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a.^ i^^^i- '^^ 





ominLiD raoM faiolt jtoamasTB, van at* mzmoraitda. 


By M^»* GROTE. 

nunsD xDrnoK. 






Tub following work owes its origin to the entreaties 
addressed to me in 1864-1886, by more than one of 
our intimate friends^ that I would furnish some 
account of Mr. Qrote*s early history. Reluctant 
as I felt to enter upon new literary labours, at an 
advanced period of life and with very infirm health, 
I at last yielded to their importunity, and began (in 
1866) to collect such old letters and journals as I had 
preserved, in the view of weaving them into a bio- 
graphical form.^ 

Being thus occupied on one morning of (I think) 
the year 1867, Mr. Grote came into the room. 

''*^hat are you so busy over, there, H. 7** en- 
quired he. 

''Well, I am arranging some materials for a 
sketch of your life, which I have been urgently 
invited to write by several of our best friends."* 

'' Afy life,'* exclaimed Mr. Grote; ''why, there is 
absolutely nothing to tell ! '* 

^ To mj owB MtcmroM wwt addtd, ia 1S72, mmj i^tmhU 
, ibf whiok I U^ lo IkMik Mr. Gmw Wm^s No 

\ o( IkMm u% ialTOd«otd a lU inw ■ml 9t ^k i 

ss4 wtU te M< wilk ialtMl. 

• 2 


^ Not in the way of adventurefly I grant ; but there 
is aomethingy nevertheleeB — joqt Life is the history 
of a mind." 

^ Thai is it ! ** he rejomedy with animation. ^ But 
can you tell it?'* 

^ It is what I intend to try. You see, unless /give 
some account of your youth and early manhood, no 
other hand can furnish the least information con- 
cerning it** 

** Nothing can be more certain— you are the only 
person living who knows anything about me during 
the first half of my existence/* 

This short colloquy ended, the subject was never 
renewed between us; the Historian feeling, as I 
believe, content to leave his life's story in my hands. 

Thenceforth, whenever opportunities and strength 
allowed of my working at the biography, I did so, 
and the narrative had advanced, in 1870, as far as 
the year 1820, when it was unavoidably laid aside 
for the space of twelve months. 

Since the commencement of the year 1872, it has 
been, slowly, continued, in the intervals of leisure 
allowed me by my numerous obligations; though 
often arrested by attacks of illness. 

I have given a brief statement of the cause and 
growth of this modest memoir, to explain to my 
readers from what motives it came to pass that, not- 
withstanding the difficulties attending its composi- 
Uon, r yet had sufficient courage and industry to 
bring my work to an end. When they learn that 


DO Other pen oould have produced it^ they will rarely 
cord to this book all the indulgence it needa. 
These pages contain the portraiture of the indi« 
vidual man, as far as concerns his course of life, 
x»upations, and aims, during the space of half a 
ury : the cast of his mind and thoughts being 
\ir illustrated by the numerous letters with which 
L .ye been enabled to enrich the volume. 
Of George Qrote*s intellectual achievements— 
I Historian, Scholar, Philosopher, or 
Cri -it i rmitted to an unlearned person to 
speak th au ty. I hope, however, that a more 
qualified ex or will supply my deficiency in this 
great field c mtc e. 

It may be t r is necessary for the 

intnx of so much t personal to myself. 

truth is, that our 1 lives ran in one 

I 1, and it would have been difficult to part 

in writing this retrospective memoir. 

H. Q. 


LovDOir, Mmrdk, 187S. 



iMTBODuonoii^Aiioeitiy^lfatenialdaioeBl 1 



Birth of Gecxrge Orot^ 1794— School dajs— Xiitm bftokiiig- 
house— Earl/ tasiet and BtadiM— AMockteB— G. W. Nor- 
mail — Introdnetfon to the Lewin Ikmiljr— Ammementa— 
Tendency towarda poetical oompoaitScm— FaUa in knia— 
Diaappointmeiit— Beaigna hope— Aaaidiioiia habita of atod/ 
— LetteratoG. W.Noman .. 6 



Forma acqaaintaaoe with Jamca Mill— TnHnnnoe of Mill, upon 
Grote'amind—JeremjBeQtham— John Stuart Mill •• 9 



Accidental meeting with Miaa Lewin— Hia paaaion leriTaa— 
Father conaenta to hia marriage on hard conditiona— Brtracta 

I """' " 



Marriage of George Giote— Beai^jence at the banUni^hoaae— 
Frematnre birth of aon— Mra.Grote'a conaeqnent flinew — 
Gxote occnpied with autjeet of early Grecian Hiatoiy- Hia 
fondneaa for mnaic— Hia profidenogr aa a Tioloncello plajer- 
Social habiti of Mr. and Mm. Geoiga Grote— AToraifln of 
GeoigeGrotetofEeQ^Mcielgr •• •• •• ,86 



InlHli of tauHH— Soboitw lodgii«i— Kxtnete 
hamdrnxj — Btmotwrn lo write a History of Gneeo^Yognsa 
lo 8eotkBd^Tov m die Hlghknifa— T^wiiiw on k^— 
Tiril lo WataB Bmtm-^BfBwkm of lClfad*8 'History of 
tt«awi jrfMliy 46 

witM UiiifQiBly pnjwAod — Obiquiobj of byins ^^ fiist Blone 
hf DukB of 8qmk— HtaMi of the elder Qioto— Opening of 
flie Loadoa Uai f eMilj r — MoveBMnttowiw^^ 

■aEiTpES^T^lieeliBSi held in eoimeetioii fEerewitfa-- 
SKon lo PteH—Belan, erand by illneM of lui iOher-- 
PiA of flie letter •• 66 

1880, 188L 
itheheedorthefiynily— Folitieel egitetion— The 
i of Felneiy — Leiter firom Honoe 8ej, deecrihing 
telBuie — Fkeamire of boaineflB, pablie end priTEie 
to power of the Whig perty — Groto*e eeoond 
pamhlet oo Pfcriiementeiy leform 63 

cueefii imnmt nf pnlitirn — BeformBill njeeted by the HooBe- 
ofLorde — Lettere oo the erioe^Grote writes letter to Earl 
Gr^y — Aanonnees cendidstore es Member ior the City of. 
London-* Address to the electors — Is elected by a large' 
l y o ri ty — Winter labonis, to the prcgndice of the 'History '— 
Pniehsss of residence at Bolwich Wood — The Ballot— 
Biinsits on the City elections — Death of Jeremy" Bentfifin 
^LMIer&QM Joseph Ftirtes 70 



I of BeCorm Parliament— If aiden speech on the Ballot « 
- OpinioBB on the qwedi — Polities nnes^y — Tdor into Wales 
•Growing tasto for seianos 82 




Oommittee on Smeenres— Break-up of the Ministry— The Appro- 
priation CSaiue -- Ooeidon Bm -- IHaBatis&ctkm o^ 
—Continental tonr — The Hooaea of Parliament ornianmad 
l^fire.. •• 89 



Diiuolation of Ftoliament — Oonteat for the Oitgr— Groie retomed 
—Loiter from Mr. Ward— Fatiguing attendance in Fiurlia« 
ment— Sir Bobert Peel'a Goremment- Debatea on the Irish 
Church — The Whig Ministry reinstated— Municipal Cor- 
porations' reform — Vehement discussions thereon — York 
Election Committee — Excursion into Berbjshire .. M 



The 'London Beriew'—O'ConneU- Speech on Ush Municipal 
Reform BiU— The Ballot— Death of Jamea MiU— English 
Church reform — Ihilwich Wood giTen up — Continental 
Joum^— Studiea elooution— Agitation on the Ballot— Badi-, 
cal taotica — Diminution of the Badical partj in Parliament — 
Canadian diaoontents— Commercial panic — Death of Xing 
William lY. .. 104 



Third contest for the City— Grote re-elected— Criticism on Orote 
by 'Times' newspaper— The new Poor-kw Act- Angry 
debates — Lord Durham — Letter of a constituent— Joum^ 
to Switzerland — Augmenting influenoe of the Tory party-* 
Besidence in London commenced ^- Trip to Portsmouth — 
American acqiudntanoe— Lord John Bussell^ finality apeeoh 
<— Pttisionliat- Committee Ill 



Debatea on Canada rebellion — Prominent part taken by Orote in 
Opposition r-BaUot debate— Mr. George a Lewia- Mr. John 
Austin— Letter of Grote to that genttaman, at MalU—WoirkB : 



1839, 18ia 

— Oulow Efeetkn Oom- 

— Tour m Belgnim— Hdlkiid 

toltethorSB^uid— Lsller to Mr. G«ofgB 

or Lovd BMi^hn m » adiokr— Yint 

laOomia— Latter eooe0niii« 

• ■ •• •• •. .• 4AA 


CB sBB sHTDBH ffttBRMB i" nOQIO 0( i wWI^BoOB "^ p.^^y i HJiiHJ 

•r MM— ])«n or Dnlwm raqoMte Onio to sMifi him in hk 
vwk oa ftsHirtoiyor tha Cbindi^Gioto oonplies— Bjg»- 
ISM cold or 1811 -- AttondMoe in FiriiaiiMiii onflTOOi in eoB- 
w^MHi— CmiwI Eleetioa— Qioto dediMi to stttid agua 
fv tha GHj — £iBffli or Whig pvty to HidiMB MoendflMy— 

• • f* •• •• xoo 



r Bobflrt FaaTi ICaiitiy aatablifihad --JoanMj to Italy imge(^^ 
—Latter firan Mn. Groto to Hr. Seokr—Kr. and Kn. Groie 
JM aack other oa tha Bfaine^ and proceed to make their 
IqgBtiMr— IneidcDti or tnTol deaoribed — Betiim to 
I — Tha 'Hiatoiy oCOreeoe' reBomed,aiid aoheme of 
maftmad, at Bimham Beeehea — Beriew of 'Early 

'to'WeateinaterBeriew' 148 



firanthabaiikiog-hoiiaa^Leitor of adien tram the 
— SaooBdjomn^jtoPeDoanoir — Animated ohazmcter of 
tha Soeialy and eomramtioii there — Oroto tn^ela to London to 
pall fv JoMB Pattiaoa — Ha retom to F^Boainow — Latter to 


Piof68Bor Boeokh— Trip to Pttis— Augoste Oomte— Huiicil 
attnotions of LondoD mmoo— Exeunioii to Torlnhin and 
Durham v. 168 



Tho first two Tolumes of the 'Histoiy'senttopraM— KiniDgai 

waten — MMiiig with Jenny Und — Soocw of the « Hitey V 
— Letter firom Henry Hallem .. 160 



Hoepitalities at Bnmham Beeches — Uniformly of dafly life and 
stodies^Tonr in Konnandy — OhAteau de TooqueriUe — 
Cherbourg— The Orote children — Poor-law Crwnmisrinn— 
Letter to Lewis — Bemoral to London •» The third and fourth 
Tolumes published — Musical stars— Letter from Bishop 
ThirlwaU 170 



Swiss politics— Grote Tisits SwitserUuid alone— Letter from 
Zurich to Mia. Orote — Felix Mendelssohn— Letter to Lewis 
-Letters from Bwitiserland published— Letter frem Sarah 
Austin •• •• 175 



Portentous aspect of lYench politics — The Revolution of February 
— Bemoral to residence in SaTile Bow — Unusual seduetioos 
oflEered by the musical world- Jenny Lind—Orote's interest 
in the new lYench Republic — Appearance of the fifth and siztii 
volumes— Lrtter to Lewis— Death of Charles Bnlkr lo- 
grattsd •• IBS 



Windaor Oiatle— Eari of limpool aX th« BeeohM— Letter to 
Lewis, with nOeotioH on his own work— Visit to Feiii-> 


fli fts S^^Mi &iibM7— The MVHith and fli^th 
oTOs 'fiiitay' appew— LoMn to Lewk— Eart 

P 189 



IMI to &o«« Mm --Latter firoB Mn. Onto to Mr. Senior -- The 
GnaftSihifaitia^inHjdePtak— Ltoi FlMMsber— Snooeas of 
tiba «Hklot7*— Leaned letter firan Oroto to Lewk— Mn. 
Gioto 9oea to PiMia— Tlia coiy d'elai of the Snd Deeembw 
— BaportoTdiakgna m thaOhambflr— Letter to Mia.Groto 


1858, 186&. 

pyUiealte or Binyi and InUi Tolnnieaol the « Hlttor7'--Letten 
toLavM— Holidaja paaaed at Villa d'ATiaj—Gioto emharka 
m fiouBg— Hittoi7 Hut— Appeanaoe of the eleraith 
of 'ffiatof7*--Bemaxk8--l3 offBradOzfirad hoooazB 
mdMedeaOioto^amindbjTkittoOzted.. .. 909 


185^-1855. > 

of Yob 8eh5n to Yanihagen Ton Enae — Party at History ^ 
fiat -- Fanning <q;wnitkna actirelyproeecuted in Linoolnshire ^ 
— Latter OB BomanHirtofy — The twellUiToIome of 'History' / 

I— Letter of condolence to Sir 0. 0. Lewie on death 
of hii frther— Yiatt to Hampioa Oonrt^dw.,— Oroto*8 intelleo- 
taal labooia—PMigiie— Final pagea of the 'Histoiy of Greece' 
aMttopres 217 



firaoi Sir G. 0. Lewii on twelfth Tolume— From Biahop 
of 8t DaTid*a« and from Mr. Bancroft, on same— Jonmey to 
Sonth of France— The Binera— North Italy — Betum, vid 
HMlelberg — Baron de Bnnaen- Beriew of 'Hiatory' in the 
'OaartariyBaview*- flatiefartion thereateipreeatdt^Anthor 835 


CHAPTER xxvnr. 


Visit to Bowood—M. deTooquerille— Letters to Sir O. O.L0wii 

— Exonnioii in Korth of EDgland— Letter to J. 8. Mill — 
Letter to Sir O. a Lewis on Banking Oommittoe .. US 



The "Olub**-— Stratagem nsed to obtain Orote*s oonsent to Join 
it — His snbaeqnent relish for the meetings — History Hut 
sold — Mr. Hallam— Summer at St Germain en Laje— 
Orote^ Tiews of political condition of French people— Winter - 
residence established at Beigate—Bowood— Occupation at 
"Barrow Green" commenced— .Oherening — The whist table 

— GonTersatioti' respecting recent cTents in Southern Italy— 
"The Papacy haTing a durable tenure/ dw. 910 



Life at Barrow Green— "Spits" companionship — Declines to 
serve on commission of inquiry; giving reasons— Giote^ un- 
wholesome habits- His illness in consequence- Bestoratioii 
to health — Mr. Charles Austin— Visit to Hampton Court— 
D^g^rando— Anecdote concerning— Death of Prince Albert .. 860 



Declines journey to Greece— Letter to Sir G. 0. Lewis on his 
"Ancient Astronomy"— Tedworth-Yice-Chancellonhip of 

' UniTerdty of London accepted by Grote— The Exhibition al 

South Kensington— Bowood visit— PMdiction of the Marquis 

^ of Lansdowne— Bishop Colenso^s book— Letter on American 

Civil War— Letter to MiU— Grote's last letter to SlrO.a 

Lewis .. ^. S67 



Death of Sir G. 0. Lewis— Grief for his loss felt by Grote— IWt 
to Professor Arthur P. Stanley^ at Christ Church— Bsnow 
Green residence given up— Eiomcsion to SwitMrland— Ftsiis 
^^Tedwortn •• •• 966 



1864, 1865. 

VonigB Monbar oTF^mneh loBtiiate — Leiten on 
I— Oottegs pniehMed inSiiR^— TriptoPtek- 
ltaMrinMi -- The « Pklo ' printed -- Mn. Oroto's 
i-BMlen— The work on 'AiiBtotie' commenoed 
-- Uiifenttj ol London --Its iMiig ImportMiee-- BeTiew by 
Gfoli of Miirii book upon Sir WflliimHaniillon .. S71 


Oonege— Ghftir ol Logie— Oiote'o eothre ranstanoe to 

. IfartiDeftii •— Trip to FdrtoDouth •— Eleotion 
eriiOidBeelorfHrU]ih«nitjorAbeideen ..279 


I — Endeairoiin made to uphold the study 
ef Ofsek In Unifsisity of London— Oiot^s anxiety on this 
k—miasBdnonsbbonisnpon mental phikisophy— Oon- 
itorhifcsMrBainliiroric 285 



Aeyrity of Oroie^ intellect, to the extent of ii^ring his health — 
Mn. Gi0te*s apprehenskxis on thishead~Tbo 'DeAnimA* 
eonpleted — Letter, with same, to Mr. Bain — General elec- 
tion—Mr. Lowe retomed for UniTerrity of London — Edward 
Gibbon — Admiration of that writer exproned by Grote .. 291 

Asttle of Marathon, critical remarks on, contested by Field-MarBhal 
Sir W. Gonim — Change in Crete's health — He is ordered to 
Homborg — Faris^The break loose of the Parisian press — 
Oiote*s sympathy with it — Season for this feeling— M. Thiers 
— The "Coming BepabUc* discussed freely in Paris— Betnm 
in impvoffed health — BeoeiTes the olliBr of a Peerage — Deob'nes 
•eoeplanes — Reasons assigned in letter to the Prime Minister 




UniTonity of London ~ Dr. Carpenter ~The Ballot likolj to be 
carried in Fturliament — Altered Tiews of the Historian in 
reference to this meoeuie — Hia opinion of the aetoal Home of 
Commona — Moomfiil xneaagea concerning Ireland^Bepoblican 
aentimenta — America— Example of political imperfeotiona 
offered by the late dril conflict -^Olympia Cokmna: her trana- 
lation of Oreek Hiatoiy •» Opening of the UniTexaity of Lond<m 
by the Queen — The Chancellor'a addreaa— Eulogy on the 
officera of the Eatabliahment— Orote aita for hia portrait to 
Mr. Blillaia— Ezcnndon into the Middle Oonntiea— Ghata* 
worth — The Franco-German war — Indicaiiooa of declining 
atrength— Tendenoy to aleepineaa— Final aitting to artiat on 
80th Noranber— Grote aeized with a chiU in the atodio— Ita 
conaequenoea apparently diaaipated after retnming to the 
Bidgeway— Attenda meeting of the Senate to reaiat Mr. Hntton'a 
motion, on lith December— Bigna of aerioiia derangement in 
health become diaoemible .. 811 



Hiatorian aabmita to medical treatment— Hia diaordergaina npon 
him — Hia mode of life during ita progreea—Takeaoccaaional 
driTea in carriage— Dodine of Mra. Grote'a hopea of hia re- 
atoration — Bapid change in June^ followed by. hia death on 
18th of that month : 836 

FOBTRAiT •• •• to foce riU^fMrft. 

FAO-OMILK ^ P9f9 1 







( • 

^ V 


;. ;.lV.'.'i.,i 







Thb grand&ther of Qeotge Grote, the HistoriaB of Oreeoe, 
bom in 1710, came over towardB the middle of the eighteenth 
century from Bremen, where his family (forming part of 
the burgher class) had long resided. He brought a small 
amount of capital with him, and some introductions to 
merchants established in England, canying on relations 
with the Continental houses. 

Mr. Andreas (or Andrew) Orote founded an agency business, 
in connection with some of his countrymen, in Leadenhall 
Street, under the firm of Kruger and Grote. Finding that 
he prospered as a general merchant^ he, after a few years, 
resolved to set another ^shop'* a-going, and acoor^mgly 
purchased spacious premises near the Boyal Exchange, in 
which — entering into joint partnership with Mr. G^rge 
Prescott — ^the Banking-house of '^ Grote, Presoott^ and Com^ 
pany " was established, on January Ist, A.D. 1766. 

])£r. Andrew Grote married, at St Paul's Oathedral, in 
17'jl5, Miss Ann Adams, a lady of good family in Oxford- 
shjfre, with whom he acquired a considerable fortune. Her 

other, dying without issue in 1795, left to her son by 

adrew Grote all his landed property in that county, in- 
clt|iding a residence called Badgemore, near Henley-on- 
I By Miss Adams Mr. Grote had only this one child, named 

; 4- ■ 


Aieph (bom in 1748), wlKmi he faimight up to mercantile 

mipitkwii^ lifBwliiig him to Holland and other ootmtries to 

MJiue a competent knowledge of European dealings, and 

tkeiaodea of carrying on correspondence in Tarioua tongues. 

Whm qnalified to enter the Other's coonting-honse, young 
^<Dieph Grote was dnly installed in Leadenhall Street, where 
^ became a thrijing merohant» his &ther deroting his 
•ttsntion chiefly to the management of the banking-house 
B Ihieadneedle Street He "kept house** for his business 
I^ipoaes in Leadenhall Street^.wlMBre^ in after times, his son 
Joiqph also liTed when in London. 

MniOrote died in 1767, and in 1760 Mr.Orote took to 
life nlGsB Mary Anne Culyerden. By this lady he had a 
htgb tumijf three sons and six daughters. 

He resided for the most part at a house called *The 
Ploini House/* on the summit of Greenwich HOI, command- 
ing n noble prospect of the riTcr Thames and the City of 
London. Some twenty years since^ the house was still in 
good condition, and presented the appearance of an opu- 
IsBi merchant's residence; it was encloeed within gates, 
nad shaded by lofty trees, haying a spacious garden at- 
tached. Here Mr. Orote brought up his numerous children ; 
Uring in good style ; causing his own and his wife*8 por- 
timits to be painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds; keeping 
eereral men-eerrants, carriages, and so forth, and ciilti- 
Tmting the society of his own ckss with suitable hospitality. 

The eldest son of the second marriage, George, born 1762, 
was the &ther of the future historian of Greece. 

He was placed at the Charterhouse School, where he 
continued until he reached the age fitted to enter into the 
hankjug-jiouse, into which he was introduced, as a jimior, 
about the year 1779 or 1780. Other scms were bom a^ 
George, but none of them liyed long. Sereral daughters 
were also bom, who grew up. I 

Mr. Andrew Grote was in all respects a true representati ye 
of the English merchant of the period. Although a foreigx^er 
hf birthy he took on the character of the English gentlemtan 


with complete ease. His mind and riews of things were 
remarkably firee from foreign bias; and his letters, of which 
a considerable number are preserred, indicate ezcelleiit sensa^ 
together with a thoroughly Tirtuons and lofty tone of mosal 
sentiment Indeed, some of his letters addressed to his son 
Joseph, during the apprenticeship abroad of the latter, 
deserre to be printed and read by the yoong men of ma 
own days. They woold form a striking contrast to the 
letters of the Earl of ChesterSeld, written to ki$ son, under 
circumstances wholly dissimilar; the two series exhibiting 
the aspects of human conduct, as taken from the respeetiTe 
points of yiew of the nobleman and the merchant of the 
eighteenth century. 

I here present the reader with a sample of Mr. Andrew 
Orote*s letters, as affording an insight into his character:-* 

LdUr to Jesm Oaon, ol BfMMii,/roHi Avninw Onon. 

LovDov, 17a Mmnk^ 1797. 

Mt vmkM Ekur, Jesm Oaon, — 

I come now to answer more at Isrge yoar letter of the S8& 
alt*. My goat is not qoite gone, the' on the rnsmAln^g hand; hope 
when wanner woatber oomes in it will quite leaye mew 

As to your departure to Amsterdam, it must remain fixed ftr the 
letter end of April, unless any very bad weatber should set in, or 
that you can ^ with agreeaUe TimTeUing Company, in suoh esse 
a week or a fortnight must not be minded. 

I bad a letter last post from my Brother, in wbieh he begs hard 
that you might stay till Winter, because they seem to lib your 
Oompany, and that you was young enough forsooth I all whibh I 
take to be meant fbr a Bremen compliment; but sordy I must 
know better what is proper to be done for you than they, and I 
mnk insist on your ooming away and not to mind their foolish 
oooipliments. Tou know that you haye been almost a year longer 
at Bremen than what I at first proposed, and therefore you can not 
stay longer at Amsterdam than about a year and a hali^ iuettwd of 
two years ; espeoially if you intend to stay half a year at Bordeaux, 
for I should be gkd you osme home just before you are of agOb 
Aad then, if you haye improred your time^ as I hope you wfll, 
Iihall boTery gkd to set you up in business heie while I liy% 
whieh will be best for you on aaay aeeounla. Ton may he fwy 



\ Oftl I ihtll liiKlj and Mi for your beet^ and do all that lays 
IB m J power to otiaUiah jou in my own buamoas, as aoon as poa* 
bUo; tat tluMiy yon mnat oo-operate with mo and act aooording to 
my plan, as well as improre yonr time in erery plaoo yon are. 
I app tehend yon will baye a great deal of bnsineBS to do when yon 
eone to Amsterdam. Messrs. 0. Mnnoh and Westrik are a good 
dflsl in the dmg trade^ which is a oonsideraUe branch of my busi« 
Mss here. Ton mnst endesTonr to improre more and more in 
yonr handwriting, and espeoially to learn tho qnality of dmgs and 
other goods which yonr masters may deal in; to calonlate dif- 
teenees in enehangos, and make calonlations of goods, &o. &o^ so 
thai yon see yon will not ha?e too mnoh time on yonr hands in 
Holliuid, and it wonld ta tat wasting of time, shonld yon now 
stay any longer at Bremen. My partner in the Banking business, 
Oeorge FiesootI, Esqnire^ has his oldest Son at Amsterdam in the 
eompting-honse of Messrs. Hope and Oompany. Ton may wait 
en Um alter yon tare been a little while at Amsterdam, and if he 
Is a good, sober yonng gentleman, make an aeqnaintanoe with him, 
bnltftaiegayandgiddy, yon may see him seldom. • • • 

I am, with tme aftotion, 
My dear Son, 

Tour erer LoTing Father, 
AvDBBW Onon. 

Mr. Gtoorge Orote, being then a partner in the banking- 
house of Orote and Prescott» married, in 1703, the daughter 
of Doctor Peckwell, a reverend diyine, endowed with a 
handsome person and talents of a somewhat superior quality. 
These adTantages brought him into notice, and attracted the 
fiaTonr of the Countess of Huntingdon, who appointed Pr% 
Peckwell one of her chaplains.* [ 


* Tta origin of this designation (which gradnally inolnd^ 
good nnmber of clergymen of the Church of England, George 
^Whitfield among the rest) as related to me by Lady Willj^am 
Bnssell, who had the statement from the late Marquis of LeLnA- 
downs^ was this: Lady Huntingdon having built a chureb.ror 
chapel, wished to haye it consecrated; the Bishop made it a (^jon- 
ditioa of his perfbnning that ceremony, that he should ezerf)nse 
jeme sort of control orer the character of the doctrines theitiiein 


He was presented, by Lord Bobert Manners, to the liying 
of Bloxham, in Linoolnshirei but he never rose to any higher 
ecclesiastical dignity than the honour above mentioned. 
Dr. Peckwell's wife was of French origin. Her maternal 
ancestors, named De Blosset, came from the Touraine, in 
consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes, soon 
after the year 1685, and they passed into Ireland, purchasing 
estates there in the county of Meath. The chief portion of 
them had belonged to the Earl of Fingal, whose estates 
were confiscated after the battle of the Boyne. 

The De Blossets had connections of long date with French 
fiEtmilies of distinction ; among others, with that of Sir John 
Chardin, the Oriental traveller, and likewise, as it is said, 
with that of Oomeille, the poet One of their relatives, of the • 
name of St Leger, would seem to have held ofiBce about the 
court of Henry IL An elegant ewer and salver, in silver- 
gilt, understood to have become his perquisite on some State 
occasion, is still in the possession of the Orote family,* 

inooloaiod. Lady Hontbgdon, who waa of the Eraogeliosl oast of 
religions tiewB, demurrod to this. The Bishop iniritting on his 
Baporvision, Lady Hnntingdon asked the advice of Hr. Enddne^ 
wlioso sister— Lady Anne Erskine — ^resided with her, and who 
went to hor brother to inquire his opinion finr the Oountess. lb. 
Erskine told her thet her rank authorised her to nominate her own 
chaplains, and that they would lawfully of&olate as such in ohapels 
not consecrated by the Bishop. She built sereral aooordingly, and 
appointed her ** Ctttaplains** to them, thus evading the ** condition.'* 
* The story preserred in the fiimily was, that this ewer and 
salver had served, at the baptism of Francis the First, to hold the 
water used forthatrite,andthatlLdeSt Leger retained the 
vessel as his oiBiaal perquisite. 




Ibu OsoBGB Obotb, on his marriage with Miss Selina 
Peckwdl (so named after her godmother, the Countees of 
Himti]q;d(m), had settled at Clay Hill, near Beckenham in 
Ksnt^ about ten miles from London, where, on the 17th of ^ 
Nofember in the year 1794, his son G^rge, the subject of 
this msnmr, was bom, and was dnly christened in his 
fiUhei!^s diawing-ioom at Beckenham ; Ids sponsors being his 
vnde Mr. Sergeant Peckwell (afterwards Blosset), his ande 
Jossph Giote^ and his aunt SaraL It was the custom in 
those days to odelnate the rite of baptism in the house of 
the parents. 

In the month of Jmne, 1800,— and consequently, therefore, 
when the little George was only five years and a half old, — 
Ur. Orote was induced by the expressed wish of his wife to 
•end the child to school, to the Beverend Mr. Whitehead's, 
then Master of the Grammar School at Sevenoaks. Mrs. 
Grote had already taught him to read and write at home, 
tad had eren grounded him in the rudiments of Latin ; she 
baring a strong desire to see her son excel in learning. Mr. 
Lambard, of Seyenoaks, was a friend of the family, and Mrs. 
Grote preferred Sevenoaks school on account of Mr. Lam- 
bard's residing close by, and being thus available for the 
boy*s protection and care, should sickness or accident ov^r-^ 
take him. I 

At this school the future Historian continued during faur 
years: he evinced a decided aptitude for study, being rarfUy 
ioond behindhand with his tasks, and ranking habituahly 
above boys of his age in the class to which he belonged, i 

In the holidays his mother caused him to devote a portrion 

1704-1810. 80B00LDATB. 7 

of his time to his lessoDB, to which habit^ howereri he serer 
showed, or indeed felt» any leluctanoe. 

At the age of ten yonng Oiote was transferred to the 

Charterhonse, where he remained for six years. The head 

master of that day was Dr. Matthew Baine, a man of 

recognised ability as a schoolmaster, and of some distinotion 

■ as a scholar. 

There were also at Oharterhonse, daring these years, some 
boys of more than ayerage talent and especial capacity for 
acquiring Latin and Greek, whilst Dr. Baine applied his 
best faculties to the forwarding of these studies; so that 
young Orote was favourably placed for adyancing in the 
path of learning, between deyer competition on the one 
hand, and encouraging assistance from the master on the 
other. Among the pupils ci Dr. Baine at this period, 
some were forward in the studies predominant in public 
schools, and indeed became eminent in mature li£9. George 
Waddington, Connop Thirlwall, H. Hayelock (the soldier), 
Creswell Creswell, and a few others, were the fstmiliar 
companions of George Grote*s youthfiil days; the one 
whom he especially preferred, and with whom he main- 
tained an laffectionate intimacy throughout his after life, 
being (Jeoi^ge Waddmgton, the late Dean of Durham. During 
the six years that he paned at the Charterhouse, I belieye 
that George Grote neyer got a flogging for any shortcomings 
in his performance of his tasks, though, in common with his 
fellows, he fell under Dr. Baine's rod in his turn for boyish 
offences, such as straying beyond the prescribed limits out of 
school hours. Indeed he actually underwent this punishment 
along with his friends Waddington and others^ on the eve of 
quitting the school, and when he was almost at the head of 
it^ yiz. in 1810 ; the occasion being that Grote had giyen a 
fii^well supper to his schoolmates at the^Allnon Tayem' 
in Aldersgate Street, where (as was natural under the 
circumstances) they had all indulged in somewhat ample 
pjotations. Such was schod discipline early in the nine-^ 
t^nth century. 


On leftTing ChaiteiliGiiaey with strong leanings towards 
Hrfsnacinal coltare^ whidi wonld hare been more soit- 
iUf ioslerod bj his entering npon aea<ieniic life, (George 
GieCe was leq uii ed bj his &ther to deyote himself to the 
hanVhig business in Thieadneedle Stieet. Acoordingly, 
at the early age of sixteen, he commenoed that profession 
wludi be steadily ponned for thirty-two years, notwith- 
: the distiactioiis of a pnblio nature which orertook 
m 1880, and which, as wiU hereafter be seen, compelled 
to entsr the pcditical arena whilst still an actire 
of the banking-boiise of Fresoott, Grote^ and 

1810-18ia HIB FATHER. 


Mb. Andbsw Gbotb, tlie foimder of the firm, died in 1788, 
and his remains were deposited within the walls of the 
Dutch Church in Austin Friars. His first wife had been laid 
there in 1757» and to the best of my belief the bones of these 
worthy progenitors repose there still, a slab with name and 
date coyering their grares. His second wife was buried in 
Oreenwich Church, in the year 1787. 

Mr. Andrew Grote prospered in his undertakings so well, 
that he became a man of substance and was able to leaye his 
daughters, six in number, fortunes £Bur abore the ayerage of 
English gentlemen's younger children, — ^I belieye as much 
as 20,0001. to 25,0001 apiece. 

His eldest son Joseph inherited the commercial position 
in Leadenhall Street, together with a landed estate in Lin- 
colnshire, which Mr. Andrew Grote originally acquired in 
the shape of a mortgage, but which fell to him in default of 
its being redeemed. 

Mr. Joseph Grote also became possessed, some time after 
his father^s death, of a good estate in Oxfordshire, with a 
comfortable residence situated near to Henley-on-Thames» 
which, as has already been stated, his undo Mr. Adams 
bequeathed to him. Mr. George Grote, the only suryiying 
son by Mies Culyerden, inherited from his father but little 
besides the share ci the banking-house, whilst his wife 
brought in the first instance only a few thousand pounds 
tp tlie family fund. He succeeded howeyer to all the landed 
l^roperty of his elder brother Josei^ in the year 181^ and 
tSius found himself amply proyided for* 
/ Mr. Gtoorge Grote's tastes led him to prefer oountry life, 
Ibeing fond of hunting, shooting, and exercise generally. He 
was a justice of peace for both Kent and Oxfordshire, and acted 


habitetlly m such. He Ukemae senred the office of High 
Sheriff tar each of these ooantiee in toriL Cnltiyating a 
leigefitfmatbothirfhiB two leeiclencei^and diriding his time 
beiwseo Beclreiiham and Badgemore, he passed rery little of 
it IB Threadneedle Stieet» where howerer he kept a small 
est ahlishment^ and where he often entertained his male friends 
when he was staying in town. 

The management of the banking-house chiefly deyolyed 
wpoB the other partners^ of whom one was a Mr. Oolyerden 
(an nnele by the mother^s side), and another a Mr. HoUings- 
woffth, bendes Mr. William Willooghby Prescott, grandson of 
Mr. Fkesoott the founder (along with Andrew Orote) of that 
banking-hoQse. Both Onlyerden and HoUingsworth^ howeyer, 
wen Sofond undesirable coUeagaes^ and they ceased to belong 
to the firm in 1802. 

Mr. Grote*a &mily growing in nnmben^ he had placed his 
eldest son in bnsinessy in order that he might begin to win 
Ui own way in the world early, and at the same time might 
take ""the labouring oar* at the banking-house, and fami- 
liaiiae himself with the commercial world. Add to this, that 
he had no sympathy with learning, and that although people 
spoke of his son as being forward in it, he felt no inclination 
to promote the yoong George's intellectual turn of mind at the 
expense of giying him a college training; whilst, on the other 
hand, he was glad to obtain the senrices of his son in the 

Accordingly, at the early age of sixteen, and indeed some- 
what under it, young Greorge Grote began (as has already 
been stated) the career of a banker.* 

^ "I hope and I belisye that the administrators of UniYersity 
OoQsge will saeoeed in difiosing annnig the public of London 
lavgsr ideas on the proper measuro of a oitisen's education— 
IB eotxeotang that mistaken impatienoe with which parents, ofteiji 
wader no piessare of necessity, abridge those years requisite for 
their son's complete education, end hurry him into professio 
Uii ahalf^uealed man."— ilcUrM io UmivenUp ObUege, IM JulA 
18ie, If Qmmam Oaon, Stq. 



He lived with his father; that is to say, his fiither^s hoose 
was his home. When he stayed in London, it was in Thiead- 
needle Street that he resided, and, whilst Mr. Grote-was in 
Oxfordshire (nsoally from September until April), snoh was 
his regular habits diyersified by visits to Badgemora at 
interrals. Daring his family's residence at Beokenham, 
* George nsed to pass the greater part of the week with 
thenu He dined and slept at Clay Hill, riding to London 
daily (bating ocoadonal exceptions) with his &ther, and 
riding back, ten miles, to dinner. Young G^eorge was aceua* 
tomed to go over a good deal of ground on foot also^ besides 
the exercise of riding twenty miles per day. In those days^ 
the junior members of the firm had to go forth, along with 
what was called ^the walk clerk,** carrying the various 
^bills'* for presentation, a duty involving some two or three 
hours of walking exercise. 

On the evening of the days when it was necessary Ibr him 
to stay in the City, to ''lock up,** George occupied him- 
self principally with study. He had contracted a strong taste 
for the classics at Charterhouse, and felt prompted to culti- 
vate them on quitting the scene of his boyish training. 

He was at the same time sensible to the charm of music^ 
and frequented the concerts ct the Philharmonic Society 
(then newly established), which made a pleasant variety in 
his City routine. 

He began to learn the violoncello, too, towards the year 
1815, and on that instrument he frequently accompanied his 
mother, who was a fair musician, and they played Handel*s 
compositions in the fieunily circle with pleasure and good effect 

Again, young Greorge addressed himself to the study of the 
German language, under the tuition of Dr. SchwabeJ a 
minister of the Lutheran Church (in Alio Street^ Goodman's 
fields). At that period very few young men (and scarcely 
any women, of course) knew German, and it f umidied evidence 
^f earnest devotion to literary pursuits when Geoige Grote gave 
inp his leiiure hours, few as they were, to its acquisition. 

From the year 1812 up to the year 1816, the young 


bmkciTilife W To l Tad in a aofflcieiitly prosaie cmJe ; working 
•tattdily at tbe hanking-hooie^ partaking sparingly of amnse* 
WMsdM of a social character, and deroting iho greater portion 
of Us Idsme to reading and meditating npon snbjects of an 

; theee^ political economy, histoiy, and metaphysics 
the leading interest in his mind. To the first of 
I he had been attracted by the writings of Mn 
DaTid Bicaido^ with whom personally he afterwards became 
acquainted (in 1817) and whose oonrersation possessed a 
potent charm for him. 

It m happened that» during the years of George Grote's 
early manhood, the interior of his father^s family was clouded 
by the partkmlar cast of mind of Mrs. Grote, whose 
I GalTinistio tenets indisposed her to receiye Tisitors, 
or to enter into society, except such as reflected her own 
strong religioiis sentiments. Mr. Grote himself was nowise 
amne to social intercourse^ and would willingly have opened 
lua boose to hospitalities, both at Olay Hill and Badgemore, 
hml Mrs. Ghiote shared his impulses in that direction. But 
the manifested so much repugnance towards the guests who 
came at her husband's inyitation to the house that, at the 
period now treated of, there was almost an interdict upon all 
^iomestic entertainments, whether at Clay Hill or in Oxford- 
shire. The efiSsct of this was to cause Mr. Grote to shut 
l^;mi>lf up in his own thoughts, holding but slender com- 
jBonion with his wife on any subject, but allowing her to 
gorem her children and household in her own way, for the 
sake of peace and quiet He reserred, howeyer, to himself 
the choice of the ddldren's place of education, which up to 
1820 was, for his sons, uniformly the Charterhouse. 

Society, accordingly, young Grote had to seek outside hifi| 
tunily circle^ and fortunately for him there was more thanj 
cae house in the neighbourhood of Beckenbam wherein he 
buid not only agreeable company and cordial welcome, but 
•lao intellectoal sympathy and encouragement The domesticl 
in which he was fated to pass his life had, besides 

1810-1818. HIS EARLY FBIENDB. \ 18 

its dulness and vapidity, bo positiTely disheartening a quality 
— ^tending to quench every spark of mental activity and 
ambition — ^ihat it might perfectly well have dried up the 
springs of young 6rote*s genius and talent^ had not accident 
brought him into contact with associates fired with a similar 
craving for mental progress, and capable of stimulating his 
emulation and rivalry.* 

Of this number, the earliest of young Grote*s friendships 
after he left school, was one with Mr. Qeorge Warde Normally 
son of a merchant in the Norway trade, in good business in 
the City of London, and having his feimily reddenoe about 
three iniles from Mr. Grote's at Clay Hill. 

George W. Norman, who was about two years senior to 
George Grote, had been at Eton, and whilst he gave a steady 
assistance to his feither in the conduct of their business in 
London, had taken pains with himself after leaving schooli 
feeling a lively interest in letters and politics. Although, as 
was the case with his friend, but slender encouragement was 

* George Grote's letters to his fHends teem with lamentations 
over the wearisome obligations to which his father subjected him, 
in the shape of stupid evenings passed in Thresdneedle Street with 
the City friends, over the bottle, dw. His DiarieSi up to ISSO, 
reveal similar complaints. 

**My studies on other subjects have not latdy been so regolsr 
as they might have been. A routine of business which stnpiiles 
the mind {affigii liumi divinae parUeuIam auras), snd engagements^ 
if possible, more stupid still, fill up nearly the whole measure of 
my occupations. A numerous fiunily snd tiie present artificial stale 
of society absolutely imprison me to such an extent, that I can 
eigoy but very little solitude. And it is dull and wretched to the 
last degree to a mind which has a glimpse of a nobler sphere of 
action, to witness the total exclusion of intelleot which di^gness 
general conversa t i o n. 

'OwUi$n$ hmiUnmm wteiUmt fdora ooms/ 

D^gtflvr Ao0 MV^ fiiodoiiiigiM «< / * 
In my present frame of mind I could preach for hours on the 
f ubject of those noUe lines of Lucretius.''— JSslraeC /rom Ldtar Is 
<»• W.. NoBKAV, 4pra, 1817. 


aflEorded to nidi testes hj the frmfly at Bromley Common, 
Mr. NenHA, the fiither, esteemed the ocoapatkm of study in 
bis soBy being himself Tery fond of reeding. 

Now both these young men, whilst strongly partial to 
stady, shared the inelinstion eommon to their age and 
coaditioo fior exercise and sport, and took lirely pleasure 
in criekel, whidi game was ardently pnrsaed at that period 
by the inhabitants ot West Kent generally. The gentry 
bsbitaally joined with persons of the middle class to form 
**dnfas" fior piaetioe, and doring the summer months there 
wsfw freqwent ^matches** played in priyate parks and 
giauidi^ when nnmeroos spectetors came to look on and 
sneowiBge the players by their presence. All the ^belles** 
«C the neighboarhood came to these matches, which nsoally 
ended in a metiy social eTening,with dancing. 

The neigfabooihood happened to be, just at the time I am 
rating U, fail of yomig people of both sexes. Perhaps it 
Kodd ha^e been diiSBenlt to find twenty-fire couples of dancers 
iriMfein beauty, graoe^ and form were so largely present as 
11 these Kentish meetings of 1814-1820. The Bamards, 
tile Konnans^ the Edens, the Berens, the Stones, Jenners, 
tnd Lewins ; the Johnstons, the WeUs, the Townshends, the 
WUtmores, the Gators, and others, furnished forth their 
•ttnetrfe contingents ; while the parents of the young people, 
ttoitly ct middle age, and still full of relish for festiye enjoy- 
tte&ti^ amused themselres by looking on, and peradyenture 
loptinixing the relations g^wing up among the ^ lads and 
htKB" in the interrals of the game. 

Cridceti and an occasional ball in the winter months, were 
tte sole dirersions enjoyed by young Qeorge Grote at this 
•Uge of his career ; but they were enjoyed with eager relish, 
^ serred to Tary the complexion of his life, which else had 
^ sufficiently monotonous. 

Ynth George W. Nonnan he kept up a steady intellectual 
*i4 intimate intercourse, and the adyaatage of such a coni- 
Ptaion at the age when the character is forming cannot 1>|9 
te highly estimated They read books in common, chiefl V 


1810-1818. GA8T OP STUDIBa 16 

on historical and political sabjeotfly and they both applied 
themselyes seriously to the science of Political Eocniomj, 
then coming into something like ''yogae'* among the rising 
generation, as being a proper object of stndy. 

Presently, another companion became the sharer of these 
pursuits, Tis. Mr. Charles Cameron, son of the ez-Ooyemor 
of the Bahamas and of Lady Margaret Cameron, daughter of 
the Earl of ErroL He liyed a good deal with his fionily 
(they residing in the neighbourhood of Bromley), though he 
himself was studying for the English Bar. Charles Cameron^ 
mind was at once yigorous and subtle^ delighting in dialeetio 
exercise, wherein he excelled as a disputant, for he was mooh 
giyen to the study of mental science generally. 

The intercourse with this young man, of nearly the same 
age as himself (perhaps a year or two older), which George 
Orote maintained, as well in London as in Kent, seryed to 
whet his relish for intellectual labour, whilst the searching 
analytic turn of Cameron's mind led his fnend into that 
channel of inquiry which almost ineyifably conducts the 
trayeller beyond tiiie limits of orthodoxy. Metaphysics now 
took hold of Grote with considerable feryour, and, between 
discussions and study, the three friends adyanced fieur in their 
acquaintance with this tempting branch of knowledge. 

Grote*s mind had, from the beginning, a pronounced 
tendency to the poetic and imaginatiye yein. Norman was 
not without a certain sympathy for the sentimental dass of 
literature, and he encouraged Grote in his feumlty of poetical 
composition, which, at this period, really was incontestable. 

Cameron, howeyer, acted more strongly upon the sterner 
qualities of his friend's intellect, and his example and con^ 
yersation rather seryed to exalt the seyerer exercises in his 
esteem, whilst they insensibly damped the literary and sen- 
timental cast of his thought and fiEmcy. Oameron thus 
coi^duoted Grote, as it were a stage, on the great path of 
development, both of character and objects of study. 

krriyed at the age of manhood (that is to say, in the 
wiMer of 1814 and 1816), he became acquainted with a 


yoong lady wliofle fiunily Irred some six or seyen miles fiom 
, mod to wbiob fiunily be was intiodQced by bis 
O. W. NonnaD, bimself already long accustomed to 
fiequeni tbeir boose. Towards Miss Harriet Lewin, G^rge 
Groto soon coDtnMSted a sentiment of the tenderest kind, 
^rincb in tbe summer ot 1815 assnmed tbe cbaracter of an 
mideal and pmSomA passion. 

It so bappened tbat be was diBCOomged from imparting to 
JGas Lewin tbe feelings of bis sonl, by ibe intenrention of a 
Hr. K,a rcTerend gentleman of some fortone residing in tlie 
^istiie^ wbo exercised orer Gleorge Grote a powerful in- 
ihenee^ on aoooont of bis literary tastee^ and bis acknow- 
ledged rqmtation as a classical scbolar and critia With 
this person George Grote was in the habit of oommnnicating 
mireserfedly, on all snbjecti^ and as he placed entire con- 
fidence in him, he had no reason to doubt the truth of a 
certain piece ct informaticm which K gaye him relatiye to 
ICas Lewin. This consisted in an affirmation that he knew 
it as a bd that her heart and band were engaged to another 
sum. Of course this was equiyalent to the extinguishing of 
George Grote's hopes, and he accordingly took it as such, 
with the poignant anguish which naturally attends dis- 
appointments of this kind. 

His father peroeiying a change in his sou's manner, ques- 
tioned him as to the cause, aud on leamiug what had taken 
place obtained a promise from George that be would neyer 
propose marriage to any woman without the pareutal sanction. 
And the young man, esteeming the pursuit of Miss Lewiu 
as entirely hopeless^ gaye the required promise without much 

Miss Lewin had left the neighbourhood on the yery day 
on which K, aware of the fact, made the unwarranted 
communication to bis young friend as aboye narrated. She 
accompanied her fittber on a yachting expedition from 
Southampton, where he always kept the cutter in sumiher, 
to Deyunsbire^ and Miss Lewin was staying with Mr. |nd 
Mn. Da VH Fdroher (he was M.R for Old Baruml at 

1810-1818. DISAPFOnnifENT IN LOYK 17 

this time), at Torquay, when the news of R*8 treacfaevj 
reached her. She did not retom home for a week or two 
after receiying them, bat bo soon as she was once more on 
the scene of this disagreeable affair, Mr. E.*s oondoot was 
unreiled by the disdosnre which the Lewin family found it 
necessary to make, of his having, for sereral months prerioos^ 
endeayoored to prevail on Miss Lewin to receive his own 

The annexed letters firom Mr. O. W. Norman will serve to 
tjirow additional light upon this web of mischief:— 

L0VDOV9 Amgudg 181S. 
Mt nsAB OSOBOI, — 

Events crowd on esoh other with siioh rapidity that the 
suggestions which arise one day are contradicted by those of the 
succeeding I have just read the enclosed, on which I have no 
time to make any comments, as the gig is now at the door to 
conyey me to Trent Park. The Lewins are at home^ and I shall 
ride over on Sunday. E. is a villain; and Harriet completely. . 
exculpated. Tou will obsenre that what I wrote you, on the 89^ 
was E's own statement of his conduct conveyed through Haieno, 
who always tells him that his behaviour has been foolish in the 
highest degree, but he is ignorant of the base part he (B.) luMi 
played. Write to me as soon as possible. 

Your sincere friend, 

OioBoa Wardb Nommii. 

BBOMurr Comioir, S0f)<Mi&er, 1816. 


A variety of accidents, comprehending a severe cold, have 
prevented my seeing any of the Lewins since my last letter to 
you, and consequently item obtaining any fiurther information 
concerning E*s conduct, or the course they are pursuing to coun* 
teraot his insidious reports, and to obtain a retractation .of his 
hase assertions; but as there is one inquiry in your letter to which 
I can give a very satisfactory answer,! shall not hesitate troubling 
you with these few lines. You inquire what motive actuated the 
rererend gentleman's conduct to you, just as if you did iM know 
that jealousy was one of the most powerftil passions of our natorsi 
and, if not properly coeroed, the most malignant • • • • 
Your j pledge to your flUfaer being unoooditional, and imvooaUe 

18 PEB80HAL Un OP OBOBGB 6B0TB. Oiup. II. 

^ I woald I17 DO iMtiie adfiae yoa to ] 
^ kk •ppvdl»ikN^ wlikli mnlj wm noi be leftiaed 
if ko iais ttai yoar fatero bftppnuM dapendi vpon it I hope 
jMrnteiB win Boi be pal off bogrond mkI weak, m Iloog to tee 

Wlim die traUi eeme to be kiiowi^ George Oiote appealed 
to Us fiiber to releeae him from die pledge he had been in- 
daeed to gireu Bui Kr. Giote at onoe fiirbade him to enter- 
taiB aaj pngeei of a matrimonial kind; alleging hisyoath, 
nd the ineonTwieooe whidi he, Kr. Orote, would feel in 
■rrififiinfi no mimh of hin inramn to not np a nnnnnd ^m^nage** 
in the fiunilj. Aa George was dependent on his fiither, there 
no altematrre for him bat to bow to this stem 
» and relinq[aish all interoo n ise with the Lewin funily. 

Tke eouse of this connection thns painftdly and abruptly 
kroksBy George Grote ceased to cherish any hope of renew- 
ing i^ and endeafonred, witk even added industry, to oocopy 
kis Aoag^withTaiions kindsof study and with the society 

I ksve insert portions of letters which will serre to show 
with what persistent fondness he dung to the piUBoit of 
knowledge^ eren under circumstances the most disheartening ; 
Sat the bnsinnss in which he was the chief working member, 
TIB. the banking-house, was at this period rendered at once 
fatiguing and uniHofitable, owing to the widespread embar- 
of the financial world, the grave alarm of the 
. in reference to the diseased condition of the currency. 
Bad the frequent bankruptcies among the City merchants. 
George Grate's letters contain the most dismal forebodings 
Bad anTJaties on this head, but I suppress these passages to 
AToid prolixity. 

O. GaOTB lo G. W. NOBMAM. 

From Knglsnd, in 1816, it is deli^tfal to retire, enen 

e Itdy in its most disorguiised periods. I hsve not yet arriTed st 
Ts sseond TDlsBM,as I hsTs employed myself in deduciDg 

1810-1818. HISTORIOAL TASTES. 19 

a abort namAxfe of Italifta tnuisioilonay firam the in^Mkni of 
tho Lombards. 

I hare brought it down as iiur as Oonrad the Salic, and shall 
probably oontinae it to the Peaoe of Worms, in 1122, which setfled 
the quarrel of inyestitares. The steps bj which the Italian dties 
acquired independonoe, while those in other countries were in the 
lowest state of degradation, appeared to me a sulgeot so curious 
and interesting, that I determined to study it attentiTelj ; for I 
have always found that, in order to make m jself master it a sub- 
joot, the best mode was to sit down and giye an acoount of it to 
myself.*^ I am at present, however, quite tired of writing, and 
shall be extremely well pleased when I arrive at the Peace of 
Worms, which I hope to do before to-morrow erening. 

I am very iiur ftma suspecting our fHend Montesquieu of inter- 
meddling in any anti-Ohristian or anti-monarehical conspinK^; 
but it is my decided opinion that his works had the dearest and 
most marked effect in producing the French Berolution. It was 
his book that tore the veil from a fabric whose internal strength 
had long been worn away, though habit and opinion had a t tached 
to it an unreal appearance of force, which it would have been happy 
for mankind if it had preseryed ; and though he did not himself 
aim any blows at his Goremment, yet his instructions directed 
others where to attack it, and taught them how utterly incompdeni 
it was to defend itself sgainst them. • • • • 

EaOraet qf LeUer frcm O. GBon fo O. W. Nobiiaii. 

LoMDOir, ApHX^ 1817. 

* * '^ Literature still continues to form the greatest attrac- 
tion to my mind; it is the only pleasure I ei\joy which leaves no 
repentance behind it I send y^u down the best * Lucretius' I 
have, and I think he will afiEbrd you much pleasure. Though the 
reasoning is generally indistinct, and in some places unintelligible, 
yet in those passages where he indulges his Tcin of poetry without 
reserve, the sublimity of his conceptions and the charm and elegance 
of his language are such as I have hardly ever seen equalled. He 
is much superior to Virgil in every quality except chastity and 
delicacy of taste, wherein the latter has reached the utmost pinnade 

* These synoptical notes on Sismondi's history are in the pc*- 
session of lirs. Grote, and are entire and compl et e occupying 
some forty peges of UBS. 



I lOvwiM MDd jam llie Tragedies ettrilrated to 
vUek I tibiak I ksie keeid jom e ap t c ee ea hirtlinetiiw 
I hvf leed oae or two of liieni, and tiiqr appeeied to me 
laMdioenty. • • • • 
I SB MMT sMjing AmtoUa'e <NieoiiiMlietti EOiieB.' ffis 
■ooaB^i OB tho nljeet of nofile we wandeifbll j jvet end 
letietiai^ end I feel eaiioMi es I ieedon,for e more mtanete 
eei|iieteiifie wifli Imii. HaM*o EoeeTB, eone of wUch I haTO 
kleljy do Boi if eofe^ in b^ iriew, on IbrUier 

Am A Mmple of hie friend Nomuui'B manner of writing, I 
TBBtniB to append a letter, of a somewhat later date than 
tte iw e goin g one^ which will be read with interest 

€f m Ldlet fnm Gno. Wabm Nouuv io Gaa Oboo. 

DaAVMBV, KoawAT, IM Odnbet^ 1819. 

* UaresuttiBg end troobkeoine employment baa allowed 
aie to attend to my friends. Yet HeafenknowB that, among 
I ttaihindmetoboma andooontiy, there is but one eo 
es te r^gud I €m1 fiv yov. At the eame time, this 
ot whollj disintereefted, tan I was nerer yet long 
jon wiUiont disoofer iu g a Tory perceptible decline 
m my intellectaal energiee. It is your example which only can 
eon^ner that indolence inherent in my natore, and which, had not 
eoiM fortanate cireomstances interrened, wonld haye reduced me 
Is a perfect lerel with that herd of cat^ walking on their hind 
legi who eompoee nine-tenths of what is called mixed company. I 
eadeaToar to imitate yon, as Statins did Virgil, and nerer withont 
tibat fseling of inferiority which dictated his addrees to the Thehaid. 

*K«e ta diviim AmUa teatii. 
Sad bae^ nqasa, et Tvatigia teaiper Adorm." 

On a comparison with 0. Cameron, I do not feel myself so 
dogi ailed ; he is indeed moch my snperior in most points, bat the 
dislsnee botwecn as is not so immeasurable. 

G. W. N. 

Abovt this period it happened that Greorge Grote became 
anqinainted with Mr. James Mill. It was brought aboat 
ihinngfa Mr. Darid Bicardo^ at whose house young Grote 
need to risit, attracted by tiie conrenation of that distin- 



goished man, tlien the prominent authority in the loienoe 
of Political Economy, and Member of Parliament for the 
Irish borocigh of Portarlington, * bj yirtoe of hia bfeeohes 
pocket," as it was jocosely said. 

Mr. MiU had just then receiyed firom the directozs of the 
East India Company the appointment ct Examiner to that 
goyemment— a distinction equally honourable to him and to 
his patronsi since it was bestowed upon him from the con- 
soiousness of his great knowledge and ability to condnot 
Indian affairs, as eyinoed by his recently published * History 
of British India,* in three quarto yolumes. In that work Mr. 
Mill had freely criticized the goyemment of India, and it 
indicates both penetration and generosity on the part of the 
^chairs'* (as they were termed) in Leadenhall Street^ when 
so fearless a writer oouldbe inyited to take a leading podtian 
in the conducting of the East India Company's goyemment ■ 
under their auspices. 

G. Gaom lo G. W. MbaicAV. 

ifajfy 1810, LovMui. 

• • • I haye breakfasted snd dined seyertl times with Biosido^ 
who has been uncommonly eiyil and kind to me. I haye met Mill 
often at his house, and hope to deriye great pleasure and instmo- 
tion from his aoquaintanoe, as he is a yery profound thinking man, 
and seems well disposed to communicate, as well as dear Mid in- 
telligible in his manner. His mind has, indeed, all that oynieism 
and asperity which belong to the Benthamian sohool, and what I 
ohiefly dislike in him is, the readiness and seeming preferanoe with 
which he dwells on the faulU amd defeeU of others o y on of the 
greatest menl But it is so yery rarely that a man of any depth 
comes across my path, that I shall most assuredly cultiyate his 
acquaintance a good deal farther. 

I miss jfoun yery much, my dear Georgei for I deqiair of ibding 
in my wiJk through life, any other persons whom I can 109$, in 
addition to those yery few whom I loye already. I do not see 
anywhere around me, a single person in addition, on whom my 
heart can rest with any pleasure. 

My dead friends in ChUfatid Smda still contimie faithftd and 

bI iat Ifcf, life mmid be m ytrj ^ 

The iaialketiiil eqptdlj of Mr. Mill was of a TOfy superior 
calflae. V^th the domain of mental aeieDce he had an 
; nnlimited aofoaintanoe^ haiing read e?erj author of 
and aoonded the depths of metaphysksal inqniiy 
in all its lamifieatiooB. At the time I am writing aboat» he 
iposing a treatise on Tptjrhciogy, which he not long 
poblished under the title of 'AnalysiB of the 
I Mindy' in two volumes. 
It was on this subject^ and on the sdenoe of political 
e co no my, that the yoong disciple chiefly sought instruction 
at Ae hands of James Mill, and in his new acquaintance he 
fnnd a master of both. As time ndled on, other bruiches 
ef knowledge also came to be discussed. Political Philosophy, 
TVw I fl gy, and Ethics among the foremost. 

Befbra many monthi^ the ascendency of James Hill's 
mind o?er his younger companion made itself appa- 
Geoige Grate began by admiring the wisdom, the 
, Ae depths of Mill's intellectual character. Pre- 
aeatly he found himaelf enthralled in the circle of Mill's 
spamhtions, and after a year or two of intimate commerce 
there ezisted but little difference, in point of opinion, between 
master and pufML Mr. Mill had the strongest conTictions as 
to the superior adrantages of democratic goyemment oyer 
the monarrfiical or the aristocratic ; and with these he min- 
ted a scorn and hatred of the ruling Hawien which amounted 
to positiTe fanstirism Coupled with this ayersion to aris- 
tocratio influence (to which influence he inyariably ascribed 
', of the defects and abuses preyalent in the administra- 
i of public afiairs), Mr. Mill entertained a profound pre- 
judice against the Established Church and, of course, a 
c ofwi q pnndin g dislike to its ministers. 

These two yehement currents of antipathy came to be 
padually shared by George Grote, in proportion as his 
for Mr. Mill took deeper and deeper root Al- 



though his own nature was of a gentle, eharitable, humane 
quality, his fine intelleot was worked upon by the inezoxaUe 
teacher with so much persuasive power, that Gtoorge Orote 
found himself inoculated, as it were, with the oooclusions of 
the former, almost without a choice; since the subtle reason- 
ings of Mr. Hill appeared to his logical mind to admit of no 

And thus it came to pass that, starting from acquired con- 
victions, George Orote adopted the next phase^ vii. the 
antipathies of his teacher— antipathies which coloured his 
mind through the whole period of his ripe meridian age, 
and may be said to have inspired and directed many of the 
important actions of his life. Originating in an earnest 
feeling for the public good, these currents gradually as- 
sumed the force and sanction of duties; prompting Ge(»rge 
Grote to a systematic course both of study, opinion, action, 
and self-denial, in which he was urgently encouraged by the 
master spirit of James Hill, to that gentleman's latest breath 
in 1836. 

This able dogmatist exeroiBed considerable influence over 
other young men of that day, as well as over Grote. He 
was, indeed, a propagandist of a high order, equally master 
of the pen and of speech. Hbreover, he possessed the faculty 
of kindling in his auditors the generous impulses towards 
the popular side, both in politics and social theories; leading 
them, at the same time, to regard the cultivation of indi- 
vidual afi*ections and sympathies as destructive of lofty aims^ 
and indubitably hurtful to the mental character. 

So attractive came to be the conceptions of duty towards 
mankind at large, as embodied in James Hill's eloquent dis- 
course, that the young disciples, becoming fired with patriotic 
ardour on the one hand and with bitter antipathies on the 
other, respectively braced themselves up, prepared to wage 
battle when the day should come, in behalf of ^the true 
faith,*' according to Hill's ** programme " and preaching. 

To the stimulating influence of the elder Hill waa^ at 
this period, superadded that of the venerable sage Jeiemy 



, who lived in Queen Bqoaxe Place, Weetminster, 
dontothemidenoeof Mill and hie family; which leBidence, 
in fiicC» belonged to Bentham, and wae lent to tibe Hktoiian 

Hie wntingi of this remaikafale man were now beginning 
to teU npoB Ae thinking portion of yoong pablio men and 
kwyen^ and to engender a good deal of discoasion among 
ibe netife members of the atudiooe daaa. Grate caoght the 
with leadineHy and not only became a reader of 
i'a woria on Jniiapnidence^ Beform of the Law» and 
Folitieal Hiiloac^y, hot he also fieqoented the society of 
the ledom anthor: not without sensible adyantage to his 
inqniiing and impreswmable mind. 

He. Bentham, being a man of easy finrtnne^ kept a good 
tables and toA pleasnie in receiTing gnests at his board, 
thoig^ nerer more than one at a time. To his one gaest 
hewoold talk fluently, yet without earing to listen in histnnu 
Ho had a certain talent finr mosic, too ; had been a decent 
flddle player in his day, and still managed to play on the 
oigUy hanng one in his dining-foom, which was, I may 
laeation, sitoated at the top of the hoose, looking into and 
Ofsr a QMcioos garden belonging to Jeremy's residence.^ 

* Jeresqr Beothsm hid s ooontry resideooe called ** Barrow 

^^feoB Hoose,* which he oooapied during the simimer oosoon, leni- 

^ it f srniehed of Mrs. Koe, widow dT Mr. Hoskins, Isie owner of 

^■4 place, and life proprietriz. She had married, after Mr. 

^mtdmf death, a yoong gentlonan named Koe ; who, howerer^ 

^^Uaed liring with her, prefemng to Hollow his own tastes at a 

^^'^^■ce £rQm h ome. 

^^^ BaiTOW Oreeo, James Mill and his ehildren lired (about the 

1813-1818-1814) with Bentham, who kept house for all, as 

d done at other eoi mt ry honsea, and did likewise afterwards, 

^ord Abbey, near Obard. Barrow Green House, some forty-fire 

^ afterwards, was rented and inhabited by Mr. Grote, and 

L he and 1^ Grote reoeiTed more than one risit from John 

; MiD, who took a lively pleasure in retracing the soenes of 

fWdhnod, snd in reealling the personal reeoUeetions of Jeremy 

Iwiththe^ot -\ 



1818-1820. JOHN 8TUABT lOLIi. 25 

John Stoart Mill, the eldest 8on of James Mill, in 1817, 
then a boy of about twelve jean old, was studying, with his 
father as his sole preceptor, under the paternal not Un- 
questionably forward for his yean, and already possessed of a 
competent knowledge of Ghreek and Latin, as well as of some 
subordinate though solid attainments, John wai^ as a boy, 
somewhat repressed by the elder Mill, and seldom took any 
share in the OQUTenation carried on by the sooiety frequenting 
the house. 




Tmm pnndiig a doaUe canent of buatness and study, 
Qtatgb Gvole's life paaeed nniiiaiked by adYenture or aoci- 
dflai down to tibe ipring of 1818^* when accident hroaght 
lumintoAepramioeof lOaiLewin. The sobjoined letter 

the effBoi prodooed on him by tidg renconire. A 
later, Geoige Giote met Mios Lewin again, in 

She was staying at Lord Haiewood'a, in Hano?er 
Sqnan^ and ttna aeparated, for a time^ from her femily : 


(I know not which to call it, 
mn ao anaad) to aea n^ dear friend and faTouite, 
Lavm, Iha other day, in Bnaal^. She was sitting with 
r lady in the caniagey which was waiting at 
ftadocrof tha*BeIL' I stood there, and conTened with her for 
ahoat tan "^^"*««t hut something — I know not what it is — ^kept 
me dmiag the whole of the time in sooh a state dT indeooribable 
tiiaanf and nnmiinw, that I could hardly ntter a rational septenoe. 
She looked loTaly beyond eipremiop. Her features still retained 
1km ssam life snd sool which once did so magnetise me ; I nerer 
hsfo assn it, snd I nefsr shsU see it, on any other feoe. My dear 
Haoietl It is tenible work. It is most cnielly painfid to think 
ttat I can only appear to her in the light of one who has oooa- 
moned nothing hik pain and imeasinem to her. Tet so it must be. 
I sm sometimes tempted to wish myself an isolated being, without 
any feauly or relations, and nothing but those friends whom my 
(little aa that ia) may attach to me, and to whom my 

It waa difesmfted by a few weeki^ tour among the ''»»<«»«>» 
r of 1817, in coB^any with O. W. Nonnan, 



aflbofctons flow spontaiieoiialy and aidently. Belationi we a dudn 
wbibh drags a man oabjinaaiia of hit 061110 of dnty* Happjif]kd 
whohas&wofltl • • • • 

The feelings whioh had been long suppressed within 
Oeoige Orote's fareast^ but had not oeased to exists weie 
now rekindled by the presence of their original object to so 
forcible a degree that he renewed his efforts to bring about 
an union with Miss Lewin; urging his wishes npon Hr. Giote 
with so much fervour and emphasis that the fiither at length 
consented to his marrying^ anc<mdUumot his postponing the 
step for the space of two yeaiB. 

,With the terms of this grudgingly granted concession the 
young people^ after some meditation, agreed to comply. Not 
that it was otherwise than distasteful to the fiunily of Miss 
Levrinto accept G^eorge Grote's suit with so distant a prospect 
of his union with their daughter. Nor was it without morti- 
fying and embarrassing reflections that Miss Lewin herself 
made up her mind to forget the painM circumstances of 
1815, and to submit to enter into this harsh compact 

Nevertheless, her long-cherished preference for Oeorge 
Grote, coupled with a discerning appreciation of his general 
character, and especially of its suitableness to her views of 
the value of literary communion and culture as an element 
of coigugal life, prevailed over all, and she acquiesced in the 
harsh conditions imposed by the elder Grote. Thus it came 
to pass that the fiiture of these two young persons was 
stamped and irrevocably coloured by the events of the 
summer of 1818.^ 

* O. WAnDoroxov, Esq* la GnoBOi Gbox% junior. 

Pabis, 28(4 A^igudf ISia 

It is luoky for me that I had not forgotten you: if I had I 
ahoold have been reminded of yon yesterday so very singularly, 
that my superstition would almost have taken it for a supernatural 
warning to write to yon. I saw a monster yesterday— an English 
monstor that weighs about 90 stooe^ and yet perhaps is^ still, as 

S8 pmaoHAL UFB or qbobgb qbot& obap. m. 

The fclkmiiig eztracti from Joonials kept by George 
Qroto, m tibe jbub 1818-19, will sbow the steady habit of 
rnailiaij; whioh he mamtained. Political economy was at this 
date aoquiing a lifely interest with yonng men of the 
meicantihi daai^ and the lectores of Mr. J. B. Maocnlloch 
attracted a large attendanee^ many ladies going to them 
along with the studious of the male sex. James Mill and 
Bafid Bioaido had>infact,resDScitated this important science 
in Ae pnbUe mind. Qoestions connected with it frequently 
the attentkm of George Grote and his intimate 
.when they met afterwards in his house in Thread- 
Street I recollect the eternal disputes over the 
» of tithe** with perfect deamess eren now. 

\ from diary kept by Geoige Grote, junior, in order 
to keep Miss Lewin informed of his way of life during the 
eaily period of their engagement^ she keqping a record of her 
daily pnceedingi for i^ perusaL 

■■dk like a Bsa as say oUmt animal ; I mean in appearanoe. It 
cdDsilsfllfS. • • • • 

Going to dine at a taifU d^hSie with my cousin, I obeerred this 
phnnnnMSinn waiting to be fed. As I bare been once or twice 
iatrodaeed to him, he seemed to recogniae me, but as I made no 
■dwices towmids a renewAl dT oqt aoquaintanoe, nothing wbatoTer 
paond bet we o n us. Tou may be assured that I did not lose ao 
good an oppo r tu nity dT donounoing him as the greatest critio and 
• • • • inEkigland. 

I congratulate yon and Miss Lewin on the cessation of the un- 
aataial atoms that your eril geniua had raiaed. You are, I trust, 
pratty near the harbour at present, though you did not, in your 
latter, at all state Aow near. May you arriTO there apeedily, my 
dear George^ and may you pass there a long life — it would be 
iaiHing to say a literary, an usefel, and a Tirtuous one : as it 
woeldberidiealousto add «e happy one* ^ • • • I beg 
ftat you will write to me directly, and be particnlar on all solgects 
vur happiness. 

Your tery sincere and aifeotiopate friend, 

G. W. 

1818-1820. BZTRA0T8 FROM DIABT. 29 

2Vei(2ay, Apt SaiMl, 1818. 
Bo8e»t7. BeadSayfor Aooapleof hoon. 

BoseaiT. Went orer to The Hollies ; ahaTed tliAve^ and read 
Smiih'a ' Wealth of Nationa ' till 8. 

Boae at 8. Breakfaated, and finiahed Sa/a * fioonoiiiie Peli- 

Boae at i past 6. Finiahed mj notea on. Sa/a definition of 
price. Bead orer again that part of Say'a aeoond Tolmne which 
refers to oonamnption. It requires some farther meditation befim 
I flhall hare thoroughly eompiehended it I also lefblTed in mj 
mind the reasons which hinder capital and labonr from eqnaliaing 
themselTea in all trades. 

Boss at 7. Walked orer to The HoUiea. Sat reading Smith's 
* Wealth of Nations' until 8. 

Sipieniher 80<iL At Badgemore. 

Bose at 7. Bead some of Lord Shafteshorj's letter on Enthu- 
siasm until 9, when we breakfiisted. I finished it after hreaUksti 
and was eztremeljr pleased with it It awakened many new 
notions in mj mind, and I determined, after some farther medii»> 
tion, to pat down upon paper some thoughts ^n the snlgeot At 12 
I read a chapter in the German BiUe with mj sister. 

Tkunday, Oeiober BIh. 

Bose soon after 6. Bead the second chapter of Sa/a * £eonoinie^* 
and I wrote down upon paper some remarks' on prodnotion, after 
meditating the sabject much, as some parts of it are yeiy thorny. 
I had occasion to diffor with some of Say's positions. 

Bose soon after 6. Bead orer again Say'a chapter on capital, 
and pat down some remarks on it in order to dear np my notions 
on the sabject, as I found occasion to suspect the soundness of 
some I had before entertained. • • • • gaw Biohards this 
day, who told me that, agreeably to my fiither's inTitation, he 
intended to dine in Threadneedle Street on Mcmday. 

I regretted this continual waste of erenings beyond measure^ 
and longed for the time when my house and my honra ahoold be 
under my command, or at least shared only with my — (Onr 
language is terribly poor t IhaTO a tear in my eye^ whieh.wodd 
£un drop on this spot) 

Bose at ^ past 6. Bead some more Say on the DiTision of 
Labour. He has reotified some trifling errors of A. Smith on tiio 


»aft& Baad anr agdn the •DiawrtaUoD oa l^rtne* wbieh 
itoB«llei^fl*A]MJog7/ wiihTwygretttpleMiiie. It is 
cqvilly deep aid aeeumto. After lirneWiiit I opened the Becond 
^PoloMof Uie'WeeliliofNeftioiie^'eiid reed the fint diapier on 
tte e^pkjBenl nd eeeamilfttkm of eapitel slook. With Um 
lof AfBiirpoiiil%cliietjIbelieif« of plmunologyy I egree 
I kni IB all h« sft ji. 

( AtmI, 1411 Odo&er, 1818. 

I after 6. BeadSay'adiapter on Oommeraial Industry; 
I A faur remarW on Um efieei of maddneiy on the oonditioa of 
Aelaboorats • • • • After dumernad aome of SehiUer^a 
•Doa'Cbdoa,* Omb piaetiaed on liie baaa from ^ past 7 iOl 9 ; at 
9 I diBak leai tiMn read aome mora of Say^ on the mode in 
eapital operatea^ tiMn Ihriahed my paper on machinery by 

Odaher IM, 1818. 
at 6. Bead Sa/a chapter on the Acenmnlation of OapitaL 
on the meaning which he annorea to the 
in whieh I think he has fidlen into sobm 

Boae at 6. Bead Sa/a ehapter on the CSronlation of Oommodi- 
tiBa» wkiA ia admifahle; equally deep and aceorate. 

Boae at ^ past 6. Vy &ther departed early for Badgomore. 
Bead Say and Tnrgot mitil 12, and pat down some remarks on the 
Manner in which accmnwlation takea place. Neither Say nor 
Targoi completely satisfy my mind on this snbjeot • • • • 
Dined alonek Bead some scenes in Schiller's < Don Carlos.' Con- 
lidered as complete dramas, I think both * Don Carlos' and ' Marie 
fitnart' are Tery defeetiTe. There is too mnch mixture of paltry 
«ad mnimportant intrigue in each ; a sort of uisncoessfal attempt 
to keep the interest on the stretch. There are, howoTer, most 
nmsturly single scenes to be found in theuL That between Philip 
•ad his son is most striking, when Carlos solicits the command of 
the army and is denied. After reading this, I practised on the bass 
ior ahonl an hour, then drank tea, and read Adam Smith's inoom- 
parUda chapter on the Mercantile System until 11, when I went 

Boee at 6. Bead aome more of A. Smith on the Mercantile 
8jsl*s n,and compared his acconnt dT it with that of Say. Whaterer 
is good in the latter is taken from A. Smith; and I do not {hink 
Asl the a«a ptk mi lo nnreatriatad^ ^^^^H^ of commero^ which he 


I — 


1816-1820. EXTRACTS FBOM DURT. 81 

supports, MO JQBiified. • • • • Dined at i pMl ft. Bead Don 
Carlos, and played on the baas for the nest two hoimi when I 
went and looked np; drank tea at i past 8, and begMi some mora 
of Say ; bat I found my mind languid, so that I was obliged to 
change my study, and took up a dissertation of Turgoti ''Bur lea 
yaleurs et monnoies," which I read with oonsiderable attsnticn. 
Went to bed soon afier 11. 

Tue$dajf, Odober 20tk 

Rose at 6. Studied some more of Turgof a Dissertationt whioh 
cost me oonsiderable labour, though I do not think it touohea the 
bottom of the subject Put down some more remarks on aooumu- 
lation, and also some on the oomplete allianoe of interest between 
each indiTidual and the society. Sat to Manskiroh lor my pietorai 
Between 4 and 5 I read a little more of Turgof a Dissertation. At 
6, G. Norman came, and dined with me ; stayed until past 9. We 
had some capital couTersation. I then locked up, and played on 
the bass for an hour. Went to bed about 11. 

Haying passed a sleepless night, I did not rise till k past 7. 
Read some more of Turgof a * Yaleurs et Monnoies,* and iJso an 
old < Edinburgh RoTiew/ on the subject of money, and then put 
down my thoughts on the measurement of Talue. I think Tui^ 
has proceeded throughout upon a misappiehension of the true 
theory of exchangeable Talues, and his dissertation on the suljeet^ 
which is indeed a fragment, bears marks of not haying leosiyed hia 
last hand, though some part of it is Teiy ingenious. 

At 12 I went and took a ride down to Olapham, for ezeidse. 
Returned at 3. Dined at i past 5. Read ' Don Carlos,' and played 
on the bass until 8 ; then locked up, and drank tea. Phssed the 
erening in studying Tnrgot, and digeating and eommitting to 
paper my notions on him. Bed at 11. 

• • • Dined at i past 6 ; Cameron with me. Wehadsome 
excellent conyersation upon the ignorance of mankind in generaL 
Between 7 and 8 I locked up, and we drank tea. We then read 
some of Ricardo's 'Political Economy' until i past 10, when ho 
departed. I then practised Sbhetky for half an hour, and went to 

Rose at 6. Read some of A. Smith on Wages, and also that part 
of Ricaido that we had read the night before oyer again. His. 
remarks on the effidot of a rise in wages are yeiy striking and 
origioaL I wrote down some remarks on the conftision into whieh 
Smith has fidlen, between the quanti^ of labour whioh it coals to 


n 6bjadk, nd &• ^wality wtitk Qmi digeel may after- 
to sue to €OBBHid In th« mulDet At 10 Ghuks 
to meiOid wo walked down to BraoBlej Commoii 
(twcho ■ilM> a KcRMn tiim bj koMell Had a Tiery 
dnnar and efwmg. Baad oqbm poeliy aloud in tho 
W«^ to bed abo«t i past 11. 

befbine 9* Braaisaeled and wened at 
wntQ I waa oldiged to go into tlM oOeeu BeoeiTed a note 
^fnm OwK^ytemag aa tbat lie waa to goto Ireland on 
. Between 4 and 6 read eoBM move at Bieaido,ont of 
parte at Aa bool^ to dear mp mj notiona on Foieign 
ObweD and OnMeon dined witii aa thia day ; we e^jojed 
eoBfenationy partly aetiona and argiini6ntatife» 
Aft« Aej went away, I played on the baaa a 
to bed aoon after IS. 

; 9. Alls reading Bioardo far aome little 
tina^ I aet to and wrote down oobm atnff upon Foreign Trade, 
i^en wkittk sy notiona begm to aeenma eome fin&y tlioiigk ^ery 
jiiiMllj At 1 1 Bonnted ay bone and rode to tbe Ftark, wbere 
I Mi ObwaD; we iben rode to BidunoniHUl together: waamnoh 
itiatli WI& Aa yrifow fbere^ eifen in diia month. Betnmed to 
bmar at 6» ^ery tired; read aome of Leaeing'e * Laooocm,' then 
flayed on the baae lor 1 boor. After tea aet to at Bieardo again, 
Wt not fnding my attention eaffieiently alire, I dropt him, and 
iofltod Offer Kelon'a * Eeeai eor le Oonuneioe,' which I had had 
•enm cmioaity to aee. I foond it the etnpideet and moet naeleea 
• I ofer opened. Bed at 18. 

a little belbra 9. Breakfitfted and wrote down 
upon Foreign Trade. Dined with Gowell and 
L thia day in Falagrave Plaoe. " Society " met in the eren- 
>^ G. Nonnan away; gone to Ireland. Bead Bicardo'e chapter on 
^eieign Trade, and had eome intereating diecoaeion with Dr. King 
^ the oolgect of Anatomy. Betoined home at i paat 12, went to 
^ bnt paaaed a aleepleea ni^t 

3WH^r.— Boee at i paat 8. Break&ated and milooked. Bead 
f^n more of Say'a pre&oe. Thought much thia day on the enb- 
^'^ of Foreign Trade. Dined at i paat 6 ; pUyed on the base for 
ihionr, and tiMn read eome of Leeeing'a theological writinga. 
2^^nk tea, and ipent the erening in writing down my thonghta on 
I Trade. BedatlS. 


181&-1820. EXTKAOTS FROM DIARY. 83 

Bose at 9. Breakfiuited; read some of Adam Smith on tbe 
MeztsantQe System. Bead part of the fint book of Axistotla's 
Politics^ wi^ a Tiew to ascertain bis notions on tba original bar* 
renness of monej, and on trade in generaL Drew oat on paper a 
rongb skotdb of some notions which I had in mj head re]atiir<e to 
the Metaphysics of Political Economy. 

Bose about 9. Breakfiwted and rode to London ; got wet and 
was compelled to change my things. Dined at i past 5 ; plajyed 
on the bass after dinner for an honr ; looked np, and drank tea ; 
employed myself daring the erening in writing down my notions 
on the Metaphysics of Political Economy. Bed at IS. 

Bose at 9. Breakfasted and continaed my thoa^^ts of the 
cTening preceding. Mr. Baxy brought me Bicardo's pamphlets 
this day. Between 4 and 6 I set to and read his Ftanphlet on the 
depreciation of oar paper canenoy. Dined at i past 6 ; played on 
the bass ; read some more of Bicardo— his reply to Mr. BosMiqaet» 
which is most able; looked ap, and drank tea; then spent the 
erening in going on with my ^ thoaghts,** looking at some parts of 
Xenophon uid Aristotle. Joamaliaed the last loar days, and bed 
at 12 o'clock. 

Bose at 9. Break&sted and rode to London with my Father ; 
had some yeiy unpleasant couTersation with him, whioh pat no 
exceedmgly out of spirits. 

Between 4 and 5, wrote a letter to my dearest Harriet infonning 
her of the result Dined at i past 6 ; went up to P^sgraTO Place 
in the evening ; Oameron and Cowell were not at heme; returned 
and drank tea, read some of Hemsteihuis* * De I'Hbmme et de sea 
Bapports ;' finished up my thoughts on the Metaphysics of Pdli* 
tical Economy. Bed at 12. 

Bose at i past 8. BreakfiMted and wrote down some mora 
thoughts on Foreign Trade. Thought a good deal during the day 
on the subject of exchanges. 

Between 4 and 5 read Mr. Galton's * Chart on the Late Depre- 
ciation of Bank Notes.' Dined at i past 6 ; pUyed on the bass for 
^ an hour after dinner. 

During the erening I read some more of Hemsteihuis,and wioie 
down some more thoughts on Foreign trade. 

