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Full text of "The Pharmaceutical era"

0,^0 

1i v\^o Library 
North Dakota Agricultural 
College and Experi- 
ment Station 



No. 



3\oo'3 



ONTARIO 

C0LLE<3£ OF PHARMACr 

44 GERRARD ST, H- 
TORONTO, 



C0LLF6E OF PHARIWACV 

44 GERRARD ST F 
TORONTO. 



3t 



THE 



Pharmaceutical Era 



(ISSUED MONTHLY/^ ^^^"'"^*' 

,<^ MAY - 6 1999 
C0LLE<3£ OF PHARmCY 

44 GERRARD^-^E. 
EDITED BY TORONTO, 

EZRA J. KENNEDY, Ph. C. 



I 

January to December, 1917 ^/, ^-fV 



VOLUME L 



310 0!) 
NEW YORK 

D. O. HAYNES & CO., Publishers 

No. 3 Park Place 



'•> 



.?^' 






lO 



COLLEGE OF PHABMACV 
INDEX TO VOLUMe''l''toron?o**'^'^' 



January to December, 1917 



Acid, Oxyphenylquinolincdicarbonic, 141. 

Phcnyicinchonic, HI. 

Picric, Action, 313. 
Aconite Assay Method Criticised. 236. 
Advertising, Drug Store, in 1789, 32. 

Methods in South AJnerica. 270 

Power, 233. 

Retail. Brings Results. 164. 

What Sort Are You Using? 2S7. 

Your Business, 292. 
Aguttan, 141. 
Alcohol, Bathing. 218. 

Calcium Carbide, 306. 

Compounding, Virginia, 40. 

Denatured, 53. 

Possession, Dry Towns. 246. 

Sale by Pharmacists, 395. 

Without Payment of Special Tax. 218. 

Shipping to Dry Towns, 323. 

Solidified, Labeling. 250. 

South Dak-Ota. 299. 

Use in Flavors, 395. 

War Revenue, 329. 
Alcopon, 141. 
Algolane, 141. 

Aliens in Chemical Plants, Citizenship. 151. 
Alloys, Spark Emitting, 381. 
AUphen, 141. 

Ammonium Heptinchlorarsenate, 141. 
Ampoules. Solutions (A Salts for Filing, 350. 
Antidiphtheric Scrum, Purified, 10. 
Anti-Infiuenzol, 141. 
Antitoxin. Diphtheria. Dried. 11. 

Manufacture in New York, 219. 

Method of Administration, 129. 

Standardization, 11. 

Tetanus, 120. 
Antitoxins, 9. 
Aphloin, 141. 
Argaldin, 141. 

Arnica Flowers, Defined. 251 . 
Arsenic Compound. A-1S9, 386. 
Arseno - Benzene - Silver Bromide-Antimonyl, 

141. 
Arsenohyrgol, 141. 
Arsinosolvin, 141. 
Artamin, 141. 

Asafetida. Clear Mixture not Possible, 217. 
Aspirin. Trademark, 101. 228. 
Association, State. Why \ou Should Join, 378. 

ASSOCIATIONS. PHARMACEUTICAL 
(Qubs, Societies, Drug Clerks. Paints. 

Alumni, etc.) — . 

Adams Co. (111.) Retail Druggists. 36o. 
Alabama Pharmaceutical. 264. 
American Chemical Society. 86, 330. 

Pharmaceutical Section, 330. 
American Drug Manufacturers. 108. 182. 

380. 
American Medical. 214. 251. 

Council on Pharmacy and Cneraistry. 
73 
American Pharmaceutical Chemists, 234^^ 
American Pharmaceutioal, 32, ajS, 224, 

Baltimore Branch. 29. 49. 118, 236. 

Chicago Branch, 49, 125, 237. 

Detroit Branch. 194. 364. 

Indianapolis Branch, 29, 300. 

Nashville Branch, 286. 

New England Branch, 29. 

New York Branch. 166, 194, 364. 390. 

Philadelphia Branch, 29, 49. 
Arkansas Pharm., 253. 
Auburn (N. Y.) Druggists. 392. 
Baltimore Retail Druggists. 17, 70, 118. 
Bayonne (N. J.) Pharmacists. 148. 
Boston Druggists. 60. 70. 
Boston Retail Druggists. 62, 354. 

Woman's Organization, 31, 224. 
Buffalo C. P. Alumni. 158. 
California Pharmaceutical, 225, 256. 

Ladies Auxiliary, 128. 160, 256. 
Chicago Drug Qerks, 343. 
Chicago Drug Qub. 94, 136. 

Bowling League, 58. 
Chi. Retail Druggists, 31. 66. 159, 206, 384. 
Chicago Veteran Druggists, 136. 
Chicago Woman's Pharmaceutical, 94. 
Chicago Women's Club of Allied Drug 

Trades, 69, 160, 190. 
Cincinnati C. P. Alumni, 256. 



.\SS<XIATIONS— Continued 

Cocoa and Chocolate Manufacturers, 86. 
Columbus (Ohio) Retail Druggists, 44. 
Connecticut Pharmaceutical. 268. 
Cumberland Col (Me.) Pharmaceutical, 

157. 
Delaware Pharm. Soc, 269. 
District of Columbia Pharmacists, 64. 
Florida Pharmaceutical, 236. 
Georgia Pharmaceutical, 267. 
Hartford (Conn.) Retail Druggists, 334, 

400. 
Idaho Pharmaceutical, 286. 
Illinois Pharmaceutical, 253. 
Illinois Pharmaceutical Travelers, 160. 
Indiana Pharmaceutical. 286. 
Iowa Pharmaceutical, 258, 352. 
Iowa Rexall Druggists, 170. 
Iowa Student Pharmaceutical, 158. 
Johnson and Hartnett Co. (N. C.) Drug- 
gists, 390. 
Kansas Pharmaceutical, 268. 
Kansas and Missouri Rexall Druggists, 

170. 
Kentucky Pharmaceutical, 285. 
Kings County Pharmaceutical Society, 66. 

125. 135, 237. 
Los Angeles Retail Druggists, 311. 
Louisiana Pharmaceutical, 66, 286. 
Louisville Retail Druggists, 193. 
Maine Pharmaceutical, 157, 267. 
Manufacturing Perfumers, 172. 
Maryland Pharmaceutical, 331. 
Massachusetts C. P. Alumni, 73. 
Massachusetts Pharmaceutical, 267. 
Massachusetts Travelers', 267. 
Michigan Ginseng Growers. 86. 
Michigan Pharmaceutical, 266. 
Michigan Pharmaceutical Travelers, 267. 
Michigan University Alumni, 336. 
Milwaukee Druggists' Ladies Society, 94, 

160, 190. 
Milwaukee Pharmaceutical, (6, 162. 
Minnesota Pharmaceutical. 69,_ 125. 
Mississippi Pharmaceutical. 253. 
Missouri Pharmaceutical, 252. 
Montana Pharmaceutical, 286. 
Nashville Drug Club, 286. 
National Drug Qerks. 195, 214, 286. 
National Drug Trade Conference, 70, 204. 
National Manufacturers of Medicinal 

Products, 108. • 
National Pharmaceutical Service, 330, 364. 
National Retail Druggists, 171, 353. 
National Wholesale Druggists, 168, 290, 

355. 
Nebraska Pharmaceutical, 266. 
New Hampshire Pharmaceutical, 253. 
New Haven (Conn.) Drug Clerks, 399. 
New Jersey Pharmaceutical. 236. 
New Jersey Travelling Men's Auxiliary, 

62. 
New Orleans Drug Club, 258. 
New York Board of Trade and Transpor- 
tation Drug Section. 60, 133. 
New York Pharmaceutical Conference, 

136. 
New York Co. Pharmaceutical Society, 

38. 
New York State Pharmaceutical. 252. 
New York Retail Druggists. 31, 62, 138. 
North (Carolina Pharmaceutical, 267. 
North Dakota Pharmaceutical. 331. 
North Hudson (N. J.) Pharmaceutical, 

390. 
Ohio State Pharmaceutical, 285. 
Ohio Valley Druggitts, 31. 
Oklahoma Pharmaceutical. 66. 
Oregon Pharmaceutical, 286. 
Orleans Pharmaceutical. 290. 
Pacific Co(ast Women's Pharmaceutical, 

19. 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical, 235. 
Phi Delta Chi. 33. 
Philadelphia C. P. Alumni. 158. 
Philadelphia Drug Exchange, 104, 182. 
Philadelohia Retail Druggists. 290. 
Pierce County (Wash.) Retail Druggists, 

380. 
Prescott Club. 336. 
Rhode Island Pharmaceutical, 66. 
Rochester CS. Y.) Pharmaceutical, 66. 
St- Louis Drug Club. 168. 
St. Paul Retail Druggists. 66. 334. 
Salt Lake (Utah) Drug Clerks. 60. 



ASSOCIATIONS— Continued 

San Francisco Retail Druggists, 348. 
San Francisco Ladies Auxiliary, 128. 
South Dakota Pharmaceutical, 3J1. 
Syracuse (N. Y.) Druggists, 392. 
Tennessee Pharmaceutical, 253. 
Texas Ladies Auxiliary, 256. 
Texas Pharmaceutical, 224, 236. 
Texas Retail Druggists, 69. 
Utah Pharmaceutical. 268. 
Virginia Pharmaceutical, 285. 
Waltham (Mass.) Druggists, 385. 
Washington State Pharmaceutical. 51, 268. 
West Virginia Pharmaceutical, 264. 
Western States Dairy, Food and Drug 

Officials, 400. 
Wisconsin Ginseng and Goldea Seal 

Growers, 350. 
Wisconsin Pharmaceutical, 266. 
Wisconsin I^armaceutical, Ladies Aux- 
iliary, 288. 
Wisconsin Rexall Druggists, 165. 
Women's Organization, N. A. R. D., 354. 
Boston Chapter. 94, 190. 
Chicago Chapter, 58. 94, 160, 190, 224, 

288 3&4 
Cincinnati Chapter. 58, 94. 160. 190, 

231, 256, 288. 
Oeveland Chapter, 384. 
Indianapolis Chapter, 58, 94, 384. 
Louisville Chapter, 55. 58, 112, 127, 

160, 190, 224, 256, 288. 330, 384. 
Milwaukee Chapter, 128, 160, 190, 288, 

290. 
Mobile Chapter, 94. 
Philadelphia Chapter, 58, 94, 128, 160, 

190, 224. 384. 
Youngstown Chapter, 190. 
Wyoming Pharmaceutical, 346. 
Atoxicocainc, 141. 



Baby Week, Sales by Druggists, 127, 129, 189. 

Bacillus Bulgaricus, 16. 

Bacteriology, Value to a Pharmacist, 247. 

Baking Powder, Cream of Tartar, 34. 

Bath Powder, Perfumed, 382. 

Bathing Supplies from the Drug Store, 181. 

Bedbug Destroyer, 122. 

Beeswax, Russian Demand, 144. 

Benzol, from Lignite Coal, 152. 

Bidding for Soldier Trade, 291. 

Biological Products, German, 184. 

Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 9, 
47, 83, 119. 

Bismuth Subacetate, 141. 

Subnitrate. Swindling Scheme, 109. 

Boards of Pharmacy Asked to Exempt Drug- 
gists, 352. 

BOARDS OF PHARMACY, 35, 73, 107. 125, 
157, 188, 265, 314, 356, 400. 

Alabama, 35, 188. 

Arkansas, 356. 

California, 188, 356, 400. 

Colorado, 365. 

Delaware, 188. 

District of Columbia, 35. 64, 26i5. 

Florida, 265. 376. 

Georgia, 265, 400. 

Illinois, 25. 107, 157, 188. 400. 

Kansas, 125. 

Kentucky, 73, 107, 188. 

Louisiana, 35, 73, 125, 265, 356. 

Maine, 35. 

Maryland, 265, 400. 

Massachusetts, 35. 107, 265. 

Minnesota. 188, 356, 400. 

Missouri, 107, 188, 3S5. 

New Jersey, 125. 214, 400. 

New Y^ork, 35, 107, 157, 264, 265. 

North Carolina. 265. 400. 

North Dakota, 265. 

Ohio, 64, 73, 188, 356, 400. 

Oklahoma, 356. 

Pennsylvania, 25. 265. 

South Carolina, 356. 

Tennessee. 400. 

Texas. 157, 356. 

Utah. 73. 314. 

Virginia, 107. 188. 

Wisconsin, 73, 157, 188, 356. 
BonOpto Tablets, 122. 



INDEX 



BOOK REVIEWS, 4. 52, 92, 124, 156, 192, 222, 

248, 381. 324. 340. 372. 
Abstract of the Census of Manufactures, 

1914, 248. 

Annual Report of the Surgeon General of 
the Public Health Service, 4. 

Annual Reprint of Reports of the Coun- 
cil of the A. M. A., 1916, 156. 

Armour Year Book for 1917, 165. 

Chemist & Druggist Diary, 1917, 4. 

Culbreth, Manual of Materia Mcdica and 
Pharmacy, 52. 

Dench, Advertising in Moving Pictures, 
52. 

Fantus. Candy Medication, 340. 

Farwell, Botanical Nomenclature of the 
U. S. P. IX, 248. 

Farwell, Fern Notes, 124. 

Field, Retail Buying, 248. 

Gager, Laboratory Guide for General 
Botany, 4. 

Hamilton and Rowe, Pituitary Standard- 
ization, 248. 

Howe & Beard. Latin for Pharmacists, 4. 

Kremers, Bibliographic Guide for Stu- 
dents of the History of Pharmacy, 92. 

LaWall. Chemistry of Bread-Making, 248. 

Lloyd, Bibliographical Contributions Re- 
lating to Botany, 156. 

Lloyd, Mycological Notes, 52. 

Lloyd Library, Bibliography of Botany, 
Exclusive of Floras, 92. 

Lord & Thomas, Pocket Directory of the 
American Press, 52. 

Manual for the Medical Department of 
the United States Army, 1917, 281. 

Mineral Resources of the United States 

1915, 372. 

Muldoon, 'Lessons in Pharmaceutical 
Latin, 4. 

Muter, Manual of Analytical Chemistry, 
324. 

New and Nonofficial Remedies, 1917, 156. 

O'Connor. The Metric System for Drug- 
gists, 92. 

Phelps and Stevenson, Exp'erimental 
Studies with Muscicides and Other 
Fly- Destroying agencies, 124. 

Potter, Com,pend of Materia Medica, 
Therapeutics and Prescription Writing, 
222. 

Proceedings of the American Association 
of Pharmaceutical Chemists, 1916, 52. 

Proceedings of the American Conference 
of Pharmaceutical Faculties. 1916. 156. 

Proceedings of American Drug Manufac- 
turers, 1917. 32i. 

Proceedings of the National Wholesale 
Druffists' Association, 1916. 192. 

Report of Commissiomer of Education, 

1916, 192. 

Report of the Director of the Wisconsin 
Pharmaceutical Experiment Station, 
1916, 124. 

Report of Hawaiian Board of Health, 
1916. 52. 

Roddy, Medical Bacteriology, 372. 

Rogers, Elements of Industrial Chemis- 
try, 4. 

Roth, Pharmacological Studies with Co- 
caine and Novocaine, 156. 

Roth, Pituitary Standardization, 156. 

Rowe, Trichlor-Tertiary butyl Alcohol 
Anesthesia. 124. 

Ruddiman. Incompatibilities in Prescrip* 
tions, 156. 

Sayre. Manual of Organic Materia Med- 
ica and Pharmacognosy, 92. 

Schimpf, Course of Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis of Inorganic and Organic Sub- 
stances, 372. 

Simon & Base. Manual of Chemistry, 4. 

Stone. The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and 
Chemical Conditions. 248. 

28th Annual Report Pennsylvania Board 
of Pharmacy, 192. 

Wakeman, Plant Chemistry for Chemis- 
try Students, 372. 

Wall, Elementary Lessons in Latin. 340. 

Wall, Handbook of Pharmacognosy. 340. 

Wall, The Prescription, 340. 

Wellcome. Photographic Record and 
Diary, 1917, 12. 

Wilhert, Changes in the Pharmacopoeia 
and the National Formularv. 156. 

Wilcox. Materia Medica and "Therapeu- 
tics including Pharmacy and Pharma- 
cology, 124. 

Year Book of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, 1915. 281. 

Year Book of Pharmacy. 1916, 124. 

Books, Dermatology, 15. 

Embalming. 54. 

Urine Analysis, 186. 
Bottle -Capping Mixture, 2S4. 
Promogen, 141. 



Brushes, Profits, 227. 
Bulgarian Cultures, 16. 
Business Catchers, 63, 105. 

Hints, 291. 

Temerity, 196. 
Buying and Selling. 163, 195, 227, 259, 291. 

Club Aid to Retailers, 117. 

Through Associations, 70. 

War Times, 196. 



Calciglycin, 141. 

Calcium Chloride-Diglycoll, 141. 

Calomel. Decomposition, 217, 282. 

Cameras, Profits in Selling, 163. 

Candy, Proper Display, 225. 

Canning and Pickling, 287. 

Cantharidin, Solvent. 245. 

Capsules, Castor Oil, 121. 

Caramel, Preparation, 154. 

Caspari Memorial Proposed, 388. 

Castor Oil Plant. Cultivation in Colombia, 
374. 

Celluloid, Formula, 16. 

Cement, Joining Leather, 314. 

Cerium Compounds, Uses, 381. 

Chain Store, Evolution, 39>7. 

Chemical Business wih France, 150. 
Industries, Exposition, 270. 

Chemicals, Committees on Government Sup- 
plies. 203. 
Exhibition in American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, 60. 

Chemists, Conscripted Assigned to Special 
Work, 399. 

Chicago Drug Show, 31. 

Chili Con Carne, 15. 

Chloramine. 141. 

Chlorazene, 141. 306, 3S1. 

Chloriagol, 141. 

Chlorinium, 44. 

Christmas Greeting, 3&3. 

Cignoline, 141, 307. 

Cimolite, 217. 

Cleaning Fluid, Non-Inflammable, 349. 

Cleaning. Spring. 102, 132. 

Clerks, Expert, Scarcity in New York, 136. 

Coal Tar Distillation, Crude Products, 6. 
Genealogical Tree, 7. 
Industry: Medicines, Chemicals and 
Dyes. By John F. Queeny, 5. 

Cocoa nut Shells, Composition. 349. 

Coffee, Trade Winning Side Line, 23. 

COLLEGES OF PHARMACY. 33, 71, 106, 128. 

158. 191, 220, 254. 290, 332. 364, 398. 
Brooklyn. 192. 364. 391. 
'Buffalo, 71, 158. 221, 398. 
California University, 278. 399. 
Cincinnati, 222. 
Creighton University, 126. 
Fordham University, 220. 
Havana University, 385. 
Highland Park, 71, 191. 
Illinois University, 34. 136, 148, 191, 221, 

254. 
Iowa University, 33. 106. 126. 158, 191, 

230. 254. 398. 
Jersey City, 34. 106. 
Kansas Citv. 148. 222. 
Louisville. 71, 222. 
Maine University, 34. 
Maryland University, 192, 222. 
■Massachusetts. 33. 44. 61. 106. 125, 221, 398. 
Michigan University, 332, 398. 
Mississippi University, 254. 
Minnesota University, 148. 158, 254. 
Montana University, 222, 290, 399. 
New Jersey, 191, 304. 
New Orleans, 221. 
New York, 33. 148. 158, 221. 
North Carolina University, 220. 
Northwestern University, 192, 254. 
Oklahoma University, 34, 71. 106, 136, 158, 

191, 399. 
Oregon Agricultural College, 254. 
Philadelphia, 158, 220. 
Pittsburgh. 221. 
Purdue University, 398. 
Oueen City. 394. 398. 
Southern, 399. 
St. Louis. 33. 71. 106. 
Tennessee University. 71. 
Texas University, 254, 399. 
Utah University, 399. 
Valparaiso University. 254. 
Virginia Medical, 192. 
Washington State College. 254. 
Washington State University, 254. 
Wisconsin LTniversity, 158, 222, 332, 379. 

Collinsonia. Dose. 15. 
Coloring Fats, 217. 

Commercial Problems in Pharmacy, 345. 
Conservation, Drug Store, 151. 
Supplies, Massachusetts, 354. 



Conserving Life by Eliminating Waste, 347. 
Contributing to Preparedness, 291. 
Conventions and Retail Prosperity, 287. 
Co-Operation between Doctor and Druggist, 

12. 
Copaiba Mixture, 382. 
Cork Industry, Barcelona, 211. 
Corn Flour jn Bread-Making, 184. ' 

Remedy, Salicylic, 55. 

Seed, Protecting from Crows, 121. 
Correct Mental Attitude Necessary, 373. 
Correspondence. 300, 219, 324. 
Couch Grass, 219. 

Counter Tops, Dispensing. Dressing, 90. 
Coupon Tickets. Proposed Tax, 151. 
Courtesy and System Bring Results, 215. 
Cramp Bark, Use of Term, 213. 
Credit and Commercial Decisions, 173, 205, 

2^, 301, 333, 365, 401. 
Cucumber Cream, 251. 

Juice, 251. 
Customers, Know Their Names, 104. 
Cymasin, 141. 



Dakin's Solution, 153. 
Damp Proof Composition, 122. 
Dandelion Root, Definition, 213. 
Dental Week Displays, 60. 

Window. Educational, 18. 
Dentifrice Fads and Publicity, 36. 
Deodorizer, Inside Closets, 15. 90. 
Department Store Virtues, 135. 
Diacetylhydromorphine, 141. 
Diafor, 141. 

Dichloramine-T, 336, 381. 
Digaloid, 141. 

Dihydromorphine Hydrochloride, 141. 
Dioxyaminothiobenzene, 141. 
Diphtheria Antitoxin, 9. 
Disease Simulation, Drugs Used, 377. 
Disinfectant, Formaldehyde, 187. 
Dispargen, 141. 
Displays. Timely, 233. 
Dog Grass, Facts, 219. 
Driving Dollars Away by Neglect, 72. 
Drug Addiction and War, 160. 

Business and Bone Dry Law, 185. 
How to Grow, 226. 
How to Kill, 195. 

Gardens. War Impetus, 228. 

Habit. Stokes' Treatment, 240. 

Store Inspection, New York City, 51. 
Old, 228. 

Pioneer in Wisconsin, 45. 
Profits only 5.5%, 61. 
Running on Service, 291. 
in September, 287. 
Sweets. 384. 

Stores, Recruiting Offices, 132. 
Druggist. Movie and Public, 124. 
Druggists Training for War, 138. 
Drucs, Crude, in War Time, 194. 

in Proprietary Medicines, 218. 

Synthetic, Shortage, 284. 

Used to Simulate Disease, 377. 
Dry Cleaning Cleanser, 314. 



EDITORIALS, 1, 40, 77, 113, 145, 177, 209, 

241. 273, 305, 337, 369. 
A Philanthropic Pharmacist, 82. 
A-189 and Scientific Progress. 370. 
Adamson Bill and Foreign Patents, 275. 
Advertising and the Food and Drugs 

Act, 78. 
Alcohol in Virginia Drug Stores, 3. 
Alcohol for Commercial Purposes, 2. 
Alcohol for Manufacturing 'Purposes, 273. 
America in the Running, 243. 
An Army Pharmaceutical Corps, 209. 
Business and the Metric System, 77. 
Chemical Companies Earnings, 77. 
Chemists at the Boston Meeting, 306. 
College of Pharmacy Activities, 41. 
Colleges of Pharmacy and the War, 308. 
Comparative Prices of Drugs, 307. 
Conserving Platinum Supply, 179. 
Co-Ordination of Legislative Effort, 178. 
Cooperative Buying in Other Lines, 211. 
Curtailing Delivery Systems, 242. 
Dead Languages and Nomenclature, 78. 
Detroit Druggists Do Not Want Liquors. 

3. 
Disposition of German Patents, 210. 
Do Retail Druggists Need a National 

Buying Club? 43. 
Drug Business and Selective Service 

Act. 308. 
Druggists and Drug Store Conservation, 

371. 
Druggists and the War Revenue Tax, 

3S7. 



INDEX 



EDITORIALS— Continued 

Federal License and Commercial Tax, 179. 
Food Buying on Basis of Calories. 244. 
Future Prices on German Potash, 179. 
Goldwatcr Ordinance Unconstitutional, 

241. 
Illumination of Drug Stores, 339. 
Julius O. Schlotterbeck, 211. 
Life of the Per Capita Person, 1. 
Liquor Ads Barred P>om the Mails, 179. 
Liquors in the Drug Store, 210. 
Make a Red Cross Window Display, 3fi9. 
Narcotic Legislation, 78. 
Organization, Key Note of the Future, 

369. 
Owl Drug Co.'s Eastward March, 210. 
Pharmacists and the War. 145. 
Pharmacists Should Mass Their Strength, 

274. 
Pharmacy in Illinois Disturbed, 42. 
Poison Gases in Trench Warfare, 211. 
Possibilities of Drug Plant Culture, 338. 
Possibly Different but Better Business, 

177. 
Problems of Plant Cultivation, 82. 
Professor Charles C.aspari, Jr., 339. 
Professor C. Lewis Diehl, 114. 
Preparedness in Colleges, 113. 
Progress in Pharmaceutical Research, 307. 
Proposed Revenue Legislation, 178. 
Proposed Tax on Distilled Spirits, 241. 
Proprietary Medicines in North Caro- 
lina, 78. 
Recognition of Pharmacistts in the Army, 

242. 
Regarding the Use of Proprietaries. 146. 
Returning the Vermiform Appendix, 82. 
Scarcity of Drug Clerks, 306. 
Scarcity of Drugs and Original Research, 

3. 
Selling Through Suggestion, 275. 
Silver Nitrate Advancing, 306. 
Status of Goldwater Formula Disclosure 

Ordinance, 114. 
Status of U. S. P. IX Under Ohio Laws, 

244. 
Suggestions for Commencement Orators, 

178. 
Supplies for National Defense, 113. 
Telephone Prescriptions, 339. 
Tendency of Pharmaceutical Education, 

244. 
The A.Ph.A. at Indianapolis, 305. 
The Coal Tar Industry, 1. 
The Era for 1918, 339. 
The Era Key to the U.S.P. and N.F., 

114. 
The Narcotic Situation, 2. 
The Right Kind of Bookkeeping, 42. 
The Necrology of 1917. 370. 
The Quest for heaper Potash, 333. 
The Scarcity of Drug Clerks, 243. 
The Victor Case and Price Mainte- 
nance. 146. 
Three-Cornered Bottle Legislation, 114. 
Time to Eliminate Itinerant Peddling, 

276. 
U. S. Public Health Service Disseminates 

Information, 3. 
War on Waste of Drugs, 308. 
Watching .Market Prices. 244. 
Why You Should Join, 306. 
Wilful Negligence or Dishonesty, 276. 
Women in Pharmacy. 371. 
Work for Army Pharmaceutical Corps, 
273. 

Educating the Store's Sales Force, 131. 

Elixir Acetanilid, Compound, 219. 

Enterosan, 155. 

Ethyl-Hydrocupreinc, 249. 

Eucupin, 155. 

Experience Requirement, Reducing, 379. 

Extract. Beef. Manufacture, 90. 

Vanilla Imitation, Paste, 284. 
Eye Glasses, Preventing Moisture on, 91. 



Fairchild Scholarship, Examinations, 183. 

Fats. Edible, 141. 

February Specials, 57. 

Federal License and Commercial Tax, 170. 

Ferrivine, 155. 

Frauds, see Personals. 

Fertilizer for Flower Garden, 250. 

Fishing Tackle in Drug Stores, 95. 

First Aid Kit, Housekeepers, 383. 

Flavoring Extracts. Paste, 283. 

Food Conservation, 332. 

Food and Drug Co., Officials Cooperate, 14. 

Formaldehyde, CToudy, 153. 



Galenicals, U. S. P., Reasons for Changej 

in Formulas, 245. 
Galls. Oak, Californian, 179. 
Gas Lighters. 381. 

Gases, Tear-Producing, Sabadilla, 89. 
Gelanthum, 89. 

German Preparations Watched, 394. 
Gifts in the Drug Store, 259. 
Ginger Ale. Unsweetened, 153. 
Ginseng Growing, Protection Wanted, 86. 
Glutiodin, 155. 
Glycerin Barred from B. P., 321. 

Substitute, 155. 321. 
Glycopon. 155. 
Gold Fish, Care, 17. 

Returning to Natural Slate, 15. 
Goldtinktur, 91. 

Goldwater Ordinance Invalid, 258. 
Gox. 155. 
Graduates. Glass. Specifications. 85. 

High School, Do We Want Them in Phar- 
macy? 379. 
Grape Crop, 1916, 44. 
Greaseless Cream, 123. 
Guaiacol Chloriodide, 155. 
Guaiodine, 155. 

Guaranty Label Legend Lapses, 30. 
Guatemalan Medicinal Plants, 154. 



H 

Haines' Test Solution, 53. 
Hair. Drving Powder, 382. 

Dye. Two Bottle, 55. 

Fadeless, 55. 
Handwriting. Pharmacist's, 58. 
Hexaiodine, 155. 
Hexamethylenamine-Silver Glycocholate, 155. 

Monohydriodide, 155. 
Hexophan, 155. 
Hoffmann's Anodyne. 123. 
Holidays, Stocks to Buy, 319. 348, 383. 
Hospital Corps, Army, Duties, 181. 



Immunization, Use, 119. 

Incompatibilities, see Prescription Difficul- 
ties. 
Incompatibles, Mixture, 2S2. 
Indigo, Genealogy, 6. 

Infusion, Digitalis. Omission of Alcohol, 
245 

Alcohol Content, 324. 
Ink, Disappearing, 349. , 

Duplicating Machines, 90. 

Sympathetic, 349. 
Insurance, Health, Compulsory, 309. 
Intramine, 155. 
locamfen, 155. 
lodal, 155, 203. 
lodeol, 155. 
lodogen, 155. 
Triphan. 155. 
Iron and .\mmonium Citrate, Green, 350. 

Arsenite, Soluble, 350. 

Nuxated, 154. 
Isoaraylhydrocupreine, 155. 
Italian Language in Pharmacy, 168. 



January Leaders. 19. 

Jelly. Unna's, 89. 

Jewelry, Lines Subject to Tax, 397. 



K 

Ketoimidotetradiazol, 155. 



Laboratory Tables, Dressing, 90. 
Law. Dry, Suspended in Washingon, 331. 
Drug, Planned for U. S., 385. 
Xarcotic, Harrison, Proposed Amendment, 
S6. 
District of Columbia. 64. 
New York. 201, 278. 299. 
'.egislation. Pharmacy, Illinois. 102. 
Ohio, 112. 
Proprietary Medicine, New York, 60. 
Library, Traveling, 260. 
Lighting, Drug Store, 341. 
Liniment, Camphor, White, 283. 

Hungarian, 155. 
Liquid Smoke. 185. 

Liquor Alumini Subacetatis, Standard, 212. 
Tax, Pharmacists, New York, 240. 



