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VBiOj psps anb lUnstmtions. 

« • * 


# WW 

• ■ • 4 








^^■k eaterprise undertaken by me in 1859, of intm- 
HBtteing the cultivation of Peruvian bark trees inti) 
British India and Ceylon, ia now an assured success. 
The work was commenced in 1860, and two yeata 
afterwards I pnblished a narrative of ray travels, which 
comprised an account of my work in South America 
with this object in view, and of that of my fellow- 
labourers, OS well as reports on the selection of sites 
for phmtutions in India, and on the first commencement 
of cultivation.* 

During twenty years the enterprise has since steadily 
progressed. There are now 847 acres nniier cliinchona 
cultivation in the Government Plantations on tlie Nilgiri 
Hills, besides 4000 acres of private plantations on the 
Nilgiris, ill Wainad, Coorg, and other hill districts of 
Southern India. Ia Britisli Sikkim the Government 
chinchoiia plantations cover an area of 2242 acres. 
The annual bark crop from Government I'laiitations 
of British India alone ia already 490,000 lbs. In 
Ceylon 5578 acres were under chinchona cultivation in 

* "TravdJj in Peru and Indin while roperintending tbe oolleotion 
ol Chindioijs plauto and aei'da ia Soath America, and Ihuir intro- 
dn-^ou into India, bj Clemmita B. Markliam," Sm,, pp. xvii. and 572, 
a>\ IlluUmtiotia. (Murruf, 1862.) 

iv Preface. 

1877. In 1879-80 the quantity of bark sold in the 
London market, from British India and Ceylon, WM 
1 ,172,000 lbs. The East India sonrce of bark sapp^ 
is now the most important bnt one as r^azdi 
({uaiitity; and by far the most important of aU « 
rui^rards (juality. On the Nilgiris the whole expendi- 
ture has been repaid with interest, by the sale of baik 
in tlie London market, and the Grovemment is now 
deriving large profits of many thousands a year from 
the bark harvests. In Sikkim the true object of 
tlie undertaking has been better understood, and the 
[)Iantatious are utilised for the supply of a cheup 
aud eflicacious febrifuge to the people of India. In 
1879 tliere were 7007 lbs. of this cheap febrifuge 

The time has now come for presenting to the British 
l)ul)lic a complete liistory of the enterprise, in a concise 
form, from its commencement in 1860 to the year 1880. 
In future years the introduction of the fever-dispelling 
chincliona tree will be one of those measures for which 
Britisli rule will be entitled to the gratitude of the 
people of India. It is, therefore, right that its his- 
toiy, and its results, should be familiar to Englishmen, 
as well as to the educated classes of India. After 
ac([uainting themselves \vitli tliQ difficulties of the 
undertaking in the First Part of the following pages, 
and with its results in the TIurI Part, I venture to ask 
my readers again to peruse that chapter in the Second 
Part,* which records the treatment of those gallant men 

♦ P. 271. 


A'lio, aniidat perils aiid hardships of no ordinary kind, 
performed the work by which India will be so largely 
beuelited. Those who did the work have not receivtid 
fair recompense for most valuable services. But thu 
work itself has conferred an inestimable blessing on 
tiie people of India, while it has, at the same time, 
become a remunerative public undertaking. 










WBStb ^bp an^ iUnstratums. 

• • ■ • 

• ' • * * » 






1 REFACB •• .. •• .. .. Ill 






Importance of the undertakings .. .. .. .. 1 

Its difficulties .. .. .. .. .. 3 

Plan of the work .. .. .. 4 




The febrifuge unknown to the natives .. .. 5 

Discovery of the virtues of bark .. 6 

Native prejudices against bark . . .. .. 7 



Parentage of the Countess of Chinchon .. .. .. 8 

Cure of the Countess .. .. .. .. 9 

The bark brought to Spain .. .. .. 11 

Correct spelling of the name of the Chinchona genus . . 12 

Ancdytical Table of Contents. 


OF TBE trSIS Otf B&BK 1 

The liee loDg unknown .. 

First description of the tree 
CoudMuine and Jussieu,. 
Destruction of trcas 
The Chluchonn region .. 
Limits of tho Chiuchona region 
Chinckona leaves and Qowera .. 
Obaracterutica of ChiochooH trees 
ChioclioDa classification .. 
Viilaable species , . 


Formation of the bark .. 
Discovery olquiniae 
Dincovery of the alkaloiik 
The CljiiK^hona alkaloids 
Value of quinine 


I. — The Loia region and il 
'I'he bolauLst Caldaa 
Tlif crown bark trees . . 
LYowii Imrks 


Analytical Table of Contents. xi 


IL — ^The " red bark " region on the western slopes of Chim- 

DOlckZO ■• aa •• *• •• •• •• •• ^X 

<l^eQ. DGLFK .. ., •» .. .. .. ,( .. *T^ 

IIL — ^The Colombian region ,. .. .. .. .. 43 

The botanist Mutis .. .. .. .. .. .. 43 

His controversies .. .. .. .. .. .. 45 

Disciples of Mutis .. .. .. .. .. .. 46 

Works of Mutis .. .. .. .. .. 47 

Kar8t€n and Triana .. .. .. .. .. .. 48 

rV. — ^The j3aanuco region in Northern Peru, and its grey barks 49 

Ruiz and Pavon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49 

Tafalla .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 50 

Grey barks .. .. .. .. .. ..51,57 

Labours of Spanish botanijsts .. .. .. .. 52 

Bark collectore .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 53 

V. — ^The Calisaya region in Bolivia and Southern Peru . . 58 

Calisaya bark .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58 

Bark legislation in Bolivia .. .. .. .. .. 59 

Bolivian bark trade .. .. .. .. .. .. 60 

Dr. Weddell 6'J 

Travels of Dr. Weddell .. .. .. .. .. .. 65 

The Calisaya trees .. .. .. .. .. .. 66 



Destruction of bark trees .. .. .. .. ,. 09 

Introduction of Chinchona cultivation into Java .. .. 72 

Mission of Hasskarl .. .. .. .. .. .. 74 

Bark cultivation in Java ., .. .. .. .. 77 

Junghuhn and De Vrij in charge of Java plantations .. 78 

Java plantations .. .. .. 80 


Introduction of Chinchona cultivation into India — ^Unsuccessful 

attempts 84 

Analytical Table of Contents. 

Introduction of Chinoliona cultivi 
nrrangemeDts and obj<;c:t3 

Mr. Weir 
Dr. Sproco 
Mr. Croaa 
Mr, Prilchett 
Mr. Ledger 




FasBBge of the Audes 
Meeting a fellow-traveller 
The Pampa of Vilque 
Animals of the Sierra 
City of Puno 
Flora of Puao .. 
Dedaion as lo my rout 


Journey from Puno to Crucero 
Journey to Caravayft .. 
Town of Larapa ., 
Native medictoaL herbs.. 

Quichua Inuguage 
Birds of the Andes 
River of Pueara .. 
Former jKipulation 

Church of Azangaro 
The Sondor-huasi 
A renirian picnic 

Analytical Table of Contents. xiii 


Read to CtraTmym 

• • 

• • 

• • • 

.. 124 


* • 

• • 

•• • 

.. 125 




PiofiDce of Oumvaya .. 

.. 127 

An nnpletiaDt meeting .. 

.. 129 

Dttoeot into Can&vaja .. 

.. 130 


.. 131 

Glorious scenery .. 

.. 132 


.. 133 

I&cretsing diflBcnlties 

.. 135 

Ptepvmtions for the forests 

.. 136 

The journey commenced 

.. 137 

Dmgeroas rosds 

.. 138 

Loffcly scenery .. 

.. 139 

First si'^ht of Chinchona trees 

.. 140 

Iflcrbsiin;; beauty of the scenery 

.. 141 


• • 

.. 142 

Forest encampment 

• • 

.. 143 

Tbermometric observations 

• • 

.. 144 




I jt of coca by the Yncas 

.. 146 

Aii^cdote of a Spaniard 

using coca 

.. 146 

Tike em's plant .. 

.. 147 

Oxa cultivation .. 

.. 148 

Coca harvest 

.. 149 

Cca trader 

.. 150 


.. 152 

Tne Author 8 use of coca 

.. 153 



like I^Joiudos •• 

VcseCaUoo of the Pijonales 




xiv Analytical Table of Contents. 


Pas«ige of tlie Morun-kiiukH 


The Tambopata valley 


Girooda's clearius 

. 159 

A primUive ilistillery 


. 161 

Ad experienced guide 

. 162 

The Collahuayna 

. ir>3 

The fijwst entered 


Forest life 

. 185 

In the midst of GhincboDie 


Forest trees 



. 170 

Search for CiiinchnniB 


Seareh for C. ovate 


Forest scenery 


Numerous Cali«aya plants 


End of tbp provisions 


ICcturri inarch 


More Caltsaja planta 


Wading across the river 


A day's work on the right bank 


Search for C. ovata 


The collection completed 






Geol»^y of the Calisaya reKion 


Elevation and climate of the Calisaya region .. 


Zonal of vegetation 


Beauty of the Cftliaaya tree 


Varieties of CCahsaya 



Climate of the Pajonales 


The shrub Caliaaya 


^^^^^^ ^^^^ 


Analytical Table of Contents. xv 





tier fiY mT arrest .. 196 

ifll^aditj .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 197 

p^rrare from the forests .. .. .. .. 198 

OectioD of shrub Galisayas .. .. *.. 199 

le iDiiian servants .. .. .. .. .. .. 200 

crett across the Andes 201 

keofAra{ia .. .. 206 

e fair of Vilqne .. .. .. .. .. .. 207 

rm of Taya-tay a .. .. .. 208 

e plants brought safely to Islay .. .. 209 

Qxp-ledon of the enterprise .. .. .. .. 210 

K&. ledoeb's seeyices in pbocubino causata seeds from 


wr o:* Mr. Ledger .. .. .. .. .. .. 212 

rodaces ai|«icas into Australia .. .. 213 

td» oyject<.-d by Manuel Incra Mamani .. 214 

ith of Mamani .. .. 215 

. Ltd;jer's services .. .. .. .. 216 




niti of the red bark tree 

Sp-roceV first visit to the Chinchona forests 
ere illness of Dr. S(>ruce 

beMi-quarters at Limon 

Red Bark forest 
rorident felling 
dctiou o( pian t« 
fG(C, snccirubra . . 
ootiecuoa of C. suocirubra completed by Dr. Spruce 


Analytical Table of Contents. 




Mr. Pritchett (iroceeds to HiianQco 
The grey bark species .. 
Mr. PritcheU'B report .. 
Elevatiot of the grey bnrk region 
Mr. Pritcliett'B aerTicea .. 


Mr. Cross proceeds to Loxn 
Search for C. officimilia .. 
Collection of seeda 
Climate and Flora of the Losa rt 
Mr. Cross's successfu! work 


Valnnble Bpcciea ill Colombia .. 

Former accounts of Popay&n 

OroHa in the Pitajo forests 

Cross's Boconii journey lo the Pitayo foreata 

Cross enters the foreats of tlie Caqiiela 

Search for planta of CalUaya da Santa Fi 

Croas completea his collectioa of the CalUaya de Santa Fi , 

Colombian Caicarillerot 

Climate of the Caquctn forests .. 

Tbe need for coca 

Return to Popayao 

Cartbagena bark.. 

Region of Cartbagena bark 

Final completion of the work 

Analytical Table of Contents. xvii 





Complete soooess in South America 
Wardian cases .. 

Treatment of plants in Wardian cases . . 
Airival of plants and seeds on the Nilgiri Hills 






Chinchona cultivation in India not injurious to South America 260 
Permission to export chinchona plants .. 268 

Suggested cultivation in Peru .. .. .... 269 



Recompense for services . 
Services of Dr. Spruce . 
Works of Dr. Spruce 
Grant to Mr. Pritchett . 
Services of Mr. Cross . 
Services of Mr. Weir 
Services of Mr. Ledger . 
Beoompense withheld 


Analytical Table of Contents. 

TART ni. 



Distribution of rainfall ii 
Western Ghats.. 
Nilgiri Hilla selected 
Sieapara Ghat .. 
Arriral at UtafcAmMd . 
Suitable dtes 



Soil of the Nilgiris 
Ctimate of the Nilgiris .. 
Flora of the Nilgiris 
First settlers on the Nilgiri 
Stations on the Nilgiris ., 
Govemment gardens 




Selection of sites for chincbona plantations 
Dodabetta plsntation 

Nod ivaltam plantation 

Olitnate of ohinchona region 

Qimale of Nedivatiam .. .. 

Flora of Nedivattam 

fixamination of other sites on the Nilgiri Hills 

Analytical Table of Contents. xix 




drutiiic aid 310 

cbjcatioo of Chincbona Fkunphlets .. .. .. ..311 

b« lUdrid berbarium .. .. .. 312 

ihchooa Blue Books .. .. .. .. .. .. 313 

r. Howard^s great work .. .. .» .. 314 

Trices of Dr. De Vrij .. ., .. .. .. .. 315 

r. Mclvor^s appointment .. .. .. .. '.. 316 

ling of cbincbooa seeds .. .. .. 317 

ifagatioQ of pbuits .. .. .. 318 

ire arrivals of plants and seeds .. .. .. .. 319 

kcting oat .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 320 

pr^Tement under cultivation .. .. .. .. 324 

ties oo the Nilgiri Hills .. .. .. .. .. 325 

cmerat ion of plantations on the Nilgiri Hills .. .. 326 

rrestiu::; of bark .. .. .. .. .. .. 328 

iLijcsing (HXXX8S .. .. .. .. .. ., 329 

ricin:^ system .. .. .. .. .. .. 330 

:>:l:oiia bvbridisation .. .. .. .. .. 331 

KXit state of tbe Nilgiri plantations 332 

«ssity for continued cultivation by tbe Government .. 334 




^i;c« south of tbe Nilgiris .. .. .. .. 336 

itAi tlilU •• .. .. .. .. 337 

. anii climate of tbe Palnais .. .. 339 

ive« of tlie Palnais .. .. 340 

ra of tbe Palnais .. .. .. 341 

acbooa cultivation on tbe Palnai Hills .. .. .. 342 

acbooa cultivation in Travanoor 344 

e« planting in Travanoor .. .. .. 346 

n '^ the Travanoor Hills .. 347 

ee pUnting at Asambhu 348 

Dcbooa in T^noevelli .. .. .. 349 

xiiooa cultiTatioo in Tinnevelli andon tbe Sbervaroys .. 350 


s ■ ■ ■ 

■•• .1 ', ai'.ji of Wainad .- 
v*'.\v :'!;*:• -:!i:x in Wainail 

\ -...i!\ viancatioa.. Wjuiuhl 



*|i"''\l*'" •• •■ •• 

... . » 

I'- ■ .%.^' V»\., •• •• 

»'.nil:uu.Mu \';;liiv:ition .. 

lVp|»«'i- oultivaiion 

rimuhtMia cultivation in Gx^rj:.. 




INmitiun (iftlui MalmbaUwwars 

S(X'nory of tho Mahnlvileswars 

Templo of Mnhabaloswar 

Climate of thoMahabaleswars .. 


Anafytual Table of Contents. xxi 


kfi of the Malialmleswan 

• • 

• • 

• • 


'± XahabJeswrnn onaiiiteble .. 

• • 

• • 

• • 


ihzre on the IfahalialeswarB .. 

• • 

• • 

• • 





itioo of l^kkim 


• • 

• • 


BAle of Sikkim 

■ • 

• • 

• ■ 


ttitioQs farmed 


• ■ 

• • 


smtendMitii of BikMin I>1fllltatl0nfl 

^ ^ 


Rm^rbi Valley 

• • 

• • 

• • 



• • 

• • 

• • 


dUl at Rmigbi 


• • 

■ • 


c hmrests in Sikkim 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 


King's Mannal 

• • 

• • 

• • 




Khona sites in Burma 
ichona cnltivatioo in Burma 




idkooa ntes in Ceylon 

itation at Hak-gala 

I of Ceylon •• 

Be planting in Ceylon 

■d of chinchona caltivation in Ceylon 



lacrcBoaiA cultivation in java, jakaica, and mexico. 

piantatiooB 407 

ttca •• •• •• .. •• •* •• •• ^yjxj 

to •• •• •• .• •« •• •• •• Xid'T 

xxii Analytical Table of Contents. 





.. 415 

.. 416 

.. 417 

.. 418 

.. 480 

.. 421 

.. 428 

.. 426 

True objects of the enterprise .. 

Analyses of barks 

Relative value of the alkaloids .. 

Medical Commissions on chinchona alkaloids .. 

Form of a clieaj) febrifuge 

Appointment of Mr. Broughton 

Mr. Brough ton's manufacture of a febrifuge .. 

Misleading calculations .. 

Resignation of Mr. Broughton 

Work in Sikkim.. 



labours of Mr. Hume .. 

Views of Mr. Hume 

Apix)intment of Mr. Wood 

Alkaloid manufactory in British Sikkim 

Efficacy of quinetum 

Manufacture of the febrifuge .. 




Demand for quinine 

Bark supply from South America 

Bark supply from India . . 

Financial results 



Analytical Table of Contents. 





It demand for caoutchouc .. .. 441 

> of caoutchouc .. .. .. .. 442 

DBS of caoutchouc supply .. .. 444 

y%vi<m Kji Ficus dastica .. .. 445 

Bonnese india-rubber tree .. 449 

CartQloa trees .. .. .. .. .. .. 450 

rrc«8*s expedition to collect Castilloa plants .. .. 452 

Ervea india-rubber trees in the vallej of the Amazon .. 454 

rtors of india-rubber in the Amazon Valley .. 456 

rroas^s expedition to collect ^evea plants.. .. 458 

; india-rubber plants collected by Mr. Cross 460 

for india-rubber trees in British India .. .. 462 

for CasttVoa trees .. .. .. .. .. .. 464 

re supply of india-rubber .. .. .. .. 466 



ic cottons in India., 
th oi staples of cotton 
*n reijion of Peru . . 
•Q caltivation in Peru 
rian cotton in India 




O Tr\^i9J*. .. .. .. ,. 

of maize in Peru 
e barTr?t in Peru .. 
nilture of the Yncas 
maize in India 
^a .. *• *■ ** .• •• 








.. 487 




( whole world, and especially all tropical countries 
I fevers prevail, have long been indebted to the 
latatooiu re^ons of the Andes for that ine-stimalile 
B which has now become indispensable, and tlie 
I for which ia rapidly increasing throu},'hout all 
] countries. There is no drug more valuable to 
1 the fcbrifoge alkaloid which ta extracted from 
te Cbiochona trees of South America ; and few greater 
>auig» have lieen conferred on the human race than 
■jyf BBtunUisatioQ of these trees in India and other coq- 
.-^wai regions, so as to reader the supply more certain, 
lioftper, and more abundant 

It is tlie object of the following pages to relate the 
m-M nmn which I adopted to obtain collections of plants 
.^il aeeds of febrifuge Chincliona: in the various regions 
;a aooth America where the most valuable species aru 

Importance of tite Undertaking. ea. 

found ; to give an account gf their introduction inh 
India, and of tlte ItiU districta in that country whei 
plantations have been formed ; and to record the hil 
tory of Chiuchona cultivation in India from its com 
mencement down to the present time, a period of twent; 

Li tliis short opening chapter I am anxious to in 
press upon the tuiuds of my readers the great importana 
of the introduction of Chinchona cultivation into Indil 
Fever is by far the moat prolific cause of death, cairyin 
off, except in abnormal years when cholera is raging 
very many more than all other diseases and accident 
put together. The total number of deaths from fever i 
India is upwards of a million and a half annually, A 
least half these deaths will eventually be prevented b< 
putting some cheap form of the Chinchona alkaloids 
retail, into every pdnsaA's shop in the country at on 
rupee per ounce or less ; and thus countless multitude^ 
will be saved from death or grievous suffering. I] 
rightly onnsidered, this measure is as important as any 
other question connected with Indian admin istraticai( 
for it involves the annual saving of many Uvea, of lai^ 
sums of money, and of an immensity of misery. 

The successful introduction of Chinchona cultivation 
into India, tlie measure which is destined in the timetd 
come to secure such beneficent results, %\'as a task of 
considerable difficulty in all its stages ; fur it was nofi 
only necessary to transplant a genus of plants from one 
side of the world to the other, it was also an essential 
element of success to convert wild into cultivated 

Its Difficulties. 

This involved a close stuily of the climate, soil, 

I general physical aspects of each region where the 

» grow in their native forests ; a com- 

■ of these circumstances M-ith those prevailing in 

I East Indies ; the discovery of the best species, and 

i of the species best adapted to secure good results in 

r homes ; the study of all the requirements of 

I i^aiits under cultivation without any guide, as the 

b had never been cultivated before ; and finally 

\ aolatiou of numerous very complicated question? 

; to the best and cheapest form in which the 

( can be prorided for general use. The task 

■ difficult and complicated ; but before beginning to 

I tiie story of how this task was performed, step by 

I, painfnlly and anxiously, but always zealously and 

kipi-fiilly. it is desirable that the reader should have a 

_ ii-ral knowledge of the Chinchona trees. 

In tho first place, therefore, I pntpose to relate tin- 

'UKy of the discovery of the virtues (]f Peruvian bark, 

■iih K pica fwr the correct spelling of the name, of its 

?! introduction into Europe, and of the opposition to 

■1 Qfle. I shall thf.n give some accoimt of tlie first 

!jn«-nl investigations connected with the Chinchona 

■ :be early trade and destruction of trees, and of 

in the Andes where the trees flourish. My 

■ i.t will Ik; to convey to my readers a correct 

-iicr*i idea of the eliaracteristics of a true Chinchona, 

f Uie noinlier of valuable species, and of the nature ol 

(-- bork aud of the febrifuge alkaloids which ai-e 

.tncted ftom it. My last preliminarj- work will he to 

Plan of t/ie Work. 

iJesuribe each region of the Afldcs separately where t 
valuable species are found, with some account of thi 
discovery; and to relate the circumstances connect 
\vitli the introduction of Chinchona trees into Java 
the Dutch, au enterprise wliich, in point of 
preceded my own undertaking by a few yefira. 

These introductory chapters are essential to the di 
comprehension of this interesting subject ; and Bf 
sarily precede my account of the arrangements which 
set on foot for the introduction of all the valual 
Chinchona species into India. 

BiL Tlu Febrifuge unknown to the Natives. 



atxmgines of South America appear, except 
sape in one locality, to have been ignorant of the 
^imiea of Peruvian bark, Thia sovereign remedy is 
/r«asi in the wallets of itinerant doctors, whose matcri'i 
.^iea has been handed down from father to son, since 
■ie daya of the Yncaa. It ia mentioned neither by the 
Voca Gardlasso de la Vega, nor by Acosta, in their 
1:513 of Indian medicines. It seems probable, neverthe- 
'.-SB, that the Indians were aware of the virtues of 
roDvi&n bark in the neighbourhood of Loxa, 230 miles 
•inth of Quito, where its use was first made known to 
Eoivpcuis; and the local name for the tree qiiina- 
mma, " Imrk of bark," indicates that it waa believed 
some special medicinal properties.* The 
B looked upon their conquerors iv-itb dislike and 
; it is improbable that they would be inclined 
'I imput knowledge of this nature to them ; and the 
interval which elapsed betneen the discovery and 

* In QqiiAiiB, «b«n tb« name ot b plant !l reilDplimM, it iklmuEi 
^.taiaiAj Uaplin that it poutuea •nme mtdioiDal qualitivs. In «onjp 
fU^tt nm the lodiaiu niw tlio word qvina-qu4na Im tlic Ixil.taiu-t 

Discovery of the Virtues of Bark. 

fletUement of the country and the first use of Peraviai 
bark by Europeans is thus easily accounted for.* Thi 
conquest and subsequent ci>Tl wars in Peru cannot be 
said to have been finally concluded until the time of tii9 
Marquis of Caiiete in 1560 ; and Jussicu reports that a 
Jesuit, who had a fever at Malacolaa, was cured \fj 
Peruvian bark in IfiOO.f M. de la Condamine also 
found a manuscript in a library of a convent at Loxa, in 
which it was stated tliat the Europeans of the provin« 
used the bark at about the same time. Thus an 
interval of only forty years intervened between the 
pacification of Peru and the discovery of it8 mosl 
valuable product. 

It may be added, however, that though the Indiani 
were aware of the febrifuge qualities of thia bark, they 
attached little importance to them, and this may be 
another reason for the lapse of time which occurred 
before the knowledge was imparted to the Spaniarda. 
Keferring to this circumstance. La Condamine sajg. 
" Nul n'est saint dans son pays." This indifference t 

* La Condaniino, Juaaicu, anil Ruii, nil belicvtd that the InilisuA 
were nnara of the medioinnl qualitiui of PeruTiua baik. bqiI (hut thej 
iui{nrted tlieir koonledge to the Spaaiarda. Huniboldt unU Ullna w< 
of AD uppoaitu opiuioD. Thb btnrira of ita virtues hnving been >! 
uuvcreil by vratvUing the puums or South Amerioaii lions cfaewioij th« 
bark to cure their fevera, mealioneJ by CooUauiine; and i f an ludiuB 
liaviag found it out by diitikitig of the waters of a lake intu whiol 
Cbiuchona tree lied fulleD, told by Quoffroy, aru of iiioilenk i 
Europunu orij^in. 

t Juosiuu aajB that it ia ivrtain that tlm fimt kaowled^i; of tha 
BlBuaoj of this Lork waa iierive<l lioiii thu Indians of Malnooiaa, 
loi^-Dea MHitb of LiOXH. — WtAitH, Ui$toire XalurtlU dee Quin^tnoi^ 

tn. Native Pre/udiees against Bark. 7 

icuiny cases even prejudice against, tlie use of 
riui bark, amongst the Indians, is very remarkable. 
writing in 1830, says that in the Peruvian 
B of Huanuco the people, who are much subject 
I agues, have a strong repugnance to its use. 
IV Indian thinks that the cold north alone permits 
::i^ use of fever-bark ; he considers it as very heating, 
<;i4 therefore an unfit remedy in complaints which he 
>Jierrea to arise from inSammation of the blood.' 
Humboldt also notices this repugnance to using the 
-uic amongst the natives ; and Dr. Spruce makes the 
iae ohaervation with respect to the people of Ecuador 
-4 (>>lanjbia.t He says that they refer all diseases to 
-i<= inflnence of either heat or cold ; and, confounding 
Lite uiii effect, they suppose all fevers to proceed from 
-^1. Ther justly believe bark to be very heating, and» their prejudice against its use in fevers, which 
.V mwt with frescos or cooling drinks. Even in 
uvanail the prejudice against quinine used to be 
■iniiig that, when a physician adniinistere<l it, he 
«i* ifhliued to call it by another name. 

♦ ftmniig, BW»«. t Dr- Spnicu'a Roport. 

Parentage of the Countess of Chine hon. 



In 1638 the wife of Don Luis Geronimo Fernandez c 
C'ftlirera Bobadilla y Mendoza, fourth Count of CIub.' 
chon, and Viceroy of Peru, lay sick of an intermitteQl 
fever in the palace of Lima,* 

Tins lady's maiden name was Ana de Osorio, 
daughter of the noble family, whose founder ' 
created Marquis of Astorga by Henry IV., King { 
Castille. The eighth Marquis had a daugher by hi 
wife Doiia Blanca Manrique y Aragon, named Ana 
bom in 1599, in her father's palace at Astorga.t Hal 
father died on January 28th, 1613, and her mother a 
Valderaa in 1019. Both are buried in the family 
chapel, in the cathedral of Astorga. Two years aftei 
her father's death the youthful Lady Ana, then only 
sixteen years of age, was taken from her home amid: 

* In 1874, I published A Memoir o/the Ladg Ana de OioriOt 
CoutitftM of ChiaeKon aitd Vice-Queen of Peru. (Triibnor, «i>, pp. 99, 
witb (I mnp, pedijjreee, and naruiToua illaBtTutiuiu.) 

t Ford Mija : '■ A portion of the Hne Hbmry of tho palace at AetorgK 
rurtunntely ewaped Boult's camp flrea, and now bi^loii^ to tho 
Advocates at Edinburgli." Junot destroyed thu old psluce of tb0 
Onorjosin April, lalO, and only tvrotnwers, witb some anuuilul ibield^ 

Cure of the Countess. 

:h« pleasant highlands of Leon — "a land of alpine 
I i¥ii. tront streams, verdant meadows, and groves of 
besnnte and walnuts "* — to be married to Don Luis 
1^ YdasGO, grandson of the first Marquis of Salinas, 
iad tlie Toong couple went to live at Seville. But 
l^m Lais died in the prime of life in 1619, and the 
:-uJy Ana, still young aad very beautiful, became a 
-uiitw and an orphan. She was made a lady-in- 
-liliiig to Queen Margaret, wife of Philip III., and 
>^iwTed from Seville to Madrid. Here she won the 
re of a nobleman of distinction. The youthful widow 
' IS married at Madrid, on Sunday, the 12th of August, 
l'^21, to the Count of Chinchon. Her husband, of an 
tiA Cat^onian family, was the grandchild of the first 
Coast by Beatriz de Bobadilla, the faithful friend 
«Dd atteoilant of Queen Isabella. He was hereditary 
-Ucaiile of S^ona, Lord of the Castle of Chinchon near 
Madrid, and of eighteen towns in the kingdom of 

He Count and Countess of Chinchon entertained 
iVJwe Charles and the Duke of Buckingham at the 
U«»ar of Segovia, when, says the record, " they 
-'^pped on certain trouta of extraoriUnapy greatnesse." 
i'l 162S the Count was appointed Viceroy of Peru, and 
--• and bis Countess toade their solemn entry into Lima 
-. Ibe I4th of January, 1629. The great event of this 
■t«KiyaItjr was the cure of tlie Countess of Chinchon, 
1 the year 1638, of a tertian fever by the use of Peni- 
-uj Utrlc The news of her illness at Lima reached 

• Ford. 


Cure of the Countess. 

Don Francisco Lopez de Canizares, the Corregidor i 
Loxa, who had become acquainted with the febrifuj 
virtues of the bark. He aent a parcel of it to the Vici 
Queen, and the new remedy, administered hy in 
phjrsician, Dr. Don Juati de Vega, effected a rapid al 
complete cure. It is known by tradition, amongst ti 
hark collectors, that the particular species from whil 
the hark was taken, which cured tlie Countess ( 
Chinchon, was that known to them as CoMariUat 
Ckaktiargtiera* These trees are a variety of the i 
officinaiis of Linnteus, many thousands of which B 
now growing in India. There are four alkaloids wi 
febrifuge virtues, in Chinchona bark, called quiniq 
quinidine, chinchonine, and chinchonidine. Tlie (km 
rUla dc CkahnargKera abounds in clunchonidine, a; 
Mr. Howard has pointed out that tliis ])articular alk 
loid, concerning which there will be more to say in d 
sequel, probably cured the Countess, 

Ma<lame de Genlia wrote a short novel founded < 
tlie cure of the Coimteaa of Chinchon, wluch she ded 
cated to the Comtesse de Choiseul. It is entitll 
Ziima,] and though erroneous in every particular ao I 
as all the facts are concerned, it yet proves the deep bj 
general interest which attaches to the first introductdf 
of guina bark into Europe by the Vice-Queen. 

* Confptndio Hitt&neo-midieo eomereial de la> Quimu, por 
Hipniito Uuise, K18. Quoted by Mi. Howard iu bu Xuesa 

f Moilunic de Genlis' novel waa tronalateil into Bpanish in 1827, i 
runiia a tittle book entitled " Zuma, 6 el detaihrimieuto iU la Qui 
nottUa i'cruUTHi." 

The Bark brmtght to Spa-. 

Tbe C^ODtects of Cttinchon retnrned to Spain in the 
T'ria* of 1640, bringing with her a supply of that 

■^>H la- qvina bark which had worked so wonderful a 

.n- r]|.in herwlf, and the healing virtuea of wliich she 
" ;^:ii'!^l In (iistribi]t« amongst the sick on her luishand's 
^intea- It thus gradually became known in Europe, 
ird was muet appn^riately called Countess's powder 
I P«/ru Comitisatr). By tliis nanie it was liing known 
; t druggists and in commerce. Ur, Juan de Vega, the 

-nned physician* of the Countess of Chinclion, followed 
::!.< patient to Spain, bringing with him a quantity 
rf ifminti bark, which he sold at Seville for 100 reals the 
ir-nDd. The bark continned to have tbe same high 
■ Ji>c and the some reputation, until the trees became 
.^m and the collectors began to adulterate it. 

Alber tlieir return from Peru, the Count and Countess 
■nuBy re(iid«d at the Castle of Chinchon, built by the 
i^aimt's father in 1590. The Countess administered 
renvian bark to the suQerers from tertian agues on her 
/mffl ««tatea, in tbe fertile but uuhealtby vegas of the 
T^rns, tbe Jarama, and the Tajuoa. She thus spread 

IdMO^ amund her, and her good deeds are even uow 
-<neo)l<ejwI by the people of Chinchon and Colmcnar, in 
•j^ trHditions.t 

* Dt. Jau iS« VcRa, whitv ol Limn, pullialitiil ft itTHintiiiir of th'i 
BSHfB at Ifaa PwnvlBu Imliuu, entUte<l, " ArU » Bmlimmtoa de 
•^cAaA." IlinpR'wen Lima, Ii~1i;.i 
it of ChtoebimiwuMiaoeaded liyhiRton. whnwairolloviC'd 
bare thv aiitJu liiia vailed. Tli'ir muiiii. Knin<<c»ro dt 
M>om«d»l. arid with tivT tlie r<imi1y rami* bi bh ttiJ. 
L Umo gnuited tlie title of Coaat <•( CbincJirin to liia brother. 

12 Correct Spelling of the Name ch. i 

The town of Chiachon is in the south-east comer • 
1 the province of Madrid, on high ground, with hiU 
' covered with wheat fields and vineyards, sloping off ) 
one aide to the ve^a of the Tagna, and on the other ! 
that of the Tajufia. The distance from Madrid ■ 
Chinchon is twenty-four miles, and the ruins of t£ 
old castle, on its breezy hill, are seen from afar, with tli 
Uttle town nestling at its feet. 

In memory of the great service to humanity pe 
formed by the Cotmtess of Chinchon, Linnaeus nan« 
the genus which yields Peruvian barb, CItinchon 
Unfortunately the great botanist was misinformed as 1 
the name of her whom he desired to honour. This ia 
be accounted for by his having received his knowledj 
of the Countess through a foreign, and not a Spania 
source. Thus misled, Linnffius spelt the word Cirtehoi 
(Gen. PI. ed. 1742) and Cinhona (Gen. PI. ed. 1767 
omitting one or two letters. It was still more unluck 
that Linnaeus died before the error was pointed out an 
corrected. This was done by the Spanish botanisi 
Kuiz and Pavon, who landed in Peru in 177S, the ye« 
of Linnseus's death. They advocated the correct Bpel 
ing of the name, and their example was followed If 
Mutis and others. The correct spelling ought now to h 


tUe iDfiiutc Don Luie. Hib illtgitinnle daughter woa Bllowed | 
inherit it, nnd abe conveyed it to her liimbanJ, Manuel Godoj. tl 

whom gbe left a. bwi. tlie pre-wot Count of Cbinchon and Dnke ( 
Aloudia. He reBiJeH iu Italy, but U lor.1 of the estates of Chinohe 
nnd VillavioioHi. 

of the Ckinchona Genus. 

^BMStily adopted, because tte matilatiou of tbe name 
&vtnl«s the object of Lumsos, wtiich was to preserve 
Iks maaory of the Countess. The genua is called 
(XtDtiiMM because it ia named after the Countess of 

Early use cf the Bark. 



AlTEE the cure of the Couutess of Ciiinchon the Jesiii 
were the great promoters of the introductioii of \a 
into Europe, In 1070 these fathers sent iiarcels 
the powilered bark to Home, whence it was distribuM 
to members of the fraternity throughout Europe, 
Cardinal de Lugo, and uaed for the cure of agues wit 
great success. Hence the name of " Jesuits' bark," ai 
" Cardinal's bark ; " and it was a ludicrous result of 
patronage by the Jesuits that its uae should have bee 
for a loug time opposed by Protestants, and favoua 
by Konian Catholiia. In 1(579 I/Diiis XIV. liought t] 
secret of preimring (quinquina from Sir Robert Tall 
an English doctor, for 2000 louis-d'or, a lai^ pensi( 
and a title. From that time Peruvian hark seems 
have been recognised as the most efficacious remedy 
intermittent fevers. The second Lord Shaftesbury, m 
died in iri99, mentions, in one of liis letters: — "'. 
Locke's and all our ingenious and able doctors' metl 
of treating fevers with the Peruvian bark." He declai 
his belief tliat it is " the most innocent and effecti 
of all medicines ; " but be also alludes to " the bui 

C&ntroiiersies on the use 0/ Bark. 15 
b«nrlil makes of it, especially the tribe of inferior 

I be no doabt that a very strong prejudice 
( ntsed against it, which it took many years to 
; and tJie controversies that arose on the sub- 
; between learned doctors, ^vere long and ncrimo- 
Dr. Colmenero, a professor of the university of 
, -MTote a work in which he declared that 
leaths had been caused by its use in 
Chiflet (Paris, lfi53) and I'leinpins 
^ I4l5fi>, two fjroat enemies of novelty, prophesieii 
I *he early death of quinquina, and its inevitablt! 
I Biledirtion by future agos ; while the more eitltglitcned 
Mrfjiw (Genua. Iti56) defended its use, and quoted 
MR tbon 12,OU0 cures by the aid of this remedy, 
•jfonau] by Uio best doctors of the hospitals in Italy. 
1 . 16^^ Dr. MorUtii. one of the opponents of its use, 
"w ohli)^ Co retract all be had said against quinquina ; 
B then that it began to be generally admitted 
\ nloable nieiiicine. It still, liowever, remained a 
r coptioversy. and as lat« as 1714 two Italian 
izxjni and Torti,t held opposite views 
fiautazzini wrote against its use with 
e.t wliile Torti maintained that, in proper 
1 arrtist ivmitt«nl and intermittent fevers.^ 

T, Odd Uipxlibi Uoaiiue. 
'< \<ibiit. mu piiblislioJ Ht Vviiiov in MM. 

I'ti, Carpeiuii i'AiJunjfiAi ae Medici, oprta 
■.■<iim. (3n) vdiu. LouJiul, tTlH, |h ISJ.) I>v 
iitatio epulularu. 
'd AtKj'di/Kuf'V'f ■<■> (JHiVjuiiHi, iHLr r. Brii[Uot. Pniu, ItO'i. 

i6 The Tree long unkncwn. ' ch. it. 

Whilst the inestimable value of Peiuvian bark was 
gradually forcing conviction on the most bigoted medi- 
cal conservatives of Europe, and whilst the number 
and efficacy of the cures efTected by its means were 
bringing it into general use, and consequently increas- 
ing the demand, it was long before any knowledge 
was obtained of the tree firom which it wbb tBk&L 
In 1682 La Fontaine, at the solicitation of the Duchess 
of Bouillon, who had been cured of a dangerous fever 
by taking Peruvian bark, composed a poem in two 
cantos to celebrate its virtues;* but the exquifiite 
beauty of the leaves, and the delicious fragrance of the 
flowers of the quinquina-tree, with allusions to which 
he might have adorned his poem, were still unknown 
in Europe. 

* Poeme du Quinqw'na et atUres ouvragety en ven, Jeao de k 
Fontaine. (Parw, 1682. 12mo. pp. 242.) 

First (kscription of the Tree. 



The first description of the quinquina-tree is due \a 
that memorable French expedition to South America, 
to which all branches of science owe so much. Its 
members, MM. De la Condaniine, Godin, Bouguer, and 
the liotaniat Joseph de Juasieu, sailed from Hochelle 
on the tilth of May, 1735, to measure an arc of the 
meridian near Quito, and thus determine the shape of 
lliu earth. After a residence at Quito, Jusaieu set out 
for Loxa, to examine the quinquina-tree, in March 
1739, and in 1743 La Condamine visited Loxa, and 
stayed for some time at Malacotas, witli a Spaniard 
whose chief source of income was the collection of bark. 
He obtained some young plants with the intention of 
taking tliem down tlie river Amazons to Cayenne, and 
tlieace transporting them to the Jardin des Plantes at 
I'aria ; but a wave washed over Lis little vessel near 
!';ira, at the mouth of the great river, and carried otl 
li-; box in which he had preserved those plants for 
I I 'J re than eight months. "Thus," he says, "I lost 
tiietn after all the care I bad taken during a voyage of 

Condavtine and yussieu. 

more tlian twelve hundred leagues," * Tliis was the 
first attempt to transport chincliona planta from theii 
native forests. 

Candamine described the quinquina-tree of Loxa in 
the ' Memoireg de C Academic ; ' t he was the first man 
of science wlio examined and described this important 
plant ; and in 1742 Liumeus establiehed the genus 
' OHiNCHOKA,t in honour of the Counteaa Ana of Chin- 
chon. He, however, only knew of two species, thai ot 
Loxa, which was nrtmed C, (ij}icinalis,% and the C 
Caribwa, since degraded to the medicinally wortldess 
t;enus of Bxastcmmas. 

Joseph de JuBsieu, whose name is associated \«'it1i 
that of La Condamine in the first examination of the 
chinchona-trees at Loxa, continued his researches in 
South America after the departure of liis companion- 
He penetrated on foot into the province of Conelos, the 
scene of Gonzalo Pizarro's wonderful achievements and 
terrible sufferings ; |] he visited Lima with M. Godin ; 
he travelled over Upper Peru as far as the forests of 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; and he was the first botani£t 
who examined and sent home specimens of the coca 
plant, the beloved narcotic of the Peruvian Indian. 
After fifteen years of laborious work he was robbed of 
his large collection of plants by a servant at Buenos 

• Voyage de Cmdamiiie, p. 31. t 1738. p. 226. 

I la tlie wcoDd editiOD of liie Genera Flantarum. 

g 6o uuiied bf LinniBuf, iti 17S3, in the first edition of Lis Sperir- 
FlaiitaTum, uIbo in ITfiB, in bu eecocd edition. 

II Se« m; tiRiulation of the DsmtiTe of the memonkble cipr^diti'ir 
of QouehIo I'izano, in tbe voltime entitled The Vallej/ of the ^niiuoni 
futtaing une uf Ibc UoikluTt Soi^ietv'e eeriee. 

Destntclion of Trees. 


1 Ayreft, who believed that the boxes contained money. 
Hiis Uea bad a disastrous effect on poor Jussieu, who, iu 
1771. retomed tw France, deprived of resisoD, aftei' an 
&Wooe of thirt)*-four years. Dr. Weddell haa named 
the sbrabby variety of C. Calisaya in honour of this 
mdorUaaOe botanist, C. Josepkiana. 

For niany years the quinquina-tree of Loxa, the C. 

•t/kuialu of Linnaeus, was the only species with wliich 

^■MtBifltn were acquainted ; and from 1640 to 1776 no 

II uUter bark was met with in commerce than that wiiich 

^Mm exported from the Peruvian port of Fayta, broui^lit 

^HtvD &Dta the forests in the neighbourhood of Loxa. 

^^Be ooDstajit practice of improvidently felling the ti'ee.'^ 

^Hhr so Btuall an area for more than a century, without 

^H|f oeasation, inevitably led to their becoming very 

^■IBWCK, aod threatened their eventual extinction. As 

iMjy aa 1735 LTloa reported to the Spanish Goveni- 

, tb&t the habit of cutting down the trees in the 

s of Loxa. and afterwards harking them, without 

the precaution of planting others in their 

\, would oodoubtedly cause their complete extir- 

"ThoTigh the trees are numerous," he added, 

; tboy have an end ; " and lie suggested that thu 

■ of Loxa should be directed to appoint an 

-, wlioee duty it should be to examine the forests, 

i mXiafy himself that a tree was planted in place of 

' one that was felled, on pain of a _fiue.* This 

'MO role woa ne^■er enforced, and sixty years aftei'wards 

Haaboldt reported that 2o,000 trees were destroyed in 


The Chifulwna Region. 

one year. Yet the Jestuta are said to have enforced it 

us a religious duty that, for every tree felled, the bark 
collector should plant a quincunx. 

The nieaaures adopted by the Spanish Government 
towards the end of the laat century, in sending botani- 
cal expeditions to explore the cliinchona forests in 
other parts of their vast South American possessions, 
led to the discovery of additional valuable species, the 
introduction of their barks into commerce, and the 
reduction of the pressure on the Loxa forests, which 
were thus relieved from being the sole souree whence 
Peruvian bark could be supplied to the world. 

The region of clunchona-treea extends from 19" S, 
latitude, where Weddell found the C. aitstralis, to 10" N., 
following the almost semicircular cui-ve of the cordillera 
of the Andes over at least 1500 miles of latitude. Tliey 
nourish in a cool and equable temperature, on the 
slqpes and in the valleys and ravines of the mountains, 
surrounded by the most majestic scenery, never 
descending below an elevation of 2500, and ascending 
as high as 9000 feet above the sea. Within these limits 
their usual companions tire tree-ferns, Melastomacete, 
arborescent passion-flowers, and allied genera of chin- 
chonaceous plants. Below them are the forests abound- 
ing in pahns and bamboos, above their liighest limits 
are a few lowly Alpine shnibs. But within this wide 
Kone grow many species of chinchonEe, each within its 
own narrower belt as regards elevation above the sea, 
some yielding the inestimable bark, and others com- 
iiiercially irortWess. And the species ot liluni^honK, in 

The Ckinch(ma Region. 

r native forests, are not ooly divided from each 
r by zones as regards height above the sea, but also 
r puallels of latitude. la Bolivia and Caravaya, foi' 
Inable C. Caiisaya abounds, but it is 
r fonnd nearer the equator than 12° S. Between 
tint porallBl and 10° S. the forests are for the most part 
Eic:api«d by wortlileas species, while in Nortliern Peru 
ihc grey barks of commerce are found. In each of 
tfaiee UUtndinal regions the different species are again 
ihrided liy belts of altitude. Yet this confinement 
vithin zones of latitude and altitude is not a constant 
rale; for several of the hardier and stronger apecies 
bis« a wider range ; while the more sensitive, and 
lioe aif! usually the most precious kinds, are close 
pdaooers within their allotted zones, and never pass 
can tJuui a hundred yanls beyond them. All the 
fpiaea are, of course, affected by local circumstances. 
vUch more or less modify tlie positions of their zones, 
■IB Bguds altitude. 
IHiiu, to give a geographical summary of tliu 
nDft r^on, beginning from the south, it c»m- 
■ in the iJolivian province of Cochabamba in l'.> 
through the yungus of La Paz, Larecajn. 
, Ooroico, and Munecas, into the Peruvian 
! of Caravaya ; thence through the Peruvian 
, on the eastern slopes of the Andes, of Mar- 
, Paacartampu, Santa Ana, Huanta, and Uchu- 
to Ilaanuco and Huamalies, where the grey 
I fband. It then continues through Jaen, to the 
■ Z<«j» mill Cuenca, ami on the westiBTO. 

22 Limits of tht Chinchona Region, ce. ■». 

slopes of Chimborazo. It begins again in latitnde 
1° 51' N. at Alin^ner, passes through the province of 
■Pojiayan, and along the slopes of the Andes of Quindin, 
until it reaches its extreme northern limit ou the 
wooded heights of Merida and Santa Marta. From 
Cnroico in Bolivia to Huanuco, the distance is 680 
miles ; from Huanuco to Loxa 500 ; from Loxa to 
Eiohamba, where the red bark tree grows, 180 miles. 
The whole length of the chinchona region from Bolivia 
to the forests of Colombia is 1500 miles. 

Humboldt remarks that, beyond these limits, the 
Silla de Caracas, and other mountains in the province 
of Cumana, possess a suitable altitude and climate fat 
the growth of chinchona-trees, as well as some parts t 
Mexico, yet that they have never been found either in 
Cumana or Mexico ; and he suggests that tliis may l 
accounted for by the breaks wliich take place il 
Venezuela on the one hand, and on the Isthmus ( 
Panama on the other, where tracts of country of low 
elevation intervene between the lofty mountains cA 
Cumana and Mexico and the chinchona region of 
main Andes, In these low districts the chinchona;- 
trees may have encountered obstacles wliich prevented 
their propagation to tlie northward : otherwise 
might expect to find them in the beautiful Mexican 
woods of Jalapa, wliither the soil and climate, and 
their usual companions the tree-ferns and Melaetomacea^ 
would seem to invite them.* 

a. r. Ckiiuhona Leaves and Flowers, 2 3 

Be this how it may, the chinchona plant has never 
•«i f'jand in any part of the world beyond tlie limits 
Jiwdy described. 

ILe chinchonas, when in good soil and under other 
'ivonnbte drcnmstances, become large forest trees ; ou 
■^i^ta derations, and when crowded, and growing in 
~KkT ground, they frequently run up to great Iieiglits 
vTShtni a branch ; and at the upper limit of their zone 
r become mere shmba. The leaves are of a great 
■iety of shapes and sizes, but, in most of the finest 
I. tbey are lanceolate, with a shining surface of 
kjgbt green, traversed by crimson veins, and petioles of 
tfaeaune colour. The flowers are very small, but hang 
J cbtstetiiig jianicles, like lilacs, generally of a deep 
«ea£e oojour, paler near the stalk, dark crimson within 
'Ir nbe, with white curly hairs bordering the lacioi^ 
f the eoroUa. The flowers of C. micrantka are entirely 
"idle. ITiey send fortli a delicious fragrance which 
'Stilts Um air in their vicinity. 
Tit flsrliest botanists gave the name of Chinchona to 
of allied genera, which have since been 
1, and grouped under otlier names.* There are 
•Ijtt chancteriatica by which a chinchona may he 
C30wn ; the presence of curly hairs bordering the 
'^aium of the corolla, the peculiar mode of dehiscence 
'. Uk capsule from below upwards, and the little pits 
• tba axils of the veins on the under sides of the 

■1 tha *p«cia* wlinao cnpantoB begin lo open fram 
M bf^ imd fonaod tbtao into a anbgentu, wbicli he Palled CaaeariUa. 
i^aiA. MnUnlng Iheae with other ■pcaics chnnclcirUeJ by k aix- 
Itd oobUb, riiwd tbam to an iudependentgonui called LadetAergh. 

C/iaracierisiics of Chincltona Trees, ch. 

leaves. These characters distinguish the chinchoa 
from many trees which grow with it, and which mig| 
at first Bight be taken for the same genus. The fw 
established by the investigations of chemists, that dot 
of these allied genera contain any of the mediciu 
alkaloids, has confirmed the propriety of their expulsit 
from the chinchona genus by botanists; and 
Weddell gives a list of seventy-three plants, 
received as Chinchonie, which are now more properi 
classed under allied genera, such as CosviibueTia, dk 
carilla, Exostemma, Eemijia, Ladenhergia, Lasionema-, (fee 

Before the time of Dr. Weddell, the three b 
botanical works on the botany of the chinchona gei 
were the Prodromm of De Candolle, Endlicher'a Gffna 
Plantaruvi, and the essay by Klotzsch, published i 
Hayne's More MSdicale.\ In these works a well-defin( 
distinction is drawn between the febrifuge and 1 
paeudo-chinchona ; by pointing out the distinguish] 
charaeteriatics of the former as deduced from the del 
cence of the capsule, which is from the bottom to the b 
in true, and from the top to the bottom in false chinchonffi 

The number of species of Chinchonis was at first eeta 
blished by Dr. Weddell at nineteen, and two doubtful 
but the classification of this eminent authority, pubUsha 
in 18i9, has since required much alteration and revisioi 
For iustauce : Dr. Weddell gave no place to the " rec 

* Hiaieire natarelle det Quinqviaai. p. 72, 

t DaTllellnng und Betchreilmng det in die Artneikunde gebrSuo 
liehtn GetaHehK. (Berliu 1803-iti.) 

t But it hu been ol>seiTed by Dr. Kiirsteii,unJ ulsO by Mr, Howoi 
Mint this rule i« not mvaiiublc. 


^Ht Ckituhona Classification. 25 

' i^k' species, the richest in alkaloids, and one of the 

aft iiD|M»tant, 

which, through the investigations of 

\^. Spntee, 10 now admitted by botanists as a distinct 

■■Mam, Uie C. mcdrvhra (Pavon). 

Dr. WetldBU'i list of 1S49 u as foUows ; — 


{WtddtUy. . . 

Bolivia and Caravaf n. 


IBumhaldt') . . 


1 Ctatamamjax 

(H-tmboldti . . 


(. C. AimniAurDLU 

{Wtdddt). . . 

Peru aod BoUria. 

': C xnibk . . 

iBuii and Pavon') 

N. Pari. 

iW^dMl). . . Bolim. 

' CBounuu . 

(ir^tfcU). . . 

CaraTaya and Bolivia. 

• Cmck&XTMA. 

(Sui ami Pavon) 

Pmu and Bolivia. 

(FaW). . . . 

Pera and Botiria. 

1" C. ODUcrooA . 

(if^Ui) . . . 

New Grotiada. 

.1 C rv>romwccsa 

(,W,dddl). . . 


; C. OTATA . . 

IBuit aad Paton, 

Peru and Boliria. 

• C CarmuAVA 

IWaldtU}. . . 


(.Bull and Pavon) 

N. Peru. 

(.WcddriT). . . 


C HranuirruBjt 

ilamb^rt). . . 


{Wtddell) . . . 

Carava;a. ^^^H 

■ C.Mmu. . 

lL«mbeH) . . . 

U>a. ^^M 

- C. wamrtx 

{fluii and Pavon) 

Pen. ^^^H 

CvmeoLtm . 

iKlcltteh) . . . 


1 Cru-ftLU 

(Pawn) . . . 

P*ru. ^^^H 

Hfa his Botes 

n the Quinquinas,* dat«d 1870, Dr. 1 

^HddeU pablished a levised scheme of the chiticliona ] 




^BnoMi. athr* 

C. officinnlii :— 


ar. a, Ufituainga. ^ 

„ 8, Condaniinea. T 


^Bn, miilHil from Uio Annalu de, Sci«i«> SolunUu. 3tU Mri». | 








C/iific/iotia Classification. ch. *,H 



C. macrocnlri, 

C. PaltOD. ^1 
C. Bubcrosa. ^1 
C. coccinefl. ■ 
C. hoteropbjIU. H 

0. dtupea. ■ 

C. UQPeolala. 




C. ForbcBUiQ*. 


C. amygdalifblio. ■ 

CmscHOKA II, Slirjo C. rugoBie :— 




C. Pitajcnns, a, 

ralontta. ■ 


TcmDED. ■ 


pallida. ■ 

C. eoTTnibon. 


C. nigoaa, A criip*. ■ 

C. MutUii. 


(J. Lirenta. 




0. CaravayenBiB 
C. Bsperifolia. 


C. imibellulifeia. ■ 


Chincuona ni. SliTps C 

micranth* :— 


G. aiutmliB. 
C. BcrobioulaU. 

C. nitidn. 

■ Bamui B 


0. micranthB, v 

„ 7.afflm». 

„ «, totundifolia. 

Cbincbona IV. Siirjt) G 


C. Calisaya, 

ar. fl, vcni, 

„ A microoarpa. 

„ B, oblongifolia. 
„ •.pallida. 



C. Josephiana. 



C, elUptica. 

■ Chinchona Classification. 


^A r. Sbtp* ao*Bto:— 

C. rofinBrviB. 


C. erythroderma. 


C. rosolenta. 

C errtbrastha. 

r %. EooTftte. C. ovatu, var. n, genoliM. 


„ d.ralgBrl<. 




> c. Cotdifolue. C. onnlifolia. 
C. lulM. 

c. puirphjiia. 



C. mboord.!.- 


C. rotuDdifoHa. 
0. TnoujeiuU. 

C deencrentifolia. 
O. ChotDelimin. 
C. BarbMoensu. 

.ioti, Iiowever, will be altered as oui' 
and indeed it already requires 

eonunercially valuable species comprise but a 
pn^iortion af the whole ; and as all these have 
lUrodaced into India, they need our special 
Tbey are as follows : — 

Mr, a, GnxiamJiiHi 1 
V & ifonplundvina ) yielding ci 

(Pitod) yielding tfA buk. 


Valuable Species. 

)C. nitida | 
C. micranlha \ yieliling grey bark. 
C. PtTvmana) 
V. 0. (Mitaya „ yallow bark. 

These apeciea yield medicinal bark a, which 
collected from five diEFerent regions in South Amerii 
and in the following chapter I propose to give a I 
account of each of these regions, of their chinchc 
trees, and of the investigations of botanists down to 
time when measm-es were taken to introduce tl 
inestimable plants into Java and India. Such 
account will naturally divide itself into five sections 

I. — The Loia region, and ils croum harht. 

II.— The rtd-bark region, on Ihe weaten) slopes of Chiaibor* 
III.— The Oolombian region. 
IV.— The Hnanooo region in Northoni Pern, and its grey barkii 

v.- Tiie Calitaya regiun, in Bolivia and SoQtbem Peru. 

Before entering on this subject, however, it will 
well to cast a hasty glance at the progress of i 
investigations which ended in the discovery of 
febrifuge principle in Peruvian bark. 

Formation of Bark. 



^si nntfi, flowers, and capsules of the chincbona-tree 

■jit s bitter taste with Ionic properties, but the upper 

L icfc ia the only part whicli is commercially valuable. 

I M. Ivlomire decided that the fniit and flowers, thougli 

I intDg a bitter principle, do not contain the alkaloids, 

itile the roots contain tliem, though in smaller 

popurtion tiian the bark of the trunk and branches. 

1W Ittrlc of trees ia composed of four layers — the 

mfAiata. the periderm, the cellular layer, and the liber 

« fibcoudi layer, composed of hexagonal cells filled ^^-ith 

rt^oou matter and woody tissue. In growing, the 

'~^ putbee ont the bark, and as the exterior part 

( to grow, it separates into layers, and forms the 

t or periderm ; which in chinchonas is partially 

, and blended with the thallus of lichens. 

is thus formed of the dead part, or periderm, 

[ tbe livin;; port, ur derm. On young branches 

\ is nf> liiiail ]>art, the exterior layers remaining 

wiitle tliv timer layers have nut had time to 

\q tliick old brandies, on tbe contrary, the 

I or dead part is considerable, while the fibrous 

t ^erm ia fully developed. In preparing 

the bark the periderm ia removed by striking the [tr 
with a mallet, and the derm is then taken off 
imiform incisions. The thin pieces from small brand 
are simply exposed to the sun's rays, and assume 1 
form of hollow cylinders, or rjuills, called by the natil 
canulo bark. The solid trunk bark is called tahla 
platicha, and, until recently, was sewn up in coai 
canvas and an outer envelope of fresh hide, forming t 
packages called serons.' 

The character of the transverse fracture affords : 
important criterion of the quality oi' the bark. Cellu] 
tissue breaks with a short and smooth fracture, woo 
tissue with a fibrous fracture, as is the case with t 
Caiisaya bark. The best characteristics by which b 
containing much quinine may be distinguished are t 
shortness of the fibres which cover the trans va 
fracture, and the facility with which they may 
detached, instead of being flexible and adhering as 
bad harks. Thus, when dry Caiisaya hark is hajidled, 
quantity of little prickles run into the skin, and t 
forms one of its distinguishing marks.t 

Until the present century Peruvian bark was used 
its crude state, and numerous attempts were made 
different times to discover the actual healing princi[i 
in the bark, before success was finally attained, 
first trial which is worthy of attention was made 
1779 by the chemists Buguet and Comette, 

Thu larmu nf liide p 
ir three years the hii 
130 Iba. eiKli. 

itaineil 150 lbs. of bnrk. But fur the 1i 
i Herons have been supepseiied by bftles 

:'xiiigiii^ed the eidstence of an essential salt, a resinous 
^j an earthy matter in quiDquina bark. In 1790 
.' 'OJcnjy di3Co\'ered the existence of a colouring matter, 
'r.47T&nl8 called ehinckona red, and o. Swedish doctor 
Lin»ed Westrii^. in 1800, believed that he had dis- 
-temd the active principle in quinquina barb. In 
VMrl the French chemist Armand Seguin undertook the 
i^-k trade on a large scale, and found it necessary to 
■;qiiy the means of discovering good barks, and dis- 
ui^aiahiag them from bad ones. He found that the 
>«t qoinqmna ba^k was precipitated by tannin, while 
dK baat waa not precipitated by that substance. In 
1803 another chemist found a crystalliDQ substance in 
tb twric which he called " &d essentiel fibrifu/je," but it 
•M nothing more than the combination of lime vtith an 
nd which waa nomeil ipiinic acid. Benss, a Russian 

iemiat, in 1815, was the first to give a tolerable 
li^yats of i}ninqaina bark ; and about the same time 
;>r Dtincau of Edinburgh suggested that a real sub- 
'•juiflo (ucisted as n febrifuge principle. Dr. Gomez, a 
Tii^wo in the Portuguefie navy, in 1816, was the firat 
tn iiuUt« this fehrifugB principle hinted at by Dr. 
Dancsn, and ho called it chinfAoninc* 

Bat the final discovery of quinine is due to the 
breach cbeiuistA Telletier and Caventou, in 1820. Tliey 

3«idend that a v^etable alkaloid, analogous to 

-' icphine and Btrychuine, existed in quinquina bark ; 

--i they »flerwanls discovered that the febrifuge 

iTOcipfe was seated in two alkaloids, separate or to- 

• Briquet, p. 22. 

Discovery of the Alkaloids. cb. a 

gether, in the different kinds of bark, called qidroA 
and Ainehtmiiu, with the same \-irtues. which, howevc 
were much more powerful in quinine. It was believe 
that in most barks chinchonine existe in the celluli 
layer, and quinine in die liber, or fibrous layer ; 
Mr. Howard baa since shown tbat this view is quil 
incorrect." In 1829 Pelletier discovered a third alkri 
loid, which he called aricine, of no use in medicine, ! 
iJerived from a worthless species of chinchona, growin 
in most of the foresta of Peru, called C. p//Jf«e«?w.t 
The organic constituents of chinchona barks are — 



Qninovic acid. 


A yellow ooloaring luattcr 

A green fatty matter. 



Qoinlo acid. 


'i'snnlo odd. 


These materials are in different proportions according 
to the barks. Grey bark cliiefly contains chinchonin* 
and tannin ; Calisaya, or yellow bark, much quinine^' 
and a little chinchonine ; red bark holds a large per- 
centage of chinchonidine ; while the batka of Colombia 
chiefly contain quinine, chinchonidine and quinidine. 
The two latter alkaloids were definitively discovered itt 
1852 by M. Pasteur; although the Dutch chemist 
Heijningen had, in 1848, found what he called 
quinine or quinidine. 

• tfueva Qtiinulegia de Patoa. Ko. 10. 

+ Ariciw, u n »ul|ili»t©, does not crjatoliiae. but forma a pecnliat 
tMwblh.B Jelly. It waa so n.m^ from liie port.of Aiic.a, whence tb« 
Uu-k of t , yu'«-(MHj ia cxporlwl. 

The Ckinckona Alkaloids. 

(/wi'iMW is a white subataace, without smell, bitter, 
TisiUt*. crystallised, with tlie property of left-handed 
r^uton- poLamatioo (Ii«vogyrate). The salts of quinine 
ue Bolable id water, alcohol, and ether. Of all the 
«lts tiie bisulphate of quinine i3 preferred, because it 
noMtitabes a stable salt, easy to prepare, and containing 
* (tiuDg proportion of tlie alkaloid. It is very bitter 
■vA solable. and crystallises in long silky needles. It 
t^ jwepoieil by adding aidphuric acid to tlie sulphate." 

Qviiycksmitu differs from quinine in being less soluble 
~ water, and being alu^fether insoluble in ether. It 
:*s tho property of right-handed rotatory polarisation 

ifuauMtie also lias the proi3crty of right-handed 
nuiory polarisation, and forms salts like those of 
niniiia. It becomes green by successive additions of 
diloritie and ammonia. 

Qtitu^Middine \is& not the property of turning green, 
ind forms a sulphate almost exactly like sulphate of 
juninet (Isevogynite). 
Sb diaoovery of the alkaloids in the quinquinii % 

i Mjrrn thai, if a aDtutaiiOC saspcctcd In nontaio rjutmi Im 

'[«n itilli eUiur, and afUirwurtli Biiovonivi.'ly lioiih^ 

muumik, Uui Ibiiiid will iiMiiiuo > gnym uolour ir tlie 

Mof qnfiw bo proKUL — 3fat, Jf«J. ii. part ii. {>. 119. One 

b of b*rl[ iiilBoe well for bu kaaljain. 

I lV«ar UUrapntfffw in QHts^uui rt ita if priparatluof, put F. 

Ftek, 1855. Alta Pdrcira's Materia Medien. 

juina li genenilljr udupted Fur tlio meilir&t prcpuiu- 
IM* ^ladi kn tek-!n rrom Peturian bark' ^inii uKiiLQes bark in 
'1 \<kh m mmI fote^u^aa U a burk [iwawMing wuao mcdicin&t prapetlj. 
•i^idtm bt, of toanf, ilotUeil tmm tptina, Aim^hnuinr from Mn- 
•im^ Th* BpaoUrdi ronuplcU Uto word quina iDto cklua ; oud m 

34 Value of Quinine. 

bark, Ity enabling chemists to. extract the bealiq 
principle, has greatly increased the usefulness of t 
drug. Chinchonidine and quinidine are quite equal I 
quinine as cures for fever, and chinebonine is oi 
slightly less efficacious. It is equally a febrifuge, 1 
must be taken in larger doaes. Thus these alkaloid 
not only possess tonic properties to which recourse n 
be had under a multitude of cireumatancea, but i 
liave febrifuge virtue which is unB([ualled, and whio 
lias rendered them almost a necessary of life in tropica 
countries and in low marshy situations where 
prevail. Many a poor fellow's life was saved in iJl 
Walcheren ex^iedition by the timely arrival of a Yankfli 
trader with some chests of bark, after the supply hac 
entirely failed iu the camp." Dr. Baikie, in his voyaj 
up the Niger, attributed the return of his men alive b 
the haliitual use of quinine ; and the number of met) 
whose lives it haa saved in our naval service and ill 
India will give a notion of the vast importance of > 
sufficient and cheap supply of the precious bark wlucfi 
yields it. India and other countries have been vainly 
searched for a substitute for quinine, and we may ai 
with as much truth now as Laubert did in 1820- 
" This medicine, the most precious of all those know 
in the art of healing, ia one of the greatest conques 

hotntBopnlhy tho word ehina is s-till retained. In 1735, nlien M. de 
Condainine Ti«iteil Peru, the nBtire nnme of qMi,ia-quina was 
entirely roplootd by tlip Sjuniali term coManUa, whicli aleo 

• AutMogra^y of Sir Jixnei MaeOrigor, chap. lii. p. 341. 


Value of Quinine. 


nude by man over the vegetable kingdom. The 
treasmes which Peru yields, and which the Spaniards 
sooght and dug out of the bowels of the earth, are not 
to be compared for utility with the bark of the quin- 
quina-tree, which they for a Jong time ignored.* 

* Diditmmaire df Sciences Midiealeif quoted by Delondre, p. 7. 

D 2 


The Loxa Region. 




The region around Loxa, on the soutliem frontier of tl 
modern republic of Ecuador, ia the original home o 
Chincliona, and nearly in the centra of its latitudi 
range of growth. On the lofty grass-covered slopes 
the Andes, around the little town of Loxa, and in t 
sheltered ravines and dense forests, those precious t 
were found wliich first made known to the world t 
heahng vii'tues of Peruvian bark. They were i 
plentifully met with in the forests of Uritusinj 
Kumisitana, Cajanunia, Boqueron, Villonaco, and Mo^ 
all within short distances of Loxa. 

Linuieua named these trees ChincJuma officinalis ; 
when Humboldt and Bonpland examined them, ■ 
discovery of other species yielding medicinal bark i 
duced them to rechristen this species after the Hiqfi'^\] 
guished Frenchman who had originally described them, 
Chinchoiw, Condaminca. Sir J. Hooker has since 
restored the old name of Linnajus, and the species is 
now known as C. oftdnalis. Humboldt saya that they 

^ J 

The Laxa Region. 


r on mica slate and gneiss, from 6000 to 8000 feet 
■elhe sea, with a mean temperature between 60° ami 
• Fdir. In liis time tlie tree was cut down in its 
It flowering season, or in the fourth or seventh of its 
, according as it had sprung from a vigorous root- 
\ or from a seed. He describes the luxuriance of 
1 to be audi that the younger trees, only 
I in diameter, often attain from fifty-three to 
y-fo«r English feet in height. "This beautiful 
' be continues, " which is adorned with leaves 
■ 6ve inches long and two broad, growing in dense 
fureats, seems always to aspire to rise above its neigh- 
tcion. As its upper branches wave to and fro in the 
viod, their red and shining foli^e produces a strange 
ukI peculiar effect, recognisable from a great distance."* 
It raries mnch in the shape of the leaves, according to 
the altitude at which it grows, and bark-collectors 
iheoiselx'ea would be deceived if they did not know the 
tne by the glands, ho long unobserved by botanists. 
Tba C Ctmdaminea described by Humboldt is the same 
m the C. Uritwnnga of Pavon, It once yielded gi-eat 
<]Baiitities of thick trunk bark, but, owing to reckless 
Hiing through a course of years, it is now almost 
. and its bark i3 rarely met with in com- 
The distinguished botanist Don Francisco 
examined the chinchona forests of Loxa after 
^ between 1803 and 1809. He says tliat the 
3 of Loxa grows in the forests of 
\ and Cajanuma. at a height of from li200 to 

38 Tiic Botanist Caldas. 

8200 feet above the sea, in a temperature of 41' to 72^ 
Falir. ; but that it la only found betft-een the rivf 
Zamora and Cachiyacn." He deacribes the tree as from 
thirty to forty-eight feet high, with three or more stems 
growing from the same root ; the leaves as lanceolate, 
shining on botli aides, with veins a rosy colour, a abort 
and tender pubescence on the under side when youn^ 
and when past maturity a bright scarlet colour ; t 
liark black when exposed to the sun and wind, 
brownish colour when closed in by other trees, anAl 
always covered with lichens ;t and the rock on which 
the trees grow, a micaceous schist. 

Don Francisco Jose de Caldas, a native of New 
Granada, was one of the most eminent scientific men 
that South America has yet produced. He 
associated with Mutis in the botanical expedition of New 
Granada ; he explored the chinchona region as far 
Loxa ; and thus takes his place aa one of those to whom 
we are indebted for throwing light on Uie nature 
tlie trees yielding Peruvian bark. Caldas was Uirn 
Popayan in the year 1770 ; and, from ejirly youth, 
devoted liimself to the pursuits of science with untiring 
enei:gy, especially studying botany, mathematica,, 
meteorology, and physical geography. He constroctad 
hia own iMiroraetor and sextant, and. ignorant of tha 
methods adopted in Europe, he discovered the way of 
ascertaining altitudes by a boiling-point thermometer. 

Crtnun Bark Trees. 

left many memoira on botanical and other 
n behind him, and his style is always animated, 
, and interesting ; but many of the productions of 
fa remarkable man are stiU in manuscript,* and others 
: to us for ever. Above all, it is to be regretted 
k his botanical chart of the chinchona genus, which 
\ {iromised in one of his memoirs, has never aeen 

The Spanish Jwtanists Kuiz and Favon also examined 
:jp irhincbona-Crees of Loxa; and the latter described 
■»'i species, C. Urittmiiga, named from the mountain 
n which it was once most abundant, and C. Chakv- 
:~jmfra, 90 called from a fancied resemblance of the 
Jirk to a pair of breeches (liiiara in Quichua) made the fibre of the American aloe (ckahnnr). To 
i^cse tlu; botanist Tafalla added the C criepa. These 
-iiree Bpfjcies are all included in Humboldt's 0. Con- 
I naiuea, which is readily known by the little pits, 
:-in)eml with hajrs, at the axils of the veins on the 
iTiiler siiiu of the leaf. It would appear that at one 
'.-riuA of giuwib these little pits or scrobicules are 
' .mting, bnt when the plant is in full vigour they are 
-lartedly jirominent The C. Cfiahuarffiiera^ is de- 
-ntwd by Pavon as growiug from eighteen to tweuty- 
ur test iu height ; although now the trees, wliich yield 
i.T L/fXs hark of commerce, do not attain a height of 
-re than four to nine feet. It is met with on the 

* «bM« nf iluw MS& niP, I bcliare, iu ponesBion of Dud Pedro 
trtn, at UiMr*i|ail. 

* ll m tb* t'Orm at C- Condaninia, repreioiiteil in tlie 
-.^ ajlli optplf. PUte I. of the Plania Ji(piinoetiaU4. 

40 Crown Saris. 

jimssy open creata of mountom ridges. In light sandy 
soil interspersed with rocks, amongst shrubs and yonn^ 
plants, The barks of Losa were called cratim harks, be- 
cause they were reserved for the exclusive use of tl 
royal pliannacy at Madrid ; and they originally sold : 
Panama for five and six dollars, and at Seville fortweli 
dollars the pounil ; but in later times they were nmdl 
adulterated, and the price fell to one dollar the pound. 

Tlie C, ChahvaTgnera is the ruMy crown hark of 
ineree,' and the C crispa is the quina fina de Loxa 
erespUla negra of the natives. With this rusty 
hark are mixed larger quills particularly rich in 
alkaloid called cliinchonidine. The C Uriiimnga 
to the height of a lofty forest tree, but it is now nearly"" 
exterminated. The leaves assume a red colour before 
they fall, acquiring the moat beautiful tints, and the trte 
is one of the finest in those forests.! It is said 
there is a grent Lliflerence in the bark, according as it 
grown on the sideis of mountains most exposed to 
morning or evening sun ; and its position is believed 
have a great influence on the quality of its alkah 
Ttie usual yield of the large quills is 3-5 to 3"6 

The bark -collectors of Loxa are said to show 
little forethought, a quality which is entirely tranl 

* It DnmpB in very small qnilli, as if token rrom a mere dunbi 
t I fomni Mime vi-ry benutiful dried Bporimona of this i 
Inluiioal eiinleiiB &t Miidiid >□ 18G2. The lauceolate' InvH I 
inmiules of Bnwera still retninnl Ihrii colour. Tber were n 
■' CateariUa Jtaa dt Vrituiinga de J,oxa. Q«in. de I'atsm." 
I Hijivurii'a -VHtrn QuiniiUijia <U I'aivn. 

Red Bark. 


J UKSt of their fraternity. To save the treea they 
'•miunaUy cut off the whole of the bark, with the 
nttpboa (if one long strip, which gradually replaces its 
kw ; ud the second cutting is called atseariUa rejiccadn. 
Tliis practice was in nae in tlie days of the botanist 
iitii, who jurotested (gainst it, and declared that it was 
■ 'jy injurious to the trees, many having been destroyed 
* it* Later accounts, however, show that the bark- 
liertots of Losa are as thoughtlessly destructive as 
i*e in other parts of South America. They often pull 
;. the mots, while the annual burning of the slopes, 
ji the continual cropping of the young shoots by cattle, 
Ldstst the work of deatniction.t 

It ia, therefore, well that the C. Ckahuarguera and C. 
Vrittmn^, the earliest known and among the most 
TshiaUe of the chtnchona-trees, should have been saved 
mai extinction by timely introduction into India. 


Tlie species yielding " red bark," the richest and most 
rnpoitent of all the Chinchonfe, is found in the forests 
n the western slopes of Mount Chimborazo, along the 
inks of the rivers Chaiichan, Chasuan, San Antonio, 
~'<d tbeir Iribntariea. So early as 1738 Condainine 
<pnkB trf " red bark " {cascarilla Colorado) as being of 
mfeaor quality ;} and Favoa sent home specimens of 

• BatMrO, bou MS. olRniz. t Mr. Crou'i HtpoH, Kot. IHGI. 

I Per«im. Miitrria Mtdiai, ii. p. lUO, 

the " red bark of Huaranda," and named the species ( 
suednibra. Some of these specimens are now in 1 
British Museum ; and in the collection of Ruiz i 
Pavon, in tlie botanical gardens at Madrid, I fou 
capsules, flowers, and leaves marked " rnscaril-la colorad 
de los crrros de San Antonio." In 1857 Dr. Klotzsc 
an eminent German botanist, read a paper at Berlin, 
elaborately deaeribing the " red bark " as a product < 
C. mirnrubra, from a very good specimen of Pavon's i 
the Berlin Museum. Mr. Howard also received 
3I)ecimen from Alausi, and be was iuclined to the belil 
that there are several varieties of C svccirvbra, and ( 
or two allied species, as yet undescribed.t Much ligl 
was thrown upon the historj' of this valuable specif 
by Dr. Spruce, when he penetrated into the forests t 
collect seeds and plants for transmission to India i 

Though little was known of the tree until quite latel] 
there was never any doubt concerning the value of tl 
bark. In 1779 a Spanish sliip from Lima, bound 1 
Cadiz, waa captured off Lisbon by the Hussar frigatt 
and her cargo consisted chiefly of " red bark," part ( 
which was imported into England. In 1785 and 178 
liuiz states that the collectors began to gather the 1 
of C. sitcdrubra, and sell it at Guayaquil, and from thi 
time it continued to be found in the European marketl 

' j^ftoivardB pobluhed iu • palnpblet of fiflj-seven pnges, w 

t In 18.16 Mr. Howmii sliared Dr. Weddtirs belief that the'M 
Iwrk " belonged lo o Taiietj of C. omia.^I'harmaeeatinai Jouri 
Oct. 1H5S. 

The Botanist Mutis, 


It coDtains a larger proportion of lUkoloids thun imy 
other kind, cliiefly chincliouidine. Mr. Hownn) Iiuh 
{mKOTed ^h per cent, of slkaloids from a specimen of 
"red bark" from South America. A Urgu supply of 
lUbs of this species Ss Nourishing in Inditi and Cuylon, 
i it li&s become a cultivated plant of grt'at viduu und 
LUce, with a much greater yield of total alkaloidH 
D when in tta wild state. 


I of the chincbona-trees was fully 

1 in the middk (A the last centiuy, aivl Don 

! de SinliMeTUi, the director of the mint ut 

, hsn&g iddnflBed a memnrial on the bark 

(■tfwro ie eoKonfla) to the Vioerrry ManjaU of 

I 1753, the attaitiin of the Hpaniflh GoTem- 

Bed to the vnbject. Eight yean 

■ Ike hodnaic Motii lanied ia Soath Aniecica. 

IBO MatiK WW Imi at Cadiz on tbe Qth of 

Hb tebo- wm Doo ivOam llatu, Ukd 

wa Gmpria BoMo. the IbtMcr a aative of 

i Ac hcser «( Oi£i; vfccK Hm^ ««• named 

T«^ JmA Filiiiiiii toofc h» baetekf*! 

tfa Tii lawj rf Sfrilh ia 1733. and after- 

I ITsT. WUe IbtM na i< 
tDM P»^a]faMde la CodL tfe wvlr ap- 

44 Tlif^ Botanist Mutts. 

South America. His choice fell upon Mutis, who a 
with him, and disembarked at Carthagena, in 17( 
Mutis established himself at Bogota, the capital of 1 
Viceroyalty, and having devoted many years to I 
study of the plants of the cordilleras, be eventual 
obtaiaed for himself a literary and scientific reputatj 
throughout Europe, corresponding with Linnieus * 
other eminent naturalists. He entered holy orders 
1772, and settled permanently in South America. 

In 17S3, King Charles III., by the advice of 1 
Viceroy Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, nominal 
iUntis to be director-in-chief of a botanical expediti 
in the new kingdom of Oninada, which was intended 
l)e the counterpart of that formed for Peru and Chilev 
1777, under Ruiz and Pavon. Mutis not only o 
tliis new botanical expedition, but also instructed ma 
South American youths in drawii^j plants and in I 
science of botany. He held the office of Botani 
Director from 1783 imtil his death in 1808. For ses 
yijars he matle his head-quarters at Mariquita, in t 
iVrlile valley near the river Mariquita, at the foot of t 
Andes of Quiudiu. But in 1798, his health becomi 
AffiM)t«d by m long a residence in a tropical climate, 
removed to Bogoti, nod turned lus attention to 1 
collection of jilants at high altitudes. Here, by on 
iif the Vioen^iy. Marquis uf Sonora, he formed an ast 
notniuil uliservaturv. in 1802, and here he i«cei\~ed a 

Unnwut nodtfled ttk 4««cfi|itiaa «f the ehiiichons genu 
Uth fdithm ofbi* fe>rtw n . ta e u B i ^ iw nw of nfcnn»tioa contaiMJ 

His Controversies. 45 

entertained the great travellera Humboldt and Bonpland. 
Matls died at Bogota on September 2ad, 1808. His 
museum consisted of 24,000 dried plants, 5000 drawings 
of plants by his pupils, and a collection of woods, sheila, 
resins, minerals, and skins. These treasures arrived 
safely at Madrid in 105 boxes, and the plants, manu- 
scripts and drawings were sent to tlie botanical gardens, 
where they were buried in a tool-bouse. 

The merits of Mutia with regard to the extension of 
our knowledge of the chinchona genus are undoubtedly 
great. He was one of the first labourers in that field of 
research, and he was a most indefatigable one. But he 
was eng^ed in somewhat heated controversies with other 
lalKJurere in the same field. In 1772, in riding through 
the forest of Tena, about twenty miles from Bogota, 
vritli his friend Don Pedro Ugarte, Mutis asserts that 
he first discovered the chincbona plant, But anotlier 
resident in Bogota, Don Sebastian Jose Lopez Ruiz, also 
laid claim to the discovery. This claimant said that, 
during a visit to Lima, he had been shown specimens of 
the plant yielding the hark of Loxa by the French 
Ixitanist Jussieu ; and that in travelling through Honda 
to Bogota, he at once recognised the chin ebon a- trees, 
before Mutis ever came inte the country. In 177fi he 
appears to have obtained a pension from the Viceroy, as 
a reward for his discovery, of wliich he was afterwarrls 
deprived, and he worked for some years under Govern- 
ment in the bark monopoly. In 1802 he published an 
indignant pamphlet on the subject of his wrongs, con- 
duding with the following quotation : " Sas ego Ciiiu- 


Disciples of MuHs. 

ckonas reperi, Iviit alter lurnvreg."* Mutifi and his d 
ciples also had very hot argumenta w-ith the botaniet 
Ruiz and Pavon, as to the respective merits of t 
chiuchona apecins of New Granada and Peru. 

The principal tiisciples of Mutis were Zea, Col^ 
and the geographer Reatrepo, all natives of Now 
(iiunada. Francisco Antonio Zea was bom at Antioqni 
and came, when very young, to Bogotd. Mutis sei 
him ou a butanical excursion to Fiisajfasugd in 1791 
and in 1795 he went to Spain, where he published 
memorial on the chiuchona genus, and enteretl into 
hot argument with Ruiz and Pavon, as to whether tl 
species in New Granada was the same as that of LosH 
Francisco Jose de Caldas was born at Popayan in ITT 
and was the most distinguished of the botanical diacipli 
of Mutis. He was appointed a member of the botanic 
expedition in lfi02. Hia journeys to the Loxa 1 
have already been noticed ; and he also made laii 
collections in the forests of Fuaagaanga. He made soB 
bitter complaints of the treatment he received fro 
Mutis,} and of the absence of due recognition of ll 
services. His end was melancholy. He joined t 
patriot cause, and was executed by order of the Spani 
General Murillo on Octolter 30th, 1816. 

The work of Mutis on the chiuchona genua ib entitl 

* Defaua y demon^raeion drt verdiuten doKof/ridor dt law f«i 
dtl Regno da SaiUn Fe, con cariiu mliciat lilileM de ate etptetffOOf 
eoiitaiaciOB d til mnnrirta de Don FrancvKo Anloniu Zta. Su (MtM 
mumo Aetaibridor Don Stbatlia'a Jotcf Lopia Bvh. (Madrid. 19Dt 

t Memana tobre lu ^uiwi uega-a \a» prineipioi del SeKor Mtitit. lo I 
AjiaUa de lluloria Natural da Madrid. IHOO, torn. ii. 196 et Mq. 

X Seoianaria de la A'uent Granada, p. 520. 

IV^'it of Mutis. 


K' Arcamo dt la Quina, and is divided into four paila. 

'. was sent to Madrid for publication in 1807, • but tbe 

. 7r u '■. invasion slopped the work, and the manusoript 

. ,■ 1: ,iiu'>og a heap of other books and papers. It 

.r : t^lly fell into the hands of a Spanish physician, 

L': D Manuel Hernandez de Gregorio, who published the 

'.r*t three parts, relating to the medicinal properties of 

' irk. in I828.t The fourth part remained in mann- 

- :■; in .t boilding in the botanical gardens at Madrid, 

.'_'Ji'-r uitb ft bundle of dried chinchona specimens, 

■ad some i"oloured drawings. I obtained a copy of it, 

«iuch was printed in 1867, and the coloured drawings 

e afierwards reproduced at Paris, by Don Jos^ Triana. 

k K£TU3 that ^luiis was not acquainted with the most 

nloable barks of Xuora Granada. His classification is 

|J(>UoV9: — 

m^ hM^lfa (iidiaa numnjada: taoita ralgo), 13 vanetiu^ 

~ '" "d (qnina WMrUla), 5 vorietieB, 
I C i" -j'f '• 3 Tniii^tiKa iqvina raja , i Uul Chini^hoQffi, b>it 
" ' rieliei ('/una Jitaitoi . I Lmleiil>i.Tgiiui. 

It nie<li<:uial. 


it! I'ublieatioa in a peTiolical pulled £1 Diario, 
l793~Wp{o.S9.M»)r 10,1793. and No. IffJ, Fabrnufy 14, 
a mo"inpleta abulmct of tbo finl two pacta afterwordi 
M<»4 at Uh Mtmiria Penima, Una. xij. no*. 608, GOO. 610. Gil, 
ill-M ( LLw^ IT9S). Tbe attiek b bondal Obtenadoma y ai-ut- 

it hi (imitui lUbidiu at DactoT Von Oelatino Ituli,. &c. 
m Anatmo de b QiUaa. HuBmno que amliftit lii parte miilim lU 
j»|ii tia» d* Qoina* afieinaU*, nw niriinlri tmiaetilrt ij nu 
■rfarmeiom. Obra fiMuma de bootvr Don Jo4i CrlcMlinu 
(iband, J8S8.) 

" Ugatvi, in oolooMd platiu, in tha work or Triiuiik. 


Karsten and Triana. 

He erroneously identifies the barks of liis own region 
with those of Loxa and Huanuco. 

Dr. Karsten, an eminent German botanist, landed ut 
Puerto Cabello in Venezuela, in tlie spring of 1844, iiad 
travelled in South America for twelve years. He found 
Ilia first chin chona- trees on the soutliem declivity of Uie 
forest-covered mountains of Tovar, near Capoccas, at a 
height of 5500 feet above the sea. But it is necessaif 
to remark that Dr. Karsten includes many species il 
his cbincliona genua which would be excluded by 
Weddell, and those botanists who follow Iiia system 
classification. In 1852 Dr. Karsten reached Colombia. 
and met with the C. landfolia ^vulgo limit a) oa the 
elevated table-landa north of Tunja. He also 
the home of another variety of the C. laiicifolia of Mutis, 
called " Calisaya de Santa Fi," which is near Poimyan. 
I published Dr. Karsten 's botanical descriptions, and 
reproduced some of his plates on a reduced scale, in 
1867. Dr. Don Jos6 Triana has also studied the species 
of chinchona in bis native Colombia ; and he publialieti 
the plates of Chinchome drawn under the auperintenil- 
ence of Mutis.* 

The most important kinds of Colombian barks are, 

" Xouvelia kudo lur la Qainqvinat rfaprii U$ maUrtaui pnititli- 
en 1867 a Trxpoiition uniifrtetU de PnriiH aixompagniet [li- /nr-nnuJ' 
den detfint dt iaQalaoiogie dtJUutis, iniviet de remarquti nir JuruDun 
de$ guinquiiuu par J. Triana (fiilio, PariB, IH70). 

BoBor Trlaim wiyn, in hUintrodiiotory remarks: — "M. Markboin,4qui 
rut mvilical doit udd n hnule gratitude pour Ic zcle pcnev^iant aVMi 
lequf) il comnurt h rintrorluction des Cliinchonn diinn I'lnde Orientalft 
B roodu nFocmuitint uu nouvuiu asrvioe en (jubliant 1h teste dn eduuI 
ouTrage de Mntia. Mai» 1h reproduction dea deweiiis de Im Qtiiunlejii 
Duna a paru indinpeuiiable i, I'eiQcte ct complete intelligeDcii do (v 

■ i[- vn. Ruiz and Pavon. 49 

the C. Pitaycnsis, tha plant yielding " Caiisaya dc Santa 
Fe," or aoft Colombian bark, and that whence cornea the 
Caitliagena bark. jVU are now introduced into India. 


The diinchona-trees, in the forests of the province of 
liuanuco, in Northern Pera, were discovered by Don 
Francisco Kenquifo in 1776, on the mountain of San 
I'ristoval de Cuchero or Cocheros; and Don Manut;! 
iUcarraz brought the first example of bark from Huanucu 
to Lima. 

At almoai the aame time the Spanish Govenunent was 
oi^aniaing a Ijotanical expedition to explore the cbin- 
chona forests of Peru ; composed of the botaniata Don 
Jos6 Pavon, Don Hiprilito Ruiz, the Frenchman Dombey, 
and two artists named Brunete and Galvez. They 
embarked at Cadiz on November 4th, 1777, and reached 
Callao April 8tli, 1778. Having made a large collection 
of plants in the neighbourhood of Lima, and despatched 
tliem to Spaia,* they crossed the Andes, explored the 
I'liats of Tarma, and then proceeded to Huanuco. 
I'iiL'y traveraed the valley of Chinchao, explored the liill 
■ 1' Cuchero or Cocheros, near Huanuco, and discovered 

leitc II noLU a semble, en outr-, que mu etudea pergouneUea but les 

Mwkh«in a Lien youIu reponJre k notreappel et fucilitar rocoompliBse- 
meut de imtre pmjet, en nous falaant obteuir Jii Miuiaturo doa InUts dn 

• 300 drind fprnmena, and 2ia oolouied dmwiLga, Bent iu the ahip 

Grey Bark. 51 

I reached Cadiz in September, when they commenced 
I pohticatioa of their great work the Flora Pem- 

\ coRtJDued hiB researches in the province oE, 
>, and discovered the C. ruicrantha in 1797, in 
il and fthaily forests of Monzon nnd Chicoplaya. 
D calls him " noster alumnus." 

expeditions and discoveries of the Spanish 
a inducted the merchants of Lima to speculate in 
1 brought the grey barks of Huanuco into the 
I markets.t In 1785 Don Juan de Bozarea, a 
rchant, devoted 2000 dollars to the exploration 
KtiM forests of Huainaliea. He penetrated along the 
s of the Monzon to Chicoplaya, passing mountains 
diitUy covered witli chinchona-trees, and engaged 
CI collect bark. Tliousanda of arrobaa were thus 
I of the bark of C. ghuiduli/cra, ; and having 
xiinted Governor of Huamalies by the Viceroy 
I Teoiluru de Croix in 1788, Beuzares commenced 
) comtraMioa of a good road down the valley of 
■Uoiuon.} Up to 1826 the principal supplies of 
k WK derived from C. nitida, but since 
ft ihey are believed to have come chiefly from 

Mlo, Mimo of the fonnw Ter; Blightl; cunlale. IKini 
IWTCii) llowen, ud wptnlea Ot C. puryurea ; «ni] 
rtetC. ttillda, Anm Coohero. 
•«Uuh<-d ht> Qaiiiologia in 1792. 

1. tn U>v boal je*n, «• many w 23,000 armliM at ha\c vvre 
mo tl» pruriom of Uuatiuiv, aud eoiue large forlun™ were 
i^tvtffig. An anubn = 25 lbs. 

Bark Collators. 53 

place in the history of bot-uiictil research. Nor, in 
respect, have the natives of South America been 
Caldas and Zea were worthy successors 
Uotis; Franco Davila* represents the botanical 
of Peru ; while in more modem times the name 
the South American Triana is not unworthy to stand 
by side with those of the best botanists in Europe. 
Aft^ the days of Ruiz and Pavon, oiir chief authority 
(K the grey barks of Huanuco is Dr. Poeppig, afterwards 
X professor in Leipzig, who travelled in Chile and Pem 
tffireeD tl>e years 1827 and I832.t He says that, as 
ia Xew Granada, the grey barks of Huanuco soon fell 
Ota discredit in the European markets, owing to the 
lAiltwMtaona of small speculators, and that after 18ir> 
Ac tnde almost entirely ceased. J In 1830 scarcely 
1250 Urn. of bark found their way from Huanuco to Lima. 
tn the flourishing times of the Huanuco bark trade 
Ae tattariVams, or bark-collectors, entered the forests 
la parties of ten or more, with supplies of food and 
Imla. They penetrated for several days into the virgin 
Uimi nntil ^ey came to the region of the chinchonu- 
Imxi where they built some rude huts and commenced 
lUtwaA. The cateador, or searcher, then climlterl a 
Uj^ tne. and, with the aid of experience and sharj> 
ii^ttt lOon discoveKd the manchas or clumps by their 

* A hnntwi «)>» «M for inanj ;ean Director of the Citblnct i>r 
AtKl Hbtorr In Uadnil. during the reign of Chulea III. 

i* F«r%, irSkrtiul der JakTe 1827-32. von I'Muard Pocppig. 
IB d«r VoiTwiitit tii L«i|iiig, iL pp. 217-23, £ST-64. 

,aB;«thnt Urge qiuutitim of bnrk were brought 
■« (W mnd« oMt of HuKiDtkUr'* in 1S25.— rrnwl*. ii. p. C6. 

Bark Collectors. 

r , 

^H dark colour, and the peculiar reflection of the light frai 

^H their leaves, easily observahle even iu the midst < 

^B these endless expanses of forest. The cateador, theg 

with never erring instinct, conducted the party for hon 
through the tangled brushwood, to the chincLona clui 
using the wood-knife at every step. From ; 
clump they often obtained a thousand pounds of 1 
which was sent up to be dried beyond the limits of t 
foreat. All depended on the success of this operatia 
for the bark easily becomes mouldy and loses its oolou 
The cascarillcros got two rials for every twenty-fii 
l>ound3 of green bark stripped, from the speculato 
and, as they could easily strip three hundred pound 
they made two dollars a day. Tlie bark cost ' 
speculator about fonr dollars, and the price at 1 
was sixteen to twenty dollars the arroba of twenty-fiv 

Dr. Poeppig makes some important remarks on t 
supposed danger of the total extirpation of the chin 
chona-trees by reckless felling, Condamine and Ullo 
believed that this would be the case in the Loxa forest 
and Poeppig thinks that their appryhensions were wd 
founded, because there the tree-9 are not felled, but lei 
standing deprived of their bark, in which case they ai 
attacked by rot with extraordinary rapidity in tropio 
forests, hosts of insects penetrate to the stem, and th 
healthy roots become infected. But it is only i 
to observe the precaution of hewing the stem a 
posaijjle to the root, in order to be sui-e of its after 
• Poeppig. Von Tschudi, p. 393. 

Crowtli. After six years, near Cucliero, the young stems 
may already be felled again ; biit, at higlier altitudes, 
where the moat effective cbinchonas are found, it requires 
twenty years." 

The C. mkrantka abounds in the prov-inoe of Huanuco, 
and the bark ia known as Casearilla provinciana. It 
yields 2-7 per cent, of cliinchoniiie, and used to be much 
flonght after for tlie Russian market. 

Tlie C. nitufu is a lofty tree growing in the higher 
r^ons of Huanuco, and ia known by the natives as 
quina aana legitima (genuine grey bark). It grows at a 
greater height than the former species, and yields 2-2 
per cent, of chinchonine. 

The C. Peruviana, ao named by Mr. Howard, is the 
Cascaritla de pala de gallinazo of the natives. It grows 
in the forests at a lower elevation than C. nitida, and 
yit'lds 3 per cent, of chinchonine and chinchonidine, 
ci'Dsequently indicating a considerable amount of febri- 
fuge power. Quinine has also been found in samples 
of grey bark.t 

The name of ifrey bark refers to the striking effect pf 
the overspreading thallus of varioua Grapliidea:, form- 
ing groups, and indicating tliat the tree has grown in 
an open situation, exposed to rain and sunshine. 
Plants of all the best kinds of grey bark are now grow- 
ing in India.} 

' Poeppiff. t Howard. 

; I hB*e caused the portion of PiwppiK's work wliich relnlea tn 
iihiiicboiift- trees to be tiaoaUte*] and printed fur ute in India and 



The cluQchoDa region of Bolivia and Southern Poiu, 
although one of the most im]»rtant, was the last to 
contrihute supplies of bark to the European markets. 
The trees first became known through the inveatigationa 
of the German botanist Thaddaeus Haenke, and a 
Spanish naval officer named Rubin de Cells, who drew 
tlte attention of the inhabitants to the valuable forasu 
on tlie eastern slopes of the Bolivian Andes in 1776, 
though the unfortunate Trench naturalist Joseph de 
Juasieu had previously explored some portions of those 
forests.' But it was not until 1820, wlien quinine waa 
first recognised as the febrifuge principle of bark, that 
the Chtnchona Calisaya^ was recognised as containing 
more of that alkaloid than any other species. 

After 1820 the demand for calisaya bark increased 
enormously ; gi'eat numbers of cascariileros, or bark- 
collectors, entered the forests, and in a short time 
scarcely a tree remained in the vicinity of the in- 
habited places; and the bark was exported in such 

* Ab carl; u 1790 tbe OHliBBya bnrk wns biKlily priiei) ia Mndriil. 

t Tlie raluiiblo spocleB foutid in Bolivia and Houthixn Peru. Dr. 
Weildrll deilvFB tbe uaiue fmiD tbe Quicbiui warda eoUi (ivd) and taya 
(fonii) ; Poeppig, from eoUa (r remedy) and »aUa (rwty ground , ; Von 
TscbuiU fhiiu eoUiiaTa (rcddiali mnue). Dr. Leerdael, tbe Judge of 
Ciiravaya, told me it i.'ame from octUt (Mmng) and myoy (become,** ti« 
tbou). Calisayu is the n«mo of a fomity of Indian Cnciqueiiin ConTayK, 
one of wliuiD acted an inpartaDt twrt in tlie n.'Tolt of IT80-1. Tbe 
{ilaiit m&y buTc been called alter bim. 

Bark Legislation in Bolivia. 


uitaea that the price fell very much." It was not, 

nntil 1830 that the Bolivian Government 

, in the bark trade. It was then considered 

by General Santa Craz's administration to 

: the drain of this precious source of wealth by 

[ the qnancitj of bark to be cut or exported ; 

1 in November, 1834, the Bolivian Congress decreed 

1 the sabject, which, however, never took effect 

r iaallv, the cutting was prohibited for five years, but 

!<fnn the expiration of that period the decree was 

, and an export duty of twelve dollars to 

J doU&rs the quintal, or cwt. was imposed. 

t44 the Bolivian Congress authorised the 
t. General BaUivian, to negotiate for the 
meot of a national bank of bark, with the 
capital, to export all the (luinquina baik 
1 in the country. This Bolivian legislation on 
lOoa bark, which is considered, with justice, 
; important product of their country, is \'ery 
, and sufficiently demonatrates the futility of 
system of protection and monopoly. 
i of taking measures to prevent the reckless 
a of the trees, to establish extensive nurseries 
' fuong plants, and thus ensui-e a constant and 
nt supply of bark, these Bolivians have meddled 
I trade, attemptetl to regulate Euroi>ean prices 
moot liarlwiroua legislation, and allowed the 
< fauk of C. Calfnya, kuxrll H " jtgIIdw bark '' 

• l^t" 8™p.<7. 

I bark Tmiu tlmt spcetcB 

D ftmu C ^itAiJ'Aia, liemiuu 


Bolivian Bark Trade. 

forests to be denuded of cMnehona-trees, In 1S45 the 
bark monopoly was given to Messrs. Jorge TesanDs 
Pinto and Co., for five years, for the sum of 119,000 
dollars, during which time not more than 4000 quintals 
of bark were to be exported annually. This company 
gave 8ueh iniquitonsly low prices to the cascariUerm for 
their bark, that & clamour was raised against it, and the 
President, General Belzu, put an end to its existence 
in March 1849. 

Free trade, with a duty of twenty dollars the quintal, 
was then established during one year; but in 1850 
exclusive privileges were again granted to Messrs. 
Aramayo Brothers and Co., who were to pay the 
Government 142,000 dollars a year for the right of 
exporting 7000 quintals of bark annually, to be 
purchased of the cascariUeros, the taUa or trunk bark at 
sixty dollars the quintal, and the canvfo or quill bark 
at thirty to thirty-six dollars the quintal. The Pinto 
company had only paid eighteen to twenty-two dollars 
the quintal for labia, and eight to ten dollars for canvlo 
bark. The favourable conditions thus offered to 
cascariUeros induced so great a number of persons to 
undertake the business, that at the end of the first year 
more than 20,000 quintals of bark arrived at La'Paz — 
that is to say, more than twice as much as the company 
had agreed for, and more than the Pinto company had 
exported in five years. The Government then issued a 
decree to prevent the smuggling of bark, and another 
that no bark should be cut except for the company : hut 
these measures caused much discontent, and in 1851 

Bolivian Bark Trade. 


ibc Congress voted that the Executive had exceeded 
ia powers in making these arraiigeuients with the 
Anmayn company, and declared them to be nidi and 
Toid. The Aramayo company purchaaed 14,000 quin- 
uls of tb« bark, and agreed to take the same quantity 
'iminj; the two following years, paying only a third of 
die price in ready money ; but a new company, formed 
mniar the name of Pedro Blaye and Co., engaged to 
Michose oil the hark that was for sale, both at La I'az 
Hid Cochabamba, for ready money. It was evident that 
I or the other of these companies must break, and 
that of Blaye fell. The Government then 
ioed to export the bark which remained in store 
fchs ovn account, paying the same price as had been 
u by the company, 
two companies lasted for two years, during 
I time the Bolivian forests yielded 3,000,000 lbs. 
\ bwk. Such was the result of the high prices which 
1 the fall of the Pinto monopoly ; but it was the 
\ eoDtiactors, and not the poor bark -collectors, who 
liv«d benefit &om the change.* 

In I85I Government prohibited the cutting of bark 

Luliiely, from the lat of January, 1852, to the 1st of 

'^-. I864.t In 1858 a decree was issued to 

.^Tiliiti- tlie transition from the system of monopoly to 

.1: ■.■f frwi-lradfl in bark, which caused an improve- 

iit in the prices in Eurojtean markets ; and in 

■ 'IXii BoaHlDl or Uin noUvian l«rk trulo ii 
-r-i^ tiaat \r Siitd ie Dalivie, it daiit la jHtr 
i*rt^ 1W3. Cll•^ liii. (I. B85, 
r Ulbbcfl** t'alUf n/the Amaam, |>. 1)7, 


Dr. WeddelL 

November, 1859, Dr. Linares, tlieii President of Bolil 
declared the right to cut Liark in the forests to lie f 
and reduced the duty 25 per cent, on the current pric 
to be fixed at the beginning of each year." This is I 
law which regulates the bark trade in Bolivia, and, af 
a course of short-sighted meddling legislation, extendi 
over twenty years, in 1850 it still brought 142,0 
dollars annually inUi the public treasury, being 
fifteenth part of the whole revenue of the liepublic. 

For exportation the bark used to be wrapped in fr« 
bullock -liides, having been previously sewn up in thi 
cotton bags containing 155 lbs. each. These hide j 
ages are called sm-(yn&, a mule-load being 285 lljs,, e 
the transport to the coast costs about ten dollars for ei 
mule-load, The bark from Bolivia now comes in 1 

It is to the persevering energy and great talent 
that distinguished French botanist Dr. Weddell tliat ' 
owe our knowledge of the chinchona regions of Bolil 
and Southern Peru, and especially of the ineatimal 
quinine-yielding species which he identified as t 
C. Calimj/n. Dr. WeddoU accompanied the acienti 
expedition of the Count de Castelnau, which was s6 
out Ity Louis Plulippe to South America, and, afti 
crossing the vast empire of Bi-azil, entered Bolivia t 
the country of the Chiquitoa in August, 1845. It w 
Dr. Weddell's chief object to examine the chinchoi 
region of this country, and his first step was to proce 
to Tarija, to ascertain the extreme southern limit of t 
chinchona- trees, which he disco\'ered in 19' S. lat. I 
• JUereuKo dd Vapur, Dcotmbi't 15, 1859. 

Dr. Wtddclt. 


the species C. aHstralU. Dr. Wed dell tlien 
a thorongh exploration of the Boliviau 
forests, making Iiis way over the most 
It cotintiy, from Cochabambo, through Ayopaya, 
jOisiri, anJ tlie ifungm* of La Paz ; where the 
uf (^linchonre continued to multiply under Iiis 
In Eai|uisi\'i he fii^t met with and studied ttit 
Cvluaya, which he named and described, collecting 
mformatiou respecting the trade, and the metiiods 
bark. In 1847 he entered the province of 
descending the river Tipuani, where he was 
hy fever, and ascending the Mapiri At 
iba, the centre of the most ancient bark- 
liistrict, he found that the surrounding forests 
qiiiUi cleared of cUinchona-treea, and that it was 
t(i eeek for them at a distance of ten 01- 
dAya' journey from any inhabited place, In 
1847 l*t. Weddell entered the renivian province 
:,ChzavaTa, ex&miued the chinchona forests of the 
17s iif ^iandia (San Juan del Oro) and Tainbopata, 
ouicladtid his investigations by a^lsit to the lovely 

iif Santa Ana, near Cuzco. 

-. WMldvll was accompanied in his visit to the 

'» of Santu Ana by M. Delondrc, a manufacturer 

i^aitiiue at Havrb, who, after contemplating the 

^'jeul of paying a personal visit to the chinchona 

tx£> f'*r twenty yva.T9. hod at length set out, landed at 

Uy ill .luly, 1847, and procecdal by way of Arequipa 

« » B uopinti Tklli'y in QiiU'huD. bonce ytmjw. a S|Nuilali 


Dr. Wcdddl. 

to Cuzco. M. Delondre appears to have employed 
contractor to supply him with bark, who failed in b 
engagemente, ami of whom the French quinine mam 
facturer bitterly complains as a second Douaterswivd 
MM. Weddell and Deloudre finally left the chinchoi 
foreate in September, 1847, and set out for the coa 
of Peru. Dr. Weddell's valuable monograph on tl 
chinchona genus, Histoirr. naturelle des Qmnqidnm, tl 
most important work that, up to that time, had appeaxi 
on the subject, was published at Paris in 1849. 

In 1851 Br. Weddell xindertook a second voyage 1 
South America, and in 1852 he entered the Bolivia 
chinchona region of Tipuani by way of Sorata. ] 
descending the eastern slojjes of the Andes he describi 
the v^;etation as taking new forma at every mile of tl 
descent. The undergrowth was formed of Mdastomac* 
with violet-coloured flowers iCliwtogiistra), myrtla 
Gaultherias, and AndroiiKdas; lower down there wep 
many superb species of Tliihaudias; and, where tl 
great forests succeed to the smaller growth of the mo] 
elevated region, the predominant trees were Escailonia 
arborescent Ewpatorius, Boccontas, and a frui^beoria 
PapUiOTiacm with a, scarlet corolla. He encounten 
the first forest chinchoua-treea at an elevation of 713 
feet, being the C. ovata, var, a. vulgaris. Deecendii 
still, be came to paccay-trees (Afiviosa Iwja) in flows 
and met with the first plant of the shrubby variety i 
C. Caiisaya, on an open grassy ridge or pajonal, at a 
elevation of 4800 feet. 

• Q'linohyie, par M. A. Deloudro. Purls, IS51. 

Travels of Dr. Weddell. 65 

Dr. Weddell descended the river Tipuani to Guanay, 

; mis^on of Lecos Indians, and ascended the Coroico in 

» tanoe matie of the wood of a species of Bomhax. The 

^ •i«sts bordering on the river Coroico abounded in many 

-iwcies of palms, chiefly Miuimiiianas and Iriarteav, 

tbe latter a singular kind with a trunk supported on 

kjDg aerial roots. There were also many trees of C. 

■^"iniwfflii on the hanks of the Coroico, a species of 

HnnehoQa, the peculiarity of which is its fondness for 

Be bottoms of valleys and banks of rivers, while most 

Hi the others prefer elevated ridges or elopes of thf 

^■oonuuns. Witli it were growing trees of tiie beautiful 

Wmamrilla magjii/olia, an allied genus with deliciously 

Hipmnt flowers. 