Bose at 9. Breakfiisted and had a long conTersation with my 
mother on the suljeot of Tisiting the Lewin funily. Set off to 
London about 4 past 11. Dined with myunele in LamVs Oondnit 



I^Me; pkj«lnn6ofBftdi'sConoQrtMiBiheef«niiig. Betarned 
htmn thmk 11 ; read HdnrteriraiB lor an Iioiiz'— wme beantifiil 
\ upon xeligion. Bad at IS. 

i a Httle bafim 9. IhtiaVfaafod and read some move of tlie 
'EdUvj^ Beriew/ but waa little ^ far anyUiing, being ao miaeir- 
•Ue at keail Thk depraaakm lasted mtQ I leoeired mj dearest 
HL's latter at 1, wlueli qnite roanswfed, me and comforted me. I 
•oald Boi lielp wiiting her an answer to tell bar ao. Between 
iandSieadaoaMmofeof Schiller'B'Wallflnstein;' tlien pUyed 
tm &a basB nntQ tea. Bnmk tea, and lodrad up about 8. Bead 
t^a'Anthnqpology'for two hoiira; tben employed mjaelf in 
mn aoBM refleetiona on the eo-existenoe of freedom and 
ahmry hi Ameriea. Went to bed at 12. 

Boaaaft9. BrnaWJMited and read some of Hemsterimia, ' Snr 1> 

VMaikL* Mj brother Joaq^ oame to town and intermpted me. 

liandS read the 'Edinbin^ Bemw'on Milla British 

, whieh is eneUeol Dined with Joaeph at « past 6 ; at 8 he 

bj the Fdrtamovth Mail Locked up; then finished mj 

i Ameriean BU-w&rj; read with considerable attenti o n 

aoBM mora of Hemstathois' 'Bar k DiTinit</ Joonaliaed the 

last &raa daya, and Omb went to bed about IS. 


The yeara 1818-19 now rolled on, uneasily in some 
lespecis^ aa may well be conceived, but the ultimate prospect 
of being united at the latest in 1820, sustained the courage of 
the aflBanced loyers. The following letter will seire to 
conTey the feelings of the writer under the pressure of 
parental authority : — 

OnoBOB Gaon, junior, to Osoaos Wabds Nobmah. 

February, 1819. 
I foar I shall be obliged to extend my celibacy orer this 
year. A large debt which we had expected to secure, and Tsiuly 
a ip ee te d, must be written off this year, and my Father statoa that 
Ua own fortune will not enable him to make arrangements for me 
oat of it, independent dT the business. But what is still worae, be 
poaitiTely deelinea baring at preeent any communication with 
llr. L. or hia liunily ; — no, not so much aa a risit I feel most 
keenly the humiliation lo which H. L. is subjected in consequenoe 
«f ^is reaolntMO, but I hsTO no remedy. 

1818-1820. EXTRA0T8 FROM DIART. 85 

Do not oondole with me. I bftTo need to kftTe mj nuad toned 
to the brighti and not to the deepuring (ride of ihingik 

They met but seldoniy and during the nz mcmths between 
August, 1819, and March, 1820, Miss Lewin was absent in 
Dorsetshire; chiefly on a visit to her relatiyes Mr. and 
Mrs. Bethell, at Merley House, to whom and their yonthftil 
daughter Emma she was affectionately attached. 

As a specimen of George Grote's way of life during the 
period which immediately preceded his marriage^ I here 
giye extracts from his Diary, kept in order to send to 
Miss L. week by week a note of his personal ^ doings."* 

Thunday, ManA llih, 1819. 

Rose at 7. Break&sted, and read Kant for a couple of hems. I 
walked up, at 2 o'dook, to Hanover Square, where I saw Loid H. 
and the two Miss Hales ; was exceedingly delighted with the ap- 
pearance and re$eiManee of the one whom I had nerer seen before. 
Betomed into the City to dinner; wrote down a few thoughts 
which I had been rerolYing. Dined at i past 5 ; pUyed on the 
bass; drank tea, and locked up; finished the erening with Kant 

Friday, March Utk 

Rose at ^ past 7. Breakfestod, and employed myself fer some 
time in writing some notes on the doctrines of Kant which I had 
boon studying. At 4 rode down to Beckenham; dined thevs; 
played some of Mosart*s Orertures in the erening. Read some of 
Franklin's Life in the evening, and went to bed at 11. 

Saiurday, March IStk 

Roso at ^ past 7, after a sleepless night Read some of Hume's 
Essay on the AciulAmieal Philosophy. Breakfasted, and rode to 
London, where I found a letter from my dearest H, which gate 
me great delight, as also one from Miss Hale. Went to Guildhall 
twice this day to prove some debts. Between 4 and 6 read some 
more of Kant Dined at j^ past 6 ; pUyed on the bass; drank tea 
at^ past 7 ; then passed the evening in studying Eant| and writing 
down some remarks which occurred to me. Journalised the last 8 
days, and went to bed at 11. 

Sunday, March 21$L 

Rose at j^ past 6. Breakfasted, and read Kant untQ 9. Mounted 
my horse and rode down lo The Hollies lo see my dearest H. ; 

D 2 


r bettflTy Old mI wifli bar lor in hour and * haJt Bode 
i; edkd upon ObnMvon in mj wmj^ bat did not find 
bniAikana. Dined at Gb7Hm--l£n. Stirling and funilytbere. 
In Ibe erenng did not reed, ee mj ejee vera week, but lerdlTed 
Snt'edoelrineeinnqraiiiML Bedeftll. 

i et & Bode to London to breekfiwt Bead eome of Kent 
isr 1 bonr ; sew mj brolber Joe; at 8 wrote to Miea liayow and 
to Waddington; between 4 and 6 read aoiM more of Kant; began to 
neq[nre n better Tiew of bie doetrinea tban I bad before. Dined 
at i peat 6; played on Um baaa lor 1 boor; drank teai and read 
nntai paat 7, wben I went to tbe • CSrown and Anobor ' to 
- Ooleridge'a Leotnre. BedatlL 

\ aft 6. Bead Kant» and ate n litUe bread and batter, tiU 
} paat a» wben I went mp to &ook Street to breakfaat witb Mr. 
Bieardo; waa -w&rj politelj reoeiTod bj bim; walked witb bim 
and llr. Mm in St Jamea'a Phirk nnta near 12, wben I went into 
1km CStj; mj nwtlier In town tbia day. Between 4 and 5 read 
aenMaoreKant; dined at ^ P^tS; wrote oat again in tbe eren- 
ng aanM of ay remarke vpon Foreign trade^ and arranged tbem 

Boee aoon after 6. Bead Kant, and breakfasted, ontQ 9. Un- 
locked, and tben went on witb my remarks upon Foreign trade. 
At 8 rode down to Beckenbam; dined tbere — my mother and 
Joeepb alone ; in tbe erening played Moaart'e ' La oi darem la 
■Mno'andotber piecea; went to bed at 11. 

Tbnnidey, Jfordb 25I&. 

Boee at 6. Bode ap to London to breakfast Wrote some more 
npoa Foreign trade. About 12 Cameron called and stayed for 
I boor. Between 4 and 5 I read some of Kant's I^rolego- 
Dined at \ past 6 ; played on the bass for 1 boor ; tben 
iqp to Pals|^Te Place ; drank tea witb Cameron : we oon- 
aboat Kant, and read some of Bentbam apon Legislation. 
Bed at i past IL 

JWday, JHerdb 260. 

Boee at 6. Bead and meditated Kant for some time ; wrote out 
wtf e b e m ia ti o n s on Foreign trade. Between 4 and 6 some more 

1818-1820. EXTRACTS FBOM DIARY. 87 

of Kant Dined at ^ past 5; played on the baas for 1 bonr; 
drank tea, and attempted to read some Kant in the erening^ bat 
found my eyes so weak that I was eompelled to desist| and to 
think without book. Bed at 11. Journalised last 8 days. 

Saiurda^t Manh 27(iL 

Bose at 6. Finished my remarks on Foreign tiade^ and en- 
dosed them to Bioardo. Studied some more of Kant Went to 
Falcon Square and to Guildhall this day. Dined at ^ past 5; 
played on the bass for 1 hour ; just as I was going to drink tea, 
George Norman appeared, and I was delighted to see him back 
again. Had some Tery interesting oouTersation about Ireland. 
After his departure I read a ohapter in Bioardo's*PoL Boon.* Bed 
at 11. 

Sunday, JUarek 2Bih. 

Bose at i past 5. Studied Kant unta 1 ptst 8, when I set off 
to breakfast with lir. Bioaido. Met Mr. Mill there, and enjoyed 
some most interesting and instruetiTe discourse with them, indoofi 
and out (walking in Kensington Ghodens), untQ ^ past 8, when I 
mounted my horse and set off to Beckenham. Was eitremelj eoB- 
hausted with &tigue and hunger when I airiTed there, and ate and 
drank plentifully, which qu^ohed my intelleetual Tigonr for the 
night Bed at j^ past 10. 

End of Diary, 1B19. 




Ab die period approached for their marriage Hiss Lewin 
letamed home, and early in the month of March it was 
anlemntied at Bexlej Chnreh, Kenty hj the Bey. Edward 
Bamaid, the Ticar. 

Geoige took his bride into Hampshiro and the Isle of 
Wi/^ht^ Ibra few weeks, soon afterwards, and in June hired a 
small house in Beanfort Bow, Chelsea, for a month or 
two^ pending the completion of the preparation of the 
house in Threadneedle Street wherein the yoong married pair 
were leqnired by Mr. Grote, senior, henceforward to reside. 
It was situated in a coort adjoining the banking-house, 
was a roomy and comfortaUe dweUing, and, forming part of 
the premises, it allowed convenient access to the banking- 
house fcNT Greorge Grote during business hours, thus enabliog 
him to pass more time in his home than if he had lived at a 
distance. These were advantages, doubtless, but they were 
orerbalanced by the confined nature of the healer the want 
of open air, and the difficulty of finding means of takiog 
exercise and recreation on the part of Mrs. George Grote. 
In the autumn of 1820 George and bis wife went to pay a 
visit to Mr. and Mrs. Grote at Badgemore near Henley- 
-on-Thames, where they were very kindly welcomed, and 
where she became better acquainted with the numerous 
members of the Grote fEunily, till now scarcely known 
to her. 

Daring the weary interval which Greorge Grote and Miss 
Lewin had to traverse prior to their coming together in 
Uarch, 1820, he had bestowed a good deal of attention on 
ker mental improvement : impressing upon her the ad van- 

1820-1828. IIARRIAQB. 89 

tages of cnltiyating her mind by a ootme of instractive 
reading, and by committing to paper the impressionB made 
upon her by books. 

Miss Lewin was nowise disinclined to follow the dictation 
of her young preceptor, for she was from the first inspired 
with sympathy for his studies, and anxious to become 
qualified to second, and even to assist him, if possible, in 
his intellectual coursa Her appetite for knowledge bad 
indeed formed one among the attractions she possessed in 
George Orote*s eyes from the beginning of their acquaint- 

Furthermore, George Grote frequently called her attention 
to another reason for seeking pleasure in study, because 
his pecuniary circumstances were likely to be, for some years 
at least, very limited. His father, though at this period 
possessed of a large income, which within a year or two of 
George Grote's marriage became still larger (by his wife's 
inheriting the Irish estate at the death of Sir Henry Blosset*), 
— his father, I say, restricted his eldest son to a small allow- 
ance, only just sufficient to enable him and his wife to liye 
in decent comfort, and that only by both of them practising 
self-denial and obsenring frugal habits. 

Within a very few weeks of her entering upon the occupa- 
tion of her new home in Threadneedle Street, Mrs. (Jeorge 
Grote*s health began to suffer from the change to thii con- 
fined situation. Nevertheless, it was a necessary condition 

* This gentleman being named heir to the estates in Iielaad, 
after the death of his maiden aunts, assumed the old name of 
the fiunily — ^De Blosset — dropping, howerer, the French prefix of 
"De.** He became possessed of this inheritance about the year 
1815— went to India in 1822, as Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court (Calcutta), and died there in 1828, learing his proper^ to 
his sister, Mrs. Grote, entailing it on George Orote, her eldest son, 
with power of appointment to another son. This power she em^ 
oised in &TOur of her second son, a Iff^jor in HJi. 88rd B^pment ; 
and after his death, in 1844, Mrs. Orote derised the estates in lie- 
land to her fourth son-^osoph Orote, banker, in London. 


<if her mmiage ; Mr. Grole had said it miwt be bo, and she 
cndeaTonred to make the beat of it. The winter was 
vnwcntedlj rigoronSy the dose air of the small court was un- 
wholmome, and a casoal indisposition led to a premature 
labour in Janoarj, 1821. A male inCemt was bom, which 
lived only one week. Being an eight months* child, and 
broi^t forth nnder the circumstances indicated above, it 
eonld not have been expected to liye, although pronooneed 
to be a fine hcj. 

This prematore deliyerj was followed by puerperal fever, 
of so vbulent a character that, after three days. Dr. Batty 
ttdicated to Geoige Grote his conriction that there could 
be but one termination to the disorder. At the end of 
the sixth day (during six days and nights she had been 
deliriooi^ and had been kept idiye by an occasional spoonful 
of baiiey-water, poured down her throat by the nurse) Dr. 
Batty discerned, not without astonishment as he confessed, a 
sl^t diminution in the pulse. A crisis had supervened; 
her naturally fine constitution had enabled her to resist the 
bfain fever, which apparently had burnt itself out, and she 
MS saved. 

Not to dwell upon the miserable circumstances which 
accompanied her slow convalescence, I pass to the subject 
of George Grote's mental course during the years of his 
married life. 

He composed an essay on Parliamentary reform in 1821, 
writing it for the most part at the bedside of his wife, 
who, slowly recovering from her terrible illness, bad been 
conveyed in a bed-carriage to Hampstead, to a small but 
dieerful house on Downshire Hill, near the Heath. This 
essay was published as a pamphlet, and may be considered 
ss G. Grote's coup iumii in literary composition. It pur- 
ported to be a reply to an article in the * Edinburgh Beview,' 
by Sir James Mackintosh, and was expressly directed against 
the theory of class representation. As a piece of political 
eontroversial writing this work must be allowed a claim to 
respect^ and moreover it is a creditable specimen of nervous, 

1820-182a FIRST PRINTED BS8AT. 41 

correct Euglish : though, as being a maiden easa j, naturally 
oTer-laboured» and perhaps a trifle heavy in styla 

The next .two or three years rolled on without any marked 
feature ; Mrs. 6. Grote recovered a certain measure of health, 
but the direful traces of her late illness left her liable to 
painful headaches of several days* duration at intervals. 
They were resident in Threadneedle Street^ but had a small 
lodging at Newington Green, to which they went tot some- 
what better air as often as George Grote*s business duties 
allowed, and they took, annually, a month's holiday, during 
which they made country excursions. As a rule of exist- 
ence George Grote*s leisure was unremittingly devoted to 

The amount of notes, scraps, extracts^ and dissertations 
which he wrote, and the greater portion of which is still 
preserved, attests the eager appetite for knowledge which 
devoured him. He cultivated his musical talent, too^ for 
many years after his marriage, although towards the year 
1830 he ceased to attend to his violoncello, finding too many 
other claims pressing on his time and attention to permit of 
his practising on this instrument. . Up to this period, how- 
ever, he and his wife used to play duets on two violoncellos^ 
as well as pianoforte duets with his accompaniment. 

Exiraei o/LeUerfiram O. Oaon to O. W. Nobkav.* 

LovDOV, lHh Jtmmrp, 1888. 
I am at present deeply engaged in the fi^bulons ages of Gieeee^ 
which I find will require to be illustrated by bringing together a 
large mass of analogioal matter from other early histories, in otder 
to show the entire uncertainty and worthlessness of tales to which 
early associations have so long familiarised all olsssical minds. I 
am quite amased to disoover the extraordinary greediness and 
facility with which men assert, beliere, and re-assert, and axe be- 
lieved. The weakness appears to be next to universal, and I xeallj 

* I give this letter as an evidence of the hold which GrecJan 
mythology had obtained orer his imaginatiou. 


: Umi one ovghi to write on tlio wiUo of oiie*i dreoiiiig-ioom 
Ao ontm of tibe poet Spidiumiii— 

Mm O. Orote was habitoally stodkHU, after her fashioiiy 
nder the diiectkm of her hnsbaiid, who laid great streas 
ipon her coltiTatiiig the ratiocinative yein of inatmctioii — 
aboife all, logic, metaphysioa, and pcditics; andaheaccordinglj 
•tiofe to master these subjects^ out of defierenoe to his wish, 
and in ofder to qualify herself to be associated with his intel- 
leetnai tastes and labours, as time wore on. 

The peiaons who frequented their house were chiefly men 
of hig^ intdligenoe and capacity. George Grote having so 
little leasare^ woold not give np his time to any bat such 
aswriates as were at once congenial and profitable. The 
elder IGll came frequently, dining in Threadneedle Street 
at least once a week; stimulating his younger disciple to 
co ntin uous labour by his example and encouraging talk. 
Serend eminent persons sought the choice society which 
fiom time to time met in that obscure comer of the City, 
and the influence exercised by their circle came to be felt 
outside, with gradually augmenting power. Mr. David 
Bicardo, Mr. John Smith, MJ"., Mr. John Black (of the 
'Moniing Chronicle'), Mr. CameroD, Mr. Norman, Mr. 
IVHnas Campbell (the poet), Mr. John Austin and his 
brother Mr. Charles Austin, Mr. John Romilly, Mr. Charles 
Buller, Lord William Bentinck, Mr. Bickerstf^th, Mr. Eyton 
Tooke, John Stuart Mill, John B. Maoculloch, several in- 
structed Italian refugees (M. de Santa Rosa, among others), 
Mrs. J(^ Austin, and a few other female friends — all 
these, along with many more whom it is now unimportant 
to specify by name, contributed to form the society I speak 
o^ in Threadneedle Street, from 1822 down to 1&30. I 
> here a note of Mr. Bicardo's to his young disciple. 

Davd BioAmDO |0 OioBGi Obotb. 

MV BBAB Sn, — 

• • • I shaU see Mr. Maberly (o^y, and will, if oon- 

1820-1828. DAVID BIOABDa 48 

TGnient to him, fix on the Friday fidlowing [to dine wifli lb. and 
Mrs. George Giote]. 

I am sore I need not mj to yon that joor obierfations on my 
oondnet in Parliament lespeoting the two important qneationa 
wliibh haTe lately been under diemMaion, haTe gi^en ma great 
pleasore. The approbation of anoh as yon is tibe only reward 
which I ezpeot for doing my dnty, and amply reeompenses ma for 
my poor exertions lor the public good. 

Beliere me ereri my dear Biif 

Very troly yoorsi 

Datd Bnunno. 

P.S.— I haTe seen lir. Ifaberly ; he agreea to Friday the 16tL 

Mrs. George Grote had nnmerona friends and oonneo* 
tions among the aristooratic portion of society, and her 
inclination would fain haye led her to coltiyate their sym- 
pathies by frequenting their houses. But the aTenrion, 
at this early period of his life, to everything tinctured 
with aristocratic tastes and forms of opinion, which ani- 
mated George Grote*s mind, obliged his wife to relin- 
quish her intercourse with almost all families of rank and 
position, rather than displease her (somewhat intolefant) 

With the exception, therefore, of Mr. and Mrs. Flumer, of 
Gilston Park, Herts, Mrs. George Grote scaroely maintained 
any ties out of the circle of which I have sketched the com- 
position. To Gilston Park she not nnfSreqnentiy repaired, 
howeyer, since it not only afforded an attractiye change, 
beneficial to her health and spirits, but the deroted friend- 
ship of its owners (who were her blood relations) hardly 
left her any choice but to accept their unbounded kmd* 
ness. Gilston Park, delightful as it was, possessed no 
charms for George Grote beyond the pleasure of his wife's 
presence, and he never went thither save with a certain 

Had he chosen to turn to account the warm affection and 
partiality shown to his wife by the Plnmen^ I have little 
doubt but that Gilston Park might have Men to his portion 


after their deatk Bat be could not diasemble the indiffer- 
he fdt for ererything that was not aBBOciated with 

The foUowiDg letter is inserted here, as there will be no 
fiirther oeeaaoB to q^ of Gilston :— 

TmaMAmoMMM BnBR» N tmm U r 8n<, 1827. 
I deeply rogrel^ my law% that I am oompelled to write 

IB persoo, which I should hsTe done sssuedly, 
sd I Ml beeft tied by nqr eng^^ement with Beathsm. 
The dsaee tike tiieengsgeaMnt(l) 1 had a thoassnd misgiyings 
) I wrote tibe letter to tibe soeient ssge, that sometiiing would 
\ lo make mj p r e e c aee desindde at Oilston, and it was only by 
that I prefailed apon myself to promise to dine with 
Whst is more, it will be atterly impossible for me to oome 
1 OS Monday, as yea saggest ; for I find that the Goanoil of 
the London XJmkwmatj meeta on Monday, instead of Taeeday, as I 
kad sapposod; and W. G. P. is going oat of town for a few days 
en Taesday, whieh will oblige me to look up both on Taesday and 

It is tembly painfol to be eeparated from yea so long, my 
deerort lore ; bat I know not how to aToid it, and I can only fiJl 
foal cf the great people wboee yisits yon are expecting, and whose 
caprice and ancertaintj thas detains yon away from me. 

it CO— olos me, howerer, that you are in doTer — I hope riding 
and acqairing health as w«ll as exerdaing ** Gippey." I trust that 
yea will not be kept longer than Tboreday or Friday: and I reaUj 

* Mrs. George Groie continned on terms of intimacy and affeo- 
ticn with Mrs. Plamer for some yeara after Mr. Plnmor'a death. 
Hie widow married Captain Lowin, BJS. (brother to Mra. George 
GroleX in 1825, and he dying in 1827, ahe married, a year or two 
allvwarda, Mr. Ward (aathor of a norel called * Tiemaine'> She 
keroelf died in 1833, beqaeathing to his son by a former wife tbe 
whole cf her large fortone, left in her disposal bj Mr. Plamer, her 
ftnl haabaad. Tbia fortane Sir Henry George Ward managed to 
get throagh after a few yeara, and he died at Madras (where be 
was GofsnorX aboat the year 1860. He bad, before this, reigned 
•far tiw loniaa Uaads as Engliah pro-conaoL 

1820-1828. LETTER TO MBS. OROTB. 45 

think that neither yon nor Mrs. Lewin ought to ndEar jour time 
and yonr ezpeotations to be tampered with any longer, aeeii l^ the 
GoTemoi^^kneiial of India. If he does not oome on If ondaj or 
Tneeday, I would not wait for him at alL Howerer, do as yoa 
please, my dearest : the sooner yon ^^etom, the bettsr fbr me. How 
different is a Sunday whibh I look forward to pass with yo« tnm 
a Sunday which I am to pass without you 1 

I. got to town Tery weU on Thursday, though it was and still is 
Tory cold: all the better weather, howerer, for you, and thai eon- 
forts me when my hands axe Ireeiing. 



BsfOBB traktiiig of the period which saooeeded the year 
1890, it may be as well to giye a coreorj sketch of the way 
of life common to Mr. and Mrs. George Orote prior to that 
year. Geoige Grote himadf was the real working partner in 
the bankiDg-hoiise of Grote and Prescott^ from 1816 onwards, 
the other two partners being his father and Mr. William 
WiUong^bby Presoott, both of them sons of the original 
loonden of the hoose. Two or three years after Greorge 
Griote*8 marriage, (or about the year 1822,) Mr. William 
George Presoott, son of Mr. Willooghby Prescott, was intro- 
duced as a partner, and thenceforth helped to lighten the 
labovis of his co-partners. At that time it was indispensable 
to haTe the banking-hoose Safes closed at night and opened 
in the morning by one of the partners, and this duty (now-a- 
days confided to the head derk) was for the most part 
discharged by George Grote and William George Prescott, 
in torn. Each of the three partners had a private residence 
at the banking-house ; young Prescott liring with his father 
and mother in the largest house of the three, in which also 
slept and were boarded, some twelve or fifteen of the younger 
derks, at the expense of the Firm. Mr. Prescott, the elder, 
resided at Hendon most part of the year, so that the duty of 
(qmiing and dosing deTolred chiefly on Greorge Grote, except 
daring the spring trimestre. George and his wife occupied 
the third house, the dder Grote keeping the centre house 
in the court, with a couple of serrants, for his own use when 
it suited him to sleep in town. 

It has already been sUted that Mrs. George Grote's health 
had soUered fimn the eflfects of the puerperal ferer, to so 


extent as to render it impoerible to pan the whole 

t in this confined and enclosed situation. At great 

.ence to themselves the joxmg couple passed a 

>f their time, therefore, at a small furnished house 

e or six miles north of London, at a place called 

ir , beyond Highgate, George going up and down 

by the stage coach : but when it was his duty to 

ip and open, then Mrs. Grote came to London and 

while this duty lasted. Thus their lires were passed 

en Fortis Green and Threadneedle Street for the 

portion of each year, up to 1826, when they took on 

a small but conyenient house, with garden and stabling; 

toke NewingtoD, situate close to the New Biver, on the 

een Lanes," as the road was called. 

:heir social pleasures (such as they were) consisted of 

asional little dinners, giyen to intimate friends in Thread* 

edle Street, or on Sundays at Newington. Amusements, 

nmonly so called, were rarely indulged in. But Mrs. 

i -ge Grote now and then went to a concert of the Fhil- 

mooic Society. 

The confinement of the City rendering some indoor ocou- 
ion desirable, Mrs. George Grote learned the bookbinding 
tr d, which furnished a variety to the sedentary ocoupatioos 
of reading and needlework, drawing, and the like. 

Both she and her husband habitually rode, for the sake of 
exercise, in the riding-school at Finsbury (kept by Mr. 
Julien Mathieu) two or three times a week. When they 
took walking exercise, it was either on Southwark Bridge or 
in the Drapers' Hall Gardens, Throgmorton Street^ amidst a 
grove of trees black with the soot of the Oitj. 

They kept a small open chaise drawn by one horse, in 
which Mrs. G^rge droye herself and her maid and man* 
servant backwards and forwards, as occasion prompted, to the 
suburban box. They had two female servants and a man- 
servant, their cook always remaining in charge of the house 
in London. 
In addition to the circle of fViends already named as 


being frequent Tinton^ a fineigner of distinciioii now and 
then aeeepted tlieir modeei hoeinUlity. Among these were 
Moneieor £tienne Dnmonti of GeneTa* Moneieiir Charles 
Conta^ a Fiendi jniist» then an exile in England for 
politieal writuigp against the goreniment of Charles the 
Tcath; also the celdirated Dr. Schlmnnaoher, of Berlin, 
the theological pntfessor, and M. Jean Baptiste Say and his 
htulj. Onceinthecooxseof the7esrl[r.andMrs.Geoni;e 
cAJoyed a month's hoUdajr, q^ending it dther at the seaside 
or in a eonntry ramUe in their chaise, with a second horse 
OA whidi Mr. Geoige OroCe lode. On one occasion the New 
Foiest was the scene of their ezcnisions; on another summer 
they took their holiday in J 

The habits of woifc were not relaxed after Orote*s settling 
in Threadneedle Street as a married man. Here is a sample 
of his later occnpatioos : 

Journal kept by G. Grote, December, 1822.— A bell was 
abovt this dale fixed in oar bedroom, ami duly rung at 6 ajc. 
by the priTate watchman, in oider to secure Grote's getting 
up at that hour. 

Dee. 3n2, 1822.— Bose a little before 7. Besd to the conclusion 
of FMMsniis, being about 40 pages. After break£ut began to take 
down my rough notes upon theee 40 pages ; a task which I com- 
pleted in the erening. Bead scmie Tery interesting matter in the 
int relume of Goguet respecting the early arts, agriculture, 
baking, brewing, ml, drinks, and dothes. This is &r the best 
put of Gogaet which I haTe yet seen. 

4l&.~Bose at 6. Bead Goguet on the different Arts untQ 
break&st ; after breakfiwt read scHne articles in Voltaire's * Die-, 
tknn. Fhilosoph.' Had a headache this erening, which I whiled 
•way eonrening with W. Prescott 

6H .— B oss a little before a Bead Gognef s Dissertation on 
Bs nrhoni s thnn ; I do not think he has giren the rigjii reascmings 
nbo^ tiw genuineness or spuriousness of this author. Bead also 
Hfftation on the Book of Job, which I think poor. In the 
read 60 pages of Wolfs Preleg. in Homer, which I think 

1828-1827. .Uin)ERTAKES THE ElffTOBJ OF QBBEO& M 

6<iL — ^Boee at 6, haTing begun the bell in my bedfoom. Ocm* 
tinaed the peniaal of Wolfs Prolegomena^ wbieh *^«»*M«f mj 
mnoh inBtmotion m to the literaiore and HEEL of antiquity. 

In the evening read some exoellent articles in Yolt * Diet Plu ' ; 
partionlarly artidea Gone^nent and D&noeratie. Penued Wolf 
until bed-time. 

7<A.— Boee at 6. Road Wolfl My opinion of him not loasened ; 
from some pasaagoa I think he is a Free-thinker, espeoiallj as lo 
the Old Testament Wrote a letter to Arthur Ghregory, explaining 
and confirming the impressions made l^ Mill's art ' GoTemment.' 
Went on with Wolf until bed; I get on slowly with him, ftom 
taking constant notes. 

8<A.— Bose at 6. Finished Wolfs Prolog., and my notes on 
them. After breakfast sot to upon Died. Sicid., haying prerionsly 
cast my eye over Heyne's Dissert, prefixed to the mmree$ of A£i 
history. I reserre this until I hsTC finished the Historian himself. 
Bead Diod. until 2 o*olook — about 86 pages, as I found it nees*- 
sary to take down notes of considerable length. 

9^ — Boee at 6. Employed all my reading-time this day upon 
Diodor., and got through 80 pages, taking notes. He seems a 
more sensible writer than I had expected. A few articles in tho 
* Dictionn. Philos.* filled up odd moments. The article Jftrorfet ia 

10<ik.~Hosoat6. Road Diod. Siculus, and took notes. Mr. Mill 
and Mr. John Le Ferre, and Sir O. Lewin dined with us. 

Towards the autumn of the year 1823, Mrs. Grote, hearing 
the subject of Grecian History frequently discussed at their 
honse. in Threadneedle Street, and being well aware how 
attractiye the study was in her husband's eyes, thought it 
would be a fitting undertaking for him to write a new History 
of Greece himself; accordingly she propounded tliis view to 
George Grote : ** Tou are always studying the ancient authors 
whenever you hare a moment's leisure ; now here would be a 
fine subject for you to treat. Suppose you try your hand !** 

The idea seemed acceptable to Uie young student, and, after 
reflecting for some time, he came to the resolution of entering 
upon the work. His studies became chiefly directed towards 
it from that time forward. The quantity of materials which 



he aeewniikted in the fann of ** Notes*' end extracts daring 
his pvepsnlion for the Historj, (which have been preserred 
hf the esre of his wife,) give eridence of his indnstrj, and of 
the deep interest he felt in his sdf-appcHnted task. 

In 1824 George Groteconsented to take his sister to Edin- 
bngh, where she intended to pass some months, and his wife 
being willing to accompany him they all made the voyage 
by sea from the Thames in the 'James Watt' sailing-packet. 
They had a tempestnons passage, with the imminent hazard 
of a *nm down** off Flamboiaagh Head, in the night, by a 
hi^eoUier; Before leaTing Scotland Mr. and Mrs. George 
made a short toor in a gig^ dri?en by a Highland boy, to 
Perth, Taymonth, and Ohugow sonthwaids, paying a visit to 
Robert Owen's estaUishment near Lanark, on the Clyde river. 
Dving this toor George regnlarly employed the evening in 
composing a compondions treatise on Logic 

It was in 1827 that George and his wife took an excursion 
to the west of En^and, the banks of the Wye, Malvern, and 
ether interesting jdaces. On their way home they halted at 
Wilton Hooscb where the Earl and Conntess of Pembroke 
gave them a warm welccxne. It was a charming family 
gronp— the daughters approaching to womaDhood and full 
of promise: young Sidney Herbert, a frolicsome, handsome 
boy, of about 13 ix 14 years old, Hourdi yet elegant, ^ saucy " 
jet respectful to his elders. The family of Mrs. George 
Grote and the Pembroke family had long been united in 
firieudly intercourse, since the banning of the century. 

Besides the mouth's holiday, Greorge Grote and his wife 
went every year to pass ten days with his father at Badge- 
more (near Henley-on-Thames), where they had horses to 
ride, sjid generally profited in health by the change. On 
one of these occasions Mrs. Grote drove her own one-horse 
vehida all the way from Newington to Badgemore, forty 
miles ; George riding the same distance on horseback. The 
old people treated them very kindly, and always took 
pbasnre in Mrs. Oeorge Grote's musical accomplii^ents. 
Tbe dder Mr. Grote bore very little share in the labours of 


the banking-house daring these ten yeaxs, 1820 to 1880, but 
he appropriated the greater portion of the profits which fell 
to the Grote 'family, allowing his eldest son no more than 
just sufficient to keep him from incurring debts. Mrs. Ot^rge 
was a careful manager, making the most of their small 
income, and occasionally adding a few pounds to it by 
writing articles for the * Westminster Beview/ 

The editor of the * Westminster Beview/ Mr. Bowring, well 
aware of the ability and learning of Oeorge Grote, applied to 
him for a contribution to that periodical, on some classical 
subject. Grote accordingly set to work upon a renew of 
Mitford*s ' History of Greece,' in the course of the winter of 
1825. The artide appeared in the April number, 1826, and 
produced a remarkable effect upon the scholar world. It is 
but just to the editor of the Beyiew to give, in his own 
words, his opinion of the value of the critique. He wrote 
to the author thus: 

Mt dxab Sib, — 

I shall send the whole of the artide to press. It is ftill of ^ 
loaming — ^instmction of many sorts — and of utility and wisdom* 
I think it honours you, and will serre us. 

J. B. 

Within a year or two after Greorge Grote had oommenoed 
his preparations for writing a history, he had conceiyed the 
project of making a short Continental excursion. One of 
the motives was a desire to seek the acquaintance of Pro- 
fessor Niebuhr, to whom he addressed a letter of inquiry 
concerning his probable presence in Bonn in the month of May, 
1827. Niebuhr had been made aware of Grote's scholastio 
acquirements through the artide from his pen on Mitford's 
' Greece,' already mentioned. The estimate which he formed 
of them is revealed in the following pages, written towards the 
end of March, 1827. The friendly and flattering tone of 
the learned historian's answer was infinitely encouraging to 
the younger student, and it caused him to look forward with 
lively pleasure to the realisation of his scheme, and to enjoying 

■ 2 


the adfanlage of discuBiiig ancieiit history with the eminent 
fluiMin eeholar. (Srenmetancen^ bowerer, prored nnfaTonr- 
able; the Bionetaij world became terriUy aosettled about 
thia petiody and George Orote fixind it inconflutent with his 
iAUffJiofm to hie partners to absent himself from England. 
I regret to add that these two piooeen of history (as they 
may be termed) nerer had the good fortone personally to 
meel» to the end of their days. 
Tim letlar of Professor Niebnhr is here snbjoined. 

Hnson Is Onoaes Oion, jmiior. 

Bora, 26a June, 1827. 

Two moaths ha^ elapssd sines die dsle of die letter with 

na fimNned me^ sad I sm sfrsid thst no apology whidi I 

ior so long a silenee will appear a d e qu ate. Allow me, 

r. Is sists brieiy, thst it is die lesalt of pioirseied iUness, 

hss de^ysfieeled mynerrss; while, at the smbo time, I 
wBi^ sad sm still, tonMaled by hoorly introsions sad a^ocstioos. 
I feel not only aawell, bat soffsring in a way which is pecolisrly 
iistiemisg to a stadioos msa. For weeks together I hsTo been 
aaabla to hold sad msasge a pen ; sad i^ to a certain degree, I 
eoald lesMdy the eril by dictating in my own langnsge, this was 
not the esse in a foreign one, least of sll in "Rngliali^ which is 
almost anknown to the yonth of this part of Germany. 

Now I alioald haTo contriTod to oreicmne all these obstacles if 
aiy illnem had not hindered me i«ecisely from answering your 
qacatioa. Ton want to know whether I ehall be at Bonn after the 
Buddie of Jaly : thst depends upon my health ; and I conld sap- 
pose feom week to week that I should be enabled to gi^e a more 
positnrs saswer. Had I not announced fer the sommer lectnres 
i^oa the BooMa Antiquities, — ^kad this not decided more than one 

; to resmin here, I shmild haTo gone to Neundorf to try the 

I was BMsl unwisely obstinate, sad remained here. In all 
probability, I ihall not more finran hence before the 16th of 
August, thst I may conduct the lectures to a termination. Then 
I win, almost certainly, jooceed to Aix-la-Ghapelle, as the only 
pIsa to bs sttempted at that season. 

II is aoi impossible that prudence may compel me to abridge 
ihs lsetare% sad go sooner : I hope, howsTor, it will aoi be the ( 

1823-1827. LETTER OF NIEDUHR. 63 

If joa Tiflit ihe banks of tho Bhine, your way Um ihraiii^ 
Aix-la-Chapelle : haTe the goodnoss to inquire at tlie Po0(-offioe. 
If yon write me a line a few daya before yon loaTO Londony dixeoted 
to Bonn, I shall have time enoogh, if here, to send an answer, jwfto 
restojUtf, to that Post-offioe ; if I should be already in thai eilj, yoa 
will find my direction. 

To see you, Sir, to oonrerse with you on the noUe subjeot which 
. occupies your leisure hours, and to which you hate abeady shown 
yourself so eminently qualified to do justice, will bo to me a meal 
exquisite gratification. We both may be conscious, without personal 
acquaintance, that there exists between our principles and our 
yiews of history such a congenialilj, that we are called upon to 
become acquainted, and to connect our labours. 

In Oreek history, with perhaps a few exceptions of such pcnnta 
as I haye been led to inyestigate, I haye only to learn from yon. 
If what I can offer you of the results of my researches about the 
later periods should contain anything worthy of your attention, I 
would feel hiH?P7 ^^^ honoured. 
Oiye me leaye to recommend the ondoeed for our mutual frimid. 
I am, with truth and high regard, 

Dear Sir, yours sincerely, 

B. Oao. Nnsumu 

Living in an obsenre suburb, on the north-eastern side of 
I lOndoD, as they did, Mrs. G^rge became gradually cnt off from 
all but her nearest family connections, and indeed from society 
generally ; in fact, a more recluse life than she and George 
Orote lived, it would be difficult to imagine. The little leisara 
which the management of the banking-house left Iiim, was 
steadily applied by George to the prosecution of his historical 
and other studies: for he kept up a general acquaintance with 
modem literature in all languages, as well as with tlie classic 
authors of the ancient world. When they establislied tliem* 
selves at Newington, it was found practicable for him to walk 
to and from the banking-house, instead of (as before) uaing 
the stageKX)aoh ; and he accordingly passed more nights out 
of town than when their rural retreat was at a greater die- 
tence. George usually left ''Paradise Place " at 8 AJf«» 
when he had to open the banking-house; on other monungiy 
not earlier than half-past ninOt 


Hk iMbift was to walk baek to dinnery mileas when obliged 
to atay to loA up, Sometimea Mra. George would send the 
iMMas for Uan to ride lioiiie apon from the lirery stablea at 
the xidiag-adiooL Ooe day in the wedL might for the movt 
pari be eoonted upoo to be apent at borne ; <m which day 
aa extra amoont of learned labour was aehioTed, and a recrea- 
tive ride or drire enjoyed : Mrs. George always taking care 
tlmtbe shook! hare his "stody" entirely to himself whenerer 
he was minded to work at his Greek history. Mrs. George 
went^ at iateiTals^ to Tisit her own fiunily io Kent^ for 
n few dqr% on wbiA oecasions her hosband aooompanied 

1827-1830. UKIVBRSlTy OK LONDON, 



About the year 1825, the project was set on foot of creating 
a London Uniyersity, where a general system of instraction 
should be established, independent of all religions teaching. 
The promoters of it were Liberals in politics, but the greater 
proportion were members of the various Dissenting bodies. 
The Whig party viewed the scheme with favoor, as being 
likely to countervail the ascendency of the Tories. Geoige 
Grote early threw himself into this movement, and gave 
much of his attention to the oiganizing of the necessary 
machinery, which, after a time, resulted in the ereatioii cl 
the London University. 

The first stone of this edifice was laid on the 80th April, 
1827, with great solemnity, and amid much popular sym* 
pathy, by his Boyal Highness the Duke of Sussex.* The 

« The names of the members composing tlie first ooondl were 
ongravon on a brass plate, and deposited within the foondatioa- 
stone, along with the Yorioiis coins of the rmlm then in oiroolalioB. 
The names are as follows, — twenty-five m number. (At die dale 
of this record ooncoming the London University (1870), only two 
of the mombors of this first oounoil survive. These two are^ Geofge 
Grote and Lord John BussoU) : — 

H.BA tlfto DiUn of Siistez, 
Duke of NorfoUc, Henrknit Broughui, 

Marquia of Laosdowna, Immo Lyon Goldmld, 

Lord John RiumII, Georgioa Grote, 

Loid Dudley and Waid, Zaehary Hacaulay, 

Lord Auckland, Johannes Wiihaw, 

Jaoobui Abererombie, Doigamin 8haw, 

Jacoboa Maekintodi, Tooko (GuUeliniia), 

Akzaader Baring, Ueurieui WaTmmaUi, [QaoffiM 


■e ^ ^Uwyrhood of Chnrer Stieei was alive wiih mnltitadea of 
i; all the windows which eonunanded a Yiew <^ the 
, and eren the house-tops^ were lined with gaaers. 
llaaj penons of distinetaon attended the ceiemooj, and 
speeches weie made^ and a dinner was held in the evening 
at the FremasoDs' Ta?em in Great Qaem Street, Lincoln's 
Inm Fields, at which George Grote cf eoane *' assisted; 
llm George finding a place, along with other ladies, in the 
gallcffy above, to hear the speeches. The company at this 
dianer— 420 in nomber— -comprised many of the most dis- 
in the coon^, the Doke of Sussex pre- 


may traly be said to have fimned an epoch 
history. Mnch sensation was occasioned 
by it» not only in England bat on the Gontanent An 
echo even anived from l^enna, whence a writer pr^ 
dieted a change in the sentiments of tlie English com-, 
sanaiij, "since the bosiness of edncation appears to be 
leaviiV the hands of the Ohnrch,*' &e. dra The fact was, 
that the Dimeoting body were now becoming powerful enough 
to insist mpoa having a superior education for their sons ; 
the exdusion <^whom from the English Universities Iiad 
kmg been felt as a serious grievance. The ** Philosophical 
Radicals,* as the foUowers <^ Bentham Were designated, natu- 
inDy lent themsdves to a project tending to separate education 
from the management of the clerical body, whilst the leaders 
€t the Whig party gladly accepted the lUliance of the Rodi* 
cab and Dissenters who, they hoped, might assist them in 
ftarm to airire at political power. 

The first list of professors appointed to the London Univer- 
sity came out in November of this year: many names since 
rises to distinction figure upon it: such as Charles Bell, 

GMghMBvkbMk, JMobwMfll, 

I OiMpMI, JoImbum Smith. 

I H«M, Tmbm WflaoQ, 

1 1827-1880. XJKIVEB8ITY OF LONDON. 57 

Dionysius Lardner, J. B. Maocullodb, John Anstiiiy Doctor 
Lindley, Antonio Panizsi, and George Long. 

The getting the Institution into working order required 
a yast deal of individual exertion and ability. Mr. War- 
burton, Mr. Zaohary Macaulay, Mr. Mill, Mr. Waymouth, 
and later, Mr. Joseph Hume and Mr. Hallam, gave muoh of 
.their time and attention to the affairs of the UniTersity,- 
towards which the sum of 150,0002. was ftimished by sub- 
scribing for shares of lOOL each. The building now made 
steady progress, and sanguine hopes prevailed that the prin- 
ciple of secular education would come to be firmly establidied. 

The fatigue which George Ghrote experienced from this 
extra ** labour of love," coming, as it did, unavoidably t^fler 
many hours* work in the City, was matter of re^iet to 
Mrs. Greorge. He sometimes would return firomthe meet- 
ings of Council quito overwearied ; taking a shilling fare of 
hackney-coach firom Gbwer Street to Highbury Barn, and 
>valkiDg thence across the field-path to his house in Paradise 

In the year 1828, Mr. Orote*s father had a paralytic stroke, 
at Threodneedle Street. He recovered partially, after a few 
weeks, but was never again capable of teking any share in 
the management of the banking-house. After this^ he gave 
up his residence at Beckenham, and brought his estaUidi- 

* It was daring this winter that Lord William Bentinck received 
Lis appointment as Govemor-Qeneral of India. His lordship had 
formod a friendly intimacy with Mrs. George, meeting her ft»- 
quentl J at the house of her kinswoman, Mrs. Plumer Lewin, at 
Gilston Park, Herts. Mr. James Mill, then Chief Examiner at the 
India House, always dined with George Grote and his wife to meet 
Lord William, when he came to Tbreadneedle Street With Lord 
William, Mrs. Grote maintained an occasional oarieiipondenea^ 
daring tiie whole period of bis residence in India. 

Not long after Lord William's arrival in India, a younger 
brother of Mr. George Grote going out thither in the East India 
Company's military service. Lord William conforrod upon him the 
appointment of aide-de-camp te himself. 


■Mai to Tdmdfm, teking' a house in DeroDshire Place where 
he pMnd the winlery renioTiiig to Badgemoie in the sammer. 

In the Angost of this jetLtf Kr. and ICn. George Grcyte 
■nde an exensBon into SosBex lor their holiday, riidting 
Peivoffth, where the hraeding-aiod cf Lord Egremont offered 
Mweh mtaert lor them — a londneaB for horses being common 
to both Geoige and his wife. They actoally took the 
tiep of pmdiaaing a fine yoong mare of Lord Egremont's 
b s c e d , which mare, it may be added, llr. Greorge Grote rode, 
as his own na^ for sixteen years afterwards* Theynextesta- 
Uiihed themselineB^ as lodgen^ at a fiurmhoose cidled Chan- 
tiej Farm, sitoated nnder the Sooth Downs near Storring- 
tarn, and they enjoyed their 9^fomr particniarly. George 
v en uy i ei himself in writing or reading for his history, all 
momini^ and in riding orer the Downs with his wife in the 
afternoon ; llrb George drawing a good deal, and reading ; 
and, daring their stay, they reoeired two or three intimate 
friends at interrals, fiom London. 

The 2nd October, 1828, saw the formal openmg of the 
London Unirersity, with an inangnral lecture from Charles 
Bell, Profiessor of Surgery. The Tories bestirred themsel ves, 
and soon pot forth a prospectus for a riyal college, to be 
called King^s College, as it was then, and as it continnes to 
be called at this day. 

In Norember, there were already 312 students entered at 
the London Unirersity, a surprising start for the young insti- 
tution. Among other contributions, Coutts and Co. sent a 
4lonation <^ ^O0L, whilst the elder Grote subscribed lOOL to 
King*s College. 

The moTcment in behalf of Parliamentary Beform was 
steadily gathering strength during the years which sue- 
eeeded Mr. Canning's death in 1827. The leading organ of 
the Philosophical Radicals was the ' Westminster Beriew/ 

* The portnnt of this fiiTovite mars— "OotsTia"— painted by 
H. Uall, is still eitaat, lonaing a " pendant " to that of «« Dons" tho 


directed by Mr. Beothamy the proprietor, to whose infloenoe 
oyer the thinking portion of the public, the cause undoubtedly 
owed much. There was also 'Agoing,'* for a few years, on annual 
review of parliamentary proceedings, publidied under the 
direction of a few men of eminent ability — ^Messrs. Bing- 
ham, C. Austin, Maccnlloch, E. Strutty and a few others — ^bnt 
this excellent periodical was illHGiupported by the public, and 
came to an end in the winter of 1828. 

The * Morning Chronicle* and 'Examiner newspapers 
maintained the radical tone of current criticism out-of-doors 
with great ability; and political reformers, generally, felt 
their hopes augment under the action of these and other 
actire agencies of the period. But Gteorge Orote, wfailat 
earnestly sympathizing with intellectual progress, took no 
part personally in politics. For these he had neither leisure 
nor inclination, nor indeed pecuniary means; moreorer, the 
commercial world underwent in these years more than one 
passage of agitation and anxiety ; demanding the best feoul- 
ties and attention of men engaged in business in the City of 
London, to enable them to hold their ground. 

The banking-house of Orote and Presoott did so^ however, 
and the partners found a generous support in the oonduct of 
the customers of the firm, who, almost all of them, kept up 
their balances, confiding in the prudence and ability of the 

I have reason to know that the reputation of George 
Grote as a competent and wise banker, became at this period 
generally acknowledged, and that the result was an eztensioin 
of the business of the house in Threadneedle Street 

In 1829, the younger Presoott going abroad for his holi- 
days, the direction of the banking-house devolved almoet 
entirely upon George Grote. He was so closely confined 
indeed, to business, as to be compelled to renounce attendanoe 
at the London University councils during the autumn 
months of that year. 

The study of Metaphysics and Mental Philosophy in 
general had always been ono of the favourite pursuits of 


George Grole. In the winter <^ 1829, a small group of 
in this branch of knowledge reeomed the habit 
i two years pierioiii^c^ meeting at Geoign Orote'shonae 
on two mornings <^ the week, at half-past eight a.m . 

They lead Ur. ][iU*s last work, < AnalysU of the Pheno- 
mena of the Human Mind,' Hartley on Man, Dotrieox's Logic, 
Whately's works, &e^ diicnssing as they proceeded. Mr. 
John Stnsrt Mill, Mr. Charles Bnller, Mr. Eytou Tooke (son ct 
Mr. Thoa. TookeX Mr. John Arthur Boeback, Mr. G. J. 
Gnham, Mr. Grsnl, and Mr. W. G. PresooU formed part of 
this dasB. Mr. George Grote was always present at their 
which lasted an hoor, or an honr and a half, as 

In the ^ring of the year 1830, Mr. G. Grote made an 
mmngesMnt with his partners, Messrs. Fresoott (father and 
mm), by which he conld execute a wish, long cherished, of 
making a holiday on the Continent Mrs. George Grote 
eagerly seconding the plan, they left England in the first 
days of May, taking a sea passage from the Thames to Calais. 
From Calais they posted forwards in a light caleche, which 
William Prescott jon. had left at that city on returning 
fiom his own Swiss journey the year before. They reached 
Paris on the erening of the third day, after sleeping two 
nights on the road. 

They trarelled without any senrant, male or female, in 
order to aroid expense. George and his wife only intended 
to remain a week in Paris, a tour in Switzerlanl being the 
leading object of the excursion. But it came to pass that 
bad weather so entirely disheartened them, that they never 
carried the Swiss project into eficct* In ono of Mrs. Grote's 
*Note-bo(du'* of this date, as well as in her ^Memoir of tlie 

itfUUm'/ram' Pom, to Mn. Lbwdi, 
of n« BMm, Wr UoOer ; daU tUh ifof , 1 830. 

"This diMolation of the Chamber has entirely defeated our 
whole set erne. * * * * 1 do not remember much of Pario, 
Ikoagh the smell in the streoU did recall it, foicibly. Tbo 
; wkkk pforails naivoffsally, owing to their habit of watering 

1827-1830. VISIT TO LAPAYBTTB. 61 

Life of Ary Solieffer/ published in I86I9 will be found some 
particulars of this journey to Parisy including an account of 
a three days* visit at the Gh&teau of La Orange, near Melun. 
General de Lafayette was then residing there, surrounded 
by the namerous members of his family. 

Greorge Orote and his wife were introduced to the La- 
fayette circle by IL Charles C!omte. This gentleman had 
married the daughter of Jean Baptiste Say,* the eminent 
political economist, and had been forced to quit France, to 
avoid prosecution at the hands of the goTcmment of Charlea 
the Tenth. The stay of Mr. and Mrs. George Grote in Paris, 
although in great measure spoiled by the invariably wet 
weather, was rendered interesting by the quality of the 
society to which they had access. Through the Say family, 
they formed acquaintances of value, among whom was M. 
Odilon Barroty then a working lawyer and the intimate friend 
of Charles Comte. Political agitation was rife in Paris at 
this period. 

The resistance made in the Chamber by the famous 221 
deputies had the effect of hastening the crisis which, it was 
evident, could not be long postponed.! 

Greorge Grote and his wife hastened home in June, iu 
pursuance of an urgent summons from their family. Leaving 
Mrs. George at Bamsgate, after a tempestuous possage of 
many hours (in a sailing vessel, of course), George hurried 
down to Badgemore, where he arrived too late to find his 
failier still alive. The gradual decay of nature from pank 
lysis had terminated his life— happily, without suffering — at 
the age of seventy. 

the siroeis by means of the gutters, is perfectly peooUar to Fteis» 
and certainly spoils the pleasure of going about in the st r eets . On 
the Boulevards, however, the stink is not so potent** 

* M. L^on Say, the grandson of Jean B. Say, became Pn&ei of 
the Seine in 1872, under the Bepublic. 

t In a memoir of Ary Scheffer, the painter, puUidied in 1861, 
by Mrs. George Grrote, a sketch is given of this stage of p o l iti cal 
change, drawn from personal sources of unquesticnable vales. 




1890| 1831. 

With the deftlh of Ifr. Orote oommeiioed a new era in ilie 
coone of his son. Instead of a life of sedosion and com- 
pnnliTe lettninti diyided between stndy and the banking- 
haom dnliei^ he Ibond himself set free to act whatever part 
Ui choice might dictate.* He was now master of his own 
t and no longer fettered bj the diffeienoe in political 
I b e t wes tt himself and his father. 

The Ghote capital in the banking-hoose was bequeathed 
to Geofge^ sobjeot to deduction for a share in behalf of his 
yoonger bfother Charlesi in case the latter thought fit to 
change from the mercantile house of Mortens and Orote; in 
which Us frther had placed him. Charles Orote was at this 
time learning fon;ign business in a merchant's house at 

George, now become the head of the family, inherited from 
his father the family estate in Lincolnshire, subject to a strict 
entail in case of his hariug no male heirs. He was like- 

* I am templed to quote here a passage from Grootho's auio- 

* All men of deratod natorei in the coarse of their doTolopment, 
aeqaire the eooscioasnees that they hare a double part to play in 
ibe worid — an actoal and an ideal ; and'in this feeling the groand 
af all aohleoeas is to be looked for. 

* Maa is, with regard to his higher destiny, always the subject 
af iatemal uncertainty until he, onoe for all, determines to regard 
that as the ri^t course which is adapted to his charActer and 
AbtUtMSL*— (&MiAei» period.) 

In the mature period of his life George Grote followed the dic- 
\ of his own self4mowledge, end they directed him widely. 

1830,1831. DEATH OF HIB FATHER. \ 68\ 

wise named residuary legatee, by which he came into possea- 
eion of about 40 fiOOL personal property. Althongfa the 
fortune which now devolred upon him could hardly be 
termed large, it was amply sufficient for the desires and 
purposes of himself and his wife, and at once enabled them 
to adopt a more enlarged form of social existence. 

During the remainder of the year 1830, the duties of 
executorship occupied a vast deal of Mr. Grote*s time, to the 
detriment of his historical labours. 

It was in the interral which followed upon the death of 
Mr. Grote, that the important ont-of-doors movement arose 
which will ever be remembered as a marked epoch in English 
poh'tical annals. 

The whole of the autumn of 1830 and the beginmng of 
the year 1831 were fraught with agitating excitement. The 
question of Parliamentary Beform became, in hct, the domi- 
nant subject in the public mind. All the old Liberals pressed 
forward to assist the movement. Public meetings heguk to 
be held, and yehement demonstrations in the provincial 
centres denoted a coming change of no small importance. 

But for the inexorable necessity of conducting the banking- 
house business, Greorge Grote would have been inclined to 
fix his residence at Badgemore, but, in those days, forty miles 
from the City was too great a distance for a mercantile man. 
No railroad then existed, and the coach journey took five 
hours. Accordingly, the Oxfordsliire estates were sold, and 
George and his wife began to search for a house in the neigh- 
bourhood of London ; his mother occupying the house in 
Devonshire Place which had for two or three years been 
inhabited by the family, after quitting Beckenham. 

. The year 1830, while it opened to George Grote a wider 
sphere of social and pubh'o activity, happened to be the tun- 
ing-point of domestic politics. The French ''BeTolution of 
July," as it was called, produced such a ferment in the 
English mind, that it was found impossible to withstand 
the impatient demands for political reforms which existed 


UmMghoiit die natJon. Hie fint aoi which we have to record 
in eonnectaoQ with this lively and stinriDg impulse, on the 
part of George Orote, was his opening a credit with his bankers 
•i Paris fiw five hundred pounds, for the use of the committee 
who Uxk the direction of affairs al the HAtel de Ville, as 
representatives of the popnkr canse. (The following letter 
from IL Hoiaoe Say is introduced here as a document of 

HoKAOi Sat Is llr. Oson. 

Pabib, 2 Ao6i, 1830. 

Hon cherltOrotel ami i61«do lalibertdl Yons saves d^ji^ 
noire vidoiie I nous en /nmnios dans rivresso. En une bataillo de 
^aanate-hait heoros nous avons &sras6 le honteuz gonvememont 
des Jesniles, et nous Favons d^saimi de ses bayonnetles et de ses 
caaoBS^ sur lesqnels il comptait tant 

Hons avoos M tons Uen touches de votre lettre k Oomte ; elle 
fiut Is pins grand honnevr k votre oaraoldre et k tos wentimens, 
ands nous ks eonnaissions d^ji^ et nous n'en avons pas M snrpris. 

Gbanlsapaiseqne oelaleraitdii hienf^la oanse de m<mtrer k quel 
point ks patriotes anglais feraient cansii oonunone avec nous, et il 
a fint insurer votre lettre dans lo CknuiituiUmndj en retranchant 
aoolement la signatoro. Jo voiis onToie oo journsL 

Comte est presqne toajours k llidtel de ville anpres de noire 
brave Ls&yette ; il est eztrftmemont fktigii6 ot no toqs ^crirs que 
dans qnelqnos jours. D vons envoie, ainsi que ma soeur, mille 

Noas avons sonvent regroti^ qne vons no fnssies plus id stoo 

lUe. Grole, pensant qne vons partagerios noire enihonsiasme. 
• •••«•• 

J*ai une lettrede mon pdre. * * * On s'eei baiia ^galemcni k 
NanieSy et les citoyens soni maiiros do la ville, k I'oxoopiion d*nn 
ehitoan fort, qui est an bord de la Loire. 

Kez-roiy Charles X, a 8onp6 bier k fiambonillet L'on dii qnil 
TiflBt d*envoyer demander an gonvemement provisoire on Ton Teat 
qn*Q as rendt 

Noas sommos hien &iign^ Nons passons iontes les units sons 
les armssi et noos ne nous oonohons qne qnand il fait jour. 

Voire ioni d6von6y . 

H. a 

PA— Mon friro Alfred est aoooarm nons Joindre.** 

1830,. 1881. FRENCH REVOLUTION. 66 

6. O. la Ob. Ctoxn. 

LoiiOBn, 29yiii2Itll88a 

Si je oroyaia 6iro de 1a plus petite utility, je portiimia kTiaitMil 
pour Paris, quelqae inoonydnient qui en p6t r^tnlter pour moi, el 
je yiendrais partagef lee datigen et lee efforts d'mie si belle eause. 
Mais puisque je ne puis 6tre utile de oette manikei je Tons pria 
instamment de me permettre de rendrey par Totre iiitenii6diaii6» n 
petit senioe k la cause de la liberty Je tous ai ouyert on eMi% 
ohes MM. J. Lafitte et Oomp. de 600 lir. sterL (13,700 fr.) que je 
desire ardemment que tous puisdei employer de la manitee que 
Yous croires la plus utile ^ la ohoee publique. • • • • 

Adieu, mon cher ami! puisae oette orise tous laasser, tow 
et la France, plus libres et mieuz prot^gjs que tous ne raTOS M 
jusqu'^ prSsentt 

PoHseriptum. — Je crois que tous ne derea pas aToir evainte sor 
aucune intenrention de la part du gouTemement angkis. Le senti- 
ment public, ici, est tellement proiione6 oontre lee ardonnaneeji^ 
qu'il n'oeerait jamais le brayev. 

The occupations of a domestic and business kind, already 
adverted to, joined to the attendance in Threadneedle Street^ 
ibrbade any excursions during this year, bat stndy obtained 
its fair share of Oeorge Orote*s leisure interralt. Mook 
agitation prcTailed daring the winter on the sobjeet of 
Parliamentary Beform,- while the discontent, and even tio* 
lences of the provincial populationia^ especially in the mann- 
factoring districts, occasioned serious alarm among tbe upper 
classes in the country. It was unfortunate for Oeorge Orote 
that this fcTerish state of the public mind should hare 
arisen at a moment when it was so difficult for him to mani- 
fest the sympathy he felt with it^ for he was, jost now, OTer- 
burdened with work. The function of executor to his father^s 
estate iuTolved extensive complications : inan^ legatees (some 
in distant lands), numerous trasts to settle, estates to dispose 
of, law matters to adjust, and the like ; and with all this he 
had the onerous labours of a banker to sustain — ^the unsettled 
state of the country rendering the commercial world ex- 
tremely uneasy ; neTertiielees, every spare moment wai 



employed in aid of tbe morement oot of doom, and a lirely 
eoirespoiideoce was maintained^ as well hj Mis. Grote as 
Umself, with the pio?incial representatives of the advanced 
Libeial party. 

Towards the winter of 1830 the general aspect of the 
politacal worid became yet more disquieting. The circam- 
stance of King William IV. abandoning his intention of 
being p r ese nt at the Lord Mayor's dinner, in Norember, was 
a signi6cant portent ; and in March, 1831, the ever memor- 
able pngect df Beform in Parliament was unfolded by Lord 
John Bossell to the astonished Commons. The declaration of 
the Doke of Wellington, in NoTcmber, 1830, had served to 
aeeelerate the change which it was evident must take place 
in the coodnct <^ the Government Earl Grey became 
Prime Mmister in December, 1830, with a cluster of half- 
pay officials — yeteran aUaehh of the Whig party — ^to which 
was added a solitary ^outsider," who passed for a Radical : 
vis. a certain Charles Poulett Thompson, a City man, member 
of a Bussia merchant firm, who had indicated some know- 
ledge <^ political economy and finance. 

It will be more conrenient henceforward to adopt the use 
of the personal pronoun, and I accordingly proceed to state 
that Mr. Grote and **!** continued to occupy our house at 
Newington during the winter of 1830, though passing a por- 
tion of our time at our banking-house residence which, in 
bet, we kept ''going** until the end of the following year. 
I find in my notes the following entry : — 

«2>00emkr, 1830. 

* George has, in spite of the obstructions of business 
arismg out of his executorship, managed to add several 
diapters to his 'History* during the last five months.** 

Again, on 24a January, 1831 :— 

« Mr. Mill (James) has had a baddish spell of gout. Con- 
fined for two weeks, and is a good deal reduced. He is now 
become ** Chief Examiner ** at the India House. We dined 
with him in Qneen Square on Sunday^ 9th January, and in 


1830, 1881. REFORM BILL. 87 

consequence of his pressing request that George would put 
forth some thoughts on the Essentials of Parliamentary 
Beform, he consented to employ the ensuing three weeks on 
the task. He has written already the half of a pamphlet 
on this subject, and my opinion is that it will be much 
approved" ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The winter of 1830, and the first eight months of 1831, 
were spent between the residences of Badgemore^ Newing* 
^. ton, and Threadneedle Street^ — ^Mrs. Orote mucdi at the 
former place, arranging for the disposal of the estate and 
the personal efiects attached to the family, whilst George 
Orote attended closely to business : mingling at times with 
the current of agitation then pervading the political world. He 
paid occasional visits to Badgemore, however, when he could 
steal a few days for such refreshment. During the spring of 
1831 the house at Newington was given up, and Mrs, Gtrote 
passed a good deal of her time at the banking-house^ because 
George Grote found it next to impossible to absent himself; 
such was the fever out-of-doors of anxiety oonceming the 
fate of the Beform Bill. 

As this is not a history of the Beform movement^ I 
purposely confine myself to such details as immediately 
relate to Mr. Grote's personal course. 

The warm interest with which he watched all the signs of 
public feeling naturally caused him to be regarded by his 
friends as a probable leader iu the approaching struggle. I 
venture to introduce here a passage Irom my note-book of 
the period. 

"^ February h 1831. 

I ''The 'History of Greece' mud be given to the publio 
before he can embark in any active scheme of a political 
kind. I have lately had, at times, a qualm of regret that I 
originally urged him to the undertaking. The crisis in 
public afiairs is arrived more quickly than I then anticipated ; 
but his reputation must be created by the 'opus magnum' 
(as John Mill calls the 'History*), and after it shall have 
refiected a literary renown upon its author, he may hope to 



ifoiwe an importoiice in the public eye adequate to mutain 
Vm m a pcriitical oonrae." All this notwithstaDding, a few 
wtAm lator so rtrong a ptenare was exerted upon Mr. Grote 
to pot himself forward as Member for the City, that a 
coBsnHation was held (at Mr. James Mill*s house, in West- 
minsler) to diseuss the matter. After some hours it was 
decided that Mr. Grote would noi come forward. He then 
wrote to the Lord Mayor, entreating that k$ would stand, 
aod ofliaring to eontribute BOL towards election expenses. 
Mr. Grote himself became Chairman of the Committee for 
the election of the four aldermen, on the Liberal 
, and laboured unoeasungly and, as it turned out, sue- 
cessfnlly, to that end. 

I pass orer the exciting CTents of the next few months, 
whidi culminated in the rejection of the Beform Bill by the 
Lofds in the month of October, 1831, only giring insertion 
to two letters recetred by George Grote at this date, by way 
of illastrating the feeling of the working classes in the 
■anufartuiing districts, and the excitement in the Metro- 

DniCDfOBAM, ith October, 1831. 

Tott will 000 that we aro, as usual hero, scting politics whoU$ale, 
I hod hard work to get the <« Big Wigs " up Isst Friday, but we had 
then an excellent mooting. Tostorday, bowoTor, out-Hcoroded Horod. 

Ome hmmdrtd Uumm m d persons is no trifle 1 The tone just wont 
mptolie mark, bat not beyond. I had taken great pains for two 
days to pot Attwood and Edwards in the right tone on the docu- 
ments ami speeches. I nerer saw anything so imposing, and shall 
nerer see the like again. Gregory and I were all day next to Att- 
wood, and anxious to get oar Report sent to town, and see that it 
broke no law. Two or three of us were up most of the nighti and 
again at six this morning, to get the Report composed and fit to 
go to printer, which at half-past seren A.M. we accomplished, and 
sent it off to the 'Times 'and 'Chronicle.' • • • • 

The Goremment is afraid of the people breaking loose ; it is 
jsipossible, if they bat stick to the helm. I haTO written to Lord 
Althorp to-day saying, that if Lord Grey, like the pilot, jomps 
Ofwboard in the slona to ssto his chan^eter, we. shall go to the 
i all together. I beUere, however, that six of as here eoold 

1830, 1831. . BEFORM BILL 69 

Older the people, as a field officer at a review poti bk regimMii 
tlirough their ezeroiee. • • • « 


Frabois ThAom io Obdboi Grotb. 

26th Oeklhir. 188L 

Since I sent the copy of my letter to Bir Franeia Budett for 
your pemeal, I baTO been all bat orerwbelmed with people, all 
asking wbat can be done. • ^ • • 

Mr. Home was bere, to consnlt as to the replies be sboold make 
to some forty letters from persons in Tarions parte of Scotland, in 
wbicb the same question was asked, ** What eon we dot** 

We setUed it thus : that they may baTO the reform which baa 
been proposed if they will show that they really desire to have it; 
and to show this desire they mnst form themsdires into nnioiii^ 
and endeaTonr to procore as many petitions to Parliament and 
memorials to the King as they can, and they are recommended to 
adopt some model and make all their petitions and memoriala aa 
much alike as they can. This, too, is the adTice I bave giren to 
any one I baTO seen : I bare said, ** Join the National Union, and 
do all you can to estoblish County, Town, Parish, and Trade 
Unions," and many are busily employed in doing so. 

If the great National Union, of which Burdett has so spiritedly 
consented to become the Chairman, shall, as I hope it will, make a 
great ijplashf hundreds of others will be formed on the same plan. 

I had a long conversation with Burdett this morning, who i 
well disposed to do anything and ererything to obtain the Bill ; 
and Mill, in reply to a note of mine, says, ** Tour advice to the 
people who talk to you is the best possible. I saw Beauelerk and 
Perry to-day (yesterday), and am rejoiced to find that Sir Franoia 

Now comes the request, repeated, that you will give your name 
for the Council : it will consist of thirtynnx : some MJP.*s and the 
others men of character and influence from all parte of the 
Metropolis. • ♦ • ♦ 

The Council will appoint a committee of five to truiaaot the 
ordinary business, but not to publish anything, nor to call puUie 
meetings ; the Council alone can do these things^ so I think j%m 
may fiiLrly join. ♦ ♦ • • 


1882; 1888. 

t *Ths Hktorj drmws ahead, and I trust will oontinne in pro- 

I gnm ateadily through the enaoing winter.** (Diarj, Not. 

\ 1831.) In Deoembery there oocars another entry: — ^"Mr. 

\ Giole haaateadfly plied hia labonra, and the History waxes in 

! ToluM. The year 1831 haa been ewexMal^ and to iii exoea- 

^ sirely Uboriooa. The state of p<ditica oontinuea lowering, 

Ihosigh all partiea expect to carry * the BilL' Conuneroe is 

especially diaeaaed: profits low, and confidence restricted. 

Oar hooaa haa had a Tery unprofitable year, owing to leases 

hj awindleia and rotten merdianta."* 

I pass orer a dood of stirring incidents connected with 
tka piugieas of the Reform BUI, only noticing one, yiz., 
that Mr. Grote addressed a letter to Earl Grey, earnestly 
dept^eoating any modification in his Bill for Reform. To 
this letter Lord Grey retnmed a courteous and reassuring 

* As eridenoe of the mastery which George Grote had acquired 

> the sdsnoe of banking, finance, and the like^ I insert here a 

I of Mr. Warburton's to lira. Grote:— 

"You mast allow me to congratalate you cm the Tery good 

mrir^'**^^^^*- which your George passed at the Bank Committee; 

all ■ Maabara of the oommittee allowing that be was a MotI eapitdU 

I sm obliged to go to-monow, for a day or two, to a Reform 
at Bridport; but when I return, unless you think my 
on Sunday unpardonable, I shall beg to do honour to your 
' I person, for bis good eridenoe. 

* Tours Tery tmly, 
* TTbmii of Commons, *■ Haaar Warbustoii. 

« .derail 71^,1882." 

1832,1888. CANDIDATE FOB LONDON. 71 

answer. Mr. Oiote alao wrote urgently to Lord Jkixham tA 
this time. 

Few passages in the domestic annals of a nation can oom- 
pare^ for exciting interest^ with those of the year 1832. But 
I must hasten on. After the passing of the Befbnn Bill in 
its final sbape^ Mr. Grote found himself unable longer to 
resist the force of eyents, and accordingly announced himself 
(in June) a candidate for the City of London. I here gi?ei 
his public address : — 

To THs Elmtobs of ths Orrr ov Lonwv. 


The time has now arrired for me to renew my appUoation 
for the honour of your suffirages in the approaohing Parliament^ 
and to announce briefly tho principles which will guide my pdliti« 
cal conduct, if by your choice I should^ be placed in the eocslted 
station of BepresentatiTe of the City of London. 

I hare long advooated the cause of Pablzambhtabt BxvoBify and 
I bail the Reform Bill as the first step towards a series of great 
and essential ameliorations, which it will be my anxious desire to ^ 
accomplish in their fullest extent Tet I cannot deem the Bill 
itself to have been fairly put on trial, until it shall haTe been 
strengthened by two subsidiary improvements, indispensable to the 
efficacy of any Bepresentative system — the Yon bt Ballot and 
Tbiknhial Elxctions. Without the Ballot, free and oonsoientioua 
Toting is unattainable: without Triennial Elections, the purest 
system of TOting will fail to ensure in the member chceen a steady 
feeling of accountability to the people. 

The oligarchical interest hitherto predonunant in oar Tiegislar 
ture hare kept up an exorbitant scale of public expenditure, fruii^ 
ful in corrupt influence, and oppressive as well as demondiiing to 
the nation. This long-standing course of abuse it will be among 
my earliest endeaTours to rectify. 

A speedy inquiry must be instituted by the Befoimed Parlia* 
ment into the constitution and Berenues of the Ohubok of 
EnoljlKD. I shall lend my best aid to extinguish the sineouieSi to 
abridge the excessire emoluments, and to correct the unequal 
distribution of serrice and stipend, which now disfigure that 
Establishment Persuaded, as I am, that Tim is one of the 
worst possible modes of raising a revenue^ eithei: fnr Ohurdi or 


aila^ I iUl seek the beet end eerlieet appcnrtmiity of abolishing 
ill with wmA aeeompeiijiiig m e ee nro e ee shsll prerent priT»to 
iilHeels ham wadvlj gdiiing, or vndiil j enffering; hy the aboli- 

Im eftlw^»g tmek Taxm ee a strict eoooamj will enable Psrlia- 

mbI to iiMOTn, I shall iz upon those which either proes peenliarlj 

lof ssmU income, or eimmp the operations of indnstrj, or 

indirect i«i«*J*Mrf independent of the simple hardship of 

One most iignrkms description of imposts especiall j — 

Tn Tazb ov Kvowlsdob — I shall aealonsly exert myself to 


Ths wei^ of oar taxation, great as it most ineritably re- 
main, is serionsly sggrsTated 1^ many of the existing restrictions 
mm trade. I shall endeaTonr gradnidly to disengage the country 
frfflB ifct^ ifnp^t^ ^nmmA nf IpgiaUtimi ; which withdnws industry 
its most prodnetiTe employments, delves the exporting 
of his foreign market, and lays a burden on the 
i pnUic far the benefit of a pririleged taw. 

; the worst of these lestrictiTe ensctments are the present 
Oons Laws, which artificially heighten the price of the first neoes- 
suy of His^ sad impose upon ns a cmel uncertainty in its price 
fian year to year. I desire to exchange them for a moderate fixed 
dnij, eqniralent only to those charges which press peculiarly npcm 
fts cnltiration of land, as compared with other employments of 

With reqiect to the constitation of the East India Gompant 
tad the goremment of our Indian territories, I await fuller discus- 
noB befiore I make up my mind : but it is my decided opinion, that 
ths trade with China ought to be thrown open to priyato enter- 

I am disposed to recommend the renewal of the Charter of the 
fiavx or EsoLAiTD for a short period, under certain modifications. 
It would be hasazdous and unadrisaUe to allow any multiplication 
of Companies issuing notes in London ; and I think that the Bank 
Directon are better fitted to fulfil the great trust of administering 
the currency on sound and inflexible principles, than any Board 
XBBBsediately nominated by GoTemment The profit of such a cur- 
rency, crer and abore a reasonable compensation to the Bank for 
maaagesMnt, should accrue to the nation. Moreover, the general 
nto of remuneration, paid to the Bank for other serrices, must be 
rsrissd; and, abore all, the Bank afiain ought to be fully and 
hahiiiny made public 

1883, 1888. ELECTED FOB LONDON. 78 

I yiew the continiianoe of Blatbbt m a deep stMn on the national 
charaeter, and shall anxionsl j seek to aboliah it at the earliest 
period eonsistent with the permanent well-being of the SUtes 

It is my fanrent hope that efieotiTe steps will short! j be taken 
towards simplifying La w prooeedings, and rendering jnstioe cheaper 
and more aooeesible to the people. All measuros tending towards 
this most salutary end shall receiye my oordial support 

I shall be aotiTo in promoting the extension of EnnoAnoir 
nniTorsall J throughout i!ie people — a blessing of inestimable pnoOy 
and worthy of a Reformed Parliament to confer. To adTanoe the 
well-being and improre the charaoter of the LABOUsnia OLASsn» is, 
in my eyes, an object of paramount importance ; and much may be 
done towards it by diffusing wholesome instruction on social and 
economical subjects, as well as by keeping the necessaries of li& 
untaxed, and favouring, instead of disturbing, the natural distiibiH 
tion of capitaL 

On all matters of Legislation, where the Tradi of thb CSnnr or 
LoNDov, or the welfue of its residents, is especially concerned, I 
shall be particularly watchful and attentiTe. Hy commeroial 
position, connecting me as it does in the most intimate mamier 
with the comfort and prosperity of the Oity of London, will gi^e 
me additional motire to discharge with alacrity this dass of tlie 
duties of your BepresentatiTe. 

I hare the honour to remain, Gentlemen, 

Tour Tory obedient Senranit, 

Oaon«i Oaon. 
62, Thraadneedle Street, OcUiher 22nd, 1882. 

Meanwhile, Mr. and Mrs. Grote made a recreative tear 
into the Middle counties (taking saddle-horses with them) 
which excursion in some sort repaired the effects cm their 
health of a fatiguing and anxious summer. 

The Oity election came on early in December, immediately 
after the dissolution of Parliament : '' George Grote " heading 
the poll, with a majority of 624 Totes. I take leave to 
insert here another quotation from my private journal : — ^ I 
doubt if ever I shall experience again the intense happbess 
of those inspiring moments, when I looked down on the heads 
of 4000 free citizens in Guildhall, cheering and echoing the 


whidi tor jetus we had printtdy oheriihed, bot 
wUdi wete now fint fevlesBly aTowed.** 

Kn. Qmoftm fo kar FMer, Thomas Lumr, Esq^ 

'nonuksmiH.s Stur, llA Ikemher^ 1832. 
BmuL Papa,^ 

TUaldiig Jim win like to Imow how tha Electicm oondii^^ 

I Micloae a CMd of tha doaa of tha Poll, whkh joa will aee giyea 

"Cbola* a iplwidid minority. It la add no Manber for London 

poOad ao mai^ Tolei^ via. 8788. Ha ia now iho Senior 

'ftrthecapiliaoftheEmpiia; at least ha will be dedarad 

i hi BMgfow, wa know, if ha li^ea. 

HaaadaaiaiygoodipaechtodajytoaerowdadhalL Ishonld 

Mt lower Oan 6000 peopla waia ptasent: haU lit vp with 

■addiera; snd the siknea profoondyao that I heard erery 

Ha ^oka/n<, of eooroe^ and tha shoals and planditi shook 

I adifiea with their edioea. Bach a apeclMda is larelj 

GaildhsU sewed pa^ed with heada to the laiy 

Toar dntifvl snd a&ctiooate daagbter, 

H. Qrotb. 

P.8. — Sofenty derka st work sll daj and night of jostordAj-r- 
fer Gfote's eonimittee st the King's Head aUme, What an ap- 

Extract from diary, dose of 1832.— "" The easaUaium in 
whidi we both lired during this period is, now, absolutely 
diTerting to reflect upon. We could not deep, and tho day 
seemed erer Ing with oTents. William George Prescott was 
the li£B and soul of our oommittee, and waa instrumental 
to an eminent degree in conducting the details of the eleo- 
tion to their triumphant issue.** 

Eaba of Dvbham io GaoBOB Oaon. 

SuDSBOOX Fabx, Dtemh^r 120, 1882. 
Ht SBAm Sn,^ 

Permit me to offer joa my sincere oongratolation on your 

i whidi nothing ooald hsTe been more triumphant, or 

» gratifying to those who admire your pditioal prindples, and 

1892, 1888. ADVOCATES l^HE BALLOT. 75 

who feel confident as I do that, owing to your esertuni in Twxlit^ 
ment, we shall deriTe scHneUiing more from the Befiifm Bill lluyi 
the meie xemoTil of anoient aboses. 

Beliere me^ yooit TSij tnd J, 


Mr. Gxote applied himself during the irinter to stadying 
the carrency question, the Bank Charter, and other cognate 
«ubjeot8. The History was laid on the shelf, unayoidaUyt 
not without a pang on the part of its author, or rogrets on 
the part of his wife. 

To return to the personal arrangements of the period. 

The estate at Badgemore was sold in 1831, its distanoA 
from London forming, as has been stated, an insuperable 
obstacle to living there. I should mention that towaids the 
spring of 1832, Mrs. Orote fixed her choice upon a house 
about five miles distant from the City, and Qeorge con- 
curring therein, they purchased ** Dulwich Wood,** a com- 
modious residence situate about half a mile beyond Dulwich 
College, with gardens and some acres of meadow land, held 
on lease under that corporation. Much of the furniture be- 
longing to Badgemore was carted across country to Dulwich 
Wood, including the family pictures and library.* 

In the beginning of 1833 Mr. and Mrs. Grote dined in 
Threadneedle Street with William George Prescott; his 
other guests being Henry Warburton, John Bomilly, Joseph 
Hume, and James Mill. After some discussion it was settled 
that Mr. Grote should be the person to undertake the Ballot 
question in the ensuing session of Parliament. 

This question of the Ballot — ^I must here take occasion to 
observe — had been actively oanrassed for some time prior 
to the introduction of the Reform BilL It always fonned 
a leading article of the Badical faith, and in point of iiMsk 

* The fdmitnre of the house in Deronshiie Plaoe^ laMti^lag ^ 
large number of books, was given by George to his mother, who 
ntkcMj after quitted Devonshire Plaoe and settled hewwif ai a 
pleasant house on Clapham Common. 



it WIS inserted, at the prening instance of Lord Dnrbam (a 
■embw of Lofd Grey's Cabinet) into the original draft of 
tke Belbrm BUI, althoogh sobseqnently left out 

When, in 1831, it was anderstood that Grote wonld notoome 
fimrard lor the CSty, Mr. Henry Warborton, the Member for 
Bridport» bestirred himself with a yiew to making the Ballot 
the snlgeet of a motion in Parliament. This gentleman was 
a wealthy timber>merchant of London, haying extensive pre- 
in Lambeth, where he carried on his businees. He 
a Fellow of the Boyal Society, and had obtained 
distinetion as a sehobur and man of science, when at 
Gsmbridge. He was at this time a sincere and sealons 
Badical, and such men were of the utmost value as sup- 
porteis of the Liberal cause in Parliament, being few in 
Munber, though in some measure distinguished for aUUty. 
It may interest the reader to peruse the annexed letter Am 
Mx. Waiborton on the subject of the Ballot:— 

Hmv Wabbubiqv to OaomuE Oson. 

25, Gadooav ?lacs, 1814 Jowtiary, 1881. 

Tnj iaibtm me in whst esses the voting by the tcvofuK 
VIS need at Athens, or in any other Greek State ; and whether 
there IS any mention made of the voting by ballot in Aristotle's 

In SiflnondTs 'History of the Italian Bepublics,' I find that the 
haDot was need in elections at Florence during one period of its 
hisloffy ; and in Davie*B * History of Yenioe,' the mode of roting by 
baUoi is described ; bat the practice of the jealous oligarchy of the 
ktter Slate is not good for much as a precedent, though Harrington, 
in his * Oceana,' fiJls in love with it, and gives a picture of the 
process of balloting. 

You know Parkes, of Birmingham; that he has taken much 
paiM in invustigating the e£bcts of the ballot in the United Stotes 
yen are also aware, probably. I should be very glad to be fortified 
on that head (of example and authority) by any information he 
esuld givs SM, inasmuch as Mr. liaolane, the American Minister 
hstSb decilsras himself an enemy to the sjstem, and will be quoted 
as a u th ot i ^ and voudisr for its bad sflects. 

fir JUkmi Wilson ^du of a SMtion for adopting the baUoi 


1832, 1883. THE REFORM PARTY. 77 

hAYing been negaiiTed in Virginia. I ihongiht that, in elaetioiMi 
for representaiiTes to Congress, the Toiing 1^ ballol bad, in libat 
State, been long inirodnoed. 

