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Full text of "The Pharmaceutical era"

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The PHARMACEUTlrfu 

The conUnU of this publication ore covered by the oetiertU copyright, and articles must tint be repi 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, THURSDAY. JANUARY 7, 1897 



ENTERED AT THE NEW YORK POST OFFICE, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER. 




Anniversary Number. 



Established 1887. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. 



Subscription Rates: 

U. 8., Canada and Mexico 

Foreign Countries in Postal Union, . , 



$3 00 per annum. 
4.00 per annum. 



ADVERTISING R.\TES O.V APPLICATION. 



D. O. HAYNES & CO., Publishers, 
P. O. Box 1483. 

Telephone: 4454 Cortlandt. io6 Fulton St., NEW YORK. 

Cable Addre^ : " Era "—New York. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 1 

Christian G. Buler 3 

Correspondence 3 

Old Drug Stores in America 5 

Alcohol Legislation 8 

Originof Atmospheric Oxy- 
gen 9 

EfBorescent Nature of Qui- 
nine Sulphate 10 

New Remedies lU 

Pharmacy . . 11 

Question Box 13 

News of the Week 16 

Reports from Various Cities 

on the State of Trade 16 

The Medical Investigator.. 17 



PACE 

Tariff Hearing nefore the 
Committee on Ways and 

Means. ... l"^ 

Joseph E. Blackburn 2(! 

Castoria Injunction Suit. . . 2(1 

Free Alcohol Hearing 21 

Ohio Dairy and Food Com- 
mission's New Chemists.. 21 

Advertisinif for Retail 

Druggists 28 

Obituary 29 

Market Reports yo 

Manufacturers' Goods, 

Price List Changes 31 

Trade Xoies 31 




Kor the coDAenieuce of subscribers who preserve 

their copies of The 
Km, wo furnish a use- 
ful binder which will 
hold the copies for 
six months (1 Vol.), 
with the advertise- 
iiients. or the text 
p.Tges only, for an en- 
•ire year. 

The "Era Binder," 
T.'i cents per copy, 
I M.St paid. To foreign 
.•..initries, ?1.00. 



Index to Volume XVI. 

In this issue is folded a comprehensive title index cf 
the Era for the twenty-seven numbers included in Vol- 
ume XVI, July 2 to December 31. 189<j. This iudes. 
includes over 2.20() titles, and is one of the most valuable 
features to the subscriber. Too many druggists look 
upon their journal as something for current, evhemeral 
use only, not realizing that its value increases year by 
year. A ten years' file of an up-to-date pharmaceuti- 
cal jouri'al furnishes a most complete reference library 
t> the druggist, and he is careless of his business inter- 
ests if he does not carefully preserve the numbers as 
they arrive, and at the end of each volume have them 
carefully bound in i>ermanent form, together with the 
volume index. 



It is evident that our subscribers miss The Era when 
it does not arrive on tinu-. We have had strong proof 
of this during the last three days by the postal carils 
received from subscribers who had not received their 
copies of the Anniversary Xumlx-r. It was a big under- 
taking to issue a 4II.IHI0 edition of 2."i0 pages, all com- 
piled and executed within a period of two months, and 
this, in addition to our regular work. This, however, is 
not what caused the delay. Everything was iu press, 
and we should have been out on time, but for an acci- 
ilent in the i)ress room. This caused a dela.v of two or 
three days, but our subscribers' copies are now all iu the 
mails, and we trust that I'ucle Sam's agents have done 
their part, and our subscribers uow have their copies and 
are h,ippy. 



Tariff Hearings. 

In the columns «f those papers consecrated to the 
hide-bound opponents of protection, the manufacturing 
chemists who appeared before tli»; AA'ays and Means 
Committee iu Washington, on Monday. December 28, 
are likened to a cohort of mercenaries yelling "Vae Vic- 
tic," and fairly raving for the spoils of Republican vic- 
tory. As a matter of fact, for men who represent an 
invested capital of over $l.">O.OtW.O(J<l they were, on the 
whole, rather modest, and. except iu some few instances, 
are to be commeniied for their moderation of demand. 
The poor consumer, whom Mr. Benton McMilliu. of tin- 
committee, so lustily chauipioued. will lind life worth 
living after all. What the manufacturers chietiy de. 
manded was the abolition of the ad valorem method and 
the return to speeitie duties. It would be waste of 
words to dilate on the justice of this demand for the 
abolition of a method which has been proven to act as 
a premium upon frauil. misrepreseutation and adultera- 
tion. 

By the election of Mr. McKiuloy. the voters of this 
countr.v have declared themselves in favor of a higher 
tarifif — one. at least, which will produce sufficient reve- 
nue to cover the expenses of the Government. It has 
boon clearly demimstrated that the present tarifif is not 
sufficient, and that we must raise more revenue, and, no 
doubt, the buyers of drugs and chemicals would be will- 
ing to add their quota to the sum total. There should, 
however, be no pampering the greed of those manufac- 
turers who clamor for a sky-scraping d>ity. For such the 
ideal revenue tarifif is a tariff for their revenue only — 
and let the Government go hang! Chemical manufac- 
turers have so far exhibited no such greeil. 

It seems but fair, as these manufacturers claim, that 
foreign houses doing business in this country should pay 
their share of taxation. M.an.v of these houses are rep- 
resented only with au office in New York. They pay no 
National, State. County or City taxes, and have not only 
deprived local manufacturers of business, but compelled 
them to meet the competition of the surplus from the 
foreign factoiy. 

The manufacturers of quinine have requested a duty 
of 20 per cent., and at the present price of this product 
this would 1k> about 4 cents per ounce. Considering the 
very low price of quinine, we are sure that the trade 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 1897. 



would offer no objections to such a duty, and nn in- 
croiiHe "i" 3 or 4 ct'iils an ounce would ccrlninly not In' 
uolk'c'd in llie jiricc of quinine pills. Surli a duty would 
give our local nianuractnrers no nionuimly. and would 
still permit of importations from which the Government 
would receive some revenue. 



The New Ohio State Dairy and Food Commission. 

Last Friday there came into ollice and power the re- 
cently elected Dairy and Food Commissioner of Ohio. 
His appointments of his associates were published in 
this journal a couple of weeks ago, and upon another 
page of this number appear the portraits of the new 
commissioner and the three chemists selected to assist 
him in his investigations. 

The drug trade knows what a red-hot condition was 
engendered in Ohio under the last administration, and it 
may well be conceived that the new incumbent of the 
Commissioner's chair enters upon his work under cir- 
cumstances of unusual difliculty. His every act will be 
watched, criticized and compared with his predecessor's, 
and, whatever he does, he is sure not to please all. But 
he has the best wishes of the druggists, who are con- 
fident, too, that he will administer the office honestly, 
conscientiously and without fear or favor. The outgoing 
Commissioner is very generallj- credited with honesty of 
puriiose and effort, but he has had to suffer from a de- 
fective law, from the ill-judged actions of others, and 
from the willful prostitution by some of their public 
positions to private interests. The new Commissioner 
can sec these pitfalls, and escape them. As a druggist 
himself, he may better know the necessities and limita- 
tions of druggists, and execute the law more fairly in 
accordance therewith. He lias been asked to speak 
through the Era to the druggists with reference to the 
law and its deficiencies, and particularly in relation to 
his proposed programme of service. He says: 

"The Pure Food laws of Ohio have been useful in 
suppressing a very great many evils in this State, and 
any change should be fully and carefully considered. I 
believe the law ought to be amended so as to admit the 
last and onl.v authentic pharmacopeia as evidence in all 
drug cases. As to the recent decision by the Supreme 
Court, it should be accepted in good faith, and the law 
changed as suggested, to admit latest authority. 

"Assurances have been given by the chief attorney for 
the present Commissioner, that all pending cases will 
be pressed to a conclusion before the end of his term. If 
any should be left over, each and ever.v case will lie 
considered on its individual merits, and treated accord- 
ingly b.v the new Commissioner. The new Commissioner 
will fully, fairly and impartially enforce the law to the 
best of his abilit.v, having in mind the fact that the 
business men of Ohio are citizens and tax payers, and 
entitled to fair treatment from public oIBeials, .so long 
as they make an honest effort to observe the law and 
live up to its provisions. As to violators of the law. 
they will be obliged to accept the consequences, and no 
pains will be spared to place the responsibility for adul- 
teration where it projjcrii/ ueluiKjsi. 

From a number of letters received in answer to in- 
quiries from this journal, there are quoted the opinions 
of two or three leading druggists of Ohio upon this 
question of the pure food law and its execution. 

Fred P. Sehanafelt. Canton. Ohio. — "I have no desire 
to criticize the outgoing Dairy and Food Commissioner 
of Ohio, or to advise the incoming one. Because I be- 
lieve that Dr. McNeal and most of his staff are honest, 
capable gentlemen. Much good has been done by them, 
and I believe that had it not been for the inborn cussed- 
ness of a few members of the staff much more good 
would have been accomplished, and instead of the feel- 
ing of antagonism now exisiting among many druggists 
there would be a tendency to co-operate with the Com- 
mission. 

"I have no desire to suggest to the new Commissioner 
what policy he shall pursue, because that would cer- 
tainly be presumptuous. I will say, however, that in 
my opinion the Dairy and Food Commission will never 
(I.I its best work until the druggist (this view is from 
the limited standpoint of the druggist, not that of the 
general merchant), can feel that in the Commission he 
has an advisor, not a foe. 



"The same power that any citizen may invoke against 
the dealer when an adulterated article is sold him, 
should be at the disposal of the dealer, to get redress 
from his source of supply, unless he himself made the 
adullc laled article from the iirinuiry or crude materials. 

"The fact that the Board of I'harmncy of his State 
declares him a competent jud^e of bis merchandise 
should not deprive him of this right. 

"It is practically impossible for all druggists to ex- 
amine or test all packages of drugs bought by them, be- 
cause in freijuent cases their limited capital compels 
them to buy drugs twice or three times a week. There- 
fore, the packages arc numerous. All druggists should 
be held responsible for the quality of the goods made 
by them. 

"The fact that they did not make the goods sold by 
them .should not relieve them from all responsibility as 
to quality. But the law should expressly state that the 
services of the Dairy and Food Commissioner, his coun- 
sel and chemists are available to the dealer (druggist) 
for his protection, as they are to the consumer for his 
protection. 

"I believe that this idea properly worked out, together 
with a written agreement between the druggist and his 
jobber, that all goods sent him must reach the proper 
standards, would go far toward giving the druggist the 
protection due him. 

"In collecting samples for the Commissioner three in- 
stead of one should be taken and sealed by the inspec- 
tor, in the presence of the dealer. One for the Com- 
missioner's chemist, one for the druggist, and one to be 
deposited with some county oUicial, to be used in case 
the report of the Commissioner's chemist is iiuestioned." 

.Tolin Byrne, Columbus, Ohio. — "While not altogether 
in s.vmpathy with all the doings of Dr. McXeal in his 
adndnistration, I believe ho was in entire sympathy with 
all who made an earnest endeavor to do right and re- 
frain from antagonizing him in carrying out the duties 
of the ollice which had been intrusted to him, as he 
thought best. Man.v, very many, of the suits against 
the druggists we're not his doings, but were brought by 
over-zealous subordinates who had his entire confidence 
and used it for personal aggrandizement. Here is where 
he should be criticized for not finding out the true status 
of the case before being drawn into it. But it is too late 
now; he sees his error and regrets it, and now in the 
dying hours of his administration harsh criticism will 
do no good — besides it is not true. It is un-American to' 
kick a man when down. When Commissioner Black- 
burn takes hold of the office fip will find a large volume 
filled with the personal experiences and personal griev- 
ances of his predecessor, from which, if a wise mariner, 
he will shun the rocks th.it wrecked the bark of Dr. Mc- 
Neal and his administrotion. Commissioner Blackburn 
should receive the cordial support of every honest drug- 
gist in Ohio, and they should render him all the assist- 
ance possible in ferreting out substituters and all persons 
wearing the mantle of pharmacy to cover their evil 
doings. It should be the desire of Mr. Blackburn to as- 
sist the druggists of Ohio to amend the present food 
laws, so as to give them an equal chance before the 
courts, which under the past administration they did not 
possess, and not try to defeat an honest purpose by 
bringing political and official influence, as was the case 
at the last session of our Legislature, when an earnest 
effort was made to insert the word "materially" in sec- 
tion 3A, line 2 of the Pure Food and Drug laws as an 
amendment to that section, but was defeated by influ- 
ence, as above stated. Not having had any conversa- 
tion with Mr. Blackburn since his election, I can not 
state what policy he expects to pursue, but from my 
knowledge of the man he will pursue the policy of 'mal- 
ice toward none and justice to all!' " 



Old Drug Stores. 

There are many old drug stores in this country, but 
which is the oldest we have not yet been able to dis- 
cover. Just as soon as one claims that honor, along 
comes proof that another is older. So we publish in 
this issue a paper which is not claimed to be exhaustive, 
but is thought interesting. Others are to follow as ma- 
terial collects, and if an.v reader finds inaccuracies of 
statement or fact, he is requested to send in the neces- 
sary corrections. With the rapidity of change which 
characterizes American business life, it is extremely dif- 
ficult, often impossible in many cases, to trace the history 
of business bouses, and we have no doubt that the 
publication of these papers will bring to attention other 
drug stores of an antiquity exceeding any of those men- 
tioned. 



Jaiiuai-y 7, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 




jChristian G. Euler. 

There are huudri'ds of the readers of the Era who will 
recognize the face of Christian G. Euler here repre- 
sented. He has a face not easily forgotten, and this 
■combined with his winning manners brought him many 
friends in the old days when he was a traveling sales- 
man. He is now associated with W. B. Robeson in 
the management of Antoine Chiris' American business. 
The house of Antoine Chiris was founded at Grasse, 
France, in 17G8, and is the largest in its line, which is 
the manufacture of essential oils and extracts from 
fruits and flowers. The firm puts out no synthetic pro- 
<Jucts whatever. 

Mr. Enler was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main about 
forty years ago, his parents being numbered among the 
plain people of Germany, who think more of giving 
their children an education than of heaping up wealth. 
He got his first business experience in his native city, 
and came to this country when he was in his seventeenth 
year. After engaging in various lines for a couple of 
years, he secured a position in a prominent essential 
oil importing house, and has remained in this branch 
of business ever since. Mr. Euler is associated with 
Edward H. Hammer in the American Therapeutic Com- 
pany, whose red marrow preparation, Carnogen, is hav- 
ing a large sale. He is a well-known member of the 
Drug Trade Club. His home life is enviable. He is 
of a charitable disposition, and was one of the incor- 
porators of St. Mark's Hospital. 



What Will Next be Patented ? 

Lucium, which cliemists have supposed to be a chem- 
ical element, has been made the subject of a patent. 
If this thing keeps on the earth itself may be patented 
as a whole by some individual who may claim to be its 
discoverer. We had always thought that a discovery 
of the sort in question could not be made the subject 
of a patent, but in this instance it seems not much harm 
will be done by reason of this pre-emption, as Crookes, 
the famous English chemist, has decided that lucium is 
not an element at all, but is merely an impure yttria. 



Cottcsponrience. 

We are pleased io publish here commualcatloas from our read* 
ers oa topics of Interest to the drug trade. Writers are requested 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Baeh article must 
be signed by Its writer, but his name will not be published It 
so requested. 



Revenge is sweet. At Harrisburg. Ohio, a druggist is 
preparing to put in stock both dry goods and groceries. 
He has had hardware as a side line for some time. If 
this could only be made to work in the large cities 
against the department storesi 



SHORTER HOURS OF LABOR IN THE DRUG 
STORE. 

New York, Dec. 27. 1896. 

To the Editor: 

This topic has again been called to our attention of 
late, through the efforts of Mr. John Gallagher, of the 
Kings County Pharmaceutical Association. His plan 
is to secure legislation forbidding the opening of drug 
stores for more than five hours on Sunday. The five 
hours are to be at different times of the day, however, 
namely, from 8 to 10 A. M., from 12 to 1 P. M., and 
from G to 8 P. M. This is a very much interrupted 
pleasure, and I think it would be much better for those 
to be benefited if the five hours were taken in one 
stretch, say from 7 A. M. to 12 M., and the public would 
get used to this just as well. But now let us see how 
this would affect those who suffer most under the pres- 
ent system, the drug clerks. Most clerks have a Sun- 
day off every other week, with the exception of prob- 
ably an hour or two in the morning. Some clerks have 
to work until noon. To the drug clerk it simply means 
one Sunday more of interrupted rest, in which he would 
probably get time enough to read the Sunday newspaper. 
So I was not very much surprised to notice that they 
were not very enthusiastic when they heard of the plan. 
But when I think of the probability of the success of 
the plan my surprise vanishes entirely. 

The opinions expressed in the Era were, as far as I 
could notice (with one exception) from employers or such 
as are in business for themselves, and seemed to be 
about evenly divided, although the majority seem to 
doubt the advisability of legislation. Some are even 
hostile to any such intrusion upon their liberty. I really 
believe that if every druggist could be moved to give 
his opinion, the majority of them would be against the 
plan; but, of course, we must await the result of the 
circulars sent out by the Kings County Pharmaceutical 
Society. Mr. Gallagher says that as all the druggists 
would be affected alike there would be no pecuniary 
losses — but would they be affected alike? I think not. 
There is, for instance, the druggist whose store is in 
some side street, or other quiet section of the town. His 
business consists principally of drugs, medicines and 
such sundries as the public can generally supply them- 
selves with beforehand. This class of druggists would 
lose little, if anything. But then, we have another 
class of druggist whose store is on the principal thor- 
oughfare, and who does a large business in soda water, 
cigars and other things that the pleasure seeking public 
demands. His losses would be very material, because 
such trade would go where it probably properly belongs. 
But as it is generally a profitable side line, the drug- 
gist would not like to lose it. If legislation were se- 
cured the result would probably be a side-door business, 
and in a short time the law would become a dead let- 
ter, like so many other laws. Now, here is another 
point. Mr. Gallagher says the Legislature can legally 
pass laws regulating the hours of labor for drug clerks, 
but this would meet with opposition from employers (1 
think it would, too): because those druggists who hire 
no clerks would probably choose to keep their stores 
open from sixteen to eighteen hours a day, and those 
who do employ clerks would have to work so much 
longer than their clerks in order to compete with those 
who do not. This is another point where I differ with 
Mr. Gallagher. The small storekeeper is very often even 
worse off than drug clerks, as far as long hours and in- 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 18!>7. 



door oonfinomont nre concerned, and wonld gladly clone 
early if it wiis not for the large stores he has to com- 
pete with. 

Now. for .7. J. McL.. your corre.spnndent in the Era of 
Deeemlier 17. He i.s the only dnm clerk who denion- 
strnteil his interest, as far as I know, althonph he nien- 
tione<l Mr. Kelly as one. I diil see Mr. Kelly's letter. 
A gentleman by that name did open a discussion on the 
subject about a year and a half ago. but that certainly 
cannot he said to favor this plan. In fact, I dmibt if 
he would favor it. Ev< ry drug clerk in the land cer- 
tainl.v has cause to 1m' interested in a shorter hour move- 
ment, but I for one do not fa\n>r this one. I will repeat 
again what I have said licfore (about a year anil a 
half ago in the Era I. If drug clerks want reli(>f from 
this system of long lumrs. they are the ones to organize 
and wipe out this iiiic]nitons .system of slavery. They 
can do it with or without legislation — in fact, li-gisla- 
tion without a strong organization would be useless. 
But then, there are three barriers in the way. The first, 
as our correspiuident rightly states, is fear of their em- 
ployer. This fear. I am sorry to say, naturally I'Xists, 
and not without reason. It js this fear which demon- 
.strates the utter impossibility of ever solving this prob- 
lem withiuit the opposition of most of our employers. 
Besides, who ever heard of the emidoyers in any trade 
or industry organizing for the benefit of their employes? 
(By the way. this might give us .something to think 
about — a "free country." inhabited by a "free people," 
the "free" employes of which are obliged to submit to a 
form of slavery for fear of their equally free employ- 
ers. This condition of affairs brings the term "free- 
dom" in disrepute). 

Then, there is another reason which prevents drug 
clerks from organizing. It is. they think, not becoming 
to their professional dignity to organize trade unions. 
This. I say, is false pride. There certainly is no dignity 
in submitting to present conditions, and the sooner such 
iiiuditions are wiped out will there be cause for dignity 
in our ranks. Last, but not least, is the fact that there 
are many of our colleagues who at some future time 
hope to be in business for themselves, and as emplo.vers 
would like to benefit by this system of long hours. This 
is a kind of selfish reason. 

It is in the overthrowing of the.se barriers that the 
solution of the "Long Hour Problem" lies. 

Overcome this fear, false pride and selfishnessi Organ- 
ize, and success is ours! Xot before, AMICUS. 



THE TR AVE LINO MAN HAS FRIENDS. 

Chicago. Christmas, 1S96. 
To the Editor: 

Nearly a year ago an article appeared in the Era under 
the caption of "Burning Questions." in which the 
author referred to the traveling man as a "burning cin- 
der" and one of several objectionable features mentioned 
therein. I have watched patientl.v each issue of this 
favorite journal of mine for a reply to this unjust classi- 
fieation of the traveling man. 

By the term traveling man I refer to that class of 
men whose duty or occupation it is to sell goods, estab- 
lish new business, and perpetimte the good will of the 
firms the.v represent to a profitable end. Possibly this 
class of men have cared so little for the author's opin- 
ion on such subjects they did not deem it worth while 
to make a defense: at an.v rate, I have seen no answer, 
and I Vielieve the Era, having given space so frequently 
to the opinions of this esteemed pharmacist, will be 
glad to hear from the defendants in this case. 

It is unfortunate indeed that any druggist should so 
detest this class of men as to be obliged to include him 
among the objectionable features of his business. 

As no distinction was made in the article referred to, 
I am forced to include in the title of traveling man the 
truest and staunchest friends which I possess. For four 



months I mysfelf occupied a position of a retail druggist 
in connection with my duties as a traveling man, during 
which time I luncT found it necessary to avoid his solic- 
itations. and I had no spare time on my hands either: 
but an amiable request to come in some time when I was 
not too busy was always sufficient to secure his good 
will, and in him a future friend of greater value than a 
"burning cinder," 

Christmas night will find many of these burning cin- 
ders compelled to content themselves by the hotel stove 
rather than by the fireplaces of their own homes and 
among their wives and children, wondering them.selves 
how to .solve certain burning i|uestions, whieh enter the 
life of every man in business. I'ut yourself in his place 
a moment, with a grip in your left hand, a reailiness to 
shake hands in the other, then enter the store of some 
amiable man, who neither wants to siv your grip nor 
shake you by the hand, and you have your first "burning 
question," Encounter this twi-nty-iuie times on a hot 
day, and if you don't think the stamp and telephone 
business i)rett.v cool, then I am mistaken. 

Fortunately, a great majority of pharmacists are not 
of this icicle sort, which tends to make "cinders" of 
traveling men. 

In no store on my trips do I find the proprietor more 
cordial and kind than in the one which I believe has the 
largest business. In this store the proprietor is alw!»ys 
bu.sy, but always cordial: he is tired, but always willing 
to say how-do-you-do and good-bye in a way that wins 
for him a warm place in the heart of every traveling 
man he meets. 'Hiis same spirit is shown to the seller 
as well as to the buyer, consequently his business is 
good, his clerks satisfied and respecting, and after all 
he has few "burning questions'' to ask of any one. The 
drummer is hired to sell goods: he likes to sell goods: 
he does sell goods: in fact, it becomes a ruling passion 
in him to sell goods, and he is nine times out of ten a 
mighty good fellow if you will give him a chance to 
be. You may often times sidetrack your own wrath by 
a kind word to this drummer, who may in turn drop 
twenty-five cents in your cigar case that would other- 
wise have gone to your congenial competitor across the 
Avay. He may live in your ni'ighborhood. you can't tell: 
perhaps his soda drinking sweetheart does, if he doesn't. 

From the drumn»>r you hear many a fact you never 
knew before. Maii.v a time your eyes are opened to new 
ideas — and new prices: new goods and new people: his 
opinions are not always worthless: he sees more of the 
world than you in your prison drug store: his words of 
encouragement are not always given with a mercenary 
motive. In any case, he is one of .vour fellow men, and 
a "burning cinder'' only when you try to freeze him. 

F, E. TAFT, 



QUICK METHOD FOR PREPARING POTAS- 
SIUM FERRICYANIDE.— To a solution of 2C grams 
r)f yellow jirussiate of potassium in 2011 cc. of cold water, 
S cc, of hydrochloric acid (U, S, P.) are added, after 
mixing, StMl cc, of a per cent, potassium i>ermanga- 
nate solution are added, and the entire mixture allowed 
to stand for several hours. After completion of the oxi- 
dation the mixture is neutralized with barium carbonate, 
filtered, and then exaporated at a low temperature. The 
first cmii of crystals are the purest. 

ARTIFICIAL MUSK.— This may be prepared, accord- 
ing to Dr. Valentine, by adding a mixture of equivalent 
amounts of oil of turixintine and iso-butyl alcohol, in 
small portions, to 5 to 8 times their volume of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid (cooling wellt. After 1 to 2 hours 
the entire product is poured into ,j to 1(1 times its bulk 
of fuming nitric acid, using proper caution, then diluting 
well with water and shaking, v>hereby a nitro product 
separates in light yellow flakes. This powder, when col- 
lected and washed till of neutral reaction, possesses, 
when dry, a strong musk-like odor, being probably a 
mixture of a di-aud mono-nitro compound. 



January 7, 1807.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



OLD DRUG STORES IN AMERICA. 

8 HE history of pharniiiry in this couutry, it proix'riy 
rcuiirch'il. woiiM. no iloiilit. liiiti' from the original 
sotfliii); of the oountry. Wherever civilized huinau 
soeii'ty exists ii physician is fmuul. ami with the 
physician invarialily the ai)Othecary. The liistory of 
every ohi State contains references to lirnggists, ami 
the liles of the oldest newspapers contain their adver- 
tisements. As lone ago as 1(H(> the Minnies of the Af- 
fairs of Boston Town, in the Colony of Massachusetts, 
contain an entry to the effect that William Davice. 
apothecary, was given permission to set np a fence 
before his hall and parlor windows, three feet from his 
huu.se. .lust where Davice's was. and how long before 
that time he had been established in business, is not 
mentioned in the records. Another relic of (3olonial 
days in Bostcm is the old corner book store, patronized 
by Emerson. Holmes and Lowell. It is at the corner of 
Washington and School streets, and was erected in 171- 
by a Dr. t'rease, as a residence, the front room on the 
ground floor being used for his business as an apoth- 
ecary. According to the Memorial History, which is 
excellent authority. Dr. ("rease bought the property on 
which his house was erected in 1707, and probably es- 
tablished himself in business at that time. Tlie building 
was torn ilown in 1711. 

The task of tinding the oldest drug store in America 
is a dilHcult one. for the reason that if the truth were 
known, undoubtedly one druggist has succeeded to the 
business of those who have gone before since the earliest 
times, even though no record has been made of the fact. 
Thus, it is a matter of record that in another old town. 
New Brunswick. N. .7.. one Robert Eastburn. a Quaker, 
•conducted a drug store in 17.">.">. Three of his descend- 
ants now have stores in the city, one of them very near 
its former location, but none of them claims an antiquity 
before ISliO. the date when the oldest store of the thr i 
was founded. 

An interesting illustration of the antiquity of the drutr 
l)nsiness is afforded by an advertisement in the ""New 
York (lazette. Revived in the Weekly Post Boy." Jum- 
18, 1750. Thomas Wood, the advertiser, settled in New 
Brunswick as early as 1748, as a missionary of tli> 
^"Venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts." for which he received 40 pounds n 
year salary. He is described in the archives of Christ'" 
Church, New Brunswick, over which he officiated, :i> 
"a gentleman of very good life and conversation, bred 
to physic and surgery." This seems to prove that the 
medical missionary is not a modern invention. The ad 
vertisement referred to follows: 

To all Practitioners in Physiek. 

Imported this Spring from London a very good Assortmen" 
of Drugs and Medicines which are to be sold ;n 
the following most reasonable Rates; also any Part of tlH' 
utensils of a neat Apothecary's shop, exceeding cheap. 
N. B. any person who will purchase the whole, mav hav.^ 
them at a cent advance: and any one who sends an order f'ir 
any Medicines and should not be satisfied with any of tli- 
Articles shall have their Money returned, if said ArtioU- 
are returned within a Month after their Delivery. 

For Ready Money. York Currency £ s. d 

All Compound Waters per Gallon .' 1 

Cantharides p. Pound 

Conn. Cerv. Calc 

Elect. Mithridat 

Theriac Androm 

Diascord 

Empl. Diachyl. S ' 

de Bolo ; 

de Minio I 

Mellllot I 

Paracejs I 

Oycroe :- 

Drach cum Gumis i 

All other plalsters in Proportion. 

Cum Ammoniac 

Arebic 

Assoe Foetid 

Camphor 

Opium 1 

All other gums. 

Manna opt 

Second sort, ditto 






II 


15 





o 





( 





i 





3 


6 


1 


8 



6 



7 


« 


*> 


n 


10 





14 





12 





10 


n 


8 






Sal. Cathert .\mer 1 

Mirab Glaub opt 3 " 

Ditto, second sort ii U 

Spt. Sal. Vol, Ol 1 

Lavend C - 7 

Corn Cerv, etc 1 

All Siilrits and Tinctures 

I'ol. Semoe Ale 10 

Syr. de Spin C 3 

Vlolar Load 6 

DInceilll 4 6 

All other Syrups. 

Mer Dule per ounce 1 8 

trac. alb 3 I) 

Uiilir 1 8 

1>I. Anls Chym 2 6 

Juniper 1 8 

All Cheni Oils. 

Sal. C. C 1 6 

Succln Ver IC 

Viper per Drachm 10 u 

All other Salts. 

Ivory (Jlyster Pipes, p. Dz 4 r. 

Box ditto 3 »i 

Phial corks, per gross 1 

Large Velvet Corks 3 6 

Gallipots, Pill Boxes, (Jold and Silver Leaf, Partly Gold 
and Dutch Metal, Sieves, etc., and all Sorts of Drugs and 
Medii-ines in proportion. 
Be pleased to direct to Thomas Wood, at New Brunswick. 

Probably the oldest drug store in America is that 
which was founded in I'tiO by Shepard & Hunt, at 
North Hampton, Mass. It has been a drug store ever 
since, and in the same location. The list of owners has 
been as follows: Shepard & Hunt, Seth Hunt. Winthrop 
Hillyer, Hillyer & Wood, Wood & Kingsley. Charles 
B. Kingsley, and Charles B. Kingsley 2d. Charles B. 
Kingsley, Sr., was there for forty years. The present 
owner has had it nearly sixteen years. Jlr. Kingsley 
has a bill dated Sept. lY, 1770. which is pretty good 
evidence of the antiquity of his store. It is reproduced 
herewith. 



</*<^^y.„^-^C^ 



' .«i«M*n 










- f J^^fC/^ .^/.(^sCf~ </-..-. 'if 



7 .-A 






^=^A' 







n 



't^/^.^.-^d^ . /.jy ^ -/-A "-^ /^//i^ 





Philailclphia has many ancient business houses, in- 
cluding several conducting drug stores. It is believed 
that the oldest u.sed continuously for the sale of drugs 
is on Second street, below Market. It was founded in 
1771 by Towusend Speakman, who came from England 
and set himself up as an apothecary at Xo. 8 (now No. 
241 South Second street, four doors below the old Friends" 
Meeting Hou.se. which stood at the corner of Market 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA, 



[January 7, 1897. 



street. In 1781 John Hnrt was indpiituroil to him ns an 
apprentice, and after the Rood old custom, married his 
master's daiiphter, in 1784. Mr. Hart is credited with 
baring niauufacliired the first soda water sold in this 
country, at the suggestion of a famous physician of the 
old times. Dr. I'hysick, and the apparatus he used and 
a set of glass shelf bottles brought frotn England are 
said still to be in existence. Mr. Speakman supplied 
many of the medicines used in the Revolutionary Army. 
He was succeeded by Samuel G. Hart, his .son. Ed- 
ward H. Kaercross was a later proprietor; David G. 
Potts is the present owner of the store, which still en- 
joys an excellent trade. I'rof. Remington, of the Phil- 
adelphia College of Pharmacy is a grandson of .Tohn 
Hart. That this old store was not a pioneer in the drug 
trade is shown b.v the following advertisement in the 
Pennsylvania Gazette, Benjamin Franklin's paper, dated 
Feb. 15, 17.")9: 

To be sold b.v 
fliniSTOPHKIl MAIiSIIALL 
at the sign of the Golden Ball In Chestnut Street, Philadel- 
phia: liateraan's Drops, British Oil, Godfrey's Cordial. Daf- 
fy's, Squire's and Francis' Female Elixirs, Lockycr's, Ander- 
sons and Hooper's Female Pills, James' Fever Powder, Royal 
Medicinal SnulT, Greenough's Tinctures for Tooth-ache and 
Scurvy in the Gnuis, Turlington's and Fryer's Balsams, Bit- 
ters, Hungary Water, Likewise Saltpetre. Camphire. Saf- 
fron, Antiinony, Nutmegs, Cinnamon, Cloves and Mace. 
Pepper, Drugs. Chymical and Galenical Preparations. Col- 
ours and Oils for Painting, etc., too tedious to mention. 

N. B. A parcel of choice Bohea Tea. by the Chest or 
Dozen, to be sold by said Marshall, at the lowest Price. 

The advertiser was afterward noted in Revolutionary 
times as one of the patriotic,, fighting Quakers of Phil- 
adelphia. Judging from his advertisement, proprietary 
preparations were almost as common then as now. Other 
old Philadelphia concerns are: Wetherill & Bro., founded 
1777; F. Jordan & Son, 1783: Frederick Brown, 1822; 
Carpenter, Henzey & Co., 1838, and Blair & Co., prior 
to 18'29. The last-named house, which is located at the 
corner of Walnut and Eighth streets, has been carried 
on by three Henry C. Blairs in succession, father, son 
and grandson. Probably there is not a similar case on 
record of three generations of the same name having 
carried on the same business in one location. 

E. S. Leadbeater «& Sons, of Alexandria, Va., conduct 
a drug store at which Gen. George Washington used 
to trade. It was then located about one hundred feet 
south of the present store, and Edward Stabler was the 
founder in 1792. He had seven sons, all of whom had 
an interest in the business at different times. John 
Leadbeater, a druggist, arrived in Baltimore from Eng- 
land in 1829, and obtained a situation in the old store. 
He married one of the daughters of the founder of the 
house, and became a member of the firm, which was 
then known as William Stabler & Bro. In 1852 his 
name appeared on the sign of the old store, his son, Ed- 
ward S., being a clerk in his employ. Among their cus- 
tomers have been George Washington Parke Custis, of 
Arlington, Va., the adopted son of General Washington, 
and General Robert E. Lee. Two of the great-great- 
grandnephews of General Washington are employes in 
this store. 

J. B. Hall's Sons, of Fredericksburg, Va., are also 
worthy of mention in this connection. Their store was 
founded by Dr. Elisha Hall in May, 1791. The firm still 
possesses the old iron mortar and pestle bought with 
the first stock of drugs in London. John Boyd Hall, 
the son of the founder, continued the business until 
his death in 18(52, since which time his sons have con- 
tinued it. The original store was located in a cottage 
still standing on Main street. Among the constant pa- 
trons of the store are some who have done business 
with it for fifty years or more. 

The oldest drug store in the country that has been 
continuously in the same family from father to son is 
believed to be that of Charles A. Ileinitsh, of 16 East 
King's street. Lancaster, Pa. The business was estab- 
lished by the grandfather of the present proprietor, 




THE HEISITSH STORE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Carl Heinrich Heinitzscli. a native i>r Leipzig, in 1782. 
He had been a clerk in I'aul Zantzinger's store, who af- 
terward moved to Philadelphia and became a leading 
import and export merchant. Mr. Heinitsh has a bill 
dated 1782, showing a purchase of some drugs in Lon- 
don and Amsterdam. He believes that the store had 
been in existence at least a couple of years before these 
bilks were issued. Among the relics which Mr. Heinitsh 
preserves with care are two iron mortars, one of which 
holds nearly a bushel, two large marble mortars, the 
largest of which would hold about twenty pounds of 
mercurial ointment, for which purpose it was mostly 
used; a small marl)le mortar, and a three-quart green 
glass retort, manufactured in England. He has about 
six pounds of powdered tin and three-quarters of a 
pound of Flores Martialis, with the original labels on, 
which were imported by his grandfather. The picture 
of Mr. Heinitsh's old store, which the Era has published, 
represents it as it was in 1841; since then the front has 
been altered, giving a different appearance to the house. 
The present location of the house is abotit one-half 
block from the original site. The original house has 
been torn down. Probably the most valuable and inter- 
esting contribution to ancient pharmaceutical literature, 
which Mr. Heinitsh has contributed, is a copy of a Phar- 
macopana, compiled in 1778. by a surgeon in the Amer- 
ican Arm.v for the use of the troops. It is all in Latin. 
A fac-simile has been printed for the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. Following is the title page, with the 
translation: 

"Pharmacopoeia simpliciornm et eflScaciorum 
in usum noscomii militaris ad exercitum foedera- 
tarum Americae civitatuni pertinentis; hodiernae 
nostrae inopiae rerumque angustiis. feroci hos- 
tium servitiac. belloque crudeli ex inopinato pa- 
triae nostrae illato debitis. maxime accommo- 
data" ("Pharmacopoeia of the more simple and 
efficacious remedies for the use of the Military 
Hospital of the Army of the United States of 
America; particularly adapted to our present pov- 
erty rnd distress, which is due to the ferocious 
cruelty of the enemy and to the bloody war un- 
expectedly waged against our fatherland"). 

Although no drug house in Boston has been able to 
prove descent from William Davice of the seventeenth 
century, there are several very old drug stores in that 
city. In 1792 Stephen Thayer opened a drug store in 
Washington street, and there has been a drug store on 



January 7, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



the same loontion continuously ever since, although the 
origiuiil liuildiug has been replaced by a better one. 
.John I. Brown entered Mr. Thayer's employ in 1807, 
and in due time married Mr. Tliayer's daughter. The 
firm became successively, Thayer & Ilortoii, Samuel 
Horton, Jr., Horton & Hrown. and finally John I. 
Brown. About fifty years ago John I. Brown & Sons 
began manufacturing a specialty in a small way. and 
have become very successful as manufacturers. At mie 
time the family had five stores on Washington street. 
Other old stores in Boston are those of S. A. D. Shep- 
pard & Co.. 1329 Washington street, and Emery 
Souther. G7 Green street, who is said to be the veteran. 
Miner L II. Leavitt, manager of the New England 
Pharmacal (,"ompany, until recently owned a very old 
store in Boston, the date of its founding being 1802. 
He has in his possession .a number of old delft-ware 
jars which were in the store ten years ago when he 
took possession. The tradition regarding these jars is 
that they were in the first drug store in Boston. 

Salem, Mass.. has an old drug store, which was 
founded in 1823 by Benjamin F. Brown. Charles H. 
Price afterward entered the employ of Mr. Brown, and 
in 1850 was taken into partnership. In 1860 Mr. Brown 
retired; the business has since been conducted by the 
Price brothers, under the firm name of C. H. & J. Pi'ice. 
The founder of the house was a member of the State 
Legislature and Postmaster of the town. He was a sur- 
geon's mate on a privateer in the War of 1812, and 
was taken prisoner by the English. Contemporary with 
Dr. Brown was another apothecary named William 
Webb, whose store was in the lower part of the town. 
It is now conducted by his son. 

Connecticut lays claim to several old drug stores. C. 
A. Pelton, of Middletown, Conn., does not know when 
his store was founded, but it was certainly prior to 
1800, as he has a bill of that date made out by the 
firm of Schieffelin & Co., of this city, for drugs. This 
bill was recently printed in the Era. Following are the 
successive proprietors of the store: 1800, S. Southraayd 
& Co.: 1821, T. & S. Southmayd & Co.: 1823, South- 
raayd & Boardman: 1830. G. M. Boardman; 1843, H. E. 
Boardnian;]84ti, E. C. Hubbard: 1849. W. L. Hubbard; 
1851. E. C. Hubbard; 1855, C. F. Collins; 18C2, Collins 
& Pelton; 1871, C. A. Pelton. 

The oldest drug store in New York is probably that 
of Caswell, Massey & Co. At the time of the estab- 
lishment of Caswell, Hazard & Co., there was a law 
suit to establish whicii firm should have the right to use 
the words "Founded in 1780." The whole subject of 
the history of that firm came under judicial review, and 
it was positively proven that the original business to 
which Mr. Caswell succeeded had been established the 
date named. There is in the store of Caswell, Massey 





Samuel BurdsaU 



Robt. B. Folger. 



OLD SCALES A\D MORTAR. 



fz Co., a mortar .uid prsili' of bronze, braring the date 
KiSO, and the inscription "'.Vmor omnia vincit." Around 
the old mortar is a series of pictures in relief, represent- 
ing a boar hunt in a Gernum forest. One nuin on horse- 
back, surrounded liy his hounds, pursues the boar; on 
the other side a farmer witli a pitchfork attacks another 
boar, the farm house being hard by; not far off an at- 
tendant is blowing a horn. 

There are, however, several other houses which are 
very old. The most interesting of these is Oliffe's phar- 
macy, founded in 1805, at No. 6 Bowery. It is probably 
the only drug store of so great an age which is located 
in the original building and uses the original eijuipments 
put in by its founder. The history of this store was 
fully given in a recent issue of the Era. Church's phar- 
macy, on the Bowery, now owned by Harry Miner, is 
also a very old one, and dates from the beginning of 
the present century. Many of the drug stores on the 
East Side are very old, arid their proprietors treasure 
prescription books dating back in a few instances to 
1830. or earlier. This was the fashionable part of New 
York before the war. An interesting relic, which is pic- 
tured herewith, is the set of apothecary scales which 
now belong to Henry Hasenohr, of 466 Grand street. 
These balances are believed to have been the property 
of some apothecary of the Knickerbocker days, as the 
inscriptions on the cover are in Dutch. The scales are 
still fairly accurate, but the weights are unlike any now 
in use. On the cover there is a picture representing the 
apothecary with his scales, and Death, in the form of 
a skeleton, seated at the same table. They seemed to 
be engaged in some sort of a game of chance. There is 
also a quotation from the Proverbs, to the effect that 
"a just weight pleases the Lord, but a false balance 
is an abomination in his eyes." The carving on the bo.K 
is all done by hand, and is very elaborate. 

There was formerly a drug store at No. 3 Chambers 
street, where the East River Savings Institution now 
stands. It was conducted by Dr. R. B. Folger, who 
died only a very few years ago. Dr. Folger manufac- 
tured a line of proprietary remedies which he used to 
place with store keepers by means of wagons which 
traveled all round the country. The store is kept before 
the public from the fact that H. Planten, founder of H. 
I'lanten iS: Son, started in business in the same building. 

The Western country naturally possesses few antiqui- 
ties of interest to pharmacy. However, there recently 
died in Cincinnati, Ohio, Samuel Burdsal, who con- 
ducted a drug store which was historical in that city. 
Mr. Burdsal, at the age of 12 years, was apprenticed to 
tl'.e firm of Goodwin, Ashton & Cleveland (the last- 
named being the I'resideut's uncle). The store was lo- 
<;'.ted opposite the site now occupied by the Unite' 
States (Government building on Fifth street, near Main, 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 1897. 



ill (^inciiiiinti. After scrviiifc his iipprciiticogbip. Mr. 
Kiirilsiil I'litcii'ii into |i:irtiirrslii|i for :i sliort tiiiu' with 
ii ilni>:Klst naiiicil IViiiiyiiian. and in 18;^7 purchii.scd tlie 
<lnij: stiirc of I>r. I'liliiskI Smith, jit 4(t!) Muiii stn'ol, 
whi-rc lie ri-iuiiiiit'(l tin- rt-st iif his life. In those days 
the iipotlieei\ij"s sliop was a phice of <'oiivivial slither- 
ing, and iiuiny distinguished men in the history of Ohio 
were wont to discuss politics around Ciule Sammy's box 
stove, 'i'liere Ans Campheil l>ouj,'lit the material with 
which lie prepared chrome yellow for coloring hams, 
anil there .some prominent pork packers, knowing (,'aini)- 
Ih'H's pro|iensity for liipior. col him to jiive up the .secret, 
which has since proved so v.ihialilc. General \V. II. 
Harrison, the Ki-aiidfatlicr of (Jeiieial Benjamin Harri- 
.son. and Ohio's first President of the fnited States, 
culled Uncle Sammy his apothecary seueral. Here came 
in his c.-irryall Dr. Lyman Hcecher. father of Henry 
Ward Keecher, and here too that interesting old Quaker 
of I'ncle Tom's Cahiii fame. Levi Cofiin, came to talk 
over the latest slave outrages. l'"igliliiig (Jeneral Boli 
MeCook had a favorite sponge hale in the store, and 
<;eneral .loe Hooker was another pati'on in his time. 
Kutherford H. Ha.ves got his tirst client in the i>roprietor 
of this store, aud ,Tesse (Jrant, father of Ceneral (Jiant. 
used to talk over ol<l times with Mr. Burdsal. During 
the fiat money riots ."Mr. Burdsal carried safely the coin 
of a hank. He never changed the dust of years on his 
bottle.s, hooks aud drugs, and it hecamc almost precious 
to him, anil the jars of snakes in his window will he 
reinemhered with creepy respect hy the growu-up chil- 
dren of that city as long as they live. Mr. Burdsal (Hed 
in 18SS, leaving his bnsiness to Edward H. Burdsal. It 
had not lieeu protitahle in the later years of his life, be- 
cause he would not advertise nor cut, and his successor, 
after struggling in vain to rehabilitate it, assigned on 
July 1, l.StCj. 

Every city in the I'liion lias its oldest store, and its 
oldest druggist. The Era would gladly jiublish more 
about these historical landmarks, but is compelled to 
leave many iiiimentioned for lack of room. Those here, 
described all loo britiy, cannot fail to prove interesting 
to every lover of the ancient profession of pharmacy. 



ALCOHOL LEOISLATION. 

It will be recalled that Section 01 of the Customs Laws 
of 18!»4, permitting a rebate of ta.v on alcohol used for 
manufacturing purposes, was repealed at the last .ses- 
sion of Congress, and that a Joint Select Committee 
of the two Houses of Congress was created, with in- 
structions to obtain information regarding the use of al- 
cohol in the iiiaiiufactiires and arts frei> of tax, and to 
investigate all matters relating thereto, with a view to 
enacting free alcohol h-gislation. 

On Oct. 2-1, l,S!)li, this committee issued a circular li't- 
ler of inquiry on the subject in question, which was dis- 
trilmted throughout the country and given publicit.v in 
the press, and asked that all possible information bear- 
ing on the matter be promptly submitted. On Nov. 23. 
1890, the committee held its first oijeu meeting, and has 
since given hearings to representatives from a number 
of manufacturing interests. It goes without saying that 
the interests that cheaper alcohol might affect adverse- 
ly are claiming that free alcohol would lead to gross 
frauds upon the Treasury, jirobably in the hope that by 
harping upon this single and well-worn string they may 
make pleasing music to the ears of Congress. But the 
enormous advaiiiages that would accrue from ch(»aper 
alcohol to manufacturers and the public, not only in 
the cheapening of products and the development of na- 
tive industries, but also in the development of export 
trade as well, are so patent that cheaper alcohol must 
come in time, if certain native industries are to sur- 
vive. 

The larger manufacturers have quickl.v and earnest- 
ly presented to the Congressional committee their views 



njion the value of cheafH-r alcohol to tiieir industries and 
to the public. But we have failed to see that the re- 
tail druggists have appeared before the committee and 
ixpressid thir opinions, and yet they are as vitally con- 
cerned in a h'gislative movi'inent for cheaper alcohol as 
an.v of the larger class of uiiiiiufacturers. Cheaper al- 
cohol would open up for them untold possibilities in 
the manufaeture of medicinal products, and would do 
more to develop legitimate pharmac.v ami compensate 
for the present demoralized state of the retail business 
than an.v other factor. 

The opportunity awaits. Will retail druggists grasp 
it'.' I'"or .vears tlie.v have protested against the injustice 
of being taxed as retail liquor dealers for selling liquors 
on prescriptions, and here is an opportunity which lua.v 
iiican the saving to them of hundreds of dollars a .vear. 
Will retail druggists fight for their own interests, or will 
the.v sit supiiK'l.v b.v .'iiid let others grasp the opportunity 
that belongs in part to them'/ 

li is not our purpose at this time to discuss the letter 
of inquiry referred to above. That nni.v come later. But 
what we wish to emphasi-i<e is this: If there is going to 
be an.v legislation in the direction of cheaper alcohol to 
manufacturers, tlu' interests of the smaller manufac- 
turers, or retail druggists, should not be allowed to be 
discriminated against. If the larger manufacturers 
alone are going to have the right to use the cheaper 
spirit, retail druggists may as well "hang up the shut- 
ters" of their shops aud go out of business. 

Further, ,i method of controlling the use of cheaiHT 
alcohol, b.v means of bonded warehouses, is in the inter- 
est of the larger manufacturers alone, as retail druggists 
have neither the capital nor the demand for goods to 
work under such conditions as bonded warehouses would 
necessitate. If it be possible for the Internal Revenue 
Deliartment to iirotect the Tri'asury in the collection of 
ta.Kes upon the manufacture of cigars, as it does in thou- 
sands of cities in the country, it certainly should lie pos- 
sible for the same departuu'iit, through the same official 
machinery, to iiroperly guard and control the making of 
medicinal preparations with free alcohol in retail drug 
.stores. 

Further, any plan that jiroposes the use of methylated 
spirits alone for manufacturing purposes, and does not 
IMovide for cheaper grain alcohol, discriminates against 
both the larger ami smaller manufacturers of medicinal 
Iiroducts, as commercial methyl alcohol is unquestionably 
and iiowerfully iioisonous to the human economy, ami 
hence alone, or admixed With grain alcohol, cannot be 
used in medicine. 

We eariu'stly urge the retail druggists of the country, 
through their local organizations, to get together and 
seriously consider the question of the desirability of 
proper legislation in favor of cheaper alcohol. We feel 
that if this be done, wise conclusions will be arrived at, 
and that their interests as manufacturers will be prop- 
erly iiresented to Congress, and will receive due consid- 
eration. If this be not done, aud alcohol legislation 
is enacted, their interests will most probabl.v suffer, — 
lEditorial in .\lumni Hcpt., Phila. College of Pharin.) 



NEW METHOD FOR PREPAK.^TIOX OF SAC- 
CH.XKINp;. — A new patented process starts with thio- 
salicylic acid tS.(C,H,COOH).i, which through treat- 
ment with phosphoric oxide is converted into the acid 
chloride: this with ammonia .vields its corresponding 
amide: finall.v. when oxidized with potassium permanga- 
nate benzoic sulphinide is obtained. 



TEST PAPER FOR SULPHrROUS ACID.— A 
fiaste is prepared by boiling 2 grams of starch with 100 
cc. of water, then a solution 0.2 grams of iiotassium 
iodate in 5 cc. of water is added, and both well mixed. 
In this solution strips of filter paper are dipped and 
carefully dried. The slightest trace of sulphurous acid 
will cause the wetted test paper to take on a blue color, • 



Jiumaiy 7, 181(7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



ON THE ORiaiN OF ATMOSPHERIC OXYQEN. 



Two Notes Addressed to the Academy of Sciences. 

By T. L. PHirsSOX. 

(Traiislatod by Chiof Engineer Isherwood, U. S. Xavy. 

First Note. Comptes Rendiis, 1803, p. 309.) 



appn«|iri)itfil liy the veK^tables must lie regarded as a 
vohaiiic priiiliiction. 

Till' primitive atniospliere of nitrogen gas was, without 
d(ml)t. and owing to voU-anic action, rieher in earlionic 
aeid tlian the atmosphere of the present ilay. 

(Seconil Note, t'omptes Uendus, 1894. p. 444.1 

Since tlie imhlication of my first note (Comiitcs Uen- 
dus. IHO.S. p. :{(KII. I liave a nunilier of new oliservations, 
whicli I have now tlie honor to place before the Acad- 



I ask permission to present to the Academy the results 
of some experiments made during the hist few years, 
relative to the chemical composition of the terrestrial at- 
mosphere. 

Tltat the i)riniitive atmosphi're ilid not contain free 
<i.\ygen may be accepted as certain, since sulphur and 
graphit) — combustible substances— are fcuind in the prim- 
itive rocks. Dr. Ivoene, who was for many years I'ro- 
fessor of f'lii'iuistry in the I'niversity of Hrussels. says 
that after the jieriod of intense heat had passed, thi' 
atmospheii' contained only nitrogen and carbonic acid, 
the proportions of which gradually diiniiiished as the pro- 
portion of o.xygen gi'adually iiicri^ased. 

I desired to ascertain how the plants of tin' present 
time were affected in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas. in 
an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas. in an atmosphere 
formed by a mixture of these two gases, and in an at- 
mosphere of hydrogen gas. The experiments were made 
on plans of the genera Poa. Agrostis. Trifolium, Myo- 
sotis. Anthirrhimim and Convolvulus. Of all the.-ie 
plants the Convolvulus Arveiisis is the best adapted fcu' 
this kind of experiment, because of the smallness of its 
size and the rapiility of its growth. 

I have elsewhere (Chemical News. l,SS.'il. stated ten 
years ago that microscopic ]>lants (Protococcus phtvialis 
and P. palustrisi vegetating in spring w.iter can be trans- 
formeil. so to speak, into veritable generators of oxygen 
Sas. 

Sly idiservations relative to this interesting subject 
have been published in the Chemical News, of London 
(.Tune and .July. 1893). In these experiments the roots 
•of the iilants — immersed either in a fertile soil or in 
■n-ater containing free carbonic acid, and thus exposed 
to all the substances necessary for vegetating — were 
kept in the dark, while the upper part of the plant was 
exposed to a northern light in a graduated inverted glass 
bell. The daily temperature varied during the experi- 
ments from 1.")° to 2t;° C. 

I ascertained that the plants could live in carbonic 
acid, but they did not in the least thrive. In hydrogen 
the vegetating was less backward, but the hydrogen was 
gradn.-illy absorbed Iburued by the oxygen secreted bj 
the jilantl. and after a few weeks it had nearly disap- 
IH'ared. In nitrogen the Convolvulus arvensis can live 
a long timi if the water employed in place of a rich 
soil is kept supplied with free carbonic acid. In a mix- 
ture of two-thirds nitrogen and one-third carbonic aciil. 
the vegetation thrives well, and the composition of the 
atmosphere resulting after several weeks closely resem- 
bles that of our own. and without change of volume. 

If the primitive ages of the glolje be considered, there 
must be conceded, and many scientists do so concede, 
that the high temperature then existing would have pre- 
vented the formation of any chemical compound what- 
ever, the matter of the glidie being at that time in the 
state of free atoms: bvit in measure as the earth cooled 
the elements combined according to the laws of chemical 
affinity, until finally the surface of the earth remained 
covered by an atmosphere of nitrogen gas only, a suii- 
stance having no tendency to combine directly with other 
snbstances. Xow. into this primitive atmi>spliere of ni- 
trogen gas vegetables have discharged <ixygeii gas during 
an incalculable iR'riod of time, until the air has attained 
its present composition. The oxygen of our air 
is thus a result of vegetable life (which latter had neces- 
sarily to precede animal lifei. The carbonic acid gas 



In my first note I assumed the primitive atmosphere 
of the earth to have Ih'cii composed principally of nitro- 
gen, a gas which has (Uily slight tendencies to combine 
with other siibstaines: and that volcanic action snpplii'd 
carbonic acid to the land, to the wati'r .'iiid to the at- 
niosplu're. 

Into this atmosphere of nitrogen, carbonic- acid and 
a(iiieous vapor, the primitive plants discharged oxygen 
gas. the relative quantity of which has continuously in- 
creased from the first appearance of vegetable life. 

Jly experiments, made with a great number of plants 
of the present day. vegetating in an artificially prepared 
primitive atmosphere, show that these plants are essen- 
tially aiuerobic: that is to say. they can live without free 
oxygi'ii. Thus, the Convolvulus arvensis. for exanipU'. 
vegetating during three months in an atmosphere com- 
posed of humid nitrogen anil a certain jiroportion of car- 
bonic acid, converted this atmosphere into oxygenated 
air. such as exists to-day: ami if the experiment be con- 
tinued sufficiently long, the air in my graduatinl inverted 
bells iH'comcs ri<her in i>xygen than our presi'iit atmos- 
phere. 

The first plants which appeared upon the land and in 
the waters of the earth Avere the inferior ones. Xow. 
my experiments show that these inferior plants, these 
Protococcus. Conferva, flva. etc.. discharge, weight for 
weight, much more oxygen in a given time than the su- 
perior ones. For example. I found that in one experi- 
ment the unicellular Algues gave at least five times 
more oxygen than the avicular P(dygonum. 

It may easily be conceived that in measure as the 
an:vrobic cellule of the primitive plants was immersed 
in an atmosphere continuously becoming richer in oxy- 
gen, this cellule underwent continuous modification, until 
at the end of cycles the aerobic cellule was finally pro- 
duced, a cellule which discharges carbonic acid instead 
of oxygen into the atnii>sphere. In this manner I ex- 
plain the slow and gradual production of animal life. 

My researches on this subject have been published in 
the Chi'Uiical News, of I.iuidon. during the years 1893 
and 18St4 (4 volumes). In this note I can give only a 
mere sketch of the new theory to which my observations 
have led me. These publications had. for object, the 
following: 

ll» Tliat in the remotest geological periods, nitrogen 
formed, as it forms to-day. the principal part of the 
earth's atmosiihere. 

(2) That the presence of free oxygen in this atmos- 
phere is wholly due to vegetation: and that the prim- 
itive iilanis were the means employed by nature to sup- 
ply the air with that gas. 

(3) Tliat the plants of the present day. like those of the 
oldest geological evolutions, are essentially anan-obic. 

(4l That ill measure as the proportion of free oxy- 
gen in the atmosphere continuously increased during 
the course of cycles, the anterobic cellule became less 
and less ana-robic (mushrooms, ferments, bacterial, and 
filially completely siTobic (animal lifeK 

(.">i That even at the present time the most inferior 
unicellular Algues give, weight for weight, much more 
oxvgeii to the atmosplieri' than the superior plants. 

(C.I That in measure as the proportion of free oxy- 
gen in the atmosphere li.is continuously increaseil during 
the past long geological aires, the nervous cerebro-spinal 
svstein the highest characteristic of aniniality. has con- 
(inu.uisly develojied as paleontological investigations 
show. l.Iour. Franklin Inst.) 



10 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL E»A. 



[January 7, 1897. 



THE EFFLORESCENT NATURE OF CRYSTAL- 
LIZED QUININE SULPHATE.* 
By A. J. COWNLEY. 

It would appear from the discussion tliat is reported 
to have taken phice on Mr. Pavid Howard's "Note on 
the Estimation of Quinine," that there may be still some 
uncertainty among many chemists respecting the etflo- 
rescent nature of crystallized quinine sulphate. 

It is twenty years since, in a paper i)ul)lished in the 
Journal (Ph. J., (3), vii., 189), I first drew attention to 
the peculiar efflorescent character of this salt of quinine, 
and it may perhaps be useful, in view of the uncertainty 
that still seems to jirevail, to recapitulate shortly the 
facts then established. 

1. Crystalline quinine sulphate — containing ~\', mole- 
cules of water of crystallization, or 15.32 per cent. — when 
freely exposed to air at the ordinary temperature rapidly 
efflorcsceses until it attains the composition of a sul- 
phate containing 2 molecules of water, or 4.6 per cent. 

2. Ereshly crystallized quinine sulphate appro.vimates. 
as stated by Jobst and Hesse, to 7% molecules of water 
of crystallization or 15.32 per cent. 

3. Crystalline quinine sulphate is rendered auhvdrous 
at 100° C. 

4. When the anhydrous salt is freely exposed to air 
at the ordinary temperature it rapidly absorbs water 
until it has the composition of a sulphate with 2 mole- 
cules of water, but when access of air is retarded, the 
water of crystallization in the salt is of a varying quan- 
tity, and bears no constant relation to the salt until 
molecules of water have been absorbed. 

It was because of the results of these experiments that 
I have always advocated that the official quinine sul- 
phate should be a salt of constant composition as re- 
gards its water of crystallization: in fact, it should be 
the air-dried sulphate, having, as I then showed, the fol- 
lowing composition: 

Molecular Per 

weight. cent. 

(C,„Hj,N.O.U 648 S2.8T 

H,SO, 98 12.53 

2H,0 36 4.60 

782 100.00 

It is, therefore, a question well worth the considera- 
tion of the editor of the new British Pharmacopoeia, as 
the objection to the air-dried salt as a commercial sul- 
phate is purely a fanciful one, namely, that it has lost 
the fine crystalline appearance of the fully crystallized 
sulphate. Among its many obvious advantages it cer- 
tainly would remove from the pharmacist the onus of 
selling a drug that might be regarded by an over-zealous 
official "as not of the nature, substance and quality of 
the article demanded." 

The variation in the amount of water in commercial 
samples of quinine sulphate is shown by the results ob- 
tained when examining the purity of the commercial salt; 
the water of crystiillization in the forty samples exam- 
ined ranged from 8.1 to 15.95 per cent. (Ph. J., (3), 
svi., 797). 

In conclusion I should like to add that it is to be hoped 
none of the empirical tests described in detail by Mr. 
David Howard as having been adopted in the American 
and Continental Pharmacopoeias will be made official in 
this country, but that satisfactory methods may be sug- 
gested for the detection and determination of the other 
alkaloids in commercial quinine sulphate. 

VALSOL. — A new ointment vehicle introduced by Pop- 
pelreuter. of Manchester, consisting of a mixture of hy- 
drocarbons impregnated with oxygen (probably like the 
"blown oils"). This vehicle gives an emulsion with wa- 
ter and shows excellent solvent properties for various 
medicinal agents, such as iodine, iodoform, ichthyol, cre- 
olin, thiol, quinine, etc. It is readily absorbed by the 
skin. 

• Reprinted from Pharm. Jour. 



NEW REMEDIES. 



CITRUKIOA.— A tablet prepared by Itadlauer, of Ber- 
lin, containing urea, citric acid and lithium bromide. 



BROMOSINUM. — A combination of bromine and al- 
bumin, containing 10 per cent, of bromine. 



HAEMONEIX. — A nutritious preparation made from 
beef extract, to which such inorganic materials have 
been added as are contained in normal blood according 
to the analysis of Denis. 



DIDYMIN AND SPLKNIN.— Two new organo-thera- 
peulic preparations of English origin, the former being; 
prepared from the thyroid glands of the ox, while the lat- 
ter is a preparation of the spleen. 



SYRUP OF I'HLOUHYDUOPHOSPHATE 01-' 
CALCIUM. — A combination of creosote or guaiacol with 
balsam of tolu, each 10 grams of which contains 0.1 
gram of creosote or guaiacol, 0.5 gram of chlor-hydro- 
phosphate of calcium, and 0.2 gram of tolu balsam. 

EUCHINIX. — The ethyl carbonic ester of quinine, ob- 
tained by action of ethyl carbonate on quinine. It forms 
white tasteless crystals soluble in alcohol and ether. 
Given in doses of 1 to 2 gm. in the later stages of 
phthisis, pneumonia and typhus. 



CUPR.-VTIN. — Obtained by double decomposition be- 
tween sodium albuminate and copper sulphate, the prep- 
arations so calculated that 8 per cent, of copper falls to 
the albumen. This preparation, similar to Ferratin, is 
comparatively non-toxic, so that from 0.01 to 0.02 gram 
can be given without danger of disturbances arising, it 
being absorbed to a lesser degree than Ferratin. 



CREOSO-MAGNBSOL.— A preparation of creosote 
and magnesia which possesses the advantages of being 
free from the irritating action of creosote. For prepar- 
ing this 20 grams of caustic potassa are dissolved in a 
mortar in 10 grams of di.stilled water, and with this 800 
grams of creosote are emulsified. To this emulsion 170 
grams of calcined magnesia are added. The mixture 
Ijecomes darker and finally hard enough to allow pulver- 
ization. It contains 80 per cent, of creosote, and is usu- 
ally dispensed in pill form. 



A NEW PYRIDIN DERIVATIVE OF ALBUMIN 

has been obtained by R. Cohn (Ber. d. Chem. Gesells- 
chaft) by boiling casein with three times its weight of 
hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.19). Aside from the well- 
known decomposition products of albumen, the author 
obtained a crystalline body which he found to be a py- 
ridin derivative, namely di-hydroxy-pyridin. If this be 
correct, we can infer the presence of a pyridin ring in 
the albumen molecule, thus explaining the formation of 
alkaloids from albumen. 

CHINAPHTHOL, or Beta-naphthol-alpha-mono-sul- 
phonate of quinine, constitutes a bitter, insoluble, crys- 
taUinc powder, which passes unchanged through the 
stomach into the intestines, where it is split up into qui- 
nine and beta-naphthol-sulphuric acid. This preparation 
contains 42 per cent, of quinine and combines its anti- 
pyretic properties with bactericidal action of the naph- 
ihol sulphonic acid, being indicated in typhus, dysentery, 
intestinal tuberculosis, acute mu.scular rheumatism and 
puerperal conditions. The dose is 0.5 gm., from 2 to S 
gm. being given during the day. 

CHLORAL ACETOPHENONOXIME.— (Q«|f "> C= 

NO. CHOHCCl,).— A patented remedy which is said to 
be free from the unpleasant effects of chloral and 
also acetophenone. It is obtained by bringing 
chloral and acetophenonoxime together in benzole at low 
temperature, forming colorless prismatic crystals which 
melt at 81° C, it is decomposed by acids and alkalies. 



January 7, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



11 



DI-IODO-SALICYI.IC-PHENYL ESTER.— Another 
■-ivnl of iodoform which conimonds itself because of its 
inodorous and iion-to.\io character; also it can be used 
internally in place of sodium salicylate and potassium 
iodide. This ester is obtained by interaction between 
molecular quantities of salol and iodine in alcoholic so- 
lution, the liberated hydriodic acid being taken up by 
the addition of mercuric o.\ide. The mercuric iodide 
formed remains behind when the ester crystallizes out. 
This new derivative crystallizes from alcohol and glacial 
acetic acid in silUy-like needles, which melt at 135° C. 



FffiARMAGY 



PYRAMIDON.— A convenient synonym for diethyl- 
methyl-ainido-phenyl-diniethyl-pyrazolon, which has been 
prepared by Spiro and Filehne, by replacinn; the hydro- 
gen of the 4th C. atom in the pyrazolon nucleus by the 

group >^<C!ch!' I'>"fami'b)n constitutes a yellowish- 
white crystalline powder soluble in 10 parts of 
water, and tasteless. With ferric chloride an intense 
violet color is produced, whore with its analogue, anti- 
pyrine, a red color results, with nitrons acid an evanes- 
cent violet color is prodnceil, corresponding to the green 
with antipyrine. With fuming nitric acid pyramidon 
gives only a violet or dirty amethyst colored solution, 
while antipyrine gives tirst a green, followed by a red 
on boiling. The physiological action of pyramidon is 
analogous to that of antipyrine. except that smaller doses 
produce the same effect, which in the former case lasts 
longer. The do^e is 0.2 to 0.5 gram, dissolved in water. 

Loretin Preparations. 

I.dKBTlN BACILLI OR SUPPOSITORIES.— Lor- 
etin 5 parts, cacao butter 05 parts (5 per cent). The 
loretin is rubbed with a small quantity of melted cacao 
butter, then mixed with the rest and moulded. 

CERATE OB" LORETIN.- Loretin 10 parts, sperma- 
ceti 40 parts, benzoinated lard GO parts, Peru balsam 4 
parts. 

LORETIN COLLODION.— For a 5 per cent, collo- 
dion 5 parts of loretin are triturated with 10 parts of 
9C per cent, alcohol, and then added to 85 parts of flex- 
ible collodion. For a 10 per cent, collodion, take 10 parts 
of loretin, 15 parts of alcohol and 75 parts of flexible col- 
lodion. 

GLYCERITE OF LORETIN.— A 1 per cent, for dis- 
eases of the ear passage, take 1 part of loretin in line 
powder, and glycerin 09 parts. A 1 per cent, glycerite 
is used in tuberculous osteomyelitis. 

LORETIN C.\LCIUM GAUZE.— (5 per cent.) Ac- 
cording to Dieterich, 20 grams of crystallized calcium 
chloride are dissolved in 1,460 grams of distilled water. 
With this solution the sterilized gauze is impregnated, 
using 1,000 grams (22 to 25 meters, 100 cm. wide). Af- 
terwards it is pressed until the moist gauze weighs 2,250 
grams. This is then slowly drawn through a solution 
of sodium loretinate (50 — G0° C), obtained by adding 60 
parts of loretin to a solution of 9 parts of calcined so- 
dium carbonate in 1,000 parts of distilled water. The 
gauze is then pressed and dried by spreading out. The 
salts employed should he free from iron. 

LORETIN ANTISEPTIC DUSTING POWDER.— 
(a) Loretin 50 parts, calcined magnesia 50 parts; (b) lo- 
retin 30 parts, finely powdered soapstone 70 parts; (c) 
loretin 40 parts, magnesia 30 parts, finely powdered 
soapstone 30 parts. 

AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF LORETIN.— Loretin 1 
to 2 parts, distilled water 1,000 parts. Used as an an- 
tiseptic wash. 

LORETIN VASELINE.— Loretin 2 parts, vaseline 
88 parts, yellow wax 10 parts, oil of wintergreen 5 drops; 
to be moulded into sticks. Used for chafed surfaces. 

OINTMENT OF LORETIN.— (a) Five per cent., lore- 
tin 5 parts, woolfat .50 parts, petroleum ointment 50 
parts; (b) ten per cent., loretin 10 parts, woolfat 60 parts, 
olive oil 18 parts, distilled water 12 parts. Used in treat- 
ment of eczema, burns, etc. 



BALSAMIC HAIR POMADE.— Cacao butter 50 
grams and olive oil 200 grams, are fused together, and 
while cooling 30 grams of balsam of Peru are added 
while stirring. 

LIQUID POMADE.— White wax 30 parts, olive oil 
4.50 parts, are fused together and perfumed with 25 parts 
of oil of bergamot, 15 parts of oil of clove and 5 parts 
of oil ot lavender. 

CREOSOTE PILLS.— Kathrein (Ph. Postj recom- 
mends the following formula: Creosote 10 gm., pulv. lic- 
orice root 20 gm., fresh egg albumen, sufficient (5 gm.); 
make into 100 pills. 

ROENTGEN RAYS FOR DETECTION OF LEAD 
IN MUSK SACS. — The Roentgen rays have been ap- 
plied for the detection of the fraudulent insertion of 
pieces of lead into the musk sac with success. 

NAPHTHALAN. — An unctuous preparation of Rus- 
sian origin, possessing a brownish-black color, melting at 
6.5° to 70° C. and containing about 2.4 per cent, of a 
soda soap, with 97.6 per cent, of a tarrylike oil. 



DETECTION OF ARSENIC IN ORGANIC SUB- 
STANCES.— Nikitiu (Ch. Ztg. 257) destroys the organic 
matter present by employing 3 to 5 cc. of sulphuric acid 
to each 1 gram of material, aiding the action by the ad- 
dition of copper oxide. The lost traces of organic ma- 
terial are destroyed, after boiling with sulphuric acid, 
by adding potassium permanganate, the sulphurous 
acid removed by boiling, and then testing in a Marsh's 
apparatus; 0.01 mg. of arsenic can be recognized in this 
manner, when contained in meat. 



PEACH KERNEL OIL.— K. Dieterich (Phar. Centh.) 
obtained from 10 to 12 per cent, of a yellowish green 
oil from fresh peach kernels, which smelted strongly of 
hydrocyanic acid, being soluble in chloroform, acetone, 
amy! alcohol and acetic ether, but partly soluble in pe- 
troleum ether and insoluble in alcohol and methyl alco- 
hol. The freshly pressed oil gave as Huebl's iodine num- 
ber 109.7, as ester number 15,887. as saponifications 
number 16,487, and a critical temperature of 41° C. An 
old sample gave as iodine number 08.38. The percent- 
age of prussic acid obtained from the press cake aver- 
aged 0.04G2 p. to 100. 

MERCURY FLOATING ON WATER.— C. E. Stro- 
meyer describes in Nature (Pharm. .Tour.) a method by 
which he was able to make mercury float on water. A 
few drops of mercury, half an ounce of water and a 
pinch of red lead, red oxide, vermilion or other red pow- 
der were shaken together in a small cylindrical bottle. 
-V few small globules of mercury were then found float- 
ing together at the center of the water surface. By re- 
peated shaking a small dish — about % inch in diameter 
and 1-16 inch deep — was formed, consisting of a large 
number of mercury globules, and this floated on the 
water in the same position. The dish did not disappear 
if allowed to rest, and always reformed after shaking 
the bottle. 

ARTIFICIAL VIOLET ESSENCE.— Schwartz gives 
the following directions for making an artificial essence 
of violets: Ten kilogrammes of acetone and 30 grammes 
of citral are dissolved in 100 kilogrammes of benzol, and 
to the mixture is added 5 kilogrammes of 10 per cent, 
solution of sodium ethylate. The mixture is warmed un- 
til it assumes a red color, and set aside for twenty-four 
hours, when some water is added to it. It is then dis- 
tilled by a current of steam, and the residue is boiled 
with 1.5 parts of 7 per cent, sulphuric acid, allowed to 
cool, neutralized, and distilled. The distillate is a bright 
yellowish fluid, which in the concentrated state, has an 
odor of sandalwood, but on dilution has a fine odor of 
violets. (Chem. & Dr.) 



li 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 1897. 



rUriT MAK.MAI.ADKS.-Biriii-Kiiu nc.inmetids tlu- 
f.illowiri),' fiiriiitilii (I'lmr. Ztc.l. fur pri'iiaration of 1 kilo 
of iii>iniiala)lt>: I.oiiioii juice KMi iltiuiis. siimir 2r>(l Kranis. 
apiilf saiict> (."id jtiaiiis. 'Hie uiixtiirc is lu-ated for one- 
half hour ipreferalily iii a vai-uol. ami tlu'u cooled. In 
this is iiiconiorated 150 grams of egg yolk and .'>(> grams 
«f Jamaica Kiun. In place of lemon juice, various other 
fruit juices may be employed, as currant, raspberry, 
strawberry, pineapple, etc. 



rRESKRV.VTIOX OF TINCTfUK OF lODINK.- 
Sapin (.lour. ("him. I'har.l after a number of experiments 
finds that the preservation of iodine tincture in the dark 
is without purpose. A sample of the tincture exposed 
to the direct sunlisht lost within a year IT per cent, of its 
iodine (as ethyl iodide, hydriodic acid. etc.). while the 
loss in the dark was 20 per cent. Temperature jdays no 
part in this action, however, the purity of the alcohol 
is an essential factor. 
Only the purest ali-o- 
hol should be used. 
The tincture should \<r 
made ui) in but small 
quantites. 




XKW COMPACT 
CONDKX.SKU. for 
distillins small (jiian- 
titles of fluid from a 
test tube, is shown in 
the figure. The vapors 
pass up through B into 
space D. which is 
cooled by placing a 
small piei-e <if iie in 
the cavity A: here c.indensation takes place, and the con- 
densed fluid flows down C into the receiver. 



FORMALDEHYDE AS REDTCIXG AGEXT. AXD 
-A. METHOD FOR ITS VOLUMETRIC ESTIMA- 
TIOX.— Dr. Gruetzner Lirchiv d. Phar.i has applied the 
reducing properties of formaldeh.vde to the quantitative 
gravimetric estimation of potassium chlorate, also from 
this observation he has formulated a volumetric method 
for the quantitative estimation of formaldehyde in solu- 
tion. 

The author finds that on adding nitric acid to a .so- 
lution of potassium chlorate, formaldehyde solution and 
silver nitrate a precipitate of silver chloride forms ac- 
cording to the equations: 

(a)KClO, 4>3HCOH = 3HCOOH -l- KCI. 
Formaldehyde. Formic acid, 
(bl KCI -r AgXO, = AgCl + KXO,. 

One molecule (122..5 p.) of KCIO^ yields one mole<Hle 
of AgCl. a(»8 p. of metallic silver), or 0.4385 gm. Ag = 
0.49734 gm. KCIO,. E.vperimentally 0.4!tS2.3 gm. KCIO, 
■were taken, and according to experiment 0.49734 gm! 
■were found. The volumetric method for estimation of 
potassium chlorate is thus: 

About 0.5 gm. of potassium chlorate (accurately 
■weighed), are dissolved in 20 to 30 gm. of water con- 
tained in a glass-stoppered vial. To this are added 50 
^'■- "* To ■^' silver nitrate solution, about 5 gm. of for- 
malin and a few grams of nitric acid: the stopper is 
then covered with parchment paper and secured, after 
■which the flask is placed in a bath of hike-warm ■water 
for one-half hour, shaking at frequent intervals. After 
cooling the excess of silver solution is then estimated 
"^'^'^ tV ^' •imnionium sulpho-cyanide solution, employ- 
ing ferric alum as indicator. 

Quantitative Estimation of Formaldehyde.— 5 cc. of for- 
maldehyde sohitiou (containing O.14C07 gm. of trioxy- 
methylene) with about 1 gm. of potassium chlorate, sev- 
eral grams of nitric acid and ."lO cc. of a J_ X silver 
nitrate solution are mixed in a glass-stoppered flask and 



treated as ilirected above for one-half hour. The end 
of the reaction may 1h> told by shaking and warming the 
mixture, whereby the clear superinitant fluid liecomi-s 
turbid. When cold, the excess of silver is titrated by 
means of -^j^ X ammonium sulpho-cyanide solution, 
using ferric alum as indicator. The i|uantity of formal- 
ileh.vde is then i-stimated b.v mulliplying the numlN-r of 
cubic centimeters of silver solution used by O.OdO. 



DELICACY OF THE VARIOUS TEST REAC- 

TIOXS OF THE METALS.— Xeumunn (Chem. Ztg., 

'96, 7t5.3) has compiled the various test reactions of a 

number of metals, with their limits of delicacy, thus: 
Metal. Keagi'iil. Limits of Delicacy. 

Arsenic (AsjO^. . .Lime water 1 : 4,(MI0 

Electrolysis 1 : l.oO) 

Antiiiiouy Sulpbiiretted hydrogen 1:100.000 

Lime water 1 : l,ailil 

Potassium carbonate 1 : 2,000 

Lead Sulphuric acid 1 : 40,000 

SiMlluiii sulphate 1:5,000 

Potassium carbonate 1 : 20,000 

Potassiuui ferrocvaiiide 1 : 18,000 

Potassium ioiliile 1 : 18,00(1 

Coclilueai solution 1 : 4(X),0()() 

Cadmium Sodium sulpliydrate ^ . . 1 : ZaO.um 

Potassium ferr*)i-vauide 1:10,000 

So.liuia hydrate 1:50,000 

Sodium carbonate 1 : 20,000 

Iron (le) Ammonium hvdrate 1 : 800,0(HJ 

Smlium sulph.vdrate 1 : 700.000 

Iron (OU8) Potassim ferrieyanide 1 : 4-IO,(KK» 

Amiuouium hydrate 1 : 500,0(XI 

Oxallo acid 1 : 5.000 

Tannic acid 1 : 440.000 

Sodium sulph.vdrate 1 : 7(X),00o 

Iridium Cone, sulphuric acid and am- 
monium nitrate 1 : 1,000,000 

Potassium Platinic chloride 1 : 205 

Tartaric acid 1 : 220 

Cobalt Potassium xantbogenate 1:100.000 

Aqua ammonia 1:40.000 

Sodium sidphvdrate 1 : l,(X10.nn<) 

Caustic soda 1 : 10.000 

Copper Potassium ferrocyanide .... 1 : KO.OOo 

Aqua ammonia 1 : 50.000 

Sulphuretted h.vdrogen 1:500.000 

Potassium arseuite 1:10,000 

Sodium sulphvdrate 1 : 700.000 

Sodium hydrate 1:30,000 

Potassium carbonate 1 : 14,000 

Hydrobromic add 1 : 10,000 

Tr. guaiac and prussic acid.. 1 ; .VW.OOo 

Magnesium Aqua ammonia 1 : 6,(X>0 

.\qua ammonia and phosphor- 
ic acid 1 : 200,000 

ftlanganese Silver nitrate and sodium 

hydrate 1 : 20,000 

Aqua ammonia 1:100.000 

Sodium sulphydrate 1 : 500,000 

Nickel Kromine and potassium h.v- 

drate 1 

Potassium ferrocyanide 1 

.\qua ammonia 1 

Sodium sulphydrate 1 

Sodium h.vdrate 1 

.Lime water 1 

Potassium ferrocvanide 1 

Alkali hvdrates 1 : 6.000 

Mereurous Salts. .K.idium chloride -. 1 : 80,000 

Alkali hydrates 1 : 80.000 

Potassium carbonate 1 : 7,000 

Silver Potassium iodide 1:4,000 

Potassium chromate 1 : 10.000 

Potassium arsenate 1 : 10,000 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 1 : 35.000 

Sodium chloride 1:24.000 

Zinc .\qua ammonia 1 : 6.(X>0 

Ammonium carbonate 1 : 8.(XX» 

Ammonium sulphydrate 1 : lOO.Ottri 



Mercuric Salts. 



1.000.000 

100,000 

10.000 

1.000.000 

10.(K)0 

4,000 

L50O 



PRELIMIXARY BUTTER AXD FAT TESTS.— 
Gantter's tests have been revised by Vogtherr (Phar. 
Centh.l. calling attention to their value as preliminary 
tests for distingtiishing pure butter from admixtures and 
other fats. The general procedure is as follows: 

(1) 5 gm. of butter (or any fat) containetl in a por- 
celain capsule are covered with 10 cc. of concentrated 
sulphuric acid (sp. gr. l.S.3.5). and then well stirred with 
a glass rod until fusion takes place, adding if necessary 
for this one or two drops of water. The mass is then 
warmed slightl.v (cautiously) by a low flame: if the but- 
ter contains salt the mass froths with evolution of hy- 
drochloric acid fumes: when the frothing has passed off 
the vapors of sulphurous anhydride appear, due to reduc- 
tion of the sulphuric acid b.v the gl.rcerin and fatty 
acids. As soon as the vapors of sulphurons anhydride 



Jauuiuy 7, 1SU7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



13 



:in' iMitircd (aecompaiiip'l Ij.v slislit frothing agiiin) the 
iiiiiss is allowed to cool, a UkIU froth rcinaiiis, and tin- 
lullowin;; ai>iicaraiu'cs nro iiotod; 

I'liri' Imttcr takvs on a choii-y-rccl coloi-. wliilc iKr 
I'lotli is of a pale rose. 

Margarine takes on various shades of bi-ownish-ri'd. 
'The mass does not beeonie of a uniform color at once, 
lint tenacious dark stripes are formed thronch the mass, 
which is at first fiol'lc" ,vello\v. The froth is lif,'hl. 
Iirown. 

Lard is colored nnifcn-ndy yrllowish-lirown, while the 
froth is more of a .yellow. 

Mixture of Hulter and Martcarine or Lard.— The beau- 
tiful cherry color of the liutter reaction, which is better 
observed by rotatiuR the jiorcelain capsule about, is 
chanKcd to a dirty ta-owuish violet, the brown shade 
bcinj; more and more manifest the fireater the percentage 
cif foreiKU fat present. The froth retains llie rose color 
from the butter present. 

(2) After allowing the mixture to stand fur an hour 
or so til! it has become entirely cold, lit) cc, of w;iter are 
added and by means of a glass rod rapidly and tlior- 
onghly mixed. With pure butter the separated fatty 
aciils have a gra.v ami tiocculent appearance; fre<iuenlly, 
however, the mass fuses and forms a dark gr;iy fluid, 
which gradually congeals, the penetrating ocbir of V(d- 
atile butter acids being oliscrvable. 

Margarine separates a light-brown fatty substance of 
the <'(Uisistency of cold creaiu, which has but little odor 
ami (|uickly congeals to a hard mass. 

Mixtures of butter and margarine containing K). 20 
ami .">0 per cent, of the latter show the follo^^■ing: 

As long as the butter is in excess, the nnxture still 
shows, after stirrin.g for one-half a minute a dark-gray 
color: after half a miuute the fatt.v acids of the marga- 
rine (not having yet fused), float in the form of white 
granules in the dark-colored melted fat, the proportion 
ilejiending upon the percentage (of margarine') present. 
After a time these fatty acids congeal, the greater the 
percentage present the more rapid is the congelation; the 
fatty acids of pure liutter reiuaiu fluid at least l."> min- 
utes. 

The author aiiplicil these reactions to various ollu'r 
fats. 

Lard gives in cold, with conccnrated sulphuric acid, a 
yellow color, like juire butter; on heating the mass be- 
comes brownish-yellow, with a yellow froth. On adding 
water the fatty acids separate in voluminous condition 
(not fusing), having a light-brown color, which after a 
while goes over into a rose. 

(looso fat is turned orange with suliihiiric acid un- 
changed by heating; the froth is yellowish white. The 
separated fatty acids uiion the addition of water form 
a brownish white mass, whjch soon turns a violet. 

Tallow gives a .vellowish-brown color, with cold or hot 
sulphuric acid, paler than that produced with lard. The 
separated fatty acids present an appearance like that 
from lard, hut do not take on the rose color. 

Tlie above tests, when carried out and compared along- 
side those produced by pure butter, give fairly accurate 
results, even if but 10 per cent, of a foreign fat be pres- 
ent. Not only this, but the chemist can readily form 
conclusions as to the adulterant and frame his further 
analysis with greater readiness. The butter test stands 
as follows: '> gm, of the sample of butter are stirred 
with 10 cc, of pure concentrated sulphuric acid in a por- 
celain capsule, and then heated cautiously until sulphur 
dioxide is evolved. After a short time the mixture takes 
on a cherry red color, while the froth is of ;i rose tint: 
after the addition of 20 cc. of water the mixture must 
be rapidly stirred for 30 seconds: the separated fatty 
acids fuse to a dark-gray fluid, smelling strongly of vol- 
atile fatty acids. Added foreign fats change the violet 
to brown lines, and the fatty acids retain their consis- 
tency, failing to fuse liy the heat generated in the luix- 
turc. 



Question Box 

The object of this department Is to furnish our subscribers whli 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating to 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing difficulties, etc 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged by mall and 
ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVE NO ATTENTION 

To Stick Labels to Tin. 

(II. '1'. S.) See this .journal, .luly 2, ISOfi, page 12. 



Neutralizing Cordial. 

(II. L. S.I Sec formula Xo, :i.S,S, National Fornuilary, 
reviseil edition, A number of additional formulas may 
be found in this journal, .July 11, IS'JO, page 48. 

Arnica Salve. 

(.T. A. I*. I We cannot give yon the formulas for tho 
proprietary articles. A satisfactory arnica salve may be 
made by any one of the three formulas given on page 
T(il, I>ec, 10 issue of this journal, last year. 



Bismuth Subgallate. 

(S. K. M.) Bismuth subgallate is insoluble in the 
usual solvents. It is used in doses of 5 to 10 grains as 
;i remedy in the treatment of fermentative dyspepsias 
and the diarrha?as of tuberculosis and typhoid fever. 



tlljertstyrkande Droppar. 

(S. B.I Hijertstyrkande, or "heart strengthening 
drops," is a common Swi'dish name for Tinctura Lavan- 
dula' .Vroiuatica of the Swedish pharnnu-opo'ia. This 
preparation is identical with the compound spirit of lav- 
eiiiler of the I'. S, Phariuacopieia. 

Remedy That Will Blister In the Shortest Time. 

(.T. K.I Blisters may be produced by variotis agents, 
such as euphorbium. mezereon, iodine, volatile oil of 
mustard, etc., but the substanc'e generally used for the 
puiiiose is cantharides, either in the form of the cerate 
{blister plaster), or as cantharidal collodion, the latter 
jireparation being the most (deanly, though there is sonu> 
danger of absorption uf llu' irritant. 

Coloring Sugar Red. 

(B. W. S.) Both solution of carmine and cochineal color 
of the National Formulary •■ire satisfactory coloring 
agents. Various shades of red are also imparted by the 
following coal tar colors: Fuchsin, acid fuchsin, roccel- 
lin, Bordeaux, ponceau, eosin. erythrosin and phloxin. 
These dyes are said to bo harmless in the quantities uec- 
cssary to produce the colors desired. 

Varnish for Chocolate Goods. 

(H. T. S.) Dietericli gives ilic foll.iwing formula: 

Suiuatra benzoin ol"! grains 

I'ale shellac •'><«» grains 

A'anillin " grains 

Alcohol, enough to make Hi fi. ounces 

Dissolve the benzoin, shellac and vanillin in the alco- 
hol and filter. 

See also "Varnish for Confectinncry." this journal. 
Oct. 1, 189G, page I.ST. 

Mucilage of Irish Moss. 

lO. F. L.) AVe can suggest no better formula than the 
alternative process given in the National Formulary. As 
stated in the note appended to the formula, the mucilage 
may be made clear by diluting it when freshly luade and 
still hot, with about 3 volumes of boiling water, filtering 
and then evaporating the filtrate to a volume correspond- 
ing to the proportions used. The filtration may be great- 
ly facilitated by filling the filfiu- loosely with absorbent 
cotton, aiid pouring the liquid upon the latter. 

According to ("oblentz, mucilage of a dark-brown color 
may be readily bleached by adding a few cubic centime- 
ters of sulphurous acid, agitating and then heating on a 
water bath, in a capsule until the odor of the acid has 
entirely disappeared. 



14 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 1897. 



Effervescent Citrate of Magnesia. 

(W. A. C.) There is no bettor fornnila tli;ui tliat given 
in the United States rhnrmacopa'in. The National For- 
mulary, revised edition, also contains two general for- 
mulas for making effervescent powders, either one of 
which may be used to produce an effervescent citrate of 
magnesium. You should have this book by all means. 
The formulas and general observations and directions on 
this subject alone are well worth the price of the book. 

Disguising the Odor of Camphor. 

(S. K. M.) There is probably nothing which will com- 
pletely disguise the powerful penetrating odor of cam- 
phor. Of course, this odor may partially masked or 
modified by such substances as coumarin, vanillin, etc. 
Camphor in liquid mi.\tures like liniments, may be pretty 
well covered by various essential oils, but just what sub- 
stances are best suited for the purpose depends upon the 
manner or preparation in which the camphor is to be 

used. 

Quinine Sulphate and Syrup Iron Iodide. 
(W. A. C.) The following proscription is incompatible 
and should not be dispensed: 

Quinine sulphate 2% drams 

Aromatic sulphuric acid 2 drams 

Syrup iodide of iron 2 drams 

Syrup 1 ounce 

Water, enough to make 2 ounces 

Iodine is liberated from syrup iodide of iron by sul- 
phuric acid, and this, with the undecomposed iodide pre- 
cipitates the quinine. If the prescription be used at all 
the syrup iodide of iron should be omitted. 

Cigar Flavorings. 

(R. L. R.) The following are from the Era Formulary: 

(1) Orris root 4 ounces 

Valerian root 4 ounces 

Tonka 4 ounces 

Vanilla 2 drams 

Jamaica rum 8 pints 

(2) Fluid extract valerian 1 ounce 

Tincture of tonka beans 8 ounces 

Alcohol, to complete lU ounces 

(3) Tincture valerian 4 drams 

Butvric ether 4 drams 

Tincture vanilla 2 drams 

Spirit nitrous ether 1 dram 

Alcohol 5 ounces 

Water, to complete 1 pint 

Metal Polish. 

(W. A. H.) One of the following may answer your pur- 
pose. We cannot give the formula for the proprietary 
article: 

1.) Tripoli 1 pound 

Whiting 1 pound 

Pumice, powdered % pound 

Oleic acid 4 ounces 

Petrolatum, enough to make a soft paste. 

2.) The Era Formulary is authority for this one: 

Oxalic acid 1 ounce 

Crocus martis 2 ounces 

Whiting 4 ounces 

Water 1 pint 

Mix, and shake before using. This preparation makes 
a good polishing liquid for almost any kind of metal. 
It may be used dry (omitting the w.ater), or applied with 
a little oil with rubbing, and rubbed dry with whiting. 

Hog Cholera. 

(S. K. M.) See outline of treatment suggested by the 
veterinarian of the Indiana Experiment Station, this 
journal, Nov. 21, 189.5, page 654. The following formu- 
la published by the Bureau of Animal Industry is about 
as efficacious as anything known as a preventive and 
remedy: Wood charcoal, 1 pound; sulphur, 1 pound; 
salt, 2 pounds; sodium hyposulphite. 2 pounds; sodium 
sulphate, 1 pound; antimony sulphide, 1 pound. Give 
a tablespoonful of the mixture in sloppy feeds, as bran, 
middlings, crushed oats, etc., once a day to a 150-pound 
hog. 



A formula ascribed to Dr. Ilaubner, dean of the Dres- 
den Veterinary College, is this one: Sodium bicarbonate, 
2 parts; gentian root, 2 parts: ginger, 3 parts; sodium ni- 
trate, 1 part; chalk, 8 parts. As a prophylactic, give 1 
to 2 tcaspooufuls twice a day; as a cure, give 1 table- 
spoonful 3 or 4 times a day. 

Moder Draaber. 

(S. B.) In Scandinavian communities "Tinctura Cas- 
torei Thebaiea" is usually dispensed as "Moder Dra- 
aber," or "Mother Drops." The original formula for 
this preparation is the following: 

Opii 1 dram 

Amnion, carbon, pyrooleos 3 drams 

Asaf(Btida? 6 drams 

Castorei 12 drams 

Alcohol dilut 15 ounces 

A more modern formula, however, is the one given by 
Hager, in "Manuale Pharmaceuticum seu Promptua- 
rium." 

Castor 20 grams 

Asafcetida : 10 grams 

Water of ammonia; 

Powdered opium, of each 5 grams 

Alcohol 150 grams 

Mix, allow to stand, and filter. 

Prescription Reading. 

(S. B.) We cannot reproduce the prescription you sub- 
mit. However, there is no difficulty in making out the 
second and third ingredients. Following the prescrib- 
er's abbreviations the prescription is: 

Gram. 
R 

Acid. mur. dil CO. 

Aq. laurocoras, 

Syr. rub. id aa 15. 

Aq ad 250 

M. Sig. 3j 3 times a day 15 minutes after meals. 
The second and third ingredients are "aqua lauro- 
cerasi" (cherry-laurel water) and "syrupus rubi idjei" 
(syrup of raspberry), respectively. The former is official 
in the British Pharmacopoeia and the latter may be found 
in our own Pharmacopoeia. The prescription is evidently 
one for gastric indigestion. 

Witch Hazel Jelly. 

(J. W. K.) 

(1) Mucilage of Irish moss, N. F 4 fl. ounces 

Glycerin t> tl. ounces 

Witch hazel water, N. F 4 il. ounces 

Cologne water 2 fl. ounces 

Sodium borate 30 grains 

Dissolve the sodium borate in the witch hazel water, 
mix with 3 fluid ounces of glycerine and with the 
cologne, add slowly to the mucilage previously mixed 
with the remainder of the glycerin. After standing a 
few hours strain the mixture. 

(2) Tragacanth, in powder IGO grains 

Glycerin 5% A- ounces 

Water 5^4 A- ounces 

Witch hazel water, N. F 5V4 fl. ounces 

Triturate the tragacanth with the glycerin, water 

and witch hazel water to a smooth paste, and then per- 
fume as desired. 

Chicken Cholera. 

(S. K. M.) 1.) A remedy promulgated by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture is strong alum water; 3 or 4 tea- 
spoonfuls are directed to be given daily, mixed with corn 
meal. 

2.) Carbolic acid, crystals 2 ounces 

Sodium hyposulphite 2 ounces 

Water 1 gallon 

Dissolve. Add to each gallon of the drinking water 
used by the fowls 1 or 2 ounces of the above solution, or 
the solution may be mixed in the same proportions with 
a mash made of ground grain or other food. 

3.) Sulphuric acid 1 fl. ounce 

Sulphate of iron 16 ounces 

Water 1 gallon 

Mix. Add 1 ounce of this mixture to a pint of water. 



January 7, 1897.] 



THE r HARM ACE UTICAL ERA. 



15 



and supply in place of water to drink, 
meal or other food. 



Or, mix with 



Syrup of Bromides. 

(R. F. T.) We cannot give you llio foruiiila for the 
proprietnry preparation. A syrup containing a number 
of medicinal bromides is this one: 

Potassium bromide 040 grains 

Sodium bromide 640 grains 

.Vmmonium bromide 384 grains 

Calcium bromide 192 grains 

Lithium bromide 64 grains 

Tincture at vanilla, U. S. P Vj U- ounce 

Sugar lOVj ounces 

Water, cnougli to make 1 pint 

Dissolve the bromides in % pint of water, add the 
tincture of vanilla and filter. In the filtrate dissolve the 
sugar without heat and strain. Each fluidram of (he 
syrup contains 5 grains each potassium and sodium bro- 
mides: 3 grains ammonium bromide: \\'-< graius calcium 
bromide and Y-< grain lithium bromide. The preparation 
raay be otherwise flavored, or colored, if desired. 

Silver Nitrate, Potassium Iodide and Alkaloids. 

(Reader) submits the following prescription for criti- 
cism: 

Silver nitrate % dram 

Potassium iodide 4 drams 

Morphine sulphate 1 grain 

Strychnine sulphate 1 grain 

Mix and make into 30 pills. 
Use as directed. 
No attempt should be made to dispense it. Silver ni- 
trate is incompatible with potassium iodide, insoluble 
iodide of silver being formed. Potassium iodide is also 
incompatible with the sulphates of morphine and strych- 
nine. By using an excipient like petrolatum and paraUin 
melted together, these reactions may possibly be avoided 
until the pills are taken. However, such a combination 
is an injudicious one. The size of the pills when com- 
pleted is enough to condemn the prescription. 



Alkaline Antiseptic Fluid. 

(R. P. F.) We cannot give you the formula for the 
proprietary article. A preparation used for a similar 
purpose is the following (Seller): 

Sodium bicarbonate 1 ounce 

Sodium biborate 1 ounce 

.Sodium benzoate 20 grains 

Sodium salicylate 20 grains 

Eucalyptol 10 grains 

Thymol 10 grains 

Menthol 5 grains 

Oil gaultheria 6 drops 

Glycerin S\'-2 ounces 

Alcohol 2 ounces 

Water, q. s. to make IG pints 

Dissolve the salts in 8 pints of water, and the eucalyp- 
tol, thymol, menthol and the oil of wintergreen in the 
alcohol. Mix the two solutions, add the glycerin and 
enough water to complete the measure, allow to stand 24 
hours and filter. 



Potassium Iodide, Mercuric Chloride and Morphine 
Acetate. 

(W. A. W.) The following prescription should not be 
dispensed: 

Potassium iodide 3 drams 

Mercuric chloride 1 grain 

Potassium bromide 5 drams 

Ammonium bromide 130 grains 

Morphine acetate 2 grains 

Fluid extract ipecac 21,^ drams 

Water, enough to make 8 ounces 

Teaspoonful in a wineglass of water 4 times a day. 
A more incompatible prescription can hardly be writ- 
ten. Potassium iodide is incompatible with mercuric 
chloride, morpliiiie acetate and fluid extract of ipecac. 
Mercuric chloride is also incompatible with nearly every- 
thing else in the prescription. These reactions, of course, 
depend upon the order in which the various substances 
are brought together. 



Tasteless Quinine. 

(W. A. C.) We cannot give a furuiula for the proprie- 
tary article. A formula under the title "tasteless syrup 
of quinine" was communicated to the chairman of the 
tJommittee on National Fornudary of the A. I'll. A. in 
1802, as follows: Tannin, 120 grains: quinine sulphate, 
320 grains: water and peppermint water, of each, 16 
fluid ounces. 

Fenner gives this formula umler the title of "tasteless 
chill syrup:" 

2.) Quinine sulphate 128 graius 

I'otassiuni carbonate 11(1 grains 

Saccharin 40 grains 

Solution potassium arsenite 2 jl. drams 

Spirit cinnamon 4 fl. drams 

Water 1 H. ounce 

Syrup, enough to make 16 fl. ounces 

Rub the quinine, potassium carbonate and saccharin in 
a mortar with the water, add the solution of potassium 
arsenite and spirit of cinnamon, then gradually add 
syrup, rubbing all together to a uniform mixture. 



Local Remedy for Cancer. 

(J. K.) Arsenic is the chief ingredient in nearly all of 
the local applications recommended for the cure of can- 
cer. Considerable information upon the use of arsenic 
in this way may be found under arsenious acid in the 
United States Dispensatory. Marsden's "Cancer Paste" 
(see this journal, Aug. 33, 1890. p. 209) may be said to 
be a typical formula. Another formula is that for Es- 
march's "Painless Cancer Powder," which is said to 
contain arsenious acid 10 grains, morphine hydrochlorate 
10 grains, calomel 80 grains, acacia 480 grains. 

Applications of this character should never be made 
under the direction of incompetent persons. Arsenic as 
a caustic is not only in its action diflicult to regulate, but 
dangerous symptoms of poisoning have resulted from 
the ver.v read.v way in which it is absorbed by the skin. 
The same remarks apply with equal force to mi.xtures 
containing chloride of zinc, tartar emetic and other es- 
charotics. It is the physician's duty to recommend how 
they shall be used. 



Fruit Extracts by the Cold Process. 

(I. S.) Your request is somewhat obscurely stated, but 
we understand you wish a process for obtaining fruit 
flavors without the use of heat. This may be done by 
first carefully selecting the fruits, throwing out the un- 
ripe or decayed ones. Then mash the fruit in a tub or 
barrel by means of a wooden pounder, and leave the 
pulp in a cool place until the liquid appears perfectly 
bright. This procedure is necessary to separate gummy 
matter from the juice. Now press out and add 1 ounce 
of alcohol to each pint of the juice, allow to stand for 
12 hours, and filter. The product may now be worked 
up into syrup b.v the addition of sugar, or it may be 
preserved and bottled. 

The Era Formulary gives this general process for pre- 
paring true fruit flavors: Make a pulp of select fruit: 
squeeze it out through a fine sieve into a Imttle, filling it 
to the shoulder, cork tight, and fasten the cork with 
wire. Put in a vessel of boiling water and boil for half 
an hour. Let the cooling take place in the water, and 
then cork. Wax the cork. Keep cool and in the dark. 
When opened, use instantly. 

Domestic Ammonia for Cleaning Purposes. 

Rub up soap and borax with water until dissolved, 
strain and add the other ingredients. The perfume may 
be varied to suit the price. 
(B. W. S.) 

1.) Soft soap 1 ounce 

Borax 2 drams 

Eau de cologne V2 ounce 

Stronger water of ammonia riY^ ounces 

Water, enough to make 12 ounces 

2.) Sodium carbonate 20 ounces 

Water of ammonia 48 ounces 

Water 32 ounces 

Mix. .\llow to stand two or three days, and then de- 
cant the clear solution and bottle. 

3.) Here is a formula which yields a cloudy prepara- 
tion: 

Potassium carbonate 1 part 

Borax 1 part 

Green soap 1V4 parts 

Stronger .water of ammonia 4 parts 

Distilled water 8 parts 

Heat the water and dissolve in it the soap and potas- 
sium carbonate: then add the borax, and, when cold the 
stronger water of ammonia. If a cheap odor is desired 
the preparation may be perfumed with oil of mirbane. 



16 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 7, 18it7. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



THE STATE OF TRADE. 



The New Year Opens with Business Active and 
Every Prospect of Improvement. 

New Yiirk. .I.uni;ny ."i. -.li.liii I". SpraKUf, Sliaip iV 
I>oliiiU''s Siiutlu'rii ivprcsi'iiliilivc. spt'iit Christinas in 
New York and dopiirti-il as.'Hiii fur BaltiniDi-i- i)n L)f<cni- 
ber 2S>. Wtu-n asked how lie fonml Inisincss in thi' frci' 
silver sections of the conntry Mr. Spracue said that hc' 
was chiin^ lietter tliis year than ever l>efore. He was in- 
clined to attribnte this in part to the fact that the firm's 
liusiness is a prowing one. hut he was forced to admit 
that trade generally is better to-day in all the South 
country than it was a year ago. 

"Tliere is considerable talk in some parts of the South 
about the hard timi-s," said Mr. Sprague, "but a careful 
estimate made from a personal canvass of the retail 
druggists in twenty Southern towns by representatives 
of Sharp & Dohme. proves that the sales and protits of 
1891! are greater than those of 1895. There is no doubt 
that business is looking up down there, and in those 
sections where the cotton was sold early in the season 
the outlook is especiall.v bright." 

The general feeling among local wholesalers is that 
the new year opens with very bright prospects. At 
Schieffelin & Co.'s, it was said that it was too soon to 
report from the number of orders already sent in what 
the season is to be. but there was a hopeful feeling, and 
many customers had promised orders after the 1st of 
this month. McKesson & Robbins are experiencing a 
great deal of business, and express contidence in the 
good times coming. One grouml for their faith is the 
fact that this is the season for stock replenishing. 
Bruen. Ritcliey & Co. are very hopeful, and report that 
business is already flourishing with them. Similar re- 
ports come from the importers ami maimfacturers. W. 
P. Ungerer. essential oils, reports good Imsiness with 
soap manufacturers, and C. G. Euler, of Aiitoine (''hiris. 

finds trade lively. 

* * * 

Boston, January 2. — There is a more clieerfnl feeling 
iu the wholesale drug trade just now than there has 
been before in a long time. (Ine house after another 
speaks of the outlook as bright, and trade already is 
brisk in some quarters. It appears to be the realization 
of the hope so often expressed here in 1S9(!: that with 
the new year there would come a revival of the right 
sort: not a spasmodic jump, but a steady gain from 
mouth to month. 

At Cutler Bros. & Co.'s Mr. Charles Cutler says that 
they have no cause for complaint about trade now. 
Money is coming in better, too. This week has been 
used for stock-taking, and next Monday the salesmen 
start out again. 

West & Jenney say that trade is good. True, there is 
not really a rush of orders, but the amount is satisfac- 
tory. Collections, however, are still slow. 

Mr. Richardson, of the Rust & Richardson Company, 
says that, as he sees the situation, trade is not ouly bet- 
ter, but it is improving steadily. His house also finds 
that it is easier than it was to get bills paid. 

George C. Goodwin & Co, report that business is 
really brisk, though mone.v is coming in slowly. Like 
other houses, Goodwin & Co, have been taking account 
of stock, and will scatter their salesmen next week. 

Carter, Carter & Kilham report no marked change, 
which means, so far as they are concerned, a steadil.v 
good trade. The Heath Drug Company has^found traile 
slow, except in the matter of liottled goods, iu which de- 
partment there has been a lively demand. Money is 
still hard to collect. At Gilinan Brothers it is stated 
that trade is noticeably better. 



Chicago, .Taiiuary 2. — There is littli- to report this week 
in regard to the state of trade. There are lots of people 
getting over "that head," and drug jobbers are all bns.v 
taking stock. The firms report the usual voluini- for 
this season. 

Morrisson, IMiimmer & Co. to-day rejiorti'd a Imsy day, 
anil Robert .Stevenson that tln' usual amount of business 
had been going on. 

I'eter \'an Sehaack said: '"\Vc are all busy taking in- 
ventories, getting read.v to weigh the pig for 189(>. Thi- 
usual quiet of the first of the year permeates all lines of 
business, though all look hopefully to the new year. The 
recent bank failures were not iiulieative of bad times. 
Imt of ontragi'iuisly careless banking." 



St. I'aul. Minn.. .lanuary 1. — Business in Minnesota's 
capital city is jogging along at the same old gait. "Just 
•sivso," reply wholesalers and retailers alike to the Era's 
patent pumping process, "We are still smiling," says 
Buyer I'ierson, of the Ryan Drug Company, and their 
smiles certaiul.v are not like Tom Moore's "light on 
graves, with rank cold hearts beneath it," but indicate 
their satisfacticui with the way things generally are 
going. Xoyes Bros. & Cuth-r are in a similar category. 
No conspicuous variation iu the situation as it has ex- 
isted for the past month has developed since the last 
report. In a word, druggists are holding their own and 
fighting something of a waiting battle, but chock full of 

hope. 

* * * 

Miniu'.ipidis. Jlinn., January 1. — Trade has been quite 
satistactor.v here since the last report, two weeks ago. 
The recent bank f.iihtres in this city did not produce so 
deep an imiire.ssion in business circles but that it will 
soon pass away. The banks that suspended were all 
comparatively small concerns, and their su.spensiim has 
only resulted in clearing the financial sky. They were 
disastrous to some imlividuals, to be sure, yet will prove 
of great nitinuite jniblic lienefit here. The I>ymaii-Eliel 
Drug Company rejiorts its volume of liusiness consid- 
erably ahead of the similar period of last year, with 
a. very heavy holiday trade — infallible sign of more pros- 
perous times. Money continues easy, and no serious 
legitimate c;iuse for complaint exists. 



Slaves to Cocaine. 

A remarkable story has been sent nut from Jlanches- 
ter. Conn., a silk-mill town, to the effect that the cocaine 
habit has taken such a hold on resiileiits that steps are 
being taken to obtain legislative restricti(m of the sale 
of the drug. The evil, it is said, had its inception when 
a local druggist, a year ago, made a preparation of co- 
caine and menthol, which could be used as snuff. It was 
intended as a specific for asthma, but the prescription 
was passed around, and now hundreds of people have 
become slaves to the stuff. One prominent druggist is 
reported as saying that, while he has made a lot of 
money on the sale of the comi)ound, he is one of the 
prime movers in trying to check the evil habit. It has 
got to such a point that well-known men and women 
visit his house at all hours of the night and make him 
go to the store and get the stuff for them, threateniug 
that if he does not they will break into the place. He 
says their c<indition is pitiable. The preparation costs 
,")0 cents an ounce. Some of the slaves bu.v as much as 
!S.5 worth in a week. An experienced ph.vsiciau is set 
down as saying that he never heard of a place where 
the abuse r)f the drug had l)ecome so general, and that 
the future prosperity of the town is involved. 



.\t San Jose, Cal.. the Garden City Drug Co. ha-s 

ojiened a new pharmacy at 34 West San Fernando 
street. C. E. Case, manager. 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



Iweekly:\ 



The contents of Viis publication arc cin'crcd liu the general copyriaht, and articles mitsl not he reprinted without special permission. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, THURSDAY, JANUARY 14, 1897. 



No. 2. 



ENTERED AT THE NEW YORK POST OFFICE, AS 8tCOr«D CLASS MATTER. 

Established 1S87. 

THE pharmaceutical ERA. 

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TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



?AGE 

Editorial 33 

Correspondence 34 

George Merck 35 

Cutting in tlie Drug Busi- 
ness 36 

Wtiraen as Pharmacists 37 

Co operative Manufacturing 38 

Question Ho.\ 40 

New Remedies 42 

News of tlie Week 43 

Reports from Various Cities 

on the State of Trade 43 



Paskola Conspiracy Pro- 
ceedings 44 

Castoria Injunction Suit .. .s r> > 

Prescription Departments 
Lawful 50 

American Chemical Society 
Meetings (10 

Advertising for Retail 
Druggists 62 

Market Reports (14 

Manufacturers' Goods, 
Price List Changes 65 

Trade Notes 65 




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Vol. VIII., Julv-Dcc, 1892 2,.50 Vol. XVI., July-Dec, 1896.. 2.50 



Better Pharmaceutical Journals. • 

"You will observe that our most advanced pharma- 
ceutical papers are giving their readers much scientific 
information of a general character and no longer confine 
their articles to the purely technical subjects germane 
to pharmacy. You will find that this tendency is a 
growing one, and that it will continue to grow with the 
increase of intelligence and education among pharma- 
cists." 

The above are substantially the words employed by 
the lecturer in one of the leading colleges of pharmacy 
in the course of his regular lecture a few days ago. The 
speaker had been explaining to his class the wonders of 
cross-fertilization among plants. He apologized for this 
interpolation, excusing it on the ground that any and 
all general scientific information is of value to the phar- 
macist, and, therefore, it was only not wholly out of 
place to mention such matters in a lecture on botany. 

But why is any explanation necessary? The speaker's 
faculty of observation was never more accurate in dis- 
covering new floral species than in leading him to make 
these remarks. There are a few pharmacists of the old 
school still alive, who view with horror the desecration 
of the sacred columns of the pharmaceutical press with 
general science matter, and, particularly, with pictures 
and news articles. But these old fogies are so far be- 
hind the head of the procession that they cannot hear 
the faintest music from the baud, and have fallen out of 
step. The world is moving on. Intelligence is increas- 
ing. The human mind refuses to be cnimped. The live 
pharmaceutical paper must also be a newspaper, some- 
thing more than a mere recipe book. While depth may 
be got from specializing, breadth must at the same time 
be sought by scanning all the fields contiguous to the one 
especially cultivated, or the best results, even as a 
specialist, cannot be obtained. There is such a thing as 
intellectual cross-fertilization. The mind shut up in too 
narrow limits is dwarfed. 



The Free Alcohol Question. 

We learn from very reliable source that it is now 
pretty generally conceded that the .loint Committee on 
Free Alcohol will at least recommend to Congress two 
measures: First, that alcohol in a methylated or dena- 
turalized form be granted to manufacturers free of tax; 
second, that a rebate of the tax paid on alcohol used in 
a pure form lie allowed on articles exported, whether 
beverages or otherwise. 

This is all very satisfactory as far as it goes, but it does 
not reach far enough. What is wanted is free alcohol 
for manufacturing purposes, with all that the adjective 
free implies. We think that among retail druggists there 
is no difference of opinion on this point. What they do 
fear and do not want is free alcohol, which shall be free 
only to the large manufacturers, because of restrictions 
and regulations which would make its use b.v the retailer 
inconvenient and vexatious. If the small manufacturer, 
the retail druggist, can share in all the benefits and ad- 
vantages from tax free alcohol, then he wants it, but 
he does not want it granted upon such terms that he not 
only cannot profit from it, but must be placed under still 
heavier competition from the large manufacturer. 



34 



THE PHAEMACEUTIGAL ERA. 



[January 14, 1897. 



There is no valid reason, however, wlij- the retailer 
should not have free alcohol. It is believed that such 
provisions can be made in the free alcohol law as will 
enable the compounding of alcoholic medicines to be con- 
tinued. But beyond this there are advantages to the 
retail druggist in a policy of free alcohol which will 
largely outweigh the possible disadvantages. The use 
of alcohol in the general household for cleaning, heat- 
ing and cooking, for domestic purposes, which now 
amounts to an appreciable quantity, especially in the 
large cities, would be enormously increased by the great 
reduction in price. The tax on commercial alcohol, at 
188° proof is $2.07 a gallon, while the alcohol itself 
costs at wholesale about 25 cents. To be able to sell it 
at the hirgely reduced price would permit it to be used 
for general cleaning purposes in the household. For this 
it has no superior on account of its power to dissolve 
organic substances. Then, too. its uses for the lighter 
forms of cooking would be enormously increased, and 
there would at once be placed upon the market a very 
great number of spirit lamps for cooking purposes, with 
a great increase in the sale of alcohol. This trade in 
large part would come to the retail druggist. It would 
be a staple trade to be largely relied upon. It can be 
surely counted upon, and it is an offset to disadvan- 
tages which may be feared, but which probably will not 
exist in other particulars. 

Let the entire retail drug trade unite upon the propo- 
sition that they favor free alcohol if it be made free for 
the small manufacturer, as well as the large one, as free 
for the small retail pharmacist to manufacture his prep- 
arations as for manufacturing by the wholesale druggist, 
the manufacturing pharmaceutical concerns and the pro- 
prietary medicine interest. This is both possible and 
feasible. Demand it. 

Qet Better Acquainted. 

Much as we regret to say it, the fact remains that 
there is a large class of druggists who are unconsciously 
slow to grasp an opportunity or take all that should 
come to them. These are the men who sell what is 
called for, but never dream of trying to push an article 
on their own account. They act as if they thought that 
their customers buy medicines as they do butcher's meat, 
and as if the arts of a clever salesman were of no avail 
in a drug store. They are entirely dependent for the 
disposal of their stock upon the demand created by the 
manufacturers, and never lift a finger to stimulate that 
demand or, least of all, create a new one. 

This attitude of the druggists has led to a curious 
mistake on the part of the manufacturers. Because the 
druggists do not create a demand the manufacturers 
think they cnnnot — as if a druggist's word of recom- 
mendation were not often of more avail than an adver- 
tisement crowded away in the back pages of a maga- 
zine! Nevertheless, the fallacy exists in full strength, 
and every day manufacturers are losing money because. 
instead of recommending their wares to the druggist and 
trying to get him, in turn, to recommend those wares 
to his customers, they ignore him and advertise entirely 
to the public. Putting the cart before the horse is as 
little profitable as it is logical. 

What the manufacturers have so far failed to do for 
themselves the pharmaceutical journals offer a medium 
for accomplishing. Take, for instance, the Anniversary 
Number of the Era. In its pages retailers and manufac- 
turers are brought into closer touch. The manufactur- 
ers' plants, their products and the broad lines of their 
business methods are described in such a manner as to 
enable the retail druggist to be a man of his own hands, 
buying what he thinks will be most profitable to him 
and pushing it for all it is worth. It is to the mutual 
advantage of manufacturer and retailer to get better 
acquainted. The Anniversary Number of the Era will 
do much to establish and maintain an entente cordiale 
between them. 



Association Proceedings. 

The annual volume of proceedings published by the 
average pharmaceutical .tssociation lacks much of what 
should constitute such a work. Viewed collectively 
these publications are "fearfully and wonderfully made," 
and they exhibit a wonderful lack of uniformity in con- 
ception, arrangement, style of indexing (if any index 
be given at all) and dimensions. Some of them really 
seem to have been gotten up without any comprehen- 
sive idea of their practical utility or the information they 
might furnish. 

Preserve your literature has been a theme upon which 
many a homily has been delivered by this and other 
journals, and certainly the "proceedings" is or should be 
an object worthy of this consideration. The volume 
should be made as valuable as possible to the pharma- 
cist of the State or territory over which the association 
has jurisdiction. Proceedings that are worth publishing 
at all possess intrinsic value, and they should fairly rep- 
resent the aims of those men who have banded them- 
selves together for "mutual strength and advantage." 

In many of the proceedings there is lacking just the 
kind of information the druggist should have at ha.id 
and know most about, viz., pharmacy in his own State. 
The association in this field has possibilities for prac- 
tical usefulness. We know that a few of them each year 
publish the pharmacy law or a digest of it. Some also 
publish a list of the registered pharmacists in the State, 
but how many do? How many keep their meml>er8 
posted on the changing conditions, legislation, etc., pre- 
sented each year'? How many publish a directory of the 
local associations in the State? Not many, we are sure. 
Here is a field which every association might with credit 
to itself improve. Give the member who takes interest 
enough to save his proceedings volumes of a uniform 
size. 

A Oood Example. 

