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Full text of "Personal shorthand"

4 



THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



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X^ o Co N— i^ 



■- 1 



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^6 -1 ^^ 



N 



Personal Shorthand 



Bv 



Godfrey Dewey, AB,EdM 




Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York 

World Book Company 



1922 



WORLD BOOK COMPANY 

THE HOUSE OF APPLIED KNOWLEDGE 
Establisht 1905 bj^ Caspar W Hodgson 

YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NeW YoRK 

2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago 

More than a thousand different systems 
of shorthand have been pubHsht for Eng- 
lish alone; yet not one has met the im- 
portant and distinctive requirements of 
general non-professional use. Shorthand 
systems have hitherto been devised for 
the professional amanuensis. Student, 
lawyer, preacher, and educator have con- 
tinued laboriously to make their many 
notes in longhand — except for the occa- 
sional rare individual who has laboriously 
masterd a complex professional system for 
simple personal use. Always there has 
been the need for a system of personal 
shorthand serviceable to the many; that 
would enable the busy note taker, after 
no unreasonable amount of special study, 
to write rapidly, accurately, and simply. 
After many years of research and experi- 
ence such a system has at last been workt 
out by Mr Dewey. His method is simple 
and clearly presented, yet scientific, and 
its publication is an educational event of 
far-reaching importance. It gives World 
Book Company no little satisfaction to 
offer Mr Dewey's text on Personal 
Shorthand, together with the Exercises 
and the Reader which supplement it; 
for in a very special sense these are " Books 
that apply the world's knowledge to the 
world's needs" 



Copyright 1922 by World Book Company 
Copyright in Great Britain 
All righff /eserJid ^, ^ 



x::'J/ 



Introduction 

Few persons whose interest or occupation re- 
quires them to make frequent use of written speech 
have faild to be imprest and not infrequently irri- 
tated by the slow and cumbersome means of ex- 
pression our ordinary writing affords. It is not 
strange, therefore, that many systems of shorthand 
0, are available for professional or commercial use, 
»5 but it is strange that personal shorthand for gen- 
>. eral use, acquired in youth as a tool, has not obtaind 
§ the recognition its enormous advantages for all 

22 brain workers naturally suggest advantages 

which include, in addition to the direct and ob- 
„»vious saving of time and effort and the ability to 
j^ take important notes impossible with longhand, 
z an effective training in more correct pronuncia- 
' tion, and the preservation of important ideas 
when they come too fast for the sluggish longhand 
y pen, 

5 I welcome Mr Dewey's book as a decidedly 
*" successful attempt to provide the necessary mate- 
rials for courses of instruction in shorthand for 
personal non-professional use. His system may be 
expected to make rapid progress in this field in 
which others have faild, because the many existing 
systems of shorthand have faild to recognize the 
essential difference between the requirements of 

iii 

448580 



iv Introduction 

shorthand for personal and for professional use. 
They have either been too complex and too difficult 
of mastery to make them worth while for non- 
professional use, or they have been too ambiguous 
or inaccurate in their representation of the language. 

Personal Shorthand, as presented in this book, 
thus promises to realize the long-deferd hope of 
laymen and shorthand writers alike for a system 
of shorthand that can be acquired with reasonable 
industry in a relatively short time, and when ac- 
quired can meet adequately the just expectations 
of all who use it. It promises to realize this hope 
because it is based on a scientific approach to the 
problems involvd and an intelligent understanding 
of the material to be handld — a quantitative as well 
as a qualitative analysis of the structure of English ; 
and because it strikes a reasonable balance between 
simplicity of acquirement and effectiveness of re- 
sults. Personal Shorthand is, accordingly, com- 
mended to schools and colleges as an important 
element of modern education — not primarily, or 
not at all, for its vocational value, but for its 
general cultural value, and as an important tool 
for personal use. 

I cannot close this brief introduction without 
expressing my appreciation of the opportunity to 
share in bringing Mr Dewey's work to the atten- 
tion of teachers and the educated public. Once 
its scientific character and ready availability for 
practical use are understood, it seems to me that 
general recognition of the importance of Personal 



Introduction v 

Shorthand for all educated persons is inevitable, 
and that widespread introduction of it into our 
modern curricula will follow as a matter of course. 

Paul H Hanus 
Harvard University 



A few simplified spellings are used thruout all Personal 
Shorthajid publications. It would he inconsistent in the ex- 
treme for a fonetic shorthand system, which writes consistently 
by sound, to ignore the tremendously important movement 
for reform of English spelling which commands the united 
support of the leading language scholars of both England and 
America. 

Simplified Spelling Board, 4 Emerson Hall, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass, will send full information concern- 
ing this important movement on request. 



Author's preface 

Personal Shorthand is specifically designd for 
general personal non-professional use. For per- 
sonal correspondence, original composition of any 
kind, lecture, conference, or telephone notes, ab- 
stracts, memoranda, or any longhand purpose. 
Personal Shorthand (P 5 for short) will save ^ or 
f of your time and f of your effort. P S notes 
need never be transcribed, for they are permanently 
and explicitly legible, today or tomorrow, next 
month or next year, by you or by any other P S 
writer. 

Personal Shorthand will not make you a verba- 
tim reporter in 5 hours or 7 days of easy work. 
Genuine verbatim shorthand writing is a profes- 
sional accomplishment of high order which requires, 
with any shorthand system, several years of thoro 
training and hard work. Merely to train an aver- 
age stenographer requires a minimum of 300 hours, 
an average of 600 hours. P S will teach you to 
write absolutely legible shorthand at 2 to 3 times 
your best longhand speed, in | to f the time re- 
quired by the best of other shorthand systems. 

These unique results are possible for 2 main 
reasons, i Personal Shorthand is based on origi- 
nal data, secured by exhaustive research into the 
relative frequency of the simple sounds and com- 



viii Author's preface 

moner sound combinations of English and the 
relative facility of the possible signs and typical 
sign combinations of shorthand, and interpreted 
by scientific analysis and study of the principles of 
shorthand construction. 2 It is not a profes- 
sional style of shorthand. No style of shorthand 
well adapted to the professional writer can possibly 
be at the same time well adapted for general 
personal non-professional use. One does not carry 
a barber's razor for pocket-knife purposes, nor does 
the barber shave his customers with a pocket-knife. 

Those interested in the more technical aspects of shorthand 
theory will find discussions of several of the most fundamental 
problems in the Proceedings of the New York State Shorthand 
Reporters' Association, 1918-19-20-21, and the Proceedings of 
the National Shorthand Reporters' Association, 1919-20. A 
more popular summary of the main essentials will be found in 2 
articles, Shorthand and Shorthand, Science of, in the latest editions 
(1920 or later) of the Encyclopedia Americana. 

Personal Shorthand is peculiarly adapted to the 
needs of the secondary school, for a single year of 
study will provide for the college preparatory stu- 
dent or general student a tool of immediate and 
permanent value, and will have for the commercial 
student a high prevocational value. 

Distinctive features of the Personal Shorthand 
system are: 

1 Complete joining of explicit signs in the 
natural order of the sounds. (The vowel sounds 
of most systems are either disjoind or ambiguous.) 

2 A basic alfabet designd to give to the 



Author's preface ix 

commoner words and syllables of English facile 
and legible outlines which follow closely the line 
of writing. 

3 Adequate recognition of the more impor- 
tant consonant compounds of English by dis- 
tinctive signs. 

These and other elements of accuracy, regularity, 
and conformity with the essential fonetic facts of 
English are combined to form a shorthand system 
of great simplicity and effectiveness and superlative 
legibility. 

Distinctive features of the P S text are: 

1 Emphasis on the inescapable fonetic facts 
of English, which are made clear and helpful by 
use of a simple explicit fonetic key. (Most sys- 
tems seek to evade or slight these facts, which 
are conceald by our intricate and disorderd con- 
ventional spelling, with consequent disaster.) 

2 Thoroness in treating the basic alfabet on 
which all else depends. 

3 Gradual development of power to sustain 
interest, instead of the delusive "everything 
first" plan so common today. 

4 Measured performance tests on drills and 
exercises, which add the incentive of definite 
achievment to those necessary but often tedious 
stages of the work, and in class instruction greatly 
facilitate dealing with individual differences, now 
recognized as one of the most important educa- 
tional problems. 



X Author's preface 

5 Particularly thoro treatment of the com- 
monest words and affixes of English, which make 
up so large a part of all our writing. The 42 
wordsigns, for example, express only 44 different 
words, yet make up over 33% of all your writing; 
and the 500 commonest words, which make up 
over 66 % of all your writing, are all included in 
the text exercises and examples. 

Experienced shorthand teachers will discover 
other novel features of interest and value, such as 
arrangement of word exercises in fonetic order, 
giving a kind of context and bringing together the 
most useful contrasts and comparisons. 

P S Exercises, which should always be used in 
connection with this text, is carefully designd to 
give the maximum effectiveness to the minimum 
amount of drill. 

Teachers who prefer a text divided into definite 
lessons will find that the running heads on right- 
hand pages distinguish 24 lesson divisions of such 
size and scope that they may be coverd effectively 
by secondary school students at the rate of about 
one a week. Mature students will cover as much 
as 2 lessons or divisions a week, while the excep- 
tional individual student may be able to cover 3 
divisions a week. A short course which does not 
attempt to meet the performance standards for 
the exercises will be able to cover the entire text, 
with the accompanying P S Exercises, within 6 
weeks. 



Author'' s preface xi 

Finality is not asserted for every detail of this 
presentation, or indeed of the system presented. 
Data will be compiled by use of standard tests and 
measurements on a much larger scale than has been 
possible before this publication, and any changes 
unmistakably indicated by such data will be made 
before attempting to establish permanent standards. 
Criticisms wall be welcomd at all times. This text, 
however, rests on 24 years of personal shorthand 
experience, the last 4 devoted to intensive study, 
by scientific methods, of shorthand problems, and 
may be accepted with confidence as a fundamental 
contribution to the art of shorthand for general use. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Several publishers have kindly permitted the use 
of copyrighted material in the reading and writing 
exercises. The quotations from Ralph \/\'aldo 
Emerson and James Russell Lowell are used with 
the permission of Houghton Mifflin Co, their 
authorized publishers. Extracts from George Hor- 
ace Lorimer's Letters of a self-made merchant are 
used by permission of Small, Maynard & Co. Elbert 
Hubbard's famous A message to Garcia is used (some- 
what abridgd) by permission of The Roycrofters. 

I am indebted to many individuals for interest 
and encouragement which they have volunteerd, as 
well as for advice and assistance which I have 
sought. I trust that the many will pardon my more 



xii Author's preface 

specific mention of but a few. I am particularly 
indebted 

To Professor Charles H Grandgent of Harvard 
and Professor Raymond Weeks of Columbia, for 
authoritative advice on the fonetic basis of the 
system and constructive criticism of important de- 
tails of the fonetic print alfabet. 

To various fellow members of the New York 
State Shorthand Reporters' Association or National 
Shorthand Reporters' Association, particularly to 
David H O'Keefe, who at all times has placed his 
intimate knowledge of shorthand bibliography and 
of current sources of shorthand information, as 
well as his own notable collection of shorthand 
works, freely at my disposal. 

To the faculty of the Harvard Graduate School 
of Education, particularly to Professor Alexander 
Inglis for helpful criticisms of the plan of presen- 
tation of the system, and to Professor Paul H Hanus 
for his Introduction. 

It is quite impossible to acknowledge adequately 
or at length my indebtedness, in spite of much 
original research and equally original synthesis of 
the results, to the shorthand literature of the past. 
Without specific mention of 2 outstanding names, 
however, this preface would be incomplete — Isaac 
Pitman (i 813-1897) and David Philip LIndsley 

(1834-1897). 

Godfrey Dewey 

Cambridge, Mass 
June, 1922 



Contents 

PAGE 

Introduction iii 

Author's preface vii 

Acknowledgments xi 

How to study I 

Writing materials 2 

Why shorthand is short 3 

Part 1 Writing by sound 

Writing by sound ( i ) 8 

Basic alfabet 12 

Fonetic names 13 

Part 2 Basic shorthand alfabet 

Consonants — Group 1 (2) 18 

Right habit formation 20 

Shorthand penmanship 21 

Hook vowels (3) 23 

Writing words 25 

Vowel distinction . . .' 28 

How to study word exercises 29 

Consonants — Group 2 (4) 31 

Hook vowel joinings 33 

Circle s z final 34 

xiii 



xiv Contents 



PAGE 



Tick vowels (5) 37 

Joining & § 38 

Medial circle 40 

Wordsigns (6) 43 

Punctuation 45 

Dictation practise 48 

Consonants — Group 3 (7) 49 

Hook n final 51 

Vowel omission 53 

Supplementary signs (8) 56 

Consonant difthongs 57 

a---- 59 

Frasing 62 

Difthongs (9) 64 

Joining d 66 

Double vowels 69 

Alternative vowels 71 

Basic alfabet review (10) 76 

Alfabet review chart 78 

Wordsign review chart 81 

Use your shorthand 84 

Part 3 Compounds and combinations 

Consonant difthongs Circle s z series (11) 86 

sub- etc 87 

Circle and hook penmanship 91 

Double circles Contractions (12) 94 

Affixes 96 

Contractions 98 



1 



Contents xv 



PAGE 



Half length stems Double lengths (13) 10 1 

-'t -'d difthongs 10 1 

-ed tick 103 

Consonant difthongs 'r- '1- series (14) 108 

Contrasted outlines iii 

Deformd hooks 112 

Triple consonants Consonant combinations (15) 117 

Consonant combinations 121 

Apostrophe words 123 

Hook n -ment -tiv (16) 127 

-ment, -ments 129 

Hook f V 129 

-San loops (17) 136 

Loops and circle 138 

Consonant omission 141 

Part 3 Review (18) 145 

Wordsign review chart 147 

Contraction review chart 148 

Write shorthand 153 

Part 4 Extension and applications 

Prefixes Inflectional endings (19) 155 

Two syllable prefixes 157 

Inflectional endings 158 

Suffixes (20) 161 

Other common suffixes 163 

Compound suffixes 165 

Outline formation (21) 168 

m r 1 170 

Vowel implication 172 

Retouching notes 174 



xvi Contents 



PAGE 



Numbers Dates Titles Proper names (22) 177 

Dates 179 

Titles 181 

Proper names 182 

Nonce forms New outlines (23) 185 

Breve dot 186 

Intersection 187 

New outlines 188 

Conclusion (24) 191 

Final review 191 

Speed practise i93 

Learn by teaching I99 



How to study 

Personal Shorthand can be learnd with less time 
and effort than any other efficient shorthand sys- 
tem. It cannot be learnd without time and effort. 
Your success depends chiefly on you. Read and 
heed these brief suggestions. 

Be systematic Whether you plan to spend 30 
minutes or 2 hours per day on Personal Shorthand, 
have a definite time-schedule and stick to it. Ir- 
regular, intermittent practise seldom succeeds. 
Systematic practise seldom fails. One hour of 
earnest study twice a day is usually preferable to 
a single 2 hour study period. 

Be thoro Follow the simple definite directions 
which tell you how to study most effectively the 
various exercises of this textbook and of the ac- 
companying P S Exercises. Practise sufficiently 
to meet the definite and reasonable performance 
standards set for the measurable portions of your 
work. Do this, and each part of your study will 
form a sure foundation for the later parts and for 
the completed whole. 

Master the details of shorthand pe?tmanship: a 
light firm touch, rapid unhesitating motion, and 
right posture — particularly right pen position 
(§ 30)- Good penmanship technique is of the 
most fundamental importance. 

Read every outline that you write — every time 
you write it. This practise not only develops read- 
ing ability to a markt degree but also serves to 
discover and check in time bad writing habits. 
Always — read everything you write. 



WRITING MATERIALS 

Pen A gold fountain pen is much the most 
satisfactory writing implement, but a suitable steel 
dip pen will do equally good work. Either should 
have a fine, flexible point, free from scratch. 

L E Waterman Co dealers have or can get specially selected 
Personal Shorthand {P S) pens. 

Never use a stub point, however smooth or flexible, or a stiff 
point, however fine. For writers with a medium or heavy touch 
the Falcon steel pen is excellent; for a light touch the Spen- 
cerian Nr i. 

Never use a pencil for practise writing. If you learn to 
write shorthand with a pen, you will find no difficulty in writing 
with a pencil in an emergency. If you learn with a pencil you 
may never be able to use a pen properly. If compeld to use 
pencils in an emergency, keep them sharp. 

Ink Use a free-flowing Ink which writes as 
dark as possible. Blue-black writing fluid gives 
the least trouble in fountain pens. For dip pens 
jet black is preferable. 

Paper Use a good quality of paper or note- 
books, with a smooth calenderd surface intended 
for ink writing. Ruled paper is desirable, but not 
essential, for the same reasons that it Is desirable 
in learning or writing longhand. 

A writing line length of 8 to lo centimeters, or 
3 to 4 inches, is best. End-opening notebooks less 
than 5 inches wide are satisfactory. If using note- 
books or paper 6 to 8 inches wide, draw a dividing 
line down the middle of each page and write in 2 
columns. 



Why shorthand is short 

You will study shorthand with more interest and 
more effectively if you know, before you begin, the 
general plan and structure of the system. This 
section will show you why shorthand is short. 

In a word, shorthand is shorter than longhand 
because it writes simpler letters and fewer of them. 
4 principal factors contribute to this result : 

1 Fonetic spelling, writing by sound, or more 
accurate letters. 

2 The shorthand alfabet of simple signs, or 
shorter letters. 

3 Distinctive shorthand devices for expressing 
several sounds by a single sign, or more expressive 
letters. 

4 Abbreviation, more systematic than in long- 
hand, of affixes, words, and f rases, or fewer letters. 

Accurate letters About 41 sounds, which 
you will study in Part i, are commonly distin- 
guisht in the English language. Our ordinary 
a b c alfabet provides only 26 letters. Because of 
this shortage of letters, and other incidental reasons, 
our conventional English spelling is almost incon- 
ceivably irregular and confusing. Every sound is 
speld in several different ways, every letter is pro- 

3 



4 Personal Shorthand 

nounced in several different ways. One example 
must suffice here. Others will be given in Part i. 
Consider the nonsense couplet: 

Though the rough cough and hiccough plough 

me through, 
I ought to rub your horse's hough for you. 

The vowel sound speld o u g h in through is speld o 
in to and on in you. The letter combination ough 
is pronounced in 8 different ways. Considering 
only the 8 ough words, the sentence may be pro- 
nounced, by its own analogies, in 8 ^ or 16,777,216 
different ways — and only i of them is right! 
Speld as above the sentence contains 77 letters. 
Speld as below, in the fonetic print alfabet to which 
the basic shorthand alfabet strictly corresponds, it 
requires only 50 letters, and can be pronounced in 
only I way — the right one. 

rfo fh ruf kef and hikup pldi mi hru, 
d ©t tu rub yur hors'ez h©k for yu. 

Fonetic spelling, the simplest written record of 
the spoken word, is the first and most fundamental 
reason for the shortness, and explicit legibility, of 
Personal Shorthand. 

Short letters The letters of longhand require, 
for the shortest letter Jl , 2 strokes, for the longest 
letter /?71, 6 strokes, on the average just about 4 
strokes per letter. 

The fonetic signs of shorthand require in general 
I stroke per sound, often less, seldom more. Thus 



Why shorthand is short 5 

the word man, which involves in longhand /TrL/(Z/7l , 
14 strokes, involves in shorthand <2-' 3 elements 
written with 2 motions. 

Compare these shorthand signs with the long- 
hand letters of the same name: 



m , cr 



These 8 letters require in shorthand 8 strokes, in 
longhand 21 . 

Note as an important factor of the shortness and 
simplicity of the Personal Shorthand alfabet the 
logical pairing of light and heavy signs, such as 

I & I , for similarly related sounds. 

Expressive letters Longhand often takes 2 
or 3 letters to express i sound. Personal Short- 
hand often expresses 2 or 3 sounds by i sign. This 
is done by systematic and uniform modifications of 
the basic alfabet signs, which provide simple and 
easily rememberd compound signs for many of the 
most important compound sounds of English. 

Thus from I p, | b, t, _d, / f, etc one simple 

modification forms I pr, I br, c — tr, <= — dr, / fr, etc 
for the important consonant compounds heard in 
pray, bring, train, drive, free, etc. A similar modifi- 
cation forms I pi, I bl, etc for the compounds heard 

in play, blow, etc. From , n, a simple change 

forms v^ nt, for use in such words as print, plant, 
etc. An indispensable alternative sign for s forms 



6 Personal Shorthand 

many double compounds and such important triple 
compounds as o — str, as in strike, strong, etc, 
or v>^ nts, as in prints, plants etc. 

These shorthand devices, rightly used, are an 
important factor not only in ease and speed of 
writing but also in ease and certainty of reading 
Personal Shorthand. 

Few letters Shorthand abbreviates by omis- 
sion, as in longhand, but systematic general rules 
and the accurate and expressive nature of the short- 
hand signs make such abbreviation vastly more 
effective. Examples of Personal Shorthand ab- 
breviation are 

1 Omission of unessential medial vowels, ac- 
cording to simple general rules. 

/z' = nvr = never "^ .. = jst = just 

2 A few contractions, which are usually fa- 
miliar longhand abbreviations merely written in 
shorthand. Thus /O^ ^^ manufacture, r/^ imp 
important. 

3 Less than 50 wordsigns, mostly obvious, for 
some of the commonest words of English which 

make up over 33 % of all your writing. Thus I b 

he, t to, ^ do, ) i for, etc. 

The sentence following, in longhand and in short- 
hand, will serve to illustrate the principal reasons 
why shorthand is short: 



Why shorthand is short 7 

t/r ^ ?n^2^ AUt/K^ unx^ a. iU^^^ ^^^t^^ 



Part I 

Writing by sound (/) 

1 Writing by sound Personal Shorthand 
writes by sound — the simplest written record of 
the spoken word — disregarding common spelling. 
Each sign stands for one definite sound, not for any 
particular a b c letter. You are already familiar 
with all the separate sounds of English in your 
daily speech. Your task is chiefly to identify or 
associate each single definite sound with a single 
definite fonetic sign. 

2 Defects of English spelling The sounds 
of English are few, simple, and definite. You need 
distinguish only 40 or 41. Present conventional 
spellings of these sounds are many, complicated, 
and indefinite. An abridgd dictionary will show 
nearly 500 different spellings of these 41 sounds in 
familiar words. The principal defects of English 
spelling, which make fonetic spelling essential for 
shorthand and desirable for any purpose, are sum- 
marized in the next 5 sections, with typical illus- 
trations. 

3 Same letters pronounced differently 
Every single letter, and almost every digraph, is 
pronounced in several different ways. For example 



Writing by sound 9 

a, in at are any ate what walk — 6 ways 
0, in choir women on or son go woman do — 8 ways 
ea, in heart head great heat react permeate area heard — 8 ways 
ui, in languid build mosquito quirk fruit fniilion guiding suit 
— 8 ways 

4 Same sound speld differently No sound 
is speld uniformly. The average number of spell- 
ings per sound is about 12. For example: 

/, in doubt yacht indict right phthisic ptarmigan to thyme 
little two — 10 wa>'s 

s, in cent psalm worsted this scene schism less whistle 
isthmus sword next waltz — 12 ways 

The name-sound of a, in make main gaol gauge may prayed 
great matinee their weigh weighed ballet they conveyed bou- 
quet — 15 ways 

0, in beau yeoman sew ghost no coal toe oh floor apropos 
depot four though know owe — 15 ways 

The vowel sound heard in fool is speld in at least 30 ways. 

5 Silent letters Considerd from another 
standpoint, every letter except j is sometimes silent, 
as in head debt scent ad^ have etc. 

6 Words pronounced differently, speld 
alike Spellings like the following are used for 2 
distinct words : 

lead — To lead the way (verb), A piece of lead (noun) 

live — We live here (verb), A live wire (adjective) 

read — Let me read that (verb, present), I have read that (verb, 

past) 
use- — ■ I can use this (verb), It's of no use (noun) 

7 Words pronounced alike, speld differ- 
ently Words like the following are speld in 2, 
3, or even 4 ways: 



lo Personal Shorthand 

fair, fare know, no read, red read, reed 
to, too, two road, rode, rowed 

right, rite, wright, write 

For several reasons the supposed advantage of such variant 
spellings (in distinguishing different meanings of a word) is 
much less important than the obvious disadvantages. Consider 
well, sound, right, note, etc. When we hear or see the word 
note used we have no doubt whether we should play it or pay 
it, read or write it, or observe; and there is no demand for dis- 
tinguishing these various meanings by such variant spellings as 
knote, pnote, or noat! 

8 Fonetic spelling These examples show 
the absolute necessity for shorthand to spell foneti- 
cally, if it is to be either short or accurate. They 
show also the need for a simple explicit fonetic key 
notation by which the correct sound of any word, 
syllable, or shorthand sign may be briefly yet un- 
mistakably exprest during your study of shorthand. 

Strictly fonetic spelling requires a fonetic alfabet 
which shall have one and only one sound for each 
sign, and one and only one sign for each sound. 
The fonetic print alfabet used for key purposes 
thruout all Personal Shorthand publications meets 
this definition fully, and at the same time corre- 
sponds strictly to the basic shorthand alfabet. 

This key alfabet is the fonetic key adopted by the Simplified 
Spelling Board for indicating pronunciation in its various pub- 
lications. It corresponds closely to Key i of the Standard 
Dictionary series publisht by Funk & Wagnalls, N Y, whose 
Desk Standard Dictionary is by far the best dictionary for use 
in connection with Personal Shorthand. 



Writing by sound 1 1 

By mastering this fonetic alfabet before begin- 
ning to write shorthand, so that you can identify 
each simple sound and associate it with a single 
definite sign, you will lessen the labor of learning 
Personal Shorthand by about §, for this alfabet is 
the fonetic foundation of all your shorthand writing. 

