the 
image of death (grim) ; and naked save only a sheet about 
him. In his right hand he held a torch, or as they termed it, 
a fyre blase. On his head a lion rested his two fore feet, 
standing with one of his hinder feet upon his left shoulder, 
and with the other in his hand, which to supporte, he lifted 
up as high as his shoulder." 

Flindt, Flint : priests of that god. The Asir of judgment 
was Forceti, whence 

Fawcett, no connection with hawks. There was also a 
Frissian goddess, Foseta, from whom is derived 

FoziER : priest of Foseta. She it was who gave the primi- 
tive name of Heligoland : holy island, viz., Fosetisland : sacred 
to Foseta. Anotlier member of the Caucasian Olympus was 
Baldur, the Apollo of the Asirs. 

Baldur : white, beautiful = Flinn, Bain, Blake. 
Belisarius : white prince (date oboli). 
Baldwin : loved of Baldur, wise. A delusive guess makes 
it bold victor. 

Baldred: counselling like Baldur, con. Alfred: counselling 
like an elf. 

Baldrey : ruling like Baldur, a wise monarch. Usually 
given by canting, as hold king, or soldier girded with baldricl: 
It is sometimes hard to tell whether certain names are from 
Bald : bold, stripped for battle, or from Baldur. Weland was 
the Asiric Vulcan, whence 

Wayland: priest of Weland. Of the great Asir, called Will, 
we know little, his worship being confined to the prehistoric 
period, but we do know to him is due the world wide name, 

William : beloved of Will, con. overwhelm, and Helmet : a 
head covering. The name is often given as a form of Gild- 
helm : a Teuton, who, slaying a legionary, received, medal 
fashion, a gilded helmet. That guess came of the Romans 
having no ^v, so that, when the name is Latinised, it stood 
Guellimus, suggesting gold, but the old Germans went in for 
isen (iron). 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. I7l 

William varies to Willis, Wiles, UllixX (lord), Guillotin 
(whence Guillotine), Wilkes (democrat), Will, Willet, 
WiLLiMOT, WooLCOCK, WiLHELMiNA, whence Mtnie (rifle), 
Minnie (Gray), Mina, Willox, Willocks: little Will = the 
Irish dim. Ulric. 

Willing is a name now in use meaning son of Will, heroic, 
courageous. 

WiLLFRlTH : loved of Will, bold. 

Wilfred (patron of Ripon) : counselling like Will, advising 
to fight, and showing how. 

WiLLARD (tracts) : of Will's nature, brave. 

WiLLiMAR, WiLMER : famous as Will. From him we also 
have ViLLAR, Weller (when not local), and Villiers. Then 
there was a demi-Asir, like Hercules, known as 

Mannus : the man, by excellence. He had three sons — 
Ingo, Isco, Hermino, w^hence the Ingoevones, Iscoevones, and 
Hermiones, ancient German tribes. 

Ingo : the son, first born = Elam, gives 

Ingram : Ing's raven, Danish standard bearer. 

Ingle : priest of Ingo, being quite unconnected with Ignis : 
fire. 

Isco : the ash, son of the first man, of the old stock. 

Hermino : man of heer, her, army, warrior = Herman. 

Irman : man of battle fire = Brown : burning to be at it. 
Irman was the German's marching god, receiving special 
honours when the braves began their line of march. To him 
we owe the name Erming (Street). Nor may we forget the 
terrible Asir known as Loki. He agrees in certain attributes 
with 

Apollyon, Siva: destroyer, and Satan: adversary. To 
him was committed the caverns of Mount Caucasus, where 
those who died of age, disease, or had fainted in battle, or were 
wounded behind, were confined. With him was associated 
dread 

Hela: coverer, who cast perjurers and cowards into caverns 
where snakes ever spurted cold poison. Hence our word hell, 
and the noble name 

Elgin (marbles), for Helgyn, for Hela given. Loki teased 
gods and men. He was a combination of Mercury and " Jack 
the giant killer," which latter hero is none other than an 
embodiment of Lokian exploits made readable. From him we 
have LoxTON, Lockston : town of Loki, where was his temple. 

LocKHART : Lok or Loki's nature. The legend of Douglas 
taking Bruce's heai^t locked in a casket is as true as that 

Guthrie is gut three (fishes), or Naismith is nail smith, or 
equally wrong nae smith ava. 

LocKMAN is not lock maker, but very fierce. 



172 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Havelock : had in the care of Lok. In him the old Asiric 
fire burned in full heroic glow. Had the Hindoos worshipped 
Asirs instead of Punch and Judy gods, Victoria would not be 
Empress of India. The Asir Neptune was CEgir, who had 
charge of wind and tide, as had the sea-god of the Gaels, 
Neithe, whence 

Abernethy : mouth of Neithe's river. The Oder or Eider : 
(Egir's door, where the Asiric Neptune let the sea into the 
land. Of men receiving names from (Egir we have 

Egar, Egbert : bright as OEgir, vikings, seamen brave. 
Hence, too, Ogre : CEgir : like, Egg : to drive on as waves do 
wood to the shore. Nor were the Asirs wanting in ladies. 
Besides our old friends Freya, Frigga, Foseta, and Hela, 
true amazons, they had a Norse Bellona called Hilda, a 
sublimated Semiramis, Boadicea, or Joan of Arc. To her is 
due the well known name 

Matilda : maid of Hilda, becomes Maud when that is not 
from Magdalen. Then we have the notable 

Hildebrand (pope) : sword of Hilda, becomes Aldrovando 
and cor. to Heldenbrand and Hellbrand, Besides which we 
have the Visigothic 

Ildefonsa, Alfonso, Alonzo : rich in war instruments, 
spears, arrows, swords, Hilda's fund. 

Clothilda : celebrated as Hilda, called as much as Hilda. 

Childebert : bright^ glorious as Hilda. 

HiLDEMAR: glory of Hilda = Hercules : glory of Juno, 
Hera. Hilda was so common as to become synonymous with 
girl, as 

Brunhilda : clothed in armour, a Teutonic Boadicea, con. 

Bruno : mail clad, from this name the famous dynasty 

Brunswick : Bruno's dwelling. 

Swanhilda : swan-necked girl. To this favourite amazon 
we owe 

Hildyard : guarded by Hilda. In addition to these god- 
desses the Teutons believed in a kind of battle angels known as 

Valkiriers : fallen electors, selecters of the fallen. They 
flew about deserted battlefields, swan winged, picking out the 
heroic dead for the Valhalla : hall of the fallen, shield roofed, 
next Vingolfa : the Asir palace, their Pantheon. But the 
Valkiriers left on the battlefield any wounded in the back, or 
whose red right hand did not still grip the blood-stained spear, 
for Hela and Lokl Besides these greater gods they had less 
known as 

JoTUNS: giants, from the root eat. The Greek notion of 
giant is earth born from Ge : the earth, but the Norse idea 
was great eater, as is illustrated in the case of the giants Jack 
killed. From eat we have 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 173 

Oatts, Oattman : eaters, giants, con. Oats : that which may 
be eaten, edible. The same is seen only in a more gluttonous 
form in 

SwAGEMAN : one who assuages at meals that he may start 
again. From Jotun we have 

JoTURNUS (king of the Rutuli) : who appears in Virgil as 

TuRNUS. From Jotuns, Jute, whence Jutland : country of, 
and 

Gettings : son of a Jute, born of a giant. One of the 
grotesque Asirs was 

Hross : horse god, with three legs, whose priest was known 
as Dreyfuss : three feet, being in peril of passing for a Manx 
man. Hence in some cases 

Eoss, whence Rouse (bravo !), Rossini, Rosetti, and 

Rosamond (fair) : Hross protected, Fair rose and rose of the 
ivorld are sheer cant, guesses by sound. These Jotuns corre- 
spond to Theseus, the Cyclops, and heroes known to the 
infancy of all nations. Whether their biographies are purely 
historic, mythic, or exaggerations of traditions, founded upon 
facts, who shall, in all cases, tell ? Probably Asirs and Jotuns 
were men like Hengist and Horsa, who signalised themselves 
in imchronicled wars about the roots of the Caucasus. Their 
OEgir was an Axine (Black Sea) or Caspian pirate idealised 
into a god by the time they had fought their way to the 
Baltic. This seems the more rational, as the Germans used 
Anar in the sense of ancestor, whence 

Hansard (reports) : Anar natured = Patrobas : walking in 
his father's steps. A current M.P., 1883, is Septirtius (Han- 
sard) : seventh born. 

Anson : son of his Anar, as we say son of his father, chip 
of the old block = Patrobas, Icilius. 

Anlaf : left of his ancestors to fill their place in the battle 
array, or as Paul would say, " Baptized for the dead," to take 
the place of. 

Olaf is a form of Anlaf, whence Olave (St.), giving 

TiRAULAY : land dedicated to St. Olave. 

ToLLiDAY : born on St. Olave's day, con. Tooley (street). 

Angott (Madam de) : of divine descent, good son of his 
Anar = Osgoode. 

Some names are derivable from Ases in the gross, as 

Askew (Ann) : Asir descent, giving Huskisson (railway), 
son of Askew. Probably the Highland (M'; Aslan, Auslan, 
AusLAND : son of an Asir, one of heroic descent. 

Anselm and Anselmo : helmeted, protected by Ases. 

Aasbiorn (Danish) : divine bear, whence the more common 

OsBORN, which neither means Ouse hum, nor house horn 
(serf). 



174 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Oswald : shielded by Ases, under their protection. 

Antliff : loved of the Ases, for bravery. 

OsBEORT: glory of the Ases for her beauty. The Wolf, 
Bear, Bull, Fox, and Raven being sacred to Woden or Thor, 
their names are frequently used Vi^ith an Asiric force, but taken 
in common animal sense. As we have seen Taurus is from 
Thor, so Foxes receive their name from that Asir from Fries- 
land to Spain. The Spaniards called it Thorra, which has 
passed into Zorra. It seems to have taken name from Thor 
because of colour, he being red-headed and having a foxy 
beard, besides, as to character, being crafty. From the Wolf- 
god we have a liberal supply, of which it is not easy to allo- 
cate fairly between the ancient god and the vulgaj;- wolf. Per- 
haps we had better put gods and wolves into one pack, and 
leave some bold hand the responsibility of dividing them into 
divine and common. 

Wolfgang (Goethe) : whom the wolf god gangs with for 
protection, conversely gives 

GiNGOULPH is gang wolf (god), cor. into cockney oath " By 
Jingo " : by St. Gingoulph. 

Rudolf and Rodolf : famous wolf, much talked of warrior. 

MoNTGOLFiER (balloon) : mountain frequented by wolves. 

Canteloup (chant de loup) : a settler who, from his dwell- 
ing, can hear the wolves howl. Common both in the Old 
World and America. 

Kenwolf : made keen by the wolf-god, inspired of him. 

Ulphilas (Msesogothic bishop) : little wolf, short of stature = 

FiLLAN (St.) whence Gilfillan and M'Phelan. 

Lycidas : son of a wolf, but capable of meaning son of Luke. 

Guelph (Victoria Alexandrina) : a wolf, a howler, yeller, 

WoLFSTAN (archbishop) : greatest wolf, chief warrior. 

Love, from Lupus : a wolf, Lupson = Lopez (Spanish) : son of 

LoBOS : a wolf, whence also Lope as Lope de Vega : Lope of 
the champagne. 

Vega : a meadow, from Vigeo : I flourish, as grass does. 

Lycaon : son of Lycus, and as 

Lycus : a wolf, Lycaon may be the Greek answering to 
Lopez, for Lycus might be a man so called as our Wolfe (gen- 
eral). 

Lycaonia may be the kingdom of Lycaon, or from river 

Lycus : white = Elbe, from Albis white, but Lycus may mean 
wolf (river) as 

Zab : river where wolves drank, it is con. Zeeb : a wolf, a 
hysena, so called from the noise made. Thousands of men have 
been named Zab. Xenophon in his Anabasis mentions the Zab. 

Louvre (palace) : she wolf, killed when foundation was being 
laid. 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 175 

WoLSEY (cardinal) : wolf's island, near Winchester, where 
the Welsh paid tribute in wolves' heads, Woolsey = Ulva, as 

Shippey : sheep island, and Ramsay (Allan) : ram's island = 
Faroe : island of sheep. 

DUPANLOUP (bishop) : of the wolfs head, carried on shield. 

PiNCELOUP : wolf snarer, trapper, catcher, con. Pincers, from 
Prehendo : to take hold of. 

WooLNOTH : bold wolf, warrior. Notman (sometimes) : 
bold man. 

Louvois (statesman) : wolf's wood, forest haunted by. 

AsTOLPH : hasty wolf, raging for fight or prey, whence our 

Hastings (Warren). Lupus, Love, takes a dim., 

LovELL (lord) = Ulphilas, Phelan : little wolf. 

" He was beloved by all, and most of all by the children ; 
For he told them of the Loup-garou iu the forest, 
And the goblin, that came in the night to water the horses." 

Loup-garou is the remnant of a superstition that prevailed 
throughout Europe for three thousands of years. An old 
writer says, " Were-wolves (the English of Loup-garou) are 
certayne sorcerors, who having annoynted their bodies with 
an oynment which they make by the instinct of the Diuell, 
and putting on a certayne inchanted girdle, does not only unto 
the view of others, seeme as Wolues, in worrying and killing 
and most of humane creatures." This is what the Greeks 
meant by 

Lycanthropy : a man becoming like a wolf. Thus Perian- 
der's son, 

Lycophron : wolf-minded, and notably 

Lycambes (father of Neobule) : wolf-life, animated by a 
wolf. 

" Thy currish spirit 
Govern'd a wolf, who, hang'd for human slaughter 
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet, 
And whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallow'd dam, 
Infused itself in thee." 

Lycopheon, Lycambes of the Greeks, accurately answer to 
WoLFMUTH (Michael) of the Germans. Each of three may be 
interpreted wolf-inspired. 

These names and words are relics of belief in transmigration, 
a doctrine yet held by the major part of Adam's race. That 
many Jews held it is manifest from IVIatt. xvi. 14. " Some say 
thou art John the Baptist ; some Elijah : and others Jeremiah." 
Now, of these, two were known to be dead, John and Jere- 
miah. The same is plain from John ix. 2, " Did this man sin 
that he was born blind ?" All unconverted Jews hold it, as 
do the Chinese and Hindoos. The latter eschew beefsteaks 
lest they should be dining off a grandfather. 



170 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

LUPA: she wolf = Louve. By her help we unlock the myth 
of the twa bairns put out to be wet-nursed by Mrs. Wolf. In 
Virgil we have her equivalent in 

Flavia Lycorias : auburn-tressed Lupa. This last gives 
Lupercal, where the twins were suckled, or because there 
the Lycian Pan received adoration. 

"May we do so? 
You know it is the feast of Lupercal." 

GuNDULPH : war- wolf, whence Godolphin (lord). 

AuTOLYCUS : a wolf itself, rapacious, great robber. 

BiDDULPH: commanding wolf = Lycomedes (king), gives 
Botolfstown, contracts to Boston. 

Bardolph : bear wolf, attendant on Thor, standing by the 
man named from them in battle as they stood close to Thor, 
contracts to Balfe (composer). 

Randolph : shielded by wolf-god (Ran : a shield round), 
gives Ralph, Roff, Rawlings, Ralston : Ralph's town. 

Lycurgus (Spartan): wolf-guard = BERGER: flock protector, 
early designations for shepherds, con. Lycopolis (Egypt) : wolf 
city, exactly answers to our Whelpton (pills) and Lupinof 
(actor). 

WoLFSRUNA (St.): runes, counsels, like a wolf = Wolfrad, 
con. Runnymede : council meadow, Wolverhampton is from 
Wolfsruna. 

Maidulph (cantingly given as maid heljjer) : mead wolf = 

Lyulph (ly for lea), neither haunting mountain nor wood, 
gives Maidulphsbury, whence Malmesbury (wine). 

WoLSELEY (Garnet) : wolf's field, place frequented by 
wolves. 

WoFFENDALE: valley frequented by wolves. Wolves were 
at large in England till A.D. 1300. January was called "Wolf- 
monat, to wit, Wolfs-month, because people are M^ont always 
in that month to be more in danger to be devoured of wolves 
than in any season els of the yeare ; for that, through the 
extremity of cold and snow, the ravenous creatures could not 
find of other beastes sufficient to feed upon." In Scotland, 
where they never were numerous, though there they had 
better cover, the last was slain by Sir Ewen Cameron, far on 
in the seventeenth century. Rory Currah was Ireland's great 
wolf-slayer. The last was killed in the Wicklow mountains 
A.D. 1770. There are few Celtic personal names con. the 
wild dog, for so the Celts called the wolf. We have 

Madden : dog, fox, or wolf. 

Skene : a dagger, a clansman, so called for killing wolf 
therewith. The M^orship of the wolf-god never took amongst 
the Gaels, so that any names having to do with the wolf must 



GEBMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 177 

be disassociated from the god if met with in Scotland and of 
Highland origin. The king of France kept a Louvetier : wolf 
hound master, whence Lovet (lord). 

TuRPiN (Turi-lupin) : wolf of Turin, a heretic. Papists so 
named the followers of Claude, Bishop of Turin, as he favoured 
the doctrines of the Vaudois. Lupin : wolf plant, earth 
devourer. Wolf's bane: wolf-killer, Wolf, Vulp(es), Yelp, 
Guelph, Golpe (O. French for a fox, made obsolete by Renard : 
hard judge), are one word given to the animal for the skirl it 
makes. 

Waddilove, Wadlow (truly innocent looking) are wolves 
in sheep's clothing, being formed on Vado and Lupus — invad- 
ing wolves, warriors good at a raid across the marches. Then 

FiDLER (note, not Fiddler) is fashioned on Vis de lou : visage 
of a wolf, hairy and scowling = 

Hun : face like a hound. The German Jews revel in proper 
names taken from animals, as 

HiRSCH = our Hart, Bock, Deer, yet it is far from correct 
that all their names are taken from the animal world. 

Galpin (Cassels) = Fox. The names Lupus, Love, Lupa, 
LoBOs, Lycus, Lycorias, Guelph, Ulph, Jelf, Zeeb, and 
HiRPUS = Wolfe, Hirpus, signifying literally snatcher = 

Harpy : ravisher, whence Harpagus (general) and 

Harpalycus : harpy wolf, ravishing wolf, ravenous robber. 
These names show how wide the range of the wolf has been ; 
but we will make from wolves to gods. Teutons worshipped 
more by libations than did the Celts. Every bred English 
labourer will, when he has finished drinking his pint of beer, 
invert the pot so that its drainings and foam fall on to the 
earth. I have noticed many Irish and Scotch labourers drink- 
ing, but never saw one so do. The residuum let fall was once 
a libation to the Ases. From drinking religiously to the Asiric 
divinities we owe our drinking healths. An old Saxon would 
lift up his bowl of ale and say, " Here's to Thor's min ": to the 
minding of Thor, then he would pour out the remainder as 
though it would be licked by Thor's bear and wolf. Through 
this form of worship the Germans and English drink more 
than most people in the world. Hindoos and Mahometans 
worshipping on the dry principle are more sober. The Eddaic 
mythology taught the immortality of all men. But those who 
have wounds in the front of their bodies received in combat 
enter Valhalla, answering to the Celtic 

Flathinnis : island of the brave, where companionising with 
Ases they drink ale or metheglen from the skulls of conquered 
foes. When fou they fell into attitude and fought unto death, 
sleeping during the night to awaken next morning and pass 
through the same happy scenes. Valhalla was called Ham : 



178 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

home, and a dying warrior was said to be going home. The 
Teutonic Peter who kept the gate of Valhalla was called 

Henry (ham ric, ry) : home ruler. The antiquity of this 
name may be inferred from the number of its derivations, viz., 
Hendry, Henderson, Henrietta, Hendrick, Handricks, 
howbeit Harry, Harris, Harrison, Hal, Harriet, Hawes, 
Herries, Herrick, Halley, Halsey are not from Henry, 
but an independent word, viz., 

Harry : one who harries, plunders, man of war having a 
weakness for expropriation = Merode: marauder. Our ancestors 
also believed in a water demon who like Hross had three legs. 
Him they called 

Nick, whence Nixon : son of Nick, spiteful, giving the 
metal Nickel. When the miners first discovered it they 
naturally thought it was silver, but finding it to be far 
inferior thereto, thought old Nick had changed its nature, and 
so they termed it Nickel. This name has been generally mis- 
guessed from Nicolas. The ancient Germans worshipped 
neither Muses nor Graces. Greeks sought the good and adored 
the beautiful, becoming like the gods they adored. Teutonic 
service of the gods was often limited to bravery, whereby the 
Germans became as indomitable as the Ases. Howbeit, they 
were characterised by a love of freedom equal to that of their 
fondness for war. In the nature of things braves cannot be 
slaves. They cherished a strange fondness for home quite 
contrastive with that of the Red Indians. In their march 
from the Black Sea to the Baltic, unlike Greeks, Romans, or 
British on the line of march, they took their home with them, 
household requisites and family. Hence the Germanic stock 
care much for fireside enjoyment and home pleasure more 
than the Romance nations do. They take kindly to civilisation 
by reason of training to labour in encampments and marches 
for a thousand years. Hence they colonise with success which 
no purely Celtic race does. We must not part company with 
this grand old stock without adding that amongst their demi- 
gods was 

Bill : the moon, whence our Bill = Mohun, and 

Billings (Josh) : son of Bill = BiLS0N. Now, as every one 
knows, this name is generally given as a form of Will, but 
suum cuique. Bilsland : was land whereon was the hofif: 
temple of Bill. Asiric tradition teaches that at a destined 
period our earth will be destroyed by fire, which will be done 
by 

Surtur : the black one, sooty, who sits at the end of the 
earth holding a flaming sword. Hence 

Sutter (Califomian captain). Till the world ends Loki 
remains fettered in his Caucasian cave. A new world is to 



GERMAN MYTHOLOGICAL NAMES. 179 

emerge from the ruined old, wherein the good, i.e., the valiant, 
will be happy. Then the .A.ses sit in judgment condemning 
all cowards to dreary habitations. From the mythologies of 
Celt, Greek, German, and Roman, a third part of Biblical his- 
tory, doctrines, and prophecies may be inferred. These nations 
must have had a primitive religion in common, of which their 
mythologies are the debris. The Teutonic Valhalla was an 
exaggerated memory of hunting and fighting amidst the pri- 
meval forests which the Muscovites cut down when unearth- 
ing the Circassians a few years ago. They were a remnant 
of the old Asir stock. From that Caucasian Olympus of the 
Asirs we have our love of liberty, our fortitude, our aptitude 
for labour, and scorn of danger. Our native mountains are 
loftier by far than Ossa and Pelion as, though foreshadowing 
days when we Anglo-Saxons would by as much excel the 
Greeks. Our Bible knows Baal, Milchom, Moloch, Dagon, 
Astarte, Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, Diana, but is ignorant of Odin, 
Thor, Hilda, because the cradle of our race and their western 
route all lay far north of Palestine. Biblical silence as to the 
Asirs and their warlike sons is indirect proof that Asiric wor- 
ship, like Druidic, was not in the habitat of prophets and 
inspired penmen. Yet Paul says: "Where there is neither 
barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free." The apostle of the Gen- 
tiles had heard of our fighting ancestors. So, in the book of 
Maccabees we read : " Ptolemee taking the king aside into a 
certain gallery, as it were, to take the air, brought him to be 
of another mind, insomuch that he discharged Menelaus from 
the accusations, who, notwithstanding, was the cause of all the 
mischief ; and those . poor men, who, if they had told their 
cause — yea, before the Scythians, should have been judged in- 
nocent, them he condemned to death." Though the Germans had 
only so faint a connection with the Hebrews, their knowledge 
of facts and doctrines clearly stated in the scriptures, is truly 
wonderful. According to them the first man was 

JEsc : an ash tree, being made therefrom. 

Embla : the elm, was first woman. The sons of Hengist, 
who reigned hundreds of years in Kent, were called 

^sciNGAS : sons of the ash, of the aboriginal stock = Isce- 
vones of Germany. There is a true and deep connection be- 
teen xylomancy, telling fortunes by trees (the Greeks called it 
rhabdomancy : rod divination), and the marriage of Adam and 
Eve. A thousand years ago, when a Saxon was smitten of 
Cupid he went to 

AsHCONNER : who kenned all about the ash tree branches, 
and consulted him as to his bride and outcome of union. Her- 
rick refers to this old custom when he says : — 



180 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

" Of ash-beaps by tbe which ye see 
Husbands and wives by streaTcs to cbuse, 
Of crackling laurel, which fire-sounds, 
A plenteous harvest to your grounds." 

Choosing a wife by ash streaks, was a form of consulting Adam 
as to which of his daughters should be chosen. Who fails to 
see a connection between this and the streaks Jacob made in 
poplar, hazel, and chesnut rods ? Boys now read the low 
(root of lum), glour in the fire to see things to come, but men 
did it thousands of years since, only the boy's fire is of sea- 
coal, but our ancestors' fire was charcoal of ash or flaming 
laurels. Strange to tell, men took to the ash (Adam), but 
women to the elm (Eve, like to like) : hence we have Witch 
Elm, and the famous name 

Wycherley (William) : his cognomen being from a field in 
which such trees grew. Tree worship was not unknown to 
the Celt as 

(Mc)CoLL: the hazel, and Beith: the birch; not dwelling near, 
made of, but original. The German word Gott now applied 
solely to God was originally applied to any Asir in the sense 
of good (fighter), just as a pugilist terms that person a good 
man who can hit hard and is a glutton at punishment. It is 
now a common directory name. 

Gott gives Gottin : goddesses, as Hilda, Hela, Frigga, 
hence Gottingen (university) : abode of the Asir goddesses = 
Hildersheim : Hilda's home, suggesting Thoresby, Thurso : 
Thor's home, and giving the provincial English name 

HiLDERSHAM. 

AsHCONNER C071. Elcorn, Oldcorn (& Garnet), forms of 
aleconner : an exciseman, a afuaser. 



( 181 ) 



CHAPTER X. 

HIERONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 

This title is con. Hieronymus : called after a god, a holy- 
name, giving Jerome, Giralamo, Geronimo. These be they 
which in earlier ages were not only names but powers, mighty 
powers too, and much for evil. No man now trembles at the 
mention of Jove, Baal, Pluto, Thor, or Dis — gods supernal or 
infernal — nevertheless, records of their supposed being and 
doing are fraught with instruction, and may not be lightly 
lost sight of. So antiquaries and geologists search on and 
under the earth to win information for historians, despising 
neither coins, barely legible, nor the rude looking stone. 
Such skilful toil unveiled Herculaneum, laying bare the inner 
social life of patrician and plebian as the current of life flowed 
in the days of the elder Pliny. Such names tell the thoughts 
and intents of heathendom when as yet it was, in its appointed 
way, preparing our place on the great stage of history. The 
mind Divine encompasses past, present, and to come, blending 
all in one eternal Now. Man is likest God in intellect when 
apprehending, to the extent of his limited powers, the history 
of the past, the laws governing multiform being, whereby he 
is able, though in small measure, to forecast in economics and 
physics. Such being the case, what field of thought is despic- 
able to a thinker ? Even though, by reason of past study, his 
mind be so richly stored with literary lore that novelty of in- 
formation be impossible, still he despises not a suggestion, 
knowing it may prove the means of linking thought to thought, 
in the order of cause and consequence, whereby he may per- 
fect knowledge already realised, but lacking this finishing 
touch. Our chapter will be in much part, mythological, a 
study as needful to the divine as alchemy to the chemist. As 
light flowed by command from anterior darkness, cosmos from 
chaos, so science was based on previous error. Not the less 
has that error a beauty, a charm wholly its own. There was 
a system, a glamour of beauty, about myths and gods to 
which cultured minds ever render the tribute of admiration. 
Those ancients adored their gods, we moderns admire them. 
The spell that bound a son of Hellas gazing on Olympus may 
be gauged by the fascination, yet hovering over his literature, 
architecture, and statuary. No such beauty adorns the 
grotesque gods of the East Indies and the South Sea Islands. 
They lack the mystic grandeur, the harmonious adaptation of 



182 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

gods to men characterising the mythology of Homeric and 
Virgilian lands. What comparison can there be between the 
six armed Siva cutting off the fifth head of Brahma and 
Apollo striking the lyre in the Temple of the Muses ? The 
Greeks and their imitators the Romans divide gods into 
celestial, terrestial, and infernal. When praying to the last, 
they pointed earthwards or stamped upon the ground. Infernal 
is con. Infra : beneath, In-hera : in the earth. The di-gamma, 
/being used formatively. 

Hera: earth, gives the telluric deities, earth-born gods, 
Ares (Mars), Her-mes (Mercury), Her-a (Juno). 

Areopagus : Mars' hill, Arion (poet) : son of Ares, Aretas 
(king) : martial, war-like = Martin, Aretino (Guy) : warrior, 
Arethusa : virtuous, valiant, Aristos : best, most like Mars 
= Best (beat, beater, beatest, best : who beats all). 

Hera (Juno, earth-born goddess) gives Hercules : Juno's 
glory, Ercole (Itn. form), Herodotus (father of history) : 
Juno's gift, Heraclea : city of Hercules. In the system of 
Berosus, the sun is called Arsa : burner, whence Arses (son of 
Ochus) : son of the sun, destroyer, con. Ur. Therein the earth 
is called Aretz, whence Erzeroum : Rouman land. 

Eros : love, is from Hera : earth. " The cosmogenic Eros 
of Hesoid is appai-ently a personification of the principle of 
attraction, on which the coherence of the material world 
depends." Simonides assigned him Aphrrodite : foam spring, 
and Ares : earth, for parents ; a mythical way of saying Eros 
was child of Earth and Sea. 

Epaphras : foam sprung, may be viewed as the masculine 
of Aphrodite. " Epahras, a servant of Christ, saluteth you." 

Eros : love, con. Erasmus, Erato (presides over love songs, 
lyric poetry), 

Eratosthenes (geographer) : strength of Erato. Her-o : 
earth sprung = 

Gyges : a giant. Giant from Ge : earth, whence Gaius 
(mine host), Caius, Kay (Shuttleworth), when not from Hugh, 
Key as in Key's College. The Greek idea of giant is earth 
born, the German notion great eater. Consult Jute, Turnus, 
Jotun, Oatts. Besides Hera, Ge, Terra meaning earth, we 
have Ops and Tellus of similar meaning, whence 

Oppius (C;esar's friend): son of the earth, Oppidius = 
Tuisco : earth born, autocthon. 

Oppidium : an enclosed earth work, a city = Turra from 
Terra : earth which in its turn is = Tel-el-Kebir : strong earth 
work = Purgos, from Ge : earth. 

TuLLius, TuLLY, TuLLiAN, Tertullus (orator), Tertullian 
(father) : earth born, indigenous, very (ter) ancient. Hera is 
the root of Aro : I plough, Sero : I sow, and Erian : to plough. 



HIE RONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 183 

Demetek (Ceres) : ge meter, mother earth. Demetrius, 
DiMiTRi : worshipper of Ceres. 

Ceres: increaser, con. Creseo: I grow, whence Cress = 
Grass : that which grows. Ceremony : worship of Ceres, as 
Veneration : adoration of Venus. That Ceres is to be under- 
stood of the earth is manifest from the myth making Plutus 
(god of riches), the son of Ceres, and Pluto (god of hell), son 
of Saturn : sower, and Ops : earth. 

Plutus, Pluto, formations on Polus : much, many, meaning 
rich by crops, or metals got from the earth, Polus gives Poll : 
university degrees, Plus : more, plu in plu-perfect, full and 
poly as Polynesia : many islands. 

Plutarch (biographer): chief in riches = Polymeles (his- 
torian): many sheep, opulent (ovis) = GEMALLi: rich in camels. 
Dis for Dios : divine, other name of Pluto, is root of Dives : 
riches got by spade, plough, or pick. 

Hera also gives Germanic goddess, Hertha = Demeter. 
From Ops : earth, we have Opici : aborigines of Campania, 
Opaque : earthy, not to be seen through. Corroborating above, 
Homo: a man, from Humus: ground, whence Humilis : 
low. Humility, the opposite of Hauteur: highmindedness, 
Humidus: moist, low lying, Humanity: becoming mankind. 
Homo forms Hon in French, as 

Prudhon (communist) for Prudhomme (" Le Journal") : 
prudent man, following odd fashions, antiquated. Hon forms 
One : a person, as : " One hardly knows what to say." To 
summarise, we have gods, men, principles, and common names 
traced to a telluric source, as Ares, Hermes, Hera, Eros, 
Ceres, Ops, Demeter, Hertha, Hero, Gaius, Caius, Tulsco, 
TuLLiLTS, Tully, Opici, giant, aro, sero, erian, homo, hon, one : 
all of the earth earthy. 

Dios (Jupiter) : divine, gives Dioclea : Jupiter's glory, city 
where his temple is, like Heraclea : where temple of Hercules, 
giving Heraclitus, so former gives DioCLETiAN (emperor) : 
from Dioclea in Dalmatia. He is also called 

Zeus : living, in the superior sense of life giving, eon. Zoon : 
an animal, a living thing. 

Zephyr : life bringer. Zopyrus (maimed his nose to take 
Babylon): the fire of Zeus, lightning = Barca, Llewellyn. 

Zeus: living, gives Dios, Dis, Divus: a god, fern. Diva 
(Patti) : a prima donna, Divine: god like, Divination : reveal- 
ing mind of god as to future. DiON (Cassius) : divine, 
DiONYSius (Bacchus) : dug out of Dios, gives (St.) Dennis, 
which some contract to Sidney, but this is local, meaning 
south water. 

Diogenes (snarler) : begotten of Dios. Diotrephes (pre- 
eminence) : nourished of Dios, his protege. 



184 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Dios : divine, gives the ferns. Dione, Diana. Hence, too, 
Dioscuri : divine twins, Castor and Pollux. " A ship of 
Alexandria, whose sign (figure head) was Dioskourois." 

DiOSCORlDES (physician to Anthony) : son of divine twins, 
their worshipper. Dios also forms Jovis, and Jovispater : 
Jupiter : father Jove, and the fern, of Jove is Juno, whence 
also Jovial : merry, like Jupiter or Olympus at a banquet, 
hence, too, Jocundis, Joke : witticisms at feast of gods. Dios 
forms Dii : gods, whence dies : a day, the portions of time 
being named from gods, as Vendredi : Venus' day, Friday, as 
Thursday from Thor. Dies gives Diurnal, Journal, etc. 

Hermes and Aphrodite give Hermaphrodite : Mercury and 
Venus in one, androgyne, John and Joan. 

Mercury (medius curro) : middle runner, courier between 
earth and skies. Though some give it as con. Merx : mer- 
chandise, Merceo : to sell, whence Mercenary : a hireling. 
Alchemists applied it to Quicksilver : living, moving silver. 
So lead was called Saturn, and copper Mars. Phos : light, 
gives 

Hephestus (Vulcan): fire god^AoNi, called from Mulceo: 
I soothe, soften, from Mollis : soft, Mulciber : metal softener. 
Vulcan gives Volcano : workshop of the fire god. Vulcanise : 
to make metallic looking. 

" Nor was bis name unheal*' cl and unadorned 
In ancient Greece ; and in the Ausonian land 
Men called him Mulciber : and how he fell 
From heaven they fabled, thrown by angry Jove 
Sheer o'er the crystal battlements ; from morn 
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, 
A summer's day ; and with the setting sun 
Dropt from the zenith like a fallen star 
On Lemnos, th' Mgean isle." 

EsTiA, Vesta (the zenith) star. " The altar of the deity was 
in the centre of the house, and sacrifices commenced with her, 
because, as Plato says in Timoeus, she was the oldest of all the 
gods ; or rather the pivot on which they all turned." She was 
also worshipped under the form of the crescent moon. Horace 
calls her " Siderum regina bicornis : " the two horned queen 
of the stars. 

AsTARTE : star goddess, Astrifiammante : flaming star, 
queen of night. Hester, Esther, Eoster, Asteria, Estelle, 
Stella : stars, risers, shiners. 

AsTEROPE : star faced, glorious. Astrophile (and Stella) : 
lover of star lady, Asterion : son of a star, con. ^stus : the 
tide, rising waters, whence Estuary : tide way. East : point 
of sun rising. Austria \ east kingdom. Yeast : barm, which 
makes to rise. Eoster is identical with Easter : when 
special honours were paid to the Saxon Astarte. 



HIERONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 185 

Hester (when male name) : Easter born, fortunate. 

Typhon (con. Typhoon : wind spindrifting the sea like 
smoke) : son of smoke, volcanic agency personified. 

Pallas : brandisher, spear vibrator, con. Ballo : I throw. 
Palladium: an aerolite, said to be statue of Pallas fallen from 
heaven, upon which Trojan safely depended. Trial by jury is 
the palladiiiin of Britisli liberty. Luke says, " Ye men of 
Ephesus, what man is there who knoweth not how that the 
city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great Diana and 
of the (aerolite) which fell down from heaven." This aeorlite 
was the pedestal of Artemis. To this hour there is one served in 
the Medjid (Temple) at Mecca, called Kaaba, which the Arabs 
say was white when it was the footstool of God at the time 
He visited Adam in Paradise, but turned black when he sinned. 
Thousands of hadjis will kiss it this year. 

Pallas when an English name is formed on pool and esk, 

Artemisia (Carian queen) : daughter of Diana, Artemis. 

Minerva : strong, nervous, con. Nero, Nerva : men of 
nerve and verve. 

Janus is a form of Eanus, from Eo: I go, alluding to change 
of seasons. He was Bifrons : two faced, one looking to old 
year, other to new, Memory and Hope, like Hugin and 

MUNNIN. 

Janus, con. Janua : a gate, from Eo : I go, exactly = Gate, 
from Go, which gives gad, Gadsby — gadfly, goat, guest, Pren- 
DERGAST, Ghaut : the mountain gate. Janitor: gate-keeper = 
Yates, Gates. January : gate of the year. 

Artemis (Diana) : whole, pure, virgin = Agnes, Jezebel, 
Parthenos (Sciote monk). A man may be a virgin, only a 
woman can be a maid. " These (144,000) are they which have 
not defiled themselves with women (been guilty of spiritual 
adultery, idolatry) : for they are virgins." Parthenos = ViR- 
GiNius. Hence Artemus (Ward). 

Apollo (sun, whence sunstroke) : destroyer = Arsa (Persian). 
Apollyon : son of destroyer = Abaddon (symbolic king of 
locusts) = Balaam. Apollos : dedicated to Apollo. Apollo- 
DORUS (the illustrious) : gift of Apollo = Mithridates. Phce- 
Bus : life light (the sun) Phcebe (moon) fern. Diana. Him 
they armed with golden arrows, rays, her with silver. 

" Queen and huntress, chaste and fair, 

Now the sun is laid to sleep ; 
Seated in thy silver chair, 

State in wonted manner keep, 
Hesperus intreats thy light 

Goddess excellently bright ! 

" Lay thy bow of pearl apart, 

And thy crystal shining quiver ; 
13 



186 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Ard give niito the flying hart, 

Space to breathe, how short so ever ; 
Thou that mak'st day of night, 

Goddess excellently bright I 

Hesperus is a short form of Eospervis : light scatterer, the 
gloaming, gives Hesperia, Italy, so called by Greeks, the Ro- 
mans said the same of Spain. It is the op. of Anatolia : sun- 
rise country, the Levant, Hesperides (three) : daughters of 
Hesperxhs. Vespers : evening worship, the evening star being 
in the west. Vespertilio (bat) : evening bird. West is a form 
of vast, applied to the Atlantic, wherein the sun seemed to set 
to old worlders. 

Atlas : bearing much, mountains of N. A. personified. As 
the clouds rested on them they seemed to bear up the sky, the 
world, 

Atlantiades : daughters of Atlas, Atlantic islands. That 
ocean is named from washing roots of Atlas mountains. 

Cybele : cube like, perfect, a cube being symbolic of per- 
fection. 

Pan : all, all the principles and powers of nature personified, 
gives 

Faunus (son of Picus) : a satyr, hence Fawn : young deer, 
Fauna : animals of a country. 

"In shadier bower 
More sacred and sequester'd, though but feign'd 
Pan or Sylvanus never slept, nor Nymph 
Nor Faunus haunted." 

Sylvanus, Silas : son of the wood = Savage : wood-dweller. 
Pan gets the credit of teaching the aborigines of Italy to make 
bread, whence called Panis, giving Panniers: bread baskets. 
After baking he took to building, and erected the first temple 
from which any temple is called Fanum, giving Profane : 
before the temple, unclean, excommunicatee. After cookery 
and architecture he began his military career as a lieutenant 
under General Bacchus, whom he served in his Indian cam- 
paign. He won no star-medal but scared the enemy, whence 
Panic : fright caused by Pan. He was worshipped at the 
Phials of the Jordan, where a city was built to his honour, 
called Paneas or Banias : son of Pan. Pandora : all gifts. 
The Graces were 

Aglaia: splendid, Thalia: flourishing, Euphrosyne: merry 
girl, making of a joyful mind, nearly = Euphrates and Phryne: 
rich in mental endowments. The Hours were 

Eunomia : good law, Dice : justice, Irene : peace. 

" Universal Pan 
Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance, 
Led on th' eternal spring." 



HIE BONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 187 

Clotho (the Fates): cloth worker, spinster = Filatrice : 
thread spinner. 

Atropos : not to be turned, inexorable, unmoved by prayers, 

Lachesis : allotter, who give mortals their lot. When hap- 
piness was to be a man's portion, they span a white thread, 
but black if his undertakings were to be disastrous. Clotho 
held the distaff, Lachesis spun the thread, Atropos cut it. 

Fates from Fari : to speak = Weird (Sisters), from Word. 
The Muses were 

Calliope (1) -. beautiful voiced, con. Kali : beautiful, and 
Zuleika : music voiced. - 

Clio (2) : proclaimer, caller out, con. Clytus : renowned = 
Polyphemus : much spoken about. Clesides (painter): son of 
Clio, famous man. Clisthenes (invented ostracism) : strength 
of Clio, illustrious. 

Melpomene (3) : cantatrice, songstress, co7i. Philomela : 
lover of song, giving Filomel. Melodious : pleasing as song, 
Melodeon : giver of melody, 

Euterpe (4) : turning well, moving gracefully, con. Trophy 
victorious turning-point in battle. Tropics : sun's turning- 
point, Eutropius (historian) : Euterpe's son, polished man. 

Erato (5) : amiable, con Eratosthenes (librarian) : Erato's 
strength, an admirable man. 

Terpsichore (G) : turning gracefully in the dance, fascinating 
danseuse. Choir was anciently dancers. Choragus : dance 
leader = Corypheus. 

Urama (7): heavenly muse = CELESTiXA, Himmelina, con. 
Uranus : distant planet, 

Thalia (8) : blooming with youth and beauty. May take 
it as fern, of Thales (of seven wise men) and = Bloomer, 
Florence, Flora and Flora : the vegetation of a country. 
Thales = Florus. Thalpius (Helen's" suitor): Thalia's son, 
handsome fellow, p formative = Tantalus (Lydian king), gives 
Tantalise : to tease. 

" They ferry over this Lethean sound 
Both to and fro, their sorrow to augment, 
And wish and struggle, as they pass, to reach, 
The tempting stream, with one small drop to lose 
In sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe, 
All ill a moment, and so near the hrink ; 
But Fate withstands, and to oppose th' attempt 
INIedusa with Gorgonian terror guards 
The ford, and of itself the water flies 
All taste of living wight, as once it fled 
The lips of Tantalus." 

Polymnia : full of hymns, tuneful, con. POLYBIUS (Corinthian 
king): long lived, patriarchal = Geryon : aged, who governs. 



188 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Museum : temple of the Muses. Musa : a song, Music : the 
science of song. Amuse : to sing to. Muses : singers. 

Antiope (Amazonian queen) : beholder, large eyed, con. 
Optics: science of vision = Europa : ox eyed (bull's back). 
From her we are supposed to have the word Europe : landing- 
place of Europa. These names are the ojo. of Myotis : she 
who shuts her eyes in a pretty playful manner. 

Amphitrite (ocean personified as a woman) : rolling round. 

Brontes : thunderer , hammersmen = Thor. Cyclops (forms 
CocLES, Horatius) : whirler of forehammer, alluding to sledge 
hammers, describing segments of circles, con. Encyclical : 
circular letter, sent all round. Briareus : strong = Forbes. 
CoTTUS (Titan) : smiter = Smith, and giving Cotta (Aurelius). 

Britomartis (Cretan goddess): sweet maid. Cranaus (of 
Athens): head, chief, con. Cranium: the head, Creon, fern. 
Creusa, Crcesus (rich) : governor, Cressida : royal daughter. 

ScYLLA : rockhead, identical with Scull : hard part of head. 

Calypso (Oceanide) : hidden, covered, con. Apocalypse : 
uncovered, as 

Latona, Leto : latent ones, being maids they were Alamoth : 
hidden in harems, or by veils. 

Cacus (robber) : bad, con. Cacodemon : fiend, devil. Demons, 
like other spirits, were good or bad. 

GoRGOX : terrible. Demogorgox : terrible demon. Des- 
DEMONA : demon bound, afraid of ghosts, superstitious. 

"And the cannibals, that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads 
Do grow bensath their shouklers. These things to hear 
Would Desdemona seriously incline." 

Stheno (Gorgon 1) : strong one, as Sthexelaus (Mycenian 
king) : strength of the people = Demosthenes, Folkhardt. 

EuRYALE (2) : wide sea, con. Euripus (strait) : wide flowing, 
whence Euripides (tragedian) : son of Euripus, changing like 
its tide, fickle. Eurynome (mother of Graces) : wide ruling. 
Nomos : law. 

Medusa (3) : cornmandress. This and Medea (sorceress) 
may be taken as ferns, of Medon : commander. 

^OLUS : variable, as the wind, ^olian lyre : harp played 
by the wind. 

Esculapius (Egyptian god) : man dog, man of wisdom, dog 
for vigilance. 

Galatea (thea) : milk-white goddess, con. Galaxy: milky way. 

Gallio (deputy) : brought up on milk by hand = Achilles : 
without the lip. 

Lactantius (apologist) : son of milk, con. Via lactea : milky 
way = Foster. 



HIEBONYMS-NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 189 

Leucothea : white goddess, the dawn personified. 

" Meanwhile, 
To re-salute the world with sacred light, 
Leucothea waked, and with fresh dews emhalm'd 
The Earth." 

Hebe : youth, Ganymede : joy commanding, con. Oregon : 
mountain joy, that covers the hills with flowers. 

Eden, Aden: pleasure, gives Adonis: pleasure giver. 
" Adorns symbolised the quickly fading flower of youth — of 
all that flourishes luxuriantly and perishes rapidly ; and the 
festivals which bore his name, the celebration of which was 
accompanied by the lamentations of women, were amongst 
those in which the ancients had reference to the decay of 
nature." The Syrians called Adonis, 

Thammuz : hidden, not to be found = Calypso, L axon a, 
Leto, — 

" Tliammuz came next behind, 
Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured 
The Syrian damsels to lament his fate 
In amorous ditties all a summer's day ; 
While smooth Adonis from his native rock 
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood 
Of Tliammuz yearly wounded." 

Adonis (the river) : red, con. Adam : red earth, Edom : red- 
bodied, so called from carrying down sand and red ochre after 
heavy rains. Adonis was favourite of Venus, who mourned 
his loss when he was fatally wounded by a boar. 

Venus from Venio : I come, that which brings, love by 
which comes life, Ventus : wind, which comes and goes, 
Veneor : to hunt, come after. 

Tkis (rainbow) : uniter, link of beauty between earth and 
sky, con. 

Irene (empress) : peacemaker. Iridescent : coloured like a 
rainbow. 

Ireneus (father) : peaceful = Pacificus (frater), Solomon. 

Iris was daughter of Thaumas : wonder, admiration, con. 

Thaumaturgus : miracle worker, and Electra : brightness, 
con. Electricity : light from amber. 

Meleager: land lover. Morpheus: shaper, former, con. 
Formosa. A god who prevented sleep being monotonous by 
varying it with dissolving views, commonly called dreams. 
Milton, with a charm all his own, describes his industry, but 
calls him Fancy for Phantasy, from Phainomai : to appear. 
It is to be distinguished from Imagination : the act of making 
mental imagery, — 

" In the soul 
Are many lesser faculties, that sei-ve 
Eeason as chief, among these Fancy next 



190 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Her office holds. Of all external things 
Which the five watchful senses represent, 
The forms, imaginations, aery shapes 
■Which Reason joining or disjoining, frames 
All what we affirm, or what deny, and call 
Our knowledge or opinion ; then retires 
Into her private cell when Nature rests. 
Oft in her absence mimic Fancy makes 
To imitate her ; but by joining shapes 
Wild work produces oft, and most in dreams." 

MoRPHE, also con. Morphia : sleep producing drug, Forma : 
shape, gives 

FiRMius(conqueredbyAurelian): well framed = Beauregard, 
Area, Tetrander. 

Nemesis (goddess of vengeance) : distributor, retribution 
bringer, con. Nomos : law. Anti-nomian : law opposer. 

Omphale (Lydian queen) : the navel, con. Umbo, Umbilical, 
a name of mystic meaning, con. worship, derived from Egypt, 
and = 

Delphi : the womb (of the world), con. Adelphos : a brother, 
one from the same womb. 

Neptune : washer (of the shore). Posideon : footbinder, 
salt waters difficult to walk in. 

Pelops : dark faced, swarthy visaged = Swartz, .^sop, 
Dee, Duff, Darnley, con. Apelles = Phin : fair. 

Peleus : black -a-vised, giving Pelopidas (Theban) : son of 
Pelops, Peloponnesus : island of Pelops, now Morea for Romea : 
Rouman territory. 

Sisyphus : very wise, con. Sophia : wise woman. Sophist : 
having semblance of wisdom. 

NiOBE (daughter of Tantalus) : new life, con. Biography : 
life description. 

Bias (of seven) : full of life = Wicks. The rivers of Hell 
were 

Lethe : forgetfulness. con. Leto : hidden, as drinking of it 
hid former life. 

Phlegethon : burning, con. Phlegon : fiery temper. Phlo- 
giston : burning gas, phlegm : viscid matter from infiam- 
mation. 

Acheron : ache run, flowing with pain, con. Achan : troubler. 

Cocytus : wailing. 

Ulysses : anger (of his grandfather). Odyssey : ode of 
Ulysses, song of his wanderings. 

Osiris : much eye, the Sun, Egyptian Apollo. 

Isis : the eye, the Moon, the Egyptian Diana. Some ex- 
cellent writers give 

Isis as formed upon Isha : a woman. Eve deified. 

Baal, some give as lord, others derive from Orel : serpent 



HIEBONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 191 

of God, greatest, con. Ophis : a serpent, whence Ophiusa : 
serpent isle. 

Ophiucha : Serpentarius : serpent holder. Ophion : great 
serpent = Obel. 

Python : stretcher, great expander, said to have sprung 
from the slime of the Deucalian (Noachian ?) flood, being slain 
by Apollo, the Pythian games were instituted in commemora- 
tion. 

" Dreadful was the din 
Of hissing through the hall, thick swarming now 
With complicated monsters, head and tail, 
Scorpion, and Asp, and Amphisboena dire, 
Cerastes horn'd, Hydra, and Elops drear, 
And Dipsas (not so thick swarm'd once the soil 
Bedrop't with blood of Gorgon, or the isle 
Ophiusa) ; but still greatest he the midst, 
Now Dragon grown, larger than whom the sun 
Engendered in the Pythian vale on slime. 
Huge Python. ..... 

And fabled how the Serpent, whom they call'd 
Ophion with Eurynome, the wide 
Encroaching, Eve perhaps." 

Scorpion : scatterer (of poison). Asp : a shield. Amphis- 
boena : going either way. 

Ceraste : horned. Hydra : water snake. Elops : glider. 

Dipsas : thirst (producer), con. Dipsomania : madness for 
drink. "As we went to prayer a certain damsel possessed 
with a pythonic spirit met us." Pythonised men inflated them- 
selves as though receiving an ajjiatus (consult Flamen) from 
the deity, which was like serpent swelling, or leather bottles 
tilling. That the Jews were guilty of ophiolatria is plain 
from their use of the word Ophel, identical with Obel : the 
serpent of God = Ophion. " Manasseh compassed Ophel, and 
raised it up a very great height." The Medians were serpent 
worshippers also, as their names show. 

AsTYAGES : dragon, flying serpent, Dejoces : biting snake. 
No civilised people, free from ophiolatria, would take names 
for great men from reptiles. Obel forms 

Baal, Bel, is the root of Lars : lord, Lara (Byron), Lares, 
household gods, Lartius : son of a lord = Herring. 

" With these came they, who from the bord'ring flood 
Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts 
Egypt fi'om Syrian ground, had general names 
Oi Baalim and Ashtaroth ; those male, 
These feminine ; for spirits when they please 
Can either sex assume." 

Baal gives Belus : son of Baal, Belial : useless. This is 
one of the most expressive in the entire Bible. It implies that 
a wicked man can do no good, must be useless, for " without 



192 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAME'S. 

me ye can do nothing." Baal answers to Apollo, Mithras, 
Arsa, Hadad, names under which the sun was worshipped, 
while AsTARTE, Venus, Diana, Urania corresponds to worship 
of star or moon. 

AsHBEL : august, fire of Baah " The sons of Benjamin were 
Belah, Becker, and Ashbel." 

Baladan (Baal adon): Baal is lord, the opponent of Adonijah : 
Jehovah is Lord. 

Belshazzar: Bel most glorious. Belteshazzar : Bel's 
prince, the ruler Bel favours, nearly = Hannibal. That name 
must have been an abomination to the great slave Daniel. 
Gabriel does not say, O Belteshazzar ! but " O Daniel." 

Eshbaal is identical with Ashbel. " Saul begat Eshhaal." 
He was also called 

Ish-bosheth : man of shame = iEsCHYLUS. Bosheth : shame, 
confusion of face, is from Baal, whose worship brought shame. 
Some hold that Baal gives Balah : to destroy, to ruin, whence 

Balaam : destroyer of people (am), but Baalam : of a strange 
people, a foreigner. 

Mephibosheth : exterminating Baal. Merib-baal : con- 
tending against Baal. Saul mig-ht have named these his sons 
in a spirit of antagonism to his w^orship, but as Hebrews w^ere 
forbidden to mention gods, it would have looked healthier had 
there been no allusion to Baal in the names of the royal family. 

Jerubaal : let Baal plead. A surname of Gideon, " But the 
name clave not to him." 

Balthazar : king protected by Baal. Baal gave name to 
Baalbec and Arbela, cities wherein his sacrificial flame was 
kept burning. Beyrout is Baalberith : lord of the covenant. 
There are several places mentioned in the Old Testament from 
this god, as Baal-gad : lord of fortune, Baal-hamon : lord of 
the people, Baal-hazor : lord of Hazor. " Absalom had sheep- 
shearers in Baal-hazor." Baal so commonly combined with 
the names of localities that it came to mean simply a place, as 

Baal-perazim : place of breaches. Baal-tamar : place of 
palms. It takes two forms, ferti., to wit, Baalah, Baalath. 
" The border was drawn to Baalah, which is Kirjath-jearim." 
Solomon built Baalath and Tadmor in the wilderness." Phil- 
istia served 

Baalzebub, Baalzebul : fly lord = Jupiter Muscarius : the 
fly-dispelling Jove. In course of time this deified " Papier 
Moure" came into use with a contemptuous force, so that in 
apostolic times it was synonymous with Satan. Zebub : a fly 
= Tetze, S. African bull slayer, from Ze : noise made = Musca, 
from muzzing, for Muzca. Our Fly : that flees. Zebub, Tetze, 
Musca = Buz : to drone. 

Baal-Peor, Baal-Phegor: lord of the dead. Jesus con- 



HIERONYMS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 193 

trasts Jehovah with it. "Jehovah is not a god of the dead, 
but (God) of the living." " They joined themselves unto Baal- 
Peor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead," i.e., of the lord of the 
dead. 

Adherbal (slain by Jugurtha) : greatness of Baal. Asdru- 
BAL (son of Hamilcar) : of the seed of Baal, con. Zoroaster : fire 
seed, begotten of the fire god. 

Hamilcar is from the Sidonian Hercules, written in Punic, 
Ha-Melk-Art : the great king, con. Artaphernes : great shep- 
herd, leader. 

Hannibal (Alps) = Baal-hanan : grace of Baal, born by. 
Latter very ancient. 

Belephantes : Baal's priest. When Alexander entered 
Babylon he foretold his visit would be fatal. 

Methumballes (Carthaginian noble) : man of Baal, con. 
Methuselah : man of the dart. 

Cassivelaunus is the Roman form of Cassibelan, from the 
Cassi tribe in composition with Bel. 

" He was carried 
From off our coast, twice beaten : and liis shipping 
(Poor ignorant baubles) on our terrible seas, 
Like egg-shells mov'd upon their surges crack'd 
As easily against our rocks For joy whereof 
The famed Cassibelan, who was once at point 
(O, giglot fortune !) to master Caesar's sword, 
Made Lud's town with rejoicing fires bright, 
And Britons strut with courage." 

May was called by the aboriginal British Beltaen : the fire of 
Baal, as then the sacred fire was renewed on his altar in hon- 
our of the sun beginning to put forth power. The old custom 
of maying and dancing round the maypole is con. therewith. 
The dance symbolised the sun god circling through the sky. 
Baal was worshipped conjointly with Nebo, the star god. " Bel 
boweth, Nebo stoopeth." 

Nebo : interpreter, foreteller, con. Naib, Nebi : a prophet = 
Weird : who speaks the word. Nebo was the Chaldean 
Mercury, by whose passage through the sky seasons were 
forecasted. So 

Kronos (Saturn) for Chronos : time, time being measured 
thereby. 

Nebushasban: worshipper of Nebo = Hermodulus : servant 
of Mercury. 

Nebuchadnezzar : Nebo is the god of fire. Nebuzar-adan : 
Nebo's lord or leader = Hermianax. " JS'ebwchadnezzar, king 
of Babylon, gave charge concerning Jeremiah to Nehuzaradcin, 
the captain of the guard." 

Nabopolassar : a compound of Nebo and Asar, a form of 



194 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Asshur, the progenitor of the Assyrians, and to whom they 
owe their national designation. In return they deified him. So 

TiGLATHPiLESER is composed of Tarkat (mother of gods = 
Ops) and Asar of Asshur. 

EsARHADDOX (Asar adon) : lord of Assur, a name so accurately 
describing his office that it deserves being called a title. Assur 
combines with local names, as Telassar : hill of Assar, the 
mound where was his altai'. " We do sacrifice unto God since 
the days of Esarhaddon, king of Assur." 

" Eden stretched her line 
From Auran eastward to the ro_yal towers 
Of great Seleucia, built, by Grecian kings, 
Or where the sons of Eden long before 
Dwelt in Telassar." 

Tel : a hill, mound, earthwork, runs through many languages. 

Sharezer : prince of fire, con. Sarah. Nergal-Sharezer : 
Nergal is prince of fire. 

Nergal : rolling light, revolving star, con. Galilee, applied 
to a cock which crows at returning light. " The word of the 
Lord came unto Zechariah, when they had sent into the house 
of God Sharezer and Regem-Melech and their men, to pray 
before the Lord." Parallel to the cruelty of naming Daniel 
Belteshazzar was that of calling Zerubbabel 

Sheshbazzar : fire worshipper. " All these did Sheshbazzar 
bring up with the captivity, they were brought up from 
Babylon to Jerusalem." 

Zerubbabel : seed of Babylon, con. Zoroaster and answer 
to 

Balbi, Balboa (Spanish Jews) : man from Babylon. 

Asenath: belonging to Neith, the Egyptian Minerva, a 
wise person. 

Zaphexath : he who receives Neith, wisdom, is divinely 
taught. 

NiTOCRLS (Babylonian queen) : victory of Neith, wisdom 
wins. 

Paaneah : he who flies pollution, an allusion to Joseph from 
his mistress. 

PoTiPHAH and PoTiPHERAH differ as Joses and Joseph, each 
meaning priest of the suu^Heliophaxtes and the mad 
emperor 

Heliogabalus, whose original name was Gabalus, from 
the Gabellus, tributary to the Po, which was changed when 
he became priest to the sun in Phoenicia. 

Ram : ("of the kindred of"): high, gives RiMMOX : very 
high, applied to the pomegranate in a mystical sense, — 

" Bimmon, whose delightful seat 
Was fair Damascus on the fertile banks 
Of Abana and Pharpar, lucid streams." 



niEEONYAIS— NAMES MYTHOLOGICAL. 195 

Tabkimmon : Rimmon's goodness. Tobiah: goodness of 
Jeliovah, gives Tobias, Toby (uncle). Tooby (usually given 
from it) : double dwelling, big house. Tob : good fertile soil 
= Aleppo : fat. " The elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah 
out of the land of Tob." 

Hadad for Ad ad : one one, the one, most eminent, double 
first, applied to the sun. 

Benhadad : son of the sun = Onion (temple of) from On: 
the sun. 

Hadadezer : whose help is Hadad. " David smote also 
Hddadezer." 

Dagon : great fish, literally = grampus, megalicthus, the 
emblem of fecundity from Dag : a fish, whence Tagus : fish 
river — Great Fish River of South Africa. 

Nun, Non : a fish, the letter J, he who is prolific. " The 
children of Israel were fruitful, and increased like fishes." 
Dagon was a merman, — 

" Then came one 
"Who mourn'd in earnest, when the captive ark 
Maim'd his bri:te iruage, head and hands lopp'd off 
In his own temple, on the ground edge 
Where he fell fiat, and sham'd his worshippers : 
Dagon his name, sea-monster, upward man 
And downward fish." 

DoEG (the Edomite) : a fisherman. But DoiG (Scotch) : a 
dog, a gallant fighter. 

Thoth (Egyptian god) : divine, con. Theos, Ti, Tu in 
Tuisco, gives 

Thothmethes : Thoth 's man, con. Methuselah. Accord- 
ing to some authorities he was worshipped by the Teutons 
under the name of Tot, whence 

Tottenham : home of Tot, built upon a site sacred to Tot. 
" Tottenham in his boots." This sobriquet was acquired by 
Charles Tottenham, Esq. of Wexford, and a member of the 
Irish Parliament. Tot became Dodd, giving 

Doddridge (divine) : hill where Tot received divine 
honours = Tuttle for Tot's hill. The Egyptians were 
Caucasian, and in the pre-historic period swarmed from that 
hive of nations, the valleys of the Caucasus, long before the 
Teutons started for the Dofrafields. Hence German and 
Egyptians had bull and serpent worship in common ; besides 
words, ideas, and objects of adoration. The Egyptian for 
God is 

Teut, nearly identical with the Asir, TiEU, whence Tues- 
day : God's day, literally. 

Teucer (progenitor of Trojans) : a divine man, son of a 
god. 



196 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Sibyl (theosboule) : giving the counsel of God = FABius, 
from Fari : to speak, con. Fable. 

Nabi : who gives the word of God, con. Naboth (garden) = 
Theophrastus : who speaks the words of God. 

Timor (Tieu and More : great) : great god, whence name, 
title, and place, 

Baltimore : city of the great good. Timor, Bael, and 
Crom were the aboriginal tri-mutri of Britain. 

Crom, Crum : curved, the moon in crescent. Cromwell : 
spring where Crom was worshipped = 

(S)Caldwell : fountain where scalds sang to gods. Bal : 
a town or village, as in Balmerino = Seaton. Baltimore = 
Theopolis = 

BoGATSKY : city of God. The Welsh had a god who came 
across the sea on a pig's back. Him they called 

Coll : the hazel, probably he used the sacred wand to guide 
his porcine charger, whence 

Cole (old king) and Gall (St.). We have seen that Shem : 
a name, and Aram : high, whence Arimathea = Hyam, gives 

Semiramis : exalted name, famous, whence Semiramide 
daughter of Semiramis, but savans say it also gives 

Semele (mother of Bacchus). " In the festival of the wine- 
press, the torch-bearer cried out to the people Kaleite Theou:" 
call ye upon God, and they answered " Semele laache plouto 
dota." As Semele admits of no grammatical construction in 
this sentence, and is connected with the Hebrew Jah, Dr. 
Hales deems that it denotes the Hebrew Shemali : hearken to 
me, as in Lev. xxvi. 21. This would give consistency to the 
popular response, as it would signify " Hearken to me, Jah, 
thou giver of wealth." Forgetting, if ever knowing, the 
meaning of Shemali : hearken to me, the Greeks metamor- 
phosed it into a woman, 

Semele, supposed to have expired at the sight of Jove 
arrayed in all the terrors of his glory, as the people feared 
they would at Sinai. This origin contradicts the Greek 
tradition that lacchus was the son of Ceres and Proserpine. 
Yet this conjecture is supported by the fact that a number of 
Hebrew words and phrases were used in the ceremony of the 
Grecian festivals. 

Jesse : wealthy = Gemalli : camel possessor is from Jah, as 
also is 

lacche, which with Bar : a son, supplies us with Bacchus : 
son of Jah, the wealth giver, if so Jesse and Bacchus are, 
nominally, near a kin. Yea or nay, Bacchus gives 

Debauch : to make in a bacchanalian state. Shem varies to 

Semi(ramis), Sem(ele), Sim(eonj, Ishma(el), Shimei(m). 



( 107 ) 



CHAPTER XI. 

NAMES DERIVED FEOM ANIMALS. 

No few personal names are referable to animal origin. Those 
that are ancient generally originate in the fact that the persons 
so designated displayed some qualities of the animal from 
which they obtain their name. Others, more ancient, are 
traced to mystic connections between the original nominee and 
idolatry, he adopting or receiving the name of and symbolising 
the god he worshipped in such animal. A large proportion of 
more recent names are mementoes of the Crusades being ob- 
tained by persons who bore representations of animals on their 
shield. Such as are allied to worship must be looked at from 
the altar standpoint, being thereby clothed with august value. 
In the worship of God, humble birds were offered, whence 
there was a scape sparrow (Levi. xiv. 53) as well as a scape 
goat. To this Jesus possibly alludes when saying, " Not a 
sparrow falls to the ground without the will of your Father." 
Moses records minute details of Judaic ritual, but other 
religions, gay or cruel, older than it, have left few memorials 
of existence besides stones and names. In view of such facts 
we regard 

Sparrow not necessarily as a sparrow-catcher, breeder, bird- 
seller, as sparrows as well as doves were sacred to Venus, as 
swans were to Juno. In olden times people clothed animals 
with imagined attributes as boys now do robins, calling each 
God's bird. We lose sight of symbolism in these utilitarian 
days, the outcome of ancient communion with the glorious 
East. Religious considerations throw mystic light over many 
names, investing them with the charm of antiquity more 
pleasing than accurate knowledge of common-place matters. 
Thus it was men reverenced the great name, 

Augustus, from Augur : who foretold by avispection, look- 
ing into birds offered sacrificially. Avis : a bird, Specio : I see. 

August: awful, sublime, grand. "My august master, the 
emperor." Hence August : the month so called in compliment 
to Augustus Csesar. Hence, too, Augustine, Austix, Agostixo, 
AuGUSTULUS (last Roman emperor) : most august = 

Sebaste : worshipful, honourable, whence Sebastopol = 
Augsburg. From Sebaste, 

(St.) Sebastian : son of Sebaste, Bastien (germs). English 
would be impoverished by the loss of Augustus; but such 
name could only be had through worship, true or false. The un- 
known always affects more deeply than the known. Augustus 



198 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

corresponds to the Persian Arta : the sacrificial flame of the 
fire worshippers, as seen in Artabanus. Each answers to the 
Celtic 

Boyd : fulvous headed, auburn tressed, Thorine haired. The 
tint cannot be exactly given, as it means hair coloured like 
the altar fire, which varied from bright yellow to a ruddy 
glow. Akin to it, 

Bowie : for whom a propitiation has been made, the Gaelic 
for 

Pius, Pio. Happy the Celtic mother or German matron 
who had a son with hair of this sort, as she had ocular proof 
the gods favoured her. We look at heads either aesthetically 
or phrenologically, considering whether they are winsome or 
promise ability, whereas the ancients looked at them in relation 
to the gods. Knowing history casts awe over even stones, and 
dignifies what the ignorant think common into sublimity. 
Augustus is synonymous with the German 

Werter (sorrows of), from the root luorth upon which we 
form worship. The following are a selection of personal names 
illustrating the foregone views : — 

Rachel : a sheep, one fondly tended. 

Brebisson : great sheep. " In a work upon the useful 
grasses M. de Brebisson, that botanist says," etc. 

Ovid : little sheep, darling, nurse name = Lamb, 

OviEDO (Spanish historian). Ovation : triumph when a 
sheep was offered. 

Wedders : a weather sheep, 

Cheran : a lamb. "The sons of Dishon, (were) Amram, 
Eshbon, Ithran, and Cheran." Cheran from Kar : a lamb, 
giving Karnos, dropping the initial Arnos, whence 

Arnobius (African) : lamb lived, exactly = our Agnew = 

Seely : silly, sheep like. A silly sheep means an innocent 
one, does not butt ram-like. These = 

Dilke (Sir C.) : a sucking lamb, a little dear = LAMMiE. 

Alectryox (watched Apollo by order of Mars, a myth, 
meaning soldiers should be watchful till SM.7i-rise) : a cock, 
literally means not bed — the Hebrew, 

Nergal : a cock, lit. rolling light, con. Gal : rolling. Galeed : 
heap of witness, they rolled stones to it. Doubled in Gilgal : 
rolling away completely. " This day have I gilgal-ed the 
reproach of Egypt." Gal gives Globus : any round thing. 
Globe : that may be rolled. Golal : a tombstone. Mark xvi. 
3, From same source Golgotha, Galilee. " The men of Cush 
(Ethiopians) made Nergal," designation of Mars, 

Nergal- Sharezer : prince helped by Mars, con. Sarah and 
Ebenezer. 

Bernard (Dr.) : of a bear's nature, strong to fight, varies 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 199 

to Bernhardt, Barnard, Barend, Bernadotte (kini^), 
Nadaud, Barentz (navigator). Ursa : the bear, from Ur ! 
Ur ! : grunter, gives 

Orson, Orsino, Orsini, the fern. Ursula and Horsenail ! ! 

Bass, Vass : a bear, Basham : home, whence bears can be 
seen. Wolves were extirpated from Britain long before bears 
were, as they kept more out of our way. Tradition says bruin 
put in an occasional appearance up to two centuries since when 
the last of his race was knocked out of time on a Leicester- 
shire hill called therefrom Bardon = 

Barlow (Billy) : bear law. Sometimes Barlow for barr law, 
hill top. Bears appear never to have flourished in Scotland, 
although they had more cover than in England. The only 
Celtic names con. this brute are supposed to be 

Mather, (Mc)Mahon (marshal), Mahoney, Maughan, which 
are probably = 

SUAGROS: bear hunter. But MacMath = De Mattos and 
Mathwin, all sons of Matthew. The Greeks called the Bear 
Su, the Romans Ur-sa, both from noise made by it. So the 
former called a Sow, the same word, (H)us, but in a converse 
order, which gave the Latins Sus (like Hudor : water into 
Sudor : sweat) and us Hyoena : the bristler. SUAGROS, con. 
SuiDAS : son of, and Agrestes : a huntsman = Said, Sidetes, 
Hunt, Hunter, and con. Onager : a wild ass. " Ishmael shall 
be an onager." Mathers assumes the form of 

Mayors, or Mayor, but the Roman 

Mayors, Mars, Mors : death, con. Morgue : place of dead. 
Bulls are, nominally, as proliflc as bears. Hence 

Turnbull, Trumbull, Tremble : said to be given to one 
Ruel, because he turned a bull which was threatening to gore 
Robert Bruce in Stirling Park. But the name is older than 
that period and simply means good at driving the cattle of 
England into Scotland, Kaffir style. Agathos : good, is from 
Ago : I drive, and means first-rate cattle thief. From the 
same animal we also have 

Boleyn, Bullen. a Saxon thane who rode a bull when 
going to confer with William the Conqueror was called 

Bullstrode : bull straddler. 

Painbceuf (French soldier) : bull's head on shield. 

Torelli = Bullock. Thor gives Taurus, whence 

Torrero, Torreador : Spanish bull fighters. 

Coldetor: bull necked, strong = Bull, con. Colporteur: 
carrier on neck. " Here also w^e find the celebrated group 
known as the Toro Farnese : or Farnese Bull." 

Metcalfe, Medcalf : meadow calf, heifer = Sturrocks 
(steer, stirk). 

Budd = foregoing three. A butt of leather is the hide of a 
Budd. 



200 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



MoscHUS (Syracusan poet): a calf = Vitellius, co7i. veal. 

Galea : fat calf = Eglox, con. Aleppo, Haleb : fat soil, giving 

LiPPO (Menimi) : a stoutly built man. 

Leporella : a little hare leveret, one v^ery timid. 

Damaris : a heifer = Eglah. "The sixth Ithream, by 
Eylah David's wife." " A woman named Damaris." 

Damaris : broken into the yoke, con. Domitian, con. the 
Persian, 

Damaspia : horse breaker. " If ye had not ploughed with 
my heifer." 

ViTALiAN (emperor) from Vitulus : a calf, con. Italus. 

Italia : the country producing kine, as 

Achaia : horse producing country, 

Spain : rabbits, and = Beotia and Bohemia : home of the 
Boii : cattle tenders. Italy, Beotia, Bohemia fairly answer to 
Buchanan. 

Ravens were to Norsemen what eagles were to the Romans. 
To them death under the dusky wing of the raven insured 
entrance into Valhalla. 

Braxdubh (king of Leinster) : raven black, con. Dublin = 
Black pool. 

Rapp (general), Rapix (historian) : a raven. 

Bertram, Bertrand : bright raven, brilliant fighter. 

WiGRAM : victorious raven, con. Wigmore : great conqueror 
= Megamces, and con. Wigan : place of victory 

Raby : carrier of the Dane's raven standard = CoRAX. 

RoYSTOX : hooded crow (corvus cornix). Corvus, corax, 
crow, forms of Craw! noise made. 

CoRBETT, CoRBYN : a crow. CoRBETT and Riddle are the 
oldest Scottish surnames. 

Valerius Corvus : Valerius who was helped by a crow in 
fight with a Gaul. 

Sterx : a raven = Ravex = Hirpus, Harpy : snatcher, rav- 
isher. 

Crow is ancient, but whether con. war, religion, or nature 
it is too late to say. 

Crawford (looking so like crow ford) : camp ford. 

Croylaxd (abbey): frequented by crows, agricultural. Next 
are of war. 

Brexxus (Gallic king) : a raven, as Braxd giving Braxdax 
(St.), Braxigax : son of Brand or of the raven. Hence, too, 
Braix, (M')Brayxe. As ravens eat the dead, they sjanbolised 
complete victory. 

Oreb (Midian) : a raven, con. Erebus : dark as the raven's 
wing. Orbim : dark ones. Bedouin. " And the orhiin brought 
him bread and flesh in the morning." Eagles had admirers, 
but not to the same extent, for the obvious reason they were 
less known. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 201 

^TION (^father of Andromache) : great eagle = Nisii0CH. 

NiNUS (whence INineveh), Carcas (chamberlain), ^tius 
(stabbed Valentinian), 

Narses (fought the Goths) all = AQUiLA (Priscilla) : an eagle. 
Aqnila is a form of Acuila, from acus, whence Acute : sharp, 
meaning sharp flier, literally = swift (bird). Swift (dean) : who 
runs swiftly. Aquilone : wind rushing like an eagle = Boreas : 
wind from the Thracian mountains, from Oros : a mountain. 
Aquiline : shaped like an eagle's beak. Some give 

Ajax : an eagle, but it is = Job : weeper. 

Orl (Russian) : an eagle, Orloff (count) : son of Orl. 

Erne, Herne : an eagle, Ernest (king) = Fiacre : an eagle. 
Cabs taking persons to St. Fiacre's church, Paris, came to be 
called Fiacre : a hackney coach. From this source Arnot : 
son of Erne^Orlofl". 

Arnold, Arnaud (marshal) : eagle power. St. Arnold, cor. 
to Sternhold (and Hopkins), if not stone hold. 

Arnhilda : Hilda's eagle, Valkirier name. 

KiRCKULE : church haunted by owls, becomes Churchill 
(poet) = 

Hapsburg (house of) : hawks tower, born in. Hap : a hawk, 
which haves, grips. Havock : to slay men as hawks do spar- 
rows. 

HiERAX (Antiochus) : the hawk, gripper, grabber, robber. 

HowLET may be little owl, but most likely is dim. of Howe, 
or even of Howell. 

EuLE : an owl. EuLENBURG : town frequented by owls = 
Hapsburg. 

KoRE : a partridge, it is qi^a, the noise it makes, like saws 
wanting grease. Enkakore : the vjell of him who cried, with a 
dry throat. " Kore of the sons of Asaph." This Hebrew name 
exactly answers the Italian 

Quaglia, as that is quacklia : noise of bird. " The holy 
father was accompanied by Cardinals Quaglia and Panebi- 

ANCO." 

Panebianco = Whitbread : eating white bread, others eat- 
ing coarse brown, and so well bred. 

HoGLAH (daughter of Zelophehad) : a partridge, one plump 
and pretty. 

BuFFON (naturalist) : great owl, with mystic significance. 

Racine (dramatist) : carrying on shield rat and siuan (rat 
cygne). 

Swan, from Wan : pale, gives Swann, Asiric and heraldic. 

Genseric (Vandal) : wild gander, passing from land to land. 

Gans, Goes, Goschen : a goose, a wanderer, Gosling : son 
of Goes. 

Coote, Coot : water fowl, like a moor hen, 
14 



202 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

LUN (Sally) : great northern diver. LuNHUNTER : sea bird 
catcher. 

LiVERMORE from a bird called Liver which frequented vieres 
and pools, vrhence by some Liverpool : marsh lands frequented 
by the Liver. 