The Vermont State Board of Pharmacy set an exam- 
ple the other day which it were well should be followed 
by other boards throughout the country. A drug store 
was damaged by fire, and the secretary of the board 
inspected the drugs, and all which were damaged or de- 
teriorated by reason of the fire were condemned and 
thrown out. We do not know just how far the Board 
of Pharmacy would be legally upheld in transactions of 
this sort, but certainly the idea is a good one. It is all 
well enough to have fire sales in the dry goods business, • 
but when it comes to drugs nothing but the best should 
be allowed for use. Yet we have known of instances 
where drugs badly damaged by fire or other causes 
have been sold and used without compunction by the 
purchaser. Some manufacturers of pharmaceuticals and 
patent medicines are supposed to be continually on the 
lookout for job lots of material, and to be not over 
scrupulous as to the quality of this material, provided 
the price of the article is right, and some cutters have 
been accused of purchasing shop-worn and fire-damaged 
patent medicines at low figures to supply the rapacious 
demand for these articles. What would be the best 
way to prevent the sale and use of damaged drugs, it is 
hard to assert, but one thing is sure, it should be pre- 
vented. The action of the Vermont board furnishes a 
delightful precedent. 

Pensions and Testimonials. 

Givers of testimonials to the merits of patent medi- 
cines should be very careful, for there is occasionally 
danger in this sort of thing. An old soldier in Massa- 
chusetts, having got into print by reason of his testi- 
monial to the "marvelous cure" effected by a well-known 
patent medicine, was visited by a Government agent to 
see if he really had been made well. Upon assuring the 
visitor that his testimonial was an honest one. he lost 
his pension a short time after. The old soldier must 
now be satisfied by the restoration of his health, in lieu 
of his customary quarterly stipend from a paternal gov- 
ernment. 



January 14, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



35 




Oeorge Merck. 

It will probably surprise some druggists to learn that 
the bearer of this name is an unassumiug man of only 
about twenty-eight. It will probably surprise them more 
to be told that the well known firm of which he is a 
member is not a branch house, but an entirely independ- 
ent concern handling the output in this country of sev- 
eral famous foreign laboratories. One of their most val- 
uable connections is the house of E. Merck, of Darm- 
stadt (founded in 1668), and it was in that establish- 
ment that George Merck received his first business train- 
ing. 

He was born in Darmstadt, his father being William 
Merck, a member of the firm of E. Merck and a direct 
descendant of the founder. The young man had excep- 
tional educational advantages and served with distinc- 
tion in the Germany army, having the rank of a lieuten- 
ant when he took his discharge. He spent a couple of 
years in the London office of E. Merck, and in 1891 came 
to this country to join Mr. Theodore Weicker in the man- 
agement of the American business. These two gentle- 
men shortly thereafter formed a copartnership having its 
own capital and its own policy. One of the most recent 
moves of decided importance undertaken by the firm was 
to erect a handsome new building at the corner of Uni- 
versity and Clinton places. New York, far removed from 
the traditional drug district. There they have the most 
perfect appointments that money can buy. 

Mr. Merck is one of the most industrious men in the 
hovise. reaching the office each day at 8 o'clock, among 
the earliest arrivals. On pleasant days he rides to the 
office on his bicycle from his home on West Eighty-sixth 
street. His home life is exceptionally happy. He was 
married in 1893, and has two children. In the summer 
he usually goes abroad with his family for three months, 
as much for business as pleasure. He is a lover of man- 
ly sports and is an accomplished horseman. He is a 
member of the German Club and various other leading 
societies and is much liked wherever he is known. 



lODOSINUM. — A combination of iodine and albumin 
containing 15 per cent, of iodine. Sold in solution as 
"Liquor lodosini," containing 10 per cent, of iodine. 



Cotfcspdiidence. 

We are pleased to publish here communications from our read* 
ers on topics of Interest to the drug trade. Writers arc requested 
to express their vIen'S as briefly as possible. Each article ntust 
be signed by Its writer, but his name will not be published U 
so requested. 

CONCERNING THE MINNESOTA BOARD OF 
PHARMACy. 

Minneapolis, Minn., Jan. 4. 
To the Editor: The appointment of a member on the 
Board of Pharmacy to succeed Secretary H. Gordon 
Webster is developing into a somewhat acrimonious con- 
troversy. Mr. Webster is desirous of succeeding him- 
self, and to that end has secured the indorsement of 
and nominatiou by the State association. Mr. Truman 
Griffin — who waged war against Mr. Webster at the 
association meeting last June, for a place on the com- 
mittee of five nominees as provided by law from which 
the Governor is directed by statute to choose the ap- 
pointee, having failed in his attempt to secure the nom- 
ination — is active in the endeavor to purloin from Mr. 
Webster the appointment, in spite of his defeat for the 
nomination. While Mr. Grifhn is proving himself a foe- 
man worthy of the steel of our efficient secretary, it 
can be said without regard to the fitness of Mr. Griffin 
(which is not questioned), that his efforts will certainly 
be fruitless, since such energies have, wisely or unwisely, 
as they may prove, been provided for in the law gov- 
erning appointments; the law is mandatory and admits 
of no juggling, which Mr. Griffin will learn by the sad 
experience of defeat. The statute is clear and concise, 
and reads that the Governor shall appoint from a com- 
mittee of five pharmacists who are actually and prac- 
tically engaged in pharmacy within the State, and whose 
names shall be presented by the Minnesota State Phar- 
maceutical Association. It further provides that any 
vacancy occurring at any time shall be filled by the ap- 
pointment of one from the above said five names. Mr. 
Griffin, it appears, stimulated by the report that L. A. 
Harding, a member of the present board, was about to 
resign his appointment, is seeking the appointment to fill 
such a vacancy, with a view in that case of succeeding 
Mr. Webster as secretary, but in view of the prescriptive 
character of the law, it must be apparent to any one 
conversant therewith, that Mr. Griffin's chances for suc- 
cess are definitely disposed of, for the present at least, 
and unless Governor Clough entirely disregards the law, 
a practice which His Excelleneey has proved himself 
not given to, the requiem of Mr. Griffin may be sung 
even before the ceremon.v. "REUBEN." 

• • • 

Wabasha, Minn., .January 4, 1897. 

To the Editor: In your edition of December 24, page 
837, is a letter from St. Paul in regard to Mr. L. A. 
Harding, and casts some reflections on him. Mr. Hard- 
ing I have known for a number of years. He has al- 
ways been a very active member, and shown a great 
interest in the work. We have never had a meeting, but 
what Mr. Harding has had from one to three papers on 
some practical subject that has been of some benefit to 
some one attending the meetings. If the rest of the 
druggists of the State took the same interest in the 
association that Mr. Harding does, we would have the 
strongest association in the United States and the best. 

Mr. Harding is a man of honor in every sense of the 
word, and would not use his position in the board to 
help his students pass an examination. Furthermore, 
the charge that he issues circulars containing offers of 
"inside facilities" is false. I think I have seen all his 
circulars, and I cannot remember one that contained 
anything of the kind. Only a few weeks ago I received 
one. and there was nothing in it that could lead a man 
to think of any underhand work. Any one who enjoys 



36 



THE PHABMAOEUTIOAL ERA. 



[January 14, 1897. 



the acquninfnnce of Mr. Harding would not think of his 
doing anything of the kind. I think the charges must 
come from one of those druggistR who does not belong 
to the as.soeialion, but is always whining and "tussing" 
the association and the hoard, always looking out for 
his own interests, and not seeing any farther than the 
end of his nose. He dou't see that if all the druggists 
of the State would combine they could come pretty near 
having their own way in a good many things that they 
can't have now. 1 have always looked up to Mr. Hard- 
ing as a first-class druggist and an honest man, and shall 
continue doing so until I find stronger proof to the 
contrary than has been presented ,so far. Very respect- 
fully yours, L. TRAUTMAN. 

[The paragraph to which the above correspondent re- 
fers received emendation and correction in the Kra last 
week. .lainiary 7, Ed.] 



CUTTING IN THE DRUG BUSINESS. 

No review of the drug business, as it e.\ists to-day in 
San Francisco, says W. M. Soarby (in California Com- 
merce), would be complete without some mention of the 
"cutting" which now prevails so extensively. While the 
same thing exists and has existed for several years in 
many of the large cities in the United States, it is doubt- 
ful whether the effects upon those engaged in the busi- 
ness have been as disastrous elsewhere as they have here. 
If the public had been benefited to a corresponding de- 
gree, there would be some consolation, on the principle 
that "it is better that one man should die than that 
the whole people should suffer." It is not easy to see. 
however, that the public have been benefited, while it is 
apparent that they have been greatly injured and are 
still suffering daily in many respects. 

It is always pleasing to customers to buy what they 
need at the lowest possible price, the gratification being 
usually proportioned to the reduction obtained. Whether 
the seller makes a reasonable profit or suffers an unbear- 
able loss, is no concern of average purchasers, who only 
consider how cheaply they can buy their supplies. The 
desire to obtain goods at low prices may be fostered to 
such an extent that many persons feel it a hard.ship when 
they are called upon to pay a. fair price for what they 
need. This condition has actually been brought about 
in the drug trade by the persistent advertising of certain 
cutters, who have endeavored to create the impression 
that they are the friends of the public, and that all 
others are extortioners, if not swindlers. In point of 
fact, the extortion and the swindling (if there be any al 
all) are more apt to be found in the cut stores than in 
those which make less pretense or friendship for the 
dear public. If only the latter knew the inside workings 
of the loud-advertising cut stores, they would give them 
a wide berth. Let us look at some of the methods pur- 
sued to make advertising at cut rates pay. 

In the first place, almost every article which is adver- 
tised at cut rates is displaced, as far as possible, in these 
stores by one of their own manufacture, which is either 
an imitation or a substitution. They advertise Hood's 
Sarsaparilla, for instance, at a fraction less than a whole- 
sale house will sell it for by the dozen. When the would- 
be purchaser calls for a bottle, he is met with the in- 
formation, very adroitly presented, and with every ap- 
pearance of disinterestedness, that the.v have another 
sarsaparilla that is very much better, and is sold at 
about the same price. Should the customer show unwill- 
ingness to buy the substituted article, every effort is 
made to dissuade him from buying the thing advertised, 
and, unless he be a person determined to get what he 
wants or nothing, he will be apt to leave the store with 
something else than the article he intended to buy. As a 
spur to the clerks to exert their utmost cunning in ef- 
fecting sales of these substitute preparations, a commis- 
sion is allowed them on all such sales, but on no other. 
It is stated that one cut store in this city will not retain 



a salesman who cannot succeed in selling from one-half 
to one-third as many of their own preparations as of 
those of which are advertiseil. In most businesses the 
proprietors advertise goods which they wish to sell, but 
in the drug business not one of them that advertises pat- 
ent medicines at cut rates wants to sell the articles ad- 
vertised, with the exception noted below. The fact that 
these people in<lustriously advertise popular remedies, 
spending large amounts of nione,v to do it, and then en- 
gage clerks for the very purpose of not selling them 
shows that there is a "nigger in the fence" somewhere. 

The practice of having one or two articles as leaders, 
selling them at about cost price, obtains in many kinds 
of business, both wholesale and retail, the total volume 
of sales of such articles being inconsiderable as comp;ired 
with the rest of the trade. But in retail drug stores the 
number of sales at cut rates and the aggregate volume 
of business doni' in them is very liirge as comp.'ired with 
the total sales, comprising from one-third to one-half of 
the whole, according to the locality and character of the 
business done. Under these circumstances, the incidental 
sales of other goods and the general increase in busi- 
ness resulting from cut-rate advertising are not sufH- 
cient to make the business remunerative without some 
other source of profit. This is found in their own propri- 
etary preparations which they manage to sell in place of 
those which they advertise. In other words, the whole 
success of that method of doing business depends iiiron 
substitution, substitution, substitution, all along the line. 

Much adroitness is shown in advertising these goods, 
so that the public are led to believe that their own prep- 
arations are not their own but somebody else's. They 
scarcely ever (if ever) bear the name of the cutter, but 
are often marked with the name of some fictitious firm in 
a far distant city. Hence we find "IJlack's Cherry Pec- 
toral, manufactured by the Black t'hemical Company, 
New York," or "Barker's Sarsaparilla, made by Barker 
& Co., New Orleans," etc. The advertisements read 
something like this: 

Hood's Sarsaparilla 6.5c. 

Hood's Pills 15c. 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 65c. 

Barker's Sarsaparilla 70c. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral 65c. 

regular price. .fl.tJd, and so on. By strenuous efforts to 
sell Black's Pectoral and Barker's .Sarsaparilla. and 
equally strenuous efforts not to .sell the others, they make 
sufficient sales on preparations that yield a very large 
profit to "even up" the day's business. How long will 
the public he gulled this way? 

But there are other ways, not generally considered 
reputable, by which those people make cutting remun- 
erative. In some cases a physician is engaged to pre- 
scribe gratuitously for all comers who may desire his 
advice, or some glib-tongued druggist, having no shadow 
of qualification to act as a physician, does the prescrib- 
ing himself. Of course, medicines so prescribed are al- 
ways charged for pretty stiffly. There are many other 
ways in which the enterprising druggist manages to keep 
even with the world. 

From what has been said it is evident that if people 
only knew the inside workings of these establishments 
they would be very much on their guard in dealing with 
them. The effect of all this advertising and cutting has 
been to create a feeling in the minds of the public that 
the average druggist is an extortioner, and that goods 
can be had in a drug store for almost any price they may 
choose to offer. 

Instead of competition having benefited the public by 
securing to them better goods at reasonable prices, the 
result has been that they are now supplied with poorer 
goods, though generally at lower prices. The reputable 
pharmacist who sells only genuine goods finds himself 
compelled to meet prices that are made by those who sell 
cheaper or imitation goods, the public, unfortunately, 
in the majority of cases being usually unable to dis- 



-January 14, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL EltA. 



37 



crimiuate, because they know nothiiis of the value of 
most 01" the things the druggist sells. 

When ladies buy dry goods or men hardware, they 
hare an approximate idea at least of the value of the 
articles they are purchasing. The same persons having a 
prescription compounded, or buying drugs and medicines, 
are quite unable to determine, even appro.\imately, the 
value of the article supplied them. Herein is the oppor- 
tunity for the unscrupulous druggist, who. in most cases, 
turns cutter that he may have the larger scope tor his 
questionable transactions. 



WO.ME.V AS PHARMACISTS. 

By U. D. DIETltlClI. 

[Very much has been said in favor of opening the field 
•of pharmacy for cultivation by the gentler sex. Woman 
is making herself very welcome in this field, but there 
are some who do not think it a suitable sphere for her 
activity. It is but fair to give this other side a chance to 
present its objections. The writer of the following is 
one of the objectors, and we print his paper read at the 
last meeting of the Washington State Pharmaceutical 
Association. — Ed. Era.] 

When this subject is announced I am certain to be ac- 
cused of having selected for my text one which is thread- 
bare, worn down to the lining and ragged at the edges, 
and I confess I do not hope to advance any new ideas or 
make any startling suggestions, but since the first day — 
unfortunate day it was — when I declared my allegiance 
as a Knight of the Mortar and Pestle. I have wanted 
to express myself on this subject, and in all these years 
I have had no more golden opportunity than this. 

In a certain pharmaceutical journal there recently ap- 
peared an article with the same title as the one I have 

announced. It was written by a Miss . and it was 

evident from its tone that the fair writer was meeting, 
and, let us hope, surmounting, many and serious obsta- 
cles to the attainment of a full realization of her ambi- 
tion to be a "pill-roller." 

I regret you have not all read the article referred to. 
but I shall endeavor to have you know what was said 
therein by my references to the same. 

I take direct exception to several statements made by 
this writer, and in some of these exceptions I believe 
there 'exists excellent argument as to why women are 
not, as a class, fitted for the duties and requirements of 
the pharmacist. 

In the first place, while the statement that "statistics 
show that the great majority of wage-earning women 
have others dependent upon them for support," may go 
unquestioned, it can have but little, if any, bearing upon 
an argument in this instance — for statistics will not show- 
that women who desire to become pharmacists are. even 
in the majority of cases, forced to wage-earning that 
they may provide food and clothing for others. On the 
contrary, the years of unremunerative apprenticeship 
which are as unavoidable as they are necessary, and the 
expense of acquiring an adequate pharmaceutical educa- 
tion, make it incumbent upon one to have some means 
for existence. Neither can the laudable ambition to be 
possessed of the proverbial corner drug store be grati- 
fied from the earnings of the drug clerk. True, there 
are a few such instances on record, but in the great ma- 
jority of cases all this is clearly contemplated when the 
start is made. Hence, the argument that the ranks of 
pharmacy should be open to women, that an additional 
means of wage-earning for the support of others might 
be created, is a weak one. When the unfortunate neces- 
sity for wage-earning by women exists, there is no indi- 
vidual entitled to greater encouragement, assistance or 
respect, but, looking at it from an unprejudiced stand- 
point, one cannot but admit that pharmacy, in the ab- 
stract, does not provide a means of existence for some 
years after it is entered upon; and I might add that there 
.are but comparatively few male apprentices to the drug 
business who contemplate providing for the existence of 
•others, until such time in the future, when, having com- 



pleted their studies and entered upon the enjoyment of 
the large (V) salaries paid their kind, they create family 
obligations with new mouths to feed annually. 

Continuing the argument, and conceding that the aver- 
age woman who enters upon the study and learning of 
pharmacy does not do so from a necessity of wage-earn- 
ing, I cannot but utter a word of warning. The ambi- 
tion of the average woman is granted to be to acquire all 
the accomplishments possible, both useful and ornamen- 
tal, to enjoy the sweets of life, to command the homage 
of man and the world and to eventually "marry some 
good fellow and be happy ever afterward." To become a 
pharmacist, woman must disentangle herself consider- 
ably from the "poetry of life." and to say that she must 
get down to the "stern realities of life" when she takes 
up the profession of pharmacy is but expressing it mildly. 

The writer of the article referred to asks that "the 
world recognize the fact that woman is compelled to seek 
employment side by side with man and that it give her 
the same chance and consideration that it shows to him." 
Be it so, by all means, and if women will i>ersist in be- 
coming pharmacists then let them do so "side by side" 
with men. Let them begin at the age of "sweet sixteen" 
or earlier to assume the duties of the drug apprentice — to 
sweep and dust the store, clean the windows, scrub the 
sidewalks, carry the coal, chop the wood, run the er- 
rands, hammer the vanilla bean for four weary hours, 
take a twenty-pound shovel and mix the horse and cattle 
Ijowder; and an ax to break up into salable shape the 
caustic soda, charge the soda fountain, yank the boxes up 
and down the cellar steps and withal begin the day's 
work at 0:30 A. M.. only to end it after sixteen or eigh- 
teen hours of work "that is work," and then either walk 
to her home a long way off or seek for rest on a cot in a 
dingy room either back of or above the store. Te Gods, 
this is serving an apprenticeship "side by side" with 
man. and I will leave it to ninety-nine druggists of every 
hundred who have served an apprenticeship whether this 
picture is overdrawn or not. 

Oh, no, such an apprenticeship is not the kind woman 
is seeking, and the man who would require it of a beauti- 
ful little woman would be justly termed a brute. What 
woman wants is a special sort of an apprenticeship — one 
arranged for her benefit. But this work must be done 
and it not by the "lady" apprentice then either by the 
proprietor, his right bower or by a second and probably 
otherwise unnecessary adjunct in the shape of the small 
boy. 

The fair writer quoted concedes that to be a success- 
ful pharmacist woman must be unusually well and 
strong— able to stand long hours and a great deal of 
drudgery, but women who aspire to become pharmacists 
are seldom built that way. 

Woman as a pharmacist is a beautiful picture, my 
friends, but as an apprentice to pill-rolling and a dead- 
sure thing it don't go, and I would ask here whether in 
the vocabulary of woman there is a language sutficiently 
expressive for use when a little "pillulet," which is being 
carefully and lovingly rolled between the fingers drops to 
the floor and rolls out of sight under the prescription 
counter, or when a prescription for sixty capsules or 
twenty-four suppositories is presented at five minutes be- 
fore twelve, just as you are about to escape for the last 
car? I fear not. If woman actually desires to be a drug- 
gist, then, bv all means, let it be as suggested by this 
writer, "side' bv side" with man. That alone will cure 
many a woman of her ambition in this direction. 

I do not want to be misunderstood in this matter. For 
woman I have the most profound admiration: for woman 
I would readily yield every point of vantage, and believe 
me. it is solely because of my undying love for woman 
that I would raise my voice ag-iinst her submitting to the 
indignities heai)ed not only upon the average apprentice, 
but the n\atured, full-grown, all-wool-and-a-yard-wide 
drug clerk as well. I would save her the aching heart, 
the wearv botly, the tired head and the soiled, calloused 
hands of "the drug clerk, and all these are inevitable; for 
to slightlv paraphrase the language of the poet, "He (or 
she) who" enters here leaves all hope behind." 



38 



THE PELA.RMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 14, 1897. 



CO-OPERATIVE MANUFACTURINO. 

The Empire State Drug Compaiir bus just entered the 
field with a line o( medicines of its own manufacture. 
The company is one of several which represent a ten- 
dency on the part of the retail druggists to emancipate 
themselves from gratuitous services to proprietors and 
the public. All over the English speaking world to-day 
the sale of well known proprietary articles at cut prices 
as an advertising feature prevails. In England the evil 
has gone to such lengths that manufacturers of proprie- 
tary articles themselves have seen the importance of 
preventing it, and not a few of them advertise to drug- 
gists their determination to cut off the supplies of the 
cutter. In this country for a long time it was customary 
for many druggists to manufacture proprietary articles 
of their own, on which there was a living profit, and to 
encourage their sale as much as possible. 

The co-operative idea is said to have originated in 
Canada, where one company, the Canadian Chemists 
and Druggists, of Hamilton, Ontario, has been in opera- 
tion for almost four years, and is said to have paid a 
dividend of S per cent., besides accumulating a surplus 
of 75 per cent, of its capital stock. All readers of the 
Era are aware that ttiese companies are now common 
in this country, and that several claim to be successful 
in operation. 

The New York enterprise originated in Buffalo, where 
some of the most enterprising pharmacists in this State 
reside. A number of them got together and decided that 
instead of each manufacturing his own goods, it would 
be mutually advantageous for all to combine, and also 
to take in those retailers who are not in a position for 
such manufacturing on their own account. The plan 
being fully outlined in accordance with that prevailing 
in other localities, was presented to the Erie County 
Pharmaceutical Association last spring, and fully en- 
dorsed by that body as follows: 

"That a Company be formed under the laws of the 
State of New York, to manufacture and deal in proprie- 
tary medicines, toilet articles and druggists' sundries. 
That said company be composed entirely of retail drug- 
gists. That the stock of said Company will consist of 
such amount of capital as the Board of Directors shall 
deem best, and that this stock shall be divided into 
shares of $1U.U0 each, and that each stockholder shall 
be limited to not exceed ten shares. 

That the stock of this Company shall not be transfer- 
able, except by a vote of the Directors, and no one shall 
hold stock unless he is actively engaged in the retail 
drug business. 

If a stockholder is retiring from the drug business the 
Company will take the shares of stock held by him at 
par value, and the said stock will become part of the 
assets of the Company." 

It is distinctly stated that one of the advantages to 
be derived from participation in this enterprise is that 
the stockholders will not he allowed to supply any of the 
goods at wholesale unless the buyer is a stockholder 
himself; any violation of this rule to be punished by 
forfeiture of stock and the taking of his name from the 
roll. 

On July 22 the certificate of incorporation was filed 
with the Secretary of State, at Albany, the following 
board of directors being named: Thomas Stoddart, pres- 
ident: Charles A. Osmun. first vice-president; Willis G. 
Gregory, second vice-president; George Reimann. treas- 
urer; Joseph Schnell, Neil McEachren, Thomas W. Dal- 
ton, Horace P. Hayes, Robert K. Smither, James A. 
Lockie, Plin S. McArthur, John Tilma, and Jabez H. 
Peterson. 

The stock of the company is 5:50,000, to be sold in 
shares of $10 each, no druggist being permitted to hold 
more than three shares. About the middle of last July 
blanks for stock were generally circulated throughout 
the trade, in which the signers agreed not to cut the 
prices on the articles manufactured by the company, and 
that they would not sell their stock to persons who were 
not retail druggists within the State of New Y'ork, and 




then only with the approval of the Board of Directors. 
They agree also that a violation of any of the provisions 
of the agreement should be a first lien on the shares of 
the stock in favor of the corporation. The heirs, repre- 
sentatives and assigns of the signers were also bound 
to the same agreement. The work of organizing the 
company has been quite successful, and the first lot of 
goods, it is understood, are now on the point of being 
Bent out by the manufacturing company. 
Thomas Stoddart, president of the company, and one 

of the original promoters 
of the enterprise, has 
been connected with the 
drug business since he 
was a boy. He is one 
of the founders of the 
Buffalo firm of Stoddart 
Bros., which began busi- 
ness at 84 Seneca street 
in 1877, and helped to 
organize the Erie Coun- 
ty Association, and has 
served as its president. 
He helped secure the 
passage of the Erie 
County pharmacy laws, 
which are regarded by 
the druggists of that 
Thos. Stoddart. county as the most nearly 

perfect in existence anywhere. In everything that he 
has undertaken, Mr. Stoddart has met with signal suc- 
cess. 

The president of the eoiiii.nny l.eins a Buffalo man. 
it was no more than fit 
ting that the vice-presi- 
dent should be chosen 
from the other end of tin- 
State, and Charles Aldin 
Osmun, of New Y'ork 
City, was selected fi'i 
this office. Mr. Osmun 
requires no introduction 
to the pharmacists c.i 
this locality, having been 
twenty-six years in hi> 
present location on Sev 
enth avenue. He is eiglii 
years older than Jii 
Stoddart, having beiii 
born at Hackettstown. 
N. J., fifty-one years ago. 
He began his business 
career with Hegeman & Co.. in this city, in 18G2. 
He is actively interested in many enterprises for the 
benefit of pharmacy, among which may be mentioned 
the New Y'ork College of Pharmacy, the Interstate Re- 
tail Druggists' League, and the New York State Phar- 
maceutical Association. 

The New England Pharmacal Company has been en- 
gaged in manufacturing a line of household remedies 
under the name of "Nepco," for some time past. Their 
annual meeting was held in Boston the middle of last 
June. F. M. Harris, of Worcester, occupying the chair, 
and F. W. Reeves, of Cambridge, acting as secretary. 
The officers elected at that meeting for the present 
year were Henry Canning, of Boston, treasurer; F. W. 
Reeves, of Cambridge, secretary; W. F. Greene, of Dor- 
chester, assistant secretary; and a long list of well 
known druggists from all over New England as direc- 
tors. 

The New Jersey Home Laboratory Association is a 
similar organization which has started within the last 
few months. It consists principally of Newark drug- 
gists, and they have for some time now been selling a 
family remedy which they call "Manolea." They pro- 




C A, Osmun, 



January 14, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



39 



pose to create a demand for their goods by advertising. 
The oBicei's of the association are: F. F. Crissey, presi- 
dent; L. L. Staehle, vice-president; Charles Wucnsch, 
secretary; F. Bruguicr, treasurer. The board of direc- 
tors are as follows: C. W. Koeber, A. B. Crooks, F. B. 
Meeker, R. Staebler, T. T. Van Ness, S. Epstein, II. 
Weller and A. F. Burckhardt. The members of the 
company are very much in earnest and expect to put 
out a full line of medicines in the near future. A candid 
druggist who is eminently favorable to the scheme told 
the writer that "Manolea" was not easily sold. He said 
he thought a mistake had been made in giving so small 
a package. He believes that most people would prefer 
to buy a well known proprietary remedy, which this is 
supposed to resemble, because they can get just as much 
for their money, if not more. 

The most successful association of this class, and one 
which promises to be a nucleus about which many neigh- 
boring associations will collect, is that organized in Chi- 
cago. Its promotors say that its history really begins 

with that of the Chicago 

Ipt,"— r-'-' — ' ~ I Pharmacal Company, or- 

I ' I ganized a decade ago to 

buy in quantity for dis- 
tribution, in order to get 
advautage of the lowest 
wholesale terms. The 
company was absorbed 
by the United States 
I'harmacal Company, as 
the Chicago co-operative 
concern is called. This 
was suggested at the Il- 
linois State Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association meeting 
in 1894, by President 
Emil Thiele, and a com- 
mittee was appointed 
which reported favorably 
upon the suggestion at the 
next annual meeting in 
October, 1895, and sub- 
scription books were 
•pened. A year ago the plan was known to be successful, 
so far as the number of subscriptions was concerned, and 
the annual meeting was held .Tan. 28 of the present year, 
at which the company was fiilly organized. The first 
lot of goods was gotten out in April, and President 
Thiele is authority for the statement that there has been 
a steady and marked improvement in sales from that 
time to this. The most noteworthy piece of information 
connected with the United States Pharmacal Company 
is that on September 4, at the St. Louis College of Phar- 
macy, the St. Louis Apothecaries' Association, which 
had contemplated forming a manufacturing organization 
of their own, decided instead to join the United States 
Pharmacal Company. This was promised on a year's 
trial. If, at the expiration of that time the Missouri 
stockholders desire to withdraw, they will be permitted 
to do so without loss to themselves. Every druggist in 
Missouri received a circular after the meeting soliciting 
subscriptions. 

For some time the Minneapolis druggists have been 
conducting their own manufacturing, and at the last 
meeting of the New York State Pharmaceutical Associ- 
ation, one of their members who was present as a del- 
egate reported that they were doing a very satisfactory 
business. 

Wisconsin also has an association, with headquarters 
at Milwaukee, originated last March, with C. Widule 
as president, and the latest news from that section is 
that they are considering a proposition from the United 
States I'harmacal Company to join that organization. 
The representatives of the United States Pharmacal 
Company are also making progress in Louisville and 




EmU Thiele. 



other cities. Word comes from San Francisco that a 
similar organization is being started there. 

Another organization on similar lines is the Pharma- 
cists' Cigar Company, of Detroit. Nearly four hundred 
druggists comprise this organization, each shareholder 
paying $20 for two shares of stock. All members buy 
direct, without solicitation, and pay cash. The cigart 
are sold at low prices, so that each member receives his 
dividend at once. Cigars are sold at exactly the same 
rates in larger cr smaller quantities, so that large buy- 
ers have no advantage over their less fortunate rivals. 
O. H. Grunow is president of the association. A circu- 
lar issued by the company shows the profits made by 
thirty-three representative members to range from ?.").30 
to .fSO.OO actually saved by each member over 
and above his regular retail profits. They are selling 
their goods in Ohio. Indiana and Illinois. C. N. Ander- 
son, the secretary-treasurer of the contiiany, deserves 
prominent mention for his services to this cause. 

It will be seen that the tendency to co-operative man- 
ufacturing is of very recent date, as most of the com- 
panies now existing have sprung up within a year. They 
rciM-esent the protest of the retail druggist against a 
certain injustice from which he undoubtedly suffers, 
under the unrestricted competition of department stores 
and other cutters. It is too soon to make any predic- 
tion as to their success or failure, whether they will all 
be absorbed by one aggressive company, or whether a 
more conciliatory policy on the part of manufacturers of 
proprietary articles will render their further extension 
unnecessary. It is certain, however, that unless the 
managers of these companies are prepared to devote 
their entire time to extending the business of the com- 
l)anics. and a large percentage of the profits to advertis- 
ing, in order to make a market for their goods, they 
can never compete with the trained business men who 
are at the heads of the various proprietary concerns. 
The good will of the retail druggist, however, is a factor 
of tremendous importance in any pharmaceutical busi- 
ness, and this these companies undoubtedly have to a 
considerable degree. 



PEARL-COATING PILLS.— At a meeting of the 
Edinburgh Chemists', Assistants' and Apprentices' As- 
sociation. Mr. .Tames Gould offered some advice upon 
this topic. He said that after being made the pills 
should he allowed to dry for a day or two. They should 
then receive two coats of varnish (either tolu 1 dram and 
ether 1 ounce, or sandarae 1 part and absolute alcohol 
1 part). This prevents pitting and the exudation of es- 
sential oil, which colors the coating. The apparatus for 
coating consists of three covered pots, a sieve, and a 
marble slab. The coating powder is French chalk and 
starch (1 dram to 1 ounce), which is whiter. A small 
quantity of Martindale's mucilage of tragacanth (4 
grains to 1 ounce with 1 dram rectified spirits alcohol) is 
placed in one of the covered pots, and the pills are even- 
ly coated with this by shaking them up in the pot. They 
are then transferred to a covered pot containing the 
chalk and rotated for a minute or so. Then they are 
turned into the sieve, which removes excess of chalk. 
They are then placed upon the slab and carefully rolled 
under the palm of the hand gently, and gradually in- 
creasing the pressure as the coating dries. They are 
next turned into a clean pot and rotated gently so as to 
make the coating adhere more firmly. The process is 
then repeated, two coatings being suflicient. To give 
the pills the high polish so much desired they should be 
allowed to stand for a day to dry; then vigorously ro- 
tate them for some time in a clean, smooth-covered pot. 
For prescription-pills the same perfect finish cannot be 
obtained, but with a little practice two or three dozen 
pills can be finished satisfactorily in about fifteen min- 
utes. Pink pills are easily made by adding a little car- 
mine to the chalk. (Ch. & Dr.) 



40 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 14, 1897. 



Question Box 

Ttie object of this department Is to furnish our subscribers with 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating to 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing diftlcuWes, etc 

ffeoucs/s for Information are not acknowledged by mall and 
Af^CJNVJUoaS COMMUMCATIO^S IfECEIVB NO ATTENTION 

In Chart. Decern Pone. 

(W. S. D.) "In chart, decern pone" is read: "Place (or 
put) in ten papers." 

Preparation of Lavender and Ether. 

(J. G. N.) Please repeat your (lucry giviiiK u.s fuller 
information about what you want, and we will try and 
help yini nut. 

Thiersch's Solution. 

(R. I. 11.) 

Salicylic acid 2 parts 

Boracic acid 12 parts 

Water tOClO parts 

Egg Coloring For Cake. 

(G. J. S.) AccordinK to Dick, the egg-coloring used b.r 
bakers for cake is turmeric. About %> dram is added 
to each pound of baking powder. 

Tincture or Liniment for Internal or External Use. 

(F. H. M.) We cannot give the formula for the proprie- 
tary article. Formulas for preparations used similarly 
appear under the abore title, this journal. Dec. 17. ISOli. 
page 793. 

Pineoline. 

(W. A. J.) Pineoline is a proprietary remedy which the 
manufacturers state to be "a delightful and efficacious 
ointment prepared from the ethereal extract of the 
Needle of the Pine tPinus Pumilio) growing in the Black 
Forest of Germany." We cannot give the formula. 

Hemorrhage from Tooth Extraction. 

(J. K.) The Era Formulary gives this formula: 

Chloroform 1 dram 

Tannic acid 30 grains 

Menthol 30 grains 

Tincture krameria 1 ti. ounce 

Distilled water 1 pint 

The hemorrhage may sometimes be stopped by insert- 
ing a plug of absorbent cotton covered with powdered 
tannin or saturated with other astringent. 

To Restore Brightness to Window Olass. 

jW. S. R.) The dullness or smokiness of window 
glass which cannot be removed by washing or scrubbing. 
is due to a gradxial decomposition of the glass and the 
solution of the sodium or potassium salts contained in 
it by the carbonic acid of the atmosphere. Such glass 
can generally be restored to a fairly bright condition b.v 
washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and afterwards 
rubbing with moistened chalk or whiting. 

Books on Flavoring Extracts. 

(R. C. B.) There is no one book devoted exclusively 
to this subject. The Era Formulary contains the larg- 
est and best collection of formulas under this heading 
with which we are acquainted. Dubelle's "Soda Foun- 
tain Requisites" is another work which contains many 
formulas for flavoring extracts particularly adapted to 
the manufacture of fountain syrups. A small work on 
the subject is Harrop's "Jlonograph on Flavoring Ex- 
tracts." In addition to these works you may be able 
to gather considerable information from Brannt's 
"Treatise on Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils." 
Part II. of this book is devoted entirely to the considera- 
tion of essential oils, their manufacture, etc., giving 
physical and chemical properties, uses, etc. Many prac- 
tical rules are also given for testing these oils. 



Oil of Persicot. 

(A. E. H.) Persicot or persecot is a kind of cordial 
made of the kernels of apricot."-, nectarines, and the like 
with refined .spirits. Oil of persicot is a compound or 
essence listed by various manufucturers for the prep- 
aration of this cordial. The formula probably varies 
with the idea of the manufacturer, the following, how- 
ever, being a typical preparation: 

Oil of bitter almond 940 grams 

« »il of cloves 30 grams 

( )il of cinnamon 30 grams 



Remedy to Cauterize a Wound. 

f.r. K.) Thi>re is a number of substances used to de- 
stroy tissues. The following are some of the more im- 
portant vised by surgeons: Bromine, chromic acid, mer- 
curic nitrate solution, potassa, sulphuric acid, zinc chlo- 
tide and silver nitrate. Exsiccated alum, dried sulphat* 
of zinc and potassa with lime, are also caustics, but 
their action is somewhat circumscribed. The first five 
mentioned are generally classified as penetrating in their 
action. Heat may also be properl.v denominated a caus- 
tic. The treatment of a wound requiring the use of a 
powerful caustic should be placed in the hands of n 
physicinu. 

Precipitation in Syrup of Ipecac. 

(R. F. T.I r>y using the olbcial tluid extract of ipecac 
and carrying out in detail the phamiacopceial process a 
s.vrup may be obtained which will remain transparent 
for a considerable length of time. With the commercial 
tluid extracts precipitation will nearly always occur. It 
may be generally prevented, however, by allowing the 
fluid extract after dilution in the official process for mak- 
ing the syrup to stand two or three days before Altering. 
In this way the pectinous principles likely to appear is 
the finished syrup as a flocculent precipitate are re- 
moved. The present official formulas for fluid extract 
of ipecac and syrup of ipecac differ considerably from 
those of the Pharmacopa'ia of 1880. 



Question of Dose. 

(W. C. T.) received this prescription: 

Antipyrin gr vi. 

Pulvis xij. 

Sig. I om. hora, directed. 

The principal criticism against this prescription is that 
of dose, for the dispenser cannot positively decide 
whether the prescriber wi.shes 6 grains of antipyrin di- 
vided into 12 powders or 12 powders each containing (i 
grains of antipyrin. It is probable, however, that he 
wishes powders each containing 6 grains. The directions 
to the patient are an admixture of abbreviated Latim 
and English and meaning, no doubt, that one should be 
given every hour as directed. 



German Prescription Again. 

Alfred Lange, Jersey City Heights, X. .1., takes Excep- 
tions to the various translations of the German prescrip- 
tion appearing in the December 17 issue of this journal. 
He thinks the prescription reads: 
R 

Infus. rhei 6/1.50.0 

Syr. cort. aur 30.0 

M. S., etc. 
A. F. Bonney, M. D., Ph. G., B. A., a California drug- 
gist, who, by the way, seems to have a penchant him- 
self for abbreviations, says: "Any druggist who will fiU 
or try to fill such a prescription should be sent to aa 
asylum. The M. D.! Just kill him." 



Solvent to Remove Varnish. 

iPhm. B.) The solvents c mployed to remove vanrisk 
are solution of potassa, soda, oil of turpentine, alco- 
hol, stronger water of ammonia, naphtha, ether, etc. An 
old painter tells us that it is frequently useful, before 



January 14. 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



41 



attoinpling to remove a cont of old Tarnish, to give tho 
work a new ooatiuK, always, lunvever, previovisly wiping 
off all dust and dirt with a little soap or a damp sponge. 
He says this eleauing operation sliould l)e the very first 
operation in all cases. When the new varnish is dry, 
it will, on applying a .solvent, be found to have attached 
itself to the oil of the old, so both may be removed with- 
out dilliculty. whereas, without the preliminary coat 
much friction may become necessary. Hard varnishes 
will re<iuire a mixture of alcohol and spirit of turpen- 
tine with potassium carbonate. Every time this mixture 
is used it is to he well shaken: a little is then poured on 
the paint or poured on a piece of flannel, and the varnish 
rubbed therewith. This operation is to be repeated over 
the whole of the varnish. fre<iueiitly changing the piece 
of flannel. 

In the case of an intractable varnished surface a box 
of imi)alpalile pumice stone powder is a useful article to 
have at hand. To use this powder, dip the flat part of a 
largo cork in the powder, and rub the varnished surface 
with it in a series of interalacing circles, brushing oft 
the powdered varnish from time to time and finishing 
cue part of the surface lx>fore beginning to work on 
the next. When the dust assumes a whitish appearance 
it is time to leave off using more pumice powder on 

that part. 

Elixir of Compound Powder of Pepsin with Iron, 
Quinine and Strychnine. 
(S. S. L.) Try the following, modeled after one of the 
National Formulary preparations: 

Compound powder of pepsin, N. F..512 grains 

Pho.sphate of iron (U grains 

<.>uinine (alkaloid) 04 grains 

Strychnine (alkaloid) 1 grain 

.Xlcohol 4 fl. ounces 

Water 2 fl. ounces 

Aromatic elixir, enough to make 1 pint 

Dissolve the alkaloids in the alcohol and add to eight 
•ounces of aromatic elixir in which the compound powder 
•of pepsin has been dissolved; then dissolve the phosphate 
of iron in the water using heat, if necessary, and add to 
the previous mixture. B''inally add enough aromatic elixir 
to make 1 pint. 

Pick-Me-Up. 

(I'hm. B.I The following have been published: 

<1) Aromatic spirit of ammonia % dram 

Compound tincture lavender % dram 

Spirit of chloroform !,"> minims 

Peppermint water, to make 1 ounce 

For 1 dose: 

<2) Fluid extract coca 1 fl. dram 

Tincture capsicum 4 minims 

Tincture humulus 20 minims 

Spirit chloroform 15 minims 

Compound tincture cinchona 1 fl. dram 

Water to make 1 fl, ounce 

For 1 dose: 

<3) Potassium bromide 20 grains 

Spirit chloroform 20 minims 

Compound tincture of gentian 10 minims 

Aromatic spirit ammonia 10 minims 

Peppermint water to make 2 fl. ounces 

<4) Essence of ginger lo minims 

-Aromatic spirit ammonia ''j dram 

Tincture gentian l'i> drams 

("Compound tincture of cardamoms. . ',o ounce 

Syrup Vi ounce 

Chloroform water to 2 ounces 

Mix and take as a draught. 

IMck-Me-Up Bitters. 

<5) Spirit chloroform 2 ounces 

Aromatic spirit ammonia ."> ounces 

Tincture cascarilla ■'> ounces 

Glycerin "> ounces 

Compound tincture of gentian to, . , .30 ounces 
Dose: 1 to 4 drams. 

Purification of Water. 

(J. K.) Sodium fluoride is used to considerable extent 
for the purification of water. In a paper read before the 
Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association about a year ago, 
A. Wangeman claimed that when it was added to water 
it was superior to alum for removing impurities, calcium 



and magnesium salts, organic matter and noxious bac- 
teria, lie also recommended this treatment for water 
tainted with sewage, claiming that it was the only sub- 
stance known which would actually prevent the forma- 
tion of scales in boilers. Its action is based on the fact 
that it jirecipitates the alkaline earths in the form of an 
innocuous soft mud which does not adhere lo the boiler. 
For this purpose the anioimt varies with the composition 
of the water, from an ounce to each 1.000 gallons up- 
ward being necessary. 

Calcium permanganate has also been employeil as a 
chemical means of purifying drinking water and it in 
claimed (Hordas and Oirard. Comptcs. ri'ud.l to be n 
more imwerful oxidizing agent than potassium permanga- 
nate and has the further advantage of not contaminat- 
ing the wjiter with mineral matter. The carbonic acid 
produced during the oxidation liberates permanganic 
acid from the salt, and .so quickens the destruction of 
the rest of the organic matter. In practice they say it 
is necessary to employ an excess of permanganate, which 
is removed by the lower oxides of manganese, by which 
it is transformed into manganese dioxide. The follow- 
ing reactions take place: (1) Decomposition of calcium 
permanganate in presence of organic matter, with for- 
mation of calcium carbonate and manganese oxidi-s: (2) 
Oxidation in tjie mixture of lower manganese oxide.s 
and carbon (added to agglomerate them) at the expense 
of the permanganate: (.S) slow reduction of the 
manganese peroxides thus formed by organic mat- 
ter or by the carbon. These investigators re- 
ported that waters which were colored after the 
above treatment, became colorless when exposed t» 
air for 24 hours, depositing a brown gelatinou.s sul>- 
stance. a manganous manganic oxide, which appears to 
be soluble when first formed: the water is then free 
from organic matter, and contains only very little cal- 
cium carbonate and traces of hydrogen peroxide. 

Muddy water is said to be clarified in tho following 
manner: Dip a filtering paper in a solution of chloride 
of iron and another paper in a solution of carbonate of 
sodium. Dry both. Place a piece of the chloride of 
iron paper in the water to be clarified, and then a piece 
of the carbonate of sodium paper; a precipitate of car- 
bonate of iron is formed which clarifies the water. 
Finally filter through a funnel, the neck of which is 
filled with pieces of sponge. 

In this journal, July 1. 1893, page 11, were described 
several methods for purifying drinking water in which 
iron filings, alum, ferrous sulphate, etc., were employed. 



Obscure Prescription. 

r\V. C. T.) submits the following prescription: He 
makes no comments on the incompatibilities, but he 
thinks the latter part of the prescription and tho direc- 
tions are somewhat obscure: 






^ ^ 







3) 



^^ 





=^ ^c 



42 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January U, 1897. 



The criticisms are well taken. We are of the opiniou, 
however, that the last ingredient is intended for water 
(aqua?) and the line in which it appears reads "aquie ad. 
Sviij." or water up to eijiht ounces. This opinion is sup- 
ported by comparing aijuie as here written, with the 
same word as written in the directions to the patient. 
The directions may be read (ass. ex. aqua t. d. s. (ter die 
suuiendus)) 'i; ounce in water to be taken three times 
a day. The wisdom of combining Fowler's solution and 
aromatic spirit of annnonia in prescriptions of this char- 
acter is not apparent. We submit the prescription to 
our readers for further criticism and skill at interpre- 
tation. 



Almond Cream. 

(H. & E.) Almond mixture is very unstable, and, as a 
rule, is seldom employed in toilet preparations. Oil of 
bitter almond is, however, generally added to give the 
characteristic odor. Try the following: 

Ointment of rose water .5 parts 

Oil sweet almonds iy parts 

Glycerine 5 parts 

Boric acid 5 parts 

Solution soda, U. S. P 1'- parts 

Mucilage quince seed (2 drachms to 1 

pint) 25 parts 

Water, sufficient to make 200 parts 

Oil bitter almond; 

Oil rose, of each, sufficient to perfume. 
Heat the ointment, oil and solution of soda together, 
stirring constantly until an emulsion is formed; then 
warm together the glycerine, acid, mucilage, and about 
150 parts of water; mix with the emulsion, stir until 
cold, and make up to 200 parts by adding more water. 
Lastly add the perfume. 

Askinson gives this formula: First prepare an almond 
cream, as follows: 

Melt ten pounds of purified lard in an enameled iron 
pot or a porcelain vessel, and while increasing the tem- 
perature add little by little five pounds of potash lye of 
25 per cent, strength, stirring all the time with a broad 
spatula. When fat and lye have become a uniform 
mass, 2% to 3V^ ounces of alcohol is gradually added, 
whereby the mixture acquires a translucent, crystalline 
appearance. Before the alcohol is added three-fourths 
to one ounce of oil of bitter almond is dissolved in it. 
The soapy mass thus obtained is called "almond cream" 
(creme d'amandes) and may be used alone for washing. 
To prepare amandine or almond emulsion: 

Expressed oil of almonds 10 pounds 

Almond cream 3% ounces 

Oil of bergamot 1 ounce 

Oil of bitter almond I14 ounce 

Oi! of lemon 150 " grains 

Oil of cloves 150 grains 

Oil of mace 150 grains 

Water 1% ounces 

Sugar 3S'2 ounces 

In the manufacture the following rules should be ob- 
served: 

Effect the mixture in a cool room, the cellar in sum- 
mer, a fireless room in winter. Mix the ingredients in 
a shallow, smooth vessel, best a large porcelain dish, 
using a very broad, flat stirrer with several holes. The 
sugar is first dissolved in the water and intimately mixed 
with the almond cream. The essential oils are dissolved 
in the almond oil contained in a vessel provided with 
a stopcock. The oil is first allowed to run into the dish 
in a moderate stream under continual stirring. The 
mass soon grows viscid, and toward the end of the op- 
eration the flow of oil must be carefully restricted so 
that the quantity admitted can be at once completely 
mixed with the contents of the dish. Well made aman- 
dine must be rather consistent and white, and should 
not be translucent. If translucency or an oily appear- 
ance is observed during the mixture, the flow of oil must 
be at once checked or enough almond cream must be 
added to restore the white appearance, under active 
stirring. As amandine is very liable to decompose, it 
must be immediately tilled into vessels in which it is to 
be kept, and the latter, closed air-tight, should be pre- 
served in a cool place. By adding three-quarters ounce 
of salicylic acid, amandine may be made quite perma- 
nent so that it can be kept unchanged even in a warm 
place. 



NEW REMEDIES. 



ALSOL. — An aceto-tartrate of aiumiuuui. 



COCAI'YRINE.— A mixture of cocaine hydrochloride 
and antipyrine. 



MOLLOSIN. — A mixture of yellow wax 1 p. and 
liquid petrolatum 4 p. 



PILIN.— A hydroalcoholic fluid, containing benzoic 
acid, colored red and perfumed. 

SALICOL. — A toilet water containing methyl alcohol, 
salicylic acid and oil of wintergreen. 



BUB.VLID. — A mixture of equal parts of antifebiiu 
and boric acid, used in treatment of eczema. 



KATIIAROIj. — A preparation of hydrogen peroxide, 
which sometimes contains 30 per cent, alcohol. 

GLYBOLID. — A mixture of equal parts of boratid 
(equal parts of acetanilid and boric acid) and glycerin. 

FEIIKOSOL. — A double saccharate of ferric oxide with 
sodium chloride which contains 0.77 per cent, of iron. It 
is claimed to be readily assimilable. 



NORMAL-ANTI-HYDRORRHIN.— A compound con- 
taining borosalicylic ester, 10 p.; ethyl chloride, 5 p.; spir- 
its of rosemary, 100 p.; recommended for perspiring feet. 

COLCHICIN-SAI.ICYLATE.— A solution of 0.25 
gram of colchicin in 0.2 gram of pure methyl salicylate 
(obtained from the oil of Betula lenta), dispensed in cap- 
sules. 



LIQUOR CEREBRI STERILIZATUS (Cerebrinin). 
— A fluid extract prepared from fresh calf brains; to be 
used in treatment of neurasthenia, chorea and mental 
disturbances. 



MYDROL. — (lodo-methyl-phenyl-pyrazol). Used to 
dilate the pupil of the eye without causing any of the 
discomforts or irritation, the effect dying off within 
twenty-four hours. 



NICOTIANA SOAP.— A medicated soap which con- 
tains about 10 per cent, of extract of tobacco (0.42 per 
cent of nicotin), and is used in treatment of all skin 
diseases of parasitic origin. 

IMIDIOD. — A crystalline antiseptic obtained by heat- 
ing a solntion of para-ethoxy-phenyl-succinimid, potas- 
sium iodide and iodine. Imidiod melts at 175° C and is 
used as an antiseptic dusting powder. 



COCAINE STEARATE (C,,n,,NO..C,;H,,COOH). 
— Obtained by double decomposition between cocaine hy- 
drochloride and sodium stearate. Used as oleaginous ap- 
plication 0.5 to 50 of expressed oil of almond: in supposi- 
tories, each one (2.25 gm.) containing 0.02 gm; in oint- 
ment, from 0.5 to 50 of petrolatum. 



BUCHININ. — An ethyl carbonic ester of quinine of 

the following formula CO->^qJ^^ t/' y q This new 

derivative possesses all the therapeutic properties of qui- 
nine without any of its disturbing effects, as bitter taste, 
disturbance of appetite, nausea, singing in the ears, etc. 
Euchinin is obtained by action of ethyl-chloro-carbonate 
on quinine, forming white needles, melting at 95° C; 
slightly soluble in water, readily so in alcohol, ether and 
chloroform. Its solution has an alkaline reaction and 
forms well defined crystalline compounds with acids; 
when dissolved in dilute nitric or sulphuric acid the so- 
lution is strongly fluorescent. It gives the thalleioquin 
test of quinine, but not the herapathit reaction. The 
base itself (euchinin) is entirely tasteless, but is best ad- 
ministered in sherry, milk or cacao in powder form. The 
hydrochloride of euchinin is very soluble, while the sul- 
phate is but slightly and the tannate insoluble in water. 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

Iweekly:] 

The contents of this publication are covered by the general copyright, and articles must not be reprinted without special permission. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, THURSDAY, JANUARY 21, 1897. 



No 3. 



CNTeREO AT THE NEW YORK POST OlFlCb, Ad StCOitD CLA»« MATTER. 

Established 1887. 



THE pharmaceutical ERA. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. 



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D. O. HAYNES & CO., Publishers, 

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Telephone: 44.H Cortlandt. io6 Fulton St., NEW YORK. 

Cable Address ; " Eka "—New Torlf. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 67 

Correspondence 69 

Contributions to the Cu- 
bans 71 

The Pansy's Poor Relations 72 

Pharmacy 75 

New Remedies 77 

Question Box 78 

News of the Week 80 

The Paskola Case 80 

Stein-Vogeler Drug Co. 

Wins Two Suits 82 

Alleged Plaster Combina- 
tion 83 



PAGE 

Edward G. Wells Resigns. . . 84 
N. W. D. A. Scores Another 

Victory 84 

Parke, Davis & Co. Elect 

Officers 85 

Reportsfrom Various Cities 

on the State of Trade 8.5 

Obituary 91 

Patents, Trademarks, Etc.. 93 
Advertising for Retail 

Druggists 95 

Market Reports 96 

Manufacturers' Goods, 

Price List Changes 97 

Trade Notes. 97 




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Shorter Hours for Drug Clerks. 

The New York Journal has taken up the cause of short- 
er hours for drug clerks. This ought to bring cheer to 
the hearts of Mr. Johu Gallagher and his adherents. The 
hope for the success of Mr. (iallagher's movement lies 
not especially in legislation, not in union, but in an ap- 
peal to the general public, and the best vehicle for such 
an appeal is the daily press. But it is to be remembered 
that one editorial is as powerless to convince the public 
on such a subject as one swallow is to make a summer. 
Mr. Gallagher and the friends of the movement should 
see to it that there is no let-up to the question's agitation 
in the newspapers. 

In the editorial in which it calls attention to the New 
York and Brooklyn druggists who are working for short- 
er hours, the Journal says: 

"It is to be earnestly hoped that they will succeed, for no 
reform is more vitally connected with the general health 
and welfare. In the first place, no man who can be hired 
for the drug clerk's present pittance can be intelligent 
enough to compound the deadly drugs called for in phy- 
sicians' prescriptions, AVhen the man who is content to 
work for $12 a week has been on his feet busily engaged 
for fourteen or fifteen hours his intellect of necessity is 
clouded with sleep and weariness, and if he was danger- 
ous before he is certaiu to work mischief now, • • • 

Physicians and druggists — some druggists — will say 
that many a death that has been certified to and seemed 
unavoidable has been the result of murder b.v incompe- 
tent and worn-out compounders of prescriptions. The 
druggists and the doctors "stand in" with one another; 
but that enough of them do leak out to cause trouble is 
shown by the organization in Brooklyn the other day of 
an association of druggists, whose chief, if not sole," ob- 
ject is to defend financially such of its members as may 
become accessories before the fact to just such mur- 
ders." 

As an argument to convince a public essentially selfish 
and holding the safety of its own skin beyond any and 
every other consideration, the first of these foregoing par- 
agraphs has telling force. As a statement of fact it is 
open to criticism. Ben Harrison's much quoted remark 
that a "cheap coat makes a cheap man" is far more epi- 
grammatic than axiomatic, and the assertion evidently 
founded on that remark that "no man who can be hired 
for the drug clerk's present pittance can be intelligent 
enough to compound the deadly drugs called for in phy- 
sicians' prescriptions" is contradicted by the facts. Such 
a sentence is enough to make the drug clerks cry, "Save 
us from our friends!" Surely the Journal must know 
that before he can compound prescriptions the drug clerk 
must pass a most rigid examination. His passing this 
examination is proof positive of his intelligence: the 
Board of Pharmacy takes good care of the fools and dul- 
lards. 

With regard to the latter paragraph quoted. How 
many fatalities or accidents occurring during the past 
year through the mishandling of drugs in prescriptions 
can the .Journal bring up to support its charges of "mur- 
der by incompetent and worn-out compounders of pre- 
scriptions?" Very few. we fancy. It is not the public 
that needs protection: it is the drug clerk who asks for 
common justice, for common humanity. 

But, if all this nonsense about drug clerks whose intel- 
lects are so "clouded with sleep and weariness" that 
they put arsenic instead of ice cream into the soda water. 



68 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



serves as a bugbear to frighten the ever-tiraid public into 
siding with those striving for shorter hours — why, it will 
be worth more to the overworked druggist than ordinary 
common-sense. For. we repeat, in the public lies salva- 
tion. 



Retail Druggist Desire Free Alcohol. 

The attempt has been made to influence legislation on 
the tax-free alcohol question by the assertion that the 
retail druggists do not want it. One special pleader and 
self-accredited "representative" goes so far as to say that 
he speaks for 30,000 retailers who are opposed to it. 
This representative has no authority to speak for any 
one but himself, and the statements he has made have 
been repeatedly proven not to represent fairly the senti- 
ment of the trade. There are some druggists who do not 
favor the free alcohol proposition, but 30.0001 nonsense. 
TVe don't believe any man can give the names of even 
3,000 who do not want it. 

The Era has asked the retail druggists of the United 
States to hand in their votes on the question, and they 
are doing it with a vengeance. Every mail is burdened 
with votes, and not even 1 per cent, is opposed to tax- 
free alcohol for manufacturing purposes. 

Here are a few samples just as they run: 

AV. C. Hillard. Bristol. Conn.— I do most earnestly in mv 
own l>ehalf and in behalf of the six other drug firms of this 
town, protest against alcohol being "tax free to manufac- 
turers." and not to the retail druggists. I have no time nor 
inclination to go into an argument at this time in relation 
to the matter. It would simply be as a great deal of our 
legislation is, unjust and unequal in its operation. Free to 
one, free to all. Senator Piatt and Congressman Russell, of 
Connecticut, have evidently got into the clutches of the 
patent medicine men. 

W. R. Cutler. Ionia. Mich.— For myself. I will say that I 
would be satisfied to have no free alcohol, but I am 'opposed 
to any discrimination in favor of large manufacturers. If 
large manufacturers are to have free alcohol, all druggists 
should have it also. 

Xelson Hower, Mendon, Mich. — In regard to the question 
on alcohol in last Era, would say. I am in favor of free al- 
cohol. I do not think the large manufacturers should have 
the benefit unless the retail druggists have the same. 

T. D. Thomas. Lehighton. Pa.— By all means we should 
have free alcohol. It is one of the few things that has not 
declined in price. It is entirely loo high, compared with 
other drugs, etc. 

Hull *: Stevens, Clinton, Conn.— We believe in tax free al- 
cohol for the retailer, who is also a small scale manufac- 
turer, as well as for the large manufacturers, and for use 
in the arts. 

James Craig. Fort Washington, Pa. — That special witness 
who claimed to represent 30,000 retail druggists, etc., was 
simply an "ass," and didn't know what he was talking 
about. 

S. S. Lanyon, Omaha, Xeb.— Ton ask that each druggist 
give his views on free alcohol. Nearly all of the seventy 
druggists in this vicinity would certainly be opposed to it. 

J. M. C. Bargar, Holland, X. T.— I certainly desire tax free 
alcohol, that it may place me as a retailer and small manu- 
facturer on an equal footing with the large user. 

O. B. J. Haines. AUentown. Pa. — Put in as many votes for 
me as possible. To have free alcohol would be a big source 
of relief to the almost ruined retail drug trade. 

J. A. Settle, Waverly, Mo.— I desire tax free alcohol for 
manufacturers and retail dealers of alcoholic preparations. 

Elmer E. Thrapp, Avilla. Ind.— If free alcohol can be made 
practical for small retailers, I want it; if not, I don't. 

F. H. Huntley, West Troy. X. T.— I am decidedly in favor 
of free alcohol, as yon have inquired in your journal. 

William Schapira, Xew Tork, X. T.— I certainly am in 
favor of alcohol free of tax to the retail druggists. 

J. H. Weber, Cascade. la. — Please enter me as an advocate 
of "free alcohol" for pharmaceutical use. 

H. W. Hollon, Skaneateles. X. T.— I am in favor of free al- 
cohol for retail druggists. 



An Important Legal Opiaion. 

We print in this issue a legal opinion concerning the 
extent to which American citizens may lawfully furnish 
the Cuban insurgents with medical supplies. The opin- 
ion, arrived at after the most painstaking and extended 
research, has been specially prepared for the Era. The 
author lays it down that the contribution of medical sup- 
plies to the Cuban cause by citizens of the ITnited States 
is not illegal, provided such supplies are not furnished to 
an expedition fitted out within American boundaries, or 
to a vessel of war afloat within American waters. 



Multiplication of Pharmacy Schools. 

Druggists of Hhode Island, especially those who are 
members of the State Pharmaceutical Association, are 
interesto<l in the proposition, recently made, to establish 
a school of pharmacy in that State. It is significant that 
while all seem to be in sympathy with the motive which 
undoubtedly prompted the proposition, a large proportion 
see little prosi>ect of the venture proving a success. The 
views they advance in support of this opinion are rea- 
sonable and sound. 

While colleges of pharmacy and the cause of pharma- 
ceutical education in general have no warmer champion 
than the Era, we cannot but feel that the Rhode Island 
plan is ill advised and a mistake. It is one thing to say 
let us have a college of pharmacy, and a far different 
thing to establish one of the proper sort. What is need- 
ed is not more colleges, rather fewer but better ones. 
There are several little ones now which are no credit to 
the profession and whose discontinuance would be a de- 
cided benefit. The right kind of college requires an 
equipment which cannot be secured by the mere say-so 
of a few pharmacists. There must be a faculty of trained 
and experienced teachers, and they must be well paid. 
The good, reliable, able pharmacist is not necessaril.v a 
good teacher, and to depend upon such a source for the 
teaching staff is an egregious error. In every single in- 
stance where this experiment has been tried the college 
has proven weak, of inferior standard, making no prog- 
ress, and all of this class are to-day either dying or 
dead. 

Beside an adequate faculty, there is the financial prob- 
lem to consider. Money makes the mare go, and the 
college of pharmacy must have at command a sufficiency 
of ways and means to further its work. An unendowed 
institution must have large classes, as its existence de- 
pends on the income from students' fees. There are less 
than 300 drug stores in the entire State of Rhode Island, 
and if each were to furnish one student, there would be 
barely enough to maintain a college a single year, and 
what could it depend on for succeeding years? That 
State, too, is midway between Boston and Xew York, 
cities having each its strong college of pharmacy, com- 
petent and equipped to educate, if called upon, the en- 
tire yearly crop of students for the whole United States. 
No young man of sense would pass by these strong insti- 
tutions which offer him such special advantages, and 
choose the weak school whose faculty would consist, as 
it must, of pharmacists who give their services for little 
or nothing, who are good druggists but poor teachers; a 
school lacking the building, laboratories, apparatus, the 
general and complete equipment vital to the real success 
of any teaching institution. 

We do not wish to throw cold water on any scheme for 
progress; the motives underl.ving the Rhode Island propo- 
sition are most creditable to the hearts of its originators, 
but a little candid consideration of the matter must, we 
are sure, convince any one that it is ill-advised and im- 
practicable. It will be far better for American phar- 
macy and pharmaceutical education to cease this multi- 
plication of colleges, and seek to make those we already 
have better and more nearly what they ought to be. 



A home manufacturer of chamois skins has appealed 
for a duty of 35 per cent, on these articles. This is in- 
ferential, if not conclusive, proof that the chamois skin 
comes from the back of the patient sheep, as we have 
oft been told, not from the beautiful animal so famed in 
song and story. Things are seldom what they seem, are 
they? 



From a State which has no pharmacy law comes a let- 
ter saying "I have Perchest the Drugs Shore of ." 

Moral: you can find it yourself. There are really sev- 
eral which can be deduced. 



January 21, 1897.] 



TOE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



69 



©ottespondence. 

We are pleased to publish here commualcatloas from oar read' 
ers oa topics of interest to the drug trade. Writers are requested 
to express their views as briefly as possible, fzach article mast 
be sigaed by Its writer, but bis aante will not be pubiislied U 
ao requested. 

MR. OTT'S PLAN TO STOP CUTTING ON 
PATENTS. 

[Mr. Francis S. Ott. of Sacramonto, Cal., has doviscil 
a plan which, in his opinion, is calculated to minimize or 
entirely stop the evil of cutting on patent medicines. He 
submits his scheme to the chairman of the N. W. D. A. 
Committee for consideration, then to be published in the 
Era. The correspondence between Mr. Ott and Mr. 
Kline, and the plan in detail, are presented below for the 
study and judgment of the retail druggists. — Ed. Era.] 
Lettei^. 

Sacramento, Cal., Jan. 2, 1897. 
Mr. M. N. Kline, Philadelphia, Ta. 

Dear Sir: Enclosed find plan to "prevent cutting," on 
which, after reviewing, please give me your opinion. All 
four sheets are printed like a check-book. The different 
parts are perforated, each set bearing same number, the 
sets being numbered consecutively. The first is a stub 
and contains any memorandum needed by the manufac- 
turer. The remaining three are detached, and the one 
"to the purchaser" is pasted to the package. Number 
the box or carton flap inside to correspond with outside 
number, so goods ma.v be traced even if outside numbers 
are erased. Each dozen or case may bear label thus: 
No. 1 to 144, inclusive. 

When shipped, enter on stub. If to a wholesaler, bill 
at regular retail price, less discount on old list and less 
amount of rebate checks. This account will at first have 
to be considered by jobbers and manufacturers as a con- 
signment account. An invoice would read thus: 

1 Gross "3 Dav Malaria Cure." 75c. size $108.00 

Less 15,'?: on old list $72.00 $10.20 

Less rebate check charged as 

consignment to be settled as 

goods are sold, or every 60 or 

90 days, as agreed upon 3G.00 — 46.20 



No further discount payable in 10 days. . $61.80 

Otherwise jobbers would complain on account of 
amount invested. It makes no difference to the manu- 
facturer so long as tlie rebate check consignee account 
is paid as fast as he pa.vs the retailer his rebate checks. 
Manufacturers could combine and have all rebate checks 
paid from one source to minimize expense. The agree- 
ment is legal, and to detach rebate checks' and present 
for pa.vment contrary to agreement would be obtaining 
money" under false pretense. The manufacturer and re- 
tailer are the ones most benefited, and upon them are 
imposed all extra work and expense, which is very small 
when compared with the benefits to both to be derived. 
The manufacturer spends an amount to obtain say 100 
sales for his goods, but owing to circumstances not 
over fifty sales are made. The retailer is his natural 
distributer, and they should work in harmony. Should 
the manufacturer eventually expect to sell his goods 
through grocers and department stores, he will then 
find them stocked with non-secrets and the druggist 
cutting the price; when nothing is to be gained by sell- 
ing at cut rates, the new channel will soon tire, as 
houses are now making a specialty of manufacturing for 
department stores. If present circumstances continue, 
in two or three years the number of retailers will be 
decreased .50 per cent., but if properl.v managed there is 
room for all. This plan will compel the retailer to have 
one-third more invested in proprietary goods than be- 
fore: but if manufacturers would have no lot discounts. 
you could decrease your stock and still be on an equal 
footing with the largest competitor. As to the extra 
trouble of signing and mailing agreements and rebate 
checks, this is better than to sell them at a loss or spend 
time "knocking" and "switching." to say nothing of the 
amount of sundry trade which will return to you when 
cutters have no special inducements to offer. When a 
few leading manufacturers adopt this plan the retailers 
should organize with a cash or note forfeit and request 
the balance to adopt it or refuse to handle their goods. 
Respectfully, FRANCIS S. OTT. 



Philadelphia, Jan. 12, 1897. 
Francis S. Ott, Esq., Sacramento, Cal. 

Dear Sir: I duly receiveil yours of the 2d iust., and 
while I have not had an oiiportiinity for carefully study- 
ing the plan you present, 1 am convinced, from'what'l 
know of Ihe disposition of manufacturers generally, and 
also from the amount of lalxu- and the additional invest- 
ment your proposed system would entail upon those who 
handle proprietary medicines, that such a plan would not 
be likely to commend itself either to the manufacturers 
or Ihe retailers. It has been my universal experience in 
this work <if trying to assist the retailers to maintain 
prices, that while there are a few who are willing to 
take some trouble to co-operate with manufacturers in 
any system that may be proposed, the large majority ob- 
lect to handling preparations which are subject to con- 
ditions such as are proposed by you. 

Many years ago, when cutting had not become so 
universal, I very strongly recommended the "coupon 
plan," which is exactly what this is. In order to test 
the retailers before a joint meeting of a committee of 
dealers and manufacturers was to be held, I sent out a 
very large number of circulars explaining the plan and 
asking the retailers who received them to vote either 
for or against it after studying it. I was surprised to 
find a very considerable proportion of them voting 
against it, and later on, to find in the pharmaceutical 
journals very strong letters written against it. on the 
ground of the additional investment to which it would 
subject the retailers. 

There was also a great deal said about rebate vouch- 
ers becoming lost or mislaid, or probably being issued 
by proprietors who would fail before they could be pre- 
sented; and thus the "penny wise and pound foolish" 
objections overruled the thing at that time, and I have 
no doubt will overrule it now. Retailers in very large 
numbers have since then lx?en going on passing out 
these same medicines and losing all the Front while 
under the proposed plan, even with all the risks they 
would have run for the reasons above mentioned, not 
ten per cent., at most, would have been lost at the out- 
side. 

Thus you will see that while this plan may be some- 
what new on the Pacific Coast, all this has been thor- 
oughly gone over in the earlier days of the cutting evil, 
and vetoed largely by the very people whom you are 
seeking to benefit. 

I suppose you are aware, however, that the Pabst 
Brewing Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., is offering a re- 
ward for the best plan that can be suggested to stop 
cutting, and if you have not already sent a copy of this 
to that concern, I suggest that you do so. 

I will also, as you request, mail this to The Pharma- 
meutical Era for publication, as it ma.v there attract the 
attention of others; and if the sentiments of the trade 
have changed so that it now can be indorsed by a large 
proportion of the retailers, it would then probably be 
worth while to give it further consideration. Yours 
very truly. 

(Signed.) M. N. KLINE, Chairman. 

The Plan. 

SHEET 1. 
BOTTLE No. 1 to 

BOTTLE Xo Inclusive. 

SHIPPED to 

AGREEMENT RETURNED 

SIGNED by 

LOT No 

"3 DAY MALARIA CURE." 

Manufactured 

Bottled by 

Labelled b.v 

Packed by 

Remarks. 

* • • 

SHEET 2. 

nOTTLE No. 1. To the Purchaser. 

"3 DAY MALARIA CURE." 

The greatest discovery for malaria, chills and all fevers. 
Thousands of bottles have been .sold in Sacramento and 
vicinity: every bottle sold sells others. It does not cause 
ringing in the ears or affect the head In any manner. It con- 
tains no poison, and may be given to children with perfect 
safety. It never falls, and will cure the worst cases in three 
days. .\ perfect solution; acts immediately. Two or three 
doses removes all symptoms of malaria, such as tired feeling 
all over, aching knees and elbows, pains in the back, hot and 
chilly sensations. loss of ambition and appetite, a desire to 
sleep at all times. 

DIRECTIONS. 

Take two teaspoonfuls with two teaspoonfuls of water 
four times a day. In obstinate cases every 2% or 3 hours. 
Keep the bowels open with Ott's Liver Pills. This remedy 
is sold to dealers only by special agreement. See that the 
package number above lias not been erased or the seals 
brolien. Should any dealer ofl'er or sell this remedy for more 
or less than seventy-five cents, .vou will be amply rewarded 
by notifving the manufacturer at once. Respectfully. 

•* • ^ rR.\NCIS S. OTT. 



70 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL EKA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



BOTTLE No. 1. s'l^ET 3. 7-//£ DRUOQIST-DOCTOR. 

Dftiub only wbeii sold. M. L., Ruchestir, N. Y.— I have read llie argu- 

Slfe'U two mid iflurii wliu all on liaiid to Francis S. Ott, ,„„.,» :„ .■,„ ^^^„ „( tj„.. qj p,,.;,!,.,! "Shall It Bf Knicht 

the rate ol t^venti-Il^e cents lor each bottle sold as per & Day, I'hysiciaus and I'hariiiacists," where you placed 

agreement. KFISATE CHECK " 'lui'sl'"": How is the druggist to live if thiugs coiitiuue 

Not Negotiable. (Town and date.) "''^ way? That is, in a conditiou where he makes no 

profits on patent medicine, sells no side articles, and is 

ijottlVs of--3'ul*Y MAL!riUA''cUlVE"^\ts^^^^^ deprived of tile prescription trade, because of the physi- 

boltlf, numbers correspondinf; to rebate check and agree- cians who dispense their own medicines. It is, indeed, 

meuts. and have fulUlled tUe^agreemenl in every particular. ,^ ^^^y ^^^-^^^^ ,,u.-stion which, I think, ought to be solved 

by the public at large. If the public recognizes the ne- 

OMtuess) cessity of having for its service a class of professional 

••* men, specially trained and educated, on whom to place 

Bottle No. 1. SHEET 4. .Agreement slip. *'"^ important duty and responsibility of preparing and 

To the retailor;— This remedy is sold through jobbers or dispensing all kinds of medicines indispensably necessary 

direct only by special agreement. As soon as goods are re- j ^ its use, it must in return repay the same by passing 

ceived detach all agreement slips, siyii two and return with ' , ,. , j t 

others to luanufactuier for approval in order to receive pioflt certaiu laws tendiug to facilitate the energy and protect 

when goods are sold, and coupons are sent m according to x.\\e interests of the pharmacists. The pharmacists are 

the following agreement: . , . ., , , . ,, ,i . •,. j 

This agreement entered into between FRANCIS S. OTT, recognized as a privileged profession all over the civihzed 

Sacramento. California, to be known hereinafter as the world, and are everywhere protected by strict laws, 

"Manufacturer," party of the hrst part and .• , ^ , . " ., . ... • .. i . 

Qf which tend to recompense them for their most ardent 

to be known heieiiiafter as the "Dealer," party of the sec- duties toward humanity, while only here, in the United 

°"rbarthe*"Maifufifc'turer' is the owner of the formula for States, they are in n very deplorable condition. In this 

and -.Manufacturer" of the medicinal compound known as country, where laws are being passed and enforced daily 

't^J^^V'^it^^^^^Si'^^'^^i^':.^^!^^ to protect liquor traffic, horses, cats and mice, there is 

"Dealer," and the "Manufacturer" being desirous of selling no law to protect the pharmaceutical profession, with 

to the "Dealer" and the "Dealer" being desirous of purchas- ...],„„, frp„„pntlv rests the issue of life and death of the 

ing from the "Manufacturer" the said medicinal compound, " "om irequentij rests tne issue oi lire ana aeatn oi tne 

"3 DAY MALAK1.\ CUltE," and the "Mauufacturer" re- public. Every peddler is allowed to sell medicine, every 

trd:'aSd'X.''"Dr.aler"tiing wiu'lJ^'To^on^ grocery or dry goods dealer is permitted to handle and 

quirement,, it is hereby agreed by and between the parties supply the public with "medicine" the character of which 

hereto; ., . ^ ... „ . i ...j r. > v m it iut \ is as strange to them as the sun's rays to the born-blind. 

That the retail price per bottle of said "3 DAY M.YLARIA ... , , ..,,,. . I 

CUKE" is seventy-live cents; :iiid every physician takes the privilege of dispensing and 

That the price it which the "Dealer" purchases the same goUing his own medicine without being legally authorized 

from the "Manufacturer" is seventy-Qve cents per bottle; i -i »i i ■ .. -.u n v.- . - i 

That in consideration of the agreements and obligation of to do so; while the pharmacist with all his professional 

the "Dealer" that he should maintain the price of seventy- competency, authority and financial investment, is left 

five cents ijer bottle, the "Manufacturer does hereby agree . - , ., i .c *u i ri^u •• - u 

to pay to the "Dealer" twenty-live cents for every bottle of to pick the crumbs of the cake. The question is, where 

"3 DAY MALARIA CURE" sold by the "Dealer" at seven- lies the cause of this evil? Bv no means with the va- 

tv-hve cents tier bottle, upon the return of the rebate check ... ... ... ,. ,, ... 

attached hereto, it being a part of the cousideration for this rious business men or physicians, neither directly with 

agreement, that the "Dealer" will not detach the rebate the public. It lies with the pharmacists themselves, who 

'^Si^^lT.^ .l'ii^";eb^'J^"ch'e^k'^fr'^ai| rot''tle''n^t*s''.fl'd ?i! are not able to uphold the dignity of their professional 

the usual course of trade; and, furthermore, the "Dealer" calling, and, like babies, complain to their mammas of the 

will not loan, trade, or in any way by himself or employes ^„{\\p.] ^m^ The Question is brethren to be or not to- 

dispose of any of said compouud except at the regular price spiiieci muh. xue question is, uretnren, to oe or not to 

of seventy-flve cents per bottle. The "Manufacturer" agrees be? In the first place it is necessary that firm steps be 

not to sell "3 DAY MALARIA CURE" to any dealer except ^^ ^ „ ^^ pharmacists of the United States toward 

under the same form of agreement, and he agrees to prompt- • '' , , ,. . 

ly pay rebate checks when presented. the enactment of uniform laws that would discriminate 

The respective rebate checks being made a part of each ,, ; j^j j handling and selling drugs, and place the 

agreement and dependent thereon. The "Dealer" further . , , , ,, „ ... , 

agrees not to erase or deface package numbers or to hold the same in the hands of legally authorized persons to do so. 

••Manufacturer" responsible for payriient of rebate checks .^n jj^j. pharmacists of the United States shall form a 

when it is shown that the "Dealer" has in any manner ' , , ,, .,, , ^ ■ ^ 

violated any of the terms of this agreement. corporation, and as a body they will have sutficient power 

• ,: «■ " "rt *° manage their own afifairs as well as any other union. 

The greatest necessity is also the recognition of diplo- 

Witness. Signed. mas issued by a college or any State board of pharmacy 
' — , throughout the United States. As long as a pharmacist 

r^. . Til T o iac\- is authorized and entrusted to dispense medicine for his 

Chicago, 111., Jan. \ 189 1. . u i. ifu » . ..v • i.... 

„,. TT . .^ J ..u ■ .1 fellow-men m one State, why shall he not have the right 

To the Editor: Having witnessed the scene in the ^ , ,, . ^x. rT<%. ..■ f • 

„.,.,,.. _, . ^ ^. T 1 J 1-1 * to do the same in another. Ihe existing arrangement is 

Council Judiciary Committee meeting, I would like to . , - .. t, u * -u t j . T- i 

. J^ T 1, „-ii not only foolish, but wild. In order to accomplish some 

correct •'Prof. Ha Iberg s statement. I hope you will • ' * * i ■ i . j • 

, . , , . ,,...•», good. I would suggest the necessity of having elected in 

permit me to do it through your journal, because it is the u e* ^ « ^i t- • i « j i » i i, n 

^ . , , , . , . ^, . m, - .. each State of the L nion a number of delegates who shall 

most widely circulated of its class m Chicago. The fact ,, . , .w r 

, ■V.i: , „ „ , J . XI f assemble in a congress for the purpose of co-operative 

is that the Professor was called down in the meeting • * \. S » • \. 

Lii.iL li.c i .^ c o . . , , J X action toward the common interest of American pharma- 

by Mr. Eljert, who asked him what right he aad to ap- . 

pear for the druggists. The "Professor" did not say that " • • • 

he appeared as a citizen. He distinctly stated that he Charles B. Hull, Clinton. Conn.— The subject of phy- 

represented Mr. Engelhard, a telephone subscriber, and sician-pharmacist is one requiring much consideration, 

is not a druggist. Everybody present heard the Pro- •£,ac]x profession has its own particular field of action, 

fessor say this. and any attempt to unite them will, I think, result only 

The Professor mentions A. B. Rains' correspondence. ;„ making matters much worse than they now are. The 

and I therefore looked it up. It is remarkable how Mr. aoctor. of course, needs an emergency case, but it need 

Rains' letter is fitted to the occasion. His new degree ^^^ ^jg ^j g„pjj dimensions as to require a whole corner 

?t "^;, K\ „'? ^^^ brightest yet brought forward As „f j^j^ ^^^^ ^^ ,p^ ^ ,,ijjj , ^ ^ .^ constantly for 

"Prof." Hallberg calls attention to the fact that the ^- ^ r^ \ » . ,, ^ ^ j- • 

druggists of Chicago voted for and against slot 'phones. Ins patients. Department stores, where patent medicines 

Mr. Rains' letter comes most handy, for it showed that are sold at very low prices, have made such inroads upon 

druggists are in the habit of voting for both sides of the druggist's legitimate business, that, connected with 

every question. Thev did so on education. They did so the dispensing of the doctor, the druggist has hard work 

on free alcohol. Yours trulv, A SPECTATOR. to make both ends meet. I'et. it is my opinion, that for the 



January 21, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



71 



druggists to take up the practice 6f medicine, in order 
to better their condition and get even with the doctors, 
will, iusto;ui of helping m.itters, simply <-ut things up 
into such hits that there would be nothing for either. 
Moreover, if a doctor lie thoroughly up in his profession 
he will have no time to bother with dispensing; neither 
can the phanuiicist, if proficient in his line, have time 
t(3 attend properly to his store and give the attention to 
patients they ought to have. By all means, let the two 
professions be kept entirely distinct and .separate, and 
by hearty co-operation each will have all he can properly 
attend to. 

* * * 

W. C. Ilillard, Bristol, Conn. — As to what my idea of 
the pharmacist of the future is. I tind it hard to formu- 
hite an iilea in the matter. What between the depart- 
ment store on the one hand, and the grocery man on the 
other (for in Connecticut grocers sell gum camphor, sul- 
phur, ground flaxseed, peppermint, i)aregoric, laudanum, 
mineral waters, patent medicines, etc.. etc.). and the phy- 
sician with his tablets and portable drug store, the Lord 
only knows what the pharmacist of the future will lie. I 
think he will have to "work for a penny a day and board 
himself." to use a common expression, and I don't believe 
it will help him to add to his course in pharmacy a course 
in medicine. I see that the colleges of pharmacy are dis- 
cussing the question of graduating men who have no 
practical experience, the Buffalo College having already 
done so. I would not give a cent a dozen for such cre- 
atures. Of the three boys I have sent from my store to 
the New York College, one graduated at the head of his 
class, another was honor man and the third did well: 
60 much for three and one-half years' experience. What 
is the next cranky notion'? 

* * * 

.T. A. Settle, Waverly, Mo. — I foresaw the advantage of 
being both, and so secured both degrees for myself before 
entering business. I now conduct drug store, employ 
clerk and maintain practice. 1 believe where an M. D. 
possesses business qualifications and has trusty employes 
that the "combination" is a decided success, especially 
in the lesser sized places. 



Anniversary Echoes* 

John Pfeiffer. Brooklyn. X. Y. — Allow me to congratulate 
yon upon the decennial natal day of the Era. and especially 
the editorial department of the latter. May it live long and 
pour forth its wisdom and advice. It should be in the hands 
of every iiharmacist in Xew York, especially at so low a 
figure. 

F. B. Kilmer. New Brunswick. X. J. — There is no criticism 
to be made of the two blooming graduates, either as to their 
dress or make-up, except that I do not believe that your 
prophecy of the double diploma is liable to be fulfilled. It is 
a striking picture, however, and the entire number is a tri- 
umph in American Pharmaceutical Journalism. 

Judsnn li. Todd, Ithaca. X. Y. — Tenth Anniversary Number 
at hand, .\llow me to compliment the same and congratu- 
late its "makers." It is comprehensive, artistic, readable. 
Your editorials are good, particularly the one headed "Best 
Regards." I shall use it much for a book of reference. Hope 
this may be the tirst of many more .\nniversary Xumbers. 

Frank M. Mares. Chicago, 111.— Allow me to congratulate 
you on the success of your valued journal. The Tenth An- 
niversary Number of The Pharmaceutical Era which has 
just reached me is certainly a good proof of what you have 
already accomplished, and certainly shows that its future 
standard as a druggists* journal will always be retained at 
any cost. I again congratulate you on your success, and 
wish you a prosperous year. 

David M. K. Culbreth. M. D., Baltimore. Md.— I must com- 
pliment you upon your mammoth Anniversary Number. It 
surely far exceeded my expectations, as formed from its an- 
nouncement possibilities, in the very large amount of inter- 
esting and useful matter. Every pharmacist could well 
spend, to profit, many hours in its reading. Its entire make- 
up is attractive, having, in general, a substantial appear- 
ance. I trust the suggestions of colored frontispiece (cover) 
will be realized by those who come in the next century. 
After this — our day of unrest— such a condition will truly be 
to the druggist his long-looked for millennium. 

Joseph Jacobs, .\tlanta. <ja. — From your initial number 
until now I have been a constant subscriber and reader, 
pleased always with your publication, and I triist that the 
reasonableness of your advance in price from $2 to $.■! per 
annum will be favorably regarded by your clientele. I cheer- 
fully testify to the sincerity and success of your efforts to 
give us all of the profession a first-class journal, full of use- 
ful, interesting and valuable reading matter from week to 
week, and hope that your every undertaking towards 
progress and im|)rovement may be liberally assisted by the 
Increased patronage you deseiTe. 

Toilet and Nursery Powder. 

Boric acid in finest powder S ounces 

Oil of petitgrain 2 minims 

Oil of neroli 2 minims 

Oil of bergamot 2 minims 

Otto rose 5 minims 

If desired this may be colored pink by the addition of 
10 grains of carmine. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CUBANS. 

By ALEXANDER KOONES, New York. 

The following opinion, written in answer to the ques- 
tion "To what extent may citizens of the United States 
lawfully contribute mediclil supplies to the Cuban pa- 
triots?" may at this time be of interest to your readers. 

The question presented for opinion belongs exclusively 
to the department of international law. That law requires 
that in case of war all nations not parties to the con- 
flict shall abstain from interfering or showing partial- 
ity to either of the belligerents. Tliis is the law of neu- 
trality, and its violation generally means war against 
the offending nation. 

It applies not only to a war between two independent 
nations, but also to a war waged against _the established 
government of a country by a portion of its people — 
such as the present Cuban war. 

The United States has always maintained as a part 
of its foreign policy this law of neutrality, and not only 
observes itself, as a nation, the strictest tmutrality, but 
requires its citizens also to do so by abstaining from 
such acts as would bo violative of it. 

What specific acts partake of that character must be 
determined by a reference to the statutes of the nation, 
the treaties made by it, and the common law of na- 
tions. They do not come within the province of State 
legislation. 

The power "to define and punish offenses against the 
law of nations" is one of the powers expressly conferred 
upon Congress by the Constitution of the United States. 
(■Article VI., Section S). 

I.— With the exception of treaties made for the set- 
tlement of claims we have, since '76. entered into only 
two treaties with Spain, neither of which contains any- 
thing relating to the question under consideration. 

II.— The only legislation of Congress is the so-called 
"Act of Neutrality," passed April "20, 1818, amended in 
1875 and 1877, and incorporated into the Revised Stat- 
utes of the United States as amended in 1878. (U. S. 
Rev. Stats., Sections 5,281-5,291). 

Under the provisions of these sections the following 
overt acts only are referred to, viz.: 

(1) Accepting a commission to serve in a foreign war 
against a nation at peace with the United States. 

(2) Enlisting or retaining another to enlist in such a 
war. 

(3) Arming or fitting out a vessel engaged in such a 
war. 

(4) Augmenting the force of a ship or vessel of war 
employed against a people at peace with the United 
States: and 

(5) Beginning or providing the means for a military 
or naval expedition against a people with whom we are 
at peace. 

As medicines and hospital stores are included in the 
terms "military supplies" and "naval stores" I do not 
consider it will be allowable under this "Act of Neu- 
trality" to furnish within the United States such arti- 
cles to a Cuban vessel of war, or to a military expedi- 
tion started within the United States for the purpose of 
aiding the Cuban cause. In all other re-spects. the act 
does not prohibit such contributions. I would state gen- 
erally that the act refers to cases where the parties who 
are made liable to punishment become actual partici- 
pants in the hostile proceedings. 

IIL— It remains now to be considered whether the 
common law of nations would make a punishable offense 
any transaction of the kind referred to in the question. 

Upon this point it is evident that if, under the com- 
mon law of nations, it were an offense for the citizen 
of a peaceable nation to contribute medicines or hospital 
supplies to the army of a people engaged at war, at 
least one illustrative case would be found somewhere in 
the books. I myself have found no such case, and that 
none exists is evident from the fact that no reference 



72 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



is nindo to nny by siK-li eminent niithoritios upon inter- 
nationiil law as Kent, Wboatoii, Woolsey or Wharton. 

Dr. Wharton in his Digest of International Law, com- 
piled for tlie Government and published in 1880 (Vol, 
III., p. 508), declares: 

"The furnishing funds by subjects of a neutral State 
to relieve suffering in a belligerent State is not a breach 
of neutrality." 

And in his work on American Law, published in 1884, 
referring to this subject, he says (Wharton's Am. Law, 
Sec. 245): 

"Dismissing from consideration, therefore, the 'Three 
Rules' and the proceedings based on them, we must look 
to the works of leading publicists and to the decisions of 
the courts, taken in connection with the present condi- 
tion of civilization, to determine what is the law of na- 
tions in respect to neutrality. And the first position we 
have to take is that the furnishing of funds by subjects 
of a neutral State to relieve suffering in a belligerent 
State is not a breach of neutrality. During the Franco- 
German war large sums of money were sent from Ger- 
mans in this country to their friends in Germany, for 
relief of sufferers in the hospitals, and large sums were 
also sent by persons in this country sympathizing with 
France to the French hospitals; but neither in respect to 
meetings called to express sympathy with the one or 
the other belligerent was it maintained that such action 
constituted a breach of neutrality. * * * 

"But that the subjects of a nation may, without in- 
volving the nation in a breach of neutrality, express 
sympathy with a belligerent in a foreign war, or even 
contribute funds for the relief of persons engaged in 
such war, cannot be questioned." 

The convention concluded August 22, 1864, between 
Baden, Switzerland and other nations, including Spain, 
and acceded to by the United States in 1882, "For the 
amelioration of the wounded in armies in the field," 
while it does not, in terms, refer to the contributions of 
medicines and medical supplies, nevertheless in spirit 
recognizes the neutral character of such articles when 
carried in ambulances protected by the sign of the Red 
Cross. (22 U. S. Stats., at L., p. 940). 

In conclusion. I would state, as my opinion, that the 
contributing to the Cuban cause by a person within the 
United States of medical supplies or of funds for the 
purchase of such supplies, or in aid of a hospital, would 
not be an illegal act, provided they were not furnished 
to an expedition fitted out within our boundaries, or to 
vessel of war afloat within our waters. 

Violet Tooth Powder. 

Precipitated chalk 8 ounces 

Cuttlefish powder 2 ounces 

Powdered castile soap 2 ounces 

Powdered orris root 4 ounces 

lonone 20 minims 

Anethol 5 minims 

Carmine 30 grains 

Tincture of orris % ounce 

Rub down the carmine thoroughly with a little of the 
chalk; add the rest of the powders. Dissolve the per- 
fumes in the tincture, and add this to the mixed powders. 
Rub till dry. 



Lip Salve. 

Benzoated lard 8 ounces 

Spermaceti 4 ounces 

White wax 2 ounces 

Oil of sweet almonds 1 ounce 

Balsam of Peru 1 dram 

Alkauet root 2 ounces 

Digest the alkanet root, coarsely powdered, in the ben- 
zoated lard and the oil on a water bath, until a spot of 
mixture when cold shows a deep rose tint, then add the 
Peruvian balsam, strain through fiannel, and melt the 
spermaceti and wax in the bright liquor, finally perfume 

with 

Otto 10 minims 

Oil of ylang ylang 5 minims 

Terpineol 20 minims 



(For thf Era.) 

THE PANSY'S POOR RELATIONS. 

By IIKLEN INGERSOLL. 

Unfortunately for the United States the sweet violet 
of classical lore does not grow wild in their soil, unless 
as a garden-escape. We have only the obscure relations 
of that flower, which has perfumed the pages of many 
an author since Ca.'sar's time. 

Nevertheless, although our violets have not shared the 
fate of the European tri-colored species, which has been 
forced by the gardeners into the large size and glorious 
tints of the pansy; and although they have not been 
raised, like the fjuglish violet, to prominence in song and 
art and embroidery, on account of their color and as- 
sociations, yet a careful study shows that they have 
a charm, and some of them even an odor, quite equal to 
that of their rivals. 

This is esi)ecially true of the tiny white violet (T'loJa 
blanda,) "which is sweet, but not so strong as our blew 
violets," writes an old colonist. Its ivory flowers seem 
to exhale a purer and heavier perfume when its glis- 
tening, thready roots barely keep the pale leaves from 
toppling into the water of the muddiest of marshes, than 
when the i)lants assume the more stalwart form some- 
times found on dry land. 

Another species, normally found in dry ground, the 
bird's foot violet (V.pedata), the deeply cut leaves of 
which vaguely suggest green silhouettes of a bird's claw, 
has also been blessed with a delicate perfume. Its large 
star-shaped flowers, that, in May, crown the tufts of 
half-opened leaves, range through a variety of purple, 
lavender and lilac shades to white, causing certain hill- 
sides, where they grow in masses, to seem veiled in a 
filmy cloud of blue. Perhaps their perfume is more dis- 
tinct in the paler blossoms, as often happens among 
hepaticas, which also show albino forms, and both hep- 
aticas and violets are most fragrant when plucked in 
the hot sunshine, for, as Shelley has observed, 

"Odours, when sweet violets sicken. 
Live within the sense tliey quicken." 

and this fragrance seems most delicious just as flowers 
begin to wilt — it is like a swan song. 

Each of the violets mentioned above belongs to the 
first of the two great divisions into which our species 
are grouped; those having no stems, the flowers rising 
directly from the root on leafless scapes, being in one 
class, and those possessing true stems, clothed with 
leaves, belonging to the other. Mr. John Burroughs in- 
sists that in this latter company the tall Canada violet, 
which blooms all summer in the northern part of the 
Eastern States, and has a star-shaped blossom, distin- 
guished from all others by the lavender under-surface of 
its creamy petals, also is fragrant. 

Others in this class, although lacking odor, attract 
one by their coloring and size, like the sturdy Viola 
striata, which renders itself conspicuous among its kind 
by opening its opaque white flowers, plenteously streaked 
with purple, in mid-summer; or the tall yellow T-'i ola 
pubcsccns, whose stem and robust, heart-shaped leaves 
are colored a most pleasing tint of yellow-green, softened 
by a thick fur, that perfectly harmonizes with the bril- 
liant canary colored bloom borne aloft and set off by jet- 
black markings. 

The dog violets ( T^ canina, -^av. MuhlenbergU,) are at- 
tractive because of their pert little blue faces massed 
over the top of sprawling patches of plants. The long- 
spurred violet ('!'. rosfrot'O, a much rarer species, fully 
deserves its name, for a long, delicate tube, pointing 
backward like the sword under a cavalier's mantle, is 
nearly twice as long as the squarely arranged petals, 
which are in color pale-blue, exquisitely marked by 
splashes of purple. Both of these violets are leafy- 
stemmed species, and, given a fair opportunity, make 
up for their absolutely scentless condition by growing 



January 21, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



73 



in tremendous hassocks, with many blooms, which can 
escape the notice of no insect, however blundering. 

Among the stemless violets, the .vellow (\'. lOtuntlifd- 
Ua), whose leaves, large and shining, lie flat on the 
ground after the delicate golden Hower has vanished; 
the palmate {V. i)cilincit(i), and arrow-leaved (\'.saijU- 
taUi). which appear quite the earliest of their kind, are 
also the best known. The variety of the Viola iialmuta, 




called cucuUatd, or hooded violet, is the commonest 
form. Its blue flowers sometimes open to the sun before 
they dare desert the warm soil, and they consequently 
crouch low on the roUed-up corners of the supine leaves, 
achieving an effect that is noticeable in violets from the 
Andes, namely, a very large blossom nearly concealing 
a small, low plant. This lowliness of growth, assumed 
for prudential reasons, leads poets to sing of the "mod- 
est violet." Later, however, it throws off all pretense 
of hiding and grows vigorously, attempting to over- 
reach the grasses about it, and sometimes stretching up 
to a good eighteen inches of fragile, watery stalk in the 
effort. Magenta, streaked and blotched with white — oc- 
casionally albino forms are found — dark-blue, pale-blue, 
and still paler blue, marked by deeper color, which is the 
particular suit worn by the hooded violet when growing 
in wet places — all these are tints sported by this spe- 
cies. 

The texture of the leaves varies also in this violet 
with individual plants, in different situations, those in 
dry soil being more or less hair.v, possibly in order to 
catch the dew or to conserve the moisture otherwise 
wasted by evaporation, while the swamp plants, having 
no need for such devices, are pale and smooth. The 
typical palmate violet shows a very graceful leaf, some- 
times heart-shaped like the hooded variety, more often 
cut and lohed, which is especially noticeable after the 
handsome flowers have fallen; for the leaves of these, 
as of many other violets, continue to grow and expand 
to a great size after flowering. 

In many instances — such as in the liooded, the dog vio- 
let, and a smooth variety of the tall yellow violet — these 
later leaves conceal little green cones, that look like un- 
developed Inids, and are the half-grown fruits of flow- 
ers which have been fertilized underneath or at the sur- 
face of the soil. Open a green case which has just 
pushed out of the ground, and you will see an ovary 
with a short style on top. the stigma bent to one side in 
such a manner that it cannot avoid receiving the pollen 
from the anther cells, which closely surround the ovary, 
and in here, safe from the intrusion of any but the min- 



utest insects, the seeds are self-fertilized, and, in time, 
the three valves of the capsular fruit fly apart, and 
scatter the seeds far and wide. 

Upon these quiet flowers, therefore, the entire work of 
seed-making would seem to be foisted, as upon a Cin- 
derella. However, the showy flowers that precede them, 
which apparently have nothing better to do than to 
flaunt in a gay endeavor to steal the azure vesture of 
the sky, carry a very complete arrangement with which 
to inveigle insects into transferring pollen from one hos- 
pitable flower to another, and thus secure "new blood" 
to be subse(iuently absorbed by the seed-germs matured 
in the much-songht blossoms. 

The lower petal of a violet is prolonged into a spur, 
two of which Indian children often hook together, and 
then, by snapping the heads off, form a sort of game, 
from which a name for the violet, meaning "two heads 
entangled." is derived in each of two Indian languages. 
This spur contains honey, secreted by a couple of ap- 
pendages projecting into it, and a hairy channel in the 
lower petal, roofed by a hollow stigma attached to the 
apex of the ovary by a flexible style, leads horizontally 
into its cavity. 

The proboscis of an insect that has previously visited 
some other violet and is anxious for more honey, slips 
along this channel, which is the only open passage of 
the flower, since the stigma and its tightly-clasping col- 
lar of anthers fill up the space where petals and sepals 
meet; but on its way some of the pollen just dusted upon 
the proboscis by the violet last forsaken, is scraped off 
upon a swinging curtain that hangs transversely across 




giWjfoof 



the channel— a lower lip so to speak— depending from the 
gaping mouth of the stigma that opens, like a shark's 
mouth, in the under side of the roof, and the grains are 
detained there, sticking on the stigma's viscid surface. 
When it withdraws its proboscis, the insect pulls forward 
the curtain, which is forced up against the raw stigma, 
thus keeping it from contact with its own pollen, which 
sifts out of its anthers just back of the stigma, onto the 



74 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



hairs of the chiiniicl in the [n'tal, there to be wiped up 
and carried away by the visitor and left ou the next 
scraper. 

Doubtless, besides their beauty, certain members of 
the whole tribe arc endowed with their characteristic, 
cool odor as an additional attraction for insects, in order 
that this cross-fertilization may be effected. But the 
fragrance has also endeared itself to woman-kind, and, 
recopnizing this, perfumers have devised various ways 
of capturing the evanescent principle in order that they 
may again dispense it for the world's enjoj'ment. 

Not only is the ^'io^a odorata, the common English 
and Mediterraucan violet, now raised under glass all 
over the civilized world, for florists' uses; but in Italy 
whole fields are given over to the cultivation of it in its 
single and double, blue, purple and white varieties. The 
blossoms, particularly the double ones known as Neapol- 
itan, are forced, by a system called cnfleurage, to trans- 
fer the odorous principle in their petals to prosaic lard. 
As soon as i)0ssible after blooming the flowers are 
picked, "with the dew on them," and are then sprinkled 
in frames over glass slides coated with a thin layer of 
lard or a similar clean fat. By piling up the frames 
and slides a sort of box is formed, in which the flowers 
nre left until wilted, and then now ones are substituted 
for them, this process Ix'iug repeated until the lard is 
saturated with the contents of the little urns of fragrance 
that have overlaid it. 

There are several other wa.vs in which flowers having 
a delicate odor, such as violets or jasmine, are treated 
for the extraction of their scent; sometimes, when the 
fragrance is not too evanescent, they are placed in 
small bags of fine linen and cooked in hot fat or oil. 
Either proceeding results in a pomade, or oil, from 
which the absorbed odors are afterward extracted by 
alcohol, and, as the fats can never be entirely deprived 
of scent by the spirit, the remaining fragrant pomade is 
used in divers places where such a substance is needed. 
Other materials, by the wa.v. mineral substances, orris 
root or cassie flowers, are often used in perfumery to 
simulate the true violet odor, that particular extract and 
essential oil being very expensive. 

Very little use has been made of the violets in any 
other industry. One wonders at the curious taste dis- 
played by the historian of John Smith's colony, who 
refers to violets as plants good for pot herbs and salads, 
even while on'* is nibbling at violet petals conserved in 
sugar. 

During the French campaign in Egypt, however, the 
supply of ipecac becoming exhausted, the army surgeons 
used powdc.ed violet plants in place of it. In Continen- 
tal countries, moreover, violets are oflicinal, occurring in 
most pharmacopoeias. That one, especially, called John- 
ny-jump-up (V. tricolour), which occasionally escapes 
from cultivation in the United States, to grow wild as 
it docs in its native woods of Europe, was formerly con- 
sidered of great value in children's diseases, and is still 
prescribed in Germany. 

For a little while the violet had a forced prominence in 
France, quite different from either its commercial or 
poetical fame. As the violet in Europe is the especial 
flower symbol of March, either a fancied prophecy by 
Bonaparte that he would "return in the spring" from 
Elba, or the fact that he did land on French soil in 
March, induced the Bonapartists to adopt the purple 
blossom as their part.v emblem. During the reign then 
of the ill-fated Xapoleon III. a buncli of violets held the 
same position in the eyes of ardent Parisian partisans as 
does the tiny shamrock in an Irish heart: and later, 
when the loyalists were endeavoring to revive the em- 
pire, violet shades were as prominent in Paris as yellow 
is on Primrose Day in England. 

However, it may have been because Napoleon had 
dreamed of violets, and had happened to hear of the 
English superstition, which foretells advancement in life 



for the lucky dreamer, that he thus chose the little plant 
as a symbol. 

It is better to avoid .seeing violets blooming in autumn, 
say the soothsayers — it is a sure warning of a succeeding 
epidemir, and similar tales, superstitious and legendary, 

have grown up around 
violets. I^arousse, in his 
universal dictionary, ten- 
tatively relates a couple 
of legends hinged on the 
fact that the (! reeks 
name for the violet was 
ion. Jupiter, he says, up- 
on one of his visits to the 
beautiful lo, was present- 
ed by a nymph with a 
violet, considered b.v her 
to be the most cherished 
flower of the countr.v; or, 
as another fancy has it, 
after transforming lo into 
a heifer, Jupiter created 
the violets in onlcr to 
adorn her pasture. The 
Athenians, i t seems, 
cliiimed to be descended 
from lo, and, consequent- 
ly, chose the violet as 
their symbol, wearing it on feast days, and partic- 
ularly on occasions of great hilarity, since a garland 
of violets about the head was supposed to couutiyact the 
effects of too much wine. In the Middle Ages it was 
used to crown victors in certain contests, and still an- 
other custom of the Greeks was continued in the same 
period — a custom of throwing violets upon the tombs of 
young girls. Perhaps the use of violet shades in mourn- 
ing costumes, and the general designation of gloom by 
this color originated in this latter practice. Cicero im- 
patiently asks if he shall speak "in violet or rose," ap- 
parently contrasting the moods of sadness and joy in 
the metonymic phrase, and to this day we have the 
"blues." or look through "rose-colored glasses," as the 
case may be. 

In a word, the violet tribe, from the pansy to 
common wood violet, has become entwined in 
wreaths of fancy and our ever.v-day speech, to an extent 
attained by perhaps no other flower, and it bids fair to 
always remain the favorite among the blossoms of po- 
etry. 




the 

the 



PRODUCTION OF AMBER.— The working of amber 
in Prussia is a monopoly in the hands of a firm which 
owns the best two mines, Palmnicken and Kraxtepelle. 
For the concession the firm, according to Consul Hunt, 
of Dantzig, pays to the German Government a royalty 
of 650,000 marks (about ,$162,000) a year. It is reck- 
oned that this firm has up to now paid no less a sum than 
$5,000,000 in royalties to the German Government. In 
addition to the output from the mines in 1S95, a good 
deal of amber was picked up on the beach at Pillau, in 
the province of East Prussia, being washed up with the 
seaweed during the prevalence of northwesterly gales. 
The shore at Pillau after a storm is sometimes covered 
with a layer of seaweed 3 feet thick, among which the 
amber is found entangled. Men. women and children 
find easy and lucrative employment in searching for the 
amber along this part of the amber coast. The people 
engaged in this precarious work often earn 30 shillings a 
day and more. In 1895, about 100 tons of raw amber 
came to Dantzig to be worked up. as compared with 140 
tons in 1894. It was nearly all melted to make lac and 
varnish. The larger pieces are made into beads, which 
are sent all over the world. The beads known to the 
trade as Leghorn corals were in strong demand. (Sci. 
Am.) 



[January 21, 1897. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



75 



FffiARMA€Y 



MOIU'HINE has been discovered by Heim, of Wiirz- 
burs, to Ik' an antidote for poisoning by potnssinni 
cyanide. 

TOOTII.VCIIE ANODYNE.— Cocaine hydioclilorido 
0.1 K"i.; camphor, chloral hydrate, of each. ."> gin.; dis- 
tilled water, 10 drops. 

TOXIC rROPERTIES OF BORIC ACID.— A case 
of death has resnlted from the administration of 40 gm. 
of boric acid in form of an enema. Doses of 0:2 to 1 gm. 
have resnlted in death when given to gninea pigs. 

PEARL HARDENING is an artificial hydrated sul- 
lihate of lime chieHy used by paper makers for filling 
and glazing paper. It is produced as a by-product in 
the manufacture of alkalies and other substances. 

TREVENTIVE AND HEALING AGENT FOR IN- 
SECT BITES.— \ 

Acetic ether 5 p. Vi 

Eucalyplol. .f\ 

Cologne spirits, of each 10 p. / 'y 

Tr. Persian insect flowers 50 j^' » 

This is to be mixed with 3 parts of water and used to '■ 
bathe the hands and face. ^ 

DETECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE.— Haber- 
inanu (Ph. Posf) recommends passing the air or gas. 
which contains carbon monoxide, through a solution of 
silver nitrate to which aqua ammonia has been carefully 
added in just sufficient amounts to almost dissolve the 
precipitate of silver oxide which forms. The presence 
of 1-10 per cent, of this gas will cause a brown colora- 
tion. 

PROFITS FROM THE SWISS ALCOHOL MO- 
NOPOLY.— Consul Germain, of Zurich, states that the 
budget for the Swiss alcohol traffic submitted to the 
SwissFcderal Assembly by the Federal council shows es- 
timated total receipts of $2.51t3.000; expenditures, .?1,322.- 
400: an excess of $1,193,600. and a disposable profit of 
$1,070,000. This profit, about 3(5.4 cents per capita of 
the poiinhition, is divisible among the various cantons. 
(Con. Rept.) 

A METHOD OF ADMINISTERING CREOSOTE, 
proposed by Kopp, is as follows: Creosote and benzoin, 
of each 1 gram ;powdered wood charcoal, grams. The 
creosote is mixed with the finely powdered benzoin, 
which is then gradually added to the charcoal. The re- 
sulting powder is divided into 5 or 10 cachets, each dose 
Containing either 0.2 or 0.1 gram of creosote. In this 
form creosote is readily tolerated by the most sensitive 
stomach. 

TO NICKEL-PLATE WOOD.— The following solu- 
tions are prepared: 

I. One-half gm. of caoutchouc and 4 gm. of fused wax 
are dissolved in 10 gm. of carbon disulphide. To this is 
added a solution of 5 gm. of phosphorus in GO gm. of 
carbon disnlphide. with 5 gm. of oil of turpentine and 4 
gm. of powdered asphalt. 

II. Two gm. of silver nitrate are dissolved in 000 gm. 
of water. 

III. Ten gm. of gold chloride are dissolved in 000 gm. 
of water. 

The wooden object is attached to a copper wire (which 
serves as the conductor in electroplating) and then im- 
mersed in solntion I., after drying; solution II. is poured 
over it, and the object is allowed to remain suspended 
until it takes on a dark, glossy appearance; afti^r wash- 
ing with water, it is treated in the same way with solu- 
tion III., whereby the surface of the wood takes on a 
yellowish appearance, when it is ready for the plating 
bath. 



ACTION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE lU'ON MER- 
CURY. (Pharm. Ceulrnl-II. Jr. Soc. Chem. Ind.)— 
Eaurenz had proposed to prepare mercury for use in 
mercurial ointment liy shaking the metal with ferric 
chloride solution; but as this gives rise to a production 
of calomel, the method does not work satisfactorily. 
It is, however, suggested by 1'. Suss as very possible 
to utilize the reaction for the production of pure calo- 
mel, with the aid of a centrifugal machine and a gauze 
sieve. 

ADifESIVE PLASTERS ARE, CORN PLASTERS 

.•ue not, ini'di<lnal preparations, so decides (Jeneral Ap- 
praiser Wilkinson, of this port. Adhesive plasters are 
employed as dressings for wounds, to prevent contact 
with the air, to keep the parts moist, to hold the parts 
together, and thus to facilitate the healing of the bodily 
<lisorder. The bunion or corn plaster or ring is simply 
a mechanical device which purports to prevent the pres- 
sure of the .shoe against the corn. There is no evidence 
or.'information to show that it is an instrument of heal- 
i/g. So much for a judicial decision. 

EXPLOSIVE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLENE 
CVS.— -Vn explosion of several cylinders of liquefied 
acetylene gas took place in Berlin whereby four lives 
were lost and the laboratory entirely destroyed. It is 
supposed that through leakage the explosion took place, 
a uuxture in the proportions of 1 to 12 with air being stif- 
ficient. Lately a like explosion took place in Paris, 
caused by a workman unscrewing the cap of a cylinder 
of the compressed gas, the heat generated by the fric- 
tion, though but very slight, was sufficient to caiise the 
explosion; the slightest heating or sudden jarring is suffi- 
cient to cause these dangerous accidents. Experiment- 
ers are warned of the dangerous characters of this new 
illuminating agent. 

ESTIMATION OF COPPER IN VEGETABLES.— .- 
Paul & Cownley (Phar. .Tour.) recommend the following: 
100 gm. of the material are ashed in a platinum crucible, 
the .ash is extracted with concentrated hydrochloric acid, 
then filtered through a filter (moistened with acid) and 
washed. The insoluble residue is washed from the filter 
into a capsule and treated with a few drops of concen- 
trated nitric acid, dried and ignited. The ignited mass 
is then treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid, fil- 
tered and the filtrate added to the above mentioned fil- 
trate. The mixed filtrates are concentrated to about 40 
cc, and the copper precipitated by means of pure tin. If 
the precipitated copper does not possess a pure copper 
color, it should be dissolved in a little nitric acid and es- 
timated colorimetrically by addition of aqua ammonia. 

RESAZCRIN.- An indicator for alkalies; it may be 
prepared by adding 40 to 45 drops of nitric acid (1.25 sp. 
gr.), which" has been saturated with nitrogen trioxide, to 
a solution of 4 gm. of resorcin in .300 cc. of anhydrous 
ether. After standing in a cool place for two days, a 
nuiss of black colored crystals collects on the bottom, the 
re<l-colored fluid is decanted off and the crystals are 
washed with ether until the wash water is colored blue 
by ammonia. This resazurin (CJIjNOJ is but slightly 
soluble in ammonia, more so in alcohol and very soluble 
in acetic ester; it gives a blue color with alkalies and al- 
kali carbonates, reddened by acids. 

In using for indicator, a solution of 0.2 gm. resazurin 

;„ 40 cc — ammonium hvdrate is prepared, adding water 

10 
to make 1,000 cc. This solution (1 : 5,000) is very stable, 
possesses a deep blue color, 2 to 3 drops being sufficient 
to color 200 cc. a sky blue. 

This indicator cannot be used in presence of nitric acid 
and mono-basic organic acids: it is, however, very sensi- 
tive to alkalies; the simple heating of water in a glass 
flask serves to turn rose (acid) resazurin a blue color from 
the traces of alkali dissolved from the glass. 



76 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



HUMANIZING COWS MILK.— In order to prepare 
from cow's milk a mixture which compnros closely with 
niothcr's milk, Marchaiul proceeds as follows: Into a 
Kradiiated vessel of 2 liters' capacity, the necessary daily 
(piantity of milk is i>laced, for example, a child three 
days old, 480 gni., up to 30 days, GOO gm.; 2 to 3 months, 
720 gm.; 4 months. 800 gm.; ^t months, 000 gm.; G to 8 
months, 1,020 gm.; 9 to 10 months, 1,200 gm. The ves- 
sel which is close<l hermetically is set aside in a cool 
place 4 hours, during which time the milk will have sep- 
arated into two layers; then without disturbing theec Ms 
of the lower layer is drawn off by a stopcock (placed near 
the bottom of the vessel), adding a corresponding volume 
of water which contains 35 gm. of milk sugar and 1 gm. 
of salt to the liter. The mixture is then well shaken and 
sterilized in the usual way. 



SUBSTITUTE FOR MOTHER'S MILK.— Dr. Lah- 
mann has produced a "vegetable milk" which is mixed 
with cow's milk as a substitute for mother's milk. It 
is prepared from nuts and almonds with sugar, and 
forms a fatty emulsion with a finely flocculeut casein 
like that of human milk. Dr. Hock, of the National 
Foundling Hospital, at Vienna, has found this mixture 
to give very favorable results. Another human milk sub- 
stitute is Gilrtner's Fettmilch (Fatmilk. D. R. P., No. 
82,510); its composition, as compared with cow's and 
women's milk, is: 

Milk Mineral 
Fat. Casein, sugar, matter. 

Women's milk 3.78 1.03 G.61 .31 

Gartner's Fatmilk 3.20 1.42 5.15 .33 

Cow's milk 3.69 3.02 4.88 .71 

(Zeitschr. fur Naturw. Br. & Col. Dr.) 



THE MOST EXPENSIVE PRODUCT IN THE 
WORLD. — As a matter of curiosity, says Consul Morris, 
of Ghent (Consular Report), I forward the following 
translation of a statement recently published in Euro- 
pean newspapers showing the article which, it is claimed, 
sells at the highest price in the world: 

What is the most expensive product of the world, in- 
quires Mr. Wilfrid Fonvielle? He answers. It is char- 
coal thread (tilament de charbon), which is employed for 
incandescent lamps. It is. for the most part, manufac- 
tured at Paris and comes from the hands of an artist 
who desires his name to remain unknown in order to bet- 
ter protect the secret of manufacture. It is by the gram 
(15% grains) that this product is sold at wholesale. In 
reducing its price to the basis of pounds, it is easily 
found that the lilaments for lamps of 20 candles are 
worth $8,000 per pound, and that for lamps of 30 can- 
dles they are worth $12,000 per pound. The former have 
a diameter of twent.v-thonsandths of 1 millimeter (1 mil- 
limeter = 0.0394 inch) and the latter four and one-half 
thousandths of a millimeter. The filaments for lamps of 
3 candles are so light that it would require nearly 1,500,- 
000 of them to weigh a pound. As the length of each 
of them is 10 centimeters (3.937 inches), their total length 
would be 183 miles. 



DETECTION OP FORMALDEHYDE IN MILK.— 
In view of detecting traces of formaldehyde, which some 
unprincipled dealers add to their milk for its preserva- 
tion, the Hygienic Institute, of Hamburg, recommends 
the following procedure: 100 cc. of the milk are placed 
in a liter flask and steam is blown through till from 10 
to 30 cc. of distillate are obtained. This is then tested 
for formaldehyde direct. 

Among the tests are the following: 

Thomson's Reagent: A 1 per cent, ammoniacal solu- 
tion of silver nitrate as well as a silver solution contain- 
ing an excess of potassium hydrate are reduced by the 
slightest trace of formaldehyde. 

SchifE's Reagent, which is a. very dilute fuchsine solu- 
tion decolorized with sodium bisulphate, is colored red 
when added to the distillate, if formaldehyde is present. 
The addition of hydrochloric acid causes a change from 



violet to pure blue. The addition of this reagent to salts 
of weaker acids, as acetic, citric, lactic, oxalic and phos- 
phoric causes a red coloration also. However, the addi- 
tion of liydrochloric acid causes fading of the color, in- 
stead (if the blue, as above. The free acids do not react 
with this reagent. 

Ilehiicr's Moditied Test consists in adding peptone and 
sulphuric acid to the distillate, whereby a blue colora- 
tion is obtained. 

Nessler's Reagent gives a pale yellow precipitate in 
dilute formaldehyde s<jluti(ius, while concentrated give a 
yellow-brown to gray iirecipitate. This precipitate may 
be distinguished from that prcxluced by ammonia, by the 
addition of a weak potassium cyanide solution, the lat- 
ter forming a clear solution while the aldehyde pr(>cipi- 
tate remains undissolved. If excess of cyanide is added, 
the precipitate turns a gray color, and the fluid becomes 
turbid. 



MUCILA(;ES FOR LABELS.-Dniggists are very 
often in need of good, adhesive materials for their labels, 
and the following given in the Drogisten Zeitung (Nat. 
Dr.) ma.v he found useful: 

For Tin. 

1. Starch paste and carpenters' glue mixed warm. 

2. Four parts of water glass with one part of rock 
candy syrup, adding later some powdered sugar. 

3. Preliminary painting of the tin with shellac var- 
nish or tincture of benzoin, and for adhesive material, 
glue mixed with gum arable mucilage. 

4. Mucilage of gum arable with 10 per cent, of gly- 
cerin. In all cases the surface of the tin must be clean, 

and free of fat. 

For Pasteboard. 

Sixty parts of borax dissolved in 420 parts of hot water 

and then warmed by moderate heat with 480 parts of 

dextrin and 50 of glucose, being stirred together until 

all are dissolved. The mixture is then strained through 

a thick woolen cloth. The preparation holds fast, and 

dries rapidly. 

