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Full text of "The Pharmaceutical era"

Library 
North Dakota Agricultural 
College and Experi- 
ment Station 



NO 



/ G7^y 



ONTARIO 
* TORONTO. 



:IO 

C0L1E6E or PHARMACr 

44 GERRARD ST. E. 
TOROfs^TOj 



ONTARIO 

COLLEGE OF P'- 




The Pharmaceutical Era 

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH 



D, O. Haynes & Co. . . . Publishers 
No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Telephone, 7646 Barclay. Cable Address, "Era, New York." 

Subscription Rates: 

single Copies, 15 cents. 
Domestic Rates to U.S., Cuba, Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

the Philippines and Mexico $1.00 a year 

To Canada, postpaid 1.50 a year 

To Foreign Countries in Postal Union 2.00 a year 

The Er..\ Price List with Subscription, 50c. a Coijy. 
PRICES INCLUDE POSTAGE AND PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

REMIT by P.O. or Express Order or New York Draft payable 
to order of D. 0. Haynes & Co. Add 10 cents for collection charges 
if you send local check. 

Published at No. 3 Park Place, Borough of Manhattan, New 
York, by D. O. Haynes & Co., a corporation: President and treas. 
urer, D. O. Haynes; vice-president, E. J. Kennedy; secretary, 
N, W. Haynes. Address of Officers is No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Entered at the New York Post-onice as Sccond-c!ass Mattel'. 

Copyright, 1914, by D. O. Haynes & Co. All rights reserved. 

Title registered in the United States Patent Office. 

Table of Contents. i ^ -> 

RE.\DING SECTIONS. \} M~} 

Editoriai, and PBARji.ACErTic.u. Pages 1 to 16 

Editorials 1-4 

Correspondence 4 

Prof. Tschirch on "Enzytnes" (Concluded) 5-6 

The Discovery of Quinine 7-8 

Sensitiveness of Alkaloidal Solutions 8-9 

New Remedies 9 

Selected Formulas 10 

Foreign .'\bstracts 11-12 

Question Box 13-14 

Women in Pharmacy 15-16 

News Section Pages 17 to 34 

Nation-wide Anti-Narcotic Law Enforcement 17-18 

Mostly Personal 18-19 

Obituaries 20-21 

News of the Associations 22-30 

Trade Section Pages 35 to 46 

Recent Patents and Trade-marks 43-44 

The Drug Markets 45-46 

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Page 57 

INDEX TO GOODS ADVERTISED Pages 54 to 56 

INDEX TO RE.A.DING P.AGES " 58 



ATTENTiON^^'cTOnagdsts ^Dn^^eV^ci-k State is 
called to the iahK^ ^d^Jp^j ^k^Yeh. 1, 1914, 
the so-called Brooks LfltV;' Ifi so far as it relates to 
package and bottled goods, will be in effect. The 
general law, forming Chapter 81 of the Laws of 
1912, has been active since June 1, 1913, but the 
sections affecting goods sold in packages or in small 
containers, which make up the bulk of commodities 
handled by druggists, were not to become effective 
until eight months later. The provisions of the 
new regulations have been fully set forth in past 
issues of the Era (May and September, 1913). 
The law was passed chiefly in the interests of pur- 
cha.sers, and stipulates that all packages must bear 
a plain statement of the net contents, or of the 
numerical count of the pieces in the package. Cer- 
tain exceptions are made, and a list of tolerances 
has been drawn up by the State Superintendent 
of "Weights and Jleasures. All classes of commodi- 
ties, foods and candies, as well as drugs, are within 
the scope of the law. We do not believe that the 
new measure will present any difficulties to the 
druggists of the State, or to the manufacturers. 
Ample time has been given in which to make neces- 
sary changes in labels, etc., and the public, if it 
will but use its eyes, now has full protection against 
deception. 

In this connection we may mention that a list of 
tolerated variations in druggists' weights, taken 
from the November "Weights and JIea.sures Bul- 
letin," appears in the Trade Section of this issue. 



A WORD AS TO SUNDAY CLCSIYG. 



With the passage of the " one-day-rest-in-seven " 
bill b.v the New York State Legislature an added 
impetus has been given to the movement in favor 
of the closing — for at least part time — on Sunday 
of drug stores. Many New York druggists liave 
gone on record as in favor of this solution of the 
"day off" problem, particularly since the latest 
move on the part of the authorities toward the 
limiting of sales in New York drug stores on Sun- 
day to drugs, thus shutting out the income from 
soda, cigars and sundries, which has always made 
the greatest showing in the day's total cash re- 
ceipts. Drug clerks' organizations have for years 
urged such a legalized respite from labor, and in 
some States, notably California, have won a six- 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



day week — 60 hours in California — and a minimum 
vage scale. At the recent conference called under 
the auspices of the New York State Ph. A., Presi- 
dent Jacob H. Rehfuss was pronouucetU.v in favor 
of Sunday closing, declai-ing that the sooner the 
pharmacists consider the question seriously the 
better, since ''as soon as the clerks organize they 
will get the desired hours." Postal-card canvasses 
among members of New York associations of drug- 
gists indicate that but from 10 to 15 per. cent, of 
the druggists favor keeping open all day Sunday, 
the majority favoring either complete or partial 
closing. 



ADOPTION OF A STANDARD POISON BOTTLE. 



There is at the present time before Congress a 
proposed amendment to the Federal Food and 
Drugs Act which requires that when packages con- 
taining vinUent poisons are shipped into interstate 
commerce direct to the consiuner, such poisons shall 
be placed in containers to be prescribed by the 
Secretarj' of Agriculture and the Secretary' of 
Commerce. Since the introduction of this bill, and 
following the recent agitation in the newspapers 
relating to the accidental deaths that have occurred 
through the inadvertent use of corrosive sublimate, 
there have been manj' discussions as to what form 
of container would best meet the conditions and 
obviate the dangers of accidental poisoning. 

Legislation embodjing this idea has been more 
than once attempted in various States in this coun- 
try, but we cannot at the present moment recall 
a law in force in any State which makes the en- 
closure of a poison in a special form of container 
obligatory. In Great Britain the regulations are 
more specific, the pharmacy law requiring that the 
container must be labeled with the name of the 
poison and some distinctive mark showing that it 
contains a poison, and that such poison must be 
kept in one of three systems, the particular system 
to which we refer requiring that the poison shall 
be kept in "a bottle or vessel rendered distinguish- 
able bj^ touch from the bottles or vessels in which 
ordinary articles are kept in the same warehouse, 
shop, or dispensarj-. " As a further precaution, all 
poisons sold or dispensed must be sent out in bot- 
tles, also rendered distinguishable bj' touch from 
ordinarj' medicine bottles, which must bear the 
required label as to name, etc., and a notice that 
the contents of the bottle are not to be taken in- 
ternally or are poisonous if taken in overdoses. 
These regulations support our belief that of all the 
containers that have been suggested, that one which 
enables the consumer to receive warning of danger 
bj- means of his sense of touch is the most prac- 
tical, and is most serviceable both in the darkness 
and in the light. A distinctive color can also be 
adopted, but the precautionary value of this alone 
ha.s its limitations. 

There is, in our opinion, no doiibt but that regu- 
lations as proposed in the above amendment are 
needed, for as conditions stand at present, anyone 
can ship into the homes of consumers the most 
deadly poisons without indicating in any manner 
whatever the nature of the commodity. With the 



adoption of a particular form of container, the 
numufacturer. or shipper, and the pharmacist as 
well, should be compelled to explain to purchasers 
the deadly nature of poisons and to point out to 
thoiu the shape and color of the containers in which 
such agents are enclosed. 



RETURN TO DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 



At the recent meeting of the Congress of Clini- 
cal Surgeons held in Chicago, the new president. 
Dr. John B. Murphy, made the seemingly confi- 
dent prediction that for the next quarter of a. 
century the practice of surgery will be subordi- 
nated to internal medicine. This admission by a 
most distinguished surgeon shows that the so-called 
"drugless therapy" is on the wane, so far as scien- 
tific medicine is concerned, that drugs and medi- 
cines are the dependable weapons of the physician 's 
armamentarium in fighting disease, and that to 
them the sick must look for relief in many diseases 
the knife of the surgeon can never reach. The 
eminent surgeon's statements are significant: 

"If you were to ask me whether if I were to start 
in to study medicine today I would take medicine or 
surgery, I would tell you without hesitation that I 
would start in internal medicine. The advance of 
internal medicine in the next quarter of a century 
will be enormously greater than that in surgery. In- 
ternal medicine has enormously more possibilities than 
siu'gery has. It is the internal medicine that goes 
into the details, makes a careful examination and 
analyses, and endeavors to arrive at a diagnosis. 

"I feel with you that the clinical conventions are 
to be the conventions of the future, that clinical teach- 
ing is to be the line of the medical profession rather 
than the line of the papers, which we have followed 
in the past, but in order that that should be a suc- 
cess, and a continued success, it must have the sup- 
port of every member of the congress and the pro- 
fession." 

These views confirm the belief that the standing 
of the medical profession is much more closely con- 
nected with pharmacy than many doctors seem to 
realize, and they also show a brighter outlook for 
the early future of our calling. If pharmacists are 
to supply this greater demand for drugs the return 
to clinical medicine will develop, they must do 
their share in equipping themselves for the prac- 
tice of professional pharmacy. The pharmacist 
must get in closer touch with prescribing doctors, 
and let them know that he is abreast of the times 
in .scientific attainments. Good drugs and medi- 
cines have their place in fighting disease, and the 
more this fact is realized, the more will it do to 
increase the amount of medicine intelligently used, 
and this, in the final analysis, means more pre- 
scriptions. 

TWO NOTABLE RULINGS. 



Two recent decisions of the courts in price main- 
tenance cases are of decided interest to druggists 
and manufacturers for the trade, in that both the 
rulings maintain the position of the Supreme 
Court of the United States in the famous Sana- 
togen decision. The cases at issue were those of the 
Waltham Watch Co. against Chas. A. Keene, a 
Broadway jeweller, and the "Macy" case (Straiiss 
vs. the American Publishers' Association). The- 



■January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



Waltham company sought to prevent Keene from 
selling wateli movements at less than the price fixed 
by the manufacturers, and the U.S. Circuit Court 
of Appeals affirmed the decree of Judge Ray of the 
Federal district court, who dismissed the case last 
February with the following comment: 

"On the subject of fixing prices for resales by dealers to 
■consumers the Supreme Court of the United States has de- 
■clared that such Hmitations are opposed to sound public policy, 
■and, therefore, void. A combination having that for its object 
-is illegal." 

The "Macy" ease, which had for its object per- 
fecting the right of the retailer to vend books at 
the price most satisfactoiy to himself, rather than 
at the price stipulated by the publishers, was still 
another action to establish the status of price pro- 
tection imder the copyright law. The gist of the 
xmanimous decision of the United States Supreme 
Court is that copyright as well as patent property 
is not exempt from the provisions of the Sherman 
■anti-trust law. It had been supposed, previous to 
this decision by the highest court, that the inclusion 
in the copyright statutes of the right to "vend" 
protected copyright property to the extent of allow- 
ing the maintenance of prices and the prevention 
of under-selling, but the Supreme Court decision 
negatives any such diifei-entiation. 

As there had been something more than a linger- 
ing hope in the minds of manufacturers of price- 
protected goods that the patent laws and copyright 
laws contained a certain barrier against price- 
severe blow to advocates of the fixed price policy, 
cutting the t\\\) decisions cited 'have come as a 
with the result that the movement to so change 
existing laws that price protection shall be legal- 
ized as a commercial policy has been given a de- 
cided impetus. 



ANTIDOTES ON POISON LABELS. 



The action of the Kentucky Board of Pharmacy 
in recommending that all poison labels should carry 
a definite statement as to the antidotes generally 
recognized as efficient for each particular poison, is 
a step in the right direction. It has been fre- 
quently called to attention that many of the labels 
used by druggists on poisons name antidotal meas- 
ures that are entirely inadequate and inefficient for 
the pui"pose desired, while some labels call for 
remedial measures or the use of means that are 
absolutely inaccessible to the average person. Some 
of the labels criticised make no reference to use 
of emetics in the treatment of cases where these 
remedies would likely prove most serviceable, and 
generally the most easily obtainable and understood, 
while others repeat such glaring inconsistencies as 
recommending the use of lime and oil cs an anti- 
dote for arsenical poisoning! In many cases label 
printing houses are to blame for repeating many 
obsolete and inadequate antidotal mea.sures, but in 
any litigation that might follow in the courts on 
the pretext that a label failed to give approved 
information, the responsibility would invariably be 
placed on the pharmacist. 

When a person has swallowed a dose of poison it 
is of utmost importance to Imow just what to do 
^t the time, for life in such cases often depends 



on doiag the right thing and doing it quickly. To 
mislead by information that should be trustworthy 
is criminal neglect, and it should be required of 
Itoards of pharmacy to provide standard labels to 
be used on all poisons sold within their respective 
jurisdictions, including a definite statement of the 
particular antidote or other remedial measure to 
be recommended. In some of the States, particu- 
larly California, the law requires that the board 
of pharmacy shall adopt a schedule of what in its 
judgment are the most suitable common antidotes 
for the various poisons usually sold, and when any 
poison is sold it must bear the official label on 
which appears the name of the particular antidote 
adopted and no other. Theoretically, the enforce- 
ment of such a measure affords protection to the 
druggist, and it contributes not a little to conserv- 
ing the public health. The responsibility of de- 
termining what constitutes an adequate antidote 
for any particular poison is, by such a law, also 
shifted from the pharmacist's shoulders. 



LIFE EEGISTKATION FOR PHARMACISTS. 



The announcement that the Ohio Pharmaceutical 
Association has begun a State- wide campaign for a 
law providing that pharmacists shall be registered 
for life, instead of for three years, as at present, 
again brings to the front the debatable question of 
the necessity for re-registration. Lawyers and doc- 
tors, having once qualified to practice their chosen 
callings, are not thereafter compelled to do any- 
thing to protect their prerogative except to be 
honest and straightforward in the practice of their 
professions. Pharmacists, on the other hand, not 
only must re-register, but they must pay fees, at 
least in some of the States (in Ohio $2) for the 
privilege. 

There are arguments in favor of re-registration 
of pharmacists that do not apply to the majority 
and which are well Imown. The same arguments 
would apply in even greater degree to lawyers and 
physicians. Without at this time passing upon the 
main question as to whether all three professions 
ought or ought not to re-register at stated intervals, 
it seems, nevertheless, to be adding insult to injury, 
that pharmacists in addition to being forced to re- 
register, should have to pay for so doing. 

Many board officials have claimed with consider- 
able degree of reason that re-registration made it 
easier to keep track of pharmacists, and for board 
members to detect the fraudulent use of certificates 
of registration. To this extent, perhaps, re-regis- 
tration has something to commend it, but why 
should pharmacists be taxed to support boards of 
pharmacy 1 Lawyers are not compelled to pay fees 
to support the courts, doctors are not required to 
pay the cost of boards of health or examining 
boards, and this discrimination against pharmacists 
is plainly on a level with class legislation. The 
license fees of one kind or another the pharmacist 
is compelled to meet constitute an onerous burden, 
and that one exacted from him for re-registration 
is practically the penalty he pays for being allowed 
to practice an honorable profession. In Ohio, as 
in other States, there seems to be need of a read- 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



jitstinent of the relation of pharmacists to the 
Government. 



ENZYMES IN OUR SEKVICE. 



A ROMANCER of 8 dozen years ago brought the 
inhabitants of Mars to Earth, and thou allowed 
them to perish by a form of death utterly un- 
dreamed of by the Martians— the effects of germs. 
Somewhat similar to the feelings of the bacteria- 
stricken Martians must be the astonishment of 
those who are not quite abreast of the modem 
developments of pharmacy, on reading Professor 
Tschirch's address on "Enzymes," appearing in 
the last issue of the Era, and in this number. The 
magnitude of the work silently carried on by these 
remarkable substances is scarcely to be realized, 
until the subject is presented to us by such a 
master as the Bern professor. Although at present 
the circle of our knowledge is just large enough to 
allow us to peer comfortably into the greater cir- 
cles of black ignorance beyond, yet already we can 
see in what ways the scientific control of these 
bodies will be usefvd to us. Fortunately, as with 
micro-organisms, there are benign and malignant 
enzj'mes, so to speak. Some work disastrous results 
in drugs, while without the aid of others the medic- 
inal plants would be worthless. Our task shall now 
be to distinguish the good from the bad, and de- 
termine the conditions under which the former can 
act for the greatest benefit of mankind. 



THE NEW ERA FORMULARY. 



to answer all questions as to the method of manu- 
facture, information that is usually very abbrevi- 
ateil or entirely omitted from many works of this 
character. AYe can, with confidence, recommend 
this book to all retail druggists, pharmacists and 
manufacturers who want a thorouglily reliable and 
up-to-date formulary. 



A MOST valuable aid to the druggist and manu- 
facturer is a good formula book, and too often it 
is just the aid he lacks. In some special lines or 
upon some subjects there are plenty of such works, 
but when it comes to one which shall embrace the 
general branches of information with which the 
druggist must be conversant, then those which he 
may procure are foimd to be unsatisfactory, and 
generally lacking ju.st the one formula or class of 
formulas which he most desires. 

The new Era Formulary, now in the printer's 
hands, is designed to furnish a collection of for- 
mulas which in scope and trustworthiness possess 
a value far beyond that the druggist can derive 
from a whole library of ordinary receipt books. 
The new formulas cover all of the branches of 
manufacturing that pertain to the professional and 
mercantile calling of pharmacy, and many special 
fields in which manufacturers of technical products 
are interested. The whole range of technical litera- 
ttire has been scanned to get the best and most 
recent information for this work, and the nearly 
8000 formulas represent several years of compila- 
tion. ]\Iany of these formulas are original con- 
tributions to The Pharmaceutical Era, others 
have never before been published, but all have been 
selected with the distinct purpose of making avail- 
able information not usually easily obtainable, and 
thus giving the user of the book a means of in- 
creasing his manufacturing operations and also his 
source of income. The instructions given with 
each formula or process are sufficiently complete 



THE DISCOVERY OF QUININE. 



"When the two French savants, Pelletier and 
Caventou, isolated the alkaloids cinchonine and 
quinine from cinchona bark, they placed the crown 
on a long series of investigations, during which 
several workers actually had the sought-for sub- 
stances in their hands, but remained in ignorance 
of their good fortune. Not until Sertuerner's dis- 
cover}' of morphine did the chemical world realize- 
that plants contained a new class of bodies, the 
so-called plant alkalies, at least one of which, mor- 
phine, was endowed with enormous activity. 
Guided by the new idea, discoveries followed apace. 
Instead of seeking for resins, acids, oils, or gums, 
the investigators aimed at finding new plant bases, 
with the result that in less than three years five 
alkaloids had been obtained. The significance of 
Sertuerner's work lies in the fact that he had the 
insight to realize the analogy between the organic 
ba.se morphimn and the common alkalies, soda, 
potassa and ammonia. The service of the discov- 
erers of quinine, while not so great in its theoretical 
bearings, is perhaps just as important from the 
standpoint of medicine. 




Urges Sunday Closing of Drug Stores. 



To the Editor of the Era: 

I suppose it will bring happiness to the hearts of the phar- 
macists to know that the up-State pharmacists are favoring a 
bill which will close the drug shops on the Sabbath, and give 
the pharmacist an opportunity to spend at least one day a week 
with his family and friends — at least one day where, if he 
cares, he can attend a lecture or an educational meeting where- 
by his knowledge may be broadened. The pharmacist in the 
last decade has suffered from want of matters of interest, from 
narrow-mindedness due solely to his solitary confinement. It 
is high time that he awakened and put himself on a parity with 
other professions. 

Foreign countries are far more advanced than we in that 
respect. Aie we not flesh and bones like our brother phar- 
macists on the other side? Does not our skin bleed when 
pricked with a pin or a needle? Does not red blood run 
through our veins? Then, why should we be made to suffer 
more than others? Why should we be permitted to weaken 
our minds for a few paltry dollars? The pharmaceutical 
journals all over the country have been preaching this Sunday- 
closing sermon for a long time. Let such journals come to the 
fore now, when their help is most needed. Let them fight, 
and fight hard, for the betterment of the profession and for 
the good of the cause. Surely, it would be a godsend. 

Imagine a pharmacist, who cannot afford a clerk, working 
from morn till night, year in and year out ! Of course, there 
are a few miserable characters in this profession who object 
to Sunday closing solely for the sake of a few paltry dollars, 
but whose excuse may be explained otherwise. Let their 
faces be wreathed in shame. They should never have been 
permitted to enter into this profession. Let the cries of these 
few be drowned in the cheers of the multitude who favor 
Sunday closing. J.B.W. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARJMACEUTICAL ERA 



II. Prof. Alex. Tschirch on: "Enzymes 

{Concluded jront 
FKESH PLANT VS. DRUG. 



THE changes considered heretofore, which medicinal plants 
undergo during drying, are outwardly perceptible to the 
eye or nose, but we know that they also suffer deep- 
seated inner modifications, not directly to be apprehended — so 
that we can say that the drug is in no wise identical with the 
fresh plant. But by this we do not mean to say that the 
examples of Cochlearia, which loses almost all of its activity on 
drying, or that of Aegle Marmelos, the fresh fruit of which 
saved my life in India, but which is worthless when dry, are 
repeated with all other plants, or even with the majority of 
drugs— not at all ! It is totally erroneous to assume that the 
fresh plants are under all circumstances more active than the 
drugs. At times this may be true, but often it is not the case. 
The question must be tested in each instance. It is only 
certain that the dried drug is a different pharmacological in- 
dividual from the living plant ; but different does not always 
mean better. If I wish to brew some gentian brandy, I must 
allow the fresh gentian root to ferment, since in the dried drug 
the fermentable saccharide has been transformed, and it is of 
no value for the preparation of an alcoholic drink, although as 
a drug it is better than the fresh root. Much depends, there- 
fore, on the use to be made of the material. 

The above-mentioned process — the splitting up of a glu- 
coside and o.xidation of an aglucon, is apparently a frequent 
one in the drying of drugs, and is not confined to the gluco- 
tannids. The combined action of the hydrolyzing and oxidiz- 
ing ferments may be observed, as Bourquelot showed, in a 
really classical example, that of salicin, which is first broken up 
by emulsin into a glucon and salicylic alcohol, the latter then 
being oxidized by an oxydase to salicylic aldehyde. 

Hence it may be regarded as proved that during the drying 
of drugs, glucosides undergo changes under the influence of 
enzymes, and not only a mere splitting up, but a direct de- 
composition. 

The modifications suffered by alkaloids during the drying of 
drugs have not yet been accurately investigated. According to 
the work of Lesueur, it appears that these changes are not 
considerable. An interesting observation is that of Schoon- 
broodt, that pure alkaloids can be obtained in a crystallized 
form much more easily from fresh plants, while the same 
methods applied to dried plants usually give amorphous prod- 
ucts. 

We are therefore certain that the changes which medicinal 
plants undergo during the drying process, and which may 
continue subsequently to the extraction of the dried drug, are 
for the most part due to enzyme action. And to enzyme 
effects we must ascribe the later alterations in many plant 
extracts, such as the aging of tinctures and of wine. For *he 
statement that enzymes are insoluble in alcohol is known to be 
incorrect. There are many which are especially soluble in 
dilute alcohol. 

Stability of Enzymes. 

What, now, is the behavior of the enzymes themselves, while 
a plant is being dried? Bourquelot showed that many plants 
contain enzymes only in the green state, but lose them on dry- 
ing, or after long keeping. Some drugs, like Cichor'mm, Tarax- 
acum, and Althaea, still contain many enzymes in the dried 
state, and especially the enzymes of the gums and gum resins, 
which always contain oxydases, are of the most resistant kinds. 
In the dried state gum arable will keep its enzymes unchanged 
for dozens of years, and the same thing has been observed by 
us in the laccase of Japan lac, which plays an important part 
in the transformation of the primary resinous material into 
the completely insoluble, very resistant oxidation product, 
which gives the lacquers of Japanese wares their character. 
The enzymes accompanying the gummy portions of gum resins, 
and apparently having an important role in the chemical work 
of the colloidal membranous layer, which I have called the 
resinogen layer, and which, as is known, forms the gummy 
parts of the gum resins, are also very stable. 

But when speaking of resistance and non-resistance, we 
must not infer that all members of the enzyme mixture show 
the same properties. We find both sensitive and resistant en- 



*Translatcd for The Pharmaceutical Era from the 
"Apotheker Zeitung, 1913, p. 881. 



in Their Significance for Pharmacognosy." 

December Issue.) 

zymes. And a more careful study of these bodies will doubt- 
less extend the scale of sensitivity in a large degree. Thus, in 
the case of drugs which give evidence of enzyme activity in the 
dry condition, tlie more sensitive part of the enzymes may have 
perished, while the more resistant ones, to which the o.xydases 
belong, have survived. 

Should All Drugs Be Sterilized? 

A question of great import to us is: "Shall we kill the 
enzymes in the fresh plant by sterilization" — which must be 
sharply distinguished from the question, "Shall we prepare our 
remedies from fresh medicinal plants?" Shall we preserve the 
enzymes, or shall we by some means render them inactive? 
This query demands first of all the answer to another, which is 
still unanswered: "Do all enzymes have a medicinal action?" 
On this point we know very little. Pepsin and papayotin are, 
of course, employed in medicine, and in many other prepara- 
tions enzymatic forces may be at work in a limited measure, 
but nevertheless it appears that the human organism, in gen- 
eral, cannot utilize many of the enzymes introduced from with- 
out. It produces so many itself, that there is a great probability 
that the healthy organism quickly destroys enzymes brought in 
from without, and assimilates them, and that only in patho- 
logical conditions can they occasionally be of use. Those 
enzymes which are unstable toward acids are destroyed in 
the stomach, while those which are unstable toward alkalies 
perish in the intestines. For instance, it is known tha. zymase 
is destroyed by trypsin, the proteolytic ferment of the gastric 
juice. Only in the case of the herbivorous animals do we 
know that they require the enzymes present in their food, for 
the complete assimilation of the latter, especially of cellulose. 
Whether in the pharmacological use of drugs the enzymes are 
effective in the alimentary canal, we do not know. 

Of importance, but not to be considered here, is the be- 
havior of the enzymes formed by the animal body within the 
organigm itself, and in vitro, toward the several groups of 
substances found in drugs, the glucosides, alkaloids, esters, and 
ethers, which behavior is of importance for the pharmacological 
action of the latter. 

We can accordingly limit the preceding question thus: "Are 
the changes which enzymes produce during the drying of 
plants, so considerable and so harmful, that it is advisable to 
kill the enzymes before drying?" To reply to this question, we 
must again glance at the enzymes which occur in plants. The 
chief members are the hydrolases and o.xydases, and among 
the first especially the glucosidases and esterases, which bring 
about both internal and externally perceivable modifications. 
Appearance of Drugs Important. 

The modifications discernable outwardly, those of color and 
odor, are of unequal importance. Odor is usually improved, 
as has been stated, provided the temperature is not too high, 
and an^ evaporation of the odorous principles to any great 
extent is avoided. In exceptional cases distillers use fresh 
plants for the distillation of oils. Only the sensitive perfumes 
of the violet, tuberose, orange flowers and roses are extracted 
or distilled from the fresh blossoms. The case is different with 
the color. In no case is there any improvement in color; dis- 
coloration is the rule. However, since coloring matters do not, 
as a usual thing, belong to the active constituents, it may be 
regarded as immaterial, from the pharmacological standpoint, 
whether color changes take place or not. But with drugs, as 
with foods, it is true that psychic influences cannot be entirely 
left out of account. Well prepared dishes, having an attractive 
appearance, are more enjoyed and are better assimilated than 
those which are uncleanly and inelegant. In the same way, 
the external appearance of drugs is not entirely a matter of 
indifference. Other things being equal, we will prefer sightly 
drugs to discolored ones. 

Internal changes can be ascertained and characterized only 
through pharmacological experiment and chemical investigation. 
Experience has shown that, as a rule, either the hydrolases 
and the oxydases, or one of the two groups, brings about these 
changes, breaking up glucosides and oxidizing susceptible sub- 
stances, thus altering the drug in a manner which might better 
be avoided: although the statement cannot be made without 
reservation that a glucoside is always more active than its con- 
stituents. At any rate, the e.xperiment would be interesting 
and valuable, to compare "sterilized" and "unsterilized" plants 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



and their preparations with each other. But the investigator 
must beware of regarding the sterilized drugs as a priori more 
serviceable, and must continually bear in mind that both 
^•arieties are different pharmacological individuals, and hence 
that the sterilized drugs must be tested chemically, pharma- 
cologically and clinically, since our experience heretofore has 
been limited almost exclusively to unsterilized drugs. 

Modern Gralenicals from Sterilized Drug^s. 

Now, pharmaceutical practice is in a position to fulfill these 
demands. Since Bourquelot published his basic article on 
"Ferments solubles oxydants et medicaments" in 1896, both 
French workers, especially Bourquelot liimself, and Perrot and 
Goris, as well as German investigators, such as Winckel and 
Bemcgau, have been busy with the problem. Sterilized drugs 
and their preparations, even those intended for subcutaneous 
and intravenous injection, are to be had on the market. The 
Laboratoire Pharmaceutique de Dausse, which proceeds accord- 
ing to the methods of Perrot and Goris, has given the not 
wholly fortunate name of "intraits" (infracts) to extracts of 
sterilized drugs, prepared by special methods, and in addition 
to intrait of digitalis, of valerian, of horse-chestnut, of maUo%y, 
and of convallaria, has also put out a fresh stabilized digitalis 
powder, with a physiological assay according to Focke-Joanin. 
This house has set out on the right path, as it subjects all its 
preparations to exact physiological and pharmacological tests. 
The fact appears in this connection that quite different, and in 
part much more active preparations are produced, which is, 
however, not to be attributed to the sterilization alone, but to 
the elimination of many ballast substances by special processes. 

One thing is certainly achieved by sterilization: Any further 
action of enzvmes, which might alter the composition of the 
drug, is excluded; stabilization is actually brought about. And 
herein lies the chief advantage of the new method. 

In Germanv Bemegau has prepared and introduced extracts 
made from fresh sterilized kola, and Winckel has produced 
sterilized digitalis leaves and ergot, as well as sterilized fresh 
fruit (Robst). In addition, the "Dialyses" and "Energetenes," 
known for a long time, start with the fresh plants, which are 
"exolvzed" bv a suitable solvent. In the first "Dialysata Golaz," 
which appeared in 1895, sterilization w^as not used, the en- 
zvmes, which Golaz called "the soul of the plant," being pur- 
posely preserved. The alcoholatures prepared with boiling 
alcohol from fresh plants, which Lesueur recommends for cer- 
tain cases, do not seem to have won their way into use. 

In anv case, the manifold and often secret sterilization 
methods— Perrot and Goris, for instance, use alcohol vapor — 
provided only that the sterilizing agent works promptly and 
«nergeticallv. bring about an unequivocal killing of the enzymes, 
which can never be achieved by simple rapid drying with strong 
ventilation, that is, pumping off the water vapor, the most 
complete method of drying. If the material is not absolutely 
drj-, modifications will still go on in the drugs through the 
agency of the enzymes; drying alone does not stabilize a drug. 
Indeed, the action of the enzymes may even continue after the 
drug has been worked up into an extract. Rosenthaler and 
Meyer have recently showed that this is the fact with gentian, 
cascara sagrada and rhubarb. 

Xot only do the enzymes work changes in the drugs them- 
selves, but enzyme-bearing substances may also, on being mixed 
■with other materials or mixtures of materials, affect these 
latter. This applies to the very drug whose enzyme reactions 
were known first of all — gum arable. I have already mentioned 
that the enzyme-complex of this gum is very stable; it is also 
very active, and the number of observations is large which 
prove how great the changes can be, if we mix gum arabic 
mucilage with other substances, especially with those easily 
oxidizable. In order to avoid these subsequent changes, the 
new Swiss Pharmacopoeia has prescribed that mucilage of gum 
arabic shall be heated, so that the enzymes may be killed. 
TIseful Effects of Enzymes. 

Up to this time we have been discussing only the harmful 
effects of enzymes, but we also know of useful effects. The 
process of fermentation practiced on so many drugs, in par- 
ticular those of the purine group — tea, coffee and cocoa — and 
also on tobacco, vanilla and tamarinds, is, at least, according 
to the general assumption, a process of improvement and bet- 
tering the appearance, which, to he sure, is of very different 
significance. If we examine carefully the processes going on, 
it appears, as I showed in my "Textbook of Pharmacognosy" 
in 1909. that we cannot fit all of them over the same last, and 
that, for instance, the fermentation of coffee must not be aligned 
with that of other drugs. In this case, we are dealing only 



with the removal of the fragments of the pericarp by rotting. 
Fermented coffee and that prepared by the dry process have 
tile same properties. Fermentation in coffee does not lead to 
internal changes in the cells, and we must accordingly roast 
it in addition, to bring about this end. But the case is entirely 
different with tea and cocoa, the collection of which I had 
opportunity to study in India in 1888. Apparently, we are 
here confronted with endocellular processes, which go on under 
the influence of tlie enzymes present in tlie cells. .■\nd the 
same thing may hold true of the curmg of tobacco and vanilla. 
To be sure, micro-organisms have been sought for here, and 
yeasts have lieen held responsible for Uie fermentation processes 
in tea and cocoa (in cocoa s,accharomyces cells are found in 
large numbers in the adhering flesh of the fruit), and bacteria 
have been suspected of being implicated in tobacco; but to me 
it is very doubtful if these are concerned in the actual fer- 
mentation, and are not rather a secondary phenomenon. In 
my book I have made these remarks about cocoa in particular: 
"In the course of cocoa fermentation two processes go on, a 
vinous and acetous fermentation in the masses of fruit which 
are adhering to the seeds, produced by Saccharomyces, and a 
fermentation taking place in the interior of the cells forming 
the cotyledons of tlie enclosed seeds, in which enzymes (hydro- 
lytic and o.xydases) are active. Whether this latter true fer- 
mentation is dependent upon or influenced by the former, 
cannot be stated." 

It is still to be proved, whether the micro-organisms, which 
are undoubtedly present, and their metabolism products, which 
are also enzymes in part, as well as the substances formed in 
exogenous fermentation processes, as acetic acid, influence or 
modify the principal fermentation. There are some indications 
that certain enzymes are more energetic in acid solution. But 
may not the method occasionally employed with vanilla, of 
dipping the fruits before curing into hot water, have as its very 
purpose the destruction of the micro-organisms adhering ex- 
ternally, which cause a false fermentation? At any rate, the 
endogenous endocellular fermentation is the principal question, 
and there is no doubt that the high temperature always ob- 
served during the fermentation of drugs lying in heaps enhances 
the effect of the enzymes, for it is one of the characteristics of 
these substances, that they are most energetic at about blood 
heat, that is, between 30 and 40 degrees. 

Role of Enzymes in Tea, Coca, Indigo. 

But we also find the process of stabilizing, by killing at least 
the more sensitive enzymes by gentle heat, in the case of the 
purine drugs. The heating of tea leaves before rolling in the 
manufacture of green tea, and the procedure of drawing the 
mate branches through a flame before warming on the "girao," 
have this end in view. The green color of the finished green 
tea and of mate shows that the processes have not gone on, 
which lead to the formation of the red-brown decomposition 
products. Dried coca leaves can be distinguished even by 
color from the "coca pisada," which has been trodden by the 
feet after sprinkling the wilted leaves: "coca pisada" is dark 
in color. In earlier days the formation of color in the fer- 
mentation processes of indigo extracts and litmus lichens was 
ascribed to enzymes produced by micro-organisms. But re- 
cently investigators, such as Molisch and van Lookeren, incline 
to the view that in the indigo process micro-organisms play no 
important part, although certain bacteria are able to build up 
indigo from indican. Rawson pictures the process as a purely 
diastatic one, going on of itself under the influence of endo- 
cellular enzymes set free in the plants.' 

Fermentation processes caused by the endocellular enzymes 
are also responsible for the increased development of odorous 
substances in the semi-moist bales of patchouli leaves during 
the sea voyage, and the formation of the dark, almost black 
color of the originally reddish-brown tamarinds, when the latter, 
as happens in India, are subjected to fermentation. 
Hig-hest Aim to Utilize Enzymes. 

But all of these very important and interesting processes 
have been little examined in detail. When we have learned 
their cause, conditions and modus operandi, we shall be able 
to regulate them and improve them. Here is opening up a 
wide field for pharmacognosy, the compass and problems of 
which grow from day to day. Our highest goal is not to 
eliminate the harmful effects of enzymes, but to use the enzymes 
in the service of mankind, to make them available for drugs, 
just as we have so long used them in the preparation of foods, 
in brewing, in w-ine manufacture, in cheese and dairy practice, 
and in baking, in all places where enzymes produced by micro- 
organisms exist, which cause the process of "fermentation." 



Januaby, 1914] 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



When we shall have also learned to utilize the enzymes of the 
higher plants — as is already done in the case of lipase, in 
splitting up fats, with myrosin in preparing mustard oil, and 
emulsin in breaking up almond amygdalin — the circle of useful 
enzymatic effects will still be capable of great expansion, and, 
in the words of Goethe, we shall proceed from amazement to 
contemplation and from contemplation to investigation. 

That is one of the thoughts to which we are brought by a 
consideration of the enzyme question. To such thoughts are 
we led by the philosophy of pharmacognosy and the rationally 
conducted experiment. And Houston Stewart Chamberlain has 
said: "Science without philosophy is a mere bureau of regis- 
tration." 



Classical Discoveries in Pharmacy. — II. 



THE DISCOVERT OF QtriNINE. 



IT was once remarked, at a gathering of chemists who were 
reviewing the life-work of a fellow member, that although 
he had enriched chemical science by the discovery of many 
important facts, it was regrettable that he did not leave behind 
him any new method of investigation. The inference was that 
the origination of new methods is of greater benefit to science 
than the accumulation of facts and the discovery of new com- 
pounds. This is well illustrated in the years following Sertuer- 
ner's discovery of morphine, 2ts related in the December issue 
of the Er.\. Not only did this pharmacist bring to light the 
first member of a new class of vegetable alkalies, but he gave 
to the world a new weapon of research. The troublous times 
after the French Revolution having passed, communication 
among the nations of Eastern Europe again became reliable 
and universal, with the result that chemists of other countries 
outside of Germany began to avail themselves of Serteumer's 
methods of isolating the active principles of certain plants, and 
new discoveries followed rapidly. 

New Alkaloids Appear. 

Prominent among the French chemists of the time were 
Pelletier and Caventou. Immediately after the finding of mor- 
phine in opium became known, these two men began a series 
of investigations into the principles of medicinal plants. In 
1818 they obtained a new alkaline base from nux vomica, and 
named it strychnine. The same base was later found by them 
in Ignatia bean. In the same year they isolated brucine from 
"false Angostura bark," which was then supposed to be de- 
rived from Brucea ferruginea, but is now known to be simply 
the bark of Strychnos Nux Vomica. Brucine was later found 
in nux vomica and Ignatia bean. In 1820 the same workers 
obtained a new base from cevadilla. According to the classi- 
fication of the day, this drug was derived from Veratrum 
Sabadilla, and the new vegetable alkali was therefore named 
veratrine. Pelletier and Caventou regarded this substance as 
identical with another, found in Veratrum album, and also 
identified it with the alkali from Colchicum aututnnale, in 
which supposition they erred. 

Other active principles discovered about this time were del- 
phine, from Delphinium staphisagria, obtained by Lassaigne 
and Feneulle in 1819 ; picrotoxin, from Cocculus Indicus; and 
daphnin, found by Vauquelin in Daphne alpina. The two 
latter substances are not alkaloids. 

Thought to Contain No Nitrogen. 
Thus the new group of vegetable alkalies, instituted by 
Sertevuner, contained at least five members when Pelletier and 
Caventou turned their attention to cinchona bark. It is re- 
markable that none of the investigators had thus far noticed 
the constant presence of the element nitrogen in these vegetable 
bases. In most cases the reports expressly state that nitrogen 
is not present. The method used in testing for nitrogen, or 
azote, was to heat the substance with copper oxide, and col- 
lect the gases formed in alkaline solutions. It was thought 
that if any nitrogen was present, it would pass over in gaseous 
form, and could be collected as such. But apparently, all the 
nitrogen, in every instance, must have been transformed into 
o.xides, which were absorbed by the alkalies, and thus lost 
sight of in the subsequent examinations. This is the only 
explanation we can offer to account for the failure of every 
worker in plant chemistry to detect nitrogen in the alkaloids. 
Cinchona bark had been in use in Europe for 150 years be- 
fore a systematic analysis was made. In 1791 Fourcroy pub- 



lished the results of an elaborate study of various cinchonas. 
He isolated a large number of mLxed substances, but as his 
methods were chiefly of a physical nature, he did not succeed 
in obtaining any materials which threw much light on the 
chemical nature of the principles present in the bark. Gum, 
resin, tcinnin, coloring matter, etc., were foimd, but no definite 
chemical individua's were isolated. Fourcroy's methods were 
used by later chemists, with equally unprofitable results. In a. 
letter to the editors of the Annales de Chimie, \'ol. XXl, p. 
16S, 1793, G. C. Berthollet relates that on treating a decoction 
of cinchona with lime water, he obtained a dark red precipitate 
which, when dry, "was as hard as hardened clay." This precipi- 
tate must have contained some of the alkaloids of cinchona, prob- 
ably mixed with quinate of calcium, resins, gums, and colored 
with cinchona red. 

.\ few years later, in 1799, Westring, a Swedish pharmacist, 
%vas engaged in the analysis of cinchona, especially of the 
Royal, or Brazil variety (C. ftava). He concluded that the 
virtue of the bark in quartan fevers was due principally to its- 
"tanning" property {vis coriaria). This hypothesis was sup- 
ported to some e-xtent by the fact that a number of drugs 
which were thought to be efficacious in similar affections were 
known to contain much tannin or gallic acid. 

Duncan Isolates "Cinchonin." 

The studies of Duncan led that worker to believe that the 
active principle of cinchona resided in a precipitate obtained 
by treating an infusion of the bark with an infusion of galls. 
To this substance the name cinchotiin was given. The Portu- 
guese physician Gomez followed up the work of Duncan, and 
seciu'ed a white crystalline material, which he considered to be 
the pure substance sought by Duncan. He retained the name 
cinchonin. His new substance was obtained by the action of 
caustic alkalies on the water-soluble part of the alcoholic ex- 
tract of the bark, and there is little reason to doubt that it 
was actually what is now known as cinchonine. Gomez, how- 
ever, stated that it was neither acid nor basic in its natrnre. 

About this time Deschamps isolated the "essential salt" of 
cinchona. But as it was almost tasteless, easily soluble in 
water, insoluble in alcohol, and contained lime, there is every 
reason to believe that his essential salt was calcium quinate. 
This is confirmed by the fact that Vauquelin later, in 1806, 
obtained quinic or kinic acid from this substance, by merely 
treating it with oxalic acid. It is also probable that Vauquelin 
extracted the alkaloids of cinchona in crude form, as he treated 
infusions with potassium hydroxide, and got a number of 
precipitates of various colors. The researches of Seguin, pub- 
lished in 1814, revealed nothing of great importance, although 
they were quite extended, and included the study of the effects 
of many reagents on cinchona extracts. Among his statements 
is one to the effect that a bitter taste is not an essential char- 
acteristic of the febrifuge principle of cinchona. Other work- 
ers who desene mention are Reuss, of iloscow, who first 
isolated cinchona red, and Laubert, who obtained practically 
the same substance as the cinchonin of Gomez, and considered 
it to be a resin. 

Discovery of Cinchoiiine. 

The account of the labors of Pelletier and Caventou appears 
in a paper read before the French Academy on September 11, 
1820, and published in Annales de Chimie et de Physiquey 
Vol. 15, pp. 289 and 337, 1820. These two chemists called in 
question Gomez's statement about the neutral character of the 
substance cinchonin. They pointed out that a keen young, 
student, Houton-Labillardiere, had already called the atten- 
tion to the fact that the very method of preparation used by 
Gomez indicates that cinchonin is a vegetable alkali. E.xperi- 
ments soon confirmed this supposition, and the name was 
changed to cinchonine. Of this base. Pelletier and Caventou 
prepared the sulphate, hydrochloride, nitrate, acetate, phosphate, 
oxalate, tartrate, and gallate. They also confirmed the pres- 
ence of ^"auqueIin's quinic acid. The bark used in this work 
was the gray cinchona, or C. Condaminea. 

The same methods were then applied to yellow cinchona, 
obtained according to the authors, from C. cordiioUa. Entirely 
xmexpected results were found, which are best described in the 
investigators' own words: 

"We prepared some tinctures of yellow cinchona, to extract 
the resinoid substances; the latter, treated with potassa, left 
behind a yellowish substance which dissolved, in large pro- 
portion, in hydrochloric acid diluted with water, leaving behind 
a fatty material which differed from that of gray cinchona 
only by its yellow color. The acid liquor was colored yellow; 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



it was ver>' strongly bitter, and resembled much a hydrochloric 
acid solution of cindionine. In this condition we added mag- 
nesia in amounts more than sufficient to combine with the 
hydrochloric acid. The liquor was in great part decolorized. 
The magnesia precipitate was washed, dried on the water bath, 
and treated with alcohol. 

New Substance Not Crystalline. 

"The alcoholic liquors were distilled at first, then abandoned 
to a slow evaporation; we then expected to have a fine crys- 
tallization of cinchonine; what was our surprise on obtaining 
only a yellowish transparent substance, in no wise crystalline ! 

"According to our reasoning, the substance should have been 
cinchonine, mingled with some foreign material peculiar to 
yellow cinchona; but all our efforts did not enable us to 
separate from the supposed cinchonine the foreign matter 
which we thought was imited with it; solution in new quan- 
tities of acid offered us nothing special, we separated only a 
little fatty matter. 

A little coloring material was removed by lead subacetate, 
but still the supposed cinchonine would not crystallize. Dis- 
solving in ether and e\'aporating gave no better results. 
"Finally, having dissolved our material in water and acetic acid, 
we added ammonium oxalate; immediately there was formed a 
precipitate of a dazzling white, that one would have taken for 
oxalate of lime, if it had not been soluble in alcohol. This 
precipitate, treated with magnesia, and then with alcohol, again 
furnished us an uncrystallized substance. At last — a remark- 
able thing 1 — this material, thus Ueated, dissolved in all acids 
(some must be in excess) and formed very white salts, which 
seemed to be more easily crystallized than the salts of cin- 
chonine, from which they differ in form and aspect. 

"It is thus, by force of circumstances, we have been led to 
consider the bitter material of yellow cinchona as a special 
salifiable base, and different from cinchonine. We declare at 
the same time that it is only after mature reflections, in con- 
sequence of a number of trials, and after having made a great 
number of salts, that we decided to distinguish the alkali of 
yellow cinchona from that of gray cinchona; but what espe- 
cially determined us to make this distinction is the simul- 
taneous existence of these two substances in some species of 
cinchona, and the. possibility of separating them from each 
other. In effect, if the bitter principle of yellow cinchona is 
only cinchonine imited with another substance, how could one 
separate ptrre cinchona from impure cinchona, if they should 
be reunited? As well say that one could at the same time 
purify and not purify cinchonine from the matters with which 
it is sullied. 

"If the examination which we shall make of the alkali of 
yellow cinchona proves to us that it differs essentially from 
cinchonine, the same examination will lead us to recognize in 
these two substances many analogous properties. Thus it is 
that, in the medicinal properties of yellow cinchona and gray 
cinchona, one finds a great analogy, but not a perfect identity; 
so that in certain diseases gray cinchona is employed with 
advantage, while in other cases yellow cinchona is justly 
praised. Since, in a work of some extent, we are obliged to 
designate the alkali of yellow cinchona without using any 
paraphrases; since, moreover, this substance, being well char- 
acterized, deser\ed a special name just as much as its congener 
in gray cinchona, we have thought it proper to name it 
quinine, to distinguish it from cinchonine, by a term equally 
indicating its origin. 

Properties of Quinine. 

"Quinine never crystallizes. Dried, and deprived of all 
humidity, it forms a porous mass of a dirty white color; it is 
very little soluble in water; boiling water dissolves only about 
0.005; cold water dissolves even less; in spite of its slight 
solubility, this substance is very bitter; we cannot deny to it 
a certain affinity for water, for when one evaporates a solution 
of quinine in alcohol which is not absolute, it retains some 
water with force, from which results a sort of transparent 
hydrate, melting at 90 degrees; while, deprived of water by 
long-continued heat, quinine loses its solubility, and presents 
itself vmder the form of a porous mass, instead of offering 
the appearance of melted wax, or dried varnish. 

"Alcohol dissolves quinine very easily. It is much more 
soluble than cinchonine in sulphuric ether; it dissolves also, 
but in smaller quantities, in fixed and volatile oils. 

"Quinine, exposed to air, tmdergoes nc alteration ; it does 
not appear even to attract carbonic acid sensibly. It is de- 
composed by the action of fire, and like cinchonine, gives the 



products of vegetable matters not containing nitrogen; it also 
behaves like cinchonine with copper deutoxide." 

.Vfter giving reasons why quinine and cinchonine are to be 
considered as the active principles of cinchona bark, the 
authors conclude: "There are circumstances where one will be 
glad to administer it (the active principle) pure, in order to 
have it in all its energy. This is true in cases where the 
patient cannot take an ounce of powder or a glass of liquid; 
moreover, this knowledge of the active principles throws some 
light on the pharmaceutical preparation of medicaments, makes 
us acquainted with rational formulas, and distinguishes them 
from those which arc empirical, absurd, and often dangerous. 
In addition, let us hope that some skilful practitioner, uniting 
prudence with sagacity, will make some theiapeutic researches 
with the alkalies of cinchona and thus give our work utility 
in medicine." 



Sensitiveness of Alkaloidal Solutions to 
Sterilization* 



By DB. GUSTAV MOSSLER. 

TIJE dispensing of solutions intended for hypodermic use 
in a sterile condition, which is demanded by the modem 
pharmacopoeias, makes it appear necessary to include 
directions for carrying out the sterilization in the various 
official books, which has already been done in the new Swiss 
Pharmacopoeia. But it would be more acceptable if, in addi- 
tion to the general directions, methods adapted for the indi- 
vidual substances were also introduced; in connection with 
which it should be considered that, for practical reasons, the 
drug-store laboratory cannot make use of time-consuming 
processes. It would therefore have to be made permissible, 
with sensitive substances, to use an abridged process when 
preparing extempore solutions, in case the less delicate method 
did not cause decomposition or physiological deterioration 
beyond a certain degree. With regard to the suitability of the 
various methods of sterilization for different substances, 
opinions are divided, for which reason it seems desirable to 
investigate this field experimentally, in order to clear up the 
subject. There has been much inclination to conclude theo- 
retically, from the constitution of a body, what its behavior 
on sterilizing will be. For example, it has been considered 
dangerous to heat codeine to 100°, while with other substances, 
as apomorphine, persons have dealt too roughly. 

Experiments were carried out in quartz flasks, in order to 
eliminate the influence of glass, and parallel tests were made 
in ordinary pharmaceutical glass. Heating was conducted at 
"©"C. (Tyndallizing for half an hour thrice repeated), at 101.5° 
in an ordinary steam sterilizer, and at 115° in an autoclave. 
.\t the higher temperatures, in the case of each substance 
which resisted decomposition during half an hour, the time 
was extended to two hours. Chemical-physical methods were 
principally used to investigate decomposition in the solutions, 
while in special instances tests were made for particular de- 
composition products. From the specific gravity and refractive 
index of the solutions no conclusions could be drawn, but 
rather these constants could be used to determine whether the 
original concentration had been restored after heating. The 
optical activity, again, furnished data for certain conclusions 
only in a few cases, but on the other hand, much aid was 
afforded by the measurement of the electrical conductivity, 
• and the determination of the reaction of the .'iolutions before 
and after heating, by ascertaining the hydrogen exponent 
according to Sorensen. The conductivity measurements per- 
mitted an estimation of the degree of decomposition, by com- 
paring them with figures obtained from empirical solutions 
containing known amounts of decomposition products. With 
a number of alkaloidal salts in aqueous solution, the cause 
of decomposition could be recognized as a more or less com- 
plete dissociation into free base and acid, wherein the amino 
group set free by the detachment of the acid acted on one of 
the sensitive groups of the same molecule. Thus with mor- 
phine and apomorphine the discoloration is proportional to 
the temperature and duration of heating, and can be inhibited 
by adding an acid, in which case a definite concentration of 



*Read before the SSf/i meeting of German Naturalists and 
Physicians, in Vienna, September, 1913. Translated for The 
PH.\RM.\rF.uTiCAL ERA from the "Chemiker Zeitung," 1913. 
page 1201. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



acid is protective only up to a certain temperature. The yellow 
coloration of morphine solutions, which takes place even in 
quartz vessels, is due not to alkalinity alone, and also not to 
the formation of oxymorphine nor the action of atmospheric 
oxygen, but to "inner alkalinity," the free amino group affect- 
ing the phenolic hydroxy!. 

In all 17 alkaloids were investigated. The morphine de- 
rivatives, in which the phenolic hydroxyl is esterified, as 
codeine and dionine, can be safely sterilized at 115°C., while 
heroin hydrochloride, the diacetate of morphine, suffers de- 
composition in 2 per cent, solution to the extent of about 5 
per cent., acetic acid being split off. At the same time, it is 
immaterial whether the longer Tyndall process, or the shorter 
heating to 100° or 115° is employed, as apparently a state of 
equilibrium is established. Morphine hydrochloride always 
shows, even when alkalies are absolutely excluded, a yellow 
coloration, which is proportional to the temperature and 
duration of heating. Among the local anesthetics, tropa- 
cocaine, beta-eucaine, and novocaine proved to have perfect 
resistance ; cocaine hydrochloride in 5 per cent, solution was 
decomposed at 100° to the extent of 1 per cent., and at 115°, 
2.4 per cent. With these preparations, the Tyndall process is, 
in spite of the lower temperature, unfavorable by reason of 
the long time of exposure, and 1.6 per cent, decomposition 
took place, against only 1.0 per cent, at 100° with half an 
hour's heating. This decomposition at 100° can practically 
be considered as negligible. In ordinary medical glass there 
was 2.3 per cent, decomposition at 100°. Stovaine hydro- 
chloride undergoes Tyndallization w-ithout change; at 100° 
there is 0.75 per cent, decomposition, at 115° 1.0 per cent., 
which can be neglected. On the other hand, alypin salts 
cannot withstand heating at all. Five minutes boiling de- 
composed 7.8 per cent, of the nitrate, Tyndallizing changed 
13.2 per cent., heating at 100° for 30 minutes destroyed 24 
per cent., and 49.1 per cent, at 115°. Atropine sulphate suf- 
fers no change through the Tyndall process: circulating steam 
at 100° decomposes 0.6 per cent., and 1.2 per cent, is lost 
at 115°. For extempore preparations the temperature of 100° 
is permissible. Quinine bihydrochloride and cotarnine hydro- 
chloride withstand even 115°, with only a slight intensification 
of color. Pilocarpine solutions are very stable at 100°, while 
at higher temperatures there is a slight formation of isopilo- 
carpine. For physostigmine salicylate the only method to be 
used is filtration through germ-proof filters, as even Tyndalli- 
zation produces a red color. 



New Remedies 



Acetyl in is a protected name for tablets of acetyl-salicylic 
acid. 

Aguma is a food prepared from soya beans, forming a palat- 
ible powder, easily soluble in water. 

Arausan contains 20 per cent, of camphor, 10 per cent, of 
Peru balsam, and 20 per cent, of potassium soap. It is used 
by inunction. 

Arsicol pills contain 0.05 g. ovolecithin, 0.00025 g. arsenous 
acid, 0.1 g. haemoglobin, and Blaud's mass. 

Bilosin pills contain sodium oleate, lithium salts, and extract 
of rhubarb. 

Cholosan is made from black radishes, and is used in the 
treatment of gall-stones. 

Depurose is a specially prepared, perfectly pure and palat- 
able dried yeast. 

Digacoffein ampules contain 1 cc. of digalen, and 0.07 g. of 
citrated caffeine. 

Diogenal is a dibrom-propyl derivative of veronal (diethyl- 
barbituric acid), with the substitution in one of the imino 
groups. It is said to have a milder action than veronal. The 
bromine content is 41.6 per cent., and the average adult dose 
is 1 g. ■ 

Enteroseptyl is tri-naphthyl phosphate. 

Erysol is a clear, oily liquid, containing camphor and phenol. 
It is not caustic, and the odor of the phenol is not apparent, 
the camphor predominating. 

Glycobrom is the glyceride of brominated cinnamic acid, a 
white amorphous powder, melting at 66-68°. It is employed to 
bring about a slow change in the halogen content of the blood, 
or to gradually saturate the system with bromine. 

Gndona is a mouth-wash containing witch hazel extract and 
potassium chlorate. 



Gyraldose is a mixture of thymol, trioxymethylene, and 
aluminum phosphate, used in vaginal disinfection. 

Intcstijcrmm is a mixture of the pure cultures of gluco- 
bacteria and yoghurt bacteria. 

Kastanol-Pine Needle baths contain the active constituents 
of the horse-chestnut, pine-needle oil, and salts which liberate 
carbon dioxide. 

Lccithiii-nerviii pastilles contain lecithin, and the three 
bromides. 

Lecivalin, an ointment for rheumatism, consists of 10 parts 
camphor, 35 parts chloroform, 45 parts vasogen, 5 parts Peru 
balsam, and 5 parts lecithin. 

Lekosati tablets contain kola, lecithin, casein and phosphates. 

Merlusan is a mercury-albumen combination, which dissolves 
in alkaline intestinal liquids, and is used in gonorrhoea and 
syphilis. 

Modan (Mondan?) pills contain 0.05 g. creosote carbonate, 
camphor salicylate, and ichthyol, with aromatics. 

Narcosia is a local anesthetic, containing witch hazel, novo- 
cain, and epinephrine. 

Nasanal, a nasal cream, consists of menthol and zinc vaso- 
gen, alsol, hydrogen peroxide, lanolin and vaselin. 

Neo-Hexal is secondary sulphosalicylate of hexamethylene- 
tetramine. 

Picrastol is said to be dimethylol-formylmethenyl-tetrameth- 
ylenepentamine, of the formula CsHiiNjOi. It is a colorless 
or light yellow resin, soluble in water and alcohol, but not in 
ether or benzene, and difficultly soluble in chloroform and 
acetone. On heating with acids or alkalies it forms ammonia, 
formic acid and formaldehyde. When heated in a vacuum to 
190°, picrastol breaks down into he.xamethylenetetramine and 
triformyl-trimethylenetriamine, also called Neoleptol. The 
latter is insoluble in alcohol and ether, difficultly soluble in 
cold water, and soluble 1.5 : 100 in hot water. Both these 
preparations are used in the treatment of epilepsy, the former 
in doses of 5 — 50 drops of a 25 per cent, solution, and the 
latter in tablets containing 0.5 g. 

Picurin tablets are to be used for arteriosclerosis, and are 
said to contain Cereus grandiflorus and ammonium vanadate. 

Radenianite is a charcoal powder activated by the absorption 
of radium emanation. It is used in sealed tubes of silver or 
magnalium, and loses half its activity in four days. 

Srxol is a soap cream, containing mercurioxybenzoate of 
sodium. 

Siromel contains 7 per cent, potassium guaiacolate, 10 per 
cent, crystallized extract of malt, 2 per cent, quinine, 3 per 
cent, sodium and calcium lactophosphates, dissolved in syrup 
of acacia. 

Sotopan contains quinine, iron, bromine, lime and glycero- 
phosphoric acid in small amounts. Jodsotopan contains iodine 
in addition. 

Susin, used for rheumatism, contains alcohol, camphor, Tur- 
kish, German and Japanese mint, citronella, cloves, Ceylon 
cinnamon, etc. 

Syntlialin is the methyl ester of piperonyl-atophan, used in 
rheumatism. 

Trifalin locale contains the valerates of morphine, codeine 
and epinephrine. It is a local anesthetic. 

Veropyrin contains veronal and aspirin, or kalmopyrin, with 
the addition of 0.01 g. of morphine in each dose. 

Vinol (not the .\merican product) is an anti-fat remedy, 
containing Fucus vesiculosus, cascara and rhubarb. 

General Flavoring Extract. 

Oil of bitter almond 10 drops 

Oil of lemon 12 drops 

Oil of orange 8 drops 

Oil of cinnamon 6 drops 

Oil of nutmegs 3 drops 

Essence of vanilla 1 dram 

Deodorized alcohol, enough to make... 1 ounce 
Use one-half teaspoonful for puddings. 

Furniture Oil. 

Linseed oil 4 pints 

Tincture of benzoin 4 ounces 

Copal 2 ounces 

Vinegar 1 pint 

Solution of antimony chloride 6 ounces 

Alcohol 10 ounces 

Dissolve the copal in the O'l by heat; when cool, add the 
other ingredients, rnd stir well. 



10 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 




)ELECTED FORMULA 




Compound Kesorcin Ointment. 

Resorcin 140 grains 

Bismuth subnitratc 140 grains 

Zinc oxide 140 grains 

Birch tar oil 70 grains 

Distilled water 140 minims 

Lanolin 560 grains 

White soft paraffin, enough to make... 4 ounces 
Tlie resorcin is dissolved in the water before mLxing with 
the bismuth subnitratc and zinc oxide. 

Dyspepsia Capsules. 

Calcined magnesia, heavy 1 grain 

Pepsin Yi grain 

Pancreatin 1 grain 

Calcium lactophosphate 1 grain 

Lactic acid ^ drop 

Taka-diastase Y^ grain 

Bismuth subnitrate 4 grains 

For one capsule. 

Eucalyptus Embrocation. 

Oil of eucalyptus 1 5/2 ounces 

Camphor i/^ ounce 

Oil of turpentine 12 ounces 

Water 12 ounces 

Acetic acid 12 ounces 

Eggs 6 

Vanishing Cream. 
Stearic acid (white, triple pressed).... 4 lbs. 12 ozs. 

Glycerin 8 lbs. 8 ozs. 

Distilled water 14 pints 

Stronger ammonia_ water 4 ozs. 6 drs. 

Cologne spirit 1 pint 

Oil of hyacinth 6 drops 

Oil of jasmine (artificial) 4 drams 

Artificial musk (crystal) 20 grains 

Terpineol 2 ounces 

Melt the stearic acid on a waterbath at 75° to 80°C. Heat 
2 pounds of glycerin with 12 pints of water to the same tem- 
perature; add the ammonia water, and pour slowly into the 
melted stearic acid, with constant stirring. Mix the rest of 
the glycerin and water, and heat to 80°C.; pour this into the 
first mi.xture, with constant stirring ; maintain the temperature 
and continue the stirring for about 15 minutes. Remove from 
the heat and beat until cold. Mix the perfuming materials 
with the spirit and slowly add this, with constant beating to 
the cream. 

Non-Greasy Massage Cream. 

Tragacanth, whole pieces 4 drams 

Boric acid 12 drams 

Water }, pints 

Glycerin 8 fl. ounces 

Alcohol 8 fl, ounces 

Dissolve the boric acid in the water by the aid of heat; to 
the hot liquid sdd the tragacanth, stir occasionally until the 
gum is thoroughly softened. Then add the alcohol and glycerin, 
strain the mixture forcibly through a cheesecloth, and pass 
enough water through the cloth so that the liquid will measure 
<A fl. ounces. If too thick, dilute with more water. 
Glycerin of Cucumber. 

Yolk of one egg 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

Tincture of quillaja 120 minims 

Oil of almonds 1 ounce 

Essence of cucumber 1 ounce 

Rose water, enough to make 8 ounces 

Mi.x the glycerin and yolk of egg, add the tincture of 
quillaja, then gradually the essence of cucumber previously 
mixed with 2 ounces of rose water. Mix thoroughly, and make 
up to 8 ounces with rose water, 

After-Shave Lotion. 

Alenthol, 5 grains; tannic acid, 20 grains; phenol, 10 grains; 

glycerin, 3 drams; bay rum, 1J4 ounces; water, to make 6 

ounces. Dissolve the menthol and tannic acid in the bay 

rum, and add the mixture to the phenol dis.solved in the water. 



Cement for Non-inflammable Cinematograph Films. 
I.iinglass, 50; gum amnioniacum, 4; gum mastic, 2; alcohol 
(95'/"), 10; water, q,s, ^oak the isinglass in cold water over 
night, or until thoroughly softened, then drain, and press gently 
between absorbent cloths. Place the softened material in a 
llask, and heat on a waterbath until it becomes fluid. Dis- 
solve the gums in the alcohol, and add the solution to the 
isinglass liquid after removing it from the source of heat and 
cooling to about 160°F. Stir well or mix by agitation. Before 
applying the cement, which must be used warm, clean the 
surface of the films with chloroform or other fat solvent. If 
this does not succeed, a borax-shellac solution may be used, 
(Pharm, Journ.) 

Red Boach Paste. 

Red iodide of mercury 1 part 

Wheat flour i parts 

Corn meal ,3 parts 

Molasses 2 parts 

Water sufficient 

Cook the corn meal and flour with the molasses and an 
equal quantity of water until a stiff paste is obtained; triturate 
the red iodide of mercury with a portion of this to a smooth 
paste, add to the remainder and mix thoroughly, then add an 
equal volume of cold water and heat the mixture, until it sets 
to a soft paste on cooling, stirring constantly and adding about 
half an ounce of oil of rhodium or anise seed to every 5 
pounds of mixture after removing from the source of heat. 
Patent Leather Polish. 

Yellow wax or ceresine 3 ounces 

Spermaceti 1 ounce 

Oil of turpentine 11 ounces 

Asphaltum varnish 1 ounce 

Borax 80 grains 

Frankfort black 1 ounce 

Prussian blue 150 grains 

Melt the wa.x, add the borax, and stir until an emulsion has 
been formed. In another pan melt the spermaceti; add the 
varnish, previously mixed with the turpentine; stir well and 
add the wax; lastly add the colors. 

Etching Steel. 
The steel is covered with a film of beeswax and the design 
etched through the wax by means of a fine-pointed instrument. 
The etching liquid is then poured on and allowed to act for 
an hour or so. This liquid may be nitric acid or — • 

■ Copper sulphate Yz ounce 

Ammonium chloride Y2 ounce 

Powdered alum J4 ounce 

Vinegar 5 ounces 

Illuminated Ink for Show Cards. 

Honey 1 dram 

Alcohol 1 dram 

Mucilage 1 ounce 

Water 8 ounces 

Bronze 1 ounce 

Rub the honey, alcohol and mucilage together in a mortar, 
then add the water. To be shaken before using. 

White Ink for Stamping Hosiery. 

Zinc white 2 drams 

White precipitate 5 grains 

Mucilage 1 dram 

Water 6 drams 

Triturate the zinc white with a small quantity of the water 
till quite smooth before adding the mucilage and the remainder 
of the water. 

Liquid Brass Polish. 
For cleaning brass work of motor cars, a writer in the 
British Medical Journal recommends the following : 

Oxalic acid 4 ounces 

Powdered rotten stone 6 ounces 

Paraffin (liquid) 4 fl. ounces 

Methylated spirit 6 fl, ounces 

Dissolve the acid in a half pint of boiling water, then add 
the rotten stone; shake well, add the paraffin and spirit, and 
make up to half a gallon with boiling water. 



Januaky, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



11 




THE LATEST FROM EUROPEAN WORKERS. 



New Syntheses by Bourquelot — Properties of Sulphur 

Ointments — Source of Siam Benzoin Settled — 

Other Items of Practical Interest. 

TWO articles from Prof. Bourquelot's laboratory are re- 
viewed this month, one dealing with tlie synthesis of a 
biose, a sugar consisting of two molecules of hexose, and 
the other relating his preliminary experiences in uniting gly- 
cerol with glucose. Boiurquelot's work is always interesting, 
and the present series of researches will take rank as one of 
the classics of pharmaceutical chemistry. The theoretical con- 
siderations involved in the preparation and use of sulphur 
ointments are presented in another important article, the 
author apparently proving that the preparation of these oint- 
ments by fusion is greatly superior from the standpoint oi 
efficacy in use. Holmes sums up some recent w-ork to discover 
the true source of Siam benzoin, with results that leave no 
doubt that Styrax benzoin is not at present the parent tree. 
Laborde describes the properties of colloidal metals, and 
touches on their use in disease. Numerous new tests and 
quantitative processes are also outlined. 
The Fluorescence Microscope — 

Wasicky describes the construction, manipulation, and uses 
of the fluorescence microscope in drug work. Quinine in 
hydrochloric acid solution shows fluorescence in dilutions up 
to one in one million, and in sulphuric acid solutions up to 
one hundred million. The color is a splendid pale blue. 
Quinidine and cinchonine show the same fluorescence, but 
more feebly. Weak decoctions of cinchona bark also fluoresce 
in very dilute solutions. The constituents of cacao fluoresce 
under the microscope in various shades of blue. Shells of 
cacao show whitish particles, which thus makes it possible to 
detect the presence of very slight additions of shells to pow- 
dered cacao. In a coffee substitute consisting of chicory and 
taraxacum root, the former is yellowish-white, and the latter 
more or less blue. Ergot can be detected by the reddish color 
of its fragments. Gentian powder is whitish or pale blue; 
rumex powder, a frequent adulterant of gentian, is golden 
yellow to green, and contains many glittering particles. 
(Wasicky, Pharm. Post, 1913. p. 877; through C. Zentralbl.) 
Determination of Iron in Syrups, Etc. — 

This method is a colorimetric one, and is said to be suf- 
ficiently accurate for the purpose to which it is adapted. Ten 
cc. of Syrupus Ferri Phos. Comp., etc., with SO cc. of water 
and 5 cc. of concentrated nitric acid, are boiled for five min- 
utes, to oxidize the iron. After cooling, the solution is diluted 
to 100 cc, and of this dilution 5 cc. are taken and again 
diluted to 100 cc. Five cc. of this last dilution are transferred 
to a 100 cc. Nessler cylinder, and filled with water to the 50 
cc. mark. The solution is acidified with 5 cc. of hydrochloric 
acid (1 : 3), and then treated with 10 cc. of 5 per cent, 
potassium sulphocyanate. After filling to the mark, the red 
solution is compared with one treated in the same w-ay in 
another tube, and containing a known amount of iron. One 
cc. of the standard should contain about 0.02 mg. of iron. 
In another sample of the syrup the iron is determined without 
oxidation with nitric acid. The difference between the two 
tests gives the amount of ferrous iron present. (Evers, 
Analyst, 1913, p. 447; through C. Zentralbl.) 
Constituents of Senna Leaves — 

The present investigation dealt with Tinnevelly leaves, leaves 
grown at Lima, Peru, and botanically identical with the former, 
and Alexandrian leaves. The alcoholic extract of Tinnevelly 
senna gave a small amount of essential oil, salicylic acid, rhein, 
previously known only in rhubarb, kaempferol, aloe-emodin, 
kaempferin, a glucoside of kaempferol, and other sugars and 
glucosides. Myricyl alcohol, a phytosterolin, and fatty acids 
were also met with. The purgative action is due in part to 
the aloe-emodin, and partly to amorphous products. The iso- 
emodin and chrysophanic acid of Tschirch and Hiepe could 
not be confirmed. The Peruvian and Alexandrian leaves give 
the same compounds as the above, with the exception of a 
magnesium salt of an unknown organic acid, and isorhaimietin. 
(Tutin, Chem. Drug., 1913, p. 743.) 



Colloidal Metals — 

Laborde sums up the properties and uses of colloidal metals 
as follows: They consist of ultramicroscopic particles per- 
forming the Brownian movement. Those prepared by chem- 
ical means always contain impurities, while those made by 
electrical methods can be obtained absolutely pure. Colloidal 
metals are charged with electricity; they are precipitated by 
electrolytes, losing their colloidal state, but they can be stabil- 
ized by the addition of another colloid having the same electric 
sign. The metals act like diastases, havmg catalytic powers. 
They can form compounds with each other, the new com- 
plexes having new properties. Their antiseptic power is very 
marked, and superior to those of an equal amount of the metal 
when not in a colloidal state. They are practically free of 
toxicity, and notably increase the power of the organism to 
defend itself against bacterial agents. Stabilized colloidal 
metals possess all the powers of unstabilized metals, and differ 
from them only in their resistance to precipitation. They 
preserve their properties during a practically indefinite time. 
Stabilized and isotonic colloidal solutions of metals increase the 
exchanges between the organs, and provoke a very marked 
leucocytosis. Colloidal metals are indicated in infectious dis- 
eases; electro-mercury in syphilis, electro-cuprol in cancer and 
tuberculosis, and electro-selenium in inoperable cancer. Intra- 
muscular or subcutaneous injections are most frequently used, 
the usual dose being 10 cc. for an adult; but doses of as much 
as 40 cc. per day can be given without danger. The injections 
are not painful, and are not complicated with abscesses or in- 
duration. The most immediately appreciable effect of the 
injection is a notable lowering of temperature, succeeding a 
temporary elevation of 1° to 1.5°C. (Laborde, L'Union 
Pharm., 1913, p. 523.) 
Modified Jonescu Test for Benzoic Acid — 

Jonescu's reaction is based on the conversion of benzoic acid 
into salicylic acid by hydrogen peroxide. All the methods 
in use for carrying it out employ heat, but it is shown that 
heat is liable to carry the reaction too far, and thus to cause 
failure. While the reaction takes place m the cold, some 
hours are necessary for the purpose, but the addition of a 
trace of ferrous sulphate, which acts as a catalyzer, ensures 
complete reaction in a fraction of a minute. Ten cc. of the 
solution to be tested, containing from 1 to 5 mg. of free 
benzoic acid, are treated with 3 drops of solution of ferric 
chloride (containing about 26 per cent, of anhydrous sah) 
diluted 1 to 10, then with 3 drops of peroxide solution (12 
vols.), also diluted 1 to 10, and finally with 3 drops of 3 
per cent, ferrous sulphate solution. The reagents are added 
in the order given, shaking after each addhion. In about 30 
seconds the reaction commences, and the violent coloration 
attains its maximum in 5 to 10 minutes. The reaction is 
sensitive to 0.2 mg. of benzoic acid. (Fleury, J. Pharm. Chim., 
1913, p. 460; through Pharm. J.) 
Synthesis of Gentiobiose — 

This sugar is a hexobiose, of the same formula as cane 
sugar; on hydrolysis, it gives two molecules of d-glucose. It 
was obtained in 1901 by Bourquelot and Herissey in the 
incomplete hydrolysis of gentianose. The svmtheses of other 
bioses have been reported by other experimenters, but their 
results are in general not conclusive. Croft Hill claimed to 
have formed maltose from glucose, but his results were called 
in question by Emmerling and Armstrong, and he could not 
extract the maltose from the reaction mi.xture. Trehalose 
might be formed from glucose also, but trehalase, the probable 
agent of this synthesis, is always accompanied by such a large 
number of other ferments, that the reaction could not be 
easily followed. The choice, therefore, fell upon gentiobiose. 
One liter of a solution containing 50 g. of glucose in 100 cc, 
with a rotation of -l-SO.S", was treated with 5 g. of emulsin 
and 5 cc. of toluene, then kept at 15-20° for a month. The 
rotation became -h44.2°. After filtering, heating on the water 
bath, filtering again, and diluting to 5 liters, baker's yeast 
was added, and allowed to act for two weeks. It was then 
neutralized with a little calcium carbonate, filtered, boiled, and 
evaporated in a partial vacuum. The solution was further 
purified by lead subacetate, evaporated to dr>-ness, and ex- 



12 



THE PHARJIACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



traded with strong alcohol. The alcoholic liquors, after being 
seeded with a little gentiobiose, yielded crjstals of that sugar, 
amounting to S g. Ihis agreed in all its properties with other 
specimens of gentiobiose. It has a bitter taste, melts between 
191^ and 194", and is split up by acids into glucose. Emulsin 
has the same effect. Some cellose is formed in the synthesis 
at the same time, since the cniu!sin used contains a little 
cellase. (Bourquclot, Herissev, and Coirre, J. Pharm. Chim., 
l^lo, p. -t-tl.) 
Glucosides of Glycerol — 

In the biochemical sj-ntheses of glucosides with which 
Bourquelot and his co-workers have been engaged, the use of 
emulsin from almonds alwaj-s leads to the formation of beta- 
products. In order to form alpha-glucosides, the best material 
to bring about the synthesis is dried bottom yeast, which, 
while not entirely free of other enzymes, contains so much 
alpha-glucosidase that the products of the reaction are pre- 
dominatingly alpha. Bourquelot has now turned his attention 
to the preparation of some alpha-glucosides, a recent report 
dealing with some experiments with glycerol. It was found 
that the action of the ferment was not inhibited by glycerol, 
solutions so strong as 94 per cent, having practically no effect 
on the enzymes even after four months. The s)-nthesizing 
reaction is more rapid in dilute solutions of glycerol than in 
concentrated. The formation of an alpha-glucoside is proved 
by following the optical rotation of the reaction mass in a 
polarimeter. Two g. of glucose, 60 g. of glycerol, a quantity 
of yeast maceration equivalent to 5 g. of dried bottom yeast, 
and sufficient water to make 100 cc, showed a rotation of 2° 
to the right at the beginning of the trial, .^fter 60 days the 
rotation had increased to 4.73°, showing that 69.78 per cent, 
of glucose had entered into combination. Bayliss recently 
obtained different results. He found that under similar con- 
ditions to the above, the rotation diminished. The present 
authors repeated Bayliss's e.vperiments, and obtained an in- 
crease in rotation, as was to be expected. From Bayliss's 
own admissions, it is seen that his yeast was abnormal in 
several ways. The glycerol glucosides have not yet been 
isolated, and it is probable that a large number of products 
are formed simultaneously in the above reaction. (Bourquelot 
and Bride!. X Pharm. Chim., 1913, p. 489.) 
Disinfectant Action of Toluene — 

Benians has made a detailed study of the disinfectant action 
■of toluene on many classes of micro-organisms, and finds that 
in some cases it is quite effective, while in others its efficacy 
is practically nil. There is no effect on spores or sporing 
organisms, nor on the bodies of the staphylococcus group. 
But toluene readily destroys all bacteria of the Gram-negative 
■class. There is a marked action on the tubercle bacillus, and 
on the diphtheria and diphtheroid organisms. There is a 
moderately well marked destructive action on the streptococcus 
todies. The disintegration and lysis of bacteria in emulsions 
exposed to the action of toluene do not readily take place, no 
matter whether they have been killed or have proven resistant. 
The action is markedly inhibited by the presence of fats and 
oils. One part of oil mi.xed with 50 parts of toluene, before 
•use. will completely inhibit the disinfecting powers. Starch 
and dextrose are without effect, and albuminous substances 
do not interfere, or only very slightly. Benzene and xylene 
are similar to toluene in their peculiarities, and on the w-hole, 
benzene appears to be the most potent as a disinfectant. 
CBenians. Z. Chemotherapie., 1913, p. 28.) 
Thyroidetim Siccum — 

In the B.P., directions are given for preparing dried thyroid 
glands, but the ratio between the weight of the fresh gland and 
the dr\' powder is not given. The U.S. P. states that 1 part 
of desiccated ths-roid glands represents approximately S parts 
of the fresh glands. Several commercial preparations also 
give this ratio of 1 to 5. .\ccording to Bennett's obseri-ations, 
fresh glands carefully trimmed, dried and defatted, lose about 
73 per cent, of their weight, so that 1 part of the dr\' powder 
is equal to 4 parts of fresh glands. In a recent paper by 
Martin, who worked with kilograms of glands, the extreme 
figures for the ratio are 1 to 2.58, and 1 to 5.66, while the 
average for the total quantity of glands treated was 1 to 
3.39. Another set of experiments by Martin showed the ratios 
of 1 to 3.26. and 1 to 5.34, with an average of 1 to 4.15. 
Guyer obtained the ratio of 1 to 3.71 for 37 kilos of fresh 
glands. Martindale reports 1 to 3.82 for Holland sheep, and 
1 to 4 for Southdowns. Guycr believes that the factor should 
he set at 1 to 3.5. M any rate, the e\ndence for the old 



figure of 1 to 5 should be traced, as the ratio is apparently 
seldom attainable, and may be misleading. (Bennett, Pharm. 
J., 1913, p. 804.) 
Source of Siam Benzoin — 

After reviewing a number of attempts to obtain authentic 
information as to the plant furnishing Siam benzoin, generally 
stated to be Styrax Benzoin, Holmes summarizes some new 
evidence as follows: It seems to be indicated that the chief, 
if not only source of Siam benzoin of commerce is Styrax 
Tonkinense Craib, which is found in the district between 
Luang Prabang and Hanoi; second, that the Styrax benzoides 
of Northwest Siam yields a fragrant resin used locally, but the 
evidence that it yields any commercial Siam benzoin is not 
satisfactory; third, that the method of preparation with hog's 
marrow, described by Rordorf, would account for the charac- 
teristic appearance of Siam benzoin, but it is not yet quite 
clear whether this method is applied in Siam to the product 
of Styrax benzoides. Saigon benzoin has the vanilla odor and 
absence of cinnamic acid characteristic of Siam benzoin, and 
it is probable that it may be produced from S. Tonkinense 
also, but exported just as it is collected. (Holmes, Pharm. J., 
1913, p. 804.) 
Sulphur Ointments by Fusion — 

The value of a sulphur ointment depends on the fine state 
of subdivision of the sulphur. It was formerly the custom to 
make use of the solubility of sulphur in fats and vaseline, but 
no complete study of the physical-chemical and pharmacological 
properties of these bodies has ever been made. If 2 g. of 
precipitated sulphur are fused in 100 g. of vaseline and kept 
at 140-145° until the sulphur is dissolved, after rapid cooling 
the sulphur is found in the form of round granules, about 
0.7-1.1 n in diameter. With lard, under the same conditions, 
the sulphur is likewise uniformly distributed, and the granules 
are larger, about 1.5-6.6 fi in diameter. Cacao butter gives 
an ointment with about the same properties as that made 
with lard. White wax containing 2 per cent, of sulphur, pre- 
pared by fusion, contains granules with diameters of 0.5-0.7 ii. 
When lanolin is used, no trace of granules can be seen after 
cooling, even under great magnification. In thin layers the 
ointment is opalescent, while the other ointments are milky 
and white. The granules begin to form after an hour, and 
later reach the size of 0.2-0.5 /i. Spermaceti gives much 
larger granules and spheroids of sulphur, about 6 ji in 
diameter. Paraffin (m.p. 58-60°) with 2 per cent, of sulphur 
shows irregular angular spaces under the microscope, filled 
with yellowish masses of sulphur. This preparation is very 
stable, and maintains the same appearance after months. The 
others are unstable, and gradually the sulphur granules pass 
into the rhombic crj'stalline form, in periods varying from a 
few hours to several days. The smallest sulphur granules in 
such ointments approach the size of colloidal particles, 
0.1-0.2 li, and may be considered as a disperse phase. Since 
the coarser crystals grow at the expense of the granules, we 
are forced to assume the existence of a liquid phase in addi- 
tion. The equilibrium between the liquid and solid phase is 
established, in ointments prepared by fusion, only when the 
disperse phase has entirely disappeared ; while in ointments 
made by simple mixture of the fat, etc., with flowers of sul- 
phur, the equilibrium sets in when saturation of the base is 
complete. The liquid phase is of the greatest importance from 
a pharmacological viewpoint. It enables the sulphur to come 
into intimate contact with the tissues, -nithout which contact 
chemical reaction between the sulphur and tissue would be 
impossible. On account of the slight solubility of sulphur in 
most ointment bases, the medicinal action would be very small 
if we were dependent solely on the amount of sulphur dis- 
solved, but a continuous effect is made possible by the transi- 
tion through the liquid phase. In ointments made by fusion, 
the solution tension, on account of the enormous surface of 
the almost colloidal particles, is very great, and their action is 
therefore more intense than those made by simple mixing. 
fSabbatani. Kolloid-Z.. 1913. p. 249.) 
Solid Substitute for Tr. Iodine — 

This substitute aims to do a-n-ay with the ease with which 
tincture of iodine decomposes. It consists of two tablets, one 
of which contains principally sodium iodide and sodium 
nitrite, and the other tartaric acid. On dissolving one of 
each in water about 0.5 g. of iodine is liberated. Nitric oxide 
gas is also set free, which unites with atmospheric oxygen at 
once. The tablets are now being brought on the market under 
the name of "lodoin." (Miinch. Med. Wochschr., 1913, p. 
2626.) 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



13 




THE QUESTIOM BOX ? 




THE OBJECT of this department is to furnish our subscribers 
and their clerks with reliable and tried formulas, and to discuss 
Kjuestions relating to practical pharmacy, prescription work, dis- 
pensing difficulties, etc. Requests for information are not answered 
by mail, and ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS WILL RE- 
CEIVE NO ATTENTION; neither do we answer questions in thii 
department from non-subscribers. 

In this department frequent reference is necessarily made to 
information published in previous issues ot the ERA, copies of 
which, if not out of print, may be obtained for 25 cents each, 

Cagafute Oil: Cajuput Oil. 

(W.P.J.) — "We had a recent call for 'cagafute oil', but 
were unable to supply the same. Our customer says he bought 
it from some of the older druggists, and they would go to 
their 'big book' and find the name. He bought it up to 
-within a year, when his old druggist died, and since that time 
he has been unable to obtain it. He says that various drug- 
gists said they had the same oil, but when they gave it to him 
they invariably gave him oil of cajuput, which did not work 
like the other oil. He used it for making a liniment for barb- 
wire cuts on horses, etc., and it would work with almost 
miraculous effect. The oil of cajuput would always cause the 
horse to rear and jump when it was applied, but the 'cagafute 
■oil' caused no pain whatever. Can you give me any informa- 
tion on this oil?" 

By not submitting the formula for the liniment we have no 
very strong evidence on which to base a suggestion as to what 
oil might be intended. But from the information furnished 
we can hardly believe that an oil of cajuput answering the 
pharmacopoeial requirements, especially when combined in a 
liniment and applied as our correspondent relates, would pro- 
duce any painful symptoms, and certainly no more painful 
than would result from the application of the usual liniments 
to raw or abraded surfaces. 

We have taken some trouble to review the literature of 
most of the medicinal and commercial oils, including polyglot 
dictionaries published during the last 60 years, covering the 
synonyms employed in most of the literary languages and many 
dialects, and we find nothing that would lead us to believe 
that "cagafute oil" stands for other than "cajuput oil." .\s 
this oil is used externally as a healing application, and is 
said to possess anod\Tie, stimulating and antiseptic properties, 
especially when diluted with sweet oil or other agent to modify 
its action, it would seem to "fit into" the liniment suggested 
better than any other oil we can think of. This probability is 
further emphasized by the fact that there is no name in any 
language of which we have knowledge that corresponds so 
closely to "cajuput oil," and this name might be readily con- 
strued to "cagafute oil" by the laity. The tree producing the 
leaves from which the oil is distilled is a native of the Moluc- 
cas, and is called by the Malays "kayu-putich" or "kyaputty," 
which, so far as linguistic peculiarities will permit, is closely 
followed in all languages from, "cajaput" in German to 
"caeputowe" in Russian and "kaja-puti" in Tamoul. There 
is no "big book" of which we have knowledge that indexes 
any substance whatever under the name "cagafute," nor can 
we find anyone in the trade who knows of such a product. 



Test for Wood Alcohol. 

(E.A.B.) — See page 34 of the Pharmacopoeia, where you 
will find the full text of the official test which, as you may 
note, depends on the formation of formaldehyde from methyl 
alcohol by the oxidizing effect of red-hot copper, and the 
reaction between this and resorcinol, as shown by the rose- 
red ring which will appear if any wood alcohol be present. 
.According to the Pharmacopoeia, methyl alcohol is defined as 
"rectified, purified wood alcohol, having a specific gravity of 
about 0.812 at 25° C, and free from pyroligneous odor." 

Various other tests have been recommended. .\n admix- 
ture of wood alcohol with ethyl alcohol, or with preparations 
thereof, may be readily detected by the following reaction of 
the acetone which it contains: The liquid to be examined is 
mixed with water, and a portion is distil'ed over a small flame. 
To 10 cc. of the distillate thus obtained. 1 cc. of a fresh 1 
per cent, solution of sodium nifroprusside and 2 cc. of a 4 
per cent, solution of caustic soda are added. In the presence 



of acetone a red color, passing after a time to yellowish-brown, 
is obtained. If only ethylic alcohol is present a yehow tint is 
given. Since both aldehyde and fusel oil give reactions similar 
to acetone by th.s test, they must, if necessary, be eliminated. 
Aldehyde is got rid of by heating 10 cc. of the above distillate 
for an hour on the water-bath under a reflux condenser with 
20 cc. of 25 per cent, solution of caustic soda and some water; 
the liquid is again distilled and tested as above. To eliminate 
fusel oil a portion of the distillate from the original liquid is 
heated for an hour on the water-bath with granulated zinc and 
dilute sulphuric acid, one drop of platinic chloride solution 
having been added. The liquid is then distilled and tested. 

Waterproofing Labels. 
(C.T.S.) — Labels are usually "waterproofed" by covering 
them with a coating of varnish. Here are some formulas: 

A very satisfactory varnish is made with equal parts of 
Canada balsam and oil of turpentine. The labels should first 
receive a thin coating of mucilage, which must be dried before 
the varnish is applied. 

(2) 
Dissolve 20 parts of dammar in ISO parts of acetone, and to 
the solution add 150 parts of clear collodion solution, .^pply 
with a soft brush. This formula is said to produce a varnish 
that does not penetrate paper. 

(3) 

White lac 1 ounce 

Lead carbonate V2 ounce 

Ether Yz pint 

Place the shellac in a mortar and reduce it to a fine powder; 
then transfer to a bottle containing the ether and set aside, 
shaking the bottle occasionally until dissolved, and add the 
lead carbonate in fine powder; shake well and filter through 
paper, returning the first portions of the filtrate two or three 
times until it becomes perfectly clear. Ordinary shellac may 
be used, but it imparts a brownish color to the labels. Paste 
the labels on the bottle, smooth as usual (it is not necessary 
to wait until it is dry), then apply the varnish with a soft 
brush. 

Non-Alcoholic Liniment. 
(W.D.C.) — We cannot give the formula for the proprietary 
preparation. However, it is possib'e that one of the following 
formulas, which contain no alcohol, may answer your purpose: 

(1) 

Camphor 2 driins 

Oil of rosemary 2 minims 

Oil of mustard, volatile 2 minims 

Cottonseed oil 2 minims 

Oil of turpentine, enough to make 6 ounces 

(2) 

Oil of sassafras 1 ounce 

Oil of origanum 1 ounce j 

Oil of turpentine 2 ounces 

Camphorated oil 2 ounces 

(3) 

Oil of cedar 1 A- ounce 

Oil of cajuput 1 fl- ounce 

Oil of cloves 1 fl- ounce 

Oil of sassafras 1 A- ounce 

The last formula is that given in King's American Dispen- 
sarv for "linimentum oleorum" (liniment of oils), which is 
said "to form an efficient application to rheumatic and other 
painful affections; it should also be rubbed on the affected 
part three or four times daily." 

Shaving Cream. 
(C.S.T.) — We cannot give the formula for the proprietary 
article, but the following formulas have been recommended as 
producing satisfactory preparations of this character: 

(1) 
White wax, spermaceti, almond oil, of each ^ ounce; shav- 
ing soap (Williams'), 2 small cakes; rose water, 2 ounces. 
Melt the soap with the rose water in a wide-mouthed bottle. 



14 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



Melt the wax, spermaceti, and almond oil together and add 
to the warm solution of soap, beating them together until cool. 

(2) 
For metal tubes: Lard, 16 ounces; spermaceti, 1 ounce; 
caustic potassa, 2 ounces; alcohol, jri ounce; oil of bitter 
almond, 20 minims; water, 16 tl. ounces. JMelt the lard and 
spermaceti together on a sand bath. Dissolve the caustic 
potassa in half the water and gradually add the solution to 
the melted lard and spermaceti with gentle stirring. Dissolve 
the oil of almond in the alcohol, nii.\ with the water, and 
while the soap is cooling, mi.x it thoroughly. The resulting 
product may be run into tubes while warm. 

(3) 

Curd soap 8 ounces 

E.xpressed oil of almonds 2 fl. ounces 

Glycerin 1 fl. ounce 

Spermaceti i/^ ounce 

Potassium carbonate J4 ounce 

Water 20 fl. ounces 

Cut the soap into shreds and dissolve it on a water-bath in 
14 fl. ounces of the water. Dissolve the spermaceti in the 
almond oil, and while warm mi.\ it with the glycerin, potas- 
sium carbonate and the remainder of the water. Transfer to 
a warm mortar, gradually incorporate the warm soap solution, 
and continue to stir until a smootli paste is obtained. Add 
any suitable perfume. 

Non-Inflammable Metal Polish. 
(J.W.H.) — Try one of the following: 

(1) 

Alcohol 32 parts 

Solution of ammonia 3 parts 

Water 45 parts 

Carbon tetrachloride 6}i parts 

Kieselguhr 8 parts 

White or red bole 4 parts 

Chalk 8 parts 

This formula, according to a writer in the Ch. & Dr., 
produces a metal polishing cream which has the advantage of 
being a grease solvent, as well as a polishing medium, while 
the addition of carbon tetrachloride keeps it out of the catagory 
of inflammable polishes. 

(2) 

Soft soap 2 pounds 

Water 10 pints 

Bora.\ S ounces 

Ammonia water 1]/^ ounces 

Infusorial earth 2 pounds 

Tripoli 8 ounces 

Dissolve the soap in water by means of heat, adding the 
borax. Remove from the fire, and when cooled, add the 
ammonia and stir in the powders, mi.xing thoroughly. 

Black and Tan Shoe Polishes. 

(M.J.S.) — The following are typical formulas for shoe 
polish : 

Cream B'acking — Paraffin, 30 parts; ceresin, 10 parts; crude 
wool fat, 10 parts; solution of caustic soda (38°B.), 2 parts; 
fat-soluble nigrosin, 5 parts; oil of turpentine, 180 parts; melt 
the paraffin, ceresin, and wool fat together, heat to 120° C, 
adding very cautiously a little at a time and under constant 
stirring the solution of soda. When the foam caused by add- 
ing the solution vanishes, let cool down to 100°C. and dissolve 
the nigrosin in the mass. Cool down to 80° C, add the oil 
of turpentine and stir thoroughly. Continue the stirring until 
the mass cools off. It makes a beautiful shining mass which, 
when ready for filling into small packages, must be heated 
just enough to make sufficiently soft to flow s'owly. This 
formula is recommended by the Siefensieder Zeitung. 

Saponified Cream Blacking — Camauba wax, 10 parts; bees- 
wax, 20 parts; solution of soda (40°B.), 4 parts; fat-soluble 
nigrosin. 15 parts; hot water, 160 parts; oil of turpentine, 60 
parts. Melt the camauba wax and beeswax together, add the 
solution of caustic soda and continue the heat until saponi- 
fication takes place and the mass becomes homogeneous. Let 
the mass cool down to about 140°F., and gradually add the 
color, which is dissolved in the oil of turpentine, warmed up 
to 125 °F. in a water-bath. 

This cream can be made of any color desired by using 
instead of nigrosin for yello%v, 0.8 part cerotin yellow; orange, 
0.6 part cerotin yellow and 0.3 part of cerotin orange; brown. 



6 part cerotin orange and 0.4 part cerotin brown ; and red, 

1 part cerotin scarlet IJ, e.xtra, all of tlie colors named to be 
fat-soluble. 

For a typical "paste" basis, "Pharmaceutical Formulas" gives 
the following: Carnauba wax, 10 ounces; beeswax, 3 ounces; 
stearin, 1 ounce; oleic acid, 1 ounce; oil of turpentine, 45 
ounces. Melt the three solids by heat, dissolve tlic coloring 
required in the oleic acid, add to the "melt," then gradually add 
the turpentine, keeping the mixture at a temperature of 40° C. 

For a typical "cream" basis, the same authority gives this 
formula : 

Carnauba wax, 1 ounce; beeswax, 4 ounces; pearlash, & 
drams; boiling water, 6 ounces; oil of turpentine, 40 ounces. 
Melt the wa.\cs and add to the boiling solution of pearlash, 
mix, and remove from the fire. Now add as much more 
boiling water, mixing all the time, and gradually work in the 
turpentine. These last two formulas may be used as they are 
for any color of leather, but it is preferable to stain them for 
respective kinds. Oil-soluble blue, nigrosin, red, green and 
brown dyes (dissolved in the oleic acid) may be used for the 
paste in the proportion of 10 to 30 grains to 10 ounces of paste. 
For the cream, use the same dyes dissolved in the turpentine. 
Other formulas may be found in previous volumes of the Era. 
Consult the indexes. 



Kemoval of Warts. 
(M.W.) — "Can you advise me of a practical formula for 
the preparation of a liquid remedy to remove warts? If 
glacial acetic acid, what strength would be safe and effective?" 
Many medical writers recommend the direct application of 
glacial acetic acid, which is accomplished by touching the wart 
with a drop of the acid by means of a glass rod, or by slightly 
moistening a piece of blotting paper or white cambric with the 
acid and placing it on the wart. "Pharmaceutical Formulas" 
states that "the safest and best escharotic is glacial acetic acid 
applied morning, noon and night with a camel-hair pencil. 
Just touch the wart with the acid ; do not saturate. Should 
soreness result, drop the application for two days, then resume." 
The combination of salicylic acid with acetic acid for the 
purpose is not uncommon, Hare ("Practical Therapeutics") 
giving this formula : 

Salicylic acid ! 30 grains 

."Acetic acid 1 fl. ounce 

Apply with a camel-hair brush. 

Here are two other formulas, published under the title "Wart 
Paint" : 

(1) 

Carbolic acid 1 dram 

Glacial acetic acid 3 drams 

(2) 

Chloral hydrate 1 ounce 

Glacial acetic acid. 1 ounce 

Salicylic acid 4 ounces 

Methylated ether 4 ounces 

Flexible col'odion 8 ounces 

See also fonnulas in April. 1912, Era, page 252, and 
December Er.'^, same year, page 754. 

Removing' Water from Camphorated Oil. 
(F.A.M.) — Whether it will be commercial'y practicable to 
attempt to remove water from camphorated oil will depend on 
the quantity of oil to be treated. If the quantity be very small, 
the labor and difficulty involved will hard'y pay for the trouble, 
as new stock can be made for about 30 or 35 cents a pint. 
However, if the quantity be sufficiently large, we should attempt 
the operation by first allowing the camphorated oil to stand 
quiescent sufficiently long to permit the oil and water to sep- 
arate into layers, and then without disturbing the mixture would 
remove all of the aqueous layer possible by means of a pipette. 
When this has been done, shake up the oily mixture with some 
well-dried sodium sulphate, in the proportion of about two 
teaspoonfuls of the salt to each pint of oil. On coming in 
contact with the water, the dried sulphate will take it up, 
coalescing in flocculent masses from which the oil may be 
separated by simply pouring or siphoning off the oil. Care 
must be taken to use the dried or exsiccated sodium sulphate 
which, if not in stock, mav be readily prepared from the crys- 
talline salt (Glauber's saltl by heating and driving off the 
water of crystallization. The use of dried sodium sulphate 
for abstracting water from oils and fats is a laboratory method 
pnd we think it will answer your purpose in removing water 
from camphorated oil. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARiVIACEUTICAL ERA 



15 




WOMEM EM PHAEMACY 



Conducted by EMMA GARY WALLACE 




A New Year Wireless. 



A new year — a real, unlived, unmarred bundle of 365 shining 
•days, is a wonderlul thing. Behind us lies the experience of 
the past to guide us in the opportunities of the future; for 
opportunities for work, sacrifice, and growth will come every 
single day — if you and I are ready for them. 

Let us resolve together, that this year — this clean, new 1914 — 
we shall at least be better than our word and more generous 
than our promises. Let us determine to be rich in sympathy; 
strong in honest effort; unfaltering in patience; true in justice; 
■courageous in right ; abounding in fraternalism and hope. 

And let us remember that the Law of Compensation will 
•bring back to us exactly what we have sent out to others. 

Oh, 1914 is sure to be splendidly, gloriously worth while 
because we are going to marshal the troop of days to do our 
wise bidding ! We are going to command the morning, and if 
the path to success be closed, the path of heroism is always 
■open, and sooner or later it will lead to the ultimate goal, 
■even if circuitously, of true happiness and lasting success. 

A happy and a prosperous new year for each of the Era's 
great family circle; a glad and a strong new year, the very 
best, all things considered, that has been vouchsafed to us as 
yet on this, our earthly journey! 

Emma Gary \V.m.lace. 



II. The Woman Pharmacist's Future. 



HYGIENIC AND SANITATION INTEREST. 



THE alert, professional man finds it well worth his time to 
become a part — if possible a dynamic part — of the com- 
munity life of which he forms a part. He joins the 
Business Men's Association and some of the local clubs for 
fraternal societies, that he may meet and establish friendly 
relations with those who are likely at some time to have need 
■of his services. One professional ma-- of the legal persuasion 
was heard to declare that he could trace 65 good-paying cases 
to one which was the result of a pleasant club acquaintance. 

The woman pharmacist has need to heed the same oppor- 
tunity. If there are Civic Improvement, Mother's Clubs, Home 
and School Leagues or those of similar interests, she can well 
afford to lend a hand. 

Of course she will have no desire and will be too tactful 
even to suggest by word or deed, "Buy your castor oil and 
fumigating materials of me," but in establishing public con- 
fidence in her knowledge she is laying a fine business founda- 
tion, nevertheless, and she may with propriety prepare a 
most helpful, timely paper or talk on such subjects as "Proper 
Care of the Sick-room During and After Contagious Disease," 
or "The Use and Misuse of Household Remedies," or she may 
give a series of interesting, simple experiments to show how 
household tests may be made for common adulterants and 
harmful colorings. 

It will pay to take time and even to spend a little money to 
make such talks or experiments thoroughly interesting, prac- 
tical, and illuminating, for by so doing the woman pharmacist 
is establishing herself as an authority, and, as she is readily 
available, she will be sought and her services more thoroughly 
appreciated. 

The writer has a carefully prepared talk on pure and adul- 
terated spices with a case tilled with samples of each (kindly 
provided by a well-known pharmaceutical house) and has had 
the satisfaction of hearing many women say: "I will buy my 
spices in future where I know the goods will be right." 
Attention to Sanitation. 

This is the first generation that has made a science of sani- 
tation and even yet the rank and file of people need to be 
awakened to the menace of mouldy, damp cellars, illy-cared- 
for refrigerators, pantries, garbage containers ; foul toilets in 
schools, stations, and public places; germ-laden air in the con- 



stantly darkened and often improperly ventilated moving-pic- 
ture shows, etc., etc. 

What can the woman pharmacist do about these things? 
Are they in her line? Is it wise for her to risk stirring up 
antagonism to herself or her business by rousing the people 
who are responsible for these neglected conditions? Why not 
let sleeping dogs lie? Why! Why! Why! 
Pioneers Heap Reward. 

Pioneers along these lines everywhere are needed — those who 
can point out by window disp'ays, advertisements and public- 
spirited interest that they are ready, willing and able to 'help 
better conditions. 

Of course, the pioneer will have for sale fumigators, dis- 
infectants, deodorizers, antiseptics, germ destroyers, and cleans- 
ing agents, sponges, gauzes, soaps, sterilizing apparatus, and 
renovating materials, such as oils, polishes, paints, etc.; but 
if these are needed from a health and happiness standpoint, 
is not a public service being rendered to point the need, and 
to show intelligent means of caring for the situation? 

The doctor, the minister, and the lawyer contribute from 
their knowledge and experience to the shaping of public 
opinion and are not criticised, likewise workers along every 
other line. Why not the woman pharmacist? If we want 
specific information, we go to one especially informed. The 
pharmacist is a specialist, why should she hide her light under 
a bushel of false modesty? It is perfectly legitimate also that 
wise, broad-minded leaders should profit because of their 
effort in behalf of the public betterment and welfare. 

Everybody is bound to profit when conditions are in-proved 
and the pioneers themselves are in the front rank, as k entirely 
right and proper. The old truism remains constant, that what 
we get out of anything is in exact proportion to what we put 
in. Plant indifference and we get indifferent results; plant 
stupid methods and we reap stunted returns; p'ant far-sighted, 
earnest, intelligent effort and harvest satisfaction, worth-while 
community results and a competence. 

{To be continued) 



W.O.N.A.R.D. Prize Won by Era Course 
Student. 



THE prize offered by the W.O.N.A.R.D. to the woman 
student receiving the highest percentage average for col- 
lege work, covering not less than two years, has been 
awarded to Mrs. A. C. Collom, of 16 South Penn street, 
Sharon, Pa. Mrs. Collom is a bride, having been Miss Myra 
Adele Willson until the time 
of her recent marriage. The 
charming winner of this $1*1- 
piece was born in Meadvilk. 
Pa., Oct. 4, 1889. She gradu- 
ated from High school in 
1907, from Allegheny Collegr 
in 1911, and from the Era 
Course in Pharmacy in 1912 
During her junior year in 
college her father's health 
gave out and forced him to 
give up his position as an en- 
gineer. At ~ that time Miss 
Willson was "keeping com- 
pany" with a young man %vho 
was a druggist in one of the 
city's leading drug stores. 
About this time Mr. Willson, 
who was born and reared in 
Sharon, Pa., heard of an old 
and well-established drug store 
in that place for sale. Being desirous of getting into some 
suitable line of business, he decided to purchase the store, 
taking as his partner A. C. Collom, his daughter's friend, who 
was to manage the business. 




Mrs. A. C. Collom. 



16 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



As Miss WilUon had a decided leaning toward the study of 
medicine, she determined to specialize in pharmacy so as to be 
of assistance in the business. In the Fall of 1911 she entered 
the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy. Her first year she 
finished with honor. The latter part of the second year she 
had charge of the drug department in the Presbyterian Hospital 
at .\:!c!;) cny. On .■Vug. 6, 1913, Miss Willson became the wife 
of her i.i'.her's partner — .\rlhur Collom. 

Mrs. Collom says that her marriage in no wise interferes 
with her interest in her chosen work, as she tliinks it is one 
of the finest callings any girl can clioose as it is decidedly 
the kind of neat, e.\act, and careful work in which a woman 
delights, not to mention the patience she is called upon to 
exercise. 

The Director of the Era Course fee!s a justifiable pride in 
Mrs. Collom's work and the honors which have come to her. 
She was ever a conscientious student, making the relation of 
instructor and instructed a verv- pleasant one. 

Mrs. Collom is hereby tendered the heartiest well-wishes for 
a life-time of married happiness and congratulations upon 
the signal success of attaining the highest standing of any 
young woman pharmacy student under the conditions named. 



Miss Frances E. Wells. 




T'r> be a successful pharmacist is exacting. To be a Civil 
■■Service pharmacist and to serve with increasing satisfac- 
tion is a stamp of peculiar efficiency. Miss Frances E. 
Wells is and for the past two years has been pharmacist under 
Civil Service regulations at the Peoria State Hospital, Peoria, 

111. The institutions under 
the State of Illinois Board of 
Administration are : 

Elgin State Hospital, Elgin; 
Kankakee State Hospital, 
Kankakee ; Jacksonville State 
Hospital, Jacksonville ; .Anna 
State Hospital, .\ima; Water- 
town State Hospital, Water- 
town : Peoria State Hospital, 
Peoria ; Chester State Hos- 
pital, Menard : Lincoln State 
School and Colony. Lincoln; 
the Illinois School for the 
Deaf, Jacksonville; the Illi- 
nois School for the Blind, 
Jacksonville: the Illinois In- 
dustrial Home for the Blind, 
Chicago; the Illinois Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Home, Quincy; 
Miss F. E. Wells ^^^ Soldiers' Widows' Home 

of Illinois, Wilmington; the 
Illinois Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Xormal; the Illinois Chari- 
table Eye and Ear Infirmary. Chicago; the State Training 
School for Girls, Geneva; the St. Charles School for Boys, 
St. Charles. 

Miss Wells was bom and brought up in the State of Maine. 
During a visit to Illinois she became interested in pharmacy. 
.^ none of her people were in the drug business they felt 
her determination to enter the profession an unwise one and 
all tried to discourage her taking it up. 

Xevertheless, she persevered and graduated from the Univer- 
sity SchooP of Pharmacy in 1905. .\fter this, this earnest 
young lady worked in retail drug stores and hospital phar- 
macies in Chicago to gain the needful experience and in these 
associations she found employers and associates who were 
courteous and considerate. 

Miss Wells finds drug work, and especially her present 
work, very interesting, and can always enthuse about it. 
Someone has truly said that enthusiasm is the white heat that 
fuses the elements of successful endeavor. Miss Wells is a 
believer in organization and is a member of the W.Ph.A., 
the I.Ph..\.. and the A. Ph.. A., all of which goes to show 
that our friends are not always the best judge of what we 
should and can do, even though they may be thoroughly sin- 
cere in their advice. 



its women graduates. There are 18 in all. The registrar- 
treasurer, W. B. Graham writes: 

"Some of our lady graduates have taken up hospital work 
and have become splendid dispensers in hospitals and lecturers 
in materia medica to the nurses." 

The Year Book shows that our Canadian sisters have fine 
opportunities for gaining a thorough professional training. 



Boston Offers An Attractive Programme. 

THE Winter's programme of Boston Chapter Xo. 1 is espe- 
cially attractive. It provides for eight meetings, tho-e 
yet to come being as follows: 

Jan. 15 Home Economics Department 

The Education of Girls as Home-Makers, 

Mrs. Margaret J. Stannard. 
Music, Mrs. DeForest Smith, Violinist. 

Feb. 19 Literature Department 

Guest Day. Music, Fensmore Orchestra. 

March 19 Legislative Department 

Mr. Edwin Mulready (subject announced later). 
Music, Miss Margaret Blake, Soprano. 

April 16 Philanthropy Department 

Charity Work E.vperiences, Mrs. Mary R. Martin, 
ilusic, Mrs. Willa Quimby, Pianist. 

May 8 .■Annual Luncheon 

Election of Officers. 

Music, Miss Isabelle Stevens, Soprano. 

.■Aside from this Home Economics conferences are held on 

the fourth Thursday of each month from October to .April at 

the homes of the members of the committee. The subjects for 

discussion are : 

Jan. 22 — Euthenics, Mrs. Morey. 
Hostess, Mrs. Edwards. 
Feb. 26 — ^How to Save Fuel, Time, Labor and Money in 
Cooking Ordinarj' Dinners, Mrs. CoimoUy. 
Hostess, Mrs. Hayes. 
Mar. 26 — Home Problems from a Xew Standpoint, Mrs. Cor- 
ner. 
Hostess, ilrs. Conolly. 
Apr. 23 — Reminiscences of Linda Richards, Mrs. Gammon. 
Hostess, Mrs. Comer. 
The Literature Committee meets the third Thursday of the 
month and has planned to examine the works of a number of 
standard authors. 

Jan. 19 — William Locke and "The Glor>- of Clementina." 
Paper by Mrs. Connolly. Hostess, Mrs. Waterhouse. 
Feb. 23 — Program to be announced. 
Mar. 23 — Mrs. Humphrey Ward and "Lady Rose's Daughter." 

Paper by Mrs. Waterhouse. Hostess, Mrs. Hayes. 
.Apr. 20 — .Arnold Bennett and "Hilda Lessways." 

Paper by Mrs. Hayes. Hostess, Jlrs. Green. 
The Philanthropy Committee meets on the second Tuesday 
of each month to sew for local charities. 

It will thus be seen that there is something of interest 
going on all the time and the Spring is sure to find the mem- 
bers much better informed because of their work and study 
together. 



BOSTON •W.O.B.A.K.D. MEETS. 



On Thursdaj', Xov. 20, a meeting of the W.O.B..A.R.D. 
was held at the Hotel ^'endome, Mrs. James Cooper, president 
of the club, presiding. After the business was transacted, 
W. L. Hubbard, assisted by Floyd Ba-xter, gave an inter- 
esting talk on the Opera of Tales of Hoffman with musical 
se'ections. Tea was served by Mrs. William D. Comer, Mrs 
William R. Acheson, Mrs. Frances J. Connolly and Mrs. T. J. 
Bradlev. 



CHICAGO CHAPTER HAS CHRISTMAS TREE. 



ONTARIO WOMEN GRADUATES. 



A most attractive Year Book for 1913-1914 has just come 
to hand from the Ontario College of Pharmacy with a list of 



Chicago Chapter, Xo. 2, A\'oman's Organization, National 
.Association of Retail Druggists, held a Christmas tree party 
at the Hotel LaSalle ball room on Tuesday afternoon, Dec. 30, 
from 2 till 5 o'clock. The party was for the special benefit of 
the children, who enjoyed the fun hugely. In the evening of 
the same day there was a dance for the young people also. 
Mrs. C. D. Collins and Mrs. B. A. C. Hoelzer were the ladies 
in charge of the arrangements. 



^immvfAivi^^fyfmi>&\vM»i\^ii^^^ 




Laws Governing Narcotic Sales Enforced as Never Before. 



THE iiicreasing use of narcotics in all parts of the countrj-, 
and the consequent bulletins by food and drug officials, 
have influenced the Department of Agriculture to a de- 
cision to enforce Treasury Decision 33,456 — as regards the 
importation of narcotic drugs — until Congress shall enact the 
Harrison anti-narcotic bill, or some similar measure. 

This Treasury Decision has been outlined and discussed in 
previous issues of the Era. By letter, Dr. Alsberg has assured 
the legislative committee of the Kings County Ph.S. that it 
would not be interpreted by the Bureau of Chemistry as apply- 
ing to prescriptions; if rigid'y enforced it would regulate the 
importation and sale of cocaine, under authority given the 
Secretary of the Treasury under the Pure Food and Drugs 
Act. By this act the Secretary is given jurisdiction over any 
article of food or drugs imported into the United States, if 
such food or drugs are "adulterated or misbranded within the 
meaning of the act" or are "otherwise dangerous to the health 
of the people of the United States." 

Dr. Carl L. Alsberg, chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, 
and Dr. Lyman F. Kebler, chief of the Drug Division, are 
quoted in a recent interview to the effect that there is not one 
case in 10.000 where an internal dose of such a drug as 
cocaine is necessary. Dr. Kebler said that "in spite of this 
fact, the United States imports 1,202,300 pounds of coca leaves 
in a year — half of the world's supply w-hich passes through 
the .'Xmsterdam market. From these leaves 140,000 ounces of 
cocaine are made. I believe an estimate of a million users in 
this country is conservative. .\ large number are due to the 
ease with which heroin, a morphine derivative, may be pro- 
cured. This drug was practically unknown when e.xisting drug 
laws were made, and few provide any restrictions for its sale. 
It produces violent convulsions, which often result in death, 
making it one of the most dangerous drugs." 



to medicine through the prohibition of morphine, alcohol, 
opium and cocaine. 

Dr. C. J. Douglas, of Boston, another speaker, stated that 
heroin was making victims by the hundreds in his city. The 
vicinity of one drug store in Boston which markets heroin is 
called "Heroin So.uare." 



U.S. Second to China in Abuse of Opium Products. 

Phil.\delphI-\, Dec. 4. — As a criterion of the probab'e drift 
of public opinion, the recent address of Dr. B. C. Keister, a 
Roanoke specialist before a meeting of the Society for the 
Study of Alcohol and other Narcotics held at the Rittenhouse 
bote', deserves consideration. Dr. Keister asserted that the 
United States is now second to China and ahead of every 
other country in the world in the use of opium and narcotics 
derived from it. "The menace is so great that there is danger 
of our degenerating back to something worse than monkeydom." 
The only logical course, the speaker argued, w-as to cut the 
habit-forming drugs out of the Pharmacopoeia entirely, and 
prohibit their manufacture. 

Dr. Keister further asserted that this country imported 
400,000 "pounds of opium a year, 15 times as much as is 
consumed by Austria, Germany and Italy combined, in a 
similar period. Seventy-five per cent, of this opium is manu- 
factured into morphine, and of the latter only 20 per cent, 
finds its way into legitimate medical practice. Morphine is 
being used extensively, even in cigarettes. 

All of Dr. Keister's figures ^-ere startling. American cocaine 
habitues consumed 150,000 ounces per year. Twenty-three per 
cent, of the medical profession were victims of the morphine 
habit. The complete abolition of the manufacture of the 
hibit-forming drugs, including alcohol, would reduce homi- 
cides by SO per cent., suicides by 60 per cent., and lunacy by 
33 per cent. The possible benefits would outweigh the loss 



Grand Jury May Indict Memphis Drugg'ist. 

Xew York, Dec. 10. — The gr;ind jury recently began an 
investigation which may result in the indictment of a druggist 
of Memphis, Tenn., who is said to have sold in one year more 
than $200,000 worth of cocaine in this city. Floyd H. Wilmot, 
assistant district attorney, made a flying trip to ^Memphis, 
fol owing receipt of information that the Memphis druggist 
had sold .^15,000 worth of cocaine to James Di Lorenzo, who 
is awaiting trial here for violation of the anti-cocaine law. 
Wilmot obtained the records of all the telegraph messages that 
passed between the druggist and Di Lorenzo for three months 
and believes that his evidence is so convincing that the services 
of Di Lorenzo as a State's witness will not be needed. This 
is the first attempt in this country to prosecute dealers in 
another State who sell cocaine here. If the higher courts 
decide that the local authorities have no jurisdiction die mat- 
ter will be taken to the United States authorities. 



Smoking Opium Conspiracy Charge Fails to Convict. 

