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Full text of "Perthshire"

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PHYSICAL MAP OF 

PERTH 




The, Cambridge Vrayersity fr 



52 Trinity Gtuk. 

Parliamentary Divisions ._ J5ASTBRN 




CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 

SCOTLAND 
General Editor: W. MURISON, M.A. 



PERTHSHIRE 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FETTER LANE, E.G. 
C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 




j : 100, PRINCES STREET 
: A. ASHER AND CO. 
ILetpjtg: F. A. BROCKHAUS 
jjkfo gork: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
ant) Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 



All rights reserved 



K \ \ f A "\ 

Cambridge County Geographies 

PERTHSHIRE 






PETER MACNAIR, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Curator of the Natural History Collections in the Glasgow Museums 
Lecturer on Mineralogy and Geology in the Technical College, Glasgow 



With Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations 



Cambridge : 

at the University Press 

1912 







(ZTambttoge: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PREFACE 

~T?OR their kindness in supplying various photographs 
* reproduced in this volume I have to thank Mr 
James W. Reoch, Mr W. Lamond Howie, Mr George 
Herriot, Mr Charles Kirk, Mr John Annan, Mr James 
S. Boyd, and Mr P. D. Malloch. For the folding 
panorama of the Grampians, opposite p. 12, my thanks 
are due to Mr John Ritchie. For permission to photo- 
graph the bronze weapons on p. 102 I am indebted to 
Mr Ludovic MacLellan Mann. For many valuable 
suggestions and aid in connection with the book I have 
to acknowledge the assistance of my chief, Mr James 
Paton, of my colleagues Mr John Fleming and Mr 
David Gourlay, and of Mr James Park. My thanks are 
also due to Mr J. W. Reoch for the revision of the final 

proofs. 

P. M. 

January 1912. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

1. County and Shire. Origin and meaning of Perthshire i 

2. General Characteristics and Natural Conditions . 3 

3. Size. Shape. Boundaries . . . . .10 

4. Surface and General Features 12 

5. Watershed. Rivers. Lakes . . . . .21 

6. Geology and Soil 32 

7. Scenery and Geology 43 

8. Natural History 50 

9. Climate and Rainfall 60 

10. People Race, Type, Language, Settlements, Popula- 

tion 6 9 

11. Agriculture .... 74 

12. Industries and Manufactures 81 

13. Mines and Minerals 8 5 

14. Fisheries and Fishing Stations .... 90 

15. History of the County . . .. -93 

1 6. Antiquities IO1 



viii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

17. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical . . . .109 

1 8. Architecture (A) Castellated . .- . . -117 

19. Architecture (c) Municipal and Domestic . .125 

20. Communications Past and Present . . .134 

21. Administration and Divisions Ancient and Modern 140 

22. The Roll of Honour ... . . . . .145 

23. The Chief Towns and Villages of Perthshire. . 156 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Firth of Tay 

Falls on the Dochart .... 6 

Comrie . 

... a 

Ben More . ,- 

Killin Hills. (Phot. J. W. Reoch) .... , 5 

View from Summit of Ben Lawers. (Phot. W. L. Howie) 17 

Dollar and the Ochil Hills 2O 

Near the Source of the Tay .22 

Glen Dochart 24 

Kinnoull Hill and the Valley of the Tay . . .26 
Loch Katrine . . . . . . . . .28 

Loch Tay ......... 30 

Geological Section across the Grampians from R. Garry to 

R- Tay ... 37 

Geological Section across Strathmore to the Ochils . . 39 
Campsie Linn on the Tay ...... 42 

Glen Ample. (Phot. }. W. Reoch) .... 46 

Ben Venue 47 

Schiehallion ......... 48 

Dryas octopetala on Ben Laoigh. (Phot. G. Herriot) . 53 
Red Deer, Glenartney. (Phot. C. Kirk) . . . .55 

Hen Capercailzie on Nest. (Phot. C. Kirk) . . -57 
Wind Roses ...... 62 



x ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Rainfall Chart 66 

New Stream Course produced by sudden fall of rain. (Phot. 

J. Annan) ........ 67 

Population Curves of Perthshire, Renfrewshire, Edinburgh- 
shire, Lanarkshire . . . . . . .72 

Highland Bull .. . . . . . . -77 

Falls of Bruar ........ 80 

Arkwright Mills, Stanley . . . . . .83 

Pullar's Dye Works, Perth 84 

Aberfoyle Slate Quarries. (Phot. J. S. Boyd) ... 89 
Salmon, 55 Ibs. (Phot. P. D. Malloch) . . . .91 

Gowrie House in 1805 ....... 97 

Gathering Stone, Dunblane . . . . . .98 

Stone Axe, found in Perthshire . . . . . 101 

Bronze Spear and Sword from Blairgowrie, and Axe from 

Comrie. (Phot. J. W. Reoch) 

Roman Camp, Ardoch ....... 

Celtic Cross, Glencarse ....... 

Round Tower, Abernethy ...... 

Dunblane Cathedral ....... 

Dunkeld Cathedral 

St John's Church, Perth 

Doune Castle ......... 

Elcho Castle 

Drummond Castle ........ 

Castle Huntly 

Tower of Kinnaird, Carse of Gowrie .... 

Fair Maid's House, Perth ...... 

Scone Palace ......... 

Rossie Priory ......... 

Taymouth Castle ........ 

Blair Castle 

Cottages at Killin 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XI 



General Wade's Road, Glen Ogle. (Phot. J. W. Reoch) 135 

Kinclaven Ferry 

Glenalmond School . 

Lady Nairne . 

Neil Gow . 

Dr James Croll 

Sir David Baird . . . 

William, First Earl of Mansfield . 

Monument to Black Watch . 

Aberfoyle 

East Mill, Auchterarder .... 

Birnam .... 

Blair Atholl 

Crieff 

Doune Pistols 

Killin 

Perth, from Kinnoull Hill 

Tay Street, Perth ,73 

Coronation Chair . . . . . . . .175 

Diagrams 1 



MAPS 

Physical Map of Perthshire Front Cover 

Geological Map of Perthshire .... Back Cover 

Panorama of Mountains seen from Corsiehill, Perth . Facing 12 
Rainfall Map of Scotland ...... 65 

Map showing Density of Population in Perthshire . . 73 

The illustrations on pp. 4, 6, 8, 13, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 42, 47, 
48, 80, 83, 98, 104, 107, 108, 112, 114, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 
126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 133, 139, 149. '56, i57 '59. '60, 162, 



xii ILLUSTRATIONS 

165, 170, 172, 173 are from photographs by Messrs J. Valentine 
& Sons; those on pp. 26, 115, 144, and 175 were supplied by 
Messrs F. Frith & Co.; those on pp. 146, 152, 154 are from 
photographs by Messrs Annan & Sons; that on p. 97 was re- 
produced from Dr Hume Brown's School History of Scotland by 
permission of Messrs Oliver & Boyd ; that on p. 77 is from the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica (nth Edition) ; that on p. 84 was kindly 
supplied by Messrs Pullar & Co. 



I. County and Shire. Origin and 
Meaning of Perthshire. 

The term "shire" is derived from Anglo-Saxon jar, 
an administrative division presided over by the ealdorman 
and the sheriff (the shire-reeve). The term "county," on 
the other hand, arose after William I conquered England, 
when the lands were taken from the English earls and 
given to William's companions or comites. Each district 
was called a comitatus and from this we get the word 
"county." Like a great many other social institutions 
this division of our country into shires has been popularly 
attributed to the wisdom of some of our early rulers, 
King Alfred in particular being supposed to have taken 
an important part in the apportioning out of the country. 
It appears to be tolerably certain, however, that this 
theory of the origin of the different shires is exactly the 
reverse of what actually took place, the county not having 
been formed by the division of the country as a whole 
but by the aggregation of certain portions so as to form 
a county. From this point of view the county is simply 
the representative of a small community that has been 
merged into the unity of Great Britain. This opinion 
seems to be fully borne out by a consideration of many 

i 



M. P. 



2 PERTHSHIRE 

of our most important counties. It can also be shown 
that the county has been formed in a similar way by the 
aggregation of parishes. The parish, the manor and the 
township are traceable to independent tribal settlement. 
From this it will be seen that our counties have gradually 
grown up under varying conditions, and the boundaries 
have probably been shifted many times. In many cases 
the boundaries have been fixed by such a physical feature 
as the watershed of the country, this being easily recog- 
nised and utilised as a barrier between the adjacent 
divisions. 

The origin of the name Perth is not very clear. 
Boece thought that it was derived from the Gaelic Bar 
tatba^ "height of the Tay," referring to Kinnoull Hill, 
which rises abruptly from the Tay to the east of the city. 
On the other hand Stokes, who is probably right, makes 
it Pictish perth, "a thicket," and neither height 'over the 
Tay, nor confluence of the Tay, Aber tatha, as main- 
tained by those who consider that the town was originally 
situated at the confluence of the Almond with the Tay. 

It ought to be stated at the very outset that the great 
factor which has determined the present geographical con- 
ditions of Perthshire has been the Highland boundary fault 
or line of demarcation between the highland and lowland 
portions of the county. In the course of these pages we 
hope to be able to show that not only are the scenic and 
physiographical features of the shire directly due to the 
different geological structure of these two great natural 
divisions, but also that its soils, climate, natural history, 
agriculture, population, the distribution of its towns and 



COUNTY AND SHIRE 3 

villages, its people, their language and their history, have 
largely been determined by this all important factor. 

The shire lies in one compact mass. Formerly it had 
two small detached portions in the south, on the Forth. 
One of these was included in the parish of Kippen, which 
lay wholly across the Forth, while the other embraced the 
parishes of Culross and Tulliallan now in Fifeshire. 

In the neighbourhood of Stirling Logic parish enclosed 
a detached portion of Fifeshire, and Collace parish near 
Perth a portion of Forfarshire. Many of these anomalies 
have recently been done away with. How they originally 
came to be arranged in this whimsical fashion is not easy 
of explanation ; but it is supposed that when the counties 
were being formed the landlords put their lands into 
those districts in which they had the greatest interest. 
The origin of the parish boundaries is equally difficult of 
explanation as many of them are very irregular and appear 
to be of a purely arbitrary character. 



2. General Characteristics and Natural 
Conditions. 

The county of Perth is situated in the middle of 
Scotland and, with the exception of the small tidal tract 
represented by the alluvial flat that lies between the 
Sidlaws and the sea, known as the Carse of Cowrie, is 
wholly an inland county. 

Perthshire is bounded on the north-west by Inverness- 
shire, on the north by Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire, 



12 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 5 

on the east by Forfarshire, on the south-east by Fifeshire 
and Kinross-shire, on the south by Clackmannanshire and 
Stirlingshire, on the south-west by Stirlingshire and Dum- 
bartonshire, and on the west by Argyllshire. 

Sir Walter Scott in the Fair Maid of Perth says, 
"Amid all the provinces in Scotland if an intelligent 
stranger were asked to describe the most varied and the 
most beautiful it is probable he would name the county 
of Perth. A native also of any other district of Caledonia 
though his partialities might lead him to prefer his native 
county in the first instance would certainly class that of 
Perth in the second, and thus give its inhabitants a fair 
right to plead that prejudice apart Perthshire forms the 
fairest portion of the northern kingdom." 

Perthshire affords examples of the most romantic 
and grandest scenery in Scotland, much of which has 
been rendered classic by important events in Scottish 
history. Mountains, lakes, rivers, cascades, woods and 
rocks supply the elements that combine to make up all 
that is grand and beautiful in every landscape. In the 
course of a few miles one may pass from a deep ravine 
or rugged Alpine glen into a rich and open valley which 
partakes of the cultivated beauty of the lowlands and in 
the centre of which lie embosomed the waters of a great 
lake. Or one may follow the wanderings of a great river 
from its source among the mountains, whence, as a torrent 
and with a wild mountain cry, it precipitates itself over 
ledges of rock to become lost on the black moor beneath 
but after a course of many miles finds itself meandering 
through a spacious vale or widespread wooded plain. 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 7 

Geographically the mainland of Scotland can be divided 
into three parts, the Highlands, the Southern Uplands, and 
the Midland Valley, each characterised by a particular set 
of rocks and by a scenic aspect which is intimately con- 
nected with its geological structure. The dividing line 
between the Highlands and the Midland Valley, known 
as the great Highland boundary fault, crosses Scotland 
from shore to shore with a north-east and south-west 
trend. Geographically it divides the Highlands from the 
Lowlands and geologically the crystalline schists from the 
Old Red Sandstone. The position of this great line of 
demarcation has been more or less accurately fixed. It 
can be traced through Arran and Bute, thence from near 
Toward Castle to Innellan and across the eastern point 
of Rosneath Peninsula, and by Helensburgh across Loch 
Lomond to Balmaha. It enters Perthshire at Aberfoyle, 
passing through Callander, Comrie, Crieff, Birnam, Blair- 
gowrie to the Bridge of Cally and Alyth, where it leaves 

the county, striking north-eastwards to the sea at Stone- 

i 
haven. 

Situated as it is upon this great divisional line, Perth- 
shire is divided into two distinct regions the Highlands 
and the Lowlands. The greater part of the Highland 
region is open moorland ; large tracts of it, however, have 
been planted with larch and Scots fir. The Lowland 
region on the other hand is noted for its fertility, notably 
the valley of Strathmore and the Carse of Gowrie. The 
greater part of the county, however, is wholly unfit for 
the raising of grain or green crops, only about one-fifth 
of the entire area being cultivated. 



8 



PERTHSHIRE 



With only a few exceptions the rivers and streams 
flow in a south-easterly direction, and reach the ocean by 
the way of the Firth of Tay or the Firth of Forth. As 
a rule they issue from large elongated lochs situated in 
the main valleys. 

Its position in the very heart of Scotland has made 
Perthshire the scene of some of the most important and 




Comrie 

stirring events in Scottish history, and almost every part 
of the shire is connected in some way with the past 
history of the country. 

The great divisional line just referred to was that 
which originally separated the Celtic natives from the 
invading hordes from across the North Sea; and to this 
day it serves to mark off the areas occupied by the Gaelic- 
speaking and the English-speaking people. In the Lowland 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 9 

region we hear only English spoken, often with a strong 
northern accent. Scattered here and there over the great 
plain of Strathmore are numerous villages and towns, the 
houses of which are usually well built of solid stone and 
lime, and roofed with flagstones, slates, or thatch. The 
common fuel is coal brought by land or sea from the 
south. Immediately we pass to the north of the great 
boundary line, we meet with a totally different condition 
of things. The Gaelic language is now the characteristic 
tongue. Villages are few, and the houses are built simply 
of unhewn boulders taken from the surrounding fields, 
the binding materials being merely clay or earth. The 
interiors are of the simplest character and peat is largely 
used as fuel. That these features have been modified to 
some extent by the recent development of railways in the 
Highlands must be admitted, but the general contrast is 
still quite sufficient to mark off the one region from the 
other. 

In the Highlands the principal villages are situated 
either at the ends of the lochs or at some favourable point 
in the main valleys, while along the margin of the High- 
lands the villages have usually been built where the valleys 
open to the plain, as at Crieff and Callander. 

It is worthy of note that at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century Perthshire was the second most populous 
county in Scotland, Lanark having then only 22,ooo more 
inhabitants than Perth, whereas now Lanark has 1,2 1 6,000 
more inhabitants than Perth, and Perth stands ninth in 
point of population. The reason why Perth has made 
no progress is not far to seek, and is simply due to the 



10 PERTHSHIRE 

fact that Perthshire is entirely outside the bounds of the 
Carboniferous Formation, whose mineral wealth has been 
the great factor in the rapid rise and development of other 
counties during the last hundred years. 



3. Size. Shape. Boundaries. 

The county of Perth lies between 56 7' and 56 57' N. 
latitude and between 3 4' and 4 50' west longitude. In 
size it is the fourth largest county in Scotland. From 
east to west, its greatest length is about 70 miles, and its 
greatest breadth from north to south about 56 miles. Its 
total area is something like 2500 square miles. 

At some parts the boundaries are natural and well 
defined, while at others they are purely artificial and not 
so easy of definition. Beginning near Perth, the boundary 
line can be traced along the north bank of the Tay as far 
as Invergowrie, where it bends sharply northward and then 
westward. It then follows a somewhat arbitrary course, 
successively passing through or near Coupar-Angus, Alyth 
and Airlie: thence it proceeds along the western water- 
shed of Glen Isla. From that point it crosses a number 
of summits and saddle points including the Cairnwell Pass, 
over which the road to Braemar passes. This is probably 
the highest driving road regularly used in Great Britain. 
The boundary line can now be traced westward by the 
head of Glen Tilt, where it meets the junction of 
Aberdeen and Inverness at an altitude of 3267 feet and 
overlooks the headwaters of the infant Dee. Continuing 



SIZE SHAPE BOUNDARIES ll 

in a westerly direction, it never drops lower than 3000 feet 
until it reaches Lochan Duin to the west of Glen Bruar. 
Still further west it crosses the Highland Railway line a 
little to the north of Dalnaspidal, at an altitude of 1454 
feet above the level of the sea. The boundary now follows 
the summits which lie to the east of Loch Ericht, con- 
tinuing to fall till it reaches the level of that loch at an 
altitude of 1153 feet. Skirting the south side of Ben 
Alder, it passes across the Moor of Rannoch, and, keep- 
ing to the highest ground, intersects the West Highland 
Railway near the headwaters of the Leven, and shortly 
after marches with the county of Argyll. From this 
point it cuts successively across the summits of Ben 
Creachan, Ben Achallader, Ben-a-Chaisteil and Ben 
Odhar, till it reaches the watershed between the river 
Lochy and the river Fillan. Thence it mounts the 
summit of Ben Laoigh (Ben Lui), having on the east the 
infant Tay, here known as the Coninish Water. This is 
the extreme western point of the boundary line, which 
now turns east marching with Dumbartonshire. It crosses 
the Falloch at Inverarnan and the West Highland Rail- 
way a little further on. Mounting again to the summits, 
it crosses to Glen Gyle, where it joins Stirlingshire. From 
thence it passes the head of Loch Katrine and skirts the 
east side of Loch Arklet, which is now being actively 
prepared as an addition to the Glasgow water supply. 
Keeping to the east side of Ben Lomond, it descends 
the Duchray Water to the neighbourhood of Aberfoyle. 
Striking eastward, it follows the line of the Forth to its 

O 7 

junction with the Allan Water about two miles from 



12 PERTHSHIRE 

Stirling; and just excluding Bridge of Allan, it sweeps 
past Sheriffmuir to Clackmannanshire. The boundary 
now crosses the Ochils to the neighbourhood of Dollar. 
Proceeding by the Yetts of Muckart and Fossaway, and 
keeping the high ground between Dunning and Milna- 
thort, it touches Kinross. From this point it strikes in a 
north-easterly direction across Glen Farg to the west of 
Newburgh on the Firth of Tay. It then bends sharply 
west along the south bank of the Tay to the Bridge of 
Earn, the point from which we started. 

Roughly then the boundary line of Perthshire may be 
defined as an irregular circle with its centre near the head 
of Glenalmond, and having a radius of about 32 miles and 
a circumference of over 300 miles. 



4. Surface and General Features. 

Perthshire is wholly an inland county with the 
exception of the small maritime tract between Perth 
and Invergowrie, known as the Carse of Gowrie. The 
county can be divided into two distinct parts, namely, 
the Highland region, which forms the north-western 
portion, and the Lowland region, which forms the south- 
eastern portion. The Grampian mountains, which cor- 
respond to the Highland portion of the county, enter it 
at the north-east corner. At that point they simply 
form the northern boundary line of the shire. But as 
they are traced westwards they spread further and further 
into the county till they practically occupy the whole 



? 5 

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N.W 





Panorama of Mountains seen from Corsiehill, Perth 








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SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 13 

of it from north to south. On the other hand, the 
Lowland division is broadest in the north-east and, when 
traced westwards, passes almost entirely out of the 
county. The southern boundary of the county between 
Invergowrie on the Firth of Tay to Stirling is marked 
by the Sidlaw and Ochil Hills. In the Highland region 
the mountains rise to an average elevation of about 





Ben More 

3000 feet, while many of the peaks exceed this altitude. 
In the south-west corner of Perthshire the chief mountains 
are Ben Laoigh (3708 feet), Ben Odhar (2948), Ben 
More (3843). On the ridge that separates Loch Tay 
and Glen Lyon are Ben Lawers (3984 feet), the highest 
mountain in Perthshire, Meall Garbh (3661), Meall nan 
Tarmachan (3421). Further east and in the same line 



14 PERTHSHIRE 

of bearing, Farragon Hill (2559) an( ^ Ben Vrackie ( 2 757) 
In the north-east of the county, and along the boundary 
of Atholl are Cam an Fhidhleir (3276), An Sgarsoch 
(3300), Cairnwell (3059), Ben-y-Gloe (3671) and Ben 
Vuroch (2961). The principal mountains on the ridge 
that separates the river Lyon and Loch Rannoch, are 
Schiehallion (3547 feet), Cam Gorm (3370), Cam Mairg 
(3419); north of Loch Lydoch and Loch Rannoch, 
Ben Alder (3757), Cam Dearg (3084 feet) ; and in the 
north-west of Perthshire and the neighbourhood of Loch 
Lyon, Ben Creachan (3540 feet), Ben Heasgarnich (3530), 
Meall Ghaordie (3407), Ben Vannoch (3125). The 
belt of high ground forming the Sidlaw and the Ochil 
Hills is separated from the Grampians by the lordly valley 
of Strathmore. The Ochils lie in the south of Perthshire 
and stretch from the Forth near Stirling to the neigh- 
bourhood of Perth. Some of the principal heights are 
as follows: Mickle Corum (1955), Blairdenon Hill (2072), 
Core Hill (1780), East Bow Hill (1562), Carlowrie Hill 
(1552), Muckle Law (1306), Rossie Law (1064), Skymore 
Hill (1302), Cock Law (1337), and Castle Law (1028). 
The Sidlaw Hills on the north side of the Firth of Tay 
separate Strathmore from the Carse of Gowrie, and may 
be considered as simply a northern prolongation or branch 
of the Ochils. The principal altitudes taken in order 
from west to east are Kinnoull Hill (729), Evelick or 
Pole Hill (944), Black Hill (1182), Dunsinane Hill (1012), 
King's Seat (1235), Blacklaw Hill (929), and Balo Hill 
(1029). 

The line of demarcation between the Highland and 



I 



16 PERTHSHIRE 

the Lowland region passes diagonally across the county 
in a north-east and south-west direction. It can be 
traced from near Alyth by the Bridge of Cally, Birnam, 
Bankfoot, Logiealmond, Comrie, Callander onwards to 
Aberfoyle. The region between this line and the Ochil 
and Sidlaw Hills forms the great valley of Strathmore. 
Orographically, then, Perthshire may be considered as 
consisting of three parallel bands or belts. The most 
northerly of these is a highly mountainous region and 
may be called the Grampian belt. To the south of this 
comes a broad plain or valley, the Strathmore belt. 
Still further south is the hilly ground which may be 
called the Ochil and Sidlaw belt. It will presently be 
shown that the rocks forming the valley of Strathmore 
and the Sidlaw and Ochil Hills belong to the same 
period in geological time, and though they vary some- 
what in elevation are classed together as the Lowland 
part of the shire. On the other hand, the rocks lying 
to the north of the great line of demarcation just described 
are of a totally different character, belonging to a much 
older period in geological time, and forming the Highland 
area. 