For Glass. 

A good dextrin solution holding a twentieth per cent. 
of thymol preserves paper labels from curling off in a 
damp cellar. 

For Parchment Paper. 

Twenty parts white glue. 40 parts dilute acetic acid 
and 1 part of bichromate of potassium. The glue is first 
soaked in water twelve hours, and then dissolved in a 
water bath, and to this the aqueous solution of the bi- 
chromate is added. It must be done in the dark, as day 
or sunlight will make the mixture insoluble. This may 
also be used as a putty for glass. 



EXAMINATION OF DAMMAR RESIN.— Tschirch 
and Glimmann have made an exhaustive study of this 
resin, and published it in the Schweitz, Wochenschr. f. 
ch. u.. Ph., from which the following is abstracted: 

The sample (Batavian resin) was powdered and ex- 
hausted with alcohol in a Soxhiet's extraction appa- 
ratus. It required about six months, until the resin was 
completely exhausted of soluble (alcohol) material, 33 per 
cent, being insoluble, constituting a grayish white mass. 
The united alcoholic extracts were poured into water, 
yielding a pure white resin, melting at 100° C, soluble 
in ether, chloroform and absolute alcohol. 

Distillation of the crude resin with steam yielded a vol- 
atile oil, possessing a peppermint-like odor, boiling at 
82° C. 

The above-mentioned pure white resin was dissolved in 
ether and shaken with a potassium hydrate solution 
(1:1,000) which, upon neutralization with hydrochloric 
acid, yielded a white precipitate, ^.lis precipitate was 
dissolved in ether, and treated as before several times, 
finally an ashless white body was obtained, which was 
soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, acetic acid, etc., 
and to which the name dammarolic acid and the formula 
C;aHs„Os were given. From experiments it seems to be 



January 21, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



77 



an osy-dicarballylic acid. The ethereal solution yielded 
on evaporation an indifferent substance, to which the 
name alpha-dammar-resin (CiiH,;0) was given. 

The material remaining in the extractions apparatus 
(insoluble in alcohol) was soluble in chloroform only, and 
its deportment being that of a resin, it was named beta- 
dammar-resin. 

The analysis was as follows: 

Per cent. 

Dammarolic acid 23.0 

Water 2.5 

Ash 3.0 

Impurities 8.0 

Alpha — Dammar Kesin 40.0 

Beta — Dammar Kesin 22.5 

Volatile oil, bitter principle 0.5 

loo.n 



CRITICISM OF KIPPENBERGER'S ASSAY 
METHOD FOR ALKALOIDS.— H. Beckurts and Fre- 
riehs (Apoth. Ztg.. 911!) after studying Kippenberger's 
method of analysis, offer a number of well founded ob- 
jections. For convenience the assay method, as applied 
to extracts, is again repeated. The extract which is to 
be assayed is dissolved in warm acidulated water, filter 
if necessary, when cold render it almost neutral and then 
precipitate the alkaloids with the solution of iodine in 
potassium iodide. This latter solution is best prepared 
by dissolving from 12.7 to 20 gm. of iodine with about 60 
gm. of potassium iodide in a liter of water. After set- 
tling, the precipitate is collected upon a filter, washed 
with cold water. As soon as the wash water runs 
through clear, the precipitate is dissolved in the smallest 
possible quantity of acetone, which is treated alternately 
with a solution of caustic alkali and an acid, then dilut- 
ing with water, after which it is shaken with petroleum 
ether (30°— 50° C). The addition of caustic alkali solu- 
tion serves to combine the free iodine as iodide and iodate 
and the acid decomposes the iodate into free iodine and a 
salt of the alkali. The agitation with petroleum ether 
serves to remove any impurities that may be present, also 
most of the acetone, however not even traces of the alka- 
loid are taken up by this solvent. The petroleum ether 
also serves to remove the traces of iodine, which are lib- 
erated on the addition of the acid to the iodate. This 
extraction by agitation is repeated twice and the mixed 
petroleum ether washings are shaken with a small quan- 
tity of acid diluted water which is returned to the origi- 
nal solution. The mixed acid aqueous solutions are 
slightly warmed to remove the traces of dissolved ace- 
tone and petroleum ether, then a few drops of solu- 
tion of sodium hyposulphite added, followed by an excess 
of sodium carbonate solution, the whole being then shak- 
en with either chloroform, ether or a mixture of both, 
which extracts the alkaloid. Emulsions of the chloro- 
form frequently result during agitation; these may be 
separated by warming or adding Ig its volume of ether. 
According to Kippenberger the precipitation of the alka- 
loids with iodo-potassium iodide should take place in a 
solution made feebly alkaline or neutral, in order to 
avoid precipitation of the proteins, which are precipitated 
from acid solution by iodine. Messrs. Beckurts and 
Frerichs find that no precipitation takes place at all in 
alkaline or neutral solutions containing extract of hyos- 
cyamus or belladonna, while that obtained from extract 
of nux vomica is very voluminous and after standing for 
several days failed to settle. Filtration assisted by means 
of a pump failed, owing to the fineness of the precipitate 
which passed through the filter. Precipitation from acid 
solution was attempted, but was found to be impractica- 
ble, owing to precipitation of proteids. Of the extract 
of nux vomica, one gramme was dissolved in 100 cc. of 
warm water acidulated with hydrochloric acid; now, ac- 
cording to the directions, this should be filtered when 
necessary, the solution of the extract, whether made in 
water alone or acidulated, is never clear, hence when fil- 



tration was attempted a resinous residue remained be- 
hind on the filter; this introduces here an error through 
loss of material. The almost clear filtrate is directed to 
be neutralized with sodium hydrate till it retains but a 
vey slight acid reaction, then iodo-potassiuni iodide added 
(15 gm. I, CO gm. KI, II. O, 1 liter) in excess, a very volu- 
Oiiuoiis precipitate resulted. This was allowed to stand 
24 hours, the clear fluid decanted off and the precipitate 
transferred to an Allihu's tube, where the filtration and 
washing proceeded so slowly that even with a pump it 
required 24 hours before the fluid came through clear; 
with filter paper the filtration proceeded more satisfac- 
torily. Again the authors found that this precipitate 
contained a large amount of inert extractive which was 
not removed by washing. The precipitate with filter 
(entire) was transferred to a porcelain dish and covered 
with acetone, it being impossible to remove the entire 
precipitate from the filter; the solution resulting was 
then filtered, washing the dish and contents several 
times with acetone, until the filtrate passed through col- 
orless. The subsequent operations of washing with pe- 
troleum ether and extracting the alkaloids with chloro- 
form from alkaline solution gave some difficulty owing 
to the formation of emulsions; however, the final results 
gave an amount of alkaloid short of that obtained by 
other methods, due to losses incurred by the repeated 
operations necessary. The alkaloid is not obtained in ab- 
solute pure condition as is claimed in the process. 

TVith extracts of hyoscyamus and belladonna like re- 
sults were obtained; as already stated no precipitate was 
obtained in either neutral or feebly alkaline solution, 
while from acid solution the precipitate was very volu- 
minous and dilEcult to wash. This precipitate contained 
almost the entire amount of extractive; also after under- 
going the purifying process of agitating with petroleum 
ether, the chloroformic alkaloidal solution contained as 
much extractive as the original aqueous solution of the 
extract and the isolated alkaloid was neither pure nor 
crystalline. 

So with this method of Kippenberger nothing is gained 
by precipitation from alkaline solution, while precipita- 
tion from acid solution yields, after many operations, a 
solution as impure as the original extract. The authors 
are also in doubt as to what purpose the solution of the 
precipitate in acetone shall serve. According to Kippen- 
berger. solution of the precipitated iodides in acetone 
serves to remove impurities; this was found not to be the 
case, as the entire precipitate dissolved in each instance. 
The precipitate can just as well be suspended in water 
and be treated alternately with caustic soda and an acid 
as in its acetone solution. The rest of the operations 
bring nothing new. With this method the alkaloids can 
only be titrated iodometrically, but as this presents no 
advantages over the acido-metric estimations nothing is 
gained. 



ALSOL.— An aluminum — aceto tartrate. 

BORALID.— A mixture of equal parts of boric acid 
and antifebrin, used in skin diseases. 

Gi^YBOLID.— A paste prepared from equal parts of 
boralid and glycerin. Used externally as antiseptic. 

A-\TI-CHLORIN.— A mixture of oasic formiate of 
bismuth, sodium bicarbonate and glucose, recommended 
as a remedy for anemia. 

S.A.PONOIfcEIX.— A patented cleansing agent, which 
consists of a solution of an acid oleate of soda or po- 
tassa in ether, benzene or carbon tetrachloride. 

NAFTALAX.— A brownish-black, unctuous prepara- 
tion, which is. said to be readily absorbed by the skin, 
and is recommended in treatment of various skin dis- 
eases. It is obtained from naphtha wells situated near 
Xaftalan, Caucasus, and contains 97.6 per cent, of a 
viscid oil, 2.4 per cent, of a soda soap, besides sodium 
and potassium carbonates. Naftalan melts between 65' 
and 75", and has an odor like that of ichthyol. 



78 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



Question Box 

The ob/ect of this department Is to furo.'sh our subscribers witb 
reliable and tried formulas ar.d to discuss questions relating to 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispeaslag difficulties, etc 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged by mail and 
ANONyMOUS COMMUNICATIONS ffECEIVB NO ATTENTION. 

Artificial Cider. 

(J. K.) See this jourual. AuKtist 13, 1896, page 214. 

Cheap Perfume for Domestic Ammonia. 

(.1. G. S.) Oil of niirbiiiie lias been rpcoinmendod where 
a cheap odor is desired. Other odors which have been 
suggested are those used by soap makers, as oils of 
cnnanga, kuri moji, cedar, sassafras, etc., or combina- 
tions of them. .Tust liow much of each will be required 
must be determined by experiment. 



Oil Jasqulum. 

(A. P. S.) wants intormatiim regarding the identity of 
the first named ingredient in the following prescription: 

Oil jasquium 2 ounces 

Tincture of opium: 

Chloroform, of each 1 ounce 

Mix and bathe the painful parts once a day. 

Can some one of our readers furnish the information? 



Paint for Killing Lice on Animals. 

(W. .T. F.) We are not familiar with the preparation 
you name. The "Veterinary Counter Practice" recom- 
mends staresacre as an effectual destroyer of lice on 
cattle if prepared by boiling ^A pound with a gallon of 
water and brushing well into the coat with a hard brush. 
A mixture of train oil 12 ounces, sulphur 4 ounces, and 
oil of turpentine 4 ounces, has also been of service. 



Sol. Stron. Nit. Parv Juvals. 

(C. E. G.) wants au explanation of the words "Parv 
Juvals," as written in the following prescription: 

Sol. stron. nit. Parv Juvals §ir 

Paraf-Javal, not "Parv Juvals," is a French chemist, 
whose name has been adopted as a trade-mark for a cer- 
tain brand of strontium salts, prepared by Rigaud and 
Chapoteaut, of Paris. E. Fougera & Co., this city, are 
the American agents. 



Tasteless Quinine. 

(W. A. C.) In the formula for this preparation, this 
journal. Jan. 7, 1S97, page 15, quinine sulphate is de- 
composed by potassium carbonate, a basic quinine being 
formed, which is insoluble in the liquids of the mixture. 
It is, therefore, comparatively "tasteless." As you are 
aware, the bitter taste of quinine and its salts depends 
almost entirely upon their degree of solubility, the more 
soluble salts being more bitter than those not so soluble. 
Of all the salts of quinine the tannate is the nearest to 
being "tasteless." It is also the least soluble. 

Mentholated Petrolatum for Catarrh. 

(J. G. C.) The following is a typical formula: 

Menthol 5 grains 

Boric acid 30 grains 

I'etrolatum 1 ounce 

Another preparation containing menthol aCd petrola- 
tum and recommended in the treatment of catarrh is 
this one: 

Powdered boracic acid 120 grains 

Menthol (50 grains 

Thymol 20 grains 

Eucalyptol 10 minims 

Bismuth subcarbonate 2 drams 

Cold cream drams 

Petrolatum 6 drams 

Dissolve the menthol and thymol in the melted petro- 
latum, cool and mix with the other ingredients. 



Tincture of Benzoin and Water. 

(G. B. H.) Tincture of benzoin cannot be mixed with 
water so that no resin will he deposited. A milky mix- 
ture may, however, be proilueeil by using about 2 fluid 
drams to 8 ounces of water, preferably rose water. A 
very little resin is, of course, deposited, but it is easily 
mixed in again by a thorough shaking. As you are 
aware, this is the old formula for "Lait Virginal." and 
the precipitated resin cannot be removed without, in the 
opinion of believers in the preparation, altering its value. 

Odorous Perspiration. 

(X. Y. Z.) The following are recommended by Shoe- 
maker: 

(1) Oleate of zinc V-2 ounce 

I'owdered starch 1 ounce 

Salicylic acid 20 grains 

Dust over the j)arts. 

(2) Beta-naphthol ^i dram 

Distilled witch hazel 4 ounces 

Apply well to the skin. 

(3) Powdered oleate of zinc \'n ounce 

Powdered boracic acid 3 drams 

Keep the surface constantly covered with the powder. 

Cocaine and Liquid AJbolene. 

(A. D. and B.) failed to make a solution as directed 
in the following prescription: 

Cocaine 20 grains 

Albolene 1 ounce 

Use as spray with an atomizer for cold in the head. 

Cocaine is insoluble in albolene, as it is in all of the 
hydrocarbons of the marsh gas series similar to petrola- 
tum of the Pharmacopoeia. A solution may be made, 
however, by first converting the alkaloid into an oleate 
by means of oleic acid, and then adding to the albolene. 

CIpadella (?) 

(C. P. M.) asks what "cipadella" is? He does not 
mean "the seed." From the latter explanation it is prob- 
able that our correspondent has in mind cevadilla, al- 
though he does not so spell it. We cannot conjure up 
any other explanation. Cevadilla, or sabadilla. is the 
principal source of veratrine, U. S. P. Other alkaloids 
extracted from it are cevadine. eevadilline, sabadine and 
sabadinine. all of which may generally be found in com- 
mercial veratrine. Cevadilla is rarely used in medicine, 
though it is a powerful irritant, and occasionally used 
to destroy vermin in the hair. 



Blood, Liver and Malarial Remedy. 

(3. K.I The following formula contains sarsaparilla, 
cascara sagrada, cinchona, snake root and pepsin: 

Fluid extract sarsaparilla 2 ounces 

Fluid extract cascara sagrada 2 ounces 

Fluid extract cinchona 2 ounces 

Fluid extract snake root 1 ounce 

Glycerite of pepsin, X. F 2 ounces 

Compound elixir of taraxacum, enough 

to make 1 pint 

ilix the fluid extracts with six ounces compound 
elixir of taraxacum; allow the mixture to stand several 
days, and filter. To the filtrate add the glycerite of 
pepsin and enough compound elixir of taraxacum to 
makes 1 pint. 

Literature on Incompatlhllltles. 

(W. L. M.) The Era has many times published infor- 
mation on the subject of incompatibilities. To find 
these articles consult the various indexes under prescrip- 
tion difiiculties and incompatibilities. For au extended 
list of incompatibilities see this journal, September 12, 
1895, page 327. Then, too, nearly all works on practical 
pharmacy and dispensing devote more or less space to 
the subject. Some of the works you may profitably con- 
sult are the Era Dose Book. Coblentz's Hand Book of 
Pharmacy (second editionl. Remington's Practice of 
Pharmacy (third edition), Caspari's Pharmacy, Art of 
Dispensing, etc. A thorough knowledge of chemistry is 
requisite to a true understanding of incompatibilities. 



January 21, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



79 



Liquid Finger Nail Polish. 

(R. J. S.) The Era Fmimilar.v ^ivts tliis one: 

Sulphuric :uiil 5 drops 

Tincluro of myrrh 1 dram 

Water to make 4 ouiioes 

Mix. 

First clean the nails with a stiff brusli and soap, and 
then plunge them into the above mixture and hold them 
there for five minutes. 

Most nail polishes, however, contain o.xide of tin, and 
may be either pastes or powders. The following prepa- 
ration has been found very satisfactory: 

Oxide of tin 4 pounds 

Carmine % ounce 

Oil bergamont 1.50 grains 

Oil lavender 150 grains 



Perfumes for Toilet Soaps. 

(J. G. S.) The American Soap Journal several years 
ago publishAl the following: 

Brown Windsor Bouquet. 

Oil lavender, Mont Blanc 4 pounds 

Oil caraway seed 2 pounds 

Oil thyme, red 1 pound 

Oil rue Yi pound 

Use 1% pounds for 200 pounds soap. 
Guimauve. 

Oil thyme, white 21^ pounds 

Oil lavender, Mont Blanc 5 pounds 

Oil caraway seed 2^ pounds 

Oil marjoram 2 pounds 

Mix lii pounds for 200 pounds soap. 
A New Combination. 

Oil palma rose 2 pounds 

Oil lavender flowers, strong 2 pounds 

Oil lavender spikes, tiowers 1 pound 

Oil rue Vj pound 

Oil anise % pound 

Oil palommier 1 pound 



Styptics for Cuts Caused by Shaving. 

(W. H. L.) The majority of the preparations upon the 
market contains tannic acid, alum, subsulphate of iron 
or some other astringent substance which, when applied, 
will arrest local bleeding. Here are two formulas: 

(1) Alum. 
Xutgalls, 
Gum arable. 

Gun! benzoin, of each, equal parts. 
Powder each scparatelv. and mix. 

(2) Alum. 

(ium tragacanth. 

Tannic acid, of each, equal parts. 
Powder and mix. 

Used to stop local bleeding, a little being sprinkled, or 
pressed on the part. 

MonseKs solution or solution subsulphate or iron, is a 
liquid preparation some times used. It may be readily 
applied by means of a small pencil of glass or wood to 
the cut. 



Paste Stove Polish. 

(J. G. C.) The following will probably answer your 
purpose. (.Vny of them will, however, dry out more or 
less in time, depending on the exposure and other con- 
ditions): 

(1) Plumbago 2 pounds 

Water 8 ounces 

Turpentine 8 ounces 

Sugar 2 ounces 

Knead thoroughly and keep in tin boxes. Apply with 
a brush. 
Here are several other formulas: 

(2) Mix 2 parts of black lead, 4 parts of copperas, and 2 
parts of bone black, with water, so as to form a creamy 
paste. This is an excellent polish, as the copperas pro- 
duces a jet black enamel, causing the black lead to ad- 
here to the iron. 

(3) Moisten plumbago with turpentine in which resin 
has been dissolved, to make it adhesive, and subject it 
to strong pressure in appropriate moulds. 



(4) Plumbago made into a paste with sodium silicate 
or water glass. Must be brushed thoroughly after ap- 
plying to the stove. 

Face Powder. 

(1) '}''}}<^ 10 drams 

\\ lu'at starch 1 dram 

' '!''''* '""' 1 dram 

Od berg:imot 1 drop 

(2) Bismuth subnitrate U, dram 

I'urilied talcum \y, ounces 

Wheat starch 2 ounces 

•■.^'P«<"n :{ ounces 

lrii)le extract lleur de lys 1 fl. ilram 

Mix intimately and pass through fine bolting cloth. 

(3) Oxide of zinc 30 grams 

Wheat starch 250 grams 

Oil of rose 3 drops 

(4) Talc (of the finest white grade).... 38 pounds av 

English precipitated chalk 25 pounds av. 

Powdered carbonate magnesia 10 pounds av. 

Oxy-chloride bismuth 7 pounds av. 

Corn starch 2(1 iiciunds av. 

Acid salicylic (true) 43 grains 

Oil rose (pure) 5 fl. drams 

Heliotropine li, ounce av. 

Oil bitter almonds ifl drops 

Triturate oils, heliotropine, sali<'ylio acid with bismuth 

thoroughly, mix with balance and sift through bolting 

cloth. 



Remedies for Indigestion. 

(.1. K.) Most of the preparations usually prescribed for 
what is popularly known as "dyspepsia" contain pepsin 
or some other of the digestive ferments. Various com- 
binations of this character are furnished by the National 
Formulary, as the elixirs and solutions containing pep- 
sin, compound powders of pepsin and pancreatin, lime 
juice and pepsin, wine of pepsin, etc. 

However, lack of gastric digestion depends upon a 
great number of causes, and it is always a symptom, 
not a di.sease. Haft", in discussing this subject, says in- 
digestion occurs during the course of short or prolonged 
fevers from atony of the gastric walls and glands, from 
lack of secretion of the proper character, from hyperse- 
cretion of nmcus b.v the mucous glands, and by fermen- 
tative changes in the food, or as the result of any one 
or all of these conditions, and. lastly, l)ecause the food 
is unsuitable to the case, or is a kind diflicult of as- 
similation, or is readily split up into effete products by 
the juices of the organ, and these in turn being absorbed 
produce toxic symptoms. Sometimes it is due to organic 
changes in the viscus, as carcinoma or ulcer, and some- 
times to acute or chronic gastritis. In each of these 
states the treatment is, of course, different, because 
widely separated causative factors must be removed, 
and, therefore, the services of a competent physician 
should be secured to diagnosticate the case. 

Easier Egg Dyes. 

(O. O. S.) To obtain a red color, boil the eggs in a 
decoction of Brazil wood. In the same manner Persian 
berries produce a yellow, turmeric a brown and log- 
wood a deep claret color. By adding potassium chro- 
mato to logwood, a black may be obtained. To dye blue, 
make the following solution: 

Boiling water 2 pints 

Ferrous sulphate 75 grains 

Indigo, in powder 45 grains 

Dry slaked lime 2'/-2 drams 

Mix together and stir every half hour for three or foui 
hours: cover and allow to settle for about 12 hours. De- 
cant the clear liquid and dip into it the eggs, already 
boiled, but still warm. The blue color appears on ex- 
posure to the air. Green is produced by the successive 
application of blue and yellow. Various shades of pur- 
ple, violet, etc., are obtained from red and blue. \ sim- 
ple method for imparting variegated colors is to wrap 
the eggs in pieces of printed muslin, and to boil them 
thus in water: some times very pretty patterns arc in 
this manner printed on the shell of the eggs. Aniline 



80 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 21, 1897. 



dyes lire Inrpely used, iiml are ilesirahli' because they do 
not need any snbstanee to set tlieni, this being acrom- 
plislied by the albuminous portions of tlie sliell. Tlic fol- 
lowing colors may be used: Ued— Ku<-hsin, acid fuchsin. 
roccellin, Bordeaux, ponceau, eosin, erythrosin. phloxin. 
Blue— Alizarin blue, aniline blue, indulin. Yellow— Acid 
yellow R., tropioolin (JOO (orange I.). Violet— Methyl 
violet. Green— Malachit green, also greens obtained by 
mixing the above yellow and blue colors. These dyes 
may be put up for sale in various forms. Small tablets, 
each containing a sepaj-ate dye, may conveniently be 
made with some inert material after the process for 
making tablet triturates. Some operators prefer to make 
up a mass containing the dye, cutting it afterward into 
disks by means of a lozenge cutter. Or the dye. mixed 
with some adhesive or glutinous material, may be made 
to adhere to strips of pasteboard or little billets of woods 
dried and thus sold, the customer being directed to dis- 
solve off the d.vc in hot water, afterwards dipping the 
eggs into the solution in the usual manner. We think 
a few experiments along the lines indicated will enable 
you to obtain a satisfactory method of procedure. 



Waterproofing Canvas. 

(Druggist) The following formulas are taken from the 
Era Formulary: 

(1) Gutta percha, 3 parts, is dissolved in resin spirit, 
9 parts, at a heat of 120° to 140° F., stirring occasion- 
ally. 

(2) Grind 96 pounds of English ochre with boiled oil. 
and add to it IG pounds of black paint. Dissolve 1 pound 
of yellow soap in 1 pail of water on the fire, and mix it 
■while hot with the paint. Lay this composition, without 
wetting it, upon the canvas as stiff as can conveniently 
be done with the brush, so as to form a smooth surface: 
the next day, or the day after (if the latter, so much 
the better), lay on a second coat of ochre and black, with 
a very little, if any, soap; allow this coat a day to dry. 
and then finish the canvas with black paint. Additional 
formulas and processes are given in the authority 
quoted. 

(3) Lowry's process: 2 ozs. soap. 4 ozs. glue, 1 gal. 
water. Soften the glue in cold water, and dissolve it 
together with the soap in the water by aid of heat and 
agitation. The cloth is filled with this solution by boil- 
ing it in the liquid for several hours, the time required 
depending upon the kind of fiber and thickness of the 
cloth. When properly saturated, the excess of liquid is 
wrung out, the cloth is exposed to the air until nearly 
dry. then digested for 5 to 12 hours in the following so- 
lution: 13 ozs. alum, 15 ozs. salt. 1 gallon water. It is 
finally wrung out, rinsed in clean water, and dried at 
a temperature of about 80° F. (27° C.) 

(4) Cooley gives the following recipe for waterproofing, 
which appears to have the advantage of having been 
tried with success: A simple method of rendering cloth 
waterproof, without being air proof, is to spread it on any 
smooth surface, and to rub the wrong side with a lump 
of beeswax (perfectly pure and free from grease), until 
it presents a slight, but even, white or grayish appear- 
ance; a hot iron is then passed over it, and, the cloth 
being brushed while warm, the process is complete. 
When this operation has been skillfully performed, a 
candle may be blown out through the cloth, if coarse. 
and yet a piece of the same placed across an inverted 
hat may have several glassfuls of water poured into the 
hollow formed by it without any of the liquid passing 
through. Pressure or friction will alone make it do so. 

(5) The following application is said to prevent rotting 
when put on canvas exposed to the weather. Dissolve 
a half pound of sulphate of zinc in twenty gallons of 
water, and then add one-half pound of sal soda. When 
these ingredients are dissolved, add one ounce of tartaric 
acid. The canvas should be soaked in this solution for 
twenty-four hours, and then dried without wringing. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



THE PASKOLA CASE. 

Testimony for tfie Defense Taken In Philadelphia 
on Jan. II. 

Another chapter was added to the history of the pro- 
ceedings in the I'askola conspiracy case, .Ian. 11, wnen 
J. K. Itichards and Charles Case, the lawyers repre- 
senting the defendants, F. B. ilcNeal et al., in the 
suit brought against them by A. .J. White, Limited, 
for .$200,<J(X) damages, took testimony for the defense 
Monday., Jan. 11. in an oQice in the Girard Building Phil- 
adelphia. The only witness examined was I'rof. Henry 
I.effniann, I'rofessor of Cheniistr.v in the Woman's Medi- 
cal College of I'ennsylvania and in the Pennsylvania Col- 
lege of Dental Surgery, and chemist to the Dairy and 
Food Commissioner of Pennsylvania, which position he 
has held for alrout four years. For many years Dr. 
Leffmann has acted at the request of the Coroner and 
District Attorney of the county as an extjert in cases of 
poisoning and all medico-legal investigations. He was 
the expert for the Commonwealth in the case of the Com- 
monwealth vs. (Joerson, in 18SU, and also in the case of 
the Commonwealth vs. Whiteside. Both these men 
were tried for murder by poisoning. Dr. Leffmann was 
also the Commonwealth's expert in the recent and fa- 
mous trial of the murderer Holmes. His examination 
was as follows: 

Q. Were you engaged in your occupation as chemist 
during the year lSt*4? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. I will ask you if you made any determination of 
an article called Paskola during that year? 

A. I did. I made some analytical investigations of the 
article sold as Paskola. 

Q. I will ask you to state the result of your investiga- 
tion of the package. Doctor'; 

A. The contents of the bottle were a somewhat thick, 
syrupy liquid of a pale, yellowish-white color, with a 
slight odor of sulphurous acid, such as comes from burn- 
ing matches, and a slightly acid taste. The liquid was 
found to mix with water in any proportion, though some- 
what slowly. M.v analytical examination showed that 
it consisted largely of a form of sugar called dextrose, 
and commonl.v known as glucose. There was no pro- 
teid, that is, albuminous materials present, at least not 
a quantity sufficient to show in the ordinary tests. If 
such albuminous bodies were present, they were in a very 
minute amount, escaping ordinary tests. I also found 
the sugar present in the liquid was decidedly increased 
when the liquid was boiled with diluted acid for a few 
minutes, which, in my opinion, indicated the presence of 
some intermediate product between starch and glucose. 
A test for starch itself showed that it was not present. 
There was a small amount of hydrochloric acid present, 
and also a small amount of sulphurous acid present. The 
results of this test led me to believe that Paskola was 
almost entirely composed of the products resulting from 
the conversion of starch under the influence of acid, such 
as are obtained in the commercial manufacture of glu- 
cose, and that there had been added to this a small 
amount of sodium sulphite, and a little hydrochloric acid. 
Just how these were added I could not determine. 

Q. I will ask you whether you found any digestive fer- 
ment present in the package to whicli you refer? 

No Evideace of Trypsin. 

A. I made experiments to determine the presence of the 
pancreatic ferment called trypsin. I did this because on 
the label or on the circular accompanying the bottle, or 
on some part of the wrapper or covering, there was a 
statement that very hot water should not be used, since 
it might destroy the trysin, and I will spell this word, 
"t-r-y-s-i-n." That was the actual spelling, which I pre- 
sumed was a misprint for trypsin, t-r-y-p-s-i-u. I know of 
no substance known to chemists by the name of "trysin;" 
but I know that there is a digestive ferment of great 
power and efficacy called •"trypsin." occurring in the se- 
cretions of the pancreas. My experiments were there- 
fore made with a view to determine whether this tryp- 
sin was present, and I made comparative experiments 
with known preparations from the pancreatic secretions, 
the commercial ferments derived from that source. The 
results of my experiments were that ^ askola did not 
contain, or at least the sample I had, did not contain 
such substances. I did not get any appreciable result, 
the kind tliat trypsin would give. 

Q. I will ask you. Doctor, whether you found a di- 
gestive ferment of any character present in the package 
vou e.xamined? 

A. No. I made no further experiments at that time, 
but in a later investigation, when a statement had been 
published to the effect that Paskola contained pepsin, I 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



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Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 28, 1897. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 99 

Oommercial Section of tbe 

A. Ph. A 100 

H. M. Seem, M.D 103 

Tax-Free Alcohol 103 

Correspondence 106 

Another Old Drugstore... 108 

Question Box 109 

Medicated Gauzes 113 

News of the Week 112 

Latest Phenacetine Cases . . 113 
Methods of Analjzing Ab- 
phiilt 124 



PAGE 

American. Minnesota and 
Wisconsin Pharmaceuti- 
cal Associations 125 

Alumni of the N. Y. C. P. 
Dance 125 

German Apothecaries' So- 
cietv Ball 12U 

Impurities in Commercial 
Opium 126 

Torrey Botanical Club 127 

Trade Reports 127 

New York Drug Market. ... 128 

Manufacturers' Goods, 
Price List Changes 129 

Trade Notes 129 



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Carelessness In Handling Medicines. 

\ Baltimore druggist has got himself into a peck of 
IiouItIc by prescribing for a womau who complained of 
her poor appetite, .\ftor listening to her symptoms he 
jiavc lier a bo.x of pills (■(intaiiiing pepsin, (luiiiinc, iron 
.ind iiux vomica, which she took home and placed on the 
dining room mantel. Her baby boy got hold of the box, 
swallowed the pills and in less than twenty minutes was 
.lead. 

The Baltimore newspapers have opened the vials of 
their abuse upon the druggist, but it would seem to us 
that in this case the mother is to blame. It is true that 
the State law prohibits a druggi.st, uuless he is a gradu- 
ate of medicine from prescribing for a patient, and this 
is as it should be. The trouble arises wlien we come to 
define prescribing. It is unreasonable to suppose that 
people are going to pay a doctor every time they have 
an ordinary cold or a sick headache. It is equally un- 
reasonable to debar a druggist from giving advice as to 
what medicine a sufferer from such trifling ailments 
shall lake. 

That the pills contained poison does not. to our way of 
thinking, prejudice the druggist's case one whit. It is 
not his business to find out whether thi' customers have 
children or not and warn them accordingly. In a general 
sense all medicines, even food, are poisons if taken to 
undue extent. Suppose that the child had drunk the 
contents of a bottle of eau de cologne and had succumbed 
thereto, would the druggist who sold the bottle be respon- 
sible for the death because he had not warned the 
mother that eau de cologne was not the best thing in the 
world for infants in arms? And, if not, why not? 

No, the blame for this lamentable accident is clearly 
attributable to the careless habit of so many households 
in the keeping of medicines. It is a safe wager that if 
the box of pills had been furnished with all the blazonry 
of skull and crossbones in red, it would still have been 
put on the dining room mantel within easy reach of the 
children. 

There is really nothing noteworthy in this Baltimore 
tragedy except inasmuch as it tends to lend force to a 
homily so often preached, so little listened to, that just 
alluded to. Every day in tlie year, in thousands of house- 
holds all over the country, dangerous medicines are 
placed on the "dining room mantel," as it were, within 
easy reach of the children. It is a matter of wonder- 
ment that more tragedies of the kind to which we have 
made reference, do not occur. All the same there are 
far too many, and all the more pitiful because so easily 
preventable. But the way to prevent them is not by 
pounding the druggist. Reform the families. 



<^S1: vni.. Jriry-Dcc:,ir92 5.50 VoiixVI., July-Dec 



The Right to Own a Drug Store. 

Last July this journal reported the decision of a Phil- 
adelphia court, which found S. M. Zacharias guilty of 
violation of the pharmacy law. In reviewing and eom- 
inenting upon tlie case we said: 

"S. >I. Zacharias was charged with operating or man- 
aging certain di-ug stores, of which he was owner or part 
owner, without being a registered rdiarmacist. He 
proved, and the prosecution admitted, that he carried on 
the business simply as a Imsiness. that he was not a 
druggist and ilid not pretend to be. but employed compe- 



lUO 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Jauuary liH, 1897. 



lent anil Iciiiilly (|iiiilifi(Hl men In miikc up prescriptions 
anil sril iliniis. lie was, Imwi'viT. fi)\inil puilty of vio- 
lation of tin.' law, whicli prohiliits all porsons oxcvpt Ihu 
personal repri'scntativcs anil widows of inanatiiTs, who 
may carry on the business, from engaKinj; in tlie Imsiness 
of selling (Irut's at retail. 

"'riiis nniy be kooiI law and in strict conformity with 
the provisions of the jiharinncy act, but it the facts are 
correctly slated, and there are no incriminating features 
not brought out in the report, it would seem that it is 
exceedingly poor justice. It indicates a srave defect in 
the law (otherwise a wholesonu' one), which should be 
remedied by amendment. This man .seems to have com- 
plied fully with the spirit and intent of the law. which 
was framed to prevent the handling of dangerous drugs 
liy incompetent persons, Init because of the unfortunate 
woniing of the act he was found technically guilty and 
was punished accordingly. He suffers merel.v because he 
invested his mone.v in this line of trade. The incon- 
sistency of the law is apparent in the fact that it specif- 
ically permits the widow of a druggist to carry on his 
l)usiness without rciiuiring her to know anything about 
drugs, but diH'S not i>ermil a man to carry it on by the 
aid of skilled employes, rmil the law is amended. Imw- 
ever, Mr. Zacliarias' case will be a warning to unskilleil 
persons who have money to invest not tti engage in tlic 
retail drug business, in I'ennsylvania." 

1'hat our position is not unsupported is shown by the 
fact that the Supreme ("ourl, to which the case was ap- 
jieaU'd, has just handed down a decision reversing the 
judgment of the lower court, based on the ground of un- 
constitutional class legislation. .Tudge Sm.vth, in con- 
curring with his icdleagues on the bench, sa.vs among 
other things: 

■'Whether tlie Legislature may. ujider the constitution, 
forbid ownership cif the |iroperfy nientioned in this stat- 
ute, may be seriously cpiestioned. 'I'he statute, however, 
does not forbid ownership. Nor does it forbid an.v per- 
son to open or carry on the Imsiness described, provided 
he do not act as manager. It nunely forbids any unqnal- 
itied jjcrson to open or carry on as m.'inager the business 
in (luestion. or to engage as mauagi-r llierein. . . . The 
public are in no wise interested in the ownership of a 
drug stori'. or in its tinaneial management. They ari' in- 
terested only in having that liranch of its management 
affecting life and health, the sale of drugs, the eom- 
pouiuling of prescriptions, etc., conducted by a properl.v 
qualified person. It is onl.v this department of the busi- 
ness that the act assumes to regulate. The part taken 
by the defendant in the business, as found b.v the special 
verdict, was not within its prohibition," 

The decision in this case is quite likely to sup|>l.v a 
precedent for some other States, where laws similar to 
that of Pennsylvania are on the statute books. It has 
direct bearing upon the operation of drug and prescrip- 
tion departments in department stores. 



COMMERCIAL SECTION OF THE A. Ph. A. 

The American Pbarm.Tceutical Association in Article 
I. of its constitution announces its objects and aims, 
which no doubt arc sufficiently diverse and extensive to 
afford warrant for the iustitution of the section ou com- 
mercial interests. Such section has been iu existence 
eight years, hut its history proves conelusivel.v that it 
has not effected and cannot accomplish the ends for 
which it was established. The A, Ph. A. is a national 
orgauization, to foster and watch over the interests of 
its members and the profession they represent iu a na- 
tion of great extent in geographical and all other le- 
.spects. Throughout this great country the conditions ob- 
taining with respect to the science .tnd the art of phar- 
mac.v. its educational and legislative features, are prac- 
tically the same, are uniform, and it is well within the 
province and power of the association to "foster, pto- 
motc, improve and regulate" these interests. 

But with the commercial interests of pharmacy, the 
bi;siness of the druggist, the case is very different. The 
commercial conditions prevailing in San Francisco are as 
w.'del.v separate in their nature from those existing iu 
Boston as are these cities distant in geographical miles 
one from the other. A business problem which vexes 
druggists in one locality may never obtrude in another, 
or if 'solved iu one section may be impossible of solu- 
tion elsewhere. The A, Ph. A. has meddled with com- 



mercial quehtioiiK, and without achieving one single use- 
ful result. It has accomplished absolutely nothing. 

We l>elieve this fact has beciMue apparent to the 
clearer headed and most observant nn^mbers of the Asso- 
ciation, and that they agree with us that the section on 
Connnercial Interests sho\ilil be discontinued. The Amer- 
ican I'harmacc\itical Association is not a business er- 
ganixation. It should leave business matters alone. The 
task of Sisyphus was not more hopeless than the attempt 
of the A, Ph. A. to regulate the business affairs of its 
nienibers. lOvery man takes unkindly advice in this 
line: be knows his own business best, and if one man 
cannot bo "regulated," how iuq)o.ssible it is to regulate 
the Imsiness affairs of a number, and particularly when 
Ihey are so radicall.v diverse in nature. 

The A. I'll, A. has given the Coiumcrcial Sec- 
tion a fair trial, and failed. It has tackled the 
cut-rate question, the alcohol problem and the like; 
has whcreased and resoluteil, ;inil what is the result? — 
Let the section die, and henceforth let the energies' of the 
orgaiuzation be devoted entirely to the legitimate field in 
which it li.'is accouqilished so much in the i>ast, and in 
which the work for the future holds luomisc and surety 
of success. 

(Copies of the above were .sent to a number of mem- 
ber.s of the A. Ph. A. .with the reipiest that they submit 
their views on the subject for publication. Following 
are the replies received up to date: It gives us pleasure 
to nuote these opinions, the very divergence of which 
proves the need of consideration of this question, — Ed.]'> 
• • • 

Albert B. Prescott, Ann Arbor. Mich.: I believe the 
Association has done well to include within its aims the 
proper conduct of business relations and the protection of 
eommercial rights in pharmac.v. It is difficult to sepa- 
rate economics from ethics, and to leave out both would 
restrict the full usefulness of a national society of Amer- 
ican iiliarmacists. In this respect the American Asso- 
ciation is broader in its aims, but not always wiser in its 
practice than the British Conference. It is most mii- 
iiially desirable to keep scientific work in touch with 
professional economies. But it is inherently more diffi- 
cult to use wisdom iu the discussion of the latter. Cer- 
lainl.v there are inevitable liuiitations to success in the 
regulation of business interests b.v a bod.v of business 
men. We slumld not refuse to recognize a task because 
it is difficult, neither should we speml time and patience 
in efforts which are at present quite impracticable. 

I believe the Association should always tie able to act 
upon business relations whenever it shall decide to enter- 
tain such action, but should exercise good common sense 
iu .[Voiding fruitless efforts. Whether to continue to 
hold a separate section for business interests or not, is 
only a question of arrangements for the time being. At 
present the interest of the entire Association in the work 
of all the sections is so great that it has not been found 
expedient to hold meetings of more than one section at 
the same time. If the section of Commercial Interests 
he discontinued, then eommercial papers and questions 
would belong in a general session, and, h.iving been an- 
nounced l>eforehand ou the programme, would have 
about the same attendance of members which is obtained 
in meetings of the "Section," organized as such. The 
more vital question is, what sort of efforts toward regu- 
lation of pharmaceutical commerce shall the Associa- 
tion engage in at present. The majority of all the at- 
tending members, acting together at the meetings, should 
decide this question as prudently as they can. 

In respect to the sale of "patent medicines" so called. 
I think it likely that the task of satisfactory regulation 
will be found to be beyond the power of pharmacists. 
As medicines and poisons sold without account of com- 
position they are anomalous in pharmacy. On the one 
hand, none but a pharmacist should sell a medicine or 
poison. On the other hand, the public does not see why 
one tradesman can not sell a package of nameless poi- 
son in unknown quantity as well as another. It is the 
contradictory character of the "secrets" that has pre- 
vented the satisfactor.v regulation of their sale by 
pharmacists. They are an embarrassing burden to phar- 
macists, who. as a body, are not I'esponsible for them. 
The Association has. at different times, by decided vote, 
unanimously or in large majority, given its own judg- 
ment against the use or the legal permission of sale, of 
secret medicines. But the.v are permitted b.v the public. 
And it is held to be the general dut.v of the pharmacist 
to supply such medicines as are properly called for by 
responsiiile persons, or ordered by physicians, without 



January 28, 1897.] 



TDE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



101 



the intrusion of mlvice for or against the selection of ii 
rciiu'ily. Not to paiisu Ihto upon tlii' limits of this lUuy. 
1 simply repeat, iiliarinacists as a boily arc under eui- 
liarrassnient l>y reason of the "patent meilicine" trade, 
an i'nil>arrassnient wliicli tliey have ncpt lirc>nf;lil upun 
tlieniselves. And if the diseussion of the eut-rate proli- 
leni has yielded no other lienetit to pharmaeists, it has 
done, as I think, a ^ood deal to open their eyes to their 
own professional interests in refusinj; to indorse the 
claims of nostrums. 

There is one more thiuf; tn he reniemliered. It is the 
main benelit of the Assoeiation to brin;; as nniny mem- 
liors as possible together with eaeh uiher for persimal 
participation in as man.v <liseussions of eonimon interest 
as may lie. The aeciuainlanee of inendiers with eaeh 
iither is more than an ineidental advantage. It is an 
education in itself. 

* « * 

II. M. Whitney, Boston. .Mass.: Jly lirst thought was 
that .viui were a little hard on the A. I'h. A. and its mem- 
bers, when yon so pointedly declare that "the task of 
.*<isyphus was not mure hopeless than the attempt of the 
.\. I'll. .V." * » * A\'ms il kind, generous, or even 
courteous, to compare to (Sisyphus, a fraudulent, deeeil- 
fnl. treacherous character, and his failure, the members 
or efforts of the -V. Ph. A.? 

My second thought was, that the writer of the editorial 
was a youth — a pessimist — furccd from circuinstances to 
get up something sensatinnal, and that 1 had more im- 
linrtant and agrcealdi' work than discussing this ques- 
tion. 

Upon a second reading and more careful consideration 
of the editorial, as reiiuested, I became so impressed 
with what seemed to me the unjustifiable assurance of 
the writer of the editorial, and, particularly, as I see it, 
the unwarrantable claim that the "clearer headed and 
most observant members of the Association" agree with 
him, that I am forced to enter my protest — not that 1 
claim to be one of "the clearer headed or most observ- 
ant.'' but as a member urged to give liis "candid opin- 
I ion," I am compelled to say I have failed to find a single 
argument in the editorial — mere words and not facts, as 
I read them; misleading statements unworthy of an hon- 
est, fearless writi'r. What are eight years in a struggle 
for right, justice and public good, in which an average 
of fiftj" or less are waging war in which forty thousand 
or more are interested, and who from varied and local 
conditions are powerless to help themselves, unless 
aided and assisted by an organization? 

Your declarations as to commercial conditions being 
so diflereut, and that absolutely nothing has been ac- 
complished, I meet with as positive a denial. You say 
'"the educational and legislative features are iiracticall.v 
the same, are unifnrm." As 1 read and am informed, 
there is as wide divergence as in the commercial. Is leg- 
islation of a purely scientific or educational character'/ 
Has it no bearing, and have the various trade organiza- 
tions and the A, I'll. A. no power or influence in legisla- 
tion for commercial interests? I venture the assertion 
if it were not for the social and commercial interests, the 
A. Ph. A. and many other useful organizations would be 
liankrupt. Our colleges of iiharniacy. iiharniaceutical 
literature, "editorials." boards of pharniacy even, sim- 
ply and solely labors of love, scientific and without any 
commercial interests? How long would The Era and 
many other useful journals exist if it were not for the 
commercial side? 

Strangle the "whereased and resoluted," "let the sec- 
tion die," as you demand, and in my opinion and judg- 
ment, instead of a star in the East, you would see a 
cloud in the West, feel a cyclone and witness a second 
burial. 

Briefly, let all things work together for good — the sci- 
entist, the educator, the legislator, the commercial, and 
not the least, the social, giving all a share as they want 
and feel they need. 

* * * 

Thomas V. Wooteii. Chicago. Ill: After reading 
.vour editorial an uninitiated person wmild conclude that 
the other sections of the national associaticm had suc- 
ceeded in settling definitely, permanently, and to the sat- 
isfaction of all concerned, ever.v qui'stiou referred to 
them, and by reason thereof deserved everlasting life. 
The Commercial Section, on the contrary, having con- 
victed itself of inefficiency, of "meddling." of "working 
harm" and of general cusscdness. deserved speed.v con- 
signment to eternal damnation. 

The best friends of the Commerci.'il Section will not 
claim that it has satisfactorily adjusted all the matters 
referred to it. Will the friends of thi' Section on TiCgis- 
lation and Education or the Section on Scientific Inter- 
ests make this claim for their sections? The idea is ab- 
surd. 

The statement that the section referred to "has ac- 
complished absolutely nothing" is false. "It has tackled 
the cut-rate problem." Oortninly it has, nnd it played an 



important part in proving to the world that the preten- 
sions of tin' inaniitaetnrers thai lliey wanted lo protect 
Ilie retail druggists of the country in obtaining full 
prices for proprietaries was a miserable lie. "li has 
lackled tin- alcohol problem." 1 ndoubtedly, and it 
bellied to save the pharmacisls of the coiiutiy from a 
competition with the mannfactiircrs, than wliicii nothing 
could havi' been more disastrous, in this matter, it has 
successfully defended Ihc rank and file of the profes- 
sion againsi those who ito plai'c Ihc niatlcr in its most 
charitable liglitl failed utterly lo apprcliend that Ihe 
pharnuu-isl had any rights to be considered. "It has 
whereased and resolntcd." Il can not be denied, ami 
one of the recent results of ils whereasing and resolnt- 
iiig was the exposure of the methods of a sharpi^r, whose 
sclieme was lo paste stickers on all palcnl medicines 
mannfactured in order to compcd Ihe inainlcnance of full 
|iri<'cs. Hy ibis aclioii ihousands of dollars li.ive been 
saved to the pharmacisls of the country, to say nothing 
id' the huinilialion of being defrauded. 

It is proclaimed with a flare of trumpets that "the 
Commercial Scclion can not accomplish the ends for 
which it was established. Il is denied that the 
truth of this statement has been proven. 'The history 
of the Commercial Sei'tion shows just the condition of 
things revealed by the history of the other two sections: 
namely, that much has been proposed vidiich has not been 
accomplisheil, and the accoinplishment of which was im- 
possible. The objects of the A. I'll. A. are "to foster, 
primiote. improve and regulate" the practice of phar- 
macy. In order to carry out this policy in ils entirety 
it is difficult to see how the Commercial Section can be 
abolished. The pharmacist, in his commercial relations, 
has few real friends and no champions. The public 
press is against him. because his arch enemies, the cut- 
lers and the dcparlment stores, are liberal advertisers. 
The pharmaceulical press is lukewarm in its friendship, 
because the mauufaclnring pharmacist and the maker 
of the scientific (?1 nostrum pay handsomely for "space," 
securing thereby immunity from interference with their 
interests. The invitation so cheerfully extended him to 
ask the national association to ignore, henceforth, his 
commercial interests is more likely to appeal to his sense 
id' humor than his sober judgment. 

It is not denied that the Commercial Section has failed 
to meet the hopes and expectations of its friends, but a 
discussion of the best plan to make the section efficient, 
to render it more helpful to the overworked, underpaid, 
discouraged idiarmacist, on whom the sun seldom shines, 
and to whom good cheer is a feeling unknown, would 
be a more fitting task for a great journal like The Era, 
than an attempt to destro.v that portion of the A. Ph. 
.v., which seeks, through its far-reaching influence, to 
better the financial condition, and to protect him against 
shams, frauds and injustice. 

» * * 

W. H. Torbert, Dubuque, Iowa: I am against fore- 
stalling the judgment of the Association on any ques- 
tion that may come before it, either b.v editorials or by 
the less public effort of correspondence. I believe that 
the memliers of the A. Ph. A. are as bright and brainy 
as gather in any association, and will determine this 
question wisely when the.v assemble at their annual 
meeting. In other words, I am in favor of the A. Ph. 
A. being a deliberate bod.v, deciding any questions that 
ma.v arise on the arguments presented and their merits 
at the time the Association is convened, and I am will- 
ing to accept any conclusion which the members may 
reach on an.v subject as satisfactor.v to me. Therefore, I 
am unwilling to express myself on this question at this 
time. I recognize that your argument is not without 
force. I also contend that the Commercial Section has 
been of value to the Association and to the iiliarraacists 
of this country. I hope to be present at the annual 
meeting, and shall be glad to talk the inatler over with 
you pro and con. If it transpires that we are to have a 
running discussion of this question through all the phar- 
maceutical journals, ami take sides on the question be- 
fore it is presented at the annual meeting, I may desire 
the courtesy of your columns to express m.vself: but for 
the present I shall noi enter the discussion. 
* * * 

Isaiah .\ Solomons, of Solomons & Co.. Savannah, 
<ia.: Kciilying to your inquiry as to my opinion 
of the iiroposed editorial suggesting the abolish- 
ing of the "Commercial Section" of A. Ph. A., I 
do not fully agree with you. As to your general 
idea that it does not result in an.v direct good on account 
of business interests of the conntr.v being so varied. I 
fully agree with you. but I consider that it is a feature of 
the Association that if proiicrly managed can result in 
some benefit to the lucinbers by getting the ideas of those 
who have been successful, and this could be done by 
having a few practical subjects written about and dis- 
cussed without any attempt at trying to influence legisla- 



102 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL KUA. 



[January -8, 18U7. 



tion. The trouble is, tlipro )ins lioon too inucli lime 
wustpd oil suliji'i;ts that inn <l(i no good. 

* * * 

From a luiiK lime and influential nicmlier, whose name 
is withheld. 1 prefer not to discuss the nnitter of which 
you propose to speak editorially; hut I will say to you 
that your position is correct. The Association never was 
intended to entertain, promote or regulate the ccunmer- 
eial interests of phannacy, ami the sooner thi" sei'tion on 
commercial interests is abandoned the better it will be 
for the ■"true iuterests" of the Association, 
» ♦ • 
Oeorge W. rariscn, Perth .^nd)oy. X. .T.: I don't think 
1 have snMicii'Till.\ .'niinainlcil myself wilh the Conimer- 
einl Section and its work to be able to jndKc of its being 
abandoned or continued. I (inite agree wilh you as to 
each city, town or locality having different phases of the 
question to meet, incident to that particular place, and 
not affecting another in all ways the same, thereby mak- 
. ing it impossible to formulate any one plan for all. 

* * * 

.T. II. Iledsci-ker, I^ebanon. P.'i.: I have no opinion to 
express on this question, as I have not given the matter 
that attention which it should have in order to give it in- 
telligent expression. The Section has not accomplished 
muoli, if anything, since it was started. I think your edi- 
torial is temperate, and the subject one for discussion. 
« * * 

Joseph P. Remington, Philadelphia, Pa.: I, of course, 
have my views of the Commercial Section of the A. Ph. 
A., but inasmuch as I am a member of the Council, it 
would not be proper for me to express my opinion for 
publication. 

* :K * 

Stanley E. Parkill, <3wosso. Mich.: I have been in at- 
tendance at so few of the meetings that I fc^l I have no 
right to criticize the organization. / 

Cheap Prices. 

Why is it that so many druggists display five and ten- 
cent goods, even one and two-cent articles, and push 
their sale: while the twenty-live-cent, tifty-cent and dol- 
lar goods are practically kept out of sight? 

In last week's Era we printed a talk with a prominent 
manufacturer, in which he said: 

"Retail druggists should lend their assistance to any 
and every practical attempt to increase their profits. 
They must comprehend that cheap goods and cheap 
methods reduce the volume of the retailer's sales, and 
that the reduction is out of his profit. As a rule, people 
do not buy medicines because they are cheap, but because 
they need them, and they have more confidence in an ar- 
ticle at a fairl.v good price than in one which is offered 
too cheap. It is a serious mistake, in my opinion, for 
druggists to push cheap goods. It is these cheap goods 
which have materially reduced the volume of the drug- 
gists' sales, and the sooner the retail druggists realize 
that it is to their own interest to push the sale of 
higher-priced articles, that moment will their profits in- 
crease, and their trade as a whole he in a much more 
satisfactory condition." 

There is a principle hinted at in these words, which is 
a vital one. It is in the statement that cheap sales mean 
a reduction of profit. Instead of selling a ten-cent ar- 
ticle, why not sell the customer a twenty-five or fifty- 
cent package. He will not buy any more than one, any- 
way, and there is little sense in letting him depart, leav- 
ing a profit of but a few cents, when it might just as 
easily have l)een made three or four times as much. The 
percentage of profit may be the same in both cases, but 
it is the aggregate upon which the druggist must live. 
. People buy medicine because they must, and a demand 
for medicine cannot be created and stimulated as is done 
in other lines of business. 

Without unjustly and unduly imposing high prices up- 
on his patrons, the druggist should exercise business 
common-sense in the sale of packaged medicines, sell 
those which are of sufficient size and price, to return a 
decent profit. But beyond medicines there is a field 
where he can legitimately develop this principle. Take 
the merchandise of the store's stock, for instance, the 
sundries, toilet articles, etc. Why sell a cheap hair brush 
or tooth powder when the same effort would sell a higher 
price article, rendering larger profit. 



Cheap goiids are unprolitable in all respects. Med- 
icines anil drugs cheap in pric'e are cheap iu qmility; the 
same is true of cheap brushi's. In both cases the cus- 
tomer IS sure to be dissatisfied with his purchasi-, and his 
dissalisfacliiin is visited upon the druggist. Cheap good* 
mean a cheap druggist, and a cheap druggist is an .-iboiii- 
ination. The drug business is looked upon by Ihi' general 
public as a little higher, a litthr more respectable than 
other lines of business, and it is suicidal to a<-quire a 
reputation for cheapness. Push the good goods, the high- 
er-priced ones, let the chea|)-.Iohn stores keel) the others, 
or if you must handle them to a certain extent, do not 

push them ill 1li<' place of and to Ihe detii nl .if the- 

better. 



The Abuse of Titles. 

Debarred by the Constitution from becoming a lord or 
a "dook," the average American sovereign seeks consola- 
tion in a badge and a title. Of the manufacture of 
badges and the coining of titles there is no end. Ken- 
tucky colonels have passed into a by-word. Ohio has 
a general for every sipiare mile of territory. New York 
is full of majors and lieutinaiits who sell groceries and 
drive street cars, and to have acted as arbiter on a dog 
fight, a cocking main, a horse race or a case of whisky, is 
sufficient to insure a man's titular election to the judi- 
ciary all over the United Slates. The title "Professor" 
has become the peniiiisite of champion liorseshoers, fake 
hypnotists, dime museum performers, bad actors and 
pugilists of that class known as "mixed ale fighters."^ 
And to get down to the trade, what drug clerk is there 
so poor that none will do him reverence as "Doc" — if 
not, indeed, as full-blown "Doctor"? 

All this must be very pleasing (?) to the genuine 
judges, generals, colonels, doctors and professors — men 
who have spent Ihe belter part of their lives working to 
honestly win those titles that the undeserving assume 
so easily and degrade so effectively. And, even in the 
case of a title legitimately obtained, there is small ex- 
cuse for the owner flashing the handle before his name 
or the letters after it abroad to the world on a stereop- 
ticon sheet, as it were. The gods and little fishes laugh 
at such bad taste and peacockiness. 



Some of these druggists are ingenious fellows, and 
they have an eye out for the main chance, too. There 
is one in a city in the interior of New York State. Ilis 
store is a few doors from the corner of the street along 
which passes a line of trolley cars. Patrons who have 
used his store for a waiting place have many times not 
been able to get to the corner in time to catch the car. 
Now what did this druggist do? He ran a double line of 
wire from Ihe store up to and above and across the trol- 
ley wire of the railroad company, and now when the 
cars pass the trolley pole raises the trolley wire, presses 
it against the special line, makes a connection and this 
rings a bell iu the drug store. Any passenger who hap- 
pens to be in waiting then has one minute to reach the 
corner and catch the car. The scheme is a good one, and 
is making friends and money for the druggist. 



Guaranteeing a cure is a dangerous proceeding occa- 
sionall.v. One of the brood of Keele.v institutes has re- 
cently been mulcted for damages for failure to carry out 
its agreement to cure a couple of individuals of the drink 
habit. If all similar failures to fulfill their guarantees 
were brought to court trial for damages, the profit and 
loss account of these institutes might suffer a reversal 
of figures. 

TRIOXYMETHY'LENE is recommended in place of 
formalin for sterilizing rubber surgical instruments, as 
the formaldehyde attacks rubber. 



Jauuaiy 28, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



103 




H. M. Seem, M. D. 

Dr. Seem is one of those men who do an enormous 
amount of work and think nothing of it. He is the man- 
ager of details in Sharp & Dohme's New York office, 
under Ernst Stoffregen's direction. He reaches his place 
of business at No. 41 John street at 7:30 A. M., and 
leaves at C P. M. He keeps the office help employed. 
Ho notes the movements and the business done V>y forty- 
five traveling salesmen, siipplyiug them with remittances 
and samples. He answers scores of letters daily from 
retail druggists all over the T'nited States. He wel- 
comes the out-of-town pharmacist, who has come down 
to New York for an outing, and he wins the visitor's 
heart in five minutes. He receives newspaper reporters, 
advertising agents an<l other unappreciated public bene- 
factors, who esteem him their best friend. A man of 
such virtue deserves a monument. 

Dr. Seem begau life as a practicing physician. He was 
Ijoru li'ss than forty years ago at Martin's Creek. Pa., 
and was eilncated at I,afayette College, receiving the 
<lcgre(s of .\. B. and A. M. He graduated from the 
-Teffersou Medical College in the class of '82. He prac- 
ticed in Bethlehem and elsewhere in Pennsylvania until 
1887. when he entered the employ of Keasbey & Matti- 
son as a traveling salesman. He was afterward em- 
ployed by Parke, Davis it Co. in a similar capacity. 

Dr. Seem had always been fond of music, and was a 
composer, as well as a player, upon many instruments. 
He had also trained a number of brass ban(is. the Beth- 
lehem Brass Band being especially successful under his 
leadership. About this time he tried the experiment of 
making his living as a publisher of music, but Sharp & 
Dohme heard of him and won him back to medicine in 
180<l. He became Jlr. Stoffregen's iissistant in 1892. 
He has considerable literary talent, and the house takes 
advantage of this in the preparation of their attractive 
•circulars and advertisements, which are familiar to Era 
readers. 

Dr. Seem is too busy a uian to belong to a club, but he 
IS not too busy to take health.v out-door exercise, and his 
favorite recreation is bicycle riding. 



SALT'BROI,. — A bromated derivative of autipyrine- 
methylene. forms an inodorous, uou-toxic ontiseptic 
<3nsting powder. 



Tax=Free Alcohol. 

The following communication has been received: 

Philadelphia. .Tan. 15, 189C. 

To the Editor: Agreeably to your renucst in the cur- 
rent issue of the Era. as well as your postal of this day, 
for direct iuformation from the retail druggists of the 
United States on the subject of 1'ax-free Alcohol, I 
wotild brielly inform you of the sentiment expressed by 
tin' State as an association since the suggestion of the 
sribject. liy reference tit the enclosed letters. The one 
letter explains itself and the other was mailed to each of 
my 4()(t fellow-members of the Pennsylvania State Phar- 
maceutical Association. 

Needless to say. I have no negative replies to record, 
notwithstanding those unwarranted statements made re- 
cently in New York City, in whieh assistanei> was sought 
from this State by assuming those around us as New 
York, New .Jersey, (Ihio. etc.. anil which have since de- 
clared these statements without fotmdation. 

Your course is ver.v commendable anil I hope ,vour re- 
plies may be prompt and luinuTous. though 1 fear many 
may not do so. as having alread.v sent their stateiueut 
to the committee, from our suggestion in the circular 
letter. 

There are plenty of progressive pharmacists in the 
I'liited States, notwitlistandiiig all the tliralldom around 
them, and I trust they will grasp this opportunity, for 
the sake of their profession, to let themselves be heard. 
AVe have been "hitched, hampered and yoked" long 
enough. Now is our time to "break" all traces of such 
galling nature. 

Personally. I thank you heartily for the privilege as a 
reader of the Er^ of conveying to the committee the 
same sentiments expressed to them by our i-ommittee of 
a few weeks ago. and I feel assured my fellow-members 
of the State association, as well as conferees of this city, 
will join me in wishing you unbounded success in this, 
as upholding the cause of true pharmacy in the United 
States. JOSEPH CRAWFORD. 

The letter in which the feeling of the Pennsylvania 
State Pharmaceutical .Association on the question of 
free alcohol was embodied, was one sent by the associa- 
tion's Committee on Free Alcohol to the Hon. O. H. 
Piatt, chairman of the Joint Select Committee of Con- 
gress on Alcohol in the Manufactures and Arts. In this 
letter Mr. Piatt's attention was called to the fact that 
at the annual meeting held at Mt. Holly Springs. June 
16 and 18, 1896. the association placed itself on record 
as desiring tax-free alcohol for manufacturing medic- 
inal preparations, and advocated that if at the present 
time a rebate of the entire tax was not feasible, at 
least a reduction of the existing tax should be made. It 
was pointed out that the removal of the tax on alcohol 
used by a nation's sick and distressed would undoubtedly 
reduce the cost of medicines to the consumer, and that 
the increase of tax. 20 cents per proof gallon, made bj" 
the customs law of 1894, has been borne entirely by the 
retail druggist on all alcohol whieh he has since con- 
sumed in manufactures. The committee favored the 
adoption of a plan of rebating the tax on alcohol after it 
has been used, as originally provideil for in Section 61. 
of the laws of 1894. Such a plan would make easy the 
framing of simple regulations that will be acceptable to 
all maiuifacturers. be they large or small, and at the 
saiue time protect the government from loss b.v fraud. 
The opinion was also expressed that the danger arising 
from the recovery of alcohol from medicinal preparations 
to be used as a beverage, has been largely exaggerated. 

The circular letter mailed by this same committee to 
the members of the State Pharmaceutical Society, urged 
the recipients to strenuously exert themselves Ih the 
obtaining of alcohol free from taxation or in bringing 
about a considerable reduction in the present excessive 
tax. 

The Alumni Report of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy for this month contains a lengthy paper by 
George M. Beringer. chairman of the College Commit- 
tee on Alcohol Legislation, on "The Interests of the 
Drug Trade as Represented and Misrepresented Before 
the Joint Select Committee of Congress on Alcohol in the 
Manufactures and Arts." 



104 



TUE rUARMACEUTlCAL ERA. 



[January 28, 1897. 



Ill Mr. KciiiiKci's iiaiH'i- nic iiiciuporntod in full llio 
liupor .suliiiiitlcil li.v Kihviinl H. Hiiiice to the Cuiitjre.s- 
sioiiiil C'uiiiinittt't' on ht'liiilf of the Nutiuiial Wholesale 
Druggists' Assoeiiition; the louiniiinicutiou of tlie Com- 
mittee on Alioliol Legislation, of tlie I'liihuielpliia Col- 
lege of I'harmaey. to Mr. U. II. I'latt, ehairman of the 
Cougressioual Coniniittee, and the letter, to whieh we 
have just referred, written to the same gentleman hy the 
ehairman of the Committee on Aleohol of the I'ennsyl- 
vania I'harniaeeutieal Association. 

In these three eommunications are comprised — to fol- 
low the title of Mr. Beringcr's paper — the "interests of 
the drug trade as represented" before the Congressional 
Committee. The "ihtcrests of tlie drug trade as misrep- 
resented" are to he found in the argument made liy Geo. 
P. Engelhard before the .Toiiit Committee of the House 
and Senate on the Alcohol Tax. on Dec. 3, 18'JI5. This 
argument is reprinted in full by Mr. Beringer from the 
Western Druggist, the journal of which Mr. Engelhard 
is owner, and then comes the real aim and end. the gist 
of Mr. Heringer's paper. For, after letting Mr. Engel- 
hard state his arguments as best he knows how. Mr. Be- 
ringer proceeds to take those arguments one b.v one and 
pulverize them. The extent and success of the pulveriz- 
ing process may be best judged from the following ex- 
tracts from Beiinger"s reply to Mr. Engelhard: 

"Mr. Engelhard is the publisher of the Western Drug- 
gist, and it is a sad commeutar.v on the American Phar- 
maceutical Association that on a question of such vital 
importance to the business interests of pharmacy the as- 
sociation should not be represented by retail druggists 
who arc recognized as prominent in the business of phar- 
macy. Surely a few such remain in the member.ship. 

"But there are certain very broad and bold statements 
in the paper of Mr. Engelhard, which must be refuted. 
The desire of the Congressional Committee was to "re- 
ceive the fullest information.' and this should not l>e im- 
posed upon by submitting statements, even if onl.v of a 
rhetorical <-liaracter. not warranted by facts. The state- 
ment that Mr. Engelhard represented 30,000 of the retail 
<lruggists of the T'niteil States is simply preposterous, 
and I am surpris(>d that some .">,000 or 6,00U of us small 
fry escaped his drag-net. Thi> membership of all thi- 
pharmaceutical associations in the United States will 
not number one-half of 30.11110 retail druggists. The 
total membership of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation aggregated l.."558. according to the official fig- 
ures at the last annual meeting. Deducting from this 
number the Canadian and other foreign members, and 
the editors, teachers, manufacturers and wholesalers, 
and the membership will not represent over 3 per cent, 
of the retail druggists of the United States. 

"In reply to the statement that he was 'not authorized 
to speak for 30.000 out of the ;i.">.000 retail druggists in 
the country' (the Western Druggist says), it is but nec- 
essary to state that he presented credentials showing his 
authority to speak for the committees named, who pre- 
sumably were authorized to sjieak for the various asso- 
ciations, who, in turn, no doubt, reflected the majority 
sentiment of the druggists in their respective States.' 
This clever attempt at explanation is paralleled only by 
the tale of 'The House th.it .Tack Built.' Perhaps, as he 
has not been enabled to take the whole in. he thought 
he would iiull the hole in after him! 

•'A search of the proceedings of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, for the years 1894 and 189.'i. fails 
to reveal Mr. Engelhard's name on any committee to 
which was referred the alcohol tax iiuestion: and. whih' 
the Proceedings for 1890 have not yet come to hand, in 
scanning the report of the proceedings of the conveutioii 
in the pharmaceutical press, his name is not found to lie 
mentioned in this connection. It is. therefore, inferred 
that he was not otficially delegateil to represent the 
views of that association." 

In order that no injustice might be done to Mr. Engel- 
hard, Mr. Beringer, before preparing his ])ai>er, wrote 
the secretary of each State association mentioned b.v 
the former in his argument before the .Toint Committee 
as associations represented by him, asking what official 
action, if any, had been taken by the association ou the 
questiou of tax-free alcohol ami alcohol legislation. Mr. 
Beringer has summarized in his paper the replies he re- 
ceived and "submits that the abstracts from the corre- 
spondence prove that Mr. Engelhard's claim to speak 



with authority for these Stale associatious must be taken 
■cum grano sails.' " Then he goes on: 

"The statement "that not a single State association 
favored the retention of Clause (il. or. in other words, 
favored a rebate of tax on alcidiol useil iu medicinal 
preparations, is rendereil untenable by the recent action 
of the New York and Massachusetts associations, even 
if Pennsylvania had not, iu June, 1895, already set an 
example. 

"The American Pharmaceutical Association merits the 
sn|iport of ever.v American pharmacist for its efforts in 
bi'half of pharmacentic.il siieiices. Without intending 
.iny discredit on the association, the statement that "the 
United States I'liainiacopii'i.i is edited and published 
undir its auspices, as are all other publications of recog- 
nized oHicial character relating to the practice of jihar- 
imic.v in America,' must be refuted as either a willful 
misrepresentation or a pitiable exhibition of ignorance. 
Be.von<l the National Formulary ami its valuable Annual 
Proceedings, we know of uo publications emanating from 
this association. Does Mr. Engelhard not know that 
the Uiiiteil States Pharmacopii-ia originated with the 
medical and not the plnirmaceutical profession? 

".Mr. Engelhard argues ihat 'so long as the Govern- 
ment continues in need uf revenue, and so long as intoxi- 
cating liquors and patent m<'<licine.s — the twin evils of 
our civilization — continue, by common consent, as the 
pro|ier idijccts of s]ie<ial taxation, .sii long must potable 
alcohol |iay its full tribute.' What "siiecial taxation' 
of the (Jovernment is directed against patent medicines? 

".Mr. Engelhard's arguments are largely based on the 
erroneous assumption that the retail druggist.s would 
not be incliidiil in the benefits of ta.\-rebate alcohol, and 
this is the stock argument that has been oflfered by those 
favoring the retention of the spirit ta.x. 

"It is to be regretted that the American Pharmaceutic- 
al Association was so hasty in placing itself on record as 
opposi'd to the jirovisious of Section til. The rebate of 
t.ix on ali'ohol after it had been consumed iu manufact- 
ure was a new idea to Congress, the Treasury Depart- 
ment anil to most manufacturers, aud presumably also 
to the members of this association. 

"That the action of the association in passing the reso- 
lutions at .\sheville was not satisfactory is indicated by 
the discussion at Denver in 189,"). 'i'he chairman of the 
special committee aiipointed to present the resolutions to 
tile Treasniy Department evidentl.v had learned that 
many considereil the action of 1894 as antagonizing the 
interests of ])harmacy, and tried to have the following 
resolution adopted: 

' 'That this association, in its action at Asheville. last 
year, on the question of alcohol, does not intend to .say 
that the retail druggist is not in f.ivor of free alcohol, 
whenever a law is jiassed that jnovides the giving to him 
of this free alcohol ou such terms and conditions as he 
can niaki- use of.' 

"It has been repeatedly claimed that the Government 
would sii construe any tax-free alccdiol legislation as to 
require that manufacture be carried on in a bonded 
warehouse, or under such restrictions as would be im- 
practicable for the retail druggist to take advantage of. 
It I'euiains a fact that the (Jovernment has not conimit- 
leii itself to anj- such plan. < )n the other hand, the 
(Jovernment knows the necessity of adopting regulations 
that would be acceptable to all manufacturers, and both 
the Secretary of the Treasury and the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue are opposed to any discrimination. 

"The statemeut that the wholesalers were conspiring to 
have the laws so framed as to exclude the retailer, has 
never had an.v other foundation than blind prejudice, and 
it behooves our learned Western friends to now cast this 
opinion iiside.*' 



WHAT RETAILERS REALLY THINK. 

Dr. (ieorgi' IJoss iV; Co.. Lebanon. Pa., send copy of 
a letter they recently .sent to Hon. ( ). H. Piatt: Dear 
.^ir: Permit us to present our undivided protest against 
an.v method of making free alcohol for use in the arts 
and medicines which does not make it alike equitable 
to all. Any law that will enable one class of manufac- 
turers to use free alcohol and compel others, because 
li'ss extensive manufacturers, perhaps, to use tax-paid 
alcohol. Avould be manifestly discriminating and unfair. 
The retail druggist, to comply with the requirements 
of the Pharmacopoi'ia. should be encouraged to make 
his own ju'eparations. and should therefore have the 
same advantage afforded him by the Government, in 
the way of free alcohol, as is accorded to the large man- 
ufacturers. The plan of rebate ou the alcohol used, as 
• >riginally provided for iu Section 01 of Act of 1894, is 
perhaps the fairest of all plans yet iiroposed. Under 
such plan every manufacturer, whether large or small, 
would be obliged to keeji a record of the uses to which 
the alcohol had been put. and submit a cop.v of the 



Januaiv 2S, 1^!»7.J 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



105 



aniimiit. tojiotlici- Avitli tlu' liiinvllcfl stamps ami affida- 
Tit. This, it si'i-ms i.. ns. is ihr only iMiiiitaliK' plan ill 
which all would 1m' pUKiil mi tho saiiu' \v\v\. 

W. L. Clifff. IMiila.l.lphia. I'a.— AfliT a L-aivful (.un- 
sidiTalioii of the inallir dmiiiK thr wlioir time it lias 
liLt'U under disriissioii. 1 am thorounlily ((iiiviiircd of the 
desiraliility of lax-fiif alcohol fi>i- the mamiracluriii;; 
retail drujrK'st. It is desirahlc liccause it will lar}.'i'ly 
Btirauhite retail dru^'nists to uiaiuifaclun' the j,'ieat hulk 
of the galenicals and tliose chemicals in which tlu> item 
of alcohid (due to wastagel ligiues largely in the net 
cost. The lessened amount of capital reiiuireil will en- 
alde even the liumlilest pliarniaiilt to liecome what he 
should he. and what the puhlic supposis him to he— a 
manufai-tnrer of the products he sells. ( )n the other 
hand, if it became a (lUestion of the iiassage of a bill 
with conditions imposed which adumted only large phar- 
maceutical laboratories to its benehts, I wouM vigorous- 
ly oppose the passage of such an act. It w<uild not be 
equitable, and just as uni'ouslitutional as the much-de- 
spiseil and n'peahd inc.uue tax. 1 trust that you will 
receive a volume of coriespoudenci> that will place the 
Kra in a position to vigorously upliolil the desires and 
rights of the retail L>harma<ist. 

W. 1,. Thorpe. Iloosick Kails, X. Y.— Ifrtree alcohol 
is to be granted to manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, 
who are iiot I'iigaged in retailing alcohol and alcoholic 
liiltiors, theu the druggists must have free alcohol. If 
druggists do not and manufacturers do, the druggists 
will be obliged to buy all of their pharmacopceial and 
pharmaceutical preparations (those that are made with 
an alcoholic menstrnumi which havi' always been made 
by the druggists. I do not believe it is advisable to 
grant tax-free alcohol to any person whatever, as fraud 
upon the Government is sure to be perpetrated, and 
with every one using taxe<l akohcd. all will be on an 
equal footing and injustice done to no one. However, 
if free alcohol is granted to any one. the druggist must 
have it, or be at a disadvantage that will ruin his busi- 
ness. I trust the druggists of the country a|)preciate 
the services of the Era. and although they may neglect 
to write you on this subject, they will be gratefnl if 
the Era shall be iuHuential in bringing about a just and 
equitable solution of the problem. 

Z. Ross, Boon, Mich. — For the Government to make 
alcohol free to manufacturers only would be an outrage 
upon pharmacists as well as the people. In this wise 
the manufacturer would compel the pharmacist to main- 
tain a price for his goods which must satisfy this most 
avaricious greed at the sauu> time. Our Government, 
which educates and authorizes us to do this work, en- 
tirely ignores us in our legal duty, outside the monopoly 
manufactory, not giving ns an equal footing with the 
general stores, since the people at large do not expect 
nor ask by laws or otherwise from the general stores, 
as tltey do from ciruggists. Viewing the many other 
things which 1 have not mentioned. I am compelled to 
protest against the imiiartiality of such law, giving to 
the rich only that special privilege. 

Gano iSc Costen. Xorristowu. Pa. — We think it would 
be a great injustice to the retail druggists of the I'nited 
States for the (iovernment to grant the manufacturers 
tax-free alcohol without extending the same privilege 
to the druggists. It would practically force all retail 
men to buy their preparations, such as tinctures. Huid 
extracts, spirits and liniments fr<un the manufacturer, 
as the.v woiihl be able to sell finished products for much 
less than the retail man would have to pa.v for his al- 
cohol. We trust that no such imiiosilion will be thrust 
upon us. 

.Julius Jlayr, Chicago. III. — I do not want free alcohol 
for ciruggists. unh^ss everybody else also gets free al- 
cohol. Free liquors. Ever.v inhabitant of the I'nited 
Stales has the same right to alcohol free from tax as 
druggists and manufacturers have. The total abolition 
of Iiiti'rn.'il Revenue taxes which woulil put the prices 
of alcohol and whisk.r to I'll and 'M) cents per gallon 
would be a blessing to <Mir land, and wmild. to a great 
extent banish intemperance and drunkenness. Thou- 
sands of bad peo|ile and tenii«-rance fanatics would be 
compelled to work for a living. 

.T. H. .lohnsim. Eureka. 111.— I believ<> it is all right to 

grant tax-fr ilcohol to nianufacturers. but I think the 

retail druggists should be iuchnled. as the.v are manu- 
facturers, only on a smaller scale. The retail dnig- 
gists have been manufacturing their tinctures and other 
preparations largel.v for a great many years, and they 
are manufacturing them more and more each year. I 
have been in a retail drug store since 1S7.J, a period of 
twenty-two years, and I see the necessity of druggists 
making their own tinctures and preparations more and 
more each year. If the Government granted tax-free 
alcohol wh(desale druggists would undoubtedly be in- 
chideil. as they manufacture largely. If they are in- 
cluded, why not the retail druggist? 



J M. T-awrencc, Cimarron, Kan.— I will say that if 
alcidiid is made free to manufacturers, druggists should 
have it on the same terms. Rut I think that the law 
requiring druggists to pay a license of $20 should be 
ri pealed, ami instead reipiire them to pay on the gal- 
lon, as it is only the money that they are after. Anil 
then the man tiiat sold one gallon would pay for one, 
and the one who .sold 10,IKIO would pay for that quan- 
tity, and that wcuild make it equal, but this robs one for 
tile bcllctil of others. 

F. .\. Martin. Sharon Springs. N. Y.— I am an advo- 
cate of free alcohol for the drug trade. I do not think 
we should be taxeil on alccdiol. You ask if the retail 
druggist wants cheaper alcohol? Yes we do. Then we 
can i-ompete and make our own preparations. \\ hiU' \vt- 
have to pav the tax most of us poor druggists have not 
the capital to buv alcohol in quantities, and there is 
where the large manufacturer has the advantage 
over us. 

G W. Ilcnrv. M. 1).. Camden, X. J.— I am in favor 
of free alc.diol". 1 ilesire to add my protest against the 
(;overnmeiit granting tax-free alcohol to manufacturers 
without allowing the same privileges to the retail drug- 
gists. I think it unjust to tax alcohol so high fm- tlrug- 
irists" use, because it affects every poor man with a 
familv to support, because he gets so little for his 
mone.v. To tax alcohol is a great injustice to druggists 
and physicians. 

R .7. I'arker. Monett, .Mo.— Free alcidiol? No! It will 
be practically impossible for the small retailer to obtain 
its benefits, and his manufacturing must cease. Easy 
pharmacy means increased competition. Stocks im 
hand would be depreciated— prices further demoralized. 
I think no method can be devised to secure revenue from 
beverage sales, while giving tax-free alcohol for manu- 
facturing use, and the interests clamoring for tax-free 
alcohol for export only. We need the Era's help. 

George Doughton, Xorth Wilkesboro, X. C— I think 
it would be a great injustice to the retail drug trade 
to allow free alcohol to wholesale druggists and man- 
ufacturers, and not allow the same privilege to retail 
druggists. In fact, the retail men are all manufactur- 
ers on a small scale and should have the same priv- 
ileges and protection as the large dealers and manufac- 
turers. 

.T V Zipf. Grass Valley. Cal.— Have tax on alcohol 
at .$l.(j(l per gallon: give rebate to manufactured articles 
containing alcohol which are exported, or in which al- 
cohol is useil in their manufacture. The general public 
will derive as much benefit from a SI. (id rate as from 
free alcohol, while the (;ovcriimeiit will be ahead hnau- 
cially. 

W Dearden. Trinidad. Col.— If the manufacturers get 
free alc.diid. of course the retail druggists need it too. 
Otherwise we shall be mere handlers of goods. It will 
not pav us to rnaki' our own tinctures, or any prepara- 
tions into which alcohol enters. It is merely a ques- 
tion of degree. We are all manufacturers more or less. 

L \ Fbelps. Saugatuck. Mich.— I can heartily make 
a protest against tax-free alcolud that will ii.U give me 
the same privilege that my neighbor has. simply because 
be manufactures on a little larger scale than I do. I 
h.ive studied this matter a long time, and fall to see 
where I would be bcnetited by free alcohol. 

Frank R. Moodv. Lowell. Mass. — In compliance with 
vour request for the si'iitinients of retail druggi.sts, for 
one would sav. with regard to free alcohol, that I agree 
with "Wc tlrmlT believe that it the large mauufacttir- 
ers have tax-free alcohol the small retailers want the 
same privilege" — your position in the matter. 

R F Rediugton. Trov, Pa.- .\m opposed to tax-free 
al<-ohol for the druggist, for. as Deacon Bedott said, 
■We are all poor critters." and there is no question that 
several of us would have a decided a<lvantage in the 
retailing of the stuff for medicinal and mechanical pur- 
poses only. 

Mrs. M. .\. .Tones. East Cambridge. Mass.— I don't 
think it would be just of the CJovernmeiit to grant tax- 
free alcohol to nianufacturers and not allow the same 
privilege to retail -druggists. If the manufacturers get 
tax-free alcohol, I think that the retail druggists ought 
to also. 

I>>e iV- Riley, Climax. Mich.— We are opposed to tax- 
frif alcohol from end to end. from sidi- to side, from 
top to bottom, to the largest manufacturer, to the phar- 
macist, to the retailer. If the tax is legitimate (and it 
isi. let every one that handles it pay his share. 

.1. S. Walters. Xappanee. Ind.— I surely think we 
ought. There is no reason why the rich manufacturer 
should have this advantage over his less fortunate 
brother with fewer dollars, who really does the work. 
There is too much class legislation. 

D. E. Thomas. Centre. Ind.— I cannot see the con- 



106 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[January 28, 1897. 



sistencj' in Icgislalinp in favor of ninmifaoturers nud 
iipiiiist rotaili-rs. I would call that class loKisIatloii. No, 
1 am opposed to lax-frcc alciihol for niaiiufacturors, 
«ii limit iiK-ludiiij: rctailirs also. 

Wells & Xiisli, (JrccnticM. Mass. It Is iuipiissiblc to 
make too stnuii.' a pnitest anainsl alimviuj,' iiiaiiiifac- 
lurcrs tlio |irivili'i;c of ta.x-livc alcoliol, without fjrant- 
iric the same rights to the retail dealers. It would be 
simply a case of le^al perseriition. 

.loliM K. .Tatiies. iJckmI Hupe. Ill, In answer to your 
in(|uir.\' cniirei-iiiii;: till' t io\ erniiient's ^raiitiii^ tax-free 
alcohdl to iiiauufaeliuers without allowiiiB the .same 
jirivileKi" to retail druKtrists, I must enter a sincere pro- 
test a);ainst such diserimiiiation. 

.1. JI. Jones. M. T).. I'nuntain City I'liarmaey. Day- 
lona. Fla.— I do heartily pci>test against tax-free ale(diol 
to manufacturers without the same privilege to retail 
druggists: also against druggists having to pay license 
to sell alcoholic liquors. 

f. I,, flawson. M. I).. Chester. S. C. - I lielieve that 
all druggists shduld have free aliidiol. as it will cheapen 
mcdii-me for the pimr-a mailer of neecssily -I'm- in this 
cciunlry there arc llnmsands who ■an'l buy the iiK'iiicine 
which they need. 

U. r>. and F. 10. Bristol. Lapeer. Mich. -We most 
earnestly i)rolest .against any legislation in favor of free 
alcohol fur l.irge iMannfacliirers. unless the same can 
be granted to the retail di'aler and small manufacturer.s. 

.Stuben Drug Company. Wayland. X. Y.—We are in 
favor of alcohol being tax free f(u- all medicinal pur- 
poses, ami do not believe that it should be made tax free 
to mannfaetiii-ers. unless it is also made free 1o retail 
druggists. 

Winslow ]!. Miu-sc'. Indian ttrehard. .Mass. I would 
like "Free Tax Alcohol" if we can have one gallon 
free or one hundred b.arrels. but no such iliscrimination 
as that of two years ago. Tax or no tax for all. 

•T. M. Stetson. Xeponset. III. — .Ml retail druggists 
ought to have alcohol free of tax for all mechanical and 
chemical purposes. Hope your journal will do what 
you can for the good of all retail druggists. 

William Crooker and F. W. Schaffer. Montevideo. 
Minn. -We are strictly opposed to the Goverumenl 
granting tax-free alcohol to manufacturers, without al- 
lowing the same privilege to retail druggists. 

J. .7. Itaulison. Siloam Springs. Mo.— I believe it is 
just .-ind right to grant the same privilege to each. If 
one has free alcohol the Government must let the re- 
tail druggist have the same privilege. 

F. A. Martin, Proprietor. Sharon Springs Pharmacy. 
Sharon Springs. X. Y.— I fully agree with you in re- 
gard to free alcohol. If the large manufacturers have 
it. why not the smaller dealers. 

R. C. Hampton. Indianapolis. Ind.— I want to raise 
my Voice in protest against our (J.ivernment granting 
tax fre(> alcohid to manufacturers, without allowing the 
same privilege to retail druggists. 

Henry X'. Jcnuer. Goshen. Ind.— I am not in favor of 
a law making alcohol free for nuiuufacturing purposes. 
I think it would be better t(j reduce the tax to all rather 
than give a few an unfair advantage. 

Dr. A. R. Bodley, Minneapi>ILs, Kan.— I want free al- 
cohol. I don't know of a single druggist that don't want 
it. and the fellow who liid before that committee .should 
be pickled in alcohol. 

.Tames Piper & t'o.. (Jorin. Mo.— We are strictiv in 
favor of free alcohol to retail druggists. If the large 
manufacturers have it free we ought to have the same 
privilege. 

T. .T. Casper. M. I).. Springtield, Ohio.— I certainly 
want free alcohol, and do protest against granting it to 
manufacturers without allowing same privilege to retail 
druggists. 

.T. S. Black, JI. D., Virgil. Kan.— I am opposed to the 
Government granting tax-free alcohol to manufactur- 
ers, unless the same privilege is allowed the retail drug- 
gists. 

Deems & Raber. Laud. Ind.— We .Ire not in favor of 
the Government granting tax-tree alcohol to manufac- 
turers, unless the same lu-ivilege be extended to drug- 
gists. 

M. L. Blatherwick, Centre Point. Texas.— I firmly be- 
lieve that if the large manufacturers have "tax-free al- 
cohol" the small retailer should have "tax-free alcohol" 

also. 

F. D. Dempster. Milford. III.— I protest against the 
Gov«>rnment granting tax-free alcohol to manufacturers, 
without allowing tiie same iirivilege to retail druggists. 

Abraliam Hare. Belleville, Ohio. — I hereby enter my 
protest against the tax-free alcohol to manufacturers, 
without the same privilege to the retail druggist. 



K. M. .Tohnsou, Cloquet, Minn.— If the large manufac- 
turers are allowed free alcohol. 1 think the druggists 
ought to be allowed the same privilege. 

F. A. Curtis. Coehrantiui, I'a. — I am in favor of the 
Government granting tax-free alcohol to retail druggists 
as well as to manufacturers. 

.1. Beach, Marsland, Nob. — I am opi)osed to free al- 
cohol to manufacturers, unless it can be had by drug- 
gists also. 

Henry L. Schcrb, Los Angeles, C:il.— I am in favor of 
free alcohol to druggists, if it is made free to manufac- 
turers. 

.lohn W. .Miller, Dayton, Ohio. — Manufacturers of 
tinctures, etc., who use alcohol can afford to pay tax oo 
alcohol. 

L. E. Emmons, Spencer, N. Y. — In response to yours 
in the Era I say, "We want free alcohol." 

C .1. .Schmclz, M. D., San Francisco, Cal. — We waut 
free alcohol. 

II. .1. .lackson, I'ullman, Wash. — I want free alcohol. 



Wcsre pleased to publish here commualcatlons from ournad' 
en on topics of Interest to the dnig trade. Writers are requested 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Each article must 
be signed by Its writer, but his name will not be published It 
in requested. 

The Substitution Question. 

Terre Haute. Ind.. .Tan. 12, 1897. 
1"o the Editor: 

I have with great interest followed the wail about sub- 
stitution and do really not know wh.-it to think of it. I 
have been as pharmacist employed in several sections of 
this great country of ours and have always found that 
the one crying the loudest about substitution was the 
very one iiracticing it. Besides, my observations have ■ 
l>roved to me that the heaviest cutters and those doctors 
who conduct drug stores in connection with their practice 
are more or less guilty of that charge. Of course there 
ma.v be. and certainly are. exceptions, but I have failed 
.vet to find them. I have always found the progressiv<? 
pharmacist aiul the ideal iiill-roller free from such prac- 
tice, so far as my observations went. There is a very 
simple wa.v to sto|i all substituting, if a physician is 
really afraid that his druggist might practice it. If a 
]ihysi<ian is compelled to prescribe a proprietary jirepara- 
lion, he certainly must (or should) know its composition: 
wh.v not prescribe the <ruile drugs, etc.. and have the 
liharmacist compound it'^ He is, according to his experi- 
ence and education, as well, if not better, (pialitied than 
that manufacturer to compound thi' prescription. At 
least, I have not the least tripulde to duplicate any pro- 
prietary article on the market, wherever the formula is 
luiblislied by the manufacturer. Besides. I often find 
that my preparation never has failed me where it was 
indicated, while I sometimes do not get the expected re- 
sults from the original ai'ticle. And it is ahva.vs a great 
consolation for me to know exactl.v what I am dispens- 
ing. As most of the better preparations of that class are 
contained in the Xational Formulary, there is no reason 
why ph.vsicians sinaild not prescribe these preparations 
as directed in that little vade mecura of the modern phar- 
macist. As ph.vsiciaii and as pharmacist I can. and 
must, say. do away with prescribing preparations of 
which we know nothing, and in regard to those few 
which have the formula printed on the label, use simil.ir 
preparations of the X'ational Formulary, and you win 
have no cause whatever to cr.v about substitution, and 
are alwa.vs certain of the quantit.v and etTccts of vour 
medicine. IX. 



Cutting in tlte Drug Business. 

Xew Y.uk City. .Ian. 15, 1897. 
To the Editor. :The tinud.v article in your current issue 
with the above heading sliould bring raan.v of the nearli.T 
bankrupt drug store proprietors and others to their 
senses. Y'et. I ver.v much doubt if it will do so. as these 
business men — "God save the mark"— imagine they draw 
people into their stores, and perhaps tliey do. Y'et how 
many of these so-called owners of drug stores in this 
eit.v to-da.v can honestl.v say they actually own thern? I 
happen to know for a certainty that hundreds of thes? 
disgraceful cut-rate stores arc overladen with debt, past 
redemption, and all of them, these cut-rate stores, I 
mean, are borne down by catering to the people who 
will walk two miles to save three cents, and ride six or 
eight to save ten. In this upper part of the city, called 



January 28, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



107 



Iliirlom, from its lioKiiniiiij; tn ond. wp liavo hundreds oC 
such stores, indocd nuiiiy of thcni liurst up, as they di.' 
serve to do, or change hands every few weeks, solely be- 
cause their neighbor. Max Guggenheinier or Schmitten- 
berg in the next blocU is determined to close the doors of 
his hated rival, C-iteliem, ('iiltem vVc Co. They are to- 
day selling goods \vhirh they never paid for, or have 
bought them from some one who can steal them, .'is no 
one to my knowledge can sell patent medicines and pay 
their honest debt on a profit of 1 or 2 per cent., and in 
many instances '> per cent, h'ss than gross lots an- 
quoted. Yon, Mr. lOdilor. know as well as your readers, 
that these are facts, indisputable truths. 1 have before 
me a book of prices issued by a store on Eighth avenue. 
above l'2r>th street, in which many goods are ([uolcd a' 
retail much below wholesale list prices. Presumably. I 
will not handle any patent medicines, no matter what the 
demand may lie. unless I can olitain n reasonable, yei 
small, i)rofit. If the manufacturers will nnl, or cannot, 
protect the honest retailer from these inranimis cut- 
throat idiots in the drug business. 1. for one. will mo 
bankrupt myself, simply because my next door neighbur 
is rushing into ruin ;it break-neck speed. A Avell-known 
sub-post-olHce in Il.irlem. and scores of others tried thi; 
.cutter-to-death practice a few months ago and died n 
natural death only last week. Verdict: Served 'em right. 
Thi.se cutters, nearly all Germans. I am ashamed to say, 
ari' the greatest offendiTS. and I very much fear that no 
sense of honest trading exists among the majority of 
them. They seem determined to make a once honorable 
calling a by-word and disgrace in the eyes of the Ameri- 
can people, who even now look upon drug stores as 
places kept to sui>ply every siu-t of information desired, 
and all goods and postage stamps 50 per cent, off cost, 
price. Very respectfully, yours, a determined opposer of 
dishonorable trading. C. C C. 



ABSOLUTELY PURE ALCOHOL FROM ACETY- 
LENE QAS. 

Acetylene, already so mncli spoken and written of 
as an illuminant, threatens to introduce itself in 
the confection of liquors. This use of it may. ai 
first, appear but little appetizing, when its disagreeable 
odor is considered, but we hasten to say that care i< 
taken to transform it into alcohol, for it is a gas which 
contains the principal elements of that precious liquid; 
there remains but to add what is lacking— oxygen. 

Ak-ohol is, in effect, a compound of carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen: acetylene possesses already the first two ele- 
ments. We will now give it the third and increase to 
completion the dose of hydrogen, which was a trifle too 
small in quantity, to bring acetylene quite up to the- al- 
cohol stage. 

Here is the arrangement, which, although but a labo- 
ratory experimental apparatus, is easily made industrial. 
shoutd a plant base<2 upcpn this process be establisheil. 




Apparatus for Maklag Alcohol by Meaas of Acetylene Gas. 

I'\ Fkisk containing caleium carlji'ie .and scrap zinc. \'.. 
"Water acidulatol with sulphuric acid. .\. I'. Glass worm 
in which hot sulphuric acid circulates. D. Flask to collect 
and iistill ethylsulphuric aciil. It P.. Worm for condensing 
vapors of alcohol. M. Flask for the pure alcohol, con- 
densed. H. C. Liebig condenser. 

In a fiask. F. calcium carbide and metallic zinc 
are placed; knowing that zinc, when attacked by water 
acidulated with sulphuric acid, gives hydrogen gas in 
the presence of water, we see here that the calcium car- 
hide freely evolves acetylene gas. In the flask. E. put. 
then, water and a little sulphuric acid and connect this 
flask with the first by a flexible tube, so that, when E is 
elevated or lowered, we may introduce or withdraw, at 



will, Ii()uid in the flask, F, according to the need of the 
[uviduition. 

The acetylene and the hydrogen, developing at the 
same time, do not fail to seize the opportunity for com- 
bining. In the nascent stale bodies always have a great- 
er aflinily for each other than at a later stage. 

It is of this marriage, then, that the ethylene is born, 
which, being m>w disengaged, goes over into the glass 
worm. I', where it comes in contact with concentrated 
sulidiurie acid heated to 80 degrees C. which is slowly 
poured into a funnel. A; it is here that it gets its oxy- 
acid. This is collected in the flask, I), and is brought to 
ebnllilion. Here it is decomposed into sulphuric acid, 
w liieli remains, and may be used again, and into alcohol, 
which evaporates, but is collected and condensed by 
means of tube, R, connecting with worm, B. surrounded 
liy a current of cold water cirenhfting from H to C. 

In M is collected an alcohol absolutely pure,* which in- 
dustrially produced would not cost more than 20 centimes 
(4 cents) per liter. It contains none of those essences 
which are always present in the vegetable alcohol, and 
which render them dangerous for consumption. 

It is not a little curious that alcohol furnished in large 
quantity by the vegetable kingdom is now going to be 
given us by the mineral world, and at a ridiculously low 
lirice. It would seem that in combating alcoholism we 
are going against the laws of nature. After all. we had 
best conclude that if Dame Nature thus places alcohol 
in profusion within our reach, it is not to take the place 
of water as a beverage. (From Le Monde Moderne. 
Translated by .1. Colton Lyues. Ph. D., ex-president 
Georgia Agricultural College, etc.; Scientific American.) 



IS LIFE WORTH LIVING ? 
Benjamin Taub, of Brooklyn. Hardly Thinks Drug- 
gists Will Find it so Until tliey get Sliorter Hours. 

There has been much said and written about sborteu- 
iug the hours of druggists who are actually nothing 
more than a body of slaves— in some cases, highly edu- 
cated and intelligent slaves, but slaves all the same who 
are toiling day and night for nothing more than their 
daily bread. What more do they have? Absolutely 
niithing. neither home comforts, which every common la- 
borer enjoys, nor social pleasures. There is hardly one 
.•imong so many thousands of so-called civilized 
druggists (who are actually living iu a state of 
semi-barbarism) who can claim membership iu any 
social, political or literary organization, such as is en- 
jnyed by men of every other trade and profession. 

The remedy for this great evil in our profession is not 
in talk, writiug or opinion. But let those brave men who 
are advocating this much-needed reform put their words 
and ideas into practice by closiug their stores at 8 
P. M. every evening (Saturdays excepted) and Sundays 
at 12 M.. and others will soon follow suit. Thus the cor- 
ner-stone, to our ultimate success, would be laid. 

The good that would follow such actiiui cannot be over- 
estimated. It would drag us out of our living tomb, 
elevate us In a higher social standing, give us time to 
enjoy domestic happiness, of which we are as yet en- 

The chemistry of the process is not Ki\en in the original ; it is, 
however, verysimple. In flask F we have. 

Zn 4- H2SO4 = ZnSOj ~ H... 

Zinc + Sulphuric acid = zinc sulphate + hvdrogcn. 
CaCj -T- 2H2O = CaCOHVj + r;H2 

Calcium carbide 4- Water = slaked lime -f at'Ctylene. 

-^ t the instant of the above reaction this is formed : 
C.Ha -f- He; = r..Hi. 

Acetylene + hjdrogen = ethylene. 

A'ld in tube and worm, A. P., we have 

C.H^ -^ H2SOj(hot) = C"|J'-[.80,. 
Ethylene— sulphuric acid = ethylsulphuric acid. 

Which, tieing boiled in D. decomposes thus: 

'^H^'IsOj + H2O -f heat = r;H-,.OH + Ha^Oj. 
Ethylsniphnricacid -i- water — heat = alcohol + sulph. a<*id. 



108 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA, 



[January 28, 1897. 



tirely ignoroDt, and last, but not lcn8t, it would lie the 
apoiiiiig woilije that would lirlp to do awny with lliu fatal 
evil oallud tlio "Vul-rato." 

To do away with this evil, which is slowly but surely 
draiL;^!!)? us down lower aud lower, we iiuist orcauizi'; 
but orcaiiizatioM, uudcr tlu' jireseul li<iurs of labor is iui- 
possible. We have neither the time for it, nor the intel- 
lect. AVe have hardly time to sleep and eat, let alone 
discuss and orKanize, and our intellects arc dwarfed by 
the lung hours of ecnitiiu'Uieiit. 

The druggist furnishes a remedy (nr <'very disease. 
Give him time and he will furnish a ri^uiedy for this ilan- 
gerous and killing cutting of rates. 

Siunc ilruggists may think that by closing at an early 
hour in the evening they will lose some of their trade. 
While this may lie true in some cases, I have found 
that, as a rule, the trade after 8 I'. >I. consists cliieUy 
in articles that could be bought either berore the closing 
hour or the next day. As to emergency eases, let me 
tell you that almost every physician of to-day is prepared 
for such and larrics with liini such drugs as he may re- 
quire in case of a sudden call. Those physicians who 
have not yet learned to be ]>repared for emergency cases 
will soon learn, once this early closing system be properly 
established, to be prepared for any and every contingency 
that may arise. 

As regards the public. If we have once gained their 
confidence, which is the one great reciuisite for success, 
they will follow us wherever wo are, and seek us at 
whatever hours we may choose to keep opi-n, and so buy 
their drugs and medicines either earlier in tlu' day or 
keep on hand a liberal supply of such drugs as lliey may 
need after the closing hour. 

From a four mouths' careful observatiMU in three of 
the largest prescription departments in Kmoklyn 1 have 
found that there were only three calls in all that tinu' 
for prescriptions which could really be called emergency 
cases. Even those three could have been avoided it 
the physicians in question hail carried with them a small 
vial of Magendie's Solution, which every careful physi- 
cian ought to have always ready for use in cases where 
immediate relief is necessary. 

In conclusion 1 would sa.v that by early closing we 
have absolutely nothini; to lose and everything to gain. 

BENJAMIN TAUB. 



IS THIS THE OLDEST DRUG STORE IN AMERICA ? 

A Pennsylvania Pharmacy Founded NO Years Ago 

by a Moravian Doctor. 

The Era's quest for the oldest drug store in America 
has brought to light a pharmac.v in Pennsylvania which 
was founded in ITofi. This is the drug store of Simon 
Rau & Co., of Bethlehem. Pa. Bethlehem was settled 
by the Moravians !n 174'2. and Dr. Matthew Otto, the 
founder of this business, was a member of that .society. 
The accompanying illustration is taken from a water 
color painting of the original building, which hangs in 
the office of the concern, which is located on the original 
site. 

It is a singular fact concerning this store that there 
have been but three managers since it was established. 
Dr. Otto died in 179(1, and was succeeded by Dr. Everett 
Freytag. Simon Rau. the present manager, became 
apprenticed to Dr. Freytag in 1830, and succeeded to the 
ownership of the store in 1S40. He is now seventy-nine 
years of age, still hale and hearty, and attending to 
his duties in the store. 

Mr. Rau has associated with him his son and nephew, 
Eugene A. and Robert Rau, aged, respectivel.v, forty- 
eight and lifty-two. The business is a flourishing one, 
and is conducted in a modern building with the most im- 
proved appliances. It is said to be a storehouse of his- 
torical information, as the three proprietors personally 
observed many matters of the greatest historical im- 



portance in tbis country. \Va8hiugtoti ami LafnyettC' 
were visitors at the settlement, and Mr. Rail's own per- 
sonal rec(dlecti(in takes in everything of interest in this 
c(Uintry since before the .Mexican War. He has seen 
comnu'rcial revidiition broiighl to piiss by the subslitu- 




tion of the railroad for the canal and the wagon road in 
transportation, and the teh'grajdi and siiecial delivery 
for the old stage coach jiostal service. 

# * « 

A good siiecimen of the antebellum drug store is to be 
seen at the corner of Delancey and Market streets. New 
York, conducted by Louis F. Roediger. It was founded 
in l.S.'!4 by a >Ir. Winzcr. The house, a .substantial 
brick of uncertain anticinily. hail been used onl.v as a 
dwelling before that. The interior of the pharmacy has 
been entirely refurnished and ino<lernized. but the exte- 
riiu' is exiictl.v as it was in the beginning and is .severely, 
idain. -Market street was an aristocratic thoroughfare 
in those days and the store has always been prosperous. 
K. Ilomann. who was proprictiu- in the fifties, put in the 
first .soda water apparatus seiu in that neighborhoo<i, 
and nnide a great deal of inone.v out of it. He used to 
gather in a half bushel of shin-plasters a day. anil was .ic- 
cnstoined to soak them in a tub of water overnight so as 
1o get the syrup off ihem. The change that has come- 
over the neighborhood in the character of its population 
isiiest illustrated by the fact that the sale of soda water 
no longer pays, owing to the competition of curbstone- 
soda dispensers. Nevertheless, Mr. Roediger says that 
the old stand brings in more profit now than it ever did. 
It is known as Kraft's pharmacy. 



ODONTINE.— Carmine lO.li.")) in fine poT\der. is thor- 
oughly mixed with l.j gm. of prepared oyster shell (or 
levigated chalk), then combined with 4 gm. i.f magnesia 
carbonate, 4.5 gm. of talcum, 22 gm. of powdered Cas- 
tile soap. 2."i drops of oil of peppermint. ^5 drops of oil of 
c.ilamus and .'! drops of oil of cinnamon. This mixture 
is then beaten into a paste, with l;j to 20 gm. of glycerin 
aud placed in porcelain containers or collapsible tubes. 



tH A-N"1"I'I"-VTIVE ESTIMATION OF ALBUMEX 
IN URINE.— To the sample of urine one-fifth of its vol- 
ume of a saturated magnesium sulphate solution is- 
adiled. It is heated to boiling, and after cooling to G0° 
C. a few drops of acetic acid are added. The precipi- 
tate is collected, washed and dried. 



AMIDO-ANTIPi'KINE.— -Vmido-antipyrine has been 
prepared. It forms pale yellow crystals which melt at 
109° C, readily soluble in water, alcohol and benzene. 
Owing to the readiness with which this forms various 
additive comi>ounds we may expect the list of antipy- 
retics to bo greatly augmented in the near future. 



SII.WINC POWDER.— Powdered .soap, ."xXJ gm.; 
powdered orris root, 30 gin.; oil of bergamot sulBcient 
quantity. 



January 28, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



109 



Question Box 

The object of this department Is to tumlsh our subscribers witb 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss queslloas relatlag to 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispenslag difficulties, etc 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged by mall and 
ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVE NO ATTENTION. 

Kola Coca. 

(C. O. T.) Soo this jomnnl. June C, 1895, imsc 71Ci. 

BrlWantlne. 

(M. E. S.) Soe this journal. .Inly L'::, ISIHI, iki^o U:!. 

Composition of Tablets. 

(M. U. K.) Till- cnislu'il talili-l ynu sul>niit <'(inl:iiiis 
ooppcr acetate and mercuric chloriiic. 

Kumyss. 

(A. IJ. B.) Scv<'ral imiccsscs are given under this tilli'. 
this journal, Dec. 17, last year, page 794. 

Application for Chapped Hands. 

(O. (). S.) See this journal. Aug- l;!. lSi'(i. pafic 21:'.. 
Fominlas for various toilet creams may be found in the 
issues of March 12. page 335. and Dec. 10, 1S9(>. page 
761, and .Tau. 14, 1897, page 42. 

Preparation of Tooth Pastes. 

(A. M.) (Jlyi-erin is ;.'enerally preferred to either honey 
or syrup in the preparation of tooth paste. It possesses 
antiseptic properties, and paste made with it is not apt 
to spoil or dry nut so quickly. 



Fake Prescription. 

(J. F. It.) The fiirmula you sulmiit directing Arabian 
sea grass. Arabian Kanka root, etc., is the old fake 
whieh has been exposed time and again in the pharma- 
ceutical journals. See remarks under the above title, in 
this journ.il. Aug. (i, 1890, page 179. 



Machines for Oelatin-Coating Pills. 

(A. JI. I.,.) There are a number of machines for gela- 
tin-eoating pills upon the small scale. The following are 
described in most works on practical pharmacy: Jlay- 
nard's. Patch's, Frauciscus' and Wells' "Poreupine." 
J. H. Day i*t ("o., Cincinnati, Ohio, manufacturers of 
pharniacentieal apparatus, may also be able to give you 
some inforni.ation relative tn the machines they manu- 
facture. 



Oil Jasquiutn, 

(A. P. S.) In reply to your request for information, 
this journal, Jan. 24, 1897, page 78, John Pfeiffer, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Otto Boeddiker, and F. Frentz, New 
York City, state that by "oil jasquium" is doubtless 
meant, "huile de jusquiame," the French title for 
"oleum hyoseyami" of the German Pharmocopo'ia. A 
general formula for these oils (Olea lufusa), is given in 
the National Formulary, page 105, revised edition. 



Compound Mixture of Chloral and Potassium 
Bromide. 

(W. B.) The precipitation in the mixture you submit 
is due to the resin of cannabis indica, whieh is practi- 
cally insoluble in the liquid of the mixture. Neither 
can it be wholl.v prevented. The National Fornnilary 
gives an approved formula (No. 2G1. revised edition) for 
this preparation in which the difficulty is somewhat over- 
come by the use of tincture of quillaja, which holds the 
resin in suspension. 



ly opaque, intiannnable liquid, of the consistence of mo- 
lasses, unctuous to the touch and possessing a bitumi- 
nous taste an<l a strong and tenacious odor. Its sp. gr. 
varies from 0.730 to 0.,S78. When subjected to distilla- 
liiin, it yields naphtha and leaves a solid residue of as- 
phaltuni. Crude petroleum is generally dispensed upou 
<irdi'rs for it. 



Barbadoes Tar. 

(O. O. S.) Barbadoes tar is a variety of petroleum for- 
merly much employed. It is described as a black, near- 



Vermifuge. 

(\V. B.) The Era Formulary gives the following: 

1 1) Oil chenopodium 1 ounce 

Alcohol 1 ounce 

Spirit ammonia, aromatic Vi ounce 

Essence gaultheria 2 drams 

Aromatic syrup rhubarb, simple .syrup, 
I'linal parts to make 1 pint 

i2) Fluid extract spigelia .5 ounces 

Fluid extra<'t senna 3 ounces 

Oil auise 10 minims 

Oil caraway 10 minims 

S.vrup 8 ounces 

Ethereal Tincture of Lavender. 

iJ. (!. X.I We know of no s|iecitic formula for a com- 
bination of conipiuind tincture of lavender and sulphuric 
ether. The following, however, has been prescribed as 
a remedy for hysteria and nervousness: 

Compound tincture of lavender; compound spirit of 
ether, of each of equal parts. 

Dose: One-third to two teaspoonfuls. 

As you are doubtless aware lavender is a carminative, 
but it is rarely used, except in ccunbiiuition. A formula 
for "ethereal tincture of lavender." given in some of the 
older works, is oil of lavender 1 part: ether 7 parts. 
Dose — 5 to 10 drops. 

Sale of Domestic Remedies in Connecticut. 

»T. .1. C.) The pharmacy law of Connecticut does not 
prohibit "the keeper of a country store from keeping for 
sale and selling such domestic remedies as are usually 
kept and sold in such stores, but such keepers shall not 
compound medicines, and meilicinal preparations so kept 
and recognized by the United States Dispensatory shall 
be compounded by a licensed pharmacist aud marked by 
his label" (Section 3,12G, General Statutes, 1SS8). Just 
what construction the Board of Pharmacy has put upou 
the words "domestic remedies" we are vuiable to state, 
but this information can be, no doubt, obtained from the 
.secretary of the board, H. M. Bishop, New Haven. The 
law does not prohibit the sale of patent medicines by un- 
registered men. 

Asthma Powder. 

(J. H. B.> 

(1) Lobelia 1 ounce 

Black tea 1 ounce 

Stramonium 1 ounce 

Potassium nitrate 1 ounce 

Anise 1 dram 

Fennel 1 dram 

Attention to the stomach will do most for many asth- 
nuitic patients. An important point is to take the heav- 
iest meal early in the day, and very solid food after 2 
I'. M. Shower bath and out-of-door exercise, not. how- 
ever, to a fatiguing extent, are serviceable. In .special 
cases operative treatment of the nose and nasopharnyx; 
is u\iuired. — ( Mackenzie. I 

(2) Stramonium leaves, ground 4 ounces 

Fluid extract belladonna 2 ounces 

Tincture opium 2 ounces 

Pulverized saltpeter 3 ounces 

Mix the powders thoroughly, add the liquids. Ignite 
small amount, inhaling the fumes. 

Tincture of Iron in Pills. 

i.T. K.) Tincture of iron is rarely, it ever, prescribed in 
pill form on account of its coniparativel.v large dose (10 
to 30 minims), the resulting pill being too large for satis- 
factory administration. Besides, tiiuture of iron is gen- 
erally reciimmeudeil to be given largely diluted with 



110 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[•himiarv J8, IH'JT. 



water. Ferric chloride is rendily decomposed by most 

vegotalili- substances possessing astriiipcnt properties, 
hoiici- the dilliciilty in piesiTibing it in combination. 
Sometimes, however, moreuric cliloride is comliined witli 
it to inirease or give it a more distinctly alterative effect. 
Pills containing ferric chloride may be made after the 
following formula suggested by McLaren (Pharm. 
Jour.): 

Ferric chloride, nnhydrons :5 grains 

Powdered licorice 1 grain 

lOxIract licorice . . : 1 grain 

Por 1 pill. Tills pill is said to keep well, this advan- 
tage counterbalancing its size. 



Waterproof Enamel Shoe Dressing. 

(.T. H. S.) The Era pormulary gives the following: 

Caoutcliouc 10(1 parts 

I'etrolcum IIHI parts 

("arbon disulphide 1(H) parts 

Shellac Am parts 

l,am|i black 2(X» parts 

Oil lavender 10 parts 

.\lcohol 2.000 parts 

I'pon the caoutcliouc in a bottle pour the carbon disul- 
phide. cork well and let stand a few days, or until the 
<;noutchouc lias become thoroughly gelatinized or partly 
dissolved. Then add the petroleum, oil of lavender anil 
alcohol, next the shellac in tine powder, and heat it to 
about 50° C. taking care that as little as possible is 
lost by evaporation. When the substances are all dis- 
solved and the liquid is tolerably clear add the lamp 
black, mix thoroughly and till at once into small bottles. 
(2). A waterproof blacking which will give a tine pol- 
ish without rubbing, and will not injure the leather: 
18 parts beoswa.x. ti spermaceti. liO turpentine oil, Ti a.s- 
phalt varnish. 1 powdered borax. 5 Frankfort black. 2 
Prussian blue, 1 nitro-benzol. Melt the wax, add the 
powdered borax and stir till a kind of jelly has formed. 
In another pan melt the spermaceti, add the asphalt 
varnish, previously mixed with the oil of turpentine, stir 
■well, and add to the wax. Lastly add the color pre- 
viously rubbed smooth with a little of the mass. The 
nitro-benzol gives fragrance. 

Writing Fluid. 

(W. P. L.) 

\l) Powdered galls 42 ounces 

Gum Senegal l."i ounces 

Distilled water •. 18 quarts 

Ferrous sulphate IS ounces 

Water of ammonia 3 drams 

Alcohol 24 ounces 

Mix in an open vessel, stirring frequently until the 
ink attains the desired blackness. This formula is said 
to give a deep black neutral ink that does not corrode 
steel pens. 

(2) Bruised Aleppo nutgalls. 2 pounds; water. 1 gal- 
lon: boil in a copper vessel for an hour, adding water 
to make up for that lost by evaporation: strain and 
again boil the galls with a gallon of water and strain; 
mix the liquors and add immediately 10 ounces of cop- 
peras in coarse powder and S ounces of gum arable; ag- 
itate until solution of these latter is effected: add a few 
drops of a solution of potassium permanganate; strain 
through a piece of hair cloth, and after permitting it 
to settle, bottle. The addition of a little extract of log- 
wood will render the ink blacker when first written 
with. Half an ounce of sugar to the gallon will render 
it a good copying ink. 

<3) Calcined sulphate of iron 1 ounce 

Powdered gall nuts It/, ounces 

Vegetable gum i', ounce 

Distilled water 1 " pint 

Digest until dissolved. 

Remedy for Nervousness. 

(J. K.) See formulas Nos. 36, G2 and 2G1 National 
Formulary. Here are two others taken from Fenner: 

<1) Bromide of ammonium H4 ounces av 

Valerianate of ammonium 14 ounce av 



Fluid extract of valerian 1 fl. ounce 

Fluid extract of hyoscyainus 1 11. ounce 

Fluid extract of coca ] M. ounce 

Syrup 2 tl. ounces 

Simple elixir, enough to make. ... 1 pint 
Mix the liquids and dissolve the salts in the mixture: 
after standing 24 hours filter. Dose from a teaspoonful 
to a tablespoonful. as required. 

t2) Bromide of potassium C40 grains 

Sulphate of morphine 8 grains 

Valerianate of ammonium 256 grains 

Fluid extract of valerian 1 B. ounce 

Fluid extract hops '/4 8. ounce 

Water of ammonia 1 " fl. dram 

Syrup 2 fl. ounces 

Simple syrup, enough to make. ... I pint 
IHssolve the salts in the elixir and syrup; add the fluid 
extracts and the water of ammonia; let stand a day or 
two and filter. Dose, a teaspoonful to a dessertspoor.f1.1l. 
Here is a formula given by Howard in "Domestic Med- 
icine" under the title of Well's Compound Tincture of 
Valerian or Xervine: 

3) A'ulerian root 7 ounces 

Licorice root ."• ounces 

Oil of anise 1 ounce 

Gum camphor 1 dram 

Alcohol 1 Vi! pints 

Macerate the solid ingredients, previously ixiwdereJ. 
and the oil of anise in the alcohol for ten days in a warm 
jilace. frequently shaking. Dose, 1 to 3 drams. 



Female Regulator. 

tX. y. Z.) We cannot give the formula for the pro- 
prietary preparation. However, most preparations of 
this character are constructed upon the type of the com- 
pound elixir of cramp bark of the Xational Formuliiry. 
Other formulas which have been suggested are the fol- 
lowing, the first one being taken from the Kra Formu- 
lary: 

1 1 1 Black haw bark 12 ounces 

High cranberry bark ,8 ounces 

Blue cohosh 3 ounces 

Life root plant 3 ounces 

Sugar 4 ounces 

Alcohol 32 ounces 

AVater. sufflcient to make 1 gallon. Make a tincture 
of the drugs by percolating first with the alcohol mixed 
with an equal quantity of water, then with water until 
1 gallon is obtained. In this dissolve the sugar and 
filter. 

i2i Cramp bark 4 ounces 

Partridge berry 4 ounces 

Poplar bark 2 ounces 

T'nieorn root 2 ounces 

Cassia 2 ounces 

Beth root IV-j ounces 

Sugar 24 ounces 

Alcohol 16 ounces 

\\'ater. a sufficiency. 

Iteduce the crude drugs to a coarse powder; cover with 
liiiiling water, allow to stand until cold, and then per- 
colate with water until 5 pints of liquid have been ob- 
tained. To the percolate add the sugar, bring to a boil: 
remove from the fire and strain. When cold, add the al- 
cohol. 



To Cement Cloth or Leather to Iron Pulleys. 

i.T. G.I Cloth may be cemented to iron pulleys by first 
giving them a coat of best white lead paint; this being 
dried hard, coat with best Russian glue, dissolved in 
water containing a little vinegar or acetic acid. 