Xew York, Dec. 10. — Lionel W. Widder, wholesale drug- 
gist at 502 West Broadway : Samuel Eerman, Widder's rep- 
resentative, and Ing Quong Quock, of 32 Division street, were 
found "not guilty" in the Criminal Branch of the United 
States District Court of the charge of participating in a con- 
spiracy to manufacture smoking opium. Evidence was pre- 
sented at the trial that showed the defendants had sold crude 
opium across the counter in large quantities four and five 
times a week to Chinamen, and that no records were kept of 
these transactions. No evidence, however, was presented *o 
show that the defendants had positive knowledge as to the 
final disposition or use of the opium so delivered. Records 
were kept of the rest of the firm's business and deliveries were 
made by wagon to the respective doors of the defendants' 
customers, exception being made, it seemed, when opium was 
delivered. 

The driver in one case, according to the testimony, left his 
horse and wagon some distance — a block or so — away and 
walked to the address of delivery. He climbed four flights of 
stairs and delivered the opium to a Chinaman, who was neither 
"tall, short, big or little" and had the name of "Charley," an 
appellative which might be employed to denominate any 
Chinaman in this country. It was necessary to leave the horse 
and wagon some distance from addresses fronted by "L" 
structures, owing to the fact that the horse had run away 
some time previous, probably having been frightened by the 
overhead racket, and the driver had been instructec' by some- 
one not to leave it where such an accident might occur again. 
Crude opium was delivered in large quantities to nn address, 
the building at which was fronted by the "L." Opium was 
also delivered personally by one of the defendants to a China- 
man in Newark, N. J. One of the defendants could not 
remember having said before Commissioner Shields that he 
thought or said the opium was to be used for smoking piu"- 
poses. Widder claimed that he did not know he was selling 



IS 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



the opium to a tnanufacturer of smoking opium: he thought 
the Chinamen would resell it. Out of $200,000 annual busi- 
ness, ?25,000 was done iu opium transactions. Four thousand 
pounds were sold in all. 

.\n interesting feature of the trial was a statement by one 
of the wiuiesses that Chinamen bought large quantities of 
crude opium across the counters of five or six of the largest 
wholesale druggists in this city. Two of these firms were 
named. This witness had not seen such transactions consum- 
mated, but he had been to!d that such was the case by a 
responsible employee of one of the firms. The defendants 
obtained their crude opium from these large wholesale firms. 

Frank .\ronow, counsel for Widder and Berman, success- 
fully defended his clients against the charge of conspiracy to 
manufacture smoking opium. 



Mostly Personal 



New York's Anti-Cocaine Law Effective. 
New York, Dec. 10. — .\s was prophesied when the present 
anti-cocaine law of this State was drafted, most of the cases 
coming under its provisions have been thrown into Special 
Sessions. From ^Iay 9, when the law went into effect, to 
Nov. 10, 11^ cases were brought into Special Sessions. Thir- 
teen cases were pending at the latter date. Of the 106 cases 
disposed of 101 have resulted in convictions. In General Sessions 
there have been 31 cases. Of these, three defendants were 
convicted of a felony, 16 pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor, 
si.x were discharged and the other cases were pending on 
Nov. 10. Fifty-one defendants out of 102 cases were ac- 
quitted in 1912 under the old law. 



Cocaine Sale Sentence in Toledo. 

Thomas A. Huston, for 40 years one of the leading drug- 
gists in Toledo, Ohio, was fined ?150 and given a jail sentence 
of 60 days, Nov. 19, on the charge of selling cocaine illegally. 
The prosecution was carried on by the State -Agricultural 
Commission, whose inspectors had been working among Toledo 
druggists for several weeks. John H. Bell, of Schaeffer & 
Bell, the other druggist arrested at the same time by the in- 
spectors, promised the court he would not sell habit-forming 
drugs to any but reputable physicians, and that he would 
endeavor to do as little business as possible in that line. He 
was fined $75 and costs and severely lectured by the court. 
Mr. Huston told the court : "I absolutely refused to fill a pre- 
scription for more than 10 grains. .At first I refused to fill 
any prescriptions for Dr. Lilly or Dr. Sickles. Dr. Lilly came 
to me personally and told me that he was working out a cure 
by gradually lessening the dose for the drug fiends. The 
same was true of Dr. Sickles. I filled prescriptions to help 
them in a good cause." 

George Ritter, special prosecuting attorney, said that from 
Aug. 13 to Oct. 29 Huston filled 711 prescriptions for mor- 
phine and cocaine. Ritter also said that from Oct. 29 to the 
day of arrest Huston had filled 150 prescriptions. He re- 
ceived from 50 cents up for each prescription. 

"His apparent purpose in fil'ing the prescriptions," said 
Ritter, "was to get the money. He did not fill them for the 
sake of humanity, but only for profit. The wholesale house 
with whom he dealt warned him against the use of such 
large quantities of done." 

"It would not be fair." said Judge O'Donne'l, "if the people 
in prominent positions are going to be allowed to vio'ate these 
laws, while poor unfortunates suffer from their conduct. 
Drugs have been peddled on the street and V'ave brought 
ruination to more homes than anything e'se. Tl^e court is 
bound to protect the interests of the public. I don't believe 
in fines." 



Wilmington Druggists Fined SlOO and Costs. 
James Ferris Belt a druggist of Wilmington. Del., was 
fined SlOO and cos's Dec. 10 in the Municipal Court there for 
selling cocaine. His arrest fo'lowed the capture of several 
ceddlers of the dn-e. it being found that a reeular syndicate 
to carry on the traffic existed. One of the peddlers to whom 
Be't had so'd the cocaine was fined a similar 'mount. Thomas 
PhilliDs, Belt's clerk, w?s fined several days before. Belt pay- 
ing the fine. 



65th New Tork Arrest in Cocaine Raids. 
Albert ^■eraldo. of We=t 45th street. Xew York City, was 
arrested Dec 18. as a result of the New York crusade against 
illegal cocaine se'lers. 



— REPRESENi.\iiVhs oi Jiiui.mapolis drug interests responded 
quickly to a call of Sheriff Theodore Porlteus for aid during 
the recent strike of street and interurban railway employees 
in that city. The city and interurban service was suspended 
for one week and during most of that time the city was in the 
hands of an uncontrollable mob. The police were unable to 
control the situation, and the sheriff organized a force of 1000 
deputy sheriffs, consisting of the leading business and pro- 
fessional men in the city. This force acted wholly in an 
advisory capacity, and in a few days, with the aid of Governor 
Samuel M. Ralston, an agreement was reached between the 
employers whereby the differences were submitted to the In- 
diana Public Service Commission for arbitration. .Among 
those who were sworn in as deputy sheriffs were J. K. Lilly 
and Charles J. Lynn, president and vice-president, respectively, 
of Eli Lilly & Co., and William J. Mooney, of the Mooney- 
Mueller Drug Co. Mr. Lynn was made chairman of a special 
committee of five, which acted in an advisory capacity to 
Sheriff Portteus and Martin J. Hyland, superintendent of 
police. 

— Two former di"uggists were elected to office at the election 
in Massachusetts in November. Frank J. Donahue, a gradu- 
ate of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, but who re- 
cently has been engaged in newspaper work, was re-elected 
Secretary of State, and Fred W. Mansfield, a registered phar- 
macist, who forsook pharmacy for law, was elected State 
Treasurer. Both are Democrats. Representative Thomas W. 
White, of Newton, a druggist, was re-elected to the Legisla- 
ture. John J. Gilbride, a registered pharmacist, who for sev- 
eral years was employed in a Lowell drug store, was elected 
to the Legislature as a Democrat, in the face of unusual 
opposition, and is one of the youngest members in the House. 
He was bom Sept. 14, 1889, graduated from the Lowell High 
School at the age of 16, and, securing employment in a drug 
store, became a registered pharmacist in April, 1912. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Association 
and of the Mathew Temperance Institute and the Knights of 
Columbus. 

— Louis K. Liggett, president of the United Drug Co., gave 
a talk on "Co-operation Between Manufacturers and the Re- 
tailer" at a recent luncheon of the Boston Publicity Club. 
He explained in detail the system that has been adopted by 
his company in co-operating with retail merchants. Through 
the closer understanding between the manufacturer and the 
retailer, said Mr. Liggett, the middleman has come within the 
last 20 years to occupy a less important position in trade 
Many of the larger manufacturing houses in all lines are 
establishing retail stores which serve not only to advertise their 
wares the way they want them advertised, but also show a 
very satisfactory profit. The jobber, Mr. Liggett believes, has 
little or no place in 20th-century business. Direct sales from 
manufacturer to retailer mean lower prices for the ultimate 
consumer. While the middleman will continue to exist in 
many lines of merchandising for a good many years, Mr. 
Liggett said that he believed he could be eliminated in many 
cases. 

— .Art hu r Nattans, who is just 21 years old and holds the 
position of secretary of the Read Drug & Chemical Company, 
which conducts a wholesale and retail business in Baltimore, 
e'ooed with and married Carlyn Burgunder. just 18 years old, 
recently. The couple got a license and were married by a 
rabbi, afterward going to Pittsburgh and from there telegraph- 
ing the news home and asking forgiveness. The parents of 
the young people tried to stop the elopement but were too 
late. Mr. Nattans is a son of Mrs. Jennie Nattans, widow of 
the late Arthur Nattans, who for years controlled the company. 
The widow now ho'ds a majority of the stock. A brother of 
the groom, Ralph A. Nattans, is general manager of the com- 
pany. 

— Mrs. A'lOtA Neubig, owner of the Neubig pharmacy, m 
Brighton avenue. Rochester, Pa., and .Andrew I. Kerr, a well- 
known pharmacist of East Liverpool. Ohio, went to Youngs- 
town, Ohio, where they were married recently. Mr. Kerr has 
been employed as manager at the Neubig pharmacy. After 
the wedding Mr. and Mrs. Kerr returned to Rochester. Pa, 
where they will go to housekeeping. The bride is one of the 
most popular business women in the Beaver Valley, while Mr. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



19 



Kerr is widely known as a graduate pliarmacist in Pittsburgh 
and other Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio towns. He 
is a native of East Liverpool, Ohio, where he has managed 
different stores since receiving his diploma. 

— John G. Beck, of Baltimore, general manager of the 
Calvert Drug Co., a co-operative buying and wholesale organi- 
zation, who was taken ill at his office about two months ago 
and had to be sent home, continues to be in an unsatisfac- 
tory state, and it is said that he will be sent to a sanitarium 
in order that he may have the best attention. In his absence 
President Harry F. Lindeman and Secretary R. E. Lee Wil- 
liamson are looking after details at the Calvert company's new 
place of business in West German street, where the corpora- 
tion occupies a handsome five-story brick and terra cotta 
building. This latter Mr. Beck helped to plan and equip. 

— Charles M. Carr, editor of The Journal of the N.A.R.D. 
(N.A.R.D. Notes) and "official booster" of the retail drug- 
gists' organization, has severed his connection with that pub- 
lication and is devoting his attention to his new journal. The 
Package Advertiser. The new journal is of chap-book size, 
but is filled with advertising and well-written and well-illus- 
trated material relating to its chosen field. Col. Carr was 
the founder of N.A.R.D. Notes and for 11 years has devoted 
himself to furthering the interests of the National organi- 
zation through this journal. His successor is Hugh Craig, of 
New York. 

— Frank H. Garrett, manager of the Harle-Haas Drug 
Co., of Council Bluffs, left Dec. 12 for Chicago and Eastern 
cities to do the annual buying for his house. Accompanying 
Mr. Garrett were four of his traveling salesmen, P. B. Hull, 
Keith Bradley, W. J. O'Donnell and Harry Conklin. Accord- 
ing to an agreement entered into at the beginning of the sea- 
son four travelers holding the high record in their territories 
were to be given this trip with Mr. Garrett. The four men- 
tioned were the lucky ones and had an exceedingly pleasant 
outing at the expense of the company. 

— The reappointment of Edward H. Wa!sdorf, secretary of 
the Louisiana State Board of Pharmacy, by Gov. Hall recently 
was an exceedingly popular one in New Orleans, where Mr. 
Walsdorf is recognized as one of the leading druggists in the 
city. He has been a member of the State Board of Pharmacy 
for the past five years, during which period he has been very 
active in enforcing the State Pharmacy laws. He is a member 
of the A. Ph. A., president of the State Ph. A., and of the 
Orleans Ph. A., and is also a member of the Board of Control 
of the American Druggists' Syndicate. 

— C. Phhip Donnel, of the sales staff of the Smith, Kline 
& French Co., of Philadelphia, since its organization in 1891, 
has resigned to become the president of the Williams-Donnel 
Drug Co., a newly incorporated wholesa'e drug company in 
Norfolk, Va., with $50,000 capital. H. G. Malsbury will be 
vice-president and general manager, and John N. Williams, 
Jr., of Norfolk, son of the founder of the drug house of 
Williams, Martin & Gray, will be secretary and treasurer of 
the new- company. 

— J. H. Hubley, for many years store manager for Wm. B. 
Riker & Son Co., and later for Riker-Hegeman Co., has severed 
his connection with the latter corporation. For some years 
Mr. Hubley was in charge of the Riker's 23d street and Sixth 
avenue store. More recently he managed the 42d street and 
Sixth avenue store. Mr. Hubley was very popular with his 
assistants and will be missed by them. , 

— Albert Ross, Jr., who operated a drug store at Eighth 
and Vine streets, Cincinnati, will open up a new store at the 
southwest corner of Ninth and Walnut streets. The Weather- 
head Drug Company has leased Mr. Ross's present location. 
The Weatherhead firm will move into new quarters about the 
middle of January, while Ross will take hold of his new place 
about the middle of December. 

— E. B. Curtis, formerly a drug clerk with the L. B. Swett 
& Co. store in Bath, Me., has been appointed manager of the 
new Riker- Jayne store at Lewiston. The store is one of the 
finest in Maine and occupies the front of the Journal building. 
Mr. Curtis is a graduate of the Massachusetts College of Phar- 
macy, and has been with the Riker- Jaynes Co. several years. 
— Miss Mary Cunningham, of Holyoke, Mass., has become 
a registered pharmacist. For several years she has been con- 
nected with Martin's pharmacy, Holyoke. She is the second 
young Holyoke woman to become registered, the other being 
Miss Grace O'Connor, of the O'Connor pharmacy in High 
street. 



— Charles J. Lynn, vice-president and general manager of 
Eli Lilly & Co., was asked by Mayor Samuel L. Shank a few 
days ago to become a member of tlie Indianapolis board of 
safety, which controls the police and fire departments. Mr. 
Lynn declined the offer because of his business responsibilities. 

— Paul J. Mandabach, field manager of the National Drug 
Clerk, tile official publication of the N..A.D.C., was a recent 
visitor at this office. He was in New York in the interests 
of his publication and of the Druggists' Home at Palmyra, 
Wis., which was founded by the National Drug Clerks' Asso- 
ciation. 

— .After 15 years away from his former home, W. A. Browne 
has returned to Boston to take charge of the new store of 
Green the Druggist in Scollay Square. Mr. Browne has been 
in the drug business all his life, and for the past 15 years 
has been manager of the Green Springfield store. 

— Ralph E. Dorland, proprietor of the drug business at 
Fourth and Jefferson streets, Springfield, 111., will remove his 
business to Gillespie, same State. Mr. Dorland is very well 
known to Illinois druggists because of his activities for the 
benefit of his fellow craftsmen. 

— J.4MES W. MORRISSON, president of Morrisson, Plummer 
& Company, and member of the Board of Control, N.W.D.A., 
has been elected general secretary of the Chicago Association 
of Commerce. Mr. Morrisson is also a director and member 
of the executive committee. 

— F. D. Mark, a Tacoma, Wash., druggist, has been ap- 
pointed a member of the State Board of Pharmacy. Mr. Marr 
comes from a family of druggists, his father being one of the 
pioneers in that State. The new State official is manager of 
the Virges Drug Co. 

— Miss Norma Hawxey, of Sherman. N. Y., who for a 
little more than two years has been the pharmacist at the 
Miami Valley Hospital, has tendered her resignation and 
accepted a similar position with the Southside Hospital, Pitts- 
burgh. 

— The engagement of Miss Irma H. Teichmann, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. Otto L. Teichmann, to Theodore F. Meyer, 
Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. Theodore F. Meyer, of St. Louis, 
was announced recently at a luncheon given by Miss Alice 
Judge. 

— F. W. KiSKER, who for many years was the chairman of 
the Formulary Committee of the O.V.D.A. at Cincinnati, has 
been appointed resident vice-president of the Royal Life Insur- 
ance Company for the Southern District of Ohio. 

— John C. C.vley. a druggist, of Columbia, Pa., has been 
re-elected for the fifth time to the local school board. This is 
a tribute to his personal popularity as he is the lone Democrat 
on the board. 

— Spencer Merrell. cadet at West Point, returned to his 
home in St. Louis for the Christmas holidays, to visit his 
parents, Mr. and Mrs. George R. Merrell, of 6209 W'ashing- 
ton avenue. 

— WnxiAM E. Jennings, a member of the New Bedford, 
Mass., School Board for several years, has successfully passed 
the State Board examinations as a registered pharmacist. 

— James I. Johnson, of Raleigh, N. C, has sold his retail 
drug business to enter the business of manufacturing proprie- 
tary remedies, and will head the Johnson Chemical Co. 

— F. A. FowLE. for 31 years a druggist in Lynn, Mass., 
opened a new store recently, and 50 or more of his friends 
united in presenting him with a mahogany clock. 

— Kelly Edwin Bennett, a druggist, of Bryson City, 
N. C. was married on Dec. 30 to Miss Ola Tela Zachary, the 
daughter of Dr. W. P. Zachary, of Sylva, N. C. 

— John P. James, who has been in charge of the prescrip- 
tion department of the Charles H. Scarborough drug store, 
Wilmington, Del., has been made manager. 

— Lotns C. WiESE has been elected a member of the In- 
dianapolis board of school commissioners. He has been a 
retail druggist in that city nine years. 

— Charles L. Reichie, pharmacist at the City Dispensary, 
Kansas City, Mo., has resigned his position to enter business 
for himself. 

— Guy H. Webber, proprietor of the Dearborn (Mich.) 
pharmacy, has been married to Miss Helen Whiting, of Bir- 
mingham. 

— W'lLLiAM MiNDLiN is the proprietor of a new store at 
172d street and St. Nicholas avenue. He is a N.P.S. member. 

— Leo Reich, a former member of the National Pharma- 
ceutical Society, has opened a store in the Bronx. 



20 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



Obituaries 



Elmer W. BiUingps. 
Elmer \V. Billings, senior member of the firm of Billings & 
Stover, druggists, who was know-n to ahnost every Har\ard 
student for the past 50 years, died suddenly of heart disease 
at his store Nov. 25. He had arrived at the store early in the 
morning and casually mentioned the fact that he was not 
feeling well. An hour later his dead body was found at the 
foot of the stairs in the basement, where he had swooned. 
Mr. Billings was bom in Soniersworth, N. H., 4S years ago, 
and as a boy of IS went to Boston. He secured employment 
in the drug store of John Hubbard in Cambridge. In 1S95, 
with Charles A. Stover, he bought out his employer, and since 
then had carried on the business under the name of Billings 
& Stover. Mr. Billings was a member of the Massachusetts 
State Pharmaceutical Association and the Boston .\ssociation 
of Retail Druggists. At one time he held membership in the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillerj- Company of Boston. He was 
especially active in the St. A'incent de Paul Society and the 
Ho'y Xame Society. He leaves two brothers and a sister. 
Four years ago his wife died suddenly, and her death was 
preceded by just about a year by the death of their only 
daughter, and these events had borne on him very heavily, 
but he had continued steadily at business and had thrown 
himself with greater energ>' into the activities of his church. 
He was held in universal esteem. 



George A. Hearn. 
.\ great many druggists, particularly in Xew York State, 
were grieved early last month to leam of the death of George 
A. Hearn, of the New York dr\- goods firm of James A. Hearn 
&: Son. This merchant was noted as an art collector and a 
philanthropist, but his charities were unostentatious. While 
men prominent in commerce, finance, literature and art were 
to be observed at the funeral services at St. James Episcopal 
Church, Madison avenue and 71st street. Dec. 5, to do honor 
lo the dead merchant, notable among the gathering were many 
men who began business life as cash boys at the Hearn store, 
and many others — both men and women — ^who had benefitted 
through the helpfulness of Mr. Hearn during his life. Mr. 
Hearn was a successful merchant of the school which builds 
upon merit and service, a consistent, progressive business man 
along conservative lines. The Hearn store for years has had 
for its business slogan, "Xo drugs, groceries or liquors, but 
ever>-thing in drj- goods," and the Hearn store is one of the 
few big stores in this city which has never run a cut-rate drug 
department, Mr. Heam himself was always a consistent friend 
of the drug trade. 



Iiouis Woltersdorf. 
Louis Woltersdorf, a pioneer retail druggist of Chicago, died 
Dec. 12 at his home. 717 South Ashland boulevard, that citj'. 
He was bom in Wamow, Germany, 72 years ago. went to 
Chicago in 1860, and several years later established a drug 
store at Blue Island avenue and West Taylor street, which he 
conducted until 1899. when he retired from active business. 
Air. Woltersdorf was a former president of the Chicago Vet- 
eran Druggists' .Association, and a member of the Germania 
Maennerchor. He leaves a widow and three children — -\rthiu- 
Woltersdorf and Mrs. F. W. Blocki, of Chicago, and Mrs. 
Paul Haeger, of Berlin, Germany. The funeral was held on 
Sunday afternoon, Dec. 14, snd the burial was at Forest Home 
Cemetery", The impressive farewell service of the C,D,V.A. 
was conducted at the erave. 



Thomas M. Peck. 
Thomas M. Peck, pioneer drug merchant of Grand Rapids, 
Mich., and for more than ,^0 years engaged in the manu- 
facture and sale of surgical instruments and supn'ies, died at 
his home Dec. 16. He was 79 years of age, and death resulted 
from shock following a fracture of the hip received in a fall. 
He was a native of Newburgh. N. Y., and conducted his 
business in Grand Rapids under the name of Peck Bros. 
After retiring from business he became interested in the pur- 
chase of timber lands in Michigan and elsewhere. He was the 
Honor recently of $150,000 to the Moody Institute at North- 
field, Mass.. to endow a hall there. 



Denny Carleton. 
Denny Carleton. of ISO South Bcicon street, Hartford, 
V onn., and for many years a member of the Williams & Carle- 
ton Drug Co., died Dec. S at his home after a long illness. 
He was born in Chester. \'t.. in lS-16. He became bookkeeper 
for the old firm of George W. Williams & Co., in Hartford, 
about 1S70. and in 1S70 was taken into the firm, when the 
name was changed to Williams & Carleton. In 1890 the firm 
was incorporated, becoming the Williams & Carleton Com- 
pany. Until three years ago he continued his active connection 
with the firm, but ill-health compelled his retirement from the 
business. He was 67 years of age. 



George B. WMtelaw. 
George B. Whitelaw, who organized before the Civil War a 
firm which handled heavy drugs and paints, and which after 
several changes became the firm of Whitelaw Bros., St. Louis, 
died Dec. 5, at the Westmoreland Hotel, aged 84. He had 
lived in St. Louis since he was eight years old. He spent 
three years in the California gold fields, 1850-35. He was the 
father of the wife of former Judge Daniel G. Taylor, Charles 
W. Whitelaw, president of the Polar Wave Ice Co., and George 
G. Whitelaw, vice-president of the Scudder-Gale Grocery Co, 
At one time he was in the white lead business. 



Baltimore's First Cut-Rate Druggist. 
Henrj' H. Klingel, who held the reputation of being among 
the first, if not the first, "cut-rate" druggists in Baltimore, 
died suddenly Xov. 30 in his store at 105 West Lexington 
street, of heart trouble. He had been ill for several days, but 
his condition was not regarded as serious, and he had put in the 
morning working in the store when the fatal attack occurred. 
Mr. Klingel came to Baltimore in 1892 from Illinois, and had 
been in business here ever since. He was 54 years old and is 
sunived by his wife and one son. 



Dr. E. W. Gardner. 
Dr. Edward Winslow Gardner. 37, son of the late Robert 
W. Gardner, of X'ew York, pharmaceutical chemist, died re- 
cently at Twilight Park, X'. Y., after an illness of two years' 
duration. He was bom in Jersey City, but spent most of his 
life in Plainfield and Bloomfield. .\fter the death of his 
father, in 1911, Dr. Wins'ow took charge of the chemical plant 
in Orange, where his father, who was the originator of Gard- 
ner's s>Tup of hydriodic acid, and of other preparations, car- 
ried on the business of pharmaceutical chemist. Dr. Gardner 
leaves a widow and his mother. 



RECENT DEATHS. 



— Bert S. Shay, 34, a druggist and one of the most highly 
esteemed men of East Liverpool, Ohio, died Dec. 15. Death 
was due to Bright's disease. Several years ago Mr. Shay, 
accompanied by Charles L^sler, now of Los .\nge!es, Cal., rode 
a bicycle from this cit}' to Lincoln. X'eb.. to shake hands with 
the present Secretary' of State, William Jennings Bryan. Mr. 
Shay was affiliated with Riddle Lodge, No. 315, F. & A. M. ; 
East Liverpool Chapter, No. 100, R..\.M.. and Keramos coun- 
cil. He was a 32° Mason and a member of the A\ Koran 
Shrine of Cleveland, He was prominently identified in church 
circles and for 15 years had been a member of the First 
Presbyterian Church of this city. 

— W. B. .\rxold, the pioneer druggist of 14th avenue. Rock- 
ford. III., is dead at the ?ge of 73. He was a native of Senate, 
N. Y.. was a veteran of the Civil War, and was the inventor 
of a preservative and disinfectant named Z>Tnotoid. He was 
a graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati in 
1879, and practiced medicine for some time before entering the 
drug business. 

— Hexrt T. CHAirPN'EY, founder and for many years presi- 
dent of the Bovinine Co., manufacturers of a prepared food 
product at 75 Houston street, is dead at the age of 88. He 
was a native of New Hampshire rrd came to New York City 
about 30 years ago, after being in business in Boston and 
Chicago. 

— Wn.i.i.\M Jones M.M!SH, for 22 years a business man of 
Coming, X. Y., is dead at the age of 60. He began business 
life in the drug store of his uncle. S. J. Jones, at Rushville, 
Yates count>', and then opened a drug store at Trumansburg 
in partnership with his cousin, Wilson J. Jones, in 1881. In 
1891 he established his business in Coming. 



January, 1914] 



THE phar:\liceutical era 



21 



— After failing to kill himself by severing a vein with a 
razor blade, Charles Ryder, a druggist of Emporia, Kan., com- 
mitted suicide by drowning in the Neosho river. He had 
been worried greatly over financial affairs, but it is stated that 
these worries were largely imaginative. 

— JI.\i-RiCE O'CoNXELi., a resident of East St. Louis, is 
dead at Santa Fe, X. ilex., where he had gone for his health. 
He sold his drug business in East St. Louis a year ago, when 
his disease, tuberculosis, gained such headway that he was 
forced to seek a milder climate. 

— Mrs. Eli2.\beth Sinia, widow of Valentine H. Smith, a 
pioneer wholesale druggist of Philadelphia, and founder of the 
present house of A'alentine H. Smith & Co., of that city, died 
Dec. 1. after a brief illness. She was 79 years of age. 

— WnjLiAM J.\>tES KntBT, for 2S years proprietor of a drug 
store at Steurbridge, Mass., died Nov. 20 from hardening of 
the arteries. He was 56 years old, and leaves a widow and 
five daughters. 

— Ch.\w.es H. Roberts, 53, for 17 years a traveler for 
Parke, Davis & Co., and later manager of a drug store at 
Philippi, W. ^"a., died suddenly Dec. 17, while at the dining 
table. 

— Morris M. Curley, a druggist of Newport, R. I., is dead 
after a three-years' illness. He was 56 years old, a native of 
Newport, and had been in business there many years. 

— \V. A. Jester, a druggist of Delaware City, Del., was 
killed recently when the automobile in which he was a passen- 
ger was struck by a train. 

— Dr. Johx KEiiPER, a well-known druggist of Galesburg, 
111., a graduate physician, and a veteran of the Civil War, is 
dead at the age of SO. 

— Charles Moore, a druggist of Driggs avenue, is dead at 
the age of 42. He had been in business in Brooklyn for 
several years. 

— R.WiioxD Shatjb, 36, a Quarry\-ille, Pa., druggist, is dead 
of pellagra, the second recorded death in Pennsylvania from 
that disease. 

— Fred Oswald, formerly in the drug business at Wheeler 
and A\'amer streets, Cincinnati, is dead from a complication of 
diseases. 

— Edw.ard E. F.\rrixgtox, dd, a traveling salesman for the 
\^'ard Bros. Drug Co., Indianapolis, is dead from pneumonia. 

— H-\RRY Jexks. of Findlay, Ohio, who went to Texas for 
his health about a year ago, is dead at Electra, that State. 

— JOHX A. Z.\BRISK1E, proprietor of the Elk drug store. 
Fountain square, Elgin, 111., is dead from hemorrhage. 

— WiLLL^M J. Cell, justice of the peace, and ex-druggist 
of Beacon, Mich., is dead at the age of 59 years. 

— CLrs'TON K. Keller, the oldest druggist in Harrisburg, 
Pa., died recently from apoplexy' at the age of SI. 

— .\rchie I. L.VFFERTT, 46, a Philade'phia druggist, died at 
Sharon. Pa., recently at the home of his sister. 

— S-Aii Sloggy, postmaster, druggist and pioneer citizen of 
Ontario, Wis., is dead at the age of S3. 

— W.VLTER H.\RDE>:, connected with a New Orleans whole- 
sale drug house, is dead. 



Jottings from Great Britain. 

Latin Dropped as Compulsory Subject by Council of the Phar- 
maceutical Society — Prof. H. E. Greenish on "Drug Mar- 
kets in Great Britain and Abroad. 
IT has been decided by the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain to drop Latin out of the syllabus 
of compulsory subjects for the preliminary' examination in 
pharmacy. This decision is of some considerable importance 
to the pharmaceutical profession, and although it will prob- 
ably be regretted by many pharmacists of the old school, it is 
a step the Council was bound to take, sooner or later. 

Latin is not taught in all primary' and secondary schools, 
and the result is that o.uite ? number of boys who are well 
suited to begin to learn something of the art and myster\' of 
pharmacy are deterred because they cannot pass the entrance 
examination. The result of the change will probably be that 
in course of time the supply of chemists' assistants will be 
sufScient to meet the demand, which can hardly be said to be the 
case at present. The Council strongly recommends candidates 
to take Latin as an optional subject, for the simple reason 
that when the time comes to enter for the qualifying examina- 
tion the candidate who knows nothing of the rtidiments of 



Latin will find it difficult to pass the examiner in prescription 
reading. 

Lectures on the Drug Markets. 

At an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, Pro- 
fessor H. E. Greenish, dean of the School of Pharmacy, ex- 
hibited and described a large series of lantern slides, illus- 
trating the drug markets at home and abroad. He mentioned 
that London was by far the most important drug market of 
Europe, but that Hamburg was gradually increasing in im- 
portance, much of the trade which had been done through 
London now being done through Hamburg. 

Referring to the adulteration of drugs by native collectors, 
the speaker said that after the drugs had been sold at public 
auction they were removed from tlie warehouses by the pur- 
chasers, but before they reached the hands of the pharmacists 
they had to be subjected to a careful process of hand-picking 
to separate e-xtraneous material which might have been the 
result of careless collection or intentional admixture. 

Thus, ever}' piece of myrrh is examined, and, if necessary, 
broken to determine whether or not it is genuine before it is 
passed on to the retailer. The necessity for the picking over 
is obvious, from the fact that buchu leaves often contain 25 per 
cent, of stalks which have to be separated. Serma leaves and 
senna pods are carefully picked over, and the former are 
usually sifted to remove sand and seeds, with which they are 
often contaminated. Opium occasionally contains lead and 
other material. 

The pharmacist, Prof. Greenish pointed out, has much to 
thank the wholesale druggist for in standing between him and 
the often wily natives who collect the drugs and skilfully 
sophisticate them. 

The most interesting feature of the lantern slides was that 
they showed the various manners in which the different drugs 
are packed by the exporters. For instance, they showed that 
aloes e-xported from the Dutch West Indian Islands usually 
arrives in wooden cases in which bottled spirits had been sent 
out, while Zanzibar aloes is exported in goat skins. Cloves 
are usually sent from Zanzibar in mats made from interlaced 
strips of cocoanut leaves, and so on. This is just the kind 
of lecture to interest students who are satiated with scientific 
discourses. 



NATIONAL HOME NOTES. 



.\lthough by the calendar it is Winter, one would hardly 
know it here. No snow yet, weather like October, with bright 
sunshine. Yesterday the Moving Pictm-e Association sent their 
men here and took nearly 2000 feet of moving-picture films, 
showing the Home, grounds and lake. Both sail and row- 
boats were on the lake and made a very pretty series of pic- 
tures. .-^ number of plates were also taken and when finished 
will be taken to different cities for e.xhibition under the super- 
vision of Superintendent Heimstreet and M. J. Gosa. The 
usual number of visitors have been at the Home last month, 
in fact enjoyed the Fall scenery as much as last Summer. 

Letters are being sent out for the dollar donation, and the 
trustees hope to meet with a generous response from the drug- 
gists and drug clerks of the United States. 

New York is the first to make a concerted effort to furnish 
funds for the Home. They commenced a campaign in Janu- 
ary and ever>' town and city in the State will be canvassed, in 
addition to this the New York City and Brookl™ druggists 
give a fair for the benefit of the Home. This will be under 
the superi'ision of the committees, and promises to be a grand 
affair. Mr. Thomas Lamb, of Brooklyn, N. Y., one of the 
best workers in the country, has been appointed chairman of 
the Fair committee, and will push m.atters at once. The mov- 
ing pictures of the Home will be displayed each day. It is 
also proposed to ship three carloads of the mineral spring 
water to the fair from the Home, as it will be put on the 
m?rket, and this will be a good chance to introduce it. 

There will be a meeting of the Board of Trustees in Janu- 
ary, when committees will be appointed and general business 
transacted. 

A svstematic canvass will be commenced in January of every 
druggist and drug clerk in the United States. 

The wholesale drug trade fnd manufacturers are responding 
with generous donations. If druggists will only send their 
donations now it will save the expense of writing, and if every- 
one will send in what they can, the Home will be paid for 
and a fund to take care of it. 



22 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



News from Associations 



What the N. \V. D. A. Did. 



INDIANAPOLIS will be the next meeting-place of the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association, in October, 
1914, despite the invitations from New York City, St. 
Louis, Galveston, Denver, Atlantic City, Toledo and Niagara 
Falls, while the 1915 convention will be held at Del Monte, 
Cal., in the latter part of September. 

The Jacksonville convention, of which brief mention was 
made in the December Era, was one of the most successful in 
the history of the organization, for while the attendance was 
not as large as at some previous meetings the reports presented 
and the business transacted were of great importance. The 
convention again placed itself on record in favor of the regu- 
lation of the sale of narcotics through National legislation, 
indorsing the Harrison bill as passed by the House in June, 
1913. 

The association also went on record in favor of the move- 
ment for securing legislation to fix prices on trade-marked and 
branded goods, both wholesale and retail, by the adoption of 
the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the National Wholesale Druggists' Asso- 
ciation is unanimously in favor of legislation which will 
secure the legal right for manufacturers of trade-marked 
and branded articles to establish and enforce both whole- 
sale and retail prices for their goods. We, therefore, in- 
dorse the American Fair Trade League, and believe it 
should receive our hearty support. 

Resolved, That the National Wholesale Druggists' Asso- 
ciation earnestly request the United States Congress to 
make an appropriation of at least $100,000 for the use of 
the Department of Commerce in conducting an inquiry 
during the coming year, into the question of legalizing 
reasonable trade agreements. We believe that this inves- 
tigation will establish the fact that the legalizing of rea- 
sonable trade agreements is a movement toward relief from 
monopoly, and this important question should be decided 
only after a thorough inquiry by the Department of Com- 
merce. 
Among the other items of business transacted, some by 
resolution following recommendation by the various committees 
and then further recommendation by the Board of Control, 
and others simply by recommendation of committees, were the 
following : 

A vacation period for commercial travelers — to be adopted 
by local associations — from Saturday, June 27, to Monday, 
July 6, 1914; and that general representative F. E. HoUiday 
bring the_ matter to the attention of the local associations at 
their mid-Winter meetings. 

That uniform terms and discounts, applicable alike to drugs 
and sundries, should become the custom. 

An exchange of credit information "along fair and proper 
lines." 

That credit men of competitive houses visit each other more 
frequentl}', cultivating closer relations and maintaining atti- 
tudes conducive to mutual confidence and frankness. A con- 
scientious exchange of legitimate data in matters relating to 
credit should be the natural outgrowth of this plan. 

That members investigate mutual liability insurance and 
ascertain the possibilities of these companies. 

That members be requested to use their influence where 
possible to decrease the loss by fire, also to join local asso- 
ciations whose purpose is to prevent loss of life and property. 
That the N.W.D.A. join the National Fire Protection 
Association, and that the secretary be authorized to take the 
necessary steps. 

That members adopt more specific measures for inspection 
of their property and places of business. 

That members endeavor to secure proper legislation to bring 
reciprocal insurance companies under State supervision. 

That it is the opinion of the N.W.D.A. that the postal 
regulations in regard to the mailing of medicines should allow 
the dealers to mail the same under proper regulations. 

That we urge the necessity of retaining the variation clause 
in the Pure Food and Drugs Act, as it is clearly in the interest 
of the wholesale druggists, manufacturing chemists and manu- 
facturers of pharmaceutical drugs that the clause be retained. 



That all members who have not already done so be urged to 
join at once the National One-Cent Letter Postage Association. 

That the N.W.D.A. indorse the Harrison bill, passed by 
the House of Representatives, June 26, 1913, and referred to 
the finance committee of the United States Senate, and "we 
will cheerfully accept the provisions of this act." 

The formation of local associations where such do not exist; 
the holding' of regular meetings to safeguard the interests of 
members. 

Pledging the assistance of the N.W.D.A. and its "hearty 
co-operation to every phase of work for the elimination of 
adulteration." 

That the N.W.D.A. again call the attention of proprietors 
who have not yet granted the request for at least 15 per cent, 
discount, and urgently request that they consider the matter 
favorably at an early date. 

That the N.W.D.A. favor the repeal of the exemption 
clause in regard to our coastwise shipping from Panama Canal 
tolls. 

The appointment of a committee of five to investigate and 
report upon the railroad situation. 

The appointment of a committee of three to draw up iresolu- 
tions to the memory of the late Thomas P. Cook. 

That the N.W.D.A. become a member of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the United States. 

The report of Secretary J. E. Toms showed an active mem- 
bership of 260, and an associate membership of 326. The 
receipts, including balance from previous year, totaled $29,- 
356.38, while the disbursements were $21,828.31, leaving a 
balance on hand of $7,528.07. 

Four active and 26 associate members were elected on recom- 
mendation of the membership committee, Robert H. Bradley, 
chairman. 

The roster of officers elected, and members of the Board of 
Control, appeared in our report in the December Era. 



Association of N.W.D.A. Ex-Presidents. 
During the recent convention of the N.W.D.A. at Jack- 
sonville the ex-presidents of that body were entertained at 
the Seminole Club by President Albert Plaut, of New York, 
and at the conclusion of the dinner Ex-President Thomas F. 
Main suggested that a permanent organization of the ex- 
presidents be formed, a suggestion that Mr. Plaut had already 
entertained, and the plan was heartily indorsed. 



New York Pharmaceutical Conferance. 



IN order to determine the consensus of opinion on the 
mercuric bichloride tablet, the Sunday closing, the certifi- 
cation of pharmacies, giving away of souvenirs, propaganda 
and other questions of more or less pertinency at just this 
moment, Jacob H. Rehfuss, president of the New York State 
Pharmaceutical Association, called a general conference early 
last month at the New York College of Pharmacy. In at- 
tendance were members of the State organization's legislative 
committee, delegates representing up-State and local associa- 
tions and other interested pharmacists, possibly 50 in all. 
Among these were Thomas Stoddart, L. J. Schlesinger, J. G. 
Wischerth, Dr. Joseph Weinstein, Thomas Lamb, Hugh Craig, 
W. R. Guest, C. N. Lehman, A. S. Wardle, Peter Diamond, 
Dr. Wm. C. Anderson, S. V. B. Swann, Jacob Diner, A. C. 
Purdy, Fred S. Rogers, Hugo Kantrowitz, John Roemer, M. 
R. Mandelbaum, John Wall, T. J. France, Dr. Charles F. 
Klippert and Felix Hirseman. 

No action was taken on the subject of mercuric bichloride 
tablets, it being deemed advisable that the legislative committee 
wait for the enactment of National legislation and follow that 
lead. Incidentally, it was decided that uniform and proper 
labeling should be required for wood alcohol, but that the 
legislative committee should in this case follow the lead of the 
New York City Board of Aldermen. Relative to bichloride 
tablets, John Roemer, of White Plains, argued that if the phar- 
macists of the State should advocate a measure before the 
Legislature on this subject they would practically be admitting 
that they were responsible for the deaths caused by this poison. 
Not the druggists, but the newspapers were responsible. 
Should the sale of rope be restricted because men will hang 
themselves? Dr. Wm. C. Anderson and Fred S. Rogers, of 
Middletown, were in accord, both recommending that the con- 
ference should not propose any aggressive legislation and that 
its representatives should not appear in Albany any more than 



Januakt, 1914] 



THE PHARJIACEUTICAL ERA 



23 



is necessary. The latter are "undesirable" and are not wanted 
there. Xo action was taken. 

The greater part of the session was devoted to a discussion 
of the Sunday closing movement which has gained considerable 
impetus as a result of the recently enacted one-day-in-seven 
labor law. A number of incomplete, but none the less interest- 
ing, postal-card canvasses of the trade were reported by rep- 
resentatives of various local organizations. The Westchester 
County Pharmaceutical Association stood 17 in favor of Sun- 
day closing to 13 opposed and three "on the fence." According 
to Dr. Joseph Weinstein, 20 members of the New York Retail 
Druggists' Association, at the time of this meeting, favored 
closing all day Sunday. Twelve were opposed to Sunday 
closing. One hundred and eight favored partial closing on 
Sunday. 

S. V. B. Swann stated that the German Apothecaries' So- 
ciety had been late in getting out its cards, 355 of which were 
mailed. Out of 160 replies received at date of meeting, 30 
opposed Sunday closing and 130 favored partial closing. The 
37 members of the Erie County Retail Druggists' Association, 
according to Thomas Stoddart, considered that Sunday closing 
was a matter devolving solely upon themselves. Sunday clos- 
ing is at the present time optional with the druggist: he may 
close all day if he wishes to. Three of the members closed 
because they gained nothing by staying open. He himself 
could not close on Sunday as, besides the sale of medicines, he 
handled a large line of surgical instruments. He found it 
necessary to keep a man in the store all night. President 
Rehfuss reported that the members of the Albany Drug Club 
had unanimously opposed Sunday closing. Mr. Rehfuss ex- 
plained the four propositions presented to members of the 
Kings County Pharmaceutical Society for their vote. To 450 
cards mailed later than usual, 159 replies had been received at 
time of this meeting. Twenty favored remaining open all day, 
21 would close all day, 54 would close after 1 p.m., 43 between 
1 and 6 p.m. would close up shop and 21 named different 
hours of closing. 

Mr. Rehfuss was firm in the opinion that sooner or later 
pharmacists must accord proper attention to the trend of 
opinion relative to Sunday closing. "If you don't — sooner or 
later, the labor unions will make you. As soon as the clerks 
unionize they will get their desired hours. If the public can 
stand having the drug stores closed from 10:30 p.m. to 7 a.m., 
it can stand having them closed from 1 to 6 p.m. on Sundays." 
Mr. Rehfuss concluded by noting that many druggists were 
getting around the clerk problem and saving $25 a week 
besides by sending their wives to colleges of pharmacy. 

Warren Guest, representing the National Pharmaceutical 
Society, asserted that the membership of his organization would 
increase five times immediately if it became a labor organi- 
zation. The members had not cared to be thus characterized. 
This statement relative to the clerks refraining from labor 
affiliations received the commendation of several of the pro- 
prietors present. Mr. Guest also stated that the clerks were 
sat'sfied with their 24 hours per week allowed by law. Peter 
Diamond wished to have himself placed on record as favoring 
Sunday closing — not as a Sabbath observer, for he himself 
might choose another day — but because he was moved by 
humanitarian considerations. In behalf of the poor unfortu- 
nates who toil 17 hours a day he would work for partial 
Sunday closing. 

In part, other delegates presented their opinions as follows: 

John Roemer expressed the opinion that in Sunday closing 
pharmacy was coming down to where it proved its own use- 
lessriess. Sunday closing would put the drug store on a par 
with the saloon. "Don't argue Sunday closing from the com- 
mercial standpoint — on the side of profit. It is cheaper to 
close on Sunday. If you could enact a law preventing people 
from getting sick on Sunday, if you could prevent by legisla- 
tion physicians visiting their patients and if you could close 
all the hospitals on Sundays, then I would favor Sunday clos- 
ing. If pharmacists are unnecessary on Sunday, they are un- 
necessary on any day. If physicians can be shown that pre- 
scriptions are unnecessary on Sunday they will soon prove that 
they are unnecessary on the other six. Each new piece of 
restrictive legislation will only draw the noose tighter to show 
that we are useless." 

C. N. Lehman opposed Sunday closing. Thomas Lamb 
pointed out that it was impossible to purchase merchandise in 
English drug stores on Sunday. Dr. Joseph Weinstein probed 
the effect of Sunday closing by asking: "When drug store 
night calls were stopped in New York City, did the death rate 



increase?" A. S. Wardle considered the matter one which 
each druggist should decide for himself. He was opposed to 
obligatory Sunday closing, but would close if his business 
warranted such action, or would remain open if his prescrip- 
tion business demanded that he do so. A. C. Purdy kept his 
store closed on Sunday, but opened on call. 

S. V. B. Swann asserted that the State association was 
negligent in letting the labor law get through. "It would be 
better to amend the labor law than for the State association 
to attempt the enactment of a Sunday closing law." 

FelLx Hirseman asserted that partial Sunday closing would 
help hundreds of poor, toiling clruggists in New York City. 
The subject, however, was too new, it should be probed — can- 
vassed — and if there is a desire for Sunday closing then all 
should work for it. 

Thomas Stoddart stated that clerks and proprietors in his 
section were not satisfied with the labor law. Anent the un- 
opposed passage of this measure, Mr. Stoddart said : "The 
legislative committee did not do its duty. I don't care who 
was on it." Commenting further upon the immense amount of 
restrictive pharmaceutical legislation, he asserted that "No 
druggist carries on business nowadays without violating the 
law. Who frames the laws? I think they are framed in 
Chicago and distributed throughout the country. We should 
oppose all legislation, no matter what its character is. We 
are professional men and above the labor law." 

Dr. Anderson characterized the schedule which under the law 
must be posted in every drug store the most obnoxious feature 
of the law. The 24-hour feature was all right. The entire 
question was left open by common consent until next meeting, 
and those present were requested to "think it over." 

The certification of pharmacies was the next subject dis- 
cussed. Hugh Craig outlined a paper on the subject pre- 
sented by J. Leon Lascoff at Nashville. Mr. Craig did not 
think that the association should force the matter, but if the 
medical society should take it up by itself some poor drug- 
gist will some day find himself on the "black list." Local 
pharmacists were offered equal representation on a grievance 
committee, an opportunity which, if the proposed certification 
is evolved, should not be thrown away. The American Medical 
Association is also taking the matter up. This organization 
has rated the medical colleges. "It behooves us to keep our 
eyes open in this matter, but we should not rush in saying 
that we are going to trust to the Board of Regents or anything 
else." He advised watching the medical societies. The mem- 
bers should work with them if possible and if necessary. The 
policy of "keeping in touch" appealed to those present and the 
subject was closed with its tacit adoption. The giving away 
of souvenirs was the next subject discussed. A. S. Wardle 
stated that a Supreme Court decision relative to trading stamps 
rendered several years ago had, at the instance of members of 
the association, been cited a year or so ago as a precedent by 
an Albany judge in ruling that if the decision held for trading 
stamps it also held for souvenirs. Thomas Stoddart observed 
that one firm in Buffalo did $25,000,000 business a year by 
giving aw-ay something for nothing. Dr. Weinstein asserted 
that any check imposed upon the souvenir evil was a check 
upon the chain stores. Dr. Anderson reported that the Anti- 
Coupon League had found that the coupon evil could only be 
checked by the imposition of a revenue tax which would make 
them prohibitive. F. S. Rogers had heard in the last six hours 
that Vice-President Whelan, of the United Cigar Stores Com- 
pany, had said that he would not think of installing the coupon 
plan in the Riker-Hegeman stores, and that he "wished to 
God" he had never put them in the cigar stores. 

It was further developed that under the Pennsylvania law 
retail and wholesale liquor dealers could not give away sou- 
venirs. Some of those present thought that if the coupon evil 
could be argued from the standpoint of public welfare that a. 
measure benefitting pharmacists could be secured against it. 

John Roemer, of the State association propaganda committee, 
presented an interesting report on propaganda. In West- 
chester county even the homeopathic physicians were writing 
prescriptions and the others would not think of doing otherwise. 
His propaganda plan called for joint "get-together" meetings 
of pharmacists and physicians throughout the State. At these 
papers should be read and an exhibit of preparations made. 
Albany and Elmira druggists had already assured him that 
such meetings would be held and Buffalo, Syracuse and other 
druggists were considering the matter. A general conference 
of physicians and pharmacists would be held at the drug show 
in this city at Madison Square Garden. Mr. Roemer was also 



24 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL . ERA 



[January, 1914 



endeavoring to enlist the interest of all the hospitals in the 
State and the association's exhibit would be sent from hospital 
to hospital in greater New York. All the committee's plan 
requires is the co-operation of every member. 

President Rehfuss solicited the support asked by Mr. 
Roemer. He characterized the committee's plan as "beautiful." 
"The exhibit is almost ready and may be shipped to any city 
asking for it for one week." Dr. Anderson stated that the 
association would have -IS feet of exhibiting space on either 
side cf the entrance of Madison Square Garden on the occa- 
sion of the drug show in January. "We should impress the 
public with what the retail druggists are doing. The local 
associations must come on it, especially with help." 

A resolution adopted at the Grand Central Palace confer- 
ence, to the effect that only registered pharmacists have any- 
thing to do with the preparing, selling, disposing and retailing 
of medicaments and poisons, was characterized as a fine thing, 
but something which could not be enacted into law. It was 
referred to "last year's legislative committee." 

"The legislative committee was instructed to "look into" the 
suit between the New York County iledical Society and the 
Wood Medical Company. The society holds that putting out 
any preparation bearing directions is prescribing medicine and 
a violation of the State law. A delegate present stated that 
the medical society had picked out an article that everyone 
might be opposed to in order to get general support. F. S. 
Rogers expressed the opinion that the suit was not a friendly 
action, since the Woods are preparing to fight the case. 

Previous to adjourning, Dr. .\nderson brought up the sub- 
ject of the pharmacist's responsibility for his clerk's mistakes. 
The clerk is licensed and should know his business. The 
State association should take this matter up and see that the 
clerk is made responsible. Peter Diamond observed that tlie 
clerk could not be held liable in a civil action but he could in 
a criminal action. Thomas Stoddart agreed with Dr. Ander- 
son. 



DK. KLIPPEET KE-ELECTED HEAD OF G.A.S. 



Old Slate. With One Exception. Unanimously Elected 
at the 62d Annual Meeting' — 349 Members. 

DR CHARLES F. KLIPPERT was re-elected president 
of the German Apothecaries' Society for the ensuing year 
at the recent 62d annual meeting of that organization. 
Henry Buch was elected recording secretary. The other officers 
re-elected are : 

First vice-president, Paul F. Gebicke; 2d vice-president. 
Otto P. Gilbert; corresponding secretarv', Carl Baum; treasurer, 
Robert S. Lehman ; recorder, George Leinecker ; librarian, 
George C. P. Stolzenburg; trustees, C. F. Schleussner, Felix 
Hirseman and George Kleinau and custodian of special fund, 
Paul Gebicke. 

The ticket was elected unanimously, the secretary casting 
one ballot. 

President Klippert appointed the following chairmen of 
committees : 

Scientific, Otto Raubenheimer ; legislation, S. V. B. Swann; 
entertainment. Otto P. Gilbert; press, Hugo Kantrowitz. 

Otto Raubenheimer, Dr. Wm. C. Alpers, Robert S. Lehman, 
George T. Riefflin, Dr. H. V. Amy and Hugo Kantrowitz were 
elected delegates to represent the society at the A.Ph.A. con- 
vention at Detroit, Aug. 24. 

Treasurer Robert S. Lehman presented his annual report 
showing receipts for the year of 52,131.60; disbursements, 
$2,101.77, and balance on hand of S29.83. He also reported a 
total membership of 349, consisting of 317 regular, 19 asso- 
ciate and 13 honorary and corresponding members. The funds 
in the bank amount to about S2100. 

Paul F. Gebicke. custodian of the mortuary fund, submitted 
an annual report showing that on December 1, 1913, there were 
135 members in the fund, that during the year four members 
had died, and that at present there was the sum of $672.84 in 
the fund, $648.84 of which was in the People's Bank. 

First vice-president Gebicke took the chair while President 
Klippert presented his annual report which reviewed all im- 
portant occurrences during the past year and included some 
important recommendations. He advocated an increase in the 
monthly dues and a rotation in office at least every two years, 
the latter to give more of the members an opportunity to hold 
office than under the present system. Dr. Klippert concluded 
by thanking the pharmaceutical press for the publicity given the 
activities of the society. He recommended that the organiza- 



tion continue to send each member a copy of tlie Apothcker 
Zeitung. 

S. V. B. Swann, chairman of the legislative committee, 
notified the members of the newly-enacted mercuric bichloride 
ordinance. He also touched on the subject of pharmaceutical 
representation upon the Board of Health, reporting an interview 
he had had wiUi Dr. Lederle, Conmiissioner of Health. The 
latter told Mr. Swann that if the pharmaceutical profession 
wanted representation upon the Board of Health they should 
endeavor to have the charter of the City of New York 
amended. There is at present no appropriation for the re- 
muneration of a pharmacist should he be given a position upon 
the board, and the Board of Apportionment and Estimate would 
have to be approached upon this subject. Dr. Lederle himself 
favored tlie desired representation and would appoint a phar- 
macist at once if he had the means at his command to pay him. 

Mr. Swann discussed the above subject with the presidents 
of the local pharmaceutical organizations, all of whom favored 
the proposition. These officers represent 2400 druggists in this 
city. Mr. Swann expressed the opinion that they should bring 
the matter of representation before the new commissioner of 
health during the first week of January. Upon the motion of 
Mr. Schaefer, the entire subject was referred to the legislative 
committee with the recommendation that Dr. Wm. C. .\lpers 
he advanced for any opening which might be made upon the 
board. Mr. Swann observed that an advisory board had been 
suggested, this body to consist of three physicians and three 
pharmacists. This proposal did not receive much support from 
the members. 

Mr. Swann also reported the postal vote upon the Sunday- 
closing question, the same being published in another page of 
this issue. Fifty per cent, of those receiving cards did not 
reply. Eighty per cent, of the members who did reply favored 
partial closing on Sunday. A resolution was adopted — not 
unanimously — lo the effect that the society favored partial 
Sunday closing. 

Otto Raubenheimer, chairman of the scientific committee, 
reviewed the year's program of lectures and addresses, among 
the speakers having been Dr. Hermann Engelhardt, Professor 
H. V. Arny, Dr. Lyman F. Kebler, H. L. Rehse, F. F. Angelo 
Haase, Dr. Wm. Mansfield, Dr. Wm. C. Alpers, Otto Rauben- 
heimer and Professor C. E. Vanderkleed. » 

Otto P. Gilbert, chairman of the entertainment committee, 
solicited instructions relative to the nature of the anniversary 
celebration to be held Feb. 12, 1914, at Terrace Garden — 
whether it should be a masquerade, a regular ball or a kom- 
mers including ladies. The matter was left to the committee for 
decision. Mr. Gilbert exhibited to the members a sample of 
the window sign which would be given to each to call public 
attention to their membership. The year in which the society 
was founded was added to the sign. 

Messrs. Hirseman, Schleussner and Kleinau reported that 
they had audited the treasurer's books and found them in first- 
class condition. Two new members, Wm. Wisendanger and 
Herman Klein were in attendance at the meeting and were 
warmly welcomed by the members. Dr. Wm. C. Alpers, having 
in charge the 1914 European trip, asserted that members not 
having already signified their intention of signing for the ex- 
pedition should endeavor to arrive at an early conclusion in 
this direction. 

President Klippert reported that it was his sad duty to 
announce the death of Mrs. Rosa Imhof, widow of former 
president Henry Imhof. The members were requested to rise 
in honor to her memory and the secretary was instructed to 
write the family a letter of condolence. 

The next meeting of the society will be held Jan. 13. 



N.Y. BRANCH CRITICIZES NE^W ORDINANCE. 



President-Elect and President A.Ph.A. Attend De- 
cember Meeting — Castile Soap Question Settled. 

PRESIDENT CLARENCE O. BIGELOW called to order 
the December meeting of the New Y^ork branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, held at the New 
"York College of Pharmacy. Dr. Wm. C. Anderson, chairman 
of the committee on legislation, reported that no great activity 
was apparent in pharmaceutical circles and that the members 
could expect nothing from Washington for some time to come. 
The Health Department of this city had amended the penal 
code so as to restrict the sale of mercuric chloride in dry 
form, the ordinance taking effect March 1. This measure, 
thought Dr. Anderson, ended the local situation. No restric- 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARiLACEUTICAL ERA 



25 



tion is placed on the wholesaler, and the retailer is entirely 
eliminated from handling photographers' bichloride supplies. 
The Board of Aldermen had approved the reduction of the 
fire license fee from $5 to $2, and all that remained was to 
secure the approval of the mayor. Dr. Anderson concluded 
his report by outlining the work of the recent N.Y.S.P.A. 
legislative conference. 

The mercuric bichloride ordinance was severely criticized, 
and as strenuously approved by various of the members. Some 
thought that the physicians, as well as pharmacists, should be 
restricted. Jlr. Raubenheimer deemed it ridiculous that phar- 
macists should be required to use only blue-colored bichloride 
tablets. C. O. Bigelow did not see how anyone would suffer 
much loss of business by the new ordinance. Only iiVs per 
cent, of the tablets were sold over drug store counters, and the 
great bulk were sold by department stores. . 

President Bigelow requested Caswell A. Mayo, president- 
elect of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to escort 
George M. Beringer, president of the parent body, to the 
rostrum to address the members. Mr. Beringer had not ex- 
pected to be called upon, but nevertheless made a very inter- 
esting address, in the course of which he asserted that his 
hobby was pharmaceutical meetings. He would go any dis- 
tance to attend a gathering of pharmacists. 

Dr. George C. Diekman, chairman of the committee on 
progress of pharmacy, presented an interesting report. In it 
he referred to the warning of Schimmell & Co., to the effect 
that the upward trend of prices had put a premium on skilful 
adulterations, some of these being extremely difficult to detect, 
artificial __esters playing an important part in the sophistications. 
This company had at one time threatened to expose the names 
of firms seeking to purchase adulterants for well-known prod- 
ucts. One firm requesting prices and information as to quan- 
tity on hand of "ester L," which might be employed as an 
adulterant for lavender oil, was named. 

Hugh Craig read considerable correspondence between him- 
self, as secretary, and members of the U.S. P. Revision Com- 
mittee and Mr. Mitchell, of the Board of Food and Drug 
Inspection, relative to the inclusion of Castile soap in th; 
U.S. P. The latter advised that any name in any place in the 
U.S. P. — te.xt or inde.x — was recognized under the Food and 
Drugs Act. The lengthy discussion on this subject, which had 
taken place at the October meeting, had been wasted. 

Jacob Rehfuss, president of the N.Y.S.P.A., moved that a 
committee of three be appointed to co-operate with the pro- 
paganda committee of the State association in connection with 
the latter committee's efforts to present a suitable exhibition at 
the Madison Square Garden drug show. President Bigelow 
had considerable difficulty in appointing this committee, inas- 
much as many of the members had already been pre-empted by 
Chairman Roemer. He finally named Messrs. Diner, Berger 
and McCartney. 

Professor Henry Kraemer, of Philadelphia, presented an 
illustrated lecture on "The Cultivation of Medicinal Plants." 
Professor Kraemer had with him the material for an hour or 
more of interesting discourse and sufficient enthusiasm anent 
his subject to maintain the interest of the members at a high 
pitch. Due, however, to close adherence to the regular pro- 
gram, he was obliged to begin his address rather late in the 
evening and to confine himself to passing remarks on the many 
stereopticon views thrown on the screen. 

Previous to adjournment President Bigelow called upon the 
1st vice-president of the branch, Wm. Jay Schieffelin, for a 
short address. Mr. Schieffelin presented a short report on the 
recent N.W.D.A. convention, referring with satisfaction to 
the atmosphere of friendliness which clothed the occasion. He 
expressed further satisfaction over the results of the recent 
local election and the success of the more recent $4,000,000 
Y.M.C..\. fund campaign, in both of which he had been 
interested. 



BROOKLYN DRUGGISTS FOR SUNDAY CLOSING. 



Kin^s County Pharmaceutical Society Postal Card 
Vote Not AH In — Shows How Majority Stands. 

SECRETARY ANDREW E. HEGEM.\N reported the 
postal-card vote of the members of the Kings County 
Pharmaceutical Society on the question of Sunday closing 
at the December meeting of that organization, held at the 
Brooklyn College of Pharmacy and called to order by President 
H. B. Smith. Two hundred and five reply cards were returned 
at the time of this meeting out of 500 sent out. The card 



presented four propositions: "Do you favor keeping drug 
stores open all day Sunday (as at present) ?" and three modi- 
fications of Sunday closing, "To close all day?" "To close 
after 1 p.m.?" and "To close between 1 and 6 p.m.?" Twenty- 
five favored closing all day, 25 remaining open all day, 64 
closing 1 to 6 p.m. (about 10 per cent, of these, one member 
remarked, were not in active practice), 66 close after 1 p.m., 
and the balance favored closing at the different hours which 
they narned. Some of the replies went further than merely 
stating "Yes" or "No," some of the members expressing the 
belief that "there is absolutely no reason why drug stores 
should keep open all day Sunday." 

Jacob H. Rehfuss reported that 90 per cent, of the members 
of tlie East New York Pharmaceutical Association favored 
closing after 1 p.m. Mr. Rehfuss stated that much to the 
surprise of the members of the Kmgs county society the Sun- 
day-closing movement had started up-State, but the sentiment 
favoring it is much stronger in the metropolitan districts. He 
then reported the attitude of the recent legislative conference 
held at the N.Y.C.P. to the effect that the matter be deliber- 
ated upon and be brought up at the annual State association 
meeting at Sagamore Hotel, Lake George. Dr. Joseph Kalm 
advised that the members consider the public welfare in de- 
ciding the question. Adrian Paradis agreed with a previous 
contention made by Dr. Henry J. J. Kassebaum that the 
detail houses would stock the physicians for Sunday "when 
the drug stores are closed." Before leaving the argument Mr. 
Rehfuss pointed out that it would be impossible to get the 
best material among the young men of today to enter phar- 
macy because they would not work seven days a week. 

T. J. France was opposed to legislation on Sunday closing: 
"The druggists are simply legislating themselves out of busi- 
ness." Dr. Wm. C. .Anderson explained that the Sunday- 
closing movement had been started as a remedy for the situa- 
tion created by the new labor law. The posting of a schedule 
containing a list of employees required to work on Sundays 
and designating the day of rest for each, the filing of such 
schedule with the commissioner and the prompt filing with 
the said commissioner of a copy of every change in such 
schedule, was the most objectionable feature of the law. Up- 
State druggists had concluded it best to close their stores on 
Sundays, and having decided to close, deemed it desirable that 
everybody else should do likewise. "Partial closing will not 
solve the original problem. It is foolish to legislate ourselves 
out of business for part of a day. It shows that we are not 
necessary one day a week." Dr. Anderson asked what would 
be done if a doctor needed a tank of ox-j-gen while all the 
drug stores were closed. "Don't go to Albany and try to get 
legislation which will fie us down. Keep away from the law 
if you can't meet the labor law situation." 

Dr. Hy. J. J. Kassebaum, detail man, gave an interesting 
talk on his work to date. He had seen approximately 100 men 
since his appointment and in his experience the physicians 
were more interested in the official preparations than were the 
druggists. The latter were not making the preparations. In 
a dozen cases druggists had called up the doctors who had 
prescribed official preparations and had requested the latter 
to substitute manufactured articles. The druggist should cater 
more to the physician than he does. The speaker pointed out 
that a few druggists were sending out samples of official prep- 
arations to the physicians in their neighborhood and were 
building up fine businesses by these tactics. 

Charles Heimerzheim, of- the trade matters committee, ex- 
plained that the propaganda policy of the society had been 
changed since last year. He explained that the detail man 
now endeavored to educate physicians how to prescribe and 
was introducing original preparations which druggists should 
have on hand. He did not push imitations of proprietaries. 
He visited about 20 physicians and 10 pharmacists a week 
and was endeavoring to get the co-operation of the two pro- 
fessions. At Mr. Heimerzheim's request his committee was 
voted the sum of $100 for expenses. 

The resignation of Wm. F. Morgan as trustee of the college 
was accepted. Dr. Morgan having been appointed an assistant 
in pharmacognosy to Dr. A. P. Lohness. M. D. Cadman 
was elected a trustee and O. F. Bancroft a member of the 
Board of Censors. 

Treasurer .Adrian Paradis reported a balance on hand of 
$223. T. J. France reported that the mid-Winter examina- 
tions at the college would begin the first Monday in January. 
Otto Raubenheimer presented an interesting paper on the 
"Centenary of Iodine." Mr. Raubenheimer reported that 



26 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



Thomas Keenan, editor of Paper, would address the members 
on "K;iolin'' at the Tinuan' meeting. 



DRUG TRADE SECTION ACTS ON LEGISLATION. 



lations as are the American manufacturers. The action taken 
by the section was substantially that taken by the N.W.D.A. 
at Jacksonville. 



Takes Stand Anent Bichloride, Solicits Action on 
Harrison Bill and Proposes P.O. Measure. 

THE memliers of ilie Drug Trade Section of the New York 
Board of Trade and Transportation at tlieir regular De- 
cember meeting, called to order by Chairman Henry C. 
Lovis, voiced their attitude toward the bichloride tablet ques- 
tion by adopting the following resolution: 

"Rfsohed. That the Drug Trade Section of the New York 
Board of Trade and Transportation recommends the enactment 
of a law requiring that bichloride of mercury tablets contain- 
ing more than one-tenth of a grain shall be colored blue and 
shall be made in distinctive forms. 

"Further, That the section is opposed to any legislation 
which will require the aurtificial coloring of bichloride of mer- 
cury when sold in any other than tablet form." 

Thomas Main asserted that it had been the general opinion 
at the N.W.D..\. Jacksonville meeting that Treasury De- 
cision 33,456 would be revoked upon the passage of the Harri- 
son bill. .-Mbert Plaut said that Dr. .^Isberg had assured him 
that the decision would be revoked if the Harrison bill were 
passed. Secretary- Wm. McConnell also quoted the Chief of 
the Bureau of Chemistrj- to the effect that the latter would 
for some time enforce the measure only as regards importa- 
tions. Mr. Main introduced a resolution which was unani- 
mously adopted and which incorporated the following points: 

That the section record with regret the failure of Congress 
at its special session to enact H.R. bill 6282, the Harrison 
bill, which passed the House of Representatives June 26, 1913, 
without opposition, having been carefully prepared by the 
collaboration of Government officials, committees of Congress 
and representatives of the several trades affected by its ad- 
ministration. 

Early enactment of this bill is of utmost importance to the 
people of the United States. This country took the initiative 
in convening an international congress to restrict the use of 
narcotics and, while some of the participants are enforcing 
their agreements the U.S. is delaying action. 

The section earnestly petitions the finance committee of the 
U.S. Senate to report this bill for passage at once, and we 
urge the Senators from New York to use every proper effort 
to promote its passage. 

The secretary was instructed to send copies to the President, 
Senators Root and O'Gorman and the members of the Senate 
finance committee. 

Secretary McConnell brought before the meeting the am- 
biguous postal regulation relative to the mailing of prepara- 
tions containing poisons. He stated that according to the local 
authorities nothing containing poisons would be mailable in 
this city. Mr. Plaut asserted that Second Assistant Postmaster- 
General Joseph. Stewart had assured him that there would be 
no hold-up on bonafide medicines, but that the only way to 
remedy the law was to have it changed. It had been passed 
to "hit" poisoned candy: legitimate business had not been 
aimed at. The post-office authorities, however, found it im- 
possible to interpret the law any differently than it does. Since 
it was not seriously affecting anyone's business the matter was 
laid over until next meeting, the" secretary being instructed to 
prepare suitable legislation for the consideration of the section. 

The recent ruling of the State Superintendent of Weights 
and ileasures that "In relation to commodities put up in 
tubes, they shall be marked plainly and conspicuously and a 
reasonable variance shall be allowed," was called to the atten- 
tion of the members by the secretary. He also admonished 
them that the Brooks weights and measures law with all its 
provisions as to labeling with net weight, measure or numerical 
count would be enforced February 1, 1914. 

The new Cuban requirement that a statement be made upon 
the label of the component to which every preparation owes 
Its value was brought up by Thomas Main, who proposed a 
resolution, later adopted, that the committee on legislation 
protest against the regulations to the Secretary of Sanitation 
and Beneficence in Cuba and that it request Secretary of 
State Bryan to protest with the Cuban government against the 
imposition of this law. The measure also requires the regis- 
tration of every article offered for sale in Cuba and that cer- 
tificates for each be obtained. It was reported that the whole- 
sale druggists of Cuba are as strenuously opposed to the regu- 



Chicago Branch, A.Ph.A. 

The November meeting of the Chicago branch of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical .Association was held at the University of 
Illinois School of Pharmacy building. The subject was "Gen- 
eral Principles of Pharmacy Legislation." The members of 
the State Board of Pharmacy and the president and members 
of the executive committee of the Illinois Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation were invited to be present. 

The following general statement was presented in type- 
written form to each one present and became the basis of the 
discussion : 

"1. Pharmaceutical legislation, though framed by pharma- 
cists and secured only through their organized efforts, must 
primarily be intended to provide efficient pharmaceutical ser- 
vice for the public. 2. Sudi legislation must control the traffic 
in habit-forming drugs and safeguard so far as possible the 
handling and employment of poisons and potent remedies. 
3. Concessions must be made so as to permit dealers other 
than pharmacists to supply under proper restrictions such 
poisonous substances as are used largely in the arts. 4. Stand- 
ards covering school and drug-store training should be pro- 
vided for three grades of certificates — .Apprentice, .Assistant 
and Pharmacist. S. Boards of Pharmacy should have full 
supervision of all matters within the State relating to the 
handling and sale of drugs and medicines. By co-operation 
with other State departments facilities for analyses could be 
provided. 6. By co-operation with the State department of 
education, trained e.xperts should be provided to conduct the 
examinations, but directly supervised and controlled by the 
Board of Pharmacy. 7. Appointments of board members 
should be made upon the recommendation of State pharmaceu- 
tical associations." 

James H. Wells, president of the branch, presided, and called 
upon Editor George Engelhard to lead in the discussion. Mr. 
Engelhard expressed himself as substantially in accord with the 
statement of principles as presented to the meeting. He 
referred to the part he took in the drafting of the original 
Illinois pharmacy law, adopted in 1880, and stated that it was 
based on a model law proposed by the .A.Ph.A. previous to 
that time. He brought out the point that an endeavor was 
made in this original draft to provide for the election of the 
members of the Board of Pharmacy by the pharmacists of the 
State, but such a provision, it was shown, would be uncon- 
stitutional, as the members of the board must be appointed 
by the Governor. He declared that board members in all the 
States were, to a more or less extent, political appointees and 
that if pharmacists had the power to elect the administrators 
of the law, the condition of pharmacy in the several States 
would now be ideal 

Mr. Engelhard also discussed the question of college pre- 
requisites before examination and stated that no such require- 
ment should be included in the law itself, but educational 
requirements, as well as the character and methods of ex- 
amination should be left to the discretion of the board. If 
conditions in pharmacy have reached such a state that a course 
in a college of pharmacy is essential to the proper qualifica- 
tions of a pharmacist, well and good, let the board so rule. 

He criticised severely the provisions of the law permitting^ 
physicians to dispense and held that qualified pharmacists 
alone should dispense medicine and then that pharmacists 
should be responsible for all medicines so dispensed. In this 
respect he is completely in accord with the principles laid down 
by the drug reform committee of the .A.Ph.A. and further 
stated that the doctors were to the very front in fighting for 
pure food and drug legislation, but now, through the dis- 
pensing physician 75 per cent, of the medicines dispensed in 
this countrj' do not come within the scope of these laws. 

Secretary T. H. Potts, of the N..A.R.D., was the next 
speaker and stated emphatically that the State board of phar- 
macy have no right nor should they have a right to make 
regulations concerning the qualifications of candidates for the 
examination, but these qualifications should be definitely stated 
in the law. He spoke strongly in favor of the pre-requisite 
requirement and wanted to know how we are ever going to- 
place pharmacy on the footing where it belongs if we do not 
require an adequate and advancing education of those enter- 
ing pharmacy. He referred to the successful U.S. P. and N.F.. 
propaganda work among physicians. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL ERA 



27 



Secretary Isam Light, of the C.R.D.A., also spoke of this 
propaganda work and stated that one of the great difficuhies 
of the work was the indifference displayed by the retail drug- 
gists themselves. He further stated that, as a rule, those who 
were indifferent were not college graduates and that the main 
cause of the indifference was their incompetence to properly 
prepare the U.S. P. and N.F. preparations. Mr. Light said 
that if the prerequisite clause was inserted in our pharmacy 
law we would have more capable pharmacists in Illinois within 
a short time. 

E.x-President W. B. Day spoke in favor of the prerequisite 
clause. He brought out the point that at present druggists 
did not teach pharmacy to their apprentices as in former years, 
and while drug-store experience still had much value in the 
training of a pharmacist, yet candidates for registration should 
now be required to show some systematic effort to qualify in 
pharmacy before being admitted to examination. 

Wm. Gray, pharmacist at the Presbyterian Hospital, spoke 
of the difficulties of the apprentice acquiring a competent edu- 
cation from drug-store experience alone and favored the pre- 
requisite requirement. 

Mr. Wells, speaking from his own experience, told how he 
had very successfully passed the board examination (a con- 
siderable number of years ago, however) after a very limited 
experience of running errands in a drug store followed by 
three months cramming. He then spent 10 years as apprentice 
and clerk, acquiring a true pharmaceutical education. He re- 
ferred to apprentices nowadays, who knew nothing of scientific 
or ethical pharmacy, who after a three-months' course in one 
of these stuffing schools successfully passed the board. He 
pointed out that such an '"education" evaporated almost as 
rapidly as it was acquired, and urged that, when the pre- 
requisite requirement was placed in the law, it be so worded 
as to require a reasonably complete and broad education, gen- 
eral and pharmaceutical. 

Professor A. H. Clark presented several examples from his 
own experience of insufficiently educated pharmacists, par- 
ticularly one instance in which the physician ordered a pre- 
scription calling for 1/60 grain strjchnine tablets to be refilled 
but with tablets only half as strong. The drug clerk dispensed 
1/30 grain strychnine tablets. 

Mr. Brunstrom, of Moline, chairman of the legislative com- 
mittee of the Illinois Pharmaceutical Association, urged upon 
all Illinois pharmacists unity in backing the desired amend- 
ments to the pharmacy law ; that the law had enemies enough 
among the "patent medicine" and "wagon" men and that we 
must have the unanimous support of the pharmacists. 

President Ralph E. Dorland, of the Illinois Pharmaceutical 
Association, closed the discussion. He stated that the I.Ph.A. 
stood solidly back of the fight for amendments to our present 
State law in favor of prerequisite college education, the label- 
ing of medicines with name and amount of each potent drug 
contained in them and the restriction of the sale of all power- 
ful medicines to registered pharmacists. He said further, the 
salvation of pharmacy in every State lies in right legislation. 
To obtain legislation, co-operation is essential. The phar- 
macists of the State must write and present a solid front in 
their State organization. 

A pleasing and instructive incident of the evening was the 
■display and demonstration of oxj'gen apparatus, especially 
pieces designed for anesthesia and for life-saving, by repre- 
sentatives of the Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Company. 

The December meeting of the branch was held Dec. 16. 
E. N. Gathercoal introduced the subject of the evening, "The 
Pharmacognosy of the Rhamnus Barks." He showed specimens 
of the bark from Rhamnus Frangiila and R. cathartica, which 
are European shrubs; R. Purshiana, R. californica, and R. 
crocea, from Western United States, and R. chlorophorus, a 
Chinese plant; also samples of barks used as adulterants of 
Cascara and Frangula, including the one found a year or so 
ago by Mr. Miller, of Eli Lilly & Co., in a large lot of 
Cascara. Mr. Gathercoal discussed the characters of the plant 
supplying each of these, mentioned its habitat and pointed out 
the external markings of each bark, their resemblances, as 
well as the features by which they may be readily distin- 
guished. He stated that the adulterant found, but not identi- 
fied, by Mr. Miller, disclosed in its internal structure all the 
ear-marks of a cherry bark, and, as on maceration in water, 
a slight odor of hydrocyanic acid was observed, it probably 
was from a species of cherry. He also presented a review of 
1he literature on the chemistry of the Rhamnus barks and 
•showed the chemical tests proposed for the monographs of 



Rhamnus Purshiana and Frangula in the new U.S. P. His 
part of the discussion was closed with a projection-microscope 
exhibit of sections prepared from the variotis barks and a 
description of the tissues of each, bringing out points of 
similarity and dissimilarity in their structure. 

Mr. L. E. Warren, of the chemical laboratory of the A.M.A., 
Professors A. H. Clark, C. M. Snow, G. D. Timmons and 
W. B. Day and Messrs. J. H. Wells, Wm. Gray, I. A. Becker 
and C. F. Storer took part in the discussion. 



Executive Coimnittee, III. Ph.A. 

The semi-annual meeting of the executive committee of the 
Illinois Pharmaceutical Association was held at the University 
of Illinois School of Pharmacy, Chicago, on Xov. 19. For 
the first time the committee held an all-day session. The 
attendance was large, the members were enthusiastic and much 
was accomplished. 

There were present at the meeting the following: President 
Ralph E. Dorland, Secretary W. B. Day, Executive Commit- 
teemen I. M. Light, J. T. Lueder, J. P. Crowley, S. J. Jeruzal, 
H. N. Bruun, G. J. Guerten, of Chicago; A. E. Clyde, Glen- 
coe; W. D. Duncan, Ottawa; H. M. Anderson, Monmouth; 
T. B. Shaffer, Oneida; Joe Reinhart, Peoria; W. F. Baum, 
Danville; Byron .-Krmstrong, Jacksonville; W. R. Graham, 
Carlinville; P. L. Gain, East St. Louis; W. C. Irwin, Salem, 
and Thos. Gregg, Harrisburg. Also Charles Brunstrom, chair- 
man legislative committee, and Eugene Caron. Of the political 
committee. Chairman J. H. Wells, C. H. Avery, J. J. Boehm, 
L. M. Pedigo and L. P. Larsen, and J. A. Mahaffy, of the 
membership committee. 

By invitation, the following members of the Illinois Phar- 
maceutical Travelers' Association were in attendance: Presi- 
dent M. L. Burhans, Vice-President R. H. Smith, Secretary 
H. E. Cornish, A. W. Hobart and R. D. Keim, also Secretary 
Potts and Field Representative Singer, of the N..-V.R.D. 

The morning session was devoted to fixing of a date for 
the next annual meeting and the selection of a meeting-place. 
The representatives of the I.P.T..\. were practically a unit 
upon recommending Fox Lake. They urged the desirability 
of meeting at a Summer resort, which would be a decided 
innovation and would undoubtedly draw a large attendance. 
By meeting early in June very favorable arrangements could 
be made at Fox Lake, so that the convention would be cared 
for in one large hotel at reasonable rates and with excellent 
facilities for the business sessions. Several novel entertainment 
features will also be provided. Invitations were also presented 
from Peoria and other cities and Dr. Hobart discussed a 
proposition to hold the meeting on one of the fine lake boats 
and make a foirr-day trip on Lake Michigan. After a very 
general discussion it was unanimously decided to meet at 
Fox Lake, June 11, 12 and 13, and the sentiment of the mem- 
bers was that the meeting, as planned, will be the most suc- 
cessful the association has ever held. 

At the afternoon session nominations for the Board of Phar- 
macy and Advisory Board were made. Appropriations were 
allotted to the various standing committees and a membership 
campaign was discussed. Mr. Lee M. Pedigo, chairman of 
the propaganda committee, brought forward a definite plan 
for interesting the physicians and pharmacists in the propa- 
ganda for U.S. P. and N.F. and recommended that this work 
include also a campaign for new members. This plan was 
heartily approved and an appropriation of $400 was granted 
to Mr, Pedigo for expenses in conducting the campaign with 
the understanding that the local pharmacists in the districts 
which are visited would bear their share of the expense. 

Resolutions were passed protesting against the proposed 
removal of the N.A.R.D. headquarters from Chicago: en- 
dorsing the candidacy of ex-President J. H. Wells for the 
Postmastership in his home cit\', Evanston ; authorizing the presi- 
dent and secretary to employ a solicitor on a commission basis 
for securing new members: authorizing the president and 
secretarv' to fill vacancies on the voting card where no nomina- 
tions had been made. 

The treasurer's report showed the expenses since the annual 
meeting as $914,81, the receipts $424.00, the balance on hand 
$918,54. 



City of Washington Branch, A.PI1.A. 

At the November meeting of the Washington branch, 
.A.Ph.A.. Dr. L. F. Kebler, the president, introduced Dr. H. A. 
Seil. of New York City, who discussed observations on 
asafetida and balsam of Peru. Dr. Seil clearly showed that the 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Januaey, 1914 



presem tests for purity were wholly inadequate to cope w ith 
the cunning of dishonest shippers, and tliat the official defini- 
tion, which requires that each of these substances be I'erived 
from detinite sources was the only satisfactory basis upon 
which spurious and adulterated products could be denied entry 
into the United States. 

Illicit opium traffic was the next subject considered. A. B. 
Adams, diemist for the Internal Revenue Department, spoke 
of the work of the service in this connection. He described 
minutely the cunning of some of the dealers, which is almost 
beyond human conception. Numerous examples were cited 
where the department had almost positive knowledge that this 
traffic was being carried on, yet because of the extreme cun- 
ning employed, no evidence sufficient to procure a prosecution 
could be obtained. Examples were also cited where the small- 
est slip had cost the dealer a conviction. One instance, where 
the opium was cast into a sewer was described, conviction be- 
ing obtained therein by removing a brick from the sew-er wall 
and sliowing that when the opium was thrown into the sewer 
the water in the sewer was splashed against this brick. Upon 
chemical examination of the surface of the brick tlie presence 
of opium was shown. 

JIuch gratification was expressed that a number of reputable 
manufacturers of drugs and chemical products had discontinued 
the manufacture of extract of opium. It was claimed that this 
form of opium was the most frequently employed by the 
smoker, and was merely a variety of smoking opium apparently 
manufactured for legitimate use. 

"The Present Status of the Federal Control of Habit-Form- 
ing Drugs," was the title of a paper read by S. L. Hilton. 
Attention therein was invited to the decided opposition to the 
so-called "Harrison Bill" now pending before Congress, and 
belief was expressed that the opposition w'as growing to the 
extent that it would defeat the bill, unless there was a renewal 
in a decided manner of the activities which have supported it. 

The recent decision of the Treasury Department, having as 
its object the regulation of cocaine, coca, their derivatives and 
preparations, from the time it entered the United States until 
such reached the ultimate consumer, was also considered. Mr. 
Hilton, in discussing this decision, called upon Mr. Stewart, 
a local attorney, for some remarks concerning his belief in its 
validity, and in response thereto Mr. Stewart stated that he did 
not believe that the order could be enforced under existing 
statute. A slight modification of. the pure food and drug act 
would, however, bring such a regulation clearly within the 
province of the Treasury Department. 

Dr. Lyman F. Kebler briefly reviewed the various steps taken 
previous to the issuing of this order, generally called Treasury 
Decision No. 33,456. This order, it seems, was directly the 
result of efforts of the Department of Agriculture to regulate 
the importation of the habit-forming drugs. So much oppo- 
sition was developed that the efforts of the Department were 
held in abeyance until certain investigations were had. The 
result of these investigations was the opium act in 1909. 
Again, in 1911, the Department of Agriculture attempted to 
regulate the importation of habit-forming drugs, and much 
opposition was developed to all the drugs named in the regu- 
lation except cocaine and coca. During the year 1912 some 
coca leaves were detained because their alkaloidal content was 
not noted. The importers voiced their willingness to label the 
drugs as desired, and after a number of other shipments were 
detained, and then allowed entry, it was decided to make the 
enforcement uniform, hence the decision above noted. 

All the questions brought up were freely discussed by the 
members present, the attendance being much better than usual. 
This meeting is considered one of the most profitable in the 
history of the local branch. 

The December meeting of the branch was held Dec. 17, in 
the Institute of Industrial Research, 19th and B streets, North- 
west. The following programme was provided: 

( 1 ) Conservation of Pharmaceutical Chemistry — Mr. H. C. 
Fuller, Institute of Industrial Research. 

(2) Commercial Alcohol in Germany — Dr. Rodney H. True, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

(3) The Peru Balsam Industry— Mr. Albert Hale, Pan- 
American Union. 



in Nashville. A committee consisting of W. R. White, Ira B. 
Clark and S. C. Davis was appointed to co-operate with the 
Nashville Industrial Bureau in properly presenting Nashville's 
claims to the Council. 

".-\rticles for Quick Dispensing" was the regular subject 
for discussion. Ira B. Clark began the discussion by saying 
that more stock solutions were used by the large uptown stores 
than the suburban stores since they had a much larger pre- 
scription business. He kept the solutions for making Sol. 
Amnion. Acetate, Sat. Sol. Boric acid, Sat. Sol. Iodide of Potash 
and a few others, but said the Sol. Pot. Iodide became colored 
after a while. 

Dr. E. A. Ruddimnn stated that a solution of pure lod. 
Pot. would color in three or four weeks, but that the com- 
mercial article would keep several months on account of the 
Pot. Carbonate usually present in it. Dr. J. M. Rogoff thought 
light and temperature had much to do with the change. He 
strongly discouraged the use of stock alkaloidal solutions, and 
gave the results of some recent experiments he had made on 
frogs with solutions of cocaine, morphine, strychnine, atropine, 
codeine, nicotine and thebaine which had been made five or 
six weeks, all of which showed signs of deterioration. He and 
Dr. Ruddiman agreed to do some experimental work along 
tnese lines, and will report their results to the branch. Messrs. 
Hutton, Clark and Davis discussed the keeping qualities of 
ointments and were of the opinion that retailers neglected this 
class of preparations too much. Most of them should be made 
fresh when needed. How to keep iron solutions from turning 
dark was discussed by Messrs. Burge, Davis, Ruddiman and 
White. Dr. Burge stated that he had found that ammonia 
turned iron solution dark and in making Elix. Phos., Iron, 
Quinine and Strych., he does not neutralize W'ith ammonia, 
leaving the solution cold, and in this way gets a nice green 
elixir that keeps a long time unchanged. Lead in the bottles 
and sunlight were given as causes of the change. 

The branch then adjourned. 



Next Illinois Pharmaceutical Convention. 

The executive committee of the Illinois Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation met in Chicngo recently and unanimously voted to 
accept the recommendation of the Travelers' Association to 
hold the next annual joint convention at Mineola Hotel, Fo.x 
Lake, III., and fixed the dates at June 11, 12 and 13, 1914. Fox 
Lake is situated but 50 miles from Chicago and is easily 
accessible both by rail and by auto. 

The committee from the Travelers contended that the inno- 
vation of holding the convention at a Summer resort instead 
of at one of the larger cities of the State has been tried suc- 
cessfully in all parts of the country and has resulted in 
genuine vacations for members of both associations as well 
as a greatly increased attendance at the much-needed business 
meetings. 

The details of arrangement, publicity and entertainment, are 
as usual in the hands of the Illinois Pharmaceutical Travelers' 
Association, and the latter are enthusiastic over the prospect 
of one of the biggest meetings ever held by the associations. 
They report that the Summer resort idea particularly appeals 
to the small town druggists who relish the idea of combining 
a genuine pleasure trip with the business of the convention. 



Nevada State Ph.A. 
At the adjourned meeting of the new Nevada State Phar- 
maceutical Association at Reno, in November, the temporary 
organization was perfected by the election of A. S. Olds, of 
Goldfield, as president; to serve till next November. C. E. 
Week, of Reno, was elected vice-president, and H. J. Duncan, 
of Reno, secretary and treasurer. Committees were appointed 
to look after legislation, commercial interests, progress of phar- 
macy in the State papers, and meeting and entertainment. 
Lewis H. Zeh, secretary of the California State Board of 
Pharmacy, was a guest and gave a talk on organization and 
the purposes of such a body. 



Nashville Branch, A.Ph.A. 

At the November meeting of the Nashville branch of the 
.American Pharmaceutical .Association, the subject of the loca- 
tion of the .A.Ph.A. headquarters was freely discussed, and 
the opinion unanimously expressed that it should be located 



N.A.R.D. to Meet at Philadelphia. 

The 1914 convention of the National Association of Retail 
Druggists will be held at Philadelphia, beginning August 24. 
It is expected that the attendance of delegates will exceed 1000, 
and the Philadelphia Association of Retail Druggists is alreadv 
at work in perfecting plans for the entertainment of the body 
and its guests. The choice of Philadelphia was made by the 
executive committee of the National Association held recently 
at Chicago. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



29 



N. P. S. Discusses Bichloride Problem. , 



Coroner Feinberg Favors Triple Check on Poisonous Mercury 
Tablets. 

REGULATION of the sale of bichloride tablets, and the 
value of organization were the principal topics con- 
sidered at a slimly attended but interesting meeting of 
the National Pharmaceutical Association, at the New York 
College of Pharmacy, on Dec. 15. 

Coroner Feinberg, of the Borough of Manhattan, traced the 
growth of the use of bichloride of mercury as a disinfectant, 
and expressed himself in favor of a distinctive container, of 
a special color, holding tablets made of a peculiar and un- 
mistakable shape and surface. The bottle should be of colored 
glass, so as to be readily distinguishable in the daytime, and 
should have a roughened surface, to insure protection in the 
dark. The word "poison" should not be put on the tablets 
with a rubber stamp, but should be heavily embossed. The 
tablets must be of such a shape that they will immediately 
suggest a difference from all other kinds of tablets. Wrapping 
the tablets in paper is of minor importance, and details as to 
shape and surface are of little moment, provided tlie above 
general principles are embodied. There is no advantage in 
having a distinctive container and wrapping, if the tablets 
themselves are not such as to call the attention of anyone 
who picks one up, to the fact that something unusual is in 
his hand. The form of container should be agreed upon by 
the manufacturers all over the country, and no patented con- 
tainers or tablets should be used. Local propaganda is of no 
avail; the movement must be national in its scope, and should 
apply to all poisonous tablets containing mercury, such as the 
iodide and cyanide. A resolution was passed indorsing Dr. 
Feinberg's views. 

Mr. A. L. Strouse, of the committee on labor laws, reported 
that the work of the organization in securing the enforcement 
of the State laws had the hearty indorsement of the State 
Labor Department. It was announced that a future meeting 
would be devoted to the consideration of the advisability of 
affiliating with the .American Federation of Labor. Mr. \Vm. 
J. McNulty, attorney for several labor organizations, thought 
that no professional standing would be lost by such a step. 
Sunday closing was also indorsed. 



BALTIMORE R.D.A. 



Sale of Bichloride, a Permanent Secretary, and Parcel 
Post Subjects Before This Body. 

BALTIMORE, Dec. 20.— Among the matters which occu- 
pied the attention of the Baltimore Retail Druggists' 
Association at its last meeting, an ordinance before the 
City Council, which aims to restrict the sale of bichloride of 
mercury, took, perhaps, the leading place. The ordinance was 
introduced some time ago by Councilman Heller and reflects 
the views of the marshal of police and other officials, who 
urge that the frequency of bichloride of mercury being mis- 
taken for headache or other remedies and the recurrence of 
suicides by this means makes it desirable to surround the 
sale of the bichloride tablets with additional safeguards. Not 
only is the purchase to be made more difficult, but some special 
form of container is prescribed. The druggists, for their part, 
point out that many of the so-called mistakes are not mistakes 
at all, but attempts at suicide, encouraged and stimulated by 
the ill-advised publicity given to the subject in the daily papers, 
and that no special form of package or additional restrictions 
will avail, while the value of bichloride of mercury as an anti- 
septic makes it desirable that it shall be readily accessible to 
the public, the acts of misguided or morbid individuals being 
no argument for denying the people the benefits to be derived 
from the use of the tablets. It was announced that Council- 
man Heller would be present at the next meeting to explain 
his ordinance, and a special committee was also appointed to 
attend a hearing before the City Council some time in Janu- 
ary, when the arguments of the pharmacists are to be pre- 
sented. This committee includes John Kelly, J. W. Owings, 
of the Hynson, Westcott & Co.; John B. Thomas, of the 
Thomas & Thompson Company; M. S. Kahn, and Samuel Y. 
Harris. 

The benefits of close affiliation of the Baltimore Association 
with the N.A.R.D. were pointed out by Mr. Kahn, who was 
a delegate at the last annual meeting of the N.A.R.D., and 
who explained what had been done by the organization to 



advance the interests of the retailers. No formal action was 
taken. 

The extra labor, especially before the holidays, incidental to 
the practical operation of the parcel post was dilated upon by 
druggists^ who have branch offices in their stores. This work, 
it was stated, had become very onerous, while the druggists 
were not getting any additional compensation. The suggestion 
was made and strongly urged that the postal authorities be 
appealed to for extra help, in order that the business of the 
druggists might not suffer. 

The advisability of employing a paid secretary, who shall 
be at all times in a position to keep the members informed 
as to the state of legislation in Congress and elsewhere affect- 
ing their business, and who shall keep in close touch with other 
developments of interest to the profession, carrying on also 
the work of the association, will be discussed at the next 
meeting by Dr. Pritchard, secretary of the Pittsburgh asso- 
ciation, and by Mr. Davis, of the Philadelphia organization. 
The suggestion has been made that the work of the Baltimore 
association has become so complicated and heavy that it can 
be looked after effectively only by a man who can give all of 
his time to it. 

The following officers were re-elected: President, R. E. Lee 
Williamson, of Lee Williamson & Co.; 1st vice-president, John 
B. Thomas, of the Thomas & Thompson Company; 2d vice- 
president, J. A. Gerlach ; 3d vice-president, Charles Morgan, 
of Morgan & Millard; corresponding secretary, " Ephraim 
Bacon; recording secretary, Charles L. Meyer; treasurer, 
William M. Fouch. 



Chicago Drug Club's "Biggest Night." 

"Everybody had a good time." Brother Kellett's slogan most 
aptly expresses the actual happenings at the Good Fellowship 
Night held by the Chicago Drug Club at the Hotel Bismarck, 
Dec. 15. More than 300 loyal members gathered around the 
festive board and joined in the spirit of the occasion which 
warms the innermost soul of men at the season of the year 
w^hen brotherly "love" and "charity" bring cheer to the heart 
and fireside. Business was forgotten, and after a few appro- 
priate remarks President Umenhofer wished the boys a Merry 
Xmas and a Happy New Year and turned the meeting over to 
Brother McCracken, who acted as toastmaster. Most nobly 
did Brother McCracken acquit himself, and in words that 
expressed good fellowship to all present he bid them welcome 
to the Chicago Drug Club. Brother "Tom" Potts, the thun- 
derbolt of the N.A.R.D., responded to the request of the 
toastmaster and gave the boys one of his usual heart-to-heart 
talks on the manner in which he felt we should foster the 
feeling of comradeship in our organization. "Doc" Pritchard, 
after being complimented on being the handsomest man in 
the room, arose to his feet with a great deal of trepidation 
and added a few good stories and stunts in mimicry to the 
enjoyment of the evening. Among the many other members 
who made short but telling addresses, were Messrs. Kellett, 
Schwalbe, "Jim" Stevenson, "Matt" McAnneny and R. D. 
Keim, who led the boys in singing "O Tannenbaum !" After 
a lively cabaret show during which a splendid luncheon and 
liquid refreshments were served, Gus Hergert, our amiable 
chairman of the entertainment committee, who is making a 
record far ahead of his predecessors, played Santa Claus to 
the boys and everybody took home a souvenir for the "baby." 
Ten new members were added to the roster, and it is hoped 
that every one of the visitors present will shortly sign an appli- 
cation blank to become one of us. The year has been a pros- 
perous one for the club, and as we ring out the old and ring 
in the new we look forward to brighter times, more good 
fellows in our ranks, and wish you all the compliments of the 
season. 



Perfumers, Soap and Extract Makers. 

The annual meeting of the Perfumers, Soap and E.xtract 
Makers' Association was held at Chicago, Dec. 17. the second 
annual banquet and election being held at Volgensang's ban- 
quet hall. The following officers were elected: President, 
George F. Merrell, president of the Allen B. Wrisley Company; 
vice-president. Wood S. Raybum, treasurer of the Raydith 
Perfume Co.; secretary and treasurer, Charles W. Brown: ex- 
ecutive committee, the officers and John Blocki and Harry 
Bartole. A feature of the meeting w^as the presentation of a 
very handsome loving cup to John Blocki, the retiring presi- 
dent. 



30 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



N.P.S. Annual Ball and Bazaar Feb. 24. 

The National Pharmaceutical Society will hold its annual 
ball and bauar on Feb. 24 at the New Amsterdam Opera 
House. 



AMONG THE ASSOCIATIONS. 



The Ohio XMey Druggists' Association held its annual 
election of officers at the Sinton Hotel, and the entire regular 
ticket was elected. About 200 votes were cast. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Charles Harding, president; 
William C. Lakamp, 1st vice-president; George E. Smith, 2d 
vice-president; John M. Fallon, 3d vice-president; Fred S. 
Kotte, secretarv; Otto E. Kistner, treasurer; Henry J. Dus- 
terberg, John \\'eik and Otto Katz, members of the Board of 
Control of Hamilton county, for three-year term; E. L. Peick, 
member of the Board of Control of Kenton county, one year; 
Ferd Ott, member of the Board of Control of Campbell county, 
one-year term, and William Howe, member of the Board ol 
Control for Butler county, one year. There were some very 
interesting talks given on the new Duffy law, which regulates 
the sale of opium and narcotics. Dr. Theodore Wetterstroem, 
secretary of the O.S.P.A., brought out the different features. 
of the new law, explaining every detail. Edward Voss, Cin- 
cinnati member of the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy, also 
made an interesting talk. There were members present from 
Dayton, Hamilton, Middletomi, Covington, Newport and 
Bellevue. 

.•\t a meeting of the executive committee of the Iowa State 
Ph..\. at Des Moines recently, the action of the State Board 
of Pharmacy against illegal sellers of cocaine and similar drugs 
was warmly indorsed. "The druggists of Iowa are against 
that sort of traffic as illegitimate," said President Miller and 
Secretary Falkenhainer. "The State board is right and the 
druggists are with it. Another thing in which we heartily 
indorse the board is insistence upon the observance of the 
law requiring a registered pharmacist in every drug store. 
.\ drug store without a registered man, capable of dispensing 
drugs with intelligence, is absurd. The board is right there, 
too." The e.Kecutive committee made plans for the next annual 
meeting of the association at Burlington in June or July, 1914. 
Keokuk and Burlington druggists will co-operate for the en- 
tertainment of delegates and agents, and one feature of the 
meeting will be an excursion from Burlington to Keokuk to 
see the big dam. The executive committee has also arranged 
to keep an organizer in the field again this year. The State 
body now has 1500 members. 

The November meeting of the .A.lumni Association of the 
Department of Pharmacy, Temple University, was devoted to 
advertising, a number of advertising managers addressing the 
gathering. Walter Lee Rosenberger, of Smith, Kline & French, 
spoke on "Advertising with the Co-operation of the Manufac- 
turer"; Bruce Drysdale, of John Lucas & Co., Inc., explained 
the methods of advertising which have proven successful, and 
showed how retailers had taken advantage of National adver- 
tising campaigns. Prof. Herbert W. Hess, of the Wharton 
School of Finance, treated of the general principles of adver- 
tising as applied to the retail drug business. The general 
discussion which followed was opened by Prof. H. B. Morse, 
of the Pharmacy Department of Temple University. 

The November meeting of Boston Chapter, No. 1, W.O.N. 
.\.R.D., was held at the Hotel Vendome, and about 40 mem- 
bers heard Havrah W. C. Hubbard, of the Boston Opera 
House, describe in a most fascinating manner "The Tales of 
Hoffman." His interpretations were very enjoyable, and he 
was accompanied at times on the piano by Floyd M. Baxter. 
Mrs. James W. Cooper presided. At the social hour following, 
tea was poured by Mrs. William R. Acheson, Mrs. Frank Con- 
nolly, Mrs. William Connor and Mrs. Theodore J. Bradley. 
The servers were Mrs. E. H. LaPierre, Mrs. Leopold Bartell, 
Mrs. Truman Hayes and Miss Sallie LaPierre. 

The St. Paul R.D.A. and the St. Paul Drug Club have been 
merged into one society to be known as the St. Paul Retail 
Druggists' Association. The active membership will be con- 
fined to master druggists, while associate members will be 
drawn from the clerks and traveling men. The following 
officers were elected: R. J. Messing, president; Ernest Otto, 
(st vice-president; Frank W. Smetena, 2d vice-president; H. 
Martin Johnson, secretary, and W. St. Clair, treasurer. The 
executive committee is composed of W. Schoel, chairman; Her- 
man Ritzke, C. A. Campbell, C. J. Heller and J. P. Je'mek. 

News has been received by the Cincinnati Chapter of the 



American Chemical Society, that the directors of the society in 
New York City have decided to hold the annual convention of 
the organization in the city of Cincinnati some time next April. 
The exact dates have not been selected, as yet. The local 
chapter, in conjunction with the Cincinnati Chamber of Com- 
merce, made the effort to bring the convention to the Queen 
City. Preparations will be started at once to make the coming 
convention the most successful ever held. 

Posture and balancing movements for the development of 
dormant brain cells were advocated by Mrs. Theodore Parsons 
in an address made to the Woman's Organization of the Chi- 
cago R.D..^. at their December meeting. The subject of the 
address was: "The Artistic and Scientific Training of the 
Body." Mrs. Miles Geringer sang, and Miss T. Filip read. 
The meeting was in charge of Mrs. B. A. C. Hoelzer, Mrs. 
A. E. Fechter and Mrs. C. D. Collins. 

The Retail Drug Clerks of Boston held their first assembly 
and dance in St. James Hall in November, and the occasion 
drew an attendance of several hundred persons. The commit- 
tee in charge consisted of William Stenzel, Albert Krause, 
Lester Clow, Albert J. Thompson, James F. Collins and Frank 
Sweeney. Thomas T. Foley was floor marshal, James F. 
Collins, floor director, and William H. Quirk and George 
Hegarty, assistants. 

A pure drug exhibit will be a feature of the meeting of the 
Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association in February, at the 
Armory, Minneapolis. At the annual meeting of the Min- 
neapolis Drug Club this plan was outlined, and considerable 
discussion of features of the meeting followed. These officers 
of the Drug Club were elected : President, Dr. Justin Brewer ; 
vice-presidents, L. E. Schmidley, C. L. Kerr, H. J. Barnett; 
treasurer, C. S. Barrows; secretary, E. V. Clark. 

At a recent meeting of the Bristol (Conn.) Druggists' Asso- 
ciation Edward W. Merriman was elected secretary, to take 
the place of Frederick Calvin Norton, who had been secretary 
of the association since its organization in 1904. As he left 
the drug business in August he also left the association. Bur- 
ton L. Bennett, of the Bennett-Bull Drug Co., is the president, 
and the association will hold a number of social meetings this 
Winter under his direction. 

The Women's Club of the Allied Drug Trade of Chicago 
held its November meeting at the Hotel Sherman, with an 
address by John D. Shoop, superintendent of schools. Miss 
Florence Mattem, soprano, and Miss Lillian King, pianist, 
rendered a musical programme. Mrs. Gustav Frank was in 
charge of the arrangements. 

Sidney R. Wrightington of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, was the speaker at the Fall meeting and dinner of the 
Boston Druggists' Association, at Young's Hotel. He took for 
his topic: "What the Chamber of Commerce Means to Boston." 
President F. L. Carter, Jr., presided, and there were 75 mem- 
bers present. 

About 125 delegates attended the Fall meeting of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association at Minneapolis in November, 
with President Stewart Gamble in the chair. Among the 
speakers were P. L. Newcomb, Dean F. J. Wulling, C. H. 
Rogers and C. H. Huhn. Plans for the revision of drug 
standards were discussed. 

The Southern Drug Club, made up of several hundred manu- 
facturers, jobbers and representatives of drug and chemical 
houses, gave a banquet in Jacksonville prior to the opening of 
the session of the N.W.D.A. J. T. Doster, of Birmingham, 
Ala., is president, and John W. Dourr, of Montgomery, sec- 
retary. 

The Montgomery County (Ohio) Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion is defunct, following the resignation of the president and 
chairman of the executive committee, who were dominant fac- 
tors in the organization. It was impossible, they said, to get 
the druggists to attend meetings. 

Prof. F. N. Strickland addressed the December meeting of 
the Providence Alumni Chapter, Kappa Psi fraternity, of the 
Rhode Island College of Pharmacy and Allied Sciences. His 
subject was bacteriology and he explained the characteristics of 
the various types, etc. 

The Springfield (111.) R.D.A. entertained the physicians of 
that city at a banquet — a "fellowship dinner" — at the St. 
Nicholas Hotel, Dec. 17. The speakers included Dr. Bernard 
Fantus, of Chicago, and Lee M. Pedigo. 

At the November meeting of the Northwestern branch of 
the A. Ph. A. the Minneapolis R.D.A. members were guests 
of honor. The new anti-narcotic ordinance was the principal 
topic of discussion. 



January, 191-1] 



THE PHARIMACEUTICAL ERA 



31 



A special meeting of the Lucas County (Ohio) Branch of 
the Ohio Ph. A. was held in November at Toledo to discuss 
the new laws governing the sale of habit-forming drugs. 

The St_. Louis Branch, A. Ph. A., held its November meeting 
at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy, with a paper on "Phar- 
maceutical Advertising," by J. A. Wilkerson. 

The November meeting of the Rock Island (111.) Druggists' 
Auxiliary was held at the home of Mrs. Harry Rowe, 41st 
street and 18th avenue, Rock Island. 

At the recent election of the Ohio Valley Druggists' Asso- 
ciation William H. Howe was elected a member of the Board 
of Control for Butler county. 

The Elmira retail druggists have elected the following of- 
ficers: President, J. P. Kelly; secretary, Tom Gerity; J. R. 
Spillane, treasurer. 

Walter Bacon, of St. Clair, Mich., has been appointed a 
member of the executive board of the Ferris Pharmacy Alumni 
Association. 

The Akron (Ohio) Drug Clerks' Association held a smoker 
in November with a sociable, cards and refreshments. 

The Peoria Retail Druggists' Association held a banquet and 
social meeting in November. 



Schools and Colleges 



University of Michigan School of Pharmacy. 

The University dispensary service has already proved of 
great value to the students. Little aches and pains are no 
longer left until they become something serious, but are at- 
tended to at once, for the student figures that he has paid for 
the medical attention and so, why not receive it? The pre- 
scriptions are all filled by the School of Pharmacy free of 
charge. Two hundred were filled during the month of Novem- 
ber. The beginning of the second semester the senior students 
will derive the benefit of this practical experience such as 
cannot usually be obtained outside the best prescription stores 
in the large cities. 

Charles Dillon, who entered this Fall with advance credit 
from Albion, died Nov. 9, of tubercular spinal meningitis. 
During his short residence here he made many warm friends 
among students and faculty. 

H. C. Eisenman, B.S. (Pharm.), '13, is in the chemical 
laboratory of the W. S. Merrell Co.. of Cincinnati. 

The Prescott Club was very fortunate in obtaining F. L. 
Shannon, B.S. (Pharm.), '10, Michigan State analyst, for 
their November meeting. The subject was "Fakes and 
Frauds." It was an illustrated talk, and of such general 
interest that more than 200 people attended. 

Prof. A. F. Schlichting, B.S. (Pharm.), '12, was recently 
elected president of the Chemistry Club at the North Dakota 
Agricultural College. 

Premananda Das, B.S. (Pharm.), '11, M.S. (Pharm.), '12, 
was married to Miss Subarna Prablia Dutta, Oct. 6, in Cal- 
cutta, India. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

The special lectures given this Fall and Winter at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have proved of special in- 
terest, the following having been presented recently: 

On Nov. 24 W. A. Nightingale, of the United States Navy, 
spoke on "The Pharmacist in the Navy," dwelling upon the 
life of the sailor so that his hearers might be familiar with 
the conditions that meet a pharmacist when he enlists. He 
described fully the sailor's first aid to the injured, the medical 
treatment of the sick and the sanitary conditions of a battle- 
ship. His description of the Hospital Ship Solace and the 
work of the Hospital Corps was especially inte.-esting. All of 
his descriptions were illustrated with a large number of colored 
lantern slides. For pharmacists desiring travel and adventure, 
the Navy offers unusual opportunities. First enlistment must 
be made as a hospital apprentice at $27.50 per month, but 
from year to year and by re-enlistment, he may advance him- 
self to the position of Hospital Steward, which pays from 
$66 to $120 per month. These salaries also include mainten- 
ance. Mr. Nightingale presented his subject very clearly, and 
his humorous expressions, acquired through nine years of 
naval service, made the lecture doubly interesting. 

"The Cultivation of Medicinal- Plants" was the subject of 
an interesting special lecture delivered by Fred A. Miller, of 



Eli Lilly & Company, at the college, Dec. 1. Mr. Miller said 
the reason given lor the cultivation of medicinal plants was 
tlie scarcity of crude material and the desire to improve the 
quality of the drugs. The chief difficulties encountered in 
this work are the successful propagation and the procuring of 
authentic seeds. Seeds are obtained from various sources, 
such as local collectors, Agricultural Experiment Stations, the 
waste and offal in large shipments of the crude drug, and also 
the large seed merchants. Weeds are the great evil in raising 
medicinal plants as well as in other agricultural fields. Between 
three and four years of experimental work have been done on 
digitalis, belladonna, hyoscyamus and cannabis indica. The 
experimental work consists in chiefly trying different fertilizers 
and soils and also hybridization. The results on the first 
three of these drugs have been very encouraging and real 
harvests are now in sight. Cannabis indica has also shown 
the possibility of successful cultivation. Mr. Miller showed 
a few slides of fields on which actual crops of these drugs 
were being successfully cultivated. 

The fifth special lecture was given at the college Dec. 8 by 
Prof. W. A. Pearson, of the Smith, Kline & French Co.'s 
physiological laboratories. Professor Pearson introduced his 
subject, "The Physiological Testing of Drugs," by stating that 
in the future the cultivation of drugs would be the basis of 
manufacturing pharmaceuticals. He explained the mechanism 
of kymographs and string galvanometers, illustrating by means 
of lantern slides their mode of operation and the results ob- 
tained. .After a brief review of the research work on digitalis, 
Professor Pearson pointed out the fallacy of attempting to 
chemically assay a drug with such a varied and complex com- 
position. In speaking of the frog method for testing digitalis 
preparations, he commented on all the objections offered against 
this method, but expressed his opinion that the recent adop- 
tion of a standard solution of strophanthin or ouabain for 
comparison of results eliminated these objections, especially 
because of the practicability of the method. The guinea-pig 
and cat methods w-ere thoroughly explained, and in concluding 
his lecture, Professor Pearson showed the heart action of 
dig'talis and strophanthus upon an anesthetized dog by means 
of the kymograph. 



University of Illinois School of Pharmacy. 

The senior class has organized and elected officers as fol- 
lows: Presdent, Ralph Thompson; vice-president, T. Ewing; 
secretary, Harry Goldstine; treasurer, Miss Vavra ; sergeant-at- 
arms, Philip Hildebrand. 

Forrest O. Snyder, Ph.C, '13, has taken a position with 
Armour & Co. The demand for young men who have a 
knowledge of pharmaceutical chemistry is indicated by the fact 
that four of the pharmaceutical chemists and four of the 
graduates in pharmacy of this school are now employed with 
Armour & Co. Five of these alumni are employed in one 
department, of which Clemence Zimmerman, Ph.C, is assistant 
superintendent. 

The 1913 convention of Kappa Psi Fraternity was held in 
Chicago, Nov. 26, 27, 28 and 29, with headquarters at LaSalle 
Hotel. The convention was given under the auspices of Chi 
Chapter (University of Illinois School of Pharmacy), Phi 
Chapter (Northwestern University School of Pharmacy) and 
the Chicago Alumni Chapter. A large attendance of delegates 
and visitors was present from the 40 chapters located through- 
out the country. 



Dept. of Pharmacy, University State of New Jersey. 

The exterior as well as the interior of the University of the 
State of New Jersey, in Jersey City, have been reconstructed 
and remodeled within the last few months. The lecture room 
has been enlarged and four laboratories have been fully 
equipped with modern apparatus and appliances. 

To celebrate this event, and to show the pharmacists and the 
friends of the institution the changes which have taken place, 
a reception was held at the colleee buildings, Oct. 31. The 
president of the universUy, James E. Pope, presided and spoke 
favorably of the transformation. The Hon. Henry Snyder, 
superintendent of the public schools of Jersey City, who has 
made a national reputation in the improvement of the school 
system, complimented the university on the improvements of 
t'^P Kiiildings as well as the laboratories and also the enlarged 
faculty. 

David Strauss, president of the New Jersey State Board of 
Pharmacy, spoke on the value of a college education for phar- 
macists and impressed those present with the fact, that a 



32 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Januakv, 1S314 



college education would soon become a necessity in Iv'ew 
Jersey. 

Dr. B. S. Pollak, former professor of hygiene in the De- 
[lartnieiit of Pharmacy, complimented the institution on the 
great improvements in the buildings as well as in the faculty 
since the early days of the university. 

Dr. Samarclli, a graduate of the college, presented a silver 
cup, which is to be given to Uie graduate who makes the best 
examination in organic chemistry. 

Prof. J. Leon Lascoff donated a silk flag to the college. 

Edward Zink, of Eli Lilly & Co., delivered an educational 
and scientific lecture, showing the manufacture of pharma- 
ceutical preparations in their laboratory. This lecture was 
illustrated with stereopticon slides and also moving pictures 
taken directly from the Lilly laboratories. 

Refreshments were served after the reception and the build- 
ings and laboratories, which were in full working order, were 
inspected by the visitors. 



New Orleans College of Pharmacy Notes. 

.•\ change has been made this session in the method of 
conducting the examinations, and in the future monthly ex- 
aminations will take the place of the preliminary exams 

The books of the session closed on Nov. 1., with an enroll- 
ment of SO. There are nine Cubans and one Costa Rican 
enrolled as pupils. 

On Dec. 2 a lantern and moving-picture exhibition was 
given by Prof. Wright, showing the manufacture of phar- 
maceuticals in the laboratories of Eli Lilly & Co. The drug- 
gists of the city were invited to attend. 

The students of the College of Pharmacy and the University 
proper are getting up a boat ride to take place the night of 
Jan. 9. They are looking forward with a great deal of interest 
to this affair and competition is very keen among them in the 
sale of tickets. 

Both classes have held elections for respective officers. 



College of Pharmacy, State TTniversity of Iowa. 

I. H. Pierce, '12, has accepted a position on the instructional 
staff at tlie Washington Agricultural College at Pullman, Wash. 

At the last meeting of the Mortar and Pestle Club Prof. 
Zada JI. Cooper read a paper on "Personal Name Synonyms." 

Christmas vacation began on the evening of Dec. 19, con- 
tinuing until Jan. 5, when all classes will be resumed at noon. 

.At a meeting of the faculty of the College of Pharmacy on 
Dec. 4, a motion prevailed that they recommend to the presi- 
dent and Board of Education that beginning with September, 
1915, entrance requirements be raised to high-school graduation. 



University of Oklalioma School of Pharmacy. 

The Christmas holidays were quite long this year, begin- 
ning Dec. 19, and ending Jan. 5. Nearly all of the out-of-town 
students took advantage of the opportunity to visit the folks 
at home. 

.•\ new typewriter is a recent acquisition in Dean Stocking's 
office. The dean has spent many anxious moments in trying 
to find the right key, and has just about decided to let the 
stenographer write his letters. 

About 25 students, accompanied by Dean Stocking, visited 
the large wholesale establishment of Alexander Drug Co., at 
Oklahoma City recently. The boys were very cordially received 
and spent both a pleasant and profitable morning studying the 
wholesale side of drug life. 

The faculty and the students of the School of Pharmacy 
were entertained through the courtesy of Messrs. Eli Lilly & 
Co., with a very interesting set of moving-picture views of the 
Lilly plant at the Empress Theater in Oklahoma City Dec. 20. 



NEWS PROM SCHOOL AND COLLEGE. 