If the reader looks at the view taken from the 
summit of Ben Lawers it will at once be seen that the 
Grampians appear to form a great level plateau, deeply 
indented with valley systems. The use of the term 
plateau to describe what is generally looked upon as a 
mountainous country requires some explanation. This 
illustration shows the remarkable uniformity of level to 
which all the mountains rise, so that if we could imagine 




M. P. 



18 PERTHSHIRE 

all the intervening valley systems filled up, there would 
be a great plain rising to a uniform level of about 3000 
feet above the sea. The origin of the plain will be 
discussed presently. In the meantime its existence is 
simply indicated that the reader may grasp the true 
character of the mountainous region of Highland Perth- 
shire. 

If we stand on one of the eminences of the Ochil 
or Sidlaw Hills and look across the valley of Strathmore, 
we shall at once be struck with the long rampart of the 
Grampians which rises abruptly from the plain and 
forms the dividing line between the two great divisions 
of Perthshire. This feature is strikingly shown in 
illustration on p. 8. 

The great valley of Strathmore lying between the 
mountain-rampart" of the Highlands and the Ochil and 
Sidlaw Hills extends from Dumbartonshire on the west 
to the German Ocean at Stonehaven on the east. It 
enters Perthshire at the Bridge of Craithie near Meigle 
and increases in breadth, scenery and variety of features, 
to a point where the Isla joins the Tay near Kinclaven 
Castle. At this point it reaches its noblest and most 
impressive character, having a breadth ranging from 12 
to 14 miles. To form anything like an adequate 
conception of the greatness of this queen of Scottish 
valleys, one must have climbed the Sidlaws or the 
Grampians and looked down upon the far stretching 
band of low country, remarkably beautiful and fertile, 
and dotted with numerous towns, villages and mansions. 
The picture on p. 160 shows the Strath from Birnam 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 19 

Hill with the river Tay, which passing through the 
gateways of the hills has just escaped from its mountain 
barriers. 

The Sidlaw and the Ochil Hills, bounding the 
southern part of the county, present a low chain of long 
round-backed swelling hills, covered with vegetation and 
in some cases under cultivation up to their summits. 
Numerous defiles or passes intersect the chain, cutting it 
into smaller masses and single hills. 

If you look at the orographical map at the beginning 
of the volume you will at once see that the valley systems 
of Highland Perthshire fall naturally into two great 
classes, namely, the longitudinal and the transverse. The 
longitudinal valleys have a general north-east and south- 
west trend and coincide roughly with the strike and 
outcrop of the rocks of the Highland area. The following 
are examples of the valleys of this type Glen Dochart, 
the valley of Loch Tay, the Tay between Kenmore and 
Ballinluig, Glen Lyon, the valley of the Tummel, Loch 
Earn, and the valley of Loch Katrine. On the other 
hand, the transverse valleys cut across the strike and 
outcrops of the rocks, crossing the longitudinal valleys 
approximately at right angles. The valleys of the Shee, 
the Isla, the Ardle, and the Garry are examples of the 
transverse type. 

The Carse of Gowrie is a low tract of alluvial land 
and stretches from Kinnbull Hill to Invergowrie, having 
a total length of about 1 5 miles and varying in breadth 
from two to four miles, with an altitude of from 24 to 
40 feet above sea-level. Practically the whole of the 

22 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 21 

Carse consists of rich arable land covered in the summer 
time with broad fields of corn and extensive orchards 
and dotted here and there with houses, proprietorial 
mansions and a few villages. The Carse of Cowrie has 
been fitly called the Garden of Scotland. 

The deer-forests of Perthshire, six in number, are 
Atholl containing 35,540 acres, Fealar 14,500 acres, 
Glen Bruar 11,000 acres, Drummond Hill 2400 acres, 
Glenartney 19,310 acres, and Rannoch 12,000 acres. 
From this it will be seen that a very large proportion 
of the county is covered with deer-forests. They 
contain large numbers of red deer, roe deer, and fallow 
deer. According to the Sportsman's and Tourist's Guide 
for 191 1 the rental of deer-forests in Perthshire is ^75,000. 
The grouse-moors in the county, of which there are 
over 400, are unsurpassed and yield magnificent sport. 



5. Watershed. Rivers. Lakes. 

It has already been pointed out that on the west and 
the north the watershed coincides pretty closely with 
the boundary line of the county, generally dividing the 
headwaters of the Stirlingshire, Dumbartonshire, Argyll- 
shire, Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire streams from 
those of Perthshire. 

The Tay, which is the longest river in Scotland, rises 
in a corrie on the north side of Ben Laoigh on the 
confines of Argyllshire and Perthshire at an altitude of 
3000 feet above sea-level. From its source to Loch 



22 PERTHSHIRE 

Dochart is a distance of 1 1 miles and in this part of 
its course, where it is called the Fillan Water, it has 
fallen 500 feet. Then it passes through Loch Dochart 
and Loch lubhair. For 14^ miles it is known as the 
Dochart, and ultimately falls into Loch Tay at Killin. 
Including the Fillan and Dochart, the river Tay has a 
total length of about 117 miles, and drains an area of 




Near the Source of the Tay 

close on 2OOO square miles. The chief sections of the 
river may be summarised as follows : 

Source to Loch Tay ... ... 25 miles 

Head of Loch to Kenmore ... ... 14^ 

Kenmore to junction with Tummel 15^ 

Junction of Tummel to Perth Bridge 31 

Perth to mouth ... ... ... 31 



WATERSHED RIVERS LAKES 23 

The gradient of the Tay between Loch Dochart and 
Loch Tay is comparatively slight, Loch Tay being 
350 feet above the level of the sea. At the confluence 
of the Tummel and the Tay it has fallen to an 
elevation of 2OO feet, and near Perth the elevation may 
be said to have disappeared as the river has now become 
tidal. 

The valley of the Tay from Dunkeld to Kenmore 
for a space of 25 miles is a continued scene of unsur- 
passed beauty and loveliness. Here the majestic river 
winds through a richly wooded and cultivated region, 
bounded on each side with lofty mountains. It is joined 
on its left bank a few miles below Kenmore by the 
Lyon, which rises in Loch Lyon ; and near Ballinluig 
Station, by the Tummel from the Moor of Rannoch. 
The Tummel drains Loch Lydoch, Loch Ericht, Loch 
Rannoch and Loch Tummel, and also brings with it 
the waters of the Garry from Loch Garry. Near 
Dunkeld, the river receives on its right bank the Bran, 
draining Loch Freuchie ; opposite Kinclaven Castle on 
its left bank, the Isla enters, bringing with it the 
Shee, the Ardle and the Ericht. Two miles above 
Perth, the river Almond, which rises to the south of 
Loch Tay, joins the main stream opposite Scone Palace, 
while below Perth comes in the Earn on the right bank, 
the last tributary of any importance. If the river has 
lost the picturesqueness of its highland course in the 
noble curve with which it sweeps across the valley of 
Strathmore, this is more than balanced by the gain in 
majesty from the many tributaries just described. The 



WATERSHED RIVERS LAKES 25 

sudden changes which the river makes in its course from 
its source to the sea are full of great interest. 

The longitudinal valleys of the Earn, the Almond, 
the Bran, the Tay and the Tummel are terminated at 
their eastern extremities by a great transverse valley 
which, running in a north-west and south-east direction, 
and descending from the very heart of the mountains, 
has cut off the longitudinal valleys nearly at right angles. 
This valley is occupied by the Garry, which, as it sweeps 
onwards, gathers up the waters of the various longitudinal 
valleys, carrying them southwards in a combined stream. 
This great transverse valley terminates at Dunkeld, 
where the river emerges from the Highlands on to the 
valley of Strathmore. Now liberated from the narrow 
mountain barriers by which it was hitherto confined, it 
assumes a more winding course but the general trend is 
still towards the south as far as Perth. At this point 
the river meets with a formidable barrier in the Sidlaw 
Hills. This, however, it has been able to breach between 
'the hills of Moncrieff and Kinnoull. It was from a 
point on the former of these eminences that the Romans 
were supposed to have caught their first glimpse of the 
Tay, when they exclaimed in rapture Ecce Tiber ! Ecce 
Campus Martins ! " Behold the Tiber ! Behold the field 
of Mars ! " The exclamation was more complimentary to 
the Tiber than the Tay; or, as Sir Walter Scott puts it, 

'"Behold the Tiber!' the vain Roman cried, 
Viewing the ample Tay from Baiglie's side; 
But where's the Scot that would the vaunt repay, 
And hail the puny Tiber for the Tay?" 



WATERSHED RIVERS LAKES 27 

The river Forth belongs to the south-east corner 
of the shire and shows how the Highland region has 
crept towards the south. The Forth can be considered 
a Perthshire river only in the same sense as a man born 
in Perthshire but spending the greater part of his life 
outside the county can be spoken of as a Perthshire man. 
The Avondhu and the Duchray, the headwaters of the 
Forth, rise on the east side of Ben Lomond at an altitude 
of over 2OOO feet. These two streams run in a parallel 
direction to the south-east, the Duchray water forming 
the boundary between Perthshire and Stirlingshire, and 
the Avondhu flowing through Loch Chon and Loch Ard. 
The streams meet a little to the west of Aberfoyle and 
just before they pass on to that portion of Strathmore 
formed by the valley of the infant Forth. The river 
now meanders, coquetting between the shires of Perth 
and Stirling but finally abandoning the county of its 
birth. East of this the Forth receives the following 
tributaries on the left or Perthshire bank the Goodie, 
the Teith, the Allan and the Devon. The Teith, like 
the Forth, rises in two headwaters, one of which descends 
from the south side of Ben a Chroin and flows through 
Loch Voil and Loch Lubnaig, being successively known 
as the Balvaig and the Leny. The other flows from 
Loch Katrine through Loch Achray and Loch Vennachar 
and unites with the Leny at Callander. 

In many respects that part of Perthshire drained by 
the basin of the Forth is the most interesting and 
picturesque part of the county. The southern stream 
after emerging from Loch Katrine begins to traverse the 



28 



PERTHSHIRE 



Trossachs, round which the great Wizard of the North 
has thrown such a halo of romance. It is flanked on 
the north by Ben A'an and on the south-west by Ben 
Venue, great mountain masses which rise tier upon tier 
in a series of rocky eminences of the most fantastic 
character from the pass below. The whole of the lower 
ground is covered with a dense growth of herbs, shrubs 




Loch Katrine 

and such trees as hazels, oaks, birches, hawthorns and 
mountain ashes. 

In close association with the rivers are the lakes of 
Perthshire, which are numerous, large and renowned for 
their natural beauty. For the most part these lakes are 
confined to the northern or Highland division of the 
county. They often appear in linear groups like so 



29 

many diamonds strung upon a thread of silver. The 
largest lochs in Perthshire are Loch Tay, Loch Earn 
and Loch Rannoch in Breadalbane, Loch Ericht on the 
confines of Perthshire and Inverness-shire,and Loch Katrine 
in the district of Menteith. These are followed in size 
by Lochs Lydoch on the confines between Perth and 
Argyll, Garry between Rannoch and Atholl, and Tummel 
in Atholl. In the south-western part of the county we 
have Loch Lubnaig, Loch Voil, Loch Vennachar and 
the Lake of Menteith. Innumerable smaller lakes, 
principally confined to the Highland region, need not 
be mentioned in detail. 

Classified according to their origin and mode of 
occurrence, the lakes of Perthshire can be arranged into 
three distinct types. The first have been hollowed out 
of the solid rock and are known as true rock basins. 
These include all the larger and more important lochs, 
such as Loch Tay, Loch Earn and Loch Rannoch. 
Second are those which have been formed by the 
ponding back of a sheet of water by glacier dlbris. 
This type is usually confined to the heads of glens or 
the mouths of corries. These lochs are not usually of 
any great size but they occur in great numbers in the 
Highlands. The third type includes all those which lie 
in cup-like hollows either in the old glacier moraines or 
in the boulder clay. Fine examples occur in the area 
between Dunkeld and Blairgowrie, where there is a 
chain of them including the Loch of Lows, Butterstone 
Loch, Clunie Loch, Marlie Loch and Rae Loch. 

The origin of the second and the third class of lake 



30 



PERTHSHIRE 



is so evident as to require no explanation, but those of 
the first order are more difficult to explain. The view 
now most generally accepted is that first advanced by 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, who accounted for such great rock- 
basins as Loch Tay and Loch Earn by the theory that 
they had been scraped out by the agency of ice. Every- 
where the sides of these rock basins show beautifully 




Loch Tay 

smoothed and scored surfaces as it some tremendous 
weight had passed over them, grinding and polishing 
them in its onward march. Now the only agent that 
we know to have been in operation during past ages 
which would be sufficient to account for such phenomena 
is ice. It was partly during the vast extension of the 
ice sheet and partly during the later valley glaciation, 



WATERSHED RIVERS LAKES 31 

that the rock basins which enclose our Highland lochs 
were excavated. 

Within the catchment area of the Tay there are many 
different types of rock basins, the simplest of these being 
that of Loch Earn. This loch has a length of over six 
miles and an average width of about three-quarters of a 
mile. The maximum depth, 287 feet, occurs half way 
down the loch. A great fault enters the loch at Glen 
Ample and crosses it diagonally to Dalveich. This fault 
coincides with a small basin which has a depth of 240 feet. 
It has been shown that during the period of maximum 
glaciation the ice-sheet crossed this part of Perthshire in an 
east-south-east direction, and as a consequence the greatest 
pressure must have been exerted on the south side of the 
valley. This is confirmed by the fact that the slope 
of the southern side of the valley is twice as steep as that 
of the northern. 

In the great rock basin of Loch Tay, which is 14! 
miles in length, with an average breadth of three-quarters 
of a mile and a depth of 510 feet, we have a somewhat 
different type of basin from that of Loch Earn. In this 
basin there appears to have been a deflection of the ice 
towards the north-east in the neighbourhood of Ardeonaig 
and Ardtalnaig and this accounts for the deepest part of 
the basin being situated to the east of the latter village. 

Two great sculptors, then, have been at work in 
producing the river and lake system of Perthshire. The 
first was the ordinary agent of sub-aerial denudation, the 
second that of a great sheet of ice which has now entirely 
disappeared from these islands. The work of the first 



32 PERTHSHIRE 

sculptor was to trench the old plateau of marine denuda- 
tion into the great valley systems we have just described, 
and derive from the monotonous table-land the picturesque 
valleys and gorges that now diversify this part of Perth- 
shire. The work of the second sculptor was to add the 
charm of lake to that of stream and so complete the scenic 
beauty of the Highlands of Perthshire. 



6. Geology and Soil. 

By examining the crust of the earth, geologists have 
been enabled to classify the great rock masses of which it 
is composed into two kinds, according to their mode of 
origin those which have been erupted from the interior 
of the earth in a molten condition, known as igneous 
rocks ; and those which have been formed as sediment at 
the bottom of seas and lakes, and which have been piled 
up into thick beds of strata, known as sedimentary rocks. 
A third group, the metamorphic, is generally adopted by 
geologists for convenience in the matter -of description; 
but, as it includes rocks, some of which were of igneous 
and some of sedimentary origin, this classification is some- 
what objectionable. In accordance, however, with general 
usage, it has been followed in this description of the rocks 
of Perthshire. 

According to their mode of occurrence, the igneous 
rocks may be subdivided into two groups. The first 
comprises those which have been ejected upon the surface 
of the earth, by volcanic action, and have been laid down 



GEOLOGY AND SOIL 33 

either as great sheets of lava, or accumulations of fragments 
of lava and volcanic dust. These are known as volcanic 
rocks. The Sidlaw and the Ochil Hills are formed of 
rocks of this kind. The others, called plutonic rocks, 
have cooled at some distance below the surface and have 
solidified much more slowly than volcanic rocks. As a 
result of this they have assumed a more coarsely crystal- 
line structure. They commonly occur in great intrusive 
bosses. The granites and diorites of Glen Lednock, the 
Moor of Rannoch, and Glen Tilt may be taken as examples 
of this division of the igneous rocks. 

The great series of sedimentary or fragmental rocks in- 
clude all those which, like sandstone, have had a secondary 
or derivative origin, or, in other words, which have been 
formed out of previously existing materials, as well as 
a few others which, strictly speaking, do not answer to 
this description of their origin. Some of these have been 
formed by the action of wind along the sea coast, such as 
sand dunes. Others owe their origin to moving water, 
and under this category come gravel, sand and mud. 

Another great division of the sedimentary rocks is 
that known as the organically formed rocks, which have 
been built by the slow accumulation of the remains of 
plants and animals existing upon the surface of the earth 
and in lakes or seas. Coal and limestone are familiar 
examples of this class. The great valley of Strathmore is 
paved with a vast thickness of sedimentary rocks, princi- 
pally sandstones, shales and conglomerates of Lower Old 
Red Sandstone age. 

It is often found that both igneous and sedimentary 

M. P. 3 



34 PERTHSHIRE 

rocks have been altered by pressure or by coming into 
contact with molten igneous material. In this way clay 
or shale may be altered into slate, and sandstone into 
quartzite, while a shaly sandstone may pass into mica 
schist. Such igneous rocks as granite become gneiss, and 
whinstone is altered into hornblende schist. When rocks 
have been subjected to such alterations they are known as 
metamorphic rocks. 

The Highlands of Perthshire present a region in 
which all the phenomena connected with metamorphism 
may be studied in their most minute details. In this 
region there is a great series of sedimentary rocks which 
have been altered by metamorphism from such normal 
sediments as conglomerates, sandstones, shales and lime- 
stones into schistose conglomerates, quartzites, slates and 
crystalline limestones. These sediments prior to their 
metamorphism were penetrated by intrusive igneous rocks, 
which have also suffered in the general metamorphism, 
passing into gneisses and hornblende schists. At a later 
period the metamorphic rocks were invaded by great masses 
of igneous material, principally granites, which produced a 
still further stage of metamorphism along the line of contact. 

All the sedimentary rocks show evidence of having 
been originally laid down in more or less horizontal beds 
or strata. They are no longer seen, however, to occupy 
the original horizontal position in which they were formed 
but have usually been bent into a series of folds as a result 
of the secular cooling of the earth's crust. When the 
strata form a series of undulations the hollows are called 
synclines and the ridges anticlines. The rocks forming the 



GEOLOGY AND SOIL 35 

valley of Strath more are arranged in a syncline, while 
those of the Ochil and the Sidlaw Hills have an anticlinal 
arrangement. In the Highlands the rocks have been so 
intensely folded that the synclines and anticlines have 
become closely packed together in such a way that the 
axes of the folds are no longer perpendicular but are seen 
to be inclined in a definite direction over great areas. 
This is known as the isoclinal type of folding. 

The great line of demarcation to which we have 
already referred runs across Scotland in a diagonal direction, 
dividing the country into two portions the Highlands 
and the Lowlands. This line is a geological as well as a 
geographical line, and separates the crystalline schists of 
the Highlands from the younger Palaeozoic rocks of the 
Midland valley. It is a line of fault, the rocks of the 
Midland valley having been thrown down for many 
thousands of feet against those of the Highlands. 

The rocks which form the Highlands of Perthshire 
are metamorphic. In the majority of instances they were 
laid down as sedimentary deposits, subsequently altered, 
both by the great plication and pressure to which they 
were subjected, and by the intrusion of great bosses of 
igneous material. The stage of alteration exhibited by 
these metamorphic rocks varies to a considerable extent. 
In some of the more siliceous members the original grains 
of quartz are still easily recognisable, while in others the 
rock has become so reconstructed by metamorphism that 
the original character is no longer discernible. 

The different schists which form the Highlands of 
Perthshire traverse the county in bands or zones, having a 

32 



36 



PERTHSHIRE 



general north-east and south-west trend, and may be said 
to lie roughly parallel with the great boundary fault. The 
following table shows the general succession of the zones 
as they are traced from south to north. 



(x on 
map.) 



13. Moine Schists, (a on map.) 

12. Quartzite and Quartz-schist, with 

pebbly conglomerate, 
ii. Schiehallion conglomerate ("Boulder 

Bed"). 

10. Limestone (" Blair Atholl "). (Blue on map.) 
CRYSTALLINE 9 . Black Schist, (g 1 on map.) 

SCHISTS g. Phyllites etc. ("Ben Lawers Schist"). (I 1 

OF THE -I on map.) 

PERTHSHIRE 7- Garnetiferous mica-schists, (g on map.) 
HIGHLANDS. 6. Limestone (" Loch Tay "). (Blue on map.) 
5. Garnetiferous mica-schists, (g on map.) 
4. Green Beds. (/ on map.) 
3. Schistose Grits (' Ben Ledi Grits and 

Schists "). (x on map.) 

2. Aberfoyle and Birnam Slates. (/ on map.) 
i. Schistose Grits ("Leny Grit"), (x on map.) 

A 5 } Grits, Black Shales, Cherts and Hornblende 
Arem * ? Schist. 

Immediately to the north of the Highland boundary 
fault there comes a narrow band of carbonaceous shales, 
grits and cherts, which appear to have been wedged in 
between the Highland schists and the Old Red Sandstone. 
These rocks are supposed to belong either to the Ordo 
vician or Upper Cambrian system. They enter Perthshire 
to the west of Aberfoyle, from which point they can be 
traced to the east of Callander at Kilmahog. 



38 PERTHSHIRE 

Proceeding northwards we have first a narrow band of 
schistose grit, the Leny Grit, and then the Aberfoyle and 
Birnam slates. These are succeeded to the north by a 
broad belt of schistose grits, which form the great moun- 
tain masses of Ben Venue, Ben Ledi, and Ben Vorlich, 
and which give rise to much of the rugged scenery of the 
Highland border. Succeeding these come the limestone 
series of Loch Tay, followed by the garnetiferous schists, 
Ben Lawers schist, Black schist, Blair Atholl limestone, 
and the quartzites and quartz schists of the central High- 
lands. Still further to the north comes a group of schistose 
rocks known as the Moine schists, whose exact geological 
relationship has not yet been determined. 

All these rocks have been thrown into a complicated 
series of folds. One of the main axes of folding coincides 
with a line running from Tyndrum along the north side 
of Glen Dochart and Loch Tay, and passing through the 
summit of Ben Lawers. Further to the north-east it can 
be traced from Cammoch Hill across the lower part of 
Strath Tummel to the Garry, and from thence eastwards 
in the direction of Ben Vrackie. From this great axial 
line of folding the schists have been thrown off to the 
north-west and south-east in a series of minor folds. The 
general structure of the ground and the relationships of 
the different schist zones will best be understood by an 
examination of figure, p. 37, which gives a section across 
the Highlands from Glen Lyon through Ben Lawers to 
the village of Comrie on the Highland border. 

The geological structure of the Old Red Sandstone 
area in Perthshire shows that along the southern margin 



Andesite 
Ochils 

Parkhill 
Firth of Tay 
Fault 

Upper O.R.S. 

Balruddery 
Fault 



Sidlaws 
Andesite 



Sandstones 
Dyke 

Psilophyton beds 
Strathmore 



Conglomerate 
Blairgowrie 
Andesite 
Fault 

Grampians 
Schists 




40 PERTHSHIRE 

of the Highlands there occur a massive series of con- 
glomerates, which have been thrown down against the 
schists at high angles. In making a traverse towards the 
south-east it is found that these basal conglomerates pass 
into fine beds of shale and sandstone that are bent into a 
synclinal trough (c l on map). This trough or downward 
fold of the rocks coincides with the valley of Strathmore. 

On the south side of the syncline the oldest members 
of the Old Red Sandstone have been exposed near the 
Yetts of Muckart, where they consist of coarse agglome- 
rates and lava flows. The volcanic rocks forming the 
great anticlinal arch of the Ochils and Sidlaws consisting 
of beds of lava and volcanic ash are estimated to have a 
thickness of over 6000 feet (P on map). 

The rocks of the Upper Old Red Sandstone rest 
unconformably upon those of the Lower Old Red 
Sandstone and pass up conformably into the Calciferous 
Sandstones of the Carboniferous system (c 3 on map). Along 
the Carse of Gowrie these rocks have been preserved in a 
remarkable manner, having been let down between two 
powerful faults. In the neighbourhood of Clashbennie 
they have yielded finely preserved specimens of the 
characteristic fishes of this formation. 