To cement leather to metal. Sieburger recommends the 
following: Digest 1 part crushed nutgalls with 8 parts 
distilled water for six hours, and strain; macerate the 
glue with its own weight of water for twenty-four 
hours, and dissolve: spread the warm infusion of the 
galls on the leather, and the glue on the roughened me- 
tallic surface; apply the prepared surfaces together, and 
dry gently; the leather then adheres so firmly to the 
metal that it cannot be removed without tearing. 

Tlie following method is a satisfactory one for cov- 



Jauuarv 28, ISDT.J 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



Ill 



(■ring pullpys with paper and, with a little modification, 
it may answer a similar pnrposc with ranvas: Scratch 
the face of the pulley with a nuii^h tile thoroughly, so 
that there are no hright or smooth places. Then swab 
the surface with a solution of nitric acid, I part; water, 
t parts (for l.'i minutes); then wash with boiling hot 
water. Having prepared a put nt the best tough glue, 
stir into the glue half an ounce nf a solution of strong 
tannic acid, oak bark, or gallnuts. as convenient to ob- 
tain, to a quart of thick glue; stir quickly while hot and 
apply to the paper nv pulley as convenient; draw the 
paper as tightly as possible to the pulley, overlapping 
as many folds as may be required. By a little manage- 
ment and moistening nf the paper, it will bind very hard 
.>u the i)ulley «hen dry. and will not comi> off or get 
loose until it is worn out. Use strong hanlwai'e wrap- 
ping paper. 

Problem in Alligation. 

(Clerk) asks for a solution of the following problem: 
An apothecary has two kinds of opium, one containing 
13.5 per cent., the other Hi per cent, of morphine, re- 
spectively. He desires to make S troy ounces of a mix- 
ture containing 1-4 per cent, of morphine. How nnnh 
of the weaker kind must he use? 

Answer. — 0.4 troy ounces or 3.072 grains, of 13.." jier 
cent.; 1.6 troy ounces, or 768 grains, of 16 per cent. 

The above pi-oblem is solved by alligation, and it 
may be explained as follows: The gain and loss of the 
percentage strength of the two quantities of opium used 
as compared with The mean percentage must balance. 
Hence, we compare a percentage less than the mean 
with one greater than it, or 13.5 per cent, with 16 per 
cent. On every part of 13.5 per cent, opium employed 
to make the 14 per cent, mixture there is a gain of 0.5 
per cent.; on every part of the 16 per cent, opium used 
in the 14 per cent, mixture there is a loss of 2 per 
cent, of opinm. As the gain and loss on equal parts of 
each are to each other as 0.5 to 2, we must take parts 
that are to each other as 0.5 to 2, or (reducing the num- 
bers to integral quantities), as 1 is to 4. Using the pro- 
portions obtained to make an 8-ounce mixture, we have 
found that for cver.v part of 16 per cent, of opinm em- 
ployed there must be taken 4 parts of 13.5 per cent, 
opium. Then S ounces must be 1 + 4 parts or 5 parts. 
If 8 ounces be 5 parts, then 1 part will be 1-5 of 8 
ounces, or 1.0 ounces, the amount of 16 per cent, opium 
to be employed. Four parts will equal 4-5 of 8, or 6.4 
ounces, the amount of the 13. ,5 per cent, opium to be 
employed. The results are easily reduced to grains, re- 
mei»bering that a troy ounce contains 480 grains. 

Kidney Remedy. 

(J. K.) 

(1) Liverwort 4 ounces 

Jamaica dogwood 1 ounce 

Ergot 2 ounces 

Couch grass 4 ounces 

Wintergreen 2 ounces 

Potassium nitrate 1 ounce 

Alcohol 2 pints 

Glycerine 12 fl. ounces 

Water, enougli to nnike 1 gallon. 

Grind the drugs to No. 20 or 30 powder, percolate with 
all the glycerine and alcohol mixed with 2 quarts of 
water. When that has all passed, add enough hot water 
to make 1 gallon, and in which dissolve the potassium ni- 
trate. 

(2) Liverwort 16 ounces 

Dandelion root 8 ounces 

Digitalis leaves 1 ounce 

Hydrangea 4 ounces 

Wintergreen 2 ounces 

Potassium nitrate 3 ounces 

Sugar 12 ounces 

Alcohol 1% pints 

Menthol 5 grains 

Water. snUicient to make 1 gallon 

Grind the herbs, etc., to a coarse powder, and, having 



mixed the alcohol with 4 pints of water, moisten the 
powder with 2 pints of the mixture and nnicerale in a 
covered vessel for 24 hours. Then percolate until 714 
pints of the mixture have passed, in which dissolve the 
potassium nitrate and the sugar. The mixture may also 
be made from the fluid extracts of the drugs. The for 
inula is as follows: 

Fluid extract liverwort 16 H. ounces 

Fluid extract dandelion 8 H. ounces 

Fluid extract hydrangea 4 11. ounces 

Fluid extract digitalis 1 11. ounce 

Kssence of wintergreen 1 tl. dram 

Potassium nitrate 3 ounces 

Sugar 12 ounces 

Alcohol lOH. ounces 

Menthol 5 grains 

Water 5 pints 

Mix the fluid extracts, alcohol, and water, add the es- 
sence of wintergreen and menthol; dissolve the sugar aud 
potassium nitrate in the liiiuid. and filter. 

Liver Remedy. 

iK. B. H.I wants a iialaialile preparation umde from 
the following formula: 

Socotrine aloes 3 ounces 

Peruvian bark 1 ounce 

Black root 2 ounces 

Rhubarb 1 ounce 

Castile soap % ounce 

Vinegar Ki ounces 

Kectitied spirit 7 ounces 

Fluid extract licorice 2 ounces 

Macerate 48 hours, strain and add ;> pounds of sugar. 
Dose, 1 dram. 

This formula may be a very effective "liver remedy," 
but the resulting preparation would hardly become popu- 
lar. Aloes is extremely disagreeable to many people, and 
its taste cannot be so completely disguised as to be ac- 
ceptable to the average patient. Then, again, the wis- 
dom of using soap in this mixture is not apparent, as it 
is decomposed by the vinegar. It should be omitted, 
Glycyrrhizin of the licorice is also precipitated by the 
vinegar. 

Omitting the aloes and maintaining so far as possi- 
ble the hepatic properties of the preparation as above 
indicated, we submit the following: 

Fluid extract senna 2 ounces 

Fluid extract cinchona 1 ounce 

Fluid extract leptandra (black root) .... 1 ounce 

Fluid extract rhubarb 2 ounces 

Fluid extract serpentaria 1 ounce 

Compound tincture of cardamom % ounce 

Tincture ginger % ounce 

Compound elixir taraxacum 4 ounces 

Elixir glycyrrhiza, enough to make. ... 1 pint 
Of course, if desired, a fluid extract m,ay be made di- 
rectly from the crude drugs by percolation, using vinegar 
(dilute acetic acid) as the menstruum. In such a case the 
correctives and flavoring should be modified. A small 
quantity of mandrake might be substituted for rhubarb 
to advantage. By some authorities it is highly recom- 
mended in the treatment of torpor of the liver. 



Liquid Fire Extinguisher. 

til. N. J.) Here are several formulas: 

1. Make the following solutions: (1) Ammonium 
chloride, 200 parts; water, 20,000 parts. (2) Alum cal- 
cined and pulverized, 350 parts; water, 10,000 parts. (3) 
Ammonium sulphate, in powder, 3,000 parts; water, .500 
parts. (4) Sodium chloride, 2,600 parts; water. 40,000 
parts. (5) Sodium carbonate, 350 parts; water, 5,000 
parts. (6) Liquid water-glass, 4,500 parts. Mix the so- 
lutions in the order named, and to the mixture add 
20,000 parts of water. 

2. Crude calcium chloride, 20 parts; salt, 5 parts, dis- 
solved in water 75 parts. Keep at hand and apply with 
a hand pump. 

3. Solution for hand grenades: Fill thin, spherical bot- 
tles of blue glass with a solution of calcium chloride, 
sal ammoniac or borax. 



112 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL EEA. 



[January 28, 1897. 



4. A (rood fire cxtiiiKnislicr that limy Ix" convciiicnll.v 
ki'lit ill iirdiimry one-lii'inl<Ml Imi-rols iirotiiiil buililii]);^ in 
propnrcd us follows: Sixty ]iniiTi<ls salt, .'{0 pounds iiliiiii 
and 10 jioiinds siil-sodn mo dissolved in 1;! nalloiis of 
water. Tliis prepiinitioii aets by Ki'iieratint' <'arl)oiiie 
!i<-id gns and liy formiiic a non-fusible cTiist over the 
bnininc tinibi^rs as soon as it is thrown into the tire. 
In preparing the solution all materials used sliould be 
pulverized, and the water should not be above InUi'- 
warin. By heatinp the mixture to hasten the solution 
ii i-oiisiderablo part of . its lire-extinguishing properties 
would be lost. Sulphate of ammonia is also an excel- 
lent fire extinguisher, because it will melt at a low de- 
gree of heat and produce a C'rust over the burning ma- 
terials. At higher temperatures it will l>e decomposed 
anil give off vapors of superior tire-extinguishing proper- 
ties. It is advisable to also have handy any substance 
that may be used to choke the fire. A material far bet- 
ter adapted than water to smother an incipient tire is or- 
dinary sand. For instance, if oily waste or other ma- 
terial saturated with oil should catch tire a few handfuls 
of sand will do more to extinguish the fire than several 
pails full of water. Another advantage of sand is that 
it will do no damage itself like water to materials it is 
thrown upon. It is necessary to often change the water 
kept in barrels for fire extinguishing. This is avoided by 
using sand instead. 

.">. The Techno-Chemical IJeeeipt Book gives the fol- 
lowing formula for "cartridges" fin- extinguishing fire: 
Make the shells of parchment paper or sheet lead and 
fill them with 4 parts of a salt obtained by mixing 343 
parts of sulphate of aluminum and 142 parts of sodium 
sulphate with 4.32 parts of water: and 1 part of sodium 
sulphide, separated from the 4 parts of the salt by a 
disk of parchment paper. The cartridge is broken and 
its entire contents are poured into the water to be used 
for extinguishing the fire. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



Medicated Oauzes. 

BORIC ACID tJAUZE.— Boric acid, 5 gni.: boiling 
water, glycerin, CtO gm.: sterilized gauze, 2 gm (1 meter). 

BORATED COTTON.— Boric acid, 12.5 gm.; alco- 
hol, 200 gm.; glycerin, 10 gm.; absorbent cotton, 250 
gm. 

CARB0LATE1> GAUZE (10 per cent).— Carbolic 
acid, 3 gm.; alcohol. 40 gm.; glycerin, 1 gm.; sterilized 
gauze, 1 meter. 

CARBOLATED COTTON (5 per cent.).— Carbolic 
acid, 12.5 gm.; alcohol. 100 gm.: absorbent cotton. 2.50 
gm. 

DERMATOL GAUZE (10 per cent.).— Dermatol, 3 
gm.; alcohol. 75 gm.; glycerin, 2 gm.; sterilized gauze. 1 
meter. 

FERRIC CHLORIDE COTTON'.- Ferric chloride so- 
lution, 125 gm.; alcohol, 200 gm. ; absorbent cotton. 2.50 
gm. 

IODOFORM GAUZE (10 per cent.).— Sodium hyposul- 
phite, 0.2 gm.; glycerin, 6 gm.; iodoform, 3 gm.; alcohol, 
60 gm.; ether, 30 gm.; sterilized gauze, 1 meter. 

IODOFOI5M GAUZE (20 per cent.).— Same as above, 
with G gm. of iodoform. 

SAI^ICYLATED GAUZE (10 per cent.)— Salicylic 
acid, 3 gm.; alcohol, 60 gm.; glycerin, 2 gm.; sterilized 
gauze, 1 meter. 

SALICYLATED COTTON (4 and 10 per cent.).— Sali- 
cylic acid, 10 or 25 gm.; alcohol, 85 gm.; glycerin, 5 gm.; 
cotton. 2.50 gm. 

SUBLIMATE GAUZE.— Sublimate. 0.12 gm.; alcohol, 
50 gm.; glycerin. 1 gm.; sterilized gauze. 1 meter. 

SUBLIMATED COTTON.— Sublimate. 0.6 gm.; al- 
cohol, 50 gm.; absorbent cotton, 250 gm. 

In place of absorbent cotton most physicians prefer 
charpie wool. 



LATEST PHENACETINE CASES. 

Edward N". Dickc'rson, of this city, has begun a 
civil suit in the United States Circuit Court against 
11. tJill for selling phenacetine on which no royalty had 
been i)aid to him. .Mr. Dickers(ui owns the patent rights 
lor this ilrug in this country, and SchiefTelin & Co. are 
his only authorized distributing agents. It is said that 
a large amount of iihenacetine is const.'intly being 
brought into the country from Canada and elsewhere, 
and is being solil (luietly to retail druggists. (Jill is the 
latest person of a long series to be thus accused. He is 
a salesman representing a Chambers street manufac- 
turer of suspensory bandages. He carried phenacetine 
(Hiedell. sulplnuial (Bayer) and trional as side lines. He 
.sold the phenaceline for 40 cents an ounce and made 
mone.v on it. It is iiossible, but not likely, that Gill 
may make a fight to test the constitutionality of Dicker- 
son's rights. There are plenty of retail druggists who 
would like to see the queslicm settled judicially. 

There seems to be little doubt.tbat (Jill actually did 
sell the goods as alleged. He practically admitted as 
much when he called on Anthony (iref, Mr. Dickerson's 
attorney, last week and asked to have the pro.secution 
dropped on condition that he discontinue the business. 
Jlr. (iref is reported to have told him he would let up 
on him on condition that he reveal the source of his 
sui)ply and a complete list of his customers in the re- 
tail trade. These customers are mainly in New York 
City and Brooklyn. Mr. (jill replied that the man who 
sold him the drugs was unknown to him and he had 
forgotten the names of his customers. 

The case was to have come to trial the 20th, but 
through some misunderstanding judgment against Gill' 
was taken by default before that date. Mr. Gref agreed 
to ask for a reo|iening of the case and to allow another 
month's time for iireparing the defense. The lawyer for 
the defendant is Thomas (Jilleran. of 51 Chambers 
street, and when he was asked for further information 
in the case he sent the reporter of this paper to P. Dia- 
mond, a retail druggist, at 2i; Rivingston street, who 
is studying law. Mr. Diamond was somewhat myste- 
rious about the identity of Mr. Gill and refused to make 
any definite statement regarding the matter just at this 
time. Anthony (Jref, when seen, exhibited the drugs 
which Gill was alleged to have peddled. 

"What we are after is not Gill," .said Mr. Gref, "but 
the people who sold him the goods and the people who 
purchased them from him. We make it a rule when 
we catch an agent to force him to show his l)Ooks. He 
has to do it on the witness stand, yon know. Then we 
institute proceedings against everybody who has bought 
or sold the phenacetine. We have secured injunctions 
restraining upwards of ninety firms from selling any 
more phenacetine except that put up in Schieffelin's 
packages, and in most of these cases we have also se- 
cured an order requiring the druggist to account to us 
for the price of the phenacetine and also for all his 
profits on the sale of it." 

Mr. Gref showed certified copies of the injunctions 
mentioned which were secured against the following 
firms: 

New York. — Louis Spingarn. Charles A. Aronstamm, 
.John .1. Munsell and Sidney Richard, .John R. Caswell 
and William JI. Massey, Tlie G. F. Harvey Company, 
(ieorge F. Harvey. Alfred H. Williams. William H. 
Morrison. Charles C. Herrick and .Tesse M. Adams. K. 
Vandenhenden and Reinhard A. Eschmann, William 
Palkiner. .Tohn H. Chapman, Bruno Reinhart, Isaiah 
Lewin, .Joseph P. Smythe. 

Massachusetts. — Sarah Silverstone, Charles E. Eames. 
Patrick Morris, William A. White, William B. Hunt 
and George M. Bobbins. Clarence M. Rogers. S. A. D. 
Sheppard and Henry Thatcher. Charles A. Dailey, 
Henry C. Bispham. Everett G. Priest. Albert P. Fair- 
banks, Thomas R. Grimes, Moses D. Fisher and Nellie 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

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Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 25, 1897. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Bdltorial 22T 

John Carnrick Ii.'9 

Correspondence 23li 

Recollections of an Old- 

Time Drug Clerk 231 

List of Reactions and Re- 
agents According to 

Names of Authors 234 

Foundation of Chemistry 

asa Quantitative ."science. 236 
Palataljle Cascara Prepara- 
tions 237 

Question Box 238 

Pharmaci' 240 

News of the Week 242 

Campaign Against Substi- 
tution 242 



PAGE 

Alleged Agents of a Drug 

Firm in Trouble 343 

Auctioneei-s Accused of 

Swindling 343 

Proposed Revision of the 
By-Laws of the Proprie- 
tary Association 243 

Meetings of Boards of 

Pharmacy 330 

Obituary 351 

Advertising for Retail 

Druggists 253 

Patents, Trademarks, Etc.. 2.54 

Trade Reports 255 

New York Market Report.. 357 
Trade Notes 258 



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Refining Prescriptions. 

A recent decision of the Supreme Court in Ohio is of 
great importance to druggists in that State. Its imme- 
diate bearing is upon the liquor question and the admin- 
istration of the Dow law, but it involves the question 
of refilling prescriptions, .-i. liquor dealer sold a cus- 
tomer a pint of whisky on a physician's prescription, and 
the attorney for the defense moved the discharge of the 
prisoner because the evidence was insufficient in law to 
authorize a conviction, inasmuch as the liquor had been 
sold on the prescription of a physician. The motion was 
overruled by the court. A motion was then made by 
the defense for a new trial, which was also overruled by 
the court. A bill of exceptions was then taken, and the 
case appealed to the Common Pleas Court. 

The Common Pleas Court affiruud the judgment of the 
Mayor's Court, and the case was then appealed to the 
Circuit Court. This court reversed the decision of the 
Common Pleas Court and discharged the defendant. 
The City Solicitor of the village then prosecuted error 
to the Supreme Court of Ohio, which court alfirmed the 
judgment of the Circuit, and ordered the Common Pleas 
Court to carry its judgment of reversal. 

It will be seen that the sole question made and ar- 
gued in this case was the right to sell liquor upon pre- 
scription by a liquor dealer, who was not a druggist, 
but, in addition, virtually deciding that any man 
who procures a prescription can present it and 
retain it for future use. and after some time can 
use it again and again. While the prescription 
may be originally intended to be used but once, 
no conviction can be had when it is shown that the sale 
of liquor was made on the presentation of the prescrip- 
tion, and the fact is fully established that anybody can 
sell on prescription as well as a druggist. 

We do not care to argue the question whether, in Ohio, 
a man not a druggist can sell liquor on prescription, or 
whether it were intended by the Legislature that intox- 
icating liquors sold on prescription should be sold by 
druggists only. The point of importance is that the re- 
filling of prescriptions seems to be tacitly legalized by 
the court, to say nothing of the fact that a certain class 
of physicians in Ohio will doubtless now be kept quite 
busy writing prescriptions for liquor to be repeated as 
often as desired. 

A correspondent wishes our views on this case and 
particularly the prescription refilling part of it. We have 
repeatedly protested against prescription refilling, which 
has naught to commend but all to condemn it. On this, 
we hold exactly as our correspondent's own attorney 
does, whose opinion is thus stated: 

"A prescription is presented, accepted, filled, 
and with the intoxicating liquor (or any drug or 
medicine.— Ed. Era.), handed back to the pur- 
chaser. He holds it until he wants more of the 
liquor, presents it to some druggist, it is again 
filled, handed back, and thus continues ad infin- 
itum. Are the druggists, other than the first, 
protected? Well, now, let common sense come in 
and take charge of things. What is that pre- 
scription after it has once been used but a fraud? 
It required in the first place the signature of a 
reputable phvsician in active practice to make it 
of any value'whatever, and that physician, when 
he put his name to it, intended it for a certain 



228 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[February 25, 1897. 



purpose and no other; it has fulfilled that pur- 
pose, and now it is bcinp used for something that 
was never contcnipliitrd by tlie ])ti.vsiciaii wlio 
gave it force and power in tlic lirst place. It the 
prescription is of as much effcft and is as much 
T-Dtitled to be sustained in the third use as it was 
in the first, then where is the virtue in liavins 
any prescription? A iiresiription is an order from 
the physician, and tlie nrder is liased on informa- 
tion he has :ind tlnit he, l>eeause of liis advan- 
tage in special learning, can have, that the iK>rson 
to whom he josnes the order reciuires the article. 
Tliere is notniuR of that kind in a prescription 
being \ised the second or third time. 

"Now, it is onr ojiininn that if the druggist is 
absiilutely innocent of any knowledge of any of 
the above, he cannot be held if he filled that pre- 
scription, although it may be the first, second, 
fourth or dozenth time; hut he would bftter he 
able tn take the st<in(l if necrniinry and nwear 
that he lielUved Ite was fill imj it fur the tirxt time. 
(Italics ours. — Ed.). We advise you when you 
fill a prescription to retain the paper; it is the 
only protection you have; if that was done by all 
druggists the trouble in question would not 
occur." 

Sound, common sense this, the whole thing in a nut- 
shell. It should be placed to heart by every druggist. 
Prescription refilling has had more to do in creating the 
feeling of discord existing between druggists and doc- 
tors than any other one agency. It is morally and pro- 
fessionally wrong, and doctors have every reason to 
protest against it. There are laws now in some States 
which forbid the refilling of prescriptions for morphine, 
cocaine, etc., but we would like to see this prohibition 
extended to all prescriptions of whatsoever character. 
We realize what a delicate question this is to discuss, 
that the evil has so grown and become so familiar that 
it is hardly looked upon as an evil by many druggists. 
But when we get right down to first principles, what 
else is it? 

What a great thing for druggists and doctors if the 
ownership-of-the-prescription and the prescription-refill- 
ing questions could be definitely settled by law. What 
valid arguments can be advanced in support of the pres- 
efit state of affairs? 



Registeriag the Formulas of Proprietary Prepara- 
tions. 

Much has heen said of late years concerning the desir- 
ability of publishing on patent medicine labels the for- 
mulas for the contents of the packages or registering 
such formulas with State authorities duly constituted 
by law. Attempts to secure this result have been made 
in various States from time to time, but nothing definite 
has been effected. The presumption is warranted that 
many of these attempts have been "strikes," clubs to 
make the manufacturers contribute liberally to defeat 
inimical legislation. The latest effort is that now being 
made in Kansas, that State's Legislature being asked to 
pass a bill to prohibit the sale of patent medicines, drugs 
or nostrums until the formula is presented to and favor- 
ably passed upon by the State Board of Health, while a 
heavy license is fixed on all drug stores handling pro- 
prietary medicines. 

While we have always maintained that the publica- 
tion of patent medicine formulas under proper restric- 
tions would be for the best interests of every one con- 
cerned, we can foresee little of good to result from the 
enactment of such a law as that prayed for in Kansas. 
The ordinary State Board of Health is not a body like- 
ly to be unprejudiced in matters of this sort, and to 
place the responsibility for the valuation of a remedy 
upon it would be a dangerous experiment. State legis- 
lation on this matter is not to be advised: there would 
be entirely too much variance between the several State 
enactments, which variance would work undeserved 
hardship and lead to evasions and abuses. But national 
legislation, of the right kind, we firmly believe is desira- 
ble, and would be acceptable to even the patent medi- 



cine men themselves, those at least who produce merito- 
rious articles. 

Why not disclose these formulas? It is often said that 
secrecy is the only protection enjoyed b.v the proprietary 
medicine. Common law, the tradenmrk and copyright 
regulations are more protection than all the secrecy 
wliieh can be maintained. For there is no real secrecy 
ill matters of this sort. The composition of a medicine 
canbe so closely ascertained that imitation becomes easy, 
and what is the protection from secrecy then? The 
proprietor then has remedy only in the common law. 
The ones who would really suffer from the publication 
of these formulas, the ones always found arrayed against 
threatened legislation in this direction, are the manufac- 
turers of useless, false, fake articles, of lying preten- 
sions, of no inherent virtues. These of course find se- 
crecy their only support. 

The honest manufacturer who tries to make a good ar- 
ticle, who puts into it what he says he does, who ex- 
ploits it on its merits, has nothing to fear. Not only 
would publication show his claims and his preparation to 
bo true, but he would be relieved from the illegitimate 
competition from fakes and frauds which he now en- 
counters. 

We never could understand why there are such bare- 
faced frauds as do exist among proprietary medicines. 
It is just as easy, costs no more, is far better policy and 
much safer to make a good preparation rather than a 
fake. Still the fakes are produced and flourish. They 
should receive no consideration from the law, however. 
but should be wiped out without compunction. No 
surer way to do this than by enactments of the kind pro- 
posed, which will protect the good and unmask the 
illegitimate. Prominent manufacturers have expressed 
themselves in favor of legislation requiring that all 
formulas of proprietary medicines be printed on the 
labels. What they want, however, is the right sort of a' 
law, and this is a question which calls for most careful 
consideration and discussion. It must be national in 
character, and not place in the hands of a few chemists 
or doctors the power to pass judgment on the merits of 
a remedy. This can be safely left to the people. But 
there should be heavy penalties for false formulas. This 
being done, the public will decide, and very quickly, too, 
between the good and bad medicines. Competitors will 
see to it that the claims for any article are lived up to, 
and there would be graphic demonstration of the sur- 
vival of the fittest. The people don't want fake medi- 
cines. They buy them because they do not know they 
are fakes. Let them know what they are buying, and 
merit will become the test. 



Success in Siglit. 

The report of the work thus far accomplished by the 
Joint Congressional Committee on Free Alcohol for Use 
in the Arts has been issued. There are only a very few 
copies printed for the use of the committeee. It con- 
tains the full report of the hearings given by the com- 
mittee in New York and Washington. The report of the 
commissioner appointed to go to Europe to see how al- 
cohol regulations are enforced there is is.sued in a sup- 
.plemental volume, of which at least 5.000 copies will be 
issued from the Government press. As this report is the 
strongest kind of a plea for free alcohol, the fact of its 
extensive circulation may be taken as a proof both that 
free alcohol is popular and that the attitude of the au- 
thorities is elianging toward the question. 

Thus all indications point to the early attainment of 
free alcohol. Congress itself, if reports may be believed, 
is in favor of the concession, and judging from the 
committee's report, the opposition to the free alcohol 
proposition has been meager. All classes of industries 
have presented their views forcibly, and as these opin- 
ions are in overwhelming majority in favor of it, the 
Government authorities have at last become impressed 



February 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



229 



with the fact that the people are demanding relief from 

an unjust burden long borne uncomplainingly. 

The committee recently secured ii new lease of life in 
order to finish the investigation and make such recom- 
mendations as the evidence justified. Whilt; it would be 
manifestly unfair to the committee to attribute to them 
a conclusion already reached and a tentative bill al- 
ready drawn up, as was done in the Oil, Taint and Drug 
Reporter of Feb. 8, it is nevertheless true that outside 
parties have been submitting to the committe<? drafts of 
bills and sections of bills favoring the establishment of 
a rebate for manufacturers who use alcohol. And it is 
not too much and not unsafe to predict that some such 
bill will ultimately be drawn up and presented as the 
mature recommendation of the committee. Nothing can, 
however, be accomplished before the next Congress 
meets. 



AMYLO-IODOFORM.— A compound of iodine, starch 
and formaldehyde, of blue-black color. 



OZALIN. — A mixture of sulphates of calcium, magne- 
sium and iron with caustic lime and magnesia, used as 
disinfectant. 



OMAL. — A trichlorphenol which is recommended as 
inhalant in treatment of inflammatory conditions of the 
air passages. 



PIPERIDIN. — Since this compound forms more .soluble 
salts with the urates, it serves a better purpose thiin 
piperazine in treatment of gout and rheumatism. 



DEXTROFORM.— .\ preparation of iodine, formalde- 
hyde and dextrin analogous to amyloform. It is soluble 
in water and can be used both externally and internally. 



LACTOPEfTIX.— A mixture of 120 p. of milk sugar. 
24 p. of pepsin, 18 p. of panereatin, I'i. p. of diastase, 2 
of hydrochloric acid and 2 p. of lactic acid. (Phar. 
Centh.) 



EUCALYPTEOL (not Euealyptol).— A hydrochloride 
of eucalypten prepared from the ethereal oil of eucalyp- 
tus. It is non-toxic, and is recommended as a substitute 
for euealyptol in doses of 1.5 to 2 gm. 



METHYLENE BLUE has been recommended in 
nervous headache and neurasthenia in doses of 0.1 gm., 
mixed with powdered nutmeg. Usually 4 doses in one 
-day are suflieient to afford entire relief. 



CHRYSOTOXIN.— One of the four principles isolated 
by C. Jacoby from ergot, namely chryso-secolin ajtid 
sphacelo-toxin. This principle is said to be very stable 
and is recommended in form of a sodium salt for hypo- 
dermic use. 



DICODEYI^MENTHAN-HYDROCHLORID.— The 

Tiydroehlorid of a con3ensauons product of two mole- 
cules of codeine and one molecule of formaldehyde. It 
form a crystalline salt soluble in alcohol and water, and 
melts at 140° C. 



PIPERIDIN GUAIACOLATE.— Obtained by action 
of piperidin on guaiacol in benzol solution, it forms pris- 
matic needles, soluble SV2 parts in 100 of water. The 
salt is decomposed by mineral acids; it is given in doses 
of 0.2 to 2 gm. three times daily in treatment of tuber- 
culosis. 



GLUTOID CAPSULES.— Apothecary Hausmann. of 
St. Callen. by hardening gelatin capsules with formalde- 
hyde, has rendered them impervious to the action of the 
acid juices of the stomach, but upon contact with the 
alkaline secretions of the intestines this gelatin coat is 
readily dissolved. This offers a ready substitute for 
keratin or salol coating.— (Phar. Centh., 97, p. 24; '00. 
4S.3.) 




John Cam rick. 

John Carnrick, of Reed & Carnrick, New York, has 
done some very meritorious work in the realm of pharma- 
ceutical chemistry. A native of Sand Lake. Rensselaer 
County, New York, he spent his boyhood in Troy and 
came to New York at the age of 17. After teaching 
school for a while he took a course in medicine, but in- 
stead of graduating he opened a drug store in Jersey 
City, and commenced the study of pharmacy and chem- 
istry with a view to improving the palatable qualities of 
medicines. Thus John Carnrick may be said to be one 
of the pioneers in the field of what is known as elegant 
pharmacy. 

The original drug store was operated by Mr. Carnrick 
under the name of Gardner & Carnrick. This was after- 
ward changed to Carnrick & Andrus, and subsequently 
to Reed & Carnrick, a name now famous all over the 
world. Through all the changes of name it was Mr. Carn- 
rick's genius as a chemist that made the success of the 
house possible. The preparations which he invented are 
used to-day by the medical profession in every civilized 
country on the globe. He has always in the introduc- 
tion of his preparations to the medical profession given 
to them every detail of manufacture and invited them to 
his laboratories to examine every process and manipu- 
lation, and has always insisted that their introduction 
should be in the hands of the medical profession. Mr. 
Carnrick claims the honor of having introduced elixirs 
as a class of pharmaceutical products over thirty years 
ago. Among a few of the principal preparations he in- 
troduced are Laefopeptine, Maltine, Peptonoids, Pepten- 
siyme, Protonuclein and Soluble Food. 

One feature of Mr. Carnrick's business method has 
been the organization of several companies to carry on 
the sale of his various discoveries. Among these are 
the New York Pharmacal Association, the Maltine Man- 
ufacturing Company, and the .\rlington Chemical Com- 
pany. The preparations manufact\ired by these compa- 
nies were popularized by Reed & Carnrick. The reason 
for the success of Reed & Carnrick's preparations is 
probably that Mr. Carnrick makes it a rule not to put 
upon the market a preparation of his invention unless 
it fills a want and is in his belief actually superior to 
anything of the sort previously discovered. Large for- 
tunes have been made from his discoveries, one man 
having made from the manufacture of one of these prep- 
arations something like 1:2,000,000. it is said. Jlr. Carn- 
rick, though a wealthy man, has not reaped so largely as 
those to Avhom he has sold. He lives comfortably in a 
beautiful home on Park avenue with his family, to whom 
lie if. devoted. His place of business is unpretentious. It 
is located at 428 West Broadway. New York. 



30 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



LFcbruary 25, 1897. 



CottcspDurience. 

We are pleased to publish here commualcatloas from our rem) 
ers oa topics of lalerest to the dnig trade. Writers are request^ 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Each article mum 
be signed by Its writer, but bis name will not be publlslMd 
MO requested. 

Abolish the A. Ph, A. Commercial Section. 

A. .S. rarkir. Detroit. Midi. -lu my opinion the A. 
I'll. A. has fiiilfd to proiluce priicticiil results in so far 
as c'oucorns comniercial pharmacy. Withotit attempting 
to criticise so earnest anil efficient an organization as the 
A. I'h. A., I only desire to state what in my oi>inion is 
the cause of failure. By strict adherence to "the one 
idea" only, whether it be science or commercial inter- 
ests, can the best results be obtained. The N. W. L). A. 
is for business tirst. last and all of the time — no division 
of interests. I believe that the best interests of the 
pharmacist demand that the A. I'h. A. should confine 
Its efforts to the development and advancement of scien- 
tific pharmacy, where it has achieved such marked suc- 
cess, and in addition to this there should be formed an 
association of earnest men with but a single aim, the 
protection and betterment of commercial pharmacy. The 
changed conditions of business demand .tba.t a united 
effort be made to save this branch of pharmacy from 
absolute ruin. Noble work has been performed along 
certain lines, hut it has been demonstrated that new 
tactics must bo adopted. Mutual manufacturing has 
received notice from some. That subject would properly 
come before such an association. I therefore believe 
that whether it be science or otherwise, the watchword 
should be "Unity of purpose." 

* * * 

Hy. r. Hynson. Baltimore. — I believe it is easy to 
sustain a., contention which insists that the coupling of 
the really scientific with the purely commercial is detri- 
mental to the advancement of science and to the en- 
largement of trade. Recorded facts strongly deny that 
advantages can accrue from such a union. If. indeed, 
the combination of the real and pure, as in this instance, 
results detrimentally we must expect something even 
more unsatisfactory will always be the outgrowth of 
combining any modification of these. Such conclusions 
are based upon principles thoroughly well established 
long, long before the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation began its strikingly useful career, even before 
pharmacy as a profession had its birth. In the very face 
of opposing facts, then, and contrary to the leadings 
they would seem to offer through experiences so often 
repeated, the commercial section of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association must have been inaugurated. It 
has lived, however, and gone on living an aimless, use- 
less life. Of course. I may not have heard of the good 
it has accomplished, but who has'.' Certainly it has 
killed much precious time, wasted valuable energy and 
worse than all else has brought sad disappointment 
which is always so discouraging, even blighting. This 
very trouble, this continual fault-finding, this busying 
itself about the business methods and individual con- 
duet of its members, came quite near wrecking the 
Maryland State Pharmaceutical Association. It has 
only Ijeen since commercial questions were, by common 
consent, dropped that this association has shown any life 
or results. I am strongly of the opinion that the aboli- 
tion of the Commercial Section of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association would make smooth the way to 
the attainment of much professional advancement 
through the influence and help of this heretofore heav- 
ily handicapped Xational Association. 

* * » 

R. N. Girling, New Orleans, La. — In answer to your 
query whether the Commercial Section of the A. Ph. A. 
should be discontinued on the ground of its failure to 
be useful to the interests of the pharmaceutical profes- 
sion. I answer, most emphatically, yes; the sooner it is 
abolished the better it will be for the retail druggist, for 
the following reasons: 

As the Commercial Section of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, is at present constituted, it is cer- 
tainly calculated to work harm to the retail druggists 
of the country at large, for their interests can never be 
in accord with those of the section, some of whose mem- 
bers are either manufacturers of proprietary articles, or 
have an interest therein sufficient to make them seek, b.v 
every means in their power to protect those of other 
manufacturers, who, numerically, form but a small per- 
centage of the members of the American Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association, or of the great army of pharmacists of 
the United States. 

It must be apparent to any pharmacist who will take 
the trouble to think the matter over, that such a body of 



men can never aid liis inleiests so long as their own, in 
proteeling the nianiifaeliirers of patent medicines and 
proprieliir.v articles, are menaced. The greed of gain 
and the desire to protect wlial they deem their rights 
would make them loth to take any action wliich might 
prove prejudicial to the interests of the manufacturers 
of suih articles, which arlicles. they well know, even 
if they are disiii(line<l to acknowledge it, form one of 
the principal evils the retail druggist has to contend 
with, having brouglit ruin or disaster to many of the 
fraternily. 

As an illustration of the above remarks, it may not be 
amiss to ri'call an article on the patent mediiiue evil, 
which was published in the I'harmaceiilical lOra, iu- 
dcirsecl by the Ijouisiana State I'hariiiaceulical Associ- 
ation and read at the Denver meeting of the A. I'h. A., 
suggesting some very, to the manufacturers, undesirable 
methods of dealing with the subject, among others advo- 
cating Federal h'gislation, with a view of placing certain 
restrictions on tliis class of preparations which woulil 
be the means of ultimately suppressing them. Had the 
suggestions contained in the article been acted on, im- 
mense benefit would have accrued to tlie retail druggist 
and to the general public, but at the same time almost 
incalculable injury would have been worked to the inter- 
ests of the manufacturers of <iuack nostrums, who reap 
their rich harvests by catering to the gullibility of the 
public by means of specious advertisements. The "sec- 
tion" was no doubt fully aware of the truth of the 
above remarks, but, be this as it ma.v, the fact remains 
that the article in question was t.ubooed and was not 
printed in the "proceedings" for that year, and in reply 
to a letter asking why the article had not been printed, 
the writer was informed that only those approved b.v Hie 
committee were published. 

Of course, it would be unreasonable to expect the "Sec- 
tion" to allow any to be published which was calculated 
to work to the detriment of such of its honorable con- 
freres as are interested in the manufacture or sale of 
proprietary articles, and if the retail druggist wishes to 
protect his interests in this regard, and finds it neces- 
sary to appoint committees for this purpose, he will do 
well to see to it that the men chosen are in no wa.v 
interested in the sale or manufacture of such articles. 
Perhaps some druggists will say: "Oh! we are sick of 
the patent medicine question: it has been discussed in- 
the journals and at our meetings until the subject has 
been worn threadbare and no good has resulted from 
it." I^et those who are inclined to look at the matter 
in this light reflect on the old adage, "Gutta cavat la- 
pidem," which is entirely applicable to the jiatent med- 
icine evil, and by keeping up a constant agitation against 
this class of goods, they will ultimately succeed in secur- 
ing such legislation as will relegate them to their proper 
sphere. Some good has alread.v been secured by agita- 
tion, as some States have enacted laws, restricting, 
more or less, the power for harm of the quack nostrum. 

It will not do to rest until Congress passes such laws 
as will be for the benefit of the whole country in pro- 
tecting its citizens from a species of fraud which has 
been so long tolerated, and its perpetrators have accu- 
mulated such enormous profits that they can almost 
buy the public press and can employ the highest legal 
talent in overcoming opposition to their nefarious traffic. 
Let the retail pharmacist continue the agitation and 
present papers for reading and discussion at the next 
meeting of the local pharmaceutical association and at 
the next meeting of the A. Ph. A., and something good 
will ultimately come of such action on their part. Let 
them, however, look upon the manufacturers as their 
worst enemies, and if possible secure the abolition of the 
Commercial Section of the A. Ph. A. as now constituted. 



Doctors Want to be Druggists. 

A number of physicians of Benton Harbor, Mich., 
have sent to the Legislature at Lansing a signed .i>eti- 
tion requesting that the pharmacy law be so amended 
"that a graduate in medicine from the University of 
Michigan, or from any medical college having a medi- 
cal and lalxiratory course of instruction equivalent to 
that given in the university of this State, be permitted 
to be registered without examination." -It is alleged in 
this appeal that "after the act became a law all phy- 
sicians who did not register as pharmacists at the time 
the act went into effect, and were therefore obliged to 
employ a registered clerk, soon discovered that the prof- 
its from both their practice and the sale of drugs would 
not sustain their families and keep a registered pharma- 
cist also. 

"Not only that, but it was likewise made evident, and 
has been thoroughly demonstrated during the ten years 
the law has lieen in effect, that every registered phar- 
macist was indirectly constituted, by the act. a practi- 
tioner of medicine, and came in direct competition with 
ever.v practicing physician. * * * Thus the honest 
physician in this State, with legislation against him, and 



February 25, ISUT.] 



THE PHAEMACEUTIGAL EEA. 



231 



with 110 iiUHlii':iI law whalcvor in liis fuvui'. is jtlncod 
betwocu tlio uilvci-lisiiiK iiii.-icU on ilic one luiiul anil tin' 
counti'i- pi-fscribor, or rcgisliTcd pliarniarist, on tlif 
other." - 

Commonting upon this pclilion a cori'i'spondent sends 
the following lottor: 

Itcntoii llarlior, Mich., Feb. 15. 
To the Kditor: 

The \\'ortli.v doctors whose si;j:natui'es are atlaohod to 
the above item, seem to tliink it an imposition to ask 
them to Ko before the board and pass an <'xainination. 

After the time s|ient, the vast ann)nnt of labor, and 
the nnme.v expended b.v the pharnnieist to make himself 
what he is. these worthy Kenllenien apiiear to tliink that 
because llie.v study ti> become doclors, they should be 
declared by law resrislered ph.ariiiai'isls. 

We would ask them if they are not afraid to try the 
examination'.' It looks as if that was why they desired 
the amendment to the pharmacy law. 

On the other hand we. the registered pharmacists of 
the State of Michigan, are protected by said law, and iu 
conjunction with the Sl.-ite board try to uphold it. 

We, graduates of .\nn Arlior and other colleges, go 
cheerfully before the State Board, after studying two 
or three years, as the case may be, to become worthy of 
the confidence placed in us as pharmacists, while the 
doctors — poor, abused mortals — should be declared phar- 
macists by law. 

The worthy gentlemen appear to take pleasure in plac- 
ing us on a level with the quacks of their own profes- 
sion. 

We would like to ask them who is better qualified to 
give a dose of medicine than the man who has taken the 
drug in its native clime, watched with interest its early 
growth, its gradual development into the drug of com- 
merce, its various steps through commerce, and is versed 
in its nature, appearance, various preparations, and dose 
and action thereof. Who, we ask them, is better qual- 
ified to dispense it? 

Does a course iu medicine thus enter into all the de- 
tails of each aud every drug found in a drug store? We 
answer, not any more .so than a cour.se in pharmacy, 
and further, we venture to say that very often the phar- 
macist is better qualified to dispense than the doctor who 
prescribes. 

Let us as pharmacists, proud of our profession, hold 
together and do all in our power to crush out any such 
an amendment ever being made to the pharmacy law. 
Our ranks are already full of inefficient clerks, without 
adding to the list the ever-grasping doctors, some of 
whom are altogether unworthy to be called pharmacists. 
Let them be satisfied with their own worthy profession, 
without asking the law to make them a present of ours. 

F. B. MIX, Ph. G. 



Easter Advertising. 

Canton. Mo.. Feb. 14. 1897. 

To the Editor: I submit herewith a scheme for Easter 
advertising which, if not altogether new, may prove of 
interest to some of your numerous readers. 

The article I advertised was White Rabbit Egg Dye, 
the same as advertised so prominently in your last issue. 
The same display will answer for any Easter dye, but 
more appropriate for the above mentioned. 

I covered the bottom of the window with fresh green 
sod, and in one corner I placed a miniature log cabin, 
large enough to hold four or five rabbits. The cabin had 
an old-fashioned chimney, windows, and a door large 
enough to admit the rabliits. In the opposite corner of 
the window I made a nest and tilled it with an assort- 
ment of colored eggs. A few small branches of trees, 
stuck here and there in the sod, relieved the bare effect 
of the bottom of the window. For a background I 
made a picket fence about 2Mi feet high, using some old 
laths for pickets, which harmonized very nicely with the 
rustic foreground. This completed my stage settings. 

Next, the actors, the "White Rabbit Family," con- 
sisting of one old white rabbit, the mother, and four 
young ones about three weeks old, all pure white. I 
had nothing to do but turn them loose in the window; 
they "done the rest." 

For a week I had a continuous performance in that 
window, and crowds in front all the time. I kept the 
rabbits well supplied with grass, cabbage, etc., which 
they devoured eagerly, to the great delight of the crowds 
of children. 

On front of window and on the fence we had strips 
advertising White Rabbit Dyes which come with the 
goods. Of course, we sold quite a quantity of dyes, biit 
if we had not sold a package we would have been repaid 
many times for our trouble by making our store more 
attractive, and thereby increasing our general business. 
The rabbits, of course, nia.v not be procured in some 
places, but iu almost any large town or city a small 
Want ad in a daily paper will find them. 

HORACE B. LINN. 




Chas. D. Deshler. 



[Specially Contributed,) 

RECOLLECTIONS OF AN OLD-TIME DRUG 

CLERK* 

By CHAS. D. DESHLER, New Brunswick, N. .J. 
When I entered upon my novitiate in the art and mys- 
tery of an apothecary, the business was in a semi-tran- 
sition state, and had entirely divorced itself from the 
sale of dry goods an<I groceries, which had formed an 
important branch of the business in the last century and 
in the early part of the present century. I speak more 

particularly of the busi- 
ness as it was conducted 
in New Brunswick, N. J., 
where I began my novi- 
tiate on Sept 1, 18.32. But 
I think that I am entirely 
safe iu saying that the 
business as then conduct- 
ed in New Brunswick 
was a favorable type of 
the business elsewhere in 
New Jersey, for New 
Brunswick was then one 
of the largest, as well as 
one of the oldest cities in 
the State, and several of 
its druggists were consid- 
erably in advance of any 
others in the State. A 
glance at the business as 
it was then conducted in 
New Brunswick, as I am 
now able to recall it, may 
afford an opportunity for a comparison of the 
equipment and methods of the druggists of New 
Jersey of half a century and more ago, and of 
those to-day, as also an opportunity for a view of some 
of the remedial agencies that were then poular, their 
modes of preparation, dispensing, etc. 

Although, as I have said, the business had divorced 
itself from two of its illegitimate afhnities, it still re- 
tained, and indeed had greatly enlarged, its relations 
with other affinities which were no less illegitimate than 
those which it had discarded, but still were not so abso- 
lutely incongruous as they with the art and calling of 
an apothecary. The population of the city was not suf- 
ficiently large to afford a very substantial patronage to 
the apothecary department proper. Certainly, it was not 
large or remunerative enough to satisfy the aspirations 
for wealth of those who \vere engaged in it. And. as the 
town was then, and for many years later continued to 
be, the chief market and source of supplies for the farm- 
ers and country dealers in the section extending from 
Rahway and Plainfield on the east, to Somerville, Clin- 
ton, Flemington and Easton on the north, and to Prince- 
ton, Trenton, Allentown and Freehold on the west and 
south, the New Brunswick druggists included in their 
stock, paints, oils, dye stuffs, varnishes, window glass, 
bakers', fullers', and hatters' articles, lime, sand, tar 
and ship chandlery, snuff, spices, liquors, etc. I observe, 
in passing, that liquors were only sold by druggists by 
the bottle or by the pint, quart or gallon. I never kn ,'W 
or heard of any having been sold by them to be drunk on 
the premises. Moreover, their sale was confined almost 
exclusively to wines and brandy. Whiskey, rum, and 
the like, were seldom, if ever, sold by them. 

But, notwithstanding that these unrelated branches 
constituted by far the larger part of the stock and sales 
of the druggists of that day, it was the apothecary de- 
partment which chiefly occupied their time and thoughts, 
and which gave their business the special distinction and 
consideration which it enjoyed in the popular estimation. 
For the apothecary was then popularly rated as a quasi- 

•Read before the Xew Brunswick Historical Club. 



232 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[February 25, 1897. 



professional, perhaps because the art and mystery of his 
calling deniandeil a lonpiT trniniiig and a higher intelli- 
gence for its mastery than that of any other mercantile 
or mechanical pnrsnit, anil, besides, involved a much 
greater degree of responsibility. Beside the ordinary 
merchant, the apothecary was comparatively learned. He 
knew something of I-atin. and assumed to know much 
more of it than he really did; for it must be confessed 
that his familiarity with it seldom extended beyond the 
officinal names of his drugs, medicines, tinctures, herbs, 
etc. But this, small tliough it was. was considered a 
mark of distinction by the multitude, who regarded with 
unaffected adndiation the learning displayed by the man 
or lad who glibly rolled off such long and thundering 
terms as "aijua picis liquidit" for tar-water; "adeps suil- 
lus pneparatus," or "axungia porcina" for common lard, 
"sulphus aluniinjc et potassa?" for alum; "tiiictura opii 
camphorata" for paregoric; "stannum" for tin; "amy- 
lum" for starch; "mel despumatum" for honey; "extrac- 
tum glycyrrhiza" for licorice; "carbo ligni" for char- 
coal; "sinapis nigra" for common mustard; "serum bo- 
vinum" for common tallow; "triticum hybernuin"' for 
common wheat flour; "aqua pluvialis" for common rain 
water, etc. 

But this little pedantry aside, the druggist of that 
period was really possessed of more than average intel- 
ligence, and had acquired a large amount of more or 
less precise knowledge as to the origin, nature, uses, 
preparation, and dispensing of medicines. He was us- 
ually the first one— even before the physician— to whom 
the people had recourse in sudden emergencies, or on the 
access of most of the common ailments; and he pre- 
scribed and administered medicines with a free hand, 
and generally with prudence and success. He was ex- 
pected to know how to treat promptly, burns, scald?, 
sprains, frost-bites and flesh wounds, cases of simp.e 
poisoning and attacks of diarrhcea, cholera morbus and 
cholera; and, generally, he did so as skillfully as any 
physician could do. 

The druggist of that day was as ignorant of chemistry 
as a science as are the majority of the druggists of to- 
day. His chemical knowledge was a mere smattering. 
He knew the officinal names of the comparatively lim- 
ited number of "chemicals" that were then embraced in 
the pharmacopa?ia. and was familiar with their medi- 
cinal properties, doses and uses. He knew which of 
them had a chemical affinity for. and which were in- 
compatible with, some other; and also in what men- 
struum each was soluble, and in what vehicle it was 
best administered. He had some knowledge of tests and 
reagents, and could not only skillfully distinguish one 
chemical from another, but was a good judge of its 
quality, as well as of the qualities of medicines gen- 
erally. There was no use in trying to palm off upon 
him for genuine, powdered opium, or ipecacuanha, or 
rhubarb, or aloes, which had been adulterated with 
powdered licorice root or some other comparatively cheap 
substance; or Egyptian for Turkey opium; or sophisti- 
cated for pure cream of tartar, powdered ginger, or ar- 
row root; or roots and barks from which the properties 
had been partially extracted by infusion or otherwise, 
for those which had not been tampered with. He could 
detect the cheat on the instant by touch or sight, just 
as he could detect a bad bill or a counterfeit shilling; 
and the wholesale dealer who attempted to "turn an 
honest penny" in this way at his expense would quickly 
find out that he had "waked up the wrong customer." 
But with all this knowledge and a remarkable skill in 
manipulation, he knew nothing whatever of the elemen- 
tary chemical constituents of the medicines which he 
handled, or of their nature and proportions, nor, gen- 
erally, of purely chemical principles, processes, and op- 
erations. 

The druggist of those days, I am inclined to believe, 
was far more completely the master of his business gen- 



erally, in the line of the manufacture of medicines, than 
is the druggist of to-day. for the reason that uumlxTless 
articles which are now bought by him ready-made were 
then home-made. The druggist of those days spread all 
his own plasters, and spread them r.ipidly and with skill 
and elegaiiie. To spread a compound burgundy pitch 
plaster (luickly and neatly was one of the first lessons 
of his novitiate. He prepared his own blue mass, his 
own syrups, perfumery, medicated waters, confections, 
conserves, cerates, ointments, filasters. liniments, tinc- 
tures and "preparations," techiiicall.v so called. He 
made his own pills of all the standard kinds set forth iu 
the Dispensatorj-, chief in demand among which were 
the compound cathartic, compound aloes, compound iron, 
compound colocyuth. compound rhubarb, aloes and 
myrrh, asafietida, quinine, guaiacum, opium, etc., as, 
also, his own powders of all kinds, with the exception 
of I'eruviau bark, jalap, rhubarb, ipecacuanha, and a 
few others. He manufactured his own soda water and 
fruit syrups, his own soda and seidlitz powders, his own 
inks, sealing wax. copal, japau. and black varnishes, his 
own putt.v, boiled lin.seed oil. pre))Uied fish oil for paint- 
ing, etc., and he was an adept in mixing paints of all 
colors for retailing, and iu preparing a multitude of other 
things which need not be now specified. 

I have said that the druggist then made his own tinc- 
tures and powders. The former were prepared in the 
primitive wa.v, by digestion, and not by the more perfect 
process of displacement which was introduced later. 
Such tinctures, as laudanum, paregoric, colchicum, rhu- 
barb, and the simple and compound tinctures of bark 
and aloes, which were the kinds most largely in demand, 
were prepared in five gallon demijohns, each of which 
had a label tied around its neck like a white collar, on 
which the date of the original preparation was written 
and the number of days it must undergo digestion; and 
ri'gularly thrice a day or oftener it was the duty of us 
junior clerks to agitate it briskly, so as to facilitate the 
process. Tinctures which were not in so great demand 
were made in gallon, half-gallon, or quart tincture bot- 
tles similarly labeled and subjected to a similar agita- 
tion. 

The process of powdering was always a laborious, and 
sometimes a very trying, one, to the unfortunate whose 
fate it was to effectuate it. And when the substance 
was to be reduced to an impalpable powder, many dis- 
tressing hours were the lot of the operator. Especially 
was this the case when the substance to be so reduced 
was canella bark, squills, scammony and, most intolera- 
ble of all. hellebore root and gum gamboge. Such sneez- 
ing as was provoked by the hellebore, and such sore 
e.ves and noses — especially noses — as were caused by the 
gamboge, were, in the expressive vernacular of that day, 
" a caution!" The effect of each was simply intolera- 
ble, as any one who is curious on the subject may learn 
by experiment. The experience, I promise him, will 
make an indelible impression alike upon his olfactories 
and his memory. 

The home-made syrups of that day were much richer, 
denser, and more limpid than are those we are now ac- 
customed to see. They were invariably made of the 
best loaf sugar, assisted in the process of clarification 
by the whites of eggs or Russia isinglass. Lemon syrup 
was prepared from simple syrup by the addition of the 
requisite amount of a saturated solution of citric acid 
to give it the necessary acidity, and a few drops of 
concentrated essence of lemon to impart the proper 
flavor. All the fruit syrups — raspberry, strawberry, 
blackberry, pineapple, etc., were made direct from the 
fruit instead of by the aid of the factitious and unwhole- 
sonie flavoring essences which are now too commonly 
employed. 

My mention of burgundy pitch plasters in my list of 
home-made articles recalls au amusing incident in my 
very early experience. My entrance on the calling of a 



February 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



233 



druggist was in the first "cholt'iii year," 1832, iu the 
midst of the panic created by that dread epidemic. Let 
me premise my relation of the incident l-y saying that 
this panic was liysterical, ungorernable and universal- 
shared iu alike by all ages, from childhood to "tottering 
eld." The odor of chloride of lime pervaded the entire 
atmosphere inside our city limits, and a bottle of Labar- 
ruque's Solution (solution of chlorinated soda) formed a 
part of the outfit of every household. The curbstones 
throughout the town were all white-washed diligently 
and repeatedly, and our gutters flowed with a semi- 
fluid paste of quick-lime and the chloride of lime. People 
shunned fruits and vegetables as if they were poison. 
Nearly every man, woman and child was provided with 
a charm or amulet in the form of a camphor-bag, which 
was suspended from the neck and worn next the skin 
just under the breast-bone, and generally one was also 
carried in the pocket, where it might be easily reached 
by the owner, to be held under his nose when feeling a 
passing qualm or when traversing some unsavory local- 
ity. Almost the entire population dosed themselves in- 
dustriously from morning till night with oil of cajeput, 
spiced brandy, tinctures of ginger, camphor, cloves and 
cayenne pepper, and other stimulating preparations, and 
wore burgundy pitch plasters, ad libitum, on the breast 
or stomach, or both. The first salutations in the morn- 
ing and the last at night were the cheerful ones, "Such 
and such an one was attacked with cholera," or "So-and- 
so and so-and-so died with it last night," or "There have 
been so many new cases and so many deaths to-day." 
The grand staples of conversation on the streets, at the 
market-house, iu the cigar-shops, and at all the other 
headquarters of town gossip, were cramps, rice-water 
discharges, collapse, and sudden death, with which our 
citizens frightened one another till each fancied that he 
saw symptoms of the pestilence in some other, or felt 
them in his own bowels. 

One Sunday morning, when the epidemic was at its 
worst and the panic at its height, I was left in charge 
of the store while my elders snatched a little needed re- 
laxation from the long strain to which they had been 
subjected. I had become quite familiar with the com- 
mon cholera remedies and the doses in which they should 
be administered, and had been specially coached for the 
occasion by the head clerk, who was an experienced 
pharmacist. Of course, I felt highly important over the 
trust that was reposed in me, and also felt several inches 
taller in consequence. As fortune would have it, my 
first customer was a gentleman whom I had known 
from my very early boyhood. He was a theological stu- 
dent, some 28 or 30 years old, and in after years a pop- 
ular clergyman — a large, fine-looking, florid complexioned 
and robust man, usually full of life and overflowing 
with gayety and animal spirits. He now came rushing 
into the store, wearing a most dejected and woe-begone 
appearance. "Charley," he exclaimed, after looking 
around in vain for the head clerk, "Where is Boyer?" 
"Gone out, sir, for a little while to get some rest." I re- 
plied. "Great heavens!" he cried, "What shall I do? 
I'm going to have an attack of cholera!" I assured him 
that 1 could give him whatever was necessary, if he 
would only describe his symptoms; and I ran glibly over 
the names of various preparations suited to various 
cases. But he vowed he would have none of them. What 
he wanted— and he would have nothing else — was a bur- 
gundy-pitch plaster which should extend from just below 
his throat down to and below the pit of his stomach, and 
although we had an abundance of ready-made plasters 
on hand, which I showed him, none of them approached 
these large proportions. 

Now. if there was one thing I could do better than 
another, it was to spread a plaster, since I had been 
sedulously drilled by Boyer in that specialty till I was 
an expert at it. So, I very confidently assured my friend 
that I could spread a plaster, the mixture for which was 



always ready, and had only to be melted, as well as 
Boyer or any one else. "Well, then," he said, "get 
about it as quick as lightning." I placed the plaster over 
an alcohol lamp, and while it was melting got out the 
sheep skin on which to spread it. My friend then traced 
on the skin the outline of a huge pear-shaped plaster, 
some sixteen to seventeen inches long from ai)ex to base, 
and I speedily cut the skin according to his patteru, after 
which I spread it thickly with the plaster, in obedience 
to his repeated injunctions not to be afraid of putting 
on too much of it. He was a very hairy man— his breast 
and a considerable part of his abdomen being covered 
with a thick silken growth: and before coming to our 
store he had shaved this off, so that the plaster should 
have a chance to adhere to the skin properly. It was 
not long before I had the plaster in readiness; and, re- 
tiring with him to a back room, I clapped it on, and by 
the aid of a warm spatula made it adhere beautifully 
at every point. No sooner was it on, and its genial 
warmth perceptible than my mercurial friend regained 
all his wonted elasticity of spirits. His fears abated; his 
dejection vanished, he complimented me highly on my 
dexterity, buttoned himself up, humming a gay tune the 
while, which, I lament to say, was not a psalm tune, and 
left the store cheerfully slapping his breast and stomach, 
and declaring that he already felt like another man. 

The sequel now remains to be related. A day or two 
afterward my friend again visited me, as anxious this 
time to get that "confounded plaster" off, as he had been 
on his former visit to get it on. Scratching and rubbing 
his breast and stomach like a madman, declared that 
he had not been able to sleep on account of the intolera- 
ble itching caused by the confounded plaster. He had 
tried again and again to get it off, but it was no use; it 
stuck closer than a brother, and on his last attempt to 
dislodge it his skin had given way, and now he was in 
torture. It seems that in the interval the hair which 
he had shaved off had begun to grow again, and had 
caused a degree of irritation, which, added to that which 
naturally resulted from the rubefacient properties of the 
plaster, "had now become unbearable. Well, we took him 
again into the back room, where Boyer and I, by the aid 
of a pair of scissors and the application of heated spat- 
ulas, after an hour or two's hard work, and numberless 
groans and ejaculations, finally rid our friend and patient 
of his blanket-plaster, and put a cooling dressing on his 
inflamed bosom and abdomen. He had had a pretty live- 
ly experience, one which he remembered for many a day. 
But, he didn't get the cholera! 

{To be amtiniud.) 



COAL TAR DYES AND DIGESTION.-The effect 
which coal-tar colors may exert upon digestive ferments 
has received attention at the hands of H. A. Weber (Jr. 
Am. Ch. Soc, Ph. .Ir.), who has experimented upon pep- 
sin and pancreatin with selected dyes in common use by 
confectioners and others. For the experiments on peptic 
digestion the color to be tested was added to the follow- 
ing mixture: Hydrochloric acid solution (0.2 per cent.), 
100 cc: pepsin, 0.020 gm.; blood fibrin preserved in al- 
cohol, 1.0 gram. The fibrin was washed with water be- 
fore use to remove alcohol, and excess of water removed 
by pressing between filter paper. The mixture was 
placed in a test-tube and heated on a water-bath at a 
temperature of 38^ to 40° until the fibrin was as far as 
possible dissolved. Under these circumstances, oroline 
or acid yellow was found to exert a marked injurious 
effect upon peptic digestion, but no effect was produced 
bv saffoline (acridine red), magenta, or methyl orange 
under similar conditions. The mixture used_ for the ex- 
periments on pancreatin was as follows: >> ater. 100 c. 
c sodium bicarbonate, 1.5 gram; pancreatin, O.d gram; 
fibrin 1 gram, and in this case the action of the fer- 
ment was unaffected by oroline yellow. On the other 
hand, saffoline, magenta, and methyl orange completely 
stopped the action of pancreatin in strong solutions and 
retarded it to a marked extent in weaker ones. 



234 



THE FUA11.MACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Februaij- 25, 1897. 



(Omllnued from page 788 Dec. IT. 189li. 
LIST OF REACTIONS AND REAGENTS ACCORD- 
ING TO NAMES OF AUTHORS. 

I^GER'S. — Ucagent for Bismuth.— A solution of ciu- 
chonin nitrate with potassium iodide, which produces 
%vith bismutli salts a dark-red precipitate. 

liEII.MANN'S?.— Test for Glucose.— The substance is 
dissolved in alcohol, alcoholic potassium hydrate added, 
followed by a solution of copper sulphate, then warmed. 
If glucose is present, red suboxide of copper precipi- 
tates. 

I.E NOBLE'S.— Test for Acetone in Urine.— On add- 
ing sodium niiroprusside and aqua nnimonia to the 
urine containing acetone, a violet color is produced. 

I.EISMKR'S.— Test for Glucose in Urine.- A mixture 
of '> cc. of a 1 per cent, solution of satranin, 1 cc. of 
urine and 2 cc. of sodium liydrate solution are heated 
to boiling; if glucose is present a decoloration of the so- 
lution follows. 

LENZ'S.— Test for Pilocarpin. — On triturating the al- 
kaloid or its salt with 100 p. of calomel a gray to black 
coloration ensues, owing to the reduction of the calomel. 
According to Nngclvoort, the alkaloid is first prepared 
from the nitrate by the addition of ammonia and shak- 
ing with chloroform. 

LEPAGE'S.— Reagent for Alkaloids.— See Marme'3 
Test. 

LETHEBY'S.— Aniline. Test.— When heated with di- 
lute sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide (50° C.), 
aniline gives a blue coloration. 

LEWIN'S.— Test for Biliary Colors.— The urates, 
■which separate on exposing the sample to cold, are fil- 
tered off, washed, dissolved in hot water and tested ac- 
cording to Gmelin. 

LEWIN'S.— Baudouin's Test. 

LEX'S— Phenol Test.— A solution of calcium hypo- 
chlorite (1 : 20) is added to an ammoniacal solution of 
phenol: a green coloration ensues, which turns blue on 
warming. Cotton tHodifies this by employing bromine 
water in place of the hypochlorite. 

LIEBEN'S— Acetone Test.— To the solution fdistillate 
from urine), a solution of iodized potassium iodide with 
a few drops of potassium hydrate is added. If acetone 
is present iodoform is formed. Alcohol gives this same 
reaction. (Compare Gunning's Test.) 

LIEBERMANX'S-Test for Cholesterin.— A solution 
of a compound of cholesterin in acetic anhydride to 
which chloroform has been added is colored rose by con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. The color quickly changes to 
blue and then green. 

LIEBERMAXX'S— Phenol Reaction.— On warming 
phenol with sulphuric acid, in which 5 per cent, of so- 
dium nitrite has been dissolved, a blue color is produced. 
The addition of water causes a brown coloration. 

LIEBERJIAXN'S.— Test for Diazo-and Xitroso-Com- 
pounds.— These bodies, when added to a mixture of phe- 
nol and sulphuric acid, produce intense colorations. 

LIEBIG'S— Prussic Acid Test.— Hydrocyanic acid, to 
which a few drops of potassium hydrate solution and am- 
monium sulphydrate have been added, when evaporated 
and the residue rendered slightly acid (HC'l), will give a 
blood red coloration upon the addition of ferric chloride. 

LIEBIG'S— Quinine Test.— 0.5 gram of quinine sul- 
phate is shaken with 5 cc. of ether (0.72.8 sp. gr.) and 
Ice. of ammonium hydrate (10 per cent.) in a well stop- 
pered reagent glass; on standing, two clear layers should 
separate. Any turbidity indicates the presence of cin- 
chonin, or other side alkaloids. Compare Kerner, Scha- 
fer, de Trij. 

LIEBIG'S— Test for Cystin.— Cystin prepared from 
urine sediment on boiling with a solution of lead oxide 
in caustic soda causes a precipitation of lead sulphide. 

LIFSCHUETZ'S— Cellulose Solvent.— A mixture of 
sulphuric and nitric acids. 



LINDE'S— Test for Glycerin in Fluid Extracts.— 

1. The sample is made slightly alkaline with a solu- 
tion of sodium carbonate, then mixed with powdered 
borax on a watch-glass. This mixture gives a green 
tinged (lame when mixed with alcohol and ignited. 

2. Red litmus paper is saturated with a concentrated 
.solution of borax, whereby it is turned blue. This ia 
then moistened with the above (1) alkaline solution con- 
taining glycerin, when a reddening occurs more or less 
rapidly, according to the proportion of glycerin present. 
(Compare llager's Glycerin Test.) 

LIXDO'S— Test for Alkaloids.— The alkaloid is dis- 
solved in sulphuric acid and ferric chloride added. Color 
reactions are produced. (See Hager, Pharm. Praxis. 
III., 04.) 

LIXDO'S— Test for Nitrates and Nitrites.— Nitrates 
and nitrites give a violet coloration when added to a few 
drops of hydrochloric acid (15 per cent.), followed by a 
like quantity of a 10 per cent, solution of resorcin and 
2 cc. of pure concentrated sulphuric acid. 

LIXDO'S — Test for Saccharine. — The saccharine is 
evaporated to dryness with concentrated nitric acid, to 
the residue a few drops of a solution of potassium hy- 
drate in 50 per cent, alcohol are added, and on warming, 
blue, violet and red colorations are obtained. 

LIPP'S— Test for Dextrine.— To a (cold) saturated so- 
lution of lead acetate, heated to 60° C, lead oxide is 
added until a solid mass is obtained, then after a time it 
is extracted with water and filtered. The resulting solu- 
tion when boiled with a solution of dextrine gives a 
white precipitate. 

LOEFFLER'S— Methylene Blue Solution.- This stain 
for tuberculosis bacilli consists of a mixture of 30 vol- 
umes of concentrated alcoholic solution of methylene 
blue and 100 volumes of potassium hydrate solution 
(1 : 10,000). 

LIVACHE'S— Test for Fatty Oils.— This test consists 
in noting the increase of weight sustained when the oil 
is triturated with finely subdivided load. 

LOEWE'.S— Glucose Test.— The reagent contains 16 ' 
grams of copper sulphate, 04 grams of water, 80 cc. so- 
dium hydrate solution (1.34) and 6 to 8 grams of gly- 
cerin. Solutions of glucose or urine containing sugar 
give a red precipitate on heating with this reagent. For 
quantitative work the reagent should contain 1.5.621 
grams of cupric hydrate (from 40 grams of crystallized 
copper sulphate), which is dissolved (in moist condition) 
in a mixture of 30 grams glycerin, SO cc. of sodium hy- 
drate solution (1.34) and 160 cc. of water. After solu- 
tion has taken place water is added, to make up to 1,155 
cc. Each 10 cc. of this solution corresponds to 0.05 gram 
glucose. 

LOWEXTHAL'S— Test for Glucose.— A solution of 60 
grams of tartaric acid, 240 grams of sodium carbonate 
and 5 grams of crystallized ferric chloride in 500 cc. of 
hot water. Solutions containing glucose when boiled with 
this reagent give a brown precipitate. 

LOOF'S — Morphine Test Solution. — Froehde's reagent 
in different degrees of concentration, whereby various 
color reactions are obtained. (See Apoth. Ztg., '95, 449.) 
LUCHIXI'S — Alkaloidal Reagent. — A solution of po- 
tassium bichromate in hot, concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Veratrin gives a yellow color with this reagent. 

LUECKE'S — Test for Hippuric Acid. — Hippuric acid 
is boiled and evaporated to dryness with concentrated ni- 
tric acid. The residue on heating gives off the odor of 
nitrobenzol. 

LUGOL'S SOLUTION— Test for Albumen.— This re- 
agent consists of a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, 
acidified with acetic acid. 

LUXGE'S— Test for Xitrous Acid.— This depends upon 
Gries's Test with sulphanilic acid and alpha-naphthyla- 
mine, in which the reagents are kept in solution with di- 
lute acetic acid. Fluids containing nitrous acid give a 



Febiuary 25, 1807.] 



THE I'lIAKMACEUTICAL ERA. 



235 



red color.ition with this reagent. Qnantitntivt'lr, the re- 
agent is applioil in: 

LUN'tiE AND I.EVOFF'S-Test for Nitrous Acids.— 
The solution consists ol! 0.1 of alpha-naphthylaniiiie dis- 
solved in 100 cc. (if water, 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid 
and 1 gram of sulphanilic acid, dissolved in 100 cc. of 
water. .V standard nitrite solution is prepared liy dis- 
solving 0.049;^ gram of sodium nitrite in 100 cc. of water. 
Of this solution, 10 cc. arc taken .ind concentrated sul- 
phuric acid is added to make up to 100 cc. Each 1 cc. 
of this solution contains 1-100 milligram of nitrite nitro- 
gen. Into each of two cylinders 1 cc. of the reagent, 40 
cc. of water and 5 grams of sodium acetate are placed; 
1 cc. of the normal solution is added, and to the other. 
the solution to he tested. The color produced is com- 
pared with that produced by the staudard. 

LUNGE AND LEVOFF'S.— Test for Nitric in pres- 
ence of Nitrous Acid. — This is applied colorimetrically, by 
means of a solution of 0.2 gram of brueine in 100 cc. of 
concentrated pure sulphuric acid. A normal solution is 
prepared by mixing 10 cc. of a solution of 0.0721 gram 
KNOj in 100 cc. of water, with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, sufficient to make 100 cc. One cubic centimeter of 
this normal solution, and Ice. of the solution to be tested, 
are mixed with 1 cc. of brueine solution. Sulphuric acid 
is added to each to bring the volume up to 50 cc. They 
are then heated to 80° C, allowed to cool, and the yel- 
low color compared. Of the above normal solution each 
1 cc. is equivalent to 1-100 milligram of nitrate nitro- 
gen. 

LUSTGARTEN'S— Tests for Iodoform.— 

1. On warming a little phenol with potassium hydrate 
solution and 1 to 2 drops of a solution of iodoform a 
slight reddish precipitate forms which dissolves in alco- 
hol with a like color. 

2. Resorcin 0.1 gram and a piece of sodium are dis- 
solved in 5 cc. of alcohol, 5 drops of the green solution 
are mixed in a test tube with an ethereal solution of iodo- 
form, and the ether evaporated cautiously. A cherry-red 
color is produced which is destroyed by acids and re- 
stored by alkalies. 

LUSTGARTEN'S— Test for Naphthols.— See Wolff's 
Test. 

LUX'S— Test for Fat-Oils in Mineral Oils.— Two test 
tubes, each containing a few cubic eentimeters of the 
oil to be tested, are immersed in a paraffin bath heated 
to 210° C, for about fifteen minutes. Into one a few 
pieces of caustic soda, and into the other some pieces of 
metallic sodium, are placed. If the oil contains only 2 
per cent, of a fatty oil, either one or the other sample 
■will jellify. 

LYON'S— Mixture for Extracting Strychnia.— This 
mixture consists of 3 volumes of ether mixed with one 
volume of a mixture of 88 cc. chloroform, 12 cc. alco- 
hol and 2 cc. of aqua ammonia. It is used for the ex- 
traction of strychnin and brucin by agitation process. 

MACLAGAN'S— Cocaine Test.— To 50 cc. of a 1-10 
per cent, cocaine solution, 2 to 3 drops of aqua ammonia 
are added, the sides of the tube vigorousl.v rubVied by a 
glass rod. The cocaine precipitates in crystalline form, 
while any amorphous alkaloid present will cause a milki- 
ness. 

MAISCH'S— Test for Curcuma.— See Howie's Test. 

MANDELIN'S— Allcaloidal Reagent.— A solution of 1 
gram of ammonium vanadate in 200 grams of sulphuric 
acid (concentrated). It gives various color reactions 
with alkaloids. 

MANGINI'S— Alkaloidal Reagent.— Obtained by treat- 
ing 3 parts of potassium iodide and 16 parts of bismuth 
iodide with 3 parts of h.vdrochloric acid. It gives brown 
precipitates with alkaloids. Compare Dragendorff's Re- 
agent. It has the advantage over the latter in not be- 
coming turbid with water. 

MANN'S— Test for Water in Alcohol, Air, etc.— One 
part of molybdic acid and two parts of citric acid are 



triturated together, then fused and dissolved in water. 
In this solution filler paper is dipped and dried at 100° 
C. This blue paper is turned white in moist air, or with 
alcohol or ether which contains water. 

M.VRECHAL'S— Test for Biliary Colors.— On adding 
2 or 3 drops of tincture of iodine to an acid or neutral 
urine, an emerald green color is produced, it biliary col- 
ors are present. 

MARME'S— Test for Alkaloids (Potassio-cadmic-io- 
dido). — To a boiling concentrated solution of potassium 
iodide (4p. to 12p.) in water, cadmium iodide (2p.) is 
added to sattiration, this is then mixed with a like vol- 
ume of a cold saturated solution of potassium iodide. 
The concentrated solution is permanent, but not in di- 
luted condition. It gives yellow to white precipitates 
with alkaloids. 

JIAKQUE'S— Test for Sparteine.— Sparteine sulphate, 
when warmed with % of its weight of chromic acid gives 
n green color (due to reduction); also an odor of cicutin is 
developed. 

MARSH'S— Test for Arsenic— (See text-books on 
Chemistry.) 

MASIN'S — Solution.— A solution of potassio-mercuric- 
iodide of same composition as Mayer's Solution. 

MASSET'S— Test for Biliary Colors.— See Gmelin's 
Test. 

MAUGIN'S— Reagent.— An ammoniaoal oxychloride 
of ruthenium, used for miscroscopical examination of 
tissues. 

M.iUMENE'S— Test for Distinguishing Oils.— The in- 
crease of temperature produced by mixing the oil with 
concentrated sulphuric acid is noted; drying oils generate 
a greater degree of heat than the non-drying. 

M.\UMENE'S— Test for Glucose.— Skeins of white 
wool are dipped in a 33 per cent, solution of zinc chlo- 
ride and dried. When moistened with a glucose solu- 
tion and heated to 130° C, the threads are colored brown 
to black. 

MAYER'S- -ilkaloidal Reagent.- A solution of potas- 
sio-mercuric iodide made by dissolving 13. .546 grams of 
mercuric chloride and 49.8 grams of potassium iodide in 
water sufficient to make one liter. Most alkaloids give a 
white precipitate with this reagent in acid solution. This 
reagent is also employed in the quantitative estimation 
of alkaloids. Sometimes called Phinta's, Tanret's or 
Winkler's Reagent. 

MEIIU'S— Test for Albumin.— A solution of phenol 1 
part, acetic acid 1 part, and alcohol (90 per cent.) 2 parts, 
which precipitates albumen in presence of nitric acid or 
sodium sulphate. It is best to add to the sample of urine 
one-half its volume of a saturated solution of sodium sul- 
phate. 

MELLASSEZ'— Solution.— Used in preparing Teich- 
mann's hoemin-crystals. A solution of specific gravity 
1.050 to 1.057, containing 3.75 parts of mucilage (prob- 
ably acacia), 1.S75 parts of sodium sulphate, 1.03 parts 
of sodium chloride and 100 parts of water. 

MERGET'S— Test for Mercury.— A piece of gold foil 
which has been coated with mercury (Dipping the foil 
in a sample of urine containing corrosive sublimate, to 
which stannous chloride has been added) is enveloped in 
tissue paper, this is covered with a piece of paper which 
has been dipped in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution 
and finally the whole wrapped in a dry piece of filter 
paper. The enveloped piece is pressed, and it mercury 
is present, in a few minutes the inner side of the filter 
paper will have become brown. 

MERGET'S— Test for Moisture.— Depends upon em- 
ployment of such salts as palladium chloride or mer- 
curous chloride, which possess different colors in the an- 
hydrous and hydrated conditions. (Compare Mann's Re- 
agent.) 

(To be co/:ttnued.) 



236 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA, 



[February 2o, 1897. 



THE FOUNDATION OP CHEMISTRY AS A QUAN- 
TITATIVE SCIENCE.* 

By C. A. niLL. 

W'lirii rondiiic an historical account of oxiKTimental 
inquiries made long ago in chemistry, one is bound to 
perceive how widely the science of to-day differs from 
the alchemy of olden times; but one difference, I think 
forces itself upon one again and again, viz.: In the point 
of view from which any new discovery is regarded, the 
manner in which it is followed up, and the way in which 
it is utilized. To instance what I mean: Our ancestors, 
the alchemists, could observe that s> certain, perhaps 
new, substance was formed when two bodies were 
brought together, and when they had more or less ex- 
amined the properties of this body, and had given it a 
name, tliey were content. Now, however, when we re- 
mark the formation of a substance under certain 6xed 
conditions, we attempt to determine how much of it is 
formed in relation to the amount of the reacting bodies. 
For modern chemistry is a quantitative science: to assert 
that chemistry is more than this is also correct: but that 
in its truest and most important aspects, it is essen- 
tially a science of measurement — whether of mass or of 
volume — probably no one will deny. 

The ideas held by some chemists during the latter 
half of the seventeenth century were in some respects 
in advance of those subsequently held. For instance, 
Boyle, who was altogether far ahead of his contempo- 
raries, observed that the "calces" form when metals are 
calcined in air. weigh more than the original metals, 
and this fact was later ignored by Stahl. Again, the 
theory of combustion put forward by Hooke and Ma- 
gow resembles closely the one we now believe to be cor- 
rect. Magow, in 1609. shows us that he clearly recog- 
nizes the fact that there is something in the air which 
combines with metals when the latter are calcined. 

Unfortunately for chemistry Magow died when only 
thirty-four years of age. and a very different theory of 
combustion was started by J. J. Becher. This chemist 
supposed all inorganic matter to be made up of three 
"earths." the "mercuriat," the "vitreous," and the "com- 
bustible." This last he assumed to be a component of 
all combustible bodies, and his idea of combustion was 
that the "combustible earth." or "terra pinguis" escaped, 
the other component or components of the substiinces re- 
maing behind. When metals are calcined a "calx" re- 
sults: therefore, argued Becher, the metal is a compound 
of the calx with "terra pinguis." Becher's work owes 
its recognition in great measure to the subsequent labors 
of Stahl. The last named chemist explained the phe- 
nomena of combustion and the like pretty much as 
Becher had; before there was considerable difference of 
opinion as to whether several principles such as Becher's 
"terra pinguis" existed, or only one. Stahl decided in 
favor of the latter alternative, and called it "phlogiston." 

In the overthrow of this phlogiston theory, which held 
sway for a hundred years, and in the recognition of the 
part played by oxygen in combustion, the foundation of 
modern chemistry consists; and it was only by careful 
quantitative experiments that Priestley and Cavendish 
discovered the facts which enabled Lavoisier to place 
modern chemistry on a firm basis; therefore, if chemistry 
as we know it had not been first a quantitative science, 
it would not have existed. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century Black car- 
ried out his classical researches on the carbonates of the 
alkalies and alkaline earths. Black proved that the car- 
bonates of magnesium and calcium (mild alkalies) on 
being strongly heated became caustic; that the resulting 
caustic alkalies are lighter than the original "mild" al- 
kalies; and that this ditterence in weight is due to the 
loss of "fixed air" (carbon di-oxide). Throughout these 
investigations into the composition of bodies Black made 

• Read before the Chemists' Assistants' Association. Ab- 
stract in Br. and Col. Dr. 



the balance an essential part, so these experiments may 
be taken as the beginning of quantitative chemistry. 

Tlie latter part of last century is known as the "pneu- 
matic period ' of chemistry, because chemists paid 
so much attention to the study of gases. Many analy- 
ses of air were made, and various were the reagent* 
used for absorbing the oxygen. I'ricstley used nitric 
oxide for his "dephlogisticated air" — a method which 
gave very variable results; Scheele absorbed his "fire 
air" with ferrous hydroxide, ferrous sulphide, phospho- 
rus, etc.: while Cavendish, carrying out a suggestioa 
first made by Volta, exploded with hydrogen. 

Both Boyle and Magow knew that there was one con- 
stituent of the air which supported combustion and res- 
piration, but neither was able to isolate it. Joseph 
Priestley discovered oxygen in 1744, two years after 
the discovery of nitrogen by Rutherford. There is lit- 
tle room for doubt that Scheele prepared oxygen about 
three years before Priestley's discovery, but his work 
was unfortunately not made known to the rest of the 
scientific world till a much later date, and it is with 
Priestley's discovery that we are concerned. 

Priestley believed firmly in the phlogiston theory, 
which he did so much to destroy; though he mixed hy- 
drogen with air. burnt the mixture, and noticed the 
formation of water, he was unable to realize the mean- 
ing of the phenomenon. Quick in his reasoning, and 
brilliant in his discoveries, he presents a striking con- 
trast to Cavendish, who was slow in drawing conclu- 
sions, thorough and exhaustive in his work, and above 
all. and more than any one before him, quantitative. In 
1771 he proved the composition of the atmosphere to be 
constant, and his numbers agree well with the most 
accurate analyses that have since been made. He also 
determined the proportions of air and hydrogen which 
should be mixed in order to give the maximum quantity 
of water on explosion, and having found that 423 meas- 
ures of hydrogen phlogisticate l.CKK) measures of air, 
he wrote: "We may safely conclude that when they are 
mixed in this proportion and exploded, almost all the 
inflammable air, and about one-fifth part of the com- 
mon air lose their elasticity, and are condensed into 
dew." Next he substituted oxygen for air, and the 
result of exploding "inflammable air" with "dephlogisti- 
cated air" in certain proportions was the epoch-making 
discovery — the importance of which it is indeed hard to 
overestimate — of the quantitative composition of water. 
Cavendish, in fact, had discovered that water is com- 
posed of iuflammable air and dephlogisticated air in cer- 
tain proportions, but he did not correctly interpret his 
own results; he remained to the end of his days an up- 
holder of the phlogiston theory, regarding phlogiston as 
identical with hydrogen, but afterwards, changing his 
opinion, he considered hydrogen to be a compound of 
phlogiston with water. 

James Watt, the engineer, was nearer the truth when 
he wrote to Cavendish saying, "Water is composed of 
dephlogisticated and inflammable air." 

In 1772 Lavoisier began investigating the phenom- 
ena of combustion. He found that when phosphorus is 
burnt, not only is there no loss in weight, Imt actually 
an increase; from this he inferred what was inevitable 
and correct, viz., that a portion of the air had become 
"fixed.'' To confirm this view he took calx of lead (that 
is, the substance obtained when lead is heated in air, 
and which has, therefore, absorbed some air), and heated 
it with charcoal — there was a liberation of gas.. Some 
experiments were made by Magow and Boyle, Lavoisier 
repeated and amplified. One experiment of his in partic- 
ular I should like to mention: A retort containing some 
tin was sealed up and weighed. It was now heated, 
and then weighed again, when no change in weight was 
observed. On opening the retort air rushed in, and it 
was now found to have increased in weight. The tin, 
the initial weight of which was known, was now re- 



February 25, 1S97.] 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA. 



237 



moved and weighed again; this also weighed more than 
at the beginning of the experiment, and the increase in 
weight of the tin was exactly the same as the increase 
in weight of the whole apparatus. Hence, Lavoisier 
concluded tliat the absorption of air is tlic causi^ of the 
increase of weight which talics place on calcination. 

liavoisier had a goodl.v array of facts at his disposal, 
and his great service to chemistry consisted in deducing 
from this empirical knowledge rational logical conclu- 
sions. 

What gave him a clearer insight into the phenomena 
of combustion and the like than was possessed by others, 
and enabled him to give for the first time a correct ex- 
planation of the same, was the fact that he attached 
great imjiortance to the weight of the initial and re- 
sultant substances in every reaction, making the bal- 
ance his constant companion in every investigation. 

The metals, and combustible bodies generally, were re- 
garded as compounds, while their calces, acids, etc. (that 
is. their oxidation products) were regarded as elements. 

Lavoisier exactly reversed this. 

Old view: 

Metal = phlogiston + calx. 

I'hosphorus = phlogiston + phosphoric acid. 

Modern view: 

Metal + oxygen ^ calx, or metallic oxide). 

Phosphorus -1- oxygen ( + water) = phosphoric acid. 

The phlogistonists regarded combustion as a decompo- 
sition; we regard it as a combination. 

Quite at the end of last century J. B. Richter pub- 
lished the results of his researches on the quantitative 
composition of metallic salts. The doctrine of "propor- 
tions by weight" was the outcome chiefly of this work. 
Wenzel had already proved that acids and bases com- 
bined in fixed proportions, when Richter, after having 
shown that two neutral salts give rise by mutual de- 
composition to two new salts, set himself the task of de- 
termining the proportions of acid to base in salts, and 
from his own experiments he deduced his far-reaching 
"Law of Neutralization," which states that "the quan- 
tities of different bases, which neutralize a given fixed 
quantity of an acid, contain the same amount of oxy- 
gen." 

Within ten years of Lavoisier's death appeared Claude 
Berthollet's "Essai de Statique Chimique," in which he 
attempted to explain chemical action on a purely me- 
chanical hypothesis, neglecting altogether the existence 
of chemical affinity. According to this hypothesis, by 
varying the mass of one of the re-acting bodies in a 
chemical reaction, the resulting body would be varied 
in composition, so that Berthollet maintained that there 
were no fi.xed combining proportions, and thought he 
proved that the oxides of a metal (in the case of a metal 
forming more than one oxide) contain gradually increas- 
ing amounts of oxygen. Proust showed, however, that 
BethoUet had analyzed mixtures, and in some cases hy- 
drates, and proved that the amounts of oxygen con- 
tained in the different oxides of a metal are fixed, not 
variable, and that they increase by sudden increments, 
not gradually. He thus discovered the law of multiple 
proportions, but his analyses were not sufficiently ac- 
curate to enable him to deduce this law. He could not 
see that the quantities of oxygen in the higher oxides 
were multiples of those contained in the lower oxides, 
though he could see that they wore fixed and increased 
abruptly, so it was left for John Dalton to make this 
discovery. Dalton stated the varying quantities of an 
element B, which combine with a certain fixed quantity 
of an element A in terms of this fixed quantity. The 
multiple proportions were then obvious. Without giving 
a detailed account of the experiments which led to the 
enunciation of Dalton's atomic theory, I shall content 
myself with saying that he analyzed, as well as he was 
able, ethylene and methane, carbon mon-oxide and di- 
oxide, and then nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide; and from 



the results of these very analyses he deduced his law of 
multiple proportions. Dalton did not stop here, however; 
he sought an explanation of these remarkable numerical 
relations, and found it in his "atomic hypothesis," which, 
now that it is universally accepted, we designate a 
"law." Such is the account which has for years been 
accepted as correct, but quite lately further evidence on 
this point has come to light in the shape of some of 
Dalton's manuscript, laborator.v notebooks, and it would 
seem, as Sir Henry Roscoe tells us, that Dalton proposed 
his atomic theory from purely physical considerations, 
and in confirming his theory by the chemical analyses of 
the bodies I have mentioned, he discovered the law of 
nndtipic proportions. 

The latter serves as an excellent example of the su- 
periority of quantitative ideas over qualitative, for I 
may remind you that atomic theories of one sort or an- 
other have been kmiwn for more than 2,000 years. The 
theory of atoms was founded by Lucippus and Democri- 
tus about B. C. 400. Democritus taught that the uni- 
verse was made up of atoms, homogenous in quality, 
heterogeneous in form; that these atoms combine with 
one another, and that all things arise from the infinite 
form, order, and position of the atoms in forming com- 
binations. 

An atomic theory was propounded shortly before Dal- 
ton's by Mr. AVilliam Higgins. In this the author held 
that atoms combine to form the molecules of compound 
bodies, and that they must unite singly, or by twos or 
threes (!). 

Higgins supposed the weights of the atoms of various 
elements to be the same. Dalton declared them to be 
different, and that "the relative atomic weights of the 
elements are the proportions by weight in which the 
elements combine." He made two great. enunciations: 

1. Every element is made up of homogeneous atoms, 
whose weight is constant. 

2. Chemical compounds are formed by the union of 
the atoms of different elements in the, simplest numerical 
proportions. 

Dalton's hypothesis was a chemical one, and it was 
a quantitative one, and these two differences between 
it and other atomic theories gave it the place it noW 
holds in chemical science. 



Palatable Cascara Preparations. 

By LEO C. URBAN, Milwaukee, Wis. 

In most of the published formuke for making bitterless 
cascara preparations, calcined magnesia is employed. Re- 
cently Gilpin gives a process for the preparation of a bit- 
terless cascara in which the same agent is used. The 
National Formulary process for making aromatic fluid 
extract of cascara likewise employs calcined magnesia 
for the removal of the bitter principle. 

The same results are obtained liy the use of freshly 
slaked lime at a i)roportionally lower cost. The follow- 
ing formula for Aromatic Fluid Extract of Cascara will 
serve as an illustration of the method of procedure: 

Cascara sagrada 1,000 grams 

Licorice root 150 grams 

Freshly slaked lime 100 grams 

The lime is thoroughly mixed with the ground drugs, 
and the mixture kneaded with 1,000 cc. of water. This 
is allowed to macerate for ten or twelve hours, and then 
dried at a temperature of between 40° C. and 50° C. It 
is then moistened with 400 cc. of a menstruum com- 
posed of 

500 cc. alcohol 
2.'i0 cc. glycerin. 
250 cc. water. 

It is then firmly packed in a percolator and the balance 
of the menstruum poured upon it, followed by water 
sufficient to exhaust the drug. The first 850 cc. of the 
percolate are reserved: the weaker percolate is evap- 
orated to a syrupy consistence, and added to the first per- 
colate. The aromatics, say 12 cc. of compound spirit of 
orange, are added, and lastly sufficient dilute alcohol to 
make 1,000 cc. 

The resulting preparation is very palatable, and pos- 
sesses the cathartic iirojierties of cascara in a marked 
degree. — Phar. Kev. 



238 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[February 25, 1897. 



Question Box 

TJ>e object of this department Is to furo.'sh our subscribers witb 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating to 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing difficulties, etc 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged tv mall ao4 

ANOt'-'y^ovs covML.\icArio\s ifECEive no attention 



Unanswered Query. 
(C. E. J.) Topok.i. Soo nili-s at the tup of this column. 



Formula Wanted. 

(M. .7. II. i Roubiquefs discovery. 



Almond Cream. 
(G. D. S.) See this journal. .Ian. li, 1897, page 42. 



Aromatic Elixir. 

(J. K.) Soc papc 1(17. Iiiitcil States Pharmacopceia. 



Oil of Stone. 

(S. S.) "Oil of Siune" is nn olil name for crude petro- 
leum. 



Solution of Peptonates of Iron and Manganese. 

(D. A. B.) .See tlii.s juuriial. Oct. 17, 1S95, page 490 
and July 2, 1896, page 13. 

Liver Regulator. 
(J. K.) See this journal. Xov. 12. lS9i;. page 632. We 
cannot give the formula for the proprietary article. 



Boiler Compounds. 

(I. K.) See this journal. Nov. 26. 1896. page 698, and 
Jan. 14. 1897. page 41 iTurilication of Water). We can- 
not give the formula for the proprietary article. 

Manufacturers of Blowpipes. 

(J. L.) Any manufacturer upon ref)uest will give .vou 
information as to the best blowpipe for analytical pur- 
poses, jeweler's work, etc. Addre.^s Whitall. Tatum & 
Co., or Fox, Fultz & Co.. this city. 

Magendle's Solution. 

CI. L.) Magendie's solution contains 16 grains of mor- 
phine sulphate to the fluid onnce of distilled water. See 
formula and remarUs in National Formulary, revised 
edition. We cannot give the formula for the proprietary 
preparation you name. 

Syrup Pleurisy Root. 

(W. M. R.) We know of no specific formula for a prep- 
aration of this character. A formula for compound 
syrup of pleuri.sy root is this one: 

Fluid extract pleurisy root 2 fl. ounces 

Fluid extract ijiecac U fl. ounce 

Fluid extract opium (aqueous) % <i. ounce 

Syrup 8 fl. ounces 

Pleurisy root is said to l>e diaphoretic, antispasmodic, 
tonic, diuretic and carminative. It has been used in dis- 
eases of the respiratory organs, more particularl.v in 
pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs and catarrhal affec- 
tions. 

Hair lavlgorator. 

(R. P. C.) Oil of bergamot is immiscible in aqueous so- 
lutions, or solutions made with glycerine. Hence the 
difficulty with the process you tried. Here is a formula 
■which is said to make a preparation without sediment: 
It should be kept from light. 

Lead acetate IV2 ounces 

Sodium hyposulphite .5 " ounces 

Glycerine 1 pint 

Alcohol 1.; pint 

Oil of bergamot 2 " fl. drams 

Oil bitter almond 14 fl. dram 

Rose water 2 " pints 

Water, enough to make 1 gallon 

Dissolve the lead acetate and sodium hyposulphite, 
each sei)arately in two pints of hot water, and mix the 
solutions. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, adding two 



pints of water, and rub with half an ounce carbonate of 
magnesium in a mortar, filter and aild the filtrate to the 
other mixture, then add the glycerin and enough water 
to make a gallon. 

Tincture Ferric Chloride and Oil of Wlalergreen. 

i\V. I'. S.I asks how to dispense the following prescrip- 
tion: 

Tincture ferric chloride V, ounce 

Tincture nux vomica 5 drams 

Quinine suljihate 20 grains 

Oil of gaultheria HI drops 

Water enotigh to make 8 ounces 

This prescription may be dispensed as written, al- 
though it is doubtful whether the prescriber considered 
the reaction occurring between tincture ferric chloride 
and oil of gaultheria (methyl salicylate), violet-colored 
ferric salicylate being produced when these are com- 
bined. If dispensed, the mixture should be sent out 
bearing a "shake" label. 

Female Regulator. 

(I. B. W.) We do not give the formulas for proprietary 
prejjarations because we cannot vouch for their accu- 
racy. I'roprietors, as a rule, keep these secret and chem- 
ical analysis has not yet arrived at the point where it 
is able to estimate exactly the composition and propor- 
tions of a preparation made up wholly or in part of sub- 
stances of organic derivation. Whether a given formula 
simulates any patent medicine you are quite as able as 
we are to decide. Tlie formulas in this journal, pages 
018 and 110. May 14. 189*3, and .Ian. 28, 1897, issues, 
respectively, arc typical formulas of the class repre- 
sented by the compound elixir of viburnum opulus of 
the National Formulary. 

Coloring Benzine. 

iB. F. T.) It has been stated that l)enzine and allied 
petroleum products may be colored by alkanet root, but 
.some experimenters have reported very unsatisfactory 
results. Various experiments with anilines readily ob- 
tainable in stores have also been reported; the results 
have not been satisfactory. We would suggest that you 
experiment with some of the aniline colors yourself. 
Write to the dealers, stating plainly that you want color 
substances soluble in benzine, and then a few practical 
trials will show you the degree of success obtained. If 
you are successful with your experiments, report them 
for the benefit of others, for this subject has never been 
fully investigated. 

flair Restorative. 

(W. il. K.) We cannot give you the formula for the 
proprietary preparation. However, the following, taken 
from the Era Formulary, may answer your purpose: 

Castor oil 2 quarts 

Mnseed oil 4 ounces 

Tincture cantharides 4 ounces 

Alcohol 13 quarts 

Bergamot oil 2 ounces 

Lemon oil 1 ounce 

Clove oil % ounce 

Neroli oil 2 drams 

Mix the two fatty oils and dissolve them in the alcohol 
by agitation. Then add the tincture of cantharides and 
the perfumes, and color red with cochineal tincture or 
henna tincture. 



Transmission of Emmenagogues and other Preparations Through 

the Vails. 

(A. S. S.) Reference to the United States postal reg- 
ulations reveals that the mails may be used for the 
transmission of any article not poisonous, explosive or 
inflammable, and such articles or substances which will 
in no way damage or destroy the mails or injure the per- 
sons handling them. Medicines can be thus transmitted 
(liquids, if they are secured and packed in a manner 
prescribed by the Post Office authorities). But the 
mails cannot bo used to transmit matter to fraudulent 



February 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



239 



eiitorprisi'S or coiioonis, nor sire they to be used for the 
triuisniission of illcfiilimatc, obscene oy immoral articles. 
An emmcnagogue iircparalion prescribed by a physician 
ami used for a lejritimate purpose can be transmitted 
through the mails the same as any other medicine, so 
long as it does not conflict with the postal regulations. 



Gesandheitssalz. 

((). E. 11.) By •'Sundhet salt," a formula for which 
you make inquiry, is probably meant the (ierman or 
Danish preparation known as "gesundheitssalz,'' some- 
times known as "pulvis halodii«tctieus," for which 
Ilager gives this formula: 

.Sodium liicarbonate SO parts 

rot.-issiuin chlorate l.~> parts 

("alciuni pliospliate Ill parts 

Iron pyriiphus])hate 7..^ parts 

CalciiUMl magnesia 7..T parts 

(^aleium fluoride 2 p.arts 

Silicic acid 2 parts 

Hnger gives this formula fur the "gesundheitssalz," 
Bloch, CoiK-nliagen: 

.Sodium bicarbonate ]4 parts 

Magnesium carbonate 1 part 

Peppermint oil sugar 1 part 

Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes dispensed for this 
prepaiation. 



Salicylic Acid and Quialae la a " Shake Mixture. " 

(C. S. W. D.) A satisfactory mixture cannot bo made 
from the following prescription: 

.Salicylic acid Vi ounce 

< 'uinine sulphate 2 drams 

Syrup yerba santa 2\li ounces 

Cinnamon water, enough to make. . 4 ounces 
Upon allowing the mixture to stand a short time the 
quinine and the greater part of the salicylic acid collect 
in a hard lump, wliich cannot be completely disinte- 
grated by shaking. Both salicylic acid and quinine are 
comparatively insoluble in aqueous .solutions. Hence 
were there no other considerations, that one of a small 
mixture containing so large a proportion of insoluble, 
liulky. dry substances, a heavy syrup, and but little 
water would be enough to condemn it. even as a "shake" 
ndxture. But as you surmise, salicylic acid no doubt 
throws out some of the resin in the syrup, which tends 
to make the quinine, acid, etc.. agglutinate. 



Expansion of Bromine at the Freezing Po'at. 

(G. .T. H.) Extended research through reference works 
and consultation of authorities is necessary to furnish 
you full data upon the statement: "It is held by some 
that when bromine is frozen in a glass tube. it. unlike 
ice. will not break the tube by expansion." However, 
the following may be of service. Bromine solidifies to .a 
crystalline mass at — 7° C. (Newth): bromine freezes to a 
brown crystalline solid at —4° F., 20°C. (Tidy): bromine 
freezes to a reddish-brown solid at — 22° C. (Roscoe & 
Schorlemmerl; bromine forms a red cr.vstalline solid at 
9.5° F. (Miller): bromine * * * * contracts at the 
moment of solidification, and, of course expands on liqiie- 
faction (Jliller, "Elements of Chemistry," Part I.. Chem- 
ical Physics, page 100). Expansion of bromine at differ- 
ent temperatures: At ^7° (true coeflicient), 0.(X)1, 0.016. 
0.027: mean coetficient of expansion. 0.00: 070, 234. At 
0° (true coefficient). 0.00. 0..SS. .186. At 63° (true coef- 
ficient). 0.001, .SIO, .947. Mean coefficient. 0.001, 167, 
117.3. (Gmelin's "Handbook of Chemistry," London, 
1S4S.) 



Chinese Stink Pots. 

(G. .T. H.) Wilhem's "Military Dictionary" states that 
the Chinese "stink pot" is a shell, often of earthenware, 
which, on bursting, emits a foul smell and suffocating 
smoke. No analysis of its composition is reported, but 
it is supposed to be a combination of sulphur and phos- 
phorus dissolved in bisulphide of carbon, and to which 
some mineral oil is occasionally added, with a view of in- 



creasing its incendiary properties. When this composi- 
lion is thrown on any surface the solvent evaporates, 
leaving a film of phosphorus or sulphide of phosphorus, 
which inflames .spontaneously. Chlcjride of suliihur may 
lie substituted for bisuli)hide of carbon, the ignition, 
however, not taking place quite so soon, thus giving time 
for the liquid to penetrate into woodwork and canvas. 
An abominable odor is diffused during the cond>ustion. 
Wilhelm says the proper mode of extinguishing such a 
fire is to throw over it damp sand, ashes, sawdust, 
Wet sacking or carpeting, or any material which will 
exclude the air from the fire. No attempt should be 
made to remove the covering for some time, and the 
place should then be washed by a powerful jet of water 
fcu'ced upiin it. 



Fungus Growth In Saturated Solution of Boric Add. 

(W. .T. K.) We cannot account for the "fungus 
growth" in your solution. The change has been frequent- 
ly observed in cocaine solutions containing boric acid, 
though it is generally considered that such growths do 
not develop in saturated aqueous solutions of boric acid. 
Ill fact, in reply to a query from the New York State 
Pharmaceutical Association regarding the alleged devel- 
opment of these growths, a Brooklyn chemist reported 
that in a series of test liquids prepared for that pur- 
pose, which were examined from time to time, he had 
failed to find any germs which could have developed 
therein. A recent saturated solution of boric acid pur- 
posely infected with a fungoid growth from a solution of 
sulphate of strychnine, did not develop any more of it, 
but he reported the boric acid was unable to destroy or 
kill it entirely. A saturated four per cent, solution of 
boric acid has been found in general to render the lower 
organisms inert or inactive. In preparing solutions of 
this character for hypodermic use, eye lotions, etc., care 
should be taken to use freshly distilled water, a thor- 
oughly clean bottle, etc. Only a small quantity should 
be put up at once, and only then for immediate use. The 
continued action of light and exposure is favorable to 
the development of these growths. 



Polish tor Axe and Pick Handles. 

(W. D. B.) wants a very cheap polish, which may be 
applied liy means of a belt covered with cork to axe, 
pick or other wood handles. The following have been sug- 
gested. .Tust how well they will work requires a little 
experimenting to determine: 

(1) Yellow wax 125 parts 

Hard soap 30 parts 

Glue (iO parts 

Soda ash (80°) 125 parts 

Water and whiting, a sutficieut quantity. 

Dissolve the soda in 2,000 parts of water; add the wax; 
boil down to 1,2.50 parts, and add the soap. Dissolve 
the glue in 500 parts of water by the aid of heat; stir in 
the whiting, and mix the whole with the sofution of wax 
and soap. 

(2) Beeswax V- pound 

Yellow soap i/^ pound 

Water 5 pints 

Boil to a proper degree of consistence, with constant 
agitation, then add boiled oil and spirit of turpentine, of 
each, Vn pint. For use dilute with water. 

(3) Wax 4% ounces 

Soap j^ ounce 

Spirit turpentine V> pint 

Boiling water 1/5 pint 

Melt the wax in a covered jar by gentle heat; add the 
turijentine carefully, and then gradually add the soap, 
previously dissolved in the water, and stir until stiff. 



Volatile Oils by Fermentation. 

(Clerk). There are two official volatile oils derived by 
the action of a ferment, viz., volatile oil of mustard and 
oil of bitter almond. Black mustard contains besides a 
fixed oil myrosin, an albuminous body, and myronie acid. 



240 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[February 25, 1897. 



a glucoside. After the fixed oil is removed by pressure 
the drug is macerated with warm water, whereby tho 
iiiyroiiic aeiil is split up into allyl sulplioeyanate, acid po- 
tassium sulpliate and kIucosc, thus: 

C„H,,KXO,„S = CSN-O.H. + 
SJyronic Acid Allyl Sulpho- 

eyanate 
C.H„0. + KIISO. 

Glucose Acid I'otassiiim 

Sulphate 
The volatile oil formed is removed by distillation. 
Oil of bitter almond, known also as aldehyde of ben- 
zyl alcohol or bonz.iMeliydc, is obtained from the bitter 
almond, after the removal of the fixed oil, by macerating 
in distilled wjiter and then removing the generated oil by 
distilling over with steam. There is present in the bit- 
ter almond a ferment (emulsin) which in the presence of 
water causes the ghicoside amygdalin to break up into 
benzaldchyde (oil of bitter almond), hydrocyanic acid 
and glucose, according to the following equation: 
C.oH„NO,, + 2U.0 = CoH.COH + 
IICX -1- 2C.H,.0, 



sue ot Mixture. 

(Subscriber) wants to know what will be the quantity 
of finished product in each of the following prescrip- 
tions: 

No. 1. 

Syr. ferri iodidi 1% drams 

Syr. sarsaparilla, 

Syr. stillingia compound, aa., quad.. .1 ounce 
No. 2. 

Syr. ferri iodidi IV2 drams 

Syr. sarsaparilla, 

Syr. stillingia compound, quad 2 ounces 

The best any one can do with either is to pass an opin- 
ion upon it, which, however, does not definitely answer 
the question. The physician is the only one who can 
answer. Assuming the word here written "quad" to be 
intended for the abbreviation "q. s." (quantum suflicit), 
and the adverbial preposition "ad" (up to), we think 
there can be not very much doubt that the prescriber 
intended enough of the mixture of equal parts of syrup 
sarsaparilla and compound syrup of stillingia to be used 
to make the quantities measure one and two ounces, re- 
spectively. When correctly employed "ad" indicates the 
use of a quantity necessary to complete a certain meas- 
ure, and strict usage would compel it to be applied to but 
one iugredient. If in the first prescription after the ab- 
breviation "a a" the prescriber had specified "partes 
sequales" (equal parts), and had supplied this informa- 
tion in the second prescription, there would have been no 
question as to his intentions. Why not consult him? 



Formulas for Coafectloaery. 

(W. A. H.) The manufacture ot confectionery is a sub- 
ject rather ontside the scope of a pharmaceutical journal, 
and we cannot, therefore, publish all the formulas and 
processes for which you ask. A formula for making 
"burnt almonds" is here given; for other information we 
would refer you to such books as Frye"s "Practical 
Candy Maker," for confectioners and others, ^5; Wealh- 
erley's "Tieatise on the Art of Boiling Sugar, Crystal- 
lizing. Lozenge Making, Comfits, Gum Goods, Etc.," 
§1.50; "Notes on American Confectionery," $2. 
Burnt Almonds. (E*rye.) 

Take six pounds of .Jordan almonds, six pounds of 
sugar, and one quart of water. Put part of the sugar 
on the fire, and, when it comes to a boil, add the nuts. 
and cook over a very slow fire until the nuts cease to 
crack; in this way the nuts will be thoroughly roasted. 
Then set off the basin, and stir and turn the batch until 
the sugar granulates; throw all into a sieve, and shake 
the loose sugar off. Put this into a basin, with a little 
water to dissolve it. Cook it to a soft ball; remove the 
basin from the fire and add the nuts; stir and turn the 



batch until the sugar ngaiu granulates; throw into the 
sieve and shake oflf the loose sugar as before. Put it 
into the basin with enough sugar added to make six 
pounds; add water to dissolve, and color a deep red; 
cook to a soft ball; remove, and add almonds as before; 
while granulating the sugar this time, add one teaspoon- 
ful of ground cinnamon. Now, put into the basin one 
pint of dissolved gum arable, made black by adding 
burnt sugar color to it; set oft and throw in the almonds; 
stir again, throwing the nuts over and over, until all 
are covered with the gum; then spread them out on a 
tray, and put in a warm place to dry. To make a hard 
coating, cook the sugar to a hard crack, or 290 degrees 
each time, instead of a soft ball; this kind will retain 
the gloss much longer, but the soft coating is the most 
popular. 



Nickel aaa Silver Platlog Solutions. 

(H. ly. S.) The "cli'ar ' solution sometimes sold by 
peddlers for nickel plating is a solution of nitrate of 
mercury, the plating deposited upon the metal being 
nothing more than metallic mercury. Here is a process 
for nickeling without a battery: In a vessel of porcelain, 
or preferably copper, place a concentrated solution of 
chloride of zinc, dilute with from one to two volumes of 
water, and heat to boiling. If a precipitate separates it 
is to be redissolved bj' adding a few drops of hydrochlo- 
ric acid. A small quantity of powdered zinc is then 
thrown in, by which the vessel becomes covered with 
a coating of zinc. Either the chloride or sulphate of 
nickel is then added until the liquid is distinctly green; 
and the articles to be plated, previously thoroughly 
cleaned, are introduced, together with .some zinc frag- 
ments. The boiling is continued for fifteen minutes, 
when the coating of nickel is completed. The articles 
are then well washed with water and cleaned with chalk.- 
If a thicker coating is desired the operation is repeated. 
Silvering Solution. 

Sodium bisulphite 10 ounces 

Distilled water, enough to dissolve. 

Nitrate silver 264 grains 

Distilled water 2 ounces 

Dissolve the salts separately and mix the .solutions. 
Allow the article to remain in the mixture until it is 
proiH'rly coated; remove and wash with water, to which 
a small amount of sodium bicarbonate has been added; 
finally wash with water and dry in sawdust. For for- 
mulas and processes used in connection with a battery 
see this journal, Feb. 27, 1896, page 272. 



FffiARMAGY 



GERMOL. — An antiseptic similar to cresole. 



VASOL. — A combination of petrolatum and ammon- 
ium oleate. 



TAR ACETONE.— A solution of wood-tar in acetone, 
used in skin diseases. 



lODOFORM-SALOL.— A mixture obtained by fusing 

together iodoform and salol. 



SOZOBORAL. — A mixture of aristol, sozoiodol and 
borates, used in colds as a snuff. 



GALLOBROMOL.— A di-bromo-gallic acid, which is 
recommended as a substitute for bromides in treatment 
of gonorrhcea. 



AMYI.OCARBOL.— A solution of phenol 9 parts, 
green soap l.'iO parts, in 160 parts of amyl alcohol, to 
which water is added to make 1.000 parts. 



Febiuary 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



241 



.VDHAESOL.— Au otheroal solution of bouzole, tolu 
balsam, copal rosin, oil of th.vme and aliiha-naphthol. 



RROUCTION KY CAIjCIUM CARBIDE.— The use 
of calcium carbide as a metallurgical rcduciug agent is 
described by II. N. Warren tCli. News. I'h. .Tr.>. On 
excess of litharge being heated to redness with the car- 
bide, metallic lead and calcium oxide result, the reaction 
being accompanied by vivid iticandescence. When the 
carbide is in excess carbon dioxide is evolved, and a 
regnlus of calcium and lead obtained, of varying percent- 
age, according to the temperature employed. The alloys 
thus formed are all more or less brittle, and to a cer- 
tain extent sonorous when struck. Their melting points 
rank lielow that of pure lead, and they are slowly but 
completely decomposed in contact with aqueous vapor, 
the reaction being much loss energetic than that afforded 
by alloys of lead with the alkali metals. .Stannic, cu- 
pric, and ferric oxides are readily reduivd by the car- 
bide, but yield results of no practical value, while mag- 
gancse, nickel, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum and tung- 
sten oxides yield calcium alloys on reduction. 



A VEGETABLE rUMPIXG EXGIXE.— This is the 
title bestowed upon the ordinary tree by Sir Benjamin 
Ward Richardson. In a recent address, quoted in Cas- 
sier's Magazine (Sci. Amer.l, he says: "Hydraulic en- 
gineers would be sorely puzzled to explain how the large 
quantity of water required to supply the evaporation 
from the extended leaf surface is raised to heights up to 
-100 feet and above. We know that the source of energy 
must be the sun's rays, and we know further that, in 
the production of starch, the leaf stores up less than 
one per cent, of the available energy, so that plenty re- 
mains for raising water. Experiments have shown that 
transpiration at the leaf establishes a draught upon the 
sap, and there is reason to believe that this pull is trans- 
mitted to the root by tensile stress. The idea of a rope 
of water sustaining a pull of perhaps 150 pounds per 
square inch may be repugnant to many engineers, but 
the tensile strength and extensibility of water and other 
fluids have been proved experimentally by Prof. Os- 
borne Reynolds and by Prof. Worthington and others."' 



AN IMPROVED BUNSEN GAS BURNER.— Dr. K. 
Bierbach, of Berlin, has made a material moditieation of 
the ordinary Bunsen burner, says the Progressive Age 
Sci. Am.). The Bunsen burners now in use suffer from 
too great rigidity of form, which makes it impossible to 
use the burner for certain purposes. A lateral heating of 
apparatus can be accomplished by the ordinary Bunsen 
burner with difliculty only, while in some cases it is en- 
tirely out of the question. Yet it is frequently a neces 
sity, for instance, in the distilling of liquids possessing 
a very high boiling point, or of those which are violently 
agitated by boiling; or it is desirable for other reasons 
to place the burner not under but beside the apparatus. 
The improved burner is so constructed that its flame can 
be moved in every direction like the stream of a fire en- 
gine. The burner consists of a mixing tube for gas and 
air bent in a right angle so as to form a long shank and 
a shorter one. The long shank is so arranged in a ring 
provided with a screw that it can be turned and moved 
in the ring. The ring can be turned around the axle of 
a vertical joint -which rests upon a flat plate-shaped foot. 
By this triple action the knee tube can be put into any 
position desired, and the mixture of gas and air can be 
conducted through it in both directions by means of an 
adjustable rubber tube. When the gas is conducted 
through the lower shank the burner can be placed under 
the lowest apparatus, when it flows into the shorter 
shank the position of an ordinary Bunsen burner is ob- 
tained: by inclining it lateral heating can bo accom- 
plished. 



PROCESS FOR r>ETECTING ADULTERATIONS 
IN ."^ILK AND WOOL.-.V newly discovered and al- 
most infallible method of detecting adulterations in silk 
and wool, writes Consul Sawler, of Glauchau, Germany, 
has recently been receiving much attention and experi- 
ment in Germany. The materials employed in adulterat- 
ing silk and wool are, as a rule, cotton, linen, and china 
grass, and so reliable and exact is this new system of 
detection, when used, thai even 1 jier cent, of any of the 
above-named spurious substitutes is immediately discov- 
ered and recognized. The method is as follows: A small 
piece of the suspicious material is taken and well 
cleaned, particular care being exercised to remove from 
the sample every particle of starch or gum dressing, a 
precaution which is most important to insure the success 
of the experiment. The prepared specimen of silk or 
wool is then steeped for from six to ten hours in sul- 
phuric acid, with which some water is used to reduce 
its strength. After this part of the process and the re- 
quired delay, the acid fluid is poured off and the acid 
soaked piece of cloth or silk placed in a porcelain vessel, 
to which is added sufficient alkali to turn a piece of lit- 
mus paper a deep violet in color; upon this is poured u 
few drops of a weak solution of archil, or orchil— a violet 
dye obtained from several species of lichen. The con- 
coction is then heated for some minutes to 82° Celsius. 
If, after carefully observing all the above-mentioned di- 
rections, 1 per cent, or fraction thereof of spurious part 
composition or vegetable iiber exists the violet hue pro- 
duced by the archil will have disappeared; if, on the 
other hand, the violet effect remains, it is considered ab- 
solute evidence and proof of the addition of vegetable 
fiber in adulteration of the material tried in whatever 
per cent, is indicated by the experiment. 



ESTIMATION OF IODOFORM IN GAUZE.— Dr. 

Schaclierl (Zeitschr. Oester. Apoth. Verein.) proposes 
the following method, which consists in decomposing the 
iodoform by means of sodium ethylate in a pressure flask 
' and then estimating the liberated iodine (as KI), after 
Volhard's method. As pressure flask, the author em- 
ployed a strong flask, the outer edge of the neck of 
which had been ground off perfectly level; over this a 
piece of rubber is placed, held in position by means of 
a piece of plate glass clamped on securely by means of 
an iron frame, which fits over the entire bottle. 

Of the samjile of gauze 1 to 1.5 gm. (30 to 5tW), or 2 to 
2.5 gm. (10 to 20,'<), are weighed off in the flask; over 
this is poured a cold solution of about 0.5 gm. of metal- 
lic sodium in 30 gm. of absolute alcohol, the flask is se- 
curely sealed and heated fm- one-half hour in a water 
bath. After cooling, the brown alcoholic fluid is de- 
canted off and the gauze washed several times by de- 
cnntation with distilled water. The mixed fluids are 
heated to drive off the excess of alcohol and evaporated 
to low bulk. The fluid is then acidified with pure nitric 
ai-iil (free from nitrous) and filtered into a 200 cc. flask; 
to this an accurately measured volume of ^^ volu- 
metric solution of silver nitrate (30 cc.) is added and 
wat'r added up to the 200 cc. mark. The mixture is 
well shaken and filtered into a dry vessel. 1(K» cc. are 
drawn off, transferred to a flask, about 2 cc. of a satu- 
rated solution of ferric alum (free from CI.) added, and 
then ^^j( volumetric solution of ammonium sulfocyanide 
added until a permanent brownish coloration is produced. 
The number of cc. of the sulfocyanide solution used, mul- 
tiplied by 2, is subtracted from the volume of the silver 
solution used; the difference gives the quantity of silver 
solution taken up by the iodine. Each cc. of the silver 
solution corresponds to O.OKUlSti gm. of iodoform. 

Metallic sodium is emplo.vod here in producing sodium 
alcoholate. in order to avoiil introducing traces of chlo- 
rine, as would be the case in using caustic soda. 

Another portion of the sample (weighed) is extracted 
with alcohol in a Soxhlefs extractor, then dried at 100° 
('.. ."I'nd weighed. On a<lding the percentages of iodoform 
and gauze, and subtracting this from 100. the percentage 
of glycerin present is estimated. 