The University of Saskatchewan has added a course in 
pharmacy, with lectures to begin Jan. 6 and close in April. 
This step is in accord with an agreement between the univer- 
sity and the pharmaceutical association. The university course 
is to prepare candidates for the final examinations required 
for the license to practice pharmacy. The association has 
agreed to exempt from their preliminary and final examinations 
all students who take the course in pharmacy at the university 
and who pass the final examinations there, provided that the 
•course is approved by the pharmaceutical council and that the 



e.xaniinatiuns arc equivalent to theirs. I'or the current session 
instruction in pharmacy and dispensing will be given by 
A. Campbell; in materia niedica and prescriptions, by T. A. 
Rague; in chemistry, by Professor MacLaurin; in botany, 
by Professor Willing. The staff will consist of W. C. Murray, 
LL.D.; president, Geo. H. Ling, P.D.D.; R. D. MacLaurin, 
P.D.; professor of chemistry, Thos. N. Willing; professor of 
botany, A. Campbell; lecturer in pharmacy and dispensing, 
T. A. Argue; lecturer in materia medica and prescriptions, 
A. R. Weir, B..\., registrar. The subjects of the final examina- 
tions are pharmacy, dispensing, materia medica, prescriptions, 
chemistry and botany. 

The .Ulanta College of Pharmacy started the present session 
on Oct. 6 in its new home, especially modeled for its purposes, 
at 253-255 Courtland street. The institution not only has a 
building of its own, splendidly arranged for its purposes, but 
a large half-acre lot, practically in the business part of the 
city and very convenient to everything. 



The Druggists' National Home. 

AT a recent meeting of the trustees of the Druggists' 
National Home at Palmyra, Wis., it was decided that a 
fee of $5 to join and ifl a year be asked from every 
druggist, and that a general effort be made to induce druggists 
to become members of the Home association. A committee of 
three — of which J. J. Kearney, of Chicago, is the chairman — 
was appointed to bring about the financing of the Home, and 
to bring the matter before the National Wholesale Druggists' 
Association at the annual meeting of that body at Jacksonville, 
Fla., last month. Thanksgiving Day was appointed for a 
Thanksgiving donation from all the druggists of the country. 

A number of changes were suggested in the regulations of 
the Home, notably that admission to its privileges be regulated 
by the age of the applicant and the time he had been in the 
drug business, so as to give the most deserving the first 
opportunity. 

BUT — the Home needs money! .Such an institution as this 
is planned to be, a real home for the aged and infirm druggist, 
requires constant support, a dependable source of incom>;. Were 
there a sufficient number of wealthy druggists who could see 
the advisability of joining together to provide an endowment 
fund, the interest of which would serve to pay the bills for 
maintenance, etc., the plans of the trustees could be carried out 
in detail to the inestimable benefit of wornout druggists in all 
sections of the country. 

Apparently such an endowment from such a source is not 
possible, although there have been a number of very handsome 
donations from prominent firms. Hence the next and most 
natural step is to secure the support of the druggists of the 
country as a body. 

If every druggist in the country would pay at one time the 
small sum of $5 and every drug clerk the sum of $1, the 
Home would be placed on a self-supporting, self-respecting 
basis. There should be no necessity for this constant appeal 
for funds to meet already contracted liabilities. 

The Home is your institution — you are at liberty to visit it 
and utilize its decided advantages. It is not a money-making 
institution, but a haven for the men of our craft who have 
labored long and earnestly for the common weal. By sup- 
porting the Home you are doing your part not only to provide 
for those who have fallen by the wayside through age or illness 
or infirmity. To paraphrase a famous saying, "There but for 
the mercy of God lie I" — and no one of us knows when he 
may be glad to have such a veritable rest haven to which to 
turn. 

The Era from the first has appealed for the united support 
of the craft toward the complete fulfilment of the plans of 
the founders of this institution, and we are deeply in earnest 
when we repeat — in spirit if not in the same words — "No 
better use can be made of a $5 bill by any druggist than its 
contribution to the trustees of the Druggists' National Home." 
It may not be bread upon the waters, for all will not be forced 
to turn for aid to this really philanthropic institution, but its 
return will be a hundredfold in happiness, comfort and renewed 
faith, in such beneficiaries as the bounty of the druggists of 
this country enables to enjoy freedom from worry, the best of 
care and real home comforts in one of the beauty spots of the 
Middle West. 

Send that $5 today, Superintendent Heimstreet will be de- 
lighted to acknowledge its receipt. 



Januaky, 1914] 



THE PHARAIACEUTICAL ERA 



33 



Board Examinations 



Arkansas. 

LITTLE ROCK, Dec 20.— At the recent meeting of the State 
Board of Pharmacy the following were successful in passing their 
examinations, 29 in all including one woman: 

John Bruner, Nashville; John T. Puckett, Franklin; Wyatt Craw- 
ford, Benton; J. E. Turner, Hot Springs; A. B. Coger, St. Paul; 
W. C. Beldinglield, Pettigrew; A. O. P. Nickerson, Benton; W. C. 
Cruce, Monticello; A. J. Seeman, Little Rock; Henry Frick, Jr., 
Little Rock; Henry Stamper, Little Rock; John Parback, Little 
Rock; C. J. Walker, Little Rock; Jesse Herrod. Little Rock; F. C. 
Burch, Little Rock; G. C. Gilliam, Des Arc; H. W. Johnson, Hot 
Springe; W. B. Allen, Hot Springs; R. H. Verser, Searcy; W. B. 
Walsh, Crossett; H. C. Overstreet, Argenta; Clarence Marsh, Pres- 
cott; W. F. Alexander, Dierks; W. A. Thomas, Eldorado; E. D. 
Gaughey, Hartford; R. E. Foster, Kansas City, Mo.; Miss Anna- 
bell Wilson, Wichita, Kan.; S. Y. Palmer, Shreveport, La.; W. O. 
Riggins, Vinson, La. 



Florida. 
PALATKA, Dec, 20.— The Board of Pharmacy for the State of 
Florida will meet for the examination of applicants for registra- 
tion as pharmacists in the Board of Health Building, Jacksonville, 
commencing at 9 a.m., Jan. 20, and continuing for two days. It is 
required that applicants be at least 18 years of age and that they 
present proof of four years' experience in the practice of phar- 
macy, time spent in a college of pharmacy to be credited as such. 
Applications must be filed in this office five days prior to the 
examination. Fee for examination, $15.00. 



Illinois. 

SPRINGFIELD, Dec. S.— At the meeting of the Illinois State 
Board of Pharmacy, held in Chicago Nov. 18-20, 33 of the 93 candi- 
dates for registered pharmacist, 23 of the applicants for assistant 
pharmacist and one of the three candidates for local registration 
passed successful examinations. Their names follow: 

Registered Pharmacists — David Baxter, Harold P. Dereby, Edwin 
B. Douglas, Joseph E. Dubsky, D. E. Finkelstein, Wm. Garside, 
V. M. Gaskins, Peter J. Gowens, John M. Hart, C. A. Hulden, 
S. M. Kolar, Louis C. Kivitek, Wm. A. Lee, S. M. MesirofF, Chester 
A. Milewski, Henry S. Mesirow, Clinton B. Painter, Leon R. 
Radomski, H. T. Schantz-Hansen, Albin J. Stritesky, Walter 
Swiecinski, Harry A. Taylor, Dvora Veselaia, Alexander Webster. 
E. R. Williams, Bernard Zak and Vikter Zucker, all of Chicago, 
and H. V. Cleveland, Grayslake; Leon H. Dewey, Madison, Wis.; 
J. J. Garrity, Spring Valley; Sophie C, Michels, El Paso; Guy L, 
Pulley, Marion; Reuben W. Walther, Peru. 

Assistant Pharmacists — Frank J. Chmatal, Arthur A. Dahms, A, 
H. Erickson, Nicholas Engels, Chas. H. Grund, Jr., Earl P. Haney, 
L. E. Irvine, J. G. Jordan, J. J. Kaczkowski, Frank V. Kara, 
John Krizan, G. D. Lavieri, Henry C. Maynard, Anton Nesnidal, 
Peter Patlogan, S. S. Petrulis, Michael Schwetz, Robt. B. Sherry, 
Adrian Ton, Lillian Vorsanger, all of Chicago, and Warren B. 
McCabe, Rushville; Joe K. Oetzel, Danville; Albert Schreiner, Jr., 
Batavia. 

Local Registered Pharmacist — Bertram J. Hooper, Lake Villa. 

The following passed the mid-month examination held at Spring- 
field: 

Registered Pharmacists — H. V. Cleveland, Gray's Lake; Leon H. 
Dewey, Madison; J. J. Garrity, Spring Valley; Sophie C. Michels, 
El Paso; Guy L. Pulley, Marion; Reuben W. Walther, Peru. 

Assistant Pharmacists — Warren B. McCabe, Rushville; Joe K. 
Oetzel, Danville; Albert Schreiner, Jr., Batavia. 

Local Registered Pharmacist — Bertram J. Hooper, Lake Villa. 

The next meeting of the board for the examination of applicants 
for registered pharmacist and assistant pharmacist will be held in 
Springfield on Jan. 20. 

The next meeting of the board in Chicago for the examination 
of applicants for registered pharmacist will be held on March 10 
and on March 12, 1914, for applicants for assistant pharmacist. 

The next apprentice examinations throughout the State will be 
held on January 2. 



Iowa, 

DES MOINES, Dec. 20.— Only 30 out of 92 who took the State 
pharmacy examination before the board succeeded. Those who 
got certificates as registered pharmacists were: 

H. L. Piatt, Anamo.sa; C. R. Machogan, Dyersville; Wilbur 
Cook, Sigourney; Charles Copeland, Lenox; J. W. Auld, Cedar 
Falls; J. M. Sturdivant. Cincinnati ; Edward T. Sickel, Cedar 
Rapids; Karl Werner. Milton; Will Dreyer, Aplington; Herman 
King, Coin ; ^. S. Foster, Malvern; Adelbert Holt. Oskaloosa; 
James V. P. Moran. Le Mars; E. J. Bohninger, Des Moines; A. E, 
Engler. Dyersville ; D. L. Arkwright, Scranton ; Ernest Rosenthal, 
Decorah; M. G. McMurray. Janesville; Edward G. Herring, Water- 
loo; Homer P. Smelz. Glen wood: A. E. Schroeder, Dubuaue; 
Roland A. Miller, Hancock; Earl Mady, Shelby; lay M. Griffith. 
Des Moines; Roy Laughlin. Des Moines; Fred Darville, Des 
Moines; H. D. Irish, Des Moines; Emory Miller. Des Moines; 
Ernest W. Westphal, Olin; Lawrence McNaraee, Sioux City. 



Kansas. 

KANSAS CITY, Dec. 20.— The third quarterly meeting of the 
Kansas Board was held in Kansas City Nov. 12 and 13, at which 
tinie there were 51 applicants in attendance for the examinations. 
Of this number 19 were successful and received certificates as 
follows: 

Marl M. Robbins. Fredonia; Montie Nelson, Lenora: Lida Horr, 
Frankfort; B. E. Taylor. McCune: Otto H. Munper. Athol ; Lois 
Ellen Evans. Republic; Glenn S. Maddux. Onaga; Edward Goyette, 
Elsmore; Frank W. Ainsworth, Eureka; Roy S. Gillespie, Reserve; 



Ray G. Samuel, Baldwin; Chas. W. Yoder, Haddam; Joe J. Gor- 
ham, Cawker City ; Frederick A. Beyer, Kansas City ; Geo. R. 
Belshaw, Jr., Seneca; Henry W. Dillard, Kansas City; Phillip C. 
Pfalzgrof, Kansas City; Joe L. Cherry, Liberal; George E. Coulter, 
Potter. 

The next quarterly meeting of the board will be held in Wichita, 
Feb. 11 and 12, 1914, beginning at 9 a.m. Those desiring to take 
the examination should notify the secretary at least five days 
before the date of meeting. 



Louisiana. 

NEW ORLEANS, -Dec. 20.— Edward H. Walsdorf, secretary of 
the Louisiana State Board of Pharmacy, has compiled the results 
of the examination recently held at the Tulane University for 
certificates as registered pharmacists and qualified assistants. 

There were 18 applicants. Dalph Donaway, of New Orleans, was 
awarded a certificate as registered pharmacist. Those awarded 
certificates as qualified assistants were George McDuff, of New 
Orleans, and B. B. Kennedy, of Pinola, Miss. 

The various branches are under the direction of the following: 
Gus Seeman, chairman, pharmacy; Paul Eckels, materia medica; 
Peter Rupp, practical work; Frank J. Simon, chemistry. 



Massacliusetts, 

BOSTON, Dec. 20. — The following have successfully passed the 
examinations of the State Board of Registration in Pharmacy, and 
have been granted certificates as registered pharmacists: 

Thomas H. Fox. Holyoke; Joseph C. Viera. New Bedford; 
Rudolph Bellefeuille, Fall River; Stuart B. Hawley. Boston; 
Maurice Penn, Lawrence; Charles Anastasia, Boston; Harry W. 
Baker, Albany, N. Y. ; Frederic T. Browne, Jr., New Bedford; 
David J. Byrne, Mattapan; John J. Creeden, Maiden; Frances P. 
Codduhu, Springfield; Cyrus D. Hakes, New York City; George 
Mazel, Lynn; Paul Mongeau. Indian Orchard; William J. McCon- 
non, Wellesley; Abraham Troupin, Boston; George H. Hooper, 
Brookline; Walter J. Gilbride, Lowell; Zachary Zarsky. Boston; 
Louis H. Dubois, Lowell; Gilbert J. Healy, Wellington; Hermann 
T. Hemmen, South Boston; Harry Jaffe, Fitchburg; Harry I. 
Korobkin, Newtonville; Matthew Lang, Somerville; Clement M. 
Lussier, New Bedford. 

Assistant's certificates have been granted to the following: 

Sylvia Gorshel, Chelsea; Edward M. Bartley, Whitinsville; 
Carlo Smiraglta, New York; Clarence A. Ahlquist, Lynn; Joseph 
H. Cooney, Boston; Ovide A. Dumas. Worcester; Albert E. Hunt, 
Holyoke; Miss Helen M. Rose, Quincy; Fred E. Therrien, New 
Bedford; Francesco Villari, Bridgeport, Conn.; Paul J. Worcester, 
West Somerville ; Moses Berlant. Boston ; Frank M. Gaffney, 
Leominster; Joseph A. Lamothe. Holvoke; William H. McDevitt, 
Salem; Temple A. Corson. New Bedford; James G. Elkind. Worces- 
ter; Simon Michaelson, East Boston; Walter L. O'Brien, Worcester; 
Humbert G. A. M. Rossi, Boston; Felix R. Scanlon, East Boston; 
Miss Minna Seiniger, Boston; Jacob Titiev, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



New York State Penalties. 
The number of penalties paid the New York State Board during 
the month of November, also the character of violations, follows: 

Adulterated and deficient prescriptions 2 

Adulterated and deficient Pharmacopoeial products 2 

Junior violation 1 

Unlicensed dealers selling prohibited drugs 2 

Label violation 1 

Total 8 cases 



North Carolina. 

RALEIGH, Dec. 20.— At a meeting of the North Carolina Board 
of Pharmacy at Raleigh, Nov. 18-19, for the examination of candi- 
dates to practice pharmacy, out of a class of 46, 38 whites and 8 
colored, the following 15 were successful: 

Brem Bonner, Hickory; Joe B. Haymore, Mt. Airy; Thos. E. 
Holding, Jr., Wake Forest; Edgar B. Mayberry, Charlotte; John 
A. Zeigler, Marshville; Lonnie W. Murphey, Raleigh; Guyton Hall, 
Asheville; Edgar T. Beddingfield, Raleigh; John F. Simpson, 
Raleigh; Carl W. Davis. Greensboro; Hector B. McPhaul. Lumber- 
ton; Clifton C. Munday, Statesville, N. C; William M. Folkes, 
Rockingham; William B. Ramsey (colored), Greensboro; Detroit 
D. Johnson (colored), Raleigh. 

The board agreed to add to their present examinations a branch 
in Practical Pharmacy to be inaugurated at their next meeting, 
which will be held on Tuesday, June 9. The board also decided 
to hold all of their meetings in the future at Raleigh, instead of 
holding the Summer meeting at the same place as the association. 



Pennsylvania. 

PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 20.— At the examinations given by the 
State Pharmaceutical Examining Board in Pittsburgh and Phila- 
delphia, on Nov. 7 and 8, 63 persons applied for registration as 
pharmacist. Thirty-three passed the examinations and 30 failed. 
Of the 153 applicants for qualified assistant pharmacist certificates, 
110 were successful and 43 failed. The names of those successful 
were as follows: 

Pharmacists— James C. Alexander, George L. McMillin and 
William H. Lysscomb. of Pittsburgh; Albert L. Kossler. Crafton; 
Harry J. Garvey. Charleroi; Walter W. Siegel, Erie; Charles R. 
George, Junjata; Michael Strozzi, Buffalo, N. Y. ; George W. Carey, 
Harry E. Casey, M. Beatrice (Tomber. Arthur J. Durand, Alfred 
M. Evans, Leonora G. Fetters. Meyer S. Glauser. Ralph A. Hurley, 
Aaron Lipschutz. Michael J. Mandarino. Pilibos Movsesian. Charles 
A. McBride, all of Philadelphia; Earle O. Bong and Alvin H. 
Kern, of Allen town; Howard J. Koch, Coopersburg; Agnes Du- 
voisin. Clifton Heights; Fanny Ferry. Freeland; Wilford G. 
Stauffer, New Holland; Lloyd P. Griesemer and C. Raymond 
Mover, of Reading; Harold A. McKean. Ridley Park; John J. 
Bridgeman, Jr., West Chester; Marvin A. Shales. Wilkes-Barre; 
John F. Keppler. WilHamsport; Jan S. Jorczak, Thorndike, Mass. 

Qualified Assistants^Arthur L. Baer, Ernest Davies, Lee A. 



34 



THE PHARxMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



DoiuUson. George M. Gillen. Leo. F. Jerome, James J. Klavon, 
William J. Kirsch, Theodore \V. McDcnnoit, John \\ . Kouzer, 
Howard A. Ward, all of Pittsburgh: William H. Seeds, Alioona; 
Elmer Itierwirtb, Bellevue; Clyde T. Keed, Butler; Charles H. 
Lee, Charleroi; Leslie K. Davics, Craitoii; Martin Kovacs, S. 
Potter Brown, Jr., J. V. Slcrhenson, Jr., Greensburg; Harold 
Marsh, Irwin; Gus A. Bitner, Jeannette; Carl J. Dumeyer, Johns- 
town; Henry D. Primas. Lock No. 4; George A. Herd, Connells- 
viUe; John B. Torry, Cambridge Springs; Stanley A. Guskea, 
Monongahela; Edward H. Hoak, Elmer Thomas, McKeesport; 
Uaniel Kovacs, McKees Rocks; Cecil Anthony, Natrona; Harry L. 
Miller, Washington; Glenn B. Hamilton, • Pairmount, W. V a. ; 
James A. Archibald, Wheeling, W. Va.; Leon H. Anthony, M. 
Lewis Augenblick, Louis N. Blauslein, J. William Bright, Samuel 
M. Chenkin, Benjamin Cohen, Parker B. Creep, William Eidelson, 
Isaac S. Gadol, John H. Gralnick, Paul L. Hartnctt, William 
Hendrie, John W. Holloway, Abraham Hurwitz, Morris Kabacoff, 
Louis Kron, Matthew L Lasley, Owen B. Law, Michael Meisel, 
George N. Netsky, Everett J. Roberts, John A. Ruplis, Harry M. 
Sagoskv, Morris Senn, Robert J. Stewart, Charles F. Sicglried, 
Harvey A- Sbiley, Edith Schofield, David L. Subin, Walter Weid- 
ler and Joseph L. Wilder, all of Philadelphia; Vincent P. O'Neill, 
Ashland; Samuel A. Tretheway, Boyertown; Harold Schoonover, 
Carbondale; Fred L. Carn, Claysburg; Paul F. Houser and Harry 
W. Null, Chambersburg; Lester Y. Brendle and Raymond G. 
Gibnev, CoatcsviUe; John E. Collins, Conshohocken; Walter R. 
Scher,' Dushore: Chalmer J. Durand, Easton; Alpheus W. Resser, 
East Berlin; Earl S. Gottschall, Eddystone; Laroy L. I'enny- 
packer, Fort Washington; John A. Fiscel, Gettysburg; Calvin E. 
Bell, Huntingdon; Joshua Israel, Lawndale; J. Waiter Shaffer, 
William H. Snyder, Lebanon; Clark M. Miller, Lewistown; C. 
Paul Mallard, Llanerch; George W. Gerhard, Macungie; William 
A. Wallace, Charles Whitman, Middletown; Harry L. Guers, 
PottsviUe; Daniel B. Nagel, Henry Mathias, Paul E. Rhoads and 
C. LeRoy Wall, Reading; Walter W. Rex, Slatington; Clayton H. 
Mouer, Shippensburg; George W. Samsel, Stroudsburg; Frank J. 
Rcddon, Susquehanna; William M. Kemner, Tamaqua: Robert A. 
Levy, Trumbauersvilie; Gerald J. Ruddy and Martin Y. Smulyan, 
WilkesBarre; Isaac D. Kinley, W ilhamsport ; Asher M. Hawk, 
Harold E. Werkheiser, Wind Gap; A. Hastings Fitzskee, Wrights- 
ville; Louis J. Kleinfeld, Alliance, N. J.; Lawrence G. Beisler, 
Hilton, N. J.; William J. B. Clymer, Phillipsburg, N. J.; Thomas 
A. Cramer, Point Pleasant, N. J.; Martin F. Carmody, Syracuse, 
N. Y'. 

The next examinations will be held in Harrisburg on March 14, 
1914. 

South Carolina. 

ORANGEBURG, Dec. 20.— At the November examinations of the 
State Board of Pharmacy, the following were successful: 

J. Rhett Simmons, Chas. D. Miller, F. C. Duffie, H. E. Miller, 
John Hart Hardwicke, J. A. Gilberson, Charleston; B. F. Smith, 
Bowman; W. Clay Harper, Anderson; J no. Gordon Howell, Sumter; 
W. C. F. Harris, Sumter; I. D. Irby Cross Anchor; John M. 
Hutchinson, Rock Hill; J. E. Watkins, Laurens; J. F. Sherard, 
Anderson; William LeRoy Rogers, Hemmingway; Edward W. 
Carroll, Columbia; William W'allace Wetsell, Spartanburg, white; 
and the following colored: George Washington Singleton, Spar- 
tanburg; Lemuel M. Dantzler, Orangeburg, and Fred Douglas 
Jones, Raleigh, N. C. „ , ,,.,, , , . , 

The next meeting of the board will be at Rock Hill on the third 
Wednesday in March, 1914, the board being required to meet every 
four months. 

NEWS OF THE BOARDS. 



In its annual report to Governor Taylor, the New Jersey State 
Board of Pharmacy calls attention to the unusual spirit of unrest, 
rivalry and jealousy that is manifest among the druggists of New 
Jersey, pointing out that during the past year there have been 
an unusual number of complaints of alleged violations of law 
reported. All of these were investigated, but most of the cases 
seemed to be of temporary absences of the registered pharmacists 
in charge of the stores, or of owners who were registered being 
■without registered clerks for a time. Of the eight prosecutions 
seven were successful. The report then continues: "There seemed 
to be a spirit of unrest among many pharmacists, where it was a 
loss of business, or a spirit of rivalry, or jealousy among com- 
petitors which has caused a wonderful amount of work for the 
board to get at the facts concerning complaints of procuring papers 
to attend the examinations by fraud or of furnishing false affi- 
davits from employers as to time of apprenticeship. All of these 
charges were given a thorough and searching investigation, and 
in every instance the person making the complaint failed to fur- 
nish proof against any of the accused. The candidates this year 
have been, as a rule, of a high standing as to deportment while 
attending the examinations, but at the same time the board has 
been compelled to dismiss a number for conduct unbecoming gen- 
tlemen by violating the rules of the board." There are 3017 regis- 
tered pharmacists and 139 registered assistants in New Jersey, 
making a total of 3176 in good standing. The receipts for the 
year were $4498.56 and the disbursements S4278.S9. The balance 
turned over to the State Treasurer was $219.97. 

The closing meeting of the Washington State Board of Phar- 
macy was held at Spokane, Dec. 29-31. The board wishes to call 
attention to the provision of the pharmacy law which holds all 
proprietors of drug stores who are employing unregistered men 
equally guilty with the unregistered clerk, and that as rapidly as 
possible all such cases will be brought to court by the board. 
Former Secretary Lee, of the State Board, and now a member of 
that board, has retained counsel to fight the action of the State 
auditor, C. W. Clausen, in withholding his salary warrants. It 
is charged that the warrants are being withheld until a tangle 
is unravelled relative to alleged overpayments to the former sec- 

A banquet was given at the Lindell Hotel, Lincoln, Neb., re- 
cently by the members and ex-members of the Nebraska State 



Board of Pharmacy in honor of the retiring president, Robert 
Lock, and Mrs, Lock, of Central City. After the banquet a theater 
party was given. 

The Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy has organized as fol- 
lows: President, D. J. Killcn, Beatrice; vice-president, L. W. 
McConnell, McCook; 2d vice-ljrcsident, S. E. Ewing, Creston; 
secretary, J. Earl Harper, Clearwater; treasurer, Orel Jones, 
Oconto. 

Agents of the State Examining Board of Pennsylvania have been 
making a series of arrests in Lackawanna and Luzerne counties 
of drug clerks and proprietors charged with violating the Act of 
March 18, 1909, in selling poisons without a prescription. 

At the recent meeting of the North Carolina State Board of 
Pharmacy, President H. S. Arrington, of Norfolk, and John E. 
Jackson, of Taswell. members of the Virginia State Board of 
Pharmacy, were guests of the Old North State Board. 

Gov. Hall, of Louisiana, has appointed W. E. Allen, of Monroe; 
E. L. McClung, of Natchitoches; L. E. Carruth, of Kentwood, and 
E. H. Walsdorf, of New Orleans, to succeed themselves as mem- 
bers of the Slate Board of Pharmacy. 

J. E, Justice, a prominent dru^ist of Clarksville, Tenn., ha» 
been appointed a member of the Tennessee State Board of Phar- 
macy. He will fill out the unexpired term of J. W. Head, which 
ends April 24, 1918. 

Gov, Major, of Missouri, has made the following appointments to 
the State Board of Pharmacy: R. A. Doyle, of East Prairie, to 
succeed William Mittelbach, of Boonville. The term expires Aug. 
16, 1918. 

A special meeting of the Arizona Board of Pharmacy has been 
called for the second Monday in January at Douglas at which 
very important matters will be brought before the board. 



Books Reviewed 



DICTIONARY OF PHARMACY. For students, teachers and ex- 
aminers, etc. By George F. Payne, Ph,G., M.D., F.C.S. State 
chemist of Georgia for eight years, president and professor of 
pharmacy of the Atlanta College of Pharmacy, etc 2d cd., 
6x3^2 inches, 167 pages. Mor., ^.50. Published by the author, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

This is not a dictionary in the usually accepted sense, for 
no attention is given to the derivation or pronunciation of the 
pharmaceutical terms listed. More properly, the book is a 
"catechism of pharmacy," and this view is practically con- 
ceded by the author himself, who tells us on the title page 
that the te.xt is "arranged in question and answer form for 
brevity and directness, and to impress students." Many edu- 
cators concede that instruction imparted in catechetical form 
has a place in the training of the student, and more especially 
it he be required to look up the necessary data and formulate 
his own answers. In this book the topics are arranged alpha- 
betically with matters relating to the same subjects grouped 
together, but not all of the answers to the questions, which 
number about 3000, seem to be well expressed, for what 
scientist would define "benzene" without other qualification 
as "C|.H„. It forms a closed chain and is called the benzene 
ring. (It is the starting-point of many organic chemical com- 
pounds.)"? Or "protein" as "dead protoplasm"? Yet these 
answers, as quoted, appear on pages 26 and 34 of the book. 
Errors in proofreading are very numerous, most of them being 
inexcusable. According to the author, "the work is based on 
the American idea of short, clear explanations and definitions," 
but in our opinion not all of the definitions he has given 
conform to the basic idea thus expressed. 



SOLVENTS. OILS, GUMS, WAXES AND ALLIED SUBSTANXES. 
By Frederic S. Hyde, Ph.B., formerly assistant chemist, Brook- 
lyn Health Department, late assistant in analytical chemistry, 
Columbia University, etc. 5J4x8}4 inches, 176 pages. Cloth, $2. 
New York, Van Nostrand Co. 

According to the author, the notes incorporated in this 
monograph are intended for the use of factory chemists and 
others who may desire a short reference book on commercial 
organic products. The methods and tests outlined have been 
taken from many authoritative sources and ars .sufficiently 
complete to answer the purposes ot the average industrial 
chemist. The pharmacist also will find much valuable infor- 
mation in the book, which is well worth a place in his library. 



Reprints, Proceedings and Reports Received. 

From the Research Laboratory of Parke, Davis & Co., 
Detroit, Mich. : On Crystalline Kombe-Strophanthin, by D. H. 
Brauns, Ph.D., and O. E. Closson, Ph.B. 

The Pompeian Co., Washington, D. C. : Seven Eventful 
Olive Oil Years. 

The American Underwriter Magazine, New York: Sprinkler 
Protection for Factory Workmen. 

Citizens Central National Bank of New York: Coitiplete 
Schedules of the Tariff Act of 1913. 



V./MMAiMMMMiAMMMMMMMy>iMaiMF^MMMilMMMMM 




Riker-Hegeman Reorganization Plans. 

■Old Stock at $100 Par Value Replaced by New Issue at $5 
Per Share in the "Corporation of Riker and Hegeman 
Stock," a Vela-ware Corporation. — Many Shares Traded in 
on the New York Curb. 

GEORGE J. WHELAN and his associates have at last 
put through the deal which has been pending for months 
past, and the Riker-Hegeman stores are now controlled 
by the United Cigar Stores interests. A new corporation has 
been formed under a Delaware charter, with an authorized 
capital of $5,000,000 in common stock, of which $3,700,000 
will be issued, while the remainder, $1,300,000, will remain in 
the treasury as treasury stock. It is expected that the rate of 
dividend will be increased to 10 per cent, per annum. The 
stock of the old Riker-Hegeman company will be reduced from 
$100 a share to $5 a share — that is, 20 shares of the new 
stock in the Corporation of Riker and Hegeman Stock (the 
new corporation) will be exchanged for one share of the old. 
The purpose of this reduction in share value is to promote 
public investment, and a more general distribution. 

The capitalization of the Riker-Hegeman Co. is $9,000,000, 
of which $7,000,000 is in common stock, and $2,000,000 pre- 
ferred. In acquiring control of the Riker-Hegeman Co. com- 
mon shares, Mr. Whelan bought from the company itself at 
par $1,500,000 common stock, and of the $7,000,000 outstanding 
the Whelan associates secured appro.ximately $3,700,000, thus 
giving him control of the corporation. 

In his official statement in which Mr. Whelan announced 
the completion of the deal and the completion of his plans, he 
said: 

"My associates and myself arranged to buy a majority of 
the common stock of the Riker & Hegeman Co., with no other 
purpose than to develop to the fullest extent of its possibilities 
what we believe to be an enterprise already profitable. The 
present annual gross sales of the drug company in its 93 
stores is, according to our best information, about $15,000,000. 

"In embarking in the drug business, I am carrying out a 
plan long in contemplation by myself and by those who in 
association with me have brought the United Cigar Stores Co. 
up to its present position as a mercantile enterprise. The 
systematization of that business, especially from the auditing 
standpoint, was the feature that cost us most an.xiety, and 
most money, in the early days of its career. 

"Investigations several years ago satisfied us that the retail 
drug business as heretofore conducted, while yielding a hand- 
some return on the investment, was without an organized audit- 
ing system that could be called upon at any hour of any day 
for reliable figures. We had developed by long experience and 
costly experiment a system ready-made, and this consideration, 
more than any other, directed our attention to the drug 
business. 

"The Riker & Hegeman Co., we were convinced by inves- 
tigation, had progressed along the right lines. So far as we 
have been able to discover, it is an economically, progressively 
managed business, well abreast of modem methods, and in 
the ablest hands. 

"In those hands the drug business will undoubtedly be left, 
so far as its practical operation is concerned. The drug com- 
pany will, as a first step in the contemplated change, come 
under an auditing system. similar to that which has been de- 
veloped and proved to be efficient by the United Cigar Stores 
Company. 

"Under the plan of reorganization this new company will 



issue shares of a par value of $5 each, or at the rate of 20 
shares of the stock of the new company, having a par value of 
$5, for each share of the Riker & Hegeman Co., having a par 
value of $100 each acquired by the new company. 

"It is proposed that in the Riker & Hegeman directorate 
there shall be no one who is not actively engaged in the pro- 
motion of its business, as there is now no director of the 
United Cigar Stores Co. who is not actively engaged in its 
business. No element in the building up of the Cigar Stores 
Co. has contributed so much to its success as a firm adherence 
to this rule. 

".\t the top will be men who know the drug business and 
will be responsible to the stockholders and to the public for its 
management down to the smallest detail. 

"In the drug stores the only monopoly we will strive to 
establish is a monopoly of good service such as for years the 
United Cigar Stores have sought to establish. 

"In this relationship of business policies between the drug 
stores and the cigar stores, as well as in the advantages to 
follow the adoption by the drug company of a similar auditing 
system and a similar real estate system, we feel that the drug 
company will derive a benefit that will prove that what has 
been done is based on fundamental principles of good business, 
judged from the standpoint of the stockholder, the patron of 
the stores who buys over the counter and of the employee who, 
through loyalty and good work, helps to build up the success 
of the business." 



Featuring Confectionery |in Drug Stores* 

By WILLIAM T. BELL. 

TO my mind this department, which has become one of 
vital importance to the retail druggist, has been sadly 
neglected; and having had the privilege of representing 
one of the leading manufacturers of confectionery of New 
England, in the State of New York, I could not help but 
realize the golden opportunities which the retailer is letting 
slip through his fingers by not featuring confectionery. 

Of course, most all retail stores carry confectionery, but 
carrying confectionery and featuring it are two distinctly dif- 
ferent propositions. 

Purchasing a bill of confectionery and packing it solidly into 
a case and waiting for customers to call for it, is one thing, 
while intelligently featuring the same is another. 
Large Expenditure tTnnecessary. 

It is not necessary to expend a lot of money in buying an 
expensive case of display confectionery, but let the retailer 
use the means to be found at hand ; for instance, there is no 
better place, to my mind, for featuring confectionery, than by 
using the backbar of our soda fountains. 

Have a stand of glass shelves and make a neat display of 
packages ranging in price from 10 cents to $1, or even higher 
in price, depending upon the demands of your trade. 

Then run sales every week of bulk goods, i.e., purchase a 
barrel of kisses at 11 cents or 12 cents a pound, mark them 
19 cents and put the barrel right in the window on its side, 
and scatter enough kisses to thoroughly cover the base of 
your window. This encourages the customer to believe that 
you are selling some candy and that if you are selling candy 
it must be fresh. The Fall is a good time to feature kisses, 
they keep well at that season. 

A wrapped caramel is another piece of goods that I have 



*Paper read at the 1913 meeting of the Massachusetts Phar- 
maceutical Association. 



36 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, ISll 



found lo be a good seller. You can buy assorted caramels at 
20 cents a pound; mark them 29 cents, put 5 or 6 pans con- 
taining 6 pounds each in your window with a large sign, 
••40-cent caramels today 29 cents." Isn't it better to clean up 
a lot of OO or 100 pounds of caramels and make 9 cents a 
pound than to put iliem in a tray and wait for customers to 
purcliase tliem at -JO caits a pound? 

Some stores run a 1 -pound box of assorted chocolates on 
Saturdays for 29 cents, but 1 have not been successful with 
this particular proposition. 

I carry a 29-cait chocolate mixture and supply it on 
demand, but my game has been to carry six or seven good 
numbers of one make, in 1-potmd and J/j-pound boxes, rang- 
ing in price from 50 cents to $1 for 1 pound and 20 cents to 
40 cents for J^ pound. 

By contining myself to sbc or seven numbers I can watch 
my stock better and the danger of furnishing a customer 
with stale goods is practically eliminated. 

This suggests one feature of the confectionery game that I 
have had brought to my attention most forcibly, i.e., many 
druggists try to handle too many lines of goods, consequently 
some particular packages get passe and there is danger of 
losing a customer by furnishing him candy the vintage of 
which is uncertain. 

During the Summer it is well to watch nut goods, such as 
montevideos and pecans, and eliminate them from packages 
and mixtures so far as is possible. 

The location of one's store, also the class of trade one 
enjoys, is the key to the grades of confectionery one should 
carry. Every dealer has to experiment for himself and try 
out various propositions. 

Some stores can handle fancy colored packages, while others 
can sell nothing but plain wrapped boxes; some can handle a 
large assortment of holiday packages, while others find they 
have most of their shipment cf fancy boxes left over; and 
right here let me suggest, don't try to sell a box of candy 
with a Christmas card in it on the Fourth of July. 

Immediately after a holiday dump your holiday packages 
into your trays and sell them for what you can get. 

It is imwise to place filled boxes in a show window where 
sunlight or heat will reach them, as the coatings of chocolates 
contain a large percentage of cacao butter which thg sun 
will melt and this will ruin your chocolates. 

It is better to have your dealer furnish dummies to be used 
in window decoration, and even these should be protected 
from strong sunlight, because they will fade and become unfit 
for display. 

By using the backbar of yoiir soda fotmtain for a represen- 
tative display of confectionery you can reach it easily — the 
customer can't help but see it, and as soon as a sale is made 
replace the sold package from cartons kept elsewhere. 

This method keeps your stock moving. 

There is nothing new in this paper— it is simply a few 
suggestions gathered while calling upon the trade, but since 
returning to the retail drug business I have put them into 
actual operation to my advantage. So if there is anything of 
value to any of you gentlemen in these few suggestions, I will 
feel that I have not wasted your time and mine by writing and 
reading this paper. 

Annual Renort of U. S. Chemist. 

From the annual report of Chief Chemist Carl L. Alsberg, 
which is a part of the .^Vnnual Reports of the Department of 
.Agriculture, the following paragraphs of interest to the drug 
trade have been taken : 

Sherley Act. — The work of the Bureau of Chemistry under 
the food and drugs act during the year was greatly stimulated 
by two important acts of Congress amending this law. The 
first, known as the Sherley amendment, enacted August 23, 
1912, deals with medicines branded with false and fraudulent 
statements concerning their effect on disease. To make this 
act rapidly effective, as many chemists as could be spared 
were transferred during the Winter from food to drug work. 
These chemists, transferred to the laboratories in Washington, 
New York and Chicago, in a few months analyzed hundreds 
of these preparations. As a result of this work seizure of 
several of these preparations was recommended and the result- 
ing cases were won by default. Even at this early date a vast 
improvement in the labeling of medicinal preparations has 
resulted. Such positive therapeutic claims as "a sure cure," 



"a reliable remedy," and the like are being replaced on the 
labels by less misleading expressions, such as "will be foimd 
beneficial in" or "will relieve many of the symptoms of." 
Claims tliat preparations arc cures for such serious diseases 
as tuberculosis or cancer do not appear on the labels as often 
as formerly. 

Tluough the Secretary of the Treasury it has been possible 
to apply the Sherley Act to nearly all importations of drugs, 
so that false and fraudulent labels should soon disappear from 
imported medicinal products. 

Physicians' Supplies. — Special attention has been given to 
products of physicians' supply houses which do not pass 
through the usual trade channels of wholesale and retail drug 
houses and therefore escape the notice of inspectors. Many 
of these products were found to be adulterated or misbranded. 

Crude Drugs. — Analyses have been made of a large number 
of samples of anise and fennel seeds and cubeb berries to set 
standards for the composition of the pure articles and to 
detect the admixture of inferior or exhausted seeds. A method 
was developed to dislinguish the genuine Peru balsam from 
imitation and from mixtures. The analytical part of the 
investigation of the adulteration of pyrethrum, or msect pow- 
der, has been completed. Results of the investigation of oil 
of chenopodium show tliat ascaridole, the medicinally active 
constituent of wormseed oil on which the vermifuge properties 
of tlie oil depend, is a very unstable compound of the peroxid 
type. Its relations to other compounds have been elucidated, 
and a number of new and interesting substances prepared from 
it. 

Insecticides. — An investigation has been made of the to.xic 
effect on fruit trees of certain constituents used in insecticides, 
notably copper and arsenic. Apprehension has been enter- 
tained by some, especially the orchardists of the semiarid or 
irrigated districts of the West, that the continued use of the 
large amount of spray containing these substances might ulti- 
mately result in a serious accumulation in the soil and con- 
sequent injury of the tree through absorption of poison by 
the roots. 

Analytical Methods. — Investigations of analytical methods of 
various kinds are always needed in conducting various lines 
of work, .'\mong those recently studied are: Methods for the 
examination of asafetida; the detection of small quantities of 
strychnine in the presence of large quantities of quinine; the 
determination of moisture, arsenic, and lead ; and the deter- 
mination of tin in canned goods. Some of this work is done 
in co-operation with the Association of Official Agricultural 
Chemists. The method on which the leather and paper labora- 
tory has %vorked in co-operation with the American Leather 
Chemists' Association for determining glucose in leather has 
been fully established in this laboratory and made the official 
method of the association. The contracts laboratory has co- 
operated in a similar way with the American Society for Test- 
ing Materials and with the Bureau of Standards. 

Pharmacological Investigations. — Information was obtained 
concerning the action of caffein under a variety of conditions. 
Acute and chronic intoxications with salts of tin were studied 
and observations upon the action of tartrates were made. 



Ohio Insecticide License Fee Prohibitive. 

According to a law passed by the Ohio Legislature last year 
any wholesale druggist who makes a pretense of supplying his 
customers with most of the insecticides and fungicides on the 
market will be forced to pay something like $14,000 annually 
for the privilege. The law provides a license fee of $20 for 
each variety of such bug and worm-killers carried, and as 
there are more than 700 such preparations on the market, the 
amount of the annual fee for a wholesaler would be prohibitive. 
The result has been a protest to the Governor by wholesale 
drug houses and a personal visit to the State Executive by a 
committee from the Ohio State Ph. .A., headed by G. B. Kauff- 
man, of the Kauffman-Lattimer Co., and J. D. Price, of the 
Orr, Brown & Price Co. The State Agricultural Commission, 
to whom the enforcement of the law is instrusted, have not 
as yet made any attempt to do so. 



National Drug Trade Conference. 

A meeting of the executive committee of this conference will 
be held at the New Willard Hotel in Washington, Jan. 12, at 
10 o'clock, a.m. The conference itself will convene at the 
same place Jan. 13, at 10 o'clock a.m. Each constituent asso- 
ciation is entitled to three delegates. 



Januaky, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



37 



FROM THE BUSINESS FIELD. 



More than 200 representatives of business houses from which 
the United Drug Co. buys its raw materials toured the com- 
pany's plants in Boston last month, inspecting the manufac- 
ture of the Rexall remedies, candies, perfumes, etc. Luncheon 
was served at the Copley Square Hotel and there was a banquet 
at the same hostelry in the evening. One of the features of the 
banquet was the detailed history of the company as outlined 
by President Louis K. Liggett, who said in part : "You gen- 
tlemen may wonder why we ask you to be with us today and 
see what we are doing and tonight to hear how we have done 
it. With us tonight we have the officer of the firm from whom 
we buy corks for our bottles; the bottle manufacturer; the 
paper man from whom we buy paper for labels and wrappers, 
down to the firm from whom we buy wooden cases in which 
our goods are shipped. We have as guests the crude drug 
concerns, and every big business represented who sell us any 
class of material merchandise we use in our business. We 
even have the bankers from whom we buy money to help us 
finance the business. We term you our business friends. We 
have studied the needs of an up-todate drug store and sup- 
plied them. We have analyzed the business of the retailer 
so that we could help him in his service to his customers, the 
buying public. W'e have tried to make him more money by 
making him a merchant and evolutionizing his store. We have 
been able to give him the fullest benefit because we have kept 
close to him, because we know him well and his possibilities. 
We are handling $15,000,000 in turnover this year, and in a 
few years it will be nearer $50,000,000." 

J. A. Dew, until recently assistant State entomologist of 
Alabama, has resigned to take the position of demonstrator in 
citrus fruit insecticides, with the .Van Antwerp Drug Cor- 
poration. A demonstration department is to be established 
in connection with the Van Antwerp Corporation, this firm 
having secured exclusive rights in a number of the Southern 
States for the manufacture and sale of Schnarr's insecticide. 
Mr. Dew will have charge of a bureau of information to be 
established by the corporation for the benefit of citrus fruit 
growers in Mobile and Baldwin counties, and his demonstra- 
tion work will be confined largely to Southern Alabama. 

The new Owl drug store, No. 5, at Kansas City, Mo., which 
is to be opened for business this month, is on the busiest 
comer of Kansas City. The drug company occupies the first 
floor and the basement, the ground floor space is 38 by 112 
feet in the clear. The ceiling is 18 feet high, thus giving 
room for a large and airy mezzanine floor. The basement 
space is 55 by 124 feet, with a ceiling 12 feet high. It is all 
finished and decorated, and w'ill be used as a salesroom, easy 
access being gained by a broad stairway. It is understood that 
the Owl Drug Co. rental in this new location — ■12th and 
Walnut streets — is $30,000 a year. 

The Buck & Rayner chain of drug stores, Chicago, con- 
trolled by Louis Eckstein, president ; Stephen Hexter, vice- 
president ; Charles T. Boynton and others, has leased the 
entire ground floor and basement of the new Bezak building, 
1307-1309 Milwaukee avenue, just a few doors north of the 
Wieboldt department store. The same syndicate owns the 
leasehold at the southwest comer of State and Adams streets 
on which site Buck & Rayner expect to erect a 16-story build- 
ing next year. The plans for this new structure are well 
under way. 

The firm of John Wyeth S: Brother, Inc., of Philadelphia, 
has been incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois. 
The capital stock is $4,000,000, of which $50,000 is in the 
State of Illinois. This step was necessary, according to Harry 
C. Trumbower, secretary and treasurer of the company, to 
make it possible for the company to open a distributing station 
in that State. Preparations are being made by the concern to 
open similar stations in other States. 

The Riker-Jaynes Co. opened its new store in Lewiston, 
Me., Dec. 19. with a beautiful sanitary soda fountain, humidors 
for the display and storage of cigars and tobacco, a modern 
brine ice-cream freezing apparatus, gas kettles, fruit-paring 
and crushing machines, etc. The store includes a sick-room 
supply department. The new store occupies all the street 
floor of the Lewiston Journal building except the corridor, 
and a similar space in the basement. 



Josepli R. Methudy and associates have leased a store room 
in the corridor of the Pierce building, St. Louis, for a drug 
store. Methudy has a drug store at Russell and California 
avenues. The Pierce building is a 17-story building covering 
half of a block and connected with the Merchants' Exchange, 
which occupies the other half of the same block, and is 
opposite the Planters Hotel. This would seem to insure the 
corridor store success. 

The wholesale chemical and drug business of C. H. Talcott 
& Co., of Hartford, Conn., has been incorporated under the 
name of the Talcott Company. Several old employees of the 
house have become stockholders and officers of the new com- 
pany, and Frederick F. Small, who has bought an interest, is 
president and treasurer. The business is one of the oldest 
mercantile concerns in Hartford, having been established in 
1851. 

The officials of the Churchill Drug Co., of Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, gave a complimentary banquet to its employees at the 
Commercial Club in that city recently. This company began 
business 11 years ago with a force of less than six ' men. 
There were 50 present at the banquet. The banquet was the 
culmination of a series of educational talks and tests Prof. 
Daniel Sloan has been carrying on in the interests of efficiency. 

The Ganby-Walters Co. have gone to Jacksonville, Fla., to 
engage in the manufacture of proprietary medicines, extracts 
and pharmaceutical preparations. They will manufacture for 
the jobbing trade and will do business strictly with the job- 
bers. H. C. Schrader, one of the largest fruit shippers in that 
section of Florida, is president of the concern, and the manage- 
ment is in the hands of E. H. Anderson. 

Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, were hosts recently to 30 
students of the pharmacy department of the Un'vcrsity of 
Wisconsin, Madison. The students were entertained at 
luncheon at the company's plant, at a theater party, and finally 
at a banquet in the evening at the Claypool Hotel, where 
Charles J. Lynn, vice-president and general manager of the 
company, presided. 

Growing and marketing of ginseng is to be undertaken by 
the Ladoga Ginseng Gardens, Ladoga, Ind., just organized 
and incorporated with a capital stock of $6000. The growing 
of ginseng has been accomplished very successfully in some 
parts of Indiana. Those interested in the new project are 
George W. .Anderson. R. A. Allison and Frank Quinley. 

Woodall & Sheppard, druggists, of Charlotte, N. C, have 
announced their retirement from the drug business. They 
operate one of the finest stores in the State, but their lease 
expires Feb. 1, and so far they have been unable to secure a 
satisfactory location and have deemed it best to retire from 
business altogether. 

The Cincinnati Economy Drug Co., wholesale drug house at 
Canal and Walnut streets, Cincinnati, have leased the building 
at 917-921 Main street to obtain larger quarters. The build- 
ing consists of a basement, fdur floors containing 21,000 square 
feet, and it was ready for occupancy the middle of December. 

The Sheffield Dentifrice Co. and the New England Col- 
lapsible Tube Co. have plans for a large addition to their 
factory which will replace their storehouse recently burned. 
It is understood that the work will be begun at New London 
in the Spring. 

E. H. Rau, a well-known druggist at Wheeling, W. Va., will 
make extensive improvements to his large store early this year. 
The "new" pharmacy is to be fitted up with a 25-foot soda 
fountain of latest type and a 17-foot cigar case. Partitions 
are to be razed between two storerooms to provide increased 
space. 

A wholesale drug business will be conducted at Evansville, 
Ind., by the Evansville Wholesale Drug Co., which has been 
organized and incorporated with $25,000 capital. Those in- 
terested in the company are W. P. Woods, E. J. Laval and 
V. .'\lexander. 

Ross, the druggist, at 9th and Vine streets, Cincinnati, for 
a quarter of a century, has closed a deal for the store at the 
southwest corner of 9th and Walnut streets, and occupied the 
new location last month. 

Grnnt Hemphill, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Frank Loming, 
nf Rising Sun. Ind., have purchased the drug store of J. P. 
Hemphill, of Rising Sun. The new firm will be known as 
Lorning & Hemphill. 

The Mentholatum Co., headquarters of which are at 
Wichita, Kan., have occupied a new $22,000 plant at Bridge- 
burg, Ontario, where this jjreparation will be manufactured. 



3S 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



Drug Law s and Rulings 



Tennessee's New Anti-Narcotic Law. — What is said 
;o be the most stringent anti-narcotic law in the Union goes 
into effect in Tennessee on Jan. 1. It has been drafted to 
stop the indiscriminate sale of liabit-forming and narcotic 
drugs and provides that no such drugs or their derivatives 
shall be sold except on the prescription of a reputable phy- 
sician, and that the order must be filled on the day of its 
issuance. Druggists are also required to keep a record of all 
sales. A section of the law, which forbids druggists to keep 
on hand more than five ounces of morphine is attacked as 
unconstitutional.. A section of the bill forbids the sale of 
medicines — except for external use — when they contain more 
than a specified amount of any narcotic; in the case of mor- 
phine one-fourth of a grain to tlie ounce (av.). In order 
to check the sale of morphine by itinerant peddlers the pos- 
session of any of the narcotics named or their derivatives is 
held prima facie evidence of the violation of the law. 

Sold Oil in a Fruit Jar .A Champaign (111.) druggist has 

paid a fine of SIO for selling gasoline in an unlawful recep- 
tacle. He had filled a fruit jar for a boy. The law requires 
that all gasoline receptacles shall be labeled in red with letters 
not less than one-half inch in height. 

To Test Validity of the Sunday Law — The retail 
druggists of Selma, Ala., have employed counsel and will fight 
the State law which prohibits the sale of anything else than 
drugs on Sunday. The druggists are to keep open on Sunday, 
as usual, and will sell cigars, soda water, etc. They declare 
that they will refuse to sell medicine if forced to close. 

Druggists Allowed Minimum Amount of Alcohol — 
Gov. Cruce, of Oklahoma, has given instructions to a State 
bonded warehouse for the distribution of alcohol that no drug- 
gist shall be sold more than 10 gallons during a month, 
and not to exceed 100 gallons during any one year. The 
Governor is convinced that alcohol being sold by the State 
under the prohibition law for pharmaceutical and scientific 
uses is being employed in the manufacture of tinctures and 
other products that are intoxicating. Up till this ruling there 
has been no limit to the amount of alcohol a druggist could 
purchase. 

Sulphate of Iron Buling Questioned — Representatives 
of the American Steel and Wire Co. have protested to the 
Iowa State Board of Pharmacy against a recent ruling of the 
board concerning sulphate of iron. The board notified lumber 
yards and hardware stores throughout the State that they must 
not sell this product, which is a by-product of the Steel 
company's business. As the board interprets the law no one 
but a pharmacist can sell sulphate of iron; while the steel 
corporation men declare that it is used extensively as a 
remedy, especially for hog cholera, and it is unjust to confine 
its sale to druggists. 

No More Liquor Sales on Sunday — Druggists of Kala- 
mazoo have decided to sell no more liquor on Sunday. The 
action was taken voluntarily because of the large number of 
offenders appearing in court, and confessing that they obtained 
their liquor in drug stores. 

Illicit Stores Under Ban in Bay State — Under the 
new pharmacy law in Massachusetts any place at which drugs 
of any sort can be purchased comes under the jurisdiction of 
the State Board of Pharmacy, and a wholesale clean-out of 
"shady" places is anticipated this month. 

War on Drug Store Bars at Kansas City — Police 
Commissioner Reynolds, of Kansas City, Mo., has inaugurated 
a campaign for the enforcement of the law against drug stores 
selling intoxicants for other than medicinal purposes. 

New Drug Store Kules in Massachusetts — Under the 
new drug law in Massachusetts no store can be kept open for 
the transaction of a retail drug business unless it is registered 
with and has a permit issued by the State Board of Pharmacy ; a 
fee of §1 is required. In applying for store registration, the 
storekeeper is required to answer several questions. Among 
them are the location of the store, the name or title under 
which business is to be conducted, and the owner of 
the store. If the store is opened by an individual the name 
must be stated. In case of a partnership, the firm name 
must be given, the names of partners who are registered phar- 



macists, and partners who are not registered, names of part- 
ners actively engaged in the business, the date when the part- 
nership was formed and if there are unregistered partners, the 
date when each became partner. A statute enacted in 1908 
provides that no unregistered partner shall be actively engaged 
in the dinig business. The name of the registered owner or 
partner which appears on signs and labels must be included 
in the answers and the names of the clerks who are regis- 
tered pharmacists, as well as the names of clerks who hold 
certificates as' assistant registered pharmacists. The applica- 
tions may be signed by an individual owner, or if partnership, 
by any registered partner, and must be sworn to before a 
justice of the peace. 

Life-long Registration for Pharmacists. — The Ohio 
State Pharmaceutical Association has begun a State-wide 
campaign for a law providing that pharmacists be registered 
for life instead of for three years, as at present. Such a law 
would place them on the same plane as physicians in regard 
to registration, they assert. Hundreds of blank petitions have 
been mailed to every pharmacist in the State. These will be 
signed and returned to officers of the association, who will 
ask the general assembly to pass such a law. Members of the 
State pharmaceutical association who are active in the cam- 
paign are E. W. Harrington, Columbus, drug inspector; C. D. 
Keel and H. W. Cotner. 

Codeine Held Alkaloid of Opium The Board of U.S. 

General Appraisers has handed down a decision that codeine is 
properly classified as an alkaloid of opium, thereby sustaining 
the action of the collector of the port of New York and over- 
ruling the protests of Merck & Company and Gustav Martin. 
Codeine pays duty under paragraph 43, tariff act of 1897, and 
paragraph 41, tariff act of 1909, as an alkaloid of opium 
whether manufactured from opium or synthetically from mor- 
phia. The same classification holds under the tariff act of 1913. 



N.Y. POLICE MAY SOLVE SUNDAY CLOSING. 



Business Men Complain to Commissioner 'Waldo 
Against Sale of General Merchandise on Sahbath. 

TH.-\T the local authorities may solve the problem of Sun- 
day closing now confronting the druggists of New York 
City was evinced by the recent reports that Police Com- 
missioner Waldo had assured various business men that orders 
would be issued to drug companies confining them to the 
drug business on Sunday. The Commissioner has received a 
number of complaints against the sale on Sunday of general 
merchandise by drug stores. The complaining dealers argued 
that the competition was unfair and could not be met because 
they were obliged to keep their stores closed. 

Alfred H. Cosden, vice-president of the Riker-Hegeman 
Company, and Joseph B. Greenhut, of the Greenhut-Siegel 
Company, are quoted on the situation, the former having 
asserted that "our Sunday business is now conducted at a loss 
and we would be glad to be permitted to close down entirely 
on Sunday. The stores are kept open on Sunday solely for the 
convenience of the public. We have received no intimation 
from Mr. Waldo that an attempt is to be made to restrict the 
character of the business we do on Sunday, although I have 
heard that complaints have been made to him on the subject." 

Mr. Greenhut is quoted as saying; 

"There is no question that drug stores ought to open on 
Sundays for the filling of prescriptions, selling of medicine 
or any other emergency necessity; but when it comes to sell- 
ing everything else except wearing apparel it is unfair com- 
petition. We have no criticism to make of the drug stores 
selling everything they can through the week. But when it 
comes to continuing daily trade seven days and nights a 
week it is a far different matter. 

"We also find no fault with the small drug store keepers 
of outlying sections who sell a few outside things like candies, 
because that is sometimes a convenience to their usual patrons. 
But when the large places become practically department stores 
seven days a week we feel that we are not getting a square 
deal. 

"We have a large drug store with a prescription department 
and we might with just as much propriety as the regular drug 
stores keep the entire store open on Sundays so persons might 
enter the drug department. We do not feel that this would 
be right." 



January, 1911] 



THE PHAR]MACEUTICAL ERA 



39 



LABEL LACKS ACETANILIDE STATEMENT. 



Headache Tablets Contained Less Than Stated Quan- 
tity — Cottonseed Oil in Olive Oils. 

WASHINGTON, Dec. 20.— The Department of Agricul- 
ture has given public notice of judgments 2567 to 2626, 
imposed by the courts m cases brougnt by the United 
States involving violation of the food and Drugs Act, most of 
them relating to misbrundnig or adulteration. 

A line ot $1U and costs was imposed upon Allaire, Wood- 
ward i; Co. (.inc.), Peoria, 111., for the shipment in interstate 
traffic of a quantity of headaclie tablets whicn were misbranded. 
The label read; "Headache Tab.ets Contains Acetanilide 3 
grains. Never fail to lie.p all kinds of headache. Relief 
prompt and pleasant. Produce no nausea . . . Direc- 
tions for use: Dose one tablet. Repeat the dose once an hour 
until relieved. . . . Peoria Pharmacal Co., Peoria, 111." 
Each tablet contained only 2.594 grains of acetanilide. Fur- 
ther, the quantity or proportion of acetanilide per ounce as 
required by Regulation No. 30 of the Rules and Regulations 
for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act was not 
stated. The acetanilide declaration was in type smaller than 
8 point (brevier) capitals, contrary to Regulation 17, para- 
graph c, of said rules and regulations. 

Judgment of condemnation and forfeiture was entered against 
three barrels of so-called olive oil remaining unsold at Boston, 
Mass., and alleged to have been shipped by Natale Licata, 
New York, and transported in interstate traffic. Product was 
adulterated. It was labeled: "N.L. — 78 — New York — V. 
Cuilla, Boston, Mass." Cottonseed oil had been mixed and packed 
with product. It was ordered sold after label had been made to 
read: "Olive oil and cottonseed oil." The same adulterant was 
used to the extent of 60 per cent, in an olive oil shipment made 
by Louis Scianamea, New York. Court in this case suspended 
sentence. 

A fine of $100 was imposed against the above defendant for 
shipping so-called olive oil which was adulterated and mis- 
branded, the adulterant being 62 per cent, of cottonseed oil. 
Product was labeled: "Olio Puro E Garantito di Fontanarosa 
Italy. Olio D'Oliva Sopraffino Di Fontanarosa Avellino Italy. 
Mike De Feo Sole Agent for the U.S. of America. Schenec- 
tady, N. Y." It was an .American product. 

A fine of $15 was imposed upon Stefano CrisafuIIi, Joseph 
Crisafulli, and Carmolo Arria, co-partners, doing business 
under the firm name of Crisafulli, Arria & Co., New York, for 
shipping "Prodotti-Italiana Pure Lucca Olive Oil Olio d'Oliva 
Sublime Extra B.B. & Co. B. Bartolini & Co. Lucca, Toscana, 
Product of Italy. Pure Olive Oil for medicinal and table uses. 
Non plus ultra. We guarantee this Olive Oil to be absolutely 
pure under chemical analysis and of the finest quality, B. Bar- 
tolini & Co. Registered." It consisted of approximately 60 
per cent, cottonseed oil, and was not an imported product. 



FAULTY INSECTICIDE LABELS INCUR FINES. 



Some Products Lack in Essential Ingredients, Weigh 
Less Than as Stated, Contain Water, Etc. 

Washington, Dec. 20. — Public notice has been made of the 
judgments which are briefly abstracted in the following text, 
and which involve violation of the Insecticide Act of 1910: 

A fine of $200 was imposed on the James A. Blanchard Co., 
St. Joseph, Mich., for shipment into Nebraska of misbranded 
lead arsenate; for shipment into Iowa of misbranded Paris 
green; and for shipment into Iowa of lead arsenate which was . 
adulterated and misbranded. The lead arsenate shipped into 
Nebraska bore a label which falsely stated that it contained 15 
per cent, arsenic oxide. Despite label statement each package 
of Paris green contained less than one pound net. Label 
statement on third shipment falsely claimed soluble arsenic 
oxide less than 75/100 of 1 per cent. 

The Blumaker-Frank Drug Co., of Portland, Ore., was fined 
$100 for shipping misbranded "Whale Oil Soap," label on 
which product falsely stated "This so?p is highly and univer- 
sally esteemed as a destroyer of moths, worms, lice and all 
insects that infest plants, shrubs and trees, it also operates as 
a fertilizer to the plant or tree." The name and percentage 
of water, an inert substance which was present, was not stated, 
nor in lieu thereof were the names and percentage amounts 
of the active ingredients and the total percentage of the inert 
ingredient stated. Product was further misbranded because 
the label bore the statement, "Put up by Blumaker-Frank 



Drug Company, Wholesale Importing and Manufacturing 
Druggists, Portland, Oregon," whereas the product was in fact 
put up by Fisher-'l horsen & Co., Portland. 

A fine of $5U was imposed on the Formacone Co., Newark, 
N. J., for shipment to Washington, D. C, of an article called 
"Sanoc," which was misbranded. Circular statement, which 
follows, was misleading: 

"Sanoc is a powerful disinfectant, being superior to carbolic 
acid on account of being non-caustic, non-poisonous, and more 
economical. . . . One ounce ot Sanoc to a gallon of water makes 
a powerlul disinfectant and antiseptic and will destroy all 
germs and odors at once. . 

Water, and the percentage of this inert ingredient, were not 
stated, nor were the names and percentages of each ingredient 
having tnsecticidal or fungicidal properties and the total per- 
centage of the inert ingredient stated on the label. 

The Western Chemical Co., New York, was fined $50 for 
shipping "The Great Western Bug Extermmator," which was 
misbranded in that label claimed product would kill or destroy 
roaches and that it was not poisonous and not inflammable. 
The two samples analyzed differed in composition, one being 
a carbolic preparation and poisonous. It would not kill or 
destroy roaches and consisted partially of water, this ingredient 
and these having active insecticidal properties not being men- 
tioned. The other specimen contained nitrobenzene and a 
mineral oil and was poisonous and inflammable. 

The C. G. Belts Co., Spokane, Wash., was fined $25 and 
costs for the shipment of "Inlaid Lime-Sulphur Spray," which 
consisted partially of water, the name and percentage amount 
of which was not stated. The names of the ingredients having 
insecticidal or fungicidal properties were not given. 

A fine of $25 was imposed on the Hood River Spray Manu- 
facturing Co., Oregon, for shipment into Washington of 
"Nigara Spray," which consisted partially of water and relative 
to which inert ingredient the required statement was not made. 

J. C. Pierson, New York, was fined $25 for shipment into 
Colorado of "Stott's Fir Tree Oil Soap." Misbranding was 
alleged because the product was manufactured by the Thomp- 
son Carbolic Soap Co. Further, because, contrary to label 
statement, it was not effective for killing San Jose scale or 
for killing aphis and all insects that infest plants. The state- 
ment on the label that it contained 85 per cent, of soap was 
also discovered to be untrue. Product also contained water. 

William Branson, Bloomington, III., was fined $25 for ship- 
ping to California an insecticide known as "Insectonos," which 
product, contrary to label claim, was not effective to exter- 
minate red spiders. It was further misbranded in that the 
article consisted partially of charcoal, name and percentage of 
which inert ingredient was not stated, nor in lieu thereof were 
the names and percentage amounts of each ingredient having 
insecticidal and fungicidal properties and the total percentage 
of the inert ingredient stated on the label. 

Peter, Thomas and Andrew Kerr, co-partners, doing busi- 
ness as Kerr, Gifford & Co., Portland, Ore,, were fined $25 
for the shipment of "Hemingway's Pure Lead Arsenate," 
which was adulterated and misbranded. Contrary to label 
statement, the substance consisted of more than 50 per cent, 
water, less than 15 per cent, arsenic oxide, less than 32 per 
cent. lead oxide and each package contained less than "2 
pounds net." 

A fine of $10 and costs was imposed on the Sherwin- 
Williams Co., of Kansas City, Mo., for shipment into Kansas 
of a quantity of Paris green, each package of which, contrary 
to label statement, contained less than one pound. 

The Grasselli Chemical Co., of New Orleans, was fined $10 
and costs for shipping adulterated and misbranded arsenate of 
lead paste, adulterated because it contained more than the 50 
pe»' cent, water allowed by law and the excess water was not 
declared. Product was misbranded because the label mislead- 
ingly claimed a water content of not over 50 per cent., claimed 
15 per cent, arsenic oxide, and claimed the contents of the 
package as one pound. 

The Sanitas Co., New York City, was fined $10 for shipping 
"Sanitas," which was misbranded. Contrary to label statement, 
product possessed only weak germicidal and disinfectant prop- 
erties and did not generate o.xygen. It was misbranded also 
because it consisted partially of water, and the proper label 
statements required were not made. 

The Dr. David Roberts Veterinary Co., of Waukesha, Wis., 
was fined $10 for shipping "Dr. David Roberts Disinfectall 
for Dipping Livestock. To Prevent Disease and Kill Para- 



40 



THE PHARAIACEUTIC^Uj ERA 



[January, 1914 



sites," the packages of which contained less than one gallon, 
as stated on the label. The claims that tlie product was in- 
\-aluable for destroying mange and all parasites of live stock 
were not true. 

William McCann, of Minneapolis, Minn., was fined $10 for 
shipment of "Security Carbolized Disinfectant," which consisted 
partially of water, relative to which inert ingredient proper 
label statements were not made. 

George E. Littlefield, Cambridge, Mass., trading as the 
Sterling Chemical Co., entered a plea of nolo contendere to an 
information alleging the sliipment oi a product called "Crcolu- 
sol," which was misbranded in that the label misleadingly 
stated that it was non-poisonous and perfectly harmless to 
animals and tlie contents of the cans amounted to one quart. 
Product also consisted partially of water and the proper label 
statements were not made. 

The defendant having entered a plea of non vult, the court 
suspended sentence in a case against William H. Rust, New 
Brunswick, N. J., charged with the shipment of a quantity 
of "Rusoline," which was misbranded. Each can, contrary to 
label statement, contained less than one quart. 

A decree of condemnation, by default, was entered against 
five cases of lead arsenate libeled at Jacksonville, Fla. Pack- 
ages were labeled: "Hemingway's 1 lb. Net 1 lb. Net Pure 
Lead Arsenate. Hemingway's London Purple Co. I-d. New 
York and London. . . . .(Analysis: Arsenic O.xide, 15%, 
Lead O.xide, about 32%, W'ater, 50%. Soluble Arsenic under 
54%. Hemingway's Lead Arsenate conforms to the require- 
ments of official entomologists and agriculturists, and to the 
provisions of the Federal laws." Product was adulterated and 
misbranded because it contained more than SO per cent, of 
water, and in that the content of the packages was less than 
one pound on a 50 per cent, water basis. 



Legal Tolerances for Commercial Drug- 
gists' Weights. 

In the November Bulletin of the State Superintendent of 

Weights and Measures, F. Reichmann, Ph.D., appears this 
official table of tolerances for commercial druggists' weights, 
as follows: 

Troy Tolerances Weight Tolerances 

Ounces : Kilograms : 

12 4.00 gr. 10 2000 mg. 

10 ". 4.00 5 1500 

8 3.00 2 800 

5 3.00 1 500 

4 2.00 Grams: 

s"" 2.00 500 350 

2 2.00 200 200 

1 1.00 100 ISO 

Drachms: 50 100 

8 1.00 20 SO 

6 1.00 10 40 

4 0.70 5 20 

3 0.60 2 15 

2 0.50 1 10 

1 0.30 Milligram : 

Scruples: 500 6 

3 0.30 200 6 

2 0.30 100 2.5 

1 0.15 50 2.0 

Grain: 

20 0.15 

15 0.15 

10 0.10 

5 0.08 

2 0.05 

1 0.03 

PTJBE FOOD LAW 50 PER CENT. EFFICIENT. 



Education of Manufacturers Advocated Before Na- 
tional Civic Federation — Few Deliberate Frauds. 
The National Civic Federation held its annual meeting at 
the Hotel Astor, Dec. 11 to 13. President Jnmcs L. Wallis, 
of the National Association of Food and Dairy Officials, pre- 
sented a paper in which he confessed the inefficient execution 
of the National Pure Food and Drugs Act and the State laws. 
He regarded them as only SO per cent, efficient. This state of 



affairs was due to ignorance. Educational methods should be 
employed. It did not suffice to inform the people of the 
frauds consummated by the manuiacturer, the best work of 
education should be devoted to the manufacturer and dealer. 
Only 10 per cent, of the violations of the law were violations 
due to deliberate fraud. Ninety per cent, arose from ignorance 
and carelessness. 

The speaker did not consider the penalties heavy enough to 
deter the manufacturers who deliberately defrauded the con- 
sumer. The object of all pure food and drug laws is to obtain, 
quickly, a perfection of supply. This end might be obtained 
soonest by educating manufacturers and dealers, most of whom 
are honest. Mr. Wallis also contended that there should be 
but one organization for all the health activities of the Federal 
government. The States should have similar organizations. 
Further, "the States sliould endow the Federal inspectors with 
State power and the Stale inspectors should be endowed with 
Federal powers, so that each might have the authority of the 
other, and tliere should be no sanctuary of safety for the 
adulterator. When a city or a State laboratory has work to do 
in a city where the Federal government has a laboratory, that 
work should be done in the Federal laboratory." 

Other speakers were Dr. A. D. Melvin, of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry ; Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, and Charles Wesley 
Dunn, author of Dunn's Pure Food Manual. Seth Low was 
re-elected president, and Samuel Gompers, vice-president, of 
the Federation. 



ESSENTIAL OIL FIRMS SEEK TARIFF RULING. 



From Temporary Organization With Christian Beil- 
stein as Chairman — Oppose Sandalwood Duty. 

In order to take concerted action toward securing a ruling 
from the Treasury Department officials on the interpretation 
of paragraph 49 of the Underwood-Simmons tariff act relating 
to perfumery and raw materials, the leading crude drug im- 
porters and manufacturers of essential oils recently met at the 
Drug and Chemical Club. Those present had learned that the 
custom officials at the port of New York proposed to assess 
a 20 per cent, duty on sandalwood. This product they con- 
sidered not dutiable under the new tariff, sandalwood and orris 
root, crude drugs, not being dutiable under the provisions of 
the free list. They should therefore not be dutiable under 
paragraph 49 of the tariff act embracing perfumery raw 
materials. 

Christian Beilstein, secretary of Dodge & Olcott, wholesale 
drug dealers, 87 Fulton street, was elected chairman of a 
temporary organization to take the matter in charge. An early 
ruling will be called for from the Treasury Department 
officials. It was shown at the initial meeting that sandalwood 
and orris root are put through a special process before they 
may be classified as perfumery raw materials. Fully 90 per 
cent, of the tw^o products, it was stated, are used in the drug 
manufacturing business. 



BOARD OP HEALTH ADOPTS MERCURY LAW. 



New York Pharmacists Must Sell Only "Colored Tab- 
lets Individually Wrapped" — Glass Container. 

By resolution, the local Department of Health, of which 
Dr. Ernst J. Lederle is the head, adopted the following amend- 
ment to the Sanitary Code, which is to be known as 67a, and 
will take effect March 1, 1914: 

Whereas, Bichloride of mercury, otherwise corrosive 
sublimate, a poison, has frequently been taken by 
mistake and loss of life has resulted therefrom, there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That the sanitary code be and the same is 
hereby amended by the adoption of an additional 
section to be known as section 67a, to take effect 
March 1, 1914, and to read as follows: 

"67a. Bichloride of mercury, otherwise known as cor- 
rosive sublimate, shall not be held, kept, sold or offered for 
sale at retail in the dry form except in colored tablets 
individually wrapped, the wrapper to have the word 
'POISON' in plain letters conspicuously placed, and dis- 
pensed in sealed containers of glass, conspicuously labeled 
with the word 'POISON' in red letters. 

"This section docs not apply to tablets containing I.'IO 
of a grain or less of bichloride of mercury." 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



41 



How Septorin Tablets Are Introduced. 
The Septorin Drug Co., tf Baltimore, a $100,000 concern, 
is putting on the market a new internal antiseptic and laxative. 
The preparation is put up in 10-, 25- and 50-cent. packages, 
and the equipment includes packages, cartons, counter display 
stand, etc. The newspaper advertising is done sectionally, and 
prior to its appearance every druggist in the territory in which 




the advertisements appeared was sent by parcel post a metal 
display stand containing half a dozen small-size packages of 
the tablets. These were sent with the compliments of the 
makers, and insured distribution in every drug store in the 
territory mentioned. When the advertising began in this 
Eastern territory every retail druggist had the stand — a cut 
of which appears herewith — on his counter, and the amount 
of the sales was very gratifying to both the druggists and the 
manufacturers. 



Endorsement of the Mulford Products. 

An emphatic endorsement of the competence and skill shown 
by the H. K. Mulford Co., and the products of their manu- 
facture, is furnished by the report of Dr. W. A. Puckner, 
director of the chemical laboratory of the American Medical 
Association, published in the Journal of the A.M.A. of Sept. 
13, 1913. This report covers an investigation of a number of 
products furnished by 20 different manufacturers, an attempt 
being made to summarize and classify the results in various 
ways. The preparations examined consisted of such pharma- 
ceuticals as hypodermic tablets of morphine sulphate, tablets 
of potassium iodide, solution of potassium arsenite, fiuid- 
extracts of hydrastis, digitalis, etc., the standard of those 
named, with the exception of fluidextract of digitalis, being 
definhely fixed either by the Pharmacopoeia or the manu- 
facturer's claim. The digitalis samples were examined for 
Dr. Puckner by Dr. R. A. Hatcher with the result, that of 
the 19 fluidextracts under investigation, the fluidextract of 
digitalis of the H. K. Mulford Co. fully represented a digitalis 
of good quality, and that the next in value only possessed 
65.8 per cent, of the strength of the Mulford preparation. 
The other 18 fluidextracts of digitalis ranged from 65.8 per 
cent, down to a minimum of 29.25 per cent. The fact that 
the l^ulford preparation attained first place in this examina- 
tion is evidence that this company is doing its best to furnish 
standard pharmaceuticals. 



foreign commerce. The company had been putting out a 
high quality line of molded water bottles, syringes, ice caps, 
etc., under the name of "Crest." About a year after the line 
was issued it was learned that an Eastern concern, by right 
of prior usage, had pre-empted the name, although the name 
itself had not been registered. The Goodrich company at once 
issued the line under the name "Maxiraerit," but this con- 
flicted with some other trade designation, and the word 
"Endure" was fixed upon. Again it was found that another 
firm had prior rights, although the name was not registered. 
The initials "B.F.G." of the company have now been taken 
as a final choice. The "B.F.G." will appear in monogram 
form on medallion and label on all the goods of this line, 
which is claimed to be unusually excellent in quality, of 
attractive appearance, leakproof construction, and "wears like 
leather" in service. 




MURRAY'S 




The B. F. Goodrich Co. and Trade-marks. 
The B. F. Goodrich Co., makers of rubber goods of every 
description, are advocating — as a result of recent experiences — 
compulsory registration of all trade-marks used in interstate or 



A New Package and An Old Friend. 

The old-time charcoal wagon, which appears on the label 
of the handsome metal box in which Murray's Charcoal Tab- 
lets are now sold, is the only thing old-fashioned about the 
tablets unless it is their high 
quality. The new-style pack- 
age protects the tablet from 
moisture and impurities, and 
economical methods of manu- 
facture enable the proprietor 
to give a much larger pack- 
age than previously sold at 
retail for 25 cents. 

To meet the demand for a 
10-cent article a smaller pack- 
age is now put up in the same 
style, containing about one- 
third the quantity of the 
larger size. 

Every druggist knows the 
value of charcoal in various 
digestive troubles — for many 
years nothing but powdered 
charcoal, which is not soluble 
in water, untidy and difficult 
to swallow, could be had, but 
the introduction of Murray's 

Charcoal Tablets by A. J. Ditman, druggist. New York, solved 
the problem and the public appreciated their convenience. 

Lilly Gets the New Lloyd Reagent. 

Eli Lilly & Co. have acquired the sole privilege of making 
and marketing the alkaloidal reagent known as "Lloyd's Re- 
agent," a form of hydrous aluminum silicate perfected by John 
Uri Lloyd, of Cincinnati. They have also acquired the right 
to manufacture all commercial products, medicinal or other- 
wise, in which the trade-mark term "Alcresta" is used. As 
the reagent has become commonly known as "Lloyd's Reagent," 
that term 'in connection with the scientific name "Hydrous 
Aluminum Silicate" will be hereafter accepted as the name of 
the reagent itself, which will be so labeled, "Alcresta" being 
the trade-mark term. At the October meeting of the Chicago 
Branch, A.Ph.A., the principal topic of discussion was 
"alcresta," Prof. A. H. Clark demonstrating its properties. An 
extended report of the demonstration and ensuing discussion 
appeared on page 611 of the December Era. 

New Preparations from Wilford Hall Laboratories. 
According to Adolph Bakst, general representative of Wil- 
ford Hall Laboratories, who has just returned from a trip to 
the Pacific Coast, and New York manager A. H. Higbie, busi- 
ness is good in both sections, while the Coast expects a boom 
within the next two years. The Wilford Hall Laboratories 
have recently placed on the market two new preparations, 
the Tak-a-way Headache Bandage which by mere outward 
application is claimed to do the work of depressing remedies; 
and the "Little First Aid Packet," a miniature surgical dress- 
ing for cuts which takes the place of the old-fashioned court 
plaster. 

Prevention of Bichloride Poisoning. 
The Wm. S. Merrell Chemical .Company has introduced an 
antiseptic to take the place of bichloride of mercury tablets. 
This Antiseptic Leaf consists of a thick, bibulous paper, in 



42 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



which has been absorbed the same quantity of bichloride mix- 
ture as is contained in the tablet. One of these leaves added 
to a pint of water makes a solution 1-1000. This form of 
product is so distinct that there would be no danger of its 
being mistaken for a medicinal preparation and the body being 
an insoluble, non-edible material, it cannot be eaten, even if 
the attempt were made. Antiseptic Leaves are put _up in 
convenient packages of 25 — wrapped in self-sealing water- 
proof paper and packed in a carton with complete label and 
directions for making a solution of various strengths. They 
are sold at the usual Merrell discount. 



Nifty-Nibbs, a Real Candy Cathartic. 
The advertisement of the Therapeutic Specialty Co., mak- 
ers of Nifty-Xibbs, in this issue is a striking example of trade 
journal publicity and in keeping with the sales campaign now 
being carried on by this concern. A chocolate-covered con- 
fection, each cream containing a teaspoonful of pure castor 
oil, the best-known la.xative, Nifty-Nibbs neither taste nor 
smell of the oil, thus making them particularly effective with 
children. This preparation is sold so that the druggist makes 
75 cents profit on an investment of $1.20, and a handsome 
12-package counter display case minimizes the salesmanship 
required to make Nifty-Nibbs a "quick-seller." See advertise- 
ment and coupon for further details. 



"1914 Model" Guarantee Iceless Fountains. 
Beauty and durability have been successfully combined in 
the 1914 model of the Guarantee Iceless soda fountain, which 
is announced through their distributors. These makers were 
among the first to appreciate the desirability of stainless, non- 
absorbent opal glass in such construction, and have utilized 
this material to striking advantage in their new "Crvstal King" 
■outfit, in which the pure white stainless opal is combined with 
heav>- German silver, silver oak, and just enough color in the 
electric light fi-xtures, art gl^ss, verde marble and pilasters to 
give the apparatus "life." Prospctive soda-fountain purchasers 
are invited to send their names to the Fountain Specialty Co. 
for use on the new mailing lists. 



'•Clearance Sales" Without Cutting Prices. 
The Brenard Mfg. Co. are advertising elsewhere in this i.ssue 
a business-getting method which is strongly endorsed by a 
number of users, two drug companies being quoted in their 
advertisement. By the use of their plan they claim it is pos- 
sible for a druggist to hold the largest clearance sale in his 
history without reducing his regular prices one cent. This 
system goes to but one druggist in a community, and all in- 
terested are requested to either write or telegraph at once, 
as the Brenard Co. will close the deal with the first merchant 
who wishes it in any city or town. See their advertisement for 
further details. 



Big Offer in Cold Tablets. 
M this season of the year particularly druggists are making 
money by pushing cold tablets, either under their own name 
or some special preparation. There is always satisfaction in 
being able to push a good cold tablet with your own name on 
the label, and there is usually more money return than from 
handling a proprietary preparation. Druggists interested in 
this specialty are requested to write to D. C. Leo & Co., 
whose advertisement appears elsewhere, for samples and for 
their "big offer" on Formula D. cold tablets, mentioning the 
Era. 



Ten-Cent Tablets of Good Bond Paper. 
The Western Tablet Co. are offering elsewhere in this issue 
a line of 10-cent tablets of Hammermill bond, a widely adver- 
tised writing paper, with envelopes to match, and are making 
a special introductory offer to dealers of a neat carton con- 
taining a special assortment of tablets and envelopes, together 
*ith window cards, counter signs. 500 advertising circulars and 
a book of 500 se'ling ideas. This is called the "Show Me 
S0% Profit Assortment," because it gives the dealer $6.80 
return on an S8 investment. See their advertisement for fur- 
ther details. 



Distinction in Store Fixtures. 

The Wilmarth line of store fi.rtures, made by the Wilmarth 

Show Case Co., of Grand Rapids, Mich., is well known to 

•druggists the country over ?s uniting utility with taste and 

■with that "snap" and 'ndividualitv which make a store dis- 



tinctive. Druggists needing store equipment (or who may be 
thinking of such improvements) are requested to write this 
company for literature on drug-store fi.\tures. They are built 
for druggists wishing the "best possible" and not the "least 
investment." 



Now the Smith-Faus Drug Co. 
The name of the Smith-Bailey Drug Co., wholesale drug- 
gists of Salt Lake City, Utah, has been changed to the Smith- 
Faus Drug Co., the officers of the new company, as well as 
the stockholders, remaining unchanged, as follows: President, 
E. C. Smith; vice-president and manager, C. A. Faus; Paul 
Franke, secretar>- ; L. M. Smith, director, and H. S. Highett, 
treasurer. Mr. Faus succeeded Mr. Bailey in the firm about 
three years ago, but for business reasons no change was made 
in the style of the firm at that time. 



Customers' Personal Letter Plan. 
The Bauer Chemical Co., handlers of Sanatogen, the "food- 
tonic," are utilizing in connection with their sales campaign a 
series of sales helps for the benefit of the druggists handling 
this preparation. These are planned to connect the retail 
store with this company's general advertising. Druggists 
handling Sanatogen, or intending to do so, are requested to 
write for a complete display, prepaid, and also for the "Cus- 
tomers' Personal Letter Plan." 



Guilbert Winchell New Liquid Manager at Boston. 
One of the best liked young men in the local soda-fountain 
field, Guilbert Winchell, was recently made manager of the 
Liquid Carbonic Company's Boston branch, 136 Broadway, 
Cambridge, Mass. Mr. \Vinchell has had considerable expe- 
rience as salesman, office manager and sales manager in the 
company's New York branch and is well equipped for his 
new position. 

New Quarters for Canadian H. W. Johns-Manville 
Company, Ltd. 
The Toronto branch of the Canadian H. W. Johns-Manville 
Co., Ltd., announces its removal to more spacious quarters at 
No. 19 Front street. East. This new store and warehouse has 
a floor area cf appro.ximately 35,000 sq. ft. and is situated 
in the heart of the wholesale district. 



Calendars and Educational Charts. 
The druggist who wishes a maximum of advertising return 
from calendars is invited by the Grand Rapids Stationery Co. 
to get in touch with them in regard to their calendar and 
educational chart which they term "one of the most important 
factors in advertising today." In writing for sample and 
prices please mention the Era. 



Price List for Phenalgin. 
A new advertisement appearing in this issue is that of the 
Etna Chemical Co., featuring Phenalgin, a "dependable 
analgesic." This advertisement gives the price in powder, 2J^ 
and 5-grain tablets and 5-grain pink-top capsules. For trade 
discounts, etc., write the manufacturers. 



BUSINESS TROUBLES. 



Albert C. Richards, Bowling Green, Ohio; voluntary peti- 
tion; debts, $5229.96; assets, $4014.02. (Modem Drug Store.) 

A. F. Miller, druggist, Coalmont, Ind. ; receiver appointed. 

James & Nelson, Jackson, Tenn. ; liabilities, about $6000; 
assets between $2000 and $3000. 

Charles B. George, Lawrence, Ind.; voliuitary petition; lia- 
bilities, $3537.45; assets, $3123.50. 

W. E. Green, Northampton, ilass. ; creditors' petition. 

William M. DeLay, Dugger, Ind.; liabilities, $3583.43; as- 
sets, $2391.86. 

Halden & Floyd, Waterloo, Iowa; receiver appointed. (Two 
stcres.) ti 

J. D. Magee Drug Co., Abilene, Texas; liabilities $78,151.78; 
assets, $79,274.04. 

Higginson Drug Co., Wichita, Kan.; store and stock sold by 
receiver. 

Mickelson-Shapiro Co.. vermin poison manufacturers; re- 
ceiver appointed. Firm in business in Minneapolis. 

Bartlett J. Smith, druggist, 1960 Seventh avenue. New York; 
receiver appointed. 

C. L. Nixon. Tchula, Miss.; voluntary petition. 



Jaxu.vry, 1914] 



THE PELAEllACEUTICAL ERA 



43 




PATI 




POISON BOTTLE. 



New Attachment Planned to Prevent Accidental 
Poisoning Through Careless Selection of Container. 

THE recent agitation, following a number of deaths due to 
accidental poisoning, has suggested to various inventors 
the desirability of containers for poisons that would 
serve to call the attention of dispensers and consumers to the 
character of the toxic substances they were handling. A new 
device of this character, the invention of Axel L. Larsen, St. 




Paul, Minn. (Patent No. 1,080,464), is an alarm for poison 
bottles comprising an elastic attaching member, an arm se- 
cured to and extending from the attaching member, a bell 
secured to one terminal of the arm, a rubber element depending 
from the arm and located within the bell, and a metallic sound- 
ing object carried by said element. When the bottle is opened, 
an alarm is sounded on the bell. 



Soluble Capsule for Medicine. 
.\ novel feature is presented in a capsule for medicine, the 

invention of Montague 
Pollock, New York, N. Y. 
(Patent No. 1,079,438). 
The capsule, which is 
soluble, consists of two 
parts, one part telescop- 
ing over a portion of the 
other, and having inter- 
engaging notches in the 
parts whereby the parts 
are not permitted to separate when once the capsule has been 
assembled. A reproduction of the capsule is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. 




/'^79.^3B 



Combination Ice Bag, Water Bottle and Fountain 
Syringe. 

Charles J. Barrenpohl, of New York, has devised a com- 
bination apparatus which can be utilized for any of the pur- 
poses 'named in the above title (Patent No. 1,079,203). It 
cons'^ of the combination of a container having a mouth 
fitted^ith a screw-threaded collar and closure means therefor, 
the closure including a cap screw threaded into the collar 
and having an opening therethrough and a plug having 
a plurality of shanks adapted to co-operate in said cap, 
opening with the plug on either the inside or outside of said 
cap. One of the shanks is solid, while the other is provided 
with a central bore, the latter also including a nipple on the 
side opposite the shank having the bore and through which 
the bore extends. 



PATENTS. 



Granted November 18, 1913. 

1,078,607 — Amos Calleson, assignor to Benjamin Adriance, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. Bottle sealing machine. 

1,078,691— Frank G. Perkins, deceased. Lansdale, Pa., et al, as- 
signor to Perkins Glue Co. Vegetable glue. 

1,078,723 — Frank Dodge, assignor to Frederic R. Sawyer, Maiden, 
Mass., and Arthur E. Coffin, Newton, Mass. Labeling machine. 

1.078,737— John Letora, Tuolumne, Cal. Non-refillable bottle. 

1,078,893— Charles Francis Allen, New Brighton, N. Y. Process of 
producing tannin and the product. 

1,079.074— William B. Thompson, Chicago, 111. Bottle closure or 
seal. 

1,079,158— Richard C. Beatty, Buffalo, N. Y. Display device for 
bottles and analogous articles. 

1,079,192— Charles N. Sowden, Guantanamo, Cuba. Bottle holder. 

1,079,203 — Charles J. Barrenpohl, New York. Combined ice bag, 
water bottle and fountain syringe. 

1,079,238 — Charles Hammer, assignor to American Metal Cap Co., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Bottle cap or seal. 

1,079.246— Josef Houben, assignor to The Firm of J. D. Riedel 
Aktiengesellschaft. Berlin-Britz, Germany. Process for the 
manufacture of nitroso derivatives of phenyl-glycin-ortho-car- 
boxylic acid. 

1,079,295— Joseph V. Irenius and Clayton B. Weaver. Newark, N. J. 
Bottle handling mechanism. 

Granted November 25, 1913. 

1,079,387— William J. Beisel, Brooklyn, N. Y. Non-refillable bottle. 
1,079.403 — Louis J. Crecelius, assignor to Charles A. Thompson, St. 

Louis. Mo. Refillable bottle. 
1,079,438 — Montague Pollock. New York. Capsule for medicine. 
1,079,527— Edward Moore Wallace, New Orleans, La. Bag closure 

and carrier. 
1,079,541— Emil Collet, assignor to Norsk Hydro-EIektrisk Kvael- 

stofaktieselskab, Christiania. Nor\vay. 
1,079.618— John H. Trayne. assignor to Elma Mfg. Co., Groton, 

Mass. Toothbrush holder. 
1,079.693— Alex. B. Davis, assignor to Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, 

Ind. Mercury compounds and processes of producing same. 
1.079,705 — Faustin Hlavati, Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Process for 

synthetically preparing ammonia and other compounds con- 
taining nitrogen and hydrogen. 
1,079.916— August Jonas and Eduard Tschunker, assignors to Farben- 

fabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Elberfeld, Germany. 

Process of producing pinacones. 

Granted December 2, 1913. 

1,079,974— John E. Bucher, Coventry, R. I. Method of producing 
alkali metals. 

1,080,015— Clarence J. Lawson, Yonkers, N. Y. Machine for making 
bottle-caps. 

1,080.066— Herbert L. Johnston, assignor to The Hobart Electric 
Mfg. Co., Troy, Ohio. Refining machine for coffee and the like. 

1,080,070— Leopold Mambourg, assignor to the Sanitary Nursing 
Bottle Co., Columbus. Ohio. Nursing bottle. 

1,080.100— Arthur Cohn. Neukolin, near Berlin, Germany. Process- 
for the manufacture of lacquers and varnishes. 

1,080,141- Charles W. De Lanev, Hammond. Ind. Label moistener. 

1,080,293— Burris M. Morton, Koshkonong, Mo. Bottle. 

1,080,311— Augustus C. Watts, assignor of one-half to .Andrew Win- 
ter and Frank Oestreicher and one-half to Williard B. For- 
svthe, Columbus. Ohio. Non-refillable bottle. 

1.080 '318— Tohn Behringer, Chicago, 111. Non-refillable bottle. 

1,080.331— Elena Mavolini de Valdes, New York. Bottle stopper. 

1,080,464— Axel L. Larsen, St. Paul, Minn. Poison bottle. 
Granted December 9, 1913. 

1,080.633— Svlvester B. Husch and George S. Husch, New York, 
N. Y. Tooth brush. 

1,080,63-1 — Same as preceding. 

1,080.659— Charles F. Schuh, assignor to Robert J. Wilkie, Saugus, 
Mass. Stopper for hot-water bottles. 

1,080.747— Thomas J. Buckley, New Brunswick, N. J. Metal con- 
tainer. 

1.080.835— George T. Kelly, .'Vttleboro, Mass. Atomizer. 

1,080,891- Joseph P. Carson, Chesterfield, Va. Stopper for closing 
and sealing bottles. 

1,080.085— George F. Barlow, East Long Meadow, Mass. Bottle 
stopper. 

1,081.107— Francis A. Freeth, Great Crosby, and Herbert E. Cock- 
sedge, London. England. Process of making ammonium nitrate 
bv the ammonia-soda process. 

1,081.156— .John Sharp, assignor of one-half to Clifford A. Greenleaf, 
San Bernardino. Cal. Lock seal bottle. 

1.0S1.17S— Robert Werner. Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, Germany. 
Strontium salt of cholic acid. 

1,081.276 — Benjamin F. A. Saylor. assignor by mesne assignments 
to Standard Turpentine and Wood Pulp Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Process for extracting turpentine and rosin from wood. 

Carbolic Salve. 

Petrolatum 16 ounces 

Yellow wax 1 J4 ounces 

Camphor 1 ounce 

Oil of sassafras 30 drops 



44 



THE PHAR]\L\CEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



The Era Course in Pharmacy 

Information for Era Course Students 



The En Coarse In Pharmacy li a syitematlc home-study courie, 
designed to give a theoretical and working knowledge ot Phar- 
macy, and intended especially for young men and women who 
cannot attend a college. It ii divided into ten Parts and 58 Lec- 
tures; it can be completed in a year or less, depending on the 
experience ot the Student; its cost is merely nominal. A com- 
plete Prospectus can be had by addressing 

Director, liR.^ CoiRSE LX I'H.VRMACY, 

c/o D. O. Haynes &■ Co., 
No. 3 P.\RK Place, New York. 



EQUATION WRITING (Continued). 



WHEN chlorine gas is passed into a hot and concentrated 
solution of potassium hydroxide, we know tliat both 
potassium chloride and chlorate are formed. In the 
former the valence of the chlorine atom is supposed to 
be — 1. as we saw last month. In the latter the valence of 
the chlorine is 5 ; it is joined to three negative oxygen atoms, 
so that one of their negative bonds is left over, to unite with 
the positive potassium atom. The chlorine in the free state 
has a valence of zero. Hence part of it has its valence 
lowered by 1, while another part has its valence raised from 
to 5. Consequently, we must take five atoms of chlorine 
for the o.^idation, and another atom for the reduction, or six 
in all. As each molecule of the salts that are formed con- 
tains one atom of potassium to each chlorine atom, six atoms 
of potassium are needed, which means that six molecules of 
potassium hydroxide are required. As five of the CI atoms 
are reduced, in order to oxidize the other CI atom, these five 
atoms must form the chloride, and hence we get five mole- 
cu'es of that salt. .-Mso, one molecule of potassium chlorate 
will be formed. The remaining atoms are H and O, which 
form e.xactly three molecules of water. The completed equa- 
tion is therefore 

6KOH-i-6CI=5KCH-KC103+3H-0. 

Another instructive example is that of the oxidation of 
arsenous acid or arsenites, to arsenic acid or its salts, by 
means of iodine. This reaction takes place during the assay 
of Fowler's Solution, when the so'ution of arsenous acid in a 
weak a'koli is titrated with the volumetric solution of iodine. 
In As-Oj, the .\s has a valence of 3, obviously. In As-Oj, the 
valence is plainly 5. Hence, two bonds are gained by the 
arsenic atom, or four bonds are gained by the two atoms in 
the molecule. The iodine changes to hydriodic acid, and 
therefore has its valence changed from to — 1. The arsenic 
therefore gains four bonds, or charges, whi'e the iodine loses 
one. Hence we must take four atoms of iodine to each mole- 
cule of arsenous acid (.AsjOj). Water enters into the reaction 
also. We can, for simplicity's sake, consider the reaction as 
producing merely the anhydride of arsenic acid, instead of the 
acid itself. The equation then is written at once: 
AsjO, + 41 -I- 2H.O =As,Os + 4HI. 

Another reaction of great practical importance is that between 
potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide. Here we 
have a peculiar change, in that the oxygen itself is oxidized. 
In hydrogen peroxide the two oxygen atoms are regarded as 
joined by a single valence, just as the two carbon atoms are 
joined in ethane. Two bonds are thus left, which are united 
to the two hydrogen atoms. During the reaction the oxygen 
is set free, and bubbles off in gaseous form. In this state it 
has a valence of 0; hence each pair of oxygen atoms gains a 
total of two bonds. In potassium permanganate the manganese 
has a valence of 7, and during the reaction is reduced to 
manganese sulphate, MnSO„ the manganese thus losing 5 
bonds. According to our rule, we must take five molecules 
of peroxide, with two molecules of permanganate, in order to 
balance the equation. Now if these two substances are allowed 
to react alone, the reaction does not go to completion. Oxides 
of manganese are formed, which are insolub'e in water, and 
the reaction stops. In order to utilize all the oxidizing power 
of the permanganate, it is necessary to remove these oxides as 
fast as they are formed, which can be done by adding sul- 
phuric acid. ^Mien this is present the reaction proceeds 
smoothly, and a colorless solution results. Let us see how 



nmcli sulphuric acid is needed. Two molecules of potassium 
permanganate contain two potassium atoms, which require one 
molecule of sulphuric acid. In addition, the two manganese 
atoms require one molecule each, as they are bivalent in the 
sulphate. This makes three molecules of sulphuric acid in all. 
The oxygen of the permanganate forms water with the hydro- 
gen atoms present, of which there will be 16, 10 from the 
peroxide and 6 from the acid. Hence the complete equation is 
2KMnO. + 5H,0. + 3H-SO.= K^SO. + 2MnSO. -t- SH^O + 50j. 
The equation balances perfectly, all the atoms being accounted 
for. 

These examples suffice to show the application of the simple 
rule we have given in these pages. It is only necessary to 
ascertain what valence changes take place in the oxidized and 
reduced atoms, and then use a number of atoms of the oxidized 
substance, equal to the charges lost by the reduced substance, 
and vice versa, use a number of atoms of the reduced sub- 
stance, equal to the number of charges gained by the oxidized 
substance. By holding fast to this rule, the student will always 
be able to think his way through equations which seem very 
, complicated at first. 



Matriculation Graduates to Dec. 19, 1913. Graduating 
Number. Average. 

7785— Henry Topp, Norfolk Navy Yard, Va 96 

7786— Bridges Blalock, Coleman, Fla 87 



Used Era Course Only, Passed State Board. 

"Am pleased to advise that I passed the Iowa State Board 
of Pharmacy on November 19. While I have only sent in 
my answers to the first three Parts, I had gone through the 
entire set, which took me just five weeks, studying evenings 
only, which was the only available time which I had. 

"Your Course is the only books which were used, outside 
of a quiz compend, and was also the only studying I had ever 
done to prepare myself for a pharmacy examination. 

"Will certainly recommend the Course to anyone wishing 
to prepare himself for a State Board Examination, and for 
myself cannot give it enough praise." — E. T. Sickel, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

"I find that the Era Course in Pharmacy is the best and 
cheapest study for a student who would like to learn phar- 
macy at home." — W. F. Hasek, Cleveland, Ohio. 
For Men in the Navy. 

"The Er.\ Course has certainly proved beneficial to me in 
my examination for Hospital Steward, U.S.N., and I cheer- 
fully recommend it to all who have an upward grade to climb." 
— Henry Topp, Norfolk, Yn. 



The Era Course Takes Men Through Examinations. 

"Since I took up the Era Course in Pharmacy with you 
I have taken the examination for Hospital Steward, U.S.N., 
successfully passed and received my appointment for same, 
and have been ordered to this station. I know I have not 
given the Course the proper study in this space of time, but 
I wish to say that in all the text-books and periodicals that 
I have studied and read, I have not found one to be so com- 
plete in every detail for the average man who has a desire to 
take an examination in a short space of time, either for 
militarv' or civil employment, as the Er.a Course in Pharmacy." 
— ROBT. T. Halley, Hospital Steward, U.S.N., Bremerton, 
Wash. 

"I wish to advise you that I was successful in passing the 
Alabama State Board of Pharmacy at their last meeting, which 
was held Oct. 13-14, 1913. I took your Course last year. 
I thank you again for your assistance." — MuRR.\Y F. Hoover, 
Gainesville, Fla. 



Violin Vai^ish. 

Coarsely powdered glass 1 ounce 

Coarsely powdered copal 1 ounce 

Camphor 60 grains 

Mastiche 60 grains 

Canada balsam 60 grains 

Strong methylated spirit 5 fl. ounces 

Warm gently, and agitate well until dissolved: then let stand 
for several days, until the supernatant liquid is quite clear, 
then decant. The glass is added to carry down mechanically 
any impurities in the resins. 



January, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



45 




ADVANCE IN QUININE THE EEATUKE. 



Marked Decline in Prices for Menthol — Following 

Season's Lessening- Demands, Citric Acid 

Quotably Lower. 

See pages 26 to 40 for Prices Current. 
Changes SnsrcE Last Report. 

A — Acetone, Pure C.P. medicinal lb. .35 — .40 

A— Acid, Acetic, U.S. P., 36% lb. .10 — .13 

C.P., Glacial, 99>4%...lb. .27 — .30 

D— Acid, Carbolic, Crystal, bulk lb. .10 — .12 

10 & 5-lb. cans.Ib. .12 — .14 

Crude, 10-95% gal. .20 — .90 

D— Acid, Citric, Crystals (Kegs) lb. — .48 

(Less) lb. .54 — .58 

Granulated lb. .55 — .59 

Powdered lb. .57 — .61 

D— Acid, Gallic oz. .10 — .12 

D— Angelica Seed lb. .45 — .50 

A— Arnica Flowers lb. .25 — .28 

Powdered lb. .32 — .35 

D— Balsam Fir, Canada lb. 1.25 — 1.35 

Oregon lb. .25 — .30 

D— Balsam Tolu lb. .60 — .75 

D — Benzoin, Sumatra lb. .50 — .55 

Powdered lb. .60 — .65 

D— Cacao Butter, Bulk lb. .45 — .52 

D— Calendula Flowers lb. .50 — .55 

A — Cardamom Seed, Powdered lb. 1.60 — 1.70 

A — Chrysarobin oz. .24 — .28 

A — Codeine oz. 6.10 — 6.65 

Phosphate oz. 5.70 — 6.10 

Sulphate '. ..oz. 5.85 — 6.45 

D— Cokhicum Root lb. .20 — .23 

Powdered lb. .25 — .28 

A— Colchicum Seed lb. .26 — .28 

Powdered lb. .34 — .36 

A — Creosote, Beechwood lb. .75 — 1.55 

A— Cubebs, Powdered ^_^. . lb. .60 — .65 

A— Ergot lb. .85 — 1.20 

Powdered lb. .95 — 1 .45 

D — Hexamethylamine lb. — ■ .95 

D — Homatropine, Alkaloid gr. .22 — .26 

Hydrobromide gr. .17 — .28 

Hydrochloride gr. .22 — .28 

Salicylate nnd Sulphate.gr. .22 — .28 

D — Hydrogen Peroxide Solution, Technical. lb. .12 — .18 

D— Ipecac Root, Carthagena 'b. 2.00 — 2,20 

Powdered lb. 2.20 — 2.35 

A — Iron Citrate and Ammonia, Soluble. .. .lb. .73 — .86 

D— Menthol, Crystals lb. 3.90 — 4.05 

oz. .30 — .35 

A — Morphine Acetate, J^-oz. vials oz. 5.20 — 5.50 

Alkaloid, Pure, '/^-oz. vials.. oz. 6.30 — 6.50 

Hydrobromide, Yn-oz. vials.. oz. 6 00 — 6 25 

Hydrochloride, J^-oz. vials.. oz. 5.20 — 5.50 

Sulphate, 1-oz. vials oz. 5.00 — ■ 5.10 

\4,-07.. vials oz. 5.20 — 5,50 

Valerate, ^-oz. vials oz. 6.80 — 7.00 

D— Oil Lemon lb. 3.80 — 4.00 

D— Oil Orange, Sweet lb. 4.00 — 4.20 

A— Orris Root, Florentine lb. .27 — .30 

Se'ect Finger lb. .90 — 2.00 

A — Quinine Sulphate, 100-oz. tins oz. 26 — .26'/2 

10 and S-oz. tins..oz. .28 — .31 

1-oz. vials oz. .33 — .35 

D— Resorcin, Pure White lb. 1.05 — 1.15 

D— Rhubarb, Cnnton lb. .40 — AS 

Powdered lb. .45 — .55 

Powdered Extra, Tins 'b. .85 — .90 

A — Rose Leaves, Pale lb. ,85 — .90 

Red lb. 1..TO — 1.40 

A — Sarsaparilla, Root, Mexican, Cut lb. .40 — .45 

Powdered, lb. .45 — .50 

A— Tamarinds kegs 3.25 — 3.50 



A— Thymol lb. 2.35 — 2.40 

A — Wormseed, Levant (Santonica) lb. .50 — .55 

Powdered., lb. .55 — .60 

NOTE — A, advanced; D, declined; C, correction; N, new. 



NEW YORK, Dec. 23. — Quiet conditions have prevailed 
in the drug market since our last report, dealers cur- 
tailing their purchases as much as possible in antici- 
pation of the usual yearly inventory, the demand being limited 
to moderate quantities to meet current requirements. Business 
has also felt the uncertainties of national legislation, and more 
especially the outcome of the currency measure following so 
closely the passage of the tariff law. The list of changes in 
prices shows slower quotations for many commodities, with not 
a few advances for some staples. Opium is without change, 
but prices are well maintained. Morphine and codeine have 
been advanced 25 cents per ounce, owing to the upturn recently 
in basic material. Carbolic acid, all grades, is slightly lower. 
Quinine is firm, and has been advanced 3 cents an ounce by 
.American and German manufacturers. Citric acid is lower. 
Ergot is slightly advanced in price, following cable reports of 
a bare market in producing regions. Mexican sarsaparilla, 
owing to the great difficulty of obtaining supplies, is higher. 
Balsam of fir, Canada and Oregon, are considerably lower, 
while menthol has taken a decided slump, quotations being 
quite in contrast with prices obtaining several weeks ago. 
Rose leaves, both pale and red, have moved upward, and 
Florentine orris root is very iirm, reflecting bullish market 
advices from abroad and diminished stocks here. Levant 
wormseed is materially higher and stocks greatly depleted. 
Arnica flowers are in fair demand and higher. 

Opium — Has been extremely quiet, but prices in all in- 
stances have been well maintained. Natural is quoted at 
$6.25@.$6.50 per pound and granulated and U.S. P. powdered 
at $8@$8.20 per pound. Latest cables from Smyrna report 
arrivals there to date as 3912 cases as compared with 1973 
cases for the corresponding period last year. 

Quinine — Is considerably higher, .American and German 
manufacturers announcing an advance of 3 cents per ounce to 
the basis of 26 cents per ounce in 100-ounce tins. Higher 
values on this article are largely due to the fact that the yield 
of quinine sulphate in the 11,011 packages of cinchona bark 
sold at auction in London on Dec. 10 was only 5.76 per cent, 
against 6.13 per cent, in the amount sold in November. Ship- 
ments of the bark for 11 months ended with November were 
17.57,8.000 Dutch pounds, against 15,004,000 in 1912, 15,427,000 
in 1911 and 16,684,000 in 1910. 

Citric Acid — Has been reduced in reflection of the restricted 
demand now coming forward. Jobbers quote 48 cents per 
pound for kegs, and 54fn)S8 cents for less; granulated, 55@59 
cents, and powdered, 57@61 cents. 

Morphine — Has been advanced by manufacturers and is 
held very firmly at the following quotations; acetate, V^-oz. 
vials, per ounce, $5.20fa)$5.50; alkaloids, '^^-oz. vials, $6.30(?g 
$6.50; hydrobromide. '4-oz. vials, $6@.?6.25 ; hydrochloride, Vs.- 
oz. vials, $5.20fni$5.50; sulphate, per ounce, .f5@$5.10 and in 
i/^-oz. vials, ?5.20@$5.50; valerate, i/^-oz. vials, .f6,80(a'$7.00 
per ounce. 

Codeine — Similar conditions prevail with this article, quo- 
tations showing an advance in price to $6.10((!)$6.65 ; phos- 
phate. .$5.70@S6.10, and sulphate, $5.85rt?$6.45 per ounce. 

Menthol — Considerable competition is in evidence not only 
in the local market, but at primary centers, and quotations 
have declined to $3.90(«)$4,05 per pound for crystals, and 30(^ 
35 cents per ounce. Offerings are reported to be very heavy. 

Sarsaparhia Root — The market for ;Mexican retains a very 
firm tone, owing to the great difficultv in obtaining supplies 
from the country of production which is in the throes of 
revolution. Cut root is he'd at 4n(ff'45 cents per pound, and 
powdered at 45@50 cents. 

Balsam Fie — A decline is noted for both C.''nada and 
Oregon, the former being quoted at $1.25@$1.35 per pound, 
and the latter at 25fS35 cents per pound. 

CuBEB B rries — .^re meeting with a fair demand, hut stocks 



46 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1914 



are apparently light and the market firm. Powdered berries 
have been advanced to b0(«;65 cents per pound. 

BvcHU Leaves — Short are meeting witli a somewhat better 
inquiry, the demand having been stimulated to some extent by 
the increase of tariff on the collection of leaves in South Africa 
which is reported to go into effect on January 1. Jobbers' 
quotations in this market are unchanged. 

Ergot — Russian for sliipment is cabled higher abroad. Col- 
lectors in the producing regions report a bare market for the 
time being. Revised quotations for all grades show a range of 
85c.@$1.20 per pound for whole, and 95c.@?1.45 for powdered. 

Rose Leaves — Both pale and red varieties have continued 
to move upward, owing to an unusual demand due to the 
fact that the Government has imposed a duty of 20 per cent., 
and dealers now quote 85@90 cents per pound for pale, and 
$L30@$1.40 for red. 

Bais.\m Tolv — Is lower under increased supplies and keener 
competition, and jobbers have reduced prices to 60@7S cents 
per pound. 

Arxica FiowERS — Are reported higher abroad and the mar- 
ket here is much firmer in tone, whole leaves being quoted at 
25@2S cents per pound, and powdered, 32@35 cents. 

Lavender P'lowers — Are firmer owing to an intimation that 
the custom authorities will impose a duty of 20 per cent, in 
the future. It is said that several lots are now being held up 
in the appraisers' stores and that importers can only remove 
the goods by paying duty which, however, is done only under 
protest. 

On, Lemon — Following a falling off in demand for this oil 
and a further weakening of the primary markets in Sicily, 
jobbers have reduced prices to $3.80@$4 per pound. 

On, Orange — Sweet is slightly easier, reflecting keener com- 
petition among holders who are anxious to realize. Jobbers 
have marked down prices to $4@$4.20 per pound. 

Orris Root — Florentine is strong and higher, reflecting bul- 
lish market advices from abroad and administered stocks here, 
and the further report that the Government intimates that an 
import duty of 20 per cent, is likely to be placed on this 
article. This variety is quoted at 27@30 cents per pound, 
while select fingers range from 90c.@$2 per pound. 

WoRiiSEED — Levant (Santonica) is materially higher, stocks 
being greatly depleted and the market here almost bare, w^ith 
quotations at S0@55 cents per pound for whole, and 55@60 
cents per pound for powdered. 

COLCHICUM Seei>^Is firmer; stocks in some quarters have 
become diminished, and whole seed is quoted at 26@2S cents 
per pound; powdered, 34@36 cents. 

CoLCHicuM Root — In contradistinction to the seed, colchi- 
cum root has been marked down, present quotations being 20@ 
23 cents per pound for whole, and 2S@28 cents for powdered. 

Acetone — Pure C.P. "medicinal" is higher, 35@40 cents per 
pound being asked. 

Carbolic Acid — Has been reduced to 10@12 cents per pound 
for crystal in bulk, and 12@14 cents per pound for 10- and 5- 
Ib. cans. Crude acid, 10 to 95 per cent., is quoted at 20@90 
cents per gallon. There is an exceedingly active market in 
this commodity, and keen competition is given as the reason 
for the reduction in prices. 

Tamarinds — Continue to be very firmly maintained on the 
basis of ?3.25@$3.50 per keg. 

HoMATROPiNE — Revision of prices for this alkaloid and its 
salts show a lower range in quotations, as follows : Alkaloid, 
22(a'26 cents per grain; hydrobromide, 17@28 cents per grain; 
hydrochloride, 22@28 cents per grain; salicylate and sulphate, 
22(5)2S cents per grain. 

Resorcin — Pure white is lower, $1.0S@$1.1S per pound be- 
ing quoted. 



Publications Received. 



From the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories, 
London, England : The Identity of Trimethylhistidine (Histi- 
dine-Betaine) from various sources, by George Barger, M.A., 
D.Sc, and Arthur James Ewins, B.Sc. ; A Modification of 
Diphtheria Antitoxin, by A. T. Glenny, B.Sc; The Use of 
Litmus Paper as a Quantitative Indicator of Reactions, by 
G. S. Walpole, D.Sc, F.I.C.; On the Action of Ergotine with 
Special Reference to the Existence of Sympathetic Indicators, 
by H. H. Dale. M.A., M.D.; The Effect of Varying Tonicity 
on the Anaphylactic and other Reactiors of Plain Muscle, by 
H. H. Dale, M.A., M.D.; Gas Electrode for General Use, by 



G. S. Walpole, D.Sc, F.I.C.; Some Examples of the Effect 
of Asymmetric Nitrogen Atoms on Physiological Activity, by 
P. P. Laidlaw, M.A., B.C.; The Rate of Reproduction of 
Various Constituents of the Blood of an Immunized Horse 
after a large Bleeding, by R. A. O'Brien, M.D. 

\V. S. Hubbard, Ann Arbor, Mich. : Secret Remedies, Nos- 
trums and Fakes (Reprint from 15th Report of Michigan 
Academy of Science). 

Proceedings: Georgia Pharmaceutical Association, 38th 
annual meeting held at Columbus, June 10-11, 1913; Kansas 
I'liarmaceutxal Association, 34th annual meeting held at 
Lawrence, May 27-29, 1913; Kentucky Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, 36th annual meeting held at Mammoth Cave, June 
17-19, 1913; Maryland Pharmaceutical Association, 31st an- 
nual meeting held at Ocean City, June 24-27, 1913; New York 
State Pharmaceutical Association, 3Sth annual meeting held 
at Calskill Mountain House, June 24-27, 1913; Design Regis- 
tration Convention of Manufacturers, Merchants, Importers, 
Designers and Trade Associations, held at Hotel .\stor. New 
York, under the joint auspices of the National Registration 
League and the committee representing the Federation of 
Trade Press .Associations. 

Reports: North Carolina Board of Pharmacy, year ending 
May 31, 1913, and Missouri Board of Pharmacy, for the fiscal 
year ending July 31, 1913. .•Vccording to these reports North 
Carolina has 897 registered pharmacists, of whom 42 are 
colored, and 95 registered practicing physicians living in towns 
of not more than 500 inhabitants, to whom permits have been 
granted to conduct drug stores. Missouri has about 5200 
registered pharmacists and 175 registered assistants. The 
total disbursements for the year were $6,614.41, and the cash 
balance on hand in the State Treasury and credited to the 
board on August 1 was $4,805.16. 



The October, 1913, issue of Schimmel's Report (Fritzsche 
Brothers), Miltitz, near Leipzig, Germany, on essential oils, 
synthetic perfumes, etc., is fully up to the standard of previous 
numbers of this valuable publication and should be read by 
all those interested in the production, examination and com- 
mercial exploitation of these interesting products. The report 
covers a review of the commercial conditions existing in the 
various countries with reference to the essential oil industry, 
commercial notes and scientific information concerning new 
essential oils, pharmacopoeias, chemical preparations and drugs, 
and many notes on recent research work. This number of 
the Report is embellished by full-page plates showing two 
views of thyme oil distillation in Spain and a view of the 
Mjltitz rose fields at harvest time, the last-named being a 
reproduction in colors. 



RECENT FIRES. 



Willow, Okla., B. H. Moss drug store; loss $3000; insurance 
$1500. 

Winnipeg, Man., Poyntz' drug store. 

Stockville, Neb., H. J. Logan drug store; loss total. 