H The eoMcarUleros of Bolivia lead a hard and dangerous 
^K They only value the U. CalUaija, the other species 
^■Eng for them carktia-carhua, a name given to all the 
Hftnor idnda. Those who cany the bark on their 
Bpslden &om the interior of the forests receive fifteen 
Bllcn for every quintal, and tliey also have to carry all 
^kr ptovifiiona and covering for the night. If by any 
^hdeot they aru lust, or their provisions are destroyed. 
^mg die of hunger. Dr. Weddell, on one occasion, 
HDe ucending tJie Coroico, landed with the intention 
Bpantog the night on a beach well shaded by trees. 
^Be be found the hut of a cascarillcro, and near it a 
^k Kretched oat on the ground in the agonies of death. 
^m WW nearly naked, and covered with myriads of 
^peU, whose stings had hastened his end. His fnce 
^p ao swollen a« m be wliolly unrecognisable, and his 


The Calisaya Trees. 

linibs were in a frightful state. On the leaves which 
formed the roof of tlie hut were the remains of this un- 
fortunate man's clotlies, a straw hat and some rags, with 
a knife, and an earthen pot containing the remains of 
his last meal, a little maize, and two or tiiree chunus. 
Such is the end to which their hazardous occupation 
exposes the bark-collectors — death in the midst of the 
forests, far from all friends — a death without help, and 
without consolation. 

Dr. Weddell returned to La Paz by ascending the 
Coroico, and the results of hia second visit to the 
chinchona forests appeared in an entertaining book of 
travels." To this able botanist and intrepid explorer 
science is indebted, to no small extent, for the present 
state of our knowledge of the chinchona genus. 

Tlie C. Calisaya species has been divided by Dr. 
Weddell into two varieties, namely, a vtra, and j3 
Jn^cphiana. The former, when growing under favour- 
able circumstances, is a tall tree, often larger round than 
twice a man's girth, with its leafy head rising above all 
the other trees of the forest. The leaves are oblong or 
lanceolate-obovate. pitted in the axUs of the veins, with 
a sliining green surface, and reddish veins. The flowers, 
which hang in large panicles, are a rosy-white colour, 
with lacinias rose-colour, and bordered by marginal 
white hairs. The capsule is smooth, and about twice as 
long as broad. This tree grows on declivities, and steep 
rugged places of the mountains, from 4900 to 5900 feet 

* Voyage (fani U Hard de Boiirie, et dapi lei parlUi 
JVroti, par H. A. Weddell. ParU, 1H53. 

The Calisaya Trees. 


»f«w(! the sea, in the forests of Enquisivi, Caupolicnn, 

ApoUobnmba, and Larecaja in Bolivia, and of Caravayn 

ia Pem. The trunk may be known by the peridenn of 

the bark, sometimes of a greyish-white, sometimes 

or blackish, being always marked by longitudinal 

«r cracks, a characteristic remarked of no other 

of these forests, excepting one or two of the same 

The tast« is strongly bitter, which is apparent 

ly the tip of the tongue touches it, and, when the 

icir receives a cut, a yellow gummy resinous matter 

from it. The bark comes off with great ease, 

itt peejing a mushroom, while, in the inferior kinds, 

ud above all in the false chinchonos, it strips trans- 

nnely, aiid with much greater difticulty. A good tree 

jieMa IM to 175 pounds of dried Lark. 

The other variety of C. Calisaya, called yehu cascaril/a, 

- taMcariUa del pajimal* by the natives, was named 

by Dr. Weddell after the imfortunate French 

Jueeph de Juaeieu. It is a shrub, not attaining 

height than six and a half to ten feet, and 

on Dpea grassy slopes, at much higlier elevations 

the true Calinaya. There in another tree variety 

ft aumewhitt darker leaf, which Dr. Weddell classed 

distinct 8i«ci«8, and called C. Bolimana in 1849, 

which he afterwards considered to be a mere variety 

C. Caiitaifa. The other good kinds in the forests of 

■liriB and Caravaya are C. micrantka, and twn 

•rieticM of C. ovata. 

H^ roW la QdidtiiB. uid yi^<mal In Sponuh mean the umo tiling, t 


t rats la QdidtiiB. tai Pt^onat In Sponuh n 

68 Calisaya Trees. ch. vh. 

Dr. Weddell brought seeds of C. Calisaya to Paris, 
which were raised in the Jardin des Plautea in 1848, 
and others in the garden of the Horticultural Society in 
London, where one of tlie plants flowered." Many of 
these plants were given away, and some of them were 
sent by the Dutch Government to Java. 

Plants of C. Catimija are now flourisliing in India. 
The average yield of quinine for the beat kinds of 
South American Calisaya bark is 38 per cent., that for 
tiie JosepMana variety 3'29.t One variety grown in 
Java, from seeds transmitted by Mr. Ledger, yields 
nearly 10 per cent, of quinine. 

* An account of it ww palilinhed b llieJourual of Ihellarticullunl 
Society, vol. vii. p. 272. 
t Pereira, .Mu(. Mtd, ii. part. ii. p. 118. 

,- vm. Destruction of Bark Tnr 





Tar toUection of bark in the South American forests 
■*ia conducted from the first with reckless extravagance ; 
^ > ■tteiuttt worthy the iiame was made either with a 
■ itfw tio the conaen^ancy or cultivation of the chinchona 
itmb; and both the complete abandonment of the 
iiiTosta to the mercy of every speculator, as in Peru, 
inudor and Colombia, and the meddling legislation of 
Bolivia, have led to equally destructive results. Thu 
(«rlE-collector enters the forest and destroys the first 
tlomp of chinchona trees he finds, without a thought of 
tty mvaxure to preserve the continuance of a supply of 
buk. Thus, in A])ollobamba, where the trees once 
jaj* thickly round the villages, no full-grown one is 
•^iw w be found within eight or ten days' journey ; * 
^ to utterly improvident are the collectors that, in 
lise taneU of Cocliabamba, they bark Uie tree witiioiit 
idling and thna ensure its death ; or, if they cut it 
iatm, they actually neglect to take olf the bark on the 
• W«dd«U. BUMn NalurtlU da Qutnquimt. 


Destruction of Trees. 

side touching the ground, to save themselves the trouble 
of turning the trunk over." 

A century ago Condamine t raised a warning voice 
against the destruction that was going on in the forests 
of Loxa. Ulloa J advised tlie Government to check it 
by legislation ; soon afterwards Humboldt reported that 
25,000 cliinchona-trees were destroyed every year, and 
Ruiz § protested against the custom of barking the 
trees, and leaving them to be destroyed by rot. But 
nothing was ever done in the way of conservancy, 
either by the Government, or by private apeculatara 
whose subsistence depended on a continued supply of 
bark. Dr. Weddell, alluding to this recklessness as 
regards C Calisaya, observes that " the forests of 
Bolivia, rich aa they are, cannot long resist the con- 
tinual attacks to which they have been recently exposed. 
He who, in Europe, sees these enormous and ever- 
increasing masses of bark arrive, may perhaps believe 
that they will continue to do so ; but he who sees the 
chinchona-trees in their native forests, and knows the 
real truth, is ol)liged to think otliermse." 

There is, however, no danger of the actual extirpation 
of the trees unless the plan is adopted of leaving them 
standing, and stripped of tUeir bark, aa in the Loxa 
forests. Poeppig says that, in these cases, the trees in 
the tropical forests are attacked by rot with extra- 

• Weddell, Foyuja dam U Hard de Bolivie. 
t Mim. de I'Aead. Bog. das Sdenee*, 1738, p. 22fi. 
t Nolieiiu Seoretai, p. 572. 
i MS, quDlcd by Howard. 

iinlinaiy rapidity; hosts of insects penetrate the stem 
:■.• oumpWte the work of deatruction, and the healthy 
n>it beoomea infected. Thus the valuable speciee 
.-Jl«d C. Urittisinga has really been almost exter- 

Bat where the trees are felled, it is only necessaiy to 
:Bi()rve the precaution of hewing the stem aa near as 
t-^hle to the root, in order to be sure of its after- 
rmwth.* irnder these circumstances, after six years 
'.'-^ roong trees are ready to be felled again in the 
inilder regions, and after twenty years in cold and 
mptsed localities. From the base of the stems, when 
uiit barked, a number of shoots spring out between 
^ and wood ; and Dr. Karsten says that, though an 
:.terval of rest of twelve or fifteen years must be given 
■ the fonsts where the chiuchona-trees have thus been 
Had, Uiis only promotes further investigation in the 
^odlen aatroddeii forests, while, in the meantime, tlie 
r generation is growing up in those which liave 
tiy been exhausted.t 
D dai^r, therefore, is not in the actual annihilation 
I the cbinchona-trees in South America, but lest, with 
Utaeaatag demand, there should be long intervals of 
a doling which the supply would cease, owing to the 
■ being exhausted, and requiring periods of rest. 
f districts this is already the case. The bark 
naee from Ix>xa is in the minutest quills, and in 
I (areata of Caravaya, after an interval of rest of 
I jeATS, the root-shoots had scarcely growu to a 
■ PovrpiC- t Karatea, 


Introduction of Chinchona 

aufficient size to yield anything bat quill bark. Then 
again the supplies of hark from South America are not 

nearly sufficient to meet the demand, and the price is 
kept 80 high as to place this ineatimahle remedy 
beyond the means of millions of natives of fever-visited 
regions. For these reasons the incalculable importance 
of introducing the chinchona plant into other countries 
adapted for its growth, and thus escaping from entire 
dependence on the South American forests, has long 
occupied the attention of scientific men in Europe. 

In 1839 Dr. Royle, in his Ulustratio-ns of Hima- 
latfan Botany' recommended the introduction of the 
cliiiichona plants into India, pointing out the Nilgiri 
hills as a suitable site for tlie experiment, and Lord 
William Bentinck took some interest in the project. 
M. F6e had previously recommended the introduction 
of these plants into the French colonies ; t and in 1849 
both Dr. WeddeU % and M. Delondre § strongly urged 
the adoption of this measure. The former declared 
that posterity would bleas those who should carry the 
idea into execution. || 

The Dutch, who possess in the island of Java a 

* I, p. 245. Probably tho idea nui flrat coDceived much eartior by 
Dr. Ainalie, who, Lalf u eeutury ago. Temarked that it wna luattei (^ 
regret that " it htil never been attempted to rear those articleg or the 
Materia Medica in India, for which llie world ia now solely indebteil to 
America." — Ainalie's Maferia Medica, p. 66 (Dote). 

t Court ^Hiit. NaL Flmrm. ii. p. 2S2. 

t HitUiire NatunlU del Quinquintu, p. 13. 

§ Quinplogie, par H. A. Delondre, p. 13. 

i Bo convinced vea Dr. Weddtll that there w 
the Bupplics of bnrli eventually bting eihauatod, lliul 
que le malheur qae Je prcTola n'arrive ( 

minent danger of 

lie said, " Avaot 

Ti poB de notre tempj) 

CuUivaiioH into "jfava. 


rioge of forest-covered mottntaina admirably adapted 
foi cfainchona cultivation, were, however, the first to 
uke active steps for its iatroductioii into the eastern 
hemLsphere ; and their praiseworthy exertions deserve, 
«hu they lay claim to with Justice, the approbation of 
the whole civilised world. 

For many years Dutch scientific men, among whom 
the same of the botanist Blume may be mentioned, had 
n^eil their Government to undertake the introduction 
of chincbona plants into Java. But it was not until 
the year 1852 that M. Pahud, the Dutch Minister of 
liie Colonies, was authorised to employ au agent to 
collect plfuita and seeds of valuable species in Peru, and 
'>■ cMivey them to Java, He selected, for this impor- 
-jbX miBsion, M. Justus Charles Hasskarl, a botanist 
iflo bad for some time superintended the gardens in 
J»v«. Hasskarl sailed for Peru to December, 1852, 
»hh onleis not to confine himself to the GaOsaya 
ilant, but to collect plants and seeds of as many 
diflStruit species as possible. His original orders were 
:o proceed &om Guayaquil to the cbinchona forests 
■A Loza in the first instance ; but he changed his plan, 
uhI landiog at Lima, crossed the cordiUeras in May. 

It wonld be difficult, in making a chance journey 
btxa. tbe coast to the forests of the Eastern Andes, to 
'iA cpoD a part where valuable species of chinchona 

- ■inifii atll* |icDt-£tl« bit la ouoquEle de quelquc QouTcau miklli^u- 
•ml i|«l (Muln moiua regiEltable U pecto do 1 ecorcc dc Pvtuu.*' — 
Fpy^ Jm> U Kvrd dt Bolivit, p. 2i5. 


Mission of Hasskarl. 

trees are not known to exist. There are such spaces — 
forest tracts — intervening between the more favoured 
regions, where only species of little value are found, 
Buch as C. pubeKcens, C. scrobiculaia, &c, ; and one of 
these, between the region of grey barks in Huanuco and 
that of C. Calisaya in Caravaya, M. Hasskarl entered. 
He crossed the Andes by the raad from Lima to Tarma, 
and descended the eastern slopes into the niontanas of 
Vitoc, Uchubamba, and Mouobamba ; returning thence 
by Xaujta into the loftier region of the Andes. Near 
Uchubamba he saw trees which he believed to be 
C. Calisaya; but that species is never found to the 
north of the province of Caravaya. He however 
collected a quantity of seeds of a species which he 
called C. ovata, with smaller quantities of C. pubesccas 
and C. aviygdalifolia. 

The species called by M. Hasskarl C. ovata. at first 
formed the bulk of the chinchona plantations in Java. 
It was afterwards named C. Pahudiana. He found it 
on dry sunny hilL^, without much shelter from the 
sun, in a very sandy micaceous soil, at an elevation of 
5500 to 6000 feet above the sea. It is sometimes a 
mere shrub, but occasionally rises to fifteen or twenty- 
five feet, with elegant pink flowers and reddish fruit. 
The native name is caacarUla crespitla diim ; Eind as 
the crespilla grandc is the C. ovata of Weddell, it 
is probable that M. Hasskarl was thus led into 
the mistake of calling liis new species C. ovata. The 
leaves are smooth above, with a felt-like pubescence on 
the under surface, and the hairy capsules are probably 

Mission of Hasskarl. 75 

1 of the worthlessnesa of the species,* In 

, DO gcx)d kinds are found in this part of the 

He collected specimens of G. laiiceolata of 

1, si a place called " Escalera de San Bafael," on 

■ road between TJchubamba and Xauxa.t 

\ From Xauxa M. Hasskarl went to Cuzco, and thence 

I September to Saudia in Uie province of Caravaya ; 

i finding that the seeds of chinchona-trees are ripe in 

, and that Ue had arrived too late, he returned tn 

1 finally took up bis abode at Arequipa until 

IBfuQowing year. In March, 1854, he again set out, 

, the Andes to Puuo, and, after wandering over 

( of Bolivia, at length reached the little village of 

I Camvaya, near the frontier between Peni and 

btria. iti April. He had assumed the feigned name 

-^ 'o*© Carlfts Mnller, and harl it printed on his cards, 

r^t- of a'liich he presented to the governor uf Siua, Don 

51a lie la Cruz Gironda, requesting him to procure a 

ripply of chinchona plants for him , Gironda refused, 

ut introduced the stranger to a Bolivian named 

' iD'.nt« Henrique^, a clever and intelligent, but dis- 

■i.-.t junl unscrupulous man, Henriquez agreed to 

'".nry- 400 plants of C. C'a/Uai/a for a certain sum, 

■irt of which was to be paid down, and the remainder 

Ti deltvety of the plants. M. Hasskarl then went on 

-■ the vilhif^ of Sandia, M'here he took up his abode, 

■itbout entering the chinchona forests, and waited there 

■itil tiie pliuits should arrive. Meanwhile Heuiiquez 

^ployed an Indian to collect the stipulated number of 

• Bawttd. t /d™>. 


Mission of Hasskarl. 

plants, round a plac« called Ychu-corpa,* on the frontiei 
of Bolivia ; and when they were brought to Mm 1 
went to Sandia. delivered them to M. Hasskarl, 
received his money. An outcry was afterwards ra 
against Henriquez, by the people inhabiting village^ 
bordering on the cliinchona forests, who considered that 
their interests would be injured by the exportation of 
the plante : they declared they would cut his feet off if 
they eaiight him, and he has ever since been obliged tu 
live at Pelechuco, in Bolivia.t This feeling renderml 
future operations of a like natura exceedingly ditficult. 

M. Hasskarl left Sandia with these plants in June, 
1854, but they were not placed in Wardian cases at the 
port of Islay until August, and on the 27th of that 
month he finally left the coast of Peru in a sailing 
vessel, and shaped his course direct for Java.J He 
arrived at Batavia with twenty Wardian cases on 
December 13th. but all his plants afterwards died, 
except two.§ On his arrival M. Hasskarl was intrusted 
with the cultivation of chinchona plants in Java, witli 
the rank of Assistant-Resident, and was made a Knight 
of the Netherlands Lion, and Commander of the Order 
of the Oaken Crown. || 

Besides the plants brought by ML Hasskarl, a plant 
of C. Calwaya, raised in Paris from seeds sent home 

* Ychfl 16 gran* in Quiolina, and eorpa a ladging. 
t iDforomtiiiD Trota Oiroado. tlinn tlovenior uf Sina. 

I Kne MifedUmy, O^l. and Nov, l8Sa. 

$ Dr. Mocph^Tdou's Report, Deo. 19, nm. No. 50, pun. 8. 

II Jlonplnndia. Hftrab, 1 8£y. p. li. The pa; of nn AMuttnt-fiesidoU 
111 Java i* 5001. a-year. — Money'i Jam. 

- Dr. Weddell, had arrived in Java ; as well as plants 
^-*«i froiu seeds previously sent from Peru, and seeds 
: (,'. laiui/olia sent by Dr, Karst«n from Colombia 
L.-jogh the Governor of Cura?oa; and thus the ex- 
i*:rtmental chlncbona cultivation in Java was com- 

U. Haaskarl deserves the greatest credit for the zeal 

1 determination displayed by him in his journeys, 

^ which he was surrounded by no ordinary amount 

■dfficiUties and dangers. Be certainly proved him- 

f to be a most indefatigable and courageous traveller. 

^IL Haaskarl, and his associate M. Teysmonn, selected 

I stv for the first chinchona plantation, at a place 

iDed Tjibodas, thirty miles south of Batavia, on the 

, slope of the volcanic range which traverses 

I fjvta east to west, and 4400 feet above the sea. 

was also prepared at Tjipannas, half a mile 

I TjibiPtlas, and 4700 feet above the sea. These 

s wer« covered with rasamala trees of immense size 

'amhar AUingia' Blume), which had to be felled. 

e su|X-rii>tendents, deceived by the sight of such lar<;e 

, imagined that the soil was deep and good, but in 

it was not more than si:^ inches deep, and 

9ith tliere was a formation completely im- 

rftble to root«, called tjadiu, composed of sand and 

Ktonea of trachytic origin, strongly cemented 

r by crater slime, the whole being as hard as 

very i-|iv»-Kinui>ed wixal. 


yunghiihn and De Fry 

rook. Not one of the huge rasamala trees in reality 
pierced this tjadas with their roots, Init ran along its 
surface horizontally for hundreds of feet. In these 
localities the cliinchona plants continued to languish 
during 1855, and in the end of that year the experiment 
presented a most hopeless apijearance. 

The causes of this failure are sufficiently evident. 
After the felling of the rasamala-trees, tiie young chin- 
chona plants were exposed to the full force of a burning 
sun, without any shade whatever, in an extraordinarily 
thin soil, upon a rocky bank ipipenetrable to roote. 
The dead and rotted roots of the rasamala- trees were 
allowed to remain, developing fungi M-hich attacked the 
chinchona-roota ; and the sites themselves were in 
much too low and warm a climate. In consequence of 
the combined effects of these adverse inHuences. there 
were only 300 chinchona plants in Java, in a sickly 
unpromising condition, after the lapse of the first 
eighteen months. 

In December, 18.55, Dr. Franz Junghuhn came to 
Java with 139 chinchona plants, raised from seeds in 
Holland, but in six months seventy-six of them were 
dead. In June, 1856, M. Pahiid, who had been 
Minister of the Colonies, and was then Uovemor- 
General of Netherlands India, relieved M. Hasskarl of 
his duties, and gave the entire charge of the chinchona 
experiment to Dr. Junghuhn, an experienced scientific 
botanist, I>r. J. E. de Vry, a chemist of great eminence, 
was also sent to Java, charged with the special duty of 

■jiplring chemical tests to the barks of the chinchoDa 
I, to ascertain their intrinsic value. 
When Dr. Junghuhn took charge, the prospects of the 
ment were very far from promising, and he dis- 
1 an amount of intelligent perseverance, combined 
I nincli practical knowledge, which is deserving of 
Ipniae. He found the 139 cliiuchona plants which 
t htmself bronght out reduced to sixty-three ; the 
a of C. landfdia represented by three sickly plants ; 
I ooUecdon of plants of C. Calisaya brought by M. 
ikarl from Peru, also reduced to three ; two plants 
I C. Caliaaifa raised from seeds sent home by Dr. 
and the remainder, consisting of the species 
I by M. Hasskarl in Uchubamba, making a 
I of only 300 plants. 

I 1856 a new system was introduced, an efficient 
t was formed, and a great effort was com- 
i to secure the successful cultivation of the chin- 
i iilante. It «-b3 ordered that, until the cultivation 
iw, oonsideted as quite successful, it should remain 
-i}Jer the mani^ment of scientific men, but that finally 
■ »faou1ii be handed over to the ordinary direction of 
■-> chiefs of the provincial govenuneiit, under the 
I'lrecua- of Cultures; and a memorandiun of instnic- 
;:'joa, consistiDg of eighteen articles, was drawn up for 
•:,( goidaoce of Dr. Junghuhn and his sulKirdinates. 
Finding the chinchona plants in so deplorable a con- 
iaon, one of Dr. Junghuhn's first measures was to 
-UtfpUtit tbeni from Tjibodas to a more suitable site 

So yai>a Plantations. 

on the Malawar mountains, & very delicate and hazardo 
operation, which was, however, succesafully performa 
in 1857 plants both of C. Cqlisaya and of the wortlilfl 
species blossomed, ajid in 1858 bore fruit. Dr. Jungbu] 
found that the latter could not be the C ovata as i 
by M. Hasskarl ; but he was himself equally mistake 
in naming it C. Lueutnafdia, from a fancied rese 
blauce to that species of Pavon, The great mistake 
the Dutch has been in propagating this Species, tempb 
by finding that its nature was hardy, and that it requir 
less care than the delicate C. Calisaya. 

Dr. Jimghuhn established his new plantations on ti 
slopes of the Malawar mountains, where he found ti 
the C. Caluaya is much more sensitive than his so-calli 
C. Liwu/mcrfolia, now named C. Pakudiana ; and I 
very slight differences in temperature, in elevation, ; 
light, in shade, and in moisture, exercise a very evidei 
influence on the former, while the latter remain qui 
unaffected by them. He^considered that the best coi 
ditions for the growth of C. Calisaya on the Malawi 
mountains (between latitude 7° and 8° S.) were goo 
loose forest soil and moderate shade, at an elevatio 
from 5000 to 5700 feet above the sea. The C. Ccdisaya 
when they receive light only on their crowns, and i 
surrounded by the dark wood, have a rapidly risii 
slender, tall stem, devoid of side branches ; whilst, whe 
they stand on clear open spots, they grow much strong! 
in width and thickness, but are shorter, and haT 
numerous side branches. 

Java Plantations. 

On the Slat of December, 1860, the number of 
(ititdwDa plants in Java was as follows : — 

7,316 ptsstB uiil 1030 tntttings. 


IViU . . 947,205 plants. 

F^'^ades 700,264 seeds in stock, or sown. The extreme 

--i^bt attained by the tallest C Cai'Uaya was, at the 
iiae date, fifteen feet, and by the C. Fdkiidia-iui twenty- 
tjAA feet- One of the trees of C. landfolia had also 
uiainei] a height of fifteen feet. 

Dr. de Vry, the eminent chemist who was associated 
»iih Dr. Jnnghuhn, and wlio had for two years pre- 
M' tosly occupied himself with the study of the chinchona 
ibJoids, was actively engaged in careful investigations 

■' the chinchona barks in Java. With regard to tbe 

■ Califatja his results were satisfactory. From the 
-.runic -lark of a plant of this species, six years old, he 
c^uinixl, in Augnst, 1860, 5 per cent, of alkaloids ; and 
from tbAt of the branches, 24 per cent. With the 
ipdciei introduced by M. Hasskarl, Dr. de Vry was not 
u tnooeaifuL The leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of 
tUi speCBem were sent to Mr. Howard by Dr, Junghuhn ; 
nid it wan found that the names of C. ovala, given it by 
M. HuHtcnrl, and of C. LucuvictfiAia by Dr. Junghuhn, 

Tcre «<(uaUy erroneous. It was clear that it belonged 
1/1 a ppeciee, not previously described, and Mr, Howard, 

a the seventh number of liis work, has named it C. 

I'JtM^iaHa,' after M. Charles F. Palmd, who, as 
■ Htnrvd'* X«#*a Qtiinologia dr Pavim. So. 7. 


Java Plantations. 

Minister of the Colonies, sent M. HeLsskarl to Sout 
America in 1852, and who, being appointed Govemq 
General of Netherlands India in 1855," did so much i 
ensure the success of the chinchona experiment in Javi 
Up to IStiO Dr. de Vry only obtained 0^4 per cent. ( 
alkaloids from the bark of C. Pakikdiana, and M 
Howard's examination coincided with the analysis of U 
de Vry in pronoimcing it an inferior sort. 

It is now a source of regret that the scientific men i 
Java, instead of exerting all their skill and talent in t 
work of cultivating C. Calisaifo. and C. lancifolia, of t 
value of which there was no doubt, should have bestowe 
so much pains on a kind which from the first w^ 
known to be of very doubtful value, was unknown i 
commerce, and the cultivation of which ended in loa 
and disappointment. 

The valuable species were found to be much moi 
tender, and more sensitive to external unfavourabi 
influences, than the C. Pdhudiana ; the latter was thera 
fore propagated rapidly, and allowed to outstrip I 
other kinds in the race, and the consequence was tl 
it gained an immense preponderance. 

So numerous are the difficulties of this most import 
undertaking, that, in spite of the mistakes made at firs 
in Java, the highest praise is due to M. Hasskarl. Hi 
successors devoted great ability, no ordinary amount ( 
scientific knowledge, and untiring perseverance to tha 
good work ; and, as soon as they received plants of othea 
really valuable species from India, the cliinchoni 

* He: left Java ia Scplcmbur, 16<tl, after a residsDuo of ai 

yava Plantations. 


cdtiyatioii in Java attained such a measure of success 
» entitle Dr. Junghuhn and Dr. de Yry to the gratitude 
of their countrymen.* Dr. Junghuhn died in 1864. 

* Dr. Jimghfihw pabliahed two yery interesting reports on the colti- 
of the chinnhona plants in Java, in the Banplandici, a German 
jomnal : the first in Nos. 4 and 5 of 1858, and the second in 
lior Juty and August, 1860. I caused these reports to be 
"■"^^tH and etreolated for the information of those who are entrusted 
oh, or intet«ated in, the ohinohona oultiyation in India or Ceylon. 

G 2 

Introductioii of Plants 



The distribution of valuable products of the vegetable 
kingdom amongst the nations of the earth — their intro- 
duction from countries where they are indigenous into 
distant lands with suitable soil and climates — is one of 
the greatest benefits that civilization has conferred 
upon mankind. Such measures ensure immediate 
material increase of comfort and pro6t, while their 
effects are more durable than the proudest monuments 
of engineering skill. With all their shortcomings, the 
Spaniards can point to vaat plains covered with wheat 
and barley, to valleys waving witli sugar-cane, and to 
hill-slopes enriched by vineyards and coffee-plantations, 
as the fruits of their conquest of South America, On 
the other hand, India owes to America tlie aloes which 
line the roads in Mysore, the delicious anonaa, the 
arnotto tree, the sumach, the capsicums so extensively 
used in native curries, the pimento, the papaw, the 
cassava which now forms the staple food of the [jeople 
of Travancore, the potato, tobacco, Indian corn, pine- 
a^iples, American cotton, and lastly tlie chinchona : 

Front one Continent to anotJier. 

Ttdle ;he slopes of the Himalayas are enriched by tea- 
pitntsdotts, and the hills of Southern India are covered 
nUi rovs of coffee trees. 

It ia by tliua adding to the sources of Indian wealth 
Iht England will beat discharge the immense responsi- 
tfltty abe has incorred by the conquest of India, so far 
« the mateml interests of that vast empire are eon- 
eemed. Thna too mil she leave behind her by far ihe 
Bost dorable monument of the benefits confetTed by 
bs role. The canals and other works of the Moj^ula 
«ert in ruins before the English occupied the country ; 
m tbe melons which the Emperor Baber, the fovmder 
■A the Mogol dynasty, introduced into India, and wliicli 
(xBsad him to shed tears whilst thinking of his far-ofl' 
tBcnmtaiii home, still flourish round Dellii and Agra, 
after the Ganges canal lias become a niin, 
the great Vehor resen-oir a dry valley, the people 
llndtA will have cause to bless the healing efi'ects of 
ferer-dispelling cliinchona-trees, which will still l>e 
id on their southern mountains. 

introduction of the chinchona plant into India 
nuToanded by difHcnlties from which all other 
cingB of a similar nature have l)6en free. When 
introduced into the Himalayan districts, it had 
a cultivated plant in China for many ages, and 
Chinese cultivators come with it. But tlie 
bad never been cultivated ; since the dis- 
of its value in lti38 it had remained a wild 
all information concerning it was 8olt:1y 
-^rired frum tlie obeervations of European travellers 


Action taken by Dr. Royle 

who had penetrated into the virgin forests; and tl 
only guidance for cultivators in India is to be found i 
tbe reporta of these travellers, and in the experieno 
slowly aeqiaired by careful and intfilligent trials." Grea 
as these difliculties were, they were probably exceedo 
by the perils and risks of every description which mni 
bo encountered in collecting plants and seeds in SoutJ 
America, and conveying them in safety to India. 

But the vast importance of the introduction of thet 
plants into our Indian Empire, and the inestimabl 
benefits which would thus be conferred on the millioit 
who inhabit the fever-haunted plains and jungl 
commensurate with the difficulties of the undertaking 
The subject had occupied the attention of the India 
Government from time to time, ever since Dr. Royle i] 
1839 advocated the introduction of quinine-yieldin 
trees into India, in his work on Himalayan Botany 
but it was not imtil twenty years afterwards, in 1859 
that any adequate steps were taken to effect this moe 
desirable end, and to bring an antidote within the r 
of the fever-strioken people of India, while adding a nen 
source of wealth to the resources of that great depeii 

The proposal to introduce the chinchona plants int 
India was tirst made officially in a despatch from til 
Governor-General, dated March 27th, 1852. It ■ 

* Dr. Spmco's remark on the eventual necesaity of (rulEivating 
ehinoliona-treo U impottanf. He BBja, " I taTO seen enough 
colloctiog the products of tbe foreata to couvinco me that tcj 
wgetabCe tuhtUinee ii tieed/uZ to Tiian, A« muet uKi'mafrf;/ tn^iivaXe 
pia»i prodHOfnj U" — fleport, p. 83. 

nferred to the late Dr. Eoyle, the reporter on Indian 
fradocts to the East India Companj, who drew up an 
memorandum on the subject, dat«d June, 1852 : — 
the Indian Government," he said, "the home 
»ly of a drug which already costs 7000/. a. year 
be advantageous in an economical point of view, 
invalnable a» affording meana of employing a drug 
ia indispensable in the treatment of Indian 
I have no hesitation in saying tliat, after the 
taa, no more important plant could be intro- 
into India." Tlie only result of this application 
India waa that the Foreign Office was requested to 
a supply of plants and seeds from the consuls in 
■'■"-nth America, and instructions to that effect were sent 
n: u> lliem in October, 1852. In the HUtumn of 1853 
Mr. Mark wrote from Bogota that some delay would be 
' 'fniiTj'. and nothing more was heard from that 
jutter; Mr. Sullivan, the Consul-General in Peru, 
(^{died thai it would \ye impossible to accomplish a 
luxeasful result, through the jealousy of the people; 
'at Mr. Cope, the excellent and venerable Consul- 
'^«oeral at Quito, made a more satisfactory and sub- 
uatial an-iwer, in the shape of a box of cliinchona 
pbabi and seeds fVom Cuenca and Loxa. Tliey, how- 
wor, did not long survive the voyage to England. 
teds of C. Calitai/a, jirocured through Mr. Pentland, 
«ae Mnt to the botanical gardens at Calcutta, but did 
'.al fgenuiMe; and in 1853 six plants of the same 
' iliuble specieB, contributed by the Horticultural 
vjcieties of Edinburgh and London, raised from seeds 


IVoyh of Dr. Royle. 

sent home by Dr. Weddell from Bolivia, were taken a 
to Calcutta by Mr, Fortune. They arrived in go 
order, but all died through groaa carelessness in thi 
removal to Darjiling. In May, 1853, Dr. Royle c 
up a second long and valuable report upon the subjei 
and the question was then allowed to drop for soi 

It ia a curious coincidence that at the veiy time wh 
Dr. Eoyle was writing thia report I was actually e 
ploring some of the chinchona foresta of Peru. But t 
object of my travels waa of an antiquarian and ethnt 
logical character, and I was in ignorance of the desii 
of the Indian Government to procure auppliea of tha 
plants, which I then only admired for their beauty. 

In March, 1856, Dr. Eoyle made a final attempt 1 
induce the East India Company to take efficient stej 
to procure supplies of cliinchona plants and seeds froi 
South America ; and proposed to employ Dr. Jamiesou 
the able Profeasor of Botany in the University of Quitd 
for thia purpose. The lamented death of that emi 
botanist Dr. Boyle, to whom India owes ao much, a 
put an end to all discussion of the subject for s 
time ; but in 1859 energetic measures were set on foo^ 
which at length effected the desired object fully a 
completely. Dr. Royle is well known as the author o 
works on Himalayan botany, on the cotton cultivatioi 
and on the fibres of- India, and of a ' Materia Medica' 
containing a valuable article on the chinchona geuu^ 
wliich he caused to be printed separately for circulation 
in India, For several years he took the warmest 

Works of Dr. Royle. 


interest in the proposed measures for the introduction of 
ddnchona plants into India, and used every influence at 
Us oommand to effect this most important object. But 
he mis not destined to see the final achievement of a 
design which he seems to have had so much at heart. 
He died in 1857. 

Preliminaiy Arratigemenls. ck. 



In 1859, the ui^nt importance of introducing chinchoo 

cultivation into India wna brought to my notice by li 
Henry Deedes, of the India Office. I gave the subje 
most careful consideration, and, being convinced tl 
this measure would confer an inestimable benefit i 
British India, and on the world generally, I resolved 1 
undertake its execution. I was folly aware of thi 
difficulties, but I was certain that, by working steadilj 
and continuously on a settled plan, they would be over 

My quaKfications for the task wliich I thus set mysel 
to accomplish, consisted in a knowledge of several part 
of the chinchona region and of the plants, an acquaint 
ance with the coimtry, with the people, and with thei 
languages, both Spanish and Quichua. These qualifi' 
cations liad been acquired by previous travels in Sonti 
America. They would be made more complete bij 
study and experience, and I believed that they wool 
then enable me to originate and superintend all ' 
numerous arrangements in detail, aa well as to guid 

Preliminary Arrangements. 


1 execution of the undertaking, with the aid 
Uy selected fellow-labourers. 
3 a serious matter for consideration whether the 
J should be strictly a Goveminent undertaking, 
\ private spectilation. There were advantages and 
ffiaadvKiitages in both methods. By the latter plan, 
tmK freedom of action, and more intelligent appre- 
cation of the requirements, would be secured ; while the 
olstmction and wearing delays of official procedure 
voold t>e avoided. But, on the other hand, the resources 
(/ Government, and the great advantage of continuons 
mpport and countenance which may often be secured 
inc A Government undertaking, outweighed the draw- 
hteks which occurred to me ; and I resolved to submit 
ft proposal to Lord Stanley, the First Secretary of Stat© 
r India. I accordingly offered my services, and was 
with a comraisaion to introduce cliincihona 
into British India, on April 8th, 1859. 
dy afterwards there was a change of Government, 
1 all the subsequent arrangements were made with 
3 of Sir Charles Wood (afterwards Viscount 
and Mr. T. G, Baring (now Earl of North- 
■Aom whom I experienced much kindness. 
r»C«ived steady and most friendly support 
ffir James H(^, Mr, Mangles, and Sir Henry 
ntgomery, IHrectora of the old East India Company 
\ afterwards Members of the Council of India ; and 
from Sir Geoi^ge Clerk, the Under Secretary of State, 
utd rateeqaently GovemoT of Bombay when I arrived 
:n lodia. 

92 Preliminary Arrangements. 

It must be remembered tbat the knowledge of tb 
subject waa then far more limited tlian it ia now. A! 
I could do, before maturing the plan of action, was t 
make myself acquainted with the history and existi^ 
coaditioQ of the bark trade, and with the botany a 
chemistry of tlie chinchona genus as then understo 
In tlus task I received most kind and valuable assis 
ance, on all occasions, from the late Sir Williai 
Hooker ; from Mr. J. E, Howard, the eminent qiiii 
manufacturer ; from Dr. Forbes Watson, the reporter o 
Indian products at the India Office ; and, alwve all, froi 
Dr. Weddell, who was then the highest authority o 
the habitat of the chinchona genus, Dr. Weddell, i 
numerous letters, furnished me with a mass of valuabi 

On the 20th of July, 1859, in a letter to Mr. T. C 
Baring, I submitted my plan of operations, a plan i 
the execution of which I persevered until success ha 
been secured in every particular. I, of course, foresa'^ 
the probability of failure in one or more points, but 
was fully resolved that no failure should be accepted [ 
final, and that, whether through Government or privat 
agency, every detail of the undertaking, as I then sub 
mitted it, should be eventually carried out 

It waa uncertain what effect transplantation might 
have on the product of chinchona liark. One high 
authority was of opinion that cliinchona-trees might 
cease to yield quinine when transplanted to India. I 
also bore in mind that there were febrifuge alkaloids, 
other than quinine, in some barks, and that these were 

Preliminary Arrangements. 


1 efficafions in curing fever, I decided, therefore, 
it was necessary to procure and introduce into 
. all the species known to commerce. The plan, 
[at ^rliich I applied for sanction, waa to make a 
oc41ection of plants and seeds of all the cliinchona' 
koovm to conraierce tlirough the instrumentality of 
qtULtifiml agents. This would entail the despatch of 
fivB agttnts ; to Boli^na or Caravaya for the Calisaya 
[dsnts, to Huanuco in Pern for the grey barks, to Loxa 
in Ecnador for the crown barks, to Huaranda in 
&aiidor for the red barks, and to Popayan for the 
Coliraibian I>arks. These five agenta were to work 
ximultaneously under my genera] superintendence, and 
ft special steamer was to be supplied to convey the 
eoUertions of plants and seeds, from the five ports of 
UUy, CoUao, Payta, Guayaquil, and Buenaventura, 
direct to India across the Pacific Ocean. If the scheme 
Eulcd Bt one or more points — which, considering the 
aunaoos difficulties, was quite probable — my plan was 
to repeat the work in the next season, and, if necessary, 
in the next and the next, until complete success was 

I was folly determined that tlie whole plan should, 
joaiter or later, be carried out. If it had been adopted 
in its entirety, as I recommended, the undertaking 
wmtld have been completed in a quarter the time, and 
tt • tenth of the expense. But the delay in obtaining 
BODaideiation for my plans prevented me from maturing 
them folly before leaving England. I received sanction 
fur Uut expeditioDA into the Calisaya and red bark 

94 Preliminary Arrangements. ch. : 

regions in good time, and made all the necessa 
arrangements. But I failed to obtain any answer tl 
my proposals for the Huanuco and Colombian regiona 
which I submitted on May 13th, 1859, until the end o 
the following September ; and instead of steps beinj 
taken to furnish me with a steamer, I was onl] 
authorised to charter a sailing vessel myself, if I coolt 
find one on the west coast of South America. Subse 
quently, in a letter, dated May 17th, 1860, I wa 
empowered to charter a steamer, but this letter neva 
reached me until after my arrival in India. In point a 
fact, there was no steamer available on the west coast o 
South America at that time ; and it was necessary t 
the Government should make arrangements for th< 
conveyance of the planta and seeds to India. This wa 
not done, although H.M.S. Yiixn was at Callao am 
about to go home, and she might have perfectly takei 
the precious cargo to India, direct; thus ensuring it) 
safe transit. The alternative was a most perilous an( 
roundabout series of voyages, involving four transship 
ments and great changes of climate, by Panama i 
England, and then by Egypt to India. Such a joumej 
made success, as regards the plants, very precarious and 
doubtful, and the loss of a large percentage almoa 
certain. There would be leas chance of loss 
transmission of seeds. 

When I left England in DecembeT, 1859, my final" 
arrangements were to proceed, with a practical gardener, 
into the forests of Caravaya or Bolivia to obtain plants 
and seeds of the C. Caliaaija and other valuable-species 

- X. Preliminary Arrangements. 95 

* ihac legion : to employ another qualified collector, 
.Iv) with a practical gardener, to collect plants and seeds 
i 'Jie C. swxirvbra or red bark species in Ecuador ; and 
I hoped to be able to make arrangements for obtaining 
'ivi grey bark species in the forests of Huanuco and 
Tlsuoaliea. From the liausea already indicated, I was 
1 irred to defer the measures for procuring the erowii 
:iuk and Colombian species until a future year. I 
bRNtgbt out Wardian cases for the Calisaya plants to 
L \m shipped at lalay, the grey bark plants at Callao, and 

■ Iha red bark plants at Guayaquil, making all needful 
H iBrngetnenCs on the coast. Mrs. Markham, who 
rttaooipaiued me to South America, remained at 
\ Ixeqnipa while I was in the forests east of the Andes, 

ta eondact coireepondence and organise the work, 
I Mpecially in the Huanuco district, which I was obliged 
I to leave incomplete. 

I All tbe details were arranged with the strictest 
I ■aeotioii to economy ; and the payments to collectors 
I ad ^Brdeners were on the moat moderate scale. I 
■^OBiidensd that if they failed, the very small remunera- 
^Bfaa wonld be sufficient; while success would ensure 
^■■k vmlnable and remunerative results, that I could 
Vvdj relj on the generosity of the Government for 
r it sttUalile rwcognition of their services. The sequel 
I «jQ tbow bow far I was justified in this reliance. 

■ I will conclude this chapter hy stating, brietly and 

■ CRiscUy, my objects in the introduction of chinchona 
H «ibvatioD into India. Those objects were not re- 

I returns, hut the good of the people. I 

My Objects. 

desired to make the febrifuge trees natives of all parts 
of our eastern dominions where the conditions are 
suitable for their growth; and to bring the febrifuge 
within reach of all ranks of tlie people. 

The measures which I thought necessary &oin the 
first, and which I have since continuously striven lo 
bring to periection, were : — 

1. Tlie introduction into India of ail chincbon& 
species known to commerce, because it was uncertain 
which would eventually prove to be best adapted for 
cultivation in the new country. Even species which 
do not yield quinine were collected, because the other 
chincbona alkaloids also possess febrifuge virtues. 

2. The establishment of Government plantations 
wherever suitable sites could be foimd in India, tii 
form centres for the distribution of plants and see<k, 
and for ascertaining the best methods of cultivation. 

3. The manufacture, in India, of a form of the 
febrifuge combining, in the highest attainable degree, 
efficacy and cheapness ; so that there may be abundant 
supplies within reach of all classes of the people. 



Icady mccess of the enterprise mainly depended 
the aelectinn of qualified agents, and in tins 
I was most fortunate. No one, engaged in 
at work, ever had more able, loyal, and dis- 

1 fellow-labourers to assist him. 

Calisaya region, in the Peravian province of 

vya and in Bolivia, is the most distant from tliH 

I the moflt difficult of access, while the bark 

I cumvs from it was then held to be richest in 

) alkaloids. For the duty of collecting plants 

re^on, and establishing them in Wardiaii 

I svlucted an intelligent and experienced young 

■ named Jolm Weir, who was strongly recora- 

i to me by Mr. Vcitch. I myself determined to 

my him and personally superintend this branch 

. work, because it was surrounded by syiecial 

>, and because it was impurtaul thai I should 

■ infunnation respecting the climate and soil of 

I tfpical clunchona region, and the habits of tlie 

s species. 

• the work in the forests of Ecuador, containing 
t mueimbra or red bark Bi)ecii.-e, I was so fortunate 

Dr. Spruce. 

as to secure tlie services of Dr. Spruce, an emineut 
botanist and most intrepid explorer. Richard Spruce 
is a native of Welbiim^ near Castle Howard, in York- 
shire. From his early youth he diligently collected 
and studied the plants of his neighbourhood, especiidly 
investigating the muscology of Yorkshire, and after- 
wards of the Pyrenees. In J\iue 18i9 he sailed from 
Liverpool for South America, and, during tlie succeeding 
ten years, ha was occupied in studying and collecting 
the rich vegetation of the Amazonian valley including 
the I!io Negro, exploring the courses of unknown 
rivers, constructing maps, and bringing together a 
mass of valuable geographical information. In ISo6 he 
was at Torapoto, in the valley of the Huallaga, acd in 
1857 he descended that river to the MaraiioD, thence 
ascending the Pastasa and Bombauasa, and traversing 
the vast forests of Canelos to Banos in Ecuador. In 
tills disastrous journey, which occupied a hundred days, 
I>r. Spruce had to abandon all his goods in the forest, 
to escape perialiing of hunger at the passage of swollen 
rivers. In January 1858 he removed to Ambato, which 
for more than two years was liis point of deportun; 
for excursions in the Quitenian Andes. His researches 
into South American vegetation have been the most 
important since the days "of Humboldt, not merely for 
tlie number of species collected, amounting to upwards 
of 5000, but for the number of new generic forms with 
which he enriched science. He also investigated the 
economic uses of the plants, and his iliscoveries cleared 
up several doubtful questions of origin as to interesting 

Dr. Spruce—Mr. Cross. 99 

^Ht& XL 

^^bnera and species. Hia obserratioQS, made on the 
^B^l and attached to the preserved Bpecimens, were 
numerous and of great scientific value. Complete sets 
uf these specimens were sent home and deposited in the 
Eoyal Herbarium at Kew. Dr. Spruce also coUeeted 
vocabularies of twenty-one native languages of the 
Amazon valley, he took meteorological and hypso- 
metrical ohaervations throughout the vast region he 
traversed, mapped three previously unsurveyed rivers, 
and made notes of travel of the aspects and capahilities 
of the various countries, and of the customs, food, trade, 
and agriculture of the inhabitants. The services of Dr. 
Spruce were most valuable, because this accomplished 
botanist and traveller was competent to furnish a 
botanical description of the C sucdrubra and a 
scientific account of the forests where it flourishes. He 
agreed to perform tliia duty for a sum of money which, 
r^arded as remuneration, was merely nominal ; and I 
shall ever look upon my good fortune in securing Dr. 
Spmce's able co-operation as the most fortunate event 
connected with my conduct of the enterprise. 

I considered it necessary that a practical gardener 
should assist Dr. Spruce in the forests, and establish 
the plants in the Wardian cases at Guayaquil, as well 
:ts accompany them on the voyage to India. For tliis 
work I selected a very able and painstaking Scotch 
gardener named Robert Cross, who was recommended 
to me by Sir WiUiam Hooker. He went out from 
England, and joined Dr. Spruce in Ecuador. 
For the collection of plants yielding grey barks in 

Mr. PritcJutt — Mr. Ledger. 

the forests of Huanuco, I obtuned the services of S 
l*ritchett, just before leaving England. He was i 
follow me, and receive his instructions at Lima, Mr 
I'ritchett had previously been for some time in South 
America, and was well actiuainted with the Huonuct 
region. He had recently acted as agent of the Land 
Warrant Holders for the Ecuador Land Company; 
and had examined and reported upon the tracts grant* 
tfl the Company in tliat Kepuhlic. 

My arrangements were thus completed for the firrt 
year, during which I hoped to get the work completed' 
in three out of the five chinchona regions, I was to 
proceed to the Calisaya region, accompanied by John 
Weir. Tlie red bark forests were to be penetrated by 
Dr. Spruce, with Robert Cross as an assistant. The 
Huanuco country was to be viaited by Mr. Pritchett. 
The following chapters contain narratives of the pro- 
ceedings of these several explorers, as well as some 
account of the 8er\'ices of Mr. Ledger, who, although 
not under my orders, also zealously co-operated for the 
same end, and gave useful and important aid to the 

Passage 0/ tlie Andes. 



FtiE route to the Calisaya forissts is from the deaert port 
"f Islay, across tlie maritime cordillera of the Andea to 
Like Titicaca. Now there is a railroad for the whole 
liistance, but in 1860 there was only a mulo track over 
[he great sandy deaert to Arequipa, and then across tlte 
lofty mountain passes and frozen plains to the Titicaca 
basin. I left the Wardian cases at the Islay Consulate, 
with soil ready to receive the plants, and started for 
the interior on March (ith, 1860, reaching the city of 
Are-qiiipa two days afterwarda. Here Mrs. Markham 
remained to conduct all the business on the coast, and 
especially to furhish Mr. Pritchett with instructions aud 
funds when he should arrive from England ; and, on 
the 23rd of March, Weir and I began the ascent of thu 
Cordilleras by the long zigzag path called the " alto de 
los Huesos." The journey entailed rides of many houi's 
' iver a succession of wild desolate plains, in anew and 
tiail storms, until the highest part of the road was 
r>;ached, called the "altd de Toledo." 15,590 feet ahovo 
lie level of the sea. Some glorious snowy peaks 
.appeared through the gloom at sunset, and after several 
? kouTB in the darkness we at length reached the 

Passage of tlte Andes. 

post-house of CueviUas, At tliia elevation there grows 
a little lowly plant with yellow flowers, an asclepiad 
(Penlaf/onium flavum). Lower down the bills are 
covered with tufts of coarse grass (Stipa ychu). There 
is a shijibby composita (Bacckaris Incartim) used for 
fuel, and called tola by the natives, another composita 
(Merope piptolepis), and an oxalis in the crevices of the 
rocks (pxfdis nubigena) \ and the plains furnish pasture 
for large flocks of sheep and Uamas. 

In the neighbourhood of CueviUas there are lai^ 
sheep-farms, one called Toroya, near the "alto de 
Toledo," and another called Tincopalca, farther on. The 
Rheep, at this enormous height, lamb in March and July, 
and, of the March lambs, usually about fifty per cent. 
survive. Beyond CuevUlaa there are two laige Alpine 
lakes, whence a river flows down into Titicaca, and we 
thus crossed the waterparting between the Pacific and 
the great lake. The scenery is grand and desolate, re- 
minding me, in some respects, of the interior of Cora- 
wallis Island in the Arctic Eegions, Tlie road passes 
between the two lakes, and we reached the post-hooae of 
La Compuerta as the afternoon rain commenced. 

The gorge in which the La Compuerta post-house is 
situated is the only outlet for the waters of the lake. 
Mountains of great height rise up on either aide, clothed, 
at this season, with herbage of the richest green, while 
ridges of scarped cliffs of dark povphyritic rock crop 
out at intervals. The river dashes noisily over huge 
boulders, and near its left bank are the rough stone 
buildings of the post-house. Great quantities of ducks, 

Meeting a Fellow-traveller. 103 

coots, godwits, and sandpipers frequent the shores 

the lake. The postmaster supplied alfalfa for the 

ilea, and a thttpi consisting of potatoes and salt 

for the travellers, at exorbitant prices ; the 

were freed from their cargoes, which were placed 

the porch, ready lashed up in their r&lccillas or 

ito ; and we were soon rolled up in blankets and 

a, while, the snow continued to fall unceasingly 

the early part of the night. When we got up 

moniii^ the thermometer was at 31° Palir. indoors. 

at dawn, we descended the gorge, passing 

rotoed "■■"■"g establishments, San Eamon and 

1 Lucia, into green plains with large flocks of sheep 

over them. 

In these uninhabited wilds it is an event to meet 
tnreUer, and bis appearance is the signal for a 
of (juestions and answers. We here passed a 
, in whose dress and general appearance we saw 
mAection of out own, excepting the comforters. He 
n n large poncho of bright colours, reaching nearly 
Idi beela : a broad-brimmed felt hat with a blue 
ton handkerchief passed over it, and tied in a knot 
ler hia chin ; an immense woollen comforter passed 
md his throat and face, until nothing appeared but 
ttjfta ; a pair of woollen Raitera, bright green, with 
dc ttripes ; and huge spurs. He was an ofBcer on liis 
J to Aiequipa, and complained of the severity of the 
liber and the heaviness of the roads. Aft«r a short 
in the traveller passed on, followed by hia 
>mnle6, and soon became a speck in the distance. 

I04 The Pampa of Vilque. ch. m. 

In the afternoon we came to the first signs of 
cultivation, since leaving the valley of Cangallo, in the 
neighbourhood of the great sheep-farm of Taya-taya — 
patches of quinoa, barley, and potatoes, with the huts of 
Indians scattered amongst them ; and, crossing a rocky 
ridge, we came in sight of a vast swampy plain, with 
the little town of Vilque, at the foot of a fine rocky 
height, in the far distance, which we reached at sunset. 
The long rows of thatched bro\yn huta dripping with 
rain, and the muddy streets, looked melancholy. But 
at the time of the great fair, in Jtme, Vilque presents 
a very different appearance. The plains, for several 
miles beyond this little town, were ao swampy as 
to be tendered almost impassable. It was with the 
greatest difficulty tliat we made our way across them, 
constantly wading and splashing through water, and 
in somo places sinking so deep in the adhesive mud, 
that it was not without desperate exertions that the 
mules could extricate themselves. At length we came 
to a rocky ridge which bounded the vast pampa of 
Vilque, and continued our journey over rather drier 

Since leaving La Compuerta we had been continually 
descending ; the vicunas had disappeared, as they 
confine themselves to the loftiest and wildest parts of 
the Cordillera ; but in the lower region between Vilque 
and runo, the feeling of desolation and solitude is 
dissipated by the numbers of birds which enliven the 
country, and by the increased quantity and variety of 

wild flowers. 


Animals of tJie Sierra. 

iii. l-(fa-ftetai vtt plovers were vary numerous, 
-_:-_.Li:iiuf; shrilly as they flew in circles, or ran along 
the ground. In the clefts of the rocks tliere were many 
birds, like creepers, called haccadh by the InJianfl, and 
f^io ID Spanish — beaks curved downwanb, black on the 
»P of tl|e head, white underneath, red at the back of 
Uie neck, speckled wings, white breast, and a black line 
fton the beak to tlie back of the neck. We also saw 
many small green paroquets, bright yellow finches 
oUed siIgarilo», a kind of partridge called 't/vtu, and, 
aixn-fl all, the glorious toToqutnque or alcamari, the 
p>yBl bird of the Yncos, whose black and white wing- 
ieatiwiTB stirmounted the imperial llautu or fringe of the 
xn^reigns of Pern. The alcamari is a large and noble- 
luolciDg bird of prey, with a scarlet head, black body, 
tod long wing-feathers of spotless white. Wherever 
ihe plnins are intersected by ridges of rocky cHEfs, 
which a fretjnently the case, tliere are swarms of large 
nxknu, called biscachea, which sat on their hind legs, 
ad looked about inquisitively as we rode past. 

Biding over several wide grassy plains, and passing 
the riUsj^ of Tiquillaca, we arrived at the banks of the 
nrer Tortonini, which was so swollen as to be quite 
By following its course for about half a 
) came to a place where the whole volume of 
p precipitates itself down a sheer declivity of 250 

L, mod forms a magnificent cascade, A lea^e Iwlow 

I bllfl we found a bridge, and, at sunset, we came in 
it of the gnsat lake of Titicaca, with the snowy range 
A fftevp zigzag descent leads down to the city 

io6 City of Puno. en 

of Puno, which is close to the shores of the Iak( 
and hemmed in by tm amphitheatre of argentiferoa 

Puno, the capital of the department, owes ita ori^ 
and fonner prosperity to the rich veins of silveiH^re il 
the surronndiug coiintrj. It is approached, from 1 
north, hy a stone archway built over the road b; 
Genei'al Denstua, wlio was Prefect in 1850 ; and I 
streets slope by a gradual descent towards the laka 
The houses are built of small-sized brown adobes, witJi 
roofs of thatch or red tiles, and courtyards very neatly 
paved with round pebbles and llama's knuckle-bones ia 
patterns. There are scarcely any with more tlmn a 
ground-floor, and the rooms open on to the court ; bu^ 
though at this elevation, 12,874 feet above the sea, it id 
extremely cold at night, stoves are unknown ; and the 
unusual luxury of a fireplace, wliich exists in i 
house, is merely a luxury to the eye, for it is never 
lighted. The streets are clean and well paved, and ths 
stone church in the Plaza, dating from 1V57, has i 
elaborately carved front and two towers. In another 
plaza is the college, a large building with an upper 
story, also built by General Deustua ; and both these 
public squares have bronze fountains erected by the 
Government of General Echenique, the late President, 
besides drinking fountains in the corners of several of 
the streets. The water is excellent. 

Puno is surrounded by heights covered with patches 
of potatoes, barley, and quinoa iChcnopodium Qtiinoa), the, 
huts of Indians being intersperaed amongst them ; and 

a. nt Flora of Puno. 107 

iimtiedialely over the to\vn there ia an isolated rocky 
- iss of carboniferous limestone perforated by several 
" I'lOral caverns, called the Huossa-pata. The shores of 
Me lake are a few hundred yards from the town, and at 
: It; little port there are always a number of balsas, made 
f lar^ bandies of reeds tied together, with a reed sail.* 
r:ie riew to seai^^rd is, however, confined by the penin- 
'Ttla of Capacliica. and two islands at the mouth of the 
>iy of Pano. A canal to enable balsas to come up 
iieanr the town was made by the Spanish Intendente 
<^ionialez Montoya in the beginning of the present 

The flora of a country which, though within the tropics, 
b u ao elevation of nearly thirteen thousand feet above 
I, must necessarily be meagre, and the few plants 
» lowly and inconspicuous, I noticed the following 
I the immediate vicinity of Puno. The only tree was 
t of stunted growth, with a pretty pink and white 
r, and dark-green leaves, almost white underneath, 
I •■ oUva silvestre" by the Spaniards, and ccoUi in 
I {Bvddlea coriacea) ; and of these there were 
e than a dozen, sheltered betiind walla, 
jied for some time at Puno, in order to collect 
ion, and came to a determination respecting the 
e to pursue in the performance of the service 
V K da ChatclnkD wys that vcuela cxftotly KecmbUiig tliofio ol 
kTIUMLe»u« ropreMDlrd oa the tomb of Rsmeses III. at Thebes. 
I Hontoyk wu the boat Governor that Puno haa erer 
vmi • benerolioit as Kelt as a determined man, kud 
r vtUat. or drafting of ladiaiiB for foroed labour in tlie 
ttam td PMoaL When oidered bj the OoTcmineiit to restore the 
mMat, b* tvi^led, " Obedeaoo pero qq cumplo," 



1 08 

Decision as to my Route. 

on which I was employed. The supply of the hark of 

Chirichona Catisaya trees is procured from the forests of 
Munecas, Apollobaniba, Turacares, Larecaja, Im^uisiiiT, 
Coroico, Caupolican, Ayopaya, and the yutigus of La 
Paz in Bolivia ; but I found that the difficulties in the 
way of making a collection of plants and seeds in these 
districts would be very great. As a considerable part 
of the revenue of Bolivia is derived from the bark trade, 
which is not the case in Peru, the Bolivians are exceed- 
ingly jealous of their monopoly, and vigilantly watch to 
prevent any infringement of it. The exportation of 
plants ami seeds is prohibited by their laws. Moreover 
tliere was an imraineut prospect of a war between Peru 
and Bolivia ; a large army was massed in tliree divisions 
— at Puuo under General San Koman, at Vilque imd^ 
Beltran, and at Lampa under Frisancho ; and, as soon 
as hostilities commenced, it would have been next to 
impossible for a private person to preserve his mules 
from seizure. This war did not actually take place, bat 
Ljnaros, the President of Bolivia, issued a decree on 
May 14th proliibiting all traffic, or the jMisaage of 
travellers, from one country to the other ;* a decree 
which was strictly enforced, and which would have 
rendered it impracticable at that time to have conveyed 
myself and companion, vrith laden mules, from Bolivia 
to the coast. 

While these objections weighed against an attempt to 

* TUe PeruTinn Government anawerad this decree ia a noble Bplri^ 

bj declBiin^ tlist the; would not retaliate, bat, on the contmty, would 

assist commcroiiil traffio botwetn tho two countrids b; evcrf meaiu in ■ 

their power. Linares rescinded his tUiot on October 17th. 

;- xii. Decision as to my Route. 109 

'Uixt plants in the forests of Bolivia, I found tliat, 
*iih re^iiiinl to the chinclionft forests of the Peruvian 

■ ■\Inrivf Caravaya, on the frontier of Peru and Bolivia, 

. f.i' ilities for such an enterprise would be much 
_:i-.ii-r. I had reason to believe, though I afterwards 
I'luid myself in error, that, rS there was no bark trade 
;Q Peru of any importance, no jealousy would be felt at 
ibe natwe of my mission. Any hostile proceedings on 
the Bolivtiin frontier woidd not materially affect the 
RnUe between the Caravaya forests and the coast ; and, 
duve all, Caravaya is much nearer and more accessible, 
H K^uds an available seaport, than any port of the 
rfiiaefaontt forests of Bolivia. This latter point was of 
lb* Tcry greatest importance, because success depended 
dbefly on the rapidity with which the plants could be 
aatreyed across the &ozen plains of the conlilleras. I 
knew ftom Vn. Weddell that, though the bark trade from 
Cotsraya lias now ceased, and bark from tliat district is 
(( BO DJArkct value, owing to a foolish habit of adultcra- 
nco among speculators in former times, yet that young 
planls, and trees l>earing fruit, of the Chi7iehona Calisaya, 
■rill cthtT valuable species, were abundant in the forests 
■( 'dtat pm^-ince, as far north as the valley of Sandia. 

I. thervfote, after much anxious consideration, de- 
trnnintil Ut proceed direct from Puno to the forests of 

yourjtey (o Caravaya 


On April 7th, 1860, we left Puno on the road to t 
cMnchona forests of Caravaya. There are three modi 
of travelling in Peru: one by purchasing all 
required mules and employing servants ; the second \ 
hiring an arriero, or 'muleteer, wlio supplies the roiil) 
at so much for the jotimey ; and the third by using t 
wretched animals which are provided at the post 
houses, and changing t!iem at each stt^e, but this c 
only be done on the main roads. The latter wa; 
though the least comfortable, is by far the mot 
econonucal, and I therefore determined to adopt it, ; 
I should probably have hesitated had I known th 
trouble it would entail. 

Our first stage was to Paucar-colla, a village near ti 
banks of lake Titicaca. Just beyond there is a s 
called the YUpa which, in the dry season, scarcely wd 
the mule's lioofs, but at this time of year it was swollei 
into a broad river, and it was necessary to cr< 
balsas with the luggage, while the mules swam. Fron 
the Yllpa to Juliaca there are broad plains extending t 
the shores of the lake, with the village of Hatun-coUi 

youmey to Caravaya. 

Ibe and^it Tnca capital of the CoUao, on one of the 
tut 8pttrs of the cordiUera to the weat. 

Tbeee wide expanses, in the rainy season, are swampy 
lod balf sabmei^ed. They were covered with flocks 
lod herds, with huts and out-buildings scattered over 
iSem, and smroiuided by mud walls. Here and there 
Te passed pretty little cow-girls and shepherdessea, 
r dressed in the Quichua, not the Aymara, costume, 
e of these little maidens, as they stood by the way- 
I ^>£niiing wool, had such pretty faces, with the rosy 
r showing through their soft, brown skins, and 
) were so graceful and digmlied, tliat they 
^j reminded me of tlie pictures of young Ynca 
I in the church of Santa Ana at Cuzco : — 

" I^ vi tan feriiingit 
Qne npcDas rrcyers 
Qae fuew vaquera 
De U FiQojoM." 

qtiinoa, and Imrley were cultivated in the 
f the hills lioniering on the plains, 
r miles north of Juliaca there is a large river, 
by the junction of those of Lam pa and 
, the latter being the same which rises in the 
the road between Arequipa and Funo, and 
I by the poet-house of La Compuerto. We crossed 
\ ft teed balsa while tlie mules swam. Beyond the 
I the great plain of Chaiiucaliua, which was 
with larg« pools of water, at this season 
Bted by ducks and sandpipers. Close under tlie 
I which Wund it on every aide, were a few 

Town of Lampa. 

aheep-fannB, and the sheep roamed at will over i 
leagues of pasture land. At the northern extremilj 
of the plain the road ascends and descends a i 
of steep hills, and, turning a rocky spur, I came i 
sight of the town of Lampa. It was just sunset ; tl 
tall church-tower rising over the town, and a stoi 
bridge spanning the river, were clearly defined by t 
crimson glow in the western sky, while the loB 
peaked mountains forming the background i 
capped by masses of black tlu-eatening clouds. 
that moment a tremendous thunderstorm, with flaabf 
of forked lightning and torrents of rain, burst ov 
the town. 

Lampa is Uie capital of a province in tlie depot 
of I'uno, and I was hospitably received by the Su 
prefect, Don Manuel Barrio-nuevo, who occupied 
good house in the plaza. A portion of the army of U 
South was quartered in the town ; and the Genei 
came every evening to have tea with the Siib-pref6 
and his lady, a handsome Arequipena. On tlu 
occasions the party consisted of General Friaancho a 
several officers, and ladies who came attended by the 
little Indian maids, caiTying sliawls, and sij^uatting o 
the floor in comers during the ^-isit. After tea a 
conversation the company generally sang some of t 
desjmiidcts and love-songs of their national poet Melgal 
in parts ; and one young lady sang the plaintif 
yaravis of the Indians in Qiuchua, 

The church of Lampa is a large building of stoM 
dating from 1685, with a dome of yellow, green. 


■ Midicinal Herbs. 

■ lue glazed tiles, of ■which I was iuformed there was 

■ rnierlT « manufactory in Lampa. The tower is 
--<ilat«d, and about twenty yards from the chiirch, 
ijipareatly of a different dat«. Eows of Indian girls, in 
"^eir gay-coloured dresses, were sitting in the plaza 
'"ribrc their little heaps of cAunws, ocas, potatoes, and 

I '.her provisions, amongst which, at the season of Easter, 
there ue always great quantities of herbs gathered on 
\^A monntains, possessing supposed medicinal virtues. 
Among these a fern, called nu^-To/xi, is used as an 
eaetJc ; ckttrfcu-cAurccu, a small wild oxalis, is taken 
M t cure for colds ; ehtehira, the root of a small crucifer, 
iat rheomatism ; Uaeua-ilacua, a composita, for curing 
*(ituid«; ^issv. a nettle, used as a pui^ative; cata- 
. nte, k ralerian, as an antispasmodic ; tami-tami, the 
VM of a gentian, as a febrifuge; -qiiachanca, a 
«^)borbia, the powdered root of which is taken as a 
pufiative ; hama-havia,\A\e root of a valerian, said fi 
'« an excellent specific against epilepsy ; * and many 
"Ukm, the native names of wliich, with their uses, wen- 
nvea me, bat 1 was imacquainted with their botaniwil 
HiMi. Generally, when the name of a plant is 
Kpnied twice in Quichua it denotes the possession "f 
uma medicinal property. 

On the morning of our departure from Lampa tht> 
oouad was covfired with snow, which was slowly 
udtiiig ondvr the sun's rays. Immediately aftiT 
I'raviog the town tlie path winils up a steep mouiitiiin 
B calltKt Cliucim-chwca, the sides of tho precipitous 
• The tlirw InltM nrp bIh) nu iiti^ined by Ilni'iikiv 

slopes being well clothed with gruenaar trees {Polt/lrpU 
tomentcUa, Wedd.), which are gnarled and stunted, with 
dark-green leaves, and the bark of the trunk peeling 
like that of a yew. Their sombre foliage contrasted 
with the light-green tufts of stipa, and the patches of 
snow. The pass was long and dangerous, with little 
torrents pouring down every rut ; and on its eunmnt 
was the usual pachcta, or cairn, wliich the Indians erect 
on every conspicuous point. The path descends on the 
other side into a long narrow plain, with the liacienda 
of Chacun-chaca on the opposite side. The buildings 
are surrounded by quemiar trees, and in their rear two 
remarkable peaked hills me up abruptly, clothed with 
the same trees, with ridges of rock cropping out at 
intervals, Their sides were dotted with cattle, tended by 
pretty little cow-gU"ls, armed with slings, and some of 
them playing the piiicndlu, or Indian flute. The plaiD 
was covered with long grass, in a saturated and spongy 
state, and groves of qvehuar trees grew thickly in the 
gullies of the mountains on either side. After a ride of 
several leagues over the plain, latterly along the banks 
of the river Pucara, I turned a point of the road, luid 
suddenly came in sight of the almost perpendiculiir 
mountain, closely resembling the northern end of the 
lyck of Gibraltar, -which rises abruptly from the plain, 
with the little town of Pucara nestling at its feet. The 
precipice is composed of a reddish sandstone, upwards 
of twelve hundred feet above the plain, the crevices anJ 
summit clothed with long grass and shrubby queiiuas. 
Birds were wldrling in circles at a great height above 

Quickita Language. 

the rock, vluch, ia the Spaxiisli times, was famous for a 
6ne breed of falcona, which were carefiilly guarded and 
regiilarly supplied with meat. They tell a story at 
Pucara that 'one of these birds was sent to the King of 
Spain, and that it returned of its own accord, being 
known by the collar. 

Pucara means a fortress in Quichua ; and here Fran- 
cisco Hernandez Giron, the rebel who led an insurrec- 
tion to oppose the abolition of personal service amongst 
the Indians, was finally defeated in 1554. The town is 
a little latter than Jnliaca, with a handsome church in 
the same style, and a fountain in the plaza. I dined 
and passed t!ie evening with the aged cnra, Dr. JoaA 
Faustino Dasa, who is famous for Iiis knowledge of the 
Qiiiehna language, in its purest and nioat classical form. 
The fame of Dr. Dasa'a learning, in all questions con- 
nected with the antiquities of the Yncas and the Quichua 
language, had reached me in England, and I was glad to 
obtain his valuable assistance in looking over a dic- 
tionary of the rich and expressive language of the Yncaa, 
on which I had been working for some time, 

Owing to the diminution of the aboriginal population 
in Peru, and the constantly increasing corruption of the 
ancient language through the substitution of Spanish 
for Quichua words, the introduction of Spanish modes 
of expression, and the loss of all purity of style, that 
language, once so important, which was used by a 
polished court and civilised people, wluch was spoken 
through the estent of a vast empire, and the use of 
which was spread by careful legislation, is now dis- 
I 2 


B ^Bog it vill lie » tiling that is past, 
r entiivly from the memory ol 
Wtth it vill disappear the rich^t 
ftok «ClA lk» |)nrt A— riwn gnmp of languages, H" 
t of vthnology. With it will W 
1 j«t ranuiii of the old glon 
«f ite Taew. tkt dlp^ IdTt-aoogs, and poems which 
r tt s «DOe powerful, but always 

Ik. HlMk hai « k^gB wBsetioD of the finches, anil 
««kir kM> «f Ik* laftMT parts of tbe Andes, liangiug in 
««cknr oigw ahlf dw <nU of his house. Amongst 
dWB «m t littli <dem Mlled Mfp* •' the bright yellow 
lilte HMfiair olM tilfmntm in Spanish, and cJiatfria 
ia QlickM^ Iha taya, another Urger warbler; tlic 
I of Peru; and a little 

tedi mik ^«^ bbek plonuge. pink on the back, am! 
rtirtJigWr under the wia^ He also had some small 
jfPMU paiW|«M«a. with leaf taila and bluish wings, whidi 
nak* tlM» MM Widw the rnvte of nx<f$, at a height of 
ttMxttem Ihoawaad tttH abon the sea. At Pucara some 
of tl« inhabitaafci hav» siaaU manufactories for makin^! 
ghuMl Mitbattwan basins. poCs, plates, and cups,t 
wbidi find an axiensina narket in the ^'illages and 
tona of Um dqjartniant of Puno, and which will 
probafalT' loiig hold their own a^'ainst tlw same kind of 
coarse wares team ^mope or the United States. 

River of Pucara. 


Puno to Pucara I had travelled along the 

bi-road to Cuzco ; but, at the latter place, I branched 

r to the eastward, to pass tbrntigh the province of 

x-Mgaro to that of Caravaya. Tlie main-road con- 

ones ID a northerly direction, crosses the snon'y range 

■of \'i]caBota near Ayaviri, and descends the valley of 

I the Vflcunayu to Cuzco. At Pucara I left post-houses 

I and post-miiles behind me, for they only exist on the 

in-toads between Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, and Lima ; 

benceforth I had to depend on being able to induce 

nvat« persons to let out their mules or ponies to nie. 

Aboot 500 yards from the town of Pucnra is the 

M"«r of the same name, which flows past Aya\Tri in the 

" '^ntaini' of Vilcaiiota. It was very full, and eighty 

• inls acTMs. The mules swam, and we had to cross in 
1 tickety balsa made of two bundles of reeds, which 
had to }!o l>ackwards and fonvards five times before all 
tl)« gBar and baggage was on the eastern side. Alter 
r,ilittj{ over a plain which l>ecame gradually narrower as 

* Liia motint&inB closed in, I began the ascent of a rotrky 
■v'jia, wjtii a torrent dashing doft-n over huge boulders 
tnlji the plain. There was a splendid view of Lhi: 
distant rock of Pucara, with the snowy peaks of tiio 
Vikuotu moge behind. A league further on there was 
tu alpine lake, with a fine peaked cliff rising up from 
the water's edge. There were many ducks and widgeons, 
and luge coots were <|uietly busy, swimming' al>out and 
buildiQg tbeir nesta on little reed islands ; also jet-black 
iliMMMi with dark rusty retl beads and lung cnrvod bills. 

^■Ifkcr a tide of several leagues over a grassy country j 

Former Population. 

covered with flocks of sheep, I reached the summit of a 
range of hiUa, and got a distant view of the town of 

Azangaro, in a plain with several isolated steep grassy 
mountains rising from it, and tlie snowy Andes of 
Caravaya in the background. After a very wearisome 
descent I reached the plain, and, riding into Azangaro, 
was most hospitably and kindly received by Don Luis 
Quinones, one of the principal inhabitants. 

The region which I had traversed between Puny 
and Azangaro consists of e series of giussy plains of 
great elevation, covered with flocks and herds, and 
watered by numerous rivers flowing into lake Titicaea. 
These plains are separated by aaveral mountain-ranges, 
spurs from the cordillera, which sometimes run up into 
peaks almost to the auow-line, and at others sink into 
rocky plateaiut raised like steps above the plain. What 
strikes one moat in travelling through tliis country ia 
the evidence of tlie vast population it must have con- 
tained in the days of the Yncas, indicated by the ruined 
remains of aiutencria, or terraces for cultivation, rising 
in every direction tier above tier up the sides of the 
hills. But it is now almost exclusively a grazing 
country, and the Indians, employed in tending the large 
flocks of aheep, only raise a sufficient supply of edible 
roots for the consumption of their families, and the 
market of tlie nearest town. Frequently the shepherds 
are what are called 7/anaamas, or Indians kept to 
service by the owners of the flocks, which vary from 400 
to 1000 hefid. The condition of this class of Indians is 
very hard, as they get only a monthly allowance of aai 



« of chnaa (frozen potato) or quinoa, and a i>oond 
I, or fonr dollars a month in money. 
), Juliaca, Lampa. Pucara, and Azangaro, are all 
Q 12,800 and 13,000 feet above the sea. Between 
I 28th and April 15th, the indications of the 
leter at these places were as follow : — 

Uean temperature 
Higlitst obaerred 

igbt , 


ogaro is the capital of the province of the same 
There is a tradition that, when the Indians were 
WtBging gold and silver for the ransom of the Ynca 
Atahnalpa, they received news of his miirder by Pizarro, 
u Sicuani, and at the same time orders came from Ynca 
Uxnco, who was at Cuzco, to remove the treasure to a 
gH«tet distance ; and that they btiried it near this to\vii. 
AnuDK is "more," earun "distant;" hence Aza/igara. 

Azsn^ro is }Kir Krcftleru:e the city of hidden treasure. 
The bonses are hullt of mud and straw, and thatctied 
with coarse grass (sHjm yrhn), the better sort iMiing 
whitewashed. To the north of the town there is a long 
e of rocky heights ; to the south an isolated peaked 
nearly overhangs the town ; to the east is the 
; snd to the west is a plain bounded by the 
ilu towards Pucara, The church, in the pla^a, 
I a laige bam outside, with walls of mud and 
I a tower with broad-brimmed red-tiled roof; 
ing it I was astonished at its extraordinary 


Church of Azang-arv. 

munificence, so enliTely' oat of pr oportion to tlie n 
or importance of this little tovn. TWe oa^ 
with luge pictfncs on reJ^ioiis snbjectB, by i 
ftttiats, in frames of carved wood, richlj gilt. 
elaborate gilded earring was veij strikiDg ; the leam^' 1 
boDches of grapes, and twisted oolomns, being Qu I 
worlananship of the famoos carvers of Cozco. Over the I 
areh leading to the chancel there is a picture represent- 
ing the Triomph of the Faith, in bright colours. The 
high altar is plated with massive silver, with ^iled 
columns, pictures, and im^^es, in gorgeous profnsiut np 
to the root On either side are two verj' remark»ble 
pictures, filling the walls between the altar and the 
chancel-arch. On the right an all^orical picture, and 
the Shepherds worshipping. One figure, in the latter 
picture, a girl holding a basket on her head, is of gnat 
merit, and exactly resembles the ' Santa Justa ' ^f 
Murillo in the Duke of Sutherland's collection. On tie 
left is a picture of the ' Woman taken in Adulterj-,' and 
an excellent copy of the well-known ' Worshipping of 
the Magi,' by Rubens, in the Madrid gallery. In a side 
chapel there is a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's ' Last J 
Supper,' with portraits of two caciques — the heads of 1 
the two great families of Azangaro — with their wives^fl 
one of them very pretty, looking on in a comer, 
copies, which are excellent, must have been prociu 
from Europe at very great expense. 

The author of all tliis magnificence, according to thai 
inscription on Ms portrait, which is fixed in a handsom 
gilt frame by the aide of the chancel-arch, was 1 

The Sondor-huasi. 

r Dr. Don Baaco Bernardo Lopez de Caiigas, a 

! of Cuzco, and Cura of Azangaro. The interior 

s were completed on January 12th, 1758, and 

emradied in 1771. He must have been possessed 

f enonnous wealth, to have enabled liim thxis to 

|r and adorn his church i^-ith such lavish pro- 

In the days of the Yncaa the two great families of 
Azangaro, whose heads ranked as Curacas, were the 
Miinuiia}lcucalcinas and Chuquihuancaa ; and they re- 
ouned the office of cacique until recent Spanish times. 
The Munim&llcucalcina family is now extinct; they 
livisl in the town, and a portion of their house still 
n-nuins, called the SonHor-huasi, dating from the time 
of Ibe Yncas, and the greatest curiosity in the place. It 
is 8 cinnilar building, about twelve feet in diameter, 
with walls twelve feet high, of mud and straw, very 
rtnng and thick. The dome-shaped i-oof of thatch also 
(hta from the time of the Yncaa. The outside coating 
i.-utisi)it8 of a layer of sHpa ycku, two feet thick, placed 
in very regular rows, and most carefully finished, so as 
to preaent a smooth surface to the weather. Next there 
u k thick layer of the same grass placed horizontally, 
netted together with reeds ; and finally an inner per- 
peadicnlar layer; the whole thatch being five feet ttiick, 
Tl«e interior framework consists of twelve perfect circles 
U beat wftods, with others descending in curves from 
ibe apex of the nxif to the crest of the wall, and where 
^my ones there are lasliings of a tough reed, Tlie 
i ia finiahed with most admirable neatuesa, fomiin'' 

A Peruvian Picnic. 

a perfect dome. This is the only roof of the time of U 
Yncas still remaining in Peru, anil hence its great im-* 
portance in an antiriuartan point of view, It lias 1 
said that the colossal and highly-finiBhed masonry off 
the Yncas, and their poor tliat<:hed roofs, formed a baPr 
baric contrast ; but the Sondor-huasi proves that thdr 
roofa rivalled their walls in the exquisite art and neat-> 
ness of their finish. The Sondor-huaai is now in a very 
dilapidated state, and is used as a kitchen by the 
degenerate collateral heirs of the old caciques. 

The Chuquihuanca family had a country house about 
a league from Azangaro, which was destroyed by the 
army of Tupac Amaru in 1780, because the Chuqui^ 
huancas deserted their countrymen and adhered to the 
Spanish cause. I accompanied my host, Don Luia 
Quinones, and the whole of the society of Azangaro, to, 
a picnic at the ruined house of the Chuquihuancaa ; and 
it was amusing to see all the masters of families, tlie 
Sub-prefect Don Hipolito Valdez, the judge, the cura,; 
and every one else, locking the great folding-doors 
leading into their patios, and putting the keys into their 
pockets. Azangaro was entirely deserted. "We were 
all well mounted, and there were fourteen young ladies 
of the party, fresh pleasant girls, who thoroughly enjoyed 
a good gallop. The niined house was in a comer of the 
plain, and surrounded on three aides by steep overhanging 
cliffs. There are the remains of a house, with a long 
corridor of brick arches, behind which several broad 
terraces rise up the face of the cliff, which are still 
ornamented with some fine oliva sUveslre and guenuar 

A Peruvian Picnic. 123 

a few ancient apple trees, and a dense growth of 
^l-yeUow compositfe, and solanuma with a purple 
A noisy torrent foamed down the cliff's and 
B terraces to the plain l>elow. It was a very 
y spot, but in a most desolate condition, and many 
I doves made their nests in the trees. Lupins 
i") and nettles (ifapaUu) were growing in the 
9 of the rocks. We had an excellent and very 
rneiTT dinner ; a large amount of Moq^uegua wine, and 
t" the better-clarified and more generous liquor from 
Um Domingo Elias's vineyards at Pisco, was dmnk ; 
Aod guitar-playing and samocueca-dancing finished the 
day's entertainment. We returned to Azangaro after 
dftric Don Luis assured me that the people of this 
little town were like one family ; and that, though 
electioQ-time or periods of civil dissension sometimes 
aaaed estrangement amongst them, the habitual concord 
■ad MendBhip always returned when the excuse for 
alienation bad passed away. 

Ajmtgaro is a great cattle-breeding province, and there 
is a considerable trade in cheeses with Arequipa and 
other parts. I found very great difficulty in prwuring 
soimals to enable me to continue my journey. At 
lengtii I succeeded in hiring four miserable-looking, 
viciotu, undersized ponies ; and, having crosses! the 
Axaogaro on balsas, by far the lai^st river I had passed 
vrm since leaving Pimo, the way led across the rocky 

Kcubamba lulls into another plain, where 
several cattle and sheep farms ; and the 
pAiiM PanieuUitui. Chloiu Aodiat, ii. p. 252. 

124 Road to Caravaya. 

village of Comiarini, consisting of a rained church a 
a dozen hnte. The river Azangaro rises in the ano' 
mountains of Caravaya, forma an immense curve 
nearly half a circle in a course of about two hundra 
miles, and, uniting with tlie river of Pucara, falls int 
the lake of Titicaca as the river Eamiz, the largest of 
afHuenta. After a ride of six leagues we reached thfl 
little village of San Jose, under a conical hill, and clt 
to the snowy mountains of Surapana. 

From San Joae the path winds up a long ravine fa 
several leagues, down which a torrent dashes furioual] 
over the rocks, descending from the snowy peak 
Accosiri. The mountain scenery, consisting of 8t< 
graasy slopes, masses of rock, torrents, and distant snowj 
peaks, was very fine. The ravine led up to the su 
of the pass of Surupana, where it was intensely cold 
and the height of which I roughly estimated, with 
boiling-point thermometer, at 16.700 feet above the sea 
Here I met an active young vicuiia-hnnter, well mounted, 
and provided with a gun, who said lie was a servant of 
the Cacique Chnquihuanca of Azangaro, on his way to 
buy wool in Caravaya. He continued in my company 
during most of the day. Loud claps of thunder buret 
out in different directions, and a snow-storm was drift- 
ing in our faces. The ravines were covered with deqj 
snow, between high dark mounuuns, with abrupt cliflj 
cropping out. A flock of vicunas dashed across on 
path, disappearing again in the dri\'ing sleet. Afte* 
wading through snow and mud for several leagues tli^ 
weather cleared up, and we bf^an to descend a splendid 

cH. xm. Criicero. 125 

gorge, exactly like aome of the finest combes on the 
north coast of Devon, on a gigantic saile. Tiiia led 
113 down into a valley, where I parted with my young 
vicuna-hunter, who had been a very pleasant companion. 
Riding down the grassy valley, and passing many flocks 
of aheep, I rode through the village of Potoni, a dozen 
huts on the side of a hill ; forded the river Azangaro, 
which is here but a small stream even in the rainy 
season ; and riding up the opposite bank, got a magnifi- 
cent view of the snowy mountains of Caravaya, with 
their sharp needle-like peaks. Two leagues brought me 
to Crucero, the capital of the province of Caravaya, so 
called from the cross-roads which here branch off to the 
various vQlagea in the forests on the other aide of the 
snowy barrier which rises u]i close to the town, to the 

Crucero is a collection of comfortless mud-houses, 
with a small dilapidated church in the plaza, on a very 
elevated swampy plain. It was intensely cold, with 
heavy snow-storms during the nights, and the people sat 
wrapped up in cloaks without fires, shivering in a dreary 
helpless way, and going to bed soon after sunset, as the 
only comfortable place. I was moat kindly received by 
the Sub-prefect, I>on Pablo Pimentel, a veteran soldier, 
andanoBicial who Itad served many years at the head of 
the government in Caravaya, and in Lam pa. Dr. 
Weddell had named a new genus of chinchonaceous 
plants Pimentdia, in honour of the worthy old Sub- 
prefect, which had pleased him very much. I remained 
a lew days in Crucero, before setting out for the chin- 



:ii:a &oql IXa MUo 

of Sndia and Tunbopatt; 

a good ded of infonna- 

from Senor Lerfdad 

fnrinee of Canvaya. Don 

eraj part of it ; and I 

at Araqidpa from Don 

Syb- |aiilim4 who hualaige 


IS n 

3b «, 

151 » 

Province of Caravaya. 



The Peruvian province of Caravaya is drained by 
streams whicli form part of the system of the great 
river Madeira, one of the moat important aftluenta of 
the Amazon. The Caravayan rivers fall into the Beni, 
which, with the Mamorfi coming from Bolivia, and the 
Itenez from Brazil, forms the Madeira. 

The province of Caravaya consists of a narrow strip 
of lofty table-land, bordering on that of Azangaro ; the 
snowy rauye of the Eastern Andes for a distance of 120 
miles ; and the tropical forests to the eastward, stretch- 
ing away towards the frontier of Brazil. It is bounded 
on the east and south by Bolivia, on the north-west by 
the province of Quispicanchi in the department of Cuzco, 
on the north and north-east by tlie tropical forests, and 
on the west by Azangaro. 

The lofty table-land to the westward of the snowy 
Andes extends for 120 milea, the whole length of 
Caravaya, but is only from five to ten miles broad. It 
is 13,000 feet above the level of the sea, and here, about 
a century ago, the town of Crucero was founded, as a 

128 Province of Caravaya. 

central position for the capital of the province, and a 
heing free from the attacks of wild Indians, It derivg 
its uam» from the numerous routes which branch froB 
it to the villages on the eastern slopes of the AndM 
This narrow plain, on which Crucero * is situated, i 
verj' swampy, covered with long tufts of ycAw grass, an 
intensely cold. It yields pasture to immense flocks ( 
sheep ; and to the quiious hybrid, first hred by tlie Cm 
Cabrera in 1826, between an alpaca and a vicuiia, calls 
the paco- vicuna, with a black and white fleece oflongfii 
wool, which is wove into fabrics like the richest silk. 

On the 18ih of April, 1860, I left Crucero, on n 
way to the cliinchoua forests, rather late in the aftei 
noon, accompamed by Mr. Weir the gardener, a 1 
named Pablo Sevallos, and two cargo-mules. Aftar 
ride of three leagues along the bleak plain of Crucen 
covered with coarse iS(yw and stunted Ca^i, we reache 
a little shepherd's hut, colled Choclari-pina, at dusl 
It \vas built of loose stones, with a sheepskin hui 
across the doorway, but with no plaster or mud betweei 
the interstices of the stones, so that the piercingly cob 
wind blew right through the hut.t Tlie poor IndiM 
family was kind and hospitable, and gave us plenty a 
frush milk. Next morning we continued Uie journa 
along the same plain, with the snowj- peaks of i 
Caravayan Andes on the left, and the glorious nevtjA 
ot Ananea ahead, whenj rise the river of Azan«ni 
• Tttre u OM oibM h'wn. or nlker tilUgr. on ihia Arctic nU 
wilhiB C»™»»jr», oalcd M-Muui. abtmt so bu1« aottb--w«d 
Oucwra. ^ 

na ml Si," Vahi. l*uj. the hot. 

pof. An unpleasant Meeting. 


5 into lake Titicoca, and of Ynarabari finding its 
the Atlantic. A ride of twelve miles brouglit us 
\ called Acco-kunka (neck of sand), at the foot 
ridges of dark -coloured cliffs, with huge 
% of rock scattered over the sides of the hills. A 
d white frost covered the ground. 
I Aoco-konka I met a red-faced man, about fifty 
s of Bge, who gave his name as Don Manuel Martel. 
I that he had been a colonel, and had suffered 
raooD for being faithful to his party ; that he had 
h money in the eascarUla trade ; and that he wiis 
r Eaakmg a clearing in the forests of Caravaya, for 
I pnrpose of growing sugar-cane. He talked about 
"^M. Haakarl, the Dutch i^ent, who was employed to 
'btain chinchona plants in 1S54, under his assumed 
:uuiw of Moller; said ttiat he employed an agent 
□Aaed Clemenle Henriquez to collect tlie plants ; and 
vowed that if he, or any one else, ever i^ain attempted 
\a take etucarilla (chinchona) plants out of the country, 
fee WQold stir up the people to seize tliem and cut their 
fwt oft There was evidently some allusion to myself 
a his remarks ; and I suspected, what afterwards 
[lOTed to be the case, that Martel liad, by some means. 
wt information respecting the objects of my journey. 
nftd wu desirous of thwarting them. 1 liad always 
srafiilly Avoided any mention of the subject since 
1-avinf; Arequipa. Martel said he was going to buy 
jvJd-dnst at Poti, so I soon got rid of liim; and, 
;','LiSilg an alpine lake, full of water-fowl, we began tlie 
> Cb« golden valleys of Caravaya. 


Descent into Caravaya. 

On the left a black clifT, perpendicular, and full; 
2000 feel high, formed one aide of the descent, and l! 
space on its inner side was occupied by a small glacia 
the only one I have ever seen in the Andes ; wheni 
descends, in a long waterfall, the source of the libi 
river Huaccuyo, which dashes down the ravine, 
the first thousand feet the vegetation continues to be 
a lowly alpine character, consisting of coarse grass bj 
flowering herbs, chiefly Composiia, of which there we 
several Serwcios, generally with yellow Bowers, a gentii 
with violet-coloured flowers, a Bartsia with a yello 
flower, a little Plantago, and a EanunnUus. 
continued the descent, the scenery increased in i 
ficence. The polished surfaces of the perpendicd 
clifls glittered here and there with foaming torrent 
some like thin lines of thread, others broader ai 
breaking over rocks, others seeming to burst out of i 
fleecy clouds ; while jagged black peaks, glittering wi 
streaks of snow, pierced the mist which concealed th< 
bases. After descending for some leagues through t 
glorious scenery, the path at length crossed a ridge, a 
brought us to the crest of the deep and narrow ravine ( 

The path down the side of the gorge is very pro 
cipitous, tlirough a succession of avdenfria, or terraced 
gardens, some abandoned, Euid others planted with ocas 
(Oxalis tuberosa), barley, and potatoes ; the upper tiers 
from six to eight feet wide, but gradually becoming 
broader. Their walled aides are tiuckly clothed with 
Calceolarias, Celsias, Begonias, a large purple SolanumtJ 



1 profusion of ferna. But it was not until reaching 

I At bule village in the hottom of the hollow that all 

I tile j>lories of the scene buret upon me. The river of 

I Sudia, which takes its rise at the head of the ravine, 

1 !»*» by the village of Cuyo-cuyo, hordered by fema 

I wild flowers. It is faced, near the village, with 

[ fere-tiuvered masonry, and is crossed by several atone 

es of a single arch. Almost immediately on either 

I ade. the steep precipitoua mountains, lined, at least :i 

Dilred deep, with well-conatnicted andencria, and 

I bced with stone, rise up abruptly. In several places a 

I dflMor of cottages, built on one of the terraces, seemed 

Itlmoet to be hanging in the air. Above all the dark 

I mdcs sboot up into snowy peaks, which stood out 

I ^gftinst the blue sky. A most lovely scene, hut veiy 

^ oJ, for the great majority of those carefully constructed 

(amc«s, eternal monuments of the beneficence of the 

VtKU, are now abandoned. The alcalde of Cuyo-cuyo 

Moeived me most hospitably. In the early morning 

nmben of Iambs and young llamas were playing about 

11 tbe iibtuidoned terraced gardens near the village. 

beudes Coyo-cnyo, there are two small hamlets, called 

Uacbncscbi and Sullanqni, and several scattered huts 

IB the mvine, the population of wliich is estimated at 

la tbe morning of April 20th I rode down the beau- 
tifnl ^ir^ lo the confluence of the rivers of Sandia and 
BuKcnro. After this jimction the stream becomes a 
rutting torrent, dashing over huge rocks, and descending 
aptdlj down the ravine towards Sandia. On both 

133 Glorious Scenery. cm. iit. 

ndM vast muses of dark frowrung monntauis rcai 
UmimItw iiji far dtotisands of feet, and end in ftuiusd- 
callir AKpeA paaka. some of them veiled b; thin tlee>7 
dovde. Hm Tflgotation rapidly increased ia liuuriuice 
wiUi tlie d«R9eDt At first there were low ahrobs. Bucb 
a* JteedUm odenia^ Weinviannia fagaroida. At; 
vhidi gndoaQj gava place to trees and large hushes; 
while «U tba w»y from Cnyo-cuyo there were maasw of 
fcna of many kinds. Begonias, Calceolarias, Lupin-S 
Salviaa, and Celaas. Waterfalls streamed down liw 
mountains in every direction : some in a wliite sheet <i 
conlinuona foam for hundreds of feet, finally seeming tu 
plunj?) into huge Ws of ferns and flowers ; some lie 
driven spray ; and in one place a fall of water could le 
stHMi betwwm two peaks, which seemed to fall into the 
clouds below. 

A meet glorious and enclianUng scene, allowing little 
time to tliink of the road, which was very bad, oud in 
many places most perilous. In its best parts it was 
like a steep back-attic staircase after an earthquake- 
Three leagues from Cnyo-cnyo ia tlie confluence of tlie 
torrent of Nacorequi with the river of Sandia ; and after 
tliis point maize begins to be cultivated, where llie 
craggy jutting cliffs permit, between the river and tlie 
mountains. The Indians live in eyrie-like huts, percheJ 
at great heights, here and there, amongst the mai:t'' 
teiTaces, The village of Sandia is at a distance nl 
tifteen miles from Cuyo-cuyo, down this ravine, n 
dilapidated little place, with more tlian half the housi'-' 
roofless and in ruins. It ia built along tlie banks of tii^ 



ler, snd has a churcli in tlie plaza. The mountains 
B up all round it, almost perpendicularly, forming 
I close amphitheatre ; and in two places glittering 
I foam down from tlieir very summite, into the 
a on a level with the town. 

^ descent from the summit of the pass over the 
vayan Andes to Sandia is very considerahle, nearly 
feet in thirty miles, from an arctic to a sub- 
I climate. The height of Cmcero is 12,980 feet ; 
13.600; of Cuyo-cuyo 10,510; and of 
k G930 feet above the sea." 
The four mountains closely hemming in the \'illage of 
Sandia are mount Chicanaco, which is beautified by a 
f|deodid cascade; mount Yianaco, which ends in two 
fine wooded peaks, between which a long slender thrend 
of water descends into tlie foliage midway ; mount 
Campttracani. on the other side of the river, which rises 
up to a stupendous height, ending in a jagged rocky 
{ntk ; and mount Catasuyu, which completes the circle, 
tiling abruptly above the church. The name of Saudia ■ 
a probably a corruption of the Spanish word mndilla, 
the fint settlers having mistaken the quantities of 
gmirda which grow here for saiidiUas or water-melana. 

When I arrived in Sandia the governor was absent 

OB his eatatc ; the cura, my old friend iJr. Guaycocheu, 

■"u getdng in hia maize-liarvcst on his land near 

Cbxch; and the principal remaining inhabitants were 

J .Inez de I'az, pon Francisco Farfan. and one Don 

la, who received me very hospitably. Tlicse 

hy yi'grclli Slid Zambra'i boil log- point thermometer. 

134 Sandia. 

good people were warm-hearted and neighbourly, 
they display some energy in working the coffee 
coca estates in the distant montaiia, and in makinj 
roads, snch as they are, from these estates to .Sandia 
The richer people of Sandia all have more or less a! 
Indian blood, and their wives and daughters are unabit 
to speak any language but Quichoa ; and thns tbej 
soem to be more closely united in interests and fcelingi 
with the mass of the population than in any other pan 
of Pern. The Indians of the district of Sandia ai 
di\'i(]ed into six ayllvs or tribes, besides the inliabitanl 
of the villages of Sandia, Cnyo-cnyo, and Patumbnca 
These ayllits are established on the mountains aroim( 
Sandia, liring in scattered hnts, some cultivating 
and potatoes, others raising barley and alfalfa for mult 
The ayllvs are called Laqueque, about a league np i 
ttver, on the right bank ; Cnyo-cnyo (not the village), 
behind mount Camparacani; Omro, on the height 
l>e!ow Cuyo-cuyo ; Qniaca (not the village), near Omro 
Qnenequi, about a league down tlic river ; and Apabuco 
l)ehind mount Catasuyn. Tlie population of the pariah 
of Sandia is about 7000 ; 4000 in Sandia and its six 
ayUiis, 2000 in the village and ravine of Cuyo-cuyo, and 
1000 in Patambuco. As many as 1000 souls fell 
victims to the dreadful pestilence of 1855, which raged 
over all parts of the Andes of Peru. Nearly every 
Indian family, besides land near Sandia, owns a small 
farm of coca or coffee down in the montaiia, to which' 
men, women, and children go at han-est-tima Aa 
in all ports of the Andes, so in the Sandia ravine, I 

Increasing Difficulties. 

■ ■ >ti5UnUr found the Indians civil, obliging, and respect- 
r 1 1. always saluting with an " Ave Maria Taytay ! " and 
-. i-^Qch of the hat in passing. They are reserved and 
-lent, it is trae, and superficial ob8er\'ers take this for 
tiipidity. Never was there a greater mistake: their 
-.T.iU in carving and all carpenter's work, in painting 
and embroiderY, the exquisite fabrics they weave from 
vicuna-wool, the really touching poetry of their love- 
songs and yaravix, the traditional histories of their 
aifllut, wliicli they preserve with religious care, surely 
disprove the charge. 

The honsea in Sandia are the merest bams, with mud 
nils, find roofs which let the water in. All the family 
■leep together in a promiscuous way ; pigs and fowls 
-andering over the floor at early dawn. 

My original plan liad been to examine the chinchona 
fjreBU daring this month, make as many meteorological 
•ad other observations as was possible, and perhaps 
and down a small collection of plants to the coast ; but 
to make the principal collection in August, I had not. 
htmm^r, been two days in Sandia before I discovered 
Umi Mutel had already written to several of the 
mhabttanta, urging them to prevent me from taking 
(Uachooa planta or seeds out of the country, and to 
bnng the matter before the Junta Municipal of the 
Si-tricL I heard also tliat he was busying himself in 
-iJi Mine way in other villages bordering on the 
^runcluHia foresta. My mission was becoming the talk 
of the whole country ; and I at once saw that my only 
^■MS 9t taoeau was tu commeuca the woik of collecting 

i 36 Preparatums far the Forests. cb. i 

plants without a mcFment's delay, and, if poesible. anlM 
dpate anj measures which might be taken to thwi 
my plans. 

It was at Sandia that it became necessary to n 
final preparations for a journey into the foiestB, f 
beyond this point the poKibility of procuring supplifl 
of any kind is very doubtful, I here laid in a stock fll 
bread to last for about a month, which was toasted it 
the oven belonging to the cura, the only one in t 
place, and which, together with some chocolate t 
cheese, formed the provisions for myself and 1 
gardener. I then persuaded the judge to order Ae 
alcaldes of four of the ayllvs to procure four Indians and 
two cargo-mules, the Indians to bring their own pro- 
visions with them, for which I advanced them money. 
After considerable delays my little expedition was ready 
to start, consisting of myself, Mr. Weir the gardens^ 
Pablo Sevallos the mestizo lad, four Indians, and t 
mules. The supplies and provisions were packed ii 
leathern bags, containing tea and sugar, choc 
toasted bread, cheese, candles, concentrated beef-ti 
changes of clothes, inatmments, powder and shot, 
sides a tent, an air-bed, gntta-percha robes, poncho^J 
wood-knife and trowel, and maize and salt meat f 
Pablo and the Indians. It took several days to c 
plete these preparations. 

The climate of Sandia, at this time of the year, { 
e.\ceedingly agreeable, the days being fine and 1 
until late in the afternoon, and not too hot, 
prevailing wind blows up the ravine from the norlj 

-iaS, b^ng the trade which comes across the vast 
r.'rest-oovered plains of the interior. It is thia warm 
Lrade-wind which produces a much milder climate 
uid more tropical vegetation in Cuyo-cuyo than in 
Arequipa, though the former place is three thousand 
feet higher than the latter. In Sandia, just after 
soneet, it feels rather chilly, and during the middle of 
the day the sun is exceedingly hot. Light clouds 
peoeially hang about the highest peaks. Tlie variety 
of most beautiful and graceful ferns on the walls of the 
houses, and near the banks of the river, is endless. 

I had the satisfaction of seeing in the house of Don 
UftDoel Mesa, before leaving Sandia, a bundle of small 
hnaches of the ychu cascarUla. (C. CaHsaya, var. j3 
Jittfluana), with leaves and flowers, wliicli had been 
collected as a tonic medicine for a little daughter of 
tny boat. 

On the 24th of April, late in the afternoon, we left 
Sandia, and reached the taiaho, or travellers' hut, called 
Caluunchacs, before dark. The road leads down the 
mine, along narrow ledges overhanging the river, 
which dashes furiously along, in most places betM-een 
t^Tpendicular cliffs. The path is very narrow and 
'lu^rouB, but the scenery is superb, and tlie vegeta- 
\.<ta becomes richer and more tropical at every league 
if [he descent. 

One of the Indians deserted on the first day, and my 
:*jty was thus reduced to three, who were Imrely able 
■-.' <mny the necessary provisions. These three 
;.nived faithful and willing fellow-labourers. Their 

138 Dangerous Roads. 

names ■were Andrea Vilca of the Oruro Ayllv., Julia 
Ccuri of Ciiyo-cuyo, ami Santoa Quispi of Apabiic 
They were fine-looking young fellowa, wearing the 
hair in long plaite do«Ti their backs, coarse canv 
trotwera and shlrta. They carry the cargoes in larg 
cloths tied in bundles, and placal in other cloths, whi( 
are passed over one shoulder and tied across the diet 
called cMpts. They stoop forward and step out at 
gTBHt rate; and it is in this way that Indians ci 
their burdens along the roads, and women tli* 
children, throughout Peru. The tamho of Cahuan- 
chaca is a shed, with one side open, and we slept in 
company with three Indians and a woman on their 
way to get in a coca-harvest in the Hatun-yunca, 
who were living very well on salt mutton, eggs, and 

The river rushing down the valley winds along the 
small breadth of level land, striking first against the 
precipitous cliffs on one side, and then sweeping over to 
the other, so that a road in the bottom of the valley 
would require a bridge at almost every hundred yards. 
It has, therefore, been necessary to excavate a path in 
the aides of the mountains, high above the river, wliich 
in some places baa a breadth of three feet only, with a 
perpendicular cliff on one side, and a precipice six or 
seven hundred feet deep on tlie other ; while, in others, 
it zigzags down amongst loose stones, where one false 
step would be inmiediate destruction. But the scenery 
continued to increase in beauty, and the cascades were 
really splendid : 

Lovely Scenery. 

" A kkod of etnomi \ bodhi. tike a downwnrd Bmnke, 
Slov-droppiiig Teits of thinneat lawn, did pi ; 
And aonie Ihre' nverinz llghU and ahadowa broke, 
Botling s alumbroaii sheet of foam below-" 

The river dashed noisily through the centre of the 
gorj^ and the masses of green on either side were toned 
Arwn by manir flowers in large patches, bright piirple 
lioriandrtr, orange CasHer, and scarlet Salvia. I also 
Mnr an Indigo/era growing in this part of the ravine, 

A mile from the hut of Cahuan-chaca is the con- 
loenoe of the river Huascaray ; and a league lower 
down is the little shed or tambo of Cancallani. Here 
huaboM and tree-ferns first appear, and coca is 
cvltirated in terraces which are fringed with coffee- 
plants, vith their rich green foliage and crimson berries. 
I obaenred that the huts in the middle of these patches 
of coca or maize had do doois, showiug the contidence 
e( the inmates in the honesty of the numerous passers- 
br, who go to and fro between Sandia and the more 
bfUot coca estates.* I passed the estate of Chaylla- 

u nnoe tlie case all over Feni, in the good old doya of 
kanw from Uiu curious dfin^ cnnfeMton of tlie lost of 
~ iroio fierm de Ijejcwuiia, addressed lo Philip II., 

"Tmt Mijnt; ninil UDdcntand that mj' Teaaon for making thia 
ii to loliBTe inj conscience^ for we UaTB destroyed the 
llof (hi* people hj our bud tumple. Crimes were ouce so 
tek kMvn BmoDg thotii that an Indian with lOu.OOO piucea of gold 
Ml iflnB tn hb hotwe left it opeo. ooIt plscing ■ little &ticlc urnwa 
til* ifcnr, •■ • ufn that the matter was out, aod noboilj went m. But 
• I'D they WW llut «r-.- placed iodcs in our doors, tbej underelond that 
■aa tmn f>ttr of llinrt: aod when thtif mw that we bad thicvnt 
Ei((i na. tbi-j tliou;jUt little of us : but now Ibeae natiTva, through 
u bar- oumu to nich a [lats that DO Crime is uokuaiiD 
ka, Ub. I. cap. 15. p. 98. 

baniba, with terraces of coc& at least fifty deep, np the 
sides of the mountains ; and Asal&y, a coffee estate, 
with groves of orange and chirimoya-trees. At tbe 
confluence of the rivers Asalay and Sandia per- 
pendicular cliffs rise abruptly from the valley to i 
stupendous height on both sides, and the path winds 
up in a serpentine slippery staircase, to creep along the 
edge of the, steep grassy slopes or pajotMlet, far above 
the tropical v^tation of the ravine. Winding alon; 
this path, we came to the tambo of Paccay-samana, oii 
the grassy pajimal, the mountains rising up on t!ie 
opposite side of the ravine only about sixty yards 
distant ; yet the river, in the bottom of the gurge, was 
many hundreds of feet below. There were thicker 
with masses of bright flowers in the gullies, and 
glorious cascades shimmering in the sunlight on tb'" 
opposite mountain-sides. 

It was at this spot that we first encountered chin- 
chona-planta. A number of young plants of C. 
Culisaya, var. (9 Josejihiana, were growing hy the side 
of the road, with their exquisite roseate flowers, and 
rich green leaves with crimson veins. The rock is a 
metamorphic slate, unfossiliferous, slightly micaceous, 
and ferruginous, with quartz occurring here and there : 
the soil a stifl" brown loam. Above the tambo ther-- 
waa a small tliicket of gaultheriaa, called cearani iu 
Quichua, and Melastomacew with bright purple flowera 
(Lasiandra Funtaneaiana), in a shallow gully, surrounded 
by the rich broad-bladed gr^s of the pajwial. Here 
there were some fine plants of the cliinchona named 

" xw. Increasing Beauty of the Scenery. 141 

I'r Wcddell C. Caravayensis ; and furtier on more 
ints of C. Josepkiana, called i/chn eascarUlti by the 
. iUves, The height of the spot is 5420 feat above the 
-i. A tree-fern and many Trkhomanes were grow-ing 
^.th the chinchonse. Paccay-samana ia sixteen miles 
!rom Sandia. 

^njmal life did not appear to be very abundant. 
Tbere were plenty of large doves, some ducks near the 
''ver, and a brilliant woodpecker. I also saw great 
_;:irubere of large swallow- tailed butterflies, pnrple with 
lijht-hlne spots on the upper wings ; and others with 
■chita upper wings edged witli jet-hlack and rows of 
-bite spots, the lower wings orange. 