PoussiN (painter) : a cock, gives the Franco-Irish name 
PossiNET : young Poussin. Huss (reformer) : a goose. Hag- 
GAR, Haggis : untrained hawks, wild. Milvius, Nisas (Eury- 
alus) : hawks both. 

Jonah, Jonas, Jemima (Job's daughter), Livia: doves all, 
though some give Jemima : handsome as the day, the sight of 
her being as dawn to the benighted. Similarly, from Turtur : 
a dove, tur, tur : cooer, we have 

Tovey, Turtle, Tortola (Spanish lady). " Thou art fair, 
thou hast doves' eyes." 

Tabitha, Dorcas : gazelle-eyed = Lapidoth: lamps. 

Storks (recorder) from the Stork : natural affection, for 
which the bird was noted. 

Columbus : a dove or pigeon, one dear = PoMBAL (premier), 
for Palumba. Columbia (Hail !) = Fredonia: the confederated 
S. of A. Icolmkill (Inch Columba) : island in which is cell of 
Columbus. 

Columbine is a kind of fern, to Columbus, and so lady-dove 
for lady-love = Tortola. 

Callum(M'): a dove. Maccallummore : the great Maccallum. 

Knotte, from a bird called after King Canute. Crane : 
aged (bird) because lives to a great age, gives 

Crane, who bore one on shield. Crane identical with 
Geron and Geryon = 

Seneca : aged, in these cases as in the English nanies Earl 
(from Ere : before), Auld, Presbyter, is not to be taken in the 
sense of having simply scored so many years. Age giving 
experience, the first kings were patriarchs, whose sceptre was 
their walking-stick. Thus 

Anax : a king is con. Senex : aged, and our well-known 

Alderman is literally an elderly man though he may be in 
his prime. So, then, Geron, Geryon, Seneca, are flavoured 
with authority, and are to be honoured as governors. In keep- 
ing herewith it is famous that Major : greater, and Minor : less, 
are applied to age. " He is in his minority." " Not having 
attained to his majority." So, too, the titles 

Seignior and Excellency, simply mean older, excelling by 
years. " With the ancient is wisdom, and in length of da\ s 
understanding." Consult Gaffer, Gammer, Aves, Laveau, 
Maximus. 

Cranmer (martyr) : lake frequented by cranes, Cranston: 
town. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 203 

LocHElL (chief): bird lake = LlVERMORE. 

Merle (Aubigne): a blackbird. Pinnock: little feathers = 
Sparrow though Sparrow : speaker, chatterer, chirper. 

Spink, Pink, Finch : all chaffinches, being imitation of note 
Fink! Fink!! 

Sheldrick : shiel-drake, water bird. 

Stritthers: an ostrich, soldier of high renown. "Amongst 
the far fetched conceits of the middle ages, many devices may- 
be found more obscure and fantastical than an ostrich feather, 
assumed in allusion to the bearer's appetite for, or mastery 
over, iron and steel." In the German it stands as 

Strauss (rationalist), which anciently signified " a fight, a 
combat or a scuffle," though now obsolete in that sense. Hence 
" Ich dien," with feathers, mean I serve as a soldier, having an 
appetite for cold steel as the ostrich is supposed to have. In 
some cases Strauss means an Austrian, and the Scotch 
Struthers is local, con. Strath. 

Hengist (hertogh) : a stallion. Horsa : the mare, devotees 
to Hross. 

Henchman: mounted servant, Encke (comet), Hengler: a 
horseman. 

JoKELL : horse warrior. The Saxons engraved a horse in 
the green sward of the Valley of the White Horse, where their 
descendants will renew it this summer. Hippus (flying feet) : 
a horse. 

GULIPPUS : gold coloured horse. Gul is gold, d formative. 

Xantippus: sorrel coloured horse = Bayard (knight) : bay- 
horse rider, fern., Xantippe (scold). " The chariots in Homer 
were drawn, for the most part, by two horses coupled ; that of 
Achilles liad no more — the names of his horses being Xanthus 
and Balius." 

Xanthus : sord, sorrel, bay, applied to men through colour 
of hair. 

Balius : thrower out of legs, galloper, con. Balena: a whale 
that throws up water, from Ballo : I throw, whence Balearic 
(isles) : place of slingers, DiABOLOS : who cas^s fiery darts of 
accusations, DiAVOLO (Fra). 

Flamsteed (astronomer): flame coloured horse = Xantippus. 
Some have it from Flamstead : place of beacon fire = 

Beaconsfield : Beacon for betoken, and token from teach. 

HiPPONAX: chief horseman = Pharnaspes : commander of 
horse = 

Marshall (mare schall) = Archippus. Melanippus : black 
horse, rider of a. 

Evippus : good horseman = Horseman and Philip. 

HiPPOLYTUS (and his times): horse leader, looser = Groom. 

Hippocrates (whence Hippocras: wine mingled after his 



204 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

recipe;: haviui^- power over a horse = Hippodamus : liwrse 
breaker, tamer. 

Hotspur: swift rider, as was he , who rode Bucephalus: 
bull-headed horse. 

D'Orsey (count) is given by some as De horsey, but is from 
Theodosius. 

Philip (Macedon) whence Philippi (city) and Philippic: dis- 
course full of invective : horse lover, good seat, whence Phipps, 
Phelps, Philpot : little Philip = Filkix, Phillimore, Filmore, 
FiLMER : great Philip. The Italians shape it Ippofilo, whence 
Lepsius and Sippel. Lipton : Philip's town. 

MacKillop : son of Philip. Asp : the horse was sacred in 
Persia. Either the king or high priest rode forth at daybreak 
in a chariot drawn by horses dedicated to 

Mithras : mother of light, whence Mithridates : sun gift = 
Apollodorus. Tiridates : gift of Mercury. This king 
fought Rome. 

AsHPENAZ : horse nose, he who snorts, easily rages = Appaim. 
" The king spake unto Ashpenaz, the master of the eunuchs." 

Aspatha (son of Haman) : strength of a horse, horse tamer 
= HiPPODAMUS. The Hebrews were not supposed to keep 
horses, hence it does not say, " Thou shalt not covet thy neigh- 
bour's horse." So, too, we account for no Jew being named in 
connection with a horse, except it be 

Rechab (Rechabites) : a charioteer = (Mc)Ara, (Mc)Caw, 
When the Jews were brought under the Chaklees and Persians, 
whose strength lie in cavalry, the sacred books forthwith show 
it by the names of their masters. An undesigned coincidence 
confirming a student's faith in the veracity of the Scriptures. 
Saul was not on horseback when the Lord met him on the 
way. Asp (in the Greek) : a serpent, from Aspis : a shield, 
like to which is the coil of a snake. 

Chrysaspis : golden shield, princely warrior. Horse and 
bull are used by us in the sense of great, rough, strong. 
Horse-r'adish : strong root. Horseplay : romping. Bulwarks 
(boulevards) : strong works, giving 

BoLLAND (BoUandists) : land near fortifications, boulevards = 

Wark : living near the bulwarks, outskirts of a town. 

Bulrush : rush growing strong and quickly. Bullfinch : strong 

finch. Wolves, bears, ravens, hawks, and horses must make 

way for the king of the wilderness, 

Leo (pope), Leon (Arragon), Lyon : lions three. 
Leon IDAS (Thermopyloe): son of alion,oro£Leon = LEONATUS. 
Leonric: lion king = Learchus : lion chief = Arslan Bey : 
the lion like Pasha. 

Leander (Hero) : lion man = Cceur de Lion : lion-hearted, 
or, who tore out the lion's heart, Samson fashion. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 205 

" Befoi'e Angiers well met, brave Austria, 
Arthur, that great fore-runner of thy blood, 
Eichard, that robb'd the lion of his heart, 
And fought the holy wars in Palestine." 

LowE: a lion. LococK : little Lowe, or little lion = Lobel, 
whence lobelia. The microscopists name Leuwenhock also 
= LococK. 

Leonard, Leonardo, Leotard (acrobat) : lion natured, 
Lennie : little Leonard. 

Brancaleone (blank) : white lion. There are persons named 

Blanklion, the English equivalent to the Italian name. 

Colleone : lion necked, locks hanging round the neck like 
a mane. 

Timoleon : lion souled. 

" High o'er the rest Epaminoudas stood : 
Timoleon, glorious in his brother's blood." 

The nations amongst whom the foregoing leonine names 
were current knew lions rather by history, heraldry, or tradi- 
tion than by personal conflict, though the king of the wilder- 
ness was driven out of Europe in the historic period. The 
royal beast was common in Thessaly B.C. 600. The following 
designations are nearer his present habitat : — 

Arioch (from Ar : a lion) : great lion = Leoni, a mystical 
name of Jerusalem, also applied to a tune 'that has been sung 
3000 years. "Arioch brought in Daniel before the king." 

Areli : son of a lion, probably one seen about time of his 
birth. " Of Areli the family of the Arelites." 

Ariel: lion of God, greatest lion, figurative for Jerusalem, 
whose altar destroyed more sheep than did the lions = AsSAD 
Allah : the first standard-bearer of Islam. Assodnagur : 
lion's fort. E, I. " Woe to Ariel, the city where David dwelt." 

Othniel : lion of God, great warrior. " Caleb said, he that 
smiteth Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give 
Achsah, my daughter, to wife. And Othniel, the son of Kenaz, 
took it." 

Lib : a lion, as Lib Judah gives Lebbceus (apostle) : son of 
a lion. 

Laish : an old lion. " But Saul had given Michal to Phalti, 
the son of Laish." It compares with Leosthenes : strong as 
a lion. 

Singh: a lion, amongst Hindoos, as Singapore: lion's city = 
Leontupolis. Ceylon, termed Taprobana by Ptolemy, is known 
to the natives as Cinghala : lion's home, and their language is 
Cinghalese. 

RUiNJEET Singh (rajah) : Runjeet the lion. 

Ajviarasinha : immortal lion, the Hindoo Achille.s. "The 



206 PEB80NAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

palm Borassus flabelli forniis (characteristically termed by 
Aviavasinha, a king of grasses) is," etc. Compare it with 
Ainaritza : well of immortality, the Sikh Zemzem, and Ama- 
ranth : immortal flower, and with Mors : death. Etymologi- 
cally, much of the Indo Germanic language, of which these 
words are fragments, is what it was when the cotton clad 
troops of King Porus received the shock of battle from the 
brass armoured phalanx of Alexander on the banks of the 
Indus. The Turks have 

Alp-Arslan : valiant lion, con. Ariel. Dandelion : lion's 
tooth. Chameleon : ground lion. We thus see that many 
nations adopted the royal beast as an eponyme for their 
bravest. It has been fashionable to do so from the reign of 
Arioch, king of Ellasar to now. The less taking Aper: a boar, 
gives 

Heber (bishop), Oberlin (papa), Perrin, Parran and 
Pkrry, when not from Peter. These = 

Verres (enemy to Cicero) : a boar pig, a pig sticker. 
Compare Vir and Verres, each mean strong. Hence also 

Very and Every : strong as a boar. Names that have 
posed many. 

EvERARD, EwART (Gladstone) : of the nature of a boar, 
strong fighter. 

Everett : little Heber. The Celtic for a boar is Cullach, 
whence 

(M') CuLLOCH : boar (slayer) = the Irish (M') Turk. Can- 
turk (town) : boar's head. 

Olivant, Oliphant : elephant on shield ; though some give 
it from Oliver. 

Cassels : castle bearer. So also PuL : an elephant, 
" Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents." 

Sardanapalus : Sardan, son of Pul, con. Sar: a prince, 
Sardan : prince judge. 

Barrus (proud of his beauty) : an elephant, from Baros : 
weight. Barometer ; weight measurer. 

C^SAR : an elephant in the Punic by mere chance coinci- 
dence. Some say he was so called through some of the gens. 
Julii keeping an elephant. 

Shual: a fox, a crafty man. " The sons of Zophah, Suah, 
and Harnepha, and Shual." " Go and tell that fox Herod." 

Todd : the slayer, killer, applicable to warrior or poultry 
worrier. 

ToDHUNTER (algebra): fox hunter. VuLPius, Ulpian, 
Voss, Voce, Foucue (detective), Fusch (whence Fuschia), 
Galpin, Guppy (Mrs), and Zorra are all foxes or their sons. 
Penaud (wine): not therefrom, but from Reynard: stern 
judge, applied to fox judging what fowl he will take. Golpe : 
yelper, is his correct French designation = GuELPH. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 207 

Alopex : a fox, Alopecia : baldness, like a mangy fox losing 
his coat. 

VOLPICELLI, Valpv (gramniatist), ZoRiLLA (Ruiz) : a little 
fox. 

Draco: a dragon, sharp sighted, Draconian: severe like 
Draco. 

Uther Pendragon : Uther of the dragon's head, Uther the 
dragoon carrying standard emblazoned with dragon's head, 
con. 

Pindar (poet). Pundit: men of head. Penny, Pinney: 
head of, chief. 

Pennefather : head father, patriarch, sept head, uncon. 
with money. But 

Pindar : cattle pounder, puts them in a pen. 

Pengelly (Kent's cavern): head of stream = Kinear, King- 
lass, con. Penryhn : head of spit land running into the sea. 

Griffen : griffon carrier on shield. Griffon : great grips, 
gripers, claws. The hold that serpent worship (ophiolatria) 
had upon nations, and, for the matter of that, yet has, is clear 
from the study of personal names : though a portion of such 
names must be allowed for symbolism falling short of worship, 
as when a serpent is used to signify renewal of life and health, 
as the snake sloughing, or as a sign of eternity when it forms 
a circle. 

N AH ASH (Ammonite) : a serpent, a hisser, giving Naashon: 
ophiomant, diviner by snakes. 

Saraph (same as Seraph) : burning, causing inflammation 
by bite = Dipsas : thirst producer. " Saraph had dominion 
ov'er Moab." " And Jehovah sent sarapim among the people." 

AcHAN : a serpent, changed to Achar : troubler, pain or 
ache giver. " Achan, the son of Carmi, took of the anathe- 
matised thing." " The son of Carmi, the troubler of Israel 
who transgressed in the thing accursed." Con. Achos : pain, 
whence Ache : to suffer pain. Acheron : ache run, flowing 
with pain, — 

" Sad Acheron of sorrow, black and deep." 

Shephuphan, Shupham : serpent called by Greeks Cerastes 
(keras, cornu) : horned snake. " Dan shall be shephiphon by 
the way, an adder in the path." " Gera and Shephuphan." 
" Of Shujyham, the family of the Shuphamites." 

Pithon : stretcher, large serpent. Here is our Python, from 
tlie killing of which Phoebus became the Pythian Apollo. 

Python was a common Greek name. " A certain damsel 
possessed with a pythonic spirit," a pythoness. " The sons of 
Micah were Fithon and Melech." 

Dejoces : a snake. Astyages (Median) : biting snake, a 



208 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

dragon. The Medees were ophiolatrians. One of the generic 
words for a serpent is ob, oub, ouph, iph, Ophis : that which 
blows out its body, like the Puff-adder, con. Obh : a bottle, 
Oboth : bottles. " They departed from Pimon and pitched in 
Oboth." The rainy season came on and the bottles of heaven 
were opened. 

Obi : Negro ogre, whence Obeah : a charm. The inspired 
or pythonised person was inflated like a leather bottle when 
full. 

Iphicrates : strong as a python, snake killer. 

Iphidamus : serpent master, snake charmer. 

Iphinous (one of Centaurs), /em-. Iphinoe : serpent minded, 
subtle. 

Iphigenia : daughter of Iphis, serpent born, oflTspring of the 
Pythian Apollo. 

Iphis : a serpent, one so named king of Argos. The ancient 
Germans worshipped 

Orm, our worm, — 

" Eve ! in evil hour thou did'st give ear 
To that false ivotm.'' 

Ormsby : Orms dwelling, where worshipped, sometimes 
from Orm : an elm, at others from Orne : an ash. 

GuTHRAM is Goth-Orm : serpent god of the Goths, changes 
into 

Goodman. But the widely known name 

Guthrie : Goth ruler, in Irish it means king's voice, one 
used to obedience. Another generic word used by Germans 
for a serpent was 

LiND (Jenny), referring only to motion of, and so con. Lind : 
a lime tree, con. Lithe : bending freely. Unterlinden : under 
limes. Leipsic : dwelling among limes. Supplies many lady 
names because suggestive of graceful motion. 

Adelinde (athel) : noble as to birth, graceful as to manner, 
becomes Adeline. 

Rosalind : beautiful as a rose, graceful as a serpent. 

Belinda : graceful walker. Thus Lind came to mean simply 
lady, as 

LiNTRUDE : lady true, woman keeping troth. From Lind, 

Lindsay : lime tree island. After being entangled so as 
hardly able to tell a serpent from a lime tree or a lady, we 
make for 

Arod : onager: a wild ass, a man who is fleet and untam cable. 
" Of Arod the family of the Arodites." Takes form of Arad. 

Irad : the braying onager, nearly = PiRAM : swift wild ass. 
" Pirani king of Jarmuth." 

Tasso (Jerusalem): taxus : badger, hard biter, fighter — 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 209 



Brock: bone breaker, and Grey: a huntsman. Greyhound: 
dog-hunting Gre : the badger. But Gray : glass, grey-eyed. 
" By and bye, came the cry of the dogs, and the tall grekoiiiid 
of Wales merging from the bosky dells." 

Gray is claimed as De Croy : of Croy, by those desirous of 
being accounted of Norman descent, but it means as given. 

Philomela: lover of vieludy, the nightingale = Rossignol. 

ZiBiAH : female gazelle, beautiful eyes = Tabitha, becomes 

Tabby, and ultimately applied to a cat. 

Roebuck : rough buck, a huntsman. Some derive it from 
Babeck : rough brook. 

DisHON, DiSHAN : a wild goat, good climber. " Dishon, and 
Ezer, and Dishan : they are the dukes of the Horites." Horite 
dukes : mountaineer leaders. Very appropriate. 

Jael : wild goat's kid, little runaway. " Howbeit, Sisera 
fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael." 

Sisera : crane and crow, symbols of vigilance and perspe- 
cuity. 

Aran : w^ild goat, high climber, con. Heron : high fl^'ing bird, 
con. Hay and Hoy, which see. " The children of Dishon are 
these : Uz and Aran." What a wild family ! 

Aran is con. Hor : a mountain, whence the Greek Oros, 
giving 

Oregon : mountain joy, plant there found. Ganos : joy. 

Ganymede (Olympic cup bearer): joy commanding. 

Uz : strong, also applied to a goat, very appropriate for a 
highlander. Caper : a goat is from Carpo : I crop, gives Cap- 
rera, Caprea, 

Cabral (Spanish) = Cheevers, ^geus (last king of Athens), 
who is said to have given name to the ^Egean Sea. 

Egis : shield of Minerva, made of goat's skin. yEgeade : 
Greeks, sons of -<3j]geus, not goat people. Daniel symbolises 
the Greeks by a goat. Kid : young goat, but 

KiDD : son, by pre-eminence, gives KiDSTON (Ferniegair) : 
town of Kidd. 

Azazel : goat that went from God, the esfeape goat, from 
Gnes : a goat, Azal : to go, first written Gnazazel. It is con. 
Gaza: strong city. Elegantly applied by Milton to the stand- 
ard-bearer of the apostate angels. He was too scholarly to 
have Azazel in heaven. 

" Then straight commands, that at the warhke sound 
Of trumpets loud and clarions be uprear'd 
His mightj' standard ; that proud honour claim'd 
Azazel as his right, a cherub tall." 

^GON : a goat, sheep and goatherd in love with 
Melibceus: care of oxen = Bowman when it means taking 
care of cattle. 



210 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Gordon : goat's fort, to which only a goat couM cliiub = 

MiNTo(r): kid's hill. (M')GuiRE, Gower: goat-like climbers, 
mountaineers = Aran, Dishan. (M')Gourlay : Gower's field, 
living in. KiLGOUR : goat's wood, frequented by. 

Goat is from go, and means animal that goes about, not sub- 
ject to the human will. It is not gregarious like the sheep. 
Figuratively used for the wicked, the self-willed, the unsocial. 
Goat is identical with gad in gadfly. 

Vespucci (Amerigo) : a little wasp, irritable = the Irish 

Brogan : son of a broc, badger : snappy = Cynic : snarler, 
from Cuon : a dog. It is hardly to be expected that fishes 
should give names to men, yet we have 

Phocas (emperor) : a seal = Morse (telegraphist) from Mere: 
the sea, and Horse, and thus nearly = Walrus : whale horse, 
evidently meaning seal fisher. But Amer : a form of Amor : 
at moor. Some good authors derive from Phocis : a seal, the 
next, but it is local. 

Phocas : Phocian man, and gives Phocion : son of Phocas. 

Delfino (doge) : a dolphin, swift swimmer. 

MoucH (spy on Huguenots) : a fly, con. Mosquito : little fly, 
philologically identical with the firearm known as Musket, 
which was light as a fly compared with the ponderous arque- 
buse which it superseded. From that man MouCH the French 
derive their word for a spy, Mouchard. 

HoGSMOUTH was the name of a cleric elected A.D. 844, to 
wear the Tiara. Now as that was not a taking name to call 
the head of the church, he changed it to Sergius, and was called 
Sergius II. From thence it became a rule to change the name 
of any elected to the pontificate, they exchanging their proper 
designation for that of some preceding pope. I have met with 
a man belonging to a family named 

Heifer = SturrocivS. Have: to possess, is the etymon of 
the word. As goods and chattels : good things and cattle, so 
Heifer is put for part of your havers: possessions. Cattle, 
chattels, is from Capitalia: heads of cattle. Caput. Thus from 
Pecus : cattle, Peculium : your own cattle, as compared with a 
neighbour's feeding on the same common, whence Peculiar : 
all my own, Pecunia : money, metal stamped with the image 
of the animal it would buy. 

Knatchbull: servant of Thor, the bull god, cor. to Knobell. 

Havers : foolish talk, speaking like lawyers in court, who 
keep repeating technicalities mixed with the word havers. 

BuCHAN : land whereon cattle are fed = Italia, Bohemia, 

Buchanan : such land as above through which a stream 
flows, con. Annan : quiet river = Arar, the Saone. 

Cocks, which might be thought co7i. the fowl, is a form of 

Cox : a soldier wearing cuishes. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. 211 

Harenc : the herring is a true name. Perhaps = PoiSSON : 
fisli (catcher). 

The science of names, onamatology, constructs a second 
Noah's ark, a huge menagerie wherein are animals clean and 
unclean, especially the unclean. Menagerie is from Menage : 
a family. The ark contained a menage and a menagerie. It 
seems pitiful that the family of man is so menagerie like, 
containing an unclean majority, but that it does the study of 
names clearly shows. My reader will wonder I have not 
welcomed man's faithful companion the dog into our menagerie. 
Strange to say, all names derived from dogs connect them- 
selves with war, and will therefore be presented under the 
head includincr such as have to do with fiofhtinof. 



2i: 



CHAPTER XII. 

WAR NAMES, 



The study of personal names corroborates an idea poets delight 
to dwell upon — that in the primeval age there was no war. 
In the records of the two first millennia we meet with only 
one name of a warrior cast : — Methuselah : man of the dart, 
missile, the latter being con. Shiloh, Siloam : sent. However, 
after reading the chronicles of the Flood, we forthwith find 
NiMROD : rebel, con. Mar : bitter, indicating bitterness of 
spirit towards ruler. Then follows narrative of confusion 
(Babel), striving of herdsmen, battles of kings, seizing captives, 
and pursuit of retreating raiders, whereby was brought into 
human history for better or worse two sciences — war and 
politics. From that era personal and national appellations 
accurately reflect the altered condition of society. Even 
Melchizedeck : righteous king, also king of Salem : peace(f ul 
city), argues such name or title was exceptional, to urge nothing 
as to Melech : a fighter, who mauls, drives (pell) mell. The 
aborigines of Hellas, who founded cities and taught sciences, 
had few war names, but in the succeeding heroic age a freshet 
of them is lead off" by Bellerophon : murderer of Beller, 
Hercules : glory of Hera, Juno, giving that Italian favourite 
Ercole, who were the forerunners of the " Argonantic expedi- 
tion" and the " Trojan war." By the latter era, war names 
formed a heavy percentage of all in use among the Greeks. 
Roman, French, and English names contrast with the Ante- 
diluvians and Greeks in this respect,— these latter histories 
begin with records of doughty warriors whose names indicate 
prowess like those of the Greeks flourishing in the heroic age. 
And these things are so for this obvious reason, the three 
modern nations were composite, the outcome of many national 
wars, entering upon the historic stage after Mars and Mors 
had wielded their sceptres for ages. Of all known nations the 
Jewish possess a nomenclature freest from war names. In 
their history, extending from the Abrahamic age till the 
current, they have produced a race of braves only on three 
occasions, — the time of Joshua, David's reign, and the Macca- 
bean leadership. Israel yet sends forth statesmen, artificers, 
savans, and men rich in whatever refines or adorns humanity, 
but marshals or admirals seldom come of the Abrahamic 
stock. A Jew soldier is just thinkable. In the late Russo- 
Tarkish war a battalion entirely consisting of Jews were 



WAB NAMES. 213 



present at the siege of Plevna, being the first body of Jews 
organised for fighting purposes since Titus besieged Jerusalem. 
But who can imagine a Blake or Nelson, of the stock of 
Israel ? Such a people could truly say, when entering 
Palestine, " Not unto us." " He giveth us the victory." 
" Judas, the eldest son of Mattathias, succeeded his father in 
command of the army (B.C. 163), in which he was assisted by 
his four brothers, especially by Simon, the eldest of them, who 
was a man of remarkable prudence. The motto of his 
standard was Exodus xvi. ii., " Who is like unto Thee among 
the Gods, O Jehovah ?" The Hebrew being Ml Camoka 
Baalim Jehovah. From these initials was derived the word 
Macoabee, which became the surname of the Asmonean 
family. The same thought is involved in Michael : who 
like God, and MiCAH for MiCAiAH : who like Jehovah. But 
the best authorities give Maccabee : hammerer = Martel, 
Mace, Maul, with greater probability of correctness, as the 
former origin is too cabalistic to be practicable. 

Most likely the first weapons would be missive — dart, spear, 
arrow : where skill in throwing took the place of pluck and 
muscle. The first known so to have done w^as, as given, 
Methuselah: man of the dart = the Milesian name Dowds. 
Saxon families were divided into spear and sjnndle sides, hoys 
belonging to former, girls to latter. The spear was with our 
forefathers what the assegai is with Caffres, their reliable 
weapon. Swords took the place of spears after many ages. 
Spears were originally stone tipped. Saxum : a rock, gives 
Seco : I cut (with prepared flint), whence Seax : a sword, 
giving Saxones : swordsmen, sabreurs = Sicarii : dagger 
carriers, poignard men, skene armed. Hence we have 

Saxe (marshal) : a Saxon, or swordsman. Undoubtedly of 
the stone period we have 

Halgier, Algar, Elger (brave earl) : stone spear, old spear, 
giving 

Algernon (Sidney), Hallavard, Allard : stone guard. 

Geirstein (Anne of) : stone spear. Anscar, Anscharius : 
divine spear, Ans for Ases, char for gar. 

Garyey (wig to vey) : war spear. Ancient names carrying 
the mind into neolithic periods when Europeans were roaming 
savages. 

Gar: a spear, gives War : spear fighting, as Spit: a spear, does 

Spite : spit fighting. Hence, too, the French Guerre : gar 
combat, whence 

Daguerre (daguerreotype) : the soldier, spearman, as also 
the French 

Tiger, from Theod : people. Gar : a spear, spear of the 
people, their defender = 



214 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

NoRDENSKJOLD (arctic) : northern shield, he who protects 
the north. 

Garribaldi (Guiseppe) : spear bold, brave spear man, in- 
verted to 

BoLGER : bold spear, which two = these two, Garbett (bold). 
Garnet (Noth : bold). Gar also gives the progenitor of many 
a Cockney joke, Vinegar, Winegar (Win : love) : friendly 
spear, who comes to help of Garlic : good at spear practice. 

To this class belongs the animal like name 

Badger : strong javelin = Falstaff : full staff, big, and so 
needing a strong wielder. 

German : spearman = Garcilasso, Gerard, Giradin, Gar- 
RATT, Gerold, Jerrold, Giraldi : all shook the glittering 
spear or launched the fatal lance. 

Edgar, Odgers : happy spear, good spear man, con. Al- 
lorfial. 

Ledger (leod gar) : spear of the people =: Tiger. 

Gorman (major 0): spear man = Hasty, Gore (house) = 
Speirs. a bull gores like a warrior going at his foe with gar. 
He acts hastily who does as the Hasta : spear, moves. 

Qttirinus, Cyrenius: spear man, whence Quirites = Ger- 
mans. 

Gerram, Jerram, Jerome (Prague) : spear raven. These 
suggest Will 

Shakespeare = Pallas : she who brandishes the spear, con. 
Ball = 

Gertrl^de : spear maiden, an amazon. These correspond to 
Wagstaff (wag con. wage, in wage war), Bickerstaff 
(" Tattler ") who bickers, fights spear armed. 

Breakspear (Adrian IV.): breaker of enemy's staff. Spike 
gives pike, whence 

PiCTON (general) : great pike = Falstaff, Pike : spike 
nosed fish. The Picts here and the Pictones across the sea 
giving name to Picard and Poictiers = Germans. But Pike = 
Speirs. 

Rocket: spear blunted for jousting, as lancer's ball does 
lances when off duty. " We shall be at Saynt Ingylbertes, in 
the marches of Calays, the twenty day of the moneth of May 
next commyng, and there contynewe thirty dayes complete, 
the Fridayes onely excepte, and to deliuer all manner of 
Knightes and squyers, gentlemen, strangers of any manner of 
nacyon. whatsoever they be, that wyll come thyder, for the 
breakynge of fyve speares, outher rockettes, or sharp, at their 
pleasure." 

Rocket = Spon (Jacob) for Espon, a form of Espadon : great 
sword, claymore, con. 

Spada : swordsman, giving EsPiE or Espee, con. Spade (at 



WAR NAMES. 215 



cards), originally a sword. Rocket (fireworks), so called from 
gliding through the air like a spear. 

Rocket: stone-tipped spear = Axe, from Saxuin : a rock, like 
Hack, Haco (king) : stone axe bearer = Halbardier : carrier of 
broad rock axe. 

Spon = Pickles : little pike. Add to this great company of 
spearmen 

RUDIGER : famous spearman = Doryclus : glorious spearman , 
gives RuGGiERO, Rodger, Rogers, and by a Saxonic twist, 
Hodge, Hodges: a countryman, as Rodger: a fiddler. 

Beranger (poet) : hearing gar, spearman, Berengarius = 
Spike, Pike (Early Piety). ' 

Athelgar, Adelgar, Aug£REAU : noble spear, who uses it 
cleverly = Garlic. 

Leodigarius: people's spear man = Tiger, gives Leger (St.) 
and con. (Mc)Leod. 

WiGHTGAR : strong spear man = Wagstaff and Falstaff. 

WiSGAR, Whisker, Whiskix : wise at spear, wielding it 
scientifically. 

Singer (sewing) for Isengar : iron spear, as Isembard : iron 
sword, as 

ISENMANN : iron man, worker. Names pointing to introduc- 
tion of metal. But 

Sangster (umbrella): a singer, chorister, correctly applied 
to a woman. 

WiTGAR (Wid : wood) : using a wooden spear charred to 
harden it. 

Sprott, Spratt, Sprout are formed on spear, and mean 
spearmen, 

Argar : brass spear, transitional between stone and iron. 

Hastifraga: spear breaker = Breakspear (Nicolas). By 
some 

Pilate: man of pila, dart = DowDS. Shave, to make 
smooth, gives Shaft : shaven. 

Shafto (Adair) : who fights with a polished spear, a Paris 
carpet knight. 

Shaftesbury: town of Shafto, Gar: a spear, gives Gorse : 
prickly plant. Gooseberry is gorseberry. Garlic : spear onion 
(leek). War, then, meant with Germans, French, Spanish, and 
Italians fighting with the spear ; what was its Greek meaning ? 
its Roman ? 

Polemos : war, is from Palame : the hand, our palm, a tree 
was so called because its leaves were hand-shaped, while its 
fruit was called Date: the finger. Polemos was a hand-to-hand 
combat, a line of pugilistic encounters = 

Bellum for Duellum, from Duo : two, simultaneous duels 
along the line, all. 



216 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Palemon, Polemon (teetotaller), Ptolemy : warriors all, 
polemical men in a non-theological sense. 

Hanlon (Irish): champion =:Campiox, Kemper: fighters on 
the champagne. 

Thomas A'Kempis : Thomas of the field. 

Neoptolemos (son of Achilles) : recruit, tyro, new soldier = 
Cadogan, Sigourney (Mrs.), con. Sigga, ney for new. No 
two words can more accurately answer to each other than 
Neoptolemos (Neos : new) of the Greeks and Sigourney of 
the Germans. Cadogan for Cath: war, and Eogan: son, young, 
new. These — Inchbald: bold son, and Ingrey (Ing: son, Heer, 
Her : army) : son of the army, a brave warrior. 

Bellona: bellatrix, amazon = Hilda, Nanni, Tora, fern, of 
Thor. 

Bash (con. push), Pashler, Brash (con. bray) : strikers 
with such force as to break to pieces = 

Osman (pacha), Othman, Ottoman (empire), Osmanli 
(troops) = 

Ossifrage and Osprey : birds breaking the bones = 

Brisbane: bruise bones, crusher, a Saxon foot- soldier, con. 
Avith Milesian, 

(O)Brislaine: sw^ord breaker (Briseur = PASH, Bash, con. 
debris), con. 

(O)Laine, Laney : an Irish swordsman. Lanista : a fencing 
master, who drills gladiators. " Stands colossus-wise, weaving 
his beam upon the pashecl corses." " Bray a fool in a mortar." 
Bread : brayed between stones. From Here : a band of above 
thirty-five, we derive names of places and persons, as 

Hereward (last of Saxons) : army guard. Hereford : 
army ford. Harwick : army station. 

Herman, Harmer (vir) : army man, gives Arminius : a 
soldier. 

Otter : army terror. Luders (general) : army famous, 
talk of the camp. 

Walter : pow^erful w^arrior, becomes Voltaire, Gualterio, 
Wat, Watts, (Mc)Ouat. 

Renier, Rayner {con. rego) : army ruler = Horrox, 
HoRROCKS (cotton). 

Herimar : glory of the army, answering to the Greek w^ar 
name Stratocles. 

Heriot : furniture provider for army. Hargraves : army 
steward, commissary. 

Harold (herewald) : generalissimo = Phicol, Archimedes. 

Arioyistus : army prince, con. Herring : fish going in 
armies, shoals, schools. 

Punchion (Rev.) : a swordsman, con. Poignard, but some- 
times a form of 



WAB NAMES. 217 



PuNSHON : living at or near sign of pvunchion, barrel. 

Chrysaor (ChiiTKBra's father) : golden sword, wearing an 
ornamented = Brandaur. 

Dudgeon: large dagger = Claymore (glaive mor), great 
offence, one easily huffed. 

SoFUK (Persian): a swordsman = Clinging, con. sabre, 
sepoy, sabaoth. '• He threw himself upon Soful:, and clinging 
to his neck covered his cheek and beard with kisses." 

Meek : a swordsman, con. Mece : a sword, con. Machomai : 
I fight, varies to 

Mechi (model farm), Meeking : son of Meek, M'Micking: 
son of Meeking. 

Meton (metonic cycle) : a swordsman = COLGAN. In some 
families 

Brand : a sword, then applied to user, from it, Brandish : 
to flash as though burning. In this sense Brand = Dagger : 
flashing like day. In some cases 

Brand : a brander of herring barrels. 

Sword : a swordsman = Sefi, Sigga : sabreur. 

Martel (Charles) : a hammer, breaker through ranks of foes = 

Louverture (Toussaint) : the opener = Maccabeus (Judas), 
Hele.ai, Maule. " The sons of his brother Helem." 

Talleyrand (diplomatist) : who cuts through ranks of the 
enemy. 

Cox : cuish wearer, thigh armour, con. Quixote (Don). 
But Box : box maker, — 

" I saw young Harry with his beaver on, 
His cuisses on his thighs, gallantly armed." 

Yeoman : yew bowman, Yemans, Hemans (Felicia), 

EiMMINGS. 

Larcher: the archer = (Mc)Iver and Shadbolt: who sheds 
arrows from a cross bow. 

Bolt : an arrow, from Ballo : I throw. Bolt upright, straight 
as an arrow. 

.A.LABASTER (arcu balister) : throws arrows by a machine, 
bow, medieval artillery man. This cor. to Bolster. 

Artillery from Arcus : a bow, arc shaped, Telum : a dart, 
from Tele: distant. "Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad." 

Telemachus : fighting at a distance, unlike Nelson, who 
gave signal for close action. 

Benbow (admiral) looks hendboiu==Toxi crate: powerful at 
bow = Strongbow, but is Italian, being 

Bembo (bene) = Boniface : well doing, beneficent = Duguid 
the op. of 

Malvolio : evil visaged, malevolent. Sometimes the name 
is local when 
15 



218 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Bembo (pen, ben) : peaks of hills where cows are grazed. 

Saker : an artillerist working a gun called saker from a 
bird of the hawk kind. 

Laurence: laurel crowned = Bays, Lorenzo, Rienzi (last 
tribune), Renzoni (great), (Mc)Laren, Maclaurin, Larkins, 
Larry, Lawrie, Loretto (little). Lawrence = 

Stephen, Stephanus : a crown, primarily a hill top, con. 
Steep : a brae. Step : by which we surmount. Steeple : a 
spire hill high. So Arabic Tag, Dagh means either a crown 
or a hill top. Daghistan : hill country, con. Dacian, Dane. In 
French names Bre answers to our Bray, Brae as in Brebceuf 
(missioner) : cattle hill, suggesting HoRSFALL. 

Tag Mahal : crown of the harem, queen of beauty. Stephen 
gives Esteban, Stevens, Stepney : Stephenshithe, hide, 
harbour where .ships hide from storms = Hoff, HafF. 

Kron, Crone, Crantz : crowned, Rosencrantz : rose 
crowned, — 

*' Welcome, dear Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ! 
Moreover that we much did long to see you, 
The need we have to use you did provoke 
Our hasty sending." 

Guildenstern : golden star, a crusader carrying on his 
shield a star in memory of the Bethlehem one appearing to 
wise men. But 

Oxenstiern : carrying a bulUs head and raven on shield. 

Stern : a raven, con. Stare : to look closely. Starling : 
staring (bird). 

Oliver : crowned with olive, Olympic victor, one of cales- 
ej^hanoL By some this gives Olivant, Oliphant. 

Olivarez : son of Oliveif = Bolivar (Ben Oliver), whence 
Bolivia, S. A. These = 

Bell (when not Norman from La Bel : the handsome) : who 
carries off' the bell, prize. This bell figures largely on sign- 
boards. Many rustic signs are copies of armorial bearings 
whose reason for being lies in the inability of the masses to 
read. A lion on a shield meant : / fought like a lion in the 
holy ivars ; a cross : / bore arms as a crusader. 

Rothschild: red shield: I was ^uounded. So public house 
signs, a horse: travellers accommodated ivith stabling ; a bunch 
of grapes : Here ive sell ivine. Some can read writing, more 
can read printing, all can read painting. 

Rand, Randle, Range (con. round) : a shield — -Vander- 
CHiLD: of the shield = Childs for Shields. 

BoRD (when English): big shield bearer, co'^-. broad = Skey, 
con. Sky : a cover. 

ToRQUATUS (Manlius) : wearing torque, allied to contortion, 
it was wreath work for the neck. 



WAR NAMES. 219 



Lysander (admiral): loosed man = Freeman = Priam (Troy): 
I'ansomed = Liberius (pope). 

Ransom (plough) : sum rendered for a captive, con. Rent : 
rendered for place hired = 

Padon: redeemed, bong-ht back {d euphonic). "The children 
of Padon were Nethinim." 

Hassan (favourite in Arabia, Persia, Turkey) : slasher, 
slaughter, con. Assassinate : to slay in fight, now means 
murder = Slagg, Slogg. 

Roadman (Ruad : noised, of whom a row, noise is made) : 
a glorious man = Oleander and Ludovio. 

Roland for Hruodland : the country's glory, becomes 
Orlando, as 

Orlando Furioso : Roland the raging. Its English is 

Rowland. "A Roland for his Oliver" = " Tit for tat." 
Roland = Patroclus, Cleopatra. 

Lambert (Simnel) : land brightness, country's hope. 

Christopher : Christ carrier, not as Ignatius was surnamed 

Theophorus : God bringer, subjectively, but bearer of 
standard emblazoned with image of Christ. It gives CosTOR- 
phine, Chrystie, Chrystal, Cristoval, Stoffel, Stofflet, 
Tuff, Tuffil (when not from Teufel), Kit (tanner),- Kitts 
(St.), Keats (poet), Kitto, unless that dates to the Phenician 
times (tin), meaning cassia seller. 

Vane (when not from Bane) (Sir Harry): a standard 
bearer = Alighieri (Dante) and 

Alafiepi (poet) : bearer of standard with lulng on it, Ala 
gero = a]a fero. 

Bannerman : a warrior under a ban, curse, if he forsook his 
standard, sacramentum. 

Pennant (when not local) : pennon bearer, Pendo : I hang. 
Pennon : a steamer. 

Pantaleone is a terrific name, the Pan as in Panther : very 
wild beast (pan in sense of perl), and so means very lion like. 
There is a church in Rome dedicated to >S'^. Pantaleone. It is 
given as lion planter, a Venetian soldier carrying the standard 
of St. Mark, but the name is far older than the republic of 
San Marco. An actor in a pantomime is called the 

Pantaloon from wearing a caricature of the breeks of the 
saint or the soldier, — 

" Bring out his mallard, and eft-soons 
Beshake bis shaggy jja7i^aZoo?is." 

From this word the Yankees call each lady wearing the 
Bloomer costume o, pantalunatic. 

Der.mot (Mc), Diarmid (Mc), Dermid : a troop, then troop- 
leader = Gad. 



220 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

GuNN : war, a man of war, gives Gonzales (salus) : saved 
in combat, Gunter, Gonzalo, but Gun is a form of engine, and 
GUNTON, cor. form of Gunn-stein : war stone, jewel of a 
fighter. But 

Brimstone is a form of Bernstein : a mountain frequented 
by bears, living on. 

CiTNDEL : war bold. Gumprecht, Gompertz : war bright 
= Cleomachus: glorious fighter. And the odd name Gumboil 
is formed on Gumbold : bold in war. Hence, too, Gundy : a 
man of war = Chatto, Hatto, Hatt, co7i. Chad, Oath : war as 
in Cathie, Cathlin and Cadogan, soldiers three. Cadell, 
Cattle : war-like. 

Casswallawn : defence of tribe, in Latinised form Casi- 
VELAUNUS. The Romans had a harmless habit of softening 
hard names. 

Cathlin : war eyed, sparkling eyed, Cahill, Kathleen 
(mavourneen). 

Stitt, Stead, Steady, Stott, Stout : steady in battle 
array, unmoved by the foe charging. 

NoTH : bold, audacious, Nutt (commodore), Nutter, 
warriors both. 

WooLNOTH : bold wolf, courageous Saxon warrior. 
Hegistratus, StRxVtegus : army leader = Hertogh, con. 
Stratagem : plan to lead an arrny out of a difficulty. 

Duke, Duce, Duck, Douce : a leader, Duckett : young 
Duke or leader. Ducat : ducal money. 

Satrap (Persian), this name or title from Chatrapa : um- 
brella lord, shade of state. The cha for shah. 

" Leotychides, being desired by a Samian to wage war against 
the Persians, enquired his name : the Samian replied that it 
was Hegistratus.' Then Leotychides answered, ' I embrace 
the omen of Hegistratus.'" This is a species of fortune telling- 
called Onomantia : finding the future by names. It was common 
throughout Greece and the East (and still is in the latter) 
where a chance spoken name decided deliberations. " The 
historian Ferishta relates that Homaypon, being one day on a 
hunting party, told several of his nobles that he was uneasy 
in his mind regarding Hindostan. One of those who were in 
favour of the enterjorise (renewal of invasion) observed that 
there was an old method of divination, by sending a person 
forward who should ask the names of three individuals whom 
he first met, by which a conclusion, good or bad, might be 
drawn. The king being naturally superstitious, humoured the 
fancy, and sent three horsemen in front with directions to 
come back and communicate to him the answers they should 
receive. The first horseman who returned said he met a 
traveller named 



WAR NAMES. 221 



DowLAT : empire; the second met a man who called himself 

MooRAD : good fortune ; and the third was saluted by a 
villager who bore the no less encouraging appellation of 

Saadut : the object of desire. Thus cheered by Fate, 
Homayoon assembled his forces, which amounted to no less 
than 15,000 horse, and being immediately joined by large 
numbers of the inhabitants of the Punjaub, he carried every- 
thing before him." 

Leotychides : son of Leotychus : con. Eutychus, and 
means one who has the luck of a lion, i.e., gets his prey. 

Ferishta for Faristan : a native of Fars. 

MooRAD is better known by Murad, Murat, Amurath = 
Said, Gluck, Jamin, Gad, Eutychus, Felix, Long (when 
Chinese) and Fortunatus. 

Murat (in some cases) : who won a mural crown made of 
grass of a city besieged. 

" Sefi, king of Persia, was unfortunate in all his undertakings; 
his country suffered from pestilence, treading on the heels of 
famine. His mollahs thought it advisable to counsel a change 
of name from 

Sefi : a sabre, to that of Solyman. He was then crowned 
as though Sefi was dead, which royal fiction was carried out 
by destroying all seals and deeds of ofhce in the name of the 
late king." 

Solyman : peaceful = Salem (Bey), with a traditional flavour 
of the glory of Solomon. To retreat from east to west, Cath, 
Cad : war, gives 

Cattanach : a warrior, Calgach : fierce warrior, Latinised 
Galgacus. 

Cadwaladyr: glory of the army = Stratocles,Cleostratus. 

Cateran : a robber, harrier, as Harry, Merode, Katrine 
Loch : lake frequented by robbers = Axine. 

Cat, Casey (corporal) are from Cath, and mean a soldier. 

A.LPHEUS : a leader, strong as a bull, from A, Greek, whence 
alphabet, A B, and Elephant : first animal as to size. 

Beith : the birch, b of the Celtic alphabet. 

Coll : the hazel, c of Celts. 

Labda (daughter of Amphion) : from A of Greeks, she bore 

Cypselus : a chest, cun. Apocalypse : uncovering the ark. 
So called because hidden in a chest from assassins. 

Nun, Non from the Hebrew :, whose sign was a fish, sym- 
bolising fruitfulness. 

PUAH, /em. of S : a mouth, awfully talkative woman; the 
Greek is n, from the Hebrew. 

Posh, in Hebrew "i (our r), in Greek P, the dog's letter, 
means a head, gives Pashi (rabbi), and in geography Posetta : 
capital of Delta, Pas : a cape. Its fern, is the beautiful 



222 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

RoxANA, RosHENA (bride of Alexander) : Sara, Martha, 
Creusa, "O Goo-, rosh of Meschech and Tubal." From Caph (3), 
Egyptian and Hebrew, K of the Greek, our K, the symbol of 
power, represented by an arm (" To whom is the arm of the 
Lord revealed"), gives 

Cepheus (king of Ethiopia) : powerful. Such names all 
mean of high antiquity, of an ancient and presumably hon- 
ourable stock, as the old Erse. 

(St.) Elmo, from the elm answering to our A, being spelled 
ailm. 

GwYDER : wooder, learned in Celtic, taken from trees. We 
now leave letters to come back to soldiers. 

Agesilaus : people's leader = MEx\elaus : people's strength = 
the deathless, 

Demosthenes, Folkhart : hardness of the folk = the Roman 
stump orator, 

Publicola: cultivator of piJjlic good. Aristodemus : an 
aristocY&t, best of the people. 

Demas (sometimes viewed as a cor. of Demetrius) : a ple- 
bian = Folks, Dodds, Ladds, Vokes. 

Lewis (British) from Llew : lux, light-giving. 

Llewel : who uses his sword like lightning, whence Llew- 
ellyn (kmg). 

Chlodowig, Ludovic : famous victor, literal meaning, hmd 
about his victories, gives Louis, Louisa, Clovis, Lots, Loyson 
(Pere Hyacinth) : son of Louis, or from Eligius. Chlodowig 
also gives Luther, Lothario (the gay), Clotaire, Lorraine : 
kingdom of Lotharius. 

Casimir (king): celebrated warrior. Engelman= young 
warrior = Cadogan. 

Archibald, usually taken to mean hold archer, is a form of 
ERfJHENBOLD : free, open, sincere, fearless. 

SiGBRAND (seco) : conquering sword, Sibbald : conquering 
prince. 

SiCKMAN : victorious man in a combat. 

Gildan : to pay dues, Guildhall : where paid, gives 

Giles (when not a goat): a pledged warrior = Gage, Wager, 
Wages : engaged to fight. The Scandinavian pledge being in 
silver, he who gave it was called 

SiLVERSiDE or Whiteside (white money), to this class add 
Handyside. 

Gilbert : glorious warrior, whence Gilpin (John), Gibbon 
(great), GiPP ('s land). 

Sturmer, Starmer : who storms, violently attacks = 

Gervas (gar fuss) : eager to fight, Jervis, Jarvey. Fuss 
meant impetuosity. 

Scrymgeour : skirmisher, good in a scrimmage 



WAR NAMES. 223 



Alexander : man helper, saving in battle = Soter, Sozo- 
MON : saviour, gives Alick, Alley (Sloper), Alisox (M')Alis- 
TER, Callister, Sanderson (last four : son of Alexander), 
Hallack, Alasdair, Adair when not an oak) Saunders, 
Sandy, Scanderbeg : bey Alexander, Iskaxder, Alessandro 
(Gavazzi). 

Alexis : a helper, Alexius : son of Alexis, Russo-Greek, 
suggests 

Epicurus (epicurean) : a helper = Bcethius (Consolations of 
Philosophy). 

Onosander: man helper = Sosthenes : strong saviour = 

Socrates : a strong one saving another as he did Aleibiades. 

Raymond, Rayment (con. Rince : to cleanse) Muntz (M.P.) : 
pure, protector. 

CoNCOBHAR, Connor (ancient Irish) : helping warriors. 

Edmund : happy defender, Edmonds, Muxcy, Munns. 

Bermuda (islands) for Bermuxda: pure protector = Ray- 
MOXD. Ber corresponds to Greek Peri and Latin Verus : true. 

Ahiezer : brother of help, aid bringer, Ezra, Esdras : helper. 

Merode (Fr. statesman): a marauder, invader, raider = 
Harry, whence Harrigax : young Harry. 

Herapath (Here : an army, and pad, as though padded for 
fight) : mailed. 

Albemarle, Aumale: white mail, contrasts with Black 
Prince, who wore dark. 

" Now, God be praised, the day is ours ! Mayenne hath turn'd his rein, 
D' Aumale hatli cried for quarter, the Flemish count is slain." 

(Mack)Harxess (bishop) : harness wearer, armour, from 
Orno : I adorn. " Let not him that putteth on the harness 
boast." Hence " harnish plaid." 

Beauharxois (Josephine) : beautiful armour wearer. 

Aldhelm : old helmet, veteran. Brighthelm : burnished 
helmet, young soldier, gives Brighthelmstone (town), Brighton. 

Croxhelm : crested helmet. Helm : to cover. Helmet : a 
covering. Overwhelm : to cover completely. Collard : high 
helmet. 

Leucaspis : white shield, silver buckler. Rothschild : red 
shield. Though this is a German Jewish name, the Jew, as 
such, knows no such appellation. Such names were adopted to 
veil origin and evade persecution. Thus 

MoRTARA (Edgar, boy) : polony maker, from Morta : dead 
flesh. No Jew ever worked thereat. The word polony is 
from Bologna. 

Pevexsey (Norman chief) : little shield (parvis), hence bold, 
taking little shelter. 

Skioldixg, Scoldixg : son of a shield, brave defender. 
When the aboriginal warriors went into action they smote 



224 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

their 'shield with their sword and cried aloud. This was 
scolding. If not followed by bravery was called swash- 
bucklering. So Skey {co7i. Sky : that covers) : a shield. 

^GIDIUS : son of the goatskin shield of Minerva, under her 
protection. 

FoRTESCUE: strong shield. SCUDAMORE : shield of love = 
Alexander, Connor. 

Squires, Esquire : scutifer, shield bearer to a knight. 

Bernicius, Bernice : bringing victory = NiCEPHORUS : who 
coming up the battle is won. 

SoPHRONiCUS : conquering by generalship. Sophonisba : of 
a wise life. 

Sophia (St.), Sofy : wisdom. Philosophy : love of wisdom, 
con. 

Sophron, Sempronius : sound minded, con. EuphrosynEj 
Phryne, phrensy. 

Eunice, fern, of Eunicius: good victory = Goodwin, God- 
win (sands). 

NicocLES, Cleonicus : glorious victory, great and un- 
expected = SiGBERT. 

Almanzor : the victorious, Anicetus : invincible = Unwin : 
not to be won. The pythoness at Delphi said to Alexander, 
" Ei anicetus : " thou art unconquerable. 

NioiAS : victorious = Sigga, Victor (Hugo), Alcuin (taught 
Charlemagne): all win, PoLYNiCES: many victories, Eupolemos : 
good fighter. 

Edwin {con. ocl in allodial) : happy victor, giving Gudin 
(conjurer), GuDiNOT (general) : little Edwin. 

Edward : happy guard, successful defender, becomes Edart, 
Ned, Neddy: an ass, Ted, Yeddie, Peddie (Dick, when not 
formed on Peed). Duarte (king) and Edouart (Exeter Hall 
fame), these = 

SiGiSMUND, SiMMONDS, SlSMEY : victorious defender, wrong- 
fully given victorious mouth, i.e., persuading in council = 
Pythagoras. 

Vincent, Vincenzio, Chune, Nicanor, Sigga, Sickman : 
victorious. Sycamore (more : great) : great conqueror. 

Thrasonicus : bold conqueror, who shouts and fights, hence 
Thrasonical : boastful. 

Ball (John, mad priest), Balls, Thraseus, Hard, Hardy : 
bold, a variation of Bald : stripped for battle. 

Hardtmuth: high spirited, of a bold nature = Archibald. 

Hardicanute: Canute the bold. Ballard: of a bold 
nature. 

Mustard (Betsy) : of a strong constitution, a game fighter, 
con. May : power : Must. 

Leopold (leod) : bold people ; so Dyball, Rumbold : famous 
for bravery (rumour). 



WAB NAMES. 225 



Meroveus (mer, mor and veus for wig) : great conqueror. 

Thrasymachus (pupil of Plato): bold fighter = Barnacle. 

Nicolas, Nicholas: conqueror of the people, gives Nico- 
laitanes : followers of Nicolas of Antioch, Cole, Colet, 
Collette (when not acolyte), Colenzo, Nicot (Nicotin : 
one so named introduced tobacco into France), NiX (bishop of 
Norwich;, from it, while the following are his sons — CoULSON, 
Collings, Clausewitz. To these we may add the children's 
pet, 

Santa Klaus : saint Nicholas, if not Klaus : enclosed, a 
hermit. And add we must the Dutchman, Mynheer Closh. 

Nicodemus : conqueror of the people. Laos and Demos 
differ in, the latter implying the confederation of the people, 
from Deo : I bind, whereas Laos is people without reference 
to politics, giving Lay, Laity : non clerics, Lewd : vulgar. 

Caligula (emperor) : buskin wearer = Ledderhose : leather 
leggings, con. 

Maclehose : much, muckle hose, baggy leggings. Gallipoli : 
Caligula's city. 

Caracalla (casa). " The caracalla was a long garment 
like the habit of a modern monk, sometimes with and some- 
times without a cowl." Suggests 

Patch : wearing party coloured clothing = Motley (historian). 
" Patch was the court name of a fool kept by Cardinal Wolsey. 
He has had the honour of transmitting his name to a numerous 
body of descendants, he being a notable fool in his time." 

Peploe : wearing the j^ejdain as of divine or royal descent 
= Porphyry. Peplomania : madness for dress. But we must 
get nearer war ; so then the following mean chevalier, trooper, 
or knight, viz. : — 

Hotspur: rough rider. Spohr (Hail, smiling morn): spur 
user = 

HoRSMAN: But HiPPiAS: charioteer, though, literally, son 
of a horse. 

Cheval, Capel (when not from chapel), Philip: good rider. 

Encke (comet) Henchman : riding servant, Hengler, con. 
Hengtst : a stallion, stall horse, from Hang : to depend. 
HoRSA, a mare. 

Eachran, Eghmily: horse soldier (miles), gives Emly = 

JOCKELL. 

ACHAIUS : son of a horse, good rider (each), Achaia : horse 
country, as Italy : cattle country, Spain : rabbit country. 

Caballero (Brazilian general), Epeus (Trojan horse maker), 
Boss (when not local). 

Butter, Byder, Buyter (De), Bitter (Carl): riders all. 
Bechab (Bechabites) : a charioteer = Cormack : son of the 
chariot, Caw, who with 



22G PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

(0) Hara and (M') Ara were British chariot drivers, Essedi : 
sitters in chariot. Beveridge : a knight, so termed from 
wearing Beaver, so called from Bibo : I drink, as horsemen in 
the heat of battle drank thereout. 

Rembrandt Van Rhyn : Rembrandt of the Rhine. 

Rembrandt: king's sword, royal champion = Kemp, Cam- 
pion. 

Eupolemos: good warrior = Calimachus : beautiful fighter, 
handling weapons scientifically. 

Andromachus (burnt by Samaritans): a man in fight, /em., 
Andromache (Hector's wife). 

Androcles : Andrew's glory, Andrew : a man of heroic 
mould, giving Andy, Anderson, and:=MANNUS, Bravo, Beau- 
regard, Wight, Izod, Arba, Ishi. 

Harbonah (eunuch) : warlike = Martin : Mars-like, gives 

LAM:\rARTiNE, Martyn, as also Martinico, Martinique: islands 
so called. 

Lahmi : a warrior, con. Cherdolaomer : servant of Lahmi 
the war god of the Susanim. " Elhanan slew Lahmi the 
brother of Goliath," 

DoLABELLA (consul) : battle axe bearer = Haco, Hacke, 
Hacking : son of either. 

Medon: a commander, /ein., Medusa (head). 

Pal.vmedes (invented dice) : old commander, veteran leader. 

Dio:medes : Jupiter's commander, best generalissimo. 

EuDES (count) : binding well (deo), thoroughly conquering 
= Binder. 

Victor : who binds, from Vieo : I bind. Victim : one bound, 
Vimen : a with, Mons. Viminalis : osier hill, at Rome. From 
EuDEs, Odo (bishops), Odillon : great, Ody, Otho, Otto 
(when not from octo), Odette, Othello : little, Otho, son of. 

HuDiBRAS (con. brace) : conquering arm. Flambard 
(bishop) : a firebrand, flaming sword = Beor and Chaka, 

Flugel (lexicographer) : leader of wing of an army = 
Ahala, con. ala, 

Alighieri : wing bearer, con. Aisle : of a church, 

DuMNORix (iEduan) : possessor of many hills {con. dun). 

Orgetorix (Helvetian) : ruler of a hundred hills (con. 
rego). 

HoGAN, Hagan (0): high protection, God guarded, but 
though so given they seem to come of Eogan in the sense of 
high bred, a son. 

Oscar : bounding warrior, leaping to the fight, gives 
(Mc)Cusker. 

Labouchere (and Bradlaugh) : the butcher. Norman title 
of a general who slew his thousands. 

Boucher (Maid of Kent), Butcher : a warrior from beat. 



WAB NAMES. 227 



bat, a slasher, slayer = Hassan. The trade word conveys a 
modernised sense of it. Butcher, Bottom, each from beat. 

Dhu : black, dark, gives Duncan : dark head, brown haired, 
the same as the Hibernian. 

(The 0)Donaghue, Dunphy, Donovan (Rossa) : black 
white (brain) former, hair latter skin, also Dunn, Duff, Dove 
Dee, Duffy, (Mc)Haffie, Dougan : young Dnu, or Dow. 

DuGALD : dark Gael, ojj. of FiNGAL : fair Gael or stranger. 

Kean: head chief = RosH. Canmore (Malcolm): great 
head, bodily. Kenny (Meadows : head of the island). 

(Mc)Cann : head, an Irish hero who did by his late foe 
what David did to Goliath. Cantankerous : head full of light. 

(Mc)KiNNON, Cannon : fair haired = Flavius, Sorley, 
Saurin. 

Kenmare (nun) : sea head, Kinealy : head of wall fort. 
Can tyre : head land = Ras. 

KiNLOCH: LocHHEAD. KiNNAiRD : Hillhead, may mean 
chief commander =Phicol. 

Kenneth : head of sept, varies to Kennedy, (Mc)Kenzie, 
KiNCAiD : rock head. 

Kentigern : head chief, as Vortigern (mor) : great chief. 

Ratican : living at Rathhead = Kinealy. 

Kinglass : head of stream, con. Glasse, Glassford = Pen- 
gelly. 

Fatican == Longhead, con. Fadyan : long John. The 
tendency to corrupt names can scarcely be better illustrated 
than in the case of 

Radbet [con. Ruad : famous (row) and Bid : to send] : a 
first class messenger, scout, becoming Rabbits. 

SiGVALLADUR : Conquering power. 

GuRNEY (which some make from Gourney) : gar new, going 
into battle fresh with his spear, con. Sigourney, 

Chilperic (a great name) is helj) rich, able to sustain an 
ally. 

Frederick : peace rich, who by complete conquest of foe 
gives a long rest to his country. 

Manfred (may main) : powerful peace, long peace bringer 
by punishing foe so that he cannot rally. 

Kriga: war maker = Creek, Crick : the war whoop giver, 
who cries as he enters battle = Grogan. Cricket proper is of 
the current century, and hence many have been posed as to 
how it could supply the widely spread names. Cricket, 
Crickett, Crickitt. The solution is, these are formations on 
Creek, and mean either son of Creek, or son of war, i.e., a 
brave. But Cricket (on the hearth) : creaking insect. 

Crickmore, Crickmer: great at making war, planning a 
campaign, cleverly. 



228 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

FiNiGUERRA (French) : finished warrior, perfect soldier. 

Sly, Sliman : who slays his enemy when off guard, and yet 
not unfairly, Ulyssian type, con., slay, slit, slot, Slight: to hurt 
one's feelings. 

Mills (when not local) : a medieval title from Miles : a 
soldier, from Mille : a thousand. The minimum Roman army 
was a thousand men, the Teutonic was thirty-five and upwards. 
The former tells of tactics, the latter of pluck. 

Miles : one of the thousand. From Mille our Mile : a 
thousand paces of the legionary soldier. 

ScALiGER (Joseph) : ladder bearer, who scaled the enemy's 
battlements. 

MURAT (cavalry king) : mural crown receiver. The first 
who entered a besieged place was crowned with plaited grass 
that had grown therein while beleagured ; after the campaign 
with a gold crown wall-shaped. 

An astonishing number of warriors derive their names 
from the dog. Now, as the dog is the symbol of contempt 
with us, the fact of its being in high repute formerly 
deserves special attention. The aborigines of many coun- 
tries were greatly aided by dogs in clearing the primeval 
woods of wild animals ; evidently the dog was one of the 
first creatures subjected to the human will. Had Abel a 
collie ? Those early nations observing the pluck of a dog 
in attacking wild beasts when encouraged by the voice of its 
master, and admiring its bottom in keeping up the fight against 
killing odds, generally applied the term dog to their most 
valiant heroes. The Celts termed it cu, con, col, the Hebrews 
Caleb, the Greeks cuon, the Latins canis, the French chein. 
Hence we have 

CuMARA : sea dog, heroic sailor, a regular Blake. So like- 
wise 

Con (of 100 battles) : a dog, whence hundreds of honourable 
names with a currish look, as 

Connel (O), Coilean, Congan, Cunnian, Channing, 
Canning, Cunliffe, Conon, Cuillean (king), shortened to 
Cullen (cardinal), Colin (Campbell), Colquhoun, Calhoun, 
Conan, primarily meant son of dog, i.e., of warlike descent, 
and so = Herring, Finguerola, Wickliffe, Herod, Scolding. 
" Blow for blow, as Conan said to the Devil." Hence, too, 

CooLEY, Colly (when Irish), Cowley : Ulster warrior, dog 
of Ulster, con. 

NuLTY (Mac): an Ulster man. Concobhar, Connor: 
helping warriors. Collie (shepherd's mate) is just Doggie. 
Con. col also gives 

Quain (anatomy), identical with Cuon : a dog, hence QuiN, 
and 



WAR NAMES. 229 



CoNROY : redheaded Con, like Redmond : red Edmond. 
CowiE, Covey : meadow hound, reminding of Lyulph : 
meadow wolf. 

Queen (Mc), Quinlivan : young Quin, Mulqueen : bald 
headed Con, con. 

MuLYON : son of bald head. To this breed add (Mac)ONiE : 
son of a dog. 

CoNNEL forms Conville, which is in peril of being entangled 
with the ville gentry. 

CoNNAL (Glasgow, S.B.) is Highland, meaning shoresman, 
one living where roaring waves, polyphloisbon, great noise of 
the sea, comes. 

CuCHULLiN (Ossian's hero) : dog of Ulster = CooLEY, CoLLY, 
CowLEY. Hence, too, 

CusiN for Cu Sionna : hound of the Shannon, bravest on 
the river. 

The successor of Joshua ben Nun is generally translated 
man of heart, lion like, as though the Co?ur de Lion of the 
Bible, because it was thought intolerable to associate a He- 
brew leader with the despicable dog, so it was crowded out of 
Lib : a lion, whence 

Lebbeus : lion like, but David called his son by about the 
.same. " His second (son) was Chileab, of Abigail," and he 
would not degrade a member of his family by calling him 
after a mere dog. 

Chileab: howler, a dog = Caleb = Cato (noble Roman): a 
whelp, howler, whence 

Catulus : son of a dog, warrior born = Canning. Cane 
(Venetian doge) : a dog = 

Cheyne (Mc), which with many similar names usually given 
as connected with the oak signify a primitive warrior who 
fought gamely against odds, as dogs do against wild beasts. 

Cagnola (canicula) exactly corresponds to Catulus, which 
means young and brave. 

DuRANT, Durante : lasting in the fight, game to the last. 
So the Norman 

Talbot, the Scotch Doig, and the English Doggett (coat 
and badge) : who gave a dogged resistance to the foe. Thorough 
John Bull names. 

Doggart : of a dog's nature, plucky, determinate, take no 
denial. 

Dodge is also a form of dog, meaning game fighter. 

TOKE: raging for fight like a tyke, dog held back. Con. the 
last is the great 

Tycho (Brahe) : a dog, generally given as con. Tuck : a 
cloth worker, but it is a war name. 



230 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Cynosura (Jupiter's nurse) : dog's tail she was changed to 
a star in the constellation Cuon, Sailors accurately observed 
it, whence one attracting attention is called a Cynosure. The 
dog days are when the dogstar is above the horizon of the 
Nile. 

Borrows (Bible in Spain) Borrowman : a hostage, bor- 
rowed by the enemy, a pledge to be returned = Homer. 

MoNSABRE (Pere), a name we might be pardoned for sup- 
posing meant my sivord, i.e., a soldier, he who lives by his 
sabre, really means living on a saluhrioas mount, healthy 
hill. 

Let our rear be brought up by a Russian poet : — Pushkin : 
an artillery man = Alabaster, taken from noise guns make 
when going off, similar to Tic-tick-boo : a gun, so called by 
Polynesians. Thus we call a man a tinker from the tinkling 
he makes. 



( 231 ) 



CHAPTER XIII. 

NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 

Many personal names, especially in modern civilised com- 
munities, are traceable to some craft, profession, or official title 
of the first persons who bore them. No few trades supplying 
.such names have ceased to be followed, hence the names pre- 
serving the knowledge of them have historic value, as they 
give a clearer insight into the past. Moderns are emphasised, 
because the ancients took ill to trade-names, not through want 
of appreciating the dignity of labour on the part of Greek or 
Jew, but because they were unwilling to change a name 
suggesting family honours, sacred relationships, or glorious 
deeds, for one that only levelled them with a workman. 
Moreover, they were affected by the obvious fact that trade 
names are indefinite. Only one man could literally be called 
Jacob, while millions might be named Smith. As might be 
expected, appellatives of this kind are more prevalent amongst 
western nations, where utilitarianism prevails, than with the 
imaginative sons of the east. Hence trade-names are com- 
mon in countries peopled by the Germanic stock, but rare 
among Arabs, Persians, and Jews. Besides, the original one- 
name system was unfavourable to the introduction of trade- 
names, as each man had his name before working at a craft. 
When the primitive usage failed by reason of popular increase, 
the two-name system came in like a flood. This occurred in 
our country mostly in the 13th and 14th centuries, being 
introduced thus. A boy received his name when christened, 
and this distinguished him from neighbouring boys ; but 
nearing manhood, he came into contact with a wide circle of 
fellow mortals, of whom several had the same name as himself. 
His name getting inconveinently mixed with others, in order 
to distinguish him from them, a trade name was added. Say 
the boy was called John, which would be distinctive round 
the door ; as he nears manhood, he meets with others rejoicing 
in the same designation, and his neighbours, knowing he is 
apprenticed to make clothes, call him John the Tailor, but as 
vulgarity is generally laconic, he has to content himself with 
John Taylor, whereby he is distinguished from a neighbour's 
son also named John ; but he being employed in healing 
(covering) houses, is known as John Hulyer : John the 
slater. 



232 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

A Greek infant, when nine days old, was called Aristocles : 
the glory of Aristos. He growing in years, his back grew in 
breadth to an unusual degree, and he was called Plato: broad 
(backed), nearly = the French Petion : broad chested. Plato, 
con. 'pled, fiat, jylatane (trees). 

Amongst the ancients the second name rarely existed with 
the first, but took its place. " Call me not Naomi (pleasant to 
look upon, con. Nain : pleasantly situated) : call me Mary " 
(bitter, born amidst bitter trials, same as Miriam, Maria, and 
the great Miriamne). Observe, she was not called Naomi 
Mara, nor he Aristocles Plato, whereas our trade names were 
parasitical upon what is termed Christian names. The follow- 
ing names are a selection of those, the exposition of which 
may be found instructive and interesting. 

Agricola (who first sailed round Britain) : a ploughman, 
from Ager : a field, an acre, and Colo : I cultivate, whence 
culture, cloivn, colony, colonel, colonial. Acre, con. J.ceWama 
(acre of blood, field bought by blood money). Acres (Bob) : 
living in a field. LiXACRE : flax farmer. Agericus : a field- 
man, anglicised to Airy (astronomer), and Ager, a well known 
English name. Any of these = Hickman, Airman, Ackerman 
and WiNKLEMAN for Swinklelman : who sweats through toil 
= Sue (Eugene) from Sudor : sweat, from Hudor : water, as 
our sweat is formed on wet. Switzerland : land of sweaters, 
labourers = Labrador. Hoffman : a field labourer, whence 
Hovey. Vanderhoff : of the farm, a labourer. 

Peace (Charles), which has so peaceful a look, means a 
landholder, a farmer. It was originally Piece, an elliptical 
expression for a piece of land. It is so found in documents 
granting land and charters dating back to the eighth century. 
Butters : a farmer cultivating meadow land, yielding butter. 
The Irish for a farmer is Scully, as Scullabogue : a barn, the 
farmer's building. Bowman sometimes means an archer, at 
others, is a form of Boorman : who bores the earth. Boor = 
Clown, for colone from colo, whence Colon (Christopher) : a 
cu/-tivator. Thence also Bowers, Bauer, Niebuhr (historian) 
= Neighbour : near boor, so Burly : like a boor. Borland : 
town land belonging to boors = Burleigh (loixl). 

Van Buren: of the cottages = Coates and Cotby. Bord- 
MAN : cottier farmer. Sul : a plough, in the Saxon, gives 
SiLLiMAN : a ploughman = (Mc)Greagh = Tillman : who toils, 
tills. Haeckel (evolutionist) : a field labourer who howks 
and harrows = Harrower. Plews : he who ploughs = Lam- 
plough : land plougher. Farmer is con-j^rm-arius : confirmed 
in his holding by title. Farm is common. Franklin : a free- 
hold farmer = Freyhoffer (spectrum analysis). Bond is of 
Swedish origin, and synonymous with Lanfranc : the free of 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 233 

the land = Freeman : freed man, enfranchised = Colbert for 
con. libertus, who attamed liberty with another = Hodder 
(and Staughton) : a farmer holding allof/ial land. Fremantle 
(frumentum): a corn growing farmer, not a grazier. Travil: 
a labourer working with travail. Travel : to journey on bad 
roads. Carabceuf : who drives a bullock cart = the classic 
Bootes : ox driver. Hind, Hine, Day : day labourers. Hynd- 
MAN = Travil. Hinson: son of Hind, but Hinton (Jack): 
town behind a hill. From Amal : work, the historic ^Emilius: 
a worker, giving Amelia and Emily (not Emma), but Amery 
(Pott & N. Y.), Emery and Amerigo (Vespucci) are from Amal- 
RICH : exalted ruler (ric), as also Imrie, its abbreviated 
form. When Imrie is Gaelic it means butter, supplying king 
therewith. Granger : grain grower. Changarnier (general) 
for champgarnier: raising grain on champagne land. Garner: 
grain storer, granery keeper becomes garner. Drable ((be- 
arable) = Fremantle, Metarius, Myers, one who metes fields, 
land surveyor = Landseer = Rarer from Rap: rope, as in 
Stirrup : rope to rise by, one measuring land with a cord. 
But Roper : rober, and Wardrop : who had charge of the 
king's wardrobe. Metayer (anarchist) is the continent corre- 
spondent to Myers. Lepailleur (Little Sisters of Poor) : 
straw seller. Pallet : a straw bed. Hardman : earth man, 
soil worker = Gardiner, Gardner, Jardine, though the root 
idea in these is Gird, whence yard, girdle, garter, garth. Gars- 
cube, Garscadden. Jardine = Hortensius,'Hortense (Reine), 
Orton : town among gardens = Orville (awful Gardiner). 
Ortolan : a garden bird, but Ortolan : a gardener = GiNNE- 
THON. " Daniel, Glnnethon, Baruch," were sealed. From 
Gen : a garden, whence also En-gannim : garden well, fountain. 
Genesareth : prince's garden, very fruitful. Similarly the 
Irish Garry : a garden, as Garryowen : Owen's garden, like 
Tyrone : Owen's land. Androgeos, Ageso, George : worker 
in earth = Hardman. " I am the vine, and my Father is the 
georgos." Hence Georgics : rural poems. Joury (Crimean 
prince), JouRiSEN : son of George, GiORGONE (Italian), are 
formations on George. 

Husband : house bond, a farmer, who in the Lothians had a 
farm of fixed dimensions. Service or Fairservice is a farmer 
holding land for a service rendered to the king. Wife : a weaver. 
Spinster: daughter who spun. Wife is a living family name, of 
course means a weaver. The name and title Baron : a strong 
man, then husband, gives BiRON (marshal), Byron (poet), 
Baronius (historian), son of Barop. Spurius : a sower, wha 
scatters. Sporades : scattered isles, Sparta : scattered town, not 
built in streets. Serranus, Serrano (Spanish): a sower, allied 
to Serene : weather favourable for sowing, whence serenade. 
16 



234 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Singing does not go off well in a storm. Sereno: a watchman 
who calls out serene weather. Saturn (agricultural god 
whence Saturnalia: rustic festival): a sower = Seji, w^hence 
Sejanus (favourite of Tiberius). Cyamitas : bean-planter. 
Cicero from Cicer : a vetch, field-pea, is generally given as = 
Fitch or Vetch. " Doth not he cast abroad the Jitches ?" But 
the orator was named from having a pea-like excrescence, 
wart, on his nose as had Oliver Cromwell. Batteur : corn 
beater = Thresher and Tasker, giving Batterscomb : 
Batteur's dale, from a Norman family. Faucheur : hay 
maker, working with a falk : scythe, con. Falchion : a great 
sword = Claymore : great glaive. Curran (orator) : a reaping 
hook which an Irishman quickly improvises into a scimitar. 
Alder, Elder, Anax, Alderman = Seignor: seniors, senators, 
elderly men. Aldric : aged ruler, whence Aldersgate. But 
Aldo (Aldine press) : audax, audacious, bold. Aldric = 
Archon from Arche : chief by seniority, gives Tarquin (king). 
Olric, Ulric, Alaric are forms of Athelric : noble ruler = 
Reginmar, Reimer, Raumer, Reimarus : famous ruler. 
Eric (king of Norway) : aye ric, ever king. Ric con. Rego : 
I rule. Rajah, Marajah (magnus rex) : great king = Arta- 
xerxes from Xerxes : a fighting king. Ric is cognate with 
Ree : a king, as in Rene (roy natus) : of royal birth, and 
Imrie. So Macree (widow) : son of a king. Rice, Reece, 
Richard (richard) : stern ruler, giving Rickett, Ricardo, 
Riccarton: Richard's town, Clanricarde, Ritchie, Dick, 
Dixon : son of Dick, Dickens, Deeks, Pritchard : son of 
Richard, as Brice or Bryce and Price : son of Rice. Rego 
also gives Regulus (ambassador to Carthage) : little king, as 
also Rule, Wren (Christopher) and Wren, the little king of 
birds. As Kingfisher : king of fishers, because of its beauty, 
the wren was reckoned king of birds from its prettiness and 
littleness. 