242 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[February 25, 1897. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 

CAMPAIGN AGAINST SUBSTITUTION. 

DAILY NKWSPAPKUS Hi:(ilN INSTUrCTING THE I'lH- 
LIO AND PKorUIICTOUS ATl'EAL TO THK GOOD- 
NATURE OE UETAILEKS TUUOUGH THE PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL ruEss. 

The results of the conforciue botwei'U mcmlit'i's of tlii> 
Proprietary Associatiou mid the Newspaper Publishers' 
Association, 1k'1<1 at tlie Hoffman House last week, are 
already apparenl. From all parts of the country come 
newspapers with articles setting forth the evils of sub- 
stitution. The advertising columns of tlie pharmaceuli- 
eal press also teem with appeals to the good nature of 
druggists. It is learned that the conference held a 
week ago Tuesday and reported in last week's Kra, was 
rather a contentious one. In the first place, the news- 
paper men did not clearly understand whether they were 
expected to discountenance cutting or substitution, and 
some of them did not appear to understand the meaning 
of these two terms. Prof. Munyon, who is not a mem- 
ber of the Proprietary Association at all, but is a heavy 
advertiser, proposed to the astounded publishers that 
they refuse to take advertisements from druggists or 
department stores that handled articles of their own 
manufacture which might be substituted for advertised 
goods. The newspaper men did not see the force of an 
argument to throw overboard $20,00<1 worth of depart- 
ment store advertising for $2,000 worth of homoeopathic 
medicine advertising. 

The best speech of all was delivered by a newspaper 
man, Mr. Taylor, of the St. Louis Chronicle, who told 
what he knew about substitution in St. Louis. He told 
how a man in St. Louis called at a drug store for a bottle 
of Scott's Emulsion and received instead, without a 
word of explanation, a bottle labeled "Emulsion of Cod 
Liver Oil," and having at the bottom of the label the 
words "Prepared by .T. D. Scott & Company, of St. . 
Louis." He said that the same man went back to the 
store again and asked for Scott's Emulsion. This time 
he was told that there were two Scott's Emulsions, one 
made by J. D. Scott & Co., and the other by Scott & 
Bowne, and that the .T. D. Scott & Co.'s emulsion was 
the better. Mr. Taylor submitted a lot of bottles to 
show how counterfeiting and substitution are carried 
on. He said he had been unable to find any such firm 
in St. Louis as .1. D. Scott & Co. Mr. Bowne, who was 
incorrectly reported in last week's Era as having suVi- 
mitted the bottles himself, made a temperate speech. He 
said it was impossible to abolish the cutting evil; it had 
come to stay. He also said the retail druggist had a 
perfect right to manufacture pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions on his own account. What he did object to was 
the substitution of an article of home manufacture when 
an advertised article was called for, and he believed this 
could be prevented by enlightening the public as to their 
rights. 

The upshot of it all was the appointment of a joint 
committee from both associations to consider the sub- 
ject. Accordingly Wednesday evening, at the Hoffman 
House, a dinner was presided over by Fred Whiting, of 
the Boston Herald, and attended by the committee and 
two or three others, as follows: Milton A. McRae, of the 
Scripps-McRae League; Maj. Richards, of the Indian- 
apolis News: Frank B. Stevens, Mr. Bowne, V. Mott 
Pierce. George B. Bower, of the J. C. Ayer Company; 
Mr. Doliber and Professor Munyon. What was said and 
done there will probably never be known, because all 
interviewed afterward denied that anything had been 
agreed upon between the two great organizations inter- 
ested. It seems to have been decided to let each pub- 
lisher and each proprietor make such individual arrange- 
ments as suited them, now that the publishers fully rea- 
lized how much in earnest the proprietors were about 
this thing. 



Alleged Agents for a Drug Firm In Trouble. 

CU'veland, Ohio, Feb. 10.— Three men, who represented 
themselves to be Chicago newspaper reporters, and who, 
lis a side line, were alleged agents for the Mackenzie 
Itrug Company of that city, were arrested on Wednes- 
day night onthree separate charges, the principal of these 
being that of obtaining money under false pretenses. In 
police court Thursday morning the three men pleaded 
"not guilty." and deinaiided a hearing, their cases being 
finally continued. The men «re I>. II. McDaniels, M. A. 
Barringer and .Toscph Connell. McDaniels, against 
whom the police probably have no case, simply holding 
him as a witness against the other men, says that he 
has been in the employ of the Mackenzie Drug Company 
of Chicago since Dec. 8, 18!)(!, and has been running a 
branch office of the company in the Society for Savings 
Building in this city. He was to employ sub agents, his 
salary to lie .$40 a month and commissions on the goods 
sold. McDaniels fitted out the Cleveland office at his 
own expense, and incurred other little bills amounting 
to something like $3(X), all of which the drug company 
was to pay him back on the first day of February. When 
the money was not forthcoming on that day he became 
suspicious, and ^vith the consent of the Chicago people 
advertised the agency for sale. Several "reubens" bit, 
but none of them was so green as to pay the necessary 
.$200 security, which the company demanded. Finally 
a man by the name of Davis agreed to buy the agency, 
the Mackenzie people offering him $1,000 a year as sal- 
ary. The .1!200, however, was the "sticker" with him. 
but he finally made a deposit of .$10 in the shape of a 
iheck. In the meantime Barringer and Connell were 
urged by McDaniels to come to Cleveland and help close 
the deal. They accordingly came, arriving here Tuesday 
morning. Instead of getting down to business at once, 
they hobnobbed with the reporters and desk officers at 
the Central police station, and made quite an impres- 
sion. 

Several of the people who had fallen into the trap had 
complained to the police, and the latter had turned the 
case over to the detective department, .so that while the 
Chicago men were enjoying themselves in the police sta- 
tion and the detectives' apartments, the detectives were 
scouring the city for them. Late Wednesday night the 
detectives caught on to their game, and immediately ar- 
rested them. It is thought that the men are not bona 
fide representatives of the Mackenzie Company, as that 
comiiany has been advertising extensively for the past 
several months, warning people to have nothing to do 
with the men. 



I 



The Lexow Senate Investigating Committee. 

The Lexow Senate Investigating Committee, which 
has been stirring up the trusts and other large capital- 
istic combinations in New York State the last fortnight, 
paid some attention to the manufacturers of soda on 
Feb. 17. 

William I. Warner, of the Church & Dwight Company, 
manufacturers of bicarbonate of soda, sal soda and sal- 
eratus, said that his firm had been incorporated July 1. 
ISOO. with a capital of $2,0ai.000, after they had ac- 
quired a number of lesser firms. In answer to inquiries. 
he testified that an agreement had been entered into by 
which the jobber was not permitted to sell soda in New 
York and New .Jersey at less than 5 cents a pound in 
packages and 4 cents a pound in bulk, under penalty of 
forfeiting a rebate, which was ^/t cent per pound, and 
that he should sell only soda manufactured by Church 
vV Dwight. He was asked whether he had a monopoly 
on the sale of soda in the State of New Y'ork. "I would 
not say we had a monopoly," he replied, "I think we sell 
more of it than anybody else." He said that the Whole- 
sale Grocers' Associatiou favored the system. John E. 
Dwight. of the same firm, testified in similar lines, and 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



[W££KLV.] 



The contents of this pitWicafion are covered tiy the general copuright, and articles must not he reprinted uHthout special permission. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, MAItCH 4, 1807. 



No. 9. 



ENTERED AT THE hEW VOflK POST OEFICE, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER. 



Established 1887. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



J-AOE 

PVlitiinal 2.')9 

Pr"i>oRed Phiirmiu-y Law 

li)i' (ireati r New Yoik . • ifil 

Suiuui'l (;. McCorter XI 

Hfciillivtiiins (if iin Old 

'I'iiiu' Iliuir Clei-li 265 

List of itcactiniis and Re- 

ajrents .\ l- c o rd i n g to 

Names r)f .-Xiititoi-s 267 

En<rlrsl) Phai-maceutical 

Atfaiis 3H8 

Phaiiniicy -'70 

WueMtittn Hox 271 



News Department 

The Cleveland Swindlers... 

The Plague in India 

t)bituary 

C o 1 1 e g: e s of Pharmacy 
Doinjis 

Mei'tinjrs of Boards of 
Pharmacy 

Advertisinir for Retail 
Diusriiists 

Trade Kep(^rts. Drug Mar- 
kets. Trade Notes, etc., 
see advertising pages. 



285 

285 



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THE SUBSTITUTION PROBLEM. 

A CAREFUL REVIEW OF THE CAUSES WHICH LED 
TO PRESENT CONDITIONS— HOW THE EVIL CAN 
BE REMEDIED. 

At the recent annual meeting of the American Pub- 
lishers' Association held in this city, by special request 
a number of the leading proprietors of proprietary medi- 
cines held a conference with these publishers of the large 
daily papers to give particular consideration to the sub- 
ject of substitution. Nothing was accomplished at this 
conference except to refer the matter to a special com- 
mittee consisting of three publishers and three proprie- 
tors, who were to suggest means for romed.ving this evil. 
While in one sense this might have been called a mer- 
cenary conference, it is by touching one's pocketbook 
that you get to his soul, and we believe that the public 
gener.Tlly and the drug trade particularly are to bo con- 
gratulated upon the fact that these two important factors 
are sulliciently aroused to give this subject of substitu- 
tion their special study and consideration, the results of 
which should be beneficial to all classes of business men 
who are interested in the sale or marketing of these 
goods. If in years past these same proprietors and news- 
paper men had acted upon the advice of those who had 
studied the problem from the standpoint of the druggist, 
they would not at this late date be running up against 
the stone wall which now confronts them, and it is for 
the purpose of giving this esteemed cotnmittee the benefit 
of the druggists' side of this story that we offer these 
remarks. 

To fully comprehend the situation it is necessary to 
turn back a few leaves in our story. In earlier days and 
before the birth of that commercial octopus, the depart- 
ment store, patent tnedicines were retailed exclusively 
by the retail druggists, and in towns where there were 
no druggists, by the so-called general store. A number 
of the leading proprietary medicines of to-day were intro- 
duced by consigning auantities of goods to these little 
country dealers, and, in fact, some of the old houses still 
continue thousands of these consignment accounts. As 
the railro.ads were multiplied and extended the jobbing 
druggist came into the field as the source of supply for 
the retailer, and the volume of trade drifted into that 
channel. It was considered that the average profit to 
the druggist should be from 33i{. to 40 per cent, of his 
sales. The dollar articles were furnished to him at from 
$7 to $8 per dozen, and he retailed them at the full price 
of $1 for a single bottle, or six bottles for $5. 

The business flourished, the manufacturers made 
money, the druggists made a profit on the goods and all 
were happy. The druggists distributed almanacs and cir- 
culars, tlie proprietor placed his advertisements in the 
papers and worked up a demand for his goods which the 
retailers supplied. In all of these advertisements the 
prices of the articles were invariably given, and this pub- 
lication of these prices may, in one sense, be put down 
as the foundation for all subsequent trouble. 

As years passed the enterprising department store 
came into existence, and about the first thing the pro- 
prietor began to do, in order to convince the public that 
he was selling goods cheaper than others, was to take 
some well known patent medicine, tlie retail price of 
which wasthorotighly established in the tninds of the pub- 






26U 



THE 1'UAK.MxVCEUTICAL ERA. 



[Millrh 4, l^;i7. 



lie, and adTertise it at a cut-rate. The so-called cut-rate 

drug store from necessity followed the example of the 
department store, and then the trouble began in earnest. 
The little retailer soon found that goods which cost him 
06% cents were being retailed by the department store 
at 67 cents, and he, for self protection, was compelled 
10 sell something else. We wish to emphasize this state- 
ment, that the druggist was forced into the so-called sub- 
stitution business iu self-defense. 

Every one will admit that drug stores in residence por- 
tions of a community are a great convenience. When 
one needs medicine, be it day or night, he does not want 
to be obliged to go several blocks or miles to find a drug 
store. These drug stores are not only a convenience but 
an absolute necessity in every community, and they 
should be supported. If the people go down town to the 
department store to buy their patent medicines, tooth 
brushes, toilet goods, and leave nothing but the prescrip- 
tion trade for the druggist, it does not leave sutficient for 
him to live upon. 

The daily sales of these small stores will not average 
more than from $15 to .f20 per day. It does not take 
very much of a mathematician to figure out what per- 
centage of profit a druggist must have upon his sales 
in order to pay his rent, for his wood, his coal-oil, to the 
boy who does chores around his shop after school hours, 
and to leave a few slices of bread and an occasional 
beefsteak for the members of his family, if he is so rash 
or unfortunate as to be married. We read a great deal 
in the daily papers about the enormous profit of the drug- 
gist; in fact, these papers have been poking fun at the 
druggist so long that it seems almost second nature for 
them to continue it. If the editors of these papers are 
acquainted with any retail druggists who are burdened 
with riches, we would like to have them pointed out. 

The plain fact is that there is no more intelligent, con- 
scientious, hard-working, long-hours class of laborers in 
this country (and who are so poorly paid) than the pro- 
prietors and clerks in retail drug stores. A man will 
send for a carpenter to put up a shelf in his cellar, and 
he expects to pay the carpenter for the board, and the 
nails, and the screws, and the brackets, and fifty cents 
an hour for the man's time; but if he takes a prescription 
to a drug store and is charged 15 or 20 or 25 cents for 
labor, which can only be performed by one who has 
(lualified himself by several years of study and experi- 
ence, there is a howl; the druggist is accused of robbing 
because he charges twenty-five cents for a prescription 
which really contains onl.v five cents' worth of materials. 
We beg of you. gentlemen of the press, to stop poking 
fun at the druggist and to be a little consistent in your 
criticisms of a very much over-worked, under-paid class 
of intelligent citizens. 

When the department stores began to advertise patent 
medicines at cut rates, the proprietor, instead of stepping 
forward and trying to stop the practice and to keep his 
goods in the channels where they belonged, sat back in 
his chair, put his feet upon his desk, his thumbs in his 
waistcoat, and while smoking a good cigar, declared: 
"Well, I am a lucky dog! All of these big stores are ad- 
vertising my goods in black type, and if this thing keeps 
on I won't even have any advertising bills to pay, for I 
can cut off the contracts that I have with those big 
daily papers." But such proprietor counted without his 
host, the little retail druggist, small, impecunious and 
brought up on a two-cent basis, but at the same time 
who was in touch with the people. Probably no one be- 
side the physician knows more than the druggist about 
the family secrets or guards them more honorably, and 
when the poor woman goes around to the corner drug 
store for a bottle of sarsaparilla. she is pretty apt to be 
influenced by what her druggist recommends. Recent 
developments have proven that this version is more than 
correct. Now. the proprietor comes forward and asks 
the great daily papers to assist him in crushing these 



druggists; teach them a lesson; show them that they have 
no business to sell something else when his goods are 
called for. 

We were very much amused at the remarks credited 
to one speaker at this recent conference. He said: 
"Gentlemen, I went to a druggist the other day. I asked 
him how, after I had spent my money to send customers 
to his store for my goods, he dared to sell them some- 
thing else. At this he turned upon me and said: 'Why 
do you dare to send people to my store? I never told you 
to seud people to my store. This is my store and I have 
a right to sell whatever I please, and I don't ask j'ou to 
seud people here for anything.' " "1 confess," said the 
speaker, "that his reply staggered me." 

The first cause of the trouble, as we have intimat' ' 
was in advertising to the public the retail prices of t)i 
goods. Tliis gave the department stores just the bait tli' 
wanted to bring people to their establishments. Of com -■• 
we all know that they used them as baits and expected lu 
make their money on something else with the price of 
which people were not familiar. This action not only 
drove the druggist in self-protection to the selling of otli> r 
goods, but the department stores themselves soon bccaiin' 
tired of selling goods at about cost, and the.v have proven 
to be the worst substitiuers of them all. Most of tlnni 
have rank substitutes for almost every legitimate pr'j- 
prietary medicine, and tliey offer their clerks extra cuin- 
missions on all sales of their own preparations. The r.- 
suit is that our friend, the proprietor, who thought he was 
so fortunate and congratulated himself so heartily upon 
the department stores pushing the sale of his goods, 
now finds that ver.v action is proving to be, to a very 
large extent, the ruination of his business. He cannot 
depend upon the department store, he has lost the friend- 
ship of the druggist, and now. as a request, and in our 
opinion an erroneous one. he asks the dail.v press to come 
forward and educate the people to the fact that they 
should never take anything hut the original. 

We will only briefly refer to another phase of this sub- 
ject, and that is in regard to the druggists' right to sell 
medicines. It is the rankest nonsense to assume that 
druggists are not qualified to furnish these ready-made 
prescriptions. The average druggist knows more about 
putting up medicines than the average proprietary man. 
A proprietary business is only one branch of a 
retail shop on a larger scale, and a very large number of 
the principal proprietary medicines had their beginnings 
over the counters of some little retail drug shops. The 
question is, what can be done to remedy the so-called 
evil? In our opinion the first requisite is for the proprie- 
tors themselves to determine each for himself whether he 
does or does not want the retail druggists to be the dis- 
tributers of his goods. If he does. (Did is in earnest, we 
are confident that it ran be nccompUshcd. If he contin- 
ues to be hike-warm and trust to Providence and his 
usual good luck, matters will drift on from bad to worse. 
But if he is really in earnest and wants to keep the distri- 
butionofhis goods in the recognized legitimate drug chan- 
nels, he can do it by the simple adoption of a few stead- 
fast rules for the regulation of his business. We make 
this statement with every confidence in its possibilities, 
and this opinion is based upon years of observation and 
study of this problem, combined with an extended drug 
experience. Just what these rules and regulations are we 
will not attempt to state here, but shall be glad to ex- 
plain them to any proprietor who may be interested. 

To .vou editors of the daily press we wish to say, that if 
you desire to do something to help this work along, be- 
cause it will be of benefit to your patrons, and indirectl.v 
a benefit to yourselves, direct your philanthropic efforts 
toward educating your readers in the knowledge that the 
drug store is the proper place to buy medicines. Drug 
stores are a necessity, and the more we can have of 
them in the residence districts, the greater convenfence 
to the inhabitants. In times of emergency this conveni- 



March 4, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



261 



enco is of inestimable value. Say to the people that if 
ihoy want good ilnij; stores and many of them, they 
must patronize the stores in their localities. Medicines 
should not be purchasoil because they are cheap but be- 
cause someone is ill, and cheap medicines always e.xcite 
suspicion. The department store is not an appropriate 
l)laco to purchase medicines. We are tohl that John 
Wananiaker. the recognized prince of merchants, has no 
drug dejiartnient in his mammoth establishments in Phil- 
adelphia and New York, because he recognizes the great 
convenience of drug stores in residence portions of cities, 
and, further, because, as he says, he does not wish to 
take the resiionsibility of handling merchandise which 
may so seriously affect the lives or health of his patrons. 
This, in our opinion, is a very just and equitable decision 
on his part. Everything in this world cannot be put upon 
the 90-cent basis. When our children are sick we want 
a doctor and we want him quick; we want the medicine 
without delay and we want it right. Educate your read- 
ers to go to the drug stores to buy their medicines; use 
your influence with the department stores to wipe out 
their so-called drug departments; treat the druggist in 
your columns with the consideration to which a man 
of his education and intelligence is entitled, and stop 
poking fun at him because he charges a reasonable prolit 
for his time and necessary business expenses. 

If the manufacturers will fix the distribution of their 
goods so that their retail distributing agents can make a 
reasonable profit, and if the newspapers will use their 
influence in the directions we have indicated, all this 
trouble about substitution will soon cease. The majority 
of druggists prefer to handle goods which have a rapid 
sale and which they know are always as good as the dol- 
lars paid for them. They do not from choice buy goods 
which are slow sellers and to which they must give their 
indorsements in order to perfect sales. 



Where We Stand. 

An esteemed friend writes us as follow^ 

"Where does the Era stand on the patent med- 
icine question? There is certainly going to be a 
war between the retail druggists on one side and. 
the patent medicine men and newspapers on the 
other. The Era is expected to represent the inter- 
ests of the retail drus trade. It should come out 
flat-footed anil stand with them." 
We are indebted to our correspondent for the opportun- 
ity he affords us of stating the Era's position on this 
timely subject. 

In our consideration of this problem we treat it as a 
purely commercial one. It is not the question whether 
the world would he better or worse without patent medi- 
cines. Other countries have tried by legislation to prevent 
people from buying and using ready-made medicines, but 
such efforts have never been successful. The traffic in 
these goods belongs naturally to the drug trade. The 
majority of druggists want these sales, and the Era is 
doing what it can to bring back this business to the drug- 
gists, and upon such a basis that they can make a fair 
profit. 

There are millions of dollars' worth of these proprietary 
goods sold annually, and the Era considers it its duty as 
an organ of the drug trade to use its influence towards 
keeping this business within the hands of the wholesale 
and retail druggists, rather than to see it divided with 
the grocery trade and general stores. It is not a ques- 
tion of ethics, but dollars. We always feel like lifting 
our hat when we pass an ideal prescription pharmacy, 
hut these are feasible only in a few localities. It is 
because the druggists need the dollars they should make 
on the sales of patent medicines that the Era is trying to 
redeem this trade for them. 



lODOFORMSALOL.— A mixture of equal parts of 
iodoform and salol used as antiseptic. 



PROPOSED PHARMACY LAW FOR OR EATER 
NEW YORK. 

As all know, the State of New York is blest with sev- 
eral boards of pharmacy, one each for the counties of 
New York, Kings and Erie, each virtually exercising 
supervision over pharmaceutical affairs in the three 
cities. New York, Brooklyn and Buffalo, and the State 
Board, whose jurisdiction extends over all of the State 
except these three sections. All know, too, that the cities 
of New Y'ork and Brooklyn, with a number of outlying 
towns, are to be joined under one great municipal cor- 
poration. This proposed union renders necessary a very 
thorough revision of the laws and ordinances of all char- 
acter severally in force in the separate cities, and their 
unification into a single code of statutes to govern the 
new Greater New York. A commission specially ap- 
pointed to draw up a charter for Greater New York has 
just made its report to the State Legislature, and from a 
reprint of this very lengthy and comprehensive report, 
brought out through the enterprise of the Brooklyji 
Eagle, we are enabled to learn what is proposed for the 
regulation of pharmacy. Following we give in small typi- 
the section which bears upon pharmacists and druggists, 
with our comments thereon: 

REGISTERED PHAR.MACISTS ONLY TO CON- 
DUCT rilAKMACY, EXCEPT. ETC. 

Sec. 1,510. It shall be unlawful for any person 
unless a legistered pharmacist within the mean- 
ing of this title to open or conduct any pharmacy 
or store lor retailing, dispensing or compounding 
medicines or poisons in the city of New York, as 
constituted by this act, except as hereinafter pro- 
vided; provided that the widow or legal represen- 
tative of a deceased person who was a registered 
pharmacist within the meaning of this title may 
continue tlie business of such deceased pharma- 
cist, provided that the actual retailing, dispens- 
ing or compoimding of medicines or poisons be 
only by a person who is a registered pharmacist 
within the meaning of this title. 

This section is self-explanatory and appears very satis- 
factory, its most salient feature being the provision that 
whoever may conduct a drug store, the actual compound- 
ing of medicines must be undertaken by no one but a 
registered pharmacist. 

QUALIFICATIONS UE REGISTERED PHAR- 
MACISTS. 

Sec. 1.511. Any person, in order to be regis- 
tered, shall be either a graduate in pharmacy or a 
licentiate in pharmacy or a graduate having a di- 
ploma from some legally constituted medical col- 
lege or society. But a license as a pharmacist 
granted any person after the examination by any 
Ijoard of pharmacy legally created under the laws 
of this State shall entitle such person to a license 
or certiticate of registration from the board of 
pharmacy created b.v this title, upon presenting to 
said board his license and complying with the 
formal requirements of the laws. Any person 
who. at the time this act takes effect, shall be 
entitled by law to open or conduct any pharmacy 
or store for retailing, dispensing or compounding 
medicines or poisons in any part of the territory 
included in the cit.v of New Y'ork. as constituted 
by this act, shall be entitled hereafter to open or 
conduct any such phainiacy or store in said city, 
and to be registered by the board of pharmacy 
created by this title. 

Intended merely to provide that no one shall be legis- 
lated out of business at the time of the act, and to define 
what shall be the legal qualifications of registered phar- 
macists. 

GRADUATES AND LICENTIATES DEFINED. 

Sec. 1,512. Graduates of pharmacy within the 
meaning of this title shall be those persons who 
have had at least four years' experience in stores 
where prescriptions of medical practitioners have 
been compounded, and who have obtained a di- 
ploma from any college of pharmac.v within the 
United States, or from some authorized foreign 
Institution or examining board: and licentiates In 
pharmac.v shall be those persons who have had at 
least foiir years' experience in stores where pre- 
scriptions of medical practitioners are compound- 
ed and who shall have passed an examination 
either before the board for the examination of and 
licensing druggists and prescription clerks In the 
city of New York, as heretofore existing, estab- 



262 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Alaicli 4, 18'J7. 



Ilsbeil by nil nut passed Marcb 28. 1871, or before 
the board of piiariiiucy In tbe city of New 
Vork, us iKTftoloru existing, or before the board 
of pUaruiaey vt tbe euuiity of Klugs, or before tbe 
board of pliurinaey created by tbis title, 
for tbe elty of New Vorli, as constituted by 
tbis act, or sucb foreign pbarmacists as sball pre- 
sent satisfactory credentials or certllicates of their 
competency and qiiallticatlous to tbe said last 
mentioned" board of pharmacy. Junior assistants 
or apprentices In pharmacy shall not be permitted 
to prepare physicians' prescriptions until they 
have become graduates or licentiates in pharmacy. 

This section is open to criticism from the fact that 
the Hoard of Pharmacy is ordereJ to accept diplomas 
from any college of pharmacy— a very dangerous provi- 
sion indeed. There are colleges of pharmacy and 
colleges of pharmacy— good, bad and iudififerent, and 
it is most unwise to permit a graduate of either 
the indifferent or bad to register without show- 
ing his fitness by examination. We commend the 
concluding sentence, however, to the effect that assistants 
and juniors shall not prepare prescriptions, but we anti- 
cipate that there will be a great deal of evasion of the 
law iu (his respect. There are not a few assistants in 
this city who are doing prescriptiou work without let or 
hindrance, and it is doubtful whether they can be de- 
tected and punished under the proposed enactment. If 
the law should read that this class should be permitted 
to compound only under the supervision of a fully reg- 
istered man it would seem a wiser provision, for how is 
the young man to gain experience iu prescription work if 
he is uof allowed to do it? Must he wait until he be- 
comes fully registered by examination, or upon diploma? 
Here is a problem for the "practical experience" men to 
solve. 

BOARD OF PHARMACY; ELECTION, DUTIES. 

Sec. 1,513. The members of the college of phar- 
macy of the city of New Yorli, shall, on the first 
Monday of January, 181'S, and ou the same day 
every third year thereafter, at a special meeting 
held for that purpose, elect live competent phar- 
macists, three of whom shall be graduates of some 
legally constituted medical college and the remain- 
lug two graduates of some legally coustituted 
college of pharmacy of the city of New York, as 
constituted by tbis act, and who shall form and be 
known as the board of pharmacy. The members 
of this board shall, within thirty days after their 
election as aforesaid, individually take and sub- 
scribe before the clerk of the city of New York, 
an oath faithfully and impartially to discharge the 
duties prescribed for them by this title. They 
shall hold otfice for the term of three years and 
until their successors are duly elected and have 
qualified: and in case of any vacancy, the trustees 
of the College of Pharmacy shall fill the same 
from two or more nominees elected at a special 
meeting of the College of Pharmacy. The said 
board shall organize for the transaction of busi- 
ness by electing from their own number, for the 
whole term, a president and secretary. The board 
shall meet at least once every three months and 
three members shall constitute a quorum. The 
duties of the said board shall be to transact all 
business pertaining to tlie legal regulation of the 
practice of pharmacy in the city of New York, and 
to examine and register pharmacists. .\ny phar- 
macist applying for examination shall pay to the 
secretary .t fee of ?5. and should he pass such ex- 
amination satisf.actorily he shall be furnished with 
a certificate as to his competency and qualifica- 
tion, signed by the said board of pharmacy. 

This is a section which has already begun to cause 
much trouble and hard feeling. It is considered as laj- 
ing entirely too much responsibility upon the New York 
College of Pharmacy, and according to that institution 
entirely too much in the way of privilege and advantage. 
Druggists in Brooklyn are up in arms against this fea- 
ture, for the.v claim that their own institution, the Brook- 
lyn College of Pharmacy, is entirely ignored and belit- 
tled, and they want to know why the New York College 
should have it all and they none. We do not think that 
the exact wording of the measure fully justifies this coni- 
Iilnint. for it says that two of the board shall be gradu- 
ates of "some legally constituted college of the city of 
New York." and when Brooklyn becoiues a part of the 
city of New York, then its college, if legally constituted, 
stands just as much chance of representation on the 
board as the present New York college. But we believe 



I 



this entire section is most illy considered. We are op' 
posed to any private institution, to any college, possessing 
such powers as this section would confer. The drug' 
gists of not only Brooklyn alone, but all iu this city at 
well are justified in declaiming loudly against it. 

HOOKS roK KKUISTUATION OK PUARMA- 
Cl.STS, ETC. 
Sec. 1,.")14. It shall be the duly of the secretary 
to keep a book of registration at some conveulenc 
place, of which due notice shall be given through 
the public press. In which book shall be entered, 
under the supervision of the said injard. tlie uames 
and places ot business of all persons coming under 
the provisions of this title. It shall be the duty of 
all sncli persons to appear befi^ix* the said board 
of pharmac.v, and the fee for the registration of 
pharmacists shall not exceed two dtdlars. and for 
assistants shall not exceed one dollar. The secre- 
tary shall give receipts for ail moneys received by 
him, and pay over the same to the treasurer of 
the College of I'liarinacy aforesaid, taking Ills re- 
ceipt therefor, which nione.vs shall be used for tlie 
purpose of defraying the expenses of the board of 
pharmacy, and any surplus shall be for the ln'iiefit 
of the College of Pharmacy. The salary of the 
secretary shall be fixed liy the board, and shall be 
paid out of the registration fees. 

The principal point of interest in this section is tb 
matter of the disposition of fuuds, and it is this i>oin 
which has thoroughly aroused druggists in this cit; 
and Brooklyn and has called out their indignant protests 
Why should the New York College of Pharmacy, or an; 
other college, be made the beneficiary of a tax laid upoi 
a class of men for the privilege of conducting their liusi 
ness? There is no reason or justice in asking the drug 
gists of Greater New York to contribute their mone; 
for the purpose of buying books for a college of phai 
macy, or for its benefit in any way. No disposition o 
this income should be made save in the execution of th 
law aud the prosecution of offenders against it. To di 
vert it to other purposes, aud especially in the manne 
proposed, is entirely unjustifiable. 

PHARMACISTS RESPONSIBLE FOR QUALITY 
OF DRUGS. ETC.. SOLD; PATENT MED- 
ICINES. ADULTERATION, ETC. 
Sec. 1,515. Every registered pharmacist shall be 
held j-esponsible for the quality of all drugs, chem- 
icals and medicines he may sell or dispense, with 
the exception of those sold in the original pack- 
ages of the manufacturer, and also those known 
as "patent medicines." and should he knowingly, 
intentionally and fraudulently adulterate, or cause 
to be adulterated, such drugs, chemicals or med- 
ical preparations, he shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, be lia- 
ble to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars and in addition thereto, his name shall be 
stricken from the register. 

POISONS; RETAILING OF. 

Sec. 1.51C. It shall be unlawful for any person 
to retail any poisons enumerated in Schedules A 
and B, as follows, to wit: 

SCHEDULE A. 

and its preparations, corrosive subli- 
ite precipitate, red precipitate, biniodide 
ry. cyanide of potassium, hydrocyanic 
chnia and all other poisonous vegetable 
and their salts, essential oil of bitter 
opium and its preparations, except pare- 
other preparations of opium containing 
two grains to the ounce. 

SCHEDULE B. 



Arsenic 
mate, w-h 
of mercu 
acid, stry 
alkaloids 
almonds, 
goric and 
less than 



.\conitP. belladonna, colchicnni. conium. nux 
vomica, henbane, savin, ergot, cotton root, canthar- 
ides. creosote, digitalis and their pharmaceutical 
preparations, croton oil, chloroform, chloral hy- 
drate, sulphate of zinc, mineral acids, carbolic acid 
and oxalic acid, without distinctly labeling the 
bottle, box. vessel or paper in which the said poi- 
son is contained, and also the outside wrapper or 
cover with the name of the article, the word "Poi- 
son." and the name and place of the seller: nor 
shall it be lawful for any person to sell or deliver 
anv poisons enumerated in Schedules A and B. 
unless upon due inquiry it be found that the nnr- 
chaser is aware of its poisonous character, and he 
represents that it is to be used for legitimate pur- 
pose. Nor shall it be lawful for any registered 
pliarmacist to sell any poisons included in Sched- 
ule .\. w-ithout. before deliverinff the same to the 
purchaser, causinir an entry to be made in a book 
kept for that purpose, stating the date of sale, 
the name and address of the purchaser, the name 
and qualit.v of the poison sold, the purpose for 



Marrh 4, 18i)7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



263 



whicli It Is represented by the purchaser to be re- 
(lulied and the name of the dispenser; such book 
to be always open for inspection by the proper 
anthoritles.'and to be preserved for reference for 
at least live years. The provisions of this section 
shall not app'lv to the dispensing of poisons, in not 
unusual qiianUties or doses, upon the prescriptions 
of practitioners of medicine. 
May pass without special comment, though there will 
be many who will pick flaws in them. 

APPLICATION OF PUKl^EDING SECTIONS TO 

PUACTITIONEKS OE MEDICINE AND 

WHOLESALE DEALEKS. 

Sec 1,517. NothinK eontained in the foregoinj; 

sections of this title shall apply to or interfere 

with the business of any practitioner of medicine 

who does not keep open shop for the retailing of 

medicines and poisons, nor with the business ot 

wholesale dealers, but the preceding section, and 

the penalties for its violation, shall apply to such 

Iiersons. 

FR\UDULENT REGISTRATION, PERMIT- 
TING UNLICENSED PERSON TO COM- 
POUND MEDICINES. 
Sec 1 518. Any person who shall attempt to 
procure reuistratiou for himself, or for any other 
person, under this title, by making or causing to 
he made any false representation, -sl^ '" « 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon 
conviction thereof, be liable to a penalty i.ot ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars. Any registered phai- 
niacist who shall permit the compounding and dis- 
pensing of prescriptions of medical practitioners 
in his ?tore or place of business, by any person oi 
persons not registered, or any person not regis- 
tered who sh.ill keep open shop for the retailmg or 
dispensing of medicines and poisons, or who shall 
fraudulently r.^preseut himself to be registered, or 
ai V registVred pharmacist or dealer in medicines 
who slmll fail to comply with the regulations and 
Drovisiois of this title, in relation to the retailing 
and dispensing of poisons, shall., for every such 
offense be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and 
upon conviction thereof, be liable to a penalty of 
fifty doHars. 

PENALTIES TO BE PA.D TO COLLEGE OF 
PHARMACY. 
Se,- 1 519 Each and every penalty recovered 
under this 'title shall be paid to the trustees of 
the College of Pharmacy, and shiill form and be 
known as the library fund of said College of Phar_ 
umcv and shall be expended for the purchase of 
books for the library of said college. 
BOARDS OF PHARMACY ABOLISHED. 

Sec 1 520. The board of pharmacy of the coun- 
ty of Kings and the board of pharmacy ot the 
cit.v of New York as heretofore existing, are both 
hereby abolished. 
In considering this whole matter, two or three points 
of importance are presented. This ph.irmacy portion of 
the proposed charter for Greater New York simply con- 
tinues objectionable conditions which are prevailing to- 
day and certainly affords valid cause for a demand for 
better legislation in pharmacy in this State. We behove it 
auuuwise thing to have several boards now working with- 
in the confines ot one State, and would urge unifacation of 
these into one State Board ot such a size and character 
as to adjudicate successfully the pharmaceutical affairs 
of the entire State. The selection of members of this 
board should not be left to any individual interests or 
private institutions, but should represent the balance ot 
sentiment and desire of the entire pharmaceutical fra- 
ternity. The rule followed in some other States, that of 
the s'tate Pharmaceutical Association selecting a num- 
ber of candidates from whom the Governor shall appoint 
the members of the board, works very satisfactorily, as 
a rule (though they are having some trouble over this 
matter in Minnesota, however, where the Governor saw 
fit to be a law unto himself). Then all fees and income 
should be applied to pay the expenses of the board and 
for the enforcement of the law. and any surplus whatso- 
ever should be paid into the State treasury, and not di- 
verted to an illegitimate use. We think the Greater New 
York pharmacy proposition under criticism is a poorly 
devised one. weakly framed, and with hardly an element 
of soundness or substantiality about it. It provides that 
over half the members of the board shall be physicians. 
Perhaps this is something in the way of a sop to political 



and professional interests, due to influence brought to 
bear upon the framers of the charter, but why should 
doctors hold the majority power in the execution of a 
law affecting pharmacy alone? We might just as well 
ask that pharmacists constitute lueilical examining 
boards, etc. On this matter we have spoken right out 
in meeting, expressing our own views. We are opposed 
to the law in question, and believe we have in this posi- 
tion the support of the m;ijority of pharmacists in these 
two great cities. New York and Brooklyn. We have no 
quarrel with the college of pharmacy of either city, but 
we do not wish to see either of them placed in a position 
oC such power and influence, particularly when there 
can. in our opinion, be advanced no justification thereof. 
Perhaps the college of pharmacy needs a library, but if 
so it can be gotten in a more dignified manner than by 
this compulsory tax upon men for the privilege of carry- 
ing on their business. But we do need better pharmacy 
legislation in this State, and we hope that the efforts put 
forth by the State Association, by the German Apothe- 
caries' Association of New York, and by other associa- 
tions and institutions will be successful in bringing 
order out of the present chaos and securing uniformity. 



Our New Trade Department. 

With this issue of the Era we "inaugurate" our new 
Trade Department, which promises to be of special value 
to the drug buyers. 

Besides our Trade Reports, Market Reviews and Prices 
Current, all of which will be materially improved as we 
progress in the work, we shall add to this department 
such information as is of direct value to the druggist in 
his purchasing department. The special announcements 
of the large houses will be of particular value to every 
druggist. These representative firms have something of 
interest to say to the drug trade every week. They will 
change their copy weekly, and we anticipate that these 
weekly announcements will add materially to the interest 
and value of this department. ''Goods well bought are 
half sold," and no druggist who expects to be successful 
in the management of his business can afford to deny 
himself every reliable source for information in the pur- 
chasing of his goods. 



An Argument for Free Alcohol. % 

A wide-awake, hard-headed, business druggist writes, 
"I favor free alcohol cren (7 It rdiinot he made fnx to 
the retail (lruij(ji'<t I look for a reduction in prices of 
many alkaloids and fluid extracts. If we had an estab- 
lished price for our prescriptions, as in some countries in 
Europe where it is based on a percentage above average 
wholesale price, I should be against it, but under the 
circumstances here we could reduce the price on prescrip- 
tions materially without at the same time reducing our 
total net income." 

This druggist is not actuated by the dog-in-the-manger 
policy of "if I can't have it, I don't want anyone to l)e 
benefitted," but is willing to take his chances, so long as 
the majority want this most important boon. If the retail 
drug trade were against free alcohol, which it isn't, it 
would not alter the fact that we should have it for the 
benefit and advancement of this great country of ours, 
with its vast industries needing tax free alcohol for their 
progress and development. 



YIELD OF PI..\TINUM IN RUSSIA.— Russia mines 

■10 times as much platinum ore as the remainder of the 
mines throughout the world taken together. In 1890 
2,946 kilos were yielded, in 1895 4,413 kilos, in 1894 
the yield dropped considerably behind the average be- 
cause of the wet summer. The source is entirely from 
the southern districts of the Ural, from where the crude 
material is sent to Germany for working up. The crude 
metal sold in 189G for 900 marks the kilo. The last 
year's yield of iridium was only 4.1 kilos. 



264 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Marcli i, IS'JT. 




Samuel O. McCotter. 

Fortj" Tears' experience in the drug trade of New York 
gives Samuel G. McCotter, drug broker, an unquestioned 
pre-eminence. His friends say that his recollections of 
business men and business methods before the war are 
extremely interesting, but Mr. McCotter is a man of few 
words and seldom descends to anecdote. He was born 
August 3. 1841, in New York City aud was employed 
with B. A. Fahnestock. Hull & Company, at 51 Cliff 
street, from 1857 to 1865. At the latter date he formed 
a partnership with Reuben Daniell, and they carried on 
a brokerage business under the name of Daniell & Mc- 
Cotter for say 12 years, when Mr. McCotter began busi- 
ness by himself. The drug business must be a compara- 
tively healthy one because nearly all Mr. McCotter's ear- 
ly associates are still hale and hearty. Aurelius B. Hull, 
the New York partner in Fahnestock. Hull & Company, 
is living in Morristown. X. J., W. B. Stafford, their prin- 
cipal salesman, resides in New York. Charles D. Desh- 
ler, their cashier, lives in New Brunswick. N. J., where 
he is a respected lay judge. Mr. Daniell. Mr. McCotter's 
former partner, is eighty-three years old and occasionally 
comes over to the office from his home in Brooklyn. 

Those were halcyon days for the drug trade forty years 
ago. Retail dealers used to get six mouths time on 
goods and 5 per cent, off for cash. Not infrequently 
twelve months time was given. It was customary to 
make purchases twice a year, and the customer had to 
stand the expense of a trip to New York, for there were 
no travelling salesmen. Happy was the retailer who en- 
joyed the favor of the jobber in those days. During 
the busy season the wholesaler actually felt that he was 
doing a favor to sell his goods at any price. 

"I'll take your order and begin filling it in eight days." 
was a familiar ultimatum. 

Mr. McCotter tells how the partner of the Pittsburg 
house of B. A. Fahnestock & Co. used to deal with his 
customers. 

"Do you expect to secure prices elsewhere before order 
ing?" he would ask. 

"Yes." 

"Very sorr.v. but in that case we cannot quote you our 
prices." he would reply, and dismiss the culprit. 

Brokers doing an out-of-town business before the war 
charged buyers as well as sellers 1 per cent. 



Mr. McCotter does not regard the drug brokerage 
business as a good field tor a young man to go into at 
the present time. He says that the great manufactories 
have revolutionized the drug business with their package 
goods and have absorbed most of the profits formerly dis- 
tributed. Mr. McCotter is, however, noT)essiinist. He 
believes the public were never better served as to purity 
of drugs and lowness of prices than now. 

At the request of the Era Mr. McCotter jotted down 
all the leading ante-bellum drug houses which were fa- 
miliar to him, aud as the record ma.v awaken pleasant 
recollections for many of the old-timers it is reproduced 
here. As Mr. McCotter says, there have been great 
changes since then, and New Y^ork City has lost ground. 
Here is the list: 

Jobbers in the United States: Charless Blow & Co., 
St. Louis; J. H. Reed & Co.. Chicago— (.1. H. Reed is 
alive aud resides in Orange, N. J.i: T. & .J. Hinchmau. 
Detroit, Mich.: Craighead & Browning— (afterwards 
Robert Browning). Indianapolis; Robert Hockenhull. 
Jacksonville, 111.; Schieffeliu Brothers & Co.: M. Ward & 
Co.— (afterwards M. \Vard, Close & Co.); Olcott, Mc- 
Kesson & Robbius^(afterwards McKesson & Robbius); 
Harral, Risley «& Kitchen; C. V. Clickener & Co.; Barnes 
& Park — (patent medicines); Lazell. Marsh & Hunn; 
Stebbins. Morgan & Butler: Hall & Van Buskirk— (atter- 
wanls Hall & Ruckel); D. T. Lanmau & Co.; J. H. 
Hazard & Co.; Palanca & Escalaute; Richardson, Mel- 
lier & Co., St. Louis; Reed & Cutter. Boston; 
French, Richards & Co.. Philadelphia; Wheel- 
ock, Finlay & Co.. New Orleans: Ben. Hard- 
away. Vicksburg: Purcell, Ladd & Co., Rich- 
mond; R. A. Robinson & Co.. Louisville: Wilson. Peter & 
Co., Louisville; Lyman Brothers & Co.. Montreal; Ly- 
man, Elliot & Co.. Toronto; John L. Thompson & Co.. 
Troy; "W. F. Phillips & Co.. Portland. Me.: J. B. 
Dougherty, Muscatine, la.; Mansfield & Higbie. Mem- 
phis; Greene & Button Co., Milwaukee: J. & C. Reakirt, 
Cincinuati; J. & S. Burdsal, Cincinnati. 

Importers; George N. Lawrence. Fisher & Keller, F. 
Consinery & Co., D. A. Van Lennep, Dutilh & Co., B. 
Blanco. 

Brokers: McCorkle, Downer & Orne: George P. 
Edgar; A. W. Despard: Parsons & Pettit: Wing & 
Evans; S. F. Wetenhall & Co.: Degen & Taft. 

Though Mr. McCotter's memory goes back a long way, 
he is by no means an old man. and his business friends 
find him very active. The oUice of S. G. McCotter & 
Company is at 68 Maiden Lane, and is unostentatious, 
neat and old fashioned. Mr. McCotter resides with his 
family in Brooklyn. 



THE WORLD'S FOOD.— The following statistics 
prove ver.v conclusively that bread does not after all 
play any important part in the world's board bill. 

The inhabitants of Europe alone consume over 6.470.000 
tons of meat per year. Paris slaughtered 11.802 horses 
last year for consumption. During the same time the 
United States exported to Europe 514.(JU0.000 pounds of 
bacon. 84,000,000 pounds of hams and 81,000.000 pounds 
of pork. To each European 61 pounds of meat may be 
measured for his yearly consumption, to this may be 
added 29 pounds of sugar. 

Last year England imported 3..556.000.000 pounds of 
foreign sugar aside from the products of its colonies. 
Yearly 4.439.000,000 oysters are consumed. The Paris 
restaurants require 2,000 tons of snails. 18,0(X) dozen 
of frogs and 5.000 tons of radishes each year to coax 
the appetites of their guests. 

Italv exports yearly 480.000.000 dozens of. eggs. 2.500.- 
000.000 oranges. America sends 95.000 tons of apples 
to England. 

Of all the European nations the Englishman heads the 
list on the consumption of salt, being 40 pounds per 
capita while the American follows with 39 pounds. To 
the Dane a yearly consumption of 22 pounds of cheese 
is charged. 

A statistician claims that each individual during his 
lifetime consumes unnecessarily seven four-horse wagon 
loads of food! 



.March 4, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



265 



(Specinlli/ Cotitri^ ufed.) 

RECOLLECTIONS OF AN OLD-TIME DRUG 
CLERK. 

By CHAS. D. DESHLER, New Brunswick. N. J. 

{Cc/Hlinued from page 233, Ftb. 25.; 
Tho head clerk, Boyer. ti) whom I have alluded in con- 
nection with the above incident, came legitimately by 
his predilection for the drug busines.s. His full name 
was Robert Eastburn Boyer, and ho was a nephew of 
the late Thomas Eastl)urn. who carried on the drug 
business for many years, on Church street, midway be- 
tween Peace and Dennis streets. He was also a grand- 
son of the old ante-revolutionary New Brunswick drug- 
gist, Kobert Eastburn. He began his novitiate with his 
uncle Thomas, but. realizing the low scale of pharma- 
ceutical knowledge that was attainable there, soon 
sought a larger field with higher possibilities. He went 
to New York some time in the twenties, and, after many 
discouragements, succeeded in getting employment as a 
boy of all work with William L. Kushton, then the most 
famous dispensing apothecary in the city, and, perhaps, 
in the country. Here he remained some years, attract- 
ing the attention of Mr. Ruslitou by his diligence, deft- 
ness and probity, and acquiring by gradual advance- 
ments a complete knowledge of the business in all its 
branches, till he finally rose to be chief of the prescrip- 
tion department, in which branch he became an adept. 
He continued with Mr. Rushton until he was invited to 
become the head clerk of the New Brunswick establish- 
ment, at which I made my first appearance several years 
later, and in which he ultimately became a partner, as 
I also did after his death. Boyer was an enthusiastic 
lover and a thorough master of the business. He under- 
stood as much of chemistry as was practically needful; 
and had the "materia medica" at his tongue's end, so 
far as related to an accurate knowledge of the prop- 
erties, therapeutic uses, doses and qualities of medicines, 
or the manufacture of all the officinal preparations which 
were then in use. All these he had memorized from 
long practice, so that he could prepare almost all of 
them without reference to the dispensatory, if it became 
necessary. He was. without exception, the neatest, most 
expeditious, and most expert pharmacist I have ever 
seen. The manner in which he filled a phial, or made a 
pill, or compounded a prescription, or put up a powder 
or folded a |)arcel, was the perfection of rapidity, ease 
and skill. It was a treat to see him fold a bundle, 
whether large or small, and when it left his hands it was 
a model of symmetry and beauty. The same observatiou 
holds with regard to his manipulation generally; it was 
not merely perfect; it excited emulation and admiration. 
He was as strictly methodical as he was skillful and 
scrupulously accurate. Everything must be done, as he 
did it, decently and in order, and with religious care and 
exactitude. Everything must have a place, and must be 
put in its place. He exacted the utmost cleanliness and 
neatness, even in trirtes. Medicines that were in fre- 
quent demand were so disposed by him that by no rea- 
sonable possibility could those which were noxious be 
dispensed by mistake for those which were innocuous. 
Poisons were so placed that some obstacle always inter- 
posed against their thoughtless or inconsiderate hand- 
ling — either they were put so high that steps were re- 
quired to reach them, or they were placed behind other 
articles which n\ust first be removed before they could 
be reached. While medicines were being compounded or 
dispensed he permitted no levity, discouraged conversa- 
tion, and required the most absolute attention to be 
given to the matter in hand. He felt, and he inspired 
his juniors to feel, that when he was thus engaged he 
was exercising a grave trust which involved not only 
health, but, possibly, life or death. He was one of the 
most conscientious of men, and this feature of his char- 
acter extended to the minutest of his dealings as an 



apothecary. He gave and he exacted full weight and 
measure. lie tolerated no sophistication of medicines, 
however trivial they might be. Whatever medicine he 
sold would produce the desired result, so far as relateil 
to its own powers and properties. He hated lies and 
dissimulation, whether acted or spoken, and was accus- 
tomed to say that the apothecary who knowingly sold a 
tincture, preparation, or drug, which was below the 
standard in strength or quality, was a liar and a cheat, 
and might become a homicide. 

Boyer was the first one to bring to the drug business 
in New Brunswick a thorough equipment for the phar- 
maceutical department. Before his return to our city 
from New York, our druggists rarely, if ever, com- 
pounded physicians' prescriptions, for the reason, pri- 
marily, that our physicians then kept their own medi- 
cal supplies and prepared their own preparations and 
prescriptions. I do not believe that a single prescription, 
properly so called, had ever been put up in any drug 
store in New Brunswick earlier than 1833, and even 
then, and for many years later, they were of exceedingly 
rare occurrence. The dispensing of medicines at all in 
the nature of prescriptions was almost exclusively con- 
fined to the preparation of some special recipes for their 
owners, or the administration, as they were called for, 
of doses of calomel and jalap, rhubarb and magnesia, 
tartar emetic. Dover's powders, quinine, castor oil, pur- 
gative pills, cholera nuxtures, and a few other articles. 

In 18.'^2, and for some years later, there were com- 
paratively few patent or proprietary medicines of Amer- 
ican origin — the principal ones among them being 
Swaim's Panacea, Swaim's Vermifuge. Lee's Anti-Bil- 
ious Pills, Thompson's Eye Water, Thompson's Itch Oint- 
ment. Ditchett's Pile Remedy, and Miles' Tomato Pills. 
There were, however, a goodly number which were of 
trans-atlantic origin, the formulas for which were given 
in all the dispensatories of the day, and which were man- 
ufactured and put up by our druggists enclosed in de- 
scriptive wrappers with directions for further use, which 
were bought by the quire or ream ready printed. In all 
these descriptions the antiquated type and spelling and 
the old-time quaint and ornate phraseology were pre- 
served, some of them having been prefaced with such 
swelling words as these: "Medicamentum gratia proba- 
tum est;" or, "This is a capital of great antiquity and 
established reputation;" or, "Elixir of health and uni- 
versal catholicon," etc., etc. Among the most popular 
of these proprietary articles of pretended English man- 
ufacture were the following: Steer's hard and liquid 
opodeldoc. Bateman's Drops. Hill's Balsam of Honey. 
Ching's Worm Lozenges. Betton's British Oil, Harlaem 
Oil, Elixir Proprietatis, Godfrey's Cordial. Dalby's Car- 
minative. Daffy's Elixir, James' Fever Powders, Hoop- 
er's Female I'llls, Anderson's Scotch Pills, and Turling- 
ton's Balsam. The last named was also variously known 
as Friar's Balsam. Vervain's Balsam, Traumatic Bal- 
sam, Commander's Balsam, Jesuit Drops, Wade's Drops 
and Compound Tincture of Benzoin. 

In those days the herb and root closet formed a most 
important adjunct of every well-equipped drug store. 
Among the simples which it contained were specifics, 
which in the popular belief were remedies, severally, for 
nearly all the "ills that flesh is heir to." Such of them 
as were the most largely in popular use were these: 
Mint, boneset. horehound, catnip, balm, saffron, sage, 
pink-root, snake-root, blood root, stramonium, foxglove, 
sweet fern, mandrake, wormwood, wormseed, blessed 
thistle (Carduus benedictus); so called because tradition 
declared it to be the species with which the Savior was 
crowned by his crucifiers), hemp-root, motherwort, lovage, 
liverwort, calamus, elecampane, comfrey, dill .seed, 
marshmallow root, bayberry bark, sumach berries, black 
cherry bark, white oak bark, celandine, hyssop, pellitory. 
yellow dock root, dandelion root, feverfew, mezereon 
bark, spikenard, sassafras, pennyroyal, rosemary, rue. 



266 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL EKA. 



[Miiicli 1, ISDT. 



elder flowers, thyme, Solomon's seal, life everlasting, 
tansy, coltsfoot, etc., etc. Blood root was a specialty 
with the negroes, who called it, according us its fracture 
WHS salmon colored or dark red, "Queen" root and 
"King" root, or "she" and "he" root. They believed it 
to be rooty, or, in other words, to have the power to 
avert the spells wrought by other unfriendly negroes 
through the agency of their malign fetich. Oby (Obeah), 
and also to exert a fascinating or propitiatory influence 
over the other sex. Catnip was the orthodox remedy for 
colic in babies, as mint and pennyroyal were for the same 
enterprising cnniphiint in adults. Sweet fern was a 
cure for pimples, worniseed (sprinkled on bread and but- 
terl for worms, boneset for rheumatic fevers, horehound 
for coughs and colds, liverwort for pulmonary and hep- 
atic affections, saffron for scarlet fever and measles, dig- 
italis for asthma, celandine for warts, pink-root for 
worms, pcllitory for toothache, sumach berries for sore 
throat and scarlatina, lilackberry bark and root for diar- 
rhoea, and blessed thistle for all imaginable and most 
imaginary diseases. 

The nostrum department, consisting of empirical prep- 
arations that were regularly kept in stock and dispensed 
in response to popular calls from the ruder and more 
ignorant classes, and which belonged entirel.v outside the 
list of proprietary medicines, was a considerable one. 
To this department belonged the following: Oil of tar. 
oil of stone, oil of spike, seneka oil (crude petroleum), 
oil of earthworms, frog-spawn water, aqua mirabilis 
(compounded of cloves, cardamoms, cuhebs. mace, gin- 
ger, cinnamon, citron peel, balm and brandy), balsam of 
sulphur, skunk's grease, dog-fat. goose grease, dried 
snails, prepared wood lice or millipedes, compound pow- 
der of millipedes, egyptiacum, and many others equally 
as crude. 

For the information and amusement of modern phar- 
macists I recall some of the vulgar aiid popular appellii- 
tives that were often coupled with the articles sold by 
the old-time druggists, and with which they were as 
familiar as they were with their correct names. These 
dialect vulgarisms of home manufacture may not be de- 
void of interest to the philologist. Thus: Allspice was 
called .Tamaica pepper; cloves, pepper-nails; powdered 
hellebore root, sneezing snuff; oil of origanum, oil of reg- 
num. and king of oil; roll sulphur, brimstone, cane brim- 
stone and hell-timber; stramonium, stink-weed. .lames- 
town weed and .Timson weed; lobelia. Indian tobacco; 
quicksilver ointment, blue ointment and anguintum; gum 
tragacanth. gum dragon; cocculus indicns. Indian ber- 
ries, fish berries and coco-a-nanny berries; peruvian 
bark, Jesuit's bark and Jesuit's powder; turpentine, terps; 
glauber salt, horse salts: annatto, aranetta, anter and 
yaller anter; feverfew, featherfew; quinine, quin-ans 
and Queen Anne; prepared chalk, crab's eyes; sweet 
spirit of nitre, fever drops; oxide of tin. polishing putty; 
nicaragua wood, nigger-auger wood; carbonate of am- 
monia, hartshorn and sal volatile; mandrake root, man- 
dragora, and, from its resemblance to the human form, 
old-man-in-the-ground; and, finally, asafcetida, which was 
variously known as tuy vol's trayck. devil's dung and 
assafarty. The last was the expressive Hibernian term 
for the fragrant drug. All the variations of its name 
seem to have been more or less remotely suggested by 
the Turkish legend, that on the spot where Satan set his 
foot when he stole into Paradise, the asafcetida plant 
sprung up for the first in the world. 

It will not be altogether inappropriate at this point to 
recall a few particulars as to the popular practices and 
beliefs of some of those who patronized the old-time 
druggists. Thus: The use of opium was very prevalent, 
but as furtive as it was prevalent. The rich bought it 
by the ounce and even by the pound — the price at that 
time being 3 shillings or 371^ cents an <]unce. and $5 a 
pound. The poor bought it by the eighth, quarter, or 
halt-ounci'. To the former it wa.5 a dreamy, benumbing 



and destructive intoxicant, and to the latter it afforded 
the temporary refuge of forgetfulness. It was easy to 
detect the regular opium eater by the peculiar pultiness 
of the face and the semi-opaque yellownesj of the com- 
plexion. Many of those who were regular opium eaters 
were akso inveterate consumers of Scotch snuff, which 
they bought by the ounce, pound or bladder, according 
to their means, and with which, by the aid of their 
fingers or of a stick padded with cloth at one end, they 
rubbed their gums and teeth in a supremely disgusting 
way. It was a popular belief that common black pitch, 
or burgundy pitch, if chewed, averted consumption, 
cured shortness of breath, and also sweetened the breath 
and preserved the teeth, and, consequently, nuiny per- 
sons chewed both as assiduously as some young people 
nowadays, with much less basis of reason, chew chew- 
ing-gum. Another popular belief attributed the cure of 
rheumatism to roll sulphur worn in the pocket. It was 
usually worn loose in pieces from two to three inches 
long, and was replaced every fortnight by a fresh piece— 
the idea being that its virtues had all been absorbed by 
the patient, or that it had become so saturated with the 
virus of his disease as to be useless. A like belief ex- 
tended to horse-chestnuts, and to cubes of raw turnip or 
horse radish, which were similarly worn and changed for 
the same disease. The white streaks which are found 
in the excrement of fowls supplied another popular rem- 
edy. This was carefully scraped away from the atten- 
dant dark colored excrement; after which it was dried 
by exposure to the sun or fire, and was then used as a 
sternutatory, or applied to old sores or ulcers as an es- 
charotie. Cobweb was also largely used as a styptic, for 
which it was quite convenient in slight cases; and it was 
rolled into pellets and taken internally for fever and 
ague. To asafcetida were attributed many virtues, alike 
for man and beast. Worn in a little bag next the flesh 
on the bosom, it was credited with being a sovereign 
remedy for convulsions and whooping-cough in young 
children, and as a preventive of fever and ague in adults. 
Wrapped in cloth and plugged into a hole that had been 
bored in the manger, or tied to the bit, it was thought 
to give horses that were "off their feed" an appetite, and 
also credited with giving them a smooth coat. It cer- 
tainly was greatly liked by horses, as they evinced by 
licking with great assiduity around the hole in which it 
had been deposited. It was a great favorite also with 
negro anglers, who used it liberally sprinkled on their 
bait, and declared that it made fish, especially eels, bite 
with great avidity. This list might be largely ex- 
tended. 

The implements and apparatuses of the apothecary de- 
partment of the druggists of the period of which I am 
speaking, now deserve to be considered, for they will 
throw considerable light on the stage of advancement 
and progress which he and his compeers had reached. 
It goes without saying that there were scales and 
weights, handsome polished brass beam scales and 
weights for articles weighing from a quarter of an 
ounce to a pound or so avoirdupois, and a small apothe- 
caries' scale suitable for weights ranging from an eighth 
of a grain to a dram. And there were a minim glass, 
and graduated glasses of various sizes; small porcelain 
mortars for acids and corrosives; wedgwood-ware filter- 
ing funnels and mortars of various sizes; marble mortars 
whose capacity varied from half a gallon to two gallons, 
and having wooden pestles; iron mortars from the ca- 
pacity of a pint to two gallons; a set of porcelain pill 
slabs and a pill machine; several broad wooden spatulas 
for rolling out pills, and steel spatulas of every size; alco- 
hol lamps and stands equipped with pint, quart and half- 
gallon boilers; plaster kettles, syrup kettles, copper boil- 
ers for preparing opodeldoc, and earthern vessels for the 
pi'eparation of ointments and cerates; glass retorts and 
receivers of several sizes; metallic forms suitable for 
packing one-ounce, four-ounce and eighth-ounce parcels 



March 4, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



267 



of epsom salt and other articles -n-hich were in brisk de- 
mand; wooden spoons or ladles graduated to the proper 
size for soda and seidlitz powders; a water bath, a sand 
bath, anil a vapor balh; porcelain capsules or evaporat- 
ing dishes of various sizes; several sets of hair and wire 
sieves, and a drum sieve; a set of common wine meas- 
ures; mills suitable for grinding cloves, cinnamon and 
other spices, and for the coarser roots and barks — to- 
gether with all the more common and petty implements, 
which need not be particularized. 

(To be continued,) 



[Contiutied from jjagt •i'ib Fth. 2^, IH'.lh.) 

LIST OF REACTIONS AND REAGENTS ACCORD- 
INO TO NAMES OF AUTHORS.' 

MKRZ'S— Olive Oil Test.— Two samples are taken and 
one heated to 250° C. If the oil is pure the heated sam- 
ple will have a paler color than the one which has not 
been heated. 

MESXARD'S— Reagent for Albuminoids.— Glycerin 
containing sugar, and vapors of concentrated hydrochlo- 
ric acid. 

MESSINOER'S— Test for Acetone.— Liquids contain- 
ing acetone when treated with iodine and sodium hydrate 
give iodoform. For quantitative estimation the formed 
iodoform is weighed (Kraemer). or the undecomposed ex- 
cess of iodine titrated (ilessinger). 

MEYER'S— Thiopheu Test. — Thiophen with its homo- 
logues give a blue color with a solution of isotin in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. 

MEYER'S— Test for Cod Liver Oil.— Genuine oil, 
when shaken with 1-10 of its volume of nitro-sulphuric 
acid (1 : 1) gives first a rose then lemon yellow color. 
Other oils of like character do not give as clean colors, 
or they are brown to violet. 

MEZGER'S — Cocaine Test. — An aqueous solution of 
cocaiue. when acidulated with hydrochloric acid, gives 
an orange yellow precipitate with potassium chlorate. 

MILLL\X'S— Test for Linseed in Olive Oil.— Forty 
grams olive oil are mixed with 60 grams of a 20 per cent, 
solution of potassium hydrate in 70 per cent, alcohol and 
heated on a water bath until the alcohol has been en- 
tirely dissipated. The resultiug soap is dissolved in 
warm water; and the fatty acids precipitated by the ad- 
dition of dilute hydrochloric acid. The fatty acids are 
filtered off and dissolved in 20 cc. of alcohol (90 per 
cent.) and 2 cc. of a 3 per cent, alcoholic solution of sil- 
ver nitrate added. 'When heated to 90° C, a brown col- 
oration ensues, it linseed oil is present. 

MILLIAN'S— Modification of Bechi's Test.— See Be- 
chi's Test. 

MILLON'S— Test for Albuminoids and Phenols.— A 
solution of mercury in its own weight of fuming nitric 
acid (sp. gr. 1.4) preparetl by first shaking cold, then 
moderately warming, after which the solution is di- 
luted with 2 volumes of water. The reagent contains 
mercurous and mercuric nitrates with free nitric and ni- 
trous acids. Albuminoids when warmed with this re- 
agent give a brick-red precipitate. Likewise the same 
reactior takes place with all aromatic bodies, which con- 
tain a hydroxyl or methoxyl group. The presence of a 
second hydroxyl or a uitro-group alters the reaction. 
Thus resorcin gives a yellow color, hydroquinone an 
orange, pyrogallol a brown, tannin and guaiacol a red, 
eugenol and vanillin a violet. 

Kintschgen-Gintrs modification of this reagent is 
a solution of mercuric nitrate to which some po- 
tassium nitrite has been added, followed, jnst before 
using, by the necessary quantity of nitric acid. The po- 
tassium nitrite must be free from c-arbonate, obtained by 
passing nitrous oxide through its solution. (Compare 
Gallois', Hoffmann's and Plugge's Reagents. 
MILLON'S— Reagent for Salicylic Acid.— A 10 per 

•I'roui eoniiiilations of Dr. Altstbul il'bar. Centralhalle). 



cent, solution of mercuric nitrate in dilute nitric acid: 
This gives an intense red color with salicylic acid. 

MITSCHERLICII'S— Test for Phosphorus.— This de- 
pends upon the phosphorescence produced when phos- 
phorus is heated in presence of ste:im. 

MOllR'S— Test for Free Acids.— This is a mixture of 
20 cc. of a 10 per cent, potassium sulfocyanide solution 
and 5 cc. of a 5 per cent, ferric acetate solution. Hydro- 
chloric acid gives a cherry red; excess of the same pro- 
duces a chestnut browu color. 
MOHR'S— Test for Glucose.— See Moore's Test. 
MOLISH'S— Test for Carbohydrates.— One-half to 1 
cc. of the solution to be tested is shakeu with 2 drops of 
a 1") to 20 per cent, alcoholic solution of alpha-naphtliol 
or thyniol. On adding an equal volume of concentrated 
sulphuric acid to the above fluid a violet color is pro- 
duced, if carbohydrates are present; on the addition of 
alcohol, ether or potassium hydrate, the color dissolves 
to a yellow. 

MOORE'S— Test for Glucose.— On heating glucose or 
urine contaiuiug grape sugar with potassium hydrate a 
brown color is produced; when the fluid is supersaturated 
with an acid, a caramel-like odor is given off. Some- 
times called Mohr's or Pelouze's test. 

MUELLER'S— Test for Cystin.— Cystin separated 
from the urine sediment is dissolved in warm potassium 
hydrate solution, diluted with water and sodium nitro- 
prusside added, when a purple color appears. 

MUELLER'S— Hardening Fluid.— A solution of 20 
grams potassium bichromate and 10 grams of sodium 
sulphate in 1 liter of water. Used for hardening micro- 
scopical preparations. 

MULDER'S— Test for Glucose.— The sample of urine 
to be tested (or glucose solution) is heated with indigo- 
sulphuric acid and then carefully neutralized with so- 
dium carbouate; in consequeuce of the reduction of the 
indigo, various colors are produced, as green, red into 
yellow. Through influence of air the solution ag.iln be- 
comes blue. According to Vogl, litmus solution may be 
taken in place of indigo. Neumann-Weuder employs 
methylene blue solution. 

MULDER'S— Xanthoproteiu Reaction.— When albu- 
minoid bodies are boiled with concentrated nitric acid, 
they are either partly or entirely dissolved, forming a 
lemon yellow color. Albumoses and peptones give a yel- 
low color in cold solution; on supersaturating with am- 
monia or alkalies, the color changes to an orange. 

MUSCULUS— Urea Reagent.— Fermented urine is fil- 
tered, the filter washed and colored with curcuma solu- 
tion. This is used as a reagent paper. This paper when 
dipped into a solution of urea is turned brown. 

NEELSEN'S— Phenol-fuchsine Solution.— Used to 
identify tuberculous bacilli in sputum. An aqueous (5 per 
cent.) solution of phenol (100 grams) is saturated with an 
alcoholic solution of fuchsine (1 gram fuchsine and 10 
grams alcohol). 

NESSLER'S— Test for Aldehydes.— Aldehydes give a 
brownish-black precipitate with Nessler's ammonia re- 
agent or a solution of potassio-mercuric iodide and ba- 
rium hydrate. This precipitate is soluble in potassium 
cyanide solution. 

NESSLER'S— Test for Ammonia.— An alkaline solu- 
tion of potassio-mercuric iodide gives with free or com- 
bined ammonia a yellow to reddish-brown coloration or 
precipitate. The solution is prepared by dissolving 50 
grams of potassium iodide in 50 cc. of hot water. Then 
a hot solution of mercuric chloride is added (20 to 25 
grams HgCL), until the precipitate formed is no longer 
dissolved. After filtering, a solution of 150 grams of po- 
tassium hydrate in 300 cc. of water is added, and then 
diluted to 1 liter. To this 5 cc. of the mercuric chloride 
is added, and the whole allowed to stand and settle, af- 
ter which the clear, supernatant fluid is decanted off. 
NESSLER'S— Reagent for Wine Colors.— A solution 



208 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 4, 1897 



of 7 parts of alum and 10 parts of sodium acetate in 100 
parts of water. 

XEIBAUER'S— Test for Biliary Acids.— A modifica- 
tion of I'ettcnliofor's test. To a few drops of urine 
whicii have been evaporated on a water batli, a drop of 
sugar solution (1 : 50tl) and a drop of concentrated sul- 
pliuric acid are added and warmed. In presence of bili- 
ary acids a violet-red color is produced on the sides of 
the vessel. 

NEUBAUER'S— Test for Chloroform in Urine.— A 
stream of air is passed through the urine. This is then 
carried through a porcelain tube heated to redness and 
finally through a solution of silver nitrate. If chloro- 
form is present in the urine, a precipitate of silver chlo- 
ride is produced. 

NEUXIANN-WENDER'S — Alkaloidal Reagent.— A 
solution of 5 drops of furfurol in 10 cc. of concentrated 
sulphuric acid. (Compare Weppen's Veratrine Test.) 

NEUMANN-WEXDER'S— Test for Glucose.-To 1 cc. 
of the diluted (10 x) urine, 1 cc. of methylene blue solu- 
tion (1 : 1,000) and 1 cc. of normal alkali hydrate solu- 
tion are added, followed by 2 cc. of water. The mixture 
is boiled a minute. Should sugar be present the solution 
will become decolorized. 

NICKEL'S- Test for Mineral Acids in Presence of Or- 
ganic Acids. — This depends on the observation that wood 
is colored by phloroglucin only when inorganic acids are 
present. A shaving of pine wood is colored when dipped, 
for example, in acetic acid, which contains 0.5 per cent, 
of hydrochloric acid, followed by phloroglucin, and the 
solution boiled. 

NICKEL'S — Color Reaction for Carbon Compounds. — 
Compare Zeitschr. anal. Chemie, 18S9. 244. 

NIVIERE AND HUBERT'S— Test for Fluorine in 
Wine. — The fluorine present in the wine is precipit.ated 
by adding calcium chloride to the sample which has been 
made feebly alkaline with ammonium carbonate. The 
ashed precipitate is heated with silica and sulphuric acid, 
whereby silicum fluoride is formed. 

NOLL'S — Reagent. — A solution of sodium hypochlorite. 

NYLANDER'S- Glucose Test Solution.— Bismuth-sub- 
nitrate 2 grams, Rochelle salt 4 grams, are dissolved in 
100 grams of an 8 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate. 
To 10 cc. of the sample of urine, 1 cc. of the reagent is 
added and then boiled. Presence of glucose causes a 
blackening of the solution from the reduction of the bis- 
muth. (Sometimes called Almen's Solution.) 
(To be continued.} 



ENOLISH PHARMACEUTICAL AFFAIRS. 

London, Feb. 14. 1S9T. — Business has been fairly good 
throughout the country during the first few weeks of 
1897, and with the exception of sugar the markets have 
not called for much comment, but competition is as keen 
as ever, and the rivalry of imported and home manu- 
factured goods is, if anything, closer than ever. But 
competition rouses men, and from several recent indica- 
tions English manufacturers seem to have, at last, 
awakened to the fact that it is necessary they should do 
something to m.iiutain their supremacy in commerce. 
Among other means, the establishment of 

Research Laboratories 
is one whereby the trade of the coming century ought 
to Ijenefit, and it shows that manufacturers are wide 
awake to the necessity of obtaining scientific knowledge 
and advice on matters which will either cheapen the cost 
of labor or improve the products. 

There were several laboratories in which research was 



carried on, in existence when the Pharmaceutical So- 
ciety first started theirs some years since, but of late 
several have been opened, which ought to be of groat 
service eventually. 

The laboratory at the Iin|>crinl Institute, which is 
under the direction of Mr. Wyndham R. Dunstan, F. R. 
S., is more or less State supported, and the workers are 
all pa 111 something for their services, and there have 
been some grants made to it bythe City Companies: the 
work to be carried on there is intended to \>o of national 
importance, and will have a definite bearing upon thi' 
improvement of colonial trade by investigating new pro- 
ducts and studying native sources of. supply for raw 
material. One big problem in hand is the improvement 
lit Indian opium so that its morphine percentage will 
permit of its use in medicine to a greater extent than 
at present, for although it is used in the Govemuu-nt 
hospitals in India, yet it does not come into the English 
market. Two other laboratories of considerable impor- 
tance have been opened recently, one at Sharp's Insti- 
tute in Perth, and the other at University College. Liv- 
ii-pool. This latter has been equipped by several wealthy 
manufacturers in memory of the late William Gossage. 
after whom it is to be named, but the most important 
of these new "features" in our commercial aud scien- 
tific history is the 

Davy Faraday Laboratory 
which has been founded, equipped and endowed by Dr. 
Ludwig Mond. Tliis was formally opened at the close 
of 180('> by the Prince of Wales, and under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. Scott it is now open to the world, for any 
persons, regardless of nationality or sex. who can show 
themselves capable of conducting research, will be ad- 
mitted to undertake suitable work, provided there is a 
vacancy, and to be able to do this free of cost should 
stimulate investigators to do something. The laboratory 
is situated next door to the premises of the Royal Insti- 
tution, and Dr. Mond has given the premises, equij)- 
meut and endowment to the managers of this institution 
for them to control and carry on. Such generosity on 
the donor's part shows what faith he has in science as 
the helper of commerce and as a member of the big firm 
Brunner, Mond & Co. he has had the benefit of practical 
experience to help him to the conclusion. 

Competition, in trade with other countries, has also 
brought up another subject, namely, the management of 
the London docks and their charges. The chemical trade 
section of the London Chamber of Commerce are al- 
ways striving to get better terms from the dock com- 
panies, but so far they have been unsuccessful; a new 
portion of the West India docks will be available short- 
ly, and the chairman of that company stated recently 
that this completion will o£fer much greater facilities 
than heretofore, but whether this will be so or not, what 
concerns the brokers chiefly is, will they get their 
charges lessened or will they have to pay for the so- 
called improvements? 

Dock companies are the same as other companies, and 
carry on their work for the purpose of manufacturing 
dividends; in this respect, another company which has 
caused a considerable outcry has been one which owns 
the 

London Commercial Sale Rooms. 

These rooms have been undergoing an absolutely nec- 
essary renovation, and as the process has taken some 
two or three years to complete, the members had to sub- 
mit to considerable discomfort meanwhile, but now that 
the work is done the company proposes putting up the 
membership and entrance fees. The old fees were 10 
guineas entrance and 5 guineas annual subscription, but 
they propose making it £15 entrance and 10 guineas an- 
nual subscription to new members and 71A to existing 
ones. The members naturally demurred, but as yet have 
not come to any definite settlement, although one or two 
gentlemen propose establishing new rooms elsewhere in 



il;ircli 4, 181)7.] 



TUE I'HARMAOEUTICAL ERA. 



2t)9 



oiipiisition. Parliament opened earlier than usual this 
your, liut no uientiou was made iu the Queen's speech of 
an.v iiicasuros to be considered whicli have any direct 
bcarinfe' ou the drug trade. Sir .lohu Lubboclc's bill for 
"eaily cl(>sins"of tradesmen's shops will, however, be 
considered asrain, but at present no mention has been 
made of any steps beins taken to amend the Food and 
Drugs Act, or to restrict the illegal operations of lim- 
ited companies, and although suicides have been especially 
rife in London since Christmas, and a large proportion 
of the victims have succumbed to the effects of car- 
bolic acid, yet no steps have been taken to get it sched- 
uled as a poison. 

.\t the last meeting of the General Medical Council it 
was reported that about three-quarters of the work on 
the new pharmaeopaia had had been completed, and 
must probably the new edition would be ready by the 
end of the present year; great hopes are entertained of 
the completeness of this work, but since 1885 so many 
new remedies have been introduced that it will be a dif- 
ficult task to select the ones which are likely to be of 
permanent value, and, at the same time to be "quite up 
to date." Some stir has been made among retail phar- 
macists by the prosecution of several members of the 
craft for selling arsenical soap containing no arsenic; 
the analysts for the prosecution swore to being unable 
to detect any arsenic in the samples examined, but the 
manufacturers also swore to putting in an infinitesimal 
quantity, and so some of the cases were dismissed and 
others were successful in obtaining convictions. In the 
cases where the summonses were dismissed the magis- 
trates considered tliat if the soap contained no arsenic 
then the prosecution could not be nuule under the head- 
ing of the Food and Drugs Act. This matter is of im- 
portance to the "beauty specialists," but it seems a cu- 
rious idea to designate soap "arsenical" and "for the 
complexion," and then to leave out the all-important in- 
gredient. 

In my letter for November last mention was made of 
Sir Joseph Lister and a portrait of him given; this emi- 
nent surgeon was raised to the peerage at the comiuence- 
ment of the year, and so holds the unique position of 
being the first surgeon to take a seat iu the House of 
Lords. The honor is said to have delighted his con- 
freres, and every one admits that the benefits he has 
conferred on mankind justified the distinction. 

The Benevolent Fund of the Pharmacentical Society 
has been in need of subscriptions lately, and a dinner is 
to lie held to further its welfare in Jlay instead of the 
annual dinner of the society. The objects of the 

Bea^voleat Fund 

are to provide some means of helping pharmacists who 
are in need and to help the widows of such as are un- 
able to support themselves. An election of annuitants 
is made annually, the selected candidates being voted for 
by the donors and subscribers to the fund, and casual 
help is given to deserving cases. Of late years the de- 
mauds on the funds have been large and urgent, and to 
keep pace with this a special effort is being made this 
year to obtain more subscriptions in order to help the 
number of really necessitous cases which are contin- 
ually cropping up. 

This letter may reach some who were once chemists 
in the "old country," and should they desire to help their 
aged brethren, even the smallest donation will be gladly 
received by the secretary, at 17 Bloomsbury square, 
London, W. C, but to those who have left us to go 
West, and have prospered, 1 would commend this worthy 
object and assure them that their gifts would be appre- 
ciated and applied to the best advantage for the purpose 
I have stated. 

The obituary of the month includes the name of Sir 
Thomas Spencer Wells, Bart., F. R. C. S., M. D., the 
well-known surgeon and gyniecologist, who for many 
years was surgeon to the Queen's household. 



THE METRIC SYSTEM IN ENGLAND. 

The English chambers of commerce are now again seri- 
(Uisly agitating the use of the metric system iu Eng- 
land, and have petitioned their Government for its intro- 
duction and immediate adoption. From the activity that 
is being shown, it would seem that the date of the ac- 
tual use in (ji-eat Britain of the metric system is not far 
distant. Mr. Balfour, in a recent interview with a depu- 
tation sent to consult him on the subject, expressed as 
the only dilliculty in his mind the fact that retail deal- 
ers and most of their customers would not be prepared 
for the complete change from the present old system of 
measures. In the mean time, the same question has been 
discusse<l and likewise urgently seconded at a great 
many meetings held by parties interested. Mr. Ritchie, 
president of the Commercial Court, has also brought in 
his bill regarding the introduction of the metric system 
iu England, and the authorities of the British commer- 
cial community have been unanimously urging its use, 
but all appeals and endeavors thus far have failed, in 
consequence of the extreme conservatism of the English. 
Mr. Ritchie has acted most cautiously in the matter, argu- 
ing that "there exists no reason for abolishing weights and 
measures iu use for ages," but says: "At the same time, 
it is an urgent matter of necessity for the English people 
to become acquainted with a system of measures adopt- 
ed by the whole continent," excepting Russia, and by 
nearly all other leading nations, the United States ex- 
cepted.'* The British and American merchants are los- 
ing much valuable business because their price lists are 
issued in the old and inconvenient forms of weights and 
values. Secretary Balfour, in England, motions to make 
the metric system legal, and in his bill the exact equiva- 
lents between English and metric units are given. At 
Bradford the subject has been agitated and discussed 
from every standpoint; the holding of an international 
congress being in debate, for the purpose of regulating 
the numbering of yarns. The object of this movement 
has an army of sympathizers in Germany among the 
weavers and spinners. A great change has come among 
nuinufaeturers and machinists, and that change is due 
to two reasons — they have come to know something of it 
and to see the great advantages which would be secured 
in the important matter of convenience and facility, and 
they also realize that the great European markets are 
being closed, to a large degree, to all machines and man- 
ufactures that are not based on the metric unit. "Great 
Britain maintained for a long time a leading position 
among the nations of the world, by virtue of the excel- 
lence and accuracy of its workmanship, the result of in- 
dividual energy; but the progress of mechanical science 
has made accuracy of workmanship the common prop- 
erty of the world." These words, spoken by the presi- 
dent of the British association in a recent address, are 
worthy to be remembered by the manufacturers in Eng- 
land and the United States. The adoption of the metric 
system by the latter would leave England and Russia 
the only non-metric countries in the world. Very evident 
is the fact that English manufacturers are being out- 
stripped in a field that was once regarded as peculiarly 
their own, and this is due to over-caution, want of ready 
appreciation of new inventions, and slowness to grasp 
new ideas. The splendid system of technical education 
with which Germany has provided herself is, of course, 



•The metric system has been officially recognized in the 
United States to the foUowiug extent; On July 28, 1866, the 
following was enacted (Section 3569, Revised Statutes, sec- 
ond edition, 1878): "It shall be lawful throughout the United 
States of America to employ the weights and measures of 
the metric system; and no contract, or dealing, or pleading 
in any court shall be deemed invalid or liable to objection 
because the weights or measures expressed or referred to 
therein are weights or measures of the metric system. 
The next section gives the tables of the equivalents of the 
present weights and measures in the metric system. Sec- 
tion 3880, Revised Statutes, 1878), provides for the furnish- 
ing of certain post oflices with metrical postal balances for 
the weighing of letters. 



270 



THE I'HAU.MACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 4, 1897. 



another great factor in her advance. Germany, for ez- 

amplo, is becoiiiiiip a formidnlile rival of EnKlaiui in con- 
nection witli tlic South American trade. British exports 
to South America have been gradually deoreasin;;. while 
those of Germany have been as persistently risinp. The 
cause for this falling off has been, in part at least, Eng- 
land's delay in adopting the metric system, the English 
pounds, sbillings and pence and yards, feet and inches 
being absolutely unintelligible to people of the Latin race. 
This fact and example is fast gaining ground in the 
United States, where the metric system campaign has 
been going steadily on. The National SIctcorological So- 
ciety, of world-famous experts, aided by the most influ- 
ential circles, so interested are all. signify their desire to 
further the cause. 

Naturally the almost cosnioi>rilil:ui use of a system of 
weights and measures totally different from that cm- 
ployed in the United Stales places its merchants inter- 
ested in foreign trade at a great disadvantage. Not only 
arc American price lists confusing to the foreign mer- 
chants, owing to the different denominations used, but 
the fact that foreign lists are made in terms equally un- 
familiar to American merchants is said to result in un- 
fair discriminations and often in fraud. (George Sawter, 
Consul, Glauchau.) 



TERPINOL.— A colorless, highly refractive fluid, ob- 
tained by Iwiling terpin with water containing hydro- 
chloric acid, then washing, (iiven in capsules or pill- 
form in daily doses of Vi to 1 gm. in bronchial affee- 



FffiARMA€Y 



TEREBEN.— A yellowish fluid of thyme-like odor and 
turiientine-like taste, specific gravity is O.SGO. 

GLYBRID. — A dressing for wounds, consisting nf a 
mixture of equal parts of glycerin and boralid. 



CUPRESSIN.— The volatile oil of the Cypressus 
sempervirens, which serves for inhalation in treatment 
of whooping cough. 



SODIUM TELLURATE.— Recommended in treat- 
ment of the night sweats of phthisis, given in doses of 
0.01 to 0.02 gm. twice daily. 



FERRO-SODIIM CITRATE AI.RUMINATE.— A 
readily absorbable iron preparation, recominendeil in 
doses of 1.5 gm. per day as a febrifuge. 

THYMACETIN. — An analogous phenol derivative 
closely related to phenacctin. it forms an insoluble white 
crystalline powder which may be given in doses of V^ to 
1 gm. in treatment of neuralgic affections. 

ASPIDIN (C,,H„:0:).— A crystalline substance which 
forms in ethereal extract of male fern. It is soluble in 
alcohol, ether and alkalies, it is of toxic nature and is 
being examined as to its therapeutic properties. 

n.miATIN-ALBUJIIN.— A fine, reddish brown, taste- 
less powder, which consists essentially of dried fibrin 
(blood albuminoids). It is readily tolerated in doses of 
1 to 2 teaspooufuls 3 times daily in water or milk. 



PERIPI.Cxr'IN. — A crystalline glucosidc prepared 
from the Periploca graeca. It melts at 20.")° C, is sol- 
uble in alcohol and insoluble in ether. In its physiologi- 
cal action it resembles digitalin. strophantliin and oua- 
bain. 



ANTIPARASITIC TOOTH WASH.— In liters of 
alcohol are dissolved 5 gm. of phenol, lo gm. thymol, 30 
gm. of benzoic acid, then add in following order: 350 
gm. of tincture of benzoin. 250 gni. of glycerin, 15 gm. 
of balsam of Pern. 10 gm. of oil of peppermint. 10 gm. 
of oil of anise. 3 gm. of oil of cinnamon icassial, 1.5 
gm. of Ceylon oil of cinnamon. 0.75 gm. of vanillin and 
1 gm. of oil of eucalyptu,*. The solution is colored to 
suit with cochineal. 



CO PR AOL.— A fatty oil which fuses at 30° C, and 
congeals at 21° C, obtained from the copra nut. It 
contains 09.018 per cent, fat, 0.014 per cent, of volatile 
fatty acids. Copraol is recommended for preparing sup- 
positories, bacilli, etc. 

TOOTII-SOAP.— Pentist Erohmann. of Berlin, offers 
(lie following: Thymol 0.2.5 gm., extract of kr.ameria 1 
gm.; these arc to be dissolved in 6 gm. of hot glycerin, 
then calcined magnesia 0.5 gm.. powd. borax 4 gm. and 
powd. soap in sufficient quantity are added to make .30 
gm. of soap, to which 1 gm. of oil of peppermint is 
a.bled. 



GALACTOCULORAL AND L.IiVULOCIILORAL. 
— These two new chloraloscs wore prepared by Hanriot 
(Compt. Rend.), the former by heating galactose and 
chloral together in presence of hydrochloric acid, yield- 
ing shining plates which melted at 202° C. This galacto- 
chloral of the formula CsHnCljOs, is insoluble in methyl 
alcohol, water and ether, does not reduce Fchling's solu- 
tion and is converted by potassium permanganate into 
trichloracetic acid. Under like circumstances with alde- 
hyde and ketose sugars the author prepared liEvulo- 
chloral (C,II,,CI,0„) which molts at 228° C. and is 
soluble in alcohol and water. 



A SENSITIVE TEST FOR NITROUS ACID.— Prof. 
Riegler recommends (Zeitschr. anal. Chem.) the following 
test which will answer for general purposes as well as 
testing for the presence of nitrous acid in drinking 
water and urine. Into a test tube 2 to 3 eg. of crystal- 
lized napbthionic acid arc introduced, then 5 to 6 cc. of 
the fluid to be tested, these are well shaken and 2 to 3 
drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid .added and again 
shaken: the tube is then held at an angle and 20 to 30 
ilrops of aqua ammonia are allowed to flow down the 
side so as to form a layer above the other fluid and at 
the line of contact a rose-colored ring forms when but 
the slightest trace of nitrous acid is present. 

Since dilute solutions of napbthionic acid have a violet 
fluorescence it is advisable to observe the color by trans- 
mitted light. 



CHEMICAL VALUATION OF ANTIPVRINE.— 

On adding to an acid or neutral solution of antipyrine a 
solution of an iodide containing free iodine a hydriodido 
of antipyrine periodide precipitates (CiHi^N.O.HI.Ij). 
This precipitate forms a tarry-like mass, insoluble in 
acidulated water, soluble in alcohol, acetone and chloro- 
form. The presence of hydriodie acid and its salts in- 
creases the solubility of the precipitate in water. The 
precipitation is quantitative in presence of hydrochloric 
acid, provided sufficient of the iodine solution has been 
added: also this method serves for the quantitative 
separation of antipyrine from phenacetine, sulfonal, 
anilin salts, acetanilid, etc. Anilin salts readily unite 
\inder the circumstances with iodine, but the compound 
formed is held in solution by the acid: however it is ad- 
visable in the presence of anilin salts, to filter off the 
hydriodide of antipyrine periodide as soon as possible. 
N 

Each 21.3 cc. of — iodine solution consumed corre- 
20 
sponds to 0.1 gm. of antipyrine. 

The standard iodine solution is prepared by mixing a 
N 

— solution of iodine (containing 10 gm. K I per liter) 
20 

with hydriodie acid in the proportion that each 100 cc. 
will contain about 4 cc. of the acid (1.7 sp. gr.;. To a 



March 4, lSi»7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



271 



conroritratod luineous solution of antipyrine (aoUlified 
with IICI.) cuiitaliRHl ill a j;la.ss-stuppi'i-i'cl vial, an excess 
(nieasureilj of the standard iodine .solution is added, tlie 
fluid which has become turbid is shaken till it has 
cleared up. The fluid is filtered tliroui;h asbestos into 
a liiirette, then in an aliipiot pnrlinn of ihe filtrate the 

N 
excess of iodine is estimated by nieaiis of — thiosul- 

10 
pliate solution. The difference represents the quantity 
of iodine consumed in the formation of the double coiii- 
liouiid with antipyrine. 

Owing to the slight solvenl action of the hydriodic 
acid for the precipitate and also that the employment 
of a large excess of iodine solution causes irregularities, 
it is advisable to tnakc a few experiments with a kimwn 
sample of antipyrine. 




.V SI.MriJFIEL) .VLBr.MINIMETER.— The princi- 
ple embraced ill this apparatus of Prof. Riegler consists 
in securing a complete precipitation of the albumin by 
means of a mixture of equal parts of asaprol and citric 
acid, then reading off the volume of the precipitate. The 
spoon vhich accompaides ihe outfit (see figure) is filled 
with the asaprol mixture, which is thrown into the 
cylinder, then water is added up tf. the mark A, and 
after corking, the cylinder is inverted once to secure so- 
lution of the added i)owder. Then the urine to be exam- 
ined is added, filling up to the mark U; the cylinder is 
again corked and inverted slowly ten times; it is set 
aside for twenty-four hours, after which the height of 
the precipitate is read off: the nearest liiu' with number 
corresijmidiiig indicates the parts per thousand of albu- 
min. Qualitatively, the addition of 10 to 20 drops of the 
reagent (."> gm. each of asaprol and citric acid with lOH 
oc. of water) to about l."i cc. (d' the urine causes an im- 
mediate precipitation if albumin is present. 



We have received the British and Colonial Drug- 
gist's Diary for IS'JT. It is the twelfth issue of the pub- 
lication, and is certainly equ;il in merit to any of its 
predecessors. Apart from the ordiiuiry Diary matter, 
•which includes postal regulatinus. legal int'orm.ntion, in- 
formation regarding the various pharmaceutical and 
scientific societies, etc., no effort has been spared to 
render the volume, as a whole, of service to the 
average British retail pharmacist. In this connection 
may be mentioned a treatise on "Food Analysis for the 
Pharmacist," i)repared by T. H. Pearmain, Assistant 
Chemist at the AiKithecaries" Hall, and C. G. Moor, 
M. A., Demonstraliu' in the State Medicine Laborato- 
ries of King's College, I.cuidon. The onl.v objection to 
the British and Colcuiial Druggist's Diary is the trouble 
in finding the diary. 



Question Box 

The object of this departmeat Is to furnish our subscribers with 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating t» 
oractical pharmacy, prescription worii, dispensinji difficulties^ etc 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged bv mail aa4 
\NONYnOVS COMMUSICATIONS PECEJVB NO ATTENTION 



Formula Wanted. 

(.M. Z. D.) Antidustine. 

Cerlsette. 

(,I. K.) See this jouriuil. Fcdi. 4. p. 139. 

CIpadella. 

(B. C. B.) Thanks. The information you submit con- 
cerning the identity of "cipailella." however, is practi- 
cally that which api>eared in this journal .lanuary Ul, 
1S',)T, page 78. 

Copying or Stone Paste. 

(J. A. 11.) Your query concerning "copying paste or 
stone paste," is rather indefinite. Please give some in- 
fonnation regarding the intended use of the paste and 
we will try to help you out. 

Graduates in Pharmacy and Registration in Florida. 

(Sell. — 114'J.I Section o of the Florida Pharmacy Law. 
enacted in 188!), provides that all graduates of colleges 
of pharmacy which re<iuire a practical experience in 
ph.armacy of not h'ss than four years, before granting 
a diplonni, shall be entitled to have their names regis- 
tered by the Board of Pharmacy without examination. 
The fee for registration without examination is $2.00. 

Ferrous Sulphate and Nitric Acid. 

(E. W. C.) asks how the following may be prepared: 

Fernius sulphate 1 dram 

Quinine sulphate 1 ilram 

Nitric .acid 1 dram 

Potassium nitrate 4 drams 

AVater, enough to luake Itj ounces 

We shoidd dispense this prescription by first mixing 
the ferrous sulphate with the nitric acid, allowing the 
mixture to stand until effervescence ceases. This proce- 
dure, of course, converts the ferrous sulphate into a fer- 
ric salt, but the reaction probably does not interfere with 
the therapeutics of the mixture. To the solution thus 
made add about 8 ounces water. In the remainder of 
the water dissolve the potassium nitrate and the quinine 
sulphate: finally, mix the two solutions. For a discus- 
sicui of the above reaction, see this journal, April 23 and 
Jlay 21. 189G, pages 521 and 649, respectively. 

Ink Eraslve. 

((i. C. R.) Try one of the following: 

(li. In two (]uarts of water dissolve 4 ounces of citric 
acid, and then add from to S ounces of a concentrated 
solution of borax. This sohition is marked No. 1. To 
prepare solution No. 2 aild 2 quarts of water to % pound 
of chloride of lime, shake well and set aside for about a 
week: decant, and add fiMun to 8 ounces of concen- 
trated solution of borax. This preparation is used by 
saturating the ink spot with solution No. 1. removing 
excess of liipiid with a blotter, and then applying solu- 
tion No. 2. When the stain has disappi'ared apply the 
lilotler, andWash the spot by the alternate use of clear 
water and blotting pai)er. 

(2). One-half pound chloride of lime is added to 2 
quarts water. Allow to stand 24 hours; then strain, and 
add 1 dram of acetic aciil tn every ounce of chloride of 
lime used. Apply this Ii(iuid lo the blot without rub- 
bing. When the ink has disa|>iieared absm-b the fluid 
with blotting paper. 

(3). Mix equal parts of oxalic acid and tartaric acid 
in powder. When wanted for use. dissolve a little in 
water. It is poi.sonous. 

(41. If the cohn- is an auiliu red, try a solution of 7 



272 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 4, ]S!)7 



pnrts sodium nitrate and 15 parts dilute sulphuric add 

ill 500 parts water, applying to the spot with a canid's 
hair brush, and rinsing thoroughly. 



Dental Modeling Wax. 
fW. H. G.) 

(Ij Clear wax 200 parts 

Venice turpentine 26 parts 

Lard 13 parts . 

Precipitated bole 145 parts 

Mi.v and knead the mass in water. 

(2) Hard paraffin 3 parts 

Resin 1 part 

Olive oil 2 parts 

(or a sufficiency.) 
Rose pink, in fine powder, a sufficiency. 
Melt and mix. As paraffin varies in melting point, the 
quantity of olive oil must be adjusted accordingly. 

The Manual of Formulae, a British work, is authority 
for this one: 

(3) Stearin 4 parts 

Gum kowrie 8 parts 

French chalk 14 parts 

Carmine a sufficiency 

Melt the stearin, and add the gum kowrie; then grad- 
ually stir iu the chalk, in small portions, and mix assid- 
uously. Finally color with carmine, and pour into flat 
dishes to form thin cakes. 



Butter Color. 

(W. S. R.) Annatto is the basis of nearly all butter 
color, though turmeric is sometimes added to modify the 
shade. Dry colors used for the purpose are freqiu'ntly 
found to contain annatto, bicarbonate of sodium, borax, 
etc. Here are two formulas: 

(1) Annatto 1 ounce 

Turmeric 1 ounce 

Olive oil 3 ounces 

Spanish saffron 1 dram 

Alcohol 5 drams 

Macerate the annatto and the turmeric iu the oil for 
four days, and the saffron in the alcohol for the same 
time. Filter the expressed liquids and add enough oil to 
complete the same measure of the former; mix the two 
solutions and expel the alcohol by gentle heat. 

(2) Annatto seed 15 pounds 

Cottonseed oil 10 gallons 

Heat the oil to a temperature of 212 degrees F., add 
the annatto seed, and allow to macerate for 12 hours. 
Let settle, and pour off the clear, dark-colored oil. 

We cannot give the formula for the proprietary- prep- 
aration. 



Ammoaium Iodide and Tincture of Aconite in Capsules. 

(F. M. A.) submits the following: 

Ammonium iodide 100 grains 

Tincture aconite root 1 dram 

Dover's powder 30 grains 

Mix. divide and put into 20 capsules. 

He asks how it should be dispensed. He says he mixed 
the ammonium iodide and tincture of aconite in a slight- 
ly heated mortar and evaporated a portion of the men- 
struum of the tincture. He then added the Dover's 
powder and about 10 grains of powdered tragacanth, 
making a magnificent mass, easily rolled out and cut 
into the required number of bacilli which were encased 
in the capsules. The dose of the tincture of aconite is 
right as the patient was very sick and had a high fever. 
The M. D. said the mass was the finest he had ever 
seen made from the same prescription; also the smallest 
capsules," etc. The method of procedure was no doubt 
satisfactory here and so long as the prescriber was so 
much pleased with the result of F. M. A.'s work, no one 
can well afford to make objection. However, iodides 
are incompatible as a rule with organic substances, de- 
composing them and rendering inert or insoluble the al- 
kaloids, etc. It is a question whether the patient gets 
the full therapeutic value of the remedies prescribed in 
this compound. 



Bllxir Terpitt Hydrate and Codeine Sulphate. 

(J. O. B. and F. V.) The first of these correspondents 
has had dilliculty with the formula for elixir of terpin 
hydrate and codeine sulphate given in this journal. May 
!), ISOO, page ij'Jl. Terpin hydrate was precipitatwl. 

The precipitation here noticed is doubtless due to the 
presence of so large a quantity of water, terpin hydrate 
being not so soluble in water as in alcohol. Wo suggest, 
therefore, that the amount of alcohol be increased, omit- 
ting, of course, a corresponding amount of water, or by 
omitting the water entirely and substituting for it aro- 
matic elixir. Try this formula: 

1.) Terpin hydrate 128 grains 

t'odeine sulphate 1(! grains 

Alcohol 2 ounc(*s 

Aromatic elixir, enough to make 1 pint 

Other formulas which have been proposed are these: 

2.) Codeine 1 part 

Terpin hydrate 8 parts 

Alcohol tiOO parts 

Distilled water 000 parts 

Peppermint syrup 600 parts 

Dose: Tablespoontul. 

3.) Codeine 1 part 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

Terpin hydrate 80 parts 

Alcohol 1200 parts 

Distilled water 800 parts 

Dose: Tablespoonfnl. 

A Glycerine Mixture. 

(H.) wants a method of compounding the following: 

Morphine sulphate .'{ grains 

Tincture stramonium 1 ounce 

Nitroglycerin 14 grain 

Tincture belladonna 10 minims 

Potassium nitrate ''j ounce 

Tincture tolu V(> ounce 

Tincture (spirit) anise l^ ounce 

Beech wood creosote % dram 

Chloroform ■ 2 (Jrams 

(rlycerin, enough to make 6 ounces 

Several methods have been tried, the principal difficulty 
being to secure solution of the greatest amount of po- 
tassium nitrate in the liquids of the mixture. The fol- 
lowing method seems to be about as satisfactory as any. 
the resulting compound being at best but a "shako" mix- 
ture, though quite presentable. Dissolve the ntorphine 
sulphate and nitroglycerin fuse a corresponding amount 
of the official spirit of nitroglycerin) in the tinctures of 
stramonium and belladonna. Triturate the potassium 
nitrate with about three ounces of glycerin and add the 
solution first made. To the balance of the glycerine add 
the tinctures of tolu and anise, creosote and chloroform, 
shaking thoroughly after each addition. Mix with the- 
former glycerin mixttire and dispense under a "shake" 
label. Coniey (Dictionary of Solubilities) states that 10 
liarts of potassium nitrate are soluble in 100 parts of 
glycerine. Creosote is soluble, chloroform insoluble in 
glycerine. 

General Merchants and the Sale or Drugs In New York State. 

(W. C. W.) At a meeting held in Syracuse last year 
the New York State Board of Pharmacy decided that 
grocers and general dealers in cities and places that are 
not legally defined as "rural districts" should be per- 
mitted to sell the following drugs at retail: borax, sal 
soda, saltpetre, bicarbonate of soda, cream tartar, am- 
monia, olive oil, dye stuffs. The sales of poisonous dye- 
stuffs must be registered, and each package containing 
such poisonous drug must be plainly labeled with the- 
word "poison," as required by the penal code. The re- 
tailing of such remedies as paregoric, epsom salt, qui- 
nine pills, etc., in the places not legally defined as "rural 
districts" is held to be illegal, even though such remedies 
bear the label of a licensed pharmacist. 

The phrase "rural districts" in the pharmacy act is de- 
clared to "apply only to small villages and country dis- 
tricts having no store where pharmacy is practiced." and' 
the practice of pharmacy is further defined as "the com- 
pounding of prescriptions or of any substance to be- 
nsed .IS medicine, or the retailing of any drug or poison 



March 4, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



273 



for medicinal purpose." Domestic remedies are defined 
as "such as may be safely employed without the aid of 
a physician, as epsom salt, Hochelle salt, salts of tartar, 
borax, sulphur, magnesia, camphor, aloes, myrrh, guaiac, 
arnica, rhubarb, senna, squills, ipecac, and preparations 
of above; also castor oil, olive oil, origanum, spike, am- 
ber, wiutergreen, peppermint and wormwood, glycerine, 
spirits of nitre and other like remedies, but does not in- 
clude opium, morphine, laudanum, strychnine, arsenic, 
belladonna, aconite and other poisons requiring knowl- 
edge 'and pharmaceutical skill to safely dispense unless 
they be sold in original packages, or packages bearing 
the label of a licensed pharmacist." 

From the above abstract of the law, it is clearly seen 
that a general merchant, whose place of business is not 
in a "rural district," can sell only the drugs first above 
enumerated. If he resides in the district denominated 
as "rural," he, of course, may sell such remedies as in- 
dicated, viz., such as may be employed without the aid 
of a physician. 

To Stick Labels to TIa. 

(H. Bros, and H. T. S.) In addition to formulas on 
page 12, July 2, 189G, issue of this journal, the follow- 
ing are submitted, the first of which is taken from the 
Western I'aiuter. 

(1). 

U\) Tirown sugar 2 pounds 

Boiling water 10 tl. ounces 

(b) French gelatine % ounce 

Water 4 fl. ounces 

(e) Corn starch 12 ounces 

Beat up with 

Cold water 12 fl. ounces 

And pour the batter into 

Boiling water 32 fl. ounces 

Continue boiling (c) if necessary, until the paste is 
translucent. Dissolve (a) and (b) separately, and then 
mix with (c). Paste for tin should not be too thin, and 
the tin should be free from grease. New tin generally 
has an oily or greasy surface, duo to the tallow or oil 
used in the plating process. The grease may be removed 
with an alkali or with benzin, but in a factory where 
much labeling is done it is better to slightly roughen 
the surface of the tin wheie the label is to be placed 
with u piece of fine sandpaper. No. 0. This paste is 
very adhesive, and labels pasted with it will adhere 
nicely, even in a damp place. 

(2). 

(a) Pulverized gum tragacanth 1 ounce 

Pulverized gum arabic 4 ounces 

Cold water 20 fl. ounces 

(b) Glycerin 4 tl. ounces 

Thymol So grains 

(c) Boiling water 12 fl. ounces 

(3). Add 4 ounces dammar varnish to 1 pound of trag- 
acanth mucilage. 

(4). Balsam of fir, 1 part; turpentine, 3 parts; use only 
for varnished labels. 

(5). Add 1 ounce of tartaric acid to each pound of flour 
used in making flour paste. 

(6). Water glass (solution of silicate of soda) is rec- 
ommended as a very good adhesive for this purpose, par- 
ticularly if the articles are subsii|uently liable to be ex- 
posed to heat. Metallic surfaces should first be rubbed 
with emery paper before applying the paste; the label is 
then pressed on with the hand. 

Masking the Odor of Kerosene. 

(H. A. N.) Various processes have been recommended 
for masking the odor of kerosene, such as the addition 
of various essential oils, artificial oil of myrbane, etc.. 
but none of them seems entirely satisfactory. The addi- 
tion of aniyl acetate in the proportion of 10 grams to the 
liter (1 per cent.) has also been suggested, several ex- 
perimenters reporting very successful results therefrom. 
Some years ago Beringer proposed a process for remov- 
ing sulphur eoniiionnds from benzine, which woulil pre- 
sumably be equally applicable to kerosene. This process 
is as follows: .1 



Potassium permanganate 1 ounce 

Sulphuric acid y> pint 

Waler 3% pints 

Mix the acid and water, and when the mixture has be- 
come cold pour it into a two-gallon bottle. Add the per- 
manganate and agitate until it is dissolved. Then add 
benzine 1 gallon, and thoroughly agitate. Allow the 
liquids to remain in contact for twenty-four hours, fre- 
quently agitating the mixture. Separate the benzine and 
wash in a similar bottle with a mixture of: 

Potassium permanganate % ounce 

Caustic soda % ounce 

Water 2 pints 

Agitate the mixture frequently during several hours; 
then separate the benzine and wash it thoroughly with 
water. On agitating the benzine with the acid perman- 
ganate solution an emulsion-like mixture is produced, 
which separates in a few seconds, the permanganate 
slowly subsiding and showing considerable reduction. 
In the above process it is quite probable that the time 
specified (24 hours) is greatly in excess of what is neces- 
sary, as the reduction takes place almost entirely in a 
very short time. It has also been suggested that if the 
process were adopted on a manufacturing scale, with 
mechanical agitation, the time could be reduced to an 
hour or two. 

For coloring kerosebe there is perhaps nothing cheaper 
than the substance you have been using, viz.: alkanet, 
unless you may be able to strike upon some one of the 
aniline dyes. We suggest you write to some of the man- 
ufacturers of aniline and ask them for information re- 
garding the pigment you desire, its solubility in kero- 
sene, etc. We cannot suggest the addition of any sub- 
stance which will cause kerosene not to burn when 

placed in a lamp. _ 

Soluble Flavoring Extracts. 
(Druggist.) Dubelle gives the following for soluble ex- 
tracts of orange and lemon: 

Orange. 

Pure oil of orange •. .IVi fl. ounces 

Carbonate of magnesium 2 ounces 

Alcohol f 12 fl. ounces 

Water suflicient to make 2 pints 

Dissolve the oil of orange in the alcohol and rub it 
with the carbonate of magnesium in a mortar, pour the 
mixture into a quart bottle and fill the bottle with water; 
allow to macerate for a week or more, shaking every 
day, then filter through paper, adding enough wati'r 
through the filter to make two pints. 
Lemon. 

Oil of lemon 1% fl. ounces 

Carlionate of magnesium 2 ounces 

Alcohol 12 fl. ounces 

Water sufBcient to make. . . .o. . . . 2 pints 
Proceed as directed above. 

A soluble extract, i. e., one which can be diluted with 
water, may be made according to the following formula 
proposed by George C. De Lessing, of this city: 

One ounce of lemon oil in a 12-ounce glass separator 
with a stopcock, is mixed with 10 ounces of diluted al- 
cohol of 50 per cent. (sp. gr. 0.9335) and well shaken. 
After about twenty-four hours, separate the oil from 
the diluted alcohol, when the latter will be found to be 
a saturated solution of the soluble parts of the lemon 
oil, containing about 16 grains of citral and citronellal. 
Lemon water is prepared by mixing t,-, or 1 ounce of the 
alcoholic solution so made with a gallon of distilled 
water and filtering, if necessary, through purified talcun\. 
(The use of carbonate of magnesia is thus avoided.) If 
a stronger solution of oil in water is desired, larger 
quantities of the essence must be used. To produce a 
clear solution, add to each gallon of water 1 ounce of 
jiolysolve (ammonium sulphoricinoleate). No filtering is 
then necessary. 

For other formulas, see Feb. 21. 189.0. Era, page 238. 
.\dditional remarks by Jlr. De Lessing on the solubility 
of oil of lemon in aqueous solution may be found in 
llie Mar.-li 7, LSit,". Era. page .3fH. 



UTi 



THE I'llAKMACEUTlCAL EUA. 



|.M;ir.li t, IMtT 



Ginger. 

(1) Fluid extiiKl of giiij,'!!- iT. S. I*.).. 4 H. ouiicos 
riiuiko slinif (moflcnililj- fiiu- poH- 

diT) 1 troy ounce 

WnttT, to make 12 tl. ounces 

Mix tlie fluid extract with the pumice stone and shake 
well (luring li to ;i hours; Krnduall.v add water in quan- 
tity not over li oun<es at a time, and shake well; after 
addin;; all the water, agitate during 24 hours; then lil- 
ter till it will run clear. 

(2) Ginger root ground 2 pounds 

rumice stone 2 ounces 

I.,ime (slaked) 2 ounces 

Dilute alcohol (jO'H to make 4 pints 

Rul) the ginger with the pumice stone and lime; mois- 
ten with diluted alcohol: pack in percolator loose, and 
percolate till 4 pints are obtained; after 24 hours filter. 

(3) Strong tincture of ginger root 4 pints 

, Water -^ pints 

Mi.\ well. 

A<id tirst solutiou of 

Chloride of calcium 300 grains 

In water 5 ounces 

Shake. 
Add, second, solution of 

I'hosphale of soda ly, ounces 

In water 15 ounces 

Shake well, and to ni'Utralize frei' acid add li drams 
of carbonate of soda; Hlter after a dav. 



Compound Syrup of Nypophosphltes, 

(E. D. II.) The coinpoiiiiii syrni> of hypophosphites 
of the National Formulary, revised edition (No. 378), is 
a preparation of the general character you outline. Here 
are two others: 

1.) Calcium hypophosphite 256 grains 

Potassium hypophosphite 128 grains 

Sodium hy[>ophosphite 128 grains 

JIauganese li.vpophosphite 10 grains 

Solution iron hypophosphite (N. F.I.. Iti minims 

Quinine hydrochlorate 8 grains 

Strychnine hydrochlorate 1 grain 

Siigar 14 ounces 

Distilled water, enough to make IG fl. ounces 

Dissolve the calcium salt in 4il' fluid ounces of water, 
the potassium and sodium salts in 1 fluid ounce, the man- 
ganese hypophosphite in 1 fluid ounce, and 
the strychnine hydrochlorate in lo ounce of water, re- 
spectively. Rub the iiuiiiine hydrochlorate with the 
sugar and introduce into a graduated bottle: add all the 
solutions except the iron, and agitate till the sugar is 
dissolved, or nearly so; then add the iron solution and 
euough water to make one pint. Shake well and set 
aside for ten days; then filter through paper. The syrup 
thus made is of a greenish straw color, and verv beau- 
tiful. 

2.) Iron sulphate, crystals 128 grains 

Manganese sulphate, crystals 128 grains 

Quinine sulphate (54 grains 

Strychnine sulphate, crystals 8 grains 

Hypophosphorous acid, Wi N. F. . . . 4 fl. drs. 

Calcium hypophosphite 1\'2 ounces 

Distilled water, enough to make. ... 1 "pint 
Dissolve the suljihates in 4 fluid ounces of water, 
adding half the amount of the hypophosphorous acid: the 
hypophosphite of calcium is dissolved in S) fluid ounces 
of water with the aid of the remainder of the acid. Hav- 
ing filtered the two solutions .separately, they are mixed 
in a suitable vessel, shaken up well, and set aside to rest 
for three days. The solution of the hypophosphite of 
iron, quinine, manganese, and strychnine, thus obtained, 
is then poured off from the precipitaje and filtered, and 
the precipitate is washed with enough water to make 
the filtrate measure 1 pint. Once this solution is fin- 
ished it is an easy matter to finish the syrup, as follows: 

Calcium hypophosphite 34 drams 

Potassium hypophosphite 17 drams 

Sodium li.vpophosphite 17 drams 

Sol. hypophosphite (as above pre- 
pared > 16 fl. ounces 

Orange-flower water 4 fl. ounces 

<Tlycerin 4 fl. ounces 

Sugar 6 lbs. av. 

Distilled water, enough to make... 1 gallon 
Dissolve the hypopho.sphites in 3 pints of water, add 
the orange-flower water and filter: then add the remain- 
ing ingredients. Dissolve the sugar, by agitating with- 
out heat, and strain through cotton, which is best 
' ffected by placing in the neck of a one-gallon glass per- 



colator at first a plug of excelsior and ou top 

.some cotton; the syrup runs thnnigh very (piickly 
quite as bright as if filtered. Each fluid dram 
syrup contains 2 grains of the hypoiihosidiile i>f 
1 grain each of the hyiiophosidiites of jiutassii 
sodium, '/(* grain of each of the hypoiihosphilcs 
anil manganese. 1-lii grain of the hypoplios) 
quinine, anil 1-12S ;;rain of the hypophosphite of 
nine. This preijaralion is of the same strength 
of the National Formulary with the exception 
directs strychnine to be nseil instead of tincture 
vomica. 



of th.'it 
, anil is 
of this 
alcinm, 
im and 
of iron 
hite of 
strych- 
as that 
that it 
of uux 



Provisions of the New York Stale Pharmacy Law. 

(G. A. G.I The pharmacy law apidying in ihi' territory 
of the Stale outside of New York. Kings and Krie coun- 
ties (which have separate lioaiils of their ownl was en- 
acted in 18J^1, and amended in 1.S87, 188!>, 1S"J3 and 
ISU.'i. \Ve cannot pnldish the various acts and amiml 
nients in full, hut the following, abstracted from .i 
liaper by Prof. .1. II. Beal. are the principal provisions: 

The board consists of five menibrrs ap|ioiiiteil by lln- 
Governor from nominees presented by I lie Stale I'hai- 
maceutical Association. The law provides for the p:i.\ 
ment of exiienses incurred by the board, but does iini 
specify amount of comiiensatioii for the members. .Men 
ings must be held at least (juarlerly. 

Two glades of licentiate are provided for. Pharm.i 
cists must have four and assistants two years' exiicri- 
en<-e before examination. 

The fee for examination and registration is .$10 for 
pharmacist and .^3 for assistant. The fee for registra 
tion on certificate from another board within the Staii- 
is .1i.">. 

Section providing for the sale of domestic remedir 
in rural districts by other than registered pharmacist > 
(see answer to another correspondent elsewhere iu thi.- 
de|)artment. I 

It is implied iu section ISC that the board may re- 
voke the registration of licentiates for just and suf- 
ficient cause. 

The biKird may retain from penalties recovered under 
the law the expenses of prosecution, ineluding counsel 
fees, the residue, not exceeding one-half of the penal- 
ty, to be paid iiiio the treasury of the county where re- 
covered. 

Genei.-il Laws. 

The following provisions apply uniformly throughout 
the State, including the counties of New York. Kings 
and Erie. 

The licentiate, by examination, of any board within 
the State is entitled to registration without examination 
by any other board within the State upon complying 
with the formal requirements of the particular law of 
the district where he desires to practici'. In order to 
obtain a license from any board the applicant must show 
by affidavit or otherwise that he is a resident of the 
city or country for which the board was created, or that 
he intends to iiractice pharmac.v within such district, 
and that he has not applied for or been refused a li- 
cense b.v any board within the State within six months 
preceding. 

The wrongful, negligent or ignorant omission to label 
any article, or any mistake in labeling the same, sub- 
stitution, mistake or deviation in the filling of a pn"- 
scription or order, "in consequence of which human 
life or health is endangered." is declared a misdemeanor. 

Except when dispensed on prescription, every sale "i 
gift of any poison or poisonous substance must be re- 
corded iu the usual manner, together with the addr(>>> 
of some person known to tiie dealer, as :i witness to the 
transaction. (This has been held by a police justice in 
New York City to require a record of all poisons, even 
ihougli they are not includeil in Schedule .\ of the Con- 
soliihition Act.) Except when dispensed on prescription, 
every poison or poisonous substance must bear a label 
giving the name and address of the seller, the name 
of the article and the word poison. Morphine and opium 
.•iiid their preparations, exeeiit paregoric and other prep- 
arations containing less than 2 grains to Ihe ounce, must 
bear a scarlet label lettered in white letters. 

Except on the verbal or written order of a physician, 
a prescription which contains more than one-fourth 
grain of opium, or one-twentieth grain of morphine m 
cocaine, or ten grains of ehlortil to the dose may iioi 
be refilled more than once. 

It is a misdemeanor for any person except a graduate 
in pharmacy or medicine or one liaving two years' ex- 
perieucc in pharmacy to compound a prescription except 
under the direct supervision of some one possessed of 
the foregoing qualifications. In case of death resulting 
from a violation of this provision the offense becomes a 
felony. 

Licensed pharmacists are exempt from jury duty w'.i! ■ 
actively engaged in the practice of their profession. 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

The contents of thU publication are covered by the general copyright, and articles must not 6e reprinted vMhout «peciai;permis»ion. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, MARCH 11. 1897. 



No. 10. 



ENTERED AT THE NEW VORK POST OFFICE, A8 SECOND CLASS MATTER. 
ESTABUSHED 1887. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. 