Beyond Paccay-samana there were several more 
; tanta ai C. J<aepkiana rising out of masses of maiden- 
i.iir and Polypodia. After following the edge of the 
[ 'lioaal for about a mile, we descended by a precipitous 
.^Mg i»lh and crossed over the river Pulluraa, at its 
Mijflacnre with the Sandia. Here tlie road to the Hatun- 
rune* or Valle Grande branches off up tlie mountain of 
Ranas-pata, while our way continued down the ravine. 
Xba Boenery is here remarkably beautiful. Lofty 
laoimtaiii.t, with their bright cascades, are clothed to 
their summits with rich grass, while their gidlies are 
filled with flowering trees and shrubs. Halfway \ip, 
in many directions, the stone terraces of coca rise tier 
dbove tier, fringed with ferns and begonias, and filled 
viUi Uto delicate coloured green coca-branches, diver- 
•ified occasionally by the darker hues of the cottee. The 
I filled with masses of purple Melaatoniacoa;, 


Glorious View. 

aud the river ia fringed with tree-ferns, plantains, am 

This purple Melaatomacea {Lasiandra Fontanesiaiui^ 
called in Quichua panti-panli, in t!ie brilliancy an) 
abundance of its flowers, bears tlie same relation to thj 
part of the Peruvian Andes as the rhododendron di 
to the Himalayas. The effect in masses is much t 
same, but the Lasiandra appears to me to be a m< 
graceful and delicate tree, with a more beautiful flowe 
In tliis ravine we have the alirub chinchonue on tJ 
high grassy slopes, perhaps the finest coffee in tl 
world near the banks of the river, and a little galiu 
by the road-side — all chinchonaceous plants. 

At noon on April 26th we rested in the tambo 
Ypara, in the centre of coca cultivation, and in tl 
afternoon, crossing the river by a wooden bridge, we hi 
to travel along the skirts of the mountains, at a coi 
siderahle height, in the region of the pajonalcs. N 
gullies or large cascades cut up the face of these moun 
tains, which were entirely exposed to the full glare of the 
8\in, and here, though there was a profusion of purple 
Melastomacese in some of the shallow indentations, there 
were no chinchonffi. Towards evening we came to a 
lofty spur of the mountain, called Estanqui, at a great 
height above the ravine, whence there was a most 
extensive view, To the left was the valley of Sandia* 
with little coca-farms nestling in all the sheltered- 
gullies ; and I could just make out the boys and girla 
far, far below, like specks, busy with the coca-leavea iii 
the drying-yards. In front there was a distant view of 

- UT, Forest Encampment > 145 

' •; hillfl in the direction of San Juan del Oro, covered 
til %-irgin forest ; while at our feet, and a thousand 

--■: lielow OS, was the confluence of tlie rivers Sandia, 
Ddi'^ni, and Huari-huari, which unite to form the 
_Twit river Ynambari. 

It yeaz my inteution, after marking down all the 
-liable plants of the ahmbhy Caluaya, to he taken up 

a our return, to make for the forest-covered valley of 
TambopaUt, which is full of chinchona trees; and I 
■.berefore left the ravine of the Sandia river at this point, 
ind, by a rapid descent, went down from the grassy 
■pUuda to a r^ion of tropical forest, full of palms and 
(ne-lenw. We thus reached the banks of the Huari- 
Imari. This river flows through a deep and veiy narrow 
nrine, ]ined with forest for about 500 feet, above which 
rise gnssy mouDlaina to an immense height. Though 
only 30 feet across, and confined by dark polished rocks, 
ihe Haari-buari is very deep, and decidedly a more 
unportant stream than the Sandia, at their junction. 

We established ourselves under a rock, where there 
wts BO room to pitch the tent, and thus onr Jii-st night 
•4 camping out commenced, for pftvioualy we had slept 

n the nod-side lambon. The Indians carried little 
• iitben pot« for cooking, in their ceepu, and got up a 
:::■.■ of dry Sticks with great rapidity. I had a delic 

Lth in the river, where the tall forest trees overshadowed 

: .-^ water on either side. At night the moon streamed 

floods of light over the forest, and the brilliant sparks 

■ m myriads of fire-flies shone from the trees in every 

. jtftiijo up tbo side of the opposite mountain ; 

Tkermometric Observalions. 

the early morning the sky clouded over, and a hea' 
drizzling rain began to fall, which prevented sleep, ai 
made us wish for day, 

n this encampment our way led up the precipito 
sides of the mountain, to the grassy pajontdes whit 
divide the valleys of Sandia and Tamhopata ; but I v 
here halt awhile to give a brief account of the cultivatio 
of that plant, of wliich we had lately seen so much, a 
which enabled me to ascend the mighty passes of t 
Andes on foot with ease and comfort — the strengt 
giving, invigorating coca. 

During my stay at SoJidia the indications of the tl 
mometer were as follow, between the 20th and 25th 
April : — 

n tempemtnre . . 635° 

Himmiim temperature at night . 5i i^ 
Higheit obaerved . . .65 

LoKBBt *7 

Kange 18 

. n. Use of Coca by the Vncas. 



tta coca-leaf is the great source of comfort and enjoy- 
to the Penivian Indian ; it is to him what betel 
Ji lo the Hindu, kava to the South Sea Islander, and 
Macco to the rest of mankind ; but its use produces 
JDvigoiatiDg effects wliich are not possessed by the other 
ltimalant& From the most ancient times the Peru\4ans 
i»ve used ttiis beloved leaf, and they still look upon it 
villi fvelings of superstitious veneration. In the time 
if tbe Yncaa it was sacrificed to the Sun, the Hiiillac 
ITma or high priest chewing the leaf during the 
iconaaooy ; and, before the arrival of the Spaniards, 
Ift was used, as the cacao in Mexico, instead of mimey. 
'■fSust the conquest, although its ^-irtues were extoUed 
ly tbe Ynca GEtrcilasso de la Vega," and by the Jesuit 
x«ta,t some fanatics proposed to proscribo its use, and 
rwt up the plants, because they had been used in t!ie 
ftBcient superstitions, and because its cultivation took 
ny the Indians from other work. The second Council 
lima, consisting of bishops from all parts of South 

O. da U Vepi, Cam. lUal. i. lib. vi 
Aetata. Kk it. mp. 22. wlio cnnno 
NMlcd ttrtnr* In t>; tbo ifTccli o( i 

■ ngtre with Uimc vIjo betlete 

146 Anecdote. 

America, condemned the use of coca in 1569 becanae 
was a " useless and pernicious leaf, and on account 
the belief stated to be entertained by the Indians 
tlie habit of chewing coca gave them strength, which 
an illusion of the devil."" 

In speaking of the strength the coca gives to thi 
who chew it, Garcilasso de la Vega relates the foUoi 
anecdote. " I remember a story wliich I heard in 
native land of Peni, of a gentleman of rank and honoi 
named Rodrigo Pantoja, who, travelling from Ci 
Rimac (Lima), met a poor Spaniard (for there ai 
people there as well as here) who was going oa fc 
with a little girl aged two years on his back. The mi 
was known to Pantoja, and they thus conversed. ' 
do you go laden thus ? ' said the knight. The 
man answered that he was unable to hire au Indian 
carry the cliild, and for that reason he carried it liimsel 
While he spoke Pantoja looked in his mouth, and sai 
tliat it was full of coca ; and, as the Spaniards abomint 
all that the Indians eat and drink, as though it savoui 
of idolatry, particularly the che\ving of coca, wliidi' 
seenis to them a low and vilo habit, he said, ' It may be 
as you say, but why do you eat coca Uke an Imiian, a 
tiling 80 hateful to Spaniards ? ' The man answered, 
' In truth, my lord, I detest it as much as any one, but 
necessity obliges me to imitate the Indians, and keep 
coca in my month ; for I would have you to know that, 
if I did not do so, I could not carry this burden ; while 
the coca gives me sufficient strength to endure the 
* Cidala, 18 Oct. 1569. 


The Coca. Plant. 


FaDtoja wtts astonished to hear tlus, anil toM 
K Story wherever he went ; and from tliat time credit 
s given to the Indians for using coca from necessity, 
d not from vicious gluttony." 

e Spanish Government interfered with the cultiva- 
D from more worthy motives, and ttiitcLs of Indians, 
It tlte purpose of collecting coca-leaves, were forbidden 
i9, owing to the reputed imhealthiness of the 
Finally, Don Francisco Toledo, ^Viceroy of 
;, permitted the cultivation with voluntary labour, 
k condition that the Indians were well paid, and that 
e was taken of their health. This most prolific of 
rovian legislators issued no less than seventy 
KirufM on this subject alone, between the years 
i74. Coca has always been one of tlie most 
% articles of commerce in Peru, and it is used 
t 8,000,000 of the human race. 
I coca plant {Erythoxtflon coca)^ is cultivateil 
SOOO and 6000 feet above the level of the sea, 
in the warm valleys of the eastern slopes of the Andes, 
when almost the only variation of climate is from wet 
lo dry, where frost is unknown, and where it rains 
mote or less every month in the year. It is a slimb 
boa four to six feet high, with lichens, called lacco in 
QoidjOA. usually growing on the older trunks. Tlie 

\ Ptiit. /nil., lih. ii. ftip. 10, quoted bj Uquidc. 
* J. d* iamian wu U>e fint botooUt nlio aent spccimuiu of coca tn 
Bvopa. in 17M). 

Dr. Vaddall (aggmtt that the ikvA aaan fVr>m the Ayiiinra iholn, 
^pmi, Lo. Oka tree yar hwO^mv, like yrrbii. On plunt uf Puragiuy. 
~ R bMoiiui GarcUaaan, however, ^lli tlin wurd cuoa. 

148 Coca Cultivation. 

branches are atraiglit and alternate ; leaves alternaW 
and entire, in form and size like tea-leaves 
solitary with a small yellowish-wliite corolla in fivB 
petals, ten filaraentg tlie length of the corolla, antheq 
heart-shaped, and three pistils. 

Sowing is commenced in December and January, 
when the rains begin, which continue unto April, The 
seeds are spread on the surface of the soil in a sma 
nursery or raising ground called almaciga, over whic 
there is generally a thatch roof {hvaskhi). At the en 
of about a fortnight they come up ; the young plan) 
being continually watered, and protected from the si 
by the huastdii. The following year they are 
planted to a soil specially prepared by thorou^ 
weeding and bi-ealting up the clods very fine by hand' 
often in terraces only affording room for a single row 
plauta, up the sides of the mountains, which are kep 
up by small atone walls. The plants ai-e generally 
placed in square holes called a.tpi, a foot deep, with 
stones on the sides to prevent the earth from falUng iiL 
Three or four are planted in each hole, and grow up 
together. la Caravaya aud Bolivia the aoU in which 
the coca grows is composed of a blackish clay, resulting 
from the decomposition of the schists, which -form the 
principal geological features of the mountains. On 
level ground the plants are placed in furrows called 
v.ach-os, separated by little walls of earth (umackas), at 
the foot of each of which a row of plants is placed ; bufc, 
this is a modern innovation, the teixace cultivation, 
being the most ancient. At the end of eighteea 

Coca Harvest. 


Donths tbe plants jield their first harvest, and con- 
) to yielil for upwards of forty years. Tlie first 
nest is called quita coizon, and the leaves are then 
icked very carefully, one by one, to avoid disturhing 
■tbe roots of the young tender plants. The folkiwing 
ri'esta are called mitta (" lime " or " season "), and 
iC place three times, and even four times, in tlie year. 
I most abundant harvest takes place in Slarch, 
tely after the rains ; the worst at the end of 
me, called the milla de San Jtutn. The third, 
1 mitta. dc Santos, is in October or Xovember. 
Wxth plenty of watering, forty days suffice to cover 
I plonta with leaves afresh. It is necessary to 
I the ground very carefully, especially wliile the 
mts HTM young, and the harvest is gathered by 

1 and children, 
1^ green leaves, cidled jnatu, are deposited in u 
[lece of cloth which eacli picker carries, and are then 
-praad out in the drying-yard, called matn-cajiclM, and 
ureAilly dried in the sun. The dried leaf is calleil 
-ixa. The drj*ing-yard ia formed of slate-flags, called 
puarm ; and when the leaves are thoroughly dry, tliey 
m Kwa up in ceatiM or sacks made of banana-leaves, oi' 
treoty pounds each, strengthened by an exterior 
covering of bayeta or cloth,* They are also packed in 
taahoT€$ of fifty pounds each, pressed tightly down. 
; Po^nig reckone<I the profits of a coca-farm to be 
r-fire per cent 

a Snndiii. Id Ilunnaco it 

Coca Trade. 

The harvest is greatest in a hot moiat aitnation ; 
tho leaf genfimlly considered tlie best flavonred by 
constiniors, grows in drier parts, on the sides of liilla. 
The greatest care is peqtiired in the drying ; for too 
much sun causes the leaves to dry up and lose their 
flavour, while, if packed up moist, they become fetid^ 
llioy arc gwnorully exposed to the sun in thin layers. 

Acosta saya tliat in his time the trade in coca a 
Polosi was worth 500,000 doUars ammally ; and that 
ill 1583 the Indians consumed 100,000 asloe of i 
wiiitli UJ dollars enoh in Cuzco, and 4 doUara in Potosi^ 
In 15l>l • an excise of 5 per cant, was imposed oa 
ti.K'a ; and in the years 1746 and 1750 this duty 
yioldttt 800 and 500 dollars respectively, from Cara- 
viij-a hIoqu. Botn-eeu 17^5 and 1795 the coca tr&fBa 
fVHs uileulatod ut 1.307,430 doUars in the PemTun 
viotmn-alty ; wid inoluiUug tlut of Buenos 
2.641.487 doUara. 

In th« distnot of Saudin, in CiUBxnyu, tbwe aie t 
kinds itf coca, tlut of Yinuh &nd tliat of Hatrnt-yitnci 
<a-hicth Ims a Lu^«r l««if. The yield is 45.000 < 
j-wr. lu thtf yitnt^Mu of \jl Jhu, in Bolivia, the rirfd is 
nbont 4lH),lH)l> TOStos. TV coca-tnKt« ts a government 
moou|M>tr in BuUtm. Uw staM naerni^ the ri^ of 
l^nvkaaias torn Uta gnmr, aaj nsdfii^ to the 
mHswuer. Tlkte rifM is s"Mral^ GuMad oM to (he 
bigheM hUdw. I»185UllMemd«^7MUada 
Mian to ih» BottviNK mtwml 
_n»>yyw tii M rt e awMiel fwdnot rf mm m Ptna 

Coca Trade. 1 5 i 

nt 15.000,000 lbs., • the averse yield being about 

I lbs. an acre. More than 10.000,000 lbs. are 

odnceti annHally ia Bolivia, according to Dr. Booth of 

I Paz : so that the annual yield of coca throughout 

tath America, including Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and 

I, may be estimated at more than 30,000,000 lbs. 

ItTacna the tambor of 50 Iba. is worth 9 to 12 dollars, 

i fioctuationa in price being caused by the perish- 

;''le nature of the article, wliich cannot be kept in 

:i-.k for any length of time. The average duration of 

L^ica in a sound state, on the coast, ia about five months, 

liter which time it is said to lose flavour, and is 

rejected by the Indians as worthless. 

The ivliaace on the extraordinary virtues of the coca- 
'^if, amongst tlie Peruvian Indians, is so strong that. 
1 the Huanuco province, they believe that, if a dying 
-.^m can taste a leaf placed on bia tongue, it is a sine 
!;.ti of liis future happiness-t 
Xo Indian is without Ms tJiuspa or coca-bag, made of 
ijuu-cloth dyed red and blue in patterns, with woollen 
^viela hanging from it. He carries it over one 
l^'fuUer, stispended at his side; and, in taking coca, be 
u down, puta his chuspa before him, and places the 
aves in his mouth one by one, chewing and turning 
-:-m till he forms a ball. He then applies a small 
:;iiility of carbonate of potash, prepared by burning 
■-'■- stalk of tlie quinoa plant, and mixing the ashes with 
-.:i.e and water ; thus forming cakes called llipta, which 

■ FoippiK Mlealmal tbe jield ut Huiuiiim at .'WO.OOO llm. 
t lV<.ivl>lg. ltti>^ ii. p. 252 ; also VoQ Tachudi, ji. 43^ 


Uses of Coca. 

are dried for uae, and also kept in the chuspa.' 
operation is called acailicar in Bolivia and Sonlhei 
Peru, and chaeckar in the North. They uaually perfotM 
il three times in a day's work, and every Indian con- 
sumes two or three ounces of coca daily. 

In the mines of the cold region of the Andes tbf 
Indians derive great enjoyment from the use of eoctl 
the r unning ciiasqui, or messenger, in liis long joorngi 
over the mountaina and deserts, and the sbephol 
watching his flock on the lofty plains, has no otbs 
nourishment than is afibrded by Ms chuspa of coca, 
a little maize. Tlic smell of the leaf is agreeable 
aromatic, and when chewed it gives out a grateft 
fragrance, accompanied by a slight irritation, whil 
uxcites the saliii"a. Its properties are to enable a great! 
Amount of fatigue to be borne with less nouriahmea 
and to prevent the occurrence of difficulty of respiration 
in ascending steep mountain-sides. Tea made from tlie 
leaves has mach tlie taate of green tea, and, if taken at 
nigitt, is much mom effectual in kequig peoi^e awake. 
Applied exteniaUy ooca moderates the iheunutic pedns 
oauaod by oold, and cons headaches. When osed to 
ex«en it is, like evoything else, pr^ndicial to the 
health, yet. of all the narooCios used by man, ooca is the 
least inixiriiMis. and the most soothing and invigorating 
■n» ftcii\^ princiiJe of the ooce-leaf ns seperateti 
• la U«t^ *. »^ i, .^ ta» • rairtrf hup «rf b^ ia 
■»e«k — ■ fchnl .«aJH^ 

TSie Author i use of Coca. 


I by I>r. Nienmnii, and called oxavi\£. Puie comin« 
I cmtalUdes with difficulty, is but sliglitly soluble in 
I «uer, but is easily dissolved in alcoliol, and still more 
r cosily in ether.* 

1 diewed coca, not constantly, but very frequently, 

I faaa the day of my departure from Sandia, and, besides 

I tbeagKeable sootliing feeling it produced, I found tliat 

, I eonld endure long abstinence from food uith le^ in- 

I cmnrenience tban I should otherwise have felt, and it 

enabled me to ascend precipitous mountain-sides with a 

fueling of lightness and elasticity, and without losing 

heaih. This latter quality ought to recommend its use 

I Id tueinbers of the Alpine Club, and to walking tourists 

I in genera], though the aea voyage probably causes 

the leaves to lose much of their virtue. To the 

Pen%iiui Indian, however, wlio can procure it within a 

b* weeks of iUt being picked, the coca is a solace 

•hich is easily procured, wliicb affords great enjoyment, 

ud which lias a most heneBciul effect-t 

• BoafJondfa, *iii. p. 355-78. 

t Tilt infonnation id Ihia ctiaptor U derivod fivm peraoDoI obaerva- 
Hn; Ann ltu> eaaj on coca bj Dr. Don Hipolito Uiiauue, in Xoa. 
I to t nf tha JHniHi KrudUo; and ^m tbe trorks treating of ouca, bj 
TwTidbiKli. TWiBela in P«ru, ji. 4S3: Dr. Foeppig, Stite in Fen, 
i.^SU: Dr. WoJdtll. Voyage dniu le Xord de Botivit, p. 51G; tlic 
Bn|fiiiJia .- Md B nil moninilum bj Dr. Booth, of La Fm. Thcso 
« Dm beii mlliariUi-* an Ibe aubjeot' 

The '* Paj'otiales" 




On the morning of April 27th we crossed a rude bridg 
over the Huari-huari, and began to make our way « 
the face of the steep mountain on the other side, firl 
through a thick forest, and then up into the firass 
highlands, until, after several halts, we at lengt 
reached the summit of the ridge, though a mounta 
peak still rose up in our rear. From this point thei 
was a most extensive panoramia view, A sea of ridj 
rose one behind the other, with stupendous snowy peak 
in the background, and, more than a thousand fee 
below, the rivers of Samlia and Huari-huari, reduced I 
mere glittering tlireads, could be seen winding through 
the tortiious ravines. We had now reached the pa/* 
nales, and were on a ridge or backbone between the 
rivers of Laccani and San Lorenzo, two tributaries of 
the Huari-huari ; a grass-covered and comparatively 
cold region, interspersed with tliickets, forming the 
crest of the tropical forests which line the sides of the 
ravines through which the rivers wind, far below. 

When there is sunshine, these pajffiutles form a very 

Vtgeiaiion of Ike " Pajonalesr 


mt landscape : the broad expanse of grass, dotted 
sr «ritli a graceful milk-white flower called sai/risayri, 
linlenected by denae thickets, some in the gullies and 
. and othere in clumps, like those in an 
igliah pork, the palms and tree-ferns raising tlieir 
I heads above the rest of the trees. Here and 
3 a black pool of sweet water is met with at the 
B of the tliicket, with chinchona and kwatuni trees 
toping over it. Everywhere there ia an abrupt 
to the foreground in the profound forest- 
pvinea, with splendid views of mountain ranges 

batioD of the thickets in these pajomdis con- 
of palms, tree-fans, Melastonuvxw (^Lasiandra 
'\ana) with bright showy flowers, exceedingly 
^ctuea {GavXthrrice), Vacci?ti/E, the Huatwni or 
e-tree In great (juantitiea, and Chitic/unur, cliiefly 
eoosating of C. Caravayensis (Wedd.), with a few plants 
flf Caiisaya Josephiana, but the latter are much more 
nra here than in the neighbourhood of Faccay-samana. 
Tie C. Cararaifewns, a worthleas species, has panicles 
<-f InaatifQl deep roseate flowers, large coarse hairy 
.■i\maiea, mod lanceolate leaves, above smooth with 
;<Tiiplo vein3, and hairy on the under side. It can 
I'lnlitbly bear greater cold than any other chinchona." 

13ke afternooo was passed in searching for plants of 
•Jm ahniblfy Caiisaya, but with little success. During 

■ Dr. Wcddalt. Uie iljscoverer of thf> iqMtciea, htul corer leen it in 
*aidian yaw in Ibe hef buiuin nt Kow. 

156 Encamped on ths Pajonal. 

our examinatioD of the tluckets we found 
specimen, evidently belonging to the Caliaai/a spe 
but in the form of a tree, and not of a shrub. Its h 
was eighteen feet six inches ; its girth, two feet fi 
^le ground, eight and a half inches ; and the positioa 
which it was growing was 5680 feet above tlie level 
the sea. I was uncertain whether it belonged t« ' 
tree variety {Calisaya vera, Wedd.), or to the sla 
{Caliaaya Josephiana) ; for Dr. WeddeU only gives 
height of the latter at eight or ten feet. 

Near the banks of one of the black pools, overln 
by spreading branches, we found a shed, a roof of o 
grass raised on four sticks four and a half feet high, ( 
here we encamped for the niglit. It had been made 
some party of incense-collectors from Bolivia, 
wander through these wilds. Towards sunset it 1 
to pour with rain, and continued through the night. 

From this point to the Tambopata valley the 1 
was unknown to my Indians, and had not l>eeil 
traversed since the time of tlie bark trade, which came 
to an end fifteen years ago. It was supposed that any 
path which might once have existed would be entirely 
choked up by the forest, and I therefore started early in 
the morning, with Andres Vilca, to reconnoitre. The 
backbone of the ridge along wliich we travelled was not 
level, but up and down like a saw, and very rough 
work. After walking for a league the ridge ended 
where a transverse range of lulls, at a lower elevation, 
connects the mountains on the further sides of the 
rivers of San Lorenzo and Laccani, and, closing up t 

i, and, closing up tbu 

I, xTt Passage of the Mariin-kunha. 


, ooDtains their sources. This range, at right 
1 with the one over which we had journeyed, is 
the Marun-hinha, and is covered witli dense 
It was necessarj' to force our way through this 
kble obstruction, and we plunged into it at once. 
ingress was vigorously opposed by closely matted 
, bamboos for tlie firat few hundred yards, and 
s we followed the course of tlie torrent, deeply 
% IB the rock, and fonuing a passage four to six feet 
I deep, and about three feet across, with masses of ferns 
6 roots of enormous forest-trees interlacing across 
I. and two feet of exceedingly tenacious yellow 
1 vaderfoot. lu many places it was almost dark at 
I BiddAy, while in others the rays of tlie suu succeeded 
I b lorcing their way through the ferns, and throwing a 
e light across the otherwise gloomy passage. It was 
I unearthly scene. After several hours of very 
) travelling we at length forced our way across 
I ite HaruQ-kunka, and came out upon another pajtmai, 
I on tlie eastern side, whence there was a grand riew of 
I tiifi forest scenery towards Tambopata, and tlie snony 
1 pedes of the cordillera above Quiaca and Sina to the 

Ihe afternoon was again devoted to searching for 

phnta of Ciiimya Joscpkiana in the thickets ; where 

Oh C. Caravayensis was very plentiful, together with 

I weral plants of the shrubby Calisaya, and four or five 

I Ines of the normal tree Calisaya, from 20 to 30 feet 

The elevation of this place was 5G00 feet above 

it. LoUiT in the day the journey waa continued 


Tlie Tambopala. Valley. 

across a most difficult country, sometimes over | 
pajonales. Find at others painfully struggling I 
forests like those on the Marun-kunka. In ont 
these forests 1 came upon a Caliaaya tree, 38 feet h 
and 1 foot 3 inches in girtli at a distance of 3 feet t 
the ground, which was several feet deep in dead lea^^es,' 
chiefly the smooth leathery leaf of the huutnru trse. 
At length we commenced the descent into the valley of 
Tambopata, 1200 feet down slippery rocks and grass, 
tlien tlu?ough a belt of forest, untU we suddenlj 
emerged on an open space on the banks of the largt 
rapid river, where there was a bamboo hut. A littlf 
coca and augar-cane was planted, but the occupant wai 
absent With toucliing confidence lie had left his doo 
open, so ray Indians established themselves comfortablj 
wlule Weir and I pitched the tent. , 

The river of Tambopata, descending from tlie farmfl 
Saqui near the frontier of Bolivia, here flows in^ 
northerly direction. Up the stream I could see a fe' 
little clearings, but looking down nothing apj>eared hi 
the virgin forest, A most magnificent range i 
ftiotintaina, with a fine growth of forest trees, rises u 
on either side, and the rapid swollen river rushe 
through the centre of the ravine. The rock of all tl 
ranges of hills between the Huari-huari and Tambopal 
rivers is a yellow clay-slate, \Tith masses of wliii 
quartz cropping out on the pajonales. 

Early in the morning we continued our joume 
down the valley, through a forest of grand timbe 
passing the little hut of Tambopata which Dr. Wedde 



■ Girondds Clearing. 


moitionecl to me as having been the great 

:vcm« for cascarUleros or chinchona-bark collectors, 

e time of his visit. After wading across the rapid 

it river of Llami-llami, which enters the Taiubopata 

B left bank, we came to a small clearing, planted 

I nth sugar-cane, tlie property of a very energetic and 

; old Bolivian, named Don Jiian de la Cruz 

I OiiDoda. He was living in a shed, open on two sides, 

I nd with a young son, and two or three Indians, was 

HiTely clearing, planting sugar-cane, and making rum 

I la extemporised distillery of his own manufacture. 

I TUi little farm was the extreme outpost of civilisation 

I in this direction, and had only been commenced since 

Dscember 1859. 

GiroDda was cultivating sugar-cane, maize, and 

i roots ; and, at the time of ray visit, he was just 

lencing his mickca, or small sowing of maize. His 

e were diiving holes in the ground with long poles, 

. foot deep, into which they drop four to six 

md cover over. The holes are four feet apart, 

I the maize grows to an immense height. The 

' VKrfealtnral tools were of a most primitive kind. The 

pnmd was first broken and cleared with a bit of oM iron, 

fiwt^TiM. at an acute angle, on a short handle. It was 

bitber Itroken up by an attempt at a spade, an oblong 

piece of iron, lient at one end round a long pole. The 

nuib and brushwood were cleared away by an insttu- 

oeBt like tlie first, only turned a different way, both 

Uog secured to their handles by leathern thongs, 

Ilwjr reKj>ed with the blade of an old knife, and where 


A Primitive Distillery. 

the clods required to be broken up very fine, as in c 
plantations, it was done !.>y hand. The only i 
Gironda put Ms small supply of sugar-cane to, 
making spirits and a small quantity of treacle. ' 
cane waa expressed by a very primitive mill of tlir 
uptight rollers of bard wood, worked by a singl 
capstan-bar and a mule, the juice flowing into a gutW 
and running thence, tbrougb a bamboo, into a large jft 
Tlie juice was then placed in two long canoes, hollo) 
trunks of trees, where it was allowed to ferment, 
about eight days the fermentation was over, and it ^ 
ready for diatilling. This sugar-beer is called Awarnp 
and is rather good. The juice was then poured into 
large jar, over an oven, and above the mouth of this j 
he placed the broken side of smother smaller oU 
covering the joining round with mud. From the c 
of the second jar a bamboo was led tlux>ugh a large cani 
to the mouth of a third jar. The fire was lighted in t 
oven, the canoe was filled witli cold water to condeni 
tlie vapour as it came up through the bamboo, and th 
work of distilling began ; the clear colourless rum 3 
commencing to flow out of the bamboo into 
receiving-jar. Tlie sugar-cane is of the purplish-brow 
kind, which is said t* ripen quickest. 

Gironda also raised a few edible roots, such as yv<x 
{JatToplui Manihot), aracaeh^a * (Conium mosch<iturn] 
camotcs or sweet potatoes, and ocas. He gave me thl 
following information respecting tlie climate 

late EoniPthing like h parsnip, BOdV 
I, Irown, and rediUsli. 

HD9 in the valley of Tambopata, wMcli is worthy of 
iDtion, as this is the very centre of the C. CaHsayn 

Mawy.— loceaennt tain, witli damp licat duy 
Pniits ripen. 

uant rsia and Tery hot 8un n 

in, hot day* and nigbta, little >nn. Banana* yield 
It during Uie rainy seasoD. 

~ ~ > rmin: lii)t, linmid nights, and liltle snn in the da.vtinie. 
KJ, — A nhowery month, but Ijttlt hcuvy min. Tlii> !> tht- montli 
a and angar-cdne, aod wliet is oulled the miehm. nr 
lO icnritig of maixe, aa well as yQca«, aracaoliaa. oamoleii, and other 
-•Ifblc rorrtB. Coffee hnrvest bcgiiid. 

ivae.^K dry hoi month. Much ana and little rain. Cooa harvest 
"uly iu the month. Uranges and poocaja ripen. Cool nighta, but i> 
^tmi heat during the day. 

Joly, — The bottcat and driest month, hnt with mol nights. Very 
ie^ ibowpTS. Time for salting gourds, pumpkins, and water-melnna. 
Aogut. — Generally dry. Treca Iwgin to bud. A muntb for planting. 
Sa|A«mber. — R«lni begin. Time for bloooioing of muny trcen. 

Octrter— Rains inc-ieiising. Maize hikrvest, and liuio fur tlir 
'■■iliTm gtaiidr.' or gn-at sowing of maizo. 
Nonaahrr.— Hear? rains. A coca harvest. 
Dscmabor. — Ucaiy roinii. {"umpldns ripen. 

TW inhabitants of the Viilley of Tambopata consisted of 

Oinmda. his two little boys, one Victorio Jovi, Villalba, 

tad the eaaearillem named Martinez. Another cas- 

tarilUro, named Ximenes, had lately died. They lived 

with their families at & place called Uiioccay-chuni . 

I kbont half a mill' up the Llami-llami river, where thert' 

^Bnre a few huts, and a small clearing. Gironda's Uttle 

^Bnn was the last inhabited spot ; beyond was tlu- 

^BlimiUble \'irgin forest, stretching away for hundreds, 

nay, tboiuanda of miles, to the shores of the Atlantic. 

1 63 

An Experienced Guide. en. v!\ 

TliiB forest had not been traversed since 1847, when lli 
bark trade ceased, and it was quite closed up. 

By the desertion of one of my Indians on the day » 
left Sandia, the other three and Pablo SevaUoa we 
barely able to carry the provisions and other i 
saries, so that, on reaching Gironda'a clearing, wliich 
called Lenco-huayccu,* I found that I had 
suEBcient food to last for six days. Gironda himsi 
was little better off, and was living on roots, s 
chunvs or potatoes preserved by being frozen in 1 
loftiest parts of the Andes. I determined, however, 
penetrate into the forest, in search of chinchoua plant 
and to trust to Gironda's kindness to supply me i 
provisions to enable me to return to Sandia. 

I was BO fortunate as to secure the services of Maria 
Martinez, an experienced mscarillero, who had acted 
guide to Dr. WeddeU, on the occasion of his ^dsit to t 
valley of Tambopata in 1846. He was thoronghl 
acquainted with all the different species of chincbona 
trees, and, reared from a child in these forest solitude 
lie was a most excellent and expert woodman, intelligent 
sober, active, and obliging. 

On May Ist we prepared to enter the dense entangled 
forest, where no European had been before, and i 
human being for upwards of thirteen years, except the 
Collahuayas and incense -collectora. Our party con-- 
sistedol Sloven: the three Indians, Weir, Pablo, Martinea 
and mysuh'. The Indians, each with their chuspas i 

* Lt.nfio Qppcnn to mean " stiukf luud," and 7iuaycou u n lavine, U 

The Collahuayas. 163 

And a c&urn^n or belt round their waists, carried 
(Mpw or bundles of provisions ; Pablo bore the 
and we were all armed with tnucJiete^, or wood- 
dear the way. My people were all diessed 
cotton cloth, and I wore a leathern hat, red 
shirt, fustian trousers, and the indispensable 
shoes made of bat/eta or felt, always used in 
We were all mustered and ready to start 
of Gironda's clearing, which is surrounded 
it trees, with the river ruslung noisily past, 
opposite mountains covered to their summits 
fine timber, when half a dozen pale-faced men 
from tlie tangled tlucket in our front. They 
and cadaverous, like men risen from the 
"OTO out by long watching and fatigue. 
led out to l>e Collahuayas, coUectora of drugs 
who penetrate far into the forests to obtain 
tihor wares, and come forth, as we then saw them, looking 
(ale and liaggard. 

These Collahuayas, called also Ciiirihuanos on the 
oMSt of Peru, YnngSDos, and Charasanis, are a veiy 
peculiar race. They come from three villages in tlie 
brat-onrered rannes of the Bolivian province of 
larecaja, called Chorasoni, Cousata, and Quirl>e ; and 
tlMSr knovledgo of the \irtuos of herbs has been Imuded 
40wn from father to son from time immemorial They 
baverse the forests of Bolivia and Caravaya collecting 
Udr drags ; and thuu sot out as professors of the healing 
tn, U) exercise their cidliug in all ports of America, 
fitfOeotlj beiog two aiid three years away from tht'ir 

1 64 The Forest Entered, 

homes, on these excursions. With tlieir wallets of d* 
on thair backs, and dressed in black breeches, a 
poncho, and broad-brimmed hat, they walk in a di 
line from village to village, exercising tlieir colling, 
jtenetrating us far as Quito and Bogota in one direol 
and to the extreme limits of the Argentine RepubK 
the other. Tlieir ancestors did the same in tlie tio 
the Yncaa, and Garcilasso de la Vega gives some acc( 
of the medical treatment adopted by the ancient Peru 
physicians. They were in the habit of letting \ 
and purging, they administered the powdered lei 
the KLijri (tobacco) for headaches, vomIH (Scldnue n 
for wounds, and a host of other simple herbs for ( 
ailments. Both Garcilasso" and Acoatat mention 1 
knowledge of the virtues of aarsaparilla, yet it is rem 
able that the Collahuayas should never have diacoi 
the febrifugal qualities of chinchona-bark. 

We saluted these hard-working physicians, and 
entered the forest from which they liad jnat erne 
A short walk brought us to the river Challumi 
tributary of the Tainbopata, which we waded ac 
Martinez told me that this was the extreme ] 
reached by Dr. Weddell, and that he came here to 1 
tree of C. tnicrantka growing. 

Beyond the ChalUima there is no road at all, aaj 
really serious forest work began ; two hornets still 
me on the temple and back of the neck, as I foi 
way through the first hush. Jlartinez went in 

Forest Life. 

, clearing away obstructions tvith his machf/r, 

! rest of our little party followed. Between 

dly trues of great height the ground was entirely 

iked up with creepers, fallen masses of tangled 

Biboo, and long tendrils which twisted round our 

1. and tripi)ed ns up at every step. Ten miles on 

1 is only equal to one over such country n.t 

In many jilaces we had to scramble tljrougli the 

« dense forest, along the verge of giddy precipices 

h overhung the river. Often we came upon tracks 

tore a giant of the forest had fallen, bearing all before 

i finally dashing over the cliff into the river below. 

« Tambopata was boiling and surging over a rocky 

W, at times far below us, wliile at others we to<ik 

idruitt^^ of a short strip of rocky beach to escape the 

faniL Thus we struggle*! on until sunset, when we 

nacJied a stouy beach, and encanii>ed fur the night. 

TUa had been a most fatiguing march. In some places 

*e were a cjuarter uf an hour forcing and cutting our 

*>y tbnmgh a space of twenty yards, and the halt wiis 

lit we lcome. It was a wild scene as the darkness 

^^^^^klid : the camp-tire and Indians on the beach, 

^^^^^Bl'^oomy forest close beliind, the boiling river 

^^^^^^ and forest-clad mountains rising uj) on Ihe 

itber Bide. 

Yrom thia, the first day of our forest-life, until the 
Uth of May. being just a fortnight, we were actively 
fiiifagol in the examination of the chinchona regiou, 
l ad in the collection of plants. As the best way of 
B results of our investigations, 1 now pni- 

1 66 Forest Life. 

pose to give a detailed accourt of onr ppoceedings 
day to day ; and, in the following chapter, to recapitnloh 
our observations with special reference to the climi 
soil, and general habit of those species of chinclKioi 
which came immediately nnder our notica I OT 
much to the intelligent assistance of our guide Martinc 
who, to great experience in woodcraft, added a lyi 
eye for a Calisaya plant ; and it reqaired no liltl 
quickness and penetration to distinguish these traasnrM 
amidst the close entanglement of the nnderyrowth, t 
the dense forests. Martinez apoke S]»aiiish very in 
perfectly, and, without a knowleilge fif Quichna, 
should have found mnch difficulty in eonvarsiiig wit 
him ; hut he had a most complete and thorough kno« 
ledge of all forest-lore, and was acquainted witJi t 
native name of almost every plant, and with the m 
to which they were or might be applied. 

At dawn the Indians found the marks of a jaguar 
the beach close to the tent ; and a hnge snaho wriggle 
through the fallen trees as we re-entered the forasi 
The brilliant colours and great variety of butterflies 
were very striking. I particularly noticed one, brij 
blue and crimson above, with the nndersidii 
with a pattern, like a vortex drawn by a crowqoill 
the snow-white ground, edged with deep blua 
struggling through the forest for about a mile we 
to the foot of the tremendous precipices, one on eithi 
side ofthe river, which Martinez called Ccasa-aani. Thai 
on our (the western) shore rises up perpendicularly fifem 
the water to a height which we estimated at 500 feut, 

Forest Life. 


; in a rocky peak. Its sides are masses of bare 
I rock, except in tbe rear, and in some cre^ 
vegetation finds a foothold. Amongst othei 
I the paccay {Mimosa Inga), witli its cottony fruit, 
drooping over the bubbling waves. The river, 
ing furiously over and around huge masses of rock, 
i noisily on between the two precipices, 
e had to aacend the western precipice of Ccasa-sani 
by K frightful kind of ladder, formed of ledges in the 
rock, or half-rotteu branches of trees, liere and there 
haring to cross a yawning chasm on the fallen stems of 
tree-ferns rotting from age. Near the summit we had a 
f^lorions xnew of tbe forest-covered mountains, running 
Qp into sharp peaks, with graceful palms rising above 
the other trees on tlieir crests, and standing out against 
the sky. Several Calisaya trees were growing on tbe 
coninut. with bunches of young capsules, in company 
with the leathery-leafed huaturu, and the AceiU de Maria 
{Btea^ia Maria, Wedd.). Tbe latter is a tree about 
Uunr feel high, with bark covered witli white lichens. 
AnoDg tbe numerous ferns the most conspicuous was 11 
very Urge PtAypodium, called qala/fuala. Descending the 
rocl« of Ccaaa-sani, we hail to continue the work nf 
g o«r way through tbe forest, our passage being 
[ by matted entanglements of bamboo, and a 
. with blades, the edges of whicli cut like a 
, called c/uUH'challi. On many of the trees 
were borncta'-nests, globes of mud fixed to the 
and covered with the insects. I was inad- 
iOtly going to touch one, which was attached to 

1 68 In the midst of Chinchona:. ch 

the back of a large fem-frond, when Martinez, witi 
jjreat dexterity, hurled the plaots ilown the precipicfl 
before the savage creatures were aware ol' tlieir daoger. 
We were now in the midst of the chinehona region 
and passed several trees of C. orate (Morada ordiTiaria 
dan C. micrantha (Verde poXtaya). There were i 
>p'eat quantities of a false cliinchona, called by MartiiM 
C'arhua-carhua Uanca. We passed through several larg 
groves of this species, which appeared to be a Lasmumt 
but differed in several respects from the L. chindumoidt 
mentioned by Dr. Weddell as growing in the Caravaya] 
forests. The ti-ee is very common near the banks C 
the river Tambopata, frequently with its boughs, lai^ 
coarse leaves, and panicles of ilowers ilrooping ove 
tlie water." 

■ Carkua-carhim hlaaca {lationtma 

IVte.— ao iw 4u fett higli. growing in moiirt piirlB uf the t 
iif Tumboiiftto. 

i>aiw».— Opposite, entire, petiolute, oblong, acute, smooti on 
EJilaa, dark greeu above, lighter iMiiieulh, with Trina anil niidrib ni 
wliite: 2j feel lung, by 'J oi 10 iucbes braid. Coaj-ee, buli^Dg, 
wrinkled betwetn the reins. 

Calyx. — Deep purple uud green, lentheTy, five-toothed, teeth rounded 

CsroUa.^-Tube white, tinged oitb liglit purple, leiitlier;, five laciiiin, 
■mooth and reScieil. 

Slameia. — Five, atlai-hed to the middle nf the tube of tlie corolla, 
eXBcrted. Filamentd pilose ut the hue, tinged with purple. Anthers 
a little shorter than the flLimeuta, all lying on the lower aides of tha 
tube of the corolla, light brown. 

Style. — Euerled, but a little aborler Ihun the atamena, light green 
•■olonr. Sligma, bi-cltft. 

Panidei. — Gorrmboae and muldSor, in Ihreel, six to fifteen bode oa 
enoh. PediceU a brownleh pnrplc. 

I have alti'mpted to describe thia tree because I have been DD*ble t0> 
identify it iiith any of the chinch unaceons plnnla in Dr. 'Weddellla 

e magnitude and variety of the trees of tlie forest 
' striking ; and the imposing character of the 
', in these vast solitudes, was a source of constant 
mt, and lightened the fatigues of the journey. 
; the wonders of the forest there were enormous 
ti great buttressed trunks, others sending down 
B tendrils from the branches in every direction, 
the gigantic balsam-tree, the india-rubber tree, and many 
'ihsrs. A hat of the ferns or mosses, endless in the 

■ triety of their shape and size, would fill volumes. Of 
: tttna, also, there were many kinds. The tall chonta, 
;iih its hard serviceable wood ; the slender beautiful 

■ xiMilfa {EvtfTpe }) ; the towering munina (IriaHea ,'), 
■A ith its roots shooting out in every direction trom eight 
i-.-ei above the ground, and triangular-notthed leaflets; 
■.he duiqtiuapa (Astrocargiivi f), with its lofty stem 
thickly eet with alternate rings of spines, and thorny 
leaves; the sumballu [OuUiflvia f), a beautiful palm 
with a slender stem covered with long sharji spines, 
noBieiDiiagracefulleaves, and an edible fruit; and, above 
Hi. tbe »ayai, the monarch of the palms of these forests, 
*nh a nuher short tliick stem, inner fibres of the stalks 
like Uack wool, but with enormous leaves growing 
nther erect from the stem to a length of at least forty 
fwt — I sbonld tliink they must be the largest Icavt^s in 
tbewbole vegetable kingdom. Among the bright flowers 
tiiere were crimson Melaetomacect, called ccrsuara, a 
•cariet Justiiia, the Mantttta cocdiua, and many beautiful 
I'rduidfl in the branches of the trees. 

At length, after a very lianl day's work, we reached 


Flooded Rivers. 

the mouth of the Yana-mayu,* or black river; 
attempted to wade across the Tambopata, but found 
too powerful. I was particularly anxious to effect th 
as Martinez assured rae that chincbona-treea were n 
abundant on tlio right or eastern bank. We, howevf 
managed to get upon an island, near the left bank, ! 
encamped for the night on a shingly beach. After si 
set it came on to rain very heavily, and the wat 
foamed Furiously around ua in the inky darkness. 1 
rain continued to pour down, and the waters to i 
through the night, and I hourly expected the island 
be subraei^ed ; but, fortunately, we escaped this dangi 
though the river came up to within a very few feet 
the tent-door. I served out a dram of brandy to I 

In the raoraing of May 3rd I continued my attemp 
to cross the river, by stripping and trying the water li 
a ford at several points, with a long pole as a suppoiti 
But the water was deep, much swollen, and very rapid ; n 
and, after having twice been as nearly as possible carritii 
away by the fury of the stream, I was obliged unwillinglv 
to give up the attempt for the present, I considered it 
pnident also to remove our encampment from the island, 
and to establish it on a narrow beach overshadowed bv 
the foreat, at the point where the muddy waters of the 
Yana-rauyu unite -with those of the Tambopata, 

These arrangements having been made, we devotfiii 
the day to an examination of the adjacent forest. The 
flpot on which we were encamped was about 4600 fwl 
• J'aBn, ill Quicliun, il black ; nnJ tnayM a 


: XVI. Search for Chinckoiur. I f 

(ove the sea. Our tent was pitched close tothe foam- 

; torrent, and behind rose up the tall dark forests. In 

tont were the steep green sides of the Yana-mayu 

rine. while looking down the river the view was 

tnded by forest-covered mountains, surmounted by 

e lofty peak of Corimamani. On the actual banks of 

1 river there were trees of C micrantha, witli large 

inches of lovely and deliciously sweet white flowers ; 

iny carhua-carhiia Uaneas ; and a chinchonaceous tree, 

iiich Martinez called Hainapii. The Huinapu grows 

' down and near the banks of rivers. Its capsules 

e three inches long ; and the veins of the leaves are n 

Ble purple. Dr. Weddell tells ma that he recollects 

thering the leaves of the Huinapu, and that he took 

t to be a variety of CaacariUa Tnof/ni/olia. 

I We commenced the day's work -in the forest on the 

mth-west slopes of the Yana-mayu ravine, scrambling 

I steep forest-covered declivity amongst palms, 

B-fems, bamboos, and trees with buttressed trunks of 

Kodous size. Here too were the vast leaves of the 

tt/ai palm. At a height of 400 feet above the river the 

Cnliaaifn region commences ; while in the lower belt, 

from the river banks to a height of 400 feet, the most 

iiinindant chinchonaceous plant is the Carhua-carhua 

■p-andc (Cascarilla Cania, Wedd.), with very fragrant 

white flowers. I met with flowers and capsules together 

nil the same tree, which is forty feet high, with a thick 

trunk, fine spreading branches, and masses of beautiful 

white Bowera. 

I found that tlie C. Callsiuja region e.ttended in a Ijelt 

172 Search for Chinchona: 



from 450 to 650 feet above tlie banks of the riva 
bamboos, large palms, C. micranthtut, Huinapus, Lwstont 
mas, and the CancarUla Carua being found below th 
line, and other species of chinchonie and chlQcbonaceoi 
plants above it. We collected twenty-five CeUiaai 
plonta, two of them fine strong seedlings, and ti 
remainder root-slioota springing up from trees wlii 
liad been cut down by caacarilleros in former times, b 
with good spreading roots of their own. The 
was exceedingly hard work, scrambling through matt 
undergrowth, and up 8t«ep ascents, tlirough masses 
rotting vegetation. 

The afternoon wait devoted to an examination of t 
heights on the north-east side of the Yana-mayn. where, 
at an elevation of 450 feet, there ia a level table-land, 
covered with palms and bamboos. Tlie search was 
chiefly conducted along a ridge above this plateau, 
where the bamboos ended. We obtained twenty more 
plants of C, Calisaya, one of wliich was declared by 
Martinez to be a Calisaya 'iiwrada (C Bolimaiui, We<ld.), 
and tlie leaf agreed well with Dr. Weddell's description, 
though that botanist believed that the species was not 
found in this part of Caravaya, but only in the valleys 
of Ayapata, further north. To-day we saw a couple of 
tunquis* birds with the most gorgeous plumage I ever 
beheld. They ai'e the size of large pigeons, with orange- 
scarlet feathers on the head, neck, breast, and tail, black 

* RuptC'In Penirianu (family of A'np^idK). Von Techadi says 
Ihftt tliuy feed on the tteuAa of chiiiclioua treea. — TravrU in I'tru, 

-a. m. Search for CkinchontE. 173 

w-iogs, light-grey back, and scarlet crest. They have a 
■lirill, liarsh cry. The butterflies and moths were 
Lumeroas and brilliant, but so tame, and iu such swarms, 
'1^ to be a perfect pli^ne. There was one bright swallow- 
tail, with blue wings, fringed with crimson. The 
'.■•nnents from venomous insects were maddening; 
■■-[«ciaUy from a kind of fly which in a moment raised 
?«ellings and blood-red lumps all over the hands and 
face, causing great pain and irritation. During the 
night it rained heavily, with peals of thunder and vivid 
flashes of lightning, while the river increased in size 
and roared past the t«nt noisily. 

The collection of chinchona plants^was deposited in a 
shidy jtlftce, near the tent, the roots being well covered 
over with soft moss. 

On the morning of May 4th the river was so swollen 
I to destroy all hopes of crossing it for the present. 
I frequently changed its colour, on one morning the 
jiag flix>d being black, on another tolerably clear, 
rj on another a light muddy colour. By these means 
tiuez could always tell where the rains had been 
lieaviest, and what stream was contributing an unusual 
frcahct U» swell the waters of the Tamljopata. 

I devoted tlie day to examining the forest on the 
(l«diTittcs overhanging tlie left Iwiik of the Tambopata, 
■ad this was by far the most toilsome and dangerous 
fonst journey we had yet made, rendered worse by a 
coiDparative want of success. The whole way was 
&totig giddy precipices, seeming to hang lialfway 
between the sky and the rouring torrent, with no foot- 

hold but decaying leaves, nothing to grasp tut rotten 
branches, every motion a lirenching bath from wet 
leaves, every other step a painful and dangerous sli]) or 
fall, besides hornets and endless thorns. Among the 
latter I was struck by a tree called itapallu, with trunk 
ajid branches thickly set with thorns, very large leaves, 
and tlie fniit in clusters, like bunches of pearls with 
purple stalks. We met with large pigeons, (locks of 
green parrots, paroquets, and tunquis. The forest 
peeps acro88 the river were superb, but it was diffi- 
cult to enjoy them, Martinez jjointed out a small 
Asplenivvi called fspincu, which has a sweet taste, and 
is sometimes chewed by the Indians for want of COCa ; 
and the pancM, a tall slender malvaceous tree, with 
large round leaves on spreading branches at the top, 
and very white wood. It is used by the Chunchos for 
procuring fire by friction, and the bark, which peels o 
in long strips, is serviceable for girdles. During t 
day we came to the largest Calisaya we bad yel & 
and Martinez operated on the bark to show 
dexterity as a cascarillero, which was remarkable." 
collection only amounted to fourteen plants, amoi 
them two fine seedlings of C. Calisaya, two of I 
murantha, two of C. ovata, var, /9 rvfi^iervig, and 1 
remainder root-shoots of C. Calisaya : seedlings of t 
latter species are exceedingly rare. We returned i 
our camp dead-beat, and drenched to the skin, only b 
find that my Indians were declaring that they had I 

rc dopodted in 

en. svi. Search for C. Ovala. 175 

away long enough, that they had no maize or coca left, 
and that they must return to their homeB at once. 
Our only hope rested upon them, and, if they had 
deserted, all oui plans would have been entirely 
frustrated. It, however, required no little persuasion 
and eloc|uence to induce them to change their minds, 
and, as they had nothing let^ to eat, I sent Andres 
Vilca back to Gironda, to entreat him to supply ua with 
a few chuiius and a little coca. I then appealed to 
the olhera, in their own expressive language, not 
without success, and the evening ended pleasantly. 
The Indians had built tliemselves a little ahed of palm- 
leavea near the tent-door, a hriglit fire was lighted, 
and its cheery reflection danced on the waves of the 
noisy flood. 

It rained heavily through the night, and in the 
morning, hearing from Martinez that the varieties of 
C. ocata, the collection of which had been recommended 
to me by Dr. Weddell, were only found in a zone at a 
much greater elevation than that of the C C'aliaayaa, I 
devoted the day to a search in an almost vertical 
direction, on the north-east side of the Yana-mayn, 
towards some heights called Pacchani. 

Ascending the steep sides of the ravine of Yana- 
mayu for about two hundred feet, we reached a narrow 
level shelf covered with ferns and the huge leaves of 
the sayal palm. The locality was very damp and 

<ly, and the C. micrantka, Muitiapu, and C'ascarilla 

■.I'll were in great abundance. We continued to 
LiacjLud through the forest which covered the sides of 


Search for C. Ovata. 

tho steep mountain, for several hours continuously; 
the footing consisting of decayed leaves and rotten 
trunks, moss and ferns coverinj; every tree, and all tlie 
vegetation intensely humid. At a height of 750 feet 
above the river we came to some trees of the beno-bejto 
(Pimrntdia fflotnerata,' Wedd.), with its bright laurel- 
like leaves and minute capsules ; the C. jmbescais, called 
Dy Martinez cascaHlia amarilla, still only in bud, which 
was very abundant; and lai^ trees of the vwru'ln 
naranjada (C ovata, var. a vulgarw, Wedd.). Near this 
place a troop of about twenty monkeys went chattering' 
along the tops of the trees, and while I was looking at 
them a huge black hornet rushed up out of the moss and 
stung me on the chin. These savage creatures maku 
their nests under the earth, and are called huancoyru. 

After a long and wearisome but fi'uitless search for 
young plants of the zamba vwrada (the rufiturvis 
variety of C. ovata) in these excessively damp forests, 
we began the descent again. Nothing struck me so 
much as the extraordinary variety of foniis and stiapes 
in wliicli nature works in these tropical forests. One 
is amazed to see enormous trees with their gigantic 
roots separating at least twenty feet ahoA-e the ground, 
and forming perfect Gothic arches. In one place a 
giant of the forest had grown on the edge of a ridge of 
rock, and the roots had combined with the stone to 
form a spacious vaulted cave large enough to hold 
ten men comfortably. Beautiful variegated leaves of 

Forest Scenery. 


Ci'UxamtK, and a flcatlet-flowered Justitia, with briglit 
jmiple leaves, united with a profusion of ferns to 
ornament the opening, while some tree-ferns, and a 
dm^la, the most slender and elegant of the palms of 
die forest, guarded the entrance. Kays of the sun 
itrnggled throogh a network of bamboos on an opposite 
beak, and penetrated into the recesses of the cavern. 
While I gazed on this lovely scene, the plaintive 
nioomful notes of the little " Alma jM-rdkla " reached 
tiif from tile boughs of tlie great tree. This is a small 
■ ;:d of the finch tribe, of which there are two kinds, 
[,.■ iilack, the other chestnut with black wings. Tlieir 
. iiil ilear note is peculiarly satl. Such peeps as these 
into the secret beauties of the innermost forest recesses 
•re rewards for many hours of toil and disappointment, 
I^le in the evening I returned to the tent dead-tired, 
lodden and wet to the skin, covered with moss and 
httpB, bitten all over by mosquitoes, slung by a hornet, 
ui-i with hands sliced in pieces by the sharp blades of a 
! inioim called challi-<:haUi, but with only tliree plants 
f tiw valuable variety of C. ova/a. It is most provok- 
ing that only the seedlings of all the wortliless species 
"f Giiuchonie should be in great abundance ; the reason 
ii at couree connected with the general felling of the 
I Inn of valuable species by the cascarilleros, years ago. 
' Tliere was little rain during the night, and on May (ith 
ire cotntaenced the search of a range of forest on the 
■'>ittli-vest aide of the Yana-mayu ravine, where we 
l-und a large supply of plants of C. CalUaya. At a 
U-ight of 500 feet above the river there was 0. ridge of 


Numerous Calisaya Plants. 

rock jutting owt from the forest-covered sidea of tie 
ravine. In this apot the ground was not nearly bo 

thickly covered with vegetation j there were no palnn 
tree-fema, or plants requiring extreme moisture, a 
young plants received shade from taller trees, wh 
they also enjoyed plenty of sunshine through t 
spreading branches. The most abundant plants wi 
Meiastomas, huaturus, and Panica, wMch climb amonj 
the branches to a height of thirty feet and upward^ 
These afford but very slight shade, and below there 
an undergrowth of ferns, Cotocasiet, and young plants. 
In some places tlie ground was carpeted with the 
lovely pink-ribbed leaves of a GytinwslacJtiwm. In 
different parts of this ridge we collected 124 young 
C. Calisaya plants, moat of them root-shoots, and a few 
seedlinga. There were also two young trees bearing 
capsules. The C. Calisaya plants were all growing out 
of the moss which covered the rock to a thickness of 
eigljt inches or a foot, together with beautifiil Hyvicno- 
phijlla,' but there was scarcely any soil. The roots 
spread along the face of the rock, which is a meta- 
morphic clay-slate, unfossLliferous, slightly micaceous, 
and ferruginous ; t and is easily broken up into thin 
layers by the growth of the plants. In this situation 
tlie C. Caiisayas were more numerous than in any otheri 
we have yet seen. 

* There wo also foutid the THchrnniinet muefoidet, a pretty littteS 
forii nLicb, I am informed b; Mr. J. ^niith, of Kew, chough comiooi 
ill the Weat Indies, was not prcTional; known to be a native of Peni. 

t Specimens from thiB lodilit; were eiunuied and teporled apoii tt 
2S, Jertnyo Street. 

End of t)t£ Provisii 

Two bears had made themselves a comfortable and 
■viy carefully prepared bed on the summit of the ridge, 
■'iience there was an extensive bird's-eye view of the 
"indings of the river, and of the forest-covered 
ffluantains beyond. On the opposite mountains there 
wore two or three long bare places — tremendous land- 
slips, not uiifrequent occurrences in the forest. There 
u A sudden crash, when masses of rock, huge trees, and 
underwood come rushing down in one fell irresistible 
Bwoop. A beautiful white Stcphanotis was climbing 
tmx the rocks. We returned to the camp in a hea\'y 
£■11 of rain, after a very severe but successful day's 
work, and found that both the Indians and ourselves 
had come to the end of our provisiona, and that Andres 
Tilca liad not returned. 

On May 7th we rose to find only a few bread-crumlm 
b the comer of our bog, and, as famine was i\xn^ 
btocking at the door, it became necessary to beat a 
hagty retreat. The plants were carefully packed in 
hyers of moss, and sonni up in two bundles of Hussia 
ii:iUing, which we had brought with us, containing 
■ mt 200 chinchona plauts. In the alisence of Andres 
Vika, ilr. Weir showed much zesJ and energy in 
■ndflrtakiiig to carry one of these bundles, four and a 
Uf feet in circumference, over the slippery and 
duigenms toad, in doing which he fell into the river. 

On the morning of May 7th, when we commenced our 
ntreat, it was pouring with rain, and the forest was 
-iturated. We had t« wade across many little streams 
Uling into the Tambopata. The first, after leaving thu 
N 2 

I So Return March. ni 

Yana-mayy, was called Churu-bamba, because it emptiea 1 
itaelf just opposite an island {ckvru. in Quichua). The 1 
next Btreaiii was Uma-yvyu, uma being water in 
Aymara, and puyu a pleuit with a large cordate dock- 
like leaf, used in ckupts. Thus every little stream and 
hill liad received a name from the cascarilleros of 
fonner times, from some peculiarity of position or other 
similar circumstance, which would easily impress it on 
the memorj'. What an improvement on the nomen- 
clature in new countries discovered by Englishmen, 
where we have an endless succession of Jones's rivers. 
Smith's mountains, and Brown's islands ! Near the 
banks of these streams there are very large snail-shells, 
and Martinez described the snails as " a large kind of 
hornets, all made of flesli, which do not sting." He 
called them Mamaciiurv-, or " Mother of the Island." 

On reaching the precipice of Ccaaa-sani we scrambled 
along its slippery sides, in the pouring rain, to collect 
plants of C. Caiisaya, and obtained twenty-one good 
ones. They were growing in a similar situation to 
those above the Yana-mayu, in company with a 
number of Acdte de Maria trees {Elaagia Maria)' and 
completely exposed to the sun, without any shade 
whatever. Passing the precipice, we continued our 
damp weary journey, Martinez pointing out everjtiiing 
that was noticeable by the way, especially the palo 
santo {Chiaiacum sanctum), a very tall tree, the stem 60 
to 70 feet high, without a branch, with a few short 

• DcBoribed by Dr. Woddell, in hiB BitUArt jVafureHe dt» Qui^ \ 
fuinoi, in a note under the e«qiu PimoiMtu. ■ 

More Calisaya Plants. 

itallj spreading branches at the summit, with 
es. When the bark is cut. a boat of 
Kiiigiag ants come forth. There was also a plant, 
irliicb be called achira sUvestre (Canna ackira /), with a 
rbimme, ami bunches of rank red berries. We passed 
tluDUgh groves of paccays (JIfimoaa Iiuja), a creeping 
Jegiuue with bright tlowers, wild coca, many Laaio- 
ttmaa, with their large coarse leaves drooping over the 
river, and a melastomaceous plant with a crimson fruit. 
Aft*r having been nearly carried away by the force of 
tbe Challuma river, in wading across it, I reached 
(lininda's hospitable shed, after a journey of more than 
thirty milee, in pouring rain. 

On May 8th I left Gironda's clearing, with Martinez, 
in order to examine tbe forests above the hut of 
Tamhopata, for plants of C. Calisaya. Here, in almost 
txactly a similar ridge of rock to those which proved so 
politic of these precious plants on the heights above 
Yana-mayu, and on the precipice of Ccasa-saui, I 
ft number of plants of Calisaya morada (C. 
Wedd.), growing out of moss, amongst tbe 
rocks, witli scarcely any soil. They were overshadowed 
W numerous trees, called by Martinez " Compadre ' de 
Calisaya " (Gmnphma dUorantha, Wedd.), one of tbe 
Bust graceful and beautiful of the cliiuchunaceous 
pUnts, with deliciously sweet flowers. I)r. Wcddell 
euctlr deecribes it as rising without a branch above all 
the trees of the forest, and then spreading out in tbe 

Wading across i/ie River. 

form of a. chandelier, and attracting the attention of I 

traveller from afar. The bark of this tree, with.| 
transverse cracks, can with difficulty be distingi 
from that of C. Calisnya. Whilst climbing amen 
these rocks, I nearly put my ham! on a small vip« 
ft venomous kind, 18 inches long, with a black A 
marked with yellow rings, edged with white. lu | 
evening wo returned to Gironda's clearing at Leo 
huayccu, with eighty-seven cliiochona plants, sixtecuj 
Caliaaya fina (C Calisaya, var. a vera), and sixty-d 
of Caliaaya morada (C. Boliriana, Wedd.). J 

We found Gironda, on whom we were now ental 
dependent for food, very little better off than ourseli 
His supplies consisted of maize, _ yiicaa, aracaol 
clnitius or frozen potatoes, and quispifias, made of boj 
nuinua grains dried in the sun, ground, and presao 
aa little gritty hard Imopa. He also had some aduxsa 
which are poor watery cucurbitaceous things, squeei 
and served up in clmpes. No salt. 

Though frequently baffled, and more than once > 
posed to much risk in making vain attempts, I ] 
never given up my determination to have at least « 
day's work on the right bank of the Tambopata. \ 
some days the volume of water had been gradually 
creasing, but it was still 40 yards across, and rush 
with great velocity over a ford which Gironda beliff 
to exist a little below Lenco-buayccu. 1 stripped i 
went in, with the stem of a young chonta palm s 
support, but, on approaching the mid-channel, the wl 
came up above my middle, the large pebbles sli^ 

I S8. iTi. ^ Day's Work on the Right Bank. 183 

ud ToDed onder my feet, and for some time it viis 
with the QtmOBt difficulty that I held my own ; but 
finally we all reached the right bank in safety. 

We were rewarded by a very successful day's work. 
After ascending the steep ravine, tlirough the zone of 
bamboos, to a height of 400 feet, we reached a ridge of 
pocks, where we collected 109 good chinchona plants of 
the Crilisaya morada species. The leaves of the 
chinchonse, and more especially the Calisaya species, 
sre invariably perforated by holes in every direction. 
llucb of this mischief is the work of caterpillars, but it 
ni*y partly be attributed to the effects of drip from the 
tmea which overshadow them. In tliis forest there 
«<n tpeea of great height, without a branch for a 
fe^ftiif** of 50 or 60 feet from the ground, which 
Hvtinez called cantla. The inner bark had a strong 
Mttt of cinnamon, and they use it to scent and flavour 
6mr huantjnt, or fermented juice of tlie sugar-cane. 
On many trees, in the forest, there are immense masses 
of mth fixed on the trunk, called cotocuro. They con- 
Mt of exceedingly thin layers, one added to another 
adl they are sometimes of an immense size, eight to 
lea feet high, and three or four feet across. They are 
nnde by myriads and myriads of small yellowish lice, 
vluch twarm l)etween each tliin layer. 

In the e%'eiiing we incurred the same risks in wading 
•aoM the river again, but arrived without any accident 
•t (itmnda's clearing, where we now had a depot of 436 
tfatBchooa plants. 

On May lOtb I resolved to make a eearch on the 

184 Search for C. Ovata. 

heights immediately above Lenco-huayccu, calif 
lUoriapata, for the valuable red-nervod variety 
ovala. I first paid a visit to the poor little Indian lA 
and children of Martinez at Huaccay-chuni, in a hut 
split bamboos, surrounded by aracachas, yucae, camol 
with their white convolvulus flowers, plantains, ftijoles 
ur beans, and the Amarantvs cmtdatvs, which they call 
jataccu and mimi, using the leaves in chupes. We tha 
struck right up the steep declivity of Gloriapata, maldS 
our way with difficulty through the dense bambV 
tliickete, wliich, in spite of their obstinate obstructive 
ness, make excellent cisterns, and their joint* wil 
always afford a good drink of cool water. For som 
time we followed a pathway made by a herd of pec 
Ciiries, until it ended at the mouth of a cave whicl 
though low, appeared to be of considerable size. Tlies 
jjeecaries come down in herds of thirty or forty to tli 
clearings, during the night, and do much damag 
amongst the roots, Some are black and white, an 
others of a leaden colour. 

After ascending for several hundred feet we came I 
trees of C. pttbcsctns, which appear to lielong to a zoi 
just below, but in contact with the C. ovatce. The 
leaves were eaten by a caterpillar, red at both end 
with a horn, rod stripe down the back, and red spots 
each side, l>ody striped green and yellow. Som 
hundred feet higher there were largo trees of bot 
varieties of C ovata, growing in very moiat ports of th 
forest, where the trees were covered with Hyin^nophyU 
and dripping moss, the former a sure sign of extreq 

ity. The ground was covered with fallen leaves 
to B great depth, and there was a good deal of shade. 
We collected seven plants of C. ovala, var. a vidgaris, 
ud eleven of C. ovata, var. rujintrvis, five of which 
were strong healthy seedlings, the remainder heing 
iQckers. with spreading roots of their own. With the 
C. otnta grows the Carhua-carhua chica {Cascarilla 
htlhta. Wedd). 

In descending from these heights I came to a tree 
which Martinez called eopal, but the trunk rose to such 
u extraordinary height, without hranches, that I was 
uable to make out the appearance of the leaves or 
flewen. The bark was covered with a milk-white 
frigiaut reain, of a nature analogous to gum thus or gum 
dfflii. Tlie forest also abounda in vegetable and bees' 
mx. and in many varieties of gums and resins. 

On May 11th, as we had now collected a sufficient 
tiumWr of chinchona plants, including those of the 
linih Cidimga which we intended to take up on our 
rdum across the pajonaies, to fill the Wardian cases at 
Islay, Mr. Weir began to make up the plants in layers, 
with plenty of moss between them, ready for sewing up 
in iIh- Itussia matting. Having heard that n young 
man, a nepliew of Gironda's, had planted a C. Calisaya 
is a small clearing a few leagues up the ravine, I went 
U> examine iL Tlie clearing was on a steep declivity 
aloping down to the river, and had been partly planted 
with coffee and coca by its solitary occupant. The tree 
wu a Caii*aya morada, having been a root^shoot twelve 
indus high wheu it was planted in January, 1859. It 


A tmHiBated CJttHckaita. 

w Miui faot In^ Rx lodieE anil foar-tenths io 
anamfetcBW MRtad tlw tnuik, and thne feet tkw 
JwriwacwiUfcBl—gBrthMmfaes from one si<)e oTthe 
Maa tD Ih* oAk. It wis frewing on the side of a 
sta^ IS. fate q)^ to tl» sntth, e&st, and sonUi-eut, 
at tke e^B flf a damntr. wUle tnoanuins covered wHb 
fowrt nse ^ dDeD behind it, on the Dotth and west, U) 
a jTtM Iwj^i. It b planted in a aai] caadsdng of Btiff 
TeOowiab kai^ ompaaed of TegBtnUe matter, mixed 
witli die Mmmta^mtiiat at the soft ckj alate. Iliis m 
th^ tke only eabsntod diaehooa-tree in P^v. In 
Ktamins to LeiMB-faa^cn I saw a flock of AUeton, 
iMige birds analogoos to taTkers. and many parrots: 
and on air araTal I fomid Hal Mr. Weir had alreaily 
made op tiie diintiMaa plants, in four Russia-matlin^ 
bundles, nadr to start fw Sandia on the folloving 

Urn. Geology of the Calisaya Region. 187 



Tin range of my observations in the chinchona forests 

ettended for a distance of forty miles along the western 

ado of the ravine of Tambopnta, and one day's journey 

OD the eastern side. This region is covered, with few 

uceptions, from the banks of the river to the summits 

of the mountain-peaks, by a dense tropical forest. The 

formation is everywhere, as I have before said, an un- 

tiasilifemus, micaceous, slightly ferruginous, meta- 

morphic clay-slale, with veins of quartz, and tlie streams 

ill contain more or leas gold-dust. When exposed to 

'!iB veather this clay-slate quickly turns to a sticky 

How mud,* and lower down it is very brittle, and 

I'ily breaks off in ihin layers. The soil formed by the 

ifintegratioa of the rock, mixed with decayed vegetable 

..I'Lter, ia a heavy yellowish brown loam, but there is 

.-IT litUe of it on the rocky aides of the ravine, and 

ao depth of soil except on a few level spaces and gentle 

ilopea near the banks of the river. Mr. Fort>es, in 

■{leaking of the extensive range of Silurian formation, 

Jjfnqu^ u nnjUiiiig atiok; In 

Elevation and Climate 

of wliich the Tamlropata hills form a part, attrihutestl 
frequent occurrence of veins of aurifurous quartz, uBuall] 
asaociated with iron pyrites, to the proximity of granit 
whence they have been inject«d into the Silurian slaU*-' 
In the cooling and solidification of granite the quarts 
is the laat mineral element to crystallise and become 
solid, and he au^ests that, during the cooling, the con- 
sequent expansion due to the crystallisation of ths 
constituents has forced the quartz and gold, still fluids 
into tlie fissures of the neighlwuring rocks, and 
formed the auriferous quartz veins. These are onljr 
developed in the slate rocks, which, when such 
occur, must lie at no great distance from granitift 
eruptions, either visible, or auch as may be inferred tW 

The chinchona forests which I examined in t 
Tambopata valley are between lat. 13° and 12° 30' 
The elevation above the sea, on the banks of the rivi 
is 4200 feet, while the loftiest crests of tlie moun' 
which overhang it on either side attain an elevatiem 
about 5000 feet. In the preceding chapter I have giw 
a general idea of the nature of the climate thronghogl 
the year, and my stay was too short to enable nie ' 
give any more detailed information for moat of tl 
months ; but I did not fail to take careful observatioi 
while I remained in the valley, which will give e 
accurate idea of the climate during the month of May. 
During the fourteen first days of May the results wefe 
as follows : — 

rna( of Ike Geological Soeirtij, Fab, 1, 1860, p. ."JO. 

xvti. of the Calisaya 



. eei= 


H » at 7 A-M. 

. 68 

>t 3 P.M. 


«t 9 tM. 



Highest temperature observed 





K.>lir« miige . 



MeBn varlalion iu tlie 2-i houra 







Meuu uf the dew-point . 




Ilry btilb 

St 3 P.U. 

G2 5 

as Hhovo. 


I The wind generally blows up the valley during the 

me, when the clouds ascend, to be condensed by 

B colder night-air. Thus we almost invariably had 

B at night, generally in a heavy fall, but occasionally 

1 small drizzle, which usually continued until the 

At noon it cleared up for a tine afternoon, 

1 only on two occasiong did we have rain tliroughout 

the day. The valley, and the course of the river, bear 

N.N.W. and S.S.E. 

The three valuable species of chinchonie found in 
TamhopatA grow in distinct zones as regards elevation, 
tt^tber with other chinchonaceous plants, up the decli- 
\*itoua sides of the ravine. 

From the banks of the river to about 400 feet up the 
rainiotaina, the forest consists of bamboos, several genera 
of palms, tree-ferns, paccays, and other Le/jiimiiiotKe, 
LusumsToaB, Cascaritla Caruius, and the Chinchona 
micrantliu, together with the chinchonaceous tree 
called by Martinez Huinap-u. This is the lower zone. 

igo Zones of Vegetation. 

The C. mu^antha, called by Martinez verde paltaya i 
motosolo' waa in flower in May. I met with it a 
Btantly in moist low places; and several treea, ' 
their very large ovate leaves, and bundles of i 
fragrant flowers, were actually drooped over the w 
of the river. It produces a good quality of bark, i 
collected seven fine seedling plants of this species. 
From 400 to fiOO feet above the river is tlie i 
zone, and that which contains the Calisaya ■ 
The vegetation chiefly consista of huge bal 
India-rubber trees, huaturus, Melastomacar, j 
Maria {Mtmgia Marict), Compadre de Calisaya ( 
phosia chlorantiia), and occasional trees of Cos 
Ca/nm, which straggle up from the lower zone. 9 
the young trees of C. Calisaya. grow in great abundaM 
but the cascarilleros liad certainly done their m 
well in former years, for every single tree of any i 
had been felled, though many of the young root-ahit 
were 20 and 30 feet high, and covered with capsq 
bearing panicles. These precious trees were n^ 
plentifiil under the ridges of rock which crop outi 
intervals, where the ground was not so thickly cov£| 
with vegetation, and where the young plants obtain 
plenty of Ught and air, while they were partially {i 
tected from the direct rays of the sun by the spreadl 
branches of taller trees. The Calisaya trees, on 1 
Ccasa-sani precipice, however, had no shade what«t 
Tliey were covered with capsules. I observed that irfi 

* Dr. Weddell believes it to bo il diatinct speciea from 
eranlbn of Iluanuco, and Lrs Damiil it C. ujjinie. 


oLXTo. Beauty of the Calisaya Tree. 191 

tlifi young plants of C. Calisaya grew up the sides of the 
rrjoka, ami actually came in contact, they often threw 
orit roots from their Btema or branches, Tlie C. Calisaya 
•■' by far the most beautiful tree of these forests. Its 
It-uvea art of a (lark rich green, smooth and shining, with 
urimson veins, and a green petiole edged with red, and 
the deliciously sweet bunches of flowers are white, with 
rose-coloured lacinite, edged with white marginal hairs. 
But it was evident that we did not see thera to ad- 
vantage in these forests ; they ran up tall and straggling, 
u if seeking the sun, and seemed to pant for more light 
and air, and a deeper and richer soil. Martinez told 
ne that, when the Calisaya is much overshadowed by 
other trees, it loses the crimson colour on the petioles 
nd reins of the leaves ; and that fifteen let^es lower 
dmro the river (I suppose at about four thousand feet 
ibore the sea) the leaves of the Calisaya mwada become 
quite bright purple all over the under side. 

Gtronda anii Martinez told me that there were three 
Uads of Calisaya trees ; namely, the Calisaya fina 
(C CWiwiya, a. vera, Wedd.), the Caiisaya tnorada 
iC. Salieiana, Wedd.), and the tall Calisaya verde. They 
>'l<led liiut lite latter was a very large tree, without any 
■ ii cx>Iuur in the veins of the leaves, and generally 
jrnwing f*r down the valleys, almost in the open plain. 
\ Ute of this variety yields six or seven ({tiiutols of 

irk, while the Calisaya _fiiia only yields three or four 
intals: and Gironda declared that he had seen one, 

I ilieprtirince of Munecasin Bolivia, wliicli had yielded 

a ijnintJila of labia at trunk-bark alone. 


Varieties of C. Calisaya. ch. i 


My remarks respecting the position of C. CoJua 
trees, on the sides of the ravine, only apply to I 
forest Iwlow Lenco-huaycca ; above that position tl 
are not found so high up the sides of the mountAiD 
probably owing to their greater proximity to the snoW 
region of the cordillera. The nearest snow may 
about forty miles from Lenco-huayccii, as the crow fl 
I also found that the Caliaaija fina was moat abund 
about the Yana-mayu, while the variety called mon 
was plentiful in the upper part of tlie ravine. But 
was very diiiicult for an unpractised eye to det«ct the 
slightest difference between theae two varieties, until 
their leaves were placed side by aide, when that of the 
morada appeared to be just a sliade darker green. Dr. 
Weddell at first named the Calisai/a Ttwriuia, as a 
distinct species, C BoUmaTia, but in hia later classifica- 
tion he placed it as a variety of the Cfdisaya vera, its 
bark being very generally collected and sold as tliat of 
the latter. No plants which I saw in the forests could 
be compared, for vigour and regularity of growth, Mith 
the tree which I have already described as having been 
planted on the edge of a clearing; and I think this 
tends to prove that plenty of light and air is essential 
to the vigorous growth of the C. Calisaya, so long 
as there is a sufficient supply of moisture, and protec- 
tion from the direct rays of a scorching sun for tlie 
first year or two. The C. Calisaya is undoubtedly 
the most delicate and sensitive of all the species of 

Above the region occupied by C. Calisayaa, in the 

The Pajonales. iQjl 

^Hk8. is tlie tliird or upper zone, from GOO to 800 feet 
^^Hve tlie river. Here, amidst very dense humid vege- 
^Moo, covered with ferns and mosses, are first met the 
trees of C. puhf^ams and I'ivunteiia glojim-ata, ami a little 
higher up are numerous trees of the two valuable species 
of C. orata, namely, a vulgaris and /9 rnfin^cis, with 
tery large ovate leaves, the latter being distinguish- 
iWe by the deep red of the leaf-veins. The Cascarilla 
I'uUiita yrows with them, and extends still higher up 
liie sides of the mountains. Tlie bark of the ^ rajirn.'nn.^ 
Mriety is habitually used to adulterate the Calisaya, 
"hicb it very closely resembles, and is called zafiibn 
morada by the cascarilleros, while the a i>Hlgaria variety 
U known as rnorada ordinaria, Martinez said that 
lie simlia morada was very tenacious of life, and that, 
htving once thrown away a branch amongst some moss, 
U foond it, a fortnight afterwards, still throwing out 
ibuts. Both varieties of C. ovata yield valuable barks. 
Above the zone of the C. ovatw, and nearer the snowy 
Cordillera (for lower down the valley the forests cover 
liie cnsts of the mountains), commence tlie open grassy 
p^ntata, which I have already described. Here the 
fcnuUiiHi is exactly the same as that in the valley of 
Tunbopata ; and the vegetation of the tliickets whie!; 
!1 the fifullies, and are intersperaeil over the grassy 
-iulea, consists of kttatUTits, Gtiultheri<e, Vaennier, 
/■'^iandrtE, and other Mela^tomucfa, Chinchona, palms, 
\A tree-ferns. The chinchonw consist of C. Cara- 
jf^iuis, and of the shrubby variety of C. Caliiayv, 
u'luoh i« culled ychu i-nacarilln by tlie natives. Tha 


Climate of tlie Pajonales. 


shrub Calisaya {0 Josfphiana) ia generally from sii ssi 
a half to ten feet higli, but I met with an iudividoil 
plant wtiich I believe to belong to this variety, wliidi 
bad attained a height of eighteen and a half feet ; and 
tliis inclined me to think, at tlie time, that this shrubby 
form could not even be considered as a variety of the 
normal C. Caliaaya, and that ita more lowly habit was 
merely due to the liigher elevation and more rigoroM 
climate in which it grew. Dr. Weddell remarks that 
its appearance varies %'ery much according to tfatf 
situation in wliich it grows, and that the colour and 
texture of the different parts change according to the 
amount of exposure. 

I found the shrub Calisaya in fiower in tlie end 

We crossed two pajcmal r^ons, one above the vall^ 
of Sandia, and tlie other between the valleys of Sondii 
and Tambopata. The height of the former above thai 
level of the sea was 5422 feet, and of the latter 5G0Q 
feet. The time of my visit was the end of April and 
beginning of May, and I traversed both regions twica, 
so that an abstract of my meteorological observations 
vriU give a tolerably correct idea of the climate at that 
time of the year; altliough they only extend over the 
25th, 26th, 27th, and 28th of Apiil, and a few 
the middle of May, 

Menn tempiraiurB. 

M^an Diimmuin nl night 

Highest lempcratiire ubserred. 

Ettitrc range 

Mean oF the dcw-]Hiiiit ■ 

a3'6 (dr; bulb as ahovc) 

The Shrub Calisaya. 


In the early morning there were generally masses of 
white clouds lying in the ravines, and in the afternoon 
» thick mist drifted across the pajonal, with drizzling 

The sluTib Calisayas, which were growing plentifully 
\tf the roadside, above the valley of Saiidia. were 
tntiiely exposed, without any shade whatever, and the 
hfll on which they grew had a western aspect. There is 
jihQerence in elevation of about 1000 feet between the 
litality where we saw the shrub Calisayas, and the 
n^go of the normal tree Ciiliaaya in the Tambopata 
foresta ; and the shrubby form is also many leagues 
DBBier the snows of the eordillera. These circumstances 
■re done sntBcient to account for the difference in the 
htiut of these two forms of C. Calisaya; and there 
leans to be no doubt that the barks of the shrubby 
Tuieties of chincliona; are specially good when their 
■tnnted growth is owing to the altitude of the locality. 
Oar collection of chincliona plants in the Tambopata 
'f«te, and on ihapajonales, was completed on May 14tli, 
-= foUows:^ 

C. Cailf^faicalitaya fina) .... 
C Bolitiana IratUaj/a morada) . 
C. »nia, (M. a mlijunt (lamla aniinaria) . 
C. Moto, Tar. S mfiaervi* (lamba morada) 

C- Cklitayi, vur. $ JotpMatta (y«Au ca*eariUa) 


. 287 

Order for my Arrest. 






On May 11th Mr. Weir completed the packing of thai 
plants, and we were preparing for the journey up intd 

! on the following day, having previous 
fixed on the Calimya treea from which we intended 1 
iibtain a supply of aeeda in August, when Oirondj 
received an ominous letter from Don Joa4 Mariai 
Bobadilla, the Alcalde Municipal of Quiaca, orderi 
liim to prevent me from taking away a single plant ; 
arrest both myself and the person who had acted &s n 
;niide; and to send us to Quiaca.* I found that I 

* " Aleatde Municipal dd Dittrifo de Qaiaea, al Sulor /uet dt Pm 
Doii Jnan de la Crta GimHda. 

"GdeMayodt 1860. 
" Teniendo pngitivas Dotieias de que sea inleniBdo & Iob pnnloB de 
TBiobopalB uu eBlninJBro Ih^Ifb, (.■on objclo de cBtraar plantiu de 
iiumrillfl., me oa de absoluta Decesidod pe^arle a tdi esta iiotn, pan 
que Bin pennitir qua uu giavu pcijuicio de Ins hijiia del paia, lo tome ni 
una planta, por lo qui' coiiio autoridad debe Tin da nberl^ar bien pnra 
i-npturur a el y al pemiQa quien to propane a faoiliUrle dicliaa plauUt, 
y cn)idudrIo.i a este. 

" Dins guarde a vm., 
■'Jost Mariano Bubadilla." 

Plis Illegality. 


(lutnr against my proceedinga Iiad been raised by Doo 
Maauel Martel, the red-faced man whom I had met 
"n the road to Sandia, and that the people of Sandia 
ud Qniaca had been excited by aseertiona that the 
ciportatioa of cascarilla-Beeds would prove the ruin of 
tkmselyes and their descendants. Gironda, though 
friendly and hospitable, feared that the finger of scorn 
*Tnild be pointed at him, as the man who had allowed 
the stranger to injure his countrymen. He wanted to 
throw away all the plants, except a few which we 
might take without observation, and, if we had 
not kept constant guard over them, he would have 
carried his Wews into effect without consulting us. I 
tan that in an immediate retreat wna the only hope of 
aring the plants ; and I explained to Gironda that his 
views were incorrect, tliat I should be the last person 
to injore the Peruvians or their interests, and that, if 
Bece8sar>', we were prepared to defend our property 
hy force. 

At the same time I addressed a letter to Don Jos5 
Bobulilla, slating that his interference was illegal ; and 
tW, as I understood the provisions of the Peruvian 
Coostttntiun of 1856, the functions of the Jvntas 
Munifipaltis were purely consultative and legislative, 
ermlerring no executive powers. 1 concluded with an 
flSpnssion of tny sense of his patriotic zeal, and of 
te;;r«!t that it should be accompanied by such mis- 
gwded and lamenta.ble ignorance of the true interests 
of htfl country. Nevertheless, I felt the imperative 
aacesflity of immetiiale flight, esj-ecially as I obtained 

infonuation from aa Iti<Ii&n of Quiaca chat ^lartel's son 
imj his party, wlio had brought the letter, were only 
the vanguard of a body of mestizos, who were comii:^ 
down the valley to seize me, and destroy my ooUection 
of chinchoiia plants. 

Early in the morning of May 12th we took leave of 
our kind and hospitable old friend Gironda, witliout 
wh oae assistance we should have been exposed to much 
ring from want of food ; and of tiie honest forester 
I expressed my sincere regret to Giponiia 
nt any misunderstanding should have arisen at tlie 
close of our acquaintance, and promised Martinez W 
obtaiD guamntees that he should suffer no moleelatioii 
on account of the services he had rendered to me. The 
most melancholy part of travelling is the parting with 
friends, never to meet again. 

After a laborious ascent through the forest we found 
Martel'a snn nnit his party stationed on the verge of the 
pajonal. They were evidently waiting for us, but thil 
not attempt to impede out passage, and a display of my 
revolver, although it may have 1>een very efScacious, 
was perfectly harmless, as the powder was quite donip. 
Tlie young Martel asked the Indians in Quichua how 
they dared to carry the plants, and called after them 
that tliey would be seized at Sandia ; but he was cii^ 
to me, and we continued our journey peaceably, I 
full of apprehensions at the turn affairs might take a 
our arrival at Sandia. 

We hail to cross the same country aa we had tmvt 
in our juui'uey to the TomboiMta valley ; and, in skirtii^ 

Collection of Shrub Calisayas. 1 99 

along Uio verge of" a ridge, near tlie Manin-kunka, the 
raigo-mule fell headlong down a precipice of twenty 
(eet into a dense maaa of trees and underwood. We 
wmlii see the poor beast's legs kicking in the air. but it 
long before we conld reaeh her, and more than two 
before a circuitous path could be cut and cleared 
to extricate her. We encamped on the pajonal, 
next day. after a very laborious walk of twelve 
houra, we reached the Ypara tanibrj, in the valley of 
Stndia, Mr. Weir having collected twenty plants ol 
Califai/a Josephiajia on the way. On May 14th we 
ixmtiuued onr journey towards Sandia, and collected 
fifty-five more plants of Calisaya Josephinna on the 
p^nal of Paccay-samana, chiefly seedlings. 

The water of the numerous cascades is very refresh- 
ing, and as beautiful in its limpid transparency iis 
when it dashes down the rocks in dazzling streams of 
pnnst white. We were now too in the land of luscious 
"ranges and chirimoyas. The commonest bird in the 
"■alley of Randia is the cucku, a kind of large crow, 
=^iih a shrill weak caw. It has a long yellow bill, 
grwinish-brown body and wings, rump-feathers red, and 
a t«og lirigbt yellow tail, with a black line down tin- 
oetitre. The cuehus walk about the fields eating the 
fooBg maize, and perch upon the adjoining trees. 
Hnmming-birda are numerous, and very beautiful ; 1 
WW aLm a little cream-coloured hawk, and lordly eagles 
were jnaring over the ravine, having their eyries in the 
iimccawible parts of the lofty ehffs. Approaching 
Sandia in the early morning of May loth, I camu 


The Indian Servants. 



ii|K)ii many groups of Indians, with their wives and 
ilanghtere, who had slept in the road, on their way to 
iind from their coca harvests. They were boiling their 
breakfasts of potatoes over little fires of dry sticks, 
wliich crackled pleasantly. Grand precipices towered 
up on either side of the valley, and in the bottonv, 
wliere the briglit river was murmuring on its way, 
there was a hut in a field of maize, surrounded by the 
tlrooping crimson flowera of the " love-lies-bleeding," 
mth a girl in a briglit blue woollen dress sitting at 
the door. 

On an-iving at Sandia I went through the ceremony 
of paying off my Indians, and taking leave ; and Vilca, 
(_'curi, and Quispi returned to their homes. I formed a 
very high opinion of the Indian character from my 
experience with these my fellow-labourers. Suspicious 
ihey certainly were at times, and with good reason 
iifter the treatment they liave usually met with from 
wldte men, but willing, hard-working, intelligent, good- 
liumoured, always ready to help each other, quick in 
forming the encampments, conversing quietly and with- 
out noise round the camp-fires, and always kind to 
animals ; altogether very efficient and companionable 

I found things at Sandia in a very alarming state ;. 
most of the people had been excited by letters from.' 
Quiaca to prevent me from continuing my journey wil 
the chinchona plants, and a sort of 
made witli other Juntas Muntdpales to protect 
iuterests, and prevent foreignere from injuring them. 


Rctnat across the Andes. 

Ibe tsctics whicli were adopted would have succeeded 
in ibeii object, but far a great piece of good luck. I 
IS prevented from hiriug mules, except to go to 
Craoero, where I knew Martel was stationed, with the 
inleation of raising' obstacles to my further progress 
Ofltil the plants had been killed by the frost. I medi- 
ated setting out ou foot, with all the four bundles of 
pluM on my on'n mule, when Don Mauuel Mena told 
Be confidentially that, if I would give him my gun, he 
*wld get an Indian to supply beasts, and accompany 
ae to Vilque, on the road to Arequipa, I willingly 
■greed to this bargain, and sent Mr. Weir and the lad 
MJo to Crucero, so a^ to throw Martel ofl' the scent. 
»lule I hnrried the plants down to the coast by the 
Wax, unfrequeuled line of country. 

An alarm had, however, been spread through all the 
rilbiges bordering on the cliinchona forests, both in 
(tovaya and Ilolivia, and I ascertained that effectual 
Bntiiiii II bud been taken to prevent my return for 
Mda in August. Martel had also written te the towns 
lid vill^ea between Crucero and Arequipa, to put 
obtades in the way of my retreat, so that I foimd it 
aeoessarr t^i avoid entering any town or village, and to 
alvpe « direct compass-course over the Cordilleras from 
SiBdiB to Vilque. I also reluctantly abandoned my 
intention of returning to collect Bee^ls in August. 
Bat I made arrangements to obtain a supply from 
•elected trees, through a reliable friend, in the ensuing 

In the morning of May 17lh I left Sandia on my 

Ret real across llie Aiutes. 

own trusty mule, driving two others witli the plant 
before me, and accompanied by their owner on foot, ai 
Indian named Angelino Paco, a middle-aged reapectablf 
looking man, who had been one of the Aloaldea i 
Sandia in 1859. Mr. Weir started for Areiiuipa on tl 
same day, by way of Crucero. Passing through Cuy 
cuyo without stopping, I continual to ascend 
mountain-goTge, by the side of the stream, but PftO 
had never been out of the valley of Sandia before, as 
was useless as a guide. All along the banks of t! 
stream there were square pools dammed up and fill) 
witli heaps of potatoes and ocas, placed there to 
into chuhiui, the principal food of the Indians when 
the foreata, or on the coffee or coca estates. Higher 
the gorge all signs of habitation cease, though there i 
atill abandoned tiers of ancient terraces, and tb^ 
mountain scenery is qiiite magmficent. Night oomii^ 
on witiiont a moon, I halted under a splendid range of 
frowning black cliffs, and succeeded in pitching the 
tenb in the dark ; but there was no fuel, and on opening 
the leathern bt^ I found that my little stock of food 
and lucifet-matches had been stolen in Sandia. I was 
thus entirely dependent for existence on Paco's parched 
maize, which proved uncommonly hard fare. The cold 
wna intense during the night, and penetrated through 
tlie tent and clothes to the very marrow. 

At daybreak Paco and I loaded the mules, and 
continued to ascend the gorge by the side of the river of 
Sandia, which becomes a noisy little rill, and finally 
falls, as a thin silvery cascade, over a black clift. 

t «ni. Retreat across the Andes. 203 


teuhing the summit of the snowy Cordillera of 
C-iraraya, we conimenced the journey over lofty graas- 
ftjvered plains, where the ground was covered with stiff 
frost. There were flocks of vicunas on the plain, 
ukI Kuallataa, large wliite geese with brownish green 
nngs and red legs, on the banks of the streams ; but as 
we advanced even these signs of life ceased, and, when 

:ht closed in, I looked round on the desolate scene, 

i.'nl thought that to make a direct cut across the 

^iilleraa to Vilque by com pass -course was a very 

■ - il:i F-i-dlile way of travelling, though, in this case, a 

ixiry i>ne, 1 had been eleven hours in the saddle, 
.ilu-ij I'oco found an aluindoned shepherd's hut, built of 
bosa atunes, three feet high, and thatched with ychu 
^tm. Tlie minimum thermometer, during the night, 
■M aa luir aa 20° Fahr. by my side. 

At daylight on May Ittth Paco complained of having 
to Fue before the sun, althougli he must have been half- 
frooBn. The mules had escaped, and we wore fully 
ibee boan in catching them. The ground was covered 
vitli a crisp frost, and during the forenoon we were 
takvdiing over the same lofty wilderness, consisting of 
fnai^ nndatating hills, with ridges of clids, and huge 
iiolilen ker» nnil there. The view was boundtHl on the 
-jLiTtli and east by tlie splendid snowy peiiks of the 
CAtsvayan nin^, and to the north-west by those of 
Vikanota. The only living tilings, in these wild 
ulitoJes, are thu graceful vieuiaa, which peered at us 
vitfa their long nucka from behind the grassy slopes, the 
tbu bucach€» burrowing amongst the rocks. 

204 Retreat across the Andes. 

and the kuallataa or large geese on the margins 4 
streniDs or pools of water. 

At about noon we began to descend a. rocky dan^ni 
cuesta, where there waa much trouble with the null 
which were constantly attempting to lie down and r 
with the plants. The steep descent led into the i 
of Putina, which was covered with Hocks of sheep, t 
small fanuB, shaded by clumps of qtumuar trees, nes 
under the sandstone clifl'a which bound the pis 
Crossing another range, we readied a swampy pUJ 
with sheep and cattle scattered over it, and stopped i 
au abandoned shepherd's hut, the exact counterpart ■ 
laat night's lodging. I had been ten hours ia t 
saddle, and w^as faint from hunger, but had i 
supperless to bed. Paco was nearly breaking dffi 
from a had wound in his foot, but I bandage 
lint, and he was able to proceed. He hiid an aUo or 
Peruvian dog with him, which waa devotedly attached 
to its mastflr. These doga are something like New- 
foundlands, only much smaller, generally black or 
wliite, aud they seldom hark. 

On the morrow the way, for the first two hours. leJ 
over grassy liills covered with flocks of sheep, with 
sliepherd-lads playing on jrincuUus, or flutes, the stohJ 
of which came floating pleasantly on the air, fn':; 
every direction far and near. We passed several bbi 
momitain-liikes, with islands of rushes, and mmi; 
ducks, From 10 a.m. until sunset the whole dayv/ 
occupied in crossing a vast plain covered w^th shcii' 
and cattle, and just after sunset we reachetl a itmiiH 

Retreat across the Andes. 


k or sheep-farm. It was occupied by a large 
pf good-tempered Indians, whose eyea glistened 
t offered them a <x«io of coca wliich I Iiad with 
\ exchange for unlimi ted supplies of milk and 
\ It was pleasant to see tlieir happiness at the 
Ition of this treasure, wluch was shared by the 
JD and dogs. Tlie place was full of guinea-pigs, 
I BPe considered great delicacies. The extreme 
tfirom which I had suffered since leaving Sandia 
iere relieved by plenty of milk, cheese, and 
Every night I had wrapped the 
I, which enveloped the plants, in warm 
the tent. The crooked wriggling queiiuar 
which formed the roof of the hut, looked like 
iin the dim light after sunset. 
Bonrtse on May 21st there was a wliite frost, and 
^ blue sky was without a single cloud. Suddenly 
ttsnse flock of flamingoes, called parihuaTias ' in 
rose in a long column from the margin of the 
Azangaro, which flows through the plain. 
birds, with their crimson wings and rose- 
necks and bodies, whirring up in a long spiral 
formed one of the most beautiful sigtits I 

; a range of rocky hills, we entei-ed a plain, 
ntended to the banks of a. large lake, with the 
town of Arapa built along the shore, Dark 

Id tlm niima of the Peruvian prOTiiice of Parinaeodiat. Pari- 
I, the Fluningn l&ke.— O. dc la Vt^go, CWnnt. Seal. i. lib. iii. 


Lake of Arapa. 

niountainH rise up immediately in the rear. I bi 
that I am the first English traveller who has 
yisited this lake, and M. de Castelnau, who obi 
some information respecting it at Puno, says that 
not to be found in any map." Along the shores 
were Iimj; rows of flamingoes, standing like a gignni 
regiment, with a few sldrmisliera thrown out iisliii 
There were also hiutllatas, ibises, ducks, and a 
built stunted sort of crane. Journeying on, we 
to cross a vast plain wMch extends for many L 
round the north-west comer of lake Titicaca, and is 
dotted with walled estandas and flocks of sheep. At 
length we reached the ford over the river of Azangaro, 
in sight of the little village of Achaya, to the left. The 
water came above the mules' bellies, and, crossing half a 
mile of swampy ground, we came to another ford over 
the river of Pucara. The two rivera, uniting just belc 
Achaya, form the Eainiz, the largest feeder of lak*' 
Titicaua. We continued our way for many hours 
the plain, until we reacheil an Imiian's hut long after 
dark, having been twelve hours in the saddle, at the 

• "We iri™ hprctho iioticta whioli ne Imre milei^tid respoutiog tl 
exislencv atid ixnitiuu or a liiku viliii^li is not to le fi-uud in an; 
kiid which bears II >c nnmeor Arapa. It it Miiil t<> be aji leagues 
north nf liike Titicacn, and id (hirtj li'S^^ea in circuiuferenoa. 
extend' fmm tho foot of a verj abrujit i-liain of mountHina, and fi 
figure is tiiut of u half-moon. It coatniiie b( 
baving traieraed tno otlicr smaller lakes tn tbe west, fall i 
Balniz, wliii'h is tlius rendered Dnvigable at a 

villagea around the lake ef Arapa aro Chacanianu, Chupnli, Arapo, al 
VotansM. Kound tlie latter plnt-c it is said ttuit there nre manj ti 
of silver and minei of pieclout atones." — Catltlnau, lom. Ui. i ~ 
xxiii. p. 420. 


Tlie Fair of Vilqn, 


»■ tedious pace of a tired miile. T!ie cargo-mules 
1 played every kiod of virions trick tiiroughout the 
■If, ninning off ia Afferent directions at every oppor- 
biity, and canstantly trying to roll. . 

^StMting at daybreak on the 22nd, we forded the 
r of Lamps, crossed the road between Lampa and 
I, passed over a rocky cordillera and a wide plain, 
[ reached the little town of Vilque by four in the 
moon. Tlie place presented a veiy different ap- 
ince frorn the time wlien we passed through it in 
, on our way to Puno. It was now the time of 
) great yearly fair, when buyers and sellers from 
ery part of Soutli America flock to the little surra, 
tnwn. This great gathering was first established in tlie 
lime of the Spaniards, and it is not improbable that the 
-I<»uiLf. who once (Kosessed tlie great sheep-farm of 
Y.-marico near Vilque, and who always looked well after 
tiic improvement of their property, may have been the 
;fcat promoters of the fair. 

'>utaide the town there were thousands of mules (Vom 
Tiiamian waiting for Peruvian arrieros to buy them. 
hi the plaza were bootlis full of every description of 
Muche^ter and Birmingham goods ; in more retired 
1 1 k..^ were gold-duat and coffee from Caravaya, silver 
! 'Ill ilif mines, bark and chocolate from Bolivia, 
''immns with glass-ware and woollen knitted work, 
modistes, Italians, Quichua and Aymara 
in their various picturesque costumes — in fact, 
uid tongues. In the plaza, too, there were 
iia and dining-rooms, aU under canvas: but 


Farm of Taya-taya. 

liouae-rent was exoTbitant, and a lodging was not to bl 
had for love or money, There was much complaint al 
the injury done to trade hy the threatened watw 
Biilivia, and the edict of President Linares, prohibitii 

all intercourse with Peru. 

I placed the bundles of plants, earefolly wrapj 
round with ponchos, in a barley-field occupied 
arrieros, covered over with their warm aparg'os; 
the thermometer was down to 23° Fahr. in the l 

In the afteraoon of tlie 23rd I left Vilqtie for t 
sheep-farm of Taya-taya, in company with Dr. '. 
Camillo Chaves, the superintendent. Tlie road i 
crowded with people coming from Are<iuipa to the fi 
at Vilque : native shopkeepers, merchants co 
arrange for their supplies of wool, and a noisy company 
of arrieros on their way to buy mules, and armed to tlie 
teeth with horae-pistols, old guns, and huge daggers, to 
defend their money-bags. Many of them were good- 
looking fellows, the older ones bearing signs of hard 

The sheep-farm of Taya-taya,* four leagues from 
Viliiue, is a range of mud-plastered buildings witltj 
thatclied roofs, built round a large patio, on a bleaICa 
plain surrounded hy mountains. In the morning a ] 
flock of forty llamas were being laden with packs of 
wool in the patio, at wliicli they were making bitter 
lamentations, "We started early on May 24th, and en- 
countered a cold gale of wind, blowing in icy st^ualls over 
the Cordillera. I reached the posthonse of Cuevillas 

' Taj/ata 

. The Plants 

safely (o Islay. 209 

e night, a distance of forty-five miles ; got as far 
ite post lionse of Pati tlie next day ; encountered 
' a tKonendons gale of wind on tlie skirts of the volcano 
(rfAtvqnipa, but descended to the valley of Cangallo on 
I tfae 26tli ; and rode into the city of Arequipa, with my 
I plasty, on the morning of the 27th of May. Mr. Weir 
Y and the lad Pablo arrived from Crucero on the 29th, 
^ as I expected, found Martel in that towii, whose 
jre thus baffled. From Saudia to Arequipa is 
1 of nearly 300 miles. No opposition was 
' departure from Arequipa, although the 
rapaper had sometliing to say afterwards," and 
1st the plants were safely deposited in the 
FWsrdian cases at the port of Islay. 

But the difficulties of getting the plants out of the 
I conntiy were not entirely ended by my escape from 
Ifartel and the Juntas Municipcdes of the interior. The 
Superintendent of the Custom-house of Islay refused to 
■How them to be shipped without an express order 
fiom Uie Minister of Finance and Commerce at Lima, 
He bad probably received intelligence respecting the 
oxitcnU of the cases from Vilquo, where all news 

■ Ut Baimt dt ^raguipa, Jnnio 15. 

'l«a ewatioiii* muiiiaipales ban hsfho gtan <\alin nt puortu d>.' 
Uaf, paw lalfl vm msl con el 'loaaouerdo ijue rrinu cntiv ul ciieqio j 
hi AmM •ntoriiUdu que Id coriibaten eaoandalosMuoiite. 

*Qil«io que H> MpB ea eau dudad que Icn t-itmnJEnw bun dodo i<u 
MfaltartiM e^in |iUiDtaa de cuicarilU, que ca eniMa estn prohibido 
kMiriii: mmhm de amboroBt nti loglo una multitud Uo cllaa p«rii U 
Uih par cooiiaioii nffldul ric gn Gubiumo. Yo iin K conto ea que Mto 
'm. d«fnu<luido ad duo ile ItM uiuJonM j tmu tscluaiiuB ramos do 

Completion of tlie Enterprise. 

centres at the time of the fair. This obliged me to go 
to Lima to obtain the necessary order from Colonel 
Salcedo, the Minister of Finance, which I succeeded in 
doing, and returned with it to Islay on June 23rd. 

Meanwhile, since the plants had been established in 
the Wardian cases, they had liegnn to bud and tlirow 
out young leaves, wliich seemed to prove that they had 
quite recovered from their journey across the arctic 
climate of the Andes. In the evening of the 23rd the 
cases were hoisted into a launch, ready to go on board 
the steamer on the following morning ; and during the 
night attempts were made to bribe the man iu charge 
to bore holes and kill the plants by pouring in boiling 
water, but without success. On the following day they 
were safely lodged on board the steamer bound for 

It Was impossible not to feel r^ret that H.M. 
steamer Vir-en, then lying idle at Callao, liad not been 
ordered to take the plants direct across the Pacific to 
India, in which case they would have arrived in perfect 
order. But tliis was not to be, and we had to look 
forward to long voyages, several transhipments, and 
the intense heat of the Eed Sea, before this most 
valuable collection of phinta could reach their destina- 
tion in Southern India, 

Yet it could not but be satisfactory to look back 
upon the extraordinary difficulties we had overcome, 
the hardships and dangers of the forests, the scarcity of 
the plants, the bewildering puzzle to find them amidst 
the dense underwood, the endeavour to stop my journey. 

zYm. Completion of the Enterprise. 211 

t at Tambopata and then in Sandia, the rapid flight 
088 unknown parts of the cordillera, and the 
smpts first to stop and then to destroy the plants at 
17 : it was a source of gratification to look back upon 
this, and then to see the great majority of the plants 
Iding and looking healthy in the Wardian cases. So 
as our work in South America was concerned, it had 
a performed with complete success. The seeds, for 
collection of which I made arrangements at Sandia, 
lied me in due course. 

p 2 

Career of Mr. Ledger. 



Mh. Charles Ledger, who obtained a valuable HU[q 
of Calisaya seeds as Lis contribution towards the gn 
work of introducing chinchoua cultivation into Int 
had been a resident in Peru and Bolivia eince 18 
Ho wa.s engaged in the bark and alpaca wool tra 
and in 1845 was settled at Puno. In that year 
joined an expedition which had been organis 
to the bark monopoly in Bolivia, to search for valua 
species of chinchona trees in the forests of Carav^ 
Mr Ledger started with a party of fifty-six, but t 
returned after fifty-seven days, having failed to discof 
the objects of their search. An idea existed that the 
were no Calisaya trees in Peru, and a preconcei? 
notion was doubtless the cause of their failure. Tl 
erroneous belief was finally disposed of by Dr. Wedde 
when he visited the forests of Caravaya, and brought 
back specimens of the same Calisayas that are found in 
the Bolivian m on tan a. 

In 1850 Mr. Ledger became a partner with Mr. 
Backhouse,* in an expedition to search for Calisaya 

* Gkorgc Backhouse nns a aon of Mr. Jnbti BackhonH, a clerk in the 
Fureign Office undei Mr, Canning, and sfterwdrds Under Secretiirj of 

Introduces Alpacas into Australia. 1 1 3 

I in the Santa Ana and Marcapata valleys in Peru. 