Lithium. Metal, 308. 
London Letter, 321. 
Lotion^ Almond, 90. 

Quince Seed, 186. 
Luargol, 155. 
Lutosargin, 155. 



M 

MacFarlin & Co.'s Labels Counterfeited, 386. 
Mail Order Business, Proposed Tax, 151j 
Malargen, 203. 
Market Report, 39, 75. Ill, 143, 175. 207, 239, 

271, 303, 335, 367, 403. 
Medical Supplies, U. S. Army, 216. 
Menosal, 203. 

Metric System. Explaining, la. 
Merchandizing Methods. Modern, 387. 
Mercuric Iodide, Colloidal, 141. 155, 203. 
Mesoyohirabene, 203. 
Milk. Condensed. Manufacture, 218. 

Evaporated. Manufacture, 218. 
Mixture, Copaiba, 382. 

Ferro-Saline, 314. 
Modenal, 203. 

Money. Sending by Telegraph, 104. 
Mortars, Cleaning, 123, 313. 

Old. Exhibition, 184. 
Mosquitone. 174. 
Motor Cycle Delivery. 105. 
Moving Pictures as Advertising, 63, 134. 
Mucilage, Quince Seed, 185. 
Musterole, 123. 



N 

Narcotic Committee Report, New York, 96. 

Situation, By Charles B. Towns, 12 
Naval Pharmacists Promoted to Assistant 
Surgeons, 258. 
Warrant Officers. 286. 
New Preparations of 1916, 141, 155. 
New Remedies. 203. 
New York Legislative Hearing on Narcotics, 

Sanitary Code, Drug Store Inspec- 
tions, 51. , 

Nikalgin, 372. 

Novocaine not Narcotic, 136. 150. 



Obituaries, 27, 67, 99, 139, 169, 199, 231, 263, 

2%, 328, 359, 393. 
Odors, Extracting, 149. 
Oil Bubulum. 314. 

Castor, Making Capsules, 121. 

Corn, Therapy and Uses, 121. 

Dende, 303. 

Haarlem, Composition, 283. 

Lemon-grass. Home Grown, 88. 

Neatsfoot, 314. 

Origanum, Compound, 283. 

Wintergreen. Manufacture, 380. 
Oils. Edible, 141, 384. 

Solubility in a Prescription, 53. 
Ointment. Zinc Oxide, for Burns, 313. 
Ointments, Notes on Dispensing, 183. 
Opium, Smoking, for Hospital Use, 165. 

Traffic in China, 116. 
Optochin, 249. 

Hydrochloride, 249. 
Ovaltine, 172. 
Ownership, Statement, 176, 368. 



Pamphlets Received, 372. 
Paper from Spinach, 15. 
Paralaudin, 203. 
Parasene, 206. 
Parlodion, 203. 
Paste. Black, 382. 

Hand Cleaning, 89. 
Patent Law, Should It Discriminate Against 

Chemical and Medical Science? 277. 
Patents, German. Abrogation, 234. 
Patents. Trademarks, etc.. 37. 74, 110, 142, 

174. 206, 238, 270, 302, 334, 402. 
Patriotism, Capitalizing, 109. 
Pelliform, 203. 

Pepsin and Sodium Bicarbonate, 217. 
Pencils, Styptic, 350. 
Percentage Solutions, 54. 
Percolators as a Side Line, 71. 
Perfumes, American, 149._ 
Periodicals as a Side Line, 135. 
Personal Notes, 25, 65, 97, 137, 167, 229, 261, 
293, 325, 357, 391. 



INDEX 



PERSONALS, Including Obituaries, Items 

of Personal Interest Regarding Firms. 

Drug Trade Swindlers, etc. 
Ackerman, A. A., 263. 
Adams, B. W., 168. 
Alden, Robert E., 200. 
Alpers, Dr. William C, 99. 
American Chemical Products Co., 234. 
American Chicle Co., 40. 
American Druggists' Fire Insurance Co., 

32, 144. 234. 
American Druggists' Syndicate, 69. 
Andrews, Walter M., 3'58. 
Angell, Arthur F-, 198. 
Arndt, William Herman, 294. 
Atkinson, Lawrence, 326. 
American Druggists' Fire Insurance Co., 

336. 
Avery, Miss Sophia Louise, 58. 
Bach. E. G., 262. 
Baebcnroth, Fred, Jr., 230. 
Baker Drug Co., Inc.. 28. 
Baker, F. J., 230. 
Balch, William J., 264. 
Baldwin, Orville, 264. 
Balser, Gustavus, 103. 
Barbaine, Miss Rhea E., 380. 
Barber, Frank P., 326. 
Barker, Robert, 170. 
Bartlett. N. Gray, 67. 
Bass, Clifford W., 98. 
Bauldauf, George L., 66. 
Belling, Harry. 98. 
Beise, John H., 98. 
Bell, Miss Jennie E., 94. 
Bellaire, John D.. 295. 
Bender, Mrs. Ella M., 170. 
Bengston. J., 25. 
Benner. C. C, 296. 
Bennett. Kelly E., 230. 
Berger, Ernest, 97. 
Bcrgstrom & Jones Pharmacy, 230. 
Berry, John T., 264. 
Berry, William A.. 360. 
Bettes. Charles C, 27. 
Betts, Jesse R., 140. 
Bigelow, Orrin O.. 392. 
Bishop, W. A.. 263. 
Bitner. IL, 65. 
Bixler, Sumner W., 67. 
Black, Dr. W. E., 137.- 
Blake. John A., 360. 
Blakemore, Eugene, 329. 
Blieden, Miss Lillian, 128. 
Blosmo. O. J., 158. 
Blumauer-Frank Drug Co.. 64. 
BIy, Murray, 140. 
Bodenmann, John C, 140. 
Boher. Jay H.. 263. 
Bohrer, Edward, 232. 
Bonta, C. L.. 302. 
Boston Drug Co.. 332. 
Boyd, Len, 198. 
Boyce. Samuel F., 140. 
Boyle, John E.. 326. 
Boynton, Charles Albert. 170. 
Bradt, Warren L., 358. 
Breckenridge, J. Y., 140. 
Breunert. Ralph Henry. 296. 
Brewer, E. Avery. 263. 
Bridges, Charles H., 140. 
Britton, W. A., 392. 
Brockmiller, Conrad A., 140. 
Broer, Bernard F.. 200. 
Brown, Dr. C. W., 26. 197. 
Brown, Linwood A., 230. 
Brown, William K., 328. 
Briien, Ritchey & Co., 107. 
Bubier, N. C, 26. 
Buckendorf, Otto H., 394. 
Bucklen, Herbert E., 68. 
Burr, D. George, 100. 
Burton, Dr. Marion LeRov, 167 
Burton. Mrs. Paul, 256. 
Buschman, William G., 232. 
Butts. Russell C. 263. 
Buxton. Horace C. 358. 
Calvert, Cyrus P.. 100. 
Calvert Drug Co.. 64. 
Camp. Mrs. Elizabeth McKesson 68. 
Campbell. John E., 140. 
Campell. Milton, 198. 
Carey. Alexmder G.. 360. 
Campbell. Milton, 193. 
Carr, Lisle R.. .W2. 
Carson, W. A., 326. 
Carter. Carter & Meigs, 108. 
Carter. Edward D., ,394. 
Caspar!, Prof. Charles, Jr., 350. 
Caswell, Stephen J.. 25. 
Cermack, Dr. Toseph Louis, 324. 
Chadwick, F. T., Jr., 66. 
Chamberlin. Dr. George M., 263. 
Chambers, Tames H.. 394. 
Chambers, Thomas B., 65. 
Cherry, W. B., 3S«. 
Churchill. Warren, 358. 



PERSONALS— Continued 

Clapp, Albion W., 326. 
Claypool, William E., 295. 
Cohb, Lester N., 28. 
Cody, John Henry, 140. 
Colbrath, William C, 140. 
Collier, George R., 100. 
Comstock, Harry L., 393. 

Congdon, Edmund S., 170. 
Conklin Pen Mfg. Co., 272. 
Cooban, Benjamin S., 67. 

Cook. J. O.. 357. 
Cook, v., 28. 

Cooper. J. D.. 98. 

Corliss, Everett F., 100. 
Corwin, James H., 232. 

Coughlin. Clarence, 392. 
Cousins. W. H., 353. 

Covington, George W., 100. 

Grays. James. 328. 

Crittenton Co.. Charles N., 144. 

C. N. Crittenton. Co., Jr., 60. 363. 

Crosby, Norton K., 133. 

Cunningham, O. W., 232. 

Curlee, Raymond A., J26. 

Currier, Leonard G., 262. 
Daggett & Ramsdell. 206. 

Danglemeyer. Theodore. Jr., 25. 

Daniell, C. W., 99. 

Daniels, Adam C, 296. 

Darling. Dr. Lewis. 68. 

Davis, John, 140 . 

Day. Prof. W. B., 229. 254. 

Decatur Drug Co.. 64. 

Deemer. G. M. Hays, 328. 

Diehl, Prof. C. Lewis, 139, 160. 

Diekman, George C, .65. 

Dietel, Herman, Jr., 197. 

Dille, John N., 100. 

Dingman, George W.. 296. 

di Nola. Leon, 329. 

Dodd, Dr. Walter J., 28. 

Dodds, Fred C. 66, 230. 

Dodge, Walter, 195. 

Donnelly, J. A., 197. 

Doremus, E. D., 358. 

Dougherty, Miss Mazie, 198. 

Douglass, Dr. Edmund, 2&4. 

Dows, Azro M., 364. 

Drake, Fred.. 263. 

Dreibelbis, Louis, 137. 

Drury, Linus D., 19. 27. 

Duffield, George W.. 394. 

Dumas, W. C, 197. 

DuMez, A. G.. 379. 

Dunbar. George N., Jr.. 392. 

Duncan. William D., 327. 

Dupee. Charles S.. 329. 
Eastern Drug Co., 62. 

Eastman, Fred J.. 26. 

Eberhart, Charles E., 296. 

Eckstein, S. A., 26. 58. 

Economical Drug Co., 32, 240. 

Eddy, Wynn L, 26, 97. 

Egan, John E., 170. 

Eimer & Amend, 401. 

Eitel, George G., 38. 

Elkin, W. S.. Jr., 137. 

Elkind, Boris J., 329. 

Elliot, George J., 294. 

Elliott. George Stephen. 169. 

Ellis. Lenn C. 25. 

Elston. Thomas M.. 296. 

Emerson, Capt. Isaac E., 98. 

Engberg, Andreas F., 294. 

England, Charles S., 231. 

Erard. Philip V., 97. 

Erwin. M. J.. 393. 

Esmond, Wendell, 230. 

Estabrook, Harry A., 294. 
Falkenhainer. Charles, 167, 198, 326. 

Faries, Joseph B., 27. 

Farnsworth, William E., 66. 

Feagan. Charles T.. 170. 

Federmann, W. M., 392. 

Feiel, Adolph, 140. 

Fenton, Jerry P., 68. 

Ferguson, Prof. Geo. A.. 139. 

Ferguson. Robert J.. 170. 

Ferris, William J.. 329. 

Finch, Miss Alice J., 230. 

Fink. Charles H.. 140. 

Fischelis. Dr. Robert P., 38. 

Fisher, Ray. 294. 

Fitch. A. Perley. 393. 

Fitzhugh. Glassell, 170. 

Fix, L. C. 25. 

Fogg, Winthrop, 200. 

Foote, John Crocker, 264. 

Fortier, Francis E., 358. 

Foster, Arthur Morrow, 394. 

Fougera & Co., Inc., E., 144, 258, 394. 

Franken. James L.. 197 

Frantz, Jacob S., 99. 

Finck, Frederick H., 167. 

Fritzsche, Ernst T., 40. 



PERSONALS— Continued 

Fuller, J. A., 100. 
Gainley, G. Leon, 262. 
Gale, William, 137. 
Ganger, Chas. H., 158. 
Gecr Drug Co., 330. 
General Store's Corporation, 304. 
Genolin, Charles G., 12. 
Goddard, Louis J., 170. 
Godding, Mrs. John G., 222. 
Goldmann, Oscar, 199. 

Goodman. Prof. F. M., 263. 

Goodman. Sam E., 27. 

Gordon, Frederick T., 199. 

Gragg, George W., 393. 

Gregorius, George, 199. 

Gregory. Dr. Willis G., 379. 

Green. Henry L.. 137. 197. 

Greene. J. C. 294. 358. 

Greenish, Prof. H. G., 261. 

Griffies, Thomas H.. 329. 

Griffith. Edward J., 68. 

Grimshaw, Thomas C, 358. 

Groover, F. C, 230. 

Grosvenor, Dr. John M., 360. 

Gruber-Freeland Pharmacies Co., 200, 336. 

Gue, David John. 232. 

Gunn. H. E., 66. 
Hadley. John H. C, 357. 

Hall, P. N.. 98. 

Hall. William R., 99. 

Halsey, Malcolm, 100. 

Hammar, Alrik. 357. 

Hanggi. Emil J.. 325. 

Hanks. Caleb S.. 169. 

Hanser. O. C, 168. 

Harper. Robert N.. 294. 

Harriman. J. Maro, 169. 

Harrington, Clement D., 148. 
Harris, George R., 68. 

Hart, J. H., 296. 

Hartwig, Carl, 232. 

Hausman, Miss Bertha Nill, 128. 

Hawley, George F., 200. 

Hayward, Charles E., 391. 

Head, F. M., 295. 

Healy, George, 140. 

Hendricks Drug Co., 196. 

Henning. Frederick J., 263. 

Henry, J. E., 26. 

Henry, S. C, 353. 

Himes, Prof. I. I.. 326. 

Hixson, Armon W., 329. 

Hobby, Lewis H., Jr., 140. 

Holden. A. Edward. 393. 

Holliday, Frank E., 168. 

Hollister, Charles E., 232. 

Homblette, Arthur. 198. 

Horn, Harry J., 326. 

Hopkins, L. D., 358. 

Houghton. H. J.. 65. 

Houston, J. K. Hall, 25. 

Howard, Henry, 230. 

Howe, Guy P., 394. 

Hubbard. Silas J., 329. 

Huels. Emil J.. 200. 

Huested & Co.. A. B., 101. 

Hull, Chester A., 230. 

Humphreys Homeopathic Medicine Co., 
208. 

Hunt, Lewis. 28. 

Hunter, Clifton D.. 140. 

Huthwelker. J. C, 392. 

Hynson. H. P., 167. 
Igel, Richard L, 329. 

Isakovics, Alois von. 232. 

Ives. Charles G., 300. 
Jackson, Robert, 393. 

Jacobs, Joseph, 293. 

Jadwin, Mrs. Elizabeth P.. 360. 
kins Drug Co.. W. P.. 394. 

Jenkins. L. P.. 326. 

Jenks. Richard L., 329. 

Jessup. Walter Albert, 191. 

Johnson. Miss Mabel, 384. 

Jones, Shelly B., 67. 

Tones, William James, Jr., 329. 

Tones, Wylie B.. 102. 

Joyner. Wilbur N., 21. 86. 
Kaemmerer, Wm. F.. 26. 373. 

Kaup, Emmett. 326. 

Kellogg. David, 232. 

Kemp. Frank C. 28. 

Kennedy, Dr. R. C, 200. 

Kennedy, Sinclair. 137. 

Kerwin. James W.. 100. 

Killoughy. John, 394. 

Kinder, Charles William, 296. 

Kintzing. Dr. Pearce, 100. 

Kivela, John W., 66. 

Kleinhaus, Charles E., 327. 

Klemcke, Fredericke, 170. 

Klosterman, Albert W., 394. 

Klump, Mrs. Mary. 392. 

Knox. J. W. T.. 26. 

Koch. George A., 329. 



INDEX 



PERSONALS— Conti nued 

Koehler, J. P., 232. 

Konantz, \V. A., 358. 

Kopkins, A. M., 65. 

Kottenhoff, Albert G., 392. 

Koza, E. H., 394. 

Kradwell, G. \'.. 165. 

Kraemer. Ptof. Henry, 2&3, 357. 

Kraton Drug Co., 163. 

Krauskopf, Morris, 170. 

Kremer, Edward A., 198. 

Krieger, J. C, 26. 
LaChappelle, Aime Joseph, 100. 

Lamraert, C. J., l-W. 

Lambert, A. B., 262. 

Lambert. Berford L., 262. 

Lambert, Jordan \V., 296. 

Lampa, Robert R., 229. 

I-amson, Dr. Arthur, 100. 

Lariviere, Joseph A., 262. 

LaRose, Louis E., 170. 

Lauterbach, J. \V., 232. 

Lazardes, John A., 261. 

Lcadbeater, John, 99. 

Lee, Charles Otis, 296. 

Lee, Edward M., 261. 

Lee, Mrs. Nellie F., 58. 

Ledoux, Elphredge J., 262. 

Leith, Fred G., 230. 

Lerou, Herbert M., 137. 

Lewis, F. C, 137. 

Lewis, Henry, 105. 

Liggett, Louis K., 66, 198. 230. 

Liggett Co., Louis K., 397. 

Lighter, Frank, 66. 

Lillibridge, E. L., 33. 

Lillibridge-Weeks-Thurlow Co., 391. 

Lilly, Alonzo, 27. 

Lindley, Raymond G., 137. 

Llewellyn, J. F., 100. 

Lloyd, Simeon H., 170. 

Lohr, V. C, 198. 

Loomis, E. N., 100. 

Low, Melvin L., 392. 

Lutz, Carl J., 359. 

Lowe, Col. John W., 20. 

Lowell, Frederick Harrison, 27. 

Lucas, Dr. Harry V., 263. 

Lukens. B. C, 215. 

Lynch, Albert E.. 25. 

Lynch, John H.. 232. 

Lynn, C. J., 108. 
Matthews, Charles E.. 391. 

Macdowell, William F., 328. 

MacEwan, Peter, 231. 

Macy Co., R. H., 171. 

Mahar, William P., 137. 

Main, Thomas F.. 199. 

Mallinckrodt, Edward, 26. 

Mallinckrodt, Edward, Jr., 198. 

Mandelbaum, Marcus R., 360. 

McCarthy, John T., \m. 

McCarty, Anthony B., 109. 

McCorkle, J. F.. 358. 

MoCormick, James C, 295. 

McConnick, L. C. 325. 

McCoy-Howe Co., M. 

McCracken, Mrs. Ida C, 190. 

McDonald, Samuel, 270. 

McDonough, Frank J., 261. 

McFadden, Eugene A., 140. 

McGarrah, W. H., 100. 

McGovern, Edward, 329. 

McGowan, Richard. 26 

McKay, Archibald. 296. 

McKeever, Miss Willette. 230. 

McKesson & Robbins, 28. 

McKinney, Robert S., 198. 

McLernon, John, 140. 

MqPike Drug Co., 297. 

McSpadden, Earl Co.. 297. 

Mangan, Dr. Daniel C, 391. 

Marchand, Charles, 68. 

Marquier, Adolph F., 230. 

Mars, Walter E., 392 

Marshall, Drew, 328. 

Martin, Charles S., 295. 

Marvin, Henry E., 359 

Marvin, Z. E., 293. 

Mason, Mrs. Carolyn Thayer, 256, 264 

Masson, Victor, 295. 

Mayer. Prof. Fred, 66. 

Meacom, Edward, 393 

Meader, H. B., 66. 

Megrath, George Edward, 2J2. 

Melking, A., 26. 

Mellier, Albin. 27. 

Menage. Henri, 360. 

Meredith Drug Co., 232 

Messing, B. J., 168. 

Metz, Herman A.. 197 

Metzger, H. J., 137. 

Meyer Bros, 264. 

Meyei- Bros. Drug Co., 69, 290 
Meyer, Dr. Samuel, 329 

Michigan Drug Co., 136. 



PERSONALS-Continued 

Miller, John R., 100. 

Miller, Martin L., 100. 

Milliken & Co., John T., 26, 240, 3W. 

Mills, Paul R., 34. 

Miner, Maurice A., 290. 

Minneapolis Drug Co., 62. 

Mixson, Miles E., 26. 

Mohler, H. A., 295. 

Moore, Andrew, 67. 

Moore, Edwin T., 68. 

Moore, J. S.. 229. 

Moore, R. H., 68. 

Morris, Henry, 137. 

Morris, Robert E., 327. 

Motley, Prof. E. T., 358. 

Moulton, Prof. Harold G., 262. 

Mount, C. J., 112. 

Mount-Mize Drug Co., 112. 

Movitt, I. A., 28. 

Moynihan, Humphrey C, 68. 

Mueller, Ferd. A., 97. 

Mulford, H. K., 229. 

Mulford Co., H. K.. 38, 64, 197. 

Mullen, Patrick J. H., 392. 

Murray Drug Co., 40. 

Muth, John S., 328. 

Mykrantz Drug Co., 334. 
Nalpant, Gregory, 230. 

Nash, E. Clifford, 27. 

Nelson, Miss Ella A., 58. 

Nelson, Dr. Henry, 393. 

NewhaU, Herold, 263. 

Newport, Capt. Herbert E.. 262. 

Nicholson, William P., 360. 

Noel, J. Snyder, 24. 

Nolan, J. P., 295. 

Noonan, John F., 28. 

Norwich Pharmacal C., 64, 363. 

Noyes, Mrs. Helen A., 99. 

Nye, George Warren, 360. 
O'Donnell, William J., 24. 

Olcott, George M., 328. 

Opper, John C, 358. 

O'Rourke, Hugh H., 326. 

Osgood, Howard L., 328. 

Otis, Miss Clare M., 260. 

Otis, Dr. John C, 288, 328. 

Ott, Ferdinand, 66, 296. 

Otter, Charles H., 326. 

Otto, E. A., 62. 

Otto, Thomas O., 170. 

Owl Drug Co. (Milwaukee), 226. 
Packard, C. O., 264. 

Parcher, George A.. 231. 

Park Drug Co., 326. 

Parke, Davis & Co., 324, 334. 

Partridge, Edward F., 232. 

Patton. E. B., 295. 

Peacock, Charles, S26. 

Pearce, Dr. W., 132. 

Peirron, Dr. Joseph J., 28. 

Pelikan, Mrs. Amanda, 296. 

Penberthy. John Stephen, 68. 

Perkins, Mrs. Grafton B., 288. 

Perkins, L. O., 326. 

Perley, Dr. I. N.. 358. 

Perry, C. S., 26, 66. 

Peterson, William J., 358. 

Pfaudler Co., 302, 364, 402 

Phillips, S. D., 200. 

Pieper, H. A., 191, 200. 

Pierce, Mrs. A. F., 224. 

Pierce, James A., 197. 

Pierce, Robert J., 294. 

Pierron, Dr. J. J., 67 

Planten & Son, H., 144. 

Player, William F.! 100. 

Pond, Bowes & Cartwright, 132. 

Post, Jacob K., 27. 

Post, Willett E.. 296. 

Potterfield, George C, 232 

Prass, John N., 263, 296. 

Prior. Jr., Peter J.. 100. 

Pueblo Wholesale Drug Co 142 

Puritan Drug Co., 51 . 
Queeny, John F., 66. 
Raabe, L. F., 26. 

Raggie. Miss Beatrice I., 385. 

Rahlfs, Mr., 320. 

Ramsaur. David W.. 357. 

Ranous, Henry Edward. 68 

Ranslow, George H., 296. 

Raubenheimer, Herbert Carl 261 

Raubenheimer, Otto, 294 

Redden. Charles H., 28 

Reed, B. S.. 170. 

Reeves, Carl J., 392. 

Reid & Snyder, 105. 

Reindollar, Harrv A., 100. 

Rhode, Claus Frederick, 170. 

Richards, C. A.. 165. 

Ricks, Miley, 140. 
Ridenour, C. E., 26. 
Rietzke, Herman W., 167 

Riker Drug Co., 69. 



PERSONALS-Continued 

Ripley, Qiarles F., 25. 
Risher, Harry C, 325. 
Rising, Edward H., 360. 
Ritchey, Wm. F., 107. 
Robbin, Leo, 329. 
Robinson, William A., 199. 
Rodman, W. R., 296. 
Roeber, Dr. Eugene P., 360. 
Roeder, Dr. J. A., 296. 
Roesch, Charles, 393. 
Rogers, Prof. Charles H., 137. 
Rogers, R. C, 230. 
Rohrer, Fred, 140. 
Rusby, Dr. Henry H., 28 197 
Russ, W. A.. 295. 
Rust, Nathaniel J., 99. 
Ryan, Charles V., 66. 
St. Paul Show Case & Fixture Co., 62 
Salmon, Walter L., 26, 66 
Sargent, W. L., 197. 
Sarra, Ernesto, 229. 
Sawyer, Charles H., 28. 
Sayre, Eugene A., 98. 
Sayre, Prof. L. E., 184. 
Schafer, Harold J., 169. 
Schelbe, William J., 66. 
Schieffelin, Dr. W. J., 107. 
Schiesele, Alphonse, 263. 
Schimpf, Dr. Henry W., 391 
Schindel, S. F.. 392. 
Schlotterbeck, Dr. J. O., 231 
Schmid, Carl A., 394. 
Sohmidt, A. Edwin, 200. 
Schmidt, J. F., 170. 
Schmidt, Dr. Samuel, 231. 
Schnitzler, Anthony, 100. 
Scholtz, E. L., 25. 
Schramm-Johnson Co., 234. 
Schreiner, Louis L, 98. 
Schroeder, Frederick, 200. 
Schumacher, Fred., 263. 
Schwab, Gustav., 140. 
Schwake, Henry, 232. 
Scidmore, Sanford B., 360 
Scofield, Joseph Walker, lix). 
Searle, George D.. 139. 
Seidenbacher, John R., 263 
Series, Ear! R., J2S. 
Shaw, Horace Gray. 232 
Sheffield, W. E., 326 
Shelton, Dr. E. A., 232 
Sherman, Charles S., 98 
Sherriff, W. E., 230. 
Shoemaker, Allen, 139. 
Showalter, Claude M 392 
Shurtleff, Frank Hamilton,' 27. 
isilvius, Oscar, 360. 
Simard, Joseph A., 170 
Simmons, G. W., 294. 
Simmons, S. S., 170 
Smith, Albert W., 296. 
Smith, Benjamin W , 68 
Smith, Charles A., 391 
Smith, David C, 200. 
Smith, Drug Co., 363 
Smith, E. A., 26. 
Smith, Ralph H., 232 
Smith, S. B., 26. 
Smither. Robert K, 231. 
Snow, Charles W., 261, 392 
Snyder, John M., 394 
Sobey, Robert, 329. 
Sotoloff, M. B., 100. 
Spiegel, Adolph, 98. 
Spillane, James R., 167 
Spooner, Dr. Liburn W.. 68 
Spreen. Frederick, 263. 
Spruance. Dr. James H., 232 
Squibb & Sons Co., E. R 64 
Staines, Glenn S., 357 
Stearns & Co., Frederick, 300. 
Stetzel, Edward G., 360. 
Stevens, Thomas J., 263. 
Stevenson, Richard D., 392 
Stewart, Dr. F. E 9 
Stieglitz, Prof. Juliu's, 137 
Stiger, Stephen, 264. 
Stover, Mrs. Charles A 198 
Strong, William B., 97. 
Sullivan, John F.. 100 
Sweet, William H., 294 
Tanner, Glen, 196. 
Tartiss, Alfred J.. 68 
Taylor, William P., 296 
Taylor, William F.. 329 
Thoman, Charles, 68. 
Thompson, A. D., 28. 
Thompson & Co., F. A. 183 
Thompson, George, 393. 
Thurliman, Edward, 394 
Tibbs, William H., 169 
Tilma, John, 68. 
Tindall, H. C, 392. 
Tobin, John J., 25, 140, 198. 



INDEX 



2(M. 



151. 



49, 73. 



A.. 25. 



PBRSONAIjS— Continued 

Tonnar, George, 68. 

Topliff, C. E., 326. 

Towle, Albert M., 392. 

Towns, Charles B., 166. 

Trefrey, Thomas C, 394. 

Truesdell. Clarence H., 169. 

Tupper, Frank L., 360. 

Turner, J. E., 326. 
United Drug Co., 86. 

Utech, P. Henry, 34:>. 
Vadnie, Henry, 200. 

Van Home, James T., 360. 

Van Houten, A., 295. _ ~„ 

Van Schaack, Mrs. Louisa S., S<3. 

Van Schaack & Sons, Peter, 248. 

Van Vleet-Mansfield Drug Co., 44. 

Victor Talking Machine Co., 1/1. 

Virden, Miss Rose, 22. 

Voegeli Bros. Drug Co., 171. 

von Baeyer, Adolph, 360. 
Wagner, A. G., 364. 

Wakefield, Benjamin F.. 28. 

Wales Advertising Co., 302. 

Walling, Dr, Willoughby, 28. 

Warner, Augustus. 232. 

Warner & Co., William R. 

Weinstein, Dr. Joseph, 99. 

Wellington, John, 232. 

Wells Building Drug Co., 

Wendell, Harry, 230. 

Werle, Edward W., 232. 

West, Charles A., 65. 

Western Wholesale Driig Co., 64. 

Wheeler, Earl G., 262. 

Whelpley, H. M., 213. 

Whilden, Charles B.. 358. 

Whitehead, Bower T., 169. 

Whyte, H. H.. 40, 66. 

Wilbert, Dr. Martin I., 

Wilcox, Malcom J., 169. 

Wilder, C. W., 26. 

Wilkerson, J. A., 65. 

Williams, Eben J., 26. 

Wilmarth, Welch, 66. 

Winslow, Prof. C. E. 

Wintermeyer, Otto, 68. 

Wischerth, John G., 139. 

Woodcock, William Henry, 264. 

Woodruff. Charles M., 108, 277. 

Woodward, Helm, 26. 

Woodward, Henry J., 169. 

Woodward, Herbert E.„ 102. 

Wright, Dr. Hamilton, 67. 

Wright, Walter, 296. 

Wulling, Prof. F. J., 33, 115, 192. 

Wyman, F. A., 26. 

Pharmaceutical Calendar, 188. 
Pharmaceutical Corps for U. S. Army Bill, 

298. 
Pharmaceuticals, Deterioriated and Waste, 

347. 
Pharmacist and the State, 49. . . 

Pharmacist's Obligations and Opportunities, 

118 
Pharmacists, Army and Navy. 147, 181, 237. 

Need for Corps in Army, 297. 

Reciprocity During War, 228. 

Should Have Life Certificates, 49. 
Pharmacopoeia, Ninth Revision, Recognition, 
60. 

Working Unit for Drug Chemist, 344, 375. 
Pharmacy, Commercial Problems, 345. 

In the War, 213. 

Supplies in Navy Drug Store, 87. 
Phonographs, Do They Bring Trade? 101. 

Druggists' Profits, 171. 