9 Fonetic print alfabet The table in § lo 
following gives, for each of the 40 sounds essential 
for writing shorthand, the fonetic print letter, the 
shorthand sign, the fonetic name (explaind in § 11), 
and key words showing by heavy letters the sound 
represented. The sounds are arranged in a fonetic 
order logical and convenient for shorthand. The 
shorthand signs, which need not be learned at this 
time, call attention by their similarities to important 
similar fonetic relations between the corresponding 
sounds. 

3 supplementary signs are shown : a rh * , which 
will be further explaind as occasion arises in § 113, 
81, 84, respectively. 

10 Basic alfabet 



12 



Personal Shorthand 





24 Consonants 






12 


Vowels 


Sounc 


Sign 


Name As in 


Sound 


Sign 


Name 


As in 


P 


1 


p% 


pin, cup 


a 


o 


Sit 


am, pat, (pair) 


b 


1 


hi 


bin, cub 


a 


w 


a 


alms, part, ma 


t 




tl 


ten, bet 


e 


c 


et 


edge, let 


d 




di 


den, bed 


e 


c 


e 


age, late, may 










i 


n 


it 


is, sit, army 


k 


\ 


kl 


come, back 


I 


t\ 


I 


ease, seat, me 


§ 




g^ 


gum, bag 





















• 


Gt 


odd, not 


f 


) 


ef 


fan, safe 





* 


§ 


awed, naught 


V 


) 


ev 


van, save 


U 


1 


vt 


up, ton, (turn) 




( 
( 






o 


1 





open, tone, show 


h 


eh 


thigh, bath 


u 




ut 


full, could 


A 


ejt 


thy, bathe 


u 


. 


u 


fool, shoe 


s 


^^-^ 


es 


seal, race 






















4 DlFTHONGS 


z 


^-v 


ez 


zeal, raise 


Sound 


Sign 


Name 


As in 


I 


V. 


ef 


assure, rush 


d 


V 


d 


aisle, pint, by 


3 


^ 


es 


azure, rouge 





^ 





oil, point, boy 


Q 


^ 


eg 


choke, rich 


ij 


A 


u 


pure, few 


j 


^ 


ej 


joke, ridge 


di 


^ 


ai 


out, power, now 










8 


N 


Br 


about, utter, na- 


n 


s^ 


en 


net, sin 








tion, china 










The 


neutral \ 


owel, seldom used 


r) 


^^ 


ey 


ink, sing 


in shortha 


nd 




m 


r 


me 


mate, seem 


xTi 


1 


^ 


the 


r 


/ 


re 


raid, dear 


A V 


'ord; 


sign or logotvpe for the 


1 








definite article the 


J 


le 


laid, deal 


















* 


1^ 


capsig^n 


w 


c/ 


we 


wet, quit 


A s 


gn written before a fonetic 


y 


J 


ye 


yet, you 


longhand 
hand word 


word, below a short- 
, to capitalize it 


h 


<^ 


he 


head, who 











i 



Writing by sound 1 3 

11 Fonetic names The sound oi p or b is 
the very sHght sound heard if you start to say pin 
or bin and stop before saying i7t. The Jtame of p or 
b is pi or bl, in this case the same as in the famihar 
a b c. 

Do not confuse the sound of a fonetic print letter 
or shorthand sign and its name. 

Consonant names are used for convenient reference and clear 
distinction because the consonant sounds alone are hard to pro- 
nounce distinctly. Each name is simply the consonant sound 
with an accompanying vowel sound. Avoid particularly the 
misleading and unfonetic a b c names of g w y h. Always say 
gi (not jl), we (not dubl-yu), ye (not wd), he (not eg). 

The names of the 10 consonants of Group 2 (not merely the 
consonant sounds) are heard in the 10 words deaf neiier death 
leather guess present iresh pleasure fetch ledger 

Short vowel sounds are more easily pronounced and more 
readily distinguisht if named with a following -t as a background. 
The neutral vowel, which occurs with stress only before r, is 
named ar. 

The name of any long vowel or difthong is its sound alone. 
Avoid particularly miscalling the long vowels e 1 u, which are 
sounded always as in //je^ see it'Ao (never as in me my mew) . The 
macron in this fonetic print alfabet is curvd slightly to remind 
you constantly not to give these letters the misleading "Webster 
notation" name-sound values. The pairing of the fonetic print 
letters e e, i 1, u u, (and §) corresponds strictly to international 
usage and to the true fonetic relations between the sounds. 

Italic type will be used for fonetic names thruout 
the large-type portions of the text. 

12 How to study the fonetic alfabet 

Study the sounds of the fonetic alfabet singly and 
in groups (6-10-8 consonants, 6-6 vowels, 4 dif- 



14 Personal Shorthand 

thongs, 3 supplementary signs, as indicated by the 
spacing of the table). Pronounce the key words 
for each sound aloud, slowly and distinctly, till you 
identify clearly the sound represented. Then pro- 
nounce aloud distinctly, several times, the fonetic 
name of the sound. Master each group before pro- 
ceeding to the next, then review the whole table. 
Before going farther you should be able to read the 
40 sounds in order by name from the review test 
following without error or hesitation in not more 
than 40 seconds. After completing the remaining 
exercises of Part i you should do this readily in 20 
seconds. 

pbtdkg fvhrlszSjc^j nqmrlwyh 
aaeeil ©ououu doiidi 

It is profitable, tho not essential, to memorize the fonetic 
order of the sounds, so that you can recite the 40 sounds in order 
by name, with the book closed, like the familiar a b c. 

13 Word exercise This exercise contains the 
100 commonest words of English (less the), which to- 
gether make up more than half of all your writing. 
They are arranged in fonetic order — the place of 
6 in the fonetic order is just before u — • with con- 
ventional spelling of each at left of fonetic spelling. 

To secure the most effective results study this 
exercise as directed below. 

1 Read left columns aloud, slowly and distinctly, identi- 
fying in right columns the fonetic print letter corresponding to 
each sound that you pronounce. 



Writing by sound 15 

2 Read right columns aloud slowly, glancing at left columns 
as necessary to verify your utterance. 

3 Cover left columns in turn with a ruler and read aloud 
right columns. 

Continue 2 and 3 alternately till you can read aloud the words 
of right columns only, without error or hesitation, in not more 
than 20 seconds per column. 

After this exercise is masterd, study Exercises 
13-r and 13-W in Personal Shorthand Exercises. 

Similar references hereafter will be abbreviated to P 5 Ex 
13-r & w, etc. 

In writing by sound (as in P 5 Ex 13-w) 
students in some localities should look out for one 
group of pronunciations — those in "which the 
sound of r is sometimes supprest, particularly 
when final or preceded by a. In P S write 



car 


as 


kar 


not 


ka 


part 


as 


part 


71 ot 


pat 


here 


as 


hir 


not 


hia 



manner as manar not mana 
farther as farrtar (compare fartar) not farta 

See also §136, last paragraph, page 73. 



i6 



Personal Shorthand 



peopl( 


splpl 


she 


Si 


his 


hiz 


before bifor 


should Sud 


he 


hi 


been 


bin 


not 


not 


her 


hur 


be 


bi 


no 


no 


who 


hQ 


but 


but 


now 


ndi 


how 


hdi 


by 


ha 


man 


man 


at 


at 


to 


tu 


men 


men 


as 


az 


two 


tu 


may 


me 


an 


an 


time 


tdm 


made 


med 


and 


and 


do 


du 


me 


mi 


are 


ar 


can 


kan 


must 


must 


every 


evri 


come 


kum 


more 


mor 


any 


eni 


could 


kud 


my 


md 


it 


it 


great 


gret 


little 


litl 


its 


its 


from 


from 


like 


lak 


if 


if 


for 


for 


well 


wel 


is 


iz 


first 


furst 


with 


wirt 


in 


in 


very 


veri 


will 


wil 


into 


intu 


that 


itat 


we 


wl 


of 


©v 


than 


rtan 


was 


W0Z 


on 


en 


there 


rtar 


war 


wor 


or 


@r 


then 


iten 


would 


wud 


all 


@1 


them 


rtem 


one 


wun 


a 


a(g) 


they 


ife 


were 


wur 


about 


eboit 


their 


rier 


you 


yu 


up 


up 


this 


ftis 


your 


yur 


upon 


upon 


these 


rtiz 


when 


hwen 


other 


uitar 


said 


sed 


which 


hwig 


us 


us 


say 


se 


what 


hwot 


over 


ovar 


such 


SUQ 


had 


had 


only 


onli 


some 


sum 


have 


hav 


I 


d 


so 


so 


has 


haz 


out 


dJt 


shall 


Sal 


him 


him 


our 


dir 



Writing by sound 17 

14 Reading exercise 

Read aloud the following selection, analyzing the pronuncia- 
tion of each word. Repeat until you can read the whole selec- 
tion aloud distinctly with good expression and without error or 
hesitation, in not more than 2 minutes. 

ligkan'z getizburg splQ 

forskor and sevn ylrz ago air farlarz br©t forh ©n 
rtis kentinent a nil neSan, kensivd in libarti, and dedi- 
keted tfi rti prepoziSan flat ©I men ar krieted ikwal. 

nai wl ar engejd in a gret sivil wer, testig hwedar 
flat n§San, ©r eni neSan so kensivd and so dediketed, 
kan leg endiir. wi ar met ©n a gret batl-flld ©v 
itat W0r. wl hav kum tu dediket a porSan ©v ilat 
flld az a fdnal restig-ples fer rfoz hu hir gev rfer Idvz 
itat rlat neSan mat liv. it iz ©Itageitar fitig and 
pr©par itat wl Sud du itis. 

but in a larjar sens, wi kan©t dediket — wi kanet 
k©nsikret — wl kanet halo — rfis grdind. rti brev 
men, livig and ded, hu strugld hir, hav kensikreted 
it far abuv dir pur pdiar tu ad ©r ditrakt. rti wurld 
wil litl not nor leg rimembar hw©t wi sg hir, but 
it kan nevar ferget hwet ite did hir. it iz i&r us, 
ih livig, rarfar, tQ bl dediketed hir tu iTi unfiniSt 
wurk hwi^ ite hu fet hir hav rlus far so nobli advanst. 
it iz radar for us tu bl hir dediketed tu ifi gret task 
rimenig bifor us — - rtat fr©m rtiz ©nard ded wl tek 
inkrist divoSan tu rtat kez fer hwig de gev rfi last ful 
me3ur ©v divoSan; dat wl hir h<ili riz©lv dat rflz ded 
Sal net hav dJd in ven; dat dis neSan, under ged, Sal 
hav a nil burh ©v fridam ; and dat guvarnment ©v di 
pipl, bd di pipl, f@r di pipl, Sal n©t periS from di urh. 



Part 2 

Basic shorthand alfabet 

CONSONANTS — GROUP 1 (2) 

21 Consonants — Group 1 The 24 con- 
sonant signs, known as stems, are arranged by 
fonetic and shorthand similarities in 3 groups, of 
6 — 10 — 8 consonants respectively. Group i 
consists of 

Sound: p b t d kg 

Sign: I I \ \ 

Name: pi hi t% dl kl gl 

These signs are to be studied and practist as directed in fol- 
lowing sections. 

22 Size and form The normal length of 
all consonant stems is about 4 millimeters or \ 
inch — the size shown thruout the text. 

This size is best for most writers. Strive to conform to it. 
Many students tend to write too large at first. In any case the 
normal length of stems in your own writing must be uniform. 

The stems of Group i are all straight lines, light 
and heavy, paird as explaind below, pi & bl are 
strictly vertical; tl & di strictly horizontal; kl & 

18 



Consonants — Group i 19 

gl of uniform slope, about 45 degrees above hori- 
zontal, as shown. 

All consonant stems are invariably written either 
from top to bottom or from left to right. 

23 Consonant names Always refer to the 
shorthand signs, or to the sounds which they repre- 
sent, by their regular fonetic names. Do not con- 
fuse the sound of a consonant and its name. See 
§11. 

Note particularly the fonetic name gl, as in gear {not as in 
jeer). 

24 Pairing of signs The light and heavy 
stems of Group i, and of Group 2, are paird in 
strict accord with the fonetic relations of the 
sounds represented. 

Pronounce the corresponding key words of §10 for each pair 
— pin, bin; cup, cub; ten, den; etc — and note that your 
tongue, lips, and teeth assume the same position for both words. 
The light signs correspond to surd or voiceless consonants, the 
heavy signs to sonant or voiced consonants. 

This pairing of signs for cognate sounds by shading, more 
legible and more logical than pairing by length, is an important 
factor in the simplicity, regularity, and positive legibility of 
Personal Shorthand. 

25 Memory devices The memory devices 
following will be of help to many students; par- 
ticularly to those who may be confused by previous 
study of some other shorthand system. 

P \\ ^— k\s 



20 Personal Shorthand 

26 Right habit formation Learning to 
write shorthand rapidly and accurately is largely 
a matter of habit formation. You can form right 
habits from the first as readily as wrong ones, but 
to overcome a wrong habit after it is formd is a 
long, hard process. Start right. In all your prac- 
tise recur constantly to the next 5 sections, which 
are of constant and fundamental importance. 

27 Writing materials Be sure that your 
pen, ink, and paper are suitable, as described on 
page 2. Try to have both desk and chair of suit- 
able height. Have the light, natural or artificial, 
come from your left side if possible. 

28 Posture Sit erect, squarely facing your 
desk. Rest no weight on the right elbow, and only 
enough weight on the left elbow to steady the body 
slightly, 

29 Paper position Place your notebook 
or paper directly in front of you, with the first line 
about where your pen naturally rests. The paper 
may be inclined slightly to the left, never more 
than 30 degrees — 15 degrees is better. 

The shorter the line of writing the less the paper need be 
inclined. 

The left hand must pull the paper up the width 
of a line as each line is finisht, and turn or remove 
the page as the last line is completed. Careful at- 
tention at first will soon make this important detail 
automatic. 

30 Pen position Correct pen position is of 



Co7isonants — Group i 



21 



the utmost importance for ease and accuracy of 

writing. 

The pen position here gi\en is invariably best for writing 
Personal Shorthand, and for many or most writers will be found 
best also, after brief practise, for writing longhand. 

Hold your pen lightly but surely betiveen the 
first mid second fingers, with both nibs touching 
the paper evenly, and 
the tip of the holder 
pointing well to the 
right. The foreann 
should rest easily on 
the large muscle just 
below the elbow, while 
the hand glides on the 
nail of the third, rather 
than the fourth, fin- 
ger. The wrist must 
not sag so that any 
point between the l 

elbow rest and the finger-nail support touches the 
desk or paper. Study the illustratio7i carefully. 

If using a fountain pen, place the cap in your pocket, on the 
desk, or anywhere except adding needless weight on the end of 
the penholder. 

31 Shorthand penmanship Draw care- 
fully the first line or less of each drill, to accustom 
your hand to the size and form of the new signs. 
Thereafter write each stroke with a single free un- 
hesitating motion and practise till you can control 
it. Practical shorthand must be written, not drawn. 




22 Personal Shorthand 

Take great pains to write all similar strokes of 
uniform length, slope, and thickness. Distinguish 
light from heavy strokes clearly. Write the light 
strokes lighter rather than the heavy strokes 
heavier, but shade the heavy strokes with a firm, 
unhesitating pressure. 

Avoid waste motions. Keep your pen moving 
quickly and close to the paper between strokes. 

32 How to study Always, in practising the 
signs of the basic alfabet, speak the name of the 
sound each time as you write the sign, watch your- 
self write, and hear yourself speak. By thus train- 
ing hand, tongue, eye, and ear together you will 
learn more quickly and more surely by your as- 
sociation of the 4 impressions. 

At this point practise the 6 stems of Group I 
singly, in pairs, and in groups, keeping constantly 
in mind the instructions of the last 5 sections. 
Continue till you can meet fully the standards of 
the reading and writing tests below. 

Use for this purpose P S Ex 32-d. 

33 Reading test You should be able to 
read aloud the 30 strokes of this test, without hesi- 
tation or error, in not more than 30 seconds. If 
you do not reach this standard at the first or second 
attempt, repeat the preceding practise before try- 
ing again. Give special drill to any sign that 
causes hesitation. 

I _\ _\ I K\ _ 1 1 \ 



Hook vowels 23 

34 Writing test You should be able to 
write this test line at least 5 times (60 strokes in 
all), making neat, legible outlines and speaking 
aloud the name of each as you write, without 
hesitation or error, in 30 seconds. If you do not 
reach this standard at the first or second attempt, 
repeat the preceding practise before trying again. 
Give special drill to any sign that is poorly written 
or causes hesitation. 

pb td kg pb td kg 

Use for this purpose P S Ex 34-t. 



HOOK VOWELS (3) 

35 Hook vowels The 12 simple vowel signs 
are arranged by fonetic and shorthand similarities 
in 2 groups: 6 lingual vowels, represented by hooks, 
and 6 labial vowels, written by ticks. The 6 hook 
vowels are 



Sound : 


a 


a 


Sign: 


u 


u 


Name: 


a,t 


a 



c e. n rt 

et e it I 

36 Size and form The normal form of a 
vowel hook is a deepend semicircle, about i . 
millimeter {-^ inch) in diameter and about ill 
millimeter deep. See enlarged illustration. 

The relative size of hooks and stems is important. Do not 
write hooks too large. 



24 Personal Shorthand 

37 Left and right motion Vowel hooks 
are distinguisht from each other chiefly by the mo- 
tion with which they are written, rather than by 
the direction in which they face or open. 

Left motion is counter-clockwise; and a 
curve or hook written with left motion is » j 
known as a left curve or hook. 

Right motion is clockwise; and a curve or ^— ^ 
hook written with right motion is known as a ' ) 
right curve or hook. 

This distinction is fundamental to all your short- 
hand writing. Master it thoroly. 

If you have trouble at first in remembering which motion is 
which, use the mnemonic sentence ' The dock is right ' to remind 
you that right motion is clockwise. 

38 Hook writing drill At this point prac- 
tice P S Ex 38-d, in which groups of 4 hooks are 

written beside single stems, thus: El jzm 13 

ItAJUj 

This drill will train your hand to form these smxall 
signs accurately and easily, and at the same time 
emphasize the distinction between left and right 
motion. 

39 Vowel sounds Be sure that you asso- 
ciate the right sound with each vowel sign from the 
beginning. If you have the slightest doubt or hesi- 
tation, turn back to § 10 and restudy the rest of 
Part I. 

Do not allow the name-sound values which the antiquated 
" Webster " notation assigns to e and I to mislead you. 



Hook vowels 25 

The vowel signs of Personal Shorthand are paird 
in strict accord with the true fonetic relations be- 
tween the sounds — an important factor in sim- 
phcity and legibility. 

Because of the true fonetic relations between paird sounds 
and signs, failure to shade distinctly the heavy vowel signs will 
rarely interfere with legibility. In all your practise writing, 
however, shade distinctly the heavy signs for the long vowels. 

Always use the regular fonetic names in prac- 
tising or referring to the vowels. Do not confuse 
the sound of a short vowel with its name. See §11. 

40 Practise At this point practise the 6 
hook vowels singly, in pairs, and in groups, speak- 
ing the name of the sound each time that you write 
the sign, and keeping constantly in mind the im- 
portant penmanship instructions of § 27-31. Use 
for this purpose P S Ex 40-d. 

Continue practise till you can meet fully the 
standard of the writing test following. 

41 Writing test This test line is to be 
written accurately, as directed in § 34, at least 5 
times in 30 seconds. Use for the purpose P S 
Ex 41-t. 

aa ee ii aa ee ii 

42 Writing words Words are written in 
Personal Shorthand, just as in longhand, by join- 
ing together the signs to be written, in the natural 
order in which their sounds occur in the word, with- 
out pausing or lifting the pen. 



26 Personal Shorthand 

Thus bit = I o — = Vt — pad = I u = Ir— - 

2 or more shorthand signs joind together in this 
manner are often known as an outline. 

No word ever requires a disjoind mark for its 
complete and accurate fonetic expression — a dis- 
tinctive feature of P S. 

43 Hook vowel joinings A hook joind 
without angle to a simple stem is said to be hookt 
to that stem. 

Thus, the vowel hook of pad above is hookt to p. The vowel 
hook of bit is joind but not hookt to b. 

No vowel is ever hookt to a following simple 
straight stem. This rule has no exceptions. Thus 

= I , never .y'K bat = t — , never }'\ , etc. 



tip _ 

Any vowel is hookt to a preceding stem when- 
ever possible, as shown in the sections following. 

44 Joining a & a To facilitate hookt join- 
ings, a,t or a, written always with left mo- <s '^ ^ 
tion, may be turnd to face in any of the 3» 

directions shown in the diagram, '^ u "* 

Only the 3 directions markt * will occur at this 
time. 

bag bag L dad dad __5 — 

cat kat \r— pa pa {, 



Hook vowels 27 

at or a may be deformd to slightly less than a 
half circle 



tack tak \ gap gap 



^ 



Initially (see § 43), or where completing the out- 
line would close the hook, a,t or a cannot be hookt. 

add ad i/— tap tap I 7iot 

Practise each shorthand form in this section at least 5 times. 

45 Joining e & e To facilitate good join- 
ings, et or e, written always with left motion, 
may be tipt slightly, as shown in the diagram, c 
Medially et is usually omitted. 

Because of the direction in which they face, et 
or e can seldom be hookt to any stem. 

ebb eb ' deck dek "^ 

bed bed L- gay ge "V^ 

To facilitate sharp angle joinings et or e may be 
deformd to slightly more than a half circle, the 
latter half of the hook being slightly extended 

1_ 



^m 


eg 


\ 


bait 


bet 


bake 


bek 


i. 


cake 


kek 



Practise each shorthand form in this section at least 5 times. 



3* 



28 Personal Shorthand 

46 Joining i & i To facilitate hookt join 
ings it or I, written always with right ^ n 
motion, may be turnd to face in any c 
direction, as shown in the diagram. '^ u '^* 

Only the 4 directions markt * will occur at this 
time. 

dip dip I tick tik \ 

deed did . key kl N^ 

it or I may be deformd to slightly less than a 
half circle 

pig pig J kit kit ^> — 

Initially, or where completing the outline would 
close the hook, it or i cannot be hookt. 

eat It « beat bit K — not ..-IL- 

Practise each sJwrthand form in this section at least 5 times. 

47 Vowel distinction Note that, regard- 
less of the direction in which they may face, it & I 
are unmistakably distinguisht from at & a, et & e, 
by the fundamental difference between right motion 
and left motion (see § 37). 

deed did :^_ compare dad dad ^— 

gig gig N " gag gag V,^ 

kit kit \ " cat kat X 

Practise each shorthand form in this section at least 5 times. 

48 Stem joinings 2 stems which join with- 



Hook vowels 29 

out angle are struck with a single unhesitating mo- 
tion. Where a light and a heavy stem join without 
angle, the heavy stem tapers to or from the point 
of joining. 

dead ded — — padded paded 




debt det ^ adapted adapted 

Practise each shorthand form in this section at least 5 times. 

49 Line of writing All shorthand forms 
rest on one natural line of writing, actual or as- 
sumed, according to one simple rule: 

The first stem written down or up rests on the 
line of writing; if there is none, the whole form 
rests on the line of writing. 

i_ ^. n. .'N. ,\^ _, 

bead cab tape ache keg edited 
Practise each shorthand Jorjn in this section at least 5 times. 

In all following sections (except exercises, for 
which measured performance standards are given) 
practise each shorthand form at least 5 times with- 
out further reminder. 

50 How to study word exercises Study 
all word exercises thruout the text according to 
this systematic plan. 

1 Read thru exercise complete; common spelling, fonetic 
spelling, and shorthand. 2 Cover printed columns with strip 
of cardboard and read shorthand column. 3 Cover shorthand 
column and write the shorthand forms for print words. 4 Lay 



30 Personal Shorthand 

text aside and read your own shorthand forms. Encircle any 
form that causes hesitation or uncertainty in reading. 5 Com- 
pare your shorthand forms with te.xt, and correct and practise 
any that are wrongly or poorly written. 

Repeat these 5 steps in order, 4 times or more, till you can 
read or write the whole exercise, without error or hesitation, 
within the time specified for each. 

Many students will find it profitable to repeat steps 2 and 3 
ten times or even more for each exercise. 

After reaching the standard set for each exer- 
cise, practise the corresponding exercises of P S Ex. 
51 Word exercise 20 words, to be practist 
as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately (step 2) in i minute 
Write the exercise accurately (step 3) in 2 minutes 
After reaching this standard, practise P S Ex 
5i-r&w. 



pay 


pe 


i 


paid 


ped 


u 


pick 


pik 


K 


bad 


bad 


u 


back 


bak 


k 


big 
take 


big 
tgk 




tea 


tl 


J 


day 


de 


— ^ 


date 


det 


_^ 



did 


did 


deep 


dip 


kept 


kept 


keep 


kip 


get 


get 


at 


at 


attack 


atak 


act 


akt 


aid 


gd 


it 


it 



1 



> 



52 


Consonants — 


sists of 




Sound: 


f V h ft 


Sign: 


) ) ( ( 


Name: 


ef ev eh eA 



Consonants — Group 2 31 

CONSONANTS — GROUP 2 (4) 

Group 2 Group 2 con- 

s z S 3 ^ j 

_ -^ ^ ^ -^ ^ 

es ez ef e^ eg ej 

If you have the slightest doubt as to the exact sound or name 
exprest by these fonetic print letters, refer at once to §10, 11. 

53 Size and form The normal length of a 
curvd stem, also known as a curve, is the same as 
a straight stem — about 4 millimeters or ^ inch. 

A light curve is written light thruout. A heavy 
curve is shaded normally near the middle only, 
tapering to either end. 

The normal curvature of a curvd stem is about 
90 degrees, or the curv^e of a quarter circle. 