King, Konig, and Conger : men who ken, know, are cun- 
ning. Conger-eel : king of eels. Rex gives Raikes (Sabbath 
School) : a ruler, and Roy gives Royle, Ryle (Liverpool). 
KoNiGSBERG = Kingston. But Leroy : head of a corporation, 
while the too well known Lefroy : the cool, frigid. Vor- 
tigern : excellent chief = Sapor (Persian king) for shah-poor: 
great king. Pasha, Bashaw: king's foot.' Officers of the 
Shah named from his members as Vizier, called his eye. From 
Shah, Sheik: petty king. Chess, Check: king. Check-mate: 
dead king. Chess: game of kings. Ric conjoined with Theod : 
people, gives the dread Theoderic: ruler of the people, whence 
Thiery, Terry, Derrick, Diack. Dyball : of a bold people, 
brave. But Roderick : famous ruler, giving Rory (of the 
hills), Cuidad Roderigo : city of Roderic. These must not 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 235 

be confused with Theodosius : ^-ift of God, whence Theodore 
and Tudor (house of), as also D'Orsey (Count). 

Theodosius transposed gives Dorothy, Dolly (Dobson). 
Theodorus, Dorothy, Theox>osia, Theodotus, Deodanda, 
apply to children earnestly desired, and so = Desiderius : 
desiderated = Samuel : asked of God, Saul : asked (of God). 
Theod : people, gives Theobald : of a bold people, ah. to 
Dyball, which cor. to Dibble. Tidyman, Tidy: of the people 
= Folks, Ffoulkes, Fouche, forms of vulgus, and allied to 
Belgii : populous, giving Belgium. Publius: son of the people. 
PuBLicoLA: who cultWsite& the good will of the people. Theod 
also gives Teuton or Teutones : multitudinous = Eelgii. DoDD, 
DoDDS, DiETZ (Ella): one of the Theod. Doddrell : Dodd 
of the hill. Doddington : town of his descendants. Diet : 
popular assembly. So the Danish (Mc)Leod : one of the 
people. Leatherhead (which has puzzled thousands) is from 
Leod : people, and Rede : council, being a thousand years since 
a popular consultation spot like Wittanagemot : witty man's 
meeting. Reginald : the power of judgment, giving Rey- 
nolds, Renolf, Ronald, Clanranald, Rennie. From 
Kratos : power, Kraft : powerful. Craft : ability to follow a 
trade. 

Despotes: foot binder, having power to put in fetters, 
governing without consulting governed, a despot. PosiDEON 
(Neptune) : same reversed, as sea water binds the feet, 
impedes motion. Despotes = KuRios : lord, from Kir : a 
city, meaning city king. From Kurios we have Kirk : 
house (oikos) of the Lord. Selkirk : great church = 
Templemore. Kirke: living near a church, or having charge 
of one = Iglesias (& Montero) our Eccles. Cyrus : lord, 
Cyria : a lady (ii John 1.) CiD (Spanish) : lord of city. 
Caliph: an Aleph : first man = Alpheus = Prince: princeps, 
primus capio, Avho takes first place. Bretwald : wide ruling, 
wielding = Eurynome. Basileus: basis of the laity, founda- 
tion of the people, a king, Basil (St.), and Basle (city) are 
contractions of it. Basilisk = Regulus : little king, crowned 
snake, whence Fascinate : to catch the eye as serpents do. 
Basilicon : royal house, cathedral. Tyrannus (a castle 
governor, con. Turra) : a king. Tyrant and Despot now used 
only in a bad sense, but not so originally. " Disputing daily 
in the school of one r^7'a7inus" = discussing in Mr. King's 
school-room. (Luke ii. 29) : " Despot, now Thou lettest Thy 
servant depart in peace." Lister, List : preparer of lists, — 

" Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom 
That they may break his foaming courser's back, 
And throw the rider headlong in the listsJ" 



236 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

But LiTSTER : a dyer, who puts clothes in ley, lith. Buttress, 
Butt (Isaac) : setters up of butts, targets. Butt : hide of a 
budd. SoURBUTTS : who scars the butts with his arrow, a 
good archer. Target : a shield, from Tergum : a hide, from 
Tego : I cover. Budd = Metcalf, Medcalf : meadow calf = 
Sturrocks, from steer, stirk. Verstegan : keeper of a strong- 
hold = Holder, Holden. Holding : son of Holder, Bolden : 
son of Holden. Ark (con. Archives: documents kept in an 
ark like the decalogue). Arkwright: chestmaker = KiSTNER: 
chestner, made meal chests. Byng (admiral) : bing maker. 
Thrower: thread maker = Limeweaver, Thread: throwed in 
making. Bacon (Roger) = Beecher: fed hogs on beech nuts, 
Glander did on acorns = Lardner,Porcher. The latter uncon- 
nected with Poacher : game pocketer. Pocket : a little poke. 
Pucker : to make pokes. Peck : a bag. But Peck, Peek : 
living on a hill = AiRD and Pickwith (peak vicus) = Hilton : 
town on a hill. Hayward, Howard are forms of Hogwarden : 
charge of all hogs in a forest. Howard becomes Hoad, as in 
Hoadly (bishop) : Howard's field, living in. Porcher = 
PoRCius (Festus) and Suarius : sow keeper, Suarez : his 
son. The original Porcher was probably swineherd in the 
New Forest, while the first Porcius possibly kept hogs in the 
Pontine Marshes. Fern. Porcia (Cato's sister, who perished 
by swallowing burning coals). Swain : swineherd, as Suarius. 
SwAiNLAND : frequented by swine. Swindell : swine dale = 
Sugden : frequented by sows. Buckland : beech-tree land 
= Buckowina (Austria). 

CoPELAND : a quay, fair, where merchants deposit wares = 
Copestakes : land staked out for merchandise. Copenhagen : 
merchants' haven. These con. cheap, whence Chepstow : 
market place, Chap : a fellow, a hawker = Chapman : a huck- 
ster = DicKERMAN, Chaff, Chaffey, Coffin, Kaufman 
(general). But Chaffie : baldheaded = Moule, and con. 
Chauvin. Cleveland: cliff land = GARiocH and Folly 
from Fell : a rock, as in Goatsfell. So Raglan : rough land, 
the opposite of Smithfield : smooth field = Snodgrass : 
smoothly cut grass. Snodgrass compares well with Snyder : 
cutter, tailor, and Snap : to cut oft' short. Falkland : fre- 
quented by hawks. Croyland : by crows. Strickland 
(Agnes) : stirk, sturrock land = Cowmeadow = Clontarf, 
and Huxley for Oxley. " They go into college stirks, 
and come out asses." Backler : a janitor = Dorman 
and OsTORius : a door keeper, cor. to Usher, whence 
Lusher (le usher) and Lush. Lushington : the town of 
the son of Lush. Durward (Quintin) : door ward, tyler = 
K'osTER (Lawrence), Coster, Custance : door custodian. 
Yates, Gates, Yett : gate keeper. Hatch : had charge of a 



NAMES DERIVED FBOM TRADES OR TITLES. 237 

gate for deer, not going with hinge, but taken off by a hitch. 
Salmon : saloon keeper, hall door. Calman (caul man), ladies' 
hairdresser. (Is. iii. 13.) Gaylor is a form of jailer. Gush- 
man : cowman, cheese maker. Barbour : beard trimmer, con. 
Barebones : beard bonny, fine bearded. Kepler (astronomer) : 
tanner working kipjjs = Pelletan : skin tanner. Pellissier 
(marshal) : furrier. Barker : who works in bark tan = 
Tanner (faster), — 

" What craftsman art thou, said the king, 
I pray thee tell me, trowe? 
I am a barJier, sir, to my trade ; 
Now tell me what art thou '? " 

Bayle, Bailly, Bailey : a bailiff, meant a protector, from 
Beorgan : to protect, whence Burgh : a walled town, con. bed 
in such names as Balmerino : town on the sea = Seton. Out 
on bail is out under court protection. Hausman (Baron) : 
house bailiff = Voght. Baines, Bannister (Jack) : charge of 
a bath. Having its root in Bain : white, a bath makes white, 
so Ban, Boyne, — 

" No more I do my murthis fayne, 
But in gladness I swym and baine.'^ 

The ending ster denotes fern. gen. Trades to which it is 
affixed were divided into branches, at the lighter of which 
women worked. When through the progress of refinement 
men took their place such branches retained old designations. 
Baker : batch cooker. Baxter : female baker = Cracknell : 
cake baker. " Take with thee ten loaves and cracknels." 
Flanner: pastry baker = Wateau. Mazarin (cardinal) is 
con. Macaroni, and means the same as Wateau and Vatel. 
Coke (lawyer). Cock, Koch (Paul de) : a cook, whence 
Cocker (arithmetician) : one pampered by delicate cookery. 
(Mc)Dade: kneader. Baker = the Roman Pistorius (Joseph), 
Italian Fornarius : man of the furnace, and the Normans 
had' BuLLiNGER (Reformer) : a baker, whence Pullinger. 
Brewer: con. brose, broth, hreweth, gives Brewster = 
M'Grouther : the king's brewer to a Celtic king. Chaloner : 
woollen weaver, con. Chalons-sur-Marne. Weaver, Weber 
(Der Freischutz). Webb give Webster (Daniel) : weaver of 
light goods. Whib, Whipps, Whipperman : a weaver, luhips 
the shuttle from side to side. Whibley : the weavers' field. 
There being no heavy department to spinning, we have no 
man named Spinner, and as surnames of women are absorbed 
in those of their husband's, no woman can be named Spinster, 
that being generic for a maid, but we have Clotho (Fates) : 
spinner, con. cloth ; and Wife is a family name. In the Irish 
we find Sheddy, Shedden : silk weavers. The same ancient 



238 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

language supplies us with Coghill : net weaver. Sleeman 
(Thugs) : slaie maker = Reedman : weaver's reed maker. 
LiNGARD (D.D.) : worker of lingerie, napery, linen. Lanyer : 
wool worker, con. Lanimer Fair. Tilley : a first rate weaver, 
con. Subtile : cleverly done under the loom. Blacker 
(Stewart): bleacher = Whitster : who makes white. Beckner 
(Volney), Bucer (reformer), Booker : writer on beechwood, 
learned, a book worm = ScRiBONius, Scrivener, Schrevalius: 
scribes. Saphir (Rev.) : man of books. Sepharvaim : city of 
books. We not only have Booker but Bookless. The 
less in this name is con. Lacy : learned, so that, instead 
of meaning minus books, Bookless : book learned ; but 
librarian. Orders : who hoards, a treasurer = Hoard and 
as Boc : a beech, Bookless strangely answers to Gwyder : 
learned in wood. Consult Gwyder. Bochart : book herd, 
Kammerer. Porteous : made manuals, books portable by 
hand. Paternoster (common in Bedfordshire) : made 
rosaries, rows of beads on which they bid the Lord's prayer. 
The trade was formerly strong in Paternoster Row. Biddle, 
Boodle, Bedell : prayer men who told their beads often. 
Bede (venerable). Badman, Monboddo : men of beads. Bid 
now means to command, then to pray, Badman, Bonomi, 
Bon HAM (bonus homo) = GoTHER (bishop), Goodman, Goth- 
man, HoLYBAD, and Goodchild. But Horatio, Horace, 
often given as meaning prayerful, from Oro : I pray, whence 
Adore : to kiss, as adoration was putting mouth to object 
of worship, is from Oratos : aspectable, men to whom we 
look as having marks of superiority, like Beauregard, Mira- 
BEAU. Yet Arabella is undoubtedly a form of Orabella: 
a female religeuse. The poet Horace had a mistress whom 
he called Glycera (con. Glycerine) : sweet one = Saccha- 
RISSA. Bidwell : sacred spring where prayer was wont to 
be made — (S)Caldwell : fountains wfiere the Scalds sang to 
gods on harps, the memory of which passing away with the 
inbringing of Christianity, folk guessed the word meant cold 
spring. Caldwell assumes the forms Colwell and the 
better known Caudle. (S)Caldwell of the Druidical period 
= Holywell of the Medieval. Got( )BED : worshipper of God 
= Theosebes. Badman = Eusebes : worshipping well, very 
religious, whence EuSEBlUS (historian) : son of Eusebes, of 
pious ancestry = De Sanctis, De Santos: of the saints = De 
Foe : of the faith = Rasselas : of apostolic descent. 

Hosius (president) : holy, dedicated = Enoch. The Glasgow 
St. Enoch is from Thenaw, the mother of St. Kentigern. 
OsiANDER: holy man, devotee = Allgood : hallowed, baptised 
and blessed when that was rare. Male, Mahlmann : a 
painter = PiNTO of the Spanish. Pargiter : a painter or 



NAMES DEBIVED FROM TBADES OR TITLES. 239 

plasterer. " Fifty and six pargits." EsiLMAN : an ass driver 
= AsiNius. Easel : the painter's ass, bearing his arm as an 
ass does its burden, 

Bugan: to bend gives Buxom: bending, yielding, and BoGUE: 
bow bender, archer, BiGGAR, BiGGS : bower builder, edifier in 
the wattle and dab style, like hurdles filled in with clay. 
BoGUE gives the vulgar sounding BuGG. Howbeit Boig is a 
form of Bog (dweller) = Marsh, Moss, as Doig is formed from 
Dog. Big: artificially large. Great (from grow): naturally 
large. Big house, great tree. Dodman, Dadman : dud seller, 
old clothes' man. " He is a dude," i.e., a dressy man. 

Blinkhorn (blend corn) : farrago seller, he mixed wheat 
with rye. Pepper Corn : a Saxon farmer paying a pepper 
corn, nominal rent = Penny : farmer of poor soil, called 
penny land. Jews said, " A grain of mustard seed" for some- 
thing small, but Saxons, " A pepper corn." Now Pepper 
(patent ghost) : grocer, spice seller, of which pepper was one. 
It is = Spicer : epicier. " Within Coneyhope Lane standeth 
the Grocer's Hall, which company was of old called pepperers." 
Fromant: corn salesman (frumentum), con. frumenti/, which 
our country cousins persist in calling fruramerty, con. Fre- 
MANTLE. Fomentara (island) : fruitful in corn = Java. 

BuBiER,BooTES,BouRBON : cattle driver or dealer,neat herd = 
NoTMAN. BouvERiE : an ox stall, cow byre = Cotton (admiral) : 
cow town, enclosure for kine. CoE (captain) : cow. Cowley 
(when English) : cow field = Coevelt. Coward = Stoddart : 
stott herd = (Mc)CuLLOCH : cattle tender. Coward : one who 
cowers, stoops to escape a blow, similar to Craven : one who 
beaten craved his life. Hyrde, Hurd, Hurdis : herdsman 
each. Coward = BuBULCUS and Boukolos, whence Bucolics : 
pastoral poetry. In some cases Bowman : stock keeper. 
Whyman : having charge of kye, cows. Egon : goat herd, 
con. JEgis : shield of Minerva covered with goatskin, and = 
Cabrera, con. Caprera : goat island. Phernes : a shepherd, 
gives Artaphernes : great shepherd, men ruler, Holofernes 
(Judith) : chief shepherd. From Far : a sheep, Faroe : sheep 
island, and Farrar (canon) : a shepherd. 

Pharnaspes : commander of horse = Hipparchus (astro- 
nomer). Cheffer, Chaffer, Schaffer, Shaffer : a shepherd, 
con. Shapfells, sheep hills. Small, Smallman : who saw 
after lambs and kids : " Thou hast brought me no small cattle 
of thy burnt ofi:ering." Twentyman : having charge of tivo 
winter cattle. Calvert : having charge of calves. Some- 
times Calvert : a fish curer. Human : an experienced 
shepherd having care of ewes. Polymeles (historian) : many 
sheep. Meleager : active with sheep, folding quickly, con. 
acer. Melibceus : charge of sheep and cattle. Patti (diva) : 



240 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAAIES. 

shepherdess, con. Pastor : a feeder. Patti answers well to 
Ophelia, from Ovis : a sheep, whence ovation. 

Kidder : a travelling Huckster : carrying goods for sale on 
his hocks, provincially applied to shoulders = Colporteur : collar 
porter. Kidman = Chap]vian : man selling cheap, a cheap 
Jack, Cheapside : near market. Chipping Norton : market 
at the north town. Huckster is a form of Hockster, and 
Hawker is its brief form. Kauffman (Turkestan), Coffin 
(Tom) = CowPER : who coiqjs, sells: proper spelling, Couper, 
and sometimes cor. to Cooper. 

Dobler (Herr) : dish maker = Tischenmaker, and Turenne: 
tureen maker, who made earthen vessels, Terra = Arthman. 
Kiss (sculptor) : cushion maker. Handel (oratorio) : seller by 
hand. Bodger : cooper, co7i. boat, boot, bottom (of land or hemp), 
implying hollowness. Buttman : butt maker, formerly wrought 
in budd's hides, as Hogshead = ox hide. Butler: charge of 
butts or bottles. Bottle : little butt, as Pottle : a little pot. 
Butler = Kellerman (marshal) : cellar man. 

Hooper (judicious). Cooper (novelist), Cuvier (naturalist): 
who caves wood = Tupper (poet) : tubber. The great Italian 
name Zoppi is simply soup plate maker = Turenne and Chopin 
of the French. These made wooden goods, amongst others, 
sabots, trenchers, bowls, corresponding to Coghie : cog maker 
of the Scotch. But Cooper (Astley and that kith) : a form of 
CoPARlUS: cup bearer to king of France. Cadman: maker of 
cades, casks. Caddy : a little cade. Casket : a little cask. 
Tupman: sheep (tups) breeder. Pott, Potter, Topfer, Euler 
(mathematician) : potters all. The last seen to advantage in 011a 
Podrida: pot of putrid things, a miscellany. 011a: a pot, from 
Olere : to grow, whence redolent, adolescence, means a kale pot. 
Vasari (Giorgo) : earthen vessel maker. Croker, Croke : crock 
maker, whence Crockery: pots. Kruger (boer), Krogg: keep- 
ing a roadside public house where beer was sold out of a crock 
= Schenke, and Inman (liner). So our Aylward and Win- 
ship : ale and wine shop. Most (editor): wine maker, brewed 
must. 

Potts : living near a well, spring = Twells : at the wells =: 
Pagan, from Pege: a fountain, springing out of the (ge) 
earth, con. Pegasus. Pagan was applied to those who used the 
same village pump. Citizens receiving Christianity before 
rustics, those living in villages were termed Pagani, which 
became synonymous with Heathen, Gauyim : not of the Jewish 
religion. Takes the diminutive form Paganini (violinist) and 
gives Paine : a villain, a villager, one of the paynim. Payson 
for Paysan : a peasant becomes Pheasant. Civic superiority 
is farther illustrated by Urban (pope). Urbane : astute, 
polite = TowNLY : town like = Curtis (gunpowder): courteous. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 241 

To return to wells. Atwell = Delafontatne : of the fountain 
= Fauxt and Spring (Tom). Pozzo = Vandeput and Potts, 
con. Puteoli : wells stinking (through sulphur) = Fontenoy: 
noxious fountain. Pitt : living near a quarry. Pitman 
(phonographer) : miner, quarry worker = Quarrier: stone 
squarer, becomes Wharrie. Some have Quarrier : warrior. 
I take it to be a trade name. Quarles (emblems): shot game 
with a square headed arrow, Pitt = Moliere (play-wright) : 
millstone quarry. Bottom (weaver) : when not local means 
worker at bottom of pit shaft, when local = Dellar : dale er, 
living in. Shanks: pit shanker, sinker of shaft, if local, 
living on projection of a hill = Spite, con. Spithead. Now 
for more pots. Pottinger (of Indian fame): pot maker = Tass, 
Tassy, Tasman (whence Tasmania) : cup maker. Pottinger, 
also old name for Druggist : dried herb seller. Burrage : 
gathered borrage to mix with wine. Spurge : gathered herbs 
to 2^urge wine, hence Spurgeon (C. H.) : son of Spurge. 
Balmer (Berwick): herbalist selling balsam, balm. Pargiter: 
a plasterer or painter, — 

" Gold was the parget : and the seeling bright 
Did shine all scaly with great plates of gold." 

Cambyses (Persian) : sacerdotal bard = Baird (Scotch), Scald 
(Norse), Keen (Irish). Mourning for dead is known as keen- 
ing, C071. Kinnor : a harp, con. Cinneroth : wailing sounds 
made by wind, reeds, and water. The orthodox Irish for a 
poet is Thady, giving Teague = Pat, from St. Patrick, and 
Taddy. Vignoles : a vine dresser = Carmi. Carmel : vine- 
yard of God, very fruitful. " Achan, the son of Carmi, took 
of the anathematized thing." Lambruschini (pope) : a wild 
vine, unmanageable. 

Carpenter: car maker = Cartwright, now generically 
applied to wood worker. Carioli (Italian) = Charette 
(French): car driver. Carabceuf: bullock cart driver = Arabi 
(when Turkish). Fabrictus : fabric maker, an ouvrir, opera- 
tive, gives Faber, Favre (Jules), Lefebvre (marshal) Lefevre, 
Lefever : workmen all. Sloper (Ally) : slop maker = Smoker: 
smock-frock maker. Paton: maker of ^^fti^oiis, clogs. Pattern: 
like a 'p^^d of the foot, a vestige. Wright : ivrought at any 
trade in wood, as Cartwright, Ploughwright, Wainwright: 
waggon maker, vehicle for the way, road. Wheeler: branch 
of last making only, wheels. Zimmerman (on solitude) : tim- 
ber man, materialist, i.e., worker in matter, timber. Matter 
from Mater : mother, it being mother of all, formed thereof. 
Madeira (isle) : of timber. Matto Grosso : gross with timber, 
primeval forest of the Amazons ; about = BuissoN (French 
savan) : great wood, and Chacemore. Stuhlman : stool 



242 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

maker. Tigellinus (Nero's friend) : beam fixer, tabernacle 
maker = the German Shuemer, Schirmann: tent, umbrella, or 
shadow maker = Tell WRIGHT: tilt manufacturer = Copernicus: 
cover maker, hut builder. This Danish name = our Franco 
England Maison, Mason : messuage builder, mansion erecter. 
Bracciolini (Poggio) : worker in breccia stone. Ponce (de 
Leon) : pumice stone worker. Jenner (vaccination): a joiner. 
Tischendorf (Constantine) : joiner's village. Carter: a car- 
man = Charron (French author = Wagner (German) = 
Harmodius : charioteer, drove yoked horses = Hippias. But 
Wayman: wain man, so Wenman, Whigmore (Ely, 16G0). 
"From a word, vjliiggam, used in driving their horses; all that 
drove were called whiggamors, and shorter, whigs." Whig, con. 
wide, for quick, living, active. Quick (Rev. R. H.), Wicks, 
Grady (O), Vivian, Vial, Vitalis, Vitus (St.), each mean 
quick, active, Gradgrind: quick grinder. But Vivian (Gray) 
means more than physical vitality, properly meaning one 
revived, and so = the Puritan name, Renovata : renewed, 
implies one regenerated, entering a higher life. 

Waitman : huntsman, who waits, watches game. Case : cot- 
tage builder, con. Chez: at the house of; Chiese, Cheese, and 
Ace (Jessie) : the house. Casino, Cassino (Boston) : small 
house near a theatre. Chasuble: house-like garment = Coat : 
covering like a cottage. Coates : living at the cottages = 
Van Buren. Casabianca (gallant boy) : white house = 
Wentworth, con. Gwen : white, as in Nell Gwyne : Ellen 
White, and Cenwin : white head, Whitehead. Casanova, 
Canova = Newhaus. Cazvine (Zakaria): vine clad cottage. 
Catchpoll : catch pooler. " In mining, the ore is passed from 
reservoir to reservoir, each constructed to retain portions of 
metal. He who had charge of a pool where metal was so 
caught was thus called." Also nickname for bailiff who 
carried a staff, profanely styled by the vulgar a pole. Names 
identical as to form, but differing as to sense, originate at 
divers periods and under different circumstances. Thus 
Turner: wood worker. Turner (terra noir) : black castle = 
Schwartzenburg (cardinal). Turner: one who took place 
of an absentee at a tourna,Yaent, an attorney, who engaged for 
another = Wager. Gage (whence greengage): engaged to 
fight, pledged to an ordeal. 

' TURNARELLI (of the wreath) = ToRRiCELLl (barometer): little 
castle. Poole : near a pool, its dim. in some cases Pollock, in 
others it is dim. of Paul. Walpole (wald pool) : wood near 
water, Glasspole : water running into a pool. Dabbs = Dubbs: 
decorator, dabs on ornaments. Chancellor : who cancelled 
government debts = Kanzler (general). Cange (Du) : money 
banker, of change. Drudge : fi.sherman, whose work was 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 243 

drudgery, dragging his net = DAKG: pitman working by darg, 
what is dragged along and up. Chabot : fisher off the French 
coast, whence Cabot (Sebastian) : Poissoxier, Fisher, Fisk, 
Hooker, Langelier, Pitchers (peeheur), Doeg (Edomite) : 
fishermen every one. DoEG comes from Dag : a fish, whence 
Dagon : great fish (god), con. Tagus = Fish River. Geddes 
(stool): pike fisher. PoiSSON (mathematician): French fisher- 
man. Froschammer : frog fisher. Pride : pryde catcher, 
river fish like lampreys. Conder, Condor : conductor of 
Cornish fishermen, who watched on a rock top, signalling the 
whereabouts of shoals (schools) of fishes. 

Delcambre, Chambers, Chalmers, Chamberlain (from 
Cam: crooked, arched roof): charge of king's chamV)er = eunuch 
sometimes means treasurer. "Erastus the chamberlain (econo- 
mist) of the city, saluteth you." Eunuch had charge of bed, 
Chamberlain of room, Economist of house. Steward (stowe 
ward) : charge of a stowe, whence stowed, stead, steady: keeping 
in one place. Bedstead : place of bed. Stuart is its form in 
France, there being no lu in French. Stowe (David) : an en- 
closed place. Bumpstead: place of beams, a wood = BAMPTON 
(lectures). The name Baum is cor. to Bumm. 

Nussbaum : walnut tree. Chandler : candle seller. Coke 
(upon Lyttleton) : a cook. Cocker (according to) : to cook 
up for, to pamper, to bring up delicately = Tyrphena, Try- 
PHOSA : nourished = Delilah : delicate, tender. Cocker takes 
the dim. Cockerell. Todhunter (algebra) : fox hunter. 
Purchase: living _2Jer chase, by hunting = Jager, Fenian, 
Berners, Barnes, Venua, Venard, Venantius, Ventris: 
men of venery, who took venison. To these add the Hindoo 
name Vedah, con. Veddas: wooders, the aborigines of Ceylon. 
This word vedda is identical with the name of the sacred book 
of the Goths, Edda: old, it is literally a w^-eran book. Vedda, 
Edda, vet-US (old) : wid, wit, Ida (mount), are variations of one 
ancient word used in Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, English, etc. In 
another aspect Vedah = Coyle. Gael, Kelt : woodmen three. 
Grosvenor : great hunter, Duke of Normandy's head hunts- 
man, con. venison, and Berners (Street). Cynegirus (brother 
of ^schylus) : dog driver = Hunt, Hunter: hound (driver). 
Hun (wdience Hungary) : a dog. That nation migrated from 
the border of China, and having Tartar like, dog like faces, the 
people of invaded countries called them Huns: hounds. How- 
beit they call themselves Magyars. Similarly Cagot (canis 
Goth) : a dog of a Goth, a hypocrite. To the above huntsmen 
add Jagg (when not from Jago : James), Jaggard, and Shil- 
LACKER, the two former being Germans, the third a Gael ; as 
also the Spanish Montero : a mountain hunter. 

The following are veritable sons of Crispin, viz. : Chau- 



244 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

CHARD, Chaucer (father of English poetry), Hosier, formed 
on last. Hosen is now woven, but half a millennium since 
was leather, as gaiters, leggings, buskins. Gracv: brogue 
maker. Sands (George) : sandal maker. Savaton : sabot 
maker. Schummacker, Souter (sutor) : shoemakers a(w)ll. 
SouTER = Seymour : a seamer, sower, con. Semmet : sowed 
garment. Sometimes Seymour is from St. Maur, Normandy, 
which is said to be a form of Sine muros : without walls. 
Clark, Clerk : learned, one of clerical order. During the 
middle ages, only the clergy possessed the means of studying 
books, and so they alone could be learned. In certain criminal 
cases a convict had the Psalter placed before him with a re- 
quest that he would read the king of the penitential psalms 
(li.) to signify his sorrow and claim the immunity known as 
benefit of clergy. If he read " Have mercy upon me, O God, 
according to thy loving kindness : according to the multitude 
of thy tender mercies, blot out my transgressions" in a toler- 
able style, the court officer cried, " He reads like a clerk," and 
he was released. 

Beauclerk (Henry) : beautiful scholar, translated iEsop's 
Fables. Leclerc : the learned = Grammaticus (Saxo) : the 
grammarian = Sepher, Saphir : book man, fern. Sapphira. 
Lacy (Evans de) is the Irish for learned, from which language 
we have Sankey: a chronicler. The Hindoo correspondent is 
SuRAT = Sephervaim : place of books. The Druidical corre- 
spondent is GwYDER : wooder, learned by study of Celtic, the 
letters of which were taken from trees. B for Beith: the birch. 
C for Coll : the hazel. Calton : town built where hazels grew. 
McAll for MacColl : son of the hazel, one of an old stock = 
Priscus, fern. Priscilla, not meaning old personally, but of 
noble descent. Hazel rods were used in divination, rhabdo- 
mancy, and so may be termed a religious plant, like hyssop 
and misletoe. Colkittoch : left-handed Coll. 

TozER: Hax comber, from Tow: to pull, whence teeth, team, 
tame, tough, teasel (used to card wool), and Tassel: head of the 
teasel. Teazle (Mrs) : worker with teasels, — 

" By stinking nettles, pricking teasels. 
Raising blisters like the meazels." 

Tozer = ScoTCHER : scutcher (scart, scratch) with a heckle 
= Flaxman (sculptor) : worker in flax = Kemp, fern. Kempster, 
but Kames (Lord) : local, Kemp : a field, campus, whence 
Campion, Kemper: champions fighting in the open cham- 
pagne, — 

" His wife sat near him teasing matted wool, 
While from the twin cards, tooth'd with glittering wire, 
He fed the spindle of his youngest child." 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 245 

This card from Carduus : a thistle, but other card from 
Charta : paper. Teasels and thistles are parents to the com- 
plicated machinery of our cotton mills. Caird : an artificer, 
apphed to a tinker = Calderon. Tooth (ritualist) : is some- 
times given as iron tooth maker, but is personal, a man of 
prominent teeth, being = Mordaunt, which was originally 
Mordent : great teeth. Cohen : a priest. All Cohens claim 
descent from Aaron. Cohen, cor. to Chon. Laocoon : 
people's priest = Blott, Blood (colonel, stole crown jewels): 
shed blood of victims. November was called Blotmonat, 
because cattle were then slaughtered and salted. Goodblood : 
noble priest. Hoffman (sometimes) : man of the hoff, temple. 
Saggars, Haggart, Haggarty, Taggart (sogarth aroon) : 
druidical priests, since applied to Christian. Flaminius (con- 
sul) : the flamen who received the afiatiis of the god, his 
inspiration. 

Priest (for Prestare) : who stands before others by reason of 
superiority = Antistes : pre-excellent. Fabius (Roman heathen 
priest) : who spoke (fari) the divine mind. Priestly (oxygen): 
glebe land. Canon (when not from (M')Kinnon) : a priest 
from canonicus. Preston : priest's town. Temple (Palmer- 
ston) : a druidical crom turned into a church. Templemore : 
great church = Selkirk. Camillus (delivered Rome) : a form 
of Casmillus, servant of the temple, gives Camille (Desmou- 
lins) = Hoffman and Artabanus : great sacrificer. Abdul- 
Medjid : servant of the temple. The original Camillus would 
likely serve in Etruria, Hoffman in Heligoland, and Abul- 
Medjid at Medina. Passavant (pursuivant) : a follower, re- 
tainer, servant. Parsons : pre-eminent person of parish, gives 
(M')Pherson. Cosser: horse flesh dealer, a knacker, con. 
corpse, corse. RuNCiMAN : a horsemonger. Colman, charcoal 
burner. Charcoal so called to distinguish it from pit-coal. 
CoLLEY (Cibber) : dark a-vised man, what a spaewife would 
call a spade, nickname for swarthy person. The German 
Kohler = Collier: coalworker. Comte (positivism): count, 
king's companion, whence Contarina (Fleming) : cognate 
with Constable : companion of the stable = Marshall (from 
mare), Mareschalk: king's servant over cavalry = Pharnaspes. 
CoMYN (Rev.), Gumming : a count ; but Conde : living near 
a confluence = Coblentz : confluence, whence Condillac, Con- 
dorcet, also local French names. Visconti : vice count as 
Vicero}'- : instead of a king, con. Vicarious : for another. 

Buoncompagne, Bonaparte (It.): good companion = Ledru 
(Rollin) : gay companion = our Goodfellow (Robin). It is 
instructive to see the literal meaning of words implying com- 
panionship. They are Comes (cum : with, eo : I go) : one tuho 
goes luitli you. Sodalis (whence sodality) from sedeo : I sit : 



246 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

one who sits with you. Contubernalis, cum : with,,taberna : 
a tavern, one who frequents the smne tavern. Socius (whence 
sociable, society) from sun : with and oikos : a house, living in 
the same house. Consort, cum : with, sors : a lot, sharing lot 
luith. Crony, from chronos : time, con. crone, croon : to sing 
like an old nurse, one knoiun of a long time. Chum, con. 
camera : a chamber, cemetry : a sleeping-place, means sleeping 
in the same room. Mate : one who often meets you. Com- 
panion, is from cum : \vith and panis : bread : a messmate, one 
who eats bread ivith you. 

Benedict, Bexoit, Benet : cleric giving benediction. Since 
clergy were forbidden to marry it came, in course of time, 
to signify a bachelor, and so = Bachelor and Fellows. 
Capel (monsignor), Chaplin (M.R), Keppell (de capella): 
chaplains all, chapel men. Saedou (Paris politician) is a form 
of Sacerdos : a priest. Proctor, for Procurator (procuratorcy, 
proxy) : having charge for another, a locum tenens, con. 
CuRius (Dentatus): full of cares. Courvoisier (corium osier): 
made coracles of hides and withs==the Gaelic (M')CuRRiCH, 
which, in some cases, gives Curry. From Corium : a hide 
Currier: hide dresser. Cortina, Curtain : bulls' hides hang- 
ing, a defence as used in the siege of Gibraltar. But (M') CuR- 
rie, Corry, Cory, whence Corigan : young Cory, mean a 
deep hollow in the side of a mountain, a ravine. Hence 
CORYDON (Irish) : corrie dweller. Now CoRYDON (Virgilian) : 
a lark ; while Courier : a runner = Massinger (Philip) : run- 
ning footman = Trotter, Body : one ticWen. Lightbody : 
quick-footed messenger, an old English Mercury. So Sande- 
man : man sent = Sands (George) when not local. These = 
Foote (when not for foot of hill), Leggat : sent on a legaXion 
To such add Bowd, Botte (Peter), Truebody: trusty mes- 
senger, Golightly, which in Scotland gets disguised into 
Galletly. Truebody suggests the beautiful Liptrot (lippen 
true) ; one in whom we may truly lippen, trust. 

Cresset: carried signal fire on night marches in shape 
of a cross. Cleaver (clavier) : key-bearer, Peter's two = 
Crosskey : carried papal banner emblazoned with crosskeys. 
The verb cross is from Corsian : to imprecate with the sign of 
the cross, whence curse. Crossan : little cross, carrying one 
on shield in crusades. Crib: sieve maker = Sieber: siever, 
Crebillon : great Crib. Croker (Allen) : crocus planter, 
saffron grower. Fraser : strawberry planter, con. Fragrant : 
odour like a strawberry plant, con. Frango : I break, alluding 
to fractures of leaves. ZucCA : gourd planter, lit. sweet, con. 
IssACHER, which consult. " Among his figures Zucca usually 
placed one with a common gourd at his wrist, in allusion to 
his name." Damon, Damo: ruler, irovernor = Roy when that 



NAMES DERIVED FBOM TRADES OB TITLES. 247 



does not mean red (headed). Rigg (Irish) : a king, whence 
Regan: son of a king, or young Rigg. When local RiGG = 
Hills. Domitian : conqueror, tamer. Damaris : a heifer, one 
broke into the yoke, a wife. " If ye had not ploughed with 
my heifer." "A woman named Bamaris believed." From 
Damao : I subdue, Adamant or diamond : indomitable stone. 
Dempster: who cZeems, judges = Terris : territovial judge = 
Day : a daysman, he who appointed a day on which he would 
deliver judgment after taking the case avizandum. Some- 
times Day: a day labourer = journeyman. Richter (Jean 
Paul) : who recks, thinks. Reckless : thoughtless. Reckon : 
to think carefully. 

" But little he'll recli, if they let him sleep on, 
In the grave where a Briton has laid him." 

Crito (Socrates' disciple) : judge, critic = Shaphat, whence 
SufFetes : Carthaginian judges. Descartes (cartesian philo- 
sophy) : having charge of governmental charts = Panchard : 
all charts. "John Bouchet, in the third part of his Annels of 
Aquitaine, marulleth at an old ^Jtm chart, or record, which he 
had seen." Charteris : of the Charter House, Carthusian 
monastery. LASCELLEg : charge of state seals. Its Milesian 
correspondent is the well known Shelly. 

Maund and Maundrell (traveller) : made maunds, willow 
baskets, especially used for dispensing charity on Maunday 
Thursday. Lipman : a basket maker. " Moses wa^ preserved 
in a leep of segg:" sedge basket. We also meet with the family 
name Bauskett: a willow worker. Espartero (general) : broom 
maker, ex spar turn. Spartum : scattered plant, spread like 
heather, con. Sparta, Sporades. This sonorous Spaniard only 
= the English Ling: ling broom maker, Broom: heather broom 
maker, or Fern. But Plantagenet (planta genista: plant 
reaching to Genu : the knee) : wearing broom in helmet as 
penance. Genu, con. Genoa: knee bend of Italian coast = 
Ancona : crooked spot of coast, co7i. Angus (Martius) = Crook: 
walking with a stoop, and Anchor : crooked iron gripper. 

Dominus: a lord, a judge from Dan, from Adon, though some 
derive it from Domus : a house, and so make it = Henry, 
Heinerich : home ruler. Dominus ab. to Dom and Don in 
Spain, Don Pedro : lord Peter, Don Juan : lord John. 
Hence, too, Donizetti, Donatello: lordlings. Adon, Dan, 
enter Hindoo names as Dar, thus Zemindar : seed lord 
(semen), a farmer. From that and Hai : howler, the tiger, 
we get Hyder Ali: Ali the tiger lord (slayer). So the military 
titles Jeminclar, JuWmclar. From Here : an army, Herr : a 
lord. Herring (painter) : son of a lord, son of a soldier, war- 
like. Mynheer : my lord = Monsieur : my sire, father. 
Before the Norman invasion we had no title Duke (dux) : 



248 TEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

leader, its place being occupied by Earl, from Ere : before, 
whence Early : before, superior by age = Maximus, Massimo. 
Early : before (daybreak). Earl gives Arlotte (family). We 
also had Hertogh (tug), Herzog: army leader, whence Herze- 
govina: formerly a dukedom or duchy. DuKE gives Duckett, 
Douce, Duce, as also the title Doge and the coin Ducat: money 
issued by a duke. Hence, too, we actually have the family 
name Duck and Dux : head of class. 

Herr : he who arranges the here. Here : an army, Here- 
ford : ford of the army, Hermax, Harman, Arminius (armi- 
nian) : a soldier, answering to Hindoo title Sahib : sabre man, 
sir, lord, from Sab : an army, Sabaoth armies. Jehovah 
Sabaoth: lord of armies, Sabaism: worship of host of heaven. 
Sabre : the army weapon. From May : power, whence might 
and main. May : strong man (sometimes May-born), Mayor : 
powerful officially. Le Maire (straits) : from le maire dw 
palais. The Teutons had a magistrate styled Mord-dame : 
murder judge (deem). Mord, con. mors, mortal, Mai's, mat (in 
matador), mate (in chess), murrain, and with the Hebrew Mav: 
death, as Ishmaveth : man of death, doomed, Jesus on the 
crucifixion morn. Doomsday (till): judgment day, but Dooms- 
day Book is from Domus Dei : house of God, Winchester 
Cathedral, where it was kept. Pharamond: travelled pro- 
tector, of which Don Quixote was the caricature. Farraxt, 
Farrex, Farrar, Farr (when last two do not mean shepherd): 
one who fares from place to place. We meet with Seafart : 
one who goes to sea, a sailor. Faran : to go, gives fear, 
which makes one go, fare, fieldfare (bird), ferr}^ ford, he-fore, 
/(Xr-ther, fir -si, /or -est: wood far from town, Fardel : a 
travelling pack. " Who would fardels bear?'' Fear accurately 
corresponds to Metus: motion to get out of danger. Farragut 
(admiral): one who has heen far agate, travelled much. For- 
rest, Forrester, Forster De Warrexxe: charge of forest = 
WooDGRAVE, con. Graff, Graeffe, Graves: governors all. 
BoscHER (bois) : had charge of wood, game = Parker, Park, 
from Paddock, Parrock. Savage : wood dweller, game 
keeper, from Sylvis : a wood, whence Transylvania : beyond 
the forest. The following are also wood dwellers : SiLVAXUS, 
Silas, Satyrus, Satyr : sylvan god. The Doric form of 
Satyrus is Tityrus (Virgil). Isabella Savage is transformed 
into La Belle Sauvage : the forest beauty. Walker, Wat, 
Watts, from Wald : a wood, Avhence Waldegrave becomes 
WooDRUFFE, WooDROVi/', VoDREY ("Dublin Directory ") = 
Woodward, Musgrave : charge of the raeivs, stables and 
hawks. But Foster, Foister : foodster, nourished, adopted. 

" And in gret reverence and charitee 
Hire olde powere fader /osierecZ shee." 



NAMES DERIVED FBOM TRADES OR TITLES. 24D 

Fader and fostered both find their root in feed. Father : he 
who feeds. NoRRiS : a nurse, nourisher, sometimes formation 
on NoRROY (heraldry) : north king, as Surry : south king, 
PoMEKOY : head king. But Surrey : south of river (Thames), 
though some have it south kingdom, corresponding to Sussex : 
south Saxons. Falconer (shipwreck) : hawk tamer, man of 
the mews. Gerfalcon : hawk flying in gyres. Fletcher : 
arrow maker. Stringer : string the bow, but Astringer : 
great hawk keeper. Arrowsmith : made the iron point. "The 
Jietcher draweth a feather when he hath but one swappe 
(sweep) at it with his knife, and then playneth it a little with 
rubbing it over his knife." Cognate with fleet, flit, flutter, 
Fletcher = Harrower. Sometimes Bows: bow maker = 
BowYER (Dundalk). 

Frobisher : furbisher, polisher of metal. " Furbish the 
spears, put on the brigandines." Fuller: who thickens 
and whitens cloth. " His raiment became shining, ex- 
ceeding white, as snow, so that no fuller on earth can white 
them." Fuljambe : thick leg. Fuller = White, whence 
Whitster : laundress, blancheuse = Lavender, Lander 
(Africa), from Lavo : I wash, lave, lavish. The plant lavender 
was so called because used in baths. " Robert Bruce stopped 
his army when on the march, in circumstances of pressing 
difficulty in the Ulster campaign, because a poor lavendere 
was taken with pains of childbirth, and must have been left, 
had they proceeded, to the mercy of the Kerns." Tredget : 
who trudges, a traveller. " Marry, as I told you before, John, 
and Robert, be ready hard by in the brewhouse, and when I 
suddenly call you, come forth, and take this basket on your 
shoulders ; that done, trudge with it in all haste and carry it 
among the ivhitsters in Datchet mead." Trudge = drudge, 
from drag, see Dredge. Walker : cloth cleaner, from 
Welcian : to wallow, con. Whale : sea wallower, Wheel : that 
which rolls. Wheel = the Hebrew Golal : a tomb stone. 
"Who shall roll us away the stone?" Con. nergal, Galilee, 
globus. Welkin : the circle of the heavens. Ghirlandis 
(Italian poet) : GiRLiNG : garland maker, con. Gyrus : a circle. 
Gerfalcon and Gyr : provincial Scotch for a hoop, which is 
identical with Year : a circle of time. 

Krummacher (Elijah) : crown maker. Pulvermacher : 
powder maker. Schleirmacher (theologian) : veil maker, 
Schepler : chaplet maker. Halmoneus : seaman, as are 
the following names, Pelagius, Morgan, Pontius (son of 
Pontus : the sea). Halcyon (son of the sea), Flatman (man of 
fleet), Abijam (father of the sea), M'Naimara (son of the sea), 
Carrachioli (sailing in a carrack), Long (when Celtic), 
FoRLONG (fear, vir), Pleione : {con. Indicopleustes : he who 
17 



250 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

sailed to India), Rumbelow (old English for a sailor, like 
Tally Ho ! for a huntsman), Marner, Morgan, and Pelagius: 
mariners every one. Pelagianism : system of Pelagius. Gla- 
morgan : Morgan's country, or near the sea = Pomerania, 
Attica (shore lands) = Pontus. Halys: salt river = Rio Salado. 
Halcyon : king fisher, supposed to hatch near the sea in calms. 
Halcyon days: quiet times. Halle : place of saltmines. Mor 
in MoRGAX, C071. Mar : bitter, whence Mare : bitter waters, 
the undrinkable sea. Connemara : indentations of the sea. 
Loch Long : ship lake, con. London, which is Longdon or 
Latinised Londunum : ship fort. Skipper : skitt" sailer. 
Schaffhausen : .skiff, ship houses where boats taken out of 
Rhine to avoid falls, portages. To these add Seamans, 
SiEMANS, Seafart : sailor's all. Khan (con. canoe and Cane : 
hollow reed) : a boatman = Bateman, Batesj when latter not 
from Bartholomew, and Boatman. 

KiNCH, Kink : bleachfield worker, con. Kink : to run into 
knots. Harridelle : dealer in rough ponies. Holzman, 
HoLMAN (Hunt) : holt, woodman, dweller in, or worker in 
= Xylander, which it translates as Pelagius does Morgan. 
HoLTUM : home in a wood. Talboys : wood cutter = Bavister 
(Jack) : bavin gatherer, a woman's trade. " Then took he 
certain bavins, or small faggots of brushwood." BoscH (Ten): 
wood dweller = HoLTUM, whence Bosh : the waste of wood, as 
we call bad ipersons faggots, and I have heard negroes in South 
Carolina calling folks they disliked trash, from Trencher : to 
cut, applied to useless parts of sugar cane to be cut off. 
Horner (little Jack) : spoon, cup, and comb maker of horn. 
Common trade before this iron age set in. Horn (Cape) : a 
hill. Schreckhorn : shrieking mountain, where gales howl = 
our Penny gant: windy hill. Caughie: Highland cooper made 
cogs, plates and bowls for supping porridge as Chopin = Zoppi : 
souppy, soup plate maker, but more closely answering to the 
English Knuckler: maker of noggins. Hurai: linen worker 
= LiNGARD. " Hurai of the brooks of Gaash." 

Scrine: charge of shrine =: Sexton : sacristan, charge of sacred 
things = Dewar and Deuchar. Challis : charge of calyx, 
sacramental cup, chalice = Calixtlts (pope). Mesmer (mes- 
merism) : had charge of vessels used in celebrating mass. 
CvHANTREY (sculptor) : of that part of chapel where chanting 
was practised. Sangster: a chorister, applied to a lady 
singer. GiNGLE (general) : a man singer. Kircher (father) : 
charge of whole kirk, Iglesias, Kirk, Churchman. Latimer 
(martyr) : latiner, an interpreter between English and Welsh. 
Tlien all unknown languages were called Latin. But Latner: 
latten maker, a compound of copper and lead. Latten (the 
word) is from lead. Leadbetter : lead beater. Churches and 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 251 



castles were supplied with sheets of lead beaten by hammers 
before rolling by machinery came in. Francis : an Italian 
speaking French. So the Irish Grigg (Murtagh) : learned in 
Greek. Xexophon (Attic bee) : knowing the voice, language, 
of strangers, con. Telephone : distant voice, sound. Drago- 
man : an interpreter = MuFTi, from Moftah : a key. " Ye have 
taken away the key of knowledge." " Pity you were not 
dragomicnsit Bahel." Lavoisier (chemist): osier worker = 
Maund, Spurina: basket maker = Bauskett. " They took 
up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets (spuridas) 
full." " The ides are at last come, Spurina." Spiridion 
(Greek hermit) = Saussure (Genevese savan) : osier seller, 
basket maker. Ouseley : osier field, ground much under 
water. Before metals came into use osier was in high demand. 
The Britons made willow gods, boats, and gates (wickets). 
Charon's boat is a coracle if he has not, since the days of Eneas, 
invested spiritual oboli, got by ferrying souls over Styx, in a 
a more Searle-like craft. 

Hoxeyman: bee-keeper, aparian = Abelard (Heloise), Beach 
(Hicks), and Beeman: all bee keepers. Bebee, Beby: dwelling 
among bees. Before sugar was introduced, honey was in great 
demand. Leech, Leach, (Mc)Lay, Hicks (Irish), Hickie, 
Hickman : medical doctors. The lirst three attend the Litch : 
body, that which lies. Litchfield: field of dead bodies, old 
battle ground. HiCKHOCK is a form of HiCKOG : son of the 
doctor, answering with precision to MacLay. Guericke, 
Guerrero, Heloise (Abelard), Holland (Saxon for Christ) : 
healer = Jason. "The Jews assaulted the house of Jason." 
Medici (Venus de) : a physician. As the great Florentine 
family did a little in the money lending line as well as the 
medical, they killed two birds with one stone by hoisting 
three golden pills or balls, whence pawnbroking insignia. 
Lemon (Mark), Lemoine, Leman : dwelling alone, a monk. 
Sometimes Leman : love man. These = Monichos, fcm. 
Monica (Augustine's mother). Delmonico (N.Y.) : son of the 
monk. Munchausen (baron) : monks' houses. Olshausen 
(commentator) : houses in the wood, in contrast with Stin- 
TON = Stonehouse. Ecclesiastics married till we reach the 
year 1000. Had clericals always been celibates, such names 
as foregoing and following would not be. Lempriere (myth- 
ologian): the prior, some make it descended illegitimately 
from the emperor, but it is = PRYOR, Foreman, the latter for- 
merly restricted to religious houses. Cousins, though literally 
consanguineous, related by blood, was applied to monk or nun. 
Newcomen (engineer), Newcome, Newman, New (African 
missionary). 

NovATiAN (heretic) : novice, new arrival in a religious 



252 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

house, in some cases newly arrived emigrants = Neal. But 
Newcombe: newly cultivated valley. Convers, Conyers : 
medieval Jewish converts. Abba: father, Abbott (Jacob). 
From it the Hindoo Baba : a gentleman (non military) = Sire, 
Sir, Sorr, Surr. (Mc)Nab, a form of Abbot. (A)Bushire: 
father city. We say Metropolis: mother city. Waters, Watters, 
if not local = Vatta, Pater. LAVATER(savan) : the father. From 
Vatta we have Atta, whence Attila (the Hun). Feed, food, 
fodder, fat, fader, fother, vatta. Father: he who feeds. 
Father assumes form of Fare, as Farebrother (father's 
brother) : an uncle. Pater : father, from Pasco : I feed, 
Patti: sheep feeder. Padre, Patron. Lav ater = Biblical 
Abi : my father. Pope : a father. All bishops were once so 
called except the bishop of Rome. Pepin, Popp, Pappius, 
Pare (I met with one in Toronto), Pappa (Demetrius) : each 
mean father. So, too, Patrick, Patrician, Papirius (consul): 
father's conscript. Sometimes Pat and Paddy, not from 
Patrick but Palladius (St.) : son of Pallas, defended by the 
Palladium: shield of god. This is met with in the bare form St. 
Paddy. Battersea: Patrick's island. SiRE: father, applied to 
crowned head. Monsieur: my sire. Monsignore: my senior, 
lord = Mynheer. Madam : my dame, mother. DAMiAN:son 
of the dame, B.V.M. 

BiscoB : bishop, episcopos. = Rammer, old Scotch, alluding 
to the crosier he carried, con. Raimes, Ramage, Ramus: a branch. 
Gillespie : bishop's servant. Bismarck (prince) : bishop's 
mark, boundary of jurisdiction. Bisland : bishop's glebe. 
Gravesend : where sheriff of London ceased to have juris- 
diction. So Denmark : Dane's boundary. Marwick : border 
village = BoRTHWiCK, Borwick. Lorimer : thong cutter, 
bridle maker. Menage : steward, manager. Menage is 
also Glasgow provincialism for a saving club. Mercator, 
Mercier, Mercer: men of commerce, merchants. Chater: 
caterer, he purveyed for a nobleman's family = Spencer, 
Spens : dispenser, and Purvis for purveyor, in some cases. 
Metellus (conquered Jugurtha) : mercenary soldier, fighting 
for pay, viisthos. Metzler : received mill fees, took grist, 
emolitment = M\JTEB., Muterer: a mutterer, receiving mill toll, 
but Mutter : he who stutters. Grist : grindest. Muller 
(Bristol), MoLiNOS, Miller, Mullen, (Mc^Millen were men 
of the mill. Semy (simila) : miller making very fine flour. 
MoLYNEUX : mill on water (Seine) = Muhlwasser : mill water 
= Maelstrom: whirlpool like a mill stream. Molindinar 
(burn): mill on the brook = Millbrook (George Barmvell). 
Desmoulins : of the mill. All akin to Mola: a mill. Molars: 
grinders. Immolate : to sprinkle meal and sacrifice. Emolu- 
ment (ex mola): gain from mill. Mollis: soft as meal. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 253 

Mollusca, mulier (a woman), mole, mullet: all mean soft 
bodied. 

MiLO (athlete): crusher = MiLNER : wielding Thor's hammer, 
crushing hammer = Froissard (chronicler) : crusher, who 
frizzled up his enemy =: Brisbane, Osman : bone breakers. 
Gradgrind (hard times) : quick grinder, co7i. Grady. Farina 
(Jean Maria) : maker of farinaceous food, a miller. Napier 
(logarithms) : Scottish king's officer providing table cloth 
(nappa) and other napery. Common folk had no table cloth, 
thus our phrase, " Bed and board," eaten off a. " Meal time : " 
time for eating meal, porridge, pottage. Mappa : cloth used 
in starting horse races, gives Map : cloth picture of a country, 
Napkin : little cloth, (N)apron : cloth hung in front of a 
person. Napery : lingerie, house linen. Wardrop : had 
charge of royal wardrope. Vogel, Ogle: bird catcher = 
Fowler, Bird and Jokshan, "She bare him Zimram and 
JoJcshan." KiSH (asses) : bird snarer (con. Kishon : very 
crooked) = Lowrie: bird allurer. Tripp Trippner, Trippen- 
MAKER : maker of jackets and shorgons (short gowns). Par- 
menter : apparelmenter, clothes preparer = Roper : a rober. 

Pfeiffer (Ida) = Piper, Fife: who puffs. Sometimes Fyfe: 
native of Fife. In old times pipers were called whifflers, as in 
Italy, pifferari. Tytler : tootler, who toots. HoRNE (Tooke): 
horn player. " Sir William Littlebury, alias Home (for so 
King Edward IV. surnamed him because he was a most ex- 
cellent blower in a horn); he was a slater by craft." Auletes 
(Ptolemy) : Flute player, from Aula : a pipe, Hydraulics : 
water pipes. Van Tromp (admiral) : the trumpeter. Cyth- 
(ERON : guitar, gittern, lyre player = Zittau (oath). Hence 
Cytheris (courtezan of Antony) : she who allures with lyre 
and voice, a syren. Bard = Harper. Harpertzoon (Martin) : 
harper's son. Musical name his : Martin Harpertzoon Van 
Tromp. Crowther (black bishop), Crowder : cruth, or croud 
player, like a fiddle : 

" The pipe, the tabor, and the trembling croud, 
The satvtry, pipe and hautboy's noisey band." 

Sautree (Rev.) : psaltry player. LuTZ (savan) : lute player 
and Spielman : musician. The Highland correspondent for 
these fiddlers three is ('M')Greusich. Waits : watchman 
playing at Christide, waiting for Christmas. Minstrel : 
minnie singer who kept the heroic dead in mincl. 

PoiNTON, Tagg: tag maker, fastenings for dresses before the 
invention of pins. Tag from Tug : which tows, pulls together. 
In families of German descent, Tagg : born at day break. 
Pont : a bridge, one taking pontage = Bridges, Briggs when 
these are not local. Pontiff and Po>;tifex : bridge maker. 



254 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



ViPEND (vetus pons) : old bridge, usually ViPOXD : resident 
near old brig. Manto (con. maniac) : a prophet, a seer. 
" Blind Tiresias was led up and down by his daughter Manto." 
Seer : one who sees things veiled to others. Diophantus 
(algebraist): shower of divine things. Hierophantus: showed 
sacred things = ScRiNE and Bedell. From Pellis : a skin, we 
have PoLLio (Roman) = Skinner. Peel, Sloss: castle partly 
defended by bull's hides, as Gibraltar was against the combined 
fleets of France and Spain. 

" The frightened flocks and herds were spent 
Beneath the peeVs rude hattlement." 

Pilcher: great coat maker from skins. "After heat cometh 
cold. No man casteth his pylch away." Pellis : skin, also 
gives Pilis : hair growing on skin, velvet, feel, Pileus : a hairy 
cap. Mons Pilatus: mountain ca/>j9e(? (with clouds). "Yonder 
Pilatus soars with its dark brow up towards the sk}', and with 
its cap of clouds looks gloomy enough to be in keeping with 
the idle tradition of the place, that hither the governor of 
Judea was banished, a conscience stricken wanderer through 
these desolate regions, where he put an end to his existence 
by plunging into the lake at its summit." Pilate : hairy 
skinned = Canutius (Antony's enemy): white haired = the 
French Chanzy. Cossus : rough hairy man = Seir takes fern., 
CossuTiA (Caesar's wife), and gives Kossuth (Louis). Seir 
answers well to HiRTiUS (consul) : hirsute, goat like. " The 
first came out red all over, like a goatskin garment." Edom 
red, con. Dam : blood, Adam: of red earth, sandy soil. Pills 
a hair, likewise gives Capillary : hair sized tubes, Vilis, vile 
of no value, not worth a hair. Beaupoil (Louis) : beautiful 
hair = Harfager (Harold): hair fair. "He made a vow to 
his mistress to neglect his precious curls till he had completed 
the conquest of Norway." Colfax (president) : coal coloured 
hair = BLAc:KLOCK. Fairfax: fair hair, but Carfax, four 
roads, as Carbarns : four barns. 

Rabshakeh : great cup bearer = Bechman : carried beaker 
to king. Beaker : bowl made of beech wood. PtABBi {con. 
former): great (teacher). Reid, Reddie (M') Credie, Read, 
Ratte, Radetzky (marshal) Rato : counsellors all, who ren- 
dered ratio, reason. Con. Reichs-rath, and Hundred for hand 
rede. The Scandinavians called Rath (an assembly where you 
rendered your reasons) a Thing (meeting where what you 
think is told) : a sort of primitive M.P., a member of the thing 
= the French Parlor, Parlior: speakers, those who parleyed. 
Hence Tingay : who addressed the thing, an orator = Pale- 
ARIUS (Aonius) : who spoke to the parliament. Storthing : 
great as.sembly, con. Storm: great rime. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 255 

Conrad (ken rail) : knowing- counsellor = Alfred. Lamour 
(Irish) : an orator. Eubulus : good counsellor. Tancred (thank 
rede) : counsel received with thanks. Thankerton : Tancred's 
town. Leatherhead : people's counsel. Ethelred : noble 
counsellor. Rhadegund (Gon : war) : who advises to fight. 
Alfred (elf rede): counsels like a fairy. Elf: albis: white = 
Banshee, from Bain : white. Bain : a bath, that makes white. 
Alfred forms Alford (dean) and Alva (butcher), whence 
Alvarez : son of Alfred. Robert (rath bert) : bright in 
council ==Radbert. Robert gives Rupert, Rupertino, Can- 
ROBERT (general) for Vonrobert : the Robert, Hobbs (hoby- 
de-hoy : a hafflin : half grown man), HoBSON ('s choice), Bob, 
Rob, Rab, Robb, Robin (Adair), Dobbie : little Robert, 1)obyn, 
Dobbin : an ass, Probart : son of Robert = Robertson. Some- 
times Robert is cantingly given as meaning red beard = 
Barbarossa (pirate). Canting is being guided by sound, as 
Lockhart : heart locked in casquet and carried into battle, 
then applied to mythic bearer. So, too, Cuthbert : cut 
beard, whereas this name means famous for knowledge, being 
con. Uncouth : not knowing. From Cuthbert we have Cuddy 
= Dobbin — Neddy, so that we have three terms for an 
ass respectively from the names Cuthbert, Robert, Edward. 
Metiche : he who moots, brings a question before a mr^e^ing. 
Witenagemote : meeting of wits, folk rath. 

Aristobulus : best counsellor. Plsistratus : persuader of 
the army. Pythagoras : persuader of the assembly = Eu- 
phrastus : good speaker, who j^hrases well, and con. Theo- 
phrastus : who j^krased divinely. " It is the voice of a god." 
These = Chrysostom (John): golden mouth, Chrysologus : 
golden discourser. Uz (land of) and JEL"Z(son of Shaharaim): 
a counsellor. Remigius (gave names to Rheims) : a rower, 
galley slave, con. Regatta : a rowing match, gives Remey 
(pisiculturist). Remington : town of Remey 's descendants, 
resident in. SiiCKER : sawyer. Sedge : cutting plant. Section: 
part cut off. Bretschneider : board cutter = Secker (arch- 
bishop). Bret, board, broad are identical. (Mc)Sporran : 
maker of pouch, purse, pocket. 

Sparrman : sparr, rafter, cutter = Latto : lathmaker, lattice 
manufacturer. Sayers : assa3^er, metal prover. Salinator, 
Salter, Salt : meat preservers. Calvert (sometimes) : fish 
pickler. Calvered salmon is pickled. Seward: sea guard = 
Nearchus: ship chief = Halocrates : sea power, admiral = 
Murtough (Milesian), Murdoch (Gaelic) becomes Muddocks 
in England, and gives MURCHISON, but MuRCH : mischievous. 
Sell, Sellars, Sellers = Sadlier: a saddler. See: seat (of 
a bishop). Saddle : horse seat, abbreviates to Sell, — 



256 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

" Yet was the force so furious and fell, 
That horse and man it made to reele asyde ; 
Nath'lesse the prince would not forsake his sell, 
For well of yore he had learned to ryde." 

Sizar : scholar whose rations of bread and butter were cut of 
a fixed size. So for Cambridge but Oxford has Batell : 
baited in college. Bate from bite = morsel from Mordeo : I 
bite, mordant. Battle : from Battle, Sussex, and that from 
Booth (bothie): a dwelling of a lowly type. Tascher (Rose), 
Tasker (poet) : gathered ecclesiastical first fruits. Taylor : 
(cloth) cutter = Schroeter (astronomer), Schrader, Schnei- 
der (danseuse). To these add Tuck (friar), and likewise 
Tucker (Dan) : cloth workers, con. Tuck : sacred to milliners. 
Sharman, Sherman : who shears cloth = Shearer. Cozier : 
man who sewed cloth which Taylor or Schneider had cut 
out, he stitched only. Tavernier : tavern keeper = Caffa- 
RELLI : cafe keeper, where coffee was first sold. The two last 
are two of our latest names. Hulyer: slater, house healer = 
Slater, Sclater. Heal : to cover. " I was naked and ye 
healed me not." Tegularius = Tyler (Wat), Teck. Tegula : 
a tile, from Tego : I cover, whence Tectus : a roof, -protection, 
Texas is so called from decked boats navigating its rivers. 
Tego gives Deck : ship cover, without which an open boat. 
Tuileries : tile kiln. Wat, Tyler : Walter the thatcher, paid 
his poll tax on the poll of the collector with thatching 
hammer. Deck, Decker : thatcher. Tego, deck, thack, 
thatcher, Thackeray : thatched rath. Rath : Danish fort in 
Ireland. Cape Wrath : headland with rath upon it. Castle- 
reagh (premier) : castle rath. Ratsey : rath on an island. 
Sheridan : commanding six raths, holding land of. Some 
give it as living on a hill frequented by fairies. Rattray : 
smooth rath. Rattican : living at rath head. Tintoretto 
(Venetian) = Dyer or Litster : female dyer working in ley, 
lith. Tent: coloured (wine). Tench: coloured (fish). Taint: 
to discolour and so render impure. But Tinto : fire (mount), 
though sometimes given for Tintock : misty hill. It is con. 
Beltane : May fire of Bel, Baal, as sacrificial fires were burned 
thereon. Toller, Tollner = tol 1 collector = Berruyer (French 
Jesuit): toll taker at barriers = Southgate : receive custom 
as south gate, so Norgate (and Williams). These = Abiasaph : 
father of gathering, Gabbai : tribute collector. " After him 
Gabbed, Sallai, 928." Zollverein : united as to toll. Hohen- 
ZOLLERN (house of) : high toll, castle on hill top from which 
black mail was enforced from travellers. 

Tyehman (Luke) : maker of ornaments for head, tires, 
tiaras = Calman (caul): ladies' hairdresser. "Jezebel tired 
(attired) her head, and looked out of a window" (wind-door). 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 257 

Con. Tiara: fillet keeping hair out of eyes = Diadein : bound 
round (head). These became ensigns of royalty. " His eyes 
as a flash of fire, and on His head many diadems." Crozier : 
charge of bishop's stafi", like shepherd's crook = Rodman : 
carried rood. Holyrood : sacred cross. Cope (Johnny) : cope 
wearer, having charge of one amongst resi^ments in vestry. 
Verger (virgulta) : man carrying a rod. " The same day was 
a goodly procession, in which the lord abbot went with his 
mitre and crosier, and a great number of copses of gold, with 
the vergers." Vickers, Vicars (Hedley) : a vicar, co7i. vice 
in Viceroy : instead of a king. But Vickery : living in a 
vicarage, manse. Vinter (for vintner) : wine seller, becomes 
Winters = Fenner for vinour. In some cases Fenner: a 
huntsman = Fenian and Berners : man of venery. Berner's 
Street, Oxford Street. But in some famihes Fenner = Venn 
(Richard): fen man, living among bogs = Money. Summer, 
Summers, Sumpter : ostlers, — 

" Return with her? 
Persuade me rather to be a slave and sumj^ter 
To this detested groome." 

In certain cases Summers = Sumner : summoner, sheriflf and 
officer. Groom : servant. Bridegroom : servant of the bride. 
Ostler was no menial in medieval times. It is a form of 
Hospitaller : a host over a religious house who showed 
hospitality, part of which was taking care of horses of guests. 
We have remainders and reminders thereof in Hospital giving 
Hotel, and in Oastler (M.P.) : hospitaller. Spittle : settled 
on the Knights Hospitaller's land when they lost them by 
papal bull. Xeno : a guest, or an enemy = Hostis : a stranger, 
a gau, who might be an enemy, whence hostile. GuEST : he 
who goes while we stay. From Go also Gang : that go 
together. Xenos takes the fern. Xenia (pet princess of the 
Russians). Polyxena : hospitable, who takes in many 
strangers = LlEBGAST : love guest = Xenophilus : fond of 
strangers. " Be not forgetful to be 2:)hiloxenists." " When 
saw we thee xenon!' Euxine : good for strangers, safe to sail 
on, first called Axine : not for strangers (because of pirates), 
now Black Sea, so named by Turks because Russians, wrecks 
and North winds come thereby. Frangipani (scent maker) : 
bread breaker = Lord : loaf aflfbrder, bread giver, whence 
Laird, Layard (Nineveh). When Lord is French it is 
applied to a heavy, slow person. In the Irish Toy : a lord, 
and Toole : lordly, aristocratic. Warner (warrener) : charge 
of rabbit cover. Warren (Hastings) : living on a Conybeare 
for conygare : where the conies go. Spelman (antiquary) : a 
labourer who works by spells = Ind and Hyndman. Some- 



258 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

times Spellman: hall keeper = Salmox. Spillman : spindle 
maker. 

Graves (for ge reves, as ge leap gives gallop, and ge win 
gain): a sheriff. Gravesend : sheriffs' end, cessation of juris- 
diction. Reves, Revell, from root Reave : to tear, to take 
by violence, whence robber, rover, rogue : all rapacious 
animals. Palgrave : palace steward. But Palfrey : having 
charge of a little horse. Coxgreve (matches) : cunning 
steward, like him in parable who was commended for clever- 
ness by his lord. MusGRAVE : over mews. Cextgrave : 
magistrates over a canton, centum, hundred. Chaucer looked 
on a reve preaching as reasonable as a cobbler turning sailor 
or doctor, — 

" The Devil made a reve for to preche, 
Or of a souter, a shipman, or a leche." 

Revely : the reve's field. Mullgrave : reve having charge 
of mills as to grist, fees to be paid for grinding. Stadholder 
(stead): place defender = Graves, Steward: stowe ward = 
Bye, as in Bylaws : local laws. Glashier (observatory) : 
glass worker, a glazier. Cori. Glacies : ice. Arbuckle : brass 
buckler maker. Buckler : buckled on the arm. .iVrmour : 
form of armourer, — 

" From whence came Smith, all he he knight or squire, 
But from the smith that forgeth at the fire ? " 

Smiths are numerous. From 1838 to 1854, '28G,037 of that 
name were recorded by the Registrar-General as having been 
born, died, or married. 1 knew a family so named living on 
a fiat with a Smith straight below, and another directly above. 
The floor Smith was so tormented with messages, parcels, letters, 
that he fled, flitted in self-defence. Smythe, Smith : he who 
smoothes metal by smiting, he who smiteth. Nearly synony- 
mous with FoRGEUR : forger, feigner, fashioner, who makes 
like to by fire. Smiths are numerous because generic, covering- 
all branches of hammer work. We have no Blacksmith, it 
being covered by Smith, but we have Whitesmith : who 
polished his worker and so nearly = Frobisher : furbisher. 
Sixs:\iiTH : sickle maker, giving Sickles, i.r., maker of. 
Arrowsmith : made iron part. 

Arsmith : brass smiter, or moulder = Brassey (Peto). 
Brazier : brass worker. Ar : brass, con. Es, eris : brass, 
whence Arma : arms, which were originally brazen. '• He had 
greaves of brass on his legs." Browxsmith : brown bill 
maker. Used by Saxons at Hastings. Browxbill (common 
in Lancashire): a Saxon foot soldier = Brisbaxe. Field- 
smith ; sharpened picks for the field, pit, mine. Goldsmid, 
GoLDSCHMiD, Orfever, Orfevre (faber) = our Goldsmith 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 259 



(Oliver). Kaltschmid : cold smith, wrought metal without 
lire. Calderon (Spaniard) : a tinker, mended kettles and 
caldrons = Caird. Tinker: one who tinks, tinks with his 
hammer. Chalcas (priest of Apollo), Chalcus (governed 
Cyzicus) : brass or copper worker. The Greeks used brass 
before discovering iron. They called it Chalkos. When iron 
superseded the old metal, tradesmen in the harder material 
were still termed Chalcus, though literally a blacksmith 
should have been called Chalyheus or Sidericus. " Alexander 
the Chalcus, did me much harm." Chalcedon (whence Chalce- 
dony : stone there discovered) : so named from its metals, now 
Scutari. 

Mes.ser, Messerschmid : cutler = Whittle (Harvey): who 
whets, sharpens metals. Naylor: nail maker. Schmidbrecht 
= Whitesmith : who polishes his work. Dacier (F., savan) : 
pairs with Whittle, being from Acuo : I sharpen, make acute 
= Coutts (Burdett) : army cutler, weapon sharpener. STxVHL 
(George), Stael (Madame de), Steele, Stilicho (general) : 
steel armed, cuirassiers (corium), armed cap-a-pie (from head 
to foot), all human iron clads^ISENMAN : iron man. In some 
cases last = next, Stahlman : steel worker. But Stallyman, 
Stally : strong as steel. Stallybrass : steel arm = Arm- 
strong. Brass, here, con. brace in Embrace : to take in arms. 
Fairbrass : iron arm (ferrum). Hltdibras : victorious arm. 
In Wales Mr. Smith figures as Gough (lord) or GoFF. In 
Scotland he becomes Gow, (Mc)Gowax, (Mc)Gown, Cowan. 
But Gowan (a daisy): white (flower) from Gwyn : white, 
whence Gown: white dress. GovAN: smiths' town. In Corn- 
wall Smith becomes Angowe. Celts, whether Highland or 
Hibernian, took ill to trade names, preferring personal, local, 
or patronymical designations, still we have (Mc)Intyre, 
(Mc)Teer: a carpenter. In Wallachia KovACS : a smith. 
Smith put in an early appearance, whence we have " The sons 
of Dedan were Ashurim, Letiishhn, and Leummim." Letus- 
him : hammersmen. It is supposed that the hammer head 
was used a thousand years before the haft was invented. 

To the above add Locker, Lockyer (when not Asiric) : 
locksmith. Ferracino (Bartholomew), Ferand (Gonsalvo), 
Ferrari (Milan), Ferrars (Higham), Ferretti (Pio Nono) : 
iron workers, farriers. From this prolific Ferrum : iron, we 
also have Farie : iron worker. A family so named has oeen 
located in Rutherglen (near Glasgow) for full six hundred 
years, as hinted at in this rhyme, — 

" Nae man can tell, nae man has seen 
When the Fairies haena in Euglen been." 

To this great company of ironworkers we may fairly add 



260 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Cloud (St.) : nail (maker), con. Clef (clavis) : a key. The old 
key was a mere nail. Cloud would be = Naismith if it meant 
nail smith, but it does not. Telfer, Talford (judge) : iron 
cutter, who cleaves an iron helmet. Telfer con. Talboys : 
wood cutter. Minister (from Minus : less) : correlative of 
Masters from Magnus : great, sometimes written Marsters 
and Maisters (de), whence Magnus (king of Norway), whence 
(Mc)Manus. Masters = Lemaitre. Magnus: great gives 
Magister : greater (than other), presumably by age, and so 
able to teach. Maximus, Maximin (emperor), Massimo : 
oldest, greatest. Rabbi : great (teacher). Rabboni : greatest 
(teacher). This title only given to seven of Hebrew in- 
structors. 

Brutus : a fugitive slave = Phygellus, con. Fugio : I flee, 
whence refugee = Flemming, Fleming from root flee. Tradi- 
tion says the Flemish ran from some pre-historic battle field. 
Brutus is sometimes given as stupid, brute like, but the 
balance of evidence is unfavourable thereto, it means a fugi- 
tive slave. Origen (Adamantus) ; home born slave = Verna, 
Vernet (Horace), con. Vernaculus : impudent, giving back- 
talk as slaves to masters. Vernacular : demotic, language of 
the untaught people, " Not answering again." Some give 
Vernet = Delaunnay : of the alder plantation ; similar to 
Layboulaye : of the birchgrove = Birkett. 

Abednego : servant of Nebo, Abdallah, Abdiel, Abdeel 
= GoTTESCHALCUS (sacraments) : God's servant. " The king 
commanded Shelemiah, the son of Abdeel, to take Jeremiah." 

" Servant of God, well clone ; well hast thou fought 
The better fight, who single hast maintain'd 
Against revolted multitudes, the cause 
Of truth, in word mightier than they in arms," 

GoTTESCHALCUS assumes the grotesque forms Godsell and 
Godshall. Abdastartus (Tyrian prince) : of Astarte. 
Abdalrahman (king of Moors) : of the mercy of God. 
Abdul- Aziz : of the precious One, one of the 99 titles of 
God. Abdul-Kader (Arab chief): of the Kadi, judge. 
Abdolonymus (Sidonian king) : of the name (of God), 
Hieronymus: holy name, becomes Jerome, Girolamo, 
Geronimo. 

ABDi(el) : servant (of God). "Kish the son of Abdi." 
Here a form of Ebed : servant, slave. " The son of Ebed 
said, who is Abimelech that we should ebed him ? " Zebul 
(who thrust out Gaal) : a fly, buzzer, a component part of 
Baalzebul, Belzebub : the fly dispeller. Ebedmelch (Ethi- 
opian) : king's servant = Gilderoy, Omri, Omriah : who 
obeys the command of God, con. Emir: who gives word. 
Emir-al-Omri : commander of commanders = Phicol : mouth 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 201 

of all, whose mouth all obey, Almiral, Admiral : the com- 
mander. Obed is the participial form of Abdon, whence 
Obed-Edom : Edom's servant. " Edom is slave (obed) under 
tribute." Obediah (Puritan favourite) : of Jehovah, cor. to 
Nobbs. Its Hindoo correspondent is Dhas Dasa : a coolie, 
servant, slave, coming into English as Dass, Gangadasa : 
servant of the river god Ganga, from whom we get the name 
of his son Ganges = Tiberius : son of the river God Tiber. 

Kali (goddess) : coally, black beauty, co7i. Kalos : beautiful. 
Our coal is philologically identical with Kali and kalos, each 
meaning beautiful. Kalidasa : servant of Kali, a thug. 
Cutta(ck): a temple, Calcutta: temple of Kali, the Hindoo 
Venus. " Kalidasa, the celebrated author of Sacontala, repre- 
sents with a master hand the influence which the aspect of 
nature exercises on the minds and feelings of lovers." 
GossALADASA : servant of Gossala, an avatar (incarnation) of 
Krishna. Agnidasa : servant of the fire god Agnl, con. ignis 
and Agag, which consult. The names of the well known 
Brahmin convert, Narayan Sheshadri, are analysed thus. 
Narayan : he that treadeth the waters, the Hindoo Neptune, 
devoted to. Sheshadri, is from Shesh : the great serpent, 
which, in the cosmogony of the Hindoos, bears the world, 
and Adri : safe (therefrom) in a mountain. Brahmin : born 
of Brahm, the first person in the Hindoo Trimutri. 