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CabU Addrese : " Era "—New York. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAOE 

Editokial 289 

Correspondence 291 

Carl Brucker 293 

Recollections of an Old- 

Time Dru« Clerk 293 

Dispensing by Pbjsicians 

Defended....- 296 

Language of Prescriptions. 297 
PUARM.iCY 298 

QtTESTION Box 301 

News Department 305 

New Factors' Agreement. . 305 

Phenacetine War 306 

Proposed AJcoiiol Legisla- 
tion 307 



PAOE 

News Dept.— Continued. 
Two Tickets in the Field... 307 
For One Board of Phar- 
macy 308 

Death of M. Bourgoin 309 

News Letters 310 

Obituary 316 

Druggists' Advertising.. 317 
Patents, Trademarks. ... 318 
Trade Department, In- 
cluding Trade Reports, 
Market Reports, Trade 
Notes, Manufacturers' 
Announcements, etc., in 
pages immediately fol- 
lowing Reading Pages. 



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Substitution the Concomitant of Cutting. 

"Louisville is in a pretty bad fix just now — every man 
a cutter," is the way a druggist in that city puts it, and 
in circulars which he distributes to the public he fur- 
ther describes the state of affairs, saying: 

"Tlierp seems to be a mania prevailing among the 
druggists of the city to cut each other's throats with 
the 'Old Chestnut,' 'Cut-Rate Drug Store'; 40 to 50 
per cent, saved in compounding your prescriptions; 4- 
year-old whisky iit 25 cents a pint, and other induce- 
ments that are false upon the principle of business and 
common sense. While we are forced to meet the cut ou 
patent medicines, we are not willing to impose upon the 
unfortunatesick by substituting or palming off upon them, 
in filling their prescriptions with inert and inferior chem- 
icals, deteriorated by age. In no other way can they 
afford to fill your prescriptions at a saving to you of 40 
to 50 per cent. The consequence is, the sick suffer; the 
physician is surpri-sed why his prescriptions fail to re- 
lieve; the patient and the family throw all blame upon 
him. This should not be. Have your prescriptions com- 
pounded by a competent pharmacist. Take your pre- 
scriptions to a druggist that is not running a backroom 
bar, or has his front door blockaded with whisky signs. 
There are plenty of druggists in the city who do not 
sell whisky, not because of their inability to pay the li- 
cense, but they do not wish to turn their drug store into 
a saloon; a place where ladies and children can go with- 
out coming away feeling that they were coming from a 
saloon. We do not keep any whiskies. We are strict- 
ly a prescription pharmacy, with thirty years' experi- 
ence behind the prescription case — etc." 

The evil effects of a cutting policy are here set forth 
with emphasis and truth. They are misrepresentation and 
fraud, substitution the inevitable accompaniment. We 
are glad to see that this druggist discerns and frankly 
admits the injury to the patient and damage to the phy- 
sician's reputation which cut-rate practices in prescrip- 
tion pharmacy surely occasion. Every word in his cir- 
cular is justified and commendable, and it would be a 
great good to pharmacy could the public at large be in- 
structed in the same facts and be led to accept them. 
The people would soon kill drug store cutting were they 
convinced, of what is the truth, that the majority of 
cutters reimburse themselves by fraud in medicine dis- 
pensing for cutting losses or inadequate profits. No one 
wants, nor, if he knows it, will accept, inferior medi- 
cines: the best only must be dispensed. 



Brooklyn Druggists Protest. 

"Imbroglio: A complicated and embarrassing state of 
things." This is an apt description of the situation in 
which the Kings County (N. Y.) Pharmaceutical Society 
and the Brooklyn druggists in general find themselves 
with respect to that portion of the proposed charter for 
Greater New Y'ork which legislates the Kings County 
Board of Pharmacy out of existence and places the New 
Y'ork College of Pharmacj- in full control of the consti- 
tution of the board of pharmacy which shall hereafter 
administer affairs pharmaceutical in this great metrop- 
olis. The pharmacy section of the new charter was con- 
sidered at length in these pages last week. But the so- 
ciety and the college and the druggists of Brooklyn sev- 
erally and collectively do not like it, and are asking what 
they shall do about it. They object to acting in the ca- 
pacity of the tail to the New York College of Pharmacy 
dog, unless the tail can wag the dog, a proviso which is 
out of the question in this instance, as in most others. 



290 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



Tlioy are almost willing to soe the abolition of their own 
and all the local boards in the State in favor of the 
selection of a single board which shall have jurisdiction 
over the whole State, but they do not want to play sec- 
oud liddle to any private institution. 

But what can they do? Nothing, if all we are told is 
credible. We are informed that the charter will be 
considered as a whole, not section by section, by the 
legislature and ))assed as a whole, without particular 
moditicatiou or amendment, if passed at all. The thing 
is to l)e rushed through with all the force that political 
influence can lend it, and the little interest'which Brook- 
lyn druggists can enlist in ojiposition to the pharmacy 
section will meet with no consideration. We believe 
the charter will go through, and that our Brooklyn 
friends will have to submit to a condition which is par- 
ticularly objectionable to them, which we all feel to be 
radically wrong, and which this journal has had no hes- 
itation in cuudemning. 

The remedy which we see, and which we would earn- 
estly urge, is, after enactment of the charter into law, 
to put forth every I'ffort to secure a State law which 
shall supersede the objectionable pharmacy section, 
which shall abolish all local boards, and provide for 
their unification and consolidation into one State board. 
This is both possible and probable, for we do not think 
iJiarmacists of the State are much longer going to put 
up with the present anomalous conditions. It is the 
height of absurdity and inconsistency that renders it pos- 
sible for a candidate who has failed in his examination 
before the New York Cit.v Board of Pharmacy to appear 
before the State board, pass, and then come straight 
back to the city board and claim registration on the 
strength of his certificate from the State board, or vice 
versa. 

Let tis have one State law and one State board, and 
divert no funds to any purpose other than the adminis- 
tration of the law. 



An Unprofessional Accusation. 

\ correspondent submits the following copy of a pre- 
scription he received to be dispensed. 

Sodium bromide % dram 

Antikamnia 30 grains 

Extract cannabis iudica I'/a grains 

Powdered camphor i . . . . 3 grains 

Codeine 1 grain 

Slix. divide iind put into capsules. One every 4 
hours. 

He says: 

"I put it up carefully and put in just what 
was ordered. After the patient had taken one capsule 
she became very ill from its effects, and as a result the 
doctor accused me of making a mistake and stated that 
I had used cocaine instead of codeine in dispensing the 
prescription. The report has now gone through the 
neighborhood that I made a mistake and put up a dan- 
gerous preparation which would have killed the patient 
had she repeated the dose. etc. These statements are 
very damaging and calculated to injure my reputation 
and business. What do .vou think of the matter and 
what steps should be taken to save my reputation?" 

The position in which our correspondent is placed is 
an unfortunate one and his statement tends to show that 
the prescriber acted in a very injudicious and unprofes- 
sional manner, even had he cause for complaint. We 
would not like to suggest that our friend seek redress 
in a court of law; still, perhaps, it is the only thing he 
can do. But before taking such a step he should have 
the benefit of sound legal advice and, at the same time, 
he should be sure of his position. If no mistake was 
made, then the prescriber was guilty of uttering a de- 
famatory or slanderous statement tending to destroy 
the good name and reputation of another, an action for 
which he may be prosecuted. It would then remain for 
the defendant to prove that a mistake was made and. 
therefore, he had the right to make the statements he 
did. At any rate a judicial decision can only be rendered 
upon questions of fact, and a jury or court can only de- 



termine upon bearing the evidence whether a mistake 
was made or not. 

In discussing this subject we assume the prescription 
as written is not a dangerous one, for that point is not 
raised. But such discussion brings out many reasons 
why the dispenser should be able to prove the various 
steps he has taken in his work. If he is a careful oper- 
ator and takes every precaution to guard against error, 
b.v having some one to check his work, etc., the chances 
are that his reputation would suffer but little injury in 
a judicial investigation. Negligence in dispensing is 
inexcusable. Ordinarily, a person need use onl.v rea- 
sonable care in the exercise of his trade or calling; but 
in the case of druggists the courts have decided time and 
again that in the discharge of their duties, druggists, 
a|)Otliecaries. and [jersons dealing in drugs and medi- 
cines should be required not only to be skillful, but also 
to exercise extraordinary caution, in view of the disas- 
trous consequences which may attend the least inatten- 
tion upon their [lart. 



Preparing for the Board. 

The board of pharmac.v examination is the ordeal to 
which the student of pharmacy looks forward with ap- 
prehension. In his studies he ever has in mind the ques- 
tion whether this or that will be of assistance when he 
is brought to the test. The examination opens or closes 
the door to a life's vocation which he has deliberately 
chosen, and it is perfectly natural that he should regard 
it with this feeling of trepidation. He is vitally con- 
cerned, then, in the problem of preparation for the exam- 
ination, and finds it important that this preparation be 
of the proper character. 

There are candidates whose only purpose is to ''get 
through," who do not value knowledge for its own sake, 
and who little care what be the nature of their prepara- 
tion provided it, by hook or crook, will serve to push 
them through the gate. This class want a short-cut to 
the goal, and as a rule are never successful in the race 
of life. The short-cut is a broken reed, as they find 
sooner or later, t or this class we have little of advice, 
but for the young man who earnestly desires to qualify 
himself for the practice of pharmacy a few words of di- 
rection are cheerfully offered. What follows may. there- 
fore, be taken in reply to the many letters continually 
coming to us inquiring how to study pharmacy, how to 
prepare for the board of pharmacy test, what books to 
secure, and other queries of related character. All these 
may be covered in a general answer. 

We must begin with the axiom that there is no royal 
road to learning. Hard work and thoroughness are the 
requisites and concomitants of success. In pharmacy, as 
in all other callings, it is necessary that the foundation 
be well laid. A good general education should be ob- 
tained. The lack of this is the great defect with which 
the colleges of pharmacy have to contend. Defects in 
this preliminary education cannot be remedied in after 
life, they render the acquisition of special, professional, 
scientific knowledge extra difficult, and frequently im- 
possible. So lay the foundation well. Mathematics is 
particularly serviceable, not only by reason of the mental 
training it imparts, but because it is of direct and con- 
stant application in pharmacy. The ability to think in 
numliers. to reason in proportion and percentage, is 
the sine qua non in all science. Dr. Prescott says, "It is 
of the first consequence that the student be not illiterate 
in his own tongue," and he urges that the young man get 
through the full work of the ordinary high school course, 
the best that is afforded, if it be possible. Grammar and 
penmanship, Latin and German, physics and botany, 
are branches to be specially considered. The more pre- 
liminary education the student has the better able will 
he be to understand and apply the principles of the spe- 
cial studies which he is later to take up in his prepara- 
tion for the special profession of pharmacy. 



4 



March 11, ISIiT.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



291 



But we will suppose that he is ready to begin his phar- 
macy course, aud that being debarred from college privi- 
leges he must prosecute his studies alone, and with the 
facilities closest to his hand. Let him lay down for him- 
self the guiding rule that his general reading and his 
Btudy of theories aud principles must be supplemented 
by the actual application of the facts presented, in the 
way of experiment in clicniistry, in manufacturiug phar- 
oiacy, and in familiarizing himself through his several 
senses with the physical characteristics of the drugs and 
luediciues he is to handle. There are three nutiu branches 
of study: I'harmacy proper, chemistry and materia med- 
ica, and under one or the other of these may bo included 
the minor special or complementary branches which must 
not be neglected. The competent pharnuicist is expected 
to be versed to greater or less extent in toxicology, uriue 
analysis, pharmacognosy, bolauy and the like. 

The student caunot get along without books, but he 
can easily do good work with but a small number of 
books. Each of the three branches may be roughly di- 
vided into the theoretical and practical. The first book 
the student should secure is the latest edition of oue of 
the Dispensatories. This will serve him as a reference 
aud text-book iu pharmacy, chemistry, materia medica, 
therapeutics, etc. In pharmacy proper, beside the Dis- 
pensatory he will find useful Remington's,- Coblentz', or 
Caspari's work, aud must, of course, possess the United 
States Pharmacopoeia. But equal in importance, per- 
haps even more necessary, is a good, wideawake, up-to- 
date pharmaceutical journal. We cannot dwell too in- 
sistently upon the advisability of subscribing for one 
or more of these publications. In supplementary works 
in pharmacy the student cannot have too many, and the 
greater the library he possesses the better will be his fa- 
cilities for doing good work. The pharmacopoeias of Eng- 
land, Germany and France and a number of good for- 
mula books should be secured, if possible. 

lu chemistry, get -\tttield's or Fownes' chemistry, for 
.the theoretical work, and for practical laboratory train- 
ing, Douglass & Prescott's ""Qualitative -Analysis." In 
the several branches of botany, materia medica and ther- 
apeutics, the selection of books depends largely upon in- 
dividual uses and preferences, but there should be one 
or two secured in each branch, in addition to the Dis- 
pensatory. Having secured his books, the question ob- 
trudes how should they be used, or how shall the young 
man study? We recommend to all, for an answer to 
this question, a careful perusal of the papers published 
iu the series of articles ou The Study of Pharmacy, pre- 
sented in the pages of this journal throughout the entire 
year of 1895; particularly some of the earlier papers in 
that series. In the January 31st issue, for instance, 
there is presented much good advice to the student begin- 
ning his work. System should be the watchword. The 
young man should so arrange his time, especially if em- 
ployed in a store, that he can devote an hour or a number 
of hours each day to a particular task in study. Supple- 
ment the mental training and the acquisition of informa- 
tion through- reading and memory, by the training of the 
special senses through practical application of the facts 
brought out in the reading and studying. Thus, if in 
pharmacy the student is told by his text-book how to 
make a certain preparation of ipecac, he should learn all 
he possibly can about ipecac, from the Dispensatory, 
botany and materia medica, and by securing a sample 
of the drug itself. Learn its physical characteristics, its 
appearance to the eye. under the microscope, subject it 
to treatment with reagents and solvents, test the prod- 
ucts, make the preparations prescribed by the Pharma- 
copa'ia. and in all these and other ways learn to know 
ipecac from A to Z. Equally in chemistry, if told that 
hydrogen is a gas. inflammable, etc., make some hydro- 
gen by the process described: try to see if it will burn, 
etc. When the Pharmacopoeia gives a test to distin- 
guish an impurity of sulphate in a chloride, perform the 



experiment. In botany become personally familiar by 
gathering and examining the plants studied. 

The whole treud of modern theories of education is 
toward the practical, manual training. By this training 
facts become fixed iu the mind, the whys and wherefores 
thereof are plainly established, and the student is not 
taught to learn by rote, parrot-like, but he knows what 
he learns and can ajiply it. System and practice should 
be the invariable rule with all students. Hard and fast 
lines of procedure whicli shall lit individual cases cannot 
be laid down, but the studeut will find that as he prose- 
cutes his studies regularly and in order, each fact gained 
leads to another, which, in turn. o])ens new avenues of 
information and research, leailing iiaturallv in logical se- 
quence to new facts. If the studeut wants knowledge 
for its own sake, and only incideutally and secondarily 
that he may pass a board of pharmacy examination, he 
will find that this thoroughness will pay, and that good 
work brings its own reward in satisfaction of uiiuil and 
in the attainment of working information of every day 
and all days application. 

To fit some special cases of students who want to sup- 
plement and round out a somewhat imperfect and de- 
fective training in order that they may satisfactorily pass 
the board of pharmacy examination, we can recommend 
to attention the paper published on page 395 of the Era 
for May 1. 1894. and also that on page 3C3, Sept. 19, 
1895. As general remarks of this nature may not fit the 
desires of all, we hold ourselve? very ready to give ad- 
vice to individuals upon learning their individual desires. 



©ottesjjDtitience: 

We are pleased to publish here commualcatlons from our read' 
ers oa topics of Interest to the drug trade. Writers are requeste4 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Each article magt 
be signed by Hs writer, but bis name will not be publlsbati U 
so requested. 

The Fight oa the Substitution Question. 

Philadelphia, March 5, 1897. 

To the Editor: I have just finished reading an edito- 
rial, '"The Substitution Problem." in the Era of yester- 
day, aud I wish to express my heartiest approval and 
praise. 

A few weeks ago I ordered the stoppage of my sub- 
scription at the expiration of the year, for the reason 
that I felt that the Era was no longer as active, strong 
and pronounced in the interests of the retailer (whose 
champion we are led to believe it isj as it once was, or as 
it should be. , 

Since I can find fault let me be more quick to praise 
and applaud. As a retailer I thank you for thus coming 
to our aid, and feel very sure that in the coming war 
between the druggist and the patent medicine manu- 
facturer, with the newspaper as his ally, the apothecary, 
with every customer almost a personal friend, will not 
meet a humiliating defeat. I am, trulv vours, 

W. H. LACEY. 



" aet What You Ask For. " 

[We take pleasure iu reprinting the following. — Ed.] 
Editor of the Buffalo Commercial: 

Under the above heading the Commercial of February 
25 contains an article, copied from the Boston Globe, re- 
flecting upon the honesty of druggists. 

The first argument used is. that druggists recommend 
their own preparations instead of so-called "standard" 
patent remedies. Of course ever.v reputable pharmacist 
does this, because he knows what his own preparations 
are composed of; but he has no idea — and cannot liave 
any idea — what patent medicines contain; their formuhie 
are secret, and it is absurd to call any secret coucuctiou 
"standard." 

The accuracy of the assertion that the so-called "stand- 
ard" patent preparations are made from the prescrip- 
tions of eminent physicians is extremely improbable, 
since rei»itnlplc physicians neither keep their prescrip- 
tions secret, nor sell them to patent medicine venders. 
The public generally may he willing to buy anything that 
is sufficiently well advertised: but the most intelligent 
portion of the population prefers to buy what a person- 
ally-known druggist recommends rather than some con- 
coction which is sold, not on its merits, but by means of 
the magic power of advertising. 

Druggists are accused of being "unscrupulous" and 
"generally ignorant." To answer this seems unneces- 
sary, since almost all States require that the.v shall have 
a proper education, various examinations and license. If, 



292 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



however, pharmncists are "generally ignorant" why, in 
the name of common sense, (lo the people trust them with 
pliysieiims' prescriptions, the dispensing of which re- 
quires far more knowledge than a mere mixing of drugs? 

The extract from the Pharmaceutical Era {of Dec. 31), 
a druKgists' journal, has been dragged in lo giving sup- 
port to the idea that druggists ought not to recommend 
their own remedies in place of the much-advertised pat- 
ent nostrums. Now, what the Era did mean was that 
substitution in physicians' prescriptions, without the pa- 
tieut'sknowledgeorthedoctor's couseut— an act of which 
no reputable druggist would be guilty — was utterly un- 
justifiable. A pharmacist, in asking a customer to buy 
what is compounded in his own store, and of which 
the composition is known to the proprietor, rather than 
some secret preparation, is not practicing "substitution," 
as understood by the Era. 

In all sincerity, I ask, has not a qualified pharmacist 
the right to use his brains and to recommend some- 
thing that he knows from personal exiierience to be of 
value in curing disease, in place of some extensively 
advertised, but secret preparation, of which he knows 
absolutely nothing? 

The extract from the Boston Globe, although published 
as an ordinary article, looks very much like the adver- 
tisement of some patent medicine house. 

DRUGGIST. 

Buffalo, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1897. 



Substitution : Higher Education for Pliarmacists 
and Pliysicians, 

York, Pa., Feb. 26, 1897. 

To the Editor: I herewith enclose you slip cut from a 
Philadelphia paper of recent date. It would seem to 
have been inspired by your editorial in The Pharma- 
ceutical Era of Dec. 31, 1896. which strikes me as some- 
what hysterical and extremely unjust. Reputable drug- 
gists do realize that there are scoundrels in the business 
as there are such characters in all the occupations of 
life. The hue and cry made about substitution is the 
last gasp of the nostrum maker, who feels the competi- 
tion of the intelligent pharmacist who is supplanting his 
goods with better medicines of like character. 

The physician who dispenses his own prescriptions 
must needs have an excuse for so doing, and to such a 
one U(i hesitation is manifested in casting unjust reflec- 
tions on the pharmacist. The disreputable man in any 
occupation or profession cannot always conceal his char- 
acter. The physicians in any community know who are 
the honest, reliable and competent puarmacists, just as 
the people have learned to know the competent physician 
from the quack, charlatan and fraud. The changing con- 
ditions of pharmacy and medicine will develop the physi- 
cian-pharmacist, and lessen the need of education in the 
physician, as he seems to be tending to the condition of 
distributing agent for the pharmaceutical' and nostrum 
manufacturer. The physician seems to be unacquainted 
with the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary. 
The literature of the nostrum maker has supplanted 
these text-books, and he has been taking his instruction 
from the latter in the practice of his profession. 

You say in your editorial before mentioned. "There 
are druggists, and not a few, who are guilty of substitu- 
tion." Now, as a conservator of pharmaceutical morals, 
would it not be entirely just and proper, besides your 
duty to the medical and pharmaceutical professions, to 
expose these scoundrels who are deceiving the physician 
and cheating his patient. If you have made this state- 
ment without proof you stand a chance of having your 
honesty called in question. The past few years have 
witnessed considerable change in the mind of the aver- 
age pharmacist. He is now putting to practical use the 
• design, aim and object of his education, and has become 
a factor as well as a dispenser of medicine. The drug- 
gist who has competed with Nostrum for trade in pro- 
prietaries, and yearly sees an increase in the sales of his 
own preparations with a lessening sale of the Nostrum 
is on the road to success. 

A better education and training in both the medical 
and pharmaceutical professions is the only hope of put- 
ting the two professions where they properly belong. 

JOHN P. PATTON. 



Tlie Cutter Invades Norfolk. 

Norfolk. Va.. Feb. 27, 1897. 
To the Editor: You have generally very little but good 
news from this section of our State, and justly so, for 
we have always been in the lead in everything pharma- 
ceutical. We have the only organized body of pharma- 
cists in the State and for fourteen years we have main- 
tained full prices on patents. Of course, now and then 
we have had cases of cutting, but it has never affected 
the entire trade. In the past few days, however, a cut- 
ter has appeared in our midst, and with a full stock of 



patents, particularly patents that are salable, and has 
put the prices down to cost. How this will work I can't 
say. The druggists are meeting his prices right from 
the jump, and he will have to offer stronger inducements 
to get the trade from its regular channels. All over the 
city you will find in the windows of our most fashionable 
stores, as well as the more modest and retiring ones, such 
signs as these: "W'e Will Meet Any Cut Price in the 
City," "Patent Medicines Retailed at Wholesale Prices," 
■Don't Fear the Cutter, Our Goods are For Sale," 
and many others. I enclose a list of prices put out by 
this party. I understand that it is a syndicate and that 
they ojierate from Philadelphia and have thirty-eight 
stores, and are gradually extending their territory. The 
tendency seems that the cutter has come to stay, and if 
so then the volume of patents will measureably shrink 
unless the manufacturers reduce their prices or adopt a 
plan of selling through a regular authorized agent, and 
putting their goods only in the hands of druggists. I 
have such a plan in my mind, which I am willing to give 
to any manufa<'turer who will consider it. .lust as long 
as the cutter can get what goods he wants and can 
make 10 per cent., just so long will he remain to harrass 
and worry the life out of the overworked druggist. In 
the face of all this cutting to-day I received a circular 
from the Wells-Richardson Company, offering to sell the 
retail druggist two dozen of Paine's Celery Compound 
for the regular price, less 5 per cent, discount, actually 
charging us more than the.v charge the cutter. There is 
no honesty in this kind of business, and the manufactur- 
ers should either do something to protect the druggist, or 
refuse to sell their goods through his agency. As a gen- 
eral thing business is fairly good and our druggists in 
good condition financially. Can you tell us who this 
cutter is? There is no name on the sign and we can 
only hear that it is a party by the name of Miller, from 
Philadelphia, who represents a syndicate. 

J. W. TiJOMAS, Jr., Ph. G. 



Doctors and Druggists Sliould Unite for Suitable 
Legislation. 

Delaware, N. J., March 2, 1897. 

To the Editor: I very often see in drug journals com- 
ments or correspondence similar to that in your issue of 
P''eb. 25, entitled "Doctors Want to Be Druggists." It 
seems, according to that article, that there is something 
wrong with the Michigan law, for surely no druggist 
should be allowed to prescribe. I have some views on 
the subject, and believe that the Slate Pharmaceutical 
Association would do better if it would cultivate more in- 
timate relations with the various State medical societies. 
I believe a joint committee from tiiese societies would 
so combine their influence and interests that they would 
secure satisfactory laws. But to point out a solution is 
not my object, so much as to give a personal experience 
of mine, which I think may be of interest and possibly 
of value. Ten years ago I was a member of the New 
Jersey Legislature. I was told that a doctor could not 
have a drug store without passing a special examination. 
One of the strong arguments to me was that a doctor 
might be practicing in a country village where he would 
be required to furnish his own medicines, and that if 
some one came and bought some quinine pills or pare- 
goric of him, he was guilty of breaking the law. I think 
this was technically correct. I was asked to introduce a 
repealer or amendment to the law, and after talking the 
matter over with several friends in the medical profes- 
sion. I did so. I looked upon it as an outrageous state 
of affairs, that the medical profession had allowed drug- 
gists to impose on them in this manner. I pushed it with 
all the force I had, secured its passage by the Assembly, 
and had reason to believe that it would soon become a 
law. This caused the Executive Committee of the phar- 
maceutical association to call upon me. They stated the 
case to me, and soon convinced me that the law as it 
stood was just as much to the interest of the doctors as 
to the druggists. Space will not permit my going into 
the arguments that convinced me, but I am sure that 
any fair-minded doctor will soon be convinced if the 
matter is i)resented to him in the right way. 

I had the bill recalled from the Senate, made a state- 
ment to the House that I had been in error of the real 
effects of my amendments, and after my statement they 
very kindly killed my bill by my request. Since that time 
a residence of several years in New York City convinced 
me more than ever that I did right in trying to keep the 
law as it was. I remember that at that time I was in- 
clined to think that any one with a medical diploma ap- 
plying for a druggist's license should not have such a 
license until he could show a certificate from the State 
Examining Board for Physicians. But this is a matter 
of detail. What I wish to show is that the druggists, if 
they will go frankly to the doctors, will get their help 
for such legislation as is beneficial to both. Very re- 
spectfully, WM. M. BAIRD, M. D. 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



293 




Carl Brucker. 

Carl Brucker, resident partner of Fritzsche Brothers, 
New York, branch of Schimmel & Co., of Leipsic, Ger- 
many, vas born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Nov. 24, 
1858. At an early age he entered the office of Schim- 
mel & Co., at Leipsic, and after becoming proficient in 
the numerous departments of that famous establish- 
ment, was honored with general power of attorney. Af- 
ter representing the German house in Paris, Mr. Bruck- 
er traveled extensively throughout Europe, particularly 
in the South of France, and in consequence, mastered 
several languages. He is also brother-in law to Her- 
mann Fr.izsche, senior member of Schimmel & Co. In 
1892 Mr. Brucker assumed the management of the New 
York liranch, and the recent successes of the firm may 
be mainly attributed to his energetic measures and keen 
insight. 

Mr. Brucker is connected with several leading Ger- 
man societies of this city, and is a member of the New 
York Board of Trade and Transportation, being chair- 
man of the Essential Oil Committee of the Drug Trade 
Section of that body. 



ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, QUI- 
NINE AND STRYCHNINE. 

Quinine sulphate 1 dram 

Strychnine sulphate 1 grain 

Citric acid . . . ; 5 grains 

Iron pyrophosphate, soluble -1 drams 

Alcohol 3 fl. ounces 

Spirit orange 50 drops 

Syrup G fl. ounces 

Water, distilled 7 fl. ounces 

Ammonia water Enough. 

Triturate together the quinine, strychnine and citric 
acid, then add the alcohol and spirit of orange; warm 
the syrup to about 150° F. and add it to the turbid mix- 
ture, when, upon stirring, the whole becomes clear. To 
this add the pyrophosphate of iron previously dissolved 
in water, and then add water of ammonia drop by drop, 
stirring well, until the solution is perfectly neutral to test 
paper. Lastly filter. — (.1. A. Carncs in W. Dr.l 



(Sfitcialli) Conlrit,u'ed.) 

RECOLLECTIONS OF AN OLD-TIMB DRUG 
CLERK. 

By CHAS. D. DESHLBR, New Brunswick. N. J. 

{Conrludtd/rom page 207, March i.l 

Any view of the business at that time would be very im- 
perfect which left out of sight the part borne in it by the 
younger drug cleks and their condition. Their lot was a 
pretty hard one, but it is due to the truth to say that in 
the long run it proved a wholesome discipline to them; 
certainly they were none the worse for it. Unlike the 
younger clerks of our day, they had not eaten sufficiently 
of the fruit of the tree of knowledge to know how hard 
it was, or to care much about it. They were kept inces- 
santly at work, and their hours of work were long. 
They had but little time for mischief, and, as the event 
proved in after life, they had no cause to lament that 
such was the case. They acquired fixed habits of in- 
dustry and application. They were preserved from nu- 
merous temptations to which the younger clerks in other 
less exacting callings were exposed, and to which they 
too often succumbed. Aijd they enjoyed their few holi- 
days with a zest and relish of which clerks nowadays, 
with their frequent holidays and comparatively short 
work hours, can have no conception, and with a freedom 
from excess which contrasts favorably against the li- 
cense often indulged in now by some of our junior clerks. 

But although our noses were then held close to the 
grindstone, and if we had but little spare time at our 
disposal, we had our own fun, and I venture to say it 
would be hard to find any fellows nowadays who have 
the ability to crowd more mischief into a limited space 
of time than we did. Much of our fun and mischief 
found their opportunity in connection with our business 
as the following anecdotes of my own experience will 
disclose. 

At that time there were a great many apprentices to 
the various trades that were prosecuted in our town, 
and in the vicinity of our store there were several large 
shoemaking shops which had their full quota of appren- 
tices. The younger and greener of these were the butts 
and fags and scapegoats of the older apprentices and the 
"jours," who indulged in much horseplay and many 
rough, practical jokes at their expense. Thus: When 
the hands of a new apprentice became black and grimy 
and rough from the dirty work which was shuflled upon 
him by the older apprentices, they would send him with 
some of his hard-earned savings to the drug store with 
instructions to iuvest in sixpence or a shilling's worth 
of pigeon-s milk, assuring him at the same time that it 
would make his hands soft and white. Of course the 
older apprentices had been through the mill themselves 
and knew what would follow. The young gudgeon in- 
variably applied for the mythical pigeon's milk to one 
of the vounger drug clerks, and he, being in the secret, 
would give him with an air of grave importance the 
coveted specific, in the form of an infinitesimal quantity 
of linseed oil and lime water, with directions to rub in a 
few drops night and morning. As these directions also 
included the injunction to be careful and wash his hands 
with soap and water before applying the pigeon's milk, 
or otherwise something frightful would happen to him, 
it is probable that the specific sometimes proved reason- 
ably efficacious. At any rate, we had his sixpence or 
shilling. As almost all these apprentices belonged to the 
lower classes and were exceedingly ignorant, they were 
very superstitious. They believed in spooks and witches 
and were terribly afraid of both. The older apprentices, 
working on these fears, would send the younger ones to 
us for "spook oil" or "witches' grease," as the case 
might be. when we mysteriously gave them a small vial 
of vile smelling liver oil as a charm against spooks, or 
an ointment composed of a little lard and a good deal of 
powdered asafuetida. to he worn as an anuilot against 



294 



THE I'nAKMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



witches. I can safely vouch that no apprentice who was 

thus piimiplicd ever thereafter saw n spook or suffered 
from llie cnntrips of a witch. -Vt the risk of being con- 
sidered irrelevant, I will here interject that it was a 
standing; juke in the workshop itself to hand a green 
appreiilice a cent and liid him go to the foreman of some 
other shop and ask him for a eent's worth of stirrup or 
strap oil, with the result that the foreman would seize 
the unfortunate greenhorn with one hand, and a shoe- 
maker's strap with the other, and belabor him therewith 
till he had enough stirrup oil to last him for numy a long 
day. We may be sure that no prentice was so green as 
to be caught a second time in this way; and we may also 
be sure that he would be among the first to pass the 
trick on to some other fellow still fresher and greener 
than himself. 

The darkies of that day were even more superstitious. 
They were implicit believers in the powers of roots and 
herbs and were frequent applicants for them in order 
to counterplot against their enemies and neutralize their 
evil incantations. They would declare that such or such 
a nigger was "rooty," and that he had laid a spell on 
them by placing some "power-root" over the lintel of a 
door under which they had been obliged to pass, and they 
must have some blood-root or old-man-in-the-grouud, or 
Solomon's Seal, or sweet fern, to chase away the spell. 
They were even yet better customers for "love-powder," 
for which they always applied to us juniors, with earnest 
appeals to our sympathy and secrecy, and with which we 
always sent them away rejoicing, after having pocketed 
their shilling or quarter. For our part, we exercised not 
a little high art in dealing with these credulous fellows. 
When one of them craved a love-powder we demanded 
to know with the utmost exactitude whether his inamor- 
at.a were light or dark yellow, copper-colored or down- 
right black, after which we adjusted the powder accord- 
ingly, and with a great show of mystery, either of pow- 
dered pale, or dark yellow, or red Peruvian bark, or of 
black cherry bark. We then enjoined upon him that he 
must never let it go out of his possession even for an 
instant, and that he must swallow it before he crossed 
under the lintel of the door of the house where his sweet- 
heart lived, while his thoughts were fixed intensely on 
her. One honest fellow whom I once assisted in this 
way. came to me a few days afterward in great glee, 
and told me that the thing had worked first-rate, and 
that his girl, who before had told him half-a-dozen times 
"to g'long about his business" had now promised to 
marry him. And she did. and sent me a piece of the 
wedding cake. Both she and her husband always re- 
garded me as in some sort their benefactor, for in their 
case, humble though they were, marriage was not a 
failure. He repeatedly declared that if it hadn't a'been 
for me his wife wouldn't a'had him: and his wife, who 
had learned the whole story, did not contradict him. 
So he must have been right! 

One of our old-time darkies, known to all us boys as 
"Har," was a jolly, good-natured fellow, very bright and 
witty except when he was drunk, which was not seldom, 
and then he was a great fool and a portentous bore. 
One day he came into our store decidedly under the 
weather from drink, while I was engaged at putting up 
seidlitz powders. He was feeling "dreadful bad," he 
said, and he pestered me to give him something to relieve 
him. Full of mischief. I assented, mixed up the acid of 
a seidlitz powder in one tumbler half full of water, and 
the alkaline mixture in another, and then administered 
them to him separately, one immediately after the other. 
Of course the effervescence, instead of taking place be- 
fore drinking, as usual, took place afterward with the 
most amusing results. Har spluttered and hiccoughed, 
and hiccoughed and spluttered, the mixture forced its 
way out of his mouth and nose, tears streamed from his 
eyes, and he was literally frightened sober. After that, 
no matter how drunk Har might be, Har knew enough 



not to trust me to give him a dose of medicine again, 
though, for my part, I should never have repeated the 
joke a second lime, for I was nearly as much frightened 
as he at its remarkable effects. 

.\. former schoolmate of mine, who was a clerk in a 
neighboring store, fell into the habit of dropping into 
our store in the evenings, when he would pester me witb 
queries about the work on which I happened to be en- Jj 
gaged. It was a rule in our establishmentthatwe mustnot ■ 
hold prolonged talks with anyone while we were busy 
with anything that required uur attention, but must de- 
vote ourselves exclusively to it. On a particular evening 
when I was thus occupied he was specially inquisitive; 
and as I did not reply to him as freely or as cordially as 
he thought was his duo he became offended, put on frills 
and made some contemptuous comparisons between his 
leisure and my slavery, and also between his trig clothes 
(he was a natty dry goods clerk), and my coarse overalls. 
Of course my dander rose and I made up ray mind then, 
and there that I would get even with my lad. So, be- 
times one evening, when I knew he would make one of 
his customary calls, I lifted our largest iron mortar upon 
the counter, placing its seven-pound pestle beside it, and 
then sprinkled a goodly lot of fulminating powder over 
the bottom of the mortar. In due time he mjide his ap- 
pearance and began his usual questioning, which I man- 
aged to divert to the big mortar and pestle. It was not 
long before I succeeded in irritating his bump of combat- 
iveness by insinuating that it was a man's work to handle 
that pestle and more than a match for the muscle of 
any womanish counter-jumper. This nettled my lad tre- 
mendously. He got mad, said he'd show me that he 
could handle it as easily as I. and, coming behind the 
counter, he took it up. flourished it around, and wound 
up by plumping it into the mortar so that its whole 
weight came squarely on the fulminate. The conse- 
quences may be imagined. The fulminate exploded with 
a whiz and a bang, knocked the pestle out of the young 
gentleman's hands, half-suffocated him with its smoke 
and vapor, more than half frightened him out of his 
wits, and he got out of the shop without standing on the 
order of his going. Repeatedly afterward, when we had 
both grown to man's estate, my quondam victim recalled 
this incident and declared that it was the best practical 
lesson he had ever learned, and had done him a world 
of good. 

While I was a pupil in Rutgers College Grammar 
School I contracted an acquaintance with a young col- 
legian, whom I shall call Dalton, which, notwithstand- 
ing the disparity of our ages, had ripened into a close 
intimacy. When the incident occurred which I am about 
to relate, Dalton had graduated from college and was 
prosecuting his studies in the Theological Seminary. He 
had for a room-mate another young gentleman from 
some other college, whom I shall call Ranney. also a 
theological student, with whom I became on very friend- 
ly terms through Dalton's instrumentality. Both were 
frequent visitors at our store, and, being wealthy, were 
generous purchasers of such articles as they needed or 
fancied, which they made it a point to buy from me. 
Among his other purchases, Ranney often included two 
or three bottles of Madeira wine, alleging, truthfully I 
have no doubt, that he had been ordered by a physician 
to take it as a remedy for the general debility with 
which he had been threatened. At this time, however, 
he was as vigorous as a wood-chopper and free from 
every sign of debility, general or particular. Dalton 
was much concerned at his friend's too liberal use of 
wine, and several times remonstrated with him against 
it, but without effect. Finally Dalton took me into his 
confidence. He lamented Ranney's dangerous fondness 
for wine .and declared that already he was so much a 
slave to it that he resorted to it on the most flimsy and 
transparently feigned pretexts. We had several conver- 
sations on the subject. It was suggested that on some 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



295 



pretext I should not sell Ranney iiny more wiue, but 
this was abandoned, since he would have no difficulty in 
buying it elsewhere. At length a brilliant idea tlashod 
on my mind. Suppose. I said, that we make him sick 
of wine, by introducing into one of his bottles a sufficient 
quantity of the wine of ipecacuanha to thoroughly nau- 
seate him, but not enough to do him any harm. Dalton 
jumped at the suggestion, pronounced the idea a good 
one. and urged me to "doctor" two or three bottles in 
this way and have them in readiness against the time 
when Ranney should order another supply. This I did, 
having studiously consulted the Dispensatory and ascer- 
tained the proportion of the medicated wine that might 
be safely added to each bottle of the Madeira. Soon 
afterward, as Dalton had foreseen, Ranney ordered 
another supply, when the three "doctored" bottles were 
sent to him and the two conspirators solicitously awaited 
the result. This was soon apparent, for after three or 
four pretty liberal draughts poor Ranney looked the 
most wretched and woe-begone of mortals. And I have 
no doubt that he felt to the full as wretched as he 
looked. He moaned that he was miserable. He declared 
that he couldn't read, he couldn't sleep, he couldn't eat. 
Study was out of the question. He cared for nothing, 
had no interest in anything. He was direfully sick at 
the stomach. The more often he flew to the wine for 
relief the worse he felt, till instead of craving it he 
began to feel an utter disgust for it, which at last was 
converted into absolute aversion, and he retched at the 
mere thought of it. Of course he stopped drinking it 
and gradually his wretchedness was mitigated, his relish 
for food returned, he had long and refreshing sleeps, his 
interest in things revived, and he looked as bright as a 
new pin once more. But his taste for wine was gone, 
and the other doctored bottles remained untouched by 
him, till one day in a fit of disgust he threw them out of 
his window. Ranney never learned the truth of the 
matter, for Dalton and I religiously guarded our secret, 
and chuckled over it not a little. Both these gentlemen 
afterward became distinguished and justly esteemed 
clergymen and doctors of divinity. 

There was a gentleman in our city who affected to be 
and had the reputation of being a great authority on 
wine. Several times he had bought at our store half- 
dozen lots of bottled Madeira, which were part of a lot 
which I had myself filled from a barrel of South Side 
Madeira which we knew Iq be an original package. 
Hitherto it had given him entire satisfaction, but one 
day he entered the store looking very sour and crusty. 
The last half-dozen of wine we had sent him he declared 
was wretched stuff, it was vile, it wasn't fit for a horse 
to drink, and he should send it back. This was done, 
and in his presence I was charged to send half-a-dozen 
other bottles, about which there could be no mistake. I 
regret to say that, instigated by the old Adam in my 
nature, I took the maligned bottles into the cellar, and, 
after filling up the half-emptied one, shoved the noses of 
all six into the dusty cobwebs which hung in plentiful 
festoons around the beams and in the corners till they 
assumed the appearance of venerable age. Wrapping 
them up with the cobwebs still adhering abundantly, I 
delivered the same identical bottles that he had returned 
to the gentleman, and then expectantly awaited the 
issue. It was not long deferred, for a few days later he 
entered the store smiling and radiant "Ah!" he said, 
rubbing his hands. "That last wine you sent me is 
superb! I have not tasted such nutty Madeira in an 
age ! By .love ! It's splendid! I must have a dozen of 
it. Hey! Charley, see that you take it out of the same 
bin!" Fortunately, I found cobwebs enough still remain- 
ing in the cellar to make the necks and noses of the new 
dozen look as old and dusty as were the first lot. and for 
months afterwards I had to listen with a straight face 
while our connoisseur lavished his praises upon the wine 
which he had once pronounced "wretched," "vile," and 



"not fit for a horse to drink," but which had become 
"superb" and "nutty" through the agency of a lot of 
cobwebs. 

Having furnished this pretty conclusive evidence that 
the junior drug-clerks of those days had some "snap," 
despite their hard and prolonged work hours, let us now 
glance at the daily routine work of one of them— in fact, 
of myself. Thus: Jly day's work began, in summer, 
with taking down the inch bars from and opening the 
window shutters at 5.30 in the morning, and ended with 
closing and barring them again at 10 o'clock at night; 
and in the winter, by going through the same perform- 
ances respectively at 6.30 in the morning and 9 o'clock 
at night. Then successively I made the fires, swept out 
and sanded the floor, hung out the signs (which were 
generally in kind), cleaned, trimmed and filled the hang- 
ing, side and hand lamps, polished the scales and other 
brasses of the establishment, and cleaned off the various 
measures that were used for sperm and other lamp oils. 
There was then an intermission of half an hour for break- 
fast. When that was despatched, in the intervals of 
waiting on occasional customers for sand, lime, paints, 
oils, doses of salts and castor oil, and a few pennyworth 
of paregoric, Godfrey's cordial, black or Scotch snuff, 
saleratus, etc., I was obliged to wash and replenish such 
of the quart tincture bottles as were in most constant 
use, to fill up the various filtering funnels, which had 
run empty duriifg the night, and to cleanse the glass of 
the show cases and of the inside sashes of the show 
windows. By this time, if it were a fair day. business 
had set in, and from then till tea-time, with the excep- 
tion of another half-hour's intermission for dinner, I 
was incessantly busy measuring all kinds of oils, weigh- 
ing all sorts of paints, dye-stuffs, and other articles; 
measuring tar, lime. sand, cement, plaster, etc.; rolling 
and loading barrels, with an occasional spell behind the 
counters putting up sundries, both fluid and solid, which 
had been ordered by country merchants, or waiting on 
some retail customer. After tea, just as when "the 
evening shades prevail, the moon takes up her wondrous 
tale," so also did I assume mine. First, the floor must 
be cleanly reswept and sanded, and then I was set busily 
at work, with occasional interruptions to answer calls 
from customers for one thing or another, in putting up 
gross after gross of soda and seidlitz powders, and still 
many another gross of essences, tinctures, and proprie- 
tary medicines, together with dozens of bottles of ink, 
Stoughton's bitters, bay rum, cologne, etc., and other 
dozens on dozens of packages of medicine and of various 
paints and dye-stuffs, preparatory to the possible de- 
mand of the next day. It was the rule in our store that 
the clerks should never sit down during business hours, 
and I am speaking the literal truth when I say that I 
never did so. except at my meals, from the opening of 
the store in the morning till its closing at night. There 
never was an idle moment. If the routine work were 
done and no customer waiting to be served, there were 
sundry preparations to be made; there was opodeldoc, or 
British or Harlaem oil, or balsam of honey, or Turling- 
ton's balsam, or Godfrey's cordial, or paregoric, or es- 
sences, or cologne, or hair oil. or some other article for 
which there was a steady demand, to be filled and put 
up in dozen-packages; there were soda and seidlitz pow- 
ders to be put up, castile and other soaps to be sawed 
into salable sizes, spices to be ground, roots and drugs 
to be powdered, syrups, cerates and ointments and plas- 
ters to be made — in fine there ever was something or 
other to be done, and it fell to the lot of my chums and 
myself to do it. In addition to what I have already 
specified, we assisted in boiling linseed oil and in making 
varnishes: and regularly on Saturday evenings we were 
required to wash all the quart tincture bottles — some 
fifty or more in number — and then wound up the evening 
after the store was closed, by scrtibbing and oiling the 
counters. All this was diversified, on dull or stormy 



29G 



THE PHABMACEUTIGAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



days, by vnriiishiiig tlio drawers and closet-doors, to- 
gether with thi' Inliels of all the tiucture bottlos, paintiug 
the ceiling and the plain wood-work, and at suitable in- 
tervals by a general wasli->i|) of all the tincture and 
show bottles, and of the windows, inside and outside. 

Notwithstanding the long and laborious hours which 
were the lot of the junior clerks iu our drug stores, and 
of the apprentices to many of the trades, these young 
fellows felt the craving for intellectual advancement, 
and under its impulse worked hard and in the face of 
many disadvantages for mutual self-improvement and 
culture. Ten or twelve of us formed a musical club, at 
which, under the direction of a competent teacher, we 
met once a week by turns in the stores %vhere we were 
employed, after they were closed for the day, and prac- 
ticed ourselves in sacred and secular music, in which 
some of us became experts. We also had a vigorous 
Debating and Composition Club, which was made up in 
part of those who belonged to the Musical Club, and, 
in part, of others who had no taste for music. Among 
the more active members of our Debating Club were 
Tom Hill, then like myself a drug clerk, who afterwards 
became the president of Harvard; Jake Zabriskie, then 
an apprentice to the tailoring business conducted by his 
brother. Col. James C. Zabriskie, and who afterwards 
served as a captain in the Mexican War and was killed 
at Cherubusco while fighting bravely at the head of his 
company; George Ellis, then a young clerk for Terhune 
& Letson, and afterward, successively casnier of the old 
State Bank of New Brunswick and of the Bank of the 
Commonwealth in New York City; John Denison and 
Munroe Letts, also tailors' apprentices and bright lads, 
who became useful men; Tom Fitzgerald, an apprentice 
to the printing business as conducted by the publishers 
of the New Brunswick Times, a brilliant young fellow, 
who, when he was "out of his time," went to Philadel- 
phia, where he became a prominent citizen, a colonel 
and the founder of the "City Item," a popular society 
and literary paper, which I believe is still conducted by 
one of his sons; Jo. Page, a son of the old baker, Henry 
Page, an indomitable arguer and very solid fellow, who 
afterwards became a clergyman. There were a number 
more whose names do not occur to me, but they were all 
earnest fellows, and I think all of them turned out in- 
telligent and honorable men. I was the president of the 
dull, and never missed a meeting. Indeed, we all 
worked hard iu preparing ourselves creditably for its 
exercises, stealing many hours from sleep in order to do 
so. When we met, which was weekly, sometimes in the 
old schoolhouse at the foot of Liberty street, and some- 
times in the basement of the Presbyterian session room, 
we indulged in some very enterprising discussions and 
exhibited some very pretentious oratorical pyrotechnics, 
it may be, but at the same time we insensibly acquired a 
great deal of particular and general information, to- 
gether with something of the art of applying it im- 
promptu in our debate.s. 

There was a phase of the experience of the druggist of 
half a century ago which should not be lost sight of, 
though it relates less to himself than to his customers, 
albeit that he too was not a cipher in the matter. It 
was then the almost universal custom, and the usage 
may still survive, for our farmers and country folk gen- 
erally to indulge in the luxury of what was then known 
as "Spring Physic." Regularly on the return of spring 
each one of these dosed himself, and his wife, and his 
son, and his daughter, his man servant and his maid 
servant, his ox and his ass and everything that was his, 
the former with generous doses of salts, senna and 
manna, or castor oil, and the latter with glauber salt, 
powdered black antimony, or horse balls. Even the pigs 
and chickens came iu for their share of the general phy- 
sicking. In town this practice was "more honored in 
the breach than the observance," but the omission was 
fully compensated for by the weekly doses that were 



resolutely swallowed by our people. On Saturday nights 
especially, there was a rush to the drug store for doses 
of calomel, calomel and jalap, rhubarb and magnesia, 
compound cathartic and Lee's pills, castor oil, epsom 
salt, and other active cathartics, whose effects our 
mechanics, laborers, artisans, and townsmen generally 
only found the time for or had the leisure to attend to 
on Sundays. 

I doubt, however, if any of these folk took a bigger 
dose than 1 have now administered, but I sincerely trust 
that here the parallel ceases, and that the effects which 
may now be experienced may not l)e similar to those 
which attended my early ministrations as a half-fledged 
apothecary. 

The End. 



Dispensing by Physicians Defended. 

Druggists sometimes wonder what valid arguments 
doctors find to defend their practice of dispensing their 
own medicines. A physician, writing to the Atlantic 
Medical Weekly, tries to give some of these arguments. 
What do druggists think of their soundness and justice? 
He says: Every physician should dispense his own med- 
icine. While we do not wish to harm, or in any way injure 
or cast reflections upon our druggists, yet we all know 
that the evils and inconveniences connected with a sys- 
tem of prescription Writing are many. Some of the evils 
of not dispensing our own medicine I will mention: 

First — ^Substitution. — If we are to rely upon informa- 
tion which I think is reliable — substitution is practiced to 
an alarming extent. Perhaps we know something about 
it experimentally. 

Second — Repetition of prescriptions. 

The patient not only gets the prescription refilled for 
himself — possibly when the medicine is no longer bene- 
ficial but actually harmful — but also recommends it to 
his friends whose ailments he diagnoses to be the same 
as his own. Thus the physician loses subsequent calls 
from the same patient and also from others for whom 
the prescription is filled. If prescriptions are to be writ- 
ten, it should be done with the explicit understanding 
with all parties concerned that they are not to be re- 
filled under any circumstances without the consent of the 
writer. 

Third — Omission of drugs. 

It often happens that the druggist does not have in 
stock one or more of the chemicals mentioned in the pre- 
scription; rather than to lose his fee the druggist will 
compound the medicine minus what he does not have in 
stock. This omission oftentimes will change the physio- 
logical action of the medicine, thus defeating the purpose 
for which the medicine is prescribed, and often acting in 
a harmful manner to the patient. 

Fifth — Error in compounding. 

The filling of prescriptions is often undertaken by those 
who have no adequate knowledge of how the work 
should be done. 

Sixth — Loss of time to the patient. — 

It often happens that the condition of the patient is 
such that a remedy is required immediately. If the phy- 
sician has the remedy at hand, much valuable time will 
be saved. It is often very inconvenient for the patient 
to send to the pharmacist, especially if the medicine is 
needed in the night. 

Seventh — Knowledge that the druggist or other parties 
obtain as to the disease of the patient. — 

The nature of the remedy is a key to the nature of the 
disease. Most patients do not care to have the nature of 
their malady revealed in this way, especially if the dis- 
ease has to do in any way with the genital or urinary 
organs. 

Eighth— Knowledge that the patient obtains as to the 
nature of the remedy prescribed. 

Every physician is fully aware of the fact that often 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



297 



it is not best for the patient to know what drug he is 
taking. The patient may know that certain drugs are 
poisonous or he may be prejudiced against certain drugs. 
A knowledge of the drugs prescril)ed under these cir- 
cumstances is not conducive to the best interest of the 
patient. 

Sometimes the physician wishes to administer a place- 
bo; it is very evident that the patient should not be so 
informed. 

Ninth — Financial loss to the physician. 

It often happens that the patient has not enough 
money to pay for the advice and the medioiue, with the 
result that the physician charges his fee, while the drug- 
gist gets the money. It is ditBcult for a patient to un- 
derstand that a physician must have pay for his advice, 
but if a quantity of medicine accompanies the advice, it 
is much more satisfactory to the patient. 



The Language of Prescriptions. 

George W. Turner, il. D.. St. Louis, in Medical Fort- 
nightly, indulges in a little kindly criticism of his brother 
physicians, which will be not ungrateful to the long-suf- 
fering druggist. He says: 

Here in America, very few of us are classical schol- 
ars, and, frequently, the language of our prescriptions is 
something appalling. One can readily demonstrate this 
in a few minutes, by a glance over the files of his near- 
est drug store. Campbell says, "In the United States 
prescriptions are usually written in a language called, by 
courtesy, Latin, although we doubt very much if Horace 
or Cicero would ever suspect that the conglomerations of 
abbreviated medical terms vrhich are sent to our drug 
stores were specimens of his native tongue." Chief 
among our faults is the use of incorrect Latin word 
endings. There is no excuse for not using correct Latin 
terminations, the more especially when we remember 
that from a dozen to a score of drugs about cover the 
field of every day practice. By memory, pure, simple 
and unaided, the endings of these may be mastered; but 
the principles of Latin case endings are so simple and so 
few that they may be readily learned in a couple of hours 
by any one with brain enough to memorize the branches 
of the seventh cranial nerve in the same time. A fa- 
vorite sin against terminology is abbreviation. Like the 
grave, it hides our ignorance. It cuts off mistakes in 
terminology, of course; they "die a bornin'." Abbrevia- 
tions are generally inadmissible, and always so with the 
chief word of the drug name. They are aesthetically ob- 
jectionable, but the vital objection lies in the fact that 
mistakes may easily be made in the filling of them — mis- 
takes always fatal to the intended therapeutic result, and 
often to life. As examples: Acid. Hydro, may be hydro- 
cyanic acid, hydrochloric acid or hydrobromic acid; hydr. 
chlor. may be hydrate of chloral or corrosive sublimate; 
sulph. stands for sulphur, sulphate, sulphite or sulphide. 
These examples may be multiplied almost indefinitely. It 
has been held by the courts, that, on a fatal "accident" 
following this kind of prescribing, the physician and 
druggist are equally guilty of manslaughter. 

Again, there is the error of barbarism of language — 
the mixing of two or more tongues in the same term or 
formula. Stick to one language; do not write "Chinin 
sulphatis" to keep your patient from knowing that he 
takes quinine, and then finish with "Extracti gentianae." 
It constitutes a barbarism as grievous as those for which 
Pitou felt the chastising cat-o-nine-tails, and received the 
final dismissal by the erudite Abbe Fortier, as related 
by Dumas in "Taking the Bastile." 

When using ad. only, the ingredient is in the accusa- 
tive case, but when using q. s. ad., it is in the genitive; a 
common error under this head is the use of aquae ad in- 
stead of aquara ad. 

When using a simple formula, in which the ingredient 
is not weighed or measured, but counted, use the accusa- 



tive case. Thus: 5 Pilulas pbosphori, not 3 Pilularum 
I)hosphori, nor, as is more frequently written, If I'ilulse 
phosphor!. 

A strict adherence to the rules of grammar dictates 
that only the first word in a drug name shall be begun by 
a capital letter, but the custom has been to begin each 
word by a capital. However, the tendency of the best 
writers of the day is to follow the grammatical rule, 
rather than the custom. 

While not directly pertaining to the eubject under dis- 
cussion, I cannot refrain from saying, write legibly. If 
you cannot write, print; if you cannot print, you may 
follow the method of a learned (?) M. D. of our city, 
have your prescriptions printed in advance — a machine- 
made practice, so to speak. Often on seeing prescrip- 
tions, not one word of which I could read, far less leg- 
ible than a baby's first crude scrawl, I have been forced 
to believe that pharmacists are blessed with a special 
sense, aside from sight, by which they decipher these al- 
leged characters. 

These hasty and illy arranged remarks were inspired 
by the inspection of the files of several drug stores in 
this city (where we boast of being fin-de-siecle in medical 
matters), in the company of a medical friend, educated 
in England and the Continent. His astonishment at and 
opinion of our laxity in this respect may well be imag- 
ined. We should not forget, that, as "The apparel oft 
proclaims the man," so the prescription oft proclaims the 
physician. 



Liquid Crystals. 

This name would seem to l>e self-contradictory, for all 
the crystals with which we are familiar are solids, and 
cease to be crystalline on melting. It has recently been 
discovered, however, that in some interesting instances 
the crystalline properties of substances are retained af- 
ter they ha^•e passed from the solid to the liquid form. 
The experiments that prove this, though they have been 
carried on in Germany for the last seven years, are 
comparatively unknown in England and America, and 
English-speaking scientific men are much indebted to 
Prof. H. A. Miers, who has collected a large number of 
facts concerning these experiments in Science Progress 
(Ijit. Digest). As a typical instance of the curious sub- 
stances mentioned above, he cites a recently discovered 
hydro-carbon compound named azoxyphenol. Its solid 
crystals behave as follows: 

"Warmed on a microscope slide they are suddenly 
transformed, at a temperature of 134', into a substance 
which preserves the outline of the crystal, is strongly 
douljly refractive, becomes dark four times when rotated 
on the microscope stage between crossed Nicols, and, 
therefore, behaves in all these respects like a true crys- 
tal. As is well known to all students of the subject, 
crystals differ from other substances in being aniso- 
tropic (possessed of different properties in different di- 
rections) while they are homogeneous; that is to say. all 
the properties of a crystal, while the same along 
parallel lines within it, are in general different in 
different directions. In the matter of their optical prop- 
erties this character expresses itself in the double re- 
fraction exhibited by all crystals, save those which be- 
long to the cubic system; and as a result of this birefring- 
ence, if the crystal be placed between two polarizing 
Xicol prisms, whose principal planes are at right angles, 
light is in general transmitted through the combination 
and is only extinguished four times as the crystal is 
rotated through 3(50° on the microscope stage. 

"Azoxyphenol at 13-1°. therefore, behaves in all these 
respects like a crystal, but, incredible as it may seem, is 
nevertheless a liquid; it does not retain a geometrical 
form, lint is free to move in all directions. 

"If the preparation be still further warmed, it passes 
at 165° into a third modification, which is also liquid, 
but nOt doubly refractive. It is possible to contrive that 
this molten substance shall contain small portions of the 
first, birefringent liquid which float about in it as per- 
f( ctly spherical drops." 

We cannot note here the different theories that have 
been advanced to account for these facts; we need only 
to say that their discoverer, Lehnjann, regards the liquid 



298 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



luoililicaliou ns tnily cr.vstiillino, iiud he tlierefore would 
remake all the detiuitioiis of the word "crystal" found 
iu our text-books and dictionaries. Kxplaining Leh- 
luann's views, I'rof. Miers says: 

"Ordinary crystals are solids which can be deformed 
up to a certain point without any permanent change 
being producrd in their form; they may, for instance, 
be bent liy pressure and then return to tlieir original 
form when the pressure is removed: unless the limit of 
elasticity has been passed, when they are permanently 
deformed or broken. Now Lehniann has found that in 
many crystals the limit of elasticity is so low that with- 
out actual disruption they may by the application of 
ver.v slight force Ix' made to tiow like shellac or certain 
other amoriihous substances. He has long expressed his 
opinion that the essential feature of a crystalline struct- 
ure is not, as is commonly supposed, the regular ar- 
rangement of particles which are held together by elas- 
tio forces to form a more or less rigid structure. If this 
were the case, he argues, a sufficient deformation would 
destroy the structure and reduce the crystal to the 
amorphous condition, and this has never yet been ef- 
fected. 

"He inquires, therefore, whether the limit of elasticity 
may not in certain crystals be not only extremely small, 
as in the soft substances previously described by him, 
but actually zero, so that the material may be liquid and 
yet crystalline. If a liquid exhibits polarization phenom- 
ena similar to those of a deformed crystal, is there any 
reason, he asks, why we should not regard it as a liquid 
crystal?" 

In conclusion. Professor Miers makes the following 
very sensible suggestion: 

"If I may venture o^ a word of criticism, I would urge 
that hero we are concerned partly with a question of 
words. It will be wise to retain the names crystal and 
crystalline in their old significations, rather than to ex- 
tend them so as to include the birefringent liquids whose 
existence has been established by Lehmann. It may be 
that these remarkable drops are examples of liquid mat- 
ter in which particles while free to move are compelled 
to preserve the same orientation, and differ in this re- 
spect from ordinary liquids. But whether this peculiar- 
ity of structure, whatever may be its nature, is really an- 
alogous to that of solid crystals is a question in which 
it will be better not to commit ourselves to answer by 
applying the same name to both until more is known 
about the structure both of liquids and solids." 



FffiARMACY 

rROPHERIX BEXZOATE.— A mixture of theobro- 
min-lithium and benzoates of lithium; it is a white sol- 
uble powder which is used as a diuretic in doses of 1 gm. 



SALIFORMIX (Hexamethylen-tetramin-salicylate).^ 
A white crystalline poAvder. of pleasant acidulous taste, 
soluble in water. It acts as an antiseptic uric acid sol- 
vent in 'reatnient of crystolithisis. 



ARTHRITICIX.— A new compound of the formula 
OC2H5 

^"^ CH. NH,,CO,. 
Probably intended as a remedy for gout. 



QUIXINE-IODO-HYDRIODATE (C.„H:.X,0,. I. 
HIl. — Tliis forms a brown, insoluble powder, which has 
shown itself to be effectual in treatment of obstinate 
cases of intermittent fever and in secondary and ter- 
tiary syphilitic complications. Daily dose is 2..5 gm. 



RAPID ESTIMATION OF CAFFEINE IN TEA 
OR COFFEE.— Delacour (Jour, do Pharm. et Chem.) di- 
rects the following: Tv^'o gm. of the tea or cofifee are 
boiled for 10 minutes with 80 to 90 ec. of water; allow 
to cool: add 4 cc. of basic lead acetate solution, followed 
by sufficient water up to any definite volume; shake, fil- 
ter, to 50 ee. of the filtrate add 10 to 15 drops of acetic 
acid, shake, by rotating, then extract four times with 
portions of 20 cc. each of chloroform. The chloroform 
extractions are collected in a flask, the volatile solvent 
removed by distillation, and the dry residue weighed. 



CRYSOTOXIN. — A crystalline principle, isolated by 
.lacoby, which represents the activity of ergot. It is 
sold in form of chrysotoxin which is stable, also in the 
form of its sodium salt. 



DETECTION OF SALICYLIC ACID IN BEER.— 

.7. .1. La Biere (.Jr. Soc. Chem. Ind.) in examining the 
distillate from pale and dark beers, found in every case, 
especially in the dark beers, that a red-violet coloration 
was produced with ferric chloride, and although the re- 
action is weaker if the distillation be performed by the 
aid of a paraffin bath instead of over a naked flame, and 
it two drops of concentrated sulphuric acid have been 
previously added per 100 e.c. of beer taken, it cannot be 
entirely eliminated. This source of error can, however, 
be avoided by the use of Millon's reagent (1 cc. of mer- 
cury in 10 cc. of concentrated nitric acid) freshly pre- 
pared, two drops producing a decided rose-coloration in 
presence of as little as 1 part of salicylic acid in 5(X).000 
parts of water. The addition of the sulphuric acid also 
facilitates the distillation of the salicylic acid. The red- 
violet coloration with ferric chloride is apparently due 
to the presence of nialtol. Which exists ready formed in 
torrefied malt and dark beers, and is probably also 
formed by the overheating, inevitable at the end of the 
distillation of the beer. 



I 



THE WORK OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY.— Prof. 

William A. Xoyes, as vice-president for the Chemical 
Section of the American Association, opened his section 
with a very interesting and suggestive review and fore- 
cast of the achievements of physical chemistry. (Pop. 
Sci. Month.) Though the progress of this branch seems 
slow in comi>arison with what we may conceive as ulti- 
mately possible, notable advance has been made through 
the efforts of the numerous investigators who have been • 
industriously working in it. Light has been cast upon 
many problems, and it is now possible to predict phe- 
nomena of which the operator could formerly have 
knowledge only by experiment. The older methods have 
given place to mathematical determinations, and new re- 
gions of investigation have been opened to chemists. Wg 
have still before us, however, the vast task of learning 
how to save and utilize the immense proportion of the 
power — far exceeding that which is saved — which now 
goes to waste in all our operations. To make good as 
large a part as possible of that which is now lost should 
be the object of future work in physical chemistry. 



ACTIOX OF PARALDEHYDE OX lODIXE COM- 
POUNDS. — On mixing paraldehyde with a solution of 
potassium iodide. Dr. Wochhaiisen I Ph. Ztg.l noticed 
that the solution turned brown from liberated iodine. On 
making comparative tests of the action of chlorine, ni- 
trous acid, ferric chloride and potassium permanganate 
on alkali iodides the author found that paraldehyde was 
ii far more delicate and characteristic reagent for the 
presence of iodine (combined) than either of the above. 
As is well known, some of the above reagents are very 
treacherous when applied in very dilute solution or used 
slightly in excess. The following tiible gives an estimate 
of the comparative value of the different reagents, em- 
ploying starch paste and carbon disulphide as indicators 
of the presence of free iodine. 

Potassium permanganate ..1 : lO.OnO 

Chlorine 1 : lOli.tKIO 

Xitrous acid 1 : 2(X).0(K) 

Paraldehyde 1 : 500,000 to 1.0(X).000 

In testing very dilute solutions for iodine, the solution 
is first mixed with starch paste, then a few drops of par- 
aldehyde added; according to the concentration a red- 
dish to blue ring forms at the line of contact of the two 
fluids. If carbon disulphide is employed and the solution 
is very dilute, it will be necessary to agitate the same 
portion of the solvent with several portions of the solu- 
tion to which the paraldehyde has been added. 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



299 



riPEUIDIN GUAIACOLATK.— Obtained by iictiou 
of i)iix'i'i<liii on guiiiacol in benzole solnlion. It erystal- 
lizes in needles or plates, is soluble in water 3.5 p. to 
100 p., and is deeon\posed into its constituents by dilute 
acids or alkalies. Its pharmaeolojjieal action depends 
upon its constituents, guaiacol being an antiseptic and 
pipei'idin a cardiac-vascular tonic. Kecommended in 
phthisis iu doses of 0.3 to 1.5 gni. three times daily. 



VARYING RESULTS OF ANALYSIS.— It is not 
generally known that in chemical analyses different ri^ 
suits, in many cases, are obtained by different chemists 
from tlie same substance. Thus, according to a paper 
read by F. 1'. Dewey, of Washington, D. C, before tlie 
American Institute of Mining Engineers (Sci. Amer.), 
this fact was illustrated, notably in a case of examina- 
tion of gold and silver in copper materials—a case in 
which there were twenty-six results by twenty chemists, 
working by two main methods, each by a single chemist, 
varying from 13.').3S to rj"J..S8, and averaging 127.U4 
ounces per ton, the extreme variation being 12.5 ounces 
per ton, or 9.77 per cent, of the average determination. 
In the silver assay of the copper borings, nine chemists' 
reports b.v the scorification method averaged results va- 
rying from 1G4.35 to 154.40, the rate pov tou running 
some 159.30 ounces, thus showing an extreme variation 
of 9.95 ounces per ton, or G.24 per cent, of the average. 
Further, fifteen chemists' reports of sixteen results by 
combined wet and scorification methods varied from 
101.40 to 14S.50, averaging 150.48 ounces per ton, the 
extreme variation being 13.9 ounces per ton, or 8.S8 per 
cent, of the average. Summing up, there are thus shown 
twenty-six determinations by twenty chemists, working 
by three methods, ranging from 164.35 to 148.5, and 
averaging 157.07 ounces per ton, the extreme variation 
being 15.85 ounces per ton, or 10.05 per cent, of the av- 
erage determination. 



A GLASS FOR COLLECTING SEDIMENTS.— The 
figure illustrates a novel method for collecting sediments, 
devised by Dr. Spaeth iZeitschr. f. Angew. Chem.) The 
fluid from which the sediment is to be collected is placed 
in the tumbler with the stopcock, turned so that the 





edges of the cup-shaped cavity will correspond exactly 
to the sides of the glass; when sutHcient of the sediment 
has collected in the cup of the stopcock it is slowly 
turned round until it is entirely closed against the fluid 
in the glass. The contents of the tumbler are then emp- 
tied out, the glass cleaned, and then the stopcock may 
be reversed and the sediment collected. 

SOURCE OF AMERICAN CARBOLIC ACID.- 
That carbolic acid is made from "crude carbolic acid" is 
of course fully understood, but whence American manu- 
facturers derive their raw material is not so well known, 
since illuminating gas is now no longer produced from 



coal, in our larger cities at least. A recent opinion ren- 
dered by General Appraiser Tichenor, of New York, 
throws some light on this subject. (W. Dr.) We learn 
that crude carbolic acid is imported from England by 
Harry W. .layne, of Philadelphia, exclusively, and is 
used for manufacturing purposes only. The crude li(iuor 
is described as 00 or 70 or SO degrees, meaning that a 
certain portion will crystallize at thaf temperature. The 
liquor is derived from the dead oils of coal-tar by agita- 
tion with an aqueou-s solution of sodium or potassium hy- 
drate. It lias approxinuUely the following composition: 
Crude phenol, 02.74; crude crcsol, 14.09; rosolic arid, hy- 
drocarbons, naphthaline, and its dihydrid and tetrahy- 
drid derivatives, bases, ijarvoline, coridine. rubidine, 
12.13: water, 11.04. In this connection attention may be 
called to the fact that the crude carbolic acid" of the 
market as sold to-day is not what it purports to be, and 
quite different from that of former times. Formerly 
crude carbolic acid w-as the liquor remaining after the 
extraction of the phenol, leaving water-insoluble but still 
valuable cresols. Since the latter have attained such 
great mercantile inqiortance, however, they also are care- 
fully removed from the liquor, leaving scarcely anything 
but stinking tars, absolutely worthless for disinfecting 
liurposcs. It is now necessary to order "crude cresol" 
to obtain an equivalent for the former crude carbolic 
acid. 



MOLDABLE MASS.— For luting vessels made of 
glass, porcelain, etc., which are to be used to hold strong 
acids, a mixture of asbestos powder, water-glass and an 
indifferent powder (permanent white, sand, etc.) is recom- 
mended. Experiments which have been made in this di- 
rection have confirmed the reliability of the assertion. 
To begin with, asbestos powder was made into a pulp 
with .three or four times the quantity (weight) of a so- 
lution of soda water-glass (of 30 degrees Baumg). The 
same is exceedingly fat and plastic, but is not very well 
suited for working, as it shrinks too much and cracks 
when drying. By an addition of fine writing sand of the 
sume weight as the asbestos used, the mass can be made 
less fat, so as to obviate shrinking, without detracting 
from the plasticity. Small vessels were molded from it 
and dried in the air, to be tested afterward. Put in 
in water, the hardened mass becomes soft again and 
falls apart. Brought into contact, however, with very 
strong mineral acids, it becomes even firmer and with- 
stands the liquid perfectly. Concentrated nitric acid 
was kept in such small vessels, without the mass being 
visibly attacked or anything penetrating it. The action 
of the acid manifestly has the effect that silicic acid is 
set free from the water-glass in excess, which clogs up 
the pores entirely and contributes to the lutation. Later 
on, the mass cannot be dissolved by pure water any 
more. Another experiment showed that the mass is also 
highly fireproof. One of the molded bodies was kept 
glowing iu a Bunsen gas flame for about half a day 
after treatment with acid, without slagging in the least. 
For many purposes it ought to be welcome to have such 
a ma.ss at hand. It cannot be kept ready for use, how- 
ever, as it hardens a few hours after being prepared; if 
potash water-glass is used instead of the soda compo- 
sition, this induration takes place still more quickly. — 
Painter's Magazine. 



NICKEL PLATING OF WOOD.— The nickel plating 
of wood for various decorative uses, such as canes, um- 
brella handles, etc., is extensivel.v practiced lioth in 
Europe and this country. The Electrical World gives 
the following description of the process: "The articles 
which are to be plated with nickel must first be coated 
with metal. In the process which is most commonly 
employed three solutions are made use of, namely: (a) 1V6 
grams of caoutchouc slicings are dissolved in 10 grams of 
carbon bisulphide and 4 grams of melted wax are poured 
into the solution; a mixture consisting of 5 grams phos- 



800 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



phorus in CO grams of carbon bisulphide, with 5 grams 
of turpentine and 4 grams of powdered asphalt, is then 
added and the wliole shnljen; (b) 2 grams of silver nitrate 
are dissolved in GOO grams of water; (c) 10 grams of clilo- 
ride of gold are dissolved in OCX) grams of water. Thi> 
conducting wires are attaclied to the article, which, after 
being immersed in the Grst solution, is allowed to dry. 
The second solution is poured over it, and it is Itept sus- 
pended until the surface has a dark luster, when it is 
rinsed with water and treated in a similar manner with 
the third solution. The surface has now a yellowish 
sheen, and the wood is sufliciently prepared for electro- 
lytic deposition. Langbein's dry process consists in 
quickly pouring over the article a collodion solution of 
potassium iodide, diluted with an equal volume of ether- 
alcohol; when the layer is just about to set the wood is 
laid in a weak solution of silver nitrate, light being ex- 
cluded. As soon as a yellow color appears the wood is 
rinsed, exposed to sunlight and covered with copper. It 
is then ready to be nickel plated. The wood may also 
be treated with immersion in an ethereal solution of 
parafliu or wax, and when the erher has evaporated fine 
graphite is powdered over it, or the wax is covered 
with bronze powder and all unevenness of surface re- 
moved. When the articles are to be electrolytically 
coated with copper they are placed in a bath the compo- 
sition of which varies with the current employed; gen- 
erally it consists of 30 liters of IS per cent, copper sul- 
phate solution and 1% liters of 06 per cent, sulphuric 
acid. When a sufficient amount of copper is deposited 
the articles are ground, polished and nickel plated in a 
bath composed of 500 grams of ammonium nickelous sul- 
phate. 50 grains of ammonium sulphate and 10 liters 
of distilled water. If the bine litmus paper be quickly 
reddened by this solution the acidity is reduced to such 
a point by addition of ammonium chloride that the jed- 
dening is only slowly developed. 



THE EVOLUTION OF ASEPTIC SURGERY.— A 
part of the presidential address of Sir Joseph Lister at 
the British Association was devoted to the story of the 
development of the author's system of aseptic treatment 
of wounds. Pop. Sci. Monthly abstracts this address, 
which began with the publication of the results of Pas- 
teur's researches on fermentation, by which it was 
proved that putrefaction was not produced by any chem- 
ical action of the atmosphere, but by germs. Sir Joseph 
then sought for some substance that would prevent the 
development of germs in the bodily tissues without 
harming the tissues themselves, and found it in carbolic 
acid. Diluted with water, this substance when applied 
quickly transferred itself to the tissues and attacked 
the germs. In cases to which the watery solution was 
not adapted, or where it was too irritating, a solution 
in some organic substance, not parting with the carbolic 
acid so readily, was found to be bland and uuirritating. 
and served as a reliable store of the antiseptic. 
While continuing his experiments in confirmation 
of Pasteur's theory. Sir Joseph found that 
blood drawn with antiseptic precautions into ster- 
ilized vessels might remain free from microbes 
for an indefinite time, even when exposed to the 
access of air or with ordinary water added to it. He 
even found that if very putrid blood was largely diluted 
with sterilized water, so as to diffuse its microbes widely 
and wash them clean of their acrid products, a drop of 
such dilution added to pure blood might leave it un- 
changed for days at the temperature of the body, al- 
though a trace of the septic liquid undiluted caused 
intense putrefaction within twenty-four hours. Hence 
he was led to conclude that it was the grosser forms of 
septic mischief, rather than microbes in the attenuated 
condition in which they exist in the atmosphere, that 
were to be dreaded in surgical practice. He hinted to 
the London Medical Congress in 1881 that it might turn 



out possible to disregard the atmospheric dust alto- 
gether, but did not venture to practice upon the hint till 
1890, when he brought forward, at the Berlin Congress, 
what he believed to 1)0 absolute demonstration of the 
harmlcssuess of atmospheric dust in surgical operations. 
"This conclusion has been justified by subsequent ex- 
perience. The irritation of the wound by antiseptic ir- 
rigation and washing may therefore now be avoided, and 
nature left quite undisturbed to carry out her best meth- 
ods of repair, while the surgeon may conduct his opera- 
tions as simply as in former days, provided always that, 
deeply impressed with the tremendous importance of hig 
object, and inspiring the same conviction in all his as- 
sistants, he vigilantly maintains from first to last, with a 
care that, once learned, becomes instinctive, but for the 
want of which nothing else can compensate, the use of 
the simple means which will suffice to exclude from the 
wound the coarser forms of septic impurity." 



LIQUEFACTION OF GASES.— The liquefaction of 

gases in large quantities for scientific and technical pur- 
poses has become an important factor of late years, and 
considerable attention has been attracted to the experi- 
menfs of Prof. Linde, who has devised an apparatus for 
the liquefaction of air and oxygen. The apparatus em- 
ployed is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The gas (air) to be 

P, ', 




Fig. 1. 

liquefied is passed in at a (Fig. 1), and by means of the 
compressor c the pressure is increased from p, to p,, 
from this it passes through the cooler B, where it ac- 
quires a temperature of ti, then the compressed air 
passes into the spiral tube H, which consists of two 
tubes, one inside of the other; in the passage through 
this cooler the temperature of the gas is reduced to tj; 
when it reaches r the temperature is still further re- 
duced to t,. From here the gas passes through the space 
between the two tubes in the spiral H back to the com- 
pressor c, in so doing the warm air passing through the 
inner tube of H is cooled to a temperature nearly equal 
to that of the current passing back through the outer 
tube. It is evident that in this way t, and tj must be 
constantly lowered until the efficacy of the apparatus, 
due to external influences, ceases. This state of equilibri- 
um is not reached until, with the pressure existing in the 
apparatus, t^ reaches such a low value that the lique- 
faction of the air takes place. The amount of time nec- 
essary to accomplish this depends upon the dimensions 
of the space between the two spiral tubes H. By a 
modification of this apparatus it is possible to separate 
b.v mechanical means two gases, for example oxygen and 
nitrogen, from the atmosphere. This method may be 
employed for obtaining large quantities of oxygen gas. 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



301 



The principle is that two gnses are liquefied about the 
same time, but on passing again into the gaseous state 
the more volatile gas passes into this condition first. In 
order that this idea may be 
successfully carried out, it is 
necessary that the low tem- 
perature employed in lique- 
fying the gases should re- 
main in the apparatus and 
that the gas that escapes 
should leave the apparatus 
at ordinarytcmperature. This 
may be carried out as illus- 
trated in Fig. 2. The com- 
pressed air leaving the cooler 
passes through the tubes N 
and O, which branch off at 
a and join (inside tubes) 
again at b, so that the air 
passes through the cooled 
coil s and then into the re- 
ceiver at r,. The rise of 
temperature in the coil s 
causes the nitrogen to volati- 
lize from the fluid passing 
into the receiver. The nitro- 
gen passes through the outer 
tube n and cools off the cur- 
rent of air passing through 
the inner tube, leaving the apparatus at n. The liquid re- 
maining in the receiver is now richer in oxygen, this rises 
in the outer tube o, volatilizes, and after cooling the cur- 
rent of air flowing through the inner tube leaves at o aa 
nearly pure oxygen. The volume of oxygen evolved de- 
pends upon the regulation of the valve r., which governs 
the relation between the fluid in the receiver and the 
heating surface in the spiral tube s. Exi}eriments 
proved that it was possible to separate 5 cc. of air (nor- 
mal pressure and temperature) into oxygen and nitrogen 
in one hour per horse-power employed. 




AN APP-\R-\TITS FOR GENERATING LOW 
TEJIPERATURES.— J. Lewis (Chem. and Drug.) has 
devised a very convenient form of 
apparatus adapted for producing a 
low temperature by means of the 
rapid evaporation of ether, ammonia, 
etc. A wide-mouthed jar is placed 
in a container, the space around the 
jar being filled with oakum or any 
poor conductor of heat; the rubber 
stopper of the jar contains one large 
and two small perforations. Through 
one perforation a thistle tube passes, 
extending nearly to the bottom of 
the jar, which is filled about two- 
thirds full of ether or concentrated 
ammonia; a second short tube passes 
out from above the surface of the 
fluid and is attached to a water 
pump. In the larger opening a large 
test tube is placed, which serves as 
a mantle tor another tube of 
slightly smaller diameter, which is placed inside and con- 
tains the fluid which is to be cooled or frozen. The air 
space between these two tubes is partly filled with mer- 
cury (as shown by the heavy line in the figure), which 
serves as a conductor between the two tubes and the 
cooling fluid in the jar. The pump is started, and it, 
drawing a current of air rapidly through the fluid, causes 
a lowering of temperature by the rapid evaporation; 
where ether (0.720) is employed as the cooling fluid, a 
temperature of — 21° C. is produced, with aqua ammonia 
(0.880) — 14° C, with petroleum ether — 10° C, and 
benzine + 2° C. 




Question Box 

The object of this department Is to fura'sh our subscribers wltb 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating f 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing difficulties, etc. 

Requests for Information are not acknowledged by malt aa4 
ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVE NO ATTENTION. 



Marsden's Cancer Paste. 

(J. K.) See Era, Aug. 13. 189G. 



Tan Shoe PoHsft. 
(Enquirer). See this journal, Feb. 18, 1897, page 207. 



Antipyretic and Analgesic Compound. 

(H. R.) We cannot give the formula for the proprie- 
tary article you name. 



Plant Identification. 

(L. P.) The specimen you submit is a lichen— Sticta 
pulmonacea. An illustration, natural size (after Sachs), 
is given in Bessey's Botany. 



Coloring Acid Elixirs. 

(G. .T. M. S.) Tincture of cudbear of the National For- 
mulary (No. 418, revised edition) is very satisfacory for 
coloring acid liquids a bright red tint or color. If a 
brownish-red tint is desired use compound tincture of 
cudbear. 



Buyers of Crude Drugs and Medicinal Plants. 

(O. O. S. and C. G. S.) Most all large pharmaceutical 
houses and drug jobbers generally are buyers of crude 
drugs and medicinal plants. Both of you are in territory 
contiguous to this city and we suggest you correspond 
with houses here. Address McKesson & Robbins, Parke, 
Davis & Co., Schieffelin & Co.. J. L. Hopkins & Co. 

Pulverization by Intervention. 

(W. S. C.) Pulverization by intervention or "media- 
tion," as it is sometimes called, is the process of reduc- 
ing substances to powder through the use of a foreign 
body which facilitates disintegration. Almost any work 
on practical pharmacy will give you information upon 
the subject. 

Corn Collodion. 

(F. W. U.) There is nothing you can add to corn col- 
lodion to prevent the evaporation of the ether. If the 
preparation is exposed to the atmosphere at all evapora- 
tion will take place. By securely corking the bottles 
\vith corks soaked in paraffin evaporation may be re- 
tarded. No other solvent is suitable for this prepara- 
tion. 

Books on the Manufacture of Artificial Mineral Waters. 

(G. C. D.) The Era Formulary gives about as many 
different formulas for the manufacture of artificial min- 
eral waters as any worli with which we are acquainted. 
A work containing similar formulas is Smith's Carbo- 
nated Waters. If you wish to do a little formula con- 
structing yourself, you can use to good advantage a 
bulletin issued by the U. S. Geological Survey on "Min- 
eral Waters of the United States." 



Burnishing Gold Leaf. 

(B. & B.) Gold leaf after being laid on signs is usually 
burnished by passing over it a "burnisher" of agate, flint 
or other substance. Burnishers are made of various 
sizes to suit the kind of work. Dick gives this method 
of procedure: Allow the work covered with the gold leaf 
to dry about eight or ten hours, then dust the parts to be 
burnished with a soft brush, and, wiping the burnisher 
with a piece of soft wash leather (quite dry) begin to 
burnish about an inch or two in length at a time, taking 
care not to bear down too hard, but with a gentle and 
quick motion apply the tool till the gilding is equally 
bright all over. 



302 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



Aqua VtUe; Hematls. 
(E. J. H.) receivtMl this iircsciiiJliuu: 

Aqua Titoe 2 ounces 

Homalis 1 ounce 

Quicksilvor 1 dram 

Liquid storax 2 dranm 

Camphor 2dranis 

Mix and use as directed. 

What are the first two ingredients? The directions 
given afford no clue as to the use of the prescription. 
We presume, however, that by "aqua vitte" is meant al- 
cohol, although that name is applied as well to brandy, 
whisky, etc. We do not identify the second ingredient. 
Maybe some one of our readers can solve the problem? 



most of the general information will apply equally well 
to your neigliborhood. We believe copies of it may be 
obtained from the State printer, Franc M. Paul, Nash- 
ville, for 50 cents. We know of no similar work. 



Bsseace of Pepsin. 

(G. N. T.) 1.) Pepsin (purel. V2S grains: dilute muri- 
atic acid, 5 drops; simple elixir, 3 Huid ounces; glycerin, 
1 fluid ounce; water, IG fluid ounces; angelica wine, 
fluid ounces. Dissolve by agitation and filter through 
purified talcum. 

2.) Glycerole of pepsin 3 parts 

Sherry wine 5 part.s 

Glycerin 1 part 

Simple elixir, to make 16 parts 

3.) Pepsin in scales 64 grains 

Glycerin 1 H. ounce 

Elixir taraxacum compound 1 fl. ounce 

Alcohol 2 fl. ounces 

Oil of cloves 1 drop 

Syrup 2 fl. ounces 

Dilute hydrochloric acid 1 fl. dram 

Water, to make 16 fl. ounces 



lasolublllly of Salicylic Acid. 

(E. J.) was unable to effect complete solution in com- 
pounding this prescription: 

Moriihine sulphate 8 grains 

Salicylic acid 4 grains 

Distilled water, to 1 ounce 

"On heating the mixture complete solution was effect- 
ed, but on cooling, long, slender crystals were deposited. 
The addition of two drams of alcohol did not dissolve 
the crystals. The acid was added to prevent deteriora- 
tion." Salicylic acid is comparatively insoluble in water 
at ordinary temperature (1 part in about 450, U. S. P.), 
and the crystals deposited were those of the acid in ex- 
cess of that the water dissolved. To completely dissolve 
4 grains of salicylic acid will require rather more than 
4 fluid ounces of water. 

Podophyllum Pills. 

(J. K.) The best known formula under this title is 
probably "Squibb's Podophyllum Pills" of the National 
Formulary (No. 308. revised edition). Many other for- 
mulas for pills containing resin of podophyllum, or podo- 
phyllin. are extant. If .vou simply wish to make a pill 
containing nothing but podophyllin you can easily do so 
by using tincture of podophyllum as an excipient. It 
makes a more adhesive mass than alcohol alone. Podo- 
phyllin is a rather uncertain drug if the reports of many 
medical authorities are to be believed. It acts well in 
some cases, very slightly in others, and in a third class 
it causes much discomfort and griping. It is advisable, 
therefore, always to begin with small doses, combined 
with other ingredients which may restrain its irritating 
action. 



Handbook of Medicinal Plants. 

(O. O. S.I A small, yet authoritn:ive. book along the 
lines you indicate is "The Medicinal Plants of Tennes- 
see." by A. Gattinger, M. D., and published under the 
direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture of that 
State. This book treats of the commercial value of the 
medicinal plants of that region, and contains among 
other things an anal.vtical key, descriptions to aid in 
recognizing such plants, notes relating to their distribu- 
tion, time and njode of collection, preparation for the 
drug market, etc. This book, as stated, is arranged pri- 
marily for the plant and herb collector of Tennessee, but 



Importation of Books. 

(G. C. D.» I'aragraph 410 of the Tariff Act of Aug. 
1, IS'Jt. provides that books bound or unbound, which 
shall have been printed more than twenty years at the 
date of importation, and scientific books devoted to orig- 
inal scientific research, and publications issued for their 
subscribers by scientific and literary associations or acad- 
emies, or publications of individuals for gratuitous priv- 
ate circulation, and public documents issued by foreign 
governments, when imported, shall be exempt from duty. 
Section 411 of the same act provides that books and 
pamphlets printed exclusively in languages other than 
lOnglish may be imported free of duty. Books for pub- 
lic libraries may also be imported free of duty, but all 
other books not specially provided for in the tariff act 
are subject to a duty of 25 per centum ad valorem. (Sec- 
tion 311.) 

Iron Pyrophosphate and Phosphoric Add. 

(J. B. F.) has had difficulty with this prescription: 

Iron pyrophosphate 1 dram 

Water, enough to dissolve. 

Tincture nux vomica 5 drams 

Dilute phosphoric acid 2 drams 

Elixir ealisaya, enough to make 4 ounces 

He says he tried metaphosphoric acid without success. 
.7. B. F. seems to be aware of the incompatibility of 
iron pyrophosphate and dilute phosjihoric acid, a reaction 
which was discussed in this journal. Feb. 11. 1897. page 
174. We are inclined to the belief, however, that he 
has used an elixir of ealisaya which has not been de- 
tannated, and it, therefore, is the cause of his difficulty. 
He will have no trouble if he will use, as suggested, di- . 
lute metaphosphoric acid and detannated elixir of eali- 
saya (N. F.), instead of the dilute phosphoric acid and 
elixir of ealisaya as here ordered. 



Asthma Kelief. 

(D. R.) wants to know if the last two articles cannot 
be omitted from the following "asthma relief": 

Alullein leaves 4 parts 

t'ubeb berries 4 parts 

Sassafras bark 2 parts 

Chamomile flowers 4 parts 

Saltpeter 8 parts 

Stramonium leaves 4 parts 

Potassium chlorate 1 part 

White sugar 2 parts 

Presumably this powder is to be ignited and the vapor 
inhaled, and we should by all means omit the last two 
ingredients. They add but little to the therapeutic value 
of the "relief" and they are a source of danger. Potas- 
sium chlorate and sugar should never be combined in the 
dry form. They may cause an explosion. Stramonium 
and belladonna leaves with saltpeter constitute the prin- 
cipal parts of the asthma remedies used by igniting and 
inhaling the smoke. 

flair lavlgorator, 

(R. P. C.) wants to perfume the following hair re- 
storer: 

Lead acetate 3 parts 

Flowers of sulphur 2 parts 

Glvcerin 14 parts 

Water 80 parts 

He could not combine oil of bergamot with the mixture, 
nor could he secure a satisfactory suspension of the sul- 
phur. What shall he do? Make a saturated aqueous 
solution of oil of bergamot (if that odor be the one de- 
sired) after the general official process for medicated wa- 
ters, using about 2 parts of the oil to 1,000 of water. In 
this dissolve the lead acetate. Instead of flowers of sul- 
phur use precipitated sulphur, as it is much to be pre- 
ferred to the other forms in liquid mixtures: the particles 
are lighter and more easily suspended. Triturate the 



March 11, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



303 



pret-ipilated sulphur with the glyceriu aud gradually add 
the perfumed sohuiou of lead acetate. If preferred, rose 
water may be substituted for water or bergamot water in 
the above. We find this method of procedure very satis- 
tory. 



Interstate Reglstratloa aad " Diploma " Registration. 

(C. W. S.) We do not think that certifieatcs of the 
New York State Board of IMijirniaey are recugiiized by 
the boards of pharmacy iu other States, as the New 
York board does not recognize the registration of others. 
A list of the States which do rc-rogistcr on this basis is 
given on page 4GC, Jlay 15. 1894, Era. However, it is 
suggested you write to secretary of particular board con- 
cerning which you desire information and get it at tirst 
hands. Boards of pliarniacy in Arlcansas. Colorado, Cal- 
ifornia, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Illi- 
nois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, 
New Jlexico, New York, North Carolina, North 
Dakota, Oklahoma. Oregon, South Dakota, Texas. 
Utah. \'irginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wis- 
consin are allowed to register graduates holding diplomas 
from regularly incorporated colleges or schools of phar- 
macy, and who have had a certain amount of practical 
experience (from two to four years) before receiving such 
diplomas. The Kentucky board is allowed to register 
graduates of any school or college of pharmacy incor- 
porated in that State. In Maine, besides being a gradu- 
ate, the candiJatf must prove himself to be competent 
for the business. 



Show aiobe Colors. 
(F. L. & E. G. F.) 

Orange. 
Make a solution of bichromate of potash in water, and 
darken with sulphuric acid. 

Dark Green. 
Dissolve 8 ounces of sulphate of copper and 40 grains 
(or quantity sufficient) of potassium bichromate in two 
gallons of water. 

Red. 

Distilled water 970 parts 

Sulphuric acid 20 parts 

Cochineal 6 parts 

Bitartrate of potassium 4 parts 

Purple. 
1.) Sugar lead o ounces 

Powdered cochineal 1 dram 

Water, q. s. 
2.) Salicylic acid 1 grain 

Alcohol 2 drams 

Tincture of iron 5 drops 

Water, sufficient. 
Dissolve the acid in the alcohol; to it add first, the 
tincture, and then enough water to produce the desired 
color. 

Liquid Glue for Wood. 

(O. O. S.) The Era Formulary is authority for these: 
1.) Fill a jar or bottle with small pieces of glue, and 
cover with acetic acid. Then place in a vessel of hot 
water for several hours, until all the glue is dissolved. 

2.) A solution of S ounces of glue in % pint of water 
is made. To this add 2% ounces strong nitric acid, stir- 
ring all the while. Effervescence will take place with 
the evolution of orange nitrous fumes. When all the 
acid has been added, the liquid is allowed to cool. Kept 
in a well-stoppered bottle, it will remain permanently 
liquid. 

3.) .\cptic acid 4 ounces 

White glue 3 ounces 

Frencli gelatin 4 drams 

Shellac varnish 4 f3. drams 

Distilled water 4 ounces 

Dissolve the glue in the acid with heat, and the gelatin 
in water with heat. Mix the two solutions gradually 



until homogeneous, then add the varnish, and put into 
bottles. 

Waterproof. 
4.) Boil for ten minutes a mixture of 

Thick solution of glue 10 parts 

Linseed oil varnish 5 parts 

Litharge 1 part 

and use the compound while hot. 

Prestrvlag Eggs. 

(.T. K.) JIarsh dissolves iu catyh gallon of water 12 
ounces of quicklime, (! ounces of common salt. 1 dram 
of soda, V^ dram saltiH-ter. i/.> dram tartar and I'/i; drams 
of borax. The fluid is iu-ought into a Ijarrel and suf- 
ficient quicklime to cover the bottom is then poured in. 
Upon this is placed a layer of eggs, quicklime is again 
thrown in and so on until the barrel is filled so that the 
liquor stands aliout 10 inches deep over the last layer of 
eggs. The barrel is then covered with a cloth, upon 
which is scattered some lime. 

(2). A French authority gives the following: Melt 4 
ounces of clear lx>eswax in a porcelain dish over a gen- 
tle fire and stir in 8 ounces of olive oil. Let the solution 
of wax in oil cool s<uuewhat, then dip the fresh eggs 
one by one into it so as to coat every part of the shell. 
A momentary dip is sufficient, all excess of the mixture 
being wiped off with a cotton cloth. The oil is absorbed 
in the shell, the wax hermetically closing all the pores. It 
is claimed that eggs thus treated and packed away in 
powdered charcoal in a cool place have been found after 
two years as fresh and palatable as when newly laid. 

(3). The Cyclopedia of Receipts says that water glass 
or silicate of sodium has recently been used in Germany 
for rendering the shells of eggs non-porous. A small 
quantity of the clear syrupy solution is smeared over the 
entire surface of the shell. On drying, a thin, hard, 
glassy film remains, which serves as an admirable pro- 
tection and substitute for wax, oils, gums, etc. 

Trade-Marks and Label Copyright. 

(W. L. M.) Trade-marks are registered at the Patent 
Office, Washington, D. C. The United States law pro- 
vides that auy firm or corporation may secure an exclu- 
sive right to use a trade-mark by complying with the of- 
ficial regulations of the Patent Office. The special ad- 
vantage of registration is that it facilitates the pursuit 
and stoppage of infringements by authority of the gov- 
ernment. A trade-mark consists of a distinctive or spe- 
cial name or title for an article, or a device, design or 
stamp, or combination thereof, applied to' merchandise, 
or the envelopes or packages. The mere business name 
of a person is not registerable as a trade-mark, nor can 
words that are merely descriptive of the article be regis- 
tered as trade-marks. In other words, you may select as 
your trade-mark any non-descriptive word or words, pict- 
ure, figure, autograph, monogram, or a combination of 
any or all of these, provided the same has not been used 
on a similar class of goods. Trade-marks remain in 
force thirty years, and may be renewed for thirty years 
more. The government fee for registering a trade-mark 
is $25; the fee for registering a print or label, 
$G. The trade-mark must have been adopted be- 
fore an application for registration should be made, and 
the date of luloptiou is the date when the labels contain- 
ing the trade-mark are applied to the goods. A trade- 
mark cannot be registered unless it is already in use in 
trade with one or more foreign countries, or an Indian 
tribe, but this provision is usually complied with by send- 
ing a few samples of the goods, with the trade-mark af- 
fixed, to any merchant or dealer in 'Canada. Certain offi- 
cial rules of the Patent Office must be observed in mak- 
ing application for registration of trade-marks. I'ou can 
obtain full information from the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents. Washington. D. C who will send you, upon appli- 
cation, the necessary blanks, etc. For information re- 
garding laliel registration see March 19. 1896. Era, 
page 3G4. 



304 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 11, 1897. 



Cement for China Ware, Glass, etc 

(O. O. S.) Tiy ono of tlio following: 

(1). English Cement for rorcelain. — Souk 1 dram of 
isinglass in water; pour upon this a sufficient quantity 
of alcohol to cover the isinglass, and allow it to dissolve, 
placing it in a warm room. Next dissolve % dram of 
mastic in 1 fluid dram of rectified spirit of wine; mix 
hoth solutions together, add Yi dram of pow'dercd gum 
ammoniac, and evaporate the mixture in a water bath 
until it has acquired the requisite consistency. Keep the 
cement in a glass bottle, and when it is to be used place 
the bottle in hot water, when the cement will become 
soft so that it can be conveniently applied to the frag- 
ments of porcelain to be cemented, which should be pre- 
viously heated. 

(2). Milk is coagulated by means of acetic acid, and 
the caseine thus formed is well washed in water, and 
then dissolved in a cold saturated solution of borax; a 
clear solution is thus obtained, which is superior to gum 
nrabic in adhesive power, and is colorless. For porce- 
lain, this liquid is mixed with finely powdered quicklime, 
and the resulting cement is quickly brushed over the 
fractured surfaces, which are then bound together; the 
ware is then dried to a gentle heat. 

(3.) To resist heat. It is made of Stourbridge clay 
mixed with a little tow or asbestos to increase its co- 
herence. It should be well beaten before application; the 
glass or china should be well rubbed over with a little 
of the cement mixed with water, taking care to press the 
two edges of the glass or china together. This cement 
will bear a very strong heat. 



Crushed Fruits. 

(W. A. S. S.) To prepare crushed fruits for the soda 
fountain one method is to heat the fruit in a clean cop- 
per kettle, then to cook 1 pound or less of sugar to crack 
degree, according to the quantity of fruit used. Stir the 
fruits in the boiled sugar, let it boil up again and fill in 
glass or earthenware jars; cover with wax paper and 
tie the paper over the jars to keep out dust. This fruit 
will keep very well in a cool place. Should the fruits be 
very watery, then it will be better to evaporate them a 
little over a slow fire; then mix with the sugar and finish 
as above. 

Some time ago the Confectioners' Journal recom- 
mended the following processes: Crushed Pineapples — 
Take ripe pineapples; cut them in four or six pieces and 
run them through a cider mill; press; strain through a 
fine sieve; put in strong bottles; cork with new corks; 
tie the bottles crosswise with strong twine. Have a 
wooden lid ready, which provide with about a dozen 
holes: lay it on the bottom of a copper kettle or in a 
steam-jacket kettle; stand the bottles on a board; fill the 
kettle with cold water so it will reach up to the necks of 
the bottles; set on the 'fire and let the water come to a 
boil by slow heat: let the water boil about thirty to thir- 
ty-five minutes: remove the kettle from the fire and let 
the bottles cool off. When the fruits are all used up dip 
the neck of each bottle in melted sealing wax and store 
away in a dry and cool place. 

Crushed Strawberries — Mash the berries, either by 
hand or by running them through a cocoanut grater; 
press out all the juice and proceed as above. This juice 
is generally used for soda water. Sweeten when ready 
for use to suit taste. 



Sponges. 

(E. I. S.) wants some information about sponges — a 
list of the different kinds, their habitat and values. He 
says this question was recently asked by the board of 
pharmacy. 

Volumes have been written upon the natural history of 
the sponge, and if our correspondent wishes to go into 
this subject very thoroughly we suggest he consult the 
reference works in his city (Boston) library. As a 



"starter" he will do well to read the very comprehensive 
article on sponges in the last edition of the lincyclopicdia 
Uritunnica, where is also given quite an extended bibliog- 
raphy of the subject. 

The sponge, familiar in its commercial form, is prac- 
tically the skeleton or fibrous framework of an animal 
belonging to one of the lowest orders living in tlie water. 
l>eseribed scientifically the sponge "is composed of amoe- 
biform bodies disposed about a common cavity with one 
ur more breathing orifices, through which water Hows 
in and out." The fibrous framework from which the 
gelatinous or living matter has been removed is, of 
course, the part used. The sponge is very widely dis- 
tributed, being found in botu salt and fresh water. 
-Many genera and species are cosmopolitan, and so are 
most orders. 

1 liere are several classifications adopted by dealers, 
each dealer, however, being guided to some extent by his 
individual opinion and ideas as to the arrangement of his 
catalogue. In response to a request for a commercial 
classification of this character, McKesson & Hobbins 
furnish Uie following: Florida, Cuba, Nassau, Mediter- 
ranean, Turkish, Zimmoca, etc. These are again sub- 
divided into different classes. Thus under "Florida" 
may be found sheep's wool, velvet, grass, yellow. About 
the same sub-divisions are given under "Cuba" and 
"Nassau." "Mediterranean" sponges (bath or honey- 
comb) are listed as those for barbers' use, toilet, bath, 
bath coupe and surgeons' sponges. Sponges are also 
prepared for various industries, potters requiring a very 
tine grade for their use. Shoe manufacturers are large 
consumers of sponges. If you desire to form a correct 
estimate of the commercial values of the various kinds 
of sponges, we suggest you secure a catalogue of some 
reputable house dealing in them, and give the subject a 
thorough study. 

Copy Paste {Hectograph Composition} and Inks. 

(J. A. H.) 

1.) Thin French glue 1 pound 

Glycerin 2 pounds 

Precipitated chalk 2 ounces 

Carbolic acid 1 ounce 

Soak the glue one hour, drain, add the glycerin, and 
dissolve by heat. When nearly thick add the chalk and 
carbolic acid. 

2.) Nelson's gelatin 3 ounces 

Cut small and soak twelve hours in 

Water 4 ounces 

Then add 

Glycerin 40 ounces 

Heat gently until dissolved. 

Here is a formula used by the French Ministry of 
Public Works: 

Glue 100 parts 

Glycerin 500 parts 

Kaolin or barium sulphate, finely pow- 
dered 25 parts 

Water 375 parts • 

For ink a concentrated solution of Paris violet is 
recommended. To remove old copy from the pad a little 
muriatic acid is added to the water. 

For a tin dish 7 by 11 inches about the following quan- 
tities of the above formula will be required: 

Glue 3 ounces 

Glycerin 15 .ounces 

Kaolin % ounce 

Water II14 ounces 

Here are some additional formulas for inks: 

1.) Diamond fuchsine 10 parts 

Alcohol 10 parts 

Acetic acid 214 parts 

Gum arable 10 parts 

Water 70 parts 

2.) Aniline blue, water soluble 10 parts 

Picric acid lO parts 

Alcohol, 90 per cent 30 parts 

3.) Rosaniline acetate 2 parts 

Alcohol 4 parts 

Water 20 parts 

Glycerin 1 part 

4.) Villon's Formula: 

Bordeaux red 3 parts 

Alcohol 2 parts 

Water 20 parts 

Glycerin 1 part 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



L WEEKL F.] 



Thi' cnntenls of this publication art- covered liii the yeneral eopurighl, and articles must not he reprinted without siieciiil jieniitwinii. 



Vol. XVII. 



XEW YOKK. MAKCH IS. 1897 



No. 11. 



ENTERED AT THE NEW VORK POST OFFICE, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER. 



Established 1SS7. 



THE pharma(:euticai. era. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY 



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Telephone: 44.>t Cortlnmit. 106 Fulton St., NEW YORK. 

CabU Adrins': " Kha "— Xew York. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

KorroRiAr, :)19 

Clarence \V. Fox :i3l 

COBKESPONUEVCK lUS 

Kesponsiliility of tiif Id - 
suits from thr Ailininis- 
trarion of Proprietary 

Meiliei nes 'A'Z't 

Pliotoirraphv in Colors 326 

Jtanufucture of Gold in 

India 337 

Tetanus Antitoxin .S38 

Pharmacv 3.11 

Iodoform Substitutes 331 

Odestiov Ilox.. Sii 

News Depaktment 33S 

Pay or Ite Couile i iied 3^35 



PAOK 

i Mews Dept — I'ontiriued. 
Chaii<\< Holzli luer Enjoined 33t; 
New York Collejfc Election ;5;J8 
Driigaists' League for 

Shorter Hours XW 

News Letter's 340 

KeTAIL DUCGQISTS' AD- 

VEKTTSING 317 

PATENTS.TRALlEMARKS,ete, 34.S 

Trade Department, In- 
cIudiniT Trade Reports, 
^tarket Keports. Trade 
Notes. Manufacturers' 
Amiuiiii. einents, etc.. in 
paires immediately fol- 
lowiii>i- Heading Pag'es. 



Bound Volumes. 

(Mir subscriliers do iml need to lie reliiilid<-d (d' Ihe desira 
liility of pri'serviiii; ilieir copies and keeping' their tiles cd 
The Era <*oiiiplete. \\'e reserye of each issue a liniited iniiii- 
lau* of eoides \it supply orders from suhserlhers \\iio lia\e 
lle^jlpeted to keej) their tiles eoiliplete. Our supply of lliese 
back niimhers is lieeoininy: rajdilly ilepleted. and old suli- 
.seriliers are particularly reipiesied lo let us know socui of 
;iny l»a(d\ iiuniliers wln<-li tiie.y may rei|uire for ctmipletin;.' 
rhcir liles. With each successive year the value of a com- 
jdete tile of I-^ras is sure to lie enhanced. 

We can supply baidi numbers in bound vcdunies (I'"ull I'lothI 
ai the following: prices, which iindude express eliarjxes. to 
.ali.v point within llie I'liiteii States. rcu*eii;li orders f. o. It. 
New York. 

Vol.1., 18S7 $3.00 Vol. IX., Jan.-.lune, 1893.... $2.50 

Vol.11., 1888 300 Vol. X..Julv-Dec., 1893 2.50 

Vol. III., 1889 3 00 Vol. XL, Jan.-June. 1894.... 2.60 

Vol. IV., 1890 300 Vol. XII. , July-Dec. ,1894,, . 2.fi0 

Vol. v., Jan.-June. 1891... 3.50 Vol. XIIL, Jan.-June, 1895.. 2.60 
Vol. VI., July-Dec, 1891.. 2.50 Vol. XIV., July-Dec, 1895.. 2.50 
Vol. VII., Jan -June, 1892. 2 60 Vol. XV., Jan -June, 1896... 2.50 
Vol. VIII., July-Dec, 1892 2..50 Vol. XVL, July-Dec, 1896. . 2.60 

For the convenience of subscribers who preserve 

their copies of The 
Era, we furnish a use- 
ful binder which will 
hold the copies for 
six months (1 Vol.), 
with the advertise- 
ments, or the test 
pages only, for an en- 
tire year. 

The "Era Binder." 
75 cents per copy, 
post paid. To foreign 
countries, $1.00. 




The Excise Drag Net. 

T'he pniliability of a material rcdnelioii in the e.\ci.se 
licens<'s wliidi pharniacists in New York Slate are re- 
quired to take out in order to sell alcohol will jrive satis- 
factiiui to the trade. But this satisfaction will be partly 
cilipsed by the additional inforiuiition contained in our 
news <'oluiiins this week that evidence has been (luiidly 
secured aj-'ainst nearly every unlicensed druggist in the 
State for selling alcohol, and that tliis evidence is lo In- 
used as a means of coiupelling these druggists to take 
out licenses for the une.xpired balance of the excise year, 
ending April 80. In Xew York City tlie.se lici'iisi's will 
be issued at the rale of SS.."?.'? a month, and the llireat 
is freely made that any druggist who neglects to piu up 
his .fl(l.(!(i will be prosecuted by the department for the 
full amount of his year's license with costs. 

I'idisidering the facts that the former excise law per- 
niirted druggists to sell alcohol without a license, that 
the present law has been construed liy at least one of- 
feial and many unofficial authorities lo grant the same 
privilege, and that the excise law has no business to in- 
terfere with any business not dealing in alcolnd for iiiter- 
ii.il use. the method of Commissioiier Lyman in forcing 
this money out of the ilrug trade is certainly open to 
criticism. The Commissioner has adopted the put-up-or- 
sliut-up t.iue of the saloon politician. lie .ailmits lie 
could never secure a conviclion on .-i criminal charge 
lad'ore a disinterested .jury, it is said, bul lie proposes to 
sue civilly, and most dru.irgists would rather pay .fld.titi 
tli.iii lie haled into court and compelled to hire a lawyer. 
This re.ally seems the cheapest w.-iy out of ii. 



New and Proposed Pharmacy Legislation. 

There seems to be considerable legislation recently af- 
fecting dniggists in one way or another. This legisla- 
tion is in both the proposed and the aeconiplished c.ite- 
gories. There is an unusually l.-irge crop of propositions 
relating to the sale of poisons and liiiuors and the re- 
tilling of tirescriptions for narcotics and opiates. 

The' proposed pharmacy legislation for this State at 
large and that which (embodied in the cb.-irter for the 
(Jre.ater Xew York) affects druggists of this city in par- 
ticular arc duly discussed elsewhere. Whether there is 
to Ik' a new State law here is a qiu'stion which the 
future will decide. Of other State legislation the most 
noteworthy is that which it was conlidently e.xpected 
Would be secured in Indiana. That State hoped it could 
no longer claim the proud C.'i distinction of U'lng about 
the only .State in the rnion without a pharmacy hn 
(though Texas and Maryland have only half-way ni< 
urcs yet I. The Indiana bill jiassed both houses •' 
I>egislature, but, sad to relate, the Covernor Vsuper^ 
three or four days ago. In the main, this proiii>s will 
differed from those in force in other Stat'' .don't 
quite significant difference, however, was in^^jlot'' 
vision that all the appointments were t<i be fip^l of 
till' (Jovernor from "pharmacists approved li.ire hard, 
ana I'harmaceutical .\ssociation, or from oV gfoaniiig 
ciMsr This sop was evidently offered ir'®*^ ^^^ '° 
Indiana's chief executive might not be eauj the point 
Hx as that in which his brother Governor own views, 
recently found himself, but was to be le* '° resume; 
pleases. Ueregistration every two yea' 



322 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 18, 1«!)T. 



Cottespourtencei 

We are pleased to publish here communlcatloos from our reat- 
ers oa topics of Interest to the drug trade. Writers are requeste4 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Each article maBi 
be signed by tta writer, but bis name will not be pubUgbtt II 
so requested. 



Causes of the Substitution anil Cut-Rate Evil. 

L.niisville, K.v., March S. IS'JT. 
'I'll ilii' I'Miicir: 1 have n^ad .vi'iir ai'iiclc in ilic issiic> ul' 
llu' 4lli iiisl.. (Ill "Tiio Siilislimtioii I'rolilcni," and 1 I'fcl 
thai .villi \\»\v voiceil ihc sciiliiiiciils nf I'lilly i»0 pfi- 
(■('lit. of Ihi' I't'lail Iraili'. As you very jiislly say, iliis 
li;;hl is uoi oiu' ol' our iiiaUiii:;— we iliil iiul sfcU it — llic 
proprirliir^ havr lhrov\n ilnwii tile ;;auiitlL>t aiiii saiil lo 
Ilu' iiiiiii'riiMiiiiis I'l'tailci-. "Villi will have lo sell our j;ooils 
at any iiriic yoii ran jii'l lor liiciii, or soli iiolliiiif;.'" In 
Miljiar lanKnat'o. this is all "playeil out." The retailer 
is iiroteelin^' himself in every instaiu'<< ihat is possilile. 
We (ill iiiil [ii'iipuse 111 pui iiiir inoiie.v in paleiii iiieili- 
eines for the privilege of selliiii; tliein at jiisi uliat tlie.v 
i-ost. Several of the more prominent dealers in tliis eily 
have not only siiggf'*'''!'. '"H have jiromised, to throw out 
of stoek einirel.v all iiro|irietary medieiiies sold lo eiil- 
rate and department stores direet. The retail trade is 
lieconiinn thoron^'lily aroused lo the unjust war thai llie 
projirieiors have forei-d upon it, I know personall.v of 
several stores that have ]iiil in stock full lines of "iion- 
seerels" and preparalions of their own maniifaeture thai 
never thou;;ht of handling aiiythiiiK hut the [iroduets of 
ihe large inoiirieiary eonei'rns. I for one rejoiee that the 
light is oft, and hope that eveiy retailer will feel thai th. 
tight is his own and bend every energy that he may pos- 
sess, and e\ei-.v iidluenee that he can eoniniand, to com- 
hat the palent ni'dictiie business with pre|iarations of hi'^ 
own maniifacfiiie. In :his cit.\ Ilie iion-secret men lia\i' 
had a harvesl lor fully a year, as prior to Decemlier. 
ISKo. tiiere were no "eiil-raie"' stores of any kind, even 
the dry goods Imsim ss had agreed with the druggist to 
discontinue ham'.liiig any patenl inedicines. and arranged 
a mulual .i;;d agieed scale for iirices on many toilet ar- 
ticles. Kvciylhing worked .-mooihly here, mil wiinstaiul- 
iiig there were ■'eiil rate" druggists in some of the siir- 
roumliiig towns. Hut for the last year all profits have 
lieeii annihilated, .some of the patents lieiiig sold below 
the cost prici — even of the maniiracl nrers' ^■ery best 
price ill .iiiy ijuinlity. Does Ihe iiro|irietor think that 
Ihe retailer is going to wasle his valuable time in sell- 
ing goods at prices that I have indicated V Not much. 
He will sell something that he can at least make a li\ - 
iiig profit on. or he will not sell :it all. But the phar- 
macists of this counlry are ;i live, ^\■ide-a\vake and intel- 
ligent class of people. They have influence, and when 
Ihey do deicrmioe to use it. it will be fell. Then lei 
the pro|iri<'tiir who has forsaken his best friends, who 
has iie.glected and obstructed the projier and natural oul- 
let for his goods — then let him turn to his departnieiii 
store friend, who will give him a "stone" instead of 
"bread," Let the retailer wage the war vigorously; 
let him put in slock ;iiid sell goods that he knows to be 
reliable be.voud ipu'stion: li-t him use ever.v means that 
he honoralily can lo discourage and prevenl the sales ot 
their paleiil nostriilus. until such time as the lU'oprie- 
tiir con.seiils to give that aid and assislanee lo his li git- 
iniate friends that they are eiilitled to. Hvery one 
knows thai the depa I'tment and (■nl-rale shops use Ihe 
losi prices on p.ilcnis simply as a "blind." The.v feel 
satisfied thai if they can only gel the people into their 
stores they can "tieece" them on somelhing else, for as 
one of these "cut rale" dealers told iiie, he lost one ceiii 
on :i cake of soap, but he sold the same cuslomer a lid- 
<ent hair brush for one dollar. This is the animus of 
all such deah'rs. I hope you will kee]) after them, for 
.von will certainly have the good will and assistance of 
alliiosf the entire fraternilv. Voiiis res|iectfullv. 

".VMJELl.NK." 

« * * 

Kansas Tiiy. Kan.. March ."i. IS'.lT. 
To tlu' Editor: I inclose a clipiiiiig |einbodyiiig an edi- 
torial ill the Kra. Dec ;il. 1S!IC,| from the Kansas Ciiy 
Star, of ilarch 2. which is apparently going the rounds 
of the secular press of this eountry as news in.atter l','i. 
but which to a man up a Irce can readily lu' seen in its 
Hue lighl. that of ;i paid .■idvertisement of ilie palent 
medicine niaimfaclurers! Km. ye gods and little fishes! 
"riion what meal dolli this our Ca'sar feed that he hath 
grown so great?" "Why man. he doth bestridi' the nar- 
row world like a ('olo,ssiis,, ami we petty men shoiilil 
walk under his liugi' legs and jirep .■iboul to Hud our- 
selves disliouorab!e gnn'cs." These noslrum vcinb'Ts 
evidently are not salistied to let the |iublic sit in judir- 
itietif iipnii ilie rigliffouMicss of Ihiir cause \\y giving a 



irulhfiil stateiueiil of the facts, but must of needs garble 
.mil iiiiscoiisiriie nn edilorjal pnhlished upon an eiiljrcdy 
dilTcrenl and perfectly pro|ier subject, "Siihstituliuii iu 
rresciiplions." 

The proprielors of these highly ,idverIi.scMl fakes, all ot 
which would die a naliiral deaih within a year should 
Ihey allempi to live siridly upon iheir merits insleail of 
bundreil-lhoiisand-ilollar .idvcrlising conlr.acis, evident- 
ly h.ave no need of "nerve cures" Iheinselves, although 
Ihey give us "thai tired feeling" when Ihey atteiii|il lo 
iliclale III the relail Hade how to cDndiict Iheir business 
with one breath, and ihe next i|uielly tell them to "go 
tell Iheir troubles lo a |ioliceiiiaii." should they coinplain 

• It being e pelled to sell these great "Cure all ihe ills 

that Mesh is heir to" al and even below cost to ineel llir 
coinpelition of deparlineni and "cnl-rati'" drug sloris. 

That Ihe fiirnisliing of supplies in large ipianlities aiid 
al bottom prices lo these cutlers h:is acted as a booni- 
eraiig, the jiroprielors have no one to blame but tlieiii- 
Kclves. Self-preservalioii is of necessiiy Ihe first law 
of human iialiirc and we are bul hiinian. Tlie iiiaii- 
ulacliirers should sliidy Ihe (ioldeii Iiule. and I am cer- 
lain Ihe relail Irade will "lole" Ijiir. IJes|ieclfullv, 

J. W. (ilKSHIKI!. 

r. .S. .Since wriling the above 1 have read with pleas- 
ure. ,is have doubtless ihousands of your other reader.s, 
your able editorial upon ilie Siibsiiiuilon I'roblcm. in 
your .M.-irch 4 issue, and 1 hearlily .agree with ymi ihat 
Ihe paleiil medicine men coiilil easil.v slop Ihe supply to 
oilier than legitimate dealers. We are nbligeil In cut in 
this cilv in <elr-di-fen.s<'. as voii will see by inclosed cir- 
cular. ■ J. W, G. 