Compare the straight and curvd stems of Groups i and 2, as 
groupt below by slope and shading. 

s z 

( I ) (1) =^ ^ ^\^ ^\^ 

hpf rtbv t d S k ^ 3 g j 

54 Names Use always the regular fonetic 
names in practising or referring to these consonants. 
See §11. 

The uniform fonetic names ev ez ej are preferable, 
for shorthand purposes, to the a b c names vl zi je; but 



32 Personal Shorthand 

the latter are not misleading, as each contains the right conso- 
nant sound. 

55 Pairing The lo consonant signs of Group 
2 are paird, like the 6 signs of Group i, in strict 
accord with the true fonetic relations between the 
sounds. See § 24. 

56 Practise At this point practise these 10 
stems singly, in pairs, and in groups as previously 
directed in § 27-32. Use for the purpose P S Ex 
56-d. Continue practise till you can meet fully the 
standards of the reading and writing tests following. 

57 Reading test 30 signs, to be read aloud, 
without hesitation or error, in not more than 30 
seconds. See § 33 for further instructions. 

>- ^^ C~^ 1^ ^v_ ) ( _ ) -^ (-^ 

58 Writing test This test line is to be 
written accurately, as directed in § 34, at least 6 
times in 30 seconds. Use for the purpose P S Ex 

58-t. 

fv hrt sz S3 QJ 

59 Like and unlike motion 2 curvd signs 
(either stems or hooks) are said to be written with 
like motion if both are written with left motion or 
both with right motion. 

2 curvd signs are said to be written with unlike 



Consonants — Group 2 33 

motion if one is written with left motion and the 
other with right motion. 

60 Hook vowel joinings No vowel is ever 
hookt to a following cur\'e of like motion. 

ditch di^ ^ , never /\^ ease Iz ^ — v never ^ 

A vowel may be hookt to a following curve of 
unlike motion. 

pace pes J—. edge ej '^ 

cage kej \^ ace es c— . 

Any vowel is hookt to a preceding stem when- 
ever possible. Examples are : 

Hookt to a preceding like motion stem 

shad Sad l,^^^ sip sip j* 

shack Sak V.^,,^ seat sit __^__ 

Hookt to a preceding unlike motion stem 
sap sap """^^ sheep Sip ^ 

sack sak I fat fat I— 

Hookt to preceding and following stems 

phase fez L-^ compare fez fez >->. 

The rounded instead of sharp joining shows the vowel un- 
mistakably in the few joinings of this type. 

Other curve joinings are: 



34 Personal Shorthand 

Vowel not hookt (compare § 44, 46) 
fit fit ^ — shabby Sabi ^ 

Vowel omitted (medial et — see § 45) 
fetch fcQ 1,,^ shed Sed V 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

61 Definitions The terms initial, medial, 
final, and semi-final, and the corresponding ad- 
verbs, will be found exceedingly convenient thruout 
your study of shorthand. 

The first sound of a word, or sign of an outline, 
is known as the initial sound or sign. 

The last sound of a word, or sign of an outline, 
is known as the final sound or sign. 

All sounds or signs between the first and last are 
known as medial. 

A sound or sign which is final except for a com- 
mon inflectional ending (such as -s -ed -ing 
-er -est etc) is known as semi-final. 

Semi-final sounds or signs are thus, strictly speaking, a special 
class of medial sounds or signs. 

62 Circle s z final Inflectional endings 
in -s -z or -ez are always written by a small 
final circle. 

The principal inflectional endings so represented are plurals, 
possessives, and the third person singular present of verbs. 

The final circle is written with left motion follow- 



Consonants — Group 2 35 

ing straight signs, and with Hke motion (that is, 
inside) following curvd signs. It is the smallest 
sign of Personal Shorthand, small enough to be 
written when necessary inside a vowel hook. 

As the examples following will show, the exact 
sound of this final circle is unmistakably determind 
after any consonant of Group i or 2, or any vowel. 

After the first 5 light consonants, pi tl ki ej eh, 
the suffix sound is always the light sound -s 
caps kaps \ chaffs ^afs ">i 

pats pats [ o baths bahs I 

tacks ,1 — >. L 

Hax ^^^^ ^ 

^ Note this use of smal' circle in writing x (= ks). See § 107. 

After the first 5 heavy consonants, hi di gi ev 
ejf, the suffix sound is always the heavy sound -z 
cabs kabz V calves kavz \- 

pads padz L-l bathes berfz J 

tags tag. -^ i 

After the last 6 (sibilant) consonants, es ez ef e^ 
eg ej, the suffix sound is always -ez 
gases gasez \y— t, fizzes fizez J 

ashes aSez \^ (garages) 

ditches di^ez *^ edges ejez "^ 

After any vowel sound, the suffix sound is always 

-z 

pays pez J, bays bez I 



36 Personal Shorthand 

63 Word exercise 30 words, to be practist 

as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in i min 15 sec 
Write the exercise accurately in 2 min 15 sec 
After reaching this standard, practise P 5 Ex 

63-r & w. 

pass pas Lr^ say se . — t 

base bes L^ safe sef ^ 

teach tlQ 1 save sev ^ 

days dez ^ sit sit ,__^ 

case kes ^V-. city siti 

Nv see 

gave g-ev %^ ^^^ si _^ 

give giv N shape Sep *S: 

gives givz \ checks Qeks ^ 

face fes i—^ cheap ^ip "^ 

fish fiS \(^^ chief 0f "^ 

feet fit I— effect efekt 

these ftiz vi^^ age gj '^ 

sat sat ' — ' — if if / 

set set ^"^ — easy izi /y— ; 

said sed ^-~- each Iq ) 



Tick vowels 37 

TICK VOWELS (5) 

64 Tick vowels The 6 tick vowels are 
Sound: 00 u o u u 

Sign: ' - ' ' - - 

Name: Gt § vt o ut it 

If you have the slightest doubt as to the exact sound or name 
exprest by these fonetic print letters, refer at once to § 10, 11. 
Note particularly the sound of u as in poor {not as in 
pure). With regard to pairing, and use of fonetic names, see 
also § 39. 

65 Size and form Vowel ticks are short 
straight lines, light and heavy, not more than ^ 
the length of a consonant stem — that is, about i 
millimeter or -^ inch. 

Vowel ticks may be written shorter than i millimeter if de- 
sired, but must not be written longer. 

66 Alternative forms Any tick must al- 
ways make an angle with any consonant stem, 
preceding or following. In the few cases where 
this is not possible an alternative form must be 
written. 

The alternative form of any tick vowel is a small 
double hook, written always with left motion, on the 
slope of the corresponding tick. 



These forms are known as the epsilon forms of the tick 
vowels, from their resemblance to the Greek letter e. 



448580 



38 Personal Shorthand 

While an epsilon form may be shaded to distinguish a heavy 
vowel, this is rarely if ever necessary in their infrequent use. 

Each half of an epsilon form is slightly smaller than a hook 
vowel, or about the diameter of the small circle. 

67 Practise At this point practise the 6 tick 
vowels, and the alternative epsilon forms, singly, 
in pairs, and in groups, as previously directed in 
§ 27-32, Use for this purpose P S Ex 67-d. Con- 
tinue practise till you can meet fully the standard 
of the writing test below. 

68 Writing test This test line is to be 
written accurately, as directed in § 34, at least 5 
times in 30 seconds. Use for this purpose P 5 Ex 
68-t. 

00 UO UU 00 uo uu 

69 Joining & The ticks for & may 
be written either up or down. 

Write the direction which gives the more acute 
angles, 
box boks I dog d&g ""V^ 

odd ©d ^ pop p0p K 

chalk Q0k ~> shot Sot v,^ 

Write the direction which falls outside rather 
than inside the curve of a curvd stem, 
socks soks ■ '%, jot J0t *>/-— 

Where neither of the preceding suggestions ap- 
plies, or they conflict, write the 9t tick down rather 
than up, the § tick up rather than down. 



Tick vowels 
\ sod 



39 



cog keg \ sod sed - — > 

pot pot J sought sot — ^ — 

Because the & ticks may be written either 
up or down, the epsilon form is almost never re- 
quired. 

faucet foset \—^__ compare foggy fogi I 

Look on the above statements as illustrations of common 
sense applied to forming facile and legible joinings, rather than 
as rules to be memorized. 



70 Joining u & 


Tick joinings 




shove Suv ^^ 
cud kud X, 


vote 


vot 


) 


dose 


dos 




Epsilon form joinings 








bud bud 1 


pose 


poz 


fc-^ 


gush guS \ 


joke 


jok 


\ 



Unlike the single hooks of the hook vowels (compare §43, 60), 
an epsilon form may be hookt to any following stem, as in bud, 
because of its distinctive shape. 

vt is more often omitted than any other tick 
vowel — about as often as the hook vowel et (com- 
pare §45). 

judge juj "V cup 



kup 



40 Personal Shorthand 

71 Joining u & u Tick joinings 



bush buS 



L goose gus V-^ 



Epsllon form joinings 
shook Suk L,^^^^ chewd ^ud ~\— ., 

72 * Final circle and tick vowels The final 
circle for plurals etc Is written after vowel ticks 
just as after straight stems: with left motion (com- 
pare § 62). 

toes toz — ^ chews quz u» 

After epsllon forms the final circle Is written by 
closing second half of epsllon sign to form circle. 

bows boz 1 shoes Suz ^ 

73 Initial circle and tick vowels Initial 
s- (but not Z-) may be written before o (rarely be- 
fore other vowel ticks) by the small circle; written 
always with left motion. 

sewed sod t soak sok \ 

74 Medial circle Medially the small circle 
may be written for es or ez without restriction — 
whenever the circle will give a better outline than 
stem es or stem ez. 

The medial circle is always written : 



Tick vowels 41 

I Inside a cune, whether stem or hook 



vest 


vest 


> 


cast 


1st 


vast 


vast 


), 


taste 


test 



2 Outside an angle, whether formd by stem or 
tick 

guest gest \ coast kost ^ 



J With left motion, when neither i nor 2 ap- 
plies 

test test — *i_ dust dust — = — 

75 Vowel words A word which contains only 
a vowel sound is written by the regular sign for that 
vowel. 

ah a o awe , 

This is so altogether obvious that it would not be mentiond 
did not such words form an awkward stumbling-block in so 
many other shorthand systems. 

The indefinite article, a-, written in fonetic print 
by its commoner unaccented pronunciation a, is 
written in shorthand by its less common accented 
pronunciation e. 

a 6(e) c 

This is because the sign for er is not ordinarilj^ used in 
shorthand. The vowel hook need not be shaded. 

Reme?nber to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 



42 



Personal Shorthand 



76 Vowel omission In some short and 
common words accented medial vowels other than 
et or vt may be omitted. Give special atten- 
tion to such words, which are markt with a ° in 
all following exercises of Part 2. 

77 Word exercise 40 words, to be practist 
as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in i min 20 sec. 
Write the exercise accurately in 2 min 40 sec. 
After reaching this standard, practise P 5 Ex 
77-r & w. 



past past 


>— 


°took 


tuk 


°put put 


L 


copy 


kopi 


best best 


i- 


caught 


ket 


° because bikoz 


L. 


cause 


kez 


°busy bizi 


u 


cut 


kut 


bought bot 


U- 


° could 


kud 


°both boh 


[ 


got 


got 


book buk 




°good 


gud 


taught t0t 


■ -» 


folks 


foks 


talk t0k 


\ 


°foot 


fut 


touch tUQ 


"^ 


food 


fud 



^ 



I- 



Wordsigns 



43 



thought 


het 


f 


thus 


itus 


u 


tho 


fto 


( 


those 


itoz 


u 


saw 


S0 


-^ 


°ship 


Sip 


^ 

i 


shop 


Sop 


show 


So 


° should 


Sud 


^ 



job job v| 

just just *^ — 

ask ask \ 

except eksept ^ 

issue iSu ^ 

ought ©t t 

off ©f ) 



us 

oh 
owe 



us 
o 



WORDSIGNS (6) 

78 Commonest words lo words — the of 
and to a in that it is I — make up over 
25% of all the words that you read or write. 100 
words, including these 10, make up over 50 %. The 
commonest words are thus of the greatest impor- 
tance for shorthand writing and deserv^e, and re- 
ceive, particular attention. 

79 Wordsigns Many of the commonest 
words of English are written in Personal Shorthand 
by a single sign. When this involves irregular ab- 
breviation, such as omitting an initial vowel, a final 
vowel, or a consonant, the outline is known as a 
wordsign. 



44 Personal Shorthand 

The word represented may be known as a sign- 
word. 

The wordsigns oi P S are few, simple, and defi- 
nite. Only 42 wordsigns, representing only 44 
words, make up over | of all the words you will 
write. Master them thoroly, as fast as they are 
given, and always use them in all your writing. 

80 How to study wordsigns Write at 
least 2 lines of- each wordsign, speaking the word 
aloud distinctly each time you write the sign. Then 
practise writing and reading the signs in alternate 
columns of shorthand and longhand, as directed in 
P S Exercises, page 33. 

The fonetic key which follows each signword 
shows by heavy-type letters the sounds actually 
represented by the wordsign. 



\ can kan 

) 



81 


10 word 


signs 




to 




to 


— 


do 




da 


1 


be 




bi 


»^ 


she 




Si 


\ 


go 




go 



) 



for for 

very veri 

*the fti 



* 



and & 



* These 2 signs, known as tick-the and tick-aud, are the only 
arbitrary wordsigns of Personal Shorthand. They are written 
for these 2 words, which make up over 10 % of all your writing, 
just as rh is written for the in fonetic print, or & for and in 
common print. 



Wordsigns 45 

In size and form these ticks are identical with the vowel ticks 
for tit and ut, which do not occur alone, and when joind will 
never be confused with the wordsigns. 

Note that tick-the is vertical like stem cxt, and tick-and hori- 
zontal like stem dr. 

Practise these wordsigns thoroly, as directed in 
§ 80. Use for this purpose P S Ex 8i-s. 

82 Joining tick-the Tick-the may be joind 
to a preceding or following word, provided that 
the joining forms an acute angle, a right angle, or 
an obtuse angle on the back of a curve. Otherwise 
it Is written by Itself. 

Tick-the should be joind — 
Preferably to a preceding particle 

and the -, to the , for the / 

at the „ — , if the / 

Otherwise to a following noun or other word with 
which it grammatically belongs 

the city « — = — , 

Or to a preceding verb 

do the — I give the \ 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

83 Punctuation All punctuation marks ex- 
cept - ( ) — - may be written as in longhand. 
This includes ,;:.?!"" 

Leave double the usual space between words after 
, ; : and triple the usual space after . ? ! . 



46 Personal Shorthand 

Write the hyphen double and slanting upward -^ , 
parentheses double the normal length of a stem and 
projecting below the line of writing / \ , the dash 



by 2 dots, like a colon turnd on its side . . . 

Indent paragraphs as in longhand; or if preferd 
mark the end of a paragraph by writing a small 
cross X instead of the usual period. 

Commas are usually omitted in shorthand. If written they 
should be placed below the line of writing — just as in longhand. 

84 Capitals Capital letters may be desig- 
nated by the capsign ^ , placed under the sign or 
outline to be capitalized. It is never necessary to 
mark obvious capitals, such as the beginning of 
sentences, or proper names occurring in an address 
or salutation. The capsign is used chiefly to mark 
proper names occurring in the body of a sentence. 

Jack jak ^V Booth buh I 

/^ \ ,/! 

Fonetic print uses for capitals heavy letters otherwise similar 
to the small letters, as shown above. 

85 How to study reading exercises Study 
all reading exercises thruout the text according to 
this systematic plan. For most effective results — 

1 Read exercise aloud slowly, making sure that you under- 
stand each outline. 2 Copy exercise in shorthand, with care- 
ful penmanship but writing as rapidly as you can form accurate 
outlines. 3 Read your own notes, aloud. 4 Write exercise 
in shorthand from print key in P S Ex. 5 Verify and correct 
your shorthand forms by text exercise. Practise repeatedly the 



Wordsigns 



47 



correct forms for any outlines written incorrectly. Be sure to 
understand reason for correction. 

Repeat steps 4 5 3 in order till you can read or write 
the whole exercise without error or hesitation. 



86 Reading exercise 

1 ^^Kk- 




87 How to study writing exercises For 

most effective results study all writing exercises 
thruout the text according to this systematic plan. 

1 Write exercise in shorthand, with careful penmanship. 
Stop and think, if necessary, before beginning to write each 
outline, but never allow the pen to pause while writing an 
outline. This is important. 2 Read your own notes, aloud, 
revising any shorthand forms which you think incorrect. 
3 Verify and correct >our outlines by shorthand key in P 5 
Ex. Practise repeatedly the correct forms for any outlines 
written incorrectly. Be sure to understand reason for correction. 
Repeat these 3 steps in order till you can read or write the 
whole e.xercise without error or hesitation. 



48 Personal Shorthand 

88 Writing exercise 

1 Take back the cap and it can be fitted. 2 Jack did 
the job to get cash to pay for the gift. 3 The judge can give 
us the date for the case. 4 Get the check for the oats and 
cash it at the shop. 5 The city can assess the tax to pay the 
debt. 6 Pack the bag and take it to the ship at the dock. 
7 Go and see if the boat can be bought cheap. 

89 Dictation prac^-.ise Altho many uses of 
P 5 do not involve writing from dictation (e g, 
personal correspondence, original composition, notes 
on reading, etc) no method of practise is more 
valuable for developing practical shorthand ability. 
Practise each writing, and reading, exercise of the 
text from dictation, as directed below 

(Reading exercises may be dictated from print key in P S Ex 
if your dictator does not know PS.) 

Do not begin dictation practise of any exercise in Part 2 or 
Part 3 till you can write it accurately, as directed by § 85, 87. 

The dictator should read always a little faster than you can 
write accurate outlines easily. This rate will be very slow at 
first, but will increase rapidly. 

Read hack your notes to the dictator, each time that you 
write them. Make a careful typewritten or longhand transcript 
of your last notes of each exercise, to be compared with the 
original print version. 

Dictation standards (compare PS Ex, page 15) are given for 
each reading or writing exercise, in P 5 Ex. You should meet 
these moderate, gradually increasing standards for each group 
of exercises before proceeding with your further study. 



Consonants - — Group 3 49 

CONSONANTS — GROUP 3 (7) 

90 Consonants — Group 3 Group 3 con- 
sists of 

Sound: n 13 m r 1 w 3^ h 
Sign: — -^/^/^-^ ^ c^ d^ 

Name: en erj me re le we ye he 

If you have the slightest doubt as to the exact sound or name 
exprest by these fonetic print letters, refer at once to § 10, 11. 

91 Size and form The normal over-all 
length of each of these stems is about 4 millimeters 
or ^ inch — the same as all stems of Groups i and 2. 

The size and form of the preceding hooks of we 
ye he is the same as the vowel hooks (see § 36) 
— about I millimeter in diameter and about i mil- 
limeter deep. 

The right diagonal stems we ye he are al- 
ways written upward; we re le are normally 
written upward, but may be written downward to 
secure better joinings. 

These 3 variable stems are not an exception to § 22, for the 
upward direction is left to right, and the downward direction 
is top to bottom. 

The slope of right diagonal stems written up- 
ward is about 30 degrees above horizontal ; written 
downward, about 60 degrees above horizontal. 

This is a natural tendency which increases the facility of 
writing, and requires no special study or efTort. 



50 Personal Shorthand 

92 Names The first 2 stems, en and erj, are 
named like Group 2 preceding. The 6 upstrokes 
are named uniformly me re le we ye he. 

Never use the misleading and unfonetic a b c names of 
w y h. See §11. 

For convenient distinction the 3 variable stems, 
m r 1, are named when written downward 

ml rl ll. 

The names mg re Ig are general, applying to the sounds, or 
the fonetic print letters, or to the signs considered without 
regard to direction. The names ml ri ll refer specifically to the 
signs written downward. 

93 Grouping of signs None of the 8 con- 
sonant sounds of Group 3 form true fonetic pairs 
like the 8 pairs of Groups i and 2. The signs for 
en and erj are paird for important practical 
shorthand reasons because n and rj are so like 
in sound and so unlike in occurrence that no confu- 
sion will result. 

r) is the only consonant sound which never begins a word or 
a syllable, and occurs chiefly in the inflectional ending -ig. 

The 3 sounds represented by the hookt signs 
never end a word or a syllable. 

94 Practise Practise these 8 stems, singly 
and in groups, as previously directed in § 27-32. 
Use for the purpose P S Ex 94-d. Continue prac- 
tise till you can meet fully the standards of the 
reading and writing tests folloAving. 

95 Reading test 32 signs, to be read aloud 



Consonants — Group 3 51 

without hesitation or error, in not more than 30 
seconds. See § 33. 




96 Writing test This test line is to be 
written accurately, as directed in § 34, at least 7 
times in 30 seconds. Use for the purpose P S 
Ex 96-t. 

n r) m r 1 w y h 

97 Preceding, following, and free hooks 

A hook which joins a following stem without angle 
is known as a preceding hook. 

w c^ y c^ h c^ ace <^.^-^ 

A hook which joins a preceding stem without 
angle is known as a following hook. 

tin — 3_^ meet -^^^ — chat "\ key "\ 

A hook which joins neither a preceding nor a 
following stem without angle is known as a free 
hook. 

ash V_ feet \ gay "N. ah ^ 

98 Hook n n is sometimes exprest by a 
large following hook, written with right motion 
following straight stems, and with like motion (in- 
side) following curves. 



52 Personal Shorthand 

Note that hook n conforms to the motion of a preceding curvd 
stem (like the final circle — see § 62) instead of preserving one 
invariable motion like the hook vowels. 

A large hook is about 50% larger than a small hook — that 
is, about 1.5 millimeters or -^ inch diameter. P 5 Ex 98-d 
gives 2 drills to accustom your hand and eye to the exact size. 

Write the suffix -n regularly with hook en. Other 
limited uses will be given later. 

deepen dipn J sicken sikn S 

cheapen Qlpn j) lengthen leqhn -^^'^T' 

gotten getn ^ lessen lesn >^ 

shaken Sekn ^ fallen feln jJ^ 



99 S for ig, etc Medially or finally, after a 
consonant, ej may be written for eg, or es for ej, 
to secure more facile (that is, like motion or acute 
angle) joinings. 

The principal applications of this rule are following en or re. 
Note the markt similarity of these sounds in such occurrences. 

parch parg 

church c;urg 

wrench reng 

In a very few words, such as fresh (§ 212), 
eg may be written for eJ, or ej for e^. 

Initially, e/, ej, eg, and ej must each be written 
strictly in accord with the basic alfabet. 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 





Consonants — Group 3 53 

100 Vowel omission Initial or final vowels 
are never omitted in Personal Shorthand (except 
in a few specific wordsigns). 

Accented medial vowels (that is, the vowels of 
accented syllables) are sometimes omitted, about 
as follows — 

a et or vt usually, except in short words not 
of common occurrence. 

b Other vowels in some short and common words 
markt with a ° in the word exercises, as noted 
in § 76. e and o are more often omitted than 
other long vowels. 

c Any vowel in long outlines which are unmis- 
takable without the omitted vowel. 

Unaccented medial vov/els are usually omitted, 
where the remaining outline is clear and explicit, 
unless insertion of the vowel relieves an obscure 
joining. 

101 Word exercises 40 words, to be prac- 
tist as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in i minute. 
Write the exercise accurately in 2 minutes. 
After reaching this standard practise P 5 Ex 
loi-r & w. 

This group of exercises deserves particularly careful study, 
for it consists of 80 of the 500 commonest words of English. 



54 

"believe 
come 

"thank 

"think 

"there 
them 

"their 
some 

"shall 

"sure 

° charge 

"name 
man 
men 
many 
made 
make 
me 
much 

"more 



Personal Shorthand 



biliv 

kum 

hagk 

hirjk 

rtar 

ftem 

fier 

sum 

Sal 

Sur 

Carj 

nem 

man 

men 

meni 

med 

mek 

ml 

muQ 

mor 



1^ 



KJ 

V 

r 

c 
c 



/7 



mornmg 
° large 
"Httle 
"look 

way 
""with 
° women 

war 

were 

world 
"would 
"woman 

her 
"whole 

after 

an 

on 

or 

other 

over 



mornir) 

larj 

litl 

luk 

we 

wid 

wimen 

w©r 

wur 

wurld 

wud 

wuman 

hur 

hoi 

aftar 

an 

©n 

©r 

ijrfer 

over 



^Z^ 

^ 






V 






Consonants — Group 3 55 

102 Wordsigns 5 wordsigns, to be studied 
and practlst as directed by § 80. Use P 5 Ex 102-s. 



c^ we 
^ he 

o^ you 



wi 
hi 

yu 



may me 
they He 



103 Short forms Study and practise thoroly 
the somewhat irregular short forms for these 6 
very common words: 



Special use of final circle 

this itis C was 

Special use of hook en 
then rten C one 

Special omission of initial he 
him him r/^ here 



W0Z 



wun 



hir 



^ 



^ 



104 Frases Wordsigns and a few other short 
and common words are sometimes joind together 
in writing short and common frases. General 
rules will be given in § 117. Meantime study and 
practise the following: 

I to be . 



105 Reading exercise 

as directed by § 85. 



to do /^ may be 
Study and practise 



56 Personal Shorthand 




106 Writing exercise Study and practise 
as directed by ^ ^7. 

1 After the work at the church was finisht, we were ready 
to go home. 2 They were sure to be at the dinner after the 
matinee. 3 He ought to be ready to come with them to 
the bank today. 



SUPPLEMENTARY SIGNS (8) 

107 c q X You have completed the basic 
consonant alfabet, with no signs for c, q, or x. 
This is because the sounds sometimes exprest by 
these letters are already represented. 