Gould yon write to Mr. Parkes, and obtain from bim, on tlia 
snbjeot of Virginia in partioolar, some SeUdre i 9 $e m eni toot mj nset 

After the dinner at Prescott's mentioned aboye, in 1888, 
•Warburton readSy left the field open for his yoongerodi* 

In reviewing the events of the period, and the dr- 
cnmstanoes which accompanied the elections for the City 
of London — as well in 1831 as in 1832 — ^it is inonmbent 
upon me to make some observations. The movement in 
favour of Beform was not seconded (I may almost say not 
countenanced) by the wealthy and influential class; it was 
the middle and lower sections of the citisens who promoted 
and worked, personally, for the Liberal cause. Not without 
much difficulty could any names of mark be enlisted, to sup- 
port and extend demonstrations of popular sentiment set on 
foot by a small knot of ardent partisans of Reform. On 
George Grote and his personal friends the labour principally 
fell, and he not unfrequently avowed, in letters to other 
agita,tors in the cause, that the apathy, not to say aversioQ 
to Beform, on the part of the Oity magnates, was unmistake- 
able. Among the honourable exceptions may be cited the 
names of Barouel Jones Loyd, William Greorge Presoott^ 
Lewis Loyd, W. Tooke, William Whitmore, Hugh JohnstoUt 
Henry Warburton, James Pattison, Bichard Norman, John 
Travers, and John Smith, M.P. 

But the real strength of the Liberals lay with the middle 
class of the citizens, sustained by the b'verymen, for the most 
part, who were really sincere in their wishes for reform, llr. 
Grote had employed as his chief agent ICr. Joe. Croucher, 
who, with a staff of derks, worked steadily at lEr. Grote'a 
private residence in Threadneedle Street during four months ; 
going through the poll-books, and registering the voteii for 


li WIS not the cnsloiii for oandidates for the City of 
IiOBdan tomakeapenonalcanTasBof theliTeryand freemen. 
But thej attended eyening meetingi^ not nnfrequently^ and 
thna auide known to local aeaemblagea of the citisenB their 
Tiews and opinicna on political anbjects. The work of can- 
yajwing the voten was carried on hj a«;enti^ paid and Tolon- 

A eonunittee ooodncted the detaib of the election, on 
wUdi many aealoos partisans were enrolled^ of the mercan- 
tile profenion and others— Mr. John Trayers» Mr. Darid 
Wiiw (afterwards Lord Mayor of London), and the brothers 
Jofanud Richard Taytor, the eminent Peters, being among 
tiM most effectire members. 

I eamioi forbear giying here a copy of a letter which 
throws a strong Ught npon the coarse of the Reform moTO- 
mcBt. This month of May, 1832, was indeed the critical 
point of the p<diticsl strnggle, and, at the distance of forty 
yean^ it is well to recall to the present generaticm examples 
of adiTe patriotism worthy of the best days in onr domestic 

Wtkdbam Club, Lokdov, 
18M May, 1832. 
Mt veul Mbs. Cboti, — 

I reeeiTod your Manifosto this moment, as I always do with 
jdoasaro and gratification. I am sitting qoioUy horo, to roomit 
Sad write a few letters ; folly intending, if you arc at Dolwioh, to 
eooM down to tea and sleep, for I am nearly blown up with 
^rign^ Yoo say right — that a more glorious gratification than 
my arriral at Attwood's honse, on Monday morning, could noTor 
fdl to my lot I arriTed at my own door at six. In one hour 
I asnt l etteis and ciprossos to all the towns within fifteen miles, 
dirseftiag meetings to be instantly held by beat of dram and bells, 
sad their addresses to be expressed back to me by fimr that after- 
Boon. In that boor, between six and seven, the inhabitants of 
the whole town of Birmingham were tombling into the streets, 
and the bells elamming, At seren I started in a ohaise and four 
(the hofses deocnated with bine ribbons) to Attwood's cottage. 
The san nerer shone brighter or mors wnilingly in an Knglish 
The msadows were embradered with orery eoloar and 

1852,1883. LBTTEB FBOM If R. PARKES. 70 

blossom of tho Ha j flowers ; the bUdctlioni pnahing into bloomy 
and the birds singmg sweetly. On m j arriTil at the TiUagey—- • 
retired ooontry hamlet buried in trees in full leal; — ^Attwood mm 
in bed, his whole ftmilj reall j expecting warrante for high treaaoa 
or sedition. I need not tell yon what were the grateful sensationa 
of the whole family, or the tears of the women. The ooantry 
Tillagers, ardently attached to him, had really watched hia hoosei 
• and lay all nighty with arms, in the shmbberieal After an hoor^s 
break&st and purification, Attwood and I a4joamed into hia study 
to prepare the ** Besolutions ^ and Addresses. In an hour after- 
wards, half-ardosen members of the Oounoil came up in cars, and I 
had to wage an hour's war with these ultra, but honesty men to 
agree to prudent documents. By half-past nine, upwards of 10,000 
persons, with bands and banners, were in Attwood's pleamira- 
grounds, playing cheering national airs. At half-past ten or 
eleren, we moTed off towards Birmingham in the carriage^ and 
half-way, — a mile and a half £rom Birmingham, — ^the whole body of 
inhabitants met us, and the procession paraded through the town. 
The scene was animated beyond description — Canaletti only could 
point it ; Sir Walter Scott only describe it in tho English language. 
The proceedings of the mooting you know tolerably accurately 
from the public papers. The deputation leaving the town reminded 
me of the old Scriptural descriptions of public meetings of the 
children of Israel; and our entrance into Oorentry ynm of a 
similar triiunphol description. During the whole day we tdd the 
people that they mighi hayo to make great sacrifices, and to contend 
for their liberties^ that lifo and property must be respected. Our 
arriyal in London, and subsequent proceedings hero, yen know 
wolL Lord Durham told us last night, at a meeting (rf good mon 
at Ellioe's, that ** the country owed Boform to Birmingham, and its 
solyation from revolution to the hti stroko." 

As fftr as concerns myself and what you say, I am, virtuously I 
believe, gratified to reflect that, by temper and energy, I have been 
able to contribute so much to tiie great cause; and fiirther, gratefkd 
to many friends who appreciate what I have done at so muoh cost 
of time and mental anxiety.' The monetary part you allude to ia 
the least, because the sacrifice of part of two yoarsf income to avert 
a revolution is a matter of self-interest That, to <weri BMobUum^ 
always sate most anxiously and weightily on my mind; but if we 
had been over-reached this week bytiicBoroughmongers,! and two 
friends should have sMufe the Bevolution, whatever the ooat I had 
written to General J ^ and had got a cover to Oolond H ^ 


ai vwdd hsie bid boUi m BinniiighMn, Mid a Ooont COiopaki (a 
Plol»X bj Mondi^; and I Amk we oonld baTe prarmled anazdijy 
Md nl iD li^ lA two dajB. I Imto had great adfantage m 
nog Ifflhind the uotmm. Only think tiiati at thzee yestedaj, 
tU was gloomy toeboding in the Cbb i aet, and at twentj^^Te 
UMlM hefim iTe laat nighty Loid Althorp did not know the 
Kin^i aMwer, tOl Loid Qiej letuned at helf-past fiTe,— •'aU 
n^l* Thnii on the decision of oae man, leeti the &te of 
■almpa! Gbn andi a priaeiple of goremment hold much longer — 
mt^a it to do ao longer then we can do withonl it? 

Aaj ftnnt I may get I hope will ever be exerted in the mme 
mnm that iatteey will wii blind or mialead me— monej not eor- 
wmgi me; and ainoerelj I say it, Bowrinf^a introdnetion of me 
to Hwfbam, and Giegoy a to George Grole and Mill, created all 
iSkm pofwer and moral eonxage I baTO brov^t to bear in fitToor of 

I oend jon a cnrioaa plaeard — a fine stroke— at Biimingbam, on 
Tkaadmj laat week, when the Duke appeared to be making hie 
"entrie* to power. It ahewed that my oall on eren the better 
daoses waa answered l^ admirable men, who came to the breaeh, 
and on^ to abare the merit 

I mean to sleep at Dolwich Wood to-nigbt, and ahall oome at 
atne, for I am done up. 

Lord, what a letter jon baTO aet me off upon. 

Tours erer, 
lira, a Grote. Josxra Pi 

The Tenerable foander of that school of political philosophy 
which has infloenoed the coarse of legislatiye reform, more 
or less, for the last fifty years — Jeremy Bentham— closed his 
eyes in 1832, jnst when the Reform Bill had been carried 
through Parliament Part of a letter to Mrs. Orote is inserted 
here, mentioning the (act with tender respect 

Paris, 10(A Jwu, 1832. 
I like John Mill's notice of our rerered friend (Jeremy 
Benthsm) extremely. I took my leave of the belored old man the 
day fatidlght before he died. He kissed me most afiectionatelyy 
and I left him pemnaded it noe the last time. 

) the laat embrace of my fiUher I have folt nothing like it» 

1832, 1888. DEATH OF JEREMY BBNTHAM. 81 

for I loTed him with as much fondnefls M rerereDoes I MW a letter 
from Mrs. P. Tajlor to-day. She had just aeea Madame Dvfal, 
with her. little hoy,* two mcmtha old, well and happy. 

Paria ia, of oourae, Teiy higyhre. 0. Bvller imploraa me to take 
him to yon. Do have him : he ia a good lad, and wanta nothing 
hut BOoh aooiety aa yours and Mr. Orote's to make him an earnest 
senrant of the pahlie. The more I know him, the better I think 
of him. S. A* 

But for the all-engrossing peril whioh menaced the Reform 
Bill in May, 1832, Jeremy Bentbam would hare paid a Tiait 
to Mr. and Mrs. Grote at Dulwich Wood. The day was 
even fixed, and Mrs. Grote bad received the Sage's instroo- 
tions about bis bedroom, and the accommodation to be pro* 
vided for Mr. Bicbard Doane (bis amanuensis), Ac Bat 
** the Wellington week" supervening^ Mr. Grote sent a hasty 
note to bis wife, — "* I pray you put off the old gentleman, 
for it is impossible for me to quit London at this momentooa 
juncture, and yet I should deeply regret to appear negligent 
of bim.** Mrs. Grote accordingly did so, but the illustrious 
guest died very shortly afterwards. Indeed be might very 
likely have died at Dulwicb Wood, bad lie gone thither, ao 
nearly had bis sands run out 

• Baoul Duval, the <«D6piit6'' in 1872. 



Hativo now oondncied the narratiTe down to what may be 
tenned the Uueshold of the Honae of Commons, I paoae to 
take a mrej of the past, and note the transition from oom- 
paimliTe obecnrity to distinction. 

A labcnioiis yooth, a studious manhood, and habits of seoln- 
flioD, were the leading featores of George Orote*s personal 
]ifi^nptothewint6rofl832. That<*Tolame,''sotospeak,is 
about to dose, and a new one to oommence of a very different 
character. His entrance npon pnblic life came somewhat 
haniedly, owing to the impetooos tide which forced him to 
step upon the stage earlier than he could have wished ; but 
these was^ finr him, no drawing back, and Grote accordingly 
* girded np his IcHns " for the task which awaited him. 

He had jnst completed his 88th year, and was consequently 
in the prime of manhood. His health was good, he had no 
children, and though by no means free from burdensome 
obligations ct the business kind, he calculated upon the pos- 
session of sufficient time to enable him to justify the expec- 
tations of his constituents, and the confidence of his friends. 

In 1832 the house which George Grote had long occupied 
in the City was g^Tcn up to his brother Charles, who now 
became a partner in the firm of Prescott, Grote, and Co. : 
the residence at Dulwich being established as future ^ head- 
quarters ** of the new Member. 

The inteiral between his election and the taking his seat 
ss one of the Members for the City of London on the 4th of 
February, 1833, was sedulously dcToted to the preparation 
of a speech upon the Ballot^ a motion for the introduction of 
wUdi he annoonoed for an early day in March. 


Id anticipation of the aidnons labonis of the seBsion aboat 
to commence, we hired commodioos lodgings in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the House of Commons, where we now spent 
four or fife days of the week, returning to Dolwich Wood on 
the Saturdays. A few ** Radical " friends, Members vl Par- 
liament and others, usually joined our circle on the Sundays. 

When the day for the motion on the Ballot arrived, I made 
a point of being present in what was called ** the Lantern" 
of the House of Commons, in order to hear Grote deliTer his 
maiden speech. The House of that day was Yentilated by 
means of a circular opening in the roo^ around which some 
ten or twelye persons might be so placed as to hear, and to 
a certain extent see, what passed in the body of the House. 
There was, on this afternoon, a full attendance of Members, 
and profound silence and attention prcTaUed during the 
delivery of the speech, except when interrupted by manifes- 
tations of applause. Grote's yoice, though not a powerflil 
one, was distinctly heard, and he spoke throughout witliont 
faltering or embarrassment — ^the speech occupied rather 
more than one hour, and when Grote sat down^ a coidial 
cheer arose which lasted several minutes. 

Immediately afterwards, a young Member ^ joined me up- 
stairs, in the roof of the House ; with a voice half-stifled with 
emotion, he poured out his admiration of Grote*s perform- 
ance, adding that, in listening to the speech, he had ex- 
perienced a sort of feeling made up of envy and despair; 
** For," he said, ^* I am persuaded that J shall never make any 
approach to Grote*s excellence." 

The success of the Parliamentary deM was generally 
recognized, indeed, as well by those who diflered from the 
speaker as by the members of the Ilodical party. The 
speech was immediately printed and circulated, and the Ballot 
question received an impulse which seemed to reaoh the 
farthest corners of the empire, judging from the letteis 
which followed upon the debate of this evening. 

* Sir William Molesworth, Bart, M.P. for East OomwalL 

o 2 


The effect produced by this, his maiden speech, thronghoat 
the ooantry, was indisputably fayonrable. The Beformera, 
of oonrse, were elate at the acquisition of so able a leader, 
whilst the Liberal press became loud in praise of their new 
diampion. Within the House of Commons the new Member 
for London was at once recognised as a man of intellectual 
foroe, and one likely to exercise influence as a speaker. 

I may here mention in reference to this period that, some 
twenty years later, the late Lord Broughton, talkiug with 
Mrs. Grote respecting the public career of her husband, used 
these words, ''I haTe been in Parliament all my life, haye 
listened to the orators of the century, Mr. Canning among 
the rest, and I long ago made np my mbd that the two best 
speeches I oyer heard within those walls were (1) Macaulay*8 
speech on the Copyright question, and (2) Orote's first 
speech on the Ballot; in this opinion (Lord Broughton 
added) tiie late Speaker, Mr. James Aberorombie, concurred 
with me.** 

It was nnfortnnate for the party that Lord Grey's goyem- 
ment should haye deemed fit to introduce a measure certain 
to cause a diyision in the Liberal camp. With eyery disposi* 
lion to support the Ministry, Grote found himself frequently 
in opposition to it. The Irish Coercion Bill excited the 
disapproval of the ^ Philosophical Radicals," and the session, 
generally, disappointed expectation. I here insert a letter 
from one of the City constituents, which affords an example 
of the sentiment prevalent out-of-doors forty years ago. 

Edward Portwinb io Gborgi Ghon. 

Cabthubiah Street, February 2Srd, 1833. 
I zeoeived yesterday your kind reply to my request, wherein 
you have been so good ss to say you will have pleasure in for- 
warding an order on another occasion. You must be aware that 
the public mind is greatly agitated by the Ooeroiye Bill about to be 
introduoedto the House of Commons. ^ • • How will a reformed 
Parliament deal with this measure ? will it agree to deluge that 
eoontiy in blood? will it aoquiesoe in a Bill that puts Ireknd 
Ml cf the pale of the English OoDslitatioQ? If it does, the pe^ 


of England will retiew the cry for refonn, for thej will be eenaobms 
th*t Parliament does not speak their sentiments. 

I hsTe not met with a single indiyidoal (and I haTO Ukem some 
pains to'asoertain the sentiments of many) who does not shudder 

when asked what he thinks of this sanguinary Ministerial BilL 

• • • • 

One word (and I deal not in fiilsome panegyriek) ocmoerning 
your oondnot in the House as a legislator. Ton haTO aoqnitted 
yourself in a most noble and independent manner, and for the fini 
^time I feel myself repreBflntfld, -Persevere in this oonrsoi and your 
career will be bright, and your reward the imperishable gratttnde 
of yonr fellow-conntrymen. 


Dear Sir, 

Tonr obedient serranti 
Edwabd PoBTwnia. 

Notliing, indeed, conld well be more unpleasant than the 
ubole course of politics at the dawn of this Reform era. What 
with stormy debates on Irish coercive measoreei Irish tithea^ 
Irish Church Beform, including the question termed the 
^ Appropriation Clause,^ the unlucky division for the repeal 
of the malt tax, the fruitless remonstrances in favour of 
economy on the part of the veteran Joseph Hume and 
others, the unruly conduct of the Irish Members, the noiay 
agitation kept up by the Birmingham Union (resulting in a 
violent fray in the Coldbath Fields, and the killing of a 
policeman), the clamour for the repeal of all the principal 
taxes, the retirement of Mr. Stanley from the oflSce of 
Secretary of Ireland, the loss of Sir John Hobhouse's seat 
for Westminster, — ^all these and some other untoward cir- 
cumstances caused an amount of irritation and disappoint- /j/^^A 
ment, painful to the mind of one whose life had been .^ 
hitherto passed in the society of books rather than of men. / ^' 
Howeyer, Grote came gallantly to the support of the Gtorem- 
ment against Sir W. Ingilby's motion for the repeal of the 
malt tax : he being far too good a financier to sanction the 
withholding the means of carrying on the Government^ without 
proyiding a substitute for the tax given up. Thii vol© 


called tatih much displeasure among Qiote*s Oitj supporters, 
who^ in common with all the new constitnencies, considered 
Befonn as embodying relief from fiscal burdens.^ 

Notwithstanding the untoward course of affairs which has 
been noted aboTe» within the walls of 8t Stephen's, the 
number as well as the importance of the measures pushed 
through Parliament in this first session is enough to astonish 
the modem politician. The germ of that principle upon 
which, thirty-fiye years later, the disestablishment of the 
Protestant Church in Ireland was based« dates from 1833. 
The *' Appropriation Clause,'' indeed, set the Cabinet ''by 
the ears" from the beginning, and it was only abandoned for 
a season (in deference to the sentiments of an influential 
section of their supporters) to be afterwards reyived to the 
discomfiture of more than one ministry. The East India 
Charter, the Bank Cliarter, the Irish Tithe Bill, the Com- 
mittee on Sinecures (resulting in the abolition of thirteen 
hundred and odd flaeeB\ and lastly, a proposal to emancipato 
the slayes in our West Indian possessions, at a cost of twenty 
millions sterlings — all these, involying changes of prodigious 
magnitude, were among the measures brought forward by 
Earl Grey's goyerument ; a formidable ''bill of fare,** certainly, 
for one session I Grote took an actiye part in some of the 
debates, especially those concerning the Bank Charter, as 
well as in the duty of senring on Committees. 

Parliament at length rose on the 29th of August, haying 
sat oyer since the 4th of February, nearly seyen mortal 
months I It is curious to reflect how little credit was 
obtained outK>f-door8, in return for these fatiguing patriotic 
labours. It is not consonant with my purpose to explain the 

* One of the foremost of the young Badical party yoted along 
with Oiote on this diyision ; after awhUe some others of the Be- 
Cocmen, finding ikeff had miulo a mistake, askod him how ho had 
disoomed the propor ouurse. " I did not discern it,** replied Sir 
W. IL, *and 1 yoted with fear and trembling; but I saw Gioto 
It, and thought I could not do wrong by following Atfn.** 

18da ENH OF SESSION. 87 

caoses which prodaoed 80 infraetooas a result: enoogh to 
atate the fact that a general diasatfefaction prerailed. No 
subfitax^ve rednotion of taxation had been effected; Mr. 
Tennyson's motion in fayour of triennial Parliaments met 
with the same fate as Mr. Grote's on the Ballot; and the 
advanced Liberals found themselTes decidedly less powerful 
than they had expected, or their opponents had feaied, they 
would become, in a reformed House of Commons. 

The session of 1833 being over at last^ Qrote and his wife 
set forth on a recreative excursion, travelling in their phae- 
ton, and taking also a couple of saddle-horses. They visited 
the border counties of Wales, returning throogh Wiltshire^ 
seeing on the way Stourhead and the impressive ruins of 
Stonehenge. Grote was much refreshed by this journey, 
which in fact was essential to the restoration of his healthy 
sensibly exhausted by both Parliamentary and business 
labours. They passed, after the month of September was 
ended, a quiet four months at Dulwich Wood. The bank* 
ing-house, of course, occupied Grote on three or four days 
of the week; but he usually rode to the City and badc^ 
which exercise was beneficial to him. I find in my note- 
book of this date an entry which will be interesting :— 

** G. did not apply himself, as I earnestly besought him, to 
the furtherance of his History during the winter; but per- 
mitted himself to graze about the field of letters— it pro- 
pensity with which he is not in general reproachable, having 
usually had distinct objects in view in Us studious hours. 
This winter, he has indulged in all manner of promiscuous 
readi ng, and has written fewer memoranda in connection 
with books than I ever recollect him to have done in the 
same period. I very much apprehend that he will continue 
this desultory habit of reading, and feel it painful to resume 
the old labours to which he once applied himself with fond 
attention and sustained energy. I see, too, a growing de- 
mand in his mind for the acquisition of Physical SoieDoe, 
(Geology and Chemistry in particular.** 


The excitement and Ytaieij incident to public life certainly 
lied the effect of disturbing those habits of consecutiye study 
which had hitherto been the rule of conduct with G^rge 
Grote. At the same time, a consciousness of his growing 
reputation, accompanied with the hope of achicTing better 
results in the coming session, did lend special interest to the 
politacal stage; and thus, for a season, the History became 
comparatively neglected. We saw little company at Dulwich 
Wood this winter, and that little was of the purely political 
ebssL We dined abroad but once, and then it "was with 
lb; Oiote*s motiier, at Olapham Gommon. 

1891. NEW SESSION. 89 


Pablxament meeting early in February, it was not long 
before Grote found himself called apon to undertake a some- 
what onerous duty. Lord Althorp (then leader of the House 
of Commons) addressed to him the following letter, to which 
he could return but one answer : — 

Dowimro Stbebt, 21th FAntary^ 1884. 
My dsar SiBy^ 

I shall bo very muoh obliged to you if you will tike the 
ohair of the Oommittoe on Sineonres, which I shall move fixr to- 

Tour station in the House as Member fixr the Oitj^ and your 
known opinions, will give that confidonoo to the pnUie in the 
oommittoe whidb is in suoh a easo so essentially n eoc asaiy. 
Believe me, 

My dear Sir, 

Tours most truly, 


The session of 1884 opened with a ^ wrangle ** between O'Ooo- 
nell and the Gk)verument — a most unseemly, and, as it turned 
out, fruitless quarrel — terminating in what was joooeely called 
''the Tittle-tattle Committee,*' wherein Mr. Shefl and Mr. 
Littleton each cut but a sorry figure. This disagreeable 
passage over, the House of Commons was next regaled with 
several nights' discussion concerning the case against a cer- 
tain Baron Smith, of the Lish bench, for improper conduct 
as a judge. Then came the subject of Repeal, which was 
met by an address to the King: and this being carried by 
523 votes against 38 and adopted by the House of Peers, 
Repeal was shelved, for a time at least. In June, a memo- 
rable incident arose out of Mr. H. O. Ward's motion lespoot- 


ing tbe leyennes of the Irish Oharoh. A work recently pub- 
lUied gives a oarefiil and oomprehensiTe account of the 
speech of Mr. Ward, and it is added that ^the motion was 
seconded by Hr. Grote, at the oondnsion of whose speech 
Lord Althorp rose, and requested the House to adjourn, in 
consequence of circumstances which had come to his know- 
ledge since he entered it** 

The results of this afiftir were a partial break-up of the 
llinistry; succeeded, after a time, by what the French call 
a " Bepl&trage'' of the Oabinet 

The author of the work to which I have alluded (and 
which, I may say, in passing, appears to me a trustworthy 
History of the period) will be surprised to learn that Mr. 
Ward's speech was never deliyered. On his rising to make 
the motion in question, he was stopped by Lord Althorp's 
announcement, and the House forthwith adjourned. It is 
hardly necessary to add that Mr. Grote, who certainly had 
agreed to second Mr. Ward's motion, spoke not a word either. 

On the news being spread abroad, the two Badicals became 
the object of loudly expressed censure by the members of 
the Whig party ; but it will be seen, in the sequel, that this 
very subject — including the ''Appropriation clause*' — was 
fitted up by the Whigs themselyes, as a party engine against 
the Ministry of Sir Bobert Peel, not twelve months after- 

The Ministry, with its new ^ team," under the direction of 
Lord Melbourne in place of Earl Grey, succeeded at length 
in passing their Coercion Bill, after stripping it of some 
features obnoxious to the Irish party. The most important 
measure, however, brought forward during the session of 
1834^ was the Poor Law Amendment Act ; perhaps the most 
creditable achievement of the Whig party. It was carried, 
after active discussions and considerable opposition, by a 
large majority. I doubt whether, at any period nnee 1834, 
so thorough and sound a change in our domestic machinery 
ooold have been brought about That it should at the present 
time have become partially ineffective, is owing to tbe altered 



tone of publio opinion, <»i the character of which, howerer, 
it is beside my province here to enter. 

The Tithe Bill was a ''standing dish** during the whole 
session ; giving occasion to incessant altercation and some 
intemperate language, especiallj on the part of Hr. Stanley 
and Mr. O'Connell. The language of the latter, indeed, was 
both coarse and violent, such as would hardly be tolerated in 
these days. 

It may be mentioned, in reference to the Ooeroion Bill, 
that though it was actually carried, finally, it was by a House 
of only eighty-five Members 1 — sixty voting for, and twenty- 
five against the Bill. 

^It cannot be denied that 'concessions' made to Irish 
members, and to 0*ConneU in particular, did seriously 
damage the Ministry in the eyes of its more moderate 
supporters ; while the great Radical party — much stronger 
in the country than in the House— bitterly complained that 
the measures which they expected to see follow the Befonn 
Bill, and which they regarded as essential supplements of 
that measure, were thrust aside to make way fixr long Irish 
debates," &c.^ 

Animated discussions succeeded ; one upon the admission 
of Dissenters to the universities, another on a proposal to 
prevent the Spiritual Peers from sitting iu the House of 
Lords; also upon the abolition of church rates, on a tithe 
commutation Bill, and a Dissenters' marriage BilL On all 
these the Badicals, of course, spoke and voted as became 
their creed. Bepeal of the malt tax, and of the com law% 
had each their turn, but with no success. The disfranchise 
ment of the freemen of Warwick (proved to have been 
guilty of gross corruption) was carried through the Commons^ 
but rejected in the House of Lords, by the secret influence 
of the Lord Chancellor Brougham. 

. The following remarks are quoted from the work already 

* See « History of England,* from the year 183a By William 
Nassau Molesworth,K.A. London, 1871. YoL L, page 881. 


meatioiied i—^ The Eenkm waa, on the whole, disappointing 
to the sapporten of the Ministry. A general feeling pre- 
Tafledt and was Yery strongly expressed by some of the 
leading journals which had hitherto warmly supported them, 
that in many respects, and especially in their manner of 
dealing with Iridi questions, they had displayed a great 
want of capacity. * * * Their supporters saw with great 
dissatisfaction the Goyemment deroting themselves to a 
policy of finality. * * * The immense popularity they hod 
enjoyed at the time of their accession to ofiSce, and during 
the whole of the Beform struggle, had entirely disappeared, 
and had given way to a feeling not of hostib'ty, bat of indif- 
fsrenoe^ almost approaching to contempt" (Page 411.) * j 

The session being ended, Orote and his wife left England for ■ 

a few weeks* tour on the Gontinent^ First spending some 
days at Gtaieya, where they formed many interesting acquaint- 
ances^ — ^Professor De CandoUe, Madame Marcet and her I 
family, M. and Madame Favre, M, Sismondi (the historian) 
and his lady, M. des Boches Lambard, and others — they 1 
journeyed to Chamouniz, and had the rare good fortune of 
Tery &ie weather whilst there. 

Neither of us having ever seen mountain scenery out of 
England, we were enchanted with the sublime region around 
Mont Blanc. Grote rode back over the pass of the Col de 
Balme, rejoining me at Geneva by the road of the Yalais and 
the Lake of t eneva. We returned through Wurtemberg to 
Oarlsruhe, where William George Prescott joined us, and we 
all passed a fortnight on the Bhine, returning to Dulwich in 
October, much the better for our two months' holiday. 

* The following passage, oontainod in a letter of Miss Berry to ] 
Mr. Macsulay, at Calcutta, will confirm the statement iu the fore- 
going pages oonoeming tiie out-of-door impression made by the 
eoodoct of the Whig Ministry. It is dated June, 1884 : — 

* I think, firom what you do hear, you will not much legzet your 
absence firom a scene where, the right side of the question is acting 
in sooh a manner as to be actually dependent on the wrong side 
fo their power of acting at alL" CLife of Miss Berry,' by Lady 

I Lewis.) 


Some weeks sabaeqaent to our return, the dismissal of Lord 
Melbourne's Ministry, and the accession to power of the 
Tory party, produced uniyersal consternation in tlie country. 
I had occasion to reply to the letter of a friend in Noyember, 
1834, and here reproduce parts of my own letter in con- 
nection with our personal hibtory. After giving an outline 
of our Swiss adventures, I go on thus — 

DuLwicH Wood, Bubbbt, 2Sth Kavemher, ISSi. 

• • • The heat in Switserland was stupendous (W daily in 
shade), and overpowered ms greatly. Mr. Grote also felt the sun 
unfavourably, and, taking too mudi exertion under it, he was two 
or three times much indisposed, and attacked with fever. • • • • 

But the tour, altogether, produoed efifoets on him highly xefiraah- 
ing and invigoratiiig, and ho enjoyed the romantio passages aorois 
the Swiss Alps with great gutio. The booksellen^ shops of the 
German cities likewise formed delightfiil otgeots of oniiosity, and 
he passed hours of real happiness in those reoeaaes. • • e e 

I lament that the ^snail's pace** we were-going at should bo 
stopped, for we did move^ and I think we should have got on a 
trifle faster with those fresh horses. However, Mr, Gxote says, 
" this wrestle was sure to come, and so perhaps we had as well 
*try a fall* with our enemies now, as a year henoe." • • • • 

Grote is " buckling on his cuirass," and I never knew him more 
full of ardour and resolution. If all ** stand to the gnns," as is 
will, you will have no cause to blame your feUow-oountxymsii. 
He drew up the address for the Metropolitan Members, and worimd 
hard to get it personaUy signed by them alL * * * * 

Grote is continually receiving applications from Badioal eon- 
stituenoies, and only grieves that he can't name a man or two^ but 
he knows none worthy." • • e • 

This fact serves to show the vast difference between 1834 
and 1864, in respect to the readiness of the country to ftu> 
nish fortli Badical candidates. The change may be afKrmed 
to date from the Orimean war, by the conduct of which the in* 
capacity of the ruling dass was clearly discerned by the people. 

The destruction of the Houses of Parliament happened soon 
after our return to Dnlwich Wood, and from the windows of 
our residence we beheld the terrible spectacle, without how* 
ever knowing the exact locality of the fire, which we only 
learned on the morrow. 



TowABDB the end of the year 1834 a dissoIutioD of Parb'a- 
ment was announced aa imminent, and accordingly Mr. Grote 
iMied an address and commenced preparations for another 
contest^ which appeared to be unayoidable. 

The election for the Oity of Ixmdon (usually among the 
eariiest) took place early in Jannary, 1835. I here insert 
a l^ter to Mrs. GaskeU, which will show how agitated was 
the political atmosphere at this period. 

20th December, 1834. 

One line is all I have time or power to write; hat snch a piece 
of lock as I haTO to toll iiim< bo sent tc yon for pariioipation. Our 
CSty * Bads ** hsTO been working most asmdnonsly, and Btriying to 
obtain a fouih man, m com, and ofdff in case, the Tories called 
forth Mr. Ward. Yon cannot conceiTe a finer set of hearty, yet 
wise and jndidons, men than we boast among onr middle class in 
London I Mr. Grote is daily, and almost hourly, in communication 
with them, aiding, by his personal exertions, the great object 
of giring a signal example to the country at our coming election. 
Well, my dear friend, after many anxious conferences, — after trying 
the temper of the Tories, and finding Ward was actually going to 
proToke a contest (which, obserre, we wished to SToid for fear of 
mischief), — we actually haTe preyailed on no less a personage than 
<&e Governor of iks BoaJb </ England to start as onr fourth 
Reformer I 

I assure you I think it is the proudest day of my husband's life. 
He nerer had so great a consciousness of being useful, ctcu though 
we ha^e had our trials (and eke our triumphs), and he is in better 
spirits than I erer saw him; snd this, too, after being all last 
week so agitated snd careworn that I am sure you would hsTo 
been quite pained to see him : so apprehensiTe was he about getting 
a good CMorth man, for without ''a good one " he feared defeat 


Mr. PattiBOii, the new oandidi^ is one of the oUeei end meet 
intiinate friende of Mr. Grote*s fianilj^ end be bee beoome 
liboralixed by oommunion with bim, ea weU es bj Giato*s writingi 
aad epeedbes in Perliemeni He bed no wieb— nay, e?en a 
ropngnanoe-— to enter pnblio life (be is ebooft forty'^Te yeezs of 
age, I think) ; bat, pressed by the oitiaens in the flnt pkoe^ be 
was won finally by Grote's earnest entreaty to step fixrward and 
fight by his side, imd he ooold not refuse to do so, feeling eonfideni 
that Grote would support him and set him a wise lead. He is 
Reformer enough to satisfy onr ** moTement|** while his station and 
personal oharacter conmiand the Totes and oonfidenee of the Hmid 
rich Totors ; so that it is impossible to OTer-estimate the importaaoe 
to Reformers of this step on lus part • • • • We are all agita- 
tion and fervour in London. I only pray you may be doing half as 
well in your parts. Excuse my conjugal Tanity, but you oan'i think 
how I run over with emotidn when I reflect that Grote bas^ by 
courageously standing in the van, encouraged less bold and wise 
patriots to step out of the crowd, and has thuS| in his person, 
redeemed the representation of bis mtj, the first in the Empire^ bj 
attracting to it men of station and honour, instead of tfao corpora- 
tion nominees of ancient times. • • • • 

Eight candidates went to the poll, the foar Befimners 
being returned. Grote was the lowest of the four on the 
poll, in consequence of the Tories canynssing yigorously for 
the split votes in fayour of the oOier three LiberdU. I extract 
a passage from my note-book — January, 1886. — ^^Ghrote is 
very much oppressed with anxiety, but I think without ade- 
quate cause. ^ * * * Last year many of the Liberals voted 
wrong instead of tight, because they feared the Whigs being 
thrown out. Now, the Liberals must rote conformisbly with 
their professions, having no such excuse.'' The following 
letter from Mr. H. O. Ward shows how intent the Libeiala 
were on recovering their position :— 

H. G. Ward io Gioboi Gson. 



I regret to say that it will be impossible for me to join yo« 
to-morrow. • • • • 


Lei me know what ckj joa meet agean, and yon may depend 
vpon me ; lor I want much to get my own ideas into some order 
liy eomparing them with those of others. The great point will be 
to prepare such an Amendment to the Address as will giro to the 
eoontiy a proof that onr opposition to the present Gbyemment 
rats not upon ward$^ bat Mngt. • • • • 

The Speakership, of eonrse, will not be lost sight oil I hope 
that Abercrombie will not refuse to stand. If he does, Bemal 
would, in my humble judgment, be preferable to Littleton, who 
was, certainly, much damaged last autunm* • • • • 

We ha^e a good game to play, if it be played with temper, 
, and proper organisation : without these, nothing will bo 

Yon will be sorry to hear that I got a letter from Lord Spenoer 
lo^y (in answer to one written to him after my election), in 
which he says ''that nothing shall erer induoe him to take office 
again, since he looks back to the time which he passed there as by 
Ur the most unhappy period of his ezistenoe.** I am afraid that 
he ii only too much in earnest in this, but you had better not 

I send you a county P^por, with a report of our proceedings at 
Hertford and St. Alban's. I need hardly assure you that all that 
I said of foil at the first of these places came most sincerely firom 
mj heart; it was very warmly reoeiTed. • • • • 

Yours most truly, 

H. O. Ward. 

When Parliament assembled, animated debates ensued 
— both sides being ^all fire and fury." Grote spoke on 
the first nighty supporting the amendment; at the same 
time declaring '*it was too mild for him,^ After three 
nigfatSy the amendment was carried against Ministers by 809 
Totes against 802. On the third nighty Mr. T. Gisbome 
delivered an excellent and spirited speech, which was much 
applauded. Towards its close, he adverted to the expediency 
of including, in any future Liberal Cabinet, some of the 
leading Badical Members, naming ^the honourable Members 
for London and Bridporf* 

The ministerial bench received the suggestion with laughter. 
I should not wonder if they lived to ** laugh on the wrong side of 


thoir monihs,'* aomo of these days, m the old populur phrtao hM it 
On the occasion aboTO mentionod, the Wliigs woro silenti bat the 
Radicals cheered « « « *.— JSc<r<u^/n>iii 2>Miry,l[aroh»1885. 

1 Sir liobert Feel, on taking ofBce, endeavoured to recoin- 
mend himself to the country by proposing several measures 
of importance ; one for Church Beform, a Dissenters* Mar- 
riage Billy a Tithe Bill, all of unquestionable merit; another 
for the consolidation of the Ecclesiastical ConrtSy but the 
Government was beaten on the question of granting a Koyal 
Charter of Incorporation to the Liberal "University of 
London/' as the institution in Oower Street was then ciUled» 
the numbers being 246 to 136. It may be remarked here, 
that memorials had been sent up against this Charter, from 
both the old Universities, as well as from the respective 
Colleges of Surgeons and Physicians.* 

With the Irish Tithe Bill, the Whig party could not^ with 
any show of consistency, find fault, since it bore a close 
resemblance to their own measure. Accordingly, Lord John 
llussell brought out the engine, about which so much has 
already been said — the Appropriation Clausa The clause 
was binished up, and made to "do duty** on the 80th of 
l^Iarch. On this debate (which, I believe, lasted through 
tliree nights) more than one spedmeu of splendid eloquence 
was elicited ; among these Mr. W. E. Gladstone's may be 
referred to, as a powerful ^pleading" for tlie maintenance of 
the Irish Church. I quote a passage from it here >^ 

** The present motion opens a boundless road : it will lead 
to moasure afiei measure, to expedient after expedient^ till 
WG come to the recognition of the Boman Catholic religion 
as the National one. In principle, you propose to give up 
the Protestant Establishment ; if so, why not abandon the 

^ Mr. Tooke had moved an address to His Majesty, beseeching 

/^ him to grant the charter to the University of London. If any one 

doubts of the advance of Liberal sentiment daring the last lorty 

^ years, lot him boar in mind that not a few Liberals, foeliag 

uevertheloss adverse to the idea of. parting with Ohuroh sapremaey 

in matters of education, voted with the Government on this ooosaion. 


poUtieal goYernmeiit of Ireland and ooncede tbe repeal of 
the LegUatiye Union? • • • • I hope I shall neyer live 
to tee the day when saoh a system sliall be adopted in this 
country; for the consequences of it to public men will be 
lamentable beyond all description," &c. &c. 

Mr. Grote also felt strongly on this subject, but on the 
opposite side, and, in the course of the debate, expressed 
himself ferrently in iavour of the disestablishment of the 
Irish Church. There exist several drafts of speeches which 
he composed on this subject, which are full of animation and 
fire. The upshot of the contest was the defeat of the Minis* 
t«r, followed by his resignation within a week afterwards. 

I cannot avoid pausing for a moment, to allude to a sin- 
gularly candid review of this passage in our domestic history 
whidi I find in the pages of Mr. Molesworth. He says, ^ The 
oonduct of the King and the Duke together, plaoed Sir 
Robert Peel in an inextricably false position. We can 
hardly doubt that» had he been consulted beforehand, his 
Mmnd judgment and practical experience would have led 
Um to recommend to the King to wait for more certain 
proofii of the asserted reaction than he yet possessed. But 
when he returned from Home, the time for giving such 
advice was past • • • • As for Sir R Peel, he deserved 
the praise which his honourable rival in the House of Com- 
mons so warmly gave him ; not only on account of the great 
diligence and ability he displayed in framing and conducting 
the measures he introduced, but for the very upright and 
lionourable manner in which he acted, under the extremely 
difficult and undesired drcumstanoes in which he was placed.*' 

The former l^Iinistry was now reinstated, to the undis- 
gnised mortification of King William, who, however, found 
some comfort in the fact that he had at least got rid of the 
obnoxious ChanceUor. The first business brought before the 
House of Commons after this episode, was, the Municipal 
CSorporations Beform; a measure loudly demanded by the 
paUic otttH>fHlourB. It proved a veritable ** apple of discord.** 


All the Pbiloflophical Badicak (as tliey wero callod) gave an- 
remitting attontion to tho framing of the Dill, on the details 
of which the discussions were unusually warm. Mr. Orote 
allowed himself scarcely any rest during its progress, and, 
moreorer, carried on an active correspondence with the pro- 
vincial towns, delegates from which were sent up to supply 
information to Liberal Members. At last, the Bill reached 
the House of Lords, but there it underwent considerable 
alteration; nevertheless, the Ministers being too weak to 
resist effectively, concessions were made, and the Bill passed 
into law on the 7th of September, 1835. 

This very important measure may be regarded as only in 
a sbght degree less valuable, in the eyes of Beformezs, tlian 
the Beform Bill itself! 

■^Tbo plan for brigading the Opposition has been efiboioallydis- 
oomfitod by Home, who, sot on by Broogham, has insisted' en 
oomprohending the Irish '^teil" in the party. This not being 
compatible with the objects in furtheranoe of which the prc|}eei 
was taken in hand, vis^ consultation and combined action among 
tho English Badicals— our gentlemen have next to abandoned the 
design ; not openly withdrawing, but feeling no interest in the 
I matter." ^—Extraei from Diar^, April, 1885. 

" We dined with Mr. Mill, at his house in Kensington, on Sunday ; 
his son, John, was also present Mr. Mill, out of humour witli 
the Whigs, said he had become indiflbrent about their regMuiag 

■^ On the second of June, Mr. Groto again brou^t fnrwasd a 

* W. Clat, Esq., M.P., io Osorob Obots. 

7, NoTTiNGiiAM PI.ACB, 20iM F^mtry^ 188S. 
My dbab Grots, — 

I go to Twickenham this afternoon, and oannot consequently 
attend the meeting of to-morrow ; but I leave you my ptosj on 
aJU points— with regard to O'Connell I bolieve we perlbotly eononr 
in opinion. I oonld not usefully or consistently belong to a snk- 
ditUUm of the Liborals which numbered O'Oonnell aoMng its 
members, however willing I may be to co-operate with him aai Us 
immediate friends as part of the g^meral hod§. 

H 2 


i Unr Ballot He spoke for «n boor and a quarter in a very 
Ml bouse, and, fiom Tarious eridenoe whioh I eoUecftedf lie was 
coBsideied to haTO performed bis task to admiration. Mr. War- 
Ivarton and lir. Stmtt told me it was tbe finest reasoned speecb 
iktj bad erer beard in the House of Oommons. I think it uhu as 
good as a ssoond speech on the same topics conld be, and George 
appears to be content with bis success. 

*Tbe debate, which prored particularly animated,and was well- 
■ustaineil, lasted from half-past fiye p.m. till half-past one the next 

« The division ga^e, 146 for; against, 819."— Dtdry, June, 1835. 

Other business oocupied, ot intervals, the attention of the 
Legislature. Lord Morpeth brought forward an Irish Church 
Befonn, closely resembling that proposed by Sir B. Feel, but 
with the ineyitable ''Appropriation Clause'' tacked to its 
taiL Fresb conflicts arose on this everlasting subject of con- 
tention. Tbe Ministry were not strong enough to force it 
throQgb the Upper House, so that, in tbe teeth of emphatio 
warnings of ** dreadful consequences," on the part of Lord 
Mdboume, tbe Bill was withdrawn and another Bill hastily in- 
trodooed : this, to release tbe Government from tbe necessity 
of prosecuting the Lish clergy for the repayment of advances 
made upon the security of their tithes. The oflensive pro- 
cee lings of the Orange Lodges in Irelonl were also angrily 
commented upon in the House of Commons during the 
summer, till every one was, indeed, ''sick of it** Some 
Members, again, wearied the assembly by motions for altering 
the currency, and the malt tax was once more made the sub- 
ject of a struggle on the part of the agricultural representa- 
tives. Lord Chandos leading the assault 

I must not forget to mention that in addition to all his 
other obligations, Mr. Grote, about this time, oonsentcd to 
serve on a commission for framing the New Constitution for 
our Australian colonies. This commission sat through tlie 
•ommer, on Wednesday afternoons, and he scarcely ever 
flsissed attending. 

Thus it came to pass that be scarcely got any time 
for bis rural home, still less for his books, Und little enough 


even of domesUo converse. I give here^ as an example^ one 
of Orote's own notes to myself: — 

CiTT, 18tk Marck, 1886. 

I am very sorry to say that it is totally impossible ftir me to 
got down to Dulwioh this day. 

The House will bo as full of business this night as on any otlier 
uight ; indeed, Wednesday is now just like Tuesday or Thursday, 
as respects Parliamentary oocupati<m. « « « « 

It will delight me very mudi to see you again in London to- 
morrow. This is the worst part of my Parliamentary life— to be 
cut off so much and so long from my partner. • « « • 

Pool brought in hia Bill for Dissenters' Marriages last night 
His speech gave much satisfaction ; and the Bill is a muoh better 
measure than that of the Whigs last year on the same subjeet 

Tills unremitting labour towards public objects made me 
complain not unfrequently of the sacrifice; but Grote was 
inflexible. So I was forced to submit, and took a commodious 
lodging in Fall Mall (No. 11) for the season, so as not to be 
more separated than we could help; spending Saturday and 
Sunday at Dulwioh Wood. 

I find in my note-book the following entry in May, 1835 : — 
'* Jjord Durham came down and dined with us alone at DuU 
wich Wood (no one but Joe Parkes besides) ; bis Lordship 
was talkative and confidential, though manifestly out of 

In the month of June this year, we received on several 
occasions, at our house, two young Frenchmen then rising 
into notice as public men — M. Alexis do Tocqueville and 
M. Gustavo do Beaumont — and the foundation w»% laid of a 
friendship with the former gentleman, which was m^tained 
unbroken up to his lamented death in 1859. 

Our hospitalities at Dulwich Wood went on during the 
whole session ; Orote's time much taken up with the Toric 
Election Committee, which lasted four weeks, closing on the 
8th of September. We paid one short visit, in July, to our 
friend Mr. James Mill at Mickleham, for (I believe) the last 
time; his strength was evidently failing under the insidioiis 


I which terminated his existence in the following year. 
« With the exception of the yisit to Mr. Mill, Orote had 
aoi been abeent from London since we returned from the 
Cootmeot in October, 1834. To the best of my belief he 
htm not enjoyed one week-day's rest since February last** — 
EtBbndJrom Diary, October, 1835. 

Mr. William FftMCott returning from his holiday in Sep- 
tember, Orote was enabled to set fnrth on a tour of refresh- 
■lent and racrsation. Our first point made was Mr. Edward 
Stratty MP. for Derby, who then resided in the suburbs of 
thai town, at a pleasant house with parkish grounds called 

After a few days agreeably spent with our esteemed friends, 
W9 rambled about in Derbydiire and Warwickshire, but were 
most vnfortanate in legaid to weather, which proved inces- 
aatly wet I insert here part of a letter describing our 
p ro ce rd i ngs ^ which will perhaps be found amnsmg :— > 

Mrs. Oaon lo Mrs. D. Oasksll. 

Matuxx Bath, SepUndfer 26M, 1836. 

The entire disoomfitare of smmner projects to which all M J^.'s 
•ad " their belongings " bayo been ozpcieed, must bATO prepared 
7o« for the Ices of that part of our matual anticipations which con- 
Meted itself with Lupset Hall. * * * I aesoio you ibo wreck of 
tUt little Yorkabiie scbeme is yery yezatioualy felt by both Grote 
isd myselil The seyere and protracted labours of this year will 
be soarooly remedied by the scanty recreation we baye been 
caaUed to gather out of the residue of the fine season. Little 
elie has been gained by leaying home, than the absolute immunity 
fnok all ties and daily duties ; but I rejoice to think my beloyed 
psfftaer^s spirits haye deriyed benefit from this partial relief. 
Thoagh not in "full feather,** he is less depressed by his campaign 
than I foaied he would be. « « « « 

Old Joey Hume is here, with his wife, daughter, and son. We 
had a regular ** prose ** yesterday eyening with him, and we shall 
he madi together whilst we all remain at Matlock. It is pure 
ac ci dsa t, our meeting, but tho people here imagine it etmcerUd 
heta^s— these two emmetU " deiCnicte' oee." 

Mr. Aikwiight (a lioh Toiy mill-owner, and ^ all that**) went 


1886. YAOATION BAHDLE8. 103 

down to the ahop of a tndosman here yesteiday aftemooiiy and, in 
an undertono of Toioe, said, ** Mr. YaUanoOy do you know whom we 
have got here at thia moment?^— <*Noy air.''— <* Why, here ia 
Mr. OrotOy and not only ho, bat Mr. Hnmet" aa if aome dieadfiil 
erent moat oome of ao notable a ooiganotion of the malefleent 
planeta. I had thia fhun the ** party ** addxeaaed. 

After paying a abort yiait to our friend and oouain Arthur 
Gregory (a Warwickshire aqoire) near Oorentry, we turned 
our atepe homewards; visiting Warwick Oaatle (which in* 
terested us extremely), and afterwarda Great HampdeOt a 
place replete with patriotic memoriea. 

On our return from our tour we remained quietly at Dnl- 
wich Wood through the remaining monthaof 1835; xeceiTing 
our frienda from time to time aa gueata^ and eigoyiiig 
parative repoae. 




«Thb chief organ of the Badical party at this period 
is the 'London Review/ being the old 'Westminater Be- 
JTiew' vnder a new direction: the fonda fapplied by Sir 
Uniliam Uoleaworth, HP., with John Stnart Mill far the 
editor. The list of contrifautcm compriaea some of the moat 
•Ue pena of the day, and the renew ia undeniably aaperior 
in quality to any of ita rirala. J. A. Boebnck dao iaaoea 
politioal tiadab at the price of three-halQpenee— extremely 
defer and inatmctiTe— aelling aa many aa ten thooaand a 
week*"— JBBffwf yVvai Diary, January, 1836. 

I cannot do bettor than borrow again from lb. Mdea- 

*In thia aearion the affaire of Ireland continued to force 
tbemaelTea on the Legialature^ and to occupy a laige ahare 
of ita attention. This arose from two causea ; first, the still 
unsettled state of that country, which no Gk>Temment could 
diaregard ; and aecondly, the position occupied by the Irish 
CSatholic party, which, though not very numerous, was 
sufficiently laige to hold the balance between the Grovem- 
ment and the Opposition, and to give the majority to the one 
or the other, aa it suited the purpose of its leader. O'Connell 
need the enormous power which this state of things placed 
ia hia handa very akilfully. He gave a steady support to the 
Gofemment, but lie took good care to make them feel that 
the continuance of that support depended on their adoption 
of aoch a policy towarda Ireland aa he advocated, and would 
be instantly withdrawn, or even converted into bitter hoatility, 
if they ahould awerve from it It was^ no doubts for the 
porpoae of conciliating him and the party he led, that the 
{Muagiaph relating to the prindidea of the'Irish Municipal 


Corporations Bill had been inserted in the Ein^s •peeeh.'* 
(Page 485.) 
I here subjoin a letter illnstrative of this Tiew : — 

From Mrs. Giobgi Etars, Wife of OiOBaB Etavs, ILP./or Otmmiif 

DubUn, io Mrs. Oaon. 

Uajf 12ik, 1836. 

• • • Etans quite agrees with your Tiews, bat adds 
O'Connoll and his adherents to the eyils wo haTO to contend with. 
Oar position makes us more susceptible of O'Oonnell's influence 
than you can bo in England. We feel it is one whidi blasts and 
withers whateTor it approaches, and that nothing good will ever 
come to maturity near its pestilence. « « « « 

The foregoing passage truly depicts the situation. No 
Ministry could expect to prosper under a pressure at onoe so 
galling and yet so plausible. His influence clothed with 
the attributes of liberal patriotism, yet exercised in strict 
conformity with the personal ambition of a demagogue-* 
O'Connell was feared, detested, and yet accepted as an ally. 
The leading Liberals avoided contact with Uie ** Liberator," 
as he was termed, and we ourselves never but once met him 
in private society, and then it was at Mr. Oharles Buller^s^ in 
Westminster, at dinner. 

Irish Municipal Beform was the chief feature in 1836, the 
majorities ruling higher than was expected in favour of 

On the last night of the debate on the Lish Municipal 
Beform Bill Orote put out his strength, making a most 
impressive speech ; no other Badical of the English body 
speaking at any length on the subject. The majority for 
Ministers was no less than 86. 

In June of this year Grote again brought on tho Ballot. 
Most of the Ministers absented themselves, and the debate 
upon the whole was flat. 

« H. G. Wabd to OaoBoa Oaon. 
* * * I now take my chance of this finding you at hono^ to 


At the Terj Imur dnring whioh Oiote wm deUyeriag this 
qweeh on the Ballot^ his great mental teacher and fijend, 
Jamee Mill, was passbg away from amongst us. He died 
without any pain or struggle, of long-standing pnlmonarj 
phthisis. Oiote was much affected by his losi^ though we 
weie awaie that it was imminent for sereral months before it 

In the diary of Jnne 80th I find the Mowing entry :— '•I 
gsTO a party at Dolwich Wood, in hononr of my sister, 
Madame Ton Koch, and her husband, the pleasnre of which 
howefer was mnch qidled, and in this way. O'Gonnell had 
n motion on the paper far reforming the Sbose of Locds^ but 
no one bdiered that he woold bring it on; neverthelesi^ on 
the moinmg of the day of my party he gsTo it oat that 
« nothing should prerent him from doing so.* I had invited 
agood many Members of Parliament, who all oonsdentioosly 
stayed away (on the strength of 0*Cbnnell*s assomnoe), 
fasdng to absent themselTes. Orote himself ran the risk, 
however, and diove down from the Hoose at nine o'okxd^ 
bringing Molesworth with hiuL Thqr both left ns at eleyen 
pjiL,and went back to the Hoose of Oranmons^ bat 0*Oonnell 
did nd bring on his moticm after alll The master was 
too strong against it, and discoaraged the 'Liberator/ ** 

Ireland was» howerer, the '^standing dish^ daring all thii 
i; the Irish Tithe and the Ckvpcnwtion Beform were 

Mk yoe, in tho event of its doing so, to read the ondosed, and 
to giTO me your opinion respaotiiig any part of it, whioh yon 
BMy think reqnires alteration. 

It is a severe task npon your time and friendship; hat the oooa- 
aon is one of saffieieat importeaee to warrant me in making it 

• « • I do not say what I have said, with regard to the 
aeotrali^ of the CUiinet npon the Ballot and Triennial Parlisr 
■snts, withoat good r eas o n, I am convinced that Melboame has 
resolved ipon ^ and that those will go to the wall who oppose 

Toars very truly, 

H. O. Waba. 

18d6-1837. RBMOTAL FROM DULWIOH. 107 

succesaively rolled up the steep m fictr as the House of Lords, 
whence they were as often rolled back again, like the stone of 
Sisyphus. What the Opposition oould not do in the House 
of Commons was effected in the House of Lords. A Dis- 
senters' Marriage Bill met with better sucoess, but it was 
mainly owing to the frank support afforded by the Duke of 
Wellington and Sir Bobert Peel. This measure proved of 
signal advantage to the Nonconformist body, and, it may be 
added, to the public at large, since it comprised the valuiftble 
system of local registration for marriages^ births, and deaths. 
A fresh ''Church Commission'' was also instituted^ the 
incomes of the higher dignitaries being dealt with un- 
sparingly, in the interest of the parochial clergy. 

This proceeding it was that called forth the unrivalled 
powers of Sydney Smith; wit, argument, and raillery all 
shining out in the celebrated * Letters to Archdeacon Single* 
ton/ in opposition to this Commission. 

The Reform Club was established this year, most of the 
Ministers becoming members, the list of which soon swelled to 
eleven hundred. Grote, of course, was one of the founders. 

The first number of the united review, < London and WesU 
minster,' came out in April, the prominent artide of which 
was one by John Stuart Mill, on civilisation. 

The experience of these first few years of our Parlia- 
mentary course forced us to perceive that it would not do to 
continue residing at a distance from London. The fiitigue 
to Grote of going up and down between his house at Dulirich 
and London, and tlie loss of time it involved, became too 
serious evils for me to wisli to remain in our pleasant Iiome. 
Accordingly, we set about inquiries for a house in London. 
This step was not taken without extreme reluctance on my 
part; I had bestowed a great deal of time, trouble^ and 
expense on our present house and grounds, it had become 
suited to our wants, and I knew that London would prove 
injurious to my health. All this notwitlistanding, I aooepted 


tibe neoesrity, and about IkOdsumroer a commodious nod airy 
boose was purdiased, close to Belgrare Square (then No. 3, 
EodesUm Street)* to which we made immediate arrangements 
Sor remoTing. Our residence, ^ Dulwich Wood,** was shortly 
after sold to another London banker, and in the month of 
August Air. Grote and I left it to make a few weeks' tour in 
France, crossing from Brighton to Dieppe. Before I narrate 
the proceedings of the summer, I quote once more from the 
Diary. ** We dined at Mr. Hume's on the 26th of May, and 
had 'good talk.* Hume very resolute about reforming the 
House of Lorda Mr. Clay and Mr. Aglionby, Mr. Senior and 
Grote, had tough discussions after dinner." 

We yisited the towns of Le Mans, Angers, Blois, Orleans, 
Saumor, Fontainebleau, and so to Paris on September lOtb. 
Our excursion procured us health and recreation, but our 
usual ill-luck attended us in regard to weather, which was 
cold, rainy, and even temi)estuous. Mr. Frescott, the senior 
partner of the banking-house, falling ill at this time, we 
Iiastened home, reaching Loudon on the 6th of October. 
Kr. Piescott died on the 23r. :. 

After we had established our domicile in Eccleston Street, 
Jifr. Grote took some pains to cultivate the art of streak- 
ing in public, by putting himself under the teaching of 
mn elocution master. Aided by Mr. Jones's very useful 
lessons, he learned to manage the inflections of voice, the 
change of pitch, the filling of the air chest, the devices of 
gesture and the like, insomuch that his style of delivery 
1)ecame sensibly improved. I was present at more than one 
of these lessons, and could not fail to perceive the advantage 
t>( oratorical training in enhancing the effect of the discourse. 
I doubt whether any of the young Members of Parliament at 
the present day devote much of their spare time to studying 
the rules of rhetorical art Mr. Grote was not, indeed, the 
only man of the Radical party who attended to this valuable 
element in a public career. Sir W. Molesworth, J. A. 
Boebock, 0. Bnller, T. Gisbome and others did so, and to 
good purpose* 


1830-1887. - BALLOT BOX.* 109 

We remained in London tbrongh the winter of 1886-1837. 
Tlie agitation was very sealous all the autumn upon the 
gubject of Ballots Grote and I spent a good deal of time in 
devising methods of taking votes, so as to ensure secrecy ; at 
lost a ''Ballot box** was perfected, and some forty or fifty 
models, in wood, distributed all over the kingdom. Here is 
a letter on the subject : — 

Mrs. Oaon to Mrs. D. Oabkill. 

DeeembtT 2iik, 1880. 

* * * If yon will rotnm Mr. Oldham's modd (as he seems 
ravonons for it), yon can have ono for yourself now, l^ writing to 
iho secretary to our new Ballot Union, ss per printed ''avis'' I sent 
you some days ago. We have now ceased to be the issom of 
models, being, to tell you the truth, somewhat weary of famishing 
ilicm to so many applications gratis. We have fixed it upon 
Mr. Thomas, who supplies them at the cost price, 24«, Mr. Oxoto 
lias spent above 502. in those toys, and wo hope not in vain ; for 
assuredly the question has made a striking progress since last year. 
We have had tlhodU of letters expressive of delight with, and 
approbation of, the contrivance ; and many who wiahod for socrooy, 
yet mistrusted its being attained, have become hearty ballotoers 
since " the box " was exhibited to them. 

I dare not trust myself to enter upon politics, for tboy are 
fearfully exciting at present, and would occupy mora time than 
I can give to the writing. 

This short session has been pregnant with interest, yet produe- 
tivo of disheartening results. The Whigs are quite ruined as a 
reform cabinei^ and only now hold office at the pleasure of the 
Tories, who, seeing the mess they have got into (about Oanada) 
enjoy the mischief, and arc minded to let them complete the 
obnoxious part of the transaction, vis., getting into a civil, or rather 
colonial, war, and then anon iheff will perhaps step in and carry it 

Our party, small enough at any time (as you too well know) 
has been thinned down to a slender band of twenty or so. But 
you will have watched with earnest and, I hope, approving eyes, 
the vigorous efibrts these few have made to uphold rafoming 

How ghkd I am Mr. Gaskell stood by Boeboek about the 
" Resolntions ** against the Canadians J « « * « 



Another from Mr. Warburton, on the actual oonditios of 
parties: — 

H. WABBURToir io lbs. Oaon. 

46, Cadooav Pi«aci, Lokdov. 
21il Jkcemher, 1830. 

* * * It is ihzoagh public opinion that the refomiB prodicted 
in the Badiotl book of &to are to bo carried : it is throngh 
public opinion that wo are to spur the Whigs on to action. 
Ezprenion is to be giren to public opinion, and the Whigs are to 
be made to feel the force of it, in constituencieB, by hooping thorn 
eoDBtaailj in a state of alann of being ousted by Badical com- 
petitors — in Parliament, by occasional throats of being Totod 
against bj their Badical allies. In a certain state of disquietudo 
it is our business always to keep them ; tho pressure is to bo 
heightened or moderated according to circumstances, and the 
magnitude and proximily of the objects we hope to carry. But so 
long as there exists any material diffinenoe in the weight of 
liberal measures which the Whigs and Tories, sererally, are 
willing to offer to us, the highest bidder, if in possession, is not to 
be ousted from the GoTemmont 

I met yesterday lyy accident ICr. Windham, of Felbrigg, Nor- 
folk, who was in the first Eoform Parliament He told me that 
the pro g r e ss of public opinion in that county in fayour of tho 
Ballot during the last few years was quite remorkablo, and said 
he was going to adTiso the Government to make it an open ques- 
tioo. • • • 

M adamina, yours oTor, 


(You see that my rugged brow reUxes 1) 

A third, from a gentleman of influence at Bristol : — 

0. B. Fbifp Io Gbobos Gbotx. 

Bristol, 26/A December, 1836. 

Tou will, I know, excuse the freedom I take in addressing you, 
when you learn my object, whether that shall obtain your approTal 
or not ; but if other apology wore wanting, I might be allowed to 
find it in the conspicuous station which you so justly hold among 
the leaders of the ** Independent Beformers," of which body I 
nyself an earnest, though a Tery hnmblo member. 


In the Spedaior of this week (of wliioh I am a xegnlar reader), 
I am delighted to see it stated that yon haTO resolTed to more in 
the House of Ck>mmon8, on the first opportunity, for lea^e to bring 
in a BiU in hrroxat of the Battoi ; and yon aro inTited to publish 
tho BiU without delay, to gi^e early opportunity for feUHoM in 
its&Tour. • ♦ ♦ ♦ 

From my aoquaintanoe with the feelings of the Boformers Aerv, 
I haTO no hesitation in saying that an enthusiastio meeting in 
faypur of the BaUot BiU would bo promptly held, and a petition, 
numerously signed, bo thereupon plaoed in your hands. In few 
places, perhaps, is tho necessity of this ^ protection of indiyidual 
freedom " so much needed as in this city, and glad shall wo be of 
the opportunity of manifesting our sentiments to Parliament on 
this subject, if you will give us a BUI to present for jMyMenl. 
I am. Sir, 

With the greatest respect, 

Tour obedient serranti 

0. BowuM Fbipp. 

Extract from diary of this dnto : — ** Mr. Orote, and about 
fivo others, find themselves left to sustain the Badical 
opinions of tho House of Commons. One evenings after 
all other guests had departed. Sir W. Molesworth and Charles 
Buller remained late at our house, talking of tho present 
aspect of affairs. ' I see what we are coming to^ Orote^' said 
Charles Buller; 'in no very long time from this^ you and I 
shall be left to ' tell,; Molesworth I " 

One more extract — ^it relates to a projected meeting in 
Drury Lane Theatre, intended to display a cordial union 
between the Wliigs and the Badicals : — 

A good stirring speech from Mr. Orote on Monday, howofer 
short, would do the cause and himself much good. If the "M^^^g 
be not more Bad. than Whig it may do ham. I myself am not 
as yet, satisfied of its propriety. I cannot giTC my support to Mr. 
Byng, or tolerate the thought of anything like corcQal union (which 
this meeting seems to imply) if it be not one of more equality flian 
in times past ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

BelicTe me. 

Very respectfolly yours, 

Jom TaATBBs. 
To Mrs. Grote. 


This same grand ''demonstration ** took place on the stage 
of Brwrj Lane Theatre, in Janoarj, 1837. It proved a mere 
Whig affiur, as was anticipated, and had no effect out of 
doorsy or ^ in,** for that mntter. 

The session was opened by the King in person, on the 
Slst of January. Tlie Tithe Bill and the Irish Corporation 
Bill — ^both of them Croyernment measures — were rejected in 
the Lords. A somewhat lively episode was furnished by ^ir 
Francis Burdett, who, renouncing Radical politics, retired into 
the ranks of the Consenratives. He resigned his seat for 
Westminster, and stood again under his new colours. '*The 
Baronet,** says Mr. Holesworth, ^ was returned triumphantly, 
by a majority of 615 votes. He now took his seat on the 
Opposition side of the House, amidst the cheers of his new 
friends.** After this a vehement conflict arose between 
** Church and State,** the Bishops making resolute resistance 
to the Crovemment Bill for superseding Cliurch Bates. 

The Radicals proper maintained a spirited system of 
attack; Mr. Giote for the Ballot, Sir William Molesworth 
to abolish property qualification, Mr. D'Eyncourt for abridging 
the duration of Parliament, and for the abolition of the law 
of primogeniture, &c. It is superfluous to add that these 
efforts were all unsuccessful. The new Poor Law was vigor- 
ously assailed in Parliament, and by writers in the * Times,* 
but courageously supported by the instructed Radicals. 
JosxPH Parkvs to Mrs. Groti. 

WE8TMIN8TEB, 20lh March, 1837. 

• • • Grote is a Polar Star to all of us — a magnetic needle 
necessary to steer our oonrso straight 

The ** stock-piece** of the session consisted in the strong 
proceedings of the mother country for repressing the Canadian 
discontents. These brought all the leading Radicals to the 
front, and the debates on Canadian matters grew unusually 
angry. Lord John was obliged to accept the assistance 
of Sir Robert Peel in carrying his memorable ''Resolu- 
tions,*' whilst the Radicals, as a body, lent him a reluctant 

1837. DKATH OF THE KINO. 118 

To add to the embanraBsmentB of this most unsatisfactory 
868sion» the oommercial world now fell into diffioolties : many 
joint-stock banks failed, confidenoe was shaken, and a refd 
<* panic** ensued. The committee on banking renewed its 
inyestigation into the existing eyils, the Bank Bestrietioii 
Act was sQspendedy and the monetary world became agitated 
to its very centre. 

Nothing, indeed, could be more uncomfortable than the 
state of public affairs. The Ministry were utterly powerleaa^ 
carrying nothing that they themselyes proposed, unless by 
the help of the Tories. Sir Bobert Peel openly aTOwed his 
readiness to take their places. The King was known to be 
averse to granting a dissolution. In short, there was ertaj 
probability that the Melbourne Ministry must comA to an 

Fortune, howerer, sent them a respite; King liraiiam foU 
ill, and before Midsummer he had ceased to reign* 

114 Pn801IALI<iraOFAn)BOXG]iOT& 0[UP.XIK 



A WLMD of lojalt^ now set in towAids the young maidan 
Qseen. * On nflniming the leins of Go?munent| her Majesty 
dednrad her intention to letain the eerrioeed'Loid Md^ 
and hie eoUeagoea^ and by this fortonate tnm of affidis the 
Whigi fimnd themselTes onoe more with the wind in their 
aaila. A dissolntioii of Parliament was of oonise ineritaUe^ 
■0 that the Oi^ had to prepare liar a third contested eleetioiu 
Heve is a letter describing the opening 1 

IbsL Oaon lo Sir Wuuam MouvwomB^ Bart 

88| TBBB4mnKiDLa Brumr, JU^ 8aMi; 1887. 

J«rt come back ftom imi mmrtnfitfiHi at the OniUhalL 
Ysty Ml assflmUags indeed, and fpc ifa ro os beyond pfeoedent. 
Five candidates and thebr ten proposers and seconders spolEelbr 
two end a helf hours, whereof I did not hear twenty words, except 
a lew of 8. Jones Loyd*s, who propoeed George. Last time (1885) 
I heard ererything that was uttered by reformers, seated aloft in 
the Chamberlain*a pew, as I was to-day also. The rmo was ear- 
splittiiig to-day. 8. Jones Loyd suggested a good idea to me when 
we all met in Sir J. ShaVs (Ghamberlain's) private room. ^ I 
woold have Groto painted as he stood on the rostram bawling, 
nnheard, amid the din and roar, and midemeath I would write^ * A 
Sage and Philosopher, emerged from his closet to enlighten his 
iBUow-dtisens upon the topics most deeply allied to their social 
wal&re.* Hi, ha, hat I told Travers just now yon were tolerably 
augiiine of success, which it aiSnrded him much pleasure to hear. 
I added that I would send him your speech, in which, by the bye^ 
he would recognise «mm& that George Orote had said at London 
Tkiea. « Ah r cries Travers,*" what could he say better? I 
would fidlow Sir William's example without the slightest sample. 
Plagiaiy becomes a Tirtue in this case.* • • • • 

Old PMison (in Oe nsual dnck guSkim) stood Ibfftfa on Oe 

" ^l» ■■ w 

1837. GITT ELECTION. 115 

ImstingB manfally to-daj; bat neither lie nor Orote ccrald get » 
hearing. Pelmets people mustered exoeauTelj 8tron|^ and bis 
party in the hall testified deep mortification at not being snooeaafiil 
in regard to the iibw </ Aoiuif. Indeed, I think myM^^ it wot qnite 
as great for Palmer as for Wood, who, of the Liberals, bad the 
fewest e • • • I don't hear so mnbh news jnst at this time. 
Eyexy one seems bnsj in humbngging, in their respeetiTO depart- 
ments of the science, and I suppose the aggregate of their ezertions 
will be manifested dnl j when Parliament assembles, whidi God 
and the Queen postpone till end of NoTcmber I I bad a talk with 
a Tory friend of mine yesterday, who says their party are in good 
spirits about the elections. T. Buncombe is forced to diTO under 
water; ^'bum bailifis" abroad, sirl and he failed yesterday in 
** getting a deaxance," by an informality. We went to laleworth, 
fiower-hunting, in open carriage, and afterwards pulled up the riTer 
to Twickenham in a wherry, last Sunday, taking with us 0. A., 
who was ezcessiTely republican far Ike dof^ and eloquently dis- 
played his ifUeme democracy. • e e e We three dined at 
Star and Gkrter; and A. staid in Ecdeston Street after we returned 
home, looking oTcr George's library, till near midnighti whan be 
sailed o£^ declaring that ''he should go to sleep upon tiiedaUghtftd 
consciousness of a ^eeU-epetd dajf," 

We shall leaye town for the Continent on Monday or Tuesday 
week, August 1st George has some idea of first going (on Ifbn- 
day, 81st July) to Tote for Tom Stonor for Oxfordshire. Write to 
me here, howeyer, till after Tuesday, and then direct ''Poste 
restante, Berne." 

The contest was severe, a dead set being made against 
Grote by the Tories, who split Totea for the other Badical 
candidates, and thus sent him to the bottom of the poIL 
On the 24th of July (being the final day of the polling) 
Mrs. Grote writes to Sir William Moleswordi, then at Leeds, 
as follows : — 

** I fear all is up with your friend Grote this turn. * « • 
At two o'clock to-day Mr. Horsley Palmer was seTenty-fonr 
ahead of Grote ; at three o'clock we had pulled this down to 
thirty. To-morrow, at one o'clock, we shall know oar fate. 
Everybody is oonstemated." • • • • 

When the morrow came the Sheriffs declared the four 
liberal candidates elected, Grote winning by six rotes abofe 

X a 


the CoDsenratiTe, Mr. Horalej Palmer. The scene in the 
GnildhalU on the declaration of the poll, was exceedingly 
exciting. Bound after round of tnmultuons cheering suo- 
oeeded, bat as a matter of course the candidates advancing 
to the front of the platform to return thanks were wholly 

I feel quite sure that the comments of the 'Times' news- 
paper on this election contest for the City of London, in the 
summer of 1837, will be a welcome addition to the picture 
which I endeavour to give of the course of domestic politics 
at this period. It is manifest that the party whose organ I 
quote here regarded Orote*s position as one of marked 
importance in the public eye. The ** leader *' is accordingly 
f composed" with great care^ and abundantly seasoned 
with warnings on the subject of Grote's mischievous 
Badical tenets, whilst confessing his ability and private 

If the Bsdicsl Ministers are satisfied with the result of the 
eleetion for the city, so, we prc*mise them, are we. In speaking of 
the result of that election, it is right that we should state the &ot 
pieciflely ss it has reached us. Copying from the Standard the 
nambers on the final close of the poll, we find that Mr. Palmbb 
had 5,430, and Mr. Grots 5,417, and this estimate of Mr. Palmxb's 
majority over the ultra-Radical banker corresponds with that of 
the hon. candidate's (perhaps we ought to say memberU) committee. 
Bat it is proper for ub to make known, that to the hour at which 
we are writing the scrutiny into the polling-books has not been 
eompleted, and that as some friends of Mr. Gbotb have claimed on 
hia behalf a majority over Mr. Palmbb (of 21 or 23), we do not 
feel ourselves yet justified in arguing the case definitively, as if 
the election had been gained beyond all dispute by Mr. Palmbb. 
We trust that, before many hours have elapsed, our forbearance 
will prove to have been uncalled for, save only by an over- 
scrupulous love of truth and justice, and that Mr. Palmbb will be 
declared, as it is our belief he is really, representative for London 
in the room of Mr. Gbotb. But at present we beg leave to remark, 
that sabh an issue of the election is wholly superfluous to the 
validity of an argument, which appears to us of infinitely more 
importaiioe than the decision of the simple question whether 
Mr. PALma or Mr. Oaora should tarn up on a scrutiny of 10,000 


or 12,000 Totes to liATe on one tide a minority of 18, on the other 
of 23. 

The important oonsideration is this — tihat Mr. Oboti, beaidea 
retaining hia atation in the rear of Hia three Badioal odlleagne^ 
not haying gained a single inch upon an j of them in eonaeqnenoe 
of hia two and a-half Tear's exhibitions of nltra-Benthamite Ibdleij 
daring the wholeof the last Parliament, has polled on this oocaaioii 
between 500 and 600 Totes feioer than he did at the eleotion of 
1835, and that Mr. Hobslkt Palmsb has been supported bj a 
number of eleotors amounting to nearlj 900 aiore than Toted at 
that same election for Mr. Ltall, the foremost of the OonserratiTo 
candidates. Now, had such a contrast been exhibited between 
Mr. Palmib and an j other Radical candidate for London bat only 
Mr. Oboti, we should reall j hare thought Terj little about the 
matter as a aubject for political commentary. But who and 
what, speaking of him characteristicall j, is Mr. OnoBOi Oaon t 
He is a banker of unblemished reputation, and with all the 
influence oyer a commercial city deriyed from that important 
calling. But Mr. Giiora is also a great deal more. He ia a 
Texy amiable and much respected member of society, an acoom^ 
plished scholar, a man, moreoyer, most estimable and exemplaiy in 
all the relations of domestic life. Yet this gentleman haa gained 
no ground with w^ class of Liberals in the city of London— yea, 
he has lost ground. BelatiTcly to Mr. Wood, who ia Tery fit to be 
a Radical alderman, but has not wisdom to be anything beyond it; 
to Mr. Obawfobd, who is a commonplace jog-trot merchant ; and to 
Mr. Pattisov, who has just brains and respectability sufficient 
to qualify him for a banker^a derk, the ahowy speeehmaker, 
Mr. Gbots, has not so much as trodden upon the heeb of any one 
of them. 

Now, we should like our readers to ask themselves wherefim ia 
this stagnation, wherefore thia retrogression? Possessed of e?eiy 
personal quality fitted to ingratiate him with hia fbllow-eitiasoa 
of London, we must trayel out of his social and priTate ehaiaotsr 
to account for such a phenomenon of a few yean^ growth* It is 
therefore to the poUtieal attributea of Mr. Gbotb tb^ we have to 
turn for a solution of the difficulty. Messrs. Wood, and Pattisov,* 
and Obawfobd are Radicals, it is true— blind, stupid, mill«boisea 
of the Democratic, or as they fancy it the Reforming, Aasdoiatiott. 
Nobody cares about them, nobody thinka abont them ;— whether 
they be in or out of Parliament, they are symbols of nothing- 
types of nothing ; their re-election to the "EUmae of Oommona, or 
their exclusion from it, would proToke no partide of speonklioa 


M to iti CMiflOiiOr.of inferooee that those oaiises wont beyond more 
indiTidiuJ eiioiunfctanoea. Bat it is not so with Mr. Gboti. That 
boo. gentlemsn has made himsolf the frontispiooe of a roTolationary 
oode. He has booome the reprosentatiTO and the poonliar organ 
of whatovor is most ohimerioal in theory, most reckless in ezpori- 
Bonti most Iktal and roTolting in hostility to onr national insti- 
tntions. Mr. Gboti personifies the movement lystem. He con- 
eonteatos in himsolf the dostmotiTe principle^ of which he is, 
sohstantially at Icasti if not Tooiforonsl j, the most obstinate and 
inoorrigiUe dootrinairo. Mr. Oroti is one of those indiTidnals of 
whom it maj with troth be said that the progress of the pnblio 
mind towards revolution would be most olearl j dcToloped as well 
as domonstratod bj their increased authority over it : but that 
their political down&ll or decline could originate in nothing else 
than a general reaction towards Oonserratism amongst the people 
of Kngland. Mr. Oaon, if once more a member, which at mid- 
night jesteida J we were assured he was not, is still at the &g end 
of the eity poll-books — still hoote to the metropolitan concern. 
His stataoDy even if returned for London, proyeo that there is 
Bomethiiig rotten in the state of Radicalism, that the principle 
of eferlasfting change begins to be abjured by its most lealous 
idolaters, and that if Lcmdon does not advance, all the rest of 
•g^gi^n^ must ere long be ratrogrado. We heartily congratu- 
late our countrymen on the decisiTO efficacy of this first great 

The opponents of the new Poor Law Act were so angry 
with Orote, for the active support of it afforded by him in 
the House of Commons, that they exerted themselves to 
defeat his return for the Oity of London in every way open 
to them. Among these were handbills, largely circulated to 
^ his prejudice among the constituency. I give here an extract 
V or two from one of these, as specimens of party warfare iu 
these pugnacious days : — 

** We thus see that Mr. Orote approves of all the main 
ends of the Bill, its chief end palpably being to deal mih 
fovertjf a$ a crime.** • • • • 

**Jji fine, so determined was Mr. Orote in his advocacy of 

Ltliis measure, that he spoke in all no less than nineteen times 
in fiivour of the Bill, and divided againel every proposition 
to qualify its provisions or moderate its rigour," &o. 


' It was in 1887 that the expeotationa of the Badioal parfy, 
oonneoted with the political coune of Lord Darham, came 
to an end. That gifted but wayward nobleman^ when he 
published the ill-advised letter to Mr. Bowlbj, lost at one 
stroke the confidence of the advanced Liberal party and the 
chances of attaining high office. When he broke off fiom 
his Badical ** following *' he was fonnidaUe no longer, and 
was easily kept outside of the Cabinet 

Since the political chronicle will in ftiture possess bat 
slender interest (so i!Eur as relates to Mr. GrotOi at least), I 
am tempted to introduce here a letter from a eitiien of 
London, whose steadfast friendship formed one of the most 
grateful subjects of reflection in Grote's thoughts, as well in 
youth as in mature age. The writer is happily still amongst 
us, and therefore I suppress his name ; but those who knew 
the Historian, and his small circle of intimate aoqnaintanoo^ 
will recognise the hand of his valued oorreqpcmdent. 

Nxw NoBPoui Snov, 
ZVMKbif mami9i0t2SikJu^t 1887. 
Mt naiB Obotb, — 

I trust that oar majority of twenty-three will be oanfirmed 
by a closer examination of the poU-bookB, and that we shall still 
have the satisfaction and the honour of being represented by yea. 
It is on public grounds and for the sake of the pnblio good that I 
feel interested in this question. The choice of a body which is 
sufficiently degraded in intelligenoe to place you at the bottom of 
the poll, and **abeolute wisdom'' at the top, certainly cannot be 
valued at a high rate, and I will not pay you so poor a oompliniflnl 
as to congratulate you upon your re-election. As one of the cooh 
munity, however, I do rejoice in the prospect of having you again 
in the House— a rare example in that assembly of td«it and 
integrity united. When is the declaration of the poUf and do 
you wish me to aooompany you to the hustings on that oeoasiont 
I ask the question because I do not intend to go into the Oity 
to-day for ordinary purposes ; but I shall most gladly hold mjaelf 
at your command, and attend to any wish you may eiprsss, Doat 
trouble yourself further than simply to answer the qnissHoms whieh 
I have put 

Tours very faithftdly. 


Glad to escape fiom the mnui$ and vezationa of political 
life, we left London cm the Ist of Angnsti and travelled all 
ni^t behind fonr poet-horsesy in our own post-chaise, to 
Dorer. A teinpestnons passage to Boulogne next daj of fire 
and a half honrs. We travelled across France, by Dijon and 
Besanym, through the gorges of the beautiful Jura, into 

The following letter will depict what was passing in our 

Vn. Oion lo Sir WauAM Molmwobth, Bart, HLP. 