Side Lines, 190. 
Plant Cultivation, University of Wisconsin, 

332. 
Plaster, Season and Sales, 38, 55. 
Plasters, Featuring, 18. 
Platinum, Quantity in U. S., 324. 
Poisons, Admission to Mails, 30. 
Pomades, Coloring, 217. 
Potassium Oleate, 122. 
Portraits, see Personals. 
(Prerequisite Legislation, Why Pharmacists 

Want It, 115. 
Prescription Balance Errors, 85. 

Charges, 249. 

PRESCRIPTION DIFFICULTIES— 

Arrhena! with Sparteine Sulphate. 86. 
Asafetida with Water, 217. 
Bromoform with Validol, 186. 
Calomel with Pepsin, 217. 
Calomel with Tannic Acid, 282. 
Castor Oil in Capsules, 122. 
Codeine Phosphate with Potassium Bro- 
mide, 186. 
Ferrous Carbonate with Mercuric Chlo- 
ride, 282. 
Dispensing Ointments, 183. 



PRESCRIPTIO.X DIFFICULTIES-Con. 

Green Iron and Ammonium Citrate for 
Ampoules, 350. 

Lithium Salicylate with Sodium Bicar- 
bonate, 186. 

Mercuric Chloride with Potassium Ar- 
senite, 282. 

Phenyl Salicylate and Naphthol Salicy- 
late, 186. 

Prescription Charges, 154, 248. 
Quinine Sulphate with Potassium Ar- 
senite, 282. 

Sodium Bicarbonate with Sodium Potas- 
sium Tartrate, 54. 

Solubility of Oils in a Prescription, 53. 

Spanteine Sulp^hate With Sodium Bro- 
mide, 186. 

Stovaine with Sodium Borate, 186. 

Prescription Pricing, 152. 154, 200, 219. 
Prescriptions, Non-refiUable, 223. 
Prices, Quoting in Advertising, 8. 

Trade Journal Copy, 8. 
Proceedings Received, 38, 340. 
Professional Tenure and Yearly Dues, 49. 
Profits in Spite of War, 193. 
Prohibition, Virtues, 260. 
Proprietary Medicines Taxed as Beverages, 

389. 
Proprietaries, Alcoholic, Special Tax. 250. 

China as Market, 152. 
Pyrochinin, 203. 



Question Box, 15, 53, 89, 121, 153, 185, 217, 

249, 282, 313, 349, 381. 
Quince Seed, Preparations, 185. 
Quinine Dihydrochloride, 350. 

Factory, Italian, 264. 
Quinoforra. 203. 



Red Cross Campaign, 189. 
Registration, Reciprocal, 16. 
Relief and Defence Work, 352. 
Reprints Received, 324. 

Re-Registration, Once a Pharmacist Al- 
ways a Pharmacist, 51. 
Revenue Act, War, Summary, 396. 

Bill and Specialties. 194. 
Roach Exterminator, 122. 
Roses, To Make Bloom, 250. 
Rosin, Solubility in Essential Oil, 282. 
Rubber Goods, Featuring, 57. 
Repairing, 382. 

Piano Covers, Cleaning, 349. 



Sabadilla in Tear- Producing Gases, 89. 

Sage and Sulphur Hair Tonic, 123. 

Salaspin, 203. 

Sales Promotion, Special, 255. 

Salvarsan, Made in U. S., 138, 238. 

Sandalwood, Exports and Production, 312. 

Sargol, Litigation, 102, 118. 

Secret of Business Success, 289. 

Seeds, a Side Line that Pays a Profit, 133. 

Selling Campaign for March, 93. 

Demonstration, 94. 

First Aid Kits, 195. 

Retailers' Schedule, 248. 
Semien Bark, 153. 
Serum, Antitetanic, 48. 

Diphtheria, 10. 

Therapeutic Use, 120. 
Serums, New York Offers U. S., 170. 
Setovince, 203. 
Shampoo, Liquid Soap, 250. 
Shaving Paste. Collapsible Tubes, 91. 

Without Brush, 91. 
Shop Talk vs. War Talk, 163. 
Show Globe Colors, 17. 
Silver-Ammonium Glycoholate, 203. 
Slug Shot, 314. 

Smallpox. History and Causes, 83. 
Smoke, Liquid, 185. 
Soap. Liquid Shampoo, 250. 

Paste, Motorists, 89. 

Stone, Uses, 308. 
Soda Foam, 313. 
Sodium Bicarbonate and Rhubarb, 217. 

Acid Substances Required for Neu- 
tralization, 54. 
Solarson, 203. 
Soldier Trade, 320. 
Solution, Chlorinated Soda, 153. 

Formaldehyde, Cloudy, 153. 

Magnesium Citrate, 185. 
Solutions, Saturated, 249. 
Species. Alpine Herb, 187. 

Cathartic, 187. 

Herbarum de Le Roi, 187. 
Spectacle Lenses, Preventing Deposition of 
Moisture, 91. 



Spirit, Cucumber, 251. 

Tar, Rectified, 185. 
Sponges, Automobiles, 291. 

Rubber, 150. 
Stains, Cigarette, Removing, 53. 
Stamp Selling Device, Sanitary, 223. 

Taxes, War, 396. 
Standards for Drugs and Chemicals, U. S. 
Bureau of Chemistry Asks Power to 
Fix, 11. 
Stationery. Selling, 159. 
Stephens Bill in Congress, 68, 171. 
Stock, Conserving, 105. 
Stovaine, Incompatibilities, 186. 
Straight Talk, 228, 260. 
Stramonium Replacing Belladonna, 155. 
Styptic Pencils, 350. 
Sugar Barred from B. P., 321. 

Milk, Manufacture, 251. 

Milk and War, 287. 
Sussol, 203. 

Swagger Sticks, Selling, 292. 
Swindlers, see Personals. 
Synthetic Substitutes not Narcotic, 150. 
Synthetics, American Made, Quality, 324. 



Tamarinds, 217. 

Tanning, Oak Bark, 54. 

Tax, Income, Proposed Plan, 180. 

Taxes, Revenue, Imposed on Druggists, 361. 

Tea, Alpine Herb, 187. 

Telegraphing Money Orders, 104. 

Terra Cimolia, 217. 

Tetanus Antitoxin. Dried, 49. 

Prevention, 47. 
Tethelin, 203. 
Theophysene. 203. 

Time Saved Means Profits Saved, 59. 
Tincture, Golden, 91. 

Iodine, Cost. 381. 
Toilet Cream, Transparent, 123. 
Tooth Paste, 91. 

Excipient, 91. 
Trade Acceptances Proposed, 355. 
Trademarks, Bill to Protect Owners, 151. 
Trading Stamps, Massachusetts, 108, 264. 

with the Enemy Act, 323. 
Trimethol, 203. 
Triticum Root, 219. 
Tu Chung Bark, 153. 



u 

Unicorn Root, Defined. 213. 
Urine, Haines' Sugar Test, 53. 
Urugxiay Drug Imports, 394. 



Vaccination, Remedial Success, 83. 
Vaccine Virus, Production, 48. 

Storing, 355. 
Venarsen, 203. 

Victor vs. Macy License Contract, 171. 
Viscose, 16. 

w 

Wallet Advertising Scheme, 352. 
Walls, Protecting from Moisture, 122. 
War Basis for Business as a Woman Sees 
It, 351. 
Fake Drugs, 126. 
Morals and Women, 189. 
Revolutionizing Trade, 260. 
Service, Listing Men, 324. 
Washing. Modern, Chemistry, 88. 

Powders, 17, 350. 
Water, Softening, 17. 
Waterproofing Walls, 122. 
Wearing Apparel, 90. 
Weights, Scales and Graduates, Druggists', 

S5. 
WTiat Counts. 228. 
Wliisky. Synthetic, 350. 
Who's Who and What's What. 137, 167, 197, 

229, 261. 293, 325, 357, 391. 
Why Do You Buy? 352. 
Window Display, Curious, 105. 
January. 18. 
Hallowe'en, 320. 
Thanksgiving, 320. 
Right Sort, 233. 
Wine, Cod Liver Oil, 53. 
Woman Pharmacist and War. 159. 

War -Time Economies. 255. 
Woman's Viewpoint of Patriotism. 189. 
Women Druggists and Baby Week, 127. 
Women in Pharmacy, 18, 57. 93, 127, 159, 189, 

223, 255, 287. 319. 351, 383. 
Wool Fat, Preparation of Purified, 279. 



Zacaton, 122. 
Zinc Oxide, 122. 



Il AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY PUBUCATION FOR THE DRUG TRADe" 



Vol. L. 



New York, January, 1917 



No. 1 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

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^ Table of Contents 



Editorial and Pharm.\ceutical Section 

Editorials 

Books Reviewed 

Coal-Tar Industry, By John F. Queeny 

Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 

Indiana Druggist Has Whole County to Himself 
Clean-Up Day in Narcotic Situation, By Charles 

B. Towns 

Question Box 

Western Druggist Builds Success 

Women in Pharmacy 

Selling Coffee in Drug Stores 



Pages 

1-24 

1 

4 

5-8 

9-11 

12 

13-14 
15-17 
21-23 
18-20 
24 
Pages 



News and Trade Section . . . ., 25-40 



Pharmaceutical Personals 

Deaths in the Drug Trade 

Meetings of A.Ph.A. Branches 

Xews of Associations 

Schools and Colleges 

Board E.xaminations 

Among Our Advertisers, New Goods, Etc. 

Patents, Trademarks, Etc 

Drug Markets 



25 
27 
29 
31 

33 
35 
36 
37 
39 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Index Form 

INDEX TO GOODS ADVERTISED Index Form 

INDEX TO READING PAGES Index Form 



THE COAL-TAR INDUSTRY 



In the dye market the seeker after information is 
told that the inthistry of making colors is "almost 
able to walk alone," a statement that is further 
emphasized by the fact that makers ai'e not only 
offering a fuller range of colors, but they ai'e quot- 
ing lower prices. Such a statement two years ago 
would have been looked upon a.s representative of 
the impossible, but the continuation of the war in 
Europe has changed former existing conditions and 
thrown us upon our own resources. There has been 
great industrial development along all lines of 
business, but particularly in that knowTi as the coal- 
tar indastiy, the story of which is very interestingly 
told on another page of this issue of The Era by 
John P, Queeny, a manufacturer who speaks from 
experience and first-hand knowledge, and who 
would have the average individual understand what 
he has to say. 

That the products of coal tar are utilized in many 
other fields than those pre-empted by the dealer 
in drugs and dyes becomes quickly apparent as one 
studies the "genealogical tree" reproduced in ]\Ir. 
Queeny 's article. The coal-tar synthetic is almost 
ubiquitous in its ramifications, and its application 
extends to almost every sphere of human endeavor. 
This movement needs to be continued, and the coal- 
tar industiy should be put upon a workable ba.sis, 
for it has already been demonstrated that if it can 
be thus maintained, it will add to our coimtry 's 
wealth and help its legitimate prosperit.y. So or- 
ganized, as 'Sir. Queeny sees it. we can then "imder- 
sell Germany not only in our own markets but in 
the markets of the world. A lai-ge natural resource 
will be conserved, profitable employment will be 
pi'ovided for thousands of our own people, and the 
question 'Why do we not make our own dyes?' will 
be answered." 



LIFE OF THE PER CAPITA PERSON 



The statement made hy a member of the A.sso- 
ciation of Life Insurance Presidents at the recent 
meeting of that organization in this city that the 
American people consume 75,000,000 pounds of 
drugs each year is interesting, although it is doubtful 
whether the average individual who wants to insure 
your life has anj- better means of getting at the 
real facts thau any one else. But when we are told 
that the average citizen has increased his consump- 
tion of alcohol since 1860 from 6.4 to 19,8 gallons 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 11)17 



and that this increase has i-aised the death rate 
among moderate drinkers 18 per cent and among 
the steady drinkers 86 per cent, we begin to believe 
that our informant has been studying statistics and 
that his conclusions are worthy of some credence. 
The per capita person, as the insurance man sees 
him, is one who hurries to his death, arriving at hLs 
finish and the age of forty-three yeai-s simultane- 
ously. He is trying, with the aid of new knowledge 
and inventions, to crowd the experiences of two 
lifetimes into one. He is having some success, but 
the strain is telling on him. His hair has aged and 
he is getting bald. Other indications show that he 
is seriously overstraining his heart, arteries, kid- 
neys, nerves and digestion. The patriarch's three 
score years and ten hold out for him no visions of 
ripe old age. But as pharmacists let us think 
twice before we concede that the rush of our per 
capita friend is all due to the excessive use of drugs 
and alcohol. These substances may be accelerators 
but there are many other contributing causes. 



THE NARCOTIC SITUATION 



In this issue of The Era appears an article on 
the narcotic situation embodying the views of 
Charles B. Towns; whether it meets the approba- 
tion of the average druggist or not, it is worthy of 
careful perusal and of the earnest consideration 
of all persons who are endeavoring to place the 
control of the narcotic evil into competent hands. 
In the exposition of his subject the author brings 
much positive information concei-uing the evils cre- 
ated by the use of habit-forming drugs. Credit also 
must be given to him for his candor, for he lays 
Ms cards upon the table in full view to show that 
he has no ulterior motives in waging war against 
this great evil. His strongest argument, it seems 
to us, is that relating to the care and treatment of 
habitues, a project that is receiving the attention 
•of many physicians, sociologists, and legislators. 

Interest in the control and sale of narcotic drugs 
is becoming more and more pronounced throughout 
the entire coiuitry at the present time. In New 
York City a committee of the State legislature 
bas been holding hearings in its attempt to investi- 
gate this nefarious traffic, with a view to providing 
remedial legislation. Strange as it may appear, the 
preponderance of evidence presented at these hear- 
ings seemed to establish the fact that the evil is 
spreading, notwithstanding the satisfactory results 
which had been derived from an enforcement of the 
Harrison anti-narcotic law and the Boylan act of 
the State. In Massachusetts, at the recent meeting 
of The New England Association of Boards of 
Pharmacy, this illegal traffic was the main subject 
of discussion, and the officials were unanimous in 
the opinion that every effort should be made to 
eradicate it. The officials went on record as being 
determined to suppress all illegal sales, so far as 
they relate to the conduct of drug stores, and that 
they "would use their best endeavors to clase up all 
pharmacies that refuse to comply with the State 
laws and regulations. From other sections come 
similar reports and it is safe to predict that all 
/of the incoming legislatures will be called upon to 
provide legislation to eliminate the traffic in nar- 



]L:otic drugs and the train of evils that follow in its 
Vake. 

The relation of these facts Ls sufficient to show 
that the trend of this proposed legislation is un- 
mistakable, and whether physicians or pharmacists 
may oppose it or not, more onerous restrictive 
measures for the regulation of the traffic are bound 
to be enacted. Not only are illegal methods of sale 
likely to receive attention, but methods and results 
of treatment of drug victims in hospitals where, it 
is asserted, many addicts have died because of the 
incompetence oi- ignorance of their caretakers, are 
to be investigated. All humanitarians %vill agree 
with Mv. Towns when he says that responsible au- 
thorities must see that "this type of sick man shall 
not in the futiu'e be trafficked in by the medical 
practitioner, by the sanatorium, or by anyone else 
who may claim to treat such people." The admis- 
sion that such conditions exist furnishes a curious 
commentary on our present day civilization. Theo- 
retically, at least, every individual is an asset to the 
State whose duty it is to afford him the greatest 
possible protection from the forces which would 
retard his development or assail his well-being. 
The logic of the situation demands that the further 
creation of victims shall be made impossible, and 
that those who have fallen by the wayside should be 
reclaimed by wise and judicious reformatory treat- 
ment. 



ALCOHOL FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES 



When Congress several years ago passed an act 
providing for the denaturing of alcohol, predictions 
were freely made that such legislation opened up 
a new era of prosperity for the country. Ordinarily 
alcohol possesses such valuable properties of a 
chemical nature, solvent powers and heating value, 
that next to water it w^as really the most valuable 
liquid known. But the use of tlie rectified spirit 
as a beverage precludes its utilization generally in 
the industrial arts, owing to the necessity of making 
it an article of taxation in the belief that such 
treatment tends to decrease the quantity consumed 
for beverage purposes. 

It is a matter of history that until January 1, 
1907, the United States was the only manufacturing 
country in the world of any importance that made 
no distinction between alcohol as a beverage and 
alcohol as an industrial substance. For years previ- 
ously Germany had freed alcohol to the industries, 
which gave to that country advantages in certain 
industries that were not possible here, and as a 
result that country attained a position with which 
we could not compete. Ten years ago our Govern- 
ment took the initial steps to make alcohol free to 
the industries by providing processes for denatur- 
ing it, and thus relieving it from the imposition of 
the internal revenue tax. By this means, it was 
hoped, its use would be made possible for all sorts 
of manufacturing operations, and many industries 
were to be emancipated from the burden of taxa- 
tion. Chemical production was to be accelerated 
and commercial projects were to develop that 
had never before been profitably worked in this 
comitry. The alcohol to be denatured could be 
easily made from unlimited quantities of raw ma- 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



terial, most of which had been allowed to go to 
waste, while the distilling apparatus for the manu- 
facture of alcohol was so inexpensive and simple, 
that almost any one could set up his plant and 
become a distiller. 

But in the practical solution of the problem of 
providing the 'industries with cheap alcohol the 
Government found it necessary to surround the 
manufacture of the denatured product with manj- 
restrictions, so that production other than that 
made in a large way was practically impossible. 
Whether experience will enable the authorities to 
provide opportunities for increasing the number 
of manufacturers without surrounding them with 
too many onerous details is yet but a partially 
solved problem. 

That the field for the use of denatured alcohol 
is becoming more and more extended, there is no 
rea-soh to doubt. From jMiami, Fla., comes word 
that a company there has been organized to manu- 
facture alcohol on a large scale, and it is stated 
that preliminarj' experiments at Da\ie, in the same 
State, have shown that alcohol for fuel purposes 
can be produced for from 5 to 5 1-2 cents per gallon. 
At this rate its use would compare favorably with 
that of gasoline. Of course, most authorities assert 
that the fuel effieienej' of gasoline is greater than 
that of alcohol, volume for voliune, but the difference 
is small. Alcohol has one advantage, however ; it is 
almost non-explosive, and it lacks the offensive odor 
of gasoline, both before and after combustion. It 
is said to be cleaner, also, in its effect on the in- 
ternal economy of an engine. 

But this is only one application of the use of 
cheap alcohol, although dozens of industries can be 
■mentioned in which its employment is extending. 
Jn the manufacture of varnishes, celluloid, dyes, 
explosives, etc., its use as a solvent is most import- 
ant, and the increased consumption in these indus- 
tries during- the past two years is a strong argument 
why the alcohol industry should be further extended 
in this countn^ There are many factors that enter 
into the development of manufacturing industries 
and the greatest fi-eedom should be allowed in utiliz- 
ing the wealth of raw material from which alcohol 
can be made and which is to be fovmd on nearly 
every farm and plantation. 



tained in the temperate zone from Atropa Bella- 
donna. 



The scarcity of drugs throughout the world dur- 
ing the last two years has been productive of greater 
effort in the domain of original research. Botanists 
have been scouring the countries in both hemi- 
spheres for various forms of plant life that could 
be utilized in some way to take the place of similar 
products eliminated from commerce through the 
continuation of the European war. This necessity 
has become the mother of invention. Chemists have 
evolved processes in which sodium compounds have 
taken the place of corresponding potassium salts, 
while the worker in leather has called upon the flora 
of the tropics for his tannin and vegetable dyes. 
The pharmaceutical chemist has had his problems 
to solve, and that he has had some success is evident 
from many directions. He has found that the plant 
Datura alba, which grows wild in almost every part 
of the Philippine Islands, contains a considerable 
quantity of atropine, an alkaloid heretofore ob- 



Reference has been made in another paragraph to 
the views of Virginia druggists on the sale of 
liquors in drug stores in that prohibition State. It 
would seem that there has been a wide divergence 
of opinion among laymen, and some division of 
opinion among lawj'ers as to whether or not a 
druggist requiring alcohol for his own pharmaceuti- 
cal purposes, but not for sale, i-equired the license 
to a retail druggist provided for under the Acts 
of 1916 of that State. According to a notice issued 
by J. Sidney Peters, Commissioner of Prohibition, 
this doubt has been largely cleared up by a decision 
of the judge of the Circuit Court of Rockingham 
Count}', who decides that a druggist does not re- 
quire a special license to buy, store and use alcohol 
necessary to a bona fide dimg business, but not for 
sale. The judge confines such imlicensed druggists 
to formulas prescribed by the U.S.P. and N.P., and 
who, in the conduct of their business, are not 
required by the United States Government to pay 
the Federal liquor dealer's tax. 



Another indication that di-uggists are looking 
askance at the question of handling liquors is seen 
in the proposal of the executive committee of the 
Detroit Retail Druggists' Association that the legis- 
lature of the State be petitioned to prohibit dmg 
stores handling or selling liquor under the forth- 
coming prohibition regime, for, as most of our 
readers know, Michigan went "drj'" in the recent 
election. The desire of many druggists to protect 
their stores from the possibility of becoming illicit 
sources of liquor supply shows good judgment on 
their part. The druggists of West Virginia. Vir- 
ginia, and a few other States have experienced 
similar feelings wdth regard to the temptations sur- 
roimding the pharmacy in "dry" territory, and 
that the Detroit druggists would eliminate liquor 
from their stores shows that they possess sufficient 
force of character to not only do their own house- 
cleaning but to do their best as citizens to uphold 
the will of the people as expressed at the last 
election. 



The United States Public Health Service has 
done much to disseminate information concerning 
health measures and preventive medicine. Re- 
ports of its work during the past year show that 
it has helped to eradicate trachoma, and reduced 
typhoid fever, malaria and other preventable dis- 
eases. It has also made great strides in clearing up 
pellagra, that disease of mystery which so long has 
baffled many medical investigators, but which is 
now known to be caiised by a restricted diet and 
may be prevented and cured by means of a properly 
balanced ration. The practical application of this 
knowledge has already resulted in a reduction of 
the prevalence of this disease, while further de- 
velopments in its control are expected. 

A complete index to Volume XLIX of The Ph^vr- 
MACEUTICAL Era. Covering the j'ear 1916. has been 
prepared and will soon be ready for distribution. 
Copies may be obtained bj- subscribers who will 
send requests for the same to the publishers. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



Books Reviewed 



L 



ELEMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY. By Allen Rogers, 
in charge of industrial chemistry, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 8 vo., 514 pages, cloth, $3. New York. D. \'an Nostrand 
Company. 

This volume is an abridgment of Rogers' Manual of 
Industrial Chemistry, by forty specialists in various tech- 
nical and industrial lines, and according to the author, it 
has been prepared to meet the needs of those teachers of 
the subject who find that the time at their disposal does 
not warrant the employment of an extended treatise. As 
a textbook this work should find a recejitive lot of read- 
ers, for it comes at a time when increased interest is being 
taken in all that pertains to the industries dependent upon 
the application of chemical knowledge. The book contains 
twenty-seven chapters, the first three of which relate to 
general processes applicable to most industries ; water, its 
uses and purification, and fuels. The remaining chapters 
discuss the products manufactured in the various indus- 
tries, the text being largely descriptive, although sufficient 
theory has been included wherever necessary to help the 
student to a proper understanding of the subject. As a 
reference work for the pharmacist it should prove most 
serviceable, as it will give him much valuable information 
that is closely related to the products used in his own call- 
ing. The volume contains 117 illustrations. 



THE CHEMIST & DRUGGIST DIARY for 1917. 

This volume marks the 49th year of publication, and like 
its predecessors, contains a vast amount of information of 
interest to the English chemist and druggist, besides a 
plethora of advertising that would gladden the heart of 
•any American publisher. Thus we find postal informa- 
tion, a list of British drug trade associations, a directory 
of London metropolitan medical institutions and informa- 
tion relating to British excise duties, exports and imports, 
enemy firms in liquidation, the "reading matter" proper 
concluding with a "legal and pharmaceutical section," the 
most interesting part of which is the "encyclopaedia phar- 
macolegia," being a digest of decisions relating to the 
practice of pharmacy. The products advertised cover a 
verv wide field and all are carefully indexed. The Diary 
is published by the London Chemist & Druggist and 
is sent postpaid' to all subscribers of that journal. 



LESSONS IN PHARMACEUTICAL LATIN and Prescription 
Writing' and Interpretation, By Hugh C. Muldoon, Ph.G., in- 
structor in organic and analytical chemistry and Latin m the 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. 12 mo., 173 pages, cloth, 
$1.25 net. New York; John Wiley & Sons. 
LATIN FOR PHARMACISTS. By George Howe. Ph.D., pro- 
fessor of Latin, University of North Carolina, and John Grover 
Beard Ph. G., assistant professor of pharmacy. University of 
North Carolina. 12 mo., 134 pages, cloth, $1. Philadelphia, P. 
Blakiston's Son & Co. 

If one is to judge by the number of books that have 
been recently published on medical and pharmaceutical 
Latin, the language of the Caesars still holds a prominent 
place, notwithstanding the fact that a certain Chicago pro- 
fessor came out strongly less than a year ago with a plea 
for writing prescriptions in English. The practice of ages 
is not to be so easily uprooted, and our medical and phar- 
maceutical students are likely to continue the study of 
Latin for some years to come. The publication of two 
books on the subject, almost simultaneously, seems to em- 
phasize this conclusion, and so far as acquiring a knowl- 
edge of the Latin grammatical forms is concerned, it 
wolild make verv little difiference to the student which of 
these books he might select. Both develop the subject in 
a progressive manner, and the authors of each are equally 
awake to the necessity of inaking the non-Latin student 
familiar with pharmaceutical terminology. In Professor 
Muldoon's book particular attention is devoted to the writ- 
ing of titles, while detailed explanation of metric prescrip- 
tions is given, as also the requirements of "Harrison 
Law" prescriptions. In both books special attention is 
directed to the wr'ting and reading of prescriptions, and 
both carry comprehensive Latin-English and English-Latin 
vocabularies. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SURGEON GENERAL OF THE 
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES 
for the fiscal year 1916. 8 vo., 421 pages, cloth. Washington, 

This report contains an account of the operations of the 
Public Health Service set forth in the following order : 
Scientific research, foreign and insular quarantine and 
immigration (maritime quarantine) ; domestic (interstate) 
quarantine ; sanitary reports and statistical ; marine hos- 
pitals and relief; personnel and accounts; miscellaneous. 
Among the investigations prosecuted by the division of 
pharmacology of the Service during the year were the fol- 
lowing: Isolation of vitamine from brewers' yeast; tox- 
icity of heavy metals; standardization of drugs; examina- 
tion of life-saving devices; cocaine substitutes, etc.; the 
work of the division in preparing the digest of comments 
on the U. S. P. and N. F., and the digest of laws and 
regulations relating to poisons and habit-forming drugs, 
being familiar to most druggists. There are now on duty 
connected with the Service 50 pharmacists rated as follows : 
Pharmacists of the first class, 28; second class, 16; third 
class, 6. 



A LABORATORY GUIDE FOR GENERAL BOTANY. By C. 
Stuart Gager, director of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 12 mo., 
191 pages, cloth 90c net. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

According to the author, this laboratory guide is intended 
for the use of students in their first course in universities 
and colleges, or other institutions doing work of similar 
grade, and it has been prepared in harmony with the theory 
that the beginning student needs to learn in first laboratory 
course, not merely botanical facts, but how to observe and 
how to record his observations. In the introductory section 
of the work the student is informed of the nature and 
purpose of laboratory work with instructions relating to 
note books, laboratory drawings, and using the microscope. 
Part I is devoted to the anatomy and physiology of the 
plant, while Part II covers the morphology and life history 
of the plant. The order of topics follows that adopted in 
the author's Fundamentals of liotany reviewed in the No- 
vember Era of last year, page 456. The book is well 
printed and qinte free from typographical errors, although 
we note one "slip" on page 151 in the eleventh line where 
the word "microscopes" meets the eye instead of "micro- 
spores." 



MANUAL OF CHEMISTRY. A guide to lectures and laboratory 
work for beginners in chemistry. A text-book specially adapted 
for students of medicine, pharmacy and dentistry. By W. 
Simon, Ph.D., M.D., late professor of chemistry in the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore, etc.; and Daniel 
Base, Ph.D., professor of chemistry in the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, department of the University of Maryland. Elev- 
enth edition, thoroughly revised. 8 vo., 648 pages, cloth, 
$3.50 net. Philadelphia and New York, Lea & Febiger. 

Simon's Chemistry has been one of the standard text- 
books adopted by many colleges teaching medicine and 
pharmacy, its usefulness being attested by the fact that 
ten previous issues, each in several large printings, have 
been exhausted. This would command attention in any 
consideration of the book, but the fact is that the authors 
have "sensed" the needs of the students in these related 
fields, and have placed before their readers the dominant 
facts of chemical knowledge in a clear and concise manner. 

-In this edition, the former chapters on light aiid elec- 
tricity have been omitted from Section I, the articles on 
the spectroscope and the polariscope being placed in the 
appendix. Section II treats of general chemistry, the matter 
falling into two subdivisions, the first of which treats of 
non-metals, and the second of the metals. Section III is 
devoted to analytical chemistry and is intended to serve the 
student as a guide in his laboratory work. Qualitative 
methods are chiefly considered, but a chapter on qitantita- 
tive determinations by volumetric methods is also included. 
Section IV treats of organic chemistry, the section on 
physiological chemistry having been dropped, teachers of 
this subject preferring, the authors state, a separate text 
in which a more extended treatment can be given. The 
chapter on proteins is retained, however. Viewed from 
any angle, Simon's Chemistry is accurate in statement and 
comprehensive enough to satisfy all of the requirements 
of "a textbook for students of mcdiciie, pharmacy and 
dentistry." 



The Coal Tar Industry 

Value of Raw Material Wasted Ample to Build a Navy or 
Equip an Army — Industry Important in many ways besides 
for Medicines and Dyes and should be Firmly Established 
and Thoroughly Organiz ed i n Amer ica, 

By JOHN F. QTJEENY 

Copyright 1916, The Pharmaceuticai. Era (D. O. Havnes & Co.) 



COAL TAR! What does that word suggest to you? 
The chances are that the first thing you picture to 
yourself is the smoky, smelly tank of melted tar 
used in street repairing. Give your imagination free rein 
and, nowadays at least, you can conjure up all kinds of 
reds, and blues, and greens, and sigh as you reflect how 
the scarcity of dyes has affected the high cost of living! 
A third idea may suggest itself — that of poison, a dreadful, 
deadly, poison, something foul and mysterious, something to 
shun and avoid. True, coal tar is, as a recent writer has 
stated, a "black evil-smelling liquid," and as everybody 
knows, it is the raw material from which dyes are derived. 

A lump of coal appears to be solid but in reality it 
consists of only one-half to two-thirds of solid matter. 
The other half or third is liquid and gas and can be boiled 
out of the coal just as water can be boiled out of molasses. 
Of course, a much higher temperature is required, and this 
makes it necessary for the process to be carried out in a 
closed retort in order to exclude air and thus prevent 
burning the distillate. 