C occurs for the sound of k, s, S, or q: 



cat kat 

chemist kemist 



city siti 
cent sent 



musician miiziSan 
church Qur^ 



Q occurs only in the letter combination qu; 
sounded nearly always kw, very rarely k: 

quick kwik | request rikwest | quay kl 



Supplementary signs 57 

X occurs for the sounds ks, gz, or z: 
extra ekstra text tekst I example egzampl 
tax taks exact egzakt | xylophone zdlofon 

Such words are of course written by the appro- 
priate shorthand signs, disregarding the common 
spelling. 

108 Consonant difthongs 2 consonant 
sounds which occur in the same syllable, both pre- 
ceding the vowel, blend into a single compound 
sound known as a preceding consonant difthong. 

sp- pr-, pi-, tw-, as heard in speak, pray, play, twm, are 
preceding consonant difthongs. 

2 consonant sounds which occur in the same 
syllable, both following the vowel, blend into a 
single compound sound known as a following con- 
sonant difthong. 

-ts, -dz, -nt, -nd, as heard in gets, needs, rent, land, are 
following consonant difthongs. 

Such compounds are an important and character- 
istic feature of English, of great usefulness in short- 
hand. Systematic compound signs for the more 
important groups will be given in Part 3. Only the 
'w- series will be studied in Part 2. 

The notation 'w- is to be understood as expressing consonant- 
w8-vowel; the apostrophe marking the place of any one of the 
7 consonants (see §111 following) which may occur before we, 
and the hyphen marking the place of the vowel of the syllable. 
The group may be referd to simply as the wg series. 

Similarly, -'s is to be understood as vowel-consonant-es, and 
may be referd to as the {following) es series. 



58 Personal Shorthand 

109 hw- The consonant difthong commonly 
speld wh, as in when or wheat, is in fact pronounced 
hw, as you will recognize by pronouncing slowly 
hwen or hwit. This compound, the most fre- 
quently occurring preceding consonant difthong in 
English, is exprest by a single sign o^ (fonetic 
name hwe) ; like we except that the preceding hook 
is large instead of small. 

See § 98, and P S Ex 98-d, for exact size of large hook. 
Practise 2 lines or more of we and hwe alternately. 

whey hwe c-^ whisper hwispar c^ , 

whip hwip o^ wheel hwil c--^ 

whittle hwitl o""^ wharf hwerf c^-*^ 

In such words as whole or who (hoi, hu), hwe is, of course, 
not used. 

110 kw- Initially only, the common com- 
pound kw- is written by the special sign ^ 
(fonetic name kwe). Medially or finally, write the 
separate stems ki-we. 

quit kwit <r^ quote kwot 

queen kwin tf"^--" request rikwest 
queer kwlr <i^ equal ikwal ^t^ 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

111 The *w- series The sound of we 
blends with 7 different consonants in English to 
form preceding consonant dif thongs: 




Supplementary signs 



59 



Difthong 
As in 

Difthong 
As in 



tw- dw- kw- gw- 

twelve dwell quick guano 
hw- sw- hw- 

thwart sweet wheat 



hw- you have studied in § 109; kw- in § no. 
sw- you will learn to write, in § 161, with circle es 
preceding stem we. The remaining 4 dif thongs, of 
which only tw- is at all important, are written al- 
ways by normal joining of the separate stems of 
the basic alfabet. 



twig twig 
twist twist 
tweed t\Aid 




dwell 

guano 

thwart hwort 




112 un- Initially only, shaded n expresses 
the very common prefix un-. This sign cannot be 
misread r) because rj never begins a word in Eng- 
lish, and initial vowels are never omitted (see §100). 

The word English, for example, is pronounced *ir)gliS, and 
the initial *i must be written. 



untold untold 
unread unred ^_- 



unhappy unhapi ^^-^^ 
unheard unhurd v_<='^ 



The word or prefix under is written more briefly than by use 
of this sign (see § 192). 

113 a The unstrest neutral vowel a (fonetic 
name dr) is useful and important in fonetic print, 



6o 



Personal Shorthand 



but need never be written in shorthand. Where 
strict fonetic accuracy is desired for special pur- 
poses, the light tick ^ (or the corr-esponding 
epsilon form «,) may be written for ar. In all 
ordinary writing the following rules will suffice: 

Initially, write a for a. 



adapt adapt I against egenst ^V_i> 

Finally, write a for a. 
quota kwotB ^ ^ opera ©pare \y' 

Medially, a may always be omitted. In the 
few cases, chiefly in double vowel occurrences (see 
§ 1 34) , where you may wish to write medial a, write 
the vowel (usually u, a, or a) which most nearly 
expresses the deliberate or oratorical pronunciation 
of the word. 

114 Word exercise 20 words, to be practist 
as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 30 seconds. 
Write the exercise accurately in i minute. 
After reaching this standard practise P S Ex 
114-r & w. 



"between bitwin l—,^^^ 
twenty twent 
twelve twelv 




quickly kwikli <r\ 
° quality kwoliti (^2—, 
° favor fever / 



Supplementary signs 



6i 



"soldiers soljerz ^<. ? 



soon 
' wish 



sun 
wis 



year yir c^ 

° where hwar c-"'"^^ 

whether hwertar <>^^t^ 

when hwen o-^ 



wheat 


hwit 


what 


hwet 


either 


liiar 


again 


agen 


away 


awe 


until 


until 




'c^ 



unless unles "^^^ 



115 Wordsigns lo wordsigns, to be studied 
and practist as directed by § 80. Use P S Ex 115-s. 



of 


0V 


all 


el 


are 


ar 


will 


wil 


have 


hav 



in 


in 


no 


no 


so 


so 


*is 


iz 


his 


hiz 


*as 


az 


has 


haz 



* These are the only 2 wordsigns oi P S that represent 2 
distinct words. (Most shorthand systems have many such 
signs, representing 2 and even 3 words.) The 2 words are, in 
each case, so like in sound and so unlike in occurrence that no 
confusion will result. 



116 Wordsign derivatives Note special 
use of hook en in forming derivatives of these 4 
"wordsigns. 



62 Personal Shorthand 

been bin J gone gen ^ 

done dun ^ known non ^^ 

Study and practise these outlines thoroly. 

117 Erasing Wordsigns, and a few other 
short and common words, are sometimes joind 
together in writing short and common frases. Such 
joining is known as f rasing. 

Frasing serves 2 distinct purposes. 1 To increase facility — 
by eliminating the unwritten stroke or pen lift between words, 
which takes more time and effort than a corresponding written 
stroke. 2 To increase legibility — by providing a distinctive 
outline for the frase. Rightly used, frasing is thus of double 
value. Too much frasing, however, subtracts from legibility 
much more than it adds to facility. In P S frase too little 
rather than too much 

Most frases consist of 2 words only. A few 
contain 3 words. A useful frase must he short and 
common. 

Joinings between the words of a frase follow the 
same rules as joinings between the signs of a word. 
Do not frase words unless they form a facile and legible 
outline. 

To insure ease as well as certainty of reading, 
do not frase words if the resulting frase outline sug- 
gests a common word outline. 

Till these limitations are thoroly understood, do not write 
frases other than those given in the text, which are amply suffi- 
cient for general use. You will learn in Part 4 (§ 328) how to 
form frases of special importance in your own writing. 



Supplementary signs 63 

118 Frases Study and practise the following: 



-f of the 


? 


in the 


^^ 


on the 


^ of a 


2 


in a 


."-^ 


on a 


p as the 


--—"J 


*is the 


c^ 


was the 


e as a 


--^ 


is a 


c^ 


was a 


■c and a 


e 


to a 


x/' ^ 


at a 


^ will be 


M 


shall be 


y-\ 


would be 


u have the 


J 


have been 


J 


has been 


* After s or z, or 


before 


n or r) (un-), 


tick-the may be struck 


upward. 











119 Reading exercise Study and practise 
as directed by § 85, 89. For key see P S Ex 1 19-k. 




64 Personal Shorthand 

120 Writing exercise Study and practise 
as directed by § 87, 89. For key see P S Ex 
i2o-k. 

1 Let me know whether you will be ready to examine the 
shop where the work is to be done. 2 His work has never 
compeld him to remain at the bank for very much of the day. 
3 This is the way to do the job as it ought to be done 4 The 
men at the morning meeting must have left soon after they ate 
their lunch, for they were gone when we got there. 



DIFTHONGS (9) 

121 Difthongs A difthong is composed of 
2 simple vowel sounds which blend into a single 
syllable. 

The 4 difthong letters of the fonetic print alfabet each sug- 
gest clearly the simple vowel sounds which form the difthong. 
Thus: 

The difthong a is formd by a and I 

The difthong is formd by and I 

The difthong ii is formd by 1 and u 

The difthong ca is formd by a and u 

The signs for the 4 vowel difthongs complete 
the basic 40 sound alfabet of Personal Shorthand. 

Sound: d ii di 

Sign: M (^ A ^ 

Name: d S ii ai 

The name of a vowel difthong is its sound alone. 



Difthongs 65 

122 Size and form The difthong signs, 
known as tick angles or diamond points, are formd 
by 2 light ticks making a sharp angle (always less 
than 30 degrees). 

Both ticks of a and ii, and the shorter ticks 
of and di, are the length of a tick vowel — about 
I millimeter or 2^ inch. The second tick of & 
and the first tick of m are each about half again 
longer than this, in order to begin or end at the 
same level as the shorter tick. 

Either tick of any difthong angle may be curvd 
outward, as shown in sections following, in order 
to secure a more facile joining. 

123 Grouping The difthong sounds arc all 
long and therefore form no fonetic short and long 
pairs like the simple vowels. It will help some 
students to note that: 

The signs for the 2 difthongs which end in i 
open upward, while the signs for the 2 difthongs 
which end in u open downward. 

The 2 upright signs correspond to the a b c 
name-sounds of i and u, while the sloping signs 
correspond to sounds always speld with 2 or m^ore 
letters. 

124 Practise Practise these 4 signs, singly 
and in groups, as previously directed in § 27-32. 
Use for the purpose P 6* Ex 124-d. Continue 
practise till you can meet fully the standard of 
the writing test following. 



66 Personal Shorthand 

125 Writing test This test line is to be 
written accurately, as directed in § 34, at least 5 
times in 30 seconds. Use for the purpose P S 
Ex 125-t. 

d ll <U d Ll dl 

126 Joining a. The normal joining of d 
involves no distortion. 

ripe rdp ^^ aisle dl ^ 

shine Sdn V,,^ tie td — ^ 



The first tick of d may be curvd outward; 
usually after pi bt eg ej. 

bite bdt l^ — china Qdna ""X — ? 

If the second tick of d is overlapt by a following 
rl (or rarely ejt), the resulting jog is unmistakable. 

quire kwdr ^ writhe rdrf y\ 

Before es ez or me the second tick of d disappears. 
ice ds V-— X dime ddm — y^ 

rise rdz y^"^ rhyme rdm ^^ 

In the word by (or buy) and its compounds 
only, the jirst tick of d disappears. 

by bd I thereby itarbd k/\ 



Difthongs 67 

127 Joining The normal joining of d 
involves no distortion. 

coin ken %-—- joi^i jein ""X-^ 

Either tick of d may be curvd outward, to im- 
prove the angle of joining. 

noise noz ^— #- — * foil fel /-^ 

choice Q0s \^ — - voice ves /„— . 

Neither tick of & is ever allowd to overlap any 
stem or disappear. 

128 Joining ii The normal joining of ii 
involves no distortion. 

cure kiir \^/^ view vii \ 

beauty biiti V , assume asum ,r~w^ 

Either tick of ii may be curvd outward, but this 
is very rarely necessary. 

fugue fiig A- whew hwii ^^y-^ 

After en le or he only, the first tick of ii disap- 
pears. 

renew rinii y lieu lii .^ 

numeral niimaral - — /Z^ humor hiimar tr^"^ 



68 Personal Shorthand 

129 Joining <u The normal joining of ai 
involves no distortion. 



4^ 

Either tick of ai may be curvd outward. 



gown g^m v^^ rouse rdiz 

vow vdi i^ loud Idid A — 



noun 



ndin v_^c_- mouth mdih 



f 




In the 3 words now how house and their 
compounds oyily, the first tick of di disappears. 

now ndi — y however hdievar <r-^^ 

nowadays ndiadez -—-i—^ house hdis 

how hdi <^ housewife hdiswdf, 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

130 Incomplete difthong signs Note that 
in each of the few cases in which either tick of a 
difthong angle is supprest, the adjoining stem is 
so nearly parallel to the omitted tick that it may 
be considerd to overlap it. Compare 

nd ds nil us 

Do not, however, change the length or shading of 
the stem because of the omitted tick. 

131 Final circle and difthongs The final 



Difthongs 69 

circle for plurals etc (see § 62) is written always 
outside the dif thong sign. 

ties tdz — ^ views vliz \ 

toys t0z — 70 vows vdiz \. 

132 Initial circle and difthongs Initial 
s- (but not Z-) must be WTitten before a and 0, 
and may be written before u and di, by the circle, 
written always outside the difthong sign. 

soil sol 9--^ 

sue sli »i or - — a 

sour sdir o^ or -— -v?-^ 

circle and difthongs The 

medial circle for s or z is written before or after 
any difthong sign according to the general rules 
of § 74; that is, 1 Inside a curv^e, 2 Outside an 
angle, 3 With left motion. 



ensign ensdn 
horizon hordzan 
consume kensiim 

134 Double vowels 

thong sounds occur together, write the usual 
signs for each in order. 

This simple and obvious method would hardly be mentiond 
did not other shorthand systems resort to irregular, confusing, 
and indefinite makeshifts to write such words. 



site 


Sdt -^r- 


scythe 


Sdfl ( 


sigh 


Sd "V 


133 


Medial 





70 Personal Shorthand 

With regard to the neutral vowel a see § 113. 

via vda ^ laity leiti ...-^ — > 

violet vdolet <L/~' aerial eiriel <r,^y 

naive naiv ) oasis 

mania menia /^ — ^ iron 

medieval midiival /^'^'^ iota dota vt o 

An unstrest second vowel is omitted usually 
before r and often before 1. 

lower loar .,y^^^ vowel vdjel \yf 

In a few words a hook vowel is hookt to a pre- 
ceding tick or difthong angle — the only case in 
which a tick joins any other sign without a distinct 
angle. 

continually kontinyueli V_. — a_^ ruin ruin /^ 

Noah no8 — t, ow^ng oir) x_^ 

For interchangeable use of u and yu (or yu) 
see § 137. 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

135 Word exercise 20 words, to be practist 
as directed by § 50, till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 30 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in i minute. 

After reaching this standard practise P 5 Ex 
135-r & w. 



Difthongs 



71 



power 


pdier 


time 


tdm 


down 


ddin 


four 


for 


new 
knew 


nil 


must 


must 


most 


most 


my 


md 


might 


mdt 


real 


rial 



u 



> 



/^ 



^ 



right 
write 




136 Alternative vowels In a few sound 
combinations, specially before r, it is sometimes 
hard to tell which of 2 alternative vow^el sounds is 
actually pronounced. Obviously, if the sounds are 
so similar as to cause hesitation in writing either 
will be recognized without hesitation in reading; 
and the more facile sign may generally be written 
without further consideration. In many cases the 
signs are almost as similar as the sounds. The 
principal cases are illustrated below. 



a, or a 

This occurs chiefly before f or s; also h, sometimes n. 

laugh: laf — ^ , laj -^ ask: ask \ , ask \ 



']2 Personal Shorthand 

a or e before r 

The vowel sound heard in pair, there, air is between a and 
e in quality. P S, following the Revised Scientific Alfabet, 
writes a; many shorthand systems write e. The alternative 
forms with e will be legible if preferd. 



share : Sar K,^ , Jer ^ wear : war c^^ , wer c^ 

Note that in a few words a or e occurs before r unmodified. 
carry kari \r^ merry meri ^^ 

a or 9 

These 2 sounds, quite distinct in British pronunciation, are 
in American pronunciation almost identical, a, however, sel- 
dom occurs except before r; seldom occurs before r. 

The simplest rule, when in doubt, is to write a where the com- 
mon spelling has a; where the common spelling has o. The 
principal exceptions to this rule occur following w. 

car kar \r^ forest ferest 

palm pam {f watch wqq 

Unstrest i 

The unstrest vowel of initial syllables speld he- de- re- etc, 
or final syllables speld -age, is often i where the spelling suggests 
I or e, or e : and the correct vowel, in the very few cases where 
such unstrest vowels are written, will often make the better 
joining. 



secure sikiir \v^ carnage karlj Xr-'"^ 

rejoice rljeis -^"""V— ^ image imij ^y^'^ 



Difthongs 73 

9 or before r 
This distinction is seldom important. 

cord kerd \^ — ford ford ),. — 
corn kern \/" — ' core kor X,/-- 



u or u 

Some occurrences are unmistakable. 

booty buti L — ^ beauty biitl (, ^ 

In other cases careful pronunciation must be the guide. 
chew qu "X due dii \ 

Obviously a mistake in writing such words is neither more 
nor less important than a mistake in pronouncing them. 

Supprest r 

One alternative pronunciation requires a word of warning 
in some localities — the suppression of r, particularly when 
final or preceded by a. As long as such pronunciations are 
not generally accepted, legibility demands insertion of the r in 
shorthand forms. If your pronunciation tends to mislead you, 
let the spelling, in this instance, be your guide. 

far far I not fa 2 



near nir -— ->^ not nia ^— ^a 

sailor seler /^ not sgia \^ 

arms armz /^ compare amz y^ 
See also §13, on page 15. 



74 Personal Shorthand 

137 yu and u yu (or yu) and ii may be 

written interchangeably, without restriction, ini- 
tially, medially, or finally. 

The strict fonetic distinction between yu and ii is simple 
and invariable: yu always begins a word or syllable, and \x 
never does. For practical shorthand purposes this distinction 
may be ignored. 

As y is more often foUowd by u than by all other 
vowels combined, the u tick may usually be omitted 
after y. Write whichever sign, y or ii, gives the 
more facile joinings. 

unite yundt <-^^^~^ value valyu i^ 
usual yujual ^-^"^ continue kentinyu V_.— ^t_^ 
user yuzar ^ — ^ pupils piipilz [^[J 

Before en y will almost always be more facile 
than ii. 



tune tun __,^^^-^ union yunyan 

Remember to practise all shorthand forms at least 5 times. 

138 Wordsigns 5 wordsigns, to be studied 
and practist as directed by § 80. Use P S Ex 138-s. 



1 


up 


up 


t 


than 


rlan 


"^ 


which 
who 


hwi? 
hu 


s 


any 


eni 



Difthongs 75 

139 Wordsign derivatives The following 
simple grammatic derivatives of wordsigns are 
written by adding regular affixes. 

goes goz X, going goig V-^ 

does duz o doing duiq — ^^ 

knows noz ^_s> knowing noig -— w 

whose huz ^ having havig ^^ — 

whom hum y~ being biig v^ 

ago ego *\ willing wilig -""^"^ 

Study and practise these outlines thoroly. 

140 Frases Study and practise the following : 

— => to have c^ we have ^J' you have 

C/ there are c^ ^ we are ^ ^ you are 

'-'^^ one of the .^ are the — ^ will the 



^Compare were c^^"^ -Compare year 



A personal pronoun is sometimes joind to a follow- 
ing auxiliary verb, or verbal frase, provided that 
the resulting outline meets the requirements of 
§ 117- 



76 Personal Shorthand 

^ I have "^ I can ^^ I may 

uTl am ^ I will \J I shall 

"3 I have been ^ he has been ■^'"i.y) we shall be 

141 Reading exercise Study and practise as 
directed by § 85, 89. For key see P 5 Ex 141-k, 




142 Writing exercise Study and practise 
as directed by § 87, 89. "For key see P S Ex 142-k. 

1 I am quite sure you will be able now to show the new men 
just how to do this work. 

2 Early to bed and early to rise, 

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 



BASIC ALFABET REVIEW (10) 

143 Review The basic alfabet makes up 
the greater part of all your shorthand writing, and 
forms the foundation for all the rest. If you slight 



'Basic alfabet review 77 

the foundations at this time your later work will 
become harder and harder, till you grow discouraged 
and quit. Master the foundations thoroly at this 
point and each later lesson will make your work 
easier, till at the end you are writing good shorthand 
and writing it well. No other study will be more 
profitable than a thoro review of Part 2 before 
proceeding to Part 3. 

144 How to review Read thru each section 
following, then look up and restudy each section 
referd to, before proceeding to the next section of 
this review. Leave no uncertainty behind you. Be 
sure that you have masterd each section before 
proceeding to the next. Repeat such drills or 
exercises as are necessary to confirm your mastery 
of each section. 

On this review you should, of course, be able to do much 
better than the performance standards set for the earlier exercises. 

145 Shorthand penmanship No part of 
your study is more important. Review, and keep 
constantly in mind, § 27-31 inclusive. 

Review also at this time line of writing, §49; punctuation, 
§ 83; and capitals. § 84. 

146 Basic alfabet Sounds, signs, fonetic 
names, size, and form: §21, 22, (32); 35, 36; 
52, 53; 64, 65; 90, 91; 121, 122. 

If you have the slightest doubt concerning sounds or fonetic 
names, restudy thoroly Part i before proceeding further. 



78 



Personal Shorthand 



147 Pairing drill Study and practise, as 
directed by § 32, this 4 line drill for distinguishing 
clearly the light and heavy paird sounds of the 
basic alfabet. Use P 5 Ex 147-d. 

1 ptkfhsS^, bdgvrtzgj 

2 ngmrlwyh 

3 aeiouu, aeieou 4 a 4 u. 61 

148 Alfabet review chart Test and perfect 
your knowledge of the basic alfabet by use of this 
chart as directed below. 



/ 




— 


\ 


\ 




1 


y 


— 


— - 


v_ 


N^ 


( 


( 


r 


--- 


-- 


^ 


^ 


) 


) 


^ 


- 


- 


- 


' 


1 


1 


^ 


u 


u 


V 


^ 




c 


^ 


r\ 


n 


A 


,--^ 


1 


N 



Basic alfabet review 



79 



This chart, and the similar review charts of § 153 and Part 3, 
enable you to drill on the signs in many different orders, so as to 
memorize each sign independently, regardless of a preceding or 
following sign. The shorthand charts ai-e for reading practice, 
the print keys for dictation writing practise. Thus you may read, 
or write from dictation, each line from left to right, each column 
from top to bottom, lines alternately left to right and right to 
left, columns alternately top to bottom and bottom to top; 
or the reverse of each of these 4 orders, making 8 ; or beginning 
at opposite corners from the preceding, making 8 more: or less 
regular orders, skipping alternate lines or columns, etc; or, 
finally, at random. 

Note that this chart is squared out by adding to the 40 sound 
basic alfabet tick-the and ar. 




8o Personal Shorthand 

You should be able to read the chart accurately, 
in any order, In not more than 40 seconds, before 
proceeding beyond the next section. Practise read- 
ing the chart hereafter at least 5 minutes daily, 
till you can read it accurately, in any order, in 
not more than 30 seconds. In the easier (horizontal) 
orders you should be able to read it in 20 seconds. 

Use the fonetic print key for dictation practise, 
as directed above. 

149 Writing test You should write this 40- 
sign test — the basic alfabet in fonetic order — 
accurately, making neat, legible forms and speaking 
the name of each sign as you M-rite, at least 3 times 
in I minute; preferably 4 times in i minute. 

Practise this test hereafter at least 5 minutes 
daily, till you can write it accurately at least 4 
times in i minute. Use P S Ex 149-t. 

A few of the most skilful shorthand penmen will be able, 
by the time they complete their study of the text, to write this 
test accurately 5 times in i minute. 

pbtdkg fvhftszS^QJ 

n r) m r 1 w y h 

aaeeii ©euouu do'udi 

150 General Definitions: left and right 
motion, §37; hook vowel joinings, §43; like and 
unlike motion, § 59; initial, medial, final, and semi- 



Basic aljabet review 8i 

final, § 6i ; preceding, following, and free hooks, 
§97; consonant difthongs, § io8. 
Joinings: §44-46, 48, 60, 69-71, 82, 126-130, 

134- 

Circle s z: §62, 72-74, I3I-I33- Hook n, 
§98. 'w- difthongs, §109-111. 

Other supplementary signs: S for c, etc, §99; 
un-, § 112; a, § 113; alternative vowels, § 136; 
yu and ii, § 137. 

151 Word exercises Review all word exer- 
cises in text and P S Exercises, writing each from 
dictation at the rate of 20 words per minute, or 
better. Word-exercise sections are: § 51, 63, 77, 
loi, 114, 135. 

Review similarly the shorthand outlines of all 
text sections of Part 2. 

152 Wordsigns The 30 wordsigns of Part 
2 make up over \ of all your writing. They should 
be masterd absolutely. Review thoroly § 81, 102, 
115, 138; and the short forms and wordsign deriva- 
tives of § 103, 116, 139. 

153 Wordsign review chart Test and per- 
fect your knowledge of the wordsigns by use of 
this review chart as directed in § 148. Give equal 
attention to reading and writing drills. Continue 
practise with this chart till you can read or write 
the 30 signs accurately, in any order, in not more 
than 30 seconds. 



82 



Personal Shorthand 



1 


- 


• 


<• 


y^ 


y 


~ 


° 







c^ 


- 


D 


u 


r 


( 




"^ 




— 


\ 


\ 


) 


) 


C^ 


c 


1 


^ 


t 


5 



154 Frases The limited degree of f rasing 
used in P 5 is of great value. Restudy carefully 

§ 117- 

Review thoroly §82, 104, 118, 140. 

155 Reading and writing exercises Re- 
view all reading and writing exercises, rewriting 
each from dictation at least once, and reading 
back your notes, as directed by § 89. Exercise 
sections are: §86, 88, 105, 106, 119, 120, 141, 142. 

156 Reading exercise Study and practise 
as directed by § 85, 89. For key see P 5 Ex 
156-k. 



Basic alfabet review 



83 



the 


and 


of 


all 


are 


will 


is 

his 


as 
has 


to 


do 


>ou 


who 


in 


have 


may 


they 


up 


which 


no 


so 


go 


can 


for 


Aery 


we 


he 


be 


she 


than 


any 



v./- 






i- ^ ^ 



o. 