BoLOTRUBH, Uih Augud, 1837. 
BiAii Sn WibUAx, — 

George was sadl j dejeoied by learning the result of Hume's 
eleetjop, whieh was communicated to us bj a stranger (a Swias) at 
KoutieBB in the Yal do TraTers, on Friday last, whilst our horses 
were changing. We have not, as yet, reoeiyed any letters from 
•pnglii^, for we were uncertain as to our exact route, and ordered 
them Hot Berne, as the surest mUrep6i. I hope I shall get one 
fhm you when we tap at the post-office window. If not, pray write 
an the news mmediatoJif, snd address, ^ Posts restante, Lucerne.'* 
I wrote to Gharles BuUer, desiring to hsTo letters of credence from 
Um to certain ^ rerolutionary incendiaries ** of his acquaintance 
in Switserland. Not a word in reply I En recanehe, *< Ma'am B." 
tendered me an introduction to a good old Ibrp Bemois. Not 
bad, sh? I don't see how we Badicals are to make head this 
ooming Parliament at alL Our ranks are indeed properly thinned 
out But O'Oonnell mu$i stick in Hume and Boebuok, and eke 
Ewari I trust he will be urged to this by some of you. The 
brunt of the battle will hare to be sustained by Grote and you, 
aided by BuUer, Leader, Charles YiUiers, and a few more. I 
really feel astounded when I hear of Radical after Badical losing 
the east, and none of the new men successful either ! The loss of 
Perthshire and Middlesex must annoy the Whigs mightily. God 
knows what our fate is to be either, about ** Petition." The 
French papers are writing lots of speculations on our present 
dilfsnnia — some silly, but others able. What nexi eren you can't 
piophe^, I suppose? I hope you are getting together a tidy 
Bumber of ** Matchless," and, among the table of contents, a real 
** W.M." When we return, do pound at George to write an article 
€Hi the Swiss political condition, and state and adirance of mind of 
\ Ckntons. He reads and spells by the hour ererything he 

1837. TOUR IN BWn'ZERLAND. 121 

can U J hands upon, and seemsi as heretofore, deeply interested in 
aoqniring an insight into the working of opinions among instmoted 
ncUivcs. We had one tml j delightful talk of three-quarters of an 
hour with a member of the Neuohatel Legislature, on the subjeot 
of the Neuohatel anomalous political relations, with the Federation 
on the one hand and the King of Prussia on the other, and the 
inoossant difficulties of their position. There are some admirable 
** tracts ** to be met with, and some historical notices, penned in a 
Tery sagacious and pure spirit It certainl j is a refrediing country 
to ramble in, on account of the sound basis on which, substantially 
Tiewed, morals and political obligations rest Our weather has 
been hotter than is agreeable, and withal thunder and lightning 
and torrents of rain, CTcr since last Friday, when we crossed the 
outer range of the Jura (from Be8an9on to Pontarlier), in a heat 
which almost stifled us. The thermometer positively gare 91® 
Fahr. all day till six P.1C., when the storm arose, hail assaulted us 
(as large as filberts), and down the thermometer went to 70^. It 
was a grand scene, howoTcr; yesterday 84% and thunder and 
lightning the whole of last night. To-day we came to Soleure 
from Neuohatel, — and a charming piece of antiquity it is, — seated 
on the rapid Aar and backed by the Jura — the town within three 
hours' walk of one of its heights. I hsTe suffored from the heat 
and one head crock; else I am pretty Well, and work hard. George 
well, but demurs to exercise during day, sun being ''too muoh of 
a good thing ** Jlers, he says. '^Mousing" in the ** Buchhand* 
lorungen'' is the great pastime, lugging away armsfrdl of stuff to 
oram the carriage withsl, to the dimiay of poor ** Henxy,** who is 
at his wits' end how to Haw the same so as to leaTo room for 
** Mistress" to gei in. I hope you will cany yowr man in Bast 
OomwalL Take care of your health, and don't sit ** smurring "* 
indoors, but take air and exercise, I entreat you. George sends 
loTo ; he has no heart on coming Session, and deplores the loss of 
old William lY. daily. How amusing I He iS| shore all, anxiovs 
for Hume to gei seated, eowiehaw. 

H. Gnom. 

Whilst Mr. Grote and myself were on this tour in Switaer* 
land, I reoeived a letter from a friend closely mixed np with 
the political world. I extract a few passages : — 

Avguii 17IA, 1817. 
Ton will hsTe seen how the Oounties haye been gained by the 
Tories, to such an extent and with such fiMility as if an opidendo 


had infeoied them tJL The retoxn of *<01d Oloky** (Sir F. 
Bvdett) for Wiltshire wm eepeoiallj disgraoeful. But, indeed, 
Ihroiighoiit all Enghuid the speotaole hae been diagraoefoL Bnoh 
Tenalitj and oorraption in the old Boroughs, and intimidation in 
the Ooontiesl Qood, must oome oat of eril, howerer, and the 
neoenitj for the Ballot has been made apparent to many men who 
haTe been hitherto opposed to it. • • • • 

Mj private opinion is, that they (the Whigs) will lean to 
Toryism rather than to Badioalism. In troth, there is little 
diilBrenoe between the two aristooratio parties as to the principles 
of gofernmenti and the possession of place is almost the only 
gromid of strife. • • • • Whata&roeit isl Oh^theoon- 
temptiUe lage fbr titles and ribands whieh I see 1 

«(T. T.)- 

We retomed home towards the end of September, and 
found the solitude of London daring the next two months 
Tery acceptable. Oar first ** London season " had passed off 
agroeably; dinners, and evening rtuniom, and political 
meetings among our Badical circles, sncceeding each other 
frequently. Some of our French acquaintances came over to 
England, and we exerted ourselyes to render their stay 
enjoyable. In July we made an interesting excursion to 
Portsmouth, in company with our friends Mr. and Mrs. 
Stevenson, the American Minister and his lady, who invited 
us to join them. Mr. John Duer, the eminent American 
jurist, was of the party. We all went on board the 
American frigate, the * Independence,' and were entertained 
at luncheon. As we were being rowed back to Portsmouth, 
in the commodore's barge, I entered into conversation with 
the coxswain, a Massachusetts man. He seemed discon- 
tented with the service, and said that " their Navy was not 
so well paid as the merchant service.** I learned afterwards 
that, for the whole period of the frigate's stay in these waters, 
no one of the seamen was permitted leave on shore : Com- 
modore Nicolson apprehending desertion on their part 

We passed two evenings with our American friends at 
Portsmouth, and Grote and myself felt much interest in 
listening to histories and anecdotes of proceedings in the 


American House of Bepresentatiyeflk of which Mr. SteTenson 
had formerlj been for some yean the speaker/ American 
politics had for many years occupied Grote's attention, and 
engaged his sympathy. He was a great admirer of the 
* Federalist^' the pages of which, he always declared, revealed 
the highest qualities of philosophical statesmanship. I may 
here add that Orote was ever ready to aocept the society of 
well-educated Americans, with some of whom both he and I 
contracted in bygone years ties of personal friendship. As an 
example of '* changes'* of which a long life has made me a 
witness, I may mention that in this year, 1837, it happened 
that my friend Lord William Bentinck and Mr, John Dner 
met at our table in London. A day or two afterwards his 
Lordship called upon me, and alluding to the dinner party 
said, '^I thought ff<mr Ameriean yery pleasant company, and 
it was, moreover, a surprise to me, for I never in my life 
before met an American in society ! *' — ** Well, buti" I replied, 
** when you were Governor-Gleneral of India you must have 
seen Americans out there ? " — ** Only ship captains^** rejoined 
Lord William, ** whom I now and tiien thought it right to 

* A few years subsequent to the date of this enarsioB, Mr. 
Stevenson wrote to Mr. Ghrote the following letter. The piotate 
oocttpied a conspicuous place in the Historian*s libtarj ever 

•'SS, Umoi OaoffSKm Sonr, Jfby SO, ISAl. 

~Mt dxab Sib, 

** I send according to promise the head of Mr. Jc&rson in 
crayon ; it was done from life, by one of his accomplished grand- 
daughters, and it hung in my house for many years. It is quite 
simple and pkin, but I hope not too much so^ to have a plaos in 
jour library. I present it to you with the greatest plaasars^ 
because I know no one who understands and appreciates his pria* 
oiples and character better. I hope it may prove acceptable. 
Bely on it, my deer sir, he was one of the noblest and purest 
patriots that ever lived, and em ph a t i c ally the apostle of liberl^. 
1 beg its sooeptance moreover, ss a token of my < 

<* Tours faithfully, 


invite to mj great GoTemment House dinners, but I never 
^mpoke to anj of them." 

Beflecting upon the modem cordial appreciation of Ame* 
Ticans hy the English, I think this one of the ^changes" 
ivorth noting. 

The new Parliament was called together in November, 
1837, Lord John Bossell throwing off at the very ontset by 
a declaration of hostility to all Radical measures of Reform. 
Next came the proposition for a most extravagant Civil List^ 
and a n^ative upon enquiry into the Pension List But 
wlien the last question was mooted afresh, on a motion by 
Kr. Edward Strutt for ^ enquiry,'' the Government was forced 
to give way. A committee was immediately appointed, in- 
cluding Mr. Grote's name : he also sat upon the committee 
in settling the amount of the Civil List^ where he strove to 
limit the demands of Ministers, now and then receiving 
aid from Joseph Hume, Gkorge Evans, and Edward Strutt 

I believe tlie report of the committee on the Pensicm List 
was drawn up by Mr. Grote's hand. 

Towards the end of the year 1837, the Canadian Revolt 
caused much excitement, and the Mim'stry gave notice of an 
intention to re-assemble Parliament early in January, for the 
purpose of meeting the urgency of the case. 

During this short session a petition was presented to the 
House of Commons, and the committee was actually struck 
against all the four Liberal Members for the City of London ; 
but funds not being forthcoming, the petition was ultimately 





Thb year began with terribly seyere weather, htfting for 
many weeks. The Goyemment resolations in retpect to 
Canada gave tlie utmost dissatis&otion to the genuine 
Badioalsy and Mr. Orote took a prominent part in opposing 
and denouncing their policy at every turn, auatained by 
Hume, Warburton and a few others, among whom was the 
steady, self-reliant Baikes Currie. On the Ballot questioa 
coming forward, the Whigs strove vigorously to make a stoat 
show against it; but the prossure of the electoral body on 
the Members manifested itself in the division — ^two hundred 
of them voting with Grote, among whom were two* members 
of the Government, viz., Sir Hussey Vivian and Mr. Bobert 
Steuart The debate lasted from five p.m. to cme o'dock the 
• next morning, and was hotly maintained during the whole of 
these seven hours. 

We were actively engaged in the Ballot interest all the 
summer of this year; corresponding with leading Liberals in 
towns, and sending models ail over the oountry. Here is a 
letter on the subject : — 


Before this roaches you I tmst my BaUot modal will have 
come to hand : sent in first place to Exeter for ezhihitioii tfaere^ 
with orders to be forwarded to *<The Cook of the West** Should 
they have used all the cards, I must depend on your lepLaoing 
them by a soore or two of fresh cards, printed at Bodmin (in 
alphabetical order, remember). I have de^tohed similar modelai 
instmctions, and cards to Scotland, to Birmingham, Dsrbjshirt^ 
and Stroud ; and Warborton is sending one to Xbidpoort Another 
goes this day to O'Oonnell, annonneed by a letter (in Gfole*B name) 
to^^TheLiberaUnr.'' • • • • ^ote.— Charles YiUieiab havfag 


gaSLif of diniiig with Ghaikt PMffMm, is fotpended 
Kwiiiilott OtowifirBiii^ ** fcf did sptos of ono w^TfmJft? r'^FT^ fti* 


»Tlie intiiiiaoy with lEr. Geoige Oornewall Lewis, which 
had b^gim aboat the year 1885, was interrupted towards the 
antamn of 1837 bj the appointment of Lewis to the Oom- 
ausnoQ of Enquiry into tiieadmuiistrationof thegoremment 
of lIalta^-4o]IJr.Giote's real regret Both of them devoted 
to learned stodien^ and mutually attracted by certain afBni- 
ties of inteDeetnal character, the two sdiolars became and 
eoBtiniied stead&st fiiends through life. Whilst Mr. Lewis 
was at Malta, he corresponded with his friend Grote^ and some 
% of his interesting letters hare been already given to the 
world by his brother. Sir Gilbert Lewis. Some letten of 
O. Oroto to Mr. Lewis will be presented in the course of this 
memoir as it proceeds. 
Eitmct from diary, 1888:— 

«Oroto is disheartened at the course taken by the Liberal 
party, so much so^ that he turns wistful eyes upon his l<mg- 
neglected books, and tries to solace his wounded spirit by 
communion with the sages and heroes of yore.** 

The subjoined letter discloses more fully what was passing 

in his mind. It is addressed to Mr. John Austin, the senior 

commissioner of enquiry at Malta. After some remarks on 

X the subject of the local grierances of that island, Mr. Groto 

goes on thus: — 

LoKDOV, FAnuurff 188R. 
Tbo Whig Gorernment has been, ever since the accession of our 
pr es ent Queen, becoming more sod more «<wiliwn^ in ito Oon- 

m rtm ^ wm JmAmiAtm • m iWifc, it im iwiw mt^mrMAj mk mil Aimiirtg nlm\iMA^ 

sitlier in its leanings or its ads, from Peel snd his friends. • • • 
Lord Melbounie's maionij is a Tory inconsidermble one, snd he 

of flie Badicals against the Tories, and of the Tories against the 
Badicala U; by any accident, these two should be united in a 
of importance^ his ICaistiy must be 


A few yean' enjoyment of power and pfttronago baa inspired the 
present Ministry and their sapporters with all those fiuilts which 
used to be the acdnsiTe attributes of the Tories. Little or nothing 
would be lost by the accession to power of Sir Bobert Peel jnst 
now, and this at least would be gained — that w^ should then haTO 
a respectable popular opposition. • e e e 

Yon, of course, are familiar with the peremptoiy declaration 
made by Lord John Bussell on the first day of the Sesdony pro- 
claiming the absolute finality of the Beform Act, declaring war 
against Ballot, Triennial Parliaments, and any extension of the 
suffirage. e e e e The afiairs of Canada ha^e turned out most 
calamitous; the discontents in Lower Canada were so bitterly 
aggrayated by the resolutions passed by the English Parliament 
last spring, that there has been open rebellion, uid the ICinistiy 
haye been driyen to propose further measures of ooerdon against 
that colony, resisted by some fifteen Badicals in the House of 
Commons, amongst whom I was one. But Peel compielled them to 
drink some bitter cups of humiliation during the passing of their 
Bill for suspending the Canadian Constitution, e • e e 

The degeneracy of the Liberal party and their passiye aoqui- 
esoence in ererything, good or bad, which emanates ficom the 
present Ministry, puts the accomplishment of any political good 
out of the question, and it is not at all worth while to undergo the 
fatigue of a nightly attendance in Parliament for the simple pur- 
pose of sustaining Whig Conserratism against Tarff Conserratiam. 
I now look wistfully back to my unfinished Greek History. I hope 
the time will soon arriye when I can resume it The expenses of 
defending my seat are fiimished by a subscription among the 
electors, to which I and my colleagues contribute lOOL each, and 
no more. I set so little Talue on my seat, personally, that I doobi 
whether I should attempt to defend it at my own expense. ^ ^ ^ 
Toryism is regaining its ascendancy, and we must before long haTO 
a thorough Tory Ministry : eren that will be a slight improfementi 
rather than otherwise, upon our present state, when we hafo botti 
a ConsenratiTe Ministry and a Conserfatiye oppositioiL 

My dear Austin, 

Tours fidthftilly, 

OiOBoa GB0V& 

As a supplement to the yiew of politios taken in the Ibro- 
going letter, I insert one from Mr. Trayer% of nearly the 


Jon TiATSBs io Ifim. Ofton. 

SwiTHm^b LAin^ 2814 F'cftmofy, 188a 

^ ^ ^ I diaU hftTo grafti plMsoio in maolmg radi Sim M JM 
Miwr Iff BiOmi Onnie And odifln» tike fcir lanaining of iiim 
wboB I BOW look upon with ooj tnut B«l wLai nj ^m to lb. 
QgM% pwiflnt poritioii>adfediagiy Do Hmj not ovry tiko one 
tad dmppiraifo tike otiier ? For mTieU^ it Momi to no that no 
■on ofw pooMMod mofo nonl poww ov doMVfod oettv to oon^ 
i o higb oonatatnenoj. To fUter ot mMh o mooMnt would bo 
LidMd,liomnrtnotdiinkofit. • • • • TkmwiU 
tooraNMltoliiolilMNDik Exhort him to WMtf» it potiMiilj. 
Tho Bdlot akno io wovUi mnoh lolf moriteo. It would bo poww- 
loM widi anj oOMT-tho onlj itiek left to wUeh wo oin ottMh o 
miL • • • • Ilof«iholeM,Idonotdoqpoir • • • • 

On DMNre than one ooeoaion» daring tlie yoon 1886*1886» 
I had aoggeoled to Sir William Holeaworth that he woold 
confer n benefit on the stodenta of politioal philooopby by 
bringing oat on uniform edition of the woflm of ThomaaHobbea 
of Ifahneahory; adding thereto a preftoob which ahoold give 
an a}ipreciation of the Tariona writings and apecolatiye diaqniai- 
tiona of that piofoand thinker. The notion fell in with Sir 
William*a torn of mind, and on reflection he determined to 
carry out the plan. Accordingly, he engaged a literary 
aaaiatant, and about the period at which my nanatiTO haa 
arriTod, the edition waa in progreaa. 

At thia atate of Sir William'a undertakings he wrote to me 

I haTe written thia day to Mr. Orote, to aak peEmiaaion to 
dedicate the Tolomee to him. I wiah Hor that permiaaion for two 
leaaona— firat, beoaoae I ahall erer f eel the deepeat gratitiide f» tho 
philoaophioal inatnetion he ga^e me when I first knew him, whioh 
indneed me to atndy Hobbea imd aimilaranthora, and created a taate 
in my mind for that atyle of reading ; aeoondly, because I ha^e a 
greater legMd and eateem for himaelf and hia wife than for any other 
people in tUa wioked world. • • • • Itwillnotbe mack 
lem than a fMor yeanT wotk, and in that time I amy 


something Dei yery bad in the shape of a *'life,''A& • • • • 
In the political world there seems to me to be nothing of any intarest. 
• • • • I am afraid there is no immediate p rospect of any 
good, and I am Teiy tired of the wearisome broils of political lilb. 

Yonrs tndj, 
Mrs. Giote. W. M. 

Mr. Orote replied thus, on October 2n']9 1838: — 

ICr. Grotb to Sir W. Molsswobth. 

ICt dbar Molksworth, — 

Your letter respecting yonr project of editing Hbbbes' 
works reached me at Bumham on Sunday. I cannot bat ftel 
flattered, as well as pleased, at the wish which you e x pre s s to 
dedicate It to me, and I most willingly oonsent that yon should 
do so. Our poor firiend and instructor, old Mill — iiltWam mmnit 
— h6 was the man to whom such a dedication would haye been 
more justiy due. • • • • 

If there are any points on which you desire my advice or 
co-operation, be assured that it will giye me sincere pleasure to 
afford it You haye got a copious and lofty suljeot, ^ffftiJi>g 
scope for CTcry variety of intellectual inyestigation — embraeing 
. morals, politics, and metaphysics, and including eren the ICngH^^ 
ciTil war and the Restoration. It is worthy of the most capadoiis 
intellect, as well as of the most unremitting persereranoey and I 
trust that you will deTote labour enough to enable you to do it full 

Haye you read Oomte's ' Traits de Philosophie Positive,' of 
which a third Tolumo has just been published ? It seems a work 
full of profound and original thinking, and will be of senrice to 
you when you come to appreciate the physical and mathematical 
^ orbit of Hobbes. I am sorry to say, howcTer, that I do not find in 
it the solution of those perplexities respecting the fundamental 
principles of geometry which I haye neyer yet been able to untie 
to my own satisfSnction. Nor can I at all tolerate the "™i"ft]iflfrii 
manner in which he strikes out morals and metaphysics fnuk tike 
list of positiye sciences. 

The other day at the Athcnsum I took up one of the Tolumes 
of the ' Documens pour serrir ^ I'Histoire de France,' which I 
found to be the production of Victor Cousin, and to rdate to the 
philosophy of the Middle Ages during the age of Abelaid and 



BotedliiraiL TImvo are Mnie dear and inatmoftiTe z«fleotioiui in 
it CB tike fl oniiu T HW^ of that daj between the Hominalista and 
Bealkla. Itappeanthataomenew MB&ef AbdaidhaTaxeoently 
hen iamaif lAkh throw light upon tike qneetion ae it waa then 

Oar eontempotaiy politioa aie in a atate of prafirand dumber^ 
hom whidi I ftar thej are not likd j to awaken eanept to oaoae na 
diagnat and diaoooragement There ia nothhig in them Ht to 
oeenpj tike attention of a oommonplaoe hot ainoere patriot^ mneh 
koa of a phikoopher. 

I eongiatdate yen on having fixed npon a aalgoet whidi will 
giie jon ateadj intdleetnd ooonpatkni. Snro I am, by my own 
e^erienee aa wdl aa from all other oonddemtiona, that yon will 
be anMli the happier for it 



Oionaa Giora. 

U was in the oonne of the spring of this year that we 
made the porehaae of a small property «t East Buinhsm^ 
adjoining an andent tract of wild finest scenery called " The 
Bomham Beeches." After expending no incondderaUe 
amomt of money on the honsey we made it tolerably com- 
fortable as a country reddence. Bat we remained in London 
tall Itidsommer ; commencing onr occupation of East Bom- 
ham in Jnly. In NoTcmber we went for a few weeks to 
Parian retnining to London aboat Ohristmas, 1838. Politics 
now ceadng to interest Mr. Grote as heretofore^ we began to 
* in society than had been onr wont. 






Grotb's motion on the Ballot was once more brought 
forward this year, not so much because he hoped for any 
success, as because some members wished for the qpportunitj 
of yoting in favour of it» in order to satisfy their constituents. 
Nevertheless, the speech of 1889 was declared nowise inferior 
to his former efforts. The flatness of the debate itself was 
incontestable, insomuch that scarcely a soul called to say a 
word to me respecting it ; a melancholy contrast with previocis 
occasions, when the whole corps of Radicals were wont to 
come and pour out their congratulations in Eccleston Street. 
The summer of 1839 was ruined, for us at least, by an 
untoward eyent. The Carlow Election Oommittee (for de- 
ciding the contest between Messrs. Bruce and Gisbome) 
nominated Orote as its chairman ; the Oommittee sat for no 
less than eleven weeks (reaching into the month of August), 
during which period he never once left town, except on a 
Sunday. I must here remark that the scrupulous impartiality 
with which Grote conducted the inquiry, was complained of, 
^ i and in no measured terms, by the Whig party. ^ With any 

i I other chairman," it was- said, *' the Carlow Oommittee would 
have been up in a fortnight" 

When, at length, Grote became freed firom this toilsome 

and thankless duty, he found himself under the obligation of 

giving dose attention to the management of the banking* 

[i*^ house; his friend and partner, William Frescott, taking, 

with his newly-wedded wife, a holiday on the Oontinent, for 

six weeks. On his return, we ourselves set forth on a tour 

^ .^ in Belgium (on the 22Dd of October) ; we passed about three 

'^^ weeks among the old cities of Flanders, visiting the works of 





art, and the moDnmentsof tho ancient grandenrof the Flem- 
iDgf^ and also enjoying their cliarming chnrch mnsia We pro- 
ceeded from Belgium to Paris, where we spent several weeks ; 
mixing a good deal in literary society, and receiying oar 
Parisian friends at oar own apartment in the Rue de Bivoli. 

We retorned from Paris at the end of January, 1840, 
after having spent a week at Boulogne, storm*bound ; for no - 
packets could cross the CbanneL 

** Parliamentary transactions continued to be unimportant 
and uninteresting; the Chinese quarrel and the Eastern 
question (as it was called) formed the principal topics, in and 
out of Parliament"* (Diary, March, 1840.) 

M. Guizot having come to England, as ambassador from 
the French Court, we renewed an acquaintance with him 
begun in Paris. Our hospitalities became rather more com« 
prehensive in their scope, as our Badical hdbUui$ fell out of 
favour with us both — we even went so far as to accept friendly 
overtures from Lord nnd Lady Holland, and to commence in- 
tercourse with Holland House ; whither Grote would never 
have consented to go, in post times.^ We also were present 
at the Queen's Ball at Buckingham Palace, and this, too, 
without any twinges of conscience on his part 

In the month of August, I made an excursion into Somerset- 
shire, for the purpose of passing a week with my friend the 
Rev. Sydney Smitii, at his parsonage at Combe Flory. Mrs. 

* On the first day of our dining at Holland House, tho following 
guests formed the party : — Lord Melbourne (then Prime Minister), 
Lord Doncannon (afterwards Lord Lieatonont of Lreland), Lord 
Cottenbam (tbon Chancellor), Lady Cottonham, Maiqnis and 
Morcbioness of Normouby, Mr. and Mrs. Edward John Stanley, 
Charles BoUor, Mr. Allen, Mr. John Ponsonby, Sir Edward Lytton 
Bulwor. M. Gnisot, the Dnchess of Somerset, General Alava 
(then Spanish Ambassador), and some others joined the cirde after 
dinner, assembled in the time-bononred library upstairs. This 
eToning passod ui HoUand Honse made a deep impression on our 
imagination, and I, at least, felt sincerely grateful for the op- 
portonity afforded us of realising the soeno of past celebrated 

1830-1840. LBTTEB TO LEWIS. 188 

Anna Jamesony the authoress, aooompanied me on this oeoa- 
sion. We halted at Wilton Hon^e and Stoarhcad, and 
lastly at Bristol, to yiew the pictures at Leigh Court We 
returned through Wiltshire, stopping to see the piotnres at 
Bowood. Orote had wished and indeed intended to aooom- 
pany me, but was detained by his yariouBdnti^ In October 
we went together to yisit his old friend Dr. Waddington, at 
Masham, in Yorkshire ; he had just become Dean of Durham, 
and he wished to see us on a farewell yisit^ at his parsonage. 
This was the first journey we eyer made by an Pnglish 
railroad. We returned to London after a week's stay with oar 
esteemed friend, who a few months later entered upon his 
quasi-palatial residence at Durliam. 

I haye the pleasure to insert here a letter to Mr. Lewis, 
which will afford an insight into Grote's mind. It is dated 
from London, September, 1840. 

6. Gboti (0 6. 0. Lbwis. 

LoKDOK, SepUnUmff 104a 


Next to the pleasure of walking with you, sad tslking 
personally in London, the second host thing is to reoeiye your 
letters upon our fayourito subjects. I am yery much obliged to 
you for your letter of Wednesday, and lose no time in telling you 
so. In this age of 9ieam and cant, I find so yeiy few people whoso 
minds take the same track as my own, that the small number who 
exist become to me as precious as the Sibylline Books, and I trea- 
sure them up with equal care. I see plainly that the stream of 
nyents at present sets more and more against what I consider the 
ideal^ rdya$c¥\ this will not last for eyer, undoubtedly, and I per* 
snade myself that there will be a turn of the tide; but probably not 
daring my life. It is lucky that literature and philosophy, snd 
the pioi 0€wfniTucQ9 which they both employ and ennoble^ still 
retain their foil charms for me— especially when I hays the plea- 
sure of discussing them with so highly congenial a person as 

Your criticism upon that ffom'f, ^SuXoyot, tvjfioxa(HiTni9f Bxtm^fimm 
is quite just ; and I dare say you will find materials for ampla 
annotation in his inaccuracies. Speakers are priyileged to be 
inaccurate ; and Brougham seems to me to bays abosgatsd Us 


ptwlJOT Mri i^ptoffiile wMpon, wliea he enkaiiged tike longne 
te tike pMu H« it MentiiiUj a mfta f» the uomeotHf to 

OlMsieil lilenlnio it Uk imibrliiiiaie field f» him; 

I Bite miatatei in it witboat being tripped vjf «od 

I km not looted into tte point» bnt I dioold doubt whether 
' it eifer need to ligniiy a wrU&r or eompomtf of mteh^ nntil on 
»of iwylntoLolbity: it olwoys xeibn to tte OMltori^ of tte 
L (•■ o witneos or odtioer) not to bio amtkonhfy. It dearly 
bio HUb meaning in tte poaaoge of Taeitua wbiab yon ette. Tte 
paaaage of tte OBdip. Odb— ri rfif d)^ij^ ori/ia ^porWSos Utc»— 
ie fUnateated by aaofher paaaage whieb ooonra fturtber on in tte 
awno play—T, 489, oteg iwvora ^ m v ^ /iiyM /Myrowtr fioi^i ^ToQ 
aio not to addraaa tte Bamenidea oren in an aodiUe whiaper— ao 
■ m a itlf o ia their hearings and ao jealoua their aenao of dignity; 
tte lipa aio to mnmUo witboat Toioo or wotd, in rofenntial 

Tbia ia tike preeiae eontrazy of Brongbam'a manner of prooeed- 
ing;in all ita pointa; thoni^ Broogham aeama to atand rmrj well 
Witt tte Aaiemdee. 

I agiea with yooir remarte npon Efydney Smith, peifai^ iiiber 
leaa eetwming Um aa a writer than yon dob In fiieti my opinion 
of him aa a writer baa noror been at all high : of late yearai te 
oeema to bate been employed in oo unte r wor k ing tte good whioh 
te bad belbre aehiered, aomething lite the melanoboly old ago of 
lb. Borke. Tbna mucb of 8. 8. aa a writer; but I oonfeea I tevo 
eome to think mnoh better of the oharaeter of hia mind gonorally, 
by what I te^e heard from Mra. Grote reepeoting hia oonToraation 
with her. I te^e heard enough to aatiafy me that te ia a man of 
gennine philanthropy and liberality of mind, npon iho moat 
ddkaU aooial anbjeota, and npon tte main oanaea of pororty and 
abaaement of tte bulk of tte poople. My opinion baa therefore 
beoome TOiy difibrent from ttet whibh hia written worte would 
teTe ereated within me; and I giye him tte full benefit of it 
' Sinee you departed ficom London, I te^a been reading aomo of 
Kant*a *Eritak dor reinen Vemunft,' a book whioh alwaya leada 
me into ytry inatmotiTa traina of metaphyaioal thought, and whioh 
I ^ne eieoedingly, thougih I am Ikr firom agreeing in all te laya 
down. I teTO alao been koking into Flato*a *Timnua*and *Fte^ 
menidea,' and aomo of Loeke^ and te^e been writing down aomo of 
tte thooghta generated in my mind by tbia philoaophieal ai^faai^ 
I think ft ia aomewbat to te regietted that tte aneient diatinotion 
i Aral and JIalfer, and tte nae of Ooae two teehnieal i 

1830-1840. LETTER TO LEWIS. 185 

(which 18 neoessary to proserre the idea of tho diatinelion), has 
heon 80 muoh discontmned of hito years, so that tho use of tho 
words now is not understood, and snljeots a man to tho impntatiou 
of being crabbed and pedantia It is really a most important 
distinction, and one without which the Meihodu$ of any largo 
subject can never be comprehended; always, howerer, remember- 
ing that it is a distinction |wre/|f loffieal^ and that the severanoo 
between the two cannot take place in reality. The two words are 
correlatiTes : neither Matter can exist without Form, nor Form 
without Matter ; but yet the logical distinction is of the hi^^iest 
▼due, and peryades the whole mental prooess in philosoi^y — 
Matter^ that which is not classified nor distributed, but is sus- 
ceptible of being so ; fbrm, that which classifies and distributes 
it, and constitutes tho basis of DemmUnaUon. In the treatises of 
formal Logic, the Predicables occupy ezdlusiTe attention, to tho 
exclusion of this correlation of Form and Mailer^ which is, in point 
of fact, presupposed, before the distinction of Genus and Species 
can be arrived at. 

Sensation seems to me to constituto all that can be called tho 
Matter of our knowledge, as eontradistinguished from its Form 
(both in ordinatum and in eombinatum)^ which is something distinct 
from the dements of sense ; this is tiio grand and primary distri- 
bution in all metaphysical analysis. 

The word Clou has of late years been in part substituted for 
Form; but there, unluckily, tho word CZom has no oorrolato liko 
Matter^ and without such a word as Matter^ the thorough import of 
Form, and the application of tho formatiye or dassifying prooess 
cannot be thoroughly understood. When I see you, I shall bo 
gkd to oonverse with you about this matter a little more in dolail. 
It is a subject on which one can hardly talk intelligibly in a few 

Mrs. Oroto tdls me she has written a letter to you, which you 
will have recdved before this time. Pray let me hear from yoa 
again ; the sooner the better. 

*AmXyi79^ such as you predicate of Lady O., is a very vduabki 
quality, let me tdl you. The benerolence of tho Oods makes it 
but too rare. 

Farewdl. I am forced to leave ofi; my dear Lewis. Again lei 
me have another letter, when you detect another blunder of the 

Yours faithfiiUy,. 



Findmg Sir Willkm Molefwortb ezoeedinglj diaqipoiDted 
bj my fiuliog to paj him a rinl bom Oombe Fhrj, I i«e- 
Ttiled on Mr. Orate to airange for both of us to go to Pen- 
mamr (EBr William*! paternal seat near Bodmin), in the 

We aoooidingly quitted onr rendenoe near Bomham 
Beediei^ and ported down, bj eaqr joomeys, all the way to 
Penoanow, where we arrived, I think, on the afternoon of the 
fbnrth day. We stayed a month in Ocwnwall; the greater 
pari of itat Pencanow, tianqnilly, rationally, and agreeaUy ; 
letmming to London aboot the middle of December, 1810. 

I ind the following paamge in a letter to a friend, of this 
date. It ii nsefbl as a record of the eoone of Grote*s mind, 
which inrariably tnmed to the Ancients in the intervals of 

homwrnt Jkctmier^ IMO. 

qmgD is wen, sod still eba4 to Arisftoae, day sod ni|^t I 
hope someUiiag will transpire some day, sllar all lUs devout 
appliesHon to said PhilosD|Ws woria. George Lewis dined hen 
on Sstuday, sod was agreeaUe and eren IM||fL 


Hefe is Orote*8 own report of his studies.' — 

O. Gaon lo G. 0. Lmns. 

DUBMBAM, Deember 16, 1840. 
I was Twy sorry to miis seeing yoa during the three days 
I hsfe just passed in London, but I shall return to London on 
Hondsy nesl, and shall not eome hither any moro. We shall 
main fixed in London for the winter, and, I hope, be aUe to 
resume my morning walks and talks with you between yVfflwton 
Street and Somerset House. 

I tmsi you do not intend to ohange your lodgings so &r as to 
mofu out of our district and noigbbourbood ; if you do so^ it will 
be a serious loss to me in point of social comlbrt 

I hsTe been reading, and am still reading, B. de St Hilaire, 
*Ds la Logique d'Aristote.' I hsTe been going through several 
parts cf the Jaoliffs whioh be gires, and comparing it with the 
ctigbiL • • • • The more I read of Aristotle^ the mora I am 
1 with pfofi>and admiration cf the reach of thought whieh 




his works displa j« He is, howeror, exoessiTel/ difieslti sad tike 
process of reeding him is slow, almost to iedioiisiiess. 

I am here, alxnost snowed up, aad il looks as if we should be 
completely snowed up to-moxrow. 

A Greek book is the only refuge, and the pleasnre of reading it 
is not a little enhanced by the thonght that I shall be aUe to talk 
with yon about it in three or fiMur days. Ifxii Grote is pretty wdL 




Parliament met in January. On the debate which arose 
on the addressy Hr. Orote spoke at some length, this being 
almost the last occasion on which he thought it his duty 
to do so. The subject of our proceedings in reference 
to the Porte and the Viceroy of Egypt— commonly known as 
the Eastern Question, or La QaedUm de TOrient — ^being ad- 
yerted to^ Mr. Grote declared his strong dissatisfaction at the 
mode in which the Secrotary for Foreign Affairs had managed 
the affair, and expressed deep regrot at the irritation en- 
gendered in the minds of our French neighbours by our 
insolent behayiour in connection with this question. 

His speech made a liyely impression upon all who listened 
to it, and led to a spirited debate, which would neyer haye 
arisen but for Mr. Grote's able attack on the Foreign Secre- 
tary's policy. In fact I remember no occasion on which he 
so well acquitted himself as an effective speaker on general 
subjects, as he did on this. The speech was admired for its 
elegance, its arrangement, its logicid force, and for its manner 
of delivery. Among the persons who listened to this earnest 
protest of a pacific private citizen against the high-handed 
conduct of the Foreign Office, was Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd, 
himself a good speaker and a competent judge of oratory. 
He came to tell me how much pleasure it had given him to 
hear his old friend to such adyantage, and ended his account 
of the impression made upon the House and upon his own 
mind, by saying, "In &ct I cannot conceive anything 
superior to Grote's performance of this eyening.'' 

I mention this little pasiuige^ both because it affords a 
record of the capacity for public speaking possessed by Mr. 


Orote, apurt from those special sabjeoto cm which caiefblly 
prepared aigamentatiTe speeches were addressed to the House 
of GommonSy at interyals, and because he retired firam Par- 
liament so soon afterwards, that little occasion arose tat sub- 
sequent efforts of this kind. 

The following note reached me on the monow of the 
debate. Febroary, 1841 :— 

DiAE Mas. Gson, — 

Not a ray of fresh light from the Ministeis on the SyriMi 
question. Orote's srgmnents nntonched* 

His speech is just what I hoped for. I apphuid eteiy word and 
leitoTi and cannot help writing to yon as much. 

Tears tralyy 

OL Ansnv. 

Early in 1841 Grote was called upon to add another duty to 
the already full catalogue, for his friend Dr. Waddington 
now entreated him to look carefully through his ponderoua 
and learned work, 'The History of the Beformation,* then 
preparing for publication 1 The author was then upon the 
eve of assuming the duties of Dean of Durham. The follow- 
ing letter is, howeTer, written from his parsonage at Masham, 
Yorkshire: — 

Mr nxAB GsoBOi, — Jaiitiary, 1841. 

You will reoeivo the ^ History " from Olowes in a few day% 
and I need scarcely bog yon to lose no time in Tfdiiig it, as no 
step will be taken towards pnblioation till I have digested your 
romarks. • • • • Will you also note the errors of the proas 
on the margin as you discoTer them, and then send the book to mo 
at Durham? If you would bring it, all the better, but I dare hardly 
invito you at this season. • • • • 

Yours most sincerely, 

GaoBoa WAnmaoiOK. 

True to the obligations of friendship, Grote immediatdy 
''set to," upon his critical labours. It certainly was a sacri- 
fice of time and thought to acquiesce in Waddington*s modest 
request, and wade through these thick volumes : and I le* 
member his making humorous observations upon his own di^ 
qualification — I might add, his distaste— firar the task, whioh 


he regarded as lying out of his own fiuniliar sphere of stndy. 
Neverthelessy the * History of the Beforination ' was con- 
sctentioasly scanned ; letters and disquisitions on the subject 
frequently passing between the two friends. 

In anticipation of a new G^eral Election, Grote prepared 
an address to his constituents in which he announced his 
determination to retire from the representation of the City of 
London. He had for some time recognised the inutility of 
devoting his best faculties to the maintenance in o£Sce of a 
party which he conceiTed to have frtiled to entitle itself to 
the approbation of sincere Liberals; and he felt indisposed 
to remain as one of so very small a number as now consti« 
tuted the Badical duster,— public life being, to men like 
himself, only sweetened by the consciousness of performing 
effectiye senrice, and by sharing the sympathy of others bent 
on similar objects. In reference to his retirement, Grote 
wrote to one <rf his supporters in the following terms : — 

I fesr it will give you pain that I should express sn indifforenoo 
— I ought rather to say a decided unwillingness— to continue an 
unavailing and almost solitary struggle in Parliamont 

The knowledge that it does occasion, to yourself and to others 
of kindred feelings, a sentiment of mortification, is to mo the most 
distressing idea connected with the prospect of rotiroment I 
console myself partly by reflecting that I shall at least cease to be 
the cause of imposing upon you such unwearied labours and so 
many domestic sacrifices as each of my two last elections have 
done — a debt which it will require great generosity on the part of 
Mrs. Trayers ever to forgive me. 

I trust we shall see you on Saturday next, and 
I remain, my dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

John Travers, Esq. GxoBoa Gaon, 

The weather during the first months of 1841 was exceed- 
ingly severe, which made the attendance in the House of 
Commons very trying to health. Grote sometimes found 
himself obliged to walk home late, through the snow, from 
the House ; no conveyance being to be had, in these days, 
after twelve o'clock. I recollect perfectly his stealing softly 


to bed in the early hoara of the morning, when the ther- 
mometer frequently showed ten and twelve degrees of frost. 
On one of these occasions^ I said to Grote, * What o*olook is 
it?"— "About a quarter to four,** replied he. "Did you 
walk home ? ** — ^ No ; for once I had the good-luck to get a 
place in a stray hackuey-coach, along with Charles Leferre, 
Ewarty and Leader;*' all these members liyiug in Eaton 

The divisions in the House of Oommons became daily more 
significant of approaching changes ; the Liberal party losing 
ground in public esteem^ and the Tories at length yenturing 
to make an assault upon the Ministry. After sereral nights' 
acrimonious debate, Sir Bobert Peel carried his hostile reso- 
lution, by a majority of one. The exultation of the Tories 
was now unbounded, and the speedy advent of their Cihief to 
the Premiership appeared certain. 

Still, the Whigs could not brmg themselves to resign, and 
as a last expedient resolved to ^go to the country* with a 
measure favourable to our foreign trade, coupling it with 
a relaxation of the Corn-Laws. 

Lord John Bussell came forward as a candidate for the 
seat vacated by Grote.* 

The Greneral Election which followed in {be month of 
June, 1841, proved an unsuccessful experiment to re-establish 
Whig ascendency. The City election, always among the 
foremost, resulted in the rejection of Mr. Pattison and Mr. 
Crawford in favour of Mr. Lyell and Mr. Masterman, the two 
Conservatives. Lord John Bussell, howeyer, managed to 

* J. Tbavxbs, Esq. lo W. B. Hicxsoir. 
Mt j>kab Sib, — 

Grote's retirement is hi$ awn sot, and he is inexorMe upon 
the point • • • 

It is better to take Lord John, with Oom and Free Trade staek 
to him, than a Tory, and we can getno Liberal else. We enquired 
first amongst all our Oitj men — not one of them would eome ent 

Ever yours, 



mxrj bis eleetfam (though at <he bottom of the poll) by 
Bine TOtes ofor the thiid OonserfatiTe, Mr. Attwood. 

Thie defeftt (for rach it wai regarded in political eirdles) 
ptored the preonnor of a series of fidlnrss among the liberal 
party: the more salient of whieh were the loss of L(»d Mor- 
peth's and JmA Mflton's election for the West Biding of 
Torinhiie, lb. E. John Stanley's for Cheshire, and Lord 
Howick's finr North Northnmberland. 

I may mention that Orote had for many weeks of this 
Be s rion giren dose attention to the committee on bankmg- 
affiiirs in the Hoose of Commons. He also spoke at some 
length on the subject of the finanees of New Sonth Walei^ 
the mabdministiation of which he chaiged on Mr. Spring 
Bies^ the W14g Chancellor of the Eaebeqner. 

1841-1842. LETTER OF MBa GROTB. 143 



The dissolation having set Grote at liberty with regaxd to 
pnblio duties^ we oonoeived the project of learing England 
in tlie course of the antumn, in the yiew of passmg a few 
months in Italy. The city of Borne, above all, had ever been 
a paramount object of attraction and interest to him, but 
up to this time the inexorable conditions of our petition jfor- 
bade the idea of distant travel* 

Our plan was now laid to pass the winter months in Italy 
and, on our return, to settle down steadily to the ^opns 
magnum " at Bumham Beeches. 

But in order to execute this (to us) vast programme^ Orote 
had to earn the leisure required, by giving a dose attendance 
during the months of July, August and September, at the 
banking-house; his partners, William Frescott and Oharles 
Grote, taking their respective holidays in the intervaL This 
arrangement necessitated the passing much time in London, 
both G^rge and his wife sleeping in town four or five nij^tB 
of every week during the whole summer. 

The ascendency of the Tories became established by the 
Elections of 1841, and Sir Bobert Peel resumed the fanctionB 
of Prime Minister, with a fair prospect of ™n^"t^*"*"g tha 
position for some years to come. 

The following letter gives a £uniliar but oorrect desorip- 
tion of ^ the situation ** : — 

Mrs. Gbotb to Mr. Simiob. 

Dbab Mb. Sbniob, — B. Bbbohbs, 14iA SepUmber^ 1841. 

Mr. Lewis says ^'a letter would be a ohazity lo Senibr.* 

* At the period I am now speaking of; fear post-horseB (and, in 
Italy, six) were the sole agents of looomoiioii fer psnons who 
wished to journey at their < 


How, altiioiii^ I do Bot »pproT6 of doing thrngs on miek ft gronnd, 
jol I oomidor jcm lo be '^ so deserfing an objaek" as lo jni^fy my 
nakittg tlie cfixrt wliioh a letter intelTeai lo a£bid jon pleaanro. 
I well know tlie added ebaiin whidi ahecnioe ficom home beetowa 
npon letter^ and moieofer, as I ftilly intend lo tex yoiur benevolence 
in my texn,, wben we obange eiieomsteneea, the mnoh "leriled 
clenMoi of eafcahfibn happena, in the oaae bcdfore me^ te come ip 
aidof tfaebenefolentimpnlaei Wheielbfe this attempt 

All I oan tell of polities is deriTed from out-of-door somoesi and 
Ift^ fnmidi a most haimoniooa ehanti te this effooti that nobody 
eaies or thinks mnoh abontwhat has taken plabe. The deorepitade 
of the Whigs having long been peroeived, their dissdlvtion waa 
bfllield as all in the natoial ofder of thingii while the stepping in of 
the Tories resembled tiie qniet aooassion of As iMr, on the deoease 
of a FlMentite his estate and privileges. The mi< of tiie Badioals 
b now erowned by the eidnsioa of dear old Warbnrton from his 
seal He resigned raflier than endnre Hkb eyesore of a petition, 
whieh would have proved gross bribeiy against his fdlow-member 
ICtobdl, aoeompanied with a eertdn risk of his own ohsraeter 
being eo mp romised, throag|h the indisoreet lending of* money 
daring the election eanvass by W/s agent te ICtdiell^s agent 
Hvme^ Molesworth, Warborton, and Orote, all ont of Ftorliament I 
The ranks of opposition will present little beside ex-Whigs, 
therefore, plu$ Boebnck, (yOonnell and Wakley. The Whigs have 
left town, leaving ''ohamp libre'' to Sir B. and party. Their 
jadidoas selection of men for the various offieeg has operated 
advantegeonsly already, and, save the bowlings of (yOonnell, 
nobody utters a word against the new arrangements. Lord Syden- 
ham's career has been lairly ''played out** There is no member 
of the Government more entitled to look back with complacency 
upon the course of his public life. He has certainly employed 
hisperK>nal talentoto the utmost profit sinoe he quitted the ''shop'* 
in Austin Friars, 1881. 

The party are everywhere giving it out that this assumption of 
the Govenmient by the Tories is simply "an interlade," and that 
ihey entertain sanguine hopes of recovering oiBce ere atwelvemonth 
elapee. Brougham is in fito of delight Lady Palmerston wrote 
a very upbraiding letter to B. after his speech on the address, 
ccmcluding with an entreaty, " that he would at once go over to 
the Tories, distinctly." A person told me this who had rmd ike 
leUer. G. and I fed quite as though released from a chain, in our 
esMnption from Parliamentary duties, and vre are preparing for 
mr "sentinMntal journey," vrith the hope of forgetting all the 


1841-1842. ITAUAN TRAVELa 14A 

Texation and ocmtentioii with wbioh our last ton j6ftn of eiisjanoe 
hATe been lianasecL . 

I iooogni8e,ii6TerUiele6B, with 7011, that great benefit hftfl aoonied 
from ten yean of Whig aacendenox* * * * * . The Gorenuneat 
whichmnat henoeforth piewl ia, like thatof Lonia Philippe'a, omen* 
tially the GoTenunent of the ** l&pioier,'* and in that ** aena " 70Q will 
see Sir Robert Peel move along. He will hit the oonrae which will 
just meet the aemi-inatmction of the age, aa well aa aoptha the 
prejndioea of the middle claaaoa, and we ahall have a goremmenti 
and a real Premier, with more or loaa departmentel aetivity, 
I have been down to Oombe Flory, to take leave of Sydnej Smith, 
who waa well in health and lively. He oononra with me in giving 
the Toriea a nm of aix yeara before there ia any feeah ** apaef 
Now ihai ihe Wkig$ are daim^ everybody finda out how fitting it 
waa that they ahonld reaign* How baae men $n I I could tell 
yon of people going about affeotmg to rejoice in their ** regained 
independence," who would have Mid black for white raflier than 
■ee Lord J. B. in a minority. 0. Lewia ia tolerably welli Ink 
•adly confined, by hia having no colleague appointed aa yet He 
haa been down here twice aince yon went, and we all had acme 
lovely ridea. I tmat yon and lira. Senior have eigoyed yonr 
travda. Weahall be at Nuremberg, vid Frankfort, by the 14th or 
15th of October. I ahall leave London a few daya before my good 
man, who will catch me up on the road, I going leianrely. 

Youra ever truly, 

lu October, 1841, we really did aet off upon thia long- 
clierished project I started first, in order to gain time, 
George Grote (detained for the October dividends) joining 
me on the Bhine. From Frankfort we posted to Wfiraburg, 
Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Munich, all of them citiea offering 
attraction and interest At Munich we spent some day% the 
extensive collection of works of art occupying the greater 
part of our time. 

Thence, by the route of the Tegem See, and through the 
Bavarian AJps, to Sohwats, in Tyrol, which (by the way) ia a 
perfect Paradise. To Innspruck, and, making a dUaiir to see 
the Pass of the Finster-mfkna, we followed the ooume of the 
Adige to Meran. From this last enchanting spot» we joiu^ 



neyed to Verona, halting at Trent howeyer, to yiait the 
Cathedral and listen to the organ— an inatnunent of world- 
wide renown. 

On the eyening of our arriyal at Yeronay Oeorge said to 
me, **S^ hare yon got an Italian grammar with yon?** — 
••Tea."— ''Because I want to look np my yerbs.** I handed 
the grammar to O., who quietly pored oyer it for the space 
of an hour or so. 

On the following morning we set forth, attended by a 
Jofimi de ptaoe^ to yisit the celebrated amphitheatre, the 
first aspect of which produced a yiyid effect on Orote, it being 
perhaps the first considerable monument of antiquity he had 
eyer beheld. I was well aware that he was fetmiliar with the 
Italian language and with its poetic treasures, but I had 
neyer heard him attempt to speak it 

It was therefore a surprise to me when I heard Orote 
suddenly break forth in a new language^ which he apparently 
employed with £Eunlity, questioning our attendant on all the 
points which attraisted his curiosity. 

It is easy to conceiye how enjoyable were these first 
impressions of Italian trayel for both of us. At Verona, how- 
ever, I ought to add, the Shakespearian traditions were 
scarcely less present to Grote's mind than the classic associa- 

The effect upon our health and spirits proved salutary and 
restoratiye in a high degree. We forgot for a season all our 
toils, yexations, and disappointments, and gaye ourselyes up 
entirely to the surrounding influences of ^' Italy the blest, the 
paradise of song.** * 

From Verona we pursued our way to Venice. Grote was 
fascinated with the interesting objects which abound in that 
city, and left it with regret for Bologna. Our next point 
was Florence, where we made the acquaintance of Lord 
Holland (at that time British Minister) and his amiable lady. 

* I quota this expression from sn early poem by George Grote • 
1 « Ode to tbe Biier Thames. 1816.' 

1841-1042. ROME. 147 

After a ten days* stay at Florenoe, at which city we became, 
for the first time, familiar with genuine Italian art» we went 
on to Sienna, and so by easy stages to Borne. 

I recollect well the moment when the postillions suddenly 
halted the carriage, with the customary exclamation of Eeeo 
la eiUa di Soma I we were deeply moved; Orote kept 
straining his sight at the landscape for miles^ watching fi>r a 
nearer yiew, but hardly uttering a word. 

After fixing our choice of apartments at the H6tel de 
Bussie, close to the Porta del Popolo, Orote, impatient to 
feast his eyes with the long-wished-for scene^ proposed a 
walk. We went up the steps of the ^ Trinita del M onte,"* 
from whence we obtained our first comprehensiYe Tiew of the 
Eternal City. The emotion which Grote experienced during 
this first impression of the magnificence of Borne was pio- 
found, and it neyer seemed to grow less so, as days rolled 

Within a day or two of our arrival in Borne (which was on 
the 7th December, 1841) Grote engaged a master, in order 
to fftmiliarise himself with the Italian tongue: to which end 
he translated, as best he could, English comedies into 
Italian, vi^ voe$y for an hour daily. We soon formed the 
acquaintance of the American consul, Mr. Greene, who was 
not only himself a very agreeable and intelligent person, but 
who proved also of signal use to Mr. Grote in procuring him 
suitable aids in the study of the topography of ancient Borne. 
He now purchased Nibby's, Canine's, and other wcnrks, and 
set-to with a Boman topographer, in right earnest, on the 
^'antiquarian tack.'* 

We stayed at Bome about a month, working hard at 
sight-seeing, and receiving daily the vivid impressions 
which the various wonders of the place successively caused. 
With some few of our countrymen (also visitors to Borne) we 
maintained occasional intercourse : Sir Frankland and Lady 
Lewis, Lady Davy, General Bamsay (a very old friend of 
my own family), the Beckford family. Lord Northampton, 
Lord Famham, &o. These, with a few Italians (among 



wImiii nas Dr. PintaleoneX and our esteemed Fienbh friend, 
IL Tbommeiely fiurniahed ns with gaflBdent aodety when we 
weie not too tiied with our dtafs work. 

We went on one erening to n splendid ball at the Fienoh 
AmbaflBadoi^8i at the CUonna Palace^ and on another evening 
to a ioirfe at TorloniaX ti^^ I'ankei'a. On theae oocarions we 
were aUe to aee and appreciate the personal charms of the 
Italian ladies. The type we recognised as indiqmtaUy fine; 
the meOyhoweTer, of die npper dasses somewhat disappdnted 
our eipeotations in respect to their physical appearance. 
Their manners we fonnd extremely well-bred and engaging. 

We saw the Pope (Gregory XVL) in pnblio moie than 
onoeu We Tisited TiToli and the Villa Hadrianai and Orote 
made an excursion with an En^^ish friend to Alhano, which 
he enjoyed exceedingly, riding for seyeral honis on horae- 
hacdc in that beantifnl region. In the month of December, 
1841, we set forth on oor road to Naples^ drawn by fonr stout 
actire gray horses harnessed to onr own carriage^ and driven 
by one postillion, he having long reins to the leaders. This 
was onr first essay at ^travelling veUwrino,^ and we covered 
about forty miles per day. 

The first experience we had of the vigorous and glowing 
yegetation of Southern Italy was at Terracina. Never can I 
forget the enchanting sight Grote, not generally given to 
raptures over tlie beauties of nature, was nevertheless wanned 
to enthusiasm at the succession of orange groves, arbutus 
fringes, scented shrubs, wild flowers, with bright bine skies 
over all, as we rolled in midwinter through the region 
between Mola di Gaeta and Capua. 

At Naples^ where we arrived on January 10th, we had 
nnnsnally rough and cold weather, as indeed was our portion 
also at Bome. This winter of 1841-1842 was confessedly 
the most rigorous known in Italy for twenty years. 

Our American friend, Mr. Greene, introduced us to a 
young Italian gentleman at Naples, whose sodety we found 
eminently agreeable as wdl as instructiva He was a man 
of property, and professimally a lawyer, but being a liberal 

1841-1842. TEMPLES OF PiBSTUIf. 149 

in politics he came to be r^rded with dislike and ayersioii 
by the Bourbon rulers of that kingdom. He accordingly 
obserred a certain caution in his dealings with society, the 
leaden hand of despotism, being so close a neighbour. His 
name was Giaoomo Lacaito. He bad acquired oonsiderable 
knowledge of the English language and literature, the stud j 
of which form^ his chief solace under these hateful political 
conditions, whilst his ability to converse in that tongue made 
our commerce profitable to both parties. 

At Naples there were not many English whom we knew ; Ifr. 
Edward Ellicoi and Mr. Frankland Lewis and his lady, were 
the only ones, in fact. Orote was nowise displeased to be 
unmolested by company, being greedy of his opportunities 
to visit all the interesting places in and about Naples^ and 
glad to pass his evenings in reading, as he never &iled to do 
when permitted. At the expiration of ten days' s^/oiir in 
Naples we were impelled, by Grotc's ardent curiosity to 
behold the ancient temples of Pactum, dear to his classic 
mind, to undertake the journey thither; Signer Laoaita 
obh'gingly consenting to accompany us. 

Passing the first night at Salerno, after a thoroughly 
drenching journey, we started early the next day for the 
Temples. The river Sele was much swollen by the rain of 
the previous twenty-four hours, and we had some difiBculty 
in reaching Paestum, for our carriage could not be ferried 
across. We set off therefore on foot, in search of a convey* 
ance, and were lucky enough to borrow a ^carriole" and 
horse of the steward of Prince Angri, whose podere lay on the 
road. In this '* carriole " Grote and I placed ourselves^ whilst 
Signer Lacaita mounted on to the footboard behind. 

We obtained admittance into the great temple of Neptune 
(or Poseidon, as Grote always respectfully called that ancient 
divinity) by the payment of five francs each, exacted by the 
Boyal Authority. 

This visit to the temples of Paestum was one which afforded 
the deepest interest to George Grote. The remote past of 
Poseidonia rose to his mind, long familiar with the dream* 


stances of its origin, and with the reverential objects of these 
grand edifices : the sight of these awakening the solemn me- 
mories of the people whose early history had formed the favour- 
ite subject of his studies through life. He strolled through the 
temple of Neptune rapt in thought, speaking but little, and 
moved to wonder and admiration by the beauty and grandeur 
ofthe architecture, the imposing size of the columns, and the 
harmonious colours of the marble, mellowed by the effect of 
two thousand years of time. 

We quitted these immortal structures, after two hours and 
upwards of exploringa^ and rejoining the carriage on the 
banks of the river 8ele retraced our steps to Salerno through 
a desolate flat tract of waste landi^ in which we saw only a 
few cattle at graste for miles. 

Before we finally left the Temples, I plucked a handful 
of acanthus leaves, as a ^^souvenur^ of our journey, and, 
taking off 6rote*s hat gently, as he sat on a fidlen column, I 
placed the leaves within its crown, carefully restoring the hat 
to its former position in silence. 

We reached Salerno late in the evening. On taking off 
his hat in our inn parlour, Grote exclaimed, ^Why, bless 
me I how could these leaves possibly have got into my hat?** 
He had been wholly unconscious of the incident, his mind 
being abstracted from all preseni facts. 

We remained at Naples after this excursion until the 27th 
January, and then — taking the mountain road by San Oer- 
mano and Valmontone, which, by the bye, was far from a 
safe one, as we had reason to learn — we once more entered 
Home. Our reason for choosing this unusual route (which 
was miserably provided with inns or comfort of any kind) 
was Grote*s earnest wish to visit the Convent of the Bene- 
dictine monks on Monte Casino. Leaving me occupied with 
my sketch-book, at a small village a short distance below the 
summit, Grote made his way to the convent, carrying in his 
pocket an introduction to a member of that learned com- 
munity, given to him by a NoapoUtan gentleman. This 

1841-1842. BETUBN IX) ENGLAND. 161 

visit afforded him lively interest He passed two or three 
hours with the fftthers, who showed him their libxarj, and 
conyersed on subjects connected with the world of letteis 
sensibly and readily. 

Our stay in Borne could not be extended beyond the 6th of 
March, seeing that Orote was bound to be in England again 
early in April, for the Bank dividends. We travelled ^vet» 
turino^" by the Perugia route, to Florence. After another 
short stay at Florence, we started for Genoa, and thence 
posted to Turin ; travellmg post in order to save time. Pro- 
ceeding to Susa, we crossed the Mont Cenis, the carriage 
being dismounted and put upon ** tratneauz,'* with three men 
walking on each side to prevent its falling over. The snow 
lay heavy on the mountain, and the cold was intense. When 
we reached the Swiss side, it was nightfall ; so we posted 
down the valley to Modane in a bright moonlight, the 
ground covered with snow, as were the trees ; indeed, the scene 
was almost savage in its aspect At Ohambiry, which we 
reached on the following night, we lost two dayf^ owing to 
my falling ill with one of my dreadful headaches; Orote 
tsJdng the opportunity to visit Mme. de Warenne's residence, 
''Les Charmettes,'* as I would fain have done I We re- 
entered France by the i^elles de Savoie and the Pont 
de Beauvoisin, a very romantic pass, and halted at Lyons. 
From thence Grote took the steamboat on the Saona lor 
Paris, &ncyiDg he would gain time by so doing, as the roads 
were extremely heavy and the weather very inclement Hia 
journey proved both tedious and disagreeable, and he only 
gained four-and-twenty hours upon myself, who travelled 
post from Lyons over the Tarrare Mountain, and then by 
Moulins, Nevers, and Montargis. Grote hastened on to 
England alone, whilst I stayed to repose myself a little, after 
our fatiguing journey ; lodging at the H6tel Montmorency, 
Boulevard des Italiens. 

It was my good fortune to be present, whilst at Paris^ at the 
reception of our friend M. Alexis de Tocqueville as a member 
of the '* Academic Fran^aise.*' Seated between the CSomte 


de TooqaeTilIe^ his fftther, and the Duo de Damas^ hia 
nude, I listened to the ** disoonn " of their distinguished rela- 
tiye with the keenest interest and admiration. The ^ disoours " 
was^ and indeed has long sinee been, aocoanted an historical 
masterpiece, and it contributed to eleyate the author in the 
estimation of all France as a comprehensire student of poli* 
tical and social phenomena. 

Once more in England, Orote resumed liis place at the 
banking-house, which obliged me to remain in Eccleston 
Stieeti to ''keep house** for him^^ until July, when we went 
down to Bumham ; staying there till October, and receiving 
a few pleasant guests as occasion served*' Orote employed as 
heretofore all his leisure in study, and now methodically laid 
out the scheme of his first two volumes^ as the real basis of his 
long-contemplated 'History of Oreece.' In October (1842) 
be and I went to spend a week at Harpton Court, in Badnor- 
shire, with Sir Frankland and Lady Lewis and their son 
George ; the rest of the autumn we passed at Bumham in 

It was during the closing months of this year that Orote 
prepared his review of the Early Grecian Legends, taking 
for his text the ' Griechische Heroen Geschichten ' of B. G. 
Niebuhr, 1842. 

This article, wherein the collected store of Grote*s long 
and assiduous studies on the subject found a vent, was 
written with uncommon zest, and he anticipated with lively 
curiosity the effect it would produce on the learned world. 
It broke ground, avowedly, in tlie field which he proposed to 
enter upon yet more seriously in his History, and served as 
a kind of foretaste of the treatment of those remote ages in 
preparation for his readers. 

This striking essay, well known to all scholars, excited 
great attention at the time, and has repeatedly been referred 
to since, as a most fiuished piece of learned, critical enquiry. 
It appeared in the 'Westminster Beview* for Ifay, 1843, 
No. 77. 

18i8-18i4. RBTIBES FBOH THB BANK1N0-H0U8K. 168 


During the first half of 1848 Mr. Giote was closely em« 
ployed upon the first yolame of his * History of Greece.' 

We were sparing of oar hospitalities, my health falling 
below even its usual level ; moreover, I felt desirous to avoid 
interfering with Mr. Grote's studious hoars. He nsaally 
worked for an hour or two in the evening, as well as in the 
daytime, and few days passed in which he did not devote at 
least eight hours to the composition of the ' History/ 

It was in this summer of 1843 that George Grote retired 
from the banking-house of Prescott, Grote, and Co, after 
belonging to that firm for nearly thirty years. He was 
so anxious to devote his time and faculties to the oput 
moffnum that all other considerations, pecuniary ones in- 
cluded, became secondary, as well in his wife's view as 
his own, to this main object. Politics gradually lost their 
interest for us, and the fall of Lord Melbourne's Ministry, 
followed by the accession to power of Sir Bobert Peel, 
excited no sensible feeling of regret on our part 

In connection with the close of our commercial career, 
I deem it nowise obtrusive to append a copy of the letter 
wliich Mr. Grote received on that occasion from the clerks of 
his banking-house. It offers a pleasing and creditable 
example of the tone of mind prevalent among the gentlemen 
composing the staff of the establishment.* 

* OUrki' Adieu to Gxobob Obotb. 

g TBHUinnEKDLB Brtaaa, Id /n^ ISIt. 

It is a matter of deep regret to us all that you have left the 
establishment in Threadneedle Street, a firm with whioh yea have 
boon so long and servicoably connected. 



Mr. Lewin, my &ther, dying in the numth of Jnne of this 
year and leaTing Oeoige Ozote his ezecntOTy we were Tery 
mnoh oooapied in arranging the fianily affairs oonseqnent 
npon the change. For sereral months^ indeed, the History 
was bot little adyanoed, to the senriUe regret of its author, 
who was taken np with tireeome details and with l^gal 
fonnalities when he wonld fieon hare applied the serious 
honiB to his studies. But the chief pdbts of the ezeontor- 
ship being settled, we yielded to a pressing inritation lEiom 
Sk William Holeswortht and towards the end of September 
set oat for OomwaUL Posting down leisurely, we halted a 
few days at Combe Florey, in Somersetshire, to visit the 
Bereiend Sydney Smith. Thence to Ilfiaoombe^ and, taking 
the northern line of the western counties^ we reached Pen- 
caiTOw at the appointed time, where we found Sir William in 
good health, with more than his nsoal appetite for conrersa- 
tion after a '' lull " in his social ezertionSi 

Along with Lady Molesworth and Miss Molesworth, there 
were also at Peucarrow Mr. CbarlesAustin and Mr. Mbndkton 
Milnes, both intimate friends of oura. Mr. Edward Orubbe^ 
too^. was of the party — a la^vyer who was engaged in pre- 
paring for publication the works of Thomas Hobbes, under 
Sir William's superintendence. Miss Fanny Howarih, an 
attractiye young lady, completed the ''cast" of parts in this 
choice cirde. 

The great kindness and amiability at sU times shown to ns has 
made an impressioa on all our hearts, which oan only cease to be 
rememhered with our existence. 

And the last act in your leaTing the House, by giTing fiffy 
pounds to the Ohristmas fonds of your derks, is another proof of 
your kind consideration for them, and for which we beg yon will 
accept our best thanks. 

That yourself^ with Mrs. Qrote^ may in your retirement, long 
e^joy all the happiness this world is capable of aflbrdiog, is the 
sincere desire of us all; and with these sentiments of esteem and 
r^gud, penait us to subeoribe ourselTss 

Tour jorj fidthfiil and humble serrants, 
For ftUow-derks and seU; 
H. Bavxs. 


During the fortnight that ensued after oar arriyal, an 
unflagging spirit seemed to animate the gaests^ and the 
hours flew past with a sense of intelligent enjoyment such 
as has rarely fallen to my lot to share. Indeed it would be 
difficult to say which indiyidual, among the group there 
collected, bore the leading part in the conTerBatioiis» the. 
discussions, the amicable controyersies^ and the sparkling^ 
witty pleasantry, which enlivened our daily life at Pen- 

Charles Austin was in his best ^trim.** Mr. Orote had 
shaken off the feeling of mortification which hung over the 
closing period of his political career, had plunged into his 
favourite study with unfading interest once more, and was 
well disposed to engage in the intellectual sport now going 
on. Our host played his part to admiration, whilst the 
ladies, on their side, found the topics neither heavy nor 
tedious, though often profound and learned, and the daily 
dinner^hour ever found us eager to renew the friendly firay 
of the morning — Mr. Milnes, often foremost to b^^, like a 
** Bandillero "* in the arena, shaking his paradoxical proposi* 
tioDS in the faces of his doughty companions, and irritating 
their logical faculty to the verge of asperity; llolesworth 
bringing to the general fund a vast stock of knowledge, and 
often illustrating his views by resources of a character some- 
what out of the course of reading of the rest of us ; Mr. 
Grubbe, a modest and intelligent person, forming a sort of 
" chorus," or arbitrator, among the talkers. Altogether, it 
was a most enjoyable passage to us all, and one fraught with 
sensible profit to the mind and imagination. 

After a fortnight of this inspiriting society, Mr. Orote 
Mr. Austin and Mr. Orubbe left Pencarrow, travelling post 
to Plymouth, and there taking the stage-coach (how stnmge 
this sounds to our ears in 1873 1) to London, for the express 
purpose of voting for Mr. James Pattison, at a bye election 
for the City of London. I believe it was the death of 
Alderman Wood which caused the vacancy. That Mr. Orote 
should take a journey of some five hundred mile% en wk^eb. 


in Older to poll for a single candidate, attests the constancy 
of the political sentiment which preyailed among Reformers, 
even at that stage of their decline: a stage wherein onr 
friend Ni. John Travers had declared that ''the Badical 
party was well-nigh extinct within the Honse of Commons, 
and scarcely less so out of it^ 

During Mr. Grote's absence on this occasion, I went to 
spend a few days with our esteemed friend. Sir Charles 
Lemon, Bart, at his charming place near Truro, of Carclew. 
On my return to Pencarrow, I found Mr. Grote there once 
more, and we remained the guests of Sir William for a week 
longer — a week which, if less animated than its precursors, 
furnished opportunities of rational and unreserred talk, such 
as senre to strengthen interest and sympathy among friends. 

After we returned from Cornwall, late in October, 1843, ; 
the remainder of the year was passed in retirement at j 
Bumham Beeches. Grote varied tiie monotony of his daily ' 
occupations by planting young trees on our little property, | 

and by grubbing up old trunks in the wood to make room | 

for them. Exercise was ever a matter of strict duty on his t 

imrt indeed, although it rarely rose to the level of a plea- 
sure; unless it were riding on horseback with myself in fine 
weather, which approached nearest to it of anything, not 
being ^ books/' or book talk. 

It will interest the reader to follow the course of George | 

Grote's external relations with other learned men of the 
period, and I therefore introduce a letter addressed by him ' 

to Professor August Boeckh, of which a copy has been ob- ' 

ligingly furnished to me by Madame Gneist, the distin- 
guished daughter of Professor Boeckh. It is dated, London 
June 3rd, 1843:— 

I do myself the honour of transmitting to you» through tho 
medium of Mr. Nutt, bookseller in this city, the first number 
of the * Classiosl Masoum,' which has only just been published. 
It contains some oommonts written by mo upon your 'Metro- 

1843-1844. LErrER TO BOEOKH. 157 

logisdhe Untersadhunc^eii,' which I hope will not he foimd un- 
worthy of your perusaL I hare found myself oompelled to diMeai 
from some of your oonoliisions, and to point out on some ocoaaions 
what has appeared to me an insnffioienoy in yonr proo£ Bui you 
will also find recorded in the strongest manner my opinion of the 
learning, the hkhonr, and the ingenious and oomprehennTO reason- 
I ing displayed thnraghont the entire Tolnme. The lespeet with 

I which yonr puhlished works haye uniformly inspired ma, induoea 

me to hring these criticisms on the * Meteologisbhe Untersucli- 
ungen' specially before yonr notice, because I cannot hut think 
that some of the statements in the work will appear to yoniMl^ 
when now reconsidered, to require some modifications. 

I take the liberty at the same time of forwarding for yonr 
acceptance a copy of an article which I hare recently pubUshed in 
the ' Westmioster Eeyiew,' on * Grecian Legends and Early His- 
tory/ If, though a stranger to you, I may be permitted to pieifer 
a request, I yenture to ask whether you haye in yonr possession 
copies of your ' Indices Lectionum ' for any of the recent years. I 
see these productions referred to in yarious German works, and 
I haye neyer been able to procure a copy of them ; the yalne 
which I set upon eyerything which comes from your pen, induces 
me to wish to possess such of them as may be accessible. In 
particular, I would specify the ' Index Lectionum ' for 1884, whioh 
I haye seen cited in Giese's instructiye book * de Dialecto iEolieAy* 
and which deyelopes your yiews upon a point highly interesting 
to mo— the original form and authorship of the Homeric poems. 

I haye the honour to subscribe myself Sir, with unfeigned 

Your obedient humble seryant, 

GaoBOs Gnon. 

We took up our quarters in Eccleston Street early 
in 1844. In. March I went to Paris, to meet my Swedish 
relatives M. and Mme. von Eoch, and, Grote joining me in 
April, we spent three weeks pleasantly enough in an apart- 
ment I had taken in the Bue de Bivoli ; a friend of oura^ 
Mrs. W. Ord, being our guest, and returning with us to 
London. It was the season when our French Mends were 
gathered together in the capital, and we enjoyed their 
society with much interest and relish. 

Among the few new acquaintances which we made on this 
yisit to Paris, was M. Auguste Comte, whom we sought out 


in oonaeqnenoe of the impraKioii made upon Ifr. Giote by 
his book, ' La Pbfloaopliie PontiTe^* then xeoently paUiahed. 

IL Comte waa acaicely known to any one mik whom we 
habitoally oonaorted. He attiaoted, in faet, little or no 
attention ; inaomnch that aome of oar friends^ MM. Conain 
and F. Arago among the number, appeared to wonder what 
pleaaore we conld find in the company of thia obacore; nn- 
oonth peraon. He waa, at thia period, employed aa mathe- 
matical examiner at the ^£cole Pdyteohniqae** in Paria; 
a poat of which the Goveinment thought fit to deprive him, 
not long afterwarda. 

Mr. Grote fonnd IL Comte*a conyeraation original and 
inatmctiTe^ and on returning to London he became actiTe in 
promoting the dxcalatiQii of IL Gomte*a work% aa being cal- 
eolated to expand the range of apeonlatiTe inTeatigation 
among Engliah atudenta. 

On oar retam to London we entered into the aodal dia- 
tractiona of the aeaaon with rather more leat than naoal, 
whilatthe presence of that brilliant atarof the musical finna- 
ment, Felix Hendelaaohn, iieqaently aednced both Grote 
and myaelf into the circle of the artiat world. Thia, how- 
ever, proved ao faacinating aa to leave na no choice. 

The months of July and August, and part of September, 
were spent tranquilly at ** The Beechea.'* The Hiatory went 
ateadily forward, and our leisure was but rarely interrupted 
by visitors. Towards the middle of September we journeyed 
northwards, staying a few days successively with Mr. and 
Mrs. Ord in Northumberland, Mr. and Mrs. Ogle near New- 
castle^ the Dean of Durham, at hia palatial reaidence in that 
city, and with aome other frienda. We took the opportunity 
of visiting the cradle of my moiher*a family, vis., Uie district 
of Cleveland, in the extreme north of Yorkshire: a region 
which I had never yet found it poaaible to reach up to that 
hour, although associated in my imagination with the earliest 
impreaaiona of childhood. 

The tracea of my grandfather^^. General John Hale*a, reai- 
denocb *The Plantation,** cloae to Guiaboroogb, were no 

1848-1844. VISIT TO YORKSHIRB. 159 

longer discemiUe. But certain familiar soenes were brought 
before my eyes, under the conduct of a near kinsman who 
was residing at Marske Hall near Guisborough (Mr. Henry 
Walker Yeoman). This exploration proTcd not altogether 
infructuous of pleasure to both Grote and myself, Tiewed in 
connection with the traditions of my race. 

After our return south, we remained at Bumham to the 
dose of 1841. Mr. Grote's next brother, Major Grote (83rd 
Regiment), died of a brain disorder, after a short illneas, in 
November. Mrs. Grote, the mother, had herself been fiuling 
for some time prerious, but survived long enough to leave 
her fourth son, Joseph Grote, the De Blosset estate^ which 
became hii^ shortly afterwards. 



All January and Febniary at Bnmham, hard at work 
an the opm mapnum, — ^the nsnal ^leoreations** Taried 
by the aoqnintion of a Inlliaid-taUe. Here la a paasage 
£rom a letter written by Qeorge Grote to John Stnart MUl, 
of this date. 

O. Oaon lo J. & MaL. 

East BosNHAif, Jmrno/ry^ 1845. 
I work hard at my Hiatoiy, and haTe akeady got about two 
odaTo volumes ready for the preBSi whioh I ihall pnUiah in the 
eooTM of the present year. It is repugnant to me, railier, to 
publish the legendary matter, togeChflr witik so small a portion of 
the real history as I shall be aUeto eomprise in this tet batoh ; 
but a beginning shmI be mada 

At this stage of affairs, it became matter for serious con- 
sideration how to publish our two volumes. ** I suppose," 
said Grote to me one day, ^ I shall have to print my History 
at my own expense ; for, you see, haying little or no literary 
reputation as yet, no bookseller will like to £em» the risk 
of it" I repUed, ^ I am not quite so sure of that, seeing 
how creditably you acquitted yourself of your parliamentary 
duties, and how well your pamphlet was received." — ^ Tes, 
but all that is forgotten by this time."—"* Well,'* said I, 
** we must shortly go to London, and I will then inquire 
among our learned acquaintance who are the booksellers 
most in repute.** 

To London we accordingly repaired, and I busied myself 
with the inquiries necessary to our purpose. Such was 
Grote*s habitual aversicm to any personal trouble about 
business matters— except where obUgations towards other 


parties were in question, when he was scmpnlons in their 
discharge — ^that the negotiation fell entirely to my sharei. 
I finally decided to make the offer of '' onr History ** to Hr. 
John Murray, of Albemarle Street, who was eonsidered to 
enjoy the confidence and esteem of the author class. After 
an interview with that gentleman, I ** reported progress** to 
Mr. Grote, who professed himself ready to ratify the pro- 
posed agreement ; observing at the close of our oonversatioiiy 
^ I only hope that the poor man will not be a loser by me^ 
and then I shall be content, come what may.** 

Not many weeks after this, we handed over the precious 
manuscript to Mr. Murray, who placed it in the hands of a 
friend (himself engaged in literary labours) with a request 
that he would go through the sheets attentively, and giro 
him his opinion upon the quality of the work. 

The gentleman intrusted with this deposit was not slow la 
discerning the value of the contents. He said to the pub* 
lisher. ** Sir, you have got hold of a good iking here^ and 
one likely to produce a great effect upcn the sdiolar world. 
If I am not much mistaken, this will prove to be a work of 
profound interest to us alL** 

As the season advanced we entered moderately into 
the customary hospitalities, giving dinners and musical 
parties, and dining abroad in our turn. Mrs. Grote*s death 
occasioned a certain difiBoulty about the disposal of Mr. 
Arthur Orote's two infant children, who were sent home 
from India (by Mr. Arthur Grote, their father) in the spring 
of this year. Failing any other family protection we took 
them in, and treated the boy and girl as though they had 
been our own, providing them with everything at our own 
expense. The fatigue incident to the charge of young and 
delicate children, proved over-much for me in my own 
feeble state of health ; but I was always a slave to pre- 
sumed obligation, and strove to act up to it on this 


My difitressiiig attacks of neoralgio headaches contina- 
ing to distmb the comfort of both our liyes, I was 
enoooraged to try the effect of the Eissiogen waters, and 
we accordingly set forth in July with that object in flew. 

The experiment Med signally. The waters were too 
stimnlatiDg for my neryes, and we lost six weeks of the 
sammer without reaping the benefit of amended health. It 
was a dull, tiresome place, and Mr. Orote would have passed 
his time unprofitably enough, but for the occasional oppor^ 
tunities he found of conversing with two or three intelligent 
Germans, the most interesting of whom was M. Yamhagen 
Ton Ense. With that accomplished gentleman we laid the 
foundation of a friendship sustained by correspondence during 
the remainder of his life. 

On leaving this dreary Spa we visited some places of 
interest, — ^Bamberg, Wiirzburg, and Pommersfelden, in Fran- 
conia; a striking edifice, full of pictures (described in a 
paper of mine sent to the ' Spectator/ and reprinted in my 
'(ToUected Papers'). 

On our way homewards, we chanced to find ourselves in 
Frankfort whilst the yoang Swedish singer, Jenny Lind, was 
performing there, after being invited to sing to the English 
Court at Stobsenfels by the King of Prussia. We made the 
acquaintance of this gifted artist (long known to my sister, 
Madame von Eoch, at Stockholm), and contracted for her a 
genuine admiration and sympathy. 

I resume my thread, quoting from diary of November, 
1845. *' George has enjoyed perfect health, and has brought 
down his * History * to nearly the middle of his second big 
volume, and we anticipate the appearance of our first and 
second volumes on or before the Ist March, 1846.** 

The winter of the year 1845 (which was an unusually 
severe winter) was devoted to getting the first two volumes 
through the press, whilst continuing the writing of the third 
and fourth. The correction of the press prov^ tedious, and 
demanded assiduous care on the part of the Historian. All 
was ready by the beginning of the year 1846, however, and 


in the month of Maioh the 'History of Ozeeoe/ tolnmet 
one and two^ duly came forth.* 

Grote was anusoally agitated and canons as to the lesnlt. 
He had not long to wait, howeyer; for the perusal of these 
origioal and learned disquisitions npon the early histoiy and 
legends of the ancient Oreeks awakened among students and 
literary societies the lifeUeet impression. From all sides 
congratalation and eulogy flowed in upon the author ; inso- 
much that he himself now began to entertain something like 
coniidenoe in the success of his long cherished work. Thus 
I became, for once, witness of a state of feeling on his part 
approaching to gratified self-love, which at times would 
pierce through that imperturbable veil of modesty habitually 
present with him. 

One of the earliest tributes of approbatioii came tnm his 
friend Lewis, as under : — 

Mt dsar Gaora, — 

I cannot resist writing to express to you the satishetion, 
as wdl as instruction, which I hayo deriyod from reading the two 
published Tolnmes of your ' History/ Yon hayo soooeoded oomplelely 
in placing the whole question of the mythology and legendary nar- 
rations of the Greeks npon what I belieyo to be their tme fboting. 
« • • • The subject of the Greek mythology, and the mode of its 
treatment, is, as yon know, of groat attraction for me; and I 
offued IbMnrey Napier to review your book, intending to be /M 
on this part of it, but he wroto me word that John IGll had already 

* Hero is an extract frwn a Letter to Mr. N. W. Senior, of 
February, 1846 :— 

DiAa Mastib, — 

I quite forgot to consult you about getting Orote's History 
reyiowed in the * Edinburgh/ Murray would send you an esrly 
copy if you could arrange with some competent hand to write a 
notice of it; will you ask George Lewis what he thinks had best 
be done about this? The closing chapter of yoL iL is gone to the 
printer to^y. Bemains, ^ Litroduotion'* to be written; anothsr 

week will see us complete. 

^ H. O. 



mdertakeii the triiele. Tonr ohapter on the siaie of sooiety do- 
■orflied in the Homeric poems is TerysaooessfiiL • • • • Thaton 
the Homerio poems themselTeB is most interesiing, and in the ohief 
pert of it I ooncor. Bnt I cennot agree with your view of the 
early books of the «Iliad,* and I doabt the possibility of distm- 
gnidiing between an Aohilleid and an Hied. In partienlary the 
ninth book, whidh yon consider of inferior eiecntion, seems to mo 
one of the finest parts of the poem; and, at all events, it relaiiBs 
mainly to Achilles. 

Toms sincerely, 

O. 0. Lkwis. 

I insert a letter which cannot fail to interest the reader, 
being one from Hr. Hallam to (George Orote^ on the ''Greek 
History." It is dated Ttb December, 1846. 

HmRT Haiulm io OnoBOi Oroti. 