Caddo Mills, Tex., G. G. Barnes drug store; loss heavy. 

New York, Beck & Goulka drug store, 65 Carmine street ; 
loss $1000. 

Joaquin, Tex., E. A. Russing Drug Co.; loss heavy. 

Cleveland, Ohio, L. Harold, drug store, 5641 Broadway; 
loss slight. 

Freeport, III., C. P. Guenther 8z Co.; loss heavy. 

Louisville, Ky., B. G. Roadcao & Co., druggists; loss ex- 
ceeding $5000. 

Warren, Pa., Reynolds drug store; loss $20,000. 

Tower Hill, III., Schueler's drug store: loss $1000. 

Red Rock, Okla., Lovelady & Eankston pharmacy ; loss, 
heavy. 

Argentine, S. D., Hartz drug store: total. 

Mobile, Ala., E. A. Peterson drug store; loss $2500. 

Phenix, R. I., Himes building and drug store; loss $5000. 

Richmond, Mo., J. A. McCown drug store; loss total. 

Fall River, Mass., Wm. M. Dedrick drug store; loss heavy. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Vandyck drug store; loss heavy. 

Millett, Tex., P. E. Kenneli drug store; loss $6000; insur- 
ance $2000. 

Chula, Ga., W. E. Tyson, drug store,; loss $300; Chula 
Drug Co., $3000; no insurance. 

Ross, N. D., Dougherty's drug store; loss total. 

Stockville, Neb., Logan drug store; loss total; insurance- 
small. 



' ■^\} _ "f ^ '" '_ " ' ^^"' l-TT TXT ITt rH 111 111 t i l IW ~TT^ lii iii > " ' ■ ' _1 1 1 — I ■ I 

.^^.==.= ...=^ =.....:. "■ ESTABLISHED 1887 iJM^^^^^s^ 




THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 




PUBLICATION FOR THE DRUG TR4DE 



Vol. XL VII 



Xew York, February, 1914 



No. 2 



D. O. Havnes & Co. . . . Publishers 
No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Telephone, 7646 Barclay. Cable Address, "Era, New York." 



The Pharmaceutical Era cokpe^^sation psb injured wobkmen. 

PUBLISHED OX THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH DRUGGISTS and manufacturers of pharmaceuti- 

caLs, toilet goods, medicines and chemicals are 
directly affected by the new workmen's compensa- 
tion law of New York State which becomes effec- 
tive July 1. Under its provisions employers are 
held responsible for certain monetary damages, 
established at fixed sums by the act, to all injured 
employees in certain enumerated "hazardous em- 
ployments" — the list including: 

Group 25 — ^Manufacture of explosives and dangerous chemi- 
cals, corrosive acids or salts, ammonia, gasoline, petroleum, 
petroleum products, celluloid, gas, charcoal, artificial ice, gun 
1 owder or ammunition. 

Group 2S — ^Manufacture of drugs and chemicals, not speci- 
; ed in group 25, medicines, dyes, extracts, pharmaceutical or 
lo.let preparations, soaps, candles, perfumes, non-corrosive 
acids or chemical preparations, fertilizers, including garbage 
cisposal plants, shoe blacking or polish. 

Included among the other groups are the majority of occu- 
pations in which death or injuries are not uncommon, in- 
cluding printing in all its branches, canning, baking, metal 
and g ass work, all more or less connected with the drug 
industry. 

Since the publication of the provisions of this 
law the question has been raised by many retail 
druggists as to whether or not the prescription 
laboratorj- in a retail drug store is. in the sense 
of the law, a manufactory of pharmaceutical and 
toilet preparations, with the consequent result that 
the employer to come within the law must take out 
liability iasuranee upon all his employees, whether 
they ever visit this prescription department or not. 

Another question, of direct importance to phar- 
maceutical manufacturers and wholesale houses 
operating their own printing plants, relates to the 
liability of emploj-ers for accidents to emplo.yees of 
other departments who should chance to be injured 
in laboratory or printing plants. 

For the benefit of the druggists of New York 
State the Era has been in communication with 
attorneys and counsellors who have made more or 
less a study of the new law, and presents the fol- 
lowing information as authoritative: 

Through the provisions of this law the employer may pro- 
vide for possible damages to any one of his employees by 
taking out a policy -in a casualty insurance company; by par- 
ticipating in the State insurance fund — according to regula- 
tions yet to be made by the State commission yet to be 
appointed; or by furnishing bond as to his financial responsi- 
bility to meet such obligations should they fall due. 



Subscription Rates: 

single Copies, IS cents. 
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PRICES INCLUDE POSTAGE AND PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

REMIT by P.O. or Express Order or New York Draft payable 
to order of D. O. Haynes & Co. Add 10 cents for collection charges 
if you send local check. 

Published at No. 3 Park Place, Borough of Manhattan, New 
York, by D. O. Haynes & Co., a corporation: President and treas- 
urer, D. O. Haynes; vice-president, E. J. Kennedy; secretary, 
N. W. Haynes. Address of Officers is No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Entered at the New York Fost-ofnce as Second-c.ass Hatter. 

Copyright, 1914, by D. O. Haynes &■ Co. All rights reserved. 

Title regi.^tered in the United States Patent Office. 

Table of Contents. 

RE.A.DING SECTION. 

EDiroRLVL .1XD Ph.\rii.\ceuticai, Pages 47-62 

Editorials 47-50 

Correspondence 50 

Twenty-five Years in Pharmacy, by Louis K. Liggett. 51-52 
Efficiency in Food and Drug Control, by Hon. James 

H. Wallis . .^. 53-54 

Classical Discoveries in Pharmacj' — The First Glucoside 54 

The Curse of the Retail Drug Trade 55 

Selected Formulas 56 

Foreign ."Abstracts 57-58 

Question Box 59-60 

Women in Pharmacy 61-62 

Is^E \vs SEcnox Pages 63-78 

Mostly Personal 63-66 

Obituaries 66-67 

Among the Associations 68-75 

Schools and Colleges 77 

Board Examinations 78 

Trade Section Pages 79-94 

Recent Patents and Trade-marks 91-92 

The Drug Markets , 93-94 

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Page 55 

INDEX TO GOODS .\DVERTISED Pages 53-54 

INDEX TO RE.\DING P.\GES Page 56 



48 



THE rUAK.MACEUTICAL ERA 



[February. 1914 



The scope of the provisions of the law and the extent to 
which they apply to the various trades and occupations specified 
in the group classification under the law has yet to be de- 
termined by the State commission, and by the courts. (The 
fact that this law is absolutely new and that no precedents 
exist in the court records of this State, renders any decisive 
opinion as to its scope without weight, until the court shall 
have decided in test cases. The New York State law is a 
composite measure, with a number of the provisions of a 
similar act in Germany and also provisions taken from the 
English act, neither of which have legal weight in this 
country.) 

Lawyers disagree as to the scope of this law, some holding 
that the phraseology is broad enough to cover any possible 
contingency as to injuries received while in the employ of any 
manufacturer engaged in the so-called "hazardous" occupations. 
Others hold that the law will be interpreted almost literally, 
and that the provisions will not apply to any employee in- 
jured unless such injuries shall have been received in the 
pursuit of his lifework — his daily occupation — which comes 
under the category of hazardous pursuits. In other words, 
the consensus of legal opinion appears to be that the injury- 
must be received while the injured is at work at his stipulated 
pursuit — and not as an incident to other work. 

For example, should a sales clerk — not a prescription chem- 
ist — in a drug store be injured during the making up of some 
pharmaceutical preparation — by himself or by another — the 
employer would not be liable under the new law, as the sales 
clerk was not engaged in the principal work for which he was 
engaged, but rather work incidental to his daily occupation. 

A manufacturing pharmaceutical house imder this interpre- 
tation of the law would be responsible for the injury to any 
employee in any department, laboratory, shipping or printing, 
as all are held ''hazardous occupations," while on the o^er 
hand if 'the house were simply that of a drug jobber, the injury 
of one of the other employees in the printing office probably 
would not come under "the act as the printing would be the 
only "hazardous occupation" under the law. 

To carry this another step, it is not at all likely under the 
reading of the law by attorneys consulted by the Era, that 
the fact that a laboratory exists in a drug store would convert 
that entire store into a factory under the law, since the prepa- 
ration of pharmaceuticals and toilet preparations would not be 
the />Wnci/!a/ business of the store. 

Thus the rule may be deduced, pending deci- 
sions by the State commission, the State's attorney, 
the courts, and the actuarial rules of the insurance 
companies — all yet to be made — that the laiv ivill 
apply to every business where the "hazardous oc- 
cupation" is the principal business of the finn 
affected, and not incidental to it. 

Without legal precedent upon which to base 
other conclusions, without any ruling by courts, 
State attorney or commission, and without the 
policy specifications of casualty insurance com- 
panies — all yet to be drafted with the assistance 
of eminent legal authority — it behooves the drug- 
gist, the drug manufacturer and the chemist to 
obey in good faith as best he may the apparent 
reading of the law, with the fiu-ther understanding 
that its application will be elucidated by both State 
and insurance authorities prior to its becomuig 
effective July 1. 

GUESSING AT PROFITS. 



Does the average druggist apply the same 
exact methods to the computation of his seUing 
prices and profits as to the compounding of a pre- 
scription? Judging from the keen interest mani- 
fested on the occasion of Harry B. Mason's recent 
address on "Profit in the Drug Business," before 
the New York College of Pharmacy, this question 



must be answered in the negative. "What is more 
important, many druggists apparently do not even 
possess sufficient knowledge of arithmetic to make 
tlie simple calculations needed, in spite of having 
passed State Board examinations where pharma- 
ceutical arithmetic was required. Some appalling 
examples were brought out in the discussion follow- 
ing the lecture, which showed that there are phar- 
macists who do not even know the meaning of the 
term "per cent.," as applied to profits, although 
they may Iawfull3' be called on to make a per- 
centage solution. This condition of affairs cries for 
improvement. 

Unless the druggist is in business merely for his 
health, and not solely for other people's health and 
his own pocket, he must learn to eliminate the 
guess-work in fixing prices. The Era and The 
Soda Fountain have very frequently called atten- 
tion to this point in no imcertain terms. Every 
druggist knows whether his prices are fixed accord- 
ing to some arbitrary scale which exists onlj' in his 
own mind, or whether he takes into account the 
money actually spent before an article is sold, in 
addition to the cost of the goods. No one can 
know this for him, and the remedy rests in himself. 
The calculations used are so childishly simple that 
if the druggist really feels unable to accomplish 
the task, he can rely on the assistance of his 10- 
year-old son. Remember that the amoimt of total 
sales is the only figure which represents all of your 
business. The total cost of goods sold is only one 
item in the expense of rimning your store. There- 
fore base your total, ultimate, real profit on your 
selling prices, and fix these prices accordingly. 



COMMEKCIAL VS. PROFESSIONAL PHARMACY. 



Among the most important advances in phar- 
macy during the past 25 j-ears is that which phar- 
macists have made in the direction of commercial 
progress, and this conclusion is forcibly brought 
out in the article by Louis K. Liggett, the initial 
contribution of which appears in this issue of the 
Era. "While it is true that the growth of modem 
mercliandi.sing methods has been common to all 
indiostries, it is doubtful if the resulting changes- 
induced by the application of such methods have 
been felt to a greater degree than in the drug 
business. Li many quarters the commercial trans- 
formation of the pharmacist has been almost revo- 
lutionary, and possibly in some instances, profes- 
sionalism has succumbed to the greater glorification 
of business. But anyone who has carefully watched 
and studied these evolutionary changes will think 
a long time before he wiU conclude to say that 
pharmacy has suffered therebj-. True profession- 
alism and the business instinct are not antagonistic, 
and the trend of modern progress is conclusive that 
the pharmacist who does not put into practice the 
principles embodied in these qualities is as un- 
likely to make headway as the idealist who strives 
to live by faith alone. 

To the pharmacist educated in the old school and 
whose sympathies still lean toward the professional 
side of pharmacy — and there are many of them still 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



49 



in business — there may come a pang of regret that 
times have changed. The subject has a sentimental 
side, and full credit must be given to those earlier 
pharmacists for their devotion to ideals and the 
self-sacrifice they underwent to raise pharmacy to 
a business which should stand alone and be directed 
by men of professional attainments. How success- 
ful the old-time pharmacist was in attaining his 
object it is not for us to say, but in all pharmaceuti- 
cal historj' there is no more ennobling theme than 
that furnished by these men who were prompted 
by the loftiest ideals and a spirit of broad humani- 
tarianism, qualities which they practiced persist- 
ently and conscientiously, and too often in the face 
of insuiTuountable difficulties. It is proper that we 
should pay a fitting tribute to the men who, accord- 
ing to their lights, passed the work of their day 
forward to those who were to follow and take up 
the burdens of pharmacy. We do not belittle pres- 
ent-day effort by giving due recognition to a class 
of men to whom the professional ideals were the 
loftiest conceptions of the true art of living. Future 
progress may reach its greatest developments along 
commercial lines, but no true pharmacist can afford 
to neglect his professional training in all that per- 
tains to the most recent advances in pharmacy, 
chemistry, research work, etc., all of them subjects 
which have an intensely practical side in the pro- 
motion of his advancement. 



Which is eondemnable, if not yet illegal. It must 
be admitted that the general public is veiy prone 
to accuse the drug trade at large of being respon- 
sible for the traffic in dangerous medicaments, and 
does not discriminate nicely between the guilty 
parties, often not druggists at all, and the vast 
majority of law-abiding pharmacists. This im- 
pression must be removed; the druggist must have 
the complete confidence of his public. Certainly 
the easiest method of getting rid of this mistaken 
idea is to prove by deeds that the drug trade, as a 
whole, does not countenance criminal or even ques- 
tionable acts. Through the committees on ethics 
and legislation of the many State associations, 
through the prosecuting power of the State Boards 
of Pharmacy, much may be accomplished. The 
recent action of the Kansas City Retail Druggists' 
Association must be but an entering wedge. Con- 
tinual following up of every point gained, news- 
paper publicity, co-operation with adjoining States, 
and absolute frankness in dealing with offenders — 
all of them measures depending on the initiative 
of the druggist — will bring about more lasting and 
intelligently good results than ill-considered legis- 
lation rushed through by politicians who make 
capital out of the increasing pressure of public 
opinion. 



SWEEPING BEFOKE OUR OWN DOORS. 



The coimtrj'-wide agitation regarding the sale 
of habit-forming and narcotic drugs — cocaine, 
opium bases, and coal-tar synthetics — seems to 
point to a growing realization in the minds of the 
public and law-makers alike, that this coimtry is 
behind the general world-standard in this branch 
of social legislation, as in many others. What has 
been done abroad, and in many cases enforced for 
decades, is shown in the statements of several 
authorities on the restriction of sales of dangerous 
drugs, published elsewhere in this issue of the Era. 
The Harrison bill, indorsed largely by the drug 
trade, may furnish a remedy of some sort, if 
enacted, but this bill does not apply to the many 
synthetic remedies which now easily find their way 
into lay hands, often producing disaster. Other 
legislation will doubtless be needed before the pub- 
lic is adequately protected from itself — for, in the 
last analysis, this is the object of all such restrictive 
measures. 

Meantime, the druggists have an opportunity to 
carry on a fruitful campaign of publicity and edu- 
cation, with a view to further enlightening the 
public, and making the pressure of opinion felt. 
The druggists can take a most determined stand in 
ferreting out and haling to justice all dealers of 
any sort who are known to be engaged in practices 
detrimental to the public health. The surreptitious 
dealer in narcotics and habit-forming drugs is a 
moral outlaw, and should be made an Ishmael. 
There must be many cases in which druggi.sts have 
knowledge of violations of the present laws, in their 
own neighborhoods, and of further misconduct 



COURT UPHOLDS ONE-PRICE-FOR-ALL. 



In the maze of decisions rendered during the 
past two years by the U . S. Court of Appeals, and 
by the U.S. Supreme Court in the now famous 
Sanatogen case, the Gillette Safety Razor case and 
other suits in which the right of the manufacturer 
to fix the retail sales price was the issue, there 
has been no pronouncement of such really sensa- 
tional import as that just given in the Fisher 
Flouring Mills case. In view of the attitude of 
President Wilson in urging anti-trust legislation 
this decision is held by constitutional lawyers to 
be one of the most important in recent years. 

The case itself was a replica of similar suits — a 
manufacturer of flour brought suit against a retail 
dealer who cut the price of the article contrary to 
agreement. The dealer's right to cut prices was 
upheld by the lower courts, but when an appeal 
was made to the Supreme tribimal the lower court 
decisions were reversed, and by a vote of eight to 
one the milling company was granted an injunction 
and damages. 

The advocates of a '' one-price- for-all" policy in 
merchandising are given more real encouragement 
in the concluding paragraph of the court's findings 
than in all similar decisions during the past decade : 

"The true competition is between rival articles, a 
competition in excellence, which can never be main- 
tained if through the perfidity of the retailer who cuts 
prices for his own ulterior purposes the manufacturer 
is forced to compete in prices with goods of his own 
production, while the retailer recoups his losses on 
the cut price by the sate of other articles at, or above 
their reasonable price. It is a fallacy to assume that 
the price-cutter pockets the loss. The public makes it 
up on other purchases. The manufacturer alone is 
injured except as the public is also injured 
through the manufacturer's inability in the face 



50 



THE lMlAR:\rArET'TTOAL ERA 



[Febru.vkv, r.il4 



of cut prices to maintain tlie excellence of his 

product. Fixing the price on all brands of higli- 

grade flour is a very different thing from fixing the 

price on one brand of high-grade flour. The one 

.';.( (Jeslruction o( all competition and of all in- 

::r to i'jcrcased excellence. The otiicr means 

rtilion and intensified incentive to in- 

c. It will not do to say that the 

< not interests to protect by contract 

lT he has sold them. They arc per- 

.->":■.; 1 ■„c,....,.i and morally guaranteed by his in,irh 

and his advertisement." 



A CONSTRUCTIVE DECISION NEEDED. 



One of our correspondent.s calls attention to an 
importiint matter which is liable to be misunder- 
stood by those who are dependent on the daily 
press for their information. The recent decision of 
the Supreme Court in a case involving the labeling 
of preparations containing acetphenetidiu wan 
merely on a demurrer, claiming that the Govern- 
ment had exceeded its authority in requiring both 
parent and derivative substances to appear on the 
label. The decision did not touch the main ques- 
tion as to whether acetphenetidiu is a derivative 
of acetanilide. 

This question of derivatives may degenerate into 
a war of words, or it may be kept \vithiu sensible 
boimds. There is no difficulty in proving that 
acetphenetidiu is a derivative of acetanilide in the 
chemical sense. Theoretically, any organic com- 
poimd which has been synthesized may be regarded 
as a derivative of any other organic compoimd. 
Given a sufficient supply of material, a chemist 
eould make one substance from the other. On this 
point there can be no debate. But what the Court 
must bring out, in order to render a decision which 
shall be of constructive value in future trials, is 
a clear-cut statement to the effect that within the 
purposes of the Pure Food and Drugs Act, the 
labeling of a substance as a derivative of another 
is necessarj^ only in case the derivative partakes 
of any undesirable or dangerous properties pos- 
sessed hy the parent substance. Otherwise a state- 
ment of the derivation has no possible bearing on 
the subject. If, for instance, a derivative of alco- 
hol is present in a medicinal preparation, this de- 
rivative being utterly devoid of any intoxicating, 
narcotic, or poisonous effects, we fail to see of what 
advantage it would be to state that alcohol is the 
parent substance of this particular compound. 
Labels are not affixed for the purpose of teaching 
chemistry to the general public. If necessary, they 
should contain enough information to enable a 
literate purchaser to realize the nature of the sub- 
stance he is buying. This is exactly in accord with 
the spirit of the Act of 1906. 

AcetphenetidinNot Acetanilid Derivative 

To the Editor of The Pharmaceutical Era: 

From reports appearing recently in the newspapers, it would 
appear that the Supreme Court held that acetphenetidin was a 
derivative of acetanilid. This is not the case, however. The 
Supreme Court's decision was on a demurrer that the Govern- 
ment exceeded its authority under the law requiring the label 
to show both the parent and derivative substance. 

The question as to whether or not acetphenetidin is to be 



considered an acetanilid derivative is now to be determined 
and tried on its merits. 

We feel confident that the Government will lose this case, 
as the Supreme Court has already held in a somewhat similar 
case that a theoretical derivative substance cannot be con- 
sidered a derivative substance, and construed the word "de- 
rived" as "made or obtained from." 

.Acetphenetidin is not "made or obtained from" acetanilid, 
and can only be considered a theoretical derivative and not 
an actual derivrlivc of acetanilid. In view of the foregoing, 
we cannot see how it is possible for the courts to render a. 
decision favorable to the Government's contentions. 

It occurs to us that possibly the foregoing might interest 
vour readers, and beg to remain, Very truly yours, 

JIONS.\NTO CHEMICAL WORKS, 

St. Louis, Jan. 8, 1914. .Tno. F. Queeny, Pres. 



Removing Water from Oils. 

To the Editor of The Pharmaceutical Era: 

I notice in the January number of your magazine on page- 
14 an inquiry concerning the removal of water from cam- 
phorated oil. 

.•\s I have had numerous occasions to clear up samples of 
camphor liniment, sent in by the drug inspector of this de- 
partment, so that it is possible to take the polariscopic reading, 
and as the method is much easier of manipulation, and at the 
same time gives a perfectly clear solution, I am taking the 
liberty of calling your attention to it. 

Take sheet gelatin and break it up into small pieces and 
add it to the camphorated oi', shake well, and allow to stand' 
over night, when it will be found perfectly free from water, 
the gelatin having absorbed all the water. .-Ml that is neces- 
sary then is to pour off or strain the oil and it is ready for use. 

The amount of gelatin to be used naturally depends upon 
the amount of water present, any excess of gelatin, however, 
does not do any harm. 

I have found this method of removing water from oils to be 
perfectly satisfactory, and we think superior to the dried 
sodium sulpliate method. \'ery truly yours, 

LiNWOOD A. Browx. 

Lexington, Ky., Jan. 9, 1914. 

An Illuminating Circular. 

To the Editor of the Er.\: 

I have received recently a letter from a certain New York 
company which, it strikes me, will bear investigating, par- 
ticularly as it is reported to me by a mercantile agency that 
the head of the company is a practicing physician. This letter- 
circular read as follows: 

"WOULD YOU DISPENSE YOUR OWN PRE- 
SCRIPTIONS 
if you could do so quicker than you could write a B ? 
We make a specialty of preparing physicians' private 
formulas, put up in small bottles, labeled with plain 
or printed labels (ready to have the directions writ- 
ten thereon) and wrapped. We supply any quantity 
you require and at a price that will surprise you. 
Can make deliveries 24 hours after receipt of order. 
Have you ever considered this as a source of legitimate 
income that you are not now taking advantage of? 

"CLUB AND SOCIETY PRACTICE 
can be made trebly profitable if you will dispense 
your own prescriptions to this class of patient. 

"We can prepare your Liquids, Powders, Oint- 
ments, Capsules, etc., ready to be handed to the 
patient, at a price that will allow you 300% profit 
on a SO-ccnt prescription. 

"The pharmacist now makes this money — you 
should have it. 

"(Signed) , 

"New York City." 
In justice to the pharmacist, I think an investigation of 
this company might throw some interesting light on many 
another of these companies which take. advantage of every op- 
portunity to make the burden of the pharmacist heavier, and at 
the same time compel him to charge so-called high prices 
when this company's goods are called for. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 21, 1914. Thomas Lamd. 



Febrcart, 1914] 



THE PHARiL\CEUTICAL ERA 



51 



Pharmacy in the Past Twenty-Five Years, by L. K. Liggett. 




Lons K. Liggett 
President United Drug Co. 



IX the development of the drug business during the past 
25 years there has been sounded, with growing insistence, 
the note of commercialism. I know of no other line of 
human endeavor in which progress has demanded such a 
complete transforcation as in the drug business. 

Professional IdsaJs. 
The druggist of 25 years 
ago cal'ed himself an apothe- 
carv' and considered himself 
a member of one of the 
learned professions. He be- 
lieved that there was a dif- 
ference between pharmacists 
and business men, and that 
the difference was in his 
favor. In his regard for pro- 
fessional ethics he paid little 
heed to the larger ethics of 
public service. He never put 
it into words, perhaps, but he 
thought that dignity and small 
net profits were somehow re- 
lated. He was certainly not 
a merchant. He sold toilet 
goods, perfumery, brushes, 
etc., but he did not feature 
them. The goods were shown 
when asked for, and when sold yielded the same ratio of gross 
profit as was charged for drugs, which was alvs-ays double and 
sometimes more. 

The Old Store. 
I remember as though it were yesterday, the typical old-time 
drug store. In its windows were jars of, colored water which 
served a purpose by calling attention to the store when electric 
signs were unknown. .\lso, there were festoons of dusty 
sponges, exhibits of cochineal bugs, rock sulphur, and fly- 
specked cards announcing the "Old Folks' Supper" at tli,- 
Methodist Church. 

Profitable Goods Not Shown. 
But it was inside the store that the difference between the 
old druggist and the new was most evident. In the old store 
the front shelves, which are now devoted to attractive goods 
selling themselves to well people — candy, stationery, perfumes, 
etc. — were filled with g'ass-Iabeled jars and tincture bottles. 
The fact that the sight of Syrup of Squills or Tr. .^safetida, 
never stimulated the buying instinct, did not worry the pro- 
fessional pharmacist, any more than did the fact that by keep- 
ing the tinctures in the front of the store, he was forced to 
make unnecessary trips back and forth to the prescription case. 
The same neglect of opportunities existed in other depart- 
ments. If the druggist sold soda water, cigars or candy his 
heart was not always in the work. Small stocks were carried, 
goods were poorly kept and poorly displayed. What many a 
druggist called his soda fountain was a sort of sarcophagus in 
which dead opportunities were bviried. Of the two classes of 
customers — householders and houseflies — only the latter re- 
turned with any real enthusiasm. Though there were notable 
e-xcepiions, from the old-time fotuitain, the druggist dispensed 
what the term signified, "soda water," sweetened and flavored. 
Ice-cream sodas were not common 25 years ago. Practically 
the only beverage aside from the regular flavors was milk 
shake. Once becoming popular, ice-cream sodas were soon 
followed by sundaes or college ices, as they were called in 
various localities. 

It is significant that ine condition of the .'Vnierican druggist 
25 years ago was, until very recently, precisely the condition 
of the British chemist. It is even more significant that both 
have been transformed by the same force — Co-operation. 
Financial Condition. 
Twenty-five years ago there were about 35.000* retail drug- 
gists operating the same number of. stores in the United States. 
It must be noted that there were no chains of stores in those 
days. The capital invested in the average store was very 



^According to Era Druggists' Directory (1890) the total was 
54,317. 



small, ranging from a few hundred dollars to $5000. .-K store 
whose armual business amounted to more th;n 510,000 was 
considered a gold mine. 

Commercial Standing. 

Though always respected for his high integrity, the old- 
fashioned druggist did not enjoy a very high commercial 
standing in his community. Owing to his semi-professional 
character be was more likely to be asked to contribute to local 
campaigns than to take active leadership as he does today. 
He was father-confessor to the neighborhood. The housewife 
told him her troubles, and when she had gone away comforted, 
her husband dodged into the back shop to forget his troubles — 
leaving his 10-cent piece on the shelf. The druggist also con- 
ducted a sort of general information bureau, telling when and 
where the trains went, predicting the weather, and giving sage 
opinions on national topics. He conducted a sub-postoffice 
before the name "sub-postoffice" was thought of. 
Location of Stores. 
The retail druggist h.as always been fortunate in the matter 
of location. Twenty-five years ago, as now, the most promi- 
nent comer in the town was almost invariably occupied by the 
druggist. One might aknost say that the best comer was 
tacitly reserved for him. The drug store of early days was 
quite as prominent as the store of today. For while the 
modem druggist has electric signs, "flashers," beautiful store 
fronts and striking color-schemes with which to draw atten- 
tion, his predecessor got something of the same results by 
using the familiar colored window bottles, which, with the 
light shining through them, beaconed trade and were the most 
brilliant illvmiinations on the street. 

Condition of Clerks. 
The workers in any organization reflect the spirit of its 
leaders. And the average drug clerk of 25 years ago was not 
remarkable for commercial efliciency, though he possessed a 
thorough knowledge of his profession, as is proved by the 
fact that some of the biggest drug merchandisers of today- 
were clerks a quarter of a century ago. The old-time drug 
clerk began to learn the business as an errand boy, receiving 
. usually S3.S0 a week during the first year. He did all of 
the manual labor about the store, scrubbing floors, cleaning 
windows, washing bottles. During the second year he was 
paid S4.00 or $5.00 a week, and at the end of the third year 
earned from $8.00 to SIO.OO a week, $12.00 being considered a 
liberal salary at that time. 

The drug c'erk of 25 years ago had a thorough knowledge 
of his profession. If he preferred to roll a perfectly spherical 
pill, to rounding out the store profits by aggressive selling 
efforts, the fault was not his, but his employer's. Both were 
handicapped by traditions reaching back to the time when 
pharmacy was developing out of alchemy. There were clerks 
in those days of high character, conscientious and ambitious 
workers, just as there are today, only today the opportunities 
are larger. 
The Pharmacist Compared With Other Eetailers. 
The question is often asked : "How did the early pharmacist 
compare with other retail business men?" The answer is that 
there was no comparison. For, as said before, the pharmacist 
was a professional man and was not considered when mer- 
chants were thought of. 

Kelations With Wholesalers and Manufacturers. 
The average small druggist of 25 years ago was very much 
dependent on the jobber, and he had little to do with the 
manufacturer. His orders, for small quantities, were placed 
with the jobber and there was little direct dealing with the 
manufacturer, who usually was none too anxious to recognize 
the retail druggist, even when the latter chanced to have the 
price of the goods, which was not always the case. 

Improvements for Commercial Betterment. 
The merchandising drug store of today owes its existence 
to the pioneer price-cutters, and price-cutting in tum, was the 
outcome of what at the time seemed an unmixed evil — depart- 
m.ent-store competition. During their development in the 
eighties the department stores, by aggressive methods, gradu- 
ally took from the druggist what little trade he had in brushes 
and toilet goods. Price-cutting by department stores was 



THE PHARiLlCEUTICAL ERA 



[Februaky, iyi4 



soon extended to include proprietxr.' medicines* The result 
was demoralizing. Almost everj-where prices melted away. 

\'arious attempts at repression were defeated, whether by 
enlightened influence or by the department stores, as was 
claimed by the framers of such measures, matters little. There 




George Ramsey 
oj Xm' York City 



G. B. Evans 
of Philadelphia 



was bitter warfare between the cutters and the advocates of 
price maintenance. 

In the begiiming of price-cutting by department stores, the 
average druggist, true to his professional traditions, tamely 
submitted to what seemed inevitable and continued to work 
15 hours a day, seven days a week, to make a living. A few 
of the more progressive spirits in the larger cities, however, 
refused to submit to these conditions. They broke wholly 
away from the old "ethical" idea of doing business and started 
what is known as the Cut Rate War. 

It was in the early eighties that the pioneer price-cutting of 
the "big four" — Evans of Philadelphia, Robinson of Memphis, 
Dow of Cincinnati, and Jacobs of .\tlanta — aroused national 
attention. Other famous price-cutters included W. G. Mar- 
shall, Cleveland, Ohio; Geo. C. Lyon, of Hall & Lyon Co., 
Waltham and Providence; Charles P. Jaynes, Boston, Mass.; 
George Ramsey, formerly of the Hegeman Corporation; Messrs. 
Wheeler & Bolton, Brooklj-n, N. Y., and Hurd & Gray, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Price-cutting became, in a few years, practically universal. 
It is interesting to consider this problem from the viewpoint 
of one of the men who inaugurated cut rates. The first cut- 
rate drug store in Xew York City was established by George 
Ramsey, of the Hegeman Company. In a recent letter Mr. 
Ramsey describes the conditions leading to cut rates and tells 
how the latter affected his business. 

Effect of Cut Bates. 

"The cutting in the drug business commenced in Xew York 
about 1S79 in our store; previous to that time business was 
very slow. The sales then were very much smaller than now. 
We rarely sold a bottle of perfume over 75 cents, or a hair 
brush over one dollar. And our idea in starting to cut prices 
was to try to get a volume of business. We started with a 
cut of 10% on all patents, and found it such a success that 
we increased our discount to 15% and 20%. This soon 
enabled us to buy direct from manufacturers. In 1882 our 
business had increased 300% from 1879. In 1879 our per- 
centage of cost to do business was about 30% and in 1882 
about 23%. Rent was about one-half what it is now, cartage 
about 33%% less than now, but there is not much difference 
in freight. We had no difficulty in getting registered clerks 
at $15 a week, as good men in every way as we now pay $25 
a week. All our other help was in about the same proportion. 
At the same time we reduced soda water from 10 cents to 6 
cents per glass." 

Another interesting account of the effect of cut prices in 
changing the old pharmacy into the merchandising drug store, 
is contained in the following letter from Mr. John W. Gray, 
founder of the Gray & Worcester Store, Detroit, Mich.: 

"Mr. Hurd and I commenced business at 208 Woodward 
avenue about the 1st of August, 1886, with a stock of drug 
merchandise and fixtures amounting to about $2500. We had 



a small soda fountain and our stock consisted of drugs, patent 
medicines, perfumes, a few sundries, such as tooth, nail and 
cloth brushes, combs, slioulder braces, and a small stock of 
cigars. Until we began cutting, along in 1894, Mr. Hurd and 
1, with the assistance of a boy, conducted the business. 

"Our average monthly sales during this period, with but 
little \-ariation, were from $600 to $700, about one-half of which 
wc considered as gross profits. Rent was $100 a month, other 
e.xpenses would total from $-40 to $50 a month. .Mong, I 
think, in '94, as there had been more or less cutting of prices 
by our competitors, and our business had shown a sligh loss 
for a few months, we decided to become more aggressive, to 
put on our signs and advertise ourselves as a cut-rate drug 
store. Our policy at the beginning was to meet prices made 
by any other house on anything in our line, and a price once 
established was continued indclinitely. 

"We always kept on hand a large stock of our leading 
sellers, and soon we acquired a reputation for having the goods 
and selling them at advertised prices, both of which helped us 
materially. .As nearly as I can recollect, within six months 
from the time we began cutting prices, our average monthly 
sales had been doubled and the increase kept up at a gradually 
increasing rate until they became about $15,000 a month. 
I might mention that during this time, as our business was 
increasing, we put in a larger and more varied stock of sun- 
dries, rubber goods, fancy goods, cigars, etc. We also installed 
a new and large soda fountain, finding that our cut rates on 
patent medicines attracted many more people to our store and 
furnished us with the opportunity of increasing and extending 
in many ways; on most of these goods we made the same 
profits as we had made under the old methods of doing 
business. 

"The gross profits made on goods so!d after we began cut- 
ting prices were from one-fourth to one-third of total sales. 
Expenses, of course, were more as business grew, on account 
of extra help and advertising, but our net gain increased 
faster in proportion, as many items of expense, such as rent, 
light, heating, 'phones, etc., cost no more than before. 

"The average salaries paid drug clerks from 1894 to 1905 
was from $12 to $18 a week." 

To the energy and foresight of the early price cutters are 
due much of the credit for the changing conditions which 
made possible the final transformation wrought by the spirit 
of co-operation. The business of the cut-rate drug stores 
increased very rapidly, and for the first time men began to 
realize the possibilities of the retail drug business. The live 
druggists were quick to adopt the policy of price cutting, and 
in a short time cut prices ruled in practically every city in 
the United States, although for some time price cutting was 
confined to the leading druggist in each locality. 




Geo. C. Lyon 
of Waltham, Mass. 



The Late C. P. J.^iynk 
L of Boston, Mass. 



Among the forces working against price-cutting were the 
local pharmaceutical organizations. With undeniably good 
intentions the members of these organizations, refusing to see 
the dawning of a new era, banded together to maintain full 
prices, thus playing into the hands of the big price-cutters 
into whose stores they drove their own btisiness. 
( To be continued) 



February, 1914] 



THE phar:\iaceutical era 



53 



Efficiency in Food and Drug Control.* 

By HON. JAMES H. WALLIS. 

Food and Drug Commissioner of Idaho. 

THE importance of food and drug control looms large at 
the present time. Zealous and conscientious officials, 
working with defective laws, have yet been able to make 
long strides toward securing pure and properly labeled foods 
for the stomachs of the people, and for our sick, drugs which 
have not been debased. These results have been accomplished 
only by the aid of strong public opinion enlightened by a 
friendly press, and with the help of sympathetic judges who 
have endeavored to overlook technical defects in the laws and 
to see only the spirit of such legislation. 

In the Congress of the United States, and generally in the 
legislatures of the various States, there has been such lively 
appreciation of the necessity of pure food and vmadulterated 
drugs that the officials charged with the enforcement of food 
and drug laws had but little trouble in securing adequate 
appropriations to carry on their work. This put the re- 
sponsibility for proper results squarely upon the food and 
drug officials. Have we secured the greatest possible result 
for each dollar expended? I am forced to the conclusion 
that the question carmot be answered in the affirmative. 

The first difficulty in the way of efficient enforcement of 
food and drug laws has been a lack of effective co-operation 
among food and drug control officials. This applies not only 
as between State officials and National officials, but also to 
co-operation among the State officials themselves. This is an 
evil well recognized by all the officials and steps have now 
been taken to correct it. It is a matter which rests entirely 
with the officials, and help must come from within and not 
from without. \\'e must do that work ourselves. 
Educational Work Necessary. 

We have been deficient also in the quantity and quality of 
educational work which should be done. 'True, we have sent 
our bulletins to the consumer, warning him against the frauds 
and impositions which we have detected in his fq,od supply, 
and in his drugs; and in these same bulletins we have given 
him the names of those food and drugs manufacturers and 
dealers who have sold him the adulterated and misbranded 
articles. We have informed him of the dire consequences 
which the officials of the State have visited upon these manu- 
facturers in the way of fines and other penalties. This has 
been good work but it has not gone far enough. There is not 
a food and drug official of e.'q)erience who does not know 
that 90 per cent, of the violations of food and drug laws, 
both State and National, have been caused largely by the 
ignorance or carelessness of the manufacturer, and not with a 
wilful intent to produce and dispose of adulterated and mis- 
branded articles. Ten per cent., perhaps, of the prosecutions 
are against manufacturers who deliberately offer debased, 
deleterious, adulterated and misbranded foods and drugs; and 
as against this latter class of manufacturers the penalties 
provided in \'arious laws have been woefully deficient. But 
how about those manufacturers who have sinned because of 
ignorance? 

Have we done our full governmental duty when we say, let 
the manufacturer beware, let him put out foods and drugs 
at his peril? Does not such a policy lose sight of the end 
sought to be attained, which is to secure as quickly as may 
be possible a pure food and drug supply for the people? 
Will we not attain that result more quickly if we educate 
our manufacturers, show them how to produce pure foods in 
a cleanly manner, and spread information regarding methods 
of adulterating drugs, largely perpetrated by the foreign pro- 
ducer upon the .\merican importer who buys in good faith? 

The great majority' is honest. It is not right, it is not even 
politic, to confound the great mass of clean, honest manu- 
facturers with the sordid, dishonest minority-, A distinction 
should be made. Increase the penalties against the dishonest, 
and educate the honest. If this be done there will be fewer 
court cases, because there will be a lesser number of violations 
of law. 

The two minor reasons why the food and drug control work 
has not been more effective are as stated, lack of effective 
co-operation between food and drug control officials, and 



*DeIivered before the National Civic Federation, New York. 



insufficient and defective educational work. I do not wish to 
be understood to state that great good has not already been 
accomplished, but before the best results are permanently 
secured there must be a radical reorganization and change of 
methods. 

Drug Control Not Efficient. 

The food and drug control work in the United States is 
not SO per cent, efficient. This is startling, but it is true. 
Where is the trouble? The answer is found in defective 
organization and utter lack of correlation of several branches 
of what really is but one subject. This trouble has its root 
in the laws of the Federal Government and in the laws of the 
States, We must secure basic changes in these National and 
State laws and this association can help materially. 
What Is Food and Drug Control? 

It has been customary to divide food and drug frauds into 
two classes: (1) Those which strike the pocketbook because 
of the substitution of inferior quality; and (2) those which 
prey upon the human system, either because they are positively 
deleterious, or because they are deficient in . strength or in 
effect. This is an artificial classification and an imsound one. 
All food and drug frauds fall within the second class. They 
prey upon the system, for it will be found, whenever a food 
or drug is debased by the substitution of cheaper material, 
cheaper only because it is deficient in food value or lacking 
in therapeutic effect, that not only has the money of the 
consumer been stolen, but there has been a direct attack upon 
the system. Either the body has been deprived of proper 
nourishment in the food, or it has suffered from the lack of 
remedial value in the drug. 

In plain English, then, the imderlying principle upon which 
food and drug control rests is the protection of the bodily 
welfare of the citizens. It falls in the same class as the 
sewage problem of our cities, and the disposal of waste prod- 
ucts of animal life in our rural sections. It is brother to the 
"swat the fly" crusade, and a first cousin to the work of in- 
specting working conditions in factories, including woman and 
child labor, a terrible menace to the welfare of the generations 
of citizens yet to come. It is closely related to the inspection 
and quarantine work against contagious disease, be that 
disease measles or bubonic plague. It is in the same family 
as the work of protecting our water supplies from pollution. 
In short, it is one branch of health work. 

One Effective Organization. 

To be efficient we must have all of these activities I have 
named and the many others which I have not named, com- 
bined into one organization. It must be done in the Nation, 
and it must be done in each State, .■^s the matter stands 
now, there is no correlation of these various activities which 
are all but part and parcel of one great work, fostering and 
protecting the bodily welfare of our citizens. I do not care 
whether we have a National Department of Health, with its 
head sitting as a cabinet officer. It is not the name and 
position that count. It is the effective organization which, no 
matter what it may be called, can group together this widely 
scattered work and combine imder one head and one direction 
all of these separate forces really working for a common end. 

Consider the deplorable condition which exists now. Each 
activity has its own administrative and executive force, sepa- 
rate clerical and inspecting forces, separate laboratories and 
experts, separate filing and housing. Think what this means in 
waste of money and energy, and that is by far the lesser 
waste. The paralyzing thing is the absence of one broad, far- 
reaching plan which takes into account all that can be done 
by each separate line of endeavor, and welds the whole into 
one irresistible engine of progress. 

First, 'u>e must have national legislation, which wUl recog- 
nise the principle, but placing within one organization the 
various and many health activities of the Federal government. 
This organization, when created, must be directed to co-operate 
with the State organizations, which will be patterned after it. 
Every dollar of appropriation for health work must be made 
to do its work. In cities and towns where Government labora- 
tories are located, the municipal and State laboratory work 
should be done in the Government Iaborator>', The Federal 
government should clothe the State inspectors with all the 
powers held by Federal inspectors, and the State likewise 
should make the Federal inspector the agent of the State 
The legislation. Federal and State, should be tmiform, and 



5-1 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



if the States are to follow the National law, the latter must 
be progressive and adequate to remedy evils which must be 
met. 

\\'hen these things are done we shall secure results, and 
we shall have in these United States men and women of finer 
physique and longer lives than the world has ever before seen. 



Classical Discoveiies in Pharmacv. — III 



THE FIRST GLXJCOSIDE. 



THE discovery of the class of alkaloids, and their recogni- 
tion as "active principles" of many plants, gave rise to a 
continuous series of attempts to locate an active prin- 
ciple in every drug possessing remedial powers. Indeed, the 
search is by no means ended even in our day. In course of 
time certain substances were found which were evidently the 
active constituents of drug plant.s, but which could not be 
grouptd with alkaloids, on account of striking differences in 
chemical make-up. The first of these bodies to be isolated was the 
glucoside salicin, discovered by Lerou.x, a French pharmacist 
located at \'itry-le- Francois, in 1830. Leroux's own account 
of his work is not accessible, the article tel-ing of the dis- 
nery being a report by the eminent chemists Gay-Lussac 
I'.d Magendie, who had e.\amined Lerou.x's statements and 
repeated his experiments. The account appears in the 
Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Series 2, Tome 43, page 
440, 1830. 

.\s the following story shows, Lerou.x was not at first aware 
of the fact that his new substance was not an alkaloid like 
morphine and quinine. Indeed, he did not learn from his 
own labors that he had, like Sertuemer with morphine, found 
the first member of still another class of compounds. It was 
not until 1S45 that Piria demonstrated the splitting up of 
salicin into saliretin and glucose. The first paper on salicin 
follows. We have preserved the old ending in -ine: 

Report of a Memoir of M. Leroux, Pharmacist at Vitry-le- 
Francois, Relative to the Chemical Analysis of Willow Bark, 
by Gay-Lussac and Magendie. 

"In the month of June last, the Academy charged us— M. 
Gay-Lussac and myself — to examine a memoir of M. Leroux 
and to report on it. The importance of the facts contained 
in this memoir, and' the researches to which we had to devote 
ourselves in order to verify its exactitude, have prevented us 
from making our report sooner. No less a question is in- 
volved, in fact, than whether there exists, in one of our 
indigenous plants, a principle that can take the place of the 
alkalies which chemical industry now extracts from cinchona 
barks. One can therefore understand with what attention 
we examined the work of M. Leroux. 

"Since the beautiful and useful researches of M. Sertuemer 
on morphine, and those of MM. Pelletier and Caventou on 
quinine, cinchonine, strychnine, etc., many chemists have 
striven to separate from energetic medicaments the particular 
principle to which they owe their properties. This kind of 
work has eru-iched science by several new substances, and 
medicine by a number of important therapeutic means. 

"M. Leroux, an enlightened pharmacist of Vitry-le-Francois, 
knowing that the willow had been employed more than once 
with advantage as a bitter and febrifuge, desired to know if 
the worthless barks which are detached from w'icker twigs 
before the latter are worked up, did not contain some sub- 
stance analogous to quinine and cinchonine, and soon his 
analyses placed him in a position to send, first to one of us 
and finally to the Academy, two products extracted from the 
bark of Salix Helix: one which he called salicine, and which 
he regards as a salifiable vegetable base; the other, which he 
called salicine sulphate; and these two substances M. Leroux 
announced as possessing the febrifuge power. 

"The memoir thus presented two parts, one chemical and 
the other clinical. Our task, in examining the first pai-t, con- 
sisted in ascert:.ining whether the substance described by M. 
Leroux was actually a new vegetable alkali; now M. Leroux, 
having come from Paris in the month of July last, recognized 
with us that the substance which he extracted from willow 
bark, under the name of salicine, is not alkaline at all; it 
does' not sensibly saturate acids; also, that, far from com- 



bining with it, acids decompose it, and make it lose its prop- 
erty of crystallizing; that it does not contain azote, and hence 
cannot be ranked among the new vegetable alkalies; as for 
the substance which he has sent to the Academy under the 
name of sulphate of salicine, M. Leroux himself had already 
realized that he had allowed himself to be imposed upon by 
certain circumstances of his analysis, and that this pretended 
salt does not exist; and this is in effect what our committee 
have verified. 

"The substance to which M. Leroux gives the name of 
salicine, when pure presents itself under the form of very 
slender, pearly-white crystals; it is very so'uble in water and 
alcohol, but not in ether; its taste is of the bitterest, and 
recalls the aroma of willow bark. 

".'\ftcr liaving confirmed the existence of salicine, and de- 
termined its properties and its mode of preparation, it was 
necessary to assure ourselves if this substance really possesses 
the febrifuge virtue, and in case of an affirmative outcome, 
to see if it could replace quinine. Now, as to the first point, 
that is, the febrifuge property, one of us has assured himself 
by trials begun in the month of June of last year, on in- 
termittent fevers of different types, that salicine is a febri- 
fuge agent sufficing to arrest the attacks of fever, without 
carrying the dose too high; our reporter has seen fevers cut 
off, from one day to the next, by three doses of salicine of 
six grains each; many physicians give sulphate of quinine in 
doses as high and even higher, 

"In fine, M. Leroux has discovered, in the bark of Salix 
Helix, a crystalline principle, which incontestably enjoys the 
febrifuge power to a degree which approaches that possessed 
by sulphate of quinine, and this discovery is without contra- 
diction one of the most important which has been made in 
therapeutics since several years." 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL CALENDAR ONE CEN- 
TURY AGO. 



In a paper appearing January 1, 1814, Berzelius and Marcet 
confirmed the composition of carbon disulphide, proving that 
it contained no hydrogen. The substance had been discovered 
by Lampadius in 1796. (Am. Chim., Vol. 89, p. 67, 1814.) 

In the same number of the Annales de Chimie is found the 
announcement of the subject for the Parmentier Prize for 1815. 
Parmentier, pharmacist-in-chief of the French .^rmy, and the 
man who introduced potatoes into France on a large scale, 
left a sum of 600 francs to the Society of Pharmacy at Paris, 
for the awarding of an annual prize for the best piece of 
research on any subject assigned. For 1815 the topic was 
"Extractive in Plants." 

De Saussure analyzed alcohol and ether, and concluded that 
both are combinations of olefiant gas and water. Making the 
necessary allowances for our different ideas of structure, this 
conclusion holds true in the light of modern knowledge. {Ibid., 
p. 273.) 

"The Culture and Products of Laurus Cinnamomum in 
Jamaica" is the title of a paper by Dancer, reprinted in 
An. Chim., Vol. 89, p. 330. 

About the same time the first volume of P. Orfila's famous 
work appeared, entitled "Treatise on Poisons, or General 
Toxicology." 

Doebereiner reported his results in the study of barley and 
malt starches. He discovered soluble starch, or dextrin, and 
noted many points of differences between the two varieties. 
(Schweigger's Journal, Vol. 8, p. 207, 1814.) 

The combination of iodine with vegetable and animal sub- 
stances is the subject of a detailed studv bv Colin and de 
Claubry (An. Chim., Vol. 90, p. 87, 1814). They discovered 
iodized starch. 

Berzelius, in Schweigger's Journal, Vol. 8, p. 317, 1814, gives 
the analysis of Iceland moss, and reports on its value as a 
food. 

In the "Philosophical Transactions," for 1814, p. 74, Sir 
Humphrey Davy relates "Some Experiments and Observations 
on a New Substance, which becomes a violet-coloured Gas by 
Heat." This new substance, iodine, had been discovered only 
a year previously, and was the center of attraction in the 
chemical world at that time. 

That chemists of one hundred years ago also had their 
troubles with the apparatus makers is shown by a complaint 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



55 



from Doebereiner (Schweigger's Journal, Vol. 10, p. 217, 1814), 
in which he states that platinum crucibles were frequently 
met with of poor quality, which blistered easily and soon wore 
into holes. 

Pfaff, one of the many investigators who "almost" discovered 
quinine, published about this time a memoir on "Chinastoff 
und Chinaharz" (Ibid., p. 265). He probably had the impure 
mixed alkaloids of cinchona in his hands, and obtained the 
pure crystalline "cinchonin." 



The Curse of the Retail Drug Trade. 



By OTTO BAUBENHEIMEK, PH.G. 

THE writer well remembers that some years ago, when 
refined deodorized wood alcohol was first placed on the 
market under a fanciful name, silver-tongued salesmen 
were trying to convince the pharmacists throughout the coun- 
try that this product was non-poisonous, and was in every 
way equivalent to grain or ethyl alcohol, and could be used 
in its place. As the result of this many druggists throughout 
the United States were induced to use this product on account 
of its cheapness, and as a result many druggists had to pay 
fines or even go to jail. 

Practically the same conditions have existed, and do still 
e.xist ever since the new chemicals, the so-called coal-tar 
derivatives have been introduced into the United States. The 
large chemical industry, especially that of Germany, has spent 
thousands, nay millions of dollars to perfect and to introduce 
these products, and for that reason are charging a fair, and 
in some cases, a somewhat fancy price for these new chemicals. 
The process of manufacture is patented, and the names of the 
chemicals are trade-marked. This serves as a protection for 
the manufacturer. The little republic of Switzerland has a 
patent law which refuses protection to chemicals and chemical 
processes, and the result is that most of these chemicals are 
duplicated or imitated in that country, and are distributed from 
there. The United States in particular seems to be one of the 
large outlets for these products. 

Some time ago the writer read the following letter from a 
firm in Philadelphia : "Kindly note that we have reduced 
prices on Givaudan's chemicals. Perhaps, at times, you have 
calls from druggists who want chemicals at ruinous low prices, 
regardless of whether the goods are h-\ or not. If so, we have 
some of Siegfried's chemicals on hand, which we will sell 
below cost. You, of course, buy these at your own risk. 
Any reasonable offer will not be refused if you can use same." 
"Gunmen" Peddlers Sell Imitations. 

Just think of such a condition in medicine, intended for the 
cure and relief of the sick! These imitation goods are dis- 
tributed by peddlers who deliver their fraudulent wares to 
druggists from hand satchels. These peddlers are irresponsible 
men, who very frequently make only one visit, who have no 
addresses, who leave no bills, and who cannot be held, nor 
can they be caught. These peddlers are in the same class as 
"gunmen," many of them being ex-convicts who would resort 
to any means in order to obtain money. These peddlers are 
also the distributors of obscene rubber goods and instruments, 
the sale of which is forbidden by law. They also supply 
cocaine and morphine to habitues, and even to school children. 
These peddlers buy and sell stolen goods and act as fences. 

It is a large, a very large traffic that these illegitimate 
cheniicals constitute. They are bought and sold without any 
guarantee whatsoever. The average druggists buy these chemi- 
cals at a slightly lower cost than the genuine articles. They 
dispense same, and thereby violate the patent as well as the 
trade-mark rights of the manufacturer. That the manufacturer 
has such a right has been demonstrated on numerous occasions, 
when druggists have been caught substituting these chemicals 
in place of the genuine ones, and thereby have had a great 
deal of legal annoyance, and even have had to pay fines or 
were sentenced to jail. 

Dispensing Physicians Also to Blame. 

But the druggists are not the only guilty parties, as the 
peddler furthermore is in the habit of supplying the dispens- 
ing physician with these articles. The dispensing physician 
has no means of convincing himself of the chemical identity 
of these products, much less than the druggist, and thereby 
runs a greater risk as to the health and welfare of his patients. 



AH he knows is that the goods bear a certain label; that the 
goods are cheap, and this is the sole reason that prompts him 
to buy them. 

The infringers sell these imitations under their chemical 
names, and the peddler claims that they are identical with 
the patented and trade-marked product, but frequently, almost 
invariably, these chemicals are grossly adulterated and instances 
are known that "aristol" had been adulterated with brick dust, 
"protargol" substitutes contained only 3 to 4% of silver, 
instead of 8.3%, and were strongly alkaline, and tliat salicylic 
acid has been sold as "aspirin," and as "pyramidon" a mix- 
ture of magnesium and sodium sulphate. Adulteration has 
even gone so far as to imitate the labels of the genuine prod- 
uct, so as to require an expert to tell the difference in the 
outside appearance between the imitation and the genuine. 
It is also well known that chemicals supplied by the irre- 
sponsible peddler are generally short weight. It has been re- 
peatedly shown that tablets which are sold by peddlers are 
fraudulent. "Aspirin" and "veronal" tablets, which were said 
to contain five grains, have been found to consist entirely of 
inert matter. A large quantity of tablets is sold by peddlers 
which are made from adulterated chemicals, and it is pre- 
dicted that some time or other there will be a large expose,. 
which will be a serious blow to pharmacy and medicine. 

Oxid of Iron Instead of "Salvarsan." 

It has even come to my knowledge that vials bearing imita- 
tion labels of "Salvarsan," instead of containing this wonder- 
ful remedy, were filled with oxid of iron to give it the char- 
acteristic color of the genuine article, and this fraud was not 
discovered until the peddler selling this counterfeit article had: 
left town to continue his criminal activities in another com- 
munity. 

The dangerous practice indulged in by so many druggists, 
as well as dispensing physicians all over the United States, 
of purchasing supplies from peddlers, is one of the most 
serious menaces to the health and life of every community. 
How dangerous this practice is has been well demonstrated in 
a recent case, when a substitute for a chemical which was- 
intended as eye drops resulted in the loss of the patient's eye, 
and in the recovery of heavy damages from the substituting: 
druggist. 

Just now I received a circular from A. C. Smith, Windsor, 
Ontario, Canada, one of the veteran dealers in this class of 
goods, which circular, in fact, prompted me to write this 
article. I would ask you to read carefully the following; 
sentence taken from it : 

"You are taking an awful chance buying elsewhere; 
it is a crime to buy rank imitations and short -weight 
tablets peddled by every Tom, Dick and Harry, whose 
sole desire is to get all the profit possible irrespective 
of quality. You owe it to yourself and customers to 
buy these chemicals only from a reliable source. I 
positively cannot recommend anyone to you. I am 
retiring from business with a clean slate — honorable. 
No man will ever find me ungrateful or dishonorable." 
Could there be better proof than these statements, made by 
a man who knows the truth of the nefarious dealings of these- 
peddlers? How humiliating for us druggists that we must 
allow ourselves to be advised by that man not to take any 
chances in buying goods from his competitors. 

Retail druggists as well as physicians should take pride in 
their honorable calling, and in this profession, and should not 
buy their supplies from irresponsible parties. This, in rny 
opinion, is the curse of the retail drug trade of today, and the 
sooner this is abolished, the better it will be for professional' 
pharmacy. 

We pride ourselves upon our high state of civilization, but 
I doubt whether conditions in this particular are anywhere as 
bad as in the United States; not in the darkest part of Mexico 
would it be possible for peddlers to sell medicines, and nO' 
druggist could be found who would stoop so low as to buy- 
supplies from notorious criminals. 



Celluloid Varnish. 

Celluloid chips 5 ounces 

Ether 1 pound 

Acetone 1 pound 

Amyl acetate 1 pound 

Mix and dissolve. 



56 



THE PHAR]\IACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 




Liniment for Sheumatism and Sprains. 

Camphor ; j ounce 

Chloroform y^ ounce 

Tincture of arnica 2 drams 

Tincture of aconite 1 dram 

Tincture of opium 2 drams 

Oil of wintergrecn }4 dram 

Soap liniment, enough to make 4 ounces 

yVa. Apply as often as necessary and cover with flannel or 
oiled silk. 

Niemann's Sultana Ointment. 

Spermaceti S parts 

Cacao butter 16 parts 

Oil of sweet almond 32 parts 

Balsam of Peru 1 part 

Melt together and add — 

Orange-flower water 1 part 

Stir constantly until cold. 

Hinkle's Voice Lozenges. 

Cubebs, pondered 50 grains 

Benzoic acid 2i grains 

Tragaranth, powdered 25 grains 

Extract of licorice 500 grains 

Sugar 1300 grains 

Eucalyptol '. 25 minims 

Oil of anise 5 minims 

Black currant paste, enough to make.. 2000 grains 
Mix and make into 100 lozenges. \ small piece may be 
made to dissolve in the mouth just before any considerable 
vocal exercise. Recommended for singers and speakers. 

Eucalyptus Embrocation. 

Oil of eucaI>-ptU3 1 ounce 

Lard oil 1 ounce 

Cottonseed oil 1 ounce 

Oil of turpentine 3 ounces 

.\mmonia water 5 ounces 

Oleic acid % ounce 

Mix the acid and the lard and cottonseed oil. Then add 

the turpentine and ammonia and shake, lastly adding the oil 

of eucalyptus. 

Salol Dentifrice. 

Salol 3^ drams 

Saccharin 12 grains 

Sodium bicarbonate 10 grains 

Water i/^ ounce 

Oil of peppermint 1 dram 

Oil of anise 5 minims 

Oil of fennel 5 minims 

Oil of cloves 2 minims 

Oil of cinnamon 1 minim 

Rectified spirit, enough to make 6 ounces 

Dissolve the saccharin and sodium bicarbonate in the water, 

mix all the rest of the ingredients with the alcohol ; dissolve, 

add the saccharin solution, tint with cochineal and filter. 

Paraffin Rouge. 

Hard paraffin 1 ounce 

Soft paraffin ^ V/z ounces 

Eosin in powder 1 dram 

Essential oil of almond 5 drops 

Melt the paraffin on a water bath and digest witii the eosin 
for 30 minutes, stirring occasionally; filter through paper (using 
a hot funnel) to remove excess of dye. When nearly cool add 
the essential oil. 

Directions: -Apply with the finger tip, gently rubbing until 
the desired tint is produced. Allow to remain a few minutes, 
then dust with starch and remove surplus grease with a cloth. 
This dyes the skin and is not affected by perspiration. 

Ear Drops. 

Tannic acid , 30 grains 

Tincture of opium 2 fl. drams 

Glycerin 6 fl. drams 

Mix. 



Nail Powder. 

(1) 

Oleate of tin 2 ounces 

Powdered pumice stone 1 ounce 

Oil of lavender 5 drops 

Mix and pass through a fine sieve. 

(2) 

Cinnabar 1 ounce 

Powdered emery 1 otmce 

Oil of bitter almonds 2 drops 

Mix and sift. 

Antiseptic Soothing Cream. 

Carbolic acid 10 grains 

Camphor 10 grains 

Anhydrous woolfat 4 drams 

Soft paraffin 12 drams 

Cacao butter 2 drams 

Melt the cacao butter and lanolin, and when cooling, but 
still transparent, add the camphor and carbolic acid, which 
have been previously liquefied by rubbing together. 

Dandruff Pomade. 

Salicylic acid 20 grains 

Chloral hydrate 10 grains 

Oil of eucalyptus 5 drops 

Zinc ointment Y2 ounce 

Cold cream Yz otmce 

Mix well. 

Paper Barometers. 
Paper or fabric immersed in one of the following solutions, 
according to the Chemist and Druggist, changes color accord- 
ing to the humidity of the weather: 

(1) 

Cobalt chloride 1 part 

Gelatin 10 parts 

Water 100 parts 

The normal color is pink ; this changes to violet and blue, the 
latter being the indication of verj' dry weather. 

(2) 

Cobalt chloride 1 part 

Gelatin 20 parts 

Nickel chloride 75 parts 

Cupric chloride 25 parts 

Water 200 parts 

The color is green in dry weather. 

(3) 

Cupric chloride 1 part 

Gelatin 10 parts 

Water 100 parts 

The color is yellow in dry weather. 

Sealing Wax Insoluble in Alcohol. 

Beeswax, yellow 5 parts 

Carnauba wax 1 part 

Paraffin 1 part 

Melt together and mix with — 

Red lead 5 parts 

Prepared chalk 2 parts 

Heat the mixture under constant stirring until it thickens. 

For Cleaning Playing Cards. 
Bring to a boil one liter of water to which has been added 
20 grams of soap bark. Continue ebullition for a few moments, 
then add 15 grams of starch, and the same quantity of borax, 
stirred up in a little water. Boil the mixture for about 10 
minutes, then cool, filter, and preserve in a stoppered bottle. 
For use, rub the soiled surfaces of the cards lightly with a 
sponge saturated with the mixture. 

Paint for Renovating Linoleum. 

Yellow wax 5 ounces 

Turpentine 11 ounces 

Varnish 5 ounces 

Mix at a gentle heat. Wash the linoleum first with soap 
and water, and when dry, apply the above with a woolen rag. 



Februakt, 1914] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL ERA 



57 




NEWS FROM EUROPEAN LABORATORIES. 



Some New Tests for Impurities in Tragacanth and 

Bismuth. Salts — Decomposition of Spirit Nitrous 

Ether — Distinguishing- Artificial and Natural 

Vaseline — Liquid Paraffin in Surgery. 

AMONG the analytical notes presented this month are two 
simple processes for detecting the presence of lead in 
bismuth salts, and gum arabic in tragacanth. An ex- 
tended examination of spirit of ethyl nitrite shows that with 
ordinary care this solution does not deteriorate at such a rapid 
rate as has been alleged in many cases of drug seizures. 
Caviblenes, a new form of urethral bougie, are described, and 
their advantages pointed out. Some recent work by Stapf 
appears to settle the question of the source of Lignum Neph- 
riticum, discussed in this department some months ago. A 
physician serving during the Balkan war reports excellent re- 
sults with liquid paraffin as a surgical dressing. Bourquelot 
and his colleagues are continuing their researches into the bio- 
synthesis of glucosides, having recently succeeded in coupling 
the diacid alcohol glycol with glucose. An interesting case of 
inorganic isomerism is found in sodium acetate, and the new 
isomer seems to be of greater value in acetylization work on 
oils than the old anhydrous form. 

Decomposition of Ethyl Nitrite — 

The plea of defence in prosecutions for selling spirit of 
nitrous ether which is below strength is generally the un- 
avoidable decomposition of the solution on keeping. In order 
to determine whether this plea is justified, Hodgson and Bailey 
examined a number of solutions of ethyl' nitrite at various 
intervals. The samples were kept in 8-ounce brown, glass- 
stoppered bottles. From one bottle the stopper was removed 
and a portion taken for analysis. This was repeated every 24 
hours. After 15 days the solution was devoid of ethyl nitrite. 
(The stopper apparently remained out of the bottle during 
this test. Abstr. ) ."Another bottle was kept closely stoppered, 
being opened only long enough to remove the sample for 
analysis. At first the test was made every week, and later on, 
every month. Ordinary room temperatures prevailed. After 
one year the strength w-as reduced to 50 per cent. It is con- 
cluded that the usual defence should not be allowed if the 
deficiency exceeds 25 per cent., since the spirit is bought in 
small quantities and quickly moved. (Pharm. J., 1914, p. 28.) 
Caviblenes, New Form of Bougie — 

The author has devised a new form of hollow urethral 
bougie for the application of drugs to the urethral canal or 
to other cavities. It consists of a hollow sheath with thin, 
resistant, closely contiguous walls, which melt when introduced 
into the body. The inner cavity is filled with the drug, and 
the caviblene is then inserted in the same manner as a rubber 
sound, and left in situ until it melts, and the active ingredient 
comes in contact with the surface it is desired to treat. Either 
powders, liquids, or ointments may be administered in this 
way. It is especially convenient for use with highly colored 
remedies. Uranoblene is such a preparation consisting of 
sodium fluorescein, or uranin, with silver. Its solutions are 
highly fluorescent and of a bright yellow color. Although it 
is a powerful germicide, especially for gonococcus, and is non- 
irritant, its staining properties render it inconvenient for use 
by the ordinary method of injection. Caviblenes of various 
shapes and sizes are on the market. (Bruck, Pharm. Ztg., 
1913, p. 874; through Pharm. J.) 
New Culture Medium for Bacteria — 

This new medium, devised by Besredka and Jufille, is cheap, 
but at first somewhat difficult to prepare properly. It is com- 
posed of incoagulable egg albumen, incoagulable egg yolk, and 
beef broth, in the proportions of 4 : 1 : 5. The albumen 
may be omitted %vhen the tubercle bacillus is to be cultivated. 
It is claimed that by this medium the human and bovine types 
of bacillus can be differentiated, and a very active tuberculin 
prepared. Cultures of the pneumococcus in this medium con- 
serve their vitality for several months; the meningococcus — 
usually a very delicate organism — retains its vitality for at 



least two months; and a still more delicate organism, the 
gonococcus, not only gives good grow-ths within 24 hours, but 
subcultivates on other media after a stay of 20 days in the 
new medium. The bacillus of whooping cough gives abundant 
cultures, and the organisms survive for at least four months 
in the incubator; and it is striking that several organisms 
which can only be grown in other media under strictly anaero- 
bic conditions, grow and flourish in this medium in the pres- 
ence of oxygen. (Brit. Med. J., 1914, p. 45; through 
Pharm. J.) 

Artificial and Natural Vaseline — 

According to the German Pharmacopoeia, artificial vaseline 
is prepared by mixing 3 parts of vaseline oil, containing 1.6 
per cent, of paraffin, with 1 part of ceresin with a melting 
point of 60-62°. To distinguish this mixture from the true 
proprietary vaseline, dissolve 1 or 2 g. of sample in 40 cc. of 
propyl acetate, cool to — 20°, filter off the precipitate at the 
same temperature, wash with 80 cc. of propyl acetate, dissolve 
with benzene in a dish, evaporate, and weigh. The paraffin 
content of natural vaseline is from 24.4 to 26.8 per cent., 
while that of the artificial is from 22.5 to 23.1. The difference 
is not great, but the composition of the precipitates differs 
considerably. If the precipitate from artificial vaseline, which 
is hard, is boiled out with alcohol, and the liquid decanted, 
the residue, on account of the removal of the lower-melting 
paraffins, is still harder and colorless. The paraffin thrown 
down from natural vaseline is yellow, and is not decolorized 
by long continued treatment with alcohol, a soft, yellowish 
residue remaining. (Kantorowicz, Chem. Ztg., 1913, p. 1565.) 

Patchouli Oil — 

Since about six months striking variations in the properties 
of patchouli oil have been noticed. While previous years have 
shown oils with sp. grs. above 0.97, rotations of more than 
— 60°, and solubility in every proportion of 90 per cent, 
alcohol, the later oils have sp. grs. of about 0.95-0.96, lower 
rotation — as low as — 42° — and a solubility in 6 parts of 90 
per cent, alcohol, in many cases. Two very abnormal oils 
showed sp. grs. of 0.935 and 0.937, rotations of — 9° and 
— 34°, and solubility in 4-5 volumes of alcohol. The odor, on 
the other hand, was extraordinarily fine and intense. By 
varying the method of distilling the patchouli herb, the yield 
of oil was changed, but not its constants. The herb was proved 
to be unadulterated, .\pparently the cause is to be sought in 
unusual weather conditions during growth or harvesting. 
(Lehmann, Chem. Ztg., 1913, p. 1589.) 
Isomeric Form of Sodium Acetate — 

The authors confirm the statements of Miller and Green, 
that the anhydrous salt and not a lower hydrate is formed on 
heating the sodium acetate trihydrate above 58°, or by cooling 
the molten trihydrate. This salt is also obtained by dehydrat- 
ing the trihydrate at low temperatures, and is not identical 
with the anhydrous salt obtained by dehydrating at over 200°, 
or by melting the anhydrous salt and allowing it to cool. 
Sodium acetate I, stable above 198°, is probably monoclinic. 
Sodium acetate II, stable below 198°, is rhombic. Owing to 
the slowness of the change, the form I can be preserved for 
a long time at the ordinary temperature. The transition from 
trihydrate to the form II takes place at 58.2°. On crystallizing 
from boiling absolute alcohol, the form II separates, whether 
I or II has been dissolved. The new form II is a much 
better condensing agent and takes up water more readily than 
I, so that when sodium acetate is required for use in organic 
preparations, it is better not to fuse the anhydrous salt as is 
usually recommended, but to dehydrate at 120°. (Vorlander 
and Nolte, Ber., 1913, p. 3199; through J. Soc. Chem. Ind.) 
Gum Arabic in Tragacanth — 

Only traces of gum tragacanth dissolve in an ammoniacal 
solution of copper oxide, whereas gum arabic and similar gums 
dissolve practically completely. By utilizing this fact and 
carrying out at the same time a control test with tragacanth 
gum of known purity, the proportion of gum arabic in an 
adulterated sample of tragacanth can be determined. Tests 
with mi.xtures containing 30 and 20 per cent, respectively of 



58 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



icnfgal and Kordofaii gums gave results accurate to_ withjn 
1 to 2 p«r cent. Two commercial specimens of gum tragacanth 

li to contain 40 to 50 per cent, ot gum arabic. 

oth. Z«g., 1913, p. 787; through J. Soc. Chem. Ind.) 

- recess tor Senieotinizin^ Tobacco^ 

1 he lohacco is placed in a vc^ise) \!nder reduced pressure and 
■ ' nia gas. .After the e.\cess 

ins of an exhaust pump, 

- ■■• •' ■■ ..^ 1^. vA.i.n ,1 c icotine. The ether is now 

drawn off. treated with a metallic salt, such as ferrous sul- 
phate, to precipitate the nicotine, and then, while still charged 
w.ih other extractives, is employed for the extraction of fresh 
charges of tobacco. The ether still remaining in the tobacco 
is removed by e.xhausting the vapors from the vessel, and pass- 
ing them through a condenser. The tobacco is finally heated 
lor 4S hours at 30-35°, in order to decompose ammonium salts 
present, and the ammonia thus liberated is recovered. (French 
Patent 456,8-40, Soc. La Denicotina; J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 191J, 
p. 10S6.) 

Beactions of Digritoxin — 

Pure crvstallized digito.xin was used for the tests. The 
■crystalline form is sufficiently apparent, and the color is snow- 
white. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, and 
most easily dissolved by chloroform. In cold sulphuric acid 
digitoxjn remains apparently unchanged for days. Gradually, 
however, the crystals increase in size, and appear black when 
held against a white ground. This black appearance is quite 
characteristic of digitoxin, and is caused by minute air bubbles. 
The substance is easily soluble in glacial acetic acid. Twenty- 
five per cent, nitric acid causes no co'or formation, but the 
addition of potassium hydroxide brings out a pale yellowish 
red, not very characteristic. Chromic acid and molybdic acid 
give quite characteristic reactions. If a little digitoxin is 
treated on a slide with ammonium molybdate or potassium 
dichromate, and water, there is no change, and added acetic 
acid has no effect. But on the addition of sulphuric acid, 
solution takes place in a few hours, although no color reaction 
takes place after five days in the cold. If the test is slightly 
warmed, however, the molybdate slide becomes a beauti'ul sky 
blue, while the chromic acid mLxture changes to a nickel green. 
\'anadic acid used in the same manner gives a yellow color, 
due to the metavanadate, but no reduction takes place with 
digitoxin. Sodium iodate with sulphuric acid gives no color. 
Of the greatest importance are the reactions with ferrocyanides 
.and ferricyanides. When treated with yellow or red prussiate 
of potash and water digitoxin gives a precipitate of the cor- 
responding salt. On allowing the mass to dry in the air, and 
adding acetic acid, the ferricyanide gives long needles. After 
standing for 12 hours, the addition of sulphuric acid causes 
an intense blue with the ferri salt, and a gradual change to 
sky blue with the ferro salt. Other tests of v^lue are carried 
out with tungstic acid, mercury sa!ts, silver nitrate, and hydro- 
chloric acid, and cobalt nitrate. (Reichard, Pharm. Zentral- 
halle, 1913, p. 687.) 

Tncompatibility Due to Glass Alkalinity — 

If sodium phosphate is present in solutions intended for in- 
jections, and put up in sterilized ampules, the quality of the 
^lass must be considered, .\mpules heated for 20 minutes at 
120° with water containing phenolphthalein, should show no 
pink color. .\ solution containing sodium glycerophosphate, 
sodium cacodylate, and strychnine sulphate formed crystals, 
which consisted of strychnine alkaloid. (Malvert, J. Pharm. 
Chim., 1913, p. 54.) 
Alpha-Glucoside of Glycol — 

By the action of a maceration of bottom yeast on a mixture 
•of glycol and glucose, Bourquelot and Bridel have synthesized 
a glucoside of the bivalent alcohol, as shown by the change in 
optical rotation of the solution, although the glucoside itself 
has not been isolated. The reaction has its maximum effect 
in solutions containing between 50 and 60 per cent, of glycol. 
Above these figures the combination of the alcohol and glucose 
falls off rapidly, and becomes zero in 75 per cent, glycol. 
This effect is unlike the reaction between glucose and glycerol, 
where the combination goes on to a greater extent with in- 
creasing strengths of glycerol, up to at least 94 per cent. In 
another article, one of Bourquelot's students gives the optimum 
e.xperimental conditions for making ethyl-glucoside in large 
quantities. In any number of 15 liter flasks place 4.5 kg. of 
glucose, 50 g. of emulsin. and 10 liters of 90 per cent, alcohol. 
Shake and maintain at 30° for a month. Decant the alcohol. 



replace by a new quantity of 10 liters, allow to stand for 
another month, and repeat the process. In this manner 'at 
least 1 kg. of beta-ethyl-glucoside can be obtained from each 
bottle in a month. The energy of the ferment is, impaired 
only slightly by its long immersibn in alcohol. The only 
difficult point in connection with the operation is obtaining 
the ferment. (Bourquelot and Bridel, J. Pharm. Chim., 191.-. 
p. 547; Coirre, ibid., p. 553.) 

Detection of Lead in Bismuth Salts — 

.Advantage is taken of the fact that a boiling solution of 
ammonium nitrate will remove any lead present in the sub- 
nitrate or carbonate of bismuth, without dissolving even a 
trace of the latter. In the case of the subnitrate, 10 g. are 
boiled for 3 minutes in 50 cc. of a I : 20 solution of ammonium 
nitrate. .After allowing the liquid to become quite cold, it is 
filtered, and a few drops of a neutral solution of potassium 
chromatc are added. In the presence of a trace of lead the 
well-known chrome yellow appear^. \^'ith the subcarbonate, 
treat 10 g. with 100 cc. of the ammonium nitrate solution, 
boil down to 30 or 40 cc, then evaporate to dryness on the 
water bath. Treat the dry residue with 100 cc. of dis- 
tilled water, stir well, and evaporate to 40 cc. over a 
naked flame. When cold, this solution is filtered and tested 
with potassium chromate solution. The reason for the pro- 
longed heating in this case is to absolutely eliminate the am- 
monium carbonate formed in the reaction, since the presence 
of this salt in the filtrate would prevent the precipitation of 
the lead chromate. (J. Pharm. Chim., 1913, p. 422; through 
Pharm. J.) 

Disinfectant Action of Solargyl — 

The silver-albumin preparations used thus far in the treat- 
ment of acute gonorrhoea have a number of defects, among 
them being the ease of decomposition, lack of solubility in 
water, and slight stability in solution. .A new preparation, 
solargyl, is said to overcome these difficulties. It contains 30 
per cent, of silver, being a combination of silver oxide and 
proteoses. Solargyl has a strong disinfectant action on re- 
sistent bacilli, as staphylococcus, coli, and pyocyaneus. In 
this regard solargyl with 30 per cent, of silver approaches 
collargol, with 76 per cent. The solutions are not decomposed 
by boiling, and can therefore be sterilized; they are neutral, 
and stable for long periods. (Gliicksmarui and Gobbi, Munch. 
Med. Wochschr., 1913. p. 27S8.) 

Antiseptic Constituents of Creosote — 

The question of what constituents of creosote have the most 
powerful antiseptic action is not yet cleared up, in spite of the 
efforts of many investigators. Charitschkoff has studied the 
problem in the following manner. The phenolic and acid 
constituents were removed by alkali, and the nitrogen bases 
separated by acids; naphthalene and other unsaturated bodies 
were removed by sulphuric acid. The phenol-free creosote was 
almost as strong'y antiseptic as crude creosote, and the same 
is true of creosote from which the bases have been removed. 
After treatment with sulphuric acid the substance is highly 
active. The phenols themselves, as well as the bases, have an 
antiseptic action like creosote. Probably the cause of the 
action is not only the substances named, which are contained 
ready formed in creosote, but also those which result from the 
oxidation of the unsaturated compounds. (Charitschkoff, 
Chem. Ztg., 1913, p. 1464.) 

Liquid Paraffin as Wound Dressing — 

During the Balkan war 920 cases of wounds vsere dressed 
with liquid paraffin. In nearly every case the wounds healed 
over in a remarkably short time; even gaping wounds with 
exposed bones healed at once. The oil, in fact, is recom- 
mended as a dressing for sores of all kinds, and where there 
is severe suppuration the addition of 2 per cent, of iodoform 
improves matters. ( Chrysospatches, Zentrallbl. Chir., 1913, 
Xov. S; through Pharm. J.) 

Genisteine, a New Alkaloid — 

.At the meeting of the Society of Pharmacy at Paris, held 
December 3, 1913, \'aleur described a new crystalline, volatile, 
saturated base, isolated from commercial sparteine. It has the 
formula CjcHaNi, melts at 60.5°, and boils at 177-178° under 
22 mm. pressure. It forms a hydrate with water, melting at 
117°. Genisteine acts like a monobasic acid toward phenol- 
phthalein, yet is a diacid base, as shown by the formulas of the 
picrate and platino-chloride. (J. Pharm. Chim.. 1913. p. 573.) 



Pebrcaky, 191-4] 



THE phar:\iaceutical era 



59 




THE OBJECT of this department is to furnish our subscribers 
and their clerks with reliable and tried formulas, and to discuss 
questions relating to practical pharmacy, prescription work, dis- 
pensing difficulties, etc Requests for information are not answered 
by mail, and ANOX\'MOUS COMMUNICATIONS WILL RE- 
CEIVE NO ATTENTION; neither do we answer questions in this 
department from non-subscribers. 

In this department frequent reference is necessarily made to 
information published in previous issues of the ERA, copies of 
which, if not out of print, may be obtained for 25 cents each. 



TTs8 of the Words "Cold Cream." 
(J.W.C.) — "Kindly enlighten me on a question that has 
: een raised on the use of the words 'cold cream.' A druggist 
makes a "greaseless cream' and calls it 'grease ess cold cream.' 
I claim that his product cannot be 'cold cream' if it is 'grease- 
less,' and that 'Unguentum -Aquae Rosae,' U.S. P., is the oijly 
cold cream. He claims that any cream can be called 'cold 
cream.' .Any information on the subject will be highly appre- 
ciated." 

.As the words "cold cream " are no longer used by the Phar- 
macopoeia as an official synonym for ointment of rose water 
there is nothing in the law or common usage of language that 
will prohibit one from applying these words to any preparation 
of "cream" he may wish. The principle of the law as to the 
use of names is set forth in No. 7 of the Regulations for the 
•enforcement of the Federal Food and Drugs -Act, as follows: 
(a) ".A drug bearing a name recognized in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary, without any further 
-statement respecting its character, shall be required to con- 
form in strength, quality, and purity to the standards pre- 
scribed or indicated for a drug of the same .name recognized 
in the U.S. P. or N.F., official at the time." -As "cold cream" 
is not recognized by either of the authorities named, there is 
no standard for the preparation e.xcept that which each manu- 
facturer may elect. In former editions of the U.S. P. "cold 
cream' was an official sj-nonym for ointment of rose water, 
but. as stated above, the name does not appear in the present 
revision. The dismissal of the synonym became necessary 
because of the large number of unofficial ointments of varying 
cromposition popularly exploited as cold cream, and these were 
frequently dispensed when physicians' prescriptions directed 
ointment of rose water. 



Resilvering- Mirrors. 

(J.S.H.) — We have repeatedly published formulas for re- 
silvering mirrors, and if you care to take the trouble to go over 
the files of The Ph.\rm.\ceutic.u, Er.\ covering the last three 
•or four years, you will find a number of processes outlined. 

However, to help you out, we would state that as mirrors 
are mcde by backing the glass with a fi m of silver or with an 
amalgam of mercury, the character of the "resilvering" process 
must be selected accord.'ngly. But whatever method is em- 
ployed, great stress is laid on the absolute cleanliness of tlie 
•glass, not only from dirt and grease, but also freedom from 
any organic matter. In fact, herein lies the success of any 
luethod emp'oyed for this purpose. The following formula has 
been recommended as answering most of the requirements: 
^lake three solutions, as follows: 

(1) 

Silver nitrate 200 grains 

Stronger ammonia water q.s. 

Distilled water q.s. 

.Alcohol 1, fi. ounce 

Dissolve the silver nitrate in 6 fl. ounces of distilled water, 
and gradually add the ammonia water until the precipitate first 
formed is dissolved — no more. Any excess of ammonia must 
be guarded against. Then filter through a double filter paper, 
adding distilled water to make 12 ounces; then add the alcohol. 
Place in a clean bottle, shake thoroughly and keep in a cool, 
dark place. 

(2) 

Rochelle salt 12 grains 

Silver nitrate 16 grains 



Distilled water qs. 

.Alcohol 1 fl. ounce 

Dissolve the Roclielle salt in S ounces of distilled water in 
a porcelain dish, and boil. While boiling, add gradually the 
silver nitrate dissolved in 1 ounce of distilled water. Con- 
tinue to boil until the solution begins to turn gray; add 6 
ounces of distiJed water and filter, making up to 12 fl. ounces 
with distilled water. Add the alcohol and bottle, keeping the 
solution in a cool, dark place. .Allow both of these solutions 
to stand five or six hours before using. 

ilix equal parts of the above solutions and pour the mix- 
ture on the glass until covered. .Allow to stand for one hour 
or more; pour off the solution, rinse with clear water, and 
belore drying, amalgamate with the following solution : 

(3) 

Potassium cyanide 8 grains 

ilercury cyanide 16 grains 

Water q.s. 

Dissolve the salts separately in 8 ounces of water and add 
to distilled water to make 1 gallon. Place this solution in a 
sprinkler, and sprinkle the silver film on the glass until it 
turns a lead color; then rinse immediately and stand the glass 
on end to dry. Paint over the deposited film with asphaltum 
varnish, using a soft brush. The silver coating must not be 
touched before it is painted. 

A varnish for the backs of silvered mirrors consists of 
dammar gum, 20 parts; asphalt, 3 parts; gutta-percha, 3 parts; 
benzole, 75 parts. Mix and dissolve. To use varnish it may 
be applied with a soft brush, or pour it over the silvered 
surface and move the plate back and forth until the varnish 
is evenly and completely distributed over the back of the glass. 



Face Lotion: Hair Tonic. 
(G.D.Co.) — 'Please give us formulas for each of the follow- 
ing: Face lotion, thick, nice odor; face lotion, tliin, nice odor; 
and a hair tonic, also possessing a nice odor." 

The title "face lotion," without other qualification, is so 
elastic that it may be employed to cover a broad range of 
preparations of widely differing composition and characteristics. 
However, one of the most common "lotions" of the "thick" 
type used for the face and hands, perhaps, is the well-known 
quince seed lotion or toilet "cream, a common formula being: 

Quince seed 2 ounces 

Rose water 4 pints 

Glycerin 2 pints 

Tincture of benzoin 2 ounces 

Macerate the quince seed in the rose water for 24 hours, 
strain, and add the glycerin and tincture of benzoin. 
Another lotion which possesses considerable density is: 

Mucilage of fla.xseed 8 fl. ounces 

Glycerin 8 fl. ounces 

Alcohol 2 fl. ounces 

Essence of roses ^ A- ounce 

Borax 2 drams 

Rose water, enough to make 32 fl. ounces 

Mix the mucilage and glycerin, add the alcohol and essence, 
and finally the rose water in which the borax has been dis- 
solved. If desired, any good handkerchief perfume may be 
added to give distinctive odor. 

For a "thin" lotion try one of these: 

(1) 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

.Aromatic vinegar, enough to make 16 fl. ounces 

Tincture of cochineal enough to color 

Glycerin • 4 ounces 

Orange-flower water 1 ounce 

Rose water 5 ounces 

Distilled water 5 ounces 

Mix. This lotion may be colored with liquid carmine, 1 to 
4 fl. drams. 



60 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



Hair Tonic. 

(1) 

Resorcin 5,0 parts 

Menthol O.S part 

Alcohol 150.0 parts 

Rose water 25.0 parts 

Cologne water 25.0 parts 

Mix. 

(2) 

Castor oil 2 fl. ounces 

Oleo-balsamic mi.\ture 3 fl. ounces 

Tincture of cantharides 3 fl. drams 

Benzoic acid 135 grains 

Tannic acid 1 J-i drams 

Alcohol 4 fl. drams 

MLx and filter. 

As stated above, these preparations may also be variously 
perfumed by the addition of suitable handkerchief extracts. 



The dog should be thoroughly washed with plenty of soft 
soap and warm water. After drying, either of the foregoing 
applications will generally eradicate the pest, the hair usually 
growing again. Two or tliree dressings at intervals of three 
davs will sufiice. 



Tincture of Larkspur. 
(G.P.H.) — There is no official formula for tincture of lark- 
spur, but the following has been proposed for admission into 
the next edition of the National Formulary: 

Larkspur seed. No. 30 powder 100 grams 

.•\lcohol, enough to make 1000 cc. 

The resulting tincture has a permanent brownish-green 
color. 

The so-called "nursery hair lotion" to kill "nits" in chil- 
dren's hair may be made after one of the following formulas 
("Pharmaceutical Formulas") : 

(1) 

Stavesacre seed, in rough powder 2 ounces 

Acetic acid 1 ounce 

Water 16 fl. ounces 

Boil for 10 minutes in a covered vessel, set aside until cold; 
then add: 

Rectified spirit 2 ounces 

Oil of geranium 2 minims 

Oil of lavender 2 minims 

Oil of lemon 4 minims 

Filter and add : 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

Water, enough to make. 20 fl. ounces 

According to the authority cited, this formula from the 
Edinburgh Infirmary Pharmacopoeia, is a valuable one and 
certain in its effects. 

(2) 

Larkspur seed 10 ounces 

Potassium carbonate 1 ounce 

Water SO ounces 

Boil together five minutes, and when cold add : 

Rectified spirit 50 ounces 

Water, enough to make 100 ounces 



Mange Remedy for Bogs. 
(E.J.H.) — We are not familiar with the proprietary remedy 
and do not recall any analysis that throws any light on the 
probable composition. However, if you want a formula recom- 
mended by a contributor to the Era, you can try the following; 

Whale oil 2 parts 

O-l of tar 1 part 

Flowers of sulphur 1 part 

This is to be thoroughly mixed and applied to the parts 
affected, and allowed to remain for about 24 hours, when the 
dog should be washed and a fresh supply applied. Usually two 
or three applications wi'l effect a cure. This remedy contains 
no poison, 2nd cannot injure the dog should he lick it off. 
Two other standard formulas are: 

(1) 

Olive oil 1 pint 

Oil of ttirpentine 54 P>nt 

Sulphur 2 ounces 

(2) 

Olive oil 1 pmt 

Creolin 1 ounce 

Sulphur 2 ounces 



Shampoo Paste. 
(M.P.n.) — Here are three formulas; 

(1) 

While castile soap 2 ounces 

Ammonia water 2 ounces 

Bay rum or cologne water 1 ounce 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

Water 12 ounces 

Dissolve the soap in the water by the aid of heat; when 
nearly cold, stir m the other ingredients. 

(2) 

Castile soap 4 ounces 

Potassium carbonate 1 ounce 

Water 6 ounces 

G lycerin 2 ounces 

Oil of lavender flowers 5 drops 

Oil of bergamot 10 drops 

To the water add the soap, in shavings, and the potassium 

carbonate, and heat on a water bath until thoroughly softened; 

add the glycerin and oils ; if necessary to reduce consistency, 

more water may be added. 

(3) 

White castile soap 4 ounces 

Powdered curd soap 2 ounces 

Potassium carbonate 1 ounce 

Honey 1 ounce 

Perfume to suit. Make a homogeneous paste by heating 
with a sufficient quantity of water. Many other formulas for 
shampoos may be found in the new edition of the Er.\ 
Formulary, now on the press. 



Antiseptic Solution. 

(J.E.C.) — "Will you please publish in your next issue a 
formula for an antiseptic solution containing the following 
articles: Benzoic acid, boracic acid, euca'yptol, oil of pepper- 
mint, oil of wintergreen, thymol, and alcohol, the solution not 
to contain over 2S per cent, of alcohol, and enough water to 
make 1 gallon ?" 

The substances named constitute the ingredients directed in 
the Pharmacopoeia for the official "antiseptic solution" which, 
according to Professor A. B. Stevens' calculation, given in the 
Era Dose Book, contains 23.7 per cent, of alcohol in the 
finished product. Taking the official formula and converting 
the metric quantities there prescribed to the nearest equivalents 
in English weights and measures (on the basis of making 
1 gallon of finished product), the formula becomes as follows; 

Boric acid 22 5/12 troy ounces 

Benzoic acid 56 grains 

Thymol 56 grains 

Eucalyplol 16 minims 

Oil of peppermint 16 minims 

Oil of gaultheria 16 minims 

Oil of thyme 8 minims 

Alcohol 32 fl. ounces 

Water, enough to make 1 gallon 

Dissolve the boric acid in 92 fl. ounces of water and the 
benzoic acid in 10 fl. ounces of alcohol, and pour the aqueous 
solution into the alcoholic solution. Then dissolve in a mortar 
the thymol in the eucalyptol, and oils of peppermint, gaul- 
theria and thyme; thoroughly incorporate the purified talc, 
and add, with constant trituration, the solution first prepared. 
Allow the mixture to stand, with occrsional agitation, during 
48 hours, filter, add the remainder of the alcohol, and enough 
water to make the finished product measure 1 gallon. 

But why be compelled to convert the metric units of any 
formula into units of English weights and measures for manu- 
facturing operations? A set of metric weights and measures 
and their intelligent employment would obviate nearly all of 
the "conversion problems" many druggists think they are com- 
pelled to solve before they can proceed with a formula stated 
in metric units. 



February. 1914:] 



THE PHAR.AIACEUTICAL ERA 



Gl 




WOMEM m PHAEMACY 

Conducted by EMMA GARY WALLACE 

Women Students, Junior and Senior, and Instructors at Columbia. 





THE 84th annual term of instruction at the College of Pharmacy, Columbia University, is now well under way. The 
Junior class numbers 17 students, and the Senior class nine This unusual number of women shows the increasing 
favor accorded to women in pharmacy and to the course offered by this well-known institution. A private sitting room 
is provided for the young ladies, and everything possible done for their profit and comfort. The college graduates are 
represented on the faculty membership for the first time this year. Columbia offers unusual advantages in three-, four- and 
si.x-year courses of study based upon high school graduation and leading respectively to the degrees of Pharmacy Chemist 
(Ph.Ch.), Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy (B.S. in Phar.), and Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.). 

Women students of the Junior and Senior classes of the College of Pharmacy, Columbia University, together with some 
of the members of the faculty. Those in the Junior class are : Miss Deborah .\rginteanu, Hiss Lena Brill, Miss Edythe 
Caffrey, Miss Rose Dispenza, Miss Sarah Oilman, Miss Marie Goldberg, Miss May Levit, Miss Guarana Lora, Miss Lena J. 
Lmdeman, Miss Daisy Jlyerson, Miss Mary A. O'Connor, Miss Sophia Rose, Miss Helen F. Roudin, Miss Ida Schimansky, 
Miss Henrietta Silverman, Miss .^nna Solosko, and Mrs. Edith Thorn. Those in the Senior class are: Miss Lena Ager, 
Miss Margueritte Colfax, Miss Henrietta De Maio, Miss Rose Fried, Miss Kate Kramer, Miss Ruth Propper, Miss Rose 
Ofrias, Miss Mary Rothstein and Mrs. Florence V. G. Wodicka. 



III. The Woman Pharmacist's Future. — "The Better Babies" Movement. 



THE Federal government led the way to a still greater work 
when it began to experiment and conduct exhaustive 
tests in scientific crop productions and animal husbandry. 
Slowly, but surely, it began to dawn upon an increasingly 
large number of people that even if cotton and hogs were 
immensely valuable, our babies were worth vastly more. 

Statistics are wonderfully illuminating even if they are con- 
sidered dry as dust to the uninterested, and statistics revealed 
appalling waste of human life from improper prenatal and 
post-natal conditions; from unclean milk, improper feeding, 
indiscriminate home medication, disease-carrying insects, neglect 
of sanitary and hygienic conditions, and hot, close, dusty 
rooms, while thousands were needlessly doomed to go through 
life blind before the enforced use of silver nitrate solution 
almost eliminated blindness from ophthalmia neonatorum. The 
decrease of puerperal septicaemia has been in steady propor- 
tion to the better understanding of hygienic conditions and the 
intelligent use of antiseptics. 

At the time of the last census in 1910, there were 40,417,361 
persons in the United States under 21 years of age, and they 
formed 43.9 per cent, of the total population. There were 
29,499,136 children under 15 years of age or about one-third 
of the population, and over 2,000,000 babies under a year old 
or almost one-fortieth of the entire number of people. Not 



quite one child in five lives in a big city. The major portion, 
therefore, of children under 15 live in towns, villages and rural 
communities.^ These young people will form a large part of 
the citizenship of tomorrow — in fact the native citizenship 
itself. 

The more the native birth rate is lowered, the greater is the 
administrative power placed in the hands of the multitude 
trooping through the gateway at Ellis Island. 

And, strange as it may seem, the big problem of infant 
mortality no longer is centered in the big cities, but in smaller 
places. 

Through labor and legislation. New York City has reduced 
the infant mortality rate from 191 per 1000 births in 1901, 
to 105 in 1912, as against 143 in Utica and 158 in Troy.^ 
The bulletin from which these figures are taken, says: 
"The result is that we have suddenly awakened to 
the fact that we are in much the same position as 
New Orleans when she learned that instead of quar- 
antining against Havana, Havana was quarantining 
against New Orleans." 



''^Handbook of Federal Statistics of Children, Children's 
Bureau, Julia C. Lathrop, Chief. 

-Special Bulletin. New York State, Department of Health. 



62 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Fkbruary, 191<t 



From 1909 to 1913 the Milk and Baby Hygiene Association 
of Boston has reduced the infant mortality 25 per cent. During 
the past Summer o279 babies under one year of age died in 
New York City from diarrhoeal diseases, and these diseases 
do not rank first in importance as the cause of infant mor- 
tality. The congenital diseases take first rank. Nevertheless, 
most of these 3279 could have been saved if they had been 
properly fed. 

Too often, it is claimed, undersized people and actual 
dwarfs are the result of imperfect nutrition during infancy. 
Older children suffer from neglected teeth, eyes, ears, etc., and 
that, too, in spite of recent legislation to supply medical 
inspection. The result of years of neglect cannot be undone 
in a moment, even by the most conscientious of physicians. 
New York City has 1S4 medical inspectors, 301 nurses, 10 
dentists, 55 nurses' assistants, etc., and in addition 55 trained 
nurses are assigned for extra duties at the infant's milk sta- 
tions from May 1 to Oct. 1. All places are not provided with 
such a corps of workers, but the fact remains there is work to 
do for child welfare everywhere. 

The woman pharmacist has neither time nor training to 
undertake specialized work in any of tliese lines, but in order 
to keep step with the progress of events about her she must 
be prepared to give helpful information with the goods she sells. 
When she wraps up nursing bottles or rubber nipples for a 
yotmg mother or a foreign one, she can easily lead the con- 
versation to the care of these articles and tell her a clean, 
boiled nipple should be used each time — one that has been 
cleansed inside and out; that clean, boiled bottles should be 
used for each feeding, and any milk left in the bottle thrown 
away: that hands and all dishes sliould be scrupulously clean 
when baby's food is prepared; and that no pains should be 
spared to nurse a baby, as that is the best food of all when 
it is possible. 

She can discourage the mother from following the neigh- 
bors' advice when baby is ill, and point out that babies are 
delicate creatures and that skilled, medical advice is decidedly 
safest. She can utter a timely warning against ignorant 
"doping" of children with narcotics, and the too common 
belief that all childish ills come from teeth or worms. Too 
often indigestion and a reactionary nervous condition are pres- 
ent that call for e.xpert diagnosis. 

The woman pharmacist can do a great deal toward educat- 
ing the mothers about her on the importance of care of teeth 
and eyes in relation to physical well being of their children, 
and as she has frequent opportunity, can urge adequate pre- 
natal care under medical supervision. She can acquaint her- 
self with the hygienic needs of maternity and specialize on 
these supplies. She can, by means of a very little study, help 
her customers to follow the doctor's orders by explaining 
thoroughly the use of sterilizing and pasteurizing apparatus 
and the clinical thermometer. 

She could with propriety have a pamphlet of timely in- 
formation printed bearing a few common-sense rules of baby 
hygiene, and a listed advertisement of the baby supplies she 
offers and enclose them with each sale of baby goods or send 
them to the mothers of her locality. 

When there is a "Better Babies Show" in town, she can, if 
she is in business for herself, offer one or more prizes for the 
most physically perfect specimens of babyhood. She can keep 
a capacious filing drawer in which to store all the infant 
literature of which there is such an abundance, and she can 
so familiarize herself with the child welfare movement that she 
will be the first thought of the mother in need of the services 
of a sympathetic woman pharmacist. 

(To be continued) 



NE'W YORK "WOMEN'S PH.A. 

At the annual meeting of the Women's Pharmaceutical 
Association of New York the following officers were elected : 
President, Mrs. E. V. Wiscndanger, Woodmere, L. I. ; vice- 
president. Miss Louise Kramer, New York City; recording 
secretary, Miss Lucille Rein, New Y'ork City; corresponding 
secretary, Mrs. May V. Crosby, Inwood. L. I. ; treasurer, 
Mrs. Evelyn Baker Schwager, New Y'ork City. 

The retiring president was Mrs. Bertha Broder, who was 
pharmacist at the East New York Dispensary until her mar- 
riage last August to Morrish Dlugash, a wholesale druggist 
of New York City. Mrs. Dlugash has a daughter in the 
Junior class of the BrookI)Ti College of Pharmacy. 




Miss NOR.'V M. GOBIE 



A Promisinj; Pharmacy Graduate. 

THE history of Miss Nora Marceline Gobie, of Dorches- 
ter, Mass., is of especial interest because it shows how 
closely are linked together long-cherished desire, the 
timely word spoken at the right season, and the ability of a 
joyous, capable, ambitious girl to accomplish great things. 
It also shows that results 
longed for with sufficient 
earnestness are pretty certain 
to be accomplished sooner or 
later. 

Miss Gobie was born in the 
State of A'ermont just 22 years 
ago in the town of Quechee. 
The family home is still 
there. During his own young 
manhood Mr. Gobie, the 
father, had felt a strong in- 
clination to enter pharmacy, 
but other business prevented. 
The business which occupied 
Mr. Gobie largely to the e.\- 
clusion of other things was 
and is the printing of drug- 
gists' and physicians' labc's. 
He found the Era a valuable 
advertising medium and that 
magazine came regularly to 
his office. 

As the daughter grew to womanhood she became a fint 
student, graduating from the Woodstock High school with 
high rank. The Gobie printing business is in Woodstock, 
and, naturally, the young High school student was much in 
her father's office during her four-year course. She handled' 
and sorted and studied the labels until the desire awoke to- 
know what they stood for and the scientific knowledge that 
lay behind them. Then the history of what women hadf 
accomplished in pharmacy began to be to!d in the Er,\, and 
father and daughter read it. What had been done might be 
done again. Together they eagerly awaited the coming of each 
copy, until it came to be the accepted fact that Nora Gobie 
would do the thing her father had always longed to do. 

As soon as she finished High school she entered the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy, from which she expects to 
graduate next May. In the meantime this young lady,, 
thanks to hard work, thorough training and careful instruc- 
tions, received her diploma of registration as an assistant 
pharmacist from the Vermont Board in July of last year, 
and her full registration papers in October, taking a standing 
sufficient to entitle her to reciprocity privileges. 

Miss Gobie says the utmost courtesy was e.xtended to her 
by the members of the board of her native State, which shows 
that the day of prejudice has passed against a woman enter- 
ing this profession. During the time she has been in college 
she has been fortunate in having excellent places in which 
to work during her leisure hours, and this is giving her the 
training she desires for the management of the drug store 
which she hopes to own some day. 

At the present time she is employed in the store of Mr. 
I. A. Piercy, 1270 Dorchester avenue, Dorchester. Naturally, 
this occupies the young lady's time very fully. It means a 
fixed purpose to do good work provided a student takes sev- 
eral subjects and works in a store at the same time. She saysr 
"Many nights I have put in two or three hours of 
hard study after working until 10 o'clock. But, at the 
same time, if one can stand it, you are getting valu- 
able experience in the store and your training at the 
school to apply on your education in the meantime." 
Miss Qobie is right, and many young people who are 
spending time and energy in late-hour pleasures would be 
better off to be spending the same time to a definite, worthy 
purpose. 

Miss Gobie finds the public cordial and appreciative of 
her efforts. She likes her work more and more each day ; 
and she looks forward to a career of usefulness. She con- 
siders pharmacy a fine field for any young woman willing to^ 
apply herself sufficiently to master its principles. 



?m*wAiyf^&vmsfi^^i!srMi^iiyHiVKi9&^^^ 




Mostly Personal 



How F. K. Stearns Takes His Recreation. 



president of the Detroit Baseball Club — and Detroit had a 
world's champion team then, too. He comes naturally by his 
love for the National game, for during his college days at Ann 
Arbor he was a member of the 'Varsity Nine and a most 
effective member at that. 




F. K. SrE.4RXs 
of Detroit. 



FREDERICK K. STEARNS, of Detroit, is a motor en- 
thusiast. Not content with having motored al^ through 
this countr>-. he has made 20 trips abroad, has traversed 
Einope in all directions, has visited the islands of the sea, 
Vokohoma, Singapore, Ceylon and Java, and as he himself 

c~presses it, has been every- 
where but South .Africa. Rus- 
sia and Jerusalem. He has 
hopes of traveling through 
Russia in his car before he 
stops; but while he has been 
in the Ho'y Land he has 
tabooed Jerusalem because — 
"it did not seem just exactly 
what you mi^ht call sanitary." 
Mr. Steams undoubtedly has 
reference to that peculip.r state 
of bodily sanitation in the 
Eastern countries so frankly 
epitomized by Mark Twain, 
when he told his reasons why 
he was no longer attracted by 
the glories of the Queen of 
Sheba. 

Mr. Steams is a most in- 
teresting man to talk with. 
He will take a map of the 
Continent and point to the 
network of tracings in red, blue and yellow, all records of 
his journeys, extending from sea to sea and from capital to 
capital. He has traveled thousands of miles during his 12 
years of motoring and has never had an accident. Only once 
has he injured a pedestrian, and that was in Spain. The 
party was then cast into a dungeon and held until it was 
learned that the woman was not seriously hurt. It was im- 
comfortable and it looked serious for a time for the motorists, 
but they were eventually released. His most thrilling ride 
was through the Stelvio pass, the highest mountain pass in the 
world, which lies between .Austria and Italy. In it there are 
80 '"hair-pin" cmres, so narrow that a motor car has to back 
through them, and the drop down the sides of the pass are 
sheer for more than a mile. 

Only last September he returned from a trip to Australia. 
He finds Hawaii — that is, Honolulu — an ideal climate and 
says that while people visit Europe in search of perfect weather 
they overlook this beauty spot so near our doors. Japan, he 
finds, has been over-praised. 

"It's beautiful," he says, "but by no means the dreamland 
of cherry blossoms and wistaria people think it. It has been 
tmbearably hot when I have been there, and the last time we 
were in Japan it was in a raging snow storm." 

Mr. Steams is a man of many accomplishments. While 
motoring is his hobby, he is passionately fond of music, and 
his activities in behalf of the Detroit Symphony .Association 
have done much for that organization. He himself has been 
at some time or another a proficient performer upon any one 
of a half dozen different musical instruments. He is an 
enthusiastic baseball "fan" as well, and for fovu: years was the 



— Daniel R. Jones, well-known Milwaukee druggist, whose 
store in the Wells building is one of the best patronized in 
that city, believes that the day has passed when the city 
druggist can profitably feature holiday goods. Mr. Jones says 
that it is all right for the druggist in the smaller city or town 
to specialize in holiday goods, but that it will pay the city 
druggist to give his attention to a general line of drugs and 
accessories. "Five or six years ago." said Mr. Jones, "this 
was a profitable sideline for the city druggist, but nowadays 
people dont go to a drug store to buy their holiday stationer^', 
perfumes and other lines. They go to the department stores, 
where they can usually find a larger assortment at lower prices. 
Other druggists in tlie downtown section have told me the 
same thing. Druggists in the residence districts and drug- 
gists in the smaller cities and towns meet with just the oppo- 
site experience, and find that it is a paying proposition to 
feature holiday goods in their windows and in their stores. 
The small-town druggist who does not play up the usual 
special stuff at holiday time is missing a great opportunity, 
but it is easy to see why conditions are different with pro- 
prietors of city stores. The department stores and the 5-and- 
10-cent stores have killed the holiday business for the city 
druggist, and the sooner he realizes this the better, because 
then he will devote his time and energy to the regular lines of 
goods and will increase his sales in this line during the 
holidays." 

— Joseph T. Baltar, of New Orleans, one of the most 
popular druggists in that city, has been 
appointed a member of the State Board 
of Pharmacy by the Governor. Mr. 
Baltar is a graduate of the medical de- 
partment of Tulane University, and is a 
member of the Tulane Alunmi Asso- 
ciation. He started in the retail drug 
business as an apprentice for William 
Wright, with whom he remained for 
eight years. He then accepted a posi- 
tion as head prescription clerk at 
Eugene May's drug store, which posi- 
tion he held for three years, when he 
went into business for himself. He is 
now the proprietor of a prosperous drug 
store in the Sixth district and is highly 
esteemed by both the medical profes- 
sion and the public. His ability as a 
pharmacist led to his being named for 
State Board, and he is expected to 
member of that body. 

— Dr. H. M. Whelpley has 'em going. You know, the 
Doctor is a way-up pharmacist in St. Louis and the United 
States, and more than likely when you get across the water 
you'll find him listed as somewhat of an American celebrity. 
The Doctor, with his ready smile and his steady twinkling 
eyes and his soft voice and his delightful method of imparting 
information to the ignorant without asking embarrassing ques- 
tions, is doing the utterly impossible — he's getting business 
men interested in flints and other crude-looking Indian stones 
and pieces of old pottery, and men heretofore chiefly interested 
in billiards and such are pottering about Monk's Mound across 




Joseph T. B.vlt.\r 

the position on the 
prove a most valuable 



64 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



the river, where they are picking up things to bring kick to 
St. Louis, where they are calling their friends aside to inspect 
their wonderful finds. "A year ago," says the Doctor, "you 
couldn't get a soul interested in Indian mounds and mound 
pickings. Today — why. I even &3.T women and children on 
the street cars discussing St. Louis and its mounds or the 
mounds we used to have here. It's wonderful. I'm delighted 
to see this awakening to things historical." Dr. Whelpley 
gave an illustrated lecture Jan. 19 at the St. Louis .\cadcmy 
of Science. Of course, he spoke on mounds. 

— ■William UcGibbon, manager of the Missouri River 
departmeht of Eli Lilly & Co., joined the Red Lilly organi- 
zation as a traveling salesman 10 years ago. Previous to that 
time he had represented Nelson, Baker & Co. Mr. McGibbon's 
first territory with the Lilly company was the Slate of Michi- 
gan, which later became divided and he was assigned the 
western half with hecdquarlers at Grand Rapids. His e.\- 
cellent work in Michigan was recognized by his house in 
promoting him to the management of the Chicago branch of 
the Lilly company, where he remained for several years. Mr. 
McGibbon now resides in Kansas City. He is a close student 
of pharmaceutical subjects and is well informed on drug 
questions, both technical and commercial. He has been active 
in the drug organizations of Michigan and Illinois and is 
certain to prove a \-aluable accession to the ranks of the 
Kansas and Missouri associations. .X man of fine personality, 
very genial and a capital mixer, with a faculty of becoming 
widely acquainted in any community in a short time, he is also 
a man of great industry and perseverance, as his success in 
his chosen field attests. 

—Dr. Charles S. 'WToods, who for the last two years has 
been medical counsel for Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, has 
accepted the chair of preventative medicine in the University 
of Iowa, and has gone to Iowa City to reside. Friends in 
Indianapolis gave a farewell dinner to Dr. Woods at the 
Severin Hotel prior to his departure. Among the guests were 
Severance Burrage, H. E. Barnard, Jack Hinman, Dr. E. J. 
Dubois, and others. Dr. Woods is a graduate of Moores 
Hill College, University of Chicago, and has studied e.xten- 
sively abroad. He is an active member and worker in the 
American Pharmaceutical .Association, .American Medical .As- 
sociation, .American Chemical Society, National Educational 
.Association and -American Public Health .Association. Re- 
cently he was a candidate for mayor of Indianapolis, and 
prior to his connection with Eli Lilly & Co., was city sanitarian 
and secretary of the city health board. 

—Miss Alice Henkel, botanist in the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, of the United States Department of .Agriculttire. 
wTites the bureau's pamphlets on the medicinal qualities of 
plants for the schools of pharmacy and for others interested. 
Her most recent publication is ".American Medicinal Flowers, 
Fruits and Seeds," which gives and describes a list of 14 plants 
furnishing medicinal flowers, fruits and seeds, with sraonyms 
and pharmacopoeial name, and common name, habitat, range, 
description and information in regard to collection, prices and 
uses of the parts in greatest demand. Miss Henkel is a 
graduate of the National College of Pharmacy in Washington. 
She WTOte her first booklet on "Weeds L^sed in Medicine" in 
1904. and since that time has written several others. Her 
booklets are part of the official literature issued by the Govern- 
ment. 

— Ali Selim will return from St. Louis to Egypt not only 
a pharmacist but also a benedict. .Ali is a young Egyptian of 
high family. He says he is the son of Selim Osman. former 
treasurer for an Egyptian ruler. Ali came to St. Louis about 
two years ago, and he expects to be graduated from the St. 
Louis College of Pharmscy in April. .Ali said he wanted to 
keep his marriage secret from his relatives in Cairo until 
after his graduation. "They are sending me money to go to 
school on and not to get married on," he said. Last Summer, 
when on his vacation in Hot Springs, .Ark., he met Miss Opal 
Sartain, of Fort Smith, .Ark. On Jan. 13, this year, he and 
Miss Sartain were married in St. Louis by the Rev. John C. 
Ablett. -AH said he probably would go into business in Cairo, 
where he has a brother and a sister and other relatives who 
are physicians. 

— Thomas A. Huston, the Summit street (Toledo) drug- 
gist, who was sent to jail recently on the charge of selling 
narcotics illegallj-, was released just before Christmas. He 



had served 32 of the 60 days' sentence and paid a fine of $150. 
In suspending sentence the judge said that the 32 days Mr. 
Huston had spent in jail had accomplished as much good in 
stopping the widespread sale ot "dope" in Toledo by druggists 
as a.l ihe crus,-!des ever made in the city. .After his release 
Mr. Huston said: "There is not a reputable druggist in 
Toledo who is now selling dope unless it is on the prescrip- 
tion of a reputable physician. I do not believe there will ever 
be the necessity for a hospital in Toledo to cure the dope 
habit because before one year has passed dope will be com- 
pletely wiped out in this city." 

, — Gilbert A Doty, of Doty Brothers, proprietors of a 
chain of drug stores in Detroit, was shot twice in the arm, 
in the store at 2SS West Warren avenue, recently, by an insane 
man who entered the store and demanded money. Mr. Doty 
was standing near the center of the store when the man 
entered and exhibited a revolver. "I want money," he an- 
nounced. "I haven't any," said Mr. Doty, a small, slight man, 
raising both hands above his head. "Well, I'm going to shoot 
you any way," the crank replied, and fired several times. Two 
bullets took effect in Mr. Doty's arm. His assailant escaped. 

— Fred B. Flettner, who has just been promoted from 
the position of assistant superintendent of the Summer street 
store of the Riker-Jaynes Drug Company, to that of manager 
of the wholesale drug department in Boston, was tendered a 
complimentary dinner Jan. 19 at the Quincy House by his 
associates in the Summer street store, and he was presented 
with a beautiful mahogany mantle clock. Frank Locke made 
the presentation speech. Lots of nice things were said about 
Mr. Flettner, and all wished him success in his new and re- 
sponsible position. 

— August E. Holmberg. a druggist of Superior, Wis., 
was one of the leading witnesses before the Wisconsin State 
^'ice Commission, when that body held a recent hearing in 
Superior. Mr. Holmberg testified that he was doing a business 
with the "tenderloin" district that amounted to about $250 
a month and that he had a boy in his employ who collected 
the fines imposed by the city in the district and turned them 
over to the police. Mr. Holmberg testified that he carried 
forbidden drugs in his stock, but he denied that he had ever 
sold any. 

— C. T. Goldsmith, a druggist at Mt. Pleasant, Pa., was 
held up and robbed recently as he was about to close his store. 
.A stranger entered the store, asked for chewing gum, and when 
Goldsmith turned to produce it the man drew a gun and 
demanded money. Goldsmith ran from the store into the arms 
of an accomplice of the lold-up man. He was taken back into 
the store and robbed of his watch, valued at $150. The 
robbers took $20 from the cash register, but when Goldsmith 
asked for some change they gave him some nickels and dimes. 

— C. J. Mount, formerly with the McPike Drug Co., and 
also the head salesman with the Faxon-Gallagher Drug Co., 
Kansas City, for some time, went to .Atchison, Kan., Jan. 1, 
to assume the direction of the traveling men of the Wherrett- 
Mize Drug Co. Some time ago he went to the Pacific Coast 
and established himself at Seattle with the Pacific Coast Drug 
Co., which went out of business after the death of Leslie 
Brinkenhoff, but has now returned to the scene of earlier 
e.xperiences. 

— Leo Pionati, pharmacist at Franklin and Erie street, 
Buffalo, is receiving congratulations, instead of condolences, 
from his friends. .A man with Mr. Pionati's card was found 
dying in a Harrisburg, Pa., street recently. .A bottle labeled 
"strjchnine" lying by his side told the story, and the card in 
his pocket was the only means of identification. "The man 
probably was someone I had met and handed my card to 
when I was a pharmacist at the Columbus hospital," said 
Mr. Pionati. "You can see that I am very much alive." 

— A. C. Smith, of Lancaster, Wis., a traveling salesman 
for the Watkins Medicine Co., of Winona, Minn., has rep- 
resented that company in Grant county, Wis., for the past 26 
years. In fact, his term of seri-ice will total 27 years in 
March. He had the whole county as his territory for 20 
years, and it was then divided into two sections, llr. Smith 
being given the South half. This b an unusually good record 
from point of service and one upon which Mr. Smith prides 
himself. 

— Charles F. Cutler, president of the Eastern Drug Co.; 



Fkbedaky, 1914] 



THE PHARJIACEUTICAL ERA 



65 



George R. White, president of the Potter Drug & Chemical 
Co., and Waher M. Lowney, president of the Walter M. 
Lomiey Co., were included in the list of 90 friends of the late 
Horace W. Wadleigh, of Boston, who after disposing of a 
fortune of $130,000 to educational and philanthropic enter- 
prises of Boston and vicinity made gifts of $100 each to a 
long list of personal friends. 