■purchased, and transmitted from Puno, stores to the 

■e of £1400, but Mr. Backhousti was murdered by 

I wild Chuncho Indians, the expedition was broken 

\ and Mr. Ledger lost all he had invested in tliis 

His next undertaking was an attempt to 

the Amazon through the Bolivian province of 

This waa in 1851. He was accompanied 

\ an intelligent and moat faithful Indian sen-ant 

t Mannel Incra Mamani, who had already been 

s employment since 1843, sorting and packing bark 

I alpaca wooL It was on the banks of the Mamor^ 

fe Mr. Ledger saw the Calisaya trees, but he has not 

the forests where chincbonaa grow since the 

r 185L 

I 1858 Mr. Ledger encceeded in the difficult and 
ndous undertaking of bringing a flock of alpacas 

r the wild and bleak cordilleras of Bolivia to the 
I8t, and embarking them for Austraha; and he 
lly conveyed them to their new homes. On 
1 to South America he heard of the enterprise 

I I bad initiated and put in train, for introducing 
I cultivatiou into India. It appears that he 

te Fm^ Aflain fiom 1827 to 1834. He wu nbo on the CoducjI 
•f th»Bdj*l UeognpLlrsl Societ; frum 1836 to 1641. Young Grorge 
looM wcBl out Id Peru u an ad>unturer, and in 1851 joiDcd this 
ItiaH Into Uie \mk fuieata. whicli wag li>d by Culunol B»lognoei. 
^oa llHtsdiqnitF between tlie ludliins of tim eipedilioa anil thu 
•^wrrfr— lad to an afl^; in which Backbouae wu killed. Tbe 
9 «( Ihb Mtutioplw «M the manbiiui ai Uvcapoui, north of 

Seeds collected by jMaman 

made some attempt to open oonuiiiuucations with i 
which unfortunately was not suoeessfiil. If I h 
received any propoaal from him I should, witha 
hesitation, have taken upon myaelf the respouBibihty i 
engaging Mr. Ledger's services, and he would th 
certainly have received some, though probably v( 
inadequate, remuneration. As it is, he has actuB 
been refused any reward, and he is a great loser fin 
from having so zealously co-operated in the good wia 

In his endeavour to secure a supply of the b 
Calisaya seeds, Mr. Ledger sent for his old servs 
Manuel in 1861, and gave him the neceaaary instn 
tions for collecting seeds from the best kinds of e 
carilla trees. The Bolivian bark collectors recogfl 
tliree kinds, called rcja, vwrada, and naranjada. 1 
leaves of the rc^'a variety of Caliaaya are bright seal 
nndemeath, and dark green above. Tliia kind is o 
sidered to produce the richest bark, 

Manuel Mamani, with his sons, proceeded to tST 
chinchona forests aa bark collectors, but the beat trees 
did not produce ripe fruit for four years. When in full 
flower and moat promising, a frost in April always 
destroyed the ripening prospect. Old Manuel waited 
patiently, year after year, cutting bark with his sons 
and looking out for an opportunity of fulfilling Mr. 
Ledger's commission. At last the time came. He 
gathered seeds from about iifty trees, chiefly of the roja 
kind, and safely delivered them to Mr. Ledger, in June 
1865. He was paid well, and instructed to return for 
more seeda of the roja, morada, and naranjada varieties 

Death of Mamani. 

215 1 

laya. Poor Manuel's fate was very melanclioly. 

I Bolivians are extremely jealous of their bark 

>oly. The Corregidor of Coroico, one of the forest 

I t-o the east of the Andes, seized the seed 

' and threw Iiim into prison, where he was 

1 to make him confess who the seeds found on him 

a for. After heing confined in prison for about three 

I, beaten and half starved, he was at last set at 

r liberty, robbed of his donkeys and blankets, and all he 

1 possessed. Tins most faithful old servant, the true- 

I ktvted Manuel Incra Mamani, died from the ill-treat- 

■aot he had received very soon afterwards. 

Ifaanel's son brought the news to Mr. Ledger, 
htving come to account honestly for the money his 
tuber had received. It is a sad story; but at the same 
'.ime it is very pleasant to have to record these noble 
\r-\>\& of character in the Indians, the descendants of 
aen who formed and organised the glorious empire of 
the Vncaa. Owing to the dangers to which the poor 
I Iitdtaos were exposed in collecting seeds, Mr. Ledger 
luolved nut to employ them again on such hazardous 
'taty. Old Manuel had served him faithfully for 
ihirty yeore. 

The seeds collected in 18ti5, and delivered to Mr. 
I<!^gCT in June of that year, were very carefully and 
lUiliciouely drie<l and packed, and arrived at their 
<hgti nation in excellent condition. They were sent to 
UmdoD, to the care of Mr. Ledger's brother, who sold 
Ur to the Dutch Government for the Java plantations, 
and half to Mr. Money, a chinchuna planter on the 


^fr, Ledger's Sen-ii 

Nilgiri hills. As many as 20,000 seeds germinated in 
Java, and a still greater number in India, producing 
niunerous varieties. Tlie plants, of wliicli 7000 sur- 
vived in Java, had increased in number to 40,000 in 
in 1874, and in 1875, 10,977 had been planted out. 

These plants yield an extraordinarily large quantity 
of fiuinine, as much as 9-97 per cent, la this respect 
they are unequalled, so that the service thus performed 
by Mr. Ledger is one of very great importance, vrhich 
ileserves special recognition. In a future chapter I 
shall put on record the amount of recognition vouch- 
safed to each of my fellow-labourera in this beneficent 

Mr. Howard has appropriately named the richest 
of quinine yielding trees the C. 

■■H, IX. Limits of the Red Bark Tree. 



I tti species of chinchona, known as the " red bark " 

I tree {C. mcdruhra), yields a larger percentage of 

I lebrifage alkaloid than any other, and I therefore con- 

I ader it to be the most important. Its native forests 

I m UD the western slopes of the famous mountain of 

I Cbimborazo, in the Republic of Ecnador, and for a 

I {mt many yeats it has not been found beyond 2" 36' 

■ & lat. ; but Dr. Spmce thinks it probable that in 

■Imer times the tree grew all along the roots of the 

lindea of Cuenca and Loxa to the limits of the 

IPferarian desert in 5° S. To the north it scarcely 

Bf mo a th« latitude of 1° S. ; and these precious trees 

P m thus confined within a very narrow latitudinal 

•Dtw.* Within the ascertained limits of the true " red 

lark " tree, it exists in all the valleys of the Andes 

vluch debouch on the plain of Guayatiuil ; but tpxsat 

kvoc has been made amongst the trees of late years by 

* Tban ta BO Moerttiocil law b; which m*Dy of tho «peci(« of tbo 
itoihJia (Mina are thoa llmilcd to dutoo JEones a» k^iAs latitude. 
Dl 9 p f»B> nMntioni tbkt on the loirer regions of ihe AnJi^s of Piuto 
mi PsfkjBB, [n Nsw Onudo, there are tlic cooditioiui of dfiuate iiiid 
(MmJ* nqnUtB Ua Um growth of C. mceinibra, but it hu not baott 

Dr. Spruces First Visit 

the bark collectors. In tlie valleys of Alausi, PaUii- 
tanga, and Cliillaiies all the large treea have already 
been cut down. At the baaea of the ridges of Angai 
and San Antonio, the localities originally mentional 
by Pavon, and where " red bark " trees once grew 
in abundance, the same destructive system had been 
adopted ; and now the " red bark " grounds are coofinsi 
to the ravine of the river Chasuan, and its tributaria, 
which rise on the northern slopes of Chimbonizo, a 
fall into the river of Guayaquil. 

On the 22nd of July 1859 Dr. Spruce set out f 
the pleasant town of Aiubato, in the Quitenian Anday 
where he waa then residing, and, passing Uirpii^ 
Alausi, arrived at the banks of the river Chanchan, Mil 
established himself at a place called Lucmas, which iB 
conveniently near the " red bark " chincbona foreati 
Lucmas is a sugar-cane farm, Iretween 5000 and 600 
feet above the sea ; there are forest-trees in the vallej 
and on the hills, while the steep slopes are ofh 
covered with scrub and grass. From Lucmas I 
Spmce went to the forests on the banks of the rivi 
Pumachaca, which rises in the mountain of Asuo: 
and falls into the Chanchan, at an elevation of 4000 f( 
One circumstance, among many, will give an idea ■ 
the difficulties which he had to encounter. On i 
ing the Pumachaca he found that the ford had bet 
destroyed by the falling of a cliff, and that in ita plan 
there was a deep whirlpool ; so, with the driftwoi 
along the banks, a bridge had to be made where ti 
river waa narrowed between two rocks, by which I 

to the Chinchona Forests. 219 

crossed with the baggage. Then, after a long 
he found a place where the horses could swim 
and, by rolling down masses of earth and stones, 
ly was made for them to ascend on the other aide. 
js, a hut was made among vegetable-ivory 
ptbns, thatched with the palm-fronds, and Dr. Spruce 
ocDnmeDced the examination of the forest. 

Afler a long search, during which he passed several 
fellel trunks of clunchona trees, he at length came 
upon a root-shoot about twenty feet high. It is very 
are to find these root-shoots, because the bark ia 
alripped from the roots as well as from tlie trunk. Dr. 
Sprace, from his observations in the Pumachaca forest, 
oune to the conclusion that the " red bark " trees grow 
bnt on stony declivities, where there is, however, a 
Rood depth of humus, at an elevation of from 3000 to 
iWO feet above the sea. The temperature was very 
like that of a summer day in London, but with cold 
mials towards evening, and from January to May un- 
r^asiiig rain. He found the chinchona trees, in this 
[art of the country, almost entirely extirpated, and, 
lifter a short stay at Lucmas, he proceeded to examine 
ihc rvgion of the "hill barks." or cascarUias Sfrrnnas, 
■hich ifi at an elevation of 8500 to 9000 feet, on both 
bdee of the river Chanchan. In the forest of Llalla, at 
Um foot of the mountain of Asuay, he found two kinds, 
eaDed by the natives curAucara (pig-skin) and paia de 
foBijutxo;* and on a stony hill side there were twenty 
luge trees of the former, from 40 to 50 feet high. 

220 Severe Illness of Dr. Spruce, aa. 

By this excuraion in the summer of 1859 Dr, SpruB 
ascertained the districts to which he should not go,l 
very important point ; and he finally determined I 
carry on his collecting operations, in the season c 
1860, at a place called Limon, at the jiinction of I 
stream of that name with the river Chasuan, 
falls into the river of Ventanas at a place callfl 
Agnacatal. The forests are all private properly 
and, after much negotiation with tlie owners, Sew 
Cordovez of Ambato, and Dr. Neyra of Huanmda, I 
agreement was made by which, on payment of 40 
dollars. Dr. Spruce was allowed to take as many » 
and plants as he liked, on condition that he did Of 
touch the bark. 

Dr. Spmce had a severe rheumatic and 
attack, almost amounting to paralysis, in the early p 
of 1860, which induced him to resign the duty ■ 
collecting the "red bark" to Dr. Taylor of Biobaml; 
and it was only at the last moment that he w 
strong enough to undertake the journey in. compt 
with his friend. During the whole time that Dr. Spni 
was at work he was suffering severely from illnea 
the benefit derived from the milder climate of tl 
forests was neutralised by the foga and damp ; and, 
use his own words, " although upheld by a detemuD 
tion to execute to the best of my ability the task I h 
undertaken, I was but too often in that state of prosti 
tion when to lie down quietly and die woidd hs 
seemed a relief." Leaving the town of Ambato on t 
11th of June, 1860, Dr. Spruce and Dr. Taylor react] 
Huaranda on the IStii, aai cou'tai'iHA, tWt joui 

His Head-quarters at Lit 

tJie forests od the 17th. At a veiy little 
? 4000 feet above the sea they reached the small 
t Limon. Their abode stood on a narrow ridge 
5 gradually to the river Ohasuan. It was merely 
\ low shed, two-tidrda of wliieli wag occupied by 
e machinery of a sugar-caiie mill ; the remaining 
had an upper story with a flooring of bamboo 
I, half of it open at the sides, and the other half 
' with a bamboo wall about six feet high, not coming up 
to the roof in any part of it. This was their dormitory, 
Bod it was feached by a ladder, merely a trunk of a 
tree with mde notches for steps. On the ground-floor 
ns the kitchen, with a wall of rough planks of raft 
Wood, not touching each other ; so that the whole 
Wiric was abundantly ventUated, and only too often 
filled with fog, causing coughs, aclung limbs, and 
mouldy clothes. 
This was their head-quarteis during the time that 
B collecting seeds and plants ; and the severe 
hip8, miserable lodging, and acute sufferings from 
I must increase our admiration for Dr. Spruce's 
t neolution in performing this great public 

, the gardener whom I had engaged to 
E Dr. Spnice, conveyed the fifteen Wardian cases, 
[ bad previously sent to Guayaquil, up the 
I far as Ventanas, and reached Limon on the 
k of July. 

tbe meanwhile Dr. Spruce had carefully exa- 
1 tbe cliinchona forests, and visited all the baik 

The Red Bark Forest 

trees known to exist within reach of Limon. He found 
& good crop of capsules on many of them, wliicli had 
already nearly reached their full size on the finest Wees: 
on others, however, there were only very younj; 
capsules, and even a good many flowers, and not one of 
the late-flowering panicles produced ripe capsules. On 
the tree which hore most capsules they began t-o turn 
mouldy, the mould being not fungi, but mdimentarj' 
lichens, which, whilst it proved that the capsules weiv 
still alive and growing, proved also that they were 
exposed to an atmosphere almost constantly aaturaUx) 
with moisture. 

The mandum or clump of " red bark " treea at Limon 
lies nearly west from the peak of Chimboraeo, ajjd the 
river Chasuan rises on the northern shoulder of that 
mountain. The view from Limon takes 
extent of country, and the whole is unbroken foi 
save towards the source of the Chasuan, where a lol 
ridge rises above the region of arborescent vegetaUoB."' 
and is crowned by a small breadth of grassy paraiiw. 
The waters of the Chasuan run over a, black or doll 
blue, shining, and very compact trachyte, over which, 
the bottom of the valleys at Limon, there 
grained ferruginous sandstone of a deep brown coloi 
in thick strata. The soil is a deep loamy allu' 
deposit. The ridges on which the " red bark 
grow all deviate a little from an easterly and weal 
direction, and the cliinchonie are far more abundant 
the northern than on the southern slopes. The noi 
and eastern sides of the trees, too, had home most 

vast 1 


Improvident Felling. 


■nd scarcely a capsule ripened on their southern and 
western sides. This is explained hy the trees receiving 
most sun from the east and north, the mornings being 
generally clear and sunny in the anminer, whilst the 
ifternoona are foggy, and the sun's declination is 
northerly. Dr. Spruce also observed that the trees 
standing in open ground were far healthier and more 
luxuriant than those growing in the forest, where they 
are hemmed in iind partially shaded by other trees ; and 
he concluded, from this circumstance, tlmt, though the 
■red bark" tree may need shade whilst young and 
tender, it really requires (like moat trees) plenty of air, 
light and room wherein to develop its proportions. 

The lower site of the " red bark " tree at Limon ia at 
an elevation of 2450 feet alwve the sea, and ita highest 
limit is at an elevation of about 5000 feet. The trees 
nearest the plain are generally the largest, but those 
higher up have much thicker bark in proportion to 
their diameter. 

The havoc committed by the bark collectors on these 
trees within the previous twenty yeara had been very 
greaL The entire quantity of " red bark " collected in 
1859 did not reach to 5000 lbs., and in 1860 no 'Ted 
bark " at all was got out, so that the trade was nearly 
extinct. In the valleys of the Chasuan and Limon 
Dr. Spruce aaw about 200 of these trees atanding, but 
only two or three were saplings which had not been 
■listurbed ; all the rest grew from old stools, whose cir- 
cumference averaged from 4 to 5 feet, ^e was unable 
to find a sii^le young plant under the trees, although 


Colleciion of Plants ch. ^ 

H many of the latter bore signs of having flowered 

H previous years ; and tliia was explained by the floweil 

H trees invariably growing in open places, where t 

H gronnd was either weeded, or trodden down by cattla 

r Ur. Spruce described the C. mcdTulrra or " red bad 

tree as very handsome, and he declared that, in lookil 

out over the forest, he cuuJd never find any other tt 

at all comparable to it for beauty. It is 50 feet big 

branching from about oue-tliird of its height, with lai; 

broadly ovate, deep green, and shining leaves, mLo 

with decaying ones of a blood-red colour, which give 

a most striking appearance. 

The Cascarilla vimjnifolia, a very handsome \H 
with a fragrant wMte flower, grows abundantly wi 
the " red bark," and attains a height of 80 feet. 

After the arrival of Mr. Cross at Limon the work : 
collecting commenced in earnest. A piece of grooa 
was fenced in, and Mr. Cross made a pit and prepan 
the soil to receive cuttings, of which he put in above a 
thousand on the 1st of August and following days ; aud 
he afterwards went round to all the old stools and put 
L in as many layers from them as possible. " But," tt 
H Dr. Spruce most tnily observes, " only those who havi 
B attempted to do anytliing in the forest, possesaini 
scarcely any of the necessary appliances, can have aiq 
idea of the difficulties, and Mr. Cross's unremittiiij 
■ watchfulness alone enabled him to surmount them." 
1 Towards the end of July, in a few sunny days, thl 
1 fruit of the '.'red bark" trees made visible advancai 

and Seeds of C. Succirubra. 


capsules began to burst at the base, and appeared ripe. 
An Indian was then sent up the trees, and, breaking 
the |*anicles gently off, let them fall on sheets spread on 
the ground to receive them, so tliat the few loose seeds 
shaken out by the fall were not lost. The capsules 
were afterwards spread out to dry for some days on the 
iamo sheets. In September Dr. Spruce went across to 
the valley of the San Antonio, to the soutliwanl, in 
iirdct to secure additional seeds from " red bark " trees 
ihew, leaving Mr. Cross to watch over the rooting of 
the cuttings at Limon. Between the 14th aud I9th he 
guhered 500 well-grown capsules at San Antonio, in 
addition to 2000 already collected at Limon. They 
«en! good capsules containing forty seeds each, so that 
u least 1HO,000 well-rqwned and well-dried seeds were 
now gathered ; and on the 28th of September L>r. Spnice 
Kuted for Guayaquil.* In Kovember he proceeded up 
dM river again, and purchased one of the rafts at Ven- 
tuus, which are used for conveying cacao to Guayaquil, 
It *u composed of twelve trunks of raft-wood, aixty- 
tbw to aixty-aix foet long and one foot in diameter. 
kejit in their places by shorter pieces tied transversely, 

* Mr. CroM mwcd eight of tho sooda; one began lo Kuriuinate oti 
n* (MKtb da;, and It th') end al a fortnight tbur Mod^ liaJ puihed 
(Mr iwliclM. In lliriie wtek« one hud the ««d-leaiea compUitelf 
1 an tho (went V -eighth dii;r k11(T aowiog, the lul <>r the 
light jKuhed lu ni]ioI«. Eight ohincbona leedi, gBthercd !>; Dr 
In M31I. wars anwn at tiuayoquil, whiah had remained nino 
In hi* hottarinut. Of Iheac tour gonniiutcd, which cltArljr 
dutt wi'il-ri|wD«il uid pruperlj-diiod seedi do not Ickc Uinir 
vttilUjIia'B much lunger p«iiiid than Iheir «xi;«auv« delicacy a-ouIiI 
' «• to aB^paeL 


nnd covered with bamboo plankin;;, f^Dcinl round nitlil 
rails to a height of throe foet, and roofed over, 
mpe used for bindint; tlie parts of the mft together n 
tlie twiuiiig stem of a Biijiumw. The Wnrdian c(IB«1 
were got ready on the raft at Ventanas, and Mr, Crow 1 
arrived with the planfa from Limon on tlie 13th of I 
I>eceiiiber, and established them in the cases to the ] 
number of 637. 

After encountering several dangers and misliaps io 
navigating the river, the raft with its precious freight 
reachai Guayaquil on the 27th of December ; and the 
plants were safely embarked on board the steamer, in 
charge of Mr. Cross, on the 2nd of Jaunary, 1861. 

Thus skilfully and successfully did I)r. Spruce, and J 
his able colleagues, perfonn tliis moat difficult i 
important service. Dr. Spntce, during the whole tiin 
that he was in tlie chinchona forests, made most c 
meteorological observations. From June 19th 
December 8th the results of observations of the t^a 
mometer were as follows : — 

MeBD mlTittnuni 

Jli-UD temperature at 6} P.u. 
IlighBBt temperature obeerred 
Lowest „ „ 

Entiia ran^e 
Jleftn dailj TarUtion 


80i on July 27th. 
S7 on July tlth. 


On the western side of the Quitenian Andes, south of 
the equator, the summer or dry season lasts from June 
to December, the remaining five months constituting 
the wet season. In the summer, at Limon, the early 

completed by 

it of the day is often sunny, and fogs come on in the 
moon and night ; but in the wet season there ai-e 
B in the morning, and heavy rains during the rest of 
ft day and night. 

of the foregoing jw^es cannot fail tu 

! the reader with the valuable nature of the 

e wliich was performed, and with the energy and 

I fortiuide, combined with great skill and ability, wliich 

Qubled Dr. Spruce to overcome so many difficulties; 

mil almost eqnal praise is due to Mr. Cross, Dr. 

^prace also supplied me with a detailed rejiort which, T 

■lit not hesitate to say, contains a larger amount of 

Inable information on the chinchona foreste than any 

■ lont whicli has yet appeared in Europe. In 

i|'ri>rj tM the narrative of his proceedings, and Ids 

'• fi.irii'Ti,* on the"red bark " tree. Dr. Spruce here 

. . - t (I MiuUe account of the vegetation of the " reii 

■'<" fHrcsts of Cliimborazo, a detailed meteorological 

raal, and important remarks on the climate and 

238 Mr. Pritchett proceeds to Huanuco. ( 



The collection of plants and aeeda of the specie! 
yielding grey barks, in the Huanuco forests, to tht 
north of Lima, was desirable, because, although thest 
ai>ecie8 do not yield quinine, yet they contain othei 
febrifuge alkaloids. I entrusted this duty to Mr 
Pritchett, who did not arrive on the South Americai 
coast until al'ter I had started for the interior. Oi 
reaching Lima, he received detailed instractious whicl 
were drawn up by Mrs. Markham, who also suppliei 
him with llie necessary funds. On the receipt of thesi 
instructions, Mr. Pritchett left Lima for Huanuco oi 
the IStljof May, 1860. 

He arrived at Huanuco, a town on the verge of th 
grey hark region, on the 28th of May, and made th 
necessary preparations for a journey into the neigb 
bouring forests. On the 9th of June he set out for th 
mountain range of Carpis, to the northward, whei 
there are several species of cliinchona, The C. put 
piirta is very abundant ; the C. n'Uida is conimon o 
the north-east side, and on the upper part of th 

The Grey Bark Species. 

tains ; the 0. obovata is more rare ; and the 

mierantha and C. Peruviana are both inhabitants of 

lower elopes. After crossing the Carpis range, Mr. 

ibett followed the coarse of the river of Casapi to 

vill^e of Chinchao, and went thence to the coca 

of Casapi at the eastern end of the valley, where 

it joina that of the river Hnallaga, and here he was 

joiBed by Ms guide. 

Abont three let^es from Casapi, and close to the 
Huallaga, is the mountain called San Crlstoval de 
Cocheros (Cnchero of Pavon and Poeppig), which rises 
fann the low land at the junction of the two rivers to a 
kigbt of about 1200 feet above them, and is the centre 
tf tiie bark district of Huanuco. On the northern aide 
ytt. Pritchett found abundance of C. micranthu, and 
Bue trees of C. Pcrueiana; but the latter species was 
HBch more rare. They both grow to -a very large size, 
tODU of them being thirty inches in diameter and 
ttren^ feet in height. The trees of C. nitida were at 
liugtier elevation. 

Danng June and July, though it was the dry season, 
beivy rains continued to fall from day to day; but 
tovanls the end of July the weather broke up, and the 
■DD b^an to make an impression on the solid banks of 
ttbrnd which filled the valleys, and then it was that, 
4niDg •ome portion of the day, the snn penetrated tu 
lb veiy underwoofl of the forest. In the first half of 
MgUBt there was tine weather, with only an occasional 
The seeds on the chinchona trees ripened 
in the e^uushine, and Mr. Pritchett collected 


Mr. Pritchctfs Report. rn. 

them by felling the trees — a labour which was \ 
formed by Indians, whom he hired from the coca esU 
of Casapi. Seven large trees were cut down daily f 
a fortnight, and denuded of tlieir capsules ; the dryil 
process being carried on at the estate, where evB 
moment of sunsldne wrs taken advantage of. On tj 
13tb of August he started for tlie eoaat with \ 
collection of seeds, and half a mule-load of ; 
chinchona plants, which were in perfect health wbl 
placed in the Wardian cases at Lima. 

Mr. Pritchett reported tliat in the districts i 
Cocheros, Casapi, and Carpia, the rocks are of c 
line formation, in many localities higlily disintegnta 
and composed of niaasea of hornblende, felapar, ai 
uiica. He remarked that felspar contains much poiai 
of which the chinchona trees are said to require a lai 
ijuantity for their full development; and, 
abounds in this region, he attributed the abundance u 
size of the chinchona trees to this circumstance. 
also reported that steatite, a silicate of magnesia and ] 
alumina, abounds in the vicinity of Uuanuco, 

He described the climate as moist and warm, s 
saya that the difference in the degree of moisture an! 
warmth between the lower slopes where the C. «n- 
iiranthn flourishes, and the higher parts of the 
mountains inhabited by the C. nitid-a, is very strikiii!;, 
while on the lower slopes the soil is much deeper ami 
richer.* He reported the elevation of Cocheros above 

* Letter tiom Mr. Fritcliett lo ttie Under Reeretaf> of SUta te 
India, ihited July 9, 1861. 


XXI. Elevation of the Grey Bark Region. 23 1 

li level of th« sea to be about 4000 feet,* but he made 

> metearulogical or other observations ; and I tliiuk 

Ukere can be no doubt tbat the elevation of that 

intain is much r^eater than Mr. Fritchett supposes. 

Ida not tind any infornintion on this point in Poeppig's 

fcvala; but the Huanuco region is quite a beaten 

Mk, and there are several accounts of it by modern 

pvellers. Huaonco itself ia 6300 feet al>ove tlie sea;t 

a distance thence to the summit of the cuesta del 

, which is HOOO feet above the sea, is about 

mty miles, and there ia a descent on the other side 

the \'alley of the Casapi of 29'20 feet} According 

t this account the tillage of Chinchao, in the Casapi 

tllej, would have an elevation of abtiut 5000 feet. 

1 Chinchao to the foot of the Cocheros mountain 

I ii * distance of twenty-five miles down the Casapi 

'alley.J a gentle descent, with numerous eottagea and 

;lin[«tions on both sides of the road.|| Thus the foot 

' LJii; 'ocheros mountain would be about 4500 feet 

1 .1- :i|ij :jt3a, and its summit at least 6000 feet. 

• l--ir r frria Mf. Pritcliett lu Iho Uudur Secrutat; of Stale fur 
Mu. .Uu<l Hucembur 13, l«tlO. 
t F>iDjUi'ii/iHiriirj|/roni Li'uui to Para, p. 63. 
: B«niJ(H>'s Vullc) o/ Uui Antuum, p. VIU. 

I /h.t, fi. 134;. 

, Smjlb. p. 1 IS ; who eajs thai, according to a. mgutor which liu! 
'■vn kcjil Umiv, il niiiu at Uisapi ud mocu tliao Imlf tbo duye ot tijc 

_ "fmoi May la NovembtT tlio isuu ■hints very powerfully in tUt 
J of Chiiwl«n, and cuUnequantly tliO tuil, wLeti it U cleari.-il ur 
o [lui-hcd tliftl its BuifBco opens in chioki, but undra- 
fc It alwaya preurr«a bumidity, uid lUctoforu ncedi no iirieution. 
B Ncn«aibt?r to Hay il rsiiia mnch. KHnctiToca six or WTtn ilayi 
—Dr. A. h^mith'i i'eru at 11 li, ii. p. 37. 


Mr. Pritckdls Services. 

We shall not, therefore, be very far from the trnlh if 
we place the r^on of C. ni^a on the Cocheroa anJ 
Carina mountains at from fiOOO to TOOO feet abov* 
sea, and of C. micravtktt. at from 4000 to 5000 feet. 

Mr. Prichett performed the portion of tliis important 
undertaking which I intrusted to him with promptiti 
and zeal. Time was a great olijeot, and by going 
from Lima to the best locality in the Huanuco cl 
chona region, he completed the necessary collection 
plant-? and seeds, and returned to the coast in lil 
more than tlu^e montlis.* This shows how essential 
previous knowledge of the cliinchona region, of 
lieople, nnd of the language, was, without which 
collector would probably lose much time, which is 
same thing as spending much money, and 
wander into a locality where only worthless b] 
are found. 

■ Of tlie identity of tlie Bpccies aillected by Mr. PriU-Iielt Ih 
uo dnabt. He brought liamc speeimene from the tmra nbesMfl 
aeeda were obtained, wliich bsve been exarnined by Mr. UowMd,ia 
proved to belong to C. nilida, C, mieraniha, and C. Ftnanana. 
Wrlrs bIbo have been found to cont4un u saliarsctor; peiwnl»P'B 
alkaloidg. Some fattber pnrlioulars respecting tbfse tpceies l>><* 
already been giten la ohap. vii. p. 57- 

Mr. Cross proceeds to Loxa. 233 



1 soon as tlie work of 18C0 was completed, I at 

' took steps to obtain those valuable species wliich 

aot lieen provided for in the sanctioned arrange- 

fcp that year. First in importance were the 

ibvrks of Loxa, and I secured the services of Mr. 

tlie important duty of collecting tliis species. 

tUs qualifications as a practical gardener he liad now, 

the instruction of Dr. Spruce, added a know- 

of the country and of the language, and he had 

'bvn-n himself to be an able, daring, and persevering 

ajilnrer. I therefore selected Idm, in full confidence 

i^liM hi: would carry out my inatruetiona well and 


I Mr. Cross proceeded to South America in the autumn 
mdl86L On the 17th of September lie left Guayaquil 
^Kan open rowing boat, and landed at Santa lioea, the 
^^>ort of the province of Loxa, whence he proceeded by 
r "AV of Znruina to the town of Loxa, which he reached 
u the 27th. He had to pass througlt dense swampy 
' TvaiA, and over dangerous precipitous ridges of the 


Search for C. Officinalis. ch. j 

Andes, in crossing one of which his mule slipped Joi 
a deep ravine, and was dashed to pieces. He meatiom 
that during the ascent to Zaruma he saw several "n 
bark " trees growing at an elevation of 8000 feet 

On the lat of October, Mr. Cross left Loxa, and wa 
to a long low riJge of lias called the Sierra de Cajanniii 
about eight miles t<> the southward, a locality wliich 
mentioned by Humboldt, Bonpland, and Caldtis as cl 
abode of the most valuable kinds of C. officinaXu. I 
came to an Indian hut on a little rounded 
near the summit of the mountain, which, being far fro 
public roads or other dwellings, seamed well suited i 
Ilia head-ciuartiirs during the time that he was searchii 
for seeds. For be it remembered that tlie Decree 
May lat. 1861, already mentioned, was in full foB 
and that he was running the risk of fine and impriw 
ment in performing tliis important servie& The own 
of the hut, who was an experienced bark coUecH 
allowed Mr. Cross to establish himself in a little shi 
at one end of it, which, although favourable for 
seeds, was so cold that be was sometimes coutpeUe 
during windy nigbta, to seek shelter in the bottom of 
neigh bonriug ra\'ine. 

After many comparatively unsnccesafiil itearclies \ 
the surrounding woods, he was one day passing alw 
the bank of a steep ravine, and liapjiening to look on 
a projecting rock, he saw a number of line young tre( 
of the G. officinalis on the steep slope beneatli, some > 
which bore a few panicles of soeils, which on examinatio 
he found to be perfectly ripe. After this discovery li 

coDtinued to searct all the ravines in the vicinity from 
sunrise to sunset, some of which lie had to descend by 
means of the trailing stems of a species of Pamnjlora, 
and in this way a good supply of seeds was collected. 
He reported that on tlie acteasible slopes there are few 
dimcbona trees, owing partly to the annual burning, 
and partly to continual cropping of the young ahoota 
by cattle. He described the rocks, composed of mica- 
ceous schist and gneiss, as being, in many places, in a 
state of decomposition, and stiit«d that large portions 
are frequently tumbling down from the more elevated 
summits. The alluvial dejx)sit in the ravines, where 
the C. offidiiaiis is found growing, ia shallow, in many 
places not more than six inches in deptli, and Mr. Cross 
often gathered seeds from trees which were growing in 
clefts of rocks, where there was not a single ounce of 
soil to he found. He described the C. offidiudis as a 
slender tree, from 20 to 30 feet in height,' and from 8 
to 10 Indies ia diameter at the base ; but ho saw few 
trees of these dimensions, and the plants from which 
the l^rk of commerce is now taken ari; in general not 
more than 8 to 10 feet in heigUt.t When the plants 
are cut down, three or four young shoots or suckers 
generally spring up, but this does not always happen, 
as some of the more industrious bark collectors frequently 
pull up the roots, and bark them also. The bark ia 
taken from the smallest twigs, and thus the annual 

• PsTon givM iu height al bom 18 to 24 twt, ftod 8 to B luiliet in 


236 Climate and Flora ch. ssn. 

growths are often taken, especially if they are strong. 
The plants are sometimes found growing in small 
clumps, and sometimes solitary, but always in dry 

The temperature of this r^on ranges, according to 
Humboldt and Caldaa, from 41' to 72° Fahr., and 
according to Mr. Cross from 34° to 70" Fahr. ; but he 
added that it seldom falls below 40° and rarely rises 
above 65° ; the mean range being from 45° to 60° Fahr. 
The climate of Loxa ia very moist. The wet season 
commences in Januaiy and lasts until the end of April 
or middle of May ; in June, July, and August there are 
heaxy rains, accompanied by strong gales of wind ; from 
September to January there is generally fine weather, 
but occasional showers of rain fall even at that time 
of year.* 

The v^etation on the Sierra de Cajanuma is of a 
semi- arborescent character, but some of the higher 
summits are bare. In the bottoms of the ravines grow 
a species of AInus, Melastomir, Peperomias, palms, and 
two species of tree-ferns ; and on the slopes throughout 
the low-lying country, barley, maize, peas, and potatoes 
are cultivated. Mr. Cross sent home a large collection 
of dried specimens of plants gathered on the Sierra de 
Cajanuma, Among them I observed a Be/nria with 
pretty crimson flowers, of which he says that one ounce 
of the roots ia two [linta of water ia taken twice a day 

■ Seemano'g Toj/age of E.M.S. Ilerald, i. p. 177. For gome furfljw 
pBrtiGulB.r8 reapeuting the cliiucliuna re^oo uf Loxn, soc chap. tU. 
pp. 3(1 (o 41. 

of the Loxa Region. 

tiy the Indiana for dysentery ; a very handsome purple 
lupin, growing six to eight feet high ; an Ev^Oiriwm., a 

cmscaoSA riiAiiiAHnvBiu. 
■a Hovwd'i A'lMva <iikindto^ At Patfon.) 

^ide-sproading shrnb, growing in dry situations ; 
smaller B^aria, a bciiutiful shrub, grouing 

238 Mr. Cross's successful Worl:. ch. lin. 

in very lofty dry localities ; a Veronica, a &bmb six to 
eigbt feet bigb, with a blue flower ; a GaullherUt ; a 
wide-spreading meliistomaceous plant, with inconspicu- 
ous flowers ; and n number of Lycopodia and fema. 

Besides the seeds of the C ofidnalis, wMch is 
identical with the C. Ohahuargnera (Pavon), Mr, Cross 
succeeded in collecting a few seeds of C crispii (Tufnlla) 
after several long jonmeys up the mountains. He found 
this kind gron'ing at a great elevation, in a deposit 
of peat, where the temperature sometimes falls to 27° 
Fahr. This epecies of chinchona yields the cascarilla 
crrspUla luyra, one of the most esteemed forms of Loxa 
hark. Mr, Howard" mentions that the Jiisfphiajui 
bears the same relation to the normal C. Calisaya as the 
CrespiUa bark at Loxa does to the normal and full- 
grown C. C/tahuarifuera. 

Mr. Cross did his work right well, and in Decemlter 
18G1 he returned to Guayaquil with nearly 100,000 
seeds of C. officinalis of two varieties, besides a smaUer 
parcel of the variety called C, crwpa.t 

* Kvtta QnimHogitt de Pattni. C. Chahuarguem nnd C. eritiiia. 
t Mr. Ctoca traiiBmillcd thu followiog dried Bpecimeua of tbc fMUtl 
of chiooliDiin treea IWim Loin ;— 

1. Verr t^liaiaatcriBtia specimenB of the biirk, laiTee, ltow«rs, and 
cspsnlt's III C. officinulU {C. Chahvargttera, Pavuii). 'I'liis kind jields 
the niitty croini bark of commurco. 

2, liark, leaTes, and floncra of C. criipa (TafolliL), n kind which is 
included in the C. officinalU, H. and B. It yields lbs ^t«a fina de 
Loxa. or camarilla cretpilia. 

S. Bu-k and ImTea uf C. Lueumr/olia of Pavon, from Zttmora. This 
ia the ea»earilla dn h'Ja de lucma of the nalivoi. Mr. Croea made no 
attempt to collect the teeit, as tliia ipecics i» C(imj>arativel7 woHUiea. 

Valuable Species in Colombia. 



Havisg obtained a BUpi»Iy of C. officinalis from the 
Loxa forests, it now only remained to secure the 
^^Uoable kinds which were knonii to exist iu the 
I Bepablic of Colombia. 

I The species originally described by Mutis were, witli 

Itbe exception of his C. la^icifolia and C. amli/olia, of 

Baw> value. His other five species are not cliinchonie, 

Ptbat belont; to allied genera. Still there are species of 

F Te»y great value in Colombia, namely, the C. ntayenms, 

ridding (luinidine, the Calisaya de Santa F^, or soft 

Colombian bark, a variety of C. lanc\f<dia, and tlie 

Cuthagena bark from C. toniijolia ; and of late years 

tliia I{ei>ablic lias become a principal sonrco of quinine 


I Boconlingly made arrangements for obtaining seeds 
tt the valuable 8i>ecie3 growing in the forests of i'itayo, 
I tB tbv State of Cauca, the most soulhern StJiUi of 
I Colombia, bordering on Ecuador. Mr. Cross's success 
L in the lA>xn forests, and his admirable qualities as an 
■ixnlorBr, iiointed him out iis Uie Ixist mail for this 

240 Fomter Accounts of Popayan. ch. mu 

very difficult work, and I again secured his servicer. 
He was then residing on the western slopes of Mooni 
Chiinborazo, whence lie set out on his important missiiro 
in May 18(53. 

The first writer who deaerihed the country roiimi 
Popayan and Pitayo was the Spanish CmiqiiUtwifi 
Cieza de Leon. Ha accompanied the invading dis- 
coverers who, starting from Darien in 1536, aacendi^' 
the valley of the Cauca, and reached Popayan. ! 
translated and edited his cliaiining Cronica in 18W, 
and it was printed for the Hakluyt Society.* Tlie 
next author who ti^eated of this region was the Imniiiiw 
aad geoerouB, but imfonunate AdeUutado An<lagoya, 
who was in Popayan in 1544. His narrative, wliicli I 
have also translated and edited.t ^"iU be found ainonis' 
the collections of Navarrete. Ulloa, in his travels, givffl 
a brief account of the province of Popayan ; but 
only modern writers who have preceded Cross 
Humboldt, Caldas, Karaten, and Vigne. Huml 
crossed the paramo of Quindiu, ascended the valley of' 
the Cauca to Popayan in 1801, and went thence W 
Pasto and Quito. During his stay at Popayan he msJe 
an excursion to the village of Pnrace. The leamal 
Caldaa was a native of Popayan, and he and Mr. Vi^w 
are the only writers who have gone over the saof 

• The Traetlt of Ftilro de Cuta de Letm, aj». 1532-iSO, eoiOoiiwIoJ 
(hefiritpaTlofliit&mmiekofVtm, TranAated and tdittd.viA'*' 
oixlan inlrodnrtion,bg ClmneiUt R. Markhitm. (HakluTt Socielj.lHj 

t Sarrative of tiie Fronerdiiign of I'edrariaii Davila, uriOi 
Adetanlado Paicvat de Andagoi/a. Trantlated arul editrd, a 
and an inlrodtteiion, by CUintnU B. iiaMMm. {Lundon, 16C5.) ] 

Cross in the Pitayo Forests. 


] aa Cross, None have given any account of the 
I Pitayo forests, 
^payan is situated in the beautiful valley of Cauca, 
e foot of tlie great volcanoes of Purac^ and Sotara, 
26' 17" north latitude, and 5SO0 feet ahove the 
From this city Cross travelled eastward to the 
Tillage of Sylvia, the head-quarters of the bark 
eclors. Some miles to the eastward of Syh^ia a 
»vered ridge of lofty hills nms north and 
, and from their western slopes branch spurs of 
staltitude, which gradually subside to the westward, 
il they become low green undulations on the edge 
I llie Cauca valley. Near Sylvia are the villages 
> and Purace, at the base of a foreat-covered 
, from the crest of which rises the snow-covered 
we volcano.* 

On July loth Cross left Sylvia and ascended the 

rtst-covered Pinon de Pitayo to the eastward, which is 

■|"iO feet above the sea. Here he found the cliinchona 

'■•es growing in ravines on either side of the road, 

■ ''^jceoding the eastern slopes he reached the village of 

: tayo, io a circular valley surrounded by high conical 

:11-S OD the summita of which are bare grassy paramos. 

li-j iraa infomied at Pitayo that most of t)ie trees had 

bees felled, and that only two of any size remained in 

tbe Pitayo region, the property of two Indians. He 

Tiimediately set out for the abode of one of these men, on 

' TUtwleftDowuTUltedbj Ilnmtiolilt in Xmcinber ISOl. Pnmci.- 
'Mmltd tof >'"' beautiful raturaots of the riiu PuMinMa, Uguiui 
a fiM df4 CordUUra. 

242 Cross's Second Journey 


a hill slope above the village, sDd round four young tBl 
laden \rith capsules. He ttius succeeded in obtaioil 
450 ripened capsules full of seeds ; and he mada 
further collection during excursions into the foi 
from the village of Sylvia. He then set out for 
the capital of the Republic of Colombia, which place 
reached, after a difficult journey, on the 16th 
September. Unfortunately his instructions did I 
reach Bogotd until October 14th, and in their abeeai 
he determined to retrace his steps to Quito, 
despatch the seeds from the port of Guayaquil, n 
long Journeys were fatal, and the seeds did 

Tliough Mr. Cross was prostrated by ague after his 
Pitayo expedition, he returned to England in Jani 
1867, quite ready to make a second attempt. But 
considered that he should not again enter the foi 
until he bad quite recovered his health. I therefb 
deferred the arrangements for liis second expedition 
until 1868, and, owing to my absence with the Abys- 
sinian expedition, Mr. Howard kindly drew up 
instructions for his guidance. He was to go out by 
way of Panama to the Pitayo forests, and to give bis 
attention to the collection of seeds, and, if possible, also 
of small plants of all the species from Pitayo which have 
been found useful in commerce. Mr. Cross reached 
Panama on May 9tb, 1868, went thence by steamer to 
Buenaventura on the west coast, and on the 14th of 
June be was again at the village of Sylvia, in the centre 
of the Pitayo region. He made such good use of his 

CH. 3tim. to tlu Pitayo Forests. 


time, that bj the 22nd be hid despUdwd two jaekeU 
of chinchona seeds, \ff yncj of Bapit£ 

From Sylvia Mr. Oom made hk wmj to Fitajro, : 
thence fuUoved s t 

to the village of Hambato, a dii t aa fe ef twdve Milflai| 
The moantains to the elwifd nw ■{> to the 1 
and extenrive farmmo «f Monaa, part flf a vait ■ 
of grusy moitataiiH and vokaaie peaks, wlndi In 
grandly pictnreaqne part cf tlte eentnl oofdOkxa. Del 
%niee made BttmemH txaamoam in the neigbbow-J 
hood of AnUo, Fitefo, ^ri Sylna 4«nw 
foQowing month* ; and he l eportrf the spfcr Ian 
the chindxiM plot a tUi i flp— Itt fee 1700 I 
He was baaOy m^^ ia tha niiBiirlina af flmm, 
made nIeaUe obacnaliMa wniirtiaB \ 
and OkedoMle of tUa fl rf ifei nwifiniii. MTil. ii . 
October, he vie praMMed hf tent. Am turn m he 
'rr[iTrrr11ii ji.iil fiwi ■—■■ail. ■ 1 i(,tiiaj. It Ihi iiiih. 
i-'^jaeh he lailT^iii tWp^^ laJiiaiij JW, 

ni4st toRoda cf iiupii'ii em. Ohm act •« iv A»:| 

r^m the : 

'uta|aL ' 

!<^. bat aU 4 

1>^ Ur. OiM a 

Mr. Cross reported that there are three distinct kinds 
of Pitayo barks, namely, the ydlmo barks, the nd 
Pinon barks, and the Pinon amarilla fina. He saiil 
that the trees were being rapidly extirpated, and that 
no large ones coiild be found. The Pitayo climate 
exactly resemblea that of the Loxa chinchona foreata. 

Through the admirable work of this most zealous and 
ivble collector, a good supply of plants and seeds o£ 
C. Pitayensis was thus secured, and introduced into 
India, It only remained to obtain the Calisaya 8t 
Santa Fe, plants yielding the soft Colombian barks, and 
the C. cordifolia yielding Cartkagena barks, which 
would complete the enterpriBe. All the valoable kinds 
kno^vn to commerce would then have been intiodt 
into India. 

For the performance of this final work I again, 
the fifth time, secured the services of Mr. Cross. 
left England on this duty in August 1877, and 
by way of Panama and Buenaventura, he arrived 
Popayan on the 18th of September, Thence he 
southwards to the town of San Sebastian, and, 
tlie eastern cordillera, he entered the basin of the rii 
t'a(iueta or Japura, a groat affluent of the Ams 
Tlie forests of the Caqueta produce the best descript 
of soft Colombian bark. Mr. Cross left San Sebast 
on October 4th, and commenced the ascent of the 
of the eastern cordillera. He was accompanied 
lad who had previously assisted hjm in the PitaJ 
country, and by two Indians, carrying with 
provisions for eighteen days. They reached the si 

at a heiglit of 13,300 feet above the sea, whence there 
was a wide view over the basiD of the Caquetd to the 
eastwai'd, with a seriea of winding ridges covered with 
a dense green maaa of vegetation. 

The little party then descended the eastern slope, 
following a gurgling rivulet, which the Indians declared 
to be the Ix^nning of the river Caquetd. The rivulet 
at the base of the mountain was increased in volume by 
the addition of a number of streamlets from different 

After descending for an hour over broken ground 
they entered the forest, which was so thick and lofty 
that absolutely no sky could be seen during the two 
following days' journey. On each side of the path, 
which was only about three feet wide and ankle deep 
■with mud, were thickets of prickly bushes and palms 
furnished with numerous straight delicate spines. 
There were a few spots of rising groimd partially clear 
of underwood. The excellent deep rich mould of such 
localities was just the description of soil wliere quinine 
trees may be seen to grow most luxuriantly. The 
region on which they had now entered embraces an 
extensive portion of the slopes and lower lands of the 
eastern eordiJlera, and is usually termed the territory 
of the Caque^. The chief part of it is unexplored and 
unknown. The bark tree is confined to the more elevated 
portion, inhabiting the cold, moist, humid forests from 
7000 to 10,500 feet above the sea. 

The only habitations met with are tliose of temporary 
nonmers' ranchos or bark sheds, which may bo ^ut 

246 Search in the Caguetd Forests ca. nra. 


np to-day and abandoned a few days hence All ti» 
Indian tribes inhabit the foot of the moontains in 
wann valleys, where Indian corn and mandioc can be 
grown, and where there is an abundance of Bah in d» 

At niid-day Mr. Cross and his party emerged from the 
forest on to an open swampy place called the paramiSfi, 
which was soon found to be a sort of trembling bog, 
moving at every step, and with some difficulty thej 
succeeded in getting across, all afraid of sinking 
through the thin surface of grassy turf which covered 
the soft mud beneath. More of these bogs were met 
with afterwards. The Indians, now that they had 
entered the shady forest wherein tliey had 
accustomed to travel and roam about all their lives, 
proceeded more rapidly tlian they hod done before. 
Notwithstanding the mud holes which had to be waded,, 
and the falls which they as well as the lad and Mr. 
Cross frequently sustained, they were travelling at the 
rate of three miles an hour. The Indians on falling 
were up again in a moment, and pursuing the way 
with unabated speed. Although now well within tha 
limits of the bark district, yet no bark plants were 
to be seen. There had been so many "resacadas" 
(re -collectings) that not a single stump or sapling 
seemed to have escaped. It was therefore necessary to 
continue the journey to a more remote locality, where 
the forest had not been so rigorously searched. 

At sunset they came to an open spot called Las 
Animas, close to the bank of the Caqueta river, along 

. for Plants of Calisaya de Sanla Fi. 247 I 

tltey had travelled moat of the day. The 

Ktion was 9000 feet, and they remained here for 

night Before daylight on the morning of the 6th 

kiber the Indians had a large hlazing &re kindled, 

rder that they might have breakfast and be ready 

s travel the moment there was light enough to do so. 

I This was the course followed while in the forests. The 

I vlu^e of the day was devoted to travelling or working, 

I while cooking or eating had to be done aft«r dusk or 

i Wore daybreak. Continuing their journey, the path 

■dually became better. There were also fewer 

mpy places, and the forest trees were of more 

nve dimensions. The deposit was of soft yellow 

F diyey loam of great depth, covered by a surface layer 

rf regetable mould. Shortly after mid-day tliey came 

on a young sapling of soft Colombian bark growing 

quiM close to the path, and a little farther on many 

more were discovered. From the very first it was 

evident that good plants would be difficult to find, as 

thou seen were tail, drawn-up saplings, with long bare 


They were now on the brow of a hill, and the 
:■ Q;^hly-openod paths of the foscarilleros were seen 
niooiiig through the forest in every direction. A long 
dtaceot then led down to the river Caqueta, which was 
reached at four in the afternoon, and they at once 
tanaai an encampment on the northern bank. By 
dismantling various abandoned rancKos they were 
Mttbled to build a tolerably commodious place for 
■l< wpf"g i n, The Catjueli here was a lai^e powerful 

348 Cross completes his Collection. 

river twelve yards broad, with high steep banks ai 
occasional cliffs ou each side. The deep bed was stre* 
witli enormoiis masses of grey granite, over which ti 
river foamed and boiled in the most restless mannf 
Large as were those granite boulders, they were beii 
gradually rolled downwards by the irresistible force 
the torrent, occasionally striking against each other, ai 
producing a dull, loud report. Tlie elevation was foun^ 
to be 7800 feet. A journey of only four hours roon 
would have brouglit the party to a warm \'alleyi 
inhabited by Indians, wliere traders embark in canoes 
reach the river Amazon. 

On the 8th of October Mr. Cross succeeded 
getting a good many plants. On the 9th, the Indian) 
again went in searcli of plants, while Uie lad and Crod 
were occupied in dressing and packing those alreadj 
collected. The plants were divided into two classei 
All young plants not exceeding one foot in lengti 
were set apart. The remaining portion with st«inj 
from two to eight feet in length were cut down to Uu 
collar, and only the root piece was taken. In tht 
evening there were about 1000 plants of both classei 
These were packed in two lai^ baskets which tht 
Indians carried on their backs. The baskets heioj 
heaped up were bulky, but comparatively ligh^ 
Everything was put in order during the evening, 
that they might commence the return journey on 
following day. 

The soft Colombian bark tree \% met with mi 
frequently in the fertile portions of the forest where 

The Calisaya de Santa Fe. 2491 

mealy and dry. It grows too, but more sparingly, 
my siCiiations with a thin covering of mould. The 
shoots up in general rather slender but to a great 
It, rising often above the majority of forest trees, 
is recognised by the collectors at a distance on 
tt of its elevated crown of compact branches 
with glossy leaves of a deep green colour. All 
>r3 agree in saying that many dead trees still 
Btending are met with in tlie forest. But the land is in 
many places rather swampy. During the rainy season 
Ho doubt flat low-lying portions of forest land are some- 
innnilated, or at least much soaked. Such i-ir- 
would prove injurious to those valuable 
But it is certain that, in favourable localities. 
sometimes attain to a great size. Tlie tree 
peculiarities not possessed by any other ^uinine- 
poducing species. The epidermis or outer bark re- 
tunUes in appearance that of a beech tree, and does 
crack or become fissured, so that there is not the 
mitinnal wasting process going on by the separation 
<if dry. hard scales or flakes of bark from the outer 
surface, as is commonly the case with most trees. 
Another important fact is that the bark in drying 
1m» leaa in weight than any other sort of bark. On 
Mootut of ita soft &iable texture it is easily reduced 
to a powder. 

Tbe bark collectors are mostly Indians, and inhabit 
iW banks of streams or rivers which flow from the foot 
of Um eastern cordillem, and afterwards fall into the 
vinous tributaries of the Amazon. When going in 


Colombian CascarilUros. 

search of bark they proceed to the summits of t 
neighbouring hills, where, on finding one or more tret 
they erect a thatched roof of palm leaves, twelve 
fourteen feet in height, underneath which ia made 
platform (harbacoa) of wicker-work. Over this U 
bark is spread, to a depth of live or six inches. luid tl 
turned and moved about frequently. From four to 
moderate fires are lighted on the ground underneath, 
and kept constantly burning until the bark is dtji, 
which is usually in the space of three or four days. 
When the quantity of bark collected during the ex- 
cursion is small, the collector takes it home, and diial 
it on the loft immediately above the fireplace used fo> 
cooking. If at any time unaucceaaful in finding hoik, 
he is not much disconcerted, aa the streams and rivf 
near his abode abound with fish, which, with mandioi 
or plantain, suffice for his daily wants, 

A collector, on going in search of bark, is general^ 
accompanied by his wife or one or two of his soni 
They are usually absent eight or ten days, and 
returning bring with them about six arrobas of dq 
bark. This they can sell at San Sebastian at the rat 
of £1 5s. per arroba of 25 lbs. On their return tl 
the forest they frequently take with them a quantity a 
coca, salt, and a few other articles for disposal «| 
barter, eo that this is another source by which goo^ 
profits are made from the journey. Of course it is onlj 
Indians bom in and accustomed to those regions 
can accommodate themselves to the hardships 
forest life. 

A IS onj] 
ions whn 
i of wilq 

CB. ixm. Climate of the Caquda Forests. 251 

Respecting the general arborescent vegetation of the 
cold foreeta, a large proportion were of the glossy-leaved 
myrtle family and compositea. Although the climate ia 
proverbially damp, very few ferns were seen, but moasea 
clothed the trees everywhere. 

The temperature in the shade, during their stay at 
tJie encampment, was as follows : — 




The native account was that it rained nearly all the 
year round. At the same time, the rains are more in 
the form of drizzly showers than heavy downfalls. 
Towards the end of February the rains commence, and 
last till the middle of September, though of course 
there are many little showers during the intervening 
months. Bark is collected more or less throughout the 
year, but probably least is gathered in July and August. 
Hailstorms sometimes occur of so severe a character 
that, according to a cascarillero. hardly a leaf is left on 
the trees. Not unfrequently thick masses of mist float 
upwards and overspread the forest-covered slopes, 
■whilst dense bodies of white wool-Ute exhalations fill 
the deeper valleys for a brief period at dawn of day, but 
these do not form characteristics of the Caqueta climate. 
Its feature, for at least six months of the year, may 
nther be regarded as consisting mainly of succesaional 
Vetting showers, with gleams of warm sunshine tiom 

77:*? need /or Coca. 

about eight in the morning until three in the afti 
However, at tiinea there are, even in the miny si 
days during which there is bright hot sunshine for fi 
or five hours together. The climatic conditions of tl 
bark districts of Pitayo and Loxa are similar to 
of the soft Colombian region, only that the latter il 
the same or a higher elevation is felt to be mildt 
especially in the evenings, wliicli is fully aooonnUl 
for by the warm currents of air coming up from tl 
Amazon valley. 

At daybreak, on the morning of the 10th, Mr. Cnn 
commenced his rettirn journey. 

The Indians were in good spirits, and travelled a 
fully their former rate of speed, but they : 
lamented the want of coca, as their last mouthful 1 
been already chewed. They asked several parties c 
travelling Indians for a Uttle, but all declared they h 
none, although it was easy to see that their mouths w 
crammed with the leaf. As yet Mr. Cross had t 
no part in the endeavouia to procure coca, but he i 
began to see it would be to the interest of all i 
could succeed in getting some. Above Las Animafti 
they met two Paez Indians from San Sebastian, whofl 
were going down towards the Caquetd. Mr. Croa 
addressed the foremost of them on the matter, offeri 
to give in exchange some panda. He said ' 
stopped and laid down his bag at a resting-place I 
hand. Mr. Cross obtained six " chewings " of coca, [ 
gave in return more than three times the value i 
panda sugar. No sooner had the Indians lilled tha 

Return to Popayan. 253 

with coca — which they previously powdered 

irith a little lime—than they commenced travelling 

vith a vengeance. The lad and Mr. Cross had to go at 

% mtuuDg trot to keep up with them. On reaching a 

pond of mud or water they spent no time in stepping 

^r>;'fully round the edge; on the contrary, they rushed 

ii;^lit through it, regardless of everything. At dusk 

y finished a long day's journey, but the path had 

.jjirored mucli, and the weather was favourable. 

iJefore noon of the 11th they crossed the summit of 

ittie Cordillera. In the forest no one can travel twenty 
Jfuils after dark, but they were now in the open 
cnuntrv, where the footpath, winding down steep grasay 
■I"iv3, U discernible, so it was resolved to continue the 
:.riiey to San Sebastian. 

Thus was successfully performed a journey occupying 
niae days on foot, through dense wet forests and over 
"ae of the most desperate footpaths in the world. All 
wumed in tolerable condition, though every one suffered 
more or less from scratches and bruises. 

The plants which, on the whole, had stood well the 
riciaxittides of the forest travelling, were packed in four 
bnxes, so as to form two mule loads. 

On the 18tU of October Mr, Cross left San Sebastian, 
Mcoupauied by the lad and an arriero, and Popayan 
ru reached on the night of the 22nd Octolier. Here 
l{r. Cross resolved to make an attempt to collect some 
flanta of the Cartliagena hark, growing on the border 
of tbe Magdalena valley, on the eastern declivities of 
tbe oenlral cordillera. He was induced to take this 

step by the large and increasing a\port of this son 
which has been going on ever since the exhaustion of 
the Pitayo forests, and in justice to himself it must Ic 
stated that the collection of this bark was not incluJeii 
in the engagement he entered into for collecting (In 
soft Colombian species. 

In the beginning of January Mr. Cross made prt- 
parations for collecting a number of bark plants in thi 
district of M^alena. After some consideration and 
inquiry, he proposed to cross the great mouDtain ranje 
of the central cordiUera, dividing the Canca and Ma^- 
dalena valleys, by tho pass of Guanacas, to a pluw 
called Coralis, a hark collectors' resort, situated on the 
opposite side of the mountain ridge. He employed an 
Indian as a guide, who had been some time occupied in 
collecting bark at Coralis. 

Proceeding on the 13th, the mountain summit, at an 
elevation of 11,500 feet, was passed in fine warm sun- 
shine, this being the most favourable time for croseiog 
during the whole year. Coralis was reached on the 
evening of the same day. The place is merely a tamhv, 
or thatched shed by the wayside for the accommodation 
of travellers to pass the night, and is situated on the 
aouthem bank of the Ullucos river, at an elevation of 
7000 feet. The wliole scene around was formed of 
lofty cliffs and wet-dropping precipicea, with wata< 
spouts and streamlets coming down in every directJcn 
These towering masses of rugged rocks rise up to a 
dizzy lieight, apparently 5000 feet, bearing a growth of 
foliaceoua lichens, mosses, and wild flowering herbs au'i 

Carihagena Bark. 255 

Dispersed in crevices a few saplings are 
jervable, witli shrubs of lesser growth. At the base 
a Ullucos rushes restlessly down tlirough a series of 
sofoimd depths, with high steep banks of clayey loam 
1 each side, supporting a thick mass of chmbers and 
fereat trees. At a short distance, the course of the 
Bver was completely hidden from view by the hixuriant 
s of numerous palms and tree-ferns. The state of 
iilie atmosphere was densely humid and vaporous. On 
f 14th search was made for plants, but only eighteen 
Idling shoots, torn from the roots of trees formerly cut 
Sown, could be as yet obtained, and from tliis source 
) was collected the bark brought home for analysis. 
the barked stumps were more than twice the thickness 
F those which yielded the sample of soft Colombian 
ftoin the Caqueta, altliough perhaps not any older. 
Slie forest was so wet, and the place so circumscribed 
!i precipices and gullies, that little ground was gone 
r. This locality for some time past has been well 
rched by collectors, and, besides the first gatherings 
Euned by cutting down all trees met with, there has 
ince been three " re-collectings," when the bark of 
y stump, root, or sapling met with has been pared 
The bark of the Coralis and Inza district, and 
nth ward about Ped regal and Tulmina, has been 
rougbt for a long time. At present it is being 
Uected to the northward about four or five miles 
fatoDt, near some villages, where, until of late 
I, the forests, owing to the hostility of the Indians, 

256 Carihagcna Bark Region. fE.H»l 

remained wholly unUiuched. The trees, however, i» 
this locality are iiot fio large, because the country * 
more open, an^ the climate is certainly drier than iW 
of Coralis. 

The temperature at Coralis during their brief sBJ 
waa: — 

MoTBing. Noon. Ni| 

January IS'li ... — — 6 

From the forefjoipg remarks it will be evident tW 
the collection of this Carth^ena bark was a work bofli 
of hardship and peril. 

Tlie region of the Carthagena bark tree, situated ta 
the eastward of Pojmyan, and embracing within itt 
limits the great volcano Hiiila. stretches along th( 
eastern slope of the central cordillera for about seventj 
(niJes. and extends eastward from the mountain simimitl 
to near the banks of the Magdalenn. It 19 chiefi] 
composed of a vast assemblage of mountain tnasaei 
divided by steep shelving ravines, in places more thai 
a thousand feet in depth, into which are precipitate^ 
the numerous swollen rivulets that gush down froa 
the adjoining cliffs and steeps. The summits of tlH 
rugged heights are usually treeless, the forest bein^ 
mostly confined to sheltered slopes and banks on 

This region is, without doubt, the great centre of 
Carthagena bark tree, and it is also here where it 
seen growing most abundantly. 

■■ xrin. Final completion of the Work. 257^ 

B general height of the Carthagena bark tree is 
B 40 to 50 feet, with a diameter of 1} to 2 feet. 
1 the 27th of January, 1878, Iiav-ing previously 
d the plants, Mr. Cross coiumenced the homeward 
The mule owner brought witli him a strung 
i peon, to assist in loading and unloading the 
iti, and other duties. 

rested a day at Cali, and on the 5th of 
Febmary continued their course, reacliing the point of 
■iWkatinn on the Bagua on the 8th of February. 
in a canoe the following morning, Mr. Cross 
the river to Buenaventiu^. Tlie whole 
? was one of peril, at least for the plants, on 
mat of the numerous cascades and rapids which 
I be descended. Arriving at the port, he corn- 
packing and securing the plants. Here 
3 was attacked with fierce swamp fever on the 
I of the lltb, hut he was able to embark, 
had a suitable place granted for the plants 
k board the Pacific mail steamer, which left Bnena- 
tttura on the 14th, and reached Panama on the 
h February. Mr. Cross arrivetl in England a month 

\ 3I1118 was the whole enterprise of introducing all the 

ible chincliona species from South America into 

R made complete in all its parts. My original plan 

B at length carried out in '\\& entirety, and tlie species 

1 the five regions whence the barks of commerce an> 

I were converted from a wild to a cultivated 

FiTUxl completion of the Work. m. i 

state, and brought together in the plantations of Briti 
India, namely, the valuable species from — 

I. Tlia CulUaya Region of 8. Pern nnd Botim, yvCnc l» 
[C. Coliwyu.] 
II. Tlie Husnuoo RegioD, fielding qre^ hark*. [C. niCida, 
mfonintta, G. Fvmvvuia^ 

III. The LoxB BegioD. yleMiuH eroam hotla. \C. n^nnlit] 

IV, The Limon Begioti, f it^lding rad bnrftf. [C tuaeinina ] 
V. Tbe Pitajo mnd CaqueU Bc^oni, yielding CulemMia (orb 

[C. P.(«vmi.fa, C. lunn/olia.] 

The G. Calimya, C. officinalis of Loxa, and C. landfaliA 
from Colomhia are species rich in quinine. The 
Piiayensis from Colombia specially contains quinidio* 
the C. siiceirvhra is rich in chinchonidine, ai»* 
tbe C. nitida, C. micrantha, and C. Peruviana from tl* 
Huanuco region yield chinchonine. All these chix3 
choua alkaloids, and not quinine alone, have febrifuj 
virtues; and it was, therefore, necessary to introdui 
the cultivation of all the plants which produce the 
into India. 

1 1 Complete success in South America. 259 




Ear as tliQ labours in South America were concerned, 

1 obstacles and difficulties were overcome, afld the 
. of this great enterprise were fully attained. 

intB and seeds of all cliinchona species known to 
I were brought to the coast, and in every 
! the plants were satisfactorily established in 
a cases. Botanical specimens of all the species 
a also collected and brought to England, so that tbeir 
? was placed beyond the possibility of doubt.* 

[ * Mf nilleetbni of dried ipecimeDB is depoaitud in (he mnieam anil 
~ <r. It eonsUU ot lenTea, Qowers, Truit, and bark of 
1 C<iIiMya ; lunvM B'ld Qowen of C miDranlAa ; leaveB nod froit fX 
^Oar^mpmtUi frull of PinmiAia gtomerala ; and bark Trom the 
■ of almuat oTvrjr Bpeciea ot eliincliona and allied genera iu 
kt Csi**afail fofrsU. 
i Dt. 8pra«c'« coltoction of all the porti of C. tveeimbra is In tli« 
>t Ke«. 
Mf. Pillebetl*! coileetion of lekvea, Trait, aoU Imik ot C. niliJa. 


260 Wardian Cases. 

But in conveying these precioiia mule loadB Ui t»^ 
aea-coast and safely embarking tliem, only half th* 
<lifficnltie8 had been overcome, There was a lonf 
transit, and although there was not much reason W 
apprehension with regard to the seeds, the plants, iO 
the absence of any provision for conveying them direct 
across the Pacific, had to undergo an ordeal of unpre- 
cedented duration. 

The most important introduction of plants into India, 
by means of Wardian cases, previous to the arrival of 
the cliiiichoiias, was that of the tea from China in 1849 
and following years by Mr. Fortune, On those occasions 
the cases were strongly and coarsely made, the glass 
abades firmly fixed, and the glass itself thick, and glazed 
in pieces of moderate size. The frames were protected 
by a grating of iron wire, with h. canvas covering capabis' 
of being unrolled so as to screen the plants from thft: 
direct rays of the sun, if necessary. The soil was not 
less than eight or ten inches deep, and kept down \sj! 
cross-battens, and the plants were fairly established ia. 
it before starting, lu 1849 Mr. Fortune sowed large 
(quantities of seeds in the cases, between rows of young 
plants, which germinated on their way from China tw 
India, and reached their destination in the Himalayas 

C, mieranOui, C. Ferunianti, aod C. obovala, IB in the poMeuion of 
BIr. Howurd, 

Mr. Crosa's dried Bpeoimena of It>av«fl, flowera, fruit, and buk ot 
C. ojgicinalU {C. Chahaarguera of Pavon), bark, leaves, and Bowera a( 
C. eritpa of Tafalla, nnd bark and leaves of C. Lwmmte/oUa, ni 
purtlj to laj piiBeeuioa, p&rtlf in that of Mr. Huwud, and putly il 
that of Mr. Veitch. 

Wardia7t Cases. 


■ in good condition. Out of 250 tea plants, 215 arriveil 
H in jierfect order." 

H But it was an easy process to convey plants by tlie 

■ rtmrt voyage from China to Calcutta, when compared 
m with the introduction of plants from the western coast 
V of South America into India; and the performance of 

■ the Utter feat, in the case of the chinchona plants under 
K Mr. Croae's care, is undoubtedly the most e.x.traordinary 
I mcceas of the kind that has yet been achieved. 

K A few remarks on the treatment of plants in Wardian 
^BM were supplied to me by Mr. Weir and Mr, Cross, 
^^nt^Wiqnired their experience in the voyages from 
^^■^h America to India ; and by I^Ir. Mclvor, who re- 
^^^Hnhe plants on the Nilgiri hills. The cases were 
^^^^^KOi soil to a depth of nine to ten inches, in wliich 
HPHffincbonaa were planted in rows, from the back to 
K<ti]e front of the case. The distance from plant to plant 
■wu regulated by their size, but, in the case of their 
I'ltaving much foliage, they should be rather wide apart, 
Libr the crowding; of foliage is always injurious, and 
l^often brings on mildew or mould. After having been 
■planted they were weU watered, and shaded from the 
K;^are of the mid-day sun. On the surface, between each 
bow of plants, a batten was placed, extending from llie 
Kback to the front of the case, and held firmly down by 
B|wo longer t>attens extending lengthwise. By tliis 
Mnimnn the soil and plants are not disturbed in the 
K^peration of moving the cases. When the cases are 
Bnally closed, the soil should be in a medium state as 

■ * Soe Fgrluno'o r«i DUtrM; diup. xxi. p. SSM-tl. 


Treatment of Plants 

regarda moisture, and all dead foliage should be removi 
Tilt! cases should be made oa air-tight aa possible 
filling the seams ■n-ith putty, and every precaution mi 
be taken to preserve the plants from the slightest con) 
with salt water. Mr. Mclvor strongly recommends 
the eases should be furnished with a false bottom, t^i 
itbout two or three inches above the true bottom, 
hare of wood of the required thickness being nailed 
the underside. The false bottoms should have hole* 
bored in them at regular intervals, with a few broken 
piouos of pot and a layer of moss placed over thcni. 
Ho considers that the best sort of soil is formed of 
equal parts of leaf-mould, turfy loam, and sand, mked 
ill a dry state, and spread out and exposed to the action 
of tlie sun for a few days before being placed in tbi; 
cases, During the voyage the plants should hare 
plenty of light and air, one side of the case left open for 
two or three hours, morning and evening, during fine 
weather, when deatl leaves should be picked off, and 
water administered to any plant which may require it, 
The soil should be turned up on the surface to the depth 
of about half an inch with a small pointed stick eveij' 
three or four days, and always kept rough on the surface, 
so as to allow the air to circulate in the soil. This 
cii-culation of air is also facilitated by the false bottom. 
The action of the air on the soil keeps the roots in fine 
condition, and entirely prevents the formation of mildi 
and damp ; but the principal object of the false botH 
is to allow any excess of water to drain off into a pi 
wliere it cannot sour the soil, and yet will not be 



'''\i<m, as the soil becomes dry above, the water will be 
i^-uacted to it. 

Willi the exception of the false bottom, all the above 
Mi^gestions were carefully attended to by the gardeners 
viio were in charge of the chinchona plants during the 
I Toy^ea to India, I caused thirty Wardian caaes to be 
I sent out to South America, 3 feet 2 inches long, 1 foot 
' 10 inches broad, and 3 feet 2 inches high, with spare 
jlasses, and all the necessary tools and materials, each 
case weighing, with soil and plants, a little over 3 cwt. 
fifleen of the cases received the plants from Caravaya 
*' Islay, and fifteen were sent to Guayaquil for 
I*r. Spruce's collection. I also had six cases made at 
Lima for the grey bark plants from Huanuco. The 
I'lants from Caravaya sailed from Islay on the 22nd of 
■'line, 1860, were conveyed across the Isthmus of 
I^ama, and arrived at Southampton in August, when 
207 plants were in a flourisliing and healthy condition. 
But thu intense heat of the Red Sea, where the 
thermometer ranged from 99° in the night to 107° in 
the daytime, was fatal to them, and they all eventually 
died at Utakamund. The cases containing the plants 
from Huauuco left Callao in September, and were also 
in a promising state when they reached England, but on 
their arri\ttl in India they were all dead. The " red 
bark " collection, under the management of Mr. Uross, 
aoile^l from Guayaquil on .January 2nd, 1861. They 
onired in England in excellent order. At that season 
the cUmntti uf the Ked Sea is much cooler, and, owing to 
thi« ctrcuinslance and to the intelligent watchfulness of 

264 Arrival of Plants and Seeds 

Mr. Cross, 463 plants of C. mcmmhra arrived in » 
healthy condition in India, and continued to thrire 
The collection of seeds from Camvaya, for tJie trans- 
mission of which T made arrangements i)efore Iw^Tig 
Sandia, did not arrive in India Tintil 1865, when they 
germinated satisfactorily. The " grey bark " seeds fMffl 
Huanuco arrived on the Nilgiri hills early in January 
1861, and the " red bark " seeds in the following Marcl>» 
both collections coming up abundantly. In 1865 
Mr. Charles Ledger obtained a large supply of chii*'* 
chuna seeds from the forests of Bolivia, and transmitted! 
them to his brother in England for sale. Half tbtfi 
supply was bought by the Dutch Government for ihd 
Java plantations, and the other half by Mr. Money, ans 
English planter in the Ni^iri hills. Tlie supplies of 
seeds of C. o^dnalin from the Loxa forests reached 
their destinations in Southern India and Ceylon in 
February 1862, and germinated abundantly. Mr. 
Howard also presented a valuable plant of the 
Uritusinga variety of G. njicinalis to the Indian planta- 
tions. It arrived safely, and many cuttings were taken 
from it and have thriven ; but it was exposed to much 
danger in the transit, tlirough carelessness. 

The supply of seeds sent by Mr. Cross from tha 
Pitayo forests, in 1863, did not germinate on account of 
the long delay in transmission. But the fifty-fiTe packets 
of seeds which he transmitted from Popayan in 1869 
arrived in India in a good state, and germinated freely. 
Mr. Cross came home himself with the plants of 
C. Pitayensis, arriving at Southampton on March 18th, 

The plants were deposited in the Royal 
nical Ganiena at Kew, until the lieat of the Red 
3 passed, and finally despatched to India in tlie 
fflonino Octolier. 

Mr. Cross arrived at Southampton with his collection 
of plants of the Calisaya de Santa F6 (C. land/olia) and 
Carthagena Imrk species on the 16th of March, 1878, 
Md the plants were safely deposited at Kew. Tlie root 
piaoes of the Calisaya de Santa 76, originally dug, up 
to the Caqueti forests, would not root properly, but 
•hey pushed some shoots from which a number of 
f^ttrngg were obtained ; and sixteen plants were thus 
'"Cured. Fifty plants were also obtained from the 
'ar^gena bark collection of root stumps, so that 
'*ith kinds will be introduced into India. 

In the transit of these numerous relays of plants 
fi^im South America to India, great assistance waa 
''erived from the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, 
*Iiwb tlie plants were received and cared for, until 
tliey had recovered from the injurious effects of long 
jOMTTicys and voy^jes, and were fit to be sent on to 
India. Much of the final success is due to the care 
l«3towcd on the collections at Kew, and to the ever- 
ready aid and valuable advioe of Sir William and 
Ifterwards of Sir Joseph Hooker. 


266 Chinchona culHvation in India 



In obtaining plants and seeds of the vataable chin- 
chonas from South America, it would have been i 
source of deep regret to me if that measure had boai 
attended by any injury to tiie people or the conn 
of Peru, Ecuador, or Colombia, countries in the welfare 
of which I have for many years taken the deepest 
interest. But I had no apprehension that auch wonlS 
be the result of the cultivation of these plants in othet 
parts of the world. The demand for quinine will 
always be in excess of the supply from South America 
and the cultivation of chinchona plants in India ant 
Java will have the effect of lowering the price, and 
bringing this inestimable febrifuge within the reach of a 
vast number of people who are now excluded from it» 
use, w-ithout in any way injuring the trade of Pem, 
Ecuador, or Colombia. I trust that not only will this 
measure do no injury to the South Americana, but that 
it may be hereafter productive of good to them, as well 
03 to the rest of mankind. Hitherto they have 
destroyed the chinchona trees in a spirit of reckless, 
short-sightedness, and thus done more injury to their 

not injurious to South America. 367 

■interests than could possibly have arisen from any 

Biercial contpetition ; but it may be that the 

sace of peace and education will inaugurate a new 

L in time to come, that more enlightened views 

., and that they themselves may undertake 

nltivation of a plant which is indigenous to their 

I, but the conservancy of which, up to this time, 

> 80 uuM-isely neglected. It will then be a 

1 to supply them with the information which 

3 been gained by the experience of cultivators 

I, and tlius to assist them in the establishment 

trions on the slopes of the eastern Andes. 

■ any circumstances the South Americans, who 

India the staple food of millions of their people, 

the Old World moat of tlieir valuable productB — 

\ barley, rice, apples, peaches, sugar-cane, the vine, 

dive, sheep, cattle and horses — should not desire to 

told from the people of India a product which is 

1 to their welfare. Nor have I any reason for 

g that educated South Americans ever liad any 

Numerous obstructions were thrown in 

T by local officials in Caravaja and at the Islay 

ID-house, but I made the collection of chinchona 

ih the full permission of the Peru\dan Govem- 

Lud embarked the plants in accordance with the 

orders of the Minister of Finance. It is 

I that I acted in defiance of the laws of tlie 

, as has been stated more than onco," There 

■eiallj In on uticlu iu tlie Calcutta Btriae, which wua full 


\ the exportalion rf 
utd I here print tk 1 
I tf &c ^savkii JktinisMr. It i5i| 

e cascarills,'" 

ft « la u«diila tomada 
c 4> k .A4a*aft de IsUy, im] 
eplaotas de 
Ptenk <«t fttkft 4» hiff. d aipueate decreto. 
"Tate MM «q«dM*«, y ataodiendo a que no &\i 
s ^ Ooaorcio. U extraccion ii« 
K,T a^pn d« inpedirse su exporUcioo. 
»4»kGUrCidc«Mneici8l que las ley(» <l« 
W KiflAbiik T «w i^^HMBto ptolejan, no se coDsegnim 
«M aMMn •^{U* 4i alijlia qo« el Administtadot de 1> 
Ain— a 9* hk u maw H al unpedir el embarque de j 
vtriw iteMs 4i «« Mpccie. se de^praeba dicha pni- . 
fcftimi, a» ^pm for «*• «e esd^nde que el Gobiem' 
<ta|a 4l» afCMMt «t ealo j patriodsmo que revela en el ] 
{NttfiBain AiteHUStndor b enBnetada medida. 
** Dkis goaida a V. S., 

" JCaS Josft S^bCESO." 

It is eqttaQr sncnie ihai Dr. Spmca, in oollecdn^ 
lh« plants of C. racnrvJtra, acted in defiance of tbe 
kvB of Ecuador. At that time tbere was no la« 
against the exportatioo at chinehoBa plants, altboa^ a _ 
decree to that eflect was issued by die '- 
GoTemment on May 1st, 1861, several months i 
the coUection of plants had been embarind. 

Suggested cultivation in Pent. 269 

'; K-tfiJ in the firm belief that the cultivation of 
ii'.li'jua jilants in India would be very beneficial to 
I ■ ru anl the other Andean Republics, by gradually 
■ i'iing the people to imitate our example and cultivate 
'■••'-. valuable trees which grow wild in their forests, 
niis belief is shared by enlightened South Aiuericans. 
Aarong them may be mentioned Setior Karciso 
limmzano of Bogota, who in a letter to H.M, Consul- 
GeneraJ, dated March 4th, 1864, aaid that be should 
always consider the chinchona plantations in BritiaU 
India to be of great use. Tlieir success will lead to 
llie adoption of a system of conservancy in the South 
American forests, and eventually to the formation of 
'^golat plantations. 

In the hope of assisting in these desirable results, 
•""i of giving some return for the precious freights 
•liich I caused to be conveyed from the forests of the 
Aodee, I have taken pains to furnisli South Americans 
"ith information respecting the system of ciiiuchona 

-liivation in India. With tills object I wrote a 
; iiiiphlet in the Spanish language, giving an account 
"f the various methods and practices adopted in cul- 
tivating the chinchona trees in British Iniiia." In this 
|Mm(>hIel I expressed the hope that the day would come 
the slopes of the Andes would be covered witli 

\ JWaeiiM At Im renltaclot dr fui (muytu Ardux «n loa fndto 
li tdbn la mUKaantm At Im arbuU* dt tnu^anlla inporfodot 
feh Awttriea tIttidUiitat, por Don OUmtnU B. Mi^kham. Para 4 M 
Jhtii Im proprttlaTioi y ouUivadutei dt plantacioiif en lai mont 
_ WBtUtit. tl Fan, el EeuaduT, y lo* Etladot Ciiidot dt CohmMa. ^ 
(Laadta. IS67, pp. 92, Svo.) 


rhiDcfaooa pIuitadoD^, cuehilly cultivated, from B>^ 
to Lft Pu ; Kai wb«n the occapation of the vraHiieMj 
emimriUtrv would huve heea estirely replowil by thK 
flf IIh scicnufic cultivBlor.* The pamphlet was a- 

tnoiTch- disiri'-— ' 
t«i«t«d in t 
uud BoUvix ; : 

lndi« from Sob 

-' persons likely to W in- 

Colombia, Ecuador, Feni. 
tJi it has proved useful is 
le good derived by Britisli 
as, in Bome measure, brtH 

thus repaid. 

• -EI4iftTC« 
doO. BofoU lu 

nMmrilloro rrnml* sen 

cunivn«Hg : J cunndo 1b «;up«cViu dd 

Recompense for Services. 





I Tto introducera of chinchona cultivation into India 
"ndeitook their perilona and most difficult tasks for 
i^uieration that was little more than nominal. In 
"'Vera! instances the actual expenses exceeded the whole 
■'■aut for expenses and remuneration, leaving no margin ; 
"nl in more than one case the performance of the duty 
""Uiied actual loss. 

The system I adopted was, as I have already ex- 
I'liined,* to include very alight remuneration in the 
'"i^nal a^eementB. Thus the loss to Government 
'^uiild he insignificant if the work was not executed 
i«isfectorily. If, on the other hand, the ardnous tasks 
Were successfully performed, the service would be so 
inipartant, the benefits conferred on India so great, and 
lIw financial results so remunerative, that I anticipated 
I difficulty in obtaining fitting recognition for such 
listinguiahed services. 
My fellow-labourers. Dr. Spruce, Mr. Pritchett, Mr. 

Cross, Mr. Weir, and Mr. Ledger, were all determined 


Strviees of Dr. Sfirua. 

to perform the tasks intntsted to tbem thoroughly anif 
fuihfnllr. and po aoca a o d of Bpecial qaalificstioDs fui 
their work, I am at a loss how to express my feeiini: 
of admiration for the way- in which they executed tlit: 
duties assigned to them, and of gratitude for their 
admirable service. Tliose feelings of admimtion aul 
of gratitude ought to be fully sltared by the Goreni- 
ment and the people of India, who have derived, am: 
are deriving, so full a measure of profit and beoelii 
from the sufferings and losses of those who did for Inili:i 
such hard and perilous service. This chapter contaiGs 
u record of the recompense they have received. 

After leaving the chincliona forests, Dr. Spruce «a* 
attacked by fever, with thieatemngs of paralysis. 
Having partially recovered, he prepared his elabomW 
and exhaustive report, for which he received the sum 
of £27. Before he had quite completeil it, the illness 
contracted in the forests, in the service of the Secretan 
of State for India, came on again, and disabled him. 
The whole cost of collecting the plants and seeiia of 
C. suecirubra, which now yield to the Government an 
annual income of many thousands, was £857. Thi^ 
included Dr. Spruce's salary of £30 a mouth, and tlii' 
payment of £27 for his report. When he returned Ic 
England in 1864, his health had been entirely deatroyt^i 
in the service of India. I made an earnest appeal I'nr 
recognition of his senices in the sliape of a. aninll 
pension. This was refused.' 

ioly tliMii^b the kind inlei- 
e nnd his bIbUts, grunted Dr. SpniM* ■ 

Services of Dr. Spruce. 


I went to India on a second mission in 1866, 1 
ight that the value of Dr. Spruce's services would 
■ better appreciated by those who resided in India, 
d knew what Indian fevera were. I therefore brought 
i ca«e to the notice of the Government of Madras, 
i an appeal to them to recommend some special 
nition of Dr. Spruce's services. But they merely 
itted my letter to the Secretary of State, witliout 
y Kcommendation, or even a word of comment, and 
a my appeal was rejected. 
I It must be clearly understood that Dr. Spruce's high 
e of honour prevented him from making ^ny repre- 
ition himself on the subject, directly or indirectly. 
\ undertook the work for a certain remuneration, 
S he never made a complaint or hinted at any ex- 
ition of further reward- The action I took Wiia 
rely on jny own responsibility. Dr. Spruce went 
i native village of Welbum in Yorksliire, 
I afterwards removed to Conoysthorpe, both near 
Howard. After a time lie was able to begin 
I his vast collection of mosses and hepatica' 
(hjm the valley of the Amazons. But his infirmities 
only allowed of his working with pain and difSculty, 

f[(Laat requiring microscopic esamiuation. It was 
iwor of years.* 

jmBdoii of £50 K year Tni hl« diRting;iii«hcd eeniocfl to botanical 
■dsoe* ; M^ing at the timo that he onoltl doI iIo moro, bfcaii9i> 
Ur. &ftxux't niuat important work wu done for liulla, aad sIiouM, 
1, 1m wwardwl by the GoverumHiit of Imlia. 
D Uia placn it wUl be Well to ^rc a liit of Dr. Spracu'e cm. 


Works of Dr. Spruce. 

As the moat able and accomplished of my coadjuton, 
I fell it to lie my duty to persevere in striving W 
obtain due recognition of his services. At leugth, u> 

tributioiK to toiamoe. Some aocoimt of his nork in Soulb Ameria | 
will be toand at pp. 9S and 99. 

1. Tbe Miwci >nd HciHiticxe of TewdAle. ^nn, iHal. Uitl, liii. ff' I 
192-203, 271-283 ; Edin. Sal. Soe. Tram. ii. p. 65-89 (1841). 

2. On the Folia aeoeBsotia of Urpaum filkinum. Fhi/b^ogid, Ih I 
45!) (1B4C). 

S. On Uie brenob-bearing \earee of JangermanaiB . 
PhsMnght, iL p. 85 (1845). 

4. A list of liio Hiuci and Hepaticn of York^ire. PhyfutDjiA <■■ 
p. H7 (1845). 

5. On BOTxral Bloasca new to tUe Britiah Fbn. Eooia'» Ifi \ 
Joum. Hot. T. pp. 845-417. S35. 

6. Nnt«« on tbe Botnny of the Pyrenees, ^nn, Nat. Higt. ii 
269, 358, ilH (1649); iv. p. IM; Edin. But. Soe. Tram, u 

7. The Miuci and Uepaticm of tbe PyreneM. .inn. Nat. EM. tti- 
pp. 81, 267, 358, 478 : iv. p. 104. 

8. BgtonicHl ticuraion nn tbe Amazoa. Eooker'i Javm. BoL u 
6.\ 178, 193, 225, 2(ki, 298 ; iii. pp. 84, 139, 239, 270, 335 ; iv. p. 305 

9. Junrnal of a voyage up tbe Amoson and Itia Negro. Aooiwr'l 
Joum. Bol. V. pp. 187, 2(]7 (IH.W) ; vi. p. 33 (1854) : viL. p. 1 (1855). 

, 10. Bolanical object* eonlributed to the Ivew Muneum from the 
AmazonriveiiulSSl-S'd. HodAit'i J<Hirn,£a(. v. pp. 1G9, 2S8: Tti. pp. 
200, 245. 273. 

11. Edible fruits of the Bio Negro. Ilooker'i Joiirn. Bol. t. p. 183 ■ 

12. Extracts of a letter relating to Vegetable Oils. Booktr't Jount. 
S<A. vi. p. 333 (1854). 

13. Note on the ladis-rubber of the Amiizon. Eookert Joant. B 
»ii. p. 193 (1855) : Joarn. de Phaniv. iiviii. p. 382. 

14. On five new phiuta from Eoitera Pern. Linnean Sie, Jom*, f 
iii. p. 191(1S59). 

15. On Levpoldioia Piusaba. Linneaa Soe. Jtntnt. i 

Iti. Notes on a vlait to tbe Obinobona forests on the neateni diopavfl 
of the Quitunian Andes. Linnean Son. Juarn. iv. p. 1 

CH. III. Works of Dr. Spruce. 275 

1877, the Secretary of State for India granted a pension 
of £50 a year to Dr. Spruce. I represented that if 
Dr. Spruce was entitled to a pension at all, he was 
entitled to it from the time when the service was 
performed, and that it would be just to date the 
pension, not from 1877, hut from 1864, the year of 
his return to England. The payment would not come 
from the tax -payers of India, but fi-om the profits of his 
own work. For the " red bark " plants collected by 

17. On the tnountninu of Lkngnnati in tbe eaatern Cordillera nf the 
QuiteDiaa AivIcb. R. O S. Journ. ziii p. 163. 

IS. On the mode oF liranohiiig uf »oiau Ajuhzoh truea. Linncaii 
Soe. /ourn. (Bot.) V. p, 3. 

13. MowKB al thu Anuuan anil Awlea. Lianeaa Soe. Juuni. v. p. 

av. Ndte on tbo Tolcanio tufa nr Lntacun^a itt t)ie foot of Colopaxi, 
and on the Cangiuu or voli^nit tiind of tho Quitcnjnn Audea, tieol. 
Sot. Quart. Journ. XiL p. 2*9; Plid. Mag. uix. p. 401 (18U5). 

21. Nutu on BiimB insLCtand othor migrutians obaerved in Equatorial 
Americti. Unneaa Sm. Juurn. (Zool.J ix.ii.U4S I I8IIB). 

2'2. On Uiu rettUiaatiou of Gcsauea. American NataralUt, It. p. 2:)9 

'2.i. Palmn Aiuiizodliiib sive Eaumeratio Palinamm in itinera luo per 
regi'>i]Os Amecicie ]B(|Ua,toriiileii lecturuiu. Liiiiteau Soe. Journ. (Bui.) 
xi. pp. fi5-li>3 (1871): Bi^tan. Zeituiin, «vii. coL 6g4. 

Zi. Zuin gt-ographiacheu VenttuDdidag iter Anmriuuniai'lie BciiS' 
pflanzen. Botan. Zeilaiig, xixi. cul. 2S (1I4T3). 

25. SpnuM and Coitbu de MfUn. Motes ou tha Pupajacen. 
Luineaa Soe. Journ. (fio(.) x. p. 1 (1809). 

20 Bi-port oD the oxpeditiun U prucure wekLi and phints of the 
ChiDch'iDn lucoinibrk nr red buik tree, dated Jan. 3id, ISGi. Lhiu- 
ehuna Blue Book, I p. <»> (IStUt). 

27. Eepurl uii the valleys of Piura and Chira in Sorthum Pern. 
and on the ooltijn tultiiatioii therein (IMUl). 

Si. Ou Buiuti reniarkulile Kuraotitu of the Amazon valley and Orinoco, 
CeographiaU Magazine, Aag. 18T3, p. 181. 

29. Peisunai BXpefieneea of Venomous Ri^ptilea and Instol* in Soulh 
Ameriua. Qcoyrui'liieal Magusine, Julf, 167ij, p. 1^5. 

Dr. Spruce annually put many tliousands into ths 
Indian treuaury, and have eaved many hundreds of lives. 
Yet a fair recompense has been persistently refused. 

Mr, Pritchett, for collecting the chinchona plants and 
seeds in the forests of Huanuoo, received £650 to covet 
all expenses, iocladiug salary. 

Mr. Cross has been almost unceasingly at work since 
ISGO. He served in the "red bark" forests with Dt. 
S])nice, and brought the plants to India. Secondly, he 
obtained seeds of the C. o^cinalis in the Lo.xa forests. 
Thirdly, he made a lung and dangerous journey finm 
ni'-ar Quito to the Pitayo forest-s and to Bogota. 
Fourthly, ha again proceeded to the Pitayo forests near 
I'opayan, collecting plants and seeds of a valuable 
species. Fifthly, I employed him on the Isthmus uf 
Panama to collect plants of the Castilloa, j-ielding india- 
rubber. Sixthly, I sent him to Brazil, to obtain tlie 
Uevf-a and other caoutchouc yielding plants. Seventhly, 
he went for a third time to Colombia, to collect othe' 
chinchona species. He has done most valuable aervice 
with resolution and abibty. He has encountered gnal 
ihingers and suffered from repeated attacks of fei 
The sums he has received have seldom more tbttj 
coveted his expenses, and by one of the expedil 
lie was a loser. Like Dr. Spruce, he is scntpoli 
careful never to claim a fartliing beyond his oi 
agreements. But his great services undoubtedly 
served special recognition. I couaidei-ed that a grant 
£200 for each of his five chinchona expeditions wot 
be a very moderate recompense indeed. On his final 

Serz'iccs of Mr. Weir. 

^tuni tu England in 1879, I accordingly applied for 
t sraiitiuilr. Cross of£lOI}0 for thewholeoflm work 
■ lunected with the introduction of chinchona cultivation 
- iW India. This was refused. He was granted £300. 
~^ulj8equently the payment of another £300 to Mr. Cross 
vjw saiictioned. I made another appeal for justice to 
ilr. 0ro83. It was again rejected. Meanwhile the C. 
■jj^dnalin trees ohtained by liini are bringing in annual 
I'rtifits of thousands to the Government. 

Mr. John Weir, the gardener who penetrated into tho 

I of Caravaya, and made a large and valuable 

ition of plants under my personal superintendence, 

rIus work with great zeal and untiring perseverance. 

■was a most conscientious, active, and skilful worker, 

1 80 far as his own labours were concerned, he was 

pletely successful. He established the plants in the 

I cases at Islay, and conveyed them to India. 

b small wages were wholly inadequate, but he never 

inbdved any further reward or recognition of any kinil. 

On his return from India in January 1861, Weir was 

employed by the Horticultural Society, to proceed to 

South America for the purpose of collecting and intm- 

dndiig into England new plants of horticultural interest, 

first in South Brazil, and afterwards in Colombia. He 

introduced a considerable number of new plants, and 

aftde collections of dried specimens, many of them new 

' ^science.* Weir also undertook a commission for Mr. 

•• Bomo of tlwm hnte been ciewribed by Mr. Weir in the rrowrrf- 

jpaftbaftoyal Huitirultuml Society. AooUeotiuo of iiiunBet, oumIo 

I'Xr. Wflr, wu i[iclii()<sl by Mr. Mithen io his ifwof JMro* 

i, a notk pnbllihod b; Uie Lionmn Sovictj. 


Scrznces of Mr. Weir. 

Daniel Hanlmry, to procure for him specimens of planl 
pelding ibe balsam of tolu. and the Savaiiilhi rhatan] 
tmd to note the methods of collecting these dmga. B 
performed this commission to Mr. Hanbiuy's entii 

In October 1864, Weir embarked at Honda, on tt 
Kfagdalena, on board one of the steamers plying on th) 
river, with a lai^e and valuable collection of planB 
chiefly orchids, and among them many of the kesntifl 
Oilantoylossum Alexandrtt, which has since in il 
numerous varieties become so popular in England. H 
hoped, by accompanying the collection to the coast, I 
save it from the delays iivhich had proved fatal to foi 
collections. At Barranquilla he transferred Iiie pknB 
to a boat, and hurried off to catch the English mail 
steamer at Santa Marta. On the way, and when still 
about twenty miles from the port, the land breeie 
failed, and he was obligeii to put on shore and wait foi 
wind. Knowing that he had but little time to spare, 
Weir determined to walk to Santa Marta, to secures 
suitable place for unpacking and repacking his collection. 
Leaving liia men to bring on the boat as quickly as 
possible, he started on foot. The way waa over hot 
burning loose sand, in which bis feet sank to the ankle: 
at every step, and when dead tired he got drenched Ijv 
a thunder-storm, just before reaching his destination. 
Kext morning he had a violent headache, but, as tJic 
mail left that day, he set to work and got Ids plants 
proi>erly packed and sliipped. He then hurried back lu 
Barramiuilla to catcU the return steamer up 

Scrz'i'cfs of Mr. Weir. 


I, all the while Buffering from headache, and 

ely he again got drenched in a thnnder-atorm. 

t morning he was in 3 high fever on board the 

er, the violent headache being followed by numb- 

is and paralysis, so that he could move nothing but 

is head. He waa suffering from severe inflammation of 

e spinal cord. He waa put on shore at Honda, and 

» lying helpless in a native hut for a fortnight. A 

mpassionate American, settled at Honda, then took 

i sufferer into his house, where he remained three 

mths, unable to move hand or foot. At length lie 

9 put on board a steamer, and shipped to England, 

I he arriveil in April 18(j5. Hia recovery baa 

e been very partial, and he is crippled and disabled 

r life. The Fellows of the Horticultural Society 

^becribed about £600 for hia lienetit, the interest of 

1 produces £27 a year. On this, and his wife's 

ings. Weir haa since subsisted, " making the best 

[ s bad job," as he says. It is very grievous to 

I an able and proniiaing collector, full of zeal and 

', thus struck down in tlio prime of life. While 

alth lasted he worked conscientiously and bravely, 

1 not the least important part of his services were 

J lie performed in the forests of Caravaya, for the 

remment and people of India. I made an urgent 

I for some small grant in recognition of Weir's 

Bollent and faithful services while under my ordere. 

I was refused. 

I Mr. Charles Ledger ilid not servo under me ; but afl 
9 he heard the purpose of my expedition to South 

28o Sen'ices 0/ Mr. Ledger. 

America, he endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, toop 
communication with me, and he set to work, actii 
and zealously, to co-operate in the good cause. 1 
succeeded in obtaining a collection of seeds of a 
valuable variety of C. Ccdisaya, which has been foffl 
to yield an extraordinarily large percentage of quinil 
The plants from these seeds, since named C. LedgeriaM 
have greatly increased the value of the chincho 
plantations in the East Indies. The expenditure 
tailed upon Mr. Ledger in procuring the seeds ' 
far exceeded the sum obtained by their sale, 
he has lost heavily. He is now advanced in yeS 
and residing in Tucuman, a distant part of Son 
America. By the introduction of this rich varie 
Mr. Ledger has done important service to the GoveE 
ment and people of India. I therefore urged thl 
as a recompense for this useful work, he should I 
granted the small sum of £200. My request H 
refused. I made a second appeal for some alight l 
cognition of Mr. Ledger's services. My request irtj 
again refused. 1 

In tliis history of the introduction of chinchoB 
cultivatiun into India, I have considered it right i 
place on record the amount of recompense which hf 
been received by or refusetl to the workers in ti 
forests of South America. Tliey have laboured zealoud 
and moat successfully, and their task was one whii 
called for si>ecial qualifications. Some have lot 
health, all have naked life and limb in the service ( 
their country. They Lave nobly earned the gratitu^ 


Recontpense withluld. 

of the Government and people of India. Chinchona 
cultivation is now not only self-supporting, but re- 
munerative. Recompense would not be paid from 
revenue provided by the tax-payera of India, but from 
llie profits of work actually done by the very men who 
are now deprived of their due reward. 

It is unnecessary that I should give further expression 
to the indignation I feel at the injustice with which 
those have been treated who haye done an inestimable 
seiTice to mankind. If the people of England, and 
still more, tlie i>eople of India, are contented that this 
should I'e the retitiital lor sucb service, there ia nothing 

Distribution of Rain/all 


The selection of the beat site in India for commencing 
the experiment of introducing chinchona cultivation was 
a point of great importance. Upon a right decision the 
success of the enterprise, in this sti^, mainly depended. 
It was necessary to ascertain the position in India vhich 
most nearly resembled the chinchona forests of South 
America aa regards latitude, altitude, climitte, and soiL 
From this poaition, as a centre, I hoped that the cultiva- 
tion might eventually spread over a much larger area, 
and ho successful, with the aid of scientific skill and 
care, in many places wliich are not so analogous to the 
native habitat of the plants. 

India presents a great variety of climatea. There is 
one arid region, with a normal rainfall of less than fifteen 
Indies, occupying a large portion of the north-west 
corner of India, from the salt range to the moutha of 
the Indus, and from the Suleiman mountains to the 

tn Sritish India. 283 

includes the sou them portion of tlie 
and part of RaJputaQa. There are also 
dry country, one surrounding tliis arid 
t from 100 to 200 miles wide ; the other 
b of the Dakhin and Myaor, and extend- 
n the centre of the peninsula, to Cape 
ee dry belts have a rainfall of from 15 
while beyond them, over the rest of 
lal fall exceeds 30 inches. But thriving 
■ foimd where the fall exceeds 40 inches, 
nant vegetation is limited to those belts 
lUch higher rainfall. The mean tempera- 
ia from 75° to 85°, while that of Central 
. 45° to 60°, and under a higher tempera- 
nount of moisture is requii'ed to produce 

if moisture in India is unequally divided 
& of the year ; and in most parts there is 
d a short rainy season. The principal 

far the larger part of the country, are 
/aleuee during the summer of the south- 
The most humid regions are those 
Tacts which are fully exposed to the 
lie moist soutb-west«riy winds. There 

with sufficient moisture for cliinchona 
One extends along the slopes of the 
m the Sutlej to the eastern extremity of 
en southward to Rangoon. It has a 
I of 75 inches ; but the eastern portion 
Javier fall than the north-west; and at 

IVesiern Ghdls, 

Cherra on the Khasi hills there is the extraordinuj 
fall of 600 inches. TUa i;one, except ilie portion in 
Burma, is beyoud the tropica. The other moist VM 
extends along the western coast of the peninsula, iti | 
eastern limit nearly coinciding with the cresta of tk 
gfa&ts, and its width varying from 50 to 100 miles. 
Bombay has a fall of 72 inches, Tanna 102, and i( 
increases further south. At Ratnagiri it is 115, ^ 
Vingorla, 118, at Cananor, 123 on the coaat; but the 
heaviest fall is on the crests of the gh&ts. Here tba 
moist currents of air, coming from the aea, strike 
against the steep faces of the mountains, are forcw 
upwards into a cooler and more rarefied air, and cans* 
an extremely heavy downpour during the monBOOD. 
The fall is heaviest in the mountaiua above Bombayf 
and decreases to the south until, at Cape Comorin, thfl 
dry belt begins, with a fall under 30 inches. At 
Mahabaleswar the fall is 250 inches, while at a distance 
of ten miles inland from the crest of the ghats, it is only 
50 inches. 

Of the two moiat belts of India, the HJmfUayaa 
region is not so suitable as that of the western ghfits, 
because it is beyond the tropics, and the climate is 
consequently not so analogous to that of the chinchona 
forests. I was, therefore, led to the selection of the 
western ghats. But the northern part of them seemed 
to have too heavy a fall during the summer, and too 
dry a climate during Uie rest of the year, while the 
extreme south was too dry. The central portion of tha 
ghats, wliich is the same distance from the equator aa 

Nil^iri Hills selected. 


most importaDt clmtcLona region, and lias a similar 
Tall, with sites at suitable elevationa above tlie 
was, therefore, the beat position for oiir great 
; whence the cultivation, when once fully 
iblished, might ratliate over less favourable regions. 
survey of the climates of India led me to the 
in of the Nilgiri Hills for the establishment of 
first plantations ; and most fortunately the ablest 
Mboriculturist in India, Mr. Mclvor, had actually 
been in charge of Government gardens since 1848, on 
Ihia very site. To his care I gladly, and with perfect 
confidence, handed over tbe difficult and critical task 
of converting the Peruvian bark trees from wild into 
nldvated plants. 

We landed at the port of Calicut, on our way to the 
Nilgiri Hills, on the 7th October, 1860. He who 
Would desire to receive the moat pleasant impression of 
India, on a first arrival, must follow in the wake of 
Vasco da Gaina, and disembark on the coast of Mala- 
l«r, the garden of the jieninsula. Here Nature is clad 
in her brightest and most inviting robes, the scenery is 
magnificent, the fields and gardens speak of plenty, 
and the dwellings of the people are substantial and 

^KldAte in the evening, we embarked in a canoe on tbe 

Hpljpur river. The banks are wooded down to the 

water's edge, with groves of slender betel palms rising 

abov« the other foliage, and standing out against tlie 

Starry sky. We wore met by Mr. Mclvor at the 

ig-ploce of Eddi>vann, and started at ouce for tha 

Tillage of Wundur, whence the road leads up llif 
Sisapara ghat to the Nilgirls. The ascent comments af 
Sholakul, a post-house surrounded by stout palisades, t- 
protect it irom wild elephants. Thence the road fiint 
passes through a tract overgrown with gigantic weeds, 
and then up a steep slope, covered with a forest of black 
wood and other fine timber trees, with an undergrowth 
of feras, CuTcuinas, and a brilliant little purple flower 
[Toreriia Asiatica). The occasional openings in ihr 
forest, at turns in the road, afforded us views of l!ie 
mountains bulow us, covered with the richest vegetn- 
tion, and of the rice-flelds of Malabar, stretcliing awaj 
to the faintly indicated bleading of sea aud haze on Uie 
far horizon. As we continued the ascent the scenery 
increased in magnificence, the views became mor* 
extensive, and there were mountain-tops crowned willi 
grand forest trees far below us. At BOOO feet mosses 
appear, then lilies, brambles, and wild strawberries, 
and occasionally we crossed noisy little streams over- 
shadowed by the trees. We reached the Sisapara 
bungalow, on the sunmiit of the ghat 6742 feet above 
the level of the sea, late in the afternoon. 

Tlie Sisapara ghat takes the traveller from the 
tropical plains to tlie temperate climate of the Iiills, 
where the face of Nature is entirely changed. Here the 
slopes are covered vdth grass, and the ravines only 
are filled with trees, forming thickets called slwlas. 
In the rear of the Sisapara bungalow, there is aam 
almost unrivalled view of the Malabar plains, &08M 
the edge of a precipice. The Kundah Mile swe^fl 

round until they join the Wainad range, and appeared 
to be 80 steep that even a cat could not scale them 
for many miles j and far below were the forests, with 
occasional open glades. The distance from Sisapara to 
Utakamand, the chief English station on the Nilgiris, 
is thirty-tliree miles, fifteen of which are over the 
Kimdah hills, and the rest of the distance is within 
the Nilgiris proper. As we rode round the artificial 
lake, and passed several pretty little houaea surrounded 
by Bbrubberiea, it was difficult to persuade ourselves 
that we were not in England. Tlie garden in front of 
our hotel was stocked with mignonette, wallflowers, 
aad fuchfiiae, but the immense bushes of heliotrope, 
covered with flowers, could not have attained such 
dimensions in an English climate. Utikamand is 
nearly in the centre of the table-land of the Nilgiris, at 
the foot of the western face of the peak of Dodabetta. 
Houses are scattered about under the shelter of the 
hills, with gardens and plantations of Eunalyptus and 
AcMda Keterophylla ; and the wide eKcellent roads are 
bordered by bushes of Cassia glauca with a bright orange 
flower, honeysuckles, foxgloves, geraniums, roses, and 
masses of tall Lobelia exeelsa. A graceful white iris 
is also common. 

This charming spot, with the roadsides planted with 
tall trees, and the hedges filled with all the familiar 
flowers introduced from Old England, while curling 
smoke ascends Uirough the foliage, suggesting the idea 
of chimneys and warm firesides, is as unlike India bb 
can bo imagined. I felt sanguine that the syeciea ol 


Suitable Sites. 


chinchona requiring lofty sit^ would thrive on ibft 
heights of Dodabetta, while suitable positions for thoee 
species which can bear a wanner climate would be 
found on the forest slopes which overlook the plaiiiB. 
A closer inspection confirmed me in this opinion. 

Nilgiri Hills. 289 


:89 I 

The Ni^ri* hills, between latitude 11° 10' and 11" 
32' N., and longitude 70" 59' and 77° 31' E., are, witli 
tlie Animall^s, the most elevated mountain masses in 
India, south of the Himalayas; the highest peak, that 
iif Dodabetta, being 8642 feet above the level of the 
sea-t The Nilgiris are isolated on three sides. They 
rise up abruptly from the plains of Coimbator on tlie 
south, and from tiie table-lands of Wainad and Myaor 
on the north and east, to a height of 6000 feet above 
the former, and 2000 to 3000 above the latter ; from 
which tliey are divided by the broad ravine of the 
river Moyar. On the west they are united with the 
Kundah range, which is a continuation of the western 
gfaat«. The area of the Nilgiria contains 268,494 
acres, of which upwards of 24,000 were under 
caltivatioo at the time of my visit in 1861. 

' N3, Llae, anil giri, a mouDtiiiD : tnnx the bluo Jurliliat which 
eowr manjr of the hill-alopcs. 

t In IK72 Major BranQU, of the Great Trigonometrical Sancy. 
MBnlniiiad that the AnclmiKli Peak, In the Aninmllj Itangc (euiilh 
of tlia yilgirii), ia eB37 rect abnve the aea, aad U, therefore, tile 
IoMmI height in India, Boath of tbe UimiilByfu. Until then Doda- 
bolU wai btiliaieil to bu tlie highlit. The heigbt of Dvdabetia wan 
tiM bj Colonol 8a(tori. 