A small patch of Carboniferous rocks appears in the 
neighbourhood of the Bridge of Earn. This is the only 
representative of that formation to be seen north of the 
Ochils. The strata consist of beds of blue-clay, sandstone 
and calcareous bands, and belong to the Cement-stone 
series lying at the base of the Carboniferous system. The 
presence of this outlier is of great geological interest as it 



GEOLOGY AND SOIL 41 

points to the former wide extension of the Carboniferous 
formation over Perthshire, from which it has now been 
almost entirely removed by denudation. 

The metamorphic rocks of the Highlands have been 
pierced by intrusions of igneous material, some of which 
are older and some later in time than the movements 
which produced the metamorphism in the schists. The 
earlier intrusions are represented by gneissose granites and 
hornblende schists (Bg on map), while the later consist for 
the most part of great masses of granite and sills and dykes 
of quartz-felsite (jp, D and G on map). 

Numerous dykes of dolerite cross the county in an 
east and west direction (B on map). Two of these after 
traversing the volcanic rocks of the Sidlaws, strike across 
the Old Red Sandstone rocks of Strathmore, and enter 
the Highland region near Glenartney, where they cut 
obliquely across the fault line, continuing westward by 
Loch Lubnaig and Loch Katrine to Loch Lomond. 

Abundant evidence is to be found throughout the 
county of the glacial conditions that existed in Scotland in 
(geologically speaking) comparatively recent times. Ice- 
worn surfaces occur even on the highest summits of the 
Ochils and the Sidlaws, and the peaks of some of the 
Highland hills show similar striations. On the top of 
these glaciated rock surfaces comes the boulder clay, often 
reaching a considerable thickness in Strathmore. In the 
Highlands fine examples can be seen of the moraines formed 
during the later valley glaciation. These are especially well 
developed in the valley of the Dochart, near Killin, and 
on the banks of Loch Katrine between Stronachlachar 



42 



PERTHSHIRE 



and Loch Lomond. Travelled boulders are to be met 
with all over the region. Many boulders of Highland 
schist have been carried across the valley of Strathmore 
and deposited on the slopes and summits of the Ochils 
and Sidlaws. A finely laminated brick clay containing 
arctic shells rests on the boulder clay of the Carse of 
Gowrie. The arctic or sub-arctic shells found in these 




Campsie Linn on the Tay 

(A dolerite dyke) 

deposits are not found living in the British seas at the 
present day, but exist in those of more northern latitudes 
such as Greenland and Spitzbergen. 

The soils of the Highland region of Perthshire have 
been largely derived from the destruction of the crystal- 
line schists, and generally present an arenaceous or sandy 



GEOLOGY AND SOIL 43 

rather than an argillaceous or clayey character. As a 
rule they are of no great depth, and suffer greatly in dry 
seasons from the absence of moisture. In the Highlands, 
where the boulder clay exists as a soil, most of the arable 
farms are confined to this deposit. Over the morainic drift 
areas the farms are generally pastoral. The most valuable 
soil occurring within the Highland district is the fine 
alluvium to be found in the river valleys. Considerable 
alluvial tracts can be seen around Killin, in various parts of 
Glen Dochart, Strath Fillan, and in other glens in the 
county. 

In the Lowland region of Strathmore the arenaceous 
element also enters largely into the composition of the 
soils. Usually, however, they have more peroxide of iron 
than the Highland soils, as well as being richer and deeper. 
The alluvial deposits formed by the rivers also cover much 
greater areas than they do in the Highlands. The flat 
tract lying along the valley of the Forth from Gartmore 
Bridge to the Bridge of Allan consists of a thick bed of 
stiff clay. A similar bed of clay covers by far the larger 
part of the Carse of Gowrie. The soils covering the 
sides of the Sidlaws and Ochils are rich in soda, potash 
and magnesia, derived from the disintegration of the 
volcanic rocks which form these hills. 



7. Scenery and Geology. 

We now pass to a brief consideration of the relation- 
ships that exist between the geological structure and the 
scenery of the county. It was shown, in the section 



44 PERTHSHIRE 

dealing with the surface and general features, that the 
Highland area may be looked upon as a great plateau 
which has been dissected by the rivers flowing in a series 
of longitudinal and transverse valleys. 

The general dead level to which the Highland hills 
rise is, as we learned, called by geologists a plain of marine 
denudation, and the only agent that could have produced 
such a plain is the sea. At one time, then, the sea must 
have cut clean across the Highland region, burying it 
under a great mass of its own ruins, part of which is 
represented by the materials that went to form the Old 
Red Sandstone and Carboniferous formations. The trans- 
verse valleys would have their initial direction given to 
them by the slope of the marine plain of denudation 
towards the south-east. It seems highly probable that 
the direction of those streams would be determined when 
as yet a thick covering of Old Red Sandstone rested upon 
the underlying schists; and when the streams reached 
the schists, they would continue to keep their original 
courses. 

Water falling upon the sides of the original transverse 
valleys instead of following the outward slope of the plain 
would begin to form tributary streams which would lie 
parallel to the general strike of the rocks. In this way 
such deep longitudinal trenches as the valley of the Tay 
from Ballinluig to the head of Glen Dochart would be 
formed. The Highland section of the Tay may, then, 
be divided into three portions: first, the short transverse 
valley of the Fillan ; second, the great longitudinal valley 
just described; and third, the transverse portion from 



SCENERY AND GEOLOGY 45 

Ballinluig to Dunkeld, which is simply the southern 
prolongation of the great transverse valley of the 
Garry. 

Another series of transverse streams occurs to the 
east of the Tay valley, the principal of these being the 
Ardle and the Shee, which unite to form the Erjcht. 
After descending through the Highland schists and cross- 
ing the boundary fault, they are caught up by the Isla, 
which after a similar Highland course bends sharply round 
to the west near Alyth and flows in a longitudinal valley 
along the syncline of Strathmore to join the Tay near 
Cargill. 

Turning to a consideration of the Lowland portion of 
the Tay valley, we find that after passing in a broad loop 
over Strathmore from Birnam to Perth, the river is again 
caught up by a longitudinal valley and carried in a north- 
easterly direction to the sea, between the Sidlaw and the 
Ochil Hills. 

In attempting to account for this portion of the Tay 
valley, it will at first seem strange that the Tay should 
have selected to find its way to the sea along a ridge of 
volcanic rocks rather than by the synclinal trough of 
sandstones forming Strathmore. The reason for this will, 
however, be easily understood if the reader recalls the fact 
that a great trough fault passes along the axis of the Sidlaws 
and the Ochils, bringing into the centre of the arch of 
volcanic rocks a series of softer sandstones. This structure 
would play a most important part in determining the 
operations of the denuding forces as the soft sandstones 
would be more easily worn away than the volcanic rocks 



46 PERTHSHIRE 

forming the sides of the trough, and in this manner the 
present valley of the Tay below Perth has been formed. 

Such, then, appear to have been the main lines upon 
which the outstanding physiographical features of the 
county have been evolved. It will be seen that in few 




Glen Ample 

(A valley caused by a fault) 

cases can a valley be directly traced to the occurrence of 
a fault or crack in the rocks. One notable exception to 
this is the valley of the Ample, which enters Loch Earn 
near its western end. The direction of this glen can be 
directly traced to the existence of a great fault which 



SCENERY AND GEOLOGY 47 

throws the hard grits of Ben Vorlich to the east against 
a series of soft schists to the west. 

It has already been pointed out that the schist bands 
traverse the Highlands in a general north-east and south- 
west direction; and to the varying characters of these 
schists much of the picturesque scenery of the Highlands 
is due. The band of slates along the Highland frontier 




Ben Venue 

(Showing scenic character of Ben Ledi Grits) 

forms hills of a smooth undulating character. Behind 
this come the massive grits of Ben Venue, Ben Ledi 
and Ben Vorlich; and it is the presence of these rocks 
that gives rise to the wild and romantic scenery of the 
Trossachs and the Pass of Leny, which has been so 
vividly described by Sir Walter Scott in The Lady of the 
Lake ; 



48 PERTHSHIRE 

" The rocky summits, split and rent, 
Form'd turret, dome, or battlement, 
Or seemed fantastically set 
With cupola or minaret, 
Wild crests as pagod ever deck'd 
Or mosque of Eastern architect." 

The scenery produced by the garnetiferous schists and 
the Ben Lawers phyllites is often grand and imposing. 




Schiehallion 
(A mountain of quartzite) 

It is typically developed along the ridge that lies to the 
north of Loch Tay, the rugged outlines of Creag na 
Caillich, Meall Garbh, and Meall nan Tarmachan corre- 
sponding to a belt of Ben Lawers phyllite resting upon a 
base of garnetiferous schists. The quartzites and Moine 
schists of north-west Perthshire frequently give rise to 



SCENERY AND GEOLOGY 49 

mountains having a more or less well developed conical 
outline such as Schiehallion and Ben Doireaan. 

The boundary line between the Highland schists and 
the Old Red Sandstone is of course the great outstanding 
scenic feature of the county, but this has been so often 
referred to already as not to require any further de- 
scription. 

The Ochils and the Sidlaws present a low chain of 
round-backed swelling hills intersected here and there by 
defiles or passes. In the geological section it was shown 
that these hills consist of a thick series of lava beds bent 
into an anticlinal arch. On the north-west side of this 
arch the lava beds slope away gently to the north-west, 
generally presenting bold mural escarpments towards the 
south-east. This characteristic and often strongly marked 
feature can be well seen from the summit of Moncrieff 
Hill, near Perth. It is typically developed both in Kin- 
noull Hill and Dunsinane Hill. 

Everywhere throughout the county the long period 
of glaciation has stamped with more or less distinctness 
its influence upon its physical features. Many of the 
Highland valleys are beautifully rounded and smoothed in 
the direction traversed by the ice ; and great accumulations 
of morainic material make prominent features in the 
landscape. In the Lowland area the thick accumulations 
of boulder clay rise into long characteristic hummocky 
ridges. 



M. P. 



50 PERTHSHIRE 

8. Natural History. 

. ' Within recent years a growing importance has been 
attached to the geographical distribution of plants and 
animals. This has thrown not only a flood of light upon 
the past history of the earth, but it has also helped to clear 
up many points bearing on the relationship and origin of 
species. 

As will readily be understood, Perthshire contains but 
few plants or animals that are not to be found in other 
parts of Britain. But it does not follow that they are to 
be found in all parts of the island. Thus some species 
have their northern limit while others have their southern, 
eastern, or western limit within the county. 

Nor does Britain contain many that are not inhabitants 
of the rest of Europe. Further it will be found that the 
fauna and the flora of Europe are characteristic of a great 
region which stretches from Britain to Japan, and from 
the north Pole to North Africa and the Himalayas, known 
as the Palaearctic Region. 

It is now generally believed that the greater part of 
the British fauna and flora reached these islands by a land 
connection with the Continent. From evidence, into 
which we cannot now enter, it is supposed that towards 
the close of the Ice Age the British Isles underwent a 
slow upheaval to a height probably corresponding to the 
80 fathom line, the consequence being that the present 
bed of the North Sea was elevated into land, through 
which flowed the Rhine with the Thames, Ouse, Tay 



NATURAL HISTORY 51 

and other British rivers now entering the North Sea, as 
its tributaries. At this time the English Channel,' St 
George's Channel and the Irish Sea were also land, 
forming a group of low-lying grounds uniting Britain 
and Ireland to the Continent so that the immigration of 
the arctic-alpine flora and fauna took place step by step 
across the plains from these centres of dispersion till they 
covered the whole of the British Isles. 

Towards the close of glacial times, when the great ice 
sheet had passed away and only local glaciers were to be 
found here and there in the mountainous districts, the low 
grounds of Central Europe were covered by an arctic- 
alpine flora and fauna. With the gradual amelioration 
of the climate these plants and animals were forced to 
retreat to higher latitudes, while those inhabiting Central 
Europe retreated to the higher mountains, closely followed 
by the incoming march of the temperate species. There 
can scarcely be any doubt that it was this arctic-alpine 
flora that first covered these islands after the retreat of 
the glaciers. 

The commonest animals in Britain at that time were 
the reindeer, the elk, the mammoth, the wolf and so forth. 
After the retiral of these northern plants and animals to 
higher latitudes, the country was invaded by a temperate 
flora which is now the prevalent type of vegetation. 

It is impossible to say how long the land remained at 
this high level, but there is strong evidence to show that 
when the existing fauna and flora migrated into Britain 
the country was undergoing a gradual subsidence. As 
a result of this Ireland was first of all separated from 

42 



52 PERTHSHIRE 

England, and at a later period England was separated 
from the Continent. The earlier separation of Ireland 
from Britain explains the comparative paucity of mammals 
and reptiles in the former country. That is, Ireland had 
been cut off before these animals had ceased to migrate 
into England. 

The Highland region of Perthshire, especially Breadal- 
bane, has long been famous to botanists because of the 
richness of its alpine flora. Thus on a series of mountains 
which stretch from Ben Laoigh north-eastwards through 
Meall Ghaordie and along the ridge bounding the north 
of Loch Tay and including such peaks as Craig na Cal- 
lich, Meall nan Tarmachan, Beinn Ghlas, and highest 
of all Ben Lawers, and from Breadalbane north-eastwards 
into Clova, we find an exuberant development of alpine 
plants. Another tract also exceedingly rich in alpine 
species is from Ben Laoigh northwards by the heads 
of Glen Lochay and Glen Lyon and includes the follow- 
ing mountains: Cam Chreag, Creag Mhor, Ben Heas- 
garnich and others. 

On the summit of Ben Lawers the schistose rocks 
have been weathered into a series of rock-girt pits or 
hollows, which form the abode of Saxifraga cernua its 
only station in Great Britain. On the theory that it 
with its fellows once covered the lowlands, its solitary 
position here has been not inaptly called its last citadel. 
Step by step the northward march of the temperate flora 
has pushed it from the plains to the hills and from the 
hills to the mountains. Along the Ben Lawers ridge 
many other alpine species are to be found, as Gentiana 



NATURAL HISTORY 53 

niva/is,, Sattx herbacea, Saussurea alpina, Erigeron alpinus 
and Dry as octopetala. 




Dryas octopetala on Ben Laoigh 

It has been shown that the present distribution of the 
alpine flora in the Perthshire Highlands and the mountains 
richest in these alpine species coincide with the outcrop 



54 PERTHSHIRE 

of the schists known as the Ben Lawers phyllites. The 
minute structure and chemical composition of these schists 
as well as the altitude that they reach form a favourable 
environment for the last stand of the alpine plants. 

It is calculated that the flora of Perthshire comprises 
upwards of I2OO species and varieties of flowering plants, 
ferns, etc., and from such a number it is difficult to single 
out particular species for special mention. Throughout 
their whole length the valleys of the Tay, Tummel, Garry 
and other Perthshire rivers present an exuberant and in- 
teresting flora; while the shores and waters of the nume- 
rous lochs are particularly rich in plant life. The chain 
of lochs lying between Blairgowrie and Dunkeld is perhaps 
the most productive, especially in pond weeds (Naiadaceae), 
the beautiful plant Naias flexilh occurring in several of 
the lochs. 

Of the 80 orders into which the trees and shrubs 
of Britain are divided 19 are found in Perthshire. The 
common hawthorn, for example, is found in its wild state 
as a shrub or a tree. The crab or wild apple occurs in 
hedgerows and waste places ; and the mountain ash on the 
seashore and on the tops of mountains as high as 2500 
feet. The common elder is most abundant in coppices 
and woods. The Scots or wych elm is also found. 
Among the willows we have the brittle-twigged or crack 
willow. The aspen poplar, the common alder, the birch, 
the oak, the common hazel and the Scots pine are also 
plentifully distributed throughout the shire. 

Coming now to the fauna, we find that 43 mammals 
are recorded as occurring within the county. Nine of 



56 PERTHSHIRE 

these, however, must be regarded as exceedingly scarce 
or practically extinct, while ten have only one or two 
records each. Four species of bats have been recorded, 
including the rare whiskered bat. Among the Insectivora 
the hedge-hog, the mole and the common shrew are 
abundant. The Carnivora are represented by the wild 
cat, which is, however, very infrequent ; the fox, common 
on the mountains. The weasel and the stoat are plenti- 
ful. The badger is still found on the mountains but with 
a somewhat limited distribution. The otter abounds in 
many of the rivers and lochs. Three species of seals have 
been recorded from the Tay estuary. Red deer and roe 
deer occur in the county, the former being mostly confined 
to the Highlands. Among the rodents the following may 
be noted as natives of the shire the squirrel, the brown 
rat, the common mouse, the wood mouse, the common 
field vole, the red field vole, the water vole, the common 
hare, the mountain hare, and the rabbit. 

The birds of Perthshire include 228 species, of which 
74 reside in the county throughout the year, and 24 for 
only part of the year; 34 come as summer visitors, and 
25 as winter visitors; 9 are annual spring or autumn 
migrants, and 62 only occasional or rare visitors. It is 
estimated that 127 species nest in the county. 

It would be impossible to give here a detailed account 
of the birds of the county. The higher mountains of the 
Highland area afford an occasional resting-place for the 
golden and the white-tailed eagle, while the peregrine 
falcon is known to nest in the shire. The ptarmigan 
and the snow bunting also breed on some of the higher 



NATURAL HISTORY 



57 



summits. The county abounds in game birds of all kinds, 
especially the red grouse, the pursuit of which annually 
attracts sportsmen in great numbers. The capercailzie, 




Hen Capercailzie on Nest 

originally a native, became extinct, but was ^introduced 
from Norway and is now abundant. 

The well-wooded glens and valleys afford a favourite 



58 PERTHSHIRE 

resort for warblers and small birds of all kinds. The 
kingfisher, bald coot and water-hen inhabit the banks of 
rivers. The oyster catcher is abundant, breeding freely 
on many of the islands and banks of the Tay and 
Tummel. The raven, though by no means common, is 
still to be found among the mountains, while the hooded 
crow abounds. The rook, known more generally as the 
crow, is abundant. The jackdaw, magpie and jay, though 
formerly common, are now more scarce. 

Many of the lochs are particularly rich in sea birds, 
ducks, geese, etc. Among the birds killed on Loch Tay 
may be mentioned the osprey, wild swan, pochard, wid- 
geon, tufted duck, golden-eye, scaup duck, goosander, little 
grebe, great northern diver, cormorant, razor-bill, puffin, 
and Leach's petrel. Others found in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the loch are the snowy owl, woodpecker, 
Bohemian waxwing, snow bunting, brambling, crossbill, 
quail and pigmy curlew. 

The amphibia of Perthshire are represented by the 
frog, the toad and the common newt, which are every- 
where abundant. Of more restricted occurrence are the 
palmated newt and the warted newt. The reptilia in- 
clude three species the common lizard, found usually 
in heathery places; the slow worm, commonly frequent- 
ing thick undergrowths ; and the adder, which is the only 
venomous reptile found in this country. It occurs in 
considerable numbers in certain localities among the High- 
land hills. 

The fish fauna of the lochs and rivers includes about 
23 species. Some of the more important of these may 



NATURAL HISTORY 59 

be briefly mentioned. The salmon occurs in all the rivers 
and lochs to which it can find access. The Tay has long 
been noted for its salmon fisheries. The sea trout is 
abundant in the rivers, while the common trout occurs 
in all the rivers and lochs, which also swarm with perch, 
pike and eels. The sturgeon has been taken at Perth 
and sprats are common .in the Tay estuary. The sea 
lamprey is occasionally found in the Tay and has been 
captured as high up the river as Dunkeld. The river 
lamprey also occurs in the Lowland rivers and streams. 

The invertebrate animals of Perthshire form such an 
extensive division as to preclude any possibility of dealing 
with them in the allotted space. Let it be sufficient to 
say that the land and the freshwater mollusca of the 
county are rich. The pearl mussel (Unio margaritifer] 
at one time occurred in the Tay and other rivers in great 
numbers. Recently, however, they have grown much 
fewer owing to the extent to which pearl fishing has been 
pursued. The pearls vary in colour from pure white to 
deep brown. Limnaea peregra is found in most of the 
rivers and also in ponds, etc. Among the land shells 
Helix nemoralis and Helix arbustorum are common and 
widely distributed. So also are Bulimus obscurus. Pupa 
umbilicata^ and Clausilia rugosa, all of which are fairly 
common amongst stones and moss and on rocks. Clau- 
silia rugosa is not uncommon on trees, which it can climb 
to a considerable height. 

Perthshire is rich in the different orders of insects. 
The Rannoch district has long been famous for the 
northern species it has yielded, as well as for several 



60 PERTHSHIRE 

southern species which have not been found elsewhere 
in Scotland. The following are some of the rare moths 
found in Rannoch -Asteroscopus nubeculosis y Noctua sobrina 
and Nyssia lapponarla, 

The lakes and ponds of Perthshire abound in a great 
variety of animals belonging to the crustacean, coelenterate 
and protozoan divisions of the invertebrata, as has been 
shown by the recent discoveries made during the bathy- 
metrical survey of these lochs. 



p. Climate and Rainfall. 

The principal factors in determining the climate of a 
country are its latitude, shape, exposure to the sea or to 
a particular point of the compass, its elevation above sea- 
level, the character of its river and valley systems, nature 
of its soils, and the humidity and the temperature of the 
air, the last two being perhaps the most important. 

It would be impossible here to discuss all the principles 
which govern the changes of the weather. It may, how- 
ever, be pointed out that the weather of the country is to 
a great extent influenced by cyclones from the Atlantic. 
The movements of the air may either be cyclonic or anti- 
cyclonic. Cyclones are areas of low barometric pressure 
with an encircling system of winds blowing spirally in- 
wards with a direction opposite to that of the hands of a 
clock. Cyclonic systems usually bring to the region which 
they cover a large amount of cloud and rain, and may be 
described as bad weather systems. Anticyclones, on the 



CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 61 

other hand, are areas of high pressure from which gentle 
breezes blow spirally outwards, the direction of the winds 
being the same as the hands of a watch. This system is 
marked, especially towards its centre, by dry and fair 
weather. There are three fairly permanent pressure 
centres which influence the winds of Scotland throughout 
the year a low pressure area south of Iceland ; a high 
pressure area situated in the Atlantic near the Azores; 
and a continental area in Europe and West Asia, high 
in winter and low in summer. During the winter the 
Icelandic and the continental centres are in predominance, 
and give rise to a great swirl between them, which causes 
the wind to blow from a south-west to a north-east 
direction. 

The direction of the prevailing winds in the neigh- 
bourhood of Perth is shown by a long series of records 
printed in the Transactions of the Perthshire Society of 
Natural Science. The results have been expressed in 
the diagrammatic form known as a wind rose (see figures 
on p. 62) and embody observations taken over a period 
of seventeen years. Along each of the eight principal 
points of the compass in these diagrams a distance has 
been marked off proportional to the percentage of days 
on which the wind blew in that direction. In the top 
diagram, which represents the winds for January, it will 
be seen that the prevailing winds are those from the 
south-west and east. The same holds good for the month 
of July, as appears in the second diagram, while the third 
diagram shows that these are the prevalent directions of 
the wind for the whole year. 



N.W. 



s.w. 



N.E. 




S.E. 



N.W 



N.E. 




N.W. 



E. W. 



S-E. 



S.W. 



N.E. 




S.E. 