— Edward E. Leighton, attorney for the California State 
Board of Pharmacy, gave a talk recently before the Evening 
City Club of Los .\ngeles on "An Evening with the Drug 
Fiends, or the Morphine, Cocaine and Opium Traffic in Cali- 
fornia." State Inspector Jones illustrated the speaker's re- 
marks by e.xhibiting and explaining the opium pipe, lamp, 
drugs and all the paraphernalia used by drug devotees. 

— James E. Mastin, assistant food chemist for Kentucky, 
has been appointed to the position at the head of the food 
laboratory under Dr. W. F. Hand, State Chemist and Food and 
Drug Commissioner of Mississippi. Mr. Mastin is the sixth 
Kentuckian to be appointed to pure food work under the 
Federal government and in the several States. The appoint- 
ment is a promotion in both position and salary. 

— Roy S. Patterson, formerly pharmacist with John 
Harding & Co., Brady street, Davenport, la., has accepted a 
position as Tri-city salesman with the Hartz & Bahnsen Co., 
wholesale druggists of Rock Island. He began his new duties 
Jan. 1. Mr. Patterson went to Davenport from Marshalltown 
nine years ago, and has been associated with the Harding 
store ever since. 

— George W. Clark, for six years employed as a clerk 
with Theodore Merritt's Sons, Newburg, X. Y., has purchased 
the drug business established by Richard Ennis, and conducted 
by his widow since the death of Mr. Ennis eight years ago. 
Mr. Clark is a graduate of the Buffalo College of Pharmacy. 
The Ennis drug store has been conducted at the same stand 
for 35 years. 

— William DeCoursey Rose, ciruggist, at 82 Lafayette 
avenue, Buffalo, has preferred charges against the Federal 
Telephone Company before the Public Service Commission, 
alleging discrimination against him. The allegations are to the 
effect that the telephone company refuses to give him telephone 
ser\'ice at the same rate other business men receive in his 
vicinity. 

— A. C. Schulte, son of Druggist A. H. SchuUe, 300 
South Jefferson avenue, St. Louis, suffered a cut on his nose 
and other cuts and abrasions when he and Miss Cora Mae 
Hess, 17, the daughter of Police Captain W. C. Hess, were 
thrown from an automobile while returning from a New Year's 
celebration. Miss Hess was not seriously injured. 

— Harry Clinton McFadden, of the drug firm of Mc- 
Fadden &: Libbey, of Wolfboro, N. H., has been married to 
Mrs. Rose Nickerson Mason. He is one of the youngest 
merchants in the town, going there from Lewiston, Me., about 
15 years ago. The bride is a member of several local organi- 
zations. 

—Miss Margaret Barrett, pharmacist at the Methodist 
Hospital, Des Moines, Iowa, and a graduate of the Starling 
Medical College, has been appointed a pharmacist at the 
Miami \alley Hospital to succeed iliss Norma Hawley, who 
has assumed a position as phzirmacist at the Pittsburgh City 
Hospital. 

— "Warren R. Potter, one of Sharp & Dohme's Brooklyn 
representatives, has been confined to the Brook'jTi Hospital for 
some weeks past with typhoid fever. His friends will be glad 
to know that he has greatly improved. He hopes to be up and 
about within the next few weeks. 

— "Warren B. Armstrong, a druggist of Sunbury, Pa., 
has been married to Miss Elizabeth L. McGann. of Philadel- 
phia. The bride is a native of Shamokin, and a graduate 
trained nurse from the Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadel- 
phia. 

— G. Y. Kradwell, well-known as a druggist of Racine, 
Wis., has been appointed a member of the Wisconsin State 
Board of Pharmacy by Governor McGovern. Mr. Kradwell 
will fill the terra which expires on April 11, 1918. 

— Michael Bernstein, druggist and capitalist, of Shreve- 
port. La., is on his way to Eg\-pt and the Far East. His tour 
will last for six months. He sailed from New York on the 
"Princess Irene" of the North German Lloyd line. 



— J. L. Prior, of Atlanta, with Mrs. Prior, were recent 
visitors at New York and Baltimore. Mr. Prior, better known 
to his many friends in the South as "Jack" Prior, is the 
Atlanta branch manager of Sharp & Dohme. 

— G. H. Roebke, traveling salesman for Meyer Bros. Drug 
Co., was operated upon successfully for appendicitis at a St. 
Louis hospital recently, and in his absence from his territory 
A. C. Meyer took his place on the road. 

— Charles E. Mathews, manager of the Chicago branch 
of Sharp & Dohme, recently visited the firm's laboratories at 
Baltimore. He also spent a day or so at the Sharp & Dohme 
general offices in New York City. 

— New York drug trade visitors from out of town recently 
included J. A. Peboortan, wholesale druggist, \'ancouver, B. C. : 
and Benjamin Exley. general manager of the Ohio Valley Drug 
Co., of Wheeling. W. \'a. 

— A. P. Scarborough, a druggist of Jasper, Texas, was 
stabbed in the back the night of Jan. 10 by a negro from whom 
he was endeavoring to collect a debt. He was not dangerously 
injtured, however. 

— Arthur H. Johnson, for two years manager of the 
Riker-Jaynes store at Lowell, Mass., has been transferred to 
Boston and has become manager of the firm's store at 129 
Summer street. 

— Miss Jennie H. Sumner, Ph.G., the popular w-oman 
pharmacist of West Roxbury, Mass., has been elected to mem- 
bership in the college corporation of the Massachusetts College 
of Pharmacy. 

— Walter Barth, a popular young druggist w^ith the Keen- 
Norris Drug Co., of Fairfield, III., has taken a position as 
traveling salesman with the John T. Millikin Chemical Co., 
of St. Louis. 

— Frank J. Butler, of Pontiac, was appointed a member 
of the Illinois State Board of Pharmacy, Jan. 3, by Governor 
Dunne, to succeed James P. Crowley, of Chicago, whose term 
expired. 

— E. P. Ferguson, general New York State representative 
of Sharp & Dohme, reports the business done by his division 
for 1913 was quite satisfactory as compared with previous 
years. 

— Hon. William J. Bullock, of New Bedford, is agitating 
the establishment of a municipal ice plant for his city, and 
for that pmrpose has filed a petition with the Legislature. 

— Philip M. Jacobus, one of the pioneer druggists of La 
Crosse, Wis., retired from active business Jan. 3. He had been 
located for many years at 529 Main street. 

^Frederick P. Schwaemmie, at one time a retail drug- 
gist in business in Philadelphia, has joined the sales forces of 
the Drug Products Co., of New York. 

— 0. P. Meyer, of Meyer Bros. Drug Co., recently under- 
went an operation at a St. Louis hospital, and at last report 
at his offices was recovering rapidly. 

— W. J. Maresh, of the Lambert Pharmacal Co., St. Louis, 
and Miss Mary Wendell, a popular yoimg woman of Clayton, 
Mo., were married recently. 

— Robert J. Martin, a traveling man for the Witte Drug 
Co., Burlington, la., was married recently to Jeannette Jansen, 
of West Point, Iowa. 

— George J. Whelan, who recently purchased control of 
the Riker-Hegeman stores, has gone to Europe for his annual 
Winter vacation. 

— Walter Rudy, a pharmacist at Mount Airy, Md., who 
was for many years postmaster at that place, has given place 
to a Democrat. 

— Charles F. Cutler, president of the Eastern Drug Co., 
has been elected a director of the Commercial National Bank 
of Boston. 

— Louis K. Liggett, president of the United Drug Co., 
has been elected a director of the American Trust Company 
of Boston. 

— John Fulton, Jr., has taken charge of the drug de- 
partment of Theo. M. Stephan, of William street, New Y'ork 
City. 

— F. A. TJpsher Smith has opened for business the drug 
store in Rice street, St. Paul, known as the Haase place. 



66 



THE PHARJLVCEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



Drug Club Unveils Memorial Tablet to 
the Late Thomas P. Cook. 



Old-time Friends of Late Thomas P. Cook Attend Ceremony — 
J. A'. Peters and C. G. Stone Speak. 

THE Board of Governors of the New York Drug and 
Chemical Club, on Tuesday afternoon, Jan. 13, unveiled 
with appropriate ceremony a bronze tablet as a memorial 
to the late Thomas Penrose Cook, a member of that organi- 
zation for IS years. The tablet is in the reading room of the 
Club, at 100 William street. ■' The ceremonies were simple. 
President Clement E. Gardner stated the object of the memo- 
rial and then called on John N. Peters for a few remarks. The 
latter spoke of the deceased's interests in affairs leading up 
to the formation of the club. Mr. Cook, not, however, having 
been one of the founders. Clarence G. Stone, the only other 
speaker, asserted that he considered himself highly honoreil to 
speak on such an occasion, as he thought himself one of Mr. 
Cook's oldest acquaintances. He referred with feeling to tlie 
latter's great unselfishness and his willingness to be helpful 
to others. 

Mr. Stone first met Mr. Cook at the meeting of the Amer- 
ican Medical .Association at St. Paul in 1S82. Mr. Cook then 
represented Powers & Weightmann and was in charge of an 
exhibit, ilr. Stone found him lending his hammers, nails and 
saw to everybody. With his exhibit stock he had packed a 
hand truck and shipped it all the way from Philadelphia. 
This truck was also used by all. The speaker used the figure 
that during the 30 odd years since that first meeting the 
deceased loaned his friends a truck run on wheels of human 
kindness — he had even rolled it himself in his effort to help 
carry the burdens of others. 

Mr. Cook had been left an orphan at the age of si.K years 
and had obtained his first instruction in business from his 
grandfather. Contemplation of his business career justifies the 
conclusion that he had had the "right stuff" in him. The 
speaker and the deceased had served on the arrangement and 
entertainment committee of the X.W.D.A. for 18 consecutive 
years, a long enough period in which to gauge a man's char- 
acter. Thirty years ago, at the June 7, 1833, meeting of the 
A.M. A. meeting, at Cleveland. Mr. Cook was again in charge 
of an exhibit for his house. Mr. Stone had secured a small 
notebook from one of the e.xhibitors. This he took about the 
convention hall and had many of his friends write their auto- 
graphs therein. On the first page appears : 



"Your friend always. 

T. P. Cook, 

6/7/'83." 



This little expression was typical of the man's friendship. 
Mr. Stone concluded by observing that the little tablet was 
beautiful and complete, but had his aid been sought in con- 
nection with its erection, he would have suggested this little 
entry as a particularly applicable sentiment for an inscription 
in memoriam. 

When the speaker had concluded, those present, 50 or more, 
including many of Mr. Cook's old-time friends, gathered about 
the tablet and read the inscription. It is as follows : 



THIS TABLET 

IS PLACED HERE AS A TRIBUTE 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

THO>LAS PEN-ROSE COOK 

W-HO DIED JANUARY 7 1913 

IN RECOGNITION OF HIS STERLING 
CHARACTER HIS GENIAL PERSONALITY 
AND HIS tnw-SELPISH SERVICES TO HIS 
CLUB DLTUNG HIS EIGHTEEN YEARS 
OF MEMBERSHIP . . - 




MISS AGNES QTJINLAN. 



The first woman to become a registered pharmacist in the 
State of Vermont, Miss Agnes Quin- 
lan, of Bennington, is dead after a two 
weeks' illness with pneumonia. She was 
26 years old and was born in Troy. As 
a mere girl she attended the Albany 
College of Pharmacy, from which she . 
was graduated at the age of 17. The i 
same year she took the State Board ex- l 
an]inations for registration in Vermont 
and [lassed successfully, later taking the 
Massachusetts examination. She was a 
member of the Vermont State Ph.A., 
and was the first vice-president of that 
organization in 1911. She was a general 
favorite in Bennington, particularly in 
church circles, and was a member of 
the Ladies' Sodality of St. Francis de 
Sales Church, Bennington. Her father, 




Miss Quinlan 



two sisters and a brother survive her. 



Dr. H. I. Johnson. 
Dr. Horace Irving Johnson, for 28 years one of the most 
eminent pharmacists of Waltham, died at his home in that city 
Jan. 18. He lacked one month of being 65 years of age. Dr. 
Johnson was a native of Chelmsford, Mass., and afterward 
lived in JIanchester, N. H., but nearly half his life had been 
spent in Waltham. Dr. Johnson was held in the highest 
esteem by physicians of his vicinity, and they universally con- 
sidered him a thorough expert in all problems of pharmacy. 
Dr. Johnson was also a collector of antiques, and his home 
on Lyman street was well filled with rare specimens. In still 
another field he was recognized as an expert, and that was in 
geology. His collection of minerals and stones was ranked in 
this part of the country with that at Harvard University. Dr. 
Johnson gave personal attention to every detail of his business, 
and nothing pleased him more than to set up and print the 
labels for all the bottles and boxes used in his business. He 
leaves a wife and a son, Horace I. Johnson, Jr., a student. 



Robert F. Amend. 

Robert F. .Amend, treasurer and director of the firm of 
Eimer & Amend, wholesale druggists, and a son of the late 
Bernhard G. .Amend, one of the founders of the house, is 
dead at the age of 51. Paralysis was the cause of his demise. 
He was born in Xew York City, educated in the public schools 
and in the College of the City of New York, and was gradu- 
ated from that institution in the early eighties. He later 
entered the business which his father had established, acting 
as the cashier as long as it remained a partnership, and 
then becoming treasurer at the time of incorporation. About 
five years ago an attack of paralysis forced him to retire from 
active participation in business and from club and social life. 
He was, however, vice-president of the German Exchange 
Bank, and treasurer of Eimer & .Amend up till his death. 
He leaves a widow and one daughter. 



St. Louis Salesman Killed. 
George ^\'inte^er, 47, a salesman for Meyer Bros. Drug Co., 
St. Louis, was killed in an automobile accident, in which his 
roadster ran off the road and overturned in a three-foot ditch, 
on the Denny road near St. Louis. Mr. Winterer lived at 3109 
Keokuk street, and leaves a widow and two sons, Charles, 20 
years old, and Herbert, seven. Dr. Freeland J. Dunn, who 
was in the auto on Winterer's drive to Glencoe on business, 
was pinioned under it, and when taken out by passing auto- 
moboli.5ts, was so dazed that he suddenly disappeared. When 
he finally reached his home in St. Louis he had only a faint 
recollection of the accident. He said he had a vague recollec- 
tion of having crossed a field, after the accident, and of an 
attack on him by two dogs which bit him three times on the 
ankles. When he regained his bearings he cauterized the bites. 



Februakt, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



67 



Dr. Joseph H. Schenck. 
Dr. Joseph Howard Schenck, the son of the late Dr. Joseph 
H. Schenck, founder of the proprietary medicine business of 
J. H. Schenck & Son, of Philadelphia, is dead following an 
attack of apoplexy. He was ill but a few hours. He was 66 
years old on Christmas day. His only son, Joseph H. Schenck, 
Jr., is a member of the firm. Dr. Schenck was a native of 
Philadelphia, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, and 
almost immediately after graduation in 1875 entered his father's 
business to which he was later admitted as a partner, suc- 
ceeding to the presidency and control following the death of 
his father. He was active in church work and was a member 
of many organizations, civic and fraternal. 



many, Dec. 2, 1840, and came to Brooklyn when 20 years old. 
He leaves a widow and one son, Hans C. Kleemann. 



Frank W. Colby. 
Frank W. Colby, 50, one of the best-known pharmaceutical 
chemists in New England, a native of Haverhill, Mass., and a 
lifelong resident of the Bradford district, died very suddenly 
while at work. He served his apprenticeship as a druggist 
under George B. Holden, and then entered the Massachusetts 
College of Pharmacy, by which he was given a degree. Later 
in partnership with his brother, the late Ethan L. Colby, he 
opened the Colby Bros, pharmacy in the Bradford district. 
Later he was made manager of the Parker Chemical Co. at 
Ballardville, his ability as a pharmaceutical chemist having 
been recognized by drug men. 



Samuel A. Fisher. 
After a short illness from acute indigestion, Samuel Allen 
Fisher, general manager of the Mooney-Mueller Drug Co., 
wholesale druggists, Indianapolis, died at his home, 2511 Cen- 
tral avenue, in that city. Mr. Fisher was 49 years old and had 
been with the Mooney-Mueller Drug Co. 12 years, five years as 
a traveling salesman and for the last seven years as general 
manager. Prior to his connection with this concern he was 
employed by the Indianapolis Drug Co. At one time he was 
president of the Commercial Travelers' Association of Indiana. 
Mr. Fisher is survived by a widow. 



Jeremiah Weber. 

Jeremiah Weber, one of the oldest druggists in Philadelphia, 
died recently at his home, 2954 Richmond street, where for 
more than half a century he had conducted a drug store. For 
six months his health had been failing, death being hastened 
by a stroke of paralysis. Mr. Weber entered the drug busi- 
ness as a boy. He was a lifelong Democrat and had for many 
years expressed the desire to live until a Democratic president 
should occupy the White House. Since the election of Presi- 
■ dent Wilson he had often said before witnesses that "he was 
ready to die." 



Welling-ton Morehouse. 

Wellington Morehouse, a familiar figure in the drug trade 
for a half century, the duration of his service with the drug 
brokerage firm of James H. Taft & Co., 100 William street. 
New York, died Jan. 1. at the age of 67. He was in his usual 
good health until Christmas, when he contracted pneumonia, 
from which he died. He leaves a widow, three sons and two 
daughters. 



Gilbert J. McArthur. 
Gilbert J. McArthur, who was engaged in the drug business 
in Boston and Maiden, Mass., for many years, died Jan. 1 
after a brief illness. He was 53 years of age, a native of 
Vermont, and had resided in Maiden 28 years. For 12 years 
he was employed by the old Boston drug firm of Thomas 
HoUis in Union street, and later purchased a business in 
Maiden. 



William I. Dohme. 
William I. Dohme, a nephew of Louis Dohme, of Sharp & 
Dohme, Baltimore, although he himself was never connected with 
that firm, died recently at his home at Patchogue, L. I., where 
he had retired after selling his retail drug business in Mont- 
clair, N. J., about two years ago. He was 42 years of age. 



OTHER RECENT DEATHS. 



Carl J. Kleemann. 

Carl J. Kleemann, for 45 years a druggist in Brooklyn, and 
for 20 years in business in Court street, near Baltic, died 
recently in his 73d year. He was born in Mecklenburg, Ger- 



— Charles Naylor, chemist of the C. I. Hood Co., at 
Lowell, Mass., died suddenly recently while returning from 
the Lowell Textile School where he was engaged in special 
work in the evening courses. He at one time owned and 
conducted his own store, but sold out to enter the Hood 
laboratory. He had full charge of the preparation of the 
many Hood specialties until his death, with the exception of 
a brief period when he went abroad as a special representative 
of the firm. 

— John H. Cronin, a prominent druggist of Lawrence, 
Mass., died suddenly Jan. 8. He was a native of Maiden, 
Mass., and was about 50 years old at the time of his death. 
He first entered the employ of the late Charles H. Beedle, a 
Broadway (Lawrence) druggist, but since 1889 had been 
located for himself at the corner of Broadway and Cedar 
street. 

— Mrs. Bertha Krembs, long a resident of Milwaukee and 
the mother of Ernest M. Krembs, Jr., and Max Krembs, two 
well-known druggists of that city, died recently at the Hanover 
hospital, following an operation. Mrs. Krembs was born in 
Cedarburg, Wis., Dec. 23, 1849. She leaves three daughters 
and three sons. 

— Charles A. Sieplein, 42, proprietor of the Sieplein Drug 
Co. store in the Rose building, Cleveland, Ohio, is dead after 
a four-months' illness with anemia. Previous to his con- 
nection with the drug company bearing his name he was with 
the Opera House pharmacy and the Mayell-Hopp Drug Co. 

— Charles Ferger, Jr., died at his home, 131 West 11th 
street, Indianapolis, recently, after a few days' illness from 
pneumonia. He was identified with his brother, Edward 
Ferger, in a retail drug business embracing several stores. 
Mr. Ferger was 42 years old and unmarried. 

— George E. Blodgett, former chief of police of Hancock, 
Mich., both a druggist in Hancock and the pharmacist at 
the Marquette prison, is dead after an illness of a little more 
than a week. 

— George L. Galbraith, vice-president of the Coronet 
Phosphate Co., 99 John street, died recently at his home on 
Riverside Drive, after an illness of a fortnight. He was 47 
years of age. 

— Peter Ludwig, a young druggist of Vail, Iowa, com- 
mitted suicide by drinking poison Jan. 7. Since the death of 
his wife last October, Mr. Ludwig had been subject to de- 
spondency. 

— Robert Repass, of Dexter, Iowa, druggist, was found 
dead on the floor of the back room of the store in which he 
was employed, the young man having drunk carbolic acid by 
mistake. 

— Xi, C. Shepard, 64, formerly a druggist in Potsdam, 
Parishville and Nichollville, N. Y., died in Somerville, Mass., 
on Jan. 10. He located in Massachusetts several years ago. 

— William Marx, who was associated with his uncle in 
the firm of Marx & Rawolle, manufacturers of glycerin, at 
Red Hook Point, N. Y., is dead after a long illness. 

— Dr. Augustus Esenwein, the oldest and perhaps the 
best-known pharmacist in Reading, Pa., is dead in his 80th 
year. He was well known as a charitable worker. 

. — James A. Stuart, formerly a druggist at Wheeling, W. 
Va., and a former resident of Paris, Ky., is dead from heart 
failure. He was 72 years of age. 

— Albert Barr Clark, a druggist at Galesburg, III., for the 
past 44 years, died recently. He was a graduate of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. 

— Thomas Mays, owner of a drug store at Middletown, 
Pa., committed suicide recently. He had removed from Re- 
novo, Pa., 15 months ago. 

— James W. Sterry, formerly of the firm of Weaver & 
Sterry, wholesale druggists, of New York City, died at 
Metuchen, N. J., Jan. 3. 

— ^George F. Jung, for 40 years a druggist in Williams- 
burg, died in December at his home in Union Course, L. I. 



68 



THE PHAKIIACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1911 



—Thomas F. Dwyer, for 25 years engaged in the retail 
drug business at Arabia, Ind., died at his home recently from 
dropsy. 

— Frank A. Wheeler, 6S, proprietor of the Waukesha 
Soda Water Co., Waukesha, Wis., died recently of heart 
failure. 

—Charles W. Curtis, 53, for many years bookkeeper for 
W. E. .\rmstrong S: Co., Richmond, \'a., is dead after a short 
illness. 

—Charles Favreau, 62 years 11 months, is dead at Marl- 
boro, Mass. For 25 years he was in the drug business in that 
town. 

— Fridolin Streit, 40, a druggist of Houston, Tex., and 
for many years in business at Belleville, is dead. 

— Dr. G. A. Holstem, who conducted a drug store at 
Ridgefield Park, X. J., died on Jan. 11. 

— Isaac N. Hughes, 72, who for 30 years conducted a 
drug store in Canonsburg, Pa., is dead. 

— Horatio Abbey, pioneer merchant and druggist of 
Kirkwood, 111., is dead from diabetes. 

— "W. R. Koeneman, druggist, Beaman, Iowa. 



News from Associations 



National Drug Trades Conferance. 

Immediate Passage of So-called Harrison Bill for the Control 
of the Importation and Sale of Narcotic Drugs Urged — 
Postal Amendments, Bichloride of Mercury Sales Control, 
and Other Topics Considered at Recent Sessions at 
Washington, D. C. 

FOR three days during the week of Jan. 16 sessions were 
held at Washington of the National Drug Trades Con- 
ference of delegates from the A.Ph..\., N.A.R.D., 
N.W.D.A., A.A.Ph.C, N.A.M.M.P. Dr. Martin I. Wil- 
bert. Dr. Woodward, health officer of the city of Washington, 
ard Chas. J. Lynn were given the privileges of the floor. 

By resolution, the conference urged upon the newspapers the 
propriety of omitting the names of poisons used in suicides 
and murders; recommended the postponement of legal action 
in regard to the control of the sale of bichloride of mercury 
until the United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary 
committee shall have reported; and, further, by resolution, 
offered the following change in paragraph 5 of section 472 of 
the postal regulations: 

Poisonous substances intended for internal or medic- 
inal administration, when packed in metal containers, 
bearing the address of the sender, together with a 
label bearing the word "poison," may be admitted to 
the mails under first-class postage rates. 
The "registered price act," so-called, was considered, but 
the Conference deemed it wiser simply to go on record as in 
favor of the principle of price maintenance, the general topic 
being referred to the executive committee. Treasury decision 
33456 relating to shipments of cocaine in interstate traffic was 
also referred to the executive committee. 
The following officers were elected: 

President, John C. Wallace, New Castle, Pa.; 1st vice- 
president, Charles A. West, Boston ; 2d vice-president, W. C. 
Abbott, Chicago; 3d vice-president, Charles F. Nixon, Leo- 
minster, Mass.; executive committee. James H. Beal, Scio, 
Ohio; James F. Finneran, Boston, Mass.; R. C. Stofer, Nor- 
wich, N. Y.; C. M. Kline, Philadelphia; A. R. L. Dohme, 
Baltimore. 

Considerable attention was devoted to the consideration of 
the Harrison anti-narcotic bill, and with the adoption of a 
number of minor changes the bill was recommended for enact- 
ment as promptly as possible. These changes were substitutions 
of the word "dispensing" for the word "administration" in 
several instances deleting the word "registered under this 
act", from sub-section a of section 2 of the act. In sub- 
section b the word "pharmacbt" wherever it occurs was changed 
to the word "dealer." A proposition to make the following 
amendment to sub-section a of section 2 was voted down. 



despite the advocacy of the change by Frank H. Freericks: 
" — (a) to the administration of any of the afore- 
said drugs to the patient by or under the supervision 
of a physician, dentist or veterinary surgeon regis- 
tered under this act in tlie course of his professional 
practice only. Provided, however, that the physician, 
dentist or veterinary surgeon shall personally attend 
upon such patient." 
Several other changes were also voted down, and the sec- 
tion was allowed to stand as originally quoted in the bill. 

The Conference then considered a number of bills before 
Congress referring the majority to the executive committee for 
consideration and report. 

While in Washington many members of the Conference 
called upon the members of the sub-committee of the Senate 
Finance Committee to discuss with them the details of the 
Harrison anti-narcotic bill, and also upon Secretary of State 
Bryan in the interests of this legislation. 



NEW YORK BRANCH OF N.A.R.D. ORGANIZED. 



R. M. McCutchen First President — J. H. Rehfuss 
Temporary Chairman — Finneran Advises Members. 

ANEW YORK branch of the National .-Association of 
Retail Druggists, as yet uimamed, was organized at the 
New York College of Pharmacy on Jan. 22, Jacob H. 
Rehfuss, president of the N.Y.S.P..^., officiating as temporary 
chairman. Mr. Rehfuss appointed a nominating committee, 
consisting of Peter Diamond, R. M. McCutchen and Dr. Wm. 
C. Anderson. He also named Felix Hirseman, but the latter 
declined the honor, pointing out that he was not eligible. 
While this committee prepared its report, Mr. Rehfuss ex- 
plained in brief the purpose of the meeting and the probable 
scope of the proposed organization. The following officers 
were unanimously elected: 

President, R. M. McCutchen; 1st vice-president, Jacob H. 
Rehfuss ; 2d vice-president, A. Klingmann ; secretary-treasurer, 
Louis Berger. 

Mr. Klingmann was first nominated for president, but posi- 
tively declined, despite the urgent persuasion of Mr. Rehfuss 
and others. Mr. McCutchen would have preferred to 
eliminate himself as official material, but the members had 
learned how to voice their protests by this time and wouldn't 
hear of any such action. 

Peter Diamond, Dr. Wm. C. Anderson, Alexander Gardner, 
Robert S. Lehman and Harry Schlesinger were elected members 
of the committee on by-laws and constitution. This committee 
will also decide upon a name for the organization. 

President James F. Finneran, of the parent body, was the 
first of se^'eral out-of-town organization speakers to enlarge 
upon the benefits of a local branch. He suggested that com- 
mittees be appointed to work on pressing local problems. In 
Boston, his own city, a telephone committee had done good 
work. Perhaps a similar committee could accomplish some- 
thing in New York City. To succeed, a 'phone committee 
must be persistent. A committee on fraternal relations is an 
essential. The branch, too, should hold meetings once a month 
for the next four to six months — until the members get better 
acquainted w^ith one another. There should also be an execu- 
tive committee, the personnel of which should be representative 
of the many different centers of this city. Although all are 
not agreed, a nominating committee is a splendid thing for any 
organization, and Mr. Finneran had never yet found any fault 
with such an official body. A nomination committee might 
have gotten Mr. Klingmann to have served as chairman. A 
nomination committee can often persuade men to sen-e who 
from being at first reluctant to go to the front later develop 
latent intelligence and ability which they were unaware they 
possessed. 

President Finneran quoted Mrs. Emma Gary Wallace in pro- 
pounding a reply to the question often flung at him — what did 
he get out of all of his organization work? His answer was: 
"What do I put into the organization?" The speaker asserted 
that there was a necessity for a large National association of 
retail pharmacists. He did not believe that such men as 
Dr. Wm. C. Anderson shoufd be cut out of this organization. 
The executive committee, he said, would bring in a report to 
the effect that these men will not be barred. On his way from 
the Drug Trade Conference at Washington Mr. Finneran had 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



69 



stopped at Philadelphia. "The boys in Philadelphia will make 
the convention a big success," he asserted. 

Speaking on the subject of propaganda, Mr. Finneran said 
he did not care how many detail men an organization had out, 
its members would not get official prescriptions unless they were 
prepared to fill them. "You must talk U.S. P. to your phy- 
sicians." Mr. Finneran said that Professor Nixon, the next 
speaker, got all the prescriptions in his town calling for a 
certain N . F. formula, because the physicians thought it was 
"Nixon's formula." "The druggists must co-operate with the 
detail man, so that the doctors will know you are 'one of 
them.' " 

In introducing Professor Chas. F. Nixon, Mr. Finneran told 
a humorous story about how the "druggist-farmer" had gone in 
for potatoes in his garden at Leominster, Mass., and had, at 
much expense and with great care, succeeded in raising a 
bounteous crop only to discover that the market was surfeited 
with the tubers. According to Mr. Finneran, Professor Nixon 
got 35 cents per bushel for potatoes which cost $1 per bushel 
to grow. 

Professor Nixon alleged that he invested what he lost on the 
potatoes in prize poultry — -that, however, is another story. The 
speaker told how the retail trade had discovered some time 
ago that it had to take a part in National legislation. He 
alluded to the recent conference at Washington of five National 
organizations and elaborated on its work on the Harrison bill. 
Three N.A.R.D. delegates now object to the exemption of 
dispensing physicians from making records such as are re- 
quired of the retail pharmacist. "In Boston," said Professor 
Nixon, "the larger part of the improper distribution of nar- 
cotics is done by the physicians. The contention of the retail 
pharmacists is that if the physician is performing the functions 
of a pharmacist, he should make the same records required of 
a pharmacist." The N.A.R.D. delegates also asked that the 
word "administered" be substituted for "dispense or distribute" 
in the provision now exempting the dispei^sing physician. 
"The dispensing physicians and their sources of supply will 
do all they can to oppose the bill." 

Professor Nixon reported that under the bill, previous to the 
conference, a written order would not have been required of 
registered practitioners — "registered under this act." "How can 
the pharmacist tell this?" Violation incurs a penalty of $2000 
fine and- imprisonment. The objectionable phrase was elimina- 
ted. The imposition of a revenue tax on physicians and phar- 
macists providing for different rights was unconstitutional. 
The bill was changed so that "a dealer" is substituted for "a 
pharmacist." Professor Nixon still believes that in this direc- 
tion the bill is unconstitutional. The physician administers 
and the pharmacist dispenses. The speaker concluded by ask- 
ing the members to get the influence of their Congressmen 
behind the measure — "shape their sentiment on the bills which 
are coming up." 

Fred A. Hubbard, of Newton, Mass., .had but one criticism 
to make of the National Drug Trade Conference. There is 
no opening for pharmacists from all the States — the organi- 
zation is the right idea, but the State organizations should be 
invited to be represented and take part in the discussion. 
"The conference will shape legislation, but the retail trade 
should get together on what it wants and then go forward 
without any divided opinion. The time is ripe when all the 
retail druggists in the country should get together to obtain 
needed legislation. The anti-narcotic legislation is only the 
beginning." 

J. Leyden White, of Washington, D. C, gave a rousing talk 
on price protection. "Price maintenance," he said, "is a 
superior term to price protection. Price maintenance will come 
under a new law within two years. Every court victory against 
the public has been read between the lines by the public. A 
registered price act is bound to come." Mr. White stated that 
he represented both the N.A.R.D. and the National Hardware 
Dealers' Association at the National Capitol. The latter is 
also a strong organization, and is fighting for price mainten- 
ance. Mr. White contended that the retail druggist must be 
broadminded in his efforts to obtain price maintenance. "No 
law will stand if it protects the retailer and his selling price 
and not the jobber, wholesaler and manufacturer. He con- 
cluded by reading an interesting tentative measure providing 
for the registration of the prices of all patented, copyrighted 
and trade-marked articles. 

The meeting adjourned subject to call of the chair. 



H. V. ABNY HEADS N. Y. BKANCH, A.PH.A. 



Mrs. St. Claire Kansford-Gay's Paper Starts Warm 
Discussion — Revision Committee Is Criticised. 

DR. H. V. ARNY was elected president of the New York 
branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the January meeting at the New York College of Phar- 
macy, called to order by Clarence O. Bigelow. The other 
officers elected were: 

Vice-president, John Roemer; secretary, F. L. McCartney; 
treasurer. Dr. Joseph Weinstein; chairmen of committees: 
Education and legislation. Dr. Wm. C. Anderson; membership, 
Jacob Rehfuss; progress of pharmacy. Dr. George C. Diek- 
man; fraternal relations, Louis Berger. 

Mrs. St. Claire Ransford-Gay presented an interesting paper 
on "The Pharmacopoeia and Its Limitations." The speaker 
alluded to the efforts made by large manufacturing houses to 
keep physicians abreast of the times and averred that phar- 
macists would accomplish like results if they could only profit 
by a central U.S. P. research laboratory. Physicians want 
elegant preparations and will prescribe to the exclusion of the 
U.S. P. There is not even a feeble effort in the U.S. P. to 
offset the detail man relative to coal-tar products. 

Dr. Jacob Diner commiserated upon the fact that other pro- 
fessions profited by post-graduate courses but that pharmacy 
had no such advantages. "Some say pharmaceutical meetings 
take the place of post-graduate courses — maybe they do, more 
or less, mostly less." Dr. Diner observed that some pharma- 
cists had got so they regarded the U.S. P. in the same light 
as the Constitution — "you shouldn't speak of it without taking 
off your hat." If age is any criterion, then some of the formu- 
las are indeed sacred, and the N.F. is only less sacred and 
venerable. 

The retrogression of pharmacy, asserted Dr. Diner, is due 
to the dishonesty of pharmacists — not directly — but in that 
they do not come out and own up to their own faults. "Would 
you take your prescription into the first drug store you came 
to? No!" The speaker said of the pharmaceutical associa- 
tions that the attending pharmacists were in a contest for 
office, not a contest of brain and wit as in former years. The 
pharmaceutical journals were not honest : the editorial page 
too often had to sing the tune of the advertismg manager. 
The pharmaceutical journals are afraid to speak the absolute 
truth about matters of the present time: they have one eye 
to their advertisers. Some of the questions the physicians are 
firing at Dr. Diner are: "Can you say every pharmacist is 
reliable?" and "Can you say every formula in the N.F. is 
reliable?" 

Otto Raubenheimer, member of the Revision Committee, 
asserted that "we have the best pharmacopoeia in the world 
today, and I am proud of it. The next one will be better 
yet." Mr. Raubenheimer did not believe that the U.S. P. 
and N.F. were behind the times. 

Dr. Joseph IMayer, who had previously tendered the report 
of the nominating committee, outlined the Kings County 
Pharmaceutical Society's method of fighting the proprietary 
manufacturer with his own weapons. "It is the constant 
hammering of the manufacturer's advertising which sells the 
proprietaries." Dr. Mayer then said that the standard for 
Castile soap which would be adopted as official was worth- 
less. He thought that the Revision Committee had "fired" 
out the recent big batch of U.S. P. inclusions at one time in 
order that the pharmaceutical journals could not find space to 
publish them. They should be published every month. 

John Roemer assisted in firing the "hot shot" at the U.S.P. 
Revision Committee. He asserted that it was a vote, not 
science, which determined the inclusion of articles in the 
U.S.P. The Revision Committee rests on antiquated preju- 
dices of 100 years ago in revising the U.S.P. "If you are 
going to make the two books a link between the physician 
and the pharmacist you must include something the former 
wants to know. True, the pharmacist needs standards. Issue 
the Pharmacopoeia as a legalized book of standards for drugs. 
Pharmacists haven't the nerve to say certain preparations are 
worthless; they will put them up as long as the physicians pre- 
scribe them." Mr. Roemer offered a resolution, which was 
adopted by a majority vote, to the effect that the U.S.P. be 
made a book of standards for drugs alone, and that the N.F. 
contain compounded preparations. Dr. Amy concluded the 
discussion by observing that many of the points upon which 



70 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914' 



the Revision Committee was assailed bore directly upon the 
instructions given to the committee by the U.S. P. Convention. 

Upon Dr. Joseph Weinstein's motion it was decided that 
the branch should hold a joint meeting with the New York 
County Jledical Societ>- early this year and that the chairman 
of the committee on fraternal relations should direct his efforts 
to bring this about. 

Dr. Diner, as chairman of the special committee on the 
Madison Square Gurden drug exposition, reported tliat he 
had advised against inviting physicians to attend a joint 
meeting in view of the nature of some of the exhibits. The 
branch will not participate in any way, shape or manner. 
The N.Y.S.P..\. will hold a propaganda meeting as such, and 
only pharmacists will be invited to be present. 

Treasurer Weinstein reported a balance on hand of $48.27. 

Former secretary Hugh Craig telegraphed his best wishes 
to the members. 



Interesting History of Kaolin. 

Thomas J. Kcenan, Editor of "Paper," Delivers Paper Before 
Kings County Pharmaceutical Society — New Official De- 
signation in U.S.P. Requested. 

THOM.-VS J. KEENAN, editor of Paper, elaborated upon 
"The Interesting History of Kaolin and lis Uses" at the 
January meeting of the Kings Coimty Pharmaceutical 
Society, called to order by President H. B. Smith and held at 
the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy. Mr. Keenan related tiie 
circumstances of his first introduction to that queerly-named 
substance, kaolin. He had a batch of nitrate of silver pills 
to make and, being puzzled how to prepare them without re- 
ducing the nitrate to oxide, consulted his chief. Dr. Charles 
Rice, who directed him to make a mass with kaolin and 
petrolatum, in the proportion of silver nitrate, 50; kaolin, 30; 
and petrolatum, q.s., to make 100 pills. 

Since that time two revised editions of the U.S. Pharma- 
copoeia have made their appearance, and in the latest, tfTat 
dated 1900, which became official in September, 1905, kaolin 
finds a place — not its use as an excipient for chemicals that 
react with organic matter, but as a proprietary kaolin poultice 
placed on the market in 1893. 

Mr. Keenan traced the derivation of the word kaolin and 
told how vast beds of the clay had been discovered almost 
simultaneously in France, Great Britain and .'\merica. In the 
subsequent utilization of kaolin, pharmacists played a promi- 
nent part, though not along pharmaceutical lines. William 
Cookworthy, a pharmacist of Plymouth, Devonshire county, 
England, was probably the first to discover deposits of true 
kaolin in Europe. He appears to have fathomed the secret 
of making true porcelain, for in 1768 he took out a patent 
on his invention. The mark adopted by him for his chinaware 
was the astronomical figure for Jupiter, resembling the pre- 
scription symbol ?. 

In France the kaolin quarries that made Limoges famous 
were the accidental discovery, in 1765, of Mme. Darnel, the 
wife of a surgeon. Her husband took samples to a pharmacist 
at Bordeaux, named Villaris, who recognized the clay to be 
kaolin. This discovery led to the establishment of the remark- 
able porcelain works of Limoges. 

Mr. Keenan pointed out that the Cherokee Indians were 
probably the pioneers in this country to engage in the mining 
of kaolin. A patent was applied for in England in 1744 for 
the production of porcelain from an earthy mixture called 
"unaker," referred to as "the produce of the Cherokee Nation 
of America." 

The kaolin deposits in Cornwall and Devon, England, are 
still being worked on a large scale. In 1912 the United 
States imported 237,366 tons, valued at .$1,541,105. The 
American book paper industry con.sumes upwards of 200,000 
tons annually. The total production of china clay in the 
United States for 1912 amounted to only 24,700 tons. The 
method of quarrying china clay both in England and America 
remains a somewhat primitive one. .\t St. .Austell, in Corn- 
wall, the mines are of residual character, the kaolin being 
found in the location of the original feldspar, and these are 
■worked hydraulically. By means of great settling tanks, and 
a series of wooden baffles leading to these tanks, the kaolin 
is graded into different degrees of fineness and purity. The 
semi-fluid clay is transferred to drying sheds, furnished with 



floors of hollow tile through which are led the hot gases from 
a coal or gas furnace. The damp clay is dumped directly on 
these tile lloors where it dries and is afterwards shoveled oft ! 
for shipment. 

In the United States kaolin is mined in the foothills of the 
Southern .Appalachians in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, 
Georgia, and in North and South Carolina. It occurs with • 
or forms a part of a coarse granite, or pegmatite, consisting J 
of feldspar and quartz in more or less intimate mixture. 
Since the rocky mass usually contains considerable quanti- 
ties of quartz and other minerals, a deposit rarely averages 
more than 40 per cent, pure kaolin. Crjstallized kaolin — 
thin six-sided scales— is of extremely rare occurrence. 

The American deposits of kaolin that produce the purest 
and most preferred forms of china clay are sedimentary in 
origin. A washing machine, sand wheel, sand trough, mica 
troughs (the process being one of elutrjation and decantation 
on a large scale), a concentrating tank and an agitator are 
the paraphernalia employed. In powerful filter presses the 
kaolin is pressed into cakes. The blocks are dried on racks 
in a covered building; in the more modem American plants 
the kaolin is dried by steam. The difficulty experienced by 
pharmacists in turning out a uniform quality of cataplasm can 
often be traced to a failure to dry sufficiently the powdered 
kaolin before incorporating it with the glycerin. 

Dr. P. G. Unna, of Hamburg, the dermatologist, holds that 
the therapeutic action of cataplasma kaolini is due chiefly to 
the glycerin, and others have expressed a similar opinion. 
Unna contends in a recent article that by increasing the sen- 
sible water vapor, the cataplasm causes an increased flow of 
water to the superficial tissues and the serous soaking causes 
their softening. This may be true, but he has apparently 
overlooked the property of adsorption possessed by kaolin ; in 
addition to its extraordinary powers for absorbing water, it 
may be supposed to have great selective action in absorbing 
the secretions of the tissues, normal and abnormal. It is 
well known that clays are capable of removing solid substances 
from solutions with which they may be in contact, certain 
bases and substances being held so that they cannot be 
washed out again. 

Professor Remington is right, Mr. Keenan thought, in 
suggesting that the principal difficulty in making the cataplasm 
of kaolin is that of getting kaolin having uniform absorptive 
property. Flack {American Journal of Pharmacy, September, 
1906), as the result of experiments with a number of samples 
of kaolin from reliable sources, established the fact that dif- 
ferent samples of kaolin possess different absorbent properties, 
and he insists that this quality of kaolin makes it imperative 
that some modification as to the amount of glycerin used in 
the formula for cataplasm of kaolin should be allowed. 

Kaolin finds other uses in pharmacy and medicine besides 
the cataplasm. These are touched upon by Hermann Schelenz, 
who, however, fails to distinguish the mineral from the 
argillaceous earths. In failing to distinguish clearly between 
bolus alba and kaolin, Schelenz keeps company with Hager 
and Dieterich, and he has authority in the pharmacopoeias 
of Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan and 
Switzerland, in which kaolin is given as synonym for Bolus 
alba. In the British, Norwegian, Swedish and our own phar- 
macopoeia, the substance is definitely described under its 
proper name. 

Mr. Keenan concluded by suggesting that the society's dele- 
gate to the Pharmacopoeial Revision Committee recommend 
the adoption of a correct title for pure kaolin. Since the term 
kaolin is now rather loosely applied to any clay used in the 
white-ware industrj', he suggested the adoption of the name 
kaolinite. which is already used by mineralogists to designate 
a distinct mineral formation consisting of hydrated aluminum 
silicate of the formula HjAljSijOgHjO. 

Incorporated as a resolution, Mr. Keenan's recommendation 
was unanimously adopted by the members of the socie'y. In 
the few introductory remarks previous to reading his paper, 
Mr. Keenan observed that cataplasma kaolini would have been 
thrown out of the U.S. P. by the physicians had it not been 
that their vote had been upset by the pharmacists. 

Dr. Wm. C. Anderson, chairman of the legislative com- 
mittee, reported that the usual Congressional labeling bills 
had come up and that the Blauvelt mercuric bichloride bill 
had been introduced. Locally, he advised that the members 
go slow as the Commissioner of Health may be succeeded at 



February, 1914] 



THTE PHARIVIACEUTICAL ERA 



71 



any time. President Smith notitied the members of the reduc- 
tion of from $5 to $2 in the fee for the license for the sale 
of combustibles. Dr. Kassebaum delivered an interesting dis- 
cussion of the society's propaganda work. T. J. France re- 
ported that a parquet floor had been laid in the alumni room 
and that a storage room for laboratory apparatus had been 
proposed in the basement. ilr. Kassebaum invited tliose 
present to attend the dedication exercises in the alumni room 
on the evening of January 29. 



Washington Branch, A. Ph. A. 

"Fakes" Severely Criticised, and a Proposition to Establish a 
Testing Laboratory Under the Auspices of the AJ'h.A. 
Seriously Considered. 

BY invitation of Dr. A. S. Cushman and H. C. Fuller, 
director and member of the Institute for Industrial 
Research, the December meeting of the City of Wash- 
ington branch was held at the institute's new building, 19th 
and B streets, N.'VV. Dr. Cushman and Mr. Fuller opened 
and lighted the entire building to the members and guided 
them through its modern and well-equipped laboratories. 
Many delicate and intricate experiments and tests, relating 
directly to pharmacy and otherwise, now being conducted 
there, were explained and commented upon. 

The committee on nominations recommended these officers: 
For president, Martin I. Wilbert; for 1st vice-president, '\V. S. 
Richardson ; for 2d vice-president. Dr. Rodney H. True ; for 
secretary, Henry B. Floyd; for treasurer, Wymond H. Brad- 
bury; and for member of council, Dr. Lyman F. Kebler; and 
further recommended that the office of secretary and that of 
member of council be separate. 

Mr. Wilbert declined the nomination for president. Dis- 
cussion showed that the office secretary and that of mem- 
ber of council had been separated in 1912 and that the term 
of the present member of the council did not expire until 
the end of 1914. The committee then withdrew its recom- 
mendation concerning the separation of the office of secretary 
and member of the council, and also withdre%v all its nomina- 
tions except that for secretary and treasurer. 

From the floor, W. S. Richardson was nominated for presi- 
dent, Dr. Rodney H. True for 1st vice-president and Dr. 
Henry E. Kalusowski for 2d vice-president. No other nomina- 
tions being made, and one only having been made for each 
office. The acting president then declared the following officers 
elected: President, W. S. Richardson, 1st vice-president. Dr. 
Rodney H. True ; 2d vice-president. Dr. Henry F. Kalusowski ; 
secretary', Henry B. Floyd; treasurer, Wymond H. Bradbury. 

H. C. Fuller presented a paper entitled "Conservation in 
Relation to Pharmaceutical Chemistry," describing clearly and 
forcibly existing conditions in medical and pharmaceutical 
chemistry and noting the persistency with which the manu- 
facturer pursues the "Almighty Dollar." The "hit or miss" 
plan of mixing medicines, forming some new concoction to 
which is attached a high-sounding, valueless (and generally 
meaningless) name, with the hope that it will stay mixed 
and catch the fancy of the consumer, was lamented. In- 
adequate research work, insufficient therapeutic testing, in- 
complete analysis, and utter disregard for the well-established 
laws of chemi'stry are bringing and have brought into the 
market each year's thousands of valueless preparations which 
burden the shelves of the retailer. Yet he has to carry all 
of these because some smooth-tongued and gifted detail man 
has gotten one or two physicians in his neighborhood to 
write an occasional prescription for such mixtures. 

The immense inroad made by a certain foreign firm manu- 
facturing pharmaceuticals was commented upon, and the key 
of its success against .American competition was attributed to 
the vast research wor£ conducted by it. Not one of their 
preparations, it appears, is allowed to enter the market until 
its stability, therapeutic activity and exact chemical content 
has been definitely ascertained by most exhaustive experi- 
mentation. 

The amount of research work done by American houses 
was compared with that of foreign and found to be all but 
nil. A remedy was suggested for the prevention of fakes 
and other evils, in having the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation establish an extensive chemical laboratory where the 
pharmaceutical products offered could be analyzed for their 



chemical contents and their therapeutic values ascertained. 
Reports of each analysis would be forwarded to its members 
and every man in the business soon would know to an absolute 
certainty what each preparation he is selling is, and what it 
can be expected to do. 

Such a laboratory would immediately expose fakes and 
eventually, when its findings would come to have the faith 
of the entire public, fake preparations would no longer be 
marketable. Pharmaceutical manufacturers would exercise 
greater care before presenting new preparations and the claims 
of value for such products. The retail druggist would profit 
because his shelves would contain only valuable and market- 
able matter. 

Mr. Fuller presented specimens of a number of preparations 
recently analyzed by the institute, and showed to what extent 
the public is fooled by well-written advertisements. A four- 
ounce bottle of diluted lactated pepsin, sold for a dollar, com- 
manded much comment for under a copyright name it was 
sold as a brightener of the eyes and a beautifier. 

Wrinkle-removers, sold for the same price, proved to be 
nothing more than pieces of inexpensive court plaster. Diabetic 
and other foods for which fabulous and mythical claims have 
been made, and for which enormous prices have been asked, 
proved to be nothing but cheap, roasted grains. Hair-remov- 
ers, costing $1.50 a box, amoimted to about five cents' worth 
of rosin and balsam mixed. The alkaloidal claims for cod- 
liver oil also came in for criticism. 

In the discussion which followed Dr. George W. Hoover 
staled that the Bureau of Chemistry has much unpublished 
information concerning these fakes, and if, as contemplated, 
a bulletin giving this information is published, much of gen- 
eral interest will come out and there will be some genuine 
surprises. There has been a decided improvement in the 
character of pharmaceutical products since the passage of the 
Pure Food Act, and another decade will bring forth even 
greater improvements, is his belief. The question of declaring 
various drugs, upon which Mr. Fuller touched, was discussed, 
and, in addition to the content declaration, it was suggested 
that the effect upon 'he system be outlined. Cocaine legisla- 
tion, now so much discussed, furnished food for much con- 
troversy, the opinion of those present as to the ultimate effect 
of the legislation now proposed and recently enacted being 
about equally divided. The wasteful methods employed by 
our manufacturers was shown by example. Certain refuse 
thrown out now by chocolate manufacturers is worth $100 
to $150 per ton, and lanoline, much finer than that now 
imported, can be made from the waste thrown out by woolen 
tnanufacttu-ers. 

Mr. Wilbert at this point called attention to the German 
Pharmacists' Association, which has been doing work of the 
character outlined by Mr. Fuller (its laboratories being located 
in the Berlin College of Pharmacy), and whose findings have 
been going to its members as bulletins. 

"Commercial Alcohol in Germany" was the next subject 
presented by Dr. Rodney H. True, who outlined conditions 
which have led to the extensive alcohol industry in Germany. 
It appears that this industry is a part of a great economic 
undertaking commenced by Frederick the Great and which 
has had hearty Government support ever since. It was 
clearly shown that as an individual industry it was a failure, 
but as a part of an economic farming arrangement it had 
not been a failure. Potatoes are much grown in the eastern 
or sandy provinces of Germany in land which would be called 
poor here. Crops are rotated in the order of potato, grain and 
grass. The potato uses but little of the ash content of the 
soil and is deeply planted. While smaller than the American, 
it is higher in starch content and contains less water. The 
yield, with the deep planting noted, is about three times the 
average American crop, and it leaves the land in excellent 
shape for the grain to follow. In fact, the grain has been 
doubled by this means. Many of the potatoes are sent to the 
western provinces and to the cities, the major portion, howeva*, 
going to the still. The mash left over is used to feed the 
stock. Altogether, this economic arrangement has been won- 
derfully developed, and, while no profit is obtained directly 
from the alcohol, it enters into this great plan as an in- 
separable and unreplaceable cog. The plans for disposing of 
the alcohol, the societies for its protection, and the peculiar 
conditions incident to this industry were all minutely and 
interestingly described. The American attempt to comm«r- 



72 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL BRA 



[February, 1914 



cialize alcohol, while by no means a success, to date h;is shown 
enough to warrant a continuation of the experiments already 
made. The effect of tax levies and the qualities of the 
potatoes came in for much good-natured comment and many 
well-placed witticisms. 

The question of the location of the permanent home for the 
.•Vmerican Pharmaceutical Association was then brought to the 
attention of the branch. The proposed locations were dis- 
cussed and much comment was made upon any attempt to 
locale the home out of Wasliington. Mr. Wilbcrt spoke very 
feelingly and strongly in favor of its being located in Wash- 
ington, where it would be free from the influences of politics 
and near the national legislative body of the country. It 
seems to be the logical situation for such a home as is pro- 
posed. The following motion was then proposed, seconded 
and carried : — 

Whereas, It is proposed to provide a permanent 
headquarters or home for the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, and 

Whereas, Efforts have been and are now being 
made to secure the location of this permanent head- 
quarters in several widely separated cities, and 

Whereas, The American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion is incorporated under the laws of the District 
of Columbia and is now operating under the general 
provisions of this incorporation. 

Now, therefore, we, members of the city of Wash- 
ington Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, would respectfully remind the officers of the 
parent organization that there are many and weighty 
reasons for locating the permanent home of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association in the City of 
Washington. 

The secretary was also directed to bring this matter to the 
attention of the council. 

The William Proctor memorial was also considered, and it 
was urged that if it should be in the form of a statue, and 
that if the American Pharmaceutical Association built here, 
the proper place for the statue would be in front of the home. 
" 'Twould be better in our front yard than in the back yard 
of some Government building," quoted Mr. Hilton, for he 
knows, as all Washingtonians do, that memorial statues of all 
but National heroes are placed in obscure parks and "lost" 
forever. There are a dozen such statues in Washington, of 
which no one ever hears and that few have ever seen ; all are 
in a state of neglect. 

Dr. Kebler, in closing, with well-chosen words thanked the 
branch for the honor which it had conferred upon him to 
elect him its president and for the hearty support he had 
received. In turn, a vote of thanks was tendered him for 
his excellent programme and ever-persevering efforts to better 
the branch. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to Dr. Cushman and to 
Mr. Fuller for their kindness in tendering the use of the 
institute to the society, and it was directed that a note be 
recorded in the minutes of the motion. 



HAVE UNTIL JULY 1 ON" BICHLORIDE TABLETS. 



Members of G.A.S. Hear That They Need Not Change 
Package at Once — Monthly Dues Are Raised. 

AT the January meeting of the German Apothecaries' 
Society, George T. Riefflin discussed in brief the local 
mercuric bichloride tablet situation. He reported that 
there was no necessity for a change in package for these tablets 
until July 1, at which time the stock of this article on hand 
would be replaced by the manufacturers. 

Communications were read by Corresponding Secretary C. 
Baum, the fir.st being an invitation from Charles H. Heimerz- 
heim, secretary of the trade matters committee of the N.Y. 
S.P.A., to participate in the drug and chemical exposition at 
Madison Square Garden. The Federation Internationale Phar- 
maceutique at The Hague, Holland, invited the society to 
affiliate with it. This request was referred to the scientific 
committee. 

Recorder George Leinecker reported that the widow of former 
member H. Bosch had presented her husband's library to the 



society. The thanks of the members will be expressed by the 
secretary. Paul F. Gebickc, custodian of the mortuary fund, 
reported that he had sent tlie widow of the recently deceased 
member, F. W. L. Cunz, of Fort Lee, N. J., a dicck for $134, 
for the receipt of which Mrs. Cunz had sent a letter of thanks, 
.^t the suggestion of President Dr. C. F. Klippert, the members 
rose in memory to the deceased. 

S. \'. B. Swann, chairman of the legislative committee, read 
the essential paragraphs in ihe new weights and measures law. 
President Dr. Klippert explained some of the regulations of 
the new labor law, referring in particular to the employment 
of boys under the age of 14 years. Otto P. Gilbert, chairman 
of the entertainment committee, reappointed his associates, 
H. F. Albert, Felix Hirseman, Robert S. Lehman, George T. 
Riefflin and Hugo Kantrowitz, upon that committee. Mr. 
Gilbert reported that the arrangements for the society's 63d 
anniversary, to be held at Terrace Garden, Feb. 12, were pro- 
gressing and the occasion promised to be an enjoyable one. 
The entertainment will consist of a kommers including ladies. 
Tickets for the affair, which will be informal, will cost $2 each, 
this sum including supper, beverages and hat check. 

Dr. Wm. C. Alpcrs, chairman of the special committee on 
European trip, reported progress. Mr. Gilbert reported that the 
membership signs were ready for installation and that many 
of the members had already j^ut in their orders for the same. 
First vice-president Paul F. Gebicke, in behalf of the com- 
mittee appointed to con.<iider tlie recommendations in the presi- 
dent's annual address, reported that he had placed Robert S. 
Lehman and George C. P. Stolzenburg on his committee. 
They had held a meeting at which it was recommended that 
the monthly dues for regular members be increased to 60 cents 
per month and the dues for associate members be made 30' 
cents per month. 

Mr. Gebicke and his committee associates did not favor the 
appointment of a propaganda (membership) committee, but 
requested that 'the members act as such individually and ask 
their collegues to attend meetings and to join the organization. 
The question of electing an honorary president was not acted 
upon. The report of the committee on president's address was 
accepted and action will be taken according to the by-laws. 

A pamphlet was received from the Austrian Pharmaceutical 
Society announcing the 40th year of the existence of their 
organization. The secretary was instructed to acknowledge the 
same. 

Professor Otto Raubcnheimcr delivered an interesting lecture 
on "Incompatibles," Messrs. Gilbert, Alpers, Roller and Ge- 
bicke participating in the ensuing discussion. 



Cincinnati Branch, A.Fh.A. 

The recent meeting of the Cincinnati branch was one of the 
most important ever held by that body, three of the laws 
enacted by the last Legislature — and seriously affecting the 
drug trade — coming up for discussion. The Legislative com- 
mittee, consisting of Frank H. Freericks, chairman; William 
C. Lakamp and Ferd Zuenkeler drafted a letter which was 
later mailed to Gov. Cox, in which they protested against 
certain features of the Duffy narcotic law, the insecticide and 
fungicide law, and the agricultural commission law. 

The insecticide law, according to this committee, cannot be 
enforced, as it provides for the registration of labels for every 
drug having the properties of an insecticide or fungicide. 
Further than this, it also provides a yearly license fee of $20 
for every maker of any such preparation. According to this 
law a druggist could not mix a vermin exterminator or similar 
household necessity without becoming liable for the manufac- 
turer's tax. The branch approved of the intent of the law — to 
reach the manufacturers who in turn supply dealers — but urged 
its amendment to exclude its application to pharmacists and 
those who do not manufacture to sell to other dealers. The 
Duffy provisions have been stated in previous issues of the 
Era. 

The Agricultural Commission law takes from the Board of 
Pharmacy all of its powers except as an examining board, and 
places the enforcement of the laws pertaining to pharmacy, 
poisons and purity of drugs with a commission which does 
not profess to have and which cannot have the special knowl- 
edge necessary to intelligent enforcement. The legislative com- 
mittee of the branch favored the establishment of the office of 
drug commissioner, which office, if need be. cou'd come under 
the j'_'ri=diction of the Agricultural Commission. 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



73 



How to Get a Real Profit. 



Harry B. Mason Addresses New York College of Pharmacy 
Gathering, and Gives Details of Scientific Profit-taking. 

PROFITS — what they are, aind, what is more to the point, 
what they are not — was the keynote of the address and 
the discussion at the January meeting of the New York 
College of Pharmacy. That the average druggist not only 
does not compute his profits correctly but does not know how 
to do so was brought home to one of the largest gatherings 
of the year at the college, not only by the principal speaker. 
Editor Harry B. Mason, of the Bulletin of Pharmacy, of 
Detroit, but by the participants in the discussion that followed. 

In beginning his lecture on "Profit in the Drug Business," 
Mr. Mason divided goods-pricing druggists into four classes, 
and, to bring home his deductions, traced the profit-making 
and taking history of a hair brush costing $1. The druggist 
in Class No. 1, who kept no records, figured that he must 
make something on the brush, and he priced it at $1.30. The 
druggist in Class No. 2, having read somewhere that it cost 
something to do business, tacked on from 25 to 30 cents to 
cover the "cost of business" item, and then added a little for 
profit. "He probably just about broke even," said Mr. Mason. 

Class No. 3, like No. 2, supposed it cost something to do 
business, but he also desired a profit. So he charged $1.35 
for the brush, thinking when he did so that he was allowing 
25 per cent, for the cost of doing business and a further 10 
per cent, for profit. "His price," declared the speaker, "does 
include the cost of doing business, but does not include the 
profit." 

Druggist No. 4 knows. He keeps accurate business records, 
and when he sells that hair brush gets $1.54 for it. He gets 
35 per cent, on the selling price, which amounts to 54 per 
cent, on the cost price. This man knows just exactly what he 
has to do to make money. Ten per cent, profit, after all, is 
but the average net profit — the margain on patent medicines, 
cigars and other lines is much lower, and to equalize this the 
druggist must get a higher net profit in other directions. 

The study of prices and profits is essential to success, yet 
it is the point of greatest ignorance with the majority of 
druggists. Thousands of druggists are deceived and are not 
making as much money as they think they are. Every drug- 
gist should know four facts about his business — his percentage 
of expense, his percentage of gross profit, his percentage of net 
profit, and his entire income from the business as a whole. 
If he does not know, he is groping in the dark and may as 
likely fail as succeed. All he need keep record of are his 
(1) sales, his (2) purchases and his (3) expenses. 

The druggist should check up his departments to see whether 
he is making money. , If it takes him 10 minutes daily to do 
his regular bookkeeping he may perform this special checking 
in three minutes daily. A year's checking on any particular 
department will tell the story of that department. Indeed, the 
successful retail stores in this country are departmentized and 
every department has to pay its way. The small druggist can- 
not do this, but he can institute some control on the various 
lines he handles. Keep a record on the cigar department for 
one year and see if it pays. If you find that cigars are only 
paying 27 per cent, gross and the cost of doing business is 
29 per cent., then you are losing 2 per cent, on cigars. 
Cigars, patent medicines, candy and certain other lines are 
easily wrapped and sold — it is difficult to determine their cost 
of sale. 

If a year's records show a department is running below the 
cost of doing business — cut out the leaks, boost prices, do 
something. Study the situation and apply a remedy. The 
dribbling away of profits — "smokes on the house," candy for 
the girls, etc. — counts. It is absolutely impossible to do busi- 
ness wisely without knowing the facts. 

At the end of the year an annual statement should be drawn 
up covering these facts: 

(1) Total sales, (2) purchases, (3) stock increase or de- 
crease as shown by the inventory, (4) cost of goods actually 
sold, (5) gross profits, (6) expenses, (7) net profits, (8) total 
income from the business, (9) inventory of stock and (10) 
inventory of fixtures. 

No. 2, purchases, does not tell the entire story, said Mr. 
Mason. No. 3, the stock increase or decrease as shon-n by 
the inventory, should be deducted from or added to purchases 



for the year. No. 4, cost goods actually sold, should be 
deducted from the sales and we arrive at No. 5, gross profits. 
Deduct e-xpenses, No. 6, and we arrive at net profits. No. 7. 

A proper expense account should include the following 
items : 

(1) Taxes, (2) insurance, (3) fuel, (4) light, (5) water, 
(6) rent, (7) proprietor's salary, (8) clerk hire, (9) advertis- 
ing, (10) telephone, (11) telegraph, (12) office supplies, (13) 
postage, (14) repairs, (15) delivery service, (16) donations, 
(17) subscriptions, (18) depreciation in stock and fixtures, 
and (19) losses in bad accounts. 

The mistakes made by the druggist in making up his ex- 
pense account are legion. If he owns the building he should 
charge for rent. He should charge for his salary as manager 
or proprietor. He should not neglect to take an inventory. 
Mr. Mason knew of cases where drug-store stocks have been 
$2000 off from what the respective druggists thought they 
were. These druggists either made or lost that much. Every 
druggist should know his percentage of expense, which is 
obtained by dividing the total annual expenses by the total 
annual sales. For instance, with total expenses of $3600 per 
year and $12,000 total sales, his percentage of expense would 
be 30. The percentage of gross profit is obtained by dividing 
total gross profits for the year by the total amount of sales. 
If the gross profits were $4800 on the $12,000 total sales, the 
gross profit would be 40 per cent. His total income is dis- 
covered by adding the proprietor's salary, taken from the 
expense account, to the net profits for the year. Presuming 
that the druggist allowed himself $1500 salary and that he 
made $1200 net profit, his total income from the store would 
be $2700. 

These percentages, Mr. Mason explained, are all based on 
the selling price instead of the cost. Let us suppose that a 
druggist finds his percentage to be 28, and in pricing a given 
article he wants to cover this expense plus a net profit of 12 
per cent., making a total or gross profit of 40 per cent. How 
does he arrive at the proper selling figure? The article, let 
us say, costs $2.00. The unknown selling price represents 
100 per cent., 40 per cent, of which is to be profit, and the 
remaining 60 per cent., therefore, the cost. The cost price of 
$2.00 is accordingly 60 per cent, of the selling price to be 
determined. The problem may therefore be stated as follows: 

$2.00 : 60 :: X : 100, 
and the answer is $3.33. Thus a precise knowledge of selling 
cost and percentage of profit is a vital necessity in the pricing 
of every article in the store, and indeed in the conduct of the 
whole business if a druggist wants to make a store yield him 
a good inccme instead of doling out reluctantly a mere living. 

Twenty-five drug stores, the proprietors of which Mr. 
Mason had personally canvassed, made gross profits ranging 
from 31 to 51 per cent. Their e.-spense of doing business 
ranged from 18 to 35 per cent. He asserted that there was no 
excuse for this wide variation. There are, of course, reasons 
for some variation. Expenses in the city and country differ. 
Distance from the drug markets also has its effect. The fault 
in the case of unusual percentages of expense lies with the 
druggists themselves. The average expense of doing business 
was 24J/2 per cent., the average gross profits 38 per cent. 
Mr. Mason believed these averages to be typical — 25 per cent, 
cost of doing business — 35 to 40 per cent, gross profits. 

Among those who discussed Mr. Mason's address were Dean 
F. J. Wulling, of University of Minnesota College of Phar- 
macy; chairman of this meeting, Felix Hirseman; Charles W. 
Holzhauer, Newark, N. J.; John.W. Ferrier, C. O. Bigelow, 
Alderman James Weil, Dr. Jacob Diner and others. Dean 
Wulling felt complimented that he, a college professor, should 
be called upon to discuss a commercial subject. Professors 
generally w-ere not supposed to know much about business. 
In his opinion, the pharmacist not a good business man 
would not be a good pharmacist. He enlarged upon the 
efforts of his institution to instil some idea of business methods 
in the minds of the students and also presented some amusing, 
almost sad, incidents of druggists who were utterly unable to 
figure percentages of profit, cost of doing business, etc. 

Felix Hirseman told about the system he had installed in 
his first drug store. He had not used all of Mr. Mason's 
terms, but the rudiments were there. He knew what each 
department was doing. Charles Holzhauer thought the vital 
point of Mr. Mason's address was the determination of selling 
expense. He was very proud of his stock index system by 



74 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



which he could tell instantly whether he could accept or 
decline a salesman's proposition. 

John Ferrier asserted that the greatest loss in his business 
was due to not watching the very small things and to thefts. 
The btter were divided into two classes, those committed by 
outsiders, which were generally small, and those committed 
by the insiders. He also called attention to the criminal 
recklessness and spiteful dcstructiveness of some clerks after 
ihey had been scolded. He presented a method of marking 
merchandise in order to detect petty thievery. 

C. O. Bigelow presented the expense percentage, percentage 
of net profit and percentage of gross profits in his business 
for the past 17 years. He observed that the pharmacist who 
ignores the points brought up during the meeting will not 
succeed. He must analyze his business. 

The meeting was also the occasion of the presentation of a 
portrait of the late Edward Kemp, president of the college, 
1S96 to 1900, by his widow, and the reading of a biogra|)hy 
of the late Timothy L. Woodruff by Thomas I'. Main. 
Frank Farrington, editor of the Inland Store-Keeper, will 
deliver the third of the series of lectures on commercial phar- 
macy at the next meeting. 

DK. WM. C. ANDERSON HEADS THE A.D.S. 



tion was that the business done during tlie Garden e.xliibition 
had about paid the expenses of the former, whereas last year's 
United Drug Company's convention had cost ?60,000. 



fiXPOSniON OCCASION OF PROPAGANDA MEET. 



Dean of Brooklyn College of Pharmacy Accepts Presi- 
dency — Members Approve Premium Coupon Plan. 
DR. \VlLLI.\iI C. .\XDERSOX, dean of the Brooklyn 
College of Pharmacy, was elected president of the .Amer- 
ican Druggists' Syndicate, at that corporation's annual 
convention, held at Madison Square Garden, January 19 to 24, 
inclusive. Other officers elected are: 

Secretary, C. H. Goddard (re-elected) ; treasurer, George 
W. Luft ; directors to serve three years : Charles H. Goddard, 
G. W. Luft, Wm. C. Anderson, E. L. Weston and Sidney C. 
■yeoman. 

By unanimous votes the members adopted resolutions pro- 
viding for three features of particular interest in the develop- 
ment of the svndicate. The directors were authorized to 
increase the capital stock to $10,000,000, according to a plan 
outlined bv Secretary Goddard in his annual report. Only 
5625,000 of the total increase will be made this year, and this 
willbe offered to members on the basis of one share at the 
par value of $10 for each four shares of old stock held. The 
old stock is said to be worth $20 a share. No further issue 
will be made until the stockholders have been shown that the 
$625,000 increase has been profitably employed. 

The Board of Directors was authorized to devise rules and 
methods under which .\.D.S. products may be sold to dis- 
pensing phvsicians. 

The directors w^ere vested with power to adopt a system ot 
coupon premium sales at retail drug stores, the directors being 
given the discretion of making the system national or merely 

°A plan for uniting the .\.D.S. and Aseptic Products Com- 
pany st6ck was unanimously approved, the transfer to be on 
the basis of two shares of new A.D.S. stock for one of com- 
mon A P.C. and one new A.D.S. for one preferred A.P.t. 

Secretary Goddard outlined a scheme by which he proposed 
to attempt co-operative shipping of freight by the Panama 
Canal to the Pacific Coast, thereby cutting down far Western 
freight e-Tpenses 50 cents per ton. He had circularized a large 
number of firms shipping to California and found that those 
which he had interested shipped a sufficient tonnage to justify 
the chartering of an A.D.S. ship. This investigation had 
also developed that it would be feasible to run an A.D.S. 
passenger ship through the canal to the Panama Exposition 
and to hold a convention on that occasion. Western members 
having earnestly solicited a meeting at the Exposition. 

A matter which received the attention of the members was 
that of mutual fire insurance. It was pointed out that few 
companies take all the risk on drug store fire msurance and 
that those companies handling only drug store msurance saved 
25 per cent, for the insured. Jhe A^D.S., said Secretary 
Goddard, could save the druggist 33% per cent, and stiU 
make money. Henry W. Merritt wished it understood that 
any action on insurance would be directed agamst the old- 
line companies and not those companies featuring only drug 

^'Tnttrest^g rumor during the latter part of the conven- 



President Beringer and President-elect Mayo, of the 
A.Ph.A., and Dean WuUing Among- Speakers. 

PRESIDENT of the .American i'liarmaceutical -Association 
George M. Beriiiger, President-elect Caswell A. Mayo, 
of the same organization; V. J. Wulling, dean of the 
College of Pharmacy of the University of Minnesota, and 
John Rocnier, chairman of the N.Y.S.P..A. propaganda 
romniittee, were the speakers at a propaganda meeting for 
pliarniacists held at Madison Square Garden on the evening 
of Jan. 22, under the auspices of the committee on propaganda 
of the New York State Pharmaceutical Association. President 
Jacob H. Rehfuss introduced Mr. Roemer, who asserted that 
propaganda in its general conception had been restricted to its 
relation between pharmacist and physician. It might be given 
a much broader definition. The pharmacist today, he ob- 
served, finds himself in the position where his commercial 
activities usurp the professional. Well directed propaganda 
would answer the question, "Who are the friends of phar- 
macy?" 

President Beringer, the next speaker, in developing his 
subject, "Pharmacy," touched on the history of the profession, 
referring (larticularly to the animal origin of many of the 
drugs of the middle ages. He did not believe that pharmacists 
should apologize for the condition of pharmacy today. It has 
progressed with the age: the American pharmacist is living 
up to his share of responsibility. If the pharmacist of today 
is to be successful he must give attention to the commercial 
side. Mr. Beringer did not lose sight of the fact that all 
honor was due to the development of the scientific side of 
pharmacy. He had not seen anywhere as handsome a lot of 
preparations as was in the N.Y.S.P.A. exhibit. 

The speaker alluded to the work being done on standards 
and remarked that it dovetailed with propagandic work. He 
asserted that it had remained for modern pharmacy to de- 
velop true pharmacognosy. The time will come, Mr. Beringer 
believed, when every pharmacist will want to bear his share 
in the development and progress of pharmacy — when every 
pharmacist will wear the .A.Ph.A. button. 

Dean F. J. Wulling spoke in his individual capacity as a 
pharmacist, and pleaded guilty to being an ethical pharmacist, 
but was broad-minded enough to know that pharmacy today 
necessitates commercial activity. There was no reason why 
pharmacy should not be rehabilitated and pharmacists practice 
pharmacy as physicians practice medicine. Pharmacists instal 
commercial features in their stores solely as a means of de- 
fence. He agreed with Mr. Beringer that pharmacists were 
living up to their best at the present time. Their activities, 
however, were twofold, due to the stress of circumstances. 

Pharmacy needs a higher average of intelligence, was Dean 
Wulling's contention. Pharmacy is what pharmacists want it 
to be. Other callings are rising to higher planes : pharmacy 
should do likewise. The remedy is in the hands of the phar- 
macists. -An essential to successful propaganda work is the 
outlining of a programme and the carrying out of the same. 
Results must not be expected for a year or so after the 
inauguration of the campaign. The pendulum will return 
when the pharmacists want it to. 

From his experience in Minnesota, Dean Wulling was sure 
that results might be obtained wherever the pharmacists and 
physicians could get together and the former could demonstrate 
that they were able to put up prescriptions. The physicians 
want efficient pharmaceutical service. However, there is no 
reason for general complaint on the part of the physicians that 
they are unable to find competent pharmacists. They can 
find them if they will only look. 

Caswell A. Mayo criticised the custom of hospital internes 
in prescribing "No.- 23," "No. 25," etc. Relative to propa- 
ganda, it had been his experience that the weak point lay 
primarily with the pharmacist. As Professor Ni.xon had 
pointed out earlier in the week, the pharmacist too often 
cannot put up the very preparations which he induces the 
physician to prescribe. Mr. Mayo referred to the splendid 
propaganda work done by the Kings County Pharmaceutical 
Society. He was glad to see that the prices of prescriptions 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL ERA 



10 



were being put up in the better class of pharmacies. He 
commended the development of skill in scientific directions 
in order to free the pharmacist from the onus of commercial 
competition. The future of pharmacy, was his concluding 
obsenation. under intelligent propaganda, holds much promise 
for its followers. 

Charles Huhn. of Miimeapolis, opened the ensuing discus- 
sion, in which Henry P. Sandkoetter, of Chicago; Dr. Hy. 
J. J. Kassebaum, of Brooklj-n, and others participated. Mr. 
Huhn described himself as a "shaving off the Board of Phar- 
macy of Miimesota." He told about the work with the phy- 
sicians in his State and asserted that some of the boys launched 
into pharmacy had much better follow the plow. He stated 
that Dean Wulling was regarded as the little giant in phar- 
macy in Jliimesota. One of his works was the building of 
a splendid pharmacy building at the university. 

ilr. Huhn told how the pharmacists of ilinnesota held get- 
together meetings with the physicians. They placed official 
preparations between the plates at the banquet board and 
solicited the criticisms of their guests. Employing these 
methods they were making progress. In conclusion, Mr. Huhn 
related how an effort to pass a most tmreasonable anti- 
narcotic ordinance in Minneapolis had been forestalled by 
himself and other pharmacists, only, however, after the hardest 
of political fighting. An ordinance modeled after the Har- 
rison bill was finally substituted for the obnoxious meastire 
and passed. This new ordinance makes the physician as 
liable as the jjharmacist. The public and some of the phy- 
sicians object to the refill provision, but otherwise the ordi- 
nance is a success. 



Third Annual Meeting of N. A. M. M. P. 



The third annual meeting of the National Association of 
Manufacttirers of iledicinal Products will be held at the 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York Cit\-, Feb. 10-11, 1914. 
The first session will be called to order at 10 o'clock ajn. 
Tuesday, Feb. 10. The registration lists will be open at 
9 : 30 a.m., and members, guests and fraternal representatives 
are requested to register as soon thereafter as possible. 
The banquet will be held Wednesday evening. Hon. Herman 
A. Metz, Ex-Comptroller of the City of New- York and present 
Congressman from the Tenth District, Xew York, will deliver 
an address. Owing to the fact that another invited speaker 
has just been obliged to cancel his engagement on account of 
ill health, it is now impossible to state who his substitute 
will be; but one will be selected who will give entire satis- 
faction. Members are earnestly requested to be present and 
to come prepared to introduce any matter they think to be of 
mutual interest. It will greatly expedite the business of the 
association if propositions are put in the concrete form of 
wTitten motions or resolutions, and submitted at the first 
session. There is every reason to believe that the coming 
meeting will be even more successful and profitable than the 
last. 



Drug Clerks' Association of Maryland. 

At a meeting of the Drug Clerks' Association of Maryland, 
held last month at the Hotel Emerson, Baltimore, for the pur- 
pose of promoting the agitation in favor of better working 
hours and representation on the State Board of Pharmacv', 
letter were read from Drs. Howard A. Kelly, one of the most 
noted surgeons in the coimtry; Hiram T. Woods, John il. T. 
Fiimey, who is hardly less well kno^Ti than Dr. Kelly, and 
others, indorsing the aims of the clerks. Among those who 
made addresses also approving the objects the clerks seek 
were Dr. Thomas Buckler, Dr. Charles Caspari, Jr., David 
M. R. Culbreth, H. P. Hs-nson, Dr. B. E. Pritcnard, Pitts- 
burgh; Dr. W. S. Gilroy, Dr. George C. Blades, Delegate E. 
Milton Altfeld, of the Maryland House of Delegates, and 
Louis Samuels. Resolutions were adopted outlining the aims 
of the association to obtain a uniform workday of not more 
than 10 hours and not more than six days a week. Repre- 
sentation on the State Board of Pharmacy was also urged 
and much stress was laid on the movement to abolish the 
degree of assistant pharmacist. The organization is of the 
opinion that there should be only competent pharmacists and 
that no one who caimot qualify for this degree should be 
employed in a drug store. 



The officers of the association, which grew out of a bddy 
affiliated with the Federation of Labor, but has no connection 
with it now, are: President, J. W. Kromcke; vice-president, 
R. C. Ward; treasurer, E. A. Powers; secretary. Christian 
Fiske; sergeant-at-arms, S. T. Lombard; executive board, C. H 
Cartel, C. T. Freitag and W. S. Walb. 



Massachiisetts Traveling Men's Auxiliary. 
The annual banquet of the Traveling Men's Auxiliary of the 
Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Association was held at 
Y'oung's Hotel on the evening of Jan. 5, with a number of 
distinguished guests, including Hon. Frank J. Donahue, Sec- 
retary of State, and a graduate of the Massachusetts College 
of Pharmacy; Frank J. Campbell, president of the State Phar- 
maceutical Association; Charles F. Ripley, chairman of the 
State Board of Registration in Pharmacy, and James F. Fin- 
neran, president of the X.A.R.D. President Fred L. Carter, 
Jr., presided at the dinner, and Fred S. Lovis, of the Eastern 
Drug Company, was toastmaster. A pleasing feature of the 
dinner was the exhibition of "movies" taken last Stunmer of 
the State convention at Swampscott. President Ripley, in his 
speech, discussed the new pharmacy law which became opera- 
tive with the new year, and which defines what a drug store is. 
He said the power to enforce the law lies with the local 
authorities as ever. Hereafter an imregistered clerk may be 
left in charge of the drug store, but he may sell only house- 
hold articles, and at no time can he sell liquor. President 
Finneran tirged the association to work for honest prices in 
the drug business, and to carry on the crusade which the 
National association has been waging now for 16 years. The 
attendance was about 100. 



AMONG THE ASSOCIATIONS. 



About 30 members of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Travel- 
ers' Association met at the Hotel Blatz in Milwaukee, Dec. 
29, and made plans for the entertainment features of the com- 
ing annual convention of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation at Delavan Lake about the middle of June. Various 
committees were appointed to take up different phases of the 
work, and efforts will be made to make the Delavan gathering 
one of the most successful in the many notable conventions 
held by the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical .\ssociation. The 
travelers' organization always has charge of the entertainment, 
and never fails to arrange something novel and interesting. 

.\t the aimual meeting of the Rock Island County R.D..A. 
at Moline, 111., the following ofiicers were chosen for the 
association and the Ladies' Auxiliary: President, August 
Sundine, Moline; vice-president, H. B. Burt, Rock Island; 
secretary-, Oscar Oberg, Rock Island; treasurer, John F. 
Schneider, Rock Island. Officers of the Ladies' Auxiliary were 
chosen as follows: President, Mrs. H. E. Rowe, Rock Island; 
vice-president, Mrs. A. C. Croswell, Rock Island; secretary, 
Mrs. Charles Brunstrom, Moline; treasurer, Mrs. A. J. Reiss, 
Rock Island. 

The Philadelphia Branch of the A.Ph..\. listened to effi- 
ciency addresses at the meeting held Jan. 6. J. Frank Dechant 
told how a drug salesman can succeed; A. E. Lobeck spoke 
on the general efficiency of drug stores and recommended a 
bonus for clerks as a means of getting them interested in the 
business. Thomas H. Brown explained a method by which 
the druggist can figure his profits every night after hours, and 
Ivor Griffith illustrated a talk in jvhich he told of the value 
of advertising. 

At the recent aimual meeting of the Detroit Retail Drug- 
gists' Association at the Fellowcraft Club, the following of- 
ficers were elected: President, J. H. Webster; 1st vice-presi- 
dent, O. W. Gorenflo; 2d vice-president, Leon Van Vliet; 
secretary, J. G. Hackney; treasurer, A. G. Riesterer; executive 
committee W. A. Hall, D. E. Perrin, R. W. Rennie, Grant 
Stevens, G. W. Leacock, W. C. M. Scott, W. Travis, Dr. O. 
Amdt, J. F. Paddock and R. E. Bodimer. 

The January meeting of Boston Chapter, W.O.N. A.R.D., 
was in charge of Mrs. Ethel T. Comer, chairman of the com- 
mittee on household economics, and was held in the afternoon 
at the Hotel Vendome. Mrs. Margaret J. Stannard spoke on 
"The Education of Girls as Home Makers," and there were 
violin solos by Mrs. DeForest Smith. Social tea followed. 



76 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



Curbing Dispensing by the Physician. 



F. W. Connolly 



FRED W. CONNOLLY, one of the most aggressive drug- 
gists in Greater Boston, h.is been in correspondence with 
the State Board of Registration in Pharmacy in regard 
to a proposed law which would make it illegal for the medical 
profession to dispense (except in case of emergency) as it is 
now illegal for pharmacists to prescribe. 

BMr. Connolly urged the State Board to 
take up the matter in the interest of the 
druggist who now finds it liard to make 
a day's pay by a reasonable day's work. 
The State Board, through the secre- 
tary, has replied to Mr. Connolly, stat- 
ing that the proposal did not seem to 
be witliin its province, and suggesting 
that the Massachusetts State Pharma- 
ceutical .\ssociation might be willing to 
take up the matter. 
Mr. Connolly has replied with another 
letter, stating that he did not think the 
officers of the State association would 

have as much weight in the matter with 

a legislative committee as the State 

Board of Registration in Pharmacy 

would have, but he says he thinks he could get the State 

association to endorse it. Continuing, Mr. Connolly says: 

"I am willing to give the matter the greatest publicity, eveii 
to sending a copy of the letter to every druggist in the State. 
I believe the druggists would gladly exchange the liquor busi- 
ness, if they have any, for the medicine business, and I be- 
lieve the temperance forces would be allied with us in this 
matter, and I know of another source of help. ■ 

".As far as the physicians are concerned, I do not expect the 
opposition which some fear. If this change is right, and I 
believe it is, what can they say? If the druggists realized 
what this meant every one in the State would be represented 
in it. 

"Furthermore, I know physicians who are dispensing against 
their wishes, their judgment and their self-respect, forced to it 
as it were, by fear of competition. When they realize that all 
physicians are on the same footing in that respect they will 
welcome the idea with the same grace with which merchants 
received the adverse legislation relative to the use of trading 
.stamps. 

The real opponents to this effort will be the supply houses 
and we can 'lick' them, or make the fight too expensive, or 
fcoth." 

]sli. Connolly's original letter to the State Board of Regis- 
tration in Pharmacy is as follows: 

"To the Honorable the Board of Registration in Pharmacy: 
"Dear Sirs:— That it appears that there are hundreds of 
drug stores in Massachusetts which are unable to have a 
registered assistant makes it appear that there is something 
radically wrong. The casual observer would say that there 
were too many drug stores; but when we consider that some 
stores employ SO persons, that suggestion does not answer the 
question. . 

"To my mind two factors contribute to this condition; 
either or both being remedied would enable the druggists to 
comply with the law. One is the maintenance of prices by 

law which seems to be out of the question at the present 

time, but we are coming to it. The other is dispensing by 
physicians, which, I think, could and should be prohibited by 
law. They should administer when necessary, but not dis- 
pense. If your honorable board instigated and had this law 
enacted, it is your duty and privilege to also try to have a law 
passed which would enable honest, competent men to comply 

with the law. ... ,. ,• • 

"There is no question but that physicians dispense medicine 
other than that which they administer at the bedside. There 
is no question but that they renew a remedy which they 
have given a patient without altering it to meet changed con- 
ditions in the patient. There is little doubt that they replenish 
a remedy of their own dispensing without diagnosing the case 

"This added requirement on the part of the State for drug- 
gists makes it all the more apparent that the unrestricted use 
of all remedies including habit-forming drugs, drugs below 



standard or even practically inert preparations by physicians 
should be stopped. If we compel physicians to use full strength 
preparations, if they dispense the danger is increased, because 
tlie majority of them are not pharmacists. Should an error 
occur, who is responsible? The commonwealth, of course, 
for not protecting her citizens with ordinary safeguards as 
far as possible. Furthermore, what real protection has a per- 
son in the hands of a di.speusing physician? The physician 
diagnoses the case, he decides on the remedy, he supplies that 
remedy, or near it. If the patient dies, he attributes the cause 
and there the matter ends. 

"What incentive has a physician to be very careful as to 
his compounding and disjjensing beyond his own conscience? 
None wliatever. Is that right? Is that taking proper pre- 
cautions to protect the sick of our commonwealth? Why is 
so much care necessary to protect the public from the drug- 
gist's error? 

"The druggist feels certain that should he be so unfortunate 
as to make a mistake it would very likely be detected and he 
would suffer the consequences. That is why most stores have 
a rule that all work be checked up by a second person. 

"I am convinced that the physician who dispenses other 
than the single dose, which he administers at the bedside or 
in an emergency, should be required to employ a registered 
pharmacist to compound his medicines. If this law which 
now goes into effect, is a good measure it is good for every 
druggist, not to force one here and there, but everywhere, and 
unle.'is enforced rigidly, it cannot be enforced at all, because 
the druggist who is compelled to live up to the requirements 
will probably insist that all others do likewise. 

"When the druggists find it is insufficient to be registered 
and to have clerks registered, but the stores must be registered, 
naturally we will ask what protection is accorded us to enable 
us to practice pharmacy when we have complied with all of 
these requirements. 

"I know that in the above statement I am expressing the 
sentiment of many, many druggists. You and I know how 
patient and long-suffering we are, but I feel certain that the 
time has arrived when we should make an active, aggressive 
move to obtain some rights for ourselves. Such is the spirit 
of the times. The public endorse anything whereby men may 
better their condition. Shorter day, with better pay, by legis- 
lation is very much in order these days. 

"I think it devolves upon your honorable board to consider 
this matter carefully, and if deemed expedient to frame a bill 
setting forth the wrong to competent druggists and the danger 
to an innocent public in the present lax method of permitting 
physicians to compound and dispense medicines. This work 
should be done only by men especially trained for the purpose 
and patients should be protected to the extent of at least two 
persons handling and a written record of, the medicines which 
they take. 

"The physician's 'Non Repetatur" gives him absolute control 
of his prescription. Very truly yours, 

"Boston, Mass., Jan. S, 1914." "Fred W. Connolly." 



A "Candy Kid" Con Man in St. Louis. 

Telephone in drug store of Leo. M. Saul, 629 N. Kings 
highway, St. Louis, rings. Saul gets this message: "Send 3- 
pound box of candy to 5020 Delmar." 

Druggist sends his clerk, William Walls, with $1.80 box. 
Walls finds six-year old boy sitting on steps at 5020 Delmar. 

"Is that the candy?" the boy asks. 

"That's the candy," replies Walls. 

"Do you want the money or shall we send it over?" asks 
the boy. 

Walls replies' that if it was all the same to the folks he 
would like to take the money along. 

"Oh, very well," says the boy; "just wait here a minute 
and I'll go around the back way and get the money from 
mamma." 

The boy retires around the back way. Walls waits for a 
while. Boy doesn't return. Walls rings the doorbell. Woman 
answers. Walls tells her he hos just delivered the candy to 
her little boy. She is sorry, but she has not ordered any 
candy and she has no little boy. 

Walls reports back to Saul without the $1.80 and without 
the candy. Saul calls the police. The police begin a search 
for the candy kid "confidence man." 



Februakt, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



■< I 



Schools and Colleges 



Valparaiso College of Pharmacy. 

The Senior class has elected the following officers; Presi- 
dent, VV. R. Ferguson, of Indiana; vice-president, W. O. 
Speer, of West Virginia; secretary, K. Stine, of Indiana; treas- 
urer, G. C. Chostner, of Missouri; yell master, A. R. Zack, 
of New Jersey; editor, C. M. Sisco, of Arkansas. 

The Valparaiso Pharmaceutical Association has elected the 
following officers: President, G. C. Chostner, of Missouri; 
vice-president, O. B. Koger, of Kentucky; secretary, Floyd T. 
Timmens. of Michigan ; treasurer, Rudolph Myers, of Indiana. 

At a recent meeting of the V.Ph.-'V. an interesting address 
on pharmaceutical possibilities was given by Prof. Wisner, 
professor of pharmacy and materia medica, Valparaiso Uni- 
versity. 



University of Michigan School of Pharmacy. 

F. F. Ingram, Jr., B.S. (Pharm.), '11, gave a very interesting 
and instructive talk before the Prescott Club at its December 
meeting. The subject was perfumes and their' manufacture. 
"Freddie" is particularly fitted to speak of these matters, 
having spent a year studying the subject in France. 

Percy Mack, Ph.C, '12, who purchased the store of J. A. 
Tice in this city has built up a fine business in the past three 
months. Mack hopes to have one of the prescription stores 
in Ann Arbor very soon. 

The Freshman class gave a smoker at the Michigan Union 
recently with short talks by President Weaver, Professor 
Stevens and Dr. Hubbard. 

Professor A. B. Stevens spent New Year's with relatives in 
Defiance, Ohio. 

Miss Ethel Person, Ph.C, '11, who is now a chemist with 
Merck & Co., Rahway, N. J., spent Christmas with her mother 
in Ann Arbor. 

The second semester opens Feb. 9, and it is hoped that all 
have done good enough work to be permitted to remain the 
second semester. 



N.T.C.P. Alumni Honor Dean Busby. 
The 18th annual dinner of the New York College of Phar- 
macy, Columbia University, Alumni Association, held at the 
Chemists' Club, was chosen as the occasion to celebrate the 
25th anniversary' of Henry H. Rusby's connection as dean of 
the institution, the SO or more persons present having assembled 
to do him honor. A silver chocolate set was presented to 
Dr. Rusby by the Alumni Association. The college faculty 
gave him a silver loving cup. Professor C. P. Wimmer offici- 
ated as toastmaster, being introduced in this capacity by Dr. 
Joseph Weinstein, president of the association. The after- 
dinner speakers were W. H. Carpenter, provost of Columbia 
University; Dr. C. F. Chandler, vice-president of the college 
and professor emeritus of chemistry; Dr. Wm. Jay Schieffelin, 
who spoke in behalf of the college trustees; Professor George 
C. Diekman, speaking for the faculty and who presented Dr. 
Rusby with the faculty's token of loyalty and fidelity, the silver 
loving cup: the dean, Thomas F. Main, secretary of the 
college, a founder, and honorary' president of the association, 
and E. W. Runyon, '73. 



College of Pharmacy University of Minnesota. 

The first semester closed on Jan. 24 and the semester ex- 
aminations began on Monday, Jan. 26, and continued through- 
out the week. The regular work of the second semester 
begins Feb. 4. 

The work in botany was reduced from six hours per week to 
four hours, to enable the class to begin work in the junior 
pharmaceutical laboratory in the subject of weights and meas- 
ures and the physics of pharmacy. This work began about 
Dec. 1. The new instructor, C. H. Rogers, is conducting this 
laboratory' work. The senior work in dispensing was increased 
somewhat last year and continued to the end of the first 
semester. 

Among the new equipment received diu'ing November and 
December were 120 tablet-arm chairs, 32 additional steel storage 
lockers, 100 stools for the pharmacognosy laboratory, phar- 
macognosy steel chart-case, IS steel portable drug bins, each of 



appro.ximately 100 pounds capacity, a series of animal cages 
for guinea-pigs, rabbits, dogs and roosters, a drug thresher, 
3 additional drug-drying ovens, which have been connected 
with the two chying ovens already placed in the pharma- 
cognosy plant laboratory- basement, a 10 h.p. electric motor. 

The supply of crude chugs for the work in pharmacognosy 
has arrived. In the neighborhood of 350 different samples 
were received, each representing the very best obtainable com- 
mercial drug. The order probably represents the finest assort- 
ment of _ vegetable drugs ever brought into the Northwest. 
The specimens with others already on hand have been arranged 
alphabetically in the new steel dust-proof drug drawers, of 
which there are 550. A sufficient quantity of each drug has 
been procured so that every student wiil be given a sample 
for his permanent collection and a quantity for drug powdering. 

Practically the entire crop of official vegetable drugs, har- 
vested from the medicinal plant garden the past season by the 
classes in pharmacognosy, has been packed into air-tight glass 
jars. A large amount of this material will be used for com- 
parative work with commercial drug samples and for the 
manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations. 

Professor W. H. Taft, now Kent Professor of Law at Yale 
and formerly President of the United States, will deliver a 
series of lectures at the University beginning early in March. 

Michigan C.P. Graduate Emulates Ford. 
Thirty-two employees of the Tompkins-Coopemail Com- 
pany, Utica, N. Y., owned by J. W. Tompkins, who have been 
connected with the company's store on Genesee street for 
from two to five years, have just been made the recipients of 
gifts of money from Mr. Tompkins aggregating the total of 
$2000. Last August eight young women in the store were 
given a trip to Bermuda, .all e.^penses being borne by their 
employer, approximating something over SIOOO, thus making 
the employees during the year beneficiaries in the sum of $3000 
or more. Mr. Tompkins is a graduate of the class of 1877. 
University of Michigan School of Pharmacy. He was sched- 
uled to attend the Michigan Club's annual banquet held at 
the Waldorf-.A-storia Jan. 29. Mr. Tompkins spent four years 
in the drug business, retiring to go on a farm. The success 
of a country peddler, however, inspired his interest in a general 
merchandising business. He first attempted to peddle to the 
farmers, but failing in this established a general store at 
Saugerties. His present well-established department store is 
the outgrowth of that initial effort. 



B. C. P. to Hold Commencement in Academy of Music. 

Thomas J. France, chairman of the committee on super- 
vision and examination of the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy, 
has succeeded in securing the Academy of Music for that 
institution's commencement exercises to be held in May. Due 
to the academy being reserved for the presentation of opera 
during the past several years, the college had been obliged to 
hold its commencement in less commodious quarters. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
John R. Rippetoe, of New York City, delivered the sixth 
of a special series of lectures at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, his subject being "Applied Pharmacognosy." Mr. 
Rippetoe based his remarks upon his personal experience in 
the laboratories of the larger pharmaceutical manufacturing 
houses. 



JOHN WESLEY HYATT GIVEN PEiRKIN MEiDAL. 



At a well-attended meeting of the Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, held on Jan. 23, 1914, at Rumford Hall, New York 
City, the Perkin Medal for the year was awarded to John 
Wesley Hyatt, the mventor of the first practical method for 
making pyro.xylin plastics without the use of solvents, and 
founder of the enormous industry represented by The Celluloid 
Company. In a masterly address, Professor Charles F. Chand- 
ler, of Columbia University, outlined the attempts made to 
produce nitro-cellulose plastics prior to Hyatt's work and 
showed ho%v Hyatt's method of applying heat and pressure ob- 
viated all the difficulties introduced by the use of solvents. Mr. 
Hyatt, who is still connected with the Newark firm, responded 
in a delightful vein full of humor. Mr. Frank Vanderpoel, 
one of Mr. Hyatt's co-workers, paid a warm personal tribute 
to the inventor as a man. 






THE PTIAK:\rACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 191-4 



Board Examinations 



District of Columbia. 
WASHINGTON. Jan. 20.— As a result of the recent quarterly 
examinations of the Board of Pharmacy of the District of Colum- 
bia the following have been licensed to practice pharmacy: Wil- 
liam Armstrong Boyd, Eugene Cecil Brockman, Andrew Bennett 
Brown, George Frederick Clayton, William Daniel Barnett and 
Armand Gardos. The next examinations of the board will be held 
April 9 and la 



Massachusetts. 

BOSTON, Jan. 2a— The Massachusetts Board of Registration in 
Pharmacy has organized by the selection of Charles F. Ripley, 
of Taunton, as president and Albert J. Brunnelle, of Fall River, 
as secretarj-. Mr. Ripley succeeds William S. Flint, of Worcester, 
and is a former secretary of the board, and Mr. Brunelle succeeds 
P. J. McCorniick, who retired from the board by reason of the 
expiration of his term. He is succeeded by William S. Briry, of 
Melrose. 

The following persons have been registered as pharmacists: 

Charles F. Archer, Dorchester; G. A. Beane, Lynn; Leland H. 
McEvoy, Boston; William Meisner, Springfield: John C. Warwick, 
Boston; John J. Burns, Dorchester; John F. Fagan, Dorchester; 
Wm. J. Gilcreast, Lowell; Edward R. Adams, Norwood; Warren 
B. Colon. Dorchester; Ambrose M. Joyce, Quincy; Harry F. 
Keeney, Roxbury; Carl B. Carlsen, Cambridge; James A. Benson, 
Fall River; Maurice E. Cleary, Cambridge; Sylvia Gorshol, Chel- 
sea; Freeman Phillips, Lynn; William J. Poisson, New Bedford; 
Alfred J. E. Schmidt, Newark, N. J.; Charles J. Tanner, New 
Bedford; William E. Warner, New York. 

The following were granted Assistant Certificates— George J. 
Enwright, Lowell; Clarence U. Folster, Fairhaven; H. A. Mac- 
donald. Somerville; Louis Kriesman, Somerville; Harry R. Camp 
bell, Lowell; Edward F. Foley, Lynn; Charles A. Kidder, Lynn; 
George C. Schicks, Lowell; Thomas M. Barry. Lynn; Rodolphe C 
Bonin, Lynn; Antonio A. Delage, Boston; \Valter J. Hutchinson, 
Somerville: William H. Ryan, Waltham; George J. Watters, 
Somerville; C. W. Devanna, Maiden: Lawrence Cunningham, 
Lawrence; Albert M. Fazioli, Everett; Willard A. Hodges, East 
Milton; Romeo G. Lavoie, Holyoke; Rodrigue Valliere, Holyoke. 



Nebraska. 
CLEARWATER, Jan. 20.— The Nebraska State Board of Ex- 
aminers has organized by the election of the following officers: 
President, D. J. Killen. Beatrice; vice-presidents, E. W. McCon- 
nell, McCook and S. E. Ewing, Cresten; treasurer. Orel Jones. 
Oconto: secretary, J. Earle Harper, Clearwater. The examina- 
tions for the year will be held on the second Wednesday and the 
following Thursday of February, May. August and November. 
The next examination will be held in Omaha Feb. 11-12. 



New York. 
The number of penalties paid the board during the month of 
December, also the character of the violations, was as follows: 

Adulterated and deficient prescriptions 10 

Adulterated and deficient pharraacopoeial products.. 12 

Junior violations 5 

Non-registration of pharmacy 1 

Total 28 cases 



cine; Alvin G. Kitzerow, Milwaukee; Arthur J. Richter, Fond du 
Lac; William J, Schcitinger, Milwaukee; Lester U. Jackson. Beloit; 
Sidney A. Ingersoll. Milwaukee; Fred K. Schmitt. Milwaukee; 
Ralph E. Lowell. .-Kppleton; Henry Nutzhorn, Dallas; David S. 
Crocker, Iron River; Edward Fleming, Racine; Anton J. Socha, 
Edgar; Malhias H. Regncr, West Bend; Harold W. Tuttle, Beloit. 
Assistant Pharmacist Certificates — Walter W. Klug, Milwaukee; 
Louis Self, Neillsville; Earl T. Cunningham, Milwaukee; Ralph 
Kraft, Milwaukee; Leo. J. H. I'asching. Eau Claire: Emil J. C. 
Wegner. Milwaukee; Henry T. Uclling, Applelon; Frank O. Fisher, 
Fond du Lac; Merritt R. Bach, Beloit; Harry A. Epstein, Mil- 
waukee; Elizabeth Kucer.i. La Crosse; M. Lee Alberts, Milwau- 
kee: Gustav il. Flygt, Park Falls; N'ictor L. N. Ziarnik, Mil- 
waukee; Harry F. Sutherland, Sparta; Robert Ferber. West .^llis; 
William D. McGuan, Milwaukee: Edward W. Panter, Grand 
Rapids; Clarence C. Bennett, Jr., Milwaukee; Ernest Schultz, 
Columbus; Howard O. Schulz, Ocononiowoc; Joel D. Leslie, Mil- 
waukee: Martha A. Long, Waukesha; Frank X. A. Krawczak, 
Milwaukee. 



Vermont. 
MONTPELIER, Jan. 20.— At the annual meeting of the Vermont 
State Board of Pharmacy the following officers were elected: 
President, E. G. McClallen, of Rutland; secretary. M. G. Beebe, 
of Burlington: treasurer. W. L. Gokay, of Bennington. The other 
members to complete the board are W. F. Root, of Brattleboro, 
and D. F. Davis, of Lyndonville. 

Wasliingi:on. 
That several drug stores in Spokane and other parts of the 
State of Washington are endangering the health and lives of 
customers by having prescriptions calling for potent drugs put up 
by unregistered clerks and by clerks who have even failed to 
pass the examinations before the board of pharmacy, was the 
atateraent of Secretary D. B. Gairjson of the State Pharmacy 
Board at its session in January. "The board has decided to pro- 
ceed against such cases as fast as possible by means of publicity 
before taking more drastic action." said Mr. Garrison. VVe shall 
not wait until we have rounded up all the violators of the phar- 
macy board's ruling but shall give to the newspapers as fast as 
listed the names of stores and firms violating the law As part 
of our new work we have raised the standard required of appli- 
cants, requiring that they attain a general average of /5 per cent. 
in all subjects, with not less than 60 per cent in any one of thern 
Furthermore, four of the five subjects will have to be above 70 
per cent. Our State pharmacy requirements are now as drastic 
as those of any State in the Union." 

Wisconsin. 

MADISON. Jan. 20.-Out of 77 applicants the Wisconsin State 
Board of Pharmacy granted 40 certificates^ following the '-^^f'^^- 
i^on, which was concluded yesterday. The next "Letting of h. 
board will be held in Madison, April 14 to 17. Those granted 
certificates included the following: „ ., i ti . mi 

Registered Pharmacist Certificates-Sr. M.. Gonsalva Hunt Mil- 
waukee; Ernest H. Koehler, Milwaukee; Sigurd C. Helland. Ra- 



NEWS OF THE BOARDS. 



The Iowa State Pharmacy Commission has been brought face to 
face with a question under the liquor laws and upon which the 
body must make a ruling. A druggist in Iowa, even if he has 
no permit to sell intoxicating liquors, may keep on hand "a suf- 
ficient quantity" of whiskey, brandy and wine to use as com- 
ponents of prescriptions. The question now is: How much is a 
"sufficient amount?" 

Gov. Dunne, of Illinois, has appointed Thomas D. Gregg, of 
Harrisburg. that State, as a member of the State Board of Phar- 
macy, to succeed H. C. Christensen, of Chicago. Mr. Christensen 
was a Republican member of the Board for seven years. At its 
annual meeting the Board organized by the election of F. J. Pro- 
vost, president, and F. C. Dodds, secretary. L. L. Mzarek is vice- 
president 

There are 1801 registered pharmacists in Kansas, according to 
the report of the State Board of Pharmacy filed Jan. 7 with the 
Governor. The receipts during the year amounted to $4385 and the 
expenditures S-*273.59. W. F. Henrion, of Wichita, is president, 
and W. E. Sheriff, of Ellsworth, secretary of the board. 

The Washington State Board of Pharmacy has organized by the 
election of the following officers; President, Cornelius Osseward, 
Seattle, 1914; F. D. Marr, Tacoma, 1915; A. F. Maxwell, Pullman, 
1916; V. T. McCroskey. Colfax, 1917; secretary, D. B. Garrison, 
Connell, 1918. 



NEW CORPORATIONS. 



American Radium Pharmaceutical Co., Chicago; capital, $10,000. 
National Co-operative Drug Co., New York; capital. $1,000,000 

(Delaware corporation); incorporators, H. K. Wood, J. F. Curtin 

and H. O. Coiighlan. New York City. 
Mobra Chemical Co. (Delaware corporation); capital. $250,000; A. N. 

Bowman, Jr., Scranton, Pa.; L. C. Heine, Bethlehem, Pa., and 

E. Collins, tr.. Edgewater Park, N. J. 
Gaffney Drug Co., Columbia. S. C. ; capital, $13,000; J. C. Creech, 

Jr.; J. A. Wood and C. L. Flack. 
McBirney Drug Co., Cincinnati; capital, $10,000; H. E. Stoes, E. T. 

McBirnev, E. H. Foster, T. A. Pacht and Earl Mann. 
Farmville Pharmacy, Farmville, Va.; capital, $1000 to $20,000; Wil- 
liam E. Anderson, president; R. L. Paulett, secretary-treasurer. 
R. A. Ellington Drug Co, Inc., Murphv. N. C; capital, $10,000; 

R. A. Ellington, J. T. Taylor, J. H. Moore, J. O. Ragsdale, of 

Madison, and A. J. Ellington, of Reidsville. 
Pharmo Products Co., Chicago, medicines, medicinal compounds, 

drugs, etc.; capital, $100,000; Nathan S. Smyser, Charles R. 

Young and Arthur A. Basse. 
Corner Drug Store, Abilene, Tex.; capital, $10,000; incorporators, 

W. A. Bride, J. M. Magee and George R. Harris. 
McDuffie-Mav Drug Co., Nettleton, Miss.; capital, $50,000. 
Ruby Drug Co.. Ruby, S. C; capital, $3000. 

Pfaltz & Bauer. Inc., Manhattan; capital. $75,000; H. Pfaltz, New- 
ark. N. J.; F. M. Bauer, Rockaway Park; T. E. Price, Jersey 

City, N. J. 
Rocky Mountain Drug Co., Stevensville, Mont; capital, $5000; 

Lena Miser. John Dowling, S. S. Tilman. 
Purity Products Co., pharmaceutical chemists. Manhattan; capital, 

$50,000: L. E. Orcutt, W. A. Morxley. A. G. Odell. 
Hinkle Pill and Tablet Co.. Chicago; M. M. Franey, Asher J. 

Goldfine and Harry P. Munns. 
Enno Sander Seltzer and Soda Co., St. Louis; capital, $75,000; 

Louis Meng and Otto J. Presser. 
The Nval Co., Detroit. Mich.; capital, $2,500,000; $1,178,000 paid in. 
Wells Pharmacal Co., St Louis; capital, $10,000; Stanley W. Wells, 

L. C. Wells, Edwin J. French. 
C. J. Moffett Medicine Co., St. Louis; Walter R. Mayne and 

others. 
Dockum Drug Co., Wichita, Kan.; capital, $40,000; Harry Dockum, 

Clyde Sanders, Ralph Quackenbush and Miss H. (5anzborn. 
Herb Juice Medicine Co., Jackson, Tenn.; tapital, $25,000; B. J. 

Lifsey, W. B. Lemmon and others. 



BUSINESS TROUBLES. 



Harry T. Stirling, druggist, Quincy, Mass.; liabilities, $1356; as- 
sets. $450 

Dougald Forsythe, druggist, Redfields, Iowa; assets, $2103; liabili- 
ties, $3107.05. 

Lloyd B. Huron, "Live Wire Drug Store," Tipton, Ind. ; assets, 
$3500; liabilities, $8000. 

Adolphus C Loewe, druggist, Maynard, Mass.; assets, none; lia- 
bilities, $8347.93. 





Getting after the Sundries Sales. 

Eov) F. A. Epstein, of Boston, Swells His Profits by Pushing 
Every Line He Carries in His Tremont Row Store. 

FA. EPSTEIN, of the Epstein Drug Co., at 28 Tremont 
Row, is one of the "live wires" of Boston in the matter 
* of merchandising. In fact, as has abeady been told in 
the Era, Mr. Epstein is primarily a drug merchant, and the 
shop location, on one of the busiest comers in New England, 

where the tides of humanity 
fiow past from the West and 
North Ends to the financial 
and shopping centers, while 
on the other side of the store 
the business which is drawn 
to the courthouse and State 
House flows past all day 
long is almost ideal. Then 
the further fact, that one of 
the busiest subway stations 
is opposite the store, increases 
its importance as a shopping 
center. 

But the Epstein Drug Co. 

does not depend altogether on 

the fact that they have a 

good location to bring them 

business. Money was not 

spared to make the drug store 

F. A. Epstein' attractive, both inside and 

cut. and it has paid. 

"I believe in signs," Mr. Epstein said, "both inside and 

outside. Too many druggists run back-shops and dingy places, 

gloomy inside and outside. I believe in signs and lights. We 

have just had all our signs made new, not only repainted, but 

entirely new signs. It cost a lot of money, but I believe it 

pays. I travel about the country- a good deal by automobile, 

and I can tell the moment I see a drug store what kind of a 

merchant the owner is. If I see a drug store with bright 

yellow and black signs I know the druggist is a live wire. 

"Every druggist, however, must make a study of his ovra 
location. We are able to do things and handle articles here 
that might not be done in Washington street or uptown. But 
if I were in a country to^vn I would make a study of the 
situation and aim to meet. the special conditions that existed 
there. 

"The great thing is buying the right merchandise at the 
righ: price. Too many druggists measure merchandise as they 
do prescriptions. We aim to display only seasonable goods in 
our windows. Only in the hot Summer days would I put 
talcum powder in our show windows. On a cold day we 
display lung protectors, chamois vests, or hot water bottles, or 
other seasonable goods. On rainy days umbrellas are always 
among the leaders. And whatever we display I aim to make 
attractive in price. We will put a 49-cent water bottle in the 
window, and when the customer inquires for it we show it, 
and also show superior goods. But we aim to give the cus- 
tomer what he wants and just as quickly as possible. We 
have arranged the stock in the store so that service will be 
expeditious. 

"The druggist, as truly as the merchant, must sell his goods 
ai low as his competitor. If we couldn't do that I would go 
out of business. As a general thing, the small druggist is at a 
disadvantage on this point, but the buying clubs and the get- 



together spirit that is growing in these days may help him. 

■'The ability to buy right merchandise at the right price is 
the secret of success. \\'e have sold a great many rubber door 
mats — a $1 door mat for 49 cents. I am finding toys very 
popular and profitable. Everybody loves children, whether 
they have them of their own or not, and customers who come 
in for one thing, seeing the toys, often buy them for the little 
ones at home. ^Moderate priced toys, 25 and 50 cents, are the 
most popular. We carry celluloid dolls, teddy bears, long- 
haired animals, red rubber animals, and they are all good 
sellers. We have sold 500 clocks at 39 cents in a week. They 
cost 23 cents. 

"Once we made a specialty of fountain pens, but when 
everybody got into the business we dropped them and turned 
to other things. We still carrj' them, but do not attempt to 
specialize. We carry tea and coffee, one grade of each, both 
S. S. Pierce brands, and here, in Boston, that name sells them. 
I prefer to handle an article that sells well, and keeps moving, 
than to handle a less knovs-n article at a slightly larger profit, 
that does not sell itself. 

"We have sold 1000 Duplex razors at 11 cents each that 
cost 12 cents. But that loss was more than made up in the 
sale of accessories — blades, brushes, soaps and pastes and 
toilet articles. Many a beginner came in here and bought a 
razor at 11 cents and then bought a complete equipment. 

"We are about to put in law blanks and typewTiter sup- 
plies, because here in this location I believe we can sell them. 
Stationery is a profitable line. We are selling japanned cash 
boxes at 39 and 49 cents. We constantly test new specialties. 
Here on this comer we have developed a power to sell 
many things which other places could not handle, and which 
once we could not have sold. It was an imattractive comer 
before we took it, and made it what it is. We will sell any- 
thing the people want. We are contemplating putting in a line 
of fancy groceries, like olives and pickles and sardines. We 
sell now on our fountain counter sandwiches and doughnuts 
and pie. We serve a cup of coffee, a doughnut and a piece 
of cheese for five cents. We always carry ham, chicken, cheese 
and sardine sandwiches, and all day long the counter is full. 

"We aim to serve the people. We aim to get the right 
merchandise at the right price. Instead of being merely a 
drug store, the successful drug store of the future will be a 
department drug store." 



Being "On the Job" as a Cash Asset. 

THERE is a lesson in progressive merchandising in the 
action of the drug firm of Hilton & Heffner, Lock Haven, 
Pa., on two occasions recently, when a public demand 
was foreseen and crystallized into good, clean cash — several 
hundreds of dollars of new business going into the till. 

Within a few days of the first of December last an an- 
nouncement was made in the Pennsylvania newspapers that the 
new sanitation law which went into effect on Dec. 1 banished 
the roller towel,* among its other reforms. The following 
morning the enterprising young salesman from the Hilton & 
Heffner drug store called at all the hotels, barber shops, etc., 
and left a sample outfit of absorbent paper towels. 
This practical demonstration by the drug firm resulted in such 
a demand the ne.xt day for these goods that the stock on hand 
was completely sold, and a further supply was ordered by 
telegraph. But a sufficient supply was distributed to allow 
of the banishment of the roller towel over night. Glasses and 
tumblers were removed from the water spigots in wash rooms, 



80 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



and from the ice-water tanks and coolers, and sanitary paper 
cups were substituted — and Hilton & Heffner took the business 
because they were sufficiently farsighted to have provided for 
the rush. 

"We got busy immediately," said Mr. Heffner, "and securea 
a nice lot of business as a result of bein,s first in the field. 
All told, we cleaned up several hundred dollars — nice, clean, 



We will pay the postage on all orders sent by parcel 
post amounting to 50 cents or over, and can in cases 
of emergency send liquids in special mailing cases, 
of which we have a full supply on hand. 

We have placed your name on our special mailing 
list and you will receive advertising matter and sam- 
ples from drug houses manufacturing medicines of all 



The Passing of 

The Roller Towel 

Which 1b now onUawed in PenDSylvanU removES one uf tbe most 
effirlent m^ana for the tracsmisslon ol dlscAse germs. 

Hotels. Baiber Shops, Store«, Factories and all 
public places will find 

Aseptic Paper Towels 

the sensible and economical substitute 

150 Towels on a roll 35 cents 

Fixture*, 25c to $1.00 



Benders Liquid Soap 

25c bottle 75c quart $2.50 gallon 



Liquid Soap Holders $1.00 each 

1 HILTON & HEFFNER 

> VP-TO DATE DRUGGISTS 

\ Cradoale Prescription Service Night and Da} 



How Hilton & Heffner Advertised Paper Specialties. 



cash business — in a short time, and we have been getting repeat 
orders ever since." 