The formation consists of eyemtic granite, with veins 
of basaltic rock, hornblende, and quartz, while, iii 
some parts, half-decomposed laterite underlies the soil 
The plateau is not a flat table-land, but a succession 
of undulating hiUs and intervening grassy valleys, wilb 
ravines thickly wooded, numerous streams, and oc- 
casional rocky ridges running up into fine mountain 
peaks. The streams all go to swell the great river 
Kaveri, by its tributaries the Moyar and Bhawani; 
the Moyar descending from the hills by a fine watorfaJl 
at Paik&ra on the northern slope, and the Bhavani 
flowing down between the Kundahs and Nilgiris to 
the south. The soil of the plateau is very rich, being 
formed by the decomposition of basaltic and horn- 
blende rocks, rruxed with the clayey products of the 
granite, and much decomposed vegetable matter. The 
latter consists of the grass killed down to the roots 
by the frost, washed in by the succeeding rains, and 
mixed with the subsoil, increasing in richness and 
depth season after season. The richest land is on the 
lower slopes, ■where there are accumulations of soil 
washed from the hills above :* and there are extensive 
deposits of peat in tlie valleys, which aftbrd supphes 
of fuel. The chief defect in the soil is tlie absence of 

Tlie temperature and amount of humidity vary 
according to the locality. At Utakamand, 7416 feet 
above the sea, the means of tlie thermometer range 

from i2° to 68°, while in the two other lower and 
wanner stations of Kuaur and Kotagiri, about 6000 
teet above the sea, the range is from 52° to 71°. The 
iumaal rainfall at Utakamand is sixty inches, at Kunur 
fifty-five inches, and at Kotagiri fifty inches. During 
!.iie south-west monsoon, from May to September, the 
rain comes down in torrenta at Sisapara, and in the 
""estem parts of the Nilgiris, but their force is some- 
what exhausted before reaching Utakamand, in tlie 
centre of tbe plat«au. At that station the rainfall, 
dniing the sonth-weat monsoon, is about thirty-four 
Inches; and the range of Dodahetta, wliich rises up 
I like awall, immediately to the eastwanl of Utakamand, 
oat entirely screens tlie eastern part of the hills 
I the rains of the south-west monsoon, and there 
rae rainfall is only twelve inches from May to Sep- 
''iiiber. During the portion of the year from Octobt-r 
■ I April, the western parts of tlie hilla are compara- 
■^■■'-■ly dry, the prevalent winds are from the north- 
'■■'.. ^iiiii the rains wliich they bring with them from 
■■■'■ M.uiris coast do not extend farther west than 

I the neiglibourhood of Utakamand. Kotagiri, and tlie 
(Utem parts of the hills, receive the full benefit ol' 
tin mins from the north-east monsoon, but they aro 
not heavy, and the rainfall at Kott^irt, in tliat season, 
1 u tbirQr-eight inches. Utakamand also gets some of 
■iip rain of the north-east mousoon (thirty-aix inchas), 
' :hat, in that central part of the plateau, there is it 
• U which receives a moderate supply of rain through- 
the year. In January and December there 

yit ti 

frosta in tlie night, and the extreme radiation which 
l-oes oil in the valleys cauaea great cold at sunrise: 
but these frosta are confined to the valleys in the 
upper plateau, and they never visit the higher slopes, 
or the well-wooded "sholas." 

The climates of the Nilgiri hills are the most delight- 
ful in the world ; and it may he said of this salubrioii.- 
region, with its equable aeasous, what the Persian poet 
sftid of Kimg, " the warmth is not heat, and the coolnKJ 
is not cold."* On the open plateau, in the wooded 
^lio/as, and in the thick forests of the lower slopes, there 
is a great variety of beautiful flowering trees nmi 
shrubs ; and the vegetation of the hiUa is both variw! 
iind luxuriant. First, in the brilliant splendour of its 
iluwers, must lie mentioned the tree rhododendron 
(KkoilodcTulron arborcum), which is very common in 
itll parts of the hills, either forming small tliiekets or 
dotted about on the grassy slopes. It grows to a height 
of twenty feet, with a gnarled stunted trunk, and 
masses of deep crimson flowers. In the skolas are tin- 
Michdia nilagiraca, a laige tree, with yellowish white 
Howers of great size ; the Symplocus pvlckra, with hairj- 
leaves and snow-white flowers ; the Ilex WightiatM, » 
large umbrageous tree, with small white flowers ami 
red berries; the pretty pink-flowered JUwdo-myrti' 
(miientoea, the berries of which are called " hill-goosc- 
benies ;" the Jasminum rtwlutwn, a shrub with swee; I 
yellow flowers ; the Sapola dingmdes, a fine forest trw. I 
with rough cracked bark, and an edible fruit used in i 

carries; Crotalaritt ; Stffnoni(r; peppers, cinuamon, ft 
Qnmber of chincliouaceous shrubs, and many others. 

In the open grassy slopes and near the edges of thiJ 
wooded ravines are several Va-cdnui, especially the 
Vaecinium LoKhenavitii. a shrub witll pretty rose- 
colonred flowers ; the beanliful Osbcekia Gardnerianu, 
with a profusion of large purple flowers ; the handsome 
Vi&ttmum Wightianiim; a number of balsams (/m/w- 
tiena of several species) ; the GauUheria LeschenauUii 
in great quantities, a pretty little shrub with white 
flowers and blue berries; the Brrl^rris Afahoitia, with 
it^ glossy prickly leaves and long slender racemes ot 
yellow flowers ; and the bright little pink Indigoffni 
pttichella : while the climbing passion-flower (Patsijlorft 
Ltxhenaultii) hangs in festoons over the trees, especially 
in the eastern parts of the hills. Among the inort? 
iQCODSpicuouB plants are the Gailium rt4pti.enianuni. : 
[he Rubia eordi/olia ;' the thorny Solatium fa-ox, with 
stem and leaves covered with strong straight prickles ; 
tlie Girardinia Zafc}ifnaulHi,\ or Nilgiri nettle, a most 
Timlent stinger; the tall Lobelia cxcclta ; a Jvstitia. 
1 a blue flower, which entirely covers some of the 
; some pretty Soneriliu ; several l^eantiful Ipom^n-^ 

f Dr. Wight atys tlint Uii« pl^nt might he collcolol in varl >|iinnli- 

li Ul'lo trouble or Bxpt-iue, aiiil yleUi •n exwllent ivii ilju. 

r TfaU n*Ute I* TrequiHit all dver the liighrr range! oT the Nilgiris. 

pbvk jmIiIs a fint itmiig flbru, which the uittivei nbtkin hy tinit 

a wholo plnnt, to dopriic it i>f it» virulenl If ■■tinging pm- 

»d then pveling the aU\1t». The Ivltile inalvriiil IIiun 

I i» ot greal deliciwiy and atrength. — Wight'* St^fd*yium 

Vht ftbro of the Nilgiti nettle li wotth £200 n 

C tb onltiTation U llkolj lo be it rraiutitntiTe ■( 

and lilies; Celsias; and the Hypericwm, Hookerianu* 
■^ow-ing plentifully in the meadows, with large or 
flowers ; besides ferns, lycopods, and nmnberleas £ 
w-ild flowers in the grass and underwood. Since 184 
gnm- trees and acacias have been introduced frop 
Australia. The Eucalj^pti fonn lai^e plantations for fi 
wood, and they grow in rows and clumps round I 
stations, forming a special feature in the landscapes. 

Enjoying a delightful climate, well supplied ' 
water, and with its gentle undulations of hill and dal 
in Bome places clothed with rich pasture, in otheo 
presenting woods of fine timber and beautiful floweri 
aliniba, the NUgiri hills are eminently filled foi I 
atiode of a thriving and civilised people. Yet for maq 
centuries it would appear that their sole inhabitant 
were a strange race of cowherds, called Todas. 

In 1820 Mr. John Sullivan, the Collector of Coimbato 
built the first house in Utakamand, on the site c 
Toda mand or village of the same name.' It was ftft» 
wards used aa the building for the Lawrence Asylua 
The first sanatarium on the hills, however, was i 
-Dimhati, on the eastern side, and at the adjoin 
station of Kotagiri, but the former is now abondone 
The delightful climate soon attracted crowds of -^isitoi 
from the burning plains ; many houses gradually i 
up on the grassy slopes round the lake which " 
formed at Utakamand by bunding up one end of ll 
valley, and the place rapidly became an important hill 
station. A small native town and bazar sprang up c 
• Lilcrallj, " one Btone villBgo." 

the banks of the lake, a handsome church was erected, 
a club-house, and, moat conspicuous of all, an immense 
Paral shop Icept by FramjE Naaarwanji of Bombay. Tlie 
roads are excellent, and planted with tall graceful 
acacia and gum trees from Australia, and many of the 
houses are surrounded by beautiful gardens and shrub- 
beries. The most charming, perhaps, is that of the 
late Bishop Dealtry, called Biahops-down, whence there 
is a glorious view of the station on one side, and of the 
distant Kimdah hills, overtopped by the sharp peak of 
Makurti, on the other. Advantage has here been taken 
of a wootied sfiola to make pleasant shady walks, and to 
cut vistaa through the trees. 

The warmer station of Kunur is about nine miles 
from Utakamand, at the head of the ghat which leads 
down to the plains of Coimbator, Here the scenery is 
far more beautiful than at the central station, as the 
wooded sides of the ghat run up into a fine peak called 
the HuUkul drug, and the view extends far away over 
the plains. The houses are perched on the rounded 
tops of a range of hills, and there is a church with a fine 
tower, which is a great addition to the view of Kunur 
from the surrounding eminences. A mile from Kunur, 
in the direction of Utakamand, is the military station 
of Jakatala. It is well sheltered by high hills from the 
cold north winds to which Utakamand is exposed, as 
well as from the south-west monsoon, and is in every 
respect admirably adapted as a eanatarium for soldiers 
and their families. 

The English settler on the Nilgiria will find "tno^^-v 

fiTiits, flowers, vegetables, and grasseB, the introductinn 
of which is mainly due to the exertions of Mr. Williaii; 
G. Mclvor, the Superintendent of the Govermnent 
gardens at TJtakamand, and for many years alf) 
Superintendent of Chinchona plantations in Southern 
India, He was in charge of the gardens at Utakaniarnl 
from 1848 until his death in 187G, uniting zeal, in- 
telligence, and skill to the talent and experience of an 
excellent practical gardener. Under his auspices the 
steep slopes of one of the spurs, which run off tmm 
the peak of Dodabetta and overlook the cantonment ol 
lltafcamand, were converted into a tastefully laid-oiu 
garden, in a succession of terraces. With no assistanct 
beyond that of an East Indian foreman and labout^rj 
from the Mysor plains, Mr. Mclvor succeeded i" 
changing the wild mountain -sides into a very beau- 
tiful public garden. Every point of view was taken 
advantage of with admirable taste, and numerous tw** 
and flowering shrubs were intnxluced from Englaml, 
Australia, and other countries, while the native flora 
of the hills was fully represented. There were English 
roses and geraniums, ponds bordered by white arumS: 
shady walks overarched by trellia-work, tasteful vases 
tilled with showy flowers, thickets of rhododendrons 
hedges of heliotrope and fuchsia, fine clumps of tui^ 
spreading trees, and from the upper terraces, between 
the leafy branches, there are glorious views of tli' 
Utakamand valley, and of the finely broken range oi 
tlie distant Kundalt hills. 
Mr. Mclvor also ha-d a small branch garden ( 

On the Nilgiris. 


, about halfway down the Sigur ghat, leading 
Mysor plains, for raising fruits which require 
ler climate. This garden was self-supporting. 
,iiificent waterfall descends into a rocky basin 
eside it, and the garden contained oranges of 
dnds, shaddocks, lemons, limes, citrons, nutmegs^ 
, and plantains. 

298 Seleciion of Sites 

ceracnoNA sftes on the nilgiri hills. 


In aelecting sites for chincliona plantations on th 
{filgiri hills, I had to compare the climate and otlH 
conditions of growtli which prevail in the chiHchoD 
forests and open pajtmalrs in the Andes with sn; 
similar localities which might be fotmd in Southen 
India. For the first experimental sites, it was impM 
tant tliat the resemblance, as regards elevation, tempei* 
ture, and humidity, should be as close as possible ; ba 
there was every reason to hope that, under cultivatuX 
these plants, like most others, would adapt themselvfl 
to conditions of soil and climate extending over a mM 
extensive area. 

It was necessary to fix upon two sites in the fin 
instance : one at the highest point at which chinchon 
plants were likely to flourish, for the species fra 
Loxa and others growing at great elevations; ai 
another, in a lower and warmer position, for the plas 
of C. sucfdrubra, C. Penmana, C. micrantha, and H 
C. Calisaya. The highest point at which these plan 
will flourish, and the greatest exposure they will bei 

for Chinchona Plantations. 299 1 

tout injury, are, as a rule, the most favourable 

Hitions for the formation of the alkaloids ; while, if 

IxAo/os in the upper plateau of the Milgiri hills 

1 to be adapted for their growth, their cultivation 

B indefinitely extended in a climate suitable for 

ivious to my arrival oo the hills, Mr. Mclvor had 
d a site for the highest plantation in a wooded 
lae or sAo^a at the back of the hills which rise above 
I Government gardens ; and, after a careful examina- 
\ I came to tlie conclusion tliat it was well suited 
Ithe growth of the hardier species, and for the ex- 
mental culture of all the kinds which have been 
"itroduced into India. It has been named the " Doda- 
"■ita" site, from the peak of that name, the highest 
I jMiHt of the Nilgiris, and 8642 feet above the sea, which 
I ^M ap immediately behind it. 

F With r^ard to the species for which I considered the 
'^'labetta site to be suitable, it will be well in this 
[iice to recapitulate the circumstances under which 
'liey grow on their native mountains. 

Tlie ahmb variety of C Calisaya (lat, 13° to 15° S.) 
Bonrisfaes in open pajonaits, quite exposed, at elevations 
fann 5000 to 7000 feet above the sea, and in April and 
May I found the mean temperature to be 604.°, minimum 
63°, and range 17". The C. nilida (lat. 10° S.) grows at 
^iDtlar elevations, but we have no exact information 
Mpecting the temperature and liumidity. The varieties 
rf C. officinalis (lat. 4° S.) flourish at heights from 6000 
'■> ROOO feet above the sea, where the mean range is £ 

300 Dodabetta Plantatwn. 

45° to 60°, in a moist climate, and in exposed but &ll 
dry situations ; and one kind, tlie C. crispa, grows j 
deposit of peat, 8000 feet above the sea, in a temperal 
falling as low as 27°. Tlie C. lamifolia (lat. 5^ Ui 
found at 7000 feet above the sea and upwards, irf| 
the annual range is from freezing-point to 75', ii|{ 
exceedingly moist climate. The rainy season lastal 
nine mouths, wheu the constant rain is only intern^ 
in the day by interchanging sun-rays and fog-cl(j( 
In the dry season, cold clear nights follow days in wll 
a warm sun penetrates through the fog, which aid 
constantly lies on the damp foliage of the forest" \ 
Cross mentions that he saw trees of C. saccirvhra onl 
way to Loxa, growing at elevations of from 8000 
9000 feet above the sea, 

The site, in the Dodabetta ravine, slopes down fl 
8000 to 7500 feet above the sea, yet, from local cafl 
it is several degrees warmer than the station at \ 
kamand ; and the temperature agrees with that o( 
species of chinchona plants described above. 

The Dodabetta aito, being four or five d^ 
warmer than Utakamand, tlu'oughout the year bi 
temperature, on the whole, somewhat warmer than 
lofty regions where the species of chinchona grow 
the cultivation of which this position was selei 
The mean temperature in the shade is 60', and 
maximum 70°. The elevation above the sea ess 
corresponds, and the amoimt of humidity is about 
same. The ravine is full of tine trees, uith a variel 

Dodabetta Plantation. 


Mj-ogures, the general aspect being north-west; a clear 
tie stream flows through it; and, in moat parta, the 
"i! consists of a rich surface mould two feet deep. 
The substratum is gneiss, vrith decomposed felspar and 
hornblende. Outside the wcKided ravine there are tree 
Rhododendrons, Berberis, Gaultherias, Lilies, Lycopodia, 
aiir] brake-ferns, scattered about on the grassy slopes ; 
loil the character of the scenery and vegetation very 
rlosely resembles that of the pajonal country between 
!lie valleys of Sandia and Tambopata in Caravaya, 
«ltei« the shrub Calisaya flourishes. Tlie site is pro- 
li-ctftil by rising grounds from the northerly winds, and 
llie colder breezes blowing over it from ridge to ridge 
Invent the warm air in tlie ravine from rising, so that 
tlie temperature became warmer as we ascended 
flirough the wood, and in the highest part there were 
"Tchids and pepper- vines hanging on the trees. 

Tlie analogy between the flora of the Dodabetta ravine 
mil of the loftier parte of the chinchona region was an- 
otlier [loint which influenced my decision. Within tlie 
nvine there are nine species of chinchonaceous plants, 
iinely — 

StdfOtit LntT*rmix. 
Btdjtoti* tyloHt. 

Canthium unAtHatltm. 
Orumilta elongala. 
QnmiUit eongata 

' ornamental pretty slirubs, from six 

; feet high, with clusters of white or cream- 

i flgwora. Tlie other genera of wliich tlie wood 

i are us follows -.— Voecinium, Mi/rsine, St/m- 

W, Jlcx, Michfliit, Sapota, Isonandra, and CvmuvnanL^ 


Dodaietta Plantation, 

among the trees ; Eugtnw., Myrivs, Jaxmiaum, Osbed-i<' 
Sonerilu, Solanum, Viburnum, and Acanthus, amati: 
ahrubs ; Lonicera, Passiflora, Eubia, and pcppcr-viji". 
among the climbers ; with an undergrowth of LoMi". 
Begonia, Convolmtlus, orchids and ferns. The Oabftii'" 
and Sonenlas represent the melastomaceous plants, tlie 
constant companions of chinchoufe in South America. 

It was no small advantage that thia excellent site 
for a chinchona plantation was close to the Govei 
gardens, and that it was thus under the constant supi 
vision of Mr. Mclvor. It receives a supply of moistn 
during hoth monsoons, and is therefore as good 
position aa could tiavB been selected on tlie high 
plateau of the Nilgiris, though there ore many a/ul 
which are equally well adapted for the growth of ti 
hardier chinchonos. 

The most extensive operations are, however, neca 
sarily carried on at much lower elevations, where ll 
C. sucdrubra, the species richest in febrifuge alkaloU 
flourishes best, and where vast unoccupied forests ft 
space for plantations on a large scale. A northeo 
aspect is the one best adapted for the vigorous growl 
of trees on the Nilgiri hills, and we therefore p 
ceeded to examine the forest-covered slopes overlooki 
the table-lanils of Wainad and Mysor, for a sit« ft 
the lower chinchona plantation. We started from Un 
kamand early one November morning, and rode a 
the central plateau of the hills, consisting of rounde 
grassy undulations, intersected by wooded sholaa. 
some of the hollows the streams had formed lai 
fiu-amps, wliere iWte weift es.\.enai.\e. ^^^ixa <iE ; 

CH. ra. Nedivattam Plantation. 303 

The travellers' bungalow of Faikara, tlie first on the 
road towards Wainad, is ten miles from Utakamand, on 
the banks of a river of the same name. Several huge 
Iwulders of syenite obstruct the stream and cause it to 
foam noisily round them, and the wet atones were 
covered with Podostcmads, herbaceous branched floating 
plants, with the habit of liverworts. We saw several 
otters playing in the water, and peering at us from 
behind the rocks. Six miles beyond Paikara is the bun- 
galow of Nedivattam, on the edge of the rapid descent 
into Wainad, and the road passes from the upland slopes 
through a jungle where the ferns first appear, maiden- 
hair, ceterach, and other species growing by the roadside. 
Some garden marigolds from England had been planted 
near the Nedivattam bungalow, and they had spread 
themselves in masses over the adjacent slopes. 

The tract of forest land which we came to examine 
is close to the bungalow, and from the grassy hill above 
it there ia a glorious view of Wainad, and of the plains 
of Mysor, stretching away to the horizon. It is 
eighteen miles from Utakamand. Here the mountains 
sink abruptly to the Wainod talde-Iand, and the Moyar 
river thunders down in a long waterfall, divides 
"Wainad from Myaor, and, flowing through a deep 
gorge to join the Bhawani in Coimbator, eventually 
swells the waters of the great river Kaveri. The land 
available for immediate occupation comprised about 400 
acres of uncleared forest on the mountain slopes, at an 
elevation from a little over (JOOO to a little under 5000 
feet above the level of the sea, and with a mean 
temperature about 8° wanner than that o£ 'Uta.Vaiaa.uiJL. 


Nedivatiam Plantation. 

I selected this aite for a plantation of C. mtecinibra, 
C. Calisaya, C. mierantha, and tlie very delicau f 
Pemviatia, because, with a good supply of water, and s 
deep rich soil on a base of decomposing laterite and 
syenite, it had a good slope, a suitable elevation above 
the sea, temperature, and amount of humidity. Tk 
information we possess on these points, with regaid w 
the above species, weis by no means complete ; bnt it 
was sufficiently exact to enable ns to form a correct 
opinion, Dr. Spruce gives the following details re- 
specting the climate of the region of C. succirubnt 
in latitude 1° 40' S. The zone of the " red baric " ■■ 
from 2450 to 5000 feet above the sea. 




Mom or 









'-r 1 







Jdm . 




[ on the 27th. 



July . 




(57 1/ 801 1 












( on the leih./,' on tbo 19th.J 


Ot't. . 




f 60 \\i 74 1 


Nov. . 







Deo. . 







Climate of Ch'inchona Regions. 

[Dm the Ist of June to the Slst of December is 

ftdiy season in the " red hark " region, when the 

I are asually sunny in the early morning, and 

i be^n to form as the suu declines ; while after 

[ autumnal equinox there are heavy rains and 

lder-8torui3. In the wet season the early part of 

Kdfty is foggy, and there is heavy continuous rain 

J the afternoons and nights. In tlie region of 

, from 13° to 16° S. lat., and from 4000 

K)0 feet above the sea, the dry season lasts from 

to the end of August. April and August are 

iwery months. May is also showery, but clear in 

I fopenoona, and the mean temperature during the 

I half is 69°, mean maximum 71^", and mean 

I 624°. June and July are hut dry months, 

i little rain, a bright hot sun in the day, but cold 

Utu nights. In September the rains begin, increase 

m October, and pour down incessantly from the 

Kooning of November to the middle of March, with 

'try hot, damp days and nights. We have no detailed 

wfonnation respecting tlie region of C. mierantha and 

P. Perumana, species whicti flourish in 10" S. lat,, 

rawn 4000 to 5500 feet above the sea. From May to 

November the sun shines jjowerfully, yet hea^-y rains 

fell from day to day in June and July 1860, and it was 

not nntil August that the days were clear and bright. 

At Oaaapi, in this region, where a register was kept, it 

nioed daring half the days in the year.* From 

Ifovember to May is the rainy season, and sometim^4 

■ Smjtb'a JovTtiey from Lima lo Para. p. 115, 



Climate of NedivaUam. 

ihe rain pours down for six or seven days wirfi 

The Nedivattam site, being about 8° or 10° wan 
tlian Utakamand, has a temperature exactly BimiUr ! 
that of the forests where the above species of chiocl: 
flouriah. The mean temperature in the shade ia 6ff 
inaxini\im 80°, and minimum 54°. The average rail 
fall ia 105 inches, Init all falling in 125 days. Fta 
November to May the sky is clear and the sun powB 
fitl ; and this long drought might, I feared, be pn 
judicial to some species. From May to Novembi 
there are clouds and rain. The elevation above ti 
sea is the Sfime as that of the chinchona forests, It 1 
true that Dr. Spruce gives the extreme upper limit < 
the " red bark " region at 5000 feet ; but Mr. Cross a 
that species growing at an elevation of 8000 feet; u 
the great importance of cultivating this species at t! 
liigheat possible elevation was demonstrated by I 
.Spruce's observation that the bark of trees growing Iq 
down and near the plains is by no means so Uiivk i 
that of treea which flouriah in a loftier and mo 
temperate climate.t The Nedivattam site is with 
tlie limit of tlie region which receives both monsooB 
Though protected to some extent from the south-wei 
it has ita full share of the rains duriug the sumnit 
and also receives occasional moisture from the i 
east monsoon, coming across Mysor between Octobi 
and December. During the remaining months it a ' 

• Dr. A. Sniltli'B Ptru a* U I*, H. p. 67. 

t Dr. Spruoe'a lirfort, p. 27. 

Flora of Nedivaitavi. 307' 

by dewB in the nights until the aontli-wesl 
»n again cominencea ie May. It has been found 
it these species of chinchonse will bear a much drier 
late than we then anpposed ; but I bad no mis- 
inga that the amount of humidity at Nedivattam 
*ould not be sufficient for their successful cultivation. 
The only other person who visited this site after its 
selection, and was capable, througlj personal knowledge 
of the South American chinchona forests, of forming an 
I opinion, was Mr. Cross. It was exceedingly satisfactory 
1 find that lie not only approved of it for the 
Ovation of plants of the " red bark " species, but 
t, from the superior depth and richness of the soil. 
W considered that they were likely to thrive even 
'■etter tlian in their native forests near LimoUy on the 
"ASlem slopes of Chimborazo. 

In the Nedivattam forest, among other plants, I 
fuand the Hymenodictijim excdsmn* wild yams, ooffee- 
pUnts, cinnamon, pepper-vines, Andromedas, Oshcddas. 
'lid ginger, a Salanophra with a scarlet flower, and 
^i'undance of orchids and ferns. On the edge of the 
firwt tlwre was a little hut, merely a few brandies 
' "vered with grass, and leaning against the trunk of a 
'rw, with some empty honey-combs lying about. It 
"■M the habitation of a family of Mulu Kunimbaa, a 
*Tld people who live in the forests, and run away in 
-real terror when any one approaches them. 
The magnificent view from this point embraces n 
* Oallcd CMMhana txeeUa b; Dr BoKborgh. but ^lelnded fnipi 
Ihr iiit of Qiinehoiin hy Dr. Wullicli, irho gave Ibc pluit ita prcernt 

308 Examination of other Sites 

great part of Wainad. Far below there was a so 
cofTee estate, its bright green contrasting with ! 
more sombre hnea of the surrounding forest ; and in 
to the left, though out of sight, is the extfiM 
plantation which, together with a tract of forest on 
slopes of tlie Nilgiris, was owned by Messrs. OucU 
lony and Campbell. 

After passing the night at Paikara, we started 
morning to examine another site fartlier to the 
ward, and overlooking the plateau of Mysor. 
crossetl several ranges of grassy hills, with streamft 
the intervening valleys flowing through thickets of 
rhododendrons, with the georgeous crimson flowers j 
beginning to bloom. Oi^^:kias, and a LoManthus wi6 
beautiful glossy leaf The liills were dotted with a 
John's-wort with a bright orange flower (ffyptric 
Hmkcrianum). We soon reached the edge of 
plateau, overlooking the low country, and looked dfl 
on the wide plains of Mysor, with some Nilgiri pe 
in advance of us, and a valley between, where tjk 
was bright green cultivation, and crimson patch* 
amaranth, surroundmg the Badaga village of Cho( 
Between the place where we stood and the Chd 
valley there were some fine patches of forest on 1 
sleep hill-slupes ; but they did not oS'er the sBJ 
advantages as Kedivattani for a iirst experimea 
cliinchona plantation. This side of the hills is drier, I 
soil poorer, and water is loss abundant, though ift 
nearer Utakamand, and both laboui' and supplies j 
more easily procurable. In returning to UtakamandJ 

on ike Nilgiri Hills. 


rode up to a Toda mand, where something unusual had 

evidenlly occurred. About thirty Todas were walking 

in a hue through the forest glades below, and several 

^kals were prowling about in the broad daylight. 

I We afterwards heard that a huge tiger had killed one 

Litf the Toda buffaloes that morning, and retreated into 

Iflie sAote on the edge of which we had just had 

Blandieoii. They expected Mm to come oat at sunset 

c his supper. 

We continued our excursion to the summit of the 
Kalhati peak, overlooking the Sigur ghat, whence 
't'vetal fine tracts of forest land slope down ; but 
Nwlivattam was decidedly preferable in every respect 
'" all the localities which we examined on the northern 
■i'le of the Nilgiris, and to the eastward of that site, 
llie part of the hills on the south, towards Kunnr and 
Kotogiri, was out of tJie question on account of the 
■Qniiner drougbt, as it is completely screened from the 
■ontii-west monsoon by the spurs from the Dodabetta 
Pnk; and the forests towards the Siaapara ghat, being 
too br west to receive moisture from the north-east 
'iioQsoOD, were not so good as Kedivattani for a first 

As soon as the success of the cliinchoua culture on 
ihe Kedivattam plantation was fully established, the 
txperiment was extended to the east and weat, both by 
Government and through private enterprise; and these 
pfvcious Iwrks now yield remunerative profits to 
Euiuptui speculators, while they at the same time 
Bfer Alt inestimable blessing on the native population. 

Scientific Aid, 



It ia necessary, in order to make the history 
progresa of chiDchona cultivation quite clear, to prei 
an account of the work on the plantations, by refen 
to the administrative and scientific aid which Buppo 
and guided that work. While superintending, i 
series of years, the completion of the ent«rpTise I 
South America, I also had administrative charge oi 
the work at the 'India Office relating to the chinchol 
undertaking, and was thus enabled to watch and a 
the cultivation in India, to he in constant comxaunica 
with Mr. Mclvor, and to give him support and Ii 
the frequent occasions when they were needed. In tlj-' 
place, also, I will refer generally to the invaluable scien- 
tific counsel that was received from Mr. J. E, Hownnl 
iind Dr. De Vrij, and to the cordial co-operation of tbt 
distinguished Director of the Koyal Botanical Garden* 
at Kew. 

I was in charge of the conduct of the enterprise and 
of all business connected with it at the India Offire 
until the end of 1877, and always worked in conhal 
co-operation with Mr. Mclvor until his death. I ulsu i 
enjoyed the advantage of receiving assista 

WTt. Publication of Chinchona Pamphlets. 311" 

B from Mr. Howard, tha accomplished quinologist 

S maQufacturer of quinine, whoso knowledge of the 

nchons genua 13 unrivalled ; from the late Mr Daniel 

Bbury, and from Dr. De Vrij the eminent Dutch 

while unfailing aid was always cordially 

mded to tlie great work by Sir William Hooker and 

prJoseph Hooker. The Royal Botanical Gardens at 

where the plants have been received on their 

snivala from Panama, and whence they have been 

despatched to India, have, through the kindness and 

ever-ieady help of their Director, formed an important 

futnte in the steps towards final success. 

One of my chief cares was to keep the cultivators 
folly Bapplied with information on the subject of their 
elutge. With this object I printed translated editions, 
m pamphlet form, of several reports and papers on the 
•object of Peruvian bark trees. These English editions 
consisted of the Reports of Junghuhn, De Vrij, and 
Van Gorkum on the plantations in Java ; * of the 

• n« CBainiHon 0/ iht Qui%a Im in Java to the t»d of 18W. 
iWnbvd b; Fnni JungUuha and J. E. De Vrij. TrsQalkted from tlie 
£u^iuUa, Joij and Au^iut. IStiO. (Spottiawoode. 1S61.) 

FraWy BepertA /or I860 and 1B61 ntpecliag Oe eoiidition of Quitiiua 
CUtiratMHiiii Dr. F. JuugbuliD. Trauslated fromlbeDutcb. 

U (y Dt- Fraia Junghuhn, IruDaUted from the Dutch, witll 

\, I1; ClemcnU B. Markliam. (SfiottiHwooilc, 

UfoOui CuUiviiluin oj QuintH*, by Dr. F. W. Juiig- 
o oountotioQ thuniwiCu. TnuiaUtoJ ftoiu theDuloli. 
(dpottiawoode. 1861.) 

Oa 1A« CAiwAMKi Bark </ BtitUk India, bj Dr. J. E. d« Vrij. 
(lUvrlmcd from tbo Fharmiuxutieal Joarual of Juiio ltlG4 ) 

a> Ihc C^ilitatiait a/ Quinimi in Jatv and Briliih India, tiy Dr. J. 
E.ifeVT^, TraiuUled fium the Datcli. (Spallioroode, ISBH.) 

311 The Madrid Herbarium. ch. » 

important work on Peruvian barks by M. GusM 
Planclion, of Dr. WeddeU'a " Not«s on the Quinquina 
of Poeppig's account of the bark treea of Huanuco.l 
the botanical section of the work of Mutis, and of ti 
descriptionfl of chinchona and their habitat by D 
Karsten.* I paid two visits to Madrid to examine ti 
Herbaria at the Botanical Gardens, and during the seod 
visit I obtained a copy of the inedited nianuflcript 
Mutis, which I printed for the first time.t The coloM 
tirawinga were afterwards reproduced by Dr. Don J( 
1 Triana, for whose publication I obtained a grant &l 
the Secretary of State for India.} 

I also arranged that all the correspondence relati 

Report for 1864. TntDslaled ^m the Oemun. (Hpottuinl 


• rerurinn BarU, bj Guslave Plimohon. TnoaUted from' 
French. (SpottiBwoode. 186S.) 

AmaUt det Sdencti NatarelUt. 5th series, vols. li. and xH. {8po( 
woode, 1871.) T 
Nulei oti the Chinehrma treei of Huamieti, in Norfhent Pent, t 
EiiouMd Poeppig. From pages 217 to 223, and 237 to 2l!4 of vol. | 
of his Krtie tn Fen, aShrmd dtr Jahre 1627-32. Translated rrom^ 
German. ( 

Ki(7. «OTne aceoant of Uow botanUU and of the rrtvlU i^ Ouir labo^ 
by Olementa R. Markham. (Spotlis woode. IS67.) 1 

by Clements B. MarkLam. (Spottianoode. 1866.) T 

msnti du ChuTenummt <le 8. M. Bril'iuH-qw. ¥oVm. Coloured plaM 
(Paria, 1870.) 1 

ChincJwna Blue Books. 3'3 ' 

I" tlie chinchona enterprise should be printed, through 
i";ing asked for in Parliament. At my request" this 
H-iis done by Mr. Wm. Ewart in 1863 and 1866, and by 
my old messmate, the Hon, Fred. Walpole,' in 1870. I 
*as thus able to arrange for publication and to pass 
UiRMgh the press, all the Reports and other documents 
relaliiig to the chinchona enterprise from 1852 to 1870 
inclusive. I prepared and added several maps to illus- 
l*ate llie Reports. The correspondence from 1870 to 
187-5 has since been asked for by Mr. Muntz, and was 
pKsented in 187G and 1877. The whole is included 
in five Parhamentary Blue Books, which have been 
wtremely useful to inquirers in this country and to 
cultivators in India.* 

The magnificent work of Mr. Howard, based upon 
Uie "Nueva Quiuologia" of Pavon,t was also of 
Bttterial assistance to cultivators in India, and several 
wpies were sent out for distribution. But the greatest 
«ebt of gratitude is due to Mr. Howard for undertaking 
'« laborious analysis of barks from the Nilgiri 
pluilatioDs, and for furnishing those Reports which 

' Bloe Dunk. 1. Eiut Indin (Cliinchrina) CorrespondtuM, March 
\9m to Mknib 1663 (Printed 1863). 
.. II. Eiial India (ChiochonB) Corre«poDd«nce, April 

ises lo April 1866 (Printod 1866). 
„ III, EftBi loiiia (ChinchoDa) Correapoodenc^p, April 

1MS6 to April 1870 (Printed 1870). 
IV. Eiwt India (Chiiirh<iiia)OQrrtflpi>mIence,Auguit 

187(1 U. JiJy 1875 (Printed 18761. 
IV. and V. Eii«t India (Cliinohoua) Corrwponiluiifc. 
Aagul 1970 to Jalj 1875(Printiid 18TT). 
w a/Ua Hitaa Quinclogia of I'aam, trilh/orty eiJanrrd 
^Jltal, FMS. ; and nfcwmif I'oni on tkt buria tUicriUd lig 
t, r.LS. (Folio, 1862.) U*cll Reeve. 


Mr. Howard's Great Work. 

have been such invaluable guidea to the ciiltivator,' 
Mr. Howard embodied the results of his investigationi 
in a work entitled " Quinology of the East Inda 
Plantations," f which has also been of great service to 
the cultivators in India. Mr. Howard's aid has thaa 
been, from the very first, of great value and importance- 
It has been highly appreciated, and on the 17th of 
October 1873 I had the pleasure of addressing to him 
the foUowij^ letter : 

" Snt, — I am directed by the Secretary of State foe 
India in Council, to convey to you his best thanks fot 
the valuable aasistanoe you have frequently given, both 
by advice and by perfonniug laborious and difficult 
analyses, in the promotion of chinchona cultivation in, 
British India, The important and costly works yOtt 
have published on the chinchona genus have been <it 
essential use, both to those who collected plants and' 
seeds of various species in South ^Vjuerica and to tha 
cultivators in India. Your analyses, and tbe valuable 
remarks with which they are illustrated, have fumished 
excellent guides to those who are in charge of the 
plantations ; and tlie numerous occasions, daring a 

• Report* on analysis of Eiut India liark, by J. E. Howiinl, Eaq. 
luL 2HltIay, 1S63. (Ghinrhona Bliui Book oS HGG, ^. 14.) 
2nd. 15 June, 18tf4. ( „ ., „ p. 48.) 

Srd. 1 Ang. IStS. ( „ „ » p. 13*.) 

4th. i Feb. 1867. C .> „ 1870, p. St) 

5lh. 28 Aug. 1867. ( „ „ „ p. 134.) 

t The Quinnlofry of Eait htdion Flantaliont, by John Eliot BowM^ 
F.B.3. (FoUd. Lovdl Reave, 1869.) 

TAB QuiwHoiiy of Eiut indiun Planlationt, by John Eliot Howud, 
F.B.g., Porta IL and III. Colouiod pktea. (Folio. Lovell B««Te, 

Servues of Dr. De Vrij. 


rse of years, on which you have given advice and 
istance of various kinds, have furthered the progress 
; the undertaking very materially. His Grace * 
i me to assure you that the services which you 
fre 80 zealously and constantly rendered are fully 
Kiated, and that your aid is considered, by Her 
881/3 Government, to have furthered in no small 
the success of this undertaking, which will 
r be most beneficial to the people of India, 
" I liave, &c., 


Hie aasiatonce and advice I have constantly received 
hasa Dr. J. E. de Vrij, the eminent Dutch quinologist, 
lire also been of great importance^ Formerly in 
diemical charge of the duuchona plantations in Java, 
Dr. De Vrij has also personally inspected our own 
^'ilgiTi plantations. He has always taken a warm 
uul enthusiastic interest in the success of chincboui 
cultivation, and, above all, he has devoted bis profound 
chemical knowledge and great abilities to the discovery 
of the form of febrifuge which combines, in the bighest 
digree, the two requisities of efBcacy and economy. 
Mote especially as regards his investigations with this 

nd in view. Dr. De Vrij has done much to ensure the 

nol success of this great undertaking. 
But the most important work was intrusted to 
Mr. Mclvor. He was called upon to uudertake the 
£fficult task of converting the chinchona; from wild into 
• The Uuke of AiKyll, tiien Socrclarj of State for Indfk. 


Air. Mclvors Appointment. cb. k 

cultivated plantiS, an achievement which he perfompl 
with complete success, Hia zeal and ability, his knon- 
ledge of the cUmiite and soils of the Nilgiri hills, and 
lii3 acquirements ns a practical gardener, pointed liiu 
out as the fitting man to receive this great charge. Et 
had the advantage of jversonid intercourse, for wtiels 
together, with Mr. Cross, Mr. Weir, and myself, afte 
we bad explored and carefully examined the conditions 
prevailing in the cliinchona forests of South America : 
and he was thus able to form a correct judgment on Uic 
requirements of the plants under cultivation. 

In July 1861 Mr. Mclvor was appointed Superu; 
tendent of chlnchona cultivation on the Nilgiri hill: 
with full and entire control over the operations, ic 
direct conimusiication with the Govemmenl, aini 
subject to no interference from any intermedial 
authority. Orders to the same effect were sent out U' 
Madras by the Secretary of State for India in Conmil 
on July 2nd, 1861, and the same orders were reptalr*' 
both to the Governor-General and to the Governor of 
Madras, in deapatcliea dated February 1862. It l^■sf 
above all things important that Mr. Mclvor's poaitiM, 
in connection with the chinchona experiment, sLouM 
be authoritatively defined, in order to protect him from 
attempts at interference by incompetent persons, 

I will now proceed to give an account of Uie 
commencement of chinchona cultivation in the Nilgin 
liills. Tlie first batch of seeds, lieing those of the "grej 
bark " apecies from the Huannco forests, arrived & 
Utakamand on the 13th of Jantiary 1861, and tfaote dI 

Sowing of Chinchona Seeds. 


^^B ■' red bark " followed in the end of February, 

^^P 7th of April, 4'}3 plants of C. xuadrubrn reached 

Wyieir destination on the N^ilgiri hills in very good 

oonditioD, considering tbe length of time they bad been 

in Wardian cases, and thus tbe experiment was fairly 


Tbe first sowing, which took place in January, was 
not very successful, because Mr. Mclvor was induced 
to use too retentive a soil, and only 3 to 4 per cent, 
genninated. The second sowing took place early in 
March, the soU used l>eing of a much freer nature, half 
composed of burnt earth ; and 15 to 25 per cent. 
germinated. Encouraged by this result, Mr. Mclvor 
used a soil composed entirely of burnt earth for the 
tiiird sowing, which took place in the beginning of 
April, and included tbe seeds of the " red bark " 
species. Of this sowing 60 per cent, germinated, and 
')f llie seeds of C mieranlfui 90 per cent. It is to be 
r«iQembered that all these seeds were collected in the 
^uth American forests some montlis before, and that 
liiey had passed through the perils of several climates, 

I mi a voyage of many thousands of miles. In May all 
fki plontfi of C. succiruhra had taken fairly to Uie soil, 
nA were in a healthy and flourishing condition. Tlie 
tenipemture given to the plants was 60° iji the 
morning, rieiiig to 75° in tbe day, with plenty of ligia 
and air; tliia treatment having proved to be best 
tdapted for their rapid growtli. 
I>uring the autumn of 18B1 the work of propagation, 
DS of cuttings and layers, progressed ■ rapidly ; 

3i8 Propagation of Plants. 

and wliereas in June 1861 we only had 2114 chin- 
chona plants of valuable species at Utakamand, 
January the number was increased to 9732 plana 
The layers of C. sucdrubra root sufficiently to be 
removed in five weeks, and cuttings in two monlis; 
layers of the " grey bark " taking a little longer time B 
root, or about six weeks. Mr. Mclvor also made ll» 
important discovery that eMnchoHEe strike freely from 
etfes, and make beautiful plants exactly like sDong 
seedlings. These eyM give about e^ht fine stioBg 
plants for one that is obtained from cuttings, which is a 
great advantage while there is not much wood in tJie 
young plants. In October Mr. Mclvor reduced the 
temperature of one of the propagating-housea to 55° *t 
night, and 65° during the day ; and imder this treat- 
ment, which is also probably advantageous to the baik. 
the plants appeared to grow faster, and the leave* 
became a very beautiful bright green. The experienc* 
of a year's cultivation convinced Mr. Mclvor thaW 
although the most suitable elevation and climate diflW 
with the various species, yet that they all require 
rich, rough, and very open soil. In September 1863 
the erection of a new propagating-houae -for chinchon* 
plants, in the Government gardens at Utakamand, wa» 
sanctioned, which was completed early in December. 

The Dutch Government in Java, at the request (rf 
the Government of India, arranged to forward some 
cliinchona plants of the species cultivated in that island ; 
and accordingly 100 of C. Calisaya, and 7 of C. lanci/olia, 
were transmitted. Of these 48 of C. Calisaya, and 4 of 

f.T7. More arrivals of Plants and Seeds. 319- 

XUiiuifdia, arrived at Utakamand on tlie 20th of 
r 1861, In exchange for these plants a supply 
\0. gtiedrvbra, and a proportionate number of the 
I species, was sent to Java, " not more in return for 
1 actually received to our stock of plants of 
I Caiieaya, than in acknowledgment of the very 
and liberal spirit evinced by the Dutch 
Aorities." • At about the same time Mr. Mclvor also 
pt 100 plants of C. sucdnthra and 50 of each of the 
■ bark " species to Calcutta, with a view to the 
establishment of a chinchona plantation in Sikkim. 

Mr. Cross's collection of seeds of C. officinalis of three 
varieties arrived at Utakamand in March 18G2. By 
this time Mr. Mclvor had discovered the best method 
of treatment for chinchona seeds. He sowed in very 
*irn!y soil ; and while so much water waa never given 
" lo make the particles of soil adliere to each other, 
"1 the soil was kept in a uniform medium state of 

iature. In this way the seeds not only germinated 

""1, but came up very strong. Mr. Howard also 
l'''-^nteti the Government with a plantof C. Uritvgin^a 
' I'avon, ft variety of C. qffidnaliji, six feet higli, which 
<' liad raised from seed sentto him from Loxa by Senor 
'■ii>frio. T)iiB precious plant waa eml>arked on board 
tlie steamer on the 4th of Marcli 18(>2, and arrived at 
' iKkainand early in April. More seeds of C. Calimya 
wived in 1865, and seeds and plants of C. Fitaymsia 
from (kdombia in 18li9. 

I tlu Stfrelarf lo Aa 


Planting OtU. 

Mr. Mclvor commenced experiments in plantiog oin 
in the spring of 1861. In April he planted out tW 
trees of G. sucdruh-a, two under shade, and one in a;' 
open spot surrounded by bmshwogd and undergrowth 
On the 29th of tlie same month tlie S.W. monsoon str 
in, and the plants under dense shade assumed a wtat 
climber-like habit, and were injured from the les"- 
being cut to pieces by the constant drip from the forwi 
trees; while the plant shaded by the brushwood om- 
tinued in tlje most luxuriant state of health, with il* 
leaves uninjured. In September 1861' six plants fi 
different species were planted out in cleared sgxite d' 
tlie highest and most exposed points of the Nedivattoi' 
site, and all of these not only bore the cold and dnm^ii!: 
without injury, but their growth was never even cliucliLil 
Between May and August fifteen "red bark" piani 
were planted out at Utakamanil. The unusual colli ' 
December checked the growth of these plants, but d'v 
not injure them in tlie least. Early in January IS'': 
the formation of a nursery was commenced at N'&l: 
vattam, large enough for 300,000 or 400,000 chinchotu 
and 2400 were planted out. 

With regard to the question of whether the chinehoiw 
shoulil be planted out in dense) shade of forest tr«s as 
had been the practice in Java, or in tha open, it, wili 
be well to i-ecapitulate some of the information whic). 
was collected in their native habitat in South Anierita- 

In tlie forests of Caravaya I obseived that Uie plaBB 
of C. Caliaaya, when in dense shade, were tall bwI 
weak, with few ■branches, and without any sign of e^' 

Planting Out. 321 

liavii^ flowered or fruited. When very slightly shaded, 

as on the ridge of rocka above the Yanamayu, or scarcely 

at all. aa on the precipice of Ccaaa-sani, they spread more, 

have a healthy appearance, and are covered mth capsule- 

teariag panicles ; while the moat thriving and healtliy- 

looking young plant that I met with was growing in 

the open, without any shade whatever. Abundance of 

light and air is a. necessity for the full development of 

tlw alkaloida in the bark of C. CalUaya, and the trees 

luuat either grow at the edge of the forests,, or else 

tiuil their way to the light, by overtopping all other 

trees : otherwise, as ia too often the case, they assume 

a weakly, straggling habit under the baneful influence 

I tf dense shade. 

I Dr. Weddell was of opinion that, during the first 
ysar or two, the soil and trunks of young trees of C 
Catisaya should be protected from tlie direct influenct; 
"f llie scorching sun, as he liad observed that plants so 
«'po»ed generally appeared to have a stunted growth. 
n« referred of course to the Josepftiana or shrub variety 
"f C, Calitaya, but their dwarfed habit must be attributed 
to the less fertile soil of the open grass-land in which 
they grow, and partly also to the great altitude, and 
wtucqnently cold climate, rather than to eOocts of 
<-^pORQrc to light and air. But he assured me that ha 
Would never recommend that any of the cliinchona trees 
ttinuld be planted in the dense shade of tlie forest, aa 
in «Dch a situation the greater numlwr would evidently 
•oon be smothered. 
With respect to the " red bark " species, there canr.oi 

3ia Planting Out. 

be a doubt that tbey should be planted in the open. 
On thia point Br. Spruce's observations were quite 
conclusive. He wrote : " The trees standing in open 
ground, pasture, cane-field, &c., are far healthier and 
more luxuriant than those growing in the forest, wher. 
they are hemmed in and partially shaded by other troet ; 
and while many of the former had flowered freely, Ih-' 
latter were, wiUiout exiisption, sterile. This plainly 
shows that, although the red Itark may need ahwii- 
whilst young and tender, it really requina (like Blo^t 
trees) plenty of air, light, and room, wherein to develop 
ita proportions."" The " grey bark " species all bcAi 
the marka of exposure to free air, cold, and sunshine i 
and the overspreading thallus of various Graphidete on 
their barka indicatas tliat the trees have grown in open 
situations, exposed to raiu and sunsliine.t The '* 
ojicinalis trees, in the neighbourhood of Loxa, giow 
sometimes in little clumps, and sometimes solitary, hi: 
always in dry situations.^ Dr. Seemanu, who visiwil 
Loxa when serving on board H.M.S. Herald infomi«>l 
me that those which he saw, bearing ripe fruit, were on 
the edge of thickets, entirely exposed to the influence ''t 
air and sunshine, 

When ijlanted in the open chinchonfe grow luxu- 
riantly, yield abundant supphes of seed, and form fim' 
thick bark, which, owing to the free exposure of lii'' 
leaves to the influence of light and fresh air, contains .1 

• SpmreV Heport, p. 2a 

t HijWBrd. -Vuemi (Juiiiolo'jia. N'oa 

J CpMb'b ItrjKilt, [I. j. 

iDtage of alkaloids; while, in the shade of 
I they run up into tall, weak, straggling 
, with little chance of either bearing fruit, or 
elaborating much quinine in their bark, until some of 
them at length overtop the other trees, and reach tliat 
■"^sential sunshine of which they had l>een so long 
'■■['rived. The above considerations led to the esta- 
t'UsfameDt of the pl&nts in the open, and free from 
pernicious shade. 

The sites were selected at Nedivattam and Bodabetta 
*ilh reference to the similarity of elevation and climate 
in those localities to the native mountains of the species 
»iiich it was intended to cultivate in them, and because 
thuy bare plenty of deep loamy soil. It was decided 
^tiiil the best method of cultivation was to plant out the 
Aonae in the open, and not only was the luxuriant 
S healthy growth of the plants provided for by this 
ment, but it is aleo essential for the formation of 
tabundaat supply of alkaloids in their bark. This 
( depends on the vigorous action of tlie leaves, 
I the healthful condition of the leaves is due to a 
■ nScicDt supply of sunshine. Dr. Lindloy says : " It 
a the action of leaves^to the decomposition of tlieir 
) acid, and of their water ; to the separation of 
tfca aqoeoua particles of the sap from the solid parts 
that were dissolved in it ; to the deposition thus effected 
of VBriouB earthy and other subsUmces, either intro- 
dnoed into plants as silex or metallic salts, or formed 
there as the vegetable alkaloids ; to the extrication of 
nitrogen ; and, probably, to other causes as yet unknowu 

324 Improvement under Cultivation, ca. n' 

— tliat the formation of the peculiar secretions of plants, 
of whatever kind, is owing. And this is brought abont 
principally, if not exclusively, by the agency of light, 
Their green colour becomes intense, in proportion to 
their exposure to light within certain limits." * 

The results of analysis of tlie bark, up to 1866, hai 
fully established the fact that cultivation greatly favour; 
tlie increase of febriluge alkaloids in the bark Tli<' 
C. sucdrttfxra had been proved to be a very haniy 
species, likely to flourish over a larger area than any 
other valuable kind, and under cultivation the yieU oi 
total alkaloids became very large. It was evident that 
this would be the most important species for Indiii- 
The C. Calisaya did not thrive so satisfactorily, and 
was not well adapted to the climate, probably owing lo 
the drought from November to May, Tlie C, nffinnaii'. 
flourished most remarkably well on tlie lugher Doda- 
betta plantation, and it was clear tliat its cultivatioc 
would become very remunerative. The "grey bark" 
species from the Huanuco forests also did well, im- 
proving under cultivation, as their bark was found v 
produce the more efficacious alkaloid nidnidine, instesii 
of the chinchonine, for the yield of wliich they ar- 
remarkable in their native forests, Moreover. iHi 
ipiantity of alkaloids in the grey barks increased, unJer 
cultivation, from 1'8 to 7'5 per cent. A great mislakt 
has, hitherto, been mode in neglecting this valualili' 

In 1866, the year in which I paid my second vial 

• LindUya Thconj nnd Vra-iUce oj Borlieullurt, p. TO. 

\ rr. Species on the Nilgtri Hills. 325 

to tie Nilgiri plantations,* there were 2-44,871 trees 
permanently planted out. 

The three varieties of C. o^dttalis obtained by Mr. 
Cross from the forests of Loxa, reqtiired distinguialiing 
namea. I, therefore, proposed that the Urittmnga 
variety should be called iwr. Condaminea, because it 
was the original variety discovered by La Condamine ; 
that the variety Cbahvjirgvtra should receive the name 
of Bonpland, being the identical plant figured in 
Plate X of tlje work of Humboldt and Bonpland (the 
unshaded branch with capsules) var. Bonplandiana , and 
tliat the third should be var. crtspa.f The species in 
1866 introduced into the Nilgiri hillB were aa follows:— 

^MDn visiting the plantations of Dodabetta and Nedi- 
T&ttom, I beheld a change which appeared almost mira- 
culous. It represented a triumph which is altogether 
unprecedented in the annals of arboriculture. The old 
jungle had disappeared, and in its place were the rows 
of Peruvian bark trees with their graceful and beautiful 

■ At the epeci&l request of the Madras OovernmeDt aod of 
Mr. Molvor. 

t lIomoraTidum of Feb. I8th, 1863, The names were sppraved b; 
^ir W. Hooker. 

I Fiom JavB, from a plont obtaiiiBil by Dr. Karalen. 

I. C. Catiiaya. 
II. C. luecirubra (red bui-k). 
nL C. oJUinulii! var. Coiidaminea. 
H „ Banplandiana 

IT. Cntiida | 

C. minratilha \ {grej buke). 
C. Pentviana' 
V. a ion«/oHa. J 

3^6 Enumeration of Plantations cb. i». 

foliage. On the heiglit« of Dodabetta the trees of '~ 

officinalis were growing healthily, and 152 acres we." 
already planted. A building had been erected to be iise<l 
in the first instance as a jail for convicts employed in 
clearing and planting, and eventually as a bark store. 
Along the Nedivattani slopes there were four planta- 
tions, called the 1st and 2nd Denison, the Kil)|PB£toii, 
and the Marfcham plantations. Altogether 284 acra^ 
were under cultivation ; with the necessary boilc 
roade, drains, and watercourses. On the Markbam 
tatiou a jaU had been erected for 270 convict labourers.' 
alsu to be ultimately used as a bark store. A fiitii 
pkntfltion was ff^rmed to the eaat of Nedivattam, neat 
the lovely falls of Paikara, called the Wood plantation. 
where 71 acres were under cwltivatiun, and 40 more 
had been cleared. Finally, a new plantation had been 
formed in an excellent situation on the Kundah hill*, 
i'ar away to the westward. Here 193 acres bad been 
cleared and prepared for planting, and the necessary 
buildings had been erected. Chinchona cultivaticm 
was also eagerly undertaken by many private planters 
on the lulls. Mr. Money had obtained 900 acres in 
the Deva shola to be devoted entirely to the cultiu* cf 
Peruvian bark trees ; Mr. Eohde had formed a flourish- 
ing estate at a place called Babuades, to the west of tiic 
Nedivattam plantations ; and altogether 290,000 cMb- 
chona plants and 503 ounces of seeds had been issueil 
to the public up to the year 1875. Bahuades «a> 
commenced in 1866, and in 18fi8 there were 00 acra 
planted. Colonel Denison'a plantation of OssiDgton 

til. IV. on ty Nilgiri Hills. 327 

covered 400 acres ; and Dr. Colvin Smith, Mr. Phillips, 
Mrs. Morgan, and others had also actively commenced 
the caltivation of Penivian bark. Of the 85 persons 
who had purchased land on the Nilgiris, under the Waste 
Lands Rules of March fSth, 1863, as many as 50 had 
undertaken chinchoua cultivation. The intention of 
Sir William Deniaon, the Governor of Madras, was to 
limit cultivation in the Government plantations to 
1200 acres; 500 at Nedivattam, 250 at Paikara, 250 
at Dodahetta, and 200 in the Kundah lulls. But the 
latter plantation was abandoned in 1872, on the ground 
of its distance from Utakamand and the want of roads ; 
the trees, planted over 75 acres, being left to take their 
chance with the native vegetation. In 1879 there were 
8947 trees alive, from 12 to 15 feet high." 

This commencement, both as regards the work of 
Government and private enterprise, was a great and 
most encouraging success. The cultivation was secure, 
and the Peruvian bark trees of two valuable kinds, 
C. ivceirubra and C. officinalis, had become natives of 
India. The next point for decision was the best method 
of harvesting the bark. The must obvious way was to 
adopt a system of coppicing. But Mr. Mclvor con- 
ceived the plan of renewing the bark itself, on a system 
which he tlnis described : — 

" A labourer proceeds to an eight- year-old tree, and 
reaching up as far as he can, makes a horizontal 
incision of the reciuired width. From either end of 


Harvesting of Bark. 

tliia incision he runs a vertical incision to the ground, 
and then, carefully raising with liis knife the bark ai 
the homontal incision ontil he can seize it with lii? 
fingers, he strips off the bark to the ground and cuts it 
od The strip of bark then presents the appearance of 
a ribbon more or less long. Supposing the tree Uj I:* 
28 inches in circumference, the labourer will take nin^ 
of the above ribbons, each 1^ inches wide. Ho will 
thus leave, after the tree has been stripped, other nii:' 
ribbons still adhering to the tree, each somewii..: 
Imiader than the stripped ribbon and at intervals apart, 
occupied by the spaces to which the stripped ribl-m 
liail adhered. As soon as he has pcraoved liie strips, 
the labourer will proceed to moss the trunk all roumi, 
tying on the moss with some fibre. The decorticated 
intervals will thus be excluded from light and air, an^i 
this is one of the capital points in the system. Tbt 
exclusion of light and air from a stem partially ban-i 
of bark acts in two ways ; it enables a healing proce?.* 
to be rapidly set up in the same way as a plaster Aiy» 
in the case of a wound in an animal organism ; and it 
has this farther curious effect, it increases the secretion 
\ii quinine in the bark renewed under its protection 
At the end of six or twelve months the bands of b«k 
left untouched at the first stripping are removed, aaJ 
the intervals they occupied on the trunk are moewil 
At the end of twenty-two montlis, on an average, tlif 
spaces occupied by the ribbons originally taken a-t 
found to be covered with renewed bark muidi thicker 
than the natural bark of" the same age, and this reue' 


on the Nilgiri Hills. 


eied 400 acres ; and Dr. Colvin Smith, Mr. Phillips, 
ZMra. Morgan, and others had also actively commenced 
the cultivation of Pemvian bark. Of the 85 persona 
who had purchased land on the Nilgiris, under the Waste 
Lands Kules of March 6th, 1863, as many as 50 had 
undertaken chinchona cultivation. The intention of 
Sir William Denison, the Governor of Madras, was to 
limit cultivation in the Government plantations to 
iL'iJO acres; 500 at Nedivattam, 250 at Paikara, 250 
.; Doilabetta, and 200 in the Kundah liills. But tlie 
litter plantation was abandoned in 1872, on the ground 
of it^ distance from Utakamand and the want of roads ; 
the trees, planted over 75 acres, being left \a take their 
chance with tlie native vegetation. In 1879 there were 
8947 trees alive, from 12 to 15 feet Mgh.» 

ITiis commencement, both b3 regards the work of 
Government and private enterprise, was a great and 
most encouraging success. The cultivation was secure, 
tnd the Penivian bark trees of two valuable kinds, 
f. twxirubra and C oJiciTiaiis, had become natives of 
India. The next point for decision was the best metliod 
vS harreating the bark. The moat obvious way was to 
•dope a system of coppicing. But Mr. Mclvor con- 
ceived the plan of renewing the bark itself, on a system 
which he thus described : — 

" A labourer proceeds to an eight-year-old tree, and 
reaching up as far as he can, makes a horizontal 
inciaion of the rerjuired width. From either end of 


Coppicing Sysient. 

crops of slioots, which rise from the stumps, to ( 
The results of analysis appear to show that i 
iuccirubra the trees attain their maximum yield i 
alkaloids in their eighth year ; and under the coppicii 
system, they would therefore be felled during t 
eighth year. From the stumps two or three aho<iti~l 
would be allowed to grow, which would in turn be 
felled, and a continuous series of crops of bark would 
thus be gathered from a plantation treated on tbe 
coppicing system. 

Mr. Mclvor was of opinion that more bark could it 
taken from a tree, in a given time, by the mossing than 
by the coppicing syatem; and his opioion waa fonntd 
after a series of experiments. Dr. King has 8U5™:esteil 
tliat it may pay beat to take a crop of bark from a trw 
by mossing and then to subject it to coppicing. These 
questions will not be finally decided until experience 
has been acquired during a longer series of years. 

The trees are barked at the proper season by coohi'S- 
to whom the felled stems and branches are made ovir 
as soon as they are cut. IVovided with a stout knife 
the coolie first marks the hark off into long narrow etrii" 
by putting his knife under it and pressing upwards 
The end being freed, the remainder of the strip 
readily comes off. The hark is then laid to dry in ahclf 
fitted with open shelves made of split bamboa Al 
Dodabetta the old jail ia used as a drying-house, an'' 
tlie bark is dried on stages vrith hot-air flues — loOt) lli» 
at a time. When thoroughly dried the Imrk ia stored. 

The cultivation and harveating of the bark pro 

Chinchona Hybridisation. 


(TOusly from the time of my visit to the planta- 
in 1866 to the date of Mr. Mclvor'a death, which 
place ten years afterwords. In 1866 the C, 
•a trees began to yield seeds, and the other 
followed Boon afterwards ; and in 1870 the 
of planting was reached. ^ At about the same 
an important fjuestion arose with reference to 
idisatiOD. It was in 1869 that a new variety was 
firet observed in the Dodabetta plantations with ranch 
narrower leaves than its neighbonra. On analysis its 
Urk was found to yield the unprecedented quantity of 
fcnn 7 to 10 per cent, of quinine, and 1 1 per cent, of 
toUl alkaloids. It was named C. laticeolata and C. 
mgiuti/olia. In 1873 a still more valuable hybrid 
oUflcbona was discovered, which threw the C. an^vsti- 
fiiia into the shade. It yielded 122 per cent, of total 
*u&loidB, and was tieUeved to be a cross between C. 
wt/uoya and C. officinalis. This precious variety 
Wceived the name of C. puhrscens. Tlie appearance of 
tliese extraordinary plants with their enormous yield, 
Udicated tlie importance of paying close attention to 
we , phenomena of hybridisation, and of studying the 
■rttject with a view to future improvements in cultiva- 
tioB. This is one of the points which need elucidation 
tt the Aitiuie. 

At present the C. mccirubra and C. officinalU greatly 
preponderate, and will be the main sources of future 
Wk oppply for India. The former will spread over all 
tlio hill districts, bringiog heahng bleasings to the 
["■oplc. The latter, growing on sites at a considerable 

33^ Present State of 

elevation, will be a source of wealth, and will yield die 
richest quinine bark of India. 

Mr. Mclvor died on the Sth of June, 1876, after 
having been for nearly thirty years in charge of ihe 
Government gardens at Ulakamand, and for fiA«eD 
years Superintendent of chinchona cultivation. His 
monument consists in the marvellous success of that 
cultivation. It is indestructible, and will last fa 
centuries. No man could desire to have a more nolile 
monument, nor one which could more fitly and pa- 
manently record his labours. 

No successor has yet been appointed to Mr. Mclvdt 
The plantations are ia charge of the Commissioner ol 
the Nilgiri hills, M-ith a Manager, Mr. Hillier. to keep 
accounts. Under the Commissioner, Mr. Eowson is 
Assistant Superintendent of the Nedivattam planti- 
tions, Mr. Burrows is Head Overseer at Paikara, and 
Narminswainy Naidu at Dodabetta. 

In 1880 the Dodabetta plantation consiata of 330 
acres planted with 226,936 chinchona trees, of which 
226,677 are C. offixiiialis * and the rest hybrid. It » 
well weeded and the trees are healthy ; yielding u 
annual harvest of about 40,000 lbs. of bark. T.^' 
expenditure ia Ua. 14,246. 

Tlie Nedivattam plantation covers 301 acres, an'] 
contains 208,780 trees. Of these. 164,456 are C. 
succirvbra, 43,694 C. offidnalis, 193 C micranth^.\ 

• And C- FilaytmUi The tareful dutinotioQ of T&ru-tiM »f-l 
speoiea mecua lo Laie ceased with Hi. McIvoi'b dCKth. 
t C. Perueiurto BOd C. nitida i 

CH, IT. ths Nilgiri Plantations. 333 

421 C Cal-uaya, and sixteen of other species. The trees 
planted in 18(52 are 24 feet liigh, with a girth of 18-J 
inches. Tlie old trees have been barked three or four 
iiiiea, some even six times, yielding 3 lbs. per tree. 
ihu bark crop amounts to 76,000 lbs. a year. The 
expenditure is Es. 25,790. 

The Paik&ra plantations are divided into two parts 
by the river. That on the right is called the Wood 
plantatiun, and covers 72 acres, while that on the 
left, called the Hooker plantation, covers 154 acres. 
The elevation is from 6200 to 5000 feet. In the Wood 
plantation there are 45,758 trees, consisting of 37,779 
C. suodruhm, 7182 C. ojidnalu!, and 797 C. micranlka. 
In the Hooker plantation there are 87,557 plants, of 
wliich 58,537 are C succirubra, 27,909 C. ojjicinalis, and 
858 C mif-raniha. Tlio annual bark crop is 30,000 lbs., 
and the expenditure Es. 10,761. 

Acconling to Captain Campbell Walker's careful 
enumeration,* there are 5(39,031 cliinchona trees in the 
Nilgiri plantations :— 

I. C. CaliMtya (yoliow bark) 
II. C. Uiecinibra Trod bark) 
m. C.micrantAn (grey bark) 
IT. C ogieinalii (orown bnrk) 
T. a Pitayenau, &e. (Colonibi&n bark). 


[ The whole extent of cultivation, on the three planta- 
I, is 848 acres. Tlie yield of bark wOl eventually 
391,6&6 lbs. a year, valued at £80,208.t The 

t ■ Thi> offioet'B very nble and lucid report is dated July 10th, 1879. 
F t In 1877-78 tbe net pralit wua £28,S»8; and it haa oontioDed lo 

lU each year. 

espenditure is £5000," so that the net annual profit 
will be considerable. Tlie total coat since the comnietic*' 
merit of cultivation in 1862. up to 1880, has bten 
£160,000, including interest. The receipts have b«r. 
£173,046. Thus the whole capital chai^, includinc 
interest, has been paid off; and all net receipts from 
this year are clear profit. 

A great impetus has also been recently given l" 
private planting. In 1877-78 the number of plants 
distributed was 187,350, and of seeds 32fi oimces ; and in 
1878-79 there was an Jrameuse increase, the numlier of 
plants being 604,855, and of seeds 1322 ounces, Tbw 
were 4000 acMiS undet cliinchona cultivation in tkf 
Nilgiris t and Wainad. 

But although chinchona cultivation is a remuneratiTt 
public work, which has been more suecesaful than any 
other that has been unflertaken in British India. anJ 
although its usefulness to the people is second to none, 
the experiment is still in its infancy. The trees of Imi 
valuable species have Ireen introduced and are establishfJ. 
Their produce is an important article of commerce, an^I 
confers an inestimable blessing on the whole populaticn. 
StUl there is mHch to learn before the art of cultivatics 
Penivian bark trees is fully understood. Tlie questious 
of the best method of Jiarvesting, of the reasons wLv 

■ 14,246 Kupeea, for DoJobetta. 
2S.T00 „ for NediTktIam. 
10,TG1 „ for PsiUra. 

50,797 „ 
t The nres under coffee cultimtion on the NilgiiU is reporial In 
be 19,600 acre»i (ui4 S'iliX mom taken uy. 

Cultivation by the Government. 335 

species do not flourish, of hybridisation, of the 
al laws ruling the production of alkaloids, and 
al others, need further close investigation. It is 
sary that there should be a centre of cultivation, 
3 these problems can be studied and whence plants 
eeds may be distributed. Moreover, the existence 
\ tree^ must be secure against all private considera- 

and all, even the remotest, possibility of danger, 
hese weighty reasons it is absolutely necessary that 
ovemment should retain the chinchona plantations, 
ontinue to lead the cultivation. 

336 Ranges South of the Nitgiris. m.A 


Having decided upon the Nilgiri hills as the t 

position for the principal chinchona plantatioaM 
subsequently inspected the other hill 
Soutbem India tfl wliich the cultivation might] 
usefully extended. 

South of the Nilgiris there is a remarkable I 
in tlie western j^hats, through which the railway p 
at Palghat; and then the Animalle liiUs risa | 
abruptly, the range continuing almost to Cape C 
These most southerly mountains, from Palgliat to C 
Comorin, may be divided into two distinct regions I 
purposes of description, which are separated from d 
other by that extensive unknown tract of countjyw 
the sources of the Periar are still concealed from \ 

The northern division of this mountainoas r 
includes the Animall^ and Palnai hills in 
territory, and the extensive bill districts within 1 
native states of Cocliin and Travancor, It difTers fi 
tlie more southern division, by possessing sevenl li 
with wide stretches of table-land, instead of a a 

Palnai Hills. 

337 I 

f mountains sloping directly from their summits 
e plains on either side. 

3hed the foot of the Palnai hills, in the Madura 
on the 2-ttli of November, 1860, and im- 
iately commenced the ascent of the Periakolam 
their eastern face, on foot. This ascent is 
ingly lieautiful, but the undergrowth is thick 
1 the vegetation is not nearly so luxuriant as 
r elevations on the Nilgiris. The trees are 
fioiiinosce, and at an elevation of 3000 feet 
khonaceous plants commence, amongst which I 
rred tlie Hijmfwidictijon ej-^^um. At 6000 feet 
I ascent is covered with long grass, and trees 
\ Confined to sheltered hollows and ravines. After 
hing the plateau it is necessary to scale a second 
> grassy slope before arriving at the settlement of 
Sodakamal, wliich is 7230 feet above the level of the 
Kodakamal then cousistod of eight houses, built 
Jung the crests of undulating hills, and one of the 
"iier slopes is clothed with a wood of tine trees a»ri 
'ffti-fems, from which the Tamil people have named 
llw settlement.* Itound tlie houses there are gum-trees, 
Atoaa heUfrophyUa, Cassia ghnica, fruit-trees, and hedges 
"^ roses and geraniums as at Utakamand. Tlie house.'* 
^■'onged to the ofRciala of the Madura district, the 
-Vtiierican missionaries, Mr. Clarke of Madras, and the 
(■'ivncli priest of I'ondicherry, who came here for short 
iniervala of holiday and relaxation. 
Mr, Ames, the Sub-Collector at Pindigal, had kindly 
■ £«(ii, B iliaJc □! umbrolU; ntid iHirtiii'. n jungle. 

338 Pahiai Hills. 

given me the use of a house which he shared vidi 
Mr. I^viDge, the Collector of Madura. It had a pleuul 
garden, whence there is a glorioua view of tlie Madua 
[ilaina, with their numerous tanks glittering in the 
and close to the honae a torrent of deliciouslj 
water habblea over huge boulders of rock, and finally 
leaps in long falls down tlie face of the cliffs, makiogl 
noise at night like the roar of the sei 

The Palnai" or Varagiri iiills, like the Nilgiw 
farther north, branch out in an easterly direction fesn I 
the main line of tlie western ghats. United to » 
jx)rtion of the Animalle range at their western end, 
they stretch out into the Madura plains for a distaacB 
of fifty-four miles, with a medium breadth of fifteen, 
and an area of 7it8 square miles. On the soutli thef 
rise very abniptly from the plains, presenting, nW*! 
their summits, a perfect wall of gneiss ; but on tW 
north and east they slope down in a succession <* 
broken ridges. The Palnais are divided into two parta^ 
a lower series of hill and dale to the eastward, calle" 
Malmalle or Kanandaven, avei'aging a height of 400* 
feet, and covering 231^ square miles, where there wk 
extensive tracts of forest, some cultivation, and severtM 
villages ; and a loftier region to the westward, 6000 td 
7500 feet aljove the sea, with undulating grassy hiUl 
and mountain-peaks, the highest of wliicli, PenoanaUfij, 
attains an elevation of 8000 feet. 

The formation is gneiss, inters tratified with quarts 
and traversed by veins of felspar; and the r ock 

• Literally " Fruit- hille." 

he ro^^i 

Soil and Climate of the Palnais. 

339 I 

illy decayed to a consideralile depth on the 
BBU, and disintegrated so as to form a gritty clay, 
e eastern part the aoil is a light reddish loam ; liut 
Uie western and loftier half it is very poor, being a 
fry black peat, several feet thick, with a stiff and 
ttie yellowish clay as a subsoil. The rains on the 
i hills have the effect of mixing the decaying 
B with the decomposed rock, and a rich soil ia thus 
; but on the plateau of the Palnais this opera- 
Btloes not appear to take place, the one becoming 
ack peat, and the other a stiff clayey subsoil. 
) remarks, however, only apply to the interior 
Beys, for on the outer slopes, overlooking the plains 
idura, there is plenty of good soil, and magnificent 
^ts clothe the mountains at the foot of tlie perpen- 
r walls of gneiss which form the southern ridge 
(f the Palnais. 

Ite climate of the Palnais, as regards temperature, 
»ety cloeely resembles that of the Nilgiris. At the 
uniQ of my visit, in tlie end of November and be- 
SUUiing of December, the season was very late, though 
were were thick miste and showers of rain every after- 
lloon. This is tlie time of the north-east monsoon, and 
tbe streams swell to torrents after every shower 
During tlie first two months in the year it is very cold, 
ind the ground is often covered with frost on the upper 
plateau. In March there are light aliowers of rain, 
which increase during April and May, and continue 
with strong westerly winds, until October. Tlius the 
Palaus are n-ithin the influence of the soulh-west 

340 Natives of (he Painais. 

In June ami July, tlie varmest monliA 
the thermometer never falls below 50°, nor rises abon 
75'^; and the westerly winds, with occasional rain, con- 
tinue during August and September. 

The eastern part of the I'alnais, called Kaiiandt^'cn. 
and Pnmbari, the principal village to the weslwani, 
are inhabited by people of the Kanava and Karaikst 
\'alala castes, numbering about two tliousand of I»'ll 
sexes. The villages are chiefly on the lower Palnw! 
and one which I visited, called Vilpati, was aurroun'ieii 
by terrace cultivation of mustard, garlic, roffi, and h 
or amaranth. The people also cultivate lablah, linit* 
oranges, and plantains ; and I heard that iii one or tav 
villages there were small coifee-gardens, Man; 
country natives are also settled on the Painais, 
men outlawed from their castes; and in the 
inaccessible forests are the Poliars, a race of timid 
men of the woods. They have no habitations of 
kind, but run through tlie jungle from place to 
sleep under rocks, and live on wild honey and 
The women run with them, like wild goats, 
children slung on their hips. The Poliars occaaii 
trade with the country people, who place cotton 
grain on some stone, and the wild creatures, as 
the strangers are out of sight, take them and put 
in their place, but they will allow no one to a 

The undulating hilla and valleys of tlie 

* Yet I niiued Ihe Baherii MaJtonia, yibhb in the KQgicfe ill 
riiuiid Wjoiid tUc timila of the eoiith-went monBoon. 

Flora of the Palnais. 

pteau are covered with an aromatic grasa {Awlro- 
•n), wliicli growB in lai^ coarse tufta, like the 
i ychu in Peru ; and it is not until the young 
r shoots come out that it affords good pasture for 
, of which there was then a small herd on the 
, belonging to American missionaries and others, 
e grassy slopes are dotted with tree Bhododendrona, 
iltberiaa, Osbeckiae, Lobelias, the ffi/pericum 
Kkerianum, and brake ferns. This upper plateau is 
mirably adapted for the growth of English fruits 
and vegetables. In Mr. Levinge's garden tliere were 
bushes of fuchsias, daturas, roses, and geraniums ; and 
behind the house grew peach, apple, plum, and loquot 
trees, strawberries, potatoes, green peas, and artichokes. 
■Where there are springs or water-courses on the 
liigher range, there are generally fine-wooded " sholas " 
facing inwards, and very extensive tracts of forest on 
the outer slopes ; but the timber, especially teak and 
black wood, has been very extensively cut by the 
people of the hills. I examined a shola called Min- 
murdi-karoal near Patur, on the south side, another 
between tliat and Kodakamal, and two others, and 
observed trees of the following genera: Mickrlia, 
Cinnamomum, Dodonaa, Millingtonia, Mi/rsine, Mono- 
erra, Symplocos, Bigrwnia, Crataiaria, Fa«sifiora, Oi- 
l)€ckUi, Jaaminum, Hedifotia, Lagianthu.% Cantkium, and 
tMynfnodiclyon. Tree-ferns abound near the streams, 
1 in some of the jungles there were trees of enormous 
Early one morning I went to see the " pilhir- 
Uiree miles to the westward of Kudakarnnl. 

341 Chinchona Cultivation 

They consist of grand perpendicular cliffs descern 
from the grassy heights, with their bases clothed 
forest. Two of tlieni are separated by fissures 
main cliff, and liave the appearance of gigantic coli 
It was altogether a most magnificent sight, 
volumes of fleecy clonds rolling up from the low 
country, and occasional peeps of the far-away pbim 
and glittering tanks through their folds. 

The natives had long been in the habit of reckleadj 
felling the most valuable timber, and acres of fine sholi 
used to be annually destroyed to make clearings far 
plantain and cardamom groves. For the latter, how- 
ever, only the amall trees 'and undervood are burnt no 
the Falnaia, the larger trees being left standing. But 
this wasteful destruction of timber was checked by the 
authorities, and in 1860 an acting Conservator of th« 
I'alnai forests was appointed, with a small staff, to 
prevent the reckless cutting of timber, and to marfc, 
from year to year, the trees which arrive at sufficient 
maturity, and are fit to be felled. 

1 came to the conclusion that in several of the 
wooded eholas the chincbona plant might be cultii'ited 
with advantage ; the C. o^cinalis, and other apeciis 
which thrive at great elevations, on the upper plateau. 
and the C. sucdrubm in Eanandaven. Mr. Levinj^^ 
the Collector of Madura, accordingly obtained twelvt* 
chinchona plants from Utakamand in March 18t)4 
Tbey were planted in his garden at Kodakamal in tin 
following April, at a height of 6985 feet above the sea ; 
and when I paid my second visit to the Pulnai hills, in 

on the Palnai Hills. 

^^^kember 1865, 1 found a good beginning and every 
^^HoBpect of satisfactory progress. The trees were 
lIPiMready from 4 to 5 feet high. The cultivation has 
since been tried in several other localities on these 
liills, especially by tha Catholic missionaries, and the 
^^perience has been that tlie trees grow fairly, but that 
the bark is not very rich in alkaloids. In 1872 there 
■were several hundred healthy chinchona trees in the 
mission -house garden at Kodak amol. Mr. E. A, 
Campbell had also planted an acre with chinchona 
trees on the Sirumallay hills, in the Madura district, in 
1870, and an acre on the Lower Palnais. The elevation 
of Mr. Campbell's plantations is about 3500 feet above 
the sea. At present there are said to be 1560 acres 
under coffee in Madura, but there is no complete ac- 
count of the extent to which tlieir proprietors have 
planted chinchona trees. 

On the wilder Animall^ hills, to tlie westward, there 
is an extensive area for future planting; and every 
species will flourish at the various altitudes from 7000 
to 3000 feet. Farther south, within the Travancor 
territory, there is a mountain tract between the pkins 
gf Travancor and Madura, which is watered by the 
river I'eriar from south to north, the river eventually 
turning west and falling into the Cochio backwater. 
In 1865 I inspected a portion of this region called 
Pinn6d. with Dr. Cleghom, the able Conservator of 
Forests in the Madras Presidency. Our route passed 
tight over the range from the Travancor coast, crossing 
B river Periar, into Madura, 

344 Chinchona CulHvatimi 

The road to the liUI station of Pinned commences I 
Kotium, on the Cochin backwater, and passes o 
undulating country, covered with forest, to the foot I 
the mountains, a distance of 33 miles. After 
beautiful ascent tJie region called Ifrmed is re&clieii 
country of grassy slopes, splendid forest lands, rod; 
ridges, and lofty peaks, averaging a height of 3000 fe 
above the sea. At its western edge, whence there is 
glorious view of the 30 miles of forest as far as ll 
backwaters and the sea, Mr. Maltby, formerly Itesida 
of Travancor and Cochin, built a house, which 1 
called Maryville, and established a chinchona gard( 
for the Travaucor Govemment. This was in 18ri2. 

The Bajah granted Rs. 1000 for a garden and glai 
house, Es. 300 for getting chinchona pltuitfi 6a 
the Kilgiris, and Ks. 40 a month for a gardener U 
ooolies; and in December 1861 Mr. Maltby wTot« 
most interesting memorandum on the subject. 
garden," he then said, "may be viewed as formed 
aid in the introduction into the mountainous country) 
Travancor of tlie chinchona plant, and its other obj<( 
may be considered as subordinate to this, sncli M f 
growth of tea and coffee. The question is, bow I 
Travancor Govemment con most successfully seoQ 
the efforts of the British Govemment, and make d 
use of its mountain rqfion in extending chincli 
cultivation. There are mountains near Maryville 
which subsidiary plantations may be formed up t 
nearly 6000 feet. Extensive seed beds should 1 
formed, and there should he about 10 acres of c 


in Travancor. 


J selling the seedliDgs to planters, at a yield of half a 
1 an acre, the profit would probably cover tlie cost of 
i garden. Tea should be raised in the same way ; 
the towns on the coast might be supplied nith 
tatoes and onions. The Mary\Tlle garden was com- 
nced by planting apples, pears, grapes, oranges, 
[•■wberries, raapberriea, roses, geraniums, fuchsias, and 
an vege tables." 
December 11th, 1861, the four first chinchona 
I were planted by Mr. Maltby at Maryville ; a 
C. Peruviana in the north-east comer, a C. succirubra 
in tlie south-east, a C. nitida in the south-west, and a 
C. micrantha in the north-west. But his admirable 
suggestions were very inefficiently followed out, after 
iU-health unfortunately obliged him to retire in 1862. 
Mr. Newill, the Resident in 1865, furnished us with 
the following memorandum, dated December of that 
year : — " The Government garden at Firmed was 
established about three years ago. In March 1863, 
about 500 chinchona plants were brought from Utaka- 
mand by Mr. Hannay, the Superintendent of the 
Sirkar garden. Tliey were then about two months old, 
and from one to two inches high. Many died when quite 
young, from the effects of damp, drought, or cutting 
winds. There are now about 220 strong and healthy 
plants, and some 200 young plants have been propa- 
The C. officinalis has a tendency to throw out 
les along the ground, like a creeper. The tea 
I are now three or four feet high, and seeding 

ta lata, mt btm a adi ■» fa^wAm ■M&^ri 
IfBTriDt; Ad ■■ 1M3 Aiy «^ nfiilr taftiBg 
flMK flf ^ bcntiU B^Mnl ^Al iBlfclft] 
S400 aow 1m1 Ina fnatBd. CSS «ae dnre^ Mdi 
WK abmly pkatel b 1880 Obb n« S> M 
e*Ut«s, conrii^ 2500 MKB. 

All the eonatrr wygpri bv these toSee plamas 
veil adapted for ddzidKina chIutsdoo. TIm 
I for coffee extends bom the crest of the glifitB S 
I of lulls about three or foor miles further to 
ward, and for tnany miles to the north and 
Tim coniitry ia intersected by well-wooded ranges 

Flora of the Travancor Hills. 34)1 

I, occasionally running up into fine peaks, such as 
:ta-imUla, overlooking tlie low country, which is 
'0 feet above the sea ; the Anakonum peak, over- 
ig the Wooclhinds estate ; and several others. 
aceneiy is exceedingly beautiful. The undulating 
are covered with tufts of lemon and elephant grass 
\ndropog<m), growing to a height of six or eight feet, 
the valleys and mountain-sides are clothed with 
ahdag. Unlike the comparatively stunted stems 
umbrella-like foliage of the Nilgiri and Palnai hills, 
trees in the Pirm&l sholas, at a lower elevation, 
grow to a great height and present a grand appearance, 
The ondergrowth beneath them consists of cardamom, 
wild ginger, zedoary, rattan, a small bamboo called 
Uak by the natives, and a few ferns. The following 
are the princijial trees : the Parl-murutn (Isonandra 
acuminata), a large tree only recently discovered by 
General CuUen, much used for planking; the Nanga, 
called by the planters " iron-wood," appears to be a 
sort of poon ; AnjeH (Artocarpus hirautiui), yielding a 
very valuable timber ; Aranili, a tree of the jack tribe, 
from the bark of which bags are made; Terminalia 
Catappa, or Indian almond ; ErythrivM Indica, at the 
edges of the sholas ; wild cinnamon ; two species of 
vnia. and some other Myrtacea: ; two kinds of 
'Barrinia, or gamboge trees ; and the Canarum atrietum, 
or black diimmer tree, called by the natives Conffiliutn- 
fMimm. Besides the Evgenias, there are several other 
beautiful flowering shrubs outside the sholas, but still 
ler the shade of their trees, such as Osbeekia, 

348 ^1^1^ Planting at Asambku. 

Crotcdiiria, and the brilliant dark blue Tormia, i 

common on the Sisapara ghat. These fine sholtu, wil 
their veduable timber, were fast disappearing under d 
axe of the planters, and the loud crash of falling tt 
was constantly heard on tlie hill-sides. The sil«s h 
adapted for chiuchona planting are the forest slop 
beneath the peaks called the Turn bis, and wiUii 
Mr. Clarke's estate. They are well sheltered from tl 
cutting land winds, and partially so from the s 
vest monsoon, wliile the numerous mountain str 
supply abundance of water. 

The range south of the Palnai liills and 1 
is a single ridge dividing Travaiicor from Tinnef 
Kear Cape Comorin isolated masses of weather-be 
rock rise abruptly from the plain, and form an out 
of battlements and pinnacles against the sky; I 
continuous range only commencing north of 1 
Aramboli Pass, where the mountains attain a I 
of 3000 feet and upwards. The range is not I 
and has little or no intermediate table-land, 1 
abruptly slopes from the sunmiit ridge to the ri 
green expanse of Travaucor on the weatei-n, and ll 
dried-up plain of Tinnevelli on the eastern 1 
Several coffee estates have been formed on these 1 
The most southerly is Asambhu, at an elevation 
3000 feet, immediately above the Aramboli P 
where General CuUen, who was Itesident of Travai 
from 1840 to 1860, originally formed a coffee gard* 
I'lnntations were afterwards established by 
Grant and others. They have been succesaful, d 

Chinchmia in Tinnevelli. 349 

tincipsl drawback being the exposure to severe galea 
f wind, which do much injury to the plants. Farther 
, on the Tinnevelli side, at the feet of two grand 
scipices called Maha Indra-giri and Trivanamullay, 
i was, ia 1865, a small coffee estate owned by a 
»lthy Muhanimadan ; and a fine tract of forest land 
[ been purchased, but not then cleared, by General 
heneatli the peak of Agastya-mullay. Other 
tracts, adapted for coffee, had been granted to planters 
round Courtallum and Popanossum. 

There is a notable difference between the climate 
on either side of these ghats. On the west side the 
slopes are abundantly watered by the south-west 
monsoon, and the streams fall into the backwater, 
supplying -the narrow strip of land with water in 
abundance. On these Travancor hills clearing may be 
carried on to any e.\tent, without detriment to the low 
country, which could well dispense with some of its 
surplus moistiu^. But, on tlie east side, the due 
supply of water for the tanks and channels is a 
necessary of life to the people inhabiting the wide 
plains of Tinnevelli. IntUacriniinate fellings on these 
eaatem Bloi>e3 would lead to moat deplorable results, 
and the evil is alrea<ly beginning to be felt. Farther 
granU of land were prohibited in the Tenkasi taluq, 
and in Nanganari the people complained bitterly of 
the drying up of the streams. 

Chinchona plants will be hereafter cultivated on all 

_the coffee clearings and other lands that I have 

Btumerated, and it should be remembered that their 


Chinchona CulHvation 

beautiful foliage will be even moTe effectual 
wringing moisture out of the passing clouds tlua 
tlie original jungle. The natives are well acquaintflJ 
with the value of quinine, and when the trees whidi 
yield it are growing round the base of thai magnificent 
peak, 6000 feet above the sea, which is declicaud » 
their great Rishi and physician, Agastya, they will 
fully appreciate the blessing that has thus been 
brought to their doors. Severe gales of wind 
the chief difficulty in commencing cultivation on lhe« 
mountaina, especially on the exposed slopes of tlie 
Agostya-mullay, but the chinchona trees, when ihg 
once get tlirough the first two or three years of thai 
growth, will not suffer irreparable damage from this 
cause. Experimental plantations were foijned on the 
Tinnevelli hills at various elevations from 2700 to 
4300 feet, and under various conditions of exposuis' 
and soiL Some trees were planted on virgin forest 
cleared for the purpose, others were put in grass-land.- 
In 1806 there were thirty-two plants of C. succirtibn 
and ninety-eight of C o^cinalu planted near Popa- 
naasum, at an elevation of 3000 feet, and by 1870 
the tallest had reached a height of 13 feet. I'he plants 
flourished almost in a wild state, without receiving 
any special care; hut there are also tlu^e cultivated 
chinchona gardens in tiie Tinnevelli district. The area 
under coffee in Tinnevelli is reported to be 2119 acres. 
On the Shervaroy liills, in the Salem district, which 
are beyond the reach of the south-west monsoon, and 
only receive their i-ains from the eastern coast, the 

B. V. 

in Tinnevelli and on the Shervaroys. 351 

hinchona plants flourish. The cultiyation was first 
atroduoed by Mr. Arbuthnott, and the hundred 
eedlings of C. sitccirvira, which were planted on the 
Ihervaroys in October 1866, have since grown very 
atisfactorily. There are said to be 9677 acres under 
offee cultivation on the Shervaroy hills. 

Position of Wainad. 


The view from the chinchona plantations of Nfii- 
vattam and Faik&ra extends over the district "' 
Wainad, -which is the continuation of the range of tit 
western ghats connecting the NUgiris with Cwr^. 
In thia direction I confidently anticipated that tht 
cultivation of the fehrifnge ti-eea would spread; for 
while fevers are excessively prevalent, the elevaliai 
and climate are suitable for the growtJi at least »^ 
C. succiruhra and C. micranOui; and the antidote wodJJ 
thus be furnished in the very home of the disease. 

The taluq^ or district of Wainad is a pUtean. 
averaging an elevation of 3000 feet aljove the srf. 
in the direct line of the western gh&ts, between A' 
mountain knot of the 24^ilgiria on one side, and ii^' 
of Coor^ on the other. It ia about 60 miles long i} 
30 broad, and contains an area of some 725,000 acc^ 
On the Malabar side, the upper half of the niouiiUia-' 
consists of a succession of stupendous mural precijnw^ 
broken here and there by ravines and spurs, 
wherever there is a foothold, the ground ia oovi 
with magnilicent forest trees, many of them yi( 
valuable timber. On this western side there 

Surface of VVaini 

j»eral moaDtain masses which rise from the plateau 
\ a height of 5500 and even 6000 feet, their sides 
thed with forest, and tenninating in well-defined 
One of these, the Vcleri-miilla, extends far 
t into Malabar. The others are the Chumbra, the 
alpetti, the Kucha- mulla, and the Balasor hills. 
Beir northern aspects are well adapted for chinchona 
Wtivation, while their southern slopes, receiving the 
Ml force of the south-west monsoon, are less favour- 
>ble. Their rainfall is about 160 inches annually, 
lie scenery of this western part of Wainad is 
**ceediugly beautiful, consisting of precipices of gneiss, 
nsiog out of forests clothed in many varied tints, 
"^pid torrents and waterfalls, and wide \iew8 of the low 
country. From the western mountains the land slopes 
gfwlually down to the Mysor frontier, in a succession 
"f ridges or low ranges of hills, intersected by swamps 
or flftta, which, when left to nature, are overgrown 
with Pandanus, but wliich are now for the most part 
Mvered with paddy cultivation. The ridges and hills 
wtuist of long stretches of grass-land, dotted over with 
clumps of bamboos, mango trees with wide-apreadin'^ 
branches, and flowering shrubs, bucIi as Solanitm 
Imliaim, a Crotaiaria, a Lobelia, called by the planters 
tild tobacco, and aa Oshcchia with a very pale purjtle 
flower. The leafless but bright-flowered Erythriiut, 
and the wooden-fruited Bignonia xi/loairjxi, are also 
Common, If the Immboos were absent, the central 
part of Wainad would look like a beautiful but 
r.^Tlectwi English park. Occasionally isolat«i] maj^es 
2 K 


354 ■ 

Dminage of Wainad. 

of gneiss rise from the plateau, some, like tlie hills 
Nelialam, ending in needle-like peaks, others ftirmia 
cra^y precipices. These are the Nelialam hills s 
Clieramkota in South-East Wainad, Cunjilhki 
Yeddakul near Sultan's battery, the Minangadi 
Jiganabetta near Kalpeti, and the "Central HiH" 
Wainad. All these are conspicuons landmarks, 1 
eastern side of Wainad up to the Myaor front 
consists of a belt of dense forest, here and 
intersected by paddy flats (they call these low awan^ 
valleys on each side of a stream paddy flats, whetl 
they are actually cultivated or not) for a width of 
or 20 miles. The climate is bora much drier than 
tlie western side, and the trees, consisting chiefly 
the deciduous teak, are stunted and undersized. 
are extensive fires in the dry weather, when 
traveller may ride for nules through a hideonflj^ 
desolate forest of trees with charred and blackem^ 
stems and leafless branches. The bright little Indijf^ 
fcra ptUchella by the road-side alone relieves ti* 
drearineas of the scene. 

The drainage of tlie Wainad district, excepting ttf 
torrents wluch dash down tlie western mountaiii> 
during the south-west monsoon, is entirely to lif^ 
eastward, the numerous streams uniting to fonu Un' 
rivers, which are tributaries of the Kaveri. Tl 
Moyar drains Soutli-East Wainad and port of tn 
Nilgiris, the Nugu drains Soutli, and the Kubani Xori' 
Wainad. All the streams ai'e fordable in the u'j 
season, though the banks are often steep; but c 

Inhabitants of Wainad. 355 

\ monsoon they avell to an immense size, oft«n 
with a width of 200 feet, and dashing 
laly along witli maases of tangled branches and 
wted trees. 

original inhabitants of Wainad, before the 
luting brought in an influx of strangers, belonged 
srious races. The lords of the soil were generally 
I of the Malabar country, some of whom were 
f princes, and laid claim to very extensive tracts of 
Such was tlie Nnmbulakotta Vamavar in South- 
b Wainad. A large body of smaller proprietors, 
I the Chetti caste, were also scattered through the 
The working class was a slave race called 
''I'miniers, a short and sturdy people, with very dark 
complexions and curly hair. The wild tribe of 
Knnimlias inhabited the forest tracts. The Nair and 
Chutti proprietors generally build their houses on 
pictiireaijue knolls adjacent to their paddy cultivation. 
Clumps of mango and jack trees, plantains, and sago 
palins are planted on the knolls as garden cultivation, 
*iitt the Funnier slaves are hutted round the liouses of 
'heir lords. 

But, before coffee planting commenced, Wainad, with 
iW exception of a few patches of cultivation, was a 
■ilil and little known region, with a detachment of 
Estive troops at Manantawadi to overawe the Nairs 
:i\\ Muplahs. Ita products were caixlanioms, elejihant 
!■ ry, wnx, honey and timber. 

L'ofltW planting commenced in Wainad in about 
IW', and I believe the first plauUliun was on the 

356 Coffee Planting in Wainad. ch, v; 

Club Hill, at Manantawadi. In South Wainad the 
Brst plajitation was opened in 1846. In 1866 thfflf 
were upwards of 200 coffee estates in Wainad, coveriL. 
14,613 acres, of which 9865 belonged to Europeai: 
and 4748 to natives. There are now (in ISv 
reported to be 32,000 acres iu Wainad occupied ' 
mature coffee plants, 10,000 by immature plants. '■•■'■ 
27,000 taken up for coffee, but not yet planted. E* 
average yield is 200 pounds per acre, and the ai 
cost of cultivation, Rs. 250 pet acre. A 
important interest has thus sprung up in Wui 
many thousands of pounds have been sunk in ,it, 
very greatly increased wealth has resulted to 
neiglibouring countries of Malabar and Myaor, 

Wainad is approached from the side of the Malal 
three principal ghats. South-P^t Wainad, at the 
of the cliinchona mountains of the Nilgiiis, 
from Calicut by a voyage up the Beypur river to 
Conolly teak plantation, and thence np the 

The Conolly teak plantation ia near the foot of 
mountains, and in 1866 it extended for seven miltf 
along the north, and for several miles along both «<!"* 
of the Beypur river. The long vistas of tall and perfetd' 
straight trees presented a striking apjwjaranee. T^ 
stems were often without a branch for a height' 
70 feet and upwai-ds. The planting was coniiiniii ■: 
in 1840, and I found those planted in 1S4 i 
o feet 2 inches in girth at a distance of 3 iii.; :n- 
the ^uviiid, aud 90 leet high. Several acres iw 

Conolly Teak Plantation. 357 

planted every year. The finest view of the plantations 
is from the bed of the river, where there is a fore- 
grouod of drooping feathery bamboos, above which the 
stately teak trees appear with their lai^ green leaves, 
wiiile tlie line of the NUgiria, crowned by the needle- 
like peak of Makurti, bounds the distant view. In 
1874 the total outlay had been £22,900, of which 
£10,100 had been repaid by thinnings, making the net 
cost of the plantations £12,800. But if interest is 
taken into account, the debt against the plantations was 
£23,500. Tlie annual revenue from thinnings is £1000 
and the charges £500. The real returns wiU begin wlien 
the tree3 are 50 years old. The area of the plantations, 
in 1875, was 2730 acres. 

In the surrounding forests, which are broken by open 
glades, there are several kinds of useful timber trees. 
Among them I noticed the end or jamhay [Xylocarpa 
Indica) with pods of hard wood; the karamarda 
(Terminalia coiiacea), called " jnngle-wood," with bark 
very rough and cracked in squares, like a tortoise's 
back; the piltamarda (Tcrminalia chthida), or " white 
tree ;" and the ben-teak {Lagerstomia microcarpa), which 
grows to a good size, and yields timber used for raftering 
and flooring. 

From Nelembur tlie road leads through a jungle of 

fine trees to Yeddakara, a bungalow in a large open 

expanse of grass surrounded by the forest. Here there 

was an encampment of Brinjaris (correctly Banjdrds), 

. the carriers of the country, with 500 bullocks bringing 

■^vu coffee : most of tlie men and boys suffering more 


SoutA-East tVainad. 

r less from fever. We 




and, I 

ft bright starry sky, an old man playeij while hia bullock 
boys Bang part-songs. Next day, January 22nd, ISM, 
I walked up the Karkur gh&t and along tlie road wHch 
crosses Soiith-Eaat Wainad into Mysor. Giidalor is d» 
chief station in this division of tlie district, at the foot 
of the glial which leads from the Wainad plateau bj 
the Nedivattam plantation to the Nilgiris. On dtlio 
aide of the road there were, in 1866, upwards of aiitj 
coffee plantations, the best being at Cberambadi and 
Devala, near the western edge of the plateau, and in lie 
Onchterlony Valley," at the foot and on the slopes of Uie 
Xilgiris. This valley is now one mass of coffee estates 
while the Cherambadi and Devala estates cover i 
succession of undulating hills, on the upper slopes o: 
the western ghats overlooking Malabar. Other coBea 
plantations cluster round the Nelialam hills, and round 
OiWalur, which is the central point of South-East 

The south-east division is very feverish, and here, 
more than in almost any other part of Southern India, 
will the blessings of chinchona cultivation be felt. In 
1864 fever ravaged the neighbourhood of Giidalur and 
carried off many humlreds of people ; and this terrible 

* Moal of tlie land iu the Snnth-Eost Wainad originallji belonged to 
n large Niur prupriotor rallod tliu Vaniarar of Nomlulakota. Ha 
voB in debt, and io 183G his territory waa told, bj r decree of tlie 
Zillah Court, and bougbt bj the principal moitgagi'u, Uie Tcrapad of 
NeletnbuT. Tbe Timpad made a grant of a very Utgn liBDt of thii 
land, nt tile foot of tbe Nilgiria, (u Mr, Oucbterltiny, wbiob il now I 
known as the Oacbterlony Vallej. I 

South IVainad. 359 

BiCation su^ested the establishment of a diapensary. 

e planters subscribed liberally, and the Government 

lidertook to contribute an apotliecary and medicines. 

dispensary was opened on May Ist, 1865, and 

f to the end of that year it had received IIG in- 

tients, while 1700 out-patienta had been treated. 

I^dalur is a village numbering about 150 houses, 3600 

t above the sea. The Giidalur fevers are chiefly of 

S intermittent type, beginning in February, becoming 

I regular epidemic after the early rains (mango showers) 

in March and April, and ceasing gradually on the 

setting in of the south-west monsoon. 

The boundaries of Sonth-East Wainad are the Mysor 
frontier on the north, the ghats overlooking Malabar 
on the south, the river Nugu dividing it from South 

i Wainad on the west, and the Nilgiris towering above it 
In the east. 
' Sonth Wainad is the moat important division of the 
district, containing, in 1866, upwards of sixty coffee 
estates, chieily along the edge of the ghata, but with 
northern or western aspects, or around the slopes of 
the Chumbra and Kalpetti hills. The farther a coffee 
plantation is from the moisture of the western coast, 
■the less jirofitable is its yield of coffee. The approach 
I South Wainad from the sea-port of Calicut and 
ilicheri, leads up tlie Tambracheri glifit to Lakadi 
1 Voitari, and thence crosses the plateau to Sultan's 
Utcry and the Mysor frontier. The Tambracheri ghit 
ft rocky forest-covered slope, up to within 500 feet 0' 
ibo summit, and tlien a sheer precipice of very hard 

360 North Wainad. ch.ii 

gneiss. The chief station of South Wainad, callai 
Lakadi, is at the head of the gh4t, and the road pai^a 
through it and across the plateau, with coffee plani 
on either side, to Sultan's Batteiy. 

This village of Gunputty-wutun, or Sultan' 
occupies a very central position in Wainad. ITie 
of road across Soutli Wainad, from Malabar to M; 
passes through it, as well as that from tlie Ni 
through Gndalur, and along the whole length of thf 
Wainad plateau to Manantawadi. The name of SultanV 
Battery is derived from a square enclosure sarronndi*! 
liy a ditch, whei-e Tipu mounted some guns ; whence t; 
took shots at a temple hard hy, where there h'BJ - 
atone carved into the shape of the elephant-headed ^a 
Ganesa (or O'unyiUtt/). Here thtre is a large baiai; 
and the place is surrounded hy fine clumps of tiw 
native coffee gardens, and paddy cultivation. Tit 
distance from Sultan's Batter}' to the Mj-sor irtmUei i; 
fifteen miles, and to Lakadi tliirty nules. 

North Wainad is traversed hy the old pioneer Mil 
from Maugalor, up the Periar ghat to tlie Myaor frontiri 
at the Bawalli bridge. It is separated from Coore ^ 
the Bramagiri mountains, on tbesunmiita of which that 
is a plateau GOOO feet above the sea. Parallel to liwi^ 
runs another well-wooded range, called the Dindinnil 
hills. The chief station in North Wainad is Manas]!' 
wadi, whence there are coffee estates all along 
to the Periar gh4t, and along the slopes of the 
hills. Coffee cultivation also extends ou the 
side of ManantawacU almost to the Bawalli 

. VL Supply of Labour in Wainad, 361 

1 the north-east there were thirty plantations 

mg the slopes of the Bramagiri mountains, and in the 

inelli valley. But on the eastern side of North 

^ainad, called "tlie bamboo side," tlie soil is poor, and 

s climate is too dry. The land yields two good crops, 

then falls off, requiring manure. In 1866 there 

3 fifty-three coffee estates in North Wainad. 

f Before coffee planting commenced in Wainad the 

«uring class consisted of the Punniers, those curly- 

uJed slaves of the Chettis, who have, for the most 

rt, preferred the old bondage under their hereditary 

to service on coffee estates. The planters, 

lerefore, have to look abroad for their labour. Demand 

nn creates supply, and many thousands of coolies 

r annually come in from the villages of Mysor, and 

p the ghats from Malabar, The wild Kurumbas also 

sioaally engage themselves, and on the Biamagiri 

tates there are some families of very gootl lalwurers 

belonging to a slave caste from Coorg. But the great 

mass of the labour comes from Mysor and Jlalabar. 

Tlie planters have to supply the coolies with suitable 
lines near their work, generally of split bamboos 
plastered with mud, and the health and comfort of the 
coolie and his faiidly is, of course, an important con- 
suleiBtion for the planter, as his supply of labour in a 
great measure depends on it. After the crop ia picked, 
the coolies return to their own homes, to see after their 
own crops and spend their money, returning to Wainad 
for the weeding and other work on the coffee plantations 
\ the monsoon. The usual method of obtaining 


Ckinckona CuUivaHon 

labfjurera ia to employ a native mautlry, who engage U 
enlist a fixed number of coolies, and bring them to On 
estate from their own homes, with an agreement to writ 
for a certain fixed sum, and the jn/tisiry receives a large sum 
of money in advance. No less than 100,000 lahouiHS 
were employed on the Wainad coffee estates in 1866. 

My great anxiety for the successful introduction rf 
cbinchona cultivation into Wainad, and the naturalisa- 
tion of the Peninan bark tree there, arose from iht 
terrible prevalence of fever and the high death-rste 
among the labourers on the coffee estates. 

My conclusions were favourable to the successful 
cultivation of the C succir^ibra, the species which yields 
the highest percentage of total febrifuge alkaloids. 
Along the ridge of the Western ghats overlookin! 
Malabar, several grand masses of forest-covered moun- 
tain rise from the Wainad plateau and terminate in 
peaks at elevations of from 4500 to 5000 feet. The 
most remarkable of these mountain-knots are the Veleri- 
mulla, the Chumbra, the Kucha-muUa. and the Balaaoi 
ranges, as well as the Bramagiri mountains, forming 
the boundary between Wainad and Coorg. The sites 
hest adapted for chinchona cultivation are to be foimd 
along the more sheltered slopes of tliese ranges. 

In 1866 the growth of chinchona trees in Wainad 
had already been commenced ; and I found that there 
were plants on a number of estates, in all the divisiosft 
of the district. 

But, although the extension of this cultivation on' 
the estates of European planters was much to 

in IVainad. 


1, it seemed to me to be equally important that 

I natives of the district should be induced to open 

chiiichona gardens in every direction, and in 

nt numbers, aa the people suffer fearfully from fever. 

[ myself witnessed its ravages, and much of this 

rib]e evil might easily be mitigated. Tlie Chettia, 

ra. and Moplabe, who occupy laud in Wain ad, 

nerally select elevated knolls for the sites of their 

), which are exceedingly picturesque. They are 

rvered with jacks, mangoes, bastard sago palms, and 

Atains, and overlook the rich paddy cultivation in the 

a below. In most of these sites chinchona trees would 

r well, and form another item in the garden produce 

[ the people. Tlie healing febrifuge woidd be at their 

, and the use of the bark would be extended to 

k district where hundreds of slaves and coolies formerly 

on the public roads for the want of it. An 

iakable blessing, sucli as only those who have 

'witnessed the ravages of fever amongst the coolies 

can fully appreciate, would thus be conferred on the 

Wainad district. 

, Since 18G6 many of these early attempts have borne 
There are now several chinchona plantations in 
Vainad, and the analyses of the bark of C. saccirubra 
[own in the Cherambodi district, on Captain Cox's 
are considered by Mr. Howard to be very 
mLditi^. Tlio fever-bealing tree may now l»o looked 
I tis naturalised on the fever-haunted plateau of 
iPainad ; and the Wainad bark has taken a regular 
t in ihe London market. 