^ 



84 Personal Shorthand 

157 Writing exercise Study and practise 
as directed by § 87, 89. For key see P 6" Ex 157-k. 

Dear Mary 

It seems good to hear you are going to see the old farm again. 

It is a long time now since I have been down to have a look at it. 

I shall be in the city soon after the middle of this week and 

will surely come to call then. Give my love to all of the folks 

at the farm. 

\\'ith best regards 

John 

158 Use your shorthand Effective per- 
sonal mastery of shorthand comes only from in- 
dependent personal use. No textbook can make 
any shorthand system an effective tool of your 
daily life till you have used it for a time as such a 
tool. On the other hand, it is essential that you 
shall not write wrongly the outlines which you have 
not yet studied in Parts 3 and 4. 

Because the structure of the P S text and system 
is based on exhaustive analysis of the fonetic facts 
of English, the words which you have already 
learnd in Part 2 will make up over f, perhaps f, 
of all your writing. Write them, from now on, 
in all your personal notes — writing the remaining 
I or J in longhand till you have completed your 
study of Parts 3 and 4. By this means you will 
much sooner develop that personal familiarity 
with P S which will make it a personal tool of 
constant and indispensable value. 

Do not attempt to write unfamiliar words in P S, particularly 
those containing consonant compounds (see § 108), or common 



Basic aljabet review 85 

suffixes such as -fen, -ment, or -liv, till you have completed 
Part 3. 

The sentence below, from the last reading 
exercise of Part 3, is written as you can write it 
now, to show the power which you have already 
developt in Personal Shorthand. Practise it as an 
exercise, to 'get the hang' of such mixt writing. 
55 out of 71 words are in shorthand. 

\^ — - ^^^^^ /itaZiai^ ~^ ^ , Tui/uAXy 

From now on, with the above limitations, use 
your shorthand. 



Part 3 

Compounds and combinations 

CONSONANT DIFTHONGS CIRCLE S Z SERIES 

(11) 

161 s'- difthongs The sound of s forms 
7 preceding consonant difthongs of the form 
s-consonant-vowel (see §io8) of common occurence 
in English. The s sound of these difthongs is 
always written by the small circle. Thus 

sp- st- sk- sn- sm- si- sw- are written 

f ,,_ V ^ ^ <^ e-^ 

The initial circle is written always with left motion on straight 
stems, like motion (inside) on curvd stems. 

The initial circle may be written (but seldom occurs) before 
ml and li as well as me and le. 

Conversely, circle s is never written initially 
on these stems when a vowel sound, however 
slight, occurs between the s and the consonant. 

Study and practise thoroly the examples follow- 
ing: 

speed l, space i_^ 

spin J_^ compare sipping t 

spirit v^ separate (adj) U"" 




swift 




Consonant difthongs 
star 
stay 
compare sitter 
setter 

skid 
compare sickle 

snug 
compare sunny 

smoke 
compare similar 

slide 
compare seldom 

swing 



87 




"-A 



rX 




-^/^ 



Swede e^-^ — compare seaweed 

162 sub- etc For the common prefix sub- 
and a few common words, circle s may be written 
initially, on stems other than p t k n m I w, 
where an omitted medial vowel occurs between the 
s and the stem consonant sound. 

subdue {__j^ suggest 

submit \^ — such '^ 



88 



Personal Shorthand 



163 -'s -'z difthongs The first 5 light 
consonant sounds form following consonant dif- 
thongs with s (the light consonant) but not with z. 
These are 

-ps -ts -ks -fs -hs, written 

The final circle, like the initial circle, is written always with 
left motion on straight stems, like motion (inside) on curvd stems. 



wraps 

sits 

packs 

laughs 

births 



/I 



-4 



lapse 

- — , f. lets 

L lax- 

^ life's 

U{ death's 

The first 5 heavy consonants and r) and m form 
following consonant difthongs with z (the heavy 
consonant) but not with s. These are 

-bz -dz -gz -vz -rfz -r)z -mz, written 



-0 



I 

jobs 

beds 

eggs 

loaves 

wreathes 

kings 

dimes 



V. ) C 



/^ 



rubs 

leads 

bags 

leaves 

bathes 

hangs 

beams 



Consonant dijthongs 



89 



3 consonants, n r 1 (which you can remember as 
the consonants of the word unruly), form follow- 
ing consonant difthongs with either s or z. 

Write the -'z difthongs always with the circle. 

Plurals of words ending in n r 1 are always -'z difthongs. 

Write the -'s difthongs with the circle unless the 
resulting outline would conflict with a similar 
commo?i word ending in z. To avoid any such 
conflict, write the -'s difthong word with stem s. 



sense 
* fence 
since 
science 



L 



compare 



lens 
men's 
sins 
signs 



o 




worse o^ doors 

hearse <^ compare hers 

* else c^ sells ^ 

* Fens, ells, etc are not common words. 
Remember to practise all outlines at least 5 times. 

164 Other consonants and final circle 

s z S 3 Q j do not form consonant difthongs with 
s or z, but are regularly followd by the final circle 
for plurals or other inflectional endings of the form 
-ez (see § 62). 



90 



Personal Shorthand 



ceases 



I 



seizes 




fishes (^ garages 

riches -''^^^ wages 

The consonant sounds w y h do not occur 
finally or semi-finally (§ 93). The final circle is 
therefore written following these stems in a few 
special cases only, such as the word was (§ 103), 
the word yes, and the final syllable -yus. 
yes ^ genius "^^ 

165 Final circle after i or 1 As the final 
circle following straight stems or left curves is 
written normally with left motion, -z following i 
or i may be written, following such stems, by 
closing the vowel hook to form the circle. 

sit -"'^ — city ^-Ti — 3 

compare 



sits 

pen 

pens 

summers 
pulls 



cities .— a_ 

U penny L, 

compare , 

pennies L^ 



L 



-v7 



compare summaries ,— -/ 
pulleys V' 



^ 
\ 



valleys 



u 



copies 

keys ^ journeys 

Following a right curve, the circle must show 
inside the hook, filling the outer half of the hook. 



Consonant dif thongs 91 

fees J fancies ^-— -> 

mercies /^^^ armies /^ 

Rules for the final circle following all other vowels and dif- 
thongs have been given in § 62, 72, 131. 

166 Circle and hook penmanship An 

initial or final circle always begins or ends per- 
pendicular to the following or preceding stem. 



\ 



^ ^^ ^ 



An initial or final hook always begins or ends 
parallel to the following or preceding stem, in the 
opposite direction. 



An initial or final circle in a hook always begins 
or ends parallel to the following or preceding 
stem, in the same direction. 



^ 



Study and practise these enlarged diagrams, 
and the same and similar signs of normal size. 
Begin or end these small attacht signs or appendages 
rightly and they will never become illegible in fast 
writing. 

167 Word exercise Practise these 40 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 50 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in i minute, 40 
seconds. 



Personal Shorthand 




Consonant difthongs 93 

168 One These derivatives of one (§ 103) 
are written in accord with § 163. 

once o^^'^'"" ones <^/3 

169 Wordsign compounds Wordsigns may 
be joind to common words or to each other to form 
common compound words, provided that the re- 
sulting outline is facile and legible. Study and 
practise thoroly the following: 



always 


A 


already 


/-^ 


also 


before 


^ 


therefore 


L. 


^ upon 


Mnto 


.^,^ — - 


■ unto 




today 



^ Compare it n . 

2 In all other compounds of up the initial vowel must be 
written. 

l^ upper l^ upright \^ upward 



170 Frases Study and practise the following : 
I by the ''"'"""I must be 

before the I — ^ upon the 
' it was —^ to you 

\— o as good as od as much as 




\ 



as soon as 



171 Reading exercise For key see P S Ex 
171-k. 




^ 



-^^ 



172 Writing 

Ex 172-k. 



exercise For key see P S 



1 You will seldom see such a line of goods as the one which 
we are selling. 2 Did you suppose you could speak about 
those matters after you knew who was to be there? 3 Divide 
the stock and give me as much as you can spare. 4 We 
are never so happy or so unhappy as we imagine. 5 A 
rolling stone gathers no moss. 



DOUBLE CIRCLES 



CONTRACTIONS (12) 



173 Medial circle joinings Rules for join- 
ing the medial circle — 1 Inside a curve, 2 Out- 
side an angle, 3 With left motion — have been 
given in § 74, 133. Note here two supplementary 
points. 



Double circles Contractions 95 

Between unlike curves the circle must, of course, 
fall outside one of them. WVite such cases by rule 
2 — outside the angle. 



defensive 1^ extensive 




Where rule i, inside a curve, conflicts with rule 
2, outside an angle, write the circle inside an obtuse 
angle, but outside a right or acute angle. 

axle 'Nay receive --^ 

lapsing .^yi rehearsal 

174 Double circle Just as a small circle 
represents one sound of s or z, a large circle may 
represent two sounds of s or z: ses sez zes zez etc. 

The large circle may be written in most cases where a short 
vowel sound occurs between the s or z sounds, but should not 
be written in general where a long vowel or dif thong sound occurs 
between the s or z sounds. 

The large circle may be written initially, medially, 
or finally, without restriction. It is joind like the 
small circle. 

sister / suspect 

necessity v_j2_-, consist 

access "N^ success 

175 Double circle plurals etc To add the 

sufiftx -ez to an outline which already ends with a 




96 Personal Shorthand 

small circle, enlarge the circle by continuing it 
across the preceding stem. 



tax ^ taxes ^ fix a fixes 



Note that this form is written as a single large circle, divided 
by the preceding stem. The distinctive form is useful in identi- 
fying such words as 



ax 



N> axes ^ compare access ^ 



176 Affixes English contains many prefixes 
or initial syllables, and sufiixes or final syllables, 
of common occurence, particularly in words of 
Latin or Greek derivation. Most of such affixes 
are written regularly, omitting medial vowels. A 
few wordsigns are used also as affix signs. Such 
uses will be specifically noted, below and in Part 4. 

177 Prefix vowels Unaccented vowels not 
initial are usually omitted in common prefixes or 
initial syllables — 

such as be- de- re- con- com- dis- etc, 
pronounced usually bi- di- ri- kon-kom- dis- etc. 

beware L^ contest 

refine "'^'2^^ committee 

determine /^ — discharge 

178 in- The very common prefix in- is 
written regularly by the wordsign for in (§115). 




Double circles Contractions 



97 



indefinite 
indicate "^^^ 



income 



mvite 

inspire 

inside 






179 -ius u is usually omitted from the ter- 
mination -ius, usually speld -ious. 



obvious 



L 



tedious 



Such outlines will be unmistakable if the circle is used regularly 
for plurals etc in -ez (§ 165). 



various 



^/>— N 



compare varies 



> 



180 Word exercise Practise these 40 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 45 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in i minute, 30 
seconds. 

After reaching this standard practise P S Ex 
l8o-r & w. 



past 


L- 


person 


U-^ 


possess 


I 


best 


U 


began 


!^-- 


beside 


u 



business 

defense 

delay 

consider 

fast 

serve 



u 

1. 



l_ 




Personal Shorthand 



universe 



history 

answer 

expect 

experience 

exercise 

indeed 

inquire 

instead 

instance 

insist 

imagine 

office 

official 

against 



XT7 



181 Contractions Just as a number of the 
commonest short words of English are abbreviated 
to single signs known as wordsigns (§ 79), a few 
of the commoner long words of English are abbre- 
viated to outlines of more than one sign, known as 
contr-actions. 

Study and practise thoroly the few contractions 
of P S, and use them freely in all your writing. 



Double circles Contractions 



99 



Contractions often resemble familiar longhand 
abbreviations. The heavy-type column following 
the print words shows the sounds actually rep- 
resented. 



182 8 contractions 

/')/' manufacture mf r 

/-I important, 
// imp 

-ance "^ 

l^ satisfactory s sf ri 

\ account ak {a/c) 



I — department dpt 



\ different, 



satisfy S sf d 

standard std 



183 Contraction derivatives Any contrac- 
tion may be followd by the circle for plurals etc, 
and most contractions may be followd by other 
common inflectional endings. 

Study and practise the typical examples following: 



^O^ manufactures 
departments 
differences 
standards 



~) 




manufacturing 
manufacturer 
satisfactorily 
. standardize 



184 Frases Study and practise the following : 

dear sir ^— a — so as to a — , as to the 



lOO 



Personal Shorthand 



185 Reading exercise For key see P S Ex 

184-k. 




186 

185-k. 



Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 



Dear sirs 

You may send me details of the offer you have stated in the 
circular which I have just receivd. 

I am experienced in selling the larger stores in the vicinity. 
If the line is as good as you say, I can make the business a con- 
spicuous success in this territory in a short time. 

Let me know about this chance at once, for I must decide 
50on whether to accept another offer. 

Sincerely 



HcdJ length stems Double lengths loi 



HALF LENGTH STEMS DOUBLE LENGTHS (13) 

187 -'t -'d difthongs The largest group 
of consonant difthongs in English is that of the 
form vowel-consonant-t or d. These difthongs 
may be exprest according to one simple general 
rule: a light consonant stem written half normal 
length expresses a following t; a heavy consonant 
stem written half normal length expresses a fol- 
lowing d. Only the most important are so written 
inP^*. 

Half length stems are written regularly for true difthongs 
only — that is, when and only when the t or d follows the 
preceding consonant in the same syllable with no \ovvel sound 
between. 

188 -St & -zd Es and ez are written half 
length in accord with § 187. The half length 
stems are named for convenience est and ezd. 
Practise these stems, separately and alternately, 
with es and ez. Use P 6* Ex i88-d. 

Est and ezd are written only for past tenses of 
verbs of which the present tense ends in es or ez. 

guessed \^ passed Ir- 

based J^ gazed "S^ 

ceased - — -v-v seized - — ^-^ 

189 -kt & -rt Kl and re (or rl) are writ- 
ten half length in accord with § 187. Practise 



I02 



Personal Shorthand 



these stems, separately and alternately, with k and 
r. UseP5Ex 189-d. 

These half length stems are named ekt and art. 

ekt and Brt are written only in a few specific 
words and combinations, of which the most im- 
portant are — 

The common words fact part certain and their 
derivatives. 



fact 


I 


facts 


K 


part 


y 


parts 


^ 


party 
certain 


U 


parties 
certainly 


^ 



The common sound combinations 

-jekt 



irjkt and 



distinct 
instincts 



subjects 
object 



^ 



190 -nt & -nd n is written half length to 
express -nt (fonetic name ent). n is written half 
length and shaded to express -nd (fonetic name 
end). These signs are written freely wherever the 
very common difthongs -nt and -nd occur. Prac- 
tise them thoroly, as shown m P S Ex 190-d. 

r) is never written other than normal length and therefore will 
never confuse with -nd. 



Half length stems Double lengths 103 

rent ^^ lend ^^ 

incident '-^^ extend '^ — ^ 

saint --t~^ bound L 

absent V returnd ^ 

mountain ^£_ correspondent ^^-^^^ 

But a half length stem must never join another stem without 
angle. Hence 

sent '-^ — send ^—^ — 

Remember to practise all outlines at least 5 times. 

191 -ed tick Write the inflectional ending 
-ed, following -nt or -nd and in a few other 
cases given later (§ 193, 256), by a left diagonal 
heavy tick. 

rented -^^^^ demanded ^ 

pointed j— . ended '•^•^ 

After stem t or d the -ed tick is less facile than stem d. 

acted '\ needed ■ — -^ 

192 Double length n Stem n may be 
written double normal length to express the com- 
bination -ntar. Practise this sign (fonetic name 
entdr) in P 6" Ex 192-d. 

enter ^- — ^ interest 

entertain c.^_-^ — &._• interview 



I04 Personal Shorthand 

Stem n may be written double normal length 
and shaded to express the combination -nder. 
Practise this sign also (fonetic name endar) in 
P 5 Ex 192-d. 

As r) is never written other than normal length, it will never 
confuse with ndar. 

lender ^-^y""^ finder i^, 

The sign ndar may be written initially (as 
well as medially or finally) for the word or prefix 
under (compare un- § 112), 

under > ^ underneath 

understand ^. ^ — >- undertake 



193 -ed tick and double lengths After 
nter or ndar the -ed tick may be written for the 
inflectional ending -d. 

encounterd '"~"^"N__^ wonderd o-'-^*— -^ 

194 Word exercise Practise these 40 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 40 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in i minute, 20 
seconds. 

After reaching this standard practise P S Ex 
194-r & w. 





length stems Double lengths 

regard 
receivd 



105 



recent 

land 

loan 

went 

want 

wanted 

wonder 

hand 

human 

apparent 

afternoon 

evident 

enterd 

end 

Instant 

immediate 

either 

around 



/i- 






TT 



I 



io6 Personal Shorthand 

195 Wordsigns 5 wordsigns, to be studied 
and practist as directed by § 80. Use P 6* Ex 195-s. 

^ not not f but but 

^ had had < . that Hat 

( thing hir) 

The 4 half length wordsigns are formd by special irregular 
use of the half length principle (§ 187). 

196 Wordsign compounds In a few cases 
the outHne of a compound word differs slightly 
from the mere joining of its separate parts. Study 
and practise the following: 

The wordsign for any (ei) is shortend in compounds to e. 

( anything '^^'^ any one t.^ anywhere 

nowhere 



(. nothing 
/^ almost 
197 Frases 

^ not the 
not that 
so that 
has not 
was not 
that they 




^<^ any one 

•— «>^^ no one 

o-"^ within \^ cannot 

Study and practise the following: 
t of that V of this 



Is not cannot be frased. 



and that 
is that 
that is 
that was 
that that 



I 
1 

t 



and this 
is this 
this is 
this was 
that this 



Isn't is written in full 



Half length stems Double lengths 107 

198 Reading exercise For key see P S Ex 198-k. 






L i^ 'C' 




199 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 199-k. 

I Apparently this piano is built so that it cannot be turnd 
around. 2 It is evident that the right answer to this riddle 
is almost within reach. 3 It seems certain that this is the 
quickest way to find out whether any one is going to be there. 
4 It is the cause and not the death that makes the martyr. 
{Napoleon) 5 The evil that men do lives after them; the 
good is oft interred with their bones. (Shakspere) 6 A man 
who does big things is too busy to talk about them. {Lorimer) 



io8 Personal Shorthand 



CONSONANT DIFTHONGS 'R- 'L- SERIES (14) 

200 'r- 4- difthongs The sound of r 
forms 9 preceding consonant difthongs (see § io8) 
of the form consonant-r-vowel of common occur- 
rence in English. The sound of 1 forms 5 similar 
difthongs. Brief explicit expression of these im- 
portant compounds is a distinctive feature of P S. 

These compounds are often referd to as the re le series. 

201 'r- '1- difthongs — Group 1 The r- 

'1- compounds of Group i are exprest always by these 
distinctive compound signs: 

Sound : pr- br- tr- dr- kr- gr- 

Sign: 1 1 ^ ^ X X 
Name: pre bre tre dre kre gre 

Sound : pi- bl- kl- gl- 

Sign: r f \ \ 

Name: pie ble kle gle 

Preceding consonant difthongs of the form tl- or dl- do not 
occur in English. 

These compound signs are each like the corre- 
sponding simple stem except for a small preceding 
hook. The memory device following will fix these 
hooks unmistakably in mind : 

The hooks of the 'r- compounds are written 
with right motion. 



Consonant dif thongs 109 

The hooks of the '1- compounds are written 
with left motion. 

Always refer to these signs by the one-syllable difthongal 
fonetic names pre bre etc {never as pi-rg bl-re etc). 

202 Practise Practise these 10 signs, sepa- 
rately and with the corresponding simple stems, as 
directed by § 32 for the signs of the basic alfabet. 
Use P S Ex 202-d. 

203 Examples Always write these preced- 
ing consonant difthongs by the distinctive com- 
pound signs. 

Conversely, never write these compound signs 
initially or medially when a vowel sound, however 
slight, is heard between the consonant sounds. 

Study and practise thoroly the examples fol- 
lowing. 

Practise first going from left to right column on each line; 
also going down each column separately. 

compare persons 1/"^-^ 



presence 
prefect 




persons 
perfect 
purpose 

bearing V^^*-^ 

turn "Z, 

term ~7^ 

tired — ^^ 



Personal Shorthand 



I- 

I 



derive 


^^ 


carve 


\^ 


girl 


v^ 


police 


La- 


pallet 


U^ 


below 


b 


color 


\_X 



no 

drive ^^ compare 

crave 

grill 

please 
plate 

blow 

clear 

glow \ " goal \y 

204 'r- '1- difthongs — Group 2 The 'r- 

'1- compounds of Group 2 are exprest always by 
these distinctive compound signs: 
Sound : fr- hr- Sr- fl- 

Sign: 9 ( ^ ? 

Name: fre hre fre fle 

The lO consonant sounds of Group 2 form no other common 
'r- or '1- difthongs in English. See, however, § 221. 

These compound signs are each like the corre- 
sponding simple stem except for a like motion pre- 
ceding hook. The memory device following will be 
helpful : 

The hook of the '1- compound is large. 

Always use the one-syllable fonetic names in referring to 
these signs, or to the corresponding difthongs. 



Consonant dijthongs 



III 



205 Practise Practise these 4 signs, sepa- 
rately and with the corresponding simple stems. 
Use P S Ex 205-d. 

206 Examples As with the signs of Group i, 
always write the consonant difthongs by the com- 
pound signs, and never write the compound sounds 
initially or medially when a vowel sound however 
slight is heard between the consonants. 

Study and practise thoroly the examples follow- 
ing, in the manner given for § 203. 



free 
thread 
shrewd 
flow 






? 



compare ferry 


k- 


third 


t- 


" sure 


V 


fellow 


ly 



207 Contrasted outlines Study and prac- 
tise these examples, both going from left to right 
column on each line and going down each column 
separately. 

compare play J 

pleasant L 



pray 

present 

proud 



bright 
broom 



] 
I 

U 

V 



plowd 

blight 
bloom 



L 

U 

I- 



112 


Fe) 


crime 


V- 


crowd 


X 


cramp 


'VI 


grass 


'X^ 


grow 


^ 


fright 


t- 


frame 


y 


frank 


K 



Personal Shorthand 
compare climb 
cloud 
clamp 

glass 
glow 

flight 
flame 
flank 



208 Deformd hooks As these consonant 
difthong signs must be used, medially as well as 
initially, wherever the consonant difthong sounds 
occur, they will sometimes be written where a per- 
fect hook would be closed into a loop or circle by 
the preceding sign. In such cases flatten the hook 
against the preceding sign. 

The resulting outlines are unmistakable, even when the hook 
is greatly flattend, for no other joining of signs causes such an 
offset or jog as remains. 



decline 
begrudge 
betray 
reclaim 



complex 



deplete L 

unpleasant L 
replace ^ 



Consonant dif thongs 113 

The hook of medial he, which seldom occurs ex- 
cept in compound words may be similarly deformd. 

statehood o ^" — behave |^^ 

withheld '-"X-^ behind j,,-^^^ 

209 Hook vowel joinings Any vowel may 
be hookt as necessary to a following hookt stem 
(compare § 43, 60), for the resulting outlines are 
distinctive and unmistakable. 

Like motion hook joinings: 

apply I increase '*\v-^ 

The epsilon forms, to which these joinings bear a general 
resemblance, will never occur with the same slope and motion. 

Unlike motion hook joinings : 

across ''X-^ incline 'N/v^ 

Compare any (§ 138), in a (§ 118). 

210 Circle joinings The medial circle may 
be written inside any hook that is not deformd. 

express '\^ exclaim 

discreet ~^No disprove 

But where the hook without the circle would be 
deformd, stem s or z must be written. 




114 Personal Shorthand 

display j extreme ^^ 



disclaim \ explain ^^ 

Rules for hiitial s preceding consonant difthongs will be 
given later under triple consonants, § 218-220. 

211 -Sus The suffix or termination -Sus is 
written stem S - circle s. Compare -yus, § 164. 

*delicious — -^^ vicious J 

VV_r> 
anxious ''^ X. 

* Compare phase, § 60. 

Remember to practise all outlines at least 5 times. 

212 Word exercise Practise these 40 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 35 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in i minute, 15 
seconds. 

After reaching this standard, practise P S Ex 
2i2-r & w. 

president ] ^ progress \^_^ 

pretty !_, proposed j 

proper 1 provide f 

problem 1 plan My 

products I place i_^ 



Consonant difthongs 



115 




glad 

fresh 

friend 

front 

flower 

three 

thirty 

supply 

suspicious 

children 

address 

ambitious 

enthusiasm 

electric 

increast 



213 Wordsigns Study and practise these 2 
wordsigns. Use P S Ex 213-s. 



'} from 



frem 



( thru hru 



Ii6 Personal Shorthand 

214 Frases Study and practise the following: 
^ that the / from the \ thru the 
— - do not ^ was that ^ was this 
■^ — not to I not to be i not be 
-^ not have J not have been J not been 
^^-' have not .-^ had not o^ not had 

215 Reading exercise For key see P5 Ex 215-k. 




.-i^^YVt-^; 



Triple consonants 1 1 7 

216 Writing exercise For key see PS Ex 216-k:. 

I We trust you will try to improve the imperfect part be- 
fore the bearing breaks. 2 Please submit promptly the plans 
which you have prepared to secure publicity for our recently 
de^•elopt property. 3 Sin has many tools, but a lie is the 
handle which fits them all. {Holmes) 4 If to do were as easy 
as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches 
and poor men's cottages princes' palaces. {Shakspere) 5 The 
greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. {Car- 
lyle) 6 Nothing great was ever achievd without enthusiasm. 
(Emerson) 



TRIPLE CONSONANTS CONSONANT COMBINATIONS 

(15) 

217 Triple consonant compounds The 

sound of s occurs, usually initially, before several 
of the consonant difthongs of the 'r- '1- series, 
forming triple consonant compounds sometimes re- 
ferd to as consonant trifthongs. Such compounds 
are treated always as s + pr, s + pi, etc; never as 
sp + r, sp + I, etc. 