DuiLius (consul) : servant, slave — Dulia et latria : service 
and worship. Knight, usually given as meaning servant, 
knitted, attached, really means offspring, son of high degree, 
hence con. Gnatus : born. Vavasour : vassal, thane of in- 
ferior order, con. Volvo : I roll, boundaries being termed in 
medieval Latin Valvas : doors (of the kingdom) which the 
vavasour had to defend, similarly to a Marquess : marcli 
defender. It was originally written Valvasour, which makes 
the valves plainer. 

Esquire, Squires (scutifer) Armiger : shield bearer, knight's 
servant. Scudamore : shield of love, one saving another = 
Alexander, Socrates, Fortescue: strong shield, powerful 
escutcheon. Egede (Hans) : goatskin shield bearer, con. 
^gis. Egedesmind (Greenland) : built in memory (mind) of 
the apostle of Greenlanders. Giles (sometimes): a goat = 
Cheevers. Kmety (Austrian) : a serf. Lackey is from Lag : 
to remain behind, as servants do after master. Lachman 
(Mc) Latchie (con. lackey) : servants to a lord, 

Serjeant is form of servant = Servetus : one who received 
quarter in battle, ipreserved as a slave to his victor, binder. 
Ancell : a servant, con. ancillary = Helfmann (Nihilist) : 
man helper = Skeels, con. Scald : servant of the gods, served 
them by song. Godsal (lieutenant), Gotteschalcus : servant 



2G2 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

of God. Knapp: seYvsint = Knave. "I Paul, the knave of 
Jesus Christ." Knapsack : bag carried by a servant. We 
meet with Belkxap : honest, good servant. Ancell : con. the 
Gaelic word Gill : servant or boy, whence Gillie (Queen's) : 
servant, used not only of servitude, but patronymically, as 
Bain : white, fair (M') Ilwain : Bain's servant or son. So 
Dhu, Dow, Duff, Dove, Dee : swarthy, dark a-vised. 
M'Indoe: Dhu's Dow's Duff's or Dove's boy. Roy: red 
(headed) : gives (W) Ilroy : Roy's lad. Gilmore, Gilmer : 
great servant = Seneschall (con. senior and scald), becomes 
also GiLMOUR. But GiLMAiR: B. V. Mary's servant, as Kirrie- 
muir: Mary's kirk. GiLROY : Roy's lad, ab. to (M') Ilroy. 
GiLDEROY : servant of the kirk. Culdee : servant of God. 
GiLLis, Gelasius (pope), Gillies, Gildas (historian) : servant 
of Jesus = the Arabic Abdalissu, Abyssinian Barca-Yassous: 
slave of Jesus. So Gilchrist : servant of, devoted to, 
Christ. 

GiLFiLLAN (George): of St. Fillan = (M') Clellan, whence 
Cleland, Gildart: of Arthur. Gillander: of St. Andrew. 
GiLLiBREu, Gillevroy, Gillebred : of St. Bride, Bridget. 
Gillebred applied to a coast bird. From Bride, Hebrides : 
island whereon was church of St. Bridget. But Gilbert : 
bright, glorious warrior. GiLES: pledged to a ordeal = Wager 
(captain), con. Guild: a pledged confraternity, and Guild: a 
member of it = Frater. Gilbert answers to Gumprecht : 
war bright. M'Lean is a form of Macgillian : son of John's 
servant. GiLLOX, Gillan (Gill Gin) : servant of John. 
M'LuRE, ah. form of MacGill Cabhair : son of the servant of 
the book (Bible or breviary), clerk's son, Galbraith (con. 
Brehon) : judge's son, judicious, discreet. 

Many Celtic names are formed of Maol : bald (by tonsure), 
shaving away hair to commemorate our Lord wearing thorn 
crown. Hair so cut was dedicated to some saint whose name 
the devotee adopted. Anciently slaves were forbidden long 
hair as prisoners now. Part of Gaul was called Gallia 
Comata : the long-haired Gauls. Short hair or bald head 
become a symbol of servitude. " This is the priest all shaven 
and shorn, that married the man all tattei-ed and torn." As 
masters of old made slaves uncover in their presence to show 
they were their inferiors, we lift our hat to a superior and 
enter the house of God uncovered. As wearing shoe or sandal 
in the East signified right to walk over land, and therefore 
landowner, Ruth iv. 8., every son of the Orient enters God's 
house barefoot to signify poverty before the all possessing 
King. In the case of the wasteful son, " Put shoes on his 
feet," meant restore to him his forfeited patrimony. Malloch : 
bald to Luke. Eglismaol Luach : church of bald Luke, 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 2G3 

Lanarkshire. " The original name of the poet was Malloch, 
which, after his removal to London and his intimacy with 
the great, he changed to Mallet. He wrote 'William and 
Mary,'— 

" 'Twas at the silent, solemn hour, 
When night and morning met ; 
In glided Margaret's grimly ghost, 
And stood at William's feet." 

Maltse : bald to Jesus = GiLLis. Milligan (Scotch) : servant 
of Luke, but Mulligan : son of the bald headed man. 
Malcolm : bald to St. Columb. Malachy (king of Meath) : 
bald to Maodhog, first bishop of Ferns. Often confused with 
Malachi : my messenger, angel, but one is Milesian, the other 
Hebrew. Mullen (made Oin) : bald to John = McLean, 
GiLLON. MiLROY : ecclesiastical servant to king, as GiLDEROY 
was king's civil servant. Maol also gives MouLE = Calvin, 
Chauvin, Korah (Dathan and Abiram) : all bald heads. 
Thence also Moult, which gives Mews : aviary for hawks. 
Meuse Lane. Mull of Cantyre : bare rocks of Cantyre : head 
land. The severe climate of Russia suggested a compromise 
between razor and curling tongs. Instead of shaving, the 
Muscovites cut their hair crosswise, using this prayer : " Give 
thy blessing to this thy servant who is now to offer these his 
first fruits, the tonsure of his head. The servant of God is 
shorn in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, now and for ever, even unto the ages of ages. 
Amen." If his hair is dedicated to no particular saint he is 
simply called IsCHiN : a servant, but if to one, that saint's 
name becomes his with ischiri affixed. Thus Russia has the 
sneezing names, Matuiischen : servant of Matthew, Sents- 
CHISCHIN : of Simeon. Compare such cases with the jjer 
contra one of Samson and the Nazarite vow. The English 
name Callow (from Calvus) and the Welsh Voyle also mean 
bald. The Tartar word for servant! is Kouli, as Kouli Khan : 
khan's slave, lord's coolie. Cawnpore : khan's city. Coolie : 
serf, slave. " By the last advice from China we learn that 
500 Coolies, who had been entrapped into a factory at Macao 
under false pretences, broke down the door, and in spite of 
their keepers, effected their escape." Herschell (herr schall) 
of the German corresponds to Kouli Khan. Swain {con. 
sway, involving the idea of strength) : a young man, a servant. 
Boatswain : boat servant. Garcon : a boy, a servant, con. 
Goss, GossETT, GosPATRiCK, CosPATRiCK : boy, servant of 
Patrick. Page : a servant, now restricted to boy menials, 
gives the well-known Paget (Dr.) Pageant : grand display of 
servants. Paxton : Page's town. But Paxman : one driving 



264 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

a pack horse. Guiscard, Wishart, Wiseman : a conjuror, 
lit. a wise nature. Drew : a conjuror, druid, whence Druiff : 
son of Drew = Drugan. Mago (Carthagmian, from whom 
Mahon in Minorca), Magus (Simon) : a magician, one prac- 
tising magic = Persis, Elymas: of Elymais, from Elam: Persian: 
from Olam, Ulam : first-born The Persians came next the 
Chaldees in the art of divination. These = Hachmoni: very 
M^se. " He (Pharaoh) sent and called for the hachmonim of 
Egypt." Trismegistus (Mercury): threefold magician, greatest 
trickster. Mega: great, as Omega: great 0, gives Magus : 
great (man) = Rabbi, whence Magister, Magnate, Magistrate. 
From Per: through: Ager : a field, acre, we have Pilgrim, 
Pell, Pringle, Peregrix (Pickle): all Pilgrims. Hop 
Pringle : son of the pilgrim. 

PiLLSBURY, Pelham, Petty : pilgrims' dwellings. The first 
martyr to Christianity in Rome was burned, and is referred 
to by Lucian in his Dialogues, was Peregino. Pellett : little 
Pel gives the well known Paley : Pell's field. Rome, Romeo 
(and Juliet), Romaixe (Rev.), Romero: pilgrims to Rome. 
Saintey : been to Saint Terre : holy land, whence Saunter : 
to wander like pilgrims, Santa Croce (admiral) : holy cross, 
whose ancestors had the credit of bringing Vera Cruz : the 
true cross to Europe. Ermete (Dr.) = Bedowee : desert 
dweller, solitaire. Walls, Waller, Wallach (when not 
Wallachia) : pilgrims, con. Gael, a stranger. Wallet : pro- 
vision bag carried by pilgrim = Scrip : for holding scraps. 
Wantman, Want: wenders, goers about. Rainey (principal): 
who ran through divers lands. In some families this means 
sea rover = Walmer : marine wanderer, viking. CoCKLE : 
pilgrim who had crossed the sea to shrine of St. James Com- 
postella, and so wore a cockle shell cap. 

" How sliould I your true love know 
From another one ? 
By Lis cockle bat and staff. 

And his sandal shoon." 

This staflf was made crutch-wise, and called hourdonne, whence 
Burden ami Cross: pilgrims twain. His sandals suggest 
Disc;alzeado (Boston firm) : discalceated friar, bare feet, 
meaning poverty. Friar, Eraser, Frere (Bartle), Fra- 
(Diavolo) and Free in freemason, all mean brother. DiS- 
CALZEADO = Barefoot, which consult. Balmer : brought 
palm branch from Holy Land, whence Palmerston : town 
frequented by pilgrims = Pelham : home of. The French 
have La Paume : the pilgrim. In Snodland church-yard, 
Kent, is the following epitaph in memory of one Palmer of 
Oxford, — 



NAMES DERIVED FBOM TRADES OR TITLES. 265 

" Palmers all our Faders were, 
I a Palmer lingered here, 
And trauyl'd still, till worn with age, 
I ended this world's pilgrimage 
On the blyst Assention day. 
In the cheerful month of May, 
A thousand with four hundred seuen 
And took my journey liense to Heuen." 

Much of the beauty of this lies in the distinction that palmer 
differed from other pilgrims, such ceasing to be pilgrims after 
visiting places they had vowed to worship at, whereas once a 
palmer always a palmer. To these add Wands : who wends 
his way from land to land. The Germans simply call pilgrims 
wanderers. The generic word in the East for a pilgrim is 
Had.ja.1, con. Hagar. From Gur, Gar, or Gau, the Hebrew 
for a stranger, a pilgrim, as " I am the son of gur, an Amala- 
kite;" hence Gauyim: strangers, aliens, foreigners. Gentiles, as 
in the clearest prophecy uttered as to the restoration of the 
Jews. " For Jehovah will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet 
choose Israel, and set them in their own land, and gauyim 
shall be joined with them." Agee: a fugitive, answers to Phy- 
GELLUS. Agur ("The words of "): a stranger, a pilgrim. Un- 
likely as it may seem, there is an English equivalent to this. 
Sojourner (Charleston), one who tarries with you for a day. 
Gershom {om for Am: people): a strange people. For he said, 
" I have been a stranger in a strange land." The idea is nearly 
that of Ottemare (ultra): beyond the sea, con. Lammeirmoor : 
moor reaching to the sea. Gera (a Benjamite, a man left 
handed) : a stranger = L'Estrange. From Shem : name, 
famous, Shamgar (" the son of Anath ") : an aristocratic 
stranger. In the New Testament we meet with Gergesenes = 
Gauyim : foreigners, non Abrahamic people. Let a German 
bring up the rear in this array of pilgrims, WuNDER : he who 
wends, wanders = Wands. 

We also meet with the Italian Bezancio, Besant (Annie) : 
a crusading pilgrim, who, visiting Bysantium, brought there- 
from circular pieces of bullion without any impression, called 
from the city, bezants. By Shakespeare's time bezant became 
tantamount to valueless. 

BucKMASTER: master of buck hounds, but Buck, Box: 
bucks, gay fellows. " Box and Cox." Cox : cuish maker, 
thigh plate. Cramer : stall keeper. Bullar : stamper in a 
stannary office, con. Bulla : papal seal, which, stamping a 
document, became a Imll. Stanners, Stannery: worker in a 
tin mine, a tinsmith. Rose : rose grower = Rosbaum : rose 
tree grower, sometimes means rosy, ruddy = RuDD, and sug- 
gesting Rhoda, con. Rhododendron : rose tree, literally = 
Rosbaum. Moss (when not formed on Moses) : dwelling on a 
18 



266 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

moor, muir, bogland = Irish names MooxEY, Money, as in 
MoNEYMORE : great bog. MosscROP, Mosscrip : turf digger, 
labourer on a moor. Crop, that which is gathered, con. Creep: 
to gather, a worm gathers itself to creep. So crop of a bird 
consists in what it has gathered. Con. this root, Krupp 
(guns) : a cripple, one who creeps along. 

Nachmann: night watcher. The French have Munzer: 
money maker, printer. Scales and Klinkscales : medieval 
nicknames for salesmen, which in Hindostan is Wallah, to 
which add Seller, when not meaning Saddler. Brazier : 
brass worker answers to the medieval Persian Soffar, from 
whom the dynasty Soffarides, who reigned over Khorassan 
(873-907). Khorassan : sun country, sunny land, with which 
some connect Cyrus (Koreish) : the sun — Samson, from 
Shemesh : the sun, but the balance of probability favours 
Cyrus: kurios, lord. The French Delaport: of the gate, 
Delaplace : of the city, Delarue : of the street, were some- 
times applied to tollmen = Southgate : toll taker there, but 
at others meant burgesses, freemen ; allied to Rue : a row, 
street, Perez de la Rua (he gave name to Peru) : Pierson 
of the street, i.e., main street. Gregory (Gregorian chant, 
calendar) : a watchman, gives Gory, Goy, Gor (ham), con. 
Lycurgus (king) : wolf watcher, a shepherd = Berger. 

Lacordaire : wearing cord of St. Francis, sometimes peace- 
maker, who gets people into accord. Ardgour : Goat hill — 
Gordon. Kilgour (coyle): wood frequented by goats. 
CoYLE : a wood, Kelvin (avon) : wooded river. Halley, 
guarded hall = RocHEFORT. Aube: white wood. Oltramare, 
DouTREMER : a foreigner from beyond the sea. Painvin : 
holding land for which homage is rendered in bread and luine. 
Annan (avon, of which an is dim.): rivulet. Annandale = 
COMMISKY (combe esk). Clive (India) : Clee : living among 
cliffs; Cleveland = Folly, Foli, and Du Halde. But Cling 
for Kling : a sword(sman). Heller : sea cave entered by 
tide, aboriginal troglodyte = Wemyss, Cave. Connal (S.B.G.) : 
raging flood = Sorbey : shore dAveller. The royal name 
Brunswick : Bruno's cattle shed = Byars, Bouverie, sug- 
gesting Bembo (pen) : cattle hill. 

Seidlitz (powders) : is our Settle : living on a clearing, an 
emigrant. MuRiLLO (painter): little walled town = Lyttleton, 
Velpeu, Burdett, con. Murat. Shee (O) : living where 
fairies meet. De Soto : of the Grove = Groves. Travel : 
to go beyond (trans) the wall (vallum), a traveller. Witley 
(Liverpool): white meadow — Whitefield. From Pre: before, 
Eo : to go, we get Pretorius : a magistrate, one who takes 
the precedency. " And the soldiers led Him away into the 
hall called Prystorium." 



NAMES DERIVED FROM TRADES OR TITLES. 267 

Of recent names are Penman Quillman, Schreibeii, Scribe 
= the classic Schrevalius. Satchell: a little sack, means a 
bag maker = (M') Sporran. Costard (whence Custard: the 
-outcome of cream and good cookery, was originally baked 
apples) : an apple grower, then seller, whence the well known 
Costermonger : costard, apple, salesman. Braschi (Pope Pius 
VI.) : cauliflower planter, market gardener. Button (Billy) : 
is a button maker. Wasserbohr : a well borer, and Wasser- 
man: waterman, travelling by, but WasS: bold, con. Vasa and 
Washington. 

Bachelor: staft' winner, the last man of the poll won a 
wooden spoon. So also Bell: who carried off the bell. 
Bachelor, con. Imbecile : leaning on a staff, feeble. Alconer, 
Elkorn, Oldcorn (G. P.): ale Conner, an exciseman who ken- 
ned, examined ale. Arliss : one bound by arles, i.e., earnest 
money to serve a year. Aries is from year, and that from 
gyre, gur. Halfhead (puzzled many) : a poor farmer, one 
having but half a. hide of land to cultivate, a hyde being what 
a yoke of bullocks could plough in one season. It was called 
a hide from being hedged, hidden. The name is cor. from 
Halfhyde, which is rare compared with Hyde. A yet more 
comic contortion is Onybrains from Onibyrne : John Bran or 
Braine. PARDON(er) : a priest, but PuRDON (for pure dun) : 
a hill cleared of trees = Clarendon, Claridge, suggesting 
Orridge : farm on a hill, and Orby (Shipley) : dwelling on a 
farm. Or or Orr : an enclosure, boundary, usually a water. 
HoARE (formerly Oore) : ore raiser = Pitman, suggesting Ireton: 
iron town, place where iron ore is dug. Anser (a form of 
answer, for and swear) : a scale maker, as the goods and 
weights had to answer, balance each other. Brogger is the 
medieval English form of broker = Broker. Coult£;r (con., 
Colo : I cultivate) : a smith who made iron part of plough = 
Plowvv'right. Prudence (same word as Providence: Ho 
who pro-vides : sees and prepares before hand) : a morality 
play character, then a Puritan name. Draper (con., Drap : 
■cloth. Trap : to adorn with cloth. Drab : a , colour) : a cloth 
salesman. 



( 268 ) 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PATRONYMICS. 

It was formerly customary to receive names from ancestors 
by compounding their name with a word indicating filial re- 
lationship. Names so compounded were termed patronyinics, 
from Pater : father, and Onoma : a name — father being used 
in the sense of ancestor. When personal names merged into 
family appellations, patronymics became obsolete ; or, more 
correctly, ceased to be formed. Before this change was 
effected, in case a man was called Dennis : born on the 
day of St. Dennis, sometimes his eldest son would be called 
Dennison, which, in some cases, became Tennyson, and a 
man from a village in which was a church dedicated to 
St. Dennis was called Dennistoun. After the period in 
which descriptive names flourished, each of his children, 
whether male or female, would be called Dennis, so that this 
became literally a patronymic, inasmuch as it was a name 
received from a father. Howbeit, only those names that were 
taken from a parent when such was not the rule are called 
patronymics. Personal names lead the van as to all others, and 
are the basis of half their successors. Long after personal 
names were almost as widely diffused as persons, we find 
patronymics coming into use — the offspring of necessity arising 
out of multiplicity. The hero of the valley of Elah is known 
as David, the son of Jesse, whence we infer there were others 
named David. This is the more probable, because David : 
beloved, is a nurse name, and had doubtless often been given 
by fond mothers to newly born boys previously to B.C. 1085. 
Had he lived in the first or second millennium of history, he 
would simply have been called David. Names follow a regular 
progression parallel to history, beginning with a single personal 
appellation, and pass on to patronymical, and then to two, 
three, four, or more names being used, the final stage being 
the stereotyping of names as they are all over Christendom, and 
have been, at least, from the era of the Reformation. Nothing 
we know of Onamatology : the science of names, a branch of 
philology, favours the idea of man's antiquity stretching back 
into ten times the period recognised by the Usherian chronology. 
Had man inhabited this globe 100,000 years since, single names 
would not have been in use so lately as the days of Adam. 
As in the Old Testament we have David, the son of Jesse, so 
in the era of the New Testament we meet with Caiaphas, 



PATRONYMICS. 269 



Joseph : Caiaphas, the son of Joseph, which easily becomes 
Joseph Caiaphas. Yet earher we have John Hyrcanus :,who 
conquered the Hyrcanians, dwellers near the sea now known 
as the Caspian. Such names approach very nearly to our pre- 
sent nomenclature, which is not a result of chance, but the 
natural outcome of human language, which is the outcome of 
human nature, which is the offspring of God. The first name 
looking like a patronymic is antediluvian, viz., Tubal-Cain : 
flowing out from Cain, as though O'Cain, given to intimate 
pride in relationship to Cain. During the Israelitish theo- 
cracy, Gentile patronymics were in common use, as Hittites 
from Heth, but those personal came in later. As soon, how- 
ever, as the New Testament opens we meet with Bar-Jonah, 
Bar-Abbas, names received from fathers in the conventional 
patronymical sense. It is, therefore, manifest that the chron- 
ology of patronymics, the period of their formation, lies about 
midway between the primitive ages and time current. 

The Saxon Patronymic 

was formed by adding ing to ancestor's name, as 

^Elfreding : Alfred's son, plu. ^Elfredingas : Alfredites, like 
Frelungi (second order of Saxon society) : sons of the free, 
con. Frew, Jungfrau : young free. Freeman = Liberius, 
Eleutherius (popes) and Lysander ; men loosened. 

Beorming: descendants of Beorm, Birmingham: home of 
his sons. 

Brummagem (a name applied to inferior goods made in Bir- 
mingham) is an actual family name. A member of the 
Beormingham family who emigrated to Ireland was named 
Pierce, which was Hibernianised into Macioris, which became 
Macjore, which assumed the form of 

Macgeorge, a fact that should make men thankful they 
are not living in Irish medieval times. 

Another Saxon chief was named Fother : feeder, provider, 
father, from him, 

Fotheringham : home of the descendants of Fother, con. 
Fotheringay and Fothergill. 

Watling for Watlingas : the sons of Wetla. Watling Street, 
through their settlement. 

Wetla : he of the sharp sword, C07i. Whet: to sharpen, 
Whittle (Harvey). The Goths supplied the Saxons with this 
form, hence the dynastic patronymics, 

Merovingians : descendants of Meroveus, Carlovingians : of 
Carloman. 

Carling (from him Carlingford) : son of Charles = M'Arle. 
The Danes were called 



270 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Skioldungians : of Skiold (Sigge's fifth son) : a shield, good 
at using it, like 

ToRDENSKiOLD : thunder shield, thundering on shield of 
enemy. 

NoRDENSKJOLD (navigator) : shield of the North. Skioli> 
= Milesian Skey, con. Sky: a cover, Skidmore: shield of love. 

Skiolding : son of a shield, brave, cor. to Scolding : noise 
made by sword on shield, now by one tongue on another. 
" How are the mighty fallen." 

Wellington : town of descendants of Weale. So from 
Wass : keen, bold, we have 

Washington. As also Ware : a defender = Epamnon, gives 

Warrington (from Ware, Herts). Wade : he who invades, 
bold at attack. 

Wading : son of W^ade, whence Wadington. Bann, from 
Bana : a slayer, con. Henbane : hay poison, wolfsbane, we get 

Banham : Bann's home. Sometimes a form of Bonhomme : 
a monk. 

Gosling (bona fide) : of Goss, but Gosling: little goose. 

Gunning : son of a warrior = Wickliffe, from Gunn : war, as 
Gonfalon : war standard, Gunter : the warrior of the army. 

Seekings: son of Sack. Sack: one given to plunder = 
Merode, Harry. 

Meeking : son of Mece. Mece : a sword, he who uses it. 
Meek, Mechi (model farm). 

Klinging : son of a sword, sabreur, from Kling : a blade, 
he who uses, con. Clang : to make a noise. 

Gettings : son of a Jute, giant. Behring (straits). Baring: 
son of Thor's bear, good lighter. 

Merling : son of the illustrious ; Mar : famous = Shem. 

Manning (cardinal) : son of the Asir Mannus. Mannering 
(Guy) : of Manners, Herman inverted. 

Gumming, Comyn : son of a count, con. Comes : a companion. 

Atheling (Edgar) : of noble descent, gives Edlin, con. 
Adler: a German aristocrat. This patronymical ending is 
met with in names of the most frequent occurrence, as 

Jennings : of John, Stubbings : of Stephen, Rawlings : 
Ralph, Ralston : Ralph's town. 

Copping: Jacob. Collings: Nichols. Framing: son, we 
have ing : little, thus 

Darling (Darlington: Darling's town): son of Dear, or 
little dear, 

Carracci (Carus : dear) answers to latter. Fatling : little 
fat (animal), Gosling : little goose, are dims, of pats., as most 
dims. are. 

Whiting (nothing to do with fish) : son of White. White : 
a man, emphatic, but 



PATRONYMICS. 271 



Whitworth : white dwelling = Wentvvorth, Casabianca. 

Chiese from Casa : a house, is now domesticated in Eng- 
land. Had Chiese invaded our coast five hundred years since 
he would have turned to Cheese. 

Wiggin(g)s (weather prophet): son of war, a soldier = the 
better known Wickliffe. 

When ing is neither a dim. nor a pa^. its used in the sense 
of contempt as witling, lordling, where, of course, it means 
little. The Saxon jycit. was less common among our ancestors 
than 

The English Patronymic, 

which is exceedingly common with ourselves. It is indicated 
by affixing son to the name of a progenitor, and is incapable 
of being used in a plural form or in the generic sense. The 
examples are so numerous and so well understood that one is 
embarrassed in making a selection fit for the occasion. 

Addison : son of Ady, for Adam. Edison (electric) : of 
Eadie, of Ed. 

Anderson: Andrew = Andrez. Harris (when not local), 
for Harrison = Harrigan, Barry, Parry. 

Anson (commander): John = BEVAN. Alison : Alic for 
Alexander = Sanderson. 

Maddison, Madison : of Matthew = MacMath, De Mattos, 
sometimes becomes Dyson. 

CouLSON : Cole for Nicholas. ToLSON : Bartholomew. 

Gibson : Gibbs, for Gilbert. Gilson : Giles, or Gill, in 
latter case = MacGill. 

GiMSON : of James = Jamieson : of Jamie : little James. 

Hinson : Hind, which becomes Hines, Ind (and Cope). 
Hodgson : of Hodge for Roger. 

HoBSON ('s choice, this or none) : Hob, for Robert = Robert- 
son, DoBsoN, Robinson, Probart, Robson. 

Hodgson : Hodge, for Roger. Hudson : Hood. Hood : a 
monk wearing one. ^ 

Huskisson (Board of Trade) : Askew. Lupson : Love : 
lupus: a wolf = Lopez, Lubez. 

Ives : an archer = Yeamans (Hemans) : Yeoman, con. yew 
(tree), IsoN = MacIver. 

MuNSON : Munns, for Edmund. Nelson : Nell (Ellen) or 
Neal, when = MAcNEiL, Neligan. 

Mackanelly, from MacNeil. Pearson : of Peter = Pedrez. 
PiLSON of Pell : a Pilgrim = Hop Pringle. 

PORSON (Cambridge) and PoLSON (flour) ; Paul = MacPhail. 

Patterson: of Patrick = Gospatrick(co%. garcon). Ritson: 
Rider, Ritter = DE Ruyter. 



272 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Sampson : Samuel. Simson, Simpson : Simms = MacShimes : 
of Simon, Monad from Simon, as 

Stimpson, Stimson, Stevens : Stephen. Tonson : of Tony 
for Antony = De Antonio, Danton. 

Watson : Wat for Walter = MacOuat, Mac Walter. Nill- 
SON (madame) from Corneille. 

It is more easy than desirable to enlarge, this catalogue. 
We, therefore, pass to the germane subject of 



Diminutives. 

The following are the most prevalent forms in our language : 
— ullus, ucci, je, ie, ing, in, kin, ot, otte, otti, ell, elk, enne, et, 
ette, etti, etto, ach, och, eogan, egan, an, een, ad, un, ig, cock, and y. 
Before considering the part played by diminutives, we should 
premise that, as a rule, final s in personal names makes no 
difference as to meaning, being generally only phonetic or 
formative. Thus Hawkin, con. Hal for Harry, tends to 
Hawkins, as Edward glides into Edwards. Some hold 8 in 
such words as Edwards to be a genetive form as though 
Edwards : son of Edward, but it is mostly formative. Yet in 
some cases the terminal s does indicate son, and so may be 
termed a patronymical form. Is a man called George Peter ? 
The ear is unsatisfied until that becomes George Peters. On 
this principle Will assumes the forms Willis, Wiles. — In the 
subscribed examples understand either son or little after the 
original name. 

LucuLLUS (conquered Tigranes) : Luke = Lucian, if that 
does not mean born at daybreak. 

Lltke : man of Lucania, south Italy, given, also, as shining, 
brilliant. 

Marcellus (slew Viridoraarus) : Mark. Faustulus (shep- 
herd) : Faustus (Dr.), Festus : lucky. 

Verucci: Verus: true = Truman, Liprot, and Amen. 
But Veron, Verron : man of Verona, Veronica : true image 
(of Christ). 

Brammetje: little Abraham = Mabbot. Epje : Joseph, cow. 
Jaap, Jebb. 

Jantje: John = SHONEEN, Atkins: Arthur. Dakins, 
Dawkins, Deakins, Davitt : for David. 

DoNKiN, Donaldson, English for MacDonald, the Irish for 
it being Donegan, and the Lowland MacWhannell. 

Ekin is derivable from Edward, Edmund, Edgar, or Eadie. 
Hankin : Hans : John = Hansom (son). 

JiFKiN: little Joseph = Epje, former English, latter Dutch, 
each =: JowETT (professor). 



PATRONYMICS. 273 



Fergus gives Forgie, as Ronald does Rennie, and Gabriel 
gives Gebbie. 

Just: born on St. Just's day, gives Joscelin, Josselyn. 
Lawrence gives Lakin, Larkins, Larry, Lawrie, Lawson. 

Oliver supplies NoLL, Nollekins. Isaac becomes Nye, 
Nykin = Mackissock, also giving Ike. 

Rankin is of Randall, while from Simon we derive Simpkins, 
SiMKiNS, SiMCOX. As Simkins shapes into Simpkins, so Sim- 
cox grows to SiMPCox. 

Gloucester : " What's thine own name ? 
SiMPCox : Saunder Simpcox, an' if it please you, master. 

Gloucester : Then Saunder, sit there, the lyingest knave in 
Christendom." 

QuAGLiENNE : little Quaglia, which consult. Adcock, Ady 
(Joseph) : from Adam. Thousands of children have been 
named from Adam, in the belief such would attain to a great 
age. " Old as Adam." The Jews viewing him as the first 
rebel, and he being no Jew, name no child after him. 

Alcock from Hal, for Harry. Arnot from Arnold. BiR- 
KETT from Burke (from Bury), when not birch vjood. * 

Badcock is from Bartholomew, whence also Bartlett, and 
Batty (equestrian); but Bad : good, from Bid : to pray. 

Pius (Pio : I atone for) : who has made an atonement, a 
religeuse, Pyat (red), Biot, Bioti, Biagotti.. 

BuoN for Bon : good, from Bonus, gives the great name 
BuoNAROTTi = Goody, con. with 

BuoNAFEDE (wrote "Political Chronology"): truce observer, 
faith keeper, identical with bonajicle = A'M0N, Amnon : amen, 
men. These answer to 

Fidelia: keeping her tryst;=BEAUFOY : good faith. Bos- 
suet (the learned), BossUE : boss shouldered, gibbous. 

Paget (M.D.) may mean little page, or son of Page, con. 
Pageantry : great show of many servants. 

Buffet (corps legislatif) : waiter on the buffet, sideboard. 
Beefeater (Tower) : buffetier = Page. 

Barrell, Barrett, from Barry or Barrie ,f rom Barr : a 
hill, or Barry : bare island. 

Lawcock : little hill = Knowles, or little Law : a hill. In 
keeping with former view. 

Braes : living on a hill, con. Brant : living on a steep. 
Branton = Hilton, con. 

Tannahill (Paisley) : a hill whether heather perishes from 
heat, con. Beltane, but 

Tannock for Tannerock : young Tanner (faster) : worker 
in oak tan = Barker. 

Bernadotte (Sweden), N adaud : from Bernard. Burnet 
(bishop) from Brown or Burn : a boundary = 



274 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



Beckett: little beck, con. Beccles (bishop): brook runninoj 
through meadow (lees). But Beckey from Rebecca. 

Corbet from Corvus : a crow (on shield), one of the oldest 
surnames in Scotland. 

Cobbet (Preston), Coppock, Cob (father) : from Jacob. 
Diderot (cyclopedist) from Desiderius : desiderated. 

DoRRiT (little), Dolly: from Dorothy. Elliott, from 
Ellis, for Elias, for Elijah. 

Fontinelle from Fontaine = Fountain = Tiber (father), 
Spring. 

GuizoT (statesman), Why ATT, Giotto (O) from Guy. Gillot 
(pens) : Giles or Gill. 

Wilmet, Guilmette, Guillotin, Willimott, Wilmot, 
WooLcocK, Willie (We have missed you), Wilkie, Ullin 
(lord). Ullick : young or little William. 

Grocock from Gregory, whence Gorham : where is church 
of St. Gregory. 

HiGGS : a wild ash, gives Higgins, Higgot, Hignet. Her- 
belot (orientalist), formed on Herbert. 

QuiN^T: from Jacques, for James, and so = Jamie, Jimmy. 
Hancock : Hans : John = Van Hahn. 

Hitchcock (geology and religion) : from Richard. Glass : 
a stream, as Glassford ; Glasscock = MacGlashan. 

Brogan: little badger, biter. Crossan : little cross (on 
shield). Hoppet, Hopkins : Hob for Robert. 

Hewitt, Hewett, Hewson (old), Huessen, Huie : sons of 
Hugh, or little Hughs. 

Ivett from Ives. Jewett, Jewell: from Jew: from Judah. 
Morell (H. M. I.) : from Moor or More : dark, con. Morison. 

Marcet (Mrs.), MuRCUTT, from Mark = MARCELLUS, whence 
Marcellinus (pope). 

Martinet (disciplinarian) : from Martin. NicoT (tobacco) : 
Nicholas. 

Othello, Odette : Otho. Pellatt (Apsle}^) : from Pell : 
Pilgrim. Tippet : from Theobald. 

Perkins (and Barclay), Parkin, Parnell (Land League), 
Perucci, Petrucchio (and Catherine), Perrott, Pirrie, Pirie, 
Pirret, Perry (when not trade name : maker of perry from 
pear), Pierotti, Parrott : are all formations on Peter the 
apostle, prolific of names. 

Donizetti: formed on Dominus: a lord, and so = Toole : 
of lordly descent. 

Timkins : from Timothy. Tonkin, Tony, Antonelli (non- 
possumus) : formed on Anthony. 

Thomasseau, Thomassen (son) = Tommy and Thomson. 

Moloch and Molloch are living family names from Maol, 
Mul : bald, and each means little baldheaded man. 



PATRONYMICS. 275 



De and Mac. 

From the Latin De : of, we get a patronymical sign common 
to French, Italian, and even German names. Thus 

Deluc: of Luke. De Mattos: of Matthew = MacMath, 
M ADDISON, Madison. 

Dearle : of Earl. De Ruyter : son of a knight = Ritson, 
MacKnight. 

DwiGHT (theologian) : of Wight. Danton (red, very) : of 
Antoine = Dante (poet), 

Durante : lasting (as to fame) is given as its source, but 
Durante, Durant: lasting (in fight) = Constant. 

Dando (English), Dandy (Scotch), Tandy (Napper) = 
Danton (French), Dante (Italian) on Andrew. 

D'IsRAELi : of Israel = Scobeloff (general) : son of Jacob, 
con. KopiNSKi : James' town, and Scobie. 

De Santos : of the saints, from Sanctus : holy. Sang, 
Sancho (Pansa). Sanctus: holy, from Sanguis: blood (of 
sacrificial victim), hence Sanction. D'Eremao (Dr.): of a 
hermit. 

De Foe : of the faith. Delmonico (hotel) : of the monk. 
When local, la is added, as 

De la Croix : of the cross = Crosby : dwelling near a cross. 
Crossley, Crutchly : cross field. 

De la Rue : of the row, streets Rows, and Italian, Stradu- 
ARius (violins). In German, Stross, whence Strossmayer 
(bold bishop): street mayor, burgh officer. The South American 
town Callao: the street = Main Street, High Street. 

De la Marche: of the border, as Bondy = Delawar (whence 
Delaware), Dewar : of the ward, part guarded. From the 
Latin ending acius, the French derive ac, used* locally or 
patronymically, as 

PoLiGNAC (cardinal) : of Poligny, and that from a Pole. 

Balzac (author) : of Bale, for Basil, from Basileus : a 
king. 

LussAC (Guy): of Luke = Deluc. Martignac : of Mar- 
tigny : Martin's dwelling. 

EsPAGNAC (general) : of Spain. Ravaillac (Henry 4th) : 
of Ravius : son of Rapp : a raven. 

Coligny (admiral) : for Colignac : of the hill district = 
CoLLis, Hills. 

Fitz. 

The more general patronymic indulged in by our Gallic 
neighbours is fits for Filius : a son, received through the 
Normans. " Robert, son of King Henry 1st, having proposed 



276 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

marriage to Osbeorht, daughter of Baron Fitz Hamon, she 
politely declined, for said she, — 

" It were to me a great shame 
To have a lord withouten his twa name." 

His father came to the rescue, and made him eligible for 
husbandship by styling his pet " Robert Fitzroy :" son of a 
king = (En)FAUNTLEROY : king's infant = Cree for MacRee, 
Basilowitz and Rene (roy natus). Her name Osbeorht : 
glory, brightness, of the Ases (for her beauty). One name, 
and that monosyllabic, or, at most, of two syllables, was the 
rule for the poor and slaves in Greece, Rome, England, and 
America. To marry a one-named man then would forfeit 
aristocratic position. Demosthenes, in his imperishable 
oration, " The Crown" accuses -^schines of violating that law. 
" He is not such a man as you may meet every day, but one of 
those execrable to the people. For lately — lately, did I say ? 
— ay, yesterday, and no longer ago, he became at once a citizen 
and orator, and adding two syllables to his father's name, he 
changed it from Tromes to Atrometus." In giving the word 
of command a long name is harder to be uttered than one that 
is short. Hence Oppian advises that dogs have short names, — 

" Lest at the huntsman's call they trace in vain. 
And run with open cry confus'dly o'er the plain." 

In Sweden the poor still have but one name, and that a short 
one. Second names are useful in fixing a first. Before the 
Reformation men changed names as expeditiously as jail birds 
yet do. Then persons were often baptized in one name, 
married in a second, and buried with a third, as then a 
Registrar-General and a Postman were unthought of. So 
lately as 1760 the Poles passed from one name to another at 
a bound. Priests named an entire estate of serfs Peter, and 
another, under a different noble, John. Their surname alone 
prevented confusion. To return to^/i^c oryiims. This became 
jfitt in certain families, as Parfitt: good son. Sometimes 
Jilius assumes the form if as Druiff = Drugan : son of Drew. 

Van, Von. 

Corresponding more or less closely with de, etc, is the Dutch 
vmi, usually applied with the force of the, as Vandersteen : 
of the stone, hill = FoLLi, Fell, Knox. Van Osterzee 
(divine) : of the eastern sea, living on the Baltic shore. Baltic: 
belted, land locked = Mediterranean, which does not mean 
in the middle of the earth. So Zuyder Zee : south sea, 
Zealand : sea land, island. South from Seethe : to boil, to be 



PATRONYMICS. 277 



hot = Ham: a temanite, southron, man of liot climate. Van- 
DELEUR : of the Eure valley, a Norman name. Vandervelde 
(painter) : of the field = Vanloo. Van Meter (Rome) : living 
on hired land, carefully measured, paying a feu, the op. of 
Tennant and Hodder (and Stoughton): holding allocZial 
land = Franklin : free from feus. Vandeveer: of the ferry 
= OvEREND = Overton : town where people pass over: Over- 
newtown: the new town at the ferry. Partick : a portage,a ferry. 
Van Buren : of the cottages, boors' houses. Sometimes Van 
slips into position as a veritable patronymic as Van Hahn = 
Johnson. It passes into von with an emphatic force, as Von- 
ROBERT: the Robert, becomes Canrobert (Crimea). Von der 
Tann (general) : of the pines = Du Pin and con. Tangye : pine 
wood. " Von Reaumer : of the sea, a shoresman = Connal. 
A living leading politician in Belgium is Vandenpeereboom: 
of the pear tree. 

The Welsh Patronymic 

is a form of the Celtic nuic, which the Cambrian people made 
onab or maj:), and shortening it to a letter h, p, or its cognate 
/, gave it work to do as a patronymical prefix, thus : 

Probart: son of Robert. Probyn, Provan: of Robin. 
Blake (mighty) : Lake. 

Barry, Parry (captain) : Harry. Bevan: of Evan: John, 
varies to 

Biffin (Miss), Baffin ('s Bay). Bowen : Owen. Boyu 
(when not Gaelic) : Lloyd. 

Bethel (attorney-general) : of Ithell, an ancient Welsh 
name. Bews, Pugh,"Pue, Pye : of Hugh. 

Price : Rheese, or Rice : king (rex), ruler, so that it = 
Machree and Cressidas. 

Priddle : Riddle. Pritchard : Richard, Powell, Bowell, 
BowELLS: Howell = Mac Hale. In old English Powell is a 
form of Paul. So Chaucer speaks of the words, " Of Christ, 
John and Poivell." 

Progers: Rogers. Prigg : Rigg = KNOWLES, Knolls, 
Knolys, Hills. Prowse (Jeffray) : Rouse. 

Fluellen : Lewellyn : "Captain Fluellen, you must come 
presently to the mines : the Duke of Gloster would speak 
with you." 

Fowell (Buxton) : Howell. Flack, Black : Lake = Blake. 
When, however. 

Black is not Welsh it means dark = Niger, Ham. Few 
(when not local) : son of Hugh. The Welsh are ridiculed for 
their much use of ap for mah in pedigrees. Beaufoy says, 
cheese is ''Adam's own cousin-german by its birth, ap Curds. 



278 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

ap Milk, ap Cow, ap Grass, ap Earth." From the ancient 
family of Eynion : just = SADOC, we have 

Onion, whence the immortal dreamer Bunyan : Mab Onion. 
At one period of English history it seemed probable that viah 
would become as common throughout Britain as mac in the 
Highlands, in the form of ho}^, for ap, for mab ; thus 

Hop Pringle : son of the pilgrim. Hop Cornell ; son of 
Cornwall. The popular vote put the veto on hoj) as a patrony- 
mical sign soon after the Reformation, but left us 

Apps, Upp, Hopps : beloved son, only son = Maccus (from 
whom Maxwell, the spring of St. Maccus), Mack (general). 
Idas, Iff, Faunt, Egan, Goss, Kidd, Kyd, Ingo (whence 
Ingle), Zoon, Enfant, Mapps (Oxonian professor), and 
Mappin (of razor fame) : all son par excellence. Sometimes 
loved one is used in the sense of son, as 

Wickliffe (wig : war, LifFe : life, loved one) : son of war, a 
warrior = Cadogan, After analysis of the Cambrian ancestral 
sign we reach the 

Milesian Patronymic. 

" By Mac and O you'll surely know 
True Irishmen, they say: 
But, if they lack both " O" and " Mac," 
No Irishmen are they." 

A free rendering this of 

" Per 0, atque Mac, veras cognoscis Hibernos; 
His duobus demptis, nuUus Hibernus adest." 

Favour, reader, by being sceptical hereabout as more than 
half the orthodox Irish names have neither Mac nor 0. The 
Highlanders, Irish, and Welsh hold mac in common, but, as 
we have seen, the Cambro Britons delight to have it in the 
forms mah, map, ap, hop, h, p, f. In Irish names onac tends 
towards mag, ma, and c. Howbeit, Hibernia did not take to 
rtiac as lovingly as did Caledonia. The Milesians found a 
greater charm in Eoghan : a son, forming na,, and that used as 
O in the sense of eldest son, for he only was allowed to use it. 
The Irish developed a patronymic out of their Erse treasury 
more elastic and poetic than the Gaelic mac. The Celtic for 
young, oftspring son, is, as above given, eoghan, whence 

Egan (Pierce) for Hugh, eoghan : son of IIugh = BEWs, Pye, 
PuGH, Few, Ewing, Huessen, Hewson. This eoghan, abbre- 
viated to a, is then used as a patronymical affix, thus, Ach : 
a horse, Achaia : horse producing country = Parthia. 

EcHEGAN : son of a horse = HoRSMAN, Philip, answering 
closely to Hippias. B}^ prefixing mac changed to mag, to the 
foregiven we have 



PATRONYMICS. 279 



MAGEOGHEfjAN (historian) : son of Echegan. Congan : son 
of a dog, great tighter. 

DoNEGAN, DuGGAN : son o£ DuNN : brown haired = Mac- 
Donald. 

Flanegan : son of Flan : ruddy, whence Lynn (when not 
local from Lin : a lake), 

Flanegan = Macklin. Finigan (M.R): fair young man, 
con. Fingal ('s cave). 

Harrigan: Harry = Barry, Parry. Mulligan: son of 
the miller. 

Gilligan: Gill = MAcGiLL, Gilson. Costigan : Costa 
(leader) : Koster : doorkeeper. 

Talligan : little hill, is the exact Hibernian equivalent for 
TuLLOCH. Sometimes og only was used in name-making, as 

HiCKOG : doctor's son, becomes HiCKHOCK, suggesting when 
we said, — 

" Hie, licec, hoc : lay him on the block, 
Dives : riches : pull down his breeches. 
Qui, que, quod : lay on the rod." 

Crannage (N.Y. Dr.) : son of Crann : a tree = Woodhouse, 
Bamber (beam burg), living in a log hut, resident on an 
artificial island of wood, a lake dweller. These names are more 
than 3000 years old, antedating Irish history. Sometimes the 
last part of eor/han, an, was used patronymically or as a 
diminutive, as 

Cashan : little Cash, or son of Cash. Cash is a directory 
name, uncon. money. 

Adamnan (St.) : little Adam. Crossan, Crosson : a small 
cross. In theology the cross removes the curse, but, sad to say, 
in philology, it is its root. From cross we derive the Saxon verb 
Corsian : to curse by reversal of cross, hence Curse : to im- 
precate. 

COBHAN : little Jacob. Granahan : little Graine. Now 
Graine (con. the sun): light, joy, loved one = HAUSSCHEi\, 
gives Greene, to be distinguished from Green : living on a = 
Fields and Dupree. 

OssiAN : a little deer, a fawn, graceful as Apollo Belvidere. 

CuNNiAN : son of a dog, a bold warrior = Canning, Chan- 
NING, which consult. 

Clanahan : formed from Lean by riiac before, and eoghan 
behind ^ MacLean, Lennie. 

Gallyon : son of the Gall, stranger. Englishmen were so 
called by the Irish seven centuries since. This an frequently 
changes to on, oon, but raoi^e usually to een, in which forms it 
supplies a good dim. to our language. 

" Kathleen, mavourneen, the grey dawn is breaking." 



280 PEESONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

AvouRNEEN : little dear, darling. Mavourneen : my dar- 
ling = 

Carrachioli: little cherished one = Jeshurun. M,ma,mo, 
signify 'niy in half a dozen languages. 

Carrigan, carigheen (moss) : little rock, con. Carrick, crag, 
Shoneen : little Shane, rude boy = 

Gossoon (garcon) : little Goss, con. Cospatrick : son or 
servant of Patrick. Squireen = Squeers : little squire. 

R.USKIN (art critic) : little wood, from Ross : a wood, giving 
RossA (Donovan) = Woods, Quiddy is 

Killeen : little wood, formed on Coyle : a wood. Our 
college for ladies, 

GuRTON (Gammer: grandmother) is Celtic, being Gorteen : 
little meadow = 

Cluny' (MacPherson), con. Clontarf : bull meadow = 
Huxley: OxLEY = Butt Green = Geshur, from gor, ghor, ghau, 
and Shur : an ox. In such favour is een with Milesians that 
they intermingle it with English names, marrying their words, 
as they do their girls, to the hated Saxon. Hence 

Smithereens : smitten to small pieces. 

Potcheen: pot stilled whiskey. Shebeen: small wayside inn. 

Camptine : little camp becomes Cantine = CAMPALETTO. 

Velveteen: small quantity of velvet. Gombeen : small money 
lender. Poreen : small path. Ballyporeen : road. 

Buttereen, etc. Besides eoghan, they used mac, gos, cos, 
and gil, so that Irishman have no grievance as to lack of 
patronjmiics. A Fenian would say : " Small thanks to the 
Crown for that. And sure we got them from our own tongue." 
Here it seems proper to trace a name through some of its multi- 
tudinous ramifications, a word originative with the Celts, but 
used half over Christendom. Aodh, the Celtic for fire, con. 
the Persian Arta : high, the sacrificial flame, and Ara, (an 
altar) : that which flames, 

Hugh : ardent, fiery, easily incensed, ready tor battle, 
whence Hughes, 

HuGGiNS, Mogue : my Hugh = Hughie. Guzzi is its Italian 
dim. Hugh becomes Kay, which, in non Celtic names, is a 
form of 

Caius for Gaius (Kay Shuttleworth), M'Kay, Euing, Ewixg. 

Hewitt: little Hugh = Whewell (Trin. Coll., Cam.). Found 
without aspirate we have the less known 

EwELL. Houston : Hugh's town. Hugh varies to Hutchan 
(eoghan) : son of Hugh = Thus we get 

Hutcheson, Hutchings, Hutcheon. Philologically, Hous- 
ton = Hutchesontown. 

Mackay, Mackie, Egan, Euing, Ewing, Pugh, Bews, Few, 
Pye, are some few of its varied forms, as are 



PATRONYMICS. 281 



Macgee (MacHugh), Gee, Mahew (London poor), Hewson, 
HuTCHAX; and the well known Glasgow names 

HuTCHESON, AiTCHisoN": sons of Hugh, and, crowning all, 
the double patronymic M'Hutcheson. 

GuiNXESS (Dublin) st^-nds for M'Geeinnis : M'Gee's islan'l,a 
native ot". 

(M') EvoY is compounded of Hugh and Boyd : fair-haired 
Hugh. This supplies high proof of the great antiquity of the 
name. Moreover, half his offspring is not here presented. By 
the study of Hugh our mind is carried back to, at least, when 
Samuel slew Agag. 

The Gallic Patronmyic 

is mac: a son, used as a prefix, nick: a daughter, now obsolete, 
and from eoghan, for a first, born son. Mac, mah, mag (for 
they are one) is con., Maggot : breeder, meaning one who is 
bred of another, a son, offspring. It is an actual name. Mab 
(queen) is dream breeder. Probably to this source is to be 
traced Midge : (insect) breeder. The Gaels also had a patro- 
nymical affix derived from eoghan, viz., ach, och, the source of 
our ock, as seen in Hillock: little hill = i^e^^oc^. All dims. 
were first pafe. This corresponds to the Hebrew i, for im, as 
Moabira : one of the people of Moab, the Greek idas, the 
English ite and the Irish egan. Thus MuRROCH : a Maryite, 
devotee to the B. V. M. = Murison when not a form of 
MoRisoN, nor of Mum. Tosh : a leader = Hanlon, gives 
TosHACH : son of Tosh = MacIntosh : son of the leader. 
Wall: a pilgrim, gives Wallach = Hop Pringle ; son of the 
pilgrim Skeach: son of Sky. Stoach: of Story. Cattanach 
{con., Cath : war) : son of a warrior, then a marauder. 

FiNACH : son of the fair man = the Irish FiNNIGAN. 
Darroch : son of Drew, or of an oak, robust. 

Greig : rough, uncouth, Gregalach (l formative) M'Gregor: 
a Gregorite, where ach — ite and mac, — 

"The moon's on the lake, and tlie mist's on the brae, 
And the clan has a name that is nameless by day; 
Om- signal for fight, which from monarchs we drew. 
Must be heard but my night in our vengeful halloo — 

Then halloo, halloo, halloo, Gregalach ! 
If they rob us of name, and pursue us with beagles, 
Give their roofs to the flames and their flesh to the eagles, 

Then gather, gather, gather! 
While there's leaves in the forest, and foam on the river, 
Macgregor, despite them, shall flourish for ever." 

DOMHNUALLOCH : a MacDonaldite, or if Lowland, a Mac- 
Whannellite. 

Albanach : a Highlander, son of the mountain = Mac Alpine: 
19 



282 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

son of Albyn, con. Albion. The McAlpines are almost as 
aboriginal as heather; hence the proverb: "Evils and hills 
and the McAlpines." They pair well with Lamont : a hills- 
man, highlander, or castle man. 

EiRiNEACH: a son of Erin, an Erinite = the soft sounding 
Erigena : Irish born. From that ancient root Caw : to turn, 
to curve, we have Curvus : crooked, Cavus : hollow, Cavan=: 
Holland : hollow land = Logan and Hole : From Caw we 
have Corve : a basket (hollowed), Cawb. 

Caw : a chariot (whose wheels caw), a charioteer = McAra. 
Hence, too, 

CoRMAC : son of a chariot, swift as the scythed war chariot 
=: Antiochus giving Antioch. In this and similar names avtl 
is used with the force instead of, as Antipas (" my martyr"), 
Antipater : in his father's place, nearly answering to Bar- 

ABBAS, PATROBAS, IcILIUS. 

OcHUS (Darius) : moving like a chariot. The double 
patronymic 

McCoRMACK arose wdien the meaning of CoRMAC began to 
be lost sight of. 

Cawliffe : son of a chariot, identical with Cormac, some- 
times son of Caw, his life, his love. 

TosHACH = to an inversion of McTosH, ToSH : first, leader. 
Macintosh : son of the leader. In few national names arc 
political and social changes more deeply engraven than in those 
of the Celts. Some proscribed clansman disguised Gaelic 
origin by letting fall their characteristic mac, doffed their 
kilt, and gave the body of their name a lowland twist. Such 
happened when certain of the McGregor's left their country 
for their country's good, over the Colquhoun business, and 
found an asylum in Ireland. Once there they became 

Griers, Greers, Griggs, or took the name of their native 
place, as 

Bri.mer, from the braes of Mar. So the Graemes or 
Grahams made for Wales, and there gave name Groomsport : 
harbour of Graham. 

Grimes is a Cambrianised form of Graham, which name 
hunters tangle with those from the Asir Grimr. The 
McKinnon's emigrated from the Isle of Skye to that of Saints, 
becoming 

McCannon, or naked Cannon, under which designation 
their descendants are thei'e found. 

M'Kinnon is formed upon Finn on a famous saint. FiNNON 
{on for an from eoghan) : son of the fair, a blonde = Bain, 
FiNGAL, Blake when that means bleached. 

McNab : son of the abbot, was absorbed into the unrecognis- 
able names 



PATBONYMICS. 283 



McNeice, Nenres, Munnis, Monies. Many a cognomen has 
been disguised through servility as Malloch to Mallet. 
Others have been barbarised through the Sassanach being 
ignorant of Gaelic, and so transcribing by ear the copy bear- 
ing so faint a resemblance to its original that there was little 
enough to swear by, as 

McEachran into Cochrane, McDougall, McDowell into 
Dole, M'Arthur, into Arter. 

Yet the Celt has no more to grumble about than the Sas- 
senach and the German, when Oestman, Sterling : man from 
the east = KEDEMAH, CaDxMUS is distorted into Oysterman and 
Ostrich, which is actually the case. 

MacAllister into Callister, while the Irishman Macody 
collapses to Cody. 

MacEochall : son of a horseman = De Ruyter, shrunk into 
Keogh. So that Cochrane precisely = Keogh. Then we have 

Machree (widow) : king's son, into Cree. MacWade 
becomes Quj*.id (Mick Mac). In such cases mac shrivels to a 
letter ?>i, c, or k. Thus 

McCrobie : son of Robert, where c belongs to mac. So 
Anders : Andrew's son, becomes 

Manders (menagerie) as Kendrick ; from Hendry, for 
Henry, becomes McKendrick = Henderson. 

McKinlay forms on Finlay. Now Finlay : fair hair = 
Harfager (Harold), so that 

Finlayson exactly corresponds to M'Kinlay, The popular 
names 

McOmish, McTavish, McTause, McComb (giving McCum- 
ber) are contortions of tlie Biblical Thomas, and so = 

Thomson, Thompson, Combkin. Rae : prosperous = Luckie, 
Gluck, Felix, Long (when Chinese). 

BoNHEUR (Rosa) : good hour, born when some such star as 
Jupiter was rising, gives 

Raith, MTlraith {il for gil, but mere phonetic padding), 
and Macrae, which becomes 

McCraw (Jock), thought to be origin of the Irish McGrath. 

Caelum, for Columba: a dove, gives (Mc)Callam, Calmon, 
Colman (O'Lochlin). 

Maccallummore : the great Macallum (Argyll). Some 
Celts make 

CuLLOCH: folder of cattle = Stoddart, Coward, others 
have it boar slayer, gives 

MacCulloch : son of. McHarg : red (headed) son = Roy, 
and con. Dearg Lough. 

McIlrov, looks as though Roy's servant, but il is added to 
prevent its becoming McRoy, which colloquially glides into 
Croy. So that 



284 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

McIlroy : son of Roy = Kogan, Regan (Roy eoghan). When 
Norman, 

Roy : a king == Conig, whence Conigsby : king's dwelling =^ 
Cunningham. The late author of the novel Coningsby, wrote 
LoTHAiR, con. Luther, as it was to do anti- papal work. 

Roy takes the forms Ree, Rae, but Raeside : living at rath 
side. We are pretty safe in allocating names in RoY as red 
headed. 

Roe is the form it came out in among the Irish, as O'Connor 
Roe : eldest son of red headed Connor. 

RowE is its Eno^lish form, which tans^les with those from 
Rue : a street. 

" King James the First, Roy of this Regioun, 
Said David was ane sair sanct to the crown." 

The change of a letter or two gives a new look to a name, as 

Drood (Edwin), for Druid = Drew. So we have Adjai for 
Hadji: a pilgrim, as "The Right Rev, Samuel Adjai Crowther, 
the black bishop." 

So Smallback (beck) = Burnet : little brook. Mira 
becomes Myra ; Gaunt (ge want, waned): thus, Caunt ; 
Moller is but Miller, and Egen is Egan : son of Hugh. So 
corresponding words puzzle from other countries, as the Ger- 
man Kl KIN = Short; Ziegler = Tyler; Zahn = Tooth. 

Madge (Wildfire), Matty (meddlesome), formed on Margaret. 
So again, 

Yeddie and Peddie upon Neddie for Edward. Vokes, 
upon Ffoulks : for folks : vulgus, demos = Demas: a demotic 
person, vulgarite. Such names, coming of artifice rather than 
spontaniety, suggest 

Caliban (Shakespeare), a formation upon Cannibal : a 
Carib (bean sea). This reading names backward after the 
anagram style, which is somewhat Hebraic, supplies many a 
nom de plwme : pen name, disguising an author's true desig- 
nation. Thus the father of Voltaire was Arouet, a dAm. of 
Aroux, formed from Arnulf (heerulph wulph) : army wolf, 
i.e., slashing fighter. Of course Voltaire was Arouet junior, 
in French Arouet le jeune, and as u and v were interchangable, 
as were i and j, the great deist anagrammatised it into 
Voltaire. Some give that as a form of Walter. 

MacNair : son of heir (of estate) becomes Macaire. English 
equivalents are 

Eyre, Ayre. But. the well known 

Hair is a form of (0') Hara. Bane, Bain: white, fair, gives 

Vane (O Sir Harry), and Sullivan: fair eyed, blue eyed. 
Vv'e should not say 

Mac Vain : son of the white (man), as that held good only 
once, i.e., when borne by its first wearer, but shuuld say 



PATRONYMICS. 28r 



Mac Vain : son of Vain. Bane «= White, though in some 
Ceases White for Wight: a strong man, but in sense here given 
it supphes 

Whiting for Whitting, (as): sons of White, then Whitting- 
TON (Dick) : town of, etc. Dhu : dark, as Roderick Dhu : 
Roderick the swarthy, gives 

Duff (Dr.), Duffy, which, bisected, give Fie, MacPhee, 
Macfie, 

MAcDuFF = the Muscovite name, Karakoff : son of dark 
(man), con., Caracal : black eared (wild beast). Karadagh 
the Russian, confor., Montenegro. 

Karatheodory : swarthy Theodore. From Darn : dark. 
Tarn : dark waters (by reason of depth). Tarnish : to darken. 

Darncombe : dark valley = Valesneri : shaded by trees 
and hills. 

Darnley : dark visaged. Duffy gives, by Milesian variation, 

M'Haffie, M'Guffie, and, oddly enough, Cuffe, changing 
to Coffee (king). 

" Sinful Macduff, 
They were all struck down for thee ! naught that I am, 
Not for their own demerits, but for mine 
Fell slaughter on their souls ! Heaven rest them now." 

(M') GowAN, (M') Gavin : a smith. Govan : smith's town. 
Gavigan : young smith = Gowanlock = Macgowan, which cor. 
to MGoun. 

MacShimmes, M'Immey, M'Kim = Simson, Simpson. John 
gives 

MacInnes (when local, from Innis : an island = Lisles), 
MacOwen, 

MacShane, MacGeoch, MacKean (when not from Kean : 
head) = Johnson. 

MacFadyan: son of tall John, which becomes Fadden, 
Some authorities give 

MacInnes as a form of Angus. The Highland nomenclature 
supplies few trade names. Of those few the most prominent are 

(M') Intyre : the carpenter, shades off to (M') Tear (dia- 
monds), which bereft of mac stands bare Teer, (M') Growther: 
brewer (to king) = Brewster. The Celts had neither public 
brewer nor baker, as the Saxons had. Their nearest approach 
was (M') Dade: kneader = Baxter. 

(M') Naughtan (Pictish king) : a bull, strong as, perhaps 
con. worship of Thor. Naughtan abbreviates to Neat : a 
bullock, as " Neat's foot oil." Hence 

Natman: neat herd = CuLLOCH, and Notman when Not is 
not from NoTH : bold, audacious, then Notman : brave, man 
of audacity. By an intolerable Gaelic twist M'Naughtan 
becomes 



286 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



M'Crackex, whom he resembles as young Adam would an 
aged clansman. 

M'Naught, which any poor Saxon might be pardoned for 
thinking it to be a form of 

M'Naughtan, is a modification of M'KNiGHTr=RiTSON. Such 
Gaelic eccentricities are paralleled by M'DoUGALL, forming 

M'DowALL, Dole, M'Houl, and M'Owl. Variation of "this 
type are due to Gaels living in non Celtic localities, where the 
unskilled natives fell upon Highlanders by lip and pen till 
they hardly knew their own address. 

M'GuiRE disfigures in some families into M'Quarry, and 
that goes into Wharry. 

MacFarlane is from Parlane, for Bartholomew. (M') Tosh 
= Alph(EUS. 

(Mc)Intosh : the first (of his clan). Fin : fair, gives 

FiNNACH, FiNIGAN, FiNGAL, 

(Mc)Phin, (Mc)Phun : who were what ladies call blondes, 
and fortune tellers, hearts. 

Finella : fair Irish lady = Welsh Venus, Nel Gwyn : Ellen 
White. 

(Mc)Kellar may easily be taken as akin to Kellarman : 
cellar man, a butber, but is formed on cell, Jcil, as Kilpatrick : 
Patrick's cell or church, so Kellar : superior of monastery = 
Foreman, Pryor. 

Kelloch : son of the cell, hermit, forms McKilloch, unco7i. 
McKiLLOP : son of Philip. 

Lewis (when local), from island, literally meaning land of 
lakes, shades into McLisE (David) and Leece. Worthy mem- 
bers of the sans culotte nationality, when reading the Book of 
Maccabees, viz., " For Ptolemeus, that was called Macron, 
choosing rather to do justice unto the Jews for the wrong he 
had done unto them, endeavoured to continue peace with 
them," straightway pushed their macs almost into the Bible, 
in the belief that Maccabees, Macron, were members of the 
Tnac sodahty. Such is not quite the case. 

Ptolemeus Macron : Ptolemy the tall, similar to Edward 
LoNGSHANKS, suggesting 

Sheepshanks (picture collector) : thin legged, quick footed, 
the op. of FuLJAMBE, Tardieu. Macron is met with as a 
Christian name in the fcjrm of 

Macro, but shines best in Almaoro (conquistador) : the 
thin, spare = Longman (bookseller), Longfellow. 

PizARRO (his fellow soldier) = Slater, Sclater, Latta, 
Hulyer. 

MacKissack : son of Isaac. Certain Highlanders aflirm 
Hebrew is misspelled Gaelic. 

MacGauley is the Irish form of Macaulay (Babington) : 



PATRONYMICS. 287 



son of Aulay, varies to McGarlie. The original Aulay was 
the Earl ol: Lennox's son, who flourished in the 14th century. 

Cahill, Caddle, Cattle, Cathal : battle eye, gives 
McGaul or MacAll, which latter transmutes into Almack(s) 
of terpsichorian fame. 

From Lind : a lime tree (sometimes a snake), Lindsay : lime 
tree island, gallicised into 

McLintock (Arctic voyager). Some conception may be 
formed of variations by misspelling from the fact that 

Main WARING : a strong built manor house, is spelled in 130 
different ways. 

(Mc)MuRROCH (Hibernian): sea commander, becomes 
(Mc)MoRRAN, Morrow. 

McQuillan = Wilson, is from Will of Asiric celebrity, but 
(Mc)QuiLKiN is a form of Wilkins, and so = MacQuilkin = 
Wilkinson. Highlanders having no iv are in the fix fastened 
on Italians by the Cockneys. " They can't spell tvaggon." 
Whenever Celtic names begin with w we know they are Saxon 
corruptions, as 

McVVee, a form of McVey, a case deserving the attention of 
Captain McAll. The same observation applies to McQuade, 
formed on Mac Wade. 

McQuaker is not a friend once in drab who has taken to 
kilts, but a form of McVicar= McPherson. 

MacLarty (Mrs), MacLaren (Edinburgh) are from Laurence, 
and = Larkins. 

Mackenzie, MacKinney, MacMinn are from Kenneth 
(Pictish king). 

MacLymont is a form of the almost indigenous Lamont : 
the mountaineer = (Mc)Bean, (Mc)Vean (from Ben). Lamont 
is credited with giving name Lomond to Loch and Ben. 

(Mc)Lerie is the Milesian synonym for Clerk. The same 
nation stands accused of distorting good looking Duncan into 
the unrecognisable 

(Mc)Connachie, so that MacConnacbie = Duncanson. If 
possible, the Irish did worse — actually made McLeod into 
MacElligot. But their conviction did not tarry. A learned 
Highlander brought it pat home to Pat. 

(Mc)Inally is also Hibernian, meaning a teacher, a doctor 
of learning. Each or Ach : a horse, gives the widely spread 

(Mc)Eachrain : a horseman, whence McKechnie, the /c of 
which is the c of mac. Probably we find the root of Auriga : 
a charioteer, in 

(Mc)Ara : a footman, charioteer = Cor, thoroughly British 
of an age when the essede (war chariot) was used in battle on 
this island, Ara and CoR would leap off, fight, jump on again, 
retire. From (Mc)Ara, Hair, and (O')Hara we get also 



288 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

McKerrow. Though the next three names be not macs, 
they are too thoroughly Albanach to be torn from their con- 
freres. 

LocHiEL (head of Camerons) : bird lake, living near a loch 
frequented by migratory birds == 

Cranmer : mere frequented by cranes, con. Cranston : 
crane's town. 

LoCHABER, LocHiNVAR : living at confluence of lochs, loch 
mouth, con. Kinloch, — 

" There was mounting 'mong Graemes of the Netherby clan, 
Forsters, Fenwicks, and Musgraves, they rode and they ran ; 
There was racing and chasing on Canobie Lea, 
But the lost bride of Netherby ne'er did they see. 
So daring in love, and so dauntless in war, 
Have ye e'er heard of gallant like young Lochinvar ? " 

Kinloch : head of lake, as Kenmuir : head of moor. But 
Balloch : a gap, pass = Hindoo Ghaut, and Hebrew Abar (im), 
and the English Slapp. 

Glengarry : rough glen, con. Garrioch : rough district = 
Badenoch. 

Fenwick : dwelling place on a moor, fen = Morton, when 
that does not mean great town = Granton. 

Panmure (pen): hill on a moor, con. Pengelly, and = 

DUNMl^RE. 

" I saw our chief come o'er the hill 
Wi' Drummond and Glengarry, 
And through the pass came brave Lochiel, 
Famnure, and gallant Murray. 
Macdonald's men, Clanronald's men, 
Mackenzie's men, Macgilvray's men, 
0' Callendar, and Airley." 

Ben: a hill, mountain (Mc)Bean : a hillsman, gives 
(Mc)Vean, (Mc)Ve*y. 

Pen : a hill, Pender : oak hills, Pinkerton (caer) : fortified 
town on a hill. 

(Mc)Sween is formed on Sweyn (Danish king), the 
McSweens claim high northern descent. 

(Mc)Gibbon is Sassenach in " the garb of old Gaul." We 
have seen 

Gilbert : pledged to fight in an ordeal, giving Gibbs, Gibb, 
Gibbon : great Gilbert, in the garb of old Gaul it stands 

MacGibbon = Gibson (Milner). We have also shown that 
Geoch is Jock, so then 

MacGeachy = Jackson. Nine Englishmen out of ten would 
say 

McOuAT as a form of McWat: son of Walter, Watty = 
Watson, but that would be McQuat. McOuat is formed on 



PATRONYMICS. 289 



McHowiT, and Howit is = TuLLOCH : a little hill, probably 
con. the Biblical Tell : a hill, as Tell-abib : hill of corn = Corn- 
hill. Tel-el-Kebir : strong hill = Montfort. " Then I came 
to them of the captivity at Tell-Ahib, that dwelt by the river 
Chebar." 

Howe (John), from which McOuat is formed : a hill = Fell, 
whence Felton, when not from field — 

Hilton = Craig : man living on a crag. Howe also = 
Knowe, whence 

Knolls, Knollys, Knowles, Knox, and Knee. From the 
man Howe we have the patronymical diminutive Howie, like 
Dix, Dixie. " I wish I was in Dixie" = Dixon, Dickson,— 

" Gae briog my gude anld harp ance rnair, 

Gae bring it free and fast ; 
For I maun sing anither sang, 

Ere a' my glee be past, 
And trow ye as I sing, my lads. 

The burden o't shall be, 
Auld Scotland's Jiowes, and Scotland's hnowes, 

And Scotland's hills for me ! 
I'll drink a cup to Scotland yet, 

Wi' a' the honours three." 

Adam takes the dim. Ennan (Adam eoghan) : little Adam, 
giving 

(Mc)Lennan (L phonetic), cor. to (Mc)Lennand, which 
becomes Cleland (Burns). 

(Mc)Grory is formed on (Mc)Rory, from Koderic. In like 
manner 

(Mc)Farland (N.Y. fame) is a form of McFarlane of 
Pare AN, of Paul. 

Zetland is by some given as a form of Shetland, by others 
from Yet for Gate, and so land enclosed and entered only by a 
gate, and yet others demand its being con. Zee for Sea, as 
Zealand: sea land = Attica, Pontus, Pomerania : foreshcae 
countries. 

ToRQUlL, TORMAID (famous Scottish names) are formations 
on our esteemed friend Thor. ToRMAlD is the Gaelic equi- 
valent for 

Norman : north man, whence Norval, Normandy, Norway : 
way to the north. 

ToRQUiL gives the Highland (Mc)Corckle, whence(Mc)CoEK- 
indale. We have seen that the Gaels compared with tiie 
Germans have few trade names of those. 

(Mc)Creach: a ploughman = Plews. 

An account of the awful results forth-flowing from High- 
landers doffing their kilts comes from the United States, to 
which one McLean had emigrated. By some unpatriotic freak 
he dropped his lawful Mac, and put in his appearance on the 



290 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

pages of the "Boston Directory" as bare Lean. His punish- 
ment soon overtook him. A bookwright giving an account of 
proper names exhibited him as Lean, the opposite of fat. 

The Spa^n^ish and Portuguese Patronymic 

is formed by az or ez affixed. The two are variations of the 
tail of Filius : a son, as 

Alvarez : son of Alva : pale, from Albis : white, answer- 
ing to Vane for Bain. 

Diaz (Bartholomew) : of Diego, for Jago, from James, and 

SO = FlTZJAMES. 

Perez (as in Perez de la Rua, who gave name to Peru) : 
Peter = Pearson. 

Enriquez: of Henry = Hendricks, from Hendry, for 
Henry. 

Gomez (C^-rlist general) : of Jo am, for John = Gamgee, Gange, 
con. Gambetta, Jantjee, which consult. 

Juarez (Mexican) : Juan, for John = our Johnson. 

Lopez (Paraguayan dictator) : Lobos = Wolf, so that Lopez 
= LuPSON. The commonest of all names amongst the Spanish 
speaking race are Lopez and Diaz, like our Smith and Jones. 

Mendez : Clement, which through Spanish love of the 
sonorous o becomes Mendoza, — 

" AnJ bow he had storm'd, and treated her ill, 
Because she refused to go down to a mill, 
She didn't know where, but remember'd still, 
That the miller's name was Mendoza." 

Melendez, however, means of the ^milian gens., Roman 
descent. 

Lainez (Jesuit general) : of Lane : last born. 

Barthez (" History of Savans"): Bartholomew = MacFar- 
lane. 

Narvaez (premier) : of Nervius, which is also a j^t. mean- 
ing son of Nerva. Italian and Spanish families affect deriva- 
tion from Romans. 

Vasquez : Gascon, Basque, whence Gasconade : a boast. 
• Velasquez (painter) : Velasco. Dominiquez : Dominic, 
" Desperdicios, or DomAniguez, the famous torreador, lies 
dying, having been frightfully wounded by a bull in the 
ring of Puerto de Santa Maria, in the presence of ten thousand 
spectators." 

Desperdicios : desperate (fellow) : a Madrid nickname, of 
which Perdita may be termed a fern. 

Valdez : son of Valens, who gave name to Valentia. The 
d formative. 

Ruiz : of Ru, from Roderisfo for Roderick. 



PATRONYMICS. 291 



CoBEZ : Jacobs our Jacobs, when s is patronyinical = Ben 
Yacoub. In South America names in az or ez change to iz. 
Though many names ending in az, ez, or iz are j)afe., yet some 
so ending are the mere outcome of Spanish fondness for z, 
whereby words ending in « or j; blend into z or ez without 
patronymical force. Thus 

JuEZ : for Judex : a judge = Dempster, Day: and the lady 
name 

Inez for Agnes ; as also Luz for Lux : light. So Cortez 
(discovered California) for Cortes, our 

Court: a courtier, well bred = Curtis: courteous, Townly : 
town like. 

Hoffman : court man. Hoff is identical with Haft', Have, 
Haven = Hithe, Hyde: where ships hide from storm. Havre 
de Grace: harbour of grace. FrischhatF: fresh water haven. 
HofF: a temple, court, farm, harbour : these all have one 
underlying sense, protection. Hoff gives 

HovEY : a farmer, Hofrichter : court judge, a judicial 
title. The Spanish patronymical sign was got by the 
Spaniards from the Goths, previously to whose arrival they 
used HiJO, from Filius : a son, a name to be numbered by 
thousands, and maybe formulated as = Hopps, Ingo. Hence 
we derive the grand title and well known name 

Hidalgo (filius de al Goth) : son of the Goth. Filius gave 
hijo and ez to the Peninsula, fitz to Normandy, v^fc/i to Russia, 
ii to Hungary, figli and li to Italy, but nothing of that nature 
to England, Lopez being like our Smith, Jones, Robinson, one 
of that name termed himself. 

Le Lubez : the Lopez, as the Irish have The O'Donaghue. 

SuARius : a swine herd, gives Suarez (Jesuit author). 

The Italian Patronymic 

was sometimes formed by placing the name of a son before 
that of a his father, as 

Galileo Galilei : Galileo, the son of Galilei : a crusading- 
name. 

Galileo, con. Galilee, one distinguishing himself there = 
our well known 

Crosskey : who in the crusades carried the Papal standard, 
Peter's two keys. 

Speron Speroni : Speron, the son of Speroni. Speron : 
hopeful, con. Nil desperandum. 

Masatonio : Thomas, the son of Antony. 

Giancarlo : John, son of Charles. This mode of expressing 
filial relationship was adopted from the Greeks, who have a 
class of names similarly formed, as 



292 PEBSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Dion Cassius : Dion, son of Cassius. It is used in Muscovy, as 

Paulina Petrowna : Pauline, daughter of Peter. And also 

Paul-Petrowich : Paul, son of Peter. This is a more exact 

expression, sonship, than ours, and so may be termed the 

definite patronymic. Contrast it with 

Wilson : son of Will, which ? If we said Tam Will : 
Thomas, son of William, we should be more exact. Now, this 
is done in the Yorkshire dales. 

GlANFiGLlAZZi : John, the son of Azi. Then Azi : strong, 
con. Ases. The French also form patronymics after this 
pattern. 

Bassompierre (marshal) : Bassom, the son of Peter, And 
the original 

Bassom : short, con. Base : the foundation, Bassi (Ugo), and 
our 

BissET : a dwarf = CuRCi : curt = Bass (ale), Short, Pettet, 
Klein. Consult 

Basvecchi, capable of meaning little old man = SEACHLAN. 
Vecchi : old = AuLD, is in common use all through Italy. 
But our 

Veitch is from De Vesci (vetus civitas) : of the old town = 
Oldham. 

Robespierre : Robert, son of Peter. Italians often use <li 
for de, as 

Andreuccio di Pietro: Andreuccio, the son of Peter. 
Andreuccio : little Andrew. Occasionally jilius, jigli ter- 
minates a name, as 

Macchiavelli : Michael's son = MAcMiCKiNG. Napoleon 
said, " Macchiavel is the only author really worth reading." 