The destructive distillation of coal, as the process is 
called, was originally carried out for the single purpose of 
manufacturing illuminating gas. The coal tar which con- 
densed and accumulated in the mains and scrubbers of 
gas-works, was a source of trouble and expense until 
Perkin, an English chemist, in 1856, discovered that coal 
tar could be used as a source of raw material for making 
mauve, a delicate purple dye for silk. The first coal tar 
dye factory was built in England, but the Germans, quick 
to see the vast possibilities of such an enterprise, soon 
took up the matter, and it is to them that we owe the 
wonderful story of the development of the coal-tar indus- 
try, a story which in accomplishment of the impossible 
rivals the fairy tales of childhood. 

TJ. S. Should Lead in Coal-Tar Production 

More recently a second and greater source of coal tar 
has been developed. When the growth of the iron and 
steel industry made it evident that the supply of charcoal 
necessary for the recovery of pig iron from iron ore in 
the blast furnace was limited, a substitute was found in 
coke, the solid residue from the destructive distillation of 
coal. Condensation of the liquid products given off in 
the coking process yields coal tar. Leading the world as 
the United States does in the manufacture of iron and 
steel, it should follow logically that we would lead in the 
manufacture of coal tar and coal tar products. But such 
is far from the truth. L'ntil within the last few years 
practically all the metallurgical coke manufactured in our 
great steel centers was made in the wasteful bee-hive 
oven, a device which allowed all the valuable gas and 
coal tar to go to the four winds and become a nuisance 
instead of a useful economic asset. In the nineties the 
first by-product coke-ovens, a type of oven which saves 
the coal tar given ofif in the distillation, were installed in 
this country. Since that time the number has but slowly 
increased. The result has been a shameful and needless 
waste of nature's stores that should be a cause of humilia- 
tion to any countrv. Of the 69,000,000 tons of coal coked 
in the United States in 1913, 52,000,000 tons were coked 
in bee-hive ovens and everything but the coke wasted; 
while only 17,000,000 tons, less than one-quarter of the 
total amount, was coked in by-product ovens, and the gas- 
ammonia and coal tar saved. The value of the coal tar that 
has been ruthlessly wasted in this country would be ample 
to build a na\-y and equip an army, such as we ought to 
have, and in addition, provide for the maintenance of an 
adequate national defense. Why all this dissipation of 



natural resources? There have been many contributory 
causes but it has been largely due to the shortsightedness 
of our people and government in not recognizing the 
vital importance of the coal-tar industry and encouraging 
and fostering it until it is able to take care of itself. 
COAL 



I 



I I 

LIQUOR COAL-TAR COKE 

(Fertilizer, _ re- (Dyes, medi- (For the manu- 
f r i g c r a t i on, cines, food pro- facture of iron 
household am- ducts, perfumes, and steel) 
motor fuel, 
p h t g r aphic 
chemicals, dis- 
infectants, wood 
p r e s e rvatives, 
explosives.) 



AMMONIA 
GAS 
(Used for heat- 
ing and light- 
ing.) 



monia.) 



Fig. I — Products of the Destructive Distillation of Coal. 
European Contest a "Coal-Tar War" 

The present European war has been referred to as a 
chemical war. It could be just as appropriately spoken 
of as a coal-tar war. Fuel for motors ; high explosives 
for the huge shells hurled by the big guns ; food products, 
such as saccharin to supplement the dwindling sugar 
supply; antiseptics and medicines for the hospitals that are 
returning ninety per cent of the wounded to the fighting 
lines — all these are products of the coal-tar industry. In 
these days when the need of a national defense is so 
keenly recognized, the importance of a well-developed coal- 
tar industry to such a defense must not be overlooked, 
and patriotic, as well as economic considerations, demand 
that no steps should be neglected to establish such an in- 
dustry. 

We hear a great deal in the public press about coal-tar 
dyes, which are glibly referred to as coal-tar derivatives. 
The fact is that dyes comprise but a very small and rather 
insignificant part of the coal-tar industry. A noted Ameri- 
can chemist used an apt comparison recently when he said 
that the price of the dye which goes into a suit of clothes 
was about that of a good cigar. It would be much easier 
for the country to get along without dyes than to deny 
itself the other important substances that are derived from 
coal tar. Local anaesthetics, such as novocaine, stovaine, 
anaesthesin, better suited to many purposes than cocaine 
itself ; antipyretics or fever specifics, such as acetanilide, 
aspirin, acetphenetidin, triphenin, phenocoll, neraltein, py- 
ramidon, trigemine ; specifics, such as adrenaline and epinine 
for Addison's disease; soamin and arsacetin for sleeping 
sickness ; salvarsan or "606" for s>-philis ; and the excellent 
laxative, phenolphthalein, are but a few of the many useful 
coal-tar medicinals. Sweeteners, such as dulcin, sandoce, 
and saccharine which is five hundred tirnes sweeter than 
sugar; essences, like cinnamon, almond oil, oil of winter- 
green and coumarin ; photographic developers, amopg 
which are unal, amidol, glycin, adurol, kachin, and reducin 
mav be mentioned; high explosives, for example, lyddite, 
melinite, cresilite, and T. N. T. ;— these constitute a very 
small number of the many useful and indispensable coal- 
tar products. How-ever, it serves to illustrate the wide 
range of substances that may be obtained from coal tar, 
among which dyes, despite the public attention given them 
of late, must play a minor role. 

We speak of these substances ^s coal-tar derivatives, 
but they are derivatives in much the same sense as an 
automobile is a derivative of iron ore, or as a pipe organ 
is a derivative of a tree. The coal tar supplies the raw 
product, as iron ore yields iron, or a tree lumber, but 

Page Five 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 
COAL-TAR 



[January, 1917 



LIGHT OIL 



MIDDLE OIL 



HEAVV OIL 



REFINED TAR 



BENZOL I TOLUOL I XYLOL 1 

PYRIDINE PHENOL CRESOL 



PH NOL I CRESOL 
NAPHTHALENE 



Fig. 2 — Crude Products 

other materials must be used, and much labor expended 
before the finished product is obtained, and such a finished 
product as anisic aldehyde, the delicate perfume of the 
hawthorn, or phenyl acetic aldehyde, the fragrant odor of 
the hyacinth, bears far less resemblance to the original 
coal tar than does the dulcet toned organ in the hands 
of the master to the rugged tree that supplied its parts. 
A blacksmith usually has a junk pile which he uses for 
repair parts. If he wants a wheel, a gear, a spring, an 
a.\le, a rod, or what not, he can likely supply his need 
from the junk pile. Coal tar is the junk pile of the chem- 
ical manufacturer. Instead of wheels, gears, springs, etc., 
coal tar supplies him with benzene and pyridine rings, 
methyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups, etc., and 
their various combinations. Leaving out of consideration 
the many dyes that are not in fashion, there are generally 
on the market in this country in normal times more than 
900 different coal-tar dyes. The number of coal-tar prod- 
ucts known at the present time is far up into the thousands, 
and more are constantly being discovered. All of these 
are made from less than a dozen different substances 
that are found in the raw tar, namely : benzol, toluol, xylol, 
phenol, cresol, pyridine, quinoline, naphthalene and anthra- 
cene. 

The Preparation of Coal-Tar Products 

When it is desired to prepare artificially from coal tar 
some natural substance, the first problem which confronts 
the chemist is to obtain the substance in a pure form. He 
now proceeds to tear the molecules of the compound 
apart by suitable chemical reaction, and thus determine 
just what groups, such as methyl, carboxyl, amino, etc., go 
to build up the molecule; and further, exactly how these 
groups are placed with reference to each other. WitTi 
some compounds this has been a fairly easy matter, while 
others have required the thought and work of many 
chemists for years before the mystery of the structure of 
their molecules has been solved. Camphor, for example, 
was investigated by many different chemists during a 
period of thirty years before its true structure was defi- 
nitely established. 

After determining the structure of the compound, the 
next task is to succeed in putting the different groups to- 
gether, by chemical means, in the correct wav and thus 
produce the compound artificially, or, in other words, 
synthesize it. The whole task may be likened to a jeweler 
first taking a strange make of watch apart to see how it 
is arranged, and then selecting suitable wheels, springs, 
jewels, cases, and pinions from the miscellaneous parts 
at his disposal and putting them together in such a fashion 
as to duplicate the original. He synthesizes a watch. The 
watch corresponds to the molecule of a chemical compound, 
and the wheels, springs, etc., to the various chemical groups 
that comprise the molecule. 

Let us carry the figure a bit further. It is quite likely 
that in trying to synthesize his watch, the jeweler might 
hit upon some other combinations of parts that would 
produce another kind of watch which would be entirely 
new. This has happened many times to the chemist, and 
new compounds that do not occur in nature, but which 
have proved to be very useful, have been discovered. The 



I I I I 

PHENOL I CRESOL I 
NAPHTHALENE ANTHRACENE 

of Coal-Tar Distillation. 

powerful sweetener, saccharin, discovered by Dr. Ira Rem- 
sen of Johns Hopkins University, tialtimore, and the laxa- 
tive, phenolpbthalein, discovered by Professor Adolf von 
Baeyer of Munich, are but two such cases. 

It takes clay and timber and iron to build a house, but 
they cannot be used for that purpose in the crude form. 
Clay must first be made into bricks, timber must be sawed! 
into lumber, and iron drawn into nails. So it is with coal- 
tar and its products. The dozen different substances, 
referred to above as obtained directly from coal tar, are 
called "crudes" by the chemical manufacturer. They are 
the clay, timber, and iron of the coal-tar manufacture. 
Before they can be used to make a finished product, they 
must be changed into other substances like benzoic acid, 
salicylic acid, benzaldehyde, phthalic anhydride, toluol- 
sulphamide, nitrobenzene, aniline, and many other sub- 
stances. These are called "intermediates." They are bricks, 
lumber, and nails of organic diemical manufacture. The 
complexity of the manufacture of a finished coal-tar prod- 
uct can be illustrated by the genealaigy of indigo (Fig. 3). 
Intermediates Formerly Were Imported 

Before the present European war practically all inter- 
mediates were imported, chiefly from Germany; and this 
in spite of the fact that we were annually wasting millions 
of dollars' worth of coal tar. Why was this done? The 
answer is a simple one, and an illustration will make it 
clear. One substance, phtlialic anhydride, is an intermedi- 
ate for the dye, indigo, and for the la.xative, phenolpbtha- 
lein. Manufacturers of phenolphthalen in this country 
could import phthalic anhydride from Germany much 
cheaper than the relatively small quantity required could 
be manufactured here. In Germany a vast quantity of 
phthalic anhydride was required by the dye industry, and 
phthalic anhydride like everything else can be made much 
cheaper in large quantities than in small amounts. From 
this it can be seen that the manufacture of dyes and of 
medicinals is very closely related. There is another 
relation : by-products from the manufacture of medicinals 
are often the intermediates for the manufacture of certain 
dyes, and vice versa. The manufacture of all coal-tar 
products, whether dyes, medicinals, foods, or explosives, 
are very closely related one to the other in the way indi- 
cated above, and we cannot develop one branch of the coal- 
tar industry successfully without developing all. 

In the last two years we have learned the economic folly 
of depending upon a single country for any class of com- 
modities. How much worse such a condition would be in 
case we were one of the belligerents ! We- are very much 
awake today to the necessity of a domestic dye industry. 
To have this we must develop a great and intricate organic 
chemical manufacturing industry. When this is accom- 
plished, and not before, will we be able to compete with 
every nation in coal-tar products, and the deplorable waste 
of coal tar will be at an end. 

Wonderful Development Since 1914 

Since 1914, organic chemical manufacture has undergone 
a wonderful development in this country, but it is a matter 
of years to establish such an intricate industry firmly. It 
took Germany forty years. Accordingly, should the war 
end within a year, two years, or five, Germany would be 



Acted on by 



NAPHTHALENE- 



PHTHALIMIDE- 



fuming sulphuric acid 
acted on by 

sodium hypochlorite 



PHTHALIC ACID- 



acted on by acted on by 
= PH YTHALIC AN HYDRIDE 



heat 



acted on by 



: AN IHRANILIC ACID- 



ammonia 



-= PHENYL-CLYCINE-O-CARBOXYLIC ACID- 



fused with 



chlor-acetic acid 
acted on by 



-=INDOXYL- 



solid sodium hydroxide air 

Fig s — Genealogy of Indigo. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 




The Coal Tar Genealogical Tree 

able to crush out by competition all the progress we have crush this "upstart" enterprise. They lowered the price 

made thus far m coal-tar manufacture. The arrival of °^ German chloral below all competition, doubtless making 



the merchant submarine, Deulschland with a car°-o of dyes "^ '^^ '°*^ ^^ raising the price elsewhere, and kept it 
recently, is Germany's reminder that she is goin° to do all • ^^u'^^a ""'u- ""? -'^'"eii,'^^" manufacturer was forced to 

in her nnwpr t« nr„cl, . i, j , abandon his plant. The price of German chloral then 

unties her hanrf ^hfl A '"^. ?" .'"''"^''^ T''"" P'"^ '"^'^^ ^'^>-'^'§'' =^"d stayed there. Just as in the case 

a chemical tnb.'i.n.^ !n l"*" "I ^^''- 'Y °"^ V"?^ °' ^"°"'' ^^''^ ^"" P^>' ""^^ f°^ ""^ coal-tar products in 

fhi' cS^ntrv rl™^'n ih ■• r' ^'T= manufactured in the long run if we buy them of Germany instead of mak- 

inis country. Oerman chemical manufacturers decided to ing them ourselves. 



Competition from Germany is not the only obstacle 
that confronts the manufacturer of finished coal-tar prod- 
ucts. The manufacturer of such products in America to- 
day is a pioneer. Our chemical laboratories are familiar 
with most of the chemical reactions involved but the pro- 
duction of a substance in large quantities on a commercial 
scale is a very different thing from making it in small 
quantities in the laboratory. German chemical plants care- 
fully guard against the dangers in manufacture that experi- 
ence has taught them, and the American inanulacturer is 
constantly encountering dangers in his plant that the 
laboratory cannot reveal. Overcoming such dangers often 
means an enormous expenditure of time and money, and 
even then many of them cannot be overcome. Chemists in 
their laboratories have worked for years with benzol, and 
none have dreamed of the danger that lurks in its use in 
large quantities. When subjected to the fumes of benzol 
for a long period of time with his clothing frequently wet 
by the liquid, the workman, if his habits of cleanliness 
are not the best, often suffers serious and insidious systemic 
derangements. This will probably prove to be the case with 
many other substances regarded at present as entirely 
harmless which must be handled in large quantities in the 
manufacture of coal-tar products. Time and experience 
only will discover these. Already chemical manufacturers 
in this country are taking stringent and drastic steps to 
meet and forestall such difficulties. It has been found 
necessary to provide workmen with better shoes than they 
will provide for themselves, to supply them gratis with 
daily changes of fresh underwear, and to require them to 
take a bath daily before leaving the plant. Various other 
sanitary measures have been resorted to, but no one can 
tell when it may be necessary to inaugurate further regula- 
tions to safeguard the health and comfort of the workmen. 
We may rest assured that American manufacturers will do 
all in their power and knowledge to minimize these hidden 
dangers; and should accidents occur, as they are bound 
to do, we may be sure that the fault does not lie within 
the present knowledge of the manufacturer. 

Government Aids the New Industry 

Since September 8, 1916, a new tariff revision on coal 
tar and its products has been in force. This tariff provides 
for a duty of thirty per cent ad valorem with an additional 
duty of five cents a pound on colors, dyes, explosives, and 
photographic chemicals; and thirty per cent ad valorem 
with no additional specific duty on medicinals and flavors. 
Intermediates are subject to a duty of fifteen per cent ad 
valorem and a specific duty of two and a half cents a 
pound. Crude products of coal-tar distillation are on the 
free list. It is the evident intention of our government 
to encourage and build up the dye and explosive industry 
in this country. The economic and military wisdom of 
such an intention can scarcely be questioned. In the war 
for chemical supremacy which is sure to come with peace 
in Europe, Germany is bound to do all in her power to 
crush such an industry in this country. The progress made 
during the last two years has been phenomenal and will 
doubtless continue until Germany is free to compete with 
us. Manufacturers claim that without a tariff on crudes 
and intermediates, as well as on the finished product, the 
coal-tar industry in this country will be unable to compete 
with the well-organized and thoroughly established industry 
of Germany. They point out that as our coal-tar industry 
approaches maturity it will be more and more able to take 
care of itself and that the tariff can be gradually removed, 
until after a period of years, it no longer exists. Whether 
such be the case or not, only an intimate knowledge of 
conditions and the course of experience will enable us to 
judge. On one thing technical men are agreed ; the 
United States of America must have a firmly established 
and thoroughly organized coal tar industry. We can then 
undersell Germany not only in our own markets but in 
the markets of the world. A large, natural resource will 
be conserved, profitable employment will be provided for 
thousands of our people, and the question "Why do we not 
make our own dyes?" will be answered. 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA [January, 1917 

GIVING PRICES IN TRADE-JOURNAL COPY 



The druggists of Sterling and Rock Falls held an in- 
formal oyster supper one evening last month. The affair 
was so successful that the druggists agreed to hold such 
a gathering every month during the winter. All of the 
proprietors and their clerks were present. 



(From Printer's Ink.) 

A retail merchant has asked "Printer's Ink" why manu- 
facturers so seldom quote prices in their trade-paper ad- 
vertisements. He says that by far the greater proportion 
of all advertising that is directed to the retailer contains 
no prices, and that for this reason it fails to convince many 
who might otherwise be interested in the merchandise 
described. 

"The way to sell goods through trade-paper advertise- 
ments," declares this dealer, "is to describe them in detail, 
explain the selling helps and give the cost. The first thing 
the retail merchant must know about a product is what it 
is going to cost him. He needs to know whether the differ- 
ence between the retail advertised price and his wholesale 
cost allows him a living profit. If this cost is not men- 
tioned, the merchant cannot be blamed for thinking it is so 
high that the manufacturer is afraid to state it. No doubt 
I have passed by opportunity after opportunity and bargain 
after bargain, but because of the absence of a price in 
the advertisements I did not know what I was missing." 

This merchant raises a question that is in the minds of 
thousands of other retailers. When manufacturers adver- 
tise to the trade, why do they usually fail to quote their 
prices? In not doing so, are they not neglecting something 
that would make their advertisements much more effective? 
Apparently, yes ; but still there are excellent reasons why 
manufacturers find it inadvisable to quote prices. The 
principal reason is that comparatively few manufacturers 
have a uniform schedule of prices that applies in all terri- 
tories, to all buyers and under every condition. Nobody 
regrets this more than the manufacturers themselves. If 
they could quote a uniform price that would apply to every- 
body, everywhere, it would relieve them of many of their 
worries. This question of price is an extremely intricate 
one. It is influenced by many factors, such as markets, 
quantities, location, competition, freight rates, policy and 
other things peculiar to every manufacturing business. 
While the price to any one class of trade or in any specific 
territory may be fixed, a slightly different price may apply 
somewhere else. Therefore, if, under these conditions, the 
manufacturer were to publish a price broadcast, it would 
cJflise so many complications that a score of trained diplo- 
mats would be required to adjust them. 

The jobber-relation is another reason why manufacturers 
do not quote prices in their trade advertisements. The 
price list of the manufacturer may be uniform, f.o.b. his 
factory, but if the goods are sold by jobbers the chanced 
are that there are some price variations. 

Many manufa ;turers could advertise the prices that ap- 
ply to most of their trade and not cause any complications, 
but they dislike to circulate widely a quotation that is not 
their best price. Undoubtedly it would reach readers 
who are entitled to the lower quotation and influence them 
unfavorably. Furthermore, a published price that is not 
as low as certain factors in the trade are entitled to would 
be a dangerous piece of information to get into the hands 
of competitors. They could use it to the disadvantage 
of the advertiser. Similarly, the manufacturer who has 
quantity discounts, and a lot of manufacturers have, would 
not care to tell the small buyer about the discounts the 
large buyer .gets. Should the little fellow not notice them, 
competitive salesmen would be sure to call them to his 
attention. It hurts any buyer to learn that someone else li 
getting a lower price than he is. 

So, evidently, this retail merchant touches a ticklish 
subject when he asks why most manufacturers do not quote 
prices in their trade advertising. Or course, in the main, 
his point is well taken. There is no denying the fact that 
advertisements to the dealer are vastly more resultful when 
net prices are quoted. This would suggest to the manu- 
facturer the advisability of quoting prices in trade adver- 
tising whenever it can be done. Retailers quite naturally 
resent the way manufacturers needlessly withhold prices 
from their selling literature. It causes unnecessary delai^ 
and inconvenience in ordering through the mails. Where 
manufacturers can clear away the objections and lay their 
prices face upward on the table they will get a greater 
dealer-response from trade-journal and direct-advertising 
appeals. 



The Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 



By F. E. STEWART, Ph.G., M.D., Phar.D. * 



(Continued from the December, igi6 Era, page 466) 




The Antitoxins 

WHEN bacteria grow and multiply io the body, sjTnp- 
toms of poisoning (toxemia) are manifested, con- 
sequentl}', it was inferred that bacteria either pro- 
duced poisons during their growth or contained poisons. 
Subsequent experiments proved that the poisonous effects 

of a few bacteria are trace- 
able to substances elaborated 
during the growth of the 
bacteria, which pass out into 
the surrounding media, and 
the poisonous effects of the 
other class seem to be due 
to the actual constituents of 
the bacterial cell. To the 
former the name exo-toxins 
or extra-cellular toxins was 
given, and the latter were 
named endo-toxin or intra- 
cellular toxins. 

Among the bacteria pro- 
ducing soluble extra-cellular 
to.xins or exo-toxins, the 
bacillus of diphtheria and 
the bacillus of tetanus are 
the most important. When 
these bacteria are grown on 
F. E. Stewart culture media, such for ex- 

ample as beef bouillon, the soluble toxins produced are 
absorbed by the media and become extremely poisonous. 
When separated from the bacteria and properly standard- 
ized, these concentrated solutions of toxin are called "diph- 
theria toxin" and "tetanus toxin" respectively, and are 
used for producing the corresponding antitoxins. 

The injection of a soluble toxin into the body stimulates 
the body cells to produce antitoxin. The formation of 
antitoxins may be briefly explained in the following 
manner : 

It has already been stated that during the immunization 
of an animal, a specific enzyme or digestive ferment is 
formed by the body cells which has the power of digesting 
and destrojnng the protein which called it into being. In 
other words, when the white of an egg, or any other pro- 
tein, is injected into the body tissues, the body cells are 
stimulated to produce a specific proteolytic enzj-me or 
digestive ferment which has the power of digesting it, but 
does not possess the power of digesting anj- other protein 
substance. Because of this "law of specificity" the injec- 
tion of bacterial proteins, living or dead, stimulates the 
body cells to produce a specific enzyme or digestive fer- 
ment which has the power of digesting the kind of bacterial 
protein injected and no other. 

The blood serum of an animal thus immuyiizcd is called 
immune scrum, as already stated. Immune serum mani- 
fests four main specific actions, namely, (a) antitoxic 
action; (b) bactericidal and lysogenic action; (c) opsonic 
action; (d) agglutination and the closely allied precipitating 
action. It is therefore assumed that immune serums con- 
tain "antibodies" to which these actions are due. The 
antitoxic action is assumed to be due to the presence of 
antitoxins. The bactericidal or lysogenic action is assumed 
to be due to the presence of hactcriolysins. The opsonic 
action is assumed to be due to opsonins, the function of 
which is to prepare the bacteria for ingestion and diges- 
tion by the leucocytes (phagocytosis). The agglutinizing 
action is assumed to be due to the presence of agglutinins, 
which action becomes apparent when the immune serum is 
added to a small quantity of the suspension of the corre- 
sponding bacteria : the organism becomes agglutinated into 
clumps and motility is suspended or destroyed. When 

* Director, Scientific Department, H. K. Miilford Company. 



immune serum is added to a filtrate of a culture of the 
corresponding bacteria, precipitation results, supposed to 
be due to the presence of precipitins. 

The antitoxins are therefore antibodies. They are pro- 
duced when the corresponding toxins are injected into 
the body. These toxins are therefore classed as antigens. 
Antigens are substances which cause the formation of 
antibodies when injected into the animal body. The anti- 
gens include toxins, enzymes or ferments, precipitogens, 
agglutinogens, opsogens, lysogens, antivenins, agglutinins, 
complements, opsonins, amboceptors and precipitins. 

When the blood drawn from the veins of an animal 
immunized against an infectious disease, is allowed to clot, 
the so-called antibodies remain in the supernatant serum. 
By injecting this serum into the veins of an animal or 
man (or by injecting it subcutaneously) the contained 
antibodies are conveyed into the blood of the individual 
injected and immunity results. This immunity is called 
passive because the immunized individual's body cells take 
no part in producing it. 

Diphtheria antitoxin and tetanus antitoxin are derived 
from the blood serum of animals immunized against the 
to.rins of the diphtheria bacillus and tetanus bacillus, re- 
spectively. They do not contain the specific antibodies 
above enumerated, with the exception of antitoxin. 
SERUM AXTIDIPHTHERICUM, U. S. P. 
Antidiphtheric Serum 
Ser. Antidiph. — Diphtheria Antitoxin 
A fluid, having a potency of not less than 250 antitoxic 
units per mil, separated from the coagulated blood of the 
horse, Equus Caballus Linnc (Fam. Equidae), or other 
large domestic animal, which has been properly immunized 
against diphtheria toxin. It must be kept in sealed glass 
containers in a dark place, at a temperature between 4.5 
deg. and 15 deg. C. 

A yellowish or yellowish-brown, transparent or 
slightly turbid liquid, with sometimes a slight granular 
deposit; nearly odorless, or having an odor due to the 
presence of an antiseptic used as a preservative. 

Antidiphtheric Serum gradually loses in potency, the 
loss in one year varying between 10 per cent and 30 
per cent. The serum must come from healthy animals, 
must be sterile, must be free from toxins or other 
bacterial products, and must not contain an excessive 
amount of preservative (not more than 0.5 per cent of 
phenol or cresol, when either of these is used), and 
the total solids must not exceed 20 per cent. Serum 
of a lower potency than 250 units per mil must not be 
sold or dispensed. Only such Sera may be sold or 
dispensed as have been prepared and propagated m 
establishments licensed by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury of the United States. 

The United States law requires that each contamer 
of Serum sold or dispensed by licensed establishments 
shall bear upon the label, in addition to the name of 
the Serum, the name, address and license number of 
the manufacturer, and the date beyond which the prod- 
uct cannot be expected to yield its specific results. The 
label must also contain the laboratory number of the 
Serum and the total number of antitoxic units claimed 
for the contents of the container. 

The standard of strength, expressed in units of anti- 
toxic power, shall be that established by the United 
States Public Health Service. 

Average Dose— Hypodermic. 10,000 units. Protec- 
tive, 1.000 ur/its. 

Preparation of Diphtheria Antitoxin 
Before describing the preparation of diphtheria antitoxin, 
let us consider for a moment what is going on in the 
IhiOil 01 i. child suffering with diphtheria. The diph- 

Page Nine 



10 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Januaky, 1917 



theretic membrane growing in the throat of a child suffer- 
ing with diphtheria is in fact a culture of diphtheria 
bacillus together with broken down tissues, etc. During 
the growth of the diphtheria bacillus in the throat of a 
patient, the bacilli are producing their soluble toxin. This 
toxin is being absorbed into the circulation of the patient, 
resulting in the stimulating of the patient's body cells to 
produce diphtheria antitoxin. If sufficient antitoxin is 
promptly produced by the patient's body cells, the toxin 
is neutralized and prevented from uniting with the nerve 
tissue of the patient, with which it has a strong affinity. 
If sufficient antitoxin is not produced by the patient's 
body cells, the toxin unites with the nerve tissue and 
poisons the patient. The patient may die from toxemia 
or from asphyxia, due to the growth of the membrane. 

The first step in the preparation of diphtheria antitoxin 
is the propagation of the Klebs-Loffler bacillus (Diphtheria 
bacillus), the cause of diphtheria. A culture is selected 
capable of producing a large amount of antitoxin when 
injected into the body of a horse. Such culture having 
been obtained, it is used as a mother culture for tlie 
production of so-called seed cultures. The so-called seed 
cultures are planted in test tubes 24 hours before they 
are needed for use. These cultures are used for inoculat- 
ing bouillon contained in Fernbach flasks, and are grown 
on the surface of the bouillon for 6 or 7 days. 

After they are inoculated, the Fernbach flasks are placed 
in the incubating room and kept at about 35 deg. to 37 deg. 
C. during the time of cultivation. At first the bacilli grow 
rapidly and at the end of 24 to 48 hours, the surface of 
the bouillon is covered with a thin pellicle. This pellicle 
continues to extend, becoming thicker, until it curls under 
and some of the growth falls to the bottom of the flask. 
During all this time the metabolic products of growth, that 
is, the soluble toxin, etc., are being received by the bouillon, 
which becomes strongly toxic in character. The cultures 
are now removed from the incubator and the diphtheria 
germs killed by an antiseptic and filtered out, first through 
asbestos and then through Berkefeld filters. The filtrate, 
known as diphtheria toxin, is then standardized and placed 
in storage in a refrigerating room, ready for use in pre- 
paring diphtheria antitoxin. 

The next step is the immunizing of horses against the 
diphtheria toxin. Only healthy horses are used. This is 
assured by keeping the animals under observation of 
veterinarians for at least two weeks, and testing them for 
glanders before they enter the antitoxin laboratory. Prev- 
ious to injecting the diphtheria toxin into the tissues of the 
horse for producing immunity, the toxin is standardized 
on guinea pigs. The toxin injections are made subcu- 
taneously. Because of the differences in susceptibility 
noted in various horses, only very small doses are at first 
employed. The intervals between injections depend upon 
the time necessary to complete subsidence of the reaction 
produced by the toxin. The doses of toxin are gradually 
increased until at the end of two or three months, more 
than ten times the original dose is given. 