364 Approach to Coorg. 



North and west of Wainad, in the line of the western 
ghats, lies the mountainous principality of Cootg, - 
region which I also considered likely to ftimish stw 
for chinchona plautationa. It was thought desimbif 
that I should visit Coorg for the purpose of forming a 
opinion after peraonal inspection, and I accordiuglj 
approached the mountains &om the Mysor or eafiten 

After leaving Fraaerpett, at the foot of the hills, tin 
road enters a dense bamboo jungle, extending along tin 
base of the mountains. It was the mouth of JamiaiJ. 
and the forest was completely dried up and burnt 1? 
the sun and want of rain, looking brown and sombtt 
A splendid white Tpomtea, with a rich lilac centre, wis 
creeping in festoons to the very tops of the feathiST 
bamboos which bent gracefully over the road. At* 
place called Suntikupali, ten miles from Fraserjiett, lit 
ascent of the mountains begins. The road leads up vai 
don-n a succession of wooded heights, which gradnaHf 
increase in elevation, with intermediate valleys culti- 
vated with rice and generally fringed witli planWin 



. through which the huts of the Coorga are 

lible. At the heads of these valleys the streams are 

jrided into two chatmela, and led do^vn each side, the 

3 between being sown with rice in terraced fields, 

idnally descending with the slope of tlie valley. 

bright patches of cultivation are very pretty, 

r light vivid green contrasting with the sombre 

s of the forest. Near Merkara the jungle is a good 

. cleared, and the slopes are covered with codee 

The road was excellent. 

KTovards evening we came in sight of Merkdra, On 

B opposite side of a deep narrow valley were the fort 

[ palace, built on an eminence overlooking a vast 

int of mountainous, forest-covered country. 

■The palace is entered by an archway, over which 

! is a balconied window supported by two white 

The inner court is surrounded by a corridor 

\ stone pillars, with a roof entirely of copper; and in 

B centre of the court, there is a tank paved with stone 

1, now dry, with five steps down to it, on two sides, 

i a carved stone tortoise in the centre. 

IOq the south-west side of the palace there is a 

Lde-ground, and a small amphitheatre dug out of 

\ solid rock, where elephants aud tigers fought for 

B diversion of the Rajah. Beyond the parade-ground 

e ridge on which Merkara is built abruptly terminates, 

1 the land sinks down into a wooded valley. Hero 

late Rajah had built a little brick and eJvanaia 

umer-houae, whence the land descends precipitouiily 

t the road leading down the Mangalar glial. From 


Inhabitants of Coorg. 

t1ii» ywinl there is one of the most glorious viewtUHl 
fiiuiiil ill India, and we sat on the gra&sy ed^ ul lie I 
clilfs for houra, without ceasing to enjoy it Biglituii 
left tliere is a wide expanse of forest-covered langiaot 
uiountaiits extending into the l>liie distance, imd it 
front rises up the mountain of Tadiandaniol, the lof^est 
peak in Coorg. We watched tlie crimson sunset ova 
the liills, and after dark a apontaneous ignition of ihe 
dry grass wound like a serpent along the loftier ridps 
of the opposite mountains, producing an indescribaUj 
beautiful efl'ect in the clear starry night. 

Coorg has been a portion of the British dominioDi 
since 1834, when the last Rajah was deposed. 

The Kodagas or Coorgs are a tail, muscular, browi- 
chested, well-favoured race of mouutaineers, witli a 
population rapidly increasing since Uie deposition of 
the Rajah.* They are of Dravidian origin, and apeak 
a dialect of Canarese ; but a colony of Brahmana early 
settled in the country, and endeavoured to mould the 
traditions of the Coorga into harmony with their own 
legends. These are embodied in tlie Kaveri Furana, 
where there is a romantic account of the origin of| 
that important river, which rises in the mountains of:' 

In the Mahabliarata it is related that the amrit oi 
drink of immortality, wliich had been lost in the waters 
of the Deluge, was recovered by tlie Suras and Asuras, 
gods and demons, by churning the ocean. The Asnras. 
are then said to have stolen it, and it was finally' 
* The wlinle populBtion a( Coorg wu 168,312 in tSTl. 

"^M. VII. Source of the Kaveri. 367 

*X!Stor«l to tlie gotla by the maideu Lopamudra, who 
charmed the Asiiraa by Ler beauty. The fair damsel 
then resolved to become a river, and thus pour heraelf 
Out in blessings over the earth. But the sage Agaatya, 
80 Famous in the history of Madura, was enamoured of 
lier, and she at length so far yielded as to consent to be 
his wife, on condition that she should be at liberty to 
Toraake liim the first time he left her alone. One day 
he went to a short distance to bathe, when Lopamudra 
imme<lialely gratified her early longings, by jumping 
into Agastya's holy tank, and flowing fortli 03 the river 
Kaveri. The sage, on his return, ran after her, but the 
only consolation that was left to him was to explain to 
liis beloved tlie course she ought to take in flowing 
towards the eaat«ni sea. 

The Kaveri Brahmans, as persons of that caste are 
called in Coorg, wear the sacred thread, and i>erform 
}»ijah to the goddess of the river. They number about 
forty families, but are fast dying out, Tliey are often 
very rich, and are employed in the i»agoda, or as clerks 
in tlie Superintendent's office. The Coorgs themselves, 
the inhabitants of this mountainous district, are divided 
mto thirteen castes. They generally rettun the old 
de^il-worsliip of the Scythic or Dravidian race from 
which they are descended, and are addicted to the use 
of clionns and sorceries. They marry at a ripe agi. 
faot Uie wives of brothers are considered as common 
roperty. All the men wear a silver-mounted d^g^r. 
kcuied round the waist by a silver chain ; and tlie 
ncD, who are often very pretty, wear a while cotton 

clotb round the head, with tli6 ends banging Iii<'! 
do^'n the back. The men are an independent, i 
working race, tall, witli cumparatively fair skins. ! 
are very keen sportsmen, and must of them jio^;' 
gun, the boys practiaing with pellet-bows, 

Coorg consists of a Buccession of lofty woode-l n .. , 
and long deep valleys, forty miles broad by -i ' 
long, between lat. 12° and 13° N. It ia bonndwl ii; . 
the north by the river Hemavati, on the south by liis ) 
Braniagiri hills, on the west by Malabar and Soni I 
Canara, and on the east by Mysor. South of Morkia 
the country appears covered with forest, wave upon 
wave of wooded mountain ranges rising one behind tb 
other, the highest peak of all having its summit pa^ 
tially bare of trees, and covered with rich herbage. The 
elevations above the sea are as follows : — 

Todinnauiiol (the hi);hebt peak) . . 5781 ftwt. 

PuHbpagiri (luiothdr peak) . . . 5683 ^ 

Markilra 450J „ 

Vinirajenijrapelt SSm „ 

Fr&serpi-tt 3200 „ 

The river Kaveri drains about four-fifths of the 
surface of Coorg, wlule about a dozen streams, issuing 
from the same hill region, traverse Malabar and South 
Canara. From Uie end of December to the end of 
March rain is very scarce, but the valleys are seldom 
without fogs more or leas dense in the evenings and 
mornings, and heavy dews are frequent. During these 
months a dry east wind prevails, wliich has long ceased 
to carry rain witli it from the Bay of BengaL Towards 

Climate of Coorg. 369 

«© end of March clouds begin to collect, and Uie aii- 
grows moieter. In April and May there are thunder- 
storms and frequent aliowers, with a warm and moist 
cilimate. In the end of May the clouds in the western 
sky grow in strength ; and in June rain prevails, 
descending at tiniea softly, but generally with great 
"violence, accompanied by heavy gusts of westerly wind. 
In July and August the rain pours down in floods 
day and night, to such a degree that a Sat country 
would be deluged ; but Coorg, after being tlioronghly 
bathed, sends off the water to the east and west by 
her numerous valleys. The yearly fall of rain often 
exceeds ItiO inches. In September the sun breaks 
through, in October a north-east wind clears the 
sky, in November showers fall over Coorg, being the 
tail of the north-east monsoon, and December is 
often fo^y/ As regards the annual temperature of 
Merk&ra,t the extremes range from 52° to 82°, the 
aven^ being C0°. 

An immense quantity of rice is cultivated in the 
Coorg valleys, and largely exported. Scarcely any dry 

1 is raised. 

■Coffee cultivation was only commenced in Coorg in 
||54, but its extension both amongst natives and Euro- 
ins has since been very remarkable. The estates are 

• Ooorp. bj BoT. II. Moegling. (Mntignlore. 1B5S.) 8« kU« 
■ of Ota Cod<igii SarBey, eomnumty uritlrn Cnorg, \>y LteulvQKot 
Oonnur. (ParU i. ai>d ii. |ip. IIH bihI 13T.J The Survey wcis miulo 
In IBIS to 1817. The intniair wu printnl nl Bangaiore in IHTO. Ainu 
n« OaieOeer of Coorg, b<r Lewi* Hire. Dntigalare, 1877. 
_ t ObwrtDlinu b; Dr. K. Baikiu. Jtfiulra* Journal, 1837. vi. p. 343. 

^^N£ LIBRARY. ZmTJif^i 

37© Coffee Planting in Coorg. 

on the Merkara plateau and along the Sampaji and 
Perarabadi ghats. In 1875 there were 4235 estaU* 
covering 106,759 acres, and 3aelding 4234 tons of 
coffee, wortli £270,000. The natives too have shown 
great enterprise in undertaking a cultivation previouslT 
unknown to them, and there is now scarcely a hut to 
be seen without its little coffee garden. All the planU- 
tions on the eastern side of Merk^ra, excepting one, 
belonged to natives in 1860; and close to the town! 
observed a small clearing where a Cooig \ras hard at 
work building himself a hut, cutting away the jungle, 
leading a small stream into new channels for purpof - 
of irrigation, and planting the slopes of two hills wi'.'. 

It will be seen by the account I have been able lo 
give of the elevation, temperature, and of the periods 
of drought and moisture in this hill district, that il is 
not nearly so well adapted for the cultivation of chic- 
chona plants as Nedivattam, and many other localitits 
on the Nilgiri hills. It may be compared, moiv 
appropriately, with the forests near SLsapara on the 
Kundahs, as it is exposed to the full force of the sontli- 
weat monsoon, and suffers from a long drought dmiiig 
the winter. 

The country to the north and east of Merk&ra b a 
plateau, about 4500 feet above the sea, intersected bj 
ravines full of trees and underwood, amongst vrhidi 1 
observed wild orange and lime trees, MirJidias, buj 
tree-ferns, with an undergrowth of ferns, ZoWf- 
Ipomaa, and Solarium, The scenery is charming, iriil 

'^=*. ^11. Chinchona SUes in Coorg. 371 

feraasy slopes, wooded glades, and liere and there a 
Secluded hut in k grove of plantains, on the edge of a 
ttmall patch of rice cultivation. I also examined some 
of the forests down the Mangalor ghat. The road is 
excellent, winding with a gentle gradient throngh the 
lieautiful forest scenery past numerous coffee planta- 
tions to their port of shipment at Mangalor. At the 
fourtli milestone from Merkira there was a forest 
extending for nearly a mile, on the left of the road, at 
an elevation of 3800 feet above the sea. It descended 
from the road to the bottom of the ravine, and on the 
opposite side there were forest-covered heights of 
greater elevation. The forest contained many tall 
trees, not growing very close, with tree-ferns, Cinna- 
T/uymum, Hymetwdictyon, Mdastomacta, a PapUumacea 
vtith a bright yellow flower, and ferns of wliich I 
collected five kinds. The general character of the flora 
appeared suitable for the growth of chinchona plants ; 
and, though this was the driest time of tlie year, I 
found at least one small stream trickling down througli 
the underwood. The valley runs north-west and 

I was of opinion that in this locality planta of C. 
mueiruhra would no doubt flourish, and that the ex- 
periment ought certainly to be tried ; though, from tlie 
low elevation, the bark would probably be thin, and 
vonid yield perliaps A small percentage of alkaloids. 

There are many other localities equally suited for the 
cultivation of C. auedrubra and C miciantha in Cooig ; 
^^nd, with so many energetic and intt^lligent planters 
■ 2 B 2 

372 Scenery of Coorg. 

in the diatrict, I believed that the growtti of this 
important product would be extended and rendera) 
prolitable by private enterprise, A few rows of chin- 
cliuoa plants ot^ht to be establislied in the loftiest part 
of each coffee clearing ; and every settler should plant 
them, and encourage the cultivation among the uatave, 
fttiiu motives of humanity, as well as with a view M> 
successful commercial speculation. 

We finally left Merkara before dawn, and nxle for 
tliree miles down the steep ghat leading to the lower 
and more extensive valleys of soutli-easteni Coorg, 
which we reached as the sun rose. It was a very 
pleasant ride through the beautiful lull country, wiili 
uplands covered with fine forest, and long strips nf 
fertile valley. In the jungles we saw immense clmnjis 
of bamboo, which overshadowed the road ; a leaBes.^ 
and thorny Eryihrbux with crimson flowers, and h 
Solaawi with a small wliite flower by the road-siili:- 
Here and there we came to open grassy glades, whenc* 
little foot-paths led through the neighbouring jungle 
to some secluded Imt, The cultivated valleys i 
covered with rice, and fringed with plantain groves 
Carjfota urem. 

The Caryota vrais is a lofty palm tree, willi 
leaves, and the Coorgs draw an immense quantity 
toddy from it during the hot season. The pith of 
trunk of old trees is a kind of sago, and is made int 
bi'ead and gruel by the natives of many parts gf Imi 
Humboldt says that the form of the leaves 
curious, the singularity consisting in their tieing bipiii-] 

Cardamom Ctiltivation. 


jct, with the ultimate diviaion having the shape of 

a and tail of a fish.* 

iVe passed several hundred pack -bullocks conveying 

mbay salt from the Malabar ports to the interior, 

, having forded the Kaveri at a point where the beil 

I of large boulderH of rock, reached the village of 

rajendrapett, It consists of two clean streets, at 

^t angles, with a missionary church and school. 

I mountains are here dotted with plantain groves, 

nearly every house has a small coffee garden 

Lched. The surrounding country is exceedingly 

Btty, the view being bounded by forest-covered 

iitains. The bungalow at Virarajendrapett is on 

3 site of an old palace of the Rajahs, and the com- 

i surrounded by a high wall, witli an orna- 

mtal gateway, flanked by stone sentry-boxes. 

I From this point the descent into Malabar com- 

mced, through dense forest, with bright moonlight 

; through the branches of gigantic trees, and 

after a journey of fifteen miles we reached the bimgalow 

of Utikali, in the middle of the jungle. It is in these 

Bsta, on the western slopes of the Coorg mountains, 

lat cardamom cultivation ia carried on to a great 

Bwxtent. In February parties of Coorgs start for tlie 

ftveetern monntains, and, selecting a slope facing west or 

'north, mark one of tlie largest trees on the steepest 

doclirity, A apace about 300 feet long and 40 feet 

broad is tlien cleared of brushwood, at the foot of the 

tree ; a platform is rigged about twelve feet up the tree, 

" Sconuuiii'i PojHilar Uittory of the I'alm; p. IM. 

on which a couple of woodmoD stand and hew &i 
right and left until it falls head foremost down the i 
of the mountain, canying with it a ntunber of smalll 
trees in a great crash. 

Within three months after the felling, the cardamtfl 
plants in the soil begin to show their heads all oyct t 
cleared ground during the first rains of the monsot 
and before the end of the rainy season they grow t 
or three feet. The ground is then carefully cleared 
weeds, and left to itself for a year. In October, twi 
months after the felling of the great tree, the cardi 
mom plants are the height of a man, and the groi 
is again carefully and thorougWy cleared. In 
following April the low fruit-bearing hranchea 
forth, and are soon covered with clusters of fioi 
and afterwards with capsules. Five months 
wards, in October, the first crop is gathered, and 
full harvest is collected in the following year. U 
harvests continue for six or seven years, when they 
begin to fail, and another large tree must be cut down 
in some other locaUty, so as to let tlie light in upon 
a new crop. 

The harvest takes place in October, when the gras 
is very high and sharp, sorely cutting the hands, feet, 
and faces of the people. It is also covered with innu- 
merable large greedy leeches. The cultivators pici 
the cardamom capsules from the branches, and convtj 
tliem to a temporary hut, where the women fill th'' 
bags with cardamoms, and carry them home, sometimes 
to disteuces of ten or twelve miles. Some famtUi 


Kumari. 375 

1 gather from 20 to 30 mans • annually, worth from 

) to 1000 Rs.t 

\ This method of cardamom cultivation must be 

laidered injurious to the conservancy of fine timber 

I the forests ; but, on the other hand, the crops them- 

bvea are very valuable, and bring in a considerable 

irenae. There is another kind of cultivation carried 

I in these vast forests on the western slopes of the 

i&ta, which is far more prejudicial to the production 

\ valuable timber-trees. This is called kutnari, and 

Mxm in Malabar. It as been altogether prohibited 

■In Coorg and Mysor, while in Canara it is not now 

Fallowed within nine miles of the sea, or three of any 

navigable river, or in any of the Government forests 

vithout previous permission, But in Malabar, where 

aU the forests are private property, the Government is 

unable to interfere in the matter, and kumari is quite 


Kumari is cultivation carried on in forest clearings. 
A apace is cleared on a bill-slope at the end of the 
year; the wood is left to dry until March or April, 
ftnd then burnt. The seed, generally ra^i {Elt^usine 
ooraeaTia), is sown in the ashes on the fall of the 
first lain, the ground not being touched with any 
implement, but merely weeded and fenced. Tlie 
produce is reaped at the end of the year, and is said to 
be wtirth double that which could be procured under 

* Tli« man or maunl of B. Indin irui Hte<l al 25 Iba. The Beusal 
ntMnJ u MT) lbs. 

t Hoogliiig'B Coiirg. p|). 74-TT; abo BuehanrtD'i IVamlj, ii. p. 511; 
kiul Drur;'* i'*r/iU j'lantt of lndU\. 

ordinary modes of cultivation, A small crop is taken 
in the second, and perhaps in the third year, and tht 
spot is then deserted and allowed to grow np with 
jungle. The same spot is cultivated again aft^r ten 
or twelve years in Malabar, but in North Conam the 
wild hill tribes generally clear patches in the virgin 
forest. Dr. Cleghom reported that human renders the 
land unfit for coffee cultivation, destroys valuable timber, 
and makes the locality unhealthy, dense tmderwood 
lieiug aulistitiited in the abandoned clearings for tall 
trees under which the air circulated freely,* The 
Kuramhas and Irulas, wild tribes of the Nilgiris, 
also raise small crops by burning patches of jungle am; 
scattering seeds over the ashes. This system, which 
sounds 80 wasteful and is so injurious to the yield of 
timber in the forests, is exceedingly profitable to the 
cultivator, who has no expenses beyond the payment of 
laud-tax, which in these wild unfrequented spots is 
often evaded. 

After leaving TJtikali we still had to pass throogb 
fifteen miles of jungle, before reaching the open 
cultivated country in northern Malabar. In driving 
down the ghfit the views, tlirough occasional openmgs, 
of the wide expanses of forest were very grand. Tail 
trunks of trees towered up to a great height in seaiiii 
of light and air, palms and bamboos waved gracefolly 
over the road, and tlie range of Coorg mountains fiUfi 
up the background. Most of the valuablo timber b*-' 

• CIcgbora's Foretli aad GaTdaf of Boaik India, pp. ISG'lti 
whcte Ihe o(ficia\ coites^utt^eMce ceapcotiag tumori will b« founit 

■ Cultivation. 377 

en long since felled in these forests, excepting in the 
ry inaccessible parts. The poon trees (Calophi/Hum 
ffusH/olium)' which are chiefly found in Coorg, and 
Hd most valuable spars for masta, have become 
oeedingly scarce. The young trees are now vigi- 
atly preserved. Black wood (DaJ-herffia latifolia) is 
10 getting scarce, though I saw a good deal of it in 
me of the Coorg jungles ; and teak trees of any size 
ire almost entirely disappeared, excepting in the 
reate of North Canara. 

At a distance of twenty miles from the sea the 
Itivated country commences in this part of Malabar, 
id the rood on each side is lined with pepper-fields, 
ith occasional groves of plantains and clumps of 
and betel-nut palms. The land undulates in a 
of hilla and dales, with rice cultivation in 
06 of the hollows. Here the pepper is regularly 
twn in lai^ flelda, and not in gardens as at Calicut, 
the first place trees are planted in rows, usually 
!h as have rough or prickly bark — the jack, the 
or tlie cashew-nut. In the country we were 
through the tree used was an En/thrina, witli 
s bark of trunk and branches thickly covered ivith 
ima. Until the trees have grown to the proper size 
B land is often used for raising plantains. Wlien the 
IBS have attained a height of 15 or 20 feet, ttie pepper 
planted at their bases, and soon tliickly covers the 
nn and festoons over the branches. The pepper- 

p. It. Fnnn apus ue Kin obtafned ^ro Bteraibt 
with browniah flowen, emitting • oMt horrible imcll. 


cuttings or suckers are put down by the conmieDcemeij: 
of the raing in June, and in five yeara the vine b^n< 
to bear. Each ^ine bears 500 to 700 bunchea, which 
yield about 8 or 10 aers • when dried. During iu 
growth it is necessary to remove all suckers, and tin- 
vine is pruned, thinned, and kept clear of weed*. Tl. 
vine bears for thirty yeara, but every ten yeara the </, '■ 
stem is cut down and layers are trained. It is u 
exceedingly pretty cultivation, and, if it was not for tbs 
crests of straggling branches which crown the vine- j 
csovered trunks, it would not be unlike 'the hop-fielda j 

The houses on the road were built of laCerit6, 1 
and comfortable Uke those at Calicut. We i 
people sitting before their doors, busy with their h«q 
of pepper. When the berries have been gathered, tl 
ara dried in tlie sun on mats, and turn from red % 
black. The white pepper is from the same plant, ll 
fruit being freed from the' outer skin by macersl 
the ripe berries in water. Before reaching the portJ 
Cannanor we passed over three or four miles of d 
vated rocky land, without cultivation, and arrived ii 
cantonment late at night 

In accordance with ray recommendations, a chinch 
plantation was formed in Cooig after a delay of ft 
years, and 9C> trees were planted on August 24tb, 136 
while 165 were distributed to coffee-plant«r8. The i 
is a short distance to the east of Merk^ra. 

• InS 

e-etghtli of ■ jNtliiTn. which ia equal lo4 


in Coorg. 


) there were 412 chinchona trees in the original 
tation ; and both planters and natives had received 
lings from the nursery attached to it. The 
jrsis of bark from the Coorg trees, in 1870, gave a 
result, there being 6*23 per cent, of total febrifuge 
loids. The tallest trees were 20 feet high, with 
iverage girth of 28 inches, the age being twelve 
3. Here too, in spite of the very lukewarm support 
le Government, the Peruvian bark tree has been 

3S0 Position of the Makabahswars. 



The districts best adapted for Uie cultivation of c 
chona plants are those in the southern part of 
peninsula, at suitable elevations, which receive moi 
from both monsoons. The I^^ilgiri iiills are the c 
of these districts, and as we advance farther from 
nucleus in a northerly direction, the rainfall from 
south-west monsoon becomes heavier, while the clii 
of the winter, when easterly winds are blowing, incr 
in dryness. In 14° K. latitude the hills of Nagor 
down into the plains of Dharwar, and from that i 
to tlie Mahabaleswar hills in 18" N. there are few \ 
of the western j^hats which attain a sufficient ele%"J 
for the successful growth of chinchona plants,* 

The Mahabaleswars, however, are upwards of \ 
feet above the sea, and it was therefore possible 
they might present localities suitable for 

These hills are the loftiest part of the westera ] 
in the Bombay Presidency, They form an unduli 
table-laud of small extent, terminating to the n 

" In kt, 15° N. the we«teru ghlU ni 


« than 1100 iegl 

in a very abrupt descent, often fonning scarped 
precipices overhanging the Konkan, and sloping down 
more gradually on the side of the Dakhin. Tlie liighest 
point, close to the English station, in latitude 17° 59' 
N., is only 4700 feet above tJie sea. The English 
station, with a native bazar and village, was formed by 
Sir John Malcolm in 1828, and has received the name 
of Malcolm-penth. Several of the surrounding peaks 
are named after liia daughters. The roafls are excellent, 
and are bordered by such trees and flhruba as jaamine, 
tigs, Randias, Gnidias, and Crotalariec, with a pretty 
white Clematis climbing over tliera, The station is 
near the edge of a range of precipitous mountain crags 
and cliffs overlooking the Parr valley. The cliflfs are 
liroken by several profound ravines, thus forming 
proiDontoriea commanding grand views of the hill fort 
of Pratabgarh, the Konkan, and even the sea on very 
clear days. Good carriage-roads have been made to 
those pointa which command the best views, such as 
Babington, Bombay, Sydney, and Elphinstone points, 
all looking west. From Babington point there is a 
magnificent view, Tlie station, with numerous bun- 
galows peeping out amongst the trees to the north, 
is seen along the crest of a ridge which is separated 
from Babington point by a profound ravine. The pre- 
ci]ntous cliffs, now dried up and haiTen, are scarped 
and furrowed by the water which deluges them during 
the prevalence of the south-west monsoon ; but tliere 
was one bright green spot where some potatoes were 
oltivated in terraces, on the edge of a precipice. 


Temple of Metkahaleswar. 

The most conspicaous object in the station is 
obelisk of laterite, erected to the memory of Sir Sida 
Beckwith. From thia point, immediately above i 
little tliatched church, there ia a good \-iew of ( 
station, the numerous bungalows, peeping ont anionf 
their slinibberies, dotted about in all directions; t 
billiard bungalow, aanatarium, and public library, i 
built of laterite, standing in an open space ; the nati 
bazar at our feet ; and a curiously shaped nutse 
mountain peaks to the south and west. 

One day we rode over to the native vill^ : 
MahabaleBwar, which is threo niilea from Malcols 
penth. It consists of a few dozen thatched hnl 
on the side of a wooded hill, and some verr i 
tereating temples. By tlie roadside, in the 1 
surrounding the buta, there were roses, daturas, ■ 
jarabol-trees (Euffenia Jambolanum) vrith beads 
graceful flowera. 

The chief temple, bnOt at tlie foot of a steep hill, li 
an open space in front. The exterior wall is hi 
with pilasters painted yellow, the intermediate i 
being red. In the centre there is an arched doc 
leading into an interior cloister, built round j 
No Eim>i)ean is allowed to enter, but, from the o 
a cow carved in stflue is visible on the opposite side 
the tank, with a stream of water pouring from i 
mouth. Thia fountain is said to be the source otli 
Krislma, and the temple is considered very sacmli 
consequence. To the right, and a little in front of i 
temple, there is a square chapel sacred to Sin l 

Clvntate of the Mahabaleswars. 383 

ideva. A flight of steps leads up to three narrow 

I doorways, the centre one heing occupied by an 

e of the hull Nandi in stone, in a sitting posture* 

1 ita back to the people, and facing the image of 

) god inside. The chapel is surmounted by a very 

Mresque dome, with stone tigers at each angle. 

t trees and thick busliea cover the hill in the rear 

mediately above the larger temple, and on the left 

3 is a long native choltry, with a thatched roof. 

KThe Mahabaleawar hills average an elevation of 4500 

It above the sea. They are composed almost entirely 

I laterite,* overlying eruptive rocks, such as basalt, 

istone, and amygdaloid ; and the soil is a clay 

ilting from the disintegration of the laterite. 

lOn these hills, October is the commencement of 

B dry season, but during that month the amount of 

Rieoue vapour in the atmosphere is still considerable, 

the temperature is cool and equable. From 

wemlier the air becomes gradually drier imtil the 

1 of February ; the weather is dry and cold, and a 

) easterly wind usually prevaib. Tlie mean t«m- 

[Btnre of this season is 64°, with a daily variation 

f about 12". Fogs and mists commence in March, 

1 gradually increase until the rain begins in the end 

of May. The hottest month is April. From the end 

of May to September there is almost ince.*isant rain, 

and the hills are constantly enveloped in clouds and 

fog. The mean temperature of the rainy season 13 

* Tlw Ikp formklioa of tbe northc^Ti pert of Uie gtilta IcrminBtM 
~B U^ N . and i« inooeeiled bj laterite. 


384. Plora of the Mahabaleswars. 

64°'5, but the daily variation ia only S'. The aver^ I j 
rainliaU 13 227 inches, of which nearly one-third amt f 
down in August.* 

The vegetation, as might be expected from the I 
essential difTerence in tlte climate, is quite distinct from I 
that of the Nilgiris. There is a want of forest ti«« 1 
in the jungles, and the trees and bushes are, as a rule, 
poor and stunted. The hills are covered with gna 
and ferns, and are dotted over with a shrub called by 
the natives rnmcta. It is the Lasiosiplum speciosiuli 
witli flowers something like small Guelder roaes, 
clustered in terminal umbels. The Mandia duirudontm, 
a thoray bush, is also common. In the thickets I 
observed a Memecylon, called by the natives anjun, a 
melastomaceous tree, with beautiful purple flowers; J 
a small Crotaiaria, with a bright yellow flower ; 
Jasminum ; an InAigofera ; the Ettgenia Jambolanum ; 
the pretty creeping Clematis Wightiaiia ; some willows 
near streams ; a Solanum ; and the Curcuma caulitia, ( 
kind of arrowroot, with enormous leaves, sometime* 
tinged with red,| in flower during the rains. || 

* Trantaeliont of Oit MadiaH and Phprical Society of Bambajf for 
1838, i. p. S2. 

t OrGiiWfaen'uoBpJKiinof Grahftm.— DalieirsBonifcojFJom,p. 221. 

X DsImU'b Bombay Flora, p. 93. 

§ Ibid., p. 275, 

n The foUowLDg list of flliruba. trocB. and ferug groning at Malia- 
balesnar was kindly fumisheil by Mr. Daliell. 

LtBT og Shbubs and Treks onowtHO as the kiqhesi aitODiiD at 
Uaiii baleswab. 
Eugenia JambolBtiuni. I Pygeam ZeyUnicom. 

Homeaylon tiactorium. Indigofen palcbells, 

iioM Indies. I Actluodipline (2 sp,). 





^^HtoL T/ie Mahabaleswars unsuitable. 385 

^^V^I reluctantly foriaed the opinion tliat the Mahaba- 

^B^nrar hills were not suited for the growth of chin- 


^^Ho&a plants. The intense dryness of the atmosphere 


^Hwilig the greater part of the year, the poor character 


^Kf the vegetation, and even the enormous rainfall during 



^Kenditkms of the forests of Canelos to the eastward 


^PUkan the r^on of " red bark " trees to the westward of 


^■(^UOboTKZo, all pointed to this conclusion. 

H But, contrary to my advice, a chiuchona plantation 

H tJW at Sbbdw tsb Treks OKowisa on t»e BianEsr aiioirND at 
V 11aeii,iuLe»waii— «onI>nu«f. 

C'l!>.^r.'.> .'>i.a. 


OIca dloica and Roiburclaaa. 
11« Wighli«uu 
Uaba nigreiceu. 
IHotpyriB (3 ip.). 

£iXlIa rihu^iKl glandnlifera. 
Notoniii )p«ai)i(iura, 
ArtetDi.iB i..7viflo« and Indica. 

• -» 

Ciiikohohacej:. | 


lion siKriuuii ao'l parrilliira. 
VucBMia Kluli-. 

Qrimtbia rngnuu. S 



UAm 4*uu lod iwcbl»at>. 

AlfaTtfau Hilt fomina 
AiplwliBBi plui<»ul« and «»- 

PWn* iiaaailalatii, lucid*. iukI 

l.^h»lanth« hrmoH. ■ 

Pleowlti. nuda. ■ 
PadlapUrii rinni. ■ 
Uptwbilui Uncwialu*. ■ 
Acruttkhum aiirciini. ■ 

ChuiDQja reijalii. ■ 

3S6 Failure on the Makabalesivars. ch. rui 

was formed on the Mahaltaleswar liills, a aite being 
selected at Lingmulla on the banks of the Yenna 
atream, and at some distance from the crest of tte 
ghats, w-ith a rainfall of 150 inches. In 1864 sistj 
young trees were planted, and by Febmary 18fi6 they 
had been increaBed to 270 by layering. In I8"4 
there were 13,416 trees of C su^rukra and 491 of 
0. o^ciTudis. But the cHmate was unfavourable, and 
the plants did not thrive. Consequently, in 1875, tbe 
plantation, upon which £6400 had been spent, «^ 
finally abandoned. 

Post lion of Sikkim. 




lODGU it was neceasaiy to select the moist zone 
ia entirely within the tropics, along the western 
as the first and ceutml site for chinchona 
ivation; I contemplated its eiitension from this 
itre, to favourable positions in the other or Himalayan 
moist aone. There tlie resemblance to the native 
(oresta of Peruvian bark is less marked ; still I hoped 
that the haniier kinds, especially C. mtcdrubra, might 
flourish within tins Himilayan region. 

The temiJerate zone does not afford all chinchona 
n^tUnmentA ; but under cultivation there waa reason 
ft" anticipate success at suitable elevations and at short 
«i*taiices from the tropic. The province of Sikkim 
appeared to bo the most hopeful position, Situated at 
^ base of the mighty Himalayan peak of Kanchin- 
,• this region consists entirely of the basin of the 
Tbta, which, with its tributaries, drains the whole 
The position of Sikkim, opposite to the 
of the Gangetic valley, between the mountains 
., 27,815 feet itbore Uw m* 

II flw( ibore the k 

t ii In 27° S9' 12" nnd 7:1 nulea futliur 1 


Climate of Sikkim. 


of Bahar on the one hand, and the Khosi hills n 
other, expose it to the fuU force of the monsoon. Iti 
rains are therefore heavy, and are accompanied hy d( 
foga ami a saturated atmosphere. March and Apiil 
the driest months, but rains commence in May, 
continue with little iutemiissiou until October. 
bounding mountains of Sikkim are very lofty, and 
clad throughout a great part of their e.Ttent ; but 
central range, which separates the Tfsta from ita 
tributary the Ranget, is depressed till very far into 
interior. The rainy winds liave thus free access to tie 
heart of the province. The mean monthly tJ3m|>eratiire 
of the English hill station at DarjQing, wliich is 
7430 feet above the sea. and in latitude 27° 3' N., varie 
from 42* to 61° The annual rainfall is 122 inches. 

No chinchona tree would flourish in such a clinuU 
as Darjfling. and in latitude 27° N. it would be uecee- 
'tary to seek for suitable sites in much lower situations 
than in the hill districts of Southern India, which aK 
in latitudes corresponding with those of the chinchoni* 
forests. Bearing this in mind, I recommended that 
plants should be supplied from the Nilgiri plantatii 
in order to try an experiment in the Himala} 
Sikkim is coverud with forests consisting of tall 
brageoua trees, often with dense grass jungle, and 
other places accompanied by a luxuriant undergro' 
of shrubs. A comparison of the floras led me to 
conclusion that the limit for the growth of the cl 
chonai would be found where their constant cumpanioi 
end, the tree-ferns and Vaccinia, namely, at 5000 fc 

WPlantalion formed. 


1 tliat the best sites for C succirufrra would be &om 

100 to 2000 feet lower, amidst the subtropical vegeta- 

a of the valleys. 

I accordance with my advice, a supply of plants 

fttrnished by Mr, Mclvor to Dr. Anderson, the 

>erinteadent of the Government gardens at Calcutta, 

istiug of 193 plants of C. siwdnAra and of the grey 

: species.* These arrived at Calcutta in January 

But in opposition to my views, and to the 

ience derived from South America, a site was 

ed for a plantation in Sikkim at a height of 

r 9000 feet above the sea, near the summit of the 

iliul mountain. Thither the plants were conveyed 

s 1862, and of course languished ; so they were 

ight down to Lebong, a well-sheltered spur below 

ijEUng, anil GOOO feet above the sea. This was in 

iril 1863; and at the same time a second supply was 

t from the Nilgiri plantations. 

iFinally, it was resolved to form the permanent 

incbona plantation of Sikkim in the densely forest- 

and the little-known volley of tlie Rungbi, 12 

s from Darjiling. Ground was first l>roken in this 

r in Jane 1864, at an elevation above the sea of 

Bly 4410 feet. This was in accordance with my 

original advice, Tlie site is on the south-eaatera slope 

(if a long spur running out from the main ridge of 

Sinchul. Here 252 plants were established in the first 

* SoDe other plftnU were obUined from Jam; hut it ou never 
pnbablo thiit ukj nluable ^wclei but the " rod lurk," tbo "gray 
hwk.** and tho 0. C^tuya would lacomd in SUkiin. 

39° Superindenients of Sikkim PiaataHons.a.iiM 

year, 100 of C. mmruhra. 100 of C. offidnali*, 2 i 
C. C'llifaifa, and 50 of C. miaranlha, all from the Nilgiii' 
hilla. Subseqnently other patches were cleared it 
5321, 5000, 3332 and 2556 feet above the «ea » 
Bpectively. I never entertained an expectation that tht 
C. officineUig would flouriah in the climate of Sikkim. 
and this soon became apparent. The C. saedruim, 
C. mierantha, and possibly the C. Calisaija. were the only 
valuable species that were likely to become flonrishing 
natives of this extra-tropical district. The " red bark" 
plant thrives well there, and is propagated rapidly. In 
1875 the number of C. succinih'a trees at Kungbi vtt 
2,390,000 ; and there were also 354,500 of C. Caliiaya, 
465.000 of C. officinalis, and 50,000 of C. mtcrontta. 
The number of acres under cultivation was 1939, in 
18V5. The rainfall is about 150 inches. 

The Sikkim plantations were in chaise of Dr. Ando^ 
son from 1862 to 1870. The frequent journeys fronl 
the cold of Darjfling to the hot steamy valleys tA 
Rungbi, involving sudden and great changes of tem- 
perature, together with the effects of exposure in the. 
feverish region of the outer Himalaya, laid the 
of disease which caused the premature death of thi« 
able and zealous officer in the latter year. Dr. Ander- 
son was succeeded by Mr. C. B. Clarke, and on the lOth. 
of July, 1871, Dr. George King took charge of the 
Sikkim Chinchona Plantation.s.' Mr. Ganimie was the- 
llesident Manager. 

The Rungbi Valley. 

: King Iiaa given the following description of the 
tures of the Rungbi valley : — 
f*The Rungbi valley nins almost due west and east. 
I \\& western end it b shut in by a ridge of mountain 
1 than 6000 feet high, in which tlie Rnngjo Btreani 
I its origin. By its eastern extremity, which opens 
D the valley of the Tfsta, the Rungjo stream eacapea to 
n its waters with those of that river. Compared to its 
I, which is only alxiut 16 miles, it is a wide valley, 
unring from crest to crest probably little less than 
• miles, but contracting towards its mouth. Tlie 
Ithern side of the valley is formed in its upper 
sstem) lialf by a high range continuous with Sincbiil, 
1 not much inferior to it in height, the slopes of which 
B the zone of cultivation are covered with a dense 
, forest of most luxuriant growth. About half- 
way down the valley, at a point called Mungiit, this 
high range curves away to the south-east, throwing out 
a low ridge called the Mungpu spur, which, running in 
an easterly direction, forms the southern side of the 
Itungbi valley along its lower (eastern) half. In the 
. ,Jley inter^'cning between tliis Mungim spur and the 
main ridge runs tlie Hyang stream. The ridge along 
\ lie north of the Hungbi valley is, on the other hand, 
'iw and pretty nearly cleared of forest. Its western 
iiirt is indeed occupied by the plantation of the Poniong 
Chinchonn Association, which is separated from that of 
Government by the Rungjo stream. The Oovemmeni 
plantation forms an irregular belt at tlie tjottom of the 
valley and along its southern side, and has therefore ft 

Climate of Rungbt. 


northern expoeure. This belt estenda from the matjja 
<ii tha Rungjo stream upwards along the slo[.>es to ■ 
lieight above the sea of about 360O feet, ChincboM 
cultivation was tirst begun by Government at the 
western end of the valley, on the piece of groond 
known as Eungbi Proper, and has gradually been ex- 
tended eastward, or down the valley. The eaatem 
portion covers the ground locally known aa Kiahsp, 
i will be subsequently e:(plained, the extensions 

1 being made are still eastward of Rishap. 

"Tlie climate of the Rungbi valley is peculiar.. 
Being bo completely shut in upon all aides, it is pr 
tected in a striking degree Ixom wind, and up to t) 
higher limits of the cliinchona belt the air ia raretif 
stirred by even the gentlest breeze, a state of things i] 
striking contrast to that obtaining in the Nilgirifl 
where in exposed places great and permanent injiiry i 
done to the chincliona plants by the high winds, 
the lower levels frost is completely unknown, and t 
climate is indeed sub-tropical; while on the hight 
southern and western slopes frost, and even anow, 
the order of the day during the cold season. Occa 
sionally heavy hail-storma pass over the valley, tearing 
to pieces the thin broad leaves of the red liark treeSf 
The mischief thus done is, however, rapidly recoveredl 
from. The rainfall is heavy, but not equally so in t 
parte of the valley. The warm vapour-laden air pas 
ing up from the plains has its moisture condensed into 
clouds by the cool, high, forest-clad ridgea that form 
the nortliern and western boundary of the valley, and 

Rain/all at Rttngbi. 393 

for a great part of the year the higher part of these are 
envelopt-d in drizzling fog. Even at the driest season 
one is struck hy the amount of mist which, condensed 
at the higher elevations, almost every evening creeps 
well down their slopes, while the whole of the opposite 
side and of the lower part of the valley continue quite 
clear. During the monsoon the rainfall on these high 
southern ridges must be very great. Some idea of ita 
extent may be formed from the fact that at a bungalow 
standing in the south-western comer of the valley, at 
an elevation of only 5000 feet, and thus far below 
the crest, the rainfull for the year averages about 200 
inches. At lower levels in the valley the rainfall is 
very much less, and no part of the Government chin- 
cbona cultivation is exposed to such a downpour. For 
example, at the Ilishap plantation-hut (2000 feet above 
tiie sea), where a rain gauge has been kept for some 
years, the average is shown to be about 120 inches, and 
I the mouth of the valley and the Tista are approached, 
I climate becomes very much drier. The northern 
a of the valley, being itself comparatively low and 
i of forest, and being besides beyond the in- 
e of the high ranges, shares in the drier climat«. 
" Now the greater part of Uie Government plantation 
I under the high southern ridge juat described, the 
I water of which consequently passes through 
t on. ita way to join the Kungjo. This drainage \a 
iriod off by numl'erless streanis, most of which 
iginate a good way up the slopes, hut iimcli of it aL'wi 
I undetground for a great {lort of its course, and 


Rainfall and Drainage. 


comes to the syrface only a short way alxtve the Rungo. 
Moreover, on becoming superficial, a great deal of thii 
n'ater, scorning to be confined in channela, spreadl 
itself over a considerable extent of groimd and fojiM 
awamps. It is needless to say that in such placa 
chincliona will not grow The most diBagreeable pecu- 
liarity about these swamps, however, is that they aw 
sometimes unexpectedly formed at places which p»- 
viously appeared quite dry. This is probably due u 
the extreme irregularity of the suifaee, to the inequality 
of the soil and subsoil, and to the frequency of lia 
enormous boulders, both superficial and undergroucd, 
which have been rolled down the mountain-side by ihs 
action of the weather. But whatever the cause m»y 
be, the eft'ect is, that wherever one of these swampa i" 
formed, any chinchona that may have been planted 
there dies out rapidly. Farther down the valley, aai 
below the point where the liigher range bends away to 
the south-east and throws out the low Mungpu spai 
as its eastern continuation and as the southern side of 
the Rungbi valley, these conditions do not oceni; 
The lower slopes there have not only a much lighter 
rainfall, but they have only their own drainage to get i 
rid of, and are not required to transmit also that of a 
high forest-clad mountain extending several thousand 
feet above them. It is in these drier parts that the 
extension of the plantation, made during 1870, 
carried on." 

In 187S the Sikkim plantations were divided into. 
the old and the new sections. The old includes Kungbi, 

Bark Harvests tn Sikktm. 


lap, and Miingpu, covering 2000 acres, The new 

Ition is on the Sittong spur and in the Ryang valley. 

lincludes 237.400 trees, covering 242 acres. The 

1 number of chinchona plants in the old section is 

lated at 2,904.500, namely : 

0. Co/l*i!;a . 
C TNteninfbi . 
Coffieinalu . 



^e harvest of bark for 1878 amounted to 344,225 lbs., 

ained by uprooting, coppicing, and tliinning. 

But tlie main interest in the Sikkiiu plantations 
arises from the manufacture there of a cheap cliinchona 
febrifuge for the use of the people, to which I shall 
have to refer in a future chapter. In Sikktm a serious 
attempt has thus been made to achieve the main object 
I bad in view in introducing chinchona cultivation into 

* Some other altempta hiTo been made to extend cblncboiut 
onltiTmiion klong the nnrtbem moiat lone nf ladia. In 1807 m 
plaatkUrm PDJ oiH-Di'd at NuiikluD, on the Eliwi hilU. It wu itooked 
■illl tMK) |ilftnb of C. meeirabra iiiid C. nu'orunfha, aud srveral vera 
pkatcd out ut 4.'«5 ri«t nboTo the sea. In 1869 Uwre went 27,000 
planti, whioU are in cliar^ of a bihuU nntivn eBtabliiilimeDt. 

An I'lp'timcRit «■» jn'mivenil in Tor seTtral yum in the Dtin 
tad llta Kuliiitan of the N.W. ProitDLve, in the Dohra Diln. and at 
(^cgori in Ciarhoul. 4500 abuve tiio ■<.■•. But nl] tma uv 
I, wliHD ;i1anlo<l oiil in tlit«e dislrinLi, b; the fmst during lbs 

(Monel Xaann Ixm also made a 
nllaf. Hia plantalinn, o>Uled Kvn 
lada, and 4500 fi'St abore the wa. 

Fnr aoma tinie Uie iirrM[>eal« nf 
Itm Oolonol H. Lea bad 40» plan 
la Kamn ISSi Ibere were 4'2U7. 

ucceiw nppeared ho^faL In Uaf 
I at New Qaito, and in Julj 8C7. 
But aliimatol; tbo planla mto- 


" I 


In 1876 " A Mannal of Chinchona Cnltivatioo ii 
India" was published by I>r. King, which contoiwB 
brief history of tlie entcrjiriso, ami details respwliajl 
the management of plantations, which will be mnt I 
uaeful to all who undertake to cultivate I'cnirian l«tk 1 

flombed to frost. The attempt wm lefened la, with twrnnienJilwii. 
b; Sir CfaorlcB Wood, in hia decpalch to the GoTenuneot ol luK 
dated AugfoK StL. ISM. Die oipeitmeot, «hicU was coodnclal rli) 
■IdU mad cKre, wu mogt creditaUle in evci; respect, and doorel 

■ A JUanuoI 0/ ChiudKnui Culliraliim in India, bj Geoi^ Kin;. 
H.B-, F.L.8., 8apeniit<.'ndc!nt of the Kojnl Botanical GruikDS >1 
CalCDtta and of Chinuliuas cultiraUoa in Bengal. (Culcutta. IS7C 
Polio, pp. 80.) 

Chinchona Sites in Burma. 



^^Hist belt and also within the tropics, offered hopeful 
\ utnations for the growth of Peruvian bark trees. In 
1865 a few plants were established on the top of the 
Bogalay hills, east of Tounghoo. In December 1868 
a supply of 188 plants of C. sucnrubra was planted 
out at Phiinado, at an elevation of 210O feet; and of 
these 147 survive<i in March 1870. Captain Seaton, the 
Conservator of Forests in British Burma, took great in- 
terest in the experiment, and in August 1868 he brought 
iwo Karen lads with lum to Utakamand, that they 
might receive instruction under Mr. Mclvor, They 
returiieil to Rangoon in November 1869, after having 
(;i)ne ttirough a course of tniining. But unfortunately 
one of these lads died in 1870. 

In the year 1870 Phunado was in great part aban- 
iitued, and a site was selected as the head-quartera of 
'tiiuchoua cultivation in British Burma, called Than- 
Juungyee, It is 18 miles N.E. of Tounghoo, the liills 
being from 3700 to 4400 foot above the sea. In 1871 
cuttings raised ivt I'hunado were brought to the new 
and 500 plants were established in the main 



39^ Chinchona Cullivatum m Burma, m-^l 

ploiitation. The surviving trainetl Ind, naiual T"tu. 1 
WHS placed in cliarge, under Dr. Adamson 'i ^ 
SilUiig Division, and a large number of seedlini.'s »et? 
raiaoil in niiraery-bedit and in the propagating-houa 
during 1872. In 1873 an area of 9 acres wna fellei 
and planted with 6000 seedlings and cutting?. To 
this 27 aorea were added in the following year, and in 
1875 a still more extensive clearing was made, b 
October 1875 tliere were 44,000 chinchona trees in tlw 
Thandoungyee I'lantation. The C. siuxinibra succwds 
beat in these Karen hilla, and 50 acres are now pUnte*) 
with it. Tlio soil is a light red bumii8 formed by the 
decomposition of granitic rock, and it has a great pre- 
ponderance of coarse ([uartz sand. The rainy season 
laats from May to October, and the range of tJie thn] 
mometer is from 43° to 84°. H 

The Karens have undertaken the cultivation nndfl 
Uie auspices of the missionaries, and 3000 seedlinJ 
have been distributed to them. The plants certaiii]n 
thrive, but it is feared that they may never attain tlfl 
size of full-grown trees, always remaining stunted anfl 
branched like the surrounding evergreen vegetation. ■ 

Their total yield of febrifuge alkaloids is, howevtBS 
satisfactory, being 4 per cent, in 1873 ; and the treett 
will be valuable in supplying the febrifuge for locaB 
use. It was intended to train Karen lads in plantiiui 
and cultivating chinchona trees, with a view to inCnM 
ducing the plants among the Kaien and other hill 
tribes of British Burma. Seedlings will be reared, in 
considerable (quantities, for gratuitous distribution. • 

Chinchona Sites hi Ceylon. 399 


bill districts of the island of Ceylon, whicli have 
necessary elevation and are within the region of 
monsoons, offered peculiarly favourable coudi- 
18 for the cultivation of Peruvian bark trees. I 
lys looked upon its introduction into C'eylon as a 
measure only second in importance to the naturalisa- 
tion of the trees in British India; and my view was 
confirmed by the strongly expressed opinion of Sip 
William Hooker. That distinguished botanist was even 
incUneil to consider the hills of Ceylon as more suitable 
for chinchona cultivation than any part of India, Mr. 
Thwaites, the Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens 
at Pfiriileniya, near Kandy, also took a deep interest in 
ondert^king, and under his able superintendence I 
confident that succcw would be secured. 
The gardens at Peradeuiya are only 1594 feet above 
the level of the sea, and far too low and hot for success- 
ful chinchona cultivation ; but there are many other 
localities in Ceylon admirably suited, from their 
elevation and climate, for the growth of the trees, from 
BOOO to 8U0O feet above tho sea. Among them was the 
Government garden of llak-gala near Xuwara EUya, 


whicli is 6210 feet above the sea, in a climate wn 
a mean t«ini)erature of about 59°. and abundaiitl- 
supplied with moisture. Here most of the cliinditi ' 
])laiit8 were establiahed, on tlieir arrival in Ceyl") 
under the euperinteiidence of Mr. Tbwait«8, who <^y 
assisted in their cultivation by Mr. McNicoU, a zealcii' 
and intelligent gardener from Kew. 

In February 1861 the first instalment of chinchnwi 
aeeds arrived in Ceylon, being a parcel of the "•^-'j 
bark " species sent from the Nilgiri hills by Mr. Mclti ■ 
Soon afterwards a share of the seeds of C. smrimJ'T. 
was received. By September 800 plants had t*^' 
raised from these seeds. In January 1862 I forward ■■ 
parcels of seeds of C. ojidnttlw to Mr, Thwait«s, an'^ 
early in March six Wardian cases filled with ehin 
chona plants arrived from the depdt at Kew. TL: 
cultivation was thus fairly started. Hak-gaU *i- 
treated as a nursery and as a centre of distributimi 
whence the coffee planters, who readily eutered ii["'t! 
Uie cultivation, were supplied witli young trues. I [ 
to 1 864 Mr. Thwaites received appliciitioua frtm 
eighteen planters, for an aggregate of 28,524 plants. 

In November 1865 I inspected the chinchon- 
plantation at Hak-gala, and a large cofitte estate mdlt.; 
Kothschild, 3200 feet above the sea, where several «..■■ 
had been planted with cliincliona trees. At tlial ihui 
500,000 plants hail been applied for, and as manv t 
180,000 had been distributed. It was clear thai liiw 
was a serious tutentiuu among the planters to amh 
Peruvian bark one of the staple products of Ceylon. 

i Hills of Ceylon. 

■The knot of moantaiiis, in the central province of 

lO'lon, which at one point attains a height of 8280 

above the sea, is entirely composed of gneiss 

1 veins of quartz. The soil formed by the ilis- 

ratioQ of this rock ia not rich, but the poverty of 

L is made up for by sufficient supplies of moisture 

1 a genial climate. Though the valleys formed by 

B mountain spura are extensively cleared and planted 

\i coffee, tliere is still a good deal of forest at higher 

ivations, and one of the loftiest plateaux is the hill 

tion of Nuwara Eliya, (J220 feet above the sea, 

lom Kandy the way passes through Gampola and 

isilawa, and Uien winds up the northern face of the 

mountains by an excellent road. As Nuwara Eliya 

ia approached, the flora resembles closely that of the 

hills of Southern India. The woods are composed of 

ificlulia, Si/mi>locoa, Gaiiltheria, Vacdniv.m, myrtles, 

with an undergrowth of Lobelia excrha, balsams, 

Otbf^kui, Sonerila, Solanvm Indicum, a passion-flower 

and madder. Beautiful tree-ferns grow in the shade, 

and the Hhod&dcadron arhoreuni is scattered over tlie 

op^i grass land. The patettas, or smooth grassy glades, 

aUemate with the forest-covered land, on the sides of 

i mountains. The station of Neuera-ellia,' consisting 

r bnogalows nestling among Australian gum-trees, ia 

I plain bounded, on the east and west, by tree- 

i hills, crested here and there by bare ridgea 

The masses of cryptogams on the branches 

B indicated the dampness of the climate. 

loD WM roimod Lu \S'i'i bj Sir Edwanl DnrnM. 

2 D 

401 Hak-gala Planiaiion, 

The cliinchona plantation of Hak-gala, six milp 
south of Nuwara Eliya. is 5200 feet above the level i.: 
the 6ea. The position was admirably chosen. Haki^l- 
is a mogniticent perpendicular cliff, rising out of a fir-' 
forest which clothes Uie steep slopes of the moanLtm 
The site faces tlie north-eaat. It is protected trea 
the full force of the south-weet monsoon hy the di!i 
whUo it receives a good supply of rain during bsi: 
seasons. No place in the East so vividly reminded na 
of the chinchona jxijimales of Peru as the view &md 
the Hak-gala plantation, A mountain torrent dssba 
through the wide ravine, and the bills on either si! 
are clothed with alternate forest and grass land, wiii! 
to the south are the distant lulls and valleys of li^ 
Uvah district. These open grass lands, called paUw'!' 
in Ceylon, are precisely analogous to the pajonala nf 
Peru. They are of frequent occurrence in the Ceyl'iti 
hills, being covered with coarse tufts of lemon-gra^ 
{Aiidropogon schmnanthus), but no trees grow on them 
and they are considered unsuitable for coffee cultiv> 
tion. On the day of my visit to Hak-gala there wer. 
showers from the soutli-west in the forenoon, and i' 
the afternoon a dense mist rolled up from the Uvjb 
valley, and enveloped tlie plantation. This is exacily 
the course of atmospheric daily change in the aplacd.' 
of Caravaya, and as I watclied the white mist wrap- 
ping tree after tree in its thick folds, I almost fanciai 
myself once more standing on a chinchona iiajontd in 

Some ten acres had been cleared under the grand olrl 

^^m n. Cojfee Planting in Ceylon. 403J 

**ak-gala cliff. The planta were completely in the open, 
^ttd looked healthy and vigoroua. The total nnmber of 
plants and cuttings was, in 1865, about 500,000. The 
*Bault of the analysis of Ceylon bark made by Mr. 
Bioward in 1866, was that the C. o^nalis was the best 
spodes for cultivation in that island. The bark yielded 
nearly four per cent, of quinine, and seven per cent, of 
total alkaloids. 

The great coffee planting interest in Ceylon ensured a 

thorough and complete trial for chinchona cultivation 

in the island, bo far as the commercial profit to be 

derived from it was concerned. Through the initiative 

of Sir Edward Barnes, who was Governor in 1S26, 

■^itTee planting in Ceylon was undertaken with energy, 

nil] soon the mountain ranges round Kandy were 

nvered with plantations, as well as the great valleys of 

I'wmbera, Ambogammoa, Kotmalie, and Pnsilawa, the 

ilijies leading to Nuwara Eliya, and the districts of 

t'iilulla and Uvali to the south. Twenty years ago 

■iiere were 404 estates with 63,771 planted acres in 

luring, besides 17,179 planted but not yet bearing, 

Hie produce was 347,100 cwta. of coffee ; exclusive of 

1'^ coffee grown by the natives round their villages. 

I ^together not less than 130,000 acres were yieldinj; 

', (ioSee in 1837. Since tliat year Ceylon has continued 

I to prosper. In 1877 there were 1357 coffee estates 
with 272,243 acres under cultivation, the average crop 
bring 727,420 cwts. On these estates 300.000 lalwurers 
•H employed. The numerous enterprising and in- 
Wli^'i'iit planters were sure not to overlook a greats 
2 D 2 


Spread of Chinehona 

source of profit, placed conveniently within thti: 
reach, such as was offered by the chinehona nureerr i.i 

Since the period of my visit in 1866, hundreds c 
thousands of seedlings and many ounces of seeib la^- 
lieea distributed to the planters of Ceylon fnim ^k 
Hak'gala plantation ; and chinehona cultivation K' 
hecome a very important and lucrative adjunct to cufc 
planting. In 1873, 670,500 plants were distrilmtfl 
from Hak-gala, 82fi,000 in 1874, 794,500 in IST.^ 
1,196,000 in 1876, 1,250,000 in 1877 ; total, 5.500,0«'.' 
Tlie number of acres under chinehona ctiltl^ntioi] '^ 
Ceylon was 5578 in 1877. Mr. J. L. Macmillanf ajs 
that the total number of trara planted out must nov te 
close on 7.000.000. He adds :— 

" The entire cultivation is carried on by private oin*- 
panies and private proprietors ; Government so far harin; 
only given its attention to the propt^tion, niirsing, ain. 
classification of the plants. 

" Succirubra is the variety in favour, the variety n 
demand, tlie variety that pays, and the variety tlai 
thrives, it requiring little attention in propagation, sa! 
costing next to nothing to rear. It may be found prov. 
ing luxuriantly everywhere, in the mountain prorai'.- 
on fertile estates, and on the poorest pateua soils, arou' 
(iovernment rest-houses and remote police stations, ■: 
tlie \-ariou8 Kacheri groimda and gardens of Govemtnc: 

* riuite wero distributed grstia at Bnt, bat sinco 1S72 •> duuf^ I 
KU sIiiJliDgB per lOflO plaula Lhb been mode. 
I Pnpct TBtul al lUe PliamiuoeuticiJ Sodet)*, April 20th, 187S. 

Cultivation in Ceylon. 405 I 

idencea ; from tlie ancient kingdom of Kandy to the 
Oonfines of the principality of UvaL So familiar indeed 
Ikas it become to the eye of both colonist and native, 
tiiat it is looked upon as indigenous ; the latter ha\-ing 
bow the fullest confidence in it as a remedy, and not 
lieeitating to help himself to a strip of bark from the 
nearest tree when occasion necessitates it," 

The species which form the bulk of the plantations 
are C i>^/^.-naXis and C. succirubra, as in India, The 
area over which suitable sites can be found is extensive. 
The following is a description of the climate of one such 
locality in the Dimbula district : — 

" There is a mean temperature of 65°'8 Fahr,, with 
nothing colder in the shade in winter than 44°5 (12° 
above freezing-point), and nothing hotter in the shade 
in summer than 89", both extremes being exceptional, 
and the latter helping to produce a maximum tempera- 
ture favourable to coffee cultivation, equally so to tea 
;iiiil chinchona, without being injurious to human healtli. 
i'ismiaaiiig the rarely occurring extremes, we get a 
mean maximum in the shade of 73°'2 Fahr, against a 

I mean minimum of 58°'4 Fahr., resulting, as we have 
already noticed, in a mean shade temperature of Go^'S 
FriiP. On a clear January morning, before the sun has 
dswned, the exposed thermometer may indicate a cold 
' Fahr., or only one degree above freezing-point ; 
while at noon-day in April (our hottest month) the 
narcuiy may, under the full influence of the sun's rays, 
[ Ab to 136° Fahr. But these, again, are the extremes 
I and in the sun ; the mean maximum of 

4o6 Ckinckona Cultivation in Ceylon. 

the exposed thermometer being only 103'''5 Fahi. a 
a mean jninimum of 54°1 Fahr." 

Thus the intToduction of chinchona cultivatioD id 
Ceylon has been attended with complete encceas, and 
most valuable addition hoa been made to the sti^ 
products of the island. The results, as regards c 
mercial profit, will be referred to presently in i 
chapter on the Barii Trade. 


yava Plantations. 




! Java cliinchona plantations remained under the 
rintendence of Dr. Junjj;hulin until Ms death in 
181)4, and during this first period two great 
ikes were made. The species called C Pahudiana, 
Bich is n'orthless as regards its yield of the fehrifuge, 
I extensively propagated, and an erroneoua system 
■miltivation was adopted. Tlie trees were planted oat 
I the forests, under dense shade. 

ftThe second period commenced with the appoiutment 

■Ur. H. van Gorkum to the chaise of the plantations. 

\ 18C2 a supply of plante of valuable species had been 

leived from the Nilgiri Hills, namely, C. sucdrubm 

i C. mierantha, and in 18(j5 plants and seeds of C. 

\analia were presented to tlje Java plantations. Thus 

1 kinds began to be proiwgated, and in IStiS there 

were 354,797 chinchona trees planted out, without 

counting the worthless C. Pahudiana. The plantations 

are chiefly on the mountains in tlie Preauger division 

of Western Java, from 4400 to SOUU feot above the sea. 

Mr. van Gorkum was succeodi^d, in tliu conduct of tlie 

a TT to 83 for the eorlf liisUin- nf the Jam Plan tat Iniu. 


yava Plantations. 

enterprise, by Mr. J. C. Bemelot Moens, who U still i* 
charge of the Java chinchona plantations. He 
accomplished chemist. 

In 1866 the Dutch Government bought a portionii 
the remittance of C. Calinaya seeds from Mr. Ledger's 
brother, which had been collected in the Bolivian foresB 
by Manuel Incra Mamoni. These seeds were at onoe 
sent out to Java, and sown in the nurseries by Mr. tba 
Gorkum, who raised 20,000 plants. Small lots of Jm 
bark had been brought into public auction at Amsterdam 
in 1870 and 1371, but it was not until March 1873 
ttiat any large quantity of that bark was ofl'ered for sale. 
The sale of March 14tli, 1872, consiate*! of 5800 kilo- 
grammes collected from all the five species growing in 
the Java plantations. 

When the plants from Mr. Ledger's seeds came to 
maturity it was found that their bark was extraordinarily 
rich in quinine, and that the trees throve well in the 
mountains of Java, although the climate of the Nilgiri 
Hilla does not appear to suit them. An analysis of 
several specimens of the bark grown in Java, gave a 
yield of 9 per cent, of quinine and lOJof total alkaloids 
in one instance, of 99 per cent, of quinine, and 11"9 of 
total alkaloids in another. The yield of quinine was so 
extraorilinary that the tree was looked upon as forming 
a distinct variety, and it has been named C. Calisaya, 
var. Zaigcriamt. Since tliia discovery the attention of 
Mr. Moens has been chiefly directed to the propagation 
of the rich variety of C Calisaya, which will now be 
cultivated, almost to the exclusion of all others, in the 

■»vs plantations. At the end of 1879 the number of 
raluable cliincliona trees planted out (exclusive of C. 

^ahndxana') was OS follows: — 

(vu.btnught byHaaaksrl) . 
m. C. tuedrvbra ( „ >. ) ■ 



IV. C. «i«ron«M< ( „ „ ) . . 2G0 


Some of the trees of LedijerwiM. had seeded, but the 
liarvest of seeds was very amalL The har\-est of liark, 
in 1879, is reported to have amounted to 106,000 lbs. 
{-dww(.)- t)*" t'"8. "0,088 lbs. were sold ia the market 
in Holland, 2181 lbs. were kept for use in Java, and 
33,731 lbs. remained in store. 

The Slue Mountains of Jamaica presented a probable 

site for successful chinchona cultivatiou, being about 

tlie same distance from the equator on the north side 

(18^ N.) as the Calisaya forests are to the south, and 

attaining a height of 7150 feet. The principal ridge, 

nwning east and west, averages an elevation of from 

5000 to 6000 feet. It was decided, from the first, that 

^■k portion of the seeds collected in South America 

^^■hoold be entrusted bo the care of Mr. Nathaniel 

^B^mwn, the Superintendent of the Government Gardens 

^^Bt Jamaica ; and he received a supply of seeds of 

^^Kt tuteirubra, C. nitUla, and C viicrantha, m November 

^■1860. Ho selected a site for their cultivation on , 


Mount Essex, a. spur of the Blue Mountains, tovfl 
miles north of Batli. and 2500 to 3000 feet nbove H 
sea. Here 300 plnnts were raised, and in 1862 thM ■** 
acres luui been cleared. On the ICtb of XuvemlBil 
1861, some chincliono trees were planted ont sttV ' 
place called Cold Spring, near Newcastle Garrison, ai | 
3600 feet above tlie sea. These trees are now ninetoo I 
years of age, and are the oldest trees in Jamaica. One I 
of them is 42 feet high, vdtii n trunk 40 inches in I 
girth, and would yield 16 lbs. of Peruvian bark. 

In 1868 Mr. Robert Thomson had succeedel 1 
Mr. Wilson as Superintendent. He acquired, for ih* I 
Government, a run of virgin soil of 600 acres, on the I 
south slope of the Blue Mountains, 4000 to I 
feet above the sea, and 24 miles from Ki 
The annual rainfall varies from 88 to 108 inches, the 
soil is excellent and several atreama flow through the 
nuL PossessioE was obtained in May 1864, fifty acres 
were ready in August, and 20,000 trees were plant«d 
ont, A glass propagating-house and other necessaf] 
buildings were erected ; and a further supply of seedi 
was received from Ceylon, through Sir J. Hookei 
oonsisting of C. o^dnalis and C. Calisaya. Thus tlui'fl 
experiment took a new departure from 1868, nndeel 
Mr. Thomson's auspices. 

In 1872 the first analysis of bark was made by I 

Mr. Howard,* with very satisfactory results, as regards I 

the C. siiccirubra and C. Calisaya species, and 

equally hoi>eful report by Dr. De Vrij resulted from hifl I 

* See Fharmaeetdlcai Journal, iii. p. 83, 1873, 

yamaica. 411 

^^nalysis of bark in 1873." The C. off/Analis does not 
"^Jirive so well in Jamaica, and assumes a shrubby form. 
^The average height of the (7. svccvnAra and C. micrantha 
Xxees, after ten years, is from 15 to 27 feet, of 
<7, Calisaija from 12 to 20 feet, and of C. officinalU only 
&om 8 to 12 feet. The tallest C. succirahra is 3 feet 
6 inches, with a circumference of 26 inches ; and the 
tallest C Calisaya ia 25 feet high. The hurricane of 
November Ist, 1874, seriously injured 60,001) trees, and 
at first there was great mortality among the seedlings. 
But the latter difficidty has been overcome by fitting 
the pmpagating-house with hot-water apparatus. 

In 1878 Mr. G. S, Jenman succeeded Mr. Thomson 
as Superintendent, Mr. Jenman reported that, in 
1878. there were 450 acres planted out with 120,000 
cltinchona trees, of which 50,000 were C. succiruhra, 
50.000 were C. officinalis, and 20,000 were C. Caliaaya. 
The annual coat of the plantation was £15G7. Bark 
from Jamaica has already appeared in the London 
market. In January 1878 three bales of Jamaica red 
bark were sold at 1^. to 2s, 3'/. tlie lb. In September 
of the same year four bales fetched 2s. lOi/. per lb., and 
in July 1879 six bales were sold, fetching 4.s-. per lb. 
Much lai^r quantities arrived in 1880, namely, 100 
bales t in Febniary, 122 bales in May, and in August 
the Jamaica plantations sent 81 bales of bark to the 
ll_Jx>Ddon market, whicli were all sold, some of the bark 
tiing as mucli as 8<'<. lOr/. per lb. 

Cbinchona cultivatiou is now successfully « 
in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. 


Humholdt remarked that, although there 
of Mexico well suited for the growth of chinchona 
none were to be found there. He specially remsAw 
tlittt they might be expected to be found 
beautiful Mexican woods of Jalapa, wliither the ti 
and tlie climate, and their usual companions, the tM- 
ferns and Melastomacete, seem to invite them.* 

I conceived the idea of ftilfiUing this expectation (( 
Humlmldt, and of supplying Mexico with the feva- 
dispelling tree, from our Indian plantations. The 
suggestion was made by me to' my old friend Captain 
Maury, then in the Mexican serv'ice, and was wamilf 
taken up by the Emperor Maximilian. I received ui 
official letter expressing the Emperor's anxiety to 
inaugurate sucli au experiment, in October 1865, and 
immediately took the necessary steps. In June 1866 
a supply of chinchona aeeils, consisting of 120,000 
of C. succinibra, 90,000 of C. Calisaya, and 25,000 at 
C. offidiialis, was transmitted from the Nilgiri Hills to 
England, and immediately forwarded to Mexico, 

The mountainous and forest-covered belt of Mexico, 
wliich intervenes between tlie " Tierra Calientc " of the 
coast and the interior table-land, is the same distance 
from the equator to tbe north, as part of the chinchona 
i^ion of Peru and Bolivia ia to the south ; while there 
* Eftai mr la Gfographia da Flanta (Park, 1807). 



P XKnitions with similar climate and elevation al>o\'e 
In this belt a site for chinchona cultivation 
selected near Cordova, and the enterprise was 
asted to the care of Seiior Nieto. He received the 
incbona seeds at Cordova, on the 14th of October 
)6, and at once sowed the greater part of them in 
xien boxes filled witli good soil, and protected by 
and light movable curtains. The rest were 
zibated to intelligent proprietors." A large pro- 
tion of O. succimbra and C. Galisnya seeds germi- 
, and the plants were distributed among the 
tghbouring proprietors of estates who were capable 
! nnderetanding the great importance of chinchona 

I Cordova is 2800 feet above the sea ; and there are 

my 8it«8 still more favourable for the growth of 

I tieea along the whole length of the Mexican 

^ Having received encouraging reports of the growth of 
the chinchona trees in Mexico from Seiior Nieto, I 
atranged that he should be furnished nith a second 
supply of seeds. In November 1871 I received from 
the Nilgiri Hills, four ounces of seeds of C. sutdnihrn 
aad four ounces of C. nfficijuUix, and immediately 
Ctffwarded tliera to Seiior Nieto. They arrived at 
Cordova on April 25th, 1872; and tlie energetic 
cultanttor at once proceeded to sow a portion, and to 

' Mi. Fiach of tLe Bacieuda Potrcro^ Don Y. U. Snnchpi Ikropnit 
tt JkUpa. Hr. Grondiaon of Orizabn, umI Dou Cuiua SBrtoritu of 
loHaoic&da M-Lntdii, 

distribnto the rest He succeeded in establislmig i 
plantatioQ of healthy chinchona trees above Conlm 
and there vias every promise of the ultimate snccesioi 
the experiment. I supplied Sefior Nieto, and otto 
Mexican cultivators, with copies of my " Manual "1 
Chinchona Cultivation " in Spanish, 

But the infamous murder of the good and enlightenei 
Emperor Maximilian in June 1867 was a sad bbv Vi 
the progress of chinchona cultivation, and to man; 
other useful measures vhich his Majest}- had initiaCol 
for the benefit of Mexico; and from that time tteM 
was nothing but discoura^ment and obstructioa- 
Senor Don J. A. Nieto worked on quietly and un- 
oatentatioualy until his lamented death in 1874 
have not since received any news from Cordova. Bnl 
the trees were already well-grown, and samples of bad 
and sections of stems of chinchona trees from Mesied 
were exhibited in the International Exhibition all 
Fhiladelphia in 18715. I trust, therefore, tliat thegretl 
and beneficent measure has succeeded, and that tM 
cultivation of chinchona trees is now established 
Mexico, It will be one permanent memorial of 
rule of the ill-fated Emperor Maximilian, 

txm. True Objects of the Enterprise. 415 




inot be too often repeated that the object of the 
Mlnction of chinchona cultivation into India wna 

> pTDviaion of an abundant and cheap supply of the 
) as to bring tlie remedy witliin the reach 

1 daases of tlie people. The object M-aa not to 
e the best barks for the European markets, nor 
e commercial profit, nor to increase the revenue, 

► to benefit tlie planting interest. These are all highly 
iafsctory coUaleral results, but they are not, and never 

Muld be, conaideretl as the objects of the undertaking.* 
In the arrangements for analysing the bark, in the 
'Appointment of a resident chemist, in the experimental 
"lumfacture, in the investigations to ascertain the 
oo'npamtive value of different alkaloids, the main object 

t»s kept in ^■jew. 
I 31ie analysis of East Indian barks was commenced 
* Hf abject in introditcbg ohiochoiia oaltivntion into IndJs «w 
ilBCignlsed M the true ubjeut, oDd my views were adoptvd by nKioeaiTe 
BwMUriet or Etiile for ladio. See tlie de«patohea of Sir Cborlra 
Wood, dmtod Jftniur; ICth, IS63 (pw. 4) atu] September 30th. 186S 
(pw. 9) : of I«rd Bipoo, d»ted 16tli Juau. IB6(i Cpt>r. 4) ; uid oT tbe 
Dak* of Argyll, dated April Itb. ISTl (poJ'. 3) and Deoember IGth, 
1878 (fu. 1). AU ue pnbliihwl in the ChindioDa Blua Boolo. 

hy Mr. Howard io 1863; and a seoond analysis n> 
made later in the same year. The bark vas eigliw 
moQChs old, and it yielded eight ]]er cent, of alkaloid 
In November 1863 Dr. De Vrij analysed liatk rf 
C. sueeiruhra, grown at Nedivattam, from whicii be 
obtained the hitherto unprecedented yield of 84 pet 
cant, of alkaloids. The third analysis, by Mr. Howsid 
in 1864, and the fourth in 1865, continued to ^ve most 
encouraging results, The analysis of 1865 establisbal 
the fact tliat cultivation was improving the yieU cf 
alkaloids in the C. sucHruin-a species. Some of di* 
bark of this year, being three and a half years old, wa 
sent to Dr. De Vrij, who obtained 11 per cent, of 
febrifuge alkaloids from it, and pronounced it to be tbe 
most %*aluable specimen of bark he had ever manipn- 
lat«d. Tlie conclusions arrived at were that the yield, 
under cultivation, increases two and threefold evea 
during tlie first three years of growth ; that the applicft- 
tion of damp moss tends to thicken the bark; 
strips may be taken from the stem vritbout injuiiii| 
the tree ; and that the renewed bark is richer in alkflr 
loids than the first growth. It was becoming evidt 
also, that the bark for Ittdia would be the C. sttcdrubroi 
because, wliile yiekling the largest ((uantity of febrifogl 
alkaloids, it is also the most hardy, the moat easi^ 
propagated, and the best adapted to the climates of tbd 
Indian liill districts. It can, therefore, be cultivated 
over a larger area than any other kind ; and the widd 
extension of the cultivation is a chief means of ensuring 
our object 

■ II. xm. Relative Value of the Alkaloids. 417 

The examinationa of tlie bark had shown that the 
yield of total alkaloids was very large, but that chin- 
cbumdine and quinidine predominated over quinine, and 
even that future increase in the yield would probably 
be in the direction of other alkaloids rather tlian in 
that of quinine. At that time quinine was %-ulgarly 
believed to be the real febrifuge, or at least that its 
febrifuge virtues were far superior to those of any of 
the kindred alkaloids derived from cMnchona bark. 

It became, therefore, a matter of the greatest im- 
portance to ascertain the relative value of the four 
chinchona alkaloids, namely, quinine, clunchotiidine, 
quinidiue, and chinclionine.* Mr. Howard represented 
tJiia necessity as a consequence of the results of his 
analyses, and, as soon as I returned from India in lS6tt, 
I proposed that medical commissions should be ap- 
pointed in the three Presidencies, to try experiments 
with the four alkaloids on such a scale as that theii- 
final decisions might be conclusive, and to report tlie 
results of their investigations. I bad also made similar 
representatioQS to the Madras Government.t My pro- 
jwsala were adopted, and carefully prepared supplies of 
the four alkaloids were sent out to India for the trial 

The Ma<Ira8 Commission consistod of officers who 
had all had long experience in the treatment of fevers. 
The course they adopted was to select medical men iu 
whose reports implicit reliance could be placed, and 
whose chaises were in feverish districts; and to supply 

* 8eapage33. 

t In lettcn dmted Jonuniy Ititb tad t'olinwr; TtU. ItXlO. 


MtdiceU Commissions 

them with sufficient qiuatities of all four a]k&loids,ti 
enable them to give the me^cines a full triiil. Up li 
Febmarj- 1S07 the number of cases of fever tiwtBd 
was 1145, of which 410 were treated with chincfaoaiu 
359 with chinch on i dine, and 37li with qninidine. Bn 
resultit were satisfactory, and t)ie conclusion of th 
CommisaloQ was that the other alkaloids are scaraJf, 
if at all, inferior to quinine as tlierapeutic agents. Il 
H second report, dated April 18€8, the Conunission w» 
able to apeak with still largor experience, for 247J 
ui£es of fever liad been treated, all being fevers of tnt 
paroxysmal character, caused by malaria. This taw 
846 cases were treated with quinine, fi64 with qnini- 
dine, 403 witli chinchonidine, and 559 with chin- 
chonine. Tliere were 2445 cures. Quinidine and 
chinchonidine were found to be quite e^iual to quinint: 
in every respect. With quinine there were 5 failuree, 
with chinchonidine 3, with quinidine 3, and with chin- 
chonine 13. The final conclusion was that quinidine is 
quite equal to quinine, that chiuchoiiMine is only slightly 
less efficacious, and that cliinchoninet though inferior 
to the others, is also a valuable remedial agent in feve^ 
Similar Metlical Commissions were appointed at Cal- 
cutta and at Bombay, and all virtually came to the 
same conclusions. It was tlius the unanimous opinion 
of the highest medical authorities in all the three 
Presidencies, after most complete trials, that quinidine 
and chinchonidine were equal to quinine, and that cliin- 
chonine was only slightly inferior, merely req mrinj 
somewliat larger doses to complete the cures. 

on Chinckona Alkaloids. 


Howard's opinion, — and there is no higher 

ihority, — is that chinchonidine is in no sense inferior 

f quinine, but somewhat different in its operation, 

e cases to be preferred. Quinidine is equal 

f chinchonidine; and chinchonine, Mr. Howard believes, 

I powerful as quinine. He uses it for gratuitous 

oinistration, and never fails to arrest intermittent 

rer with it. He uses the muriate of chinchonine, his 

ions being cheapness and facility of administration. 

■The Medical Commissions conclusively decided a 

|r momentous question. It is now known that all 

B chincliona alkaloids Iia\'e febrifuge virtues, and tliat 

jequently it is not the yield of quinine that is to be 

cially sought after for our object, but the largest 

Ud of total alkaloiiis in the species wlijcli can tje 

get extensively cultivated. This established, the C. 

% is the species for the people of ludia ; while 

B C o^udntdis and C. Calisaya furnish the best barks 

r European markets, and for making the enterprise 

^complete financial success. 

The great question had yet to be setlletl. The trees 

e flourishing, harvests of bark were gathered, but it 

maioed to decide how the febrifuge could be brought, 

p its cheapest and yet most efficacious form, witliin reach 

r the poorest j>eople in the land. Eventually, and in 

\ fiilness of time, the febrifuge will undoubtedly be 

iSO&cturcd and supplied on the spot, in some forui. 

; before quinine was discovered, decoctJotis of liark 

\ cured thousands of sufTereni from fever, and tliis 

nple form of the febrifuge is destined, I trust, to 

2 K 2 

420 Form of a Cktap F^rifuge, ex. un. 

prove a blessing to many s fcTer-liftiinted district d 
India. Its manufacture U ao simple thst it mav b« 
carried on by evety family that has a few trees pUntel 
at its door. It is merely necessary to pound the bsik 
up until it n-ill pasa tlirough a rather fine sieve, mis 
in the proportion of about ten ounces trf" bark » 
one gallon of water, boil, and strain off. A decocticaof 
bark is said tn be often more efBcacioos than qtunine; 
and results are to be obtained from it which are not W 
be derived from the pure alkaloids.* 

It is desirable, however, that the alkaloids them- 
selves, extracted from the other ingredients of the 
bark, should be brought witliin the means of U» 
poorest native family. I tried an exi)eriment with the 
aid of Mr. Mclvor, when I was at Utakamand in 1866 j 
and manufactured a preparation which required only 
slaked lime and alcohol. It was called ywiniwm f and 
retained the febrifuge alkaloids, while the greater part 
of the other component parts of the bark, which have 
little or no febrifuge (^ualitieB, was eliminated. This 
experiment showed me that the ingredients required 
for manufacture could be economically obtained in- 
India, and led me to infer that a cheap febrifiigfl 
might be supplied on the spot. 

For the determination of this question, and for the 
study of the various problems connected with the 
formation of alkaloids in the bark of living trees, I 

• 'P\ixrmaftMioal Journal. Discumion ou Mr. Uowani's puper nai I 
15th Beptember, 1ST7, p. 210. 

t CbIW, in Freuuh woiks on phnrmacj, "ExtniH aiax/ligve dtt 
quinquina a In diaux," 

ra. siu. Appointment of Mr. Brmtgkton. 42 1 

considered it necessary that tliere aliould be a quinolo- 
gist residing on the Nilgiri Hilla, who could carry on 
his investigations and analyse the barks on the spot. 
My recommendation was adopted, and Mr. Jolm 
Broughton, an accomplished analytical chemist, who 
had been Dr. Frankland's assistant at the Royal 
Institution, was appointed Quinologist to the Nilgiri 
Chinchona Plantations on September 22nd, 1866. 

The instnictions which I drew up for Mr. Brough- 
ton's guidance directfid hia attention to two main 
objects, the investigation of the causes which regulate 
the yield of alkaloids, and the discovery of the prepara- 
tion which would combine cheapness with efficacy in the 
highest degree. I pointed out to him that the analysis 
of liark from trees growing in various situations, would 
l*e a principal means of discovering the conditions, as 
regards elevation, climate, soil, and exposure, best 
calculated to produce the largest yield of alkaloids, I 
also assigned to him the duties of ascertaining the 
difference, us regan^s yield and efficacy, between green 
and dry barks, the best methods of harvesting anil 
drying, and of preparing a cheap febrifuge medicine. 
Finally, I impressed upon him the great importance of 
acting in concert with the Superintendent of Cultiva^ 
tion. Mr. Broughton arrived at Utakamand in January 
1867, and submitted a preliminary report in the 
lowing April. 

) Mr. Broughton found the yield of total 

in C. nuecirubra to be 74 per cent., and in 

I it was 78. Hia conclusion was that this species 


Mr, BrougAior^s 

attaiaed its greatest yield in the eighth year. The C. 
nffinntdit bark yielded 69 per cent, of total alkaloids in 
I8fi9, and 83 in 1873, more than half of which vu 
Huiniue. Mr. Broughum made very useful experimente 
in drying the bark, a point of great importance aad 
retiuiring chemical knowledge for its correct solntioiL 
He also atiidieil the questions of tlie best season for 
harvesting, of the effects of mannring, of hybridising, 
and of the form in which alkaloids occur in the living 
bark. These investigations were exceedingly valnabla* 
Their results fully justified the appointment of Mr. 
Broughton, and showed the necessity for ha^-ing a 
re&ident analytical chemist at the plantations. 

In 1870 Mr. Brought/>n commenced the preparation 
iif a cheap febrifuge at a factory on the Nedivattam 
plantation, which he called " amorphous quinine," The 
ingredients required for its manufacture were sulphuric 
acid, lime, caustic soda, and alcohol ; and the resulting 
medicine was in the form of a yellowish-brown powder. 
The intention was to turn out 800 Jba. of tlie febrifuge 
annually. It was calculated that the coat of producing 
a pound of bark was from Ad. to M., that Uiere would 
be a 4 per cent, yield, and tliat the coat of 1 lb. of the 
alkaloid, including interest on the plant, would be 
Us. Ifi, or 1 rupee per ounce. So far as the manufacture 
was allowed to proceed, the results were satisfactory in 
every respect. The factory produced 21^ Iba. of the 
febrifuge in 1870, 127 lbs. in 1871, 100 lbs. in 1872, 
and 345 Ibe, in 1873. Tliere was also a progressive 

* Spe Appeodti, BOjliagni^lm. 

i im. Manufacture of a Febrifuge. 423 

provement in the yield of alkaloids, whicli was 0'12 
r cent, of the greeii bark in 1870, 0'2i per cent, in 
., 0'28 per cent, iu 1872, and 0-43 per cent, in 1873. 
■. Brougliton's preparation was perfectly efficacious. 
B used in the feverish districts of Wainad and the 
yes Godavari, and out of 1882 cases treated with it, 
I were cured. Tlie Surgeon-General of Hospitals 
d, on April 28th, 1874, that the "amorphous 
9 " was a sure febrifuge, and that, if it could be 
; 1 rupee per ounce, it was extremely desirable 
t should 1)0 manufactured in large quantities.* 
No correct judgment could be formed of the financial 
result until the factory was in full work, and turning 
out 800 pounds annually, or more. The ingredients, 
sxcept acid and caustic soda, were obtained in the 
country, and their coat was small in comparison to the 
work done. But the outlay, as regards labour and 
many other items, is the same whether tlie out-turn is 
large or small, so that no reliable calculation could be 
made as to the real cost, until the factory was working 
up to its full power. Moreover, experience would have 
m^gested improvements in the arrangements for 
{nvesiag the bark, for preventing loss of alkaloids, and 
other details. Unfortunately tliis hopeful exi>oriment, 
> fraught witti benefit to the people of the Madras 
Hidency, was cut short prematurely, and before a fair 
1 had been made. 
A Committee was appointed by the Madras Govern- 

' LWtn (ma Satgeon-GenersI Balfour, dated 2Sth April, 1S74 

4^4 Misleading Calculations. a 

mant to report upon the financial result of the ndiin- 
facture before any correct concluaion could be fomei 
In their Report, daUid Kovemher 28th, 1874, tky 
submitted a calculation bj which it was made to 
appear that the " amorphous quinine " was produced tX i 
loss. In the years 1872 and 1873, the quantity pro- 
duced waa 445 pounds. By arbitrarily charging tk 
factory with £2500 for tho bark, and £583 for the cert 
of working, and interest on plant and buildings, they 
made out that the 445 lbs. cost £3083, and tliey placed 
its value at £1500. By these figures they made out a 
loss of £1583. Their calculations are misleading. It 
was quite premature to attempt any calculations at so 
early a stage. The legitimate profit from the sale of 
bark to pay off the capital charge would, in a few 
years, have secured a net result obviating aU pretext 
for charging anything for the value of the bark against 
the factory, while the actual charges would have 
Ijeen lowered by improved arrangements, the reaulta of 
experience. The capital charge, with interest, has now 
actually been paid off, and the only legitimate chai^ 
against a factory ia, therefore, the cost of cultivating the 
bark. The cost to the Government of producing one 
pound of bark, aa proved by experience in Sikkim, 
ought not to be more than M. ; and the factory would, 
as soon as it was in full work, have turned out one 
pound of the febrifuge at a cost of six shillings, as in 
Sikkim. So that the febrifuge could have been sold, at 
a profit, for less than 1 rupee per ounce. But the 
whole system of manufacture would eventually have 

i xni. Resignation of Mr. Broughhn. 425 1 

)ome more economical in proportion to the increased 
idaction; and Mr, Broughton had certainly made a 
^t promising beginning of a useful work. 

e Committee's B^port had a most dlsa.^trons effect. 
'. Broaghton resigned Ids appointment, and left India 
|. December 1874. His place has not been filled up. 
1 attempts at producing a cheap febrifuge for the use 
[ the people were at once put a atop to. The great 
seta of the enterprise were abandoned. The Nilgiri 
iDtatlons have, especially since Mr. Mclvor's death, 
ly mismanaged. The only object has been to 
tain harvests of bark to sell at a profit in the London 
uket, without regard to the renewal of gaps, and to 
keeping the plantations up to a proi>er standard. 
There lias been undue destruction of valuable trees. I 
have reason to fear that there haa been miserable waste 
and havoc, to secure laige present results, without 
regard for the future. 

Yet the trees remain, though in diminished numbers, 
and flourish. The work can be taken up where it was 
onwisely dropped, at any time, when a future Govem- 
tnent is better advised. The good work cannot be 
altogether undone. A scientific superintendent of the 
plantatioDs, combining chemical knowledge, like Mr. 
Movns in Java, is urgently needed. There ha\e been 
flbecka and disheartening delays. But the plantations 
are still safe. Sooner or later the broken continuity 
will be restored, work in the right direction will be 
resumed, and the great object of the enterprise will be 
Rnally secured here, as elsewhere. 


If'or^ in SiiJh'm. 

Mi-ianwhile tlie whole interoat uf the exjieniiiiaUi 
mannfacture centres in the Sikkim planUttions 
more enligbtenetl \-iews have ppevailei during w* 
years, and where the true object of chineliona cnluiv 
tioQ is understooil and appreciated. 

Labours of Mr. Hume. 



nortance of supplying the people of India with a 
pfebrifuge liaa been fiilly realised by tbose who 
Md control of the Sikkim plantations. BroaU 
ftlightened views have superseded minute and 
1^ calculations as to prices current, and trade 
t^ This hopeful result was due in no small degree 
e action of Mr. A. 0. Hume, C.B., tlie Secretary 
B Government of India in the Department of 
lue, Agriculture, and Commerce, 
d Mayo saw the necessity for great and general 
vement iu the agriculture of India, and he 
led to effect tliis through the machinery of a 
iBp-General, or at least of a Department of 
His statesmanlike design, so fraught 
mefit to India, was thwarted by the ludia Office, 
rtment was funned, but it was overloaded with 
nnoonnecled mth agriculture, and was made al- 
werless for good. Mr, Hume worked hard and 
igly, bringing his great agricultural kn<iwle<lge 
|oD current questions; and, among nther subjects. 
& cultivation received his careful attention. 

4i8 ytews of Mr. Hvme. 

Mr. Hume saw that two millions of Her MajestVs 
subjects were annually dying in India of low nialarioia 
fevers, of wliich fully half might be saved if we could 
put the chinchona febrifuge retail into every pdmofti 
shop at 1 rupee per ounce. He calculated that IM 
tons a year at least should be forthcoming, or, on ui 
average, 100 grains per man. Mr. Hume felt strongly 
on the subject, because he had had great practicsi 
experience of malarious fevers ; because he had proved, 
in thousands of cases, that the chinchona febrifuge 
real remedy ; and because we had triumphed over 
cultivation difficulty, and could, at comparatively very 
moderate cost, ensure in ten years a bark crop sufficient 
to produce the ten tons reijuired. He felt that nothing 
stood between us and the saving of countless multitudes 
from death, or grievous suffering, but an economical 
process of manufacture ; and that, rightly considered, 
this is infinitely more important than any other 
question before the Government of India. It involves 
simply the possible saving of a million lives and of mi 
immensity of suffering such as few can adequately 
realise. He urged that nothing should be allowed to 
come in the way of this great work, that it should not 
be paltered with, but that it should be taken in hand at 
once, in the very best way that could be discovered, and. 
with the ablest instruments money and trouble could 

The advocacy of the true objecta of the enterprise 
from such a quarter was most opportune. It led to 
necessary measures, with a view to the manufacture of 

Kt iiT. Appointment of Mr. Wood. 429 

. 1 cheap preparation in the Sikkim plantations. There 
,tr« ob%"ious advantages in the adoption of this course. 
The freight of, the bark to Europe is saved, as well as 
the manufacturer's profit, and the return freight. On 
the otlicr hand, there is the coat of materials for the 
manufacture, which can all he procured in India. 

The object of eventually supplying the febrifuge 
direct from the plantations ought never to be lost sight 
of, and must he recognised as the hnal aim to be 
constantly kept in view. If our efforts fail now, they 
roust bo repeated until they succeed. If, after all, a 
cheap fumi of the febrifuge can be more economically 
procured from England at this moment, it must be so 
procured while such an abnormal state of things con- 
tinues. But the final aim must be the direct supply of 
this necessary of life to the millions of India, from the 
plantations in India. 

In June 1873 Mr. C. H. Wood, a scientific analytical 
chemist, who had also had charge of the laboratory and 
manufacturing department of a large firm of wholesale 
druggists, was appointed quinologist to the Government 
India, for service in tlie chincliona plantations of 
iisJi Sikkim. In the inatracUons which I drew up 
Mr. Wood's (guidance, I impressed upon ^hn that his 
principal duty waa to discover the beat and cheapest 
form in which an efficient febrifuge can be extracted 
fti>m the chinchona hark, and to superintend the 
manufacture of such febrifuge on a largu scale. I 
explained that he would be exj^cted to conduct 
knalyses of bark, with a view of putting the cultivation 




of chinchoDS fiQ a really sound utui scientiiic I 
Such analyaes were to be directal to the disGoro^J 
tiie kind of bark which naturally yields most 8 
in the climate of Sikkini, at what seasons, and v 
vhat conditions of soil, expoeare, elevadcHi, terapc 
and cultivation. 

Mr. Wood arrived at Calcntta in October 1873, ■ 
proceeded to liungbi, where a bungalow was fitted i 
as a chemical laborator}'. His first report was fl 
mitted in August 1874. He analysed specimens of Q 
netirubra from different elevations, finding a yiddd 
total alkaloids of from 6 to 8 per cent. ; and he a 
detected, in all of them, the presence of a new alkal 
called qinnamtTU, which had recently lieen discover 
by Dr. Hesse, and which only occurs in Sikkim bark ' 
The C. Calisaija bark has since yielded a very lar^'i' 
jicrcentage of quinine. The C. micraiUka trees yieldcl 
4'8 per cent of alkaloids. As regards manufacture, 
Mr. Wood decided upon adopting the method advo- 
cated by I>r. De Vrij.* The general nature of the pro- 
cess is to exhaust the dry bark by successive treatmei 
with dilute bydrocldoric acid, and to precipitate 
resulting liquor with an excess of caustic soda, 
precipitated alkaloids are collected in filters, washed 
dried and powdered. This product is then dissolved lull 

* Dr. De Vrg mitiJe the saggeatinn that tLe bark shonld be worked 
up iolo a Tcbrifuge mediciae on Ihe apot, io a letter to the Uniler- 
SeoreMr; nl Stale fur India, dated October 30th, 1S72. He taid. *' For 
Ihis niaiiubctaiG notbiuK is wanted but water, bydiortiloiict acid, and _ 
camlic soda; nnd. bj their judicious application, 1000 Ibi. of g 
l)ark wilt jield fram 15 lu \G lbs. of mixed uikaloida." See Bl« 
Book IV. p. 126. 

British Sikkim 


kquantity of acid just sufficient to take up the alkaloids. 

Htered from some insoluble colouring matter, and the 

(dution again precipitated. After washing, drying, and 

binding, a fine white powder is obtained, wliich, how- 

sr, acquires a slight buff tint by keeping. It never 

Mutinates in any way, even in the trying climate of 

jdia. It is freely soluble in weak acids, and is readily 

I up by lemon-juice, wluch constitutes a pleasant 

mde for its administration. 

lie mannfacluring operations in the Sikkim factory 
e oommencetl in 1875. The method recommended 
slf for its economy, JTo fuel is wanted, except what 
Ly bo required to dry the alkaloid obtained ; no 
wnsive machinery is involved, the only plant needed 
»me wooden tubs and calico filters ; the ingredients 
I acid and caustic soda, and no skilled labour i» 

Dp to the end of 1876 the yield of dry bark of C. 

~~swidrvbfa had been 321,236 Iba. Tlie yield for 187B 

dune was 211,931 lbs. For 1878 it was 344,225 Iba. 

The crop is taken partly by coppicing and partly 

^^ff uprooting. The plantations are now capable of 

^Kfelding 366,000 lbs. of dry bark annually, containing 

^^^ ftverage of 4 per cent, of total alkaloids. Tlie 

^HtBt of growing 1 lb. uf liark, including interest on 

Hpp<*»l is bd. 

The inanufactiire amounted to 48 lbs. of the febrifuge 
in 1875. to 1940 lbs. in 1876. to 3750 lbs. iu 1877, to 
_ 5612 lbs. ill 1878. and to 7007 lbs. in 1879. Tlie cost 
f production is lis. 3 per lb. 

It is calculated by Mr. Wood that, by tbe 
process at present adopted, about lO.OUO 
chincliona febrifuge or qvinetum' can be 

During 1879, 128,000 ounces of this pradoct 
disposed of. This, at 1 rnpee an ounce, cost £12; 
Tbe same quantity of quinine, at 12«. an ounce |iu 
present price), would have cost £7C,800 ; a clear eavag 
of £64,000. 

The Bikkini q^uinetum has been snbmittetl to a csn- 
ful trial by the physicians attached to the CalcvtU 
hospitals, and bos also been tried in the Burdwan fer* 
with rfreat success, Tbe conclusion of tbe Suigtmn- 
General of the Indian Medical Department, on Mjf 
16th, 1877, was that in the qvinctvm "we jiossc-i ' 
remedy i>erfectly suitable in the treatment (jf .-'■ 
enormously large percentage of the ordinary ici'.' 
mittent fever met within the autumnal sea.'jon thmnjih 
out tlie Presidency." Consequently, he directed li- 
only one-quarter of tlie usual indent for (jidnine sliu 
be drawn, and that the remaining three-fourths sin i 
be made up with the Sikkim chinchona febrifuge, 
strongly recommende<l that a similar rule shoiOd 
adopted for the indents of all Government dispemtanm 
Out of lai'J cases, 1752 or 96 per cent, were 

* Dr. De Vrij hoa giveo il tlie nnme of quinetiim. The 
etufn, ia Latin, deuutea » Folla<tioii. Arhorrtum is a oollta 
trec-s, Fiitann nf pines, Qniitrlvm simBarl^ deBtgiuilee a oolkii^M_ 
ijuina ulkntoiila. 

t Tbia recannnendDtlcin wu ndoptcd iu an order of Uie GurusBrf 
Of Indi*. dated June 12th, 1878. 

Efficacy of Qnineium. 433 

kver&ge time of under tliree daya. with avemg« doses 

iDting in all to 46 jjniins for each case.' 
L complaint was made that tlie qxiiiutnm had the 
of producing nausea, but it was found, by 
tnenla conducted at the Hague by Dr. van 
*ienhoven, at the request of Dr. De Vrij, that, if 
Administered in doses not exceeding 10 grains (which 
'Xjcludes two grains of an amorphous alkaloid pro- 
^dacing the nausea), it lias no unpleasant effect. It is 
easy to remove the nauseating principle from the 
ii'ifutuin, but this amorphous alkaloid is itself a 
] .(/rfect febrifuge, it is thoroughly innocuous if not 
udminiatered in too large doses, and therefore Dr. De 
Vrij was of opinion that it is not desirable to increase 
the expense of production by eliminating it. 

Dr. Vinkhuizen, the physician to His Majesty the 
King of the Netherlands, has administered quinftum, and 
coold oltaerve no difference between its action and that 
of quinine ; and Mr. Wliiffen now manufactures the 
quin^itim extensively for use in England. 

There are many points to be decided, and matters of 
'ietail to lie worked out by the light of experience. 
Hut eventually tlie great object will be fully attained. 
A good beginning has been made in Sikkini, thanks to 
Uie powerful intervention of Mr. Hume, to the zeal and 
alnlity of Dr. King, and to the scientific skill and 
resoorce of Mr. Wood. We now see a febrifuge, 
manufactured in India, supplied to the people at a cost 
of one rupee per ounce, and the same policy, con- 
* DoBC, three to five graini. 

2 V 

434 Mamtfacture of ike FkM/iigt. a. « 

tiDnomly followed, will secore an ineadiualjle anil -^ 
maoeDt ble«mg fur the vast moltitade uf snSi-ivrs. 

Mr. Wotti returned to England in ScpwmWj 1879, 
hat hifl nietliod of maoufactore is so simple that 
carried on with |wrfwt success by the natives, who \axt 
been trained by bim under the supervision of 
gardener at the piantationa. 

The next step will be to establish a factory, on « 
suitable scale, in the most advantageous positioQ tliil 
can be found in India ; for the purpose of mantt- 
(acturing crystallised sulphates of the febrifuge alkaludl 
ixota C. swxirvlrra and C. micrantha barks, and sulpbatB 
of quinine from tlie C. Calieaya bark. The auiorphoW 
alkaloids and all impurities will be eliminated. TliB 
crystallised sulphate will be sold at the same price ti 
the present quimtitm, and will thus be brought well 
within the means of all classes of the people, wliile the 
quinine will be sold at market prices and will helj 
cover the expenses. The factory will be utilised 
preparing other things required by the medical depart- 
ment, so tbat general economy may be promoted ani 
good interest paid on the capital outlay. 

This measure will, if steadily and continuously per- 
severed in, be the means of permanently securing thft 
great objects for the attainment of which I introduced' 
the cultivation of Peruvian bark into India. 

Demand for Quinine. 



\ is a gratifying incident connected with the intro- 
Etion of cliinchona cultivation into India that it 
raid be a complete financial snccesa. The object of 
I introduction was to bring a chinchona febrifuge 
^in the reach of the mass of the people. If it had 
t half a million to acconiplifih this object, the money 
mid have been well sjient. But it has not only cost 
[, it is a mo8t profitable and remunerative public 
■rlc. Its collateral reanlts have been the repayment 
r all the sums expended upon it with interest, the 
naltaation of a large annual profit to the State, the 
establishment of a valuable product in India, the 
addition of a fresh means of profit to the resources of 
Ceylon, and the creation of a new and important sonrce 
of bark supply for the Euroj)ean markBts. 

The great demand for quinine in India shows how 
seriooa the iiuestion of bark supply was becoming. 
During the eight years from 1867 to 1875 the quantity 
of quinine sent to Bengal in compliance with Government 
indents was 3»,345 lbs., worth £11C,707; to Madras, 
5764 Ibe., worth £20,174; and to Bombay, 72o2 lbs., 
worth £26,382 ; a total for all India of 46,364 Ibe,,^ 
2 P 2 

wortli £102,263. The yearly demand was, oii an avciagt. 
5151 lbs. of quinine at an annual" cost of jE18,IWfl, 
Beaidea the fJovemment indents, 5000 lbs. of quioini; 
are annually imported ipto India; bo that tlie wholt 
demand is 10,000 lbs. a year, worth about £40,000. 

The introduction of chincliona cultivation and the 
manufaeture of the febrifuge in India, will, in a fev 
years, effect a sensible reduction in these figures, while 
the febrifuge will be brought within the reach of 
multitudes who now need, but cannot get it. 

If we turn to the aonrcea of bark supply, other than 
the East Indie.i, we find that they are five in number. 
Of late years, by far the mo.'it important lias beeB 
the Kepublic of Colombia, which furnishes, in veiy 
large quantities, the barks known in commerce as 
" Soft Col(mibi(in," " New Grenadian," and " Pitatfo." 
From 1875 to 1880 the quantity of these barks which 
reached the London market was 16,778,800 lbs. 
During the last few years the quantity of Colombian 
bark has increased from 2,000,000 lbs. in 1877, to 
4,200.000 in 1878. 5,700,000 in 1879, and 6,909.8GO 
in 1880. 

The second source is from the Pernvian ports of 
Arica and Moll'endo, being the product of Bolivian 
forests. The total export of bark from MoUendo, in 
1878, was 1,375,200 lbs. The latest prices were 2s. to 
4s. 6rf, From June 1879 to .Time 1880 the quantity of 
Calisaya bark, from South America, that was sold in 
the London market, was 512,200 lbs. 

The third source la from the ports of Payta and 

from South America. 


Guayaquil, consisting of crown and ashy crown bark 
from the Loxa and adjacent forests. The average of 
the last five years has been 270,000 lbs. a year ; but m 
the year 1879-1880 the quantity sold in the London 
market was 332,640 lbs. It fetches from la. to 2«. M. 

Tlie reruvian port of Pocasmayu is the fourth source 
whence the bark is shipped, which is known in the 
trade as " Mossy Lima " — probably from the forests of 
Huanuco and Huamalies. In five years, 804,020 lbs. of 
" Mossy Lima " have arrived. In the lost year (1879— 
1880) the (|uantity was 78,190 lbs. It fetches very low 
prices, from 6rf. to lit/. 

Lastly, a small quantity of red bark comes from 
Guayaquil, fetching prices up to 10s. a lb. In 1879— 
1880, the quantity that arrived was 36,000 lbs.* 

The whole quantity of bark from South America, in 
the London market, from June 1879 to June 1880, 
was: — 

From Coloiubia .... 6,002,330 Iba. 

Crown nnd Ashj Crown 
" Hcaa; Lima" 
Bed Burk 

512.200 , 
332.640 , 

78,190 , 

Kom Colombia 6,002,330 lbs., and from all other 
South American sources 959,030 Ibs.t 

■ Id 18T8 the tntAl export ot buk fram Gosysqail unoiuitsd to 
1388,000 Ibi.. worth iSii.fOO. Of tbli qaontitj 914,000 lU. went lo 
Englud. 141,200 Ibi. lo Uii- rwt of Kimip«. ftnJ S24.300 ItM. to the 
Unilwl State*. 

t ScNDBortbe Ponimn botk li brought down Ibo riTer Amiuuin »nd 
cxpurled fiviu Pari. The qoftntity. by (bit route, wu Wl tons in 1H73, 
(4 in 18TS. ud 50 \\\ 1»T6, wortb i:i2;i00. 

438 Bark Supply from India. 

Let na now see what place the East Imlian laib 
Uke in the Loodoii market. In 1868 a small quauQEj 
of GovenuoBnt bark wns sold for £2815. In 1871 
bark began to cume from Iii<lia in considemble quo- 
tides, and the arrivals have steailily inrreaaed. 
that jeor the Gtivemment bark fetched £333 8s. 61I U 
1873 as much as 23,641 lbs. were sold for£i29 13i.5rf 
In 1878-79 the Government bark sales showed » 
profit of £35,293. From June 1879 to June 
the Government Nilgiri plantations sent 207,400 Ita. 
of bark to the London market. In the same peiiol 
the private plantations of the Nilgiris and Wainad sent 
74.800 lbs., the Sikkim plantations 271,300 Iba, vA 
Ceylon 289.160. Some of the bark, both fttMa tta 
Nilgiris and Sikkim, fetched over 10s. a lb. Java sent 
70.088 lbs. to Europe. 

Including the 329,400 Iba. used in the Sikkitt 
factory, the yield of Peruvian bark from India and 
Ceylon was, in 1879-80. I,172,0fi0 lbs. The sources of 
sjipply of bark to the London market, fix)m all parts of 
tlie world, stand in the following order 

Oolombik .... 

India uid CejloD .... 

Booth America (exocpt ColombU) . 95^,030 ,. 

J*™* 70,088 , 

Jnmaim .... abgut 21,140 , 

Thus the East Indian source of supply is now the' 
most important next to Colombia, and stands second 
as regards ijuantity. But as regards quality, it ia by 
far the most important of all. In 1877 some renewed 

• To the Arostercii 

Financial ResJilis. 439 

'S^jfieinalis bark from the Kilgiri plantations vas sold at 
LSs. 8rf. per lb., the highest price ever obtained. In 
T(uiuar7 1879 some of the East Indian renewed crown 
bark, from Mr. Rohde'a plantation, sold at 9s. If^, 
per lb., and in the following March some lots sold at 
1-fe. 1(/. per lb, In March 1879 Government barks 
from the Nilgiris sold at lis. lOrf. per lb.; and in 
Jane 1880 Calisaya bark from .Sikkiiu fetcheii 10s. lOrf. 
In 1880, also, a small parcel of Ceylon bark was sold 
at 10s. per lb. South American barks seldom attain 
to such prices.* 

At the same time Indian chinchona cultivation has 
been the main cause of tlie manufacture of a cheap 
form of the febrifuge in Europe, and has thus been 
productive of immense benefit to the civilised world. 
The conclusion of the Medical Commissions in 1866, 
with regard to the almost equal efficacy of the four 
chiocliona alkaloids, led to their production in an 
inexpensive shape. Mr, WliifTen, of the Battersea 
Quiniue Works, now manufactures qtiiiutwrn, a prepara- 
tion containing the pure alkaloids of East India rod 
bark, in lo:^ quantities, and it is coming into use in 
our hospitals. 