TosK Ganonrr, Guttoh, 

Ht dsar Ifs. Gsora^ — 

Ify letter may seem almost like the embassy of the Ilieans 
to Tiberius onaiamily loss (of his daughter) so long afiker the time, 
that he, in return, expressed his sympathy with them on the death 
of Hector ; but I have a good apology for writing to yon so late 
about your ' History ' — ^uamely, that the arocations of London at one 
time, and a tour on the Oontinent afterwards, gare mo no leisure 
till lately to do more than look cursorily at one Tolume. I haro 
now had the pleasure of going through it, and cannot refuse myself 
that also of telling you how greatly I admire your work, and of 
congratulating you on the yery high place it entitles you to take 
among liying historians. I am cTen less struck by the copious 
learning it displays, than by the general soundness of the thinking 
department It is not necessary that I should always agree with 
you— in fact, I do not; but I bdicTe that I am likely to ccnne 
nearer to no person who may take a different view. For, cm Ae 
uikoU^ I am with you on the great historical question about the 
ante-Olympio erents of Greece ; and perhaps you are prepared to 
expect that the public will diug much more to the established 
creed. I am old enough to remember Bryant* s book, and the / 
reception it met Almost erery one resented it as a sort of affiront ^ 
to himsell And it may be obserred that men regard any excess 
of seeptidsm in matter of fact, efen when there is neither an orert 


nor taoit intermixhire of religion, with aomftthing aUn to monl 
indignation; while paradoxes of assertion and erednlity, whioh 
they admitto he exoeasiTe^ meet with indolgenoei and are only 
smiled at 

Ton hare oj^pro/onii so thoronghly the imthiOj^stoiy of 
Oieeoe, that I should hesitate to dissent^m yon on any matter 
of detaiL The propositions to whioh yon would assenti as well as 
myself, with some little limitation, seem to be the following: — 1. 
As Greeoe was peopled and had some sort of sodefy during the 
period which we call heroic, or from 1800 to 1000 bjo. in round 
numbers, there must hare been some history, some erents, wars 
and chic^ in wars, kings and their successors. 2. It is highly 
probable that some fragments of oyonts, as well as names, haTe 
dosoondcd and become incorporated in the legendary poems. Bui 
3. We have not tho means of determining, in any instance, what 
portion of those legends has an historical basis, eren of the nar- 
rowest kind. With respect to this third proposition, I am not, as 
you, quite prepared to assent to it without limitation* All ohro- 
nology antecedent to 776 b.c. I wholly giro up, and I do not like 
to be confident about any eyents. Neyertheless, as probability 
admits of all degrees, I am not yet sure that I do not think some 
things are worthy of being accounted probable, leaying erery man 
to determine the value of tho fraction which expresses it Thus I 
adhere, subject to better adyice, to the opinion that there was a 
Trojan war of some kind. 

But it is of most importance in these questions of &ot to fix in 
our minds and our language a precise definition of what we mean 
by assenting to an histoncaUact, consisting of many oiroumstanoes. 
Else we may be disputing without knowing the point on which wo 
differ. Eyory fact — at least, eyery complex fact — has something 
analogous to the principle of indiyiduality in substanoe, something 
whioh cannot be taken from it, leaving us at liberty to say it was 
true; while it has other accessory circumstances, — parts of the 
narratiye,— which we may strip away, and yet leaye untouched the 
general verity. 

Thus, in the war of Troy, no one, by asserting it, is pledged to 
the Trojan horse, the ten years' duration, or even, perhaps, to the 
abduction of Helen. On the other hand, a predatory expedition 
from the ooasts of Thessaly against a Phrygian oity — though, as 
we see by example of some medi»val legends, it might be the 
legendary groundwork—eould not be called an historical basis. 
Thus, also, the existence of a Welsh prince, named Arthur, which 
ii said to have been lately better ascertained, would not authoriie 



«i to My tbai time is an historml basis fbr the Tietaries aseribed 
to him, thoaghy as thej oontain, as a genaral ftei, nolliiiig inooiH 
aialeni with hiatoiy, the proof of hit eiiatep c e might be aaid to 
add some pretomplioii to the traditioiBu But thoiicph it be true 
thet AttOa was a king of the Bxaam, that Theodotie was horn at 
Bome^ and that thwe was a Onnther who lelgned at Wotmsi these "^ 
meie names cannot be said to fionidi the slightest bssis for the 

To retom from this digression, I do not qnite sgree with jon, 
that theie is no diflbrenoe between the war of Troj (the essential 
principle of indiTidnality as to whioh I consider to be a general 
oonfSBdmu^ of Oreeks against the oity of Troj) and the othsr 
legends of the heroic age^ soch as the Argonantio Toyage. It is a 
Bsn-Hellenic conception, and flattcved no city, or nation, or frmily, 
or dinnity. For then^ the 'Iliad* is dedkated, prindpally, to| 
the glory of Achilles, nothing can be more endent than that the/ 
whole mass of legend rdatife to Greece and Troj had aceomnlated 
before the time ^ Homer. 

Bryant split on the rock of frn^ying that the story of the * Hied ' 
was as mnch the creation of the author as that of the 'Fairy Qneen.* 
Bat this is reftited by the flrst km lines, (which wonld be mdntel* 
ligiUe on this hypothesis,) and, indeed, by the whole poem. 

Again, if the Trojan war were the ^TiTrr*^^ ^ fine Jffl^i he 
mvst hsTO been a pre-Homerio Homer, as to the magnitude of his 
work, if not its excellence. And as the story in itself is a single 
one, notwithstanding its immense copiousness of detail, we cannot 
ascribe it to a series of unccmnected bards. I incline also to think 
thst the catalogue of ships— not prefionding that it is aocursto 
history— bears something of an luatgricaljiiSae^ With respect 
to other parts of the myths, I think Peloponnesus could only be 
named from Pdops, and ths^ as no dty bore that appellation, — 
nor is it found to express anything but a proper name of man, — 
we haTe a frir probability that such a person existed. 

The medjgyal joanMi o es, when they are most &bulous, are apt 
to contain real names, as in the instance of the Kiebelungenlied. 
Names wholly frbulous are more often of knights and prirato 
heroes than of kings. Brute is an exception, but then he is a mere 
creation of Geofiey of Monmouth, Ibrged to do honour to the 
Knglish crown : we find no earlier tradition about him. 

You are Teiy ibrcilde on the analogy of these modimlrraosnces 
tothoeeof Qreeoe,and I dp not see how the historical soEool are 
to get orer this argument It may be added (though, perhaps, you 
hafo already said it) that the Oarloringian qrcle cf romance^ and. 


in some degree, thftt of Arthur, laboured under two disadTAataget 
relatirely to the Greek mythB, in spite whereof they obtained 
oredenoe. The first is, that instead of squatting on a terra imcog^ 
niiOj and taking possession of what no one eould daim as the 
domain of truth, they sprang up in defiance of a recorded authentio 
history, contained in numerous chronicles, and certified by other 
Touchers, so that, at all times, some must hare known the romance 
to be false, but for some centuries did not make themsolyes heard. 
The second,^ and not loss important difierence^ is, thatjtjb^gl^ 
practice of apaiheosU was not less established in the middle a^ ga 
than in Greece, its principle was wholly difiecBnCHn'anfl thong^t 
of satnttng Orlando or Lancelot du Lac; hence thioyJuuijiaJbttly 
of men interested in keeping up a belief in thc^irjiXPWfiiMmdvfiiy 
little, in comparison with Hercules or Thraeus, of logid |«igd|^ra 
to riTot such belief on the minds of men. Nor had they any benefit 
from sculpture and painting. The saints, generally speaking, are 
historical persons ; but some are not, and yet were at mii^^^Ee^r 
as the rest - 

'^ ^ I ought to ooncludo here this tireson^e letter, but there is one 
point of importance on which I do not share all your opinions. I 
am glad to perceive that you are not.a.Wolfiap. Homer's body is 
net to be torn by woItos, like those of some yfdumJbSLioBeaboB. 
Yet you go too fiur, in my judgment, about the double authorship. 
Like the German critics, you hardly assign enou^ to lesthetio 
considerations. If the ' Iliad ' be one of the greatest works of 
human genius, — if, moreovor, a striking unity of style is manifest 
in the two portions which you separate, — ^is it agreeable to any 
experience that we should suppose two poets, so groat and so 
similar, to hare appeared nearly in the same age? Nor is it 
necessary, eren on your hypothesis, since it is quite oonceiTable 
that Homer may hayo enlarged his original poem— an altematire 
which you put, though you seem to favour the other. And a reason 
might be alleged for his doing so. The Achilleis, as you call it, 
sacrifices, in some measure, the national glory to that of one man. 
It might be found expedient to soothe the Greek hearer by exhibit* 
ing Diomed, Ajax, and Agamemnon in their due proportion. It 
has always struck me that the early books were designed by Homer 
in this Hellenic spirit ; they manifest the real superiori^ of the 
Greeks till Zeus threw his might into the scale. 

But whether they were an afterthought, as you suggest, or part of 
the original conception, I do not determine. 


I ineline to tiiink jov rig^t about Hie redtatioii memoriier of 
the poeme, UMragh it ie not withont diffieolty, bat thoee on the 
other side hafe greater. Ke?erthelefle» I do not sappoee alpha- 
betioel writing to haie been unknown in the age of Homer; and 
though moet, as well as youreelfy ave againat me, I haTo always 
thought the line about DeUerophon more applieaUe to letters than 
auTthing tLm, We oould not hesitate about the line if we met it 
in a later poet ; and I do not know that hierogl jphio ehafaoteiB 
were ever used to eon?^ a long message, $vf»A^9ofia voAA^ As to 
the <ng^MKr«, the wofd refers to the w(m( itself, not to the eontezt; 
or, at least, it moans that the letter snswered to a (r4yM4 or sjmbdl, 
by whieh m e s senge r s were usually aooredtted. 

I am so mueh of an old woman, that I efen dissent from ot 
XHyi^orrtf about the * Odyssey.* I oan only go here upon nethe* 
tie ideas. But I seem to peroeiTe a madiiaiij in style to the 
*Iliad,* greater than subsists in the writings of any two poets of 
tho first dass. IndiTiduality, almost idio^^Mra^, is the mark of 
superior minds. Many hundred lines in the 'Odyssqr* are taken 
from the 'Hied,' with little or no alteration, eielusiTe of merely 
eonTontional exprevdmis. Is this like the proooeding of an 
original poet? It seems to me that, in many parts, the spirit of 
tho 'Iliad' breaks forth, as in the eighth, eleventh, and twenty- 
seoond books ; and though thero is a great deal of feeble diflfbseness^ 
and a narrative too often lost in iueffectife oircumstance, those 
fruits occur often enough in the elder poom. I rather agree with 
those who find in the * Odyssey ' fesmsi HomerL 

Nor do I think it unimportant that a poem, written nearly at 
the commencement of the historic period, and so frr more renowned 
than any other except the * Iliad,* should nerer hsTe been assigned 
to any other giTon person than Homer, by whom — though you 
object to him as an historical being — I think we may well under- 
stand the author of the ' Iliad.' I might add that Hosiod, eren in 
the Theogonic, and tho Homorio Hymns, are written in a style 
Teiy distinguishable frwn both the epics. I bdieve that the 
principal Italian poets would not be oonfounded by those who look 
attentiToly at their style, though, I dare say, the minors of Italy 
and Spain, who are Teiy numerous, resemble each other. I hold 
eheap the usual arguments from difiorenees as to mythology, dpc, 
in the two poems. But what say you to a eci\jecture of mine, that 
the wives of Vulcan, Charis and Tonus, typify the same idea — 
namely, Graoe or Beauty of form, superadded to the blacksmith's 
woric in metallurgy, brougiht, as thai was, to a stage of eonsidetable 
laosUeDeeinthetimeel-Henert This is too allegorical fbr you, 


ExoDse, mj dear Mr. Grote, this gairoloiu letter; present my 
iKxmage to Vim* Oiote; and beJiere me, 

Tovra Tery troly, 

Hmnnr Hallam. 

In this year a yery careful notice of Vole. L and IT. of the 

* History/ by the Rev. H. H. Milmon, appeared in the 

* Qaarterly/ Mr. Grote was mnob interested in this tmly 
scholarly critique, although it dealt out its objections freely 
enough, especially as to the coinage of Greek compound words. 

In the oourse of the London season of 1846 I reooUeot 
meeting Mr. Hallam at dinner at Sir T. Frankland Lewis's. 
In the evening he drew me aside and, in the most animated 
language, poured out his congratulations upon the success of 
Grote's work. " I have been familiar with tlie literary world,** 
said Mr. Hallam, *^ for a very long period, and I can safely 
affirm that I never knew a book take so rapid a flight to the 
highest summits of fame as Greorge's new History of Greece. 
It has produced a most striking sensation among scholars.** 

Mr. Hallam always called his younger brother>in-letters 
by his Christian name. He had known him from a boy, 
owing to his intimacy with Grote's maternal uncle, witii 
whom Mr. Hallam and young Grote occasionally dined 
together at his residence in Lamb's Conduit Place (Hallam 
living then in Bedford Place), prior to Sir Henry BIosset*s 
departure for India, as Chief Justice of Bengal 

I may be allowed to mention here my participation in the 
work, in so far as helping to correct the proofs of Mr. Grote's 

* History.* I was a dih'gent and conscientious critic, often 
suggesting changes (and sometimes excisions) in the text of 
the work. The author usually manifested respect for my 
remarks, and eventually came to regard my humble assist- 
ance as indispensable. I well remember exclaiming to him 
one day, when going through his account of the ** Works 
and Days," " Now really, George, are you obliged to publish 
all this absurd and incredible stuff? " — ^"Certainly, my love. 
An Historian is bound to produce the materials upon which 
he builds, be they never so fantastic, absurd, or inmdible.** 




The rammer of 1846 was passed by us at Bumham Beeches, 
— ^that is to say, the first portion of it Down to the end of 
Jnly the weather was warmer than common; many guests 
coming at intervals to enjoy onr mral retreat and escape the 
heat of London. The Misses llaberly, Mr. Bqgers (the poet), 
the Marqnis of Lansdowne, Mr. Senior, Mr. Henry Beeve, 
Mr. Charles Orerille, Dr. Hawtrey, Mr. Alexander Bain 
(a yonng Scotch student of Aberdeen, introduced to Mr. Grote 
by J. S. Mill), Mr. Edward Lewin, and a few more were 
among the numbar. 

Grote never deviated fifom his system of daily labour; he 
retired after breakfasting at 9 A.y., to his Ubrary, whence 
he rarely emerged until the afternoon hours. His guests 
always respected his studious ways, and accepted the pleasure 
of bis company with all the more relish, since it was limited 
in its measure. 

My young family absorbed much of my time and atten- 
tion ; but I did not fail to lend my best faculties to Grote's 
literary work, when he would do me the honour to ask my 
assistance and opinion. My endeavours were chiefly directed 
to relieving him of all obligations of a business kind, so 
that he absolutely enjoyed the leisure of a ^ lodger^ in his 
own establishment, whilst exercising a general authority over 
its course as the lawful head. 

' At the end of July, Grote and I set forth upon an excursion 
to Normandy, the chief object of which was to pay a visit to 
M. Alexis de TocquevUIe and his hidy, at their ehdieau, 
situate near Barfleur, on the extreme north of the peninsula. 
We took our open carriage over, viA Dieppe, and posted 

184e. yWT TO TOCQUEYILLS. 171 

down through Bouen and Bayeux to Yalpgnes^ reaching 
TocqaeyQIe at the end of nearly a week's trarel. 

Twelve days have seldom been more agreeably employed 
than were those we now gave to our lored and loying friends. 
The society of our host was, in every sense, delightful, whilst 
the intellectual contact of great ininds seemed both to 
stimulate De Tooqueville*s dialectic powers and to provoke 
the flow of mutual sentiments. 

I listened (as did Mdme. de Tocqueville also) with untiring 
interest to their talk ; and my husband was encouraged by 
the novelty and variety of the French vein of literary conver- 
sation to nnfold his own prodigious mental stores derived 
from French authors, of whose writings he never seemed to 
me to have enough, indeed, down to the end of his life. 

After taking our farewell of Tocqueville, we visited Cher- 
bourg, with gratified curiosity; and, coasting along the 
western side of the ^ Cotentin,*' by Granville, Avranehea^ Aql, 
entered into Brittany. We halted at Bennes a couple of 
days, making thence an excursion to ^Les Boohers,* the 
didieau of Madame de S^vign^, near Yitrd. 

After several weeks of tliis holiday-making, we made our 
way home, arriving in England at the b^'nning of Sep- 

The latter months of 1846 were spent at Bumham Beeches. 
We saw but little company, for my health was often derangedt 
owing to fiEttigue and to the cares incident to the management 
of my children ; — we having taken a third into our family in 
September of this year. Mr. Grote applied himself closely 
to his work, and the third volume of his * History ' actually 
went to press before Christmas. 

I pass over the important public events of this year; not 
without reluctance, however, seeing the deep concern we all 
felt in the Irish distress, from the potato iSunine^ — ^in the 
great legislative measures for the alteration in the Com 
Laws,— and in the loss to the nation of the servioes of itt 
great and wise statesman, Sir Bobert PeeL 

The breakdown of the Poor Law Commission, of which 


Geoige Lewis was a member, ooomoiied us 1)oth maoh yexa- 
tioiL Orote.ooiild not withbold the eipxeflBioii of hk morti* 
ficatioQ and flyiiipathy, whioh finmd mt in the anMxed 

Onona Chora fo O. OL Idnm. 

Einr BumraAMt Jmmary 84ll» 2847. •. 

I oianol lefodn from writing joa two linei upon Hie •ntjf eot of 
Frida/ipioceedingiinlheHotMeofOmmnonfc Lotd Jo]in*8 speech 
leresls Ibe coming exttnetion of the Oommiesfcm ; end ndeepdis-- 
gieoe it i% to the pnUie mind of Kngknd, that sodh a lesnlt shoold 
hife been brought about. Though I hate the strongest personal 
itjmpethj with yon in sU this matter, I resUy most ssj that my 
uppennost feeling is that of deq^ about the English publio^ and 
aboutfliepossibiUtyof iiitureimproirementinsooUaflhink When 
I reodUeet all that has pseseili obrioosfy and before the pnblio^ 
during the last twelve jea]!S|-r-4he great and proeeing misohieHi 
whidi hsTO been aTerted, and the immense positive improrement 
which has been realiaedr-to think that iMk should haTO been the 
lewaid, is indeed painluL • • • • 

I meidj write this haslgr note to testify to you my hearly 
qrmpatfay under this late hkyw. lbs. Orote shares in the same 

The winter of 1846-1847 was again a yery seyere one. 
Our ponds were frosen np for seyeial weeks ; and snow lay 
long upon the fields, eyen in the South of EnglancL Mr. 
Grote and I remoyed to Eocleston Street (onr London resi« 
dence) in March, 1847, taking the Grote children with us. 
He had made such steady progress in the History, that the 
third and fourth yolumes made their appearance in April of 
this year, 1847. 

For the months of April, May, and June^ my record must- 
be scanty, so far as work is in question. Both Grote and 
myself were engrossed by the Lind episode, and the musical 
superseded the literary world, for a space. Jenny lind 
was leceiyed at our house on her arriying firom Vienna, 
in April; and Felix Mendelssohn coming about the same 
period, to briqg ont his oratoiio of ^Elyah,' Oxote and I 

1846-1847. BISHOP OF ST. DAVID*a LETTER : . 173' 

were carried away by a torrent of operatic and other forms of 
artifltio seductions— »the personal intercourse with Jenny Lind^ 
Mendelssohn, Moscheles, Emst^ Thalbei^, and othem^ not 
the least forcible among them. 

Mdlle. Lind was often our guest at the Beeches also. The 
extraordinary yocal and histrionic talent of this child of 
Genius excited in both the Historian and myself the most 
earnest admiration, and we became her warm friends and 
active partisans. Mr. Grate's love of music was the source, 
all through life, of some of the highest of his enjoyments; 
and certainly this taste was neyer more abundantly fed than 
by Jenny Lind and some other ** stars '' of the musical firmar 
ment who also shone in London during the summer of 1847. 

Jn truth, when the month of July arrived, the various 
effects of literary, musical, and social excitement found us 
positively fatigued with the wbirL 

Among the testimonies to the value and attraction of 
Orote's laborious work, the following letter will be foond 
peculiarly interesting, coming from one who had already 
contributed to keep alive the study of the ancient world 1^ 
bis own meritorious * History of Greece ' :— > 

Bishop ov Sr. David*s (o GsoBCfs Osora. 

Abergwiu, 21t< JtfiM^ 1847. 

I most reproach myself for having allowed you to remain so 
long in any degree of uncertainty as to my opinion of your work ; 
but I have found it easier to express it to others than to yoorsell 

I will now only say that my expectations, though they had been 
raised very high, were much more than fulfilled by your first two 
voltmies ; and in its progress the work appears to me to have been 
continually rising, not perhaps in merit, but in value. And when 
I consider that the most interesting part of your subject lies still 
before you, I cannot doubt that the feelings of admiration and 
delight with which I have hitherto accompanied it^ will grow ' 
stronger and stronger as it proceeds. 

I should have been ashamed of myself if those feelings oould 
have been stifled or abated by my necessary oonscionsneis of the 
great inferiority of my own p^ormanoe. 

When I reflect on the very un&vourable«mditionef a graduallj 


cnkrged pUa and otlier tidiene eiromiisteiioea under wUoh it wm 
undertaken end proeeoated, I may well be aatiefied with that mea- 
erne of tonporaij anooeaa and naefolnees whidi has attended it^ 
and ean vnfeignedljMgoioe thai itwilltfbr all hi|^eet puipoaeai be 
ao anjifliaBded» . 

Believe mei mj dear Gffote, 

Ibet truly yoorsi 
0. St. DATm'a. 

To this charming letter of the fellow-Historian, Grote 
replied in a corresponding spirit Profoundly touched, as 
well by the high estimate which the old schoolfellow had 
formed of the new yolomes^ as by the unaffected candour 
with which the Bishop arowed himself outshone by them, 
Grote endeaToured to explain why he had, after a long 
ihternd, resumed his early purpose, notwithstanding the 
appearance of Thirlwall's History. 

It is matter of deep regret that the Bishop cannot enable 
me to produce a copy of Grute's letter, so as to place on 
record this example of disinterested and lofty personal 
friendship between two enunent contemporaiies. 




The agitated condition of Swiss politics offered a singularly 
interesting study to Mr. Grote during the spring of this year 
(1847). The dissensions between the Cantons appeared to 
him so curiously to resemble those which went on in the 
old Grecian world, between neighbouring ** states," that he 
resolved to make a personal investigation of the actual £Eust8. 
Taking a letter or two of introduction to some individualsy 
persons of importance in Aargau and Appenzell, but advisedly 
refusing those offered to him addressed to leaders of either 
party, George set forth, quite alone, at the beginning of 
July, for Geneva. 

I received a letter from him, within a fortnight after his 
arrival in Switzerland, containing an outline of the *' sitna* 
tion" of the contending parties; and it seemed to me so 
striking and instructive, that I sent the letter for publication 
to the * Spectator/ Another followed at no long interval, 
which duly appeared in that excellent paper. 

After Grote's return, he judged it desirable to add to 
these first statements his general impressions of the dvil 
war, and in the autumn we printed the whole series— Newby, 
of Mortimer Street, being our publisher. Some months 
subsequent to this volume's appearance, Mr. Newby was 
applied to one morning by Lord Palmerston*s private seere* 
tary, for a copy of the ' Letters on Switzerland.' " Have not 
a copy left, sir 1 " — *' Well, but you mud get me one somehow 
or another." — ^"Wherefore so urgent, sir? '•—"Because" 
replied the secretary, ''Lord Palmerston, being at Windsor 
yesterday, Prince Albert manifested unusual earnestness on 
the subject of Swiss disputes, and soon asked Lord Palmer- 
ston whether he had read Grote's little book» . Lord 


PiJiiienton replied he had not seen it 'Then,* said the 
Prinoe, *7oa cannot be qualified to enter fiairly upon the 
diflcaanon of the afiain of Switmrland; pray go and atndy it 

Felk UendelaBohn was at this season stajring at Interlaohen, 
with his £unily, and, in comj^ianoe with Mra Grote's earnest 
entreaty, Grote was kind enough to undertake what prored 
to be a fttiguing journey, in order to pay him a visit I 
subjoin a copy of his letter describing this visit (or rather of 
part of itX deeming it well worthy of being presenred. The 
great Composer lived but a few weeks beyond this date^ suc- 
cumbing to a brain seiiure— the effects of his grief— shortly 
after his return to Berlin, few have ever been more 
deeply regretted than this gifted and virtuous man^ and 
both Oiote and I felt his loss with true heart-sorrow :— 


^ -- Thtniaift Amgmd 4<A» 1847. 

MT niAlBST aAMBtWtf-^ 

I airived ber^ al half-pasi eight yestoday evening, having 
■tartedframBerneinthedOigenoealS Ajf. TUs morning I find 
St the post your two letters (26th snd 80ih), and I read them with 
the greatest interest and delight • • • • Boebuok'a failure at 
Buth does not much astoniflh me : I always looked upon Lord Ashley 
as a most formidable opponent^ and as a man not likely to stand 
unless a very promising case was made out to him. As to the City 
poll, what most astonishes me is to find that Bothsohild was above 
Larpent; I always fuioied it was Bothsohild who would go to the 
walL It is certainly a remarkable event in reference to the position 
ofiheJewsinEngknd. • • • • I told you in my last letter that 
I had just then (Wednesday last) written to Mendelssohn at Inter- 
lachen, to assure myself that he was there, and to o£Elar to visit him. 
• • • ^ I set off accordingly on Monday morning to go to see him 
(hsving first taken my place in the diligence from Berne to Zurich 
for yerterday morning), and I got to Interlaohfln in the afternoon, 
slier an eztramely hot day *s journey of three hours in the diligence 
to Thun, thence two hours more in the steamboat which crosses 
the Lake of Thun (no such thing as a steamboat eiisted on the lake 
when we wete there in 1884 and 1887). • • • • I foond 
MendalMohn at the HMel dTntsrlachsn ; he was delighted to 


I dnu)k toa with him thai erening, passed the wliola of the next 
morning with him, chiefly in a beaatifal walk romid the enTircma 
of Interlaohen, and then returned to dine with him at the hoteL 
Between three and four 1 quitted him to go hack to Berne. He 
seemed to me in good spirits, and oomfortahle, though of course 
roYerting with painful and tender reoolleotioQ to the loss of hia 
sister. • • • • 

Mendelssohn seems to eojoj perfectly the place and the mode of 
life in which he now finds himself. He has all his fiunily about 
him, he is plagued neither by obtrusivo visitors nor by disagreeable 
duties, and dirides his time between walking, reading, and musio. 
He has got a pianoforte which he says is the very wq^ that he 
ever touched in his life, — so bad indeed, that when it first came he 
thought that he must have sent it back ; but he has now got rather 
accustomed to it, and is even ingenious enough to find out that 
there is some advantage in having a bad instrument rather than a 
good one. • • • • 

Ho was full of interest about everything which concerned you, 
and so was Mad. Mendelssohn, who is a very pleasing, amiablo 
person. • • • • 

After leaving Mendelssohn, with a most affectionate parting on 
both sides, I returned to Berne that same evening. I arrived there 
about half-past nine, and was up again next morning at half-past 
four to come here, &c. &c. 


Pursuant to a plan which Orote and I had formed on hm 
leaving England, we gave each other rendesvoui on tho 
Rhine about the middle of August Two yonng ladies of 
ray acquaintance were added at Aix-Ia-Chapelle to onr 
little party ; and, with them, George and myself made a 
pleasant excursion in Rhenish Prussia, ascending the Moselle 
to Treves and thence posting across to Spa. With the 
Roman antiquities of Treves he was much pleased ; and his 
summer travel, taken altogether, refreshed his mind and 
general health. Leaving our charming companions (Missea 
Mary and Kath. Maberly) at Aix-la-Chapelle, we returned 
through Belgium, vid Ostend, to London, on the 80th 

Jenny Lind departed at the close of September this year, 
and we ourselves settled down to our wonted habits of rural 



■eelosioQ and stody. I insert a letter of Qrote*8 to Mr. O. C« 
Lewki^ which is descriptive of his state of mind and feeling 
at this time. He Iiad, as I hare already stated, returned to 
Bnmham some weeks before the date of this letter. 

OaoBon Ownrn to O. 0. Liwis. 

East VvwmAU, OdoUr 24<A, 1847. 

I ought to have answered yoor letter befiire this, and I $m 
aehsmed of not haying done so; my procrastination on the snbjeot of 
kiteers is »Tice which, lamsony tosay^rsther grows on me by age. 

I am bnsy in the prosecation of my History, and shall soifer 
nothing to divert me from it. I am now engaged on the Xeneian 
expedition, on which of oonrse nothing new can bo said, in the 
proper sense of the word new; though when I read and ponder all 
the passages of Herodotus, which so many others have read before 
me, I appear to frame to myself more complete and fiMtodied 
ideas of the social phenomena of that age, than are presented 
in other histories. At least the process of forming these ideas for 
myseli^ and clothing them in words, is mentally interesting^ and 
my day is always tco short 

Yon will receiYe in a day or two a little Tolune containing my 
Incnhrations on Swiss afliurs. While I was in that coontry, I 
formed to myself certain opini<ms about the canims which have 
brought about the present Tehemont dissensions in it, which seem 
on the brink of civil war ; and I sat down on my return to put 
down these opinions in letters for the 'Spectator.' At first I 
thought that I should have said my say in three letters, but the 
UtUr has boon altogether one of seven. 

As a political problem, the case of Switserland is tough and 
complicated to a melancholy degree. In England there is almost 
universal ignorance about it, and people talk about the question of 
the Jesuits without taking any pains to acquaint themselves with 
the particular facts of recent history which have envenomed it. 
My little volume will somewhat dispel this ignorance ; though it is 
really amaiing how little desire there is in any one to know and 
appreciate the reality of the case— what people want to know is, 
with which of the ^Murties they are to side, and they seem quite 
satisfied with the part of shouting and bittor partisans, in preference 
to that of discriminating critics. The longer I live, the more I see 
that Bishop Butler was right when he said that a man who really 
loeed iwmik in the world, was almost as rare as a black swan. 

1847. SWISS POLrriGS. 179 

They tell me that Oharles YiUion Bays ihrni tiio Poor Law is to 
regenerate Ireland. I hope he may be right ; I shall be not a little 
iurprited if he tf right Lord Clarendon seems to bo acting as well 
as so difficult a case admits, but the art of improving a oormpt and 
indolent, and improrident national character by means of politioal 
and social treatment, appears to me no bettor known now than 
it was in the days of Aristotle. 

The pressure applied to OoTomment on the sabjeet of monetary 
embarrassments appears to be Tory seTero, bnt I trust and beUere 
ihoy will be firm in resisting it The cry of ** muti not lei merekmlt 
fair is used just in the same way as that of '*mttii noi lei poor 
people aiarve** in regard to Ireland : it is made a reason for shutting 
out all consideration of distant consequences. 

I think that all the commercial incouTenience, painful as it isi 
which is now going on, admits of being explained completely ftom 
the fjBcts of the foregoing years and of last year. And my 
belief is that if Peers Bill of 1844 had not been in ezistenoe, — 
in which case the currency would haye been left to the disoretioa 
of the Bank of England, — the probability is that we should hardly 
hare eecapod a suspension of specie payments. When I seo the 
prodigious ascendency which any cry of immediate and widespread 
distress can be made to exercise oTcr our politics, I cannot bnt fear 
that sooner or later wo shall be made to pay very dear for tlie 
ooonomy and couTenionce of a paper currency. It is lucky that 
Wood has to defend the Bill of 1844, backed by Peel, rather than 
Peel himself. 

My enquiries in Switzerland about the oondition of the poorer 
I>eople, and the spread or decline of pauperism, were less satisfiMH 
torily answered than I wished. I did not find that just theory, or 
just practice, on the subject of population was so widely dif^ised 
as I had hoped, cTcn in the best cantons. There certainly is a great 
deal of practical prudence, common to all classes. 8o far as I 
could obsenre or learn, the desire of expense, for the sake of show, 
or of gaining importance, hardly exists in the oountry. The last 
popular roTolution in the canton of Berne, in 1846, abrogated the 
principle of compulsory relief for the poor: it seems that tiiis 
was a very popufar change I which sounds strange to any one 
coming fresh from a country where the ' Times* is Lord Paramount 
Of course this abolition of compulsory relief is not to be carried 
into efiect all at once, but by gradual steps, so as to require an 
interval of four years before it comes into full efficiency. I brought 
home the law and subsidiary regulations, which have been enaotad 
to carry the principle into effect, and the next time I seo jom 1 

V 2 


■ball flhow them to joo. Some of the oommnnfle in the emton 
appeur to ha^e been highly panperised; hot what they aie to do 
with the panpera hereafter I do not see. If en cannot talk aboat 
•finding work"* for them in a Swiss eanton qnito so glibly as th^ 
do in England. The Bernese do not agree with Charles Villiers 
ahont the regenerating tendem^ of the Poor Law, 

How are yon employing yonr leisure for literary poxposes? I 
am selfish enough to think abentthe review of the 8rd and 4th toL. 
of my Histoiy, whioh yon talked of nndertaking. It will delight 
me to hear that yon are employed on it If not on that^ at least 
on something else^ perhaps of greater utility. Do not lose the 
haUt of being always employed on something fbr the puUio — ^it is 
the only way of sharpening attention. 

They tell me that Parliament is to meet befiire Cbristmas, but 
on that point of course you are better infoxmed than I am. Ftelii^ 
mentaxy sutjeets do not yet give you trouble— and Poor Law has 
ceased to do so— let the fufiipum between the two belong to actiTO 
work in literature. 

I hope Lady Theresa is in good health — ^I know sho is always 
in good spirits. Pray give my beet regards to her, as well as those 
of Mrs. Orote^ whose health is much as ususl— frequent neuralgia^ 
and perpetual uncertainty, with intervals of strong mind and ehMV* 
lal temper. 

To this prodigious epistle, — ^for Grote was usually ayerse 
to letter writing, — Mr. Lewis returned an early reply, as 
under : — 

October SlU, 1847. 

I was Tory glad to igpceiTe your letter, and to find that you 
were so well and so agreeably employed. I shall read your pam- 
phlet on Switserland with much interest • • • • 

I hsTO not lost sight of my intended renew of your third and 
fourth volumes. I found, however, that I could do nothing without 
books of reference, and therefore I postponed my article till the 
April number. This abominable meeting of Ptoliament in Novem- 
ber, however, deranges me in every way, and will, I fear, render 
much of what I have written useless. I have, however, carefully 
read a second time your last two volumes, and am ready to write 
the article as soon as I am within reach of my books, llietaskis 
not a light one, for the quantify of material in your last two 

At present I am writing on a sul^jeet on wUA I had pieviottdy 


odlleoted Bome notes, a sabjeet not striotlj of logkttl aoiMioe^ Inl 
oonnectod with it, vis., the legitimi^ proiinoe of AnUiorilj hk 
matters of Opinion and Pmctioe. • • • • IhaTO^hoiweTaryTHy 
much lost my faith in the adyantage of ahetnust apeoolalion « 
morale and poIitioB in the present state of knowledge and optnioB, 
and I write it rather for my own sake than from any idea < 

It seems to me that there is too little eonssMiis about < 
fMsts in the moral sdenoes for any abstract treatmonl to be < 
aTail : and I ha^e come to the conclusion (partioalarly after ] 
your four Tolnmes) that an onlightenod commentaiy upon Vm^ft'HtTil 
data, well ascertained, is the best form in which instraoliom csi 
such snbjeots can be presented to the publia 

A series of good histories would be the best fonndatkA and p«»> 
paration for a really scientific treatment of politics and i 

The closing months of 1847 were passed at the Beechei^ 
much after the usual fashion : a few intimate acqoaintasoea 
coming now and then to pass a day or two with us. The 
book on Swiss affairs met with so much attention that the 
whole edition was sold off in a few months. 

I subjoin a letter from Mr. Lewis on the subject 

Novemher Uk, 1847. 
I received yesterday the yolnme on 'Swiss Politics,* whii^ yo« 
were so good as to send me. I hsTo since road it with gi«at 
interest, and fool much indebted to you, both for baring writtei 
the book, and having sent mo a copy of it The narratiTO is l«eid 
and flowing, and the view taken of the nrhole series of eveals 
appears to me perfectly just and discriminating. It carries oaa 
back to tho scTontoenth century, and seems to place one in tho midst 
oftheThirty Years' War. • • • • Tho cause of the mischief 
is religious bigotry working upon an imperfect federal ooiistit8tM»p 

The persons with whom Greorge Grote had the adyantage of 
conversing whilst in Switzerland, are specified in the diary 
which he kept I extract from it the following names:— 
M. Hungerbiihler, of St Gallen (the Landamman) ; M. Meyer, 
of Kronau ; H. Billier Constant^ of Geneva; M. Ulrich Zell- 
weger, of Trogen ; Dean Frey, Trogen ; M. Iierk)oh» 8t 


Gallen. Mr. Orote pasBed many hours in the Diet^ at Berne, 
the debates in which afforded him mndi matter of instmotion 
as to aciaal affairs. 

The following letter from Sarah Austin to Mrs. Grote may 
be read with interest in connection with the History, and 
with the state of feeling then preralent in Paris: — 

Kamvb, 2914 ilt^iMl, 1847. 
His great comfort [meaning hor husband, John Anstiii], during 
his tediona illnoBB, has been ILr. Grote*s Hisfeoryy which Alexander 
Gordon broaght orer to him. To me it has been a heartfelt plea- 
rare to hear him ejacnlatiiig at intenrals, ** What a conseientioiis 
bookr "ItisdelightlUr <* There is all Oiote's honesty r and 
so on. ^ ^ ^ ^ I think with a s(Mrt of dread cf returning to 
Paria, which is leaMy become * nnheimlich.'' • • • • Insedto 
■eo Gennans come and go^ foil of admiration and enthnsiasm for 
I^ance. Now, not one who does not thank God he was bom a 
German. Oddly cotaaffik^ I am obliged to comfort Cousin, 8t 
mairci and othersi who cone to me in deepair, and enlaim ^^.Tont 
s*teonler « La Franco sepcrd,'' and so fordi. Btmiaiieisal 
OrMse^ tnmdaling Homer for flM^ he says. • • a a 

xcvrsofWy * 

-a A. 




Is the early rooaths of 1848 it became clear to English eyes 
that the tenure of King Louis Philippe's sovereignty over 
the French nation was in peril. To few native Frenchmen 
(lid this fact seem equally dear, and to the King himself the 
least so of oil. 

<< Vous verrez/' said he to an Englishman (Mr. R EUice), 
in 1847, ^'j'ai les pieds fermes dans les ^triers; il n'y a rien 
a craindre dans tout ceci/' &o. M. Alexis de Tocqneville, 
however, discerned plainly enough the signs of an nnavoid* 
able conflict between King and people, and sooght to awaken 
his countrymen to a sense of their danger, in his memorable 
^disconrs" of January, 1848, uttered in the Chamber of 
Deputies. A letter received from Paris will afford evidence 
of the uneasiness which prevailed among thoughtful observers 
of public affairs there, as well as in England. The first 
part of this letter relates to the new 'History of Oreece,' 
which (the first and second volume) hod already been spoken 
of favourably by French writers : 

Pabib, 28rcl January, 1848. 

1 seiie with joy on tho privilege of being the first to oommuni- 
oate any incident that may give pleasure to you and onr dear 
Mr. Orote. It is only this. 

At tho last mooting of the ** Academic des Sciences Morales el 
Politiques " Mr. Grote's book was not only mentioned, but M. de 
Tooquevillo and M. Cousin song a duo in its praise, which alto* 
geiher lasted three-quarters of an hour, and which ended by M. de 
T. proposing ** that Mr. Grote's name be put on the list of oandi- 
datos to be hereafter named honorary members.'* 

All this Tooquevillo told me last night I asked him if he had 
written, or would write, and as he said ** No," I told him I would. 


Ho added thallCr, Orole oaghtnowtoMndaoopjof biilKwkio 
theAoadftnie. • • • • EferTthing is terj gloomy aiidlowioriiig 
and imqiiiot h ero ill tfao signs of on approsohing impofrt; 
genonJ discontent, sad gresl» though not Sekia mte di otio ss, Ohera- 
lier is writing sn srtide on the iinsneesi sod ssys thst he himself 
is frightened st the al^ss he looks into. 

Unhrerssl distmst— weU-sttested stories of inorediUe eonrnp- 
turn. • • • • nie greatest pain end grief is» to see men eiij» 
wonldsofiunesteomydii^laythe same fUsl infloenoes thatdestroj 
ihemslL One begins, Ifte the pnUieheM^ to lode upon all honeslj 
as an illnsioin. 

The good 8t Hilaire (whom I most still beUere good) is in a 
sort of despair. • • • • Ify personal rsfalioiit with the Fieoeh 
eontinne friendly and agreeahle, it I oonld oease to regard eom* 
Jidenee as an element of friendship and of social interooorae. 
There are no Mr. Orotm here^ my dear Oommer, take my word 
for that|— and least of all among the so-oalled ** LTberals." • • • • 
The eoontry seems to me Uessod by Ptoridenoe, physieally and 
intolleetaally, perhaps above all others; bot UMnally— what was I 
going to say? I will not say it; bnt will ooaelnde wifli our 
tenderest regards. 

a A. 

The storm actually did burst orer Paris in February, as 
all the world knows. Although it could hardly be said to 
have taken us by surprise, the dislocation of all social order, 
together with the uncertainty which hovered over the future 
of that great nation, filled us with liyely anxiety, and we 
could think of little else for some weeks after the events of 
February, 1848. 

Yet more stirring and disquieting were the memorable 
days of June, 1848^ on which, as most lookers-on opined, the 
&te of France, as a member of the ^comity of nations," 
hung in the balance. Many of our friends, we were aware, 
shared the dangers of those dreadful street-fights in per- 
son, and we trembled lest some of them might perish in 
their patriotic endeaTours to vanquish an insane multi- 

Beflecting at this distance of time upon the c(mduot of 
the middle dass <tf Parisiaos in 1848, one is led to ask why 
thai same dass should have folded their arms and suffered 

1848-1849. REMOVAL TO BAVILB BOW. 185 

the '^Commime'* to riot in disorder, nneontroUed, under 

Tlie winter of 1847-1848 was much oooupied, on our part^ 
in seeking for a new town-house. HaTing no farther 
personal relations, either with Parliament or with the Oity,, 
we found the sitoation of Belgrare Square less suited to our 
wants than heretofore. Coming up occasionally, as we did^ 
and bringing only a servant or two, communication with the 
centres of London preyed diflScuIt, and we judged it adyisaUe 
to remove to a locality within easy distance of those objects 
— ^literary and administratiTe— which Mr. Grote now held 

We therefore parted with our house in Ecdeston Street 
towards the spring of 1848, and in May entered upon our 
new residence in Savile Bow, Na 12, a convenient^ roomy 
house, in a quiet situation, especially adapted to Ur« Oiole*8 
purposes and pursuits. 

^e house in Ecdeston Street was let on a twenty-one 
years' lease to Sir Thomas Fremantle, Bart 

Jenny Lind returning to England for the opera season of 
this year, onr house was once more the scene of brilliant 
musical doings : Chopin, Thalberg, Dorus Oras, shining also 
among our ** stars.** But the lamented Mendelssohn was no 
longer amongst us ; and we ourselves, in common with the 
whole artist world, felt the void caused by his loss with 
profound regret. 

In the month of July Mr. Grote and myself went to 
Newcastle, to visit his brother Joseph and his wife; Mr. 
Joseph Grote holding the poet of manager of the Newcastle 

* It is no part of my duty to otter an answer; bat I am tonptaS 
to hazard the opinion that it was owing to the non-eristenoe of the 
National Guard. The composition of that force had undergone a ' 
radical change ainco ita old admirable form of 1848. After it had 
been dissolved, and, latterly, reconstitated, the chanurter of the 
National Guaid becamo totally altered, and it was no kngor a 
genuine civic arm, but a loose, incoherent, undisciplinsd bo^/i 
made up of the inferior dass of Parisian inhabitants. 


ich of the Bank of England. Jenny Lind was for a 
couple of days a guest in hiii hooae alao^ and our partiality 
for her led us so far as to induce us to accompany her to 
Edinburgh for a few days. 

My interest in this fesdnating artist carried me farther 
stilly and I continued to bear her company f<Hr a fortnight or 
three weeks longer. (}eoige» howerer, dung to the main 
purpose of his Itfe^ and hastened back to Burnham Beeches 
to complete the printing of the fifth and sixth Tolumes of 
the History. 

Before parting with my scanty chronide of 1848, 1 must 
permit myself to note an inddent whidi, trivial enough in 
itself, illustrates the cast of Orote's sympathies in an un* 
mistakeable way. 

We were at the opera one eyening in the month of July, 
in a pit box. Between the acts, our firiend Monckton Milnes 
came into our box. Presently he whispered to me, ^You 

see that roan in the stalls^ dtting next to /* — ^WeU, 

what of him?"— "« Why, that is the euToy fiom the French 
Bepublio " (a IL Gottu, or Gotta, I forget the exact name). 
I immediately touched Orote on the deeve, handing on this 

** Bless me, is it possible I Giye me the operarglass, that 
I may see him more distinctly.** 

He gazed upon the euToy as though be were a curiority^ 
for some minutes. When Milnes left us, he said, with yisible 
emotion, ''I must go and call upon that gentleman im- 
mediately, Harriet I " 

The next morning accordingly saw Orote at the door of 
the ** Ambassador of the Bepublio,'* who, a day or two after- 
wardB» did us the honour to dine with us in Sayile Bow. 

In truth, Mr. Grote's intense interest in the experiment 
of a BqpMic led him to manifest this feeling in any form 
which occasion might give rise ta The euToy aboTC alluded 
to was, a month or two later, succeeded by M. Oustaye de 
Beaumont, who did not fed inclined to remain here after 
Genend OaTaignac had feiled in his dection for the F^ed- 
deopy, and therefore retired from the post Orote and I 


spent an evening with him and Madame de Beanmonty on the 
eve of his return to Pari8> at the official residencOy Hertford 
House, Manchester Square. That the conyersation of that 
evening was tinged with uneasy anticipations of a political 
kind may be readily conjectured. 

The fifth and sixth volumes of the ' History * were oondaoted 
through the Press during the autumn of 1848 ; but, owing 
to my absence, several sheets of the sixth volume were 
printed without my having read the prooft—the only 
sheets, I may add, of the whole of this grand work whicU 
went to press unseen by myself. I had made the maps 
for these volumes, under Grote's direction; but they were 
miserably engraved by the wood-engraver whom Mr. Murray 
employed, and we were much disappointed by their failure, 
as was Mr. Murray himself. In December the new volumes 
came out, and were, as before, eagerly welcomed by the 
reading world. Among the earliest tributes which came to 
the author was the following brief note from Mr. John Stuart 

January^ 1849. 

I have just finished reading the two volumes with the greatest 
pleasure and admiration. 

The fifUi volume seems to me all that we had a right to eoqpeot, 
and the sixth is splendid 1 

I mean te read them again at leisure, and I shsll then note 
one or two very small points to talk about, whibh I do not now 

Every great result which you have attempted to deduoe seens 
to me most thoroughly made out 

I here insert a Jong letter from G. Grote to O. 0. Lewis, 
which will afibrd an insight into his actual mind and fselings 
at this date. 

Gbougi Gbots io G. 0. Lxwis. 


^h Deeember. 184& 
I have been down here, as you suppose, employed exdusiVQly 
in my 'History' all the autumn, except one fortnight at the 
end of Septembor, when I went down with Mrs. Grote to my 
brother's, at Newcastle, and from thenoe on to Edinburgh • • • 


Mj MQk and ■iztfi Tolnmes iie just on the point of being 
puUiflhed; the last ofaapter of tlie ■iztfi Tolnme is under the 
printer** hands. I hsTO Ibnnd it impossible to get so far as the 
Sicilian expedition ; that is to saj, I hem mriUm down to that 
point, bat I oonld not possiblj ersm it into the sixth Tolnme, 
which stops at the Peace of Nikias. As it is, mj sixth Tolnme 
will be shore 600 pages long. The fiuits of the history, as I go 
on, suggest so man j reflections which I think ^nable^ that J 
cannot refirsin firom patting them down. I hope I shall not be 
thoaght to haye dealt with the matter at too great length, bat the 
fiusts giTen simpl J and nshedl j are often onaToidabl j heaiy, and 
so it strikes me thai thej become e?en in Thirlwall's Bialborj. 
Yoa will of coarse receiTe tibe two Tolomes the moment that Umbj 
are printed. 

Marraj writes me word that oB tibe copies of mj ilrst two 
Tolames are now gone ofl^ and that he wishes me to prepare a second 
edition of those two. Acoordinglj, I am going to attack them with 
this Tiew, as soon as the MUh and sixth Womes are oif my hands. 

I cannot tell yoa how moch I was shocked with poor Cbarles 
Boiler's death. I had not e?en heard that he had been iU, so that tibe 
news of his decease was sorrow and smptise combined • • c • 
Poor Charles was a roost amiaUe person. I hsTC hardly ef«r seen 
any person so winning in manners and character, and the com- 
bination of those qoalities in him, with an admirable onderstanding 
and excellent pnblic sentiments, was most rare. I do not know 
whether he sooceoded in making the Poor Law look good-natarod, 
withoat at the same time making the reality of it matter for abase. 
I beliere the thing to be impottile. 

I haye nerer seen the 'Dissertation' which yoa mention, by 
Kopetadt, bat shall send to Natt to order it 

Thongh nearly the whole of my time is ocoapied by my 
* History,' I hsTC still some feelings remaining for OontincntiJ 
politics, which present what appears to me a real progress and 
nphoaTing in men's feelings, so as to be instraotiTo and important 
as an olgect of stody. I sympathise heartily with the IVenbh 
Bepablic, and wish that OaTaignac may be chosen President The 
chances seem against it, and the election of Loais N. will open the 
door to nameroas chances and possibflitie% which no ] 
beforehand. Adiea, for tibe p re se n t 




DuBTNO tho winter of 1848-1849 Oroto and myself weie 
honoured by more than one inyitation to Windsor Gastla. 
The Queen received a small number of her subjects rasiding 
in the yicinity to witness the priyate theatrical perfonnanoet 
given in the castia 

In a letter to Mr. Senior, of January 22nd, there ooeurs a 
passage referring to this circumstance : — 

Our going to Windsor seoms to havo made quite a ** i 
I get letters daily, expressing wonderment thereat, and my firioods 
rooeive similar demonstrations from third parties in society. I 
hardly know whether tofoel affratUedoTflaUered at this ^^huUmK* 
• • • • For my part, I most say I oigoyod my evening thero 
vastly. The children were particularly interesting, and prinooly to 
behold, and I cried at tho play (*Tho Stranger'), and lauf^ied 
heartily at the &rce, &a &o. * * * * 

I wish to see you for half an hour ** on business.** Oaa you call 
upon me in Savilo Bow on Saturday? I am glad you like our Uk 
volume: John Mill admires prodigiously the sixth. 


Meeting the Earl of Liverpool at Windsor CSastle^ we 
invited him to the Beeches for a couple of days. I quota a 
letter, written immediately afterwards to Mr. Senior: — 

We havo had your firiend Lord Liverpool here. A ''talk** of 
the first magnitude ensued, — not a check, I think, from nuwnwig 
till midnight George walked him ten miles one day, which was 
a sedative, rather ; but he rallied, and kept up the game as befiMrs 
after dinner. Next came Mdlle. Wisles on a visit Fransh 
aneedotes about the recent Bevdution, interesting to a degves^ 
After Mdlle. Wixles,Beeve the great, in high Haather. ButSorope 
is getting beyond him— no use pulling the wires. The wfiid 


Uows Ml bald, bis plans are earned awaj hj ito force. Bunsen is 
**oir** to try Uf hand at diieeting tbe stcmn at Berlin. Kingship 
m, mkmAm |iig KfMP^ n n^KinlM- BoDie seeiDS in a oorioiis phsse, dso. dso. 

H. O. 

As a set-off to these/amfltar quotations, I now insert a letter 
of moie than common yalue from the Historian's own pen : — 

OnoKon ORora lo O. C. Liwu. 

Monday, Jam. 2SM, 1849. 
I baye been going through mj two first Tolnmes with a re- 
vising pen, for the second edition. I have before me tbe two 
papers of memoranda and remarks which yon were kind enoogh to 
prepare and send to me. I have considered tfaem all attentiyel j, 
adopting most of your corrections, and many of your additional 
references, and getting thus rid of seferal errors which yon 
liroaght to my yiew. Haye yon any more remarks taken down 
upon these two yolnmcs hj which I conld profit? If so, will yon 
bo so kind as to let me haye them ? I shall begin printbig pretty 
speedily,— shall probably send my fdiend first yblune to Taylor, 
as a ''copy ** to follow, on Wednesday morning. 

The alterations which I find myself called on to make, so far as 
I can yet see, are neither largo nor serioos. If I were to set to, 
and do the whole thing oyer again from the beginning, I suppose 
that I could now do it bettor than it stands in the printed 
Tolmnes. At the same time, I think snob an improyement would 
not bo worth the trouble it would cost— of course, long and 
absorbing trouble— of re-writing the two yolumes. I shall there- 
fore contont myself with correcting or omitting what is positiyely 
erroneous, and adding such few additional illustrations as may 
•eem adyisable, so that it will really be md^ a second edition, and 
not a new book under that name. 

On re-perusing my chapter on the Homeric poems, I cannot say 
that my opinion on any of the points touched upon is shaken or 
altered. In deference to your opinion and that of the other friends 
with whom my judgment has not found &your, I shall modify 
what I haye said about the positiye merits of the ninth book, and 
soften the yerdict which I haye deliyered, ^ that it is unworthy of 
the remaining poem." I shall not presume to set my own critical 
taste on such a point in yiolent opposition with that of other 
judges equally or more competent. 

But with regard to the coimection <rf the incident leoooated in 

1S49-1860. LETTBR TO 0. a LEWI& 101 

tho ni&tli book with the main story of tho poem, tlie pvoob wliioli 
I have adduoed to show that it is a sabseqaent edition still seen 
to mo oondiisiTe. Whether it is an addition hj tho same, or 1^ a 
different anther, is matter of inference more or less nnoertain. Jfy 
inference still points to different anthorship, hat I shall not 
pretend to prononnoe on this question with the same eonfidenee. 
I mnst say that, on reriewing my remarks on tibe stmctare and 
conception of the poem, and on the proof which it exhibits of parts 
original and parts superadded, I still think them perfectly jvst 
and sound, as well as coincident with antecedent probability. I 
shall distinguish, by words more pointed than I have yet done, 
between that which I think vUihle in the poem, and tho inferences 
as to one or many authors, whioh may reasonably be deduced 
therefrom, but which must always remain inferior in certainty. 

I hopo you have been pleased with the fifth and sixth Tolvnes. 
The few verdicts which I hsTC yet heard are as &Toarable as I 
could reasonably hope. 

I have recently read Lord Herrey's Memoirs, on the reooni- 
mendation of a friend. If you have not read them I recommend 
them to your notice, for they really afford the best eKpo§S of the 
real interior of a court which I have ever happened to light upon, 
resting, too, upon eyidenco which seems above all suspicion. 

Think how hardly Lord Henrey has been used 1^ having been 
always hitherto judged according to tho satirical picture of SporuB^ 
in Popol This is just the way in which the libels iji Axisto- 
phanos have produced their effect uncontradicted. 

I am coming to town for a day or two on Friday or Satuidsy, 
and shall hope to bo ablo to havo a little conversation with yoa. 
It is lucky that this Tooting cholera did not happen while yoa 
wore at the head of tho Poor Law Office. How the ^Tibms' 
would have set upon you 1 

To resume the thread of our personal proceedings. Be- 
fleeting upon the peril and disquietude suffered by our 
esteemed French friends during the last twelve montfat, 
Grote felt moved to show his sympathy with them by 
repairing to Paris for a week or two. We put up at the 
H8tei Bristol, staying there about a fortnight, or rather more. 

To find himself actually livinff wider a Bq^ubUe, caused 
Grote to feel unwontedly excited, although he could not 
help entertaining serious misgivings as to the stability 
of ''the concern.'* He was elated, too, by the 


attending his two new Tolames, the society of the French 
friends fhrnished abnndant aliment for his ** intellectual 
man/* and thus the s^imr proved to George Oiote singnlarly 
prodactiye of enjoyment 

I most hero hare reoonrse to oorrespondenoe again to help 
my nanatiTO. 

We aie come btok a week since. 

I sapposo yoa read my letftors in 'SpocMor/ which I consider 
go for ** general correspondenco ** when I sm abroad. Besidesy 
*G«lignani' reprinted them, so that my Inoafarations wero wdl 
diifased, I was ill fbrfiyedaysatParisialasI and have been again 
Bnffinringv or should haye written sooner to yoa • • • a ny 
healfli growing more and more deplomUe^ I haTC engaged myself 
to retom to Parisi and vndei^ a course of antinumralgic remedial 
treatment for a coaple of monthsi as a dendhre r a n o are s . It is 
quite a ^ pill to swallowi** for I had hoped to spend a spring in the 
coimtiy once before I died, and to write much that is in my poor 
head, less feeble intdlectmOly than material^, a • a • Ix^moo 
in yoor oonTcnion, which, in importance to "thecanse^** is only 
secoiidtothatof8tFaiil,inUtoeation. • • • • Yes»sir,ihe 
popiilation priA>lem is the point on which fMQxe weal or woe to man- 
kind hinges. I see J. S. IL has had the triumph of bringing yoa 
orer. • • • • ^Soe his reriow of Brougham's pamphlot, in 
' Westminster Beriew.*) Georgo, wonderfully freshcnod up with his 
""outing" and hard at work on ""the lapstone** again. Second 
edition of toIs. L and iL ooming out direotly. I shall drop my 
children at Boulogne, with goremess, for bathing. 

H. O. 

I oxecuted my project, taking a pleasant and roomy apart- 
ment in the Champs filys^es, with a fine riew oyer the 
south suburbs. My physician oommenoed his treatment 
with the most watchful care ; but my unrelenting neuralgia 
appeared to defy all remedies. iUler two months' stay 
(during which Jenny Lind shared my lodgings for part of 
May, and, indeed, up to our deparUiro from Paris), Mr. 
Orote joined mo, and passed ten days with me. 

I subjoin extiacte from the indispensable ^'letters'* of the 

1849-1860. STAT IN PARia 198 

M Jwme, 1849. 
Onr plana remam fixed to loavo Paris next weeL Jenny goes 
back to Sweden after alL I will toll yon about it anon. We dined 
at the Engljgh Embaaay on Sunday last, to meet Madame Oatalanil 
The two great operatio reputations of our oentury, herself and Lind 
—ages, twenty-eight and serenfy— departed, and regnant queens 
of English hearts; most interesting. Nobody else, saTO one 
Englishman (Mr. Standish) and jfour **Lionne,** 'U»Amn^ ^ 
Gontaut, who came in the evening, uninrited (not knowing oay- 
body was there), but who stayed, of course, and condescendingly 
flitted about, saying, ^ G'est un beau talent," after Jenny had sung. 

N was bursting with his greatness, sitting between the tZZst- 

(riwi'ms abore noted, and talking Italian to Catalan! ever and 

As to my plans for August, thermometer at 90^ forbids. Oeorge*s 
arrival, in one respect, is rather inopportune, because Jenny can 
never digest that ** dictum " of his which you wot ofl However, he 
is enchanted to find himself once more by my side, and Aai in 
Paris, where he always enjoys himself. He arrived just in time for 
the English Ambassador's dinner. * * *^ This ministry is as 
strong a one as could bo found at the present moment, and has 
only the misfortune of being headed by Barrot, who is not reso- 
lute enough to hold them togothor. • • • 

Wedneadajff ^ih June. — Heat continues, so that it is hopeless to 
think of I'Exposition dlndustrio oven. Cholera gains upon Paris. 
Our dinner pleasant yesterday (at Hotel dos AJ&iros-£trangires). 
I could think of nothing but that I was sitting on the ruins of 
Guizotry. It took hold of mo completely, the very spot where the 
revolutionary ** initiative " took rise boing under my nose. * • • 
Jenny came to the Hotel at 9 oclock, and was affi&ble. M. le 
Ministre whispered me at parting, ** Elle est ckarmante/' She sings 
fov* the Swedes, at their Embassy, on Friday evening. • • • • 
I sent your hat by Charles Sumner, last Saturday. We all rode in 
evening, last Monday — delightful rido, — till nearly nine, in Bois 
de Boulogne, moon up, &c L^on Say in attendance, as Jenny's 
" cavalier.** * We hear that the French army is to attack Bome 
de naxK If so, I shall have to give up my last hope in De Tocque- 
ville. • • • • The more I hear, the more it seems certain that 
**sooialism" has got a footing in ihe protineee. I cannot see b^ 
way out of that dreadful difficulty, if such prove to be the fact. 
H. O. 

* The Prefect of the Seine, in 1872. 


We all left Paris on the ISth of June, on wluoh day 
Paris was declared in a state of siege, bat no signs of dis- 
tnrbance weie visible as we passed throned tlie citj to the, 
Bailway dn Nord. 

At Amiens we parted from Jenny Lind, and sped oarway 
to England. A few weeks later we reoeired a Tisit from 
oar Swedish relatires, at the Beeches. After their de- 
partare, the months of Angost, September, October were 
qaietly spent there. Here are extracts from a letter written 
aboat this time : — 

Mrs. Osoni io Nassau W. Siwior. 

a B^ IM Augitd, 1840. 

I reoeived yours from Bordeaoz, and, two days ago, tibe one 
dated Eanz Bonnes. Olad all wont smoothly and agroeshly. I 
am afraid that your ideas on pdlitios will heeome mrae and mor^ 
em^roMiZI^ as yon listen to Froibh talkers. It will oost me a world 
of trouble to oondnot yonr understanding hack to my clear Tiews 
on those subjects. Tocquerille's speeches hare giTon me sinoeie 
disquiet (]{piiium« I can allow ibr and weloome; hut such audacious 
aeeertions as he made about *^ the population of Borne haring been 
ooeroed 1^ a Uction^'* and all that stuil^ really was ino IVenbh for 
my Btomaoh. De Tooquerille was my pet Frenchman^ and I feel 
Tory sore at his shortoomings. 

I had a bad aech last week — blasted fije days; and ohlorofoiln 
proTod, after a couple of hours, wholly inoperatiTe I I inhaled it 
through a machine till I was half suffocated — ''no effects.** I 
really fed as if I ought to make another effort at a euro, and try 
the water treatment proper this autumn : nothing else, I see, has a 
chance. Meanwhile, we are nearly arrived at a reeolution to quit 
this place ; at least, to let it for three years or more. It is a hope- 
less expenditure of trouble and detail ; superintendence on my part 
ending in, at most, a resigned acquiescence on O.'s part to a rural 
existence. • • • • 

I no longer feel disposed to pass my life at B. B., seeing that of 
late years George's learned pursuits hare become so absorbing as 
to render him aTcrse to sll oountiy ideas and recreations, as well 
as to reoeiTing risitors ; so that I am checked and cooled in my 
interest in the places for want of a congenial partner in the associa- 
tions which this form of existence generates. Therefore let him 
have his home in town, and then I shall less hesitate to leave 


him occasionaUy, wheUier in puraoit of health or refimihmg society, 
for my own benefit • • • • 

S. Loyd is gono to hia &iher*8 (without, howoTer, dying fint) : 
wo oil rojoioe at the event, which indioates a ngppro6kememL The 
weather is fine, bnt not warm. Harvest magnificent, and now faUy 
at work. Our lanes are impassable for wains charged with the 
precious sheaves of wheat; whilst the face of the ooontiy is most 

fth fr""i»g " 

The months of Augast, September, and October, wore 
passed at Bamham Beeches^ portly occupied in printing 
the seventh volume of the ' History.' Mrs. Grote's health 
being deplorably bad, she aud George Grote set ofiT for 
Malvern late in October, in the hope of finding relief from 
trying the water-cure there. Stormy weather coming on, 
however, the experiment was abandoned, and we continued 
to reside at Bumham the rest of the year 1810, pursuing our 
habitual occupations, with scarcely an interruption from 

1850. — ^In London January, February, and March; the 
seventh and eighth volumes of the 'History' appearing in 
the latter month. Of the former volumes a review had 
recently been written for the ' Edinburgh Review,' by Q. C, 
Lewis; and Grote addressed to his friend the following letter 
of acknowledgment : — 

Gboboi Gdoti to G. G. Lewis. 

12, S A VILE Kow, 25M January^ 1860. 

I am most truly sorry to bo in such a state of health to-day as 
mukus it impossible for me either to enjoy society or to move. A 
lumbago and a cough have combined to disable me oompletoly. 

I cannot refrain from telling yon by letter what I had hoped to 
tell you in person — how much I have been gratified by the perusal 
of your article in the * Edinburgh Review.' It is highly agreeable 
and fiattering to read what you say about my work and its execu- 
tion. But what is of much importance is, that yon touch the 
subject itself in a worthy manner, which betokens knowledge of 
your own, and views of your own ; so that your praise, and yoor 
ooncurrenoe with the author whom you review, really count for a 
valuable item of evidence. 

It is an article both soholarlike and philosophioal ; and the 

o 2 


editor might baTe looked a long while befine he fimmd another 
men oompetent to write it. 

. I ■hell not Bkj anything more in this note, hoping aeon to be 
well 9aufQg)aL to talk it oTer with yon pereonallj. 

In August I set off for the north of England, in order 
to yisit some old friends, Mr. and Mrs. Ord, at Whitfield, 
in Northnmberland, liliss Senior accompanying me on tbis 
excondon. Mr. Grote joined me at Derby early in September, 
and after a few days spent at one of onr fiuins in Lincoln- 
shire^ we paid a risit to Mr. Edward Strott in Nottingham- 
shire. Whilst at Kingston Hall, Grote took part in a SfMrited 
game at cricket, along with the Ber. H. Malthns and Sir 
John Bomilly, then AttOTney-GeneiaL I insert here a letter 
wbich will be read with intmst :— 

Gnoaan Gaon Is G. 0. Lawn. 

BuBBaAM Bbbcbss, Slouos, 

l(Uh ^epUmber, 18fia 

I called upon yon at the Treasory on Thursday last, being 
in town for throe or four days, between a Tisit whidi Mrs. Oiote 
and I baTo just been making to Mr. and Mrs. Strutt and onr 
coming down here, whero wo arriyod on Saturday, and whore wo 
intend to stay for the present • • • • 

I am working on with my * History/ baying got beyond the Peaoe 
of Antalkidas. I have doroted throe chapters to the narratiye of 
the AnabasiB, eereral portions of which I baye presented (as I 
think) in a new point of yiew. It makes a yery interesting tale, 
and hM been handled at considerable length both by Mitfoid 
and by Thirlwall ; so I baye thought it necossaiy to bestow as 
much space upon it as would enable me really to bring out the 
sentiment, as well as the philosophy, of Xenophon's redteL It is 
a terrible loss to be diyoroed from Thm^ydidos, with whom I had 
been so long in intimate communion. 

I was much n|joiced to hear (when at Strutf s house) from Sir 
J. Bomilly, whom I met there, that the oomments and new eipla- 
nations in my last two yolumes, on yarious passages of Thuoydides, 
had met generally with &yonr and acceptance among the deed at 

He bears tbis from his cousin, Joseph Bomilly, who is a resident 
tutor at the Uniyersity. This is the best news which I can eipect 

1840-1860. LETTER TO Q. a LEWia 197 

M to Cantabrigian opinion ; for as to the tone and aentimept of mj 
book, I know that tkcU mnat be repugnant to them. John Bomillj 
is one of the members of the Commission for inquiring into ilui 
UniTorsity of Cambridge, and appears to be very earnest in tibe 
matter. I think both the two Commissions are oomposed of men 
as liberal-minded as it was possible to put upon them* One eannot 
expect mnoh profitable result, however (I fear) from any of their 
suggestions — even if the university dignitaries were more willing 
to oo-operate than can reasonably bo supposed : because the sdheme 
and practice of education, even as now pursued, is quite on a lovel 
with the standard of intellectual and moral character, as recognised 
among the adult IHiblic without, and no considerable improvement 
in education could find acceptance until some loftier idea is fonned 
of the objects to be aimed at. 

Something might bo done about Fellowships, perhaps, to maka 
them the means of protecting from want laborious men of seienoe 
or letters, who are employed fur years together in unremuneratave 
study and production. 

No man can write a long work on history or philosophy who has 
not means of support independent of what the work is to produce. 

I hope your official duties, during the vacation at least, are not 
sufficiently absorbing to prevent you from continuing literary pur- 
suits, and that, too, with definite end of publication. There is 
nothing like having some such end in view for giving value and 
importance to all that one reads in the way of illustration or 

The persons within my knowledge, from whom any sound rea- 
soning or instruction is to bo expected, are so few in number, that 
I do not like to see any of them unemployed. Mrs. Orote is 
tolerably well — ^much as usual. Pray give our united regards to 
Lady Theresa. 

Late in the autumn Mr. Bain paid us a long visits and witli 
him the Historian took daily walks, and discussed Tarions 
profound subjects with great relish. I find the following 
entry in the diary of December, 1850 : — 

^Mr. Grote has steadily progressed with his ninth and 
tenth volumes during this year, and is now almost in a 
condition to announce them as going to press. 6rote*s health 
has stood pretty well during this year (1850) ; but during my 
absence in the north of England (he remaining in Savile 


Bow, by pieferenoe) he was not well» being plagued with 
tabercles in the month, with other indications of a deranged 
condition of the blood. Dr. Babington attended and phy- 
sicked him for three weeks, bnt it was not until the middle 
of October that he (Surly got rid of the Texatious little ulceis 
under the tongue^ by tiie use of sanapariUa, which I pre- 
vailed upon him to take.** 

The final months of this year (1850) were passed at 
Bnmham, to which residence we were never more to return. 
Tlie house and garden was let to the widow of Sir Lancelot 
Shadwell, and the land to our own gardener and tenant^ John 
James. Tliis step had become nee oasa ry on account of 
Mrs. Crete's barl health, which was unequal to the task of 
directing two estaUishments, and it was also the desire of 
Hr. Grote to spend more ci his time in Londcm, for the sake 
of the access it afibrded to public libraries. 

The Queen invited us again during this winter, to her 
theatrical '^soir^*' to which we lepaiied accordingly, to my 
unfeigned enjoyment Mr. Orote superintended the printing 
of the third edition of Tdumes three and fimr of the ' History ' 
during the autumn, and this duly came out in the beginning 
of December. 

(if04. visrr TO lord LiVBftrooL. 190 



TteK nwidonco at East Barnham being given ap to I^idy 
SkMiiw^lK wo removed to LodcIou early in January. After a 
ti^w we^fcii I prevailed upon Mr. Grote to accept an invitation 
JK^Mi Livrd Liverpool to pay him a visit at Bnxted Park. 
\W w^nt down to Lewes, and posted across in our own 
carruk^ to that pleasant abode, from whence I addressed a 
hHtcr to Trieud Senior, as follows: — 

Mrs. Obotb io Mr. Snaoa. 

BuxTBD Park, Sussix, 

7tk Ftbrmar^, 1851. 

• • • ^ Overoomo by the worry of settling my hoosehold, I 
;]rN>ldvd to two temptations, and logged the Historian with me Io 
tbo Milipoml * last week for a couple of days, which we ei\joyed 
rvally very much. Theresa was in evory respect agreeable and 
cengenial, and ** Old George" put out his best faculties to be tibe 
hospitable host of the Mill. Nobody there but Madame M^ and 
the children ; Yilliers included, who is at Cambridge now, and a 
promising youth enough. George Lewis walked the Historian 
hugely ; and they were happy over their learning and their vast 
doubts of everything 1 

Wo next aooepted a cordial invitation to spend a few days with 
Lord Liverpool, and came down yesterday, in one of the nuneroos 
beautifU days which have been so bounteously granted us this 
winter. A fine and curious old library (of Sir George Shaekbar^'s 

* ^'The Millpond" is the name which I had bestowed upon the 
residence of Mr. G. 0. Lewis and Lady Theresa, near to Lord Olarea- 
don's seat, The Grove, near Watford. It was, in fact, the Miller^s 
house, amplified and embellished, so as to form a summer dwelling 
for Lord Clarendon's relations when required. 


colleetiiig) unfolds the eontento of iii oloieli before mj goodmaii, 
wlio is enchanted to find siieh tnesniee round him, thoogh his 
taste for bibliographioal cmrumUim is not so UftLj as thai of some 
other scholars. 

The eolleotiony howeier, is in itself hig^ j intevesting^ and of a 
solid character. 

I sent yon three 'Speetalors' to Naples, hot it does not appear 
that one reached yon I I fancy newqpapets are the most feared of 
all imports there. 

Yon do not know how much joa hsTO escaped by being oat 
of Engknd this winter: not so mnch as to the fogi (of which 
however, we hsTO had so little to complain, thai yon need hardly 
hsTe feared themX bat the talk of the ** Papal Aggression," which 
has absorbed all other topics. I own n^yself one of the *^ narrow- 
minded bigots" who woald £un see the Pope receiTe an emphatic 
reboke for his presamptooos proceeding, ftaring the fMue pro- 
gross of his encroaching species. BatofcoantolfindTery &wto 
uphold me in my Tiews. Henry Beore, howeror, elands by me^ and 
I suspect that Mrs. Austin, if she eoM bring herself to adopt an 
opf sMNi on any subject, would side with me. Cardinal Wiseman 
paid her a long Tisit last week (at Weybridge), and the impression 
left on her mind wis that he had kst his headl "fihe passed a 
couple of days with us in SaTile Bow, and was very good company, 
Austin staying alone at Weybridge. • • • • Don't you know what 
is the matter with John Austin ? He has been languishing for the 
want of a listener, erer since Lucy left them in their meol-ee/e of 
a house, which, by the bye, has killed the Nubian, and no wonder I 
Ever since, J. A. has moulted, like a sick bird ; but the presence 
of a listener (or listeners) will reriTO him like magic, you will 
see. It is the indispensable condition of his existence ; lofifc, and 
WMmdogieal talk. 

After our yisit to Baxted Park, which we found Tery 
agreeable, we stayed qaietly in Sarile Bow for the next 
two months. I find in Diary of 12th April this entry : — 

''Greorge has bought books of Alex. Durlaoher to the 
amount of 13U. We have been leading a very domestio 
life, scarcely crossing the threshold after 6 o'dodc pjc, and 
seeing mighty little company at home, George steadily 
plying his labours^ and I amusing myself with my customary 


I subjoin a short note of literary interest: — 

Qbobob Gbotb to G. C. Luna. 

12, Bayils Bow, Ifoy 27(A, 1851. 

I am much obliged to yon for sending me tlie botsniosl notes, 
which I horowiih return, haying taken aooonnt of the sabstanoe 
of them in my oopy of Arrian. It is highly satisfiMstoiy to find 
that his statements stand examination so welL 

I have ordered Schneidewin's edition of Heradides. 

The first Great Exhibition, in Hyde Park, was the leading 
feature of the summer of 1851. We spent a vast deal of 
time in the building, at intervals, and were called npon to 
show much attention to the foreign visitors who flocked over 
to this novel and attractive show. M. Uon Fauchery tlien 
Minister of the Interior under the Republic, paid ns a visit of 
ten or twelve days in Savile Bow. Madame Fanober and the 
secretary accompanied bim, and were also lodged in our 

We hired a villa for two months of this summer, at 
Boehampton, where we usually passed three days of every 
week, the racket of London proving almost intolerable to 
both George and myself. In October we both went to Exeter 
to visit our children, whom we saw fit to remove from the 
charge of Mr. and Mrs. Box, placing them under the care of 
their aunt, on the same terms which we had agreed to pay 
/or the three to Mr. Box. 

Before leaving Devonshire we made a little excuraioiL 
to Dartmoor, taking with us Mrs. Trelawny and IIisb 

I find this entry in Diary of September, 1851 : 

"The success of Grote's 'History* is exceedingly great, 
and even remunerative." 

The annexed letter is likely to be read with more than 
common interest The variety of the learning which it offers 
to the scholar-friend's attention makes this a rich possessioii 
for the modern student of philosophy : — 


Gbobos Oaonn to O. C Liwn. 

0d6be$' li/, 1851. 

I am much oliligod to yon for whftl joa nj about Mr. Bainsbmy. 
Pray reooUoct that I do not mean to aak any fktonr for hun. 

^o intoriNretation of ^cAomiAoi^cy fur ^Sr^kda^ which yon and 
Waddington giTO, is not tho true one in my judgment ^ We 
cuUivaU ike fine arte wUhmU needleee efl^pauM," is a aontimait 
which (though tho mfianing of the words will rexj naturally bear 
it) would not be proubunced by PeriUeSi and would not be oiiher 
assented to or relished by his hearers. First, it was not true as 
matter of fi^t: and not only it wu not tme^ but the contraiy was 
emphatically true. The ornamental outljay in Adiens had been 
prodigiously great, and was also quite leoent (See my * History/ 
ToL tL pp. S6-82.) Horeorer, it had been tsleii<»0iiaOy great, in 
order that tho^ev^ ^it (Thueyd. L 10) of the eily might beoomo 
imposing. Nort, I apprehend that the Athenians genraally woro 
proud (religiously as well as politicallyX not only of haTing 
achiered a great result in this way, but also of having eonsjMiratod 
so large a sum of money to what th^ aeoounted a noblo digoot 
They would think it the rererse of a compliment to bo told that 
they had got the result at a small cost A marble statue of AthAnA 
might be as fine (artistically speaking) as one of ivory and gold : 
neTortheless, they thought the latter material more suitable, because 
it was more costly. BecoUoct that the outlay here alluded to 
was all jMfl outlay, not froepeeUee outlay, which makes a great 

If the Propylaea had not then eiisted, Perikles would not have 
proposed, and the people would not have tolerated, a prospectiTe 
outlay of two thousand talents to construct them, at a time when 
Athens was beset by war. But since the Propylaea did exist, the 
people would like to tako credit, not merely for the imposing 
aspect which th^ presented, but also for the great sum which 
they had cost 

I think on these grounds, that cmX«&if, as you interpret it, 
e xpr e ss e s a sentiment not suitable either for Perikles or for tho 
hearers. About ^iXomiXoilj^Acy, too, I also difibr with you. If 
Thuoydides or Perikles had intended to bring into Tiew cUstinctly 
tho <mUay for public works and monuments, I think he would 
hardly haTO used the word ^cXoMiAoiyA«r, but some other word mor« 
apeoially appropriate. The word ^iAoao^oiv««r, which immediately 
follows, ofidently does not refor to a^y partieular measures or pto* 

1861. LETTEB TO O. 0. LBWia 203 

ooodings of tho gOfremmeDti and it appears to me tbat ^iXoiaXo^Mr 
oonroIateB with it in this xeapeot Both refer to tho tasteii amti- 
montSy and pnrBoita, proralent among tho oitiions gooArally, and 
manifesting tfaomselTes both in priTste prooeedings and in pnUie. 
The words fMr' cmXcm^ equiyalent to avw woXvnkdB$, seem to me 
to indkato that the tone of sentiment ealled t& ^iXncaXor was oom- 
mon to the poorest oitisens as well as to tho rioh, and to men who 
were oontent with their poTerty. To ^ikomXw had a natoral 
tondenoj, more or less (as modem eiperienoe teaches ns that it has 
oren now), to seduoe men into a Ioto of eipense— jnst as ri 
^lAocro^iy has a tendency to make them set less Talne on hodilj 
training and endurance : tiie sentence of PeriUes goes to negative 
both these tendencies at Athens. ** Onr poorest oitiaons haie a 
keen relish for fine poetry, eloquence, art, and grace of eterj 
kind f this is what was true of Athens, and has nerer perhaps 
been true of any community sinca I haye transkted €SnXda% 
*< simplicity of life" (to bo literal), I ought to have tiandated 
unexpamvenea ; but this is a woid too cumbrous to emplcj. 
I hsTO giTcn you here a dissertation instead of a* letter, whidi, I 
hope (without being sure), to make satisfactory to you as a Tindi^ 
cation of my rendering. The commentators generally do not go 
along with your view of the words, though neither do they fiil^ 
agree with mine. 

In Comto*8 fifth Yolumo there is a great deal which is as unsatia» 
factory to me as it is to you. In his speculations respecting what 
ho caUs sociology and tho progress of society, I find moro to dissent 
from than to agree with. I respect Tory much his concepticm of 
philosophical method, especially with reference to the ^ysioal 
sciences ; but his views respecting history and the moral seienoes 
are, in my judgment, on many points firalty and untonaUe. I 
agreo with you in thinking that ** an abtiract JUitorff^** independent 
of time, place, and person, is a chimera. But there are, nererthe- 
less, certain general conditions and principles, common to all par- 
ticular histories, and which are eisential to enable us to explain 
and concatenate the facte of e?ery particular history. Thttse 
general principles and conditions of human society may be pre* 
Bontod by themselyes, with illustrations firom this or that partkmlar 
history. In this way you may haTO what may be called (naj im- 
properly, I think) an abiiraei kUiofji^ or, what I should call, a 
philosophy of history. 

John Mill says more in praise of Oomte's speculations on hislocy 
than I think they deserve. Yon say you have no distinot notion 
of feUehitm, as representing a stage of the human mind. I have 


(aI kMi^so it seems to me) a yvj diatiiict iiofftoii of it,lmt I cUmbt 
T«rj miidi,M matter of hci, whetlier it ever oonstitated so maiioed 
a stage of tho himiaii mind as Gomte would make oat His aiBr- 
mations on this point,— positiye beyond all lessonaUo estimate of 
the existing eridenoe, — vindicate that he has not himself got rid of 
that tendeney which he so jastlj condomns in others— the hanker- 
ing to divine the mysteries of inchoate or primordial man, where 
there is no torch to light up the dark catenL 

I agree with yon also in thinking that mnoh of what ho says 
about polytheism is finoifiil or inocnreoti Think of a man 
sssnming it as an aiieded /ad (mm/aii ctgpilal, t. 354) that Thales 
actoally taught tho Egyptian priests to measure the height of the 
pyramids by tho length of tho shadows I J set little Valna npon 
what he says respecting polytheism and mciMr^heism; bat I agree 
entirely with his dassifkistion of the two stages of the human 
mind rHat Mologique (either polytheistio or monotheistieX and 
r^taljNMiti/, together with what he cells VMai mHapk^mque, to foim 
a bridge between them, and I think he has the merit of baring set 
forth the radical antithesis and incompatibility between tiiese two 
modes of interpreting phenomena belter and more emphatically 
than it had ever been done befiire. He keenly IMs and clearly 
peroeiTes where it li that religion traveraes and pe nrert s the inter- 
pretation of physicsl phenomena. But as to mind or mteUl phe- 
nomena, he recognises no standard except his own taste and fiBclmg ; 
and this has boon passiTely adopted, in him, from the Catholio 
teaching of his youth, though he has eliminated all the religious 
iekafaMda(fe with which it was once connected. 

What he calls progrem is often, in my judgment, ohange for the 
worse ; and the general indications which he holds out of what is 
to be aimed at (for he nerer sets down or defends any rational 
standard) are just what you would hear from a Gatholic priest, 
always excepting tho religious doctrines. His morality is the 
oommoaplaoe of Catholic dirines of the present day— dirinising 
chastity, and making light of indiTidual pmdenoo ; and he applies 
this standard to judge of the morality of Athens and Borne, as if 
all the points on which they difiered from it were points of com- 
paratiye corruption. 

Moreorer, I do not at all trust his knowledge of tho faeit nit 
histoiy. He has nerer gone through any careful study of tho 
eridence,nor eror road anything beyond tho expooitions of Bossuet 
and Montesquieu, and a few such others— certainly men deserring 
of much respect, but by no means to be impUciUy followed, and 
both immstaed in that Catholio ataMwplisre which Oonte takes to 

1851. VISIT TO PARia 205 

bo tho true (Xjrii^wt, or region of pure air, to wliieh tho moral wasa 
has at longth aaoondod, and boyond which he oannot and oii|^ aot 
to aspiro. Gomto has banished the Ocd$^ hut he faroathoa and 
extols their atmosphere of morality as if it were purity itsaUL I 
do not know whether you will understand or follow the remadni 
which I haTe made on Gomte ; the sabjeot is almost too wide to 
be touched on in a letter. 

Shortly after our return to London we were saddened by 
the news of Lord Liyer|)oor8 death, at Bnxted, after one or 
two days* illness. We regretted his loss sincerely, both as a 
Toluable citizen and as an esteemed associate. His life was 
cut short by an attack of pleurisy, consequent on taking a 
chill ; his constitutional tendency to gout rendering the oase 
a di£Scult one to treat. 

Li the month of November I went over to Parisi meuiing 
to spend a couple of months in that city, partly to escape the 
winter fogs of London, and partly to break the dull seoson of 
winter, dreading a long and dark ^ spell " of the unwholeeome 
air of London, ever prejudicial to my health. 