Hilton & Heffner got into the parcel post delivery business 
almost at the outset. The firm had always had a good mail- 
order business, and with the advent of the new Government 
carrying system, advei-tised its advantages^ and immediately 
offered to pay the postage on all parcel post orders sent them 
amounting in value to 50 cents or more. A special parcel 
post map of the United States with Lock Haven as the center 
of the first zone, together with a guide and the post-office 
regulations, was conspicuously displayed in the Hilton & 
Heffner windows, and were placed at the disposal of the 
public. Parcel post stamps were also placed on sale for 
the accommodation of the general public. 

Hilton & Heffner go after business in many ways, but one 
of the most effective is advertising^timely, get-the-business 
advertising — which is combined with the use of circulars printed 
upon the firm's letterhead and neatly gotten up in imitation 
of typewriting. One of their recent circulars reads as follows: 

De.\<< Sir: 

There are probably very few weeks in the year in 
which you do not find the necessity arises for some- 
thing from the drug store for yourself or family, or 
for your stock or animal pets. 

Procrastination is not only a "thief of time" but 
also of lives when sickness comes and the tendency 
to wait till someone comes to town has many times 
resulted seriously. • 

The establishment of the parcel post gives us the 
desired opportunity to render you better service and 
practically places our entire drug stock at your service 
without the necessity of making a special trip to town, 
or sending with a neighbor. 

We have established a parcel post mailing depart- 
ment in our store and ask you to send us your orders 
by mail when you need anything in the drug line. 



Parcels Post 
Specia 



la order to oztend as far as possible our sphere of usefulness In 
this section of the sUte, we will hereafter PAY THE POSTAGE on 
all parcels poet orders amounting In value to 50c or over, anywhere 
In the first zone (any postofflce or ruial route within 50 miles of Lock 
Haven). 

Liquids In glass (patent medlctnes, prescriptions, etc.,) are mallr 
able on local R. F. D. routes without b&lng enclosed In special con- 
talner, and, In order to take full advantage of this provision, we have 
establlBhed a dally messenger service to Mill Hall, Rosecrans, Logan- 
ton atid Woolrlch, so that we can send liquids of this character by 
maU to Loclc Haven R. F. D. No. 1, MUl Hall R. F. D. No. 1 and No. 2. 
Salona R. F. D. No. I, Flemlngton, Mill Hall, Salona, Rosecrans, Lo- 
ganton Cbatliams Run, Woolrlch and Castanea postofflces. Liquids 
In glass mailed to other postofflcea will have to be sent In special 
containers, for which nominal charge will be made, which charge will 
be refunded on return of container. 



Hilton & Heffner 

The Largest Drug Store in Clinton County 



The Announcement of Parcel Post Free Delivery. 



kinds. We do not send this list to any concern that 
is not reliable and whose goods we cannot recommend, 
and if you wish to try any of these medicines you 
can order them sent by mail. 

If you have a telephone you can order by 'phone, 
as we have both Bell and Commercial 'phones. Re- 
mittances can be made by check, money order, or one 
or two-cent stamps, and we will give your orders 
prompt attention. 

We are enclosing a special parcel post bargain list 
containing seasonable items which will show you the 
exceptional advantage you enjoy when purchasing 
from us. Our business is the largest drug business 
in this part of the State, and when you purchase 
medicines from us you are getting them in the freshest 
and best condition, as our stock is being replenished 
every week-day of the year, our records showing that 
over 400 different freight and express shipments were 
received by us last year. 

We employ carefully trained college men in com- 
pounding prescriptions and manufacturing our medi- 
cines, and have the most up-to-date stock in this 
section of the State. 

We would appreciate your business. 
Very truly yours, 

Hilton & Heffner. 

Hilton & Heffner — "The Quality Drug Store" — specialize 
through a parcel post mailing department, a physicians' supply 
department, as a distributing depot for the State Health De- 
partment, and are wholesale and retail dealers in "medicines, 
chemicals, toilet articles, rubber goods, chamois and sponges, 
insecticides and spraying materials." 

Promptness and efficiency are insisted upon and the key to 
their success in their mail order business is the announcement 
in a conspicuous place on their letterhead : "All orders sent 
out on first mail after receipt." 



Februaky, 1914] 



THE PHARiLJiCEUTICAL ERA 



81 



Restricting the Sale]of "Coal Tar" Drugs. 

Kansas City Retail Druggists' Association Inaugurates Move- 
ment to Prevent the Sale of Coal Tar Synthetics Except 
Upon Written and Non-Refillable Prescriptions — What Is 
Being Done Abroad. 

LAST May the Kansas City Retail Druggists' Association 
took the first action by any organized body of druggists 
in this country in regard to restricting the sale of coal- 
tar sjTithetic, narcotic and habit-forming drugs. This body 
took the ground that present laws and ordinances regulating 
the sale of such drugs are violated with impunity, and that as 
ordinances have proved ineffective the State Legislature 
should be asked for a law to control such sales absolutely. 
Such restriction was indorsed by the A. Ph. A. and the A.M.A. 
last Summer, following the. action of the Kansas City asso- 
ciation. 

According to the figures compiled and presented by the asso- 
ciation, the reported number of cases of poisoning by 
acetanilide, where administered by physicians, total 94 aimu- 
ally ; by antipyrine, 68 ; by phenacetin, 43 ; with no notice 
taken of the many fatalities which have followed the indis- 
criminate use of such drugs by the laity. In the association's 
presentation of the case to the Legislature these statements 
were made: 

"Physicians have come to use these drugs very guardedly 
as effects seem to be inexplicable. Immediate poisoning seems 
to result from reflex action before the drug can really enter 
the system; in other cases poisoning occurs by absorption of 
the unchanged drugs; others are poisoned by reactions which 
cannot be accounted for. The fact that these deadening drugs 
are poisons in the true sense of the word is recognized by 
members of the medical profession. Toxic effects may include 
cyanosis (blueness) of the nails, skin and mucous membrane, 
•dyspnea, dilation of the heart, slow breathing, collapse, pros- 
tration, delirium, hallucination, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, 
syncope, hemorrhage, subnormal temperature, rash, eruptions 
and itching, redness and swelling, blindness, deafness, profuse 
perspiration, excessive nervousness, buzzing in ears, weakness, 
stupor, and death." 

In seeking to make as complete a presentation of the evils 
resulting from the indiscriminate use of such drugs, the Kan- 
sas City association obtained letters from several .American 
consuls in the European capitals; from Louis Nathan, the 
Parisian chemist; and from Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, formerly 
chief chemist of the United States Bureau of Chemistry at 
Washington. From these letters, through the coiu-tesy of Presi- 
dent A. N. Doerschuk, of Kansas City, the Era is privileged 
to quote the following excerpts: 

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley: 

"I do not believe that coal-tar drugs should be used in any 
food product, nor in any medicinal product of which they are 
not an essential ingredient. All coal-tar dyes are made imder 
such conditions as to render it almost impossible to predicate 
their composition. Especially are they likely to contain arsenic. 
My attitude in regard to these dyes, while I was in charge of 
the Bureau of Chemistry, was one of absolute prohibition. 
Not being able to secure this, I insisted that only a limited 
number should be permitted, and then only after they had been 
certified as being free from harmful ingredients. 

"I attempted to bring prosecutions against those who used 
un'certified dyes, but I was prevented from doing so by my 
colleagues on the so-called Board of Food and Drug Inspec- 
tion imless I was able to bring evidence that the particular 
<3ye in question was injurious to health. As the quantity of 
dye at my disposal was only that which was contained in the 
food product, such a determination was, of course, impossible. 
Thus the regulation became a dead letter, and the indis- 
criminate use of coal-tar dyes was permitted against my advice 
and earnest protest. 

"The synthetic drugs which derive from coal-tar, and which 
exert such profoimd influence on the nerve centers and the 
circulation, in my opinion should also be strictly controlled, so 
as to be used only under the direct super\'ision of a physician. 
Acetanilide and phenacetin are types of this kind of producL 
These drugs, doubtless, have valuable qualities when adminis- 
tered to meet certain symptoms, which the physician alone 
should judge. Their indiscriminate sale, therefore, is a distinct 
and continuing threat to the community. 



"I am in the deepest sympathy with all measures which 
tend to restrict to legitimate channels the traffic in powerful 
medicines and drugs, not only those of coal-tar origin, but no 
matter of what origin. I trust that your association will be 
successful in securing a strict control of this class of remedies." 



Withdrawn in Germany. 
A. il. Th.4CK.\r.\, American Consul-General, Berlin, Germany: 
"The synthetic and sleep-producing drugs, such as veronal, 
veronal-soda, sulfonal, trional, medirlal, etc., have been with- 
drawn from free sale as a result of incidents of poisoning 
following their use. Drug stores may sell these only on the 
presentation of a physician's order which must not be refilled. 
Antipyrine, acetanilide, phenacetin, migrainin, pyramidon, 
aspirin and salipyrine are only partially withdrawn but must 
be labeled according to restrictions. Regulations governing the 
sale of these medicinal preparations have been issued in the 
form of Imperial Cabinet orders after the workings of these 
preparations in question have been investigated at length in the 
Imperial Health Office." 



Secret Medicines in France. 
Louis Naihax, Chemist, Paris, France: 

"Coal-tar products and synthetic drugs may be usually sold 
by pharmaciens in France to the general public without a 
physician's prescription. These drugs have not been the sub- 
ject so far of legislation in this country, and none of them 
are included in the poison schedule. Notwithstanding, in the 
event of harmful or untoward effects arising from an overdose 
being taken by the purchaser of such drugs as sulfonal, 
veronal, trional, acetanilide, phenacetin, etc., there W'ould be an 
official investigation and the vendor would be liable to a 
penalty. He would be prosecuted for infringing a law which 
dates from 1811, prohibiting the sale of secret remedies; and 
"secret remedies" are defined as any substance which is not 
inscribed in the French Code.x, where these drugs are not 
found. This law is the "Sword of Damocles" hanging over 
every pharmacist in France." 



Fran'k H. Mason, American Consul-General at Paris: 

"It may interest you to know that considerable agitation is 
making itself felt in this country in regard to the sale of this 
class of drugs as well as cocaine and opium, all of which are 
forbidden luider an old statute. There is, however, a con- 
siderable quantity sold, it having been brought into the coun- 
try by smugglers, and handled through unscrupulous drug- 
gists. Numerous arrests have been made, and the police are 
doing all in their power to track down and punish the very 
numerous class of persons who are making their living out of 
this traffic in soporific and poisonous drugs." 



Poisons in England. 
Clerk op the Privy' Council: 

"The schedule of poisons which may be sold so labeled, 
only by registered chemists in England, as amended on the 
12th of March, 1913, includes: 

"Sulfonal and its homologues, whether described as trional, 
tetronal, or any other trade name or designation, and diethyl 
barbituric acid, and all other alkaline, aryl, or metallic de- 
rivations therefrom, whether described as veronal, proponal, 
medinal, or any other trade name, mark or designation. All 
such poisons must be sent out in bottles or packages rendered 
distinguishable by touch from ordinary containers." 



John L. GRirnTH, American Consul-General at London: 

"The scheduling of veronal, etc., as poisons was done be- 
cause of the frequent cases of death and the many tmtoward 
effects resulting from its excessive use. Sulfonal and its de- 
rivatives were scheduled for the same reasons." 



Official Prescription Blanks for Narcotics in N. Y. ? 
Senator Boylan recently introduced into the State legislattire 
a bill, drawn up by Charles B. Towns, which, if enacted, 
would prohibit any druggist from filling prescriptions contain- 
chloral and cannabis indica or to sell medicines containing 
ing opium, morphine and its derivatives, cocaine, eucaine, 
these drugs, except on official prescription blanks bearing the 
State seal furnished by the State Health Commissioner. A 
record is to be kept of the number of blanks issued to each 
physician, and each blank is to be numbered serially. The bill 



S2 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



also provides that the prescription shall not be filled 10 days 
after date of writing, the keeping of a record book, the giving 
of a certificate to the purchaser, the keeping of carbon copies of 
prescription and certificate, the furnishing of official order 
blanks to pharmacists, physicians and dentists for securing 
narcotics from wholesalers, etc. Revocation of the physician's 
or druggist's license is provided for violation of the proposed 
law, such violation also constituting a misdemeanor. 



N.Y. DRUG EXPOSITION LARGELY ATTENDED. 



N.Y.S.P.A. Features Traveling Propagandic Exhibit. 
State and Local Organizations Co-operate. 

THE most successful drug exposition ever held in New 
York City, at least in point of attendance, was that 
presented at Madison Square Garden, Jan. 20-26, in- 
clusive. The main floor was entirely given up to the e.vhibits 
of various manufacturers and to the collective exhibition of 
the New York State Pharmaceutical .\ssociation. In getting 
up the latter feature the organization received the co-operation 
of the X.Y.R.D..A., the Kings County Ph.S., Westchester 
County Ph..\., G..\.S., and the Brooklyn Ph..\. The exhibit 
consisted of the N.Y.S.P..\. propaganda committee's set of 
official preparations, prepared by John Roemer, chairman of 
the committee, and which will later be shipped to various 
local organizations and to hospitals throughout the State. 
The Brooklyn College of Pharmacy presented an interesting 
e-xhibit of pharmaceuticals, chemicals and drawings prepared 
by its students, this exhibit being under the supervision of 
Dr. Hy. J. J. Kassebaum. An old wooden mortar 119 years 
old, and a metal mortar, the college mortgage having been 
burned in the latter some years ago, shared attention on the 
part of the public. .\ model dispensing table, over which was 
the caption, "Pharmacy for Pharmacists." was the contribution 
of J. Leon Lascoff. .■Vn interesting display of crude drugs, 
an exhibit of the foremost pharmaceutical journals, practical 
demonstrations of urinanalysis by Dr. Joseph Weinstein and 
examples of the old-time and modem systems of prescription 
filing were other features of this unique, ethical pharmaceutical 
exhibit. 

The National Pharmaceutical Society maintained a booth at 
which goods donated for its bazaar were sold. Dr. Brothers 
had charga of the .\merican Jledico-Pharmaceutical .Associa- 
tion's exhibit. The Welch Grape Juice Company, of West- 
field, N. Y., conducted one of its typcal booths at which the 
"habit that won't get you" was advocated. The .\merican 
Can Company, of this city, 'displayed a $35 adding machine, 
the usual apparatus of this sort having a cypher added to its 
price. The same people also presented for the druggists' 
inspection all kinds and sizes of cans. The .-American Safety 
Razor Company, Brooklyn, demonstrated its "Ever-Ready" 
Safety Razor. A temple of borax was the feature of The 
Pacific Coast Borax Company, this city. Charles Numberg 
Co., Inc., New York, had an interesting exhibit showing the 
various steps taken in the preparation of their product, clinical 
thermometers. The .Armstrong Cork. Company, New York, 
displayed corks, of course, and P. C. Blakiston's Sons & Co., 
of Philadelphia, presented an interesting exhibit of medical, 
chemical and pharmaceutical te-xt-books. In the N.Y.S.P.A. 
historical section Merck & Co. exhibited the mortar used by 
Merck in 1688. 

.Among other exhibitors and their products were: 
M. H. Petigor, soda fountains; .A. S. Campbell & Co., metal 
hot-water bottles; The Schwarzwaelder Co., rubber sheeting; 
The Paroubec Mfg. Co., wrist bandages; Candy Bros. Mfg. 
Co., Simplex A'acuum Mfg. Co., vacuum bottles; Eimer & 
Amend, automatic disinfection salvarsan apparatus; I. W. 
Lyon & Sons, tooth powder; Beech-Nut Packing Co., chewing 
gum; Advance Novelty Candy Mfg. Co., cough drops; Thad- 
deus Davids Co., poligraf lettering system; Dusal Chemical 
Co., seidlitz powders; Thompson & Morris Co., cellular ex- 
press box ; The Empress Mfg. Co., hair color restorer ; Clysmic 
Spring Co., bottled water; "Prana" Carbonic Syphon Co., 
sj-phons, and Wentz & Co., advertising stamps. 

A noticeable feature at the exposition was the laudable 
manner in which exhibitors refused to give out drug samples 
to other than druggists. The Era representative overheard 
one exhibitor call back a lady and take back a sample she had 
collected, after having coiirteously advised her not to take 
samples of medicines about which she had no knowledge. 



The crush became so great on Friday night of the exposi- 
tion that the officers of the Fire Prevention Bureau feared loss 
of life would result in case of lire or accident. It was esti- 
mated that more than 15,000 persons were on the main floor 
and 6lXlO seeking to get into the building when the clearing 
order came. 



A Tea- Room in a Drug Store. 

New Departure in Oklahoma City Which Offers a Suggestion 
to Druggists Operating Soda Fountains With Luncheon- 
ette Adjuncts. 

ABSOLUTELY the latest idea in the equipment of a 
modem drug store has been adopted by the Clark Drug 
Co., 227 West Main street, Oklahoma City. .Amid 
elaborate decorations of smila.x, palms, holly and mistletoe the 
ladies of Oklahoma City were entertained on the opening day, 
each receiving a ribbon-trimmed package of chocolates and 
bonbons as a souvenir. 

The store had been completely renovated, and a new room 
has been opened devoted to the ser\'ice of the "cup that cheers 
and does not inebriate." This room is a gem. The walls are 
covered with lattice-work through which are entwined wistaria 
vines and their highly decorative clusters of purple blossoms. 
At the end of the room is a Japanese landscape, placed over 
a long mirror. At the right side of the room and opening 
from the central passage are little booths, in each of which 
four persons can be seated comfortably. The decorations are 
in Japanese style, and Japanese chimes are suspended at the 
entrance to each booth. 

Another innovation is a ladies' dressing room adjoining the 
tea room. This is finished in pure white, and is equipped 
with toilet iccessories, face powder, violet and toilet waters, 
and similar accessories with which to repair the ravages con- 
sequent upon a shopping trip. The kitchen, in which lunch- 
eonette dainties are prepared, is also finished in pure white, 
and this department is entirely separated from the main store, 
thus doing away with odors and the savor of viands. 

On the opening day a full orchestra rendered a programme 
of popular music from noon till midnight. 



A.D.S. Deserts Fifth Avenue for Times Square. 

The Gray Drug Company, a subsidiary corporation of the 
.American Druggists' Syndicate, has leased the comer store 
and two adjoining stores in the Fitzgerald building, at the 
southeast comer of Broadway and 43d street, for a period of 
10 years at an annual rental said to be S60,000. It is reported 
that the American Druggists' Syndicate will give up its display 
rooms and headquarters at 234 Fifth avenue in the very near 
future, the lease on these premises running out. The Gray 
Drug Company will feature A.D.S. goods. This new move 
on the part of the syndicate, or some of those behind it, will 
place its products in a part of the city now the scene of keen 
competition between Liggett, Riker-Hegeman and other inde- 
pendent stores. The space leased is 50 by 90 feet and extends 
south to the Broadway entrance of the Cohan theater. The 
lease includes about 5000 square feet of basement space, also 
a frontage in the subway station at that point. 



N. Y. Consolidated Drug Co. Re-elects Directors. 

At the recent annual meeting of the New York Consolidated 
Drag Company, held at the headquarters of the German 
.Apothecaries' Society, 192 Third avenue, S. V. B. Swarm, 
George C. P. Stolzenburg and Dr. C. F. Klippert were re- 
elected directors. George Leinecker, George Bruns, H. H. 
Blomeier and Otto P. Gilbert were elected members of the 
inventory committee. The reports of the officers showed that 
the past year had been very successful and the meeting was a 
very harmonious affair. 



Eli Lilly & Co. Promotes C. R. Cosby. 
C. R. Cosby, formerly manager of the New York branch of 
Eli Lilly & Co., has been promoted to be head of the special 
preparations department of that company at Indianapolis. 

New York Retail Druggists Annual Banquet. 

The New York Retail Druggists^ Association held its annual 
banquet at The Elsemere, 82 West 126th street, on the evening 
of Jan. 30. 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



83 



Legal Decisions 



ment made. (McCrea vs. Ford, Colorado Court of Appeals, 
U5 Pac. 465.) 



Conditional Sale — Bankruptcy — References. 

A SODA FOUN'TAIX was sold on a contract of condi- 
tional sale about five months before proceedings in 
bankruptcy were begun against the purchaser. The 
seller claimed the proceeds in the hands of tlie trustee. The 
contract of sale was never recorded as required by the law of 
Missouri, in which State the bankrupt resided. Three days 
before the proceedings were begun the bankrupt gave the seller 
a chattel mortgage upon the property somewhat in excess of 
the price in the contract, and this was duly recorded. In the 
interval between the contract and the mortgage the bankrupt 
incurred other debts in its business aggregating more than the 
value of the property in question. The seller claimed imder 
the contract and the mortgage independently. It was held 
that the contract of sale, not being recorded, was void as to 
subsequent general creditors of the buyer and its trustee. As 
the bankrupt was hopelessly insolvent when the chattel mort- 
gage was executed, and the claimant's representatives had 
reasonable ground to believe a preference was intended, and 
would result from the mortgage, it was held to be void as 
against the bankrupt's trustee. But it was held that the right 
of subsequent creditors to urge their objections to the contract 
and mortgage was defensive merely against the seller so as to 
in\'alidate a lien giving a preference on distribution on bank- 
ruptcy', and did not entitle the creditors to priority in the 
distribution of proceeds as against the seller. He was entitled, 
on filing his claim as a general one, to participate equally with 
the subsequent creditors in the distribution of the bankrupt's 
estate. (L. A. Becker Co. vs. Gill, 206 Fed. 36.) 



■Validity of Sale by Bankrupt Partner. 
One of the members of a partnership conducting a soda 
fountain business, while a bankrupt, joined in a sale of the 
stock and fLxtures to the father-in-law of his partner and 
retired from the business, which was continued by his former 
partner alone, but in the firm name. On a petition by his 
trustee to have the sale set aside it was held that the fact 
that the partner who continued to carry on the business there- 
after contracted indebtedness on the strength of his possession 
of the property afforded no ground for an attack by the bank- 
rupt or his trustee on the \'alidity of the sale. (In re 'Y'otmg, 
206 Fed. 187.) 



Sale of Stock — Seller's Remedies — Rig-lit to Retain 
Advance Payment. 

In an action to recover back the advance payment made on 
the purchase of a stock of drugs, it appeared that the plaintiff 
contracted to purchase the defendant's stock, paying $2500 in 
cash, and agreeing to pay the balance on delivery of the bill 
of sale when the statute relating to sales in bulk had been 
complied with, which would require at least five days. The 
plaintiff took possession and retained it for 24 hours. He 
then claimed that he had been induced to purchase by 
fraudulent representations, and demanded that the defendant 
take back the stock and repay the cash already paid. The 
defendant fook charge of the store and continued to operate it 
in all respects as though no sale had been made or contem- 
plated, selling a large proportion of the stock and purchasing 
new goods. It was held that the sale was entirely executory 
at the time the plaintiff repudiated it, and the defendant, 
having again taken possession before title passed could not 
enforce specific performance. His only remedy was an action 
for damages for breach of the contract to purchase. The 
seller would only be entitled to retain the advance pa\-ment as 
damages for the purchaser's breach of contract. That would 
ordinarily be the difference between the market value of the 
stock at the time of the sale and the contract price. But the 
defendant did not counterclaim for damages. All he asked was 
a dismissal of the case with costs. As he did not deny that he 
was placed in the identical position in which he was before 
the plaintiff took possession, his damages were only nominal. 
His action in retaking the goods and exercising acts of owner- 
ship over them constituted a waiver of his right to either sue 
upon the contract or bring an equitable action to enforce it. 
The plaintiff was held entitled to recover the advance pay- 



Scope of Employment — Unlicensed Clerk. 
A master is not liable for every wrong which the ser\ant 
commits while in the performance of his contract of employ- 
ment. His responsibility only attaches when the servant is 
acting within the real or apparent scope of his employment 
and in line with his duties. Suit was brought against the 
proprietors of a drug store for injuries to the plaintiff due to 
the alleged negligence of an unlicensed clerk in putting pure 
trikresol on the plaintiffs arm, which was thought to be blood 
poisoned. The complaint alleged that after a physician who 
was in the store at the time had requested the clerk to pre- 
pare a 1 per cent, solution of trikresol for use on the plaintiffs 
arm, the physician left the pharmacy, and the clerk negligently, 
and because of his incompetency in undertaking to fill the 
prescription, prepared for and gave to the plaintiff a quantity 
of pure and unadulterated trikresol, which caused the injury 
complained of. It was held that the substantive act alleged \ 
was the supplying of a dangerous solution of medicine, when a 
harmless or beneficial one had been prescribed, and that this 
constituted negligence within the scope of the clerk's employ- 
ment, for the result of which the master was liable. It was 
also held that the sale of the trikresol by the unregistered clerk 
was conclusive evidence of negligence under the Oregon Statute 
L. O. L. 4750, declaring that it shall be unlawful for any 
person to sell any drug, medicine, or chemical, or to dispense 
or compound any prescription of a medical practitioner, unless 
such person be a registered pharmacist, or a registered assistant 
pharmacist. Judgment for the plaintiff was affirmed. (Good- 
win vs. Rowe, Oregon Supreme Cotnt, 135 Pac. 171.) 



Recording' Sale of Poisons — Construction of Statute. 
The Delaware Statute, 24 Del. Laws, c. 140, 14, provides 
that before delivering to a customer strj'chnia, arsenic or 
corrosive sublimate or any poisonous compound, combination, 
or preparation thereof, "there shall be recorded in a book kept 
for the purpose the name of the article, the quantity delivered, 
the purpose for which it is alleged to be used, the date of 
delivery, the name and address of the purcliaser, and the name 
of the dispenser." In the first case imder the statute it 
appeared that the defendant had sold bichloride of mercury 
to a customer and entered the sale on a slip of paper showing 
the sales for the day, with other daily slips which were 
regularly put in an envelope kept in his safe. It -n-as held 
that this was a violation of the statute; but in view of the 
defendant's evident desire to abide by the law, only the mini- 
mum fine was imposed. (State vs. Hopkins (Del.) 88 Atl 
473.) 



Sale of Cocaine — Proof. 
On appeal from a conviction for an unlawful sale of cocaine 
it was held that if the sale was made upon the prescription of 
a physician, that fact lay particularly within the knowledge of 
the defendant, and consequently it devolved upon him, and not 
upon the State, to establish it. There was no direct evidence 
that the negro boy to whom the sale was made was not a 
physician or dentist; but the presumption was that he was 
neither, and therefore, if he was a physician or dentist, it 
devolved upon the defendant to prove it. There was a privia 
facie presumption that the person to whom the sale was made 
did not belong to the exceptional class of persons to whom the 
right to practice medicine or dentistry had been given; the 
presumption relieving the State from the necessity of proving 
the negative. (Miller vs. State, Mississippi Supreme Court, 
63 So. 269.) 



Alteration of Contract After Delivery of Groods. 

.\ction was brought upon a contract for the sale of a quantity 
of hair tonic to a drug store. The defence was alteration of 
the contract after delivery of the goods. The contract pro- 
vided that the plaintiff agreed to contract with a certain adver- 
tising company for a certain number of lines of advertising, 
specifying the Tribune and Journal newspapers, which were 
published in the defendant's town, the advertising to be exe- 
cuted during a year following delivery of the goods. It fur- 
ther provided that the plaintiff agreed to take back at invoice 
price all goods remaining unsold in the hands of the pur- 
chaser "at the end of the Iowa advertising contract." The 



S4 



THE PHARIMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



defendant claimed that the word "Iowa" had been added to 
the contract after delivery, which was denied by the plaintiff. 
The jury found for the defendant. On appeal it was held that 
the alteration of the contract after delivery by the insertion 
of the word "Iowa" was material, since that made the rights 
of the parties depend, not upon the contract for advertising in 
the particular papers specified, but upon the termination of 
such Iowa advertising contracts as the plaintiff might have 
made. Judgment for the defendant was affirmed. (Hessig- 
Ellis Drug Co. vs. Todd-Baker Drug Co. Iowa Supreme 
Court, 143 N. \V. 569.1 



Drug Laws and Rulings 



To Ban Hypodermics in MicMg-an — There is a Na- 
tional movement on foot to banish the hypodermic needle and 
syringe as a means of using cocaine and similar narcotic and 
habit-forming drugs. The use of such instruments may be 
regulated by Congress by a provision the Finance Committee 
is to add to some one of the opium bills now pending. At 
the ne.\t session of the Michigan Legislature an effort will be 
made not only to strictly prohibit the sale of heroin, morphine 
and similar narcotics, but also the hypodermic syringe, and 
Governor Ferris and other State officials, including several 
members of the State Health Board, are favorable to the plan 
and will indorse and work for such a bill. 

Pure Food and Drugs Act Defective. — Officials of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture declare that one of the se- 
rious limitations of the Pure Food and Drugs Act is that it 
permits the use of wood alcohol in remedies for external appli- 
cation. Under the definition of drug in the act, the authori- 
ties declare it is not possible for them to control cosmetics 
containing injurious drugs and remedies for obesity and lean- 
ness, or to prevent manufacturers from putting wood alcohol 
into external applications. Secretary Houston declares that 
additional authority should be given his department so that 
statements should be required of other drugs than those which 
must be specified now on the label. 

Dr. Dowling on Trail of Druggists — Dr. Oscar Dow- 
ling and the Louisiana State Board of Health have been in- 
vestigating New Orleans drug stores, and declare that some 
druggists are not only filling prescriptions improperly, but are 
charging enormous prices. State Chemist George Taylor shows 
that some druggists charge 50 cents for a prescription that 
costs them three-fourths of a cent to fill. "This sort of thing 
is outrageous," said Dr. Dowling, "and these druggists should 
be exposed, and they will be just as soon as our investigations 
are completed. When Mr. Taylor has completed analyzing all 
the prescriptions that he has on hand the druggists who are 
found guilty of filling prescriptions otherwise than directed 
will be prosecuted under regulation No. 31 of the food and 
drug laws of Louisiana which became effective last July." 

Firm Name as a Trade Asset. — The value of a long- 
established firm name as a trade asset is attested by the filing, 
coincidentally, of certificates with the county clerk at Grand 
Rapids, Mich., one dissolving an old corporation known as the 
Walter K. Schmidt Co., druggists, 306 Monroe avenue, the 
other being a notice of an amendment to the articles of asso- 
ciation of another fiirra to the end that it may henceforth be 
knowTi under the discarded name. 

Kansas City Drug Store Bars Under Fire — Com- 
missioner of Police Reynolds, of Kansas City, hai asked an 
opinion from the city counselor as to whether or not the 
police would be justified in going behind the prescription 
cases in drug stores to search for liquor. According to City 
Counselor Garner, under the statutes of 1909 no drug store 
is permitted to sell or give away liquor in any quantity under 
four gallons for any purpose except on prescription, and even 
then the liquor cannot be drunk on the premises, but that he 
did not think the police had the right of confiscation, as the 
offense is the sale. 

To Bar Circulars from Patent Medicines — The Gov- 
ernment's right under the pure food law of 1906 to censor 
circulars enclosed in packages of medicine is to be passed 
upon by the Supreme Court. Officials of the Department of 
Agriculture claim that the public is being deceived every day 



by exaggerated statements of the efficiency of nostrums to 
effect all kinds of marvelous cures. They claim the pure food 
law was intended to wipe out this evil, manufacturers on the 
other hand asserting that the pure food law merely authorizes 
the Government oflicials to regulate statements on the labels. 
In Omaha recently the Government seized 13 packages of patent 
medicines, each containing the statement on an enclosed cir- 
cular: "We know it has cured and that it will cure tuber- 
culosis," and a further statement that it was "effective as a 
preventative of pneumonia." The Federal District Court held 
the medicine misbranded under the pure food law. The manu- 
facturer has appealed to the Supreme Court on the ground that 
the pure food law deals with labels and not with circulars, 
and, furthermore, that the law as interpreted by the Nebraska 
court is unconstitutional in so far as the court held that the 
law sought to give the Goverim:ent a right to pass on opinions 
as to the curative effect of medicines. 

Boylan Measure to End Drug Habits. — Senator Boylan, 
of New York City, has introduced in the Legislature at Albany 
a bill providing for die regulation of the sale of habit-forming 
drugs. The bill gives magistrates the right to commit victims 
of habit-forming drugs to hospitals for treatment. The Boylan 
bill in its provisions is similar to the law enacted last year, 
but applies to all habit-forming drugs. It provides that no 
druggist or pharmacist may fill out a prescription for any of 
these drugs except on a written order of a physician, and 
stringent regulations are prescribed, under vi'hich physicians 
can administer them. Hypodermic needles also cannot be sold 
except on written orders of physicians, and records must be 
kept of all prescriptions and sales of the drugs and the needles. 
The bill also provides that public officers having control of city 
or county hospitals must provide separate quarters for per- 
sons addicted to drugs who may be committed by magistrates. 
Punishment is provided in case drug patients violate the rules 
of the hospitals. Violation of the provisions of the measure 
by physicians, druggists or others whose business brings them 
in contact with drugs is made a misdemeanor. 

Tariff Rates on Small Packages of Chemicals The 

provision in the new tariff law for the first time of the pro- 
vision relating to the rate of duty on chemical and medicinal 
compounds put up in packages of 2^ pounds or less has 
called for new instructions from the Treasury Department, as 
follows: "Relative to the classification of ink, oil of sweet 
almond, oil of lemon, oil of orange, and other articles pro- 
vided for by name in the Tariff act of Oct, 3, 1913, when con- 
tained in packages of less than 2^/2 pounds gross weight, in 
view of the specific provision in Paragraph 17 of the Tariff 
act that chemical and medicinal articles dutiable under the 
act, except soap, whether actually provided for or not, put up 
in individual packages of 2;-'^ pounds or less, gross weight, 
shall be dutiable at a rate of not less than 20 per cent, ad 
valorem. It will be observed that this provision, which is a 
new one, does not impose a minimum rate of 20 per cent, 
ad valorem upon all dutiable articles imported in packages of 
lYi pounds or less, but does impose such minimum rate upon 
articles which are chemical or medicinal compounds or com- 
binations or articles similar thereto when imported in such 
packages. The department is accordingly of the opinion that 
all the articles provided for in Schedule A, whether by name 
or otherwise, except soap and sponges, are dutiable at not less 
than 20 per cent, ad valorem when imported in packages of 
less than ZYz pounds gross weight." 

Fighting Illegal Drug Sales in Los Angeles A 

vigorous campaign against the illegal sale of drugs is being 
waged in Los Angeles, Cal., by the attorney for the State 
Board of Pharmacy, E. E. Lcighton, who is assisted by State 
Inspector Jones. Several arrests have been made and prose- 
cutions will follow. The arrests Attorney Leighton and In- 
spector Jones state, are only the beginning of a widespread 
campaign to stop the illegal traffic, and in order to relieve 
and cure the thousands of victims, a movement is now under 
way to secure a State building for patients to be treated. 
Plans are already in progress to induce the Legislature to 
appropriate $20,000 for such an institution. "There are sev- 
eral thousand drug slaves now in California," said Inspector 
Jones. "In spite of increased difficulty in getting opiates the 
number of victims has increased. After the habit is once 
formed the slave will do almost anything to get the drug. Our 
aim is to force the price of these drugs so high, through con- 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



85 



viction and jail sentences, that it will be unprofitable and too 
risky for anyone to try to sell them. We are after the peddlers." 
Attorney Leighton says he will ask for jail sentences for all 
persons prosecuted and convicted of peddling drugs. He also 
declares that the need for a home for those held in the grasp 
of the habit is imperative. He says a man should stay at 
least a year in a ward before being freed. When the drug 
victims are sent to the insane asylum they are usually there 
about two or three weeks and then escape, he asserts. 

Must Label Drugs Properly — The United States Su- 
preme Court has declared for a broader enforcement of the 
pure food law regarding labeling of drugs and preparations 
containing poisons. It held that a headache remedy labeled 
"no acetanilide," but which contained acetphenetidin was 
misbranded. 

Regulation of Bichloride Sales Sought in Albany 

The numerous deaths from poisoning by bichloride of mer- 
cury tablets have induced Senator Blauvelt to introduce a bill 
"Regulating the Sale of Bichloride of Mercury" — the essential 
feature of which is as follows: "It shall be unlawful for any 
person to sell any substance or compound known as bichloride 
of mercury, except upon the written prescription of a duly 
registered physician, which shall be retained by the person 
who dispenses the same, shall be filled but once, and of which 
no copy shall be taken by any person, and unless said sub- 
stance or compound be in the form of cubes and colored green, 
so as to be readily distinguishable from non-poisonous tablets 
of similar appearance in common use. Any person who 
violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor." The act sets July 1 ne.xt as the date it would 
take effect. 

New Anti-Narcotic Law in Tennessee The State 

anti-narcotic law, passed by the last Legislature, became effec- 
tive Jan. 1. The law is very stringent in its provisions, limit- 
ing the amount of opium, coca leaves, or their derivatives a 
druggist may carry in stock to five ounces. Narcotics may 
not be sold except on the prescription of a physician. The 
Board of Narcotic Control has agreed that confirmed "dope 
fiends" can be issued certificates by physicians, allowing them 
a certain quantity of the drug for a stipulated period, as it is 
the purpose of the statute to prevent the spread of the drug 
habit rather than to effect a cure of those already addicted to 
it. The law in general prohibits the sale, giving away or 
otherwise disposing of opium, coca leaves or their derivatives 
except on physicians' prescriptions or by physicians, dentists 
or veterinary surgeons in the course of their professional 
duties. No druggist is allowed to keep more than five ounces 
on hand at one time. Druggists are required to keep a 
registry of all sales of the drugs. This registry is intended 
to be so complete that the drugs can be traced from whole- 
saler to consumer. These entries as well as physicians' pre- 
scriptions are to be kept two years. This is for the inspection 
of the food and drug department inspectors. 

Cocktails at the Prescription Counter At the re- 
quest of Prosecuting Attorney Sidener, the St. Louis police 
were instructed to watch for violations of the excise laws in 
drug stores. Sidener had been informed, he said, that in 
several drug stores anyone "on the inside" could obtain his 
favorite intoxicant by giving the soda youth the proper signal 
and that frequently customers were taken behind the prescrip- 
tion counter and served with cocktails and even champagne. 

Short Weight Campaign in Wisconsin The cam- 
paign recently launched by the Wisconsin department of 
weights and measures against the alleged practice of some 
druggists, jewelers and dental dealers in using short weights 
has resulted in the confiscation of two large bottles full of 
defective weights from 16 drug stores about Wisconsin. These 
defective weights are said to be from 5 to 45 per cent, light. 
Chief Inspector Downing says that the practice of washing 
delicate weights with acid is responsible for much of the 
deprecation in- weight. The State Department has equipped 
its field men with new sets of weights to test the measures. 



GOVERNMENT WINS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGI- 
CIDE CASES. 



W 



ASHINGTON, D. C, Jan. 20.— The Government has 
recently secured judgments agninst a number of con- 
cerns for violations of the Insecticide Act. These 



involve the misbranding or adulteration of insect powders, 
moth balls, roach exterminators and various other insecticides 
and fungicides shipped in interstate commerce. Following is 
a resume of each case : 

"Persian Insect Powder."— The Lewy Chemical Co., 
New York, N. Y., was charged with shipping a quantity of 
"Persian Insect Powder" alleged to be adulterated, in that it 
was not composed of the ground flower heads of the pyrethrum 
plant, but consisted for the most part of ground stems of the 
pyrethrum plant, the label indicating that the article was 
wholly Persian Insect Powder. Guilty; $50 fine. 

"White Tar Moth Balls."— A shipment of "White Tar 
Moth Balls" by the White Tar Co., of New York, N. Y., was 
held misbranded, in that the product did not possess the 
powers nor produce the effects claimed for it, and was manu- 
factured in Belgium instead of New York, as stated on the 
label. $10 fine 

"Rat Bis-Kit Paste."_The Rat Biscuit Co., Springfield, 
Ohio, was charged with the shipment of a quantity of "Rat 
Bis-kit Paste," alleged to be misbranded. Tests showed it to- 
be ineffective for the extermination of roaches when used in 
the presence of other available food. Guilty; $25 and costs. 

"Odell's Roach Powder."— A quantity of an insecticide 
called "Odell's Roach Powder," alleged shipper J. Albert Odell, 
doing business under the name and style of the Pittsburgh 
Insect Exterminator Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., was shown by 
analysis to contain corn meal. Misbranding was charged. A 
plea of nolo contendere was entered; fine, $25. 

"Conkey's Lice Liquid" — "Conkey's Bug and Moth 
Killer." — A quantity of insecticide called "Conkey's Lice 
Liquid." shipped by G. E. Conkey Co., Cleveland, Ohio, was 
alleged to be misbranded for the reason that the contents of 
the packages were stated on the labels as two quarts, while 
examination of a specimen showed that the package contained 
less than two quarts. Misbranding of "Conkey's Bug and 
Moth Killer" was alleged because examination of specimens 
of the article showed that packages purporting to contain one 
quart contained less than one quart. Guilty; fine, $10 and 
costs. 

"Dr. Hess Dip and Disinfectant." — Misbranding of 
"Dr. Hess Dip and Disinfectant," shipped by G. Hess and 
J. L. Clark, of Ashland, Ohio, was charged for the reason 
that while the label on the package bore the statement "One 
Quart Dr. Hess Dip and Disinfectant," e.xamination showed 
that the package contained less than one quart. $10 and costs. 

"Orchard Brand Atomic Sulphur Fungicide." — A 
quantity "Orchard Brand Atomic Sulphur Fungicide," shipped 
by the Thomsen Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md., was charged 
to be adulterated for the reason that its strength fell below 
the professed standard of strength under which it was sold. 
Guilty; fine, $5. 

"Orchard Brand Arsenite Zinc." — .Adulteration and 
misbranding of a quantity of "Orchard Brand Arsenite Zinc," 
shipped by the Thomsen Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md., were 
charged for the reason that its strength fell below the pro- 
fessed standard of strength under which it was sold. Guilty ; 
fine, $5. 

"Orchard Brand Atomic Sulphur Combined with 
Arsenate of Lead." — Adulteration and misbranding of a 
quantity of "Orchard Brand Atomic Sulphur Combined with 
Arsenate of Lead," shipped by the Thomsen Chemical Co.^ 
Baltimore, Md., was charged for the reason that its strength 
fell below the professed standard of strength under which it 
was sold. Guilty; fine, $5. 

"Bordeaux Arsenate of Lead Mixture." — Misbranding 
of "Bordeaux Arsenate of Lead Mixture," shipped by the 
Thomsen Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md., was charged for the 
reason that an examination of the keg containing the product 
showed it to contain 24 pounds of the article instead of 25, 
as indicated on the label. Misbranding was also alleged in 
that the article was an insecticide and fungicide other than 
Paris green or lead arsenate, and contained arsenic, and the 
total amount of the arsenic content was not stated on the label. 
Guilty; fine, $5. 

"Bordeaux Mixture." — Misbranding of "Bordeaux Mix- 
ture," shipped by the Thomsen Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md., 
was alleged for the reason (1) that the product was labeled 
"Bordeaux Mixture," when it was in fact a mixture of Bor- 



86 



THE phak:maceutical era 



[February, 1914 



deaux mixture and lead arsenate; (2) the contents of the 
package were stated on the label as 50 pounds when in fact 
they were considerably less, and (3) the article contained 
arsenic and the total amount of arsenic contained was not 
stated on the label. Guilty; tine, $5. 

"Kerosene Oil Emulsion." — Misbranding of "Kerosene 
Oil Emulsion," shipped by Benjamin Hammond, Fishkill-on- 
Hudson, N. Y., doing business under the name and style of 
Hammond's Paint & Slug Shot Works, was charged for tlie 
reason that analysis of a specimen showed that it consisted 
partially of water, which does not prevent, destroy, repel or 
mitigate insects, the name and percentage amount of such 
inert substance not being shown on the label. Guilty; the 
court suspending sentence. 

"Lime, Sulphur and Salt," or "Horicum." — Misbrand- 
ing was charged of "Lime, Sulphur and Salt" or "Horicum," 
shipped by Benjamin Hammond, Fishkill-on-Hudson, N. Y., 
doing business under the name and style of Hammond's Paint 
and Slug Shot Works. Analysis showed that it consisted par- 
tially of water and salt, which do not prevent, destroy, repel 
or mitigate insects or fungi, and the names and percentage 
amounts of such inert ingredients were not shown on the label. 
Guilty; sentence suspended. 

Lead Arsenate — Misbranding of a quantity of lead 
arsenate shipped by Fred L. Lavanburg, New York, was 
charged for the reason that the label indicated that the article 
contained 17.36 per cent, arsenic o.\ide, when as a matter of 
fact it contained only 12.35 per cent, arsenic oxid. Guilty; 
fine, $25. 

Formaldehyde — Misbranding of a quantity of formalde- 
hyde shipped by J. T. Baker Chemical Co., Phillipsburg, X. J., 
was charged for tlie reason that analysis of a specimen of the 
article showed that it consisted partially of inert substances 
(substances other than formaldehyde) which do not prevent, 
destroy, repel or mitigate insects or fungi. Plea of non vuH; 
fine, §25. 

'•Sherwin-Williams Dry Powdered Arsenate of 
Lead." — Misbranding of "Sherwin-Williams Dry Powdered 
.\rsenate of Lead," shipped by the Sherwin-Williams Co., 
Xewark, N. J., was charged for the reason that the label on 
the package bore the statement "One pound net weight," when 
as a matter of fact the net weight of each package was less 
than one pound. Non rult; fine, $10. 

"French Bordeaux Mixture." — A quantity of a certain 
fungicide designated "French Bordeaux Mixture," alleged to 
be shipped by Benjamin Hammond, Fishkill-on-Hudson, N. Y., 
doing business under the name and style of Hammond's Paint 
& Slug Shot Works, was charged to be adulterated and mis- 
branded in that the label bore the statement: ". . . The 
preparation is the normal formula, with some 33 per cent. 
Copper Hydrate in the dried precipitate, . . ." while 
analysis of a specimen of the article showed it to contain only 
18.84 per cent, of copper hydrate in the dried precipitate. 

Drugs and Chemicals at 1915 Exposition. 

IX the Palace of Liberal Arts, at the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national E.Kposition in San Francisco in 1915, will be found 
a remarkable exhibit of the equipment, processes and prod- 
ucts of the chemical and pharmaceutical arts. In the official 
dassificatisn of exhibits this display constitutes Group 36, 
coming next to the sciences to which it is so closely allied, 
those of medicine and surgery, which make up the exhibit in 
Group 35. The chemical and pharmaceutical exhibit is divided 
into 22 classes, and from the most minute detail of laboratory 
equipment to demonstration of apparatus employed in treating 
waste matter from factories, by chemical or electrical methods, 
with a view to permitting their return to water courses or to 
the atmosphere, there will be presented a complete resume of 
the progress made in the laboratories of the world, especially 
during the past 10 years. . . , ■ , j 

An elaborate demonstration of the various biological prc>d- 
ucts, such as bacterins, vaccines and tuberculins will comprise 
a class that will be of intense interest to a vast number of 
people. Equipment and processes used in the manufacture of 
vegetable essences; in the chemical treatment of animal sub- 
stances and their products, soaps, candles, glycerin, etc., and 
the by-products of petroleum and coal-tar derivatives are to 



occupy a prominent place. Apparatus and processes for the 
compression and liquefaction of gases, methods of drug adul- 
teration and their detection, perfumes, cosmetics, essential oils 
and equipment and appliances will be displayed in detail. 

The building in which the chemical and pharmaceutical 
e-xliibit will be housed is known as the Palace of Liberal Arts 
and is one of the eight main exhibition palaces of the expo- 
sition. It covers an area of 251,000 square feet. It was 
erected at a cost of $344,180 and is a structure of great artistic 
beauty. 

The Panama-Pacific International E.xposition will be the 
largest and most wonderful enterprise of its kind. It will 
include among the buildings the vast Palace of Machinery, 
the largest frame structure ever built, covering 10 acres of 
ground; and the whole exposition represents an outlay of 
$80,000,000, the greatest sum ever expended for such a purpose. 

The Panama-Pacific International Exposition will enjoy the 
distinction of being the only maritime exposition ever held, 
fronting as the site does on the Bay of San Francisco and 
the Golden Gate, where the navies of the world will pass in 
review before the exposition grounds on the completion of their 
voyage througli tlie canal. This is the event with which the 
exposition will open on Feb. 20, 1915, and for the greater 
part of a year will remain open to celebrate with all the world 
the building of the Panama Canal. 



Drug Trade Section Elects C. G. Euler. 
C. G. Euler, of Antoine Chiris, was elected chairman of the 
Drug Trade Section of the Xew York Board of Trade and 
Transportation, at that organization's January meeting held at 
New York Drug and Chemical Club. Other officers elected 
are : \'ice-rliairman, Irving JIcKesson, of McKesson & Rob- 
bins; secretarj', William F. McConnell, 203 Broadway; treas- 
urer, ^\'illiam A. Hamann, of Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical 
Co. Dr. Henrj- C. Lovis, w-ho retires as chairman after having 
served two consecutive terms in that office, was elected a 
director of the board as representative of the Drug Trade 
Section. The executive committee consists of Frank L. 
McCartney, of Sharp & Dohme ; Charles A. Loring, Powers- 
Weightman - Rosengarten Co. ; Frederick F. Watermeyer, 
Fritzsche Brothers; Paul H. Brickelmeyer, Henry Klein & Co., 
and Adolph Henning, of Lanman & Kemp. Various com- 
mittee reports, mostly in the nature of recapitulations, were 
presented. Thomas F. Main, chairman of the legislative com- 
mittee, reviewed the legislation of the past year. 



Dr. Ernst J. Lederle Succeeded by Dr. Goldwater. 

Mayor Mitchel has appointed Dr. Sigis S. Goldwater to 
succeed Dr. Ernst J. Lederle as Commissioner of Health for 
New York City. Dr. Goldwater has been for some time 
superintendent of Mount Sinai Hospital. He was scheduled to 
take office February 1. 

Dr. Goldwater graduated from the medical department of 
New York University. He entered Mount Sinai Hospital as 
an interne in 1903 and quickly worked his way to be superin- 
tendent. He is known as a good organizer. In 1913 he was 
vice-president of the New York Academy of Medicine. 



Mrs. Josephine B. Amend Dead. 

Her mind disorganized from the strain of nursing her hus- 
band, the late Robert F. Amend, treasurer of Eimer & Amend, 
all through the ilhiess which resulted in his death on Jan. 6, 
his widow, Mrs. Josephine B. Amend, recently threw herself 
from a window of her apartment on the 12th floor of the 
St. Urban, at Central Park West and 89th street. She was 
instantly killed. 



Daughter of 'William Jay Schieffelin Married. 
Miss Margaret L. Schieffelin, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
William Jay Schieffelin, was recently married to Frederick 
Osbom, son of Mr. and Mrs. William Church Osbom, at the 
Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church. The ceremony was 
followed by a reception at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Sdiieffe- 
lin, Xo. 5 East 66th street. 

Ex-Kiker-Hegeman Manager Buys Montolair Store. 
John H. Hubley, tmtil recently manager for Riker-Hegeman 
Co. at 42d street and Sixth avenue, has purchased the phar- 
macy of Robert Eastbum, 479 Bloomfield avenue, Montclair, 
N.J. 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



87 



FROM THE BUSINESS FIELD. 



The Mashburn Drug Company, of Valdosta, Ga., gave 
their second annual 'Possum Supper to their customers in 
December. Quite a number of their guests who reached 
Valdosta in the early afternoon were given an automobile ride 
around the city. At S : 30 p.m. the guests were escorted to the 
New Valdes Hotel, where a sumptuous repast was spread, 
consisting of " 'possum and taters," birds, salads, etc. A. E. 
Dimmock, a \"aldosta druggist, was toastmaster. Among those 
responding with toasts were Mayor Jno. T. Roberts, of Val- 
dosta; Jno. Dickerson, of Jacksonville, who represents Eli 
Lilly S: Co. in the State of Florida; C. L. Parks, representing 
H. K. Mulford & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. E. P. Quillian, 
Clyattsville, Ga.; Dr. J. M. Hall, Douglass, Ga.; W. A. 
Bradley, representing the Cleveland Fruit Juice Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Senator W. L. Converse; Fred Bergstrom, of 
Bergstrom & Newberry; Dr. A. L. Johnston, and Russell 
Peeples, of \'aIdosta, Ga. Woods A. Caperton, sales manager 
for Eli Lilly 8c Co., Indianapolis, Ind., was a specially invited 
guest and he made the trip to \'aldosta to attend this supper. 
He brought with him about 80 stereopticon views and two 
reels of moving picture films and immediately after the supper 
he gave those in attendance a "moving-picture trip" through 
the plant of Eli Lilly & Co. About 150 of" the Slashburn 
Drug Co.'s customers were present and all expressed them- 
selves as having had a most enjoyable time. 

The National Co-operative Drug Company was organ- 
ized recently at a meeting at the Planters Hotel in St. Louis, 
which was attended by about 65 St. Louis retail druggists. 
O. J. Cloughly, president of the St. Louis R.D.A., whose 
middle name is "work," presided. The company is to be a 
co-operative wholesale organization, and the retail druggists 
who are stockholders in it will buy their goods through the 
company on the plan of goods bought one week must be paid 
for the next. Monthly dividends will be paid to the members. 
The organization is patterned after the Cincinnati Drug Co., 
whose shares are said to earn 10 per cent, a month, and which 
has reached a $500,000 business, it is said here. A like organi- 
zation, the Chicago Wholesale Drug Co., is said here to have 
reached the $1,000,000 mark in business. Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, Cleveland, Detroit and Washington have such whole- 
sale organizations, the local druggists say, and now they are 
to have a company in St. Louis which will have branches in 
every city in the Union where there is now no such organi- 
zation. San Francisco druggists were reported to have $25,000 
waiting to invest in the St. Louis organization. One of the 
branches is to be in New "Vork City. The leaders in the 
organization expect to have business moving within a few 
months. O. B. Thuma, of Cincinnati, is president. Subscrip- 
tions of stock amounting to $75,000 were pledged at the 
Planters meeting. 

The Lilly School for Salesmen held its 28th session 
at the home office of the company at Indianapolis holiday 
week. Morning and afternoon sessions were held with ad- 
dresses by department heads and members of the scientific 
staff on practical subjects related to sales work. The many 
improvements and changes in manufacturing operations were 
explained by a trip through the laboratories. Papers on cur- 
rent topics pertaining to sales and detail work were also read 
and discussed. Dr. J. P. Buckley spoke on the use and technic 
of the dental preparations. Dr. John Uri Lloyd spoke briefly 
on Alcresta, the alkaloidal precipitant formerly known as 
Lloyd's Reagent. J. K. Lilly reviewed the history of the 
house of Lilly, appropriately illustrating his talk with lantern 
slides. On New Year's day the salesmen paid a visit to the 
Lilly biological farm at Greenfield to see the antitoxin and 
vaccine buildings, the purpose of which was explained by 
Dr. Rickards, assistant director. Various forms of entertain- 
ment included a theater party, smokers and a dinner at the 
University Club. The visiting salesmen entertained the home 
office department heads on one evening at the Indianapolis 
Chamber of Commerce, with a series of humorous sketches of 
topical interest. 

Parke, Davis & Co., for their December posting class, 
brought to the home laboratories in Detroit a squad of 50 
tiaveling representatives, from every section of the United 



States and Canada. The "coaching" period was Dec. 8 to 19, 
inclusive. Four days were given to a study of the biological 
and research departments and their work, the remainder of 
the time being devoted to the general pharmaceutical line. 
.'\mong the products receiving specific consideration were such 
leading specialties as the Phylacogens, Pituitrin, Coagulose and 
the improved Taka-Diastase. But the convention was not 
wholly given up to study and instruction. There was a theater 
party at one of the city's play-houses, an excursion to the 
company's biological farm at Rochester, where a dinner was 
served. Another dinner party w-as given at the Hotel Cadillac 
and included various department heads and others who de- 
livered lectures before the "post-graduate" classes. 

G. E. Dunbar, Lilly representative in New York City, led 
the firm's sales force for the year just ended in the sale of 
empty capsules, which entitles Mr. Dunbar to the distinction 
of being president of the Lilly jNIillion Capsule Club for 1914. 
At a dinner at the University Club at Indianapolis, the first 
week in January, Mr. Dunbar was presented with a handsome 
gold watch-fob appropriately engraved as an insignia of his 
office. Membership in the Lilly Capsule Club is limited to 
those salesmen who sell over a million empty capsules a year 
to the retail trade, and a lapel watch chain and button is 
presented to each member. The club was started two years 
ago and its membership during that time has increased 80 
per cent. 

■William C. Mason, a former watchman at the laboratories 
of Sharp & Dohme, manufacturing chemists, at Howard and 
Pratt streets, Baltimore, who pleaded guilty in the Criminal 
Court several weeks ago to stealing perfumery, hypodermic 
syringes, drugs and other articles to the value of perhaps $100, 
has been sentenced to one year in the ^Maryland penitentiary. 
It is thought that Mason had confederates. Various arrests 
were made in Washington, Philadelphia and Baltimore at the 
time, but only in Washington was any considerable quantity 
of Sharp & Dohme's goods found. The Philadelphia raid 
disclosed thefts of considerable magnitude from other manu- 
facturing drug houses. 

The 'Wisconsin Pharmacal Co., at the 16th annual meet- 
ing held in Milwaukee recently, declared a dividend of 6 per 
cent. The report of E. G. Raeuber, secretary and general 
manager, showed an exceptionally successful business during 
the past year. Officers were elected as follows : President, 
Christian Widule, Milwaukee; vice-president, Charles Pfeiffer, 
Plymouth; secretary, E. G. Raeuber, Milwaukee; treasurer, 
Louis H. Kressin, Milwaukee. Directors, S. A. Eckstein, 
Milwaukee; Otto Hackendahl, Milwaukee; O. F. Menges, 
Madison; Charles Gieseler, Racine; A. W. Albers, Wausau. 
Stockholders of the company include druggists from all over 
Wisconsin. The plant and offices are located in Milwaukee. 

The Eastern Drug Company's Employees' Mutual 
Benefit Association's 10th anniversary was observed Jan. 15 
with a banquet at the American House, Boston, and nearly 
100 members were seated at the tables. President W. R. 
DoUiver was toastmaster. The guests included William W. 
Cutler, secretary of the company; Councillor Daniel J. Mc- 
Donald, Charles H. Perry and Fred S. Lovis, all of whom 
made brief after-dinner speeches. The following officers were 
elected: John Tomlinson, president; William E. Quinn, vice- 
president; Russell Spurr, secretary; John F. Miller, treasurer; 
P. A. O'Grady, James L. Dugan, G. M. Hutchinson, Herman 
Schatzl and Miss Verna McCarthy, executive committee. 

The Mutual Pharmacal Co., of Syracuse, N. Y., at its 
annual meeting, Jan. 12, heard reports of prosperity during the 
year just closed and elected the following officers: President, 
William A. Curtin, M.D.; vice-president, George M. Price, 
M.D. ; treasurer, Albert E. Larkin, Ph.B., M.D.; secretary, 
Thomas P. Farmer, M.D.; Executive Committee, Dr. Curtin, 
Dr. Price and Dr. Larkin. The Board of Directors consists 
of: William A. Curtin, M.D., Syracuse; William A. Groat, 
B.S., M.D., Syracuse; Albert E. Larkin, Ph.B., M.D., Syracuse; 
Thomas P. Farmer, M.D., Syracuse; George M. Price, M.D., 
Syracuse; Henry B. Doust, M.D., Syracuse; Henry J. Hunter, 
M.D., Ilion. 

The United Pharmaceutical Co., a new corporation 
under the Massachusetts laws, has been formed by several 
officers of the United Drug Company. The capital is $250,000. 
The plan of the company was outlined in President Liggett's 
report at the last annual convention of United Drug stock- 



THE PH^VRMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



holders. Louis I. Schreiner, a vice-president of the United, 
will be president of the new pharmaceutical company, for 
which a new building has been erected especially equipped for 
the manufacture of Rexall pharmaceuticals. Other incorpora- 
tors are Fred .\. Rogers, James C. Brady, B>Ton M. Hyde, 
Louis K. Liggen and J. N. Staples, Jr. 

That St. Louis is becoming an exceedingly important drug 
center is indicated by the fact that in 1913 more than 40 
concerns in other cities removed to St. Louis, some of them 
being the Continental Condensed Milk Co., of Pennsyh-ania; 
Blood Balm Co., of Georgia : .\merican Syrup and Preserving 
Co., of Tennessee; Ethical Drug Co., of Kansas City. Among 
new corporations of the year were the St. Louis Match Co., 
$300,000; Xunn-Buse Leaf Tobacco Co., §100,000; Eagle 
Liquid Soap Co., ?50,000; Frost Family Medicine Co., $50,CkX); 
Dr. Miller Co-operative Medicine Co., $100,000; St. Louis Pop 
Com Machine Co., Plastic Products Co., 5100,000; Kurusol 
Chem.ical Co., $50,000; Herriott Shoe Polish Co., $50,000. 

Parke. Davis & Co.'s Chicago branch sales representa- 
tives 53 in number, were in convention at the Sherman House 
Dec. 26-30, inclusive. Selling plans for the early months of 
1914 were formulated. Lectures upon various phases of the 
company's elaborate research work — past, present and pros- 
pective — were listened to. Discussions of the newer scientific 
products, together with methods for their systematic detail 
among physicians, were entered into. Altogether it was one 
of the most profitable conventions, in all essential details ever 
conducted by this aggressive branch of Parke, Davis & Co. 

Sharp & Dohme, manufaciviring chemists at Howard and 
Pratt streets. Baltimore, have decided to build an addition to 
front about 75 feet on Pratt street and running back to Dover 
street, a distance of nearly 150 feet. The addition is to be of 
structural steel, with brick facing, and will conform in archi- 
tectural appearance to the present buildings. The cost of the 
improvement is estimated at SIOO.OOO. The new edifice will 
admit of a better arrangement of various departments and 
facilitate operations to a marked degree, also making possible 
an increase in the output of goods. 

The Parker-Blake Co., of New Orleans, have purchased 
three pieces of property adjoining their big building at Fulton 
And Common streets, and the buildings thereon will be razed to 
make room for an addition of steel, concrete and brick to the 
present Parker-Blake structure. Arthur D. Parker is at the 
head of the company, and the house, which is one of the 
largest and most active in the city, has built up an enormous 
business. It is hinted that many thousands of dollars will be 
■expended to make the plant the finest wholesale drug estab- 
lishment in the entire South. 

The Louis K. Liggett Co., of Boston and New England, 
announced on Jan. 1 over the signature of Mr. Liggett as 
president, a policy of free prescriptions for the worthy poor, 
as follows: "Ovit present to the people of Boston this year is: 
Free prescriptions to the worthy poor. .\ny reputable physician 
is authorized to send any worthy poor person to our stores 
for prescriptions, and we agree to fill them without cost. 
Nothing is required but a note from the physician, on his 
professional card, or on his prescription blank, that the 
patient is entitled to the assistance." 

C. H. Eossat and ilrs. Henrietta Kossat, proprietors of the 
Kossat pharmacy in Milwaukee, have been made the defend- 
ants in a suit for 510,000 brought in the Circuit Court by 
Albert B. Pregler, who claims that his wife died on May 24, 
1913, as the result of her having become addicted to the use 
of laudanum and narcotics, alleged to have been sold to her 
by the Kossat pharmacy. Pregler claims that his wife became 
a slave to the drug habit after having purchased narcotics 
from the drug store. 

The Louis K. Liggett Co. has taken a lease of a store in 
a new building at the comer of Brighton and Harvard avenues, 
.■\llston, ilass., and the new store will be one of the most 
attractive of the Liggett chain in the vicinity of Boston. The 
new Liggett score at Gratiot and Famier streets, Detroit, is 
the 67th in the chain of Liggett stores in this country. It is 
tmder. the management of James H. Crouch, and in some 
respects is the finest drug store in Detroit. 

The Nyal Drug Co. (New York and London Drug Co.), 
a subsidiary of the firm of Frederick Steams & Co., of Detroit, 
Mich., has been incorporated tmder the laws of Michigan 



with a capitalization of $2,300,000. Of the stock it is under- 
stood that $1,675,000 is retained by the Steams company, 
while the remainder will be offered for sale. .According to the 
newspaper dispatch citing the incorporation of the company, 
capital stock amounting to $1,780,000 has already been paid in. 

The Eley-Robertson-Barlow Drug Co., wholesale drug- 
gists at Birmingham, .\la., has been purchased by the Collier 
Drug Co., which is a part of the .\veryt Drug Co. The newly 
purchased house will be run strictly as a wholesale business. 
It occupies a building newly built especially for it at 2205 
Second avenue, four stories in height and covering a floor 
space of 25x140 feet. The Collier company is one of the old 
drug firms of Birmingham, having been in business for 27 
years. 

The Dravosburg Drug Co. has been formed at Dravos- 
burg. Pa., a suburb of Pittsburg, with a capital stock of $5000. 
The incorporators are R. E. Porter, of McKeesport, Pa. ; F. P. 
Simday, J. W. Jones, G. W. Smith and E. A. Martin, all 
residents of Dravosburg. The company plans to operate the 
largest retail drug store in that place, which is the head- 
quarters of a large boat-building business. 

The A. Spiegel Co., operating three pharmacies in Mil- 
waukee, has leased the building at 126-128 Grand avenue, now 
occupied by the Philip Gross Hardware Co., and after spend- 
ing $40,000 in remodeling the structtu-e, will move its main 
store from the Plankinton block to the newly acquired building. 
The Plankinton block will be razed next Spring to make room 
for a new hotel, theater jmd office building. 

A. P. Menges, prominent dmggist of Madison, Wis., will 
erect a three-story building at Park street and University 
avenue, in order to give the Menges pharmacy on University 
avenue more room. The second and third floors will be di- 
vided into offices and apartments. It is expected the structtire 
will be ready for occupancy next Fall. 

The J. S. Merrell Drug Co. annual dinner for sales force 
and department heads was held Jan. 3 at the Hotel Jefferson, 
St. Louis, with George Merrell as toastmaster. The diiuier 
was the concluding feature of a two days' session of the com- 
pany's salesmen, and C. P. Walbridge, president of the Merrell 
company, made one of the principal talks of the evening. 

A New Terminal Drug Store has been opened at the 
Jklichigan Central station at Detroit. Mich., as a concession of 
the Union News Co., of Chicago. There will be day and night 
sen'ice with a small room set aside as a "first aid room," and 
the traveler becoming ill suddenly will be assured of proper 
treatment. 

M. Cora Dow, of Cinciimati, will open her 11th drug store 
in that city at the northeast comer of 6th and Main streets in 
the new Gwyime ^'anderbilt building, .April 1. Negotiations 
for a 10-year lease have just been concluded. The soda- 
foimtain equipment will be the most expensive in Cincirmati. 

The Apothecary Shop, the newest and most up-to-date 
drug store in Elizabeth City, N. C., was thrown open to the 
public for the first time in late December. Thousands of 
souvenirs were given away, and free ice cream was distributed. 

Noyes Bros. & Cutler, of St. Paul, held their annual 
banquet for traveling men and heads of departments on Dec. 
29, the affair being truly a "get together" festi\'al. Winthrop 
G. Noyes presided, and 75 were present. 

The Southern Drug Co. is a new manufacturer and dis- 
tributor of drugs which has been organized at Tackson. Tenn., 
by T. F. Glass, Carl Williams, J. H., R. J. and F. W. Larwill. 

The Gould 'Witch Hazel Company, of Boston, has been 
incorporated, with a capita! of 550,000, by ilichael J. Mc- 
Laughlin, Ernest J. Sanderson and William E. Ludden. 



RECENT FLEES. 



At Vienna. S. D., Sasse's drug store; destroyed. 

At Chaffee, Mo., Underwood & Martenson's drug store; total. 

At Seattle, Wash., Stewart & Holmes Drug Co., drug warehouse 

purchased from Pacific Drug Co. about eight months ago; loss 

about $37,000; insurance S25,0OO. 
At Green Cove Springs, Fla., Consolidated Drug Co.; loss S4000; 

partially insured. 
At Monticello, Mo., G. B. Knight drug store; J. B. Marchand drug 

store; loss almost total. 
At Snyder, Tex., Gravum Drug Co. ; loss heavy. 
At Lake Village, Ark., R. X. Henry drug store; destroyed. 
At Thorsbury, Ala., A. K. Horn, druggist; loss heavy. 



February, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



89 



Building' a Demand for Pyorrhocide. 

In introducing the Dentinol and Pyorrhocide method of 
treating pyorrhea (Riggs' Disease), the Dentinol & Pyorrho- 
cide Company of Xew York has sought the support of the 
dentists and physicians by methods which bear the most care- 
ful analysis of the purely "ethical" professional man, and yet 
have proved highly effective in familiarizing the professions 
with these products. Pyorrhea until recently was considered a 
disease almost if not quite impossible, to overcome, but during 
the past seven years it has been demonstrated that it yields 
to the Dentinol and Pyorrhocide method. It is claimed by the 
manufacturers that Pyorrhocide so stimulates the blood circu- 
lation in the gum tissues that softness and bleeding are over- 
come; further it is asserted that Pyorrhocide removes the daily 
deposits that form tartar, and effectively checks the growth of 
bacteria, which are responsible for caries of the teeth. 




The illustration reproduced herewith is from a booklet — "The 
Practical Method of Successfully Treating Pyorrhea" — recently 
mailed by the Dentinol & Pyorrhocide Co. to all registered 
dentists in this country. Another interesting booklet just 
issued is "OraJ Hygiene in Modern Therapy," which is filled 
with citations from medical authorities who trace a large pro- 
portion of diseases to oral sepsis, and emphasize the value of 
Pyorrhocide as a dependable prophylactic in febrile affections. 
This distribution of high-class literature to dentists and phy- 
sicians is but a part of the publicity. The distinguishing 
feature is the Pyorrhocide Clinic, a permanent institution 
maintained at the New York headquarters of the company 
where dentists and physicians witness free of charge actual 
demonstrations of the efficacy of the Dentinol and Pyorrhocide 
Method, and receive instruction and assistance in the treat- 
ment and prevention of pyorrhea and in general oral prophy- 
la.xis. A research department for bacteriological and other 
investigation, and a correspondence department for practitioners 
unable to visit the clinic in person are two important features 
of this work. 

"Dollars for Druggists" is the title of a booklet recently 
mailed to dealers throughout the country. Aside from the 
information it gives relative to Pyorrhocide and its uses, it is 
also replete with sales suggestions. Druggists are requested 
to read the advertisement of the Dentinol & Pyorrhocide Co. 
in this issue, and send for a copy of "Dollars for Druggists" 
and the sales helps offered to make Pyorrhocide a business 
builder. 



Saving, Sanitation, Service. 
"Puffer Sealed Fountain" is the scientiiic reply of a leading 
fountain manufacturer to the demands of State and civic 
authorities for absolutely sanitary conditions. The Puffer sealed 
fountain is built to meet hard usage, to do away with ex- 
pensive plumbing bills, to banish dirt, dust and vermin. They 
are sealed at the factory by expert workmen, and are shipped 
all assembled without a single connection either for sewer or 
water to be made on the inside of the fountain. Every con- 
nection is brought to the outside, and yet every pipe or con- 
nection on the inside can be reached readily should occasion 
require. Plumbers invariably leave openings where dirt and 
insects may enter — the Puffer factory workmen seal up every 
connection. The result is real cleanliness, a reduction in 
plumber's bills, a big cut in the ice consumption, and a higher 
degree of efficiency in cooling due to the non-loss of the 
refrigeration agent by evaporation. The Puffer sealed fountain 
has no wood to decay or swell — marble, slate, metal and cork 
are the only materials used. Sealed fountains can be obtained 
in any size from 6 feet up, but where the fountain is over 
12 feet it will be shipped in sealed sections, the entire foun- 



tain being assembled at the factory and shipped ready to use. 
A new catalogue showing full-page pictures from photographs 
of the many styles of sealed fountains made by the Puffer 
company, together with complete details as to their tested 
economy, efficiency and profit-producing possibilities — as well 
as the terms upon which they are sold — will be sent to anyone 
mentioning the Era. 



Obviates Poisoning by Bichloride of Mercury. 

Brief mention was made in the January Era of the new- 
Antiseptic Leaves prepared by the Wm. S. Merrell Chemical 
Co., as a substitute for bichloride of mercury tablets. With 
the increasing number of deaths, due to careless handling and 
taking such tablets in mistake for harmless medicines, there 
has been launched a National movement toward establishing a 
legal shape and color for such bichloride tablets, their packing 
in special poison containers, etc. The Merrell company have 
solved the problem in a new manner by the invention of their 
Antiseptic Leaves, made in the shape of small blotters, which 
can be handled with safety, and which can never be mistaken 
for anything else. One full leaf yields 7.3 gr. of corrosive 
sublimate when immersed for two minutes in 16 ounces of 
water (a 1 : 1000 solution), and the leaves are scored in 
quarters for convenience, each quarter yielding 1.82 gr. when 
immersed in 4 ounces of water. The blotters are printed in 
red and bear a poison warning in letters an inch in depth. 
Another feature is that the accidental swallowing of a blotter, 
or even a small piece of it, is impossible, since the immediate 
action would be a rapidly enlarged tongue which would pre- 
vent the passage of the poison to the stomach. Medical 
authorities who have tested these new leaves agree that they 
offer a really safe method for dispensing bichloride of mercury. 

26,791,000 Reasons Why Resinol Sells. 
A $300,000 sales campaign through 11 National magazines,. 
14 National weeklies, and advertisements three times a week 
in 506 daily newspapers, thus reaching 26,791,000 readers, is 
one of the cogent reasons advanced by the Resinol Chemical 
Co. to the druggists for the quick-selling powers of Resinol 
Ointment, This preparation is claimed to be the biggest- 
selling ointment advertised for skin troubles, and the advertise- 
ments have created a National demand of which the druggist 
takes advantage. In addition to the magazine and newspaper 
publicity the company is sending out a quarter million samples 
a year, in response to individual requests; has just mailecT 
300,000 booklets to druggists' lists; and advertises regularly in 
a score of drug and medical journals. A free Resinol mov.'ng: 
picture slide with the druggist's name and address is another 
publicity feature. For further details as to sales plans, dis- 
counts, etc., see the company's advertisement elsewhere. 



Maplewood Mills Cotton Sold Direct. 

In the interest of the retail druggist and the trade, and for 
the promotion of a still greater business in absorbent cotton, 
the Maplewood Mills of Fall River, Mass., have inaugurated 
a new sales policy — the entire production of these mills will 
now be sold direct to the dealer, thus eliminating the broker. 
Based on last year's business, this will mean a saving of 
more than $19,000 to the retailers of the country, and while 
the Maplewood Mills will receive no more in cash for their 
output, they will be the gainers in saving of time, better credit 
arrangements, and fewer complaints, blunders and misunder- 
standings. Dealers who made a similar arrangement with tlie 
mills last year doubled their business in absorbent cotton and 
made a proportionately greater profit. Why not write the mills 
for prices, and then compare quality for quality and price for 
price with the goods you have been handling? 



liarger Net Profits from Ice Cream. 
The Chocolate Cooler Co. is calling the attention of readers 
of the Era to the cabinet system of keeping ice cream, claim- 
ing that the cabinet saves about two-thirds of the expense for 
ice, salt and labor, at the same time keeping the cream in 
better condition and with less waste. If you have never used 
their cabinet system a request to the Chocolate Cooler Co. 
will bring full information with details as to what others are 
saving by their use, as well as a catalogue and names of jobbers 
handling these cabinets. For the owners of cabinets who are 
looking for the most sanitary arrangement of ice-cream storage 
this company is putting out a line of porcelain jar ice-creami 



90 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



containers which will fit any style of cabinet, thus doing away 
with cans which are subject to rust and to wear, while porce- 
lain can be kept spotlessly clean and absolutely sanitary at 
all times. 



A Sideline That Pulls Trade. 
Nearly ever\one has a favorite magazine or periodical which 
he buys ever\- week or every month — and some have half a 
dozen. In every town someone gets this business. A satisfied 
magazine buyer is always a customer for other lines, and, if he 
is satisfied with his treatment at a drug store magazine stand, 
will naturally turn to the cigar, confectionery, sundry or drug 
departments when in need of such articles. Magazines occupy 
but little space, require but small investment and can be han- 
dled with little expense or risk — yet they offer an excellent 
profit and tliey do draw trade to the store. Full particulars 
and information on how to open and run a periodical and 
magazine department will be sent at once by the American 
News Co. Use the coupon in their advertisement in this issue 
or mention the Era. 



Bustproof Seidlitz Powders. 
The Dusal Chemical Co., Inc., is calling the attention of 
druggists to a line of U.S. P. Dust-Proof Seidlitz Powders 
which are packed in 12s, 10s, 3s, Is and in bulk in a handsome 
four-color carton. Every powder is sealed in a dust- and 
moisture-proof wrapper, and the weight is on every wrapper 
and the number of powders on every package, thus conforming 
to every Stale weight and measure law. The Dusal company 
also manufactures a full line of effervescent salts, lithia, soda 
mint, soda mint and pepsin, soda mint and charcoal, buyer's 
label goods and private formulas. A postal card mentioning 
the company's advertisement in the Era, and mentioning the 
quantities usually purchased, will bring interesting quotations 
to any druggist. 



New Display Stand for Druggists. 
.\ new idea in counter display has been originated by the 
B. F. Goodrich Co. for the development of sales in rubber 
sundries, water bottles, fountain syringes, etc. The device is 
a patented rack, 23; 2 inches high and 15 inches wide, finished 
in colors, and it holds boxes of various shapes and sizes, thus 
permitting frequent and easy changes. This form of display 
has the added advantage that the article on display with its 
box may be lifted out instantly to enab'e the customer to make 
a still closer examination. Many druggists have already availed 
themselves of the offer of the Goodrich company to send one 
of these new racks with each dozen of its red or chocolate 
No. 2 seamless molded water bottles, the "Yankee," "Won- 
peace" or "B.F.G." 



Higher-Potency Taka-Diastase. 
Parke. Davis S: Co. announce that after years of experimen- 
tation they have doubled the strength of Taka-Diastase, the 
diastasic ferment the firm first marketed in 1S95. During the 
19 years which have elapsed the product has become recog- 
nized by the medical profession as an efficient agent in the 
treatment of amylaceous dyspepsia, and the originators have con- 
stantly sought to improve the product. Once before its value 
was enhanced 50 per cent,, and now by improvements in the 
methods of manufacture Parke, Davis & -Co. have again in- 
creased its liquefying powers to such an extent that the im- 
proved Taka-Diastase "will liquefy 300 times its weight of 
starch in 10 minutes under proper conditions." Despite this 
improved efficiency the price has not been advanced. 



Big Profits in Own-Name Specialties. 
Through an advertisement in the Er.\ of D. C. Leo & Co., 
Des iloines, Iowa, a \'irginia firm was led to give a sample 
order for a gross of cold tablets under their own label at a 
cost of $9. From this sample order business so increased that 
from Jan., 1909, to July, 1913. a total of 1400 boxes of this 
preparation was sold with resulting profits of nearly $300 upon 
a total investment in goods of less than S60. ."^nd this was 
only one Leo item. To the druggist who is interested in 
building up the most profitable type of business by featuring 
"own name" goods there is food for reflection in the D. C. Leo 
advertisement in this issue and that company will gladly send 
details to any reader of the Er.\ who mentions this journal. 



Calendars Customers Consult. 
Publicity which pleases customers, keeps the druggist's name 
before them at all times, with mutual benefits to both donor 
and recipient, is publicity that pays. In this class of publicity 
hundreds of druggists place the educational and weather-chart 
calendars issued by the Grand Rapids Stationery Co., of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., and the demand for tliese helps to 
business is increasing every year. A cut of a sample page of 
one of these calendars appears in the advertisement of this 
company elsewhere in this issue, and full details as to the cost, 
etc., will be given gladly by the company to anyone mentioning 
the Era. 



■Wall Paper for 1914. 
The new styles of wall paper for this season are very attract- 
ive and the manufacturers are introducing some specialties 
which add very much to the finish of rooms. The "Wall-Cut" 
Frieze is one of these that should be represented in every 
wall-paper line. They are refined in coloring and design, and 
recognized as highest quality of embossed cut-out decoration. 
These goods are manufactured by tlie A\'allcutt Bros. Co., 
141-155 East 25th street, Xew York, who will be pleased to 
send samples and prices to any dealer who is interested if he 
will mention the Era. 



An Addition to the Sozo Family. 
Hall & Ruckel, Inc., established since 1S46, has purchased 
from the Tokalon Company, Inc., the oxygen deodorant known 
as "Sozo." The transaction included the trade-mark "Sozo" 
applying to all toilet preparations, and "Sozo'' will now join 
the extensively known Sozo Shaving Cream, Talcum, Poudre 
de Riz, and the other Sozo preparations manufactured by Hall 
& Ruckel, together witli their time-honored Sozodont dental 
specialties. This Sozo line is artistically packaged, and the 
quality of the goods themselves is in keeping with the Hall & 
Ruckel standards. 



New-Skin Offer Expires This Month. 
The "Free Goods Offer" on Xew-Skin. which was extended 
to Feb. 28, will positively be withdrawn on that date, but there 
is still time for druggists who have not taken advantage of the 
offer to secure the $1 worth of free goods with the special $4 
assortment ordered through their jobber, as prescribed in the 
conditions. New-Skin is a ready seller and a "repeater," and 
this opportunity is worth investigating. 



Barr Heads Westchester County Ph. A. 
.\t the annual meeting of the Westchester County Pharma- 
ceutical -Association, held at the Sanford Inn, Yonkers, Jan. 
14, John H. Barr, of Irvington, was elected president, and 
J. B. Sackett. of Tarrytown, was re-elected secretary. Twenty- 
five members were present. 



100 Rats a Month 
is a record for one trap in one establishment, but that is the 
number caught in a livery stable in Scranton, Pa., in one of 
the traps invented by H. D. Swarts, of that city. 



AMONG THE ASSOCLiTIONS. 



The Philadelphia .Association of Retail Druggists at their 
annual meeting Jan. 2 decided to inaugurate an advertising 
campaign, the work to be done through a special committee. 
The following ofiicers were elected: President, A. G. Keller; 
1st vice-president, William Carpenter; 2d vice-president, A. J. 
Frankeberger ; 3d vice-president, M. L. Lewis; secretary, J. H. 
Barlow ; treasurer, George Fehr. R. W. White was chosen 
chairman of the executive committee of 14 members. 

The January meeting of the Pittsburgh Branch, A. Ph. A., 
was held at the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy, with the 
following programme: "Wild Flowers of Nearby Counties," 
by .Attorney George B. Parker (illustrated with hand-colored 
slides); election of officers; report on proposed changes in the 
U.S. P., by Dr. Louis Saalbach. 

More than 200 children of members of the Women's Club 
of the Allied Drug Trades of Chicago danced at a special 
party in their honor at the Hotel Sherman Jan. 2. The 
hostesses were Mesdames C. E. Dougia, Gustav Frank, H. C. 
McCracken, John Sutcliff. Fred Korte, George Lenx, F. C. 
Starr, A. E. Zuber and Miss Lillian Ryan. 



February, 1914] 



THE PHAEilACEUTICAL ERA 



91 




FILTERING APx'ARATtTS FOR LABORATORIES. 



PERCY A. BOECK, assignor to the Norton Company, 
Worcester, Mass., is the inventor of the filtering appara- 
tus shown in the accompanying illustration (Patent Xo. 
1,081,574), The device comprises a funnel, an elastic band 
covering the rim and extending into the funnel, and a porous 





U081.574 '■'"'-•'''■ 

cone conforming in shape to the interior of the funnel located 
within the same and wholly below the top thereof, and sup- 
ported by the said elastic band. 



Dropping Bottle. 
This device, designed by a German inventor, Ludwig Kauf- 
mann, assignor to Wdrmbrunn, Quilitz & Co., Apparate 
Bauanstalt, Berlin, Germany (Patent Xo. 1,082,531), consists 
of a dropping bottle provided with a discharge pipe and with 
a bent air pipe e.xtending deep into the interior of the bottle, 
the air pipe being bent toward the wall opposite to the mouth 
of the discharge pipe and then in the opposite directon and 
terminating adjacent to the bottom of the bottle, and adapted 
to act as a siphon. As may be noted in the drawing, the 
inner end of the discharge pipe is bent in the form of a U 
and has a chamber formed in its inner leg to retain the liquid 
to form a seal. The air pipe is provided at a point above its 
inner end with a hole, said hole being too small to prevent the 
siphon action, but of sufficient area to allow the entering air to 
pass into the bottle without passing through the liquid. 



Cork Extractor. 
This novelty is the combination of a bottle having its neck 
formed with an annular depression, and a cork for the bottle 
having its outer face provided with an eye, of wire ring 
arranged within the depression of the bottle neck and having 
an outtumed lip, a rod having one of its ends pivotally secured 




/ or^.^2.1 



to the lip of the ring to permit of the swinging of the rod 
upon the bottle neck, said rod having its free end formed 
with a \'-shaped depression. The extractor member is adapted 
to be fulcrumed within the depression of the rod, while one 
of its ends is provided with a lip which is to be inserted 
within the eve provided upon the cork. The inventor is 
Joseph Gebhart, Zion City, 111. (Patent Xo, 1,084,422), 



Prescription File. 
This prescription file, the invention of William F, Beaird, 
assignor to M J. Bowdish, C. A. White and J. S. Whittington, 



Wichita, Kan. (Patent No. 1,084,527), presents some novel 
features. The specifications cover the combination with a 
drawer, a plurality of catches arranged in alinement longitudi- 
nally of the drawer, each of the catches being wholly within 
the plane of the drawer and having a downtumed flange 




terminally formed with a downwardly opening notch, a rod 
designed to engage said notches and freely movable down- 
wardly and vertically of the drawer, the rod being held within 
the notches solely by the upward pressure of the articles in 
the drawer. 



PATENTS. 



Granted December 16. 1913. 

1,031,327 — Lemuel S, Penn, Dayton, Ohio. Cosmetic, 

1,081,464— Jacob Pfeiffer, Akron, Ohio, assignor to Miller Rubber 
Company, Nipple for nursing bottles, 

1,081,491— Clarence Frederic Davy and Thomas Richardson, Fitzroy, 
New Zealand. Non-refillable bottle, 

1,081,505— Albert K. Keller, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to American 
Cork and Seal Company. Bottle-seal-assembling machine. 

1,081,506— Friedrich Kuhles, Maywood, N, J, Non-refillable bottle, 

1,081,553— Tared H. Plaisted, Melrose, Mass, Non-refillable bottle, 

1,061,555— Henry M, Russell, Jr., Wheeling, W. Va, Closure for 
collapsible tubes and the like. 

1,081,556— Fred E, Sanders, Chelsea, Mass. Bottle closure. 

1,081,573— Percy Albert Boeck, Worcester, Mass, Porous article, 

1,081,574— Percy Albert Boeck, Worcester, Mass. Filtering appara- 
tus for laboratory use, 

1,081,592, 1,081,897- Paul Ehrlich and Alfred Bertheim, Frankfort-on- 
the-Main. Germany, assignors to Farbwerke vorm. Meister 
Lucius & Bruning, Hochst-on-the-Main, Germany. Medicinal 
preparation, 

1,081,617— William John Knox, New York, N. Y,, assignor to Knox 
Terpezone Company of America, Gaseous ozonids and their 
production. .. „ . 

1,061,777— Oscar B, Schellberg, New York, N, Y. Cork retainer, 

1,081,785— Willard G. Steadman, Jr., Southington, Conn, Tooth- 
powder container, , 

1,081,836— William N. Moore, Pollard. Ala, Liquid sealed jar. 

1,081,883— Warren E, Bailev, Smith River, Cal, Non-retillable bottle. 

1,081,896— Harlan E. Eckler, Elyria. Ohio. Cuticle clipper, 

1,081,897— Paul Ehrlich and Alfred Bertheim, Franktort-on-the- 
Main, Assignors to Farbwerke vorm, Meister Lucius & Brun- 
ing, Hochst-on-the-Main, Germany, Medicinal preparation, 

1,081.906— Jules F, Hancock and Carroll E, Fisk, San Francisco, 
Cal. Label-moistening machine. ~ . -.r i.- 

1,081.931- Anders Anderson Rosengren, Malmo, Sweden. Machine 
for sealing bottles. 

1,081,939— Paul Scholz, Bergen, Norway. Opening device for cans, 
bo.xes or the like. „„,„ 

Granted December 23, 1913. 

1,081.959— Nathan Grunstein, assignor to Chemische Fabrik 
Griesheim- Elektron, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. Manu- 
facture of acetic acid. , 

1 082.020— John W. Freeman, Aleene, Ark,, assignor of one-half to 
Squire C, Hodges. Arden, Ark, Non-refillable bottle. 

1,082,041- Nathaniel Emmons Paine, West Newton, Mass. Tooth 
brush. , , 

1,082,081- Francis E, Hufnail, Minneapolis, Minn. Process of 
making a medicinal composition, ,, ,, , ~ 

1,082,106— William C, Arsem, Schenectady, N. \ ,, assignor to Gen- 
eral Electric Company, a corporation of New \ork. Vulcanized 
glycerol resin, , , t , ^ v .»i 

1,082,125— John J. Kime, Lagrange, Ind. Insert-valve for botUe 
necks, , 

1,082,150— George J, Kelley, Attleboro, Mass, Atomizer. 

1,082,189— Amos Calleson, assignor to Benjamin Adriance, Brooklyn, 
N Y Feed mechanism for bottle sealing, 

1 082 301— Thomas Lynton Briggs and Henry F, Memam, assignors 
to General Chemical Company, New York. N, \ . Apparatus 
for the manufacture of fuming sulphuric acid or oleum. 

1 082 304— Henry J. Cary-Cnrr, assignor to E. H. Sargent & Co., 
Chicago, HI, Extraction apparatus, „ , „ , „ „ 

1082,407— Guy P. Combs and Patrick J, Burke, Rochester, N. Y. 
Non-refillable bottle. 



92 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



1,062,424 — Alfred Hoffman, Brooklyn, X. V.. assignor, by direct and 
mesne assisnmeius. to Alco Deo Company. Chemical process. 

1,(S3,4S3— Charles K Tcter and David A. Davies, assignor to The 
Teter Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Apparatus for 
heating nitrous-oxide administering appliances. 

Granted December 30» 1913. 

1,062.503— James T. Clifford, Green Island. N. Y. Demijohn washer. 

1,082,509— Emil Fischer, assignor to Farbenfabrikcn vorm. Fricdr. 
Bayer & Co.. Elberfeld, Germany. High molecular fatty acid 
containing arsenic 

1,CK2.510 — Emil Fischer, assignor to Farbenfabrikcn vorm. Fried r. 
Bayer & Co., Elberfeld, Germany. Pharmaceutical compound. 

1,0S2.52S— Matthew Albert Hunter, Troy, N. Y. Low-freezing liquid. 

1,082,529 — ^James Simpson Island, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Appara- 
tus for forming oxides of nitrogen. 

1,062.530— Felix Kaufler, Bruckl. Austria-Hungary, and August 
Klages, Salbke, Germany. Apparatus for manufacturing mer- 
cury bichloride. 

1,062.531 — Ludwig Kaufmann, assignor to Warmbrunn, Quilitz & Co., 
Berlin, Germany. Dropping bottle. 

1,082,555 — Arthur Lee Ridley, bearsport. Me. Cork extractor. 

1,082,573 — William Stone, assignor to E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
Powder Company, Wilmington, Del. Dissolved carbohydrate 
esters and process of making the same. 

1,08^,57-4 — Max Wciler, assignor to Farbenfabrikcn vorm. Friedr. 
Bayer & Co., Elberfeld. Germany. Manufacture and production 
of oxycarboxydiarylcarbinols. 

1,082,662— Ernst Twitchell, Wyoming, Ohio. Process of manufactur- 
ing fatty acids and glycerin. 

1,062,681— William Edward Danner, Perth, Ontario, Canada. Tooth 
powder. 

1,082,777- John Henry Stringham, assignor to American Combustion 
Company, Jersey City, N. J. Nebulizer of liquids. 

1,082,780— Albrecht Thiele, assignor to Chemische Fabrik auf Actien 
(.vorm. F. ScheringJ, Berlin, Germany. Pharmaceutical com- 
pounds. 

1.082,808— Norman Hubbard, Elizabeth. N. J. Bottle holder. 

1,083,107- David B. Landers, Hollywood, Cal. Funnel. 

1,083,115— William H. Mannon. Ouray. Ohio. Non-refillable bottle. 

l.Cto.ltsj — Theophil Bednarowicz, South Bend, Ind. Bottle hller. 

1,083,184— Walter E. Blackstock, Astoria, Ore. Non-refillable bottle. 

1,083,232 — Roger William Wallace and Eugene Wassmer, London, 
England. Process for the production of ammonia. 

Granted January 6, 1914. 

1.083.327— Edwin S. Hopson, Russellville, Ky, Container stopper. 

1,083,355— Thomas A. Edison, Llewellyn Park. West Orange, N. J. 
Art of forming chemical compounds. 

1,083,389— James R. Dunn. Baltimore, Md. Bottle closure. 

1.083,518— Wilhelm Bauer and Alfred Herre and Rudolf Mayer, as- 
signors to Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Elber- 
fejd, Germany. Halogenated 2.3-Naphthisatins. 

1,083,528— Carl Fellerer, Freising, Germany. Atomizer. 

1,083,561 — John C. Rising, Stockton, Cal., assignor of one-fourth to 
Arthur R. Kirkland. Stockton, Cal., and one-fourth to John L. 
Martin, Los Angeles. Cal. Toilet disinfectant. 

1,083,585— Carl Bosch and Alwin Mittasch, assignors to Badische 
Anilin & Soda Fabrik, Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, Germany. 
Catalytic production of ammonia. 

1,083,589— John E. Buchner, Coventry, R. I. Process of producing 
formates and the like. 

1,083,698— Nils Nilson, Worcester. Mass. Xon-refillable bottle. 

1,083,703— Fritz Rolhe, Dessau, Anhalt, Germany. Method of pro- 
ducing ammonia and compounds of ammonia. 

1,083,768— William F. Stone, Woodbury, N. J., assignor to Star Seal 
Company. Bottle-sealing machine. 

1,083,802— John H. Castona, assignor to Castona Improved Process 
Co., Gulf port, Miss. Turpentine and resin extractor. 

1,083.849 — Raymond Moloney, New York, N. Y. Stopper cap. 

1,083,873— Frederick William Burch, Pueblo. Col. Water bag. 

1,083,888— Albert Pietzsch and Gustav Adolph, Hoellriegelskreuth, 
near Munich, Germany. Process of producing hydrogen peroxide. 

Granted January 13, 1914. 

1,083.934 — Eduard Kobner and Paul Fritzsching. assignors to C. F. 
Boehringer & Soehne, Manheim-Waldhof, Germany. Hemoglo- 
binometer. 

1,083,953 — Maurice Switzer, New York, N. Y., ana Joseph D. La- 
croix, Baltimore. Md., assignors, by direct and mesne assign- 
ments, of one-half to The Wilson Distilling Company, New 
York. N. Y., and one-half to Herman Ellis, New York. Non- 
refiUabie bottle. 

1.084,243 — Willis G. Young, assignor to Western Engineering Co., 
Chicago, 111. Bottle holder. 

1.084.422 — Joseph Gebhart. Zion City, 111. Cork extractor. 

1,084,427 — George A. Hanks, Yonkers, N. Y. Nursing bottle holder. 

1,084,436 — Henry Howard, Boston, Mass. Process of making solid 
sodium bisulphite. 

1,084.457— Charles F. Madden, Beachmont, Mass. Bottle holder. 

l,084.510~Philip Edward Warren, New York, N. Y. Non-refillable 
bottle. 

1,084,527 — William F. Beaird, assignor to M. J. Bowdish, C. A. 
White, and J. S. Whittington, Wichita, Kan. Prescription file. 

1,084,537- Walter J. Clark, Fort Scott, Kan. Tooth paste container. 

1,084,581 — Fritz Klatte, assignor to Chemische Fabrik Griesheim- 
Elektron, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. Manufacture of 
esters and ethers of ethylidene glycol and of vinyl alcohol. 



TRADE-MARKS. 



Published December 16, 1913. 
33,485 — L. H. et E. Darrasse et Cie, Paris, France. A pharmaceuti- 
cal preparation for wasting diseases. 



45.284 — C. C. Cannon, Johnsonville. S. C. Liniment. 

72,246 — Dosler-Northington Drug Co., Birmingham, Ala. Toilet pow- 
der, etc 

72,788— The Oro Chemical Company, Joplin, Mo, Diarrhoea medi- 
cine. 

72,942 — Geo. S. Myers & Sons, Honesdale. Pa. A preparation for 
the external treatment of pneumonia. 

73,349 — Vereinigle Chemische Werke Aktiengesellschaft, Charlotten- 
burg, Germany, Choi in preparation. 

73,383 — Mary E, Leive, Fort Wayne, Ind. Dandruff remedy. 

73,457— Miguel Sobrino, Tampa. Fla. An antiseptic 

73,464— Bcrtalan Barna, New York, N. Y. Menthol salt spirit 

73.556— Henry A. Mullins, New York, N. Y. A preparation for the^ 
treatment of chronic constipation. 

73,635 — Camden Woofter, St. Louis, Mo. Corn and bunion remedy. 

73.838— H. K. Mulford Company, Philadelphia, Pa. Vaccines. 

73.848— Sleinicke & Apicella. Long Island City, N. Y. Alkaline 
antiseptic 

73,851- King & Oliphant. Macon, Ga. Mouth wash and for the 
treatment of Rigg's disease, 

73,865— Berlin Chemical Laboratories, Inc. New York, N. Y. Tonic 
for nervousness, etc 

73.787— J. Frank Algoe, Flint, Mich. Kidney disease remedy. 

73,888— Richard Hudnut, New York, N. Y. Perfume, face cream, etc. 

74,155— Albert J. Detwiler, Chester, Pa. A salve. 

Published December 23, 1913. 

62,61S~Howard Bros. Chemical Co., Buffalo, N. Y. Eye salve and 

eye water. 
63,763— E. Wertheimer et Cie, Paris, France. Perfumery and face 

tints. 
69,298 — Henry A. Moore, Cambridge, Mass. Hair tonic and skin 

creams. 
69,985 — Andrew J. Czarniecki. McAdoo, Pa. Appendicitis remedy. 
70,318— Hamlins Wizard Oil Company, Chicago, 111. Medicinal oil 

for rheumatism. 
70,756 — Druggists' Co-operative Association, Inc., Jersey City, N.J. 

Charcoal lozenges and other specialties. 
72,059— Duerr-Schaefer Pharmacal Co., Benton Harbor, Mich. A 

medicinal saline compound. 
72.395— Charles Fisher, Chicago, 111. Rheumatism remedy. 
72,665 — Maurice Monin, Paris. France. Toilet powders. 
72,720— The De Vilbiss Manufacturing Company, Toledo, Ohio. 

Atomizers and nebulizers. 
73,154 — David M. Smoot. Laneville, W. Va. Liniment. 
73,250— Sallie Booker, North Birmingham, Ala. Straightening oil. 
73,296— Ped-Ami Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Powder or tablet for 

the feet 
73,425 — David Slavitsky, Fall River, Mass. A remedy for colds 

and catarrh. 
73,557 — Martha Elizabeth Robins, Richmond, Va. Liver pills. 
73,634 — Camden Woofter, St. Louis, Mo. Corn and bunion plaster. 
73,649— The American Ointment Co., New Brighton, Pa. Medicated 

ointment. 
73,751 — Chamberlin Laboratories, Inc., Chicago, 111. A medicine for 

syphilis and similar diseases. 
73,799, 73.SOO. 73,801— United Drug Company, Boston, Mass. Rubber 

goods, etc 

Published December 30, 1913. 

27,839 — Edwin Walker, Erie, Pa. Cork pullers, cork screws, etc. 
38,242 — Eberhart Pharmacal Co., Dickson, Tenn. Chill and fever 

remedy, etc. 
66,681 — Baker Chemical Co., Detroit, Mich. Rheumatic remedy. 
70,093— The W. F. Gray Company, Madison and Nashville, Tenn. 

A medical ointment. 
72,915 — William J. Deegan, Chicago, 111. Hair preparation. 
73,339 — John J. Fulton Company, Pierre, S. D. Medicinal prepaia- 

tion for diabetes and diseases of the kidneys. 
73,423 — Julia Pavelkovitz, Chico, Cal. Hair restorer. 
73,437— Horace A. Bennett, Newton and Boston, Mass. Rheumatic 

and lumbago remedy. 
73,548— Harry S. Goldstein, Philadelphia. Pa. Dental cream. 
73,796 — Harris Newell Reynolds, New York, N. Y. A germicide for 

the digestive tracts. 
73,830— Dr. Burke's Catarrh Remedy Co., Kansas City, Mo. Catarrh 

remedy. 

Published January 6, 1914. 

66.164 — Eva Bayer. Baltimore county, Md. Salves. 

67,000— National Pharmacy Co., Oakland, Cal. A face cream, 

70,329— David Westheimer, New York, N. Y. Medical tonics. 

70,918 — Girard E. Thompson, Chatham, Va. Liver pills. 

72.335— Fulton Bag & Cotton Mills, Atlanta, Ga. A deodorant. 

73,096 — Backes & Ferguson, Stockton, Cal. Foot salves and pow- 
ders. 

73,161— George Harry Waltz, Baltimore, Md. Dyspepsia and heart- 
burn. 

73,525— Max Wolodarsky, New York, N. Y. Toilet cream and 
lotion. 

73,704 — Frederick A. Woodmansee, Galesburg, 111. Remedy for 
horses and cattle. 

73,907— W. J. Gilmore Drug Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. Medicine for 
blood disease, etc. 

73,948 — Jacobs' Pharmacy Company, Atlanta, Ga. Corn remedy. 

74,018 — John Wicllffe Peck, London, England. A mixture for use- 
in the manufacture of surgical splints and medical appliances. 

74.168 — James S. Kirk & Company, Chicago, III. Cologne. 

74.252— Fishman & McGowan. Sidney. Neb. Eczema ointment. 

74,304— Edward W. Cox. Cleveland, Ohio. Cathartics. 

74,340. 74,341, 74.343. 74.344. 74,345 and 74,346-Tokalon, Inc., New- 
York. N. Y. Perfumery. 

Published January 13, 1914. 

71_3'6_Providol Gesellschaft mit Beschrankter Haftung, Berlin,. 
Germany. Medicinal and toilet soap. 



February, 191-4] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



93 




BUSINESS OUTLOOK BRIGHTENING. 



Marked Advances in Morphine and Codeine 
ther Declines in Oils of Lemon and Or 

See pages 26 to 40 for Prices Current. 
Changes Since Last Report. 

A — Acid, Boracic, Powdered lb. .12 

A— Acid, Molybdic, C.P lb. 

1-oz. vials 02. 

A — Ammonium Mo!ybdate oz. .20 

D — Angelica Seed lb. .40 

A — Atiopine, !-i-oz. vials oz. 7.00 

A — Atropine Sulphate, Ys-oz. vials oz. 6.00 

A— Balsam Tolu lb. .85 

A — Cantharides, Russian, Sifted lb. 1.85 

Powdered lb. 1.95 

D — Cardamom Seed, Decorticated lb. 1.40 

D — Chamomile, Roman or Belgian lb. .25 

D — Cocaine, Alkaloid, Ys-oz. vials oz. 3.95 

Hydrochloride, cryst oz. 3.20 

J^-oz. vials.... oz. 3.25 

A — Codeine oz. 7.00 

A — Codeine Phosphate oz. 6.50 

A — Codeine Sulpliate oz. 6.75 

D — Digitalin, }^-oz. vials oz. 8.50 

D — Elaterium oz. .60 

D— Ergot lb. .80 

Powdered lb. .90 

D — Ipecac Root. Carthagena lb. 1.85 

Powdered ...lb. 2.05 

A— Kino lb. .50 

Powdered lb. .60 

D — JIanganese Bromide oz. .23 

Chloride, Crystal lb. .30 

Hypophosphite lb. 

D — Mercury Bisulphate lb. .60 

A— Mercurj- Chloride, Mild (Calomel) ... .lb. 1.04 

D — Mercury Iodide (Green Proto) lb. 3.35 

A — Morphine .Acetate, }^-oz. vials oz. 5.70 

Alkaloid, }^-oz. vials oz. 7.00 

Hydrobromide, }^-oz. vials. oz. 6.25 

Hydrochloride, %-oz. vials.. oz. 5.70 

Sulphate, 1-oz vials ...oz 5.45 

^-oz. vials oz. 5.70 

Valerate, }^-oz. vials oz. 7.10 

D— Oil Lemon lb. 3.35 

D— Oil, Olive, Malaga gal. 1.20 

D — Oil Orange. Sweet lb. 3.70 

D — Potassium Carbonate, C.P lb. .30 

A — Saffron, ■-\merican (Safflower) lb. .60 

D — Saffron, Spanish, True, Valencia lb. 12.00 

A— Sugar Milk, 1-lb. cartons lb. .23 

A— Thymol lb. 2.55 

X> — Vanillin oz. .40 

A— Wax, Bees, White lb. .37 

A— Zinc Chloride, Fused lb. .30 

Iodide oz. .40 

Phosphide oz. .15 

NOTE — A, advanced; D, declined; C, correction; 



and Fur- 
ang-e. 



.18 

4.25 

.35 

.24 

.45 

7.50 

625 

.90 

1.90 

2.10 

1.50 

.30 

4.15 

3.35 

3.40 

7.60 

7.10 

7.35 

9.00 

.85 

1.10 

1.40 

2.00 

2.20 

.55 

.65 

.26 

.55 

1.50 

.65 

1.25 

3.50 

6.00 

7.25 

6.75 

6.00 

5.75 

6.00 

7.35 

3.55 

1.40 

3.80 

.40 

.70 

13 00 

.27 

2.60 

.45 

.60 

,40 

,44 

.22 

new. 



N, 



NEW YORK, Jan. 24. — Quiet conditions have prevailed 
during most of the time that has elapsed s'nce our last 
report, but interviews with leading jobbers indicate 
greater activity and that the drug trade in common with other 
business enterprises is beginning to feel renewed confidence in 
the outlook for future commercal prosperity. During the past 
week mail and telegraphic orders were received from out of 
town in a larger volume, and some increase was noted in the 
demand from local buyers, this activity showing that buyers 
■and consumers have begun to replenish depleted stocks in 
anticipation of increased business. Opium still continues to 
find a limited outlet, but prices remained unchanged at last 
month's quotations. Quinine is firm, while morphine has been 



advanced, following the general upward trend noted last month. 
Orris root still continues firm in sympathy with conditions 
abroad, no quotable change in prices being reported. Spanish 
saffron is easier, while .■\nierican has been advanced. Both 
oil of lemon and oil sweet orange are lower in consequence of 
developing weakness in Messina. Cocaine is lower, and codeine 
and its salts have been advanced. Russian cantharides are 
higher, while ergot prices have declined on increased offerings. 
.A.lcohol is in increased demand and firrh at present quotations. 

Opium — Has been extremely quiet, but prices are unchanged 
at last month's quotations. $6.2S@$6.S0 being asked for natural, 
and $8@$8.20 for both granulated and U.S. P. powdered. 

Morphine — .-Vnother advance is noted in price of this alka- 
loid, as also its salts, the schedule of quotations being as follows: 
Alkaloid, !'^-oz. vials, per ounce, $7.@$7.25 ; acetate, ^-oz. vials, 
per ounce, $5.70@$6; hydrobromide, '/i-oz. vials, per ounce, 
$6.25@$6.75; hydrochloride, Ys-oz- vials, per ounce, $5.70@$6; 
sulphate, ;4-oz, vials, per ounce, $5.70{g$6; per ounce, $5.45@ 
$5.75; valerate, J^-oz. via's, per ounce, $7.10(g$7.35. This 
advance reflects the relatively high import duty now assessed 
on this alkaloid as a derivative of opium. 

Codeine — For the same reason this alkaloid of opium is also 
firmly maintained by manufacturers, and prices have been ad- 
vanced to ?7(«$7.30 per ounce for codeine, 5'6-50(a:$7.10 for 
phosphcte. and $6.75(«'$7.35 per ounce for sulphate. 

Cocaine — Has been considerably reduced in consequence of 
lessened demand, jobbers quoting $3.95@$4.15 for alkaloid in 
J/g-oz. via's, and $3.20@$3.35 per ounce for hydrochloride; in 
Ys-oz. vials, $3.25@$3.40. 

Quinine — Is meeting with a moderate demand and the mar- 
ket is firm at 26c. per ounce in 100-ounce tins. A develop- 
ment which will undoubtedly make for higher prices was the 
10 per cent, advance paid on the 10,863 packages or 959,408 
kilos of cinchona bark, which were auctioned at .\msterdam 
on Jan. 22. 

Menthoi — Quotations are unchanged, but the market is 
firm in consequence of an active inquiry and reports of dimin- 
ishing supplies. Several large sales have been recently reported 
in this market. 

Ergot — Prices have declined on increased offerings, and 
reports that the new crop is exceeding expectations abroad. 
The quotations range from 80c.(ffi$1.10 per pound for whole, 
and 90c.@$1.40 per pound for powdered. 

Ipec.-vc Root — Is easier and in better supply, Carthagena 
fetching $1.85@$2 per pound for whole, and $2.05@$2.20 for 
powdered. 

Kino — Is meeting with a fair inquiry and prices have been 
advanced to 50c.@55c. per pound for whole, and 60c.@65c. for 
powdered. 

M.-vnganese BROisnDE — A revision of quotations shows lower 
prices for this salt, 23c.(S'26c. per ounce being asked. Man- 
ganese chloride, crystallized, is quoted at 30c.@55c. per pound, 
and hypophosphite at $1.50 per pound. 

Mercuri.'^ls — Slight changes are reported in the quotations 
on the following salts: Bisulphate, 60c.@6Sc. per pound; mild 
chloride (calomel), $1.04@$1.25 per pound; protoiodide 
(green), $3.35@$3.50 per pound. 

On Peppermint — Is meeting with a fair demand and the 
market continues steady at $4^$4,25 per pound for New York, 
$3.90@$4 for Hotchkiss, and $3.75@$4 for Western. A report 
from Michigan states that stocks in the country are smaller this 
season than those of any corresponding season of recent years, 
and the shortage in the production this year is certain to be 
felt later. 

On, Lemon — Has suffered another decline and is now 
quoted at $3.35@$3.55 per pound. Advices from Messina 
state that considerable weakness has developed in this article 
there, while it is stated that importers here are making further 
concessions in the hope of increasing the waning purchasing 
operations of consumers, the most important period of the 
season for this product being well advanced. 

Oil Or.\nge — This product has also declined as a result of 
the continued diminution of purchasing operations, jobbers 
quoting 5;3.70@$3.80 per pound for sweet. 



94 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1914 



Saffron— American (safflower) is in scanty supply and 
firmly held at 60c.@"0c. per pound. Still higher prices arc 
predicted by some, owing to the increasing difficulties expe- 
rienced in replenishing supplies in Mexico, the country ol 
production. It is contended by some that there will be little 
if any saffron grown in that country next year. A revision of 
quotations shows a lower range of prices for Spanish (true 
\'alencia), $12(a$13 per pound being asked. The market for 
this article is firm, however. 

S.^XTONix — Lacks quotable change, but an advance is ex- 
pected by some in the near future. 

B.\LS.\M Totr — Shows a slight advance over last month's 
quotations, S5c.(<f9l)c. per pound being asked. 

\'.VN"ILLIX — Is lower, 40c.@45c. per ounce being quoted. 

ToxKA Bf.\xs — .Xngostura are unchanged at $2.25(g$2.50 
per pound. .-V recent cable from Venezuela states that pros- 
pects for next season's crop favor a yield of only 20,000 pounds, 
and it is predicted that prices will go higher. 

Acid, Molybdic — Chemically pure is higher, jobbers asking 
$4.25 per pound, and 35c. per ounce in via!s. Ammonium 
molybdate is also higher, 20c.@24c. being asked. 

S.«s.\p.\RrLLA Root— Cut Mexican root is still obtainable at 
last months quotations — 40c.@45c. per pound for whole and 
powdered, but the market exhibits a very strong tone owing 
to the political situation in the country of production. For 
this reason there are some in the trade who predict a further 
advance in prices in the near future. 

B.\LSAM OF Fir — A scarcity of offerings from the primary 
sources of supply continues to be noted for Canada, although 
the demand is steady and prices remain unchanged at $1.25@ 
SI. 35 per pound. Oregon is easier in a large waj', with jobbers 
quoting 25c.(a30c. per pound. 

Thymol — Has advanced sharply, $2.2S@$2.60 per pound 
being the ruling jobbing quotations. 

C.\XTH.\RIDES — Russian are in limited supply and quotations 
have been advanced to $I.85@$1.90 for sifted, and $1.95@$2.10 
for powdered. 

Cardamom Seeds — Decorticated are lower, $1.40@$1.50 per 
pound heine I'.ioted. Other grades are unchanged in price. 



The Era Course in Pharmacy 

Information for Era Course Students 



The Era Course In Pbarmacy is a systematic home-study courge, 
designed to give a theoretical and worlsing knowledge of Phar- 
macy, and intended especially (or young men and women who 
cannot attend ■ college. It is divided into ten Parts and 53 Lec- 
tures; it can t)e completed In a year or less, depending on th« 
experience of the Student; its cost is merely nominal. A com- 
plete Prospectus can be had by addressing 

Director, Era Colkse in Ph.\rmacy-, 

c/o D. O. Haynes &■ Co , 

No. 3 Park Pl.vce, New York. 



Matriculation Graduates to Jan. 23, 1914. Graduating 
Number. Average. 

7167— Henry J. Willett, Attlcboro, Mass 92 

73.^5- Alfred B. Overby, Lankin, N. D 97 

7465— Gifford L. Potts, Klkton, Md 93 

■ 7658— Victor H. Hinklcy, Bar Harbor, Me 94 

7754 — .\mbrose Reid, Chicago, 111 92 

7756 — Robert L. Conner, Sewanee, Tenn 90 

The Best and Most Practical Course. 
"I consider the Er.\ Course the best rnd most practical of 
any work that I have seen on the subject for home study. 
It is truly a shorthand method of obtaining a general and 
practical knowledge of the most important points. Yet nothing 
has been left out tliat might make it incomplete. I would not 
part w^ith the Lectures for many times what they cost me. 
I can furthermore recommend it most highly to anyone con- 
templating taking up a home course." — .Ambrose Reid, Chi- 
cago, III. 

The Kansas City .'\ssociation of Retail Druggists has pass'ed 

resolutions indorsing the action of the police commissioners in 

their efforts to stamp out the illegal sale of liquor in drug 

stores. 




TtlADL MARK 

'tr^TERVAL AND INTERSALL'S 

^■HruROGeN Peroxide. I'S-R :; 
Tmvmol 

EC'CAUTr'f'TOt- " ,J 

fciiieJSir^.dd v., ^ratn per fl'Jid j.'« 

m\ CHFMICAL CORPORUll 



25c. 


size. 


$2. 


per 


dozen 


50c. 


size, 


$4. 


per 


dozen 


$1. 


size. 


$8. 


per 


dozen 



ARE YOU 
SELLING 



OiTOGEN 7 

■■■■■I Antiseptic | ^k 



If not, send us a list of the Doctors and 
Dentists who trade with you and order a 
small supply of LISTOGEN from your Jobber. 
We will send you Customers — plenty of them. 

LISTOGEN is immensely popular because 
of its dual efficiency — its value as both a 
cleansing and healing agent. Its remedial 
properties find immediate favor with Dentists 
and Doctors generally, and they prescribe and 
recommend it where its use is indicated. 

BOLTON CHEMICAL CORPORATION 



256 West Twenty-third Street, 



New York City 




AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR THE DRUG TRADE 



Vol. XLVH 



New York, JIarch, 1914 



No. 3 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH. 



D. O. Haynes & Co. . . . Publishers 
No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Telephone, 7646 Barclay. Cable Address, "Era, New York." 



Subscription Rates : 

Single Copies, 15 cents. 
Domestic Rates to U.S., Cuba, Hawaii, Porto Rico, 

the Philippines and Mexico $1.00 a year 

To Canada, postpaid 1.50 a year 

To Foreign Countries in Postal Union 2.00 a year 

The Era Price List with Subscription, 50c. a Copy. 
PRICES INCLUDE POSTAGE AND PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

REMIT by P.O. or Express Order or New York Draft payable 
to order of D. O. Haynes & Co. Add 10 cents for collection charges 
if you send local check. 

Published at No. 3 Park Place, Borough of Manhattan, New 
York, by D. O. Haynes & Co., a corporation: President and treas- 
urer, D. O. Haynes; vice-president, E. J. Kennedy; secretary, 
N. W. Haynes. Address of Officers is No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

E?itered at the New York Post-Office as Second-class Matter. 

Copyright, 1914, by D. O. Haynes Sf Co. All rights reserved. 

Title Registered in the United States Patent Office. 

SENDING POISONS THROITGH THE MAILS. 