Horses vary greatly in the strength of the antitoxin 
which they will produce. Some animals will produce an 
antitoxic serum, 1 c.c. of which may contain 250 antitoxic 
units. Another may supply an antitoxic serum containing 
800 antitoxic units per c.c. Some horses may produce a 
serum containing 1,000 per c.c. Park stated that none of 
the horses used by him has ever yielded 2,000 units per 
c.c. After the horses have reached the point where the 
injections are not followed by an increase in the antitoxic 
power of the serum, the animals are bled. For that pur- 
pose, a sharp cannula is introduced into the jugular vein, 
the horse being prepared for the purpose by being led 
into a specially constructed stall where it is under perfect 
control during the operation. The skin is previously 
shaved and sterilized. The cannula is then plunged into 
the vein, and, through a sterile rubber tube, the blood is 
allowed to flow into high glass cylinders protected by 
parchment covers, as much as five or six liters of blood 
being drawn without injuring the animal. The cylinders 
containing the blood are then permitted to remain stand- 
ing in the blood-clotting room for two or three days, pre- 
ferably at or below 10 deg. C. At the end of this time, 
the serum has separated from the clot, which is then 
drawn off and stored in the refrigerating room. This 
antitoxic serum, standardized and preserved by the addi- 



tion of phenol, cresol or other antiseptic, constituted the 
antitoxin of commerce until the introduction of Gibson's 
process for concentrating and purifying the product. 
Chemical Composition of Diphtheria Antitoxin 

The analysis of diphtheria antitoxin shows that its princi- 
pal constituents are: 

(a) Proteids 

1. Fibrinoglobulm, formed from the fibrinogen during 
coagulation. 

2. Euglobulin. 

3. Pseudo-globulin, which carries with it almost all the 
antitoxin. 

4. Serum-albumin. 

5. Nucleo-proteids. 

(b) Inorganic Matter 
In addition to sodium chloride, the serum contains min- 
ute quantities of phosphates and salts of calcium, potas- 
sium, and other metals. 

SERUM ANTIDIPHTHERICUM PURIFICATUM, 

U. S. P. 

Purified Antidiphtheric Serum 

Ser. Antidiph. Purif. — Antidiphtheric Globulins, Concen- 
trated Diphtheria Antitoxin, Diphtheric Antitoxin Globu- 
lins, Refined and Concentrated Diphtheria Antitoxin. 

A solution in physiological solution of sodium chloride 
of certain antitoxic substances obtained from the blood 
serum or plasma of the horse, Equus Cabatlus Linne (Fam. 
Equidae), or other large domestic animal, which has been 
properly immunized against diphtheria toxin. After the 
serum or plasma from the immunized animal has been 
collected, the antitoxin-bearing globulins are separated 
from the other constituents of the serum or plasma and 
dissolved in water; and sufficient sodium chloride is then 
added to make a solution containing from 0.6 to 0.9 per 
cent of the salt. It has a potency of not less than 250 
antitoxic units per mil. It must be kept in sealed glass 
containers in a dark place, at a temperature between 4.5 
deg. and 15 deg. C. 

A transparent or slightly opalescent liquid, with 
sometimes a slight granular or ropy deposit, nearly 
odorless, or having an odor due to the presence of the 
antiseptic used as a preservative. The liquid sometimes 
is more or less viscous. The serum must come from 
healthy animals, must be sterile, must be free from 
toxins or other bacterial products, and must not con- 
tain an excessive amount of preservative (not more 
than 0.5 per cent of phenol or cresol, when either of 
these is used), and the total solids must not exceed 20 
per cent. Serum of a lower potency than 250 units 
per mil must not be sold or dispensed. 

Purified Antidiphtheric Serum must comply with the 
requirements for loss of potency, control, labeling, 
and standard for potency under Serum Anlidiphtheri- 
cum. 

Average Dose — Hypodermic, 10,000 units. Protec- 
tive, 1,000 units. 

Preparation of Purified Diphtheria Antitoxin 

By means of the Gibson process, or one of its modifica- 
tions, the antitoxin bearing globulin, known as pseudo- 
globulin is precipitated from the antitoxic serum and then 
used for the preparation of "Purified Antidiphtheric 
Serum" or "Purified Diphtheric Antitoxin." 

In the Gibson process the antitoxic serum is treated by 
the addition of saturated ammonium sulphate solution 
which throws down the globulin and the serum is dis- 
carded. After filtration, the combined euglobulin and 
pseudo-globulin (the latter containing the antitoxin) are 
redissolved in saturated sodium chloride solution. The 
pseudo-globulin is next precipitated from the solution by 
glacial acetic acid, the euglobulin on solution being value- 
less, is discarded. The pseudo-globulin, containing the 
antitoxin is then collected on a filter, dried between filter 
papers, placed in parchment dialyzers and dialyzed in run- 
ning water to free it from inorganic matter. 

When placed in dialyzers, the antitoxic globulin is a 
whitish waxy colloidal mass. During the process of dialy- 
zation, it becomes a clear, limpid, straw-colored fluid. This 
fluid is further purified by passing through several layers 



January. 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



11 



of filter paper and then twice through Berkefeld filters. 
"Sufficient sodium chloride is then added to make a solu- 
tion containing from 0.6 to 0.9 per cent of the salt." The 
next step is the standardization of the Purified Diph- 
theria Antito.xin by the U. S. Government process, see 
page 11. 

SERUM ANTIDIPHTHERICUM SICCUM, U. S. P. 
Dried Antidiphtheric Serum 
Ser. Antidiph. Sice. — Dried Diphtheria Antitoxin 
Dried .\ntidiphtheric Serum is obtained by the evapora- 
tion of either Antidiphtlieric Serum or Purified Antidiph- 
theric Serum in a vacuum over sulphuric acid or other 
dessicating agent, or by passing over it a current of warm 
air freed from bacteria. It has a potency of not less than 
4,000 units per gramme. It must be kept in hermetically 
sealed amber-colored glass containers free from air, at a 
temperature between 4.5 deg. and 15 deg. C, preferably in 
a dark place. 

The Dried Serum is either in the form of orange or 
yellowish flakes or small lumps, or as a yellowish 
white powder, without odor. The Serum is soluble in 
nine parts of distilled water, but the solution is 
opalescent and slightly viscous ; it may be dissolved 
more readily in larger amounts of distilled water or 
physiological solution of sodium chloride. Immedi- 
ately before use the Serum must be dissolved in re- 
cently boiled and cooled distilled water under the most 
rigid aseptic conditions. The solution must be used 
immediately and if there should be any serum or solu- 
tion remaining, it must be discarded. Dried Anti- 
diphtheric Serum if kept as directed does not lose 
potency, as does the liquid serum. 

It must comply with the requirements for control 
and labeling under Serum Antidiphthcricum and the 
standard of strength, expressed in units of antitoxic 
power, shall be that established by the United States 
Public Health Service. 

Average Dose — Hypodermic, 10,000 units. Protec- 
tive, 1,000 units. 

Standardization of Antitoxin 

In the preparation of diphtheria antitoxin it is of great 
importance that a certain standard of strength shall be 
maintained. As an aid to this end the Hygienic Laboratory 
of the United States Public Health Service at intervals 
issues to licensed manufacturers a small quantity of stand- 
ard antitoxin, with which all diphtheria antitoxins are com- 
pared and their relative strength thereby ascertained. 

The method of testing is as follows : 

Materials : 

1. Diphtheria toxin. 

2. Standard antitoxin furnished by U. S. Government. 

3. The antitoxin to be tested. 

The toxin and the standard antitoxin are combined in 
such proportions that, when injected into a guinea-pig 
weighing 250 grams, the toxin in the mixture will still be 
of sufficient strength to cause death in four days. The 
amount of toxin used is carefully noted and remains 
constant through the tests. The same mixture is now made 
again, using the antitoxin which is to be tested in place 
of the standard antitoxin. If the guinea-pig lives beyond 
the fourth day after the injection of this second mixture, 
the antitoxin being tested is of standard strength. If the 
animal dies on or before the fourth day, the antitoxin is 
less potent than the standard; if it survives without severe 
symptoms the antitoxin is stronger. In either case further 
experiments are made in order to ascertain the minimum 
amount of antitoxin necessary to so neutralize the action 
of the fixed amount of toxin that the guinea-pig will 
survive beyond the fourth day. If the minimum protective 
amount of certain antitoxin is 1-500 c.c, this particular 
antitoxin will contain 500 units per cubic centimeter; if 
the amount is 1-10000 c.c, each c.c. will contain 1000 units. 
Tests for Purity and Safety 

In addition to standardization for strength, the scientific 
production of antitoxin includes careful tests for its purity. 
Five c.c. of the serum from each bleeding are injected into 
guinea-pigs, which are kept under observation for 14 days. 



Tliis test is to detect the possible presence of foreign toxin 
in the serum. Culture-tests for the accidental presence of 
bacteria are also made at each stage in the preparation of 
the antitoxin. The serum, before filling, is filtered twice 
through a Berkefeld filter. Finally two syringes contain- 
ing at least 2 c.c. of se?.um are taken from each lot under 
test, and their contents injected into guinea-pigs. If the 
guinea-pigs remain well after 14 days the serum is con- 
sidered safe for use. 

(To be continued.) 



U. S. Bureau of Chemistry 

Asks Power to Fix Standards 



Washington, D. C, December 18 — A great deal of atten- 
tion is being attracted to the endeavors of Dr. Carl Als- 
berg, successor of Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief of the 
Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture, 
to have Congress enact legislation enlarging the powers of 
the bureau to an extent heretofore unthought of. Dr. Als- 
berg last week appeared before the Committee on Agri- 
culture of the House of Representatives to explain the need 
for an appropriation of $75,000 included in the estimates 
submitted to Congress for the Agricultural Department to 
enable the Secretary of Agriculture (the Bureau of Chem- 
istry would naturally do the work) to carry out the pur- 
poses and to enforce the Food and Drugs Act, and a small 
piece of new legislation slipped in under the head of recom- 
mendations, providing that "Hereafter, for the purpose 
of aiding in the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act 
of June 30, 1916, as amended, hereinafter called the act, 
the Secretary of Agriculture shall have authority from time 
to time to establish standards of strength, quality or purity 
for articles of food, and for articles of drugs sold under 
or by a name not recognized in the United States Phar- 
macopoeia or National Formulary official at the time of 
promulgation of the standards, and to alter or revoke the 
same, but no such standard, or the alteration or revocation 
thereof, shall be effective until a date, to be specified in 
the order of promulgation, which shall be not less than one 
year from tlie date of the order. Whenever a standard 
of strength, quality or purity for any article shall be in 
effect hereunder, each such article, if it fail to conform to 
such standard, shall, on that account, be deemed mis- 
branded, within the meaning of the act, unless it be labeled 
so as plainly and conspicuously to show that, and how, it 
differs from the standard, and shall be subject to all pro- 
visions of the act to the same extent and in the same 
way as an article misbranded in any other respect within 
the meaning of the act." 

The appearance of a statement in Drug and Chemical 
Markets of December -6 to the effect that the Agricultural 
Department officials contemplated asking Congress to enact 
this legislation created a great stir in the drug trade. It 
is realized that if a law of this kind should be slipped 
through, it would have the effect of conferring upon Dr. 
Alsberg powers no less than those assumed by a czar. 
Members of the House Agricultural Committee are re- 
sponsible for the statement that the proposed legislation 
would increase the powers of the bureau of chemistry far 
beyond those intended when the pure food and drug legis- 
lation was passed originally. 

Dr.Alsberg told the committee he recognized the pos- 
sibilities contained in the recommendation for which he is 
largely responsible and has also said he has no objection 
to the establishment by Congress or by a commission of 
a standard by which the bureau of chemistry could determ- 
ine the quality of food and drugs within the meaning of 
the proposed enlarged construction of the so-called pure 
food and drugs act. The committee on agriculture will 
hardly approve a proposition so far reaching as this, espe- 
cially in the short session of Congress. 

The main objection to this legislation is that the way 
it is now framed would put into the hands of one bureau, 
directly under the President, too much power. _ Further- 
more, there is no appeal provided from the decision of the 
bureau. A third important objection is that the Bureau 
of Chemistry would have the power to fix its own standards 
and then to enforce them. 



12 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



Indiana Druggist Has One 

Whole County to Himself 




It is not often that a druggist has a town, let alone a 
county, to himself, but such is the enviable position of Mt. 
Charles G. Genolin of Nashville, Ind., and so he lays claim 
justly to being the biggest druggist in the State. 

Brown County is one of the small Indiana counties, both 

in point of area and popula- 
tion, yet even at that Drug- 
gist Genolin has a large and 
fertile field. The area of 
Brown County is 320 square 
miles with a population of 
about 10,000 souls. It boasts 
of a school system equal to 
any. In the present day of 
rural free delivery and par- 
cel post he is brought into 
competition with stores in 
adjoining counties, but it is 
a part of Mr. Genolin's reli- 
gion as well as business to 
try always to be alert, 
genial, obliging, sincere, and 
truthful. 

Many years ago a young 
man teacher in the graded 
schools of his home town 
Charles G. Genolin fgH ;„ love. This is not a 

unique record, save for the fact that he fell in love with 
pharmacy. It was true then even as now that what we 
want earnestly enough, we are likely to move toward, 
and so it was not many days before Charles Genolin's 
passion for the drug store was in a measure gratified 
by being given a position as helper in a pharmacy during 
the interval of the school vacation. He continued at the 
old stand five or six years in the dual capacity of teacher 
and druggist, all the time utilizing his spare hours in the 
profession of mortar and pestle. 

In due time he passed the examinations, bought the 
home store, and became a full-fledged druggist. From the 
beginning of his business career Mr. Genolin has bought 
through one jobbing house because he has been convinced 
that their business relations have the stamp of mutual 
interest. He has been loyal to his wholesaler and his 
wholesaler has been loyal to him. 

In 1908 Mr. Genolin was elected clerk of the Circuit 
Court for a term of four years. He performed the duties 
of this office successfully and operated his drug store at 
the same time. In 1913 he was elected a member of the 
General Assembly, being joint representative from Brown 
and Monroe counties. Another druggist was also a mem- 
ber of this branch of the Legislature, and with the assist- 
ance of Representatives and Senators and such men as 
Messrs. Barrett, Keene, Cassady, and others, they suc- 
ceeded in getting some wholesome pharmacy laws on the 
statute books. 

As president of the Indiana Pharmaceutical Association, 
Mr. Genolin has been active in the cause of ethical phar- 
macy. In his recent address before the State meeting of 
that body held in June, 1916, he earnestly urged that ad- 
vantage be taken of the time which now seems ripe for 
legislation favorable to the druggist — not class le.gislation, 
but legislation that is not restrictive alone, but which will 
recognize and guarantee and promote the inalienable rights 
of the druggist. 

Mr. Genolin does some advertising and has great faith 
in printers' ink. He loves to come in personal contact 
with people and he uses many of his spare moments in 
reading drug journals to learn what his brothers in the 
profession are doing and how they are doing it, and in 
keeping abreast with current news. The president of the 
Indiana State Pharmaceutical Association believes in 
broad interests and humanitarian ideals. He declares that 
the crying need of the hour in pharmacy is a higher 
degree of efficiency, better service — in short, a thoroughly 



organized druggist as well as drug store. To quote from 
his address given before the Indiana Association ; 
' "The druggist is a legitimate factor in the business 
world, and has come to stay. He has his useful niche in 
life and is performing the functions of his sphere better 
than ever before, and as the years roll by the bona fide, 
wide awake, square dealing druggist will be better under- 
stood and more appreciated. And there are a few things 
he should not forget. That the business man is marked, 
doomed, be he druggist, grocer, or what not, who betrays 
his trust and discloses to his trade that he does not practice 
square dealing methods, and be sure sin will find you out. 
Believe in yourself, believe in the goods you sell. Believe 
that when you make a sale you make a friend. Druggists 
who deal in misrepresentations are destined to a short 
life. Confidence ! O, we need the confidence of our 
families, of our friends, of our customers. A kindly con- 
sideration and interest in behalf of the customer will 
inevitably develop a social and business atmosphere of 
mutual good will, and you cannot easily destroy the cables 
of confidence and friendship. If mutual love held all men 
bound how beautiful this world would be. The doctor, too, 
is human, and though some may be a bit eccentric or 
unsocial, or even unjust — some druggists possess the same 
attributes, and it is as true as gospel he, too, is susceptible 
to social sunshine, generous and just consideration. 

"Indeed, bitter recriminations and an antagonistic attitude 
can only make a bad matter worse. 

"We want co-operation between doctor and druggist, 
not antagonism and division. In a large way we erect 
our own barriers, create our own estrangements in busi- 
ness affairs, and perhaps it is true, that drug stores in a 
few cases need a broader-minded, bigger personality. Be 
a live wire and don't substitute your backbone with wish- 
bone. There is always room for the organized, efficient 
druggist, the man who has a propensity and principle to- 
ward fair-dealing methods, and a genial, friendly demeanor 
^in short, a sterling manhood that will not only win 
patronage but impress the souls of j'our community. And 
not only manifest but feel more than a commercial interest 
in your clerks and nine times out of ten they will appreci- 
ate this attitude, and will magnify your business by giving 
you better service. And then I'm sure your business will 
be a pleasure, and if a man's business is not a joy to him 
he must be either a grouch or a price-cutter. 

"As a rule druggists do not charge enough for pre- 
scriptions, the element 'time' scarcely ever being considered. 
Remember when you give your time, you give your talent, 
your professional talent, and you are entitled to a reason- 
able remuneration. 

"If all druggists had the right stuff in them, if personally 
they were 'organized' and co-operative, impressed and 
possessed with a love and loyalty for the profession, it 
seems plain that conditions not harmonious and wholesome 
would be corrected ; standard prices and square dealing 
would be an evolution and legitimate margins restored. 
But unfortunately for our fraternity we have a few drug- 
gists in the ranks who balk, and bring into disrepute the 
profession of pharmacy by reason perhaps, of a mistaken 
and diseased viewpoint, superinduced by a King Midas 
greed for gold at any cost." 



THE 



'WELLCOME" PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD 
AND DIARY, 1917 



"A Short Guide to Photographic Practice" is the title of 
the opening article in the new edition of this valuable 
annual. It might very well be the title of the whole com- 
pact publication, which deals with every essential phase 
of photography, from exposure to the final touches to 
the finished print. The book is made intensely practical 
by the provision of really useful tables and the "Wellcome" 
Photographic Exposure Calculator. The question of tank 
development receives full attention, and tallies are given 
for timing development with all varieties of plates and at 
all possible temperatures. With its diary, its_ memo pages 
and spaces for recording notes on exposure, its pencil and 
wallet, this pocketbook provides a companion whichno 
photographer should be without. Price in the United 
States, SO cents. 



Clean-Up Day in the Narcotic Situation 



What a Layman has done toward Solving the Drug Problem^ 
How he stands toward the Druggist, and what he wants 

Druggists to do about it. 



By CHARLES B. TOWNS 



SOME druggists, both wholesale and retail, have come to 
consider me antagonistic to their interests. This is 
only because they are not acquainted with me and do 
not know the causes that have led me to take up the sub- 
ject of anti-habit forming drug legislation. 

These druggists have judged me too exclusively on the 
score of my personal activity and have not gone far enough 
back' of my initiative in assisting to put through anti- 
habit forming drug legislation. Had they done this, they 
would have realized that everjthing I have ever proposed, 
or have ever succeeded in putting through in the way of 
such legislation, was proposed because of the facts I had 
learned from practical experience in handling thousands 
of drug cases. My reason for writing this article at this 
time, therefore, is two-fold. First, I want to set myself 
right before the drug trade and to let them know clearly 
and fully of my interest in this subject. Second, I want 
to discuss with them the habit-forming situation as it 
stands at this time, for I believe that when the druggists 
do realize from the medical and sociological viewpoints, 
all that this problem means, they will unquestionably, not 
only change their views and ideas on this subject, but 
they will be glad to co-operate in eliminating this great 
and growing evil. 

While the drug interests very properly claim all credit 
for the existing Federal anti-habit forming drug legisla- 
tion, the anti-narcotic law has fallen far short of its 
purpose. The law should be amplified in many respects, 
and there should be further and more effective legislation 
on the subject as well. At the time this legislation was 
being placed on the statute books the drug interests sin- 
cerely thought, I believe, that it would prove effective 
in lessening the unnecessary traffic in and illegitimate con- 
sumption of such drugs. Having delved into the merits 
and demerits of the present law, I would like to have 
druggists understand why I am again taking up this work. 

It will clear this situation at once to understand that 
the complete regulation of habit-forming drugs is now a 
national question and the people are going to make of it a 
moral issue and tie it up so close to political reform that 
some political party will take it up and tie it to a party 
principle. It is not an individual matter at all. It is a 
question of national interest. I call your attention to the 
fact that the American people as a whole are "getting 
busy" about this matter; and so far as being the originator 
of anything, I can say that I am merely in the position of 
being called on to offer what help I can because of my 
practical knowledge of drug addiction. 

Since 1901 I have devoted my time to the study of this 
habit-forming drug problem exclusively. My reason for 
taking it up was that I thought there was a need of medi- 
cal ways and means to help those afflicted with drug habits 
and the ways and means to give this help came into my 
hands. Consequently, since the inception of my work, 
I have been able to study this great problem in all its 
phases at first hand and not only at home but in many 
foreign countries as well. 

Had I not been thus placed in a position to know how 
and why such drug habits were formed, I could not have 
been prepared to deal with this evil from its many varied 
angles. I have learned how such habits were created and 
why they were formed; have obtained the intimate personal 
and social history of thousands upon thousands of indi- 
viduals who were afflicted with the drug habit ; and have 
come in contact with the problem from the sociological 
side of my work in all the different levels of society- 
all the way from the race-track "tout," the common gamb- 



ler and the prostitute, to some of the most important men 
in the United States, men whose social, political and finan- 
cial influence is felt the country over. Many of these 
victims have acquired the taking of the drug through no 
fault of their own. The prescription and administration 
of the drug had come regularly through legitimate medical 
channels. I have also treated the Chinaman on his native 
soil; and under the most favorable conditions I have, 
visited the most of the principal hospitals of Europe as' 
well. I therefore believe that I can honestly say that I 
know the "drug habit" game from top to bottom. 

Being a layman, I have not been prejudiced and handi- 
capped from either a medical or a pharmaceutical stand- 
point. I know the druggist's relation to the dispensing 
situation and I know the physician's great responsibility 
in connection with the prescription problem. My financial 
interest in this work has been the means of acquiring an 
intimate knowledge of the evil; what I know, I have 
learned in conducting my hospital. And now, I want to 
show that in my prosecution of this matter I have no 
selfish interests at stake. For any success on my part 
in lessening the traffic in and consumption of habit-form- 
ing drugs will tend to lessen the number of drug takers; 
and this reduction in numbers will proportionately lessen 
the income I should derive from treating diis class of 
patient. From a financial consideration I have everything 
to lose in furthering this work and the only gain that 
can come to me is that of personal satisfaction in knowing 
that I have given to the world the benefit of my medical 
findings, and that I am willing to do, earnestly and hon- 
estly, all that I can to reduce the consumption of this class 
of drugs to the needs of legitimate medical practice. 

I might remind my readers at this time that I have 
freely, and without any reservation, given my findings to 
the medical profession, and that in so doing I have put 
behind me forever all excuses for the promotion of 
schemes for the treatment or care of this type of patient. 
I have nothing to sell and no schemes to promote. What 
I want to see done, before any further drastic legislation 
on this subject is effected, is to have some responsible 
authorities investigate the medical treatment and care of 
this type of unfortunate and publish their findings to the 
world. They must provide for patients who are eligible 
for proper treatment, yet lack the means to pay for it; 
and they must see that the sick of this class who may 
have a permanent underlying physical disability which 
requires the regular use of the drug, shall be properly 
"franked" with the necessary prescriptions to supply a 
drug for such needs ; further, they must see that this 
type of sick man shall not, in the future, be trafficked in 
by the medical practitioner, by the sanatorium, or by any 
one else who 'may claim to treat such people. 

It would require too much space and time for me to 
analyze the existing Federal legislation on this subject 
and. to show its defects and how it fails utterly to reach 
those basic conditions which must be met if this problem 
is ever going to be solved. But I want to set the drug- 
gists right as to what I think their position on this 
subject should be. I want them to know I have no axe 
to grind ; but on the contrary-, that my knowledge of this 
subject should give them the advantage of protection 
against the conditions growing out of the unnecessary 
use of such drugs. I am not a "humanitarian": I am not 
gushing about "welfare work." nor am I parading under 
the guise of a "high moralist" : I am none of these. 

The pharmacists of this country might as well make up 

Page Thirteen 



14 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



their minds that they must get out from under this habit- 
forming drug problem. The scope of the drug evil is 
a great deal broader than they realize, or than, as a class, 
they are willing to admit that it may be. For instance, 
the average doctor or druggist will tell you that the small 
quantity of a drug contained in usual "patent" or other 
"preparations," cannot establish a drug habit. This is the 
great, big mistake. My findings have demonstrated the 
fact that practically any preparation which contains a cer- 
tain minimum quantity of an opiate, and which, under the 
present law can be sold as a druggist may see fit without 
a physician's prescription, will, if taken regularly, establish 
just as surely a drug tolerance as if the patient were get- 
ting the drug straight, in equal dosage, regularly, by mouth 
or hypodermic syringe. 

The "drug habit" may be established just as easily by 
taking paregoric daily, as by taking morphine straight by 
the mouth in small quantities ; yet at the present time drug- 
gists have a perfect legal right to sell this preparation 
without a prescription in any quantity they may see fit. 
The horrible spread and use of cocaine grew out of so- 
called catarrh cures, which contained from three to five 
per cent of the drug. This quantity was supposed to be 
harmless, but every druggist knows how the sale of one 
of these "catarrh cures" grew enormously merely on the 
strength of its cocaine content. 

Heroin is today doing more harm than any other opiate, 
although it is a comparatively recent morphine product, 
and was first used in preparations classed as cough mix- 
tures. But any preparation containing heroin is abso- 
lutely sure to establish a tolerance if taken regularly, and 
had it not been for my personal appearance in Washington 
before the final passage of the Harrison bill, the quantity 
of this drug permitted in such prescriptions would have 
been about three times that now allowed. I will go further 
and say that all that class of drugs known as hypnotics, 
which are prescribed by physicians and dispensed by drug- 
gists to alleviate pain and headache and to produce sleep, 
must also come under the restriction of law. 

Synthetic preparations producing results similar to those 
of the so-called "hypnotics" must also come under the law. 
It is a fact that physicians cannot intelligently prescribe 
these drugs. There is no more pathetic case of the drug 
habit than that of the man or woman who has been 
taking something for a certain length of time to make him 
or her sleep. The most pathetic case of drug habit that 
came under my observation in many years was that of one 
who had been taking antikamnia and codeine. The hypo- 
dermic syringe, which through a bill that was drawn by 
the writer and is now a law in the State of New York 
can be sold legally in this State to physicians alone, should 
be placed under legal restrictions as to sale and use. 

The principal arguments that have been advanced by the 
drug interests when they have opposed the enactment of 
anti-habit forming drug legislation have been that the doc- 
tor and the druggist will be hampered and hindered in 
their work by the restrictions proposed. _ My answer to 
all this is — and I am familiar with both sides of this sub- 
ject—that the responsibility for the use of this habit-form- 
ing drug should be put squarely up to the physican. The 
physician ought to be held to strict accountability for every 
drug he prescribes and administers. It is not right that the 
sick should be either imposed upon by the unscrupulous 
doctor, or unnecessarily exposed to the dangers involved 
in the taking of such drugs when prescribed by a conscien- 
tious but ill-advised medical practitioner. 

All those who have met me in the committee rooms at 
Albany and Washington, know that in discussing this mat- 
ter I have hewed close to the line of what I believed to 
be right. This action on my part has created much un- 
favorable comment and antagonism by a certain class of 
medical men who were not willing to admit their responsi- 
bility in connection with this subject; so readers may be 
sure there is no hope of personal gain on my part in taking 
this position. I believe, too, that when the druggists of 
this country thoroughly understand this problem they will 
to a man be glad to surrender whatever profit they might 
derive from this illegitimate, immoral and poisoned source 
of revenue. 

If druggists don't do it now, they will do it later. Public 
sentiment is going to bring about this needed reform. The 
evils growing out of the illicit and unnecessary traffic in 



these drugs, the reckless prescribing, the improper treat- 
ment given to those afflicted with drug habit, the lack of 
care and consideration for those unfortunates who must 
have such drugs for legitimate medical reasons — all these 
present and admitted evils of this frightful situation must 
and will be accounted for or the people will find out why 
they are not. We can rest assured that whenever the 
truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth of this 
monster source of moral corruption and ph5'sical degener- 
acy is brought out, the people will deal with the situation 
surely and in short order. 

The Federal government should be made to feel its re- 
sponsibility. The State and newspaper authorities through- 
out the country should without the slightest fear or favor, 
declare this responsibility. An end should and must ba 
put to this damnable curse unless we want to repeat the 
degenerate example of drug-cursed China. I told the 
chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, before the 
existing Federal anti-drug bill became a law, that it would 
prove ineft'ective. I told him it was loosely drawn and 
that it would not answer his purpose. We have now had 
time to check up the workings of the law and the govern- 
ment now realizes the shortcomings of the act. In fact 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for the government 
has had to make rulings to cover contingencies which the 
law did not cover and which I have pointed out it should 
be made to cover. Those of us who have been in a posi- 
tion to observe the actual working of the law, realize that 
something must be done immediately to correct the situa- 
tion. Both the pharmaceutical and the medical profes- 
sions should welcome any aid and assistance in this matter. 
I hope I have made it clear that I can have no financial 
interest in this subject and that I cannot be charged with 
other than the purest motives in this undertaking. I 
believe I know this subject thoroughly. I believe I under- 
stand both doctor and druggist ; and as I want to accom- 
plish nothing but what is for the best good of afflicted 
drug users and for the future of the country as well, 
why cannot all of us join hands and clean up this habit- 
forming drug situation? 

New York: 293 Central Park, West. 



FOOD AND DRUG OFFICIALS CO-OPERATE 



Washington, D. C, December 11. — The work accom- 
plished by the cooperative efforts of the officials charged 
with the enforcement of the Federal Food and Drugs act 
and the officials who enforce State laws regulating com- 
merce in similar products is outlined in the annual report 
of the chief of the Bureau of Chemistry,_U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, which has just been published. The report 
states that such co-operation has been more effective than 
ever before owing to the manner in which the office of 
State Co-operative Food and Drug Control has conducted 
its work. This office was established in 1914 for the pur- 
pose of making food and drug law enforcement more 
effective by facilitating the systematic exchange of inforrna- 
tion regarding law violations and methods of detecting 
them between Federal and State officials and among offi- 
cials of the various States. 

The co-operative work, however, has accomplished much 
more than the exchange of information. Federal and State 
officials have united in their efforts in improving the food 
supply in definite localities and for the correction of specific 
abuses in the production and sale of particular products. 

Food and drug officials found that, owing to high prices 
current for certain synthetic drugs widely used by physi- 
cians in treating various diseases, there were being put 
on the market cheap imitations which were sold under the 
name and label of the genuine medicines but which on 
examination were found to have little or none of the thera- 
peutic effects of the genuine articles. Though a number of 
shipments were seized, and a number of individuals suc- 
cessfully prosecuted under the Federal food and drugs act, 
and indictments returned under the postal laws, the traffic 
could not be wholly suppressed by Federal action, nor all 
the offenders reached. The situation was laid before the 
State and municipal officials who instituted many prosecu- 
tions and seizures, with the result that the joint action of 
the Federal, State and municipal officials broke up this 
fraudulent traffic. 