Wind Roses 
(Showing prevalent winds at Perth in January, July and throughout the year] 



CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 63 

We have seen that the mountainous regions of the 
shire lie mostly in the west and thus approximately face 
the rain-bringing winds from the Atlantic ; but the break 
down of the watershed between the Firths of Clyde and 
Forth exposes the whole of southern Perthshire to the 
clouds and rains of the west. Easterly winds bring rain 
and unsettled weather on Gowrie, Stormont, Glenshee 
and Strathardle, while the weather is dry and serene in 
Breadalbane. It will readily be understood, however, 
that neither class of winds can penetrate very far into the 
interior without being in great part disburdened of their 
moisture by the mountain ranges. 

The chief point that has been deduced from a large 
series of observations of the rainfall of Scotland is the 
enormous difference that exists between that of the west 
and that of the east. The stations along the west coast 
show such figures as 40, 45, and 54 inches as compared 
with 24, 27 and 30 inches at stations on the east coast 
not situated in the immediate neighbourhood of the hills. 
If we keep in mind that the great source of rainfall is the 
prevailing south-westerly winds, we easily understand that 
the comparatively small rainfall in such districts as the 
shores of the Firth cf Forth and the Firth of Tay is due 
to the high land lying to the south-west, which robs the 
winds of a large proportion of their moisture in their pas- 
sage across. On the other hand, the mountainous region 
of the West Highlands, deeply indented with arms of the 
sea which run in all directions from south round to west, 
has currents of moist air continuously poured in upon it 
with the result that this district has an enormously high 



64 PERTHSHIRE 

rainfall. Thus at Loch Dhu it amounts to 82 inches, at 
the head of Loch Lomond to 1 1 5 inches, and at Glencroe 
to 128 inches. Between the extremes the amount of 
rainfall varies according to the physical configuration 
of the surface. 

From the average monthly rainfall at different stations 
along the east and the west slope of the country for a 
period of years, the annual rainfall deduced from these 
averages is for the whole country 44 inches, for the 
eastern slope 38 inches, and for the western slope 50 
inches. It may be recalled that Perthshire lies almost 
entirely on the eastern slope, the north-western part of 
the watershed keeping close to the boundary line of the 
county. 

The following table shows the gradual increase in the 
annual rainfall, in inches, from the east to the west of 
Perthshire : 

Perth ... ... ... .... ... ... 32-10 

Auchterarder... ... ... ... ... 39'53 

Dunblane ... ... ... ... ... 34'49 

Lanrick Castle ... ... ... ... 47'3i 

Loch Vennachar ... ... ... ... 58-29 

Bridge of Turk 68-21 

Loch Drunkie ... ... ... ... 65-13 

Aberfoyle ... ... ... ... ... 59'54 

Loch Dhu ... ... ... ... ... 82-73 

Loch Katrine ... ... ... ... ... 78-42 

The largest monthly rainfall occurs in December in 
the mountainous districts of the interior, in January in the 
south-west and east of Perthshire and in the Ochil Hills. 




Rainfall map of Scotland. (After Dr H. R. Mill) 



M. P. 



66 



PERTHSHIRE 



The diagram shows the variation of the rainfall from 
month to month at Perth, Lanrick Castle and Loch Dhu. 



\ 



JM. Fte. *. APR. MM Jimt JUUT /we. Sen. OCT. Nov. Dec. JAN 

Rainfall Chart 
(Diagram showing rainfall at Perth i, Lanrick Castle 2, and Loch Dhtt 3) 

It is worthy of note that the highest rainfall at Perth 
never reaches the lowest recorded at Loch Dhu. 



67 

Storms of wind accompanied by great torrential down- 
pours of rain often lasting for several hours, and repeated 
over and over again during the course of a month, are 




New Stream Course produced by sudden fall of rain 

occasionally experienced in Highland Perthshire. Such 
a storm broke over Lochearnside in the month of August, 
1910. The streams were swollen to such an extent that 
great damage was done to the crops. Roads were buried 

52 



68 PERTHSHIRE 

under tons of boulders and gravel so that all traffic had 
to be suspended until they were removed. Bridges were 
swept away; and in some cases water-courses of great 
depth and length were cut through fields of arable land. 
At Derry on the north side of Loch Earn a mountain 
torrent in the short space of three hours excavated for 
itself a new channel over 2OO yards in length with a 
breadth of from six to nine feet and a depth of from four 
to six feet. This channel coincided with a road through 
a hayfield and entirely destroyed the road, while the field 
was covered with tons upon tons of huge boulders. 

The temperature is remarkably constant everywhere 
throughout the county, averaging 47 F. for the year. 
The coldest month is January (36*5 F.) and the hottest 
July (59 F.). On the whole the climate of Perthshire 
may be described as mild and salubrious ; and this applies 
especially to the southern parts. In the more northerly 
and westerly parts, where the ground reaches a high ele- 
vation, the nature of the country makes it cold ; but these 
districts are also dry and healthy as they are screened from 
the northern blasts by the high ridge of the Grampians. 
It has been found that the death rate of a county is 
determined to a considerable extent by the increase or 
the decrease of cold ; and as the temperature of Perth- 
shire is fairly constant the yearly mortality varies but 
little. 

It has been observed in the neighbourhood of Perth 
that with a north-west wind fogs never occur, very rarely 
snow, and more seldom rain. The soft heavy flakes of 
snow are most common when the wind is in a south-west 



CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 69 

direction. Fogs prevail in the city when the wind is off 
the east and appear to be most common immediately after 
a period of dry weather. 



10. People Race, Type, Language, 
Settlements, Population. 

The earliest inhabitants of the British Isles of which 
we have any record were the men of the Stone Age. 
They have been divided into two periods the Palaeolithic 
or Older Stone Age and the Neolithic or Newer Stone 
Age. It is generally agreed that no undoubted evidence 
of Palaeolithic man has yet been found in Scotland, though 
his existence in England is shown by the numerous flint 
implements fabricated by him which have been found 
scattered over a great portion of that country. That 
Neolithic man existed in Scotland is proved by the occur- 
rence of bones, implements, weapons and other relics that 
belong to this period. An ancient dug-out canoe of pine, 
probably of this age, was found in a brick-clay pit at 
Friarton near Perth. Whence Neolithic man came and 
who he was is not absolutely certain. It is generally sup- 
posed that he belonged to a non-Aryan race, of Iberian 
type, short-statured and long-headed people who buried 
their dead in chambered graves of the long-barrow form. 

Long before historic time these early inhabitants of 
our country were pushed away to the more inaccessible 
and mountainous regions of the west and north by the 
incoming of a taller and more powerful race of a Celtic 



70 PERTHSHIRE 

Aryan type the Gaels or Goidels, from whom are 
descended the great mass of the Gaelic-speakers who 
have inhabited Ireland, the Isle of Man and the north of 
Scotland. The Gaels were in turn displaced by a fresh 
wave of Aryans the Britons or Brythons, who also 
belonged to the Celtic race but who spoke a different 
dialect. 

Tacitus' narrative of Agricola's campaigns (80-85 A.D.) 
in North Britain gives no precise details about the tribes 
then inhabiting modern Perthshire. The Alexandrian 
geographer, Ptolemy, in the second century A.D., informs 
us that the region of what is now Menteith and Strath- 
earn was occupied by part of the great tribe of the 
Damnonii, while to the north lay the Vacomagi. In 
later centuries the people of Perthshire belonged to the 
southern division of the Picts. In the fifth century 
perhaps earlier Teutonic invaders came from over the 
German Ocean, and in time penetrated the Lowland 
parts of Perthshire, driving the Celts to the fastnesses of 
the hills. That the Celts once occupied the whole of 
the Lowland region is shown by the fact that many 
of the place names are of Gaelic origin. Thus we have 
Auchtergaven, uachdar-gamhauin y "upland of the yearling 
cattle"; Auchterarder, uachdar-ard-thir, "upper high- 
land"; and Doune, meaning "the hill." These Celts 
and Teutons are, in the main, the progenitors of the 
present-day inhabitants of Perthshire. 

Up till the present day the Highland boundary line 
has existed as a sharp line of demarcation between the 
Celtic and the Teutonic race. To the north of that line 



PEOPLE-RACE, TYPE, LANGUAGE, ETC. 71 

Gaelic is the vernacular tongue, to the south English is 
the universally spoken language. It has been estimated 
that about 14,124 persons or 11-55 of the population 
speak Gaelic. 

The Scottish language originally meant the Gaelic 
language, but as the Teutons gradually became the 
dominant race the term Scottish was applied to the 
Anglic dialect of the Lowlands, which came from the 
Northern dialect of England. Latterly in Lowland 
Perthshire, as throughout the Lowlands generally, a form 
of Northern English became the vernacular. 

The population of the county is but sparsely distri- 
^buted. At the beginning of the nineteenth century it 
numbered 125,583. It reached its maximum in 1831, 
142,166; and then slowly declined to 123,283 in 1901, 
over 2000 less than it was a century before. It has 
since risen slightly, to 124,339 in 1911. It may be 
pointed out that while there has been a considerable 
growth in the population of one or two of the residential 
villages and commercial towns, there has been a very 
serious fall in the rural population. This can be attri- 
buted to several causes, such as the attraction of town 
life, emigration to foreign countries, the growth of rail- 
ways, the competition of foreign food supplies, and lastly 
the demands of the sportsmen, from whom the proprietor 
can obtain a much larger rent than he could by letting 
the ground to Crofters. There can be no doubt that 
clearances took place in different parts of Highland 
Perthshire towards the close of the eighteenth century 
and at still later periods. But it seems most likely that 



72 



PERTHSHIRE 



even though such clearances had never occurred, the same 
depletion of the Crofter population would have taken 
place as a consequence of the development of the great 
mineral wealth of the midland counties, towards whose 



// 




Curve showing the comparative Growth of the Population 
of Perthshire, Renfrewshire, Edinburghshire, and Lanarkshire 

different centres of industry the Highland population 
naturally tended to gravitate. Pennant, in his Tour 
through Scotland, made in 1769, gives us the following 
description of the population and industrial conditions of 
Loch Tay, with which the existing condition of things 



PEOPLE-RACE, TYPE, LANGUAGE, ETC. 73 

seems to compare very unfavourably. "The north side 
of Loch Tay is very populous ; for in sixteen square miles 
are seventeen hundred and eighty six souls, on the other 
side above twelve hundred. The country, within these 




W.OOO 



Density of Population in Perthshire (per sq. mile) 

thirty years, manufactures a great deal of thread. They 
spin with rocks, which they do while they attend the 
cattle on the hills ; and, at the four fairs held in the year 
at Kinmore, above sixteen hundred pounds worth of yarn 



74 PERTHSHIRE 

is sold out of Breadalbane only : which shows the increase 
of industry in these parts, for less than forty years ago 
there was not the least trade in this article. The yarn is 
bought by persons who attend the fairs for that purpose 
and sell it again at Perth, Glasgow and other places, 
where it is manufactured into cloth." 

It has already been pointed out that the distribution 
of the towns and villages in the county has been largely 
determined by its geological structure and its consequent 
physiographical features. The site of the city of Perth 
scarcely requires any explanation. Situated as it is near the 
tidal limits of the Tay and lying on a broad flat of alluvial 
haughland surrounded by low lying hills, Perth, it can 
be easily imagined, would be early chosen for a place of 
settlement. Note the position of Dunkeld, Crieff, Comrie, 
Callander and Aberfoyle at the gateways to the moun- 
tains. 



ii. Agriculture. 

Agriculture in Perthshire naturally falls into line with 
the two great geological and geographical divisions of 
Highland and Lowland. North of the Highland bound- 
ary line the valleys are more or less restricted, being 
hemmed in by lofty hills, and the country is mainly given 
over to the pursuits of the artist, tourist, and the health 
and pleasure seeker. The steepness of the slopes prevents 
the formation of soil, and farming in its different varieties 
is of secondary importance. Crops are cultivated here 



AGRICULTURE 75 

and there where the valleys widen sufficiently to admit 
the existence of a tract of level ground, but such are very 
limited ; and no part of the Highland area can properly 
be termed agricultural land. In the Highlands the main 
valleys would be the first to attract the population, and 
for this reason the valley of the Tay, which contains by 
far the largest amount of alluvial and arable land, is the 
most extensively cultivated. Another factor of consider- 
able importance in attracting the population would be the 
southerly aspect of the arable land ; and hence we usually 
find the largest number of farms and crofts on the northern 
and north-eastern sides of the valleys. The nature of the 
subsoil has also played an important part in determining 
the distribution of the cultivated ground in the Highland 
valleys. Thus it can generally be shown that over the 
morainic areas the farms are pastoral and give support to 
only a limited number of people; while in those areas 
where the boulder clay appears, the farms are either 
arable or mixed arable, giving support to a much larger 
number of people. 

The two great agricultural areas of Perthshire are the 
level expanses of Strathmore and the Carse of Gowrie. 
These make a striking contrast to the Highlands, being 
almost entirely devoted to agricultural purposes. They 
are everywhere covered with large and thriving farms and 
orchards, which indicate the great depth and fertility of 
the soil. It is estimated that only about one-fifth of the 
entire area of the county is under cultivation, the rest 
being occupied by pasture, woods and deer forests. Ex- 
tensive tracts of moorland along the northern margin of 



76 PERTHSHIRE 

Strathmore have been reclaimed while others have been 
greatly enriched by the draining and special manuring of 
the soils and by the careful rotation of the crops. The 
following figures from the Government Agricultural 
Statistics give the acreage devoted to the different cereals 
during 1909 wheat 5341 acres, barley 10,602 acres, and 
oats 65,662 acres. Two-thirds of the area 'devoted to 
green crops is occupied by turnips, the rest by potatoes. 
One-third of the total area is permanent pasturage, and 
930,000 acres hill pasturage. The arable land is princi- 
pally confined to the drier regions of the east and south- 
east, where the soil is for the most part fertile. Large 
stretches of Tayside and the upper districts of Menteith 
are dotted over with orchards, their quick soil being 
particularly suitable for the growth of apples. The 
number of holdings in the shire is somewhat above 5000, 
the majority being under 50 acres each. They are 
situated mostly in the Highland valleys and in the neigh- 
bourhood of villages and small towns. 

The great variety of the Perthshire pastures enables 
them to support a corresponding diversity of stock. About 
Perth, the Bridge of Earn and the Carse of Gowrie, the 
Angus and Fife breeds of cattle prevail. In the High- 
lands the Argyllshire breed is most common. The 
Lanarkshire breed is found in Menteith, while the Ayr- 
shire and Galloway breeds are found at various parts 
throughout the county. Black cattle from Devonshire, 
Lancashire, Guernsey, and the East Indies have been 
introduced and have been blended with the other breeds. 

Next to Argyllshire, Perthshire still carries the heaviest 



78 PERTHSHIRE 

flocks in Scotland. Formerly the sheep were of the white- 
faced stock, which required to be housed every night 
during winter. The white-faced sheep have now been 
almost entirely ousted by the more hardy black- faced 
sheep, either pure or cross. Cheviots, South Downs and 
Leicesters are also common on the lower runs. Goats at 
one time were fairly numerous throughout the county, 
but they have almost everywhere given place to sheep 
and tillage. Poultry and swine are common everywhere. 
Dovecots occur in the neighbourhood of Perth, Coupar, 
and the Carse of Gowrie. 

The following table shows the average number of 
live stock in four of the Scottish counties, including 
Perth. 

PIGS 
8000 
14,000 
9000 
9000 

In Perthshire most of the horses are Clydesdales, which 
are the only horses used for agricultual purposes. 

At one time the whole of the county was covered by 
dense forests, the remains of which are still found in the 
Black Forest of Rannoch and elsewhere. The former 
extent of these forests is clearly shown by the tree trunks 
that are even yet dug out of the soil. Unfortunately 
during feudal times these ancient forests were sadly 
diminished, the common people supposing that they were 
inimical to the production of food, while the barons do 
not seem to have been sufficiently enlightened to stop the 





HORSES 


CATTLE 


SHEEP 


Perth 


13,000 


72,000 


690,000 


Ayr 


10,000 


1 00,000 


380,000 


Dumfries 


8,000 


65,000 


580,000 


Edinburgh 


4>5oo 


19,000 


187,000 



AGRICULTURE 79 

work of destruction. Large numbers of trees were also 
cut down for fuel. In this way the low grounds were 
gradually divested of cover. It was this nakedness of 
the land that elicited from Burns The Humble Petition of 
Eruar Water, addressed to the noble Duke of Atholl, one 
verse of which runs thus : 

Let lofty firs and ashes cool 

My lowly banks o'erspread, 
And view, deep bending in the pool, 

Their shadows' watery bed ; 
Let fragrant birks, in woodbines drest, 

My craggy cliffs adorn ; 
And, for the little songster's nest, 

The close embowering thorn." 

When the late Duke of Atholl began the afforestation 
of his estate, he had only 1000 acres of wood on his 
extensive property. In 1812 Perth had 203,889 acres of 
woodland, which was the largest acreage of any county in 
Scotland at that time. In 1871 it had fallen to 83,525 
acres. In 1881 it stood at 94,568 acres. The returns 
of 1891 show that in extent of woodlands Perth with 
93,233 acres had fallen to the third place among the 
Scottish counties, Aberdeenshire coming first with 
108,858 acres, Inverness next with 98,738 acres. Perth- 
shire could easily afford to plant an additional 200,000 
acres, and it is satisfactory to know that within recent 
years a movement has been set on foot to achieve this 
end. It was estimated by Mr Hunter that in the year 
1883 the value of the woods in the county was about 
three and a half million pounds sterling. 




1LV V ,* 
Falls of Bruar 



AGRICULTURE 81 

Reference has been made to the great diminution of 
the Crofter population in Perthshire within the last 
century. The wholesale clearance of tenants from their 
Crofts was maintained by them to be a violation of an 
implied security of tenure and it led in the past to a 
great deal of agitation by the Crofters for the purpose of 
securing a consideration of their grievances. The Crofters 
Act of 1886, and subsequent amending acts, have greatly 
improved the condition of the Crofters. It may be noted, 
however, that when that act was passed Perthshire and 
Aberdeenshire were exempted as they were supposed to 
be under more favourable economic conditions than other 
districts, and accordingly not to require the benefits of 
special legislation. 



12. Industries and Manufactures. 

With the exception of the citizens of Perth, the in- 
habitants of the county from time immemorial have been 
engaged mostly in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. 
Other occupations are mining and quarrying; and here 
we have to consider textile and other industries. The 
linen trade, though long established in the county, has 
never become of much importance compared with other 
parts of Scotland. The chief centres in Perthshire are 
Perth, Coupar-Angus and Blairgowrie. The cotton 
industry, though at one time in a flourishing state, has 
now passed into a condition of decadence. The principal 
mills are situated at Deanston and Stanley. Woollen 



M. P. 



6 



82 PERTHSHIRE 

manufactories on a small scale have been established in 
several towns and villages. Tweeds are manufactured at 
Pitlochry and Killin ; tartans and galas at Auchterarder, 
Crieff, Dunblane, Kincardine and Burnfoot in Glendevon. 
Several bleachfields in the neighbourhood of Perth have 
existed for a considerable time. 

During the latter half of the eighteenth century the 
city of Perth gave promise of becoming a great commercial 
centre, but this was soon blighted. It appears that the 
town reached the climax of its prosperity in 1794 or 1795. 
At that time linen was the staple manufacture, and it is 
estimated that about 1500 looms were then engaged in 
the town and suburbs in the manufacture of linen and 
cotton, the annual value of which was about ^100,000. 
About this time a number of enterprising Perth manu- 
facturers established bleachfields and printworks; while 
the making of boots and shoes in the city was also of 
considerable importance. These articles to the value of 
about j8ooo were shipped yearly to London. Through- 
out the city there were various tanneries, which annually 
prepared from 8000 to 1 0,000 hides and about 500 dozen 
calf skins. Such was the state of trade in Perth towards 
the close of the eighteenth century. The introduction of 
cotton was the principal cause of the decline of the linen 
trade. The Perth manufacturers stuck to the linen trade, 
and when cotton goods came into general use, they retired 
from business altogether. 

During the latter half of the eighteenth century there 
were in the neighbourhood of Perth three mills for the 
manufacture of paper. About the same period too the 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 83 

ancient fraternity of the glovers and skinners were doing 
a prosperous business : 30,000 sheep skins and lamb skins 
were dressed, and from 2000 to 3000 dozen pairs of 
gloves were made annually. The printing of books was 
also carried on, the yearly output being from 20,000 to 
30,000 volumes. 




Arkwright Mills, Stanley 

Perth cannot now be looked upon as a great manu- 
facturing centre. Bleach fields and printworks have passed 
out of the hands of her citizens ; and the glove trade is 
entirely a thing of the past. The tanneries have greatly 
diminished in importance, and the volumes that were 
formerly issued by the thousands are now but seldom seen. 

At the present day Perth may be looked upon as 

62 



84 PERTHSHIRE 

a great central mercantile depot for the supply of the 
necessaries, conveniences and luxuries of life to the sur- 
rounding districts. It is famous for its cattle markets and 
for its dye works, which within recent years have assumed 
considerable dimensions. The manufacture of jute and 
linen is still carried on at the Perth Jute Works and the 
Wallace Linen Works. Of the other industries of the 




Pullar's Dye Works, Perth 

city the following may be mentioned the manufacture 
of glass, ink, floorcloths, ropes and twine, bricks and 
chemicals. Several grain mills give employment to a 
number of the inhabitants. There are also breweries 
and distilleries, ironworks and foundries. 

At one time the merchants of Perth carried on an 
extensive trade in their own ships with the Netherlands. 
Germans and Flemings at an early period frequented the 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 85 

city, and many of them settled in it. At that time ships 
went up the Tay as far as the Palace of Scone, for in one 
of the charters of the Abbey we find that Alexander I, 
having granted to the monastery the customs of ships 
coming to Scone, gave liberty to English ships to trade 
there, and promised them protection on paying customs 
to the monks. In 1830 shipbuilding began to be carried 
on in Perth ; and some years afterwards the first iron 
steam vessel built on the east side of Scotland was launched 
from a Perth yard. But this industry has now dwindled. 



13. Mines and Minerals. 

The metalliferous mines of the county that have been 
worked to any extent are practically confined to Breadal- 
bane, and to that part of it drained by the upper reaches 
of the Tay. None of these mines, however, are worked 
at present, though mining for lead was carried on at 
Tyndrum up to the year 1862. 

At Tyndrum the Ben Lawers phyllites have been 
faulted against a series of quartzose rocks, the fault 
trending in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, 
and running across the Strathfillan and Coninish valleys. 
A belt of high ground terminating to the east in a moun- 
tain called the Sron-nan-Colan is the ridge in which the 
lead workings are situated, and chiefly in the height 
named. 

The levels of the workings have been driven into the 
Sron-nan-Colan to catch the vein as it passes through 



86 PERTHSHIRE 

the hill. The veinstone is pure white quartz in the hard 
vein, and breccia made up of quartzite and mica-schist in 
the clay or soft vein. The principal ore is argentiferous 
galena (sulphide of lead with silver), zincblende, cobalt ; 
copper and iron pyrites are also found. 

The vein at Tyndrum was discovered by accident in 
1741. At that time the Breadalbane minerals were 
leased to Sir Robert Clifton, who between that year and 
1745 raised 1697 tons of lead ore. For the next 15 years 
the mine was worked by the Mine Adventurers of 
England, who extracted from it 2046 tons of ore. 
Between 1760 and 1762 the Ripon Company mined 
330 tons of ore; and between 1762 and 1768 Messrs 
Richardson and Paton mined 942 tons. In 1768 the 
Scots Mining Company acquired the lease and began the 
working of the mines in a more vigorous and systematic 
manner. Previous to this the ore had been carried by 
way of Loch Lomond to Glasgow, to be shipped to the 
south. But the new Company erected smelting works 
about a mile east of the mine, and between 1768 and 
1790 extracted 1678 tons of lead from 3685 tons of ore. 
Up to the year 1858 mining was carried on only intermit- 
tently. But in that year the late Marquis of Breadalbane 
took the mine into his own hands and worked it till his 
death in 1862. 