The result of the sales of bark from the Government 
chinchona plantations on tlie Nilgiri Hills is that a sum 
ftf £173,046 has been realised. The total cost of the 
! enterprise from the commencement, including 

« BolirianB bare qaitc roouaU^ bv^tiii to rultivalo CUlnyk 
id In 1880 Ulaear. Jenkin otid PLllli[n «tld wiiiie cnltlirkl«d 
kf a quill l«rk TrDiu IS-ilivia at Hi. till, per tb. 



intereot, waa £129.628 in 1876. By Uie vw: 
allowing for charges during intervening years, il ■ 
t« be debited against the enterprise was only ^^JS.itii 
In 1880 the whole capital account had been pai'l off 
witli interest, and the plantations began to yield a eleu 
annual profit. 

It is, therefore, true of the chincbona enterprise thU, 
as a mere commercial speculation, it has paid off tie 
whole outlay, including introduction of the plonU, 
cultivation, and interest; and has become a complete 
financial succeas. Tliis was not my object. It is 
merely a gratifying incident, and a good test of efRcieot 
work. The true result is that great harvests ot 
Peruvian bark are annually gathered in British India, 
and that the febrifuge has been brought within the 
reach of the mass of the people.* 

* It has been «ii^^Bted by a writer iu the Pall MaU GaitUt o( 
September 18. 1880, tb»t Obiua will herokfter be among tlie Uigot 
and moit oonalaot cuitumen Tat cbeep febrifu([e alkaloiila from BritUh 
India. From the vnBt trade of oountrj in CtiioB wbere riceiacnltJTated, 
foTer is never mbaeiiL Opiam U now emplujed hb Ihu medioiae 
MBicBt to be bod uiil the ulii^apebt. Ifpliinchnou Blkalnida could eonis 
into oiunpetilioQ with opiuin, and obtain tlie prerorenoo by theic lowsr 
price, the inuaenae anperiority of ohioehotia orer opium as a febrifap 
would produce a revotution in the CLineae oonsuiuptinn of the two 
ilruga. By tUl* proccaa u aolation would be found fni the dangers and 
nnoniUintieaof the large opium revenue of India, and for the perplexing 
moral quoitioDS ounnccted with iL 


Great Demand for Caoutchouc. 441 



In 1870 I came to the conclusion that it was necessary 
to do for tlie india-nibber or caoutchouc -yielding trees 
what had already l)een done with such happy results 
for the chinchona trees. The area of yield of caout- 
chouc is far more extensive than that of febrifuge barb- 
While the trees yielding the febrifuge alkaloids only 
wild on the slopes of tlie Andes, and all belong to 
le genua, the caoutchouc-yielding trees are of several 
genera, and are found in the forests of India, the 
Eastern Archipelago, Africa, Madagascar, Mexico, and 
Nicaragua, as well as in South America. But the 
same danger threatens the one product as ha<l 
threat4>ned the other. Owing to tlie enormous demand 
for caoutchouc, the most reckless felling is now going 
on in all the tropical forests which yield tliis valuable 
product. Tlie time has come when plantations must be 
" cao\itcbouc-yi elding trees, in oixior to prevent 


442 Uses of CaoHhkouc. 

their eventual destruction, and to provide for o |» 
inanent supply. 

The increase in the demand for india-nibberis ?sy 
remarkable, and the enormous mimlier uf naea to whid 
this pro<hict is now put. renders the consideratioQ tf 
measures for its cultivation, and for securing tta 
permanency of an adequate supply, a question of gieil 
moment. In 1830 only 464 ewt. of india-rubber woe 
imported into this country. In 1840 the quantity bad 
increased to 6640 ewt. ; and in 1846 the duty oa 
india-nibber of \s. per ewt. was repealed. In 1857 tbt 
quantity had further increased to 22,000 ewt. ; and 
1874 there were 129,163 ewt, imported into thil 
country, wortli £1,326,605. In 1878 the quantity 
importeil into England was 149,724 ewt, worth' 
£1,313,209. Caoutchouc is now iised for an infinit« 
number of purposes. Wherever steam-power is 
ployed, either on shore or afloat, it is impossible to do 
without india-rubber. It is required as packing for tha 
piston-rods and glands of the engines, valves for tha 
pumps, washers for making joints, belting for driving. 
the shafting, hose and tubing for conveying steam anct 
water, buffer-springs for railway carriages, and many 
other such purposes too numerous to mention. Whan 
it is considered that every steam vessel afloat, every 
railway train, and every factory on shore employing 
steam-power, must of necessity use india-rubber, it 
hardly possible to overrate the importance of securing 
a permanent supply, in connection with the industry of 
the world. 

Uses of Caoutchouc. 


Tor purposes connecteti with telegraphy this product 

) now extensively used. It is eraployeJ as the 

alating mnterial for eubmarine, aTibtermnean, and 

1 cables. In the hard form of ebonite it is em- 

I for insulators to cany the iron wire along the 

as well as for battery cells, for the electro- 

[netic coils, and in many parts of telegraphic 

"uments in place of the more expensive article, 

India-rubber is also used for waterproof 

ing, carriage aprons, fishing stockings, diving 

, water and air beds and cushions, door mats, 

sheets in camping out, and tuliing. India- 

r elastic throad ia lai^ly used in the form of 

by the Leicester, Derby, and Nottingham 

mufacturers. India-rubber is necessary, too, for life- 

ing apparatus, for surgical instruments and appli- 

and for hose, gas-tubing, and innumerable 

tic purposes, including door-springs, and, just 

a great many rings for the rinking skates. 

lite — which is the form of india-rubber vulcanised 

I by the addition of extra aulpliur, so that it can be 

J in a lathe and made into articles of any form or 

— is used very estensively for combs, photographic 

I and trays, syringes, taps and tubing for aquaria, 

1 in chemical works. 

1 being the infinity of purposes which give rise to 
S demand, it will easily be understood how liravely 
b work of destruction is being carried on. In British 
dia there is an indigenous caoutchouc-yielding tree, 
tuch should be brought under cultivation on the syot. 

444 Sources of Caoutektmc Supply, 

But there are other kinds in other parts of the valid, 
and it hecame necessary, in the iirst place, to ascataii 
wliether they are superior to the caoutchouc in British 
India ; for, if so, their introduction \^'otild needs be ai 
essential part of any achemefor initiating the cnlti™tioiL 

The caoutchouc-yielding trees grow in a zone on 
each side of tlie equator, encircling the globe, but If 
far the richest and best source of supply is in Sanlh 
America. It was M de la Condamine, tlie leader of 
the expedition to measure an arc of the meridian neu 
Quito, who first gave an accurate description rf 
caoutchouc, and of the tree from which it ia procured. 
Tlie tree is the Siphonia or Hemea, which grows in aU 
parts of the basin of the Amazon, and yields Uw 
Brazilian caoutchouc. This is the best and most 
abundant, and is kno^\'u as Pari india-rubber. The 
Heeea ia a euphorbiaceoua tree. 

On the western aide of the equatorial region of South 
America, in Ecua^lor and Colombia, on the isthmiil 
of Panama, Central America, and Mexico, the india- 
rubber tree belongs to the Castilloa genua, so named 
after Don Juan del Castillo, a Spanish botanist, who 
died in Mexico in 1793. The native name of the tree 
in Mexico is wlS. The Castiiloam belong to the family 
of Artocarpaetir:, of which the bread fruit and jacir tree, 
and the anjdi of India, are members. It ia worthy of 
note that the Artoearpacew are closely allied to the 
Moraeeec, the fig tribe, to which the caoutchouc trees of 
India belong. Tlie Bevms and Castilloas are the india- 
rubber trees of the New World. 

Cuitivaiion of Fzcus Elastica, 445 

India the Ficxis elastka, a tree so named hy 
Boxbnrgh in 1810, which yields caoutchouc, is 
in the forests which border the valley of the 
laputra, in the province of Assam. The family 
I Apoci/nacets inchides the other caontchouc-j-ielcling 
r Asia and the eastern islands — the Chavannetria 
British Burma, the Urctda of Borneo, and the Vahea 
Madagascar, as well as the Latulolphicts, which 
duce the caoutchouc of Africa. 
1 commencing caoutchouc cultivation in India, it 
, in the iirst place necessary to take stock of all 
ting knowledge on the subject, and in the second 
e to ascertain whether any of the other kinds were 
Bically superior to the Ficus tiastica, because if 
1 proved to be the case, their cultivation in India 
old also be desirable. 
' With these objects in view, I intrusted the duty 
of making the necessary researches and investigations 
to Mr. J. Collins, formerly curator of the Museum of 
the Pharmaceutical Society, who drew up a very able 
and exhaustive report on the subject in 1872. The 
conclusions then arrived at were that the establishment 
of plantations of Ficus elastica should at once be under- 
taken in Assam ; but that the caoutchouc from the 
Btveaa and CaslUloaa of South America was superior to 
that of the Ficus, and that consequently those trees 
should be introduced into British India. 

The first step, therefore, was to commence the 
cultivation of the native Indian caoutchouc tree, which 
is found in the forests along the northern and eastern 

446 Cultivation of FicHs Elastiea 

bouutkries of Assam, as well as in the low \-alleTS rf 
the Xaga and Jaintia hills to the soutli. Tlie iW 
elaalka, like tlie banyan and otlier trees of the au» 
genus, has aerial roots, and is of an epiphytical hibit 
When wild in the forests it oft«n commences its growik 
in the fork of another tree, which it eventually 0T«^ 
shadows and destroys. It grows to a great siw, »aA 
one tree planted at Tezpur in Assam, 36 years &g(L ii 
112 feet high, thu diameter of the crown measares 140 
feet, the cireuniference of tlie central mass of a&iil 
roots surrounding the stem is 70 feet, and it has ovai 
hundred aerial roots, the largest of which measures ox 
feet in girth. Tlie fonssts containing Ficm daMiea aw 
excessively moist in the rainy season, and they remuB 
moist all through the dry season with a temperature of 
about 98° in the shaiie. The trees thrive best under 
conditions of excessive moisture and great heat, but 
with good drainage. 

Hitlierto the caoutchouc has l>een collected in Assain 
by men of the wild tribes, who cut every part of the 
tree they can get at, and allow the milk to flow into 
holes made in the ground. The collectors are en- 
couraged to obtain the largest possible quantity durii^ 
the shortest possible time, without any regard to future 
supplies. This has led to the most outrageous whole- 
sale destruction of these valuable trees, by felling them 
so as to render the operation of tapping more con- 
venient. Messrs, Martin and Ricliie. who had a lease of 
the caoutchouc yield at Tezpur, are said to have given 
it up before their time expired, because the supply 

in British India. 447 

diminiabeJ so much that tlieir buaineas was nu longer 

So that no improvement of the yield can be expected 
from private enterprise, except at the risk of exhausting 
ihe remaining sources of supply ; and it is consequently 
necessary to place the collection of caoutchouc iu 
Afiaam under the control of public officers who have an 
interest in the protection and improvement of the 
forests ; and to commence the formation of plantations 
of Ficv* elastica on a large scale, and in accordance 
with a well-considered plan. Dr. Brandis, Inspector- 
General of Forests iu India, strongly urged the 
necessity of these measures in 1872 ; and good progrefls 
has since been made, under the superintendence of Mr. 
dnsta^' Mann, the Conservator of Forests in Assam. 

The tirat attempts, which were started in July 1873 

in the Darjiling Terai and in the Goalpam district of 

Assam, were failures, but in Jidy 1874 Mr. Gustav 

Mtonp took charge of the experiment with very satis- 

^■Mory results. Three plantations have l>een formed. 

^Mne. on the right bank of the river Kulal. in the 

Kmnrap district of Assam, consisted of 95 acres in 

1879, on which were 2895 plants. Anollier is at 

Cliunluar, at the foot of the Himalayas, 13 miles north 

of Tezpur, in the Darrang district of Assam, where 

there were 685 acres under cultivation in 1879, the 

growth of the trees being excellent and most vigorous. 

The third plantation is at Bamnni, also near Tezpur. 

44S Cuitivatitnt of Funs Miastita. 

Here there wwe 8 acres plunted with 459 trees ia 1871; 
hnt the climate is too dr>'. No artificial sliade is 
given, and the youug trees iire hoaJtlty and vigoim. 
Experiments arc in course of trial, to plant the /& 
elastica in strongly made baskets placed in the foija 
trees, and on grass lands, as well as in the regnlu^ 
pre]jared heds. The trees may be tapped at the age 
25 yuars. After 50 years they will yield 40 lis. 
caoutchouc every thinl year, worth £3 -it. In Cacbd 
the india-rubber tree was discovered in 1862, and?' 
cwt were collected, the yield being increased to I5M 
cwt in 1863. The yield from the firet tapjiing is 35 H 
40 lbs. The tree is then untouched for tlave or font 
years, and the second tapping yields much less. liL 
Edgar reports that the Cachar forests would yield 20W 
cwt. annually. In 1879 the quantity of caoatchoU 
exported from India was 10,033 cwt., valued at aboul 
£61,685* Besides extending the cultivation of thi 
trees, the officers in cliarge of the plantations will 
carefully investigate all such questions as the mort 
favourable time of the year for tapping, and the best 
methods for collecting and prepariug the caoutchouo. 

* Caoutobouc exported fW>ni Britiih ladU during tbe tait i 
^ ' 1871— 16,837 cwt vftloed ot £117,n5 

1875— 19,B03 .. 


1876—15.258 „ 

„ i"97,861 

1877-13,308 „ 


1878—13.794 „ 


1879—10,033 „ 


The Burmese India-rubber Tree. 449 

I experimental cultivation of the Ficv^ dastica has 
I been satisfactorily commenced in India, under the 
i superintendence of Mr. Gustav Mann. 

r caoutchouc-yielding plant helonging to the 

iice<r has recently been discovered in British 

, and reported upon by Mr. Strettell of the 

; Department. It is the Cliavanncsia 

jeper which it has hitherto been the object of 

wters to extirjmte, as injuring the growth of the 

Some of these creepers,- growing near 

tagoon, have a girth of 18 inches round the stem, 

e the cro^ii covers an area of 200 square feet, 

, supposed age of five years. It may be pro- 

[ either from seeds or cuttings ; and instruc- 

r its cultivation have recently been published 

1 Indian Agrkuiturist. The estimated result of 

lavftting trees 30 feet apart over an area of 400 

a in all, 19,200 creepers, is that there will be an 

. yield of 19,200 viss (a visa is about 3J lbs.). 

1 at lis. 200 per 100 tixs, will give Rs. 38,400 u 

After the first year, the coat of cultivation will 

Y slight, and the profits nill begin to come iu 

r seven years. 

I regards the cultivation of indigenous kinds of 
ft-yieldiug trees in British India, it will thus 
. the initiatory steps have already been 
The second, and not the least important part 
undertaking, is the introduction of plants 
g a better kind of caoutchouc, from other parts 
fforld, but especially from Soutli America. 

2 a 

45© The Castilha Trees. 

The moat valualile trees, and those which now yieU 
by far the largest quaatity of india-ruhber, are da. 
Heveas of the Amazon valley, called Para, from tk 
port of shipment. We learn from Keller that, durii$< 
the last few years, both the quantity and the value of 
india-rubber exported from Para have been steadily 
increasing. In 1874 England received 5fi,580 c»-t8, o( 
Brazilian caoutchouc, worth £720,000 ; the avert^e price 
being 2a, Gd. to 3«. a lb. Next to the Para rubber 
value and yield, comes that obtained from the Cast\ 
trees, which grow over a much wider area of Soutli 
and Central America. The quantity of wW or CastiUm 
caoutchouc imported into England in 1874 was 24,28fi 
cwts., worth £287,413, at 2s. a lb. Thus out of the 
whole import of 129,263 cwts!, 70,866 come from Soutli 
America. i 

The remaining 38,775 cwta. are divided among British 
India, Borneo (1«. M. a lb.), Africa (Is. bd. a lb.), and 
Madagascar (2k. 3rf. a lb.) But the South American 
source of supply is, beyond comparison, the most valu- 
able, and the cultivation of CastUloa and Hevta trees in 
India is an important part of the undertaking. , 

Several reasons led me to the deciaion-that a coUec- 
tion of the CastUloa seeds should first be obtained. Al 
the CastUloas grow over a much more extensive ami 
than the Hcvcaa, where tliere is a greater variety of soil' 
and climate, it is more certain that suitable sites for 
their ciiltivation would be found in India and Burma,, 
They belong, too, to the Artomrpa-cea; wliich are so. 
well represented in India, especially on the Malal^v* 

Castilloa Trees 


and Travancor coasts, by the jack trees, and the a'njdi, 
of wliich wood all the cauoes are built. 

The Cuntillva trees flourish in all the equatorial 
forests on the west coast of South America, and in 
1878 the quantity of iniiia-rubl>er exported from 
Guayaquil was 6561 cwta., worth £22,963." The trees 
also abound all over the isthmus of I>arien, where 
ihey are being destroyed moat recklessly, in Central 
America.t and in the southern states of Mexico. In 
Ecuador the india-rubber is called here; in Mexico and 
Central America the Aztec word it/e is used. 

The trees, which are the giants of equatorial Ameri- 
can forests, l)elong to two species, the Castilloa dasttca, 
and that which Mr. Collins lias named CasiUloa Mark- 
hamiana. They thrive in dense steaming and warm 
forests, and are particularly abundant in the valley of 
the San Juan de Nicaragua, where it rains for nine 
months in the year. In Nicaragua the yield is said to 
be about 1 0,000 cwts., giving employment to (JOO huirros 
or collectors. From Carthagena, Guayaquil, Panama, 
and Vera Cruz, are exported supplies of «/e india- 
rubber, the greater part of which goes to the United 
States ; but it baa been seen that as many as 24,286 
cwta. arrive in tliia country. 

Ttiu collection of Caatilloa plants for introduction 
into India was a very difficult service, for Uie trees 

* TliU *bowa & Ifttgo blliog olT. Ici 1R73 it wu 16,(>:I5 quibUJi, 
>D>l'iii 1^1. 10,890 quiDt&ls, In IKTii it kgnin ro«e to 10,1S8. 
t fnun 6*a Jo*£ do Coata Rioo, 78.2!II Iba. ol milis-rubbcr wen 
i In 18TK. Tho qiinntity is uut (fiven for OuntunuaH, but tbu 

»i«atale>lM$lS40m ISTS. 

451 -''^''- Cross's Expedition 

grow io wild and unhealthy forests, with do means ot 
tranait, and no facilities of any kind. In Mr. Croaa I 
found a man n'ith till the requisto qua1i6caliouB foT 
undertaking it. He is an excellent ^rardener, po9B@s«e<i 
of great enerj^ and determination, combined with judg- 
ment, is acquainted witli the language, aiid has W 
much experience in South American travelling. K« 
better man could be found to execute the difQcult tasl: 
of obtaining a supply of CastiUoa plants, and conveyin;; 
them in a healthy state from their native forests to tlit 
gardens at Kew. 

Mr, Robert Cross left England on the 2nd of May. 
1875, and reached Panama on the 26th of the same 
month, my instructions to liim being to endeavour to 
make the collection on the isthmus. He found that 
great destruction was going on among the uli trees in 
all parts of the Darien isthmus, the native collectors 
cutting down the trees in order to tap them more 
easily, aa is the case in the Assam forests. After ob- 
taining all the information that could be procured ii 
I'anama, Mr. Croas determined to select tlie forests a 
die banks of one of the large tributaries of the rivi 
Chagres aa the base of his operations. 

He ascended the Chagres river in a canoe, and tlUl 
made a journey on foot through the dense forest, inl 
the heart of the vie district. He found the CastUh 
saplings growing on the banks of streams, with the 
roots often running down to the edge of the 
They abound in rich soil along the base of the hi] 
and are also met witb on the summits of ridges ; evei 

to colled Castilloa Plants. 


, except in swampy ground. The trees, which 
[oved to be of the species named by Mr. CoUins 
utilloa Markhaviiana, are from 160 to 180 feet lugh, 
I a diameter of 5 feet, and a yield of 100 lbs. of 
a-rubber. The wood is spongy and soft, and decays 
lidly when bruised or injured. Many of the leaves 
a fourteen inches in length, and seven inches in 
The temperature of the forests ranges from 
to" Fahr., and they are excessively damp. Tlie 
e of the Cagtilloan is so wide tliat, in some places, 
! must flourish in climates which at one time 
air are dry. It is probable, however, that the 
! with the iHJst and largest yield of caoutchouc 
I best in a hot and very damp and steaming 
Btmosphere, like that of the forests of the isthmus. 

Mr, Cross collected 600 plants, and also drew a 
fiuantity of milk, in order to prepare a specimen of 
riie rubber. Tlie sample he brought home was 
'■vamined and reported upon, and was pronounced 
w have much less impurity than is usual fur this kind 
of rubljer, and thus proved Mr. Cross's plants to be of 
the beat species. He left the isthmus with the plants 
I the 6th of September 1875, on board the mail 
p Shannon, but in the morning of tlie 8tli, when 
ing 13 knots an hour, the vessel ran on the I'edro 
reef of rocks, off the coast of Jamaica, and her bows 
were immovably iixed upon them, while the stern 

Eto bump heavily for many hours. The rest 
eengere left tlie ship in boats, but Mr. Cross 

454 The Hevea India'ru66cr Trees 

Btuck manfully Ity his plants and was eventually taken 
nil board H.M.S. Dnjml, He came home in the intul 
steamer Silt, reaching Sfnitliampton on the 2nil of 
Octoljer, Considering all the extraordinary ditGcultus 
of the undertaking, it retlects great credit on Mr. Cross 
that he sliould have been successful, and tlins have 
performed an ioifxtrtant public sei-vice with ability and 
sound judgnieut. There were soon 134 of Mr. Cross's 
Castiiloa plants in a flourishing condition at Kew 
Gardens, and in the course of 1876 a good supply of 
CastUloaa was forwarded to India, to form the nucleus 
of a series of plantations. 

Thus the introduction of one out of the two valuable 
South American species was provided for. 

It remained to take measures for obtaining plants of 
the most valuable kind of all from the valley of ths 
Amazon — the Hema yielding tlie famous Tara indiar 
rubber of commerce. 

The Heveas are of several species, and, like the 
Caatilloas, they are large trees growing in humid 
tropical forests. Dr. Spruce, who is the highest 
authority on this genus, considers that the cordilleraB 
of the Ancles separate the GastiXloas from the JfevetUf 
and that the caoutchouc-yielding trees to tlie eastward' 
of the Andes are of the latter genus. Tliey extend up 
to the very foot of the mountains, and I have myself 
passed some time among hcvcros, collecting for local 
use in the vimitafias of I'aucartampu and Laris. WHlo 
in Teru and Ecuador the india-rubber is called htcf, is 

in ike Valley of ike Amazons. 

utl the name is seringa, and thB collectors are 
tijiffadros. Eight species are enumerated by Collins, 


„ Sprveenna 


.. Ditcolm 


„ yaueiJIoTa 


„ Bigidi/olla 


„ Benthamiaiux (HHIL) 

„ Lutea 


„ OuyanemU 


mely :— 

I The Hevea BraaUiensis is the species which prevails 
ind Para, and the forests of the lower Amazon ; 
H. Spriiemnu is met with round the mouth of the 
Tapajos. and the other species occur on the banks of 
tlie Hio Xegro and Casiquiari ; but the genus is far 
from having yet beeii thorouglily studied. 

In the Para district of the lower Amazon, very little 
rain falls from August to February, the heaviest rainfl 
being in May and June; and the temperature varies 
bctwepH 74° and I'S" Fahr. ; tlie mean of a year being 
81°. Tlie Amazon valley is remarkable for uniformity 
of temperature, and for regular supply of moisture ; the 
dry season extending from .Tune to l>eceml)er, and the 
wet from .Tanuary to May. In tlie Upper Amazon tlie 
atmospliere is densely vaporous. 

Our latest authorities on the Pari caoutchouc are 
Mr. Witkham and Mr. Franz Keller. The latter 
iniveller, writing in 1874, says that the lu^rea trees on 
the shores uf the Amazon have nearly disapjieared, 
owing to the deittniction and death of trees, the places 
' of which have never been filled up, Uut the foresta of 


CoiUciors of India-niiber 

caoutchouc-trees on the bonks of the Madeira, Pom, 
and other tributaries, yield over 1,000,000 lbs ; wMl 
tlie yield of tlie whole of tliis colossal river baas 
amounts to 12,800,000.' Keller laments the fact^ 
no attempt is made, in the Amazon district, to cultivate 
those useful trees; which, owing to frequent tapping 
and rough treatment, aufifor much and die soon. The 
seringiifiros have to go farther aod farther into tlia 
interior, to seek fresh trees in undiscovered valleys. It 
is to be feared that, owing to the indolence of the 
mestizo population, and the short-sightedness of the 
Brazilian Government, measiu^ of conservancy will 
not be adopted until too late, 

The Castilioa, like the Fieus dastica, though requiring 
a very humid climate, will only thrive when there ia 
drainage at the roots. But Keller aays that the Hevta 
yields the largest supply of milk when, during the 
annual inundation, its stem is at least five feet under 

The scene presented by an encampment of caoub- 
chouc collectors is extremely picturesque. Their huta 
are lightly built among the trees, and round them 
tower the majestic mosfudeiro palms, and the lofty 
BerlhoUetia,\ while in front is Uie gleaming river with 

* Keller give* ths foUowing utattniBiit of Iba export at caoutcUouo 
fiom Pftri : — 

1865 — 2511,967 flJTobfW. 
IS6H — 291.U91 „ 
18G7 — 3(H,I70 „ 
1868 - 8M,975 „ 
1889 — 865,351 „ (4658 toai). 
t SerthoUtttia excelia yields the BrazUiaa nuU. 

in the Amazon Valley, 


its sunny sandbanks. From the huts narrow paths 
lead through the dense undergrowth, cut by the axe of 
the Kerim/ufiro, to the lonely caoutchouc-ti-ees. The 
collector makes small holes in tlie bark, to which tubes 
of clay are fixed,' which lead the milk into bamboo 
receptacles ; going from tree to tree he collects these 
bamboos, and on his return to the hut the contents are 
poured into the carapace of a large tortoise. The milk 
is then subjected to the process of smoking without 
delay, for if left standing too long the resin separates. 
In this process the milk is subjected to the smoke of 
the vrucKt/ or nuts of the Atholea exctlsa palm, which 
alone, it is said, possesses the power of liquefying. An 
iron pot. without a bottom, and with a narrow neck like 
a bottle, is placed so as to form a chimney over a heap 
of these burning nuts, and the white steam rises in 
masses through the narrow opening. The seriiufueiro 
pours a small quantity of the white fluid, of the con- 
sistency of thick milk, from a calalmsh over a light 
wooden shovel, as evenly as possible, and then rapidly 
thrusts it into the white steam. The milk soon takes a 
greyish-yellow colour, and becomes firm. Then they 
add layer upon layer, until the caoutchouc on each 
wde of the shovel is about 8 inches thick. The plancka 
or slab Is then finished, taken off the shovel by cutting 
down one side, and hung up in the sun to dry, as there 
is a good deal of water between the layers. The colour 
of the ptujicka is at first a light silver-grey, hut by 
degrees bocomes yellower and yellower, until it turns 
ilie dork colour knonn in commerce ; a practised band 


Mr. Cross's Expedition 

can, in tbia way, manafactnn* ft or 6 lbs. in ad hour. 1^ 
thicker and freer from bubbles, tlie lietter the qoali^ 
and the higher the pric^. The chea|)est is oUai 
aumatnbi/ or ail)cta dc vxgro (negro-bead), and is nwb 
from drops found at tlie foot of tlie l.rees and from lis 
refuse in the vessels. The export of caontchonc &ta 
Par* in 187G amounted to (1493 tons, worth £955.00a 

Tliere are two otlier india-rubber trees of Sonth 
America of less value, whence come tlie Pemambnco 
and CearA rubbers, The Pemainbuco is an apocTnes- 
ceous tree, ffaittornia spedoaa, known as the tnajufiaha 
by the natives, and ia found in tJie provinces of Rio ds 
Janeiro, Bahia, Pemambnco, and Goyaz. It is e small 
tree about the size of the apple, and is more valued lot 
its fruit than for its caoutchouc, wliich ia not much 
collected. The Ceari tree {Mnnihot Glaziomi) is more 
important, especially as it flourishes in a dry climate. 

For obtaining plants yielding the india-rubber of 
Para and Ceara I was again so fortunate as to secure 
the services of Mr. Cross ; who left Liverpool on June 
19tli, 1876, and reached Para, at the mouth of the 
Amazons, on July 15tii. He found, on inquiry, that 
the great field for caoutchouc collecting was the pro- 
vince of Para, and the islands formed by the delta of 
the river, especially Marajo. The land round Pari 
rises from the bank of the river southward in gentle 
undulations, cut by deep gully-like natural ditches 
called gap6s, which often penetrate for many miles 
into the interior of the vast forest region, and are filled 
daily by the tide. To those navigable by canoes the 

lo collect Hcvea Plants. 459 

' tenn ujarape ia often applied. The intervening land 
, between tlie gapai owes its origin first to tidal deposits, 
and afterwards has been raised by the decayed remains 
of a long aeries of rank growths of vegetation. On the 
more elevated lands, beds of white sand 20 feet deep 
are met with, covered with a layer of decayed vegeta- 
tion. In every direction the country ia a mass of dense 
exuberant forest. 

Mr. Cross explored this region, in order to make 
observations on the soil, climate, and mode of collecting 
and preparing the rubber. On the 2nd of August he 
was following the tracks of the rubber collectors 
tliroHgh tiie dense forests ankle-deep in mud, until lie 
came to a wide !/a})6 into which the tide flowed. It 
vras connected witli many l&sser watei-courses, form- 
ing a kind of network over a wliole district of forest, 
tlie most elevated parts of wljich were only raised 
three to four feet above the highest tides, Inrlia-rubber 
trees grew along the margins of tlie streams, and Mr. 
Cross oliaerved three, the trunks of which were flooded 
to a height of a foot. Most of the others occupied dry 
situations. The i/apds are lined with soft rich mud, 
and the exhalations from such places, shrouded by a 
forest growth of 80 or 100 feet high, always produce 
iittiicks of fever. Mr. Cross meaanred a few of the 
largest trees, all of which had been tapped for periods 
varying from five to fifteen years, and found tlieir 
circumference, one yard from the ground, to vary from 
3 feet to fi feet 10 inches. Regularly tapped trees do 
not exceed CO feet in height. 

460 Ceard India-rubber Plants 

Mr, Cross went on ■with the work of collecting plall 
iind established them at once in cases. In this w^ 
made a collection of 1000 planta in four caa 
range of the thermometer from July to October 1 
from 72' to 92°. On the 17th of October, 1876, ) 
collection was shipped for Liverpool, and Mr. I 
proceeded, in the same steamer, to the Ceaii re 
He landed in a heavy surf, on a kind of raft c 
jatujada, and found himself in a veiy different 001 
from that of the Amazon, 

South of the Amazonian forest, there ia a n 
known as the Sertao or wilderness; exteadit^ ii 
broad Irelt from the Pamahyba river to tha , 
Fmncisco. The province of Ceara is within this b 
a high rolling plain, broken by abrupt elevationa 
chains which are, in fact, outlying fragments ( 
great central table-land of Brazil, The only high f"r^ 
is found on these mountain sides, the summits aod li 
plains below being occupied either by thin forest gron;! 
or by pastures and sandy tracts, with proves about 1! 
river courses. From June to Deceml»er the clinuti- :. 
extremely dry, and tlie streams and rivers disapf»-i 
except along the mountain sides. The rains, at tiv 
very heavy, come in December and January. 1' 
principal commerce of the country is in hides j- 
jerked beef; and there are plantations of sugar. «'!■ 
and cotton, along the mountain sides. In 1877-" 
Ceari was visited by a terrible drought and laauM. \ 
when about half the population perished, 

Ceara is connected witli a place vailed Vacatur I 

collected by Mr. Cross. 461 

forty milus inlflnd, by a railway made to facilitate tlie 
transport of sugar and cotton. It traverses a flat 
and parclied country, covered with thickets of thorny 
bushes, and slender myrtles and Leffuminosct. Here 
and there clumps of tJie carrmitbu palm {Copernicla 
cerifera) rise liigb above the other trees and bushes. 
The crowns of these palm-trees, waring with the wind, 
are visible over a wide expanse, and the hack ground is 
formed by a range of mountaiiiB, Mr. Cross stopped 
at a \"illage called Manieanalra, about 30 miles from 
Ceari, where he obtained a guide to take him to the 
iudia-rubber trees. The forest was tolerably liigli, but 
the spai'se small foli^e did not afford much shade 
from the fierce rays of the sun. Neither grass nor 
weeds grew under the trees, and there was an entire 
absence of ferns, raosaes, and other plants. Mr. Cross 
concluded that the Ceari rubber- tree would thrive 
perfectly over a very wide area of the drier regions of 
British India. At first sight the tree resembles a 
birch, and the oiiter bark comes off in the same way, in 
thin silvery peelings. The largest tree was about 50 
feet in lieight, with the trunk about a foot hi diameter. 
Having found some young plants, Mr. Cross had great 
difficulty in uprooting them. The roots have tubes the 
size of kidney potatoes which adhere with great tenacity 
to the soil. After diligent search and very severe 
labour eighteen plants were collected, and brought 
safely on board the steamer. Thus in one day Mr. 
Cross was able to discover the origin of a tree hitherto 
unknown and undescribed, yielding an important 

4.6i Sties for India-rubher Tre/s 

ortiole of commerce, and at the same time ta i 
a number of planU, NoxC day he again went It 
Mamcanaltd, and obtained 42 more plants and 

Mr. Cross arrived at Liverpool on the 22nd ot 
Novemlier, 187K, and hia valuable collection of plaiils 
was deposited at Kew tlie next morning, consisting cf s 
tliousand plants of Pari rubber-trees {Hei>ta BrasUieiuit) 
and forty-two Cearfi planta. 

Thus all the valuable caoutchouc trees of South 
America bad been obtained, and were ready for experi- 
mental cultivation in India ; but the Government was 
very lukewarm on the subject, and I considered it 
most safe to send tlieni, in the first instance, to the 
Ceylon gardens at I'^radeniya. From that centre 
their cultivation could be extended to India hereafter, 
when its importance is better appreciated by the 
authorities. The Ceari plants {Manihot Gtazimi) 
arrived from Kew in October 1877, and grow admirably 
in the Peradeniya and Henaratgode gardens, Tliey 
have produced ripe seeds ; and plants have already 
been sent to Calcutta, Madras, Burma, and the hot 
districts of Ceylon, for trial. The Hevea also grows 
extremely well, A few trees ai-e already nearly 30 
feet high, with a girth of 14 inches. Already 500 
Stvea plants, raised from cuttings, have been sent W 
Madras and Burma. The Castiiloa trees grow well at 
Peradeniya, still better at Henaratgode. Some are 16 
feet high, with a girth of 16 inches. The increasing 
demand for caoutchouc must eventually convince the 

in Briiish India. 463 

>vemnieut of the preat importance of its systematic 
fltivation. The Pari rubber ia the best and choicest, 
I Castilloa will grow over the largest area in the 
wist belts, and the Ceari thrives on the drier and 

r plains. 
I A writer in the InAiwn, Forester,* after reading 
\ Cross's Report on the Castilloa region, pointed out 
I ghftt forests aa far as the Nt^r division of Myaor 
I the most likely region to constitute a new habitat 
r the Castilloa trees. He says : — 
" In the interesting account of the Castilloa dastiea 
i the last number of the Indian Forestfr, the low 
ests about Coimbator and the base of the Nilgiri 
1 are recommended as the locality iu India where 
Bis perhaps most likely to succeed. Were the writer 
iqi]Bint«d with the line of ghat forests extending 
ice northwards as far, say, as the Kagar 
flioo of Mysor, we feel confident, after a careful 
""perusal of his notes, that he would place his finger on 
this region aa the most likely to constitute a new 
habitat for his species. Alter the names, and his 
description of the climate, soil, and general sur- 
roundings of tlie forests where his caoutchouc tree 
grows will exactly suit that of the lower valleys of 
the gh&t range. Indeed, looking at the map of the 
world with our knowledge of winds and rain in the 
tropics, were it otherwise a very fertile bmiu would be 
required to strike out a plausible explanation of the 
Uct. Ab it ia, we know from the general ac oonnta of 
Kb " Vol iii p. S7. (July I87tl0 



^M travellers that then is a reiy striking resembkna 

^B lietween the two regtooa. Wliere the diOurence lies, 

and tliat a great one, ia in the tn-o floras. In Ik 

ordinary courae of tilings there can be no doubt about 

one's ability to grow CastilltMi elastiea in the lower 

Ighit valleys, but tlie point wtucb outbing but ezpen- 
ment on the spot can det^nnine is, whether in Hot: 
tract of teeming fertility and bewildering wealth o( 
species, it can so far intrude on the closely 
v^tative economy aa to conquer an independenl 
position in the forest flora. Most probably it woold 
require some artificial aid to maintain iteelf, but if iu 
economic value is anytliing like that stated, this we 
can aflbrd to give it. Only to a Uinit«d extent thougt^ 
for the same poisonous climate exists here as in 
tree's New World habitat. Up to this limit great 
facilities for working exist. The region we are speaks 
ing of is permanently inhabited by aboriginal tribe^ 
who sometimes settle down into villages in healt^ 
localities, at other times retire to tlie moat lonely ai 
malarious portions of the l>elt where they seem to 
dying out, and who sometimes can Ije depended on fiol 
regular work, at other times not. With or withoi 
their aid, labour for a portion of the year could b(f 
easily got from the settled and healthy country aboveil 
Very often villages with suri>lus labour exist on spurs 
of the ghats almost overhanging the low country, in « 
cool and non-malarious climate two or three thou* 
sand feet above the sea. Here the forest officer ha; 
liis Imt, and rides up after the diiy's work is done,: 

Sites for Castilloa Trees. 


! here too he brings hia fever-stricken coolies for a 
change of air, better than any medicine. The whole 
2st region below is now pierced by easy gliat roads 
I intervals of about 50 miles — -the ports of Mysor, 
I tlie talented engineer who made most of those in 
; pro%'ince has aptly described them. All the most 
sible passes are lined by a dusty streak along 
hich the produce of the up-country passes to the sea, 
, a word, in the lower ghat forests we can oft'er 
tiilloa clastiat a habitat quite as unhealthy as its 
1 in America, and an amount of care and culture it 
old not get tliere. 

" Away from the tnud; roads and the valleys abutting' 
to them, minor forest produce should be attended to. 

•■ It is a question whether the existent minor forest 
produce could not profitably be mora extensively 
worked ; it is certain that the successful introduction of 
Cfutilioa eiaetka would unmistakably turn the scale in 
the right direction. We would not, however, have i^ 
thought that we staked bringing down the trembling 
beam on this one species. Many others will occur to 
everybody, but Castilloa clastica seems to oi>eu np a 
fairer prospect than them aU, There is our old, now 
familiar friend, Ficus elastica, which seems likely to 
grow well enough here, provided we kept down hardier 
native species; probably it wonld require a good deal of 
Lijid in tltis way. Tliere is also Htcea flaxUra, and in 
! whole series of caoutchouc-yielding trees, not 
etting tlie wonderf\d Burmese climber, Chavannesia 
Since, however, Castilloa dasticu adiiiittedly 

4.66 Future Supply of /ndta-4tid6er. 

XiroAwm ODB of the finest india-mbbets, one wonlii I 
naturally wish to begin by trying that. Conmdering Uw I 
inaccessibility and unhealthiness of the lower gliat fansu, I 
we seem to have a case here of what onr forefatlien \ 
woold have deacribed as a providential adaptation of wajB j 
to means, in the fact that the locality is nevertheless » ' 
well fitted to prodnce an article, so necessary in the 
arts, and of such a growing apphcation, as caontchonc" 
While tlie Cmtilloa will find a new home in the 
w«3terD ghats, the Herta is introduced into one of tli« 
moist sones of India, the Fiat* eiasltca is cnltivaW 
in its native forests of Assam, and the CJiavan-nrina in 
Burma, the Ctard mbber, with quite a difTerent habitat 
and requirements, may be extensively grown on the bnt 
dry plains of Eastern India. This measure, if intelli- 
geutly and continuously followed up, will thus ensure, 
in the future and as the demand increases, a i 
ajid large supply of the best kinds of caoutchouc f 
pritish India. 

Exotic Cottons in India. " 467 





While travelling in the Coimbator and Madura Col- 
lectorates of the Madras Presidency, I was struck with 
the resemblance of the climate, in many respects, to that 
of the coast valleys of Peru. This part of India ap- 
peared to me to be adapted for the cultivation of the 
species of cotton which is indigenous to the Peruvian 
coast valleys, while it seemed unlikely that Nortli 
American cotton could ever be extensively raised, to 
advantage, in so dry a climate. 

North American cotton will not thrive in a very 
dry climate, as a certain amount of moisture in tlu^ 
atmosphere, throughout the year, appears to be nn 
essential condition for its successful growth. Tliis; 
kind of cotton has a very different constitution from tho 
Indian; it cannot stand so much drought, and the 
conditions required for its culture are an equable and 
moderate supply of moisture throughout all the stages 
of its growth. These conditions are fulfilled in the 

Dharwar country in the Bombay l^sidency, where u 

2 u 2 

468 LiHgth of Staples of Cottm. 

consideniUe qn&ntitf of nioisturo is retained in & 
nliuDspliere during the cold season, when otlier pons <i] 
tbe Bombay Presidency are intensely dry ; and 
tho North American cottons suiicewi ; Init they will 
yield remunerative crops wliere this is not the 
The indigenous plant, on the other hand, is able 
endure the dry season well, being a native of the 
country of Sind and part of tlie Punjab. 

I, therefore, thought it might be useful to introdi 
a cotton with a longer staple than that of the indigei 
plant of India, and consequently better suited to UiB 
vants of manufacture ra, which would thrive in the dry 
climate of the Collectorates on tlie eastern side of the 
Madras Presidency. The Peni\ian cotton meets thi^ 
reiiuirement.' Its staple is longer than that of New- 
Orleans, Pemambuco, and much longer than any 
indigenous Indian cotton, though shorter than f^ptiaa 
or " Sea-Island." The respective lengths of the staples 
of different kinds of cotton, compared with Peruvian, aiB 
as follows : — 


•■Sealelond" . '. , . 




Now Orlwiit ot " Uplonda" 
" Upltmds " grown in Itidin 
IndigeDous Indian ootlon . 




* Ptrnvian ootton had cut before been introduced into India. 
Mhcalled Peruvimi c«tUin wliioh liud Ixxin UvA (Ooffypiunt F 
iium), u mcntioDed in Dr. I[ojU-'h work, vm procured &otD I 
BrBzilB, and is quite a different kind, growing in a yerj nunit elimaU 
and Qudei conditioiu dictinct liom tlioae of the rcol Petartan « 

Cotton Region of Peru. 469 

I The Peruvian cotton plant is indigenous and peren- 
, and was cultivated by the Bubjecta of the Grand 
mu, and afterwards by those of tlie Yncas in the 
t valleys, long before the discovery of Peru by the 
They irrigated their cotton-fields by means 
I channels conducted from the rivers and reservoirs, 
&ed and cleaned the cotton, and wove it into cloths. 
B ancient Peravians iised a machine for cleaning their 
ton, which closely resembled the Indian ckurka. It 
laisted of two rollers, about the thickness of a finger, 
bandies at opposite ends, which turned them 
rent ways. Tlie wool was pinched through by 
i, and as the seeds could not pass between the 
rollers, they were stripped off, and dropped outside. 

Tlie long strip of coast line between the Andes and 
the Pacific Oc«an, extending from 21" 48' S. to the 
river Tmubez in 3' 35' S.. a distance of 1400 miles, 
consists of a sandy desert, intersected by chains of 
rocky barren hills, and traversed by about sixty rivers 
and streams, with as many fertile valleys on their banks. 
This region is bounded inland by the western 'cordillera 
! the Andes, and varies from twenty to sixty miles in 
idth. The coast valleys, thus surrounded by sandy 
:, which extend from tlie foot of the Aiidea to the 
8 of the Pacific, are the native land of the Peruvian 

3 climate of this region is very peculiar. Eain in 

9 drops is unknown, and the northern part especially 

1 to a long season of excessive dryness. The 

IT dry season extends Erom November to April, 

470 Peruvian Colion R^cn. 

when there b tuually constant drynesB, a clear sk;, vk 
runsiderable, tliough not oppressive, lieat. From Ja«' 
lo September the sky is obscured for days ami en 
weeks U^tber by fog (ntei/a), often accompanied Is 
(IriiEzliDg rain {garua), tlie thermometer rarely bHiBg 
lielow 50°. The wind never exceeds a gentle bree»e 
through tlie year. At the time when it is driest 
hottest on tlie ix>aat, it is raining heavily on the As 
In the Department of Piura, the most northern on the 
Peruvian coast, the climate is moiiified liy tlje Iowa 
latitude, and also by the %-icinity of the fomsta of Giay- 
aijuiL Fog is almost unknown in the plain, garva \t 
not freqnent, but positive heavy ruin falls at inlervali 
of several years, from February to April. 

The most soutliem cotton district of importance is iO 
the province of Yea, in latitude 14° S. I visited th* 
cotton-growing valleys of Yea, Palpa, San Xavier, and 
Nasca in this pro\-ince. In Yea there were three mills 
fur cleaning cotton worked by water, and 1 stayed at two 
prosperous cotton estates jn the valley of San Xavier, 
with good machinery for cleaning the cotton, and powerful 
screw presses. In-tlie valleys of Nasca and Palpa that*- 
were country-made cleaning machines, but also worked 
by water-wheels. The rivers run nearly dry in JanuaiJ 
with the thermometer often at 80' and 90°, but the 
mean yearly range is from 65° to 85°. Don DomingO ' 
Eliaa was the great landed proprietor of Yea and San , 
Xavier at tlie time of ray visit. The cotton was con-' 
veyed on mules to the port of San Nicolas, which WM* 
a great distance from the estates, and where the landing*' 

Peruvian Cotton Region, 


i very bad. I therefore made a survey of another 
t 28 miles north of Cape Nasca, and only abont 30 
I the cotton estates, where the landing was better, 
dloted an English barque into this new anchorage, 
J was loaded with cotton brought down by mules, 
[l one carrying two bales of 175 lbs. each. 

,h of Lima are the cotton producing valleys of 

Chiclayo, Tnixillo, Jeqnetepeque, and Lam- 

;e. This part of the Peruvian coast enjoya an 

B cUmate, with a mean temiierature ranging 

0° to 84°. 

J supplies of cotton-seeds which I obtained for 

, came from Vca, and in larger instalments from 

I noithern province of Piura. All authorities unite 

i describing the climate of I'iura aa excessively dry 

1 hot. From N'ovember to May the thermometer 

B from HO" to Hfi", the atmosphere is dry, and the 

( from the sandy and stony soil excessive. If a 

e of paper is put on the ground in the evening, it 

M>y be taken up and written on in the morning, for it 

I be found to be quite dry. Owing to the brilliancy 

!i which tlie celestial bodies sliine in this season, it 

B become proverbial lo say " as clear as the moon of 

During this season, however, the rains fall in 

er region of the Andes, and the two rivers of 

, and Chira are therefore full. In tlie moist 

jon, from May to November, the ganuts are much 

soanty than in the valleys farther south, and 

he mean temperature ia 

1 from 70° tu 81". 


Peruvian Collort Region. 

In the valley of the Chira there are fruit ca^l^■, 
consisting of cocos, tiates, maDgoes, oranges, iini-' 
lemons, aJEgator pears, and tamarinds. Tlie (;ro[« i^ 
plantaina, yucas of two kinds, sweet potatoes, i 
many garden vegetables. In the time of the Yi 
there was a most perfect system of irrigatioD hy n 
of reaen-oirs in the hills for storing water, 
numerous aquedacts. The popolation of the ( 
valley, soon after the SpanLsli conqTiest, was 193 
sonls. Two centuries afterwards, in 1785, 
dwindled down to 44,497. 

The Spanish conquerors found the cott^in plant 
fabrics of cotton almost everywhere amonf; the i 
tribes, the spedes being tlie Qoxaypium Barhadeim 
Linnaeus. Mummies disinterred from Peruvian kt 
or tombs are wrapped in cotton cloth, and nndeii 
the ttody is occasionally found envelope*! in tlie \ 
cotton which was considered sacred by tlie Perui 
In a crop of G. Barbadtnse a percentage of the i 
almost always yields cotton of a reddish-hrown ( 
with a short and brittle staple, so that it ia a 
degenerate sport from tlie white. Yet the tm| 
pleasing to the Indians, who held it s&cred, and ]j 
its use Ki the Yncas and priests, and to their 
The cotton was raised by the Indiana of Calacaos. 1 
CoUn. and the Cliira valley, who have each theiti 
plot of land by the river aide, 

Tlie cottfln ia planted either in the veffa where ij 
an annual watering from the rise of the river, or a 
adjacent low land where the plants have to be vnl:' 

Cotton Cultivation in Peru. 


I until tlieir roots penetrate to a good depth, 
ia generally done just after the floods have 
ibsided and left the i;o/a dry in April, and nine 
months afterwards the first crop is ripe. The plants 
receive no further care, except to facilitate the access of 
* the water to their roots at the time of the annual floods, 
and they are never pruned. Yet, after the jirst crop, 
they yiehl again every six months, and go on bearing 
cotton for six or seven years. Then the cotton begins 
to deteriorate, the bushes are stubbed up and the ground 

Formerly the women and children picked the cotton 
when ripe, and, to clear it from the seeds, they took it 
out on the desert, selected a place where there was only 
clean white sand, and beat the cotton on it with slender 
sticks, one in each hand, until it was quite separated 
from the seeds. Then, with a alight shake, every grain 
of sand fell out, and the cotton remained a white felty 
sheet csilled madtja. It was then sold for exportation. 
Lately this very simple process has been superseded 
by North American gins set up at Piura and on the 

In 1861 Mr. Stirling purchased a tract of land on 
the Chira below Amotape, and began to set np 
machinery and make irrigation canals. Mr. Garland 
and Don Pedro Arese also projected a large cotton 
estate at Monte Abierto, near Tangarara, in the Chira 
valley. l>r. Spruce resided for some time at Monte 
Abierto, and, at my request, drew up a most valuable 


Cotton CuUivation in Peru. 

and iQt«re8tmg report on the Piura cotton." Uonle 
Abiert*? is in 4° 53' S. and 80° 56' W. ; a plain of about 
400 acres covered witli Itixuriant cott«n plants, wUdi 
are surrounded on tliree sides bj woods of o^omte 
(Pnisopw horrida,), and bounded on the fourth by U» 
Chira river. The engine-houae, gin-house, and wan 
houses stand about a hundtm) yards from the river, tt 
water being conveyed to the engine in a canaL 11 
engine for working the pumpa is of 25-HP., and thf 
fiiel is algarroba wood. A centrifugal pump has bIm 
been set up, by which means all the plants can bt 
watered once a week, or oftener if necessary. 

Tlie Peruvian cotton tree grows to 15 feet in heigb^ 
with a trunk 6 inches in diameter, ascending altematl 
branches, and soft brittle wood. It would probably Ij 
twenty years. But it is usually cultivated as a shraV 
its growth beyond easy reach of the pickers being 
checked by breaking off the leading shoots. It sends 
down a very long tap-root, and the lateral roots i 
usually few and short. The Piura cotton {algodon d 
Piwra) is a shrub generally considered to require froB 
nine to ten montha to mature its first crop. Afterward 
it produces every six montha, When two or three yeatl 
old, good plants have yielded in one crop 8 to 12 lbs, ( 
cotton, and even 18 lbs. About 130 bolls give I lb. ( 
cotton. The plants usually stand about 15 feet apart 

* A'oCet on Ihe YaUos* of Pium and Chira in Northern Para, 
OH Out Cultivalion of Cotton thenia, by Biobaid Spraoe, PlilLDi 
(Loudon, 1861), Svo. pp. SI. 

1 in three years they begin to interlock. From the 

li year the yield degenerates in quality and quantity, 

J at the sixth or seventh the bushes are stubbed up 

1 the ground resown. Taking the plants at 15 feet 

t there are 193 to an acre, yielding 1544 to 2316 lbs. 

1 Payta cotton is very white and soft, with a good 

*th of staple. 

i cotton (afgodon de Yea) has the habit of Piura 

1, and can scarcely be distinguished from it ; but 

tdnces the largest pods with the most numerous 

I, and consequently the greatest quantity of cotton. 

e weight of the contents of an average boll of several 

s of cotton is OS follows : — 

Piora . . 

. SI 


Egyptlui. . 

. 51 


Georgia . . 

. 87 


New Orleans . 

. 28 


Bcs Island . 

. aoj 


F I obtained supplies of seeds of Piura and Yea cotton 

!62 and 1863, and transmitted them to Madras 

I Bombay, where satisfactory trials were made. I 

[ that the cultivation should be undertaken in 

Madura, and Tinnevelli,* to which the 

man of the Chamber of Commerce at Madras 

I the districts of Chengaliwt, Tanjor, and Hajmah- 

Tbe great advantage tliat I anticipated from 

a introduction of Peruvian cotton into India was the 

ifitable cultivation of a long-stapled and high-priced 

r Hepott is printed in the Ediuhurgh Botaniait SoeirlgU 
I, vii. p. 461. 


476 Peruvian Coit&n in India. 

kiiid in districts which, from their dryness, had hitherto 
only lieeii found suitable for the short-stapled indigenous 
plant. Althonyh the cultivation has not been extended 
over a large area, it has yet been undertaken in seven! 
districts, and the I'eniWan plant has been highly spoken 
of by the agriculturists of Madras. It will probably be 
more widely appreciated in the years to come. 

In the Bombay Presidency it is also cultivated, and 
I had the pleasure of seeing a most flourishing field of 
Pem^-ian cotton near Dharwar in 186f>. In that year 
the Bombay Chamber of Commerce reported a sample 
of Dharwar-grown Peruvian cotton to be good, long 
and regular in staple, colour good, and the qaalitf 
equal to the best selection of Dharwar. Mr. Walton, 
who did so much for cotton cultivation in Dharwar, 
reported that Peruvian cotton could be very extensively 
and successfidly extended along the range of the 
western ghats, in Canara, Ratnagiri, Colaba and Tanna, 
in the western parts of Dharwar, Belgaum, and Satara. 
Mr. Walton considered that irrigation was not neces- 
sary, and that the trees should he kept down to four 
feet by lopping. One great advantage of Peruvian 
cotton is that it is easily cleaned, the fibre separating 
from the seed with little trouble. Anotlier is that ^ 
can be very economically cultivated, only wanting &esh 
sowing about every fourth or fifth year, and requiring 
no irrigation in India. 

With these recommendations, Peruvian cotton will 
probably prove a useful addition to the products of, 
British India. 

Cuzco Maize. 477 




The Cuzco maize and the quinua of the lofty punas 
of the Andes are two cereals which are most valuable 
in their native land, and I, therefore, thought that their 
cultivation might usefully be introduced into British 
India. Cuzco maize is one great result of Ynca agri- 
culture, one lasting proof of the civilisation of ancient 
Peru. Growing in the lofty valleys of the Sierra, it 
should find a new home on the lower hills of the 
Western Himalaya and on the Nilgiris. Quinua rii)ens 
in the liighest inhabited parts of the Andes, and would 
flourish at similar elevations in the Himalayas. 

Maize, as a cereal supplying millions of people with 
food, is one of the most useful gifts which the Old 
World received from the New. But the maize ot 
Cuzco surpasses all other kinds in its yield and its 

Tlie earliest notice of tliis magnificent corn is from 
the Ynca Garcilasso de la Vega, who was born at 
Cuzco and brought up ui>on the Cuzco maize, and who 

47^ ^s^s of Maise in Peru. 

published liia account of it in lf)09. He says ttuA 
what the Mexicans aad people of the Antilles caE 
I, the Peruviana know as mra. He adds that tiart 
I two kiuda of Kara. One is hard and called 
u,* and this had been introduced into Sji 
The other, called ea^, is tender and highly eateemed. 
The FeruviiLUs made different kinda of bread and caka 
from the maize. The sacrificial bread was called ftnuo, 
the festive bread huminla, ordinary bread tJuaita. 
The women ground the com on broad slabs with 
a half-moon-shaped stone, working it up and down from 
one end to the other, and gathering it in, from tima 
to time, with their bands. They also made fritteib' 
called api, boiled puddings called ■mult, toasted grains 
called catacha, and cakes. They made a fermented^! 
liijuor from the flour called acca (now ehicha), and ft 
strong spirit called sora and vinapti. as well as vinegar.- 
A good sugar was obtained from the stalk, the stalks 
and leaves were nsed as food for cattle, while the 
leaves of the cole were in request for rubbing and 
smoothing stones for sculptors. The Ynca Garcilaaao 
tells us that he saw all this with his own eyes, and 
was sustained and nourished on this sara until bis 
nineteenth year.f 

The Jesuit Acosta, who was in Peru from 1570 to 
1586, speaks in admiration of Peruvian maize. He 
says it grows on stalks, eaeli one producing one or two 

• Maruchi ia hard in Qnichan. Acoeta alw mentioDB the t*ro 
kindg of tunize, one great and very nourisljJDg, the other amoll Hid 
dry, called mvrod\i. Nat. Ititt. lib. it. cap. 16. 

t Comni, Real, PI, i. lib. »iii. c&p. 9, 

Maize Harvesl in Peru, 479 

cobs, and that on aome cobs he liail counted 700 grains. 
It must be planted by hand, one by one and not very 
close together, and it is not iineommon to gather 300 
bushels for 1 bushel sown, while the green leaves and 
stalks are used for food for cattle and mules. 

The Cuzco maize is so called from being cultivated 
in the warm valleys in the neighbourhood of the 
ancient capital of the Yncaa, but two to three tliousand 
feet Ijelow the site of the old city. Its grand pro- 
portions are due to the carefid agriculture of the Yncas 
during many centuries. The stalks grow to a height 
of 15 feet, and the grains are four or five times the 
size of ordinary maize grains. The grains were white 
(^coUasara), red and yellow (ciima-sara), yellow (para- 
mra). red {miesa-aara), purple {mataij-sara) ; and there 
were double cobs of immense size (sara-majna), which 
were looked upon as sacred. 

The year of the Yncas was regulated with reference 
to maize cultivation. In June the people were oc- 
cupied with the irrigation channels. Then came the 
sowing, the ripening, and the harvesting, each with its 
solemn festival. In the month called Ayrihuay 
(April), they reaped and harvested the crops, singing a 
chant called yarnm; and the Ynca himself, vrith his 
nobles, assisted in reaping the crop on the Colca-mpata, 
beneath the fortress of Cuzco. These wise sovereigns 
held the science of agriculture in high honour. 

Cuzco maize was and still is cultivated, in its 
greatest glory, in the lovely valley of Yucay, through 
which flows the river Vilcamayu. It should be grown 


Agriculture of ihe Yncas. 

at heights from 8000 to 3000 feet above tko sea. Ibt 
Vucay valley U bounded on the east by nigf^ escat^ 
tnenta of bare rock, and lotty snowy jieoks of ihi 
Andea, at the feet of wliich are the graceful iiWmctoi 
terraced ganlens. On the west is a lower but still 
lofty ascent, so that the valley ia well aboltured and is 
gay with gardens, clumps of trees, and bright green 
fields. The climate is like that of Italy, or of llismei 
in the south of France. Here the Yncas constnioteii 
those mar^'elloua hanging gardens whicli bear testimoay 
to the skill and taste of the designers, and wliere tba 
Cnzco maize was gradually brought to perfection. Tla 
terraces are wider at the edges of the level gronnd, 
end as they ascend the mountain sides they become 
narrower tuitil the topmost terrace, some 1000 feet 
above the valley, ia scarcely two feet broad. The 
terrace walls are of rough stones, slightly inclining 
inwards, and varying in height, according to the slope 
of the mountain, from 3 to 15 feet. An azequia or 
artificial aqueduct, starting from the verge of the snow, 
is conducted tlirough the andenes, whence water is led 
along each terrace. The terraces were filled with rich 
soil, from which every stone was removed, and here 
grew the noblest of aU the varieties of Cuzco maize, 
the yurac-sara or white maize of Yucay. The palace | 
of the Yncas, high up on one of the loftier terraces, 
was surrounded by the glorious maize of Yucay, and 
had a view from its halls, quite unequalled for 
combined lovelineas and grandeur, 

I determined that tliis liietorical cereal should be 

kiitced from that beautiful valley of tbe Andes, 

■ those of the Western Himalayas. I ohtaineil 

tplies of the Cuzco maize, in several instalments, 

lough the kindness of Messrs. Antony Gilibs & Co., 

I first arriving in the end of 1874 ; and they were 

By forwarded to the Government of India. Suitable 

1 would be found in the analogous valleys of the 

Mtem Himalayas and perhaps the Nilgiris, at a 

feht of 8000 to 4000 feet above the sea. Cuzco 

e would not succeed on the plains of India, or on 

b Eastern Himalayas, where the rainfall is too great. 

ft the seeds were distributed for trial on the plains of 

, and in the Eastern Himalayas ; and elaborate 

s were written on their failure. 

pFortonatelj the Agri-Horticultural Society of India 

I Bent seeds, in October 1875, to the I'unjab for 

[ in the Western Himalayas, and Mr. Halsey of 

ihdopur reported that the maize grew to a height of 

I feet, and that several cobs arrived at full maturity. 

lonel Chamberlain, at Eanikhet, sowed 150 seeds at 

; of 5950 feet above the sea, and they all 

bated and grew to fine healthy plants 10 to 12 

i high. Of these, 118 bore exceedingly fine well- 

med cobs, and only 32 failed to bear seeds. Colonel 

mberlain added that he never tasted anything 

ter than the Cuzco maize. Lieutenant Pogson of 

ala also raised plants from 12 to 16 feet high, and one 

1 weighed as much as five grains of the ordinary 

a com, each stalk yielding four cobs. Four cobs 

t Cuzco maize were equal to 20 of common Indian 

48s Cuzeo Maize. 

com The atalk vaa found to be exceedingly nchil> 
sweet juice. 

Tlie Biiboo Milambar Moakerjee, Judge of the Ciarf 
Court of Kashmir, made some molasses from stalks <i 
Cuzco maize in 1877, and lie conceived so high &q ida 
of ita value as a sugar producer that, on Aufjust Sib. 
1877, his Highness the Maharaja of K&sluuir applied 
for 20 inaiM of seeds for triaL This qnantity was 
accordingly supplied to him. 

In a subsequent report Colonel Chamberlain Bail 
that the Cuzco maize was incomparably the finest 
variety he had ever seen, and tliat for table purpose- 
tliere -vtoa nottiiug kno^Mi to him equal to it. E< 
added that it could be used as a most excellent ixA 
nutritious food for cattle. In 1877 he was very suc- 
cessful, and was able to send 3000 acclimatised seedi 
of Cuzco maize to the Agri-Horticultural Society of 
India. The Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, 
after these trials, came to the conclusion that Cuzoo 
maize would grow -well in the bill districts, and that it 
was recommended by a double quality, producing: 
both grain and sugar. He considered that it would 
desirable to introduce it in the outer hills of the Funjatf 
and applie<i for a large quantity of fresh seeds. 

The next year Colonel Chamberlain sowed a quartei 
of an acre with 400 seeds, wliich produced 38,00d 
grains in raagnificent cobs, and 680 lbs. of green stems 
He preaaed out 640 lbs. of stems in a sugar-mill, 
boiled down the juice, wMch gave 15 strs of raw sugaii 
or 4 lbs. of refined sugar and four bottles of spiril 

Cusco Maize. 


sugar was of good market value for refining, worth 
to 14«. per cwt. If the proper methods had been 
1, from 10 to 15 Iba. of refineil sugar, instead of 4 He,, 
Id have been obtained, which is a third the quantity 
uced from sugar cane. But the sugar is an extra 
[uct. In May 1880 Captain Pogson, at Koteghur, 
Lved red, white, striped, yellow, aud purple Cuzco 
grains from Mr. Duthie of the Saharunpur 
iens, which came up well, and in numerous in- 
;ee9 the red Cuzco had hybridised with the ordinary 
tdft. The concIuBion was that Cuzco maize might 
id to improve the ordinary Indian corn by 
iridising ; as the hybrids might be stronger while 
ing the advantages of Cuzco maize. 
llTie results of the trials in suitable localities have 
that Cuzco maize flourishes in tlie Weatera 
iyas at heights from 8000 to 4000 feet, especially 
Sanikhet ; that it produces abundant seeds ; that as 
'source of food it is excellent and five times as prolific 
as ordinary maize; that the stalks produce sugar of 
good quality, and are most valuable as food for cattle ; 
and that tlie plant will be serviceable for hybridising 
with ordinary Indian corn. Thus the introduction of 
Ctuco maize into India has heen a useful and sue- 
HMBfol measure. 

^V I also determined to introduce the tpiinua (C%«i«- 
poiiunt qiiinoa) into India, It is cultivated at very 
great elevations in the I'eruvian Andes, and yields 
abundantly a small hut nutritious food grain. It 
I probable that quinua would grow well, under 


484 Quinua. 

cultit'ation, at similar heights on the Himalaya, »j 
might rield supplies of food in the lofty distiidi 
through wliich the trade routes pass to Eastern Tnrb- 
st&R and TilMst. There is a plant called Ixithu {CKm- 
podium aibam) in tlie I'linjab, resembling q^iinua, Inl 
Terr inferior to it, vhich is used for food, and aleoy 
a medicine. It grows in the plains, and is not a bl 
product. There is also an amaranth called baihiu 
there is no Indian plant occupying the position of 
ijuintia. as a source of food supply cultivated at veij 
great elevations. 

The earliest mention of the quinua grain of 
occurs in the " Cronica " of Pedro de Cieza de 
an obser^'ant old soldier, who accompanied the army 
La Gaaca in his campaign against Gonzalo Pizarro iB 
1547. He says: "There is a food called quinua, thft 
leaf of widch is like an amaranth, and there are veiy 
small seeds, sometimes n-hite and at others reddish. 
Of these seeds they make a drink, and also they eat 
them cooked, as we do rice." In another place he calla 
quinua the principal food of the people in the Collao 

The Ynca Garcilaeso de la Vega, in the firet part 
his Royal Commentaries of Peru, also mentions the 
quinua plant. " Of the grains which are cultivated 
over the face of Peru, they give the second place 
that called qxdnua by the natives. The plant on wliiclt 
it grows is very like the wild amaranth, in shape 
well as in the leaf and the flower. Buth the Indianaj 
and the Spaniards eat the tender leaves in their disheeii] 




Vrecause they axe savoury and very wholesome. They 
also eat the grain in their soups, prepared in various 
ways. The Indians also make a beven^e of the 
quinua, as they do of the maize, but only in districts 
■where maize will not grow. The native herbalists use 
the flower of tpnnita to cure some diseases. 

The brothers UUoa, in the last country, thus describe 
the qiiinua .— " It resembles a lentil in shape, but is 
much smaller and very white. "When boiled the grain 
opens, and out of it comea a spiral fibre, wliiuh appears 
like a small worm, but whiter than the husk of llie 
grain. The stem is about 3 or 4 feet in height, and 
baa a large pointed leaf. The flower is of deep red, 
and in it are contained the grains or seeds. The 
qninua is eaten boiled like rice, and has a very pleasant 
taste." ' 

Von Tschudi pronounces quinjia to be a nutritious, 

wholesome, and pleasant article of fooil. The leaves, 

1 1 before the plant attains full maturity, are eaten like 

wh. The seeds are boiled in milk, or in broth, 

I sometimes cooked vrith cheese and pepper. 

a dried stems are used as fuel. 

Quinua is cultivated in the higher ports of the Andes 

I Peru and Quito, and is the hardiest food grain in 

world, growing at greater elevations above the 

IVol of the sea. In Quichua the cultivated ]ilant is 

called quinva, the green leaves Uiecha, the wild plant 

axuT, pudding made of quinua grains piitqiK, and the 

boilud grains drie<l in the sim, and ground into cuarse 

> VUoa'i TraveU, \. p. 20U. Vehrno, Wit. de Qulbi, i. p. 51. 

488 Biblwgrap^ of 

plates, showing Uie micpoacopic structure of ti 

Bmftti, Heinrick twi. — Monographie der China. (Sa» 

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1878. Appendix B., "Chinchona Culdvatian i 

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Blue Books, Partiametitary. {East India Chituhtm^ 

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IV. >. India . 1870 to 1875. ( „ 1877. „ 190.) 

\>.ltadrat. „ „ ( „ 1S76, „ 190.) 

Bonpland. — (See Humboldt.) 

Bouchardat. — (See Bdondre.) 

Bmndis, Dr. Dittrich, PkU.D.—Tna Forest Flora 
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Bt-iqiut, P. — Traits Th^raiieutique dn Quinquina et de 
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Brffvgktim, John. — Quinologist at the Nilgiri Chinchonft 
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Fourth Report, lll.p. 188. Fifth Rei>ort, III. p. 205, 
Si.\Ui Eeport, III. p. 236; IV, //, 'J3 ; IV. p. 113; 

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IV. p. 146; rV. p. 154; IV. p. 166. Note on 
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Cmuiamine. — (See De la Condamine.) 

and Cockerell, Messrs. — Committee appointed 
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-I. Eeport on his expedition to procum 

49° Bibliogrt^^ of 

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Crwx, Svbert. — II. Iteport on his expoditioo to tbi 
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It. Markham- {Printed 1865. Aho in B. & U. 
p. 256.) 

III. Report on his second expeditaon to tl* 

Pitayo Forests, {Printed 1871. AUo in £. S. IV, 
p. 37.) 

TV. Report on his expetUtioa to obtain planta of 

the Caliaaya de Santa Y& and Carthagena Bad: 
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Abstract of the Report on the Pitayo dunchonU' 

{Edinburgh, Bot. Soc. Trans. viiL p. 299, 1866.) 

Notes BUT les plantes do Perou. (Transl.) {Btl- 

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De Cajiddle, Any. Pyram. et Alpk. — Prodromua system* 
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Notice Biir lea differenta genres et espfecesdont lei 

forces ont 6t4 confondues sous le nom de quinquioa,- 
{BiUiolh£>pu Universelle de Geneve xiv. annii 
SdeTices et arts, Geneve, 1829.) 

De la Condamine, Ck. Mar. — Sur I'arbre du Qninquinfc 
{Memoirea de FAeadimie royale de» sriencea de Parii, 
1738, iv. pp. 226-243,) 

lielation abr^gSe d'un voyage fait dans I'int^eni 

de TAm^rique mMdionale, (Paris, 1745.) 

Deiondre, Avg. et A. Bouchardat. — Quinologie. De« 
Quinquinas et des questions qui, dans I'etat pr&en| 

kde la science et du commerce, s'y rattachent avec Ifln 

the Chinchona Genus. 


plus d'actualit^. {Paris, 1854, ^'p. 48. \to, and 23 
coloured plates of Oie barks 0/ covimerce.) 

dre el Bmchardat. — Notice but les arbres de Quin- 
quina. {Joum. de Pluirm. xii. p. 505, 1835.) 
■ Note sur une nouveUe substance alcalolde d^- 
couverte dans le quina jaune. (Joum. de Pkarm. xix. 
I p. 623, XX. p. 157.) 

- Examen cMmique de plusieurs produits apparte- 
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dre, Aiu}. (flu). — Essais d'analyse qualitative et 
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MMedne, 5 Nov. 1801.) (See Souleiran.) 
■Be VtusT; Dr. W. ff.-~" De Kina Boom : uit Zuid 
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English. (Hooker's Journal of Solany, viii. p. 338 to 
347, 1856.) 
De Vrij, Dr. J. E. — De Kinakultuur op Java op hat 
einde van het jaar 18.^il, kort beachreven door Fr. 
Junghulin en J. E. de Vrij. (Nat. Tijdsckr. voor Ned. 
Ind. xxi. p. 177.) 

Sur la quinidine. (Joum. de Pharm. xxi. p. 369.) 

Acclimatation du quinquina dana I'lle de Java, 

(Moigno, Cosmos, xviii. p. 149.) 

- Bapport van het achoikundig onderzoek gedurendfs 
her jaar 1860 t«n opzigtc der Kiuacultur. (Batavia 

I Nat. Tijdsdir. xxv. ;.. 7, 1868. Do. 1861. xxv. p. 

• Berigt omtrent een sch«ikundig ondunoek van 
K Pakudiam. (Batacia Nai. Tijdschr. xxv. p. 41.) 


Bibliography of 

De Vrij, Ih. J. £. — Resultnten van het scheiknui^ 
onderzoek ten ojizichU; der klua-koltuur gedurende 
I8fi2, door Dr. J. E, de Vrij. {Btttatna A'at. TijdtAi. 
xxvi. p. 134.) 

Kioologische Stndieo. {Kaanman't THjdeckrifl nor 

PkarfnacU.Nos. i. to xxxvi. 1868 to 1880.) 

On the CMnchona Bark of Britiali India. {Phai- 

maeeutical Journal, June 1864.) 

Oo the cultivation of quinine in Java and British 

India. Translated from the Dutch, with a preface by 
Clements R. Markham. {Printal 1865, &oo,pp. 27. 
Also in B. B. I. p. 83 ; and in French in the Ann. 
Sei. Nat. (Bot.) v. p. 137.) 

On the use of quinovic acid {Ckinchotia bitter) in 

medicine. (Phamuiceutical Jmimai, July 1864.) 

On the amount of alkaloids in tlie Chinchona 

trees cultivated in Java, {Pharmaceutical Journal, 
vi'p. 15,1865.) 

On the determination of the amount of alkaloids 

in chinchona bark. (Pharmaceutical Journal, vi. p. 
50, 1865.) 

On the use of quinovine in medicine. {B. B. IV, 

p. 28.) 

The application of the molecular rotation to the 

determination of the different chinchona alkaloids. 
{Pharmaceutical Journal, ii. pp. 1—3, 521, 1871.) 

Over Cliinoidinum. {Kaanman's Tijdschrift voor 

Pharmacie. 1880,;?. 33.) 

Cinchona caloptera, (Tharmaceutical Journal, 

March 2, 1872.) 

tkt Chincfuma Genus. 


De Vrij, Dr. J. E. — Sale of Java Bark at Amsterdam 

on March 16th, 1872. (Phannaeeutical Joumai, 

Maij 25tk, 1872.) 
The separation and quantitative determination of 

the different Chinchona alkaloids. {PharmtuxiL- 

tical Joumai. p. 642, 1872.) 
Beport on an analysis of Sikkim Bark. (B. R IV. 

r. 125,) 

- et Alluard. Du pouvoir rotatoire de la quinine. 
{Pari* Acad. Sd. Compt. Raid. lix. ;». 201, 1864.) 

■ Analysis of some Chinchona bark grown in 
Jamaica. {Phanruututical Jou^-nal, Aug. 16(A, 

- Analysis of some barks of C. oficinaJU and its 
varieties cultivated at Utakamand. {Pharmaceutical 
Joumai, Sept. 6, 1873.) 

— The separation of the mixed alkaloids for Chin- 
chona hark. {PkarmaceuHeal Joumai. 21lh Sept. 

- The amorphous alkaloid in Chinchona barka. 
{Pharmaceutical Joumai. Jan. 2ith. 1874.) 

- On Quinamine. {Pharvia^xutical Joumai, Jan. 
3Ut, 1874.) 

- Analysis of some Chinchona barks cultivated 
at TJtakamand. {Pkarmaceutieal Joumai, 2nd May, 

- Remarks on Javanese Calisaya bark, and on 
Qninidine, in refutation of some statements in Dr. 
Hease's paper on the same subject. {PharmactutietU 
Journal, Dec. 2tJtk, 1874.) 

De Vrij, Dr. J. E. — East ludia Chtnchona l*i 
(^rhamwcniti'-al Jirumal, 1875.) 

On loilu-.Sulfiliate of Cfainiodine as an excdkol 

resent for the qualitative aud qusntttatire detei* 
niination of quinine, i^l'harvxarfuticai JourTiai,D<t, 
\Uh. 1875.) 

Sulpliate of Quinidine. {I'barmaeeuiical Jottmd, 

March 2Srd. 1878.) 

A fast-growing Cliincliona which pnxlncea mnci 

quinine. {PkarviaceuticMlJouriial, 13(A j'I/wt/, 1878.) 

Bijdn^ tot de konnis der Kina AJcaltndea. 

(Kaanman's Tijd»ckrift voor PharmaeU, 1857.) 

Boras Chiniodine. {Kaanmaji's Tij'dmJir^/l voor 

Pharmade, 1880, p. 45.) 

Boras Quineti. {Kaanman's Tijdschri/t rtnw 

Pharmadt, 1880,;). 47.) 

Beport on the Bengal Chincliona Febrifuge, Sept 

Ut, 1879. {Printal at the Imlia Office, 1879.) 

KiuUieher, StepJun. — Genera Plantanim secnndum 
ordines naturales deposila. (^Vindobotur 1836—48.) 

Fie. — Essai sur lea cryptogames des ecorces exotiques 
officinales. {Paris, 1834.) 

Fcrgumn, A. M. and J. — The Ceylon Directory, 1876- 
78 (Colombo, 1877). Information and correspond- 
ence respecting Chiuchona cultivation in Ceylon. 
Introduction, pagea 78 and 2615, and pages 445, 401, 
463, 490, 493, 781. 

Ffuckiger, Friedritk A. — (See ffanbuiy &ud WeddtU.) 

Fontaine. — (See La Fontaine.) 

Ocnlis, Madame la Comtcsjie dr. — "Zuma: ou la 

the Chinchona Genus. 


d&ouverte de Quinquina" (/"am, 1817). Spanish 
trauBlation : " Zuiua, 6 el descubrimiento de la 
Quina," "Novelda Peruana," por la Condesa de 
Genlis. {Pans.. 1827, 12mo. ■pp. 204.) 
Oouus, Dr. — Enaaio sobre o Chitichonino e Bobre sua 
iafliiencia na virtude da quiua e d'outra^ cascas. 
(Mem, da Acad. M. das Sdeneias de Lisboa. Tom, 
m.l812,;3p. 202-217.) 

Chrkum, K. W. van. — Reports on the Java Plantations. 
Natuurk. Tijdgehr. voor Nederl. hide xxviii. pp. 241— 
265, Report for 1864 translated into English with 
a preface by Clements E. Markliam. Printed 1867. 
Report for 1868. Printed 1870. 

Die China cultur auf Java, Leipzig, 1869, j^. 01. 

Bericht liber die cultxir der chinarindeti baume 

auf Java. Mora* I. p. 273, li. p. 193, Ui. p. 49, 
h-ip. 279, 1873. 

ffre/.— Die Fieberrinden. 1824. 

OuibouTl, if. — Histoire abrade dee drogues aimples. 
(Paris, 1836.) 

Hamke, Tkadeus. — Lista de producciones ve^talee de 
Cocliabamba. (El Eepertorio Americano, m. p. 126. 
Z(Wk/rM, 1827.) 

Hanburn, Daniel, F.R.S., and F. A. MUd.-ujer.—Vhar- 
macograpbia. A history of the principal drugs 
of vegetable origin met with in Great Britain and 
British India. Corttx Chinelunier, pp. 302 to 321, 
{MactnUlan, 1874.) 

* ■ Flora, oSm ulIgenMiDs botaniKhe Znituiig : b»tauag(^b«li ran 
L 4v KunigL Bajur fiulBaiMbeii CcBviUcluift,' ;5ia. Regenib^fg, 

Biblograpky of 

Hasdiart, Jtuttu Carl. — Veber die Kutfuhrttng ie 
Ouiiitriii<)«ii Baumes uuf Java. Mora,' xl. p. IH 

JloMkarl, JiutuK Carl. — Ueber die CliinaouUar in i» 
Gtuiiura einer Oasis ilea Algieriacher Wosteolaaiiia 
(Amn. Cwrwy. Blatt. Nat. Bui. Ver.. lS6t>, p. 1<A) 

Chinaculturauf Java. iYora.* xlix. p. 4«1; 1866| 

U. ;i. 337 : liii. p. 129 ; Iv. p. 56; Ivt p. 12. 

Hayne, Frirdr. Ootil. — Uarstellung und Beschreibniij 
der in dun Arzneykunde gtbrauehlicben GewicliM 
{Berlin, 1803-46,) B. 1, 11. B. 12 und 13 u| 
Brandt et Ratzburg ; B. 4,. auf Fr. KJdtzsch, 

//ftWf. — Dr. Oswald. — Ueber die liumuBartigen Be- 
standtheile der Chinarinden. (Joum. i/r rhar 
XXXV. p. 386. Lkhiij, Amud. ex. p. 194.) 

Beitrage ziir Kenntnisa der Chinongnipj 

(Leibuf, Annal. ex. p. 194, cxiii. p. 52, cxjv. p. 292j 

Ueber die Cliinasaure und ihre Salze. {Lid>ifi 

Annid. ex. j>, 33 ; Joum. de Pharm. xxxvi. p. 148. 

Ueber Chiucbonin. [LUbijf, Annal. c:ixii. p. 2Z&.\ 

Ueber daa neutrale CMnensulfat. (Liebig, AmmI 

cxix. p. 361.) 

Ueber Chinin und Cbinchonin. (Annal. Chtm, 

Pharm. cxxxv. p. 225, 1865.) 

Beitrag zur Chemie der Cbinabasen. {Annal 

Chan. Pfuirm. cliii. p. 47, 1870.) 

Ueber die we^e Chinarinde von Payta, {Annal. 

Chem. Pliarm. cliv. p. 287.) 

Ueber die Anwendung der Polarisation zui 

* Bm nots, p. 49S. 

the Ckinchona Genus. 


BeBtimmimg des Werthes der Chinarinden. 
(Deulseh. Cliem. Gtstll. Ber. iv. p. 692.) 
!, Dr. Oswald. — BeitrSge zur XenntnlBs der ChiDa- 
rinden. (Dmitsch. Ckcm. Gesell. Ber. iv. p. 818.) 

■ Ueber CMnamin, ein neiias CMna-alkaloid. 
(Deuisch. Chem. GegfU. Ber. v. p. 265.) 

- Studien iiber die Alkalolde der Cliinarinden. 
(^ArtTuil. Chem. P/iarm. clxvi, p. 217.) 

r Avg. i/e St. — Plantes uauelles des Brasiliens. 
(Paris, 1824.) 

Sir William J. — In Hooker's Journal of 
Botany there are several valuable Cliinchona papers 
by Dr. Spruc«, Dr. De Tries, &c. 
pbatw, Sir Josfph D., K.C.S.I., C.5. — On the C. 
officinalis, with plate. (Botanical Magazine, vol. 
Ixxxis. 1863, tab. 5364.) 

• On the C. CnOsaya, var. Josrpkiann. (Sot, Mag., 
tab. 6052.) 

■ On the C. Calisaya vera, (Bot. May., tab. 

— Generic description. (Bmth. and Hooker, Gen. 
Plant, ii. 32.) 

>ard, John Eliot, /'..fl.S.—Tllustrations of the 
Nueva Quinologia of Pavon. Folio, 163 jxiges and 
SO eotenired plates. (London, 1862.) 

- Qninology of the East Indian plantations. Folio, 
part L 43 pages, and 3 coloured plat«s exhibiting 
structure of bark. (Lmuloii., 1809.) 

- Qninology of tlie East Indian plantations. Folio. 
Parta iL and iii., coloured plates. (London, 1876.) 

2 B. 

500 Bibliography of 

Yk. {Bulletin de la Soci4U Sotani^t dt FnuL 
torn. xxii. 1875.) 
Howard, John EJiot, F.R.S. — Note but one eep^ ^ 
Cliinchona de la pronnce de Ocana. {BuUetin di iJ 
Soci^(4 Ihtaniqtie de Frmtcf, May 13, 1870.) 

On the cultivation of Chincboaa plants nndergk^- 

in England. (Phftrmarnnticat Jour7iaI, Jan. ISTi' 

■ On coppicing ChinchouaB. (Gardener^ Chmikl 

p. 418, 1874.) 

Introductory remarka to Mr, Broagfaton's papi; 

on hybridism among Chinchome, {Linnean Soeutfi 
Jmrrud (Bot.), xi. p. 474, 1871.) 

Chinchona-treea grown at Utakomand. Descrip- 
tion and analysis. (Pkarmaccutical Journal, u. p. 
361, 187^) 

Examination of the leaves of C. sueeimbra. 

{PharmaccKtical Journal, iii- p. 641. 1873.) 

Report on the Chinchona bark grown in Jamaica. 

{Pharmaccvtical Journal, iii. p. 83, 1873.) 

The Chinchona Plantations in Java. {Pharwi- 

ceutical Journal, iv. p. 21, 1874.) 

Note on Mr. Broughton's Analyses. {B. B. Vi- 

p. 50.) 

Views on the speediest means of supplying a 

cheap febrifuge to the peoi)le of India. (A B, IV. 
p. 139.) 

The supply of Chinchona bark as connected 

the present price of tininine, {PhM 
Journal, Srpt. 1877. p. 207.) 

Tlie fast-growing variety of Chischotia 

the Ckituhtma Genus. 

. — Origin of the Caiisayg. 
(Pharmtueutieal Journal, 

pubesccns. {^Pharmaceutical Journal, April 
SbwarJ.. John Bitot, F.R.i 
LfAijeriana of commerce. 
March 13, 1880.) 

CMnchona in India. {Gardeners' Chronicle, May 

17, 1879, p. 622.) 

Chincbona Ledgeriana. (GardcTiers' Ckronicle, 

Oct. ISTi.p. 457. With figure.) 

• Cliinclionas, {Gardeners' Chronicle. April 3, 

1880,;.. 427.) 
Hwmhddt, Alex. von. — Ueber die China Walder in 
Sud-Amerika. {Magasin der Gesdlschaft natur- 
[ /orachend^ Freunde za Berlin, 1807. Jakrgang i. 
' B. 57-68, «W s. 104-120,) 

- — De Distribotione geograpliica plantanim. {Paris, 


Essai sur la G^ograpkie des plant«3. {Paris, 

4to, 1807.) 

et Aiini-Bonplan'l. Plantes 6quinoxialo3, {Paris, 

1808-1809.) 2 vols. Folio. 

^fitaghuhn, Franz, arid J. C. de Vrij, — De Kina-ciiltuur 
op Java op bet einile van bet jaar 1859. {Batavia 
Nat. Tijdschr. xxi p. 177.) 

• Cultivation of the Qoina-tree in Java, 1859. 
{Sonplandia, July and Aug. 1860.) English trana- 
Ution printed 1861, at the India Office. 
■ Yearly reports for 1860 and 18(il rttspecting the 
[ oonditioa of qoinine cultivation in Java. Trana- 

502 Bibliography of 

lateil into English and printed in 1864, at tiie 
India Office. 

</iiTv/kuhn, Fram, and J. C, de Vrij. — Statement rf 
tlie increase of Chiuchona plants in Java frum Mli 
to 18C2. Tmnalated from the Dutch, and printeJ, 
with notes by Clements B. Markham, at the India 
Office in 1863. 

Jussieu, Joseph de. — li^Sexions sur deox esp^ces de 
qiiinquitia r^mment d^couvertes aux environs de 
Santa Fe. (ffistoire de la Sodeti de mMccint (it 
/•am, 1779. p. 252-263.) 

Histoire dea arbres a quinquina de Loxa. (1733, 


Karsten, Hermann. — Flone Columbia terrarumque 
adjaceutiuni specimina selects. (Berolini, 1858.) 
Folio. Coloured plates. Only Uiree parts pub- 
lished. Botanical descriptions of Cbinchonn;, witi 
plates, printed in English in 1867 at the India 
Office, with a notice of the author's travels, by 
Clements K. Markham. 

Die arzneihch n-irksamen Chinarinden Nen Gra- 
nada's. £rdm. Joum. Prak. Chem., Ixxiv. p. 66, 1858, 

Die meiliziniscben Chinarinden Neu Granada's. 

(Berlin, 1858, 8vo. 71 pages.) Translated into 
English, " Notes on the Medicinal Cliinchona barks 
of New Granada by H. Karsten," with a preface 
Clements R. Markham, in 1861, at the India 
Office. Reprinted in 1867 in " Chinchona Spedea 
of New Granada." 


rks 1 

the Chinchona. Genus.- 503 

King, Dr. Oeorge, M.D. — Report on the Chinchona 
Plantations in British Sikkim for 1871-72. {B. B. 
IV. p. 104) 

- Report for 1872-73. {B. B. IV. p. 128.) 

Report for 1873-74 {B. B. IV. p. 146.) 

Report for 1874-75. (B. B. IV. p. 164.) 

Report on manufacture of febrifuge, (B. B. IV, 

p. 171.) 

Report for 1875-76. 

Report for 1876-77. 

Report for 1877-78. 

Report for 1878-79. 

Report fur 1879-80. 

Manual of Cliinobona Cultivation in India. 

{CaUutta, 1876. Folio, pp. 80.) 

Kiotxscfi,, J. F. — {See Hayne.) Ueber die Abstammimg 
der im Handel vorkommenden Rothen Chinarinde, 
in Abkandluvtfcn dcr Konifft. Acadcm. dtr WUscn- 

^tcKa|fte^l xu. Berlin. (To/./or 1858, ^jp. 51-76. Bon- 
plandia, vol. vi p. 388. 1858.) 
nth, Carol Siffism. — Nova genera et species plant- 
anitn, quas in peregrinationtbus orbis novi collige- 
runt descripsemnt partim ad umbra verunt Amat. 
Bonpland ot Alex, de Humboldt. (Paris.) 

Synopsis Plantarum faq^uinoctialium orbis novi. 

(Paris, 1822-25.) 

I Fontaitu, Jean de. — Poeme du Quinquina et autren 
ouvrages en vers, (/"am, 1682. 12wu). ;>. 242.) 

trt-Ayhner Bourhe. — Description of the genus 
Chinchona illustrated nnth figures of all the species 


Bibliography of 

hitherto discovered, to which is prefixed Valifj 
dissertation on this genus. {LemAon, 1797.) 

LamhtTt'Aylmer Bourke. — An illuatration of the gecoi 
Chinchona, compriaing descriptionfi of all the ofBcinal 
Peruvian barks, including several new species. Baron 
de Humboldt's account of the Cliinchana forests 
of South America, and Lambert's memoir on the 
different species of Quinquina, &c. (^London, 1821.) ' 

Laubert, Oh.. Jean. — Kecherches botanitjues, chimiques 
et phanuaceutiques sur le quinquina. (Journal d« 
ntMccinc, chirurgie et phaniuvAe wMitaire. JuiUd 

Lees, Colonel Nassau. — On the experimental culture rf, 
Chinchona in the Eangra Valley. (B. B. II. pp. 
329, 340, 346.) 

lAiidley, J. — Flora Medica. A botanical account of all 
the more important plants used in medicine in 
different parts of the world, (London, 1838.) 

Linne Caro/its.— Genera Plantarum, ed. ii. (Lugduiti 
Balavontm, 1742.) 

Species Planterum, ed. i. (Holmiw, 1753.) 

Mclwr, William Graham, Superintendent of Cbinchoi 

PlanUtions on the Nilgiri Hills. (B. B. 

Report on Chinchona plantations, 1861. (B. B. L 

p. 192.) 

Eefutation of statements of Dr. Macpheraon. (B. 

B. I. p. 155.) 

Eefutation ofstatementa of Dr. Anderson. (B.B.L 

I. n. 

p. 217.) 

the Chinchona Genus* 505 

Melvor, William Oraham, — Report on Chinchona plants, 
1862. (j5. j5. I. j9. 228.) 

Report on Chinchona plants, 1863. (J5. B. II. p. 


— - Manual of Chinchona cultivation, 1864; being 
extracts from the Annual Beport for 1863-64 printed 
in pamphlet form. Paragraphs 9 to 13 and 24 to 
38 inclusive. 

Eeport on Chinchona cultivation, 1864 (J5. B, II. 

p. 160.) 

Application for a patent for his mossing system. 

{B. B. 11. p, 206.) 

Eeport on Chinchona cultivation, 1865. {B, B. III. 

p. 47.) 

Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1866. {B.B.IW. 

p. 122). 

Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1867. {B.B.lll. 

p. 175.) 

Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1868. (jB. J?. III. 

p. 209.) 
Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1869. {B.B.TN. 

p. 2.) 
Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1870. (B. B. IV. 

p. 73.) 
Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1871. {B. B. IV. 

p. 79.) 
Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1872. (B. B. IV. 

p. 110.) 
Beport on Chinchona cultivation, 1873. (B. B. IV. 

p. 159.) 

5o6 Bibliography of 

ifelvor, William GraJutm. — Iteport on Cbiucbooa cnlti- 

v-ation, 1874. 

Keport on ChinchoEa cultivation, 1875. 

MacmiHan, Dr. J. LaJcer. — On Chincliona cultivation 

- Ceylon. (I'karmatcutvxti Jaumal, AprU'20, IS', 
p. 829.) 

Macpkeraon, Dr. D., MJ). — lEapoit on a visit to Uie 
Chincliona plantations in Java. {B. B. I, p. 135.) 

Report on the Nilgiri plantations. {B. B. L 

pp. 147 and 163.) For refutation of this Keport, 
B. B. I. p. 155. 

Markham, Clementa Robtrt, C.B. — Travels in Peru and 
India while superintending the collection of Chin- 
chona plants and seeds in South America, and their 
introduction into India. Maps and Illustrations. 
8vo. pp. 572. {Murray, 18C2.) 

A Memoir of the Lady Ana de Oaorio, Countew 

of Chinchon and Vice-Queen of Peru, with a plea 
for the correct spelling of the Chinchona genus. 
Map and Illuatrations. 4to,pp. 99, (JVu&iier, 1874.) 

On the Introduction of the Chinchona plant into 

India. {Bombay Med. Phys. Soc. Tratis. vi p. 333 
and Ph ariiuuxutical Journal, iii. jj. 6 1 1 , and iv. p. 27.) 

On the supply of Quinine and the cultivation of 

Chinchona plants in India. (Journal of the Socutif 
of Arts, March 27, 1863, p. 325.) 

The Introduction of Chinchona cultivation into 

India; a reply to misBtatementa contained in an 
article in the Calcutta Review. {No. 84, Art, vi. 
p. 384, 1866.) A immphld, pp. 14. 

t}u Chtnckona Genus. 507 

Markiiam, Clrnnm-U Itobcrt, CR—The Cbinchona Species 
of New Granada, witli some account of tlie laboura 
of Dr. Mutis and Dr. Kareten. (A pamphlet, prirUed 
at the India Office in. 1866, pp. 139.) 

Sur la culture des Cliinchonaa. {Jtmm. de Pharm. 

^^.^). 17, 1866.) 

Report on the specimens of Chincliona in the 

Herbaria at Madrid. {Pamphlet, pp. 12. 1866. 
Also B. B. III. p. 7.) 

Eesultados de loa ensayoB hechoa en las Indiaa 

Britanicos aobre la cultivacion de loa drbolea de 
Caecarilla. Para el uso de los proprietaries y 
oultivadores de plantaciones en las montanas da 
Bolivia, el I'eni, Ecuador, &c {LSndres, 1867. 
pp. 32.) 

into India. (B. B. I. p. 32.) 
•^— lieport of the results of his expedition to Cara- 
' vaya. {B. B. I. p. 43.) 
t^— Report on the introduction of Chinchona plants 

into India. {B. B. I. p. 138.) 

Keporting progress, and recommending that 

charge of the Chinchona cultivation be intrusted 
to Mr. Mclvor. {B. B. I. p. 166.) 

K Memorandum on the nomenclature of C. oJ/Uinalii. 

■ (B. B. I. p. 254.) 

^^^— Keport on the Chinchona plantations in January, ' 

H 1866. {B. B. 11. p. 213,) 

^^^ Report on Chinchona c^lti^■ation in the Palnai ^| 

H Hills and Travancor. (A B. II. p. 283.) ^ 

5o8 Bibliography of 

Markham, ChmtnU Bdh&rt, CJi. — Keport on Chmcbou 
cultivation in Ceylon. (B. B. II. p. 376.) 

lleport on the Coffee-planting district of Wainad. 

{D.B. llLp.f,\.) 

(See Cross, ««n Onrkum, Juiujhuhn, Karsten, itutu, 

Planeh&n, Piif.jipig, Syrwx, WaldrU.) 

Markham, Mrs. Clmu-iUs. — InstnictionB to Mr. Prichett 
for collecting Chinchona plants in the Hnonnoo 
foreata. {B. £. 1.^.119.) 

Martiue, Karl Fr. Phil. — Beschreibung dee achten Qwti^ 
Baumes von Loxa von F. J. de Caldas, axis dem 
spanischen orig;inal -manuscript verdeiitecht Ton 
Dr. von Martiua. {Flora, 1846, n. 25.) 

Mirat ct Delens. — Dictionnaire univerael de mat^ie 
m^icale et de tli^rapeutiijue generalB. (Porv, 
1833.) Art. Qitinquina. 

MercuriiM PolUiais. — Advertiaements for sale of Peru- 
vian bark brought over by James Thompson, 
merchant of Antwerp, 1658. Noa. 422, 426, 439, 

Miqutl, Friedrich Anton WUlielm. — De ChinchonEe 
specie bus quib\isdam, adjectis iis qui£ in Javfi 
coluntur. Com men tali o ex annalibus Musei Bo- 
tanici LugJuno-Batavi exscripta. {Amstdodami, 
1869. 4to. pp. 20.) 

De aoorten van het geslacht Chinchona, die op 

Java gek^veekt worden. (Batavia Nat, Tijdachr. 
xxxi. pp. 391-409. 1870.) 

Mocm, J. C. Bemalot. — Reports on Chinchona planta- 
tions in Java. 1869-79. 

tlu Chinehona Genus. 509 

Moetis, J. C. Bemalot. — Untersuchung euiiger China- 
rinden von Java, 1868. {Flora, lii. p. 418. 1869.) 

Chemische Untersucbimg von rinder der C. 

Ccdimya. (Flora, lii. p. 529. 1869.) 

Onderzoek van eenige kina-baaten van Java. 

{Batavia Nat TijdscJir. xsxi. -p. 165. 1870.) 

Zusammensetzung des aua dem Abfall der auf 

Java gewonnen Chinatindc bereiteten Quiniutn's, 
{Flffra, liv. p. 41, 71. 1871.) 

Morton, Dr. — De universalibiia Morbia acntis. De 
cortice Peruviano, pp. 127 to 188, {London, 1692.) 

, Hugo. — Untersuchunpeii iiber die Entwicklung 
des Korkes und der Borke aiif der Rinde der baiim- 
aitigen Dicotyledonen. {Tubingen, 1836.) 

', Ger. Joh. — Amorphe Cliinine. {Utreeht Sfheik. 
tk, ill. p. 559. 1846.) 

J, Dr. Josi Cdcstino. — El arcano de la quina. Dia- 
) que contiena la parte m^dica de las cuatro 
especiea de Quinas oficinales. Obrapistuma. D&Ia 
& liiz pnblicfl, aumentada con notas, un ap^ndice 
mny interesante y un pnSlogo hishSrico el Doctor 
Don Manuel Hernandez de Gregorio, Boticario en 
la Corte. {Mculrid, 1828, 8vo, pp. 263.) 

- Tabula synoptica ad specierum generis Chin- 
chouie deterrainationem. Quinologiie j>ara qiiaita, 
continens deacriptiooes generia, apecienmi et varie- 
tatam. (Maniiseript ducwered by ClrmntU £. 
Markham, and printed in 1867, at Ike India Office.) 
The platea of Mutis were aftenranls pubUahed by 
Triana (whom see). 

510 Bibliography of 

Muiis, Dr. Joe§ CdcstiTut. — Di&rio de Santa Fe cle Bogoli 
Ma;/ 10, 1793, J\'o. 89, and Ftb. 14, 1794, A'o. 129. 

■ Mercurio Feniano de Lima, torn. lii. JVos, 60St 

609, 610, 611. (Lima, 1795.) " Obeervaciones ) 
oonociniientos de la quiiia deliidas al Dr. Don Joa 
Celestino Mutis, oomiaionado por an Majestad pai 
eete y otros important«s asuntoB." 
' ^— Menioria sobre la Quina segun loa principios dd 
Seiior ililiitis. (Analcs dc la Mistoria Natural i 
Madrid. 1809, torn, ii 196 t.l aeq.) See Zm. 

Nevins, Dr. J. Birkbech., M.D. — On tlie introduction am 
cultivation of Cliinchonain India. (Pharmaeeutie^ 
Jintmal, June 1863.) 

Oadf-mantt, A. C. — Ueber ein neues Cfaininhydiat 
{Dmisch. Cltcm. (kadi. Ber. \i. p. 1122. 1873.) 

Pasteur, Dr. Louis. — Note sur la Quinidine, (Joim. 
eU Pkarm. xxiii. p. 123, 1853.) 

Eacberches sur lea alcaloidea des quinquinas. 

{Joam. de P/iami. xxiv. p. 161.) 

Pavon, Don Jos4. — Flora Peruviana et Ghilensis. 
[Madrid, 1798-1802. Folio. 4 mis, 425 plates.) 

" Nueva Quinologia, 6 sea una Monografia de 41 

eapecies de Quinaa 6 Cascarillas, cuyo g^nero en 
Botinica Chiuchonas ; cuyas especies dilerentes, las- 
once estan ya publicadas on la Flora Peruriana, y 
las 30 ineditaa descubiertas en el y varias 
provinciaa de Quito por Don Hip61ito Ruiz, Don 
Josd Pavon, y el Discipulo de BotAnica Don Juan 
Tafalla ; y ultimamente corregidas y auuientadas 
con nuevaa obsen'aciones per Don Jos^ Pavon. 

^^P unt 

i/te Chinckona Genus. 


I Alio de 1826." This work was in manuscript 
I until 1862, when it was publislied by Mr, Howanl. 

(See Howard.) 

etier. Dr. Josrph. — Observations mSdicalea sur I'em- 

ploi (lea bases salifiables des quinquinas. (Joum, 

dc Pliarm. ™. p. 128. 1821.) 

Nouvelle analyse des especes de quinquina les 

plus employees en medecine. {Magendie, Journ. de 
FhyR. i, p. 84.) 

Note sur la dfcouverte de la Cldnchonine. 

{Jofirn. de I'har^n. is. p. 479. 1823.) 

■ Note BUT la cristallisation de la Quinine, et sur 

sa presence dans les decoctions et les extnuts 
aqueux de Quinquina. (Journ. de Pharm. xi. 
p. 249.) 
PtUeticr el J. B. Caventoii. — Reclierchea cliimiques sur 
L les Quinquinas. (Annales de Chimic, xv. p. 289, 
H 1820 ; Journ. de Pharm. vi. p. 5 ; vii. p. 49.) 
^L>^— Examen chimique du Quinquina de Carthag^ne. 
^V (Joam. de Pkann. vii. p. 101.) 

^ Examen raisonn^ des principales preparations 

^V pharmaceutiques ayant le Quinquina pour base. 
H (Journ. de Pharm. \U. p. 118.) 
^ ^ -- Notea pour faire suite aux m^moiras sur les 
quinquinas. {Journ. de Pharm. vii. p. 302.) 
Pereira, Pr. Jonathan, M.D., F.U.S. — Tlie elements of 
Materia Medica and Theraiwutics. 4th edition, 
vol. ii. Part ii. Article " Chincbona." pp. 70 to 
(Lonifmnn, 1857.) 
Chr. Hnir. — Svnopsis Plantanim 

514 Bibliography of 

chiridium botttiiicuni. {LvX. et TStbiny, IMS* 
Phabm. PhUip. — Die Delondre-Bouchardat'aohen CMct' 
Rinden, [Giasen, 1864, 8vo, jip, 75.) 

Zur.(\jiatomieeinigerChinchona-rinden. (Pharm. 

ZeiUch. R^mland, vi. y. 235, 1867.) 

De la culture des quinquinaa. {Ann. Sei. Nat. 

{Bot.), V. p. 3.) 

Plaiichan, Gvstave. — Des Quinquinas, {Parii A 
Montpellirr, 1864, 8vo, 150 pagea.) An EngU^ 
translation, under the title " Peruvian Barks," 
printed at the India Office in 1866, with a prefiu:e 
by Clements It. Markham. 

Plempius, Dr. — Peruvian! Corticis defensor repnlsus. 
{Soma. 1656.) 

Poeppig, E/hmrd. — Raise in Chile, Peru, und auf dem 
AinazoneDstrorae wahrend der jnhre 1827-1832. 
Zwdtcr Band.pp. 217-223, and pp. 257-264. Notes 
on Chinchona trees in the forests of Huannco 
and Huamaliea. This portion of the work of 
Poeppig was translated into English, with notes by 
Clements R, Markham, and printed at the India 
Office, 1861. 

Pritch^t, 8. J. — Correspondence relating to employ- 
ment to obtain plants and seeds of the grey bark 
species of Chinchona in the forests of Huanuco. 
(£. .B.I.IJ. 119.) 

Report on hia expedition into the forests 

Huanuco to collect Chinchona plants and seeds. 
{B. B. I. p. 123.) 

the Chinchona Genus. 


,i, BtTTiardini. — Opera Omnia Medica et 
ologica, J*. 123. De abusu Cliioee. Dissertatio 
^istolaris. (Editio Tertia. LoruUni, 1718.) 
ielph, Ralph. — Inquiry into the medical efBcacy of 

YeUow Bark. (Ltrndtm. 1794.) 
loctner et Sckwlles. — Systema TCgetabilium. (Stutt- 

gardtia:, 1817-20.) 
iohdt, Michael. — Monographic Chinchon«e generis 

tentamen. (Gof.liw/o'; 1804.) 
Soy^, Br. Forbes, M.J). — A manual of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics. Articlp " Chinchona." {London, 
tt7, 8i». 2nd ed. 1853. 3rd erf. 1856. Afiuri- 
■ td. hy J. Carson, M.D., Philadelphia, 1847.) 
Ihe Chinchona article was printed separately. 
- Eeports on the proposed introduction of Gbin- 
ma plants into India. (B. B. I. pp. 1, 7, 15.) 
Ehiut, Don Hipolito. — (See Favon.) Quinologia, d tratado 
del arbol de la Quina o Caacarilla. {Madrid, 1792, 
4to,^_p. 103.) 
^k> Supplemento &• la Quinologia. {Madrid, 1801. 
Hfto, pp. 154.) 

^K Son Sebastian Josef Lopez. — Defonsa y demon- 

^BtEEKion del verdadero descubridor de lae Quinas 

^RbI Beyno de Santa Fe, con varias noticias utiles de 

nte Gspecifico, en contestacion a la memoria de 

Don Francisco Antonio Zea, Su antor el mismo 

deacubridor. " Has ego Cliinchonas reperi, tulil 

ter honoree." {MadrUt, 1S02,) 

Dr. IF. — Observationg on Rwl Peruvian 
»k. {Lmdon, 1782,) 

2 L . 

5(4 Bibliography of 

SteaKiTVR, SerlhoU, Ph.J). — ^Xarrative of the voyage of 1 
H.M.S. Herald. 1845-51. {Maps and Plata, 2 wk 1 
8vo, L<mdon, 1833.) Includes a visit to the Lou 
forests. I 

Penuian bark trees and their transpIantatioD. 1 

(Intdkctval Observer, Jan. 1863.) 1 

Soiibeiran, Dr. J. Leon, et Aug^istin /Wotw/it. — De 1 
rintroduction et de racclimatatiou des Chinchouas ' 
dans les Indea Neerlandoiaes et dans les Indes 
Britanniques. {Paris, 1868, %\io,pp. 165.) 

Spruce, Dr. Richard, Ph.D. — Notes of a visit to the 
Chinchona foresta of the -weatem slope of the 
Quiteoian Andes. {Journal of the Proceedings of tht 
Linnean Society, vol. jv.) 

Keport on the expedition to procure seeds and 

plants of the Chincluma succirubra or red bark tree. 
{Printed by the India 0^, 1861. 8tw, Map and 
pp. 112; -with a note on the Map by ClemeTits S. 
Markltam. Also in B. B. I. p. 65.) 

Note on tlie proper method of cultivating Chial 

chona-trees. {B. B. I. p. 227.) 

Stvrai, Roland. — Febrifugi Peruviani Vindiciamm pan 
prior — Pulveria historiam coniplectens ejusque vi 
et proprietates exhibens. {Ddphis, 1659. 12mo.) 
Tliioaitcs, Br. George Henry Kendrick, Ph.D., F.B.S.— 
Annual reports on Chincliona cultivation in Ceyla 
{B. B. II. 371. Reports ordered by (he Legidaivi 
Coutieii to he printed, and in the Ceylon AdminitAra 
tion Reports.) 
■ Torti, Dr. — Therapeutice specialis (IVOO). 

the Chinchoiia Genus. 