Benedetto il Ferondi : Benedict (il for filius) son of 
Ferondi. 

Ferondi {con. /erocious) : stern = Severus, Suwarrow. 
Filius forms yi in certain Spanish names, as 

FiGUEROLA (senor) : son of GUEROLA : great warrior. Guerre: 
war. Italy is given over to a passion for the sonorous o, as 
Serb : a native of Servia, is formed into Servoni. So her 
genius is illustrated in the last of these names: — Ecolampadius 
(Greek) : house lamp, Hausschein (German) : house shine, 
HousEGO (English) : house joy, Humbert (king), Umberto 
(Italian) : house brightness : birth names. Coccapiella (con. 
our cock : of a gun and Pello : I drive) is the Italian name 
answering to Arcuballister : arrow thrower. Alabaster 
(ballo). 

Here it becomes me to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Padre Gavazzi, who, in 1858, gave me valuable information on 
the patronymics of his charming Italian language. 



PATRONYMICS. 293 



The Russian Patronymic 

is itch for a son, of, ef, or if for a grandson or descendant. 
The latter is called a papponymic, similar to the Celtic O. 
This of, ef, if iorms owna, ova, or ina for wife or daughter, 
as the Celtic O forms ua: a daughter. 

RoMANOViTCH JouRiFF : son of Romain, grandson of Joury. 

JoURY, Jury: George. The name Iff: a grandson, one of 
good descent = Atheling. Names in ski are generally local, 
that meaning city, as 

KoPiNSKi : the town of St. James, con. Jacob, Coppock. 

Tobolsk: ski on the Tobol river. Okotsk : ski on the 
Okota. 

Peteropaulski : city of Peter and Paul, saints or czars. 
Muscovites are as fond of ski as Spaniards of ez, and so use it 
as verbal padding. Thus two Russian nobles took the names 

Nevvsky and Sudanowsky, the former for Swedes on the 
Neva, the latter for Turks on the south bank of the Danau, 
Danube, con. Onderdonk. 

Czarina: wife of the Czar. Klawina: daughter of 
Nicholas. 

Alex andrina (our. own) : daughter of Alexander. Kath- 
AROWNA: of Catherine, one of the rare instances of a daughter 
named from her mother. 

IvANOWNA: daughter of John. Nicholaljewitch = 
Nicholson. 

Philippova (Nihilist leader) : daughter of Philip, nearly = 
our Philippa (queen). 

Paskievitch (prince of Poland) : born at passover time. 

Langiewitz (patriotic Pole): son of Lange, the German 
form of Long. 

Stojanovits = Stevenson. Basilowitz, Vassilovitch : 
son of a king = 

Rajahputra, Fitzroy, Cree, Rene. Czarowitz: Czar's 
son = the old Greek Cressidas. 

Czar is not from Caesar, but from the ancient Sar : a 
military prince, con. Sarai : princess. 

Feodorovitch : of Theodorus = Dorokoff. " General 
Dorokoff captured a whole regiment of Westphalians." 

Romanoff (dynasty) : descended from Romain : son of 
Rome. 

Ivanoff = Johnson. Korniloff (admiral) : of Cornelius. 

Mouravieff (prince) : of Moravian ancestry. 

Menschikoff (Alma) : of little, less {con. Minus), given by 
empress Katharine. 

YoussuPOFF (diplomatist) : of Joseph. Orloff (count) : of 
Orlow. Ignatieff (diplomatist) : of Ignatius. 



294 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Orlow: an eagle = Aquila, Ninus, from whom Nineveh. 

Trepoff (shot by Nihilist) : son of the steppe, a foundling. 

ScoBELOFF (Plevna) : Jacob's son = FitzJames. Popoff 
(admiral) : of a priest = MacPherson. 

Melikoff (governor of St. Petersburg) : son of Meles, an 
Armenian river, near which the original Melikoff dwelt. 

Melikoff (Loris) answers closely, and yet by chance coin- 
cidence, to 

Melesigines : son of Meles, a river near Smyrna, which gave 
Homer one of his poetic bye names, suggesting 

NiLOGENES : son of the Nile, Moses. The name of the 
father of epic poetry. 

Homer : a hostage = Borrows, Borrowman : one borrowed 
from the foe to be given back. 

Arsniew : descended from a lion, con. Alp Arslan : the 
lion. The Russians took it from the Turks, having the same 
right to their names as to their lands, — 

" Though led by Arsnieiv, that great son of slaughter." 

Ojf becomes etu, and when needed jew. 

Gregorjew : descended from Gregory. Apart from the 
difficulty of deciphering Sclavonic words, we have to contend 
with a difficulty hardly less when trying to identify familiar 
names in a Muscovite uniform. Who but a Russian could see 
Simson in 

Sentsch, or Elizabeth in Elze, Abraham in Obrys, or the 
classical Euphrosyne in Phrouzka ? It is is said that Russian 
children do not speak Sclavonic till months later than those 
born at the same time in sunny Hesperia can freely speak 
Italian. That says something for the taste of babies seeing 
light under the shadow of the Bear, — 

" How shall I spell the name of each Cossaque 
Who were immortal, coukl one tell their story ? 
Alas I what to their memory can lack ? 
Achilles' self was not more grim and gory 
Than thousands of this new and polished nation, 
Whose names want nothing — but pronunciation. 

And Tschitsshakoff, and Roguennoff, Chokenoff, 
And others of twelve consonants apiece 
Ending with ' ischskin,' ' ousckin,' ' iffshcchy,' ' ouski,' 
Of whom we can msert but Rousamouski." 

Demidoff (prince) : descended from Demetrius. 

DiERKOFF : descendant of Theodoric. Ladlslaus, Wladis- 
LAW : glorious chief or ruler = Clearchus (retreating myriad). 

Jaroslav (Crimean prince) : glorious George. Radoslav 
(king of the Bosnians) : glorious Conrad. 



PATRONYMICS. 29i 



Petroslav : olorious Peter. Boleslaus, Bogoslav : the 
glory of God. Certain of the above are obviously not patrony- 
mical, yet connection justifies this grouping. Howbeit, we 
will part company with our newly acquired friends by giving 
a genuine pat. in oiu for o/f, viz. : 

Suwarrow (crossed Alps) : son of Severus, a severe man. 

The Modern Greek Patronymic 
assumes the forms pulos, oula, as in the names 

NicoLOPULOS : son of Nicholas = CoLLiNGS. Stasoula : of 
Anastasius. 

Karageorgeopulos : son of Black George: Pappadopulos: 
of a priest = PoPOFF : of a father. 

Theophilopoula : of Theophilus. And, strange to add, 

Christopulos (Otho's premier) : son of Christ = Christie. 

Christos: our Christ, is common in the Athens of 1883, and 
is often given to brigands and other pests of civilisation. 

The German, Dutch, Swedish, and Lapland Patronymics. 

are sohn, sen, sen, son, zoon and dotter, as 

Mendelssohn (musical composer): son of Mendel, for 
Clement = Mendez, whence Mendoza. 

Heinzen : of John = Van Hahn, Anson, Johnson, con. 
Heyne. 

Harpertzoon: of Harper. Claussen, Kolsen: of Nicholas 
= CouLSON. Tonsen : of Antony. 

HuESSEN: of Hugh. Deitrichessen (almanack): of Theo- 
doric. 

Thorwaldsen : of Thorwald: ivklder of Thor's hammer, 
powerful. 

Larsdotter : son of Lars, and Lars, a form of Lawrence. 
" Christina Catharina Larsdotter, the Lapland giantess, stands 
seven feet two inches, was born at Brennas. Her parents are 
of diminutive stature, not exceeding four feet in height." No 
terror should be exhibited at a girl being called 

Larsdotter : son of Lars, as no Laplander would be terrified 
at hearing of Mary Wilson. Dotter means offspring, con. 
DoDDS, without respect of sex, then it is limited to a son, 
although philologically identical with 

Thugater (giving Thyatira, so called in honour of a royal 
daughter being born), and Daughter. 

Hansdotter is the Laplandic for Johnson, Dotter gives 

Tot, the pet name for a little girl. Hertzen (Alexander) = 
MacArthur. 

Dirk Willemzoon : Theodoric Williamson. " Amongst the 



PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



persecuted people was a poor protesfcant named Birk Willem- 
zoon, who was condemned to death by the Bh^od Council." 

ZoON, by itself, is common among the northern nations = 
our 

Kyd, Young (which does not mean juvenile but first born 
son) = 

Hiji, Hopps, Ingo, Juvenal, Idas, Maggot, etc. 
Brodersen: brother's son, like his uncle = Nepos (Cornelius). 

The Lithuanian Patronymic. 

Those ancient people, the Lithuanians, though rapidly losing 
their characteristics in the absorbing militarian action of 
Russia, liad a language and literature all their own. Their 
patronymic, still used, the monument of a lost nationality, is 
a it is, ait, or at, used as an affix thus : — 

Adomaitis: son of Adam = B ADAMS. Jokubaitis: Jacob = 
Cobbet. 

Tammasait: Thomas = MacOmish. Jurgaitis: of George = 
Jorgez and Jouresex. 

Obrigakat: Abraham = Tabraham. These suffice to illus- 
trate the truth that names looking horridly strange are only 
foreign modification of household words, as Negroes, Chinese, 
and Lapps, are but variations of Adam : man. 

The Hindostanee Patronymic 
is putra added as an affix, as 

Brahmaputra (river god): son of Bram, Brahma = Tiberius: 
son of Tiber, con. Tobermory. 

Ra.iaputra : king's son = Tyrannion : of Tyrannus : a king. 

ViSHNAPUTRA (very common) : of Vishnu, of the Hindoo 
Tri-mutri. 

Indraputra: of Indra, mythically applied to Delhi. Indra, 
the god of heaven, the Indian Jove. The Maharatta's use 
jee, as 

Shahjee : king's son = Machree, Regan, Price, Fitzroy. 

SiVAJEE (founder of*»Maharatta confederation) : of the god 
Siva. 

Siva : destroyer = Apollyon, Agag, Beor. Add to these 

Jamsetjee (well known Bombay merchant) : son of a man 
named Jamset as Gamgee (prof essor) = Jantjee. 

The Chinese Patronymic 

is tse or se used as an affix, as in the name of the Chinese 
Socrates, 

KuNG-FUT-SE : Kung, the son of Fo, for Buddha, whence 
Confucius. 



PATRONYMICS. 297 



BuDDHA: wise, giving Botan for Buddha Stan: country of Fo. 

Tao-tse : son of the sickle, applied to a farmer, answers 
surprisingly to CuRRAN. 

HoANG-TSE : son of Augustus, Hoang being the Chinese for it. 

Yang-tse-Kiang : river, son of the ocean, very large river. 

The majority of Chinese personal names are drawn from a 
sacred poem written by the emperor Tao, which does not con- 
tain more than 408 choice names, but by permutation they 
suffice the vast population of Sinim. The popular Christian 
names in Britain are not more than 20, while those for women 
are even fewer, but these would allow of every human being 
bearing a* different appellation. We have seen how unrecog- 
nisable the Cossacks made well known names, but the pigtail 
man exceeds the worst Muscovite in such baseness. Who 
would identify Jeremiah in Pekin where he is called Jale- 
MEIOHANG ? This is no translation, merely a pure (?) transfer. 
Sinalogues (learned in Chinese) surely suffer occasional puzzle- 
ment ! Our commonest name is Smith, of those in the flowery 
Empire, Chang = Rivers, Stromier, Ribas, in the sense of 
living in or near a stream. On that great river, the river St. 
Lawrence, notable for its rapids, the most noteworthy is La 
Chine : the Chinese. The early navigators thought that was 
the way to China, as Columbus thought India could be reached 
by sailing west. When passing along the streets of Montreal, 
in 1880, I saw a laundry, the sign of which was Sing Long. 
My name being Long, I entered and parleyed with a Mongolian 
featured man, having eyes like button holes cut upside down, 
and a skin coloured like cod liver oil. He was washing a shirt 
in a basin a few sizes larger than what we use for sugar. I 
was anxious to learn something of my name in Chinese. Alas 1 
the man seemed a negative quantity, knowing, apparently, a 
trifle less than nothing. I walked away in disgust, and the 
impression made by the circumstances gradually began to fade. 
Three months after I was strolling down a street in New York 
when I saw on a sign board " Sing Long, Chinese Laundry." 
Of course, the impression made at Montreal was deepened, and 
I was doubly puzzled. Howbeit, that was little to this: — The 
next day, while passing through a street in Brooklyn another 
Chinese laundry thrust itself upon my notice, this time kept 
by one Sam Long. Now, as my late father was named 
Samuel Long, and fifty years before I had heard familiar 
friends call him Sam Long, my surprise was inexpressible. 
Flesh and blood could endure no more. Learning that not far 
from Dr. Talmage's Tabernacle was the Brooklyn Young Men's 
Christian Association, whereat was held a Chinese Sunday 
school, I made therefor. One part of the instruction was in 
Cantonese, the other in English. When hearing the grotes que 
20 



298 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

sons of the Flowery Land sing- our hymns, and seeing them 
chalk on the black board portions of our holy faith, 1 was 
forcibly reminded of Isa. xlix. 12, " Behold these shall come 
from far: and, look, these from the land of Sinim :" the Sinoe, 
which gives Sindon : fine linen, the product of Chinese looms, 
as Calico from Calcutta, the work of the Indian weaver. Rev. 
xviii. 12. I seemed to hear One saying, " This day is this 
scripture fulfilled in your ears." At the close of the address I 
spoke to the sinalogue and learned, " What you took for names 
were mere signs posted there partly as horse-shoes are nailed 
over doors to keep away witches." As the Greeks and 
Romans concealed city names, in fact, gave them two names, 
one true and secret, the other sham and popular, lest enemies 
should get hold of its designation, and by incantations bring 
calamities upon the city, so these Chinese hide their names. 
When Balak desired Balaam to curse God's people, he gave 
their precise name, or else the sorcerer would have had nothing 
to work upon : " Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel." 
Though he had that material he goes to work with this 
result : " Surely no enchantment against Jacob, neither any 
divination against Israel." In China, Long : fortunate, 
-successful, lucky. SiXG Long : much luck, elliptical for " I 
hope I shall have much luck." Sam Long: great success (I 
hope to have). So Rev. ii. 17, " I will give him a new name 
written, which no man hnoweth saving he that receiveth it," 
i.e.. No one shall hurt him, and he shall prosper. I then saw 
that Sing Long of Montreal had deceived H. A. Long of 
Glasgow. He was no negative quantity. I was. Neverthe- 
less, as I had learned something of the Chinese customs in 
spite of China men, in gratitude I sent my linen to a Chinese 
laundryman, who passed it through his bason, sending it home 
like a snow drift, accompanied b}^ semi-invisible paper covered 
with tea-chest oddities, b}^ which two dollars fifty cents, was 
laid to my charge. As we have seen, Charm is the root of 
Harm, whence Harmer : a wizard, a drew, a magus. 

The Latin Patronymic 

is ilius, originally idius, from the Greek idas. Thus 

HosTiLius : son of Hostis, originally written Hostidius. 

HosTis : a stranger, ger, alien = Xeno, Agur, Lestrange, 
Gall, Balaam, L'Hoste. 

HosTiLius: son of a stranger, exactly = Gallyon, Gallagher. 

POMPILIUS (for Pompidius) : of Pompey. PoPiLlUS : of the 
people, becomes 

PuBLius. IciLius (Icidius) : equal son (to his father in 
fame) = 



PATRONYMICS. 299 



Patrobas. " Icilius her lover boldly opposed the decrees, 
and obliged Claudius," etc. 

Manlius (Manilius, Manidius): son of the morning, morning 
born, suggesting 

Phosphorus : Lucifer : light bringer. Spurius : of Spura. 

Spura : a sower, con. spores. Aquilius : of an eagle, swift 
footed. In later times, enus, inus, anus, ianus, onius pre- 
vailed, probably finding an origin in the Greek patronymical 
sign uion, uios, on. Thus we have Labienus, Rufinus, Te- 
banus, Hadrianus, Vipsianus, Sidonius, etc. 

Labienus (Titus): son of Labeo. Labko: thick lipped, 
slow speaker = Chilo, con. Achilles. 

Hadrianus : of Adrian, from Ater : black (soil) = Swart- 
ZERD. Hence Adriatic : sea of Adria (n) and Adrianople : 
Hadrian's city. Of the above patronymical signs, ianus per- 
tains to adoption, as 

Emilianus : the adopted son of ^milian ; Sejanus : Sejii. 

Seji : sower = Spura, early agricultural names. When 
ianus applied to daughters it became iana, as 

PuDENTiANA (St.) : adopted daughter of Pudens. And 

PuDENS : shame faced, modest. But the usual patronymic 
form for daughter was eja, as 

CiCEREJA: Cicero's daughter. Parallel with Celtic ni, nic, as 

Caitrin NIC Seain : Catherine, daughter of John, and the 
well known 

Maible ni Neill : Mable, daughter of Neil. Of course the 
Highland form is the more definite, but both forms are 
obsolete. 

Mable: merry, joyous, Mab like = LETiTiA, whence Lettice. 
We owe the word name to the Latins, it being a form of 
nomen, for notamen, from Noto : I mark, denote, from Nosco: 
I know, recogmse. The Romans said, — " Nomen et omen : " a 
name is a sign, ominous. With Roman names were not only 
to be won, but, in later years, told of gens (clan), or familict, 
a subdivision of gens. Familiar means of the same family. 
Defective names argued ignoble descent. Gentleman : man 
of gens, noble origin. Cicero complained that he was only 
known through himself, i.e., his name was not famous until 
he made it so. When children were named, a feast was 
observed called nominalia, kept on the eighth day after birth, 
if a female, but the ninth day when a male. After single 
names fell into disuse a second name was added, which, 
ceasing to satisfy, a third was appropriated, and, in some cases, 
a fourth, termed Agnomen : to the name. Those of later 
periods are divided under three heads. 

Praenomen : fore name, answering to our Christian name. 

Nomen : the name, indicating descent, or place of birth. 



300 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Cognomen : with the name, added through a family being 
distinguished. Thus 

Marcus Junius Brutus. Marcus is the prainonien, like our 
Mark, and means polished, urbane, 

Junius, the nomen, describes his age, juniority. 

Brutus, the cognomen, intimates he was of the gens Brutii. 

Brutus : a fugitive slave = Phyg-ellus (con. Fugio : I flee), 
was descriptive of the original applying to Marcus Junius 
genealogically. His name, stripped of appendages, was Junius. 
No pei-son can have more than one name save by a figure. 
Our Prince of Wales is named Edward Albert Guelph. If 
crowned, he would be Edward VII. His name is one, Guelph : 
Wolf. The possession of three names was the sole privilege 
of free Romans. Thus: " Habet tria nomina:" he has three 
names, came to signify he is a free citizen. Such names were 
to dwellers on the Tiber what long names were to dwellers on 
the Ilissus in the age of Pericles, and what two names were 
on the banks of the Thames in the reign of King Richard. 
No slave dare have a prasnomen, so that its absence was fatal 
to a man's admission into good society. Hence the force of 
the line — 

" Gauclent prtenoraiue mollis auriculae : " 

delicate ears love the prsenomen. Much of this ceased after 
A.D. 212, when Caracalla enfranchised most of the Roman 
provinces, upon which myriads of the one named at once 
availed themselves of the ability to take as many names as 
fancy dictated, to the confusion of society of the time being. 

The Greek Patronymics 

is idas, modified to ida, ides, id, i, od. Also, but not so widely 
spread through classic Greek, we have ion, on, one, and an 
(like the Celtic an, from eoghan) from Uios : a son. Like- 
wise genes and goni, formations on Geno : I beget. To idas 
we owe ite, so familiar in such words as 

Ammonite : a descendant of Amnion. A Celt would say 
O'Ammon or MacAmmon; the Russians would have Ammonotf; 
Hebrews would say Ammoni, like Gibeoni: a Gibeonite. The 
following is a selection of best known examples of its use. 

Aristides : son of Ariston = Betson : son of Best. 

Aristos : most like Ares, Mars. Best for beatest, who 
beats all, con. Aristogiton : best neighbour = Neighbour. 

SiRACHiDES (Jesus) : son of Sirach. 

AscELPlADES (Bythinian physician): of Esculapius, figurative 
for a clever medical man. 

Basilides (father of Herodotus) — Tyranion (Csesar's 



PATRONYMICS. 301 



friend) : son of a king, of royal descent = Ahimelech, 
Machree. 

Crcesus (king) : a governor, Cressidas : son of a king, 
Cressida : royal daughter = Rene, 

Pylades (and Orestes): of Pyleus, Pyleus: son of Pyle, and 

Pvle: a gate, having charge of city gate = our Southgate, 
con. Pylorus : gate keeper, Hecatompylaj : hundred gates, 
Thebes, Thermopylne : gate of hot springs. 

Pelopidas: of Pelops. Pelops: dark face = Duff, Swartz. 

Epamixondas (" who at Leuctra bled ") : of Epamnon. 

Epamnon: a defender = Hector, Weir, Ware, Bailey. 

Leonidas : of Leon. Leon : a lion. The rqyal beast was 
common in Greece up to the time of the Persian invasion, 

Lycidas : son of Luke. Herod (the Idumean) for Heroidas, 
Herodias : son of a hero. 

Herodias for Herodiah, like Elias for Elijah, is its/e>?2, form, 

ToLMiDES : descendants of Ptolemy, here dynastic as 

HeraclidE: of Hercules. Epigoni: sons of the seven (epta) 
who came from the siege of Troy. 

Theogonls : begotten of a god, Polygonus : one of many 
children. 

Telegoxus: last born^^LAXE, Imogen, con. Telephone. 

Erigoxe (the constellation of Virgo) : Eris (strife) born, 
born at the time of battle, op. of Shallum, Irene: time of peace. 

EuMENiDES : daughters of Eumenes and Eumenes : of a 
good mind, genial — a propitiatory name applied to the Furies 
through fear of them. Some say daughters of memory, remorse. 

SiMONiDES (poet) : of Simon. Simon, from Semi : half, 
half nosed, simioe like. 

Hesperides : daughters of the west = Atlantiades, con. 

Nereides : daughters of Nereus. Nereus : sparkling sea, 
phosphorescent waves. 

Hyperides : of Hyperion. Hyperion (uper, super) : of 
above, the sun. 

Sarronide : of Sarron fa Celtic king, the Solomon of his 
age), applied to a philosopher. But 

Saroxidas: son of an oak, robust = Bexhail, Darroch, 
Echius. 

Sarony : an oak = EcK, or Eyck. Oak from Eke: to grow. 
Eke out: to prolong. 

Meoxides (Homer) : son or Meonia, Asia Minor, whence 
Meander : Meonian river. One of the few^ cases where a 
country gives name to a river as Indus from India. 

Melesigixes (Homer): of Meles, a river near Smyrna = 
Melikoff, 

Hyades (stars so called) : daughters of rain, bring wet 
weather, con. Hudor : water, whence Sudor : sweat, i.e., wet. 



302 FEB SON AL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

Triones: three daup^liters. Ahcturus : son of the bear, — 

" Hie oanit errantem Lunam, Solisque labores ; 
Untie hominum genus, et pecudes ; unde imber, et iprtes : 
Arcturuui, pluviasque Hyades, geminosque Triones." 

Theosebius : of Theosebes. Theosebes : worshipper of 
God in opposition to polytheism = Gotobed, Gotobedde. 

EusEBius (historian): good worshipper, devotee = Godfrey. 

AcTEON (and dogs) : of sea shore, dweller on, con. Attica : 
coast line = Costa (Rica: rich): coast. Costigax : young 
Costa. 

Euripides (tragedy) : of Euiipus, born near it. Aristotle 
is said to have drowned himself therein because he could not 
discover reason for its ebb and flow. Now called Negropont : 
black bridge, from one connecting island with mainland. 

Marcion (heresiarch) : of Mark = MARCELLUS. 

C^SARION (child of Cleopatra by) : of C^SAR. MiLTO : 
beautiful, gives 

MiLTiADES (Cimon's son) : of Milto. Marsyas (flayed) : son 
of Mars = ARius (Arianism) of Ares. 

Palladius : of Pallas. EuCLiD (of Megara) : of Eucleos. 

EucLEOS : good glory, famous = Marr, Bright, Shem. 

Apollos (" may plant") : of Apollo, eloquent. Apollyox : 
of Apollo, destroyer, slaying like sunstroke. 

Hormisdas (pope) : of the god Ormuzd, the antagonist of 
Arimanes. 

Diogexes (tub): god begotten, of divine ancestry = Theo- 
GONis. ^OLAS : variegated, tatooed, a warrior, con. j^olus 
(king of winds) : variable, as the winds are. 

AiOLiD : soldier bred = Herring, Herod, Wickliffe. 

AsTERiON : of a star. Alexius : of Alexis. Alexis : a 
helper, con. elixir. 

ASCANIUS (puer) : of the old stock, of iEsc: the ash, the Asir 
Adam. Su: bear hunter, for Suagros, con. Ursa: grunter, 
gives 

Suidas (grammatist) : son of Su, or son of the bearhunter. 

Lapide (Cornelius a) : of James == our Jamiesox. 

Rasselas (Johnson) : of an apostle, walker in the true 
faith = De Foe and De Santos. 

When the 7>a^. is /em. it softens from ulos to eis, on becomes 
one, while genes become (jenia, and idas forms ida. 

Chryseis : daughter of Chryses, while Chryses : golden 
haired = Flavius. 

Bryseis : daughter of Bryses, and Bryses : strong, athletic. 

Pyrois (one of the mares of the sun) : daughter of fire, 
swift as lightning. 

DiONE (mother of Venus) : divine daughter = Bethulia. 



PATRONYMICS. 30.^ 



Hermione (wife of Cadmus) : daughter of Mercury = Her- 

MOGENES. 

Themisto (t formative) : daughter of Themis, and Themis : 
right, justice. 

Themistocles : glory of Themis, Ouida : no one's daughter, 
orphanee. On passes into the gentile yat. ian, as Arabia?!, 
Wallach?'a7i; also into ine, as Philisti7ie. 

Endymion (enthymion, from Thumis : animus, mens) : son 
of mind, intellectual —originally applied to an observer of 
heavenly bodies, like son of harmony for a musician. This 
j)at. form uios, us, an enables us to analyse names which else 
might seem uncompounded. Thus 

Tyrann-os is from Turra, Turris : a tower, from Terra : 
earth, an earth-work., giving 

TuRANN : son of a tower, its governor; now he who governed 
it was called its king, in keeping with what children say, " I'm 
king of the castle," hence we have 

Tyrannos : royal, kingly bred, castle born, ultimately giving 
Tyrant. So 

Duncan: head of the fort = TiERNY (in which t, r, n are 
identical with consonants in Turann): castle king, earth work 
lord = Kenealy, con., Healy : a rampart or rath. 

TiGHEARNA : son of a king or lord. Thus from Domus : a 
house, we derive 

DoMiNUS : a house lord. So Kir : a wall, a walled city, 
giving Carthage, gives 

KuRios: son of the city, its governor = AsTYANAX : king of 
the city, con. Senex. 

Cyrus : city king, is a form of Kurios. So the name of the 
Cilician 

Oppian : not son of Ops, nor yet earth born, i.e., autoch- 
thonal, but son of earth work builder, tower maker = Tyrannos 
TiGHEARNA, DoMiNUS (domus inos), Kurios, Cyrus, and 
Oppian may all be viewed as ^^((^s., similar to 

O'Brian : son of the great house, castle, palace : all being like 

Porphyrogenetus : palace born. There can be no doubt the 
Latin 

Terence and the Iri.sh Terence are identical, and not by 
chance, but identity of origin, each signifying a tower lord, 
the raiser of an earth work, and ~ 

Carey, when not from Carus : dear. Castles were the foci 
of civilization from Greece to Ireland. 

Purgos : a tower, con. Pergamos, whence jxirchment is from 
Ge : earth. Burglar was one who dug through a dried mud 
wall. The g in Purgos, Geometry, and Burglar, is the same. 

Onion (Alexandrian temple) : son of On : the sun, divinely 
born = Diogenes and Dioscorides. 



304 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 



The Hebrew Patronymic 

proper is ben from Eben : a stone, from Banah : to build. 
Sons build families as stones do houses. When John said, 
"God, is able of these stones to raise up sons unto Abraham," 
probably he meant such act was as easy to God as it was for a 
scribe to make ehen, by omitting the tittle, into ben. The 
Jews adopted Bar : a son, from the Babylonians. The Chaldees 
used Bar in the sense of lofty, elevated, superior, which was 
primarily applied to an eminence, and is identical with our 
Barr, as 

Barskimming : the hill at the bend of the river. Hence 
Skimming, whence M'Skimmixg. Barrhead = Hillhead. It 
was first said of eminent places and then of eminent persons, 
in contrast with captives, slaves, and servants : " Kiss the 
Bar lest He be angry," i.e., obey Him who is the Lofty One, 
the Uplifted. 

Naib : a prophet, a seer, gives Nebo : the god whose oracles 
told futurity. The god was worshipped on Mount Nebo. 

Barnaib : son of a prophet, whence Barnabas : of consola- 
tion, as a good son is a great consolation = 

SciPio : a staff (to his father), con. Sceptre : leant upon, 
patriarchal staff. Thence our Barnaby (Rudge) and Barnardo 
(cardinal), and Bernardo (orphans), if not from Bernard. 

Rudge: a hill, con. rig, ridge = Barr : one dwelling on a 
hill = Hills. But Longridge: big farm. 

Barzillai : of Zillai, and Zillai : blacksmith. Zillai : iron, 
the sounding metal. This is the first use of iron in the Bible, 
" Which took a wife of Barzillai^ the Gileadite." 

Barkos (nethinim) : son after his father = Barabbas : of his 
father = IciLius, Patrobas, Papias. "Now Barabbas was a 
robber." Assumes form of Barkas. 

Bar Jesus: of Joshua (Jehovah Hosea). Berosus (historian): 
of Hosea, and Hosea : saviour = Soter, Hafiz, as 

Hafiz-Allah = Joshua : saviour of Jehovah. Calmet says. 
Diet. p. 152, 

Bar-Jona, should be Bar Johanna: son of John = Van 
Hahn and Gamgee, usually given 

Bar-Jona : of Jonah. As Jonah : a dove, and Livy : a 
dove = ToRTOLA (tur, tur), Tovey (from dove), we cannot be 
far wrong by saying that literally Barjona = Livius. 

Bartholomew : of Tolmai, gives Bartlemy : born Aug. 
24th, at St. Bartholomew's mass, Bartlemy Fair. Bartlett, 
Batt, Bates (when not boatman). Batty (equestrian), Barth 
(African explorer), Bartle (Sir), Barletta, Badcock, accord- 
ing to some authors it corrupts in Spain to Balthazar (wise- 
man). Bauthez: son of Baitholomew. 



PATRONYMICS. 305 



ToLMAi : a furrow, tall as = Longfellow, Aulay. 

Bartimeus: of Tiraeus. Timeus: honourable = Timon (of 
Athens), TiTUS, which some make into Tate, whence 

Tatius = Tatlock : little Tate, or son of Titus, which differ 
little from Bartimeus. But the Spanish 

Tato: the tacit, silent = Tacitus, Mudo, Mudie, Moodie, 
Still. About the time Israel was waiting her Messiah, an 
impostor arose, calling himself 

Barchocab : son of a star = Asterion. " There shall come 
a star out of Jacob." Facts falsifying his promises, he was 
called 

Barcosba : son of a lie, con. CosBi (slain by dart) : ensnarer, 
deceiver, not greatly differing from the better known 

Rebecca: a snare, a fascinating woman = Spooner, Pack, 
Thug, and Dolon. 

Barsabas (Joseph) : seventh son, as Bathsheba : seventh 
daughter. The use of the Ohaldee ]Jat. bar is but a paren- 
thesis in Hebrew onamatology. Their hen was used long 
before it, and is now in use after bay' has become obsolete. 
That hen was used early is plain from 

Ben-ammi : son of my people = Ammon : my people, as also 

Reuben : see ! a son. Benjamin : son of my right hand, 
Benoni : son of my sorrow. That it is still in use is manifest 
from the following modern names. 

Bolivar (gave name to Bolivia), for Ben Oliver = Olivarez. 

Badams is Ben Adam = MacAdam, whence Macadamise : to 
pave after his recipe. Odams is a form of Adams forming 
Ody : little Adams. The Jews call those of their blood born 
in Egypt 

Beni Masr : sons of Mizraim. Beni for benim. Hence i, a 
gentile pat, as 

Beni Shem : children of Syria, Beni Franza : sons of 
France, applied by Turkish Jews to all western foreigners. 
Let us get back to our Bible, where we have 

Benhail: son of strength, strong born, about = Meikle- 
WEAN : big baby, as 

Meiklehead : much head = Testa, Meiklereid : great 
man of the Reid's. " In the third year of Jehosaphat's reign, 
he sent to his princes, even to Benhail." 

Benhanan : son of compassion, pitiful, con. Ananus, whom 
John calls, xviii. 13, Annas : gracious, merciful. 

ZoHETH : (who is) taken away, born when parents changed 
residence. 

Ben-zoheth : son of removal, who emigrates against 
parental advice. " The sons of IsHi were Zoheth and Ben- 
zoheth." 



306 PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES. 

IsHi (from Ish: a man) for Ishim : men = to many men = 
Periander, Mann us. 

Bene-barak : sons of lightning, whose spears and swords 
flash and glitter. They were Danites. Dagger is from Dag : 
day, because it Hashes like day light, Barak (and Deborah) : 
lightnings Llewellyn. 

Boanerges : thunder bolts (James and John). We meet 
with 

Ben-Geber: son of the strong, exactly = the Saxon Whiting. 
Certain Hebrew names intimate relationship to God as father, 
•SO)?, daughter, brother. Those of the first are professions of 
faith and claims to sonship that surprise us the more they are 
studied. Nowhere in the Old Testament are men invited so 
to do, nor is permission to do so even intimated. The others 
seem to intimate holiness, godliness, as 

Ahimelech: king's brother, i.e., kingly, magnificent = 
Regulus, Royle, Ryle, Cortereal {con. cort, curt, roy), fine 
fellows all. 

Eliah : God my father— Abiel. " Kish the son of Ahiel." 

Joab : Jehovah father = Abijah. " Joab, son of Zeruiah." 

Bariah : son of Jehovah = Benahiah. " Benahiah, son of 
Jehoidah. 

Bethuel : daughter of God, a pure person = BiTHiAH : of 
Jehovah. " These are the sons of Bithiah, the daughter of 
Pharaoh." She being of Egypt, her husband, Mered, is sup- 
posed to have dropt her Coptic designation and called her 
thus, signifying she was to be a pure worshipper of Jehovah. 

Ahiah : brother of Jehovah, his servant = JoAH. " Joah, the 
son of Asaph, the recorder." Bold strange names, any of which 
I should be unwilling to bear. 

Abital (David's wife) : (whose) father (is as) dew ; he gave 
one who refreshed, consoled. 

Ben - Joseph corresponds to the latinised Greek form 
Josephus (uios) : son of Joseph. 

:;:"':;: Some onlj of the above are patrouymical, but all are given as 
illustrations of our main subject. 



( 307 ) 



SUPERADDENDA. 



WiNDTHORST (opposition) : winding wood, allied by original 
position to the following queer folk, viz. : Question, Quiddy, 
Quilt, Quittacus ; wood dwellers all, con. With, Wid, Quid : 
a wood. Tartuffe : a truffle eater, living luxuriously, and 
yet pulling a long visage. Tithonus : narrow chested like a 
locust, the oj). of Petiox and = Agabus. Martyr (Justin) : one 
who witnessed for the truth by blood. Marble: worker in. 
Marvel (Andrew). Tanz is a form of Athanasius (creed): 
deathless == Ambroise, formed on Ambrose : not mortal. 
PouLiN (current French Canadian) : a foal, con. palfrey and 
= Colt (revolver): wild a wee. Pangborn (pen burn): brook 
head = Pengelly, Kinglass. Ariel : aery, fairy like. Gossip 
(chess): God sib: related through God by baptism, a godfather. 
As people focussing the baby babble somewhat, Gossip became 
a verb, gossip: to chatter inanities about neighbours. Amongst 
the few biblical trade names is Heresh: a carpenter ("Heresh 
and Galal"). Ullathorne : a settler among elm trees and 
thorn bushes = Brackenbury. 

Gau (Nubia), Hebrew for a stranger. Xenos, Greek, whence 
Euxine: good (safe) for strangers, Hostis, L'Hoste = Gau, 
HosPiTALis : stranger receiver = Prendergast and Liebgast, 
answers to the Scoto English Frame : frae far, co7i., from a 
distance. Punch : tunbodied = Punshox, Pansa, Wamba, 
MiCKLEWAiM, Hogarth, which consult. Bohn (s library): 
bean planter = Cyamitas, giving the grotesque Bones, Bone. 
ZuKERTORT (lit., sugav tart): a pastry baker = Mazarix. 
Tanhauser: pine wood dweller = Tanguye. Strombi (Gui- 
seppe) : trumpet- voiced = Trumpf, Trump (uncon., trump at 
card.s) =^ Belcher. Stromboli: mountain making a rumbling- 
noise like a trumpet. Osteravald (commentator) answers to 
our Eastwood. Probably twenty per cent, of all known names 
are corrupted thrice, twice or once, generally through the igno- 
rance of the corrupter as to the form or meaning of the name 
subjected to violence. It is usually done on the principle of 
the Irish preacher's, " Putting what sinse he could into this 
text." Thus Snaefell : snow hill, where snow remained the 
year round was tortured into Snowball, and the Spanish 



308 SUPERADDENDA. 



HiJO, from Filius: son, was disguised into Igo, which feu- 
would think meant a son, but turns up unexpectedly in Jo. 
"John Anderson, my jo," loved like a son. 

IxGO : a son, Mar : glorious, Ingomar : glorious son, cor. to 

IXKHAMMER. 

BoDKix (bodykin): a dwarf = Curtin: short. Crooks 
(in some cases), Crockett: crooked = Bossue : humped. The 
German is rich in birth names, amongst the most beautiful of 
which is MoRGANSTERN: morning star, born at the appearance 
of = Gad, Yergilius. When Morgan is not Cambrian, in 
which it signifies a mariner, it is German, and means morning 
horn = Manius. Amongst Boston names I find ZoucH : the 
stock of a notable tree = BuMM, Attree. A writer of that 
learned city gives in his voluminous work on names, Fevre, 
as a case of personal names derived from diseases ! Of 
course, a form of Le Fevre. Coyle : a wood, gives Kelly. 
Albuql^erque : white oak. Ahaziah : held (of) Jehovah, 
Heb. ii. 16. Axdromedus : commander of men, great general, 
con. Alcaxder : strong man. Ardmillax : bald mountain = 
Moxtcalm. Lewis shades ofi' into (Mc) Leish. 

Murray is formed on Moray (shire), said to obtain its name 
from Moravian settlers. 

Beer is formed on Bauer: a boor. Cadi, Kadi: a judge, 
fern., Cadijali. Kadijah (Mahomet's wife) = Hypatia, Con- 
suelia. Brigham (Young) = Bridgeton, Poxt, which see. 
Episcopus (con. microscope): overseer = Bishop, gives Epis- 
copius (lit): son of a bishop. Conceit is a form of Coxcetta. 
Blackmoxster (minister) : living in a Dominican house. 
PuFFEXDORF = Pkestox : priest's town. Budge (Montreal, 
Y.M.C.A.) for Bodger: Cooper gives dim. Budgett. Sedigitus: 
born with six fingers. Yoss, Yocius, Foss, con. Fox : crafty 
and cruel. AURELIUS : golden - haired, giving AURELIA = 
FuLViA. Pamphilox (con. Dupanloup, FouLts) = our Pencoit, 
Woodhead. Sabbadini (Irridentist) : learned = Sage, and 
con. sapio, savoir. Sabellius (Sabellian) : one of the Sabelli : 
aborigines of Italy, and who, with the Sabines, are supposed 
to have been named in connection with star worship, con. 
Sab : an army, sabaism, Sabaoth. 



INDEX 

OF NAMES, TITLES, OE DESIGNATIONS. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Aaron 


...14,25 


Abraham ... 


52, 445 


Adjai ... 


284 


Aasbiorn 


... 173 


Abram 


... 52 


Adier ... 


... 41, 270 


Ab 


... 99 


Abu YsLya ... 


... 94 


Admiral 


... 53, 261 


Abba ... 29 


, 71, 252 


Absalom 


... 52 


Adomaitis 


296 


Abbadon 


64, 185 


Abu Bekir ... 


... 99 


Adonai... 


77 


Abbema 


... 52 


Abu Fudle Allah 99 


Adonia... 


77 


Abbess 


... 81 


Abu Horeira 


... 99 


Adonijah 


... 53, 192 


Abbot 


... 252 


Abul Feda ... 


... 99 


Adoniram 


54 


Abb(s) 


... 102 


Abu Suleyman 


... 99 


Adonis 


... 144, 189 


Abdallah ... 


... 260 


Ace ... 36 


130, 153 


Adrammelech ... 60 


Abdi 


... 260 


Ach 


... 127 


Adrastus 


28 


Abdeel 


... 260 


Achates 


... 16 


Adrian 


... 29, 299 


Abdiel 


... 260 


Achau, 


190, 207 


Ady ... 


... 111,273 


Abdolonymus 


... 260 


Achar 


... 207 


^Egeade 


209 


Abdalrahman 


... 260 


Achbor 


...87,97 


^Egeus ... 


209 


Abdastartus 


... 260 


Achaius 


... 225 


Jj]gidius 


224 


Abdal Issu ... 


... 262 


Achenback ... 


... 146 


/Egon ... 


209 


Abdou 


64, 261 


Achilles 


92, 188 


aElfreding 


269 


Abdul Aziz ... 


... 260 


Achsah 


... 112 


/Emilius 


59, 102, 233 


Abdul Kadir 


... 260 


Acker mau ... 


... 232 


^Eneas... 


...54,83,108 


Abdul Medjid 


14, 245 


Ackmau 


... 121 


^olas ... 


... 103, 302 


A'Becket ... 


... 120 


Acres 


... 232 


^Eolus ... 


... 188, 302 


Abednego ... 


... 260 


Acteon 


... 302 


iEsc ... 


... 174, 179 


Abel 


...27,81 


Acton 


... 127 


^Eschines 


42 


Abelard 


... 251 


Acutus 


... 39 


^Eschylus 


... 42, 192 


Abeubrod ... 


... 81 


Acwith 


... 127 


.Ecingas 


... 121, 179 


Abeudroth ... 


... 81 


Acworth 


... 127 


iEsop ... 


33, 64, 160 


Abercromby 


... 142 


Ad 


... 77 


^tion ... 


201 


Abernethy ... 


... 172 


Adair 


127, 223 


Afer ... 


... 33, 159 


Abi 


... 252 


Adah 


... 67 


Africander 


33 


Abiah 


... 52 


Adalbert ... 


... 37 


Africaner 


... 33, 159 


Abiabal 


... 52 


Adam ... 27, 


107, 254 


Africanus 


... 33, 159 


Abialbon 


... 28 


Adamina ... 


... 100 


Afflick ... 


83, 102, 148 


Abiasapli ... 


... 256 


Adamnan ... 


... 279 


Affleck... 


... 102, 148 


Abiathar 


... 52 


Adcock 


... 173 


A<'abus 


... 87, 307 


Abiel 28 


52, 306 


Addenbrook 


... 120 Agag ... 


15, 261, 290 


Abiezer 


... 165 


Addie 


... 107 Agamemnon ... 41 


Abigail 


... 52 


Addison 


... 271 Agandice 


110 


Abihud 


...52,54 


Adean 


... 144 Agapetus 


40 


Abijah 


51, 306 


Adela 


... 102 Agasthenes 


28 


Abijam... .. 


... 249 


Adelaide ... 


... 102 


Agatha... 


... 42, 102 


Abimelech ... 


..52,60 Adelgar 


... 215 


Agatho... 


42 


Abiuidab 


... 52 


Adelgonde ... 


... 102 


Agathocles 


38 


Abirarn 


... 52 


Adelina 


... 107 


Agathos 


... 42. 102 


Abishalom ... 


..52,99 


Adeline 


... 208 


Agee ... 


57 


Abital 


.. 306 


Adelind 


... 112 


Agenor... 


74 


Abner 


..16,25 


Adehnde 


... 208 


Ager ... 


15, 143, 232 


Aboru 


.. 120 


Ad herbal ... 


... 193 


Ageso ... 


233 



310 



INDEX. 





Page 




Pa're 


1 


Pa?e 


Agericus 


... 232 


Alabaster ... 


217, 292 


Alick ... 


223 


Ages 


... 143 


Aladdin 


... 44 


Aligbieri 


... 219, 226 


Agesilaus ... 


122 222 


Alafieri 


... 219 


Alison ... 


... 223, 271 


Aggie 


... ' 102 


Alam 


... 90 


.\llah ... 


... 64, 69, 77 


Aglaia 


... 186 


Alaric 


... 234 


Allard ... 


213 


Agnello 


... 86 


Alnsdair 


... 223 


Allan ... 


34, 107, 131 


Agnes 


112, 185 


Alazon 


... 43 


AUayne 


107 


Agnew 


40, 198 


Alba 


... 86 


Allbones 


73 


Agni 


15, 184 


Albanach ... 


74, 281 


Allen... 


36 


Agnidasa ... 


... 261 


Albany 


... 74 


Alley ... 


223 


Agno 


... 112 


Albemarle ... 


... 223 


Allgood 


59, 87, 238 


Agnon 


... 112 


Alberoni 


... 73 


Allon ... 


67 


Agrestes 


... 19'J 


Albert 


... 37 


AUister 


223 


Agricola 


... 232 


Albinus 


29 


Alloa ... 


75 


Agrippa 


88, 102 


Albis 


73, 290 


AUonville 


127 


Agrippina ... 


... 102 


Albon 


73, 79 


Almack 


82, 87 


Agiir 


205, 298 


Alboni 


73, 79 


Almagro 


32, 47, 280 


Ahab 


. 55, 88 


Alborak ... 


17,25 


Almanzor 


124 


Ahala 


... 220 


Albrecht ... 


... 37 


Almiral 


261 


Aharah 


88 


Albuquerque 


... 308 


Alonzo... 


172 


Ahaz 


... 54 


Albyn 


... 282 


Alopex... 


207 


Ahaziah 


... 308 


Alcander 


... 308 


Alorus ... 


17, 25 


Ahenobarbus 


... 31 


Alcimus 


... 28 


Aloysius 


57 


Ahi(m) 


... 78 


Alcinous 


... 41 


Alp Arslan 


... 206, 294 


Ahiah 


... 306 


Alcithoe 


127, 167 


Alphceus 


... 221,285 


Ahiam 


55 


Alcitlioeus ... 


107, 127 


Alpin ... 


151 


Ahiezer 


... 223 


Alcman 


28, 41 


Al Raschid 


14 


Ahimelecli 55 


301, 300 


Alcock 


... 273 


Al Seddek 


44 


Ahimoth 


...55,86 


Alcorn 


... 267 


Alston ... 


149 


Ahinoam ... 


55 


Alcuin 


... 224 


Altamont 


72, 134, 137 


Ahisbahar ... 


... 80 


Alder 


... 234 


Alt ... 


16 


Abitbophel... 


55 


Alderman- ... 


202, 234 


Alter ... 


16 


Ahitub 


55 


Aldhelm ... 


... 123 


Althea... 


.. 33, 102 


Ahmed 


... 37 


Aldo 


... 234 


Altheius 


102 


Abolibamah 


... 115 


Aldred 


... 57 


Alton ... 


39 


Aidan 


...14, 26 


Aldric 


... 234 


Altree ... 


125 


Aiah 


... 89 


.-Vldrovaudo... 


... 172 


Alva ... 


75, 255, 390 


Aikman 


... 232 


Alectryon ... 


'... 198 


Alvarez 


.. 255, 290 


Aiken 


... 127 


Alessandro ... 


... 223 


Am ... 


.. 165, 72 


Aikenbead ... 


... 126 


Alethia 


... 102 


Amal ... 


59 


Aikenside ... 


... 126 


Alethius 


... 102 


Amala ... 


102 


Aimee 


... 117 


Alexander 102 


223, 201 


Amalricli 


233 


Ain 


... 94 


Alexandra ... 


... 102 


Amanda 


..35,40,114 


Ainsworth ... 


... 94 


Alexandriua 


102, 293 


Amarashina 


... 205 


Aiolid 


... 302 


Alexis, ... 53 


223, 302 


Amariah 


53 


Aird ... 14 


126, 236 


Alexius 53 


223, 302 


Amasa... 


58 


Airde 


... 130 


Alfonso 


... 172 


Amaziah 


53,58 


Airy 


... 232 


Alford 


.. 255 


Amazon 


165 


Aitchison ... 


... 281 


Alfred ... 56 


102, 255 


Ambroise 


307 


Aitken 


... 127 


Algar 


... 213 


Ambrose 


.. 37, 307 


Ajax 


99, 201 


Algebar 


... 28 


Aniedeus 


107 


Akiister 


120, 151 


Algernon ... 


... 213 


Ameen Edd 


n ... 53 


Akbar 


28, 87 


Ali 


... 247 


Ameena 


.. 102, 117 


A'lvempis ... 


... 132 


Ali Baba ... 


... 52 


Amelia 


.. 102, 233 


Akkabi 


91, 95 


Alio 


... 271 


Amen ... 


.. 39, 44, 72 


Akkub 


91, 95 


Alice 


... 113 


.\mena... 


44 


Akroyd 


... 127 


.\licia 


... 113 


.\mer ... 


210 



INDEX. 



311 





Pasre 






Page 




Pase 


Amerigo 


... 233 


Ankarstrom 


... 


148 


Apthorp 


... 150, 129 


Amery 


... 233 


Anlap ... 


... 


173 


Aqnaviva 


151 


Ammihud . . . 


... 55 


Ann ... 93 


114 


118 


Aquila ... 


58, 201, 294 


Ammiel 


... 56 


Annabella . . . 




114 


Aquilius 


... . 292, 299 


Amminidab 


... 52 


Annan 


210 


266 


Ara ... 


287 


Ammishaddai, 


...55,70 


Annandale ... 




266 


Arba ... 


113, 154, 190 


Ammittai ... 


...53,72 


Annanias ... 




93 


Arabella 


... 114,238 


Ammon ...59,70,305 


Annas 




805 


Arabi ... 


... 77,241 


Amnon 


... 273 


Anne 




93 


Arad ... 


208 


Amon 


44, 273 


Anneque 




127 


Aram ... 


87, 209, 196 


Amor 


132, 210 


Annie 




114 


Aran ... 


54, 69, 210 


Amos 


... 58 


Annunciata... 




83 


Aratus ... 


83, 92 


Amoun 


...71, 53 


Annville 




93 


Araunah 


121 


Amoz 


28, 53, 87 


Anonyma ... 




115 


Arbuckle 


258 


Ampere 


... 98 


Anscar 




213 


Archemorus ... 92 


Amphitrite ... 


... 188 


Anscharius ... 




213 


Archibald, 


L22, 124, 222 


Amuratli 


... 221 


Anselm 


... 


173 


Archimedes 


216 


Amy 


114, 117 


Anselmo 




173 


Archippus 


... 105, 203 


Annabella ... 


... 114 


Auser 




267 


Archon 


234 


Annas 


... 305 


Anson ... 173 


271 


295 


Arcturus 


302 


Anah 


... 115 


Anstey 




81 


Arcubaliste 


• ... 292 


Anak 


... 64 


Anstrutlier ... 


... 


151 


Ardgour 


266 


Anamelecli ... 


... 60 


Antioclms 50 


151 


282 


Ardley... 


132 


Anani ... ... 


... 79 


Antiope 


107 


188 


Arda ... 


154 


Anani(m) ... 


... 79 


Antiopns 




107 


Ardmillan 


308 


Ananias 


... 93 


Antipas 




282 


Ardon ... 


57 


Ananus 


93, 305 


Antipater ... 


... 


282 


AreU(m) 


14, 83, 205 


Anastasius ... 


... 81 


Antistes 




245 


Ares 


... 182, 183 


Anax ... 48 


202, 234 


Antliff 




174 


Aretas ... 


182 


Ancel 


261, 262 


Antonelli ... 




274 


Arethusa 


182 


Ancus ... 30,48,247 


Antoinette ... 


... 


108 


Aretino 


182 


Anders 


... 283 


Anuari 




37 


Argar ... 


215 


Anderson 29 


226, 271 


Anuar 




37 


Arge ..." 


131 


Andreuccio ... 


... 292 


Apelles ... . 


. 32 


190 


Argelander 


30, 39 


Andrew 28, 74, 84, 159 


Aphius 




48 


Argo . . . 


131 


Andrez 


84, 271 


Appia 


... 


102 


Argument 


134 


Androcles ... 


103, 226 


Appius 




102 


Argus ... 


60, 74, 131 


Androgeos ... 


... 233 


Aphrodite 110 


112 


182 


Argyle ... 


155 


Andromache 


102, 226 


Apicius 


... 


89 


Aridatha 


...14, 25, 41 


Audromachus 


102, 226 


Apion 




169 


Ariel, ... 205, 206, 307 


Andromeda... 


... 102 


Apollo 


185 


192 


Arioch ... 


205 


Andromedes 


... 102 


ApoUodonius 




185 


Arion ... 


182 


Andromedus 


... 308 


ApoUodorus 


185 


204 


Ariovistus 


216 


Andromicus 


... 102 


Apollonius ... 




61 


Aristides 


300 


Andy 


... 226 


ApoUus 


185 


302 


Aristobulus 


... 104, 255 


Anello 


... 86 


Apollyon 17 


296 


302 


Aristocles 


232 


Aner 


... 59 


Appaim 


63 


204 


Aristodemu 


5 52,122,222 


Angel 


93, 102 


Apphia 


48 


102 


Aristogiton 


... 42, 300 


Angelica 


... 102 


Apphias 




48 


Aristos... 


... 182, 300 


Angelina ... 


102, 113 


Appian 




63 


Arius ... 


302 


Anger 


... 152 


Appius 


"48 


102 


Ark ... 


... 74, 236 


Angliotto ... 


86, 93 


Applegarth ... 




133 


Arkwright 


... 74, 236 


Angowe 


... 250 


Applequist ... 




123 


Arle ... 


269 


Angus 


... 29 


Applethwaite 


... 


139 


Arhss ... 


267 


Angott 


... 173 


Appleton ... 




123 


Arlotte... 


248 


Anicetus 


... 224 


Apps 


121, 


278 


Arly ... 


133 


Anita 


... 108 


Apsley 


... 


121 


Armiger 


261 



312 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Ai-minius 


.. '210,2-18 


Askwith 


124 


Atwell 


241 


Armour 


258 


Asian 


... 173 


Atwood 


... 120,125 


Ai-mourer 


258 


Asian Bey ... 


... 204 


Aube ... 


... 128,206 


Armsti-oug 


.. 33, 259 


Asland 


... 173 


Aubusson 


123 


Aruabella 


104 


Asmaveth ... 


... 167 


Auchinleck 


148 


Arnaud 


201 


Asnapper . . . 


. 33 


Auckland 


127 


Aruheim 


104 


Aspasia 


98, 105 


Audley 


... 131,145 


Aruhilda 


201 


Aspatha ... 


... 204 


Audrey 


41 


Amobius 


198 


AspimLrtas ... 


101, 105 


Audus 


.. 34,130 


Arnold 


201 


Aspinwall . . . 


... 121 


Aufidius 


145 


Arnot ... 


... 201,273 


Asplen 


.. 121 


Auge ... 


153 


Arnulf... 


284 


Asrallah ... 


... 53 


Auger ... 


152 


Arnsteiu 


.. 125, 149 


Assad 


... 205 


Augerean 


215 


Arod ... 


208 


Assad Allah 


... 205 


Augostino 


197 


Arouet 


284 


Asser 


... 83 


August 


15 


Arrol ... 


140 


Astarte 116 


184, 180 


Augusta 


.. 100,102 


Arrowsmitli 


249, 258 


Asteria 


... 184 


Augustine 


197 


Arsa ... 


.. 185, 192 


Asterion 184 


302, 305 


Augustus 


15, 08, 197 


Arsimenes 


41 


Asterope 


... 184 


Augustulus 


120, 197 


Arses ... 


.. 17, 182 


Astley 


... 132 


Aulay ... 


... 128,304 


Arsinoe 


41, 42 


Astolph 


... 175 


Auliffe ... 


32 


Arslan Bey 


... 204 


Aston 


... 137 


Auld ... 


... 202, 292 


Arsmith 


258 


Astor 


39, 70, 89 


Auldhelm 


223 


Arsuiew 


294 


Astrifiammaute 110, 184 


Auletes 


253 


Art ab anus 


14, 198, 245 


Astrmf:;er ... 


... 249 


Aumale 


223 


Artaphernes 


14, 193, 239 


Astrophile . . . 


... 184 


Aurelia 


308 


Artaxerxes 


14, 25, 234 


Astyages 191 


199, 207 


Aurelian 


34 


Artemesia 


.. 14,185 


Astyanax 57 


139, 303 


Aurelius 


308 


Artemis 


.. 14, 185 


Asyncritus ... 


42, 58 


Aurora 


18, 25 


Artemus 


185 


Atarah 


... 07 


Auslan... 


173 


Arter ... 


283 


Ataroth 


... 07 


Ausonius 


154 


Arthur 


15,26 


Ath 


... 139 


Austin 


197 


Arundel 


20, 20 


Athaliah ... 


... 53 


Austria 


100 


Arva . . . 


29 


Athalric 


... 234 


Autolycus 


.. 71, 176 


As 


77 


Athanasius 


... 307 


Avah ... 


64 


Asaph ... 


108 


Athel 


... 102 


Aventin 


86 


Asby ... 


121 


Athelgar ... 


... 215 


Avellana 


.. 120, 149 


Ascanius 


302 


Athelgif ... 


... 102 


Aves ... 


47, 101, 202 


Asclepiades 


... 300 


Atheling 00 


, 270, 293 


Avourneen 


280 


Ascham 


121 


Athelric 


... 234 


Awlay ... 


32 


Asdrubal . 


193 


Athelstan ... 


41, 112 


Ayoub ... 


99 


Asenatli 


.. 01, 194 


Atherton 


... 139 


Ayesha 


115 


Ashbea 


58 


Athey 


... 131) 


Aylward 


240 


Ashbel 


192 


Athoi 


... 140 


Ayre ... 


284 


Ashbash . 


. ... 121 


Athlai 


... 53 


Ayub . . . 


99 


Ashby ... . 


121 


Atkins 


... 272 


Az 


77,87 


Ashby-de-la 


Zouch 121 


Atlantiades ... 


186, 301 


Azar ... 


105 


Ashconner . 


.. 179, 180 


Atlas 


... 180 


Azgad 


83 


Asher ... . 


83 


Atmor 


... 132 


Azi ... 


292 


Ashet ... . 


83 


Atreus 


... 33 


Azrael 


53 


Ashman 


. 121, 147 


Atrides 


... 33 


Azraeel 


58 


Ashpenaz . 


204 


Atropos 


... 187 


Azariah 


53 


Ashtarotli Karnaim G5 


Atta 


... 252 


Azaz ... 


.. 59, 104 


Ashton 


121 


Attack 


121, 127 


Azazel 


.. ... 209 


Ashwood 


121 


Attila 


... 252 


Aziel ... . 


53 


Asinius 


239 


Attree ... 120, 


125, 308 


Azmaveth 


.. 88, 107 


Askew ... . 


173 


Attwood 


120, 125 


Azubah 


117 



INDEX. 



313 





Page. 




Page 




Page 


Baal ... 100, 190, 191 


BallingaU ... 


144, 149 


Barkos 


... 304 


Baalam 


192 


BalUol 


... 31 


B arietta ... 


... 304 


Baalath 


100 


Balloch ... 


30, 288 


Barley 


... 130 


Baal-hanan 


87, 193 


Balls 


... 224 


Barlow 


... 199 


Baal-peor . 


192 


B aimer 


... 241 


Barnabas ... 


... 304 


Baal-phegoi 


... 192 


Balmerino 133, 


152, 196 


Barnabo 


... 304 


Baalzebub . 


.. 192,260 


Balnaves ... 


... 153 


Barnaby 


... 304 


Baalzebul 


192 


Balquidder 


... 123 


Barnaib 


... 304 


Baa-ul 


.. ... 77 


Balthazar 82, 


192, 304 


Barnard 


... 199 


Baba ... 


252 


Bal-ti-mor 


... 196 


Barnardo ... 


... 304 


Babington 


53 


Baltimore ... 


122, 196 


Barnes 


... 243 


Baboo ... 


52 


Balzac 


39, 275 


Barnet 


53,146 


Babty ... 


83 


B amber 


125, 128 


Barney 


... 130 


Baby ... 


93 


Bamberger 


... 12G 


Barnum 


... 146 


Bacchus 


.. 149, 19G 


Bamfylde ... 


... 125 


Barnwell ... 


... 146 


Bachelor 


.. 240, 267 


Bampton ... 


... 243 


Baron 


74, 159 


Bachman 


146 


Banco 


... 30 


Baronius 


... 233 


Back ... 


146 


Bancroft 


... 133 


Barr ... 136 


273, 304 


Backie 


146 


Bane 


30, 285 


B arras 


... 152 


Backler 


236 


Banham 


... 270 


Barrel! 


... 273 


Bacon ... 


.. 127,236 


Bani (m) ... 


... 78 


Barret 


... 273 


Bacqueville 


... 152 


Banias 


... 186 


Barrie 


151,273 


Bad ... 


273 


Banker 


... 136 


Barron 


... 74 


Badams 


.. 296, 305 


Bankier 


... 136 


Barrow 


134,150 


Baddams 


296 


Banks 


136, 149 


Barrows 


... 139 


Badcock 


.. 273,304 


Bann 


... 270 


Barrus 


... 206 


Badenoch 


65, 135,288 


Bannatyne ... 


15,44 


Barry ... 151 


271, 277 


Badger 


214 


Bannerman 


... 219 


Barsabas ... 


91, 305 


B adman 


238 


Bannister ... 


... 237 


Barskimming 


134, 304 


Bael ... 


196 


Banshee 


75, 107 


Barth 


... 304 


Baffin ... 


277 


Baptist 


... 83 


Barthez 


... 304 


Bailey 


.. 237,301 


Baptista 


... 83 


Bartholomew 


... 304 


Bailly 


237 


Barabbas ... 


... 304 


Bartimeus ... 


... 305 


Bain ... 


32, 72, 282 


Barachel 


... 53 


Bartlemy . . . 


... 304 


Baines 


237 


Barachiah ... 


... 53 


Bartle 


... 304 


Baird ... 


241 


Barak 


17,306 


Bartlett 


273, 304 


Baker ... 


239 


Barbara 


112, 155 


Barton 


... 131 


Balaam 


56, 185, 192 


Barbarossa 


31, 255 


Baruch 


... 53 


Baladan 


192 


Barbour 


... 237 


Barzillai ...3 


2, 89, 304 


Balak ... 


57 


Barca 


17,183 


Bascombe ... 


... 156 


Balbi ... 


... 140, 194 


Barca-Yassous 


... 262 


Bash 


... 216 


Balboa 


31, 140, 194 


Barchocab ... 


... 305 


Basham 


... 199 


Balbus 


31 


Barclay 


... 132 


Bashaw 


117,234 


Bald ... 


29 


Barcosba ... 


... 305 


Basil 


235, 275 


Baldred 


170 


Bard 


... 253 


Basileus 


235, 275 


Baldrey 


170 


Bardolph ... 


... 176 


Basilewski ... 


... 132 


Baldur 


170 


Barebones 31 


, 46, 237 


Basihdes 


293, 301 


Baldwin 


170 


Barefoot ... 


24, 264 


Basilowitz ... 


276, 293 


Bates ... 


275 


Barend 


... 199 


Baskerville 


... 152 


Balius 


203 


Barentz 


... 199 


Basquet 


... 125 


Balfe ... 


176 


Bariah 


72, 306 


Bass ... 97,99,292 


Balfour 


58,, 129, 147 


Baru2g 


41, 270 


Bassi 


... 292 


Balguy 


.. 123,125 


Bar- Jesus . . . 


... 304 


Basseti 


... 97 


Balius 


203 


Bar- Jonah ... 


... 304 


Bassetti 


... 169 


Ball ... 


224 


Bar-Johannah 


... 304 


Basset 


... 34 


Ballantyne 


44 


iBarkas 


... 304 


Bassett 


... 131 


Ballard 

21 


15, 26, 224 


Barker 


237, 273 


Bassom 


... 292 



314 





Page 




Page 


Bassompierre 


9G, 292 Becket 


... 142 


Bastien 


... 197 


Beckett 120 


146, 152 


Basvecchi ... 


... 169 


Beckford 


... 147 


Barth 


... 304 


Beckner 


... 238 


Bartle 


... 304 


Beckwith ... 


... 122 


Bateman ... 


... 250 


Beechenhaugh 


... 128 


Bates 


2.30, 304 


Bedad 


... 56 


Bath 


... 53 


Bede 


114, 238 


Bathiah ... 


... 53 


Bedell 


238, 254 


BathoDi 


... 53 


Beeman 


... 251 


Bathsheba a 


3, 91, 305 


Beer 


... 308 


Batt 


... 304 


Beffana 


... 81 


Battini 


... 83 


Beg 


... 73 


BatteU 


... 250 


Begg 


... 73 


Battle 


149, 256 


Begue 


... 47 


Batterscomb 


] 38, 234 


Behring 


... 270 


Batteur 


138, 234 


Beith ... 48, 


180, 221 


Batti 


... 83 


Bel 


108, 191 


Battista 


... 53 


Belagneau 


... 144 


Batty 


273, 304 


Belcher 3C 


, 67, 307 


Bauer ... 59 


232, 308 


Belcombe ... 


... 68 


Baum 


125,243 


Beldam 


... 40 


Baumgarten 


125,133 


Belephantes 


... 193 


Baumtree ... 


... 125 


Belesarius 


... 170 


Bausket 


... 251 


Beli 


67, 108 


Bavey 


... 122 


Belial 


... 191 


Bavister 


250, 252 


Belinda 


... 208 


Bawn 


... 110 


Belknap 


... 262 


Baxter 


.. 237 


Bell 


218, 267 


Bayard 


... 203 


Bella 


... 108 


Bayle 


... 237 


Bellamy 


39, 139 


Bays 


... 218 


Bellarmine 


... 144 


Beach 


127, 251 


Belerophon 


... 212 


Beaconsfielcl 


137, 203 


Belle 


... 48 


Beales 


... 168 


Bellew 


152, 153 


Beatrice 


53,83 


Bellona ... 


102, 216 


Beatrix 


... 53 


Bellot 


... 31 


Beatus 


53,83 


Bellows 


... 152 


Beauclerk 


... 244 


Bellus 


... 31 


Beaufoy 


... 273 


Belshan ... 


.. 56 


Beauhamois 


... 223 


Belshazzar 


... 192 


Beauly 


... 143 


Belteshazzar 


... 192 


Beaupoil ... 


... 254 


Belus 


... 191 


Beaupre 


... 143 


Belvidera ... 


... 69 


Beauregard 113, 135,100 


Belvidere ... 


69, 135 


Beauvoisin ... 


... 42 


Belzebub ... 


... 260 


Bebee 


... 251 


Bembo... 217 


218, 256 


Beby 


... 251 


Ben ... 4^ 


[, 90, 291 


Beccles 


140, 274 


Benaiah 


53 


Beckey 


... 274 


Ben-ammi 


... 305 


Becky 


... 113 


Benahiah ... 


... 306 


Becher 


... 90 


Bene Barak 


... 306 


Bechman ... 


... 254 


Bendigo 


... 88 


Bechorath ... 


90 


Benedetto 


... 292 


Beecher 


90, 230 


Benedict 


8S, 246 


Beechy 


... 128 


Benet 


... 246 


Beck ... 39 


120, 140 


Ben Geber ... 


... 306 



Bengel 

Benhadad 

Benhanan 

Benhail 

Benoit 



Page 
... 42 
... 195 
... 305 
301,305 
... 246 



Benjamim 88, 100, 305 
Benjamin 37, 43, 88, 135 



Benmore 

Benoui 

Bensham 

Benson 

Bentham 

Bentley 

Benton 

Benzohetl 

Beor 

Beorming 

Beormingham 

Beppo 

Beranger ... 

Berechiah 

Bered 

Berengarius 

Beresford ... 

Berger 

Beriah 

Berkley 

Berhuda 

Bermuda ... 

Bermunda 

Bernadotte 

Bernard 

Bernardo ... 

Berners 

Bernhardt ... 

Bernice 

Bernicius ... 

Berosus 

Bernstein 
|Berri 
I Berry 
j Berry er 
j Bertha 
1 Bertheim ... 
[ Bertholett 
: Bertholon ... 

jBert 

I Berti 

BertoU 
[ Bertram 
} Bertrand 
j Bei'wick 

Besant 

:b 

Best 
Bess 
Bet 



33 

. 88, 305 
. ... 149 
. ... 88 
. ... 149 
. ... 119 

] ... 305 
56, 67, 296 
... 269 
... 269 
... 108 
... 215 
... 53 
... 90 
... 215 
... 35 
176, 266 
57, 72, 92 
... 132 
... 112 
... 223 
... 223 
199, 273 
... 198 
... 304 
243, 257 
... 199 
107, 224 
107, 224 
... 304 
109, 220 
... 139 
... 139 
152. 256 
37,81 
86, 97 
... 37 
... 37 
... 37 
... 37 
... 37 
... 200 
... 200 
... 150 
... 265 
... 122 
, 182, 300 
... 108 
53. 108 



INDEX. 



315 



Betson 300 

Bethel 277 

Bethuel 59, 112, 806 
Bethulia 07, 99, 203 

Betsy 53 

Bettany 81 

Betty 58, 108 

Bevan ... 94,271 

Beveridge 226 

Bevilacqua 47, 73 

Bevill 150 

Beville ... 125, 150 
Bews 152, 277, 280 

Bey 117 

Beza 125 

Bezaleel ... 55, 78 

Bezantio 2G5 

Biagotti ... 45, 273 

Bianco 30 

Bianchi 80 

Bias ... 28, 121, 190 
Biberius Mero ...40,47 

Bibron 73 

Bibulus 47 

Bicheno 128 

Bicbri 90 

Bickerstaff ... 214 

Biddle 288 

Biddulph 176 

Bidwell 288 

Biffin 277 

Bigelow 186 

Biggar 239 

Bigham 139 

Biggs 239 

Bigot 156 

Bilhah 88 

Bilhan 88 

Bill 178 

Billings 178 

Bilshan ... 56,88 

Bilsland 178 

Bilson 178 

Binder 226 

Binney 88 

Biot 45,278 

Biotti ... 45,273 

Bii-ch ... 128, 147 

Bii-d 106,253 

Birchenbaugli ... 128 

Birkbeck 147 

Bii-kett 147, 260, 273 

Birks 147 

Birmingham ... 269 

Biron 238 

Biscob 252 

Biscomb 252 



1 


Page 




Pa-e 


Bishlam 


32, 52, 92 


Bobo ... 


94 


Bishop 


... 308 


Boccacio 


81 


Bisland 


138, 252 


Bochart 


238 


Bismarck . . . 


138,160 


Bock ... 


71 


Bisset 


... 292 


Boddam 


123 


Bissett 


... 84 


Bodger 


... 240,308 


Bithiah 


... 306 


Bodkin 


307 


Black 


33, 277 


Body ... 


246 


Blacker 


... 238 


Boece ... 


39 


Blacklock ... 


... 254 


Boer ... 


100 


Blacksmith 


... 258 


Boetbius 


... 89,223 


Blackwater 


71, 142 


Boig ... 


289 


Blah- 


... 136 


Bog ... 


51, 77, 239 


Blake ...30,33,110,277 


Bogdan 


51, 77, 122 


Blanc 


... 30 


Bogatsky 


77, 122, 196 


Blanch 


80, 107 


Bogie ... 


122 


Blanchard ... 


... 80 


Bogey 


77 


Blanche ... 


30, 107 


Bogoslav 


88, 122, 295 


Blancleon ... 


... 205 


Bogue 


289 


Bland 


47, 102 


Bohn ... 


... 42, 307 


Blandina . . . 


... 102 


BoUeau 


47 


Blane 


30, 144 


Boisson 


124 


Blank 


... 110 


Bold ... 


29 


! Blanket ... 


... 110 


Bolden 


... 136,236 


Blankleon ... 


... 205 


Bolder 


214 


Bias 


... 31 


Boleslaus 


... 38, 295 


Blase 


... 31 


Boleyn 


... 169,199 


Blasius 


... 81 


Bolingbrokf 


146, 148 


Blastus 


... 48 


Bolivar 


... 218, 305 


Blewe 


... 158 


BoUand 


204 


Blewett 


... 153 


Bolster 


217 


Bhnkhorn ... 


... 239 


Bom ... 


123 


Bhss 


... 152 


Bomgarson 


... 125 


BlCESUS 


... 31 


Bonaparte 


... 55 


Blois 


... 31 


Bonaventura ... 86 


Blondell ... 


... 30 


Bond ... 


282 


Blondin 


32, 72 


Bondy 


275 


Blood 


166, 245 


Bone ... 


307 


Bloom 


... 149 


Bones 


307 


Bloomenkloof 


... 150 


Bonham 


288 


Bloomer 144 


147, 187 


Bonheur 


.. 88,283 


Bloomfield 


... 129 


Bonhomme 


... 270 


Bloomenroden 


... 129 


Boniface 


42, 97, 217 


Blott ... 47, 


166, 245 


Boning 


42 


Blount 


... 30 


Bonner 


42,46 


Blum 


... 147 


Bonet 


42 


Blumenbach 


... 147 


Bonomi 


238 


Blumenrodeu 


... 129 


Bonpland 


... 183 


Blumenstein 


185, 150 


Boodle 


238 


Blunt 


... 30 


Booker 


65, 106, 238 


Blutaxt 


... 47 


Bookless 


238 


Boadicea 


... 103 


Boorhaave 


... 43 


Boanerges 


... 306 


Boos ... 


125 


Boatman 


... 250 


Bootes 


.. 233,289 


Boatswain 


... 263 


Booth ... 


L44, 149, 256 


Boaz 


59, 164 


Bopis ... 


81, 58, 75 


Bob 


... 255 


Bord ... 


.. 147,218 



316 



INDEX. 





Paa;e 




Page 




Page 


Bortlclay 


140 


Boyle 30, 


125, 152 


Brian 


... 303 


Bordman 


232 


Boz 


... 125 


B riant 


... 130 


Borghese 


139 


Brabazoa ... 


... 157 


Briareos 


... 188 


Borgia 


139 


Brabner 


... 140 


Brice 


... 234 


Borland 


232 


Braby 


140, 157 


Bridges 


... 253 


Borne 


147 


Brabo 


... 88 


Bride 


... 110 


Borromeo 


20, 73, 145 


Bradbury ... 


... 130 


Bridges 


140, 253 


Boroni 


73 


Brabender ... 


140, 157 


Bridget 


... 110 


Bon-owman 230, 294 


Brackenbury 


129, 307 


Bridgeton ... 


139, 308 


Borrows 


139, 230, 294 


Bracciohni 


... 242 


Briggs 140 


253, 258 


Borthwick 


138, 252 


Braddock ... 


... 127 


Brigham . . . 


... 308 


Borwick 


lOG, 138, 147 


Brad don 


... 126 


Bright 


37, 302 


Boscawen 


121 


Bradford ... 


... 126 


Brighthehn... 


... 223 


Bos ... 


125 


Bradhurst 


... 126 


Brimer 


140, 252 


Bosch 


250 


Bradlaugh 


... 126 


Brinkley 


... 132 


Boscher 


248 


Bradley 


... 126 


Brimley 


132, 152 


Boscobel 


125 


Braes 


... 273 


Brimstone ... 


... 220 


Bosdet 


125 


Bradshaw ... 


... 126 


Brisbane 158 


253, 216 


Bosh ... 


... 125,177 


Brady 


... 40 


Brisco 


... 128 


Bosmina 


109 


Brae 


... 51 


Brithmor ... 


... 75 


Boscowen 


125 


Braham 


... 152 


Britomartis 


110, 188 


Bosom 


121 


Brahmaputra 


... 296 


Briton 


... 154 


Bosquet 


125 


Brahmin 


... 261 


Brithomor ... 


... 74 


Boss ... 


125 


Braidwood 


... 126 


Broadfoot ... 


32, 74 


Bossue 


48, 58, 273 


Brain 


... 200 


Broadhead ... 


... 83 


Bossuet 


273 


Bramante 


... 92 


Brochie 


... 30 


Bost ... 


125 


Brammetje 


... 272 


Brock 


... 209 


Bostock 


130 


Bramwell ... 


... 52 


Brockle ... 


... 146 


Boston 


176 


Brancaleone 


... 205 


Brocklehurst 


... 146 


Boswell 


125 


Branchus . . . 


... 92 


Brodersen ... 


55, 296 


Bostwick 


121 


Brand 136, 


200, 217 


Brodie 


... 144 


Bothwell 


144, 149, 155 


Bran dan 


... 200 


Brody 


... 144 


Botte ... 


246 


Brandaur ... 


216, 217 


Brogan 


274,276 


Bottle 


246 


Brandubh ... 


... 200 


Brogger 


258, 267 


Bottom 


141, 149, 241 


Brannigan 


... 200 


Broglie ... 60 


122, 126 


BouAmeena ... 117 


Brash 


... 216 


Broker 


... 267 


Bouch 


106 


Brant 


... 273 


Bromhead ... 


... 149 


Boucher 


226 


Branton 


136, 273 


Brontes 


... 188 


Boukolos 


239 


Braschi 


... 267 


Brooklands . . . 