On the southern side of Glen Lochay about three 
miles from the foot of the glen a bed of serpentine crops 
out and was mined but on a very limited scale for 
chrome iron ore by the late Marquis of Breadalbane. The 
serpentine is of a dark colour, mottled with lighter shades. 



MINES AND MINERALS 87 

The chrome iron ore is disseminated through the serpen- 
tine in grains and with it are associated steatite (soapstone), 
chrysotile, etc. 

At Tomnadashan, a hamlet situated on the south 
side of Loch Tay about nine miles from Killin, the 
mica-schists have been penetrated by a boss of granite and 
diorite, in which a number of metalliferous ores were 
discovered. Large cave-like openings have been made in 
the face of the hill by the removal of the rock containing 
the ore. At the bottom of these openings a level may be 
seen driven into the side of the hill. This was constructed 
under the supposition that the ores were concentrated in 
a vein, but as such was not the case, no vein was ever 
reached. 

The chief ores are copper pyrites (chalcopyrite) and 
grey copper (tetrahedrite). The ore is disseminated 
through the igneous rock in irregular masses so that its 
working must always be more or less precarious. When 
stamped and dressed, the ore was shown, on analysis, to 
contain very little copper 3-58 per cent, to 30-28 per 
cent, sulphur. At a spot named Corrie Buie on the 
south side of Loch Tay argentiferous galena veins have 
been worked to a limited extent. Two small lumps 
of native gold were discovered in the quartz as it was 
being crushed under the hammer. 

Silver, copper, lead, and cobalt have been found in 
association with the volcanic rocks of the Ochils, the 
veinstone being usually barytes. Barytes has also been 
worked in the Old Red Sandstone rocks to the west of 
Aberfoyle. 



88 PERTHSHIRE 

Roofing-slates have been quarried at different points 
along the Highland border. Many of the old quarries 
have now been abandoned, but they are still worked at 
Aberfoyle, Birnam and Logiealmond. The chief varieties 
are of a pale greenish-blue, and those considered still more 
valuable and durable of a purplish-blue or indigo colour. 
The slate usually contains iron-pyrites in cubes, commonly 
known as slate diamonds, and, occasionally near Dunkeld, 
specular iron-ore. 

The Old Red Sandstone rocks of the valley of 
Strathmore have yielded good building-stones. Along 
the Highland border, as at Aberfoyle and Callander, the 
conglomerates have been very largely used for building. 
Perth has been almost entirely built out of sandstones 
from Burghmuir and other places in the neighbourhood. 
The long dykes of dolerite which traverse the county 
from end to end, and the sills of felsite and other igneous 
rocks which occur in association with the Highland schists, 
have been extensively quarried for road metal. 

Very large deposits of peat are to be met with both 
in the Highlands and in Strathmore. They have been 
formed by the annual growth and decay of vegetable 
matter. The mosses are the most important peat-forming 
plants and chiefly belong to the genus Sphagnum. Up till 
recent times peat was the principal fuel in the Highlands. 
But the increased facilities for the transit of coal from the 
south have led to the gradual diminution of its use. 

None of the springs which occur in Perthshire, with 
the exception of those at Pitcaithly, can be considered 
as remarkable. The mineral wells at Pitcaithly, five in 




Aberfoyle Slate Quarries 



90 PERTHSHIRE 

number, are believed to be amongst the oldest natural 
medicinal waters in the country, and are esteemed as 
highly beneficial in certain complaints. Those grounds 
where extensive beds of gravel rest on compact even 
boulder clay usually yield the most abundant and pure 
supplies of water. Chalybeate springs are occasionally 
found. In the Highland area they appear in association 
with the black schist. One below Blackcroft in the Pass 
of Lyon has a considerable local reputation. 



14. Fisheries and Fishing Stations. 

The Tay and its affluents with their varied tributaries 
afford a splendid breeding ground for the salmon. Along 
the whole course of the Tay from the sea to the rivers 
Dochart and Lochay, salmon are more or less abundant. 
Loch Tay is much frequented by anglers, and large fish 
are often caught. Salmon weighing 48 Ibs. have been 
caught with the rod ; and a salmon weighing 35 Ibs. is 
by no means an uncommon fish. In fact it seems to be 
an exception to find any fish under 18 or 20 Ibs. The 
Earn, the Lyon, the Tummel and the Isla are also good 
salmon rivers. 

The commercial fisheries of the Tay are chiefly 
situated between Perth and Newburgh, on some six or 
seven miles of the river. The fish are caught by the aid 
of the net and coble. Many persons find employment 
in the working of the different " shots," as the fishing 
stations are named ; and a considerable sum is annually 



FISHERIES AND FISHING STATIONS 91 

paid in wages. The salmon fisheries of the Tay are 
owned by various noblemen, gentlemen and corporations, 
and have yielded within the last twenty years a gross 
annual rent varying from 17,819 to 23,715. It has 
been estimated that the number of salmon and grilse 
caught in the Tay range from 75,000 to 100,000 a year. 
For a period of over 25 years the salmon hatchery 
at Stormontfield supplied the river Tay with young 
fish, the fry of the salmon (parr and smolts) being 




Salmon, 55 Ibs. 

reared on what is known as the " piscicultural system." 
The ova are laid down in boxes filled with gravel, over 
which a stream of water is allowed to pass. In a period 
varying from three to four months the eggs are hatched. 
The usual time for the hatching of salmon eggs in our 
northern rivers is 130 days or between four and five 
months. This varies, however, according to the openness 
or the severity of the season. Since the closing of the 
ponds at Stormontfield the breeding of salmon has been 
carried on at Dupplin on the river Earn. 



92 . PERTHSHIRE 

It is interesting to note that the natives of Perth have 
long recognised the necessity for, and displayed great 
activity in, the preservation of the salmon fry, as is shown 
by the following enactment : " That all cruves and zaires 
set in fresh water, quhair the sea fillis and ebbis, the 
quhilk destroyis the frie of all fisches, be destroyed and 
put awaie for euer mair ; not againe standing ony priui- 
ledge and freedome given in the contrarie, under the 
paine of ane hundreth schillinges. And they that hes 
cruves in fresh waters, that they gar keepe the lawes 
annents Satterdaies stop : and suffer them not to stande 
in forbidden time, under the said paine. And that ilk 
heck of the foresaidis cruves be three inch wide, as the 
aulde statute requiris." 

For a long period of time the Tay from Perth upwards 
was recognised as the principal seat of the pearl-fishery in 
Great Britain. In consequence, however, of the great 
destruction of the mussels by fishers the number of pearls 
obtained has gradually diminished. It has been estimated 
that only one pearl is found in every hundred shells 
opened, and only one in every hundred pearls is of any 
use for ornamental purposes. It will be manifest that 
pearl-fishing cannot be considered as a very lucrative 
business. Between 1761 and 1764, pearls to the value 
of 10,000 were sent from the Tay to London. This 
will serve to show how greatly the industry has diminished 
in value. 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 93 



15. History of the County. 

The history of the county centres to a large extent 
round the city of Perth. The site of the battle of 
Mons Graupius, in which Agricola defeated Galgacus 
the Caledonian general in 84 A.D., is a matter of much 
dispute and does not seem as if it could ever be definitely 
settled. Many of the leading authorities have placed the 
scene of the battle in Perthshire some at Dalginross, 
others at Ardoch, others again at the peninsula formed 
by the junction of the Isla and the Tay. 

How often and for how long the Romans, after 
Agricola's days, made campaigns and occupied strong- 
holds in Perthshire, is as yet buried in obscurity. In 
later times when the county formed part of the kingdom 
of the southern Picts, two of their chief towns or capitals 
were Abernethy as early as the sixth century and 
Forteviot. Scone also became sacred as the place of 
coronation for the kings of the Scots. In the ninth 
century the centre of Celtic Christianity was transferred 
from lona to Dunkeld an event of deep significance in 
the consolidation of the kingdom. 

According to Hector Boece the village of Luncarty 
situated about four miles to the north-west of Perth was 
the scene of the decisive overthrow of the Danes by 
Kenneth II. 

Perth figures conspicuously during the War of Inde- 
pendence. The renowned champion of freedom, Sir 
William Wallace, was often at Perth, though exactly 



94 PERTHSHIRE 

how often it is impossible to say. In 1297 he effected 
the capture of Perth then held by the English. It 
became one of his headquarters, and consequently, after 
his execution, the city was appointed to receive for a 
spectacle one portion of his dismembered body. Edward I 
was also repeatedly at Perth, and in 1296 when returning 
from the north visited Scone and carried away with him 
the records of the kingdom and the sacred stone on which 
the Scottish mbnarchs sat at their coronation. 

In the year 1306 Bruce was crowned King of 
Scotland at Scone and shortly afterwards he made his 
appearance at Perth challenging, as Barbour tells, the 
English governor, the Earl of Pembroke, but the Earl 
declined the challenge, saying that the day was too far 
spent. He promised, however, to fight on the following 
day. Bruce retired with his army to Methven Wood, 
where Pembroke surprised him. A short but bloody 
battle ensued in which the Scots were routed. Bruce 
with the remains of his army sought safety in the High- 
lands. In 1311 he returned to Perth and, after besieging 
it in vain for six weeks, resolved to try stratagem. He 
retired as if he were preparing to abandon the siege, but 
returned during the night with a body of picked men, 
who waded across the ditch up to the chin in water and 
scaled the walls. The town was instantly taken. 

The Barons who, siding with the English during the 
reign of Bruce, lost their lands and retired to England, 
descended on Scotland in 1332 and defeated the Scots at 
Dupplin Moor. Then their leader, Edward Balliol, was 
crowned at Scone. 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 95 

When invading Scotland, Edward III several times 
visited Perth. 

In October, 1396, the North Inch of Perth was 
thronged with spectators viewing a strange tournament. 
The King was there with his court ; churchmen, nobles, 
commoners had all gathered. Two clans, usually but 
not certainly called Chattan and Kay, had for many a 
year waged war with each other ; and now the quarrel 
was to be fought out by thirty men a-side, armed with 
axe and sword and knife. When the signal to close was 
about to be given, one of Clan Chattan (or Clan Kay, 
for accounts vary) was found to have deserted. For half 
a French crown Hal o' the Wynd, armourer and skilled 
swordsman, took the vacant place. A stubborn and 
bloody contest followed. Of the sixty combatants only 
twelve survived one on the one side - ? on the other, 
eleven including the valiant substitute, whom from his 
bandy legs the Highlanders nicknamed Gow Chrom, 
" the crooked smith." It was his prowess with his two- 
handed sword that chiefly won victory for his side. 
Which that was, tradition says, he could not tell ; for, 
when questioned after the fight, he replied that he fought 
for his own hand. Scott makes skilful use of the clan 
battle in The Fair Maid of Perth. 

In 1407 Perth was the scene of the burning of the 
first Lollard martyr, James Resby, who, according to 
Bower, was an English priest of the school of Wycliffe. 
Resby had been particularly active in spreading Wycliffite 
doctrines. 

It was at Perth that James I was murdered in 1437. 



96 PERTHSHIRE 

The court occupied the Blackfriars Monastery and there 
the assassination took place. James had made himself 
obnoxious to the lords by his arbitrary dealings with 
them. On the evening of the aoth February, that arch- 
conspirator, Sir Robert Graham, along with a number of 
retainers, broke into the royal apartments, where the 
King was chatting with the Queen and her ladies. The 
bar had previously been removed from the door and the 
windows of the room had been securely fastened. The 
ladies could do but little to assist the King ; but it is said 
that one of them thrust her arm into the place of the 
missing bar. The courageous deed has thus been described 
by D. G. Rossetti in his King's Tragedy: 

" Like iron felt my arm as through 

The staple I made it pass 
Alack it. was flesh and bone no more ! 
'Twas Catherine Douglas sprang to the door 

But I fell back Kate Barlass." 

The King retired to a vault below the room, where he 
was followed by the conspirators. James made a stout 
resistance but was overpowered and fell with sixteen 
wounds in his breast. Within a month the chief con- 
spirators were arrested and put to death. After this 
event Perth ceased to be a residence of royalty. 

On the nth of May, 1559, Knox preached, in 
St John's Church, Perth, a vehement sermon against the 
Mass. His hearers had not left the building when a 
priest began to celebrate Mass. A youth spoke irreve- 
rently of this, and the priest struck him. The boy aimed 
a stone at the priest but broke an image instead. This 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 



97 



was like fire to gunpowder, and the " rascal multitude " 
so Knox terms them smashed the ornaments and 
furniture of the church. Not satisfied with this, they 
destroyed the Franciscan, Dominican, and Carthusian 
monasteries, leaving only the bare walls. 

The next important event in the history of Perth, 




Gowrie House in 1805 

known as the Gowrie conspiracy, took place in the year 
1600. James VI was invited to Gowrie House under 
the pretext that it contained a mysterious captive with a 
pot of gold. An attempt was made to secure the King, 
who gave the alarm, and his attendants rushing in slew 
the Ruthvens-the Earl of Gowrie and the Maste, 

M. P. 



98 



PERTHSHIRE 



Ruthven. It has been asserted that this was a plot by 
James to ruin Gowrie and his brother, but the whole 
event is wrapt in mystery. 

The first battle between the Marquis of Montrose 
and the Covenanters took place at Tibbermore on the 
1st September, 1644. The Royalists won an easy victory 




Gathering Stone, Dunblane 

at a comparatively slight loss to themselves, and captured 
all the artillery and baggage of the Covenanters. From 
the field of victory Montrose proceeded to Perth, which 
next day opened its gates. 

In the Pass of Killiecrankie, most picturesque of 
Scottish battlefields, the engagement took place which 
decided the fate of the Jacobite party in 1689. Over 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 99 

the hills came Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, 
with about 22OO Highlanders and about 300 Irish recruits. 
General Mackay was sent north to quell the insurrection. 
The opposing forces met at the head of the Pass. The 
Highlanders reserved their fire till close on the enemy 
and then, throwing away their muskets, rushed on with 
axe and claymore, driving the royal troops into the valley 
below. A general panic seized them and they fled down 
the valley in complete disorder. Dundee was killed by a 
bullet and died with the notes of victory in his ear. 

The last battle on Perthshire soil that we have to 
record was that of Sheriffmuir, fought I3th November, 
1715, on the north-west side of the Ochils. The Duke 
of Argyll commanded the Royalist forces and the Earl 
of Mar those of James the Old Pretender. Both sides 
claimed the victory, and an old Jacobite song thus 
humorously hits off the combat : 

"There's some say that we wan, 

And some say that they wan, 

And some say that nane wan at a', man : 

But ae thing I'm sure, 

That at Sheriffmuir 

A battle there was that I saw, man : 

And we ran and they ran, and they ran and we ran. 

And we ran and they ran awa, man." 

The battle, however, checked the advance of Mar's 
Highlanders, and spelled disaster to the Jacobite cause. 
The illustration on p. 98 shows the " Gathering Stone of 
the Clans" on which the Highlanders are said to have 
whetted their dirks and claymores. 

72 



100 PERTHSHIRE 

The county of Perth figures prominently in the 
annals of the rebellion of 1745. Charles Edward entered 
the county town on the 4th September. At the Cross 
he proclaimed his father King of Scotland and himself 
Regent. Charles remained in Perth for a week, drilling 
his troops on the North Inch. 

Among the recent events connected with Perth the 
Meal Mobs of the latter half of the eighteenth century 
may simply be mentioned. What we have said confirms 
our original statement that the history of the county has 
centred to a large extent round the " Fair City." The 
events that were taking place in the other parts of the 
shire while Perth was passing through such stirring times, 
consisted chiefly of obscure feuds between the Highland 
clans; and throughout the Perthshire Highlands there are 
many minor battlefields marking the spots where dark 
and terrible deeds have been enacted. One of the most 
prominent and picturesque figures in the history of these 
Highland raids and feuds was Rob Roy, immortalised by 
Sir Walter Scott in the novel of that name. Macgregor 
Campbell or Rob Roy was in turn cattle-dealer, drover, 
and thief. He was involved in a dispute with the Duke 
of Montrose, from whose factor, Graham of Killearn, 
Rob Roy seized the rents paid by the tenants at Chapel 
Errock. Rob Roy pretended to side with Mar in the 
rising of 1715 and made preparations for a raid on the 
Lowlands by Loch Lomond side. His neutrality, however, 
at Sheriffmuir seems to indicate that the members of his 
clan who followed him were bent on obtaining booty 
either off one side or the other. 



ANTIQUITIES 101 

16. Antiquities. 

To the antiquary Perthshire is full of much of the 
deepest archaeological interest. Objects belonging to 
prehistoric, Roman, Celtic and later periods are scattered 
over the whole county. The remains of the Stone Age 
have been found at altitudes varying from sea-level to near 
the summits of some of the Highland mountains. Stone 
axes have been recorded from Aberfeldy, Rattray, and 




Stone Axe, found in Perthshire 

other parts. Hammer-heads have been found at Dunning, 
Pitlochry ; and one was found along with a food vessel in 
an interment at Doune (see fig. above). At Perth a curious 
stone knife, or dagger, was found lying beside a stone cist. 
It is formed of a piece of mica-schist and its natural shape 
has been adapted to form a rude but efficient weapon. 
Beside the common type of axe-heads which were attached 
to their wooden handles by a thong, there have also been 
found axe-heads through which a hole has been drilled 



102 



PERTHSHIRE 



for the insertion of the shaft, some of which appear to 
have been used as battle-axes. A beautiful specimen of 
this type was found in the Tay at Mugdrum Island. 
Probably the earliest record that we have of man in 
Perthshire is a " dug-out " canoe which was discovered 
underneath the brick-clay at the Friarton below Perth. 
This canoe is supposed to belong to the earlier stage of 
the Neolithic Period. It shows that man occupied this 
district before the formation of the Carse clays and before 



Bronze Spear and Sword from Blairgowrie, and Axe 
from Comrie (| actual size) 

the sea had risen to the 45 feet level. At that time the 
estuary reached much further inland, covering the present 
site of Perth to a height of 30 feet ; and primitive man 
must have been able to paddle his canoe across what are 
now the streets of Perth, the river being tidal up to and 
beyond Stanley. 

The second stage or Bronze Age shows that man had 
made considerable progress in handicraft, culture and 
civilisation, having now become acquainted with the use 



ANTIQUITIES 103 

of metals. Numerous relics of the Bronze Age have been 
preserved in the county. They include flat and flanged axe- 
heads, from Abernethy and Perth ; a fine blade and spear- 
head from Blairgowrie (see fig. on p. 102) ; rapier-shaped 
blades from Ardoch ; and knives and daggers from Blair 
Drummond, Drumlanrick and Pitcaithly. Personal orna- 
ments such as bracelets, torques, etc., have been collected 
at different localities in the county. Few bronze sickles 
have been found in Scotland ; a fine specimen, however, 
has been obtained from the Tay near Errol. Throughout 
the shire there occur many stone circles, some of them 
being in a wonderfully perfect state of preservation. 
These are generally known as Druid Temples. But 
they have no claim to this distinction. They are now 
believed to have been associated with the burial customs 
of the Bronze Age. Fine examples of these can be seen 
at Dull, Killin, Crieff, Blairgowrie and Blackford. 

There is evidence that iron had been used in Britain 
before the advent of the Romans ; and it is to the Iron 
Age that the great hill forts belong, which are found in 
such large numbers throughout the country. Some fine 
examples of them occur in Perth, notably the one dis- 
covered at Coldoch in 1870. Those windowless and 
roofless drystone erections have been considered by some 
as the immediate predecessors of the later castle. These 
structures seem to have been designed as retreats in time 
of danger for non-combatants and cattle. The great 
interest of the Coldoch hill fort is, that it is one of three 
found to the south of the Caledonian Canal. A stone 
fort at Abernethy, which was recently explored, yielded 



104 PERTHSHIRE 

portions of iron implements, a bronze spiral finger-ring, 
fibula, bracelets, rings of jet or lignite, and a polished 
stone axe. A similar finger-ring was found in the hill 
fort of Dunsinane. The vitrified forts belong to the 
same period in time. 

Between Blairgowrie and Meikleour may be seen the 
Cleaven Dyke, which runs in a straight line for 2000 yards 
in a north-west and south-east direction. It is twelve 




Roman Camp, Ardoch 

yards wide and two yards high. On each side is a level 
border protected by a ditch. The total width of this 
defensive work is 58 yards. It is supposed that this dyke 
was erected by the Picts as a defence against the Romans, 
and when it fell into the hands of the latter, they added 
a camp, of which traces can still be found. 

Considerable diversity of opinion exists as to the many 
so-called Roman remains found in Perthshire, but there 



ANTIQUITIES 105 

can be no dubiety as to the origin of the camp at Ardoch, 
the largest and most perfect of the kind in Scotland. It 
measures about 140 yards by 125 internally, and is of a 
rectangular shape. It is protected by a series of parallel 
ramparts and ditches, which are arranged in two rows on 
the side of the river Knaik and five on the land side. 
The positions of the praetorium and gateways are still 
quite easily distinguishable. The traces of Caledonian 
camps and hill forts seen in this neighbourhood indicate 
that at this point of their advance the Romans encountered 
a vigorous resistance. Some authorities place the scene 
of the great battle of Mons Graupius in the neighbour- 
hood of Ardoch. Another important Roman station was 
that of Inchtuthil (in the parish of Caputh), a tract of 
land on the river Tay. It rises with steep ascent some 
50 feet above the level of the neighbouring plain, and is 
a strong strategic position. At its north-east corner there 
was a Roman camp 500 yards square, whose stone walls, 
9^ feet thick, have now been reduced to the level of the 
surrounding ground. To the south-east of the camp 
there were two tumuli and a redoubt, the site of which 
is now marked by a group of trees. Besides these two 
camps there are others at Fendoch, Dalginross, Fortingall 
and Dunkeld. Throughout the country there are also 
various stretches of Roman road which, as in the policies 
of Cask, can be traced with a greater or lesser degree of 
accuracy. Here and there casual relics of the Romans 
have been found, such as tools and weapons of iron ; 
personal ornaments, including brooches and studs ; coins ; 
and fragments of pottery. 



106 PERTHSHIRE 

Cup- and ring-marked sculpturings, sometimes on 
separate boulders, but often on the native rocks, occur at 
different localities in the shire, as at Killin, Lochearnhead 
and Glendelvnie near Caputh. Though the exact age of 
these sculpturings is not known, yet there can be no 
doubt that they are of extreme antiquity. The exact 
object of these cup and ring markings has excited much 
curiosity and speculation amongst archaeologists. All 
that can be said of them is, that their origin and signifi- 
cance have been lost in the dim and distant past. Even 
tradition has nothing to say regarding them. 

At Meigle, Dunfallandy, and Rossie Priory there can 
be seen a number of beautiful examples of Pictish monu- 
ments. These have been divided into three classes. The 
first and oldest consist of unshaped upright boulders, upon 
which have been incised certain mysterious and hitherto 
unexplained symbols. The second class also usually 
stand erect, and bear similar symbols, but accompanied 
by richly decorated Celtic crosses. The stones of the 
third and latest class are found in a recumbent position. 
The elaborate decoration of the second type is present, 
but the mysterious symbols are now wanting. The 
large group of these stones at Meigle 32 in all have 
been collected and placed in a building with a view to 
their preservation. They belong to the second and third 
classes just described. The great Cross Slab of Meigle 
stands about eight feet high. The obverse shows a boldly 
executed Celtic cross, and the figures of a man and a 
beast probably representing the story of Jonah. The 
reverse shows a hunting scene ; Daniel surrounded by 




Celtic Cross, Glencarse 




Round Tower, Abernethy 



ANTIQUITIES 109 

lions; a centaur, symbolic of the man-animal or the 
conflict between flesh and spirit. These monuments 
are unquestionably of Pictish origin. J. Romilly Allen 
considers that the larger number of them are older than 
1 100 A.D. The illustration on p. 107 shows the Celtic 
Cross at St Madoes, Glencarse, which is an elaborately 
sculptured stone. 