Cheap Goods and Cheap Prices. 

To ihe Kdilor: Vour arlicle inliilcd "Cheap Prices" is 

much appreciated. It certainly voices the seutiineiil of 

all Willi whom we come in conlact. ami .von lerlainly 

deserve credil for the feeling you have aroused: and per- 

iiiil me. ill lieh.alf of a greal number of Weslern drug- 

gisls. lo enter a protest against ."> and til cut p.ickages. 

especi.illy of "|ialent inedicines." a class of goods Ihat 
1 1.. 1 .1 _i I.... f 1... 



cspeci.-in.v Ol jiaieni meiiicines. a ciass oi gooiis mat 
are bought, mil because Ihey are cheap, but from tile 
hope and bi'lief that tlie,\' will beiietil. 

'ihe same aiiiount of labor, lime and skill is reiiuired 
lo sell a ."i-ceiit or ll^cent package as for a ."lO-cent nr 
••ft package, and as Ihe latter alToids a mncli larger ag- 
gregaie prolii. all druggists wiih Ihe ordinary amount 
of business sense will discrimimile against the maker of 
nickel and dime packagi's. 




.\KrUAI>(;iN.— A mixture 
salicylate and caffeine. 



if .intifebrin, sodium 




111 per cent, sulphuric acid; the solution is then trans- 
ferred to a separating funnel, made alkaline with am- 
monia and shaken for 10 niiniites with a lui.xtnre of 20 
gin. of chlorofonii and Mil gin. of ether. Th«' clear ether- 
chloroformic solution is filtered into a tari'd Hask. the 
solvent disiilleil ofi" and Ihe residual strychnine weighed. 
The total alkaloids from mix vomica contain 4H.',l to 4.5.l> 
iier cent, of str.\clini!ie. 



1 ii\ iiriiii .iii\iiiii|Tir> ii<>i 

per cent, of str,\clini!ie. 



Mai-cli 18, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



3-23 



THE LmiTATIONS OF STANDARDIZATION.* 

WlicTcviT uii'ilic'iiinl :ic-liiiii iililniiis willi :i vr;;c't;il)l(> 
ilriiK llii' siilulilo iiriii('il>los of tlic hillcr -.wv tlic .Ilici-.-i- 
pi'illi<';ill.v ilftivc ones. ;iiiil while :ill llif suhililc prinii- 
plps .■ire licit iicc(S.s;iril.v nf thcTiipciilic wiirtli. il is iiii- 
possihlc. ill the iiiiiii;itiiri' ciiiKlitioii <il' ratiuiiMl thcrn- 
IKMiti<-s iis t(i th'' relative viihli's cf different di-Uf; ex- 
tractives, to say that any ;.'iveii exiraelive is inert or 
wilhoni nieilieiiial activity. Clinical eviileiice. anil not 
dieiiiical. (leteriuiiies the actnal therapeutic worth of a 
ilrue and its lu-i-p.-irations. 'Hie action of a dni^'. in mod- 
ifying,' the contents of a diseased tissue, nioditii's one or 
.'ill three ccdlular activilirs. iiutriliM', functional and re- 
productive. Tile fuuetional activities, being the inosi 
ohvious, have been the most studied by therapeutists. 
Indeed, the iniidern description of drug action is almost 
wludly limited to a descri|itioii of the fiinctionnl dis- 
turliances caused by its use. .\iid yet. what is a.s impor- 
tant, ilii' modifying' iiiHueiice of drugs upon the nutri- 
tive anil reproiluctivi' activities of cells in disease, lias 
received ndatively little attention. TTntil this lie done, 
no coiii|iIcte knowledge can be had of drug action in 
h lima 11 tissues. 

Many of the largi'r nianufacliirers lay groat stress 
upon the fact that the more poisonous fluid extracts made 
by tlii'in have Ik-cu standanlized to contain a given 
amount of so-called active prieciple. anil one might infer 
from the claims made for such Hnid extracts that these 
principles represented the entire therapeutic activities of 
drugs. Xo claim could be further from the truth. The 
so-called active principles of a drug represent their indi- 
vidual therapeutic ;ictiotis only, .and nothing more. The 
entire therapeutic effecls of a drug can onl.v be had 
from the drug itself, or a jireparation conlainiiig all the 
Ihcraiu'iitically active principles of the drug. IIeiic<', 
from a therapeutical point of view, for example, acoii- 
itiiie. digitalin. strychnine, briiciiie and quinine repii' 
sent their individual actions only, and not the Ihera- 
peuti<' actions of all the constituents found with them. 
The proiiortion of the so-called active principle is no in- 
dex of the proportion of the other proximate constituents 
of the drug. A.S n rule, the content of alk.aloid is simply 
an indication of the amount of that proximate iirinciple 
of the ilriig which produces the greatest functional dis- 
turbance ill cellular tissues 

The value of standardized fluid extracts over those 
not standardized, in actual medical practice, has been 
much exaggerated. The fluid extracts that are usually 
staud-ardized by liie manufacturers, and not by the 
I'harmacopci'ia, are those of aconite root, belladonna 
leaves. coca, colchiciimroot, <'olchicuni seeil. coniuui fruit, 
digitalis leaves, gelsciniuui. hyosc.vainus and the like. 
When the physician exhibits these fluid extracts clin- 
ically, what does he doV He gives the preparation in 
small and gradnall.v increasing doses, until he gets full 
physiidogical effects, and then he stops the drug. Now. 
what iiractical diffenuice to the physician does a slight 
variation in the proportion of the so-called activi' prin- 
ciple ni.akeV — especially in view of the fact that, willi 
the I ossible exception of preparations of cinchona, mix 
vumica, o|iium and one or two others, every nianuf.ic- 
lurer is a law unto liimsidf regarding the .standard of 
strength adopted, and the manner of following that 
standard, which is fully as important as the matter. 
True, many manufacturers apparentl.v adopt the same 
standard, but they reserve for themselves the right of 
using what working details of assay they wish. In the 
iinniatnre condition of drug assay it is well known that 
variable results are obtainable with many drugs with 
the saiiii' jiroces^ as worked by dilt'erent persons, due. 
pndiably. in some cases, to the ilitHculty of getting the 
final products puri'. 

Scores of moditications in the working details of pro- 

•'tlie .Vliiiiiiii Ileport. 



cesses (if drug assay have bi en recommended in tli' 
last few years in the phariiiaceutical iirinls. many of 
I hem from I he labor.itorics of nianufacturcrs. It is oli- 
vious that, in the opinion of Iheir authors, these changes 
iiinsi h.ive been improvements, or they would not have 
been iccominended. and they have probably bi'eii 
adopted by sonic firms. l!iit, in the absence of any gen- 
eral agreemeiil. it is hardly reasonable to believe that 
.ill recoinmenilatious for cliangis in processes of assays 
have lieen adoiited by manufacturers, and thus we may 
liMve the same processes in use by different nianufac- 
liirers with varying inoiliticatinns in working details, 
and. of course, yielding variable results. rutil manu- 
tactiirers of fluid extracts not standardized by the I'har- 
niacopoMa. but standardizcMl by themselves, get together 
and agree upon the working delails of thrur proces.--es of 
assay, the commercial standardized fluid extracts will 
not be uniforui in cciilini of .active principles. 

.\s it is iiol pra<-ficable for the average physician to 
specify, in his iirescri|itions. the make of one particular 
iii.inufacturer. nor practicable for the retail pharmacist 
lo kec]) all m.-ikes of standanlized fluid extracts, it is idle 
to over-estiuiat,' their importance. 

Perhaps the strongest example of slaiidardizaiion run 
mad is to be found in the ciniimercial attempts made lo 
stanilardize fluid extrail of digitalis. Here is a drug 
for which no practicable inethod of assay has yet been 
round, even witii years of ihemical resi'arch. This does 
not deter manufacturers. They simply assume certain 
slaudards of extractive, and claim that the drug is stand- 
.■irdizeil. despite the facl that the percentage of extrac- 
tive varies with the alcoholic strength of menstrmim 
used to exhausl the drug. ;iiid the exlractivc may coii- 
l.iiii some or but little of the active ininciples. or it nia.v 
contain none. One manufacturer markets his fluid ex- 
Ir.ict of digitalis, and says that his standard is 20 per 
lent, extractive (strength of menstrunm not giveiit: aii- 
oiher has as his standard fully 2.") pi'r cent., with a T."i 
per cent, .alcoholic meiisiriitim; another has as a stainl- 
.ird :'>n jicr cent. Islrengtii of uienstniuni not given). 
Here is a difference in extreme limits of ."lO per cent, be- 
iwci'ii the strongest and the weakest extractives, and 
the dift'ereuce is more than this if the flrsl-named and 
llie last-named fluid extract have had used for their mak- 
ing weakly alcoholic menstrua. 

Now. what happens',' The ret.iil iliuggisi may have 
lirescriplious calling fm- all these makes of this fluid I'X- 
tract. Suppose that he makes his tincture exti mpora- 
iieously from the fluid extract. One day .i pri'scriptiou 
for the tincture nia.v be made from the 2(1 per cent, 
product, the next day from the 30 per cent, product, and 
I he next day from the '17> per cent, product. Is tlieie 
uniformity in this? And would a tiiictur<> made from 
good selecteil digitalis h'af. by the retail pharmai-ist him- 
self. ^•ar.v as greatl.v as these commercial fluid extracts, 
diluted with alcohol and water? 

While an exaggeration of the value of drug assa.v is 
to be deprecated, it is etiually unjust to ignore its grow- 
ing importance. A great amount of valuable work has 
been done in reciuit y<';iis. but far more remains to be 
done, espi'eially with regard to the clinical value of dif- 
ferent proximate principles of plants in disease treat- 
ment. 



r.vrKH WHICH IS I'HooK A(;ai\st thio ac- 
tion OF WATEH. AIK. CKK.JtSK, AND WEAK 
.\ ( 'llbS - .\. Zinimermar.n. Lmidou, has taken out .m 
I'.iiglish paleiit, according to which parchment jiaper is 
drawn llirough a 2 lo ;! per cent, solution of |i.vroxyliii 
in ether-alcohol or other solv<-iit. The Him lefl by evap- 
oi.iiion is Hrnil.v united to such pajier. whereas from or- 
dinar.v pa]ier water detaches it easil.v. If the parchmeut 
paper be flrst Iri'ated with a 3 to 5 per cent, solution of 
cuprammonium, a successful result is cerlain. even if tin- 
paper be very stout and hard. 



324 



THE PHABMAGEUTICAL EBA. 



[March 18, 181*7. 



A Simple Laboratory Device for the ^Recovery of 

Volatile Substances. 
By C. Gundlicli. Ph. C. I'h. D., mid J. I.esiusky, Ph. B. 
Ilnvine had occiisidii tn use hirge iiuiiiilitii'.-i <if low 
liuiliiig sulvciit.>4 \\v fmiml the piece of appiirnlus pic- 
tured htre iiiviiluiible for the iinmediiite re- 
covery of the tuiinie. As the drawing sliows. 
N we I'onnected a long upright loudenser with 

?»— ' a coniuion percohitor. such as is used in 
pliaruia<'<'utical work, and attached to the 
bottom of the i>ercolaliu' a stop-cock. Between 
_ the pi'reolator and the condenser a T-tube is 
« fasteiiiHl by means of rubber attachment, 
^nd all ilistillatioiis are made into the open 
part of the T-tube. After the distillation is 
completed, it is ;idvisable to wait a few sec- 
onds before drawing off the solvent at the 
liotlom of the percohitor. The advantage of 
this apparatus is that it i.s nt once ready for 
M.se and occn|>ies a very small space. 



\ 



y 




.4 Device for Use Ij Laboratories Supplied with 
Steam. 

In distillations m.-iilc wiili sti-ain it is some- 
times difficult lo have the latter perfectly 
dry. as the steam is ajit to condense more or 
le.ss in the apparatus. To avoid this the following ap- 
paratus is to be recom- 
mended. As the steam 
comes from the hoili-r it 
is forced into an ordinary 
ether can which is fitted 
with a rubber stopper 
with three holes. Into 
one of the holes a glass 
tube is inserted ri>acliiiig 
to the iKittom of the can 
.ind closed outside with a 
pinch-cock. In order to 
start the apparatus the 
pinch-cock is openerl .-iii'l 
the condensed water is 
let off slowly so that a 
perfectly dry steam is 
now available. By regu- 
lating the tiow of the 
coniiensed water by means of the pinch-cock the press- 
ure of the dry steam is increased or diminished. 



f 



AX rxnKSIRABI.K REMEDY.— The f(dIowing par- 
agraph is at pri'scnt going the rounds of the medical 
and ;>h:trma<-euti<'al press: 

Tellurate of Sodium.— Ten to twenty cenligrams. and 
alcohol fifty grams, make a solution of which a tea- 
spoonful may be given in swt'etened water morning and 
night in the night sweats of phthisis. Dr. .Toguet say.s: 
"It was suc<i'ssful in sixteen out of twenty cases." — 
Lyon Med. 

The result of tins mi'dication dues not seem to be gen- 
erally known. Tellurium salts, while doubtless effica- 
cious, have the pei-uliar projK>rty of decomposing in thr 
system with formatiou of telluretted hydrogen which 
gives to the patient's breath an odor compared to which 
that of a cheap Spanish restaurant is grateful and com- 
forting. The odor from the patient will render an ordi- 
nary room uninhabitable, even by those to whom the 
odor of (uiions or garlic is not necessarily unpleasant. 
The same odor is sometimes noticeable in patients who 
have taken large amounts of bismuth, these salts often 
containing traces of tellurium. — Drug Topics. 



A CONVENIENT METRIC CONVERSION TABLE. 

('. W. Hunt has compiled the fidlowing conversion 
table, which shoulo be tacked nj) in a conveuienl place 
for handy leferi'iice. We reprint from Sci. .Vmer. ; 

-Millimeters multiplied by ((.(l3!»37 ei|iial inches. 

Millimeters divided by 1'.".4 enual inches. 

Centimeters multiplicKl by >>M',Ki~ eipial inchi'S. 

Centimeters divided by 2..">4 et|ual inches. 

Meiers multiplied by 30.37 equal inches. (Act of Con- 
gress. 1 

Meters multiplied by 3.2.SI equal feet. 

Meters nmltiplied by ].<K)4 equal yards. 

Kihuneters multi|>lied by (I.(i21 equal miles. 

Kilomi'teis divided by 1.(>II'J3 equal miles. 

Kilometers multiplied by 32.^0.7 e(pial feet. 

Square millimeters multiplied by O.Ol.'iS equal square 
inches. 

millinu-ters divided by (j4.">.l equal square 



centimeters multiplied by O.l.Vi equal square 
centimeters divided by I>.4.''>1 equal square 



Square 
inches. 

Square 
inches. 

Squari' 
inches. 

Square meters multiplied by 10.7t>4 equal square feet. 

Squ.'ire kilometers multiplied by 247.1 equal acres. 

Hectari'S niulti|>lied by 2.471 ecpial acres. 

Cubic eentinietirs liividi-d by 1(1. ."kS.'! e(|ual cubic inches. 

Cubic centimeters divideil liv 3.(J*J equal tluid drams. 
iV. S. v.) 

Cubic centimeters divided bv 29. ."i7 equal fluid ounces. 
(IT. S. P.) 

Cubic meters multiplied by 3.">.31." equal cubic feet. 

Cubic meters multiplied by 1.3(18 equal cubic yards. 

Cubic meters multiplied b.v 2(54.2 equal gallons (231 
cubic inchest. 

Liters niultipliid by (il.(»22 equal cubic inches. (Act 
of Congress.) 

Liters multiplied by 33.84 equal fluid ounces. (U. S. P.) 

Liters multiplied l)y 0.2(542 equal gallons (231 cubic 
inches I. 

Liters dividid by 3.7S e(iual gallons (231 cubic inches.) 

loiters divided liy 28..31(i equal cubic feet. 

Hectoliters inuitiplied by .3..")31 equal cubic feet. 

Hectoliters multiplied by 2^84 equal bu.shels (2150.42 
cubic inches. 1 

Hectoliters multiplied b.v 0.131 equal cubic yards. 

Hectoliters divided by 20.42 equal gallons (231 cubic 
inches.) 

(Jrains multiiilied by l.j.432 equal grains. (Act of Con- 
gress.) 

Grams multiplied by 9S1 equal dynes. 

f^r.ims ilivided by S.S..*^.") equal ounces avoirdupois. 

(irams (water) divided by 20. .">7 equal fluid ounces. 

(Jranis per cubic centimeter divided by 27.7 equal 
pounds per cubic inch. 

.Toule nuiltiplied by 0.7373 equal foot pounds. 

Kilograms multiplied by 2.2(M6 equal pounds. 

Kilcigrams multi|ilied liy .3.'"). 3 equal ounces 

|lois. 

Kilograms ilivided by 1102.3 equal tons (2.000 pounds.) 

Kilograms per square centimeter mtiltiplied by 14.223 
ec)ual pounils jjcr square inch. 

Kilogrammeters multiplied by 7.23.3 equal foot pounds. 

Kili>grams per meter multiplied by 0.072 equal pounds 
per square foot. 

Kilograms jier cubic meter nuiltiplied by 0.062 equal 
pounds per cubic foot. 

Kilograms per cheval vapeur multiplied by 2.235 equal 
pounds per horse power. 

Kiliiwatts multiplied by 1.34 equal horse power. 

Watts divided by 740 equal horse power. 

Watts ilivided by 0.7373 equal foot pounds per sec- 
ond. 

Calorie multiplied by 3.0(58 equal B. T. U. 

dieval vnpeur multiplied by 0.9863 equal horse power. 

(Centigrade nuiltiplied by 1.8) plus 32 equal degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Francs nniltiiilied by 0.10.3 equal dollars. 

THlIyANlX. — A l>rewn ointment containing 3 per cent. 
of sulphur: obtained by action of sulphur on hot lanolin. 



avoirdu- 



THIl'RET.— The product of the o.xidation of phenyl- 
dithiobiuret. forming an inodorous antiseptic powder, 
which is soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in 
water. 



LBMOX ESSEXCE (Artifi<iaD.— Diluted alcohol 900 
gni., citric acid 1(H.I gin., oil of lemon 2lXI gm.; mix. and 
after standing a few days, filter. 



P S E I' D O-HYOSCYAMIX (C,;H„XO,). — Found 
i.long with hyoscyamine and hyoscine in the leaves of 
the Duboisia myoporoides. It possesses the properties 
of a mydriatic and can be used as a sedative but not 
hypnotic. 



ilaiih IS, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



325 



-'In the Case That a Physician Prescribes a Patent 
or Proprietary Medicine, and Said Medicine Is 
Dispensed and is Talcen by the Patient, the 
Result of Which is Disastrous, Who Is Respon- 
sible for the Death? " 

A. W. (irirtith, secretiiiy of the Austin. Tex.. Pharnia- 
■coutioal Assooiation. at a recent meeting, read a paper 
•on this snhject. in which he said: 

From the poison head of this monster there licks a 
f<)rl<e(I tongue that gives warning to the physician, drug- 
gist and to those that drink at its fountain. To the 
physician it robs him of his chance and supplants him 
in his cause. To the druggist it takes away his title and 
makes him an agent for its sale. To the people, it is a 
serpent true: some are bitten, some recover, and some 
must die: and though we may look with an eye of hatred 
upon this monster evil as it towers up and casts its un- 
welciime shadow over our chosen profession, we are 
forced to realize that the extinction of this money-mak- 
ing projei't cannot be accomplished within a day, or pos- 
sibly for years. But must there be idleness on our part 
in a period of the evil's greatest prosperity? Must we 
hush our mouths, fold our arms to wait for the next 
generation to bring forth warriors who will take up 
arms and battle against the evil that is striking at the 
most vital part of our profession? 

.\ reformation in the drug world will some day be 
accomplished, and this evil will be quelled by law. But 
to us. it falls our lot to start the ball to rolling. There 
is no cause why druggists should not seek to regulate 
the present incomplete pharmaceutical legislation. As it 
is. we are made the agent of the very evil that is degrad- 
ing our profession and depriving us of a well-deserved 
and hoiu'St profit, by compelling us to buy and dispense 
those preparations that might as well be sold in a gro- 
cery store. 

This "trade-mark" law should be prosecuted by every 
lover of honest pharmacy. But the immediate question 
■with us to-night is: ^yho is responsible for the sequel 
of this evil? 

When we. though with reluctant fingers, break the 
seal of one of those bottles, the contents of which we 
know only by sight and smell, it is like breaking the 
shell of an egg — we hope it is good, but it may be bad. 
Of the two. the latter is preferable, for by the use of 
the nasal organ we are enabled to distinguish the good 
from the bad. In the former the rottenness is screened 
from each of our senses. In our compulsion to dispense 
those preparations we are obliged to bid farewell to the 
injunctiims of our preceptor: "Be sure you are right." 
etc.. and dive into a field of uncertainty — for the source 
of such knowledge is beyond our reach. We may con- 
sult onr dispensatory, exaiuine the volumes on phar- 
macy, scan the pages of chemistry and rumple the pages 
of journals, and. finally, return without the information 
sought. It is like seeking the fountain of youth — we are 
only older when the search is over. 

The responsibility. I believe, is divisible by three. 
Naming them in rank, I beg to place the protection of 
such a preparation first, for it is the rankest law ever 
written: second, the manufacture; third, the physician 
and druggist. First, the Government: The most promi- 
nent thing that greets us on one of these sacred labels 
is the "trade mark," protected by the same govern- 
ment that makes the laws by which our lives are pro- 
tected: the same government that demands our dispensa- 
tory: and the government that should dispatch such a 
manufacturer out of exi.vtence. Why is such a prepara- 
tion put upon the marki't? I'ndoubtedly for the gains 
the manufacturer expects to realize from its sale. With 
this object in view he applies to the government for the 
exclusive right to prepare and sell his preparation. The 
request is granted and the preparation goes out on the 
market world, and by circumstances some unfortunate 



mortal becomes the victim of its poison. Then is not 
the protection of this article partially responsible for 
the death of this man? Would it not be better for the 
law to protect that man's life from such toxic exposures 
than to protect that which killed him? Instead of giv- 
ing the manufacturer th(> protection, the law should be 
just the reverse and make it an offense to prepare and 
sell a preparation, the formula of which is known but 
to the man that makes it. Why? Becau.se. even ad- 
mitting that the formula is filed with the trade mark to 
insure its virtue, where is the man to say it will enter 
into combination with every simple compound or syn- 
thetic preparation and retain its virtue and cause no 
harm? 

New medicines are constantly Indng put upon the mar- 
ket; incompatibles are being discovered almost daily, 
and we know that incompatibles are occasionally pois- 
onous. Then, howcan we know that these preparations, 
when prescribed in combination with other medicine, 
will not, in some instance, produce poison? And even 
when prescribed alone, how is it to be known that the 
result will not prove disastrous to the existing condi- 
tion of the patient? 

The law .should remove such dangerous chances, or 
the government is responsible for the disastrous results 
of its laws. 

The compensation the government receives for the li- 
cense of such chances is indeed small, when compared 
to the life of one of its subjects. 

If the manufacturer would make the formula his 
trade mark, then the responsi'oility would be removed. 
We would then be given a chance to detect the form.a- 
tion of a substance that should not be put into the 
hands, much less the stoinaeii, of the patient. 

To recapitulate: I claim that the government is first 
of all responsible, because, instead of giving protection 
to such secret remedies through a trade mark, and 
thereby encourage its manufacture, it should legislate 
directly against it: and because it gives the manufac- 
turer the right to prepare and sell his remedy at all 
hazard. 

The next responsibility rests upon the manufacturer. 
Well, what has this man done to nierit our confidence? 
Are we to fall on his neck and call him brother and 
accept his statements, all because Rev. P. I. Johnson, 
of Lowell, Mass.. says that he was given up for dead 
and was partl.v buried when this medicine returned his 
health and made him even younger than before. If the 
manufacturer is a professional man. to what profession 
do you think he properly belongs? No one will deny 
that his chief object in putting a preparation or a line 
of preparations upon the market is to make money. 
And when he assigns his preparation in the elaborate 
phrase, "a boon to mankind." he onl.v means, "I want 
your money." And with this end in view he adds every- 
thing in the vocabulary of drugs to his preparation that 
he thinks will increase its sale, however, in the mean- 
time, taking care that he adds nothing expensive to his 
preparation, lest his profit will fall short. That this is 
true you will adiuit. Have we any evidence that this 
man's purpose in life is to benefit his fellow man? On 
the cimtrary. does not the evidence prove that he ia 
here to be benefited by his customers? Then, is this 
the man in whose hands we are a[)t to place the lives 
of our friends? Is this the man to supplant the medical 
science? And when the grave opens to receive into its 
bosom the victim of this man's "All-Healing Remedy," 
shall we not place responsibilit.v upon the head of the 
producer of this poison? "If the court knows itself, 
and we think it do." this man stands convicted. 

Next in line of responsibility come the physician and 
druggist. I do not assign quite as much of the respon- 
sibility to the physician as I do to the druggist — speaking 
of pharmacy in general throughout the United States — 
because we. the druggists of the United States, should 



326 



THE THAKMACEUTICAL ERA. 



IMai-.li IS, 1S97. 



he responsible for the laws that protect these prepara- 
tions. Wo are the ones to cventiially rciiiovc lliese 
I'hancfs; wc are the ones to adjust the existing hnvs and 
suggest Ilio |iri>|KT iiharniaceuticnl legislation, for we 
study the interest ol our customers and know best what 
is for their good. Did it ever oecur to you that there are 
many things along this line that the druggists iVicWI(/''o 
know,' They '/o know that the very remedy that eured 
Mrs. Takeall of the last stage of eonsumption and 
brought forth her reeommendntion. is liable to cause Mr. 
I'.seall to write his will. They do know that nine-tenths 
of the people who siiend their hard-earned money for 
patent medieines would do as well with it to sink it into 
a well. And they do know that there are unregistered 
druggists practicing pharmacy in the country who know 
no better than to recommend and advise the use of 
these patent medicines, simply because they do not know 
of anything else to advise. And they do know — each 
and every one of you know — and every druggist in Texas 
knows that they should be working for the present pro- 
posed pharmacy law in Texas, and thereby let the good 
work begin. 

When a patent medicine is prescribed the druggists 
are better provided to scan the situation than is the 
physician, because they have the medicine in their 
hands; they (d)serve the appearance and note the result 
of combination, and if not sutisfied as to its safety uo 
druggist should hesitate speaking to the physician con- 
cerning it. and thereby guarantee your safety. The phy- 
sician will in turn appreciate your interest. Whenever 
in doubt the physician is the man to remove that doubt. 
The physi<ian often has a cause for prescribing a pro- 
prietary medicine. The virtues of the medicine are 
clearly shown to him. either by demonstration or recom- 
mendations, and he finds it convenient for prescribing. 
The formula, in part or in whole, is often known to him, 
and he prescribes it with the motive of benefiting his 
patient. But does the physician always know what 
chemical change will take place on long standing, what 
decomposition, and what will be the nature of the new 
substance, and what it will and will not combine with, 
and what will be the result of such a combination V With 
these uncertainties, I think it advisable to let some of 
the responsibility rest ujion the physician. 



A New Process of Producing Photographs in Colors. 

In a paper rc.-ul before ihc .Society of Arts by Sir 
Henry Tiueman Wood, secretary of the society, on "Thi' 
I'roducUon of Cilor by Photographic Methods." and re- 
ported by Sei. Amer.. he describes the recent process 
invented by Dr. Adrien Michel Dansa'c and Mons. V. 
Chassagne and called "Chassagne's color process." as 
follows : 

"The process, so far as we know it, is as follows: A 
negative is taken on an ordinary gelatine plate, which 
has been prepared by treatment with a solution, the in- 
gredients of which are unknown. The negative thus ob- 
tained shows no trace of color, and appears in all re- 
spects like any other photographic negative. From it a 
print is taken on onlinary albumenized silver paper 
which has been treated with the before mentioned solu- 
tion, or, if a transparency is desired, on a gelatine plate 
prepared in the same manner as that which was used 
for the negative. This print shows no trace of color 
either by reflected or transmitted light. Tlie print when 
dry is washed over with the sidution. and is afterward 
treated successively with three colorid .solutions — blue, 
green, and red — the operation being conducted in a bright 
light. As the solutions jire applied the print gradually 
takes up its appropriate colors, the intermediate tints 
being, it is supposed, inoduced by a mixture or combi- 
nation of the three primaries. That a yellow color 
should be produceil by a combination of what are pre- 
sumably green and red pigments is not in accordance 
with expectation, for though red light and green light. 



when superirajKised produce yellow, we do not get yel- 
low by mixing red and green coloring matters. I'rob- 
alily the yellow is produceil by the appliciilion of a yel- 
low dye mixed in the green s(dnlion. and noi by a com- 
bination of colors. 

"It is to be noted thai the process is not one for the 
direct reproducliiui of natural colors. It is, ratlu-r. i>ne for 
treating a photographic i)rint in such a way that it en- 
ables it. one might say, to automatically paint itself — to 
lake nil in the proper iiarts the colors which are re<|uired. 
rejecting them in the parts where the.v are not ri'ipiired. 
How this is effei-ted is at jiresent a mystery, and pcT- 
haps with the limited amount of information available it 
is not worth while speculating upon it. How a mono- 
chrome negative can confer on a monochrcone print this 
power of .seli'ctive absorption has yet to be explained. I 
can offer no suggestion on the subject. I am informed 
that a negative of special character is reiiuired to pro- 
duce' the colored positives, and that is all I know 
.-iboiit it. 

"The results cerl:iiiily are prtMluced. and there seems 
no reason to doubt the good faith of those who state 
they were produced in the nuinner described. Of course 
when we are thus asked to accejjt facts without receiv- 
ing an explanation of them, we require, as I said before, 
very strong evidenc"' that the facts are genuine. Exam- 
ination and experiment, so far as they have .vet gone, 
have thrown no doubt on the statements made, and the 
inventor. I wish to say most distinctly, has offered every 
facility for inspection so long as the secret of his mate- 
rials is respected. Sufficient time has not elap.seil for 
cruiial tests to be made, but we ma.v reasonably exi)eet 
that the i)r<icess will stand those tests as well as it has 
those to which it has been submitted. 

"I have myself seen the colors applied in the wa.v I 
havi- described, and the promised results produced. Mr. 
Herbert .Jackson and m.vself took negatives on Mons. 
Chassagne's jdates of various test objects. Mr. .Tack- 
son was afterward kind enough to make siuni' iiositires 
from these plates, and neither negative nor positive was 
touched, or I think seen, by Mons. Chassagne. until we 
placed iliem in his hands that they might receive their 
final tiT.iiment. On the application of the coloring solu- 
tions, we saw that the proper colors were produced. 

"Photographically the results we obtained were very 
poor: the prints were extremely thin ami unsatisfactor.v, 
as was not to be wondered at. since the negatives were 
taki'U on a dull, foggy -day. Xeverthele.ss the.v showed 
a great deal more than traces of tin- proju'r colors. A 
blui' <hina vase, with a piece of red ribbon tied roviiid it. 
and containing a bunch of Howers. was reproduced with 
perfi'ct accuracy, though the image was thin and faint. 
.\ii Indian brass |)ot showed not oid.v the ytsUow color 
of the brass, but also distinctly metallic luster. Alto- 
gether I can only sa.v that the results of the.se experi- 
ments, .so far as the.v went, satisfieil my.self, ami I think 
the others who saw them, that the n'sults were produced 
in the manner described. Were it not for the novelty 
iif the process, and the dithculty of accounting for its 
results, it would be accepteil without hesitation. What- 
ever hesitation exists is, after all. but a testimony to 
its importance. 

"I have been lakcu to task by some of my friends for 
accepting results so remarkable witlnmt evideno' more 
substantial. I can only sa.v that I think any of jou who 
saw the process carried out would have arrived at the 
conclusions at which I arrived. All evidence is a contest 
of opiiosite improbabilities. It seemed to me more prob- 
able that the colors were proiluced in the manner stated 
than that the prints were first painted by hand, then 
bleached and then the colors restored under my eyes by 
the application of some mordant: or that the operator, 
who seemed to be sluicing and dabbling his color all 
over the print, was really painting it im in the proper 
places. I can think of uo other alternative. Still I free- 



.Marili IS. ISltT.J 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



327 



ly :iilniit 1 sliall myself like fui-Ilu'r proof. I look for- 
\v:iril xhi.i-tly lo liciii); suiiiiliiMl witli tlu' lunlcriiils, and 1 
sli.ill iini lie alisolutcly Imppy iiiilil 1 liavr inysi'lf pro- 

,ln i sdiMcfliiMf; wliicli -liowoviM- iiifci-ioi- it may lio to 

Ihi- vrry licaiitifnl cxaiiiiilcs we liavi' licrc Iii-iiif.-li1— shall 
yd shinv Ihr i-.ilurs nl an ..iis;ina] sulijcrl lakin liy iiiy- 
solf, 

"111 a siMTrl pi-iii'i'ss such as this il ilm's nol si'ciii 
uiirlli wliilr Id spiMulatc. Hi'caiisr it is a waslc of tiiiiL-. 
-ui's^iiiL' ii'iw results life pfodileeil that we may expect 
lo have liilly iles<Tilu'cl to lis in a short time." 



Manufacture of Gold in India. 

The traiisiiiiil.ilioii nl' metals. Ion- soui;hl hy medieval 
alelieniisls. and now asseiled in the latter days to have 
l.eeii aei-omplislied hy an .\nieiiean chemist, is a matter 
of daily practice amoim llic f.-ikirs of India, if we may 
trust their own claims: .and. imlceil. M. Ileclor I.oveille 
assures us in Cosmos (Liti'rary DiKest) that he has wit- 
nessed till' process with his own eyes: that is. ho has 
seen the f.akirs m.-ike .-m alloy that looks like ;rold and 
.answers some of the simpler tests, althoiifih. ho pru- 
dently remarks, it has not the same eheniieal (lualities. 
lie Kives US some of the receijits used, and hy followiiiK 
ilicm any of llii' amalciir chemists anions our readers 
ni.-iy verify his woi'ds with reasoiiahle ease, for it is to 
he presumed that the herbs and vesetahle juices enume- 
rated .ill' not necessary insredients. and the lack of them 
need not deter the .\meriean exin'rinieiiter. Says M. 
I.i'v.dllo. 

"For .1 long time, in India, the apparent transmutation 
of tin. zine. eoppi'r. and mercury into precious metals 
has heeii practiced. We have seen there with our own 
eyes a iiiet,-il like s;old issninj; from the crncihle of the 
Indian alelieniisls— a metal that could not lie told from 
real flold hy means of the timehstone. We may say. 
liowever. that in cdd India, as well as in youns; America, 
they have not yet succeeded ill fjivinfr to the metal thus 
oht'ained the chemical properties of j,'old. On this point 
they are not more advanced in the oni' country than in 
tlio other, and the prohlem seems to us not to he near so- 
lution. The metal ohfaiiied can. in fact, he decomposed 
into its coustitueiil eleineiits. Xeverthcless il may he 
interestiuK to present to puhlic notice ilie Indian alchem- 
ists and to deserihe their methods." 

These aleheinists. M. I.eveille goes on to tell us, are al- 
ways either fakirs or saiinyassis (peuitents). The hatter 
:ire i-emarkahle jpcople, accustomed froiii,yoiiili to eat 
poisons, drink meriairy. and resist heal and cold. They 
live ill the mountains and the woods, and are regarded 
as sacred, S;iys the w liter: 

"Around these persomifres many le.uciids have spniUf; 
up. The iieople assert that they never come into a 
city exi-ept liy divine iiisiiiratioii. in onler to cure illness 
anil to enrich certain |iersoiis. There is a helief amoufr 
till' Ilindus. very widespread, hut purely fahvdous. that 
they ilisappcar'-at i-ertain hours to rejoin tlu' oittars. 
divine n.aturalists of the early as'es of IniUa. who. ae- 
cordinj; to Hindu tradition, meet with their divinity. 
Hari tsliari. on the summit of the Himalayas, to learn 
. the secrets of nature. 

"The followiiif.' is the method employed hy these Indian 
ah-heiiiists to make tlicii- ^'idd. \Ve ^dve literally, ecin- 
formiii,;; to the weights and measures in use in India, 
thi' list of siihstaneos necessary for this delicate opera- 
tion. 

"These are. aceording to our documents: 

"Sulfur of Xelli-Kai (Pliylnuthus lemhlical, 24 ruiices' 
weiglil |7 ■piinces), 

"\Vhite seeds of Alir:i preeatorius. !l rupees' weight 
r_''... oiincesl, 

"(»iie \>iiole garlic, 

"('innahar, (i rupees' weight l"2 ouncesl, 

"I'higlish orpimciil, (i rupees' weight, 

"Sal ,aninioiiiae. (1 rupees' weight. 

"These are powdereil separately, and then a paste is 
made of the wliole. with three quarts of "paddy' made of 
the milky juie-o of the Asolopias gigantea. The whole is 
ground nil with this milk. 

•"Then little' liaril halls are maih' of the mixture, and 
linally two sattis .are t.akcii, of tine, hard earthenware, 
of siieh si/.i that the material to he distilled ociaipies 
only one-third or one-fourth of the v<'ssid. On the lower 
vessel another satti is soldered with potter's earth, after 
an opening has heeii made in the end of this si'cond vase. 



"Over this hole is fitted a bottle, whose end is pieroed, 
and it is carefully sealed to the vase. 

"Into the lower vase are put the little halls deseribeil 
above, and the whole is then sealed u|i, 

"The powder, whiai vaporized, rises along the sides of 
the bottle and condenses around the hole. Il is colleeled 
with a feather. Then zinc is taken: for ca.h rupee's 
wi'ight of zinc is allowed a qiiantity of the powder as 
Large as two or tlirei' rice grains. The zinc and the 
powder are wrapped up together in a bit of paper (ir 
linen or a leaf. Tlu' wlnde is put into a (aaicihle, which 
is then sealed with a paste composed of mie part of cow- 
dung, oil" of charcoal, and one of potter's earth. This is 
placed on a tir<' of wood-charcoal and heateil white hot. 
after which il is allowed to cool. 

"Open the crucible— you are a rich iiiaiil" 

A similar formula, we are told, suttices for the man- 
ufacture of silver. The Hindu alchemists, it will lie 
seen, do not jireserve the same secrecy as those in more 
civilized lands, and freely give us all the opportunity of 
liecoming wealthy. 



Electricity from Carbon Without Heat. 

In a paper read before the New York Kle<'trical So- 
ciety (reported in Sei. Anier.l. .Mr. Willard 10. Case gave 
some interesting information and experiments on "Elec- 
tricity from Carbon Without Heat." a subject which he 
has been studying for some years. The lecturer de- 
scribed the devices thus far employed to oxidize carbon 
without heat in the electric battery. The lecturer had 
his apparatus with him and performed experiments be- 
fore the audience. He used a cell of his own invention, 
riates of tin and platinum formed the electrodes, and 
the carbon being oxidized by contact with chemicals, 
eh'Ctricity was produced, as was shown by attaching the 
wire from the cell to a motor. A thermometer applied 
at various stages showed that no heat was generated: 
hence, practically, the entire energy of the chemical 
charge was converted into electricity. Having concluded 
this experiment. Mr. Case brought out the possibility 
of the discovery of a method of obtaining electricity from 
carbon without heat, by following plans analogous to 
the methcid employeil by nature in the human .system. He ■ 
drew attention to the processes going mi in the animal 
organism by which the carbon is oxidized hy the instru- 
mentality of the haunoglobin of the blood, which acts 
as an oxygen conveyor. 

The iioint Mr. Case spei-ially dw.dt upon was that 
work in the direction of rendering the experiment of 
practical value lay in the suitable iireparation of the 
carbon for the oxidizing material to act upon. 

The ha>nu.globin c<dl was a fine example of what many 
scienti.sts have, for a long time, insisted upon, namely, 
that the closer the processes of nature can he approxi- 
mated, the nearer and quicker they will come to attain 
tiK'ir end. 

flAMKLKKS' IXK.— Take a small (inanlity oX dark- 
blue or scarlet diamond dye. put it into a 'J-drani vial 
and dissolve in .glycerin over a lamp: then add about W 
grains of carbolic acid crystals, and ether enough to Kll 
ihe vial. Keep well corked, and when reipiired for use 
heat over a lamp and apply it to the .-aiM with a ciun- 
iiion steid pen. — W. Dr. 

I'HOTOHKAPHIXC THK I X V I S 1 HL E BY 
Srti.VK.— I'rofessor .\. F. McKissii-k. of the Auburn 
Polvtechiiic Institute. Alabama, announces that he has 
liiscovered that common granulated sugar, if exposed to 
direct sunlight for two hours, and then placed in a dark 
room with a photographic plate, emits light enough, or. 
at any rate, rays enough to photograph objects on the 
plan- through a thickness of '2V-! inches of wood. Fol- 
lowing up Becqiierers experiments with the Huorescent 
com]imiiids of uranium, the professor tested a number 
of substances, and foumi that wlute granulated sugar 
gave by far the best results. I'rofessor .McKissick sug- 
gests that the rays are not X rays, but a connectiug link 
between them and ordinary light. 



328 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



(ilarch 18, 18!t7. 



Tetanus Antitoxin. 

One by one tlie Jiseases which have hitherto defied the 
skill of physicians are yielding to the persistent attack 
of modern science. Since the successful trealuieut of 
diphtheria by subcutaneous injections of antitoxic serum 
was demonstrated— hardly three years ago— it has been 
coutidently predicted that sooner or Inter nil diseases 
which result from the action of a poison secreted in the 
blood by a special and characteristic bacillus would be 
conquered by similar means. 

From the evidence now presented, it would appear that 
tetanus, one of the most sinister and stubborn of human 
maladies, if not already con<iuered, is in a fair way to 
be successfully overcome. In the Deutsche Medieinische 
Woeheusohrift (Berlin) some time ago appeared a joint 
announcement by I'rot". Dr. Von Behring. of diphtlieria- 
antito.xin fame, and I'rofessor Kuorr. of Marburg, de- 
scribing the qualities and best methods of using the new 
tetanus antitoxin, which is now prepared under govern- 
ment supervision as a commercial product by the Farb- 
werke at Hoechst-oii-Main. and offiTed for use by med- 
ical practitioners under the same conditions as diphtheri.i 
antitoxin from the same .source. 

Tetiinus, as is well known, is an exceedingly painful 
and hitherto usually fatal disease caused by blood pois- 
oning, generally the result of a wound. It is believed 
by physicians to be i-aused by the introduction into the 
system of a minute organism which rises from the 
ground in certain localities, so that the prevalence of te- 
tanus varies greatly even in different districts of the 
same countr.v.- At all events, the disease has its charac- 
teristic microbe, which has been recognized, isolated, de- 
scribed, and rei)ro(lured by artificial culture. The dis- 
tinctive symptom of tetanus is a persistent spasm of 
the voluntary muscles, aggravated by light, uoise, or 
other disturbing iuHuence to which the patient may be 
subjectffd. These spasms may affect any muscular por- 
tion of the body, but when, as is often the case, the 
. maxillary muscles are principally attacked, the resulting 
malady is known as lockjaw. 

The tetanus antitoxin described by Professor Behring 
and Dr. Knorr is similar in nature, action, and in the 
methods of its preparation to the antitoxin of diphthe- 
ria. It is prepared and put up for use in two forms, 
viz., as a dry powder, which is used for the treatment 
of developed cases of tetanus in men and animals, and 
as a liquid solution, which is employed for prophylactic 
purposes. Its strength or degree of efficiency is measured, 
like that of autidiphtheritic serum, by antitoxic units. 
The dry antitoxin is designated as a hundredfold normal 
antitoxin — that is. 1 gram of the preparation contains 
100 units of antitoxic power; in other words, is suf- 
ficient to neutralize 100 grams of the normal poison of 
tetanus. It is put up tor commerce in vials containing 
5 grams each, and the contents of one such vial are 
theoretically sufiicient for the cure of a developed case 
of tetanus. It is dissolved in 30 cubic centimeters of 
sterilized water at a temi)erature of 40° C, and injected 
hypodermically at ;>. single dose. In the treatment of 
horses, the injection is made into a vein, by which the 
full action of the antitoxin is accelerated by about 
twenty-four hours, and this method of injection may 
even be employed with human patients in very severe 
cases or where the treatment is commenced at a late 
and perilous stage of the disease. To insure favorable 
results, the injection should be made, if possiVile. within 
thirt.v-six hours after the presence of tetanus is definitely 
indicated. The liquid solution is protected from contam- 
ination by germs in the atmosphere by a small admix- 
ture of phenol. The dry preparation, on the other hand, 
requires no such antiseptic while in that form, but when 
dissolved in water it becomes subject to deterioration, 
which may be prevented by the addition of 1 per cent, 
of chloroform. 

The tetanus solution is of fivefold strength, that is. 



1 gram of the li(iuid contains five antito.xic units, and in 
this form it is put up in sealed Ti-gram vials. In pres- 
ence of wounds which give reason to fear lockjaw or 
I ther forms of tetanus, a small subcutaneous injection 
of the solution is made, the quantity used being proiwr- 
tionate to the comlition of the patient and the time 
that has elapsed since the injury was receivi-d. In all 
cases, the wound should be antiseptically treated, so as 
to prevent as far as possible the further generntion of 
poison in the blood. 

Tetanus is a disease of seldom occurrence in this sec- 
tion of (iermany, and opportunities to test the remedy 
in actual practice are comparatively rare. One such 
case has lieen recentl.v treated at the Hospital of the 
Holy Spirit, in Frankfort, th<' record of which is of- 
licially and minutely given. 

On the It'th of September last, a coppersmith (L. M.), 
25 years of age, and resident in Frankfort, experienced 
after exposure to thorough wetting severe pains and 
stiffness in the muscles of the neck and throat. Two 
days after the first symptoms appeared he came under 
treatment b.v a physician, who kept the patient in bed 
and administered chloral and salicylate uf soda. The 
symiitoins of tetanus continued to develop, and on the 
night of the 2'Jtli of Seiitember became so marked and 
violent that ou the following day the patient was trans- 
ferred to the hospital. A careful examiimtion revealed 
a small cut or scratch under the right ear. then nearly 
healed, and so slight in outward appearance that it had 
passed almost unnoticed. At the time of admission to 
the hospital the patient was growing rapidly worse. The 
chin was twisted far to the left, the head drawn back- 
ward and immovable, and the muscles of the body, es- 
pecially the back and abdomen, were hard and tense- 
ly drawn. The patient was isolated in a dark room and 
treated with subcutaneous injections of morphine, which 
gave no relief. TIic slightest noise or disturbance, such 
as the entrance of the physician or nurse into the dark- 
ened room, induced severe spasms, and the condition of 
the sufferer continued to grow steadily worse. At i 
o'clock in the afternoon of October 1 a prolonged spasm 
of intense severity left no further doubt of a fully devel- 
oped case of tetanus, and half an hour later 5 grains of 
the hundred-unit antitoxin, dissolved in 00 grams of 
water, were injected hypodermically at three places on 
the breast. 

During the evening of the same day. a slight but defi- 
nite improvement wjis observed, and this continued 
throughout the following day. the spasms being fewer 
and 'Of shorter duration than before the antitoxin had 
been administered. This condition was maintained from 
the 3d to the (!th of October, when the acute symptoms 
gradually returned, and 'J o'clock in the evening, tie- 
came so severe that a second dose of 4 grams of normal 
antitoxin was administered as before, with the result 
that before the next morning the muscles began to re- 
lax, the spasms became lighter and less frequent, and 
from that time, improvement was so rapid and sustained 
that on the 23d of October.- sixteen days after the second 
injection of antitoxin, the patient was convalescent, and, 
at his own request, was discharged from the hospital. 

This, in the o|imion of the physicians in charge, was 
a typical and ccmclusive case, in which life could not 
have been saved by auy other treatment previously 
known, and in which the course of the disease might un- 
questionably have been arrested and greatly shortened 
had the antitoxin been used when the patient first came 
under medical treatment instead of ten days later, when 
the case had become one of acute and fully develojicd 
tetanus. 

It is. of course, too soon to estimate the exact prophy- 
lactic or therapeutic observations in actual practice. 
which will he made as rapidly as the comparative rarity 
of the disease itself will permit. Thus far. the antitoxin 
has been used experimeutall.v. both in this country and 
in France, with horses, cattle, guinea pigs. mice. etc.. 
and from these tests, and the ho.spital ease above de- 
scribed, the indications are that its use entails no in- 
jurious result. The antitoxin is prepared Avith extreme 
care, subjected to rigid inspection and control at the im- 
perial testing laboratory at Steglitz. and with this guar- 
anty is placed within reach of bacteriologists and med- 
ical practitioners in all countries, — Frank H. Mason, 
Consul-General. Frankfort. 



March IS, 1897.] 



THE I'HARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



329 



Fffi\RMAGY 



I'lI'CAIN B.— Closely rolntid to ouoain A. but far k-ss 
toxK-. )Hi(l is rccommonilfil to oplitlialniologists in 2 p<M- 
•cout. sohitioii. 



SA(il{AI>IX. — A coiii|H)iiiicl ccinsisting of a 20 prr ci'iit. 
soluiioii lit" cascara extract, deprived of its bitter priuci- 
ple. to « liieh 2 iMT ec-iit. «t spirit of peppermint has been 
£dile<l. 



l'Hl{().\I.\.— Tlie liydnicliloriile nf the benzyl ether of 
niiiriiliine, the liydrogen of the hydroxyl group of mor- 
phine being replaced by the alcohol radical CHjCH;. 
I'enmin is given in doses of 0.02 to 0.04 gm. as a seda- 
tive and also for the relief of the cough of consumptives. 



I>IC(>1)KYI^METHAXE.— A new condensation.* 
j)roduct of codeine and formaldehyde, in which two mide- 
cules of the former unite with one of the latter with 
separation of a molecule of water. The hydrochloride 
of this base is readily soluble in water and alcohol, and 
melts at 140° C. It is pmiiosed to use this new com- 
pound in medicine. 



XICKKI- I']-ATI.\G FLUID.— The following .sohi- 
tiun is said to deiiosit rearlily upon all metals. The solu- 
tion is prepared by dissolving 1 kilogram of nickel sul- 
phate, 72."> gm. of neutral ammonium tartrate and 5 gm. 
of tannic acid (dissolved iu ether) in 3 to 5 liters of hot 
water, tiltenng and adding water to make 20 liters. The 
solution n;ust !<■ neutral. 



l'f»TASSIL"M I'BKCARBOXATE is a new bleaching 
agent recently brought out. According to the Textile 
World, it is the product of the electrolysis of a concen- 
trated solution of potassium carbonate, caustic potash 
iind free hydrogen licing produced at one pole and a po- 
tassium salt with a hitherto unknown acid tperearbonicj 
at the other. In the dry state the new compound is a 
binisli white, extreintdy deliquescent powder containing 
a mixture of carbonate, percarbonate and bicarbonate of 
potassium. Experts say it seems suitable for the bleach- 
ing of wool and silk, but not of cotton. A Swiss factory 
has secured the right to manufacture it, and. according 
to the authority cited, it is likely to be put upon the 
market shortly as a new source of hydrogen peroxide. 



ANTI-IUST I'RErARATIOX.— A gentleman promi- 
nently .•..iinecte*! with the trade writes to Iron Age that 
the following simple mixture may be successfully ap- 
plieil to bright metal goods to keep them from rust or 
tarnish. It is madi- of 1 quart of good turpentine to 
T\hi<h is added ^j pint of dammar varnish. Cutlery, 
meelianics" tools anil other goods dipped in this dry 
<iuickly, the transparent film on the surface being, it is 
said, almost imperceptible. If a tool or article is partly 
japanned it can be entirely covered as well. Some sam- 
ples on box fronts are referred to as still doing duty in 
a store fitted up twenty-five years ago, and in as good 
contlition now as when first covered. An article to be 
treated should be first well wiped with a cleitn rag or 
•chamois. 



AKTIKICIAL OIL OF VIOLET.— F. Fritzsohe 
■& Co., of Hamburg, have prepared a new 
synthetic es.senee or oil of violets, which has nothing in 
oommon with the well-known ionon. In concentrated 
condition it has an odor reminding one of oil of sandal- 
W00.1. and not until it is well diluted does its violet odor 
l)ecome apparent. The firm ])repares a 20 per cent, alco- 
holic solution for use in perfume extracts, admixed with 
cedrol for [lerfuming soap. For preparing one kilo of 



violet extract one gram of the artificial product is neces- 
sary, or .") grams of the 20 per cent, solution; for perfum- 
ing 1(K) kilos of soap .50 or 2.">0 grams of the respective 
solutions. The price of the artificial extract is 1,4(X) 
marks (.$350) per kilogram, or 340 marks i^STt) per kilo 
for the 20 per cent, essence. 

SYKI'I' OF PIXOL COMPOUXD.— For many years 
past I>r. .lames E. XIcKeon, of Medford, Mass., has 
made a cough ntixture by this name for the want of a 
better. Squibb's Ephemeris gives this formula: 

Oil of iar (I'ix Licjuida) 3.7 cc. 

Fluid extract of ipecac 1.>.0 cc. 

C-imphorated tincture of opium 30.0 cc. 

(Jlycerin (iO.O cc. 

Syrup of wild cherry 120.0 cc. 

I )istilleil water 150.0 ec. 

White sugar q. s. 

Rub up the oil with I't.'t grams of magnesium carbo- 
nate, .'uld the fluid extract ipecac, camphorated tincture 
i.pinm and water in onler — I'ach gradually — and then add 
the syrup and glycerin. Incorporate all well together 
and filter. To the filtrate add enough sugar to make the 
product measure 473° Cc. 

TO DISTIXGUISH BEXZOLE AXI) BEXZIX.— 

Owing to frequent errors made through confusion of the 
terms benzene (benzolel and benzine (petroleum), I'rof. 
Laiuer (I'hotog, Corresp. I offers several tests which are 
readily applicable bj- photographers, chemists and phar- 
macists who have frequent occasion to use these sol- 
vents. 

Coal tar benzole is colored carmine red on addition of 
a crystal of iodine, while petroleum beuzine is colored 
violet: this test is very reliable, and is even applicable in 
admixtures of the two. To 2 cc. of the benzole or ben- 
zine, 3 to 4 drops of a clear, ethereal solution of sanda- 
rae (1 : 10) are added, a permaneut turbidity is imparted 
to benzine, while benzole, which is at first turbid, soon 
clears up. The a<ldition of more saudarac solution 
causes the latter to become turbid. On shaking benzole 
with tra<-es of alcohol it becomes turbid, while benzine 
remains clear. 

A XEW DIRECT BEXEFIT FROM IXSECTS.— 
When Kirby and Sp<'nee wrote their chapter on "Di- 
rect ben<'fits derived from insects" and recorded the use 
of insects for food, the use of honey from bees for the 
same jiurpose, the use in medicine and the arts and man- 
ufacturers of blister beetles, insect galls, Coccidije fur- 
nishing lac. wax insects and the silkworm, the time had 
hardly arrived for the extensive collection of ants for 
the manufacture of formic acid or of their pupie as food 
for .song birds, and we feel sure that they could hardly 
hare anticipated an industry which has recently sprung 
up both in France and Penusylvania. and which con- 
sists of the farming of spiders for the purpose of stock- 
ing wine cellars, and thus securing an almost immediate 
coating of cobwebs to new wine bottles, giving them the 
appearance of great age. This industry is carried on in 
a little French village iu the Department of Loire, and 
by an imported Frenchiuau named Orantaire on the 
Lancaster pike, four miles from Philadelphia. This 
Frenchman raises P^peira vulgaris and Xephila plumipes 
in large quantities, and sells them to wine merchants at 
the rate of .«10 per hundred.— Bulletin U. S. Dept. Agri- 
culture. 

MEAL-WORMS IX SODA ASH.— During October 
we received from Dr. .Tohn B. Porter, consulting chem- 
ist, of Glendale, Ohio, specimens of living larvae of the 
meal worm, Tenebrio obseurus. in a box of soda ash. 
Our correspondent wrote that they were found in a car- 
load of this chemical, the crtide sodium carbonate, from 
Syracuse. X. Y. They were noticed within 6 or S inches 
of the bottom, and most numerous nearer the bottom, 
and especially at the corners and edges. The men who 
handle this material make positive statement that they 



330 



THE PUAIiMAGEUTICAL ERA. 



[.Mar.li l.S, LS!»7. 



fi'iMliii'iitly (iiid I'tii'K coiilaiiiiii),' iiiiiiuMisi' iiiiiiilicrs nl' 
iIh'111, iinil that l^rtl■ll tliry pciicinili' iioiiily twci feci 
ilitn Ili4> iiiiiss. 'riii'y alsij slate that these hiiv.e air 
iiiily fiiunil ill ( (etiilii-f, Nuvi'iiiliel' aiKl Deeeinliir, ami 
fiiilhcr. Ihat nine they weie fiiiuiil liviiij; in hiiTe iiiliii- 
liers ill a bin wliieh hail been lull of soda ash ami light- 
ly eldsed fill- eij.'lil iiHMilhs. The ear I'niiii which oin 
s|ieeiiiieiis eaiiie iiiiitaiiieil Ihuiisaiids of liviiit; and snim' 

few dead larva-, 'flu ly plaiisilile explanaliiin iil' Ihe 

lU'eseiiee iif tile iiieal->V(iriiis in Ihe soda ash is Ihat Ihe 
ears had pi-evinusly lieeii used in shippiiiK iiuniilil ies id' 
lueal. Hour. Kiain. "i' siiiiilar niateiial in whieh Ihe iii- 
seets had lieeii lireeilin^. Tliese hirvie attain appi'nxi- 
uiate si''>"th tiiivaid the lie^'iiiiiiiiK of the aiiluiiin. which 
will explain thi-ir liaviiiK lieeii found only fi-oin Oelolier 
to Deeeniliei-. It would lie impossilile for insects to feed 
on soda ash. and the wonder is Ilial llie 'I'eiielirio larv:e 
are able to live at all in so caustic .1 sniislaiici'. — P.ullc- 
tin r. S. Hcpt. A^-riciilture. 



ruior.Mj.vpio.N (ir tki'sink wink fko.m iiik 

FUKSH STOMACH ( )F 'nil'; CALK.— At a niceliii;; 
of the (ilas;:ow .•iml \\'csi of Scotland rh.-iniiac<'iilic;il 
Assoeialiou hehl on Feb. IS (Ht. iV Col. l)i-.l, .Mr. K. 
Urodie read a paper 011 this siibjecl. in which he said 
the subject of |H'psiiie was of iiileresi in liiin. fur lie li.id 
been in the lialiil of prepariiii; pi'psiiic wine from the 
fresh stoiiiai-h of ihe ,-.ilr for a ■rood many years. The 
diroetions j.'ivi 11 for ilie prcpaialioii of ihe essence were, 
he found, unsuitable for the wine. He prepared llie 
wine as follows: Oblainiim the sloinach the same day 
as the aniinal was killed, he removed all the fat from the 
exterior, then opened it up and washed it under a run- 
ning tap to remove any fra.ijiiieiils of food, usually coii- 
sistinj: of masses of curdled iiiilli. After allowins; it to 
drain a short time, he cut it up into small pieces and iml 
into .-1 wide-iiioiitlied bottle, piiltiii^' in a pint of wine. 
which oiii'ht to lie a j;ood sherry, and allowed it to ni.i- 
ei'rate for three we(>ks with occasional sliakin;.'. He 
then added a small i|uaiilily of .'icid hydrochloric dilule. 
say Vj ounce t.i each pint, .-iml allowed tlie niaeeration 
to i.'o on f(U- Miiolher week; then siraiued lhron>.'li mus- 
lin, and .ifler allowiii!; to stand for a eonvenieiil lime 
tillered throuf;h paper. Howi'Ver. the result was a 
iH'autiful tvaiispari'iit preparation wliidi should mil re- 
quire boric acid to preserve it. He tested the ciirdlilif; 
activity of some the da.v before, which was made last 
July, and found that 'i dram curdled lli ounces of milk 
in the space of four niiniitos. and in the other four it had 
set it into a i^ood. tirni laird. 



CdNSTlUCTlON nV A MODEI, PHARMACY 
LAW.- I'rof. .1. U. Heal prcseutecl a paper at the laic 
meetiiifr of the .\iiieriiaii I'liarniaceutical Assoeialiou. 
at Mnnire.il. in which the ^'rouiiil taken was. that siiici' 
it is improbable, if not impossible, that the jiraetice of 
Iiharmacy could ever be ref:ulated ill the fuited States 
by national lei-'islation. a wise plan would be the jirepa- 
ratinn of a Lreiieral form of law to be reconiineiided for 
adopliou by the several States, with such moditications 
and detail a.'. iiii;;ht be necessar.v to adapt it to local eon- 
dirions and biiiij: it into harmoiiy with the various Stale 
constitutions. The iuiniediate jilaii proposed was the aii- 
poiiitnieiit of a committee to commnnic'ate with the pliar- 
iiiaei iit;e-il boards, associations and cidU'fCes of tlh' 
Fiiited States and Canada, reiiucsliiif; their co-operation 
in the ]ireparation of such model, the form thus compiled 
to be presented for the consideration of the association 
at its next annual meetiiifr. Action was taken upon the 
question by referriiif.' it to the Committee on Kducatioii 
and I.,eKisIatioii. which conimiltee has now in prepara- 
tion a plan of procedure whieh it hopes shortly to put 
into operation. Such a jieneral form or model, says 
I'lof. Beal lin Dr. Cire.) in order to accomplish the pur- 
pose of its creation, must be carefull.v constructed both 
in idaii and in ilelail, and he discusses briefly some of 



Ihe •leiieral principles whieh should he considered in its 
prepii ration. ICxperieme is the only safe jrui'le. and 
ilicoiy should wait upon it. A model such as this is in- 
iiiided to be is not the place for experiment, and all 
new and untried provisions should he seaiined with 
sharpest scrutiny before receiviin; admission. 

Ii Is possible to (ind within the present ]>liiiriinicy laws 
of Ihe I'liited States provisions bearinir upon almost 
every conceivable point in iiharinaey leKislalioii. .V 
model wisely frameil will contain only such provisions 
as have .ilready been tricil and fmind eHicieiit. By pro- 

cceiiiii:; in this manner the model would In striieted 

exclusively of tried and tested materials, and its eon- 
stnietion would involve simply a careful examination of 
existiiif; le;rislation and the selection of those provisions 
which liiive been found to work well in jiractice. A law 
Ihiis conservatively framed would possess the eontideiice 
bnili of iiliarmaeisls and public, and be assured of a 
s|iec(ly ^reneral ai-ceptaiice. while a lueasure proposim? 
new anil radicil features would be received with hesita- 
tion, and if after eiiactmeiit in one or I wo Stales should 
be found faulty in a few leadin;; iiartieulars. would be 
ciilirely discrediled. If made il|i of the best features to 
bi found ill the present laws, it will be a siilheient ad- 
vance for this decade. ;iiid will be c|uite as much as the 
prcsciil ciiiidiiioii of public opinion will tolerate. 

The framers should keei> steadily ill mind the fact that 
jiharmacy losrislation can be justified upon no other 
^•roiind than that of public policy. I'liarmacy laws are 
not enaciecl for the iiroteetion of pharmacists, but for 
the protection of the State. Care should be taken, there- 
fore, that nothing', either in the essential provisions of 
llic> law or in the manner of their statement, should be 
ill the l<'asi siiuicestive of an attempt to legislate iu 
r-ivoi- ,.f a particular class, niose who have had pxpe- 

riciicc ill il xeciilion of such laws know with what ' 

jealousy iliey are resarded b.v courts and juries, and 
Willi wh.it slri<-tiiess they are construed. .\ law which 
eillier in its niatti'r or its form is suf.'jrestive of monop- 
oly cannot receive the cordial support of either courts or 
public, and without tliese siijiports its proper enforee- 
iiicnl is imjiossible. 

II is probably true that the pharmaoisfs condition 
miller a good law iirojierly administered will be better 
lliaii under a poor law or under none at all, but his bpt- 
lerminl niiisl be iliat which he is entitled to as a mem- 
ber of society, and as the i-esult of his obeying and hav- 
ing all others to render strict nbeilience to law. The 
benefit to iibarniacy is and must always remain merely 
iniidental lo the benefit of the public as a whole. It 
follows, therefore, that the law should not only provide 
ag:iiiist the sale of drugs and medicines by incompetent 
[lersons. but shiutld also require of licentiates that they 
eoniliict iheir business in a manner compatible with the 
public interest. Too many pharmacists, while anxious 
Ihat they alone .should be permitted to handle medicinal 
siibsiancis. yet view as burdiuisome ever.v provision of 
the law which places a positive requirement uiani them, 
and conceive tliemselves desperately "law-ridden" be- 
c.iiise Ihiy ,ire required to keep registered clerks and 
iccord jHiison sales. Their neglect or evasion of these 
provisions is not only reiirehensible in itself, but fur- 
nishes an excuse for the violations of law by the gen- 
eral merchant. 

If the law gives the pharmacist exclusive privileges it 
must also impose u|ioii him the obligatiiui of exercis- 
ing lliose privileges for the general good. 

If tli<> law: is to reach practical results its framers 
must not put themselves too far in advance of public 
opinion. They should rememlier that the.v are not con- 
structing a measure for the government of an ideal 
slate of societ.v. but for the present very complex and 
imperfect social organization: conseqiientl.v the law must 
be adjusted to the existing order of things, and not 
undertake a readjustment of society to its own stand- 



Maich 18, 1«97.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



331 



urd. Only lliosp laws are well gi-ouudcj which i.oirectly 
reprfsout pulilic opinion. A jiulicimisly (.Dnstiuoted 
luaotnumt may U-ad Uio public thought. Imt it cannot 
force it. Masses of men move slowly, and the wise leg- 
islator is the one who neither moves too far in ad- 
xance of the puhlic mind nor lags too far liehind. The 
common mistake of reformers is in trying to accomplish 
ill a year what should require a decade, and thus in 
.ittempting too much lose all. It wiuild he better to pre- 
pare a form of law which shall represent a moderate 
advance over the present condition of affairs, and have 
it become effective by enactment, than to construct one 
theoretically perfect, but impossible of adoption for a 
quarter of a century yet. 

The law should U- as simple in its suucturc and as 
little involveil in its composition as possible. Ky this 
it is meant that the methods provided for carrying the 
law into effect, as the registration of licentiates, pros- 
ecution of offenders, etc., should not be cumbersome, 
and should be as free from complication as they can 
be made. If the machinery of the law be heavy an^l 
nnwieldly. the chances are that it will require so much 
of the energies of the board to set it in motion as to leave 
no suri>lus for the i>roduetion of effective work. 
It follows, therefore, that the law should not contain 
Ml much of detail. Some parts of the statute must 
necessarily be specific, but what is objectionable is the 
introduction of a m.iss of petty details dealing with mat- 
ters that shoulil be left to the intelligence and discretion 
of the board. Such minutiie are not only useU'ss to the . 
ailniinistration of the law, but may freiiueutly enable 
violators to escape conviction by the interposition of 
some technical defense based upon the turn of some 
doubtful sentence dealing with matters of minor impor- 
tance. 

Kvery provision should be clear cut iiud unmistakable 
in meaning. Each clause should be framed with the 
most thoughtful care, and should e.\press just what is 
intended and not an iota more. 

This rule has hitherto been most honored in its breach. 
Some existing statutes are so involved in rheir language 
that it is only by the most careful study that any one 
is able to form any conclusion as to their meaning, and 
even then with many misgivings as to the correctness of 
his interiiretation. A statute the execution of whicn 
must always wait upon the interpretation of the Su- 
preme Court will be productive of endless litigation and 
is of doubtful benefit. 

The grant of powers to the pharmae.v board should 
be made in unambiguous terms, the definition of the acts 
which shall constitute offenses against the law should be 
clear and certain, and every essential provision of the 
law expressed in such statements as will not admit of 
doubtful construction. 

Equally as necessary as clearness of expression and 
certainty of statement is logical order. Not only shouM 
the separate provisions of the statute be conceived and 
stated with all the clearness possiiili'. but their order and 
arrangement in the secti'.»ns are of imin'i-tance. 

In many of the i>resent laws, in aihlition to nume- 
rous ambiguities of stateineut. the separate provisions 
are entirely without logical onler. but have been thrown 
together in haphazard fashion, without connection, cor- 
relation or agrei'ineiil. \\'ithiu the cmpass of a single 
paragraph may often be found provisions relating to the 
most diver.se stilijects. as the powers and duties of the 
board, the requirements for registration, the definition 
and punishment of offenses against the law, etc., etc. 

Without .•ittempting a minute classification the follow- 
ing is offered as a natural division of the proper sul)ject 
matter of a phannac.v law: 

1. Provisions relating to the board of [iharmacy, its 
constitution, powers and duties, financial support, etc. 

2. Provisions relating to registratinn ami the <iuali- 
lications of lieeiiti.ites. 

3. Provisions affecting the relations of the pharmacist 
to the [mblic. as the sale ami record of poisons, adul- 
terations and sophistications, the sale of alcoholic iMjuors 
and narcotics, etc. 

4. Penal provisions, defining offenses against the law, 
and prescriliiiig the ir ptinishinent. 



Iodoform SubsHtute. 

Dr. Koebl reviews a number of the more valuable so- 
called substitutes for iodoform as to their aclnal value 
ill aiai.'-eptie surgery. 

loD.VI, (Tetra-iodo-pyrrol). — .Vs a wound anlisepti<', it 
is of less general value than iodoform: however, it is 
an excellent deodorant, and promotes the healing process. 
TKK'HLOKPUENOL.— When the dry powder is 
dusted over granulations a renewal of the bandage is 
ri'iidered niine<essary ui> till the eighth day. The p<-cu- 
liar penetrating odor of this preparation is entirelv 
masked by addition of oil of lavender. 

TUIUKO.MPHEXOI., is an unusually active disinfec- 
tant, which hastens the .separatimi of sloughing male- 
rial. When freely applied it exerts a caustic effect. 

TKIHUO-MPHENOLBISJirTH.— In action this re- 
sembles the preceding, and is also employed internally as 
an intestinal antiseptic. 

St>Z()U)I><»L S.VLTS.— Of these various salts, the so- 
diuiii sozoiodolate is the best antiseptic: it is well toler- 
ated by the skin and causes burning only on mucus sur- 
faces, while the potassium salt is more irritating. 
Wounds should not be treated with this antiseptic. The 
nieicuiy salt has shown itself to be a powerful but caus- 
tic antiseptic, while the zinc salt resembles the sodium 
colllpollllil, 

ZINC SILFOCAKBOLATK is void of toxic or caus- 
tic I'roiierties: it stops suppuration and heals rapidly. 

SrLF.VMlXtJI- iThio-oxy-di-pheiiylamin) is very well 
adapted as a dcsiccaut, being non-toxic, non-irritating 
and deodorizing. 

.VHISTOI, (Dithymol-di-iodide).— .Vlthoiigh it posses- 
ses but feeble antiseptic properties, it does not cause 
pain, irritates less than iodoform, and serves well iu 
minor surgical operations because of its innocent nature. 
Kri'HoRIX (Pheuyl-urethane) is nse<l mostly in the 
form of an antiseptic ointment in (ie<-iibitiis. burns, 
sores, etc. 

PYOKTAXIN (Blue) forms a nontoxic aniiseptic 
wiiiili is objectionable because of its staining. 

DERMATOL (Bismuth subgallate).— By protracted 
use it requires caution, .since light inflammatory symp- 
toms appear. To check the secretions of fresh wounds 
and drying them dermatol answers very well. 

S.VI.OL. — This interferes with the development of bac- 
terial life, and may be used as antiseptic dusting pow- 
der in sindlar instances as cited under euphorin. 

ElUOPHEX (I.so-bntyl-ortho-cresyl-iodide). — Like 
iodoform, it is antiseptic: it diminishes the secretions, is 
luemostatic and anodyne in effect. 

(;U.\I.\C't>L ('IXXA.M.\TE possesses strong antisep- 
tic properties, and favors the rapid healing of abscesses. 
THIOl'oK.M (Di-thio-salicylate of bismuth).— In its 
effect thioform resembles dermatol. but is less frequently 
i-mployed. 

H )KETIX (sodo-oxy-chinolin-sulfonie acid). — Accord- 
ing to Dr. Koebl. this is to be preferred to all antiseptics 
since because of its insolubility decomposition takes 
place slowly, and it is entirely non-toxic. 

AIKOL ((Jxy-iodo-gallate of bismuth). — .\ii antiseptic 
of equal value to iodoform. It dries the surface of the 
wound rajiidly. and facilitates granulation. 

lODOl-'oKMIX.— Superior to all iodoform substitutes 
because of its incomparable deodorizing [lower. In its 
deconniosition iodoform is liberated. 

X< )S01'I1E.\ (Tetra-iodo-phenol-phtahMUl.— A non- 
toxic antiseptic specially adapted for disinfecting mouth 
and nasal cavities. 

THOPACOCAIXE HYDROCUI-OHIDE. — Highly 
recMiiimeiided as a local aUiVsthetic: has been recom- 
nieiided as a cheaper and effe<-tual substitute for cocaine 
and eueaine. It is less toxic, stronger amesthetic and 
more stable than the above mentioned remedies. 

.VRCEXTOL (C,,H„.X. OH. A,,).— .\ compound of sil- 
ver and oxychinoliu, emphiyed as an antiseptic iu oint- 
ment form in treatment of lues; iu solution for gonor- 
rlioa. 



832 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[.Maicli IS, 1897. 



Question Box 

The object ot this department Is to furnish oar subscribers wHh 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating (• 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing difficulties, etc 

Keauests for Information are not acknowledged by mall aa* 
AtioNVnOVS COMMUNfCA TlONS RE CEI VE NO ATTENTION. 

Unanswered. 

(I. H.I Miiiiic. Sec rules :i|i|il.viii« ((i niiiiii.viiUMis cur- 
ri-K|iiiiiilrnts .•mil iioii-suliscrilji rs :it llio lic-iil nf lliis ili- 
liiirtinciit. 

Formula Wanted. 

(B. S. S.) "Siicc'il Siistiiiiiiiii; Elixir." fnr r;i.st lior.scs. 

Baking Powder. 

(A. S. U.i Sif this jmiiniil. Dec. 24. ISfli;. ],iij,'v .^2(1. 

Lanollne Cream. 

(C. S. 1).| Sci' rnniml.-is ill this ,ii.m-ii:il. Ki'b. 11, l.S!)7. 
imj-'i' 17<1. 

Soda Water Formulas. 

(Sniiscrilicri Wc cxiirct (o imlilisli very .soon soiiii' iivw 
foniiiil.is I'm- soilii wMti'i- drinks. Tlioy will Mpin'iir in 
time for the coining soilii so:ison, iiinl we lidii'vi- llicy will 
bo of till- iliiiriictci- yon ili'siro. 

Lactated Pepsin Preparations 

(('. W. K.I \Vr cnnnot fiivc you the fru-ninliis for tlio 
propriptiiry piipariitions. The National Forni\ilary gives 
formulas for two pepsin preparations, containiiiR lactic 
acid, diastase, etc. Sec fnrnmlas in the revised edition of 
that work. Nos. '>9 «'oinponnd Elixir of Pepsiiil .nnil ■-\'27 
(Compound I'owdor of Pepsin^. 

Interstate and Diploma Registration, 

(C. E. I'.i Sec last issue of this journal, page 303. 
The Now York State Board of Pharmacy registers 
without examination upon payment of the fee, applicants 
luildins certificates by examination from the other 
boards of pharmacy in the State, viz.: New York (Mfy, 
Kiii.gs County and Erie County. 

Elixir Saw Palmetto and Sandalwood Compound. 

iV. A. L.) The following, under the above title, is from 
(Jriftith's "Non-Seeret Formulas:" 

Fluid extract saw palmetto 2 ounces 

Oil sandalwood Vi ounce 

Alcohol VVi ounces 

Simple elixir, enough to make 16 ounces 

We cannot give the formula for the proprietary article 
you name, 

California Board of Pharmacy and College Graduates. 

(C. S. D.) The California Board of Pharmacy is al- 
lowed to register graduates holding diplomas from 
regularly incorporated colleges or schools of pharmacy, 
and who have had a certain amount of practical expe- 
rience before receiving such diplomas. AVhy not refer 
your query to the secretary of the board. John H. Daw- 
son, Valencia street, comer Twenty-third. San Fran- 
cisco? 

Antlphloglstlne. 

(D. A. B.l "Antipblogistine" is a proprietary prepara- 
tion recommended b.v the manufacturers as a "local 
proph.vlaetie and curative for sujierficial or deep inflam- 
mation." It is described as a "paste, about the color 
and consistency of putty. It is spread on the skin an 
eighth of an inch thick, inucli the same as mortar is 
spread on the lath, and allowed to remain till nearly 
dry — 12 to 48 hours." \Ve cannot give the formula. 

Coloring Hair Oil Red. 

I\V. A. C.l Your preparation of hair oil nia.'^ be col- 
ored red with alkanet root or alkanin. The quantity of 
alkanet root necessary depends upon the shade of red 



ilesireil. As a "starler." digest in H ounces of castor oil 
••iliont V/.^ or 2 drams of alkanet root for three or f<iur 
hours, anil strain. Yon can then add your other ingre- 
ilieiits. The [tropoi'tions gi\i'ii are those usually em- 
ployed for a pint of linishi'd proiliici. If the resulting 
lint is not satisfactory, ii.se iinire or less of the coloring 
siitisiance. 

Potassium Iodide and Codeine Sulphate. 

ill. and /.I ask if a chemical change lakes |ilaee when 

this prescription is compounded: 

.\iiimoniiiin muriate 1 dram 

I'ot.issiiMn iodide 1 drain 

( 'oileiiie sulphate lit grjiins 

Syinp wild clierry 2 ounces 

.Syrnp lolu .'i ounces 

Water, enough lo make (i ounces 

Yes. Potassium iodide is incompatible willi codeini? 

sulphate, an insidnble comiiound being precipit.-ited. The 

mixture should not be dispensed. 

Pressure of Oas In Steel Soda Water Founts. 

ii>. .uiil Z.I You can e.isily draw soda water from your 
apparatus liy placing the steel tanks containing the car- 
bon.ateil water directly underneath in the basement. Ex- 
perienced "soda chargers" inform us that the distance 
of 12 feet or so between the tank or fount and the ap- 
IMratns makes but little difference in the pra<'tical op- 
eration of the soda fountain. See that your pipe cou- 
neclions are all right, each coupling being properly wash- 
ered and screwed up tight. The tanks containing the 
water should be charged to about I'm pounds. 

Bleaching Cotton Goods. 

II >. iV Z.I want to bleach a piece nf ihirk brown cotton 
goods so that it may be dyed a lighter color. 

We have no knowledge as to the character of the 
dye used in coloring the goods dark brown, hut it i» 
iiuile likely the following process ma.v answer your pur- 
pose' Make a strong solution of chloride of lime (bleach- 
ing powderl in water, allow to settle, and draw off the 
<dear liquid. Itinse the goods in clean water containing, 
about 5 per cent, of sulphuric acid, and then pass them 
slowly through the bleaching solution. They should then 
bo w<'ll rinsed in water containing a little carbonate of 
.soda. To remove all of the color it may be necessary tO' 
allow the cloth to remain for a short time in the bath. 

Witch Hazel Liniment. 

(C.l We know of no specific formula under this title. 
Distilled extract of witcli hazel is often used either alone 
or III combination as a lotion or embrocation, and some- 
linics the tincture or fluid extract is combined directly 
with other liniments. Here are some formulas: 

(1) Spirit of ammonia 5 parts 

Camphor 2 parts 

Tiiieture of capsicum 5 parts 

Al.ohol 34 parts 

Distilled extract witch hazel 10 parts 

i2l Fluid extract witch hazel 2 ounces 

Soup liniment, U.S. P 14 ounces 

I'-U Fluid extract witch hazel 1 ounce 

L.-iudanum 1 ounce 

Liiiinieiit belladonna 3 ounces 

Dilute alcohol 3 ounces 

Tile preparations made from the first two formulai; 

may be used for intiTnal administration in doses (diluted) 

'•r ten lo iliirty minims. 



Grammar of the Pharmacopoeia. 

iF. I. ,'<.l wishes to know if the grammar of the 
F. S. P. title "(Ipii Pulvis" is correct. This is trans- 
lateil in the English title as "powdered opium." In our 
opinion one or the other of these is incorrect, for they 
do not correspond. "Opii Pulvis" is to be rendered 
"powder of opium," "Opii" being the genitive case (or 
possessive), and "Pulvis" in the nominative. "Powder 
of opium." therefore, is not correctly rendered by "pow- 
ilered opium" as the English equivalent. To make the 
Latin fit the translation both Latin words should be iir 



March IK is!t7.] 



TUE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



333 



the nouiinntive case, but. on the other hand, to make 

tlu' English tit the lyiitiii. it shoviUl read "iiowiUt of 
oi)iiiiu." Hut this powder of opium is not chtssed anions 
tlif r. S. V. powders, and we lielieve the titli' should 
he altered so as to read'' powdered" instead of "powder 
of." Perhaps the lueniliers of the Revision Committee 
can show us to he in ilie wrons in 'his reasoning, and 
we suKjiesl that you eomniunieate with them. 

Esseace of Ratafia. 

iL. C .'>.l "Katalia' is a urm applied to a Havuring 
essence, the basis of whieh is essential oil of bitter al- 
mond. Aeeordinp to one authoril.v. peach kernels are 
properly the source of ratatia. but any of the other sub- 
stances yielilinp bitter almond oil is used. The name 
"ratalia" is also applied in i-'rance as a common generic 
term to a variety of liqueurs compounded of spirit, sugar 
and the odoriferous and Havorinp: principles of vegeta- 
bles, more particularly to those liqui'urs containing the 
juices of recent fruits, or the kernels of apricots, cher- 
ries or iieaehes. De Brevan says the term is applied 
very loosely, hut almost all of the liqueurs made liy in- 
infusion are known under the name "ratatias," this 
nu'ihod of lueparatiou being applied to some substances, 
where it is impossible to extract the perfume by distil- 
lation with either alcohol or water. lu the formula for 
"dry shampoo" (Era Formulary No. 2,1281, where es- 
sence of ratafia is direcieil. you may use essence of bit- 
ter almond or any suitable odoriferous substance. 



l€tdo-Ferrated Cod Liver Oil la Capsules. 

(H. S. S.I To till capsules with a mixture of ferrous 
iodide and cod liver oil you should first dissolve the fer- 
rous iodiile in the oil by means of heat on the water bath 
and filter. This process is. however, open to some objec- 
tion, as the product is not always uniform. Dieterich 
jiroposes a method by which anhydrous ferrous iodide is 
formed which dissolves easily in cod liver oil. His 
method is: 

Iron, in fine pnwder 2 parts 

Iodine 4 parts 

Ether 10 parts 

Cud liver oil to make 1.000 parts 

Triturate the iron, iodine, ether and 40 parts of cod 
liver oil together until a black mixture results. A suffi- 
cient quantity of oil is then added to make 1.000 parts. 
The product .should be filtered. It contains about 5 parts 
of ferrous iodide to the 1.00<1 of oil. Of course the 
quantity of ferrous iodide in the above can be adjusted 
to strength desired. The filling of capsules with the 
oil is quite easily accomplished in the usual manner by 
means of a pipette. 

Cathartic Elixir. 

(D. & Z.) An elixir containing the substances in the 
proportions you name may he made as follows: 

Cascara sagrada 2% ounces 

Senna 1% ounces 

Blue Hag 1 dram 

1 •auilelicm -. . . . V, ounce 

Butternut bark U, ounce 

I.iiorice root i^ ounce 

F{ochelle salt 11^ ounces 

Siidium sulphate li^ ounces 

.\lei)hol 1 " ounce 

Water q. s. 

Simple elixir, enough to make 1 pint 

Ueduce the crude drugs to a coarse powder, and ex- 
haust with boiling water, to obtain about nine ounces 
of the infusion, and cool. .\dd 1 fl. ounce alcohol, and 
allow the mixture to stand for a while (about 24 hours): 
pour off the eh'ar liquid, and in it dissolve the Rochellc 
salt and .sodium sulphate. Add enough simple elixir to 
make 1 pint. The menstruum of this preparation must 
be largely aqueous in nrder tii ilissolve the salts. Or. 
if desired, an elixir may be made from the tluid extracts 
of the crude drugs, after the process for corai«jund ca- 
th.irtic elixir of the National Formulary (No. 4."!. Re- 



vised Edition). These preparations are never clear or 

transparent, should never be filtered, and they should al- 
ways be shaken whenever they are dispensed or admin- 

isteri'd. 

Flashlight Powder. 

I.I. S. K.I 

1.1 -Magnesium powder <> ounces 

I'otassium chl. irate 12 (unices 

.Vniiniiiny sulphide 2 ouiuh.'s 

Mix tln>m, Isc from ","> to l.'id gr.iins of the inixlun- 
at a time. 

2.1 I'lirihase 1 iiiince magnesium powder and 1 ounce 
of negative gun cotton from dealers in photographic ma- 
terial: place on a dustpan enough cotton when pulled 
<uit to measure 3^2 inches in diameter. Sjirinkle it over 
with 2(1 grains of magnesium powder, to form a thin, 
even film. Lay over the magnesium thus arranged a 
very thin layer of gun cotton. Connect to the hunch of 
cotton a small fuse of twisted cotton about C inches long, 
so that it will extend to the side of the dustpan. Then 
set the pan on a step-ladder near the object, and, when 
ready, light the gun cotton fu.se wilh a match, when 
instantl.v a brilliant flash will ensue. 

3.) Chlorate potassium 2.'i parts 

Yellow prussiate potassium .3 parts 

Sugar 2 parts 

Aluminiini powder 10 parts 

flair Curling Preparatloa. 

(W. H. S.i 

1.) Carlionati' jiotasli . 2 drams 

Water of ainmonia 1 dram 

Glycerin 4 drams 

Alcohol 12 drams 

Rose water IS fl. ounces 

Mix together. Moisten the hair: adjust it loo>ely, when 
it curls upon drying. 

2.1 Saccharated solution of lime 2 drams 

Mucilage of acacia 4 drams 

Essence of rose la dram 

Water, to make (j " ounces 

3.1 Mucilage of quince .seed ma.v be used as a bando- 
line, or tincture l>enzoin with a little washed sulphur and 
oil of sweet almonds. 

4.) Make a thick mucilage of gum tragacanth in rose 
water. Add a small quantity of salicylic acid dissolved 
in alcohol as a preservative agent. 

5.) Borax 2 ounces 

Gum arable 1 dram 

Hot water (not lioiling) 1 quart 

Mix and as soon as the ingredients are dissolved add 

Spirits of camphor \\<2 ounces 

6.) Resin 8 grains 

Alcohol 4 ounces 

Dissolve and add perfume (j. s. 



Precifiitates la Fluid Extracts. 

(A. A. .1.1 You ask if precipitations in fluid extracts 
materially change their value, and whether such precip- 
itations cannot l>o prevented. To answer these question-i^ 
we would have to publish all that has been written, and 
it is a vast amount, during many years past. In brief, 
however, the cause of precipitation in fluid extracts is 
often the choice of a menstruum or solvent of a strength 
not exactly adapted to the drug. Or, too, precipitation 
may be a natural characteristic of some of the principle.^ 
present, or because of chemical changes undergone 
through keeping of the drug, or through exposure to light 
or air. Then, accidental additions may cause altera- 
tions of this character. In fact, the range of causes of 
such precipitati(ui is an extremely wide on ■. Sometim.'S 
the turliidity or precipitation is of no particular signifi- 
cance, as such sediment consists of indeterminate, inert, 
organic substances of no therapeutic value. But some- 
times there is a separation of active principles, perhaps 
preci]iitation of gliicosides. albuminous constituents, 
gummy or resinous substances, which may be of value. 
It is impossible to make a statement which will apply to 
all fluid extracts in general. It can only be ileti^rmined 



334 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL KItA. 



IMjuili 18, IS'JT. 



whi'lhci- n ci'i'tiiin |iri ripilalc in :i ici'liiiii Hiiid cxtnicl is 
ili'lriiiii'iiliil t(i till- viiliii' of till- iii'i-|i,'iniliiiii h.v rxaiiiiiiii- 
lioii mill li-Kis aliiiii'. In miiiii lliiiil i-xtrai-ts a ivi-iain 
.-iiiiouiit of pr('ri|iitatii>n is ailvisalili-, anil i>l'ti-ii ui-ri-ssary. 
Iiiit ill llllu-l•l^ il wiuilil III- a si-i'ioiis injury to tin- pioiliiul. 
l'i'i>ri]iilalioli ran only In- pri-vriilril liy a i-aiofiil stiicly of 
I iirli iIi-ik; iipmi wliirli yon woik. of its ronstilin-nts. Ilicii- 
valni-, tlirir soiiiliililii-s, i-tr.. anil by i-anfiil si-li-ition ol' 
till- jiropi-i' nu-iislrniiin for pi-i'i'olaiion ami atti-nlion lo 
till' fiilui'i- sli-jis of tri-atini'iit. i-tr. Yon will fiml more- 
or li'ss upon rliis snliji-ct in tin- Dispi-nsalorii-s ami works 
on prartiral pliannacy, ami partirnlarly in tin- A. I'll. 
A. I'ror<'i'ilin;rs. of past yi-ars. 

Bismuth Subcarboaate Insoluble. 

(N. W. r.) liisniMtli sniicarl air is insolnlilr in llic' 

folliiwiii;: niixiiiro: 

!->tryclinim- snlpliali- 1 irr.iiii 

Uisiiuilli snliiarlionatr. 

of i-aili 1 ilrani 

Klixir i-alisaya. i-nousli to niaki- 8 oiinrrs 

III till- pii-iiaration of solulili- liisinntli inixlun-s. tin- 
;iiniiioiiio-citrati- of lilsiiiuth is (,'i-nrrally usi-il. It is a 
solnlili- salt, anil may In- nscil in i-illnr alkalim- or iii-ii- 
Iral iiiixturis. Ariil niixtiiri-s. of i onrsi-. i-aiisi- it in In 
pri-i-ipitatoil. \Vc siiK'fli'st the following' inodiHi-.-iiion of 
I 111' .'ihovi- formula : 

Stryrliiiiiii- snlplialo 1 ^.-raiii 

.\iiiiiioiiio-i-itj-.'ili' of hisiiiulli <14 ^Trains 

I>islilli-cl wator. liol 2 drains 

Uniniiir siilpliati'. of i-acli 1 drain 

Ui'lanmiti'd olixir of ciiu-liona. .\. I-'.. . 

i-mni^'h lo iiiaki' S niinrrs 

1/issolvi- till' liismutli salt. in tin- hot wati-r. lii i- 
oiinoi's of till- dt'tannati-d i-lixir id' i-alisaya dissolvo ihi- 
alkaloidal salts, adding to this solution thi- solitiimi of 
lismiith. and. filially, i-nou^h di-taiiiiati-d i-lixir of ciii 
i-hoiia to iiiaki- S ouir-i-s. Kai-li tiiiid dram contains 1 
^'rain of tho bistnuth salt. l-li4 prain strychnim- snlphati- 
aiid m-arly 1 jiraiii of iiuinim- .suliihati-. 



The Explosive Properties of Acetylene. 

Progrossire Age (Jr. Frank. Inst.) prints the following 
abstract of some experinu-iits recently completed by 
Messrs. Bcrthelot and Viello. which show that consider- 
able precautions are necessary in dealing with acetylene, 
particularly in the compressed state. The gas in qiies- 
tiou is an eudotln-rmic body: that is to say, a qiiantit.v 
of heat is liberated on decomposing it into its constitu- 
ents, hydrogen and carbon. Reasoning on this basis, the 
c.'cperimeuters determined to try whether the gas could 
not be detonated by means of a cap of fulminate of mer- 
cury. This proved possible, though at atmospheric pres- 
sure the explosive wave did not proceed throughout tlie 
body of the gas. the decomposition being limited to the 
immediate neighborhood of the detonation. When, how- 
ever, the gas was compressed, the experiments showed 
that it might prove a dangerous explosive. In fact, it 
was not then ni-cessar.v to use a detonator, .is it was 
found that the mere heating of tlie gas liy an incandes- 
cent platinum wire was sufficient to cause an explosive 
decomposition of the acetylene. Average figures from a 
number of experiments made with different degrees ot 
initial compression showed the following rises of pres- 
sure: 

Maximum 
Pressure tJbsei ved 
Initial Pressure. on Explosion. 

Lbs. per Sq. In. Llis. per Sq. In. 



31.7 

49.4 

85.1 

160.0 

301.0 



138.- 

271.0 

fiOO.O 

1,312.0 

3,028.0 



Ratio. 
4.4 
5.5 
7.0 
8.2 
10.1 



coiisiilerable, and in the case of the lust of the experi- 
ments, referred lo above, ainoiiiited to as much as 2,".">ii 
degrees C II was, moreover, found possible to delouuti' 
liquefiisl acetylene in the same way, a pressure of over 
35 tons per sqiiaii- inili being then attained. The explo- 
sion was started, as in the previous cases, by means of 
a white-hot platinum wire. Dropping a bottle of the 
liquefied gas, or allowing a heavy ram to fall on it, proved 
insullicieiit to detonate the mixture, altlioiigh when the 
boltle was broken by the ram a violent exfdosion oc- 
curred. This, however, arose from the combustion of the 
gas. and thus differed materially in nature from the ex- 
pi-riments previously made, in which the acetylene was 
merely resolved into its elenienls. 

The following data, bearing on the behavior of acety- 
lene, are creditt-i! to the investigations of M. Brevan: 

"If ordinary acetylene from carbide be passed through 
a series of three washing flasks containing a solution ot 
sulphate of copper, there is no effect percejitible within 
three hours: but after twelve hours the first liask con- 
tains a black-brown, brilliant precipitate, tin- quantity of 
which goes on increasing for as much as eight days. This 
precipitate explodes on shock, friction or beating: and it 
ajipears to be a mixture of iihosphide and siliciile of cop- 
per, of suli>hate of ciipro-acetylc. and a variable quantity 
of acetylidi- of copper. Its production a]ipi-ars to depend 
largely on the presence of .-inimonia in the crude acet.v- 
lene gas; and it shows that the crude iicelylene contains 
pliosphorcted hydrogen .-iiiil siliiiureted hydrogen. Tin 
second tiask contains a luecipitale which is similar in ap- 
pearance, but le.ss' explosive; and the iirecipilato in the 
thinl flask is not explosive. The explosive precipitate in 
the first tiask will explode even under water, as, for ex- 
ample, when we fry to nil- it off the glass with a glass 
rod. 

••.\s lo the explosibility of acetylene there are two opiji- 
ions; one. that there may be metallic acetylides formed, 
which act as detonators to the acetylene itself, so that 
acetylene cannot be used with reservoirs which are ca- 
pable of being attacked by it; the other, that it can only 
be exploded when mixed with air, and that the influence 
of the outside exiilosions which can set it off cannot 
travel far through air. In any case, acetylene, at a pres- 
sure not much exceeding that of the atmosphere, is not 
exiilosive, though it is exiilosive at pressuri-s above 2 at- 
mospheres; so that there is no reason to fear an explosion 
through flame running back to a reservoir under a very 
small excess of pressure. Shock alone does not appear 
to cause explosion of the gas. only of the acetylides. The 
alleged iioisonousuess of acetylene — which has not, as yet, 
given rise to any accident — would appear to be due to the 
occasional presence of c.vanogen compounds, and is not a 
feature of pure acetylene. The presence of sulphureted 
hydrogen in acetylene seems to depend on that of sul- 
phide of aluminum in the carliide of calcium; sulphide 
of calcium inay exist in it without forming this impurity. 
The blocking of gas jets by acetylene flames seems to be 
due to the formation of phosphoric acid. If oxygen be 
not present, acetylene does not attack copper; the oxide 
must be formed before the acetylide can be produced." 



On opening the steel test tube after an experiment, it 
was found to be filled with a mass of finely divided car- 
bon agglomerated together by the increase of pressure. 
The rise of temperature at the moment of explosiou was 



FdSSII- HACTF.RIA.— .M. B. Renault has long 
work-'d Ml ihi- liidicatioiis of bacteria found in geological 
strata, and now iiublishes the general result of his oli- 
servations in a paper illustrated with a large number 
of drawings. As might be expected from their simple 
structure, barteria appear to have been co-eval with the 
first appearanet' of organic life on the earth, the coc- 
coid form being apparently earlier than the bacillar. In- 
dications of their presence are found in Imiiii-, teeth, 
scales, and coprolites. as well as abniidantl.v in vege- 
table tissues, the spores and sporanges of ferns appear- 
ing to have been especiall.v subject to their attacks. The 
siK^cies are, as a rule, distinct from those at present in 
existence. — Ann. des Sciences Xatnrelles (Pharra. Jour.) 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



[ WEEKL r.] 



The (nntvnis of this pubUcation arc covered ))j/ Ihc general copiirigM, and articles must not be reprinted iri(hoti( siiecial permts»ion. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YOR/K, MARCH 25, 1897. 



No. 12. 



ENTERED AT THE NEW YORK POST OFFICE, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER. 



Established 1S#7. 

THE PHARMACEUTICAE ERA. 

PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY 



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U. S., Canada and Mexico, - - - 
Foieing Countries in Postal Union, 



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Telephnm: 4454 Cortlandt. 106 Fulton St., NEW YORK. 

CahU Addrefn: " Era "—New York. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAOE I 

Editorial 349 

Eiiwiird C. Frisbie 351 

Correspondence 331 

Window Displays 353 

Pharmacy in .\ustralasia... 353 
The Yellow Kid in Phar- 
macy 335 

Workiiif? Up Trade in India 33*5 

Tariff Schedule 358 

Examination Questions of 
the Oregon Board of Phar- 
macy 3t)0 

Question Box 36-* 

Notice to Wholesale Drug- 
gists 364 

News Depakt.ment 365 

Threats of the New York 
Excise Men 365 



Swindler Buys Capsules 

News Lettei-s 

Plaiinint!' for the New York 
Pharmaccvitical Associa- 
tion Meetintr 

National Drug Meet 

Book Reviews 

New Books 

Retail Drcooists' Ad- 
vertising 

Patents, Trademarks, 
Etc 

Trade Department, In- 
cluding Trade Reports, 
Market Reports, Trade 
Notes, Manufacturers' 
Announcements, etc., in 
pages Immediately fol- 
lowing Reading Pages. 



365 
365 



373 
374 
374 
375 



376 
378 



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The N. W. D. A. on Substitution. 

Elsewhere in this issue is printeil a circular which has 
been distributed to all wholesale druggists by the chair- 
man of the Committee on Proprietary Goods of the Na- 
tional Wholesale Druggists' Association. Its importance 
demands for it the most careful consideration of the 
trade, for a principle of justice is involved, the question 
whether a man has a right to his own. 

It is sometimes difficult to determine where to draw the 
Hue between a so-called legitimate and illegitimate imi- 
tation or substitution of a proprietary article, but here i-s 
a case where, it would seem, it should not be a hard 
task. 

For the integrity of the trade, for the maintenance of 
the best standards of business morality, for protection 
against a vital evil, the circular issued and the stand 
taken by the N. W. D. A. committee are most commend- 
able. Every man has a right to the fruit of his own 
brain. The patent medicine man has his rights. If the 
wholesale trade will enforce in every instance, in every 
direction and to the utmost extent the principle set forth 
in this circular letter it will do much to crush the evil of 
substitution. 

For One State Board. 

The opposition to the pharmacy section of the proposed 
Greater New York charter is crystallizing into definite 
effort, and as was prophesised, this effort is to secure the 
abolition of all local boards of pharmacy and replace 
them by one general board which shall represent the eu- 
tife State. Assemblyman 'William L. Perkins, of Brook- 
lyn, has undertaken to introduce into the Legislature a 
bill drawn up by a number of Brooklyn druggists to ac- 
complish this end. In general, the bill follows very close- 
ly certain suggestions contained in the editorial in this 
paper last week, except that it makes the whole member- 
ship of the board seven instead of eleven, as follows: 
From New York County. 2: Kings County, 1; Erie 
County, 1, and the State at large. 3. 

The bill provides that the Governor shall name the 
board from a list of candidates containing double the 
above number of names recommended to him by the New 
York State Pharmaceutical .\ssociation. It also provides 
that $2 shall be the fee for the reregistration of druggists 
already registered, and that there shall be no renewal 
registrations. The examination and registration of a 
pharmacist by the new State board are to cost $10. and 
of an assistant pharmacist. $5; in order to secure regis- 
tration they must have had, respectively, four years' and 
three years' practical experience in drug stores. The ex- 
aminers are to hold sessions at the Capitol, in Albany, at 
least every three months. The funds obtained by the 
State board from registrations, fines, etc., are to be ap- 
plied to the prosecution of violators of the pharmacy 
law. A modern poison law. an improvement on the pres- 
ent Kings County law. is also a feature of the new bill. 
Two hours is made the maximum period during which 
a licensed pharmacist may leave his store in charge of 
an unlicensed clerk, who may not, however, put up pre- 
scriptions during this temporary absence of his superior. 

Mr. Perkins, on March 19. also introduced into the As- 
sembly an amendment to the Greater New York charter, 
apportioning the returns from the registration of phar- 



350 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[JliUtli 25, 1897. 



niaciHls in Greater Xew York, ns follows: To llie Now 
York CollPKe of Plinrmncy, tlircc-lil'ilis, and to tlie Kings 
County I'harmaceutical Society, two-Bftlis. This 
niuendnient is merely meant to emphasize the protest of 
the Brooklyn druRKists against the pharmacy sections of 
the proposed charter. It is not introdneeil with any ex- 
pectation of seeing it i)ass, it is said. The bill abolish- 
ing all boards of pharmacy in favor of a single new 
State board is, however, expected to be put through, it 
not at this, at some succeeding, session of the I/Cgislat- 
iire. and will be ])ushed with all the power of the Kings 
County and German Apothecaries' Societies, with what- 
ever allies they can secure in other sections of the State. 
The Brooklyn druggists e.xpect to capture the State 
Pharnuiceuticnl Association at its next meeting at Man- 
hattan Beach. With the backing of this representa- 
tive State body, the proposed new law stands a very good 
chance of passing. 

Keep Animals Out of the Drug Store. 

■\Vc must file our proti'st against the increasing use of 
animals for advertising medicines. There is something 
about almost every nniiual which does not appeal favor- 
ably to the finer sensibilities of refined people, and 
much less to sick people. We noticed recently a pic- 
ture of a pig with a Ijaby's face, to advertise the fact 
that n certain medicine would make the babies as fat 
as pigs. It strikes us that such an advertisement has 
just the opposite effect to that intended, and would prej- 
udice any fond mother against giving this medicine to 
her baby. It is quite the fad for some manufacturers to 
fill up the druggist's show windows with animals. The 
jilittering little gold fish in his water home has long 
been used in the drug store as a pleasing attraction, 
and the voice of the canary or the mocking bird is not 
unpleasant to visitors, btit to fill up one's show windows 
with frogs, or snakes, or alligators, or mud turtles, or 
guinea pigs, or in fact any kind of an animal that is 
repulsive to delicate natures is the last thing that ought 
to be permitted in a drug store. The drug shop, like the 
sick room, should be made as pleasant as possible, so do" 
not drive customers away by turning your show windows 
into a menagerie. There are enough pleasant things one 
can employ which will bring trade, and leave a good 
taste in the customers' months. 

Any druggist will act wisely if he follows the rule of 
never permitting anything in his store for advertising 
purposes which, in the slightest degree, produces an un- 
pleasant sensation or is repulsive to the most delicate 
and refined natures. Such are not fit subjects for drug 
store displays. 



Live Advertising. 

That "Great is advertising" cannot be gainsaid. Its 
mission is to inform, and. to manufacture a Hibernian- 
ism, advertising which does not do this is not advertis- 
ing. It may be accepted as an incontrovertible proposi- 
tion that advertising pays, but then it must be real ad- 
vertising. Every one advertises, the lawyer, the clergy- 
man, the banker, the physician, the circus man, every 
tradesman, every artisan. In every walk of life, in every 
vocation, advertising, the striving for publicity, is the 
very life-blood of our existence. Tiie subject is one for 
endless discussion; it never can be exhausted. We, there- 
fore, do not attempt its general consideration, but do 
feel impelled to say a few words regarding one particular 
phase of advertising which comes close to us. 

The popular conception of advertising is the purchase 
of space in a publication, by some one who has some- 
thing to sell, in which space may be described the vir- 
tues and excellencies of that something. The advertiser 



expects that his returns will at least be sufficient to 
cover the cost of this space. If it brings more, it pays. 
There are two causes for either failure or success; for 
the first, bad goods or bad ailvertising: for the second, 
good goods or good advertising: permanent success re- 
quires both the latter. Presuming the goods are all 
right, the qui-stion of letting people know about them at 
once assumes huge proportion.s, and right here is where 
good common-sense and keen business sagacity must be 
exereise<l. See that the adverlising is right. 

.Advertising must be worth reading: it must be of the 
right sort to pay. The most successful merchants are 
the largest and most original of advertisers. The great 
department stores make their advertising their leading 
drawing feature, and study the question very closely. 
Kvery day their advertisements are changed and the 
public has been educated to expect and look for their 
dailj" announcements. Kvery woman .scans the ads. in the 
newspai)ersniostcarefull.v before setting out for her day's 
shopping, and decides from what she reads where and 
what she will buy. This change of copy is the secret of 
the success of this advertising. The readers watch for 
the new announcements of bargains, novelties, etc. In 
other words, this purchaser of advertising space uses it 
to the liest advantage and tries to make it profitable. 

This example and method can well be followed by drug 
trade advertisers. IMany have recognized the opportun- 
ity which is offered them by the advent of the weekly 
drug journal, and are improving it by changing their 
copy every issue. And the.v find that it pays, too. There 
has been a campaign of education with regard to drug 
trade advertising during a few years past, as well as in 
other linos of trade, and jobbers and manufacturers are 
realizing more and more that the day of the "standing 
ad." unchanged from month to month, a mere annouiu'e- 
nieut that they are in business, has passed. They are 
making a stndj- of this question and use their space to 
tell Iheir present and prospective patrons what the.v will 
like and should know. Fresh ads., changed every week. 
now constitute a feature of this paper, which is a radical 
and most satisfactory departure from the hoary-headed 
and time-dishonored methods which have too long bur- 
dened drug trade journals. When such successful, leading 
houses as those which now use the Era for their live 
weekly announcements find, as they do at once, that this 
kind of advertising pays, it must be conceded that it is 
good advertising. And that is the object of all advertis- 
ing — that it shall pay. 

A word to the readers of this i)aper. Scan the adver- 
tising pages regularly. They are full of news of just the 
kind which will help you to make your business profit- 
able. They will keep you promptly informed of things 
.von ought to know and will bring dollars to you. 



The Proposed Tariff Changes. 

The retail druggist is just as much interested in tariff 
legislation as any other business man in the community. 
An advance in the tariff rates on goods he has in stock 
increases his wealth just that much, and an intimation 
(if impending advances may save him a consider- 
able sum of money, provided he is iji a position to buy 
promptly. We print this week a complete table showing 
the changes in the duties on drugs and chemicals con- 
templated b.v the new Dingley tariff bill. 

In general the trade favor specific duties rather than 
:h1 valorem, and the changes in the drug schedule seem 
for the most part to be in the direction of this reform, 
-ifter all. the l>est interests of the trade will be served 
by promptness in this matter. There is nothing on earth 
so expensive as uncertainty. Let the natiou's law- 
makers do whatever must be done quickly. We have 
been waiting long enough for public confidence to be 
restored. 



March 25, 18!»7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



351 




Plmrmaoy in Hartford. He began to study the whole- 
sale trade as an eniploy(5 of Talcoft & Co., in 3874. This 
house, whicli had Ihhmi founded in ]S.">1, by Selh Talcott, 
liad lieen successively Talcott iV: Fuller, Talcott Broth- 
ers and Talcott & Co. In ISS;^. Mr. Frisbie having been 
adniitteil to the firm, the present name was adopted. .Mr. 
Talcott died in 1.S!)-!, leaving two sons. The entire man- 
as<'nient of the business devolved upon Mr. Frisbie at 
that time. It will be seen that Mr. Frisbie's advance- 
ment has been extremely rapid, and as he is still a young 
man. there is every reason to anticipate tor him a bril- 
liant career. He has several times been ai)proached by 
politicians with the request that he run on the Kepub- 
lican ticket for the office of Mayor of Hartford, but has 
thus far resisted their importunities. He is also a con- 
spicuous tit'ure at the meetings of the wholesale drug- 
gists, where he has championed the cause of free alcohol. 
In making an address Mr. Frisbie is very brief and to 
the point, ami he carries conviction by the directness of 
his logic. 

He was married in 1873. to Miss Wiley, of Hartford, 
a delightful woman. He has one son and two daugh- 
ters. His home is one of the most beautiful in Hart- 
ford. 



Edward C. Frisbie. 

Edward C. Frisbie, head of the Hartford wholesale 
drug house of Talcott. Frisbie & Co., has lighting blood 
in his veins. He lives in a handsome brick house in the 
suburbs of Hartford, and his neighbors out there have 
not yet got over telling about the time he shot a bur- 
glar who tried to ply his vocation at Mr. Frisbie's ex- 
pense. The incident also shows that the quality of cour- 
age for which Mr. Frisbie is distinguished has been 
hauded down to his (hiughter. Miss Florence, a young 
lady whose charms brought her a host of friends at the 
recent convention of the National Wholesale Druggists' 
Association in IMiiladelphia. 

Miss Frisbie, who was a school girl when the adven- 
ture occurred, was abruptly awakened one night by a 
masked burghir, who at the muzzle of a revolver, in the 
most approved story book style, demanded that she 
arise and show him where the valuables of the family 
were kept. It might be too much to say that the girl 
was not frightened, but she certainly was not terrified, 
lor she at once set about scheming how to call her 
father. The burglar. meauAvhile, to better enforce his 
<'ommands, had seized h«"r by one of her wrists and 
<lragged her toward the door of her room. Accordingly 
she set out apparently to guide him to the treasure he 
.sought, but really to lead him down the stairs past the 
bedroom in which her parents were sleeping. Arriving 
there she screamed, "Papa!" at the top of her voice till 
the burglar's hand stopped her breathing, and then she 
kicked the wainscoting with her bare feet till her father 
appeared. The burglar fire<l an ineffectual shot and 
daslied down the stairs. Mr. Frisbie. though awakened 
out of a sound sleep, was equal to the emergency. He 
secured his revolver and managed to get one shot at the 
fleeing burglar before the unwelcome visitor disap- 
peared witli an accomplice in the direction of the rail- 
mad track, a few blocks distant. But that shot re- 
sulted in the capture and identification of the scoundrel. 
• the bullet having passed through the l)nrglar's leg. The 
cracksman proved to be a desperate character, who had 
killed several men. He was himself shot and killed in 
an effort to escape from pris m a few months afterward. 

Mr. Frisbie began business life as a retail drug clerk. 
He was born in Hartford. March 1. IS.5'2. and educated 
in the public schools. His first position was in Daggett's 
Pharmacy in New Haven. So(^n. however, he was wield- 
ing the pestle in Sikes ^: Newton's (now Newton's) 



Cottcspndcnce. 

We are pleased to publish here commualcatloas from our reai- 
irs oa topics of Interest to the drug trade. Writers are requested 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Each article muMi 
^e signed by Its writer, but bis name will not be publi-ibrnd 9t 
•o requested. 



Reply to the Doctor. 

Philadelphia, JIarch ll5. 

To the Editor: May I answer the writer who so ably 
defends dispensing by the doctor in your issue of 
March 11. 

P'irst, he says, "Substitution is practiced to an alarm- 
ing e.vtent;" truly lie is unfortunate in his associations! 
Does he mean that of all professions the druggist is 
the most dishonest':' Are the majority so beneath their 
fellow men that they deliberately and continually change 
a doctor's prescription .thereby endangering the lives of 
their best friends — their customers? Does not the old 
•■idage, "Honesty is the best policy," a])ply to pharmacy? 
Verily, doctor, you've uncon.sciously plai'cd a respected 
profession among the Shylocks of humanity. 

Second, "Repetition of Prescriptions." Who is to 
blame for this'? How many doctors write "Please re- 
new," when they want a prescription refilled? They 
sinq)ly say. "When this is all taken have it renewed," 
thus teaching the patient that the prescription is his 
own pro[>erty, to do with as he pleases, ami the courts 
have so decided. If the doctor is really anxious to pre- 
vent "actually harmful effects from renewals." let him 
so impress it upon the patient and write, "Do not re- 
new" upon the prescription. 

Third. "Omission of drugs." We, have answered this 
fn our first paragraph. An honest man never cheats by 
commission or omission. 

Fourth ? 

Fifth. "Error in compounding." Tlie doctor, of course, 
cannot err (though why he omitted reason No. 4 I can- 
not say), and who would correct him if he did? 

The system of checking off the work of each other, 
prai-ticcd in most stores, reduces liability to error to a 
minimum. 

Sixth. "Loss of time to the patient." How many of 
your patients, doctor, need medicine instantly? Only 
extreme cases, and a very limited number of drugs 
will suffice to meet these emergencies. These remedies 
every doctor should furnish, but such cases form a small 
part of his duties. 

Seventh. "Knowledge that tlie druggist obtains of the 
disease prescribed for." Our customers have tlie same 
confidence in us as in their ]diysiciaiis, and in ten years' 
experience I never heard one object to our knowledge of 
his trouble. (,)uite the contrary, the most private cases, 
MS a rule, make us their confidant and ask if the pre- 
scribed remedy is a goo(i one. 

•Eighth. "Knowledge the patient obtains of the rem- 
edy."' If he hasn't confidence in his physician he may 
object to his remedies. Only the ignorant cause trouble 
of this kind, and it can easily be avoided by writing the 
prescription in Latin. Let the doctor study synonyms, 



352 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Miiich -la, 1807. 



\ 



uud very few cau tell whut he orders. If a "placebo ' 
is desired, it is the easiest of all remedies to disguise. 

Ninth. ••Finiiueiul loss to the doetor." He says, "ilio 
atieiit piivs the druKsist, aud the doetor must wait. 
AvVL' ajiaiii the doetor is to lilame. He edueates his 
iialieiils to pay oiiee in si.\ months, and the dniKt-'ist de- 
mands cash. It would Ix' only a sliort lime wlu'n the 
■•(loetor-druKKist" would lie ehai-KiiiK medicine and ser- 
vices loo. Insist upon easli for all your work, aud as an 
inducement a lesser fee, and you'll uot need to be a 
"jack of all trades" to live. 

Now the jireali'st advantage to a doctor in writing pre- 
scriptions is the unlimited remedies from which he can 
draw. If he carries his own slock it is necessarily small. 
and he is constantly sulistitiitini.' what he has for what 
he wants— a crime for a drufiKist but a virtue for a 
physician! A busy doetor has no time to make pills, sup- 
positories and emulsions. Imafiino Agiicw. Flint or Da 
Costa leaving their olliee to make one dozen three-grain 
valerianate of ir'ui pills! The fact that a doctor docs ii 
is a confession of inability to live without it. Why nol 
shoe his horse, mend his buggy, or paint his house for 
the same reason? 

The best in medicine is none too good, and the best 
can be obtained only by sending a patient with a care- 
fully written pri'.scriptiou to a conscientious graduate 
in pharmacy. Let doctors use every aid to cure the sick, 
do all they can not to injure but to aid their best assist- 
ant and closest friend— the honest druggist. 

II. B. MORSE. 



dries. Then paste lhe.se advertiseiiienls consisteully on 
the fence section. This may be given a more realistic 
aspect by atli.xing an injunclion to "post no bills under 
penalty." This accomplished, the framework is set in 
the window, well toward the back, and a ground work 
of green saw dust is spread to a sullieient ileplh to 
cover the bases of the posts. A doll or two arranged 
from the back to appear as if looking over the fence (you 
have these from display No. 1) and a few large stones on 
the ground, with perhaps some broken twigs, aid in the 
realily. ShouM Vfiu wish to further this end. on a piece 



WINDOW DISPLAYS. 

By JOSEPH F. HOSTELLEY. 
It is not always the most elaborate or costly display 
that attracts the most attention. Oftentimes the attrac- 
tion is due to some oddity which may even approach the 
grotesque. It is to these oddities that this article will 
be chiefly devoted. 

Display No. 1 consists of sponges, depicting their gath- 
ering from their native haunts. From narrow strips of 
one-fourth inch board make a frame 4 feet in height and 
corresponding in length to the width of the window. 
Shape white muslin into one piece 4 feet by the length 
of frame, plus the depth of window taken twice. Thus, 
were the frame 7 feet long and window 3 feet deep, the 
size of the muslin piece would be 4 feet by 13 feet. (This 
material can be had for sis or eight cents per yard). On 
this muslin draw with light blue chalk a representation 
of how you would conceive the sea to appear could you 
view it vertically from the bottom to the surface. Some 
light blue fabric might supersede the muslin aud answer 
all requirements. The top of the piece is cut in undulated 
lines in portrayal of the billowy surface. When com- 
pleted this is fastened by small tacks to the framework, 
leaving the margin at either end representing depth of 
window. Stand this scene in the window, at back, and 
fasten the marginal pieces to the front posts. Cover 
the floor with sand heaped into numerous small hillocks 
and lay upon this a few shells, pieces of stone, rotten 
wood, etc. Now, on a level with the sea surface sus- 
pend by a fine thread, from whatever point is convenient, 
a miniature rowboat, say a foot long, place in it a doll 
divested of all raiment, with the exception of a loin band, 
and another similarly clad figure is made to appear as if 
searching for sponges at the bottom. About the rocks 
place some sponges and half fill the boat with small ones. 
Some fish apparently swimming about would enhance the 
effect. An accompanying placard might read: "Nerve 
and physical endurance are here taxed to their utmost. 
The prices of our sponges, however, are not governed by 
the difliculty in procuring them." 

The figurative ideas of many advertisers employed lit- 
erally: 

First cut from a 3x4 joist two pieces each 5 feet long. 
To one end of each nail a piece of board 18x18 inches to 
serve as a base. Rough boards, in length equal to the 
breadth of the window, are fastened to these in repre- 
sentation of a section of fence (see cut.) The boards 
may be painted if desired, but this is not essential. 

With your stencil print in poster style whatsoever you 
■wish to say concerning seasonable preparations or sun- 




of white muslin the height of that portion of the window- 
visible from the street, and wide enough to hide the ends 
of the boards, sketch with green chalk a trunk of a tree- 
as used for side scenes in play houses— and hang it a few 
inches in front of the fence and touching the side of the 
window. Then similarly treat the other side. This gives 
the fence a partial excuse for not being further visible. 

Stationery. — To one of the posts used in the former 
display, and which still retains its base, attach a pre- 
viously lettered board, say 12x16 inches, which at a. 
casual glance might be taken for one of the inevitable 
notices of property for barter, but which in reality pro- 
claims the following: "For Sale— A large lot of station- 
t,i-y_inquire within." With the exception of the fore- 
going notice and possibly a carijet of green saw dust the 
window is left bare. If fortunate enough to possess two 
or more windows, attention might be called to an ar- 
ticle elsewhere displayed, doubling the effectiveness of 
your work. 