THE QUESTION BOX 

The ' ''How to Do It ' ' Department 



Conducted by Pharmaceutical Experts 

For the hefiefit of ERA Subscribers 




Keturni 



1:- Natural State 



(W. H. L.) — "We notice a great many valuable form- 
ulas in the Era. Can you give me one for returning gold 
to its patural state after dissolving with acids?" 

Gold is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and the vvfeaker 
acids, but it is dissolved by nitrohydrochloric acid (aqua 
regia), a solution of gold perchloride or auric chloride 
(AuCb) resulting. If to this solution ferrous sulphate 
be added and the container set aside, metallic gold, having 
its characteristic lustrous appearance, is precipitated, a 
ferric salt remaining in solution. Oxalic acid and most 
free metals also precipitate the gold. This is a convenient 
way of preparing pure gold, or fine gold, as it is called, 
or of working up the gold residues of laboratory opera- 
tions. The precipitatCj after boiling with hydrochloric 
acid, washing and drymg, may be obtained in a button 
by mixing with an equal weight of borax or acid potas- 
sium sulphate and fusing in a good furnace. You will find 
all of this information in any standard work on chemical 
analysis. Besides nitrohydrochloric acid, gold is also 
dissolved by free chlorine and bromine, and by mercury, 
with which it forms an amalgam. 



Dose of Collinsonia 

(M. S.) — The average range of dosage for extract of 
collinsonia (stone root) is practically that given in the 
Era Dose Book, viz., J4 to 2 grains. There is no official 
process for making a fluidextract of this drug, while some 
of the pharmaceutical manufacturers state that the solid 
extract as made by them represents about seven parts 
of drug to one part of extract. The dosage of the crude 
drug is variously stated by different authorities, as fol- 
lows : Era Dose Book, 10 to 40 grains ; Shoemaker 
("Materia Medica"), 10 to 60 grains; Gould ("Practi- 
tioner's Medical Dictionary"), IS to 60 grains (in decoc- 
tion), the last named giving the preparations and doses; 
fluidextract, 10 minims to 1 fluidram ; tincture (1:10), J^ 
to 2 fluidrams. 

Collinsonia, according to Shoemaker, is a local astring- 
ent, exerting, when administered, a sedative effect upon 
the mucous membrane, and producing a sensation of 
warmth in the stomach and bowels. It is used as a local 
application to incised or contused wounds, while it has 
been recommended internally for gravel and other urin- 
ary affections. No one of the medical authorities we have 
consulted gives an "average dose" for the extract, but 
basing an opinion on the range of dosage given by the 
various writers one can say that such a dose would be 
about 3 grains. So far as we can discover in medical 
literature but little attention has been given to the therapy 
of the extract of collinsonia, most writers naming the 
fluidextract or tincture. 



Chili Con Came 

(R. C. O.) — Chili con carne, as you probably know, is 
a native Mexican dish, the characteristic ingredient being 
the big pepper which is indigenous to the country of 
Montezuma and Southern Texas. There are variant 
formulas, some of which are attempts to Americanize the 
real thing. Here are two : 

(1) 
Clean, singe, and cut in pieces for serving, two young 



.1 , . m but- 
ter. Kemove the seeds and veins from eight red peppers, 
cover with boiling water, and cook until soft ; mash and 
run through a sieve. Add one teaspoonful of salt, one 
onion finely chopped, two cloves of garlic, also finely 
chopped, the chicken, and boiling water to cover. Cook 
until the chicken meat is tender. Remove to a serving 
dish and thicken with a sauce made with three tablespoon- 
fuls of butter and flour cooked together ; there should 
be V/z cupfuls of sauce. Canned pimentos may be used 
instead of red peppers. 

(2) 
Cut 1 pound of fresh pork into chunks and parboil. 
Soak five chillies, in hot water, take out the seeds and 
veins, wash them well, and put into a mortar. Pound 
to a pulp, adding a little garlic, black pepper, two cl- ves, 
and a cooked tomato. Fry this in hot lard, then add the 
meat with some of the liquid in which the meat was 
boiled, and a little salt. 



Explaining the Metric System 
(S. D. N.) — Any work on the arithmetic of pharmacy 
explains more or less fully the system as used in the 
new Pharmacopoeia. Such books as Beal, Chemical and 
Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, $1 ; Stevens, Arithmetic of 
Pharmacy, 75 cents ; Sturmer, Pharmaceutical Arithmetic, 
$1.50, contain information of this sort. In explaining 
the relationship of weight, volume, etc., as measured by 
this system, any good high school arithmetic will prove 
helpful. The Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C, 
has also published some useful bulletins on the comparison 
between the tables of weights and measures in the metric 
system and corresponding tables of the English system. 
The most useful tables of this character for the druggist 
are those given on pages 654 to 662 of the Pharmacopoeia. 
Tables of the equivalents of metric units for all com- 
monly used quantities in other systems are also given in 
the Era Dose Book. 

The metric system in the Pharmacopoeia is intended 
for use, and every druggist should have a set of metric 
weights and measures. These he should use in all manu- 
facturing operations, and obviate the laborious practice 
of converting the individual units of one system into an- 
other system, a custom that opens the door to error and 
makes checking and re-checking necessary to assure one 
that his figuring is correct. 

Books on Dermatology and Cosmetics 

(E. D. H.) — The following are standard books on der- 
matology, cosmetics, etc. : 

Jackson, Diseases of the Skin $2.75 

Van Harlingen, Text-Book of Diseases of the Skin, 3.00 

Walker, Introduction to Dermatology 3.00 

Joseph, Handbook of Cosmetics 1.00 

Koller, Cosmetics 2. 50 

Mixter, Health and Beauty Hints 1.00 

Saalfeld, Lectures on Cosmetics (Treatment) 1.75 

Wooten, Toilet Medicine 1.00 



Deodorizer for Inside Closets 
(M. G. F.) — We are not familiar with the particular 
fluid recommended for destroying the fecal matter in the 

Page Fifteen 



16 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



type of indoor closet you name. However, we believe that 
any standard disinfectant solution will answer the pur- 
pose, formulas for variant types of such preparations be- 
ing given in the Era Formulary. Here is one of these 
formulas for an "odorless disinfectant" : 

Alum 10 pounds 

Sodium carbonate 10 pounds 

Ammonium chloride 2 pounds 

Zinc chloride 1 pound 

Commercial hydrochloric acid Sufficient 

Water, enough to make 16 gallons 

Dissolve the alum in 8 gallons of boiling water; then 
add the sodium carbonate, followed by the hydrochloric 
acid, continuing the addition of the acid until the precipi- 
tate first formed is dissolved. Dissolve the remaining 
salts in the balance of the water and add to the first 
solution. 

Solutions containing corrosive sublimate, potassium per- 
manganate, or other strongly antiseptic substances are also 
recommended. 



Keciprocal Registration in Pharmacy 

(R. W.) — A registered pharmacist by examination, with 
certain grades, in any of the States holding active mem- 
bership in the National Association of Boards of Phar- 
macy, can become registered by reciprocal exchange in any 
other State in the list of such membership, without further 
examination. The official application with instructions for 
proceeding may be obtained by sending the required fee 
of $5 to H. C. Christensen, 450 Bowen avenue, Chicago, 
111., who is the secretary of the association. The States 
holding active membership in the National organization 
are Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, 
Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Ver- 
mont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 



Formula for Celluloid 

(C. H. W.) — Celluloid is a substance resulting from a 
mixture, made under certain conditions, of nitrocellulose 
and camphor, the latter appearing to play the part of a 
solvent for the nitrocellulose. From the literature on the 
subject, it would appear that nitrocellulose is always the 
basis of celluloid, but the camphor may be replaced by 
similar substances. Most of the processes are covered by 
patents, and the literature of the U. S. Patent office should 
be consulted before undertaking to make any of these 
compounds or their substitutes on a commercial scale. 
As suggestive, we print the following information from 
technical works on the subject: 

Substitute for Celluloid 

Acetic cellulose, like nitrocellulose, can be converted 
into an elastic corneous compound. The substances par- 
ticularly suitable for the operation are organic substances 
containing one or more hydroxy, aldehydic, amide, or 
ketonic groups, as well as the acid amides. Probably a 
bond is formed when these combinations act on the acetate 
of cellulose, but the bond cannot well be defined, consider- 
ing the complex nature of the molecule of cellulose. Ac- 
cording to the mode of preparation, the substances obtained 
form a hard mass, more or less flexible. In the soft state, 
copies of engraved designs can be reproduced in their 
finest details. When hardened, they can be cut and pol- 
ished. In certain respects they resemble celluloid, without 
its inflammability, and they can be employed in the same 
manner. They can be produced by the following methods 
— the Lederer process : 

I. — Melt together one quart of acetate of cellulose and 
IH parts of phenol at about the temperature of 104 to 122 
degs. F. When a clear solution is obtained place the mass 
of reaction on plates of glass or metal slightly heated and 
allow it to cool gradually. After a rest of several days 
the mass, which at the outset is similar to caoutchouc, is 
hard and forms flexible plates, which can be worked like 
celluloid. 

II.— Compress an intimate mixture of equal parts of 
acetic cellulose and a chloride or chlorhydrate at a tempera- 



ture of 122 to 140 degs. F., and proceed as in the previous 
case. 

In the same way a ketone may be employed, as aceto- 
phenone, or an acid amide, as acetamide. 

III. — A transparent, celluloid-like substance whicTi is use- 
ful for the production of plates, tubes, and other articles, 
but especially as an underlay for sensitive films in photog- 
raphy, is produced by dissolving 1.8 parts, by weight, of 
nitrocellulose in 16 parts of glacial acetic acid, with heat- 
ing and stirring and addition of 5 parts of gelatin. After 
this has swelled up, add 7.S parts, by weight, of alcohol 
(96 per cent), the syrupy product may be pressed into 
molds or poured, after dilution with the said solvents in 
the stated proportion, upon glass plates to form thin layers. 
The dried articles are well washed with water, which may 
contain a trace of soda lye, and dried again. Photographic 
foundations produced in this manner do not change, nor 
attack the layers sensitive to light, nor do they become 
electric, and in developing they remain flat. 

IV. — Viscose is the name of a new product of the class 
of substances like celluloid, pegamoid, etc., substances hav- 
ing most varied and valuable applications. It is obtained 
directly from cellulose by macerating this substance in a 
1 per cent dilution of hydrochloric acid. The maceration 
is allowed to continue for several hours, and at its close 
the liquid is decanted and the residue is pressed off and 
washed thoroughly. The mass (of which we will suppose 
there is 100 grams) is then treated with a 20% aqueous 
solution of sodium hydrate, which dissolves it. The solu- 
tion is allowed to stand for three days in a tightly closed 
vessel ; 100 grams carbon disulphide are then added, the 
vessel closed and allowed to stand for 12 hours longer, 
when it is ready for purification. Viscose thus formed is 
soluble in water, cold or tepid, and yields a solution of a 
pale brownish color, from which it is precipitated by alco- 
hol and sodium chloride, which purifies it, but at the 
expense of much of its solubility. A solution of the pre- 
cipitated article is colorless, or of a slightly pale yellow. 
Under the action of heat, long continued, viscose is de- 
composed, yielding cellulose, caustic soda and carbon di- 
sulphide. 

For a full description of this subject, we would refer 
you to the book by Masselon, Roberts and Cillard, on 
"Celluloid, Its Manufacture, Applications and Substitutes." 



Bacillus Bulgaricus 

(Sr. M. G.)— The "Bulgarian plant" for producing but- 
termilk concerning which you write, is known &s Bacillus 
bulgaricus, a ferment which under suitable conditions of 
temperature, etc., causes milk to turn sour. In form the 
bacillus is long, sometimes fairly slender and sometimes 
fairly thick, and has a tendency to filament formation in 
old cultures. It grows preferably under anaerobic condi- 
tions, but grows well also under aerobic conditions. The 
following statement from "New and Non-official Remedies," 
published by the American Medical Association, contains 
the principle f actJ concerning this ferment : 

Carbohydrates are essential to successful cultivation of 
this bacillus. Broth with 2 per cent dextrose is quite suit- 
able for most strains, especially if calcium carbonate in 
the form of pieces of marble is added, so that the acid 
formed during growth is promptly neutralized. Some 
strains are said to grow well on beerwort. The medium 
par excellence is milk or some medium prepared^ from 
milk. Milk agar, prepared by precipitating the casein and 
dissolving agar in the whey, is an excellent medium if 
dextrose is added. Milk is acidified rapidly and a coagulum 
is formed with little separation of whey. The amount of 
acid formed varies with different strains from 1 per cent 
to 3 per cent or even more. 

Two varieties of B. bulgaricus are used for the prepara- 
tion of a milk, which is usually called Bulgarian milk. 
One of these strains forms a slimy milk; the other does 
not. The slime-forming strain usually separates no whey. 
The other varietv usually separates a small amount of 
whey. The coagulum is smooth and flows like thick cream. 
The" slime-forming property may be lost temporarily or 
permanentlv. Bv frequent transfers on milk the slime- 
forming property is preserved and even enhanced. Old 
cultures are not slimy. Under _ what conditions slime- 
forming properties are acquired is not known. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARiMACEUTICAL ERA 



17 



The acid produced is 94 per cent lactic acid. It has been 
stated that the butter-fat and the casein are decomposed. 
If this is true tlie reaction is slow and the result not 
noticeable for several days. 

The group of bacilli to which B. bulgaricus belongs is 
sometimes called "lactobacilli." They are able to multiply 
in the presence of considerable amount of acid and there- 
fore belong to the group often misnamed acidophil. They 
are not acidophil in the true sense of the word, but are 
acid-resisting. Whether we are justified in distinguishing 
species in this group, or only varieties, remains a subject 
for research. Probably the lactobacilli form a large group 
consisting of many varieties, similar to tlie B. coli group 
or tlie group of streptococci. Research will probably show 
that some varieties retain their properties with tenacity, 
while other varieties are readily transformed. 

Market milk usually contains bacilli of this group. The 
optimum temperature for cultivation is about 45 deg. C. 
Milk incubated at this temperature will, as a rule, turn 
very sour in the course of several days and show an 
acidity of from 2 to 3 per cent. The lacto-bacilli have been 
considered active in the ripening of certain cheeses. They 
are found frequently in feces of man and animals. It is 
stated that the feces of infants can be used for the prep- 
aration of buttermilk after several transfers through milk. 
The Bulgarians, if they lose their "maya," which is the 
name of the starter for their sour milk, can replace it by 
using part of the stomach or intestines of a calf. 

Cultures may be prepared in broth containing dextrose, 
or, better, in sterilized milk. Viability decreases rapidly. 
Frequent transfers are therefore necessary. To preserve 
a culture in best condition it should be transferred at 
least once every two days. A milk culture will contain 
living bacilli for many days, but their activity becomes 
impaired and the slime-producing property is lost. The 
amount of acid formed also becomes less. 

Washing Powders for Softening Water 
(J. H. G.) — Preparations in dry form for softening 
water for washing (laundry) purposes are generally known 
as "washing powders," their composition varying some- 
what as to ideas of the particular manufacturer or the 
method in which the product is to be used. Gathmann 
("American Soaps") states that the washing powders usu- 
ally sold to the consumer as soap powders may be described 
in a general way as mixtures of powdered soap with about 
its own weight, more or less, of carbonate of soda. Some 
special brands are made which, in addition, contain other 
detergent agents, such as carbonate of ammonia, sal am- 
moniac or borax, while still others are found to which 
filling, in the form of talc, silex, etc., has been added. The 
soap itself may have been made by any of the processes 
known — cold, half boiled, or boiled, settled or boiled down 
— and the stock used may have been any fat, or mixture of 
fats, according to the grade of the washing powder to be 
made. The Era Formulary gives nearly a dozen different 
formulas for washing powder, the following being typical : 

(1) 

Crude potash • 3 parts 

Sal soda, effloresced 6 parts 

Borax 1 part 

(2) 

Sal soda, dried . . ■ 5 ounces 

Borax, powdered 5 ounces 

Powdered yellow soap 5 ounces 

(3) 

Sal soda, effloresced 90 parts 

Sodium hyposulphite 10 parts 

Borax 2 parts 

London Soap Powder : Yellow soap, 6 parts ; soda ash, 
crystals, 3 parts; pearlash, V/z parts; sodium sulphate, 1J4 
parts ; palm oil, 1 part. These ingredients are combined 
without any water, spread out to dry, and then ground to 
powder. This powder is adapted for use with hard water, 
the excess of alkali carbonate easily neutralizing the lime 
in the water. 

Show Globe Colors 
(O. P. B.) — On general principles, any color can be 
deepened by lessening the quantity of water employed, or 



made lighter by adding more water. The best method is 
to make a concentrated solution and then to dilute it 
with water to the required shade. Here are three formulas 
taken from the Era Formulary : 
Green 

Nickel sulphate 3 ounces 

Sulphuric acid 6 ounces 

Water 2 gallons 

Dissolve the nickel sulphate in the water, and add the 
acid, stirring constantly. Allow to deposit, and decant. 
Orange 

Make a solution of potassium dichromate in water, and 
darken with sulphuric acid; this is a beautiful lasting 
color, equally brilliant by day or night. Use only distilled 
water. 

Red 

Distilled water 2 gallons 

Sulphuric acid 5 ounces 

Cochineal V/, ounces 

Potassium bitartrate 1 ounce 

Dissolve the cochineal and potassium bitartrate in water, 
dilute largely, add the sulphuric acid and the remainder of 
the water and filter. 

Fluorescent and Dichroic 

"Pharmaceutical Formulas" contains this formula under 
the above caption : Nearly fill the carboy with water, then 
add a solution of 10 grains of fluorescein (or uranine) in 
1 ounce of rectified spirit, and mix. This makes a very 
pretty fluorescent solution, it is said, but as it becomes 
mouldy in a month or two it requires the addition of 20 
drops of formalin, which should be dropped in when the 
carboy is put in its place, and not mixed. 



THE CARE OF GOLD FISH 



So many druggists stock gold fish during the winter 
time that a little knowledge concerning their care and 
well-being is timely. People who buy these tiny members 
of the finny tribe are naturally disappointed if the fish do 
not remain healthy and bright colored and sometimes they 
think it is because the stock has been poor or they bewail 
the druggist's lack of ability to inform them how to take 
care of their pets. 

Druggist Briggs of Palmyra, N. Y., has been especially 
successful in the sale and care of gold fish. He keeps 
an aquarium in his own home and takes personal care 
of them himself. In this way he is able to advise custom- 
ers as to the proper way to look after tliese shiny little 
members of the carp family. 

Mr. Briggs has best results by feeding each morning. 
He allows one tiny piece of fish food to each fish in the 
globe. liach little piece is about twice the size of an 
ordinary pin head. There should never be enough given 
that there is any left floating in the water. If a day is 
skipped once in awhile in feeding them, no great harm is 
done, but regularity is advised. 

Once a week Mr. Briggs catches each fish in a little 
net, putting them into a bowl of salt water, using a tea- 
spoonful to a quart. They are left in the salt bath about 
an hour during which time the globe, the pebbles, and 
shells are all thoroughly scrubbed, the seaweed washed 
off, and fresh water put into the aquarium The fish are 
then returned to their home and are ready to enjoy them- 
selves after this housecleaning. It is remarkable how 
bright and sprightly they will appear after this treatment. 
Mr. Briggs has been successful in keeping some of the 
same fish for several years by this method. 



The Baltimore Retail Druggists' Association held a meet- 
ing recently at the Emerson Hotel, at which various matters 
of importance to the trade, and in particular the bill before 
Congress which permits uniform price agreements as a 
means of averting ruinous competition, were discussed. 
The attendance was quite large and much interest was 
manifested in the proceedings. 



18 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



WOMEN IN PHARMACY 



Conducted by EMMA GARY WALLACE 



Some Window Displays for January 

Featuring Plasters^ Liniments and Regulators 



PROCURE a five-fold cloth-covered screen and a sup- 
ply of glass-headed push pins. Upon three of the 
screen sect. ons— the two end ones and the middle 
one, fasten plasters with the push pins. Have some of 
them so that the folder can be read and others open so 
as to show the nature of the medication. Have prepared 
a number of display cards about twice the size of each 
plaster. Let each display card contain a single sentence 
telling some good point of the plaster treatment. For 
example : 

1. Plasters reinforce and strengthen weak muscles. 

2. A plaster holds the exterior medication to the spot 
needed. 

3. A good plaster acts as a constant, gentle massage. 

4. A plaster protects the surface and does not inter- 
fere with the digestion, body elimination, or the daily 
tasks. 

5. A plaster is a localized counter irritant. 

Set the screen so that all parts of it may be readily 
inspected from the pavement. 

Now set a rather low display stand arranged in the 
form of steps, on the left hand side of the window. Fill 
these shelves fairly full of the liniment you wish to push. 
Borrow or rent the lay figure of a woman and clothe it in 
an attractive kimono. On one shoulder pin a round dis- 
play card which reads : 

"I have a lame back and shoulder, 
but a good rubbing with Blank's 
Liniment and a Belladonna Plaster 
will relieve me by the morning!" 

In one hand put a plaster and in the other a bottle of 
the liniment. 

On the other side of the window place a table neatly 
covered with a white cloth and on it put a glass of water, 
a tumbler, a spoon, and a bottle of stomach corrector or 
a liver regulator. Have a dose mixed in the glass. Be- 
hind the table stand the lay figure of a man, either in a 
dressing robe or street suit. Place one hand on the bottle 
of medicine and the other on the tumbler. On his right 
shoulder fasten a round card which reads : 

"When I have cleaned my system with some 
of Blank's Regulator, and put a Plaster on 
my sore chest, I know I shall feel better." 

Put a rug on the floor and don't detract from the dis- 
play by scattering anything about the window base. 

The Crown of Glory Week 
If hair tonics, shampoos, and brushes are to be featured 
the window display must be to the point. Prepare a large 
and handsome gold crown by taking a pasteboard base, 
covering it with gold paper, and sewing in place a rich 
assortment of ruby and turquois-colored jewel-beads. 
These can be bought at any fancy goods store, are flat on 
one side, and are pierced so that they may be sewed in 
place. 

Put a little mahogany table in the middle of the window. 
On this rest a crimson velvet cushion and on the cushion 
put the crown. Above the crown suspend a white card 
lettered in blue and gold which reads : 

"No begemmed diadem is half 
as lovely as a woman's well- 
kept, luxuriant head of hair." 
Procure from some hair dresser the bust of a handsome 
form. Drape the waist part in white satin and decorate 
with some of the jewel-beads. This woman should have 
a beautiful head of hair which is better very simply 
dressed or even hanging loosely over her shoulders. 



At one side of the window put a large china bowl, a 
bottle of the shampoo, a little rack with several towels, 
a sponge, a bath spray, and anything else which may be 
needed by the average home worker to properly cleanse 
the hair. 

On the other side of the window place bottles of hair 
tonic in goodly number and scatter a number of hair 
brushes of diflerent styles about the window base. Put 
price tickets on the brushes. If there are any having 
especially valuable points in regard to sanitation, point 
these out by means of a brief card of explanation, such as: 
"Permits of cleansing with hot water," 

Or, 
"Finest bristles and substantial back." 
A Dental Window 

This wiindow should be purely educational. Have a table 
in the middle of the window with a trained nurse standing 
back of it. On the table have arranged everything neces- 
sary in keeping the teeth clean and in good shape. In 
front of the table stand a placard bearing some crisp say- 
ings, such as : 

1. Clean teeth mean good health. 

2. Pyorrhea is the result of a germ. Use our Pyorrhea 
mixture. 

3. Many diseases originate in unhealthy teeth. 

4. Poor teeth mean poor digestion. 

5. A child with poor teeth cannot do good work in 
school. 

6. Defective teeth mean defective health. 

On both sides of this table make an elaborate display 
of brushes, powders, dentifrices, and in order to start 
these along, make a combination ofler of perhaps $1.25 in 
value for $1.00 in cash during two or three days of the 
special sale. 

Creams and Powders 

This window must be one which will appeal mostly to 
women as they are the ones who use these goods very 
largely. 

If possible have a demonstrator inside of the store pro- 
vided with squares of cheese cloth and open boxes of 
cleansing cream. Almost any woman will be convinced 
if a little of this cream is put on the square of cloth, 
rubbed over her own cheek, and brought away exceedingly 
soiled. The demonstrator must also explain the advantages 
of these toilet articles. 

The window will best have a setting of a lady's boudoir. 
Have a toilet table in the center of the window with all 
sorts of toilet articles arranged on it. At one side of the 
window have a little low table with a rocking chair beside 
it and the figure of a woman seated back of it apparently 
soaking her finger nails in a bowl of perfumed water. 
Have a manicure set on the table beside her and manicure 
materials. She should have a little lace cap on her head 
and an attractive silk kimono about her. 

Now arrange four low window display stands across the 
front. On the back of each one put a card which reads : 

"For the very dark brunette." "For the medium brunette," 
"Especially for the blonde." "For one with sallow or muddy 
complexion." On each of these tables assemble the things 
which will fit the description. 

Arrange boxes of talcum on the window base with a 
length of dark blue satin ribbon in front of each. Shake 
a little of the talcum out on the ribbon to show that it is 
white or tinted, and the particular shade. 

These windows, if carefully prepared and the color 
scheme nicely arranged, will surely sell goods. 



Janlary, iyi7] 



THE PllARMACEUTiCAl. ERA 



January Leaders 



HERE are some things especially appropriate to push 
in January. Let the window displays, the store 
arrangement, tlie printed publicity and the salesman- 
ship, all concentrate on educating the people in regard to 
the use of: 

First week in January — Plasters, liniments and regulators. 

Second week in January — Shampoos, hair tonics, hair 
brushes and combs. 

Third week in January — Tooth pastes, tooth brushes, 
dentifrices, toothache plasters, dental floss, etc. 

Fourth week in January — Cold creams, skin foods, tal- 
cums and face powder. 

Do you realize that if all the druggists in your locality 
will but concentrate with you on informing the public 
concernin.g the uses and qualities of these goods, that 
everyone will reap a rich harvest by way of reward? If 
only one man does it, he likewise will gain, but not in 
proportion to what he would gain if all the people are 
aroused over some particular need, and several druggists 
advertising together on the same thing at the same time, 
can mal'c an impression difficult for one by himself to 
achieve. 

Decide on your January leaders. Get ready for your 
advertising and displays, and "cash in" when business might 
otherwise be quiet. 

Plans for the First Week 

Mid-winter is the time many people need external appli- 
cation to relieve rheumatic and muscular pains. The ad- 
vantages of plasters and liniments naturally go together. 
Many times these very pains are an expression of a clogged 
system and for this reason, a stomach or liver regulator 
is especially timely in conjunction with them. Many times 
it will be possible to make a sale of a plaster, a bottle of 
liniment, and a box of pills, and that, too, to people who 
never would have thought of it. 

The Second Week and Its Business 

In the second week, emphasize the fact that artificial 
heat makes the hair grow dry and brittle; that dust clogs 
the pores and makes the hair lustreless ; and that heavy 
hats, especially the close-fitting ones of the present modes, 
are unventilated and likely to cause over-heating of the 
scalp. It will also be timely to point out that constitutional 
depletion is often indicated by falling hair. Show that 
a clean scalp is necessary to health, and a good brush 
and reliable shampoo are necessary to keep the hair clean, 
while a suitable tonic and scalp massage cream will do 
much to make the hair lively and bright. 

It is a good idea also to make a specialty of hair tonics 
for gray hair. So many tonics yellow gray hair or make 
it look dingy, but there are a few which can be relied 
upon to leave the hair beautifully silvery in color and tex- 
ture. If there are hair dressers or beauty parlors in the 
neighborhood, it should be an easy matter to persuade them 
to join in the campaign of this week. Remember the more 
attention can be attracted, and the more interest aroused, 
the more lasting will be the results. 

The Third Week of Profit Making' 

Dental week has already been celebrated in two or three 
cities but the thought is still comparatively new. Boards 
of health, parent teachers' associations, and dentists should 
be willing to co-operate here. It might be well to have a 
whole page of advertising every day in the week, or for 
the weekly issue of the newspaper if the town is a small 
one. The expenses could be borne by all participating in 
the ad. and a symposium of publicity arranged, the center 
space being given to crisp, informative health maxims re- 
garding the teeth and diseases depending upon the condi- 
tion of the mouth and teeth. Here is an almost untilled 
field which has never been intensively cultivated. 
The Last the Best of All 
At this time of year the cold winds of out of doors and 
the confinement of indoors begin to tell on the complexion. 
Many times tiny wrinkles begin to appear as the skin grows 
dry. " Lines are likely to show from the nostrils to the 
corners of the mouth as a result of dust and the little 
particles of soot so likely to fill the air when many chim- 
neys are belching out great quantities of smoke. 



Show the advantage of cold creams. Explain why some 
of your cold creams are particularly good. Many people 
do not know the difference between a grease cream, a 
vanishing cream, and a massage cream. Remember that 
beauty columns are constantly directing women how to 
make little dabs of cold cream and skin foods and whiten- 
ing lotions. Show the folly and expensiveness of this 
method. A chemist requires years of experience and cor- 
rect laboratory conditions in order to insure good results. 

Tliere is a good deal of misapprehension concerning the 
nature of face powders. Some women regard tliem as 
necessary and others as deceptive and injurious. Show that 
a good face powder is a protection but should be washed 
from the face before sleeping. Explain the nature of good 
powder and mention some that you have. In the same way, 
make a special effort and popularize a few worthy lines 
of talcums. 

A Winning Method 

Wherever possible, offer samples of the goods you are 
demonstrating. If this is not possible, be prepared to show 
these goods and to explain their merits. Be patient even 
when people are a bit tedious, for they may prove to be 
good customers. Remember that it is always possible to 
sell accessories such as powder puffs, etc., along with many 
sales. 

Do not say when a customer has given her order, "Is 
this all, Madam?" Naturally she will respond to the sug- 
gestion and say, "Yes, thank you, that is all today." In- 
stead of that remark, "What else can I show you? I won- 
der if you wouldn't like to look at some new vanity cases 
I have just received which only take a little room in one's 
bag?" Many times a suggestive sale will lead to the 
purchase of several articles. 

During the month of January, push certain lines of goods. 
Do it systematically, intelligently, persistently and e.xpect- 
antly, for if you look forward to getting a goodly amount 
of trade and go after it, it will surely be yours. 



AROUND THE CIRCUIT 



It is vi'ell to impress the public with the truth that public 
health is purchasable and that prevention of disease, sani- 
tation, and prompt and proper medication, are among the 
means of obtaining it. It is the part of women, and espe- 
cially the druggist women folk, to help along with health 
measures wherever they may be. "Where there is no 
vision, the people perish." 



The many friends of Mrs. L. D. Drury of the W. O. B. 
A. R. D. are greatly pained to learn of Mr. Drury's death. 
After a long and painful illness, he passed away November 
29. Mr. Drury has long been identified with the best in- 
terests in pharmacy. He believed in organization, being 
a member of the city association, the national association, 
the Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Association, and 
the American Pharmaceutical Association. Sympathy is 
extended to Mrs. Drury in her sad afHiction. 