The latter form of writing implies definitely a vowel sound 
before the r or 1. 

split L , compare spilt [^ or speld 1/ 

218 s*r- trifthongs Initially spr- str- skr- 

are written by the compound signs 1 ^ "N^ 

(fonetic names spre stre skre — compare §201). 
These signs are formd by closing the hook of pr- 



ii8 



Personal Shorthand 



tr- kr- to form the circle. Compare sits, cities, 
etc— §165. 



spram 
sprout 

strain 
string 
stream 

scream 






compare 




Spain 
spout 

stain 
sting 
steam 

scheme 



L 



Medially the compound sign stre may be written 
following t d n r) (or un-). 

destroy compare dusty — o—^ 



constram 
construct 




constant 
unstrung 



In all other cases write either stem or circle s 
preceding the dif thong sign (§74, 210, 217). 

describe 



restram 

219 spl- 

ceding pie. 

splendid 
splice 




mstruct 

unscrew 

Write either stem or circle s pre- 





or 



splendid 
splice 



U 



Triple consonants 119 

For penmanship of circle preceding hook see § 166. For 
medial joinings see § 210. 

220 skw- The trifthong skw- is written 
usually es-kl-we, but may be written initially if 
preferd es-kwe (compare § no) 

squeeze \^-^^ ^r squeeze (T^^ 

squad \-*— " squad (f"^' 

exquisite X esquire N^ 

Remember to practise all outlines at least 5 times. 

221 Unusual compounds Uncommon 
words, particularly proper names or technical 
terms, sometimes contain consonant compounds 
other than those already given in Part 3. Such 
compounds are written by their obvious analogies 
to familiar compounds. 

sphere Z^ compare 

Vrooman 





Schlotman 

sclerosis 

222 Consonant combinations As the con- 
sonant difthongs of the 'r- '1- series cannot occur 
finally (since they must always be followed by a 
vowel) and very seldom do occur semi-finally, the 
compound signs may be used finally or semi-finally 
to express consonant combinations in which an un- 



I20 



Personal Shorthand 



important vowel sound occurs before the r or 1. 
Such use is for convenience only, and the compound 
signs should be written only when they form better 
outlines than the separate stems. 

For such use for consonant combinations the 
series of compound signs is completed, following 
exactly the principles of formation already given 
in § 20I, 204. 

The signs of the next 3 sections are given chiefly for reference 
in connection with the limited uses noted here and later, and 
need not be practist at length. 

When used for consonant combinations the compound signs 
should be referd to by the uniform non-difthongal names given 
below, rather than by the dif thong names. 

223 Consonant combinations — Group 1 

Sounds: pr br tr dr kr gr pi bl tl dl kl gl 
Sign: 1 1 ^^^-N f f __ W 

Name: par bar tar dar kar gar pelhel tel del kel gel 

For rule of formation see § 201. 
Typical examples of use and non-use of these 
signs are: 



temper 

timbers 

shutter 

shuddering 

anchord 

anger 



ample 

noble 

metal 

medals 

ankle 

angles 




Triple consonants 121 

crackers \>^ _ cattle 

trigger \^ saddle 

staple [y shackle 

variable ^^X^' wriggle 

224 Consonant combinations — Group 2 

Sounds: fr vr hr xtr (sr zr) Sr jr Qr jr 

Sign: ) 7 r f ^ L e ^ ^ 

Name: for var hdr jtdr {ser zdr) Jar jar gar jar 

Sounds: fl vl hi rtl (si zl) SI 3I q1 jl 

Sign: 99CC <^e.CL-l^ 

Name: fel vet tiel jJel {sel zel) fel ^el gel jel 

For rule of formation see § 204. Note that s or z combi- 
nations are never written with hookt signs, as regular use of the 
medial circle serves every useful purpose. 

fel for the suffix -ful may be used freely. No 
other signs of Group 2 above should be used except 
for particular words given in the text, and their 
derivatives. Study and practise the examples fol- 
lowing: 

pressure J special A 

pleasure J social ^X_ 

tactful ^^ — n lawful ^.yj 

gracefully ^^^"^^-^ helpful 

frightful V_o, healthful 



122 Personal Shorthand 

playful J sorrowful '"^'/y 

skilful "^^^^-^ successful ^ / 

225 Consonant combinations — Group 3 

Stem n is treated like Group 2. Stem q is 
not hookt. The general rule of Group 3 is: 

Right diagonal curvd stems are shaded to add r. 
Right diagonal straight stems are shaded to add 1. 

Sounds: nrmrlryr nlrl wlhl hwl 

Sign: <^ /^ ^ ^ c^^^^c/ 

Name: nar mar lar yar net rel wel hel hwel 

If you are holding your pen correctly (§ 30), it will be easier 
to shade the variable stems upward than downward. 

These signs are used, in P S, only in a few specific 
wordsigns and contractions. See § 231, 243, 263. 

226 prakt- The half length stem ekt (§189) 
may be written in the combination prakt- 

practise V^^ practist 1^^ 

227 -ipal -ital -ikal These combinations 
may be written finally or semi-finally by pel tel kel 
respectively. 

principal L^ critically 

hospitality ^ radical 

technical \_< economical 




Triple consonants 123 

228 -self The suffix -self, and the plural 
form -selvz, are written -sf and -svz as below 

herself ^-W ourselves <«^ 

Remember to practise all outlines at least 5 times. 

229 Apostrophe words 's is written by 
circle s, like plurals and other inflectional endings 
in s. 

that's 4 it's ,_^ 

've may be joind similarly to the preceding word 
without distinction. 

you've '-^ I've / 

Other apostrophe forms may be distinguisht, 
when desired, by the apostrophe just as in longhand. 

they're \y compare their v^ 

I'm J^ " I may y^ 

I'd ^^ " I do ,— 

Distinction between such forms as ca^iH and 
cannot is necessary only when you wish to pre- 
serv^e the exact forms of colloquial speech. 

can't ^-^ compare cannot ^-^ 
I'll ^ " I will ^ 
don't — i " do not 



124 



Personal Shorthand 



Where an irregular speech form is written in full, 
the apostrophe is unnecessary. 



shan't 
isn't 



V_ 



she'll 
mustn't 



c 



230 Word exercise Practise these 30 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 25 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in 55 seconds. 

After reaching this standard practise P 5 Ex 
230-r & w 



practical 

people 

possibility 

beautiful 

trouble 

terrible 

discover 

capital 

character 

victory 

themselves ^^^ 

strength 



straight 

strange 

street 

settle 

single 

simple 

myself 

respectfully ^^ 

remember A"/ '^ 




--^ 



letter 
labor 
water 



--V 



Triple consonants 125 

himself O industry ^-.r— 

administer - — ^^-^^~' impossible ^ 

"^ , L 



itself ^ order 



231 Wordsigns 5 wordsigns, to be studied 
and practist as directed by § 80. Use P S Ex 231-s. 



/ 1 every evri 
c_^ ^only onli 

^ See § 224. ^ See § 225. 



232 Wordsign derivatives Study and prac- 
tise the following: 



2 your 


yur 


Hvell 


wel 


Hell 


tel 


See § 223. 





J everything ^^ yourself 



telling 



233 Frases A few frases are written more 
briefly than the separate outlines which compose 
them. Study and practise the following: 

.^y"-^ as long as 2^ so far as J^ as far as 

^ as well as ^ in so far / and so forth 

{or etc) 



126 Personal Shorthand 

234 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 234-k 






^ 



L^p 












u 



Hook n -ment -tiv 127 

235 Writing exercise For key see P 5 Ex 235-k. 

As long as you can't please both sides in this world there's 
nothing like pleasing your own side. 

You can't run a business on the law of averages and have 
more than an average business. 

It's been my experience that you've got to have leisure to 
be unhappj^ \ the troubles in this world are imaginary and it 
takes time to think them up. 

Health is like any inheritance — you can spend the interest 
in work and play but you mustn't break into the principal. 

Some professors will tell you that it's good training to teach 
bo>-s a lot of things they're going to forget, but it's been my 
experience that it's the best training to teach them things 
they'll remember. (Lorinier) 

HOOK N -MENT -TIV (16) 

236 Hook n review You have learnd 
(§ 98) that n is sometimes exprest by a large fol- 
lowing hook, written with right motion following 
straight stems, and with like motion (inside) fol- 
lowing curvd stems. You have learnd to write 
this hook regularly for the suffix -n, and for a few 
other outlines (§ 103, 168). The principal further 
uses of hook n are given below. 

237 Hook n and q j Hook n is usually 
written following eg or ej whenever a short vowel 
preceding the n may be omitted. 

kitchen \, compare chance 

region ^^^ " rejoin 

■'• See § 99, 260. 




^engineer '^^\s^ " ingenious ^^\^ 



128 Personal Shorthand 

In the word change and its derivatives hook n 
is written, omitting the preceding long vowel. 

change ^ changing ^ 

Hook n may be flattend somewhat against a 
following stem (compare § 208) . 

agent " ^ gentle ~^ 

Circle s and hook i sometimes follow hook n. 
agency "^ emergency /r^^ 

Note plural of such forms. Compare § 175. 
agencies '^ emergencies "^ 

Limited use of hook n on ej or es will be given 
in connection with -San, § 259-260. Note here 

shun ts^ ocean \o 

238 Hook n and m After me (but not ml) 
hook n is usually written when a short vowel pre- 
ceding the n may be omitted. 

summon '— ^^ commend 

commence v'^ workmen's 

watchmen «=-'''*>/o hut lineman 




Hook n —ment -tiv 129 

After ml hook n is written for the suffix -men 
only. See § 300. 

239 -ment, -ments The very common suf- 
fix or final syllable -ment is written by half length 
me or ml, thus expressing mt (§ 187) and omitting 
the n sound. 

investment j. ^ comment \y- 

management <^C^ assignment "*^^ 

Plurals etc are written with the circle as usual, 
investments ^) ^ comments \y» 

All other variations (including the similar but 
infrequent termination -mend — seo^ commend, §238 
above), are written in full by general principles 
already given. 

supplementary K^ experimental "N. 

240 Hook f V A large following left motion 
hook, written on straight stems only, expresses 
the sound of ef or ev. This hook is written only for 
a few specific abbreviations given later in the text 
(§244, 245, 321), and for the suffix -iv following 
tl or ekt (§ 241). 



I30 



Personal Shorthand 



241 -tiv Following ti or ekt the suffix -iv 
may be written by hook ev. Following ent, stem 
ev must be written: 



deceptive f -, 

captivity 
legislative 
objective 



motives 
destructively 
respective 
preventive 




After any sound except ti, the suffix -iv is written always by 
stem ev. 



passive 



h 



extensive 



242 til and ^u Many words like nature, 
natural, virtue, educate, etc, speld with tu or du, 
have varied gradually in pronunciation during the 
past century until today the latest dictionaries 
prefer in general the pronunciations negur, natural, 
vur(5u, ejuket, etc, to the older pronunciations ne- 
tiir, natyurel, vurtii, edyuket, etc. The obvious 
treatment of such words is to write as you pro- 
nounce, governing your pronunciation by your 
personal taste or your choice of authorities. 

The PS text, exercises, etc, use for the present the 
older forms, largely because of their closer agree- 
ment with such derivatives as native, futurity, 
pictorial, etc. 



Hook n 



-ment -tiv 



131 



Below are given some of the more important 
words of this class, showing the preferd and alter- 
native pronunciations according to the Standard 
Dictionary and the shorthand forms corresponding 
to each. P S writes, in general, the forms of the 
last column. 

The compound sign yar (§ 225) may be used freely, as shown, 
in writing tlie pronunciation tiir or tyur. (See § 137 for inter- 
changeable use of yu and li.) 



Standard Dictionary pronunciations 



nature 

natural 

culture 

departure 

virtue 

statue 

educate 

situate 

fortune 

feature 




Practise at least 5 times the outlines which you prefer to adopt. 



132 Personal Shorthand 

243 Word exercise Practise these 20 words 
till you can — 

Read the exercise accurately in 15 seconds. 

Write the exercise accurately in 35 seconds. 

After reaching this standard practise P S Ex 
243-r & w. 



picture 


I y 


judgment 


broken 


f — sX 


native 


driven 


moment 


drawn 




written 


question 


r^ 


announcement 


common 


\r^ 


executive 


future 


L^ 


equipment 


statement 


r 


offensive 


shipment 


^ 

K. 


unknown 


shown 


opinion 



V 



244 Short forms Study and practise these 

short forms written with hook ej ev : 

<^ half haf <^ halves havz 



245 Contractions Study and practise these 
8 contractions (§ 181) and their derivatives: 



Hook n 

■^ general j n 

"^ advantage aj 

(f American am n 

\ together tg 



-ment -tiv 133 

\> govern, -ment gv 
u — ^ advertise, -ment adv 
^ America am a 

/ form fm 



^ 


generally 


\3 


governs, -ments 


^ 


advantages 


\^ 


governor 


'^V. 


advantageous 


\s^ 


governess 


d- 


Americans 


^ 


governmental 


^ 


Americanize 




advertising 


^^ 


altogether 


— ^ 


advertiser 



246 -form- derivatives The word or syl- 
lable form is written uniformly by the contraction 
thruout a large number of derivatives. A few of 
the more important, to be studied and practist, are: 



y- 


forms 


\yy- 


perform 


y- 


formd 


^y- 


reform 


y 


forming 
former 


y 


uniform 
inform 



247 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 247-k. 



134 



Personal Shorthand 






<r:^ 



^^ 






I ^_ - — .^^ ^- >^ ^ — - < <■ 
1 C- ~1 ^ . ^ ---^^ . — 



-Jdn loops 135 

248 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 248-k. 

Men are four: 

He who knows not and knows not that he knows not : He is 
a fool — shun him. 

He who knows not and knows that he knows not : He is a 
child — teach him. 

He who knows and knows not that he knows: He is asleep — 
wake him. 

He who knows and knows that he knows: He is wise — follow 
him. 

{Arabian proverb) 

Life is a leaf of paper white 
Whereon each one of us may write 
His word or two, and then comes night. . . 

Muse not which way the pen to hold, 
Luck hates the slow and loves the bold, 
Soon comes the darkness and the cold. 

Greatly begin! Tho thou have time 
But for a line, be that sublime — 
Not failure, but low aim, is crime. 

{Lowell) 



-San LOOPS (17) 

249 -San -San Is much the commonest suffix 
of English containing more than one consonant 
sound. This very important syllable is exprest by 
a following loop, about | the normal length of a 
consonant stem, written with left motion on 
straight stems, and with like motion (inside) on 
curvd stems — like the final circle (§ 62). 



136 Personal Shorthand 

250 -San -iSan loops A thin loop, a little 
less than \ the length of a consonant stem, is 
written for -San (or the similar syllable -jan) 
when no vowel sound, or the short vowel sound 
i, occurs between the preceding consonant and the 
-fen. 

The short vowel i occurs before -San more often than all 
other short vowels combined. 

direction — >-^^ commission \/^ 

reception -^ provision S 

251 Other use of thin loop The thin loop 
may be written when a short vowel sound other 
than i occurs before the -San, provided that 
the resulting outline does not conflict with a -San 
or -iSan loop outline. 

passion l> session --=> 

discussion ^ compare dissection ^* 

252 -eSan loop A thick loop, a little more 
than ^ the length of a consonant stem, is written 
for -eSan (or -ejan). 

The long vowel e occurs before -Sen more often than all 
other vowels and difthongs combined. 



determination /-^-^ 


application 


separation l^ 


education 


generation "'^ 


occasion 



; 



^-:^ 



-jan hops 137 

253 Other use of thick loop The thick 
loop may be written when a long vowel other than 
€, or a dif thong, occurs before the -San, provided 
that the resulting outline does not conflict with 
an -efen loop outline. 

motion ^^ institution *-^>-^=> 

Where the outline would conflict with an -efen 
loop outline, the distinguishing vowel may be 
written between the stem and the loop. 

notion ^-'^ compare nation ^^=> 

revolution ^-"'^P* " revelation -'-^Ij^ 

The thick loop may be written when the short 
vowel i occurs between the preceding consonant 
and the -eSan. Compare § 250. 

variation i/^ radiation ^-^"''^ 

Where the outline might conflict with another thick loop 
outline, the first vowel may be written between the stem and 
the loop. 

deviation ^q compare devotion ^ 

254 -yueSan etc The -eSan loop may be 
written on y or following ii for the termina- 
tion -yueSan. Prefer the form which preserves 
the form of the root word. 

For interchangeable use of yu and ii see § 137. 

continuation '^^^.^^t.^p^^ compare continue 
insinuation ^-^^^ " insinuate 




138 Personal Shorthand 

Write similarly -jueSan (compare § 242). 
graduation '^^^ compare graduate 

255 Loops and circle Write the circle 
after any loop, for plurals etc in -z, with like 
motion on the opposite side of the stem — a single 
motion forming both loop and circle. 

directions — : 

mentions C^ 

suspicions i 

provisions 



V 



b La Lions 


a-^ 


combinations 


^-x. 


motions 


^ 


occasions 


V, 



Write either loop after a circle with like motion 
on the same side of the stem. 

conversation \_.>. sensations ^-^^^ 



When the root word ends with stem s or z, write the 

loop on the stem, rather than writing circle and loop. Compare 
§254. 

supposition U=> compare suppose t-,^ 



256 Loops and -ed tick The -ed tick 
(§191) may be written following a loop for the 
suffix -d (compare § 193). 

mentiond C^ fashlond }» 

commissiond \y^ conditiond V.— =. 




-fdn loops 139 

But stem d may be written instead when more convenient. 

positiond U«- occasiond ^'^^r- 

257 Loops on half-length stems The 

thick loop may be written on e7it, end or -ment, 
a little less than the full length of these stems. 

After these sounds -San never, and -iSan very rarely, 
occurs. 

plantation ^ foundations 

1 
presentation ^^ experimentation 

representations """^^Ij^ ornamentation 

258 Medial loops Semi-finally or medially 
either loop may be written when any short un- 
strest vowel (usually et) occurs between the ej 
and the en. 

-s after a loop should usually be written with stem s, 
reserving the circle for plurals etc in -z. 

patient \y~ deficiency f^ 

patience 0" sufficiently /77 

A variable stem following a loop should prefer- 
ably be written in the direction which will not 
cross the preceding stem. 

dictionary — \^ commissioner ^"^^ 

exceptional X,^ apportionment \^ 



140 Personal Shorthand 

But a variable stem may be written crossing the preceding 
stem if the opposite direction would obscure the loop. 

additional 'Z^ provisional Li 

intentional J^ proportional 



259 -3an While the combination -39n 
may be written by the loop, following consonant, 
i, or e sounds (§ 250, 252), it is well to use the 
stem sign, stem ez - hook en, for the heavy con- 
sonant sound whenever it will give equally facile 
outlines. 

decision — X^ conclusion V_^ 

precision 1 illusion a-A^ 

Where the loop is written for -sen, a preceding 
vowel other than i or e must show between the 
stem and the loop. 

fusion V confusion ^"^~— -n 

260 Other stem signs -San cannot, of 
course, be written by a following loop when not 
preceded by a consonant stem, and may advan- 
tageously be written by the stem sign, stem ej 
— hook en, in a few other cases. 

shunt Vo^ — conscience 

See also shun and ocean, § 237. 




-fan loops 141 

The stem signs ef-en and es-en may be written 
for eg-en and ej-eit, just as ef and es are written 
for eg and ej. Compare § 99. 

luncheon ^^"^lo intelligence 

engine "^"^ indulgent 

See also engineer, § 237. 

261 Consonant omission p is omitted 

in writing the combination -mpSan. 

Note that this p is not part of either root or suffix. 

redemption ^^--/^ assumption ^r-v^ 

In a ^•ery few outlines such as consumption or wholesome 
the medial circle assumes the form of a loop. These forms are 
so few and so characteristic that they will cause no confusion. 
See also § 300. 



consumption 



f^ wholesome -w^ 



k is omitted in the combination -r)kfen. 

The combination -r)San does not occur in English. 

distinction — . — ^^ sanction --^k. 

ek is omitted in the combination -jekSan 
-jSen never, and -jiSan very rarely, occurs in English. 

projection 1 rejection ^-^ 



142 Personal Shorthand 

ik is omitted in the combination -fikeSen. 



gratification 



'X, — ^ verification /^ 



262 Word exercise 

till you can — 



Practise these 20 words 



Read the exercise accurately in 15 seconds. 
Write the exercise accurately in 30 seconds. 
After reaching this standard practise P S Ex 
262-r & w. 



position 


u 


administration 




transportation 


.-T>- 


^ addition 


^ rzi 


conditions 


^N ^ 


action 


^ 


construction 




efficiency 




cooperation 


^7 


information 


W 


situation 


imagination 




national 


^ 


election 


.-^x 


nations 


-^^ 


operation 


V 


relations 


^ 


objection 


K 


attention 


.— ^^ 


organization 





263 Contractions Study and practise these 
8 contractions and their derivatives: 



-fdn loops 143 

association as n \^ company ko (Co) 

significant,-ance sig ^y""*"^ language larj 

o''^\ ^ circumstance S rk A probable pr bl 

L^ 2 particular p 1 r \___^ opportunity op ti 

^ See § 162. ^ See § 225. 



«* 


associations 


N 


companies 


1> 


significantly 


.^^ 


languages 


.^-^ 


circumstances 


' — 


probably 


b 


particulars 


probability 


y 


particularly 


opportunities 



264 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 
264-k. 



\J^ 



U^: 



<^^y^/- \—. 



)^-r 



I 




For key see P S Ex 



265 Writing exercise 

265-k. 

I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh 
my help. 

My help cometh from the Lord, which made heaven and earth. 

He will not suffer thy foot to be moved : he that keepeth thee 
will not slumber. 

Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. 

The Lord is thy keeper: the Lord is thy shade upon thy 
right hand. 

The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night. 

The Lord shall preserve thee from all evil: he shall preserve 
thy soul. 



Part J review 145 

The Lord shall preserve thy going out and thy coming in 
from this time forth, and even for evermore. 

{Psalm 121) 



PART 3 REVIEW (18) 

266 Review Systematic and thoro review 
of Part 3 will be of the greatest possible value at 
this time, before proceeding to Part 4, which is 
largely an extension and application of principles 
which you have already studied. 

As a preliminary step, reread Part i, and restudy 
the basic alfabet review, § 143-158, with as much 
restudy of Part 2 as you find necessary to make 
your review effective. 

The 20 sections following summarize systemati- 
cally the contents of Part 3. Study each section 
in turn as directed by § 144. 

267 Consonant compounds and combina- 
tions Review the fundamental definition of 
consonant dif thongs, § 108. 

For convenient distinction, consonant sequences 
which are separated by a vowel sound (per, ntar, 
San, etc) are referd to as consonant combinations. 

268 Circle compounds and combinations 

Review — 

Compounds, § 161, 163. 
Combinations, § 162, 164-165, 174-175. 



146 Personal Shorthand 

269 Length compounds and combinations 

Review — 

Compounds, § 187-190. 
Combinations, § 192, (195), 239. 

270 Preceding hook compounds and com- 
binations Review — 

Compounds, § 200-207, (213), 217-221. 
Combinations, § 222-225, (231)- 

271 Following hook combinations Re- 
view § 236-238, 240, 259-260. 

272 Following loop combinations Re- 
view § 249-259, 261. 

273 General Review — 

Circle and hook penmanship, § 166. Medial 
circle joinings, § 173. Hook joinings, § 208-210. 

Apostrophe words, § 229. tu and c,\x, § 242. 
Consonant omission, § 261. 

274 Affixes Review § 176, and — 
Prefixes, § 177-178, 226. 

Suffixes, §179, 191, 193, 211, 227-228, 241. 

275 Word exercises Review all word exer- 
cises in text and P S Exercises, writing each from 
dictation at the rate of 40 words per minute. 
Word exercise sections are: § 167, 180, 194, 212, 
230, 243, 262. 



Part 3 review 147 

Review similarly the shorthand outlines of all 
text sections of Part 3. 

276 Wordsigns The 42 wordsigns oi P S 
make up over \ of all your writing. Do not be 
satisfied with less than absolute mastery of these 
few signs. Be sure to reach the minimum standards 
set in the next section. Review first thoroly the 12 
wordsigns introduced in Part 3: § 195, 213, 231. 
Review similarly the compounds, derivatives, and 
short forms of § 168-169, 196, 232, 244. 

277 Wordsign review chart Test and per- 
fect your knowledge of the wordsigns by use of 
the review chart on page 148 as directed in § 148, 
page 79. Give equal attention to reading and writ- 
ing drills. Continue practise with this chart till 
you can read or write the 42 signs j accurately, in 
any order, in not more than 25 seconds. 

278 Contractions The few contractions of 
P S are all useful abbreviations for general use. 
Review thoroly § 1 81-183, 245-246, 263. 

279 Contraction review chart Test and 
perfect your knowledge of the contractions by use 
of the review chart on page 150 as directed in 
§ 148. Give equal attention to reading and writing 
drills. Continue practise till you can read the 24 
contractions accurately in any order in 15 seconds 
and write them accurately in any order in 25 
seconds. 



148 



Personal Shorthand 



1 




- 


' 


/ 


J 


^ 







— 


^ 


- 





<J 


^ 


( 




~^ 


— 


— - 


\ 


\ 


) 


) 


c^ 


•^ 


1 


L 


( 


s 


- 


(T 


f 


( 


( 


r 


) 


c 


} 


- 


^ 


c^ 



280 Frases Review thoughtfully the gen- 
eral principles of frasing, § 117. In P 5 you should 
frase too little rather than too much, but you will 
find that the limited amount of frasing which is 
suggested is of great value. 