Another important Perthshire antiquity is the round 
tower of Abernethy, which closely resembles a similar 
structure at Brechin. These are the only two examples 
of round towers in this country, though some 76 are 
known to exist in Ireland, having all the characteristic 
features of the Scottish specimens. The Abernethy 
tower is 74 feet high, and unlike some of the Irish ones, 
which are composed of rough rubble, it is built of care- 
fully-hewn square stones. A popular idea attributed these 
structures to the Picts, but they are now known to have 
been built by early Christian architects as watch-towers, 
some of which have been afterwards converted into belfries. 

17. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical. 

Before the eighth century there was probably no 
ecclesiastical architecture of any consequence in Scotland. 
Such buildings as did exist were similar to those of Ireland, 
where the arch seems to have come into use in the ninth 
century, when it must have been of the simplest and 
rudest type. Architecture connected with church building 
really began about the tenth century, when the round 
towers first appeared. 



110 PERTHSHIRE 

It is usual to divide architecture between the eleventh 
and the sixteenth centuries into certain periods or styles, 
which are not arbitrary but represent distinct historical 
periods characterised by particular features. It must not 
be supposed that the change from one style to another 
was suddenly accomplished : as a matter of fact it usually 
took about half a century to effect the transition. 

The Norman Style was introduced into Scotland in 
the twelfth century. It can easily be recognised by its 
simple and massive forms and semi-circular arches. The 
exterior is generally plain. The principal ornamentation 
is connected with the doorways, which are often deeply 
recessed, the arch mouldings being decorated with chevron 
or zigzag carving. The tower of Dunblane Cathedral 
is an example of the Norman style in Scotland. 

The Norman style of architecture prevailed in Scotland 
for some time after the close of the twelfth century. Then 
the circular arch was replaced by the pointed arch, and 
there arose what is known as the First Pointed Style. 
This style shows considerable advance in the vigour and 
treatment of the ornamentation, the mouldings and foliage 
begun by the Normans being now greatly improved. The 
windows were invariably pointed, narrow and lofty, giving 
an effect of great spaciousness with height. The nave in 
Dunblane Cathedral is a good example of this style. 

The Middle Pointed or Decorative Style prevailed in 
Scotland from the middle of the fourteenth to the middle 
of the fifteenth century. The details now became much 
lighter and more ornate. The windows were enlarged, 
and in the tracery the eye was led to dwell more on the 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 1 1 1 

outlines of the bars than on the form of the aperture as 
in the earlier style. Parts of Dunkeld Cathedral show 
good examples of this style. 

In the Third or Late Pointed Style the geometric 
tracery of the earlier periods has assumed a very flowing 
character. The tracery was called flamboyant because of 
the flame-like shape of the bars. This feature is more 
characteristic of the French architecture of the period than 
of the English. In England the tracery assumed a rigid 
form and the mullions of the windows were carried up in 
straight lines from the sill to the arch, so that the style 
was called Perpendicular. The exterior of the Scottish 
churches of this period is marked by heavy buttresses 
often with a great many set-offs. The semi-circular arch 
of the earlier styles is also frequently used in doors, pier 
arches, and clerestories, as in Dunkeld Cathedral. In 
Scotland the buildings of this period consist largely of 
collegiate edifices. 

The precise age of Dunblane Cathedral is not known 
but it is believed to have been founded by David I towards 
the end of his reign. The entire building, with the 
exception of the tower, is in the Early Pointed style of 
about the thirteenth century. The four lower stages 
of the tower, which stands on the south aisle of the nave, 
are all that remain of the original Norman structure. It 
has a shafted doorway and rib-vaulted basement story. 
The nave is almost entirely pure First Pointed. The 
west front of the Cathedral is particularly fine. Over 
the doorway are three very narrow, two-light windows, 
with quatrefoils at the heads of the two side windows 



112 



PERTHSHIRE 



and a cinquefoil at the head of the central one. Above 
these is a vesica set with a fringe of bay leaves. In 
speaking to an Edinburgh audience of this portion of 
the building, Ruskin said, " Do you recollect the west 
window of your own Dunblane Abbey ? It is acknow- 
ledged to be beautiful by the most careless observer. And 




Dunblane Cathedral 

why beautiful ? Simply because in the great contours it 
has the form of a forest leaf, and because in its decoration 
it has nothing but forest leaves. He was no common 
man who designed that Cathedral of Dunblane. I know 
nothing so perfect in its simplicity and so beautiful so far 
as it reaches, in all the Gothic with which I am acquainted. 
And just in proportion to his power of mind, that man 



ARCHITECTURE-ECCLESIASTICAL 113 

was content to work under Nature's teaching, and instead 
of putting a merely formal dog-tooth, as everybody else 
did at the time, he went down to the woody bank of the 
sweet river beneath the rocks on which he was building 
and he took up a few of the fallen leaves that lay by it, 
and he set them in his arch side by side for ever." 

Dunkeld Cathedral comprises a seven-bayed nave, a 
four-bayed aisle-less choir, a rectangular chapter-house and 
a massive tower. All the parts are of Second Pointed 
style with the exception of the choir, which exhibits 
some portions of First Pointed work. The nave shows 
many features of the French Flamboyant, especially the 
great west window, which judging from the remaining 
fragments of its tracery must have been of a particularly 
florid design. Dunkeld appears first "as a Culdee church, 
founded shortly before the accession of the Scottish kings 
to the Pictish throne." Here Kenneth MacAlpin trans- 
ferred the relics of St Columba and built a church to be 
the mother-church of Celtic Christianity. The abbot 
of Dunkeld was also bishop of Fortrenn. When the 
bishopric was transferred to Abernethy, the abbot of 
Dunkeld came to be a layman. Early in the twelfth 
century Alexander I established a Roman bishopric at 
Dunkeld. Sometime about 1320 the present building 
was commenced and was finished about 1500. After 
the Reformation the choir was transformed into the parish 
church. One of the most exciting episodes in its history 
was its defence in 1689 by a small band of Cameronians 
under Clelland against 5000 Highlanders. 

The Church of St John, Perth originally the Kirk 
M. P. 8 



ARCHITECTURE-ECCLESIASTICAL 115 

of the Holy Cross of St John the Baptist was in the 
twelfth century one of the most magnificent churches in 
Scotland. As it now stands, it is of various dates, the 
western part being the oldest. It is cruciform with a 
square central tower surmounted by an oak spire covered 
with lead. In 1227 the church was granted to the 




St John's Church, Perth 

monks of Dunfermline, who allowed it to fall into 
disrepair. Bruce ordered its restoration in 1328, but 
that ceased with his death. In the fifteenth century the 
magistrates completely renovated the eastern portion. 
The church remained fairly complete till 1559, when 
the " rascal multitude " wrought great destruction on it. 

82 



116 PERTHSHIRE 

Throughout Perthshire there are the remains < 
numerous ecclesiastical edifices which in their day mu 
have been structures of great importance. There wei 
Abbeys, for example, at Scone, Coupar-Angus an 
Inchaffray, and CoHegiate Churches at Methven ar 
Tullibardine, but little more than fragments of the 
can now be seen. 

Prior to the Reformation there were in Perth and th 
neighbourhood numerous important monasteries and oth< 
religious houses of which no trace has now been lef 
The Dominican or Blackfriars Monastery, situated c 
the north side of the town, was founded by Alexander 1 
in 1231. The Scottish kings frequently took up the 
abode in it, for which reason it was sometimes spoke 
of as a palace. There was a church in connection wit 
the monastery, in which several parliaments were hel< 
The Carmelite or Whitefriars Monastery at Tulilui 
goes back to the reign of Alexander III. The Charte 
house or Carthusian Monastery, the only house of its ordi 
in Scotland, was situated near the spot where James VI 
Hospital now stands, and owed its origin to James I an 
Jane his Queen in 1429. The Franciscan or Greyfria 
Monastery, which stood on the present site of Greyfria 
Churchyard, was founded by Lord Oliphant in 1460. 



ARCHITECTURE CASTELLATED 117 
18. Architecture (6) Castellated. 

The mansions of the Scottish nobility were, till com- 
paratively recent times, mostly feudal strongholds; and 
numerous fine examples of these are to be found within 
the boundaries of the county. Some of them are still in 
a good state of preservation while others are now in ruins. 
These castles tell of the habits of a people who, inured 
to war, had little care for their ordinary dwellings so long 
as their cattle and movable possessions could be safely 
placed beyond the ravages of the predatory invader. The 
history of the county shows how the invader could hope 
to meet with little plunder until he had reduced such 
places of strength, behind which the natives were en- 
trenched and from which they continually issued to 
harass their foe. 

On the summit of Dunsinane Hill there are vestiges 
of a strong ancient fort, which according to Shakespeare 
and tradition is the Castle of Macbeth. In 1857, while 
excavations were being made on the site, a doorway and 
underground chamber were discovered. 

Huntingtower Castle is situated on the Crieff Road 
about 2| miles from Perth. Originally called Ruthven 
Castle, it belonged to the Earls of Gowrie. Historically 
it is interesting as being the scene of the incident known 
as the Raid of Ruthven (1582) in which the Earl of 
Gowrie played a prominent part. The castle consists 
of two massive square towers separated by a space of nine 
feet called the " Maiden's Leap." The story, according 



118 



PERTHSHIRE 



to Pennant, was that the first earl's daughter leapt it one 
night when her mother had all but surprised her with her 
lover, with whom she eloped next morning. 

Doune Castle stands on a steep, woody, greensward 
peninsula at the junction of the Ardoch Burn with the 
river Teith. Though now roofless and ruinous, it is 




Doune Castle 

still a majestic pile, with its two massive square towers, 
turrets and high embattled walls. The interior is full of 
long winding stairs, corridors, passages and deep gloomy 
vaults, which are well worthy of a careful examination. 
The castle is said to have been built about 500 years ago 
by Murdoch, Duke of Albany. It was to this castle that 
the hero of Waverley was borne by his Highland captors. 



ARCHITECTURE-CASTELLATED 1 19 

Elcho Castle is a fine ruin, which some time ago was 
re-roofed, so that it may yet outlive many generations of 
mankind. It is situated on the right bank of the Tay 
about four miles below Perth. There is no inscription 




Elcho Castle 



upon the present castle to tell when it was erected 
though it must be of considerable antiquity. The style 
of its architecture seems, however, to show that a still 
older and equally strong structure stood upon the same 



120 



PERTHSHIRE 



ground, but wanting the decorative details of cornices, 
architraves and abutments, which enrich the present 
building. Elcho Castle makes its first appearance in 
history, when Wallace and his heroic band lodged here 
in November 1296, previous to his attempt to recover 
Perth from the English. 

Drummond Castle, near Crieff, is the Scottish seat of 




Drummond Castle 

the Earl of Ancaster. On the castle rock stand two 
structures of widely different periods. The ancient castle 
was built in 1491 by John, first Lord Drummond. It 
was often visited by James IV, and twice by Queen Mary 
in 1566. During the campaign of Cromwell it was 
almost demolished by his troops, and fell into even greater 
dilapidation after the Revolution of 1688. The remains 
were greatly strengthened and garrisoned in 1715 by the 



ARCHITECTURE CASTELLATED 121 

royal troops. Jane Gordon, Duchess of Perth, who was 
an ardent supporter of the House of Stuart, caused the 
walls to be levelled to the foundations during the "Forty- 
five " lest it should again fall into the hands of the royal 
troops. The castle was partly rebuilt in 1842 and a 
portion is used as an armoury containing a large collection 
of Celtic claymores, battle-axes and targets. 

Kinclaven Castle crowns a strong and picturesque 
eminence upon the right bank of the Tay opposite the 
point where the Isla flows into it. It it said to have been 
built by Malcolm Canmore in the eleventh century, and 
for a long period of years it was a royal residence. Wallace 
won it from the English in 1296 or 1297, when, according 
to Henry the Minstrel, it was commanded by Sir James 
Butler, " ane agit cruell knicht." Visiting Perth under 
disguise, Wallace learned that the garrison was to be 
strengthened by 90 horsemen from Perth. He hastened 
to Kinclaven and attacked the castle with a handful of 
men, putting the entire garrison to the sword. Henry 
describes the engagement, and the flight of the English 
towards the castle, where 

" Few men of fenss was left that place to kepe, 
Wemen and preistis upon the wall can wepe: 
For weill thai wend the flearis was thar lord; 
To tak him in thai maid thaim redy ford, 
Leit doun the bryg, kest wp the yettis wide. 
The frayit folk entrit, and durst nocht byde." 

The castle, now in ruins, must have been abandoned 
for many centuries as old fruit trees are growing in the 
courtyard. 



122 



PERTHSHIRE 



Castle Huntly near Inchture Station in the Carse of 
Gowrie occupies a conspicuous position on a precipitous 
rock that rises, on all sides except the north-west, sheer 
from the dead level of the Carse. The castle was built 




Castle Huntly 

about the beginning of the fifteenth century. About the 
end of the eighteenth century it was converted into a 
modern residence _ with wings, battlements, round towers 
and corner turrets. The stone of which the castle is built 
was obtained from the great quarry of Kingoodie, which, 



ARCHITECTURE CASTELLATED 123 

by the way, also supplied the blocks for the Waterloo 
Bridge over the Thames. The interior combines all the 
features of a modern residence and an ancient strong- 
hold, the rock-dungeon being particularly gruesome. The 
castle has been described as one of the best specimens of 
an old baronial residence in Scotland and as one of the 
most remarkable combinations of old and modern masonry 




Tower of Kinnaird, Carse of Gowrie 



in the kingdom. It was built by the second Baron Gray 
and tradition says that he named it after a daughter of 
the Earl of Huntly. Afterwards purchased by the Earl of 
Strathmore, it was known as Castle Lyon and subsequently 
came into the possession of the Paterson family. In the 
Carse of Gowrie also stands the Tower of Kinnaird, a 
square building of freestone which was visited by James VI 
in 1617. 



124 PERTHSHIRE 

The Castle of Inchbrakie near Abercairny is an 
ancient ruin surrounded by a moat. It is said to have 
been destroyed by Oliver Cromwell to punish the pro- 
prietor, Patrick Graeme, for his adherence to the Royalist 
Cause. Another old castle in the Crieff neighbourhood 
is InnerpefFray, beautifully situated on the banks of the 
Earn. Built in the sixteenth century, it has offered a 
stout resistance to the ravages of time. Its walls with 
a staircase and some of its apartments are still in a fair 
state of preservation. 

The castles in the Highland area are neither so 
numerous nor so important as in the Lowland. Grand- 
tully Castle, which is situated about three miles to the 
north-east of Aberfeldy, is a fine example of the Scottish 
baronial, dating from 1560. It has recently been restored 
in the old style. The main building consists of two five- 
storied towers, whose walls are nine feet in thickness. 
Later additions of gables and pepper-box turrets have 
been made. 

Garth Castle stands on a bold promontory formed by 
two branches of the Keltney Burn about a| miles north- 
east of Fortingall. The keep or tower, of which only 
three sides remain, is from 60 to 70 feet high measured 
from the ground inside. The staircase, which gives 
entrance to the various stories, occupies the centre of 
one of the walls, which vary from six to seven feet in 
thickness. The position of the staircase seems to indicate 
that the castle must be of considerable antiquity as no 
such arrangement is to be met with in castles of a 
comparatively recent period. The castle was completely 



ARCHITECTURE CASTELLATED 125 

restored in accordance with the original plan by the late 
Sir Donald Currie, when it fell into his possession. During 
the latter half of the fourteenth century the castle was 
a stronghold of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, the 
" Wolf of Badenoch." 

Meggernie Castle stands on the left bank of the river 
Lyon at the head of the inhabited portion of Glen Lyon. 
This picturesque castle, built in the simple and severe 
baronial style, is in keeping with its mountainous sur- 
roundings. The older portion is a large square tower 
of the fifteenth century, with a high peaked roof and 
four corner bartizans. The interior contains dungeons, 
secret apartments, and strongly barred doors as well as 
a number of relics, all of which are characteristic of the 
period when it was built. Other castles in the Highlands 
are Castle Dubh in ruins near Moulin village, supposed 
to have been built in the eleventh or the twelfth century; 
Castle McNiel, an old feudal tower near Cashlie in Glen 
Lyon; and Finlarig Castle, Killin, the ancestral seat of 
the Campbells of Lochow, from whom the family of 
Breadalbane takes its origin. The interior of this castle 
shows the dungeons with the old fetters still fastened to 
the walls. 

19. Architecture (c) Municipal and 
Domestic. 

The Municipal Buildings of Perth, at the north corner 
of High Street and Tay Street, form a fine edifice in 
the Tudor style, and include a copy of the old tower of 



126 



PERTHSHIRE' 



St Mary, a prominent feature of the town-hall and police 
station which formerly stood on the same spot. The 
spacious council chamber contains five beautiful stained- 
glass windows, the subjects of which comprise scenes from 




Fair Maid's House, Perth 

Sir Walter Scott's Fair Maid of Perth, the capture of 
Perth by King Robert the Bruce in 1311, and representa- 
tions of Queen Victoria and Prince Consort. Further 
south and also facing the Tay stand the County Buildings, 
erected in 1819 on the site of Gowrie House. Designed 



ARCHITECTURE MUNICIPAL 127 

after the style of the Parthenon at Athens, they are con- 
sidered by competent judges to be a model of good taste- 
correct, simple and dignified, yet not deficient in ornament. 
The handsome buildings in the Scotch baronial style 
running along Canal Street and Tay Street include the 
Opera House and Public Halls, the Natural History 
Museum and other institutions. One of the oldest 




Scone Palace 

houses in the city is that known as the " Fair Maid 
of Perth's" House, at the corner of Blackfriars Wynd 
and Curfew Row. Here Simon Glover, the father of 
the " Fair Maid," is supposed to have resided. Formerly 
a niche in a corner of the house held an image of St 
Bartholomew, the patron saint of the glovers' incorpora- 
tion, who at one time met in this house. 



128 PERTHSHIRE 

Only a few of the mansions and private seats in the 
county can be described here. Scone Palace, which belongs 
to the Earl of Mansfield, was built, in 1803, on tne s ^ te 
of the old palace. Facing the river Tay and surrounded 
by beautiful gardens and woods, it is a castellated edifice 
of imposing dimensions situated in a park extending to 
upwards of a thousand acres. On the south front is 
Queen Mary's tree, said to have been planted by her 
own hands, while near the river there is a magnificent 
oak planted by James VI. The interior of the palace 
can boast of priceless treasures of painting and sculpture 
as well as historical relics. The furniture includes a bed 
which belonged to James VI, and another the hangings 
of which were worked by Queen Mary when imprisoned 
in Loch Leven Castle. The music hall occupies the 
site of the old great hall where the coronation of the 
Scottish kings took place. 

Delightfully situated in an undulating woodland at 
the base of Kinnoull Hill, is the Castle of Kinfauns, 
a seat of the Earl of Moray. It is a vast modern castel- 
lated building with a central tower 84 feet high and 
a noble portico at the entrance. One of the relics of 
the olden times preserved in the castle is the two-handed 
sword of Thomas de Longueville, the compatriot of 
Wallace. The sword is a formidable weapon, measuring 
five feet nine inches long and two feet six inches broad 
at the hilt. 

Another fine example of domestic architecture is 
Dupplin Castle, the seat of Sir John Dewar, near Forteviot 
Station, which is the successor of an older castle, destroyed 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 129 

by fire in 1827. A splendid Tudor structure, it commands 
a magnificent view of nearly the whole of Strathearn 
The collection of books in the library is famous for many 
rare editions of the classics. 

Rossie Priory, finely situated on Rossie Hill, looks 
down upon the Carse of Cowrie and surveys a wide scene 
of singular beauty. Built a century ago, it is the seat 




Rossie Priory 

of Lord Kinnaird. It is an imposing pile of monastic 
appearance, spacious and elegant, and contains a valuable 
collection of Roman antiquities. 

In Highland Perthshire there are many fine houses 
belonging to the nobles and gentry, most amid very 
picturesque scenery. Taymouth Castle, the seat of the 
Marquis of Breadalbane, is at Kenmore near the exit of 
the Tay from Loch Tay. It is built of a light grey stone 

M. P. 9 



130 PERTHSHIRE 

(chlorite schist), very soft and easily dressed when taken 
from the quarry so soft that it can be cut with a knife or 
axe yet remarkably hard after being some time exposed, 
and very durable. The present castle, built where stood 
the Castle of Balloch, consists of four stories with round 
towers at the angles and a massive quadrangular tower 




Taymouth Castle 

rising in the centre of the main building to a height of 
150 feet. The Queen's room, the banner hall and the 
Chinese room are gorgeously fitted up. The castle con- 
tains paintings by Titian, Rubens, Salvator Rosa, Carracci, 
Teniers, Vandyke and other great masters. The mag- 
nificent library contains many rare and valuable works. 
The pleasure grounds comprise a circuit of fully 13 miles. 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 131 

Blair Castle, near the mouth of Glen Tilt, about three- 
quarters of a mile north-west of the village of Blair Atholl, 
is a fine four-storied mansion, turreted and battlemented 
in the Scotch baronial style. The present edifice has 
gradually grown up round the original part called Cumins 
Tower, built by John de Strathbogie, grandson of Macduff, 
the sixth Earl of Fife, in the thirteenth century. The 




Blair Castle 

castle has many historical associations. It is supposed 
that James V, in 1529, and Mary Queen of Scots, in 
1564, must have visited it when hunting in Glen Tilt. 
It was occupied by Montrose in 1644; and in 1653 '* 
was taken by one of Cromwell's officers and destroyed. 
In 1689 it was garrisoned by Dundee previous to the 
Battle of Killiecrankie. The young Pretender lodged 

92 



132 PERTHSHIRE 

in the castle for three nights during the month of August, 
1745. In March of the following year it was held for 
a fortnight by Sir Andrew Agnew for the government 
against Lord George Murray, the Duke of Atholl's 
brother. The garrison was reduced to great straits but 
was saved by the withdrawal of Lord George under 
orders from headquarters. 

It will readily be understood that the architecture of 
the county has been affected to a considerable extent by 
the nature of the materials available for building. In the 
valley of Strathmore good building stone can usually be 
obtained from different parts of the Old Red Sandstone 
formation. Thus along the Highland boundary such 
towns and villages as Blairgowrie, Comrie, Crieff and 
Aberfoyle have largely availed themselves of the finer 
and more suitable beds of conglomerate that are so ex- 
tensively developed in the lower parts of the Old Red 
Sandstone. Along the central and southern districts of 
Strathmore fine-grained white and red sandstones occur 
in the higher parts of the Old Red Sandstone, and these 
have been extensively used in the building of the city of 
Perth, and of Coupar-Angus, Auchterarder and Dunblane. 
Many of the buildings in this area have been roofed 
with slates from the Birnam, Craiglea, or Aberfoyle 
quarries. 

In the Highland area, no sandstone being available, 
the inhabitants have had to make use of the most suitable 
materials in their neighbourhood ; and as the Highland 
schists cannot be worked with the same ease into decorative 
designs as the sandstones, little or no ornament is found 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 133 

in the Highland buildings. Even to hew out simple blocks 
of schist is a much more difficult and laborious task than 
the hewing of sandstone. Notwithstanding this, many 
large and substantial edifices have been erected out of 
such bands as the Ben Ledi Grits, the Green Beds and 
the Moine Schists. The town of Aberfeldy has been 
largely built out of the Green Beds of the neighbourhood. 