Corn Cure.— The post may be found serviceable in still 
another way by removing the board of the previous ex- 
liosition and attaching one say 3 feet long by 4 inches 
wide to form a T. The ends of this strip are shaped to 
represent a pointing hand, or this may be drawn with 
crayon. On one arm of the T print the name of some 
legendary town and distance thereto, and similarly treat 
the other arm with the title of a different town. Just 
below this nail a small sign inviting notice to your cure 
for corns, giving space to your name and address. After 
the- post has been stood in the window, and the usual 
ground work added, a brownie or other figure, in one 
hand of which has been placed a small cane and bundle, 
is stood facing the sign. The size of this figure is to be 
governed by the outlay the druggist may care to put 
into it. A large one is desirable, however, and it can be 
advantageously used in many exhibits. Such an accom- 
panying card to the public pasted on the window might 
prove apropos: "Is it his corns that trouble him?" 

Bird Seed. — A prerequisite of this display is that a por- 
tion of the work must be done several weeks previous to 
its appearance. Having obtained a liberal amount of 
moss with a quantity of moist earth attached, sprinkle 
freely with bird seed and set aside to sprout, keeping 
moist the while. Lawn grass seed would likewise an- 
swer the purpose. When the blades of grass have as- 



March 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



.353 



smiled a dosiralilo lieiglit the oxliil)k may bo niaJe. Tho 
window siiaoo is first divided into tliirds (if a large 
window, into lialf), two thirds ot wliieh is to represent 
a fii'ld of growing seed. Out of old l>oards innlie a small 
hill, at the foot of which deposit several pieces ot broken 
stone; cover the entire two-thirds with the grass covered 
earth clods and pack closely around the rocks. In the 
remaining space pile the boxes of seed to a considera- 
ble lieight. If thought desirable, an accompanying card 
may prove fitting, as "It's easy to raise, but would you 
care to gather it at 10 cents per box? That's the price." 

Soap.— An aid to a soap display might consist of two 
towels, hung in a conspicuous position, one of which 
bears evidence of having been used by a careless washer, 
the other immaculatidy clean. The former can be given 
its unsightly apiioarance by immersing the hands in a 
dilute solution of shoe blacking, or other suitable sub- 
stance, and wiping them on the towel, leaving the im- 
print of the open hand in several places. On this towel 
is pinned a card suggesting that there was "None of 
Smith's toilet soap used here;" while on its companion 
appears the legend: "There was here, however." 

Miscellaneous. — On a board frame of any size desired 
(the size of the window and ideas of the "dresser" reg- 
ulating this) is pasted— or otherwise attached — colored 
paper or cloth of a pretty but not gaudy nature, and on 
this again is pasted in an artistic design a representative 
number of all the labels used in the store, from spirits 
of camphor to brick wash. Should your labels be of an 
attractive nature, and they doubtless are, this will make 
a catchy display. Several colored stickers or cork tops 
may he efifectively distributed among the assortment. One 
glancing at this heterogenous list would many times re- 
call some article needed and straightway a sale would 
be made. After standing this bulletin board in the win- 
dow several articles mentioned thereon are assembled 
about it. 



{Spfiial Corresponthnce . J 

PHARMACY IN AUSTRALASIA. 

Sydney. N. S. Wales. Feb. 1.5, 1S97.— The absorbing 
topic is Federation Every other legislative question is 
lost sight of for the present and will remain in obscurity 
till the middle of the year, when the Convention lias con- 
cluded its labors and decided the second step in the 'Com- 
monwealth. The first step was the Convention of 1891, 
when the draft bill— the basis of the work for the coming 
gathering— was agreed upon. The big scheme of Na- 
tional Union suggests the minor oues of professions and 
trades, and naturally enough the pharmacists are dis- 
cussing informally the federation or reriprocal treaty of 
chemists and druggists over Australia. New Zealand and 
Tasmania. The more they discuss it the more difficult 
it appears to grow. In Melbourne. Victoria, where the 
only properl.v establishefl pharmaceutical college exists. 
they are turning out pharmacists 50 per cent, faster than 
all the other colonies combined, and this is, in a meas- 
ure, accounted for by the fact that the Jlelbourne col- 
lege is handsomely subsidized by the Victorian Govern- 
ment. The standard of pharmaceutical education is con- 
siderably higher in Melbourne than in any other of the 
colonies, and the Victorian Board of Pharmacy insist 
that in any scheme for federation their standard must 
be adopted. Very properly, they refuse to lower it to 
suit their neighliors, who are not subsidized, and however 
much they might wish to climb to the Victorian pedestal 
they find it impossible to raise colleges equal to Mel- 
bourne in laborator.v convenience, professional tuition 
and general accessories. The cry is mouthed that too 
many iiharinacists are being manufactured in the Queen 
City of the South; that competition is becoming too keen 
in consequence, and that the Melbourne college must be 
conducted without a State subsidy. On the other hand. 
It is sensibly argued that the maintenance of a high 
standard — higher even than it is now in Victoria — would 



provide the only panacea for those who are afflicted with 
keen competition and the fear of the practical application 
of the maxim, "The survival of the fittest." A'iewed 
from a public standpoint, many of the old school of 
pharmacists, those who are troubled about competition, 
woul<l be conferring a benefit to the community if they 
retired altogether in favor of the well-trained and edu- 
cated modern pharmacist. 

The Victorian Pharmacy Board has decided not to ex- 
tend indefinitely, as hitherto, the leave granted to widows 
to carry on the businesses of their deceased husbands. 
The New South Wales Pharmacy bill— which it is ex- 
pected will get through Parliament before the end of 
the year — has a clause of similar purport. Tho basis 0*1 
the Victorian act and the N. S. W. bill is the direct indi- 
vidualrcsponsibilityofqualified persons. The Chemist and 
Druggist ot Australasia, writing on this subject, says: 
"No manager, however free from constraint, can be so 
directly responsible as a principal, and every widow's 
.thop carried on under tlie management of a qualified 
chemist is a violation of the spirit of the (Victorian) act. 
Such a violation may be benevolently winked at, in order 
that the unqualified inheritor of a business may not be 
compelled to realize at a sacrifice." Both the Victorian 
and the New South Wales boards have acted with clem- 
ency in the past, but the line must be drawn somewhere, 
or those who have been granted a concession as a favor 
may come to look upon it as a right. 

The current issue of the Pharmaceutical Register of 
Victoria comprises 822 names, of whom 380 were regis- 
tered through the privilege of being in business when 
the present Pharmacy act was passed in 1876; 280 qual- 
ified by examination, and 133 hold the British certificate, 
and the remainder are made up of IG "assistants prior to 
1876," and thirteen foreign and colonial certificates. 
Seven years ago the Register had 758 names. The num- 
ber then on flie Register "as in business before 1876" 
was 474; those registered on examination, 164, and Brit- 
ish qualifications 105, as well as five assistants and ten 
holders of foreign diplomas. There have been 205 fresh 
registrations in that period; eighty-six of those registered 
"as in business" have died or disappeared as well as 
fifty-five others, or a total of 141, leaving a net increase 
of sixty-four for the seven year.s— this increase being al- 
most entirely due to the number of young men who have 
qualified by apprenticeship and examination. The fig- 
ures show an average annual decrease in the "in busi- 
ness" class of twelve, and the increase by examination 
.seventeen. The ''in business" people have an advantage 
now of just 100. but in three years, taking the per- 
centage, both the old hands and the new will be 
equal in numbers. The New South Wales register bears 
the names of 491 pharmacists, or 331 below Victoria. 
There are so many illegally registered men on the N. S. 
W. list that it has been found expedient to leave out all 
mention of the qualifications;hence, the only qualifications 
set down are (1) "Carried on business prior to the pass- 
ing of the Poisons act in 1876 and (2) admitted a pharma- 
ceutical chemist." 

Dr. Finselbach. Ph. D.. of I.ismore. New South Wales, 
has been interesting himself in the question, "Does Ha- 
zeline Contain Formaldehyde or Not?" and has submitted 
Extra, hamameli Virg. Stearns to analysis, and the reac- 
tions of formaldehyde were quite distinct. 

(1) The extract mixed with chlorate of potassium so- 
lution reduced after adding a few drops of nitric acid, 
nitrate of silver— 

KCIO, -h 3HCHO -I- AgNO,: 
3HCOOH + AgCl + KNO,. 

(2) Reduction of silver in ammoniacal extract. 

(3) Reduction of Fehling's sohition. 

14) Formation of hexamethylentetramin. 

He says he leaves it to some one with the necessary 
appliances to determine quantitatively the formaldehyde, 
and considers it would be an interesting physiological 



.'554 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[.Miircli 2.1, 1>;1)7. 



stmly to examine hnw fur the aiitiseiilic aelion of hazel- 
ine is due to forma lilehyde. 

Has the n'lestioii of llie owuership of prescriptions 
ever cropped up over your way? Our people out hen- 
don't seem equal to the solution of it. Some say the 
prescription IwlonRS to the physician who writes it; oth- 
ers, it is the properly of the patient who pays for it, 
while quite an army of pharmaeists refuse to yield their 
claim. Just recently the Cantcrhury branch of the New 
Zealand Medical Association in entering a protest 
against the Jledical Practitioners' and Chemists' act 
(■(iniains this remarkable paragraph: "Clauses 4 and 5 of 
the bill, re i)rescriptions and prescribing" (i. e.. that Kng- 
lish should be used in ever.v case) "are objectionable and 
impossible, as most terms used have no English equiva- 
lent. It interferes with our rights as proprietors of the 
prescriptions; it is detrimental to the best interests of 
the patients and opposed to the existing practice wliich 
lirevails tlironj^hout the world, as every chemist in the 
world understands the Latin, but only a moiety of them 
the Knglish." British law as far as I know vests the 
ownership of a prescription in the patient. It comes as 
a surprise to hear that "most terms have no English 
equivalent." 

At Perth, the capital of West Australia, on the Kith 
of December last, a coroner's jury gave the following 
verdict: "That the child came to his death from the ef- 
fects of half a Steediuan's soothing powder given by his 
mother, which powder probably was one containing an 
undue quantity of morphia." The inquiry attracted much 
public attention, as these powders are largely used in the 
colonies. The boy was nearly six months of age. Being 
restless, the mother gave him the powder after midnight, 
followed later by a dose of castor oil. Early in the 
morning he developed bad symptoms and before the 
mother could reach a doctor with him he expired. Dr. 
Spencer, of the Perth Hospital, made a post-mortem ex- 
amin.ition and found death had resulted from a narcotic 
poison. In giving his evidence Dr. Spencer said he was 
not aware that Steedman's soothing powders had a cer- 
tain and constant composition: or, in other words, that 
each powder was mixed separately so as to make abso- 
lutely sure of its contents. If mixed in a large scale 
one powder mig'ht contain a surplusage of one ingredient, 
as was probably so in this case. The government an- 
alyst found the powders to be unequal in size, and one 
in particular weighed 3Vi grains and contained morphia 
not exceeding 1/20 part of a grain. He agreed with the 
doctor as to the danger of mixing such ingredients on a 
large scale. 

From New Zealand we occasionally get some very 
original things. At New Plymouth lately a single woman 
— an old maid — had occasion to order a hawker from her 
ddor and he left muttering vengeance. The same night 
she was awakened by the fellow holding a chloroformed 
handkerchief to her nose, and being an active woman 
she grappled with him, threw him to the floor and com- 
pletely turned the tables on him. She pinned him down 
and effectively chloroformed him. Then dressing quickly 
she went for the police and handed him over. This is 
not a "fake": it is an absolute fact and the scoundrel is 
now awaiting his trial. 

Another New Zealand sensation implicates a young 
chemist named Carrol, belonging to New South Wales. 
Finding himself jilted he followed the lady and her new 
lover to Pareoa, near Auckland, and just previous to the 
hour aj»iiointed for the marriage he met them at their 
hotel and — so it is alleged — threw a bottle of sulphuric 
acid over his rival. He eluded arrest in New Zealand, 
but was captured in Sydney on the arrival of the Ne%v 
Zealand steamer and extradited much quicker than our 
notorious Butler is being handled in Frisco. 

On top of these comes a third more thrilling piece of 
news from Auckland, N. Z. Dr. Bakewell wrote some- 
thing about women's physical unfitness for Parliament 



and electioneering work, and one of the weaker (?) Bex 
replied challenging him to a trial of strength in either a 
lug-of-war, weight lifting, boat pulling, running high 
juni]) or struggle for the possession of a marlin spike, 
and deiiosited $25 with the editor of the Auckland Her- 
ald for the match. She gave some of her measurements, 
height 5 feet (i inches and weight 10 stone 4 pounds; but, 
true to the traditions of her sex, omitted her age. Dr. 
Bakewell replied accepting the challenge in a lily-livered 
fashion, suggesting that she might require handicapping, 
as he was sixty-five years of age and only weighed 10 
stone. The lady insists on his acceptance of the chal- 
lenge, or the forfeit of $25 to go to the Ladies' Benevo- 
lent Society. The result is awaited with interest. 

Trade is very bad in Sydney. The pharmacists say the 
times are the worst ever experienced. 



ACETONAL is an aluminium-sodium acetate. 



COS.VPKIN.— .\ new antiseptic. Owing to the insol- 
ubility of antifebrin and its toxic characters (cyanosis). 
Dr. Schwarz has endeavored to prepare an allied deriv- 
ative which possesses its antipyretic properties alone and 
the advantage of solubility. The author has introduced 
the acetyl group into the sodium salt of sulphanilic acid, 
obtaining a crystalline compound which is very soluble in 
water, but slightly so in alcohol and ether. 

ERGOTINOL.— A preparation of ergot introduced by 
Dr. Vosswinkel, which is prepared, according to Dr. Abel 
by exhausting powdered, de-oleated ergot with wa-ter, the 
acpieous extract after acidulating with hydrochloric acid. 
is liydrolyzed, then after neutralizing, subjected to al- 
coholic fermentation. After comidction of this fermenta- 
tion, the solution is dialysed, and the dialysate concen- 
trated until 1 cc. of the ergotinol corresponds to 0.5 gm. 
of the solid extract of ergot. This new preparation is 
recommended as being free from all disagreeable side 
effects of ergot. 



DETECTION OF NITRITES IN DRINKING 

WATERS.— Gawalowski (Zeitschr. f. Nahrungsm, Un- 
tersuch.) states that potassium iodide and starch paste are 
extremely sensitive reagents for the presence of nitrites. 
The iodide must be free from all traces of iodate, and 
should be kept away from light and air. The mixture of 
the sample of water and iodide should be acidified with 
hydrochloric acid (dilute), and not sulphuric: the starch 
paste which is add<'d should be prepared fresh each time, 
first washing it with distilled water. A sample of starch 
which has been washed but has not been converted into 
a clyster until the following day gives a faint blue colora- 
tion with the reagent and water free from nitrous acid. 



DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN OLE- 
AGINOUS SOLUTION.— Thirty drops of the solution 
of phosphorus in oil are brought into a Kjeldahl flask 
(300 cc), weighed, and after placing at an angle, 20 cc. 
of fuming nitric acid are added from a separatory fun- 
nel, first allowing the acid to drop slowly, and after the 
violence of the reaction begins to subside, it is allowed to 
run into the flask in a slow stream. The flask is then 
placed on a cold water bath, which is gradinilly heated 
until boiling point is reached, and at this temperature 
the flask is kept for one hour. The excess of nitric acid 
is removed by heating with a direct flame, after which 
the contents of the flask are washed out into a plati- 
num vessel with hot water and evaporated to dryness. 
The residue is treated with a solution of 3 gm. of so- 
dium carbonate and 1 gm. of potassium nitrate, the clear 
soapy solution evaporated and the residue slowly ignited 
with addition of saltpeter. The fused mass is dissolved 
in water, Ixiiled with a slight excess of hydrochloric acid 
until all of the carbonic acid and nitrous acid is driven 
off, then the fluid is examined in the usual way for the 
presence of phosphoric acid, which may be estimated 
quantitatively. 



JIaich 25, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



355 



THE YELLOW KID IN PHARMACY. 

'Vhc iiopulnrity ol" the yi-llow kid as a meiiiis of ail- 
v( rtisitig chamois skiu and othor druggists' goods in boUi 
newspapers and show windows has attracted wide at- 
tention aniiing readers of the Era. We are in receipt 
of numerous letters inquiring whether pictures of the 
.M How kid may Do published without the permission of 
the inventor of this novelty. Inquiry proves that the 
artist, R. V. Outeault, of lOO Nassau street. New York, 
has copyrighted ever.v picture of the yellow kid, and 
that permission to use such pictures must be purchased 
from him. Mr. Outeault has. however, upon request of 
the Era, drawn a picture for the special delectation of 
druggists, and we are pleased to produce it herewith. 

Under the heading "Vice in Art." the Tall Mall Ga- 
zette, of Loudon, rucently published a column article 
about It. r. Outcaulfs yellow kid. It was a left-handed 
way of admitting such of the British public as have a 
sense of humor to the amusing performances of this pre- 
cocious young American. The truth is that the yellow 
kid is nothing more nor less than an artistic joke, and 
the solemn British editor who cannot see the joke is be- 
yond the reach of enlightenment. 

The popularity of this original little harlequin in this 
country has naturally called attention to the author 
of his being. Mr. Outeault is a young man of medium 



height, brown- 
haired, blue-eyed 
and graceful. His 
mustache points 
turn up at an 
angle of 40 de- 
grees. The angle 
of his wit is 
even more acute. 
He is the best 
mimic off the 
comedy stage. 
He can tell a 
funny story so as 
to convulse his 
hearers. It is 
said that the 
.Tournal. which employs him, pays him a salary of $10,- 
000 a year, and that in addition he receives all the royal- 
ties he can collect from the copyrights on his produc- 
tions. 

Mr. Outeault was born thirty-four years ago in the 
Ohio towu of Lancashire. He was trained to be an 
expert mechanical draughtsman, and did considerable 
work in that line for various trade papers. During the 
Cincinnati exhibition of 18SS some of his mechanical 








Drawn fcr thf Pharmaceuti- al Era by R. F. OutcauU imith pTmimon of the X. T. Journal.'^ 



356 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Marili 25, isi)7. 



drawings attracted the attention of Thomas A. Edison, 
who, as the greatest genius of the age, is quick to recog- 
nize genius in another, ami Mr. Edison at once sent him 
to Paris with an exhibition of electrical iurentious. He 
remained in the French capital a year. 

While still a resident of Cincinnati, Mr. Outcault used 
to frequent the homes of the poor in order to study for 
his own amusement life in those quarters. He got ac- 
quainted with the dwellers in the tenements, joined them 
in their amusements, and learned their entertaining 
traits of manner and pose. This was at his most im- 
pressible age. and though he did not then make use of his 
talents, every stroke of his pen was valuable practice 
for his after work of amusing the public. 

Mr. Outcault's tirst art work for a newspaper was done 
in 1894. The story is that he drew the first yellow kid 
for the New York World, on which he was formerl.v 
employed, and that the sketch was declined. Upon se- 
curing employment with the .Journal he tried it again, 
and made a hit. It is said that he is a little doubtful 
about the value of a yellow kid reputation. His ambition 
is to delineate in the highest style of art. pleasing and 
truthful types of child life, and he has done some mer- 
itorious work in that field. But the public will have 
yellow kids and lots of them. Edward W. Townsend 
and Rudolph Block, high-priced story tellers, are kept 
constantly at work describing the adventures of the yel- 
low kid which Mr. Outcault has to illustrate for his 
newspaper. A yellow kid magazine has also been 
started. A yellow kid brand of cigarettes has been put 
upon the market, with a different yellow kid picture in 
every package. Every street has its enterprising window 
display embellished with yellow kids. Yellow kid pup- 
pets are sold by fakirs on the streets. The type found- 
ers are casting yellow kids in black and white for the 
use of advertisers. Flesh and blood cannot turn out 
yellow kids fast enough to supply the demand. Mr. 
Outcault. therefore, has little time to devote to other 
branches of art. 

Success has not spoiled Mr. Outcault. He is the same 
genial, wholesouled, generous friend in prosperity that 
he was in the days when he first attracted the attention 
of Edison by the accuracy of his mechanical art. Now. 
as then, he finds his highest enjoyment beside his own 
hearth, and his most pleasing occupation is delineating 
the graces of his children. 



TRAUMATOL. — An antiseptic compound of pure 
cresylic acid and iodine, which forms an amorphous, vio- 
let colored, voluminous, inodorous powder, which con- 
tains nearly 54.4 per cent, of iodine. Traumatol is in- 
soluble in water and acids, soluble in chloroform, strong 
alcohol and carbon disulphide. The compound is stable 
when exposed to light and air. 



ETJNATROL is an oleate of sodium, which has been 
tested by Dr. Blum, of Frankfort, as a cholagogue. Eu- 
natrol appears in the market in pill form, each pill con- 
taining 0.25 gm.. coated with chocolate. Dr. Blum 
claims this to be the best of all cholagogues. as it can be 
taken for long periods without producing intestinal dis- 
turbances. Dose, one pill twice daily. 



METHAETHYL.— A local anaesthetic which is in- 
tended as a substitute for ethyl chloride: it is an ethereal 
pleasant smelling fluid, which boils at 0° C. Methaethyl 
appears in the market sealed in glass tubes, inclosed in 
a metallic case; on breaking the capillary tip of the 
tube the vapor escapes and is directed upon the surface 
to be anresthetized. 



TO PRE^TBNT THE HAIR FALLING OUT it has 

been recommended to rub the scalp well with the follow- 
ing ointment: Pilocarpin hydrochlorate. 1 p.: vaseline, 10 
p.; lanolin, 30 p.: oil of lavender, 25 drops. 



{Splint Correxjtond'mcf.) 

WORKING UP TRADE IN INDIA. 

rECULIARITIKS OF NATIVK MP:RriIAXTS. PLEAS- 
UKES OF TRAVEL AND HOTEL ACCOMMODATIONS. 
WHAT AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS SHOULD DO. 

Madras. India. Feb. 1, 1897. — During the past sixty 
days we have visited every section of India, from the 
snow-clad Himalayas of the north to the jungle and rice 
fields of the south; visited not only the large distributing 
centers, but also many of the interior towns, so as to see , 
the exact positron of the drug business, and what is nee- I 
essary to cater successfully to it. In Calcutta we found 
several large European stores that carry good stocks and 
are up to date as retail concerns, but the nearest ap- 
proach to a wholesale drug business is owned by a na- 
tive. And in all of north and central India we saw signs . 
of his work, showing us that a wholesale house conduct- 
ed on the right lines by Europeans would be a success. 

In iladras we find two concerns that are up to push- 
ing their business, though in different ways. W. E. 
Smith & Co. have at an enormous expense erected one 
of the finest drug stores and laboratories we have ever 
seen. With its fantastic towers, domes and exterior dec- 
oration it resembles at a distance some public building. 
On the other hand, R. MeClure. chemist, has a very 
quiet, unpretentious building, but his ideas of modern ad- 
vertising are the best we have seen in connection with 
any drug business in India. Aside from these, we find sev- 
eral very good stores owned by natives. South India im- 
pressed us as being a very good district for the drug 
business, and the number of stores, small and large, to be 
found everywhere, gave this impression some weight. 

In every town we visited, away from the principal dis- 
tributing points, we found the drugs controlled exclu- 
sivel.v by natives. As a rule, their stores are of a very 
poor class, and are known as medical halls or dispensa- 
ries. They do not appear to know how to displa.v goods: 
everything appears unkempt and mussed together. There 
is no excuse for this, for the number of clerks or assist- 
ants to be found, even in stores of a very inferior class. 
is surprising. What the.v all do. besides getting in each 
other's wa.v. we could not discover. There are always 
several proprietors, for they are great on companies. 
Then they have a manager, clerks galore and numerous 
coolies squatting all over the place. Their conception of 
advertising seems to be a small handbill, which is hand- 
ed around in a slipshod manner. We were very much 
interested in seeing what line of patents they prepared, 
and found nearly everywhere that they were for nerve 
complaints, all tending toward the aphrodisiacal. The 
manner in which they describe diseases and remedies on 
what little advertising matter they do issue is startling; 
they call a spade by its right name. We were much 
amused by a signboard describing the wonderful power 
of a great rejuvenator. which, they claimed, was made 
by the light of a full moon. From the appearance of the 
bottle it looked as though it had been put up on a very 
dark night. It was in this class of stores that we were 
disappointed when looking over their line of fluid ex- 
tracts, etc. Very few American brands were found. 
There is no reason why concerns like Wyeth & Bro.. P.. 
D. & Co.. cannot have their portion of this trade if they 
work for it. It is these small stores, scattered all over 
India, that form the foundation for any large business. 
And to secure it requires personal solicitation, not once 
but many times. Our American houses are well repre- 
sented in the larger towns, we admit: but. if they want 
business, the.v must do something besides sending litera- 
ture to the outside towns. It is doubly important that 
their representatives visit these smaller places, for in 
every store you will find several native medical men. who 
are. as a rule, interested in the business. But when we 
looked over the patent medicines the.v handle we felt as 
though we were at home. Nearly all the line of standard 
remedies were there. The best sellers are Pain Killer, 



.Maruh I'u, 18K7.J 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



:•,:>! 



Ayer's goods and Scott's Eimilsioii. and some of Jayno's 
goods are seen. For intolligeiit representation. I think 
tliat Scott & Bowne talic the U>ad. Their inctliod of 
reaching the native popnlation is good, for which tliey 
are indelited greatly to their resident agent. Mr. .lolm 
Kirlcliride. wlio mil only l<iio\\s Imlia. l>iit is acquainle.I 
with lier people. 

It is a pleasnre to liad that the glassware of W. T. & 
Co. is used pretty generally, and the success of this con- 
cern in pushing their products lo the four corners of the 
world could well be copied by some of the rest of our 
largo manufacturers. There is a good opportunity for 
some of our perfume men to catch on to .a fine business 
out liere, for India is a great consnm*'r nf that article. 
Not only a good trade could be secured in bulk goods, 
but a very largo one on small i)ackages is certain. And 
as a pointer we will state that the perfume must be of 
a pungent nature for the natives, and that the packages 
must be made up in a fantastic shape, with strong colors 
I)redominating. The beauty of this class of goods is 
that they would find buyers, not only in the drug store, 
but also the large European general store and the ba- 
zaars. In fact, the perfunu' ilepartment is a conspicu- 
ous one in all stores. 

There are one or two lines of American perfumes here, 
but they are of a class that will not bear ver.y close in- 
spection. Manufacturers of good, cheap toilet soaps can 
also increase their business, if they are enterprising 
■enough. 

But do not for the moment think that by sending a 
traveler here one trip you can secure and control the 
business. It takes constant calling by the same traveler 
to instill confidence into the native reader's mind. And 
it is because of this fact that the.v buy, more than from 
any merits the house that makes the goods may possess. 

They know Mr, , who has been to see them year 

after year, have faith in what he says, and that is all 
they care for. 

When traveling in the East there are two things posi- 
tively necessary — one a servant, and the other a lot of 
bedding, for you will visit many places that do not fur- 
nish either. It nearly made us sick at first to see the 
lot of stuff we had to carry, and if a traveler should go 
about in the United States with such an assortment he 
would be considered a freak. Railroading here is only 
fair — the rate of speed slow, and accommodation, when 
compared with Pullman service, away off. Still, you 
can be comfortable if you carry your linen and blankets. 
The carriages are constructed so that there are sleeping 
berths for four in the first class, and the average rate is 
about two cents a mile; servants are carried at a much 
lower figure — not over % cent per mile. The eating 
liouses are tough; one can manage, however, to secure 
nourishment enough at one to carry him on to the next. 
It appears to be the custom when any one travels here 
to take all his belongings with him, and it is most uu- 
ideasant to be awakened during the night by some one 
getting into your compartment at some side station. It 
were not so bad. were it not for what they bring with 
them. Always a big roll of bedding, silk hat box (though 
we have never seen a high hat worn), tin trunks, valises, 
g(df sticks, fishing tackle and guns, sometimes a saddle 
or two, and, if there are any ladies in the crowd, you 
may expect a lot more boxes, flower plants, bird cages 
and a grub box. We have seen the carriage so full at 
times of outfits of this description that it was nearly im- 
possible to move. The checking of baggage has not 
been introduced into India. Every one likes to see his 
own propert.v near him, and since ever.v one has one or 
more servants to handle or look out after the stuff, I 
presume there never will be any reform. 

When you come to the hotel question, that absorbing 
topic to all travelers, we are sorry to state that they are 
very poor, and will not compare favorably with a decent 
boarding house in America or .\ustralia. Take, for ex- 



ample, what is considered the best hotel in Calcutta and 
one of the leading ones in India. The da.v we arrived it 
took some time to find the entrance, which was at a little 
side iloor. Vp a dirty stairway we manageil to find the 
otfice in the smallest room in the house, and our ascent 
was hastened by the odor of stale cheese and old meats 
that are sold on the first floor by the hotel company. 
But when we found the office there was not a European 
there; nothing but a lot of native clerks. During all the 
time we have been in India, and we have visited every 
section and have stopped in hot(ds that are owned by 
Euroiieans, with one exception all arrangements had to 
be made with native servants. There is always a Baboo 
in charge. The only conclusion is that they are either 
ashamed of their hotel, or consider the business degra<l- 
ing, fiu- caste is nearly as strong here with Europeans as 
with natives. Their rates run from four rupees to ten 
rupees per day. and you are, indeed, a fortnnate individ- 
ual if when you pay your bill you do not find some ex- 
tras. Portions of days are not known. 'Tis no difference 
whether you have one meal or three, if you occupy a room 
you pay for the entire day. After we had been out over 
a town and felt tired or blue we could always raise our 
spirits by reading some of the rules and regulations 
found in the bedroom. Though each guest is expected to 
have one or more personal servants, still there is always 
a mob around these hotels, for caste distinction is so great 
that the man who brings water into your bedroom will 
not carry away the slops, and the one that brushes up 
the floor could not, for the life of him, make the bed. 
Then, in the dining room, you always find a lot more 
whose business seems to be getting in each other's way. 

But the sight of sights is at night time, in the hall- 
ways. In front of each door you see the private servant 
stretched out sleeping the sleep of the just, while near 
him is the punkah wallah hard at work pulling the rope 
that is attached to the huge pnnka fan hanging over the 
bed. And the attitudes he assumes at times are wonder- 
ful. Stretched out on the flat of his back, with the rope 
fastened to a toe, he lies there slowly pulling the fan till 
he thinks his master has gone to sleep, when he takes a 
iiuiet doze; but often he is mistaken and the inmates of 
adjoining rooms are disturbed b,v the frequent applica- 
tion of a foot to Mr. Punkah Wallah. But in all towns 
.vou do not find even such luxury as I have described. 
Then you have to put up at the travelers' dak bunga- 
low. These excellent institutions are owned by the gov- 
ernment and are to be found along all well-traveled 
routes, and in towns where there are no hotels. They 
furnish you a room, containing a bedstead, chair and 
table, and, in some instances, the keeper has a set of 
dishes. But you are expected to furnish your own bed- 
ding and to secure your food the best way possible. It 
is in cases like this that a good personal servant, speak- 
ing various vernaculars, is valuable, for he not only takes 
care of .vour room, Imt also rustles up something to eat. 
According to the rules of these bungalows, no one is ex- 
pected to sta.v more than two days, and should any trav- 
eler come and demand accommodation yon would have 
to give way to him. They are simply rest houses or 
travelers' inns. During the time we have been traveling 
in India, we have not met or heard of a single traveler 
representing a local house, and it was only in Bombay, 
Calcutta and Madras that we ran across an.v representa- 
tive of English or German houses. In a ver.v large np- 
country town we were much amused at a European buy- 
er who said that travelers were bothering him very 
much; during the past month three had called to see him. 

Dock tells a good one that happened to him. He was 
urging a dealer to put in his goods, and the first excuse 
offered was that he was not sufficiently acquainted with 
the requirements of his trade to know just what would 
sell in his district. He was a newcomer, having only 
started in business in 18C2, 

W. A. P. 



:m5S 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 25, 1S!»7. 



TARIFF SCHEDULE. 

La-^t week the work of the Ways an<J 
M^ans Committee on the Dingley Tariff 
Bill was reported to the House for con- 
sideration and we present herewith the 
various proposed schedules and parts of 
schedules in which the retail drug trade 
is specially interested. With these 
schedules are the schedules now in 
force and those obtaining under the 
McKinley Tariff Act of 1890. 

SCHEDULE A-CHBMICALS, OILS AND 
PAINTS, 

Ding- Pres-McKin- 
ley. ent ley 
BUI. Lav.-. Law. 

Acids, acetic. :b 3c. 20% IVjC. 

Boraclc. lb 3c. 3c. Be. 

Chromic, lb 4c. 4c. 6c. 

Lactic, lb 4c. — — 

Cllrio. lb 8c. 25% 10c. 

Salicylic, lb 10c. Free. Free. 

Sulphuric, lb %c. Free. Vic. 

Tannic, or tannin, lb .Vtc. «0c. 7Bc. 

Gallic. lb 10c. Free. Free. 

Tartaric, lb Yc. 20% 10c. 

All other acids 257e Free. — 

Alcoholic perfumery and 
alcoholic compounds not 60c.lb& $2gl& $2e1& 
otherwise provided for . . 45% 50% 50% 

Alkalies, alkaloids, dis- 
tilled, essential, ex- 
pressed and rendered oils 
and chemical compounds 
not otherwise provided 
for 25% 25% 25% 

Alumina, hydrate of. lb.. 6-lOc. 4-lOc. fi-lOc. 

Alum, alum cake. etc.. lb Mjc. 4-lOc. 6-lOc. 

Ammonia; carbonate of, lb IViC 20% l%c. 

Muriate of. lb %c. 10% %c. 

Sulphate of. lb ^c. 20% %c. 

Argols. or crude tartar, lb l^^c. Free. Free. 
Partly refined, lb 4c. 20% 4c. 

Rochelle salts, lb 4c. 2c. 3c. 

Cream of tartar and pa- 
tent tartar, lb 6c. 20% 6?. 

Blue vitriol. lb Ic. Free. 2c. 

Bone char suitable for de- 
colorizing sugars 20% 20% 25% 

Borax, crude. lb 2c. 2c. .^c. 

Borate of lime, lb 2c. IM-c. 3c. 

Borax, refined, lb 3c. 2c. 5c. 

Camphor, refined, lb 4c. 10% 4c. 

Chalk, ground, precipitat- 
ed or prepared on^y in 
the form of cubes, blocks 
or difiks. as tailors', bil- 
liard red. or French, lb. Ic. 20% Ic. 

Chalk preparations, except 
medicinal or toilet, and 
all manufactures of 
chalk not otherwise pro- 
vided for 25% 20% 20% 

Chloroform, lb 20c. 25c. 25c. 

Coal tar colors or dyes, not 
specially provided for . . 35% 25% 35% 

Coal tar preparations, not 
colors or dyes, not spe- 
cially provided for 25% Free. 20% 

Cobalt, oxide of, lb 25c. 25c. 30c. 

Collodion, lb 50c. 40c. 50c. 

Collodion, rolled in sheets. 
lb 50c. 50c. fiOc. 

Collodion, manufactured.lb 75c. 45% 60?- 
&30% &2o% 

Coloring for brandy, etc.. 50% 50% 50% 

Copperas, lb V^c. Free. 3-lOc. 

Drugs. 6uch as barks, etc.. 
advanced in value by any 
process of manufacture. 
and not specially provid- 
ed for 10% 10% 10% 

Ethers, sulphuric, lb 25c. 40c. 40c. 

Spirits of nitrous, lb .... 25c. 25c. 25c. 

Fruit ethers, oils or es- 
sences, lb §2 $2 $2.50 

Ether not otherwise pro- 
vided for, no ether shall 
pay less than 25%. lb . . $1 $1 $1 

Logwood, extracts and de- 
coctions not otherwise 
provided for, lb %c. 10% %c. 

All above in solid or dry 
form, lb IHc. 10% %c. 

Hemlock bark extracts, lb i^c. 10% M:c. 

Gelatine glue. etc.. value 
not above 10c. a pound. lb 2c. 25% IMsC- 
Above 10c. and not above 

25c.. lb 3c. — — 

&15% 25% 25% 
Above 25c. and not above 

40c.. lb 5c.&l.=i% 25%25to30% 

Above 40c. , lb 20c. 

&15% 25% 30% 

Glycerine, crude, lb Ic. Ic. l^^c. 

Glycerine, refined, lb .... 3c. 3c. 4M;C. 

Indigo extracts or paste.Ib %c. Free. %c. 

Indigo, carmine, lb lOc. Free. lOc. 

Ink. not otherwise provid- 
ed for 25% 25% 30% 

Iodine, resublimed, lb . . . 20c. Free. 30c. 

Iodoform, lb ?l $1 $1.50 

Licorice, lb 5c. 5c. 5\ic. 



Ding- Pres-McKln- 
ley ent ley 

Bill. Law. Law. 

Chicle, lb 10c. Free. Free. 

Magnesia, med. carbonate, 
lb 3c. 3c. 4c. 

Mapnesla. calcined. lb ... 7c. 7c. 8c. 

MaRUt^la. Bulphate. or Ep- 
som salts. Ih l-5c. l-5c. 8-lOc 

Alizarine nssletant, con- 
taining 50% or more cas- 
tor oil. Kl 40c. 30% 80c. 

Containing less than 50% 

castor oil. gal 20c. 30% 40c. 

All other alizarine asst,. 30% 30% 30% 

Castor oil. gal 35c. 35c. W)c. 

Cod liver oil. gal 15c. 20% 15c. 

Cnitonneed oil, gal 7c. Free. 10c. 

Croton oil. lb 20c. Free. 30c. 

Flaxseed and Unseed oil. 
raw. boiled or oxidized, 
gal 32c. 20c. 32c. 

Poppy seed oil raw. boil- 
ed or oxidized, gal 10c. 20c. — 

Fusel oil, lb VjC. 10% 10% 

Hempseed and rapeeeed 
oil gal lOc. 10c. 10c. 

Olive oil, gal 50c. 35c. 35c. 

Peppermint oil. lb 65c. 25% 80c. 

Sea!, herring and other 
fish oil. gal 8c. 25% 8c. 

Opium, crude, lb $1 Free. Free. 

Morphia or morphine, .and 
all salts of opium, oz.. $1 50c. 50c. 

.Aqueous extract of opium, 
tincture of opium and 
other liquid preparations 
not otherwise provided 
for 40% 20% 40% 

Opium containing less than 
!)% of morphia andripium 
prepared for smoking, lb $6 $6 $12 

Barvta, unmanft* d, ton. . 75c. Free $1.12 
Manufactured, ton $5.25 $3 $6.72 

Blues, such as Berlin, etc., 
containing ferrocyanide 
of iron, dry or ground in 

or mixed with oil, lb . . . Sc. 6c. 6c. 

In pulp or mi?ed with 
water, lb Sc. 6c. 6c. 

Blanc, fixe, or sulphate of 
barvtes and eatin white. 
lb ^c. 25% 34c. 

B:ack, made from bone, 
ivory or vegetable, in- 
cluding bone black and 
lamp black, dry or 
ground in water 25% 20% 2,5% 

Chrome yellow, etc. , dry 
or ground in or mixed 

with oil, lb 414c. 3c. 41'^c. 

In pulp, or mixed with 
water, lb 4%c. 3c. 4%c. 

Ochre and ochre earths, 
sienna and sienna earths, 
umber and umber earths 
not otherwise provided 

for; dry. lb %c. Free. Mc. 

Ground in oil. lb IM-c VAc. V.^c. 

Orange mineral, lb 3c. l%c. 3%c. 

Red lead, lb 2V^c. l»^c. 3c. 

TTUramarine blue, lb .... 4c. 3c. 4%C. 

Wash blue containing ul- 
tramarine, lb 4c. 3c. 3c. 

Varnishes, except spirit 
varnishes 35% 25% 35% 

Spirit varnishes, addition- 
al for the alcohol con- 
tained, gal $1.32 $1.32 $1.32 

Vermilion red and other 
colors containing quick- 
silver, lb 12c. 20% 12c. 

Not containing quicksil- 
silver. lb 6c. 6c.@25% 

White lead, white paint 
and white pigment, con- 
taining lead, lb 2i^c. IHc. 3c. 

Whiting and paris white, 

dry, lb V4C. ViC, %c. 

Ground in oil or putty. lb Ic. ^c. Ic. 

Zinc, oxide of, and white 
paint or pigment contain- 
ing zinc, but not lead, 

drv. lb Ic. Ic. 114c. 

Ground in oil. lb l^c. Ic. l^c. 

Sulphide of zinc, white.lb l^c. 25% 25% 

Chloride of zinc and sul- 
phate of zinc, lb Ic. 25% 25% 

All paints, colors and pig- 
ments not otherwise pro- 
vided for 30% 25%25@30% 

Acetate of lead, white, lb 3V.c. 2-'^4c. 5^c. 
In colors, lb 2^c. l%c. 3^c. 

Nitrate of lead, lb 2i^. l»^c. 3c. 

Litharge, lb 2^c. l^^^c. 3c. 

Phosphorus. lb 20c. 15c. 20c. 

Bichromate and chromate 
of potash, lb 3c. 25% 3c. 

Caustic or hydrate of pot- 
ash, lb Ic. Free. Ic. 

Chlorate of potash, lb... 3c. Free. — 

Hydriodate and iodate of 
potash, lb 25c, 25% 50c. 

Nitrate of potash, refined, 
lb %c. %c. Ic. 

Red prussiate of potash. lb 8c. 25% 10c. 

Yellow prussiate of pot- 
ash, lb 4c. 25% 6c. 

Cyand? of potash, lb.. 6c. 25% 25% 



Ding- 
ley 
Bill. 

Medicinal preparations 

containing alcohol, not 
otherwise provided for, lb 55c. 
In no case shall above 
pay less than 25%. 

Medicinal preparations not 
containing alcohol, not 
specially provided for. . . 25% 

Calomel and other mercur- 
ial medicinal prepara- 
tions 35% 

Phenacetlne not epeclally 
provided for. oz 8c. 

Phenacetine In small pow- 
ders. Including weight of 
wrappers, oz 10c. 

Antipyrine. oz 18c. 

Anti-toxine of 100 units or 
less of antl toxic strength 

oz 12c. 

Each additional 100 units 
or fractional part there- 
of, oz 12c. 

Plasters, healing op cura- 
tive of all kinds 35% 

Cosmetics, etc.. and other 
toilet articles and per- 
fumeries not otherwise 
provided for 50% 

Santonine and salt* there- 
of, containing 80% or 
over of santonine, lb... $1 

Castile soap, lb l%c. 

Fancy perfumes, toilet or 
medicinal soap, lb 15c. 

Soaps not specially provid- 
ed for 20% 

Bicarbonate of soda, or 
supercarbonate or soda. 
or saleratus and other al- 
kalies containing 50% or 
more bicarbonate of soda, 
lb %c. 

Bichromate and chromate 
of soda, lb 2c. 

Crvstal carbonate of eoda, 
lb %c. 

Caustic soda, lb %c. 

Nitrite of soda, lb 2»^c. 

Hypo-sulphite and sulphide 
of soda, lb ,%c. 

Salsoda or soda crystals.lb %c. 

Soda ash. lb %c. 

Silicate of soda or other 
alkaline silicate, lb ... %c. 

Sulphate of soda, or salt 
cake, or nitre cake, ton $1.25 

Paris green and London 
purnle 25% 

Spongee. crude 20% 

Manufre of sponges not 
specially provided for. 40% 

Strvchnia and all salts 
thereof, oz 30c. 

Sulphur, refined, ton $8 

Sublimed, or flowers of. 
ton *8 

Vanillin, oz 70c. 



Pre3-M<'Kln- 

ent ley 
Law. I^aw. 



50g. 



25% 


2w:; 


25% 


35-, 


25% 


25% 


25% 


o-rj: 



25% 



25% 


2.-,% 


25% 


25% 


40% 


50% 


SI 
20% 


I'.o. 


35% 


15c. 


10% 


20% 



%c. 


ic. 


25% 


3o. 


25% 


Vic. 
ic. 

2,1% 


25% 


25% 
■4C. 


%c. 


%o. 


Free. 


$1.25 


12U% 
10% 


25% 
20% 


35% 


20% 


30c. 
20% 


40o. 


20% 
25% 


JlO 
25% 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Liime. including: weight of 
barrel or package, cwt.. 5c. 5c. 6c. 

Plaster of paris or B>'p- 
sum ground or calcined, 
ton $1.50$ligll.25$li@'1.7S 

Pumice stone, wholly or 
partially manufac'td. lb Mc. 20% Free. 
Unmanufactured 20% Free. Pi ce. 

China day or kaolin, ton. $2 $2 $3 

Asphaltum and bitumen, 
not otherwifie specially 
provided for. ton S3 Free. Free. 

Tapioca and eago in flake, 
pearl or flour. lb %c. Free. Free. 

Arrow root flour, lb Sc. IV^c. 2c. 

Sugar of milk, lb 5c. .^c. 8c. 

Honey, gal 20c. 10c. 20c. 

Hops lb 15c. 8o. 15c. 

Garlic, lb Ic. 10% 10% 

Castor beans or eeeds, bu 25c. 25c. .50c. 

Flaxseed or linseed and 
other oil seeds not spe- 
cially provided for. bush 30c. 20o. ."Wo. 

SePds of ail k'nds not spe- 
cially provided for 40% 10% 30o. 

Oranges, lemons, limes, 
grape fruit, shaddocks or 

pomelos, lb 94c. 8c. cu. ft. — 

In addition thereto upon 
the boxes, barrels or 13c, 

other articles contain- $1.50&«1.5O 

ing the foregoing 30% 30% 30% 

Orange peel and lemon 
peel, preserved or can- 
dled, lb 2c. 30% 2c. 

Citron or citron peel, pre- 
served or candied, lb . . 2c. 30% 35* 

Pineapples, lb 2c. 20% Free. 

Almonds, not shelled, lb.. 5c. 3c. 5c, 

Clear shell, lb 7c. 5c. 7V4c. 

Filberts and walnuts of 
all kinds, lb 3c. 2c. 3o. 

Filberts and walnuts, 
shelled, lb 6c. 4c. 6o. 

Peanuts or ground beans, 
shelled, lb Ic. 20% le. 



llMart-h 2.j, ISilT.J 



THE PHAUMACEUTICAL ERA. 



35!) 



Dlng- 


Pres-McKIn 


ley 


ent ley 


Bill. 


Law. L.aw 



Nuts, shelled or unsheUed 

' not specially provided for 

lb V/tfi. 

Extract of meat, not spe- 
cially provided for, lb.. 35c. 

IFlul'I extract of meat, lb. 15c. 

iLard. lb 2c. 

Tallow, lb Ic. 

Chicory root, unground. lb Ic. 

»i?hlcory root, burnt or 
roasted, ground or other- 
wise prepared, lb 3c. 

Cocoa butter or cocoa but- 
terlne. lb 6c. 

Dandelion root and pre- 
pared acorns, and other 
articles used as coffee, lb l^c. 

Starch. Including all prep- 
arations fit for use as 
starch, lb 2c. 

Dextrine. burnt starch, 
gum substitute or British 
gum, lb IV^c. 

Mustard, ground or pre- 
pared, lb 10c. 

Capsicum or red pepper, or 
cayenne pepper, :b . . . . 2^c. 

Sage, lb Ic. 

Swef t marjoram, lb 3c. 

Summer savory, coriander 
seed and thyme, lb .... ^c. 

Spices not specially provid- 
ed for, lb 3c. 

Vinegar, eral 7%c. 

Spirits— Brandy and other 
spirits, manufactured or 
distilled from grain or 
other materials, and not 
specially provided for. 
per proof gallon $2.50 

Bay rum or bay water, 
whether distilled or com- 
pounded, of first pronf, 
and In proportion for any 
greater strength than 
flret proof $1.50 

Malt extract, fluid in cks, 
gals 25c. 

Malt extract, bottles or 
jugs, gal 40c. 

Malt extract, solid 40% 

Ginger ale. ginger beer, 
lemonade, soda water 
and other similar waters, 
in plain, green or col- 
ored, molded or pressed 
glass bottles, containing 
each not more than % of 

a pint, per doz 18c. 

Containing: more than ^i 
of a pint each and not 
more than ll-> pints. per 
doz 2Sc. 

Mineral waters and imi- 
tations of natural min- 
eral waters, and artificial 
mineral waters not spe- 
cially provided for. in 
green or colored g!ass 
bottles, containing not 
more than one pint, per 

dozen 30c. 

If containing more than 
one pint and not more 
than one quart, per doz 40c. 
If imported otherwise 
than In plain, green or 
colored glass bottles, or 
if imported in such bot- 
tles containing more 
than one quart, per gal 30c. 

Cork, cut into squares or 
cubee. lb 8c. 

Manufactured cork, over % 
inch in diameter, meas- 
ured at larger end. lb. 15c. 

One-half inch and less in 
diameter, lb 25c. 



20% 



^c. 



15% 35c. 

15% 15c. 

Ic. 2c. 

Free. Ic. 

Free. Free. 



2c. 


2c. 


3"4c. 


314c. 


Hie 


l%c. 


l^c. 


2c. 


IKjc. 


IHc. 


25% 


10c. 


2Ujc. 

Ic. 

Free. 


2Hc. 

3c. 

Free. 


Free. 


Free. 


3c. 
714c. 


4c. 
7%c. 


?1.S0 


$2.50 



$1 $1.50 



15c. 


20c. 


30c. 
30% 


40c. 
40% 


20% 


13c. 


20% 


26c. 


20% 


16c. 


20% 


25c. 


20% 


20c. 


10c. 


lOo. 


10c. 


15c. 



THE FREE LIST. 

ACIDS. — Arsenous, fluoric, muriatic, 
nitric, phosphoric, picric or nitro-picrlc, 
prussic, silicic, sulphuric, for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.— Aconite, 
albumen, alizarin, natural and arti- 
ficial; alizarin dyes, anthracin dyes, am- 
bergris, aniline salts, annatto, annatto 
extracts, arrowroot, crude; arsenic, ar- 
senic, sulphide of; aniline, arsenate of, 
and other crude dyes not provided for. 

Asafoetida, balm of gilead, cinchona 
or other quinine barks, bismuth. 

Fish sounds, crude or saltea; camphor, 
crude; castoreum, cerium, civit, crude; 
coooa, crude; cocoa, fibre, leaves and 
shells; cuttlefish bone, dandelion roots, 
unground; dragon's blood. 

Drugs, such as barks, beans, berries, 
balsams, buds, bulbs and bulbous roots; 
excrescences, such as nutgalls, fruits, 
flowers, dried fibres and dried Insects; 
grains, gums, and gum resin, herbs, 
leaves, lichens, mosses, nuts, roots and 
stems, spices, vegetables, seeds aromatic 
and seeds of morbid growth not pro- 
vided for. 

Ergot, iodine crude, ipecac, iridium, 
jalap. 

Leeches, licorice root, unground; lime, 
citrate of; bleaching powder. 

Magnesia, carbonate of; manna, al- 
thea root, leaves or flowers; moss and 
sea weeds, crude; musk, crude; nux 
vomica. 

OILS. — Amber, ambergris, aniseed, 
aniline, cajeput, caraway, cedrat, cham- 
omile, civet, cocoanut, fennel, jasmine 
or jasimine, juglandium, juniper, mace, 
neroli. or orange flower, hut oil or oil 
of nuts not specially provided for in 
this act, olive oil or olive oil foots im- 
ported expressly for manufacturing or 
mechanical purposes, and fit only for 
such use; palm, thyme, origanum," red- 
or white; valerian; and also spermaceti, 
whale and other fish oils of American 
fisheries, and all other articles, the 
products of such fisheries; petroleum, 
crude or refined. 

Black salts, saltpetre, crude; sulphate 
of potash, muriate of potash. 

Quinine and all salts of cinchona bark, 
saffron and safflower, saffron cake, 
salacin. 

SEEDS. — Anise, caraway, cardamom, 
cotton, cummin, fennel, foenugreek. 
hemp, hoarhound. mustard, rape. St. 
.John's bread, sugar beet, mangel 
wurzel, sorghum or sugar cane for 
seed. 

Salep. soda, nitrate of; and chlorate 
of; sodium, strontia and preparations, 
sulphur or brimstone, crude in l3Ulk. 
sulphur precipitated; pyrites (excess of 
2.~i per cent, sulphur). 

Tonka beans, turmeric, turpentine. 
Venice; turpentine, spirits of; vaccine 
virus, verdigris. 

FRUITS, &c.— Cocoa, crude; coffee. 



curry and curry powder; fruits, green, 
ripe or dried not provided for. 

Brazil nuts, cream nuts, palm nuts, 
palm nut kernels, cocoanuts, cocoanut 
meat or copra, sago, crude, tamarinds, 
tea and tea plants, yams. 

SPICES. — Cassia, cassia vera, and cas- 
sia buds; cinnamon, and chips of; cloves 
and clove stems, mace, nutmegs, pepper, 
black or white, and pimento; all the 
foregoing when unground; ginger root, 
unground, and not preserved or candied. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Antimony ore, 
antimony, crude, sulphite of; apatite, 
asbestos, crude; ashes, wood; lye from 
wood ashes, ashes, beet root; asphaltum, 
and bitumen, crude. 

Barytes or carbonate of; bauxite, 
crude; beeswax, binding twine (600 feet 
to pound), blood, dried; bones, in crude 
state; bone dust and bone ash; Brazil 
paste, bristles, crude; Burgundy pitch. 

Cadmium, calamine, chalk, crude; 
chromate of Iron, or chromic ore; coal 
tar and pitch; creosote oil, cobalt and 
cobalt ore. 

Cocculus indicus, cochineal, gold, sil- 
ver and copper coins; copper, ore; cop- 
per composition; copper, regulus; cop- 
per, cement; copper, black or coarse; 
corkwood or bark, cryolite, cudbear, 
cutch. divi divi. 

Casks, barrels, carboys, bags and 
other vessels of American manufacture 
exported filled with American products 
or exported empty and returned filled 
with foreign products, including shocks 
when returned as barrels or boxes; also 
quicksilver flasks or bottles, of either 
domestic or foreign manufacture, which 
shall have been actually exported from 
the United States. 

Emery ore, feldspar, fish skins, flint 
and flint stones, fossils, gambler, 
grasses and flbres. istle or Tampico 
fibre, jiite and jute butts, manilla. and 
sisal grass; grease and oils for soap- 
making not provided tor. 

Guano and the other manures, gutta- 
percha, crude; India rubber, crude; hair, 
hides, goat skins, raw; hide cuttings 
and other glue stock; hoofs, horns and 
horn strips, hop roots. 

Indigo, ivory tusks, vegetable, ivory, 
kelp, kieserite, kainit, lac dye, crude; 
lac spirits, lactarene. lava, crude; lit- 
mus. 

Madder, madder extracts, magmeslte, 
magnesium, manganese, oxide and ore 
of; marrow, crude; minerals, crude; 
myrobolam. oil cake. 

Orchil and liquid, osmium, palladium, 
paper stock, crude; phosphates, crude; 
gypsum or terra alba, crude; platina 
and platinum, plumbago, rennet. 

Rotten stone, cliff stone, tripoli and 
sand. n. e. s. ; storax, wood tar and 
pitch, terra japonica, tin ore. bars, pigs 
or granulated; black oxide of tin, to- 
bacco steins, uranium, oxide of; valo- 
nia. wax, vegetable or mineral, whale- 
bone. ' 



CERIUM NITRATE, when in solution (1 : 1000). ef- 
fectually prevents all further growth of bacteria. 



HYDRARGYRO.SEPTOL.— A compound of chinosol- 
mercury with sodium chloride, recommended as an anti- 
leutic. 



SOZOBORAL.— A mixture of aristol, sozoiodol and 
boric acid salts intended to be used as a snuff in treat- 
ment of colds. 



LEMON JUICE (Artificial).— Sugar 100 gra.. distilled 
water 50 gm.. citric acid 7.5 gm., tincture of fresh lemon 
peel (1 : 5) 5 to S gm.. orange flower water l.j to 20 gm. 



ARSENICA!., HAEMOL.— We have thus far iodo- 
hromo-copper-iodo-mercuric. and zinc ha^mnl. This new 
preparation, a brown powder, contains 1 part of arsenous 
acid in each 100 parts. 



AROENTOL (CeH„N. OH. Aq.)— A compound of sil- 
ver and ox.vchinolin, to be used as an antiseptic. 



OPAL. — A proprietary remedy for removing all sorts 
of blemishes. It consists of 94.98 per cent, water. 3.1 
per cent, of acetic ether. 1.48 per cent, of extract of soap 
bark, with traces of acetic acid and acetate of lead. 



ACETONE COLLODION.— Gaucher (Phar. Ztg.) pro- 
poses this as a vehicle in treatment of cutaneous affec- 
tions. A mixture of 2 p. of acetone collodion with 1 p. 
of oil of ca^e has shown itself to be very useful in pso- 
riasis. 



The Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association has 

elected these officers for 1897: President, N. Rosewater; 
vice-presidents, C. W. Benfield and W. M. Fox; secre- 
tary, H. M. Schlitt; treasurer. <!. W. Voss. 



360 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[March 25, 1897. 



Examination Qnestlons of the 
OREGON STATE BOARD OF PHARMACY. 

CHEMISTRY. Junior. 

1. Give the symbols of the following elements: .Sulphur, 
Ammoiiluni, Iodine, Aluminum, I'liosphuius, Ziue, Sodium, 
Arsenic, I'otnssium, Autlmon.v, Copper, (laleiuni. 

L'. State the prominent eli.iraeteristies of Carbon, and how 
does it eonipare with Ox.v^en as a supporter of combustion. 

;t. What are the properties of Ilydrogen, and state the dif- 
ference bi'tween Sulphurous and Sulpburle AcicisV 

4, .Mention the dinerenl forms of Sulphur In use, and give 
the processes (tf 'tlitainin^ sublimed Sulphur. 

0. A\'hat Is Sublimation, and mention as many substances 
as you can, obtained from this i)roeess. 

li. ilow would you take the speclflc gravity of a liquid 
heavier than waterV 

7. AVhat Is the source of Phenol? How nuich Is needed 
to make 12 ounces of a .". per cent. solnllonV 

,S. What is White I'recipitate, White Vitriol, Litharge, Su- 
gar of Lead? 

'.I. Write out In equations, the action of Sulphuric Acid 
on Calcium Carbonate. 

10. Describe the process of rrecipitation, and mention two 
substances obtained by this prociss. 

CHEMISTR V. - Settlor. 

1. Name ten elements, and state whether solid, gaseous, or 
liquid. Also describe an atom, molecule, chemical com- 
pound, monad, dyad. 

1!. What Is Siiecifle Gravity? Describe fully how you 
would take the Specific Gravity of a solid. Of a liquid. 

.1 Give chemical name, and uses of the following: Salts 
of Tartar, Cream of Tartar, Glauber Salts, Red I'recipitate, 
Chlorate of I'otash. 

4. How would you detect ver.v finel.v powdered Bichloride 
from the Mild Chloride of Mercury? Give doses of each. 

'•. What is the source of Iodoform? Wlmt pev cent, of 
Cyanogen does the dilute Hydrocyanic Acid contain? Give 
its source, ai.so dose. 

li. How is Crystallized Nitrate of Silver obtained? How 
does it difl'er from Lunar Caustic, and give Its antidote? 

7. Name two preparations obtained from each of the fol- 
lowing: Phosphorus, Sodium, Iodine, Quicksilver, Boron, with 
source of each. 

8. Describe the action of Ammonia on fats. How is Am- 
monia obtained? Give per cent, by weight of Ammonia 
gas in Aqua Ammonite Fortior, and in Aqua Ammonise, U. 
S. P. 

9. Give the process of Crystallization In detail, and de- 
scribe the crystals of Permanganate of Potash, also Chloral 
Hydrate. 

10. Give the chemical composition of Hydrochloric Acid, 
Phosphoric and Sulphurous Acids. Ammonia, Saltpetre. 

PHARMACY. Settlor. 

1. Define solution. Give example of simple and chemical 
solution. Name the solvents in the order of their useful- 
ness. 

2. What is the active principle of Belladonna? Hyoscya- 
mus? Are they aikaloidal or otherwise? What the dose of 
the Fl. Ext. of each? In what respect do the two drugs 
differ, and in what are they similar in their physiological 
effects? 

3. How much Morphine is represented in one oz. pow- 
dered Opium, official strength? In one oz. Dover's Powder? 
Write B for Dover's Powder, in which each powder shall 
represent ^4 grain Morphine. 

4. Give the Continental rule for preparing an emulsion: 
detail the steps in order; what per cent, of medicinal sub- 
stance will it contain? 

5. Give formula for tincture fresh herbs. Its Latin name. 
Of what strength are the official tinctures? How many offi- 
cial tinctures are there? 

6. Give the component parts of compound Cathartic Pills. 
Pill of Aloes, Pill of Aloes and Iron, their official names, ex- 
ciplent used in each. 

I. What is Specific Gravity? Specific Volume? Wherein 
do the.v differ? Give rule for obtaining each. From the 
rule find the Specific Volume of Glycerine. Alcohol. 

8. What is the relative .strength of a Fl. Ext. to the crude 
drug? What process is employed, U. S. P., for Fl. Ext.? De- 
scribe it. 

9. Four samples contain, respectively, 10, 12. 16, and 20 
per cent, of active principle. How much of each must be 
taken to produce a sample of 15 per cent? How much each 
of Glycerine and .\lcohol must be taken to make Specific 
Gravity 1,000? 

10. What are Liniments? How many are official? Give 
the formula for Carron Oil, and its official Latin and Euglish 
Dames. 

PHARMACY.- Jualor. 

1. How many grains in 4 oz. water. In f. % iv? 

2. Of what use is Alligation in pharmacy?' Give example 
of its use? 

3. State the difference between Exeipient and Vehicle. 
Emulsiflcation and Saponification. Desiccation and Exsicca- 
tion. 

4. What is the basis of the Metric s.vstem of weights and 
measures? Write one Gramme. One Centigramme. One 
Decigramme. One .Milligramme. 

5. What is the percentage strength of Aqua Ammonias? Of 
Stronger Water of Ammonia? In what proportion must wa- 
ter be mixed with the latter to produce the former? 

6. What is the source of Oil of bitter Almonds? Expressed 
Oil of Almonds? Are they fixed or Volatile? Of what use 
are they in pharmacy? 

7. Give Latin names and doses of Chloride of Ammonia. 
Tannic Acid, Carbolic Acid, Fl. Ext. Digitalis, Fl. Ext. 
Aconite. To what class of remedies do they belong? 



8. From what Is Carbolic Acid obtained? What Is Its otli- 
clal synonym? How many parts of water dissolve It? How 
uuiny parts llquelly It? 

9. Wliat are the component parts of Solution of head Sub- 
.Kctate? Its Latin name? IIow Is Lead Water prepared? 
Its olticini English and Ladn names. 

10. Write formula for Spirit of Mindererus. Latin and 
Knglish names. H()W Is Lime \\'atcr prepared? 

TOXICOLOGY. - Junior. 

1. Define Toxicology. 

2. Name four otiicial remedies which are Toxic, and four 
which are non-toxi<'. 

3. Name three i)reparatlons of Ar.senic. Give, treatment 
for arsenical poisoning, with formula and dose of official 
antidote. 

4. Give symptoms of Lead poisoning, and antidote, 

5. Carbolic Acid. Describe effects of an overdose. Give 
three antidotes, describing the particular action of each. 

(i. Quinine, Aconite, Gelsemlum, Ipecac, Arnica, Valerian, 
and S<|uills; name those which ar(> 'foxic. 

7. (iive antidotes and treatment for Opium poisoning. 

8. What Is the first duty of a Pharmacist when a case of 
suspected i)oisoning is brought in? 

9. Name three common poisons, other than those named 
above, and give symptoms of overdose, with antidote for 
each. 

10. Give a synopsis of the poison clause of the Oregon 
I'harmacy Law. 

TOXICOLOOY.-Seolor. 

1. What does Toxicology teach? What is meant by drug 
antagonists? Chemical antidotes? Physiological antidotes.' 

2. Give antidotes for the Mercurial Salts, Chloride of Gold, 
Sulphate of Copper, and state whether they are antagonistic, 
chemical, or physiological antidotes. 

3. Give treatment for Ammonia gas Inhaled, also for over- 
dose of solution Internally. 

4. Give symptoms and antidotes for poisoning by Tartar 
Emetic, Phosphorus, Iodine. 

5. Generally, what are the antidotes for the Mineral Acids? 
Vegetable Acids? Give action of each. 

6. Give effects of overdoses and antidotes, for the follow- 
ing: Aconite, Gelsemium, Convallaria, Digitalis, Belladonna. 

7. Describe the effects of Chloral, its antagonists and 
chemical antidote. 

8. Give treatment for poisoning by opium, or its Alkaloids. 
Strychnine. _ ^ , 

9. Give effects and treatment for poisonous doses of Paris 
Green. London Purple. 

10. Criticise the following prescriptions: 



9 



Potassium Chlorate 
Quinine Sulph. 
Syrup. Ferri lod. 
Aqua" Fcenicula; 
Sig. Teaspoonful. 

Mediciis, M.D. 



lii 

3ss. 

5i 

5" 



R 



M 



31 

3S.8. 

grs.lii 
gT8. x' 
gtts. I 



Antipyrine 
<,)uinine Sulph. 
Morphine Sulph. 
Zinc Valerianate. 
Fl. Ext. Gelsemium. 
ft. Capsule No. lii. 
Sig. 1 capsule everv 3 hours. 

J. W. S., M.D. 

MATERIA MEDICA.- Jualor. 

1. Define Pharmacopoeia, Materia Medica, and Dispensa- 
tory. 

2. Give official names and doses of Strychnine, Elaterlum, 
Red Iodide of Mercury. Phosphorus, and Sugar of Lead. 

3. What is Asaftetida? How obtaiued. and medicinal ef- 
fects. 

4. Define Antipyretic, Febrifuge, Alterative, Stomachic, 
Expectorant. 

5. Name five official Elixirs and Syrups. 

6. What is a Styptic? Name five agents acting as such. 

7. Give official names of two insects used in medicine. 

8. Give origin and doses of Santonin, Codeine, Caffeine, 
Atropine, and Pilocarpine. 

9. Common names of C.vdonium, Pepo, Terebinthlna, Hu- 
mulus Lupulus, Ulmus Contusa. 

10. What precautions should a clerk use to preserve roots 
and herbs? 

MATERIA MEDICA.- Settlor. 

1. Deflue Analgesic, .\nti7,ymotic. Caletacient, Convulsant, 
Antilithic. Aperient, Hemostatic, Vesicant, Anthelmintic, 
and Soporific, and give one drug applicable to each term. 

2. Digitalis. Habitat, parts used, medical properties and 
official preparations, with doses. 

3. Name five Emmenagogues. in order of value, with their 
doses. 

4. Give official names, doses, and medical effects of Gen- 
tain, Pinkront. I'hosphide Zinc. Phosphorus. Quevenne's 
Iron. Dogbuttou. Dilute Prussic Acid, Monkshood, W'hite 
Oak Bark, and Lady's Slipper. 

.0. What is Manna? How o1>tained. medical properties, and 
what dangers attend its admiuistratiou? Why? 
ti. Name ten diuretics, and doses. 

7. Wliat poisonous drug is found in Bismuth Subnit., im- 
pure, and what would be antidote? 

8. Name five Antipyretics derived from coal tar,, with 
doses, and dangers attending their use. 

9. Give source, use, and dose of Amyl Nitrite. 

10. Give official name for Poison Oak, Habitat and Ther- 
apy. 



OXYGENIZED WATER.— A water saturated ■with 
12 to l,"! volumes of oxygen, reeommeuded by Petit in 
uterine hajiumorrhages. 



BROOKE'S PASTE consists of 28 p. of a 5 per cent, 
oleate of mercury, 14 p. of vaseline, 7 p. each of zinc 
oxide and starch, 1 p. of ichthyol and 1.2 p. of salicylic 
acid. 



.Mai-fh 125, 18D7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



3(;i 



Electric Power In Country Pharmacies. 

Two of the brightest pharmiicists in the South are 
doing business in a couple oC neighboring Mississippi 
towns, ami but for W. W. Curtis, a traveling salesman 
for Shari) «k Dolime, who reported the tacts to an Era 
r<>presentative. their fame might never have gone outside 
llie country where they reside. 

r. li. King does business in llazelhurst (population 
l.S(MI). and H. C. I'rice has a store in Wesson (popula- 
tion 3,120(1). Both towns derive their chief income from 
cotton mills, and the druggists, who were formerly part- 
ners and are still friendly to each other, have simply 
utilized the exhaust steam from these establishments to 
ptovide their stores with all the conveniences obtainable 
in the largest city. A portion of the steam is carried 
in pipes through a hot water tank back of the prescrip- 
tion counter. Another pipe conveys steam to the 
hot soda fountain, where a full line of hot and cold bev- 
erages are dispensed all the year round. But the most 
marvelous exhibitions of ingenuity are to be found in 
the electrical machinery rigged up in the back room of 
I'ach store to relieve the druggists from back-breaking 
labor. This machinery is kept in motion by little dyna- 
mos run b.v the same exhaust steam. Ice cream for the 
soda fountain and triturations for the [irescription coun- 
ter are all manufactured by ingenious machinery in the 
back room. The same dynamos furnish brilliant elec- 
tric lights for the stores, which are said to be the most 
hiininous establishments in their respective neighbor- 
huods in the evening. Both druggists are of an inven- 
tive turn, and interested in electricity, and it would be 
hard to tell which is entitled to credit for the brilliant 
idea of utilizing the exhaust steam of the cotton mills, 
which being a waste product may be had at practically 
the iiurehaser's own price. 



A Drug Store of Old New York. 

There is a deal of complaint nowadays about the nar- 
row streets of lower New York, but old business men 
say they used to be much narrower. William street, 
f(U- example, has been widened throughout, and that lit- 
tle tunnel called North William street, that dives under 
the Brooklyn Bridge to connect William street with 
I'ark Row, was cut through a block of houses that 
stood there many years ago. I'ark Row itself has been 
widened. It used to be the famous Chatham street, 
lined with the retail stores of old New York, being a 
favorite route to the principal business section for the 
fashionable residents of Henry and Madison streets, and 
connecting lower Broadway with what some then called 
its new rival, the Bowery. Chatham street was only 
twenty feet wide. The houses along the west side of it 
were all cut down to broaden it some forty years ago. 
( 'hambers street used to end at Chatham street, and its 
continuation eastward was secured by the city at great 
expense by purchasing and tearing dowu the buildings 
that stood in the way. Duane street also stopped at 
('ity Hall Park, and was cut through to join Chambers 
at Chatham in the same way. 

This explanatory preface is deemed necessary to a 
proper understanding of the primitive conditions that 
prevailed where a historic old drug store used to 
stand. The address was at 3 Chambers, just off Chat- 
ham street. Old prints of the locality show a group of 
comfortaljle Dutch houses, with sloping roofs and dor- 
mer windows. Eight persons and two teams are to be 
seen on the street, in a locality where now the voices of 
the crowd and the rattle of trucks are drowned by the 
roar of passing elevated railroad trains. The placid 
scene represented in this picture, which was taken sixty 
years ago, has been caught in the rising tide of com- 
merce, which has swept away almost the very land- 
marks. It is difficult to locate the site of the building 
now, but the records show that the new stone structxire 
of the East River Savings Institution was erected <ui 



the same lot. The next house to it. No. 1 Chambers 
street, then occupied by a tool store, was partly torn 
down to widen Chatham street, as was also the old Com- 
mercial Bank Building, on the corner. 

The old drug store was occupied during many years by 
Dr. R. B. I'olger, a man famous in his day. His pic- 
ture apiieared in the Januar.v 7. Era, and shows 
him as he was iu his old age. The site is also 
noteworthy from the fact that it was originally occu- 
pied by II. I'lanteu for the manufacture of Planten's 
Caiisules. The tirm has since become U. I'lanteu & 
Sou. and the address is 22-1 William street. H. Rolff 
Planten of this firm well remembers the old drug store 
aiul its priiprietor. 

"lie was a doctor of llie old school," said .Mr. I'lan- 
teu. "lie used to put up a proprietary medicine, and he 
distributed his goods by wagon, leaTing them to be sold 
on commission. He was of .a generous aud social disposi- 
tion. At the time of his decease he was the oldest 
Mason in the United States who had taken the thirty- 
third degree. I do not know wluun he succeeded iu 
business, but the site had been occupied as a drug store 
from time immemorial when I was a buy." 



The Use of Ad. Writers. 

Talking with a well known advertiser the other day 1 
happened to speak of the rapidly increasing army of ad- 
writers. 

"Great people, sir," said my companion, "great peo- 
ple." 

"I'ou think they are really a help to advertisers?" I 
asked. 

"Think, sir, think! I know it. Take my own case, for 
example — " 

"Oh!" I interposed, "I didn't know you had ever em- 
ployed an expert; I thought you wrote your own ads." 

"So I do — every one of 'em." 

"But — " I began helplessly. 

"Let me tell you — " my companion interposed. "It's 
this way. You see, I never gave much attention to the 
kind of ad I put out until I began to read the talky-talk 
these experts print about themselves. They were all so 
cock-sure they could do me good that one day I sat down 
and wrote to one of the best known of them telling him 
to get up half a dozen ads at his advertised price. He 
replied by asking me to write him fully about my busi- 
ness, saying just how my goods differed from those of 
my competitors, in what particulars the.v were superior. 
etc. He said it was necessary he should have this in- 
formation iu order to prepare the ads. 

"That seemed reasonable, so I sat down with my 
stenographer and spent the better part of an afternoon 
in putting on paper all the good things I could think of 
about my business. I went into the subject fully, talk- 
ing to the stenographer just as though he was a pro- 
spective customer. 

"Next morning when I read the typewritten copy of 
my dictation I tell you I was surprised. \VL. I hadn't 
the slightest idea I could write such good stuff. I sup- 
pose the knowledge that I was writing to one man — not 
to the great public — had influenced my style and enabled 
me to write in a chatty, yet convincing way. 

"To make a long story short, I concluded that as I had 
what I wanted there wasn't any jise in employing an ad- 
writer, so I let the expert slide and tised my own stuff. 
Now when I want to write an ad I call my stenographer 
and dictate a letter something like this: 

" 'Dear Mr. Ad Smythe: I wish you would prepare an 
ad for me announcing special sale of so and so. The 
points to emphasize are these:' 

"Then I give him the facts in the case, and when the 
stenographer returns the typewritten letter to me I tear 
off the preamble and use the facts for my ad. 

"Do I think ad-writers are a help to advertisers? Well, 
rather." — (Art in Advertising.) 



:W2 



TUE rUARMACEUTlCAL ERA. 



[March 25, 18!»7. 



Question Box 

The object of this department h to turn'sh our subscribers with 
reliable and tried formulas and to discuss questions relating (• 
practical pharmacy, prescription work, dispensing dlHIcultlet, etc 

Keauests for Information are not acknowledged by mall ant 
ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS KECEIVB NO ATTENTION. 

Stains for Glass. 

(J. K.) SPC formulas for coloi'ing lamp globes, glass, 
flc, this journal. Oct. ]5, 1890. page 501. 

States Having Medical Laws. 

(G. D. S.) See '-Legal Uequiremeiits for the I'ractico 
of Medieine," this journal. Dec. 24, 189(5, page 825. 

Cloudy Compound Syrup of Hypophosphlles. 

(C. 10. T.) See formula No. .".TS, rcviscil cililidii of the 
National Formulary. Two other formulas are given in 
the March 4 issue of this j(nirnal, page 274. 

Canadian Pharmaceutical Journals. 

(F. U. D.) The aiMresses nf the Canailian pharmaceu- 
tical journals are: Canailian Druggist. 15 Toronto street, 
Toronto: Canadian rharmaceutical .Tuurnal, 287 King 
street West. Toronto; Montreal I'harmaceutical Jour- 
nal. Montreal. 

Insolubility of Salicylic Add. 

(E. J.) To the prescription (this journal. March H, 
1897, page 302): 

Morphine sulphare 8 grains 

Salievlic acid 4 grains 

Distilled witer 1 ounce 

W. S. Allen, Keidsville. N. ('.. suggests you "add about 
7 or 8 grains of sodium bieiirlicnate to convert the sali- 
eylic acid into a solulde salt. .\ <-K'ar solution may thus 
be made." 

Compound Extract of Vanillin and Coumarln. 

(M. Z. D.) See formula N.i. 42ii, National Formulary 

(revised edition). Here is amithcr: 

Vanillin 2 drams 

Coamarin % dram 

Cologne spirit 1 pmt 

Di-stilled water 2 pints 

Syrup 1 pint 

Caramel, q. s. 
Dissolve the Tanillin and ctnimarin in the cologne 

spirit, add the water, shake thoroughly, tlieu add the 

syrup. 

Sculptor's Putty (Modeling Compounds. 

(.T. .T. B.) The sample you submit is a mixture of clay. 
wax. etc. Try the following: Jlix 200 parts dry elay or 
liowdered soap stone with 100 parts of wheat Hour; stir 
ihe mixture carefully into 300 parts of melted white wax. 
not too hot. It desired the mass may be colored at 
])leasure. 

The so-called "modeling clay" may be made by knead- 
ing dry clay with glycerine instead of water. The mass 
must be worked thoroughly with th^ hands and moi.s- 
tened at intervals of two or three days. To prevent 
evaporation it should be kept covered with a piece of rub- 
ber cloth. 

German Pharmaceutical Journals. 

(F. R. D.) The following pharmaceutical journals are 
published in Germany: Annaleu der Chemie und Phar- 
niacie. Heidelberg; Apotheker und Drogist. Bunzlau; 
Apotheker Zeitung. Berlin; Archiv der Pharmacie. Ber- 
lin; Berichte der Pharmaceutische Gesellschaft. Berlin; 
Chemiker und Drogist. I<eipzig; Deutsch Drogisten-Zri- 
tung. Berlin; Drogisten Zeitung. Leipzig; Internationaler 
Pharmaceutischer General-Anzweiger. Hamburg; .lour- 
nal der Pharmacie von Elsass-Lothriugen. Strassburg; 
Pharmaceutische Centralhallefiir Deutschland. Dresden; 
Pliarmnceutisehe Wochenschrift, Brrliii: Pharmaceu- 



tische Zeitung, Berlin; Sudileutsche Apothokerzeitnng. 
Stuttgart. 

The Manufacture of Phenacttlne. 

(F. R. D.) You cannot make plienacetine under any 
name or by any process in the United States. 'J*he name 
"lihenacetine" is protected by trade-mark and the process 
i«( producing it by United States patent. Nor can you 
purchase or deal in any lihenacetine which is not se- 
cured through the American agents for the owner of the 
United .States rights. It you want to know how the ar- 
ticle is made you can lind it descrilied in the Uniti'd 
Slates patent and in various works of reference, but this 
will do you no good, save in the way of information. 
The position of affairs has been |u-e(ty fully set forth in 
our news pages numerous times during the past year or 
so. and we refer yon li> l''ili. 11 Era. page 180. 



Aqua Vita: ; Hematls. 

(K. .1. 11.1 111 further rr]ily to your (picry in this jour- 
nal, March 11. 1,S!)7, page .•!()2, W. S. Allen. Iteidsville. 
N. C, says: "The prescription 

Aqua vilie 2 ounces 

Hematic 1 ounce 

(Juiiksilver 1 dram 

Liquid storax 2 drams 

Camphor 2 drams 

is for a iireparatiou used by showmen to anoint the bot- 
toms of their feet to enable them to walk or dance on red 
hot iron. The first two ingredients are apple brandy and 
eoramon extract of logwood, res-pectively." 

Fred Ives, Ggdenslmrg. N. Y.. in commenting upon the 
same subject, says: "Aiiua viliv is an English [ireserip- 
tion in the London Pharmacoixeia of 1677, and it is re- 
published in Redwood's Dispensatory of 1848. By 'Ile- 
matis,' I think, is meant Hematitis Lapis, ;i reddisli- 
browii peroxide of iron." 

To Clean and Pcllsh Marble. 

I.L W. .1.) The marble of your soda Jountain may be 
cleansed with the following: 

Sodium carbonate 2 ounces 

Chlorinated lime 1 ounce 

Water 14 ounces 

Mix well and apply to the marble with a cloth, rub- 
bing well in and, finally, rubbing dry. It may be neces- 
sary to repeat this operation. The marble may now be 
polished by rubbing over with kerosene. It shouhl not. 
however, be applied to white marble. 

Another method published a number of years ago in the 
Scientific American directs that the marble be rubbed 
with the following mixture: % pound of soft soap. %, 
pound of whiting, 1 ounce of soda, and about Va ounce 
of blue vitriol. Apply with a piece of flannel and allow 
the mixture to remain 24 hours. Wash off with clean 
water and polish the marble with a piece of flannel or 
an old piece of felt. 

Powdered Flavoring Extracts. 

IB. \\'. K.I By "powdered Havering extracts" is gen- 
erally meant the preparations obtained by triturating the 
various volatile oils with sugar, after the general for- 
mula given in the National Formulary for "oil sugars." 
T'uder the title of "oleo-sacchara" the work named di- 
rects the following, which is practically identical with 
the formula under "Ehro-sacchara" in the Gi'inuin Phar- 
macopo'ia: 

Volatile oil 1 drop 

Sugar 2 grains 

Triturate the sugar Avitli the volatile oil to a fine pow- 
iler. 

The oleosaccharates are intended as a pleasant aro- 
matic vehicle for administering medicinal substanc-es in 
powder form. Those prepared from volatile oils should 
be freshly made when wanted for use. Only the liest 
quality of fresh volatile oil should be employed, as old 
resinified oils impart a bitter, unpleasant taste, as well 
.•IS terebinthinate odor, to the sugar. 



.March 25, 18!>7.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



30:! 



Remedies for Tapeworm. 

(J. K.) Foi- tlie e.\|iulsii>ii of tapiwonn a niixoJ troat- 
mt'ut by poiucgnui.itf bark, pumpkin seeds ami oloo-resin 
of male-feru is prcfonod by many practitioners. The 
following formula has jiroved very eltieient: 

1.) Pomegranate bark. 2 o\inces: water, IV-: pints, boiled 
to 7 ounces; pumpkin seeds, deprived of their outer coats 
and beaten to a iiasle witli fine powdered sugar, 1 ounce; 
oleo-resin of male-fern, MO grains. Make an emulsion of 
the oleo-resin with acacia and the above decoction of 
iiomegranale. add the pumpkin seed paste and add any 
tiavoring syrup up to 9 ounces. Potter says that one- 
ihird of this mixture may be taken in the morning after 
a light diet and a laxative on the previous day. If not 
suicessful, the second and third portions may be taken 
at intervals of three hours. 

2.1 A new remedy lately recommended by Renshaw is 
croton-chloral. Here is his formula: C'rotou-chloral, 4.5 
j;m.; tragacanth, 0.1 gm.; acacia, 0.25 gm.; simple syrup, 
25 drops. Make into 24 pills. Of these, four 
are to be taken at night, followed on the fol- 
lowing morning by four more, on an empty 
stonuich. One lunir after this a light breakfast 
may be taken, followed b.v a cathartic, consisting of 100 
gm. of infusion of senna with 15 drops of spirits of chlo- 
roform. (These pills should be freshl.v made before tak- 
ing, otherwise the.v will become extremely hard and in- 
.solnble on standing.) 



Some Chemical Reactions of Bismuth. 

iW. O.l wishes to put up a liquid face powder. His 
formula directs to dissolve S ounces of bismuth subni- 
irale in hydrochloric acid. Precipitate with water, wash 
thoroughl.v (he uses about 30 gallons for this purpose), 
:uid add 32 ounces of prepared chalk and enough water 
■or rose water to make 1 gallon. 'When this preparation 
is first made, it is satisfactor.v. After standing a few 
weeks, however, bubbles of gas appear and the mixture 
blackens. With precipitated chalk matters are still worse. 
The first reaction taking place in the above is that 
producing oxychloride of bismuth, but we can hardly ac- 
count for the color reaction. It seems to indicate, how- 
ever, the presence of hydrogen sulphide or ammonium 
sulphide, either of which precipitates bismuth as a black 
sulphide. Where these compounds originate in this in- 
stance we do not know, but it is quite likel.v one or both 
have been or may be present in the store or laborator.v 
where the mixture was allowed to stand. Again, they 
may have developed in the water used in making the 
mixture. Great care must be taken in the preparation of 
the various bismuth compounds to guard against just 
such contaminations. They are also quite susceptible to 
the action of light, and liquid preparations containing 
them should be kept in amber bottles. 

We suggest you try the formula again. Use freslil.v 
distilled water and about 8 ounces of glycerin to each 
gallon of finished product. Keep the mixture securely 
bottled and protected from the light. A modification of 
this formula, which we have often dispensed, is this one: 

Pismuth oxychloride 1% ounces 

Prepared chalk 3 ounces 

(Jlycerin 1 ounce 

Kistilled water, enough to make 1 pint 



Expectorant Syrup of White Pine. 

(H. H.) says one of his physicians wants him to pre- 
pare a gallon of expectorant syrup according to the fol- 
lowing formula, and directs him to use "no fluid ex- 
tracts." How shall he proceed? 

White pine 14 grains 

^^■ild cherry 14 grains 

Spikenard 2 grains 

Balm of GihMd 2 grains 

Sassafras 1 grain 

Blood root IV? grains 

Ipecac 2 grains 

Morphine sulphate Vio grain 



AmuKinium chloride 10 grains 

Syrup, enough to make 1 ounce 

Follow this process, the quantiles of the various ingre- 
dients in the formula Ix'ing calculated to produce one 
gallon of finished product: 

\\'lute pine bark 1702 grains 

\\'ild cherry liark 1702 grains 

Spikenard root 2.5ti grains 

Balm of gilead buds 2.5<! grains 

Sassafras bark 12S grains 

Blood root 192 grains 

Ipecac root 2.">(i grains 

'Morphine sulphate 102'/,„ grains 

.\nimonium cliloride 1280 grains 

Sugar (3 pounds 

Alcohol, 
Water. 

Syrup, of each, a sufficient quan- 
tity to make 1 gallon 

Reduce the vegetable drugs to a moderatel.v coar.se 
(No. 40) powder, moisten the powder with a menstruum 
composed of one volume of alcohol and three volumes of 
water, and macerate for twelve hours. Then percolate 
with the same menstruum until one-half gallon of tinc- 
ture has been obtained, in which dissolve the sugar, mor- 
phine sulphate and ammonium chloride, and add enough 
syrup to make the whole measure, one gallon. Strain. 



Bleaching Sponges. 

(C. E. T.) Ordinarily sponges are cleaned and 
bleached by the u.se of permanganate of potassium, fol- 
lowed by a solution of sulphurous or h.vdrochloric acid. 
This is substantially the process adopted by the National 
Formulary, a method which satisfactorily whitens the 
sponges, but often partially destroys their tissues. Some- 
times the sponges are first soaked in dilute hydrochloric 
acid and then treated with the permanganate. In bleach- 
ing, the first thing to do is to clean, wash and squeeze 
out the sponges. They should be well beaten to get rid 
of sand and loose earthy matter, soaked in water for 
some hours, then squeezed dry, and placed in a tub con- 
taining dilute hydrochloric acid. After remaining in this 
solution until all efifervescence is over and no hard parti- 
cles are seen or felt — stirring them about with a stick is 
useful to hasten the process — the.v should be well 
squeezed and transferred to a pan of water under a run- 
ning tap. Next, the sponges are placed in a 2 per cent, 
solution of potassium permanagante. After soaking them 
for a few minutes — the exact time can be best judged 
by the color, which ought to be dark brown — the.v are to 
Ik" removed, again washed, and put into another tub of 
solution of half a pound sodium hyposulphite and one 
ounce oxalic acid to one gallon of water. Here the 
sponges soak for about fifteen minutes. Finally, take 
them out and wash them thoroughly. By this treatment 
the sponges are rendered perfectly white and remain so. 
Many sponges contain a more or less dark-colored core, 
and if treated only with permanganate and acid the core 
is either not bleached at all, or if bleached somewhat, 
the tint is apt to grow darker again. By the combination 
of the three solutions every portion is thoroughly and 
permanently whitened. 

Roe.ser claims that bromine water is preferable for 
bleaching sponges, especially after being u.sed in surgical 
operations. The sponge is thoroughly disinfected and 
may be put through the process eight or nine times with- 
out destroying its texture. His method is this: Wash 
the sponges in warm distilled water (not above 150° F.) 
which contains in each liter 20 drops of 10 per cent, solu- 
tion of caustic soda. After thoroughly treated in this 
manner, they are drained and placed in vessels contain- 
ing the bromine water, which is made by adding 30 
grams of saturated aqueous solution of bromine to one 
liter of distilled water. Leave the sponge in this .solution 
until it is discolorized. and repeat with fresh bromine so- 
lution until it is thoroughl.v bleached, which is hastened 
by warmth and exposure to sunlight. After removal 
from the bromine bath, squeeze the sponges well and im- 



3U4 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[Maixh -Jb, 18!i7. 



uiei'se them iu a dilute solution of soda (20 drops of a 10 
per cent, solution to the liter), and lastly wnsli o\it all 
traces of bromine odor with distilled water. 



Oraduatloa la Chemistry. 

(Enquirer) asks how iijiiiiy sessions of study will he re- 
quired of a student lo become a graduate iu chemistry. 
Also how many sessions will be required of a graduate 
iu pliarmacy to become a graduate in chemistry? 

Answers to these questions depend upon a number of 
considerations, among which are the intellectual equip- 
ment of the student, the character of the educational 
institiitiou attended, the particular course of such insti- 
tution in which chemistry is the leading study, the par- 
ticular degree desired, etc., etc. Nearly all of the uni- 
versities and technical schools conferring degrees (Bach- 
elor of Scienci^ in Cbemistry, etc.) require an entrance ex- 
amination equivalent to graduation from a high school 
or an academy. The student must pass these examina- 
tions whatever course (as a candidate for a degree) he 
may take. The length of the course of instruction then 
depends upon the branch of chemistry he wishes to fol- 
low. If it be his aim to equip himself to follow chem- 
istry as a pursuit be will become most likely a candidate 
for the degree of B. S. in Chemistry. This course will 
require of him four years' study, chemistry being the 
leading subject, with modern languages, mathematics, 
general science, etc., adapted to his professional purpose. 
Other courses iu chemistry are offered, as chemistry ap- 
plied to metallurgy, mining, mechanical engineering, 
electricity, biology, toxicology, etc., which lead to a B. S. 
degree, the time service and study being about the same 
as that required for the same degree (B. S.) in general 
science. Almost all of our great universities and poly- 
technic institutions provide courses of this character, and 
it is from them you can secure full information for the 
asking. Just how much credit may be allowed for the 
course in pharmacy (Ph. G.) you have already taken we 
do not know. The courses iu chemistry offered by va- 
rious colleges of pharmacy are far from uniform, some 
have no educational entrance requirements: others have 
courses in which the time spent in study and laboratory 
work varies from two to three years of six to nine 
mouths each. As a result the equipment in general sci- 
ence, and chemistry in particular, of the average gradu- 
ate in pharmacy is an unknown quantity. The ability, 
therefore, of the graduate in pharmacy to take up. as a 
candidate for a degree, scientific studies, and the credit 
he may be allowed for the work he has already accom- 
plished in chemistry as applied to pharmacy, must be 
determined by the institution he seeks to enter. As you 
are a resident of Louisiana we suggest you write to the 
dean of the scientific department of Tulane University, 
New Orleans. Institutions in the North offering instruc- 
tion in almost any line of chemistry are Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York; Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. 
Brooklyn; the Scientific School, Harvard University. 
Boston; Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore; Michigan University, Ann 
Arbor, Mich.; University of Chicago, Chicago. 



DYNAMOGEN.— An active, agreeable blood prepara- 
tion, intended as a tonic for invalids and children. 



ARGENTOL.— A compound of silver and oxychino- 
lin of the formula CsHsN. OHAg, which possesses anti- 
septic properties useful in ointment or solution. 

IQDANISOL (C„H,— OCH3. I.)— This forms a reddish 
yellow crystalline mass, which fuses at 47° C, and is 
soluble in alcohol and ether. It is intended as an anti- 
septic. 

SAGRADIN.— A 20 per cent, solution of extract of 
cascara sagrada, which has been deprived of its bitter- 
ness, to which is added 2 per cent, of spiritus menthse 
piperitae. 



IMPORTANT. 

National Wholesale Druggists' Association, 

Philadelphia, .March l'>, 180T. 
To the Members N. \V. D. A. and other Wholesale 
Druggists: . 

It has been suggested to this committee by several of 
our members that we should issue a circular letter con- 
cerning two articles which wholesale druggists have ri- 
i-<>nlly been asked by the makers to handle, both of 
whicii, so far as decisions have been renderrcl by the 
lonrls up to the in-esent time can leg:illy be handled, but 
which undoubtedly come under the ban of the resolution 
adopted by the N. W. D. A. at its meeting iu 1887, read- 
ing as follows: 

"Kcsolveil, That it is tlie duty of thi' members 
III' tliis association to ri'cognize the validity of tlie 
trade marks of proprietors, and to discourage the 
sale of such goods as may be fairly considered in- 
fringements." 

A\'hicli resolution and those following, adopted at th( 
same lime, although not since re-adopted at all annual 
meetings, must still be considered as being in force, for 
the reason that the committees provided under these res- 
olutions to be appointed l>y our association and the I'ro- 
prictary Association were bolli re-appointed at X\n: last 
annual meeting, which committees will doubtless in due 
course act upon the cases to which it has been deemed 
best tliat we should promptly call the attention of our 
memliers. 

One of these articles is the "Pitcher's Castoria,"' of- 
fered to the trade by a concern styling itself "Castoria 
Company," of Kargo. N. !>.. who. in a circular recently 
issued to the trade, used the following language, viz.: 

"\Ve do not, under any circumstances, wish our goods 
to go to the retailer or consumer when the goods of the 
Centaur Company are specified." 

It would seem as if the Fargo concern might possibly 
have found some name other than the one hitherto used 
by the Centaur Company, and lo establish which that 
company and its predecessors spent hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars in advertising and other efforts to make 
it the well-known household remedy it now is. They 
must know perfectly well, also, that by reason of this 
name being so popularized, 999 orders out of every 1,0<JI) 
are written for "Castoria" simply, and neither the name 
"Centaur Company's," nor "Fletcher's," nor "Pitcher's" 
is mentioned in such orders. 

The committee hopes, therefore, that our members and • 
the wholesale drug trade in general will not, in any man- 
ner, countenance this article unless it is offered under 
some other name not so manifestly calculated to greatly 
injure the value of the established article. 

The other article to which our attention has been 
called is the "Garfield Fig Syrup." Of this we know but 
little, but we think we are justified in stating that the 
(Jarfield Tea Company, who have created a very large 
demand for their tea, would protest very energetically 
if some other Garfield were to go into the market with a 
tea under the same name. It may be well to state, in 
this connection, that the California Fig Syrup Company, 
which popularized the name "Syrup of Figs," has al- 
ways, to the utmost of its ability, protected both the 
wholesale and retail trade in the sale of its preparation; 
and while we regret to have to state that the Centaur 
Company has not given us that full measure of co-opera- 
tion iu maintaining contract prices, which our members 
have a right to expect, yet we believe that they will, by 
the honorable action on our part above suggested, be led 
to see the importance of the co-operation which the 
wholesale trade is pledged, by the resolution of the N. 
W. D. A. above quoted, to give them by refusing recog- 
nition of the Fargo article, whose manufacturers seek 
the wholesale druggists as a channel to float their prepa- 
ration. Whatever the result in this regard may be, the 
action recommended is right in principle, and for this 
reason merits our heartiest support. Yours very trulv, 
M. N. KLINE, Chairman. 



OVADIN. — A dry extract, containing iodine, prepared 
from the ovaries of swine and cattle. 



THE DURABILITY OF RAW SILK is, according 
to an English patent, materially increased by treatment 
with formaldehyde, then after washing, the last traces 
of aldehyde are removed l)y treating with ammonia. 



PURE OXALIC ACID.— A very pure oxalic acid may 
be had by recrystallizing from ether. The commercial 
sample is extracted in a Soxhlet's extraction apparatus 
by means of ether, whereby the impurities, such as the 
potassium and calcium salts, remain behind in the cone 
of the apparatus. 



J 



The Pharmaceutical Era 



[ WEEKL F.] 



Tht contents of thin publieatiim arc covered ?i)/ the general cnpi/righl, ami ariicles muet not be reprinted without special ))erni itorion. 



Vol. XVII. 



NEW YORK, APRIL 1. 1897. 



No. 13. 



ENTERED AT THE NEW YORK POST OFFICE, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER. 



Established 1887. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAI, ERA. 



PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 379 

T. K Studley 381 

CORRESPONDE.VCE 381 

Ancient Medicin" 382 

Formaldehj'de as a Disin- 
fectant 383 

From the French Capital.. 384 

Reactions and Reagents ac- 
cordingto.\iithoi-s\\auie 38ti 

Our Medicinal Herbs and 
Plants 387 

Thei'apeutios of Emergen- 
cies 389 

Higher Education for Phy- 
sician and Pharmacist 390 

Pharmacy 391 



PAT 

Question Box 39-' 

News Department 395 

A Swindler sent to Jail 39.t 

New Laws in Connecticut 397 

Sale of Abortifacients 397 

New York Wholesale Drug 

Trade Bowling Club 398 

News Letters 389 

Torrey Botanical Club 406 

Obitdart 407 

Patents, Tradkmarks, 

Etc 408 

Trade Department, In- 
cluding Trade Reports, 
Marliet Reports, Trade 
Notes, Manufacturers' 
Announcements, etc.. in 
pages immediately fol- 
lowing Reading Pages. 



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Get Uncle Sam After Them. 

The attention of the postal authorities in this city has 
been callod repeatedly to the fact that an organized gang 
of swindlers is using the mails to defraud the drug 
trade. Their operations have been fully related in these 
pages. .V pompous representative of the powers that 
be told a gentleman who complained of their operations 
that he did not doubt in the least that the state of things 
was as represented, but he coolly added that the depart- 
ment would not take any steps to punish the scoundrels 
until the victims dotinitely established the existence of 
a conspiracy to defraud. This was a facer, for the com- 
plainant had always humbly believed that on a charge 
of fraud the GoTcrnment's duty and desii-e were to in- 
vestigate fully and punish severely. To be told to do this 
work himself was a disagi^eable revelation of the atti- 
tude of the authorities. The drug trade is heartily dis- 
gusted with the lack of backbone on the part of the 
postoffice. but hopes for better things from the new 
administration. W'e are to have protection in name; 
let it be in fact also. Here is an opportunity to protect 
a most imi>ortant industry. Will the new postal inspec- 
tors wipe out this lot of thieves, or will they expect 
the drug merchants and manufacturers to go into the 
detective business for them? It is a shame that these 
swindling rascals find it possible to carry on their 
schemes. It is possible, not only because some drug 
trade men are "good things," but especially because 
the authorities do not follow them up as closely as they 
should. The Croshers, Gerrishes, Meyers and others of 
that ilk should be sent to jail and kept there, and the 
Post Office Department can do it if it wishes. 



Successful ( ? ) Cutters. 

One often hears the remark that So-and-So. the cut- 
ter, is doing an immense business, and must be making 
money. One of our correspondents hazards the state- 
ment that this conception is not always supported by 
the facts: on the contrary, he says: "Is it not strange that 
every one of the leading cutters is either "in hands of 
receiver." "has failed.' or 'is in financial trouble?' " He 
cites as proof that the leading cutter in Charleston, who 
utterly demoralized the trade of that city, is in "finan- 
cial trouble": that the "aggressive cutter" of Washing- 
ton has failed; that the cutter in Chicago who boasts 
that he sells as much patent medicines as an.v fifty drug- 
gists of that city (because the "fool druggists" do not 
follow his methods), got into deep water a ,vear or two 
ago. and is still in a receiver's charge. Is this the bril- 
liant result of aggressive cutting? Does aggressive cut- 
ting mean the cutting down of creditors' claims by as- 
signment, receivership or similar brilliant financiering? 
Shall the honest and honorable druggist follow these 
illustrious examples and do business by cutting down 
honest debts? As it looks to our friend, the majority of 
our druggists are not aggressive, but stick to the old- 
fashioned, fossil theory of paying honest debts in full, 
not cutting them in half by failures, assignments or 
by disputing mortgages. 

This charge, by inference, of dishonesty which is 
brought against the cutter is rather strong, somewhat 
overdrawn. Not all are dishonest, and some succeed 



380 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[April 1. IWtT 



fiiinnciallj, but there is enough of truth and facts for a 

groundwork tor our friend's jeremiad. Cutting does not 
pji.v. as a rule, and cnoufili examples of the rule ma.v 
be discovered to prove it. The principle upon which 
cutting is conducted is opposed to sound business meth- 
ods, and for every cutter who succeeds financially, a 
dozen or a hundred other dealers must go down with 
the wrecks of their liusiness. 



Be Calm, Qentlemen. 

It is unfortunate that this recent substitution discus- 
si<m has been directed into personalities. Even some 
of the pharmaceutical journals appear to be searching 
tlie unabridged dictionary for new and cutting epithets 
to hurl at the wicked patent medicine man. Nothing can 
be gained by calling the proprietors blacklegs and cut- 
throats, or for them to characterize all druggists as 
frauds and substituters. The proprietors have had their 
lesson. 'Jliey realize that it is to their interests to have 
their goods handled by the drug trade. The department 
stores who started out as such big customers are now 
the worst substituters. People have more confidence in 
drngs that they buy at a drug store. The problem is 
to restore prices and to keep these goods from the out- 
side dealers. Each man blames the other fellow for 
present londitions. and in order to start right it is nec- 
essary to make a fresh start. What has been had better 
be forgotten, and attention devoted to what can be done. 
Nothing can be gained by the 'You're another' style of 
argument. This patent-medicine-cut-rate-substitution 
question is solely a business proposition. Patent medi- 
cines are going to continue to be sold — who shall sell 
them? If the druggist, then he must be protected in 
their sale. tJet together on a business basis, gentlemen, 
and don't indulge in Kilkenny cat tactics. You remem- 
ber what became of those cats. 



Duties of Members. 

It is sometimes impossible to escape the conviction that 
members of an organization consider their duty to it dis- 
charged in full by the prompt settlement of dues and 
other fees. This is quite noticeable in pharmaceutical 
associations. A few attend the meetings and do all the 
work, whatever is done; the great majority remain at 
home and criticize the faithful few for their sins of 
omission and commission. Is it any wonder that many 
of the aims and purposes of these organizations are not 
accomplished'/ The grumblers are, almost without ex- 
ception, tliose wlio rarely or never attend the meetings, 
or if they are present, do not join in the discussions. 

We all agree that organization is a good thing; that it 
is often the oul.v way to correct certain abuses. This 
being conceded, it is obviously the duty of every one 
within the organization to do all and whenever and 
wherever he can to further its purposes. Each memtjer 
is a link in the chain, and the chain is only as strong as 
the weakest link. Retail pharmacists have for years 
been urging organization as a sovereign balm for ah 
their woes. We lionestly believe that if each and every 
one had done his duty in and toward the local. State and 
national associations to which he belongs, the drug trade 
were not to-day in the condition of demoralization which 
is so noticeable. 

"Many a mickle makes a muckle." and great deeds may 
be accomplished by the union of little forces and agencies 
working in one direction. The time for the annual 
meetings of the various State pharmaceutical associa- 
tions is close at hand, and if their value and success as 
working agencies depend on any one thing it is the una- 
nimity of aim and action of their individual member- 
ship. So we say to each member: Y'ou arc as essential 
to the organization as it is to you. Attend its meetings, 
or if compelled to be absent, send in a few written sug- 
gestions to demonstrate your interest in the organization. 



This will interest and stimulate others, will tend to 

bring out many a bright and original idea of service !■> 
all. The retail druggists, through their associations and 
.■lided by the pharmaceutical journals, have it in their 
power, if they will only exert themselves, to place their 
profession on the footing all so much desire. Nearly all 
the non-professional callings have their unions, by which 
they enforce their rules ami effect reforms. The drug- 
gists can do as much, and they should consider it a per- 
sonal duty, as well as a privilege, to belong to the 
pharmaceutical associations and serve in them actively 
and constantly. Attend the meetings and make your as- 
sociation a success. 



The Color Line at the Fountain. 

The only colored member of the Illinois Legislature has. 
introduced a bill entitling colored citizens to enjoy rights 
of citizenship at soda fountains and other public eating 
and drinking places and resorts. This grows out of the 
fact that last year a druggist was sued for refusing to 
sell sod.i water to a colored person, and won his suit, 
which the higher courts confirmed. 

It seems to us that this is a matter which cannot well 
be settled by the courts or the law. The colored man 
has as much right to life, liberty and the pursuit of hap- 
piness as any other man, but no more. The merchant 
lias the right, or should have, to sell to whom he chooses. 
If he deems it policy, for any reason sufficient to him- 
self, to refuse to sell to any individual or class of in- 
dividuals, this certainly is his privilege. It is not the 
part of wisdom to force oneself in where one is not 
wanted. If Illinois druggists are forced against their 
will to sell soda water to colored people, it is a possibility 
that the beverage may be made distinctly disagreeable: 
syrup of squills might be employed for a flavor. 

But this is all a tempest in a teapot, anyway, and, law 
or no law, there will probably be no very serious trouble 
in Illinois. The colored people will very quickly give the 
go-by to the druggist who intimates he does not want 
their trade. This is entirely a matter for adjustment by 
common sense and good business policy, not by legal 
measures. 



Importers of Toilet Preparations Protest. 

Importers of toilet preparations containing alcoljot, 
such as hair tonics, face washes and dentifrices, eau de- 
quinine, brillantines, etc., are far from satisfied with the 
projMJsed tariff changes contained in the Dingley bill. 
Under the Wilson tariff law these goods were not classi- 
fied as alcoholic, and were admitted under a 40 per cent. 
r,d valorem duty, several decisions of the United States 
courts confirming the right of the importers to have the 
goods so classified. Under the proposed new law, how- 
ever, the goods are classified as alcoholic and subject to- 
the same rate of taxation as perfumery. The importer* 
intend to send representatives to Washington to protest 
against this classification. They say that such goods as 
they import contain only about 40 per cent, of alcohol, 
the remainder consisting of about 15 per cent, of medi- 
cinal ingredients and 45 per cent, of water. They pro- 
test against paying a tax on water. A certain hair prep- 
aration for instance comes in as toilet preparation at a 
duty amounting to from .30 to 35 per cent., according to 
the size of the bottles containing it. Under the proposed 
Dingley bill it will have to pay duties, specific and ad 
valorem, amounting to from 142 per cent, to 164 per 
cent. Such a law is expected to increase the price of im- 
ported toilet preparations, so as to stimulate the home 
production of such goods. 

How about a tariff for revenue only? 



BENZACETIN (Aceto-amido-salicylic acid). — This 
body unites with such bases as lithium and forms soluble 
salts, which act as prompt antineuralgics. In doses of 
Vi to 1 gram benzacetin acts as an effectual hypnotic , 
and sedative in hysterical, nervous and anjemic patients. I 



April 1, 1897.] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA. 



381 




fv ^^ m 



"-«* 




Theodore Earle Studley. 

The siilijoct cif this sketch is imiiiuo amoiif; (h'ugsisis, 
having (■(iiiiiiK'iK'tMl his business life at the age of twelve 
j'ears in a retail drug store in his native town, Worces- 
ter, Mass., which was then a village. Coming to Xew 
York in 18.5C. he entered the rnblier bnsiness through the 
Xew Brunswick Rubber Coniiiany, and for over forty 
years in the several business connections successively 
formed, as the partner in the firms of H. G. Norton & 
Co. and Sargent, Studley & Co. and the manager of the 
druggist.s' department of the Goodyear Itiibber Company, 
liis intimate association with retail druggists has been 
continuous. 

About twenty-five years ago, while of the tirm of Sar- 
gent. Studley & Co., he became coutidcntial agent and 
.attorney for the proprietors of the hotise of Lubin, tak- 
ing out their trade-mark and n-prcseuting them in this 
country in all matters pertaining to the prosecution of 
counterfeiters of their goods or labels. He has continued 
the connection ever since, and Mr. Studley states that at 
present tliere are several such suits in progress in differ- 
ent parts of the country. 

Having been so long and so intimately associated with 
the business, it seemed to be the logical necessity that 
lie should take the representation of it last September 
when the Paris house decided to establish a branch of- 
fice here, and it is conceded by those qualified to judge 
that he is the right man in the right place. The office 
is at 42 East Fourteenth street, overlooking Union 
square. 

Mr. Studley's reminiscences of the drug side of the 
rubber business are very entertaining. For instance, he 
says that water bottles, now sold in enormous quantities, 
even down to thirty years ago were sold in less quantity 
than two gross per year throughout the United States. 
So in the line of syringes of both hard and soft rubber 
and of all other goods of the same kind which have been 
introduced to the market during his connection with the 
trade. Inclined to conservatism in business methods, he 
is the proper manager of a house which, with the current 
ear, completes its century of existence. He is not quite 
i)f the old school, and yet is rather reluctant to believe 
hat the "hustlers" of the new have found all that is 
best in the ways which lead to success, or that the de- 
jartment store system is the perfect flower of our civili- 
ation. 

1 Mr. Studley resides in New York with his family. He 

/as two daughters, one of whom is married. He is a 

/uembcr of the New Y'ork College of Pharmacy. He was 

/one of the organizers of the Union League Club in the 

'j'days wlien it stood for patriotism, but is not now a mem- 

I her of it. He is also a member of the New England So- 

J eiety cif this city. 



CottespDiirience. 

We are pleased to publish here comntualcatlons from our reao- 
ers oa topics ot Interest to the drug trade. Writers are requestett 
to express their views as briefly as possible. Bach article mutt 
be signed by Its writer, but his aame will not be publlsbad tt 
ao requested. 



Alt Advocate of Early Closing. 

To I Ik Keiail Chemists of New Y'ork City and Brooklyn. 

( icntlemen— For near thirty years I have been inti- 
iiialely connected with tlio practice (jf mi'dicine and phar- 
m.-icy in New York and its immedi.-ite vicinity, and for 
liian.y years I have been inqjressed with the cruel, brutal 
and inhuman manner in which we act towards each 
other in the matter of early and Sunday closing of our 
stores. 

In no other country or nation on earth are the phar- 
macies kept open so many hours as in the United Stati'S, 
and I am confident that the selfishness of the owuers,nf 
drug stores is entirely to blame in the matter. No trntli- 
ful reason can be given why we should be called uiio.i 
to keep our stores open to the public from eighteen ii> 
twenty-four hours. Physicians are not caUed upon, e.\- 
criit in very urgent cases, to visit after evening hours, 
and 'tis only from the fact that the selfish public are 
fully aware of the fact that Mr. Moses Katachaalhecan, 
the corner druggist, will assuredly be oiien until the mid- 
night hour, that they defer buying their five grain pills 
or pow<lers 'till they are ready for bed. It is this class 
of customers that keep us open, and I am convinced that 
no honest man who has any experience of city pharma- 
cies can refute this statement. 

The intense selfishness of ourselves and neighbors, the 
bare thought of Chemist Donna Blitzen being able to 
capture a few more pennies than we, is what keeps our 
stores oi>en day and night, and certainly not the necessi- 
ties of the public. 

The accursed liquor drinking at soda fountains that 
has crejit into our business places, has in a great many 
instances demoralized our druggists, from Maine to Cali- 
fornia; every device is resorted to and suggested in the 
variety of drinks offered over the marble counter, mak- 
ing our otherwise respected pharmacies little less than 
open, bare-faced, liquor saloons. 

A month ago I closed my city store from 11 A. M. 'till 
.5 P. M. Sundays, and every week day at 10 P. M. My 
returns have increased every Sunday since doing so, and 
I propose to continue, although I am completely sur- 
rounded with pharmacies of the cut-throat German 
order. 

No, gentlemen, one and all, are you willing to close 
every night at S P. M.? If so, the only way to do it is 
to close at once. If you will consent to be less selfish 
and have more liberalism in your souls than you now 
appear to possess, you will earn the lasting gratitude of 
a large bod.v of men clerks, improve your own health, 
save unnecessary gas bills, and become once more 
respected by a c immunity whose chief interest is self. 

Believe me, brother pharmacists, a determined opposer 
of oppression, in cver\- form. C. G. C. 



Commercial Section of the A. Ph. A. 

Cleveland, Ohio, March 20, 1897. 
To the Editor: 

You may be right or wrong in your statement of the 
facts that the commercial section of the A. Ph. A. has 
accomplished no great good in the past eight years. I 
leave the answer to this serious charge to those who 
know what it has tried to do. how far it has been in- 
strumental in doing good, and whether the amount of 
good done has resulted in such things as cannot as well, 
if at all, lx> accomplished b,v other means. 

Y'our accusation carries with it the suggestion to break 
down the commercial section of our national organization 
without any suggestion as to improving it first, or of sub- 
stituting for it something which can be expected to do 
what it cannot. 

I do not believe in tearing down an organization where 
it is not doing any harm and is capable of doing much 
good. Patience is a virtue. 

The editor of a journal, to command the confidence of 
his subscribers, must build up and lead on. and not 
tear down, without the gravest of reasons. He should 
point out the causes of failure and suggest ways that 
will avoid failure. I do not think you have any justi- 
fication for desiring the suppression of this branch of 
the A. Ph. A., which under wise guidance can do a world 
of good. In my late address to the Cleveland Pharma- 
ceutical Association, I stated that I was sorry to see 
the various pharmaceutical associations lose sight of 
the fact that such fellowshiii was both of professional 



382 



THK PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA. 



[April 1, 1897, 



fliul liuKiiicss U'uolil Id all. ami that whi'k' we raise 
the standard of profeNKiiitial exoellence, let u« also raise 
the staiidaril of liu.siiicss excellence, bj' the same unity of 
effort. We have lu contend against an erijanized (rieml 
or foe — it is ilillicult to say which at different times they 
inny be— namely, the WhoU'sale l>ru>.'cists and the I'rii- 
prietary Sledicinc Manufaclurers. and between these two 
niillstiines wc will b<'. if we are not there already, where- 
as we slunild lie. by rinhls. the power UOiind the throne, 
rcculatint; but not dcstroyinj; both. The awakening ia 
only just iK'fiun. The Kra is ri;;ht. Thus far i)alieutly 
wi' have been wailinjr for the cut rate problem (in pro- 
prietary jjood.s) to be met by threat and tremendous effort 
• ou the iKirt oi' the iirop]-ieIors and wholi'saliTS, in our 
favor, becjiu.se they claim lo see. as liusiness men, as 
far as or further than we 4an the handwriting ou the 
wall. Hut we lla^■e biH'u met by mockery — the (lozen 
.price has bciMi in :i numbei of instances invariably in- 
•cnvlsed. iiitlin;_' down our margins, and the price to the 
I'Ublic oii the wraiiper.^ stricki-n off, so that the proprie- 
tary niiui need not be responsibh' for the price the drug- 
gist is in the future to get. 

The Commercial Section has been too patient, and now 
that' the sc:iles are removed from thi'ir eyes, after years 
<if valuable patience and exiHricuce. when they are about 
10 strike, because the iron is hot — altliough it has taken 
long to heat— now comes a suggestion to put the tires out! 
No! Hy all means let us not forget the commercial side 
of our being — our very life — and surrendiT organization. 
1 ffected already, to which delegates from all over the 
I'nion can lie sent. Let us show that we have been pa- 
tient but awake, .and let me appeal to the Era. as a 
li'ader of i)harmacy. to aid in arousing into action the 
commercial section of our pharmaceutical being, so that 
we will comiiel action and tremendous effort, instead of 
apathy and sh'i'py committees to investigate ways ami 
means. 1 am for peace and harmony, but if that fails. 
I aui convinced that there is integrity and resolution 
enough in the commercial being of every pharmacist to 
build up a perfect system of "millstones" of our own 
that could bring forth results— great results. 

I have been suspicious that .some of our drug journals 
have catered too much to their advertising patrons, and 
have failed to see that their subscribers" interests are 
the only true foundations for their coutiuued success, 
and such journals have espoused the interest of these 
luillstones, and suppressed statements derogatory to 
them, which should have been made known to their sub- 
scribers. 

I hope the Pharmaceutical Eira will not be guilty of 
a betrayal of the commercial interests of its patrons. 
lu fact, no journal can afford it, in these days when 
the druggists gather at their local and State and national 
meetings^ and can freely give vent to their opinion of the 
action of such journals in matters affecting the vital in- 
terests of the retailers. 

Thanking you for your kindly consideration, I am yimrs 
respectfully. 

N.VTilAX IUJSEWATER, Ph. «., M. D. 

Since writing the above, my attention was directed to a 
series of resolutions adopted by the Cleveland Pharma- 
ceutical A.ssociation, Dec. 4. ISJtCi. during my absence, 
advocating the sale of proprietary medicines exclusively. 
to such wlndesale dealers oidy who will sign and enforce 
an agreement to sell to all retailers alike, at proprietors" 
tixed prices. t)ne enuiuerated reason given is esjiecially 
emphatic and prophetic, namely, '"Self protection might 
move us to put our heads together and get up a full line 
of our own remedies, to be pushed by us unitedl.v'" (un- 
less projierly protected by the jiroprietcprst. X. R. 

The Doctor's Arguments Unsound. 

Everett. Wash.. March 21, 1807. 

To the Editor: I notice an article which appears in the 
Era of March 11. eittitliKl "Dispensing by Physicians 
Defended." and I wish through your columns to give my 
opinion concerning the arguments set forth therein. I 
do not intend to enter into any criticism with each par- 
ticular reason given, as I do not wish to take up too 
much space: but I shall only call your attention to a few 
points in the article. 

The physician writing this article has evidently had 
an exnerience with only a dishonest and incompetent 
<dass of druggists, and must have lived, for the most 
part, in the country, as he bases all of his argumeiits in 
favor of a doctor dispensing on these experiences. True, 
there are some druggists, and I aiu glad to say they are 
few. who would warrant the stand taken by this phy- 
sician, but this is not a sound argument in defense of his 
theory, any more than that the whole medical fraternity 
should be comlemned on account of some "'irregulars.'" 

In mv opinion, every one of these nine reasons he gives 
can be traced to one of these three false jiremises. viz.: 
Incompetency in the druggist, dishonesty in the drug- 
gist, or the fact of being in the country. This latter rea- 
son. I admit, would be sound under some circumstances. 



liat this IK exceptional, and 1 «lo uut think should be 
icmKidered in this case. Taking away these assumptions, 
.lud what has the doctor left to r«8t his argument upon? 
Nothing, and, therefore, it seems to me that his whole 
argument has nothing to sujiport it. 

in c(iM<'lHsion, if there are any good, soum) reasons for 
a physician dispensing his own prescriptions, they are 
certainly not shown in the article in qut>gtiou. 

••SUBSCUIBEIi." 



ANCIENT MEDICINE. 

If modern science can boast of anything, it can of the 
way in which it has rescued medicine from the realms 
of imagination. The wonderful prescriptionB of the 
.Magi, as narrated by the Roman historian Pliny, jin- 
examples of what the earliest doctors were, while even 
the "salves" of our own Elizabethans seem, at first 
sight, not much of an improvement upon those of the 
Chaldean M. D"s. Let us, says the London Standard, 
take a few examples of .Magian healing from a Latin 
author of which, perhaps, the most useful is the follow- 
ing — one that in luodt rn parlance would run thus: "A 
receipt to make women disclose their secrets. Take one 
hen. and having car