During the period of my stay in Paris, Grote superintended 
the printing of his ninth volume, sending tlie prooft orer, 
regularly, for my correction and opinion. The memoreble 
ecnip dCMai of the 2nd December, 1851, gave occasion to a vast 
deal of exciting correspondence between London and Paris» 
of which I can only afford a very few samples. Prior to 
these, however, I introduce some matter of a diflTerent com- 
plexion^ wliich will help to mark the course of English politios 
and parties. 

Mrs. Obots io Mr. Skmiob. 

Pabis, AbMMtitr, 186L 

I send you a rooord of a oonversation which was oarried on 
behind me on Monday lost (in French, of course), and whioh I 
have translated and reported, with strict voraoity, within two hours 
of the uttering thereof. It is, to my thinking, a ^ naif resnm^" 
of tho state of the English mind at this moment; and it is remark- 
able how well certain Frenchmen soem to comprehend thedeielop- 


mentof thodcmooraiiodeiiionlmilieiriinghlx^^ • • • 

Fftiicher is regretted bj all tho friends of tirong-liAiided gofwn* 
SMnti and is belMTing with great propriety Slid forbearaiioe. * * • 
Praj tsko care of the 'Dialogue* till forUier order% showing it to 
whom yon list, of oonxse. T. J. P. will kindle into lage at the 
latter part of i^ I expect 

A real dialogue, faithfully recorded by an ear-witnesR^ in 
one of the Tribunes of tlie National Assembly. After a long 
discussion between a Frenchman and an Englishman (a gien- 
tleman) conoeming Parts politics, the Frenchman, who 
seemed to be of a superior stamp, well bred, and of intelli- 
gent mind, suddenly changing his tones, said : — 

FrenekmaiL — Well, and how about your aiBurs in England? 

Etiglulkwiam. — Oh, wo are doing well enough, at present, thero. 

JP. — But what is this refonn measure whioh th^ say Lord John 
Bussell is about to ocmecde? 

^—Nobody knows, exactly, wkai it will be^ yet 

JP.— Why does he giTO a fresh refbrm at all? 

K — ^Why, because ono^ must giTO ^somolhing'' from time to 
time,~aud the timo would seem to be airiTod now. Better gmm it 
than wait till it is foroed from us. Suoh is always the maxun with 
our {sOTommcnt 

F. — Do you think, then, that a fiurther ooncession to the popular 
dwnandg will lead to a diminution of the influenoo of your aristo- 
emoy in the conduct of a£GEurs? 

E. — Well, na I think the landed proprietors will always ** hold 
their own" under all changes in England. It is the landed 
gentry, including our nobility, who really direct the OoTemment 
in our country— and always hayo done so. 

H— And you think they will not be harmed, then, by another 
reform moTe? 

E. — No, not sensibly. 

F. — How do you expect your next elections will turn out? 

£—1 expect that the Whigi will gain by them. 

F.— The Badicals, too? 

E.— No, not the Badicals, oertainly. The Whigs will gain, in 
oonseqaeDco of Lord John's new measure, I imagine. 

F. — Ah, but how do you know how much that will be worth? 
Ym example, do you suppose he will oonoede the Ballot? 

iBL— (Withamovomsntofanger.) Oh, the deril I the BaUot 1— 
l&s< indsedl 


f.— Wen, I Mk yon, will Lord Jolm jiM the Bellol or aolt 
That ifly tdper ell, the tonchiitone 4>f popular refimii— in mj 

^.—People do mj that Lord John meam to gm the BaUot* if 
left to lUmBelf. 

JFl— But yoa mnat needs think that, if he grants thisi the eo«no 
of yonr elections must in&llibly nndorgo a change in Aitme t 

E. — ^Without doobt — no denying that 

f.— And the aristocracy of England can nefer maintain tMr 
present ascendency in the GoTemment after the Ballot is esla> 

B. — ^They certainly cannot 

F.— (After a pauso.) As formysolf, I detest the Balloi I 

K — And 1 also. I do not dissomble it 

F. — ^Woll, hat why should Lord John oontemplate making so 
vital an alteration in the electiyo system ? 

E, — One must adjust the laws so as to suit the taste of the 
puldio mind. One is obliged, in England, to march with the ex- 
pression of public opinion. 

F. — But do you mean to say that the Ballot «• distinetly de- 
manded by the people, then, ckeM voub f 

E.— (Hesitatingly.) Mais • • • • uil 

JP. — Ah! indeed (another pause — ^resumes). Tell me what is 
to be understood by the son of Sir Bobert Peel taking office under 
the Whig ministry. 

E. — It means that ho prefers sonring under Lord John BusselFs 
GoTomment, to serring under a more liberal one. 

F.— What, then, is the Whig Ministry not the most liberal party ? 

E. By no means. The OoTemment of Lord John Bussell is far 
less liberal, less &TOurable to the ideas of the age than Sir James 
Graham and his followers are disposed to bo ; and Mr. Frederiok 
Pod chooses to enlist under an aristocratic and OonsenratiTe party, 
rather than under a more thorough Liberal one. Lord John's 
Government is essentially Conservative, believe me. 

F. — ^You surprise me ; but you are a Whig, are you not? 

^.—Tes, I am a Whig; that is to say, a Oonservativei 

The following letter is from George Grote to his wife :— • 

LoNDOH, Ml Decemhtft 1861. 


I have just received your letter of yesterday, which I was 
very anxious to receive, in consequence of the astoimdiDg events 
at Paris. 


Politieallj, its ooofec^iionooe oro incalculable : friglitful and ini»^ 
ehiofoiifl to tbe last degree. FersandljTf to jod, I tbink there ig 
nothing whatever to •.lami or diAturb jon; though I shall not 
wonder if it abridges jour staj at Paria, for I should think tbo 
place will hardlj eoniinue plcoeiuit for a stnuiger. Howovor, 
judge about that aooarding to jour tnvn foeUuga. 

This is indeed a rerolntion a la NftpoUan. I abctain from any 
of the thonaand matters tvhich it suggests to mj mind, except odo 
Bangle reflection ; and that is, m roforoBca to ChaBgaruier and the 
majority of the Ghamber. They havo been bolpiog, and ewen out- 
running, the Proeident^ for tbe last two years, in crashing oTory- 
thing like pnUio liberty and tho poptilar force* They haTo dono 
this without seeing that the popular force formed tho only security 
to ikewuehm a§ offointi him, uid that^ as soon as tbey oensed to 
haTO a spirited and firei>«pokea political public undor them, they 
were at the meroy of the exocutivo power, eren for tlieir own por- 
sonal safety! This is a ternblo lesson, which they are now 
tan^t when it is too lato : TooquorilJe and all tbo rest of thorn, in 
their intense fear and htLlrod of tbo Ropubltcan party, have >)eoTi 
just seting in sueh a way aa to prepare Franco for that military 
despotism which now menaces tbe coimtrf<. HoweTCTf you doubt- 
less hsTO rnongh of all thiswhoro you are* • • * » Nothing 
new to toU you. I eoqioet to sec a letter in ' Spootator * next 
Saturday. I only tmat that your health and tranquillity will 
remain undisturbed I 

Your most aflbetioDatey fte. 

O. O. 





I BBTUBNEO froiD Poris in January, 1852, having remained 
longer than I had intended, because my friends there wero 
pleased to say that my sympathy afforded them support and 
consolation, whilst I was nseful as a medium of communiGar 
tion with England. 

Our ninth and tenth volumes were brought through tlie 
press during the winter, and appeared in the month of 
February. The success of these fully equalled our ezpeetaF 
tioDS, Grote even appearing exhilarated, at timefl^ by the 
various tributes of approval and admiration which came to 

I passed nearly four months in London, when, finding my 
frequent headaches intolerably depressing, I took my depar* 
ture for Paris, in search of a climate less injurious to my 
system. I here give a letter of O. Grote to Sir G. Lewis:— 

Gborob Gboti to G. 0. Lewis. 

12, 8AVILB Row, /ii/y, 1852. 

I am not going to Paris until the month of August— naii 
month; though Mrs. Grote is going to return thither almost 
immediately. When I go, I will certainly make particular inquizy 
about both the books which you mention, and shall hope to be aUte 
to procure them for you, either on the Quai Voltaire or elsewhere. 

I wish from the bottom of my heart that I had a vote for Here- 
fordshire ; for I gather from your account that your saooess, though 
I am glad to believe it highly probable, will require the attendance 
of all your friends. 

This weather is very trying for you to go about canvassing, with 
all the vexation of the process itselfl I am just going into the Oi^ 
to vote for the three candidates, of whom Lord John Bussell is one. 
HiB success is certain, but as far as I can learn, if his opponents 



bad tiJuQ flieir meunres a little bottor and earlier, there would 
lukTO been a great doubt about hi% rehun. 

Tbe displeaBore left bebind in tbe City» by tba proceodiugB 
between tbo Gnstoiiui CutmnissioaerB and the Dock CompftQie«j is 
rerj great I am told tbat tbo low of Hnmpbre/e eeat in Sotitb- 
wark baa been eanaed al together by the ¥ote which he gave on the 
Oommittoe^ wbieb eared the Comnu&sioacrs of CustomB from direct 

I am workiiig on at my olerenib Tolnme^ and am now in the 
midst of tbo PbOippice and Olynthiaos of I>cmoethcDe& No part 
of tbo 'bistory* baa been moro irksome to write, becaiuG of the total 
want of good bistorical witnesses. 

Mrs. Orote ia tolerably well. Pray present our best regaxde to 

Wbilst I atayed id London, some of tho di^tis^ished TtctiiDa 
of tbe coup Selai eotne thither, being exiled frotn their own 
aoiL I dined in company with H, Thiera, at his friend 
E. Ellioe*B bonae^ on the day of hm arrival there from 
Belgiam, no otber guest being present except A[n Charles 
GreYiUe. IL Thiers gave 00 a moet interesting account of 
bia aneat in the early morning of the 2nd December, and 
of bia anbeeqnent ''deportation;*' we Uuree listening with 
deep attention, of course. 

My arrangements were, after a week or two, made for 
occupying a pleasant yiUa, with garden and stabling, at Yille 
d*Avray, adjoining the Pare de St Cload« ''Setting np my 
rest," with a couple of French servants (old servitors, man and 
wife), and with my English carriage and horses and coachman, 
I spent some weeks in retirement ; receiving visits occasionally 
from my Pane friends and one or two Engliah ones until, in 
the month of August, Mr. Orote came over for bis summer 
holiday. I draw upon my letters for some details of our way 

Mra. Oaora io ]fr. SnnoB. 

Ynui i/AvBAT, Bik StpUmher^ 1862. 
* * * We have not aean maaj people ainoa George came to 
v. d' Av., now five weeka. ^ • • • We have bad a ddightftd 


month of August, tad tmned it to good Aooouni Tho "flnfiioDs" 
offer the greatest Tsriety of rides and walks of a^j place we ofiar 
resided in, and the ample shade of oar woods rendered riding quia 
agreoahlsi e?en when the temperature reached 80^ and upwards. 

We hsTO explored the tracks in all directions, and are nerer 
weary of admiring the beauty of the country, and tho quality of 
the air here. We have been three times to Piiris, two of which 
trips cost me headaches. Tho fSoitigue of dining there, and ooming 
back at ni^t, is more than I can afford; in truth, my health has 
gone badly enough since G. G. joined ma. Hy anxiety to "row" 
up to lUm has been ^ the ruin of mo." 

TiU he came, I led a very dull, quiet life, and kept afloat in 
consequence, seren weeks. Now, 8 headaches in 1 weeksl Toa 
see what my tenure is — a turnip life, or a headache. 

In * Spectator' of last Sunday, the 6th September, you will seo 
an account of an excursion wo and Say made to Port Boyal and 
Dampierro. O. G. has been hard, at work, and naturally got a 
good stroke of business done during his "yacances." He threat- 
ened to return to his ** chimney-pots " (as to-day), but owing to my 
being so out of condition of lato, he has consented to remain a 
short time longer, the rather as we loam that London is a positive 
desert t — not evon a Joe Parkos to bo soon crawling about tho silent 
streets. * * * * I do not like to discuss French a£GEurs on paper, 
for fear of getting into hot water, being a resident in the country. 
But I will say thus much, that G. G, has come to feel a considor- 
able degree of resignation to tho actual goYcmment of France^ 
after talking oyer politics with various intelligent ** natiTes," and 
obserring the prevalent tone of mind of French people in genoiaL 

He sees no prospect of any better government rising out of tho 
ruins of L. Napoleon's power; nor does it seem as though the 
French people toUhed for any better, in our sense of the word. 
They are quite sensible of the discredttable character of this 
government, and would prefer a respectable ^ chef do T^t," but 
they have not the option ; no one party possesses strength suffi- 
cient to set up its own ** chef/' and so, to avoid the ohanoos of the 
rival party setting up iti ^chef," eadi consents to live on under 
L. N. * * * * The country certainly If over-harassed, and siek 
of revolutionary struggles, and L. N. profits largely by the 
desire to pursue money-making oocupation. Well, I for one make 
no objection to an ** entr'acte^*' the less so, as this pasteboaid 
concern deceives nobody, and eorrupti very few. • • • • 

L. Faucher is to hold a high office on the new line (Bordeaux to 
Oette Railway), with liberal pay. He has just published a paper 

r 2 


on gold in the * Berne dee deoz Vmnim! rexj wmgnlbaubn in 
iteioope. • • • • 

The annexed letter is from Orote to LewM^ after his retarn 
to England: — 

6n»QB Oaon lo G. 0. Lnwa. 

Loxo B KW iiu wi ioy i«ab Gsastham, 
dOtk St^pimUr, 1853. 

I wae fktoored with jonr letter three daje agO| and xeplj to it 
from this plsoe, whither I haTe been oUiged to eome to look at mj 
landed property. Hjprineipal tcnsntiananeient&raMryandTerj 
long established heie (he and his Cither before him)» for the last 
fifty ye^^*"* ^^'^ y"^ ^^^ smitten with a panJytie stroke^ and I 
foar that there is little ehance of his ever eoming roimd. I am 
therefore here, embarrMsed with all the painftil n e ee ss ities eon- 
neeted with a large chaoge of' tonsnoj, and dealing with a great 
many matters nnfsmiliar as weU as dististsftJ to me. To mshe 
things worsoi I am here in wietbhed weatheVi widi more eonntrj 
nnder water than has been known for some years. The fonners 
here seem a little less dineatisfiecl than th^ were; sinoe^ thoa^ 
eom is very low, both stoek and wool fotoh a hi^ price. Thqr 
do not seem to me to merit the appellation of exeetilveljf fortmmaU 
men, which Virgil bestowed upon them in his time : but they hsTO 
not degenerated much £rom the qnemloosness of wbioh he oom« 
plains. But that which has most altered since the time of Virgil, 
ia, the earth : which oertainly now neither requites with extreme 
justice, nor yields easy nourishment 

I returned from France only this day week, baring stayed at 
Ville d' Array longer than I intended— ever since the 2nd August 
I managed to take oTor a large basket of books, enough to proee- 
cute my 'History' with assiduity ; and worked hard all the time at 
my elerenth Tolume. 

The neighbourhood was weU-fumished with walks and rides: 
great abundance of woods, intersected by roads in erery direotian, 
and quite as agreeable, to say the least, as any tract of ooantrj 
which I could hare pitched upon in England. At this p]aoe,abont 
ten miles £rom Paris, we spent our time quietly, seeing rery little 
oompany, and going only oocasionally to Fkris. I did not nef^oct, 
howerer, to make especial inquiry after the books whibh yon com- 
mended to my attention. Neither the work of Beaufort snr 
I'Histoire Bomaine-nor the works of the Abb« 8t Pierre-aio to 

1862. LETTER TO Q. a LEWIS. 218 

be got in Pftrii. Yon maj aasnie yonnelf of ttiit &et I ] 
expresB inqnirjat mora than a doson difBarant magiinw of aneionl 
books, and at no one were these worki to bo foQiid. Iwaadinoted 
b J the oonoorront advioe of sereral of the bookaellera, to apply to 
)ne of their fraternity named QuiUenMi^ on the Quai dea Angoatina. 
So had not got them ; and I commissioned him to aeaioih all Of«r 
Paris. I called upon him there soTeral timea, and waa aaauod hj 
bim that he had made the most careM search, bat all in tain. I 
then left with him my address in Loudon, requesting him to oon- 
tinae on the look-out, and to let me hear if he faojoA m&Bt of 
them. He told me, that within the last two years, he had had a 
copy of both ; that they were rare, and ncTer tamed up exoepl by 
accident — but were still not nnobtainable. He prooaicd for ma 
one work of the Abb^ St Pierre, in two Tolames, small oetoTO^ 
entitled *Annalea Politiquos;' which I will send you on the 
firbt opportunity. I hare read it myself, with great interest and 
instruction. It contains a sort of annalistic rcTiew of each sepa- 
rate year of the Abba's life— 1658 to 1780 ; and ezhibito a de|^ 
of knowledge, beneficent views, and power of original thon^ti 
which impress me with a very high esteem for the author^whooi 
I before knew only by name. 

I could not hear of any good French work recently paUished on 
Roman history. Nor do I expect, as matters are now oiream- 
stancod, that any now works exhibiting the least power of thought 
will issue from tho French press for some time. The restriotifa 
jealousy of the present Gk>Temment is felt with peculiar sevarity 
on all departments of tho press : most of all, upon the newspapera 
and other periodicals^but more or less, upon alL 

As to politics in France, you really leam nothing mora aboni 
them by visiting the country than a man can know while stoying 
here. It is certain that Louis N. is at present firmly establiahed, 
and likely to remain unshaken for some time. But no one seems 
to couut upon him as a permanence— though, at the same tima^ no 
one can assign the combination of causes whereby he is to be otsk^ 
thrown. I do not doubt that the fear of the two olasoes called 
Bed Bepublicans and Socialists is the great hold, and the only 
hold, which Louis N. has on the Frendi mind. 

Nothing strikes me more than the excessire alarmism and poli- 
tical cowardice of the French people generally ; no one seems to 
haye an idea that he has any power of defending himself, nor does 
he think l^imwAlf safe, unless soldiers or gendannea are within 

I haye no belief myself that there waa anything leal^ word^ 


of the name of a fbnnicUble soouiliit coDepha^ : meaiiiiig hj a 
oontpiiaojy an orguiiaed plan for aooompliahing politioal oliai^^ 

But aU tlie vmjmtj of the late AaBemlilj were eontmnally do- 
nottDoing each a eonspiraej, and getting up the alarm of one, as if 
it roally existed ; they got up the belief in one for their own poli- 
tical piirpo8ca» and were oontiniiallj heaping on measoraa of ooer- 
cion and repreMion, nntil at length they haTe been tanght^ to thoir 
own ooet, that Lonia N. aiD^e-handed, eoold play that game much 
more officacioiMljr than they eonld tbemeelTOfl. It aeema to me 
tliat thia fear is the only idea npon whieh Looia N. now baaoa hia 
nyiamv in the ooontry. But yon mnat roedlleot thai he haa poo- 
acesion of the whole force of OoTommenti military and eiTil^whiehy 
in Franeob ia perfectly enormona ; ao great a foroe, indeed, that the 
maaa of the nation not included in thal/Niil-elodfc ffoeermmg eoai- 
|NiNy, appear to exiat only like herda or iloeka Ibr the pnxpoae of 
boiag ruled and floeoed. The oforwhelming force of the ezooiltito 
power ia the capital &ot in French politica ; and the facility with 
whieh it has been found powible to tread out aU political liberty 
ia a lesaon whieh will be long rememberod in that eountry, by aU 
thoae to whom the poeaoaaion of auoh an inatrumoni may hereailer 
dofolye. To me, the aentimeni of thia painftd iaoti while I waa in 
the oountry, waa inaupportably oppreaaifo; and it did not aeem to 
me that eTen those who talked againat Louia N. were diapoeed 
to take TiewB of futuro amendment roally aalntary or g«meroua. 

The political leaders are mortified and humiliated at their own 
exclusion ; but Tcry indifferent, ao far aa I could perceiTe^ about 
political liberty as a working reality. All thia may entirely 
change, and probably will, in a £bw years' time; but there ia 
nothing in France now to please you, exoept the elimato, and the 
private manners of the people, whieh appear to me highly agieo- 
ablo'politica apart 

I am coming up to town again in a day or two^ as soon as I 
haye finished my buainess here. Mrs. Oroto ia down here with 
me. 8he ia tolerably well at present, but not seriously hotter, in 
reference to her neuralgic attacks. I thou^t at first that sho had 
gained something by her 9^f(mr in France ; but the laat fiye weeks 
of hor stay in that country were aa bad aa any tame whieh she has 
suffered for yeara past 

Pray giro our beat regards to Lady Theresa ; I truat that aha 
agoya bar euTiable good health aa uauaL 

After our Lincolnahire viait we stayed in London for a 

1863. -HISTORY HUT." 215 

couple of monthsy the piinting of the elerentli Tolmne of 
the ' History' ocoapying us chiefly. During the yean 1851« 
1852 we boilt a cotl^ige residence on a nnall park at East 
Bumham, which we had bought a few years befinre. To this 
cottage I now occasionally escaped, to maintain my health : 
and when Grote found it agreeable to pass a part of the week 
there, he joined me at ^ History Hut ''—so called becauie the 
cost of erection was furnished by the profits aoeroing ftom 
his book. 

We paid a yisit to Mr. and Mrs. Strutt» at Eingsbn Hall, 
early in January, 1853, after which Grote found himself 
entangled in what proved to be a troublesome affidr, tii.^ 
the entering upon the cultiyation of a farm of some 600 to 
600 acre^ under the management of a Scotch baili£ 

This step was rendered necessary by the exhausted con- 
dition of the land, which made it unattractive to a profaa- 
sional farmer, so that the restoring thereof became a duty 
towards the £Gunily estate. 

We purchased thirteen cart-horses, a cart stallion, a well- 
bred young bull, and, in shorty plunged into fuming at a 
huge expense, nderUes voletUes. 

Towards the end of April our eleventh volume came forth. 
I find the following entry in my Diary of this date :— 

^ The exceedingly dramatic incidents which soooeed each otfaw 
in the narration of Sicilian affiurs, together with the striking in- 
dividual characters who figure on the scene from first to last, oom- 
pose a whole which, for sustained interest and valuable histovioal 
lessons, can hardly be surpassed. The style, too^ in which this 
volume is written seems to me perhaps superior, in some qualities, 
to former portions of the work. My own most searching oritioisms 
wore employed upon it whilst going through press, and I pruned 
and reoonstruoted without mercy, tiie author sanctioning nearly, 
all my corrections. 

** Nothing could be more flattering than the receptioii given Ij 
the reading world to the eleventh volume," Ac dsa 

In June Mr. Grote received, from his friend the Deaa of 
8t Paul's, the following letter :— 


Ht nuB Mb. Otofn,— 

I am Intmsted with a nnmrniMinn, to me Uffidj gi»tifyiBg» 
and, I bope, aooeptable to yon: it k to inqviie wbetlier yon will 
roeeiTe the hooonij degree of D.OJi. ftcm the Uniirerailj of 
Qzfbid at tho inatallatioii of Lord Jktbjf 

I hope yon will alio not mind tho * Timee' of jaateidaj, or 
haTO not noticed it 

Hy own faeling of lererenoe and lofo for the Uni^enityindaoea 
me to wiahy moat eaneatljy that bj piopoaing aome higher namea, 
more worth j of the hoooar, more worthy of being joined with 
Ifacaolay, Oxford may redeem herMlf from the aomewhat in- 
glorioua liati whieh, in iaoki aooocding to old naage» ahe reomea 
firom tb^ f jiimn^iUm f.% )|i ^ iff^llatiiTn. • ^ • • 

Believo me^ te., 

H. H. Ibuuv. 

To Oxford Orote accordingly ropaiied, and by that time- 
honomed Uniyeiaity waa duly infeated with the dignity of 
Doctor of CStiI Law. 

At a banqnety giyen in compliment to the new Cihaneellory 
the late Earl of Derby, George had to retom thanka for the 
toast of *The British Historians;" and, in the opinion of a 
gentleman present,* his was the best speech of the evening. 

Grote, personally, was a liUle neirous on finding himself 
in the thick of the Academic throng for the first time in his 
life; all the circumstances of his own literary career having 
ran in a channel so distinct from that in which college men 
travel, he felt like a stranger introduced into the privileged 
fraternity. But I am bound to add that he xetumed from 
Oxford full of grateful and complacent feelings ; the cor- 
dial welcome given to the non-academic sdiolar seemed to 
tell upon his mind, whilst his classic taste was moved to 
lively relish by the few sentences of elegant Latin addressed 
to him on his reception, by Lord Derby, of which he ex- 
pressed much admiration* 

* Tho kte Sir Boderiok L Hnrehison, Bart 

it)6»-186& YON 80HON ON THE * BJffSOBJ: 21T 



The subjoined letter from Yamhagen, encloBing an eztimot 
from a letter, written at the age of eighty, by Yon SobOn, 
will be read with interest. After expatiating on the merits 
of the eleventh yolume with great warmth, Yamhagen writes 
thus: — 

YABimAosv TON EiTsi lo Oboroi Oaon. 

Boi ims worden Sie, naoh G^bUhr, yerehrt mid geprieteiL Lesen 
Sio beifolgendes Blatt oines achizigjahrigen Ministerai einea 
Fremides von Stein, des Herm Ton Schon, dor anch von Ldbebk 
sprioht: — 

" (Aui einem Briefe de$ acht^gjahrigen Preusn$ekem 8iaai§mmitimr9 
BiUen de$ Schwarxen Adlerardens ete., mm Scfton.) 

" PnEUSBZBcn- Abnau mu KdmossBMi, 

^ Uobor Alcibiodes ist yon alten nnd nenen Sdmftstellem riol 
gosohriebon. Er war mir oin intoressantes Bild. Aber mein Bild 
war nicht klar, mid bei allem Bomiiben, Uber ibn n ^*""*itln^ was 
gosammelt werden konnie, war es mir mimoglioh, ein Idares Bild 
sa bokommen. Da tritt nun Groie in seiner jetst enoheineDdflQ 
* History of Greece' anf und stellt mit wenigen Striohen ein Bild 
Ton Alcibiades bin, welches lebondig Tor meiner Seele steht 

** WoYon das Hers Toll ist, das gebt in den Mmid, bier in dis 
Feder Uber, nnd so miissen Sie es mir schon erlanben, Ihnen 
mitzntbeilen, dass ich in Grote's ' History of Greece* eine bfichst 
merkwUrdige Erscboinmig in dieser Zeit batte. Welehe Tmg* 
bilder baben die Philologon nns, ans Unbekanntsdhaft mit dem 
Troiben in der Welt, bingemalt! Wie sehr ist der Tod daa 
Leonidas iiberschatat worden 1 Dagogen baben die Philologon dsn 
Perikles bei weitem nicht boob genng gesbhildert HirislsrjoM 


der erate Giieehe. Lbbeoky i» Jetiige pUhdogiMlM JSamkat in 
E^ugsberg, nimmt Tur Giote aeiiie Mitie ab^ vnd Min Kollege 
Lehn bengt aeiiie Knie. Idi mSohie wiaieo, wm BoedUi, 
lleiiieke ele. wa dem Werke diaies LondoiMr Buiqufln MgOB.*** 

We receiyed at History Hat» in September, a nnall 
but choice party, who passed the whole afternoon there with 
the Historian and myselC The Cheralier Bnnsen (then 
Pmsnan Minister at onr CoortX Midame Bonsen, Miss 
Frances Bunsen, Mr. Labonlaye (the French jnrisoonsiilt), 
and his son Edward, the Dean of St Panics and Mrs.Mibnan 
and their son, all dined under a tent on Cfwt lawn, and the 
Chevalier took part in a game of bowls afterwards^ with 
much lest 

The farm in Lincolnshire consomed a vast deal of onr time 
all throngh this year 1853. Grote went down no leas than 
aix times, on five of which joomeya I accompanied him. The 

• Amongst ns joa are, as yon deserve to be^ hif^Uy hooooved 
and prised. Pkay read the annb mp an y ing letter from an oole* 
gensrisn ststflsmsn, a friend of Btein^ Hen von Sohfin, lAsrsiB 
mention is also made of Lobeek:— 

« Much has been written, by andent and modem anthorSi about 
Aldbiades. To me he was always an interesting figure, but my 
conception was not a dear one, and though I took all pains to 
collect ererything that coold be got together abont him, I found 
it impossible to obtain a distinct idea. Now Grote steps forth upon 
the scene with his 'History of Gbreece^' and in a few touches pro- 
duces a picture of Aloibiades which stands li£»-like before my souL 

* *Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth spesketh,' or 
rather the pen here, and so you must kllow me to tell you that 
I consider Grote's * History of Greece' to be a hi^y remarkable 
phenomenon of our time. What deoepttTS forms haye the philo- 
logists, from want of knowledge of the world, painted for us! 
H ow much, for instance, has the death of Leonidas been orerrsted ! 
On the other hand, philologists haTS not made half enou^ of 
Perikles. He is, to my thinking, the first of Giedm. Lobec^the 
present patriarch of learning in Kftnigsberg^ doflb his cap to Grota^ 
and his colleague, Lehrs, bends his knee. I should IQm to know 
what BoedU^ Meiaeks^ d»^ say to the wwk of this London 


details incident to this undertaking proved unspeakably tire- 
some, but as we conld not trust the bailiff to manage the ez- 
penditare uncontrolled, we had no alternative but to go down 
in person as ofiken as was required. Not but thatGrote worked 
at intervals even at the farm, carrying a sufficient number 
of books with him each time. The forced occupation out^f« 
doors was advantageous to his health, and the operations of 
husbandry were not without a certain *' bucolio '* attraction 
for him; the rather as he studied Stephens's 'Book of the 
Farm ' with regularity, even taking interest in the theory 
of cultivation, involving as it did a touch of Bcienoe. 

On one of these occasions we extended our travels as fieur as 
Durham, spending a week with George's old friend the 
Dean, at his residence there. 

In the following letter, Grote replies to Lewis's observations 
on Roman history. 

Gborob Grote (o G. 0. Lkwib. 

12, Saviub Row, 
10th September, 1868. 

Tour remarks upon the Agrarian Laws at Borne appear to 
me perfectly juBt The quarrel between the Patricians and Ple- 
beians in roforeuce to those lands, was in principle the same aa that 
between squatters and regular purchasers over the heads of the 

You say truly, that each Agrarian Law must have been a mea- 
sure jper $e ; each including provisions and details different fiiem 
every other. Li addition to the passages of Livy which you 
allude to in proof of this, one may mention the project of BuUua 
against which Cicero delivered his speech De Lege Agrari4: 
which was evidently a measure full of specialities and peculiarities. 
It is impossible (as you observe) to pass any general critioism 
upon these laws, as to either justice or policy, ^i seems to me 
probable that the Patricians had an interest in keeping the ques^ 
tion untouched by any general prospective law, and in prolonging 
that state of things which left squaittng open to them. 

Aocordingly, the aristocratical interest at Borne was employed 
to prevent formal assignment of lands, even upon just and wise 
principles ; the Patricians drawing arguments against assignment 


from ihtii whioh ihtj themielTM ■hwlfawidy kepi vp— llie i 
iMkg inyeslmaai €d squaiiimg eegpUaL 

Your speenlAtioiis on the real crigim of Boman hiitoix tib op 
the saljeet in a Terj instmcliTe wmj, and I think your Ibrtii- 
eoming book wiU dicm the gnmnds of itttiooal aoq^ticiam in a way 
clearar than th^ have ever been pal finrwaid befina TheDeeem- 
Tinl naixaliTe eertainlj inToltee moil pwoding eontiadiotioiia. 
And it is scaroely possible to divine from what somee lifj ob- 
tained his most interesting and detailed doseription of thai qnaneL 
To know so mnoh aboot erents of tibe jear 446 B.o.y when tiiem 
was little or no writing for near a eenluy afterwards^ looks some- 
thing like eecomi-^hi or l efsi sn iai. 

I shaU hope to talk with jom oopeonei^ en these sal^jeetB idien 
joa letonL The ham of hislorieal statements Is a snlgeel most 
interesting Is inrestigale. I shall hope Is see jon hen in a 

In the aniamn of this year there appeared in the <Edin- 

borgh Beriew/ of which Sir O. Lewis was then editor, an 

article on Orote's 'History* by John Staart Mill; and the 

annexed letter shows how miibh i^eaeore il afforded to the 

author of the work itselt 

12, Satuji Bow, 

Oetokr 14<ib, 1863. 
Mt dxarxst Harrzkt, — 

Thanks for yours of this morning. I immediately sent for 
the * Edinburgh Beriew/ and have read ike artiole with mnoh 
satisfiM^on and eren delight. 

It seems to me ezeonted in Jdm*s best manner. It is (as yon 
say) essentially and thronghont, a rtmew of the book ; keeping the 
author, and not the reriewer, constantly in the fbreground. It is 
not, certainly, a reriew of Uiedeeeaikvohme; so £ur ~ Fish ** * was 
right in the remarks which he made on it; bat I do not think he 
did anything like justice to its merits, either as a composition or 
as a reriew. It ia certainly complimwitaiy to sm^ in a measure 
which I frar will being down upon me the hand of tibe reaotiooary 
Nemesis. • • • • Adieo, my dearest Haniel, 

Yours most ajfcetioaately, 
G. G. 

• « Fish" was a soWgMi under wUeh we always spoke of Sir 
0. 0. Lewis frmiliarly. 

1863-1864. TWELFTH VOLUME OF THE ^mSTORY/ 221 

It was not until November arrived that the Historian 
fietUed down ta the composition of his twelfth volume. 
The Diary of this date contains a notice of his oocupationa 
during the preceding months. 

'* He bad been studying for this purpose incessantly ; ever 
since the eleventh volume came forth in April hu^L The 
profound and important nature of the subject which forms 
the opening chapter (Plato and his teaching) has occasioned 
George to devote all these months to reading and meditating 
upon it : making a large quantity of notes also, upon Aristotle 
chiefly. He went over his third and fourth volumes care* 
faiiy (for a new edition) in the autunm, but found very little 
to alter." 

The winter of 1853-1854 was passed between Londoii 
and "History Hut;" the University of London* and 
University College each demanding a considerable portion 
of Grote's time and services, and the farm receiving his 
attention as circumstances arose. 

We resided in Savile Bow during the spring, and down to 
the middle of July ; much taken up in going to and from 
Tooting, to our brother Charles Grote's, who, after a long 
and depressing illness, died in July. George was his execu- 
tor, and gave up a good deal of his leisure to the performance 
of this sad duty. 

The summer was passed at the cottage for the most part, 
Grote finding the retirement conducive to study, as w^ as 
beneficial to his health. My eldest brother's death, in 
September, leaving no will, caused me much concern, and 
withal onerous duties. I was obliged to act as administratrix 
to his estate, as next of kin, and Grote naturally aided me 
in all these business matters, he being so perfectly versed in 

The year closed upon us quietly at the cottage^ our 

* Having accepted a seat in the Senate of the University of 
London in 1850, he never ceased to render his best endeavooxs to 
sustain that Institution up to the end of his life. 


lives absorbed in stady and rational emjlcfpnemt, though 
the afflicting eyents in the Crimea often filled ns with 
painful roflections. Of the folly and futility of this iU-adyised 
enterprise we had all along entertained the same Tiews» and 
the &ct that O. 0. Lewis was entirely in accord with ns 
afforded a certain consolation, amid the desolating effects 
so widely felt in many of our countrymen's domestic drde. 

A few days of January, 1855, were dcToted to Erlestoke, 
the residence of Lord Broue^ton, whose company afforded ever 
a welcome yariety to us both. Thence I pursued my way 
to Exeter, to see my three children (or, as we used to call 
them, *• the Groticles 'T* Gmtd returning to London. 

The death of Bir FranUiind Lewis elicited the following 
letter of condolence to his friend: — 

Oaoaoa OKon Is O. (X Lawn. 

12, Satiu Bow, 

I Gslled upon you at Kent House yesterday afternoon, hopiiig 
to eiyoy half «n hour^s co n Tersstion with you, when I lesrat 
from your fbotmsn at the door the ssd news whioh had osnied 
yon so saddonly away from London. • • • • 

I may say, without the least flattery, that I know yery few OMm 
whose death would have left behind more eztonsiTe or heartfelt 
regrets, than your father. • • • • 

Lady Theresa Lewis was kind enough to write me a note in- 
forming me of what had oecurred. 

Li acknowledging her note, and in eipreesing to her how much 
I sympathised with your serere loss, I said that I thought I shoold 
only trouble you by a letter addressed to you in person at Harpton, 
and that I would therefore content myself with the letter to her. 
On second thoughts, howoTor, I oonoeiTed that it might be some 
satisfaction to you, to hear directly from myself; and I should be 
truly griered, if one whom I regard with so much esteem and 
affection as yourself^ and with whom I have so many points of 
dolightfid sympathy, could snpposs me indiffnent at a moment of 
cakmity. • • • • 

Pkay do not trouble yourself to answer this letter. 

A short excursion to Cologne, on some private affisdrs 
relating to a trust then expiring^ and a week's stay at Ems 


with J^my Lind, took ap the month of tlaj of this yeMv 
after which we settled ourselves at History Hut 

In October George and myself went to spend a week or 
ten days at Harpton Court, with Sir George and Lady 
Theresa Lewis. Here is a letter written after our return ^— 

Gborob Grotb to 0. 0. Lbwis. 

12, Satilb Sow, 
2Ut October, 1855. 
In taming over Plutarch to-day, I found in his * Qiuestiones 
Natmales,' p. 915, in ReiBke's edition, yoL ix., p. 625, Aia rt kt/erui* 
— SiTOK iv wifkf ^vrcvcrc, rrjv Sk KpiOrjv ck kwu ; wirtpw • • • vwcvos 

^(aXMfuyo9 * r§ 3c KpiOy 3ia fiavorrfra avfJLiffopaiy l¥ ^x5 ^ (vponpai^; , 

1 point this to your attention in oonsequonce of our conyersatioin 
the otherday about mrfXlbi and popfiopo^. UrfXioi seoms to mean sim- 
ply moist earth, in a general sense, as diatinguiahed firom dry 

I looked also at the passage in Xenophon's Anahaais, of which 
I had only a general recollection when we talked : — (L 5, 7.) KoI Siy 
irorc oTcvox^P^^ '^^^ m/Xov t^ayhrroi rtui a/iaiatt Suflnropcvrov 
hrlarti o Kvpos <rvv rote ircpi avrov &purroi% koI cvSai/AorcorwrcMC^ tool 
cro^c FAovv ical Ilcy/np'a Xafiovrat rov fiapPapiKW arparcv ovimKPtfidr 
{ciy raf ofia^c. • . • cv^ 8c crvv rourois €urmfir/ mv r€i c2i ror wi|Xir 
$axrov ^ &^ Ti9 Ay fcro /xcrciupovs ii€K6/utray raf clfio^t. 

I find mjXoq again in Arrian, viL 21, 7, for the muddy swunps 
near the Euphrates : on IXvwSrj^ 17 ravrfi yfj, koI wrjXJoi ^ voXX^ avnjc 

I got to London safely : Mrs. Grote stopped at Didoot, in order 

to got to Slough and Bumham by a train not express : the express 

does not stop at Slough. The only annoyance we had was in wait- 

irig at Hereford, and between Hereford and Gloucester we had a 

noisy carriage and roaring engines, which made Mrs. G/s head 
ftcJj^ m m m m 

I had remarked a certain change in my husband's general 
condition during the course of this year, which found expres- 
sion in my Diary as under, December, 1855 : — 

'' The composition of the twelfth volume seems to hare 
cost Mr. Grote immense intellectual labour, and I think that 
he feels the effects of the last two years' close study. I 
intend to persuade him to go abroad for a season when this 


Talnme is finished printiiig. Tiayel is the only method by 
whioh I esn bring aboat a oompaxatiTa oessation of head- 

We stayed at Bninham to the end of the year, though the 
weather was sometimes intolerably cold. 

In August the printing of the twelfth volume was begun, 
and the last proof returned to Messrs. Taylor on the 28rd 
December. The task of correcting the sheets and roTising 
the text, as the work was going through the presB» proved 
laborious to both George and myself; but to he in sig^t 
of the final page of the 'History of Greece 'after so many 
years consecrated to this noble purpose^ caused Grate to feel 
too much excited to heed &tigue. 

I remember that I had a bowl of punch brewed at Ohrist- 
mas for our little household at Hirtory Hut, in celebratioB 
of the completion of the ''opus magnum;* Grote himself 
gipjnng the delicious mixture with great satisfaction whilst 
manifestmg little emotkm outwardly, though I could detect 
unmistakeaUe signs of inward complacency as I descanted 
upon ^the happiness of our living to see this day,* and so 




Wb passed the first quarter of this year in Lcmdon, Giote 
reposing himself for the most part, but patting his papers 
together in prospect of attacking the* Philosophy of Plato^ 
his next design. 

The twelfth volume came out earlj in March. One of the ' 
earliest tributes to its merit proceeded from the troited 
friend G. 0. Lewis, as under : — 

G. 0. Lewis io G. Gaon. 

DowNiKO Stbbbt, Mwrek 11, 186C. 
Mt dkab Gbote, — 

I tried to find you on Sunday, bat nnlnokily fiulad, b^ 
objoct being, among other things, to thank you for the oopj of 
your twelfth and lost volume, which has safely reached me. Yob 
baTO, I think, erory reason to look bock with satis&otion upon tibe 
time and labour which you have devoted to this great enteiprifla. 

You have efiectually acoomplished the ohjoct which job aei 
before you, and your success has been generally reoogniaed bj 
eompetent and impartial judges, and indeed by the geaenJ moe 
of the public 

All other ' Histories ' of Greece are superseded by yoor work ; 
and those who treat the subject hereafter must take yoor treat 
iiieut of it as their starting-point 

The established character of your * History ' at our Universitia^ 
where its political principles would not make it acceptable^ ia a 
remarkable hdf and is creditable both to you and to thesL 

Ever yours sincerely, 

G. 0. Lawn. 

Next came a letter from the Bishop of St David's^ whidi 

afibrded the sincerest pleasure to the receiver. Here it ia : — 

Bishop of St. Davio's to Gaoaoa Gbotb. 

Kt diab Gaon,— iBth Mank, 1856. 

I have just received your kind present, whioh I oan 



joa moti tboeielf, will bo to mo the moat prooioiia Tolumo in mj 

WUle I thank you for it, lot mo olTor joa mj boartj congmtuW 
tiona on the oomplotion of tKit glonong monnmoat of loimiing, 
genioB, and thought, to which I bolioTe no other litoraliiro can 
exhilnt a paialleL I think you have ^ono wisely in rGeorving tho 
Greek philoaophy for a Bop<irftto work^ which will ht^ve a diatinct 
interest) and for a somewhat dififoront eUea of rcadore. 

I was xeminded of you ycfiierdfty hy another pr^esont which I 
leoeiTed of oertain lecturofi, a copy of which has no doubt been 
forwarded to yon, as thoy rcf<»r to your * History' in CTory page, 
deliTered in the University of Athena — h^ ly Um^twum^^ *0^i^ 
^-hy Constantine FAparrogopulaa* I sco they proponad a new 
hypothesis on tho ori^n of tho Hellemo Triben^ ^ad, whator^r 
may be its Talne, it is promising as a sign of life. 

This suggests another thought I heard h^nm Mrs. Gtote that 
yon are about to etart for Italy, to oi^'oy a woll-fjomod holiday. 
Bo not you mean to tako thie opportunity of visiting your Holy 
Land ? at least Athons ; where, aa ui opponent of the war, yon 
would be reoeiTed with opon urns by Otho himself^ and at all 
erents hailed in hia navciri<mj>uoF with tho livcliosi acx^amatioDs 
of young Athens, and cordially greeted by Professor Papiirrego- 
pulus. I reaUy do not soo what should proront yon from doing 
this» unless Ids. Groto is too much alarmod by the reports about 
the Clephts. But to mo aucb a ploasoi^ would seem worth a con^ 
siderable risk. 

As I do not ezpeet to be in London before the 10th of Apiril, it 
seems doubtful whether I shall be able to see you befbre you start 
If not» you and Mrs. Grote will eany with you my best wishes for 
a prosperous journey and happy xetum* 


My dear Grote, 

Youis fidthfblly, 

0. St. Datid's. 

The following is from America, and deserres to be intro- 
dnoed here, in port It is too long to be pven entire: — 

Hon. Gnu. BAVOBOiT io Gnu. Onon. (Airset) 

Ma^, 1866. 
Your Tiew of Aleiander Taries from that whioh I was taught; 
but I think modem experienoe bears yum out I seemed to myself 
to disoem some points of resemblanee between tJbe p tese nt King 

1866. (X)llPLniENTART LETTER& 227 

of Proflsia and DionydiiB ; and the usurpation in Franoe (to whioli 
I am not yet reoonoiled) helps to a right commentaiy on Akz* 
andor. Thon» too, you may see in the mixod Mozican and Central 
American races, the same relation to our English and Anglo- 
American which the Orientals here to the Greek ; and the change 
in the goremment founded hetween the Mediterranean and tho 
Indus, seems indeed rather duo to Greek civilisation than to any 
purpose of the conquerors, just as the reformation of Central 
America will, in one way or another, come from their nei^bonri. 
How justly proud and happy you must be, to haye hrou^t your 
great design to an end, witii the ever-increasing applause of the 
cultivated world 1 from Athens, where it is used as a text-book, ie 
as fiur west among us as you wUl allow the love for Hellas to have 
traveUod. I am delighted to hear that you purpose specially 
treating Plato and Aristotlo. Tou cannot teach me to admire the 
oomprohensive, analytical, practical genius of the latter more than 
I do; I have a vague apprehension that you may draw a lees 
fiivourable picture of Plato, the study of whose writings fonned 
the delight and special nurture of my youth. • • • • 
Believe me, with my best regards to Mrs. Groto, 

Yours very truly, 

O. B. 

One more letter, and I have done with complimentary 

effusions :— 

March 8, 1866. 
Mt nsAB Gbote, — 

I have just received the Twelfth and concluding Volume of 
your * History of Greece ; ' a noble Monument of Learning and 
Intelligence, carried to its completion through your resolute in- 
dustry and perseverance. « • » « May you eigoy health and 
strength to enable you to complete the Philosophiod Essays of 
which you hold out so encouraging a promise, as the appropriate 
complement to what you have already done! « • • • Accept mj 
thanks for your kindness ; and the expression of my respectful 
reverence for all that your scholarship and enlightened wisdom 
has done for the cause of sound learning. 

Yours very fidthfUly, 

When the month of April arrived, Grote made up his 
mind to spend a little time in travel, after the labours of 
the winter, which resolution I readily seconded. Before 



leATiDg England howerer, we were obliged to go down onoo 
more to the Fann, where we passed a week, arranging for 
our own oocapation to terminate ; we having pot the land 
and buildings into thoroughly good condition, and laid out 
in dndning alone a sum of 2000iL* 

It was a sensible relief to us when we got rid of the tire- 
some duty of looking after our £eurming operations^ the rather 
as the bailiff was far from trustworthy. In the sequel, Grote 
haying suffered him to enter upon a smaU fiurm on his own 
account, he had to pay smartly for his misplaced generosity. 

I insert a letter announcing our approadiing departure for 
the shores of the Mediterranean: — 

Gnoaea Oaon lo O. 0. Liwv. 

16a 4pra» 1886. 

I am glad to read in the newspapers that^vvot was so kind as 
to rescue you from Spooner^s harangue last night Mrs. Grote and 
I are going this afternoon to Fraaee and tibe Italisn Likes; we 
shall be absent about six weeka. Before our deptrtnre^ I send 
back te you some books which yon had been kind cnoa^ to lead 
me. I send you also a paper in the Trensmtinns of tibe Philo- 
logical Society, which contains a jm d^Mprtt, by Maiden, of 
Uniyersity College, London, on Pragmatiied Legend. Tou will 
be amused by reading it. 

For the present, adieu! Health and happiness to you until I 

PJ9.— I haTo finiehed my article for the *EdinbQr|^ Beriew,' 
upon your * Early Roman History,' and sent it to Beere. 

Leaving town on April 16ih, we were detained two days 
by tempestuous weather at Folkestone, but we crossed at 
9 A.X. on the 18th, and reached Paris at 10.80 pjc 

As our object was relaxation and trarel, we purposely re- 
frained from Tisiting any of our friends in Paris. MiJdng 
our way southward, by Sens (where the reUcs ot^SL Thomas 

* A creditable tenant-farmer entered upon this form shortly 
•ilerwardi, and is at this date living in the cultivation of the suae, 
under the nephew of the historian, Andrew Macikmald Grote^ the 
aetual "* ftiuire of Bennington " in the fourth | 


aBecket** were duly visited and honoured), we reached 
Lyons, and thence journeyed to Avignon. The Boman anti- 
quities at Orange took us up two days. Orote profoundly 
struck with the grandeur of these imposing remains. Taking 
a ealeehe from Avignon, we visited the ** Pont du Gard ; " at 
this interesting spot we lingered long. I managed to make 
a drawing of the Aqueduct, whilst Grote strolled about, 
gazing and ruminating on the scene, wherein solitude and 
silence reigned unbroken save by the descant of the nightin- 

Leaving the Pont du Gard (not without reluctance), we 
drove on to Nismes. There, fresh objects of classic interest 
awaited us, all being explored with eager relish. Next^ to 
Aries, where we encountered that scourge to southern France, 
the ''mistraL** It produced an attack of sore-throat and 
fever, in my case, which proved a sad drawback to Grote*s 
enjoyment. After a day or two I recovered partially, but 
the ** mistral " prevented our staying for a buU-fight, which 
Grote had had a fEmcy to witness for once in his life. JEh 
revandie he had the opportunity of admiring the personal 
charms of the women of Aries, which really were remarkable ; 
the ancient Boman type being unmistakeably present^ even 
after the lapse of centuries. We journeyed along the coasts 
"vetturino," leisurely, as far as Nice, hiring a carriage at 
Nice, from whence we posted onwards. That demons 
scenery is familiar to the minds of most Englishmen, so that 
I need not say more than that we were both kept in a fever 
of admiration by its beauty day after day. 

After a short stay at Genoa, we proceeded to Pavia, where 
Grote went over the '^Certosa" Monastery with curious 

At Milan we feasted our eyes upon the works of art and 
the literary treasures which that, city possesses. We next 
made our first acquaintance with the Lago Maggiore, the 
Borromean Islands, Lake of Orta, &c., then to the Lake of 
Como, and to Chiavenna, — a chain of lovely and attractive 


We made an iDtereating exoaT8i0ii upthe ** Yal BregagUa," 
in Older to Tint the cradle of the De Balis famfly; Castel 
Bondo^ an ancient seat of tliat noble lionae, being titoate at 
the upper extremity of the pasB into the Engadine. Anything 
equal to the charm of early qpring, amidst Italian landscape, 
on a beaatifbl day» I cannot conceiTe I The Inzorianoe and 
Tariety of the wild flowers on the way stirred Oxote to en- 
thusiasm, and he was peipetoally halting the oaniage to 
allow of his leaping ont to pluck tiiem for me. 

Early in June we crossed the Spldgen. It was glorious 
weather, but the snow had been piled up on eadi side to 
liable carriages to pass, for the last mile or two of the sum- 
mit We were perished with cold at the Splugen Inn, and 
gUidly descended, next day, the lorely yalley terminating at 
Bagati. We risited the baths of Ffeffers, the rocky dumns 
of which excited our wonder: Grote exclaiming^ laughingly, 
^'I do belieye this must be the TeritaUe HadesI * Thence 
by the Canton of Saint Oallen to the Lake of Oonstance; 
after crossing that inland sea in a deluge of rain, we tra- 
Telled by railroad to XTlm, Stuttgart, sod HeiUnrann. By 
steamboat down the Neckar to Heidelberg. At that charm- 
ing city we stayed fiye days, passing much time in the 
society of our excellent friends Baron de Bunsen and hii 
family. Colonel Mure, with his family, was lodging dose to 
onr hotel, and the two scholars (and I am afraid I must 
add ** antagonists),** spent some hours in each other^s 
company. Trayelling by Worms and Mannheim, we slept at 
Saarbrdck, where we walked about the town, thinking of 
poor Baroness d'Oberkirch and her histories. At Paris we 
stayed four days, seeing yery few of our friends, for Grote 
feared to be detained, being by this time quite wound up 
for work. To London, safely, on the 21st of June^ haying 
been absent exactly ten weela ; each of us sensibly renoyated 
by our charming tour. London and its social attractions 
filled up the summer season, and in August my Swedish rela- 
tiyes paid us a yisit 

In the course of the summer of this year an article 


appeared in the pages of the 'Quarterly Beview/ upon 
Mr. Crete's 'History of Greece,* taken oolIectiTely as a 
complete work. 

Among the numerous tributes which flowed in upon tho 
author after the publication of the final yolume, I reooIleoC 
his being unusually impressed by the perusal of this paper in 
the 'Quarterly/ Not only at the time, bat on repeated 
occasions, would he avow the lively satisfiBtotion he had 
derived from perceiving how thoroughly his views and ail- 
ments had been understood, and reproduced in concise forms 
by a contemporary student of antiquity : 

**For the flattering terms in which the Beviewer, whoever ha 
may be, speaks of my ' History/ I am of course grateful to him. 
But what most gratifies me is, to see how entirely he has seised 
and interpreted my conception of certain passages wherein I take 
new and different views of their significance. The Beviewer has 
pitched upon those portions of my work on which I had bestowed 
a vast amount of thought and labour, and it is just the most service* 
able help he could have rendered me, to call the attention of 
scholars to my ' pleadings' on those capital points wherein I difEor 
80 essentially from my precursors in the field." 

To outpourings in this strain I have listened again and 
again, when allusion has been made to the various notices 
which came forth from time to time respecting the " Opus 

** Harriet," said the Historian to me in the course of the 
autumn, "we must find out who wrote that article on my 
' History,' and try to make his acquaintance. He is evidently 
a ripe scholar." 

The opportunity was aiTorded to us within a few months 
afterwards by our esteemed publisher, Mr. John Murray, and 
we presently laid the foundation of a friendly intimacy with 
Dr. William Smith, which proved mutually interesting and 
cordial during the last fourteen years of Grote's existence.* 

* It was an additional pleasure on the part of the Historian, to 
find, in his unknown critic and eulogist, a pupil of his own 
cherished institution, TTnivorsity OoUogc 


in regmning the recoid of our penonal ooonpatioiis I hare 
nothing to relate except that^ after my Swedbh friends 
departed, George and myself stayed quietly at onr cottage 
from Ist September to 81st December, in almost unbroken 
retirement The weather happened to be mild and temperate, 
enabling ns to be more in the open air than we conid hare 
expected to be at this season. We rode '.and droTe and 
walked, to the sensible benefit of oar health. I need hardly 
add, in conclusion, that George worked steadily at hk 
' Plato * all the working honis of each day and evening. 

1867 VISIT TO BOWOOD. 288 



Eablt in this year tlie Historian and I accepted an in- 
vitation to pass a few days at Bowood, and a most agreeable 
visit it proved. My wretched health always prerented me 
from going to-Bowood until now, when I had become less of 
an invalid than for many years past ''The magnificence* 
order, elegant entertainment, and withal liberty of individual 
ooenpation, which reigns in that establishment, struck both 
Mr. Grote and myself much."* — Biary^ Jan. 1857. 

To London in February, remaining there until June^ when 
I repaired to History Hut and passed the month of Jnly 
there. Mr. Grote, having duties to occupy him of various 
kinds, preferred staying in town. However, he made it a 
point to accompany M. Alexis de Tocqueville to History Hut 
on two separate visits which he paid me during his brief stay 
in London. This distinguished gentleman took a sin£^ular 
liking to our cottage in the Park, and rambled about for 
hours with us, quite absorbed in the spectacle of English 
rural life, so long had he been estranged from our shorea I 
went to London at the end of July, expressly to take leave 
of our honoured guest; he passing the night before his 
departure in our house, where he found a cooler bedchamber 
than any at his hotel, in which, he said, '* je suis grille** 

My readers will feel thankful for some letters which I 
here introduce in connection with my narrative. The first is 
from my old friend Mr. Henry Beeve, at this period 
charged with the management of the * Edinburgh Beview.* 

HxKBT Buvx io Mrs. Gboti. 

Marek 8, 1S67^ 

The next number of the * Edinburgh Review' will oontaia an 


aiticle on Ur, Oroto's twoIfUi Tolnme bj a muii wlio is & totj 
catdial admiTar of the gte&t work wbioli this Yolmne oonclndca, 
and who spealu of it in beooming tenuB. But on the paztienkr 
sabjeet of hm twelfth Yolumo^ Kmmdjr, the careor and duynictoT of 
Alexander, thia writer differs materiiJly from Mr. Groto, and the 
result ia a diecnBeioQ of Uio znAttor^ whioli jm^ I tldnk, schokrliko 
and l eapeet fu l to Mr. Gioto, thou^ tending to Aomo opposite ooti* 

Next oomes a note fioiii O, 0* liOwieip May, 1857, on 
Giote'a ' Hiiitoryp' toL nu p^ 30. 

Kot€ bif G. a Lewib, 

Wlien the Locedmuonians^ nnder the pressure of circnmstanccs, 
repealed the difiqnalifcations of the captiTes at Hylos, and restored 
tbem to their rights, Ihoy aaid, iroi^o^Miy ol ro/iM nj/A<^y>y* 
(Appian, Hiai BotiL ^iii. p. 11 Si.) This seems to imply that tlio 
measure was not extraordinMy — not a privilegiuni — hut a part of 
the hahttoal policy with respoct to prisoners of war,. Compare the 
narratiTe in LiTy, ixii. pp, 58-61, of the treatment hy the Bomiiu 
Sonato ot the Boman prisoners sent back by Hannibal after the 
batUe of Oannw, Livy calls Bome a " omtas minima in captivoe 
jam lade antiqmtiis indtilgmis.'' He means native, not foreign 
pcisonem of war. Thneydidee thinks Uie mcasuro as eitrooidinaiy* 

To this the reply quickly followed, aa under : — 

OnoBon Oion io Q. 0. Liwia. 

12, SaviLS Row, 
lUAifoy, 1867. 

I am mnch obliged to yon for yonr note on my * HisUny,' 
▼iL p. 80. The obsenration of Appian, iwfuiJhM^ o2 ^^oc nyi^Mr, 
cannot with propriety apply to the fiM)ts aa stated in ThncTdides, 
T. 84, with regtfd to the treatment of the restored prisoners by the 
Spartans. Bnt Appian'a obserration bears distinotly npon two 
other cases of Spartan history — the treatment of the Spartan 
warriors who came back after flie defeat of Lenktra, and after the 
defeat of Agis by Antipater, in 380 1.0. See my ^Histoiy,' toL z. 
p. 262 ; ToL ziL p. 646, note. 

The statement of Thnpydides is efidenfly intended to denote a 
speeki wteamn of disgnalificatian passed against those Teiy prison- 
en, and not the application of a standing or general law. This 
speeial measure seems to piesappose a suspension of the general 


law such 06 to admit the priBonera to the exaraiae of faU r*J^*L>*1 
rights. For it is plain that the prisoners were in tail et^opuoDi 
of citiaon rights at the time when the speoial meaaoxe wm applied 
to them, since Thnoydides says — t&j koX 6pxU nmc l^corrai^ Ao. 

It is not improbable, however, that the surrender of the priaooon 
in Sphakteria was considered to hare been aathoriaed hf the 
Ephors on the mainland at the time when it took plaoe : i«^n««*ii 
that these prisoners, on returning to Sparta, wece nol toider the 
operation of the same severe laws as the survivon fbom Tiiniktra. 
See my 'History,' toL vL p. 474. 

I ought to have said a few words in my note on x. 363, to poinl 
out the want of perfect analogy between the cases of Sphakteria 
and Leuktra. I did not know of the passage in Appiaa unftQ jo« 
pointed it out It applies exactly to the case of Lenktnu 

I have sent for tho Italian translation named in WiUiamsTs 

catalogue. It is a strange phenomenon, perfectly unaooountabla : — 

1, a translation into Italian ; 2, by a woman who, by her wime, 

f|- must be cvycvcoran; ; published at Ncgplei, Lacaita nja it uoal be 

a hoax ; it is tmpoMt&Za.* 

P.S. — ^Your article on Tarpeia is very instructive : Ptotaleope'a 
letter is curious, especially about tho way in which popular beliefr 
have arisen, among uneducated native Bomans, about tho aatiquliai 
of ancient Bome. 

I remember being always astonished at Niebuhr^a story reapeei* 
ing the name of Tarpeia preserved for so long a time among the 
Roman population. I do not dearly understand the passage oi 
Aulus Gellius. What is meant by ** aream Gapitolinam deprimera *T 
The words are easy to construe, but the thing intended ia noi elaar* 

Another letter to G. C. Lewis, of classical interest :~- 

GsoRGB Gbotx to G. 0. Lewis. 

ifoy, 1867. 
Tho passage which you cite out of Bacon is taken from tho aizth 
chapter of Plutarch's < Life of Sylla,' whore tho anecdote aboot 
Timoiheus is given ; alluded to also in the 64th oration of Dio 
Ghrysoetom, ir^ Tvxi;9. Timotheus was angry because people bad 
ascribed certain successes of his, not to his own ability and ooodneli 
but to the flavour of fortune : accordingly, on a subsequent oonaaion, 
when returning from a victorious enterprise, and giving acoognt ef 

Of this matter, more hereafter. 


what he had done, he indireetly replied to these nnkiiid eommanti 
bj nying >^**ljk dd$ effior at leaat^ Atheniana, Fortiiiie hae no 
ahare.** By thia remark he let iq^ the back cf the Goddeae Fertuiie 
againat him, eo that aha nerer atood hj him allarwaida {Jamftm^m- 

Baoon telle the atoiy aa if Timotheua haWtnally and fteqnenily 
lepeeled thia diadaimer of the aid of Fortune: whioh ia not ti» 
atatement of Plntazoh, who only m en t io p a It aa haTing been pat 
lorwazd on oae oocadon. 

There ia no eridenoe to oooneot thia aneodote with any distinet 
or aaoertained hiatorioal erent It ia well known, fkom the teiti« 
mony of laokratea (who waa both tentaq^ocaiy and a penooil 
ineod) that Timothena waa a man of great anoguiee in hia de- 
meanour: and thia alory may peihapa be nothing moce Oan a 
mythioel iUnatration of hia geoenl temper. 

The oondliiding point, that Fovtone reaented the deelaration, ii 
qnite in the Tain of Greeiaa imagination about NemmU^ 

In going o?er these valnable memoriala of the'Hiatorian'e 
private thoughta and opnionii one ia tempted to aay with 
the biognipher of hia illnatriona namesake^ Hngo Gtotini^ 
''Sea lettree peavent 8tre tegjudim comme dee onnagM. 
Le recaeil que nooa en aTona eat nn trfaor, non-eeolement 
ponr lliistoire pnbliqne, maia anaai poor llufltdre littMre." 
C Vie de 6rotiua»* par de Borigny.) 

In the month of August we made an exeursion to the 
coast of Yorkshire, halting at Lincoln to yiew ita noble 

After a short stay at Scarborough we visited Sledmere 
(belonging to Sir Tatton Sykes), spending several hours in 
the breeding-paddocks there, where the beauty of the mares 
and foals excited our admiration. Next to Malton : here the 
racing studs formed the attraction, Grote and I struggling up 
to the moor in early morning to see ** Blink Bonny ** and 
other high-bred nags take their gallop.* 

* It has been befora mentioned that the Historian always took 
pleasure in horses : a taste which I willingly encouraged, as avoid- 
ing a slight recreation to hia orer-aetiTe nind. 

1857. LBTTEIl IX) J. & MILL. 887* 

Passing by Harrogate we repaired to Manchester; hero 
the '* Exhibition of Art Treasures'* occupied our time for 
several days, I need hardly say with bow much real iutereet 
and pleasure. We returned home by Chester and the Vale 
of Llangollen, visiting Chirk Castle (a delightful old Border 
mansion) and Shrewsbury, and dropping down upon History 
Hut about the 20th of September. 

Here is an extract from my Diary of December 0th, 
1857:— ^ With an occasional break in our solitude fiom 
chance visitors — Mrs. Stanley and her son Arthur, Lady 
William Bussell and her son Arthur, Mr. and Mrs. Beere^ 
Lady Lewis, and Lady Trelawny, each passing a couple of 
days at History Hut — ^we have spent our time tranquilly 
here up to the date at which I am writing." 

*'Mr. Grote has studied with unremitting attention the 
subjects on which his forthcoming book will treat, all this 
year. His work appears to me to be assuming very sufastsa- 
tial proportions.*' 

I find a letter addressed to J. S. Mill, after our return 
from the North, which is worth inserting for its literarj 
character : — 

G. Gbotx to J. S. Mill. 

Sayilb Row, OcL 1S67. 

I send you Thomas's book on the prorincial administratioii of 
La Boorgogne, which I think you will find instraotiTe. I also 
send another book, which I got from the London Library — the Lifi 
of JDottfum. It interested me very much, as the histoiy of one of 
tho most intelligent, consistent, and patriotic among the wwswi 
UowmU — who is hardly known (by name even) among Engliahmsn. 

I think you will feel as I do about Daunou's character, thou^ 
his biographer seems to me afraid of speaking out the best pari of 
the truth about him. 

Look at Daunou's letters written from Borne in 1798 — ^th^ are 
Tery instmctiye as well as croditable to him * • • 

I have looked at W. Humboldt's book: it is written in a ^sry 
exodllent spirit, and deserres erery mark of esteem for the frank- 
ness with which it puts forward free indiridual derelopment as sa 
end, also fbr the low oomparative estimate which it gi^es of ] 
imitation and submission. * • • 


Before oondading the reooid of 1857» I oaght to make 
mention of the seiiona agitation which perraded the financial 
world in the latter quarter of the year. The interpoeition of 
the Goyemment^ anspending the operation of the Bank 
Beatriction Act, was regarded with anxiona uneaainas by 
all aonnd pcditical economiBt8» and by none move than by my 
hnsband and his friend Lord OTontone. Ji^eTerthelc^ they 
hesitated to censure the step taken by the Cabinet; Giote 
declaring that ** where a commnnity peniats incoontenancing 
bubble schemes and phantoms cl capital, and in granting its 
confidence to the most flimsy delusions^ no wisdom on the 
part of the Legislature can hdp them to aroid crisea.'* 

A letter from O. Groie to O. a Lewis will dose this 
chapter suitably :— 

East Bcamui!, BLouoa, 
I2ih OeL 1867. 

I hsTB reoeiTDd and pemsed your three nombefs of * Notes sad 
Qaeries;' which is an agreeable colleetfcm of matters to read 
when one comes across it| thouf^ I do not habitually take it in. 

Tour remarlis upon Kiebnhr^s dssoription of Fjrrriius are most 
just and inBtmctiTe, and the exposure of his inaoeoracies complete. 
It seoma plain that he trusted implioiily to his memory, whicb 
erery one talks of as so prodigious, bot which you hare dmio much 
to discredit. The passage of Orid is, howerer, somewhat mislead- 
ing, when one sees that tho snl^'eet of one couplet is the hitiarkal 
Pyrrhns, and the subject of the other couplet the w^ifihologM 
Pyrrhiis. As for Niebohr's encomiums on Pyirhus, it is eztrnva- 
gant. But great fighters and generals seem to be inTariaUj 
subjects of praise. 

Tour collection of vethal pnpkedet^ depending upon eqmvoqite or 
synonyms, is also curious, and well desenring of bdng put under a 
general head, as illustrating one of tho many turns of hnmaa 

I shall certainly take a conyenient opportunity of looking otot 
the eridence taken before the Bank Committee of this last Sossiob. 
I agree with you that reoent ocoorrences with the Banks in the 
Unitod States strengthen our sense of the wisdom and necessity of 
a fixed legal limit upon papor issoes. But I cannot agree with 
your other remark, that you do not appreciate tho Taluo of a sepa- 
ration of departmenta in tho Bank of iCngl^^^, In my opinkai 


this separation is imperatiTely neoossaiy, so long as the issue of 
notes is left to the Bank, and is not tiansfened to GoTemmeni 
commissioners. It is of the utmost importance that the flnetoations 
of the haMkmg (umesf of the Bank of England should be faron^t 
distinctly before the pnblio from week to week, that enoy one 
should know both the weekly state of the hanking reterve and tba 
weekly state of the deposits. This publication is most important^ 
both as a guide to oommercial men in anticipating the ooiming 
changes in the rate of interest, and as a guard for the poradent 
administration of the Bank itself, that it may not let its l^^nlnwg 
reserve drop too low, but may begin to draw in at an early stage. 

This publication, howoTer, of the banking eondUian of the Bank 
could not be made unless the separation of departments were con- 
tinued. The publication now made is exactly divided in the same 
way as it would be if the notes were administered by Goveimnenft 
commissioners, and if the Bank had only its banking business to 
manage. The separation of departments is indispensable, so long 
as the Bank is allowed to retain the administration of the issning 






It was, I think, in the winter of 1857-1858 that FeTeml 
members of ** The Club,** as it ia eaMedpar eoceellencs* mviuA 
Geoige Grote to form one of that dietiDguIshed Bociety. 
I seconded this proposal warmlyj persuaded that it would 
contribute to his social enjoyment. He, bowever, turned a 
deaf ear to all oar arguments ; saying that he always preferred 
dining at home to any other way of passing his eYening. So 
the matter stood when Lord OTerstone, calling in at Sayile 
Bow one aftemoon, and finding ns together, opened a fresh 
battery upon his old friend. Grote proved, aa usual, inao 
cessible to persuasion, and Lord Oyerstone at the close of 
his visit was taking his leave of us, when I whispered aside 
to him, ^ Slip a shilling into his hand, and enlist him, in the 
name of the Club." Lord 0. (ever alive to a joke) actually 
aooomplished this 'Megerdemain ^ ou shaking bands, aud 
hurrying down the stairs, left Grote laughiug over this 
^impromptu" trick, and exclaiming, as he looked down at 
the coin, '* How very absurd I ** The upshot of this little 
passage was that the Historian now surrendered at discretion, 
and suffered himself to be nominated a member. 

It was with genuine satisfaction that I saw him gradually 
frequent the meetings of *'The Glub ** with more and more 
interest and relish as years rolled on. The subsequent addi- 
tion to its number of two of his most valued friends (pro- 
I posed by himself) served to increase the attraction offered 

\ by this choice circle. On returning from a good ^ meet,'' he 


• *> The Club** of SamuelJohnson, Sir Joshua Beyndds, Oliver 
Ooldsmiih, and others. 

1858. '•HI8T0BT HUT" GIVEN UP. 941 

M would sometimes eyen recount the oonTersation to me, eon- 
j fessing that ^ it certainly was the best literary talk to be had 
in London." 

The month of January saw us established ip London, 
where we stayed until May. At this date, after having 
started my Female Artists' second Exhibition of PaintingR, 
I took my departure for the Continent, to avoid the farther 
fatigues of the London season proper. 

Our little estate at East Bumham, including ^ History 
Hut/ being disposed of to a new purchaser, I conceived the 
project of passing a part of the summer out of England.* 

George seeming well inch'ned to concur in this proposal, 
I determined to seek out some attractive spot in Franod 
wherein we might find ourselves suitably lodged. Mean- 
while he was steadily employed in administrative datie«, and 
in writing his Plato book. Here are extracts from his letters 
to myself of this period : — 

Ix>NDoy, <7ttti« 17thf 1858. 

Ton will make up your mind about your plans. I shall be glad 
to join yon wherorer you fix upon. In so for as my own taste ia 
oonoemed, I should prefer passing the time on the ContinaU^ in 
any place you choose, bat I shall bo quite satisfied to be with you 
in Englandi 

Again, June 23 — 

I perfectly approve of your projected lodging at St. Gennain, 
and I shall be delighted to pass my time there along with you ; 
but I shall be equally pleased with any other domicile which yon 
may prefer.. I shall bring over a lot of books to occupy my busi- 
ncss hours, d». &c Choose what will suit yourself; yon oannol 
ohoose wrong for me. 

I must not forget to mention that previous to leaving • 
London, in May, I went to take leave of Mr. Hallam, whom 
I found very infirm and apparently failing in strength. 

^ The motives which prompted this step of quitting History 
Hut are set forth in my < Collected Papers,' a volume published by 
lb. John Murray, in 1862. 


He said, •* Why do yoti not see about getting George made 
a trostee of the Briiisb ]\ru8eiim id the place of William 
Hamilton? It is exactly the kind of duty wliich he would 
be pecoliarly qnalified to ful&l ; yon should speak to Lord 
Lansdowne abont it**' 

••Well, yon see, I am on the lit-ing for Pari^ and Heidel* 
bdrgy and cannot occupy myself with any bueioess at this 

^Aht never mind^ then, for this time. But there will 
presently be another Tscancyt and then you must Itwk 
to it.- 

" Whose ?•• I inquired. 

«« Mine,** replied Mr. Halkm, " and I should like to think 
that George wonld fill my Bhoes*^ 

I reoolleet his very words. 

The excellent old man's wishes w^^e realised, for Georgs 
Orote succeeded to his ¥seant chair at the British Klnaeum 
in the following year. 

I left England immediately after the conversation above 
noted, and, passing only a day or two in Paris, made my 
way to Nancy, where I ya\i a visit to tlie Banm d'AdelswSnl 
(ex-dipuU) at his house in the pleasant environs of that 

Whilst at Nancy I received a letter from my valned 
friend 1^1 rs. Stanley, who was kind enough to watch over onr 
artists' interests during my absence. A passage in this letter 
is characteristic of the parties.^ 

«< London, JIfay, 1858.— I was rewarded yesterday, for 
turning into the Female Artists* Exhibition, by the sight 
and speech of Mr. Grote. After listening during all the last 
week to the bitter empty anarlings of both sides, to hear his 
clear, high, just view, given in those few weighty words that 

* The Ministry had just been thrown out, and the. Tory psrty 
placed in power, and this nalually gave oooasion to mush ill- 
huiioar among political eurdeai 


carry oonyiction with them that 'so it is' — ^'ez ctly so' — 
18 a real refreshment. • • • • I shall go back to Oxford 
again presently ; he (Arthur P. Stanley) is striking out his 
roots there." • • • • 

After Nancy to Heidelberg. Making a short tijawr amoDg 
the solitndes of the Yosges Mountains (the air of which region 
proved restorative, and deliciously cool), I next wended my 
steps northward, on the look-out for a suitable perch for 
the summer. 

After many days spent in this pursuit I fixed upon a 
pleasant residence at St Germain-en-Laye, where the His- 
torian .joined me about the middle of August. A tranquil, 
studious, and agreeable two months passed over our heada 
in this charming place. I give here extracts from a letter 
to 6. G. Lewis descriptive of Grote's impressions of our 
''Villeggiatura:- — 

GsoBox Gbotb (o G. 0. Liwis. 

12, 8a VILE Row, London, 

%\it CMober, 1868. 

I read with great pleasure your letter of the 17th, and I was 
glad to loam frum yoursolf, as I had already heard from others, 
that you bad boon passing your vacation from parliamentary duties 
agrocably at Harpton. 

Mrs. Groto and 1 aro protty well. We have been returned firom 
Franco nearly a month, after two months pleasantly spent at St. 
Germain^s. Both of us likod tho place very much: the site is 
beautiful, the castle gaidons pleasant and well kept, and, above all, 
the forest a^'oining is of vast extent 'llie number and variety of 
rides and walks in this forest, under the shade of fine trees, is 
greater than I have over soon in any neighbourhood. We made 
daily use of them, and wo had quite as much of French society as 
we desired ~ partly from Paris, partly through M. and Madame de 
Ciroourt, whose country house is about four milss ofL The only 
drawback to me—and a terriblo drawback it was— presented itself 
in the shape of an inflammation of my eyes, the exterior membrane 
called the canjuncitvcu For nearly a month I could neither open 
a book nor take up a pen : even in the open air I was obliged to 
wear a shade, and could see very little. I was made keenly to feel 
the value of good riBvai to an intellectual man, and the justice of 


thftt Ghreek tngio meiaphoir bj wbioli jSAIpht is uted m eqni^ikut 
to {m^. My eyes, howofer, gmdntUj oftmo xmiiidy tad I am bappj 
to say that tiow thoy U6 nearly in their nomal state. 

We heard Tery little politios talked during oar stay. So &r aa 
we ooold Lear,no one now aeemed afraid of any i n c ge a oed aeTerities 
on the part of the EmperoTt aa people weio during the eaily part 
of this year. He has no greater amount of eateem and friendahip 
than he had before, hot erery one oooaiden him ibmly settled* 

The point whioh we heard chie^y notioed, and that by all the 
intelligent men with whom we oonferaed, was the jncreaoed and 
inoreaaiDg inilnenoe of the Oathdlio priesthood o?er edneatjon 
and family erery where. The Gofeinment has done all it ean to 
enoonrage them, and especially to extend their asoendenoy oier the 
professors in respect of ednoation. The intnenoe and meddling of 
the Jesuits in fimiily aifidrsi and espeeially in the rich fcmiliesi is 
said to be prodigious : decidadly greater than It SfTer was beCoio the 
suppression of ^e Order in the last century. 

We hare sent for the 'Edinbur^ Befiew/ ohieAy to read your 
article on OreuTiUe; but it is not yet eomo. I eipeot to he maeh 
interested with it| fat it embraces a period which occurred when I 
waa a boy, and which I do not know well, eiflier from petaoual 
experience or from books. 

The day before yeaterday I got DonaUson^o hook, the oompletiai 
of Mailer's * Greek Literature.' I haTO only had time to torn orer 
the pages ; but, as far as I can judge from this cursory Tiew, it 
appears a truly learned and comprehensiTe work. I think it will 
he a great addition to cfery classical library ; and I ngoice that 
such a work as MUlWs has met with so good a oontinuator. 

The progress of my work on Plato and Aristotle was greatly 
arrested by my blindness at St. Germain and I ha^e only just 
now begun to reaume it 

Whilst we were at St Gknmiin a $Sanee took place of the 
^ Acad^mie des Sciences Morales,"* at which Grote was pre- 
vailed upon to ** assist,'* by the earnest solicitations of a 
French canfrer§. He was welcomed by his learned brothers 
in science with cordial and flattering expressions of esteem, 
and I think that the occasion was prodnctiye of agreeable 
feelings to the new ^ Correspondant** I went to tlie $lttmc$ 
also, and witnessed with complacenoy the entry of the 
''sayans** into the tribunes set apart ibr the members of 

185a BBTUBN TO EKOLANa 245. 

the Academy; Orote taking bis seat among them for the 
first time since he became one of tbeir body. 

The affection of the eyes alluded to in the foregoing letter 
was a most vexatious eontretemp$; and we were both sadl j 
grieved thereby. After the first week or so I became tired 
of reading aloud to George, so we, fortunately, obtained the 
services of a lady who, for several hours daily, fed the appe* 
tite of the disabled student through the ear in defaalt of Uie 
visual organs. 

The book we were employed to read to him was a treatise 
by a profound physiologist, M. Claude Bernard, on the 
nervous system. I remember halting now and then, as I 
read out passages inconceivably scientific and abstruse, when 
I would enquire : ** George, do you understand what I am 
reading to you?'*—«* Perfectly."— "Oh! very well, then I 
will go on ; for my part it is quite above my comprehen- 
sion.** A bland smile would be all he liad to give in reply 
to this confession. 

The sore eyes deprived us of an opportunity of enjoying 
the hospitality of a noble family, of the Legitimist stamps 
residing at their chateau in Picardy. We had engaged our- 
selves to the Comte and Comtesse d'Heursel, and were most 
anxious to fulfil the pledge, when the untowaid inflammation 
in 6rote*s eyes came between. It also prevented our meeting 
M. Alexis de Tocqueville in Paris, where he passed a day or 
two in consultiDg his physicians prior to his taking his last 
journey to Cannes, whence he was never destined to return t 

Leaving St. Germain about the middle of September, we 
reached home on the 23rd. October and November were 
spent in Savile Bow, with the exception of a few days* visit 
to our valued friend Lord Broughton, at his new palace of a 
house at Corshara. Early in December we removed, with 
our household, to "The Priory" at Reigate, belonging to 
Earl Somers. Inviting no visitors, up to the end of the 
year, we were glad to enjoy the repose and seclusion which 
the place afforded^ A large library, filled witli old books, 
formed an attractive feature in " The Priory," and many a 


fpard hoar was passed by Orote in exploring' its treasures, 
perched upon the steps of the lofty ladder, candle in hand. 

At the period of which I am here treating^ we mntoally 
felt disposed to try how far a real oonntry-honse life would 
suit our now advancing age. The winter experiment of the 
Priory, lastmg three months, answered rery well, and a 
spacious and rural residence, with fifty acres cl grais land, 
offeriog itself (near Crodstone), we entered upon the occupation 
of ''Barrow Green House"** at the end ct tlie London season 
of 1859, which was passed in Sayile Bow. We reoeiyed 
therein many guests during the months that followed (G. C. 
Lewis among the number), and found ouraelTes well satisfied 
with our new residence, exoept that the winter of 1859-1860 
proTed terribly seyere, and that the old house was Tery 
imperfectly provided with the means of warding off cold» 
The fire-grates would seem to haye been pkiced there under 
the ** Commonwealth,'' or ooeyal with the chimneys. . One of 
them, m fact, bore the date of 1649^ and its oapaeit|r of 
affording warmth corresponded with its age. We struggled 
yaliantly, however, against the cold; patting up doable 
casements, and using an extravagant amount of fuel, and so 
we traversed this rigorous winter without any evil conse- 
quences ; but the greater part of the evergreens and shrubs 
perished under the frosts of Christmas. 

1860. — Early in this year we made another and most 
agreeable visit to Bowood ; arriving there late in the evening 
of the Otk of January, on account of Crete's staying to 
pay the last homage to his brother historian— Henry 
Hallam, who was ioterred on that morning within the walls 
of Westminster Abbey. We also went for a few days to 
Chevening, where we had the pleasure of meeting another 
literary ''star,** in tlio person of the Hon. Jx>throp HoUey, 
the historian of the Low Countries. Mr. and Mrs. Motley 
and their daughter shortly afterwards paid us a visit at 
Barrow Green. . ^ 

^ Soo |iage 24 of this Momoir. 


March, April, and May were passed in Savile Bow, as 
well as the first half of June, after which date we retired to 
Barrow Green. During the summer we entertained at inter* 
vals, various friends and relatives, and in the autumn made 
another journey to Long Bennington. The summer and 
autumn of this year were, I think, among the very worst as to 
weather which I can recall in all my long life. I find in my 
diary the following entry : — 

''The continual rainfall has made the country both un- 
healthy and disagreeable; at the same time that it has 
impeded farm-work to a serious extent. Not half the wheat- 
sowing has been effected, round Oxted, up to this date 
(Dec. 6th, 1860), and I presume it must now be given up till 
the spring. The want of fine weather ruined the hope, and 
there is not a half crop." • ♦ ♦ ♦ 

^*0n 18th December a sharp frost set in, which con- 
tinned all through the month with more or less intensity. 
On the night of the 24tb, the thermometer on our Louse- 
wall went doNvn to 12° Fahrtnheit, our lake (of five acres in 
extent) was speedily frozen over,*' &c. &o. 

"Mr. Grote has been regular in his attendance at the 
meetings of the Trustees of the British Museum all the 
winter ; going up on purpose when summoned. It is useful 
that he should be forced to suspend the fatigues of his brain 
from time to time, and participate in labours demanding 
practical ability and discernment" 

The autumn and winter months passed agreeably enough, 
a goodly number of guests diversifying our daily routine. 
Lady William Russell and her son. Dr. William Smith, 
Mrs. Austin, John llilill, Mr. Lowe, Mr. and Miss Senior, 
Professor Bain, Mrs Stanley, and our mutual nephews and 
nieces, were among the number. 