Cottages at Killin 



This stone, of a dark-green or greenish-grey colour, 
presents a very handsome appearance and can be fairly 
easily dressed. Another stone which has been used in 
the Aberfeldy district is the talcose schist of Bolfracks 
Quarry. This stone is homogeneous in structure, dark 
green in colour, soft and somewhat soapy to the touch. 
Easily wrought, it can be used for rough carving while 



134 PERTHSHIRE 

it offers a greater resistance to the weather than any of 
the other stones in the district. The ornamental work 
on the church tower at Kenmore and the pillars upon 
the Tay Bridge at Aberfeldy have been executed in this 
stone. In the more north-westerly parts of Highland 
Perthshire, as at Blair Atholl and Kinloch Rannoch, 
certain siliceous bands in the Moine rocks are chiefly 
used for building. In some places handsome villas and 
other edifices have been built of dolerite from the long 
east and west dykes. The black graphitic schist of Ben 
Lawers has also been used for roofing. 



20. Communications Past and Present. 

Throughout Perthshire there are numerous evidences 
of the former existence of Roman roads. Even before 
Roman days, the original inhabitants of the county no 
doubt had tracks or paths of which no traces now remain. 
Stretches of Roman roads have been identified at Gask, 
Abernethy, Meigle, Cargill and other localities. At Gask 
the Roman road from Ardoch to Orrea, which, says 
W. F. Skene, lay near the junction of the Earn with the 
Tay, intersects the parish running along the ridge which 
forms the highest ground. The road, about 20 feet broad, 
is formed of a causeway of rough stones laid closely 
together; and along the side of the road were stations, 
remains of which are still visible. At Meigle traces have 
been found of the great Roman road leading from Coupar 
to Battle Dykes; it passed near the camp at Cardean. 



COMMUNICATIONS 135 

Speaking of the road from Ardoch, Dr James Browne 
says, "Having crossed the Tay by means of the wooden 




General Wade's Road, Glen Ogle 

( With other roads and railway line) 

bridge (about two miles north of Perth), the Roman road 
proceeded up the east side of the river, and passed through 



136 PERTHSHIRE 

the centre of the camp at Grassy Walls. From this posi- 
tion the remains of the road are distinctly visible for a mile 
up to Gallyhead, on the west of which it passed and went 
on by Invertrust to Nether Collin, where it again becomes 
apparent and continues distinct to the eye for two miles 
and a half, passing on to Drichmuir and Byres. From 
thence the road stretched forward in a north-east direction, 
passing between Blairhead and Gilwell to Woodhead, and 
thence pushing on by Newbigging and Gallowhill on the 
right, it descends Leyston-moor, and passing that village, 
it proceeds forward to the Roman camp at Coupar-Angus 
about eleven and a half miles from Orrea." 

Soon after the Rebellion of 1715, General Wade was 
sent to the Highlands to make an inquiry into the con- 
dition of the country and its people. Shortly afterwards 
he began to make a system of metalled roads, which can 
be seen in different parts of the county. In Glen Ogle, 
as elsewhere, Wade's road has fallen into disuse, and its 
bridges have been allowed to crumble to pieces, yet it 
can be distinctly traced intersecting the present road in its 
course through the glen. 

His roads greatly improved the means of communica- 
tion in the Highlands and his work has been commended 
in the well-known lines: 

" Had you seen but these roads before they were made 
You would have held up your hands and blessed General 
Wade." 

The present roads of the county are well constructed 
and well kept, together with the bridges over which they 



COMMUNICATIONS 137 

pass. The Edinburgh road, which passes through Queens- 
ferry, Dunfermline and Kinross, enters the county a few 
miles to the south-east of Perth, which it reaches across 
the South Inch. The Glasgow road passes through 
Stirling, Dunblane and Auchterarder. The road from 
Dundee approaches from the east passing through the 
Carse of Gowrie. A fourth road from Comrie, Crieff 
and Methven enters the town on the north-west. The 
great Highland road starting at Perth runs along the 
valley of the Tay, the Tummel and the Garry, passing 
through Bankfoot, Dunkeld, Pitlochry, the Pass of Killie- 
crankie and Blair Atholl. This important road with its 
numerous side roads, parliamentary roads and bridges was 
planned and carried out by Telford in the nineteenth 
century. From Perth a road runs to Forfar and Aber- 
deen through Strathmore by way of Coupar-Angus. At 
Coupar-Angus a branch forks off to the north leading 
through Blairgowrie, Glen Shee and Glen Beg into 
Braemar. In addition to these main thoroughfares there 
are numerous smaller roads by which the surrounding 
districts are made accessible. 

The principal railway systems in the shire are the 
Caledonian, the North British, the Highland, the Callan- 
der and Oban, and the West Highland. The Caledonian 
main line enters the county a little to the south of the 
Bridge of Allan and runs north-eastwards through Dun- 
blane, Auchterarder, Perth, Stanley to Coupar-Angus, 
a distance of 46 miles. A branch line runs off from 
Crieff Junction to Crieff, Comrie and St Fillans, joining 
the Callander and Oban line at Balquhidder. From 



138 PERTHSHIRE 

Perth a branch line runs to Crieff through Methven, 
while another runs to Dundee through the Carse of 
Gowrie. Other branch lines run from Coupar-Angus 
to Blairgowrie and from Meigle to Alyth. From Dun- 
blane a branch is thrown off to Doune and Callander, 
where it joins the Callander and Oban line, which con- 
tinues up Strathyre, Glen Ogle and Glen Dochart to 
Tyndrum. The North British line enters the shire 
near Newburgh in Fife, and proceeds to Perth by the 
Bridge of Earn, a distance of nine miles. A direct route 
between Perth and Edinburgh by the Forth Bridge passes 
through Glen Farg. The same company's Aberfoyle 
branch of the Forth and Clyde line lies for the most 
part in Perthshire. The West Highland Railway from 
Craigendoran, after passing up Glen Falloch and Strath 
Fillan, leaves the shire for a short distance but re-enters 
it near the headwaters of the river Leven. The Highland 
Railway branches off from the Caledonian at Stanley and 
ascends the valleys of the Tay, the Tummel and the 
Garry, with stations at Dunkeld, Ballinluig, Pitlochry, 
Pass of Killiecrankie, Blair Atholl and Dalnaspidal. It 
is 51 miles in length from Perth to Dalnaspidal. A 
branch eight miles in length runs from Ballinluig to 
Aberfeldy. 

Steamboats ply on Loch Tay from Killin at the head 
of the loch to Kenmore at the foot. The piers on the 
north side of the loch are Lawers and Fernan and on the 
south side Ardeonaig and Ardtalnaig. They have con- 
nections with the Callander and Oban Railway, and 
with a coach that runs between Kenmore and Aberfeldy. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



139 



Steamboats also ply on Loch Katrine between Stronach- 
lachar and the Trossachs, and on the Tay between 
Perth and Dundee. Some of the larger Highland lochs 
have ferries at various points. 

There used to be a number of ferries on the Tay 
between Perth and Dunkeld, but these are gradually 
being replaced by bridges. The old ferry boats were 




Kinclaven Ferry 

worked by chains ; and besides passengers, they were 
able to carry light vehicles. Perhaps one of the best 
known of these ferries was that at Kinclaven, but it has 
been superseded by a handsome stone bridge. Along 
the Firth of Tay between Perth and Dundee there 
were many little harbours which have now fallen into 
disuse. These were situated at Kingoodie, which was 



140 PERTHSHIRE 

formed for the exportation of sandstone quarried in the 
neighbourhood, Powgavie south of Inchture, and Port 
Allen near Errol. These ancient harbours, now silted 
up and overgrown with weeds, are witnesses of bygone 
days when the shortest route for the transference of 
merchandise from Fife to Strathmore lay across the Tay 
and from thence, by the numerous roads through the 
Sidlaws, to Blairgowrie, Coupar-Angus, Meigle, Alyth, 
Kirriemuir and Forfar. 



21. Administration and Divisions 
Ancient and Modern. 

In early times the county was divided into districts 
under the jurisdiction of hereditary governors, viz. 
Menteith, Breadalbane, Strathearn, Methven, Atholl, 
Strathardle, Glenshee, Stormont, Gowrie and Perth. 
Though these districts have no longer any judicial or 
civil existence, yet the names are in constant use in 
referring to the geography of the shire. Menteith and 
Strathearn were stewartries, Breadalbane a bailiary with 
separate jurisdiction of its earls, Methven a separate 
regality, and Atholl a regality of very great extent. The 
judicial president of the county was the shire-reeve or 
sheriff, who was the official deputy of the crown and was 
responsible for the enforcement of law and order. This 
office was hereditary and was usually in the hands of some 
leading landowner, not necessarily possessed of any legal 
qualifications. By degrees these hereditary powers were 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 141 

reduced, till after the "Forty-five" the Act of 1747 was 
passed entirely abolishing them, and appointments to the 
office of sheriff were made on the present method. 

Three distinct classes of burghs have existed in Scot- 
land from very early times Royal Burghs, Burghs of 
Regality, and Burghs of Barony. The Royal Burgh 
is the most complete and perfect form of burghal 
constitution in Scotland. This corporate body, created 
by a charter from the crown, has the right of self- 
government by a magistracy and council, and for the 
payment of fee, farm rent or burgh mail possesses many 
important privileges. The charter of Perth (the only 
royal burgh in the shire) is dated 12 October 1210, in 
the reign of William the Lion, who, in a subsequent 
charter, is styled "The founder and instaurator of our 
said royal burgh of Perth after the visitation and ruin 
thereof by the inundation of the said flood and river 
Tay." 

The Burgh of Barony is another kind of municipal 
corporation, of which Alyth, Crieff and Blairgowrie are 
examples. A Burgh of Barony consists of the inhabitants 
of a definite tract of land within the barony, placed under 
the authority of magistrates and a council, whose election 
is vested either in the baron superior, or is in the hands of 
the inhabitants themselves, according to the terms of the 
charter. A later kind of municipal government is a Police 
Burgh, which is constituted by the sheriff for the purposes 
of improvement and police, and is granted to populous 
places, with boundaries fixed in terms of statute, the local 
authority being the police commissioners. 



142 PERTHSHIRE 

. The county of Perth is governed by a lord-lieutenant, 
a vice-lieutenant, and a large number of deputy-lieutenants 
and justices of the peace. The law is administered by a 
sheriff and sheriff-substitute. 

The most important administrative body in the shire 
is the County Council, which looks after the finances, 
roads, bridges, public health, and the general administra- 
tion. By the Redistribution of Seats Act (1885) Perth- 
shire was divided into two divisions the Eastern and 
the Western, each of which returns one member to 
Parliament. 

The county was divided at an early period for 
ecclesiastical purposes into parishes, of which there are 
now 71, as follows Aberdalgie, Aberfoyle, Abernethy, 
Abernyte, Alyth, Ardoch, Arngask, Auchterarder, Auch- 
tergaven, Balquhidder, Bendochy, Blackford, Blair Atholl, 
Blairgowrie, Callander, Caputh, Cargill, Clunie, Collace, 
Comrie, Coupar-Angus, CriefF, Dron, Dull, Dumbarney, 
Dunblane, Dunkeld and Dowally, Dunning, Errol, Findo- 
Gask, Forgandenny, Forteviot, Fortingall, Fowlis- Wester, 
Glendevon, Inchture, Kenmore, Killin, Kilmadoch, Kil- 
spindie, Kincardine, Kinclaven, Kinfauns, Kinnaird, 
Kinnoull, Kirkmichael, Lecropt, Lethendy and Kinloch, 
Little Dunkeld, Logierait, Longforgan, Madderty, Meigle, 
Methven, Moneydie, Monzie, Monzievaird and Strowan, 
Moulin, Muckart, Muthill, Perth, Port of Menteith, Rat- 
tray, Redgorton, Rhynd, St Madoes, St Martins, Scone, 
Tibbermore, Trinity Gask, Weem. These parishes are 
divided among the presbyteries of Dunkeld, Weem, Perth, 
Auchterarder and Dunblane in the synod of Perth and 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 143 

Stirling; the presbyteries of Meigle and Dundee in the 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; and the presbytery of Kin- 
ross in the synod of Fife. In many cases parishes are 
found in detached portions as Dull, Weem, Kenmore, 
Killin, Caputh, Kinnoull, etc. 

A number of the parishes are of great extent, as Blair 
Atholl, which is 30 miles by 18, and Fortingall which is 
37 miles by 17. It is interesting to compare the size of 
these two parishes with the county of Clackmannan, the 
smallest in Scotland, which is only nine and three-quarter 
miles in greatest length and eight and three-quarter in 
greatest breadth. 

Within the Highland area there are lands common to 
several parishes, such as Blair Atholl, Logierait, and For- 
tingall. There are also some 2326 acres in the county 
not claimed by any parish. 

Formerly Perthshire was divided into the bishoprics 
of Dunkeld, Perth and Dunblane, and accordingly these 
towns have been designated cities. The division of the 
county as given above into parishes is used for such civil 
purposes as the administration of the poor law, the regis- 
tration of births, deaths and marriages, and taxation, as 
well as for the parochial and the political franchise. 

Since the great Education Act of 1872, the manage- 
ment of education in Scotland has been entrusted to School 
Boards, which are elected every three years by the rate- 
payers. These boards are established in every parish and 
burgh in the country, and are responsible for the manage- 
ment of the schools and the appointment of teachers. 
Compulsory attendance for all children between the ages 



144 



PERTHSHIRE 



of five and fourteen years is universal in Scotland. This 
primary education is free. 

Secondary Education is supplied by endowed schools, 
Higher Grade Public Schools, and by proprietary and 
other schools. Trinity College, Glenalmond, now one of 




Glenalmond School 

the leading schools of Scotland, was founded in 1847. ^ n 
1888, the Education Department instituted a system of 
examinations for leaving certificates, which has been taken 
advantage of by all the best secondary schools in the 
county. 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 145 



22. The Roll of Honour. 

It is curious to note that the Perthshire roll of honour 
is comparatively small. Though its scenery has inspired 
such great poets as Scott, Wordsworth and Burns, yet the 
shire has not produced any poet of the first order. Though 
it has reared the rank and file of such famous regiments as 
the "Black Watch," yet it has given us no outstanding 
warriors but Lord Lynedoch. Though it has supplied 
the material for the deductions of such pioneers in geo- 
logical science as Hutton and Playfair, yet it has been 
the birthplace of no great geologist with the exception 
of Dr Croll. We cannot here enter into a discussion 
of the various factors that have governed the distribution 
of genius in our country, but it must be frankly admitted 
that Perthshire shows a remarkable dearth of prominent 
men. 

Among the Perthshire poets the following may be 
mentioned. Henry Adamson, born in Perth, was author 
of The Muses Threnodie with a description of Perth and an 
account of the Cowrie Conspiracy. Robert Nicol, poet and 
journalist, who has been described as Scotland's second 
Burns, was born in Auchtergaven parish in 1814, and 
published Poems and Lyrics in 1833. Perhaps the most 
distinguished of the Perthshire poets, and certainly the 
most widely known, was the Baroness Caroline Oliphant 
Nairne, song and ballad writer. She was the daughter 
of Laurence Oliphant, and was born in the old mansion 
house of Gask in 1766. Towards the close of the 

M. P. 




Lady Nairne 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 147 

eighteenth century her songs, many of which were 
Jacobite, were sung in every district of the kingdom. 
They include Will ye no come back again ?, The Laird o 
Cockpen, The Land o' the Leaf, The Auld Hoose, and 
Caller Herrin\ David Malloch, born at Crieff about 
the year 1700, was another of the Perthshire minor 
poets. Settling in England, where he changed his name 
to Mallet, he wrote tragedies, as Elvira, and the ballad 
William and Margaret. On weak grounds, the author- 
ship of Rule Britannia has been claimed for him. 

Duncan Ban Macintyre, or the fair-haired Gaelic 
poet, was born in Argyllshire in 1724, but much of his 
poetry refers to Perthshire. In his early life he was 
employed as a forester on the Breadalbane forest of the 
Blackmount, and his poem on Beinn Doireann, in that 
district, is considered to be one of the finest examples 
of modern Gaelic poetry. One of Duncan's best pieces, 
The Last Farewell to the Hills, was written when he was 
seventy-eight. 

Another Gaelic poet was Dugald Buchanan, born in 
Balquhidder. At Kinloch-Rannoch he settled as school- 
master and catechist, and there he wrote the most of his 
hymns and poems. 

Painting is represented by Thomas Duncan, born at 
Kinclaven in 1807. Perhaps his best known work is 
"Prince Charles entering Edinburgh." Other of his 
pictures are "Martyrdom of John Brown of Priesthill," 
"Abdication of Queen Mary," and "Wishart dispensing 
the Sacrament." 

The only sculptor of note born in the county was 

10 2 



148 PERTHSHIRE 

Lawrence Macdonald, born at Gask in 1798. He pro- 
duced many fine busts, and well-known classic groups, as 
"Ajax bearing the dead Patroclus," "Ulysses recognised 
by his Dog," and others. 

The only eminent musician is Neil Gow, born at 
Tnver near Dunkeld in 1727. He was renowned as a 
violinist and composer, and in his day was considered to 
be unrivalled in the playing of strathspeys and reels. 

Among the literary men of the county notice must be 
taken of George Gilfillan, author and clergyman, who was 
born at Comrie in 1813. Two of his principal works are 
The Bards of the Bible and The Martyrs of the Scottish 
Covenants. 

In the domain of science Perthshire has few outstand- 
ing names. The distinguished physicist and geologist, Dr 
Croll, was born at Little Whitefield in 1821. His life 
work consisted principally in an endeavour to find a true 
cause for the great extension of snow and ice in northern 
Europe during the Ice Age, for which purpose he invoked 
the aid of astronomical and terrestrial physics. His theory 
was received with much enthusiasm by geologists. His 
chief works are Climate and Time in their Geological Re- 
lations and Discussions in Climate and Cosmology. David 
Douglass, botanist and traveller, was born at Scone in 
1799. He assisted Dr Hooker in collecting the materials 
for his Flora Scotica. In 1823 ne was sent to tne United 
States on a botanical expedition by the London Horti- 
cultural Society. He also surveyed the Columbia River 
District, 1824-30. 

The only soldier of note that the county can claim as 




Neil Gow 



150 PERTHSHIRE 

a son is General Sir Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, 
born at Balgowan near Methven in the year 1748. He 
was aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore all through his 




Dr James Croll 

Peninsular campaign. Made Major-General in 1810, he 
took command of the British and Portuguese troops in 
Cadiz, then blockaded by the French. He afterwards 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 151 

joined Wellington's army, fought at Ciudad Rodrigo, at 
Badajoz, and at Vittoria, where he commanded the left 
wing. 

General Sir David Baird was another eminent soldier 
closely connected with the shire, though not born in it. 
He took part in the storming of Seringapatam, and after 
serving in Egypt was made commander of an expedition 
to Cape Colony. He assisted Sir John Moore, whom he 
succeeded in command after Corunna. 

William Murray, first Lord Mansfield, was born in 
Perth in 1705. A distinguished lawyer and statesman, 
he was successively Solicitor-General, Attorney-General, 
and Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. 

Another distinguished legislator belonging to the county 
was the Hon. Alex Mackenzie, Premier of the Dominion 
of Canada, who was born in the village of Logierait in the 
year 1823. He was the son of a local mason, with no 
advantages of birth, fortune or education, but his ability 
and sterling character procured for him both fame and 
fortune. His five years' ministry, during which Lord 
Dufferin was Governor-General, has been described as 
the purest administration which Canada had experienced. 

Associated with the county are the names of many 
eminent divines. Patrick Adamson, born at Perth in 
!537> was mac le Archbishop of St Andrews in 1576. 
Donald Cargill, a Covenanting preacher, was born at 
Rattray about 1620, and ordained to the Barony Charge, 
Glasgow, 1655. He opposed Episcopacy and took to 
field-preaching. In 1681 he was seized at Covington, 
tried at Edinburgh, found guilty of treason, hanged and 




Sir David Baird 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 153 

beheaded. John Brown, born at Carpow near Abernethy, 
became Professor of Divinity under the Associate Synod. 
His Self-Interpreting Bible achieved considerable popularity. 
John Barclay, the founder of the Berean Sect, was born 
at Muthil in 1734. 

Though the county has a comparatively small roll of 
honour, yet the number of distinguished names in litera- 
ture and science which have been connected with it in some 
way or other is very considerable. Many of the scenes in 
Sir Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake^ Rob Roy and The Fair 
Maid of Perth lie within the boundaries of Perthshire. 
Burns made a tour through Perthshire, and some of his 
most exquisite lyrics have been inspired by its scenery, 
as The Birks o 1 Aberfeldy, The Humble Petition of Bruar 
Water and On Scaring some Waterfowl on Loch Turrit. 
Many of the Jacobite songs are associated with the shire, 
chief among these being Hogg's Cam ye by Atholl. Words- 
worth's Stepping Westward was suggested by an incident 
which occurred to him at Loch Katrine. 

The scenery of Perthshire has been painted over and 
over again by many British and foreign artists, whom even 
to enumerate would be impossible. John Ruskin spent 
much of his childhood in Perth and he tells us his father's 
sister " lived at Bridgend and had a garden full of goose- 
berry bushes sloping down to the Tay, with a door opening 
to the water, which ran past it clear-brown over the 
pebbles three or four feet deep, an infinite thing for a 
child to look into." 

The botany and the geology of Perthshire have also 
attracted many eminent scientific men to the county. 




William, First Earl of Mansfield 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 155 

The discovery and description of the granite veins in 
Glen Tilt by James Hutton, the founder of physical 
geology, form a most important event in the progress 
of geological science. It was on Schiehallion that Dr 
Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, made those observations 
and experiments by which he ascertained the power of 
rock masses in attracting the pendulum and determined 
from the result the mean density of the earth. Maskelyne 
was followed by Professor Playfair and his calculations 
were so far corrected in a complete mineralogical survey 
of Schiehallion. Playfair was also a disciple of Hutton, 
and in his Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory explained 
and defended the great principles first advanced by his 
friend. Many of his illustrations are drawn from Perth- 
shire and he must have made a careful examination of 
the rocks of the county. 

In 1771 Pennant, naturalist and antiquary, published 
a Tour in Scotland in 1769, followed in 1774 by an ac- 
count of another journey in Scotland. In them will be 
found a description of the topography and general con- 
ditions of the county of Perth at that time. M'Culloch, 
in his work on the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland 
(1824), gives an account of Highland Perthshire, in which 
he deals principally with its scenic features. 



23. THE CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 
OF PERTHSHIRE. 

(The figures in brackets give the population in 1911, the asterisk 
denoting parishes. The figures at the end of each section 
are references to the pages in the text.) 

Aberfeldy (1592), finely situated five miles from Taymouth 
on Moness Burn, is a great tourist resort. At this point the Tay 




Monument to Black Watch 

is spanned by a five-arched bridge constructed by General Wade 
in 1733. It was in a field to the south of the bridge that the 
famous Black Watch regiment was first embodied in 1739. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 157 

According to Pennant there were within the area of Loch Tay 
and Glen Lyon at that time 1000 men capable of bearing arms 
a striking contrast to the present population. Aberfeldy is noted 
for the manufacture of tweeds, tartans, plaids, etc. A short 
distance from the town are the celebrated falls of Moness, the 
scene of Burns's song The Birks of Aberfeldy. At this point the 
Moness Burn makes a succession of leaps, falling about 100 feet 






** . f^ > ' 
* ,- 4 - jrv* 

r-7>-*, 



Aberfoyle 

within a distance of a few hundred yards. Some years ago a 
quarry was made in one of the basalt dykes above Gatehouse, and 
the stone, extensively used for mending roads, is conveyed by a 
ropeway to the railway station and deposited directly in the 
waggons, (pp. 101, 124, 133, 138.) 