The recent arrest of the New York branch man- 
ager of Parke, Davis & Co. on the charge of send- 
ing poisons tlirough the mails in violation of the 
regulations set forth in revised Circular No. 58 has 
caused the National Association of Manufacturers 
of Medicinal Products to ad\ise its members and 
the trade generally, not to send, pending a deter- 
mination of the issues in the suit, an.y opium or 
coca leaves, their alkaloids, salts, derivatives or 
preparations by mail, and that pharmacists, phy- 
sicians, dentists and veterinarians be required to 
secure such medicinal preparations, "however 
urgent the case or however remote they might be 
from express or freight offices by other means of 
transportation. ' ' 

The arrest of Mr. Smith followed the mailing of 
a quantity of heroin tablets by the New York 
branch of Parke, Davis & Co. to a Boston whole- 
sale drug house, Carter, Carter & Meigs, a practice 
which was perfectly legal and especially provided 
for in Circular No. 58 up to about six months ago, 
when, it is claimed, the circular was revised and 
regulations issued that prohibit the transmission 



of all poisons through the mails. A detailed state- 
ment of the arrest will be found in our news 
columns. Mr. Smith is out on bail, not under in- 
dictment, and the case is allowed to rest imtil the 
U.S. District- Attorney shall be instructed by the 
legal authorities at Washington as to the method of 
procedure. 

We believe that the use of the mails should not 
be denied to manufacturers, wholesalers or pharma- 
cists who desire to send to legally qualified prac- 
titioners of medicine medicines which are not poi- 
sons when used in therapeutic doses for legitimate 
purposes. To prohibit doctors and druggists from 
using the mails for this purpose is in many eases 
to further endanger the lives of the sick, to say 
nothing of the inconvenience and expense that will 
fall upon the doctor, pharmacist and patient if 
such sliipments can be made only by such means 
as are afforded by freight and express companies. 

Until this case is definitely settled, druggists 
will note that in general, all poisons are held to be 
unmailable imder the postal laws. Section 472 
provides : 

".•\ll kinds of poisons, and all articles and compo- 
sitions containing poisons . . ., and all other 
natural or artificial articles, compositions or materials 
of whatever kind which may kill or in anywise hurt, 
harm, or injure another . . are hereby declared 

to be non-mailable matter . . ; but the Post- 

master-General may permit the transmission in the 
mails, under such rules and regulations as he shall 
prescribe as to preparation and packing, of any articles 
hereinbefore described which are not outwardly or of 
their own force dangerous or injurious to health, life 
or property." 

Pharmacists, jobbers and physicians should unite 
with the members of the National Association of 
Manufacturers of Medicinal Products in their en- 
deavor to urge the Postmaster-General to promul- 
gate reasonable rules to carry out the intention of 
Congress not to exclude medicinal preparations 
from the mail. 



TO HELP THE ARMY HOSPITAL CORPS. 

An appeal to the pharmacists of the country to 
use their influence to promote the efficiency of the 
Hospital Corps of the United States Army is the 
sub.ject of two letters appearing in the correspond- 
ence department of the Era this month, the writers 
being Dr. George P. Payne and Professor W. B. 



96 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[IMarch, 1914r 



Day, respectively. The bills now before Congress 
for this purpose are House Bill No. 1 and Senate 
Bill No. 929, »ind they seek to remedy the condi- 
tions which make it difficult, if not impossible, to 
secure for the Hospital Corps the class of men 
necessary for the elHcient performance of duties 
connected with the care of the sick and A\-ith sani- 
t;\rj- science in general. The bills provide increased 
pay and establish a higher rank of non-comis- 
sioned officers, thereby affording opportunity for 
promotion such as compares in a measure with other 
staff corps of the army. 

The pharmacist's usefulness has been recognized 
in other branches of the Government service, 
notably in the Navy iind ^lai-ine Corps, where he 
has an opportunity to rise from the ranks and 
where he enjoys the status of a warrant officer. A 
proper recognition of the pharmacists in the army 
is only delayed by the procrastination of national 
legislators who find other measures more productive 
of immediate benefits, and thus postpone action on 
bills which are introduced for the benefit of phar- 
macists. The consideration that has been extended 
to pharmacists in the navj- makes American phar- 
macists more willing to go ipto that branch of the 
servdce, with a consequent decrease in the number 
of aliens. This would also be the result in the 
army. So write to your Congressman and Senator 
favoring this important action. The capable phar- 
macist is as much of a necessity in the army as is 
the surgeon, and his reward should be in proportion 
to that of the medical man. 



THE ANNTIAL LEGISLATIVE EXHIBIT. 



Judging by the number of bills relating to phar- 
macy introduced into the New York Legislature 
d\iring the present session of that body, referred to 
in our news columns, drug and food legislation still 
continues to occupy the usual conspicuous place on 
the calendar. Viewed in its entirety, the bulk of 
this legislative "exhibit" is a veritable jumble, 
showing a lack of supervision on the part of the 
legislators themselves, and as great a lack of co- 
operation on the part of those who would be most 
directly affected by the enactment of such measures. 

A careful study of the material presented in this 
"exhibit" is sufBcient to convince almost anyone 
that much of the proposed legislation is useless or 
wiU prove impracticable, the good points being so 
obscured by the bad as to be almost indiscernible — 
useless, because the errors designed to be corrected 
are covered by laws now existing, and impractica- 
ble, because the proposed measure is put together so 
loosely that a traction engine could be driven 
through the most important provisions, with the 
result that they would prove futile for the very 
condition they were designed to correct. Such 
measures, if enacted into law, confase the situation, 
and instead of being serviceable to the people of 
the State, they really afford an excuse for the com- 
mission of lawless acts. 

This proposed legislation may be taken as typi- 
cal of that which has faced and is facing the phar- 
macists in nearly every State. If any lesson is to 



be drawn from such a representation it is that laws 
must be drafted that will stand the test of actual 
usage, and that when they are fmally placed upon 
the statute books they must form an integral part 
of a imiform whole. To this end there must be 
greater eo-operation on the part of pharmacists 
themselves, for under our form of government it is 
only by putting into practice the rule of providing 
the greatest good to the greatest niunber that they 
can hope to secure legislation that will give at 
least a minimum of what is desired as a basis for 
the ultimate acquirement of the maximum of what 
is needed. Undesirable legislation and failure are 
the products of misdirected effort, and the condi- 
tions which develop these handicaps to legitimate 
pharmacy will continue just as long as those whose 
interests are most at stake continue to work at 
cross-purposes. 



WHAT THE REAL PROFIT IS. 



PERHiVPs in no more vital manner has drug 
merchandising changed during the past 25 .years 
than in the methods of sales-promotion and profit- 
estimating — tlie profit-guessers are being eliminated 
and the profit-assurer is being substituted. In 
bringing this about no one influence has had more 
e&'ect than the chain store, that departmentized 
business in which each branch, under its own 
manager, is expected to produce a profit, and at 
the same time sell many advertised articles at a 
cut rate. 

Just how this is done, and successfully done, is 
an interesting chapter in the story of "Pharmacy 
in the Past Twenty- five Years" from the pen of 
President Louis K. Liggett, of the United Drug 
Company, the second instalment of which appears 
in this issue. This month's chapter in Mr. Liggett 's 
history takes up the economic reasons for the es- 
tablishment of the chain store, the costs of doing 
business, the estimation of overhead, the matter of 
salaries, and concludes with an explanation of 
"What the Real Profit Is," that should be framed 
and suspended over the desk of every druggist in 
this country. Mr. Liggett is a practical business 
man, and what he says of both chain store and 
retail drug merchandising methods is eminently 
practical and helpful — an epitome not only of how 
to make money in the drug business, but how to 
know what you have made and how to bolster up a 
weak department by forcing up profits elsewhere. 

These are not trade secrets, 'tis true, but they 
might as well be in the case of the druggist who 
pays a dollar for an article, sells it for a dollar- 
thirty-three, and then imagines he is making a 
profit, when he is but coming out even in actual 
outlay and losing his time in addition. 



REGULATING NARCOTIC SALES. 



Never before in the history of legislation affect- 
ing personal license has there been such a deter- 
mined attempt the countrj' over to regulate the sale 
of habit-forming narcotic drugs. City ordinances. 
State laws and National acts, aimed at the control 



JIarch, 1914] 



THE PHAEilACEUTICAL ERA 



97 



-of this traffic, and in many cases so stringent in 
their provisions that their enforcement would vir- 
tually amount to prohibition, have been proposed, 
and, in man}' instances, adopted. 

The Harrison anti-nareotic bill, probably the 
most sweeping measure in its provisions ever 
drafted, has received the indorsement of the Na- 
tional Drug Trade Conference, members of which 
have taken such personal interest in the passage 
■of the act as to confer with National legislators and 
urge upon the members of the Senate finance com- 
mittee its immediate enactment. 

The Duli'ey law in Ohio, the new Tennessee law, 
the State-wide campaign in California under recent 
anti-nareotie legislation, and the proposed National 
act — followed closely by the legislators of ilichigan 
— to banish the hypodermic needle, except in the 
hands of a physician, are indicative not only of a 
widely-aroused public interest, but of a real de- 
mand for the strictest tj'pe of regulation of the 
sale and use of narcotics. 

The druggists of the country are to be found 
lined up with the advocates of such regulation. 
There has been no hesitancy on the part of the 
retail pharmacist. He makes but one demand — 
-and that perfectly fair and equitable: Under any 
law, ordinance or regulation, city. State or Na- 
tional, place every dealer in narcotics, whether 
physician, dentist, veterinarian or druggist, upon 
xibsolutely the same basis, subject to the same 
supervision, making no exceptions, but holding 
everj' dispenser of narcotics, whether dispensing 
phj-sician or dispensing druggist, equally responsi- 
ble imder the law. 



ECHOES OF THE TRIPARTITE PLAN. 



The ann uncement of the death of C. G. A. 
Loder, which occurred in Philadelphia last month 
and which will be found recorded elsewhere in this 
issue of the Era, will serve to recall to many read- 
ers the suit instituted by him against the members 
of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association 
and othei"s, charging them with violation of the 
Sherman anti-trust law, and contending that by 
the enforcement of the trade agreement known as 
the "tripartite plan" he was luiable to purchase 
drugs aud supplies through the customary chan- 
nels of trade. The result of the litigation was 
favorable to him, although the "plan" was not 
finally abandoned until after the courts had ruled 
in the proceedings known as the "Indianapolis 
decision," that the combination was in restraint 
of trade. 

The opposition of ]\Ir. Loder to the "tripartite 
plan" was only an incident in the history of price- 
maintenance plans and trade agreements in so far 
as they relate to the conduct of the drug business. 
In the second instalment of his article on "Phar- 
macy in the Past Twenty-five Years," appearing 
on pages 100 and 101 of this number of the Era, 
L. K. Liggett gives a short history of the "plan" 
and its operation, and tells how it was succeeded 
by the druggists developing their own line of goods 
to meet the cut-price competition which they them- 



selves had developed and were responsible for. 
Here, then, is the beginning of the era of co-opera- 
tive manufacturing as now practiced in the drug 
trade, and the conditions which produced the "tri- 
partite plan" also had much to do with the de- 
velopment of the "chain store" system of drug 
stores. In other words, as viewed by Jlr. Liggett, 
the chain-sj'stem store was and is a direct result 
of cut prices, a further result being the inaugura- 
tion of co-operative efiiort among the leading cutters. 
Another reference to the passing of the "tri- 
partite plan" appears in Mr. ilayo's address, ab- 
stracted on another page of this issue. That gentle- 
man fmds in the decision which declared the plan 
"illegal" a word of comment, basing his reason 
therefor upon the action of the Supreme Court of 
the United States in introducing the word "reason- 
able" into the Sherman Act. There is in this con- 
struction an element of danger to personal liberty, 
if it permits a bureau chief or his subordinate to 
issue regulations or rules to "roimd out the law." 
In theorj', at least, no legislative body can delegate 
to anj' individual or bureau official its power to 
enact laws, and any attempt to act in this direction 
is a menace to the rights of the individual imder 
our form of government. To be sure, there must 
be in all progress a unity of action and a certain 
amount of centralization in the methods followed 
by the general government, but these should never 
be inconsistent with liberty or the fundamental 
rights of the citizen. 



EDUCATION VS. LEGISLATION. 



Ix attempting to keep bichloride tablets from 
reaching a wrong destination — the digestive tract — 
lawmakers are setting up various hazards through 
which the tablets must pass, providing a kind of 
obstacle race to stop the deadly pellets somewhere 
in their course. Before the bottle leaves the re- 
tailer's shelf, its sale must be authorized by some 
competent person. Before the cork is taken from 
the bottle, the color or roughness of the glass halts 
the act. Before the tablet is dissolved or swallowed, 
the color of the material, the shape of the tablet, or 
a warning wrapper, puts us on guard. But nothing 
is done to prevent the next step, the actual swal- 
lowing, which can take place in the dark, away 
from all roughened bottles, and after the tablet has 
been unwrapped by another person. At the most 
important point in the whole course no obstacle is 
placed. If the tablet has won its way thus far, 
it has an excellent chance of finishing its race. 

No mechanical means can prevent the raising of 
the hand to the lips, and the entrance of the tablet 
into the stomach, if its real nature is not suspected 
by this time. The preventive must be a psychologi- 
cal one. This means that there must be implanted 
in the mind of each individual an almost instinctive 
hesitation or suspicion before using tablets of any 
kind, a serious questioning as to whether the nature 
of the tablet about to be taken is known with 
absolute certainty. We do not think that enough 
importance has been attached to this phase of the 
matter. If an agent can be made operative at the 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



very last mouieut before the tablet is swallowed, 
or administered by another, we have a greater safe- 
guard for the public health than all the restrictions 
and regulations now in effect or proposed. The 
subject must be brought vividly home to all who 
may ever come in contact with poisonous tablets, 
iind this mejins everybody. 

Fortimately. tliere need be no difficulty in car- 
rying on ixn educational campaign to warn against 
the dangers of poisons in the home. Thi-ough our 
public schools nearly everj- home and individual 
in the land may be reached. Certainly the school 
authorities will be only too glad to co-operate in 
spreading tliis importtmt knowledge before the 
younger members of every community, and through 
them the older persons can also be warned. In 
earrj-ing on such a campaign, the druggist is the 
logical leader. He enjoys a certain pi-estige in his 
locality in regard to questions of public health, and 
can turn this standing to most excellent accotmt 
by bringing before the minds of school children 
the ever-present necessity for care in handling all 
sorts of medicines. Such instruction, so far as we 
know, is given in all too few schools at present. 
Yet it is at least as important as the study of ele- 
mentarv' physiology', the effects of alcohol on the 
system, and other bits of tabloid science. Every 
druggist should take an hour or so each week to 
give a talk before the school children of his neigh- 
borhood. No one is more competent to speak on the 
subject. The teachers can later dnun the matter 
into the heads of their pupils, and the cautions can 
be passed on to the older members of every family. 
It is interesting to note that an identical view of 
the subject is taken by the National Association of 
Manufacturers of Medicinal Products, who, at their 
recent meeting, endorsed "a campaign of 'safety- 
first' education, for the purpose of eliminating the 
element of human carelessness on the part of the 
public, which carelessness no law or regulation can 
of itself correct." When the suspicion and fear of 
medicine has been made instinctive, a long step will 
have been taken toward warding off the dangers of 
poisons in the home, no matter whether these sub- 
stances are ea.sj- or difScult to procure. 



THE NEW ERA FORMULARY. 



A GOOD formula is an asset of intrinsic value to 
the druggist or manufacturer who can or wiU use 
it to extend his business along lines he can suc- 
cessfully control. When the niunber of formulas, 
aU of them trustworthy, reaches the hundreds or 
thousands, as the case may be, the chances for 
success are correspondingly increased. Just such 
an opportunity for expansion is offered to the pur- 
chaser of a copy of the new edition of the Era 
Formulary, now in press and soon ready for dis- 
tribution. 

This new book constitutes within itself a weU- 
stored library of general information pertaining to 
processes and formulas for nearly 8000 prepara- 
tions, specialties, toilet articles, veterinary reme- 
dies, family medicines, and technical materials 
which find a place or are used in the various de- 



partments of humixn activity as exemplified in 
professional life, the arts, handicrafts or business 
pursuits of the present day. Each formula and 
process is supplemented by instructions for its 
manipulation, thereby eliminating guesswork on the 
part of the inexperienced operator, while everj' 
care h;is been taken to make the nomenclature 
uniform, to check the quantities given in each 
formula, and to make the index a readj^ guide to 
the contents of the book. As an adjunct to the 
laboratory of the pharmacist or manufacturer we 
can commend this volume, the full scope of which 
is outlined in the advertising pages of this journal. 



Books Reviewed 



FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS, for Advertising American Goods. 
Washington. Government Printing Office. 

This bulletin of 236 pages, issued by the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, of the Department of Commerce, 
contains a compilation of reports transmitted by consular 
officers throughout the world, giving a list of foreign news 
and trade papers that may be advantageously used for adver- 
tising American goods. These publications represent the prin- 
cipal cities and towns in foreign countries, and beside informa- 
tion as to advertising rates, subscription price, circulation, etc., 
brief statements are given of the population, trade and indus- 
tries of the various districts covered by the reports. Copies 
of this bulletin, which should interest every American manu- 
facturer desiring to advertise his goods abroad, may be ob- 
tained of the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C, for 25 cents each. 



STATE "PURE DRUG" LAWS enacted since the passage of the 
National Food and Drugs Act, June 30th, 1905, Printed in 
December, 1913, by Bond Bros. & Co., Chicago. 

This book of 337 pages is recommended to any manufacturer 
or dealer who wishes to have at hand the information covered 
by the above title and which is well brought down to date. 
Besides the various State "Pure Drug" laws, there is a re- 
print of the Federal Act as amended; the narcotic laws of the 
several States; the Canadian Proprietary Medicine law; the 
National and State insecticide laws, extracts from the phar- 
macy laws of the several States, net weight laws, advertising 
laws, sample distribution Lws, stock medicine laws, and other 
laws relating to the drug trade. The book supersedes the 
previous issues compiled by the National Wholesale Druggists' 
Association and the Proprietary Association of America and 
for whose membership it has been primarily prepared. Drug- 
gists who do an interstate business will find in it the answers 
to many queries which concern them as manufacturers and 
shippers. 



Vierzig Jahre Oesterreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, 
1873-1913. (Forty Years of the Austrian Pharmaceutical 
Society.) This is the title of an attractive booklet of 62 pages, 
recently received from the Austrian organization, summarizing 
the activities of that body during the 40 years of its existence. 
The society was originated to supplement the efforts of the 
General Austrian Apothecaries' Society in conserving and 
forwarding the interests of the pharmaceutical profession. It 
has been very prominent in initiating legislation along these 
lines, and the present report seems to show that the society 
propaganda work has met with more than ordinary success. 



E. Merck's Annual Report, 1913. The appearance of this 
volume is always an important event in pharmaceutical litera- 
ture each year, and the present issue is even larger than any 
of its predecessors, comprising 524 pages. The leading article, 
on "Lecithin," brings out many uses for this substance which 
are not generally known, and contains a very complete bibliog- 
raphy. Another feature is a supplement of 19 pages, on the 
"Standardization of Digitalis Preparations," by Dr. R. Heinz, 



ilAKCH, 1914] 



THE PHAKJklACEUTICAL ERA 



99 



of the University of Erlangen. The method adopted is a 
comparative one, based on the minimum lethal dose of stro- 
phanthin (ouabain) required to produce stoppage of a frog's 
heart in 12 hours, compared to the amount of digitalis, etc., 
needed to effect the same result in a closely similar frog. 
Further tests are made on mice, to determine the amount of 
active material which is likely to be destroyed in the gastric 
tract of patients, before the tonic effect is manifested. Blood 
pressure e.xperiments on rabbits and cats, and a final test on 
cats, for tolerance, complete the series. .A. confusing typo- 
graphical error has crept into the table on page Vll. The 
words "in 10 minutes" and "in 1 hour" should be interchanged. 
Also "in 2 hours" should apparently read "in 12 hours." 
Other noteworthy articles are those on the newer digitalis 
preparations, radio-active compounds, and organotherapeutic 
preparations, the latter amoimting to 26 pages. The edition of 
Merck's Report is limited, but usually a few copies are avail- 
able for distribution among physicians and pharmacists who 
make application, enclosing 15 cents for postage. 



r 



Correspondence 



To Help the Hospital Corps. 

To the Editor of the Er-\: 

I send you below an appeal to the pharmacists of the United 
States which will e-xplain itself. I would appreciate it very 
much if you would publish it in your next issue. 

Yours sincerely, 

George F. Payne. 
Atlanta, Ga., Feb. 10, 1914, 



The Hospital Corps of the TJnited States Army. 
An Urgent Appeal to Every Pharmacist in the United States. 
The American Pharmaceutical Association, backed by the 
pharmacists of the whole United States, have a bill now before 
the House, introduced by Representative Hughes, of Georgia, as 
Bill H.R. No. 1, and now before the Senate, introduced by 
Senator Bacon, of Georgia, as Senate Bill S. 929. These bills 
are identical and their te.xt is as follows: 

A BILL 
To promote the efficiency of the Hospital Corps of the 
United States Army. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, that the Hospital Corps of the United 
States Army shall constitute the enlisted personnel 
of the Hospital Corps now authorized by law, and 
shall consist of 30 sergeants-major at $75 per month; 
three hundred sergeants, first class, at $65 per month ; 
sergeants at $36 per month ; corporals at $24 per 
month; cooks at $30 per month; privates, first class, 
at $21 per month; and privates at $16 per month, with 
such increase for length of service and other allowances 
as are or may hereafter be established by law. 

As chairman of the committee on the Status of Pharmacists 
in the United States Government Service of the National 
-Association of Drug Clerks and also as a member of the 
American Pharmaceutical -Association, we wish to urge every 
pharmacist who reads this article to sit down immediately and 
write a brief letter and then make copies of it and send a 
copy to each of the members of the committee on Military 
Affairs of the House and Senate and urge that "You will 
please see that the Bill H.R. No. 1 and S. 929, which have 
been fully endorsed by the Surgeon-General of the U.S. -Army 
(as you will see in his last report) is offered as an amendment 
and placed as a 'rider' on the army appropriation bill now 
before Congress." 

The members of the Hospital Corps of the U.S. Army are 
now so poorly paid that many are leaving the service, as the 
positions in the regular army service pay better salaries: even 
the men who take care of the sick mules are better paid than 
those who take care of the sick soldiers. -Anyone who is in 
a position to know will readily assure you of the difficulty of 
getting men in the Hospital Corps, and after getting them the 



difficulty of keeping them there on account of the miserably 
poor pay. 

Pharmacists are men of influence in every section, their 
stores are all in the towns and cities and each one is a nucleus 
around which cluster the leading sentiments and views of the 
community. The pharmacists not only of your State but of 
the whole United States are deeply interested in the matter. 
Everj- State government requires the pharmacist who practices 
pharmacy among the people to be e-xamined and licensed by a 
State Board and to be an excellent tj-pe of man. With the 
present miserable salaries given the Army Hospital Corps, as 
just stated above, it is verj' difficult to get good men and still 
more difficult to keep them under present conditions. The 
Hospital Corps of your State troops are, of course, also in this 
same bad shape. Your help in this matter will be very much 
appreciated as we feel that present conditions are unjust to 
those in the military seirice, to the public, to the medical 
ofiicers of the army and to the profession of pharmacy, which 
all true pharmacists wish to see secure the recognition which 
it deserves. Yours fraternally, 

George F. Tayst. 
Member of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
Permanent Chairman of the Committee of the National 
Association of Drug Clerks on the Status of Phar- 
macists in the Public Service of the United States 
Government. 



Urge the Passage of Hughes-BaconfBill. 

To the Editor of the Er.\ : 

The American Pharmaceutical Association, with the assist- 
ance of the National .Association of Retail Druggists and the 
National -Association of Drug Clerks is urging the passage of 
the Hughes-Bacon bill (H.R. 1, S. 929) intended to promote 
the efficiency of the Hospital Corps of the United States army. 

The purpose of this bill is to remedy as far as possible the 
conditions which make it difficult, if not impossible, to secure 
for the -Army Hospital Corps the class of men necessarv- for 
the efficient performance of duties connected with the care of 
the sick and with sanitary science in general. The bill pro- 
vides increased pay and establishes a higher rank of non- 
conmiissioned officers, thereby affording opportunity for pro- 
motion such as compares in a measure with the other staff 
corps of the army. 

Pharmacists throughout the country are urged to write to 
their Senators and Representatives asking them to support 
this worthy measure. .Act at once as the time is short. Just 
a few lines asking your Senators and the Congressmen from 
your district to support House Bill No. 1 or Senate Bill No. 
929, as the case may be, will be sufficient — but do it now. 
The list of the members of the military committee who now 
have the bill at their disposal is as follows : 

Military- Committee of the House — James Hay, "\'irginia ; 
S. Hubert Dent, .Alabama; William J. Fields, Kentucky; Ken- 
neth D. McKellar, Tennessee; William S. Howard, Georgia; 
Daniel J. Griffin, New York; Robert H. Gittins, New York; 
Warren Gard, Ohio; Frank T. O'Hair, Indiana; Frederick S. 
Deitrick, Massachusetts; Percy E. Quin, Mississippi; Daniel 
E. Garrett, Texas; Maurice Conolly, Iowa; William 
Gordon, Ohio; Julius Kahn, California; Daniel R. -Anthony, 
Kansas; John C. JIcKenzie, Illinois; Frank L. Greene, \ei- 
mont; John M. Morin, Pennsylvania; Samuel B. -Avis, W'est 
^'irginia; Willis J- Hulings, Peimsylvania ; James Wickersham, 
Alaska. 

Military Committee of the Senate — George F. Chamberlain, 
Oregon; Gilbert M. Hitchcock, Nebraska: Luke Lea, Tennes- 
see; Duncan U. Fletcher, Florida; Henry L. Meyers, Montana; 
Charles S. Thomas, Colorado: James K. Vardaman, Missis- 
sippi; James P. Clarke, -Arkansas; Henry A. Dupont, Dela- 
ware: Francis E. Warren, Wyoming; Joseph L. Bristow. Kan- 
sas: Thomas B. Catron, New Mexico; James H. Brady, Idaho; 
\\'illiam S. Kenyon, Iowa; Nathan Goff, West A'irginia. 

We are especially an.xious to have letters from their con- 
stituents reach these committeemen. 

W. B. Dat, Chairman, 
Committee on Pharmacists in the Government Service. 



The New Era Formulary ($5.00), now in press, contains 
nearly 8000 formulas. 



100 THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA [Makch, 1914 

II. Pharmacy in the Past Twenty- Five Years, by L. K. Liggett 



IT has been said tV.at though they protested against it, the 
paient-medicine manufaclurers encouraged cut prices to in- 
crease the sale of their good^^. Whatever the truth may be, 
it is certain that during the price-cutting period the patent- 
medicine manufacturers, as well as the cutters, were very 
prosperous. 

Despite occasional lapses, it is characteristic of the average 
druggist to open the door before Opportunity knocks. To 
meet the loss of profit on individual sales due to cut prices 
(the druggists of those days did not realize the importance 
<3f volume in a retail business), the druggist endeavored to 
replace the advertised proprietaries which were the price- 
cutter's chief target, by manufacturing his own preparations. 
This gave the retail drug business a new direction and a new 
impetus. For several years pharmaceutical associations 
throughout the countr)- devoted much time to the study of 
making and marketing store-made preparations. 

Many pharmaceutical houses also began to manufacture 
non-secret preparations which they supplied to druggists who 
did not put up their own goods. These remedies were in- 
tended to compete with existing advertised proprietaries, and 
though their formulas were printed on the labels, and though 
the druggist's own name appeared on the carton as the 
"manufacturer," he knew practically nothing about them. 
Sometimes the druggist tried to shift the responsibility by 
printing a fanciful name on the package or by printing with 

his own name the statement 'Sole agent for (giving 

t. certain territory)." 

This business thrived for 10 or 15 years, but it failed of 
real success because the poor preparations sold under the 
druggist's name did not meet the changing demand of a wise 
public, and, also, because the system was one of deception and 
no honest druggist could sell the goods with any enthusiasm. 

Besides the lessened profits due to price-cutting, the drug- 
gists were driven to concerted action by the e.xtravagant claims 
made in the advertising of patent-medicine manufacturers. 
These wild claims reached a climax about five years ago, when 
the exposure of dishonest advertisers by some of the leading 
magazines increased public suspicion regarding even honest 
"patents." 

Spanish "War Tax. 

In 1S98 came a great crisis in the cut-price war, when the 
American proprietary manufacturers tried to force the retail 
druggist to pay the Spanish War revenue tax on proprietary 
preparations, a tax which Congress intended should be paid 
by the manufacturer. The tax was bad enough, but the 
manufacturers made an extra charge to the retailer to cover 
the cost of affixing the tax stamps. The tax amounted to 
30 cents a dozen on $1.00 size packages, the rate for small 
size packages being less in proportion. The increased price, 
ranging from 30 cents a dozen, the actual cost of the stamps, 
to $1.25 a dozen, was prohibitive. 

The druggist could not pass the tax on to the public, who 
were tired of paying war bills, and the druggist was compelled 
to meet the loss. To remedy this injustice a National con- 
vention of protest was called, in October, 1898, by the Chicago 
Retail Druggists' Association. The meeting was held in St. 
Louis at a time when both the Proprietary Association of 
America and the National Wholesale Druggists' Association 
were gathered in that city. 

The Tripartite Plan. 

As a result of this meeting the retailers, wholesalers and 
proprietary manufacturers, in order to protect themselves, 
adopted the so-called Tripartite plan. By this plan three- 
fourths of the druggists in any community were to fix the 
prices charged for proprietaries. Those selling below the fixed 
figure were to be blacklisted as "Aggressive Cutters." The 
jobbers would refuse to sell to boycotted firms, under 
penalty of having their own supplies cut off by the proprietary 
manufacturers. The question of what should constitute price- 
cutting in a given instance was left to the determmation of the 
druggists who did not cut. 

The Tripartite plan led to a reign of terror that lasted for 
several years. The "black list" of price-cutters not sufficiently 
meeting the needs of the association, a "white list" of whole- 
sale druggists who refused to sell any goods to price-cutters 



was established. This last move led to the National govern- 
ment's prosecution of the so-called "drug trust." After much 
litigation the courts ruled that the Tripartite plan was "a 
combination in restraint of trade." The officers were enjoined 
from further use of the plan, and the plan itself was abandoned 
in 1906. 

During this whole period the development of the cut-rate 
stores was very rapid. In 1900 there were probably between 
six and seven thousand cities and towns in the United States 
in which daily or weekly papers were published; less than 500 
were cities of over 20,000 population. These, of course, were 
the cut-rate cities, not necessarily all, but many of them, and 
they exercised a tremendous influence over the many towns 
and cities in the country. At a rough estimate, I should say 
that there were not in the United States at any time more than 
150 cities and towns in which there existed an aggressive cut- 
rate drug business. By cut-rate, I mean the cutting of prices 
to the point at which there was practically no profit in the 
proprietary article. Such retail prices ranged from 59 cents to 
69 cents for say, Pinkham's Compoimd, Peruna, and other 
items. 

Selling "Own Goods." 

It was only in the largest cities that these prices obtained. 
Strange to say, the majority of the large cutters were not 
acquainted with one another, yet they were all pursuing almost 
the same tactics; that is, the development of their own line 
of goods to meet the cut-price competition which they them- 
selves were developing. Large lines of proprietary articles 
were produced by all the leaders mentioned in my previous 
article — Jaynes, Jacobs, Dow, Evans, Marshall, etc., and their 
sole idea of profit was to hold expenses at the lowest possible 
margin and then sell the largest possible percentage of what 
they call their "Own Goods." 

Beginning of Co-operation. 

It was this development of the retail business that brought 
about the co-operative plans that have enabled the retailers to 
do dieir own n;anufacturing, and that have in recent years 
forced the non-secret houses to become imitators. In order to 
bring about these co-operative plans it was necessary for the 
retailers to meet and know one another. .■\nd it was this 
meeting and knowing one another that brought about the idea 
that more than one store could be conducted successfully. 
Ten years ago you could count on the fingers of your two hands 
the firms conducting more than one drug store in the United 
States. Today, there are any number of firms that operate more 
than one drug store. Many of them operate whole chains; in fact, 
the chain-sratem store may be said to have developed as a 
business within the past five years, and it is a direct result of 
cut prices, followed, as I have stated, by the inauguration of 
co-operative effort among the leading cutters. 

It is difficult to give credit to the actual chain-store pioneers 
because every druggist who operated more than one store was 
to that extent a chain-store druggist. But the first chain stores 
of any magnitude were those conducted by Charles P. Jaynes, 
of Boston. Mr. Jaynes sprang into prominence in 1890, and 
he was closely followed by the Hall & Lyon Company, of 
Providence. The stores established by Mr. JajTies and those 
of the latter company are now included in the largest and 
most competitive chains in --Vmerica. 

Effect of Chain Stores. 

The chain store has been the subject of many attacks, but 
in all fairness I say that its influence on the retail drug busi- 
ness has been a good influence. It has its drawbacks, but as 
with all phases of evolution, these are outweighed by its ad- 
vantages. The principal drawback of the chain store is the 
loss of personality, which is of such value to the individual 
druggist in small towns who comes into direct contact with his 
customers. To meet the loss of individual personality, the 
management of chain stores, must, if they are to succeed, 
substitute a corporate personality. This personality is ex- 
pressed through the medium of better service, lower prices and 
a consciousness of responsibility as public servants. The large 
chain-store organizations have each a distinctive personality, 
which through uniformity in operating systems is as tinmis- 
takably expressed in each link of tlie chain as though that link 
were the property of a single druggist. 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



101 



This service-personality, if I may call it that, of the chain 
stores is made possible by their enormous buying power which 
enables them to sell to the public at lower prices, and by the 
wider opportunities which they offer to young business men 
who can "make good," which attract to their employ clerks 
who are willing to give efficient service. In addition to these 
other advantages, almost all chain drug stores now maintain 
educational systems, and endeavor to teach the clerks in their 
stores how best to serve the public, as the public likes to be 
served. The clerks are also being educated in salesmanship; 
learning how to raise the individual sale from its nominal 
figure in the old drug store, to a very high figtire in the chain 
store. 

The Effect of Chain Stores. 

I am often asked what is the effect of chain stores on those 
druggists who do not share directly in their benefits. The 
answer to that question is the human equation. For the drug- 
gist who prefers to spend his time railing against progress and 
new editions, the chain store offers no comfort. But the 
fault is in the man himself, who would have been discouraged 
and disgruntled by any new idea which threatened to joggle 
him out of the rut of old methods. The druggist, on the 
contrary, who has in him the stuff of which merchandisers 
are made, has learned a lesson from the chain stores. He has, 
so far as possible, adopted their methods of dealing with the 
public, adapting those methods to his local conditions. Real- 
izing the handicap represented by the loss of individual per- 
sonality, suffered by the chain stores, to which I have aheady 
referred, he throws the whole force of his own personality into 
bis business, winning trade not by endless jeremiads against 
chain competition, but interposing between his townspeople and 
the big city store, his own capacity to make friends. 

This man is the hardest competitor the chain store has to 
meet. I have always maintained, and still maintain, that the 
chain stores can never defeat the individual druggist who 
attends to his own business and is perfectly willing to meet 
their competition, so long as they do not compete with him 
with the sole object of ruining his business for the purpose 
of gaining their own ends. So far the chain stores have never 
attempted to do that, and I am frank in saying that I do not 
believe they will ever attempt to do so, for the laws of the 
land will not permit competition of that character in this age. 

Even those druggists who are not members of the chain- 
store systems or stockholders in co-operative manufacturing 
enterprises have learned the lesson of co-operation and have 
formed buying clubs. Many of these clubs are purely local, 
while others cover a wide field. In all of them the members 
find a leverage with which to secure price concession from 
jobbers and manufacturers, and in addition to the money 
saved, the druggists are brought more closely together, the 
friendships thus formed frequently serving as the basis for a 
closer co-operation developing in other directions. One of the 
most successful of these buying clubs is the Drug Merchants 
of America, with offices in New York City. 
Store Systems. 

The magnitude of chain-store business has necessitated the 
utmost economy of time and money in operation. The methods 
developed by the big stores are adopted by the smaller dealers, 
and throughout the trade there is a reaction against the rule of 
thumb and a demand for that definite knowledge without 
which real prosperity is impossible. The old way of con- 
ducting a drug store as a unit, bunching the profits from all 
classes of merchandise, and offsetting the total against the 
approximate expense of doing business has gone forever. The 
modern drug store is departmentized, and each department is 
required to pay its share of the store's running expense in 
addition to a fair profit on its merchandise. In the big stores 
departmentizing has been brought to such a point that prac- 
tically the departments are independent of one another, the 
manager of each having to make his own good showing 
irrespective of his fellows, just as though he were an inde- 
pendent dealer in confectionery, cigars, stationery, rubber goods, 
or whatever the merchandise may be. 

Even in the smaller stores departmentizing is the rule, where 
a few years ago it was the exception. At least four depart- 
ments are practically universal — soda, candy, cigars and general 
merchandise. This segregation facilitates the ordering of 
goods, simplifies book-keeping, facilitates the keeping of in- 
ventory, obviates the loss formerly occasioned by dead stock, 
.and enables the merchant to determine what goods sell the 



best and pay the best profits. This definite knowledge is of 
direct benefit to the public, because it enables the druggist to 
sell on a close margin with the assurance that he is justified 
by the volume of sales. 

Another effect of retail departmentizing has been to improve 
store service. Placed upon his own responsibility, the de- 
partment manager in order to "make good" has been obliged 
to keep the service of his f^department on a par with that of 
the store as a whole. This service-ideal he has communicated 
to his employees, and the friendly rivalry between the several 
departments keys up the entire sales organization. 

Of course, the location of a store and the character of the 
trade largely determine the amount of profit, but some drug- 
gists pay too high a cost of doing business. This is due to 
the fact that many retail druggists are poor business men, 
although one hesitates to say it. Often they derive their first 
knowledge of the condition of their business from the figures 
of the receiver when they go into bankruptcy. Some druggists 
cling to antiquated methods of book-keeping, neglect the annual 
inventory, and never know their actual profits because they 
do not figure costs correctly. This tendency is being rapidly 
corrected now-a-days, and one of the biggest factors in chang- 
ing the druggist from a guesser into a man of business, has 
been the cash register, and later the various machines for 
tabulating figures and computing costs. The demand for such 
machines among retail druggists and the increasing use of 
typewriters in writing labels, the installation of cash-carrying 
systems, etc., are all symptomatic of the wonderful change in 
retail drug merchandising. 

What Real Profit Is. 

From observation, it would appear that the average drug 
store operates on a gross profit of from 35 to 38% on its sales. 
It has been my experience that too many retail druggists 
figure their profits on the cost rather than the selling price, 
and so when I say 38%, I mean the profit on merchandise 
that costs from 62 to 65 cents for each dollar of the selling 
price. 

Chain-store profits range from 28% to 29% in New Eng- 
land, where there is a large sale of cigars at a very low 
margin of profit, but may be as high as 38% in New York 
City, where there is a large sale of sundries, toilet articles, 
etc. Also, the profit is largely affected by the volume of soda- 
water business that a man may do. .'\s the average gross profit 
made in the soda department is 50%, soda has a marked 
influence on the total profit of the store, if it represents a 
large volume of the total sales. 

From this gross profit must be deducted the expenses. It 
has been my experience that the expenses, rent, light, heat 
and power, in a retail store should average 6}4%. A new 
store will not show that percentage. Sometimes it is almost 
twice as much, but if it is an established business, say three 
years old, its expense should range in the vicinity of 6J4% ; 
5% for rent and 1J4% for light and heat. This is the only 
fixed charge in a store; all the rest of the expense of doing 
business can be adjusted to the volume of sales. Formerly 
clerk hire cost 10%. In many cases it now runs as high as 
13%. This is occasioned by increases in wages, shorter work- 
ing hours and more holidays. After adding to the general 
expense such other expenses as advertising, soda-fountain sup- 
plies, glassware, paper, twine, and the numerous incidentals, 
it is very difficult to operate a store at much less than 25% 
expense; in fact, only the ideal store can operate on that basis. 
When depreciation is added, 28% is about the minimum ex- 
pense, and thus the profit in the retail business can be esti- 
mated at from 2% to 10% or 12% on gross sales. 

Charles R. Sherman, of the Sherman & McConnell Drug 
Company, Omaha, Neb., early discovered that where it might 
be necessary to sell a certain product at a profit of only 20%, 
other goods could be made to yield from 40% to 60%, so 
that by considering the profit margin of each item separately, 
the total profit of the business oould be raised to the desired 
level. 

Many druggists do not realize that the 25% generally recog- 
nized as the average cost of conducting a retail drug business 
is really equivalent to 33%% on cost. An article which the 
druggist buys for $1.00 and sells for $1.33% pays the cost of 
doing business, but nothing else; and if the majority of his 
items are sold on the same basis, it is costing him money — for 
time is money — to keep his name over his door. 
{To be continued) 



102 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



l\ . Classical Discoveries in Pharmacv 



THE DISCOVERY OF GLYCERIN. 



THERE is no doubt tliat of all pharmacists who have 
made contributions to modern chemical knowledge, none 
has presented the world with so many or such important 
discoveries as the apothecar)- of Koping, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. 
To one who reads his note-books and chemical essays, there 
must always come a feeling of wonder that in the scant 1-40 
years which mark the growth of chemistry as we are accustomed 
to think of it — chemistry freed from the superstitions and 
ignes fatui of alchemy — the gigantic science of today has had 
time to develop from the elementary stage revealed in the 
writings of the Swedish pharmacist. For there we find this 
yoimg genius isolating for the first time a host of substances 
which are as familiar to the worker of the present as air and 
water; substances which, we are almost impelled to believe, 
must have been known in antiquity, so frequently are they 
met with in the daily occupations of the modem chemist. 

Imagine an apothecary shop in which oxygen, chlorine, 
manganese, tartaric, lactic, citric and oxalic acids were unknown 
terms. Yet, until Scheele brought his all-conquering direct- 
ness of experimentation to the attack on the natural bodies 
containing these elements and compounds, no investigator, so 
far as^ we know, had ever laid eyes on them. (We do not 
make an exception of oxygen, for although Priestley published 
the account of his own labors two years before Scheele's 
"Obser\-ations on Fire and Air" appeared, the latter is in all 
probability the original discoverer of this gas.) 

.\mong the more important substances first prepared by 
Scheele is the "peculiar sweet matter," known to us as glycerin. 
The first account of the discovery appeared in Crell's Chem- 
ische Journal for 1779, page 190. In a subsequent letter to 
Dr. Crell, the Swedish chemist gives more details of his 
experiments. This letter was published in the Journal in 1784, 
page 99, and an excellent translation, here presented, is to be 
found in Thomas Beddoes's book entitled "The Chemical 
Essays of Charles-William Scheele" (London and Edinburgh, 
1786). 

"Discovery of a peculiar sweet and volatile matter, which is 
a constituent fart of expressed Oils, and the Fat of Anitnals." 

"Several years ago, upon dissolving litharge in olive oil, I 
observed a peculiar sweet matter, distinct from the oil floating 
on the surface, which, when inspissated and treated with 
nitrous acid, appeared to be a modification of the acid of 
sugar. I have since more particularly e.xamined this peculiar 
phenomenon, and have discovered the sweet matter, as well in 
linseed oil, oil of almonds, and oil of rapeseed, as in oil of 
olives, and still more lately, both in hog's grease and butter. 
In my experiments I made use of the following process: One 
part of pulverized litharge was dissolved in two parts of some 
one or other of the unctuous substances above mentioned, and 
some water, the mixture being made to boil all the time. As 
soon as it was inspissated to the thickness of salve, the whole 
was left to cool, and then the water was poured off. The 
water was found to contain the sweet matter in question ; 
and it is to be evaporated to the consistence of syrup. If the 
oil or fat be fresh, there does not appear any sign of dissolved 
calx of lead, on addition of the vitriolic acid; but should either 
the one or the other be old and rancid, some calx will then be 
dissolved, and should be precipitated by a proper quantity of 
vitriolic acid. If this inspissated matter be strongly heated, 
the vapors that arise take fire on the application of a candle. 
In order to make it pass over from the retort into the receiver, 
a degree of heat is required equal to that which must be em- 
ployed for the distillation of vitriolic acid. One-half of the 
sweet matter goes over unaltered, in the form of a thick syrup, 
and still retains its sweet taste; what rises afterwards has an 
empyreuraatic smell, and this is followed by an oil of a brown 
color. There remains in the retort a light spongy coal, which 
does not contain the smallest particle of lead. This sweet 
matter cannot be made to crystallize; nor, when mixed with 
water and set in a warm place, does it run into fermentation ; 
for, after the mixture had stood for four months, tincture of 
tumsoi did not undergo the least change when mixed with it. 
It will mix with tinct>ire of caustic vegetable alkali, though 



neither simple syrup nor honey will do this; but they attract 
the alkaline fat from the spirit of wine, and then fall to the 
bottom in the form of .i thick mucilage. If nitrous acid be 
abstracted from off this unctuous sweet substance, it is at 
last, after many repetitions of the operation, converted into 
acid of sugar, and the nitrous acid is very much phlogisticated. 
It would seem to follow, from these experiments, that the 
sweet matter in question is combined with more of the prin- 
ciple of inflammability than sugar and honey. 

"I have also boiled litluirge with olive oil, separated from 
soap by vitriolic acid, with the same result ; for I here likewise 
obtained the sweet matter. I likewise separated the oil from 
the common salve {Empl. Simp.) ; which must be done in 
consequence of the laws of double attraction. Let the salve be 
sliced and rubbed in a glass mortar, with a mixture of eight 
parts of strong spirit of wine and one part of oil of vitriol. 
This white mixture is to be poured on a filter, and water is 
to be added to the liquor that runs through, upon which the 
oil that was contained in the salve will be separated. I wished 
to recompose salve, by boiling this oil again with litharge; 
but it grew thick before it could be made to boil. From the 
water, which I took care to decant, I obtained some of the 
sweet matter so often mentioned, though, indeed, but in very 
small quantity." 



Present Status of the Pharmacopoeia. 



By PROF. JOSEPH P. REMINGTOIT. 

AT the recent annual meeting of the National Association 
of Manufacturers of Medicinal Products, held at the 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, Feb. 10 and 11, Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, chairman of the Committee of Revision, presented 
an interesting address on "The Present Status of the Phar- 
macopoeia," which, in part, was as follows; 

"I have generally been expected on occasions like this to 
make a few remarks about Pharmacopoeial revision, a subject 
which interests you materially. The work is going on rapidly 
now, and a large number of pages of the work are ready to 
go to press, but we had first to get rid of the easy questions, 
but when there are several thousand questions to settle, and 
you leave the hardest nuts to be settled at the end, a few of 
the hard nuts will take as much time as the main question." 

Prof. Remington pointed out that among the subjects yet 
remaining to be decided is the question of whiskey, a problem 
hinging upon the manner in which whiskey is made official in 
the U.S. P. Anent pharmacopoeial publicity, he said that this 
was the first instance ir. the world where the leading features 
and tests of a pharmacopoeia would be published in the 
pharmaceutical journals practically before the book was pub- 
lished. There has never been a revision in the U.S. which 
has been so thorough and so open. The Food and Drugs .\ct 
has been the cause of renewed interest, and when one's pocket- 
book is affected the talk becomes loud. 

The speaker brought up the question as to whether a manu- 
facturer would be willing to permit his preparation to be 
admitted to the Pharmacopoeia, with tests of purity and 
identity, under another name? The Pharmacopoeia would 
not be likely to introduce a copyrighted name, or a name 
which is the exclusive property of an individual, corporation 
or firm. It would have to be introduced under a scientific 
name, for instance, take the illustration — aspirin — acetyl sali- 
cylic acid. That would make the name of that preparation 
free. But it would probably permit some other manufacturer 
to make under the official name something which would be 
sold as 'just as good' and it might be just as good. If the 
preparation was introduced with the consent of the manu- 
facturer, he would probably be expected to supply tests. For 
a while, at least, it would be the same preparation, but has 
not the manufacturer the right, if he owns the preparation, 
to change the tests, or alter, maybe the color, or the strength, 
of his preparation, and that has been the main objection in 
previous revisions of the Pharmacopoeia to the introduction 
of patented or proprietary articles. 

"The proposition to introduce widely-known and largely- 
used medicines, in which the manufacturer would certainly 
give up some of his rights and some of his profits, could only 
be introduced properly, I suppose, by the consent of the manu- 
facturer; because if it were introduced without the consent 
of the proprietor under another name he would feel aggrieved. 



:\Iarch, 1914] 



THE PHAR^iIACEUTICAL ERA 



103 



and he would certainly look to the protection of his prepara- 
tion by the usual procedure at law. 

"An effort was made to get such consent — a trial was made 
12 months ago — in order to see if a manufacturer would be 
willing to allow his preparation to be put in the Pharmacopoeia 
in any shape, and the result of the attempt was not encourag- 
ing. The manufactiu-er declined. 

"Xow, of coiu-se, the settlement of this question lies right at 
the foundation of the work. We cannot go to press until it is 
settled. For instance, if an article happens to be under the 
letter "A" at the ver>' begiiming of the book alphabetically we 
caiuiot make up any page-proof." 

Speaking of other vital things in abeyance, Professor Reming- 
ton referred to the question of volatile oils. "The volatile oils 
are now manufactured products. They are mostly distillates 
from odorous plants or parts of plants, and there is no question 
but that plants at different seasons of the year, different con- 
ditions of the weather and the climate, produce products which 
vary greatly. You will find in the present Pharmacopoeia, 
and you will undoubtedly find in the next Pharmacopoeia, a 
wide range of specific gravity in the volatile oils. Some of 
. them vary to such an extent that the specific gravity as a test 
is practically worthless; after you have settled upon even a 
wide range of specific gravities, the same kinds of oils, which 
are perfectly genuine, are found to have a different specific 
gravity; they are lower than the lowest limit or higher than 
the highest limit of those which are known to be genuine. 
Genuine oils have been found which are sometimes laevogyrate 
and sometimes dextrogyrate. We do not realize and we do not 
know why these products from time to time should vary to 
such an extent, and, of course, after the Pharmacopoeia comes 
out some critic will say that there is an error in the specific 
gravity when it is put at 0.S9. They will say that they have 
just distilled a lot of these oils which have a specific gravity 
of 0.93. They will say the 'angle of rotation is not so and so, 
but so and so,' and they will take an exceptional case, probably, 
to show that the Pharmacopoeia is not correct with regard to 
this particular specimen. This is a question which not only 
causes trouble in reference to the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, but 
every other pharmacopoeia in the world. We had the same 
debate at the Pharmacopoeial Congress at The Hague about 
this question of volatile oils." 

Prof. Remington referred to the conference of dealers and 
distillers and rectifiers of volatile oils held several months ago 
in Philadelphia to discuss the subject of volatile oils. The 
\'olatile Oil Committee is now considering the report of a 
committee appointed at this meeting. The speaker also pointed 
out the efforts which had been made to carry out the Phar- 
macopoeial Convention's resolution of publicity. He asserted 
that now is the time to send in criticisms. "We cannot 
be expected to keep the book open forever, and after a certain 
date — the date will be published — we cannot be expected, hav- 
ing already given plenty of time for these changes to be con- 
sidered, to be held responsible for considering those which 
come in when it is too late, . . ." 

Prof. Remington visited Dr. Tirard, editor and chairman of 
the Revision Committee of the British Pharmacopoeia, when 
in London last Summer. He saw the British Pharmacopoeia 
in galley proof. "They are well advanced there, but the Doctor 
told me they are held up, just as we are, becavise of some 
criticism and some difficulties, and I was able to effect har- 
monious relations with Dr. Tirard and a strong desire on his 
part for co-operation, so that when the two Pharmacopoeias 
in the English language are issued they will be, so far as 
possible, in accord." 

The speaker was "very much shocked and disappointed" to 
find that the International Congress of Applied Chemistry- had 
saddled the organization of the work on him to secure uni- 
formity all over the world in all of the pharmacopoeias of 
the standards for medicinal chemistry. "If I ever get through 
with the Pharmacopoeia work and then try to get the chemi- 
cals of the world all harnessed together and all of uniform 
quality, I think I will be put out of business altogether." In 
conclusion, he pointed out that "never in the history of the 
world has there been such a spirit of co-operation among 
learned societies, scientific bodies, commercial bodies and others, 
and all who are interested in the making of standards of 
medicine, so that what 10 years ago would have been thought 
impossible is likely to be accomplished some day, as there is 



every indication at the present time that there will be co- 
operative and united work on these problems. " 



Peroxides and Perborates. 



TdE seventh special lecture of the 1913-14 series was given 
at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy on February 9 
by Dr. Herbert Philipp, of the Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company. The lecture was on "The Pharmaceutical 
and Industrial Uses of the Earth Alkali and Alkali Peroxides 
and Perborates." 

Dr. Philipp explained the theory of peroxides and perborates 
by assuming that the active oxygen atom in the compounds 
is a tetravalent element instead of the ordinary bivalent element 
Representing "R" as a bivalent metallic element, the structural 
formula for peroxides would be R=0 = 0. It is easily seen 
that in this formula the tetravalent oxj'gen can step out, as 
it were, leaving the ordinary compound with the bivalent 
o.^gen atom. The various alkaline or alkaline earth bases of 
these compounds do not possess any additional virtue, acting 
sunply as a carrier for the tetravalent o.xygen. 

Sodium perborate is the most widely used. When brought 
in contact with water it decomposes according to the following 
reactions : 

NaBO, + H.O = NaBO: -!- H,Os 
then 4NaB0, + H,0 = NajB^O, + 2NaOH. 

From the reaction it is seen that sodium perborate has an 
alkaline reaction and in this way overcomes the irritating 
effect of hydrogen peroxide solutions, which are generally acid 
in reaction. Solutions of sodium perborate are unstable, losing 
the available oxygen, unless neutralized and preserved by 
acetanilide, salicylic acid, sulphanilic acid or benzoic acid. 
The powder is stable under ordinary conditions, keeping bet- 
ter in pasteboard cartons than in sealed containers. So long 
as water is absent it remains stable when mixed with mineral 
fats and neutral inorganic salts, but rapidly decomposes when 
mixed with animal or vegetable fats and the terpenes. 

This compound is the only one of its class that has been 
e.xtensively used industrially, probably because of its relative 
cheapness. In bleaching it has several distinct advantages 
over solutions of hydrogen peroxide. It is more stable, and 
weight for weight it has seven or eight times the strength of 
the 10-volume solutions of H,0:. It can be used in bleaching 
the finest fabrics because of its mild alkalinit)', which does not in- 
jure the fibre. It has been successfully used in laundry pow- 
ders, as an oxidizer for organic dyes in dye works and also in 
analytical work. 

Medicinally, it can be used wherever hydrogen peroxide is 
indicated. It is a valuable addition to dusting powders and 
is an efficient styptic. It has been suggested that tablets be 
made containing such a quantity of sodium perborate that 
when dissolved in a definite quantity of water a solution of 
H,0; of definite strength will result. To date no success has 
come from this suggestion because of the difficulty in making 
a stable tablet which will be quickly soluble in water. Sodium 
perborate is being used in the now fashionable oxjgen baths. 

The peroxides have been successfully used for the steriliza- 
tion and presentation of foods, rectification and ageing of 
alcoholic beverages and for bleaching edible oils. They are 
too expensive, however, to take the place of the older and 
more economical processes. The peroxides have been exploited 
largely as cure for a host of diseases, but Dr. Philipp assured 
his audience that peroxides do not belong to curative medicine, 
but occupy a prominent position in preventive medicine. The 
peroxides of sodium, calcium, strontium, magnesium and zinc 
are the ones mostly used, magnesium peroxide being the only 
one that has been used to any extent as an internal remedy. 

Sodium peroxide has been put up in fused blocks under the 
name of oxone. These blocks when immersed in water liber- 
ate pure ox>-gen and are used in an apparatus called an 
autogenor. Dr. Philipp demonstrated the use of this apparatus 
for administering anesthetics in such a way that a patient 
would always receive a mixture of the anesthetic and pure 
oxygen in definite proportions and also as an emergency outfit 
for supplying oxygen in cases of asphyxiation. 



The New Era Formulary ($5.00), now in press, contains 
nearlv 8000 formulas. 



104 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[JIabch, 1914 




Laxative Cold Tablets. 

Acetanilide 60 grains 

Camphor 15 grains 

Powdered capsicum 30 grains 

Powdered ipecac IS grains 

Quinine hydrobromide 120 grains 

Extract of cascara sagrada 30 grains 

Mux and divide into 120 tablets. 

Liniment for Chilblains. 

Camphor 240 grains 

Soap liniment 4 fl. ounces 

Oil of cajuput 1 fi. ounce 

.\mmonia water 4 fl. drams 

Tincture of arnica 1 fl. ounce 

Tincture of cantharides 1 fl. ounce 

.Alcohol, enough to make 12 fl. ounces 

^li.x and apply. 

Earache Drops. 

Ahnond oil 1 fl. ounce 

Chloral camphor 1 fl. ounce 

Glycerin 1 fl. ounce 

Mix. 

Red Cross Embrocation. 

Liniment of ammonia 1 fl. ounce 

Liniment of turpentine 4 fl. ounces 

Oil of amber J/2 fl. ounce 

Oil of turpentine, enough to make 6 fl. ounces 

ilix. 

Toothache Wool. 

White wa.x .- 2 ounces 

Carbolic acid, crjst 1 ounce 

Chloral hydrate 2 ounces 

Jlelt the wa.x by heat, add the other ingredients, stir till 
dissolved, then immerse cotton-wool in the liquid. 
Rose Wash (Rose Injection). 

Zinc sulphate I dram 

Tincture of catechu 4 fl. drams 

Tincture of opium 4 fl. drams 

Glycerin 1 fl. ounce 

Rose water, enough to make 16 fl. ounces 

Mix and dissolve. 

Cowslip Perfume. 

Oil of bef gamot 160 minims 

Oil of caraway 40 minims 

Oil of lavender 20 minims 

Oil of lemon 80 minims 

.\lcohol (90 per cent.), enough to make 10 fl. ounces 
Smokers' Tooth Powder. 

Salicylic acid 30 grains 

Camphor 10 grains 

Cuttlefish bone, in powder 120 grains 

Hard soap, in powder 120 grains 

Menthol 3 grains 

Precipitated calcium carbonate 2 ounces 

Thymol 10 grains 

Oil of rose 4 minims 

Mix according to art. 

Antiseptic Foot Powder. 

Oil of eucalyptus 2 drams 

Salicylic acid 1 ounce 

Powdered zinc oleate 1 ounce 

Powdered boric acid 10 ounces 

Powdered French chalk 12 ounces 

Mix according to art. 

Chilblain Soap. 

Euresol 3 drams 

Eucalyptol 3 drams 

Oil of turpentine 3 drams 

Soft soap 18 ounces 

Directions for use: Rub the chilblains several times a day 
■with the chilblain soap, but do not apply the soap to broken 
■chilblains. . 



Polishing Soap for Furniture. 

Soft waler 3 quarts 

Turpentine 2 quarts 

Beeswax 3 pounds 

Common soap 1% pounds 

Litharge H pound 

Slice the soap and dissolve in the water over a slow fire; 
melt the wax; stir the litharge well in the turpentine, and add 
to the melted wax. Continue the stirring for a few minutes, 
then pour into the soap solution and stir until incorporation 
is complete. Apply to the furniture with a piece of flannel 
and polish with a dry duster. 

Cleaning Powder for Glass. 

Prepared chalk 6 pounds 

Powdered French chalk 1 ^ pounds 

Calcium phosphate 2;4 pounds 

Quillaja bark, powdered 2% pounds 

Ammonium carbonate 18 ounces 

Rose pink 6 ounces 

Mix thoroughly after reducing each substance to a fine pow- 
der, then pass the mixture through a muslin sieve. To use 
reduce the powder to the consistence of cream with soft water, 
then apply to the glass by means of a soft rag or sponge; 
allow the paste to dry on, then wipe off with a cloth and 
polish with chamois leather. 

Soap Bubble Liquid (Bubbleine). 

Powdered castile soap 1 ounce 

Glycerin 2 ounces 

Mucilage of acacia 1 ounce 

Water, enough to make 8 ounces 

Mi.x, make a solution and strain. It is claimed that one 
ounce or so less of this solution added to a pint of lukewarm 
water makes a superior bubble blowing compound, the bubbles 
made therewith being particularly "tenacious." 
Petroleum Brsiss Polish. 

Tripoli 16 ounces 

Spanish whiting 16 ounces 

Powdered pumice 8 ounces 

Petroleum 2 ounces 

Petrolatum, enough to make a soft paste. 
Mix into a paste, incorporating sufficient oil of mirbane to 
produce the desired odor. 

Zinc Phosphate Cement (for Dentists). 

Zinc oxide 120 grains 

Nitric acid, a sufficient quantity. 
Moisten the zinc oxide with nitric acid ; evaporate to dry- 
ness ; calcine ; cool and powder. When required for use, make 
into a stiff paste with phosphoric acid. 
Polish for Steel. 

Arsenous acid IJ^ drams 

Elutriated bloodstone lyi drams 

Antimony trichloride 6 fl. drams 

Alcohol, 90 per cent 1 pint 

Digest at gentle heat, shaking frequently. 

Roup Powder for Poultry. 

-Asafetida 4 drams 

Black pepper 1 dram 

Grains of paradise 1 ciram 

Dried ferrous sulphate 2 drams 

Dried sodium sulphate 2 drams 

Powder each separately and well mix. Incorporate a heaped 
tablespoonful w'th the morning feed of hot "middlings" or 
mash. The above powder is sufficient for 12 chickens. 
Remedy for Chicken Cholera. 

Iron sulphate 1 ounce 

Capsicum 1 ounce 

Black pepper 2 ounces 

Calcium phosphate 8 ounces 

Fenugreek 4 ounces 

Sand 4 ounces 

Reduce all to powder and mix well. An even teaspoonful is 
to be given with the feed for a dozen fowls. 



Mabch, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



105. 




FOEEIGM ABSTRACTS 




FROM EUROPEAN" LABORATORIES. 



Device to Prevent Poisoning by Hypnotics — Synthetic 

Rose Oil from Citronella — Hopf and Hopeine — 

Pyridine in Coffee. 

CIMB.\L reports an ingenious method of preventing poison- 
ing by overdose of veronal, etc. He combines a certain 
amount of ipecac with the hypnotic, sufficient to produce 
violent vomiting if a fatal dose of the hypnotic is taken. 
Rhodinol is now being prepared from citronellol, and possesses 
all the properties of the natural product. This cheap source 
for rose oil may lead to important developments. A recent sen- 
sational murder case in Germany reveals the principal as one 
Hopf, who perpetrated a bare-faced fraud about 30 years ago, 
in connection with an alleged active alkaloid from hops. 
Guyer has found that tinctures of digitalis prepared from the 
laminae only are not of greater strength than those made from 
midribs, veins, etc., and that statements to the contrary in 
text-books are too dogmatic. Steinhorst, after e-tamining a 
number of vegetable drug extracts, concludes that unless 
extraordinary precautions are taken, copper and tin are almost 
certain to be present in amoimts which would not pass the 
official tests. 
Pyridine in Coffee Infusions — 

By distilling the infusion of roasted Mocha coffee, Payen 
obtained a liquid from which ether extracted an aromatic 
essence, which possessed the odor of coffee. This oil, called 
cafeore by Pelouze, was later investigated by Erdmann, who 
found in it traces of acetic acid and furfurol, and an un- 
stable nitrogen compoimd, together with certain substances 
resembling creosote. Bertrand and Weisweiller have again 
attacked the problem, working on 5 kg. of roasted coffee, and 
distilling it with steam. On concentrating the distillate, 1 or 
2 cc. of a dense oil were obtained, and an aqueous solution. 
These two liquids had not only the characteristic coffee odor, 
but also an odor of amyl alcohol, furfurol, and pyridine. The 
latter compound was isolated as the double platinum chloride 
and silicotungstate. Pyridine is present in greater proportion 
than any other of the constituents of coffee oil thus far 
isolated. From 200 to 400 mg. have been found per kg. of 
coffee. It is now to be determined whether pyridine plays an 
important part in the physiological action of coffee. (Bertrand 
and Weisweiller, Bull. Sci. Pharmacolog., 1913, p. 705.) 
Stain for Tubercle Bacillus — 

Under certain conditions, preparations of the tubercle bacil- 
lus do not give conclusive results with Ziehl's fuchsine reagent. 
In such cases Meillere recommends the following staining 
solution : Griibler's crystal violet, 2 g. ; recently distilled 
aniline, 3 g. ; 95 per cent, alcohol, 10 g. ; glycerol, 5 g. ; water, 
90 g., to be prepared as needed. The material under e.xamina- 
tion is spread uniformly on glass plates, dried slowly at about 
37°, and fixed by heating on a metallic plate held above a 
water bath. One or two cc. of the staining mixture are poured 
on and allowed to dry. After 15 minutes of heating, during 
which all possibility of superheating must be avoided, the 
preparation is decolorized by immersing in 10 per cent, nitric 
acid (by volume). It is not necessarv' to decolorize every 
particle of material. Ne.xt, the acid is removed by washing 
in water, then with dilute ammonia, and the process is com- 
pleted by dehydrating with alcohol-acetone. The examination 
is made with oil immersion, w'ithout using a coverglass. If a 
coloration of the background is desired, dilute solutions of 
eosin, Bismarck brov^Ti, or aniline green are recommended. In 
short, whenever the Ziehl stain gives a negative or uncertain 
indication, staining with crystal violet should be resorted to. 
If the Ziehl stain were rigorously specific for tubercle bacilli, 
it could be used alone, but its specificitv is still in question. 
(Meillere, J. Pharm. Chim., 1914, p. 23.) 
Tincture of Digitalis — 

Having occasion to prepare a tincture of digitalis from the 
laminae of the leaf alone, entirely freed from petioles, mid- 
ribs, and veins, Guyer was led to examine the strength of such 
tinctures, to ascertain whether they were markedly more active 



than tinctures from the rejected portions. The total solid 
content of two tinctures of official strength, one made from 
laminae only, and the other from petioles, midribs, and veins, 
was 5.87 g. and 5.29 g. respectively. Physiological tests showed 
a relative strength of 18 to 15, the tinctiu-e from midribs being, 
slightly weaker. Apparently there is no potential difference 
between the two kinds of tinctures. The only difference ob- 
ser\'able is a greenish-brown color in the tincture made from 
laminae, while the other is more brown than green. The 
special tincture was probably demanded because of dogmatic 
statements in text-books that only the separated laminae should 
be used. (Guyer, Pharm. J., 1914, p. 165.) 
Perfumes from Lichens — 

•Attention is drawn to the need of investigating the odorous 
principles of lichens, with a view to using them in perfumery. 
As a basis for retaining odors in potpourris and sachets, the 
common reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangifera and syhatica,. 
appear very suitable. The tree lichen, Evernia prunastri, 
called oak moss in France, has been used for some years as 
a basis for perfumes. It is generally found admixed with 
other less fragrant lichens, but may be readily distinguished 
by the frond being gray on the outside and white on the tmder 
or channelled side. According to Gattefosse, the odorous prin- 
ciple is a phenol, lichenol, isomeric with carvacrol, and soluble 
in 3 per cent, sodium carbonate solution. A suitable basis for 
perfumes is obtained by extracting the lichen with a volatile 
solvent. ( Parry, Perf. Essent. Oil Rec, 1913, p. 408; through. 
J. Soc. Chem. Ind.) 
Source of Lignum Nephritictim — 

An abstract published some months ago stated that Miiller 
had found "Lignum Nephriticum" to be derived from one or 
more species of Pterocarpus. Stapf has recently reopened the 
question, and concludes that the wood comes from Eysen- 
hardtia amorphoides. This conclusion is based both on ex- 
periment and on a great deal of literary research. Sections 
of "Lignum Nephriticum" and Eysenhardtia show histological 
identity under the microscope, and infusions of the two woods 
give identical fluorescence phenomena. (Small, Pharm. J., 
1914, p. 4.) 
Detection of Turmeric — 

It is well known that ground white pepper frequently con- 
tains a minute quantity of turmeric, about 0.05 per cent. It 
is added to give a slight yellow tinge. Microscopic examina- 
tion will not yield absolutely definite results. The boric acid 
test will not show less than 1 : 1000. The material is ex- 
tracted with boiling alcohol, the alcohol evaporated in contact 
with a silk fibre, and the fibre moistened with a dilute solution of 
boric acid and dried. By making a blank experiment at the 
same time, comparisons are possible. Bell's test is by far 
the best. One g. of diphenylamine is dissolved in 20 cc. of 
90 per cent, alcohol, 25 cc. of pure sulphuric acid added, and . 
the mixture cooled. If a drop of this reagent is spread on 
a slide, and the sample placed on the cover glass, and ex- 
amined under the microscope, each particle of turmeric will 
be stained a fine purple. The test is extremely delicate. 
(Chem. Drug., 1914, p. 106.) 
Hopf and Hopeine — 

The German Hopf, recently sentenced to death at Frankfurt 
for poisoning his wife and children, was the perpetrator of an 
astounding fake discovery in 1885 and 1886, the announcement 
of the isolation of a narcotic alkaloid, hopeine, from American 
hops. The substance was stated to be a crystalline white 
powder, scarcely soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, and 
intensely bitter. It was put on the market by the Concentrated 
Produce Company, of London. Within a fortnight of the 
publication of the original article, which appeared in the 
Pharmaceutische Zeitung, three French chemists found the 
supposed hopeme to be identical with morphine. This was 
confirmed by two English chemists, but immediately afterward, 
Weissenfeld, another German, pointed out differences between 
the two alkaloids. Paul, then editor of the Pharmaceutical 
Journal, showed definitely that the substance w^as a mixture 
of morphine and cocaine, and characterized the swindle as 



106 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



"a piece of foolish impudence that almost passes belief." 
Hopf was in charge of the London office for some time, but 
disappeared on the day that Paul's paper was published. 
(Chem. Drug.. 1914, p. 124.) 
UesothoTiuni — 

Since thorium-X and its solutions are perishable, and lose 
half their activity in four days, they cannot be kept in a drug 
store. In addition, their preparation offers great technical 
difficulties. The principal source of these substances is the 
Auer (Welsbach) factories in Berlin. The factory must be 
informed of the daily dose it is desired to administer, in 
electrostatic units. The shipment is then made at intervals 
of three days. The amount of liquid calculated for the first 
day is less than for the second day, and the latter is in turn 
less than th.it for the third day. The content of active sub- 
stance is so regulated that the correct amount is presented each 
day. The initial charge is also varied according to the length 
of time required for transport, being double as strong when 
the goods are intended for Lisbon, for example, as when they 
are to be used in Berlin. The price is changed with the dose, 
not with the initial amount of active material. It is about 
one mark for a daily dose of 100 units, and hence very much 
lower than for radium emanation, in addition to the prepara- 
tions being much better tolerated by the patient. (Pharm. 
Ztg., 1914, p. 63.) 
Lecithin and Lecithin Salts — 

The instability of lecithin is well known, and there is no 
good reason for believing that the purer products are more 
stable than the impure. A lecithin prepared by the older 
scientific methods can be precipitated almost snow-white from 
its chloroform solution, contains over 8.5 per cent, of phos- 
phorus, and shows the same decomposability as an impure 
preparation. Saponification seems to be the process most 
concerned in the decomposition. Lecithin is very sensitive to 
mineral acids, and much less so to dilute or weak acids. 
Pure, fresh lecithin is neutral, but becomes acid after a while. 
Many salts of lecithin with organic acids possess a rather 
marked stability. The neutral citrate, which has almost the 
same acid properties as citric acid itself, on account of the 
hydrate formula of lecithin, has much greater stability than 
lecithin itself. If moisture is e.xcluded, the preparation keeps 
for more than a year. As the lecithin content is 93 per cent., 
the salt can be used for all purposes where lecithin would be 
prescribed. It is now to be placed on the market. (Laboschin, 
Pharm. Ztg., 1914, p. 63.) 
Heavy Metals in Extracts — 

The German Pharmacopoeia prescribes tests for the presence 
of copper and tin in the ashes of plant extracts. Steinhorst 
e-xamined a number of such preparations which he had made 
with special care, and found none of them free from these 
metals. It was found absolutely impossible to prepare an 
extract free from copper, unless the entire surface of the 
vacuum pans, etc., used, could be scoured bright. As this is 
not possible when working on a large scale, slight amounts of 
copper must be e-xpected in all such extracts. If tin is present 
as well, this indicates that the tin lining has been neglected. 
The amount of metals is proportional to the amount of acids 
in the plant extracts. A number of careful trials were made, 
with a vacuum apparatus which had been tinned extra heavily, 
but in almost every case metals passed into the extracts. On 
examining 35 extracts made by other firms, only two were 
found to be free of metals, and these were of the same plant, 
strangely enough. Many of them showed much more than 
traces of metals. (Steinhorst, Apoth. Ztg., 1914, p. 39.) 
Gru-Gru Oil — 

Gru-gru is the Trinidad name of Acrocomia Sclerocarpa, 
a tree growing on the poorest soil, and belonging to the same 
tribe as the cocoanut palm. The kernel of the fruit, about 
5^ inch across, contains about 50 per cent, of fat. The oil, 
obtained by hot-pressing the seeds, contains 12 per cent, more 
stearin than cocoanut oil, and has about the same value as 
palm oil. Soap made from the oil is almost white, and of 
good quality. The stearin would make a valuable edible fat. 
The tree is not at present cultivated in the West Indies, and 
the gathering of sufficient quantities of the nuts presents con- 
siderable difficulties. The oil might be used in the preparation 
of oleomargarine. (Knapp, J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1914, p. 9.) 
Sose Oil from Citronella Oil — 

The researches of Barbier and Bouveault, and Earbicr and 



Lcser, showed that 1-rhodinol is a stereo-isomer of d-citro- 
nellol, the two bodies differing in the position of the double 
bond. It is now possible to pass from one substance to the 
other, and the rhodinol thus made has properties similar to 
the natural rhodinol, including an odor of fresh roses. The 
optical rotation is as far to the right as that of 1-citronellol 
is to the left. All three rhodinols are now known, the d-, 1-, 
and i- forms. (Barbier and Locquin, Comptes rend., 1913, 
p. 1114.) 

Administration of Guaiacol — 

Guaiacol is probably not used nearly as much in pulmonary 
tuberculosis as it might be. This may be due to the fact that 
the doses heretofore have not been large enough, or the remedy 
may not have been given long enough and regularly. From 
long experience in bronchial cases, Mayberry finds that 5 
minim doses three times daily for a few months are unsatis- 
factory, but by gradually raising the dose to 12 minims thrice 
daily for four months or more, highly satisfactory results were 
obtained. To overcome the objection that the drug impairs 
digestion, Mayberry gives it before meals, and has seen no 
harm from its use. A mixture of the following formula is 
used: Guaiacol, 1 fi. dram; alcohol, 1 fl. ounce; syrup of 
lemon, 1 fl. ounce; spirit of chloroform, 2 fl. drams; water to 
make 6 ounces. The dose is Y2 A. ounce three times per day. 
(Mayberry, Brit, Med. J., Jan. 10, 1914; through Pharm. J.) 

To Prevent Poisoning by Hypnotics — 

Cimbal recommends the combination of the hypnotic with 
ipecac, in such proportions that to the minimum lethal dose 
of the hypnotic is added the equivalent of 1 g. of ipecac in 
powder, tincture or infusion. The author finds that in women 
0.6 to 0.9 g., and in men 0.9 to 1.2 g. of the drug suffice to 
induce vomiting, even when administered with strong nar- 
cotics. Small doses have only an appetizing effect. Veronal 
0.3, phenacetin 0.2, ipecac 0.1-0.15 g., with or without codeine, 
is a typical formula of this sort. Medinal dissolved in infusion 
of ipecac is also employed. Cimbal believes that it would be 
an excellent thing if the chemical factories would turn out all 
the important narcotics and hypnotics in a form which would 
make their administration possible in the way described. 
(Cimbal, Munch. Med. Wochschr., 1913, No. 47.) 



New Remedies 



Hydrascnerion Zyma is a titrated hydrastis preparation, 
used in uterine disorders. 

Jodglysol is a colloidal solution of iodine and glycogen, to 
be used in injections as a substitute for iodine and iodides. 

Lytinol is said to be "sodium dioxybenzene-aluminura iodo- 
hypoiodate," and is used in gonorrhoeal urethritis. 

Methylene Blue-Silver is a dark blue powder, easily soluble 
in water, and containing 27 per cent, of silver. It is used in 
injections, in doses of 0.1 to 0.4 g. Slight pain accompanies 
the injection. No secondary effects could be noted. 

Optochin hydrochloride is a new protected name for ethyl- 
hydrocupreine hydrochloride, used in pneumonia and in 
opthalmology. 

Papaverine "Roche" promises to be therapeutically valuable. 
It has the effect of lowering the tone of smooth muscle, and 
hence has been used in acute uremic hypertension. The prepa- 
ration comes on the market in tablets and ampules. 

Phenoval is brom-valeryl-phenetidin, forming white, color- 
less and tasteless needles, insoluble in water, difficultly soluble 
in ether, acetone, benzene, and benzine, but easily soluble in 
chloroform, glycerol and cold alcohol. It melts at 149-150°. 
Its uses are as a mild hypnotic, and especially as a headache 
remedy, without antipyretic action. It is non-toxic and non- 
habit-forming and the dose is 0.5 g. 

Transpirol is said to contain "homologues of benzene-car- 
bonic acid, as cinnamic acid, etc." It is used to allay the 
odor of perspiration and other secretions. 

Tricalcol is used for increasing the calcium and albumen 
content of milk, and is stated to be a colloidal calcium-albumen- 
phosphoric acid compound. 

Vascosan is a base for eye salves, which is said to overcome 
all objections hitherto raised to other bases of the same 
character. 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



107 




THE OBJECT of this department is to furnish our subscribers 
and their clerks with reliable and tried formulas, and to discuss 
questions relating to practical pharmacy, prescription work, dis- 
pensing difficulties, etc. Requests for information are not answered 
by mail, and ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS WILL RE- 
CEIVE NO ATTENTION; neither do we answer questions in this 
department from non-subscribers. 

In this department frequent reference is necessarily made to 
information published in previous issues of the ERA, copies of 
which, if not out of print, may be obtained for 25 cents each. 

Violet Toilet Lotion. 
(H.S.F.) — Two much-used formulas for "violet toilet 
lotion" are the following; 

(1) 

Ammonia water 13 fl. ounces 

Alcohol 12 fl. ounces 

Essence of violets 3 fl. drams 

Mix. 

(2) 

Stronger ammonia water 7 fl. ounces 

Stronger tincture of orris 1 fl. ounce 

Alcohol 1 fl- ounce 

■ Distilled water 4 fl. ounces 

Chlorophyll qs. to color 

Mix and filter in a closely-covered funnel through talcum. 
As tincture of cudbear with alkalies gives a purplish tint or 
violet color, it is possible to give the shade desired to this 
preparation by substituting a little tincture of cudbear for the 
chlorophyll. 

A violet odor can be imparted to almost any lotion by the 
addition of the synthetic ionone, which may be used in either 
the form of an alcoholic solution singly, or in combination with 
tincture of orris. A spirit of ionone used by perfumers to 
produce a violet odor is made by dissolving ionone (10 per 
cent, solution) in rectified spirit to make 20 fl. ounces, adding 
enough of this solution to the lotion to impart the degree of 
odor required. A violet tint may be imparted by the use of 
methyl violet, but the amount necessary to produce the shade 
desired should be determined by careful experiment. 

Female Regulator. 
(G.B.W.) — Most of the preparations of this character on 
the market under the above name or similar titles are con- 
structed upon the type of the "compound elixir of cramp bark" 
of the National Formulary, Formulas from other sources are 
these: 

(1) 

Aletris or stargrass 1 ounce 

Blue cohosh 1 ounce 

Cramp bark 1 ounce 

Helonias or starwort 1 ounce 

Syrup 2 fl. ounces 

Alcohol 2 fl. ounces 

Sherry wine, enough to make 16 fl. ounces 

Extract the drugs reduced to suitable powder with 16 fl. 
ounces of sherry wine previously mixed with the alcohol, and 
percolate until 14 fl. ounces of liquid are obtained. Mix the 
percolate with the syrup, and filter if necessary. 

(2) 

Fluidextract of motherwort 2 fl. ounces 

Fluidextract of yarrow ^ fl, ounce 

Fluidextract of rue Yi fl. ounce 

Compound tincture of cardamom 1 fl. ounce 

Compound eli.xir of dandelion, enough 

to make 16 fl. ounces 

Mix. 

(3) 

Fluidextract of blackhaw 1 fl. ounce 

Fluidextract of blue cohosh J/2 fl. ounce 

Fluidextract of golden seal 1 fl. ounce 

Fluidextract of Jamaica dogwood ^ fl. ounce 

Compound tincture of cardamom 1 fl. ounce 

Tincture of cinnamon 1 fl. ounce 

Compound elixir of dandelion, enough 

to make 16 fl. ounces 



Mix the fluidextracts with the tinctures and elixirs; allow 
the mixture to stand a few days and then run through a wetted 
talcum filter. 



Books on Radium. 

(W.A.VanW.) — The following are standard books on 
radium and radio-activity: 

Joly, Radio-activity and Geology $3.00 

Raffety, Introduction to the Science of Radio- 
activity 1 .25 

Robarts, Practical Radium and Uses in the 

Treatment of Diseases 1 .00 

Soddy, Interpretation of Radium 1.75 

Cameron, Radio-Chemistry 1.00 

Jones, Electrical Nature of Matter and Radio- 
activity 2.00 

Baskerville, Radium and Radio-active Substances 1.00 

Rutherford, Radio-activity 4.00 

As described in a recent issue of the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association ("New and Non-official Remedies"), 
radium is a bivalent metallic element closely related to barium. 
It is strongly reactive, making it difficult to isolate in its 
metallic state and after isolation to keep in a pure state, as it 
reacts with air, forming the oxide, nitrite and finally the 
carbonate. On account of this activity it is only produced in 
the form of its salts, principally as the bromide, chloride, 
sulphate and carbonate. The most important property of 
radium is its radio-activity upon which depends its thera- 
peutic value. Radio-activity is defined as "the property of 
spontaneously emitting radiations capable of passing through 
plates of metal and other substances opaque to ordinary light 
and having the power of discharging electrified bodies." A 
spontaneous disintegration of the atoms characterizes all the 
radio-active elements and it is in this transmission or splitting 
of the atom that the rays are shot out, some being material 
in nature, others electrical or of the nature of light. This 
spontaneous transmutation of radium is going on at a regular 
rate, which is independent of the state of combination of 
radium in the molecule of its compounds. 

To determine the radio-active value of radium, use is made 
of its property of ionizing gases. Thus, when radium is 
allowed to act on the air in a charged gold-leaf electroscope 
the air becomes ionized and therefore a conductor of electricity 
and allows the charge to leak out, causing the leaf in the 
electroscope to move. By observing the rate of movement of 
the leaf in a calibrated apparatus the radio-activity can be 
determined. Quantities and concentrations of radium emana- 
tion are expressed in terms of "curies" and Mache units. 
A "curie" is the amount of emanation in equilibrium with 1 
gram of radium; a microcurie, one millionth of a "curie," is 
the amount of emanation in equilibrium with 0.001 mg. radium 
and is equivalent to about 2500 Mache units. 

The rays are divided into three groups, the alpha, beta and 
gamma, which differ in their velocity and penetrative power. 
The alpha and beta rays consist of minute particles of matter 
electrically charged and moving with a velocity almost equal 
to that of light. They are for the most part of relatively 
feeble penetrating power. The gamma rays are vibrations in 
the ether, very similar to X-rays, and of high penetrating 
power. Therapeutically, the last group is the most useful. 
Radium emanation is continuously given off from aqueous 
solutions of radium salts. It can be collected as it escapes 
from the solution, drawn off through the use of the mercury 
pump, or by other suitable means, quantitatively determined 
by either the alpha or gamma ray electroscope, brought into 
solution in water for internal or external use or be set free in 
an emanatorium for inhalation treatment. It may be collected 
into small glass containers and then used in place of the 
applicators prescribed under surgical use. 

The compounds accepted by the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry of the American Medical Association for inclusion 
in the forthcoming edition of "New and Nonofficial Remedies" 
are radium chloride and radium sulphate. While nearly pure 



lOS 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 191* 



salts of these compounds are obtainable, the market supply 
is either a niLxture of radium chloride and barium chloride, 
or of radium sulphate and barium sulphate, respectively, the 
mixtures being sold on the basis of their radium content. 



Compound SjTTip of White Pine. 
(H.L.T.) — ^A standard formula for compound syrup of 
white pine may be found in the National Formulary, and the 
preparation made from it is the only one entitled to the name 
without other qualification under the Federal Food and Drugs 
Act. For the sake of uniformity you should use the X.F. 
preparation, but a formula in which fluidextracts are employed 
is the following : 

Fluide-\tract of white pine 1 fl. ounce 

Fluidcxtract of wild cherry 1 fl. ounce 

Fluidextract of bloodroot 56 minims 

Fluidcxtract of spikenard 64 minims 

Fluide-xtract of balm of gilead buds 64 minims 

Fluide.xtract of sassafras bark 32 minims 

Morphine sulphate 3 grains 

Chloroform 64 minims 

Purified talcum 2 drams 

Water, enough to make 16 fl. ounces 

Mix the fluidextracts with about 6 ounces of water and the 
purified talcum, and stir and agitate about 15 or 20 minutes. 
Transfer the mixture to a wetted filter, and when the liquid 
ceases to drop from the funnel, wash the contents of the filter 
with water until S ounces of filtrate have been obtained. In 
this dissolve the sugar and morphine sulphate by agitation and 
add enough water, previously passed through the filter, to make, 
with the chloroform, when added to the syrup, 16 fl. ounces. 
Lastly add the chloroform and shake thoroughly. 



Milk of Magnesia. 
(H.L.T.) — .\ standard formula for this preparation is 
given in the National Formular)-, and the same remarks as to 
the vise of the name on any other preparation than the N.F. 
product noted above apply to milk of magnesia. However, a 
so-called "improved formula" devised by S. L. Hilton, of 
Washington, D. C, and published in the Er..^ of May, 1911 
(page 200), is the following: 

Magnesium sulphate, U.S.P 350 grams 

Sodium hydroxide 119 grams 

Gelatin 0.150 gram 

Distilled water, q.s. to make 1000 cc. 

Dissolve the magnesium sulphate in 400 cc. distilled water, 
filter the solution through paper; dissolve the gelatin in 50 cc. 
of hot water and add this solution to the magnesium sulphate 
and then wash the filter with several portions of distilled water 
using in all not more than 250 cc. 

Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in 400 cc. of distilled water; 
when the solution has cooled, add 300 cc. of distilled water, 
mix thoroughly, and when both solutions have cooled to room 
temperature, add the solution of sodium hydroxide to the 
solution of magnesium sulphate by some means that will de- 
liver the solution of sodium hydrate in rapid drops. Stir the 
magnesium sulphate solution briskly until all of the soda 
solution is added then dilute with distilled water to make the 
mLxture measiu'e 3000 cc. Let stand until the precipitate has 
settled to the 1000 cc. mark on the container, siphon off the 
supernatant liquid and add 2500 cc. of water, stir well and set 
aside to settle again to the 1000 cc. mark, siphon off the 
supernatant liquid and dilute the magma with distilled water 
\mtil it measures 4000 cc, stir well and set aside to settle to 
the 1000 cc. mark, draw off the clear liquid, mix the magma 
well and assay by the process given, diluting, if necessary', so 
that the preparation will contain 7.5 per cent. Mg(OH),. 

For the assay process we must refer you to the issue of the 
Era cited above. With this process and the assay method 
given it is claimed that a uniform product of definite strength 
can be made. 



Face Powder. 

(L.S.G.) — "Will you please publish in the Era an Al 
formula for a face powder, not a cheap article, but a powder 
of extra good quality regardless of price?" 

As to what constitutes "an Al" face powder is largely a 
matter of individual preference, the exact cost of production 



oftentimes bearing no definite relation to the price charged the 
consumer. However, here are some typical formulas from 
various sources from which you should be able to make a 
selection : 

(1) 

Bismuth subcarbonate 1 ounce 

Zinc oxide 3 ounces 

French chalk 4 ounces 

Precipitated chalk 4 ounces 

Corn flour 5 ounces 

Perfume a sufficiency 

Mix thoroughly and sift. The powder may be tinted pink 
by the incorporation of a little carmine dissolved in ammonia 
water, while a "brunette" powder is made by admixture witlt 
sufficient burnt umber or sienna. 

(2) 

Whitest Venetian chalk 2 ounces 

Rice flour 2 ounces 

Zinc white 1 ounce 

Mix and perfume with a sufficiency of the following: 

Oil of bergamot 45 minims 

Oil of ylang ylang 30 minims 

Oil of neroli 30 minims 

Eau de cologn,. 5 drams 

Mix thoroughly. 

Swan Down. 

Zinc oxide S ounces 

Powdered orris 2^ ounces 

French chalk 10 ounces 

Essence of musk 10 minims 

Jasmine extract 60 minims 

WTiite rose extract 60 minims 

Cassie extract 60 minims 

Mix thoroughly, allow to stand in the air a short time, and 
pass through a fine sieve ("Pharmaceutical Formulas"). 



Soluble Antiseptic Powder. 

(.'V.N.N.) — \ typical formula "for a compound antiseptic 
powder that can be dissolved in water or be used in the dry 
form" is that for soluble antiseptic powder of the National 
Formularj'. This preparation, according to the "Physicians' 
Manual of the Pharmacopoeia," is said to be "similar in com- 
position to the various antiseptic powders of more or less, 
secret character sold under trade names." It can be used 
either as a dusting powder, or in 5 per cent, solution. For the 
sake of uniformity this is the formula that should be employed. 

Formulas for compounds employed for a similar purpose are 
the following, the last one given being that for "compound 
alkaline powder" of the British Pharmaceutical Codex 
Formulary : 

(1) 

Boracic acid 10 ounces 

Sodium biborate 4 ounces 

Alum 1 ounce 

Zinc siilphocarbolate 1 ounce 

Thymic acid 1 dram 

Mix thoroughly. For an antiseptic wash dissolve 1 or 2 
drams in a quart of warm water. 

(2) 

Sodium bicarbonate, in powder 1 ounce 

Sodium chloride, in powder 1 ounce 

Borax, in powder 1 ounce 

Mix. This powder is used to make a wash for the nose iir 

catarrh, 30 to 60 grains being dissolved in 10 fl. ovmces of 
warm water. 



Black Leather Varnish. 
(S.W.D.)— 

Rosin 30 parts 

Turpentine 30 parts 

Oil of turpentine 30 parts 

Sandarac 60 parts 

Shellac 120 parts 

.•Mcohol, 90 per cent 900 parts 

Digest, then add — 

Lampblack (previously triturated with a 

little alcohol) 15 parts 

Recommended as producing a satisfactory black which will 
not crack or peel off. 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



109 




WOMEIM m PHARMACY 



Conducted by EMMA GARY WALLACE 




IV. The Woman Pharmacist's Future. 



IN RELATION TO GOVERNMENT EXPANSION. 



WE HEAR much about the economics of the home, the 
individual business, and the community under such 
names as domestic science, modern efficiency, civic 
improvement, and social service, but few — ^very few — are awake 
to the economics of national progress. 

Your horizon and mine has widened within the last 10 or 
IS years; so has that of Uncle Sam and Miss Columbia. If 
it were not so, if the Federal vision remained fLxed, then the 
few who were successful in scrambling to the top of the ladder 
would stay there and the lower rungs would become much 
more crowded than they are now. As it really is, however, 
the ladder keeps growing longer and requiring more rungs so 
there are more places — more worth-while places, to fill. 
Phanaacists a Growing Need. 

Wherever there are people who are intelligent according to 
modern standards, health supplies, hygienic sanitation, medical 
and surgical needs must be met. With 'our increased pos- 
sessions come increased opportunities. Alaska, Hawaii, Cuba, 
the Philippines, Panama, and territorial development, all spell 
opportunity directly and indirectly. Openings there are which 
the woman pharmacist can fill directly by seeking them, and 
when it is impracticable for her to do this, her brother phar- 
macist is called upon to serve, and so the place he has left 
is open to her. Indirectly, Government expansion has extended 
the field for her services. 

But, to take advantage of these or any other opportunities, 
preparation must be made and the situation so thoroughly 
studied and understood that open doors will be recognized and, 
when the psychological moment arrives, entered. Sometimes 
people blunder into the right opening, but more often success 
is the result of definite, well-thought-out, and persistently- 
carried-out plans. 

Commercial Enterprise Not Appreciated. 

We have scarcely come to the point of appreciating the 
many fields of service opening up because of the wonder- 
ful commercial enterprise of our people both at home and 
abroad. 

Some of our great pharmaceutical manufacturing houses 
maintain branches in London, Tokio, Melbourne, etc., and 
sometimes there are fine opportunities for the trained, special- 
ized worker who would see something of the world and re- 
ceive a good salary while doing it. American travel is now so 
extensive that American service in retail lines is also sought, 
so that the woman pharmacist with the germ of wanderlust in 
her blood need not feel obliged to remain at home and "to 
blush unseen" unless she so desires. 

Then, too, in our own country the growing sentiment ex- 
pressed in the modern slogans of "Safety First," "Quality," 
"Honest Goods," "No False Claims," etc., has been the means 
of many, many manufacturing firms, and wholesale and retail 
houses establishing individual or co-operative laboratories for 
testing the goods they offer for sale themselves or essay to 
buy of others. Foods, leather, false hair, silks, cotton, medi- 
cines, ad infinitum, are subjected to searching analysis, and 
the woman chemist again iinds a new and profitable field open 
to her. 

The Government Service. 

The idea often prevails that profound and unusual attain- 
ments and a great deal of pull are necessary to gain an en- 
trance to the Government service. And yet some positions go 
a-begging because people are afraid to tackle them or do not 
know of them. An expert needlewoman, for instance, was 
wanted to repair tattered and historic flags, and even after 
the Civil Service Commission sent application blanks broad- 
cast for examinations for the vacancy, yet, it is stated, no one 
applied for the vacancy, although it offered suitable remunera- 
tion. 



What does the Government hold in its gift of opportunities 
for the woman pharmacist? The answer today would be alto- 
gether too abbreviated tomorrow, for the service is constantly 
expanding. But there is no mystery about it. Every depart- 
ment has its head whose duty it is to serve the public. Every 
person has started toward success who takes time to commune 
with herself and to inquire — "What do I like to do?" "In 
what field lies my particular opportunity to use my professional 
knowledge to agreeable and profitable advantage?" 

And having decided, lose no time in seeking authoritative 
information until the nearest avenue of entrance is discovered. 
Postage stamps are cheap, the mails swift and sure. For in- 
formational guidance, "Ask and ye shall receive," and having 
received it is necessary to act, not to be content with mere 
dreaming. The field is wide. Where will ye reap? 



A Successful Professional Woman. 



MRS. DELLA MAE WRIGHT, of Algona, Wash., affords 
an excellent illustration of what may be done at home, 
using the means at hand for self-improvement. We 
cannot do better than to give you a glimpse of Mrs. Wright's 
work through her own account: 

"I have always, since a lit- 
tle girl, been interested in 
pharmacy emd always had a 
great desire to be in the drug 
business. I married into a 
family of druggists and doc- 
tors. My husband, his father, 
uncles and brothers are all 
druggists or doctors. 

"In 1910 we opened this 
store in Algona, and I, besides 
helping in the store, began 
the study of pharmacy. I 
found it very difficult to get 
down to hard study and ac- 
complish much without some 
system to go by, so in De- 
cember, 1912, I decided to 
take up the Era Course. I 
found it to be a very good 

and interesting system of in- Mrs. Wright. 

struction. Finished it in Feb- 
ruary, 1913. In September I took the Washington State 
examination and passed with honors. There were 28 appli- 
cants of whom only eight succeeded in passing. I was the 
only woman present, and I give much credit to the instruction 
I got through the Era Course. I recommend it highly to 
anyone desiring to study pharmacy at home. At times while 
studying, I would feel discouraged and be tempted to give up, 
but would simply force myself to study. It is an easy matter 
for one to obtain a study at home, but it takes will-power 
and determination to keep it up day after day and complete 
a course such as pharmacy ; but when it is completed and 
one successfully passes a State examination, one then realizes 
the old saying 'What is worth having is worth working for.' 
I expect to continue in the drug business as I think i'. one 
of the most desirable professions for a woman." 

What Mrs. Wright has done, others may do if they will 
but heed what she says concerning the will-power and de- 
termination it takes to stick to any work once it is undertaken. 
Achievements worth while always cost effort and to the per- 
sistent and persevering belong die spoils. 




Sister Pharmacists. 



There are many noble women serving as registered phar- 
macists in religious institutions. In some of these it is against 
the rule to publish individual histories or photographs, while 



110 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



in others it is entirely permissible. A quotation from a 
recent letter will make this clear: 

"Your letter addressed to Sister Augtistine to hand 
and will say in reply that we, as religious workers, 
do not have our histories published. 

"I can assure you we are very much interested in 
pharmacy and are pleased that other women are in- 
terested in this work also. We thank you for your 
kind letter and are sorry that we cannot comply with 
your wishes. Wishing you success, I am, 

"Sincerely yours. Sister Theresa, R.Ph., 

"St. John's Hospital, Springfield, III." 

From the above it will be seen that there is a large number 
of women pharmacists who are working patiently and help- 
fully for others, yet of whose work we shall never know. 

We wish them happiness in their labor of love and in full 
measure, the ultimate reward of their self-sacrifice. 




Miss Mary Kennedy 



An Illuminating Circular. 

IT has been said that difficulties are something to overcome. 
That they may be overcome is shown by the experience of 
Miss Mary Kennedy, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., a successful 
woman pharmacist who has not been discouraged by adverse 
circumstances. .^fter Miss Kennedy graduated from high 

school she cherished the hope 
of being a nurse, but as she 
was needed at home she was 
obliged to give up the idea 
for two years, when she was 
free to enter the Louisville 
City Hospital training school 
for nurses, from which she 
graduated in 1900. 

.^fter a year spent at 
Grady Hospital, Atlanta, Ga., 
she accepted a position to 
organize a training school at 
St. Joseph's Hospital, Sa- 
vannah, Ga. After two years 
of this work she found her- 
self very tired, and so decided 
to go into private work to 
better enable herself to teach 
all branches of nursing. A 
year of this work showed her 
that if she were to be an all- 
around expert, she must un- 
derstand p!,armacy, and entering the Southern College of 
Pharmacy, .Atlanta, Ga., she graduated from that institution 
in 1905, and passed the State Board the same year. Her 
average was high enough to be recognized by States giving 
reciprocity. She is also registered in Indiana. While at- 
tending the college of pharmacy she spent her spare time 
nursing. 

It now seemed best for her to return to her home town, and 
soon after her arrival her attention was drawn to a drug store 
for sale. Upon what was considered good advice. Miss Ken- 
nedy, assisted by her father, purchased this store without 
invoicing the stock. Subsequent investigation proved that the 
fixtures which had been represented as solid oak were mostly 
pine and there was considerably less than half the stock which 
they had been led to believe they would find. This was dis- 
couraging for the young lady who had agreed to pay 6 per 
cent, interest, taxes, and insurance upon fictitious values. 

As Miss Kennedy had no experience in retail work, she 
was obliged to employ a registered man who proved to be 
dissipated. She was much discouraged to discover that drugs, 
toilet articles, etc., were being exchanged for strong drink at 
nearby saloons. She was forced to discharge this assistant, 
and conduct the business alone. She was working hard, car- 
rying a heavy burden, and not gaining on the principal of her 
indebtedness although doing fairly well. Determined to im- 
prove the situation, she offered her services as a nurse to the 
local doctors in emergency and needy cases free of cost. This 
brought little response and again she was disappointed. Most 



of the medical men dispensed their own drugs and so had 
little need of her. 

After several more years of struggle people began to call on 
her as an emergency nurse in surgical and medical cases and 
slie became acquainted with every one. She finally became 
assistant at major cases and gave anesthetics for minor cases. 
It was not possible for her to go elsewhere as the failing 
health of her mother prevented, and upon her death Miss 
Kennedy pledged herself not to leave her father. Mr. Ken- 
nedy died a year ago. .Mong with her drug store work she 
accepted a position of visiting nurse for an insurance company 
the past year besides other special work. During the Spring 
Miss Kennedy was unfortunate enough to be in the flooded 
district and lost considerable, having had eight feet of water 
in the store, which is located on one of the prominent corners. 
Since this time she has moved to higher territory about one 
and one-half miles distant, where the prospects of a good 
business are very encouraging. 

During the flood Miss Kennedy was the only woman to 
serve on the relief committee as chairman of furniture and 
fi.xtures. She investigated conditions in about 400 homes, and 
during the actual time of the flood visited all the sick in 
public places, box cars, etc., and signed applications for clothing 
and bedding for the needy. 

At the request of the State Association for the Study and 
Prevention of Tuberculosis, she is now organizing a county 
society. 

In speaking of her experience. Miss Kennedy says: 

"I feel that my experience in the drug business has 
been wonderful, but for the burden I have had to 
carry, which at times seemed an impossibility. I 
would advise women to seek its study but would not 
like to see others share what I have shared. However, 
it has made me a better woman, a better nurse, and 
a better druggist. Perhaps more flattering positions 
would not have done this. As a profession for women, 
I could suggest nothing more interesting, but as a 
conductor of the business it all depends upon the 
woman, finance and location." 



Canadian Girl Gains Success. 



MISS MARION LE PATOUREL, Phm.B., is associated 
with her father in his retail drug business in Burling- 
ton, a thriving place on Burlington Bay near the west- 
ern end of Lake Ontario 

Upon finishing school, Miss Le Patourel found herself with 
a good deal of unoccupied 
time on her hands, and hav- 
ing long been at home in the 
store atmosphere, it was quite 
natural that she should give 
her father such assistance as 
lay within her power at this 
time. 

Seeing her natural aptitude 
for the work, Mr. Le Patourel 
registered his daughter's name 
in the Ontario College of 
Pharmacy at Toronto and in 
due course of time she en- 
tered and successfully com- 
pleted a very satisfactory 
course. She is now prepared 
to render material skilled as- 
sistance and to take her share 
of the responsibility. 

Miss Le Patourel finds the Miss Le Patourel 

work pleasant and not un- 
duly taxing. If a hard day's work sometimes leaves her a bit 
weary, she reflects upon the advantage of association with her 
father and being able to regulate conditions and hours as seems 
best. 

The Canadian woman pharmacist is rapidly coming to the 
fore, and by earnest, conscientious work is demonstrating her 
fitness for the work. 




^%/^mmJM■:iiV!^:iA^li\^J.■^\^i*WJ!^^ 




N. A. M. M. P. Considers Proposed National Legislation. 




Members and Guests of the N A.M.M.P. at the Annual Banquet at the Waldorf-Astoria, New York City. 



DR. HENRY C. LOVIS, president of Seabury & Johnson, 
was unanimously elected president of the National As- 
sociation of Manufacturers of Medicinal Products at 
that organization's third annual meeting held at the Wa'dorf- 
Astoria hotel, Feb. 10 and 11. J. K. Lilly, president of Eli 
Lilly & Co., was elected vice-president; Charles M. Woodruff, 
legal adviser for Parke, Davis & Co., secretary ; A. R. Dohme, 
president of Sharp & Dohme, and Adolph G. Rosengarten, 
treasurer, Powers-Weightmann-Rosengarten Co., members of 
the e.xecutive committee. 

In his annual address. President Frank G. Ryan asserted 
that the association shou'd enter a protest in reference to 
the ruling that sandalwood used in making sandal oil for 
medicinal purposes shall pay a duty of 20 per cent, because 
the oil is used in the making of perfumes. "The proposed 
duty would entirely destroy an industry that even under the 
old tariff was only carried on in the United States for the 
purpose of securing a pure product and not from an eco- 
nomical standpoint." 

President Ryan recommended that the association go on 
record as opposed to any change in the Food and Drugs 
Act which will repeal the so-called variation clause. He 
said: "To those who have not given care ul study to this 
subject the suggestion may seem desirable; but when care- 
fully e.xamined it will be found that its effect will be very 
far-reaching, and, in fact, will prohibit the sale of large 
classes of medicinal products, such as the mother tinctures 
of the homeopathic physician, and specific tinctu''es of the 
eclectics, and any improved pharmaceutical or chemical pro- 
duct not conforming to the standards of the Pharmacopoeia 
or National Formulary, thus stifling all progress until such 
time as those in authority may see fit to recognize such 
improvements." 

Mr. Ryan asked that the association indorse the Harrison 
bill and urge its passage by the Senate. He recommended 
that the organization approve of the Drug Trade Conference 
and continue to lend its support thereto. "The Harrison bill 
was the result of the work of the Drug Trade Conference 
in which this association was represented by a very active 



committee. It is my opinion that the conference has more 
than justified itself and by its work has shown that it pre- 
sents a clearing-house where all branches of the drug trade 
can meet on equal terms and present their views and formu- 
late policies acceptable to all." 

The decision of the Supreme Court on the question of con- 
trol of retail prices by manufacturers of proprietary products 
did not appear to the president to be either wise or just. 
"Certain'y nothing will more quickly kill a product or com- 
modity proprietary in character than the cut-price sale of 
the same by department and retail stores. I am convinced 
that manufacturers should be given the right to control the 
retail price of tiieir products." Mr. Ryan recommended that 
the association approve of the control of retail prices of pro- 
prietary products by the manufacturers thereof. 

In pointing out the importance of diligent work to attain 
uniform Federal and State legislation, Pres'dent Ryan re- 
ferred to the condition brought about by the daily press with 
reference to the sale of bichloride of mercury as a good illus- 
tration. 'We are very likely to have a score of different laws 
in various States and municipalities, each differing from the 
other, where in fact no law on the subject is necessary, the 
agitation of the subject having resulted from sensational 
newspaper articles which in themselves are the real cause of 
most of the deaths by the means referred to. * * * Laws 
on the subject will not protect the care'ess or the person bent 
on taking his own life." 

On account of the increasing exportation of chemical and 
pharmaceutical products and the difficulty of protecting trade- 
marks in foreign countries President Ryan considered it de- 
sirable for the LTnited States to become a party to the agree- 
ment for the registration of international trade-marks through 
the international bureau established at Berne, Switzerland. He 
recommended that the association do all in its power to bring 
to the attention of the proper authorities at Washington the 
desirability of the United States becoming a party to this 
agreement. In concluding his report, President Ryan also 
recommended that the dues for the present year be suspended. 

Secretary Woodruff presented an extensive report which was 



112 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



circulated in printed form among the members. Two firms 
joined the association during the past year and one with- 
drew; there are now 30 members. Mr. Woodruff pointed 
out that the organization's "relations with «ister organizations 
have been exceedingly amiable, and have made membership 
in this Association not only a social but a commercial asset." 
He reviewed legislative work performed in behalf of the as- 
sociation during the past year, referring in particular to the 
defeat of disinfectant legislation in Missouri, the defeat of 
an Iowa measure that would have killed pharmaceutical in- 
dustry in that State, enlarged upon the solicitation for co- 
operation in opposing disinfectant and anti-narcotic legisla- 
tion in Pennsylvania, reported the protest by the secretary to 
President Wilson against the provision of the Civil Appro- 
priation Act forbidding the use of any portion of the appro- 
priation to prosecute violations of the Sherman Anti-trust law 
by certain classes, explained the status of the question respect- 
ing Cuban regulations of pharmacy, elaborated upon the 
attack upon the guaranty clause of the Food and Drugs Act 
and also presented pertinent information upon the poison 
postal regulation, Treasury decision No. 33456, the forced 
disclosure of trade secrets to Federal officers and miscellaneous 
matters. 

In his report as chairman of the committee on legislation, 
Mr. Woodruff pointed out that the pure advertising legisla- 
tion was one of those measures against which there can seem 
to be no reasonable objection, and yet for which there is no 
reason founded in sound government. The distinctions be- 
tween public wrong and private wrong have been entirely lost 
sight of and a crime has been made of an act which naturally 
can never amount to anything more than a private wrong 
and for which a civil remedy has always existed. The mes- 
sage of Governor Haines of Maine in vetoing the bill deserves, 
reported Mr. Woodruff, to be preserved in the archives of 
the association. The Sherley amendment, net weight acts 
affecting drugs, uniform legislation, insecticide legislation, 
anti-narcotic legislation, and portending legislation. Mr. 
WoodrufTs report was referred to the executive committee to 
report back to the whole association their recommendations at 
a subsequent session. 

Mr. Woodruff, J. Fred Windolph and Frank R. Eldred 
were the association's delegates to the House of Delegates 
of the A. Ph. A. The first named presented the report of 
the delegation. Treasurer Henry C. Lovis reported a balance 
on hand to date of $9,197. The report of the delegates to 
the National Drug Trade Conference, Adolph G. Rosengarten, 
Dr. A. R. L. Dohrae and Charles M. Woodruff, was presented 
by Mr. Woodruff. In behalf of the executive committee Mr. 
Woodruff presented a number of resolutions which were 
unanimously adopted, the first referring to the U.S. vs. Parke, 
Davis & Co. suit for mailing heroin contrary to law. They 
were in brief: 

RESOLVED, That this Association recommend to its members 
and the trade generally that, pending a determination of the 
issues involved in this suit no opium or coca leaves, their salts, 
derivatives or preparations be sent by mail; but that pharmacists, 
physicians, dentists and veterinarians be required to secure such 
medicinal preparations, however urgent the case, or however 
remote they may be from express or freight offices, by other 
means of transportation; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That this Association, confiding in his sense of 
fairness and justice, respectfully petition the President of the 
United States to use his influence with the Postmaster General 
to give the drug trade and medical and allied professions the 
deserved relief contemplated by the Congress of the United States 
when it incorporated the present law in the penal code. 

In the preamble to this resolution it is pointed out that manu- 
facturers, wholesale and retail druggists have lawfully mailed 
orders of valuable therapeutic agents which in over doses may 
be considered poisons, to their respective business and profes- 
sional customers, and that this custom so long and generally 
observed has never resulted in a single reported case of injury 
* * • ; that the manufacture, sale and use according to the 
direction of skilful physicians of medicinal agents, the most 
valuable of which are often virulent poisons in large doses, 
is universally recognized as humane and beneficent * * *; that 
the various drug interests of the Country have been and still 
are urging the Postmaster General to promulgate a reasonable 
rule to carry out the intention of Congress not to exclude medi- 
cinal preparations from the mail; that the Postoffice department 
has repeatedly assured the trade that the mailing of medicinal 
preparations containing poisons in small proportions would not 
be considered as coming under the operation of the law; that 
manufacturers and dealers have been continuing a custom to 
the advantage of physicians and dealers, especially those in 
remote places not readily accessible * * *, not dreaming they 
were violating in spirit or letter any positive law as they cer- 
tainly were not any moral law, and that proceedings have re- 
cently been begun against one of the members of the association 



for mailing an alleged poison, by reason of a package of narcotic 
tablets alleged to have been mailed to a regular wholesale 
druggist customer, notwithstanding the existing regulation which 
seems to admit narcotics to the mail. 

By resolution, tlie association went on record as opposed to 
any provision in tlie U.S. P. or N.F. prescribing the shape, 
size or color of mercuric bicliloride or otlier poisonous tablets, 
or shape, size or color of the packages in which they sliall be 
furnished, 

"Human ingenuity cannot devise any plan or scheme more likely 
to prevent poisoning by mistake than the manufacturers have 
already adopted; and we believe that the most effective way to 
further minimize the dangers attending the manufacture, market- 
ing and dispensing of poisonous tablets is to enforce the present 
State laws when necessary, and above all, to inaugurate a cam- 
paign of 'safely tirst* education, for the purpose of eliminating 
the element of human carelessness on the part of the public, which 
carelessness no law or regulation can of itself correct." 

The resolution expresses the belief that more can be accom- 
plislied by urging the public to keep poisons entirely out of 
the houses as much as possible, and suggests legislation making 
the possession of stated poisons, except in some special recep- 
tacle, suitably marked, a misdemeanor. The association 
heartily supported the resolutions passed by the National Drug 
Trade Conference requesting the newspapers of the country 
to omit details with respect to murders and suicides. 

Relative to a recommendation anent duty on sandalwood 
logs contained in the president's address, it was resolved that 
it was the sense of the association that sandalwood logs 
should be so classified as to be admitted free of duty. Sophis- 
tication of sandalwood oil as found in the foreign markets 
for many years has caused some pharmaceutical manufacturers 
to import sandalwood logs from Mysore, India, and distil the 
oil exclusively for manufacturing purposes. It is now pro- 
posed to assess sandalwood in the log as a substance in the 
manufacture of perfumes 20 per cent, ad valorem, whereas 
the primary use of the logs as imported into the United States 
is for medicinal purposes. 

The association reaffirmed its belief in the equity and justice 
of paragraph first of Section 7 of the Pure Food and Drugs 
Act, respecting drugs sold under names recognized in the 
U.S. P. and N.F. 

"This section as it now reads entitles the druggist or physician 
to understand that any such drug conforms to the standards men- 
tioned, unless notice of the actual standard be indicated upon the 
label. . . . The elimination from this paragraph of what is 
known as the 'Variation Provision' would change the entire pur- 
pose of the law and make the paragraph in intent and effect one 
to forbid a druggist from furnishing and a physician from pur- 
chasing a drug of a strength, either lower or higher, that in his 
judgment was preferable to. that recognized in the U.S. P. or N.F. 
. . . The variation clause contained in the Federal Act has 
been incorporated in two-thirds of the States' laws and other 
States are gradually incorporating it in their laws, despite the 
opposition of factions this association believes to be either mis- 
guided or malevolent." 

The above resolution expresses the protest of the association 
against the propaganda to eliminate the "variation clause," 
and urges upon "our Congressmen and the members of otir 
State legislature to study the subject thoroughly and to con- 
sider well the effect of such elimination ; . . . And we 
further urge upon the Legislature of those States which have 
not adopted the provision to do so as soon as possible, point- 
ing out to them the fact that the provision without the varia- 
tion clause has come to be a dead letter as founded in wrong 
and injustice and as probably unconstitutional in that, without 
any reason founded in public policy, it favors one class of 
drugs over another equally worthy." 

The association approved Senate Finance Committee reprint 
of so-called Harrison Bill No. 6282, as amended by the Na- 
tional Drug Trade Conference at its recent meeting in Wash- 
ington Jan. 13, 1914. 

"And we request Section 6 of said bill be amended so that 
1/12 grain heroin shall read H grain heroin; but we oppose efforts 
we understand are being made to make the terra read % grain 
heroin, because in our opinion J4 grain is the proper exemption 
and meets every legitimate requirement of medicine and phar- 
macy; while it is the exemption usually allowed in State laws." 

The association approved of the Drug Trade Conference, 
authorized its support thereto, authorized the continuance of 
the present delegates to the conference until after the first 
meeting of the conference in 1915, and the president was 
authorized to appoint three delegates whose terms of office 
shall begin immediately after the above extended terms of 
office, have been completed. 

The executive committee was instructed to take what steps 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL ERA 



113 



may seem advisable to promote the joining of the United 
States of America as a party to the convention for inter- 
national trade-marks through the International Bureau estab- 
lished at Berne, Switzerland. 

The association reaffirmed its approval of the efforts of the 
National One-Cent Letter Postage Association at Cleveland, 
Ohio, to secure a rate of one cent on letters, etc., where the 
rate of two cents now prevails. 

A memorial respecting the operation of the Federal serum 
laws was adopted. It pointed out that : 

"In serum therapy the field of opinion is just as large with 
respect to product and processes. . . . This association holds 
that when Congress passed these Serum Acts it intended only to 
assure the public that serums, vaccines, toxins, antitoxins, etc., 
should be made by skilled experts under conditions insuring the 
highest degree of quality and purity and the greatest possible free- 
dom from foreign contaminating substances; and to that end to license 
the laboratory rather than the product issued from the laboratory; 
to authorize a system of inspection and inquiry that should de- 
termine the efficiency of those by whom and the sanitary conditions 
under which these products were produced. It did not intend to grant 
any power to compel the disclosure of lawful trade secrets; nor 
the power to enter the field of controversy and exclude from 
commerce any product that in the opinion of the licensing power, 
was not efficacious, or not made by a favored process. 
This association submits that the facilities possessed by the 
manufacturers are equal to those of the Government: . . .; 
and that there is no reason founded in public policy why_ the 
processes and products approved by these experts should be officially 
condemned because their opinions may not conform to the opinions 
of those w^ho, for the time being, happen to be in power. 
Trade secrets disclosed to an official inspector soon become common 
property — a distinct discouragement to that initiative and enter- 
prise which it is one of the objects of this association to foster 
and promote." (A penal provision should be introduced into the 
acts referred to to prevent the disclosure of information of the above 
character.) "This association further believes that these laws 
should be amended so as to make it clear beyond contention that 
nothing contained in them shall give the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury and the Secretary of Agriculture, respectively, or any officer 
or'board operating under them, the power to compel any propagator 
or manufacturer to disclose his processes; or to follow and adopt 
a particular process; or to discard the marketing of a particular 
form of serum, toxin, vaccine, antitoxin, etc. 

Bv resolution, the association petitioned Congress to pass 
H.R. Bill 10,310, introduced Dec. 11, 1913, and referred to 
the committee on patents as being absolutely necessary to 
correct the evils of the act approved Sept. 18, 1913, entitled: 
"An act providing for the free importation of articles intended 
for foreign buildings and exhibits at the Panama-Pacific In- 
ternational Exhibition, and for the protection of foreign 
exhibitors." 

.\ resolution, proposed by John F. Queeny, of the Mon- 
santo Chemical Works, was adopted and referred to the 
executive committee. It instructed the secretary to take up 
with the proper authorities in Washington the question if the 
ruling affecting saccharin should not be changed, so as to be 
in accordance with the findings of the Referee Board. 