A visit on our part to Chevening must not go unrecorded, 
since I recollect with how much zest the Historian enjoyed 
meeting there his particular friend G. 0. Lewis, who was 
in more than his wonted health, and excited George to 
laughter by his dry, caustic comments on passing events in 


Italy. On one eyeniDg ire, that is to saji lA>rd Stanhope, 
Dr. William Smith, Lady Stanhope, and tny&elf. Bat flowo to 
whist. After a while, Dr, Smith said across tUe table^ " Miu 6., 
just tam your head round and see what b goinp^ on yonder." 
I did 00, and beheld the Dean of SL Paurs, the Historian 
of Greece, and the erudite scholar, George C. Lewis, all 
intently occupied in tlie same way as onrsekesl It was 
indeed a very amnaiDg spectacle to us. St re. BeeTe was the 
Iborth player at this unique wliist^table. 

Before taking our Icare of the year I860, 1 will venture to 
insert a letter, which many of my readers will follow with 
interest: — 

OiOBOB GaofK to G. C> Lewis. 

llA1tB<|W GnKry, OXTICD, ^yftAKTf 

lath fkt, 18G0. 

Yon know that Oregory's Comtnittoe declared tlio 6tneas of 
keeping the Natozal Hiilory and the AnUquitiGs togethor^ aad 
of proTiding increased accommodaiion by new gronnd round tbo 
llosoun. This is qui to contmij to tbo Tote of the Tnmtoos loit 
Jannaiy, which was, in point of fSbot, proposed and canned hy the 
membm of the Cabinet It is quite essential that the OoTenmient 
should now dedare what view they take as to the Beport of the 
Commons* Committee. I hsTO written to Gladstone to ask him to 
come to the next meeting, and I trust that yon will oome too. 

The Trustees cannot possibly know what to dO| unless you mslco 
some communication. They are wholly dependent upon the Oo- 
Temment for financial means, and it is useless to go through the 
labour of forming plans which the GoTemment will not sanction* 

I still retain my opinion, that the Natural Histoiy Department 
ought to be remofed, in spite of Oregory and his Committee. 

This matter of removing the natural history collections 
occupied Ur. Grrote actively throughout this year. He 
strenuously supported the views of those members of the 
Crovemment who wished for the separation, and felt gratified 
with the success of tlie resistanoe made against Mr. Gregory's 



The aatoimding eyents that occarred thiB autumn in tlie 
south of Italy caused Grote unusual animatiQQy and he de- 
voured the uarratiTes of Garibaldi*i exploits with eegerneaa. 
Bat his practised intellect prompted him to entertain a dis- 
trust of any wholesome regeneration of the Italian people bj 
political efforts of this kind, so long as the ascendeni^ of the 
Pope should continue. ** Only think,** said Giote one eren- 
ingy when talking over the Naples affair, ^heie is the Pope 
receiving tribute from half Christendom, and yon find even 
monarohs trembling before a rebuke on his part Then, this 
week, there comes from the United States alone, professedly 
a Protestant nation too, a sum of 65,0002. towards the * PeterV 
pence * fund. It is quite impossible to predict how far the 
Catholic element may serve to countervail the popular cm^ 
rent in Italy. The Papacy has its roots in the credulity and 
the fears of mankind, and is likely to endure for a long day; 
be sure of that, if of nothing else.'* Furthermore^ Grote 
considered tlie temporal power of the Pontiff as, eompara- 
tively, of secondary importance to his stability. * His hold 
over men's actions springs from a more subtle agenqr, which 
never fails in hands who know how to use it"*— Dioiy, 1800^ 



Thb year 1861 dawned tranquilly upon our minaye at 
fiairow Green, of which the daily oouise was quo of almost 
abeolnte monotoiy. Grote rose regularly at S a^m, aad 
after taking a short walk, ate a slight breakfast of c^See and 
bread-and-botter, with now and then an egg. At 10 a.ii.^ 
I Qsoally took my morning repast, at which Grote always 
^assiBted,** and then (after laying out our plans for the 
afternoon, and looking at aaeli other's letters) withdrew to 
his stndy, followed by the spitz-dog "Dora," This little 
pet of ^ the Master's ** never failed to establish herself on bis 
lap so soon as he sat down to work, remaining thera for 
horns — unless when (Seorge hod occasion to seek for a book, 
or to mend his fire, when he would put her down geutly, 
replacing ''Dora" on hid knees aftarwanis — and I can vouch 
for it, that the greater portion of the rolomes of his 'Phito' 
were written oyer the back of this little faTOurite. After 
luncheon, at 2 p.m., she returned no more to the study, 
considering herself as my satellite for the rest of the 

January and February at Barrow Green, except six days 
spent with Lord Broughton at his new residence, Tedworth. 
To London in March, where we stayed during the months of 
April, May, and June. 

Mn Grote being inyited by Sir G. C. Lewis to serve on a 
Commission of Inquiry then in contemplation, he excused 
himself in the letter which follows. Sir George shortly 
afterwards exchanged the Home Secretaryship for the War 
0£Bce, and the Commission did not come to anything at that 

ISfil. (XXJUPATIONS. • 251; 

OioBoi Oboti to O. 0. Liwu. 

12, Savilx Row, 106^ /wm^ 1S6L 

The Oommiflsion of Inquiry to which jou allude in toot Dofo 
18 one of importance, and one to which it wonld be an h/aooar to 
belong ; but I regret Tery sincerely to say that I cannot aerro 
on it 

My reason is simply this: I am already a member of three 
administratiye Boards, which, taken together, absorb quite as mnoh 
of my time as I can possibly abstract from study. On all of them 
I attend regularly, and perform an active part ; for I have always 
hod strong objection to being enrolled on a Board and not attending 
to it regularly : and, in point of fact (as you know well), members 
who do not attend regtdarly might as well not attend at alL 

The three Boards are : the British Museum — the (Thiyeisity 
of London — Uniyersity College. The two last of the three I 
cherish especially, because thoy openly proclaim and sincerely 
carry out the principle of purely secular instruclion, literary and 
scientific, — ^without any referenco to religion. In the British 
Museum also I take a warm interest, partly from the same absence 
of the religious element, partly from the great force of positiTe 
association with its prodigious treasures of art, literature, and 
science Last month, when the Standing Oommittee were to* 
elected, and when the attendances of all the members for the past 
year were numbered and laid on the table, my number of attendanoos 
was thirty-two, exceeding that of any other trustee. 

You will easily understand that the total amount of my time 
taken up by these three Boards is very considerable, seeing that I 
not only regularly attend, but assume as much of the initiatiye as 
becomes mo. I have the satisfaction of feeling, too, that I exeroise 
as much influence as I can reasonably pretend to. In this respect 
an Administratiye Board conyeys much more satis&ction than a 
Board of Inquiry, in which latter, after all, you end only in 
recommendations, and the best recommendations are neyer carried 

My work on Plato and Aristotle proceeds, but it proceeds muoh 
more slowly than I like; and if I undertake any more publio 
duties I fear it will hardly proceed at alL At my age, I cannot 
count on a long continuance of mental energy. 

It is thus totally impossible for me, under my present oceapa* 
tions, to accept the new and laborious duty whidi you propose to 
me. Had it been proposed by any other Home Secretary, I should 
have writton a simple reply respectfully declining, without a B signinc 


toj niMiii. Bvl I caiuiol dadina aoj pMpontloii whUk i 
from 7011 wiihoiil ■bowing tiiat I am eooateainad Ij \ 
roMoni to do ao. Not ool j do I ftel jo«r frioDdaUp a graal 
iKmoarybiii I alao raooUael moat gimtaAdljtta HndnaM wUak yoa 
aliowad laat antamn in appointing^ at waj inatanaa, Bain Prnfaam 
atAbardean • • • • 

The ftar that mj piaaent TClbnl OMJ i^paar not m ML ] 
with that £Mling ia pj BMin lagiet in wilting thia latter. 

The pictara offered by the foregoing letter la a tolerably 
iaithfiil pveaentment of the tenor of Qeorge Orote'a life and 
occnpatioDa. Still, it needa to be added that he ragolariy 
attended the meetinga of the Gilehriafc Fund Traateei^ aa 
wdlaa the Fed Fond Tmat; and that he not imfieqiMnay 
Tiaited the Hnnterian Mnaeom, of wfaidi he waa likewiaa a 
tmatee: taking deep intereat in ita anatomieal coUeotioo,and 
much wjoying occaaional ''talk*' with the diatingaiahed 
keeper of the If naeom, If r. Flower. Hia priTate affiuny 
too^ naturally daimed a portion of hia time, to the manage- 
ment of whidi he brcnght the deaxeat perception and ezaeti- 
tnde; alwaya, boweyer, leering to hia wife the detaila of 
expendltnrey and the charge of ToadierB, reoeipta, and the 
like ; himaelf deciding, for the moat part, upon the inreat- 
menta, aecaritiea, and ao forth, of hia fortune. 

Now, considering these habitat and the consequent ab- 
sorpUon of the Historian's time within doors, it followed that 
the yery amall remainder of each day aoaroely aoffioed for 
breathing the open air. For aome yean he had ceased to 
keep his horses in London; declaring it ^intolerable to at- 
tempt riding in Hyde Park amid a crowd of idlers, or in the 
suburbs, amid a auccession of caba and omnibuses.** Accord- 
ingly, George waa obliged to content himsdf with walking- 
exerdse for the whole time of his stay in London. When 
he could find a companion like Oeorge Lewis, John If ill, or 
Ur. Bain to walk with, hia enjoyment waa complete; but it 
must be said that the fatigue of brain being then superadded 
to bodily exertion, he became sensibly exhausted by theaa 
prolonged walks; and before the Londoo 9^fimr of thia aum- 

laei. iLLKEsa 258 

mer came to an end, I perceived indisputable signs of OTei^ 
fatigue of mind and body in my illustrious partner. 

I established myself for the summer, about the end of June, 
at Barrow Green, where Grote joined me early in the follow* 
ing month* 

He came down a thoroughly jaded man. I had not mia- 
calculated the effects of the foregoing period, for he now 
exhibited symptoms of a distempered condition of the blood, 
to amend which required several weeks of skilful medical 
treatment I called in at once Dr. Boulger, of Bletchingley, 
who attended him assiduously, and with oiten carriage drives 
and gentle pouy rides in pure air, with good vegetable^ 
shortened allowance of study, and entire rest, we got the 
precious machine into fair working order by the middle of 
August. He swallowed a vast deal of alterative physic, to be 
sure ; but after persevering with it a few weeks, the ulcers in 
the mouth gradually disappeared, his skin began to look its 
natural colour, and his appetite and spirits to reyiye. I 
subjoin an extract from a letter to Mr. Senior of this date :-— 
** September let. — If you knew in what a confusion my 
poor head has been during severul weeks past, you would 
not only feel thankful at receiving a line, but would marvel 
at my undertaking to write at all. My anxiety about O. 6. 
was, doubtless, the primary cause of my headaches, for he 
came to Barrow Green thoroughly out of health ; ' topping 
up ' with an ague I and frightening me out of my wits one 
night at 11.30 p.m. Thank Heaven 1 he is now quite well 
again, and I am nowise amiss either. • • • • yff^ hivi^ 
had Mr. and Mrs. Bain here ; John Mill and his stepdaughter. 
Miss Helen Taylor; Mrs. Stanley (who was much pleased to 
meet Mill) ; Professor Grote of Cambridge, and our nieoe, 
Miss Alexandrina Grote; Dr. and Mrs. Neil Amott, &a 


We spent a pleasant time after this happy reoorery, tmtil 
about the 20th October, when the Historian and myaelf 


accepted an eaniest mTitation to Harpton Coort Befim 
giTing any account of onr proceedings, however, I most 
make room for a few lines which reached me prsTioiis to 
leaving home, from onr old habUuS CSiaiiea Anstin. 

This accomplished gentleman and— I saj it advisedly, 
considering myself qnalified to apply the epithet— fint of 
eanvenen^ had, after making an ample fortune by his pro* 
fession, withdrawn from London society to bary himself in 
SnfiTolk, where the occupation of building churches, adminis- 
tering parish affairs, sitting at sessions, adjusting squabbles 
between Nonconfonnists and Churehmen^ overlooking his 
tenantry, and so forth, filled up the leisure of him whe had 
fonnerly been the oniament of cultivated drdles. His name 
occuiB more than once in this modest veoovd of the past; and 
it causes me a passing regret to think it will do so no noie- 
Here is the spoitive effbsion in questicn :^— 

Oniaus Ausmi Is KiSb Gnont 

Oekitr, 186L 

• • • I often wish to hesr ftom tisM to time whsl visws 
prerail in your house ss to the condition of msnkind and t]is 
genend muTerse ? 

The world is very full of noise just now. Here, however, in tbo 
depth of the country, the echoes are fiunt, and I am compdlad to 
draw, as well as I csn, condosions firom the * Times.* 

TcJl Grote that one of my chief fesrs about dying is, last I die 
before he prints his book shout Plato and Aristotle. Perhsps it 
may be reserred fbr me in the Elysisn Fields ? 

About the middle of October we duly journeyed down to 
Harpton Court, in Badnorshire, and paid a visit of a week to 
Sir Greorge and Lady Theresa Lewis ; thence to Cabalva, on 
tlie Wye, passing two days there with the Master of the BoUs 
and his family. On leaving Cabalva, we drove across country 
to Ludlow. The next day, after spending an hour or two 
among the interesting remains of the old Castle, we posted 
on to Bridgenorth, and so to Badger Hall, If r. Henry CSieney'a 
After spending a few days theie^ we paid a visit to Lord and 

18^1. D£G]£RAND0 on PHIL060PHT. 265 

Lady Wrottesley, at their '' Viellle Baraque,'' in the •'Black 
Goontry." Grote was much absorbed here by two objeota. 
First, there was an extensive and ancient library at the top 
of the honsOy full of old books ; many of them of consideraUo 
value and rarity ; secondly, there was attached to the esti^ 
blishment a young astronomer, with an Obsenratorj in the 
grounda Between Lord Wrottesley and the Professor, Giole 
acquired, for the first time, some practical insight into the 
mode of observing the stars, and his attention was agreeably 
engaged by the explanations afforded to him.* 

Whilst we were at Harpton Court, passing one foranoon 
into Mr. Grote's dressing-room, I asked him (as was mj wont 
to do), ** What are you reading there, Greorge?*' 

^I am studying D^g^rando's 'Histoire des Systknee de 
Philosophic,* and here is something which it vrill amuse you 
to read " (handing me the book). 

I looked through tlie passage, and then enjoyed a hearty 
laugh over it, along with the Historian. 

" Capital, is it not ? " said he. 

** Tes ; but it hits you metaphysicians very hard, methinks P 

^Tbat is true; nevertheless it is a happy specimen of 
satirical pleasantry, and I really must take a note of it** 

"Oh, pray let me do it for you. I am in want of a job 
this morning.** 

Here is the extract, mode at the time. 

P. 49. (He describes what Philosophy is, in fact—) *Une 
multitude d'bypothtees, 61ev6es en quelque sorte an hasard, 
et rapidement d^truites: une diversity d'opinions d*antant 
plus sensible que la Philosophic a 6i6 plus d^veloppte: dee 

* The gentleman alluded to was well aware of the reputation 
of the visitor whom he was instructing, and took an opportonitj 
of expressing his pride and satisfaction thereat to a third party : 
adding, ** Only think of my being able to teach the Historian of 
Greece things which he did not know T' 


aeciei^ des jNurtis mfimet des dispuies ktennmableg, dea 
jpfealataoDS Bi&nieB, des erreurs maintentiee et transmiBea par 
uiie imitataon aTeuj^ : qaelquea daoouTertea obteoues avec 
lentenr, et mflangto d'id^ fausses : dee i^onuen annoDoies 
■i chaqne sftde et jimiais accompli^; tine miecessioo da 
doctrines qui ae renTer^nt lee unee W aQlrea aans pouToir 
obtenir plus de solidity La raiaon buoaame, ainsi prnmen^ 
dans un triste oezde de vicissitudesy et ne & eleyant i quelquea 
jpoqnes {ortanieB que pour retomber bientot dans de ooufeaur 
iaats, eta etc Let meme^ questioii^p enfin.qui partag^reat, 
il 7 a pins de Tingt aieeles, lea premiora g^ntes de la Gr^ 
agitfes encore anjoard'bui aprea taut de TolumLoeux fonts 
eonokcrfs i lea diacater." 

The laat weeka of 1861 were paAsed at Barrow Green; 
not qnietly howeyer, for we bad our house full the greater 
part of the time^ of friends and relations, A couple of days' 
Tiait to Chevening dosed the chapter very pleasantly, except 
that the nnlooked-fbr death of the Prince Consort cait a 
ahade oyer the mjoymenta of all of m at thie season : a uni- 
yersal feeling of moumfol regret perradiug the Engljah mind^ 
nowhere better expreased, let it be said in passing, than in 
the words of Sir George Lewia (repvodnoed in hia correapond- 
ence, pnbliahed in 1870) : — 

* * * ^It will entirely alter the Qneen'a exiatence : he 
cannot be replaced. I am quite nnable to eatimate the pro* 
baUe oonaeqoencea of thia moat diaaatroua eyent" (p. 408). 






Mb. John Stuart I^Iill having addressed an oarnest inri- 
tation to Greoi^ Grote to join him and Miss Helen Taylor in 
undertaking a yisit to Greece, recei?ed a letter in reply which 
is here reproduced for my readers. 

&AVII.K Kow, Jan. 1862. 

I reply to your late yery acceptable letter from St Venn, with 
the strongest fooling of rogrot that I cannot accept your inyitatioa 
to share with you in the enjoyment of a visit to Greece. To go 
through those scenes, and especially to go through them in your 
company, would bo to mo pro-ominontly dolightful ; but, aka t mj 
phjBicol condition altogether forbids it. I am fortunate enou|^ to 
enjoy tolerable physical powor, and a fair aycrage of health ; hut 
all tills depends upon regularity of life, and continual neighbour- 
hood to good medical aid. « « « « j could not possibly slay 
away from London without the greatest discomfort for so long aa 
two months. Still less could I endure the fatigue of horse and foot 
exercise, which on excursion in Greece must ineyitably entail. I 
consider it fortunate that I have so much force left, mental and 
bodily, upon condition of regular life and vicinity to London. Hj 
old ogo is cost very comfortably ; but I must not impose npcm it 
fatigues which it would have required all my strength to snstaiiir 
even when I was half of my present age. I envy you and Miss 
Taylor your contemplatod excursion ; but I must bo content with 
wiping you health and happiness to exocuto it, and with expressing 
my hope that I may hear from you at Athens. 

The passage which you indicated in ' Lucian * was unknown to 
me, and is very interesting. Tour intimation of what yon had been 
doing about Sir W. Hamilton's works was still more interesting, as 
it holds out to mo the hope that you may one of these days revert to 
those higher speculative and logical subjects with whidi he bnsies 
himsell I am quite sure that there is a prodigious deal of new 
truth yet to be unfolded respecting what are called the first prin- 




dples of knowkclga. The lughert aliftaotioiui and Oa 

geoflnl tflniw haye aU been darlnnad Mid dklo^ 

€f yielding ei^port to UMOond tbeoriee endloTieioae Donditioae 


Ihaiejnst been raiding jonr lime ertiQiae in 'Fraaef^aUaga- 
sine^' iQMn the Prineipla of Utility, baWng wailed vntil I ooald 
peniae Uiem all de evile. I oenakUr Oa aaaaj allqgillMr a 
naeftd and eapilal ] 

Hie next letter mna npon.oeholar topiea^ being addreand 
to hia friend Lewia. 

Oaonan Onon la O. <X Lawn. 

Babbow GaiBv^ Osm^ Sobbst, - 


I am nraeli obliged to yon fsr jonr DiaeeilaituM on tta laeentfy- 
diaooreiad Inacription whether Oiean or Unibrian. H ia aa 
amnaing parody of tta proneedinge of laah eipoaitora, who atut 
withoot anymatteca of eatahKahad eettai^ ftoi which to dnwr 

I ooj^ before thia to haie written to fliank yon fsr yovr beek 
of Ancient Astronomy. Bnt I delayed dchig ao nntil I had reed 
the book through ; and having now done ao^ I can perfonn the taik 
with more aatiefiMstion. I can aay, without the Icaat enggeratioB, 
thatitiaa tmly neefol and inatmetiTa eipoaition: ^eiy eioollenti 
both in what it teachea and in what it wmieaehe§, I have finnid it 
exoeedingly naefal in clearing up my ideaa of the aatroncmy oldie 
Platonio timea, upon which I am now engaged, thonf^ not 
expreealy with a yiew to aatronomy. Ton dc a ei fo every oon^li- 
ment for the example which yon eet of alwaya producing anihoritiee 
and giving oopiona refeiencea. 

Tour chaptere on the iBgyptian and Aaqrrian interpretetiona are 
eleo exoeedingly valuable. I never knew eo much about the 
Egyptian mattere before. 

Nothing can be more fimoifid than Bunaen'a gueaaeel 

In your comment upon my viewa about Pkto'a Botation of the 
Earth, you mention Head'a interpretation of cIXm^i^ with&voor. 
But if that be the right interpretation, there aurdy can be nodoubt 
that Plato did believe in the earth'a rotation. Boeokh'a argamflnt 
ie therefore invalid, that Plato cannot have believed the at«y 
aphere to rotate ; and Whewell'a anapieione, which you §tisnff% 
nmat aleo be invalid. 


I cannot bbj, bowoTOTy thai your reasoning has oonTiiioed me^ 
either that ciAov/Acyor means what Head thinks, or thai Plaio < 
ooiyed the oosmical axis as an imaginary line. 

In page 107, Ariiiagarai is printed by mistake for 
(line 2 c£ note). I congratulate you on having found leisiiKe to 
enUrge your fjune, both as a sohohur and as a thinker, bj tbia 
excellent Tolnme. 

Early in Jannary we repaired to Ted worth, according to 
usage, to pay our respects to Lord Broughton. 

In February a rery important meeting of Trustees of the 
British Museum took place, Grote going up to attend ii^ from 
Barrow Green. He had assisted to frame the Iteport, baaed 
upon the decision come to in December 1861, to separate the 
departments ; and to his undisguised satisfaction the report 
was adopted, almost every member of the Oabinet being 
present, plu$ the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

About the second week in March we settled ouFselves in 
Savile Row. Grote accepted the ofiSce of Vice-chancellor 
of the nniversity of London, to which was now superadded 
that of Treasurer of University College. 

The London season went on with more than its accustomed 
''racket" and pleasure-seeking, since a second colossal 
"Show-boz" had been brought into the market, in the 
International Building at South Kensington. The attractions 
of this cosmopolitan mart might be said to equal those 
of the Gkss Edifice of 1851, in Hyde Park ; and the whole 
summer seemed insufficient to allow of the general public 
getting enough enjoyment out of this truly wonderful display. 
As 50,000 persons repeatedly entered the building in one day, 
some idea may be formed of the total number which must 
have passed through before it finally closed. Mr. Grote and 
I frequented '*the show" whenever he could spare an hour, 
or two for idling; lie always ^'making'* for the scientifio 
section of the Exhibition, — instruments, meteorology, mapis, 
models of machines, printing inyentior.s and the like— but 
seldom failing to spend a pari of the afternoon in listening 
to the military music provided for the visitors. 

Our hospitalities went on as heretofore, in a modenUe 


iaahion, manj foreign acqnamtanees ocMning orer tor the 
Ezhibition, to whom we desiied to show attentioii. My 
own health fell into a Tery feeble condition, howerer, owing 
to the aeverity of the spring mantha^ which engendaied 
aerioos miachief in the region of the cheat I waa^ theie- 
fore» glad to aeek the lepoae of my coantiy leaidence at the 
end of June, in the hope of leootering from the effeota of an 
obstinate coogh. 

Impoarible to describe the disappointment of thia woiat of 
all sommers in respect to weather I No ann, no warmth^ 
no salubriooa inflnences, no frdt; bnt rain, daric akies^ and 
chilling blasts were oor portion. Grote came to Barrow 
Green in Joly, a good deal below par in point of health, 
as it waa nsoal with him to be abont thia aeascm, and he 
anflfered more than once from a leTerish cold* In September 
a few gnesU came to Barrow Green; among the number were 
Ph>re68or Jowett, Mr. Bobert Lowe^ and Dr. Willkm Smith. 
Excellent ""scholar talk** went en (e^ecially about Hato^ 
with Mr. Jowett) ; and the Historian appeared to agqy the 
double pleasure of walking and discussing Tariona subjeels 
of interest with tliese learned friends. After this we went 
again to Bowoody for several days ; the weather rather Um 
miserable whilst there, so that we had some delightful walks 
in that princely demesne. Lend Lanadowne in good health 
and spirits, though somewhat more infirm in his walk, me- 
thought, than heretofore. Whilst we were at Bowood I 
talked one day with the Maiquia at aome length upon the 
political condition of the Continent He entertained rery 
gloomy anticipations on the subject, and I reoollect his say- 
ing; with a mournful expressicm of Toioe and manner, these 
words : *" I cannot myself look forward to liring to aee these 
events unfold themaelves, but I confess to you, Mia. G., thst 
it adds to the regret I shall foel at quittingthe aoene to know 
that Europe will siiortly be in flamea." Yet thia wiae and 
humane statesman could hardly hare predicted the twofold 
conflagration (of 1866 and 1870) which raged within a very 
few yeara of hia deathl 


In October we went to the Farm at Long BenningtoOy 
imssing the greater part of five days within doom, the ttonn j 
weather giving us no respite.* 

After our ** excursions," we settled down at Barrow Green 
for the final months of this year, receiving company at 
intervalM. Mr. John Mill and Miss Taylor and Dr. William 
Smith came at Ohristmas, and the three scholars tamed the 
occasion to rare profit ; indeed for a long time I had not 
listened to more interesting talk. The autumn months 
proved, luckily^ more favourable to health and to outdoor 
exercise than the summer had been, and this cireumatance 
served to reinforce 6rote*s general powers. 

I find three letters which will be read with intereet» all 
belonging to the present date : — 

OxoBGB Gbotb to G. C. Liwu, 

12, Bavilb Row, 6th Nov. 1862. 

I send yon horowitb a loiter and pamphlet which was forwaidedf 
to me by an unknown oorrespondent. I read tho pamphlet with 
much intorest, and think you will be pleased with it also. Mr. 
Irring is right in saying that his nonntiyo illustratos very foreibly 
tho myih-oroating propensities of tho human mind. I pienmie 
that tho evidence, tending to refute the story of the drowning, was 
not within the reaoh of Macaulay. 

I suppose yon have rood Colenso's book. It is certainly aingiilar 
to see a bishop applying tho hiBtoricol principles of Sir Qwrge 
LewU to the narrative of the Old Testament I have little doabi 
that what the Bishop says is true, via., that these principles and 
this oritioal point of view are quite new to him^ and that he at firsl| 
and for many years, read and belioved this narrative^ without 
any thought of trying it by an historical test. 

Among the most interesting ports of the book are the extracts 
given from tho orthodox expositors : the artifices by which they dur 
over or blot out contradictions. 

* The Queen was imable to get across the Channel just about 
this period, passing a whole week at Brussels, weather bound I 
She aooompHshed the voyage at last, however, on the night cf 
the a5th October. 


I am told dMi LongniMi printed origindlj 2000 eopias ci 
Oolenao's book, and iLat lie elmdj 1ms etden for mtem llmmmi. 

The * JBngliali 01iqi«1iiimui' (newqpeper) afimis poeithraty, •'Uuil 
the Biehop wfll be Wmighi h trial, ihsm^ Ae wvrik his been cmi- 
dieroLfy aliend rinoe it was ahowm te prJMie ekaOaHm befae 
the aetnal pablieatkn." Tliis hdi, ef altaation cr tnHwhig d 

Gioa Is O. a Lbwib. 

BABBOfv Qasia^ Qsisd^ Subbbt, 

I qmte agiee in the numAm iwntai n ed in jov lastnoteaboatte 
and inaaae kqaafle ef Ae 

Theperfeetneotndityof Bk^kyid, in Ok deslraotifv eitil war 
now raging in Amerif i appears to ns alnost n phewNnMon in 
political histnj. 

Ho sQoh fobeaxanoe has been ahowm daring tte poUtieal hktoqr 
of the last two oentariea. It is Ae sis^ ease in which Oe 
Bngliih Govenmient and poblioy ganandly so ofsr meddlesoBM^ 
hate disphijed most pradent sod oommendaMs farb e arane e^ in 
spileof great temptatioDS to the oontraix. And the waj in whi^ 
the Northern Amerioans hate requited sooh forbearance is alike 
ailljr and diegosting. I nerer expected to have li^ed to think of 
them so mi&Tonrabl/ as I do at present Amidst their marj difi- 
cult present ciroomstanoesy thej hafs maniftated little or nothing 
of those qualities which inipire qrmpathy and esteenii end Tory 
much of all the contrary qualities; snd smong As worst of all 
their mtnifastations is their appetite for throwing As Uame of 
their misfortonea on guiltless England. 

Your Egyptological pamphlet ia a TeiyingBnioos/niireqwil^and 
the general obeerratioDS contained in the first pageaof itare Tery 
instmctiTe : tho dtationa which yon gi^e ont of mebnhr are cori- 
ooB. In regard to yoor application of the proceas of inTsstigitifln 
adopted 1^ Egyptologists to modem erents of the last two centa- 
ries, I suppose the Egyptologists wonld not admit the analogy of 
the two oases. Yon may recollect that Whataly (a fow yean ago) 
pnbliahed a book called 'Historical Donbti abont Hapdeon 
Bnonaparte,* the pnrpose of which was to ahow that thoss who 
called in qnestion the Testament narratifn, with its mirades and 
prophsciesy on^ i^on As saaas prineipiss to donbt ths iMe 


history of Napoloon. Tliis Essay of Whaiely ia eonaideied hy 
some peraons aa a telling attack against religiooa aoepfticB; for mj 
part, I oonsider it a fulore, because I do not admit tlia analogy 
between the cases. I presmne that the Egyptologists would com- 
plain of the like want of analogy in regard to the bearing of your 
pamphlet : I should not agree with them, for I think there as aiiar 
logy, bat that wonld probably be their view. 

Erer since that Essay of Whately was published, I ha^e tlioii^t 
that these applications to presumed analogical cases did not prove 
much ; the analogy itself being one of the points in dispute, and 
requiring to be established upon good and sufficient eridenee. 
£ • * • • »g views upon Assyrian history, to which you allude in 
your last letter, are really so fanciful and gratuitous^ that it ia 
irksome to criticise them. The grounds of belief are so diffiaient 
with diffiarent men, and in reference to different sul^feots^ that one 
cannot answer for the aberrations OTcn of very aooomplialied 

The very minimum of presumptive ground appears to theee 
gentlemen enough to warrant both the positive affirmation of a 
matter, as historical, and the demand which they make* npon op- 
ponents to produce counter-evidence and ditprove it 

OxoBOB Obotb U> John Stuabt BCill. 

Babbow Gbbbn, December, 186& 

I am very glad to hear of you as retumod to England, after 
your long absence. I trust that your excursion in the East will 
have proved not only interesting and instructive to younel^ hat 
also strengthening to Miss Taylor's health. 

I am still working hard at Plato and the viri Socratiei: I haTe 
got my work into a state which looJce like being complete— yet ia 
still hr {torn the reality. It will be an additional incentive to my 
industry now that I learn your obliging intention to xeriew the 
book in 'Edinburgh Review.' That will be a genuine service to the 
work, as well as a compliment to mysel£ Such a work cannot 
oxpoct many readers — as for approving readers, they will be fieiw 

I thank you for bringing the drawings from Mr. Finlay. The 
excavations recently made at Athens are said to have been veiy 
productive, and I shall be extremely glad to see a full account of 
them. I Imow only about the theatre of Dionysus, excavated aoutk 
of the Acropolis, and the magisterial chairs of atate diaooverad 

264 PKB80KAL UFB OF OBOBOB 6B0IK, Oiup. XfX!. 

theraiB. B«IIdoab4Bol|]uiit]Mrais»adiofwyflbI]i«f«Bol 
hmid. • • • • 

Tbe letter whidi it next inserted eloees the eonespoodenoe 
80 long meinlained between tlie two leemed ftjendi: and 
beeanae it i$ the lat^, end not fran enj partienUar inteieet 
attached to its eantent8» the letter will be lead with pleaaua 

Obobob Qtrnm la O. 0. Idnm. 

18; 84T1UI Bofw, 12A Jmm. 1868. 

I perfeedjr agree in all that joe aaj about the rMh and iaeoo- 
dmiTe method of the Egjrptologiata Mid Aaiyr i ol o g i ata, in tiTOig 
to elicit from inacaiptiona the hiatoiy of nmreoovded ageab The 
analogy between the application whieh thej aMka of thoaa eoi|}eo* 
taral hypotheaea and the i^lieation iHnoh ym aMka of Oe Hht 
hTpotheaea to porioda modem and better known, ia a good and 
onfficieDt analogj. 

Am an iUnstration — Un which jon gife It— jonr JCgjplologicil 
pamphlet ia ray pertinent I wiah I eedd lUnk that it wodd be 
aocccaaftdin r^ireaeing thaOcrmanlicenaaof eo^jeetoroL 

The proceedingB in the UnitedStatea are to bm a o a Mfttn g f a w 
frekemnUe — efai^j in rogud to flMttera of inaneei 

The Federala ha^e already bowow e d an enormooe aom, and USk 
confidently of borrowinga earn etill more enormooe, without hanng 
yet raieed a ■hilling to pay the intereet And yet the price of tide 
large and anaeenred amoont of etock keep$ igi hglk in the market! 

Thie aeeme to me a contradiction to all roaaopable enticipatioBBi 
Ae to the fighting, 1 fear that ie likely to go on for a long time to 

I eaw John Stoart Hill down at Bairow Green laat week. He 
ia in good health and apirita; Tiolont ageinat the Sooth in thie 
American atmggle; embracing heertily the extreme Abolitionkt 
Tiewa, and thinking abont little alee in regard to the gesHal 




We remained at Barrow Green from the Ist of January 
mitil June ; that is to say, the ** head-qnarters " oontiniied 
there. Mr. Grote went up for his various admintatratiTa 
duties as occasion required, staying in Savile Bow two or 
three days at a time. 

A good number of guests came to us during the first three 
months of this year, and at Easter the old ** Barrack** w«a 
positively filled with company. 

Our resolution was taken, in March, to break tip the 
Barrow Green establishment, and to seek another rural 
retreat combining the qualities or attributes now become 
indispensable to our wants. 

After Grote had accepted the three onerous officea, which 
I hayo noted in a foregoing chapter, it became inconvenient 
to reside at a country house situated five milee from a 
railway station, and thcU on a small branch line^ where no 
conveyances for hire were forthcoming of any sort; more- 
over, a line ending at London Bridge. 

The fatigue and loss of valuable time which it coat to mj 
husband to perform the frequent journeys to Caterham and 
back, and from London Bridge to Savile Bow, came to 
be regarded as intolerable after traversing the winter of 
1862-1863. It must be added that he felt less dispoeed 
to entertain company in his own house, after entering upon 
the labours of administrative duty, than before. The leisure 
which remained to him he now desired to consecrate to 
Greek Philosophy, and thus wo agreed upon taking the 
course above-mentioned; giving notice to our landlord, 
Mr. Master, of our intention to quit Barrow Green at 



Midsummer. It was Bot witbout a dmh of mgret indeed, 
that we came to this determiDation, for the place liad its 
attracikms; and besides, the habit of exchanging hospitalities 
with our excellent kinsfolk, Admiral Warde and hia family, 
of Squerryes in Kent, bad formed a pleasant element in our 
•odal life for four jcars paet* 

The death of Sir George Lewif^ in April of this year, canj^ 
to all his friends the tmest oonoemt bat on the Historian the 
Uow fell with peculiar seTerity. 

His scmow waa indeed poignant^ for the void left in hl« 
personal sympathi^ ttnd familiar commerce of thought by 
his belored friend's lose, was irreparable,* 

Geoige now exerted himself activelyi conjointly with Sir 
Edmmid Heed* 3Ir. Lowe, and Dr. William Smith, in pro- 
curing sabseriptions to oorer the cost of a marble bnst of 
Lewis, to be executed by Weekea, Later on, he seemed to 
experience a melancholy consolation in superintend! ng, along 
with myself* its preparation at the sculptor's studio. The 
bust (a stiong likeness^ by the way,) was in due season 
transferred to the British ** WalhaHa,** Westminster Abbey. 

To his latest hour the memory of Lewis was cherished by 
Grote with nndying affection end legxet 

As affording the prospect of relief lo the tone of our spirits 
at this season, I proTailed npcm the Historian — not witlioat 
expending my best powers on this object— 4o accept an 
inyitation from the Professor of Keclesisstical History at 
Oxford. Although Grote nerer acceded to a proposd in- 
volving social exertion without a certain amount of le- 
loctance^ I fslt persuaded that Oxford would just suit him 
at this moment, and supply a stimulus to his thouc^ts of the 
most salutary kind. 

* Ur* Grote offued to go down to Haipton Oont to attend tbs 
foneral of Sir George Lewis, but this ofler (which was only 
prompted by deep leq^eot, and would have been a cruel trial to hk 
fadings if aoeepled) waamoateonsidsn^ 

1803. VISIT TO OXFORD. 267 

No calculation ever proved better founded; for the &w 
days we spent in Christchurch during tlie month of Ifaj, 
1863, really may be counted among the happiest and most 
memorable of any that it was permitted to us to enjoy during 
the remainder of his life. 

The Dean of St. Paul's and Mrs. Milman were our felkyw- 
guests at Arthur P. Stanley's : Miss Mary Stanleyi his aiater, 
doing the honours of the house.* 

A group of Scholars, including some of the 'Fh>fe88or8, 
gathered round the hospitable Canon's board daily ; a few of 
the dignitaries (the worthy Dean of Christchurch included), 
with their ladies, also came. 

The Professor of Greek, Mr. Jowett, entertained us at Balliol 
College, at a breakfast, where we had a select company of 
Oxford men of various grades, all brimful of curiosity 
to meet '^the Historian of Greece" in private society. 
Then, long visits to the Bodleian, and to the Museum of 
Natural History; walks among the beautiful College 
Gardens, Christchurch Cathedral, the ancient Halls, the 
libraries, the local curiosities, traditions : ah I where shall 
one find such diversified objects of intelligent interest 
as present themselves at every step in this hallowed sanc- 
tuary of Learning, Oxford University? 

In the evening, there would mingle with the elegant 
throng at Canon Stanley's a choice batch of ^youngsters,** 
animated by the prospect of beholding their favourite author 
^in propria persona." Indeed the rooms, spacious and nu- 
merous, were half filled with these scions of English families : 
some destined to become one day our rulers, many more to 
aid in the diffusion of science and letters among their fellows. 
It was, in truth, '' young England,** seen under its most im- 
pressive conditions. 

They clustered round Grote with eagerness, blending the 

* Mrs. Stanley had, to the profound grief ofall her ftiencU, myself 
anumg the number, boon token from them by death early in 1862. 


freedom of yoalb with their j^apcetful homage,— even 
** elbowing ''one another in order to get close to him and 
catch every word that dropped fmm his lips; wbiJ© he* 
resting his person against the arm of a large chair (not liking 
to nt down in presence of bo many danding roimd) digcoarsed 
fioniliarly with those nearest to him on the subjects most ioto^ 
resting to their ooromon tastes— classic lore^ of oonrse, the 
foremost topic 

Seated in a distant port of the roozn, I observed the paasing 
scene with an inward pride and satisfaction which need hardly 
be described, so readi] j will the reader enter into my feelings 
on this occasion. Some of the gentlemen of the tutorial claAa 
came and talked with me, and &om them I acquired an in- 
siglit into the change operated in the minds of the actual 
generatioii by the * History of Greece/ 
. *6rote and Mill may be said to have revired the study of 
the two master sciences— History and Slental PhUoeophy— 
among the Oxford undergraduates. A new current of ideas ; 
new and original modes of interpreting the past ; the light 
of fresh learning east upon the peoples of antiquity : such 
are the impulses given by those two great teacher?, that 
our youths are completely kindled to enthusiasm towards 
both at the present time.* 

Thus did more than one serioos-minded interlocotor 
express himself^ and in full sincerity, too^ whilst we remained 
at Oxford. 

On retiring for the night, I obserred that George seemed 
fatigued with the expenditure of physical and emotional 
force which accompanied each of the busy days of our Tisit 
to Dr. Stanley. He took unusual interest in everything 
connected with the plaoCi which indeed had, for his eyes, 
the flavour of norelty; but the crowning charm of this Oxibrd 
passage was the assurance he there aoqmred of his having 
awakened the up-coming generation to an ardent leal fi>r the 
pursuits nearest his own heart. Tlie genuine marks of ad- 
miration shown him left little doubt in Grote*s mind of the 
permanenoe of his influence as a scholar and historical teacher. 



and ibis persuasion be more tban once referred to at haWag 
arisen at Oxford in 1863, with peculiar emphasis. 

We bad a farewell pai-ty at Barrow Green in tbe month of 
June, after which our library aud personal chattels wero 
removed by repeated van-loads to Savile Bow, whilst I made 
the best arrangements within my power for lodging our now 
spare horses and vehicles and servants in the vicinitjt 
pending another ''move.** And now July was drawing to an 
end when, at my breakfast one morning, I '* gave notice * to 
George (who sat by my side, as usual) of my intention "'to 
make a journey to Chamounix." After a pause, indicative of 
astonishment, he said, *' And pray, when do you think of set- 
ting forth ?" — " About the final days of this month.** Another 
pause. '' Well, then, I shall be able to join you towards the 
middle of August, somewhere in Switzerland.** Agreed. I 
made my way to Geneva; and although the intense heat of 
that summer, especially in Geneva, well-nigh deprived me (as 
it seemed to do every one not a native, indeed) of all physical 
strength, I did compass Chamounix, with a sight of the Moot 
Blanc and its neighbouring scenery. 

At Neufch&tcl the Historian duly appeared on 17th Aagiiit» 
true to the ** rendezvous ; " but he, too, had felt the heat so 
overpowering, that an extra day's rest at Dijon was found 
to be a prudential measure on his part *' en route.** We re- 
mained at Neufchatel some days, and then, crossing the 
lake, we drove in a carriage to Fribourg. The weather now 
dianged to windy and disagreeable conditions, which some- 
what marred the enjoyment of our holiday. However, the 
excitement just then prevailing among the scientifio world, 
on the subject of lacustrine habitations, acted upon Qrote*s 
curiosity and induced him to go on from Berne to Zorich, in 
which city a tolerably comprehensive collection had bean 
formed, illustrative of these dwellings in remote times amid 
the waters of certam inland seas. We spent two or three 
days in visiting these depositories of the past, and in "^Hng 
some excursions in the environs in a light carriage. 


Eelonting homewards^ ^& deviated into Baden, passing a 
conplo af days at Baden Baden, whidi place Grote Imd wkbed 
to see, on haaring mj report of tlie exceeding beauty of its 

We next made a dM(mr for tbe expraes pnrpoee of Tisiting 
the Chatean de Cirey, dear to ns both as tbe re&idence, a 
century ago, of Voltaire and I^Iadame du Cbatelet But in 
this pious pilgrimage we were defeated by tbe di£Bciilty of 
obtaining any manner of conreyance to Cirey, We got 
wjtbin mxie^sn Engliab miles of it» at JToinTille (in the EauU 
Mame)t &om which pleasant Tillage we could find neither 
cart nor carriage for " love or money ^ during our stay. 

So we travelled on to Paris^ where we bad not been, together, 
for many years. The etriking appearance of the new crea- 
tiona of the Empire— buildings and ^urdeoB and public 
monuments — made, naturally, a great impressioa on two 
people coming bo recently from " dowdy London.*' 

We went more than once to the theatre, Grote always 
taking pleasure in the " Com^die FFan9aifie ** before all, where 
his ear was regaled with the delivery of the older French 
dramatists by the choice ** troupe " attached to that aociety. 
He enjoyed at all times listening to weU«spoken, pore French, 
tboogh tbe actors^ elocotion pleased him most; probaUy 
because of i&etr speaking tt^mnyFieiicli. We left Paris at the 
end of a week's stay, and reached London on 18th September, 
after a safe joome y vid Boulogne. 

The antomn months we passed in London, only learaig 
it to pay the cnstomary visit to Tedworth. Lcnnd Broog^iton 
still active, and aUe to ride to hoand% but altered since omr 
last visit I went lo spend a few days with M. and lbs. 
de Salis, in Wiltahire, alone ; whilst the ws«inr^« pfoseested 
his habitnal labooit throog^ tbe winter. 




The first incident which it is incumbent upon me to note 
among the events of this year, is, the honour conferred on the 
Historian of Greece ** by the Institute of France, in electing 
him a ** Foreign Member,** in the place of Lord Macaulay, 

He received the official notice of this higher position in the 
^ AcaMnne/' with much satisfiEu^ion ; for indeed the compli- 
ment ranks among the most valuable which the world of 
letters has to bestow. 

On this occasion a French acquaintance addressed to tlie 
new member a congratulatory letter (in English), as under :^- 

Thi Oouht Adolpsi db Oibooubt to OxoBOB Oboti, 
La. Cjellb db St. Glouo^ 

JVdniaiy 22fi4, 1864. 

Mt dbab 8m, — 

I hare learnt with infinite pleasure that our lostitate ham 
bestowed upon yon the highest reward at its disposal, the riohoit 
gem in its gift 

These places are so few, and the competition for them among 
the loftiest spirits and oldest reputations of both worlds is so greats 
that no distinction of the same kind offered to a I^enehwum oan be 
oompaied with that of becoming an ** Assooi6 j&tranger." 

Assuredly no person was more worthy of suoh an honour, and 
more fit to sit in so brilliant company — 

'* 8e oh' io fui seato fra ootanto •vimo.*' 

The muster-roll of the ** Associes j&trangers" of our Instituie 
is probably the highest and f ollest representation of the genius and 
leuning of the age. 

I hope that yoor health and good spirits do bring you steadilj 
through your new undertaking, and that a history of the philosophy 
of Oreece may soon appear — the crowning work of the oooupation 


' cf your life. Indeed^ unong tbe mojiy benofitA which our modem 
natJOM owe to th^ ancient citi«;# of Grooce, Dooa, perK&pa, is io 
importont te tlie finet conoeptioB, eUbomtion^ and di^UBioa of 
philoeophkml tigwo ftnd ooncluaionB, hj Uio luboor of tKeir eagea^ 

** A4icoeze bonic pwilo plus ajtti AiheouB,^ 

PerhapeyBol efoi in tha tphero of art and iMjeUy, aro we ao deofplj, 
■o dizeodjr, indobtod to our OticciAn ma&teft. Ton, wba )mva giYoa 
■OTiTid end eomplcto ^ picture of their political llfo» ara wdl 
entitled to show them as thej wore in tho " Sapiontom Tempi is ^— 
not elwaja, is it tnte, " Bcrcm«,'* but alw^jre built upon iha ^ high 
irlefrM.** • • * • 

, I do remain^ tn^ doar SiTf 

Very ainoorelj jfoors. 

As a sappIemeDt to the rarcgomg document^ I am tempted to 
reprodnoe a note from a friend of forty yean* standing: — 

Mt wlam Oboti,— 

No amoiinl of businosa ea& preveiit me from aaying liow 
mvdi pleamre it has giTes mo to boar that you baye beoa elected 
a member of the Fr^icb Academy (dee Sciencos Mmalw et 

Our old and loog-caotimiad Mondship oiititlc» mo to eicprosi te 
yoo how moeh plea^ur^ this OTCitt has giron me* I oonaidor it s 
▼ery high honour; and Oig comi^limeut is as croiiitable to the 
Infltitate itself aa it is honommble to yon. Accept the fCfy sincera 
congratnlations of your old sad attached fHeod 


The first half of this year in London ; hospitalities some- 
what enlarged, for I find entries in Diary of repeated 
** dinners ** in Savile Bow. As the spring adranced, 1 b^gan 
to make ezcarsions in yarions directions for the purpose of 
finding a country-house to suit ns. Much valuable time was 
consumed by these tiresome, solitary joumeysi but there was 
no help for it» and I toiled on. At last I discovered a small 
house, with a few acres of .heath-land, near Albury Fkrk in 
Surrey ; I ^ fancied " the situation, and Mr, Grote, oo seeing 
the place, felt similarly disposed in its favour. So we tinted 
with the parties for the purchase of this b'ttle property and 
entered into possesium about Midsummer. Shortly after, 


1864-1865. ''IIARMOR HOMERICUM.** 278 

placing oar servants in ^the Bidgeway** (as I intended to 
call our new abode), we made a trip to Paris, expre^lj to 
settle with the sculptor, M. le Baron de Triqneti, tlie com- 
position of a work in a new style of art caller] Tania^ which 
we had consented to order, as a memorial of Mr, 6iote*a 
early connection with University College. Three weeks were 
devoted to this object, going to the aieUer fiequently and 
discussing the arrangement of the subjects, all of which were 
to be taken from the Homeric Poems. 

The remainder of the year is soon accounted for, as followa. 
After a week's visit to Long Bennington in September, we 
returned to London : Mr. Grote going direct thither, and I 
taking Ampthill Park, Lord Wensleydale's, ^ en raote,"* for a 
few days' visit During the last three montlm of the year, « 
which were passed at Bidgeway, the Plato was going 
through the press under t]ie author's careful supenriaion, 
and by the end of December half of the work was in print 
And so 1864 closed upon us whilst leading a quiet coontry 
existence among our books ; invaded now and then by es- 
teemed guests, for we had enlarged the bouse so as to 
enable us to lodge and entertain a small number at the 

FAruary, 1865. — I find the following entry in my 
Diary : — 

The seoond volume of Plato is complotoly printed, sad I begin 
to cherish a hope that the wholo throe volumos will be ready lor 
^ablication early in tho spring. Mr. Grote has worked steadily at 
thin all the winter, contributing new matter as occasion seemed to 
demand. • • • • 

We went to Tod worth on 11th February for a few days. Lord 
Broughton in tolerably good health, though sensibly ngpA by the 
suffidrings ho underwent rocontly from inveterate sciatica. As he 
can neither ride nor walk nor play at billiards now, his eiiaienes is 
rendered monotonous, and in some sort tedious ; but be pnserws 
his interest in letters, and reads a great deal, and also writes. 

Diary again — 

Mmrtk 15/i^— Tho third volnmo of Plato is well advanecd. 



John Kill mju it hm exoee^^d }m ^ipecUtions indeed, higb u 
ihej were. 

Diary continued'^ 

April 21«l. — ^Tlie " Marmor Homencma ** ia completed, M, da 
Triqneii appeftn to be sattj^Bed witli bis work, nnd exp6ct« it wiH 
9mw in London about tbo lat Mg^j, at Untvcrshy Collcgie. Mr, 
Oioto has been bos^ fr&ming a Bhort descriptiTo pnpor^ ta be put 
into the hands of the Tisiton to the "* TktbIa " when mady. 

Ma^ 19 A. — ^The " Mi^nnor Homenotuu^ h&a boon placed in pod* 
tion, in the cloisters of Umvcrsily Collego, &nd a DUmeroui eonipaoj 
graced the opening Tiew* The work eicited admiimtion both oordid 
snd diserifflinating ; Among Uio Tiiitore wwi the Froeide^t of ^^ 
Boyal Aoadomyt ^>^ wliom no more consammate judgo of Art 
eoidd be n^f^^i and ho psid M^ do Trtqaoti tho com pli moot of 
saying thati ^ among modom Artiste, ho aIoho oom blued a koow- 
ledge of oompositioii and drAwing, with pure eculpture/' 

The three bulky tomes of which such frequent mention 
has been made, tame forth in tho spring of thiA year. Of 
this monument of loomed industry it is beyond my humble 
proTinoe to disooorse. It will be more fitly set forth hero- 
after by one who U qualiflrd, by bis own att^m^nt^ and tlm 
intercourse he enjoyed with the author during a long series 
of years, to place this work where it desenres to stand in 
the Platonic series. 

The following passages are contained in a letter to John 
Stnart Mill, dated June, 1865. That which condudea the ex- 
tract is characteristic of Grote*s amiability in contioyernsl 
matters^, and of his sympathy with a fellow-workman, though 
an opponent : — 

• • • • 

It is Tory gratifying to me that you deokre my ** Oritioism 
on the Repoblic " to be the most striking part of the whole work, 
sinoe the BepnUic is decidedly the dbs/^OMsri <rf the Anther 
himHolf. I was at once most anzioiis to hsndle it well» and most 
donbtf 111 whether I ootdd soeceed in doing so ; — the rather as I 
was forced to select a few principal topics to criticise amidst sn 
Almost infinite mnltttode, loanng out the rest Altogether, your 
impffoflsfonabont the book is asliAToaiable as I could hays fentorsi 


to hope; and I shall rejoioe if the materiala ooniaiiiod iniiara 
fonnd aoffioient to Bupply joa with a hasis for " the intelligibla 
ouUine of Plato's intelloctaal figure/' which you promiso for jour 

Since yoor departure, and since the complete printing of mj 
Plato, I hav<e lost no time in reading your Tolnme on Sir William 
Hamilton : it has completely answered my expectations, and tluti 
is saying as much of it as I can say. It is full of valuable ex- 
pansions of the doctrines more briefly adumbrated in your Logio» 
and of contributions to the most obscure and recondite ezpoaitiinia 
of Psychological Science • ♦ • • 

I am certainly very glad that poor Sir W. H. did not lire to read 
such a crushing refutation. It is really so terrible, that I shall be 
almost pleased if either Mansol or T. S. Baynes are aUe, on anj 
particular points, to weaken the force of it, and make something of 
a defence. 

The record of tins, And I am afraid I must add, 
of the succeeding two years, will bo les^i full than that of 
many previous ones wluch have passed under my hand. 
For the lamentable breakdown in my own health, which 
began in the spring of 1865, suspended the ordinary course 
of our common life, besides disqualifying me from keeping 
the customary memoranda so indispensable to biography. 
When the month of June arriverl, the medical adviser was 
so peremptory in his advice that I should repair to Baden 
Baden, that Mr. Grote accordingly conducted me thither 
about the 15th of July, remaining with me there some 
weeks, and then passing iuto the salubrious region of the 
Yosges for another ten days, as a supplement to the Baden 
course of baths. 

We returned to England in September, and we paid a 
sliort visit to Lord and Lady Helper, late in October. I 
went for a few days to Lord Amberley's, at Bodborough: 
but I found my strength wholly unequal to the fatigue of 
moving about, and therefore stayed at the Bidgeway quietly, 
up to the close of the year : Mr. Grote pursuing his wonted 

T 2 


round of public duty, and dinding his presence between 
Savile Bow and his country boose. I most here endeaTour 
to give what particulars I can affinrd of the Historian's pro- 
ceedingSy scanty though they be. 

The work upcm 'Plato and the other Companions of 
Sokrates*. was well xeceived by the learned dass who 
occupy themaelTcs with the study of Greek philosophy. 
Mr. Grote himielf experienced a somewhat lively satisfiu)- 
tion with the impression made by these three bulky tomei^ 
whilst their mde came to exceed the expectations of our 
publisher. Very few letters remain of tiiis year; but I 
find one from J. & Mill, (dated Mont Dor< les Baini^ 
June 1865), which will be read with interest in eonneeticii 
with the one on the preceding pagew After aUoding to the 
^Legefv" Mill continues: — 

The two ecwwluiling chapftevsi on tte eChsr hand, aie equal in 
intereat to almoat any&ing in the work, eapadally tte aeoounl ot 
the Meguici, Kyrenaios, Ae., of whom I ftwrkmij knew vsqf 

I hope to be able to make a uaeftd artiele en the book; but 
when I spoke of giving en intellectual outline of Plato fnm your 
materials, I meant from your thoughts : not that 1 had attaineii 
any higher point of view than yours, but that 1 hoped to reproduoe 
yours in a oondensed form. 

I hope you have scon Mark Pattison's review nd you in the 
* Beader * ? He contests the question of the Platonic canon with 
yon, or rather, promises to contest it. * * * * I was 
pleased, however, to find him so eulogistic of the book in every 
other respect He hsd just before written a review of my *Haniil- 
ton,' in which he equally surprised me ^ the estont of his 

How valuable to me is your approbation of the * w*»^t^/ I 
need not say. The opinion you expresi of it comes 19 to my 
highest hopes. • • • • I am writing to you from a bsa«ti« 
fol place, in the heart of a valley, which is an old "crater," sur- 
mounted l^ summits between 6000 and 7000 fbet above the ms 
l$f€L * * * * We have e^|oyed our tour very much, and 
have not been indulged with a sincple nuny day en whkh to get en 



No sooner had the Plato been completed, and the 
printiDg begun (viz. in Sept 1864), than the aatlior ^wt 
the loom^ afresh for his Aristotle. Scarcely permitting 
himself breath, as it were, he applied his spare honrB to 
the preparation of the third part of what he used to call ^mj 

A friend t said to me one day, at Bidgeway, on learning 
this &ct, — ** Grote's intellectual course always seema to me 
to resemble the progress of a planet through the firmament: 
never halting, never deviating from its onward path, ateadfis^t 
to its appointed purpose; it quite impresses one with 
wonder 1" And it was thus that he worked on as heretofore^ 
and (perhaps sustained in his labours by the augmenting 
reputation he was aware attended them) he never flagged 
in the enjoyment of his books, or of philosophical talk — 
when this could be had, that is to say. 

I should note, in connection with this period, the rising 
importance of the University of London. Most persons ao- 
quainted with the influence of that body upon the education 
of the middle class, ascribed its increase in great part to 
the new Vice-Chancellor's ascendency in its direction* Bo 
this as it may, it is certain that the zealous and unremitting 
attention he now bestowed upon the system of examina- 
tion in the University counted for a vast deal in attracting 
the public confidence in its proceedings. 

The demand which arose outside the establishment for 
more suitable lodgings, attested the growth of this insti- 
tution in a way which the Liberal Government (and, it most 
be added, the Grovemment of Lord Derby and his oolleagnes 
likewise,) recognised as imperative. Each year that now 
rolled over seemed to add credit to the administration of 
the Senate and Convocation, workbg in harmony, on the 

* See Prefaoe to Vol. XI. of 'History,' published in 1853, 
wherein the three great subjects are regarded as closely o o nneoled 
in the author's mind and purpose. 

t Mr. Charles Newton. 



whole; and this, greatly owing, tba Yloe^haticellor used 
to declare, to the judicious maBagemeut of the Cbalrmau 
of ConTocatkm, Dr. Stotrar. 

When the GoYemment decided on erecting a oomtnodiooa 
building wherein to carry on the duiie« of the University 
of London, it produced a marked effect in quickening the 
•ympathies of the public in the edtablisbment^ whiUt the 
labonis of the administrutioo becamo at once more ardnous 
and more interesting. 

Tlie letters written at the end of tbid year are tnckstly of a 
critical and learned character; but a paseage in one of tbom 
may be suitably quoted here, in ilJuatrAtion of the permanent 
impression Grote*s mind bore of his early master in phi- 
losophy, James HilL 

Greorge was^ at the time of writing this letter, absorbed 
in the composition of an article for the ' Westminster Beriew/ 
on John EL Mill's book upon Sir William HamOton** 
[The lettei is so full of jnetaphysicg that I withhold the fiM 
portions of it] After saying all he wanted, in reference to 
this book and snbject generally, he cancludea thuai^^ 

** I am glftd to get an opportaniiy, also^ of saying what I think 
about your ' System of Logic ' and *Essay on Liberfy;' but Ism 
still more glsd to get (or perhaps to sidbi) an opportunity of say« 
ing something about your fiUher. It has slways rsnUed in my 
thoughts, that so grand and powerftd a mind ss his left behind it such 
insufBoisnt traces in the sstimatimi of sucosssots.''-^yoiisitir 80, 

The year came tranquilly to an end with us at ^theBidge- 
way.^ Orote*s health had been uniformly good, whilst my 
own became somewhat improved during the aatanm, although 
it was iar from being restored to its wonted loTeL 

^ This roriew appeared in the January number for 1866. 





Whilst affairs were going so well with the UniTeraitj 
of London* it was not all fair weather at Unireraity Cd- 
lege, where indeed a storm was brewing: as thus. The 
chair of Logio became vacant, after a lapse of thirty yean 
and more, during which period its occupant, the Ber. Dr. 
Hoppus, had suffered the class attending his leoturea to 
dwindle do>Tn to a very small number of students. In troth, 
the subject seemed to be dying out in tliat college. When, 
therefore. Dr. Hoppus's resignatiou was announced, the 
Historian felt undissembled satisfaction, for he now looked 
forward to some moi*e able professor being appointed, ii> 
instruct the youths in his own favourite science of mental 

Enquiries were set on foot in many quarters, and not a few 
individuals made known their qualifications for the chair 
during the summer of 1866. But the Dissenters saw an 
opening for introducing another of their important body 
into the position of teacher of Philosophy, and, uith infinite 
address, brought out their "great gun,** in the person of 
tlie Bev. James j\Iartineau. 

When Grote learned this fact, he was almost dismayed ; 
well aware of the power exercised in the institution — now as 
heretofore — by the Unitarian section of the proprietary, be 
foresaw a collision between that party and those memben 
of the council who were attached to the principles of 
University College in their strict purity. ** To have endured 
Hoppus for a quarter of a century, was bad enough, but, 
when a ray of light was about to break upon that benighted 
chair, to be threatened with an eminent theologian, with mn 


Unitarian minister T It wa$ overpowering, for th« taomeBt 
The effect oonld oaly be compared to that made upon tb© 
mind of •'Christiaii/' when he beheld the Egure of ApoUyoa 
" bestraddling the pathway. ** 

Grotei howerer, felt, along with that excellent penson in tlie 
allegory of Banyan, nowise disposed *' to gi?e it up," and, again 
like Christian, ^ felt for hig oword*" Not a weapoa of «teel, 
certea, bat the instrument of the age in which he excelled, 
namely, peraoaaive speech. He also Hiote, indeed, vast quan- 
titiea of matter on the eubjae^ which ^haasted all that could 
be said on the aide he defended ; but his frieudg (and I added 
my inflnenoe to theira on tlie occasion) pre?ailed on George 
to leave the Preea to hia opponents. I remember that we 
were staying at Earl Stanhope'a in the autamn of tliia year, 
and that my hn^baod devoted two entire mornings to the 
composition of a ** Pleading" about this disputed nomination. 
He relnctantly conflented to his paper being withheld, but 
afterwards fmnkly recognised the wisdom of the course 

The partisans of ilr* Marttneau worked the organs of the 
daily and weekly press lustily, and the cootroverBy became 
at once bitter and noisy. My readers will, I hope, ezcnso my 
not favouring them with a more detailed history of the 
conflict in the council, from my own sooroes, and accept a 
tolerably impartial, if prosy, summary of the affair, copied 
from a daily newspaper ol the period. The Tiew taken 
is very much of the kind which one is said to gather firdm 
** the man in the omnibus ;** tliat sure exponent of pablio 
opinion, to quote our friend Sutton Sharpens bumocous 
didum^ uttered some thirty years since. 

The friends of seeolar eduoalioii have rsosntly bssn moeh di»- 
trvssed at a most unseemly co ntr ovsf sy , whiek has arissn col of 
certain late transsotioiis in Univeraity College, London. The 
chair of Hontal Philosophy and Logie in thai institution beosaa 
vacant a few months sines, by the lesignation of Doctor Hoppus, 
and in due coarse the Ooonoil of the OoUsgs advertised Hmt a soo- 
the oaadidatss Hmt the oAos was lbs eslsbraled 

1866. CHAIR OF LOGIO. 281 

Unitarian ininiBier» the BeT. James Martineau, who^ in additioQ la 
his great reputation as a pulpit orator, bears a high character as m 
metaphysioal writer and thinker. • • • • "Ur. HaztinMui's 
testimonials were oonsidered by the professorial bodj —the Senate 
of the College— greatlj superior to those of anj of his oom- 
petitors, and he went before the Council (in which resided the 
power and responsibility of choosing the professors) with tha 
adTsntage of a unanimous recommendation from the Senate. It 
occasioned some surprise when it became generally known that the 
Council had rejected Mr. Martineau, and without assigning any 
reason for so doing. In &ct it is pi-obable that, besides that sooh 
a course would haye been unusual and not Tcry dignified, it would 
hsTO been difficult to assign any single reason in which all those 
who objected to Mr. Martineau's election could hare honestlj 

HowoTor this may be, as soon as the fact of the r^eotion was 
made public, a cry was raised by some Liberals against the Coonoil 
of UniTcrsity College. The gentlemen composing that body were 
accused in no measured language of illiberality, moral oowardioei 
** second-hand bigotry/' and so forth. Mr, Groto and others, whose 
names stand high in public estimation, were branded as haying 
rejected, through a contemptible and crayon terror of the sneers of 
the religious world, the best man that could be found fat the 
position, and hayiog thus abandoned all the adyantages of <y»m ^]ftr 
education. At the same time, Mr. Mortineau was extolled in 
language so hyperbolical, as only to be excused by its being eyi- 
dently prompted by warm and somewhat untompered ftj^miyatt^yn 
for an able and estimable man. • • • • Meanwhile, yre, 
being champions of neither party, but only sincere friends of the 
institution whose intorosts are likely to be compromised, may be 
allowed to consider tho case briefly from a critical point of yiew 
• • • • We have proviously acknowledged Mr. Martineaa'e 
claims in point of attainments and capacity, but we may fiurlj ask 
the question, whether his tonure of the professorship of Mind and 
Logic would not repel some largo classes from the halls of Uni- 
versity College. The yery principle of secularism would bo oom- 
promised, some haye not unfairly urged, by the fact that so 
important a Chair as that now yacant should be filled by a professor 
holding at the same time a theological professorship in a Unitarian 
College, and discharging the duties of a prominent religious 

Those who held this yiew yoted for the rejection of Mr. Mar- 
tineau, not because he was a Unitarian, but because he was a die- 


tjngwiiihwl profewioiMa tlieologiMi, • • • • It is only jut, 
urges the distingiiislied thinker to'whom we hsTS leftned, thst to 
the greet sohodl which tresds in the steps sad defslops the theories 
of Lockey one position of snthoiri^ shmild be conceded. Donbt- 
lees this Tiew hsd its weight with the Oonnea of Unireraitj (U- 
kge. In &ot» we beUere Mr. Msrtinesn's election was edvoestod 
onl J hj the Unitsrisn meniberB of the Oonaeil^ — swejed, no donbti 
by priTite friendehip,— end not efen by theee^ imsnimonsly, • • • 
On sgenersl TJew of theco niiu f oisy, we ere d i s p osed to think thst 
thessMilsntsoftheOoiinoil hsTO fidled to UMke oat their essi^ 
end hsTO pelted hoooumble men with ymj herd wwds widiont s 

In October, I penoaded Mr. Giote to tsko a trip of a few 
days to Portsmoath, by wny of direnion to his thonghti. 
We had the advantage of Mr. W. M. James's oompany on 
this occasion, and all of ns were interested with the sight of 
the wonderrnl Ironclads in the harbour and naTal yardiL 

The whole cl NoTember and part of December were cotf- 
somed by the foregoing wearisome controversy, originating 
in that wliich the late Dr. CSialmeis would have called 
^'a flagrant attack upon a fundamenlal prindple.** 

The year closed in upon us serenely, however; aud Grata 
appeared right glad when the time came for resuming closet 
studies and interests. I give two extracts from letteis 
having reference to the University College contest, by way 
of concluding the record of 186G. 

Dteember 13, 1866. 

Upon this point the mortal struggle tamed : more than one of 
our friends bed been induced to give way thus far, by strong pressure 
brought to bear on them. I, for my part» eiqpeoted that we should 
be beaten: and weonly eeoapeda4joummentby theeseting voteof 
Belper. After that, Bobertson was appointed, by a umjoaAtj id 8 
againiit 6. 

This decision has been the means of proserving the Chair from 
being fiippfVffMa 

If the appointment had been defened lor another month, we 
should have had incessant agitation during the interval, and the 
matter would infeUibly have ended in a eomp 
the Chair outright 



Seyenl of our members are indifferent to the topio, and woold 
hkjo accepted the abolition^ as the only way of preyenting 

• • • • X liave gone through nearly as much anxiety of 
mind as I did when Bain's appointment was lying iv yoMuny of 
Sir George Lewis. If Robertson proyes worthy and efifootiTe (as 
eyerything leads me to hope), the gain for inductiye and ■m^xf^t^jift 
mental philosophy will be most important. 

Thronghont this yexatious conflict, I haye felt the inezpre*- 
sible yalae of haying such colleagues as Helper, Byan, Booth, dm., 
when one has to faoe difficulties and unscrupulous opponents. 

I am sorry to say that the younger generation— eyen thoae 
trained in Uniyersity College and the XJniyersity of London — 
appear to me to be of a cast essentially feebler and moira 

It is melancholy to obsenre this, when one has been labouring 
to improve education. 

Those minds, which were formod here in the struggle between 
1820 and 1882, are decidedly more lofty, effeotiye, and strennone 
than those which haye been formed since. At least I think so. 

Tours eyer tmly, 

o. a. 

In reply to the foregoing letter. Mill writes : — 

I am much obliged to you for giving me the history of tbo 
struggle. • « • * Those who exerted themselyes to get the 
Chair suppressed, because their candidate was rejected, haye 
entirely giyen iheir measure by it, and a yery wietohed one 
iiis. • • • • 

After adding some observations in the same strain. Mill 
notices the concluding sentiment of the Historian's letter as 
under: — 

We must not forget that your experience and mine, of the 
older set, includes the very best of them ; those who were £c»med 
under the Benthamio influence. 

There was, in general, Kimmerian darkness then, beyond the 
region to which that influence, directly or indireotlyi extended. 

At the risk of wearying the reader by prolonging this 
episode, I will venture to add one extract from the ineyitable 
** Diary,*' attesting the importance of the object for which 


all this ezpenditme of time and penond tvonble mm 
iDCUied: — 

*'HmI the chair hSlen to Uie UmtaiuUL tattoherp I fed peraiudod 
thai the intemft which, for inem^lj fortj jmxA, Mr. Qroto ha feh 
IB the p ioeperity and the purpofieA of the OUege, would u^^Uiblj 
haTB raoeiTedachMl of ft painful kind, and IhuB prgbabl^ indie^'oei^ 
him to mmaia a member of iU Cam(^"^IH&^^, 20ih DeoetaW, 

Perfai^ I ought, properly, to allude here to the electioD, 
in 1866, of a Lord Ilector hj the XJniTerdij of Abeitleeti. 
Mr. Orote was proposed for that lK»Tioar, and supported 
by the yoonger portion of the tnemberg. The Toling gmre 
an equal nnmber for Grote and for Mr. Grant Duff^ M*P.» 
when tho Doke of Bidimood deciding by his oa«tiiig Tote in 
faronr of the latter candidate, he was elected Lord Becton 
Neither Grote nor myself felt any regret at thia re&ult: the 
duties whidi miglii have been demanded of him were 
neither weighty nor fatiguing in character^ but winter 
joumeyi would hare been objectionable, aad time wai 
becoming more and more preciong to us as nge odtanoel 
Many letters are extant which would interest a trertain dssi 
of readers in reference to this election, but I Corbear to 
swell the amount of matter by quoting them. 






One of the first passages which must be noted in the record 
of this year, is the letter addressed by the Historian to 
Professor Boeckh. I read this letter before it was despatched 
to Berlin, and recollecting how much there was to interest 
the mind of a student, I took measures in 1872 to obtain 
a cop7» which, by the obliging courtesy of Madame Gneist^ 
the daughter of the illustrious Boeckh, I am enabled to 
present to my readers : 

GsoBOB Gbotb to Professor Auo. Boiosb. 

March 120, 1867. 

DxAB Sib, akd most bxspbohsd Pbofessob, — 

I haye just learnt, through a letter from Dr. Seligmaimy 
that you intend to close your official Lectures as Professor on 
Thursday next, the 15th, being the sixtieth amuTersaiy of the daj 
<m which you first took your Doctor's degree. 

Your many friends and pupils at Berlin, who haTe had the hap- 
piness of personally knowing you, and the adyantage of hearing 
your lectures, will of course celebrate this day by some suitable 
manifestation of respect and gratitude to you. But I cannot suffer 
the day to pass without a few words of sympathy from one of your 
foreign brothers-in-Hellonism, who feels deeply indebted to yon 
for the pleasure and instruction which he has deriyed firom your 
numerous works. 

Your long and most active philological career has enabled you to 
extend and improve our knowledge of Hellenic antiquity more 
than any of your contemporaries, distinguished as seyeral of them 
have been. Your works, taken together, form an enoyolopndia of 
philology in all its principal departments ; and the more a man 
studies the original authors themselves, the more he will ap^!e» 
eiate your copious and well-digested erudition. 

I will add ihat your works are an honour to philologiosl eriti- 


doily hj tlie oandi^ itod tempomte epiril in wHicb jnu diAcma 
tlie Tiews of opponcmlA^ ftud bj the enitra ^beenco of that Mperit;^ 
whidi is to repolsiro in Fruitl k&d other leonifstl writeis. 

It is bowefwr supeT^uous, except ba a fiAtisfkction to mj own 
feeling, to Mj ft word in pniee of works like yours, wtdch hftt« 
obtained ft monvi&Qntal celebntj, not to be oTertbrown b^ auj 

The dose of ft career Hko jouta ib a moment of interest to efsiy 
sdiolftr in Eoiope. Ac^^pt m^ werf beet and most earnest wiahci, 
that yon maj stall bare before you a considerable farther period of 
health and oomfort aod aetivo literary interest. 

Ton hftTS attained an age already one year beyond the full sgi 
of Plato ; sad I sm happy to say that I mx no difibronce 
your later snd esrlier works, such as I sm compcUod to ; 
IB the Leges, as compared with the Bepublic, ProtagoraSf and 
8jmposioiL Toa will recolloGt that the elder Cato^ when 90 yesn 
of ftge, socBsed Sergiiu Gpslba before the popular aseembly, and 
that his speadi was prf^ecnried among his works. No man hss 
Cftrned ft few jesn of leienre more fully or nobly than yon. 

I trosl thfti mj oiprennions of sympathy and veneration towmr^i 
jom nifty be sUowDd to mingle with the Faekehug of the 16tht sad 
I lemain, dosf Sir, yonts most faithfully, 

GioRiii Gbotl 

Professor Boe^h. 

That this tribute from an anthor of reputatioii, in his own 
foil ripe stage, must bare been gratifying to the vetenn in 
his dedine, one can have bnt little donbt^ 

The Yioo-Chanoellor had his ftill measare of arlministfatife 
work this spring. The opholding of the enltoze of mental 
sdence, as well as of the stody of Greek, in the UniTenity ct 
London, furnished many occasions for yigoroos action on his 
part, whilst he also stroTO to help forward the claims of 
women to follow the oonrse of medical instnictioB« by 
admitting female candidates to the examinations in thai 
walk of study. 

Li no one of these endeaToors was he encxNuaged by sndi 
an amount of support as to sustain his hopes of permanent 



Tlie classical (dlement in the Senate of the UniTeraity of 
London, though fitly enough represented in the persons of 
Sir John Acton, Mr. Twisleton, Mr. Lowe, and, I may add. 
Lord Overstone, was not numerically strong; whilst the 
defection of Mr. Lowe from the side of scholarship serred 
to throw a certain advantage into the scale of the partisans 
of other studies. 

Their earnest advocacy of the superior claims of physical 
science promised to overbear the endeavours of the classio 
party, to the undissembled regret of its leading members. 
Aa some compensation for this discouraging check, the Vice- 
chancellor made an effective resistance to the proposal for 
lowering the standard of examinations. More ^an one 
eloquent ''minute" stands recorded, wherein his masterly 
pen is employed in favour of maintaining the character of 
the University degrees (now standing confessedly high), by 
exacting the full amount of qualification in the candidates. 

These questions occupied Grote's mind during the period 
at which my narrative has arrived, with grave interest It 
gave him some relief to recount to me in private what had 
taken place at the meetings of the Senate, and in committees 
of the Senate, on disputed points of discipline. Although 
nowise behindhand in sympathy for the advancement of the 
sciences, he used to say that they would be sure to take oare 
of themselves, whilst the acquisition of Greek and Latin 
reqm'red to be excited and encouraged by motives less 
obviously associated with material profit tiian the other 
subjects of study. In concluding this topic, I am tempted 
to add, at foot, some doggerel lines (from a humorous poem 
of the early part of this century) in connection with 
Mr. Lowe's views.* 

• Shade of Cockor loquitur : — 

" Learning, a drug had always been ; 
No Warehouseman will take it in. 
Should practised Mercers quit their satin 
To look at Greek and long for Latin ? [Should 


To pass to domeitic &cts ; I regret to ollade to the coc- 
tiQued preisure of my own dyspeptic complaiot, which dumg 
ihiB year rednoed my etrength to the lowest poiot conaiateat 
with Titality. A seoaiut and dowly perEbrmed pilgrimage to 
B^eQ Baden, in Juljt on which I waa accompanfed by our 
amiable oiecet Mary Grote^ reeuUed in nothing beyotid 
fatiguing my already exhausted frame. Kir Grote remained 
in London, attending to hii» regular duties; and after I retumai 
he took a fortnight's holiday in Pariit^ where the Greil 
Exhibition amused him extremely. Had I been equal ta 
any Contiaental travellings we Bhoutd have made a visit to 
Holland together, when George had done with Paris ; for we 
had long desired to see the curious cities of that country, 
mociated as they were with his own paternal ancetstry ; it 
IttTi^g been a favourite notion with the Grotes, that " Hugo ** 
was of their bloodf though this was never established to oar 
saiigfsction, I must confess. 

My debility forbidding, then, Mr Grote come back^ and 
in September we spent a short time by the sea, in Snieex, 
where a slight amendment took place in my bodily conditiciw 

I heiB give a letter written this summer to Prof. Bain, 
showing the coaise of Grote'a mental 00GiipttioD% in the few 
laitore boon which lemained to him at that baqr i 

Jmi^ 29, 1887. 
I am pieparing for yon the oontributuNi of Plato and Aiia- 
toUa towaida the c ontro f a wy of Realign and NcminaliBB, sad 
end it to yon vaiy soon. Having had oaoMion fer thsl 

Should the pert, upstart Meichantfa boj 
Behold the Tower and think of Tray t 
Or should a dsmoeratie Hatlar 
'Boot old Bepablies make a elattsrt 
Should City Ptaten leave their tools 
To talk by Oioeronian rolesi 
And, at our meetingi in Gidldhan, 
PoasU the mob with damb Inwlt 
Ko^ to sash things tksjNra no ] 
No- let thsm atiek to < 


porpoae to look throned again the aoconnts of the oomtr o T e ray 
through the middle ages, I porceiye that the queatioii stands 
throughout all that long time mainly on the ground on which 
Plato first planted it, and from which Aristotle (nuuplanted it to 
a hotter ground of his own. The schoolmen seem to haTo imparted 
many new suhtle distinctions of their own, in the style of Aristotle 
—with a good deal of mystical theology : hut on the whole they 
enlarged the real question Tory little. • • • 

The remainder of this letter relates to the embarrassing 
question which just then arose in connection with an intem- 
perate speech uttered in support of the She£Seld ruffians, by 
one of the Professors of Uniyersity College. Mr. Grote*8 
respect for the right of free discussion was sorely combated 
by the disapprobation he felt, in common with the other 
members of council, towards the conduct of the Professor; 
but the matter was ultimately shelved by a pardonable 
deyice, so as to avoid the necessity of any interposition by 
authority in the matter. 

I left Bidgeway towards the end of October, and took my 
niece back to her relatives in North Wales, staying with 
them myself a few days, after which visit I passed a couple 
more with Mrs. Salis Schwabe, on the Menai Strait» and 
thence journeyed to Alderley Park, in Cheshire ; after a short 
stay there (my kind friend^ Lady Stanley, accepting my 
invalid company indulgently), I made my solitary way home. 
Grote joined me at Eidgeway, and the last two months of 
this, to me baleful year, rolled tranquilly post in comparative 
seclusion; only a few guests dropping down upon us in 
December, among whom were Mr. and Mrs. George Howard, 
The Historian absented himself, for British Museum and 
other duties, now and then, as he found it necessary, but 
spent the most part of his time at Bidgeway. 

Before entering upon the record of 1868, 1 deem it fitting 
to take some account of the product of Mr. Grote's pen, apart 
from his main work upon Aristotle, during the year 1867. 

I have already noted the contribution of the paper on 



Beftlinn and Nomumlifltii for Hn Bain*6 work, previous to 
his going to Peris in August After returning thence I find 
a letter to Mr, Bain under date of October 11th: — *• I will 
give yon my best assistanoe with regard to the 6th book 
of the Ethica" Another letter, also in October: — 

**! ha^e gone Uirongh wlmt Sir Will km H&mittcin s&fs in : 
) to Aristoile'A Tiews of eommon sense, wad I um.d jou by boob^ 
pott^ this daj^a paper whiok I bA?e pd^pared on the m&lter* * * 
* ^ I ha^e apent Bom& time in prepuing it ; but I do not gmdge 
the time, lor it iklls in perfectl j with my work on Aristoile, ind I 
haTB cleared vp mj own though ta on AiifitotlG in ofitioising wbat 
Hamilton mjs ftbout him* • » • • 

** If there ia uiything totber which I can do for jon in regard t^ 
the emdition of yonr forihooming work^ pr&j let me know> I will 
spare no pains in snpplying what is wsnted.'' 

Next in order of time comei the following letter to Ur, 

On reeetring yoor IasI letter, I immediately aat myself to Arii- 
totle Da Animit and hftve sent you herewith ft sort of brief exizict 
of some of the lesding points therein. II is Psychology is paculi&r 
as compared with modeni times; In som« respects, I thinhy 

Thus mnoh in proof of the Historian'a nnwearying eur- 
taona in hia faTonrite field during the year 1867. 




OuB head-quartera continued at Kidgeway for the first four 
montliB of this year. Very few yisitors — partly on aoooont 
of my impaired health, partly on account of Grote's didn- 
dination to spend his time otherwise than in oommnnion 
with his books and in composition. 

One of the first letters which I shall quote is written from 
the Bidgeway. 

IM F<k 1868. 
DxAB Mb. Bain, 

Tour last note apprised me that this day's post would be 
sufficient time to send you the papers upon Epicureans and Stoics. 
Accordingly, I forward thorn by book-post of this day.* 

You will see that I have written a good deal upon both the two 
ancient sects. * * * * I am sure that M« kui ward has not 
been said, upon either Stoics or Epicureans. • • • • Take 
notice of a short note which I have put upon the Stoical theory — 
pointing out the analogy between what they said about self-eon* 
serration, and what you say about the same in ' Emotions sad 
WilL • • • • 

G. O. 
Again, March the 7th : — 

I am glad you are pleased with the matter about Stoics sad 
Epicureans. It would have required a far larger space to do full 
justice to either of them. • • • • 

* All these hor$ d^ceuvre were furnished to the 'Manual of 
Mental Science/ published in April of this year. But along with 
those named in the text must be cited * Plato and Aristotle on the 
Theory of Ideas' (Appendix, pp. 1-28), and ' Aristotle on the Qrigia 
of Knowledge' (pp. 33-49). 