Tnana, Don Jose. — Mouvelles ^tudea but les Quin- 
quinas, d'apres les materiaux pr^sent^ en 1867 a 
I'exposition univeraelle de Paris et accompf^^s de 
fac-simile dea dessins de la Quinologie de Mutia, 
siiivies de remarques but la culture des quinquinas. 
f (Paris, 1870. Folio, pp. 80, and 33 coloured plates.) 
, Jorge Juan y Antonio. — Noticias Secretas de 
i America, p. 572. On the bark trees o£ Loxa 
I (L6ndres, 1826. Folio, ;»p. 707.) 
'Tffl, Auffust. — Chinarindeu dea Wiener Grosshandels 
\ nnd der Wiener Sammlungen, (Wien. 1867, 6vo. 
IpP- 134) 
hi, Martin. — Om SUegCen Chinchona og dens Arten 
Opicest, den 26 Feb. 1790 (Skrivter af Naturhistorie- 
Belskabet). [Kidbcnluivn, 1790.) 
Walker, Captain CaviphdL — Report on the Chinchona 

pbintations on the Nllgiri Hills. July 10. 1878. 
Waiptrs, Oail. Gerard. — Kepertorium Botanicum. 

{Lipaiie, 1842^7.) 
Weddell, Dr. H. A. — Histoire Naturelle dea Quinquinas, 
ou Monographie du genre Chinchona, auiv-ie d'une 

IdeacriptioQ du genre Caacarilla et de quelquea autres 
plantea de la m6me tribu. {Paris, 1849. Folio. 
34 plates, map, pp. 108.) 
- Voyage dans le Nonl de Bolivie et dans les 
ToiaineB de Perou, (Paris, 1853.) 
— Bevoedu genre Chinchona. (Annales dcs Seiencts 
naturelUs. JuUlet 1848.) 

On the Chinchona barka. (PkarmaceiUical Journal, 

ix-p. 267. 1850.) 

2 L 2 



WfddtU. Dr. II. J.— Climcliona Calisaya. (fim 
etullcal Jmimal, ix. 1850.) 

Xutes BUT les QuuK^aiiias. (^Annalet da ScuMt 

naiurdlai, hiru tine, torn. li d xii. 1870, pp. 75.) 
"Notes OD the Quinqainas," an English translaUon 
with an introducuiry notice by ClemtMite K. 
Markliani, and notea by J. E, HowanJ, » 
printed at the 1/idia Office, 1871. 8to, ;)p. 65. 
Oermaii tranaliition by Dr. Flnckiger, " UebeisicU 
der ChincJionen von H. A. Weddell," was pnbliahsl 
at Scliatl'hauaen and Berlin in 1871. 8vo, pp. &, 
with additions and indices. 

Wood, C. H., Quinologist to the Government of I 
at the Sikkim Chiachona Plantations. B. B. IT; 
,.. 137. 

Beport on analj-ms of barfc, Aug. 1874. B. B.'^. 

T. 152. 

■ Report on manufacture of a febrifuge. B. B. iV. 

p. 171. 

The Progress of Chincbona Cultivation and Alkaloi 

Production in Bengal, (PKarmaccuttcat Jounui 
Feb. 9, 1878, p. 638.) 

Zea, Don Antonio. — Memoria sobre la qoina, se^un la 
principios del Senor Mutis. {Anales dc ffistori 
Natural de Madrid, 1800, torn. ii. p. 196 et aeq^ 
(See Mutis.) 

ZimTncr. — Becberche de la tjuinidine dans la quininti 
(Journ. Chimie Med. viii.^. 522. 1852.) 

INDEX. ^^^ 

— = 


eupply of, ill a (henp form, the 

T; on the PaloaiB, 337 

objert of chinchonu cultivation. 

t da Maria. IGT, ISO. (See 

on the Nilgiris, 416; ConimiB- 

vagta Marvt.) 

sions Id aswrtain comparative 

viilue,4l7: other alkaloidi nearly 

eAtt, 1S2 

equal to quininf?, 418 i Mf. 

rid. Father Joseph de, his lirt 

Howurd'a opinion, 419; impor- 

Ynin medicineB does not in- 

ide bark, 5. 1G4 ; mi'ntbnj 

cheap fnnn, 429: diaoovBry ot 

n^MTilU, IM: on muize in 

km, 478 

MMon, Dr., of the Sittang divi- 

Mr. Wood's plan, 430-433; Aitim 

r woo, British Burmn, id charge of 

by Mr. Whiffen. 439. (See 

Airiea, indm-robber tree of, 445 

IIouMtrd. De Vrij, BrongfiUm, 

Agadr^ 350 ; legend of, 367 

Wood. Quinlnf. Qui,,idiw. Chh- 

AgoMtyt tnultdif. 349 


Lord Maje, 427 

Alma Perdida, a Hid in the Peru- 

igriMKun of the Tnou. 479, 480 

vian*t8, 177 

AioMMt, tpmmeDs of red bark re- 

Ahmyuer. in Colombi*. 22 

ouTol hj Mr. Howard bom, 42 ; 

Atpaeai token to Anitralia by Hr. 

Dr. SpniM at, 218 

AUarta,. DonMannel, bronght the 

AUo da lot Iluaot. 101 

f!nl Kt«y birk to I-imn, 49 

AlU, (b r«b.l«. 102 

Afa>. Veraiiaa dog. 201 


Punjab. 484 

Amiranliu mudnlia. IS4. 200; 

82: diOcrmit kjada, 33: glMt 

cultivulod on Uie Palnai UllU, 

jtoU in red bark, 43 : inerMue 

»nd (Sited l^f. 310 

a yl«U nndor cnltivstlon. 32( : 

^ )1eU in Britiih Dunna, WH; 

taiue to take ohinchcma planta 

^1 siZ Jitdix. 

^H don. 17. IS : buk XnAt doKn. 

(brort. of, natfd by Dr. VMA 

^B iST, n. : iDdia-rabbcT tnJe. 144 ; 

6H : ■IpBtrnction of tree*. S9 

^H ccllMtMn of iDdu-Tubbcr in 

■ Usn of, 455, 456. 4S7: Hr. 

Cm> a Ptii. 458, 45» 

rocfii»*d from. 126 

Jobolii, b Eoimdw, Dr. SpniM at, 

Aramboli Pott. MS 

M. 818, 230 

Arapa. lake of, 206 

JM>.P^» Q.rfi.fM. (Sec 0«i. 


Turay Hills. 3.^1 

>lMWfa-mii/I<i. M7 

"Amw dr la Qmina." V<A"f 

J»)V.M<7.Ji(< 0. 25, 26. 74 

Mutiih poblishod U U«lnd. 11 

^Rut]n<« of bub, 813, 863, 408, 


416: by Mr. Bronghtan, 421-422: 

An-iiiipa, 95. 209 : ne»>pi[cr of. 

)>THr.Wuod.430. (SeefloManl, 

on the ciportstian of oMUili* 

Or Frij. AltaioUi*,Bmk:i 

treoa, 209, ». 

Aixtogoyi, Don F>mu>1 do. HU 

Jrrw. Don Pedro. CottmeAkb 

acooaot of Po{»}>tti.J43 


Arira. port for Bolivian bark, 136 

Sikkim. 389: bit death, S90; liii 

report*, 487 

tlie CattiUoa Inm belong, 411. 

Aniht. lU^on of the cliinijioiia 


bark. ) : oliincliona region of tbo 

ATtoearpm hfrnUtu, 317 

PemTian Andes, 21 : of Quindiu, 

AiambKu in Tmrancorr-. 348 

22, 210 ; jnamej acnxB Uie. 102, 

AAy Cnjvm Bark, tnde in, 437 

Aitam. The Firar doMita oulli- 

retreat of thu Antbor totom. 

VBte*1 in, 444-418, 46G 


Mr. Ledger, 213. (See Giimfrw*.) 

AvtTolu. a The dm« soothera 

341 T in Trnvancor, S*7 

Agamri, 117 

India, 289, n. 

Air^ya. BoliTian"province?iiitoa 

AttgniMge. The red bark locality 

by Dr, W<-dd.U, 03 

monUoned by Pbtod. 318 

Aximatli i/.-fl^ 289. 806; enitable 

ISO: roof of the Ynca period it, 

121 : jpicnio at, 12S : riTei itf, 

K An}M wood, 347. 444. 451 


■ Apovmx^. FamUy to vbioh 

H Bcvenil kind! of india-nibber troe* 

Baboo HilairAaT VoOit^t. 3vAgi 

■ belong. 445. 449 

in Kiu.hniir. Made molaasM 

from C'uzco maize, 482 ; appliew 

^H Index. 519 1 

^^L for CdK'o nuiixe eeeda. 

Tiition, 4le ; Qse of deoootioDa of. 

419,420 : hnrveat ii> Bikkim, 431 : 

^Kowe, Hr.. hU maidel in 

*omoeBofaupply,436,437: trade 

^■nslMta. 212 

down 0>e Anu.son, 437, n.: sale 

^^Hw, Dr. SebutiBii. work od 

^^fcnTiBn bark (1686), 487 

ami Otylo.!, 438 

WmtBa, in CejloQ, 403 

BarhCotltctuTi. (S«i Cojicon'n*rO".) 

lAaOw, Dr., hia lua of quiciae in 

Siiriie), Sir E., GoTeroorof dylon. 

tlw Niger Eipeditiou. 34 

Initialed coffee cultivation. 403 

Bnrrio^iuTO, Don Manoel. Ibe 

on of Urk inlo EnglaaO, JHT 

uuthot's host at Lampa, 1 12 


BaliM. As f<Bd gniiD. inferiof to 

quinuft, grown in Ihe Punjab, 484 

Ukdtas. Uu report od tlie e&- 

Bean in the foreat. 179 

0K7 of Mr. Broughlou's smor- 

Befaria planlct,in the Loxa Region. 

phoM quinine. 423 


Bari»i). T. U. (EatI of North- 

Aeit'eu, 487 

bcouk), m; plan of D|>eniLiaiu 

Stni rivor, reoeivee the drBinngc of 

Caravayn, 127 

Bark. Peruvian, EDO^lcdeo of, 

Be«-tMlc, 357 

Hoong the Indiaos, 5 : first euro 

Beuthaiik. Mr. C 1.U "PlnntHj 

bf, tt; cure »f the Counteu of 

Hartwegianai." 487 

Cliinclion. 10; first brouglit to 

BcHtiMk, Lortl William. In- 

Eniopo. ] 1 ; u« of, promolod bj 

IcreattKl in the project of rulli- 

TBting PeruYian bark in India. 72 

merita of, 15; improvLiloiit de- 

•tniction o( trees, 19. 41, 54, 69. 

Berg. Olto. HU Work on miero- 

Boopio Btractnre of bark. 487 

oofftj of the febrifugo principle 

BfrgcH, Uelniiob von. Hia work 

Id, 31; ohwaoteriatics of CalimyB 

on cLinehoua. 488 

buk, 30. 32: grey bark, 82; 

Bapmr riior, oaoenl of, by the 

autlior, 2BS. 356 

Lition n-BpwjIing, ia BoIiyIb. 59, 

fiO. 61 : paeked in tenm; 62 ; 

tUo grey bark inde, 51 

M. Ploochon on. 312: mauins 

Bkaaai^i rivar, 230 

tjtUna, 327, 328: coppioing 

Biipionia. 2y3, 341 

ffrteiD, 32tt, 330 : tuirvcctiug uf, 

„ xfhcarpa, 353 J 

830. 33;;. 333 : Wulnitd htrk, 363 : 

hureit in Jin. 400; ule ot. 

TunquLi, 172: Aleoton. 156: in ^ 

bom JMniiiw. 411; yield of 

the San.Ua vaUi^y, 199-, F^KM,^■ ^ 

goes, 205 ^M 

^M 5SO /M&r. 

^1 JMMi«bM,SDS 


^M BIAof/i Dcxm* w tlu Nil^ib! 

Bnadi,. Dr.. InqMotor-Ocsml -i 

^V botnltfttl *i»w, SOS 

VOMtouiItuliat iin.-.-dlb)>b. ' 

^^ naA«c>ad.3T7 

bi* articlu no tke oluiielim Inifl 

«*o<M. 313, »., 148 

In Indi«. 488 ^H 

Braraian JudiB-nibtier (ne A«fl 

C«nO; tn«ip.430 ^ 

■ Jnn. 73 

BrUjarU. 357 ■ 

■ iiab«W.'Uu. Don Jo*« Huunn, Al- 

firifHi, P.. hii work an til* p» ■ 

^1 enldii of Quiacn ; hiionler for the 

^1 AaUior*! »rrect. 196: AaUwra 

H letter to. m 

^V Aotfota. opiUl of Colombia. 43 ; 

Nilgirl HilU : hu mitnctiBi^ 1 

421 ; hia Berrtce*, 42S : hi* phbh- I 

Cio- ttl, W2 

bulc S9, 60. 61; difflcoltjr at 

enterinK, owias lo threateDol 

425; liii rt^orta wid psper* on 

cbmchooa oultiTsUoti, 4SS. 4S9 

vitliio tlio CoJiwf n regioa, 21 

BwUUra forioeea. 1U7 

BiAMann C. of WeddtU, 25, 07, 

101, 192; metwitliiBlhafonaU. 

biku oliioolioiui Bpecioj. 93; Mr. 

172 ; «Mch for. 181 

CroM at, 242, 24:J. 244, 257 

Bor>j>fc.nd, M. The compsDion of 

Bvguel and Coroetttj, cUeouiti; 

Humbnldt, S6 

Bnalysu of chin(<bona huk h), 


offieiivati^ 325 

Uoii, 397 : india-rubber tree a 



Botanical Ei:p^iHon«abQHo&,y\a.\\ 

hfira PlantnUonB. 322 

America by Uie Kmg of t^paiti. 

ButlerJlUK. 173 

20: Ud by MutiB, M; by KuU 

and Pavon, 49 

paooyicuui, 128 

Loxo, 3fi 

£tm|iu<<r, M, in tbo expedition of 


lluiiitlan. DuoheBB of; poem on ber 

Lou, 36; Mr. Crou at, asij 

uurv by tlio use of Pcruviitu 

vctrtUliou. 23e 

bark, 16 

Caid.M, Hon Frouoisco; examiuel 

Loxa foreats. 37 : hia de- 
■fptioti of the oliiochcina trees, 
d Ubonn, 38 ; 
I. diKJplo of Hutu, is : his 
Mtb, 46. 53 : born at Popayan. 

a tlie 

A de la NuuTa Granuk," ISU 
f. Mr. Cross reeta at, 257 
Calicut, tho AuUior laiuls at, 285 
Calim/a C, jie\diag jellciw b«rk; 
deuTiptiuii of Ui« buk: 30: 
tug of the word. 58, n.; 
a of, made known tbroiigb 
teake, 58 ; great demand fat, 
: legislation in Bolifia reepect- 
B bade of, 59, 60, 61 : methud 
|t packing, G2 ; Dc. WeddeU'a 
g8tkina,62: bU traiels in 
_ • Caliaaya fegiou, 63, IH, 05 : 
hia dMoripticm of the tree. 6ti ; 
of the bark, €7; ptiinta brought 
home by Dr. Weddell. G7, 68 ; 
plant* •ent to JaTa, 77: tba 
Aulhor'a arraagem^nta for ool- 
Icctiog plant*, S4 : abundant in 
CttmrBja, IIJU: £nt mot with, 
150. 158, IGl. 187: oollectioD of, 
172, 177. 178: packing of the 
collealion, 17!) : abundant on tho 
prodpice of Ccasa-sani. 180; ool- 
lection on right bank of Tambo- 
pata,lB3: aooltivated tree. 185; 
geologjr of the CaliBfa region, 
Iif7; elention, 188: climatr, 
189, 305; habitat, 190: deaoiip- 
(ion of tiM. 191 ; tarieties, 191, 
ai4 : pbmts aitahlUhcd la War- 
dian caaoa at lalaj, mi : seeda 
obtMoed b;Hr. Lei]gor,213, 311, 
Stl5 : arrival of plant* and aoHli 
In India, ^i>3. 264, 319: driul 
^mrirnvna at Kdw, 259 h. : nite 
~lr OQ tliu Nilgiri UilU, •i-M. SUi ; 

does not thrive la India, 324; 
number of plants on the Nilgiri 
UUla. 333: in Sikkim, 395: in 
Java, 408-49: in Mexico, 413, 
413: TaIuablecommerciiLllj,419: 
trade, 436, 437 : pricea, 439, (See 
BulitHana, JoMjifcinno.) 

Calimi/a moradii, native name tot 
the C. BMrinaa, 172, 185, 191 

CaliMifa de Saiitu Ft. region of, 
viaiLed by Karston, 48 : value of, 
239 : ooUei'tioQ of plants of, hy 
Mr. Cross, 244 to 248 ; descrip- 
tiuii, 249: climate, 251 ; eleva- 
tion, 248 

Cdllao, Bnix and Pavon arrive at, 
49: port uf embarkation for grey 
bark species, 93, 91, 95, 263: 
H.M.S. Vixat at, 310 

CaliiyhgUum anjatli/uiiam fpoon), 

CamplieU, Mr., hia chinchona plan- 
tation on tho Palnai Bilk. 343 

CaHahwi, variety of quinua, 4S6 

Canarum itrittam, 347 

Candolle. (Rev Ve CandtJle.) 

Ciinrlon, viiited by Jiuaieu, 18; by 
Dr. Spruce. 98, 385 

Citntle, Vinuoy, Marquia ol^ otvil 
w&ni of Pern end in bis time, 6 

CaRgallo valley. 104 

Oaiitarf, Don Pmocuoo Lope> de, 
Corrqjidor of Loia, sent bark to 
Dure the CountetsorCbiDchoD, 10 

CantM Ackira, 181 

CaiHianor, 378 : rainfall nt. 284 

CuHlkium amUUalunt, 801, 341 

Catmtdioite. Noocaaity for cultiTA- 
tion. 441 : danand. 443: variooi 
IMDS, 442, 443 : ■ourao of supply, 
444, 445: cnlUvution of Fiom 
altuliaiin Aasam, t4i!, 447, 41B: 
report by Mr. Collins. 445; jlcld 

^B 522 Index. 1 

fioin Cwhar, 44B : export trade 

frum Britiali India, 448, n. ; Bn- 

■Uian trade, 4S0 : metliml of ool- 

iNtlng, 4S7 : KTriral of planti at 

Owain-Hmu. ot biirk mlUcUt' 

Kew, 4*2 ; .ciit to CfiTlon, *«2. 

»o™unt of thorn in tlte BoHnw 

(See OuhJioa, ITm-wi, FinH 

foreaU, 53: in DoliTin. 65; h 

aliutfiH, Ctard.) 

CobMibi*. 249, 250. (Sa Jbi^ 

CarocAifo. peniiuulft (Lake Titi- 


CM>). in? 

Outia glaiMi. on the Nngitb^ Xll 

Cosw/<f, foTMt* of: plnnlfl of OiJ."- 

on the PaluRiB, 3»7 

«ay« .(* Sctnid JCiT iH. 244 : Mr. 

Qulttnau. K. de, on the Un et 

Crow in. 245 : UU jonraej, 2*8, 

Arepa, 206, n. 

247 ; eluDKtc. 2S1 

CfMJ.Ho, Don Jmui ds. BoWM 

ComcmM, SilU dc, 22 

Cnrarajii, I'eruviun proTiDca of. 

genn*, 444 

21 ; vimted b; Dr. Weddell, 03 : 

Outaiaa. Treea yielding ilO^ 

the Aolhoi prooucda to, M, 109 : 

rubber in Mexioo, Ocstnl 

geograpliioal doBi'ription, 127 : 

Amerioa, Faniuna, ««., snporidr 

doMem 1010,130; Icvoly acenoij. 

to Fin« tlattua, 445, 450 : tnd«» 

181, 13a. 138, 131) 

451 : oolleotion of plant, by Vt. 

Cross, 453, 453 ; pUnta nnt to 

the Author. 1*0,155, »., 157,193; 

India, 454: loCeylon.168: ittei 

Bpecimcng nt Eb*. 259 

tor plantnLionB, 463, 464, 469. 

Cardn^m-n oultivstion, 373, 374 


Cathua->-nk«a, mime given to in- 

Cauea ■rMej,2il 

ferior kinda of bstk. 65 

Tince of Boliria. 21; Tinted h] 

nmiw). i68, 171 

Dr. Weddell, 63; by Hr. Ledgtl 

CarAua-cnfciHi jronilB, 171 


CarAua-MiAwi e]i£«. 165 

Comnttta, 111 

Car;rfi. truei*! AJ, 228, 230 

CartJingma Jork, Mr, Cwaa's ool- 

leotion of plants riBlding. 253 to 

Cmri, Julian: young Indian iq 

2dt! : cliniale of the region, 256 : 

the Author's Bervice, 138: bi*- 

descriptioD of oountrj, 256 : ele- 

well to, 200 

TStion. 254 : tnule in, 436. (See 

CeaTd india-rubber tree, 458; oot* 

lection of planta by Mr. CrOM^ 

Cnryotu ureiia {wlm, 372 

4G1; in India; 466 

CflMpi nuige, orosied by Mr. 

Ceslon. Chinchoaa eultintioii in, 

Priti-hflt, 229, 230 

399, 402 ; distribution of planl% 

Cnsma. 471 

400. 404 ; flora of the hillt, 401 , 

coffee planting. 403 ; apread a| 

lioher, 23, 24 

obiDL'bona Giiltivniioii. 40*; eU< 


105 : ulc of buk from, 

Pirteiiiry, 194 

rjrun^Bpccioi of ohinohona, 
11; Conntrai of Chinoboo, 
ibj, 10; cullMiled by Crooi, 
qwcimeDi brought borne bj 
\ 2C0, n., 32S 

M riTN, IGi. 181 

Kuio, Colonel, of Bsnikhet. 
nte* Culca maiie, 181 ; hia 

OK, nd buk foi«bts,41 ; Dr. 

K at. 218 

■tan pUini, 111 

Nut. (Sue CUiuhiioyu.) 

Br, in AsBio. /'inu tlattiea 

llion >t, 447 [220. 222 

■, ted bu-k forote, 41, 218. 

Mria umlnfa, iodui-rtiliber 

>r Britiah Burms, 405 ; ac- 

rof, 449. 465 

Dr. Don CudUIo. oT Taya- 

iduinQHintKt. (Bee (^inua.) 
huf<. in WuQiuI, 3&M ; cLin- 
lODltintHm al, 363 
, in Waiuad, 355, sei 

Dr., bit Tiewaoo the danger 
nam, n<d bark Ibnala on the 
■ of. 41 

pRvalcQCC oT fcTer. Pnaai- 
(hat denaDd ten opium 
ke (npi'nedcd hj cbinobiinii 
NC^ 440.1.. 

■b4»: Ur. Prilcheti at, 229 
*, (ilLiK*' >tDil outtr, neu 
d,0. II. 12 

ChinfAon, Countesi of: her biith 
and parentage, S ; her monisgea, 
9 ; het ftrriTal at Lima aa Vice- 
qaeea, 9 ; caie of, bj the nee of 
PeraTtan bark, 10; briDgH P«ni- 
Tian bark to Spain, II : ber 
taoou&ora,lln.; the geaiu named 
after ber, by LiunKiu, 10, 12, 18 

Chinrhona gmui. Name gireo by 
Linnniu, 12, 18 ; con«ct spell- 
iag, 13 : fliat deaonptioD of the 
tree, 17, 1» : extent of the ofain- 
ohona r^ion, 20, SI, 22 ; Imtm 
and flowera, 23; chancteriatka, 
23: claoinratian, 25, 2S, 27; 
descnption of the btfk, 29, SO : 
di»cotery of the febritoge prin- 
ciple, 31 : organic constitDenta of 
the barb, 32: alkaloids. 33; Dr. 
Wcddell'i great work on, 04; 
c<MDpletD luivei* in Follroting 
plauta and ae^la of Toloablo 
■peciea in Brmlh America, 296, 
259; dried •pwimcna. 2£9. n. 
Mr. Howard's great work on, 314, 

See aim nnder the leTenU apertf*, 
aM]/gitali/olia, Bollriama, Cali- 

gutra, Omdaviiuea, eordtifiiUa, 
fritpa, gtatiimUfera, Jatfhiaaa, 
taHei/olia, Ltdgtriana, ImeiHt*- 

dbma. Frmriaita, PHofttuU, 

kita, nttirmbra, Vritiuaifa. 
CKimelumu BtUer. (8ee ( 

C&ffu-lowi nlt'mUoi*, inlfodiwlkn 
rMomnMiided by the Dutch, 77 ; 
nnderUb-'n in Jara, 77 to 83 : 
effort* of Dr. Boyle. 72, Si iis 


gTMt importODce, SC ; introilDCtioii 
intu ItidU uQilerUlceii bj tba 
AutlioT, 90 : hn reeolvea U> nuke 
itftGoTermneut uDderUJdiig,81 : 
gaoorsl ploo of optTHtiunB, 92, 
93 : oiil; « pnrUdn of tlie plan 
amotjdaed, 94 ; failure to furnish 
tae«na of ooiiTejing the plants 
■or<Ms the pBCiOp, 94 : olqetU of 
tliu Autbor. 96 : a cultivated tree 
\a CHrsTBjB, ISii: cultivation in 
India DDinjurTtoSoatb Aiuerico, 
2se. 267 : the Authoi'a pamphlet 
i>u obiochoiia ooltivalion for use 
In Soutli Americu, 269; Nilgiri 
Bills Mtleoted as Ihs Urat site, 
285 ; Bine Baoki od, preaouted to 
PatliitineDt,3l3: Brat sowing of 
leedi in thu Nilgiria, 317 ; plunt- 
iDg nut, it20 : improv-ement uader 
enltitatian, 324: gnut Eucoess, 
325, S26 : prirote plantatiooa 
the NUgiriB, 326; atciu lo 
oocnpied b; GoveiTUueiit plantn- 
tloDti S2T ; question of harresting 
the bark. 327; Mr. Mi-Ivor'e 
moc(dDga;sle(ii,32T, 328; coppic- 
ing BfRtem, 329, 330; ooUectiug 
and drying the bark, SSO ; hjbri- 
di8atioa,331: yield of seeds, 331 ; 
ataff on the plantatious, 332 ; 
preaent una of Nilgiri plaDtationa 
and bark crops, 332 ; total Dum- 
ber of plants OD thBXilgiria,333 ; 
proflta of oultivation on the Nil- 
giri^ 3S4; oaltiTatiDQ oD the 
Pahiai Hillfl, 342 ; on the Tmyan- 
eor Hills, 344, 345 ; in Tiunevelli, 
850 ; intho Shetvaroy Hilla, 351 ; 
in Wainad, 362, 363 ; in Coorg, 
878, 379 : failure on (ho Uahit- 
baleswftT HiUs, 385, asii; in 
llritiah Silckim, 337,388,389,391, 

S9! : number of pl&nia in JSOam, 
395; OD tb0 Khui H^l^ M, 
■•■; In Eangis, 395, a. 
by Dr. Kmg, 395; a 
Banna. 3»7. 398 ; in Ceylon, !»■ 
demand for plants in OeytO), 
400, 403, 404 : in Jftn, 408, 4«t 
in Jamaica, 409. 410. Ill ~ 
Mexico, 412 ; Itqb ottfecti, US; 
present oondition i " 

425; financial reanlto. 433, 
(See AOialoiJs. DodabeOa, } 
taUam, RungU, Orjrb*. Jf*! 

Chiiiehonidine. Coontan of Chin- 

chon, cored by, 10; ditraveiylf 

Pasleur, 32 ; dcacriptian, SS 

equal lo qninine, 34 


of (ievor with, by the Oonini^ 

don, 418 
Oiiaehoaiite,diaeovtTf,32: de«n^ 

tiun of, 33; Id grey barks,3!4: 

treatment of fevers with, by 

Oommisaion, 418; Mr. Howaid, 

on efficacy of, 419 
China. Oottun oultivation In yiiOxj 

of, 471 ; oTopa and irrigation, 471 
ChirihtuinM. Native doctors. (Bm 

Clurmtl. M. His work on th 

of chLacboiia alkuloids, 489 
Chaacho lodtatis, murdered Ml 
* Bnckhaose, 213 
Chutiu. Fnuen potatoes, 113, 175^. 

1H2; mnnufacture, 202 
Chanibanba Tiyei, 180 
Cieia da Leon, Pedro de. BIS' 

accoant of Popayan, 210 ; hi|. 

description ofguiBua, 4M 
CiiiBhona. One of the inoorMot 

ways of gpelling the oliiocholU 

genus. 12. (See Chinduma.) 

CVnAoiu. Onu oF the iDComat 
w>js (if spelling the chiQcboob 
geniu, 12. (S(w ChiiichoHa.) 
C(»iulnon.302,Sll, 371 
Clarlte, Dr., C.B. Succeeded Dr. 
Anderaon nt the Sikldm pknta- 
tioni, 390 : hii repurb, 189 
Geghom. Dr. Hugh. Accampaiued 
UteAuUior In the TmvoiKwr Hilis. 
843 : OD Eumari onltiration, 376 
OUmati* Wiyhliami, 381. 384 
Clark, Sir George. At^lcQovledR- 

Bunit of snppoit from, 91 
Gttnattt. or CliiochoBn rcgian, 
Mi of the Lou region, 236: 
Grej bnrk region, 239 ; Bed b&rk 
region, 304 ; Oalinya region, 161, 
1S9,805; o(Cii1oml>i&n ehiudioiia 
Ibtwts. 251 ; in British India, 2S2 
lo2M: oftheNilgim291, 292; 
of the Dodabettn Pluotation, 
SOO; Nirdivnttom Plantatioo, 
30«: of the PalnHi HUIa, 339; 
of TraToncoi luid TiBnevoUi. 
SIS; of Coorg, 368, 360; of the 
Mahnbalegwar Uilla, 383 : of 
Biitinh (*ikkim, !I88; of Bungbi 
in Sikkiui. 392 : of cluDchonB 
Btei in Ceylon, 105; of the 
taldi* robber rpgion of Fnri. 
4S5, uf the Plan eonit ndlej 
in Pera. i&, 170 : of Uio regioa 
of Cniou mikiwt, 480 
Coea plunt, Spucimons arat home 
b]r Jtuiita, 18; iL« usd by the 
Ynaaii. 14S; Euieodole of its lUe 
hf k KpKiiiitril, 146; legiilaliun 
loqicotiug, U7 : deaoiiptiim of 
Uki phint, 147 ; melliod of mlti- 
148: hBrrcit, 149: trade, 
t : uv by iha Poruriuu, 
riiKwof, 1S2 : the Antbut'* 
or. 153; bi<giftof,tu 

■D Indian ramilf. 205 : Mr. Crow 
procures n lopplj for bis people, 

Coaiifte, I S3 

CoBhahamiba. in Bolivia. South ex- 
treme of the Chiachona region, 
21 : de«traation of trees in, 69 

Coeheroi. (9ct> Caeheni.) 

Coekma.t/li. (SeeOnniuL) 

Coffta tdpalrii. SOI 
„ grvm^oidtt, 801 

Coffee etiltieat'oH. On the Nilgfris, 
334,- on tbepBluaiB,343;outha 
Treraneor Hill*. 340, S48 ; on 
the Sherraroy HUIb. 851; in 
Wainiid, 355, 356; supply of 
labour, 3ei : in Ooorg. 369. 370 ; 
in Ceylon, 403 

CuimifilwT. Cotton cnltiratlDn In, 

407, 475 

Collahaayat, or tuitiTe doctors. 
Aooonut of. 163 

Collat, a. C. On the bislorj of 
chiaioidine, 189 

Colliiui, Hr. His report on csoat- 
obouc-yielding Ireet, 445. 453 

Ci-lmenerii, Dr. On the danger of 
Dsiag bark. 15 

ColomMrm Barla. Region of, 43 
ciassiGcalion by Hutii, 47 ; Cm* 
■ten on, 48; meat important kinda, 
49 : arrangemoitB or ooUeeting 
plants and seeds of, 239; trade, 
436, 437. (See CalimtaJaSanfa 
F€. Oirtfta^enii BmK Pitaynuii, 

Coaaaiuitma (medienl) to aacertain 
the eunijiaratlro etHuaey of chin- 
chotiD ■UuJoids, 418, 419 
Comoriii C Hunge of ghits <]l- 

tondmg lowank, 33ti, 318 
Com-padir da Calitafx. (See 0om- 

^H 536 Index. H 

imptiacmmeiit and dalh ifl 

^H m flnt cur« by ParuvisQ buk, 6 ; 

M«.DflIIno™MMi<« ■ 

^H bl( cxpeditlou lo Sontb Americtt, 

C«»™.rfB(, vilUge oC 131 ■ 

^B 17 ; Utempt to Ulce ehiochoaa 

^1 plBbta dowD the Anmzon river. 

■ IT, 18 ; on Iko \^tX. vitne of rt^l 

Coital. An.eri»n kinda in liA, I 

■ Uiks, 41 : bU Bgsinst 

467: iDtrodactimi of Fcnmit 1 

into India, 468 ;lengt)i of rtiqiH 1 

46S: cultiTKbon in Peru. US; 

■ first lu dficrlbi' tlio Pari iudia- 

Yea ootlou. 470; Pinra roOon, 

■ mbber tree, M4 ; list of hia 

■ wotki, 4LHI 

ootI«n tree, <7«. 475 : aeeda Ml 

■ Oi»ul'»ni»x<, C. 25 : Dame giveii b; 

to India, 475; enltlntion c( 

H Uumboldt kod BoD|iluid to tlie 

Peruvian cotton in India, 478 

H C. officinalit of Liiina>UB (gee 

■ C. vfunnaliM)-. TOriety of C, 

Cox. Captain. Chinchona plantation 

■ qflirinatt'i. 325 

of, in Waiaiid, 363 

■ a-uUty teak plaDlation, S56, 357 

CrUpaC. Seeds ooll«;t<J by CrM* 

V Cotim/u. BoU?i«i villnao; abode 

for on the Ni]g:iTiB.3O0,325 

Oxnwor. (See Kunur.) 

briugi Wnrdian cases lo Venanu 

and joins Dr. Spruce. 221 1 hii 

8G8 ; olimate,369 : eotfoo cnltira- 

work in coUectiog C. necinira, 

tiou, 369. 370 ; ehbuhona tritea, 

224,225; embarks witli oollectte 

of red bark pbnti^ 226 ; employtd 

books on Coorg, 861, «. 

to coUeet aeeda of C. Q^Enaoifa, 

CopaL A gum in the Carovuyuu 

233 : his jmirney to Lnta and tiM 

foreath 185 

Siarra da Cujauil«m, 234 ; ooIlMti 

Coppifing lyOem, 829, 330 

0. ojjUinatU seed:), 23H ; Mopkyw 

0.,raiu dirtricL Oirthagena bark 

to onllect plants and aeeda ol 

obtaiued in, 251 

Pitayoforesla, 241,243; hUnJa 

Oordifalia C, 47. 2B9. 244 

able aervicea in Pitayo, 244 ; en 

pUDtation flU 254 

ployed to collect plnnta of Oali 

CbrrfoDM, Dr.. of Ambalo ; owner of 

eaya de Santa Fe, 244 : hia «ca| 

thored bark forcata, 220 

in tlie Caqneta forest*, 248 

Ctrmertii, M. iSco Huguet.) 

procurer coca for hia people, 2.18 

Cornufc and Cookerell, MM. A 

collocta plants of CerthagtB 

bark, 253-256 ; return to England; 

BnnightoD'i factor;, 423, 4S8 

257-205 ; hU views on the tteafr- 

Coro'eo. A chinobona prorince nf 

ment of plants iii Wardiaa faam. 

Boliria, 21 ; Dr. Wedddl in. 66 ; 


Index. 527 ■ 

272-276 ; fPfUBal of dao reoom- 

of, 447; oultirotiou ofqoinuaat, 

pense to. 277; his opinion of tlie 

Nedivatfam «ite. 307; Bupplied 


ooUoction of Catimoa planle on 

0«d«. Mr. Henry, of the India 

the Wbmtw of Panamft bj, *52- 

OfBcB. bringi tite qucatlon of 

of Hevea plants roand Pari, 458- 

Antlinr's notice, BO 

45B ; colleota Ccsra indin-nibber 

[^llta,161: arrival in England 

JW..™Jrt. M., 29 ; visits chinuhono 

fnrcstd of Saut.t Ana with Dr. 

lilt of bis wpofta, 489-4B0 

Weddell, es. 64 ; urged Uw im- 

ftotolart-, 21-3.341,353,381 

Ooum C(I^t:^ from the Lota region, 

t^(^e, 72 : his oorks on bark, 490. 

3ti; origin of the name, 40 ; ar- 

Ddondrf, Aug. ifiU). hla writing! OQ 

tUe obiiK'booH genua, 491 

2S3: Ctowti and Ashy Crown 

Dctm™. Bir WiUiam, Qoienot of 

taJe. 437. (See ioia, 0$a- 

Madma; his orders M to the «m 


to bo occupied by chiacbonx 

Crueero, janrno; to, 124; descrip- 

tion. 123 : Weir's retnm jonreey 

Deniion. Colonal. hU dhiuobona 

by. 201 

plantation, 32(i 

CkwWo (Of Codumit), in the 

Deuiiun. plantations at Nedlrattam. 

Haannco forests. Ruiz and Pnvoa 


at, 49; Mr. Pritcbett at. 229, 230. 

Gmmq. Ecuador ohinchona dis- 

plantation, 326 


VeaUa, ooffoo estates in Waiuad. 


OaOro. Opneral. Be>ideDt in Tn- 

De I'twr, Df„ on chinchona cul- 

»«oor. 8*7. atS 

tivation in Java, 191 

Jk Vrij, Dr. J. E„ procofd* to Java 

mim, Ckineliomi, Goto, CoWm, 

fi«*ari. «..<«.) 

Cunmma caaliim. 384 

of Java barks. 81 : his valuable 

Bid, 310,311. 315; hit analriis 

ISI, tai 

of Jamaica baik^ 410 ; aoaljK. 

(huaMaiu. (SeeMaiu.) 

of Nilgiri barks. 416; hUmethod 

of mannfacturinK a cheap cbln- 


chona alkaloid. 430. n,: on Uiaiw 

nbrAar^ lali/olia. 377 

^ftljOing. in British Sikkim ; ritna- 

^■41cin,SSB; rainMI, 388; oultira- 

491, 492, 403, 4!H 

^■Mh qf JVoM elwUM iu the Tanl 


KmUmnt BOU. in WuaaA. M 



ebf«ttM> ud olinutta, 300: mU. 
sot 1 flocK. 901, aos ; txntfKed 

with the Pajamalf of PiTD, 301 ; 
ficKt •Docea^ 3U: ftrea to be 
pluit«d. 3S7 : Kamuunam J 
Nuda in «luu^ or, 33S : preaoit 
UMk, nnmber at plaata kud bark 
eiDp,S31i a«t,33S 


Dog. (Sm ilrn.) 

Ztniby. M^ Booeiftfeil with Boii 

JloMiitra. in CejloD. 403 
l>B««aii, Dr., nigBB*ti(ni* hj, as to 

the febrifuge principlB In Pem- 

vian buk, 31 

AWwoKo, landing; the Anthor 

met b7 Mr. Holtor M, 2SS 
Edgar. Mr.. C.&l^ irpoit on indik- 

rnbber jield from Cacfau; M8 
.BImwim aonuniM. (Sn Bn^l) 
Xlmyfa Jfarwr, 157. ISO, 190 
Blava t iaa aibom Oe mvi ImO. Chin- 
oboaa ng^ion, SO : powes actom 
lbs Andea, 101; Puno. 106; 
Pan or Siuspana, 124; towm id 
the bawn of Lake Titicaea. 119 : 
ODOero, 133 ; SuodiB, 133 ; 
pHOoy-aftmana, 141 : of the 
FniomUet wliere C. Cararagemit 
fcrowi. 157 : of the CBliwya 
itgUm of l^mtwpata. 188 : of the 
led bark fureatA, 223 ; of the grey 
bnA fliieata, 2S1 : of tbe Loia 
(breati, 37 : of the Pitajo fgmts, 
241. S43 ; of the Onqneti ohin- 
ehona forert*. 248 ; of tlie Carthn- 

Rraa bark (nrewts, 254 
betta peak, 389 ; Aoeimodi 
289, H. : tTtakamaoJ. ! 
pri. 291 : Dojabetta pkoUl 
SOO: Nndiiattam, 303: Pilsti 
Hi11«. 338; Travatinir hiU«,3U; 
WaiDML352: peaka and toinuit 
Coorg. 3(i8 : Mababalenar HiU% 
383: in Sikkim. SDS: 
I Oeylnn, 400; Nitwaia B3i|iy 


Elia*. Don Doming. Great owner 

of ooltun mtatea in Pern. 470 
EmiUitier. hia acporatioii of alSal 

genera from eiiincboiu 

Gtrnara PUmlanuii, 24. 
Bng^Uiri. BoliTiaochi 

vinied by Dr. Weddell, 63 
Enftkrina tndita. 347, 353, 877 
Efet, Mount. Gliinebima nte 

Blae MouDtkins of Jamaica, 409 
Etlan^i, a lofty apnr of orh 

the Saadia valley. 142 
Eiealypti, on tbe Nilgiri HilU, 287] 

plantationa of, 294; on tbe 

nuia. 337 ; in Ceylon, 401 
Sujemo, 302. W7 
Eugenia Jambolatum, 382, 384 
Ertmt, Uoimt, height, 387, >. 
Emirt. Hr, W„ asked for the 

flnl Chinehona Blue Books, I 



Ftiirifuge, qwfiBtirm of eheapntfa 
of. 419, 428. (See Jttolutda.) 

FiAr, M.. reoommt'nded cliinobo 
caltivnllon in PrenQhoo!oniij«,7S] 
OMay on crj-ptogama growing ( 
bark,4»4. [Bee AlkaUuU) 

Frrgutiai't Ceylou Direoloiy, 494 

Feveri, preralflnce in India, n 
of botk for. 14. l:i ; prevalence In 

Wkiuad. 352, 35S, 3S9 : trcatroont 
1>7 DM of the chinohoDa iiUmlnidn, 
417; Diunber of cases tre^ited bj 
file commuBlnn, 419; prernlenre, 
428 : need for a clit»p fbbrlfogp. 
428: pouiUlit; Ihut cLinahonB 
febrift^ge inn; take the plitco nf 
opium in rare oCio ChiDO, MO, n. 
la ^lutiai, Iiidia-rabbet tr<<c nt 
HMD, 444: inferior la Eooth 
Am^cKn k>nili!,445; cultivation 
of. 415 to 44a, 4(13: deacnption, 
446: KTMl destniction of, 4M! 
idxneiai rfmlU of ohiDcIioDa cnl- 
Untiun, 435-43D 

■a of tbe Upper Andes, 102 : of 
Peru. 107 : ot llie fiifomiJfK, l.'.S ; 
of the Caliiaya furcats, 64, 167, 
169. 174, 178, 189, IM; of the 
, 2^ ; of the 
KUgIri Hills, 292. 29S : of the 
I>od>b«lt» mte. 30l,a02 : of Nedi- 
1,307: of the Hulnni Hills, 
837; of ILa TrnTanonr Hills, 317 ; 
of W«ut«l. 353: of tlie Maho- 
bdetwu Hills. 384,385: ot the 
OejloD Hill^ 401 
" TC>m FemriaHii," tlie grent work 

of Bait uid PoTon, SI 
FlMtSaer. P. A., wrivinge on the 

ohlDchonA gcniu, 4[)4 
~ (See in Fontaint.') 

. Mr. Dnvicl. on Biliiriut 
[ fomulion in tlie Andes, 187: liis 
t dMCriflion of quian&seeili, 486 
"", prepBTOIioni for, 13G: 
;;3: taarrhea. 165. 160, 
[ 167 : M vomii surrni>iide>t bf Onod, 
58. 171. 172. 
t ot pnivisiinif. 179: 
roM It river, 182: Dr. 
fr'BpnKo and Mr. Cross In the rod 

FortttM, Mr. Hia onDVejnUM of 

ten plenty from Cliinu to ladia. | 

Foureroy, Ti\„ cbamist, analjaii uf 

chitioliona bark, 31 
FtaKrprU. 364. 

Gnlliitm retiuieiiiaitum, 293 

GaiamiK, Mr., rL-vicleiit mannger ou 
the Sikkim plnntutioas. 390 

Gampoln iu Ceylon. 401 

Gorcmiaiw. (Sea Vega.) 

Giireluin (gamboge tree), 347 

Giirlitad, Mr. Cotton est«<e in 
Peru, 476 

GauUheria LttckeTUuiUii, 293, 301. 
341, 401 

Geeie. (See naallalu.) 

Gtnlu, Madame lie. Hpr norel nn 
the cure of the Cuuntesi ol 
ChiucboD, 10, 495 

QttiJoiiy and soil of tbe Calitayn 
Kegion, 1B7: of the Gre; Burk 
Region, 2:10 : of the Ilal Bwk 
BegiOD. 222: of the Xilgtri llilla, 
290 : of the Doa»b«tla siU-, IMH ; 
of Medlvatlain, 304 ; of the Puliiat 
Hilla, 339: of the Hubabtjeawar 
II ills. 383 

CMv-. Rainfall, 281: n«*nl of 
the t^isBpara gb^t, 2Aii : glilt 
leading to Colmbatrr, 205 : Si- 
glir ghlit, 297; a bn-ak tn iho 
miigB at Palghat, 38t!; Pcriako- 
lam ghtt, 337 : ghata kailing lo 
TTninud, 851; : Karknr ghtl, D.'M : 
Tnmbraohcri gliAt, »59: Pniai 
gliit. 300; SaiDpaj] gl>tt.Si)|i: 
tin>l<"r trew on the, 377 ; 
for GuUlloa iiidia-rabb«r Itmb Itt 
for»tj. of, 463, 4<14, 463 

Gihbt, Messrs, Antimj' A Co., jm- 
cute weds of Ctuoo WMte, 481 

2 k 

Gimntiitia VntltmnllSi, 293 

Cir..mhi. Don JmA do U Crat, 
rcfuml bi eolloRt f\aa'» tat >I. 
Huskul, T.'i : lib dmritig In Ihe 
TaiuliniiaU nllvy. 158. IGl : hu 
priiniiin: dUtiUar, 160; lumo 
of bi* clMrtn^, IflS : appwlcd to 
r>iT liclp, ITS : nrtnni to faia bat. 
ISO. 181 : hU profUinni nmoiiig 
■lujit, 183 : {nfonniiliaa from, on 
tbc TBrietlei of C. Oifwiyn. U'l : 
bia akum at tbe dct«rtan' of tlio 
pImoU, 107 ; Cm-well In, IVS 

OiandidiftTa, C. trade in bark eg, 51 

Qiifrin-'pfUii, ■t-Brob for oblui^oiia 
plonbi on. 384 

Onidia, S81 

Q'lnJpani dUtrid in Ataam. Onlli- 
VBtidD ur tbe Fimu dattiea, 447 

Godtirari, Vyiitr. Succeaaful use 
of air. lirougliton'i prejutnticin 
in didrict ot, 423 

G-din, t1. Id Uio npnljiion of 
CoDdumine, IT; riaiteil Limit. IS 

Gamn, Vr.. Aral lo i»>lRtetlic fpbri- 
fitge principle in cbineliona burk, 
31 : hi. »orl£, 495 

Oomphotia rhlorantkn, 181. 190 

GuMlaloor. (See GtiilaJur.) 

OorkHm. {See tan GorJiim.) 

Gotn/pium Bnrhadmtr, ooltoa ot 
Pom, i72 

Grant, Mr., bia coffee eBtuleinT»- 
tsncor, 348 

Graiihidex. growing on gtoy barks, 

Gregorio, Don HodiiaI. Editor of 
the "Arca-no de la Qtiiua'' ot 
Until, 17 

Grey Barht of HuAnnro diKareiy, 
40; colleolfdbyEoiKsnd Puvon, 
50: by Tufidla, 51 : trade. 51 ; 
Dr. Poeppig, on 53, 54 ; origin of 

Mine. S5: yield, S5; 
•pecies. Si -. ammgeniculi t 
Odllcctiiu; pUnta an,l Mel 
climate, 229 ; aceda cfiUed 
Mr. Pritcbett, 229. 230: 
330 : elention, 331 : arrii 
vhiIb in India, 201, Slfi; ir 
n^lwt or, in India, 324 : 
yield nf qainidinev under ca 

OnimiUti elomgntd, 301 : on 

OtutiaettM tanrtum (Pi^o St>i'<' 
tree), ISO 

GuaiHieai. Pnm of, otnased tij Mt. 

<riiRn'ij|. MuBion of Leoos Indiana 
Dr. WeddeU ax. 65 

Gaaj/nquit, port of tbe rod bnrk, 42, 
437 ; and of the orown barka. 93. 
225 : Mr. Croas at, 226, 227, 233, 
842: trade in bark, 437. ». 

Giuif/coehea, Dr., Corn of Sondia. 
An old friend, 133 

Gudainr. in South-east Wunad. 
Diijpensnry at, 358, 3S9 

Gwilvurf, SL, work on Pemiian 
burk, 495 

Glint (rasa, Anatralian. On tbe 
Nilgiria, 287; on tlie Palnain, 
S37 ; at Nowera Elira in Ci-ybn. 

GuHfUly-iaauti in Wainuil, SCO 

HainJrf, Tliaddeos, final tn cult a(- 
tentinu lo C. Calimjim 59, 495 

Bak-ijala. ChinchotuplautalioDin 
Ceylon. 399, 402 

fl..[f/..i,Viic»ijnt (&66Wood,SirC^ 

Haltey, Mr., of Maltdopur. Bepori 


Index. 531 1 

//og?, Sir James, Bart, acknon- 

ledgiQciit of support from, 31 

BsnuMrnin fjteCTwm, an indift-mb- 

flwier, Sir Joseph D., reMored the 

bei tree of Brazil, 458 

llrwrff»ffo/iMr*, 327-330 

at named by Liniunuii, 36 : gr©«t 

the Dutch GovorumeDt lo colltot 

memoirg 00 chinchona species. 


B-nth AmericB,T3. 129; species 

JZ01.W, Sir William, great aulrt- 


ance received from. 92, 2M; 

7*; his travels, 75: bU ■voyage 

homPeraloJavmTS: liii selec- 

Croae, 99, SU ; stronglj !□ fiiTOOr 

tion of Bites for plnotntions in 

J«»«,77.7STliatof his puhlini. 

Cejion, 399; articles on the 

chiuBhoDtt genua iu his Journal, 



iToofter, plantation at Paifclm, asif 


fl..rne/«, 164, 176 

Hoaani, Sir. John Eliot, F.R S., bw - 

ebonft oUtololdH by, 32 

report on red berki, 42, 43; 

Imriqwt, Clem-nte, & Bilivinn 

named the t'. Peruwnn.i, 55: 


8IU: drew np instrnctions fin- 

430: list of lii« piibUoitiotiii o>i 

Mr. Cthm, 242: reeuived dried 


sperimci.s fmm rritchott and 

^ABM«kulf<sa.iodU-nibbcr ttve of 

U» AmMona, 414 : iuperior lo tho 

his Mrriew, HI4 ; his wirks on 

FUn* f^'utim. 445,430; spedex. 

453; climate of Kgion. 4.15: 

his anivlyarfl of b.^rka, 313: 

nwthMl of eolleoling rubber, 45U, 

analyds of ffaiiiad l«rks, 363 ; 

nnilygis of Ceylon hark, 40!l: 

< OnM. 45B: nrrivBl of plsotB in 

aiiHlysis of Nilgiri birks, 410; 

Ceyl™. *6Z ; iu Ii.dia, 465 

rep(c*ont.-d the nowwity for 

HUr«,AiiK. do Pt, Plnnle* iiinelleR 

aacertiiining; tho oompwntiTS 

do. BiBdlieiiB, 4SI7 

value of alkalrads, 417: lt>t of 

Hlfcr, Mr., muDsgor Knil uwnual- 

phonagonns.497— .Wl 


i/««ft-„yM-A«rt., oleariug In thu 

iMAiyit n-gion. Ruofnll. 164 : ru 

Tauibopata TBltoy, lUl 

WwiATiV", rl»rr. t»l 

«T; •nilBblBforgrowibofCim.-o 

IIu.JI.-t:: KW« of tiie Al.des. 201 . 

owitt, IRl : for <|ultiui>, 4sa 


53* ^«*»^- ^1 

province. W; Bxpbrod by Be- 

Tnemt Irtt, ISS, 190 ^M 


Mian cent. (8«i .¥«(».) ^ 

B»nnta. 21 

mgrtinut iwcof biiTlt.7; chincboDa 

I,.m Oiatricl, Cartl>a«tm boik A \ 

pnninTO in Pmi. 21, 49; Rua 

tained &om, 25^ | 

ftnd Pavtin ttt, 11* : buk oT, 55: 

Ipimaa, 2!)3 1 

Mt. PrileLctt mt, 2SS, 229 

IiUty. port for tlie Caliaaja ■peciN. | 

ffuaranJo. 42, 33. 220 

93 : ptanu wtabliabed in Wrfbii 1 

Bimri-imaTi, rivtr, u trib^fr? of 

caKi at, 2US; ditBoultiM «iUi 

the Bstidia, liS, 154, 156, 158 

matta-pata, 107 

2ff7 ; attempt to deatroj li.e pl»U 

aunlun, or inccnM tree, 153, 190, 

at. 210 


Ittmandra aevminala. 301. 317 

Hurtop» tree, the Cm^fiHa moff- 

Bf/min, 171. 175. 1S9 

Jam. Ferariau obinchona roreit,Sl 

flumWdl, AleiftDdet ron. on the 

picjudii-e of the Indiuu ogainit 


bark. 7 ; remarka on the Bbscnce 

of cliinchona Ireei in Maii«s22. 

412 ; g«ve the name oT C. Con- 

cliona seeds Bent to. 409; mwl 

UnnS)ua,3ti: hJBHocountof Loxa 

oljincliCTia oultiiratinn, 41fl: aH 

and nomhw of planta. 411 ; mI 

dcBlrurtinn of trere, 70 ; at Popn- 

nfbark, 411, 438 

ynn. viailed Puna-, 2-10; hu 

/npura. <Sm Cni/urfd.") 

genna, 501 


Hume, Mr. A. 0., C.B., on Ibe 

oliona into, 73; trnTal of obln 

bis Tiowg on liie urgeocj of 

cbona plants at, 76; seleetion < 

anpplyiog a cheap febrifuge to 

site, 77; progreiw under Q 

the people of India, 128, 43» 

Jungbubn. 79, 80, 81, 82 1 pg 

SybridiMtion of chinchona. 331 

chase of Calisaja set ds fnrai Ml 

„ ofCoico maize, 483 

Ledger, for. 215. 2)14; trandi 

BipaeuiMlictynn raocUum, 307, n.. 

Uoiis of Beports. 311; cxehanf 

337, 341, S71 

of planU with Britisli lDdIa.SU 


Buperinlandents of. 407: enltifl 

ntx WighUana. 292, 301 

Dmal>er of plants. 109 ; bark ha 

Impctien>, 203 ; name of Nilgiti 

vest. 109 ; alf of bark ttrm. 49 

from blao flower of, 289. ti. 

J«>ma'^ Mr, G. &.. iu durge 4 


ohiucfaoDa cultivatioo in Juoajoa, 
ijuttrpeque VnllejiiD Peru, cotton 
culU«utiou, 471 

ini{t«, cured b; Peruvian berk, G ; 
promoteltieuu-uf burk, \i. (Seu 

, Shrub variety ot C. 
Caiitayit. named after Jusaioa, 
19 ; Wflilell's Koount of, m, 67 ; 
fint seen b; UieAutbnr, 137, 140, 
157, 193 : size, 194 ; collectioD of, 
1^5, 19» : elcTntion, 1&7 

Aa^uAfl, Dt., iu cliarge of oUn- 
eLoQft plonUliniui in Java, 79; 
hit miiitttkra, 82 : bU death, 83; 
tnuuladoDof hisReporta,311,n. : 
hi* pabUcBtiona, 501 

iHrfM MHHieipahi. Tlieir func- 
Udm, 135, 197, 200, !09 

kwtah M. Uia evidunoe leapcct- 
log Uie flnt Jeauit cnred hj bark, 
6: in the expedition of Cando- 
nine, 17 : hii travels and dvatti, 
IS, 19 ; tlie Jotefhiaaa rariely u( 
C- Calituya. oami^ after him, 19, 
08 ; hia works on the ohiocbonB 

XaOoli Garden. 397 
P(*k, 809 
rip diatrict in jUoin). Fiem 
Mm plantation in, 447 
mdawiL, at Luwu Palnaia, 338, 

Manekingiitga Peak, height, 387. n. 

^Mfr, iu i^fjlim. aoa. 401. 40i 

■Mlpn Vallej, rhliichoQa plniita- 

tlMi of Colonel Nnasau L««, 


Xantu, lail« inttruoted in c!ii»- 

eollivatiaii b; Ur. HoItot, 

,197: cliinchona planting uadei- 

tukcn by, S98 
Karkar ghll, louding to Soutli-etut 

Wainaii, 35l> 
KartUii. Dr. His vnluable work on 

tbe chine bona region of Colombia, 

48 ; hij renuirtia on the destrua- 

tion of trues, 71 : ut Popajan, 240 ; 

tranaktion of his iiolei on chin- 

chona trees, 312, a02 
£iuAinir,r'QltiT'BliuDof Cnzeo maiie 

in, 482 
Kaceri Bivcr, source, legend, 366, ' 

3«7 ; ford. 373 
£«U«-. Fraiiz. His aooonnt of Pari 

iodii-nlbber, 450 
KA'c. (Sea Aimirnnlh.) 
A'riD Gardens, great afaistancs 

received from, 02, 20S, 311 ; arrival 

of iniliu-rubbiir plants at, 402 
KJuui Hills, oliiaehoDO plaalstlon 

on, 395, H. 
Kilijniiton pUinlatioa at Nedi- 

Ki'uj, Dr., superintendent of chin- 
oliona onltlvation in British 
Bikkim, on harvesting bark. 330; I 
iu rhuTgo of Sikkim ptanlntjon^ i 
390; LU demnption ot the. A 
Ilungbi vallej, 391; his Chin- ] 
ehona Munuol, 39G, 5U3; vulue I 
of hi« serviocs, 434 ; bis Beports, i 
Kluli^. Dr. Uii dasaiflDatioQ of I 
genera allied toehinrhoun, 23. n. ; { 
his oMDj OQ chincbone, 24 : liia 
paper d«icriblng rod bark, 12. 503 
EalvkanuU, statluu on the Polnnl 

Uilla, !t37 
Kufii^iW, atation on the Nilgirii, 

Kutmiilu. in Cuylim, 403 
Eritkna Birer, touroe, S82 


5J+ _ Indac. \ 

KM RiTW. In A»m. FieMM tla*- 

£aJW.»nBoUTi>. fSee Fsbj^,,/.} 

A'umoWcdtivaUou. »T5 

fiollria. 21; lulivv pWe of Ibt 

jLoiufoA H>11>. vio» or. 280. 2Ka : 

cbinchuiM I'UnlBtion on, 82C^ 

ill .UiHlonini-ot, Si- 

A'uHft, lit., l>io writings on tUo 

v«j». 13£l, HJ.15.\I9S 

chlnulKJua geniu, 503 

i<i*.;ii.(fct« rma/onu, 301. SOS, Wl 

Ku«ur. itntion cm tl<e Nilgiris. 291. 

301)1 KDDcrj ana tdtuatioD. 2aS 

cli'ma. 24, 166. <•, 181 

Laubert. M . un the vkluu of P«ru- 

Z«U»b, cuItiTated on the Pb1i»1 

viuu bark, 34 : hii work. 504 

Hills, S40 

I-ebonu, el.iufhona plaiiU at, 3S0 

£af.oiir «>)>i>Iv inWaiuiu], 36t 

Ueo iflrfioN*, 05 

/.arMBi River, in CiirarBj-a, 154,155 

Ledgrr. Charles, Hid zcnloua oo- 

Andes. 102. 104, 111 

ia the CaliiaiTB region of Can- 

iurfu*. Buggoited euilivation of 

into Aiutrallo. 213: his meuDioi. 

qiiiuuu along trnde route, 186 

L.<iU»lfraiai, geDtiii allied to chin- ■ 

215 : great raloe of hla scrvicei^ 

eiioimi, tormod by KlotMcli. 23,n,. 

216, 272.280: pnnrlase of tiia 


seedn, 215, 204 : urgent kpplioi- 

£.1 F..n(a(tie, lii» poem on the 

caliona to t]>B India Office far 

Tirtuea of PeiuvJBD bark, IG, 503 

l^yer.tomia mcr^rpa (.ben-leak). 

twioe refueed, 280 


Zxihadi, in Soath Woinnd, 3S9 

Java, 408, 409 

Leei, Colonel Nassan, his cliinchona 

vution, 471 

eiprriraent in the Kaiigra waller. 

LambrrI, A. B., writings on tbe 

395, n., 504 

Lampa. 112 

quirniu Rt, 4B6 

L<i»c<:olaln, C-, a hjltrid produced 

on the Nilgiria. 331 

tliu ivord, 187, n. 

Lanei/olia, C, of Mutls, 47. 239 ; 

Imn. {See Ciexa ib Leon.) 

Dr. Kurutcn on, 48 ; pla.iU sent 
to Juvfc 77; site for, on the 
Niltpri8.300; in Java, 409 

Letinge, Mr., collector of Madiu^ 

tivftlion on the Poliuii HjUb, 


tree, 445 

Li.i<a, capital of Pera, arrival of 

Laudtlipi, 179 

Boin^ttud Pavon ol, 49, 50; 


IDCTcbaiit of, exploied Hiudiii?o 
fbrnit 51. (See JWowy linta.) 

Dr. Spruce's he«d-qaarter« 
in Ibe red berk toieat, £2U; Dr. 
Sprnca Brrlvea at, 221 ; Cross 
MTives at, 231 ; view from, •i'H -. 
Dork of oollecting pluiM at, 

■et. Dr., President of Boliria. 
llu deereu against Fltu, 108 
idfejr. Dr.. "□ tliu necesiFil; for 
ligkt and sir, !□ tlie Rronth of 
pIftnU, 323; \ai Flora SIftiiea. 

Jla, rbinchona pUntatioD 
on Ibe HahubalcHwai Hilli^, SgG 
I, Domed t!ie chinohonn 
8, 10. 13, 18, and Uie C. 
cflcinalu spevies, 36 ; bia Getwn 

il^ubtmbar Jlliiigla. (See Bam- 


V in, 218 

UoUa foitwU, Dr. 

"■ ""nn* ItiTtr, in Canva^ra, 
101), lUl 

a tribatar; of tlie 
euMlia, H» 




^fipamwha. legend of, 367 
~ trtamno, Don NaicinO. Approred 
the iuln>'iiieli<in of chiiiohuiui 
ODltlratlon into India, 'iGU 

Induns of, acquainted wiUi 
bbrifage qnalitiia of bark, S : 
lauiiMcripl at, on tbo Brst oure 
bj Pcnivian bark, found bj 
OondaiiiJiM^ (1 1 Conduuiue at, 17 ; 
dltttohoiia roieata. 21 : rliincbolia, 
ngion of, and its crown barks, 
88j BvooDDt of, by Huiuboldi, 

3T: b).CBldaB,39; bjHuia and 
Pavon, 311; improvidrat dcstnio- 
lion of treo, 41; olinmte, 236: 
Mr. Cross's eipediiioa to. 233 
L«e«uir, Had Birk Fohests, 218 
/.ucunuB/oWa.C.atS. 80,81, 2ac,n.; 
Hpooiniens brou^bt liomo bj Cioss, 
2ti(), n. 
Lugo. CurdiiiHl de. Promoted tUe 
use of burk in Europe, 14 

Mrlror, Mr. W. G. On tlie use 
of Wanlinii cases, 261, 282; in 
pliiirgw of tlie Government jmr- 
dens on tlie Nilj^rie, 285 : meeU 
tie Autbor at Edivanua, 285; 
gardens luid out bj, 296; sp- 
lecle.1 tlie Dodobetia site. 299, 
302; supehotendeDtorcliiiicbotia 
culLivuliou on the NUgiri Hills. 
315,316; bis methiid of sowing- 
SID ; of planting out, 32u ; his 
mostingsyBleni, 327, 328; iwuds 
cbincliona plnnU to Sikkiui, 3SD : 
instmoted EHnn ladi, in ohin- 
obona cultivation, 397; iiii 
dMtUi.332; Ktate of thi' pbrnu- 
UMii since lii> deiitli, 42S ; bis 
Beportaon chinohona cultivaliun. 
and Alanua], SOS, 506 
Macmillun, Blr. J. L., on uhinrhona 

oulllvation in Cejkin, 401, M)6 

MeSicol, Mr., in charge of Uak* 

t;ala cbiiiebona jilautation In 

Ceyloii, 400 

MarjAerton, Dr., reports on Java and 

Nllgiri planwtmiu, 5(H! 
Uaila'jiuear, iudia-nibbcr ttM of. 

JlfuJii'd, visits of the Aallkiir to 
I examine Herbaria, 312, 507 
Madura, colion ouUiiallou 


JfnhobalMuar Rilh, piMUIon and 
pleviiliori,380,383; tconery.SSI : 
ftiaple, SHI: eeology. B83 1 di- 
lute. 383; don. Sti4, 385; 
uaiuiled Tiir chluohoiw outti«a- 
tlrm. 38S : failuto of Uio planta- 
tion. 386 

Jlfiiku-/ni{ni-|f)r> pcdc. In Tinne- 
Tclll. Sit) 

MahdoiMr, ISl 

iiaist, Cvtfo, eiirlirat Dutioe or, 477 : 
jla iue> Id Pern, 478; oultiTstioa 
in Pcra, 479, 480; wefllem Hiini- 
layu Blul Nilgiris mitnblo (br 
growtli oT. 481; Mr. Halsey'a 
UepoH. iSl : cultiTBted by Culo- 
uel ChamberlaiD, 481 ; and b; 
Lieal. PugHOD, 481; sogar madu 
frniu, !□ ludi*, 482; valuable an 
food Tor caltlf, 4B3; Kiid for 
L^bridiaing, 483 

JVn^urli Ptak, on the Nilgiris, 235, 

STuWw Gmm(. 285 ; Tiow of, 286 

ISatacolat, &xel oiico by PcriiTtan 
burk at, <i : Coadumitio nt, 7 

Miilrvlm-penlli on tbe Muliabatea- 

Malniaiy^oT Lower Patnai Hili«, 338 

MaUbij, Mr., Bcddont at Travati- 
oor; iottodnecd chinDhuuBCulti- 

Xanuiiii, Mannul Incra, a^rvuDt I'f 

Mr. Ledger. 213 ; coUL-cIad Ciili- 

sttya Buedfl, 214, 408 ; his cruid 

treatmont and death, 215 

Mamnr^. Mr. Ledger baw (he C. 

Caluiiva on banks of, 213 
3lana«tau!aiii, cupiUil of Wainad, 
355, 356, SCO 

Ifdni^abr, the port of Coorg, 371 

llaiigltt, Mr, R. D., sfkoowle'lg- 
muDt of auppuit from, 31 

JKinAaf Glaiimii, Ceuni ia&- 
mbbcr tree, 458; cnllvMirni If 
Mr. Cmus 461 ; atriTal at ~ 
and in Ceflon, 4«2 

JtruB. Ur. Gusta*. in clia^ « 
India-rubW mltivation. 447,411 

aranurl. (See JTumani.) 

Jfunii/arfar* of febrifii^ 
422, 423, 430. 431. 432 

Mapiri River, in Bolivia, b ffivn Jri 
by Dr. WeddtU. 63 

MoTcapala, Peruvian chia^iaia 
fonaU, 21 ; nnnlor of Hr. Btcfc- 
hoaae in, 213,11. 

Markham. Clementd B.. list of hJI 
wri tings on the obinohooa 

Markham, Mn. Clemeulti, ■ 
panied tlie Author, and ramaiiicd 
at Ateqaipii to <x 
■pondence, 95, 101 ; Bopplied 
detailed inBtructioiu for the oul- 
lectioD of giey bark species, and 
ftands to Mr. Prilcbetl. 228, 508 

Markham PianlBtion at Nedivat- 

Martd, Don Manuel, a uiiscbicvoiii 
ohntBOter, 129 ; his plot working^ 
135; development of hla pIot| 
IS7 : hia Aon, 138 ; lying in wait 
at Cracero, 201, SOS 

Jtfarfin and Birhle, Measrs, leiM 
of india-rubber in Tcapnr, 446 

Harlinei, on experleni'od auBBTil- 
lero and guide, 161 : luid served 
Dr.Wfddell, 162; hii mefuIneBa, 
1(16: hia knowledge of plants, 
174; his name lor a snail, 180; 
hia naiaeB of Cnlisaya varieliea, 
ISI, 131 ; visit to his fiunily. ISl ; 
furcwell to, 138 
Marfiuf, Dr., descriptioo of 
cliiocLona trees, SOS 


Index. 537 f 

*n.tu«fa., pMi^-Re or, 157; 

01 of a mu'le in. Ift9 ' 

CoMom, 413; progress, 414; 

rypilfe, ou the TmvuTWor HILb, 

indiu-rubber supply from, 444 

iftoJUIia nOagiraax. 292, 301, 311. 


Icxico. 412 

dis>x.verecl by Taflaiu. 51 ; buk 

wmflion, Emperor of Mwiioo, 

trade, 51 ; aorouut of, 57 ; Wed- 

dall'i muntion of, in Bolivia, GS, 

blDcbuun pUntation ia Hezion, 

67; in Ibe Tambiqiiita fareeU, 

12 ; his iohunian murder, and 

171, 175; po«iti<in, ItCJ; Bfowi 

nuM rivpis, 190; aevn b; Hi. 

yo, Rail of. Lid plau) for improv- 

at Kew, 259, n. ; oiimate. 305; 

iUtmVj of tlie YncsB, buk not 

Ktda of, sovD in tlie Nilgirii, 

I lists of.5: iu use bj IndJaus 

317 ; lite for, ou the NUgtrii, 

ri'eni,113,lG3: uatiTe docion 

298, 804: nnmber on the JHl- 

I Peru, 163. (See Jttaf»i<Jt.) 

girii, 333; in British SlkUm. 

wfamoow, genemUy found with 

390, 395; in Java, 409; in 

ilaehotia, SO, 22, 112, 2:10, 

Jamaica, 407; analysii in Slk- 

B ; on the Nilgirii, 293, 302. 

kirn, 430. (See Grty Bark.) 

ir7, 308 IfiAtfkia. aiid &>»r< 

MJ : OB the TmvMicor ^Ul^ 

Jf.-««o /«!,«, IW, 181 

847: in Waiiud. 333; in Coorg, 

STI : MnhaUluttwer Uill«, 384 ; 

l-alDaiMUls. 341 

iaCeylo.1. 4U1 

Mi-i^tl, U.. wriiliigs ou tho cbin- 

JM^r, IVriiviim pnel, bis " Dtt^ 

alious gcHUE. SU« 

rfWo-.- 112 

dfiwi. Don Klauutl, the AutUar*! 

reports, Ac,, 508, iW 

VaO. at Sandia, 133; Kgruemeut 

MolU. (See tidiitit.1 o^U.) 

with. 201 

430; quiuuniwiHls shipped from. 

mitliini mwlimlo, M8 


Hm^riut rolHiew, Bmt ados of 

Monif. Ur., bis pun^lmse of 

* bark •arcrtisod iu, MS 

L<Hlg«-| Caliuya smiIs, 21.1, 



Mtth&a, npitol of Coorg, 'MS 


Mf^iro. UumU.ldt'1 remarlu on th<« 

MoHooau, 341 

Monte Ahierto, cotton estata la 
Pbtu. 473, 474 1 


538 i^i^^x- \ 

JT^rine. 302, 341 

hi>c>wl«ilj(iiiuiil o( aupjiort from, 
JHouon, grey buk formts of, SI 

ifyrtui. 302 

Xaga ma*. The Fieun djuOia in, 

aforoA,. vuri^ty of C. CWwOfo, 


172, 185. lUl 

Nanyituttri, in TinneTclli, 340 

C. onoM, 17G 

Jrof^ciN, Mr.., her .Lmdwn* pl«nte- 

the Nilgirii, 332 I 

ti»n, 327 

Au-no, TOttOQ cultivation in Fin..! 

aforton. Dr., ou PeniTkn Imrk, 008 

471 J 

.ViMWng >y«(em. 32T. 328 

"Jfoaiy Linta" btiik, export and 

303.304: eleiratirm above th»M 

volae, J37 

Motetoto. uatir« Dune of C. n»- 

climate. 306: Sora,307: smocQ 

rrantha. IBO 

309: planting out, 320: gm 

Afojrur, RiTer, 289. 290. 803 

■uoceK, 325 : area to be plaolalK 


ali 332 ; present area aiid numfa 

Mulli. (See Sd,in«, moBt.) 

of planto. 332: bark cn^, 301 

ooBl, 833 

Mnlia, grey bark fonat, 50 

Nde-J,^, 357 

XeUU fNilgiri). 203, n. 

BoliriB. IU8 : great aiw of UIi- 

Netf Gnnadian bark trade, 438 

rnyii trees id. 191 

Neaiil, M>., EesWent at Tromna 

Kangpu, in Sikkim, 391. 804, 395 

aT.»(^ Mr., asked for tbe 4th 

vatiou. S49 

and 5tli Cbiucboiut Blue Bonke, 

AVvi'nt, Dr. J. Girkheck, hii arttol 


XalU, Don Jose Celestino, on the 

A'cynt, Dr., of Uuarando. Owih 

coneol way of spelling the cMu- 

of Bed Bark forests, 220 

Meara-ma, Castillo* tree nboua 

and early life, 43: amral in 

in, 451 

Boatb AmeriiA, 44 ; at l^e bend 

.\.«,iQiin, Dr.. dieooTered cocaia 

of a botuQicftl eipiditiim in New 


Graimda, liis kbonrs. 44: his 

A'ulo, SeHoT, inoharge orcliinoha 

death iit Bogola,45; bU conlro- 

oullivation in Mexico, 413, 414 

Tmiaa, 43: bU diMipK 46; 

MlgiH HitU. in &.utbem Indl 

his work on the chinuhnua genus 

and claasificntiou, 47: species 

aeeda, 263, 264: wlwted u t 

fint locality for obinohomi onl 

cation of hU work, 312; bU 

writings, 5t», 510 

highest penk, 280; bko, 289 

^^^^M J 

/luiar. 539 ■ 

g«ologT. 290 r ii>il. £» ; cliciKO, 

luB. *(». W3; in Jtn. «19; in 

£91, ^2: rainUI. 291^ a-ra. 

M^k'^ 112. 113 - the nk^ »Ii>- 

SOZ, 293 : tLnl EpgEi^ allien. 

*i 1= «t>i o fnnif re fclly, in Indift. 

■ K4 : GoTeroiMBl gMtleni, itf6; 

1 1 ;< ; saalTw bj Jlr- Bro«^ton, 


S8S: nettK 293. «.:■!• of biA 

btun, 438 ; >iuUble for fRtwth of 

0,im^itammina,k^9omiatt, ' 

Outoo maiie. 4SI. (S«e DMfoWte. 

Jntftfo. C. of Houmro. ]ritUliig 
e»j Wfc. 50, b: Uwfe, 51; 
dMmpUcti, 57: towd bj Mf. 

ftJre ib fteoe. 440. ». 

393. »4l. S47; in WuMd. S33. 

Omimtkm, GoIomI Denim'* ^iD- 

lallr. Hov.-anl.25II; =itefi.r, on 

the Nilsiri*. 299: in Ttnttaoa. 

'■ir,: in Jamaicft, 409 

NilgirU, 290, ^ 

.■ ';.) 

Ouifluiw. Dr.. on a uuw obiniik- 

■:raraEi;ya. hill ibtion mC«T' 

hydMt. 510 

lau, 4DL 

Oeala, C. in tlie Calisafa IbrcMa. 

Mentioned by Weddcll. 07 ; wrak 

Otmota. C, wen br Mr. Prltohett, 

of ooUeotiag planli of, 1(18, 17<s 

229; •prcimeiu givea to Ur. 

177, 1S4, 185, 11)3 

Uamrd. 2<;D 

Ooo* (UiutO l»r>cn>M>, n edible 

Pablo. peeSnwItw.) 

not. 113. 202 

ajJirinatiM. C. 10, 18; longtheonly 

from, 437 

kmd kii.i«Q to boUmi^ 19; 

Facras {MinwM Ingm). 107, IBl 

.^iVL-n bj LiqiiKos. and restored 

plant rein by the Author at, 110, 

f.i.;i-oIleotion of aceiig, 223, 238 ; 


i.bilttt and «>il, 235; elinmle. 

PiuM, Angelino, an Indian miile- 

- ■<■> ■ flum of the (uKHla, 237, 

tcct: Oie Author'd couiponioQ 

-■->l : arrival of the senUs in India, 

aoroes the Anjes, 202 

201, BIO; plauKng oHt, 822; 

PiAhud, M., GoTemor-Qeneral of 

ailm on the Nilgiria. 299; 

floiuUliing at Dadal>etta, 321; 

die oomoiitlalofe of »arictiea, 325 ; 

7b ; given tlio charge of the Juv* 

liigliBF sites of the NUgirii, 331 : 

number on the NilgirU, 333; 

Hasskarl, and brooghl to Jam. 

uuDib«r iu Sikkim, SUS ; in Ce;- 

71 ; proved to bo worlliloM, Bl ; 


nuned hj Mr. Bonid, 81 ; c«l- 
UTktiaD in Jbtb, 407 
AtHra, wkteriUl. 200 ; tnndlcr'* 
tangahnr, 303 ; elunebaiw pUn- 
tUiOD. 326: Broi to be pUnted, 
St7: Ur. BaiTo»iindui^p,332: 
pKMnl ue> Hid noiBber of 
pUutik 333 ; buk crop ud eott, 

FqjsMlM, gamj DplBiids of Pern, 


■, IM; 


tatim, 155; clioMte, IH: o 
pwcd with the NQgJri mU<,S98, 
301 ; comiiBred with bill timcti 

Palghat, ■ btv»k in the werten 

P^ltailamga, red baA ragion, 218 
■ iWm treu, Cbimd with obinoboQii, 
20: io the TuabopaU tatetta, 
169 ; CarjotA nreiu. 372 

Fulnoi ifrli*. S36; iMccot to, 377: 
Kii], 339; florm, 337, 341 ; pnd- 
tion, 33S : and elerslion, S38 : 
diiuDtc 339; ehiuchoiia coltica- 
tion, 342. 343 

Pole Santo tree, 180 

Piiijxt, cotton ciilti?atioii at, in 
Feru, 470 

Panama, collection of CiulitliMt 
planU m iAhmoa of, 452, 453 

Panrf-jHinli. (Bud LariandrtL) 

Pari, india-rubber, the beit kind, 
441: climate, 455: jield, 4Sfj ; 
toutbod of coIltcUni;, 457. (See 

PaHhuatta. (8oe Flamingo.) 
Paenjhra LtKhenaMii, 293, 302, 

Paitgar, H.,discoTerer of qninidine 
and cbinchonidine, 32 : his pub- 
licalioni, 510 

Poito, 240 

Pata it CaBinoM, D 

ratraat, gnarj eipansei m 

PatrarfoBa, 110 
Pauraiiampu, Ptfratian ctiincbcU J 

Piin», Don 3rm(, or 
of tpelling the etioehona g( 
12: deKriW] the Lou ctai»f 
choDB foreatB, 39 : aent bo 
I of red baric. 41 ; 
Apeditinn to I'ern.lS; I 
chjnchotw Bpeoiee coUertrd ifi I 
50; great botaotcsl work of.Sli I 
Ted bark localities mentioned bf. r 
218; his "Nnew Qnino)agi>i'* | 
[mbliabed by Ur. HD«atd,SUir 
Ilia writings. 510 
Pafta, port of, for orown hark, 19, 
93; export of barb, 43^: of 
ootion, 471 
PtceariH, 184 
PtOetier and CaTcntoti, diMOTelf 
of quinine bf . 31 ; of ariuino, 31 
hid writings oik the cbinchtn 
genun, 911 
Piradeniya, garden 
393; Sonth Am 
mbbor IreoB sent b . 
Pcm'ni.Dr. HisJIfafaria MrdUo, Sit 
Piriakotam ebit, 337 
Periar River, souroea nnesploiofl, 

336.343 ^ 

Ftriar ghat. leading to 1 

Wainad, 360 
Pepper cvUicalioa In Malabar, 3)T 

Permanallf, a peak of the Palnl 

Peru, liDance miniBter of, m 
the exportation of Chinabn 


Index. 54^^^ 

Ut*. 267, 26S: tbe Autbor's 

Cross. 241: Croea'a Kec.nd ex- 

mphlet 00 cbinchnaa oultiva- 

pedition to. 242 ; olimate, 214 

n. fw the UM- of the people of. 

Filayo larft. trade. 43ll 

B; ooast voiles or, 4G9; cotton 

ittiTatinn in. 4B9-473 

of, 471 

iPMnbarit. (SeeBarft.) 

of bin work on Peruviun barks. 

312. 312 


» girU. Ill; furmor popula- 

Hi, 118 ; in the Aullior'a Bcrvice, 


M: their cluirBCl^r. 200: ate 

Phnl<>;o<il. (SeeChi'ndbuMibi- 

: «x», 151: noblo ouoHuot, 


Plempiui. on enomy to Ihe use of 

InK. Mamas,; i*™™, tfui-j«, 

bark. 15 


■vuno. C, a fcre; bnik species 

Inijlaus uKoiliat the nsc of bflrk, 

UBod b7 Mr. Howard. 57 : seen 

7: an anthoritj tm the grey 

r Mr. Prilchet., 228 ; ^>eci»enB 

bark species. 53; bit remarks 

(fan to Mr. Howard, 2G0. n. ; cli- 

n.le.305; uto for.o.. Uie Nilgiri 

tnnsUtion of tiii notei ou ohin- 

■ HUli, 39S. 301 

obona trees, 312. 518 

Pan.™™ wrfton. (See Cbfton.) 

Pogtm. Lt, reports on Cuaco main 

FJni^w. Dr., writing, on the ohjn- 

481, 483 

ohoDk pvtma, St2 

Tollar,. a wild tribe on Uio Palnai 

VhuMdo. cLinoIiona onllivatioo at. 

Ui!K 340 

iD Uriliab Burma. 3U7 

i'oon iparx. 377 

i*fl;<w. pray bulh foreats. 50 

Stmm^. Don Pablo, eub-prefect 

HF-tf Oua*»ri. 125 

foro»l8. 22: first accoimla of. 

^DMMMlBlfa, penni nntnod by Dr. 

240: position. 241: Sir. Cross 

8l, 243, 244, 253 

Preanntr, dlrliton, JaTa, 407 


PHh'heU, Mr. Services engnged to 

^H>'*>'^ 1" ^« Trarunoor Ililb. 

clb-cl plantd and seodg of tbe 

irrejf bark .peoiea. JOO; prooeols 


lo HniiQuro, 2:!8; ™llocU girjr 

^^^■BIK C, 4!l. 23t). 241 : Croa'a 

bark leeila an<l plan(^ 220. 230; 

^^^Kbo or planU an<l lecU, 

bio re|)nrt. 23... 512; «»lu« of 

^■■^nl or piaaU and M-eds 

bis aernoM, 232, 273; rsoom. 

^■P IndJJk, 264. 819: number or 

pooae. 27ii 

^^Mnl* "h Ibe \ ilgiri UilU, 333 

Piyekoiria bimUxtta. 301 

^■k|W/<M»t«, 239, 240 : vUltcd b; 

Ptibaeau, C, jiM\Dg uifline, 32, 


543 Indtx. H 

7*. I7C. 184, ins ; a hjrbria pro- 

qninine in ealtivated* 117; 

duMd on tlw Nilgiru, 10 called. 

tri«tmunt of fcvera vitli. 1^ ttt 


CoiimiiMion.418. (S«« Zi'mmtJ 

V^M.ra. 114 

P«Ut<i urn,. (See Poinni flitf..) 

PumitiwAa rorerts, Di. SproM in. 

hy Dr. Buikie in the K^ 


expediUnn, »4 ; lar^e perctWip 

J>VR.. oitT. aronint of. lOS 

enltivated barka, 417; trcatmat 

l*»rari volaino, 241 

oTfemn with, by (J.e Comiiii«iMi, 

418: iUlittlw of denuiiidlbr.ta 

Giii>>iU del CiirpU. S28 

IlritiOi India. 435, 438; Aim' 

/■Miiflw-i. in CeyloD, Ml, 403 

fiitonu, SIM 

eurfiuar tPMB. 114, 204 

guiann, IS7 

«»«*«.., 90. 115 : •* Fa- 

ropi." Biing iu the. 112; 

Gnuumu of Don Jnan de Vc«n. 

11 ; imporlBDoe of n knowledge 

of. 166 : naniM for maize and id 

0«,-™> Arid. Dr. D« Vrij oa nn 

prodDcts iu, 4TH, 479i nnmes of 

of, 402 

Qiiinito und food mode &om, 485. 


17 : name, 33, n. (See Bark.) 

QuiHua iCIitm-podium qu{«u,), 

in tbe red l>arl[ ofBritiBb Silikim, 

430 : tte VriJB p»per on. 493 

BriUsh Indi.., 477, 4S9; ill hfir- 

(^ina-^mna, natiTO name of Peru- 

tmy, 484. 485: VfUnnhlo for cnl- 

vian bark, 5 

Q«.«i.u. Andes of, 22. 240 

seala aent to IihIIs, 486 

(3«;W«, village in Bolivia, abode of 

Vrij to a cheap form of chiuchona 

febrifuge, 4il2, n. ; munufacture 


in British Sibkiin, 4^1 ; ueo aid 

Quit}n. Santo*, a youna Indian 

eEBcacj. 432. 433, 434 1 mnnufn<>- 

in tlioAtilhor'asecriue, 138; biie> 

tnre bj Mr. Wldffen. 4:M 

well to, 200 

Quinidiat. diaoOTery by Paatcnr, 

0«.>pifla, 182, 486 

qnininB, 84 ; yirfd In C. Pita- 

meridian ut, 17 

gtntit, 239 : yield of. from the 

grey bark epeoiea, under culti- 

Pagf, cultiTOted on ti.e rnJnai*. 

vation, 324; pnslominoncc over 

340 ; iu Kumari clcuritige, 373 

^^ Index. 543 1 

^Bft|/bU, in Britieh Inrlui, <tisM- 

^^Pltifni, 282'2»^ ; in tlie <lry bsl Is. 

^^p8; »t Glierra on tlio KhnBt 


^^BQU, S8t: at BomW, 2S4: 

^^Egng west coast or India, 284 ; 

tion n.lled BaJniftdea, 32fl ; prioeg 

^K the NilKiris, 291 : at Datjt- 

fotobbd by hia barkd, 439 

^■h^ 88S : nt Bdtiicbi. 392. 393 

lUAhichiUl eaUte in Ceylon, chin. 

^^^Stt*iiA, Dr., agiiinat tbe nee of 

chona pki.tB on, 400 

^^Kffian bark. 15.513 

^^■fa Bitra. 124, 208 

vsltam plantation. 3^2 

■^^fa duKutonitn, SSI, 3S4 

Roi!,urgh. Dr., flamed tlie ngmeao- 

■i^BoKflUx^. Bucceaa of caltiratioD of 

rf,V(jrt.« "f Wallidi Chincho«a 

Cnzro Tiiaixe ul, 481 

tjcrlm, 307, n. ; gsTo name to 

Rammala trrei, in Java, 77, 78 

Fieut (lattiea, 444 

■pmiiuena tont home by Pavon, 

41: spcci-oPDi. recaivod by Mr. 

taken by bini, 87; their naiil of 

HnWHfcl, 42: first broqghl to 

Buceoss, 87, 88; hia work* and 

England, 42 ;, its nclmeea in 

dentil, 8!) 

slkoloiilB. 43; eiport from South 

liabia mr'li/olia, 203, n„ 302 

AnKaico. 437. (See Saecimbm, 

IiM<. dt an,, first cftllo.1 nttentioa 

Sprwi, Crutf.) 

tA tbe bark foreata of Upper Pern, 

BcfpA. Ralph. <a "yellow bark," 



Euit, Don Hippolito, on the correct 

Bemijia, genua allied to Cbinohona, 

spelling of the oliiacliona guuos, 


foreslB,a9;biBwritine«.513. (See 


region, 49 

Rail. Don Sebaaliau Jnt£ Lopei, 

CTapher, a disoiple of Motis, 46 

tho chinchouB foreets of Now 

-'..«*«, a Kusaian chemist, on alyais 

Granwin, 45, 513 

nf PeruvLiin bwk by, 31 


h|M1; in Ceylon, 401 

plaalBlii.ii in. MSa; deaoriptioD 

HbA). (8eeXaVfn.) 

by.Dr. King, 391 to 394 ; oUmato, 

392: Mr. Wood at, 430 

^niUDin, 393, 395 

Rangjo etream, 391 

^^HHr^ nroUen, patiEiigo nf in Pera, 

tHpieola FfTaHMa,\12 

^■^Ok 111, 117, 2nG, 207: Tam1». 

Rj/aag atruoDi. in Sikkim, 391, 395 

^^Rite, 170; wadiug across, I8U; 

St. miaire. (See lliLtifB, St) 

■ 544 ^«^- 1 

^M Sale»do.OcAmf>l.Vi:rmi».iimauiUa 

&>n>HtHn,DT.BettboU. Onofgw 1 

for Lni» hark trcai, 32J, oil 1 

^■^ upon ehtmliona |ilitnU,21U.8tM 

B^in. Annaiid. hi. inT«ti|flia \ 

^^k_ 9»^i e^^^ 3^ 

^^H ^^HOriplion at, 183; Iho people, 

^^r 'IM: clinitto, 136; iwtnrn to. 

robber, 455 

1 1». 200 : fliwl departure from. 

B^ao. or wildemeM in Brwil. Iff 

SOI : riicror. U2, 143. IM. 150 

SrvaUct. PrUo, > iul In tl>f 

Saikta Ana. Purntiui cUurbuiia 

Anllior-B •erri™, 12«. 136. Vi. 

r<woD.2I.!li:i: Tidied by Wed- 

(urrii-B the Uait, 1G3: peaawii 

doU Hiid Dolondrv, tS.1 

by way of Cruoeio with Wrii, 

&n infoBio. Tivet. n-A bMk forwU 

201 ; nrriToa at Arcquipn. Se 

dnug banki ot, 41 ; Inoulily 

Sha/lfhuni, Beenad Eati ol, uD llw 

origiiuiUr mmtioDed by P«t™, 

n'soofPeroriimbBrk. 14 

21S; oullectioo or >ecd« 01,225 

filoJa* in the Nilgirii^ 2S«; Oaa 

Ba» Jori. TilligB. 134 

or, 293 

&». Jua„ dd On,, liiited by Dr. 


WedJell. GH; dut^Dt Tiew of. 

£<>r ghiit, 297. 309 

112,143; Mr. Ledger bL 213 

SiUi'm, Brltiab. Poailj<>D, 8»7: 

San hurtnia River, 154, 156 

clinial«, 3S8; tbincLonn pimtt 

&lnh> iH*«, lai 

Amtit Jlbrta, hUli nf. U>d noTthem 

fnrmed, 389 ; nnnibOT of plwH 

31>5: quinoloeiat i.p|kmdM. 423: 

!2 ; Mr. Weir at, 27S 

&IN A'iro/o*. port of, iu Pern, 470 

InidB, 4»1, 433; Eole ot buk 

San Bmium. Iu8 

Imni. 438, 439 

Sun Sibaitiau. in Colombia, Hr. 

Silurian farmution in tbo And 

Cnw lit. 214. 253 


San Xarier, cotton eatftte in Peru, 

Sina, 75, 157 


SinrhiU monntun. first dte 

BanUileriin. Don Mignel, hia me- 

moiial on tUe buk trade, 13 


Bapota flingoida>, 292, SOI 

SijAonia. (Bee iJemi.) 

AniuUoy Hill,., ohinchon* •» 

H ai>d Gnceilaaso de U Vega, lli4 

tatioQ on. 343 

■ SdHndfr-. Dr., observalions ijn red 

Simj-arn gliit, aerent of, 28S. SI 

■ b«rk.5l3 

6Vlt»n[f spnr, iu KikUin. 39S 

■ SekhMM tnUff, cure f>« voandu, 1&4 

&)/f Colombmn (>arA, 49 (sw Gpll 

■ &Tpbir«lnla, C, 23. 2G. 74 

Won (»rfc) : trade, 436 

Soil: (See Groloifv.) 

■ Fon^te in Britieli Bumu. \ao- 

Srionum/emr, 293. S02 

^M motes (^tiiiichoDu cultitalion, 39T 

„ IndicuM, 353, 401 

■Sa. (See ifdiutnmasec) 

•inin. Dr. J. Leon, work on 

I inliodilction of cbincbonacul- 

Ltion into IdiIIb and Jkva, S14 

w. Dr. RioliDtd, Flul.D., on 

prejndiac of natiTe:* in Rcua- 

' Bgainift the uae of bark. 7 : 

■erriccB engaged far the col- 

iMloQ uf ceeds and pbintH of 

~ leeinibra, W : bis birtli and 

tout adeotiflc labourB, 98: 

■tUinnieiiU, 99; bin first 

to Uie uliiaobona foreatii, 

for plants. 2t9; 

I wilh 


I »d buk foreertB, 220; 
Bum*, 220 ; joined b; Oroee at 
iiuon, 221 ; ilescription of red 
»A trees. Sa3, 221; collect 
Mds ftt 8nn Antonio, 225; his 
keteotologiail obaervBtioo*, 22H, 
'H ; grrat tkIuo of bis Bervioes, 
17, 271 ; ponialent refuul of 
WMDpHnBe to, by Uio India 
IBoe, ST2, 273 ; list of liia onn- 
Ibntiona to sdonce, 273, n.. 
'1, a., 511 ; pension at length 
partiBUy granted b>, 275; liia 
3 planting out. 822: an 
Mltliorily on tbe Hevea geniw, 
' ; lii* report on tbe ootlou of 

Lord, tbe finst Seercluy of 
for India, approved tbe 
Bil of tbe Author for intro- 
~ dneing olilneliona cullivation into 
India, 91 
Slipa grhn. (See I'liiu,) 
BUrUn^, Mr., liia ooltuo ertale in 
tti. 476 

, Mr., hii account of the 
a tteuUnta ut Dritiafa 

Sturm, Boluid, a. 

Buennira, C, omitted iuWeddBU'a 
Btai obimificatioD, 25 ; nftmed by 
PaTon. 42 ; Hrrangomenti for eo\- 
Wting plaata and eeeds of, 95; 
limit* of the Bpecies. 217 ; locali- 
ties, 218; habitat, 319; negotia- 
tions wilh ownvrs of foreaU, 220 ; 
soil and aspect, 222 : cliiiutte, SIM ; 
etevatioii, 223 : beauty of the 
trees, 221 ; collection of pUnts, 
224; and teeds, 225 ; dried speci- 
mens at Kc«, 239, n. ; arrival of 
plantK and seeds in India, 2(S4. 
317 i site for, on the Nilgiris, 298 ; 
olimste auitable for, 301 ; im- 
proved yield under oultivatiOD. 
334; sproieB preponderates on 
the Nilgiria. 331 ; number on the 
Nilgiiis. 333; on tbe Fiilnat*. 
342; on the TmvanoOT Hills. 
345 : in Tinnevelli, S50 ; in Wui- 
nod, 362, 3ti3 ; on tbe Hahaba- 
leswar Hills, 3S6 ; in SIkklm. 
B8!<, 390. 395 : in Bnnna, 397. 
398; in Ceylon, 400; great lao- 
cew in Ceylon. 104.405; in Java. 
409; in Jamaica, 409; inUesioa. 
412, 113; the best specive for 
India. 419 ; analysis by Mr. 
Howanl and Dr. Do Vrij, IIG; 
by Mr. Brougbton, 121 : gnnlysiti 
in Sihkim. 430 
Sugar, made from Cuico rnaile. in 

India, 182 
SulUvan, Kir., Unt to seUla on the 

Kilgiri nillt. 294 
Sultan't battery, in Woinad, S39 
Sumpana faw. 121 
Bt/lria, village near Pupayan. 241, 

212. 213 
SympfocespWrAro, 232, 301,^41,101 
2 V 



ri0Ai, Don Jrut, eoUMgae of 

Bull ui'l l-KToa. W 
Talbor, Sii Babutt, aoont of pro- 

iwrtni; PeruTinn liuk bought 
Dom, hr tbo Klag dT Fnace, 
Taulxijnta fomU in 0>ntTaji>>. 
vlailul bf Dr. Wodilell. 63; tint 
of, ISA; UinmiU't olsMing in 
lh« •nl]ty. IS9; Hamu, till; 
inliftliiUnta. IKl : citoiit of cti- 
iJowUoD. 187: geolPgy. I&7; 
rlvrr, 165 ; fttlampla to at-u, 170 ; 
tnurJi (miUiii, 17S: pmtmge of. 
182, 183 
Tiim)Hv^A«W Bhtt. in a Waiud, 

Tangarara. in the Chi» V»llej-, 

Piru. 473 
Taivor, cotton onlUvmtion in. 475 
Tagior. Dr.. of BiobMnbti, auislaiit 

to Dr. 8pru(w. TiO 
Taga-taj/a tarn, 104, 30S 
Tw-jjIohU, maveyimoe ef, bcm 

CkiDa to luili^ 260 
Teak plunlofiDM, 656, SS7 
Tintbui loJ»5, in TinMTiilli, S49 
Teni e/Datjaiog. (Si-B Darjaing.) 
Tvrminalia Catappa. 3i7 ; chebula, 

357 ; roWoeeo, 357 
Tejrimanii, M. Haaskul'i oolleogae 

in Jam, 77 
Tapur. ia AMam, aijte of Fimt 

diutiea tree al, 44G 
ThamlomigDet, chiuchona plonla' 

ti(.D ID Burmik. 398 
ThoBuon, Mr. Hubert, in dinrge of 
obiiicbuiukcultivatiaDin JuuHioL, 
Thwaitrt, Mr^ Director of the P^ri- 
UeuljB, gardens io Ceylon, 399; 
mp<'ttDtuads cbittclionii i^uttiva- 
lion, 100; Jiia raporU, M4 

nn. <SMr« 

Tiiurtpalra. 102 

TirmevtUi, vhtnehaam cnltinliM,^ 
349, SH: (mil 

Tipitani, rlTM fo BcdiriB.docenM 

by Dr. Weddell. 6S. 65 
TiipHOara, 105 

ruto. nlley In Sikkim. 3^, SI 
Titieaai Tjilte. 101, 107, 110, tUt^ 

flrot siKht of, lOS 
J^adaa, pocoliar fomuitiuD in Jm. 1 

To-W on the Nilgiri^ 294, 309 
roifuiiHiiiniaf, liighert ]«*k m 

CoorK, 366, 368 
Toledo AUo de. pMu on the Andc 

Tormia .Atfatua, n ligbt bin' 

flower, SS6. 348 
Torofa. 102 
Torli, Dr., in hTour of the nn al 

luirk in feven, 15; hia moAK 



Toungluto, in British Banna, ol 

chona cultivation, 397 
Traranair, re^on for chiachm 

planting, 343; obinchona c 

vntioa nnderlikken by Gove 

ucnt 344, 345 ; flora of Ihe h 

IVtunu, Don Jose; publiaitlan of 

coloured drawings of Uutis, by, 

47, 48, 312, !•- 
Trichomanet nuMoidei, a ftirn tut 

K'fora diacoTered in Peru, 178, a> 
TWranumuaay, 349 
IVHxtUa, in Poru, cotton ooltlvaUon, 



Index. 547 ^ 

wii. Ton, IdB deBcription of 

hU reports on the Java planta- 



the Jata plantations, 407 

Uo, native name ofC. Innei/oJia, 

Fan ri'enAowfl, Dr.. eiperiouoe in 

OBeofqaiDetuiD, 438 

pii (Bupimto Ffrunana), 172, 

Farofft'ri. or PaUni Hilh, 338 


Vfiga, Ynco GtmiilosBu de la, Peru- 

vian burk not in liin liot of Ynca 

■ponpu, Puruviao cliinobona 

medicines, 5, 164; lui aoecdite 

orinwi, 21; aeeda oolleolod 

of tbe use of cook, 146 ; meotiona 

•rs bj M. Has»karl, 74, 79 

477, 478: hie doMmption of 

[mica. 450 

qninna, 484 

W, the Brothere, on the destrac- 

Vega, Dr. Don Juan de. phyBieinu 

Hon of Urk treee, 1!), 54, 70: 

to tbe CuantesB of Cbinchon, 10 : 

jtheii account of, 240; 

sale of bark by, U 

Ihdr dcficriptiun of quinuu, 465: 

Ibeir RUuirks on tlie diincbona 

Weir fur BtrtioB in collecting 

genus, 515 

chinolioaa planm, 77 

MM River, 254, 255 

reniaan. HiTor, 220 : Cmas brings ' 

solo, iodiit-rubbor (reo of Borneo, 

the Wardan naoa to. 221 ; Dr. 


(htriiiga, a, in tba forasti near 


(«xa, Sti : apeciea of Pnron, 37 : 

Varde PaUaya, native name of C, 

Mwoinit of tr.«i, 40, 41 ; nearl; 

micraaUo, lt>fl. 100 

kto tbe Nilgici plantutioiu b; Mr. 

Yicui.,.. 124, 203. ^8«. Pae'^ 

Uomid: ita arriral iu [ndia. 



Virull-i.h»i,irr. 124 

kfaMwixIun tbe Nilgiria; arrJTd 

Vig^. Mr., visited Popayan, 340 

hMMB at, 294: dcBcription, 295; 

tbe Antlior's sprricc. 138 : recon- 

gudeita. 29B; experimeat in 

BUnCioturinK qninium, 420 ; 

belp. 175: not retumed. 17a : 

Mr. Bronghlon «t, 421 

fiuBWcll to. 200 

^gdk, in Cejlon. 402. 405 

Yillar. Marquw dr, Viceroy of New 


Grunailn, mMnnrijd on bark trce^ 

Xahta, india-ruliU'f tree of Mada- 

gaxar. 445 

Foiton. in S. Wainnd. 3W 

Lou, 36 m 

_.r«. OoriupB. M.. tra..«l»Uoni of 

YUt^, plain of, 104 ; naMk dliwit ■ 

548 /«fcr. 1 

to. SOI, SOS; gnt &u ai, 207, 

fTardi-n Ou^. vetd I? Q>^ 


76 : brought oat U) Botrtli AaaM 

i.j UieAulbor. 96, SSa.M* 

]day. .<*ty U> rewir. iM« 

rUn. H.M.S.. might hare Inkeii 

ealabliahcd tn. 226; Gn^ M 


plants establishot in, !S0, 2SB 

Fritt. (See Do Frim.) 

Mr. Fortune'* coDre;aiioa of li 

Fiij. (See Df VrSj.) 

planu in 2fW ; «i ntM> mMb « 

rogl. AugTirt,™ Penman Wk.515 

Umn, 203: UBuUiMit of pbml 

r»n TiWiwii. (See Ttckudi.) 

iu. 281. 262: mode of plaaHiv 
261 : Mr. Uclroi'a MKg.rtnH 

262: arrini in Ceylon, atlk 

Eenos, 51S 

chiucbona pknts. 400 

Haiiwd, 287: Tie* of, 30S, 352; 

Wal«m, Dr. Korb«a, makaowici^ 

ptvvaleuM of fevera in, 352; 

nientofaidfroai. 92 

mltutiim and arra. 352; Coib. 

Wedd^, Dr.. nnmcd » TUiety (C 

3,13; dminage. 354; inli.bitants. 

C. CiUiMya nfler JnasieD, 19) 

S53, mi: eoffee plaD^c, 355. 

hi. liat of allied gene™. 24; Ml 

:i56: ghlU leading to. 356; 8.E. 

diriaion verj feverish, 358 ; du- 

gen-at, 25. 26, 27: bie tn*tl« il 

p™«ry eetoblUUed, 359; S. 

the tl.liBaya region of BoliTil, 

Wainad, 359: N. Wainad, 360; 

62, 63; hia aeomd jourae;, Gt; 

supply of labour, 9C1 ; ehiucbom. 

■lis work ou the chiucbona gniti%. 

cultivatiou in, 3b'2, 363; Sir. 

64 ; hU onlonnt of the CkiliUTt. 

' Broiighton'a naorijhoua quinine 

tnce, 6tl. 67 ; his remurka on Uuh 

EUccestfullr uaed in. 433; aala 

ofbarkfrnm, 43g 

70 ; urged the neeonitr for est 

in, 34 

given to the Aulbor. 92 ; hia d«- 

Wall«T, (3ftptain Campbell, hia 

antha, 181 ; remarks on a JoMpk- 

pluDtatioiiB, 333, 515 

iana. 194 : hia fortbeat point ia 

Wallieh. Dr., named the Symmo- 

the Tainbopat.. Valley, IMj 

diciyon excchum, 307, n. 

Quinqutuas," 312; liis opinion 

on pkuling out. 821: list of 

n'aJpiJ*., Hot.. Fred, M.P.. uatod 

hia writings <iu the chinchon* 

for the third Cbinohona Blue 

(!enuB. 515, 516 

Boole, 3t3 

Wfir, John, uccompanied the Anlhw 

cotlou iu Dhnrifar, 476; 

Caravaya, 97 : begins the joumej 

_ - . _.^:.. . 




•croM the Andes, 101 ; leftyes 
GmcerOv 128 ; leavee Sandia, 136 ; 
eDten the forests, 162; his leal 
and enerjsry, 179; packing the 
plants, 185, 196; coUects plants 
of C. /oMp&tdna, 199; returas 
bj way of Crnoero, 201, 202; 
his arrival at Arequipa, 209 ; his 
▼lews on the treatment of plants 
in Wardian cuses, 261 ; grtrat 
valae of his services, 272, 278 ; 
his disastrous and disabling ill* 
iieM, 278, 279 ; argent application 
to the India Office for some re- 
cognition of his services, refused, 
279 ; supplied information to Mr. 
Mclvor, 316 

Wairingy Dr., his investigations 
relative to the active principle in 
Peruvian bark, 31 

Whfftn^ Mr., his manufacture of 
ohincbona alkaloids in a cheap 
form, 433, 439 

TFIoJUbam, Mr., his account of the 
P^ui india-rubber, 455 

WiU&h^ Mr. Nathaniel, superinten- 
dent of chinchona plantations in 
Jamaica, 409 

ITomI, Sir Charles, Secretary of 
State for India. Introduction of 
chinchona cultivation into India, 
undertaken under the auspices 
of, 91 

WwA Plantation at Paikira, 326, 

Woodj Mr. C. H., appointed quino- 
logist at the Sikkim plantations, 
429 ; his method of manufacturing 
the chinchona febrifuge, 430, 431 ; 
his analyses, 430 ; his calculations 
as to the supply of the febrifuge, 
432 ; his skill and resource, 434 ; 

return to England, 434; his 

reports, 516 
Woodlands, estate in Travancor, 

Wundur, 286 
Wynaad. (See Wainad,) 

Xyloearpa Indica, 357 

Yanaeonas, Peruvian Indians held 

to service, 1 18 
Yana-mayu Biver, in the Tambo- 

pata forests, 170, 171, 172, 180 

Yanarieo, farm near Vilque. for- 
merly belonging to tlie Jesuits, 

Yea, in Peru, cotton cultivation, 470, 

471 ; description of the cotton 

plant of. 475 
Ychu grass {Stipa ychu), 102, 128, 

Ychu CeueariUa, native name of 

the shrubby Galisaya, 137. (St-e 

YeUow Bark. (See Cah'taya.) 
Yenna River, 386 
Yllpa, passage of the river, 

Ynambari River, 143 
Fftea«, medicines of, 5 ; use of cocn, 

145; roof at Azangaro ctKval 

with, 121; irrigation works, 472; 

agriculture. 479, 480 
Yufa$, 182 
Yucay, valley of, ooltivation of 

maixe, 479, 480 
YungeAot, native doctors. (See CoHa- 

Yungut of La Paz, Bolivian chin- 
chona district, 21 ; visite<l by Dr. 

Weddell, 63 



Zamha Jbrado, ottiTe nune of C 
oMia, 176 

Zea. dbciple of Matia, 46; hit 
«emcei», 53 ; hia writingt on the 
«rliiiiobona genua, 516 

ZiwtwMTf IH9 OQ tlie oopuiroice ' 

qninidine, 516 
Zmm of vegetatioii, 20, 189 
Zmma, norel on the owe of t: 

Conniew of Chincbon by MdiD 

de Genlis, 10 



^H^ ^^^^^^^^^H 




FORRENEWAL; PH0NE497-6691 1 


MAR 121,01, 
JUN 7 2000