The subject of changing the date of annual meeting to the 
first week of February, instead of the second, due to Lin- 
coln's Birthday falling in the latter, was left to the executive 
committee for action. 

Delegates were received as follows: .American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, Prof. Joseph P. Remington; Proprietary 
Association of America, Orient C. Pinckney and Harry B. 
Thompson, attorney, the latter addressing the association ; 
American .\ssociation of Pharmaceutical Chemists, George C. 
Hall, and National Association of Retail Druggists, Samuel 
C. HeiuTf. Professor Remington also delivered an interesting 
address on "The Present Status of the Pharmacopoeia." 

The association held its annual banquet at the Waldorf- 
Astoria, about 55 members and guests attending. The speak- 
ers were Hon. Herman A. Metr, former Congressman Wm. S. 
Beimett, Chief Judge Isaac Franklin Russell and Caswell A. 
Mayo. Henry C. Lovis, the new president, was installed in 
office. Ex-president Ryan officiated as toastmaster. Con- 
gressman Metz talked on pending anti-trust legislation, and 
urged the members to keep in touch with the administration's 
measures in this direction as they would affect their business 
as well as all other commercial enterprises. Former Con- 
gressman Bennett made a speech full of wit and humor, but 
based his remarks upon the serious contention that now, more 
than ever before, is the time Congress needs "specialists," 
men who possessed intimate knowledge of the industry and 
trade with which they were connected. Judge Russell pointed 
out how difficult it was to discover the source of supply for 
the narcotics used by crimina's detained in prison. He be- 
lieved it would soon be made impossible to obtain narcotics 



except in the legitimate channels of the drug trade. Mr. Mayo 
urged the necessity of well-conceived and effective legislation 
for the control of narcotic sales, deploring the tendency toward 
haphazard "regulation" on the part of legislators not well 
grounded in the facts as to the "evil" they were attempting 
to control. 

Those who were present at the banquet, the majority of 
whom were also in daily attendance at the convention, were: 

Edward Zink, of Eli Lilly & Co.; Ernest W. Bradford, 
P.. A. A., Indianapolis; L. N. Upjohn, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, 
Mich.; Dr. Light; W. E. Upjohn, Upjohn Co.; A. M. Hance, 
Hance Bros. & WTiite, Philadelphia; Oscar Smith, Parke, 
Davis & Co.; H. B. Thompson, P. A. A.; S. C. Henry, N.A. 
R.D., Philadelphia; B. L. Murray, Merck & Co., Rahway, 
N. J.; E. H. Nelson, Nelson, Baker & Co., Detroit; Robert J. 
Seabury, Seabury & Johnson, New York : Dr. Hy. C. Lovis, 
Seaburj- & Johnson; Judge Isaac Franklin Russell; Dr. A. 
R. L. Dohme, Sharp & Dohme, Baltimore; Hon. Herman A. 
Metz; Frank G. Ryan, Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit; Hon. Wra. 
S. Bennett ; Charles M. Woodruff, Parke, Da\Ts & Co. ; Cas- 
well A. Mayo, president-elect A.Ph.A. ; Frank E. Halliday, 
N.W.D.A.; George C. Hall, A.A.P.C, Zemmer Co., Pitts- 
burgh ; George G. Williams, E. L. Patch Co., Boston ; Way- 
land Steams, Frederick Steams & Co., Detroit; W. W. Jones; 

D. O. Haynes, D. O. Ha\-nes & Co., New York; J. W. Dr>s- 
dale, J. W. Drysdale & Co., London; R. C. Stofer, Norwich 
Pharmacal Co., Norwich, N. Y. : J. Fred Windolph, Norwich 
Pharmacal Co. ; E. L. Benjamin, New York City ; J. B. 
Dakin ; Jesse L. Hopkins, J. L. Hopkins & Co., New York 
City; J. H. Cox, Tilden Co., New Lebanon, N. Y. ; Chas. J. 
Lynn, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis; C. A. Loring, Powers- 
Weightmaim-Rosengarten Co., Philadelphia; Frank M. Bell, 
Armour & Co., Chicago; Romaine Pierson, New York; Frank 
L. McCartney, Sharp & Dohme, New York; Mr. Foy; T. E. 
Grossman ; E. J. Kennedy, Jr., New York ; W. P. Steams, 
Steams & WTiite Co., Chicago; Dwight F. Scott, National 
Vaccine & Antitoxin Institute, New York; A. E. Remick, 
Bauer & Black, Chicago; Dr. A. S. Burdick, Abbott Alka- 
loidal Co., Chicago; H. J. Woodward, .'Mlaire, Woodward & 
Co., Peoria, 111.; H. C. Moore; Louis Ruhl. Roessler & 
Hasslacher Chemical Co., New York ; George Simon. Heyden 
Chemical Works, New York; E. J. Moller; Robert Du Bois; 
John F. Queeny, iMonsanto Chemical Works, St. Louis; Mr. 
Wasserscheid, Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis; Chas. 

E. Caspari, St. Louis; Franklin Black, Charles F. Pfizer & 
Co., Brooklyn. 



GETTING BEADY FOR THE N.A.E.D. 



The Philadelphia Retailers' .\ssociation are making their 
plans for the National convention to be held in that city 
during the week of Aug. 17. The following committees have 
been appointed to take charge of the arrangements: 

Local committee. Charles Rehfuss, chairman; J. H. Barlow, 
secretary; D. J. Reese, treasiu-er; exhibition, M. D. Allen, 
chairman; R. W. White, S. B. Davis, J. H. Barlow; regis- 
tration, D. J. Reese, chairman; F. W. Fluck, George W. Fehr, 
W. A. Carpenter; entertainment. Otto Krauss, chairman; 
W. E. Lee, O. W. Osterlund, Theodore Campbell. 

The work is progressing rapidly and all indications point to 
a successful convention. The committee on exhibition have 
already received numerous applications for booths, some of the 
early birds being The Welch Grape Juice Co., Borden's 
Malted Milk Co., E. R. Squibb & Sons, Valentine H. Smith 
& Co., Johnson & Johnson, Smith, Kline & French, Colgate 
& Co., Tryalax Mfg. Co., DeVilbiss Mfg. Co. and the French 
Lick Springs Hotel Co. 

BOSTON CHAPTER, W.O.N.A.B.D. 



Boston Chapter of the W.O.N.A.R.D. met Feb. 19 at the 
Hotel Vendome, and the members were given an instructive 
lecture on "Mexico" by Mrs. Eudora Utley, who has spent 
much time in that agitated country. Music was furnished by 
Miss Mildred Noonan. At the social hour following Mrs. 
Jessie Waterhouse, Mrs. J. H. Green, Mrs, Trueman Hayes 
and Mrs. Bertha Morrison poured tea. Mrs. .Adelaide M. 
Godding. 1st president of the W.O.N.A.R.D., was a guest, 
together with a number of presidents of women's organizations 
in Boston 



lU 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



Mostly Personal 



Dr. W. A. Hoelscher, Fairy Godfather. 



— Dr. William A. Hoelscher, who was formerly a vice- 
president o' the St.I.R.D. A., and is now the president, is 
one of those physicians who has made a success both of the 
practice of medicine and the conducting of retail drug stores. 
The biggest thing in Dr. Hoelscher's career is the fact that he 
has helped others to success in building 

a his own success. When a very young 
man he often wished that some generous 
man of means would give him a boost 
on the road to a career, but that gen- 
erous party didn't come around. Dr. 
Hoelscher buckled down to the grind, 
however, and determined to be that 
generous man he was looking for him- 
self, and after a while he arrived. The 
man who had wished for a boost found 
in himself the man to give himself the 
boost and he boosted. Result, he soon 
had a drug store of his own. He built 
up his business until he had three 

clerks, No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3. His 
Dr. Hoelscher store organization was so proficient he 
could go right ahead with his medical 
practice, and he did for IS years. During this 15 years he 
was adding drug store after drug store to a chain of stores, 
doing for other young men that thing he had once wished 
some other good fellow of means would do for him. His plan 
worked like this: After No. 1 clerk had worked several years 
and began growing a hardy ambition to own a store of his 
own. Dr. Hoelscher organized himself into a committee of 
encouragement and gave financial assistance to Clerk No. 1 
in opening a store of his own. A year or so later Clerk No. 2, 
who had become Clerk No. 1 in Store No. 1, felt an ambition 
to have a store of his own. Again Good Fairy Dr. Hoelscher, 
remembering the day when he had wished for some one to 
give him a boost, revived that old committee of one — himself — • 
which he had originally formed to set up the first Clerk No. 1 
in business and then he set up the second Clerk No. 1 in a 
store of his own. There were now three Hoelscher stores. 
Old Clerk No. 3 had moved up to No. 2 and then No. 1, and 
pretty soon he was given a boost in a store of his own. And 
so it went on until 12 clerks had worked their way up to a 
store of their own, each receiving assistance from Dr. Hoel- 
scher. This was how the Dr. Hoelscher chain of drug stores 
came into e.xistence. 

Says Dr. Hoelscher: "It wasn't purely a financial propo- 
sition; it was a mutual working together for myself and for 
the men successively in my employ whom I trusted. The 
remarkable thing about this experience is that not one of the 
men whom I boosted failed to make good. Of course, I was 
very careful. I demanded that my men be not only capable 
but also honest. A man may have great ability but if he is 
not honest, he won't make a success, or at least he won't do, 
and his employer soon finds him out. A man may be honest 
but not have ability. Now that is unfortunate. It takes 
both honesty and ability to succeed. I watched my clerks for 
these qualities. Sometimes a clerk was promoted to No. 2 
before I found that he did not have just the business capacity 
I demanded or the proper understanding of his profession, 
but as a rule no man unfitted for the business got so far as 
No. 2 before I discovered his weakness in the drug business. 
You know, some men get into the drug business who have 
fine qualities both in character and in business ability who 
are not just peculiarly fitted for success in the drug business. 
My policy worked so well that I always had good, even ex- 
cellent, men in No. 1 clerkship. Now nearly all of the 12 
have paid out, and I no longer have a big chain of stores. 
In fact, my principal interest now is in my old drug store, 
the Phoenix pharmacy, at Jefferson and Cass avenues." 

Dr. Hoelscher has been for several years in the cigar jobbing 
business. He wanted to find a good business for his son, 
William A. Hoelscher, Jr., now about 18 years old. The lad 



didn't take much to the drug business. Dr. Hoelscher got in 
behind him and pushed the cigar jobbing business of William 
.•\. Hoclsclier Cigar Co,, now located in North Third street, 
a few doors north of Olive street. Recently Taylor Stickney, 
of the Stickney brothers, who until a short time ago were in 
the cigar jobbing business in St. Louis, became associated with 
Dr. Hoelscher in the Hoelscher Cigar Company and Mr. 
Stickney is now the active manager. Dr. Hoelscher will now 
be able to retire to his drug store, his first and his real love, 
while Mr. Stickney guides his son through the cigar jobbing 
business. Mr. Stickney's former firm w-as one of the biggest 
jobbing houses in the country. The company will soon move 
to No. 311 North Broadway, in the heart of the business 
center downtown. There will be a retail department in con- 
nection with the jobbing business. Dr. Hoelscher, relieved 
from his duties in llie cigar business, and vi'ith only the care 
of his drug store, will now be able to give his almost undivided 
attention to the affairs of the St.L.R.D.-'V. 



The Busiest Druggist in Milwaukee. 




THE best-known druggist in Wisconsin? Why, Sol A. 
Eckstein, of course. And Mr. Eckstein enjoys the dis- 
tinction of having been 40 years in business in one 
location — 40 years on Jan. 16, 1914. Twoscore years agOj 
then a timid lad of 15, iNIr. Eckstein entered the drug store 
of I. N. Morton in Milwaukee, 
told the latter that he had seen 
a "Boy Wanted" sign in the 
window, and then further 
stated that he was the boy. 
He was. He was told to take 
his coat off and begin putting 
things to rights in the store — 
and he's had his coat off the 
greater part of the time since. 
He did not ask what his salary 
was to be. He wanted the 
job, and he was satisfied that 
the wages would be in keeping 
with what he did. He is in 
the same store today — but, he 
owns it. Before the end of 
his first week he was promoted 
from errand boy to cashier — 
that is, when he was not de- 
livering parcels he was making S. A. Eckstein 
change, and when there was 

nothing to do along either of these specialized lines he was 
sweeping the floors or washing bottles. 

A delivery boy in Milwaukee 40 years ago was a busy youth 
when he . did go out. There were neither motorcycles nor 
electric cars, and there was but one horse car line — but boys 
did not get carfares often in those days. Mr. Eckstein was 
both intelligent and wideawake. He made no mistakes either 
in handling money or delivering parcels; he was honest; and 
his stipend at the end of the first week was just an even $2. 
(Today he is paying errand boys two and three times this 
amount.) 

As to his progress from errand boy in the Morton drug 
store to the presidency of the Wright Drug Co. at 112 Wis- 
consin street, why, ask any Middle West druggist. Mr. Eck- 
stein is a true cosmopolitan ; he knows his New York and 
his Chicago (and all the country in between and beyond) ; 
he belongs to many National associations, and the roster of 
his affiliations reads like a page from a directory. Read them: 
First vice-president of the National Association of Retail Drug- 
gists; president of Post B, Travelers' Protective .Association; 
chaiiman press committee, Wisconsin division, T.P.A. (NO, 
this sketch did not come from the committee) ; chairman of 
the executive committee of the Milwaukee Druggists' Asso- 
ciation; supreme representative of the Royal Arcanum; chair- 
man of the Sane Fourth of July Commission ; chairman of the 
legislative committee of the Wisconsin Druggists' Association. 
He retired from the presidency of the latter body a year ago, 
having held that office for two years, being the only president 
re-elected since 1887. Mr. Eckstein is also the president of 
the Temple B'ne Jeshurum. 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



115 



— Julius H. Kahn, proprietor of Kahn's drug store, at 
DeKalb, III., was a boy to have gladdened the heart of Mark 
Twain, He was born in Quincy, III., in 1870, and people of 
that city still remember how when he was but a toddler he 
investigated the gas coming from a sewer manhole with a 
match he had purloined — and sent a whole block of catch- 
basin lids aeroplaning toward heaven, when the gas exploded. 
Not dismayed by this practical e."?periment in pyrotechnics he 
a little later touched a match to a pile of dry leaves in the 
streets and nearly burned the town down, since it was neces- 
sary to send across the Mississippi to neighboring towns to get 
fire apparatus to extinguish the resulting conflagration. But 
schooling turned his thoughts into other channels, and follow- 
ing his common school training he entered the School of 
Pharmacy of Northwestern University, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1890 with honors, and was then made an assistant in 
the chemical department. At this time the old Honore building 
housed some of the best-known and most brilliant physicians 
and surgeons in the State, and they had a private drug store 
on an upper floor, which did not cater to the retail trade. 
Mr. Kahn was placed in charge of this, and when the build- 
ing was torn down and the "staff" moved to the Venetian 
building in Washington street, Mr. Kahn retained his position 
as head of the drug room. He assisted in many experiments 
and was the assistant of Dr. J. B. Murphy, the famous sur- 
geon, when the latter discovered "lumpy jaw." Having some 
trouble with his eyes, and determined to know what the trouble 
was, Dr. Kahn took a course in optics at the Northern Illinois 
School of Ophthalmogy at Chicago. Later he began a course 
in medicine at the Chicago Medical College, but the illness of 
Mrs. Kahn forced him to leave Chicago and go to a smaller 
town. Later he went to DeKalb, where he purchased a store, 
and he is now recognized as one of the most enterprising 
pharmacists in that hustling city. He does not push patent 
medicines, but in his handling of side lines and in the opera- 
tion of his soda fountain — one of the finest in the city — has 
made a reputation all through the State. 

— -John S. Alley, who has just been made vice-president 
of the Riker-Jaynes Co., was tendered a banquet Feb. 16 in 
the State suite of the Copley Plaza Hotel by the executives of 
50 New England stores of the company. It was a rather in- 
formal affair, and the chief aim was to express to Mr. Alley 
the esteem in v.hich he is held by his fellow workers in the 
Riker-Jaynes Company. And they did tell him so, and then 
they went further, and presented him with a beautiful diamond 
ring, a gift in which every executive present had a part. 
W. G. Swett, the dean of the organization, made the presen- 
tation speech, and Mr. Alley made a feeling and modest 
response. Mr. Alley is to be general manager of the entire 
chain of Riker-Jaynes stores in New England, and the Riker- 
Hegeman stores in Northern New York. His rise in the 
Riker-Hegeman-Jaynes syndicate has been steady and swift. 
He is a native of Marlboro, Mass., and went to Boston 16 
years ago as a clerk in Jaynes drug stores, under the personal 
direction of the late C. P. Jaynes. He was promoted to 
manager, then buyer, and now will be general manager of 
more than 100 stores. 

— Fred W. Connolly, a retail druggist at Dorchester, and 
instructor in pharmacy at the Franklin Union, contributed 
$250 to Mayor Curley's "Boom Boston" fund, and Louis K. 
Liggett, president of the United Drug Company, contributed 
$1000. Mr. Liggett was one of the features at a "boom" 
meeting Feb. 16, and, incidentally, he told the distinguished 
company of financiers and capitalists something of the diffi- 
culties he encountered in Boston when he was starting the 
United Drug Company. Boston bankers, he said, not only 
would not loan him money, but discouraged him in his project, 
so that for the first few years he had to do most of his banking 
in New York. Mr. Liggett has been appointed a member of 
the "Boom Boston" committee of 25 by Mayor Curley. 

— PMladelphia druggists expressed considerable surprise 
when Gov. Tener failed to reappoint Dr. Christopher Koch as 
a member of the State Pharmaceutical Board. Dr. O. W. 
Osterlund, a druggist at 46th and Baltimore avenue, succeeded 
him. Dr. Koch was vice-president of the board, and for 
several years past has made a strenuous fight against violators 
of the drug laws. With Samuel M. Clement, Jr., a Philadel- 
phia attorney. Dr. Koch prosecuted many cocaine and heroin 
venders, and he is credited with being directly responsible for 
curb'ng the traffic to a great extent. It is well known that 



Dr. Koch met with considerable opposition while in office and 
that his opponents made determined efforts to oust him. 

— Ira H. Bander, of Providence, R. I., manager of the 
Massachusetts stores of the Louis K. Liggett Co., was given 
a bachelor dinner Feb. 6 at the Hotel Westminster in Boston, 
in celebration of his approaching marriage. The dinner was 
arranged by C. A. Williams, manager of the cigar department 
of the United Drug Co., W. C. Watt and T. B. Langdon. 
Julius S. Kahn, of Brookline, was toastmaster, and H. R. 
Andrew, of Providence, and Fred L. Tompkins, of Brookline, 
were the chief speakers. The entertainment of the evening was 
provided by professional talent, and one of the features was 
the arrival of three huge marriage bells, out of which stepped, 
to the surprise of the party, three handsome young women. 

— Alvah P. Greave, proprietor of the Eagle drug store, 
Boyertown, Pa., was severely burned recently through the 
ignition of a compound containing lard which he was preparing 
in the back room of his store. Throwing the blazing material 
under the water faucet he started for the cellar to quench the 
flames in his clothing, but failing to do this, rushed across 
the street to the hotel, where assistance was given him and 
the blaze put out, but not before he was severely burned about 
the face and hands. The fire did $3000 damage to the store 
and stock, and six firemen were overcome by smoke. 

— John Graham, the veteran druggist of Portage, Wis., 
has been engaged in the drug business in the same stand at 
Portage for the past 61 years. He is now almost 81 years old. 
Mr. Graham began business when Portage was only a village 
and was known as Fort Winnebago. A bank failure during 
the panic of 1873 swept away his possessions, just after he 
had completed the erection of the building which he now 
occupies. He rallied from this and other financial depres- 
sions and built up one of the most prosperous drug trades in 
central Wisconsin. 

— Boy Gunn, a pharmacy clerk in Grove & Linger's drug 
store, at Main and Exchange streets, Buffalo, was badly mauled 
by gunmen, who entered the store, made a purchase, and, 
when his back was turned, covered him with a revolver. 
Gunn, however, grappled with the men and was badly beaten, 
after which the cash register was rifled of $40. During the 
encounter one of the hold-up men bit Gunn in the cheek, 
lacerating it quite badly. He was given medical attention and 
removed to his home. The thugs got away. 

— William R. Copeland, of New York, has been ap- 
pointed chief chemist and bacteriologist for the Milwaukee 
sewerage commission at a salary of $3600 per year. Mr. Cope- 
land graduated from Harvard in 1892 and since that time has 
held numerous responsible positions throughout cities of the 
East. His last position before Coming to Milwaukee was that 
of chief chemist and bacteriologist for the Metropolitan sewer 
commission of New York. 

— Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Lynn, of Indianapolis, sailed for 
Europe from New York, Feb. 12. Mr. Lynn is general man- 
ager of Eli Lilly & Co., and while the trip is essentially 
one of business, Mr. and Mrs. Lynn will combine it with 
pleasure in their travels. Some little time will be spent in 
England, and an extensive tour of the Continent is planned. 
It is expected that Mr. Lynn will be absent several months. 

— Henry J. Landers, druggist, 8204 Alabama avenue, 
St. Louis, and his wife and daughter and a nephew were 
awakened recently at 5 a.m. to find the store under their 
apartment on fire. The parents wrapped the baby in a blanket 
and with the nephew fled in their night clothes. The drug 
stock and house furnishings were destroyed and the building 
was damaged. 

— Harold Baehenroth, manager for the past year of the 
Kenosha, Wis., store of the Kradwell Drug Co., of Racme, 
Wis., has resigned and has left for Minneapolis, where he has 
accepted a similar position. E. J. Hayek, with the Kradwell 
Drug Co. for the past seven years and recently manager of the 
company's Center street store in Racine, has succeeded Mr. 
Baebenroth. 

— Theodore Hoyer, who a number of years ago was em- 
ployed as a druggist by J. F. Sullivan, of Hurley, Wis., is now 
a teacher of languages in Tokyo, Japan, and was an eye- 
witness of the recent earthquake and volcanic eruptions in that 
country. After leaving Hurley, Mr. Hoyer entered the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, where he graduated last June. 



116 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



— W. W. Curtis, of Birmingham, Ala., recently visited 
New York. Mr. Curtis is one of Sharp & Dohme's general 
representatives, and has working under him about 20 sales- 
men who cover the Central Southern States. He reports trade 
conditions were quite satisfactory during 1913, and indicates 
that the druggists of his section are optimistic as to the present 
business outlook. 

— P. E. Herman, general representative of Sharp & 
Dohrae, with headquarters at Cincirmati, Ohio, recently visited 
the firm's laboratories at Baltimore. He was accompanied by 
two of his Kentucky representatives, Messrs. Oscar Paul and 
J. B. Severs. Before returning to their respective territories 
they visited New York and other Eastern cities. 

— Oscar C. Stockmeyer, who has been connected with 
the Huber Bros. Drug Co. of Fond du Lac, Wis., for the 
past sL^ years, has resigned to accept a position with a phar- 
macy at Two Rivers, Wis., his former home. He has been 
succeeded at Fond du Lac by Fred B. Staeben, formerly of 
Beloit, Wis., but recently of Milwaukee. 

— C. F. Wenneker has been chosen as chairman of the 
Manufacturers' Committee of the St. Louis Business Men's 
League, and C. P. Walbridge as chairman of the Taxation 
committee. George R. Merrell is a member of the Legislation 
(Municipal) committee, and Vincent L. Price a member of 
the Conmierce committee. 

— J. W. Drysdale, of J. W. Drysdale & Sons, import and 
e.\port commission agents, 16 Fish street Hill, London, Eng- 
land, is spending a few weeks in this countr>'. Mr. Drysdale 
is well known t'^ aiany large buyers of drugs and chemicals, 
many of whom have had business relations with him for the 
past 30 years or more. 

— Fred A. Hubbard and Thomas W. White, both of 
Newton, and who are considered among the most prominent 
druggists of Massachusetts, had much to do with the organi- 
zation of a board of trade in Newton, Mass., last month. 
Mr. Hubbard was elected president, and Mr. White one of the 
vice-presidents. 

— Harry B. Mason, of Detroit, spoke at the Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy recently, to an audience of 250 
people, on "Business .Accounting in the Drug Store." Dean 
Theodore J. Bradley was the chairman and a musical pro- 
gramme and refreshments were also features of the evening. 

— J. H. Sours, a druggist of Olivet, Mich., had a narrow 
escape from losing his eyesight recently when some concentrated 
carbolic acid he was boiling exploded, following the addition 
of a little water. He was very badly burned about the face, 
but his glasses protected his eyes in large measure. 

— ■ Joseph Brown, of the drug firm of Rosseau & Brown, 
Woonsocket, R. I., has brought suit against the N.Y., N.H. 
k H. railroad for $2000 for damages for injuries received by 
being crushed between a trunk and the baggage car of a train 
at Point Pleasant station, Webster, last September. 

— -Miss Marie C. Keichel, of Indianapolis, and Mrs. 
Bertha H. Ellis, of Terre Haute, Ind., were among those who 
were applicants for registration as pharmacists at the January 
examination given by the Indiana State Board of Registration 
and Examination in Pharmacy, in Fndianapolis 

— Irving P. Gammon, former president of the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy, presided at the annual reimion 
of the Massachusetts Alumni Association of Bridgton Academy, 
at the Quincy House, Boston, on Jan. 20. Mrs. Gammon and 
Irving P. Gammon, Jr., were also present. 

— Cbarles Wright, manager of the Hall & Lyon drug 
store in Essex street, Salem, Mass., has been transferred in 
line of promotion to one of the big Liggett stores in Boston, 
while Frank B. Sullivan has been transferred from Boston to 
the management of the Salem store. 

— Professor John Uri Lloyd, of Cincinnati, was the 
principal speaker before the annual meeting of the South- 
western Ohio Eclectic Medical Association, held at the Hotel 
Sterling, Cincinnati, recently. He spoke upon the lives of 
many prominent medical men. 

— Charles F. Cutler, president of the Eastern Drug Co., 
of Boston, and Stephen L. Bartlett, importer and agent of a 
Dutch chocolate, have both been re-elected trustees of the 
Home Savings Bank of Boston. Mr. Cutler is also a member 
of the investment committee. 



— Warren K. Potter, who has been confined to the 
Brooklyn Hospital for more than two months, with typhoid 
fever, will be well enough to leave the hospital for his home 
at an early date. Mr. Potter is a member of the sales staff 
of Sharp 5c Dohme. 

— Georg-e Wagoner, who for the past four years has rep- 
resented the National Ammonia Co. in New York and vicinity, 
has resigned his position to take up scientific farming. He 
was presented with a silver loving cup by his co-workers on 
January 31. 

— Lewis Marks, United States Food and Drug Inspector 
for Eastern Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and North 
and South Carolina, will hereafter make Chattanooga his 
headquarters, being located in the Federal building. 

— E. T. Curtis, manager of the St. Louis branch of 
Sharp & Dohme, was a recent visitor in New York City. Mr. 
Curtis also spent several days in the firm's laboratories at 
Baltimore, Md., before returning to St. Louis. 

— Edgar E. Barnes, a drug clerk of Indianapolis, was 
married to Miss Elizabeth E. Kretz, a stenographer of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, at the court house at Lawrenceburg, Ind., re- 
cently. They will reside in Indianapolis. 

— Wilhelm Bodemann, who was taken ill with pleurisy 
the latter part of January, was well enough to attend the an- 
nual meeting of the Tampa-Cuba Cigar Co., at Tampa, Fla., 
where he was re-elected vice-president. 

— H. E. Hobbs, a Meyer Bros. Drug Co. department 
manager, St. Louis, recently suffered an accident to one of his 
eyes, but it was stated at the big jobbing house that he was 
expected to recover full use of the eye. 

— Lewis C. Ladon, a retail druggist at South Bend, Ind,, 
recently inherited a package of old stocks and bonds. He took 
them to New York to determine their value and has received 
an offer of $250,000 for them. 

— Fred Schmidt, who was for a number of years connected 
with the drug store of Voss & Ehlers, of Cincinnati, has 
purchased the store of the late Fred Oswald at Wheeler and 
Warner streets, that city. 

— . Harry E. Robertson, manager of the Frederick Brown 
Co., No. 17 North 6th street, Philadelphia, has been confined 
to his room for several weeks, suffering from a severe case 
of rheumatism. 

— William G. Nebig, a prominent Philadelphia druggist, 
at 18th and Susequehanna avenue, is making a tour of the 
Hawaiian Islands. It i? expected that he will be aw'ay several 
months. 

— Henry L. Hudson, holding to the motto, "The best is 
none too good for the sick," has made his drug store at 5600 
Delmar boulevard one of the finest in the West End, St. Louis. 

— Edward W. Steinicke, of 129 Vernon avenue. Long 
Island City, has opened up a branch store at Astoria. The 
building is new, and the store-room is very attractively fitted. 

— Dr. M. C. Cornell, of Dallas, Tex,, with Mrs. Cornell, 
were recent visitors at New York and Baltimore. Dr. Cornell 
has charge of Sharp & Dohme's sales force in Texas. 

— John M. Fallon, one of the vice-presidents of the Ohio 
Valley Druggists' .Association, has returned from Birmingham, 
Ala., where he spent a delightful 10-days' vacation trip. 

— A. H. Philps, son of the well-known druggist, W. H. 
Philps, Morris Park, L. I., has accepted a position with the 
A. F. Douden pharmacy, of Jamaica, L. I. 

— L. F. W. Seifert, the retired pharmacist of City Island, 
and his son, Carl, are absent from the city on a three weeks' 
excursion to Panama and the West Indies. 

— Martin Neumann, of Astoria, L. I., has been suffering 
with the grippe for the last 10 days. We are pleased to report 
that he is able to be at his store again. 

— Miss Lorraine Meyer, daughter of A. C. Meyer, of 
Meyer Bros, Drug Co., St. Louis, recently gave a dance party 
at the home. 3954 Flora boulevard. 

— Mrs. William E. Lee, secretary of the W.O.N. A.R.D., 
held her annual reception to the Philadelphia chapter at her 
home in 24th street on Feb. 5. 

— M. Curiel, of the Crown Cordial & E.xtract Co., is 
making a six wieks' trip to the Pacific Coast. 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



117 



— W. C. Hayhurst, manager of the St. Louis branch of 
Parke-Davis, who was seriously ill for some time, is on the 
road to recovery. 

— - Dr. E. A. North and Dr. Hoses Schohz were speakers 
before the meeting of the Cincinnati Academy of Medicine at 
Cincinnati recently. 

— . W. W. Chubbuck, who is the proprietor of several 
stores along Rockaway Beach, is opening a branch store at 
Freeport, L. I. 

— Albert Plaut, of Lehn & Fink, who has been abroad in 
the interests of his firm, is expected back in New York early 
this month. 

, — A. M. Ochse, sales manager, Meyer Bros. Drug Co., 
St. Louis, who has been ill, is reported recovering. 



Obituaries 



Samuel Jones Tilden. |';: 



SAMUEL JONES TILDEN, president of the pharma- 
ceutical manufacturing house of the Tilden Company, 
New Lebanon, N. Y., and fiscal supervisor of State 
charities since June, 1912, died Feb. 17 at a hospital in 
Albany. He was 61 years of age and had been ill for more 

than a year. He was a 
nephew of former-Governor 
Samuel J. Tilden, who was 
the Democratic candidate for 
President of the United States 
in the campaign of 1876, and 
although he was not able to 
participate in the exercises 
commemorative of the 100th 
anniversary of his uncle's 
birth on Feb. 8, he watched 
the procession from his win- 
dow. He had spent the 
greater part of his life in New 
Lebanon, N. Y., as the execu- 
tive head of the company 
founded originally by former- 
Governor Tilden, but he oc- 
casionally visited the branch 
offices of the company in 
Mk. S. J. Tilden. St. Louis, in charge of Vice- 

President T. B. Glazebrook. 
Mr. Tilden was appointed fiscal supervisor by Governor Dix. 




Constantine G. A. Loder. 



PHIL.\DELPHIA'S most widely-known druggist, Constan- 
tine G. A. Loder, died on Feb. 12, at his residence, 5104 
Pulaski avenue, of pneumonia, after an illness of only 
one week. Mr. Loder's death came as a great shock to his 
many friends. He personally conducted the business at 16th 
and Chestnut streets up until the time 
of his illness, and the store is now in 
the hands of his son-in-law, Edward 
Wiener, an attorney, temporarily. 

Mr. Loder first came into prominence 
when he fought, first single-handed, and 
then with the aid of the Government, 
the so-called "Drug Trust," and obtained 
a verdict for $62,214. .\t this time he 
was one of the most flagrant 'ate-cutters 
in Philadelphia. He thus incurred the 
enmity of the other druggists, both re- 
tail and wholesale. It was alleged by 
him that there was a combination formed 
against him, in violation of the Sherman 
Anti-Trust Act, which prevented him 
from obtaining certain supplies. He 
applied to the Government to take up 
his case and, on their refusing, instituted a suit for $100,000 
against the National Wholesale Druggists' Association. After 




all the evidence had been introduced the Government took up 
Mr. Loder's side of the case, and after a long legal battle was 
awarded the verdict. In a later case the Government used the 
same evidence. Much of the animosity towards him has been 
swept aside the last few years, as the result of retail druggists 
almost as a whole indulging in price-cutting to some extent. 
Mr. Loder was born in Stroudsburg, Pa. about 64 years 
ago. He was educated there and entered' a local pharmacy, 
where he learned the profession. He then went to Philadel- 
phia in search of his fortune and located at 16th and Chestnut 
streets. His wife died several years ago. The body was 
buried from his late residence, 5104 Pulaski avenue, and the 
interment was in Woodland Cemetery. He was a member of 
the Manufacturers' Club, Business and Professional Men's 
Club, the Cedar Yacht Club and other organizations. 



Dr. Kay Vaughn Pierce. 

Dr. Ray Vaughn Pierce, president of the World's Dispensary 
Medical Association, and founder and head of the Invalids' 
Hotel and Surgical Institute in Main street, Buffalo, died at 
his Southern home on St. Vincent's Island, Florida, Feb. 4. 
Death was due to paralysis, and he had been in a serious con- 
dition for two months before the end came. He was 74 years 
of age. Dr. Pierce went to Buffalo from Titusville, Pa. in 
1867, where as a young man he began the practice of medicine, 
and soon afterwards began the manufacture of proprietary 
medicines, notably the Golden Medical Discovery. In 1877 
he was elected to the State Senate as a Republican and served 
for two years. In 1879 he was elected to Congress and served 
until 1881. He was always interested in pharmaceutical affairs 
and was an active organization man with the proprietary 
medicine manufacturers, serving as president of the National 
Association of Proprietary Manufacturers from 1888 to 1894, 
and fighting energetically in the interests of price protection, 
at a time when price-cutting, if possible, was more energetic 
than at present. At the time of his death Mrs. Pierce, who 
was Miss Mary J. Smith, and his son Hugh, with the latter's 
wife, were with him, and they accompanied the body to Buffalo 
for burial, the funeral taking place from the hospital bearing 
his name under the direction of the Masonic order. Dr. 
Pierce was a high-degree Mason and was affiliated with Wash- 
ington Lodge, 240, of Buffalo. He was also a member of the 
New York Yacht Club, the Buffalo Club, and a number of 
fraternal organizations. 



Frank S. Henry. 

Frank S. Henry, founder and for many years the head of 
Williams Manufacturing Company, dealers in patent and pro- 
prietary medicines, Cleveland, Ohio, died at his residence in 
that city, Feb. 13, at the age of 68 years. The immediate 
cause of death was pneumonia, this developing, however, from 
a cold contracted at Hot Springs, Va., where the deceased had 
spent several months in the hope of recovering from an attack 
of arterio-sclerosis. Mr. Henry was born in Waterbury, Vt., 
Oct. 16, 1846, of old New England stock. On the breaking 
out of the Civil War he left school and entered the army, 
where he remained until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. 
After the war he attended a business college at Poughkeepsie 
for a few months, but gave this up to become a commercial 
traveler with John F. Henry & Co., of Waterbury, Vt., New 
York and Montreal. He remained with this firm for more 
than 15 years, traveling in its employ all over this country 
and the rest of the civilized world. For more than 10 years 
Mr. Henry traveled for Hall & Ruckel, New York. 

Mr. Henry established a proprietary articles and patent 
medicine business of his own in this city more than 20 years 
ago, but moved this enterprise to Cleveland, in which city 
he formed the Williams Mfg. Co. In this concern he was 
associated with W. A. Jewitt. Until recent years he was a 
frequent attendant at the N.W.D.A. meetings, of which or- 
ganization his firm was an associate member. 



C. G. A. Loder 



A. C. Meyer. 
A. C. Meyer, head of the firm of A. C. Meyer & Co., manu- 
facturers of Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup and other specialties, died 
Feb. 4 at his home in Roland Park, a suburb of Baltimore, 
after a short illness with pneumonia. His will, as probated at 
Towson, Baltimore county, leaves the entire estate, the value 
of which is not stated, to members of the family, in trust, two 
sons-in-law being named as trustees, with the Fidelity Trust 



118 



THE PHARiLlCEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



Company as their successor if it transpires that the business 
of A. C. Meyer & Co. is not capable of paying the annuities 
set out. The business in this event is to be sold and the 
proceeds turned over to the Fidelity Company, which is to 
invest the money and pay the widow one-half and the son and 
daughters each a tenth of the income. If the business is 
continued by the trustees, the latter are to pay the widow $150 
a month and each of the children $30 a month, the net profits 
at the end of the year being divided in the same ratio. After 
some specific bequests the residue of the estate is left to Mrs. 
Meyer, who is also to receive among other property the ware- 
house on West Lombard street, where the firm formerly carried 
on operations. Some time ago it moved to South Baltimore 
into larger quarters. 



Charles S. Erb. 
Charles S. Erb, ex-president of the New York College of 
Pharmacy Alumni Association, a trustee of the College of 
Pharmacy, and at one time secretary of the New York State 
Board of Pharmacy, died Feb. 10, after one day's illness 
with pneumonia. Mr. Erb was of German parentage and was 
bom in New York City in 1867. He received his education 
in the public schools, entered the drug business in 1881, and 
was graduated from New York College in 1886. For a number 
of years he conducted a store at the comer of 65th street and 
Amsterdam avenue, and later at 108 .\msterdam avenue. He 
was a tremendously hard worker and became very well known 
through his affiliations. In addition to his trusteeship of the 
College of Pharmacy he was for a nimiber of years chairman 
of its property committee. He was ex-president of the Man- 
hattan Pharmaceutical Association, a member of the New York 
State Ph..\., of the German Apothecaries' Society, and of the 
West Side Dispensary. He was a past master of Charity 
Lodge, F. & A.M., under whose direction the funeral services 
were conducted on the evening of Lincohi's birthday (Feb. 12). 
The interment was at the Lutheran Cemetery. 



Charles H. Chvircli. 
Charles H. Church, dean of the druggists in New Bedford, 
Mass., and for 65 years connected with business in that city, 
is dead from bronchial pneumonia. He was bom in New Bed- 
ford in 1830. As a youth he learned the business with 
Charles A. Clark, and in 1848 began his career as a druggist 
at Purchase and Middle streets. For a short time afterwards 
he worked at the Dr. Stevens' pharmacy in Boston, and then 
for a while in Brooklyn, N. Y., but he returned to New Bed- 
ford in 1852 and purchased the business at Kempton and 
Cotmty streets established by Warren B. Potter. Three years 
later he bought the store at Purchase and Middle streets, and 
he ran the two places for two years. As time went on he 
encouraged his sons, Frank H. and Harry M., to learn the 
business, and in July, 1881, he purchased the Otis pharmacy 
at Pleasant and Union streets, which he placed in charge of 
the boys, retaining at his old store Herbert A. Blackmer as 
clerk, Mr. Blackmer marrying a daughter of Mr. Church, 
ilr. Church was an enthusiastic baseball fan, a volunteer fire- 
man, one of the founders of the New Bedford Druggists' 
Association, and its vice-president for a number of years. 



Albert S. Bischof. 
.\lbert S. Bischof, retired pharmacist, died Sunday, Feb. 15, 
at the residence of his son. Dr. Louis Bischof, 120 East 34th 
street. Mr. Bischof was bom in Freiburg, Germany, nearly 82 
years ago, where he also studied pharmacy. He came to this 
country at the age of 21, and almost immediately became 
known in pharmaceutical circles. Mr. Bischof was a very 
active member of the German Apothecaries' Society, and as 
a member contributed considerably to the uplift of the pro- 
fession. On the occasion of the society's 25th anniversary he 
was chairman of the entertainment committee and much of 
the success of that celebration was due to him. Since 1866 
he had been a member of the New York College of Pharmacy, 
from which institution four of his sons have graduated and at 
which a granddaughter now attends. The Rev. George C. F. 
Haas conducted the fimeral ceremonies, which, besides the 
relatives, was attended by many friends of the deceased. 



died at his home in Everett Feb. 20, in his 84th year. He 
was bom in Limerick, Me., March 17, 1830, and graduated 
from Bowdoin College in 1854. Later he took the degrees of 
A.M. and M.D. from the college. He went to Boston upon 
the completion of his medical studies, and was appointed 
assistant port physician. The next year he engaged in the 
drug business on Broadway, Chelsea, where the business is still 
carried on by his son, Charles W. Freeman. In 1867 Dr. 
Freeman was elected to the legislature from Chelsea, and later 
he served the city as an overseer of the poor. In two weeks, 
on March 8, he would have obser\-ed his golden wedding 
anniversary. He is survived by a wife and two sons — Charles 
W. Freeman, Ph.G., of Chelsea, and Dr. George F. Freeman, 
U.S.N., a surgeon. 



Henry T. Cutter. 
Henry T. Cutter, of 871 Lexington avenue. New York, and 
the founder of the corporation which originally controlled the 
Hegeman & Co. stores, died recently at his home. He was a 
native of Newburjport, Mass., having been bom there in 1830, 
was educated in the public schools of that town and as a young 
man was employed by the firm of Jordan, Marsh & Co., of 
Boston. During the Civil War he was the proprietor of a 
large drygoods store in Prince street, Manhattan, which he 
gave up in the early 70's to embark in a theatrical enterprise. 
For five years subsequently he was manager of the Chestnut 
Street Theater, Philadelphia. In 1878 he purchased the drug 
store of Hegeman & Co., at 203 Broadway, from John Nevin 
Hegeman, and incorporated it under the old firm name. Later 
the store was moved to 196 Broadway. Mr. Cutter disposed 
of the business in 1899, and since that time has been retired 
from all the activities of commercial life. 



Conrad A. Speidel. 
Conrad A. Speidel, a pioneer druggist of Rock Island, 111., 
who had been a resident of that city for 55 years, is dead at the 
age of 85. He had been in failing health for several weeks, 
and death was due to the infirmities of age. He was a native 
of Wurtemberg, Schomdorf, Germany, and learned the drug 
business there. For several years he was a druggist at Vevey, 
Switzerland, and then came to this country and worked in a 
New York drug store. ■ His next move was to Philadelphia, 
but in 1858 he went to Rock Island and entered the drug 
business under the name of Speidel & Glacius. He later made 
changes, but conducted one store in Rock Island for the period 
of 48 years. One son, Hugo, is a contractor at Paterson, N. J. 



Aemilius R. Meisner. 
One of the oldest druggists in Davenport, Iowa, Aemilius F. 
Meisner, 74, died at his home recently. For more than 45 years 
he had conducted a drug store in that city, first operating in 
1869, at 416 West Second street. Selling his first store in 1873, 
he opened another, and later erected his own building at 1115 
West Third street, where he was located up till the time of 
his death. He was bom in 1839 at Kappein, Schleswig- 
Holstein, Germany, was a graduate of Melburg College, and 
came to America in 1860. He was a veteran of the Civil War. 



0. N. Garrett. 
O. N. Garrett, for 27 years a prominent druggist and senior 
member of the firm of Garrett & A>Tes, Hillsboro, Ohio, and 
president of the Ohio Pharmaceutical Association in 1902, 
died very suddenly at his home on the eve of Jan. 1. 
Mr. Garrett was one of the solid, substantial business men 
of Hillsboro, and enjoyed the respect, confidence and esteem 
of all who knew him. His religion was exemplified in his 
daily life and was not, nor needed to be, heralded from the 
housetops. Of him it can be truly said the "world is better 
for his having lived." 



Dr. Samuel W. Freeman. 
Dr. Samuel W. Freeman, who opened a drug store in Chel- 
sea, Mass., Oct. IS, 1858, a store still continued by his son, 



George Elmer Torrey. 
George E. Torrey, one of the best-known druggists in Haver- 
hill, Mass., where he had been employed at the Holden drug 
store for 10 years, died at his prescription counter of heart 
disease recently. He was a native of Newburyport, Mass., 
was educated in the public schools, and learned pharmacy in 
Newburyport drug stores. He was a Mason and K. of P. 



George A. Graves. 
George A. Graves, a former president of the Chicago Retail 



Mabch, 1914] 



THE PHARIIACEUTICAL ERA 



119 



Druggists' Association, who had been actively engaged in the 
retail drug business in Chicago and adjacent territory for the 
past 25 years, is dead at the age of 47 years. He left a widow 
and two sons. His home was at LaGrange. 



Thomas A. Bronson. 
Thomas A. Bronson, a drug broker of 13 Gold street, New 
York, who was also well known throughout the country as a 
purchaser of ginseng and other crude drugs for e-xport, died 
Feb. 24 at the New York Yacht Club, after a long illness. 
He was 73 years of age, and was born in Philadelphia. At 
the beginning of the Civil War he left Yale, where he was a 
student, and enlisted, joining a Pennsylvania artillery regiment. 
At the end of the war he started in business in Philadelphia, 
later moving his establishment to New York. His wife died 
in 1876. 



Robert Van Sant. 
Robert H. \'an Sant, wholesale druggist at Oakland, Cal., 
and formerly at the head of drug stores at Atlantic City, Ocean 
Grove and Trenton, N. J., is dead at the age of 56. He leaves 
a widow and one son, Robert H., Jr. 



OTHER RECENT DEATHS. 



— Mrs. Geo. H. Landon, the wife of Geo. H. Landon, 
of Pocahontas, Va., died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Floyd Black, of pneumonia. Mrs. Landon was married to 
Dr. Geo. H. Landon in 1865, just at the close of the Civil War. 
Dr. Landon is the oldest living druggist in the State of Vir- 
ginia, having been a practicing druggist before and during the 
Civil War. To their union is left Frank P. Landon, a drug- 
gist at Charlottesville, Va. ; J. A. Acton Landon, a druggist at 
Buena Vista, Va., and George Sibe Landon, a druggist at 
Pocahontas, Va. Two other sons are not druggists. Mrs. 
Landon was in her 74th year, having been bom in Virginia, 
May 22, 1839. 

— James G. Steele, a pioneer druggist of San Francises, 
and formerly city chemist there, died Feb. 3. Just prior to 
his death he had completed a history of the California College 
of Pharmacy, which is now being published. He was bom in 
Boston in 1833, and went to California in 1852 to engage in 
the drug business. He was located for a number of years in 
the Palace Hotel building in Market street, and for a time 
was secretary and a member of the board of trustees of the 
California College of Pharmacy. He was a charter member of 
the California Pharmaceutical Association. 

— Dr. Robert Kennedy Duncan, director of the Mellon 
Institute of Industrial Research of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, and an author of repute on industrial chemistry and 
radio-activity, is dead after an illness of several weeks. Pre- 
vious to his connection with the University of Pittsburgh he 
had been affiliated with the faculties of Washington and 
Jefferson College and of the University of Kansas, where he 
was a member of the faculty of the School of Pharmacy. He 
was a member of many important chemical societies. 

-—Peter C. Kraemer, 29, a well-known Buffalo pharma- 
cist, succumbed to an attack of heart failure, Feb. 3, at his 
home, 225 Monroe street. Mr. Kraemer had retired in ap- 
parently good health, but was attacked by heart disease and 
■expired before the arrival of a physician. For the past five 
years he had been identified with the Sloan-Heegaard Drug 
Co., and was held in high regard by his firm and associates. 
He was prominent in social-fraternal circles. 

— John E. Lambert, for many years engaged in the 
retail drug business in Indianapolis, died at his home in that 
city recently after a short illness from pneumonia. He was 
bom in Rockville, Ind., in 1867 and was in the drug business 
in Indianapolis 18 years, having succeeded his father. Mr. 
Lambert had recently opened a new store at East Washington 
street and Tacoraa avenue. The business will be continued 
by his son Harry. 

— Simpson A. McConnell, proprietor of the Concord 
•drug store at Concord, Mass., dropped dead in his store Feb. 
10, of heart disease. He was 65 years old. For many years 
Mr. McConnell had been active in the civic and religious 
affairs of Concord, and had served as clerk of the Congre- 
gational (Trinitarian) Church, and treasurer of the Congre- 
gational Brotherhood. 



— Dr. Jacob Frantz, millionaire president of the Dentist 
Supply Company, with office in the Emerson building, New 
York, died at his home in New Rochelle, N. Y., on Feb. 8, 
of Bright's disease. Dr. Frantz had lived in Wilmington years 
ago, and his brother, Dr. A. Frantz, of that city, is secretary 
of the Delaware State Board of Health. 

— Albert Swisher, one of the most popular of Johnson 
& Johnson's sales force, died Feb. 16, at his home in Lancaster. 
He has been the Pennsylvania representative of the company 
for nearly 16 years and is known to druggists from one end 
of the State to the other. He was an active member of the 
Masonic and other lodges. 

— C. W. A. Friedrich, a well-known patent-medicine 
manufacturer of Fond du Lac, Wis., died recently after a long 
illness, at the age of 58 years. Mr. Friedrich was born in 
Germany, and came to America with his parents at the age of 
13 years. He had been engaged in the medicine manufacturing 
business for 30 years. 

— Charles J. F. Lane died from apoplexy at his home in 
Indianapolis, Jan. 7. He was stricken at his place of business 
and was taken home where he died in a few hours. Mr. Lane 
was 56 years old and had been in the retail drug business 
for many years. A widow and three children survive. 

— William T. Eberhart, of Latrobe, Ind., for more than 
22 years in the employ of the Showalter Drug Co., died re- 
cently from the effects of a fall upon an icy sidewalk. He was 
a native of Fond du Lac, Wis., a graduate of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and a member of the B.P.O.E. 

— Mrs. Mahlon T. Moon, mother of Richard Moon, a 
Camden, N. J., druggist, and of Clarence D. Moon, likewise 
a druggist, located at Riverside, the same State, died on Feb. 
9, 1914, after an illness of several months. Mrs. Moon had a 
complete nervous breakdown. 

— John W. Schleyer, 37, formerly a well-known druggist 
of Fond du Lac, Wis., the senior member of the drug firm of 
Schleyer & Ordway, died recently. He had been ill for more 
than a year. A few years ago he became traveling salesman 
for a wholesale drug house. 

— Jonathan Philip Primley, of Evanston, 111., formerly 
a retail druggist, but later engaged in the manufacture of chew- 
ing gum and the vice-president of the American Chicle Co., 
is dead at the age of 63 at his Winter residence at Pasadena, 
California. 

— Frank J. Hromadke, the Trenton, N. J., druggist who 
jumped his bail bond while awaiting sentence for forgery, com- 
mitted suicide by poison in St. Louis recently just as he 
was about to be arrested and brought back to New Jersey for 
sentence. 

— William Hackenberger, 59, a graduate of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, and for 36 years a druggist at 
Catasaqua, Pa., is dead. Of the three surviving children, 
William is a senior at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

— George R. Brown, 77, a former druggist of Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y., but for 18 years a resident of Evanston, 111., is 
dead. He leaves two sons, Frederick Brown, of Newbiu'gh, 
N. Y., and Edward D. B. Brown, of Washington, D. C. 

— Edwin M. Fitz, who for years was connected with the 
Smith, Kline & French Company, of Philadelphia, and recently 
with the Cohen Drug Co., died at his home in CoUingswood, 
N. J., after a week's illness with pneumonia. 

— Charles Houston, 77, a druggist of Ottawa, 111., and 
well known as a druggist at Columbus, Ohio, where he was a 
personal friend of William McKinley and Mark Hanna, is 
dead. He was a 33° Mason. 

— Thomas Joyce, formerly of the South Boston, Mass., 
drug firm of Cuddyer & Joyce, and until three years ago a 
prominent business man in that district, died in Portland, Ore., 
recently. 

— Emil Kuester, a member of the German Apothecaries' 
Society, who conducted a store at 931 Third avenue, died on 
the 15th of this month. The deceased resided at 307 East 57th 
street. 

— Wilbur Ralston, 57, a druggist of Springfield, 111., and 
for 22 years with the Dodds' drug store in that city, is dead 
after a very brief illness He was a native of Pennsylvania. 

— Joe T. Parks, chancery clerk of Montgomery county, 
Miss., and formerly a druggist at Kilmichael, Miss., is dead. 



120 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



— Theodore V. Brown, proprietor of the Red Cross drvig 
store. West Santa Clara street, San Jose, Cal., was stricken 
with apoplexy while telling personal reminiscences to the 
school children on Lincohi's Birthday, and died five hours 
later. He ser\ed through the Civil War as a member of the 
Hospital Corps, was stationed for several years at Washington 
AS chief pharmacist in the office of the Surgeon-General, and 
was later superintendent of the German Hospital at San Fran- 
cbco. He had conducted his San Jose store for 12 years. 

— Roy Thompson, who formerly conducted a drug store 
in Ottawa, 111., and later with the firm of Thompson Bros., 
of Spring \'alley, same State, is dead from typhoid-pneumonia. 

— Frank Walter, a prominent yo'ong druggist of Kno.x- 
ville, Tenn., died recently from erysipelas. While but 29 years 
old, he was one of the best-known druggists in his section. 

— Charles Danz, a native of Peru, 111,, and for 16 years 
an associate of his brother, Martin, in the drug business under 
the name of Danz Bros., is dead at the age of 55. 

— Henry G. Daniels, Cincinnati's oldest druggist, who 
had been established at Laurel and Central avenue for 50 
years died at his home after a short illness. 

_ Frank C. Sibley, 70, a pioneer druggist at Ionia, Mich., 
and later for many years commissioner of the Ionia board of 
health, is dead after a short illness. 

Malcolm Patrick, 79, for many years a prominent 

druggist of Xorwalk, Ohio, is dead of arterio sclerosis. 

— W. H. Miller, Jr., 38, a druggist of Anthon, Iowa, is 
dead after an operation for appendicitis. 

— Frank A. Grandle, 47, a druggist of Centerburg, Ohio, 
is dead following an operation. 

— Austin Converse, a former druggist of Richwood, Ohio, 
is dead at St. Petersburg, Fla. 



stoves and automobiles Detroit unquestionably leads the world. 
It may be that some of those in attendance upon the con- 
vention will want to visit industrial plants in various lines. 
Thus, for instance, 10 or 15 people may want to go through 
Oie Ford or the Cadillac or the Packard automobile factory. 
Others may want to visit the Solvay Process Works or any 
one of a hundred other interesting places in the city. It is 
expected that arrangements will be made for a number of small 
strips of this kind if sufficient interest is shown by the mem- 
bers. It is up to them. If you are interested please write now 
to the local secretary so that he may get an idea of what is 
wanted. Address your letter to Leonard A. Seltzer, 32 .•\dams 
West, Detroit, Mich. 

It may be interesting to note, too, that certain reforms are 
to be inaugurated at the Detroit meeting in the conduct of the 
convention business. All the sessions will be held in the day 
time, and the evenings will be left free for rest, recreation and 
enjoyment. The Council, only, will meet at that time, and this 
will give a chance for the Sections to begin their work in the 
morning promptly at 9 : 30, Mr. Seltzer, the local secretary, is 
working out a plan of bulletin-boards so that a member who is 
sitting in one Section may know what is going on in others 
at the same time, thus making for a ma,\imum of interest. 
Promptness will be exercised all along the line, and there is 
every expectation that the Detroit meeting will be a hummer ! 



News frOiM Associations 



Annual Convention of the A. Ph. A. 



PLANS have been pretty well decided upon for the Detroit 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to 
be held the week beginning Monday, Aug. 24. The Hotel 
Pontchartrain will be the headquarters, a hotel admirably 
suited to the purpose. It has a convention floor up at the 
top of the building, with eight or ten rooms of various sizes, 
thus being well adapted to the purposes of an organization 
like the A. Ph. A., which is split up into so many sections and 
auxiliaries of one kind and another. Furthermore, the con- 
vention floor of the Pontchartrain is so high up that it is 
away from the dirt and noise of the street on the one hand, 
and on the other, is subjected to the cooling breezes from the 
river. 

The Detroit meeting, indeed, will be delightfully cool and 
pleasant. Detroit is not at all like the usual American city- 
hot and stuffy in the Summer. It is located on the Great 
Lakes, gets the benefit of the water breezes, and is furthermore 
a city of great beauty and charm. Thousands of people go to 
Detroit annually to spend their Summer vacations instead of 
frequenting the customary resorts. It is a city that everybody 
wants to visit who hasn't already seen it, while the man who 
has seen it is not satisfied until he can return to it again. 

Many delightful features are planned for the convention. 
There will, of course, be the customary reception and ball on 
Monday evening. On Wednesday, from 4 to 6, there will be 
a reception for the ladies. The afternoon and evening of 
Thursday will be devoted to a boat ride tendered by Parke, 
Davis & Co., and many of the attractive spots will be viewed 
that have helped to make the environs of Detroit so noted. 
On Friday there will, in all probability, be an automobile ride 
tu the parks and to the famous shore drive around Lake St. 
Clair. Other contemplated entertainments are a smoker for 
the men, and either a theater party or a ride to Bois Blanc 
Island for the ladies. Smaller entertainments for the ladies 
will be sandwiched in all through the entire week, 

Detroit has come to be a great manufacturing center- 
famous in three particulars. In the manufacture of drugs. 



N. W. D. A. at Indianapolis. 



Annual Meeting This Year Will Be Held in the Hoosier City 
During the Week Beginning Oct. 12 — President Lattimer 
Appoints His Conintittces. 

THE committee on time and place of the next meeting for 
the National Wholesale Druggists' Association has an- 
nounced that the annual meeting of that body will be held 
at Indianapolis beginning Oct. 12. The chairman of this com- 
mittee is William J. Mooney, of the Mooney-Mueller Drug Co,, 
of that city. 

The following committtees have been appointed by President 
Lattimer for 1914-1915: 

Arrangements and entertainment for Indianapolis meeting, 
1914, William J. Mooney, of the Mooney-Mueller Drug Co., 
Indianapolis; arrangements and entertainment for the Califor- 
nia meeting, 1915, C, F. Michaels, of the Langley & Michaels 
Co., San Francisco ; commercial travelers and selling methods, 
Lee M. Hutchins, of the Hazeltine & Perkins Drug Co., Grand 
Rapids, Mich.; credits and collections, B. B. Gilmer, of the 
Southern Drug Co., Houston, Tex.; drug market, Charles L. 
Huisking, New York; employers' liability and workmen's com- 
pensation, James W. Morrisson, of Morrisson, Plummer & Co., 
Chicago; fire insurance, James W. Morrisson, of Morrisson, 
Plummer & Co., Chicago; legislation, Charles A. West, of 
Eastern Drug Co., Boston ; local associations, William T. Bland, 
of the McPike Drug Co,, of Kansas City, Mo.; membership, 
Benjamin A, Jackson, of the George L, Clafiin Co,, Providence, 
R. I. ; memorials of deceased members, Harry J. Schnell, New 
York; paints, oils and glass, W. T. Harper, of J, W. Edgerly 
& Co., of Ottumwa, Iowa; prevention of adulteration, B, L. 
Murray, of Merck & Co., New York; proprietary goods, Wil- 
liam P, Ritchey, of Bruen, Ritchey & Co,, New York; rates 
and routes, William G, Cook, of the New York Quinine and 
Chemical Works, New York; trade-marks, F. K. Fernald, of 
the Dr. Miles Medical Co., Elkhart, Ind.; transportation, Lynn 
Fort, of the Lamar & Rankin Drug Co., Atlanta, Ga.; special 
committee on anti-narcotic legislation, Charles A. West, of the 
Eastern Drug Co., Boston ; special committee on census of 
1914, Harry J. Schnell, New York; special committee on rail- 
way rate question. Dr. William J. Sch-effelin, of Schieffelin & 
Co,, New York, and special commillee on suits against mem- 
bers. Dr. William Jay Schieffelin, of Schieffelin & Co., New 
Vork. 



Chicago Branch, A.Ph.A. 

The annual election of officers, reception of new memhers 
and social evening of the Chicago Branch of the .\merican 
Pharmaceutical Association occurred in January at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois School of Pharmacy. The newly-elected officers 
are as follows: President, J. H. WelLs; 1st vice-pres'dent, 
W, B, Day; 2d vice-president, Wm. Gray; 3d vice-president, 
Maurice Miner; secretary-treasurer, F. N. Gathercoal; com- 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



121 



mittee chairmen: Practical pharmacy, I. A. Becker; medical 
relations, Dr. Bernard Fantus; publicity, L. E. Warren; legis- 
lation, H. C. Christensen. 

The secretary-treasurer reported receipts during the year of 
$80.00, expenditures of $67.61 and a cash balance of $24.90. 
There were received 20 new members during the year. The 
total membership is 136, of which 86 are druggists, 17 mem- 
bers of pharmaceutical manufacturing houses, 14 teachers in 
pharmaceutical schools, 4 editors of pharmacy journals and the 
remainder chemists or engaged in allied industries. 

An especial event of the evening was the welcome extended 
to new members. Secretary Thos. Potts introduced Hugh 
Craig, recently installed editor of the Journal oj the National 
Association of Retail Druggists, and moved his election to 
membership in the Chicago branch. The motion was carried 
by acclamation. Professor Day introduced H. W. Colson, 
J. A. Dorjahn, Mrs. Mary Zwick, George Kraemer and A. E. 
Anderson as new members. They were each pleasantly received 
by the company. Wm. Gray was congratulated upon his 
recent election to life membership in the A. Ph. A. Mr. Potts, 
in introducing Mr. Craig, took occasion to speak of the great 
need among retail druggists for reliable formulas covering the 
great number of unofficial preparations and household reme- 
dies. He spoke of the proposed A. Ph. A. Book of Receipts 
and said that the A. Ph. A. was derelict in not having pub- 
lished such a work 10 years ago. He mentioned the attempt 
now being made by the N.A.R.D. to remedy this pressing 
need of the druggist by furnishing to the retail drug trade not 
only practicable, reliable formulas for a number of household 
articles, but also in supplying suitable labels in small quantities 
at a very low price to retail druggists for these preparations. 

Mr. Craig expressed his pleasure in uniting with the Chicago 
branch and assured us that he expected soon to be as much 
at home here as he had been for seven years in the New York 
branch. During the seven years in New York he had not 
missed a branch meeting and as this, his first meeting with the 
Chicago branch in January followed within a month the last 
branch meeting in New York, his record was still intact. 

Professor Day took occasion to review some of the accom- 
plishments of the branch during the last seven years. He 
brought out the fact that when the branch was organized in 
Chicago the city already possessed one of the strongest and 
most active local druggists' associations in the world, the 
C.R.D.A., that the N.A.R.D. maintained its headquarters 
here with all of their great activity, that the social side of 
things pharmaceutical was ably cared for by the Social Drug 
Club, now known as the Chicago Drug Club, and that our 
city possessed that most unique of all pharmaceutical organi- 
zations, the Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association, which 
especially attracted the older druggists. The Chicago branch, 
therefore, upon its organization, chose as its special line of 
work the presentation and discussion of: (1) Legislative 
matters affecting pharmacists, (2) the revision of our national 
standards, the U.S. P. and N.F. and (3) original or improved 
unofficial formulas. Much good work along each of these lines 
hss been accomplished. In addition, the branch usually devoted 
one evening each season to a popular lecture and one evening 
to social events. 

Under the able direction of Mrs. M. M. Gray and Miss 
Rose Schmid, refreshments were served and the meeting ad- 
journed with many expressions of felicitation over "an evening 
well spent." 



The Mo . Ph . A. at Pertle Springs. 

The Missouri Pharmaceutical Association will hold its 36th 
annual meeting at Pertle Springs for four days, beginning 
June 16. The date has for many years been the second week 
in the month, but a change has been made in order to accom- 
modate those who have children graduating from the public 
schools, which close the second week in June. It is anticipated 
that an increased attendance will result on account of the later 
date of the meeting. This is the 13th meeting at Pertle 
Springs (Warrensburg). The first convention at that place 
was held in 1888. Missouri pharmacists are partial to Summer 
resorts and this will be the 26th out of 36 meetings to be held 
at such a place. One of the remaining 10 meetings was held 
in tents near a city. The Mo. Ph. A. congratulates the lU.Ph.A. 
on deciding to meet at a Summer resort in 1914. 

The Mo.Ph..\. was organized primarily to secure a phar- 
macy law, and has been busy ever since that time trying to 



improve the legislation and prevent undesirable enactments. 
Since the passage of the present law the members have been 
inclined to let well enough alone. This is an off year, as the 
Legislature does not meet. It is not likely that much time 
will be devoted to the discussion of legislation. 

The U.S. P. IX is being anticipated, and William Mittel- 
bach, of Boonville, is chairman of the committee which has 
submitted a number of recommendations for the use of the 
Committee on Revision. The National Formulary is very 
popular in Missouri and O. J. Cloughly, of St. Louis, is chair- 
man ef the committee. Mrs. M. M. Whitney, of Kansas City, 
will report on "Drug Adulterations." At one time the report 
on Trade Interests was a feature of the Mo. Ph. A. meeting. 
J. A. Kinder, of Cape Girardeau, is now chairman of the 
committee and promises an interesting and instructive paper 
at the June meeting. Professor Francis Hemm, of St. Louis, 
is chairman of the committee on Papers and Queries and 
reports that practical papers, discussions, exhibits and demon- 
strations will be a feature this year. 

The Board of Pharmacy will hold an examination at Pertle 
Springs the day previous to the opening of the Mo. Ph. A. 
meeting. R. A. Doyle, of East Prairie, is a new member of 
the board. He is expected to take an active part in the 1914 
meeting of the Mo. Ph. A. meeting. The entertainment feature 
so long prominent at Mo. Ph. A. meetings will be under the 
direction of ex-president Lorenz A. Seitz, of St. Louis. Presi- 
dent Edward G. Schroers, of St. Joseph, belongs to the business 
type of retail pharmacists, but also appreciates and gives due 
attention to the professional side of the calling. His adminis- 
tration is being marked by progress along the several lines of 
activities in pharmacy. 



Wisconsin Ph.A. 

The Wisconsin Ph. A. is taking an active part in the cam- 
paign being waged in Wisconsin against fraudulent advertising, 
and the association is officially represented in the central 
vigilance committee, which has been organized by representa- 
tives of all the leading trade associations in the State, for the 
purpose of seeing that the new Wisconsin reform advertising 
law is strictly enforced. 'We want to convince the buyer that 
the best goods for him are advertised goods ; and that is why 
we must convince him that advertised goods are honest goods, 
and why we have organized to prevent fraudulent advertising," 
said A. M. Candee, chairman of the vigilance committee. 
"Our vigilance committee hears complaints of misleading ad- 
vertising and investigates them. We have looked into more 
than 25 complaints, and in cases where necessary, we have 
had the advertisers rewrite their copy to eliminate objectionable 
features. Sometimes the signs on the buildings misrepresent 
facts. .\t other times the price tags and %vindow display 
advertising are misleading, and sometimes it is the advertise- 
ments in the newspapers that are objectionable. We have to 
be especially vigilant against fake concerns which open up 
from time to time. We keep them out pretty well. We do 
not want to resort to prosecutions and suits. We prefer con- 
structive, rather than destructive activity. If we can induce 
the advertiser to eliminate objectionable claims, we think we 
have accomplished more than we would by invoking the law 
against him." 



Maine Ph.A. 
In an endeaor to make the annual meeting of the Maine 
Ph.A. at Bangor of more interest and of more real practical 
value, the section on papers has decided to offer money and 
goods prizes aggregating $65 for the best papers on any 
subject relating to ethical or professional pharmacy, commercial 
pharmacy, biological products, apparatus required, the advan- 
tages of a college training, etc. Several special prizes are 
offered for the best papers on : "My Best-paying Side Line" ; 
"Shall We Take Prescriptions Over the Telephone?"; "Are 
Long-hour Days Imperative in the Drug Business?"; "Methods 
of Combatting Cut Prices" ; "What Shall We Display in Our 
Windows?": "Is the Narcotic Law of 1913 Working Success- 
fully?"; "Compounding Difficulties I Have Encountered"; 
"Why I Am in the Drug Business." 



Connecticut Ph.A. 

The midwinter meeting of the Connecticut Pharmaceutical 
Association was held in New Haven, Feb. 10, with an unusually 
large attendance. Considerable was said concerning the laws 



122 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



relating to the control of the sale of narcotics. John A. 
Leverty, of the State Pharmacy Commission, "answered ques- 
tions," that is, instead of making an address on narcotic and 
poison laws, he gave a great deal of pertinent information in 
response to queries from his audience. Thomas F. Main, of 
Xew York, told of the efforts being made to control the inter- 
state shipment of narcotics, and expressed the belief that tlie 
Harrison bill, now pending, would check the traffic to a large 
extent. C. P. Gladding, of Hartford, spoke for the legislative 
committee of the State association, and predicted a national 
law to control drug traffic. The matter of price-protection 
and the control of the retail price by the manufacturer developed 
considerable discussion, with the result that a committee to 
consider the subject was appointed by the chair. 



])Iassachusetts Fh.A. 
The midwinter session of the Massachusetts Pharmaceutical 
Association was held at the Bay State Hotel, Worcester, on 
Feb. 9, the time being devoted to the consideration of some 
85 bills which affect pharmacy or pharmacists, now before 
the State Legislature. One hundred and fifty members of the 
association gathered from various sections of the State, and 
after the report of the chairman of the legislative committee, 
Fred A. Hubbard, of Newton, took up the bills separately and 
either indorsed or rejected them. About half the measures 
discussed were declared satisfactory to the druggists. The 
association was very strongly opposed to the sale of narcotics, 
and the slogan of the gathering was "Restrict both the pharma- 
cist and the outsider in the sale of narcotics." Prof. Chas. F. 
XLxon, of Leominster, reported on the progress of bills affecting 
the drug trade in Congress. Officers are chosen at the Sum- 
mer convention, which will be held either at Swampscott or 
Xantasket at a time yet to be decided upon. This midwinter 
meeting is for the purpose of considering legislation, and it 
was declared to be one of the most successful yet held by the 
Massachusetts body. 



BICHLORIDE BILL MAY PASS AT ALBANY. 



N. Y. Branch Members Learn About State Legisla- 
tion — Dr. Diekman Reports Progress of Pharmacy. 

A BRIEF report on the local legislative situation was made 
by John Roemer at the February meeting of the New 
York branch of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, held at the New York College of Pharmacy. Mr. Roemer 
outlined the provisions of the Towns-Boylan anti-narcotic bill 
which would, if enacted, restrict the sale of all narcotics. Mr. 
Towns had failed to pass this measure last year and had 
this year enlisted the help of Mrs. Wm. K. Vanderbilt. Mr. 
Roemer thought that Mr. Towns was sincere and that there 
was nothing ulterior in his motives: "His success lies with 
the pharmacists and the legislature." A member of the branch 
had been at Albany when the mercury bichloride tablet bill 
had come up in committee. It was very likely that the meas- 
ure would have to go through with a possible provision relative 
to sale on prescription. 

Dr. George C. Diekman, chairman of the committee on 
progress of pharmacy, reported interestingly upon a number of 
new developments — called attention to the adulteration of oleic 
acid with paraffin and fish oils, enlarged upon a process for 
the detection of sesame oil, explained a suggested estimation 
for morphine and presented a brief of an article on the sub- 
stitution of tincture of iodine in surgical practice. Some 
interesting notes of false nux vomica seeds and false buchu 
leaves and observations by two authors on the mixture of cow 
butter and yellow wax, were other subjects touched on by 
Dr. Diekman. 

Dr. Jacob Diner made some interesting observations relative 
to the recent exposition at Madison Square Garden. The 
members had found themselves in a very embarrassing position 
and he trusted the incident would prove a valuable lesson. 
His remarks were to the effect that the branch should not 
permit some of its interested members to drag that body into 
a commercial enterprise. 

Mr. Roemer read a paper upon the subject, "Value of 
Present Methods of Water Analysis in Relation to Disease." 
He enumerated the uses for water — commerce, manufacture, 
drinking purposes, fisheries, etc. The utility of water, he 
asserted, was due to its powers of solution. The ability to 
determine the fitness or unfitness of water required the highest 



development of chemistry today. Research has evolved 
methods and developed standards. Bacteriology, however, has 
shattered many of the ideas current during the cliemical water 
analysis period. The speaker touched on two classes of water, 
rain and surface, and stated tliat the organic matter in water 
was of vital concern to the analyst. He described the am- 
monia and chlorine determination processes. In analyzing 
water, the topographical features of its source, the "survey," 
should be considered. In water analysis there are certain fixed 
standards whidi are not to be exceeded. 

Dr. Joseph Weinstein reported a balance in the treasury- 
amounting to $67. 



ENACT HARRISON BILL, DRUGGISTS PETITION. 



Kings County Ph.S. Members Unanimously Adopt 
Resolution to Advance Anti-Narcotic Measure. 

PRESIDENT H. B. SMITH called to order the February 
meeting of the Kings County Pharmaceutical Society,, 
held at the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy. By resolution, 
unanimously adopted, the members requested the United States 
Senate Finance Committee to report out the Harrison bill, 
and especially requested Senators Root and O'Gorman to give 
their personal efforts to securing the immediate enactment of 
that measure. In the words of the resolution, the bill "has- 
been held in the Senate Finance Committee for several months 
for reasons beyond our knowledge." T. J. France, chairmaru 
of the committee of supervision, called attention to the fact 
that the Brooks' weights and measures law was now in effect. 

In behalf of Dr. Wm. C. Anderson, chairman of the legis- 
lative committee, who was absent, J. H. Rehfuss reported that 
the new police commissioner was not prepared to state his 
position on the subject of Sunday drug store sales. The 
commissioner did say, however, that he would see that the law 
was observed. According to Mr. Rehfuss, the "one day of 
rest in seven" law will be enforced, but technical violations 
will for a time be overlooked. A statement to this effect had 
been secured from the deputy commissioner. Mr. Rehfuss. 
further pointed out that, according to the ruling of Attorney- 
General Carmody, the labor law superseded the 132-hour pro- 
I'ision of the pharmacy law, and that Commissioner of Labor 
James M. Lynch will not allow that a prescription clerk is a 
"manager" or a "superintendent." 

Mr. Rehfuss presented a schedule which he said complied' 
with the law, and which he asserted the Commissioner of 
Labor believed to comply with the law. The schedule is as- 
follows : 

Monday (1), Tuesday (2), Wednesday (3), Thursday (4), 
Friday (5), Saturday (6), Sunday (7) day off; Monday (8),. 
Tuesday (9), Wednesday (10), day off; Thursday (11), 
Friday '(12), Saturday (13), Sunday (14). 

That the members should not drop the labor law question 
without a fight was Mr. Rehfuss' opinion. The next thing: 
would be an eight-hour day, which would mean two men to a 
store. "They are lifting the burden from the clerk and putting- 
it on the proprietor." The members, he said, should oppose 
the labor law because in its operation it does not give the 
clerks as much time off as under the pharmacy law. In living: 
up to the law neither the clerk nor the proprietor is benefitted. 
An attempt will be made to amend the pharmacy law so as- 
to make it supersede the "one day of rest in seven" law. 

Mr. Rehfuss concluded by asserting that the society should' 
have a man at every hearing in Albany to rebutt all objections 
to needed legislation. One man finds it exceedingly difficult 
to successfully handle the situation at a well attended hearing. 
N.Y.S.P.A. bills before the present Legislature aim to change 
the phrase "may appoint" in the pharmacy law in reference to 
appointment to the Board of Pharmacy by the Board of 
Regents to "must be appointed" ; to do away w-ith the sale of pink 
stry-chnine tablets, and to prevent the giving away of premiums. 
The bill providing that the owner of a pharmacy must be a 
regularly licensed pharmacist will not be pushed, upon advice- 
of counsel. 



Drug Trade Section Would Amend Postal Regulation. 
At the February meeting of the Drug Trade Section of the 
New York Board of Trade and Transportation, the legislative- 
committee was authorized to present the following proposed* 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL EEA 



123 



amendment, as a substitute provision for paragraph 4 of the 
regulations under Section 472 of the Postal Law : 

"iledicinal preparations which contain poisons in 
sufficient quantity and form, in combination with other 
ingredients to be used exclusively as a curative or 
remedial substance and which are not dangerous or 
injurious to li.e, safety, health or property may be ad- 
mitted to the mails for transmission in the domestic 
mails when enclosed in packages in conformity with the 
conditions prescribed in Section 474; provided that the 
article mailed bears a superscription of the manu- 
facturer thereof, or dealer therein, or of the licensed 
physician, pharmacist, dentist or veterinarian preparing 
or prescribing the same." 



G.A.S. CONSIDERING MEETING WITH DOCTORS. 



diairman N.Y.S.P.A. Propaganda Committee OfiEers 
Assistance — Dr. Eug«n Friedmann Lectures. 

PRESIDENT DR. CH.\RLES F. KLIPPERT called to 
order the February meeting of the German .Apothecaries' 
Society, which occasion was marked by an imusually good 
attendance. S. %'. B. Swann, chairman of the legislative com- 
mittee, presented an extensive and very comprehensive report 
on prospective State legislation. The features of this report 
are presented on another page of this issue. Corresponding 
Secretary C. Baum read a communication from John Roemer, 
chairman of the X.Y.S.P..A.. propaganda committee, in which 
the latter solicited the views of the society as to holding a 
joint meeting of physicians and pharmacists under its auspices. 
Mr. Roemer's committee was ready to carry out any suggestions 
which the society might make and if desirable would supply 
supplementary speakers for the occasion. The matter was 
referred to the scientific committee, of which Otto Rauben- 
heimer is chairman. Felix Hirseman praised the activity of 
Mr. Roemer in the advancement of propaganda. 

Otto Raubenheimer, in his capacity as chairman of the 
scientific committee, announced that the lectures on the pro- 
gramme for the coming year would be equally as interesting 
as those presented last year. Several well-known authors had 
prombed to address the society. Mr. Raubenheimer also intro- 
duced Dr. Eugen Friedmann, who delivered an interesting 
lecture on "The Future of Pharmacy," a brief abstract of 
which is presented below on this page. During the ensuing dis- 
cussion the subject of the sale of goods in drug stores on 
Sunday was brought up. George T. Rieffelin reported that 
Alderman Curran had said there was no city ordinance for the 
regulation of sales on Sunday. Among those who discussed 
Dr. Friedmaim's lecture were Alderman Fred Trau, Felix 
Hirseman, George Huether, Charles H. Lowe, Charles F. 
Schleussner, H. L. Rehse, S. V. B. Swann, Otto P. Gilbert, 
Emil Roller and others. 

Mr. Hirseman called attention to the fact that some of the 
suggestions anent propaganda made by Dr. Friedmann had 
been tried years ago and, he was sorry to say, without success. 
The certification of pharmacies, he asserted, could not be car- 
ried out successfully. The Board of Pharmacy was the only 
proper authority for the suitable inspection of pharmacies and 
for the uplift of the profession. Mr. Roller called attention to 
the difficulties and expense which would attend proper pro- 
paganda. He praised the interesting remarks of the speaker. 
All those who discussed the lecture favored propaganda. Presi- 
dent Dr. Klippert thanked the speaker in behalf of the society. 

Robert S. Lehman, treasurer of the European trip committee, 
reported that there was no doubt as to the success of the trip. 
Those who wish to go along should send in their applica- 
tions at once: the desirable bookings are being rapidly taken 
up. By letter from Cleveland, Dr. Wm. C. .A.lpers, chairman of 
the above committee, expressed the hope that the society would 
consider him as coming imder the constitutional provision, 
"in the vicinity of New York City," and would continue his 
membership. 

-\ resolution introduced by Ex-President Charles F. Schleuss- 
ner condemning the director of a local German theater for 
presenting a play which he considered unpatriotic, was-tmani- 
mously adopted. The chairman of the press committee was 
instructed to have the resolution published in the daily press. 

Louis Berger reported that he had met Wilhelm Bodemann, 
an honorar\' member, at Tampa, Fla., and that the latter had 
instructed Mr. Berger to convey his greetings to the society. 



The greetings were appropriately received, President Dr. Klip- 
pert taking occasion to toast Mr. Bodemann in response toJiis 
good wishes. 

Dr. Friedmann deplored the dwindling of the prescription 
business in the average drug store, and stated that this was 
largely due to the druggists themselves. The time has come 
when the physicians must be inspired with greater confidence, 
so that they will be more willing to prescribe, and cease to 
encourage the traffic in ready-made patent medicines. Messrs. 
Roemer and Rehfuss have already begun a propaganda among 
the various hospitals, endeavoring to get the pharmacists and 
physicians to call the attention of students to the \-a!ue of the 
various drugs and chemicals and their combinations. As a 
further means of increasing prescription work, it is advisable 
to visit physicians personally, and set forth the objects of the 
propaganda. 

.■\ heav7 handicap in .'\inerica is the almost total ignorance 
of the therapeutic agents on the part of physicians, which 
naturally prevents them from writing proper prescriptions. To 
combat this the best means is a pocket formularj-, such as 
has been issued by the Deutscher Apotheker-Verein, of Berlin. 
This work contains 576 formulas for prescriptions, carefully 
classified. In getting up such a formulary, the co-operation 
of the most prominent hospital heads and physicians is needed. 
In Germany almost every physician possesses one of these 
books. .Another question is, can every pharmacist put up a 
prescription lege artis? Or are the physicians right when 
they say, "We are forced to prescribe patent medicines, be- 
cause we are not sure that a prescription will contain what 
we order"? This is partly true, and must be changed. Con- 
fidence on the part of the physician, and absolute reliability on 
the part of the druggist are the foundations for any success. 



GERMAN APOTHECARIES CELEBRATE. 



Society Marks 63d Year of Existence by Holding 
Kommers, Banquet and Dance at Terrace Garden. 

IT was a jolly gathering that celebrated the 63d anniversary 
of the German Apothecaries' Society, held at Terrace 
Garden on the evening of Lincoln's birthday. The cele- 
bration this year was in the nature of a kommers, and in- 
cluded the ladies. This feature was followed by a banquet in 
the large dining room of the Garden, which was appropriately 
decorated with .American and German flags. Nearly 200 per- 
sons sat down to the repast. Dancing concluded the pro- 
gramme. 

The ko mm ers began at 10 o'clock. Otto P. Gilbert, chair- 
man of the entertainment committee, officiated as the praeses 
and showed his experience in the customs of German students 
by greeting the members and guests in Latin. He ordered the 
first salamander as a toast to the ladies. This was followed 
by a song, "Frauenlob," composed by one of the members, 
Herman Weller. The well-known comic, Hugo Feix, gave 
several recitations and songs. His scientific paper on "La 
Grippe" would not have passed in any medical examination. 
Miss Irene Ferency sang two songs. She was accompanied by 
C. W. Wagner. 

The second general song by the assemblage, entitled ".A 
Surprise," was composed by President Dr. Klippert. Mrs. George 
Haustein, a niece of an old-time member, Paul .Amdt, played 
several selections upon the violin, earning considerable applause. 
F. J. Budelmann, a baritone, sang several songs which were 
well received. "Our Trip to Europe," was the title of a song 
composed by Otto P. Gilbert and sung by all. "The Life of a 
Pharmacist," vrritten by Mr. Weller, was the last general song 

Following the kormners, the members, led by the president, 
marched to the dining room, where five long tables had been 
arranged and an excellent supper was served. President Dr. 
Klippert took occasion to greet those present and to give 
particular praise to Mr. Gilbert for his work as chairman of 
the entertainment committee in preparing this festival. He 
thanked the artists who had made up the evening's programme 
and concluded by toasting the guests, the members joining in 
heartily in the latter ceremony. Paul Amdt was the only other 
speaker. He also praised the entertainment committee for its 
activities and concluded by toasting its members with a "Hoch 
sollen sie leben." 

The banquet ended about 1 : 45 a.m., the younger element 
present having been long anxious for the dancing to begin. 
At 4 : 30 o'clock the strains of "Home, Sweet Home" concluded 



124 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



the third feature of the celebration, and even then some of the 
dancers deemed it "too early" to go home. 

The committee which arranged lor the celebration consisted 
of Otto P. Gilbert, chairman; Henry F. Albert, Felix Hirse- 
man, Robert S. Lehman, George T. Rieffelin, Carl Wipper- 
n-.aim and Hugo Kantrowitz, the last-named acting as floor 
manager. 



Women's Phaiiuaceutical, Pacific Coast. 
The January meeting of the Women's Pharmaceutical .\sso- 
ciation of the Pacific Coast was held at San Francisco. The 
chairman of the committee on papers had prepared an elaborate 
progranmie for the evening and many new points on the 
preparation of tincture of cudbear, prescription compounding and 
a serviceable label varnish were discussed. An interesting paper 
on "Radium" was read by Dr. Barbat-Winslow ; Miss Low read 
a paper on "Emetine Hydrochloride," and Mrs. Kane presented 
a paper on "Lloyd's Reagent." Mrs. White showed samples 
of alcresta, tasteless strychnine tablets, morphine and berberine. 
The following officers will serve the association for the ensuing 
year: Mrs. R. E. White, president; Miss Clarissa Roehr, 1st 
vice-president ; Miss Ethel E. Nelson, 2d vice-president ; Dr. 
J. E. B. W'inslow, secretary; Mrs. A. D. Kane, treasurer. The 
February meeting of the association was held in San Fran- 
cisco Feb. 27. 



N.Y.R.D.A. Holds Banquet Later Than TJsuaL 
The annual banquet of the New York Retail Druggists' 
.Association was held recently at the Elsemere, East 126th 
street, Dr. Joseph Weinstein officiating as the toastmaster. The 
feature of the occasion was the presentation of a beautiful 
diamond-studded watch charm to Peter Diamond, the gift 
being in appreciation of the work Jlr. Diamond has done in 
behalf of the organization. .Among the speakers were Caswell 
.A. Mayo, president-elect of the .A.Ph..A. ; J. Leon Lascoff, 
member of the Board of Pharmacy; John Wall, also on the 
board, and others. Following the banquet, dancing was enjoyed. 

THE CHICAGO DRUG CLUB. 



The first monthly meeting of the new year was held by the 
Chicago Drug Club at the new Hotel Sherman, which, when 
it was the old Sherman House, was the headquarters for the 
Social Drug Club of Chicago, from which the present organi- 
zation sprang. All of the living charter members and the 
"old guard" turned out and mingled with the younger genera- 
tion in celebrating the "Home Coming Night" of the club in 
Its new headquarters. 

The surprise of the evening came when Mr. Comstock, of 
the well-known firm of Wohl & Comstock, presented the club 
with a framed steel cut of an emblem which was received 
with so much favorable comment and appreciation on the part 
of all those present that on motion made by Mr. Keim, this 
emb'em was unanimously adopted as the official insignia of the 
club. Presiding Officer Henry Schaper and Mr. Potts both 
in short talks expressed the appreciation and thanks of the 
club to Mr. Comstock and his firm. 

One of the early presidents and pioneers in the club's his- 
tory, the Hon. Fred Kellett, presided as toastmaster during 
the 'social session. Messrs. Quales, Fry, Larson, Hoelzer and 
Pelikan, as past presidents, addressed the club and spoke 
feelingly of their happiness to again find themselves near the 
spot where the original organization was founded. John 
Schwalbke, the faithful %vorker and financial secretary of the 
club gave one of his interesting talks on the history of the 
organization. The speaker of the evening, Hugh Craig, the 
new editor of the Journal of the N.A.R.D., received a rousing 
welcome. Among others who addressed the meeting were 
Dr Pritchard, Messrs. Roth, Keim, Potts and McCracken. 

The usual high-class programme of cabaret entertainers was 
presented by the efficient chairman of the entertainment com- 
mittee A Hergert. which enlivened the evering and made 
"Home Coming Night" a decided success. The annual re- 
cepfon and ba'l, a Valentine party, was held at the Hotel 
La Salle, Feb. 13. 

Boston Drug^sts' Association. 
The Boston Druggists' Association, the oldest organization 
connected wth New England pharmaceutical interests, held 
its annual dinner at Young's Hotel. At the annuM busmess 



meeting, which preceded the dinner, the following officers were 
elected: President, Willi:im S. Briry; treasurer, George H. 
Ingraham; secretary, iLirry C. Wiggin; executive committee, 
Fred L. Carter, Jr., Charles V. Ripley, H. E. Bowman, .Azro- 
M. Dows, Robert C. MacGowan, Alfred H. Bartlett and 
Charles C. Hearn; membership committee, C. E. M. Harring- 
ton, A. L. Mackusick, James O. Jordan, Ralph R. Patch and 
Theodore J. Bradley. The following were elected to member- 
ship: (.Seorge E. Grover, of Somerville; Newton C. Smith, of 
Medford ; W. H. Corliss, M. E. Nourse and R. E. McLaren, 
of Boston. 

About 70 members sat down to dinner, which was served at 
6:30. The special guests were E. Elmer Foye, vice-president 
of the Old Colony Trust Company, of Boston, and Hon. 
Albert P. Langtry, of Springfield, former Secretary of State. 
Mr. Foye spoke on hanking and its modern methods. Mr. 
Langtry spoke on "Destruction of Old Methods of Govern- 
ment," and he said that while he was probably the father of 
the direct primary law, he felt that a great mistake had been 
made in entirely doing away with the State convention. The 
people are reasonably well informed regarding the qualifications 
of the candidates for Governor and often know considerable 
about the candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, but he ventured 
the prediction that where the candidates last Fall were not 
holding the offices and seeking renomination not one voter 
in a hundred had the slightest idea of their respective 
merits. He contended that State conventions of the different 
parties should make the nominations for secretary of State, 
treasurer, auditor and attorney-general, and that the wisdom 
of the delegates would be greater than the wisdom of the 
people. He believed the delegates to these conventions should 
be chosen under the direct primary. 



Boston A.R.D. AnnuaL 

The annual dinner of the Boston Association of Retail 
Druggists was held at the American House, with about 75 
members present. The board of officers was re-elected, and the 
members showed their appreciation of the services of President 
Frank F. Ernst by presenting him with a large electric table 
lamp. The other officers are: John J. Tobin, 1st vice-president, 
Frank E. Wingate, 2d vice-president; J. W. Kilgore, 3d vice- 
president; L. W. Griffin, treasurer; Charles H. Davis, sec- 
retary. The special guests were Albert J. Brunelle, secretary 
of the State Board of Registration in Pharmacy; and James F. 
Finneran, president of the N. A.R.D. Mr. Brunelle dis- 
cussed the new State registration law, which defines a drug 
store, and limits and prescribes the duties of an unregistered 
clerk. Mr. Finneran discussed the value of organization, and 
as an illustration spoke of the recent conference in Washington 
on the narcotic bill, which was satisfactory to all interests 
except the retailer, and this, he pointed out, was because the 
retailer had not been represented through an organization at 
the conferences and meetings when the bill was discussed and 
framed. Since the recent conference, however, said Mr. Fin- 
neran, the unsatisfactory features of the bill had been elimi- 
nated, and it is now satisfactory to all parties. Mr. Finneran 
spoke of honest prices, and pointed out how the work of the 
N. A.R.D. for the past 16 years is now supplemented and 
reinforced by many other retail organizations. 



BALTIMORE DRUG EXCHANGE. 



The Baltimore Drug Exchange at its annual meeting in 
January at the Hotel Emerson, not only elected officers and 
transacted other business of a somewhat routine character, 
but discussed various matters of legislation which will claim 
attention this Winter during the session of the Maryland 
Legislature. One of these matters is a draft of amendments 
to the State Pure Food and Drug Law, designed to bring 
the statute more in harmony with the National act. The mem- 
bers of the exchange are entirely convinced of the sense of 
justice exercised by the State Pure Food Commissioner, who 
enforces the law under the direction of the State Board of 
Health, and the attitude assumed by that body has given much 
satisfaction because of its moderation and evident desire to 
proceed along the lines of equity and practicability. But the 
exchange is also disposed to look to the future, when an 
official less intimately in touch with the drug trade as a 
business and as a profession may be in office, and when the i 
law might be used, as the members of the exchange are 



March, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



125 



informed it is used in some States, as an instrument of per- 
secution and graft. The draft has been discussed with Dr. 
Caspari and members of the State Board of Health, and is 
said to have their full approval, all differences that existed 
having been adjusted. Another bill that received consideration 
at the meeting is one providing for the sanitary inspection of 
abattoirs, ice-cream factories and a large number of other 
establishments, which are engaged in the manufacture of food 
products. The provisions of this bill also have been gone 
over with the health authorities, and have their approval. 

The annual reports were read and passed upon and various 
other matters were disposed of. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

President — James E. Hancock, of John F. Hancock & Son. 

1st Vice-President — A, E. Mealy, of Gilbert Bros. & Co. 

2d Vice-President — Joseph Owens, of Carr, Owens & Co. 

Secretary — J. Emory Bond, of Parke, Davis & Co. 

Treasurer — Dr. A. R. L. Dohme, of Sharp & Dohme. 

Executive Committee — A. C. Meyer, of A. C. Meyer & Co. ; 
\V. M. McCormick, of McCormick & Co., and J. L. Hines, of 
the Emerson Drug Company. 

The business meeting was followed by a dinner on the 
mezzanine floor, at which addresses were made among others 
by John B. Thomas, of the Thomas & Thompson Compaiiy, 
speaking for the Maryland Pharmaceutical Association; R. E. 
Lee Williamson, of Lee Williamson & Co., representing the 
Baltimore Retail Druggists' Association, and Harry F. Linde- 
man, president of the Calvert Drug Company, and others. 

The new president of the exchange, James E. Hancock, is 
junior member of the firm of John F. Hancock & Son, manu- 
facturers of medicated lozenges, tinctures and other pharma- 
ceutical products, at Howard and Baltimore streets. Mr. Han- 
cock has been president of the Maryland Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and has taken a most active interest for years in the 
efforts of druggists to advance their interests professionally 
and otherwise. He has also been energetic in looking after 
legislation at Annapolis, and his election to head the Drug Ex- 
change, it is felt, will give that body a progressive head who 
is in close touch with the latest developments at Annapolis, 
where the General Assembly meets. 



Pennsylvania Kexall Club. 
The 12th annual State convention of the Pennsylvania Rexall 
Club met at the Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pa., with 75 
members present. In the evening they attended the Nixon 
theater. There were two business meetings, and the session 
ended with a banquet at the Fort Pitt Hotel. The Rexall 
Club is made up of the agents for Rexall remedies in all 
sections of the State, each druggist being a stockholder in the 
United Drug Co., of Boston, which is the parent company. 
As only one druggist in a town is a Rexall agent, the selection 
of such a representative is a matter of tJie most careful in- 
vestigation by the United Drug Co. The May Drug Co. is 
the local representative and incidentally, it is the third largest 
stockholder in the United Drug Co. 



Baltimore Branch, Am. Chem. Society. 
At the February meeting of the Baltimore branch of the 
American Chemical Society, James H. Payne, chemical en- 
gineer of the Meade Laboratories, Inc., read a paper on "The 
Use of the Rotary Kiln in the Manufacture of Chemical and 
Metallurgical Products." He showed a great many new uses 
to which the rotary kiln is being adapted, not only in the 
manufacture of new products but also in the utilization, in 
many industries, of what have been considered waste products. 
Frank M. Boyles, chief chemist of McCormick & Co., read a 
paper on "The Detection of Ethyl Alcohol in Essential Oils." 
Mr. Boyles gave an outline o' the methods applicable for the 
detection of alcohol in such products as oil of lemon, and 
detailed certain precautions to be observed in making chemical 
examinations of essential oils. He also emphasized the extreme 
care that must be observed by chemists in drawing conclusions 
from the results of their analyses of products that come within 
the scope of the Pure Food and Drugs Act. 



claimed by the president of the Philadelphia association, Albert 
G. Keller, that if the druggists accept the ruling it will mean 
that they must take on extra clerks just to handle the pack- 
ages. He called attention to the fact that during Christmas 
week the sub-stations were practically swamped, and that in 
regular seasons the demands would be exceedingly great upon 
them. About half of the stations already take parcel post 
packages and they have not received anything for their extra 
work. Mr. Keller puts it: "We do not intend to work for 
the Government for nothing, and anyone who does is foolish. 
We have forwarded the Postmaster what we think is a fair 
demand and we expect him to act on our suggestion. If he 
does not, a large number of druggists will give up their stations 
sooner than be bothered with the additional labor involved." 



Philadelphia Drug Club. 
The annual election of the Philadelphia Drug Club resulted 
as follows: Joseph H. Jolly, president; George D. Feight, 
vice-president; Charles C. Buchanan, treasurer; Elmer H. 
Bobst, secretary. These committees have been appointed : House, 
George D. Feight, chairman; Elmer H. Bobst and Joseph H. 
Jolly; membership, chairman, Edward Weaver; George Berk- 
hardt and Fred Jones; finance, chairman, William C. Fleck; 
Johii Jolly, Jr., and George W. Chapman; trustee fund, 
David J. Reese, chairman; entertainment, Otto Krauss, chair- 
man; J. J. McCollough, C. V. Mangan, Frank C. Turner, 
Thomas E. McGuire, Charles Rehfuss and Peter S. Rohn. 
The Board of Governors is composed of: John F. Belsterling, 
George W. Fehr, C. W. Haviland, Frank W. Smith, S. b'. 
Davis, D. J. Reese, T. T. Eckman, A. J. Staudt, Penrose 
Jones, J. I. Reinhardt, E. T. Hahn, John Jolly, Jr., and L. H. 
Davis. 



Kansas City Drug Club. 

The Kansas City Drug Club held its first regular meeting 
since being granted as a corporation by Judge Southern, of 
the Circuit Court, at the K.C. College of Pharmacy, 712 
Wyandotte street. Plans of work for the year were outlined 
and the following officers were installed: 

A. N. Doerschuk, president; James E. Harris, vice-president; 
C. E. Graham, secretary; L. F. Zuber, treasurer; managing 
trustees, Jos. C. Wirthman, W. M. Federmann, C. E. Zinn, 
J. W. Giesburg. 

The old K.C. Retail Druggists' Association, which this 
club has succeeded and which has been in existence some 30 
years, met at the same time and resolved to disband, turning 
over all assets to the new Kansas City Drug Club. 



Three D's Banquet at Far Rockaway. 

The doctors, dentists and druggists of the Rockaway pen- 
insula, which includes Woodmere, Cedarhurst, Lawrence, 
Inwood, Far Rockaway pnd Rockaway Beach, held their second 
annual banquet at the Far Rockaway Club on Tuesday even- 
ing, Feb. 10, at which 50 were present from the different 
professions. Dr. J. Carl Schmuck, dean of the medical and 
allied professions in that section, was toastmaster. During 
the dinner there was professional entertainment and the after- 
dinner speakers were : Dr. J. Diner, Fordham Medical Col- 
lege, "Better Relations Between the Druggists and Doctors" ; 
Dr. Andrews, of E. R. Squibb & Sons, "Medical Specialties 
as an .Auxiliary to the Practice of Medicine and Pharmacy" ; 
Nelson B. Hatch, editor Medical Economist, "Accounts and 
Collections" ; F. A. Lowe, president of the Druggists' .\sso- 
ciation, "Pharmacy." The druggists have had their associa- 
tion, which is incorporated under the name of the Long Island 
Botanical Association for the last nine years. Each year they 
hold an annual dinner and at least one business meeting. 
Now they are enlarging the dinner by including the doctors 
and dentists. The committee of arrangements this year was ; 
Wm. Chubbuck, of Rockaway Reach ; F. D. Doolittle and 
F. A. Lowe, of Far Rockaway, and E. M. Raeder, of Cedar- 
hurst. 



Philadelphia Druggists Want Parcel Post Pay. 

The Philadelphia Retail Druggists have rebelled aga'nst the 
Government ruling that all city sub-stations should take parcel 
post packages without any additional remuneration. It is 



Drug and Chemical Club Elects Governors. 
.^t the recent annual meeting of the New York Drug and 
Chemical Club the fo'lowing were unanimous'y elected mem- 
bers of the Board of Governors to serve three years: Robert 
H. Adams, Carlton O Pate, Herbert B. Harding. Clarence G. 
Stone, Julius F. Van Riper and William H. Phillips. 



126 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1914 



AMONG THE ASSOCIATIONS. 



The Cincinnati Penslar Club gave a banquet recently at the 
Metropole Hotel, with 75 present. The real object of the 
banquet was to show druggist guests from Canada what a 
success this club has had in Cincinnati, .\mong the guests 
were .Me.vander Stewart, president of the Ontario College of 
Pharmacy; W. F. Graham, of Ottawa, Canada; J. A. Smith 
and M. J. Wiirner, of Edmonton, Canada; J. S. Sonner, of 
Knox^ille. Tenn., and F. W. Keyser, of Kansas City. The 
Penslar Club was organized only about five months ago, and 
it now has a membership of 50 druggists. Some of the promi- 
nent speakers during the banquet were Edward Ohm, Cin- 
cinnati representative of the Nelson Baker Company, of Detroit, 
Mich. : Mr. Bolles, of the Weatherhead Drug Company, and 
president of the club, and H. J. Dusterberg, of the Ohio Valley 
Druggists' Association. Mr. Kellar, of the Weatherhead Drug 
Company, acted as toastmaster. 

The Minneapolis Drug Club has pledged its support to the 
movement to put an end to the illegal sale of cocaine, heroin, 
morphine and their derivatives, this action following an address 
last month by Frank R. McDonald, superintendent of the work- 
house, reporting on his campaign among the prisoners last 
year. Dr. Edwin L. Newcomb, professor of pharmacognosy at 
the University of Minnesota; C. S. Harrington, of St. Paul; 
Dr. G. P. Dunn, of Winnipeg; Dr. J. O. Taft and William 
Brinkman, of Minneapolis, were speakers. 

More than 250 members of the Chicago Chapter, W.O.N. 
A.R.D. attended a card party at the Hotel LaSalle, Feb. 10, 
the proceeds of which were devoted to the Druggists' National 
Home at Palmyra, Wis. Mrs. Richard Voge, chairman of the 
philanthropy department of the chapter, was in charge of the 
e.\ercises, and she was assisted in receiving by Mesdames S. J. 
Kuflewski, G. Frank, Horace Nelson, Thomas Sweeney, A. L. 
Coppock, J. A. Mahaffy, John Chwatal, George H. Railfs and 
H. A. Yates. 

President Frank H. Tupper, of the Maine Pharmaceutical 
Association, has announced the following committees for the 
ne.\t convention of the association which will be held at Bangor 
in June: Transportation, M. L. Potter, Danforth, chairman; 
S. R. Crabtree, Island Falls; F. H. Neal, Fairfield; entertain- 
ment, C. H. Davis, Bangor; C. M. Brown and C. E. Walmsley, 
Bangor; W. Clement Mutty, Old Town, and F. E. Miller. 
The ne-xt convention of the Maine Ph. A. is the 47th annual. 

The Cincinnati Central Drug Clerks' Association held its 
installation of newly-elected officers at the Metropole Hotel. 
There were about 100 present, including many members of the 
Ohio Valley Druggists' Association. Emil Kraft was toast- 
master. Retiring President Robert Schulz and Frank Burg, 
the newly-elected president, made addresses. Robert Wetter- 
stroem, E. J. Hegeman and William Schultz also gave short 
talks. The feature of the evening was a cabaret show. 

The 200th anniversary of the Springfield Pharmacists' As- 
sociation was celebrated by a banquet at the Highland Hotel 
in that city at which druggists from Springfield, Holyoke and 
Worcester were present. The following officers were elected: 
President, William C. B. Merriam; vice-president, A. E. Sun- 
ter; secretary-treasurer, P. V. Erard; executive committee, 
C. P. Thompson, E. F. Leonard, D. F. Keefe and B. Balch. 

At the annual meeting of the Minneapolis Retail Druggists' 
Association, E. A. Tupper was elected president; Henry 
Buehler, vice-president; George Williams, secretary; W. D. 
Savage, treasurer, and Stuart Gamble, A. W. Thompson, J. F. 
Danek, L. E. Schmidley and Carl Schmidt, executive com- 
mittee. This association was organized 16 years ago and 
meetings are held on the first Thursday of each month. 

The Philadelphia Drug Exchange has elected the following 
officers for the ensuing year: President, John Ferguson; vice- 
president, Harry B. French;- secretary, Joseph W. England; 
treasurer, Edward H. Hance. The election preceded the annual 
banquet at which the speakers were the Rev. Robert Hugh 
Norris, George W. Norris, Henry Houck, Harry B. French 
and Prof. Paul M. Pierson, of Swarthmore. 

The Cumberland County (Me.) Ph.A. has elected the fol- 
lowing officers: President, F. E. Robbins; 1st vice-president, 
L. J. Maguire; 2d vice-president, C. A. Vallee; 3d vice-presi- 
dent, John C. Otis; 4th vice-president, H. R. Washburn; 
secretary, E. W. Murphy; treasurer, James A. Broe; executive 
committee, Asa F. Abbott, John C. Otis, L. J. Maguire, E. F. 
Weed and F. H. Power. 



At the annual banquet of the Akron (Ohio) Drug Clerks* 
Association, W. R. Hower, chief ins;pector of the Ohio State 
Food and Drug Bureau, was the guest of honor and gave a 
talk on the enforcement of the pharmacy and narcotic laws. 

The annual banquet of the Cumberland County Pharma- 
ceutical Association was held at Riverton Park (Portland, Me.), 
Feb. 4. 

At the 40th annual meeting of the Rhode Island Pharmaceu- 
tical Association at Providence, 15 new members were elected, 
and the following officers were chosen: President, George T. 
.'\rmstrong; vice-president, Edward D. Robbins; secretary, 
Clarence Bowmer; treasurer. Earl H. Mason; executive com- 
mittee, A. J. Johnson, Jr., H. A. Pearce and E. S. Blumen- 
kranz. 

A. M. Dows, president of the Lowell (Mass.) Pharmaceutical 
Association, was the presiding officer at a recent dinner at 
which Charles F. Ripley, president of the State Board of 
Pharmacy ; Fred A. Hubbard, chairman of the legislative com- 
mittee of the State association; Fred O. Lewis, Frank J. 
Campbell and A. E. Moors were the speakers. 

The annual euchre and dance of the Ohio Valley Druggists' 
Association was held at North Cincinnati Turner Hall, ai.d 
was a marked success. There were many good prizes given out, 
and all had a good time. Henry J. Dusterberg was chairman 
of the committee who arranged the affair. 

The Order of White Elephants gave their annual midwinter 
entertainment in Indianapolis in January. The association 
consists of retail and wholesale drug clerks, and is 26 years 
old. The programme included a banquet and cabaret per- 
formance. 

The St. Louis R.D.A. has elected the following officers: 
President, Dr. William A. Hoelscher; 1st vice-president, B. C. 
Huger ; 2d vice-president. Otto Hanser ; treasurer, G. F. Haus- 
gen. Secretary Stockhausen was re-elected. 

On Tuesday, Feb. 17, the St. Louis Retail Druggists' Asso- 
ciation members had their wives with them at the regular 
meeting of the association at the Planters Hotel, both for the 
business meeting and the luncheon. 

The St. Paul Retail Druggists' Association gave its first card 
party and dance of the season at the Hotel Ryan, Feb. 6. The 
Travelers' auxiliary and the Ladies' auxiliary had charge of 
the programme. 

The Iowa Ph.A, will meet at Burlington for its annual con- 
vention on June 9, 10, 11. It is expected that there will be at 
least 1000 in attendance. 

The annual meeting of the Vermont Ph.A. will be held at 
the Hotel Vermont, Burlington, during the week of July 8. 



Tampa-Cuba Cigar Company Holds Annual Meeting. 

President H. B. Guilford, of Rochester, N. Y.; Secretary 
and General Manager Ernest Berger, of Tampa; Treasurer 
Emilio Pons, and Vice-President Wilhelm Bodemann, of Chi- 
cago, were re-elected to their respective offices at the recent 
second annual meeting of the Tampa-Cuba Cigar Company, 
held at Tampa, Fla. The directors, with the exception of 
Walter Rothwell, of Hatboro, Pa., who resigned, were re- 
elected. The new director is T. P. Taylor, of Louisville, Ky. 
J. T. Treasure, Salt Lake, Utah, succeeded E. O. Engstrom, 
Pittsfield, Mass., as a vice-president. Among others present 
at the meeting were Louis Berger, of New York City; J. H. 
Beal, Scio, Ohio; Hy. W. Merritt, Plain, Pa.; Charles H. 
Huhn, Minneapolis, and D. W. Ramsaur, Palatka, Fla. Plans 
were ratified for the erection of a new factory to cost at least 
$60,000. The company also declared a 10 per cent, cash 
dividend and decided to manufacture in bond. 



First Fine Under Massachusetts Drug Law. 

The new Massachusetts drug-store law, which defines what 
a drug store is and requiring such a store to obtain a license 
from the State Board of Pharmacy, has had its first prose- 
cution. On Jan. 13, when W. H. Whittaker, proprietor of a 
drug store at 102 Ferry street. Maiden, applied for a license 
to conduct a drug store, the State board refused to issue such 
a license. Notwithstanding such refusal, Mr. Whittaker con- 
tinued to carry on the business, and he was summoned into 
the Maiden court, on complaint of Joseph Buswell, agent of 
the board. The court found Whittaker guilty of the charge 
against him and imposed a fine of $15. The case has been 
appealed. 



Haech, 1914] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



127 



Schools and Colleges 



DR. W. C. ALPEKS DEAN AT WESTERN RESERVE 



Dr. William C. Alpers, a prominent pharmacist of New 
York City, and one of the editors of the Deutsch-Amerikanische 
-Apotheker-Zeitung, has been appointed professor of pharmacy 
and dean of the pharmaceutical school of Western Reserve 
University, at Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Alpers succeeds T. Ber- 
Jiard Tanner, P.D., and assumed his new duties Feb. 1. His 
professional attainments require no comment, and the new 
appointment is a proper recognition of Dr. Alpers' labors in 
the interests of pharmacy. Born in 1851, in Germany, Dr. 
Alpers was educated at Hanover and Gottingen, and came to 
this country in 1872. He began his career as a teacher in 
New York City, and later opened a pharmacy at Bayonne, 
N. J. In 1894 he became a member of the New Jersey Board 
of Pharmacy. A few years later he opened a professional 
pharmacy at the comer of 31st street and Broadway, New 
York City, where he continued until 1906. Dr. Alpers has 
been very prominent in German-American pharmaceutical and 
social activities in this city, and he has the heartiest wishes 
for a long and useful future from his wide circle of friends 
and acquaintances. He will continue his work as editor of 
the Apotheker-Zeitung. 



■University of Michigan School of Pharmacy. 

E. H. Woodhouse, of Friendship, N. Y., has been appointed 
assistant in micro-botany for the second semester. Mr. Wood- 
house is a candidate for the Ph.C. degree this year. 

L. S. Mitchel, who completed all work for the B.S. (Pharm.) 
at the end of the last semester, recently took the United States 
Civil Service examination for food chemist. Mitchel tells us 
that there was not a question which had not been thoroughly 
covered in the food and drug course. Mitchel is now regis- 
tered in the Graduate School. 

We have recently had letters from Prof. L. S. Blake, Auburn, 
Ala.; D. K. Strickland, chemist, Parke, Davis & Co.; C. L. 
Dougherty, chemist, Merck & Co., and H. C. Eiseman, chemist, 
W. S. Merrell Co., all of whom received their B.S. (Pharm.) 
in 1913. Eiseman writes in that rare humorous style, giving 
much valuable advice, especially valuable to all beginners. 

Prof. L. S. Blake expects to return to do work toward his 
Master's degree in the Summer session. 

Dr. W. S. Hubbard addressed Phi Lambda Upsilon, the 
honorary chemical society, recently, on the work given in the 
course in food and drug analysis, showing a number of valu- 
able instruments used in the course. Dr. Hubbard lectured 
at Three Oaks, Mich., Feb. 19, and at Otsego, Mich., Feb. 20, 
his subject being "Foods: Their Adulteration and Detection." 



Medico-Chirurgical College, Department of Pharmacy. 

Walter Rothwell, Eastern representative of the American 
Druggists' Fire Insurance Company, delivered a very interesting 
lecture, "Fire Insurance as Applied to the Retail Drug Store," 
to the students of the Department of Pharmacy recently. 

The February meeting of the Alumni Association of the 
Department of Pharmacy was held at the College Club, 1721 
Arch street. The attendance was above the average for this 
midwinter meeting, and many interesting topics were brought 
up for discussion. The nominations for officers resulted as 
follows : 

President, Heber W. Yoimgken, Ph.G., '05 ; 1st vice-presi- 
dent, U. G. Ruff, Ph.G., '09; 2d vice-president, I. Subin, Ph.G., 
'08; corresponding secretary, R. P. Fischelis, Ph.G., Phar.D., 
'11; recording secretary, B. G. Goodhart, Ph.G., '07; treasurer, 
B. Sprissler, Ph.G., '07. 

Directors (3 years), M. M. Smith, '13; W. Dorszewski, '12; 
L. Weiszgerber, '11; E. Youngken, '08; (2 years), W. C. 
Crist, '08; J. L. Ruhl, '08; H. B. Roshon, '08; W. W. Mc- 
Neary, '07; (1 year), W. E. Smith, '06; R. W. Moss, '06; 
T. B. Bordener, '05; H. G. Lilly, '00. 

The Gamma Chapter of the Beta Phi Sigma Fraternity held 
its annual dance Feb. 17 at the Wynnefield Country Club. 

The annual conclave of the Beta Phi Sigma Fraternity will 
' be held during the first week of March at the Home of the 
. Alpha Chapter, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 

On Feb. 3, Dr. W. W. McNeary addressed the members of 



the junior class in pharmacy on photography. This lecture 
was of special interest because of the recent impetus given 
to the sale of photographic supplies as well as the developing 
and printing of pictures by retail druggists. Dr. McNeary 
interestingly described the method of preparing plates, films 
and other supplies, and then demonstrated how developing and 
printing can be made a source of profit to the druggist. 

College of Pharmacy, City of New York. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers of the New 
York College of Pharmacy will be held on Tuesday evening, 
March 17. President Butler has appointed the following 
nominating committee to prepare a list of candidates for the 
offices to be filled: William P. Ritchey, Henry C. Lovis, O. G. 
Kalish, Caswell A. Mayo, F. K. James, Ewen Mclntyre, F. A. 
H. Anger. 

At the close of the routine business Frank Farrington, of 
Delhi, N. Y., editor of The Inland Store-Keeper, will give the 
third of the series of this year's lectures. His topic will be 
"Advertising for Retail Druggists." It is seldom that the 
college has had such a large audience as was present to hear 
the lecture given by Harry B. Mason, and it is hoped that all 
pharmacists in and about New York will consider this a cordial 
invitation to attend the lecture to be given on March 17. 

A dance was held by the students of the college in the 
university gymnasium Jan. 31. Almost 100 couples attended 
and the success of this, the first dance of such magnitude given 
by the students, is due to the tmtiring efforts of the student 
committee, composed of J. Paulonis, chairman; B. Maslon, 
B. J. Davis, M. Levine, D. Franceschi, L. V. Mango, F. A. 
Frawley, J. Mendiola, J. Friedlieb, J. Sesta, H. Hammer and 
M. Stewart. Dean Rusby personally took a great interest in 
the dance and appointed as a faculty committee Drs. Wimmer 
and Leslie, to give whatever aid was possible to the students. 
Financially, the dance was also a success, and the surplus was 
turned over to the library committee of the college for the 
purchase of new books. 

The following men have been taken into the fraternities: 

Phi Chi—G. C. Aronstamm, Charles Dougherty, William 
Neergaard, Alfred G. Young, L. N. Brown, Geo. N. Graves, 
Duncan N. Rose. 

Kappa Psi—F. J. Andrews, L. Feltus, W. A. McBride, I. 
Richmond, A. E. Thompson, A. C. Burnett, R. Finello, H. E. 
Miller, J. Troy. 

Tau Epsilon Phi — E. S. Bellis, Jerome Martus, D. Svigelsky, 
Benj. E. Wallach, Jerome Ettinger, Benj. Maslon, H. F. 
Strongin. 

The classes have held their election of officers with the 
following results: 

Senior Class — President, Joseph Goldstein; vice-president, 
Louis V. Mango; secretary, M. H. Dixon; treasurer, Mason 
Stewart. 

Junior Class — President, Alfred G. Young; vice-president, 
N. Chapman; secretary. Miss May O'Connor; treasurer. Miss 
Helen F. Roudin. 

First Year University Class — President, William McBride; 
vice-president, H. E. Miller; secretary, Charles O'Hagan; 
treasurer, H. F. Strongin. 



Buffalo Druggists Favor Sunday Closing. 

Eighty per cent, of Buffalo druggists who claim the Univer- 
sity of Buffalo as their alma mater, are in favor of Sunday 
closing and are anxious to do all in their power to clamp the 
Sabbath lid on the city's pharmacies. This fact came out at 
the 26th annual banquet of the Alumni Association of the 
Buffalo College of Pharmacy at the Hotel Statler, Jan. 29. 
Seventy-five members were present. Most of them are owners 
of stores; the rest are managers and chief clerks. The few 
who oppose Sunday closing voiced their acceptance of the 
partial closing idea, but all agreed that Sunday closing is 
inevitable. The pending Albany law which would prohibit 
doing business on Sunday except by a few dispensa