Review thoroly §82, 104, 118, 140, of Part 2, 
and § 170, 184, 197, 214, 233, of Part 3. 



Part J review 



149 



the 


and 


of 


all 


are 


will 


is 
his 


as 
has 


to 


do 


>ou 


who 


in 


have 


may 


they 


up 


which 


no 


so 


go 


can 


for 


very 


we 


he 


be 


she 


than 


any 


not 


had 


but 


that 


thing 


tell 


from 


thru 


every 


only 


your 


well 



281 Reading and writing exercises Re- 
view all reading and writing exercises, rewriting 
each from dictation at least once, and reading back 
your notes, as directed by § 89. 

Reading exercise sections are: § 171, 185, 198, 

215, 234, 247, 264. 

Writing exercise sections are: § 172, 186, 199, 

216, 235, 248, 265. 



I50 



Personal Shorthand 



n^ 


— 


rr\ 


1 


> 


1 


^ 




^ 


\> 


^ 


/ 


\ 


y 


^ 


- 


^ 


^ 


^ 


\ 


^^ 


^\ 


ly 


u 



manufac- 
ture 


depart- 
ment 


important, 
-ance 


different, 
-ence 


satisfac- 
tory 


satisfy 


account 


standard 


general 


govern, 
-ment 


American 


America 


together 


form 


advantage 


advertise, 
-ment 


associa- 
tion 


company 


circum- 
stance 


probable 


language 


signifi- 
cant, 
-cance 


particu- 
lar 


oppor- 
tunity 



Part 3 review 151 

282 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 

282-k. 




152 Personal Shorthand 

283 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 

283-k. 

In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember 
that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true 
character of governments as of other human institutions; that 
experience is the surest standard by which to test the real ten- 
dency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility 
in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, 
exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hy- 
pothesis and opinion ; and remember especially that for the effi- 
cient management of your common interests, in a country so 
extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent 
with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty 
itself will find in such a government, with powers properly 
distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. 

{Washington — Farewell address) 

284 Read shorthand No practise will do 
more to improve the speed and accuracy of your 
shorthand writing than will the reading of well- 
written shorthand. 

The writing test of § 285 will prove to you that you can 
already write shorthand much faster than you can think it 
(that is, think of the right outlines for new matter). Reading 
accurate shorthand increases the size and readiness of your 
shorthand vocabulary. 

Altho P S Reader Nr i (Rip Van Winkle) is 
based on the complete P S text, you may begin 
to read it at this time, for the few outlines in it 
which are influenced by Part 4 will be, in most 
cases, self-explanatory in reading. It will be well 
to read 6 or 8 pages of the Reader in connection 



Part 3 review 153 

with each of the 6 divisions of Part 4, so as to 
complete the reading by about the time that you 
finish your study of the text. 

Until you can read this shorthand accurately, with good 
expression, at the rate of at least 100 words per minute (i-g- 
minutes per page, or about an hour for PS Reader Nr i), 
repeated practise will be valuable. If your natural rate of read- 
ing, aloud, for common print, is as much as 150 words per minute, 
you should be able to read this shorthand at that rate, or about 
a page a minute. 

P S Reader Nr i offers also the most valuable 
supplementary dictation practise. Use one or 
more pages at a time, as directed in § 85, 89 for 
reading exercises. 

285 Write shorthand The way to learn to 
write shorthand is to write shorthand. No book 
knowledge, however thoro, can take the place of 
personal familiarity gaind by personal use. (Re- 
read § 158.) 

From now on you may begin to write P S for 
general personal use without the help of longhand 
words. Do not, however, delay or discontinue 
your study of Part 4, which contains just the ma- 
terial which makes the difference between poor 
and good shorthand writing. 

You should be able by this time, if you have 
studied systematically as directed Parts 123, 
to write new matter in P 6" at somewhat better 
than your best longhand speed, and to write prac- 
tist matter at not less than double your longhand 



154 Personal Shorthand 

speed. Further practise and the experience of 
personal use will materially increase both of these 
speeds by the time you have finisht your study of 
the text. Test and record your present writing 
speed by means of the interlined writing test of 
P 5 Ex 285-t. 

This test gives on each 4 lines a line of print, the same words 
in shorthand, and 2 blank lines below. Use the test as follows — 

1 Write the shorthand on the first blank line, with no 
previous practise, as rapidly as you can form neat, legible out- 
lines, writing for just 60 seconds. Count the words written 
(the last word of each print line is numberd) to determine your 
writing speed in words per minute. 2 Practise the whole 10 
lines of the test in your practise book, from dictation or other- 
wise, till you feel that you have masterd them thoroly. 3 
Write the shorthand again on the second blank line, writing as 
rapidly as you can form accurate outlines, for just 60 seconds. 
This will gi\-e your present words per minute speed on practist 
matter. 

From now on use your shorthand. 



Part 4 

Extension and applications 

PREFIXES INFLECTIONAL ENDINGS (19) 

291 Root words and affixes English con- 
tains many prefixes or initial syllables, and many 
suffixes or final syllables, of common occurence. 
Such affixes range all the way from simple inflec- 
tional endings thru ordinary prefixes and suffixes 
which form derivative words to compound words, 
with or without a hyphen. 

Ease and speed of writing, and ease and certainty 
of reading, demand that so far as possible — 
a Root words shall be written uniformly, before 
or after their various affixes, 

b Affixes shall be written uniformly, before or 
after the various root words. 

Almost the only exceptions to this practise \n P S are those 
cases where a vowel which is initial or final in a root or affix 
becomes medial in a derivative and may be omitted; or where 
an initial or final stem s or z becomes medial and may be 
written by the circle. 

however '^^\^ compare ever y' 

truth ^ " true c— ^ 

155 



156 Personal Shorthand 

consequence ^^-«\ ^.^_^j compare sequence 

businesslike k_p.y^ " business L_^ 

As most prefixes and suffixes are written in P 5 
by regular application of general principles, only 
one or two illustrations of each will be given in the 
following sections. Additional examples will be 
found in the preceding sections referd to. 

292 Commonest prefixes 10 of the com- 
monest prefixes of English are — 

be-de-re- (§ 177), pronounced bi- di- ri-. 

below [v repay ^ 

decrease "Xv-^ represent --'^ 

in- or im- (§ 178), en- or em-, un- (§ 112), pro- 
nounced in-(im-), en-(em-), un- 
indirect ^—y^\ enlist ^^ - 

inside ^ — embrace -/^3^_^ 

impress ^^'T-^ unnecessary ^^.^_£i/^ 

Before tr {introduce — § 294) or ses {insist — § 180) 
in- may be written in full. 

con- or com- (§ 177), dis-, ex-, per-, pronounced 
k0n-(k0m-), dis-, eks-(egz-), par-. 

contract V_^ — \__ discharge 

consent V.^l- express 

compress \/"^l_^ perform 





Prefixes Inflectioy^al endings 157 

293 One-syllable prefixes Other common 
one-syllable prefixes are — 

pre-, ad-, sub-, mis-, non-, trans-, pronounced 
usually pri-, ad- sub- mis-, nen-, trans-. 

preserve y^ misunderstand 

admit ^ — non-commissiond 

substitute f transform 

Note distinction between precede and proceed. Compare 
§311- 

precede n— - proceed t'-^a — 

Note that the letter combination adj- is pronounced, and 
therefore written, aj-. 

adjust J — adjective '^o 

The suffix sign for self may be written as a prefix sign also, 
if desired. 

self-defense X l_j> selfish ^ 

294 Two-syllable prefixes Common two- 
syllable prefixes (see also § 295) are — 

inter-, intr-, enter-, entr-, counter-, contr- 

interstate ^ ^ compare introduce 

enterprise l-^ " entrance 

countermand Ng ^ ** contradict ^-^ 



158 Personal Shorthand 

extr-, super-, under-, over-, 
extract 'V-^ — s^ undersell 

supervise ^^^L-v overpower ^^\y^ 

tele- is writtten by tel (§ 223 — compare § 231) 
telegram ' \^^ telephone 

telegraph ^ %a telescope 

295 Compound prefixes Compound pre- 
fixes, usually involving either con- or in-, are 
written simply by combining the separate pre- 
fixes — 

inconvenient ^— v unconditional^^ ^^— :7^ 

discontinue \._^-^5_^ unreliable ^''^ 

reconsider ''-'^X_A--r irresistibly *^ J 

Both vowels should be written in rein- 
reinforce ^^j> reinstate ^^'■^ 

Remember to practise all sJwrthand forms at least 5 times. 

296 Inflectional endings By far the most 
important suffixes of English are the 3 commonest 
inflectional endings, -s, -ed, and -ing, which to- 
gether occur much more often than all other 
suffixes combined. These have been coverd fully 
in preceding sections and are merely summarized 
below. 



Prefixes Inflectional endings 159 

-s, pronounced -s, -z, or -ez, is written always 
with the circle. See §62, 72, 131, 164-165, 175. 



\. 



rights 


^ 


tries 


needs 


_.^ 


ashes 


days 


-^ 


cities 


shows 


^ 


taxes 


shoes 


^^ 


successes 



-ed, pronounced -t, -d, or -ed, is written — 

After s z n, by writing -st -zd -nd. See 
§ 188, 190. 

After -nt -nd -rt -ntar -ndar -San, by the 
-ed tick. See § 191, 193, 256. 

In all other cases by stem t or d. 



guessed 


\_ 


enterd 


pleased 


I 


wonderd 


turnd 


^ 


mentiond 


printed 


J , 


stopt 


ended 


Ow^ 


seemd 


parted 


^ 


seated 




ing, pronounced -ir), is written always by stem 
rj, usually omitting the vowel. 

meeting /^ — »*^ showing V^ 

caring Xr""'*"^ carrying Xr^''-^ 



l6o Personal Shorthand 

297 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 297-k. 

C^o^ )^^ ^_^^ ^^ L^- ^ 






Suffixes i6i 

298 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 

298-k. 

There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says 
he is an American, but something else also, isn't an American 
at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag, and 
this excludes the red flag, which symbolizes all wars against 
liberty and civilization, just as much as it excludes any foreign 
flag of a nation to which we are hostile. We have room for but 
one language here, and that is the English language, for we 
intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Ameri- 
cans of American nationality, and not as dwellers in a polyglot 
boarding house; and we have room for but one soul loyalty, 
and that is loyalty to the American people. (Theodore Roosevelt) 

Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control, 

These three alone lead life to sovereign power. (Tennyson) 



SUFFIXES (20) 

299 Suffix review The following important 
suffixes (except -oiis) have been presented and 
sufficiently discust in the sections referd to, which 
give numerous additional examples. 

The italic type in this section and the 3 following gives the 
commonest spelling of each suffix. Suffix groups are arranged 
in order of relative importance. 

-Hon, (-cian, etc), §249-261 

description \ relation ^ 

omission ^ revolution ^^"1>^ 

division "~) modification ^'^ 



1 62 Personal Shorthand 

-en, § 98, 236 
written ^^^""-^ lessen J-^ 

shorten ^ • lengthen 



-^ 



-ment, § 239 ; -mend, § 238 



statement <> — — ^ 

judgment ^W 

-live, -ive, § 241 

native -— t^-^ 

objective 1 

-ful, §224 

useful / 

youthful 



adjournment 
recommend 




inventive 
excessive 



\ 

^ 



U) 



fearful 
playful 

-selj, -selves § 228, (293) 
himself r/^ themselves (^^ 

-form, § 245, 246 

This is more often a root than a suffix, but may be used 
freely in any combination. 



multiform 



misinformation ^^ 



Suffixes 1 63 

-Otis; -ious, § 179; -ius, § 164; -tioiis {-cious, etc), 
§211 

dangerous "~*^~'\ compare dangers 



serious ._^,,^-->-- 


N 


series 


genius "^ ^_J 




cautious 


-ipal, -ital, -ical, 


l22y 




municipal z'"*''^ / 




practical 


capital ^ 




typical 


-ture, § 242 






furniture /-^^-^ >- 


y 


adventure 




Remember to practise all shorthand for^ns at least 5 times. 

300 Other common suffixes The follow- 
ing important suffixes (except -ship) have been 
written without comment in the preceding parts 
of the text, as they are written by regular applica- 
tion of general rules. 

The groups are arranged in order of relative importance. 



-ly, -y 






certainly 


—^ 


surely 


nearly 


-^^ 


honesty 


simply 


-<[ 


handy 



> 



164 

-er, -est 

cheaper 
finer 



Personal Shorthand 



teacher 

finest 



-ant (-ent), -ance {-ence), -ness 
assistant <?— & — - assistance 

excellent 'Xo.^-^" happiness c--^ 

defense <^ compare deafness <^ 

-al, -ble, -bly, -hility 
personal [x^ valuable h^ 



central 


' ^ ^^/ 


visibly 


liable 


-"^ 


nobility 


-man, 


-men 





h 



workman o^--"^ workmen 

lineman ^-"'^^^O linemen -"^"^ 

^ salesman ^ ' ^ salesmen "P^ 

^ See § 261, note on consumption and wholesome. 



-ship 
friendship 



scholarship 



Suffixes 
301 Compound suffixes 



165 



Write compound 
suffixes simply by combining the separate suffixes. 

With regard to medial vowels or circles see § 291. 



workmanship 
suspiciously J"^ « 
actively 




friendliness C 
^ instrumental 



unwillingness 
consciousness 
carefully ^^^'^ 

helplessness ^ — 1>-^~" 
2 pensioner 1 



^ See § 239. 2 See § 258. 

302 Final circle The circle may always be 
written after any suffix for plurals etc in -s -z 
or -ez. 



divisions 

shortens 

statements 

natives 

geniuses 

capitals 



"> 




adventures 

teachers 

assistants 

valuables 

salesmen's 

scholarships 



"^^ 




303 Other suffixes Study and practise the 
examples following, which illustrate various suf- 
fixes calling for no special comment. 



i66 



Personal Shorthand 



These examples are arranged in fonetic order by their last 
sounds (riming dictionary order). 



thruout 

forward 

manhood 

artistic 

homelike 

width 

cometh 

growth 

herewith 

useless 

careless 

justice 

references 

realize 

likewise 

feverish 

foolish 

personage 




^^^^ 




-^ 




transformation 

everyone 

criticism 

mechanism 

freedom 

inventor 

longer 

whoever 

safety 

reality 

customary 

machinery 

formerly 

readily 

luckily 

successfully 

notify 

verify 



Suffixes 1 67 

304 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 

304-k. 



^v^l^^ V---^ 



) 




L.- (N^k 






v 






.^ 



\ 



^^-^. 



^- 



1 68 Personal Shorthand 

305 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 

305-k. 

There is a time in every man's education when he arrives at 
the conviction that envy is ignorance; that imitation is suicide; 
that he must take himself for better, for worse, as his portion; 
that tho the wide universe is full of good, no kernel of nourish- 
ing corn can come to him but thru his toil bestowd on that plot 
of ground which is given to him to till. The power which re- 
sides in him is new to nature, and none but himself knows what 
that is which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried. . . . 

Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. 
Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the 
society of your contemporaries, the connection of events. 
Great men have always done this. . . . 

{Emerson — Essay on self-reliance) 



OUTLINE FORMATION (21) 

306 Outline formation 3 general laws of 
outline formation underlie facility, or ease and 
speed of writing, and legibility, or ease and cer- 
tainty of reading. They are — 

1 Like motion 

2 Acute angles or none 

3 Forward motion or llneality 

Usually 2 of these principles, and often all 3, will be in 
harmony in determining a particular outline. In so far as they 
conflict, their relative importance is usually in the order given. 

307 Like motion Like motion dictates such 
outlines as 





Outline formation 


sell 


Z) 


not 


less 


A 


not 


man 


^ 


not 


lack 


^^X 


not 


weekly 


--^ 


not 



169 




Prove to yourself the importance of like motion by this 
simple experiment. See how many small circles (4 to 6 inches 
in diameter) you can make in the air with your finger in 10 
seconds with like motion. Perhaps 40? Now see how many 
similar circles you can make in 10 seconds with right and left 
motion alternately. Perhaps 20? 

Use of ej or e^ for eg or ej after n (§99, 260) 
is for the sake of like motion. 



lunch 



engine 



Hook n is written on e, j, or me (§ 237-238) 
chiefly for the sake of like motion. 



religion 






specimen 



i~^ 



The greatest usefulness of the medial circle is 
in securing like motion. 



lesson 
result 




disloyal 
recent 



-^ 



Like motion is much less important between 
stems and small hooks than between stem and 



170 Personal Shorthajid 

stem. Forward motion or lineality is therefore 
considerd more important in such outHnes as 

leader ^^^ lean ^^^-^ 

leave ^y\ league ^^^ 

308 Acute angles or none Acute angles or 
none dictates such outlines as 

box L not 

utter ^ not 

large _-^ not 

required .^^'\y/ not 

whistle c/^ not 

It is in general undesirable to join 3 stems in succession 
without angle. To avoid this an otherwise unnecessary vowel 
may be inserted. 

conceal \v^^ unsalable 




^ 



309 Forward motion or lineality Forward 
motion or lineality dictates such outlines as 



taller — ^ rather than 




delightful — ^ ^ " "7^ 

tolerable 



310 m r 1 Practical use of the variable 
stems is simplified by considering the upward 
forms, me re, le, as the normal and regular forms, 



Outline formation 171 

to be written in the absence of specific reason to 
the contrary. The principal reasons for writing 
ml rl ll are — 

mi Like motion indicates ml before or after 
n or rj (sometimes after un-) ; less definitely before 
a & a, or after e & e. Acute angles or none 
indicates ml before ai. 



men 


C 


aiming 


C 


name 


r 


manner 


^ 


unmelodic 


mS ^"^^yu-r^,^ 


mountain 


C^ 



rl Acute angles or none indicates rl after n 
or q, or before or after t or d, u or u. 



dinner 
singer 
return 



ladder 

poor 

ruin 



y 



c 



But forward motion or lineality sometimes over- 
rules this preference. 



hardly 



unreasonable 



To preserve the form of a root word (see § 291), 
r for the prefix syllable re- is often written down- 
ward. 



remember 
reread 






rewrite 
reload 





172 Personal Shorthand 

li Like motion indicates ll before or after s 
or z, or after me; less definitely before or after i 
or 1. 



wisely <>^^^ illustrious 

wireless c^^^f'"^^ listen 

timely /^ limit 



But the preference for ll before i is often 
overruled where a left motion stem precedes the 
suffix -ly or -y. (See § 307, last paragraph.) 

partially \j^\y earthly ^^^ 

The variable ticks, & 0, take always the op- 
posite direction to an adjoining r; often the same 
direction with an adjoining m or 1. 

organize ^^'''\>^ — ^-^ almost y^^ 

ordinary ^^>—/ ^^^ -"^^ 

Don't try to memorize these statements as "rules." Try, 
rather, simply to understand them as common sense applied. 

311 Vowel implication The principle of 
like motion may be used to imply an omitted hook 
vowel before or after a variable stem by writing 
the stem as tho the omitted hook vowel were to be 
inserted. For example; 




Outline formation 

which if written 
in full would be 



173 



^ Compare melody < ^ 

** Compare merry /^ 

Similarly, of 2 different vowels occurring between 
the same consonants, the less easily written may 
be consistently omitted. 

think C^ compare thank 

o (as well as u) is usually omitted after p (or b), espe- 
cially in the combination poz. 



suppose 


u 


reposing 


yu^ 


pause 


>-"^ 


disposition 




appease 


l-. 


interposed 


"-^ 



312 Natural distortions In a few combi- 
nations the normal form of some signs is distorted 
for the benefit of ease and speed of writing without 
interfering with ease and certainty of reading. 
The commonest examples of such distortion are 



174 Personal Shorthand 

the vowel hooks (§ 44-46) and the preceding hooks 
of compound signs (§ 208). 

In addition to these, the curvature of right 
diagonal curvd stems is often somewhat fiattend. 

form y~ ailment '^-^ 

you are c^ late —^ 

When a is written before mi, for the neutral 
vowel 8 (§ 113), it may be allowd to assume the e 
position. 

This will never confuse with e or e, for the only outlines 
at all similar are aiming (§ 310) and among, which are quite 
different parts of speech. 

among (^ amount ^ 

See also American and America, § 244. 

In the syllable far, and the compound word 
everyone, a hook is allowd to join both preceding 
and following stems without angle (compare phase, 
§ 60, delicioiis, §211, etc) . 

far is irregular in that the following stem is a simple 
straight stem. 

fair l/^ compare far h 

unfair ^^5/ everyone 2^ 

313 Retouching notes It is never necessary 
to disjoin any fonetic sign, consonant, vowel, or dia- 
critic, to express exactly and in full any word of English 
— a unique achievment of Personal Shorthand. It 



Outline formation 175 

is, however, sometimes convenient or desirable to 
write a vowel or a diacritic disjoind, as an after- 
thought; either in the ordinary course of writing, 
or more often in reading over hasty notes which 
are to be preservd or to be read by someone else. 
For this purpose any vowel or difthong may be 
written disjoind according to one simple rule: 

A vowel written to the left of an up or down 
stem or above a horizontal stem is read before the 
stem. 

A vowel written to the right of an up or down 
stem or below a horizontal stem is read after the 
stem. 



= 1 pay h = J 



ape I 

act X — = "\ cat 



eat 


= 

T — 


tea 


j^ = — 


park 


b^ = U^ 


ripe 


A = A 


moon 


e = ^ 


sail 


i) = -:? 



Compare the ease of writing, and of reading, the disjoind 
and the joind forms ! 

Similarly, in retouching notes, a dot may be writ- 
ten beside any light sign to show that it should 
have been written heavy; or a small cross beside 
any heavy sign to show that it should have been 
written light. 

dare _^-^ call "*^^ 

seen -— i^_^ ' hull <<ir 



176 Personal Shorthand 

314 Reading exercise For key see P S Ex 314-k. 



S 



.y 



^ 



-^ -> 



^ 






I » 



\ 



I- 



-■^ 



^^^ 



I7 L)6/ 



Numbers Dates Titles Proper names 177 

315 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 
315-k. 

It isn't enough to be all right in this world; you've got to 
look all right as well, because -f of success is making people 
think you are all right. So you have to be governd by general 
rules even tho you may be an exception. 

Some men think that rules should be made of cast iron; I 
believe that they should be made of rubber, so that they can 
be stretcht to fit any particular case and then spring back into 
shape again. The really important part of a rule is the excep- 
tion to it. 

There's a vast difference between having a carload of miscel- 
laneous facts sloshing around loose in your head and getting all 
mixt up in transit, and carrying the same assortment properly 
boxt and crated for convenient handling and immediate delivery. 

I want to impress on you the importance of deciding promptly. 
The man who can make up his mind quick makes up other 
people's minds for them. {Larimer) 



NUMBERS DATES TITLES PROPER NAMES 

(22) 

316 Numbers Arabic numerals and the dec- 
imal system of notation are in themselves a sys- 
tem of shorthand, specialized to deal with numbers 
just as P S deals with words. Numbers, except 
one and two and round numbers, should usually 
be written with figures. 

Compare the ease of writing, and of reading, seven hundred 
and eighty-nine (29 signs and spaces) and 78Q (3 signs). 

Numbers of less than 3 figures occurring in the 



178 



Personal Shorthand 



body of a shorthand sentence should be under- 
scored by a single light line. 




Fractions, except the word half, are written as 
in longhand. 



^u [r^^-C-f ^:^/ 




^#. ^ 



317 Round numbers Round numbers are 
usually written by shorthand words, which may be 
preceded by either words or figures. 

hundred — million /^ 

thousand (^ billion L^ 

nine hundred ^_v^ ^^ 33 million 3 3/^ 

150 thousand i50 C two billion — \J? 

The abbreviation for hundred may be frased in these 2 cases. 

hundred and ^-^ hundred thousand L 



Numbers Dates Titles Proper names 179 

318 Ordinals Ordinal numbers may be dis- 
tlnguisht when desired by the shorthand signs 

a ( , written on a line with the top of 

the figures. 

2ist Zl°^ 22d 22"" 23d 23^ 24th Z4^ 

nth N^ 42d 42~ 8ist ^/ ^ 125th izs 

Dates (§ 320) and numberd streets should be 
written in shorthand (and in longhand) with car- 
dinal numbers. 

319 Number abbreviations When immedi- 
ately preceded by figures or other numerals the 
following abbreviations may be used: 

dollar <^ — minute,-s /^ 

dollars <■ — <> second, -s \ 

cent e^ foot, feet ) 

cents e-p inch,-es a_^ 

The word number and its derivatives may be 
similarly abbreviated : 

number z_^ numberd <:_^ 

320 Dates L B (Library Bureau) dates are 
simplest and best for longhand. P S conforms to 
their legible and logical order. 

The longhand abbreviations for the 12 months are: 

Ja F Mr Ap My Je JI Ag S O N D, 



i8o Personal Shorthand 

written between the day and the year in logical 
order. The letters occurring between the figures 
eliminate all necessity for punctuation. Only the 
last 2 figures of 20th century years need be written. 

4 Jl 1776 3 S 1887 II N 18 23 Je 21 

Never use, in longhand or shorthand, the awkward and 
illegible "number dates" still common in many offices. They 
are often ambiguous (usage is divided as to whether 3-9 is 
to be read "third of September" or "March ninth"), always 
awkward, and average longer to write than the explicit and 
obvious L B dates. 

The shorthand abbreviations for the 12 months 
are: 

written between the day and the year as in the 
L B dates. 

4^^177^ 3^1237 II ^/S 23 ^ Zi 

Days of the week are written in full with the 
forms in the left-hand columns below. As part of 
a complete date the short forms of the right-hand 
columns may be used. 

Sunday ^-v_— c — ^_ 

Monday C^ <S Thursday C^^ O 

Tuesday — ^—^ a Friday 4 — t 4. 