... 140 


Bourbon 


239 


Brassey 


... 258 


Brooks... 14, 39,92, 142 


Bousfield 


129 


Bravo 71, 


103, 113 


Broom... 149 


171, 247 


Bouverie 


131, 239, 266 


Bravura 31 


103, 132 


Brough 


... 139 


Bowd 


246 


Brazier 21 


258, 266 


Brown 


273, 167 


Bowden 


144 


Bree 


29, 110 


Brownell . . . 


... 23 


Bowell 


277 


Breakspear 


214, 215 


Brownbill ... 


... 258 


Bowels 


277 


Brebceuf 


... 218 


Brown smith 


18, 258 


Bowen 


... 94, 277 


Brebisson ... 


... 198 


Bruce 


... 167 


Bowers 


... 144,232 


Breeckenridgc 


... 137 


Bruff 


... 139 


Bowie 


198 


Breen 


... 29 


Brummagum 


... 269 


Bowman 


... 209,239 


Brennus 


... 200 


Brunhilda . . . 


102, 172 


BowteU 


149 


Brent. 


... 23 


BruneU 


...23,26 


Bowyer 


249 


Bretschineider 


... 255 


Bruno 


... 172 


Boyack 


149 


Brett 


... 154 


Brunswick ... 


172, 266 


Box ... 


... 217,265 


Bretwald ... 


... 235 


Brunton 


... 126 


Boycot 


121 


Brewin 


... 41 


Brutus... 40, 55 


, 260, 300 


Boyd ... 


30, 34, 104 


Brewer 


... 237 


Bryant 


... 120 


Boydan 


51 


Brewster ... 


237, 285 


Bryce 


... 234 



INDEX. 



Bryses 

Bryseis 

Bubier 

Bubulcus ... 

Bucephalus... 

Bucer 

Buclian 

Buchanan . . . 

Buck 

Buckett 

Buckland ... 

Buckmaster 

Budd ... 103, 

Buddha 

Budge 

Budgett 

Buffet 

Buffon 

Bugby 

Bugden 

Bugg 

Bugbed 

Bugbie 

Bukki(m) ... 

Buist 

Buisson 

Bull 

Bullen 

BulUnger ... 

BuUis 

Bullock 
Bullstrode ... 

Bulwer 

Bumm 

Bumpstead... 
Buncombe ... 
Bunkum 
Bunyan 

Buon 

Buonafede ... 

Buonaparte... 

Buonarotti ... 

Buocnompagne 

Burbage 

Burbush 

Burden 

Burdett 

Bui-en 

Bui-ford 
Burgess 

Burgin 

Burgoyne ... 

Burke 

Burleigh 

Burly 

Burnap 
Burnet 146, 



re I 

-'> Burnham . 

Burnley 

Burns ... 

Burrage 

BurreU... . 

Burrhus 

Burrows 

Burt ... . 

Burwell 

Bury ... . 

Busby ... . 

Busembaum 

Bushell 

Bushnell 

Busked 

Bussman . 

Butcher 

Butler ... . 

Butt 

Buttman 

Button 

Buttress 
Buxton 

Buz 

Byars 

Byask 

Bye 

Byng 

Byron 



... 302 
... 239 

... 239 
74, 204 

... 238 

... 210 

... 210 

... 265 

... 248 

... 236 

... 265 

199, 236 
42, 297 

... 308 

... 308 

... 273 

... 201 

... 132 

... 144 

... 132 

... 132 

... 132 

... 78 

149, 249 

... 241 

... 80 

169, 199 

... 237 

... 152 ^ 

... 199 Bythesea 

... 199! 

... 167 I Cabballero 
243, 308 Cabot 
125, 243 ' Cabral 

... 138 'Cabrera 
138 Cacodemon 
Cacus 
Caddel 
Caddie 
Cade ... 
Cadena 
Cadi ... . 
Cadijah 
Cadman 
Cadmus 
Cadogan 1' 
Cadwaladyr 
Caffarelli ., 
Cagnola 
Caius 
Caleb 
Caesar 
Caesarion 
CahiU 

Cain ... . 
Caird 



35, 



278 
273 
273 
245 
... 273 
... 245 
... 125 
... 125 
... 264 
139, 262 
... 242 
... 140 
... 139 
... 155 
... 155 
139, 273 
180, 232 
... 232 
... 121 
, 273 284 



Page 

, ... 147 

, ... 129 

.14,41, 92 

... 241 



Caia 

Caiaphas 
CaiquU ... . 
, Caiquihus ... . 
23 Cairn ey 
20, 21, 25 I Cairas ... . 

... 139 Caitrin nic Seain 



317 

Pa-je 
... 102 
141, 268 

103 



87 Caius ... 
23, 26 , Cajetan 
... 273 { Calcol 
... 125 Calcot 
... 122 Calcraft 
... 125 I Caldecot 
121, 125 [ Calderon 
123 Caldicott 



102. 



103 
141 
134 

299 



182, 133 
... 140 
... 56 
... 56 
... 133 
... 56 
245, 259 



^ 148 

125 Caldwell 238 

226 Calgach 221 

240 Caleb 229 

236 Calhoun 228 

240 Caliban 284 

267 Caligula 225 

236 Caliph 285 

126 CaUxtus 250 

125 I CaHmachus ... 226 

181, 266 Callan 110 

121 Calliope 187 

258 Callinicus 46 

286 Callister ... 223, 283 

283 Callisto 81 

125 Callow 263 

97, 150 Galium ... 48,283 
Caiman 237, 256, 283 

Calton 122 

Calthorp 150 

Calvert ... 239, 255 

Calvin 268 

Calypso ... 188, 189 

188 Cam bell 30 

220 i Cambrensis ... I57 

287 I Cambyses ... 241 

Camden 144 

Camerarius ... 142 

. ... 808 Cameron ... 80,142 

. ... 308 Camille 245 

• ... 240 CamiUus 245 

59, 08, 283 I Camoys 32 

3, 216, 220 Campaletto ... 280 

... 221 I Campbell 30 

, ... 256 [Campion 216,226,244 
, ... 229 iCampobasso 131,141,151 
280 , Campobello ... 30 



225 
243 
209 
239 
188 



59, 87 



... 229 Cane ... 
89, 206 ' Cange 
... 802 ^ Canning 
220, 287 i Canmore 

27, 81 Canon 
245, 259 I Canova 



... 229 
... 242 
... 228,279 
46, 73, 227 

245 

149, 153, 242 



318 



rage 

Cannon ... 227,282 

Canrobert ... 255,277 

Canutius 32, 50, 254 
Cantaloup ... 130,174 

Capel ... 225,240 

Capet 48 

Capino 39 

Cappon ... 33, 73 

Carabceuf ... 233,241 

Caracalla 2"Z5 

Caractacus ... 40 

Caradoc 40 

Carbarns 254 

Carcas 201 

CardweU 153 

Carew 130 

Carfax 150 

Cargill 147 

Carey 40, 134, 153, 203 



Carfax 

Carioli 

Carl ... 

Carling 

Carloman 

Carlos 

Carlotto 

Carloving 

Carlowitz 

Carlyle 

Carmi 

Carmichael 

Carnac 

Carnation 

Carnegie 

Carno 

Carnot 

Caro 

Caroline 

Carolus 

Caroll 

Carpenter 

Carpo 

Carr 

Carrachioli 

Carracci 

Cai-rick 

Carrigan 

Carrion 

Carron 

Carruthen 

Carrutbers 

Carry ... 

Carsheua 

Carstairs 

Carter 

Cartwright 

Cams ... 



150, 254 

241 

... 43, 143 

209 

43 

43, 103, 108 

103 

43 

43 

, 130 

.. 78,241 
28, 54 

141 

83 

141 

47 

47 

40 

43, 103, 108 
48, 103, 108 

43 

241 

45 

151 

249, 280 
,.. 135,270 

280 

280 

73 

.. 71,144 
123 

... 143 

103 

38 

151 

242 

... 241 
28, 40, 134 



Carvosso 
Casabianca 133, 
Casaboni 
Casanova ... 
Casaubon ... 

Casca 

Case 

Casey 

Cash 

Cashan 

Casbow 

Casimir 

Cassagnac ... 

Cassander ... 

Cassandra . . . 

Cassels 

Cassibelan ... 

Cassidy 

Cassiuo 

Cassiope 

Cassias 

Cassivelauuu 

Castor 

Casvine 

Caswallawn 

Castlebar 

Castelar 

Castiglione 

Castlereagh 

Castriotto .. 

Cat 

Cataline 

Catcbpole 

Cateran 

CatLal 

Catharine .. 

Cathcart 

Cathie 

Cathlin 

Cathmor 

Cato 

Cattle 

Catt ... 

Cattanacli 

Catulus 

Caudle 

Caughie 

Caunt ... 

Cavagnac 

Cavan 

Cavanagh 

Cave ... 

Cavour 

Caw 

CawUffe 

Caxton 

Cazimir 



110, 



32 
132, 



Pafre 
... 13G 
242, 271 
... 129 
... 242 
... 129 
... 103 
... 242 
... 221 

74, 103 
... 279 
123,132 

38, 222 
... 127 
... 103 
... 103 
... 200 
... 193 
... 40 
... 242 
103,10!) 
... 103 
193, 220 
... 103 
... 242 
... 220 
... 151 
... 130 
... 73 
130, 250 
... 73 
... 221 
... 140 
... 242 
... 221 
... 287 
... 112 
... 143 
... 220 
110,220 
... 75 
... 229 
220, 287 
... 110 
221, 281 
... 229 
... 238 
... 250 
1, 47, 284 
133, 151 
132, 151 
133, 151 
174, 200 
, 74, 151 
225, 282 
... 282 
... 138 
... 38 





Page 


Caznove 


153, 242 


Cazvine 


... 242 


Cecchi 


... 31 


Cecil ... 103 


107, 331 


Ceciha 


103, 331 


Censorius ... 


... 47 


Celestiua 103 


, 113, 187 


Celestiue 


... 103 


Cepheus 


... 222 


Celsus 


... 140 


Centgi-ave ... 


... 258 


Ccnwin 


... 242 


Ceraunus . . . 


... 46 


Ceres 


... 183 


Cervantes ... 


... 29 


Cervoni 


... 71 


Cespedes 


92, 149 


Cetewayo ... 


... 07 


Chabot 


... 243 


Chacemoro 


124, 241 


Chaceporc 


... 144 


Chaff 


... 236 


Chaffer 


... 239 


Chaffel 


... 236 


Chaffey 


... 236 


Chaka 


07, 220 


Chalcas 


... 259 


Chalcus 


... 259 


ChalUs 


... 250 


Challouer . . . 


... 237 


Chalmers ... 


... 243 


Cham 


... 30 


Chambers 


... 243 


Chamberlain 


142, 243 


Champolliou 


... 130 


Chancellor 


... 242 


Chandler ... 


... 243 


Chang 


... 298 


Changarnier 


... 233 


Chauuing ... 


228, 279 


Chantraino 


... 130 


Chantrey ... 


... 250 


Chanzy 31 


-, 59, 254 


Chapman ... 


230, 240 


Chaplin 


... 246 


Chardon 


129,153 


Charette 


... 241 


Charilaus ... 


... 92 


Charles 43, 


103, 108 


Charlemagne 


... 43 


Charlier ... 


... 43 


Charlotte 43, 


103, 108 


Charlesworth 


... 43 


Oharrette ... 


... 241 


Charron 


... 242 


Charteris ... 


... 247 


Chater 


... 252 



INDEX. 



819 



Pa^e 

Chateaubriand 34, 130 
Chatterton 121, 139 

Chatrapa 220 

Chatto ... 120,220 

Chauchard ... 243 

Chaucer ... 03,244 
Chauviu ... 230,263, 
Chavah 27, 60, 101 

Chedorlaoruer 65, 266 ] 
Cheese ... 34, 153 1 
Cheevers ... 209,261; 

Cheffer 239] 

Chenevix 127 

Cheney 127 

Chenuex 127 

Cheran 198 

Cheery 40 

Cherry ... 28,40 

Cherub 00 

Cherubim 66 

Cherubim 66 

Cheval 225 

Cheyne 229 

Chiara 37 

Cliiarimonte ... 135 

Chidon 70 

Chiese ... 242,271 

Chad 41 

Childe 41 

Childebert ... 41, 172 

Childeric 41 

Childs 218 

Childers 14,41 

Cliileab 229 

Chilham 141 

ChiUon 70 

Chilperic 227 

Chilo 299 

Chiniquy 127 

Chione ... 30, 110 
Chisholm 127, 143, 151 

Chislon 67 

Chitty 41,48 

Chloe 34, 114 

Chlorus 30, 79, 114 

Chlodowig 222 

Cholmondeley ... 148 

Chon 245 

Chopin ... 240,250 

Choragus 187 

Chosroes 164 

Chrestus 103 

Christ ... 57, 75, 103 

Christian 103 

Cliristiana 103 

Christie ... 104, 295 
Christiern 103 





Page 




I'age 


Christopher 


40, 219 


Clonicus 


220, 224 


Christopolus 


104, 225 


Cleopas 


... 37 


Christos ... 


104, 295 


Cleopatra 52, 


112, 219 


Cliristy 


... 104 


Cleophas 


... 37 


Chrysaor ... 


216, 217 


Cleostratus ... 


37, 221 


Chrysaspes ... 


... 204 


Cleridge 


... 129 


Chryses 


... 302 


Clerk 


... 244 


Chryseis 


... 302 


Clesides 


... 187 


Chrysologus 


56, 255 


Cleveland ... 


236, 26G 


Chrysostom 


56, 255 


Clever 


... 38 


Chrystal 


... 219 


Clinton 


... 130 


Chrystie 


... 219 


Clmg 


... 266 


Chubb ; 


53, 46, 75 


Clinging 


... 217 


Chum 


... 246 


Clio 


... 187 


Chumly 


... 148 


Clisthenes ... 


... 187 


Chune 


... 224 


Clitus 


... 37 


Churchill ... 


... 201 


Clive 


48, 266 


Churchman... 


... 250 


Clodius 


... 32 


Chuza 


... 58 


Clones 


... 130 


Chuziah 


... 58 


Clontarf ... 


... 230 


Cicero 


47, 234 


Clopas 


... 37 


Cicereia 


... 299 


Clorinda 


... 113 


Cid 


235,238 


Close 


... 130 


Cincinnatus 


... 31 


Closet 


... 150 


Cinnamon ... 


... 150 


Closh 


... 225 


Cinqualbre ... 


... 128 


Clotaire 


... 222 


Cittadini ... 


129, 139 


Clothilda ... 


... 172 


Clack 


... 38 


Clotho 113 


187, 237 


Clanahan ... 


... 279 


Cloud 


... 260 


Clancy 


... 27 


Clough 


48, 150 


Clanricard ... 


... 234 


Clovis 


... 222 


Clara 


37, 113 


Clow 


38, 150 


Clarendon 113 


129, 267 


Clunie 


... 130 


Clanranald ... 


... 235 


Cluuy ... 130, 


143, 280 


Clarence 


... 113 


Clutterbuck... 


... 146 


Claret 


... 37 


Clutha 


... 137 


Claridge 113 


129, 267 


ciym 


... 48. 


Clarinda 


37, 113 


Clytus 


37, 187 


Clarissa 


... 113 


Coalmiu 


... 109 


Clark 


... 244 


Coat 


... 242 


Claude 


... 32 


Coates... 133 


150, 232 


Claudius 


... 32 


Cob 


95, 274 


Claussen 


... 295 


Cobb 


... 95 


Clausewitz ... 


... 225 


Cobbett 95 


, 274, 296 


Claverhouse 


... 129 


Cobbin 


... 95 


Clay 


... 153 


Cobden 


... 144 


Cleander 


... 219 


Cobell 


... 95 


Clearchus . . . 


38, 294 


Cobey 


95, 291 


Cleaver 


240, 246 


Cobban 


... 279 


Clee 


... 206 


Cobham 


... 279 


Clegg 


... 33 


Cobos 


... 95 


Cleghorn ... 


... 33 


Coburn 


... 146 


Cleland 


262, 289 


Coccapiella ... 


... 292 


Clement ... 


41,43 


Cochrane ... 


31, 283 


Cleombrotos 


... 37 


Cock 


... 227 


Cleomachus 


... 220 


Cockburn ... 


... 146 


ICleon ... 37 


, 108, 136 


Cocker... 112 


237, 243 



320 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Cockerell ... 


242, 243 


Combe... . 


. ... 138 


Coparius ... 


... 240 


Cockshot ... 


... 8G 


Combkin . 


. ... 283 


Cope 


... 257 


Cocks 


... 210 


Commisky 1 


38, 144, 2G6 


Copeland ... 


... 236 


Cockswald ... 


... 122 


Commodus . 


. ... 41 


Copernicus ... 


... 242 


Cockle 


9G, 2G4 


Como ... . 


. ... 95 


Copestakes ... 


130, 236 


Cockswold .,. 


... 123 


Compton 


. ... 138 


Copp 


... 95 


Codes 


... 188 


Comstock . 


. 130, 138 


Copperfield ... 


... 130 


Codd 


... 110 


Comte ... . 


245 


Copperthorn 


... 130 


Codrus 


... 90 


Comyn... . 


. 245,270 


Copperthwaite 


... 130 


Cody 


110, 283 


Con ... . 


228 


Copping 


95, 270 


Coesar 


89, 206 


Conan ... . 


228 


Coppock 


... 274 


Coesarion 


... 141 


Concetta 


.. 83,308 


Copronymus 


...48,98 


Coe 


1G9, 239 


Conceit 


308 


Copsey 


122, 130 


Coecus 


31, 103 


Concha 


83 


Cor 


... 287 


Coevelt 


137, 239 


Concobhar . 


.. 223, 228 


Cora 


... 115 


Coglan 


... 40 


Conde ... . 


245 


Corax 


... 200 


Coeur de Lion 


... 204 


Conder... . 


243 


Corbet 


... 274 


Coffee 


... 285 


Condillac . 


245 


Corbett 


... 200 


Coffin 


23G, 240 


Condor 


243 


Corbyn 


... 200 


CoghiU 


... 238 


Condorcet . 


245 


Corcoran 


... 27 


Coghlan 


... 40 


Confucius . 


29G 


Cordelia 


88, 114 


Cohen 


... 245 


Congal... . 


.. 155, 279 


Cordeher ... 


... 88 


Coke 


237, 243 


Congan 


.. 228,279 


Corder 


... 88 


Coil 


... 243 


Conger... . 


234 


Cordus 


... 88 


Colbert 


... 233 


Congreve . 


258 


Corigan 


... 246 


Colbrand ... 


... 14G 


Conig ... . 


284 


Cork 


... 149 


Colkittoch ... 


... 244 


Conigsby 


284 


Corinna 


... 115 


Coldetor ... 


... 199 


Connal... . 


.. 229, 2fiG 


Coriolanus ... 


... 140 


Coldham 


... 129 


Connel... . 


.. 228,229 


Cormac 151 


225, 282 


ColdweU ... 


... 238 


Coohe ... . 


2G3 


Cornaro 


... 29 


Cole 


225, 19G 


Conmir 


75 


Corneille , ... 


... 29 


Colenzo 


... 225 


Connor 2 


23, 224, 228 


Cornehus ... 


... 29 


Coleridge ... 


... 129 


Conon ... . 


.. 42, 228 


Cornwall ... 


... 155 


Colfai 


... 254 


Conrad... . 


255 


Cornwallis ... 


... 155 


Colgan 


... 217 


Conroy... . 


229 


Corregio 


... 149 


Colet 


... 225 


Consedine . 


44 


Corry 


... 246 


Colette 


... 225 


Constable . 


245 


Corte 


... 132 


Coligny 


... 275 


Constance . 


59,44 


Cortereal ... 


... 306 


Colin 


... 228 


Constant . 


.. 44,275 


Cortez 


... 291 


Coll ... 48 


19G, 221 


Constantino 


...30,44 


Corti 


... 32 


Colleen Bawn 


... 110 


Constantinu 


3 Chlorus 30 


Corvus 


... 200 


Colleone ... 


... 205 


Consul... . 


105 


Cory 


... 246 


Colley 


228, 245 


Consueha . 


.. 105,308 


Corydon 


... 246 


CoUier 


... 245 


Contarina . 


245 


Corylus 


... 128 


Collings 225 


270, 295 


Convers 


252 


Corypheus ... 


... 187 


Collis 


13G, 275 


Conville 


229 


Cosbi, ... 4c 


, 71, 305 


Collop ... 129 


148, 150 


Conybeare . 


257 


Cosmo 


... 31 


Colley 


... 288 


Conyers 


252 


Cospatrick ... 


2G3, 280 


Colly 


... 228 


Conyhope . 


126 


Cossacks 


... 157 


Colman 


245, 283 


Cook ... . 


247 


Cosser 


... 245 


Colon 


... 232 


Coolaulin . 


109 


Cossus 


... 254 


Colquhoun ... 


... 228 


Cooley... . 


.. 228,229 


Cossutia 


... 254 


Colt 


... 307 


Coombe 


138 


Costa 


29, 279 


Columba ... 


... 283 


Coombes 


138 


Costard 


... 267 


Columbine ... 


... 202 


Cooper, 


... 240 


Costigan 


29, 279 


Columbus . . . 


... 202 


Coot ... . 


. ... 201 


Coster 


... 236 


Colville 


... 137 


Coote ... . 


. ... 201 


Costley 


132, 152 



INDEX. 



321 





Page 




Pase 




Page 


Coghie 


... 240 


Cree ... 


34, 276, 283 


Crum ... . 


.. 142, 196 


CostorphinellO, 136,219 


Creek ... 


30, 67, 227 


Crumble 


137 


Cotby 


... 232 


Oreon ... . 


. 104, 188 


Crumlish . 


142 


Cotta 


... 188 


Cresset... . 


. ... 246 


Crumly 


142 


Cotterell ... 


... 151 


Cressida 


. 188, 301 


Crumpecker 


... 137 


Cotton 


130, 239 


Cressidas . 


. 277,301 


Crutchley . 


. 148, 275 


Cottus 


... 188 


Cressingham 


... 129 


Cuba ... . 


85 


Couba 


... 104 


Creusa 104, 188, 222 


Cubina... . 


. 85, 104 


Coubina 


85, 104 


Crib ... . 


. 73, 246 


Cuchullin . 


229 


Coudereau ... 


... 48 


Cric ... . 


. ... 227 


Cuckold 


123 


Coulava 


... 109 


Cricket... . 


. ... 227 


Cuffe ... . 


285 


Coulson 


271, 295 


Crickett 


. ... 227 


Cuillean 


228 


Coulter 


... 267 


Crickitt 


. ... 227 


Culdee... . 


262 


Couper 


... 240 


Crickmer . 


. ... 227 


Cull ... . 


147 


Couples 


... 86 


Crickmore . 


. ... 227 


CuUen ... . 


. 110, 228 


Courier 


... 246 


Crisp ... . 


. ... 31 


Culloch 


. 283, 285 


Court 


130, 291 


Crispin... . 


. ... 31 


Culross 


. ... 135 


Courtney ... 


... 32 


Crispus 


. ... 31 


Culyer ... . 


. ... 155 


Courvoisier... 


... 246 


Cristoval 


. ... 219 


Cumara 


228 


Cousins 


... 251 


Ciito ... . 


. ... 246 


Cumming . 


. 245, 270 


Coutts 


... 259 


Croll ... . 


. ... 264 


Cumstock . 


. ... 136 


Covey 


... 229 


Crockett . 


. 67, 307 


Cunard 


. 38, 138 


Coville 


... 137 


Croisus... . 


. ... 301 


Cundle... . 


. 42, 220 


Cowan... 129 


133, 259 


Croft ... . 


. ... 133 


Cunliffe 


. 87, 228 


Coward 


239, 283 


Croke ... . 


. 67, 240 


Cunnian . 


. 228, 279 


Cowdray 


... 127 


Croker... ( 


7, 240, 246 


Cunningham 


139, 284 


Cowie 


169, 229 


Croly ... . 


. ... 31 


Cupid ... 


29, 33, 116 


Cowley 


228, 239 


Crom ... . 


. 142, 196 


Cura ... . 


292 


Cowper 


... 240 


Crombie 


71, 92 


Curius ... . 


. 44, 246 


Cox ... 210 


217, 265 


Cromby 


. ... 142 


Curley ... . 


31 


Coyle ... 122 


243, 280 


Cromwell . 


. ... 196 


Curran... . 


. 234, 297 


Cozier 


... 256 


Cron ... . 


. ... 33 


Currant 


. 133, 145 


Crabbe 


... 48 


Crone ... . 


. 33, 218 


Currie ... . 


. ... 246 


Cracknel! ... 


... 237 


Cronhelm . 


. ... 223 


Currier 


. ... 246 


Crackstone ... 


... 135 


Crook ... . 


. ... 247 


Curry ... . 


. ... 246 


Cradock 


... 40 


Crookes 


57, 58, 307 


Curthose 


. ... 32 


Craib 


... 48 


Crookshanks 


... 32 


Curtin ... . 


307 


Cramer 


... 265 


Crop ... . 


. ... 266 


Curtis ... 


41, 47, 240 


Crane 


... 202 


Cropley 




Curtius 


59 


Crann 


... 279 


Crosier... . 


". '.■.". 257 


Curzon... . 


128 


Crannage ... 


123, 279 


Cross ... . 


. 82, 264 


Cush ... 


33, 64, 160 


Crannatch ... 


123, 124 


Crossan 


. 246,274 


Cusham 


. ... 64 


Crassus 


... 47 


Crosson 


. ... 279 


Cushi ... . 


64 


Craig 


289, 135 


Crossby 


. 148,275 


Cushman . 


237 


Craik 


... 30 


Crosse ... . 


. ... 82 


Cusin ... . 


229 


Cramb 


... 142 


Crosskey 


. 246,291 


Custance 


.. 130, 236 


Cranaus 


... 188 


Crossley 


. 148, 275 


Cutbrush . 


130 


Cranmer ... 


202, 288 


Crouch... . 


. ... 82 


Cutbush . 


.. 122, 130 


Cranston ... 


202, 288 


Crowder 


. ... 253 


Cuthbert . 


255 


Crantz 


... 218 


Crow ... . 


. ... 200 


Cuvier ... . 


240 


Crassus 


... 47 


Crowther . 


. ... 253 


Cyamitas . 


.. 234, 307 


Crateus 


... 28 


Croy ... . 


. ... 283 


Cybele... . 


186 


Craven 


... 239 


Croyland . 


. ... 200 


Cybiosactes . 


46 


Crawford ... 


140, 200 


Crozier 


257 


Cyclops 


188 


Crasham ... 


... 125 


Cruciger 


148 


Cynegirus . 


243 


Cream 


... 85 


Cruden... . 


157 


Cynosura . 


230 


Crebillon ... 

22 


73, 246 


Cruickshank 


s ... 32 


Cypselus 


221 



322 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Cyr ... 


85 


Dampierre . 


. ... 96 


De Antonio 


... 272 


Cyria ... . 


.. 235, 115 


Damsel 


. ... 114 


Dearie 


... 275 


Cyrenius 


214 


Dan ... . 


. 53, 104 


Dearlove 93, 97, 117 


Cjriacus 


85 


Dana ... . 


. ... 157 


Deas 


38,146 


CyriU ... 


85 


Danby 


. ... 157 


Death 


... 139 


Cyrus ... 203,235,260 


Dancer 


. ... 87 


Debir 


... 56 


Cytheris 


253 


Dancy 


. ... 87 


Debonaire ... 


42,47 


Cythceron 


253 


Dandle 


. ... 29 


Dehor 


... 104 


Czar ... 


96 


Dando 


. ... 275 


Deborah ... 


56, 104 


Czarina 


293 


D'Andy 


. ... 34 


Debuke 


... 120 


Czarowitz 


293 


Dandy 


. 34, 275 


Decayes 


... 133 


Czentivenny 


... 94 


Danger 


. ... 130 


De Chair ... 


... 151 






D'Angerfield 


... 152 


Decimus 


... 91 


Dabbs 


242 


Daniel 


. ... 53 


Decius 


... 91 


Dabney 


92 


Daniels 


. ... 53 


Deck 


... 256 


Dacier 


259 


Danskin 


. ... 157 


Decker 


... 256 


Dacobi 


95 


Dante 


. ... 275 


Dedan 


... 64 


Dacre ... . 


143 


Danton 


. 272,275 


Dee 33,45,190 


224, 263 


Dacroy 


127 


Danvers 


. ... 140 


Deeks 


207, 234 


Dad ... 


93 


Danville . 


. ... 93 


Deer' 


... 179 


Dadman 


239 


Daoud 


. ... 92 


Deerfoot 


... 22 


Daedalus 


42 


Daphne 


. ... 128 


De Foe 238, 


275, 301 


Daffin ... 


37 


Dar 


. 96, 247 


Defraine 


... 121 


Daffy ... 


92 


Dara ... . 


. ... 127 


Deguignes .... 


... 128 


Daft ... 


33 


Darach 


. ... 76 


D'Israeli ... 


... 275 


Dag ... 


70 


Darby 


. ... 148 


Deitch 


... 161 


Dagbrod 


157 


Dar da 


. ... 56 


Deitrichessen 


... 295 


Dagfin 


37 


Darg ... . 


. ... 243 


Deity 


... 76 


Dagmar 


157 


Darling 


28, 38, 93 


Dejoces 


191, 207 


Dago ... 


86 


Damcombe 


... 285 


De la Bost 


... 149 


Dagobert 


.. 86,168 


Damley 33, 


39, 190, 285 


De la Croix 


... 275 


Dagon 


195 


Darrach '' 


re, 127, 281 


De la^Faye 


... 126 


Daguerre 


213 


Darwin 


. ... 38 


De la Field 


133, 143 


Dakin 


92 


Dasa 


. ... 261 


De la Fontaine 


... 241 


Dakins 


272 


Dashwood 


... 121 


De la Hay ... 


... 143 


Dalbeth 


149 


Daspodius 


32, 74 


De la Marche 


... 275 


Dalby 


.. 143,163 


Dass ... . 


. ... 261 


De la Motte 


... 134 


Dale ... 


.. 143, 151 


Dathan 


. ... 62 


De la Place 


152, 206 


Dalhousie 


138 


D'Aubigne 


... 92 


De la Pole 


... 48 


Dalkeith 


143 


Daughter . 


. ... 295 


Delaport 


152, 206 


Dallas 


138 


Dauncy 


. ... 87 


De la Roche 


... 136 


Dallinger 


86 


Dauney 


. 121,128 


De la Rovere 


121,127 


Dairy 


143 


Dawe 


. ... 92 


DelaRue ... 


266, 275 


Dalrvmple 


143 


Dawes 


. ... 92 


De la Vega 


... 133 


Dalton ] 


26, 137, 143 


Dawkins 


. ... 272 


Delcambre 


... 243 


Darn ... 


33 


Dawson 


. ... 92 


Delescluse ... 


... 145 


Dalziel 


143 


David ... 


54, 59, 92 


Deluc 


... 275 


Dana ... 


.. 33,114 


Davidoff . 


. ... 92 


Delcombre ... 


... 243 


Damaris 


47, 200, 247 


Davie ... . 


. ... 92 


De Lolme ... 


... 127 


Damaspa 


200 


Davies 


. ... 92 


Do las Penas 


... 88 


Dame ... 


.. 114,115 


Davitt 


. 92, 272 


Delaunnay 


... 260 


Damian 


84, 115, 252 


Davoust 


. ... 98 


Delaware ... 


... 275 


Damo 


246 


Davy ... . 


. ... 92 


Delfino 


... 210 


Damocles 


37 


Day ... 2 


33, 247, 291 


De Lhuys ... 


... 145 


Damon 


.. 37,246 


Deacre 


. ... 143 


De Ligny ... 


... 125 


DaiDper 


96 


Deakins 


. ... 272 


Delilah 


112, 243 


Dampier 


.. J.. 96 


Deane 


. ... 144 


Dellar 


... 241 







INDEX 






32a 




Page 




Page 




Page 


Delmonico ... 


251,275 


Devin 


... 152 


Dionysius ... 


... 183 


Delong 


... 35 


Devine 


... 152 


Diophantus 


... 254 


Delphino 


... 210 


DevUn 


98, 114 


Dios ... 76, 


104, 183 


Deluc 


... 275 


Dewar 


250, 275 


Dioscorides 


184, 303 


Demas 


... 222 


De Warrenue 


... 248 


Dioscuri 


77, 184 


De Mattos 


199, 275 


Dewberry ... 


... 139 


Diotrephes 


... 183 


Dembinski 


... 122 


Dewburst ... 


... 126 


Diphilus 


... 40 


Demeter 


... 183 


De Winton 


... 143 


Dirk Willemzoon 295 


Demetrius 


183, 222 


De Witt ... 


98, 125 


Dis 


... 183 


Demidoff ... 


... 294 


De Worms ... 


... 140 


Disbmy 


140, 153 


Democbares 


... 92 


Dbas 


... 261 


Discalzeado 


24, 264 


Demogorgon 


... 188 


Dbu 33, 227, 


262, 285 


Dishan 


209, 210 


Demon 


... 99 


Dia 


... 77 


Dishon 


... 209 


Demonico ... 


... 99 


Diable 


... 51 


Ditchen 


... 152 


De Monti ... 


... 134 


Diablo 


51,105 


Ditmarsh ... 


... 161 


Demosthenes 


188, 222 


Diabolos 


51, 203 


Dittmar ... 


... 161 


Dempster 


247, 291 


Diack 


... 234 


Diva 


104, 183 


Dencbfield 


... 157 


Diamond 


... 134 


Diver 


... 33 


Denfortb ... 


... 157 


Diana ... 104, 


184, 192 


Dives 


... 183 


Denman 128 


138, 144 


Diavolo 


... 203 


Divorty 


149, 150 


Denmark ... 


157, 161 


Diaz 


95, 290 


Divus 


104, 183 


Dennis 


183, 268 


Dibble 


... 235 


Dix 


... 289 


Dennison ... 


... 268 


Dibden 


... 33 


Dixie 


153, 289 


Dennistoun 


... 268 


Dice 


42, 186 


Dixon 


234, 289 


Denny 


... 144 


Dicearcbus 


... 42 


Djuleep 


... 153 


Denovan 


133,142 


Dick 


118,234 


Dobbie 


... 255 


Dent 


... 157 


Dickens 


... 234 


Dobler 


... 240 


Dentatus 


... 87 


Dickerman 


... 236 


Dobroslav ... 


... 38 


Denton 


... 157 


Dickson 


... 289 


Dobyn 


... 255 


Deocbarns ... 


... 54 


Diderot 39, 92, 274 


Docharty ... 


... 128 


Deodanda ... 


115,235 


Didier 


... 92 


Dodai(m) ... 


... 78 


D'Eremao 


... 275 


Dido 


59,78,94 


Dodd 


195, 235 


Derby 


... 148 


Didymus 


... 86 


DoddreU ... 


... 235 


Derrick 


76, 234 


Dieckmann 


... 136 


Doddridge ... 


137,195 


Derringer ... 


... 76 


Diego 


95,290 


Dodds 98 


,222,235 


De Ruyter 271 


, 275, 283 


Dierkhoff ... 


... 294 


Dodge 


... 229 


Derwentwater 


... 47 


Dietz 


... 235 


Dodman 


... 239 


Desais 


... 148 


Dieu 


... 76 


Doeg 


195,243 


De Sanctis 


... 238 


Digby 


... 136 


Doig ... 75 


, 229, 239 


De Santos ... 


275, 302 


Diggles 


... 153 


^oge 


... 248 


De Saulcy ... 


... 128 


Dignum 


... 93 


Dogfin 


... 37 


Descartes ... 


... 247 


Dilk 


40, 92 


Doggart 


... 229 


Desdemona 


... 188 


DHke 


... 198 


Doggett ... 


229 


Desiderius 3£ 


, 235, 274 


DUkie 


40,92 


DolabeUa .. 


!!*. 226 


Desmond ... 


... 143 


DiUon 


74,92 


Dole 


... 283 


Desmoiilins... 


... 252 


DUly 


... 92 


Dolgoruky 


... 33 


Desormeaux 


... 121 


Dimitri 


... 183 


Dolliner 


... 143 


De Soto ... 


... 266 


Dimmock ... 


... 127 


Dollmger ... 


... 86 


Desperdicios 


... 290 


Dinah 


... 104 


DoUy ... 11" 


, 235, 274 


Despot 


... 235 


Dingle 


... 144 


Dolor 


43, 305 


Despotes ... 


... 235 


Dio 


76,77 


Dolores 


84, 117 


De Triana ... 


... 143 


Diocletian ... 


... 183 


Dom 


... 247 


Detroit 


... 143 


Diogenes 183 


, 302, 304 


Dombrowsky 


... 121 


Deucbar 


... 250 


Diomedes ... 


... 226 


1 Domhnuallocb 


... 281 


Deus 


70,77 


Dion 


183, 302 


Domina 


... 101 


Deutscli ... 


... 161 


Dion Cassius 


... 292 


Dominie 


... 85 


Devil 


... 51 


iDione ... 10^ 


[, 184, 303 


Dominiquez 


... 290 



324 



INDEX. 



Dominus 101 


Page 
, 247, 303 


Drew ... 


Page 
... 264, 284 


Duncan 


Page 

.. 227,303 


Domitian . . . 


200, 247 


Dreyfuss 


173 


Duncanson 


... 287 


Don 


94,101 


Drinan 


122 


Duncombe 


... 138 


Donaghue ... 


... 227 


Driog 


159 


Duncy 


. ... 87 


Donald 


... 45 


Drinkwater 


47, 72, 73 


Dundee 


133 


Donald Bain 


... 30 


Driscoll 


40 


Dumville . 


. ... 137 


Donaldson 


... 272 


Drood 


284 


Dundas 


134 


Donatello ... 


... 247 


Drouin 


... 44,145 


Dundonald 


... 45 


Donavan 


... 133 


Drudge 


242 


Dunlop 


. ... 134 


D'Ondes ... 


... 97 


Dnigan 


... 264,276 


Dunmure . 


. ... 288 


Donegan 


272, 279 


Druid 


... 124,125 


Dunn ... 


33, 227, 279 


Douizetti ... 


247, 274 


Druiif 


... 264,276 


Dunois 


128 


Don Juan ... 


94, 247 


DrusiUa 


104 


Dunoyer 


. ... 126 


Donovan 133 


227, 280 


Drusus 


104 


Duns Scotus 


... 160 


Donna 


... 101 


Dryander 


... 12!, 127 


Dunville 


. ... 371 


Donner 


... 89 


Dryburgh 


... 139,149 


Dupin 


. 128, 277 


Donkin 


... 272 


Dryden 


... 72,144 


Duns ... . 


157 


Don Pedro ... 


... 247 


Dualde 


48, 149, 266 


Dunstan 


. ... 170 


Doo 


... 33 


Duarte 


224 


Dunstone . 


. ... 170 


Dora 


... 117 


Dubarry 


... 139,151 


Dupanloup 


... 175 


Dorcas 104 


109, 202 


Duberry 


151 


Dupre 


. 145, 279 


Dorman 


... 236 


Dubbs 


242 


Duquesne . 


. ... 127 


Dormer 121 


128, 236 


Dubois 


125 


Durant 


. 229,275 


Domer 


... 128 


Dubuke 


126 


Durante 


. 229, 275 


Dorokoff ... 


... 293 


Duchesne 


127 


Durley 


. 72, 132 


Dorothy 


115,235 


Du Cange 


... 135,242 


Duroc 


. ... 136 


Dorritt 


... 274 


Dueardonnet ... 129 


Durocque . 


. ... 136 


D'Orsay ... 


... 235 


Duce ... 


... 220, 248 


Durward 


. 60, 236 


D'Orsey ... 


204, 235 


Duck ... 


... 220,248 


Dust ... . 


. ... 123 


Doryclus 


... 215 


Duckett 


... 220,248 


Duval 


. ... 143 


Doubleday 


... 86 


Dudgeon 


... 168,216 


D wight 


. ... 275 


Doubles 


... 86 


Duenna 


101 


Dwyer 


. ... 33 


Douce 


220, 248 


Duessa 


117 


Dyball C 


8, 224, 234 


Doucherty 


... 128 


DufaiUy 


... 126,127 


Dyce ... . 


. ... 38 


Dougan 


... 227 


Dufoy 


... 126,127 


Dyer ... . 


. ... 256 


Doughty ... 


... 29 


Duff ... 


33, 190, 262 


Dykes 


. ... 136 


Douglas 


142, 147 


Dufferin 


142 


Dymond 


. ... 134 


Douglass 


... 71 


Duffus 


... 149,155 


Dymont 


. ... 134 


DouU 


... 33 


Duffy 


... 33,227 


Dyson 


98, 271 


Doutremer 


... 266 


Dufraine 


121 


Dzohara 


. 106, 157 


Dove ... 33 


227, 262 


Dufresnoy 


126 






Dow 33, 45 


227, 262 


Dugald 


33, 155, 227 


E'anthropos 


... 100 


DowaU ... 


... 33 


Dugall 


155 


Eachran . 


. 225, 161 


Dowl 


33, 155 


Duggan 


279 


Ead ... . 


. .. 107 


Dowd 


... 66 


Duguid 42, 


46, 123, 217 


Eaden ... . 


. ... 144 


Dowds 


66,215 


Duguignes 


128 


Eadie ... . 


. ... Ill 


DoweU 


... 155 


Du Halde 


48, 149, 266 


Eagles ... . 


. ... 152 


Dowlat 


... 221 


Duilius 


261 


Eaglesham . 


. ... 152 


Downie 


... 85 


Duke 


208, 220, 247 


Earl ... . 


. 202, 248 


D'Oyle 
Drabble ... 


... 159 


Dulcibella 


118 


Early ... . 


. 59, 248 


... 233 


Dulcinea 


118 


Easel ... . 


. ... 239 


Draco 


... 207 


Dulong 


139 


Easter... . 


. ... 184 


Dragoman 


... 251 


Dumah 


47,70 


Easton... . 


. ... 137 


Draper 


... 267 


Dumas 


127 


Eastwood . 


. ... 307 


Drayton 


139,149 


Dumesnil 


136 


Easy ... . 


. ... 60 


Dred 


... 57 


Dumnorix 


... 226 


Eaton ... . 


. ... 138 


Dredge 


... 249 


Dunbar 


137 


Ebba ... . 


. ... 102 



INDEX. 



325 



Page 




rage 


Ebed 260 


Eleorn ... 


.. 267,180 


Ebedmelech ... 260 


Eldad ... 


93 


Eben-Daoud ... 92 


Elder ... 


234 


Ebenezer 53, 66, 165 


Eleanor 


36 


Eber 64 


Electra 


... 36,189 


Eccles 152, 153, 235 


Eleutherius 


... 269 


Ecliegan ... 278, 279 


Elf ... 


... 75,255 


Echius 76, 301 


Elfreda 


... 102,115 


Eck ... 67, 127, 301 


El Gebar 


28 


Eckhardt 44 


Elger ... 


213 


Eckius 76,127 


Elgin ... 


171 


Eclecta 115 


Elgiva 


... 102,115 


Ecolampadius 75,96, 292 


Elgol ... 


200 


Ed 107 


Eliab ... 


52 


Edart 224 


Eliah ... 


52, 206, 306 


Edden 44 


Eliakim 


54 


Eddeen 44 


Eliam ... 


56 


Eddy 43 


Elias ... 


54 


Eden 144, 159 


Eliezer 


53 


Edison 271 


Eligius 


57,40 


Edith 58, 107 


EUhu 


52,54 


Edgar 107, 214 


Elijah 


54 


Edge 121 


Elimelech 


55 


Edgecomb 121 


Elioeni (m) 


... 78 


Edgewood 121, 122, 152 


EUphal 


53 


Edgiva 115 


EUsha 


53,54 


Edipus 32 


Elishamali 


... 81 


EdHn 41,270 


Elisheba 


53 


Edmonds ... 223,227 


EUseus 


54 


Edmund 223 


EHsie 


53 


Edom ... 44, 159, 254 


Elissa 


118 


Edouart 224 


Ehza ... 


... 53,108 


Edward 224 


EUzabeth 


... 53,108 


Edwards 272 


EUzur 


55 


Edwin 224 


EUen ... 


36, 107, 132 


Eels 152 


Ellenwood 


122 


Eekhout ... 121,149 


ElHs ... 


54, 272, 274 


Effie 114 


ElHott ... 


54,113,274 


Egan 278, 280 


EUiston 


54 


Egar 172 


Ellwood 


122 


Egbert 172 


Elmo ... 


222 


Egede 261 


El Mudo 


35 


Eggleston 152 


Elnathan 


77 


Eggs 152 


EloaU ... 


64 


EghmUy 225 


Eloliim 


56,64 


Eglah 200 


Elon ... 


67 


EgUn 171 


Eloysius 


40 


Eglon ... 62, 71, 200 


Elpidias 


93 


Egon 239 


Elpis 


55,93 


Egremont ... 134, 158 


Elsie ... 


... 53,108 


Ehud 54 


El Tato 


41 


Einstein 149 


Elymas 


... 90,264 


Eirineach 282 


Elzabad 


97 


Ekin 272 


Elze ... 


294 


El 56, 64 


EiTia,Tiuel 


67 


Elam ... 90, 67, 171 


Embla 


179 


Elazarus 53 


Emigdio 


84 



Page 

EmilianuB 299 

Emily ... 102, 233 

Emir 260 

Emir al Omiali 53, 260 
Emly ... 96,113,225 



Emma ... 


99,72,102 


Emmanuel 


... 67 


Emmery 


. ... 233 


Emmet 


. 99,113 


Emmings . 


. ... 217 


Emmons 134, 137, 150 


Emmor 


22, 25 


Empedocles 


... 37 


Encke 


. 203, 225 


Enclos 


. ... 130 


Endymion . 


303 


Eneas 


45 


Enfant 


278 


Engelmau . 


. ... 222 


Engels 


149 


EngUsch 


157 


Engstrom . 


.. 134,148 


Ennius 


91 


Ennan 


289 


Enoch ... 


59, 67, 238 


Enosh ... . 


28 


Enriquez . 


290 


Enshaw 


125 


Ensor ... . 


125 


Eoster ... 


76,81,184 


Epaminondas ... 301 


Epamnon . 


.. 270,301 


Epaphras . 


182 


Epenetus . 


54 


Epeus 


225 


Epicurus 


223 


Epigoni 


301 


Epimanes . 


46 


Epiphanius 


46, 81 


Ephraim . 


68 


Ephrem Syi 


us ... 160 


Ephron 


.. 71, 104 


Episcopius 


... 308 


Episcopus . 


308 


Epje ... . 


272 


Epps ... 


108 


Epsom 


102 


Epsy ... 


118 


Erasmus 


.. 38, 182 


Erastus 


59 


Erato ... 


38, 187, 182 


Eratosthenes 182, 187 


Erchenbold 


... 222 


Ercole 


37, 182, 212 


Erebus 


.. 05,200 


Eric ... 


234 


Erigena 


.. 157,282 



326 



INDEX. 





age 




Page 


Erigone 


. ... 301 


Euler ... 


240 


Erinnys 


18, 25 


Eumens 


.. 41,301 


Eris ... . 


18,25 


Eumenides 


41, 301 


Ermete 


. ... 264 


Eumerus 


43 


Erne ... . 


. 104, 201 


Eunice 


.. 115,224 


Ernest 


. ... 201 


Eunicius 


224 


Eros ... . 


. 132, 183 


Enuomia 


186 


Erythra 


. ... 25 


Euodia 


115 


Erytbras . 


. ... 18 


Eupator 


42 


Esau ... . 


71,78 


Euphemia 


112 


Escombe 


. ... 138 


Euphemius 


... 60 


Eschol ... . 


.78,45,58 


Euphrastus 


... 255 


Esculapius . 


188 


Eupbrosyne 


186, 224 


Esdras ... 


78, 53, 223 


Eupolemos 


224, 226 


Esbbael 


. ... 192 


Euripides . 


.. 188, 302 1 


Esbton... . 


100 


Europa 


.. 31,188, 


Esihiian 


. ... 239 


Euryale 


188 i 


Esmeralda . 


. ... 112 


Eurynome . 


.. 188,235 


Esop ... . 


. ... 15 


Eusebes 


238 


Espagnac . 


. ... 275 


Eusebius 104, 114, 302 ! 


Espe ... . 


. ... 214 


Eustace 


44 


Espie ... . 


. ... 214 


Eustachius 


... 44 


Espon ... . 


. ... 214 


Eutaxia 


31 


Esquire 


. 224, 261 


Euterpe 


187 


Espartero . 


. ... 247 


Eutropius . 


187 


Esra ... . 


. ... 223 


Eutycbus 


43,58,221 


Esserbaddon 


... 194 


Eva ... . 


27,60 


Essip ... . 


. ... 152 


Evan ... . 


277 


Esteban 


. ... 218 


Evander 


42,76 


Estelle 


. ... 184 


Evangel 


113 


Esterbazy . 


. ... 126 


Evangeline 


... 113 


Estia ... . 


. ... 184 


Evans 


94 


Esther 


. 116,184 


Eve ... 


27, 60, 114 


Ethel ... . 


. 41,102 


Eveletb . 


152 


Etbelbert . 


. ... 37 


Evelyn 


114 


Ethelburg . 


. ... 104 


Everard 


200 


Ethelburga 


... 104 


Everett 


200 


Ethelgiva . 


. ... 102 


Evergetes . 


46 


Ethelred . 


. 41,255 


Every ... . 


206 


Ethelrida . 


. ... 41 


Evii-chomi . 


lUV 


Etbelwald . 


. ... 122 


Evippus 


203 > 


Etbelwood 


... 122 


Evremond 


... 135} 


Ethron 


. ... 104 


Ewart 


2061 


Ettie ... . 


. ... Ill 


EweU 


280; 


Etty ... . 


. ... Ill 


Ewing 


280 


Eubulus 


. 56, 255 


Excellency 


90, 202 


Eucbaris . 


. ... 112 


Exiguus 


47! 


Eucleos 


. 38, 302 


Eyck ... . 


301 


Euclid 


. 38, 302 


Eynion 


278] 


Eudes 


. ... 226 


Eyre ... . 


284; 


Euergetes . 


42,46 


Ezer ... . 


53,78 


Eugene 


. ... 167 


Ezra ... 


78, 165, 223 


Eugenie 


. 134,167 


Ezri ... . 


78 


Euing 


. ... 280 


Ezbon 


71 


Eulalia 


. ... 112 






Eule ... . 


. ... 201 


Faber ... . 


. ... 241 


Eulenbui-g 


... 201 


Fabius ... . 


. ... 245 





Page 


Fabricius ... 


... 241 


Faddom 


... 93 


Fader 


... 72 


Fadladeen ... 


... 44 


Fadyan 


137, 227 


Faing 


... 32 


Fairbairn . . . 


... 87 


Fairbrass ... 


... 259 


Fairbrother... 


88, 252 


Faircliilds . . . 


... 87 


Fau-cloth ... 


149, 150 


Fail-fax 


... 254 


Fau-head ... 


... 152 


Faiers 


... 87 


Fairservice ... 


... 233 


Faith 


75, 122 


Falconer 


... 249 


Falk 


.. 125 


Falkenstein 


125, 135 


Falkland ... 


125, 236 


Fall 


... 136 


FaUon 


... 38 


FaUas 


... 138 


Falsbaw 


... 149 


Falstaff ... 


... 214 


Farefoot 


... 264 


Farie 


... 259 


Farm 


232 


Farmer 


... 232 


Farthing 


... 153 


Farnworth ... 


... 149 


Fancomb ... 


... 138 


Fancy 


... 189 


Fane 


32, 152 


Faneuil 


... 152 


Fanny 


... 109 


Fanshaw . . . 


125, 126 


Farina 


... 253 


Farnie 


... 491 


Farnworth ... 


129, 149 


Farr 


... 248 


Farragut 


... 248 


Farrant 


... 248 


Farrar 


239, 248 


Fan-en 


... 248 


Farquhar ... 


... 29 


Fates 


... J87 


Father 


72, 252 


Fatican 


... 227 


Faucheur ... 


... 234 


Faulds 


129, 130 


Faunt ... 52 


241,278 


Fauntleroy...41,52, 276 


Faunus 


... 18i; 


Faust 


... 43 


Faustina 43 


104, ]00 


Faustulus ... 


48, 272 



INDEX. 



327 



Faustus 
Favel .. 
Favre... 
Fawcett 
Fearghal 



Page 

43, 104 
... 34 
... 241 
... 170 
29 



Featherstonehaugh 138 



Feely 

Feeny ... 

Felicia... 

Felicula 

Feliculus 

Felippa 

Felix ... 



45 

40,47 

43, 58, 104 

104 

104, 110, 111 

106 

...43,83,221 



FeU 



Fellows 

Felsberg 

Felton .. 

Fenian.. 

Fenner.. 

Fennimore . 

Fenwick 

Feodrovitch 

Ferdinand . 

Fergus ... 

Ferishta 

Fern ... 

Fernandez . 

Ferney... . 

Ferondi 

Ferracino . 

Ferrand 

Ferrar ... . 

Ferrari... . 

Ferrars 

Fei-retti 

Ferrie ... 

Feny ... . 

Festus ... 

Fetcham 

Fe vre . . . 

Few 

Ffoulks 

Fiacre ... 

Flamingo 

Fianzuola 

Fichte ... 

Fiddaman 

Fiddes ... 

Fidler ... 

Fidelia... 

Fidelius 

Fidus ... 

Fie 

Fife ... 

Field ... 

Fields ... 

Fieldsmith 



43, 48, 135, 149 



246 

137 

129, 139, 289 
257, 122, 243 

257 

... 122 
150, 288 
... 293 
... 45 
29,74 
... 221 
... 247 
... 45 
... ... 149 

292 

259 

259 

29 

259 

259 

259 

29 

41 

43, 83, 272 

129 

308 

122, 278, 280 

235 

201 

157 

143 

128 

... 39, 123 

123 

177 

... 112,273 

53 

102 

285 

... 158, 253 
... 129, 136 

153 

258 



Figaro ... 

Figuerola 

Filatrice 

Fillan ... 

Filkin ... 

Filmer... 

Filmore 

Filomel 

Filomena 

Filshill... 

Finach... 

Finch ... 

Findlater 

Finigan 

Finiguei-ra 

Finella 

Fingal... 

Finguerola 

Finlay . . . 

Finlayson 

Finn ... 

Finnach 

Finney... 

Finnigan 

Finette... 

Finnon 

Firdusi... 

FirgQ ... 

Firmius 

Fisher ... 

Fisk ... 

Fitch ... 

Fitts ... 

Fitz -James 

Fitz-John 

Fitzroy . . . 

Fiveash 

Flaccus 

Flack 

Flambard ...t 
Flamestead . . . 
Flamstead ... 
Flamsteed ... 
Flamina 
Flamtuius . . . 

Flan 

Flanders 
Flanegan ... 

Flann 

Flanner 
Flatman 

Flatt 

Flattery 

Flavel 

Flavia... 

Flavins 

Flasman 



Page 

128! 

2921 

... 187, 113 

174 

204 

... 73, 204 

204 

187 

118 

45 

281 

203 

136 

72, 279, 286 

228 

136 

227, 279, 282 



228 

283 

283 

133 

286 

148 

.. 279, 281 

108 

282 

144 

,., 29,155 

190 

243 

243 

234 

123 

294, 290 

94 

52, 276, 294 

, 121 

34 

.. 34,277 
..56, 67, 226 

137 

157 

203 

110 

245 
.'..17,20,279 

157 

... 27, 279 

87 

237 

249 

131 

40 

34 

104, 117, 176 

22, 34, 227 

244 



Fleming 
Flemming 
Fletcher 
Flett ... 
Fleury ... 
Flindt ... 
Flinn ... 
Flint ... 
Flobert 
Flood ... 
Flora ... 
Florence 
Florimel 
Florus ... 
Flourens 
Flowers 
Floyd ... 
Fluellen 
Flugel ... 

Fo 

Fogarty 

Fogg '... 

Foggo ... 

Foister... 

FoU ... 

Folks, ... 

Folkhaidt 

FoUet ... 

FoUey ... 

Folh ... 

FoUy ... 

Foly ... 

Fontaine 

Fontarive 

Fontinelle 

Fontleroy 

Fonvielle 

Foote ... 

Foothead 

Forbes ... 

Forbie ... 

Ford ... 

Fordham 

Fordyce 

Foreman 

Forgeur 

Forgie 

Forlong 

Formosa 

Formosus, 

Fomarius 

Foixest 

Forrester 

Forsyth 

Fortescue 

Fortuna 

Fortunatus 



Page 

57, 157, 260 

260 

249 

74 

81 

170 

... 27,170 

170 

38 

... 48, 140 
48, 114, 187 

48, 81, 187 

118 

... 148,187 
... 48,76,81 

76 

277 

277 

... 220 
... 42 

30 

... 133, 152 
... 133, 152 

248 

43, 149, 266 
... 222, 235 
... 188, 222 

43 

... 43, 266 
276 

43, 48, 149 

149 

274 

... 143, 147 

274 

... 52, 276 

130 

131, 144, 246 
... 144, 151 
... 29, 188 
29 
... 139, 148 
... 139, 147 

29, 38, 129 
... 251, 286 

258 

... 29, 272 
... 35, 249 
... 116, 189 
104, 113, 154 
...20, 25, 237 
60, 126, 248 

248 

29 
... 224, 261 
60 

60, 83, 221 



328 



INDEX. 





Pa?e 






Page 




Page 


Foscani 


...19,25 


Friedman 




... 45 


GaUagher ... 


... 155 


Foscai-i 


... 25 


Frigga ... 


168 


172, 180 


GaUety ... 33 


, 132, 246 


Foscaro 


...19,25 


Frisby ... 


... 


... 157 


Galliardi ... 


28, 43 


Foscoli 


... 33 


Fritb ... 




... 122 


GalUe 


... 155 


Fosetta 


... 172 


Fritbestan 




138, 158 


Gallio 


92, 188 


Foskett 


... 123 


Fritz ... 




... 41 


GalLnandona 


... 110 


Foss 


... 308 


Frizzle... 


... 


... 41 


Gallocber ... 


155 


Foster ... 92 


, 188, 248 


Frobisber 


23 


249, 258 


Galloway ... 


123, 155 


Fother 


... 269 


Frodobert 


... 


... 38 


GaUows 


... 144 


Fothergill ... 


147, 2G9 


Froissard 




... 253 


GaUyon 92 


,155,279 


Fotheringbam 


... 209 


Froissart 




... 93 


Galpin 


177, 206 


Fouche 


206, 235 


Fromant 




... 239 


Gait 


... 155 


Foulis 


48, 125 


Fronto... 




... 33 


Gam 


30,58 


Fountain ... 


... 274 


Froscbammer 


... 243 


Game 


... 30 


FoweU 


... 277 


Fronde... 




38, 42 


Gammer 101, 


202, 280 


Fowler 


... 253 


Fry ... 




... 43 


GamaUi ... 


... 78 


Fowne 


... 152 


Fudle Allal 




... 99 


Gamaliel ... 


... 57 


Fox ... 177 


206, 308 


FuesH ... 




33, 206 


Gambetta ... 


... 93 


Fozier 


... 170 


Fuljambe 




249, 286 


Gamgee 295, 


296, 304 


Fra 


117, 264 


Fullalove 


... 


... 153 


Gangadasa ... 


... 261 


Frame 


... 307 


Fullbrooke 




... 146 


Gange 


... 295 


Francia 


... 82 


FuUer ... 




... 249 


Gans 


... 201 


Frances 


... 109 


Fulton... 




... 130 


Ganymede 189, 


209, 289 


Francicello ... 


... 109 


Fulvia ... 




104, 117 


Gaol 


... 133 


Francis 108, 


156, 251 


Fulvius 


... 


... 104 


Gaolnandona 


... 130 


Francisco . . . 


... 109 


Furioso 




... 219 


Garbett 


... 214 


Francombe ... 


... 138 


Furlong 




... 249 


Garcilasso ... 


... 214 


Franconi 


... 75 


Furnival 




... 149 


Garcon 


... 263 


Frangipani ... 


... 257 


Furcb ... 




... 206 


Gardiner 


... 233 


Frankenstein 


... 149 


Fuseli ... 




... 33 


Gardner 


... 233 


Franklin ... 


232, 277 


Fuss ... 




32, 95 


Gareb 


... 35 


Fraser 


129, 246 


Fust ... 




... 43 


Garfield ... 


... 129 


Frater 


117, 262 


Futber Eddeen 


... 44 


Garibaldi . . . 


39,214 


Fraulein 


43, 114 


Fyfe ... 




... 253 


GarUc 


... 214 


Frazer 


... 246 








Garner 


... 233 


Fredelinda ... 


... 112 


Gabalus 


... 


194, 294 


Garnet 


39, 214 


Frederick 4C 


, 56, 227 


Gabbai... 


... 


... 256 


Garrat 


... 214 


Free 


85, 117 


Gabriel 




...28,87 


Garrick 


... 65 


Freedman ... 


... 45 


Gad ... 


83, 


221, 219 


Garriocb 135 


236, 288 


Freehouse ... 


... 125 


Gadsby 


44, 


185, 285 


Garry 


135, 233 


Freeman 1." 


, 68, 232 


Gael ... 




... 243 


Garryowen ... 


... 233 


Freeman tie... 


239, 233 


Gaflfer ... 


47, 


101, 104 


Garscadden 


... 133 


Freemont ... 


... 168 


Gage ... 




222, 242 


Gartb 


... 133 


Freischutz ... 


... 114 


Gains ... 




182, 183 


Gartbsbore 


... 133 


Frere 


... 264 


Galal ... 




... 92 


Garvey 


... 213 


Frejur 


... 141 


Galatea 


... 


188, 288 


Garvon 


... 133 


Fi-eville 


... 121 


Galava... 


... 


... 109 


Gascoigne ... 


... 156 


Frew ... 43, 45, 2G9 


Galba ... 


62,71,200 


Gaskin 


... 156 


Freya 


168, 172 


Galbraitb 




... 262 


Gasparde ... 


... 82 


Freyer 


... 168 


Galentine 




... 28 


Gasper 


... 82 


Freyhoffer ... 


... 232 


Gales ... 




57, 155 


Gass 


... 103 


Freymont ... 


... 168 


Galgacus 


... 


... 221 


Gaston 


37, 156 


Freymuth ... 


... 108 


Galletly 




60, 107 


Gates 


185, 236 


Freytag 


85, 167 


GalUlei 




... 291 


Gatling 


... 44 


Freywood ... 


... 168 


Gallileo 




... 291 


Gattina 


99, 104 


Friar 


117, 204 


Gall ... 


155 


, 196, 298 


Gatty 


... 99 


Friday 


85,89 


Gallacber 




92, 298 


Gau 


... 307 



INDEX. 



.329 



Gault 


... 155 


Gibson 


Gaunt 


... 284 


Gideon... 


Gautrey 


... 167 


Giffard... 


Gavazzi 


... 31 


Gilbert 


Gavigan 


... 285 


Gilchrist 


Gay 


...28,43 


Gildas ... 


Gaylor 


50, 59, 237 


Gilderoy 


Gebar 


...28,87 


Gildhelm 


Gebbie 


28, 272 


Giles ... 


Geddes 


... 243 


Gilfather 


Gee 


289, 281 


Gilfeatber 


Gehanguire 


... 24 


Gilfillan 


Gehazi (m) 


54,58,79 


Gilkinson 


Gelasius 


31,262 


Gilkisson 


Geldart 


... 262 


Gill ... 


Gelee 


... 31 


Gillan 


Gemalli (m) 73, 183, 19G 


Gillander 


Gemmell 


... 86 


Gillespie 


Genevieve .. 


... 110 


Gilleroy 


Genaro 


... 85 


Gillevroy 


Genseric 


... 201 


Gillibred 


Geoch 


... 288 


GilUe ... 


Gentleman 


98, 299 


Gillies 


Geoffrey 


... 168 


Gilligan 


George 


74, 233 


Gilliland 


Gentil 


... 29 


Gillis ... 


Gentles 


... 98 


Gillon ... 


Georgina 


... 104 


GiUot ... 


Georgius 


... 104 


Gilmaii- 


Gera 


... 265 


Gilmer... 


Gerard 


38, 214 


Gilmour 


German 


... 214 


Gilpin ... 


Gerold 


... 214 


Gilroy ... 


Geron 


... 202 


Gilson ... 


Geronimo ... 


181, 260 


Gimson 


Gerram 


... 214 


Gingle ... 


Gersbom 


155, 265 


Gingoulph 


Gerstein 


... 213 


Giunethon 


Gertrude 


... 214 


Giocondo 


Gervas 


... 222 


Gionone 


Geryon 18 


r, 202, 267 


Giordano 


Geta 


... 156 


Giorgo 


Gettings 


173, 270 


Giorgone 


Gbirlandis ... 


... 249 


Giotto 


Giacomo 


... 95 


Giovanetti 


Gianantonio 


... 94 


Giovanni 


Gianbatista 


... 93 


Gipp ... 


Gianbiancbi 


... 93 


Gipps ... 


Giancarlo . . . 


... 291 


Giradin 


Gianfigliazzi 


94, 292 


Giraldi 


Gianna 


... 94 


Giraldus 


Giannakes ... 


... 94 


Girlandus 


Gianone 


... 93 


Girling... 


Gibb 


... 288 


Girolamo 


Gibbar 


... 28 


Gissela... 


Gibbon 


222, 288 


Gisselda 


Gibbs 


... 288 


Gladstein 


23 







222, 



222, 



271, 288 
... 71 
... 52 
262, 288 
104, 262 
... 262 

260, 262 
... 170 

261, 262 
... 147 
... 147 

262, 174 
... 76 
... 76 
108,147 
... 262 
... 262 
... 252 



... 262 
... 262 
... 262 
... 279 
... 147 

31,262 
262, 263 
... 274 
... 262 
... 262 
... 262 
... 222 
... 262 
271, 279 

95, 271 
... 250 
... 174 

71,233 
... 43 
... 93 
... 92 
... 73 

73,233 

86, 274 
... 93 
... 93 
. ... 222 
... 222 
... 214 
... 214 
... 157 
... 249 
... 249 
181, 260 



108 
113 
125 





Page 


Gladstone .. 


39, 125 


Gladuse 


... 32 


Glancy 


... 27 


GlanviUe .. 


... 127 


Glander .. 


... 236 


Glanders .. 


... 127 


Glares 


... 43 


Glashier 


... 258 



Glass ... 31, 142, 274 

Glasse 227 

Glassford 227 

Glasspole 142, 152, 242 

Glasscock 274 

Glashan ... 142, 146 

Glaucus 31 

Glaukopis ... 31,109 

Glaukus 109 

Glendinning ... 143 

Glenfield 127 

Glengany ... 288 

Gliddon ... 125,135 

Gloriosa 84 

Gluck ... 43,58,221 

Glycera 238 

Gnatho 92 

Gnatus 261 

God ... 75, 76, 77 

Goda 76 

Godard 76 

Godfrey 84, 107, 115 

Godfrith 107 

Godiva 76, 96, 115 

Godman 76 

Godolphin 176 

Godsell 260 

Godshall 260 

Godwin 224 

Goes 201 

Goethe 156 

Goff 259 

Goggle 142 

Gold 40 

Goldeustrom ... 148 

Goldie 93 

Golding 93 

Goldschmid ... 258 

Goldsmid 258 

Goldsmith 258 

Goliath 57 

Gohghtly ... 60, 240 

Gollacher 92 

Golland 147 

Golowatsheff ... 33 

Gombeen 280 

Gomez ... 94, 290 

Gompertz 220 

Gondemar 155 



330 



INDEX. 





Page 


Gonville 


... 94 


Gonzales 


... 220 


Gonzalo 


... 220 


Good 


42,93 


Goodblood ... 


... 245 


Goodbrother 


... 55 


Goodchild ... 


93, 238 


Goode 


42,70,93 


Goodenough 


... 152 


Goodfellow 


... 245 


GoodUffe ... 


... 87 


Goodman 42 


, 208, 238 


Goodwin 


... 224 


Goody 


... 273 


Gool 


... 147 


Goole 


... 39 


Gopaladasa 


... 


Gor 


... 200 


Gordon 147 


210, 200 


Gore 


... 214 


Gorman 


... 214 


Gorgon 


188, 208 


Gorham 


... 274 


Gorteen 


... 280 


Gory 


... 200 


Gossip 


... 307 


Goschen 


... 201 


Gosling 


201, 270 


Gospatrick ... 


203, 271 


Goss ... 263, 


270, 278 


Gossaladasa 


... 201 


Gosset 


... 263 


Gossip 


... 76 


Gossoon 


... 280 


Gother... 27,42,238 


Gothman ... 


... 238 


Gothram 


... 76 


Gotobed 


114, 238 


Goton 


... 112 


Gott ... 75, 70, 180 


Gottebedde... 


... 302 


Gottescbalcus 


200, 261 


Gottin 


.. 180 


Gottreu 


... 72 


Goudie 


40,93 


Gough 


... 259 


Goulburn . . . 


... 147 


Gourko 


... 32 


Govan 


131, 259 


Gow 


... 25 


Gowan 


... 259 


Gowanlock ... 


... 285 


Gowdie 


... 93 


Gower 


... 210 


Goy 


... 200 


Gracchus ... 


... 32 


Grace 


... 110 



Page 

Gracy 74, 244 

Gradgrind ... 242,253 

Grady 34, 60, 04 

Graeffe 248 

Graeme 107 

Graff 248 

Grafton 125 

Graham 107 

Graine... 107,110,279 
Grammatacus . . . 244 

Grammont 134 

Granahan 279 

Grandius 34 

Granger 233 

Grant 34 

Granton 138 

Granville 139 

Grasselh 47 

Gratian 41 

Graves 188, 258, 248 
Gray ... 31, 109, 209 

Greathead 33 

Green 133, 279 

Greene 279 

Greenhill 153 

Greenshields ... 150 
Greenwood... 122,153 

Greers 282 

Gregalach 281 

Gregorjew 294 

Gregory 200 

Grenville 139 

Greers 282 

Gresham 34, 129, 139 

Gretchen 112 

Greig 281 

Grey 209 

Griers 282 

Griesbach ... 92, 140 

Griffin 207 

Griffith 27 

Grig 44 

Grigg 251 

Griggs ... 44, 282, 109 

Grimaldi 107 

Grimbald 107 

Grimes 282 

Grimm 107 

Grimmond 107 

Grimr 167 

Grimstone 107 

Grist 252 

Grocock 274 

Groenvelt 152 

Grogan 30, 07, 227 

Groom 257,203 

Groomsport ... 282 



97, 



GO, 



Groot 

Grosjean 
Grosshezog ... 
Gx'ossteste ... 
Grosvenor ... 

Grote 

Grotius 

Grouchy 

Groves... 

Grubb ... 

Grucchio 

Grumble 

Grund ... 

Grundy 

Gryphus 

Gualterio 

Guelph 

Guercino 

Guerola 

Guerrero 

Guerricke ... 

Guest 

Gueuse 

Guffie 

Guido 

Guildenstern 
Guillotin 
Guilmette ... 
Gulippus 

Guild 

Guin 

Guinness 

Guion 

Guire 

Guiscard 

Guise 

Guisseppe ... 

Guisseppina 

Guiteau 

Guizot 

Gulippus 

Gull 

Gulliver 

Gully 

Giilph 

Gumboil 
Gumbold ... 
Gumprecht... 
(kmdolph ... 

Gundy 

Guni (m) 

Gunn 

Gunning 

Gunter 

Gunton 

Guppy 

Gurney 



Page 
... 34 
... 93 

... 33 

... 243 

... 84 

... 34 

... 32 

123, 170 

... 129 

... 32 

... 137 

... 144 

... 144 

... 40 

... 210 

174, 206 

... 31 

... 292 

... 251 

... 251 

... 257 

... 39 

... 33 

123, 125 

... 218 

171, 274 

... 274 

... 203 

... 202 

... 30 

30, 281 

... 123 

... 210 

... 204 

... 130 

... 108 

... 108 

... 123 

... 274 

... 203 

... 147 

... 43 

... 147 

... 66 

... 220 

... 220 

220, 202 

... 170 

... 220 

... 78 

... 220 

... 270 

220, 270 

... 220 

... 206 

140, 227 



INDEX. 



331 





Page 


Gurton 


... 280 


Gush 


... 145 


Guthram ... 


... 208 


Guthrie 


171, 208 


Guttenburg... 


... 139 


Guy 


94, 125 


Guyon... 94 


123, 133 


Guzman 


15, 42 


Guzzi 


... 280 


Gwyder 134 


222, 238 


Gwyn 


110, 286 


Gwynne 


30, 242 


Gyges 


... 182 


Gypsey 


162, 166 



Haag 143,150 

Habakkuk 58 

Habo 43 

Hachmoni ... 42,56,78 

Hack 215 

Hacke 226 

Hackenborger ... 137 

Hacking 226 

Haco ... 47,215,226 
Hadad 56, 166, 192 

Hadadezer ... 195 

Hadassah 116 

Hadden 144 

Hadjai 82, 265, 284 

Hadrianus ... 299 

Haeckel 232 

Hasphestos ... 184 

Hafid 46,94 

Hafiz 46,94 

Hafiz AUah 94, 304 

Hagan ... 16,226 

Hagar ... 82,157,265 

Hagab 87 

Haggai ... 82,108 

Haggar 82 

Haggart 245 

Haggarty 245 

Haggiah 82 

Haggis 202 

Haggith 52, 82, 108 

Hague 137,143,150 

Hahan 290 

Haidee 43, 106, 108 

Hair 287 

Hakketan 35 

Hal 178,272 

Halcyon 249 

Haldane ... 92,157 

Hale 66 

Hales 28,43,47 

Halihead 267 

Halthyde 267 





Pa-e 




Page 


Halgier 


. ... 213 


Hardacre . . . 


... 137 


Hall 


. ... 66 


Hardcastle 


137, 151 


HaUack . 


. ... 223 


Hardicanute47,137,224 


Halle ... . 


. ... 250 


Hardman ... 


... 233 


Halliday . 


. ... 98 


Hardmuth ... 


... 224 


Halley 


. 178,266 


Hardwicke 


... 167 


Hallward . 


. ... 213 


Hardwidge 


... 167 


Hallosheth 


... 31 


Hardy 


47,224 


Halmoneus 


... 249 


Hare 


... 41 


Halocrates 


... 255 


Harenc 


... 211 


Halohesh . 


. ... 31 


Harfager 


254,283 


Halpin 


. ... 151 


Hargi-aves ... 


... 216 


Halsey 


. ... 178 


Haridelle ... 


... 250 


Ham ... . 


. 64,277 


Harim 


... 32 


Hamadryad 


... 124 


Harkness ... 




Hamburg . 


. ... 94 


Harlech ... 


'.".". 148 


Ha-melk-art 


14, 15, 25 


Harley 


42, 133 


Hamilcar 


15,25,193 


Harlow 


... 137 


Hamilton . 


. ... 150 


Hai-man 


... 248 


Hamish 


. ... 95 


Harmer 


216, 298 


Hamlet 


. ... 135 


Harmodius 


... 242 


Hammedtha 


... 86 


Harms 


... 92 


Hammond . 


. 137,150 


Harrold ... 


... 216 


Hamor 


22 


Haroun 


... 14 


Hampden . 


. ... 119 


Haroun al Kaschid 14 


Hanan 


. ... 93 


Harpagus ... 


... 177 


Hancock 


.. 94,274 


Harpalyce ... 


46, 107 


Handel 


240 


Harpalycus 


107, 177 


Handley 


94 


Harper 


... 253 


Handricks . 


178 


Harpertzoon 


253, 295 


Handyside 


... 222 


Harpocrates 


... 28 


Hanefan 


94 


Harpy 107 


, 177, 200 


Hankin 


272 


Harriett ... 


108, 178 


Hanks 


94 


Harrigan 151 


, 271, 279 


Hanlan 


135 


Harris 


178, 271 


Hanlon 216, 135, 281 


Harrison 


178, 271 


Hannah 


87,93,116 


narrower ... 


... 249 


Hannaniah 


... 93 


HaiTy 108 


, 178, 270 


Hannethon . 


93,94 


Hart ... . 


25, 177 


Hannibal 


93,192,193 


Hartley 


... 133 


Hanno 


93 


Hartshorn ... 


... 137 


Hanoch 


59 


Harumaph 


... 32 


Hans ... . 


94 


Harvard 


... 43 


Hansard 


173 


HarVood ... 


... 125 


Hansdotter 


... 295 


Haslam 


126,127 


Hansom 


272 


Haslop 


... 126 


Hanson 


94, 96, 272 


Hassan 


219, 227 


Hanswurst . 


94 


Hastifraga ... 


... 215 


Hap ... . 


.. 125, 135 


Hastings 


... 175 


Hapgood 


126 


Hasty 


... 214 


Hapsburg 


39,125,135 


HasweU ... 


... 127 


Hara ... . 


41 


Hatch 


... 236 


Haran 


32 


Hatfield ... 


... 129 


Harapha 


65 


Hatherley ... 


129, 150 


Harbona . 


226 


Hatt 


... 220 


Harcourt . 


130 


Hatto 


157, 220 


Hard ... . 


224 


Hatton 


... 138 



332 



INDEX. 





Taije 




Page 




Page 


Haugh 


... 150 


Heller 


... 266 


! Herries 


... 178 


Hausschein 14, 97, 292 


Helmont 


... 134 


Herring 191 


, 228, 247 


Ilausman . . . 


... 237 


Helon 


69,76 


HerscheU ... 


... 268 


Havard 


... 43 


Heloise 


105, 251 


Hertha 


167, 183 


Havelock ... 


... 172 


' Helvetius . . . 


137, 156 


Hertogh 


220, 248 


Harvest 


... 98 


Hemans 


217, 271 


Hertzen 


... 295 


Haviland ... 