Aberfoyle (i 147)*, Gaelic abhair-a-phuill, "confluence of the 
pool," is the terminus of the Strathendrick Railway. Situated in 
a region of glens, mountains, rivers, cascades and lakes, it lies on 



158 PERTHSHIRE 

the north bank of the Forth, here known as the Avondhu 
(Black Water). It is closely associated with many of the scenes 
in Sir Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake and Rob Roy. On rising 
ground near the manse there are ten large stones in a circle with 
a still larger one in the centre. These were originally upright 
but have now fallen and been more or less buried in the ground. 
From the stones the kirk of Aberfoyle was called the "Clachan." 
Aberfoyle makes a convenient centre for visiting the Trossachs 
and the numerous lochs in this region. About three miles to the 
east of Aberfoyle is the Lake of Menteith. On the island of 
Inchmahome are the ruins of a priory, which was the refuge of 
Queen Mary as a child. See Dr John Brown's Qjieen Mary's Child 
Garden, (pp. 16, 36, 64, 74, 88, 132.) 

Abernethy (1267)* stands on the right bank of the Nethy, 
eight miles from Perth. Perhaps the most remarkable feature 
about the village is its fine round tower. It was once a Pictish 
capital and a religious centre, (pp. 93, 103, 109, 134, 153.) 

Aberuthven is a village situated in the north of Auchter- 
arder parish. The ancient parish church dedicated to St Katlan 
is now a roofless ruin. Near it stands the mausoleum of the 
Dukes of Montrose. 

Almondbank is a village lying about three quarters of 
a mile north of a station of the same name on the CriefF and 
Methven Railway. The inhabitants are principally employed in 
the bleachfields of the neighbourhood. 

Alyth (2937)* is a town situated on the Alyth Burn in the 
east of Perthshire and on the confines of Forfarshire, in which 
part of the town lies. On Barry Hill are the remains of a fort 
which must have been of considerable strength and importance. 
Alyth is a burgh of barony, under a charter of James III. 
The parish church (1839) is of Norman structure with a lofty 
spire, taking the place of the ancient Second Pointed church of 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 159 

St Moloe. The houses are excellently built and the town has 
linen, flax, woollen and jute works, with bleaching, dyeing and 
calendering, (pp. 7 , l6 , 45 , I3 8, HO , HI .) 

Auchterarder (3 1 75)*, Gaelic uachdar-ard-thir, " upper high 
land," so called because of its situation on the brow of a low hill, 
on the left bank of the Ruthven Water, i 3 f miles south-west 
of Perth. The town seems to have existed in the year 1200. 
It has the remains of a small castle, supposed to have been a 







East Mill, Auchterarder 

hunting seat of Malcolm Canmore (1088-93). It was a royal 
burgh and the chief burgh of Strathearn. About half a mile to 
the north are the old parish church and the well of St Mackerrok. 
After Sheriffmuir the Earl of Mar, fearing pursuit by the Duke 
of Argyll, burned Auchterarder to the ground. The town was 
closely connected with the events which led up to the Disruption 
of the Church of Scotland in 1843. It has cattle fairs, and 
manufactures of tartans and galas, (pp. 64, 82, 132, 137.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 161 

Bankfoot (2167)*, or Auchtergaven, situated on the high 
road between Perth and Dunkeld three and a quarter miles from 
Strathord station, is best known as the birthplace of the poet 
Robert Nicol, in whose memory a fine monument has been erected 
there. The antiquities are St Bride's well, which marks the site 
of Logiebride Church, and a stone circle. The staple industry is 
weaving, and many people are employed in the Airleywight linen 
works, (pp. 1 6, 137.) 

Birnam is a village, much frequented by tourists, with a 
station on the Highland Railway, 15^ miles from Perth. Behind 
it rise the steep and rugged sides of Birnam Hill. The royal 
forest immortalised in Shakespeare's Macbeth has long ago dis- 
appeared, and its place has been taken by a young and thriving 
plantation of firs and birches. An oak and sycamore near the 
hotel are pointed out as the only survivors of the ancient forest. 
From the summit of the hill a magnificent panorama of Strathmore 
can be obtained, (pp. 7, 16, 88, 132.) 

Blackford (1374)*, on the northern base of the Ochils 
17^ miles south-west of Perth, near the confluence of the Danny 
Burn with Allan Water, is a clean and well-built village with 
several breweries as well as weaving and boot-and-shoe factories. 
When James IV returned from his coronation at Scone in 1488, 
as the treasurer's accounts state, 12 shillings was paid ' quhen 
the king cum furth of Sanct Johnistone for a barrel of ayll at the 
Blackfurd." (p. 103.) 

Blair Atholl (1580)*, Gaelic "plain of the pleasant land," 
is a small village in the north of Perthshire at the confluence of 
the Garry and the Tilt. At the mouth of Glen Tilt stands Blair 
Castle, the principal seat of the Duke of Atholl. The district is 
famous for its wild natural beauty, for its great wealth of deer, 
grouse and salmon, for the general richness of its fauna and 
flora, and for its geological structure, (pp. 38, 131, 134, 137. 

138, I43-) 

M.P. " 



162 



PERTHSHIRE 



Blair Drummond is a small village on the right bank 
of the Teith six miles north-west of Stirling. The inhabitants 
are mostly employed on the Blair Drummond estate, which has 
some of the finest trees in the county. The neighbouring 
Kincardine Moss has yielded many interesting antiquarian 
remains, including a number of small Roman relics and two 
curious ancient wooden wheels. Blair Drummond Moss was 




Blair Atholl 



reclaimed by cutting canals through it in the direction of the 
river Forth. Water was raised to the canals from low levels by 
a species of undershot water wheel. The moss was cut and 
floated away to sea through the canals, at very little cost. The 
earth below was so rich that gravel had to be used to reduce it 
and lime to break it up. Afterwards the ground was colonised; 
and, according to John Ramsay, the crofters lived in great cheer- 
fulness and content. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 163 

Blairgowrie (4319)*, G<ae\\cblar-ghobhar t "plain of the wild 
goats," on the river Ericht, is the terminus of a branch of the 
Caledonian Railway. During the last century it has risen from 
a mean collection of thatched houses to a well built residential 
town. Though situated at the opening of the passes that lead to 
Kirkmichael, Pitlochry and Braemar, it has but few historical 
associations of interest, unless with Skene we make Blair Hill the 
scene of the Battle of Mons Graupius. On the other side of the 
river is the tourist-haunted village of Rattray. At the Hatton of 
Rattray Donald Cargill, the martyr, was born. The scenery of 
the Ericht above Rattray is very picturesque, especially the deep 
canon which the river has cut through the Old Red Sandstone 
conglomerates, upon a spur of which is built the mansion-house 
of Craighall. On an island in Loch Clunie, between Blairgowrie 
and Dunkeld, stand the ruins of Clunie Castle, a former 
residence of the Earl of Airlie. Blairgowrie has numerous 
thriving industries as flax-spinning, linen, carpet and jute-mills, 
sawmills, malt kilns, a farina factory and an agricultural imple- 
ment factory, (pp. 7, 29, 81, 103, 104, 132, 137, 138, 140, 141.) 

Bridge of Earn is a small village on the river Earn 
four miles south-east of Perth, named after the ancient bridge 
which here spanned the river. A mile to the south are the 
celebrated Pitcaithly mineral wells, supposed to be the oldest 
natural medicinal waters in the country, (pp. 40, 138.) 

Callander (2215)*, on the Teith i6| miles north-west of 
Stirling, lies in the centre of some of the finest hill and lake 
scenery, commanding fine views of Ben Ledi and the Pass of 
Leny. Callander is the great centre for tourists visiting the 
Trossachs and has also many summer residents. The village, 
which consists of one long street, is regularly built and contains 
numerous handsome villas, (pp. 7, 9, 16, 74, 88, 137, 138.) 

Comrie (1745)*, finely situated on the left bank of the Earn 
at an altitude of 200 feet above sea-level, is a favourite summer 

II 2 



164 PERTHSHIRE 

and autumn resort. Comrie is celebrated chiefly on account of 
its earthquakes, which are regarded as due to the proximity of the 
great Highland boundary fault. On the summit of Dunmore 
Hill is a granite monument to the memory of Lord Melville, 
while another to Sir David Baird stands on a hillock a little to 
the east. (pp. 7, 16, 74, 132, 137, 148.) 

Coupar- Angus (2749)*, a town of considerable antiquity, 
stands almost in the centre of Strathmore near the left bank of 
the Isla, about 15! miles from Perth. In the neighbourhood 
traces of the Romans are still to be seen, including what appears 
to have been an important camp. For a long time the town was 
in a somewhat decaying condition but within recent years it has 
made considerable progress and is now the centre of a flourishing 
trade, (pp. 78, 81, 116, 132, 136, 137, 138, 140.) 

Crianlarich, a small village at the mouth of Strathfillan 
at an altitude of 522 feet above sea-level, has one station 
on the Callander and Oban, and one on the West Highland* 
railway. In Strathfillan is the site of the ancient priory of 
St Fillan, founded by King Robert Bruce. The square-shaped 
bell of St Fillan, which lay on a gravestone till 1798, was stolen 
by an English traveller. It was afterwards restored and is now 
preserved in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. 

Crieff (6089)*, sometimes called the Capital of Upper 
Strathearn, stands on the left bank of the Earn. Through 
feudal times and till the abolition of hereditary jurisdiction, the 
town was the seat of the civil and criminal courts of the district. 
When Scott visited Crieff in 1796, the gallows still stood on the 
Gallow Hill, on the spot now marked by a lime tree. In the 
High Street stand a large sculptured stone and the old Town 
Cross. In 1716 the town was burned amid circumstances of great 
cruelty by the Chevalier's Highland adherents. Prince Charlie 
visited the town towards the close of the rebellion (1746), and it 
again narrowly escaped burning. The town has linen and woollen 



166 PERTHSHIRE 

factories, leather works, barley, flour, bark, flax, linseed oil, saw 
and turning mills. Before 1720, when the Falkirk trysts were 
established, it had the largest cattle markets in Scotland. Its 
excellent climate attracts visitors and invalids, (pp. 7, 9, 74, 82, 
103, 120, 124, 132, 137, 138, 141, 147.) 

Deanston is a neat little hamlet on the right bank of the 
Teith about a mile west of Doune. It has extensive cotton-mills, 
founded in 1785. (p. 81.) 

Doune, Gaelic "the hill," on the left bank of the Teith 
eight miles north-west of Stirling, consists of one main street 
and two smaller ones, which radiate from an old market 
cross. Doune was at one time famous for the manufacture of 
Highland pistols and sporrans. The pistol trade was introduced 
in 1646 by Thomas Cadell, and the weapons sold at from 4 to 
24 guineas a pair. In 1 745 Prince Charlie occupied Doune 
Castle. Twice a year cattle markets known as the Doune Fair 
are held. (pp. 101, 118, 138.) 

Dunblane (4591)*, Gaelic "hill of Blane," an ancient city 
on the left bank of the Allan Water five miles north of Stirling 
and 28 south of Perth. The principal street is crooked and 
narrow and the houses mostly old. It is a favourite summer 
resort. Much of the interest of Dunblane centres round the 
remains of its ancient cathedral. The wool and worsted mills 
of Keir and Springbank give employment to a number of the 
inhabitants, (pp. 64, 82, no, in, 132, 137, 138, 143.) 

Dunkeld (1081)*, Gaelic dun chaillin, "fort Caledonia" 
on the Tay 15 miles north of Perth, is an ancient city but 
now more like a village, entered by a handsome stone bridge 
built about the beginning of the last century by the Duke of 
Atholl. The view obtained from the bridge is very impressive. 
It would be hard indeed to conceive of anything more beautiful 
than the Tay flowing deep below amidst the noble oaks which 
skirt its banks and winding round the wooded pyramid of 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 167 

Craig-y-Barns on the one side and under the wild acclivities of 
Craig Vinean on the other, with the hoary cathedral nestling among 




Doune Pistols 

the trees upon a level stretch of haughland in front. The city 
consists of two main streets with the old cathedral and Dunkeld 
House at their heads. It has a large retail trade and is much 



168 PERTHSHIRE 

frequented by summer visitors, (pp. 23, 25, 29, 74, 88, 93, 105, 
in, 113, 137, 138, 139, 143, 148.) 

Dunning (1145)*, Gaelic dunan, "small fort," lies nine and 
a half miles to the south-west of Perth. Dunning was burned 
by the Highlanders in the retreat from Sheriffmuir. The parish 
church (early thirteenth century) is built in the Early English 
style of architecture. A good deal of the original building still 
remains, the massive square Norman tower being a striking 
object. The church was almost entirely rebuilt in 1810. (p. 101.) 

Errol (2083)*, a small village on rising ground in the 
Carse of Gowrie eleven and a half miles east of Perth, is almost 
midway between Perth and Dundee and serves as a business 
centre for the Carse. The parish church, built in 1831, is a 
cruciform Norman structure with a massive square tower, (p. 140.) 

Forteviot (549)*, seven miles south-west of Perth, was 
an ancient capital in Pictish times and later. The palace, of 
which no trace remains, stood on Halyhill to the north-west of 
the village. A sculptured stone which once stood here, having the 
figure of a king supposed to be Alexander I with crown and 
sceptre, and a bishop with mitre and crozier, is preserved in the 
Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh, (pp. 93, 128.) 

Gartmore is picturesquely situated on a hill between 
the river Forth and the Kelty Water. The old Peel of Gart- 
farren stood about a mile from Gartmore. In the neighbourhood 
is Flanders Moss, in which have been found embedded the 
remains of large trees, relics probably of the Great Caledonian 
Forest. 

Huntingtower, three miles north-west of Perth, with an 
ancient castle, has extensive bleachfields, some of which were 
founded as far back as 1774. (p. 117.) 

Inchture (545)*, Gaelic Innis-tuir, "island of the tower," in 
the Carse of Gowrie 14 miles east by north of Perth, occupies the 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 169 

summit of rising ground, which at one time must have been 
completely surrounded by water. Hence its name. Near Inch- 
ture is Rossie Priory, (pp. 122, 123, 140.) 

Kenmore (1106)*, Gaelic ceann-mhoire," Mary's headland," 
is a picturesque village at the eastern end of Loch Tay. Over 
the chimney piece of the inn parlour Burns wrote what has been 
pronounced by Lockhart as among the best of his English heroics. 
Wordsworth and his sister visited Kenmore in 1805. On an 
island in the loch opposite Kenmore there are the ruins of a 
priory, where Sibylla, daughter of Henry I of England, and 
consort of Alexander I of Scotland, was buried, (pp. 22, 23, 
129. r 34, 138, 143-) 

Killin (1412)*, Gaelic cill-Fhinn, "Fingal's burial place," lies 
at the head of Loch Tay. Dr MacCulloch described the Killin 
neighbourhood as "the most extraordinary collection of extra- 
ordinary scenery in Scotland unlike everything else in the country 
and perhaps on earth and a perfect picture gallery in itself, since 
you cannot move three yards without meeting a new landscape." 
At the upper end of the village a bridge of five unequal arches 
spans the Dochart. The view up the river from this point is very 
fine and has been painted 'by many artists. At Auchmore House, 
the seat of the Marquis of Breadalbane, may be seen the largest 
vine in the world. A monument has been erected in the village to 
the Rev. James Stewart, the first to translate the New Testament 
into Gaelic. There is a tweed factory in the village, (pp. 22, 
41, 43, 82, 87, 106, 125, 138, 143.) 

Lochearnhead, a small straggling village at the west end 
of Loch Earn, is much frequented by tourists. In the immediate 
vicinity are the Edinample falls and Glen Ogle. Behind the 
village is an interesting group of stones with cup and ring 
markings, (p. 106.) 

Logierait (i 6 1 8)*, Gaelic lag-an-rath, " hollow of the castle," 
lies on the north bank of the Tay about half a mile above its 

n-5 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 171 

junction with the Tummel. On an eminence near the village 
there has been erected a splendid Celtic cross to the memory of 
George, the sixth Duke of Atholl. Logierait was the seat of the 
Court of Regality in which the Dukes of Atholl administered 
feudal justice from the twelfth century to the abolition of 
hereditary jurisdiction, (pp. 143, 151.) 

Longforgan (1997)*, in the Carse of Gowrie, commands a 
fine view of the whole Carse. The village consists of a straggling 
street, which formerly served as an appanage of Castle Huntly. 

Luncarty, a village in the Strathmore district of Perthshire 
four miles north-west of Perth. Here the Danish invaders 
suffered defeat about the year 990. During the battle, according 
to the legend, Kenneth was greatly assisted by a peasant-ancestor 
of the Hays, who for his services obtained a large grant of land. 
(P- 93-) 

Methven (1847)*, lying about six miles to the north-west 
of Perth, has in its neighbourhood several famous trees including 
the Pepperwell Oak, which, with a girth of over 15 feet, is known 
to be over 400 years old. One of the most celebrated places in 
the neighbourhood is Lynedoch Cottage, the scene of the touching 
story of Bessie Bell and Mary Gray. (pp. 94, 1 16, 138, 140, 150.) 

Muthill (1269)*, three miles to the south of Crieff, was a 
seat of the Culdees in the twelfth century, and later the residence 
of the Deans of Dunblane. The old church, now a most inter- 
esting ruin, is said to have been erected by Bishop Ochiltree in 
1430. (p. 153-) 

Perth (36,669)*, both from an historical point of view and 
from the great beauty of its natural surroundings, is one of the 
most interesting towns in Scotland. 

With the exception of the modern suburbs, it is almost 
entirely situated on a spacious plain lying but a few feet above 
the level of the river. It is bounded, north and south, by the 
fine meadows called the Inches, the name indicating that they 



172 



PERTHSHIRE 



were at one time islands. On the opposite side of the river Tay 
rises the Hill of Kinnoull, its sides highly cultivated and studded 
with elegant villas. On the west the slope is gradual and easy. 
The ascent on the south is more abrupt and forms the Hill of 
MoncriefF, Friarton and Craigie. Towards the north there is 
no elevated ground between Perth and the Grampian mountains 
from 10 to 12 miles away. 

At a very early period Perth was walled and fortified, and 




Perth, from Kinnoull Hill 

girded by a ditch or fosse supplied with water from an aqueduct 
from the river Almond. The Castle was situated at the north- 
east corner of the town, and a high tower or turret stood at the 
West Port near what is now the junction of the High Street and 
Methven Street. A general idea of the extent and shape of 
ancient Perth will best be formed if we remember that the 
aqueduct still keeps its course to the Tay round what was 
formerly the base of the city walls. After the town was taken in 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 173 

1651 by Cromwell, the fortifications were allowed to go to ruin. 
The only remaining part that can now be seen is that lying 
between George Street and Skinnergate. 

Up till the year 1720 the town consisted simply of two long 
streets which ran parallel in an east and west direction the 
High Street and the South Street. Between these two streets and 
running off them were several narrower ones known as gates and 




Tay Street, Perth 



vennels. The principal parts of the town were then situated in 
the neighbourhood of the Watergate and the Speygate. The 
position now occupied by the Jail and County Buildings was the 
site of Gowrie House. The Skinnergate, the Castle Gable and 
the Horse Cross were at that time the principal business centres. 
Many of the old houses stood a foot or two below the level of the 
street, and had arched doorways and windows. On the front wall 
there was placed a superstructure of wood about six feet in breadth. 



174 PERTHSHIRE 

The ground-floor was open, forming "channels," as they were 
called, and it was here that the goods for sale were displayed. 
About 1760 the town began to be extended, (pp. 2, 23, 25, 49, 
59, 64, 66, 68, 69, 78, 81, 82, 90, 92, 93, 100, 101, 102, 103, 
113, 116, 125, 135, 137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 151, 153.) 

Pitcairngreen, Gaelic pitht-a-chairn, "hollow of the cairn," 
on the left bank of the Almond four and a half miles north-west 
of Perth, is, like the other small villages in this neighbourhood, 
principally engaged in the bleachfields. When the village was 
founded towards the close of the eighteenth century, it was 
predicted that it would become a rival to Manchester. 

Pitlochry, 350 feet above sea-level on the left bank of 
the river Tummel, 285 miles from Perth, is much frequented 
on account of its salubrious climate and beautiful scenery. After 
leaving the village, the main road to the north winds through 
the Pass of Killiecrankie, one of the narrowest and most beautiful 
in Scotland. Though now possessing all the modern conveniences 
of life, yet at no distant date Pitlochry was a rude Highland 
village with only a few slated houses, (pp. 82, 101, 137, 138.) 

Scone (2341)*, a flourishing village two miles north-east of 
Perth on the road to Blairgowrie, is known as New Scone to 
distinguish it from the hamlet of Old Scone, and dates from the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. A monument has been 
erected to the memory of David Douglass, the celebrated botanist, 
a native of Scone. The hamlet of Old Scone was situated about 
a mile to the west but it has now all disappeared with the excep- 
tion of a fine old cross surrounded by lordly trees. In the eighth 
century Old Scone was the capital of Pictavia. There the Stone 
of Destiny, says tradition, was transferred from Dunstaffnage by 
Kenneth Mac Alpine. The Scottish princes were crowned on the 
Stone of Destiny until it was removed to Westminster in 1296 by 
Edward I of England, to form part of the English coronation 
chair. A legend was woven round the stone, which acquired a 




Coronation Chair 



176 PERTHSHIRE 

sacred character as influencing the destinies of the Scottish nation. 
This was expressed in a Latin rhyme, which has been translated 

"Unless the fates are faithless grown 

And prophet's voice be vain, 

Where'er this monument is found 

The Scottish race shall reign. 

The stone is identical in every respect with the sandstone rock 
of the neighbourhood, and the story is probably nothing more 
than a myth. Parliaments were often held at Scone. In the 
year 1841 part of the buildings of the Abbey of Scone was laid 
bare in the old burying ground. The Abbey was sacked and 
burned in 1559 by a mob from Perth. The "Moot Hill" is 
another interesting object situated within the Palace policies, 
from whence it is said the early Scottish kings promulgated their 
edicts, (pp. 85, 1 1 6, 128, 148.) 

Stanley (1388), on the right bank of the Tay seven and a 
quarter miles north-west of Perth, grew up in connection with the 
cotton mills established by the Arkwrights. Stanley House was 
once the seat of the Lords Nairne and has many Jacobite associa- 
tions. Within the Stanley policies is a remarkable round structure 
of great age, now in ruins. According to tradition it was a reli- 
gious house in connection with the Abbey of Dunfermline, but 
it has more the appearance of a baronial fortalice. (pp. 81, 137, 
138.) 



DIAGRAMS 



177 



Scotland 

30,902 square miles 




Perth 
2551 
square 
miles 



Fig. i. Area of Perthshire compared with that of 
Scotland 



Scotland 
4,759,445 



Perth 
"4.339 



Fig. 2. The Population of Perthshire compared with 
that of Scotland (1911) 



178 



PERTHSHIRE 



Lanarkshire 1633 



Perth 49 



Sutherland 10 



Scotland 157 

Fig. 3. Comparative density of Population to the 
square mile in ign 

(Each dot represents 10 persons) 



1831 
1851 
1891 
1901 



125,583 



142,166 



138,660 



126,184 



123,283 



124,339 



Fig. 4. Diagram showing increase and decrease of 
Population in Perthshire since 1801 



DIAGRAMS 



179 



Other Crops 137,768 acres 

and 
Permanent Grass 112,484 acres 




Fig- 5- Proportionate area under Corn Crops compared 
with that of other cultivated land in Perthshire (1910) 




Fig. 6. Proportionate area of chief Cereals in 
Perthshire (1910) 



180 



PERTHSHIRE 




Fig. 7. Proportionate areas of land in Perthshire (1910) 




Fig. 8. Proportionate numbers of chief Live Stock in 
Perthshire (1910) 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



Macnair, Peter 
880 Perthshire 

P4M3 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



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