Wednesday ^^^-^'— ^-'— ' Saturday 



Numbers Dates Titles Proper names i8l 

321 Titles When immediately followd by a 
proper tiame familiar titles may be abbreviated as 
in longhand 

^Mr y^ 'Proi I Lt .y^ Gen ^ 

^Mrs /^ 2Rev ^ Capt \^ Com \^ 

Miss /"^'^ ^Gov V> Maj /^ Sen ^-^ 

Dr < — Pres 1^ Col \ Rep ^ 

^ See § 225. ^ See § 240. 
Note these 2 forms. Compare §300. 
gentleman ""V""^ gentlemen ""V^ 

322 Initials Initials must be written legibly. 
Write them in shorthand — P 5 is more legible 
than the average longhand. 

Consonant initials except c q x are written by 
the corresponding consonant stems. Vowel ini- 
tials and c are written by their a b c names, q 
and X by their fonetic equivalents. 



A 


c 


B 


1 


c ^ 


D _ 






E 


n 


F 


) 


G \ 


H <^ 






I 


V 


J 


^ 


K \ 


L y 


M ^ 


N 





. 


P 




Q ^ 


R y 


S ^ 


T 


U 


^ 


V 


) 


w -- 


X \. 


Y ^ 


Z 



li82 Personal Shorthand 

Writers who prefer, from sad experience with other short- 
hand systems, to write initials in longhand, should write them 
always with small letters and joind together. 

H White A c/"^ G W Black fur l^ 

Nowhere, in shorthand or longhand, is there need for a 
period following initials. 



323 Proper names Proper names, whether 
of persons or places, should be written with un- 
usual care and fulness, rarely omitting even medial 
vowels (except a) except in familiar names of 
common occurence. Write them in shorthand, 
however. There is but one reason or excuse for 
ever writing a proper name, or any other word, in 
longhand instead of P S, and that is to record an 
unusual or unfamiliar spelling. 

The commonest personal names in which medial 
vowels other than a are omitted are: 



George "V^ 


Elizabeth 


Henry <r-"^ 


Helen 


Note forms for 




Thomas — r--'''~^ 


William 



i. 



The guttural sound usually speld ch, which does not occur 
in English, may be distinguisht from k in foreign names by a 
light tick thru stem ki; 

Loch -^V Bach U^ 



Numbers Dates Titles Proper names 183 

Place names should be written in full or, in ad- 
dresses, by transliteration of recognized abbrevia- 
tions. 

Cal \^ 111 ^ NY ^c^ Pa L 
Note these 2 abbreviations for general use: 

United States cJ^ United States of America ^^ 

Compare U S and U S A, § 327 

When immediately preceded by a proper name 
or number, the familiar abbreviations for street 
avenue road place may be written 

street ^ (St) ^ road (Rd) ^ 

avenue (Av) ) place (PI) I 

^ Written str instead of st to distinguish unmistakably 
from -St written for ordinal numbers. 

324 Reading Exercise For key see P S Ex 

324-k. 





325 Writing exercise For key see P S Ex 

325-k. 

Good name in man and woman, dear my lord, 
Is the immediate jewel of their souls: 

Who steals my purse steals trash; 'tis something, nothing; 
'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands; 
But he that filches from me my good name 
Robs me of that which not enriches him. 
And makes me poor indeed. (Shakspere) 



Nonce forms New outlines 185 

In life's small things be resolute and great 

To keep thy muscle traind: know'st thou when Fate 

Thy measure takes, or when she'll say to thee 

" I find thee worthy : do this deed for me " ? {Lowell) 

If a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, 
or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor, tho he build 
his house in the woods the world will make a beaten path to 
his door. {Elbert Hubbard) 



NONCE FORMS NEW OUTLINES (23) 

326 Nonce forms A long word, or frase, 
ordinarily very infrequent will sometimes occur 
repeatedly in a particular piece of writing. Typi- 
cal examples of such occurence are technical or 
scientific terms in a lecture or college course, or 
proper names in a particular correspondence. 
Such cases should be written by a special tem- 
porary personal abbreviation, known as a noyice 
form because used only for a particular occasion 
or for the nonce. 

Nonce forms should always be keyd, at their 
first occurence and also at the beginning of the 
particular notes in which they are used, by writing 
with them in fully written shorthand (or to record 
an unusual or unfamiliar spelling, in longhand) 
the word or frase which they represent. 

Principles may be irregularly applied, or general 
rules violated, in a properly keyd nonce form. 
Typical examples, with the appropriate full form 
key for each, are — 



1 86 Personal Shorthand 

In notes of a psychology lecture 

intelligence psycho-analysis 

^ ^-^ -^ -^ 

In notes of a calculus course 
infinitesimal differentiate 

In shorthand work 
shorthand stenographer 

^ ^^ 

Never use nonce forms except in the appropriate 
notes in which they are properly keyd. 

The breve dot (§ 327) and intersection (§ 328) 
are of particular value in devising nonce forms. 

327 Breve dot Unfonetic abbreviations taken 
from longhand practise, especially those consisting 
of the initial letters of words, may be distinguisht 
by a light dot, the breve dot, immediately follow- 
ing the end of the last sign — corresponding to 
the conventional use of a period after longhand 
abbreviations. The breve dot may be used simi- 
larly following nonce forms (§ 326), which may 
safely be made much shorter if the breve dot is 
used. 

Do not overwork this useful device as a substitute for writing 
legible shorthand. Its legitimate use is for familiar unfonetic 
abbreviations or extraordinary personal use. 



Nonce forms New outlines 187 

fob \ N E A (National 

(free on board) k Education Ass'n) '^' 

cod I S S B (Simplified P 

(cash on deliver}) ' £___ . Spelling Board) 

^^ . 1 lUS 

(Bachelor of Arts) | ^ ^ ^— . 

LI D ^—^ lU S ^ 

(Doctor of Laws) — ^ ^ '^-'"t. 

1 Compare United States, United States of America (§ 323). 

The plural or possessive of any form written 
with the breve dot may be exprest by writing the 
small circle in place of the breve dot. 

lexicographer -^''^r lexicographers --^"^^ 

328 Intersection Frases, especially proper 
names, of frequent occurence in your own writing 
may be given brief yet distinctive outlines by 
intersection — writing one stroke thru another. A 
second stroke which will not intersect the first 
distinctly because they are parallel may be written 
very close to the first stroke, a little below and to 
the right. Use intersected forms only for frases of 
frequent occurence in your own writing. Typical 
examples are: 

New York Central Rr ^__^J7^ accounts payable 'Nso 

Pennsylvania Rr \^ bill of particulars || « 

National Bank 1 bill of lading _)y 

Federal Reserve Bank / 1 Personal Shorthand (P 5) 'T~" 



1 88 Personal Shorthand 

329 New outlines The words which you 
have already studied in the text ov P S Exercises 
make up at least |, probably more than ^, of all 
the words you will have occasion to write. -^^ of 
the remaining words which you personally are 
likely to use you will meet, and work out the out- 
lines for, in the first few weeks of active personal 
use of P S. The suggestions following will help 
you to master these words, and the few new words 
which will continue to turn up, in the quickest and 
most effective way. 

The first and fundamental principle, in dealing 
with any new word in taking notes, is to write 
something, in shortha^id, without delay. If you put 
down the principal sounds of a word in order, 
never omitting initial or final vowels, you may have 
a long or awkward outline but you will have a 
legible one. If the form seems awkward or uncer- 
tain as you write, encircle it, with a single quick 
motion, and at the first opportunity examine it 
and improve it. 

Thus if you met the word eleemosynary for the first time 
and merely put down every sound in order you would probably 
get something like form (i) below, which is long but more legible 
than longhand for it expresses exactly every sound. If you 
encircled and studied this for future use, you might well decide 
that form (2) was sufficient and unmistakable. 

Similarly on first meeting the word transcendentalism you 
might possibly write form (i) below. Encircling and studying 
this (compare such words as transportation, § 262, consent, 
§ 282, experimental, § 239, etc) would probably give you form 
(2), while if you expected to meet the word repeatedly for a 




Nonce forms New outlines 189 

time, as in the notes of a course on philosophy, you might devise 
form (3) as a nonce form. 

eleemosynary transcendentalism 



(1) c-^ y (I) 

(2) -^ (-^) 

(3) ^-y 

In studying to improve any new outline, ask 
yourself these 4 questions in order: 

1 Have I written the correct sounds? 

2 Should I Insert or omit a medial vowel? 

3 Should I write a variable stem down In- 
stead of up, or use a compound sign Instead of 
separate stems, or the medial circle for stem s 
or z, or vice versa? 

4 Is the word Important enough In my writing 
to justify a special contraction or nonce outline? 

Such study will always develop an outline which 
is both facile and legible. School yourself to write 
unfamiliar words in shorthand without hesitation, 
encircle and study any unsatisfactory outlines, and 
you will soon eliminate the necessity for such con- 
scious attention, and make P 6" an automatic and 
indispensable tool of your daily life. 

330 Reading exercise For key see P 5 Ex 330-k. 



Personal Shorthand 










dC 



I 






c 



C ( L U 

-N- )(0 



L^-. 



(_ 



^-U^ 



331 



Conclusion 191 

331 Writing exercise For key see P 5 Ex 

331-k. 

My heart goes out to the man who does his work when the 
"boss" is away as well as when he is at home. And the man 
who, when given a letter for Garcia, quietly takes the missive 
without asking any idiotic questions, and with no lurking in- 
tention of chucking it into the nearest sewer, or of doing aught 
else but deliver it, never gets "laid off," nor has to go on a 
strike for higher wages. Civilization is one long anxious search 
for just such individuals. Anything such a man asks shall be 
granted; his kind is so rare that no employer can afford to let 
him go. He is wanted in every city, town, and village — in 
every office, shop, store, and factory. The world cries out for 
such ; he is needed and needed badly — the man who can carry 
a message to Garcia. {Elbert Hubbard) 



CONCLUSION (24) 

332 Final review Your shorthand writing, 
and reading, ability is determind not by the signs, 
forms, and principles which you have studied but 
by those which you have at your ready command. 
For this reason frequent and thoro review is of the 
greatest value until, thru practical experience, 
your knowledge oi P S has become, like your pres- 
ent longhand ability, automatic and unconsciously 
applied. 

The review schedule of § 333 following will help 
you to review Part 4 most effectively. After com- 
pleting your study of Part 4 (including the follow- 
ing sections) it will be particularly helpful to review 
briefly the entire text, which in the light of your 



192 ' Personal Shorthand 

previous study will now present itself as an or- 
ganized whole. 

333 Review schedule Review Part 4, with 
the help of this schedule, till as you read each line 
of the schedule you can pause and recall the essen- 
tial facts coverd by that head. Review the reading 
and writing exercises as directed by § 281. 

Affixes, §291. Prefixes, §292-295. Inflec- 
tional endings, § 296. Other suffixes, § 299-303. 

Outline formation, § 306-310; vowel implica- 
tion, §311; natural distortions, §312. Retouch- 
ing notes, § 313. 

Numbers, § 316-318; number abbreviations, 
§319. Dates, §320. Titles, §321; initials, 
§322; proper names, §323. 

Nonce outlines, §326; breve dot, §327; inter- 
section, § 328. New outlines, § 329. 

Reading exercises: §297, 304, 314, 324, 330. 
Writing exercises: § 298, 305, 315, 325, 331. 

334 Shorthand penmanship Shorthand 
must be understood, to be sure, but it must be 
written as well. Constant attention to the de- 
tails of shorthand penmanship is an important 
factor in effective mastery of P S. Review § 27-30 
and be sure that your practise conforms in all re- 
spects to the instructions there given. 

Write with a light, sure touch. Shade heavy 
signs with a single, firm, unhesitating pressure. 
Keep your pen close to the paper and moving 



Conclusion 193 

quickly in a straight line, with no waste motions 
or stops, between outHnes. 

Much has been written on the relative merits of 
"muscular movement" (that is, arm and shoulder 
muscle) penmanship and finger movement pen- 
manship, and the last word has not been said. 
In fact, the strongest advocates of arm and shoul- 
der muscle penmanship do use the finger muscles 
in forming the smallest signs, such as hooks and 
circles; while the partizans of finger muscle pen- 
manship do use the larger muscles, consciously or 
unconsciously, to some extent; and the wrist and 
forearm muscles do, and should, play an important 
part in all styles of shorthand writing. This ad- 
vice is safe under all circumstances: use the largest 
muscles which you can control accurately, and strive 
in general to become able to control the larger 
muscles. 

335 Speed practise P S avoids as far as 
possible the common but pernicious tendency to 
separate shorthand instruction into a long period 
of theory work, in which little progress is made 
toward applying the knowledge supposed to be 
acquired, followd by a still longer period of speed 
practise, supposed to develop the preceding theo- 
retic knowledge into effective shorthand ability. 
The carefully graded performance standards for 
drills and exercises, and systematic reviews, of the 
P S text and exercises should have developt in 
you by this time the practical ability to write 



194 Personal Shorthand 

legible shorthand at double your best longhand 
speed. This, however, is by no means your final 
shorthand speed (which should be from 3 to 4 
times your longhand speed), and the methods of 
speed practise may well be used to increase it. 

Increast shorthand speed comes from 2 factors: 
improved shorthand penmanship, and a completer 
and readier shorthand vocabulary. A moderate 
amount of speed practise will be most helpful to 
both factors. Too much, however, unless super- 
vised by an experienced writer or teacher, may 
develop bad writing habits instead of good, or 
waste your time and effort. 

For most effective supplementary speed prac- 
tise proceed about as follows: 

1 Select 400 or 500 words (2 pages of an average book — 
half a column of an average newspaper) of connected matter, 
preferably similar in form or subject to the kind of writing 
you are most likely to do for yourself. Write this, without pre- 
vious practise, from dictation at a speed which is just a little 
faster than you can write accurate shorthand forms easily. 
Force yourself to write something, in shorthand, without hesita- 
tion, for unfamiliar words. 

2 Study your notes carefully. Encircle every doubtful or 
unsatisfactory outline, and revise it, referring to the text if 
necessary to determine the best form. Practise the corrected 
forms. After you are satisfied with every outline, copy your 
notes several times (twice, at least — perhaps as many as a 
dozen times), writing as fast as you can form strictly accurate 
and legible outlines, and reading back every copy after you 
have written it. 

3 Write the selection again, once or at most twice, from dic- 
tation at the highest speed that you can record accurately. 



Conclusion 195 

which will be considerably faster than the first time; and read 
back your notes, or make a careful transcript, typewritten or 
in longhand, of your final writing. 

Repeated dictation practise on familiar matter is apt to 
result in carelessly written forms which are read from memory. 
For this reason, and because such practise as above suggested 
is more effective, do not repeat dictation practise on one selec- 
tion more than advised above. 

Such practise, faithfully persisted in, will give 
you as nothing else can a genuine mastery of 
Personal Shorthand. 

336 P S uses The immediate value of 
Personal Shorthand for any given purpose may de- 
pend on saving time, effort, or ideas, — often all 
3. A few of the more obvious or more general 
uses are suggested below. 

Uses which depend primarily on the saving of 
time include business conference or telephone notes, 
college or other lecture notes, interviewing, and in 
general all memoranda where statements must be 
written down on the instant, without interrupting 
the speaker, or not at all. 

The lawyer in court, the debater, the legislator, or any 
member of a deliberative body, who is equipt with P S has an 
immense advantage over an opponent not so equipt, in his 
ability to jot down statements for comment or points for rebuttal. 

Personal correspondence is transformd, both in 
number and length of letters likely to be written 
and in freedom and naturalness of expression, by 
the saving of time and effort effected by P S. 



196 Personal Shorthand 

Other uses of P 6" in which the saving of effort is 
a chief consideration include high school and col- 
lege composition (P 6* notes may be interlined, 
transposed, or otherwise revised at least as freely 
as longhand) ; abstracts of reading, references, 
bibliographies, etc, in fact most of the large amount 
of writing done by the college or university student; 
the professional man's case notes (in which the 
time-saving element is often important as well) ; 
and the work of the professional writer in any 
field, to whom P S will save an almost incalculable 
amount of drudgery. 

Many or most of the effort-saving uses oi P S are dependent 
for their value on the explicit and permanent legibility oi P S 
notes, and would be either unsafe or uneconomical with existing 
professional shorthand systems, in which notes so often become 
illegible if not transcribed. P S notes, even if hastily written, 
may be filed for reference — if read over and retoucht as suggested 
by §313. with nonce outlines properly keyd as directed by§326 — 
with absolute confidence in their legibility when required, how- 
ever great the interval of time. 

In original or creative work of any kind P S 
has a value, in the preserv^ation of important ideas 
which would escape a slower pen, less tangible 
than the savings of time and effort but often far 
transcending both. 

In addition to those uses in w^hich P S has im- 
portant intrinsic merit, various uses may be de- 
vised or encouraged in connection with school 
instruction, which, without detriment to other 



Conclusion 



197 



school work, afford important contributions in 
developing P S ability. Such are requiring class 
or school communications to be in shorthand, or 
particularly, permitting and encouraging use of 
P S for all written work of English courses. 

Such use should not be considerd as subtracting from the 
time and effort now devoted to English work, for the time 
spent in the shorthand class on matters which belong otherwise 
in the English class — punctuation, spelling, pronunciation, and 
the like — will more than offset the slight distraction which use 
of shorthand may be assumed to introduce into the English 
work. 



337 Reading exercise For key see P S Ex 

337-k. 




198 



Personal Shorthand 




For key see P S Ex 



It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the 
unfinisht work which they who fought here have thus far so 
nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the ■ 
great task remaining before us — that from these honord dead 
we take increast de^'otion to that cause for which they gave 
the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve 
that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, 
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that gov- 
ernment of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not 
perish from the earth. {Abraham Lincoln) 

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firm- 
ness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive 
on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; 
to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his 
widow and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and 
cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all 
nations. {Abraham Lincoln) 



Conclusion 1 99 

339 Writing speed test Test and record 
your present shorthand writing speed by means of 
the interHned writing test oi P S Ex 339-t. 

340 Learn by teaching The most thoro and 
effective means of learning is to teach. No other 
method will so quickly reveal deficiencies or un- 
certainties in your own knowledge. P S text and 
exercises are so complete and definite that you 
need not hesitate to teach the system to a friend 
with their help. 

Personal correspondence, which may be begun, 
by the method suggested in § 158, as early as the 
end of Part 2, is one of the best means of develop- 
ing P S ability — and every one of your corre- 
spondents w^ho knows P S adds to its usefulness 
for 3'Ou. Pass it along. 

Pending publication of a Correction Key specially adapted 
to this purpose, private instruction by mail may be simplified 
and made more effective by writing near any corrected form, 
in red ink, number of section oi P S text which applies — for 
example, writing beside a form in which the medial circle was 
written with wrong motion 74. 

Read shorthand. Write shorthand. Use your 
shorthand, and, almost before you realize, it will 
become an invaluable, an indispensable tool of 
your daily life. 

^r Write Personal Shorthand 



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I SCHOOL EFFICIENCY MONOGRAPHS | 

I COMMERCIAL TESTS I 

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I '"p^HIS is a working handbooic of the National Business | 

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I tests in raising the standards of work in schools and | 

I offices. . = 

I Kraft, 'vii -\- 2i6 pages. Price Z1.20 I 

I WORLD BOOK COMPANY | 

i YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NeW YoRK = 

I 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago I 
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I FUNDAMENTALS OF HIGH | 

I SCHOOL MATHEMATICS | 

I Jfi Epoch - 7naking Textbook Desig?ied to Follow Arithmetic f 

I By Harold O. Rugg and John R. Clark i 

i ' I ^ HE authors have assembled in this ninth-grade | 

I X. course the most important mathematical tools and I 

I notions which all children should know. The excessive | 

I manipulation of symbolisms of formal algebra has been | 

I replaced by material which is, both from the mathematical | 

I and social point of view, of far greater value. Specific- | 

I ally, graphs, methods of direct and indirect measurement, | 

I the properties of the right triangle, and a comprehensive f 

I treatment of the concept of relationship betiveen changing = 

I quantities (i. e., functionality) have replaced the elaborate | 

I treatment of factoring, fractions, and operations with long | 

I polynomials. I 

I The selection of material for this course is quite in agree- | 

I ment with the recommendations of the National Commit- | 

I tee on Mathematics Requirements. The authors have | 

I sensed fully the best thought of the day in the reorgani- | 

I zation of first-year high school mathematics courses. I 

I Among the unique impressions made upon the reviewer, | 

I the following stand out most prominently: I 

I 1 The careful explanations and development of | 

I new processes; | 

I 2 The wholesome omission of formal material ; | 

I 3 The excellent presentation of word-problems; | 

I 4 The unique organization of special products i 

I and factoring; 1 

I 5 The "timed practice exercises" for developing | 

I skill in essential tool processes; and § 

I 6 The emphasis upon the notion of relationship | 

I between variable quantities. | 

I Cloth. xv+j68 pages. Price $1.68 | 

I Answer Book. 24. pages. Price 16 cents | 

I WORLD BOOK COMPANY | 

5 YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NeW YoRK = 

I 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago = 
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uiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiinriiiiiiriiiriiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiitiiiiiiiiiitiiniiiiiiiiriiirtiiiiriMiiiiiMiiiiiniiMiiiiiiJiriiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiie 

I CONSERVATION of HEALTH | 

I "Our national health is physically our greatest asset. To | 

I prevent any possible deterioration of the American stock | 

i should be a national ambition." — Theodore Roosevelt. i 



I PRIMER OF HYGIENE 

i By John W. Ritchie of the College of William and Mary in 

I Virginia and J. S. Caldwell of the State College of Wash- 

I ington. Illustrated. Cloth. 

I The purpose of this first book is to teach the lower 

I grade pupil what he himself can do to keep his body 

i in health — personal hygiene. 

I PRIMER OF SANITATION 

i By John W. Ritchie. Illustrated. Cloth. 

I The second book in the series and the first in the Eng- 

I lish language to teach fifth or sixth grade pupils how 

I to escape germ diseases and how to cooperate in con- 

1 serving community health — public hygiene. 

j PRIMER OF PHYSIOLOGY 

I By John W. Ritchie. Illustrated. Cloth. 

§ Teaches health conservation through practical appli- 

I cations to daily life of modern hygiene based on 

i physiological principles as required in sixth or seventh 

I grades; the most advanced of the three primers. 

I HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 

I By John W. Ritchie. Illustrated in black and in colors. 

I Cloth. 

I An advanced book which completes the series and 

I gives the essentials of physiology, and the knowledge 

I of hygiene, bacteriology, and sanitation that every 

= American citizen needs. 



I WORLD BOOK COMPANY | 

i Yonkers-on-IIudson, New York 5 

I 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago | 

§ iiiiiiiiii iiMiMiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiniiiii iiiiiii mill iiiiiimi iiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiimuiuuuuii 



j|iiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriirMiiiiiiiiriiiiiiii iiriiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilf 

I COURTIS STANDARD I 

I PRACTICE TESTS | 

I By ^ I 

I S. A. Courtis and LenaA.Shaw | 

I Directorof Educational Research Supervisor of Penmanship | 

I Detroit Public Schools | 

I 'TpHIS material, like the Courtis Standard Practice Tests | 

I X in Arithmetic, is thoroughly standardized. Three years' | 

I trial in schools, before it was placed on the market, left no doubt | 

I of its success in use. | 

I Convinced that writing is a trick which the pupil must learn for | 

I himself, though his teacher may help him at times, the authors | 

I have placed before the child definite, attainable goals, based on | 

I standards, and have provided exercises that enable him to reach | 

I those goals. Through these exercises, the individual needs of the | 

I children are met, and the routine of classroom work is avoided. | 

I Children learn quickly how to use the material, and enjoy using it. | 

I Research and supervisory tests are included in the material; | 

I by their use it is easy to discover just what kind of drill work | 

1 children need, and how much. | 

I The results from using the tests are very remarkable, many | 

i instances showing that even with less practice time than usual, | 

I children doubled their speed and quality of writing when they | 

I had used the Courtis Standard Practice Tests in Handwriting. | 

I Bulletin No. i gives complete information on the material. | 

I Student's Daily Lesson Book. 10 cents net. | 

I Student's Daily Record Card (including Graph Blank). = 

i 3 cents net. _ | 

I Teacher's Manual (including Class Record — Research | 

I Tests). 20 cents net. i 

I Class Record. (Daily Scores and Time Cost, for teacher's | 

I use.) 5 cents net. , | 

I Specimen Set. 4^ cents postpaid. | 

I WORLD BOOK COMPANY | 

= YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NeW YoRK = 

I 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago = 

^IMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllllllllllllllllllllllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIillllllllllllllllllinilllllllllllllllUllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllr: 



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I Loyal Citizenship I 

I By Thomas Harrison Reed | 

I Professor of Go-vernntent, JJni'versity of California 1 

I npHIS textbook on citizenship and its problems | 

I JL for the junior high school acquaints the young | 

I student with the fundamental principles of gov- | 

I ernment, economics, and sociology underlying all | 

I community life. It teaches him that sound gov- | 

I ernment rests upon the industry and high charac- | 

I ter of its citizenry. Jt gives him a practical con- | 

I ception of the scope of his future duties. It | 

I purposes to make him a loyal patriot without | 

I encouraging him to be priggish in his enthusiasm | 

I for his country. | 

I The motive of the book is the training of students | 

I for citizenship. To this end it emphasizes the | 

I principles underlying government and society. | 

I It impresses on the student at every step his | 

I ethical and civic responsibilities m relation to his | 

I rights and privileges. | 

I Loyal Citizenship will develop an intelligent atti- | 

I tude towards the progress of political and social | 

I institutions and will give the young student good | 

I reasons for his faith and pride in the ideals of | 

I America. | 

I Cloth. X -\- ZZZ pages. Illustrated | 



I WORLD BOOK COMPANY | 

I YONKERS-ON-HUDSON, NeW YoRK | 

j 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago | 

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