... 151 


Hemp 


... 41 


Hervest 


... 98 


Hawes 12g 


,150,178 


Heuan 


... 122 


Herzog 


... 248 


Hawker 


... 240 


Henchman ... 


203, 225 


Hesperides ... 


186, 301 


H^wkin 


... 272 


Hendeorson ... 


178, 283 


Hesperus ... 


... 186 


Hawkins 


... 272 


Hendrick . . . 


... 178 


Hester... 81 


, 184, 185 


Hawks 


... 135 


Hendricks ... 


... 290 


Hetherley ... 


... 150 


Hawkwood 


... 39 


Hendry 4 


1,178,290 


Hewett 


... 274 


Hawley 


... 150 


Hendriot 




Hewitt 


274, 280 


Hay ... 14,26,143 


Hengist 


203, 225 


Hewson 274 


278, 280 


Hayes 


14,26 


Hengler ... 


203, 225 


Heyne 


94, 295 


Hayman 


... 150 


Hennesy ... 


... 45 


Hickhock 97 


, 251, 279 


Haynau 


... 143 


Henrietta ... 


108, 178 


Hickie 


... 251 


Hay ward ... 


... 236 


Henry 41 


, 178, 247 


Hickog 


251, 279 


Hazelelponi 


55 


Hepbm-u 


... 146 


Hickman ... 


232, 251 


Hazeleloponi 


55 


Hephestus ... 


... 184 


Hicks 


97, 251 


Hazlewood 


... 127 


Hepwith 


124, 134 


Hidalgo 


156, 291 


HazUtt ... 


... 127 


Hepzibah ... 


... 118 


Hiddai(m) ... 


... 78 


Hazzard 


... 32 


Hera 


182, 183 


Hierax 


... 201 


Head 


... 137 


Heraclitus ... 


37, 183 


Hieronymus 


260, 181 


Headdy 


... 44 


Heraclide ... 


... 301 


Hierophantus 


... 254 


Headlam . . . 


... 150 


Heraclius ... 


... 184 


Higginbottom 


... 127 


Headland ... 


137, 150 


Herapath ... 


... 223 


Higgins 


127, 274 


Healy 


... 303 


Herbert 


... 37 


Higgot 


... 274 


Heath 


... 149 


Herbelot ... 


... 274 


Higgs 


... 274 


Heaton 


... 138 


Herbest 


... 98 


Higham ... 


... 137 


Hebblewhite 


... 129 


Hercules 37 


,162,172 


Hignet 


... 274 


Hebe 


... 189 


Herepath ... 


... 223 


Hiji 


... 296 


Hebel 


... 81 


Hereward . . . 


... 216 


Hijo 


... 307 


Heber 


04, 206 


Herimar 


... 216 


Hilarius 


... 43 


Hector 


... 301 


Heriot 


... 216 


Hilary 


... 43 


Hedderwick 


129, 149 


Herman 171 


216, 248 


Hilda ... 172 


180,216 


Hedges 124 


134,137 


Hermes 


182, 183 


Hildebrand . . . 


... 172 


Hedji 


... 82 


Hermianax... 


... 193 


Hildegarde . . . 


113, 172 


Heenan 


122, 149 


Hermione ... 


... 302 


Hildemar ... 


... 172 


Hegel 


... 85 


Hermino 


... 171 


Hildersheim 


... 180 


Hegistratus 


... 220 


Hermodulus 


... 193 


Hildyard ... 


... 172 


Heinrich 


... 247 


llermogenes 


... 302 


HiUbrand ... 


... 172 


Heinzen 


... 295 


Ilermosa . . . 


104, 106 


HiUel 5( 


}, 64, 108 


Hierax 


... 201 


Hermosus ... 


104, 106 


HiUhcad ... 


46, 137 


Hela ... 171, 


172, 180 


Hermozus ... 


... 154 


Hills ... 127 


149, 136 


Helbrand ... 


... 172 1 


Ilernand 


... 45 


Hilton ... 137 


236, 273 


Heldenbrand 


... 172 


Hernandez ... 


... 45 


Himmehnal03 


113,187 


Helderbrand 


... 172 


Heme ... 58 


125, 201 


Himmeltruda 


... 113 


Heifer 


... 210 


Hero 


182, 183 


Hind 


... 233 


Helem 59, 


106, 217 


Herod ... 105, 


228, 301 


Hines 


... 271 


Helen ... 3C 


, 40, 106 


Ilerodiah ... 


... 105 


Hinnom 


... 57 


Helena 


... 36 


Herodius . . . 


105, 301 


Hinshaw ... 


125, 137 


Helfmann ... 


... 262 


Herodotus ... 


... 182 


Hinsou 


233, 271 


Heliogabulus 


... 194 


Herr ... 96, 


247, 248 


Hinton... 125,135,137 


Heliophantes 


... 194 


Herrara 


... 105 


Hipparchus... 


... 289 


Hellbrand 


... 172 


Herrick 


... 178 


Hippias 235, 


242, 278 



INDEX. 



333 





Page 




Page 


Hippocrates 


31, 28, 203 


Holman 


... 250 


Hippodamus . . . 204 


Holms 


... 127 


Hippolytus 


203 


Holofernes ... 


14, 239 


Hipponax 


203 


Holroyd 


... 129 


Hippothce 


33 


Holstead ... 


... 123 


Hippothoon 


... 33 


Holt 


... 126 


Hippothous 


33 


Holtum 


123, 250 


Hirpus... 


.. 177, 200 


Holybad ... 


... 238 


Hirsch... 


177 


Holyoake . . . 


... 127 


Hirtius... 


254 


Holywell ... 


... 238 


Hislop ... 


12G 


Holzman ... 


... 250 


Hitchcock 


274 


Home ... 135 


151, 282 


Hludwigj? 


105 


Homer 139 


, 152, 230 


Ho . 


144 


Honor 


... 118 


Hoad ... 


236 


Honora 


... 118 


Hoadley 


236 


Honorius ... 


... 41 


Hoang-tse 


297 


Honeyman... 


... 251 


Hoard ... 


238 


Hood 


... 271 


Hoare ... 


.. 59, 267 


Hook 


... 136 


Hobab... 


93 


Hooker 


... 243 


Hobart 


41 


Hooper 


... 240 


Hobbs ... 


255 


Hoorn 


... 136 


Hobkirk 


126 


Hop Cornell 


... 278 


Hobson 


.. 255, 271 


Hope ... 75, 93, 126 


Hoche ... 


.. 16, 136 


Hopeton 


... 126 


Hockley 


127 


Hopetoun ... 


... 126 


Hod ... 


54,78 


Hopgood 126 


138, 143 


Hodaviah 


54 


Hophni 


... 88 


Hodder 


.. 107, 277 


Hophrah ... 


... 61 


Hodesh 


82 


Hopkins 


... 274 


Hodevah 


54 


Hopley 


... 126 


Hodge... 


215 


Hoppet 


226, 274 


Hodges 


215 


Hop Pringle 


264, 281 


Hodgesou 


271 


Hopps... 41 


278, 291 


Hodijah 


54,77 


Hor 


... 135 


Hoeland 


.. 75,251 


Horace 


113, 238 


Hoff ... 


218 


Horatio 


... 238 


Hoffman 1 


66, 232, 245 


Hormisdas ... 


... 302 


Hoffrichter 


291 


Horn 


136, 250 


Hogan ... 


16, 41, 226 


Home 


... 253 


Hogarth 


.. 47, 138 


Horner 


... 250 


Hogben 


127 


Horrocks ... 


... 216 


Hogg ... 


167 


Horrox 


... 216 


Hoggpen 


137 


Horsa 


203, 225 


Hoglah 


201 


Horsefall ... 


137, 218 


Hogsmouth 


210 


Horseman ... 


... 203 


HohenzoUei 


n 134, 256 


Horsman ... 


225, 278 


Hogwarden 


236 


Horsenail ... 


... 199 


Holbein 


87 


Hortense ... 


... 233 


Holden 


.. 136,236 


Hortensius ... 


... 233 


Holder... . 


.. 136, 236 


Horus 


...14,60 


Holdmg 


236 


Hosea 


94, 304 


Holdsworth 


127 


Hosheim 


... 137 


Hole ... 


.. 157, 282 


Hosier 


63, 244 


Holland 


.. 132, 157 


Hosius... 87 


113, 238 


Hollinshed 


126 


Hospitalis ... 


... 307 


Holm ... 


127 


Hostilius ... 


48, 298 



Page 

Hostis 298 

Hotspur ... 204, 225 

Houri 17, 103 

Hou.se ... 34, 130, 149 
Housego ...39,78,292 

Housenear 131 

Houston 280 

Hout 126 

Houten 125 

Hoveden 119 

Hovey 232,291 

Howard 236 

Howden ... 119, 144 

Howe 136, 289 

Howell 36 

Howie 289 

Howitt 289 

Howland 138 

Howlet 201 

Howlett 36 

Hoy 143, 209 

Hozier 63 

Hoyle 151 

Hross 173, 178 

Hruodland 219 

Hubert 37,41 

Hubbard 41 

Huckster 240 

Huddlestone ... 41 
Hudibras ... 226, 259 

Hudson 271 

Huessen 274, 278, 295 

Huggins 280 

Hugh ... 14, 105, 280 

Hughie 280 

Hugibert 41 

Hughina 105 

Hugin 167, 185 

Hughes 280 

Hughtenburg ... 137 

Huie 274 

Hugo 167 

Huldah 97 

Hulyer... 221, 256, 286 

Human 239 

Humbert 292 

Humboldt 157 

Hume ... 62, 135, 151 

Hun 177 

Hunniades 157 

Hunt 199, 243 

Hunter ... 95, 199 

Hupatos 105 

Hur 135 

Hurai 250 

Hurd 239 

Hurdis 239 



384 



INDEX. 





Paare 




Pa^'c 




Page 


Hurley 


... 183 


Ike 


... 273 


Ischia 


263 


Hurst 


... 126 


Ikkish 


... 57 


Isco 


171 


Husband 


... 233 


Ildefonsa ... 


... 172 


Isdale ... 


138, 144, 147 


Hush 


... 78 


Immacolato 


. 83, 102 


Isenbard 


215 


Hushah ... 


... 8<J 


Immanuei ... 


... 67 


Isengar 


215 


Husliai 


...78,89 


Imogen 


91, 301 


Isenman 


... 215,259 


Husham 


... 89 


Imola 


... 141 


Ishi ... 


77, 226, 305 


Hushim 


... 89 


Impey 


... 41 


Ishbosheth 


192, 292 


Huskisson ... 


173, 271 


Imrie 


... 233 


Ishmael 


57, 72, 196 


Huss 


... 202 


Ince 


30,152 


Ishmerai 


55 


Hussey 


... 153 


Inches 


... 152 


Ishni ... 


88 


Hussy 


... 150 


Inclytus 


56, 69 


Ishod ... 


54,71.88 


Hutchan 


280, 281 


Incognita ... 


... 115 


Isis ... 


100,161,290 


Hutcheou ... 


... 280 


Ind 


257, 271 


Iskander 


223 


Hutchesou 


280, 281 


Indraputra . . . 


... 296 


Ison 


271 


Hutcbiugs ... 


... 280 


ludicopleustes 


162, 249 


Ispah ... 


16 


Hutin 


... 45 


Indicott 


... 122 


Israel ... 


96 


Hutt 


... 133 


Inez 


... 291 


Issa ... 


37 


Hutton 


138,150 


Infant 


41, 93 


Issacher 


40,58,113 


Huxley 161 


, 236, 280 


Infanta 


... 41 


Issu 


37 


Huygens ... 


... 167 


Infante 


... 41 


Ithai ... 


Ill 


Hyacintb . . . 


... 104 


Inigo 


... 44 


Ithamar 


128 


Hyatles 


... 301 


Ing 


... 41 


Ittai ... 


... 78,111 


Hyam 


137,196 


Ingo 41,171,278,291,296 


Ittem ... 


123 


Hyde 


133, 267 


IngersoU 74, 


130, 152 


lulus . . . 


141 


Hyder Ali ... 


... 247 


Ingle 


41,171 


Ivan ... 


94 


Hydrogenes 


... 91 


Inglis 


... 157 


Ivanoff 


94, 290, 293 


Hy Nial ... 


... 155 


Ingomar 


... 308 


Ivanovitch 


... 94 


Hyke 


... 97 


Ingram 


... 171 


Ivanowna 


293 


Hyllus 


... 124 


Inkhammer 


... 308 


Ives 


271 


Hyloeus 


... 124 


Inkpen 


... 137 


Ivett ... 


274 


Hylus 


... 124 


Inman 


... 240 


Izahiah 


58 


Hyndman ... 


233, 257 


Innis ... 30 


, 152, 285 


Izett ... 


... 88,154 


Hypatia 


105, 308 


Innocent 


... 85 


Izhar ... 


57 


Hyperides . . . 


... 301 


lolanthe 


... 117 


Izod .. 


68, 88, 154 


Hyperion . . . 


... 301 


Iphicrates ... 


... 208 






Hyrcanus ... 


159, 269 


Iphidamus ... 


... 208 


Jaacobi(m) 


... 77 


Hyrde 


... 239 


Iphigenia ... 


28, 208 


Jaakobah 


94 


Hyslop 


... 126 


Iphinoe 


... 208 


Jaap ... 


72 


Hystaspes ... 


... 165 


Iphinous 


... 208 


Jaaps ... 


108 






Iphis 


28, 208 


Jabez ... 


88 


Iago 


... 95 


Ippofilo 


... 204 


Jablonowsky ... 122 


Ibbotson 


... 98 


Irad 


... 208 


Jablonsky 


123 


Ibrahim 


... 52 


Irene ... 45 


186, 289 


Jachini 


54 


Ibri 


... 97 


Ireneus 45 


189, 289 


Jacinta 


22, 104, 109 


Ichabod ... 


51,88 


Ireton 


... 267 


Jacob ... 


94 


IciUus 173 


, 298, 304 


Iris 


189, 289 


Jacobin 


95 


Ida 


... 105 


Irman 


... 171 


Jacobite 


95 


Idas ... 105 


, 278, 296 


Irons 


... 153 


Jacobus 


95 


Iddo 


59, 105 


Ironsides ... 


... 28 


Jack ... 


93 


lesus 


... 94 


Irving 


... 141 


Jackett 


93 


Iff 


278, 293 


Isaac 


... 97 


Jackson 


288 


Iglesias 


235, 250 


Isabella ... 


148, 248 


Jacquard 


95 


Ignatieff 


... 293 


Isaiah 


... 60 


Jacqueline 


... 95, 104 


Ignatius 


15,44 


Isbister 


... 151 


Jacques 


... 95,105 


Ignazio 


... 44 


jscariot 


62, 141 


Jaddua 


54 


Igo 


... 807 


Iscariotes ... 


68, 141 


Jael ... 


114,115,209 



INDEX. 



33^ 





Page 


Jager ... 


43 


Jagielski 


95 


Jagg ... 


... 95,243 


Jaggard 


47,95 


Jago ... 


... 243,290 


Jair 


14 


Jairus ... 


14 


Jalemieiohang ... 298 


James 


... 95,104 


Jamie ... 


95,271,274 


Jamieson 


... 95,111 


Jamim 


45,57,221 


Jamin ... 


... 43,221 


Jamsetjee 


29G 


Jan 


94 


Jane 


94, 105, 108 


Janet ... 


... 94,108 


J an away 


140 


Jank ... 


94 


Jankovitz 


94 


Janks ... 


94 


Jannceus 


94 


Jannet 


98 


Jamsen 


94 


Jantje 


272 


Janus ... 


45,40,135 


Janzoon 


94 


Japhia 


37 


Jaqueline 


... 95,104 


Jaram 


68 


Jardine 


... 71,233 


Jarman 


157 


Jaroah 


32 


Jaroslav 


... 38,274 


Jarvey 


222 


Jasher 


55,73 


Jason ... 


251 


Jasper 


82 


Jay 


39,43 


Jaziz ... 


57 


Jeam ... 


95 


Jean ... 


93,94,120 


Jean Bois 


120 


Jeannette 


... 94, 108 


Jeanot 


108 


Jeannotte 


108 


Jebb ... 


... 108,272 


Jebus ... 


141 


Jedaiah 


54 


Jedidah 


54 


Jedidiali 


78, 92, 105 


Jeffry ... 


106 


Jeban 


94 


Jebanputra 


... 94 


Jebisbai 


59 


Jeboabaz 


54 


Jehoidah 


54 



Pajre 

Jeboikim 55 

Jehoram 54 

Jehosbaphat ... 52 
Jebovab ... 50, 54, 77 
Jebovah-nissi ... 55 
Jebovab-i'opbi ... 55 
Jebovab-tzkinu ... 55 

Jebudab 108 

Jebudi 105 

Jehudijah 105 

Jelf 177 

Jemima ... 37,202 
Jemimah ... 57,207 

Jemmy 95 

Jenkins 94 

Jenner 242 

Jennings ... 94,270 

Jenny 94 

Jenyns 94 

Jerab ... 68,82 

Jerabmeel 57 

Jerebai(m) ... 78 

Jeremiab 54 

Jerimotb 68 

Jeriotb 68 

Jermyn 137 

Jeroab 82 

Jerome 101,181,214 

Jerold 214 

Jerraui 214 

Jerrold 214 

Jerry 52,54 

Jerubael ... 78,192 

Jervis 140,222 

Jesbisbai 100 

Jesburun 55, 73, 280 

Jesse 144,196 

Jessica 108 

Jessie 108 

Jessop 108 

Jesuit 95 

Jesus 94 

Jetber 90 

Jetbro 90 

Jetur 68 

Jeuz 205 

Jew 274 

Jewell ... 83, 274 

Jewett 274 

Jex 96 

Jezebel ... 112,185 

Jifkin 272 

JiU 141 

Jimmy 274 

Jingo 174 

Jiunie 94 

Jinny 108 



Jo 

Joab ... 

Joam ... 

Joame 

Joan ... 

Joanne 

Job ... 

Jocbebed 

Jock ... 

Jockell 

Jockie 

Jockey 

Joel 

Joelab 

Joey ... 

Joezer 

Jobanna 

Jobannab 

Jobannes 

Jobn ... 

Jobnson 

[ Jobnstone 

! Joksban 

j Joktan 

: Jokubaitis 

jJoliffe . 

I Jolivau 
Jonab . 
Jonas . 

I Jonathan 
Jones 

! Jong 
JontU 
Jopson 
Joram ... 
Jordan 
Jorgez 
Jorissen 
Josceylin 
Jose 
Josepb 
Josepbi(m) 
Josepbine 
Josepiius 
Joses ... 
Josey ... 
Josbua 



96, 



Jotun 

Jotuns 

Joturnus 

Jourdain 

Joui'ieif 

Joury 

Jourissen 

Jove ... 

Jo vis ... 



Pa^c 

.. 307 
52, 306 
.. 290 
93,94 
94, 108, 290 
... 39 
... 99 
... 51 
... 93 
i03, 225 
... 93 
... 93 
... 54 
... 129 
... 108 
... 53 
93, 105 
94, 105 
93, 105 
93,105,159 
94, 290, 295 
... 94 
... 253 
35,59 
... 296 
... 87 
... ^43 
202, 304 
... 202 
... 93 
... 290 
... 34 
... 95 
... 108 
... 54 
... 92 
... 296 
... 233 
42, 273 
... 108 
... 108 
... 77 
... 108 
... 306 
... 108 
... 108 
55,94 
... 273 
... 45 
172, 182 
... 173 
... 92 
... 293 
233, 293 
... 233 
... 184 
... 184 



336 



INDEX. 





Page, 




rage 


Jowett 


272 


Katharowna 


... 293 


Juan ... . 


94 1 


Kate 


IV-i, IIG 


Juan Lopez 


... nil 


Kathleen 75, 


no, 220 


Juanita 


108 


Kathlin 


... no 


Juanito 


94 


Katliy 


... no 


Juarez 


290 


Kattie 


... 112 


Juba ... 


85 


Kaufman ... 


236, 240 


Jubal ... 


59 


Kay ... 29, 


182, 280 


Jubina 


.. 85,104 


Kean 33, 4( 


), 73, 127 


Judali ... 


.. 45,78,83 


Keats 


... 219 


Judas ... 


83 


Kearney 


... 141 


Judd ... 


83 


Kedar 


... 59 


Jude ... 


83 


Kedemah ... 


... 59 


Judith ... 


83, 105, 108 


Keith 


... 143 


Judtt'us 


40,83 


Kee 


... 107 


Judson 


83 


Keen 


... 241 


Judy ... 


83 


Kellar 


... 28G 


Juez 


291 


Kellerman ... 


240, 28G 


Jukes ... 


83 


KeUoch ... 


... 28G 


Juler ... 


83 


Kelly 


124, 308 


Jules ... 


45, 83, 141 


Kells 


124, 125 


Julia ... 


141 


Kelt ... 123 


15G, 243 


Julian 


.. 83,141 


Kemp 


... 244 


Julien 


141 


Kempenfeldt 


... 132 


Julius 


141 


Kemper 


21G, 244 


Julvatter 


1G7 


Kempster . . . 


... 244 


Juucker 


34 


Kempton . . . 


... 130 


Jungfrau 


.. G9,2G9 


Kendrick ... 


41, 283 


Junius ... 


34, 108, 300 


Kenealy 


152, 303 


Juno ... 


184 


Kenmare ... 


... 227 


Junot ... 


34 


Kenmuir ... 


... 288 


Jupiter 


... 50,184 


Kennedy ... 


... 227 


Jurgaitis 


29G 


Kenneth 


41, 227 


Jury ... 


293 


Kenny 


... 227 


Just ... 


273 


Kenrick 


... 41 


Justus 


42, Gl 


Kent 


... 127 


Jute 


45,83,182 


Kentigern ... 


227 


Juvenal 


34, 291, 29G 


Kenwolf 


'.'.'. 174 


Juxon 


94 


Kenyon 


... 34 






Keo 


... 31 


Kadi ... 


308 


Keogh 


31, 283 


Kadijah 


308 


Kepler 


... 237 


Kali ... 


31, 1G2, 187 


Keppell 


... 24G 


Kalidasa 


2G1 


Keren-happuch ... 29 


Kallai ... 


59 


Kern 


... 155 


Kaltschmid 


... 259 


Kerr ... G2, CS, 151 


Karnes . . . 


244 


Kenidge 


151, 152 


Kammerer 


238 


Kerse 


... 138 


Kant . . . 


42 


Kersley 


... 103 


Kanzler 


242 


Kettle 


... 1G9 


Karadagh 


285 


Keturah 


... llG 


Karageorgeopulos 29r> 


Key 


107, 182 


Karakoff 


285 


Keziah 


... IIG 


Karatheodory ... 285 


Khan 


101, 250 


Karl Bitter 


43 


Khanam 


... 101 


Karolyi 


43 


Kidd ... 41 


209, 278 


Katharine 


112 


Kidder 


... 240 





Page 


Kidman 


... 240 


Kidston 


... 209 


Kilburn 


... 124 


Kilgour 


210, 2G6 


Killeen 


. . 280 


Killigrew . . . 


... 124 


Kilpatrick ... 


... 28G 


Kincaid 


... 227 


Kinch 


... 250 


Kinealy 


... 227 


Kinear 


... 207 


King 


... 234 


Kinglass 142, 


207, 227 


Kingsley 


... 132 


Kingston ... 


39, 139 


Kink 


... 250 


Kinloch 


227, 288 


Kinnaird ... 


... 227 


Kinroy 


... 142 


Kintor 


... 4G 


Kirby 


... 148 


Kircher 


... 250 


Kircheule ... 


... 201 


Kirk 


153, 250 


Kirke 


... 235 


Kirkhoppe ... 


... 12G 


Kirkup 


... 126 


Kirstie 


... 103 


Kirsty 


... 103 


Kirwau 


... 45 


Kish 


... 82 


Kishi (m) ... 


78,82 


Kiss 


... 240 


Kistner 


... 236 


Kit 


123, 219 


Kitt 


... 123 


Kitto 


... 219 


Kitts .. ... 


... 219 


Klahwina ... 


... 293 


Klaus 


... 225 


Klein ... 85 


283, 292 


Kling 


... 266 


Klinging ... 


... 270 


Klinkscales... 


... 266 


Klosh 


... 225 


Kmety 


... 261 


Knaggs 


... 136 


1 Knapp 


151, 262 


iKuatchbuU... 


169, 212 


Knave 


... 260 


Knee 


136, 289 


! Knell 


... 127 


j Knight... 92 


169, 261 


; Knobell 


1G9, 210 


' Knobbs 


277, 289 


'Knock... 124 


, 127, 136 


1 Knollys 136 


, 277, 289 



INDEX. 



837 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Knowe 


... 289 


Lachman ... 


... 261 


Lannes 


... 151 


Knowles 136 


, 273, 289 


Lackie 


... 43 


Lanfranc . . . 


... 232 


Knowlton ... 


... 137 


Lackland ... 


... 39 


Lang 


... 34 


Knotte 


... 202 


Lacordaire ... 


... 206 


L'Ange 


... 76 


Knox ... 65 


, 127, 137 


Lactantius ... 


... 188 


Lange 


...34,76 


Knuckler ... 


... 250 


Lacy 


238, 244 


Langeher ... 


... 243 


Koch 


... 237 


Ladds 


222 


Langham ... 


139, 149 


Kohler 


... 245 


Lade 


123, 145 


Langhorne ... 


135, 137 


KoUsen ... 


... 295 


Ladislaus ... 


38, 294 


Langley 


... 157 


Konig 


... 234 


Tiady 


101, 105 


Langridge ... 


... 135 


Konigsberg... 


39, 139 


T/a^dyman ... 


... 84 


Langton 75, 


131, 137 


Konigsfeldt . . . 


... 132 


Lagan 


... 144 


T/angtry 


... 152 


Kopf 


33,46 


Lagden 


... 144 


Lanshuil 


... 109 


Kopinski ... 


275, 293 


Lagide 


...46,64 


Lanyer 


... 238 


Korah 


32, 263 


Lagus 


...64,40 


Lanyon 


... 150 


Kore 


... 201 


La Haye 


... 150 


Laocoon 


... 245 


Korniloff . . . 


29, 293 


Lahmi 


... 226 


Laodike 


... 112 


Kort 


... 34 


Laid 


... 145 


La Paume ... 


... 264 


Kortman ... 


... 32 


Laidlaw 


123, 145 


La Peyroux... 


... 149 


Koskiusko ... 


... 87 


Laing 


... 34 


Lapide 


96, 302 


Kossuth 


... 254 


Lainez 


... 290 


Lapidoth 17 


103, 302 


Koster 


236, 279 


Laird 


105, 257 


Lapper 


... 34 


Kouli Khan 


... 263 


Laish 


... 205 


Lara 


145, 191 


Kovacs 


... 259 


Lake 


... 34 


Larcher 


... 217 


Kraft 


28, 235 


Lakin 


... 273 


Lardner 


226, 236 


Kratts 


... 156 


Lala Eookh 


... 48 


Large 


... 139 


Kriga 


... 227 


Lalemand ... 


... 157 


Laridan 


...32,47 


Krishna 


38, 103 


Lalor 


31,47 


Larkins 


218, 273 


Krogg 


... 240 


Lamarck ... 


147, 149 


Larpent 


... 131 


Kron 


... 218 


Lamartine ... 


... 236 


Larrieux 


... 132 


KroUman ... 


... 31 


Lamas 


... 84 


Larrive 


... 133 


Kronhelm ... 


... 223 


Lamb ... 134 


144, 198 


Larry 


218, 273 


Kronos 


82, 193 


Lambert 


52, 219 


Lars 105,145 


, 191, 295 


Kruger 


... 240 


Lambie 


... 40 


Larsdotter ... 


... 295 


Krummacher 


... 249 


Lambruschini 


... 241 


Lartia 


... 105 


Krupp 


32, 266 


Lambshead 


137, 150 


Lartius 


... 191 


Kunth 


... 42 


Lammie 39 


, 144, 198 


Lascelles ... 


... 247 


Kuria 


... 115 


Lammermoor 


265, 267 


Lasthenes ... 


... 28 


Kuriakos ... 


... 85 


Lamont 134 


, 282, 287 


Latham 


... 157 


Kurios 


235, 303 


Lamoricierre 


... 155 


Lathyrus ... 


... 47 


Kushahiah 


73, 78, 82 


Lamour 


... 255 


Latimer 


... 250 


Kyd 


278, 296 


Lamplough... 


... 232 


Latinus 


105, 131 


Kyle 


... 143 


Lamyrus . . . 


... 47 


Latner 


... 250 






Tia.ngiewitz ... 


... 293 


Latona... 131 


, 188, 189 


Laban 


72, 76, 79 


Langley 


... 157 


Latta 


73, 286 


Labda 


... 221 


Langlois ... 


... 157 


Latto 


... 255 


LaBelleSauvage48,248 


Lance 


76, 293 


Laud 


... 86 


Labeo 


32, 299 


Lancelot 


... 162 


Laudius 


... 45 


Labienus .. 


32, 299 


Lander 


... 249 


Laugh 


... 131 


Labonde 


... 147 


Landells 


126, 150 


Laughton ... 


131, 137 


Labouchere.. 


... 226 


Landless 


...24,39 


Launce 


... 162 


Lacey 


... 42 


Landseer ... 


... 233 


Laura 


105, 128 


Lachaise .. 


149, 152 


Landor 


... 144 


Laurence ... 


... 218 


Lachesis 


... 187 


Laudes 


... 151 


Lauretta ... 


... 105 


Lachlan 


... 74 


Landt 


... 144 


Lavater 


... 252 


Lachland 


24, 34, 148 


Lane 


90, 301 


Laveau 


47, 202 






Laney 


... 216 


Lavender ... 


... 249 



24 



338 



INDEX. 





Pa-c 




Page 




Page 


Lavinia 


... 105 


Lemuel 


... 59 


Liffe 


... 87 


Lavoiser ... 


226, 251 


Lennie 


205, 279 . 


Light ... 33, 60, 151 


Lavotte 


... 135 


Lennox 


... 126 1 


Lightbodv 33, 


132, 151 


Lavrilliat ... 


... 98 


Lento 


... 46, 


Lightfoot ... 


... 151 


Law 


130, 273 


Lentulus 


... 46' 


Lightstono ... 


... 137 


Lawcock 


... 273 


Leo 


... 204 


Ligny 


... 125 


Lawrence ... 


105, 218 


Leodigarius... 


... 215 


Liguori 


... 140 


Lawrie 


218, 273 


Leofingstan 


... 38 


Lillienthal ... 


... 143 


Lawson 


... 273 


Leofric 


... 38 


Lillith 


... 107 


Layard 


105, 257 


Leon 


204, 301 


Lilly white ... 


... 129 


Layboulaye... 


... 2G0 


Leonard 


... 205 


Limeweaver 


... 236 


Layfayette ... 


... 127 


Leuardo 


... 205 


Linacre 


... 232 


Lazarus 


... 53 


Lentula 


... 110 


Liud ... 107 


144, 208 


Lea 


... 131 


Leonatus ... 


91, 204 


Linde 


... Ill 


Leach 


... 251 


Leoni 


... 205 


Lindsay 111 


, 128, 208 


Leadbetter ... 


... 250 


Leonidas ... 


204, 301 


Ling 


149, 247 


Leah 


... 88 


Leonric 


... 204 


Lingard 


238, 250 


Leander 


... 204 


Leopardi 


... 35 


Linn 


... 27 


Lear 


... 114 


Leopokl 


... 224 


Linnaeus 


... 128 


Learchus . . . 


... 204 


Leosthenes ... 


28, 205 


Lintrude 


112, 208 


Leas 


... 114 


Leotard 


... 205 


Lion 


... 204 


Leatherhead 


235, 255 


Leotychides 


... 221 


Lipman 


... 247 


Lebboeus ... 


205, 229 


Leotychus ... 


... 221 


Lippo 


... 200 


Le Blond ... 


... 30 


Lepailleur ... 


... 233 


Lipton 


... 204 


Lebon 


... 42 


Lepidus 


... 42 


Liptrot 


246, 272 


Lebonah 


... 82 


Le Poer 


... 39 


Lisbura 


... 131 


Le Brun 


... 23 


Leporella ... 


... 200 


Lisles 


... 285 


Leckie 


... 148 


Lepsius 


... 204 


Lismore 


75, 131 


Leclerc 


... 244 


Leroux 


...21,25 


Lissette 


... 108 


Ledderhose... 


... 225 


Leroy 


... 234 


List 


... 235 


Ledger 


... 214 


Le Sage 


... 125 


Lister 


... 235 


Ledru 


55, 245 


Lesley 


... 133 


Litchfield ... 


... 251 


Ledwith ... 


... 123 


Leslie 


131, 133 


Litster 


236, 256 


Lee ... 130 


, 131, 133 


L'Estrange 155 


, 265, 298 


Little 


34, 85, 87 


Leece 


... 286 


Lethy 


... 102 


Littlejohn ... 


35, 87, 98 


Leech 


251, 286 


Letitia ... 43, 


105, 299 


Littlethwaite 


... 129 


Lefebre ... 


... 241 


Leto ... 188, 


189, 190 


Livia 


... 202 


Lefever 


... 241 


Lettice 


105, 299 


Livermore ... 


202, 203 


Lefevre 


241, 308 


Letty 


... 102 


Livingstone 


... 38 


Le Fort 


... 29 


Leucaspis ... 


... 223 


Livius 


... 304 


Lefroy 


42, 234 


Leucippe . . . 


... 107 


Livy 


... 304 


Leger 


... 215 


Leucippus ... 


... 107 


Lizars 


... 53 


Leggat 


... 246 


Leucothea ... 


... 189 


Lizzy 


... 108 


Leibnitz 


... 126 


Leucretia ... 


... 113 


Llewel 


222 


Leichtenstein 


... 149 


Leucretius ... 


... 113 


Llewellyn 17 


, 183. 222 


Leigh 


... 131 


Leuwenhock 


... 205 


Llorente 


76,81 


Leigh ton ... 


... 130 


Levi 


... 96 


Lloyd 


114,150 


Leiper 


... 35 


Lewes 


... 131 


Lo 


... 45 


Leith ... 131 


, 133, 157 


Lewis ... 148 


222, '286 


Lo-ammi ... 


... 59 


Leland 


... 133 


L'Hoste ... 


298, 307 


Lobel 


... 205 


Lehibez ... 


111, 291 


Liberator ... 


... <i9 


Lobos ... 174 


, 177, 290 


Le Maire ... 


... 248 


Liberius 58 


219, 269 


Lobwasser ... 


... 47 


Lemaitre ... 


... 260 


Libni 


... 79 


Lochaber ... 


... 288 


Leman 


... 251 


Licinius 


... 36 


Lochiel 


203, 288 


Lemoine 


... 251 


Liebgast 


40, 257 


Lochinvar ... 


... 288 


Lemon 


... 251 


Liebig 


... 38 


Lochhn 


... 148 


Lemprien e . . . 


... 251 


Liebrood 


... 38 


Lochhead ... 


... 227 







INDEX 






389 




ra;,'c 


Pa-e ; 


Page 


Lockhart ... 


171,255 


L'Ouverture 


155,217 Lycambes ... 


... 175 


Lockman ... 


... 171 


Louvois 


... 175 Lycaon 


... 174 


Lockston ... 


... 171 


Love ... 117, 


174,271 Lycias 


... 36 


Lockporte ... 


... 151 


Loveday ... 


... 82 


Lycidas 36 


174, 301 


Locker 


... 259 


Lovell 


... 175 


Lycomedes 


... 176 


Lockyer 


... 259 


Lovet 


... 177 


Lycon 




Locock 


... 205 


Lovois 


... 175 


Lycophron 


'.'.'. 175 


Locusta 


19,25 


Low 


... 131 


Lycorias 


176,177 


Ltt'tus 


... 105 


Lowe 


... 205 


Lycus ... 107 


174, 177 


Logan 131, 


144, 282 


Lowndes 


... 144 


Lycurgus ... 


176,266 


Lois 


... 115 


Lowrie 


... 253 


Lynch 


... 133 


Loki 


172, 178 


Lowther 


131,144 


Lyndhurst 


... 126 


Lola 


... 84 


Loxton 


... 171 


Lyon 


... 204 


Lomas 


... 84 


Loyola 


... 136 


Lysander 45 


219, 269 


Lombard ... 


... 157 


Loys 


222 


Lysanias 


... 45 


London 


... 85 


Loyson 


40, 222 


Lysias 


36,58 


Long ... M 


, 83, 221 


Lubbock 


... 140 


Lysimachus 


15,58,99 


Long ... 35, 


240, 250 


Lubez 


... 271 


Lyttleton ... 


139, 266 


Longfellow 


60, 305 


Lucan 


36,58 


Lyulph 


176, 229 


Longimanus 


... 33 


Lucanus 


... 36 






Longinus ... 


... 34 


Lucas 


... 40 


Maachah 105 


131,141 


Longius 


34,35 


Lucchesi 


140, 141 


Mab 


105, 281 


Longhead ... 


... 227 


Lucetta 


... 105 


Mabbot 


272 


Longman ... 


... 286 


Lucia 


... 105 


Mabel 


'.'.'. ol05 


Longomontanus 135 


Lucian 


... 272 


Maberly 


... 52 


Longshanks 


32, 286 


Lucifer 


36, 299 


Mable 


105, 299 


Longstreet ... 


... 152 


Lucina 


... 37 


Mabillon 


... 73 


Longueville 


75, 139 


Lucipor 


... 36 


Mac 


105, 152 


Longus 


... 34 


Lucius 


36,86 


Macau:e 


... 284 


Longwill 


75, 139 


Luckie 58, 83, 283 


Macaulay ... 


... 286 


Longworthy 


... 152 


Lucothea . . . 


... 189 


Macbeth ... 


... 92 


Loo ... 131 


133, 145 


Lucrece 


... 105 


Maccabee ... 


... 213 


Lope 


... 174 


Lucretia 


105,113 


Maccabeus ... 


168, 217 


Lope de Vega 


... 174 


Lucretius 36 


105, 113 


Macallum ... 


48, 283 


Lopez ... Ill 


174, 271 


Lucullus 


... 272 


Maccullummore 202 


Lord 


105, 257 


Lucy 


36,105 


Maccus 41 


138, 278 


Lorelias 


... 76 


Luders 


... 216 


Macduff ... 


... 285 


Lorenzo 4^ 


, 73, 218 


Ludovic 


219,222 


Mace .... 86 


, 168, 213 


Lorenzoni ... 


... 73 


Luke 


36, 272 


Macgee 


... 280 


Loretto 105 


128, 218 


Lumm 


... 129 


Macgeorge 


... 269 


Lorimer 


... 252 


Lumner 


... 140 


Macgill 


... 262 


Lorraine 


... 222 


Lumsden ... 


... 129 


Macgillian ... 


... 262 


Lo-ruhama 


... 59 


Lun 


... 202 


Macgilhbride 


... 76 


Lot 


... 57 


Lunhunter ... 


... 202 


Macharg ... 


... 296 


Lotan 


... 57 


Lund 


... 144 


Macharness 


... 223 


Lothair 


... 284 


Lundt 


... 144 


Machiavelli 


... 292 


Lothario 


222 


Luudy 


... 85 


Machree 277 


, 283, 296 


Lotharius ... 


222 


1-iupa 


... 176 


Mack ... 138 


, 152, 278 


Lothian 


... 131 


Lupson 111 


, 174, 271 


Mackanelly 


... 271 


Lothrop 


... 126 


Lupinof 


... 176 


Mackay 


... 280 


Lotta 


... 103 


Lupus 


... 177 


Maclehose ... 


... 225 


Lottie 


... 103 


Lussac 


... 275 


Mackie 


... 280 


Louder 


... 131 


Lush 


... 236 


Maclaurin ... 


... 218 


Loudon 


... 141 


Lusher 


60,236 


Macklin ... 


27, 279 


Louis 


105, 222 


Lushington 


. . . 236 


Macmath ... 


96, 199 


Louisa 


105, 222 


1 Luther 


222, 284 


Macrae 


... 283 


Lourdes 


... 144 


Lutz 


... 253 


Macready ... 


... 85 



340 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Macree 


... 234 


Male 141,238 


Margrave . . . 


138,160 


Macro 


... 286 


Malebranche 


. 33 


Maria 84, 


111, 232 


Macrobius ... 


... 59 


Malherb ... . 


. 133 


Maria Diaz 


... Ill 


Macrochier 


... 33 


Malise ... . 


. 262 


Marian 


... 84 


Macron 


... 286 


Mallet ... 2 


62, 283 


Mariamne ... 


... 84 


Macrone 


... 33 


Malloch 64, 2 


62, 283 


Mariana 


... 84 


Macros 


32, 47 


Malluch ... . 


. 64 


Marian ski ... 


... 122 


Madai 


59,96 


Malon ... . 


. 105 


Mario 


... 84 


Madam 


114, 252 


Mai thus ... . 


. 149 


Marioth 


... 68 


Mademoiselle 


... 114 


Malvinia ... . 


. 109 


Mariott 


... 84 


Madden 


... 176 


Malvoisin ... . 


. 131 


Maris 


... 84 


Madison 


... 275 


Malvolio ... . 


. 217 


Marjoribanks 


... 112 


Maddison ... 


96, 271 


Mamre ... . 


. 59 


Marjory 


... 112 


Maddox 


... 97 


xMan 1 


00, 159 


Markham ... 


... 160 


Madge 


112, 284 


Manasseh ... 


41,61 


Mark 


... 300 


Madison 


96, 271 


Manby ... . 


. 142 


Marmaduke 


... 85 


Madog 


... 96 


Manders ... . 


. 283 


Marmond ... 


... 37 


Madox 


... 42 


Mandeville 


. 75 


Marmont . . . 


... 185 


Macgee 


... 2^ 


Manes ... . 


55 


Marner 


... 250 


Magellan ... 


... 152 


Manfred ... . 


. 227 


Marnoc 


... 76 


Mageoghegan 


... 279 


Mandley ... . 


. 141 


Maro 


... 84 


Maggie 


... 112 


Mani 


55 


Marquess ... 


... 261 


Maggot 


... 281 


Manichoeus 


55 


Marquis 


138, 160 


Magdalen ... 


... 141 


Manius 


86, 308 


Marr 


84, 302 


Magdalene ... 


60,66 


Manlius 


86, 299 


Marriot 


... 98 


Magister ... 


... 260 


Manly ... . 


. 29 


Man-yatt ... 


84,98 


Maginnes . . . 


... 281 


Mann 


. 159 


Mars 


161,199 


Magnus 14, 34, 260 


Mannering ... . 


. 270 


Marsden 


... 144 


Magot 


... 41 


Manners ... . 


. 270 


Marsh 132 


148, 239 


Magus 


... 264 


Manning ... . 


. 270 


Marshall 148 


165, 203 


Mahalah ... 


... 131 


Mannus 74, 1 


59, 171 


Marsham ... 


148, 149 


Mahalath ... 


... 108 


Manuell ... . 


. 07 


MarsigU 


... 140 


Mahaleel ... 


... 56 


Manse ... . 


. 46 


Marsters 


... 260 


Maharajah 14, 24, 234 


Manteufell 


. 75 


Marston 122 


133, 150 


Mahew 


280, 281 


Manto ... . 


. 254 


Marsyas 


... 302 


Mahlah 


... 105 


Manuel ... . 


. 67 


Martel 168 


213,217 


MahU 


... 105 


Maoch ... . 


. 105 


Martha 105 


115, 222 


^Mahlmann 


... 238 


Maolscachlan . 


. 90 


Martignac ... 


... 275 


Mahlon 


70, 105 


Mappin ... . 


. 278 


Martigny ... 


... 275 


Mahmoud 


... 37 


Mar ... 84,1 


05, 270 


Martin 


48, 182 


Mahomet ... 


37,44 


Mara 


18, 25 


Martinet 


... 274 


Mahon 


... 144 


Marat ... . 


. 84 


Martins 


... 48 


Mahoney ... 


144, 199 


]\Iaravilla ... . 


. 122 


Martyn 


... 226 


Maidulph ... 


... 176 


Marcellinus 


. 274 


Martyr 


... 307 


Maible ni NeiU 


299 


.Marble ... . 


. 307 


Marvel 


... 307 


Mainwaring 


136, 287 


Marcellus ... 2 


72, 274 


Marwick 


138, 252 


Maira 


18,25 


Marcet ... . 


. 274 


Marwood . . . 


... 138 


Maison 


150, 242 


Marchioness 1 


38, 100 


Mary ... 7 


i, 84, 232 


Maisters 


... 260 


Marcion ... . 


. 302 


Masaniello 


... 86 


Maitland ... 


... 96 


Marco Polo 


. 48 


Masatonio ... 


... 291 


Majoribanks 


... 112 


Marcus ... . 


. 300 


Maseuna ... 


... 80 


Makepeace 


15.58,99 


Mardonius ... . 


. 159 


Mason 


... 242 


Malachi 


90, 263 


Mareschalk 


. 245 


Massa 


... 57 


Malachy 


... 263 


Margaredon 


10, 20 


Massey 


... 86 


Malateste ... 


... 44 


Margaret 16, 


26, 116 


Massillon . . . 


... 73 


Malchus 


... 60 


Margerison 


98, 112 


Massimo 90 


248, 260 


Malcolm 


... 268 






Massinger ... 


... 246 







INDEX 






341 




Page 




Pai,'e 




Page 


Massman . . . 


... 149 


Medici 


48, 251 


Mercier 


... 252 


Masson 


... 86 


Medina 


... 117 


Mercury 


... 184 


Mastai 


... 86 


Medoc 


... 42 


Mere 


... 47 


Masters 


... 2601 


Medon 


188, 226 


Meribaal 


... 192 


Math 


... 96 


Medusa 


188, 226 


Merle 


... 203 


Mathaniab ... 


... 44 


Mee 


... 34 


Merlin g 


84, 270 


Mather 


... 199 1 


Meek 


... 217 


Mero 


... 47 


Mathers ... 


... 199 


Meeking 


217, 270 


Merode 221, 


223, 270 


Mathwin 


96, 199 


Meerbach ... 


... 146 


Merope 


... 107 


MatUda 112 


141, 172 


Meers 


... 152 


Merops 


... 107 


Matri 


... 59 


Meg 


... 112 


Meroveus ... 


... 225 


Mattan 


44,96 


Meganices ... 


... 200 


Merrick 


... 152 


Mattaniah ... 


90,96 


Mehazioth ... 


... 68 


Merrilees . . . 


... 153 


Mattens 


... 86 


Mehr-ul-Nica 


... 24 


Men-iman ... 


... 43 


Matthew ...44,90,96 


Mehujael ... 


... 50 


Merry 


... 28 


Matthews ... 


... 90 


Meikle 


... 34 


Mersey 


... 138 


Matthewson 


... 96 


Meikleham 34, 


129, 139 


Merton 


133, 160 


Matthiah ... 


... 97 


Meiklehead... 


... 305 


Mervarid ... 


... 16 


Matthias 


... 97 


Meiklejohn... 


... 93 


Mesembria ... 


... 86 


Mattock ... 


... 97 


Meiklem 


34, 153 


Messer 


... 259 


Matturin ... 


... 96 


Meiklereid ... 


... 305 


Messerschmid 


... 259 


Matty 


44, 284 


Meiklewaim 


... 307 


Messiah 


75, 57, 


Matwiischen 


... 263 


Meiklwean ... 


... 305 


Messman ... 


... 149 


Matys 


... 90 


Melancthon 


39, 153 


Mesmer 


... 250 


Maud 


141, 172 


Melanippus... 


... 203 


Metanaste ... 


57, 139 


Maudhn 


... 141 


Melchiah ... 


... 60 


Metarius 


... 233 


Maudsley ... 


... 141 


Melchias 


... 60 


Metayer 


... 233 


Maughan ... 


144, 199 


Melchior 


... 82 


Metcalf 65 


5, 71, 236 


Maul 


... 213 


Melchizedek 


61, 212 


Metcalfe ... 


... 199 


Maule 141, 


168, 217 


Meleager . . . 


189, 239 


Metellus ... 


... 252 


Maund 


247, 251 


Melech 


00, 212 


Methumballes 


... 193 


Maundrell ... 


... 247 


Melete 


... 64 


Metbusaleh 78 


193, 212 


Maurice 


... 155 


Melendez ... 


... 290 


Metiche 


... 255 


Mavor 


... 199 


Melesigines 


294, 301 


Meton 


... 217 


Mavors 


161, 199 


Meliboeus ... 


209, 239 


Metternich ... 


83,86 


Mavourneen 


... 280 


Mehkoff ... 


294, 301 


Metubischen 


... 263 


Maximilian... 


... 90 


Melpomene 


108, 187 


Metzler 


... 252 


Maximin . . . 


... 200 


Melrose 


... 135 


Mexetla 


... 161 


Maximus 90 


202, 260 


MelviUe ... 


... 144 


Mezzanotte... 


... 86 


Maxton 


... 138 


Menage 


... 252 


Mezzofanti ... 


... 86 


Maxum 


... 152 


Menahem ... 


... 54 


Micah 


... 213 


Maxwell 138 


152, 278 


Menander ... 


... 74 


Micaiah 


54, 213 


May ... 98 


112, 248 


Mendelsohn 


43, 295 


Michael ... 28, 48, 54 


Major 


... 248 


Mendez 85 


, 290, 295 


Michael de la Pole 48 


Maynard ... 


15, 42 


Mendoza 85 


, 290, 295 


Miohal 


... 147 


Mazarin 73 


237, 307 


Menees 


... 283 


Mickey 


... 28 


Mazzini 


33, 75 


, Menelaus ... 


... 222 


;Mickie 


28,54 


Mead 130 


133, 147 


1 Menschikoff 


43, 293 


Micklejohn ... 


... 93 


Meadows 130 


, 133, 154 


1 Mentor 


... 42 


Micklereid ... 


... 85 


Meagher 


... 40 


Menu 


... 159 


Mickelthwaite 


... 129 


Meara 


... 40 


1 Menzies 


... 43 


Micklewaim 


... 47 


Mece 


... 270 


Meonides ... 


... 301 


Middlemass 


... 84 


Mechi 


217, 270 


Mepbibosheth 


... 192 


Middlemiss... 


... 84 


Medad 


... 93 


Merarioth ... 


... 68 


Middleton ... 


139, 150 


Medcalt ... 


199, 236 


Mercator ... 


... 252 


Midwinter ... 


... 84 


Mede 


... 147 


1 Mercedes ... 


... 84 


Mignonette... 


... 117 


Medea 


... 188 


Mercer 


... 252 


Miguel 


... 54 



842 



INDEX. 





Paj^e 1 




Pafc-e 




Page 


Mike 


14, 54 1 


Moggy 


... 112 


More ... i 


)4, 48, 128 


MiUbrooke .. 


. ... 252: 


Mobammed 


... 44 


MoreU 


... 274 


Milcent . 


. ... 85 1 


Mobun 


82, 178 


Morgan 24!: 


), 250, 308 


Milcbior 


. ... 82 


Moir 


34, 121 


Morganrotb 


... 86 


Milchiou 


. ... 70, 


Moliere 


... 241 


]\Iorganstern 


... 308 


Milchom 


. ... 70 


Molinos 


... 252 


Moriarty 


... 35 


Miles ... . 


. ... 228 


Moll 


... 84 


Morison 


... 281 


Mill ... . 


. ... 102 


MoUer 


... 284 


Morrisey ... 


... 35 


MQlen... . 


. ... 252 


Mollison 84 


t, 98, 112 


Morley 


... 150 


Miller ... . 


. 252,284 


MoUocb 


... 274 


Morny 


... 44 


MUligan 


. ... 263 


MoUy 


... 84 


Moroson 


... 128 


Million 


. ... 153 


Molocb 


10, 274 


Morpetb ... 


... 150 


Milner... . 


. 168, 253 


Molynenx ... 


... 252 


Morpbe 


... 190 


Milo ... . 


. ... 253 


Monad 


... 272 


Morpbey 


... 345 


Mills ... . 


. ... 228 


Monboddo ... 


... 238 


Morpbeus ... 


... 189 


Milroy ... . 


. ... 263 


Moncrieff ... 


... 135 


]\Iorris 


... 155 


Miltiades . 


. ... 302 


Moncur 


... 134 


Morrow 


... 287 


Milto ... . 


. ... 302 


Moncure 


... 134 


Mors 


... 199 


Milton... . 


. 139, 150 


Money 122, 


266, 257 


Morse 


... 210 


Milvius 


. ... 202 


Moneymore 


122, 266 


Mortara 


... 223 


Mina ... . 


. ... 171 


Moneypenny 


133, 153 


Mortimer ... 


... 85 


Minghetti . 


32, 34 


Monies 


... 283 


Morton 


... 288 


Minister 


. ... 260 


Monica 


105, 251 


Morven 


75, 134 


Minerva 


. 28, 185 


Monicbos ... 


105, 251 


Moscbus 


... 200 


Minie ... . 


171 


Monod 


... 72 


Mosely 


... 91 


Minion... . 


85 


Monsabre . . . 


... 230 


Moses 


91, 188 


Minnie... . 


.. 171, 106 


Monsieur 114 


252, 247 


Mosbeim 


132, 149 


Minnocb 


85, 86 


Monsignore... 


... 352 


Moss ... 91,289,265 


Minos ... . 


159 


Montague ... 


158, 134 


Mosscrip 


91, 149 


Minstrel 


253 


Montalto 


... 134 


Mosscrop ... 


91, 266 


Minto ... . 


210 


Montanus ... 


... 134 


Mossman 


31, 92, 149 


Minuit... . 


83 


Montcrieff ... 


... 135 


Motberwell . . 


... 84 


Minus ... . 


294 


Monteagle ... 


... 135 


Motion 


... 153 


Minutius 


34 


Montefiore ... 


... 135 


Motley 


... 225 


Miolner 


168 


Monteitb ... 


... 135 


Moton 


... 153 


Mirabeau . 


113 


Montejo 


134, 136 


Mott 


134, 136 


Mirafora . 


.. 114, 118 


Montero 


136, 243 


Moncb 


... 210 


Mira ... . 


.. 115,284 


Montes 


... 134 


Moule 


236, 263 


Miranda 


115 


Montuccio ... 


... 134 


Mountain .. 


... 134 


Miriam 


.. 84, 232 


Montfort 


134, 259 


MouravielY .. 


... 293 


Miriamne 


.. 84, 232 


Montfaucon 


... 134 


Moussa 


... 91 


Misbma 


57 


Montgolfier... 


... 174 


Mowatt 


91, 134 


Mitcbell 


34 


Montjoy 


... 135 


Moyse 


... 91 


Mitbras 


60, 76, 192 


Montmagny 


... 134 


Mozart 


. . 91 


Mitbridates GO, 185, 20i 


Montmorency 


... 137 


Muddocks .. 


... 255 


Mitnacbt 


83 


Montrey 


... 134 


Mudie 


35, 47, 70 


Mitbredatb 


60 


Moodie 


47, 305 


Mudo 


35, 305 


Mittag... 


85 


Moody 


35,47 


Muscbet 


... 134 


Mittendorf 


.. 139, 150 


Moon 


82, 84 


Musculus .. 


... 87 


Mizraini 


62 


1 Mooney 


... 266 


Mufti 


... 251 


Mnason 


79 


Moor 


34, 121 


Mublwasser 


... 252 


(M) Nemesis ... 41 


Moorad 


121, 221 


Muir 


34, 121 


(M) Nestor 


41 


Mopb 


... 64 


Muirbead .. 


149, 150 


Moab ... 


86 


Morddaine ... 


... 248 


Mulciber 


... 184 


Moer ... 


100 


Mordant 


45, 245 


Mulbare 


... 41 


Moet ... 


134 


Mordecai ... 


55,116 


Mulqueen .. 


... 229 


Moffat... 


41, 144, 150 


Mordent 


... 245 


Mullen 


252, 263 



INDEX. 



348 





Page 




Rage 


MuUer 


... 252 


M'Arly 


... 133 


Mullgx-ave ... 


... 258 


— Arthur 15, 


283, 295 


MuUhoUand 


... 150 


— Asian ... 


... 173 


Mulligan ... 


... 263 


— Arthy ... 


... 15 


Mulvaney ... 


40,47 


— Artney ... 


... 15 


Mulyon 


... 229 


— Aulay ... 


... 32 


Mummery ... 


... 187 


— Auliffe ... 


... 32 


Munchausen 


... 251 


— Auslan ... 


... 173 


Muncaster ... 


147, 151 


— Ausland ... 


... 173 


Muncy 


... 223 


— Bean 134, 


287, 288 


Mundella ... 


... 124 


— Beth ... 


... 92 


Mungo... 38 


, 93, 104 


— Brayne ... 


... 200 


Munnin 


1G7, 185 


— Bride 


... 110 


Munnis 


... 283 


— Caire 


... 284 


Munns 


165, 223 


— CaUum 48, 


202, 283 


Munson 


... 271 


— Calmon ... 


... 283 


Muntz 


145, 223 


— Cann St 


3, 46, 227 


Mun/er 


... 266 


— Cannon ... 


... 282 


Muppim 


... 64 


— Carlie 


... 133 


Murad 


... 221 


— Carthy ... 


... 15 


Murat 221, 


228, 266 


— Caulay ... 


... 286 


Murch 


... 255 


— Caw 


151, 204 


Murchie 


... 84 


— Cheyne ... 


... 229 


Murchison ... 


84, 255 


— Chree 


28, 32, 96 


Murcutt 


... 274 


— Clarty ... 


... 287 


Murdoch 


... 255 


— Clellan ... 


... 262 


Murillo 


... 266 


— Clymont... 


... 287 


Murison 


... 281 


-Cody ... 


... 283 


Murchy 


... 35 


— CoU 


180, 244 


Murroch 


... 281 


— Comb ... 


... 283 


Murray 


... 308 


— Combe . . . 


... 86 


^lurtogh ... 


... 84 


— Comber ... 


... 86 


Murtough ... 


... 255 


— Connachie 


137, 287 


Muschat 


... 134 


— Coombe ... 


... 86 


Musculus ... 


... 87 


— Corkcle ... 


... 289 


Muses 


... 188 


— Cormac ... 


... 202 


Musgrave ... 


248, 258 


— Corquodale 


... 289 


Musprat 


... 133 


— Cracken ... 


... 286 


Muspratt ... 


... 149 


— Craw 


... 283 


Mussa 


... 91 


— Credie ... 


... 254 


Mustard 


... 224 


— Cready ... 


... 85 


Muter 


... 252 


— Creogh ... 


... 289 


Mutimer 


... 85 


— Crobie 


... 283 


Mutter 


47, 252 


— Crone 


... 33 


Myers 


... 233 


— CuUoch 239 


, 206, 283 


Mynheer 247 


, 252, 262 


— Cumber ... 


283, 286 


Myotis 


58, 188 


— Currich ... 


... 246 


Myra 


... 284 


— Currie ... 


... 246 






— Cusker ... 


... 226 


M'Adam 


... 305 


— Dade 


237, 285 


— Alister ... 


... 223 


— Dermid ... 


... 219 


— All 


244, 287 


— Dermot ... 


... 219 


— AUister ... 


283, 223 


— Diarmid ... 


... 219 


— Alpine ... 


... 281 


— Donachie 


... 137 


— Ara ... 204 


, 226, 282 


— Donald ... 


45, 279 


— Arl 


... 43 


— Dougall 33,283,286 


— Arle 


... 269 


— Dowall ... 


... 286 



M 



Pag-c 

Dowell 283 

Duff 285 

Dugald 155 

Eachran ... 283, 287 

Eachall 283 

Elligot 287 

Evoy ... 34, 281 
Fadyan ... 93, 285 

Farland 289 

Farlane 286, 289, 290 

Fie 285 

GarHe 287 

Gaul 287 

Gauley 286 

■Gavin 285 

■Geachy 288 

-Gee 281 

- Geoch 285, 93, 94 

-Gibbon 288 

-Gill 262,271 

-Gillian 262 

- Gillibride ... 76 
-Glashan ... 142, 274 

-Goun 285 

-Gourlay 210 

- Gowan . . . 259, 285 

-Gown 259 

-Grath 283 

-Greagh 232 

- Gregor 140 

- Greusich 253 

- Grory 289 

- Grouther... 237, 285 

-Guifie 285 

-Guu:e ... 210,286 

-Haffie 285 

-Haffy 33 

-Hale 277 

-Hare • 283 

-Harg 283 

-Harness 223 

-Hendrick ... 41 

-Houl 286 

-Howit 289 

-Hugh 280 

- Hutcheson 280, 281 
-Ilraith 283 

- Ihoy 262, 283, 284 

-livride 76 

-Ilwain 262 

- Inimey 285 

-Inally 287 

-Indoe 262 

- Iniernie 157 

-Innes 285 

- Intosh 281, 282, 286 

- Intyi-e ... 259, 285 



344 



INDEX. 



Pagej 
M'lver 217,271 

— Janet 98 

— Jannet 98 

— Kay 280 

— Kean 285 

— Kechnie 287 

— Kellar 286 

— Kendrick ... 283 

— Kenzie ... 227,287 

— Kerrow 288 

— Killoch 286 

— Killop ... 204,286 

— Kim 285 

— Kinlay 283 

— Ivinney 287 

— Kinnon 245, 227, 282 

— Kissoch 97, 286, 273 

— Knaughtan ... 285 

— Knight ... 275,286 

— Lachlan 148 

— Lagan 131 

— Laren ... 218,287 

— Larty 287 

— Latchie 261 

— Lawin 218 

— Lay 97,251 

— Lean 262, 263, 279 

— Leish 308 

— Leod ... 235,215 

— Leary 287 

— Lerie 287 

— Lennan 289 

— Lennand ... 289 

— Lintock 287 

— Lisa 286 

— Lure 262 

— Lymont 287 

— Mahon 199 

— Marry 84 

— Manus 24, 34, 260 

— Math 96, 199, 271 

— Micking 292 

— Millen 252 

— Minn 287 

— Morran 287 

— Murchie 84 

— Murroch 76, 84, 287 

— Nab 252,282 

— Namara 249 

— Namee ... 131, 133 

— Nair 284 

— Naught 280 

— Naughtan 285, 286 

— Namara 249 

— Neice 283 

— Nee 134,135 

— Neil 155 





Pa«e 




Page 


M'Nish 


134, 135 


Nadab 


... 52 


— Nulty ... 


131, 228 


Nadaud ... 


199, 273 


— Omish 86, 


283, 296 


Nagle 


... 155 


— Onie 


229 


Nahar 


... 62 


— Ouat 216 


288, 289 


Naliash 


... 207 


— Owen ... 


... 285 


Nahor 


... 63 


— Owl 


... 286 


Nain 


... 232 


— Phail ... 


88, 271 


Nahum 


... 54 


— Phee ... 


... 285 


Naib 


77, 304 


— Phelan ... 


... 174 


Naismith ... 


... 260 


— Pherson 245 


, 287, 294 


Nancy 


... 114 


— Phim ... 


... 286 


Nanna 


... 114 


— Quade ... 


... 287 


Nanni 


... 216 


— Quaker ... 


... 287 


Nannucci ... 


... 93 


— Quarry ... 


... 286 


Nanny 


... 114 


— Quat 


... 288 


Naomi(m) 69 


, 78, 232 


— Queen . . . 


... 229 


Naphish 


... 60 


— Quiddy ... 


... 123 


NapthaH ... 


78,88 


— Quilkin ... 


... 287 


Napthalim ... 


... 66 


— Quillan ... 


... 287 


Napier 


... 253 


— Eae 


... 283 


Napoleon ... 


... 140 


— Rory 


... 289 


Napper 


... 34 


— Roy 


... 283 


Napps 


... 121 


— Shane ... 


... 285 


Nares 


... 63 


— Shimes ... 


... 285 


Narayan 


... 261 


— Sorley ... 


22 


Narses 


... 201 


— Sporran ... 


255, 267 


Nai-vaez 


... 290 


— Skimming 


48, 304 


Nassau... 133, 


144, 145 


— Sween ... 


... 288 


Nash 


... 120 


— Tause ... 


... 283 


Nasithous ... 


... 33 


— Tavish ... 


... 283 


Nasonius 


... 63 


— Tear 


... 285 


Nast 


... 135 


— Teer 


... 259 


Nat 


... 96 


— Tosh ... 


282, 286 


Nathan 


64,96 


— Turk 


... 206 


Nathaniel ... 


96, 99 


— Vain ... 


284, 285 


Natman 


... 285 


— Vean 151 


287, 288 


Nattrass 


... 121 


— Vey 


287, 288 


Nauari 


... 37 


— Vicar ... 


... 287 


Naudaud 


... 273 


— Wade ... 


... 283 


Naughtan ... 


... 285 


— Walter ... 


... 288 


Naulet 


... 83 


— Wat 


... 288 


Nausithous ... 


... 33 


— Wee 


... 287 


Naylor 


... 259 


— Whannell 


... 45 


Neal ... 57, 


152, 155 






Nearachus ... 


... 255 


Naamah 


69, 105 


Neasham ... 


... 135 


Naaman 


78, 105 


Nebo 


193, 304 


Naarath 


... 105 


Nebuchadnezzar 193 


Naarai 


105, 108 


Nebushashban 


... 193 


Naashan 


... 207 


Nebuzar-adan 


... 193 


Nabal 


38, 52 


Necho 


... 32 


Nabob ... 03, 77, li>0 


Neck 


... 121 


Nabopolasser 


... 193 


Ned 


... 224 


Naboth 


68, 196 


Neddie 


... 284 


Nachman ... 


... 83 


Neddy 


... 224 


Nachmann ... 


... 266 


Nee 


... 137 


Nachon 


... 70 


Needham ... 


... 137 



345 





Paj^e ; 




Page 




Page 


Needles ... 


... 137 


Nicias ... 


224 


Norval 143, 


161, 289 


Neff 


... 47 


Nick ... 


178 


tSIostrodamus 


84, 115 


Nehemiah ... 


... 54 


Nicolas 


225 


Noth 


220, 285 


Neighbour ... 


131, 300 


Nicocles 


224 


Notman 31, 


175, 239 


Neil 


155 


Nicodemus 


225 


Nouri 


... 37 


Neitli 


... 61 


Nicopulos 


295 


Nourjehan ... 


24, 25 


Neligan 


... 271 


Nicot ... 


... 225, 274 


Nourmahal... 


... 25 


Nell 


... 242 


Niebuer 


232 


Novatian ... 


76, 251 


Nell Gwynne 


... 30 


Nigel ... 


... 155, 160 


Novello 


... 76 


Nelmes 


... 121 


NigeU ... 


155 


Nowal 


... 161 


Nelson 


98, 271 


Niger ... 


33, 64, 277 


Nu 


155, 160 


Nemesis 


41, 190 


Nigh ... 


131 


Nugent 


126, 132 


Nenees 


... 283 


Nile ... 


155 


Numa 


... 48 


Neoptolemus 


... 216 


NiUson 


272 


Numenius ... 


... 82 


Nephusim ... 


... 04 


Nilogenes 


294 


Numitor 


... 48 


Nepos ... 3C 


, 47, 101 


Nimrod 


... 62, 212 


Nun ... 70, 72, 221 


Nepomuk ... 


... 89 


Nimshi 


57, 91, 115 


Nurrish 


... 92 


Nepthalim ... 


... 88 


Nina ... 


35, 93, 118 


Nureddin ... 


24,25 


Neptune 


... 190 


Ninian... 


32, 35, 117 


Nussbaum ... 


... 243 


Ner 


24, 25 


Ninon ... 


35 


Nutt 


... 220 


Nergal 


194, 198 


Ninus ... 


201 


Nutter 


... 220 


Nergal-sharezerl94, 198 


Nipheus 


30 


Nye » 


97, 273 


Nereides 


... 301 


Nisas ... 


202 


Nykin 


97, 273 


Nereus 


... 301 


Nisroch 


201 


Nym 


34, 45 


Neri 


... 33 


Niobe ... 


190 


Nympha 


36, 40, 56 


Nero 


28, 185 


Nish ... 


135 


Nymphas ... 


30,50 


Nerva 


28, 185 


Nitocris 


61, 118, 194 






Nei-vander ... 


... 28 


Nix ... 


225 


Oakley 


... 127 


Nervius 


28, 290 


Nixon ... 


178 


Oakwood 


... 149 


Nervus 


... 28 


Noa ... 


132, 133, 144 


O'Anthropos 


... 100 


Ness 


... 135 


Noadiah 


116 


Oastler 


... 257 


Nesselrode ... 


... 129 


Noah ... 


54 


Gates 


... 145 


Nest 


112, 135 


Noakes... 


121 


Oatman 


... 173 


Netherby ... 


... 157 


Nobah ... 


31 


Oatts ... 4.5 


, 173, 182 


Neve 


... 30 


Nobbs ... 


261 


Obeah 


... 208 


Neville 


... 139 


Noble ... 


55 


Obed 


... 261 


Nevins 


...30,90 


Nock ... 


... 121, 127 


Obededom ... 


... 261 


Nevius 


... 90 


Noel ... 


83 


Obediah ... 


... 261 


Nevus 


... 90 


Nou- ... 


33 


Obel 


... 191 


New 


76, 251 


Noise ... 


128 


Oberdank ... 


... 163 


Newcombe ... 


... 352 


Nokes ... 


121 


Oberlin 


... 206 


Neweome ... 


155, 251 


Nolan ... 


83, 88 


Oberon 


... 75 


Newcomen ... 


76, 251 


Noll ... 


273 


Obi 


... 208 


Newdorf 


... 150 


Nollekins 


273 


O'Brian 2S 


, 129, 303 


Newell 


... 139 


Non ... 


45, 70, 221 


Obrigcat 


... 296 


Newhaus ... 


149, 242 


I Nonnatus 


89 


Obrislaine ... 


... 216 


Newland 


... 145 


Nonus ... 


91 


Obrys 


... 294 


Newman ... 


... 251 


1 Noon ... 


86 


Occam 


... 121 


Newsham ... 


... 139 


I Norah ... 


118 


OceUa 


... 142 


Newsky 


146, 293 


1 Norbury 


137 


Ochus 


42, 282 


Newsome ... 


135, 139 


Norden 


143 


O'Connell ... 


... 228 


Newstead ... 


... 139 


! Nordenskjold 214, 270 


O'Connor Roe 


... 284 


Newton 


139, 150 


Norgate 


250 


O'Connor Eoo 


... 22 


Nicanor 


115, 220 


Norman 


... 101, 289 


Octavius 


... 91 


Nicephorus ... 


... 224 


N orris ... 


... 92, 249 


Ocyroe 


... 33 


Nicholjewitch 


... 293 


Norroy... 


249 


Odams 


... 305 


Nicholson ... 
25 


... 293 


Norton... 


137 


Odell 


... 143 



346 



INDEX. 





Page 


Oddette 


... 226,274 


Odgers ... 


214 


Odillou... 


226 


Odin ... 


166 


Odo ... 


226 


Ody ... 


... 226, 305 


Oestman 


283 


O'Ferrol 


29 


Offa ... 


35 


Offenbach 


147 


Og 


15 


Ogal ... 


155 


Ogg ... 


127 


Ogilvie... 


155 


Ogle ... 


253 


Oglen ... 


48 


Ognisanti 


85 


0' Grady 


242 


Ogi-e ... 


172 


Ogyges... 


16 


Ogygia... 


... 16, 143 


O'Hagan 


226 


O'Hara 


226, 284, 287 


O'Hart... 


15 


Oichova 


lOi) 


Oil 


159 


Oin 


94 


Olaf ... 


173 


Olam ... 


264 


O'Lane... 


216 


Olander 


157 


Olave ... 


173 


Oldcastle 


... 135, 136 


Oldcorn 


... 180,267 


Oldham 


292 


Olgar ... 


113 


Oliphant 


... 206,218 


O'Lochlin 


148 


OUfant... 


... 206,218 


Olivarez 


... 218,305 


Oliver ... 


218 


Ohio ... 


234 


Olt 


126 


Olshausen 


251 


( )ltramare 


26(; 


Olympa 


40 


( )lympas 


154 


( )lympia 


25, 40, 105 


Olympus 


37, 105, 155 


Olynthus 


128 


Om 


39, 99, 165 


Omar Pasha ... r'-i 


Om Ayub 


ill) 


Omisli ... 


m 


Oiii])lial(' 


190 


Omr.ih ... 


53 


Oiiiii ... 


53, 200 



Omi-iah ... 53,260 
Om Suleyman ... 99 

Ondedieu 27 

Onderdonk ... 163, 293 

O'Neil 155 

Onesimus ... 40, 58 
Onesiphorus . . . 58 

Onfant 93 

Onion ... 195, 278, 303 

Onkelos 58 

Onosander 223 

Onybrains 267 

Opiielia ... 105, 240 

Ophelius 105 

Ophion 191 

Ophiucha 191 

Opici 183 

Oppian 303 

Oppidius 182 

Oppius 182 

Ops 183 

Orabell 114 

Orabella 238 

Oranmore 75 

Orbius 19 

Orby 267 

Orders 40, 238 

Oreb 65, 200 

Oregon 209 

Orellana ... 132, 151 

Oren 60 

Orestes 134, 130 

Orfever 258 

Orfevre 258 

Orgetorix 221 

Origin 260 

Orion ... 16, 18, 25 

Orispus 131, 144, 147 

Ormond 143 

Orl 201 

Orlando Furioso 219 

Orloff 201, 293 

Orlow 294 

Orm 121, 208 

Orme 121 

Ormiston 121 

Ormond 143 

Ormsbv 208 

Oman'... 32, 60, 121 

OrosiuR 14, 25 

Orpah ... 29, 104, 114 

Orphah 114 

Orr ... 138,147,150 

Orridge 267 

Orsini 199 

OriKino 199 

Or.son Ill, 199 



Ortolan 

Orton . . . 

Orum ... 

Orville ... 

Osbeorght 

Osbeort 

Osborn... 

Oscar . . . 

Osgoode 

O'Shanter 

O'Shee... 

Osiander 

Osiris ... 

Oskinski 

Osman... 

Osmanli 

Ossian ... 

Osterman 

Osterzee 

Osterwald 

Ostler ... 

Ostorius 

Ostrich... 

Oswald... 

Othello... 

Othman 

Othniel... 

Otho ... 

Otter ... 

Ottermare 

Otto ... 

Ottoman 

Oudin ... 

Oudinot 

Ouida ... 

Ouseley 

Outhout 

Outram 

Outremer 

Outwith 

Over . . . 

Overbury 

Overend 

Overing 

Overton 

Ovid 

Ovideo 

Owen 

Oxenstern ... 

Oxley 

Oysterman ... 

Paankah 

Pa 

Paarai(m) ... 

Pablo 

Pacchioni ... 



Page 

233 

233 

... 138, 150 

233 

... 174, 276 

174 

173 

226 

173 

... 48, 125 

266 

103, 238, 113 

190 

122 

... 216, 253 
216 



29, 226 



139, 



279 
283 
276 
307 
287 
236 
283 
174 
274 
... 216 
... 205 
... 226 
... 216 
... 265 
91, 221 
... 216 
... 224 
... 224 
... 105 
... 251 
... 121 
... 28 
... 56 
... 121 
147, 149 
... 139 
139, 277 
... 147 
277, 147 
... 198 
... 198 
... 94 
... 218 
236 
283 

194 
99 

78 

88 



161 



INDEX. 



847 



Pa-e 
. ... 56 
5tj, 'Jd 
. 56, 189 
. ... 73 
58, 43, 305 
. 132, 248 



148. 



263, 



148. 



Pacific 

Pacifico 
Pacificus 
Pachoni 
Paeke ... 
Paddock, 

Paddy 

Padou 

Padre 

Pagan 

Pagani 

Paganini 

I'age 

Paget 

Paimboeuf .. 

Paine 

Painviu 

Pail- 

Pais 

Palafox 
Palamedes .. 
Palavicini . . 
Palearius 
Palemon 
Paleologus .. 
Palestrina . . 

Paley 

Palfrey 

Palgrave 
Palladius . . 

Pallas 

Palmer 

Palmerstou.. 
Pamphilon .. 

Pan 

Panchard . . 
Panchita 

Pandi 

Pandora 
Panebianco .. 

Pangborn 

Panbypersebaste 
Panmure ... 150 



55, 219 
.. 252 



240 

240 

240 

273 

273 

199 

. 240 

... 206 

... 24 

... 100 

... 87 

... 226 

130, 131 

... 254 

... 216 

48,98 

... 159 

88, 264 

... 258 

... 258 

252, 302 

185, 214 

... 264 

... 264 

... 318 

... 186 

... 247 

... 109 

... 89 

186 

201 

307 

120 

288 



117 



P 

Pantaleone 
Panton... 
Paoli ... 



Pape 

Papias 

Papillon 
Papirius 

Pappa 

Pappadopulos 

Pappus 

Paracelsus ... 
Paraclete 



47, 73, 307 
219 

139 

87 

252 

252 

304 



.. 252 
.. 295 
.. 101 
.. 140 
37, 57 



Paraskeva 

Parce . . . 

Pardon... 

Partitt ... 

Pargiter 

Paris . . . 

Park . . . 

Parker . . . 

Parkin . . . 

Parkins 

Parkinson 

Pai'lan ... 

Parlaue 

Parley ... 

Parlior . . . 

Parlor ... 

Parmenas 

Parmenion 

Parmenter 

Parnach 

Parnell 

Parley ... 

Parr ... 

Parran . . . 

Parbasius 

Parris . . . 

Parrisb 

Parrock 

Parrot ... 

Parry . . . 

Parsons 

Partbenia 

Partbenias 

Partbenas 

Pascal ... 

Pascbasius 

Pascbino 

Pascovitcb 

Paskievitcb 

Pasb 

Pasba ... 

Pasbler 

Pasipbae 

Pasitiles 

Passavant 

Pat 

Patcb ... 

Pater ... 

Paternoster 

Paton ... 

Patrician 

Patrick . . . 