Interest seems to be growing at this time in Sunday 
closing, and Newark, N. J., druggists have arranged to 
keep one store open in each district, the rest closing during 
a certain portion of Sunday. The same plan is being 
tried in Minneapolis, and St. Paul will not be far behind. 
The W. O. has long worked to this end and it is with joy 
they hail tidings of more places where druggists have the 
courage and find it possible to obtain a reasonable amount 
of Sunday rest. 



The newly elected officers of the Women's Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association of the Pacific Coast are : President, Mrs. 
Voluntine; first vice-president, Mrs. White; second vice- 
president. Miss Dolcini ; secretary, Mrs. Sawyers ; treas- 
urer. Miss Laird ; Advisory Board, Mrs. Flint, Miss Fisher, 
Miss Farrell ; executive committee, Miss Roehr, Miss Nast, 
Miss Nelson, Mrs. Kane, Mrs. Burk. The membership is 
making a thorough study of the Ninth edition of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 



The chapters of the W. O. and other bodies of women 
pharmacists, should be cautious about endorsing the eight- 
hour law for working women which is now being brought 
up in many of the states. The proposition as it is brought 



20 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



forward in some places is ambiguous and if it includes 
domestic service, would practically disorganize our homes 
and change all our hotel service. Many of the working 
people themselves object to the proposed plans. 



The whist party given at the home of Colonel and Mrs. 
John W. Lowe on November 23 for the ladies of the W. O. 
B. A. R. D. and their husbands, was a most enjoyable 
affair. There was a large attendance of representative 
drug people. Among the prize winners were Mrs. W. 
Acheson of Cambridge, Mr. L. W. Grigen of Alsten, Gerry 
Russel of Boston, and Mrs. Blanche Edmonds of Newton- 
ville. 



Mr. and Mrs. Tafel entertained the Louisville Chapter 
No. 11, at a recent evening gathering, when the Chapter 
members brought their husbands with them. 



Philadelphia Chapter, No. 6, is planning a winter of 
great activity. This group of women takes an active inter- 
est in the civic affairs of the city and in the work of the 
state federation. The usual Christmas entertainment was 
given Wednesday afternoon, December 27. Santa Claus 
was on hand with his pack of good things for the children 
of the members and especially for their guests, the little 
children of one of the settlement houses. This is an annual 
affair with the Philadelphia Chapter to which everyone 
looks forward. 



The November meeting of Milwaukee Chapter, No. 19, 
W. O., N. A. R. D. was held on Wednesday, November 29, 
at the home of Mrs. William Loppnow. They had a splen- 
did attendance and also one new member present. Among 
other things, a report from the Health Department was 
read. This came in response to investigations made by 
the committee on sanitation in public buildings, etc., and 
showed that work in that direction, even at the very start, 
has had good results. A recommendation was made by the 
chapter to the Milwaukee Pharmaceutical Association that 
all druggists make prompt report of sales of antito.xin to 
the Health Department, with a view of reducing contagion 
to a minimum. The constitution was read and adopted. 
The chapter has decided to have a bowling club. The social 
committee is completing plans for a poverty party. With 
the New Year comes the annual banquet or birthday anni- 
versary which takes place on the last Wednesday of Janu- 
ary. 



The first annual Drug Show held at the Coliseum by 
the drug trade and allied interests, proved to be a unique 
occasion which interested the public greatly. It was held 
from December 2 to 10, and during that time great throngs 
of people visited the Drug Show. The members of the 
Chicago Chapter W. O., N. A. R. D. were fully alive to 
their opportunity, and they conducted a tea room and holi- 
day bazaar, also a rest room in an especially assigned 
portion of the Coliseum. Dainty lunches were served in 
the tea room, the ladies taking turns in the business man- 
agement. Mrs. Frank H. Ahlborn was in charge of the 
supplies for the holiday bazaar. Fancy work, useful house- 
hold articles, aprons, towels, and all sorts of nifty little 
nick-nacks were offered for sale. The booth which served 
as a rest room also gave an excellent meeting place for 
the members and their friends. Among those who had 
charge of the tea room were Mrs. W. W. Klore, Mrs. 
Riemenschneider, Mrs. Sisson, and Miss Katz. A portion 
of the money raised by the Chicago ladies was used for 
charity purposes and to give Christmas cheer to those 
who would otherwise have been without it. 



Indianapolis Chapter, No. 20, W. O., N. A. R. D., organ- 
ized September 20, 1916, with the following members : Mrs. 
Frank H. Carter, 1920 Broadway; Mrs. Edward Ferger, 104 
E. Maple road ; Mrs. James C. Mead, 2635 College avenue ; 
Mrs. Arthur E. Johnson, 2736 N. Capitol avenue; Mrs. 
John E. Clark, 425 E. Walnut street ; Mrs. Harry J. Borst, 
970 N. La Salle street; Mrs. John W. Stokes, 224 E. North 
street ; Mrs. James W. Carshadver. 3641 Kenwood avenue ; 
Mrs. J. V. Riesbech, 1406 Leonard street; Mrs. James E. 
Sprvule, 7 The Lexington. These ladies have already per- 
suaded a numher of others to join them. Of course, to 
begin with they had no money, but they are not the tj^pe 
of women to sit down and lament about it or to be idle. 
The first thing they did was to give a dance and cleared 
$60. Following this, their good friends of the Indianapolis 
Retail Drug Association, presented them with $50; so this 
youngest of all the chapters has $100 working in a Building 
and Loan Company with enougih on hand to meet their 
current expenses. They have set their meetings for the 
first Monday of each month, and each member must come 
prepared to talk on a subject given out by the hostess at 
the previous meeting one month before. The subject 
first chosen and which each of the members was asked 
to think about and to discuss freely, was "How can the 
W. O., N. A. R. D. help the N. A. R. D.?" Some ex- 
tremely interesting points were brought out. The^r next 
subject is "Liquor and the Drug Store." On Friday eve- 
ning, December 29, Chapter No. 20 had an evening with 
their husbands, meeting at the home of Mr. and Mrs. F. 
H. Carter. A most delightful time was enjoyed and the 
spirit of good fellowship is manifesting itself as the drug 
people of the Hoosier city become better acquainted and 
find out how fine their neighbors in the same line of 
business are. 



The officers for the ensuing year of the W. O., B. A. R. 
D. of Boston are president, Mrs. Mary R. Green; first vice- 
president, Mrs. Ella S. Twitchell ; second vice-president, 
Mrs. Ethel T. Corner; recording and corresponding sec- 
retary, Mrs. Gertrude M. Acheson ; treasurer, Mrs. Ger- 
trude K. Ernst; auditor, Mrs. H. F. LaPierre; directors, 
Mrs. Winifred B. Woodrow, Mrs. Frances L. Hayes, Mrs. 
Lily M. Connolly, Mrs. Jessie F. Waterhouse, Mrs. Delia 
M. Tobin, and Mrs. Florence L. Berry; chairman of the 
hospitality committee, Mrs. Sarah A. Finneran. The W. 
O., B. A. R. D. has enjoyed some very profitable gather- 
ings so far this year. An afternoon of music was enjoyed 
at the Hotel Brunswick, November 16. Luncheon was 
served under the direction of Mrs. Sarah A. Finneran. 
Mrs. Adelaide M. Godding poured and Mrs. Grover, Mrs. 
Forbush, and Mrs. Berry served. The December meeting 
of the W. O., B. A. R. D. was held also at the Hotel 
Brunswick, and the members were entertained by a pro- 
gram on Dickens's children in fiction. 



Louisville Chapter No. 11 recently gave a very successful 
500 party under the auspices of the managers of the club 
house fund. Mrs. W. E. Weinedel acted as hostess. The 
chapter was invited to attend the conference of the Fifth 
District of the Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs. 
It is interesting to note that more and more our chapters 
are being recognized and welcomed in federation circles. 



Those who live in towns adjacent to rural districts will 
do well to get Public Health Bulletin No. 77 from the 
United States Public Health Service. This deals with 
rural school sanitation and suggests ways by which the 
wide awake druggist can co-operate with school boards in 
bringing about cleaner and more healthful conditions. 



The officers of the Women's Section of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association for the ensuing year are : 
President. Mrs. F. A. Ruddiman of Tennessee; Mrs. 
John F. Hancock of Baltimore, honorary president; and 
Mrs. G. D. Timmons of Indiana, chairman of the execu- 
tive committee. These ladies are accomplishing good 
work and interesting others by their earnestness. 



The W. O., B. A. R. D., held a meeting on Thursday, 
November 16, at Hotel Brunswick, the president, Mrs. J. 
H. Green, presiding. An excellent account of the State 
Federation meeting held at Franklin. Mass., October 30, 
was given by Mrs. F. B. Twitchell. An interesting report 
of a conservation meeting held at Melrose November IS, 
was given by Mrs. J. H. Godding. Miss Ida E. Dow of 
Boston, a versatile artist, accomplished pianist, and sweet 
singer, gave a classified program that was well received. 
Refreshments and a social hour closed the meeting. 



The druggist people of Reading, Pa., had a most enjoy- 
able Hallowe'en gathering at Spring Valley. There was 
dancing and music and a real old-fashioned supper. 



May a happy New Year full of blessings be the portion 
of every reader of the Era. 



Western Druggist Builds Success 

Wilbur X. Joyner Establishes Chain in Pacific Northwest 



WILBUR NEWELL JOYNER, engaged in the drug 
business for the past 26 years, part of which time 
he spent in Columbus, Ohio, and in Chicago, the 
last nine years being in Spokane, Wash., is rapidly acquir- 
ing a chain of stores, now having three in Spokane and 

several in view in outside 
towns of the Pacific North- 
west. 

He recently opened an at- 
tractive and elaborately ar- 
ranged store in the exact 
business center of Spokane 
and has organized and is 
president of the Joyner 
Drug Stores, the Physicians 
& Surgeons Supply Com- 
pany (wholesale), Joyner's 
Mail Order House and the 
United Drug Company. 

Upon locating in Spokane, 
nine years ago, he purchased 
the Dulmage Pharmacv, at 
Lincoln street and Riverside 
avenue, and soon afterwards 
incorporated Joyner's Orig- 
inal Cut Rate Drug Store, 
thus starting the first cut- 
rate store in Spokane. 
Shortly after this he started the Physicians & Surgeons 
Supply Company, as a wholesale house, and at the same 
time started a mail order drug business which has since 
grown into Joyner's Mail Order House. This carries 
practically everything in the drug business as well as 
sundries, jewelry, and general merchandise. 

Mr. JojTier organized the United Drug Company six 
years ago, the object being to operate a chain of stores 
throughout the Northwest with the parent store in Spokane. 




Wilbur Newell Joyner 



Several locations, according to Mr. Joyner, have now been 
secured in other towns in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and 
Montana. He announces that many stores will be started 
by the United Drug Company in a short time. 

The last store added to the Joyner chain was that re- 
cently opened at Howard street and Riverside avenue, 




Joyner Drug Store, Howard St. and Riverside Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

Spokane, which is considered the exact business center and 
one of the most prominent corners in that city. The floor 
space of this new store is 40 by 60 feet, including a full 
basement and a mezzanine floor. On the mezzanine floor 
are located the truss fitting rooms, the suit case and hand 
grip departments,, the S. & H. green stamp redemption 
office and the executive office of the Joyner Drug Company. 




Interior of Joyner Drug Store, Howard St. and Riverside Ave., Spokane, Wash. 



Page Twenty-one 



22 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Januaey, 1917 




Interior of Joyner Drug Store, Lincoln St. and Riverside Ave., 
Spokane, Wash. 

In the basement are a public rest room and laboratories of 
the company, as well as the stock room for imported 
articles. 

The main floor is finished in solid oak throughout, and 
a feature of the arrangement is oak display cases on the 
main as well as on the mezzanine floor. This is a feature 
of all the Jo>Tier's stores. This floor is occupied with the 
prescription department, rubber goods department, and an 
elaborate French ivory display, including picture frames, 
toilet sets and manicuring sets, making an artistic section. 
Additional to this is a watch and clock department, a large 
pipe and cigar department, perfume and toilet article de- 
partment, and leather goods department. Umbrellas, canes, 
candy, chewing gum, thermos bottles, cutlery, safety 
razors and the general sundry line usually carried in the 
drug stores of today, including dolls and children's novel- 
ties are handled. 

The store at Main avenue and Howard street, known as 
the United Drug Company store, occupies the first and 
second floors as well as the basement of the building, 
which is 55 by 85 feet. The basement ceiling is 18 feet 
high and is occupied as the stock room and laboratory 
for the United Drug Company. The main floor is occupied 
by the United Drug Company store and the second floor 
is occupied by Joyner's Mail Order House and the Physi- 
cians & Surgeons Supply Company. 

The Joyner store at Lincoln street and Riverside avenue 
is the parent store, and, like all the stores, has a truss 
fitting department. This also carries a complete drug 
supply, elastic hosiery, abdominal supports and shoulder 
braces. 

The company makes a specialty of cameras and supplies 
and operates a six-hour developing plant with a capacity 
of handling from 75 to 100 rolls of films. Exceedingly 
large tanks are used and all printing is done by electric 
lights. 

"I attribute the real feature of my success to date to 
hard work and honest dealing with the public," said Wilbur 
N. Joyner, in giving a few of the inside facts on how he 
built up the Joyner's Cut Rate Stores, the United Drug 
Stores and the Joyner's Mail Order House. 

"When I started, eight years ago, in Spokane, I had one 
clerk and now I have 60. I never abuse the confidence of 
the public, I always aim to give them the best values that 
their money will buy, I keep in constant touch with the 
business and the employes and make courtesy to patrons 
a rule not to be broken under any circumstances. 

"I advertise in the newspapers constantly and consider 
this one of the greatest features of building up the business 
and also send out catalogs to mail order customers. We 
are doing a general merchandising business and I find the 
catalogs and newspaper advertisements an aid in this. 

"Another feature of progress, in my estimation, is_ that 
I have always made it a rule to get the most prominent 
corners possible and then give great attention to the 
window displays. 

"All of the stores have the most modern type of solid 
plate glass fronts which, with the displays in them, is prob- 



ably the main business getting feature of the trade. The 
interior of the store is also arrayed in a manner to suggest 
to the customer something else he or she may want or need 
and if it is on exhibition, it reminds the customer of his 
or her needs. 

"We never take chances of hurting our reputation by the 
sale of obnoxious drugs or catering to the vicious element. 
We have never catered to the liquor business and make 
no feature of Sunday business, only keeping open for the 
general benefit of prescription customers. 

"We keep the stores open until 12 midnight during the 
week but close at 8 p.m., Sunday. One reason for closing 
all the stores at midnight is that the 'owl cars' leave at 
12:30 a.m. 

"We also avoid the sales of obnoxious articles which are 
under the ban of the Government or the postal authorities 
or any state law or city ordinance. 

"We purchase our drugs in large quantities and make 
up our own lotions and many of our medicines in our own 
laboratory aside from handling a large prescription busi- 
ness. 

"Conferences are held among the employes about once 
a week." 



A tax: phi sorority girl 



California is noted for its beautiful and brainy women, 
and even among these Miss Rose Virden of Tropico is a 
leader. She could not very well have been anything but 
a pharmacist had she wished, for she comes of a long line 
of ancestors who delighted in curing people of their 
physical ills. 

Two of her great uncles, 
Dr. Ashmead of Philadel- 
phia and Dr. Brown of 
Wilmington, Del., carried 
on the drug business in their 
respective cities in the early 
seventies. It was while 
working for them that Miss 
Rose's father, then young 
Edwin Virden, attended and 
was graduated from the 
Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in 1881. Later he 
became one of the pioneer 
druggists of Southern Cali- 
fornia. As time went on it 
became highly desirable that 
his charming daughter take 
up the work with her father, 
and so after graduating 
from the Santa Paula, Cal., 




Miss Rose Virden 



Union High School, Miss 



Rose attended the College of Pharmacy of Southern Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles, and in June, 1915, was given the 
degree of Ph.C. 

In April, 1916, she successfully passed the California 
State Board of Pharmacy examinations. Through her 
attainments and enthusiasm she has been the means of 
realizing an ambition for like success in several of her 
young lady friends who are now registered at her Alma 
Mater. 

At present Miss Virden is serving as vice-president of 
her College Alumni, is a member of the Ladies' Auxiliary 
of the California Pharmaceutical Association, and has an 
active interest in everything which tends to further the 
fraternal spirit among the drug folk. 

She is also a charter member of the Tau Phi Sorority 
of the College of Pharmacy of U. S. C, founded two 
years ago among the young women and graduate members 
of her school. The sorority is working toward the end 
of having itself recognized as a national institution and 
to unite the sororities of the different colleges under a 
common head. 

Miss Virden would be very glad to hear from any one 
interested in the work of the Tau Phi Society as she is 
anxious to do what lies within her power to make the 
sisterhood of broad and general usefulness. She is en- 
thusiastic about the opportunities for women in pharmacy, 
believing it a field especially adapted to those who are 
possessed of a scientific mind and who are conscientious 
in the performance of their duties. 



Profits Out of the Coffee Cup 

A Trade Winning Side Line That Pays Dividends 



Nine tons of coffee — eighteen thousand one 
pound bags — sold ni three days is the staggering 
record of a New York chain store during one 
of their "One Cent Sales." This announcement 
is so staggering that the average druggist looks 
upon it as a trade phenomenon, but he feels very 
much towards it as he does toward the fact that 
for the first nine months of 1916 the United 
States exported $1,486,546 
worth of candy ; the state- 
ment is interesting, but it 
means very little to him 
as a retail druggist 

Nine tons of cof- 
fee sales by a 
metropolitan chain 
store in three days 
is too big to grasp 
even as an inspira- 
tion, but there are 
other coffee statis- 
tics. In a northern 
New Jersey city a 
certain progressive 
independent firm of 
drugggists sell the 
year round an av- 
erage of 150 lbs. of 
coffee a month at 
a cents a pound 
and with a profit 
of 33 1-3%. Here 
are figures within 
reason, figures that 
any druggist could 



CT 




An Effective Drug Store Coffee Display 

write into his books, figures that could even be bettered 
by many druggists. 

It has long been a favorite lament of the drug trade that 
coffee, teas, and spices, formerly all staple articles of 
stock in the apothecary shop, have been lost by the modern 
drug store to the grocery. Writers of innumerable papers 
which have been read before almost every pharmaceutical 
association in the country, have expatiated upon this de- 
plorable condition. From time to time certain druggists 
have proved that these trade conditions can be remedied, 
but the bright exceptions who have taken up and pushed 
coffee to a profitable conclusion have not been numerous. 
Recently, however, a wave of interest in coffee seems to be 
spreading over the trade. 

The interest in coffee today is being enlivened by the 
tangible evidences of success that druggists in all sections 
have before them in this field. Practically all of the vari- 
ous chains of stores, not only in the East but in the 
Middle West, the South, the Coast even, are pushing 
coffee hard, and the average druggist is not slow to be- 
lieve that there must "be money in coffee." There is. 

The druggist enjoys a peculiar advantage over the 
grocer in selling coffee. Dr. Wiley practically voiced a 
sentiment that almost everyone has when he said that the 
very best and purest of certain foodstuffs can only be 
bought in drug stores. Wlien a person buys coffee, or 
tea, or honey, or spices, or chocolate in the drug store, 
he feels instinctively that he is getting something a little 
extra. This feeling is a valuable asset to the druggist 
who sells coffee. He should use, not abuse it. 

It is probably because of this feeling on the part of 
the buying public that the druggists who have made the 
greatest success in selling coffee have done so by selling 
a special brand. The buyer knows that any of the standard 
brands on sale the country over will be the same in a 
grocery in New York as in a pharmacy in San Francisco, 
but if the druggist pushes a special private or druggists' 
brand of coffee he makes a distinctive appeal. 



This was the experience not only of the chain 
stores, but also of Graham & McClosky of Eliza- 
beth, N. J., whose Comfort Brand has been a 
drawing card and money maker. Mr. Remley, 
manager of this store, summed up their experience 
in coffee when he said: "Coffee is capable of 
development into an effective means of advertis- 
ing and a profitable side line. When you get a 
customer by the palate you have 
a good hold on him, and 
nothing makes such an 
impression as coffee." 
Mr. Remley emphasizes 
the need of neat, attrac- 
tive, air tight, moisture 
proof containers. 
In this connection 
the advice of A. 
B. Davies, of the 
well-known coffee 
brokerage firm of 
Davies & Sullivan 
is vailuable. Mr. 
Davies is in a posi- 
tion to give special 
help to the phar- 
macist, for he has 
sold hundreds of 
tons of coffee to 
the drug trade, and 
is well posted In 
the requirements 
of coffee drinkers 
and on drug trade 
„_ • I. t • conditions. 

Druggists, he said to an Era representative, "have an 
mitial advantage over grocers in that they can sell out 



their coffee stock more frequently and consequently keep 
It more fresh. A grocer must carry a dozen or more 
standard brands in order to meet the calls of his customers 
while the wise druggist will only handle one. Given the 
right blend, freshness is absolutely the deciding factor in 
the flavor and aroma of coffee. The minute a coffee gets 
damp or exposed to the air it deteriorates quickly. Even 
in the finest containers a coffee roasted and packed six 
months ago is not half so good as one packed two months 
ago. and after six months it ceases to be good coffee at all. 

"My advice to the druggist who was planning to go after 
this very profitable business would be to get a good special 
brand that he knows will make just as good coffee as he 
says It will, and then to push it hard. He ought never to 
order more than a six weeks' or two months' supply." 

The_ winter season is the best coffee season, and the 
druggist who pushes coffee in connection with his soda 
fountain will find them a valuable working pair. Use the 
coffee you sell on your fountain. See that it is made right 
and served right. Offer a few free sample cups to some 
of your customers, or print "free coffee cards" good for 
a cup of your delicious coffee at the fountain and distribute 
them wisely. Let your dispensers talk coffee at the fountain. 

The quick-action way of starting a coffee trade, however, 
IS to inaugurate a "One Cent Sale"— selling, say one pound 
of coffee for thirty-five cents and two pounds for thirty-six 
cents. It is possible to buy a very good grade of coffee 
at a price that will allow a five cent profit on the two- 
pound sale, and while, of course, this arrangement cannot 
be taken as a permanent basis upon which to sell, still the 
figures cover the cost, and give the advertising free. 

In the matter of pricing coffee, the druggist can drive 
home another point by just slipping under the price of the 
regular advertised brands. These sell at from thirtv-five 
to thirty-eight cents a pound. The druggist can s'ell a 
better coffee for from thirty-two to thirty-four cents. 

Page Twenty-three 



Evolves Business On '*Cut Prices" 



James O' Donnelly Washington Druggist^ Believes 
' ' Bargains ' 'Help Trade 



THERE are two rules which may be regarded as the 
foundation stone of the business built up by William 
J. O'Donnell, one of the best known druggists of 
Washington and regarded as perhaps the most aggressive 
of price cutters. One of these rules — and it admits of no 
exceptions — is to give the public exactly what it wants, and 
the other, governed by conditions, to sell as much of an 
article as a customer calls for. To these two rules may 
be added a third — never to be out of anything. These three 
rules Mr. O'Donnell, according to his own admission to 
The Pharmaceutical Era, has made his guiding principles, 
and to them he largely attributes his success. How great 
this latter is can be inferred from the further statement 
that the business has grown from $25 a day in the first 
store opened by Mr. O'Donnell twelve years ago at 9047 
F street. Northwest, Washington, to $600,000 a year for the 
five pharmacies now conducted by him. In a sense, there- 
fore, Mr. O'Donnell is not merely a retailer, but also a 
wholesaler, and there is probably not a store in the national 
capital that approaches the F street place in the volume of 
patronage. A steady stream of people can be seen passing 
in and out all day long and far into the night, for the open- 
ing hour is 7 A.M. and the closing time midnight, Sundays 
as well as on weekdays, and some two score clerks are 
required to wait on customers. 

The establishment is rather unusual in these daj-s of 
diversification and of adding all sorts of merchandise to a 
drug store stock in that it carries few articles apart from 
the usual assortment of medicaments and sick room supplies 
along with a complete line of patent and proprietary goods. 
A preparation that has not been advertised and for which 
no market has been created will stand small chance of being 
admitted to the O'Donnell list, but when it has been made 
known and is asked for it becomes a regular part of the 
goods handled, and is likely to be found there if nowhere 
else. 

"I don't advise anyone what he shall buy," said Mr. 
O'Donnell, in speaking of his methods, "but tell all they 
must use their own judgment. If Fletcher's Castoria, for 
example, is wanted, however, I will not persuade a patron 
to buy something else. I have no preparations of my own 
to sell and push, to the detriment of some manufacturer, 
and am a merchant pure and simple. My clerks are in- 
structed to follow out this idea, and to refrain from persua- 
sion or argument." 

"Another thing : I have very little of what is generally 
called system, as you may observe. The fixtures are simple 
and designed solely to facilitate the movement of goods. 
There is no attempt at elaborate display, and things appear 
to be in somewhat of a jumble at times, but we always 
know where to find what is wanted and are never 'just out 
of anything. By a carefully worked out method we know 
when our stock of a particular article is running low, and 
goods are ordered in time, so that there shall not be a lack 
of them." 

Believes in Cut Prices 

Mr. O'Donnell believes in cut prices and, for that matter, 
in low prices. "Offer an article at a reduction, and you 
will get people to buy it freely,'' he says ; "but put it up to 
some regular and commonplace figure, and the demand will 
stop or at least decline greatly." 

It is Mr. O'Donnell's opinion that cut price sales help the 
manufacturer in that they tend to popularize his goods 
and stimulate the consumption far beyond what it would 
otherwise be. He illustrates this with chewing gum. One 
lot of the brands turned out he sells at three packages for 
ten cents and another at two packages for five cents. This 
year he expects to bring the sales of chewing gum up to 
•$4,000 alone. 

"We sell Cuticura soap at 18 cents," he said, "and have 
never advanced the price or varied it. If we were to sell it 
at 20 cents the sales would fall off 20 per cent in a short 

Page Twenty-fotir 



time. If you sell too high you restrict the demand and if 
you sell too cheap you kill an article. When quinine sold- 
at 25 cents, we had a great demand for quinine pills, but 
now that this article has gone up to 75 cents or even more^ 
the substance is dead; no one now asks for quinine pills. 
An illustration of what I mean by cut prices helping to sell 
goods and stimulating the demand is supplied by Epsom 
salts. When I started here, we had calls for small quanti- 
ties, and I bought it by the pound. Now I order it in 
quantities of ten barrels at a time, and this has helped 
every druggist in town. Every article of merit that is^ 
offered at a price reduction will almost at once show gains 
in the sales. It is the bargain instinct in the average per- 
sons which asserts itself, and the druggist who takes ad- 
vantage of it helps the manufacturer, and his fellow drug- 
gist as well, because there are numerous times when it will 
be more convenient to go to another store, and when, the 
price being equal, the nearer store will get the trade." 

Competition has not troubled Mr. O'Donnell. When he 
opened his F street place, he had the Temple pharmacy, 
almost across the way, to contend with, and one of the 
Evans pharmacies, which are among the most popular in 
Washington, was right around the corner. Mr. O'Donnell's 
store is not even on a corner and does not loom up con- 
spicuously. But his methods, his manner and his person- 
ality soon made themselves felt. Not long ago he bought 
the Temple pharmacy, the previous owner having gotten 
into financial difficulties. 

As stated, Mr. O'Donnell carries few of the articles to 
be found in many other stores, such as cameras, photogra- 
phic supplies, fancy goods, etc. In the first place, he does 
not believe in mixing things, and he has no room at present 
to take up such side lines in any considerable volume. 
But he expects to make some improvements shortly and 
take in more room. His cigar counter sells perhaps more 
cigars, cigarettes and other smoker's supplies than nine- 
tenths of the tobacco stores, two clerks being kept busy 
nearly all the time even now when many persons have 
left Washington, not to return until Congress meets again. 

It goes without saying that Mr. O'Donnell deems it 
necessary to be on the job. Not all the time, for he keeps 
regular hours, getting there at a fixed time in the morning 
and leaving at 4 P.M. Sundays he also takes off. But when 
he is there, nothing escapes his attention, and he is business 
and aggressiveness all over, even to his hair, which stands 
up straight like a brush and is closely cropped. He seems 
to radiate energy, without acerbity, for his blue eyes nearly 
always have a twinkle in them. 

"This is a constant grind," he remarked casually between 
answers to queries of customers, "and a man would go 
crazy unless he took some recreation. I went av^fay on a 
summer vacation in June and did not get back until 
October 1, and I keep regular hours. I have competent 
and reliable assistants. Do you know," he added, "that 
I have never been in my store at Thirteenth and F streets, 
and don't hardly know what it looks like. I allow my 
manager there an absolutely free hand, for this inspires 
confidence and gives encouragement." 

Mr. O'Donnell began in the drug business at the age of 
eighteen, walking into a store one day, when he had prac- 
tically no experience, and boldly starting in. Of course, 
he did not tell the proprietor that he had been in the busi- 
ness only one month or so. Later he worked for a whole- 
sale house, but soon got back to the retail trade artd also 
graduated in pharmacy, taking a full course. The prescrip- 
tion trade of his store is large, but of course, the proprie- 
taries and patents make up the bulk of the business. 

The only kind of publicity Mr. O'Donnell has ever used 
is newspaper advertising. To this day he retains copies 
of his first advertisement, which he has followed in the 
main. No hand bills, circulars, cards, sandwich menu or 
or other means of attracting attention of the public have 
ever found a place in his methods. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARilACEUTICAL ERA 



PHARMACEUTICAL PERSONALS 



NOW CHAIRMAN OF MASSACHUSETTS BOARD 



John J. Tobin of South Boston was elected chairman 
of the Massachusetts State Board of Registration in 
Pharmacy, December 5, succeeding William E. Martin of 

Holyoke. Mr. Tobin has 
served the past year on the 
board, having been appoint- 
ed by ex-Governor Walsh. 
He was born in Boston 44 
years ago, and attended 
school in the West End, and 
it was there that his first 
experience in the drug busi- 
ness was secured. Nineteen 
years ago he opened a drug 
store in South Boston, at 
Dorchester and Eighth Sts., 
where he has built up an 
excellent business. Mr. 
Tobin is vice-president of 
the Boston Association of 
Retail Druggists, commodore 
of the South Boston Yacht 
Club, and a member of the 
Massachusetts State Phar- 
maceutical Association, the 
Knights of Columbus and the Ancient Order of Hibernians. 
He is married and has four children. His home is at 
5 Telegraph street, South Boston. 