I Mod jon A eopj of m j Fkto^ irideh ycm will «m for Ike tal 
priia in jonr dMi. • • • • 

At the end of April we set up our lieod-quATteT§ m London. 
My health had aligbtly improved (though the implacable 
neuralgic tonnentB gaye me frequent discomfort^ and I felt it 
a duty to aaye Greorgo the tioable of going to aud fro there, 
whilst the calls on his time were many and tmportaat in 
duunacter. We reoeived a few learned and scientific ae- 
quaintances» as well as habitual intimates, not unfrequentl/, 
and more than one of oar dinner parties were said to have 
been particularly pleasant Professor Bain was ofteji of tlie 
number of our gu^ts, always infusing more or less of intel- 
lectual stimulus into the conversation. The Vice-chancellor 
was in good working order ; and, indeed^ I should say that 
this year might be reckoned as one of the most active, and 
generally fruitfiil of his later period. This notwithstanding, 
it was clear to my solicitous vision, that the pace at which be 
was now travelling could not much longer be maintained, 
Here is an entry in tlie Diaryp wbieh was but too accurate an 
estimate of the case:-* 

**Mr.6rote's health, I fiillyezpeeli will see long give way undsr 
the unwholesome habits in which ho pennits himself to indulgs; 
spending about twenty-two heurs out of Ike twenty-four— indosd 
sometimes twenty-three hours — ^within four walls. Devoting four 
hours a day, not unfiroquently, to the "Boards'* ho bdoogs lo^ in 
a dose atmosphere, and workhig his biain the while. 

''He sometimes aooompanieo me to Ksnaugton Gaidsnsi and 
walksthereforhalf anhouror so with ms^ returning to hisprivats 
room afterwards. He passes the forenoon in aovers stody, and the 
evenings also, with the eioeption of thoes which happsn to bs 
spent abroad, or on which ho leoeivoo company at hie own booss; 
tbeso amounting to, perhaps, three daya a weak on an ava gs 
not more. Mr. Orote*s pemonal aspeot is asnaibly diangsd witUn 
the last si^t months, whilst I diaosm a Issssning capaoity for 
bodily exertion not foirly refaraUe to Uo being ens year oldsr. 
His hand shakos woros than it did, hie gMt has altssed to that of 
an old man, foom being remarkably slsady and olaatie tqp to a 
recent date. Unless ho alten his wayii a aWa must, I foar, 1 
aaothsr year paasss, ovortsks my Ulusteions ] 


" Sue I am that he is failing in pbyaical power, althon^ tlia 
foroo of his intellect sustains itself wholly unimpaired, TImss 
impressions are shared by more than one of our intimateo, who ■•• 
the matter exactly as I do myself." — Diary of Jane, IS6S. 

Oyer and aboye the contributions to Mr. Bain's ' Manual,* 
already enumerated, the paper, or whatever it may be called, 
on Aristotle's De Animd, occupied Grote's studious hoars for 
not less than eight months ; thus suspending the coarse of 
his main work for an equal period. To my aSSsctionate xe- 
monstrances against his over-generous sacrifice of time and 
labour in the service of another man's books, he would reply, 
that, in elaborating the subject for Mr. Bain, he was in some 
sort enlarging his own conceptions, and acquiring a greater 
mastery of the field on which he hoped to enter later on his 
own account Once he said, with a slight accent of solemnity, 
** Sliould I not live to complete my Aristotle, those who follow 
me will find, in my paper on the De Animd, the seal and 
essence of that great Philosopher's thought and specolations^ 
and they will be assisted to work out the vein for fbtare 
students by what I have done before them." 

In truth, I feel a profound conviction that Grote himself 
regarded these 70 pages (they occupy this space, as reprinted 
from * The Senses and the Intellect ' of Bain, in the published 
volumes of his Aristotle, 1872) of the De Animd as the paiest 
product of his own mental crucible. Never had he bestowed 
more intense, more sustained meditation, on any pieoe of 
intellectual work than was concentrated upon this favourite 
moreeau. It was so absorbing, that he would even fami- 
liarly talk about it, when we were taking our walk together. 
I could plainly perceive, in short, that he felt inwardly 
conscious of having hung up his shield in the Temple . of 
Philosophy, when he completed this paper.^ 

In September, we went to the Farm at Long Bennington^ 

"* On this chef-d'ceuvre the * Edinburgh Beview' of October, 
1872, drily remarks, that **it attracted some attention 


from wbeDoe Grote despatched the annexed letter to Mr. Bant 
I remember reading it before it WBoi to poet» and, eetting a 
Talne npon it^ I wrote to reqneet tliat MriL Bun would make 
a copy for me — ^which she obligingly did. The reader will 
not fidl to thank her (along with me) for the pririlege ob» 
tained of reading it 
(The MSS. means De Anmi, of oooise.) 

Lom Bannvovov, 4A SepUmitr^ 1868. 

Dbab Mb. Baut, 

By Wednesday's post I sent down to yon the M8& of 
Arisftotle*s Fkychology, hajing taken the preoantion to go with il 
myself to the heed postHxffios in Yece Stroslk end register it I 
hope therefore that yon ha^e got it, end I shell he veiy ^jiaA to 
hear firom yon to say so. I sm 0aA that I hare flnished it ; the 
foct of having done so inspires me with sdditianal ardour for pio> 
secating my entire wmk on Aristotle. In getting np this Fkiyolio- 
logy, I hsTo fonnd my idess respecting his philosophy (end indeed 
aaciflnt speculation genetsUy) mneh enlarged end cleared tqp; sad 
I shell be better aimed in regud to the Aristotelisn mstter yet 
lemaining tn me. If my inteUectasl foice shell gi^ way befote 
I finiflh the whole, at ksst there wiU be this pcffticnof it pteserved 
in your Appendix. 

My power of doing work is sadly diminiahed as to qttamUiif^ ss 
my physical powers in walking are ; bat as to qmaUijf (both perspi- 
cacity, memory, and snggestiTe association bringing np new com- 
mimicationB), I am sore that my intellect is as good as eyer it was 
(I shall be 74, Norember 17th). When yon send me the proof of 
the article, I will add one paragraph that has since oconrred to 
me as an appropriate wind-np. 

In coming down here yesterday, I read the September nmnber 
of the "* Fortnightly,"* seeing by the adTertisement that it contained 
an article by yon. I read it with Tery great pleasore : it seems to 
me most excellent ; it is the lecture (appsMntly) that I did ad hear 
kst May at the Boyal Institation. The same nomber ir^n^Tw^ 
also an admirable article npon the Science of Histocy, written with 
great ability, and in the best spirit, by an American anthoTy whose 
name I nerer heard before — John Fiske. I sm tndy gbd to find 
that there ore authors capable, as well as willing, to enunciate 
sooh thoughts. This article is the first of an intended pair; it 
contains the negatiTe side exceedingly well ^f^M I soaresly 
dare to hope that the positive matter in the ssqnel wiU be equally 

1868. 6KNBBAL ELECTION. 205 

good. Theie was alflo another good ariiole in the i 
on John Wilkes. 

I hope yon are like a giant refreshed, after your •(^biir in Hm 
domain of ffygima^ and the walks with ^'Daisy.'* Bert xegaida to 
Mrs. Bain, &0. 

After our visit to the Farm, we spent a couple of months 
in comparatiye seclusion, chiefly at the Bidgeway; broken in 
upon at the end by the general election, which obliged the 
Vice-Ghancellor to go to London, because he was ** returning 
ofiScer** for his own constituency. I subjoin an extract from 
Diary of 26th November, 1868. 

"John Mill lost his election for Westminster on 17th instant; 
the Gonservatiye candidate heading the poll by a large mMJaritw. 
Mr. Grote voted early for the two Liberals, then went to the Oity 
and polled at Guildhall (as a liveryman) for the three Lxberala. 
Betuming to University of London, he presided over the oeiemony 
of electing their own Member, in the person of Mr. Lowe^ and 
afterwards walked down to the Athensaum to ascertain the result 
of the other metropolitan polling. He seemed nowise fiitiguad in 
the evening, after his active day*s work^ This was his natal day, 
on which he entered his 75th year. God grant him many moce of 

Again this entry : — 

** The month of December at Bidgeway, tranquil speotatomof the 
conflict of political parties, the change of Ministry from Lord 
Derb/s hands to those of Mr. Gladstone's party, and the rather 
miusual tempests which raged during the final portion of this year. 
Grote busy on a paper to be incorporated with John S. Mill's new 
edition of his father's book, * The Analysis of the Human Mind.* 
He has so ardent an interest in metaphysical studies, that he oan- 
not deny himself the satisfaction of elucidating the subject, whether 
on his own account or that of other labourers in the soienoa.''-^ 
Diary, December, 1868. 

The annexed letter from Mr. Grote to J. S. Mill, in oon* 
nection with this matter, will bo a fitting termination to the 
** Chronicle •* of this year. 

Btdoewat, Deeemh^r 11<A, 186& 

I send to you by this post my remarks upon the two ohapters 
in the Analysis. It is not without some compunction that I have 


written them : for they expren eo mneh diiMnlfiom IhftI exoellent 
book and its still more excellent anthor, Ihsl I Ibel ■omewhst as 
the Eleatao ^mi« feeb in Plato's Sophistes, when he is seftiting his 
master Parmenides— as if I were wmrpaXoia^ nt. Howeiver, I lea^ 
what I haTe written entiiel J al jonr diq^tioB. • • • • 

Q. Q. 

It was some time in this year that the Hiatorian iMldresspd 
the following letter to a literary friend : — 

** Your acquaintance with recent pnUkalions Is so large flial I 
trouble yon with the following inquiry. 

•'Which is the best and most readable JBtigUA ffisloiy of the 
Boman BepaUio ? I am asked by a lady to leooBBmend such a 
work for her sons, studious youths. I do not mean a mere sohool- 
book or abridgmenti but such a work as would be^ fiir the times 
anterior to Commodus, what Gibbon is for Ike times posterior to 
Goomiodus. I say this to indicate generally what I mean: far I 
know there is but one Gibbon." 

I find an entry in my book of a oosTeraation in whieh the 
merits of Gibbon are dwelt upon. It will be reed with 
interest in connection with the letter above quoted :— 

••Mr. Grote said he had, in the course of the last far monthii 
taken down Gibbon's work and read occasionally therein ; and, he 
added, he had been penetrated with admiration of the exactitude 
and fidelity of the references, which was prored by comparing them 
with the original authorities quoted in his notes. Grote had tested 
Gibbon's trustworthiness, on scTcral points, by reference to andent 
writers, and inrariably found his statements correct and candid. 
Dr. William Smith said he too had compared the references in 
Gibbon with the works cited, in a considerable number of instances, 
and that he was afiected by the same feeling of respect and admira- 
tion as the Historian of Greece, in similar circumstances. Mr. 
Grote on this occasion went on in a strain of eulogy about Gibbon, 
such as I rarely hear him employ in speaking of modem writers. 
He remarked upon the excellent judgment, the just appreciation of 
historical incidents, the freedom from bias on personal prefarences, 
the fMmlty of discernment in sifting the bearing of eridence, also 
the rigour of expression of Gibbon ; adding, however (what most 
cultiTated students would concur in) his oljection to the $t§U in 
which the book is written. In speaking of the fanous IMh and 
16th chapters, Grote thought that they had been unftirly con- 




denmod, in so &r as hoetility to OhristiAn traditioa WMit. He 
regarded these chapters as falling under the legitimate treatesut 
of an historical pen, and nothing farther. And had ihisj been 
written at the present day, far less fiiss wonld bsTie been mads 
ftbout their mischierons tendency. The talk about the Irish 
Church, and the pamphlets of Earl Grey and Lord Duflerin tliera- 
•nont, occupied a vast deal of our attention : Lord Qnfm Tiaws 
rooeiring cordial approval from us aH*'— Dioty, 1868, 




Jahuabt wai spent at the Bidganraj; a ehort Yiatt ta 
London in Febmary. la tlie rnmse of tbk spring I made 
the acquaintance (tfaraugh Lady Egertoo of Tatton) of Sir 
William Gromm, Field-Mai^bal, one of the few surrivors of 
the army which fought at Waterloo, He was attached to 
Sir Thomas Ficton^s brigade on that memorable day. 

Sir William Oomm served for aome time in India, and 
indeed had been comjnander of the forces there. Being at 
6imla,he occupied himftelf with the Btody of Grota^s ' History 
of Greece,* haying got hold of the fir«t G?e Tolumes* He was 
80 abaorbed in the book, that he made oopions notes upon 
portions of it; which notea I have dnce had the priril^e of 
reading, and Ur. Grota also looked through them. The 
obsenrations and comments indicate an att^tiye following 
of the author's text, especially in connection with the mili- 
tary incidents, on which Sir W.*s remarks are pertinent and 
eren instmctiTe. He said he had bnmed with desue to go 
and Tiew the site of the battle of Marathon with 6rote*s book 
in his hand. ** It had been objected," I observed, ^ by critics, 
that the story of Marathon was too coldly narrated in Grota." 

""Not at all P replied the Teteran, •'it is azoellently told, 
and I haTO read it OTer, often, with delight.** 

When I mentioned my conTerBation with Sur William 
Gomm to Mr. Grote^ he obyionsly felt flattered at finding ha 
had stirred up so much enthusiasm in the old soldier^s breast 
by his description of that immortal combat The author and 
his admirer met more than once afterwards, and azobanged 
couTeisation with mutual inteiest; ** tha Gieeka** being the 
chief topic, of course. 

1869. STATE OF HEALTH. 299 

Neither Grote nor myaelf were quite in health dnring the 
spring ; owing mainly, I believe, to the detestable weather. 
I had a tedious attack of influenza, and hs suffered from more 
than one bad Xxld. In May, the, distribution of prises at the 
UniTersity of London took place, in the new building, though 
not in the theatre ; being ill, I could not ^ assist,** myself ini 
Grote was present. 

** The UniTersity is in excellent train : large entries of candidates 
both for degrees and matriculation, whilst the new ezaminan 
compose a list of distinguished scholars and sdentifio oelebiities. 
Mr. Grote bestows untiring labour on the administraticii of its 
concerns, as heretofore." — Diary of May 24A, I860* 

He also worked steadily all the spring upon the Aristotle^ 
and, bating a cold now and then, did not appear to be un* 
equal to the calls upon his mental faculties or to the 
fatigues of ** the season :*' mixing occasionally in society, often 
attending the meetings of ** the club,** and, I may add, follow- 
ing the course of home politics with more than ordinary 
interest, the disestablishment of the Irish Church rekindling 
in some measure the old Radical sympathies of 1835. But 
of this I shall have something more to say at a future stage 
of my narrative. 

The summer drew on, and I began to grow weary of town 
life, and of receiving company. The weather became hot 
towards the middle of June, and I betook myself to the 
Bidgeway for a space. The Historian stuck to his work, 
however, and, as the sequel proved, with its inevitable 
penalty. In July we paid a short visit to Lord and Lady 
Chesham, at their delightful seat ** Latimers.** On this ooesr 
sion, I was struck with certain '^ diagnostics" in Mr. Grote, 
which, added to the pallor of his face and his loss of appetite, 
gave me reason to fear that he was ^ not right** Still, he 
would not be persuaded to go into the country so long as there 
was a ** Board " sitting. I remained there down to the end 
of July, when, feeling some ** misgivings," I went up to Sevile 
Bow, and, sure enough, found my poor partner in a most 
dilapidated state. 


''George, you really most see a doctor I" ^Ohl no^ 
there in nothing material the matter irith me. When the 
Univernty doees, I shall go down to Badgeway, and all will 
oome to rights when I get on horseback again,** Ac Aa 

Nowise assenting to this sanguine Tiew of things^ I made 
my way to Dr. Onjneaa de Hnssy's residenoe^ and, Inckily 
finding him at home^ stated the symptoms which I had ob- 
senred in Mr. Grote's condition. He said he would pay me 
a visit next monung, and did so. On annoonomg his {oe- 
sence, the Historian made no resistance to being* inspected" 
by the kind and dear-sighted physician, who^ after hatfan- 
hoor^s stay, communicated to me his opinion that immediate 
steps should be taken towards amending the health of his 
patient, whom he pronounced to be in *un itat de prostra- 
tion nerreuse deplorable.* Intmththecasewasuigent»Isi^w. 

Dr. de Uusqf ordered him to proceed at once to Bbodiouig^ 
les-Bains; to drink the waters for three week% and then to 
traTd in Switaeriand, among the mountains^ to 4 fJoftBifl^ 

I felt nowise surprised by this Terdiot|butserioudypufldei 
how to manage to obey the mandate. Being exceasiTely (eMe 
in health myself at the time^ though not HI, I pressed 
George to set o£C taking his serrant with him, saying that 
^ I would try to join him later on, after his 'waters,* if I got 
up a little strength.** HowcTer, he declared poeitiyely that^ 
* unless I would accompany him, he would not budge an 

To cut short the story, I hastened down to Bidgeway and 
prepared for the undertaking as well as I could ; Geoige» on 
his side, huddling up his ** concerns,** and arranging his mani- 
fold engagements so as to Iweak away, and on the 9ih August 
he and I met at Folkestone, as a beginning of our dreary 
pilgrimage. The Tery next mornings I met with a scTere 
hurt on the temple, through a fall, and we were detained 
three days on account of tUs mishap^ before I was capable of 
proceeding on our journey. It was indeed an inauspimoos 
"* start,** in CYsry way. 

1869. VISIT TO HOMBURG. 801 

Our journey was efibcted, though it proyed both dow and 
tiresome— the crowds of trayellers rendering the traffic almost 
too much for the railway system to accommodate itself to, 
while our rooms at the hotels were not suitable for inyalids, 
nor indeed were they readily obtained. Halting at Bmasels 
for a day, to rest, we paid a visit to the ** AcadSmie" there; 
as George was a member of that Institution, he considered it 
a duty to pay it this compliment. We likewise called at the 
Observatory, to inquire for the Secretary of the ^ Acad^mie 
des Sciences Morales et Historiques,'' M. Quetelet. Both 
Grote and myself regretted to learn that he was absent ; for, 
entertaining a sincere respect for that eminent Eoonomist^ 
we should have felt pleasure in making his personal acquaint 

After a six days* struggle, we took up our quarters at the 
''Hdtel Bellevue " at Homburg. The Historian lost no time 
in commencing his ** regime/' repairing at 7 A.H., daily, to 
the ** Q^elle '' indicated, and walking conscientiously after- 
wards. I drank the water early, but in my own apartment, 
feeling wholly unequal to such an exertion as sallying fintb, 
dressed, at seven in the morning. 

The effect of the waters, on both of us, was more than noil 
— ^it was hurtful. My dear husband grew worse rather than 
otherwise, whilst my own condition became depressed beyond 
its habitual level. We were, indeed, disheartened : our lives 
wore on, dull and joyless from disappointed hopes, insomuch 
that we wrote to John Mill, renouncing the project (which 
had been floating in the future at leaving England) of "join- 
ing forces *' with him and Miss Taylor for a tour in Switser- 
land, when our " kur " should be ended. 

During the time we spent at Homburg, George 
worked in the forenoon, daily, at his ^Aristotle/ having 
carried with him a provision of books to "feed the fire.* 
Also in the evenings he would compose a page or two, but 
reading formed the dominant occupation of the afternoon 
and evening hours; always deducting our meal time, our 
two or three hours' drive in the environs, and our stroll in 


the gaideiiB after dinner. Giote'f inteUeetaal appetite being 
^omniTeronfl^" he would deTonr nurioiis books in different 
languages by toms, and when any of these were saeh as to 
enaUe me to discuss their contents with him, he would 
willinigly do so. Indeed, I was oonfessedly the gainer by 
the forced interruption of ^duty ** of all khid% for I nerer 
recollect my husband's conyersation to haye been more flowing; 
edifying, or delightful than it was on this oooasion. When 
we dioye out together (if it was in fine weather) he would 
let his thoughts run oyer, as it were^ unreseryedly, on all 
subjects. The stores which years of meditation and reading 
had accumulated within his mind naturally found utterance 
when he had nothing else to do^ and when a willmg listener 
sat by his side. Sometimes George would open up a 
conyemtion with our driyer, inquiring into the ecomomio 
conditions of the peasantry in the locality, their mode of 
oultivatioD, their social ideas, and the like. As the driyeis 
were, for the most part» members of the rural land-owning 
dass, the iaformation obtained prored often interesting to 
the historian. We were struck by the general practice U * 
drilling the male population on Sundayi^ which we observed 
in taking our driyes round Homburg. I need hardly add 
that Grote spoke the Grerman language readily, and even 
managed to understand the German of the "Eutscher." 

After a fortnight of our dismal experiment at Homburg; 
we came to the conyiotion that the jdace was nowise ad?an* 
tageous to Grote*s case, and accordingly departed for Frslkk- 
fbrt, where we spent two days; shut up by se?erely oold 
weather, in our hoteL Thence we made our way across, by 
Bingen, to Mels, a wearisome journey of 6^ hours. 

At Meti we passed a couple of days. The place is yery 
attractiye, and then we were so pleased to find ourselyes in 
France once more, the country oyer dear to us both, wherein 
we always felt our spirits rise to cheerfulness. 

We left Meti on the 7th of September, and ''made'' direct 
for Paris. It happened that, before starling for the railway 
statioo, we got h<dd of two Paris jonmaux—'Le Sikcle** and 

1869. PABIS JOURNALS. 803 

the 'Tribune.' Our aatonishment was mutual at the altdied 
! tone of these papeis. '* Why, bless me I H.," cried Geoige^ 

j ** here are these French papers talking the freest language. 

I cannot understand how it comes to pass that» all at onoe^ 
s the press should break forth in such unwonted style I" 

^ Welly" replied I, ** we shall know more about it when we 
get to Parisy I suppose." 
1 When we arrived there, sure enough we found awonderinl 

I state of things. None of my readers needs to learn at this 

i time of day, from my pen, what were the ciicumstanoes under 

• which the democratic sentiment found a vent in the autumn 

of 1869. The serious derangement of the Emperor Napo- 
leon's health occupied all Frenchmen's minds, and the 
; onavoidable relaxation of the restrictions, till now imposed 

I by an absolute government, was followed by a bursting d 

i the pent-up waters, resembling that of the giving way of 

I Holmfirth Dam in the north of England, some years 


We remained in Paris from 8th September to the ISth. 
The effect of the daily articles against the Empire, which 
Grote devoured with avidity, of course, appeared to me to be 
more beneficial to his health and spirits than anything he 
had yet tried. He used to go out and buy a heap of these 
trashy diatribes every day, bringing in an armful to our 
apartment at Mearice's. "* Well, my love,'* said I one mom* 
ing to the Historian, ** you seem to enjoy wading through 
those sheets of railings about the Emperor, but to my^ taste 
the matter is coarse, superficial, and hackneyed.** '^Ton 
say truly,'* he would reply ; ** one reads nothing but what has 
been written again and again about public afGurs, and there 
is, really, no great power in what is here vomited forth. Bat 
the pleasure I derive from reading all this flood of abuse 
arises &om the bare fact of its publication, without the 
writers of it being marched off to the Bieitre. That is the 
point which touches my sympathies, after 18 yean of sop* 
pression of all liberty of speech in the nation.** I could not 
wonder at Giote's feeling as he did, and, moreover, I own to 


hanng tpent mmb time over the " trash ** in qnestioD^ 

I pa8B oyer the incidents of o^r sejcur in Paris, altbough 
they were socially pleaaant, for no particukr feature oeciirg 
to me as desenring a record^ excepting one passage, which 
pexhaps may seem to offer interest in connection with the 
events whidi ensiled later. 

On one afternoon we receired a Tidit at onr hotel &om two 
firiends^ both Frenchmen — the Count A, de Circonrt and the 
Coont de Belytee. Politics, of course^ formed the staple of 
onr long conyerBation , Grote gradually becoming animated 
by their respectiye pfedictio&g about the pending changes in 
the course of the Government Indeed, the malady under 
which the Chief of the Executive was then safiTering rendered 
political specolation more bold and active than had been 
possible for a length of time. Towards the end of the visit, 
IL de Belytee, amused by Grate's seeming to doubt the 
chances of France returning to Republicanism, in spite of 
all that the two friends had been telling him of its proba- 
bility, said, ^ Wellp now, I will recount to you what befel ma 
this yery day, and yon shall judge whether the incident does 
not confirm our own opinions. I was on my way to call on 
my physician, when I met H. Thiers. ' Come with me^' cries 
he, ' and we will haye a talk as we walk.* * I cannot do so, 
for I mud go and see Dr. * ^ ^ / 'Ah I neyer mind 
yonr doctor, a walk with me will do yon much more good 
than any doctor I*** Thus saying, Thiers tucked his arm 
under that of II. de BeWkse, and off they went together ; 
naturally, since I neyer knew any one to resist the fiudnation 
of M. Thiers* company if offered to him. IL de Belyte cer- 
tainly could not, anyhow. 

They plunged at once into the ''sitoation actnelle," of 
course. ''Ton know," said M. Thiers^ "as well as eyery one 
else, that I neyer was a RepubUcan : my whole life has been 
passed in antagonism with Republican doctrines." ** Certainly,** 
rejoinedlL de BeW^ ''we know it enough.* ''Well,** re- 
plied H Thiers, '^ for all that, I will frankly own to yon that 


I have of late come to think differently. In plain tenmiy I 
am now profoundly persuaded qu'U n*y a rien de po§9iUe que 
la R^pMique,^* ^Now, what say you to this eon/emum 
de fait'' said M. de Belv^ze, smiling. We all held our 
peace. The communication seemed to take all three of us 
by surprise. 

When we were again alone, George declared himself much 
impressed by the fact of so acute an interpreter of the ango- 
ries as M. Thiers, adopting the Ilepublic ns the safest ooune 
to follow. 

. Little did my dear Historian dream of the coming disastanB 
which were destined to overtake Iiis loved France, under 
the shadow of a mock Republican government^ within two 
short years of this prophetic vision. 

To resume the thread of our domestic proceedings— we 
returned to the Bidgeway on 2«5th September (after a weari- 
some detention of several days at Boulogne, owing to tempes- 
tuous weather), and were glad to sit down ** under our own 
vine** once more. The subjoined extract from the Diary 
will furnish some idea of how matters stood in regard to 
Mr. Grote's health : — 

** Although the effect of the Homburg waters signallj fidlod qs, 
yet the influence of recreative, or at any rate of varied impieasioiis, 
of forced repose of mind, of much open air existence, and the sos- 
pension of many exhausting duties, have together brought ahoat a 
certain reaction in tbo noi'vous system. 

** His appetite has returned, and but for a tiresome irritatioii of 
the trachea ho would sleep well. Dr. Capron is endeavouring to 
mitigate this. His pulso is stronger than it has been for many 
weeks post. Altogether, he appears free, at present, from all 
ailment, walking, since his return to Kidgeway, with ploasnrs and 
without fatigue, several miles when the weather permits." — 
Nov. 20. 

October and November were passed at the Bidgeway, bnt 

* This conversation may serve to defend M. Thiers against the 
ftccusation of having (in 1871) declared for the Bepublic because 
it would enablo him to become the chief of the state. At this date 
he could have had no expectation of what came to pass a year later. 



George made one or two jourD€j8 to London to set liis 
•• Boai^ ** a-going for i\m mnieT Trimeiire. We received a 
small number of gneste, and were *■ buey," as heretofore, m 
onr respectiTe waya. 

In the early days of NoTeml>er we were surprised to 
leceiye a communication from the Firet Minister of the 
Crowny which contained the offer of a pecmge of the United 
Kingdom to Mr. Orote, 

This letter and Mr. Grate's answer to Mr* Gladstoae are, 
leapectiTelyy so interesting ttiat I feel it incumbent upon 
me to prodooe them without curtailment 

lOV Divwiriwii Strskt, N^pemhfr S, ISS$, 
Mt dxab Sib, 

I haTe the satififiiction of proposing to you, wiih tbo 
authority of Her Migeiiy, tliat you should become a peer of the 
United Kingdom. 

You oannot be insensible to th^t which sll will at oooe peroeifa, 
that the proposal I now nudce U a Bimpk tribute to your chametar, 
serrices, and attsinmenta. It maj, I hop<j, bo pkii^log to joq^ and 
on that aooount it gifcs me a red cc tod ploasuro; but I huva i 
hi^^iar gratifiostion in thinking that tho Dcceptonco of Bueb ou offer, 
in such s ease, hss the important ofV^t of mld'mq^ gtrongth to tho 
House of Lords for the discharge of its weighty duties. 

Hoping I msy anticipate at least your acquiescenee, I remain, 
with much respect. 

My dear Sr, 

Sincenly yours, 

W. E. Glaustqiir. 
Geo. Grote, Esq., FJL8. 

(Reply to Right Hon. W. £. Gladstone's letter.) 

Srbrb, Ounj>roaD, Nm^embtr 9, 1869. 
Mt deab So, 

1 b^ to acknowledge the letter of yesterday, with which 
yon haTs honourod me. Its contents, snd the generous oftr which 
you haye obtained Her Mj^jes^s authority to make ms^ ars alike 
flattering and unexpected. 

I deeply and gratefully appreciate the sentinMots which you are 
pleased to express respecting my character and serrioes. Thess I 
shall treasure up nerer to be fa rgo t l s o, coming as they do ftcm a 



1 Minister who has entored on tbo work of reform with * sincerity 
I and energy never hithorto paralleled. Soch reoognition is the trae 
I and soffioient recompense for all usef nl labours of mine. 
I But as to the further recompense which 70a graoioasly propoee 
I a peerage — I must ask your permission respectfully, yet weqf 
j decidedly^ to dedine it I say little about the honourmble tiaims 
I and title, which at my age and to my peculiar feelings woiald be an 
I unwelcome change : but my insuperable reason for dedining the 
• proposition is, that I cannot consent to undertake any new or 
: additional public duties. 

Tou allude, with perfect propriety, to " the important efiect of 

adding strength to the House of Lords for the discharge of its 

,' weighty duties,** as the legitimate motive for new ftppointments. 

i Now, my hands are already too full to allow of my taking part ia 

I other weighty duties, 

I I am deeply interested in the promotion of the higher education, 
I on the principles common to University OoUege and the University 
I of London ; and much of my time and energy is devoted»to both 
these institutions. Besides these, I am actively engaged as one of 
the administrators of the British Museum, which I consider to be 
of high national importance, and to which (I believe) I give moie 
attendance than any other trustee. 

Last, though not least, I am engaged in a work on Aristotle 
forming a sequel to my work on Plato : and as I am thorong|ily 
resolved to complete this, if health and energy be preserved to mo, 
I feel that (being now nearly seventy-five) I have no surplus force 
for other purposes. 
When I was in the Commons formerly, I well remember the 
j dissipation of intellectual energy which the multifarious business of 
j legislation then occasioned to me. I must therefore now decline a 
^ seat in the House of Lords, for the same reasons which have 
j induced me, more than once, to decline the easy prospect of a 
\ renewed seat in the Commons. 

\ I am almost ashamed to trouble the Prime Minister of England 
\ with so much personal detail about myself. But my only uneasi- 
ness in writing this note is, lest, in sending a decided refusal, I 
should appear to respond ungraciously to his generous ccmmunt- 

I remain, my dear Sir, 

Youra very sincerely, 

Gfio. QwtnK 
Kight Hon. W. K Gladstone, M.P. 

X 2 



NtfVtmher 10, 1BO0, 
Db4b 1£b. Gboti, 

Am jou wOl natimJI^ be ilufaMd §X tlie mgh% of tuf bud- 
writing, I begiii with an QnileaToor la immmiG yon. I am oompellcd 
to conftM thiit yoor letter sbnta my montli «s far «a anj attempt to 
■hftka yoor dednoo b c<mcenied ; yet I iDttet liol bo proTeotcd 
firam nying liow miich it deopoos my rcgrot at being tinablo to 
■ B Ciu e for tlie Hoon of Lords the odToiitago of rockomng j<m 
aoMNig iti memben. 

With mpeetliil but very hearty good wubes, boib for your 
laboQW sua yomuiT, 

I fomojii, dear Mr. Groto, 

Sineerdy joai% 

The news of this flattering proposal having been made to 
the T^ini^M'tft" soon * got wiod/^ and both he and I received 
letters expiesrire of worm Bympatby and gratificatioE thereat 
I V oso ntly, however, thU note changed to wondennent) on our 
firiends disx>veriiig that the attraetioD of a ootxmet had not 
proTod sufficient to tarn the course of Grotea duties and 
habits into a fresh chimDeL Among many pleasing testi- 
monies of friendly i-egret which reached u^ were two notes 
which I find it impossible to withhold from the reader. 
They breathe so sincere a feeling of respect and confidence 
towards the snbject of this memoir, that the writers will, 
I Iiope, forgiTO my taking the liberty of inserting them 

Ht bbab Mas. Gbotb, 

• • • Gladstone seat me your hasband*s letter— ^be- 
cause, though a refusal, it will giro you great pkssurs to read it* 
The eioeption, howerer, to the ^^plessure" is wy great to sis. 
In the position which I imperliDotly fill in the Lonls, it is diiBealt 
to say bow much I should bare appreeialed the support I should 
have felt in the presence of Mr. Grote. 
It is not, howerer, for me to argue agunst a deoision which has 
i taken on ao high and honoviahle a ground. 

Tours wy sincerely, 





18G0. lbttehs on the peerage. 800 

14, Hyoi Pais TEaMAca, 

Ifowmitr 16, 1869. 
My dkab Mb8. Obote, 

I am aonj that Grote has rofosed the peerage tliai was 
offered to him. I have no doubt that for hia own oomlort and 
interest he has acted wisely, but I think that hia p ro a o nee in the 
noose of Lords would have been adTontageoua to the oanae of 
good goTomment in very many respects. The Honae of Lotdsi 
also, is no longer what it was fifty years aincOi when he and I 
were boys: it has become a much more demooratio^ or latfiar, 
loss aristocratic, assembly than it was then : and Oxote mighty and 
I believe would, haye done much good. I admits howerier, that 
I i|i| the sacrifice was too groat for him to make, and therefore I do noi 

trouble him with any observations : but I cannol help brnatliing 
forth my rogrots to you. 
Do not trouble yourself to notice this sorawL 

Yours very ainoevdy, 

My affectionate regards to Grote ** non obstante.** 

No comment would seem necessary in relation to this 
singular passage, after the statement contained in ILr. 
6rote*8 reply of his motives for remaining a ^ plain citiien.* 
The meident was naturally productive of agreeaUe feeliDgi 
both to himself and to his intimate friends, and 1 will con- 
fess that it not seldom formed the subject of our quiet 
domestic "talk." 

^To be sure** (Groto would say), ''it is one of the moat 
unlooked-for events that could have overtaken me in my old 
age, to have the offer of a peerage I I am noTer tired 
of wondering at the bare notion of mtf passing fit>m the 
'Badical' to the House of Lords, at this time of day.* 
** Well, you see, it is because you earned the confidenco of 
the ' Kadicals ' through your House of Commona period that 
you would now be regarded as representing the popular 
interest in the Lords, and so, your voice would carry the mora 
weight with the country when you gave utterance to your 
sontimeDls.'* '' Yes, that might be so. But the opiniona of 
the so-called Itodicols of the present day do not acoorately 



lepteteat those which I and my friends held thirty years 
ago^ and which I ocmtiiiue to hold, subdtioiiiTely. Indeed, I 
do not think that» personally, I should have found myEelf 
ill-afiBorted with the membera of the Upper Houses in which 
there axe many aUe and well-m&tnietad iudividuals, moTed 
by the purest impolsea towards good legislation; and I 
daresay I wiighi hare lent a useful snpport to a Government 
disposed to sound newi^ on many gnhjects^ Sly tLSupemble 
objection, really, is to the altering my ffamework of ex- 
istence in any way.** 

Thus woold George and myself *ptoee** over the wonder- 
ful ** surprise *' in qnestion, when alone at the Bidgeway, 
We felt entirely together as to the decision come to on his 
parti and indeed, no one who knew ns intimately eipected 
anything hut soeh agreement. 

I condnde my record of 1869 by the mention of Ifr. 
Orote's health, which gradually retumed to a condUion 
sufficiently reassuring to those about him during the latter 
weeks of the year. We passed a fortnight in December 
in Safile Bow, where we kept the "cook** going, rather 
briskly, with fireqnent ** little dinners " — friends clustering 
roond us with gratolation at Orote*s restored health, mixed 
with pleasant raillery about ''the peerage,** fta 


1870. UNlVBKSriT OF LONDON. 811 



We stayed at Ridgeway during the finrt three months of 
this year. The weather severe, and desperately injarioas to 
those who, like ourselves, found it necessary to be caidal 
about catching cold. Sir Henry Holland said to me one day 
that the winter of 1869-1870 was the most unwholesona 
winter he remembered during the past forty yean I 

Greorge observed somewhat unusual caution in regard to 
his health, in consequence of the rigour of the season ; even 
going the length of keeping within doors for days together. 
He went up occasionally to Savile Bow, nevertheless, and I 
made a j)oint of being also in London when he was detained 
there more than a couple or three days, and we ^ held on," 
fairly well, up to May. He was extremely pleased at having 
obtained from the Government the appointment of as 
Assistant Registrar, to share the administrative fimctioos of 
Dr. William Carpenter at the University of London, altbongh 
the gentleman on whom the Yice-Ghancellor and the mem- 
bers of the Commiitee of the Senate fixed their choice, for 
that office, was set aside by the Senate in favour of Dr. Aieber 
Hirst George was actuated in this proceeding, partly by a 
desire to promote the physiological labours of the Begiitrtf, 
as being most valuable to students of the natural sciences 
generally ; but moreover, he held Dr. Carpenter entitled to 
be relieved in some degree of the weight of his duties at the 
University, after years of devoted service towards getting 
the Institution into working order. 

The new structure in Burlington Grardens was so nesriy 
completed as to render it probable that the Queen woold 
honour the University with her pi*esence on the appioeidunK 


oeremonj of openinj; the building for tlie UMt of tlie estii- 
Uiflhmeat AcoordiDgly we were all on tlie alert in this 
expectation, and on one morning in Aprils Grote invited me 
to aooompanj him to the new buildings oter which he con- 
ducted me in person ; pointing oat» witli a proud satit fa cti o n, 
the different halls, destined for the fbrtbenaice of hia moat 
cherished pnrposes; and dwelling npon the admirable adi^ 
tation of the place to the carrying out of its objects, &o. 

Daring all the early part of this year George was actively 
striying to maintain the standard of examinations in the 
Univerrity of London, against a section of the members of 
GonTocation. I remember his giring a great deal of time 
to penning ^ minntes ** in support of the inflexible measore 
required of the candidates for degrees^ and I saw more than 
one letter of his, couched in the same tooe^ to Fh>fessor Bain 
on this subject 

In the month of February, a member of Parliament had 
moved for "leave to bring in a Bill for Ballot at Elections,'' 
and Lord Hartington manifesting no intention to oppose the 
measure on the part of the Government^ we were led to anti* 
cipate its being at no distant day accepted by the House of 
Commons. Bemarking to the Historian, at my breakfast, 
what a change hod come about, in relation to this question, 
since our poriiamentary days, he replied, "Yes, certainly, the 
Ballot seems to me, now, not unlikely to be ere long 

** Well, then, you will hare lived to see your own favourite 
measure triumph over all obstadefl^ and you will of course 
ieel great satisfaction thereat ? ** 

** I should have done so had it not been for the recent 
alteration in the sufiiage. Since the wide expansion of the 
voting element, I confess that the value of the Ballot has 
sunk in my estimation. I do not, in fact, think the elections 
will be affected by it, one way or another, as far as party 
interests are concerned.'* 

** Still, you will at all events get at the genuine preferenoe 
of t^^> constiiueocy in fflifWHiing their candidate** 


** No doubt ; but then, again, I have come to perceiTe that 
the clioice between one man and another, among the Igtigj^h 
people, signifies less than I used formerly to think it did. 
Take a section of society, cut it through fiom top to bottom, 
and examine the composition of the suocessiTe layers. They 
are much alike throughout the scale. The opinions^ all 
based upon the same social instincts : never upon a dear or 
enlightened perception of general interests. Every particular 
class pursuing its own, the result is, a universal struggle for 
the advantages accruing from party supremacy. The English 
mind is much of one pattern, take whatsoever class you wilL 
Tkojsame favourite prejudices, amiable and otherwise; the 
same antipathies, coupled with ill-regulated, though bene- 
volent efforts to eradicate human evils, are well nigh nni- 
vorsal : modified, naturally, by instruction, among the highly 
educated few ; but they hardly affect the course of out-of- 
doors sentiment I believe, therefore, that the actual 
composition of Parliament represents with tolerable fidelity 
the British people. And it will never be better than it is, 
for a House of Commons cannot afford to be above its own 
constituencies, in intelligence, knowledge, or patriotism.** 

Thus would the Historian give expression to the views 
which time, experience, and reflection, led him to entertain 
as years rolled over his head. Wise and instructive as was 
his talk, it could not fail to be tinged with a certain sombre 
cost of thought, because, along with experience, had oome 
also the dissipation of some early illusions, to part with 
which caused to Grote undissembled regret Among tliesei 
one of the foremost was, the belief in the policy of making 
further concessions towards the Irish. Few ever laboured 
more strenuously to enforce an indulgent course upon the 
Government, on all matters bearing upon the sister kingdom, 
tlian the •* member for London," in bygone days. Yet he 
would own, not, however, without a mournful tone and 
manner, in 1870, that ** 1 have arrived at the conviction that 
it will never be i)ossible to govern Ireland otherwise than 
as a conquered country.*' 


Those who knew Geoige Grote will appreciate the homage 
rendered to lleason when, in deference to its foice» he could 
bring himself to put aside the long-cherished impulses of his 
generous nature. 

But it most be observed that the views ot the philosophic 
statesman latterly came to predominate over the opinions 
which bad characterised the earlier phase of Orote*s political 
creed. Ever alive to the lessons of practical wisd<mi» as 
gained by hb acute observation of men and things^ he never 
shrank from confessing to such changes as they might 
happen to generate in his mind. Not that he would ever 
acknowledge himself other than republican, in sentiment, to 
the very close. To have renounced this was more than could 
be expected of a Ufelong partisan and eloquent panegyrist of 
that form of government All that he would admit in its 
disparagement was that republican institutions formecl no 
more e£E9ctual safeguard against the oiwss o/fower than 
monarchy, though he should prrf^r the former. He once 
said, in conversing with myself in 1867 about the United 
States, '^ I have outlived my fiiith in the efficacy of repub- 
lican government r^;arded as a check upon the vulgar 
passions of a majority in a nation, and I recognise tlie fact 
that supreme power lodged in their hands may be exercised 
quite as mischievously as by a despotic ruler like the first 
Napoleon. The conduct of the Northern States, iu the late 
conflict with the Southern States, has led me to this oondu- 
sion, though it costs me much to avow it, even to myselt" 

At page 235 of this work allusion occurs to a translation 
of Grote's * History of Greece ' in the Italian language, and it 
is incumbent on me to state some further particulars con- 
cerning it 

A year or two subsequent to the publication of the tenth 
volume, the author received a letter from a lady named 
Olympia Colonna, a member of a NeapoUtan fiunily of con- 
dition, informing him that she had made, or ratlier begun to 
make, an Italian translation of the first few volumes. The 


lady paid the highest compliments to the work, and Bxpnmti 
her hope that the Author would yiew her humUe attempt 
witli fiivour, and accept a copy of the Italian TernoD. 

It need not be doubted that the lady reoeiTed in reply one 
of those beautiful letters which Grote knew so well how to 
compose when his correspondent was one of the gentler sex. 
More than one letter was exchanged between him and 
Madame (Tolonna, whose work reached us duly, and engaged 
f Crete's attention for as long a time as he found neoesary 

in order to address his complimentary thanks to his £idr 
j translator. 

The volume reposed on his shelves for many yean withoot 
Q ! being followed by more : the lady having entered into the 

bonds of matrimony anew, she seems to have ceased to 
prosecute her work farther. This fact was oommunicated to 
us by our friend Lacaita, who had enjoyed the bonoor of her 
acquaintance formerly. 

To resume the chronicle of 1870. 

The Queen did graciously open the University of London 
on the eleventh of May. A grand event assuredly, regarded 
in its full significance in reference to educational influences, 
i and consequent fluctuations of power among the body of 

- the nation. The Vice-Chancellor felt animated on the occa- 

sion. I had caused his official gown to be smartened op 
with gold lace that he might figure creditably in the show, 
and he seemed impressed by the spectacle which the Qoean's 
presence, associated as it was with the consu mm a t ion of 
his long-cherished wishes — establishing this temple of know* 
ledge, only to be approached through studies akin to his 
own— ofiered to the mental eye as well as to the material 
organ of sight. 

After the Queen left the building, the Oliancellor ezeicised 
his privilege to address the members of the University, the 
examiners, and those of the public who had been fortunate 
enough to obtain places in the theatre. He went lightly 
over the rise and growth of the Institution, its olaimt to 
respect, and its august mission, that of bestowing guaimntees 




of complete piofioieiioy in the Tarious fields of sbidy ; then, 
taking notice of the Taluable eenrioeB rendered by the 
administnition in directing the system of examinations and 
the like, the Chancellor gave ezpressioa to his feeUngs of 
obligation to his Yice-Chancellor, in kngnajge at once appro- 
priate and flattering. The applanse which arose when this 
tribnte fell from the lips of tiie qieaker encouraged Lord 
Granyille to prolong his enlogy, to the indescribable tortore 
of the recipient^ I am constrained to add. Some of his rela- 
tives were present^ as well as myself, and all recognised in 
the aspect of the Vice-Chancellor indicatjons of saffmng 
resignation to the i nfliction, not to be di^goised from attentiTe 
dbsenrers. This may sonnd exaggerated or affected modesty, 
bat it really was gennine. Grote had an almost movbid 
aversion to being praised in his prasenc^ and many a 
langh have we had in private over the '' agony* which the 
widsed Chancellor, on more than one occasion, cansed his 
helpless sabject to endorse at the Univernty of London 
pnbUc ceremonials. For I am afraid his lordship coold not 
plead nnconscious mischief in his proceedings^ bot rather 
took a certain pride and pleasure in them, warranted, as 
he undoubtedly was, by a sense of personal duty towards 
his own officers. 

After the excitement of this moming^s pageant, and its 
sensational fatigues, George went to walk in Kensington 
Grardeos with Professor Bain, where (I take it for granted) 
they talked metaphysics without a check, until the Vice- 
chancellor (as I learned afterwards) found himself obliged to 
''take a cab** home. He was, indeed, thoroughly exhausted 
on that evening, as he might well be. 

In the course of the spring of this year, the Members 
of Convocation in the University of London preferred an 
urgent request to their respected Vice-Ohancellor, through 
their chairman. Dr. John Stonrar, that he would do them the 
favour ofsitting for his picture; the cost to be defrayed by their 
collective body, and the portrait^ when finished, to be placed in 
the Senate Boom of the new building in Burlington Gardens. 




To this request Mr. Grote felt himself compelled to accede, 
although with unfeigned reluctance* ^To no other liTing 
man or woman/' said he to me, ** would I sacrifice the time 
needed for such a purpose, but the wishes of my gndnates 
are all-powerful with me." Accordingly, Dr. Sftomur and I 
RE I undertook the selection of the painter; and after 

visits to the ateliers of artists standing high in pablio ( 
we made choice of Mr. John Everett Millais. 

That gentleman readily accepted the commission — indeed, 
1. . he told us that he had long felt anxious to make a portrait of 

g 1 tlie Historian, considering him a particularly fine subject for a 


The picture was begun on the 3rd of May. Grote was, at 
first, sensibly relieved by Mr. Millais's assurances that he would 
only have to sit a few times — six, perhaps, at most — ^ for," 
added he, ^ I am a very rapid painter, and never tiouUe «y 
sitters as long and as often as many of my professioQ do.** 

I left London on the Ist of July, after ** assisting ** at the 
iSanee at Mr. Millais's Iiouse, being the fourterath sitting at 
which I had been present. Within a week or two afterward^ 
George wrote to me — ** I have given three more sitting! this 
week, and am to sit three more days next week, making 
twenty in all.** 

Thus the portrait proved a tedious a£Eair, and we half 
regretted having consented to give up so much time to it 
Grote, nevertheless, submitted to the exigencies of the 
^ situation *' with his wonted gentleness and courtesy, out of 
consideration for the artist, who, on his side, spared no pains 
in bringing his work forward ; so that the picture was mail 
advanced by the end of July, proving a good likeness^ with 
much that was meritorious in the general treatment 

After the close of the Academic SessioUi I had little difB- 
culty in prevailing upon George to take a short holiday, tat 
even he was free to confess that a change was expedieni 
^Visiting*' was not to be mentioned, of oourse; so we 
repaired to our modest farm-house quarters at Long Beo* 
nington (taking Miss Grote with us), on the 8th of Aiigiist 


The week was passed in ruial repose^ and we rambled orer 
the fiurmSy sometunes on horseback, at others boxnping in a 
spring cart over the rats ; George acknowledging the air of 
Idncohishire to be ** most refreshing,** after his six months 
of London work. 

We proceeded to Ghatsworth on the 18th of Angnst— that 
is to say, to the ''Edensor Inn,** hard bjr. Onr old friend 
Lacaita was staying, alone with his youthftil son, at Cihats- 
worth, bnsy orer the library conceins of the Duke of Deron- 
shire, according to his annnal custom. Lady EasUake join- 
ing us on the same day, from London, we all profited by 
the good offices of Sir James Lacaita to pass onr mommgs, 
at onr ease, within the walls of that palatial residence. We 
three ladies natnrally betook onrselTes to the art depart- 
ment, wherein onr enjoyment was nnboonded, the " Liber 
Yeritatis" of Clande Lorraine reoeinng onr admiration 
above all. The Historian, meanwhile^ would plant himself 
comfortably in the vast library, p(mng upon some rate and, 
eren to JUni, unknown treatises of medin?al aiitboi% in 
Latin, which Lacaita would select as the Tery 'moroeanx** 
for his learned friend's delectation. They also took some 
delightful walks round Ghatsworth whOst we stayed there, 
and the iijour seemed beneficial to Orote in all ways. 
Leaving this attractive place on the 17th, we drove across 
to Mutlock Bath, whence, after a short stay, George and I 
paid a visit to Lord and Lady Lyveden, at their truly sylvan 
residence, ** Farming Woods,** in Northamptonshire. After 
this, we returned to Bidgeway, remaining there till the last 
days of September, when Mr. Grote wanting to go up for 
the Museum and University College meetings, I accompanied 
him to London for two or three days. 

Although I make but scanty reference in this memoir to 
events having no especial bearing on our personal course of 
life, it would seem impossible to pass by the shock of arms, 
under which the two mighty nations of France and Germany 
were shaken to their centre in this summer. 

Onr time and sympathies became unavoidably abscNrbed by 


the daily aocx>ants of warlike conflict, whilst the conTemtioii 
of our country neighbours, when we met, really had no other 
colour than that which ''the map of France'' suggested. 

Neither Grote nor myself could help leaning to the side of 
the Germans, who had done all in their power to avoid this 
terrible appeal to the sword, whilst the French GrOTemment 
had sedulously striven to provoke it. 

The pause, which of necessity supervened after the fall of 
Sedan, excited some hope that an end of blood-«hedding 
might be looked for. But our humane sympathies 'became 
yet more painfully affected when the war was rashly pro- 
longed, and it was obvious that the miseries endured by 
France caused the Historian extreme pain to witness. ''Poor 
France!" he would exclaim to himself, sometimes, when 
wading through the cruel chronicle of the slaughter. 

In October we went to spend a few days at Kingston Hall, 
witli our dear friends Lord and Lady Belper. Lord Bomilly 
was to have met us there, but the unexpf oted death of his 
worthy brother Edward, deprived us of this pleasure, ^e 
came back to Bidgeway, from Kingston, and passed a tranquil 
autumn, receiving our accustomed guests there occasionally. 
Again George would say, while he looked through the TimM 
paper, '* Poor France, I shall never see thee again I I oonld 
not bear to revisit her, indeed, humbled in the dust as 

At this period my husband's general health was apparently 
such as to afford ground for regarding his constitution as 
substantially unimpaired, and for anticipating for him yet 
many years of life. At the same time, there were certain 
indications of a falling off in the capacity of cerebral labour: 
not that Mr. Grote's intellect showed any signs of change — 
quite otherwise, for it shone out as clear and comprehenaiTO 
as ever when occasion arose. I would remark that tlie habit 
of " taking a nap,** which had always been found salutary to 
him, became more frequently indulged in than heretofore. 

Passing into his study of a morning, even when he had 
been at work for no more than an hour or two, ** to see how he 


I going on" (as the familiar pLrase hm it), I often foimd 
him asleep— sometimea sitting in his chair, but not utiseldom 
lying on his sofa. TLe kind fterviints took ooticep alsD, how 
much ^ the master^ waa gi^en to sleeps compared with what he 
nsed to be m fonner years. I would now and tbeo look over 
his shoulder at what be was writing/ and^ penetrated with 
wonder at the perserering industry it displayed, would begin, 
* Well, my love» I do not think it gurpristng that you Amild 
require a nap^ considering the strain upon the mental fibre 
which goes on within your bniii]. For my part, I am sure a 
page of this is enoogh to generate a h^^dache in anybody 
else.* In reply to tbeea familiar " gallies/ ho would smile 
benig^nantly, as was his wont> and quietly reply, " It Ims been 
my steadfast and fiiTourlte pursuit all tlirough my life, m 
you well know ; and to desist from it would be impossible^ eo 
long as I possess my intellectual facultieB at least.** 

So we lired and worked on, till on the 29th of Korember 
Mr. Grote went to London, having business at the UniYersity 
of London, besides which he was under an engagement to 
Mr. Millais to sit once more to him in the afternoon of the 

He did sit accordingly : Lady Eastlake being present»'and 
contributing her judicious remarks on the portrait, now 
receiving the painter's final touches. The studk> was exces- 
sively cold. Oeorge had pulled off his great-coat, and pre- 
sently felt sensibly chilled; yet he would not complain, 
neither would he resume his overcoat. There he sate, the 
victim of his own exaggerated, complaisant acquiescence in 
a eondrueUve obligation. ^ Why did you not soy you were 
chilled ?** asked I when I learned the circumstances of that 
ill-starred day. '* I did not like to appear to reproach Ifr. 
Millais for letting the fix^ out** • Well, but there was your 
thick overcoat?**— '*Tes, but I did not know whether the 
painter might Uke me to put it on, as he was finishing the 

• The 'Aristotle* is hetemsant^ of 


X870;::::,. : state of health. . 821 

: What could om do with a man so incapalde of oaring Cor 
himself and his own absolute necessities, when mored hj 
consideration towards others ? Had I been present it is saper- 
fluoos to. saj, all these scmples would have gone for nothing. 
After leaving the house he took a rapid walk in.Hyde FtA^ 
in the hope of restoring the circulation. 
• On the 1st of December, Grote came back to Bidgeway, 
walking up from the station in order to warm him^^f by 
ezeroise. He complained to meof having ^caog^t a desperate 
chill" (as above narrated), and seemed ^out of sorts'* in 
consequence. Next day ho was prevailed upon (not without 
difficulty) to keep within doors, and in the afternoon we got a 
hot bath ready, which he found *' unspeakably ccHnfortdbla." 
I attended him in his bath, assisting him to dress afterwards. 
and to put on his elastic stockings, which he always wotb on 
account of varicose veins of long standing in the l^gi. I 
mention these details, as important with reference to the 
subsequent course of his case, seeing that the condition of bis 
legs on this afternoon was unaltered from that in. which I was 
accustomed to look upon them. ; After the ba,th, Oeorge ate 
his dinner with appetite, and felt rather more che^riU ia 
the evening. ; . 

On the 3rd of Dec<8mber, Grote pronounced himaelf better, 
having slept thro:ugh the night. The weather was extremely 
severe, so I remained in the house, but could not petioade 
him to follow my wise example. The effect of ezposore to 
the frigid air was. so far hurtful to him as to produce a return 
of chilliness and discomfort, lasting all the evening. On the 
mprrow he felt so languid and mentally lasy that be coold 
do nothing except sit by the parlour-fire, reading and doling 
alternately, all day ; eating no dinner, but calling for tea 
and coffee repeatedly, throughout the afternoon, with braad* 

I note these eArly facts in connection with my dear hus- 
band's health, as showing the origin of that insidious malady 
which was destined ere long to undermine his physical frame; 
with what fatal steps is only too well known to my readers. . 



On the fdUowing moning^ Mr. Gvote remained in bed until 
a late boor of the forenoon, feeling deprened and indiapoaed 
to exertion of any kind. Bnt towaida OTening he grewmoie 
oomfortaUei and took hia ahare in the oonTenatioin dnring 
the evening, when aome neigfabonxa dined with xm, and he 
pkyed whist with aome of them till paat eleven o'olock. 

OntheSth of Deoember, Oeoigewent to London; weather 
oold, and ground coTered with anew; thermometer 24^ in 
moming. He said he moat go and attend to hia dntiea^ and 
accordingly remained in town from Thnxaday to Satarday, 
10th December, taking the coach, inatead of walking to and 
from Gomahall ; howerer, on the three following daya^ there 
were no particular aigna of ailment in the Hiatorian'a ^ipear- 
anoe or manner. He played billiarda &r an hour with me 
before dinner, and ate with appetite. The chill, I hoped,had 
paaaed away hannleady. On the erening of December 18th 
he aignified hia intention of going op nesct day. I lemon- 
atrated. ** Ah I bnt thia ia an occaajon urgently demanding 
my preaence. There ia Mr. Hutton*a rnotkni coming on to- 
morrow, and unleaa I am there, it ia Tery poaaiUe he may 
carry il" 

To London, then, he repaired, and duly preaided over the 
meeting of the Senate of the UniYernty. 

Aa the authoritiea have recently taken the aame view of 
the unimportance of Greek aa Mr. Hutton did, and haTO 
exempted the candidatea from examination in that language 
at matriculation, I feel a kind of obligation to dwell upon thia 
particular passage; the rather, aa I beUere he preaided over 
the Senate on that 14th of December for the laat time^ at 
the Uniyersity. 

I extract from the printed minutea of the Senate^ under 
date of December 14^ 1870, the annexed entry >*- 

«* Motion made (Mr. Hunov). 

i>That| ocnaideriDg the eigpreaaed inteutiooa of the OoranmaDt 

to catiMiah high-diaa aahoola which ahaU not indnda aqy pro* 

Tision for inatnotion in Gre e k , and oonaidaring thai the Uni- 

ywiaty of London already eonfen Ikgraaa in Soianoi^ wUoh 




reqidro no ftvUiflr sindy of Greek tlian ii needf al to qvaliiy Ibr At 
UAtrioalatioii Xxunixuktion,— it would be ^i>«HMft In fbten to 
giro (h ndid ete B for that Bz»miiiAtio& an option betwooa Gnik 
and TCn ffii^K , 

put: — 

Mr. Heywood. 
Mr. Hotton. 
Sir John Lubbock 
Mr. Osier. 
Mr. Paget. 



Tho Viofr-ObanooUor. 

Mr. Fowler. 

Sir Edward Bjan. 

Dr. Sbarpoy. 

Dr. William Smitb. 

Dr. Storrar. 

Mr. Twialeton. 

Grote dined the same evening at the house of hia fiiend. 
Dr. William Smith (the last time he dined away from home), 
and came back to Shiere the next day, seemingly content at 
having succeeded in ^ shelving " ** friend Hutton'a ** move. 

The interval between the 15th of December and the 5th of 
January was passed at Bidgeway, with the exception of the 
20thy 2l8t, and 22nd of December, on which days we were in 
Savile Bow. The weather terribly cold, and Grote sensibly 
the worse for it, looking ill, and growing more and more 
out of spirits methought. Lord Bomilly and his daughter. 
Dr. William Smith, and Professor Bobertson, passed the 
Christmas week at the Bidgeway, during which Grote perse- 
veringly walked on the heatii, despite of the low temperature 
and the snow which covered the ground — every one but he 
and Mr. Bobertson confining their exercise to my garden 
walks, which were swept dear of snow for their aocommo- 

My uneasiness increased under the evident appearances of 
illness in my dear Historian. He would not allow me to send 
for Dr. Capron, alleging that '^ he had nothing the matter with 
him requiring a doctor, and that the cold was the sole cause 
of his feeling out of order." Yet I failed to prevent him from 
going out in it, and when the end of December arrired, he 



■0 altered in lobki tBat I ecmld not help feeling deeply. 
anxioiii. I spoke to Dr. Capron about eertam mgns of in* 
temal denngementi which I had oheerred, and* in conformity 
with hit 8iiggettioii% pen^aded George to drink of barley- 
water aomewhat plentifiilly i more I could nqi aooompliah**^ 

. \ 

.'- • I ./ : 

1871; • " r ' : : ' public DuriBa 





On the 5th of January, Grote again went up to Loiidc 
not» this time, to attend to any acadenuo duty, but to 
and sign warrants for dividends at the Bank of Englai 
a whole list of which were received by the bankiDg>-lioa 
under his authority as trustee for viaiious indiTidoala, imd 
ancient relations contracted whilst a member of the firm. 

I was afraid to venture forth in such weather, fearing to 
myself incapacitated for any useful end if I exposed my ft 
body to the icy blasts. The next day (the 6th) I wrolo 
George, regretting to be thus *' embargoed,** but promiBDg^ 
weather should change, that I would join him ; ainoa lie h 
declared it imperative upon him to stay over the next Simdi 
in order to head a *' deputation," of members of Univsiii: 
College, to the Duke of Argyll, about the projected Gofsr 
inent sdiool of engineering science. 

By a singular chance the weather changed, on the mor 
ing of the 7th of January, from rigorous frost to a mi 
temperature (the one solitary fine day, be it obserred, of tl 
whole month I). I sent down to the railway station a td 
graphic message to my housekeeper, to announce mycomii 
(well aware that Mr. Grote would be on duty sosMvAsmj^ai 
set o£f for London by the afternoon train. 

Beaching Savile Bow about half-past six pjc, I asks 
f* Is the master at home ? " *" No, madam ; gone out •? 
since three o'docL" 

- At seven o'clock George returned. ^ Delighted to • 
me,** of course. ''You have been to Univernty CoU^g% 
presume ? ** ** Yes, I have spent nearly three boniv the 


tbb aftenuxm.** "Did yea mOk thiOier?* ""Ym, and 
walked back alaa" 

The next day was to the last degree aefora^ as to tempera- 
tare. When tiie aftenoon came, ^'ELfmylorel will 700 
not come oat and take a walk?" *< Thank 70a reiy mooh, 
bat I have^ fortanately, still the ose of my fimnltiei^ and 
ikenfan mean to stay in-doon^ as I hope yon will do.** 

Not a bit of it Off he started to Belgiam, where he paid 
a Tisit to one of oar intimate 6iend% Mme. da Q * * * * *• 

At dinner, George said, with a signifleant smOe^ ^ Well^ 
H^ I mast say yoa did wisely in refosing to go oat to-day, 
tor the nortb^easter really was eno^gk to eat one in two^ as I 
fiiced it coming home." 

Aiter taking his tea, he said, ^ I shall send IL (the hoose- 
keeper, who acted as his penooal attendant in Sarile Bow^ 
to get me some laiger stockings to-monow, tor I find my 
heel is being pressed apon, oncomforlaUy." 

''If yoa wiC allow me^ I will inqieet your leg to-nlgkt^ 
when we go to bed. Possibly yoa may need a difierent sort 
of bandage, now." 

At bed-time I accordingly examined the condition of his 
legs attentiyely. It was nospeakably alarming, they being 
both what is called 'VBdematoos." ''Why, how long hare 
these legs been swelled as they now appear?" ''I should 
say aboat a fortnight, or rather more." ** WeU, bat how was 
ityoaneyertoldmsof it?" '^ I did not regard it as of any 

Enough. The next morning I sent the hoasekeeper ctt, 
early, to a professional bandage-maker, with orders that he 
should be with me at ten ajl The master-workman came 
in person doly. Legs examined. ** Nothing Ibr ms to do 
here, madam; this is a medical case." 

I sent forthwith a note reqnesting Dr. de Mossy^s presence, 
bat anfortonately he was gone to attend a patient at Dorer. 
My best endeayoars conld not tarn Mr. Grote finom his par- 
pose of going to the India Office, and (withoat caoatchoao 
stockings^ or bandage to support the tissues of tha Taiioose 

1871. LAST ILLNESS. 327 

veins) away he went, on foot^ leaving me in a state of 
helpless despair at his disregard of the dictates of prudenoe. 

On the following day Dr. de Mussy saw the TTigfa^r i^n^ 
andy after a careful investigation of the facts of hia case^ fi>r- 
bore to pronounce any distinct opinion thereon, wiahing tobe 
furnished with further means of interpreting it^ These (the 
matters being specified) I caused to be conveyed to the 
doctor, and on the third day he gave me to understand that he 
had reason to think that disease of the kidneys existed^ to a 
serious extent. 

He attributed the actual state of his patient to the having 
taken that decided chill, already described^ followed by x«peated 
exposure to cold, accompanied by active exerdsa. As I 
judged it advisable to invite a second opinion. Dr. George 
Johnson, of Savile Bow, came and examined Groto'a symp- 
toms, and the two physicians, after consultmg together, 
immediately commenced a course of therapeutio treatmenti 
according to the recognised system pursued in affections of 
this kind. Our household was at once transferred from the 
Bidgeway, and all rapidly arranged for a lengthened stay in 

I pause here-«-UDcertain how to proceed. It is donbtless 
incumbent upon me to complete my narrative ; at the same 
time my readers will be conscious how much it costs me to 
retrace the course of the dismal months whiohf at the period 
here indicated, lay before me. 

So much of it as is essential to relate, I must endeavour to 
place' before them; whilst deeply regretting my inability to 
fill in my imperfect outline by noting the various forms in 
which the illustrious subject of it revealed, to all who 
ministered to liim, the moral beauty of his charaotor. 

In giving minute particulars of the rise and progress of 
this cruel malady, I ventured to assume that my readers 
would require to be informed of its origin, seeing how 
unexpectedly Mr. Grote's illness bad come upon him. 
Having delineated (perhaps to tediousness) the preh'minary 
symptoms, it remains for me to give an account of Hid 


subsequent 8tageB»- and I therefon proceed. Drawing npim 
my Diaiy, I find, under date of ISth'Febniarj, 1871 : — 

^'It IB now fife weeks sinoe O; hss been under treafansnt bj 
Dr. do Musaj. I gstber from the united irerdiot of Drs. Johnson' 
and Do Musaj (after a consultation jesterday) tbai the sjmpioiBS 
of the diioaso do not augment, but rather deorosso. A good desi 
of albumen, certainly, is parted with, but both gentknien think 
we may assume that no jwMoa yet easts in the blood.'* 

• Daring the whole of January and February (after the 9th 
of January, that is to say) Orote was restricted to the oocih 
pation of the third flour of his residence^ which waiB sedulously 
kept warm throughout the four rooms composing it He sai 
in a cheerful front room by day, in which was our billiards 
table; read and wrote, receiyed yisitocs^ dined, and qpent thei. 
erening. When m could obtahn a fivurth hand, we played 
whist for an hour, in an adjoining room, thus dianging ther 
air for the patient Miss Mary Orote was our inmate after 
tlie 14th of January, so that the presence of one additiooal 
player was enough for our rubber, whidi Grote always 
enjoyed. Towards the end of February he expressed a wish 
to be removed to the study on the ground floor, which being 
acceded to by the medical adrisers, I had a bed placed there 
for him, and in the first week of March he was established in 
his new qoarters. ** Ahl now I am content^ since I can look 
upon my books again.** 

On the 18th of March, the weather, which had been un^ 
oeasingly frigid, with harsh north-east winds, became mild, 
and the doctor gave us leaye to take a drive in the close car^ 
riage. The Historian was inexpressibly cheered by getting 
out of his confinement He had been wishing to put down 
Dr. Holden's name for election at the Athenseum Olub, so we 
first went thither; then along the new Embankment (which 
he beheld with surprise and pleasure), and passing by the 
Abbey, we drove finally to Hyde Park. There lie insisted on 
taking a walk, and we both did so for a quarter of an hour, 
Oeorge appearing just as. firm and active on his legs as here- 
tofore; sXter tliis^ mightily pleased with our ezeroiseb wp 

Ill I; 


1871. ' . DEATH. 829 

returned hoxne: Orbte feeling to a oiartain degree Mfifad 
in spirits by breathing the open air, after two months priva^ 
tion of liberty. 

• AlasI this experiment, succeeded as it was by anolheff 
drive on the 19th of March to Hampstead, prored injnriooi 
to onr patient, and Dr. de Mussy, in consequence^ inhihiiad 
him firom using any exercise, beyond a game or two of 
bilUards. . 

' Up to this date I had suffered myself to be, if not 
sanguine as to a restoration to health, at least not altogetha 
disheartened as to a partial recovery. The humane doctor; 
whQst he abstained from holding out potitive expectations of 
ultimate benefit '* when warm weather should xetomy" yet 
forbade me to despair of its vivifying effects in due set son! 
In the responsible position I occupied, it became a positiie 
duty to strive to encourage, by apparent hopefulnesi^ the 
unremitting endeavours to promote ^ the mastex^s ** oomfixt 
and ease which our kind, faithful domestics yielded. After 
the month of April arrived, however, the veQ Uil from mj 
eyes, of itself. * 

To no one did I permit myself to avow the ttiCi, but lived 
on, dissembling as best I might, from both fnends and 
attendants, the fatal reality of the case ; whilst (I may be 
allowed to add) suffering almost incessantly from neuralgia, 
in my own person. 

On the 5th of April Mr. Grote broke through the interdict 
of Dr. de Mussy, and drove, in a close carriage, to the Bank 
of England to sign the dividend warrants as usual, fi>fp*^»g 
none the worse for it in the evening. 

On the 18th of April we were enabled, by the imre o^ 
currence of a mild morning, to take a drive in Hyde Park 
(after four weeks passed within doors), in the open carriage. 
On viewing the flowers, the green grass, and budding tieei^ 
Grote fell into raptures, exclaiming: ** How charming is the 
aspect of returning spring! Look at those tulips I how 
brilliant thoy are,** and so forth, as we passed along. 

On the 13th of May the "* orders ** were again violated, and 


Oiote wemt to the British Mnsoum, to take part in a meeting 
of the Standing Oommittea, Gummoned for that aflternooti. 
The chair that he was accustomed to occupy there, had all 
along been kept vacant for him^ and he now resumed the 
•eat amid the cordial saltitatiom of his esteemed ooUeaguei. 

On the 16th of May a Committee of the Setiate of the 
JJmenitj of London sat at oar boose in Sarile Row^ and 
was presided o?er by the Vice^ChaBcellor in persoiL 

The chief business of this day related to the ez&misations 
tor the ILA. degiee; the Vice-Chancellor hitmdf going 
minntely thioogh the papers proposed to be set by the 
frxaininflri in Greek and LattQ claaaics, 

IVhen ne met after the committee broke up, I inquired 
hour he had bome the &tigue of these two houis? He 
answerod, ''It certainly taxed the cerebral faculties 

These were the concluding efibrta of that noble Being, 
Geofge Orote^ in the path of public serrica. Early in the 
month of Jane a maiked change supenrenod, and at the end 
of three weeks his honourable, Tirtuona, and laborious course 
was dosed, by a tranquil and painl^i death, on the mommg 
ofthelSthcf JnncblSTL 


On tbe 20th June, the following lfeinc»ial was piepuod 
by *^ the Club/' at their meeting : — 

*" To THE Vert Bey. the Deak of Wxstmihbtbb. 

^ We the undersigned, considering the eminent senrioes 
rendered by the late Mr. George Grote to liteiatme and 
learning by his published writings, and to the cause of edn* 
cation by his unremitting exertions through life, eameatlj 
request the Dean of Westminster to allow his remains the 
honour of sepulture within the walls of the Abbey." 

To this Memorial the members present attached their 
names» as under, — 

Stanhope. Bomilly. 

Henxy Holland. Hatherl^. 

H. d'Orl^ans (Duo d'AunuJe). & H. Walpdie. 

Cleveland. W. Smith. 

Derby. Salisbuxy. 

Bobert Lowe. Henxy Beere. 

The signatures of tbe Duke of Devonshixe (ez-Chanoellor 
of the University of London), of Edward Sabine^ 'PJR&, and 
Earl Granville, were added afterwards. 

Dean Stanley granting the permission asked, the fbneial 
took place accordingly, on the 24th of June. 

The annexed account of the ceremonial, which is sobstan* 
tially a correct one, appeared in tbe Morning Pat newspaper' 
of the 26th of June, 1871 :— 

«<The remains of the iUostrioas author of 'The Histoiy of 
Greece' were removed from his residence in Savile Bow on 
Saturday morning, to be interred within the walls of Westminster 
Abbey. The funeral cortSge loft the house at half-past eleven ajl, 
and proceeded by New Burlington Street, B^ent Street, Watedpo 
Place, and Charing Cross direct to the Abbey. The chief monmersi 
occupying the first mourning coach, were : Mr. Joseph, iSi. Arthur 
and Mr. Andrew Grote, and the Bev. Joseph Mayor. Ln the 
second carriage were Mr. Frederick Prescott, Captain Lewin, RIU 
Mr. F. D. Lewin, and Lord Overstone. In the third, Lovi 


Bomflly, Loid Belper, Sir John Trdawny, «id Mr. J. Sliiari ICIL 
In the fourth. Dr. W. Smith, Mr. AUmnifar Bftia, Mr. John 
Mnmj, Mr. F. W. Smith, and Dr. do MiiHy. ^ 

« On amTing at the w«tt entranoo of the AUMgr, the Bail 
Stanhope, the Bic^t Hon. Bobert Lowe^ the Maater of BaUiol, 
Dr. Stomur, Di; Oaipenter and other frieoda were in attmdanee. 
In the mean time thoao who were not to take any prominenl flvt 
in the fimeral, hat merel j wiahed to teatiiy their raqpeot to the 
illoatrioDa aohokr, had been ahown to aeata in the ehoir; and 
among the nmnber were the Doke of Defonahire^ the Duke of 
derehmd^the Earl of Deibj, the Sari of Airlie, the Bi|^ Hon! 
0. P. VOlien^ MJ^., and (aa rapmenting Uniwaity OoUege) 
Mr. Enfield^ Mr. John Bdbaoo, ProfaaMta Wiltiamaon, T. H. Lewie 
and Bingisr. Alao Mr. Henry Beeve^ Mr. Charlea Oane^ Mr. 
Hayward, Sir Edward Byan, Sir John Bowlings Sir CObailea Loeook, 
Sir £. Stneleoki,the Bight Hon. Gathome Haidy.MJP. finr Qifoid 
Uniferaity, Dr. Sharpey (Viee-Preaident of the Boyal 8oeiely> 
Mr. Winterbotham, M,?.,Profeaaor Doaaldaoin, FrofeaaorBobertaon, 
Dr. Sibaon, Profeaaor Fuller, Mr. Fraaer, Mr. Shaen, Viv Pktcy, 
Mr. Oaler. &e.&e. On the arrifal of the body at the weat door 
(the nave being thronged by atraogeta), the ftmeralproeaarioa waa 
focmed in the order aobjoined :— The yeigar,Choriaten^ the Minor 
Oanona, the Canona, the Sob-Deana, the Doan (eaoorted by thfl^ 
attendants). The Body. The pall waa borne by the following 
bearers :~The Earl GranTille, the Earl Stanhope, Lord Oreratono, 
Lord Helper, Lord Bomilly, the Bight Hon. Bobert Lowe^ Mr. 
John Stuart MUl, the Master of BallioL Aa the procesaion paaaed' 
up the naTO, followed by the moomera, the organ pealed forth in 
.accompaniment to a full choral aerrioe : the portiona oommenoing 
* I am the Beanrrection ' and * Blessed bo the namo of the Lord* 
being chanted aa the procession jwsaed along the nave to the fibnt 
of the pulpit in the triforium. The leason waa read hj Arohdeadon 
Jennings and afterwards the body waa remofed to the plaee o^ 
interment ; the clergy and moumera proceeding along the chciir to 
the nave and by the south aisle to the grave in Poeta' Oomer. The 
moumera haTing taken their poaition, the Very Ber. the Dean 
Stanley rosomed the Burial Serrioe^ and the ehoir eiecnted, with 
exceeding impresaiTeness, the beaatifol portiona: *Man that is 
bom' «nd *Thou knoweat, Lofd,' as well as the grand fnt^iP"; 
*Hia body is buried in peaoe.* At the eonduaion the Doan 
delifeBed, in an improaaiTe and aolemn manner^ the final grace. * • 




«The body of onr modem Oroek EQstoriaiiy and to wboee : 
and memory so much respect was paid on Saiordaj, is dflposited 
near to the grave of an equally illustrious historian, baft of a 
different era, namely, that of Edward Gibbon. 

'*The resting-place of Mr. Orote will be found olooe to tiie 

|i j entrance of the south transept from the south aisle. EUs honouzed 

remains were enclosed in several ooffins; the outer one being of 

polished oak, with brass fittings, and a biaas plate bearing the 

following simple inscription : — : - ' - \ 


|i. George Grote. 

BoBN NovB. 17, 1791. Diyo Juin 18» 1871. 

And, near the lower end of the coffin, the words — 
In (Bterna memoria erit juiiui/* 



Amid a flood of letters, expressiTe of earnest condolence, 
which the writer acknowledges with he&rtieU tbanks, the 
following haye been selected as forming a valuable supple- 
ment to the Biographic Sketch contained in this humble 

Tb« Deanerj, WtsimioBter, 
June 24, 1871. 

I hare not Tentored to write before the cercmon^r of this da/ 
was eompleted. But I maaoi farbcar to send a fa^ words to 
aasme yon of the entiro azid drowning acal which has been placod 
en the noble and glorioiis life tbaa hoaoiin^bl j^ clo«od^ 

I aeleoled the spot in the aoath tnuosept, in wbat FuUer c&lls the 
''learned aide" of Poets' Comor. Cftrndcja and C&saubon look 
down iqpon the grave, and MacauUy lios a fow foet dktsini 

There was enough to moTo the stoutost heiui and etrongost mind^ 
In the sight of the moumora — genuine mmumers — who stood 
around the open vanity philosophers^ soholarBy historiansi friends. 

The Abbej was crowded. ♦♦♦•♦♦♦• To-monow you 
will be with me in spirit^ in the Abbegr, when I pay my own Isst 
tribote of affiMtion and respect • • • • 

A. P» Btamlbt* 

/iUM 19» 187L 
The last words I heard of yon, on Friday, were words of 
encouragement, bat it was the last flash of the lampi Testnday 
morning I learned that all was over. 

Ererything has been done and will be done^to nuA the dose of 
a great, useful, and glorious exietence. Unless the lot of men 
were to be enlarged, nothing remained to be added to Kt Being; 
and he laid it down, as he had bone it throng 76 years, with 
unibated consciousness and dignity. I confess I legud such an 
ending of such a life as altogether worthy of envy, rather than of 
regret The regret and sorrow is all te ouisehes and te you. 

1871. OOKCLUSION. 835 

who bATe lo0t BO great an object of affection and inierert ; hoi tiboaa 
may in some degree bo alleriated by our loie and gpuptJibjm 



Amblemdn, Jume 30, 1871. 
I bave dreamed so many and snob long oonTsnatiana with 
bim and you (in tbe broken sleeps of illness) tbai it would £m1 
unnatural to bo entirely silent daring tbese first days of your looo* 

I seem to bave known you always — so TiTid were tho details 
you gare me in our younger days of your early marxied li£»— «f 
Mr. Grote's devotedness, bis aspirations, about bis 'ESatarj^ and 
of tbe conflict wben tbe call came to bim to torn to political liHs. 

• • • • • And tbe world of interests tbat uprose^ afiarwaidsl 
— ^bis great Work, bis immense benefits to tbe UniTeisity, and the 
blessing be was to tbe new generation of young men, — all thsae 
things are deeply moving even to me, wbo was sure never to aeo 
bim again ; ^ ^ * I cannot forget for an bour bow full your beart 
must be. I wisb I knew bow your bealtb is, tbat I migibt und«r- 
stand bow &r you are able to bear tbis last of tbe struggles of our 
strange and mysterious human life. It is a snfining lifis; fior 
myself^ I long more and more for tbe close of it. 
Dear old friend, believe me. 

Your faitbfnl and affectionate 


From a distinguished American gentleman, Mr. Charles 
Sumner, the following emphatic words reached the writer, 
not very long after her bereavement — 

** Wben tbe electric cable fiosbed across tbe Atlantio tbe news of 
ibis great loss, tbe whole of tbis vast oontinent vibrated with 
qrmpatby for you." 

And though that he was worthy, be was wise, 
And in his port as meok as is a maid. 
He never yet no vilanie ne said. 
In all his life, unto no manner wight. 
He was a very parfitt gentle knight. 




TmdJaw or thz Eotai* 8ooixtt» Lohdon* 

D.O.X^ OF OxTosB, AKD IiL.D. or Caxbsiiioi, UKinmsrnBe. 


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DAlt, AND Tnili* 

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'* -TBunm OF ths Beitob MotiRuif, ^ 



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* « • 

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il ' 

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IL Tab Em Tor eoDTertJQf Krror* af ftJk.Aad N.PJ}^ VSi, 
late Errors i»f Lanftiudt MiA fLcUptM P J>. J 

lOr^L LocmfKhnt ^>t BIa« uA CflftittM la avtry T«ift) 

IT. T*t44 lorfoiiTHtifif BMmAl Isto Mua SftUrTlVMbp J 

t«a>-CalAlo^ut«ri4»&lAJi^ Eli. 
IfrO.— L»ngUi4d«ofVfel4iiliL U. 
164^^^>««er^ptiDaDrAlU£luudl. (^f^vMJ &L 

lAB&'L De*cf4[>iteB«rt^«Tniialt€trv)«. (^tfriiu,} U, 
IL B«^Uaoa«erak*Jt«;tJObHFVft40ff. tt. 

' 1U4— I. rvvrtpn<;<> of t)k« Z*nlLh Ttite 3*. ** 

litt.^T. i*r» VuniT4tKlac«*«f8t]m. lOf. 

UL Loafiti»4« of V«l»ati«> ) 

1M4— I. |ttm'« fif midianaaur. 

IMIm I* C*rn<rtl4U «f |1witk«4'« Oin«ita «f Jupltar ui 

IL 8*T*9 VHn*€hUl4icvf iirtT«4itonr«I»L m» ^ 
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-^ ASTKClSSaMlUAL K£liULT«. IttatMiffTO^ Ob^ Sit 



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GiCAL OIJ&EJi VAT IONS, 1846 to ISIO. KortiiUf, 6&*.*^eh, 



IL Tkblu for «ciUiV«rtjQi^ Errpm of UJk.viA KJJ}^ 
isl« Errpm i»r Lobf Llud« iXkd Ecliptic P,D. 

IBtfrf— I, Ijjiif^rithfhi of Blatm iui4 Ca«liie4 ta iTtiT Turn V 

gfteandtof Tlma- >-llff 

II. Tablt CairwDfflitlQff il4«««t lDi4^JilHABol«rTLiB«» j 
t8ia^^ftt»logui4flU0£Un^ ei. 
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* 1454^L l>«frlptienortlj*2*iilthTube, 3#* 
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tl I , Lun^t ladv of V*l«ii ti«. ) 

ISSA^I. Moon'" efrmldl*m*t»i-, 

IL riutUrr Obwrrftlloiu, 1S31 to 1S33, 

]§CiL»L Cor recti i>iu of BouriJil** ElaioeBiJ ai Jiip[l«r Md 
tit turn. 4f. 

IL B«T*B V«iirW' C*t«]aEiit AfHTeO SiMn for 1864. lOt. ^ 

I J I. l>v»cript[<ia of tbft Gr^mt K^uAiorwI. 5«* 

— A&TaONOHiCAL KESULT4. 13^ t« IBTO. 4I0> fiiL 


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liASTLAKE'S (Sir Chaklbs) IUl|aQ School* of PkioUaf. Frm 

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- ContributioDs to the Liieratnro of ih« Fiat Artik 

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i i\