Patrobas 

Patrobus 

Patrocinio 

Patrocltls 

Patron 



Page 

81 

61 

267 

276 

... 238, 241 

140 

... 132, 248 

248 

... 96, 274 

96 

96 

289 

286 

129 

254 

254 

59 

59 

253 

34 

... 96, 274 

129 

96 

206 

140 

140 

97 

248 

274 

... 151, 277 

245 

67, 81, 112 

112 

99, 112, 185 

81 

81 

81 

27, 71 

293 

216 

33, 117, 234 
216 

36,56 

45 

245 

... 241, 252 

225 

... 72, 252 

238 

241 

252 

... 252, 97 

75, 93, 173 

173 

117 

219 

252 



Pagu 

Patterson 271 

Patti ... 105, 239, 253 
Paul ... 32, 87 242 

Pauley 88 

Paulina 292 

Paulomir 38 

Pauloslav 38 

Paul Petrowicb ... 292 

Paulus 34,88 

Pausanius 85 

Pausius ... ... 85 

Pawley 88 

Paxman 263 

Paxton 43, 58, 263 

Payne 148 

Pay 74 

Payson 74, 240 

Peabody 45 

Peace 232 

Peale 136 

Pearse 143 

Pearson ... 271, 290 

Peasoop 152 

Peats 153 

Pecci 73 

Peddie 74 

Peck 136, 236 

Pedabazur 55 

Peddie ... 74, 224, 284 
Peden ... 131, 132, 144 

Pedrez 271 

Pedro 96 

Peed 74, 224 

Peek 236 

Peel 254 

Pegasus 148 

Pege 240 

Peggie 118 

Peggy 118 

Pekab 31, 53 

Pekabiab 53 

Pelagius ... 249, 250 

Peleg 35 

Peletb 60 

Peleus 33, 190 

Pelbam 264 

Pell 264, 271 

Pellett 264 

Pellatt 274 

Pelletan 237 

Pellissier 237 

Pellon 73 

Pelops ... 33, 190, 301 
Pelopidas ... 190, 301 

Pembroke 148 

Penclutba 137, 142, 147 
Pencoitl26,137,147,308 



348 



INDEX. 





Pa-e 




rage 




Page 


Pendar... 


42 


Peruzzi 


96 


Pbuibe 


36, 185 


Penden 


141 


Peter ... 


28, 96, 106 


Pbcebus 


.. 185 


Pender 


288 


Peterloo 


96 


Phocas 


.. 210 


Pendergast 


40 


Pethuel 


60 


Pbocion 


.. 210 


Pendergrass 


... 40 


Peticote 


.. 133, 152 


Phoedrus 


.. 36 


Pendragon 


207 


Petion... 


73, 232, 307 


Phosphorus 


36, 299 


Penelope 


113 


Petifer . . . 


32 


Photinus 


.. 36 


Penfound 


142 


Peto ... 


.. 153, 158 


Pbotius 


.. 86 


PeugeUy 142, 207, 288 


Petley ... 


.. 91, 149 


Phrouzka ... 


.. 294 


Penman 


2G7 


Petit ... 


34 


Phryne ... ] 


L86, 224 


Penn ... 


151 


Petnian 


.. 91,149 


Phuvah 


56,58 


Pennant 148, 151, 219 


Petrarch 


90 


Pbygellus 57, 5 


J60, 300 


Penninah 


.. 16, 116 


Petrouius 


96 


Pbylhs 


.. 48 


Penny ... 


.. 207, 239 


Petroslav 


.. 38,295 


Physcou 


.. 47 


Pennycuik 


130 


Petrowna 


292 


Physicus 


.. 48 


Pennyfathei 


... 207 


Petnicbio 


274 


Pi 


.. 106 


Pennygant 


129 


PetruUa 


.. 96, 106 


Piazza 


.. 91 


Pew ... 


79 


Pettee ... 


93 


Picador 


.. 158 


Penrod 


129 


Pettet ... 


292 


Picard 


.. 158 


Pentecost 


85 


Pettijean 


35 


Piccoh 


.. 85 


Penrybn 


.. 149,207 


Pettit ... 


.. 32, 85, 97 


Pichard 


.. 158 


Penthesilea 


... 44, 58 


Petts ... 


93 


Picbaud 


.. 158 


Pentheus 


44 


Petty ... 


.. 97,264 


Piccoh 


.. 35 


PenneU 


60 


Poulthai 


58 


Piccolimini ... 


.. 35 


Pepin ... 


252 


Peveusey 


223 


Picton ] 


58, 214 


Pepley... 


91 


Pfeifier 


253 


Pickersgill ... 


.. 147 


Peploe ... 


.. 17, 225 


Pbalec ... 


35 


Pickles 


.. 215 


Pepper... 


239 


Phanuel 


60 


Pickwith ... 


.. 236 


Peppercorn 


239 


Pharamond 


248 


Piece 


.. 232 


Pepys ... 


108 


Pharnaces 


34 


Pied 


.. 74 


Percival 


.. 144, 148 


Pharaoh 


36 


Piedleu 


.. 74 


Percy ... 


144 


Pharnambu 


cey ... 124 


Pierce 


96, 143 


Perdita 


.. 115, 290 


Pbarnaspes 


165,203,239 


Pierotti 


.. 274 


Pere-et-mero ... 97 


Pheasant 


240 


Pierre 


.. 96 


Peregrine 


264 


Pbelan 


175 


Piers 


.. 96 


Peregrino 


264 


Phelim... 


42 


Pierson 


.. 96 


Pereu-a... 


96 


Phelps... 


204 


Pietro 


.. 96 


Perez ... 


.. 96, 290 


Phenissa 


117 


Pigfat 


.. 137 


Perez-de la Rua... 26G 


Pbicol ... 


56, 69, 216 


Pigot 


.. 30 


Periander 


29, 74, 305 


Philemon 


40, 59 


Pigott 


.. 156 


Pericles 


37, 74 


Philetus 


40,59 


Pike 


.. 215 


Perigonus 


75 


PhUamore 


.. 73, 204 


Pilate t. 


15, 254 


Perizada 


102 


Phihnna 


40 


Pilcher 


.. 254 


Perkin ... 


90 


Phihp 1 


06, 161, 203 


Pileus 


.. 254 


Perkins 


274 


Phihpon 


73 


Pilgrim 


.. 264 


Perillon 


73 


Philippova . 


.. 106, 293 


Pillsbury ... 


.. 264 


Peron ... 


96 


Phihppa 


.. 106,293 


Pilson 


.. 271 


Peroni... 


96 


Pbilo ... 


40 


Pirn 


.. 30 


Perowne 


73 


Philologus 


40 


Pinceloup . . . 


.. 175 


Perrin ... 


201 


Philomela 1 


18, 187, 209 


Pindar 


42, 207 


Perron ... 


96 


Philometer 


46 


Pinelh 


.. 128 


Perrott 


274 


Philopater . 


46 


Pinbornc ... 


.. 137 


Perry ... 


.. 96, 274 


Philpot 


204 


Pink 


.. 203 


Perseus 


17, 18, 25 


Pbineas 


50,58 


Pinkerton 68, 1 


51, 288 


Pertinax 


44 


Phinebas 


56 


Pinney 


.. 207 


Perucci 


274 


Pbipps... 


204 


Pinnock 


. . 203 


PeiTigino 


96 


Pblegon 


190 


Pinon 


.. 72 



INDEX. 



349 





Page 




Page 


Pinus 


. 60, 121 


Pollock 


.. 43, 242 


Pio 


. 45, 198 


Poison... . 


271 


Piper 


. ... 253 i 


Polybius . 


.. 59, 187 


Piram 


. ... 2081 


Polycarp . 


.. 45, 72, 78 


Pirie 


. ... 274 


Polydor 


117 


Pirrett 


. 'JG, 274 


Polygonus . 


301 


Piirie ... . 


. ... 274 


Polyhistor . 


117 


Pisano 


. ... 140 


Polymeles 


78, 187, 239 


Pisistratus . 


. ... 255 


Polymina . 


187 


Pison ... . 


. ... 145 


Polyuices 


224 


Pistorius 


. ... 237 


Polyphemus 


187, 112 


Pitcairn 


. ... 14 


Polyxena 


40, 112, 257 


Pitchers . 


. ... 243 


Pombal 


,. 202, 204 


Pithom 


. ... 207 


Pomeroy 


249 


Pithou... . 


. ... 72 


Pompey 


48,90 


Pitman 


. 241, 267 


Pompilius 


.. 48, 298 


Pitt ... 142, 241, 2G7 


Ponce ... 


242 


Pius ... 


45, 60, 198 


Pond ... 


153 


Pizano... . 


. ... 140 


Poniatowski 


... 126 


Pizarro 


. ... 286 


Pont ... 


.. 253, 308 


Plancus 


. ... 32 


Pontifex 


253 


Plantagenet 


... 247 


Pontiff... 


253 


Plato ... . 


. 33, 232 


Pontius 


249 


Piatt ... . 


. 131,144 


Poock ... 


75 


Playfair . 


. ... 40 


Pool ... 


48, 151, 152 


Pleione 


. ... 249 


Poole ... 


242 


Plews ... . 


. ... 232 


Poor ... 


39 


PlimsoU . 


. ... 145 


Pope ... 


252 


Plowright . 


241 


Popilius 


298 


Plum ... . 


151 


Popoff ... 


.. 294, 295 


Plumstead . 


151 


Popp ... 


252 


Plutarch . 


183 


Poratha 


60 


Pluto ... . 


183 


Porcia ... 


.. 106,236 


Plutus ... . 


183 


Porcius 


.. 106,236 


Podarce 


60 


Porcher 


231 


Podarge 


107 


Pordenone 


73 


Podargus 


59, 74, 131 


Porphyry 


17, 25, 225 


Podgers 


138 


Porphyrogenetus 17, 25 


Podio ... . 


.. 32, 74, 95 


Porson . . . 


271 


Poe ... . 


39 


Porteous 


238 


Poggio ... . 


131 


Porus ... 


41 


Pogon ... . 


45,46 


1 Portman 


73 


Pognatus 


31 


Portwine 


153 


Pointer 


153 


Posideon 


... 190,235 


Pointon 


253 


Possinet 


202 


Poisson 


.. 211, 271 


Posthuuius 


91 


Poissoner 


243 


Potiphah 


32, 61, 194 


Poland... 


157 


Potipherah 


... 61,194 


Pole ... 


.. 157, 275 


Pott ... 


240 


Polemou 


.. 40, 216 


Potter ... 


240 


Polignac 


.. 157, 275 


Pottinger 


241 


Poligny 


275 


Potts ... 


... 240, 241 


Poliocertes 


47 


Poulin ... 


307 


Polk ... 


88 


Pounds 


153 


Pollard 


31 


Poussin 


202 


PoUio ... 


254 Powell... 


277 


Pollion .. 


130 


Power ... 


39 



Pozzo 


... 241 


Pratt 132, 


133, 145 


Praxidioe ... 


45, 117 


Praxiteles ... 


45, 117 


Pre 


... 145 


Precious 


40, 93 


Prendergast 


185, 307 


Presbyter ... 


.. 202 


Preston 


245, 308 


Pretorius . . . 


... 266 


Prettyman ... 


... 154 


Preu 


... 40 


Preus 


... 40 


Priam 


... 219 


Price ... 234, 


277, 296> 


Priddle 


... 277 


Pride 


... 243 


Prideaux ... 


... 151 


Priest 


... 245 


Priestly 


... 245 


Prigg 


... 277 


Prim 


70,90 


Prima 


70,90 


Prime 


... 86 


Prince 


... 235 


Pringle 264 


271, 281 


Priscilla 


100, 244 


Prisons 48 


103, 121 


Pritchard ... 


224, 277 


Pritty ... 133 


144, 154 


Probart 255 


271, 277 


Probus 


42, 90 


Probyn 


... 277 


Proctor 


... 246 


Proculus 


... 89 


Procurator ... 


... 246 


Progers 


... 277 


Properjohn ... 


... 87 


Protesilaus ... 


... 52 


Protogenes ... 


... 80 


Protogenia .. 


... 90 


Protus 


... 90 


Proudfoot . . . 


... 74 


Pro van 


... 277 


Prowse 


... 277 


Pnice 


... 157 


Prudhomme 


... 183 


Prudhon 


... 183 


Prujean 


... 93 


iPryd 


... 154 


Pryor 


... 286 


i Ptolemeus Macron 286 


1 Ptolemy 


48, 116 


Puah ... 53, 78, 106 


Publicola 69 


, 222, 235 


Publius 


235, 298 


PuceUa 


... 75 


I Puck 


... 75 



350 



INDEX. 





Pajje 




Tayc 




FuLSC 


Pudens 


42. 299 


Quean ... 


160 


Ralph 


... 176 


Pudentiana . . . 


... 299 


Queen ... 


.. 160,229 


Ralston 


176, 270 


Pue 


... 277 


Quintin 


90 


Ram ... 54 


106, 144 


Puella 


... 105 


Question 


307 


Ramage 48 


125, 252 


Puer 


... 105 


Quick ... 


.. 60, 242 


Ram Bukah 


... 51 


Putfendorf ... 


... 308 


Quiddy 


307 


Rammer 


... 252 


Pugh ... 277, 


278, 280 


Quigg ••• 


138 


Ramolini ... 


... 125 


Pair 


... 39 


Quigley 


143 


Ramsbottom 


... 144 


Pul 


... 206 


QuUlan 


287 


Ramsay 


... 175 


Pulcheria ol, 


105, 116 


Quillman 


267 


Ranald 


... 235 


PulUnger ... 


... 237 


Quilt ... 


307 


Rauce 


129, 218 


Pulvermachev 


... 249 


Quilty ... 


124 


Rand 


... 275 


Punch 


... 307 


Quin ... 


... 228, 229 


Randal 


138, 218 


Punchion ... 


... 216 


Quince... 


91 


Handle 


... 188 


Punclion 


216, 307 


Quincy 


155 


Raudoli^h ... 


... 176 


i'lipillus 


19, 25 


Quinet ... 


274 


Ranger 


... 126 


Purcell 


... 31 


QuinUvan 


229 


Rani 


... 101 


Purchase 


... 243 


Quirinus 


214 


Ranke 


129, 139 


Pui-die 


... 45 


Quintillian 


90 


Rankin 


... 273 


Purdon 


... 267 


Quintin 


96 


Ransom 


... 219 


Purkiss 


... 96 


Quintus 


90 


Raper 


... 233 


PurUeu 


... 129 


Quinze 


90 


Rapha 


... 65 


Purvis 


... 252 


Quittacus 


307 


Raphael 


... 55 


Pusa 


... 100 


Quixote 


217 


Rapin 


... 200 


Pusilla 


... 100 






Kapp 


200, 275 


Puxley 


... 75 


Rabbi ... 


... 254, 260 


Raschid 


... 14 


Puypariier ... 


... 106 


Rabboni 


... 77, 260 


Rashi (m) ... 


79, 221 


Pyat 


58, 273 


Rabshakeh 


254 


Rasselas 


238, 302 


Pybus 


121, 125 


Raby... 


200 


Rat 


136, 152 


Pycott 


133, 152 


Race ... 


148 


Ratican 136 


, 152, 256 


Pye ... 277 


278, 280 


Rachel... 


198 


Rato 


... 254 


Pygmahon ... 


... 88 


Racine... 


201 


Ratsey 


... 256 


Pygme 


... 88 


Rad ... 


... 152, 255 


Rattee 


... 254 


Pylades 


... 301 


Radbert 


255 


Ratter 


... 152 


Pyle 


... 301 


Radcliife 


21, 26 


Ratto 


... 152 


Pyleus 


... 301 


Raddax 


127 


Rattray 


... 256 


I'ym 


... 30 


Radetsky 


254 


Raumer 


... 234 


Pyramus 


17, 25 


Radford 


23 


Ravaillac . . . 


... 275 


Pyrois ... 17, 2.5, 302 


Radoslav 


... 38, 294 


Raven 


... 200 


Pyrosporus ... 


16, 41 


Radstock 


153 


Ravius 


... 275 


Pyrrhus 


17, 25 


Rae ... 


43, 283, 284 


Rawclitt'e ... 


21, 26 


Pythagoras . . . 


224, 255 


Raeside 


284 


Rav^ley 


... 132 


Python 


191, 207 


Raffin ... 


152 


Rawlings ... 


175, 270 






Rattles ... 


55 


Rayment ... 


44, 223 


QUAGGENBOSH 


... 122 


Rafflin... 


... 136, 143 


Raymond . . . 


44, 223 


QuagUa 


... 201 


Raftor ... 


134 


Rayner 


... 216 


Quaghenne ... 


... 273 


Ragg ... 


... 136,137 


Reach 


48, 134 


Quaid 


... 283 


Raglan... 


236 


Read 


... 254 


Quain 


... 228 


Rahab ... 


69 


Reba 


... 90 


Quant 


... 42 


Raham 


106 


Rebecca 


113,305 


Quarles 


... 241 


Raikes... 


... 234, 264 


Rebekah ... 


... 113 


Quarrier 


... 241 


Raimes 


48, 125, 252 


Rechab 


204, 225 


Quarterfagcs 


... 127 


Rainey... 


264 


Reddie 


... 254 


Quartermass 


... 84 


Raith ... 


283 


Redhead 


... 20 


Quartus 


... 90 


Rajah ... 


... 101, 234 


Redmond 17, 20, 227 


Quasheba ... 


85, 106 


Rajahputra 


... 293,296 


Redpath ... 


... 38 


Quashee 


85, 106 


Raleigh 


132 


Ree 


234, 284 



INDEX. 



351 





Pa-e 




Pa-e 




Pasre 


Reece 


... 234 


Richter 


65, 247 


Romanovitch ... 293 


Eeeclman ... 


... 238 


Rickett 


... 234 


Rome ... 


264 


Eeeves 


... 137 


Riddal 


... 147 


Romero 


264 


Began 247, 


209, 284 


Riddle 


147, 200 


Romulus 


146 


Kegina 


... 101 


Ridley 


21, 26 


Ronald... 


235 


Keginald ... 


... 235 


Rienzi 


... 218 


Ronge ... 


129 


Reginmar ... 


... 234 


Rigby 


... 137 


Ronquillo 


30 


Regiomontanus 


39, 139 


Rigg ... 136 


246, 247 


Roo ... 


22 


Regulus 


234, 30(5 


Riley 


21, 26 


Rook ... 


22, 26, 30 


Rehabiah ... 


... G8 


Rimmon 


... 194 


Roper ... 


... 233, 253 


Rehob 


... 68 


Ringwood ... 


... 126 


Rory ... 


234 


Rehoboam ... 


... 69 


Rion 


... 143 


Rosabella 


114 


Rehoboth ... 


... 68 


Rise 


... 151 


Rosalind 


... 114,208 


Relium 


... 57 


Risely 


... 147 


Rosamond 


... 114, 173 


Rehumali ... 


... 106 


Rishton 


... 138 


Rosan ... 


114 


Rei 


... 77 


Risk 


... 151 


Rosbaum 


205 


Reid 


131, 254 


Ritchard ... 


... 118 


Rosconi 


70 


Reimarn.s ... 


... 234 


Ritchie 


... 234 


Rose ... 


23, 26. 265 


Reimer 


... 234 


Ritson 271 


275, 286 


Rosencrantz ... 218 


Reine 


... 101 


Ritter 


... 225 


Rosetti... 


173 


Reis 


... 148 


Rivas 


... 297 


Rosgrana 


110 


Remaliah ... 


... 54 


Rivers... 133 


143, 148 


Rosh ... 


79, 106, 221 


Rembrandt . . . 


... 226 


Rizpah 


... 116 


Roshena 


... 106, 222 


Remigius . . . 


... 255 


Roadman ... 


... 219 


Roslin ... 


135 


Remington ... 


... 255 


Roan 


... 284 


Ross ... 


70, 149, 173 


Remus 


... 146 


Rob 


... 255 


Rossa ... 


280 


Rene ... G4, 


276, 293 


Robb 


... 255 


Rosseau 


21 


Rennie 


235, 272 


Robert ... 23 


106, 255 


Rossetti 


... 21, 173 


Renny 


... 255 


Robertson ... 


255, 271 


Rossi ... 


21 


Renard 


... 177 


Robespierre... 


96, 292 


Rossignol 


209 


Renaud 


... 200 


Robin 


106, 255 


Rossina 


173 


Renier 


... 216 


Robina 


... 106 


Rossini 


... 21, 173 


Renolf 


218, 235 


Robinson ... 


... 271 


Roth ... 


87 


Renovata ... 


... 242 


Robson 


... 271 


Rothacker 


21, 25 


Renzoni 


... 218 


Roche 


... 136 


Rothchild 


21, 25, 218 


Reuben 54, 90, 117 


Rochefort ... 


136, 266 


Rounsiwell 


121 


Reuchlin 


... 39 


Rocket 


... 214 


Rountree 


121 


Reumah 


55, 102 


Rockwood ... 


... 149 


Rourke... 


22, 23, 25 


Reuss 


... 146 


Roden 


136, 129 


Rous ... 


21, 25 


Revell 


... 257 


Roderic de Triana 143 


Rouse ... 


... 21, 173 


Revely 


... 258 


Roderick 33 


143, 234 


Rousillon 


73 


Reves 


... 258 


Roderigo 


... 234 


Rousseau 


... 21, 25, 95 


Rex 


101, 234 


Rodger 


... 215 


Roustan 


... 23, 146 


Rey 


... 235 


Rodman 


... 257 


Rowan... 


60, 70, 121 


Reymond ... 


... 200 


Rodolph 


174, 176 


Rowe ... 


22, 275, 284 


Reynolds ... 


... 235 


Rodomont ... 


... 156 


Rowell... 


153 


Rhadegund... 


... 255 


Rodney 


129, 144 


Rowena 


... 106, 110 


Rhesus 


... 107 


Roe 


25, 284 


Rowland 


219 


Rhin 


... 220 


Roebuck 


132, 209 


Rowley 


21 


Rhoda 


... 265 


Roff 


... 176 


Roxana 


... 106, 222 


Rhodopis ... 


... 27 


Rogan 


... ^84 


Roy 17, 25, 


233, 234, 236 


Ribas ... 133 


143, 148 


Roger 


... 215 


Royle ... 


234, 236, 306 


Ribai(m) ... 


... 78 


Rogers 


... 215 


Royston 


200 


Ricardo 


... 234 


Rokesby 


... 149 


Rubens 


90 


Riccoboni ... 


... 73 


Roland 


... 219 


Rubenstein 


125 


Rice 


... 234 


Romaine 


264, 293 


Rubini 


90 


Richard 


118, 234 


Romanoff . . . 


... 293 


Rubio ... 


84 



352 



INDEX. 







Paye 




Page; 




Page 


RucU ... 


23, 84, 


265 Saggers 


... 245 


Saron 


... 127 


Ruddimau . 




27 


Sahib ... 52, 


106, 248 


Saronidas ... 


... 301 


Rudge .., . 


.* 136, 


304 


Said ... 35 


, 43, 109 


Saronides ... 


... 127 


Rudiger 




2151 


Saintey 


... 204 i 


Sarony 


127, 301 


Rudolph . 




174! 


Saker 


... 218 


Sarronide ... 


... 301 


Rulfiuus 


'.'. ' 2 


X 25 1 


Sala 


... 66 


Sarsechem ... 


... 164 


Rufus ... 


20, 22, 25 i 


Saladin 


... 44 


Sarsfield ... 


... 128 


Rugg ... . 





149 


Salah 


... 66 


Satan ... 51 


, 60, 171 


Ruggiero 




215 


Salem 


... 221 


Satchell 


... 267 


Ruiz ... . 




290 


Sales 


... 128 


Satrap 


... 220 


Rule ... 




234 


Salignac 


... 128 


Saturn 


183, 234 


Ruma ... 




146 


Salinator ... 


... 255 


Satyr us 


... 248 


Rumbelow 





250 


Salmaheben Daoud 92 


Saul 


92, 235 


Rumbold . 


.'.. 


224 


Salmasius ... 


... 140 


Saunders ... 


... 223 


Runciman 




245 


Salmon 55, 60, 66, 73 


Saurin... 2i 


, 34, 227 


RuDJeet Singh ... 


205 


Salt 


... 255 


Sausure 


... 251 


Rupert... 




255 


Salter 


... 255 


Sautree 


... 253 


Rupertino 




255 


Salvator ... 


... 94 


Saumarez ... 


128, 150 


Rushbrook 





147 


Salverte ... 


... 82 


Saunders ... 


... 223 


Rushbury 




138 


Sam 


... 81 


Sauvage 


... 248 


Rushout 




138 


Sambo 


... 81 


Savage... 60, 


125, 186 


Rushton 




138 


Samborn ... 


... 92 


Savaton 


... 244 


RusseU... 




21 


Sam Long ... 


... 29 


Severthal . . . 


... 143 


Rust ... 





21 


Samson 36, L 


8, 71,81 


Saville 


... 125 


Ruskin... 





280 


Sampson 


81, 272 


Savigny 


... 125 


Ruth 54, 


90, lOG 


,107 


Samuel 7'. 


,81,115 


Savanarola... 


141, 143 


Rutherford 




148 


Sancho 


... 275 


Savaton 


... 144 


Ruthlan 




26 


Sandbank ... 


... 148 


Sawney 


... 92 


Ruthven 


25, 20 


.142 


Sandemau ... 


... 246 


Saxe 


... 213 


Rutilius 


2 


0,25 


Sanderson ... 


223, 271 


Say 


... 152 


Ruthland 





21 


Sandon 


... 74 


Sayers 


... 255 


Rutter ... 




225 


Sandford ... ~ 


... 148 


Sayle 


... 128 


Ruysdael 




147 


Sands ... 74, 


133, 149 


Scald 


241,261 


Ruyter 




225 


Sandy 


74, 223 


Scaldwell ... 


... 196 


Ryder ... 




225 


Sandyfaulds 


... 130 


Scales 


... 266 


Rye ... 




143 


Sandyford ... 


... 23 


Scaliger 


... 228 


Ryle ... 


'.'. 234 


,306 


Sang 


... 275 


Scanderbeg... 


73, 223 


Rynn ... 




152 


Sangster 


215, 250 


Scanlan 23 


126, 135 


Ryno . . . 




152 


Sankey 


135, 244 


Scaredevil ... 


135, 137 








Sanquhar ... 


... 135 


Scarlett 


27, 87 


Saad . . . 





44 


Santa Croce 


... 264 


Scaurus 


... 32 


Saadut... 




221 


Santa Cruz ... 


... 38 


Schaifer 


... 239 


Sabbadini 




308 


Santa Klaus 


... 225 


Schah-Daoud 


92 


Sabbathias 




85 


Santamaria... 


... 84 


Schamyl 


... 81 


SabeUius 




308 


Santhague ... 


... 92 


Schapler 


... 249 


Sabina . . . 




104 


Saph 


... 60 


Schepler 


... 249 


Sacar ... 




58 


Sapor 


... 234 


Schenko 


... 240 


Saccharissa 


".'.' lib 


, 238 


Saphir... 63 


224, 238 


Schiller 


31, 137 


Sacchoni 




73 


Sapphira 65 


106, 244 


Schinner 


... 72 


Sack ... 




270 


Sar 


96, 106 


Schirmann ... 


... 242 


Sacy ... 





97 


Sara 


106, 222 


Schlegel ... 


... 168 


Sadd ... 




44 


Sarai ... 5 


L, 96, ]o»; 


Schliermacher 


... 249 


Saddler 




26() 


Sarah ... 51 


106, 159 


Schmidbrecht 


... 259 


Sadi ... 




43 


Sarajih 


... 207 


Schmidt ... 


... 59 


Sadlier 




255 


Sardan 


... 206 


Scobeloff 


275, 294 


Sadoc ... 


"55,'g1 


,278 


Sardanapalus 


... 206 


Scholastica ... 


... 118 


Sage ... 


... I2r 


,308 


Sardon 


... 240 


Scholasticus 


... 118 



INDEX. 



353 





Page 




Page 


Schneider ... 


... 256 


Selena 


... 118 


Schomburg . . . 


... 37 


Selene 


... 118 


Schonthal ... 


... 143 


Seleucide ... 


... 46 


Scbrader 


... 256 


Seleucus 


... 46 


Schreiber ... 


... 267 


Selim 


... 55 


Schrevalius 


238, 267 


Selina 


... 37 


Schroeter ... 


... 256 


Selkirk 


235, 245 


Schummacher 


... 244 


Sell 


... 255 


Scbwarbach 


... 147 


Sellars 


... 255 


Schwartenberg 


... 242 


Seller 


... 266 


Scbwatz 


... 33 


Sellers 


... 255 


Scipio ... 31 


, 56, 159 


Semele 


... 196 


Sclater ... 


73, 256 


Semiramis 78 


96, 108 


Scobie 


... 275 


Semiramide 


... 196 


Scolding 


223, 228 


Semmet 


... 140 


Score 


151, 135 


Semple 


... 88 


Scoresby 135, 


137, 151 


Sempronius... 


42, 224 


Scotcher 


... 244 


Semy 


... 252 


Scott 


... 157 


Seneca 


... 202 


Scotus 


157, 159 


Sennex 


... 127 


Scribe 


... 267 


Sentsch 


... 294 


Scribonius ... 


... 238 


Sentschisschinn 


... 263 


Scrimegeour 


... 222 


Sephar 


... 65 


Scrimshaw ... 


... 125 


Sepharvaim 


... 244 


Serine 


250, 254 


Sepher 


65, 244 


Scripture 


... 75 


Septimus ... 


... 91 


Scrivener ... 


... 238 


Serapion 


... 169 


Scroggie 


122, 128 


Serapis 


... 169 


Scroggs 


... 122 


Sereno 


... 234 


Scrope 


... 122 


Serjeant 


... 261 


Scruby 


... 122 


Serpentarius 


... 191 


Scudamore 33 


224, 261 


Serrano 


... 233 


Scully 


... 232 


Serrauus 


... 233 


Scylla 


... 188 


Servetus 


... 261 


Seachlan ... 


135, 292 


Service 


... 233 


Seafart 


... 248 


Servius 


... 91 


Seamans 


... 250 


Servoni 


... 292 


Seaton 133 


152, 196 


Seth 


... 60 


Sebaste 


... 197 


Seton 


... 237 


Sebastian ... 


... 197 


Settle 


131, 266 


Seechi 


... 109 


Severus 


41, 292 


Sechnall ... 


... 90 


Seward 


... 255 


Seeker 


... 255 


Sexton 


... 250 


Secundinus . . . 


... 90 


Sextus 


... 91 


Secundus ... 


... 90 


Seymour ... 


140, 244 


Securius 


... 45 


Sezzi 


... 91 


Sedigitus 


... 308 


Sforza 


... 29 


Seekings 


... 270 


Shabbathai ... 


... 85 


Seely 


... 198 


Shadbolt ... 


... 217 


Seer 


... 254 


Shadlaw ... 


... 137 


Segi 


... 221 


Shaddai 


... 61 


Seidhtz 131 


, 152, 266 


Shadlow 


... 137 


Seignior 


... 202 


Shaftesbury 


... 215 


Seir ... G5, 87, 254 


Shafto 


... 215 


Sejanus 


234, 299 


Shah 


... 234 


Seji 


234, 299 


Shaharaim ... 


63,86 


Selden 


... 144 


Shahjee 


... 296 


26 









Page 

Shakar-lab 113 

Shakelady 123 

Shakespeare 204, 214 

Shallum 301 

Shalmai 78 

Shalmanaser ... 55 

Shalom 55 

Shamar 72 

Shamgar 265 

Shammai 56 

Shammuah 83 

Shamus 95 

Shan 94 

Shanagau 88, 100, 135 

Shand 135 

Shandon 135 

Shandy 44 

Shane 94 

Shanks 241 

Shanter 51 

Shapfer 239 

Shaphan 97 

Shaphat ... 01, 247 

Shaphatiah 52 

Shararaiin 86 

Sharezer 194 

Sharman 256 

Sharon 127 

Sharp 45, 59 

Shaw 125 

Sheal 97 

Shealtiel 97 

Shearer 256 

Sheba 150 

Sheber 66 

Shebha 58 

Shedden 237 

Sheddy 237 

Sheen ... 68,150 

Sheepshanks . . . 286 

Sheik 234 

Shelah 45 

Sheldon ... 137,150 

Sheldrick 203 

Shelly 247 

Shelomi ... 56, 108 
Shelomith ... 56,108 

Shelton 150 

Shem ... 56,77,196 
Shema ... 33,83 

Shemah 196 

Shemer ... 55,7-2, 78 
Shemiramoth ... 69 

Shemuel 81 

Shemuliel 56 

Shenkin 94 

Shenstone 94 



354 



INDEX. 





Pajje 




Page 




Pajje 


Sheplier 


... 106 


Siculua 


47 


Skeacb 


281 


Shephupban 


... 207 


Sidik ... 


55 


Skeels 


261 


Sherbourne 


... 137 


Siddons 


137 


Skegg ... 


31 


Sberidau 


... 256 


Side 


... 126,139 


Skene ... 


176 


Sberlock ... 


30,31 


Sidelas 


35,47 


Skerratt 


.. 30,151 


Sberman ... 


... 256 


Sidetes 


35,43,199 


Skey ... 


218, 224, 270 


Sberry 


... 168 


Sidonia 


163 


Skidmore 


.. 33,270 


Sberwood ... 


137, 138 


Sidlaw 


137 


Skiffington 


137 


Sbesbadri ... 


... 261 


Sidney 


183 


Skiinining 


134 


Sbesbai 


... 91 


Siebenecber 121,127 


Skinner 


72 


Shesbbazzar 


... 19-4 


Sieber 


246 


Skiold 


270 


Sbetbar ... 


... 116 


Siemaus 


250 


Skiolding 


.. 223,270 


Sbetberbozuai 


... 116 


Sigbert 


150, 164, 224 


Skipper 


250 


Sbiel 


... 137 


Sigbertfitborp ... 150 


Slade ... 


133 


Sbiels 


... 150 


Sigbrand 


... 164,222 


Slagg ... 


... 164,219 


Sbiekls 


30, 218 


Siegel ... 


... 131,152 


Slapp ... 


288 


Sbierlaw ... 


... 137 


Sigga ... 


164, 217, 224 


Slater ... 


.. 256,286 


Sbilbi(m) ... 


... 78 


Sigismund 


164, 224, 227 


Sleeman 


238 


Sbillacker ... 


... 243 


Sigourney 


227 


Slevin ... 


151 


SbiUinglaw 


133, 137 


Sigvalladur 


... 227 


Slick ... 


36 


SbiUingswortb 


... 152 


Silas ... 


32, 125, 186 


Slide ... 


56 


Shilob ... 


56, 66, 78 


Silenus 


32 


Sliman 


228 


Shiloni 


... 56 


Silliman 


232 


Slocum 


138 


Sbilsba 


... 90 


Silvanus 


125, 186, 248 


Slogg ... 


119 


Sbimei(m) ... 


108, 196 


Silverside 


222 


Sloman 


36 


Sbimeatb ... 


... 108 


Simcox 


273 


Sloper 


241 


Sbimeon 


... 83 


Simpcox 


273 


Sloss ... 


254 


Sbimei 37, 77, 19G 


Simeon 


72,83,196 


Slovacten 


161 


Sbimon 


... 72 


Simeoni 


77 


Sluse ... 


145 


Sbimri(m) ... 


... 78 


Simkins 


273 


Sly ... 


228 


Sbimritb 


... 108 


Simnel 


81 


Small ... 


239 


Sbimron 


... 72 


Simon 3 


2, 72, 83, 301 


Smallback 


284 


Sbimnel 


... 81 


Simouides 


... 72,301 


Smallmau 


239 


Sbinab 


52, 75 


Simond 


72 


Smart ... 


45 


Shipbrab ... 


... 106 


Simpkins 


273 


Smeaton 


131 


Sbippey 


... 175 


Simpson 


81,270,285 


Smee ... 


.. 34,131 


Sbipton 


... 137 


Sims ... 


83 


Smidbrecht 


... 259 


Sboebottom 


127, 1-4-1 


Simson 


81,272,285 


Smikros 


34 


Sboueen 


94, 272 


Sindbad 


155 


Smitb ... 


70, 188, 258 


Sbore 


... 150 


Sindouia 


113 


Smitbfield 


236 


Sborrocks ... 


... 127 


Singer 


215 


Smoker 


241 


Sbort ... 3 


2, 34, 284 


Singb ... 


... 153,205 


Smollett 


81 


Sbual 


... 246 


Sing Long 


298 


Smytbe 


258 


SbulHebottom 


... 144 


Sippai ... 


60 


Snaefell 


307 


Sbulamite ... 


... 56 


Sippel ... 


204 


Snarley 


34,82 


Sbuni 


... 78 


Sippell 


96 


Suiveldy 


137 


Sbupban 


66, 207 


Sir 


52, 90, 252 


Snell ... 


33,59 


Sbuppim 


... 66 


Siracbides 


300 


Snodgrass 


236 


Sburmer 


... 242 


Sire 


52, 90, 252 


Snooks 


121 


Sibbakl 


76, 222 


Siret ... 


90 


Snow ... 


.. 30,110 


Sibbecbai ... 


... 60 


Sisera ... 


209 


Snowball 


307 


Sibley 


... 76 


Sismey 


227 


Snyder 


236 


Sibtliorp 


... 150 


Sisypbus 


190 


Socrates 


... 223,261 


Sibyl 


... 196 


Siva 


171 


Soffar ... 


266 


Sicilius 


... 91 


Sivajee 


296 


Sotfarides 


266 


Sickles 


... 258 


Sixsmitb 


258 


Softley 


.. 132,144 


Sickman ... 


222,224 


Sizar ... 


256 


Soffuk 


217 



INDEX. 



355 





Pacre 




rage 




Page 


Sofy ... 


'J24 


Spinoza 


128 


Stella 


116,184 


8oho ... 


126,128,150 


Spiridion 


251 


Stephen 


25, 218 


Sojourner 


2G5 


Spite ... 


135, 152, 241 


Stephanus ... 


... 218 


Solauiler 


39 


Spittle 


257 


Sterling 


68, 253 


Solano 


145 


Spohr ... 


225 


Stern 


200, 218 


Soldene 


145 


Spon ... 


... 214,215 


Sternhold 48 


, 136, 201 


Sole ... 


145 


Spooner 


.. 43, 305 


Stertinus ... 


63,78 


Solis ... 


84 


Spratt ... 


215 


Stevens 


218, 272 


Solomon 


.. 45,56,78 


Spring 


.. 241,274 


Stevenson ... 


... 293 


Solyman 


221 


Springdale 


... 126 


Steward 


243, 258 


Soman 


55 


Springfield 


... 137 


Stewart 


... 258 


Somers 


.. 140,152 


Sprout 


215 


Sthenelaus ... 


... 188 


Sonueborn 


... 90 


Spry ... 


45 


Stheno 


... 188 


Sontag 


85 


Sprye ... 


34 


Stilicho 


... 259 


Sopater 


58 


Spura ... 


299 


Still ... 35,47,106 


Sophia 


38, 190, 224 


Spurge 


19, 26, 241 


Stilpon 


... 37 


Sophilus 


34 


Spurgeon 


241 


Stimson 


... 272 


Sophocles 


38 


Spm-inna 


251 


Stimpson ... 


... 272 


Sophonisba 


112, 224 


Spurius 


.. 233,299 


Stinton 


... 251 


Sophron 


228 


Squeers 


280 


Stitt 


44, 220 


Sophronicut 


42, 224 


Squires 


.. 224,261 


St. Jean d'Acre ... 93 


Sor ... 


117 


Stacey 


81 


Stoach 


... 281 


Sorbey 


266 


Stack ... 


130 


Stobo 


... 122 


Sorby ... 


.. 133,152 


Stadtholder 


... 258 


Stock 


... 121 


Sorley ... 


25, 34, 227 


Stael ... 


259 


Stocks 


... 130 


Sorr ... 


252 


Stafford 


.. 140,148 


Stockenstrom 


... 148 


Sosipater 


58 


Stagno 


153 


Stockwell ... 


... 130 


Sosthenes 


223 


Stahl ... 


259 


Stockings ... 


... 117 


Sothern 


145 


Stahlman 


259 


Stoddart 


239,253 


Sottenville 


38 


Staines 


146 


Stoffel 


... 219 


Soter ... 


46, 94, 223 


Stally ... 


259 


Stofflet 


... 219 


Soul ... 


146 


Stallybrass 


... 259 


Stoganowitz 


... 293 


Soule ... 


146 


Stallyman 


259 


Stoke 


... 130 


Soult ... 


126 


Stamford 


148 


Stoker 


... 130 


Southack 


127 


Stanback 


148 


Stokes 


... 130 


Southey 


145 


Standen 


126 


Stone 


... 149 


Southgate 


L45, 256, 301 


Standish 


149 


Stonehouse 


... 251 


Souter 


244 


Stanford 


148 


Storar 


... 146 


Sozomon 


223 


Stanhope 


.. 124,149 


Storks 


... 202 


Spada ... 


214 


Stanhow 


.. .. 153 


Story 


34, 145 


Sparman 


255 


Stanley 


.. 149,265 


Stott 


... 220 


Sparrow 


... 197,203 


Stauners 


265 


Stout 


44, 220 


Spellman 


258 


Stark ... 


29 


Stowe 


130, 243 


Spelman 


257 


Starkey 


57 


Stowell 


... 130 


Spencer 


252 


Starling 


218 


Strabane 


... 151 


Spens 


252 


Starmer 


222 


Strabo 


... 31 


Speron 


291 


Stasoula 


295 


Strachen 


... 94 


Speroni 


291 


Stead ... 


220 


Straduarius 


68, 275 


Spes ... 


93 


Steady 


.. 44,220 


Strahan 


... 94 


Spicer ... 


239 


Stean ... 


149 


Strang 


... 158 


Spielman 


253 


Steele 


259 


Strange 


... 155 


Spiers ... 


162 


Steely 


198 


Strategus ... 


... 220 


Spike ... 


215 


Steen ... 


149 


Stratford ... 


140, 148 


Spillman 


258 


Steeper 


137 


Stratocles ... 


216, 221 


Spink ... 


203 


Steeple 


218 


Stratonice ... 


100,115 


Spinner 


128 


Stein ... 


.. 136,149 


Strauss 


160, 203 


Spinoli 


128 


Steinits 


136 


Strichen 


... 94 



356 



INDEX. 





Pasei 




Page 




Page 


Strickland ... 


... 236] 


Sutton 


... 127 


Tag-Maluil 


218 


Strinadona 


... 110 


Suttur 


... 178: 


Tagg ... 


86, 168, 253 


Stringer 


... 249' 


Suwarrow 41, 


292, 295 


Taggart 


245 


Strombi 


... 307 i 


Swaageman 


46,173 


Tagliapetra 


... 73 


Stromier ... 


U8, 298 


Swain 158, 


236, 263 


Taghavue 


73 


Strongbow ... 


... 217 


Swaine 


... 29 


Taglioni 


73 


Stress 


... 275 


Swainland ... 


... 236 


Tahrea 


82 


Strossmajer 


... 275 


Swaite 


129, 145 


Tait ... 


33,73 


Struther ... 


... 151 


Swan 


... 201 


Talbot 


229 


Struthers ... 


151, 203 


Swann 


... 201 


Talboys 


126,250,200 


Stuart 


... 243 


Swanhilda 


... 172 


Talford 


260 


Stubbiugs ... 


... 270 


Swauthaler 


... 143 


Talhiran 


... 32,109 


Stubbs 


122, 129 


Swartz 19, 


190, 301 


Taliesan 


32 


Stuhlman ... 


... 241 


Swartzerd ... 


39, 299 


Tallach 


... 125,135 


Stunt 


... 33 


Swayne 


... 158 


Talliafero 


120 


Sturmer 


222 


Sweaborg ... 


... 139 


Talligan 


279 


Sturrocks 199 


210, 230 


Swedenborg 


... 139 


Tallis ... 


126 


Sturton 


139, 140 


Sweeny 


29, 50 


Tallow 


136 


Styles 


... 151 


Sweet 


... 93 


Tallmadge 


... 98,112 


Su 


... 302 


Switt ... 33,59,158 


Tallyrand 


... 1.55,217 


Suagros 


111,199 


Swindell 


144,230 


Talmage 


... 98,112 


Suarez 


226, 291 


Swinfen 


... 144 


Tarn ... 


33, 48, 292 


Suarius 106 


236, 291 


Swing 


... 158 


Tamar 


128 


Sudanowsky 


246, 293 


Swiulioe 


... 144 


Tamiesier 


86 


Sudbury 


... 137 


Swinkleman 


... 232 


Tambroni 


73 


Sudden 


... 143 


Swires 


... 29 


Tamerlane 


31,32 


Sue ... 93,98,232 


Swisher 


... 158 


Tam O'Shanter ... 135 


Sueuo 


29, 158 


Swithen 


29, 158 


Tarn Will 


292 


Suffetes 


... 53 


Sword 


... 217 


Tanagra 


... 103,145 


Sugden 


144,236 


Sybel 


... 117 


Tanaquil 


103 


Sugros 


... 199 


Sybella 102 


104, 117 


Tancred 


255 


Suidas 


199, 302 


S'yke 


... 147 


Tandy 


... 34,275 


Suilaluin 


... 109 


Sykes 


... 147 


Tan guy e 


123, 128, 277 


Suilgorm . . . 


... 109 


Sylla 


... 30 


Tanhauser 


307 


Suilmalda ... 


... 109 


Sylph 


... 125 


Tann ... 


60 


Suke 


... 93 


Sylvanus ... 


... 180 


Tannahill 


273 


Suleyman ... 


50, 99 


Symes 


... 83 


Tanner 


... 237,273 


Sullivan 30 


, 109, 284 


Symachus 


... 45 


Tannerock 


273 


Sulpice 


... 30 


Symington 


... 83 


Tanuock 


273 


Sulpicius 


... 32 


Syntyche ... 


... 58 


Tan Sein 


145 


Summer 


... 257 


Syren 


114,110 


Tantalus 


... 81,187 


Summerlee 


... 151 


Syrus 


... 160 


Tanz ... 


307 


Summers ... 


... 257 


Syth 


... 29 


Taot-se 


297 


Sumpter 


... 257 






Taphath 


97 


Sunter 


... 83 


Tabbaoth ... 


... 09 


Tardieu 


... 74,286 


Suntion 


... 85 


Tabbey 


... 150 


Tarn ... 


33 


Superbus ... 


... 48 


Tabby 


... 209 


Tarc^uin 


... 134,234 


Surat 


... 244 


JTabeel 


55 


Tarr ... 


153 


Surr ... 117, 145, Sr/i 


Tabitha 114 


, 202, 209 


Tarrant 


153 


Surrey 


... 249 


Tabraham ... 


52, 296 


Tarry ... 


... 133,153 


Surry 


... 249 


, Tabram 


... 52 


Tartu ffe 


307 


Surtees 


... 145 


Tabrimmon 


... 195 


Tascher 


256 


Surtur 


... 178 


Tachus 


... 33 


Tash ... 


121 


Susan 


... 93 


Tacitus 35,47 


, 100, 305 


Tashwood 


121 


Susannah ... 


... 93 


Taddy 


... 241 


Tasker 


... 234,256 


Suther 


... 146 


Tadeoni 


58 


Tasmau 


241 


Sutherland 


146, 148 


Taffy 


... 92 


Tass ... 


241 



INDEX. 



357 



Tasso 208 

Tassoni 73 

Tassy 241 

Tate ... 41,75,305 

Tatian 41 

Tatius 305 

Tatlock 305 

Tato 305 I 

Taurus 169 i 

Tavernier 25() 

Taylor 25 G 

Tawell 137 i 

Tawse 13G ! 

Teague 241 

Teazle 244 

Teba 134,130 

Tebah 55 

TebaUah CO 

Teck 25g| 

Tedesco 100 1 

Teer 285 

Tegiilarius 256 

Telegonus 91 

Telemachus ... 217 

Telfer 120,200 

Tell 127,130 

Tellwright 242 

Temple 245 

Templemore 84, 235, 245 



Thais 
Thai 
Thalbei 



Thales 
Thalia 
Thalpius 
Thamah 
Thammuz ... 

Thana 

Thana-Lartia 

Thane 

Thaumas 



ra;,'e 

... 100 
... 143 
137, 143 

... 187 



114,187, 189 

187 

97 

189 

103 

... 145 
103, 145 
... 189 



Thaumaturgua ... 189 
Thecla ... 38,77,100 



Teunant 
Tennyson 
Terah ... 
Terence 
Terentius 
Teresa 

Terpander ... 
Tei-psichore 

Terris 

Terry 

Tertius 
Tertulius ... 
TertuUian ... 
Teschenmaker 

Testa 

Tetley 

Tetrander 

Tetricus 

Teucer 

Teufel 

Teut 

Tew 

Tewson 

Thackeray 

Thackombau 

Thaddeus .. 

Thade 

Thady 



Theia 

Themis 
Themisto .. 
Themistocles 
Theobald .. 
Theobulus .. 
Theocles 
Theocritus 
The O'Donaghu 



151,277 

208 

8S 
134, 130, 151 
... 33,159 

lOG 

40 

.. 187 

.. 247 

.. 234 

.. 90 

90, 182 

.. 182 i 

.. 240 : 

, ... 305 

, ... 130 i 

29, 40, 190 I 

. ... 190 

. ... 195 

. ... 75^ 

. ... 195 

. ... 77 

77,89 

... 250 

... 89 

. ... 58 

. ... 58 

, 58, 241 



Theodore 
Theodoric 
Theodorus 
Theodosia ... 
Theodosius ... 
Theogonus ... 
Theophanius 
Theophila ... 
Theophilopoul 
Theophilus ... 
Theophorus 
Theophrastus 



100 
... 303 
... 303 
... 303 
... 235 
... 117 
,77,100 
... 53 

227 



76, 122, 235 

7G, 234 

70, 77, 90 

96, 235 

96, 235 

301,302 

... 81 



... 295 
, ... 295 
... 107 
... 219 
196, 255 



Theophylact ... 55 
Theos ... 50,76,106 



Theosebes 

Theosebius 

Theresa 

Therou 

Theseus 

Thessalonica 

Theta 

Thetis 

Thia 

Thierry 
Thing 

Thirlwall ... 
Thistlethwaite 
Thoburn ... 
Thodotus ... 
Thomas 

Thon 

Thor ., 
Thora ., 
Thoraga 



238, 302 
... 202 
... 100 
... 100 
... 48 
... 107 
70, 100 
70 
... lOe 
... 234 
... 254 
... 136 
... 129 

169 

... 90,235 

274 

153 

100,109,188 

100 

109 





Page 


Thorburn ... 


... 1G9 


Tlioresby 


... 180 


Thorgar 


... 170 


Thorkettle ... 


... 109 


Thornes 


... 128 


Thorold 


... 109 


Thoroughgood 


... 152 


Thorp 


... 1,50 


Thorwald ... 


109, 295 


Thorwaldsen 


109, 295 


Thoth 


77, 195 


Thothmethes 


... 195 


Thrale 


... 34 


Thraseus ... 


... 224 


Thrasonicus 


... 224 


Thrasymachus 


... 225 


Thresher ... 


70,138 


Thrower 


... 230 


Thug 


... 305 


Thugater ... 


... 295 


Times 


1G8,180 


Thurkettle ... 


... 169 


Thurlow ... 


144,169 


Thurstan ... 


... 170 


Thurtell ... 


... 169 


Thwaites 129 


,136,144 


Thynne 


... 123 


Ti 


... 77 


Tiber 


146, 274 


Tiberias 


146, 296 


Tichborne ... 


... 147 


Tichbourne 


... 152 


Tickel 


... 87 


Ticklepenny 


... 135 


Tidal 


... 57 


Tiddler 


... 87 


Tidy 


... 235 


Tidyman 


... 235 


Tierny 


304 


Tiers 


... 90 


Tieu 


... 195 


Tiffany 


... 81 


Tigellinus ... 


... 242 


Tiger ... 213,214,215 


Tighearna ... 


303 


Tiglathpileser 


... 194 


Tilden 


... 144 


Tillinghast ... 


... 144 


Tillman 


... 232 


Tillot 


... 128 


Tilroyd 


... 128 


Tilley 


... 238 


Tilly 


... 128 


Timeus 


. . . 305 


Timoleon ... 


... 205 


Timon 


... 305 


Timor 


... 196 



358 



INDEX. 





Pa-e 




Paf,'e 


1 


Pajrc 


Timour 


32 


Torelli 


... 199 


Triton ... 


40 


Timpkins . 


274 


; Torfid 


... 123 


1 Troilus 


141 


Tiadale 


145 


Toiigos 


... 136 


TroUliope 


126 


Tingay 


254 


Tormaid 


... 289 


' TroUope 


126 


Tinto ... . 


. ... 25G 


Toro 


... 169 


! Tromp 


253 


Tintoretto . 


. ... 250 


Torquatus . . . 


... 218 


f Tronchet 


121 


Tippet ... . 


. ... 274 


Torquemada 


... 136 


! Tropbimus 


... 45 


Tii-as ... . 


. ... 97 


Torquil 


170, 289 


Trotter 


... 60,246 


Tirawley . 


. ... 173 


Torr 


136, 137 


Trubody 


... 33,246 


Tiridates 


41,00,204 


Torrance ... 


20, 20, 48 


Trufit ... 


123 


Tiscbendorf 


150, 242 


Torreador ... 


... 199 


Trufitt 


170 


Tista ... ■ . 


. ... 93 


Torrentius ... 


... 20 


Truman 


... 17,272 


Tita ... . 


. ... 93 


Torrero 


... 199 


Trumball 


199 


Titan ... . 


. ... 188 


Torricelli ... 


136, 242 


Trumbel 


29 


Titcomb . 


. ... 138 


Torsleff ... 


... 170 


Trump 


307 


Titbonus . 


. ... 307 


Tortola ... 


202, 304 


Trumpf 


307 


Titian ... . 


. ... 41 


Tot 


... 295 


Truwbitt 


123 


Titiens 


. ... 41 


Tottie 


... 87 


Trypbena 


... 112,243 


Titus ... 


41,80,305 


Tottenbam ... 


... 195 


Trypbo 


45 


Tityrus 


. ... 248 


Toussaint ... 


... 85 


Trypbosa 


40,112,243 


Tiu ... . 


. ... 77 


Tovey 


202, 304 


Tu ... 


77 


Tob ... . 


. ... 195 


Towell 


... 137 


Tubal-Cain 


... 269 


Tobiab 


. ... 195 


Towers 


... 136 


Tuck ... 


... 229,256 


Tobias 


. ... 195 


Townley 42 


, 130, 139 


Tucker 


256 


Toby ... . 


. 119,195 


Townly 


... 240 


Tudbope 


1'45 


Todd 


. ... 206 


Townsend ... 


... 139 


Tudor ... 


... 76,2;^ 


Todbunter .. 


. 206,243 


Toxicrate ... 


... 217 


Tuerto 


31 


Todleben .. 


. ... 88 


Toy 


... 257 


Tuff ... 


219 


Toe 


. 136, 137 


Tozer 


... 244 


Tuffil ... 


... 75,219 


Tofts 


. 133,139 


Traill 


... 134 


Tui ... 


77 


Toke 


. ... 229 


Travel 


... 200 


Tuis 


77 


Tola 


. ... 87 


Travil 


... 233 


Tuisco ... 


182 


Toland 


. ... 134 


Trayner 


... 29 


Tuisden 


144 


Toler 


. ... 153 


Trebelli 31,40,112 


TuUian 


... 182,183 


Toletus 


. ... 140 


Trebonius ... 


... 42 


Tullius 


48, 182, 183 


Toller 


. ... 256 


Tredgett ... 


... 249 


Tullocb 


136, 279, 289 


Tolliday .. 


. 82, 173 


Tree 


123, 125 


Tully ... 


.. 182, 183 


Tollner 


. ... 256 


Treffry 


... 127 


Tunstan 


170 


Tolmai 


. ... 305 


Tregeiles ... 


... 147 


Tupman 


240 


Tolmides .. 


. ... 301 


Trelawney ... 


127,151 


Tupper 


240 


Tolvie ... .. 


. ... 120 


Tremble ... 


42, 199 


Turenne 


240 


Tommy 


. ... 274 


Tremfear ... 


29, 39 


Turnarelli 


242 


Tompson 


. ... 86 


Treucb 


... 130 


Turnbull 


29, 42, 199 


Tomson >. 


. ... 80, 


Trenton 


... 125 


Turner 


242 


Tonkin 


. ... 274; 


Trepoff 


88,91 


Turnbam 


128 


Tonner 


. 89, 169 1 


Tresbam 


... 119 


Turnus ... 


45,71,173 


Tonson 


. ... 272 


Trevannion 


... 151 


Turpin 


177 


Tony 


. 272, 274 1 


Trewent ... 


... 129 


Turracremata ... 136 


Tooby 


. 119,195; 


Triana 


... 143 


Turrentin 


130 


Toogood 


. ... 137 1 


Trim 


... 121 


Turtle 


202 


Toole 


. 257, 274 


Triones 


... 302 


Turton 


139 


Tootb ... 45,245,284 


TripbUus ... 


... 40 


Tuson 


77 


Topfer 


. ... 240 


Tripp 


... 253 


Tuvee 


73 


Toplady 


. ... 84! 


Trippeumaker 


... 253 


Twa ... 


80 


Tora 


. ... 216 Trippner 


... 253 


Tweedale 


145 


Toraga 


. 106, 169 1 Trismegistus 


... 264 


Tweedle . 


145 


Tordenskiold 


... 270 1 


Tristam 


... 44 


Twells 


240 



INDEX. 



359 





Page 




Page 1 




Page 


Twentyman 


... 239 


Usi-mahse ... 


... 89 


Van Rhyn ... 


... 226 


Twina 


... 8G 


Uther-Peudragon 207 1 


Vans 


40 


Twiss 


... 138 


Utteridge ... 


... 137 


Vansteen ... 


... 149 


Twistletoa ... 


... 138 


Uttermare ... 


... 152 


Van Trorap... 


... 253 


Twysdeu 


144,150 


Uxor 


57,75 


Van Winkle 


... 149 


Tycho 


... 229 


Uz ... 53, 


209, 255 


Varden 


... 153 


Tychicus 


... 43 


Uzzah 


59, 164 


Variolus 


... 30 


Tyerman ... 


... 250 


Uzzi 


... 78 


Varius 


... 30 


Tyler 


256,281 


Uzziah 


53, 164 


Varley 


... 43 


Tymlale ... 


... 145 


Uzziel 


... 53 


Varrow 


... 29 


Tyndall 


... 145 


Uzzi(m) 


... 78 


Varus 


... 32 


Typlion 


... 185 






Vasa _ ... 45, 


136, 267 


Tyraunion ... 


296, 301 


Valdeloge... 


... 153 


Vasari 


83, 240 


Tyrannus ... 


235, 296 


Valdez 


... 290 


Vasco 


... 156 


Tyrell 134 


136, 169 


Valens 


28,47 


Vashni 


.. 90 


Tyrwhit 


123, 136 


Valentine 28 


, 47, 156 


Vashti 


31, 116 


Tytler 


... 253 


Valentinian... 


23, 47 


Vasquez 


156, 290 






Valerius 


... 200 


Vass 


136, 199 


Udal 


41,47 


Valkiriers ... 


... 172 


Vassilovitch 


... 293 


Ugo 


... 167 


Vallensteen... 


... 149 


Vatel 


... 237 


Ugoliai 


... 167 


Vallesneri ... 


33, 285 


Vatta 


252 


Uu-hu 


... 89 


Vallesteen ... 


... 149 


Vauban 


... 143 


Ulam 


90, 264 


Valletort ... 


... 144 


Vaughan ... 


34 


Ulic 


... 118 


Valpy 


... 207 


Vaux 


136, 144 


Ullathorne ... 


... 307 


Van Amburg 


... 94 


Vavasour ... 


... 261 


UUick 


... 274 


Vanan 


... 40 


Vecchi 


292 


UUia 


171, 274 


Vant Brunt... 


... 136 


Vedah 


... 243 


Ulman 


... 16 


Van Buren 133 


, 150, 277 


Veddas 


... 243 


Ulph 


... 177 


Vance 


... 40 


Vedder 


120, 124 


Ulphilas 


174, 175 


Vandeleur ... 


... 277 


Vega 


... 174 


Ulpian 


... 206 


Vandeman ... 


... 149 


Veitch 


... 292 


Ulric ... 134 


171, 234 


Vandeput ... 


... 241 


Velasquez ... 


... 29 


Ulysses 


88, 190 


Vanderbecken 


146, 148 


Velpeu 


139, 266 


Umbeito 


... 292 


Vanderbilt ... 


... 135 


Venantius ... 


... 243 


Umbreit 


... 97 


Vanderchild 


... 218 


Venard 


... 243 


Umpisi 


... 89 


Vanderhoff . . . 


... 232 


Veneroni ... 


... 73 


Una ... 98 


117, 118 


Vanderkemp 


132, 133 


Venn ... 122 


150, 257 


Underwood... 


... 123 


Vanderpeereboom 277 


Vent 


86 


Unding 


... 97 


Vandersteen 


149, 276 


Ventriss 


86, 243 


Unitt 


... D8 


Van der Tan 


... 128 


Venua 


... 243 


Uno-tsmbi ... 


... 89 


Vanderveld... 


128, 277 


Venus ... 116 


189, 192 


Underwalden 


... 122 


Vardev6er ... 


149, 277 


Verger 


... 257 


Uawin 


... 224 


Vanduzee 149, 


150, 152 


Vergilius ... 


... 308 


Upjohn 


... 94 


Vandyke 


... 136 


Verna 


... 260 


Upp 


61. 278 


Vane ... 32, 


219, 290 


Veruet 


128, 260 


Urania 17 


, 187 192 


Van Hahn ... 


... 277 


Veron 


... 272 


Urban... 42 


139, 240 


Vanelli 


... 94 


Veronica 


... 272 


Urbane 


139, 240 


Vanneque ... 


127, 128 


Verres 


... 206 


Ure 


147, 150 


VanHoutenl25,126,149 


Veron 


... 272 


Uriah 


14, 25 


Vanka 


... 105 


Verstegan ... 


... 236 


Uriel 


14, 25 


Vanloo... 128 


132, 277 


Verucci 


... 272 


Urijah 


14, 25 


Van Meter ... 


151, 277 


Verus 


44, 273 


Uri{m) 


... 78 


Vannan 


... 40 


Very 


... 206 


Urket 


... 132 


Van Neck ... 


... 121 


|Vesey 


31,46 


Urquhart ... 


... 132 


: Vanuer 


... 144 


Vespasian ... 


98, 165 


Ursula 


110, 199 


Van Osterzee 


... 276 


Vespucci 


... 210 


Usher 


60, 236 


Van Eeaiuuer 


... 277 


Vesta 


... 184 



360 



INDEX. 





Pas,'e 




Pa<re 




Pa^e 


Vetch 


... 234 


Vose 


... 31 


Wansborough 


... 167 


Vial 


... 242 


Vosey 


... 31 


Wanstead ... 


... 167 


Vicars 


... 257 


Voss 


... 206 


Warboys 


... 153 


Vickers 


... 257 


Voyle 


... 263 


Ward 


59, 72 


Vickery ... 


... 257 


Vulpius 


... 206 


Wardlaw ... 


... 137 


Victor 100, 


115, 136 


Vye 


98, 112 


Wardrop 


233, 253 


Victoria 


100, 103 






AVardrupp ... 


... 122 


Vida 


92, 104 


Waccup 


... 126 


Ware ... 72, 


145, 270 


Vidocque ... 


123, 125 


Waddell ... 


... 145 


Wark 


... 204 


Vierftiss 


32, 74 


Waddelow ... 


... 176 


Warner 


... 257 


Vieuxtemps 


... 135 


Waddilove ... 


... 177 


Warren 


... 257 


Vigilantius ... 


66, 82 


Wadding 


... 270 


Warrington 


... 270 


Vigneron ... 


... 73 


Waddington 


... 270 


Warton 


139, 150 


Vignoles 128, 


153, 241 


Waddle 


... 145 


Washington 45 


267, 270 


Vikars 


... 257 


Waddy 


... 150 


Wass ... 45, 


267, 270 


Villar 


... 171 


Wade 


148, 270 


Wasser 


... 267 


Villeneuve ... 


... 139 


Wadlow 


... 177 


Wasserbohr... 


... 267 


ViUeroy ... 


39, 139 


Wadrapp 


... 122 


Wassing 


... 45 


Villiers 


... 171 


Wadsworth . . . 


... 150 


Wat ... 216, 


248, 256 


Vincent 


... 224 


Wager 


222 


Wateau 


137, 237 


Vincenzio ... 


... 224 


Wagner 


"77, 242 


Waters... 39 


151, 252 


Vinegar ... 


... 214 


Wagstaff ... 


... 215 


Waterston ... 


... 138 


Vmter 


... 257 


Wainwrigbt 


... 241 


Watling ... 


... 269 


Violet 


... 117 


Waistcot ... 


... 137 


Watson 


272, 288 


Vipend 


... 254 


Waitman .. 


... 242 


Watts 


216, 248 


Vipond 


... 254 


Waits 


... 253 


Watty 


... 288 


Vir 


... 100 


Waldbrook ... 


... 146 


Wat Tyler ... 


... 256 


Virgil 


... 82 


Waldegrave 


... 248 


Wauchope ... 


... 126 


Virginia G7. 


100, 112 


Waldemar ... 


... 38 


Way land ... 


... 170 


Virginius 100 


112, 185 


Waldeu ... 


129, 144 


Wayman 


... 242 


Virgo 


... 100 


Waldo 


... 29 


Wear 


... 145 


Virtue 


... 75 


Wale 


... 155 


Weatherby ... 


... 123 


Visconti 


... 245 


Wales 


... 155 


Weatherhead 


123, 126 


Visbnaputra 


... 296 


Wallah 


... 266 


Weaver 


... 237 


Vitalian ... 


154, 200 


Walker 


248, 249 


Webb 


... 237 


Vitalis 


... 242 


Walkinshaw 


126, 137 


Weber 


... 237 


Vitellius ... 


... 200 


Walkup ... 


... 126 


Webster ... 


... 237 


Vitus 


... 242 


Wallace 


... 155 


Wedderbura 


... 122 


Vivian 


113, 242 


Wallach ... 


152, 264 


Wedders ... 


... 198 


Vixen 


... 101 


Wallonsteiii 


122, 124 


Wedgewood 


... 122 


Vladimir 


... 38 


Waller 


... 264 


Weeler 


211,280 


Voce 


... 206 


Wallet 


... 159 


Weir 


145, 301 


Voddam ... 


... 122 


Wallop 


126, 148 


Weird 


... 187 


Vodrey 


... 248 


Walls 


159, 264 


Weisensteia 


... 149 


Vogel 


106, 253 


Wallsend ... 


... 136 


Welcombe ... 


138,148 


Vogelsang ... 


... 125 


Walner 


163, 264 


Weller 


148,171 


Voglit 


... 237 


Walpole 


... 242 


Wellesley ... 


... 137 


Vokes 


... 284 


Walpurgis .. 


... 113 


Wellhausen 


,.. 148 


Volpicelli ... 


... 207 


Walsh ... .. 


157, 161 


Wellington 


... 270 


Volta 


... 151 


Walter 


... 216 


Wells 


... 62 


Voltaire 


... 284 


Walters 


... 122 


WoLsli 


... 161 


Voltz 


... 122 


AValton 


122, 126 


Wemys 


... 62 


Von der Tann 


... 277 


Walworth .. 


... 122 


Wemyss 135 


, 151, 266 


Von Reaumer 


... 150 


Walz 


... 122 


Wcndel 


... 106 


Von Robert 


111, 255 


Waltz 


... 122 


Weniloll ... 


... 158 


Vopiscus 


... 86 


Wamba 


47, 307 


Weudohne ... 


... 106 


Vortigern ... 


40, 227 


[Wands 


... 265 


Wen man 


... 242 



INDEX. 



361 





Page 




Page 






rage 


Wentworth 


212, 271 


Widness ... 


... 124 


Winthrop 


37,68 


150 


Werter 


... 198 


Wiggin(s) ... 


... 271 


Wisby ... . 




167 


Wesley 


... 137 


Wight 


75, 285 


Wise ... 





34 


Wessensteia 


... 149 


Wife 


233, 237 


Wiseman . 


.. 38 


264 


Wesson 


... 137 


Wightgar ... 


... 215 


Wisgar 




215 


Westley 


... 137 


Wigmore ... 


200, 242 


Wishart 


15, 26 


264 


Weston 


... 137 


Wigram 


... 200 


Withcraft 





124 


Weatherby 


... 122 


Wilberforce 


... 136 


Witgar... 





215 


Weatherhead 


... 123 


Wilderspin 


... 42 


With ... 





122 


Wetherspoon 


... 130 


Wiles 


171,272 


Wither... 




124 


Wetla 


... 269 


Wilfred 


... 171 


Witherhead 




126 


Wette 


... 122 


Wilfritb ... 


... 171 


Witherow 




123 


Wballey ... 


... 148 


Wilhelm ... 


... 106 


Withers 


.".' 124 


125 


Wbarrie 


... 241 


Wilhelmina 


106, 171 


Witney 




124 


Wbarry ... 


... 286 


Wilkes 


... 171 


With wrong 




122 


Wbeeler ... 


241,280 


Wilkie 


... 274 


Witley ... 





266 


Wbelpton ... 


... 176 


Wilkinson ... 


76, 287 


Witt ... 





122 


WbeweU ... 


... 280 


wm 


... 171 


Witticin 




128 


Wbib 


... 237 


WUlard 


... 171 


Witton... 




97 


Wbibley ... 


... 237 


Willemzoon 


... 295 


Witty ... 





122 


Wbigmore ... 


... 242 


Wilier 


... 171 


Wise ... 




34 


Wbipps 


... 237 


Willet 


171,274 


Wladislaw 


.'.' '38 


, 294 


Wbipperman 


... 237 


William 97 


, 108, 171 


Woden... 




166 


Wbidden ... 


... 123 


Willie 


... 274 


Woffendale 





176 


Wbisker ... 


... 215 


Willimar ... 


... 171 


Wolcot... 





139 


Wbiskin ... 


... 215 


Willimore . . . 


... 75 


Wolemuth 




175 


Wbitcombe 


... 123 


Willimot ... 


171,274 


AVolf ... 




177 


Wbite 42,75, 


249, 270 


Willing 


... 171 


Wolfgang 




174 


Wbitebread 


... 201 


Willis 


171,274 


Wolfrad 




176 


Wbitefield ... 


... 266 


Willmer ... 


75, 171 


Wolfsruna 




176 


Wbitebead ... 


... 242 


Willocks ... 


.. 171 


Wolfstan 




174 


Wbitelaw ... 


... 149 


Willougiiby 


... 128 


Wollaston 





139 


Wbiteside 123 


126, 222 


Willox 


... 171 


Wolmuth 





175 


Wbitesmitb 


258, 259 


Wilmer 


75, 171 


Wolseley 




176 


Wbitgar 


... 215 


WiUmet ... 


... 274 


Wolsey... 




175 


Wbitgift ... 


... 85 


Wilmot 


... 274 


Wolski... 





122 


Wbitbam ... 


... ]23 


Wilsher ... 


... 128 


Woman 





100 


Wbitberow 


... 123 


Wilson 


287, 292 


Womba 




47 


Wbiting 270,285,306 


Windsor 


... 133 


Wonfor 





167 


Wbitlock ... 


... 32 


Windthorst 


... 307 


Wooden 





166 


Whitman ... 


... 39 


Wine 


... 93 


Woodgrave 




248 


Wbitmore ... 


... 75 


Winegar ... 


... 214 


Woodhead 


.'.' 123 


308 


Wbitside ... 


126,222 


Wink 


... 149 


Woodhouse 




279 


Whitster ... 


238, 249 


Winkle 


... 149 


Woodley 




129 


Wbittem ... 


.. 123 


Winks 


... 149 


Woodman 


39, 123 


, 124 


Wbitting ... 


... 285 


Wiukleman 


... 232 


Woodrow 




248 


W^bittington 


... 285 


Winegar 


... 214 


Woodruffe 





248 


Whittle ... 


259, 269 


Winne 


... 30 


Woods ... 


60, 120 


, 280 


Whitworth 


... 271 


Winnie 


... 93 


Woodside 




126 


Whyatt 


... 274 


Wiunifred ... 


... 45 


Woodstock 





126 


Wbybrow ... 


... 139 


Winnoc 


... 93 


Woodward 




248 


Whyman ... 


... 239 


Winship 


... 240 


Woolard 




139 


Whyte 


... 159 


Winslow ... 


134,136 


Woolcock 


'.".' 171 


,274 


Wickliffe 162 


, 228, 271 


Winterbach 


... 144 


Woolfield 




139 


Wicks 


34, 242 


Winterbottom 


... 144 


Woolfrad 




176 


Widdows 122 


124, 125 


Winterborn 


92, 144 


Wolfrand 





176 


Widmore ... 
27 


123, 124 


Winters 


... 257 


Wolfsruna 




176 



3(J2 



INDEX. 





Page 




Page 




Page 


Woolcock ... 


... 171 


Youssupoff 


293 


Zethar ... 


... 78, 116 


Woolnoth 139 


175, 220 


YuiU ... 


84 


Zetland 


289 


Woolsey ... 


... 175 


Yuille ... 


167 


Zeus .. 


45, 77, 183 


Woolward ... 


... 139 


Yule ... 


84 


Zibiah ... 


109, 114, 209 


Wootoa 122 


123, 151 


Zab ... 


174 


Zibion ... 


71 


Wordie 46 


139, 150 


Zabad ... 


.. 97, 106 


Zibrah ... 


109 


Wortley 


... 133 


Zabdi ... 


97 


Zichri ... 


60 


Wotherspoon 


... 130 


Zabdiah 


97 


Ziegler 


284 


Wren 


... 234 


Zabdiel 


97 


Zill ... 


55, 99 


Wright 


... 241 


Zaccar ... 


55 


Zillah ... 


55, 99, 109 


Wunder ... 


... 265 


Zaccheus 


58 


Zill AUah 


55, 99 


Wunsch 


.. 97 


Zacchiah 


58, 79 


Zillai ... 


... 32, 304 


Wunnaer ... 


... 140 


Zaccur... 


79 


Zilpah ... 


116 


Wycherley ... 


128, 180 


Zacbary 


55 


Zilthai... 


99 


Wynn 


... 133 


Zacher... 


79 


ZUthaiah 


99 


Wynship ... 


... 240 


Zadok ... 


44 


Zimmerman ... 241 






Zahn ... 


284 


Zimri ... 


78 


Xanthus ... 


22, 203 


Zalmoni 


72 


Zimri(m) 


78 


Xantippe ... 


22, 203 


Zalmon 


55, 72, 99 


Zinzendorl 


... 131, 150 


Xantippas ... 


... 203 


Zalmunna 


55,72 


Ziphion 


71 


Xavier 


... 136 


Zambianchi 


... 93 


Ziphon... 


78 


Xenia 


... 257 


Zambo... 


81 


Zippor ... 


... 46, 106 


Xeno ... 112 


257, 298 


Zampa... 


94 


Zipporah 


106 


Xenopbanes 


... 307 


Zanchius 


94 


Zisca ... 


31 


Xenophilus ... 


40, 257 


Zancoff 


94 


Zita ... 


... 83, 101 


Xenophon ... 


... 251 


Zauoni... 


94 


Zitella ... 


101 


Xenos 


257, 307 


Zany ... 


94 


Zithri ... 


60 


Xerxes 


... 234 


Zaphenath 


.. 61, 194 


Zittau ... 


253 


Ximenes 


... 83 


Zarah... 


86 


Ziza ... 


57 


Xylander ... 


39, 250 


Zebedee 


97 


Zizca ... 


31 


Xystus 


... 91 


ZebediaU 


97, 106, 129 


Zohar ... 


58 






Zebudah 


106 


Zoheth 


305 


Yacoub 


... 291 


Zebul ... 


260 


Zoilus ... 


45 


Yahya 


... 94 


Zebulun 


69 


Zollner... 


256 


Yair 


... 135 


Zechariah 


55, 60, 79 


Zoon ... 


41, 278, 296 


Yakoub 


... 95 


Zechori(m) 


79 


Zophah 


59 


YarreU 


125, 135 


Zedekiah 


44 


Zoppi ... 


83, 240, 250 


Yates 


185, 236 


Zeeb ... 


66, 71, 174 


Zopyrus 


17, 25, 183 


Yeamans ... 


... 271 


Zenab ... 


112 


Zorah ... 


... 58, 106 


Yeddie 


224, 284 


Zelophehad 


90 


Zorilla ... 


207 


Yelverton ... 


... 137 


Zemindar 


247 


Zoroaster 


16, 41, 184 


Yemans 


217, 271 


Zenas ... 


45 


Zorra . . . 


206 


Yeoman 


217, 271 


Zeno ... 


45, 112, 257 


Zosimus 


45 


Yett 


136, 152 


Zenobia 


.. 45, 112 


Zouch ... 


308 


Yocum 


... 121 


Zephi(m) 


78 


Zuar ... 


87 


Yohanan 


... 94 


Zepho ... 


93 


Zucca ... 


246 


Yoland 


... 147 


Zephon 


66, 71, 72 


Zuingle 


29 


Yonge 


34, 108 


Zephyr... 


183 


ZuingUus 


... 29, 158 


York 


... 150 


Zerah ... . 


58, 86 


Zukertort 


307 


Yorrick 


... 150 


Zerahiah 


58 


Zulleka 


108, 112, 187 


Young 


34, 296 


Zeresh... . 


.. 93, 116 


Zur 


86 


Youngman ... 


... 108 


Zeruah... . 


116 


Zuriel ... 


55 


Youngster ... 


... 101 


Zerubabel . 


.. 140, 194 


Zurshaddai 


... 55, 145 


Younker 


... 101 


Zeruiah 


.. 55, 116 


Zwingle 


... 29, 158