John J. Tobin 



CHAIN STORE PROPRIETOR RETIRES 



Albert E. Lynch, proprietor of the A. E. Lynch Drug 
Company chain of stores in Cambridge, Mass., after con- 
ducting drug stores in that city for nearly thirty years, 
has retired from that business. The Inman square store 
has been sold to Clifford W. Wilder and Ferdinand A. 
Wyman, Jr., who will continue the business under a cor- 
poration. Paul A. Egan has purchased the East Cam- 
bridge store, which Mr. Lynch has owned for sixteen 
years. The North Cambridge store has been purchased 
by George S. Coakley, a former clerk with John A. Cun- 
ningham. Mr. Lynch opened his first store at the corner 
of Columbia and Hampshire streets, September 25, 1887. 
He conducted this store for 23 years. The Inman square 
store was purchased by him in 1910. While Mr. Lynch 
retires from the drug business he will continue in the real 
estate and insurance business with an office in the new 
Inman building, of which he is part owner. From the 
business experience he has gained through his associa- 
tions as a bank director, chairman of the retail trade com- 
mittee of the Board of Trade, president of the Inman 
Square Business Men's Association and in his own private 
affairs as a drug store proprietor and a limited operator 
in real estate, his success in the field he has chosen to 
follow ought to be instantaneous and substantial. 



PERSONAL BREVITIES 



— E. L. ScHOLTz, president of the Scholtz Drug Com- 
pany, Denver, Colo., recently delivered an address before 
the advertising bureau of the Denver Civic and Com- 
mercial Association, in which he commended the appear- 
ance and character of local advertisements. He stated 
that the reason he advertised was not only to increase 
sales and profits, but to establish in the public mind a 
leadership for his stores in the drug line. Advertising, in 
his opinion, should be done continuously and consistently. 
Incidentally, Mr. Scholtz paid a high tribute to the standing 
of Denver advertising men and women. 

— L. P. Hadley. druggist, at Anita, Iowa, according to 
the newspapers of Council Bluffs, was secretly married to 



Miss Alma Brauer, formerly a clerk in the Cumberland 
post office. The newly married pair liad intended to keep 
their marriage a secret until the holidays and at that time 
surprise their friends with the announcement. The Rock 
Island newspapers, however, got hold of the item and 
made the fact public. Mr. Hadley is well known in political 
circles in his part of the state and was formerly chairman 
of the Progressive County Committee. 

— L. C. Fix, of the H. K. Mulford Company, salesman- 
ager of the Middle West, was elected Secretary of the 
Ohio Society of Philadelphia, at the November meeting 
of that organization held at the New City Club. Mr. Fix 
is a native of Zanesville, Ohio, and has been very active 
in bringing together the natives of the Buckeye State in 
the Quaker City. The Society will hold several social 
functions throughout the year, and its headquarters are 
located at 313 South Broad street. 

—Dishonest Politicians have been demanding, and in 
some instances securing, contributions of $100 to $200 from 
New Bedford (Mass.) druggists by saying that the money 
was to help the candidacy of Charles F. Ripley of Taunton 
for inspector for the State Board of Registration in Phar- 
macy. When Mr. Ripley heard of it he was in Boston, 
and immediately telephoned New Bedford druggists to- 
give up no money. "It was done absolutely without my 
knowledge or consent," he declared. 

— Leon C. Ellis, druggist at Lynn, Mass., was nomi- 
nated for member of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Registration in Pharmacy by Governor McCall, to succeed: 
Charles F. Ripley of Taunton, who is ineligible for re- 
appointment. He will be the first representative from 
Lynn on the board. He runs a pharmacy at 2 Market 
street, Lynn, and is chairman of the Lynn Cemetery 
Trustees, and a member of the Massachusetts State Phar- 
maceutical Association. 

— Stephen J. Caswell, Rockford, III., druggist, recently 
celebrated his 69th birthday anniversary. He was born at 
Bangkok, Siam, where his father was a missionary. He 
has been a resident of Rockford since 1861 and has been 
connected with the drug business in that city for more 
than 50 years. He has conducted the store he now owns 
since 1881. Locally he is regarded as an authority in 
numismatics and has a choice collection of old coins and 
stamps. 

— J. Bengston, for the last 40 years proprietor of the 
City Drug Store, Rock Island, III, has disposed of his 
business and will retire. His successor is John A. Beng- 
ston, a nephew. Young Mr. Bengston learned the business 
in the store which he now owns. He is a graduate of 
Northwestern University School of Pharmacy in Chicago, 
having taken a three years' course. During his college 
days he taught Latin and later public school. 

— J. K. Hall Houston, who went to Burlington, N. C, 
a year ago from Greensboro, N. C, and opened the Hous- 
ton Drug Company store, has been forced to give up 
his work on account of ill health and will retire and rest 
a while. R. Homer Andrews of Chapel Hill, who has been 
prescription clerk since the store opened, has purchased 
an interest in the business and now becomes manager. 

— Prof. C. E. A. Winslow, of New Haven, addressed 
the Mulford staff at the Glenolden Laboratories on De- 
cember 8th. The subject of his lecture was "Sir John 
Simon." Professor Winslow holds the Chair of Public 
Health at Yale University and is editor-in-chief of the 
Journal of Bacteriology. His lecture was very interesting 
and greatly appreciated by his hearers. 

— Theodore Danglemeyer, Jr., owner of the Red Cross 
Pharmacy, Waltham. Mass., has been sued for $5,000 dam- 
■ ages by Mrs. Catherine Murdock of West Newton, Mass., 
who alleges that in September last she bought a quantity 
of Rochelle salts at the pharmacy and was made violently 
ill on taking a dose. She alleges that the salts contained 
some poisonous ingredient. 



2e 



THE PHARJIACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



— Wm. F. Kaem merer, a member of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association who some years ago was awarded 
the Dr. Enno Sander prize of $50 for the best paper on 
Pharmacy and Dispensing, and for a number of years a 
well-known drug clerk of Columbus, O., is about to open a 
new store in that city under the name of The Athletic 
Club Pharmacy. Mr. Kaemmerer is a Columbus product 
and began the drug business at the age of 14 when he \yas 
apprenticed to F. W. Schueller, now retired, and with 
whom he remained for nine years. His next position was 
with Charles Huston, where he saw six years of service, 
resigning to enter the New York College of Pharmacy 
from which he graduated in 1898. In his new undertaking 
JMr. Kaemmerer will have as his assistant E. W. Harring- 
ton, who for several years conducted pharmacies in the 
North End district of Columbus and who for four years 
was connected with the State food and drug department 
as an inspector of drugs. 

— S. A. Eckstein, of Milwaukee, was elected president 
of the Wisconsin Pharmacal Company at the annual meet- 
ing held last month. Other officers elected were: Vice- 
president, C. Pfeiffer, Plymouth; secretary, E. G. Raeuber, 
Milwaukee; treasurer, Louis H. Cressin, Milwaukee; di- 
rectors for three years, C. Pfeiffer, Plymouth; Louis H. 
Cressin and O. Hackendahl of Milwaukee. L. G. J. Mack 
•was named director to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
•of Christian Widule. A dividend of 6 per cent was de- 
clared and the report showed the company to be in a 
prosperous condition. 

— W. L. Salmon, assistant general manager of the Lig- 
gett drug stores in the Boston district, was given a farewell 
dinner by the 25 managers of that territory on December 
19 at Young's Hotel. W. G. Sweet acted as toastmaster, 
.and among the speakers were general manager J. A. Crane, 
H. H. Wadsworth, C. E. Johnson, Charles Davis, who will 
succeed Mr. Salmon in Boston, and S. S. McCuUy of Prov- 
idence. Mr. Salmon expects to leave on January 1 for 
Winnipeg, Can., where he will take charge of the com- 
pany's stores. 

— Wynn L. Eddy, who recently retired from the Utah 
Board of Pharmacy, and Roy McAllister, who succeeded 
him, were guests of honor at a luncheon given recently 
by the other members of the board at the Alta Club, Salt 
Lake City. J. L. Franken was toastmaster, and speeches 
were made by various memhers of the board and guests 
present. A photograph of the members of the board was 
presented to Mr. Eddy. 

— Edward Mallinckrodt, president of the Mallinckrodt 
Chemical Works, announced before Christmas that bonuses 
would be distributed to the six hundred employes, a month's 
salary to each salaried employe. The bonus to workmen 
was on a sliding scale, those with the company five years 
getting ten per cent of a year's wages, those there three 
years seven per cent, two years four per cent, one year two 
per cent. 

— C. W. Wilder and F. A. Wyman have bought the 
Rexall store at Inman square, Cambridge, Mass. Mr. 
Wilder, a former president of the Central Square Business 
Men's Association, was for the last few years manager of 
the Liggett store in Central square, Cambridge. Mr. Wy- 
man is head of a Boston advertising agency. The firm will 
be continued as the Lynch Drug Company. Improvements 
are being made to the pharmacy. 

—John T. Milliken & Co. will devote part of the new 
plant being erected in St. Louis to the manufacture of 
absorbent cotton. The factory will be in charge of Paul 
A. Schultz, formerly of Columbia, S. C. The new plant 
is being erected at Third and Plum streets, .at the river. 
The investment will reach about $200,000. Four thousand 
pounds of absorbent cotton will be turned out daily. 

— J. C. Krieger has been appointed manager of the Elli- 
cott Drug Company at 127 Broadway, Buffalo. This con- 
cern distributes drugs and cigars among more than 200 
drug stores in Buffalo and vicinity. Mr. Krieger succeeded 
S. A. Grove who died recently. The concern will move to 
larger quarters at 99-101 Broadway about January 1. 

— Fred J. Eastman, druggist at Brockton, Mass., 20 
years ago, has been renewing acquaintances in that city. 
He is now located at Saskatchewan, where he has a 120- 
acre wheat ranch. 

— C. S. Perry, a druggist at 958 West Sixth street, Cm- 



cinati, aged 63 years, was knocked unconscious recently by 
a negro because of his refusal to exchange a bottle of 
medicine. The negro was found by the police standing 
over Mr. Perry, and was arrested on a charge of assault 
and battery. It is not believed that Mr. Perry's wound 
is serious. 

— Miles E. Mixson, a druggist at St. Paul and Twenty- 
first streets, Baltimore, will shortly move diagonally across 
the street into a building that has been entirely remodeled, 
and has ordered a complete new set of fixtures and furni- 
ture, which embody some novel ideas. The equipment of 
the old store will be disposed of, even down to the soda 
fountain. 

—J. W. T. Knox, advertising manager of Nelson, Baker 
& Co., pharmaceutical manufacturers, delivered an address 
before the retail druggists and members of the local branch 
of the A.Ph.A. in Detroit last month. J. R. Worden, ad- 
vertising manager and salesman for Frederick Stearns & 
Co., followed Mr. Knox with a talk on cost accounting. 

— C. W. Brown, of the H. K. Mulford Company, de- 
livered a lecture on "The Production of Biological Prod- 
ucts" to the Maryland Branch of the American Chemical 
Society, recently, at the department of chemistry, Johns 
Hopkins University. The lecture was illustrated with 
stereopticon views and the attendance was large. 

— Helm Woodward has been appointed receiver for the 
drug store formerly operated by Frank Kinsinger, 17th 
street and Maryland avenue, Covington, Ky. The receiver- 
ship followed bankruptcy proceedings initiated against 
Kinsinger, whose liabilities are listed at about $3,000, with 
the stock of drugs as his sole asset. 

— S. B. Smith, for many years proprietor of the drug 
store at Bates and Main streets, Lewiston, Maine, has 
announced that he will soon retire from business and that 
the building in which he has been located for so many 
years will soon be torn down to make way for a new and 
more attractive block. 

— The Red Cross Pharmacy, owned by Charles Kretch- 
ner, of Piqua, Ohio, has been closed by a magistrate, fol- 
lowing the issue of a number of attachments obtained by 
creditors against the property. The entire stock is to be 
offered for sale to satisfy the creditors, it is understood. 

— J. E. Henry, druggist at Cameron, W. Va., and Miss 
Ellen S. Elliott, a registered pharmacist of Holyoke, Mass., 
were married at Holyoke. During 1914-lb Miss Elliott 
was a student in Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, 
from which Mr. Henry was graduated in 191S. 

— Richard McGowan, manager of the Riker-Regeman 
Drug Store, Hartford, Conn., has just returned from a trip 
to Bermuda. He states that on his voyage home all of the 
windows of the steamship were darkened at night as a 
precaution against submarines. 

— A. Meeking, president of the Willes-Horne Drug Com- 
pany, has been on a three months' trip to Eastern cities, 
purchasing stock for his company, which has recently 
acquired the store operated by the Parker Drug Company 
at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

— N. C. BuBiER, a member of the Massachusetts bar, 
former state senator and former postmaster of Lynn, 
Mass., has retired from the retail drug business after 
many years, and sold his pharmacy at Swampscott, Mass., 
to William F. Craig. 

— L. F. Raabe, a prominent druggist of Philadelphia, 
was married December 5 to Miss Sallie Wiley, formerly 
of Baltimore. The ceremony took place at the home of 
Dr. R. C. Bowman, 1100 Jackson street, a brother-in-law 
of .the bride. 

— C. E. Ridenour, registered pharmacist of 28 years' 
experience in Virginia, and for 14 years manager of the 
Sixth Ward Pharmacy in Petersburg, Va., has opened a 
new store in that city. The store is located in a rapidly 
developing section of the city. 

— E. A. Smith, for si.x years manager of the Riker- 
Jaynes Store on Sumner street, Boston, has purchased the 
drug store at 34 Salem street in the Medford Theater 
Building, Medford, Mass., and already taken charge. 

— Eben J. Williams, a druggist of Waltham. Mass., 
and a republican, was re-elected as mayor of that city 
on December 5, receiving 2,205 votes to 1,867 polled by 
his Democratic opponent. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



27 



DEATHS IN THE DRUG TRADE 



E. CLIFFORD NASH 



OBITUARIES 



E. Clifford Nash, for over 2S years a druggist at Abing- 
ton, Mass., died of pneumonia, aged 60, on November 27. 
His father, the late Sylvanus Nash, was a druggist in 
Abington 50 years. On the death of his father in the 
early '80s, E. Clifford Nash, with the late Clifford Rams- 
dell, succeeded to the business. In 1883 they moved it to 
the new Savings Bank block, and made it one of the 
large pharmacies of historic Plymouth county. After a 
few years Mr. Nash bought Mr. Ramsdell's interest. Of 
late years his son-in-law, William Tribou, has been asso- 
ciated with him in the business. Mr. Nash was also widely 
known as a newspaper publisher. When a young man he 
issued the Plymouth County Journal, the Abington Herald 
and a paper at Framingham, Mass. A dozen years ago 
he again entered the newspaper field as publisher of the 
Abington Advertiser and a string of South Shore news- 
papers. He was 25 years treasurer of the Democratic 
city committee, was a charter member of Abington Board 
of Trade, and prominent in Pilgrim Royal Arch Chapter 
of Masons; Abington Council, Royal and Select Masters; 
John Cutler Lodge, A. F. & A. M. ; Pilgrim Lodge, L O. 
O. F. ; the Franklin Club, and the Veteran Odd Fellows' 
Association. His wife, three sons and one daughter 
survive. 



LINUS D. DRURY 



Linus D. Drury, Boston's oldest druggist, who began as 
clerk in 1870 in the drug store at Warren and Dudley sreets 
and finally became president and treasurer of the L. D. 
Drury Drug Company, owners of the store, died November 
29. He spent all his professional and business life in this 
one store. He was graduated from Massachusetts College 
of Pharmacy in 1871, and in later years served the college 
on various committees. He was active in the N. A. R. D., 
a life member of the A. Ph. A., and a member of the Boston 
Association of Retail Druggists, Massachusetts State Phar- 
maceutical Association, and New England Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association. He was also promi- 
nent in Roxbury Council, Royal and Select Masters ; and 
Mt. Vernon Royal Arch Chapter. His home was at 45 
Whiting street, Roxbury, Mass. Mrs. Drury, who survives, 
is one of the best known members of the W. O., B. A. R, D. 

In closing up his estate, his interest in the Linus D. 
Drury Company, Boston, was bought by Irving P. Gammon, 
druggist in Boston and Roxbury. The Drury pharmacy 
will be continued, with P. F. Murray as manager. Dana 
W. Drury is now president of the company, Mr. Gammon 
treasurer, and Mr. Murray clerk of the corporation. 



JACOB K. POST 



Jacob K. Post, president of the J. K. Post Drug Co., 
Inc., one of Rochester's pioneer drug houses, died on 
November 30, at his home in that city, aged 87 years. He 
was born on November 11, 1829, in Scipio, Cayuga County, 
N. Y. He came to Rochester in 1836 and at the age of 
IS years became a clerk in the store of his father in Ex- 
change street. He was admitted to partnership in the firm 
in 1852. Following his father's death, he continued the 
business in Exchange street, later moving to the present 
location in Main street east. The firm was incorporated 
in 1906 and Mr. Post became its president, an office he 
held to the time of his death. He had been ill six years. 
While at work in his store in October, 1910, he inhaled 
fumes of chloride of lime. The mucuous membrane in his 
throat and chest was burned so badly that it was thought 
he would die. He rallied, however. His death was due 
to what was declared to be a sort of cardiac asthma, 
incident to old age. He leaves two daughters and one 
brother, Willet Post. 



— Joseph B. Fahies, a Philadelphia representative of the 
H. K. Mulford Company, who had been in the employ of 
the firm since 1902, died December 1 in the Presbyterian 
Hospital. Mr. Faries was born in Smyrna, Del., and gradu- 
ated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1890. 
He was engaged in the retail drug business at Fifteenth and 
York streets, Philadelphia, for a number of years and 
later sold his store and joined the sales force of the H. K. 
Mulford Company. He had always been a loyal, hard 
worker for the interests of the company which he repre- 
sented and his sudden death came as a shock to his many 
friends in the various branches of the drug trade of 
Philadelphia. 

— Alonzo Lilly, in his day one of the best known drug- 
gists in Baltimore, and member of the firm of Lilly, Rogers. 
& Co., which conducted the most popular and extensively 
patronized pharmacy in the city in its time, died on Novem- 
ber 22 at his home, 19 West Preston street. Mr. Lilly 
had lived in retirement since 1898, the pharmacy afterward 
going into the control of Dr. Ross and then closed after 
the latter's death. For a while Mr. Lilly engaged in the 
manufacture of several preparations which had gained a 
sale while he was a retailer. His wife, a daughter and 
four sons survive. 

—J. Snyder Noel, formerly a druggist in Washington, 
D. C, and a resident there for the past thirty-five years, 
died at his late residence, that city, following a brief ill- 
ness. He was born at Chambersburg, Pa., and spent his- 
boyhood at Westminster, Md., where a number of relatives 
survive him. For the past ten years he had been in the 
employ of the Federal Government. He is survived by 
his widow, Mrs. Ada M. Noel, of St. Louis, Mo. ; a son,. 
Joseph C. Noel; a daughter, Catherine Noel, both of 
Washington, and a sister. Miss Kittie S. Noel, of West- 
minster. 

— Sam. E. Goodman, 41 years of age, and for the past 
ten years engaged in the drug business at Beaumont, Tex., 
is dead. He had taken a course in pharmacy and medicine 
at Vanderbilt University. Shortly thereafter, when the 
Spanish-American War broke out, he enlisted with the 
Second Texas Regiment and served as hospital steward. 
He is survived by his mother. The funeral and interment 
took place at Navasota, Tex., where Mr. Goodman was 
born and had lived for many years. 

— Charles C. Bettes, druggist and prominent citizen of 
Jacksonville, Fla., died recently in Asheville, N. C, whither 
he had gone in search of health. He had been a resident 
of Jacksonville for 40 years, having gone to that city from- 
Canada. About a year ago, while hunting in West Florida 
with a party of friends, he caught cold, and immediately 
went into a decline from which he never fully recovered. 
He was 62 years of age, and is survived by his widow, two- 
sons and four daughters. 

— Albin Mellier, vice-president of the Mellier Drug Co., 
St. Louis, died on November 27 after an illness of several 
months. He was 66 years of age. He entered the drug 
business with his father, A. A. Mellier, four years after 
the establishment of the firm in 1865. He is survived by 
two sons and four daughters. His brother, K. D. Mellier, 
who also survives him, is a member of the drug company 
named. 

— Frank Hamilton ShurtlefP, died at his home. West 
Roxbury, Mass., on December 2, aged SO j'ears, of heart 
failure. He had been in poor health but at the time of 
liis death was anticipating a return to his business as a 
druggist. He was born in Somerset and is survived by 
his widow, two daughters and a son. 

— Frederick Harrison Lowell, for many years a retail 
druggist of Cambridge, Mass., died of pneumonia at his 
home last month. He was born in Gardner, Me., in 1843. 



28 



THE PHARaiACEUTICAL ERA 



t January, 1917 



In the late '60s he went to Boston and began as a clerk 
in Southworth drug store, later becoming owner of the 
business. Twelve years ago he retired. 

— Dr. Willoughby Walling, who for a number of years 
and until 1885 was head of the wholesale drug firm of 
Walling & Co., Indianapolis, died at his home in Chicago 
on December 1. In 1885 he retired from the drug business 
to accept an appointment as .\merican consul at Edinburgh, 
Scotland, a position he filled with considerable ability for 
three years, when he returned to this country and estab- 
lished himself as a nose and throat specialist in Chicago. 
-He was 68 years of age and a graduate of the Louisville 
-Medical College. In 1876 he married Miss Rosalind Eng- 
lish, the daughter of William H. English, who was demo- 
cratic candidate for the vice-presidency in 1880. He is 
survived by his widow and two sons. 

— Lewis Hunt, a native of Auburn, N. Y., died at his 
home in that city recently. He was born in 1839, and after 
leaving school was employed for some time in the drug 
store of Joseph Osborne, a former partner of his father, 
Thomas M. Hunt, who was a leading druggist of Auburn, 
having moved to the latter city from Springfield, Mass., 
about 1830. Lewis Hunt moved to Chicago in 1860 and 
continued in the drug business there. He later moved to 
Janesville, Wis., and returned to Auburn in 1880 when he 
re-engaged in the drug business under the firm name of 
W'right & Hunt. 

— George G. Eitel, a salesman for the Mooney-Mueller- 
AVard Drug Company, wholesale druggists, of Indianapolis, 
died of congestion of the lungs at his home in the Indiana 
capital on December 15. He was sick only a few hours, 
his brief illness following the drinking of a quantity of 
cold water. Besides his widow, he is survived by his father 
and three uncles, two of them, Charles A. and John Eitel, 
being well-known Indianapolis druggists. 

— Benjamin F. Wakefield, at one time a partner in the 
wholesale drug firm of Tyler & Finch of New York, died 
last month at his home in Passaic. Mr. Wakefield retired 
from business about 10 years ago. He was a thirty-third 
degree Mason and a member of Enterprise Lodge of 
Jersey City. The funeral was held on Monday. Mrs. 
"Wakefield and two children survive him. 

— Dr. Walter J. Dodd, aged 47, formerly dispensing 
pharmacist at the Massachusetts General Hospital and 
later instructor in Harvard Medical School, died in Boston, 
December 18, from injuries received some years ago from 
X-ray experiments. 

— Ch.akles H. Redden, 60 years of age, and for nearly 
, 30 years a druggist of Denton, Md., died in Philadelphia 
- on November 21, whither he had gone to receive medical 
treatment. He is survived by his widow. 

— V. Cook, 78, a well-known druggist of Terre Haute, 
. died at his home in that city last month. He was a native 
. of Germany and had been in business in Greencastle and 
Terre Haute for more than 50 years. 

—Frank C. Kemp, for the last 30 years in the drug busi- 
ness at Kempton, 111., died from a stroke of paralysis on 
November 20. He was 59 years of age. He is survived 
by one son. 

— Charles H. Sawyer, prominent in business and bank- 
ing circles and who was engaged in the drug business at 
Saco, Maine, for 30 years, is dead. He was IZ years of 
age. 

—Dr. Joseph J. Pierron, of Chicago, and for many 
years a prominent druggist of Lincoln, 111., died in the 
first-named city on December 14. The remains were taken 
to Cincinnati for burial. 

— Lester N. Cobb, 40 years old, a member of the firm of 
Strong. Cobb & Co., wholesale druggists, Cleveland, Ohio, 
is dead. He is survived by a widow and two children. 

— I. A. Movitt, a veteran druggist of Chicago, died at 
his home in that city on December 14. He was 48 years of 
age and is survived by his widow. 

— Joi N F. NooN.\N, druggist at Waltham, Mass., died 
December 1, aged 29. 



A. D. THOMPSON 



A. D. Thompson, for thirty-eight years a druggist in 
Minneapolis, died on December 20 at his home, where he 
lived with his mother, Mrs. J. A. Thompson. He did not 
recover consciousness from an apoplectic stroke which 
occurred on December 18. Mr. Thompson was born at 
St. Stephens, New Brunswick in 1861. The parents, who 
had been married in Minneapolis, returned to that city 
in 1866, after the war, where Mr. Thompson attended the 
Washington school, and the University of Minnesota. 

In 1878 he entered the drug store of A. D. Gray and 
J. R. Hofflin, and soon thereafter acquired an interest in 
the firm, which became the Hofflin-Thompson Drug Com- 
pany. In 1899, after the partnership had been dissolved, 
he organized the A. D. Thompson Drug Company, in which 
he was president, and opened the pharmacy at Marquette 
avenue and Third street. Later, in December, 1903, he 
opened another drug store at Fourth street and Nicollet 
avenue. 

. Mr. Thompson practically retired from business a year 
ago, after having suffered a slight apoplectic stroke two 
years ago. He had a large acquaintance in the drug trade, 
and had served twice as president of the Minneapolis 
Retail Druggists' Association, and as president of the 
Minnesota State Pharmaceutical Association. He was un- 
married, and is survived by his mother, three brothers, 
Charles W., who has been associated with him in the 
business ; Fred H., of Minneapolis, and Clifford W. Thomp- 
son, of Monroe, Wash., and two sisters, Mrs. O. B. Gould, 
of Minneapolis, and Mrs. C. E. Doll, of Virginia. 



DR. RUSBY RESIGNS AS PHARMACOGNOCIST 



Dr. Henry H. Rusby has resigned the position of phar- 
macognosist for the Port of New York and as an attache 
of the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. 
The work of identifying and examining the crude botanical 
drugs received at New York was assigned to Dr. Rusby, 
and his resignation is due to the fact that he was unwilling 
to stand sponsor for the character of the drug importations 
unless he could have more time to make examinations. 
This concession, it is said, the government officials would 
not grant. 

Dr. Rusby's time was limited to 210 hours in a year. 
In previous years Dr. Rusby gave 20 hours a week to the 
work. Last year his time for inspection and examination 
at the laboratory, 641 Washington street, was 420 hours. 

A member of the Forestry Department has been detailed 
for the v.'ork temporarily. 

Dr. Rusby said : "I want it understood by the drug trade 
that for some months past I have seen only a small part of 
the drugs that have found their way into the Port of 
New York." 



McKESSON & ROBBINS, INCORPORATED 



The firm of McKesson & Robbins, which was established 
in New York in 1833. and has continued to do business 
under that name ever since, was incorporated on January 
1, 1917: the business was incorporated under the name 
of McKesson & Robbins, Incorporated. 

The interests remain the same, the only substantial 
change being an increase of capital by the investment of 
more actual cash in the business by the present partners: 
John McKesson, Jr., Herbert D. Robbins; George C. Mc- 
Kesson, Irving McKesson, Donald McKesson and Saunders 
Norvell. 



BATTLE CREEK DRUG STORES CONSOLIDATE 



The Baker Drug Company and the Parker Drug Corn- 
pany, of Battle Creek, Mich., have consolidated and will 
hereafter be known as the Baker Drug Co., Inc. The 
officers of the new corporation are : President, Norman J. 
Freeman ; vice-president, Harley J. Earle ; and secretary- 
treasurer and general manager, C. P. Baker. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



NEWS OF A. PH. A. BRANCHES 



PHILADELPHIA BRANCH 



Two members were elected at the meeting of the Phila- 
delphia Branch of the A. Ph. A. held at the Temple College 
of Pharmacy on November 15. They were Miss Mabel 
Starr and Ivor Griflith. 

Professor Julius W. Sturmcr presided, and W. L. Clifle, 
as chairman of the Committee on Entertainment of Visit- 
ing Pharmacists, reported that their plans were success- 
fully carried out, and that the small deficit incurred had 
been liquidated by the Committee. He also moved that 
votes of thanks be given to Mrs. Franklin M. Apple for 
her splendid assistance in entertaining the ladies' section, 
and to the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce and its 
publicity, bureau, for their hearty co-operation in the 
matter. The motion was unanimously passed. Professor 
Kraemer moved that the local branch extend to Mr. ClifTe 
a vote of thanks for the efficient manner in which he 
conducted the work of his committee and this likewise 
received a unanimous vote. 

Two letters were read from the Philadelphia County 
Medical Society, one of which was an invitation for the 
branch to appoint two delegates to co-operate with the 
society and to attend its meetings, and the other letter 
contained an invitation for the members to attend a meet- 
ing of the society to listen to a discussion of the drug habit 
evil, and before which a paper was to be presented by 
Dr. Dercum on the drug habit among the better classes 
and its treatment, and also one by Dr. Baldi of Moya- 
mensing Prison on the drug habit in the underworld. The 
invitation was accepted and the president was instructed 
to appoint two delegates as requested. 

George M. Beringer read an interesting paper on the 
"Galenicals of the U. S. P.," and Prof. Jos. P. Remington 
discussed the U. S. P. IX. in a general manner. A dis- 
cussion of the subjects presented was developed by Messrs. 
Cliffe, Apple, LaWall, Kraemer, McCartney, Cook, Eng- 
land, Minehart and Pollard. 



NEW ENGLAND BRANCH 



The Xew England Branch of the American' Pharmaceu- 
tical Association at its November meeting, elected these 
new officers : President. R. Albro Newton of Southboro, 
succeeding Fred W. Archer of Milton ; vice-president, Wil- 
liam H. Glover of Lawrence ; secretary-treasurer, H. C. 
Muldoon of Boston; delegate to council. Prof. Elie H. 
LaPierre of Cambridge ; chairman of committee on pro- 
fessional relations, C. B. Wheeler of Hudson. 

As a result of a discussion on the new Pharmacopoeia 
in a joint meeting of the Boston Association of Retail 
Druggists and the New England Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, at the Massachusetts College 
of Pharmacy, November 22, these organizations are to 
have a joint "experience meeting" next spring, in which 
druggists will tell results of experiences with the new 
Pharmacopoeia. It was voted to hold such a meeting at 
the suggestion of James F. Finneran, chairman of the 
executive committee of the N. A. R. D., and Charles A. 
Stover, chairman of the finance committee of the B. A. 
R. D. . 

R. Albro Newton and Frank F. Ernst spoke on "Tinc- 
tures," and William R. Acheson and William H. Glover 
on "Syrups." Both organizations voted to indorse the 
Boston police crusade against "dope" dealing druggists. 
The druggists voted to co-operate with the Women's 
Municipal League in a war on rats, after Mrs. -Albert T. 
Leatherbee, in a convincing address, made clear that these 
pests do $1,500,000 damage each year in Boston alone. 



the University of Maryland. Dr. Charles C. Neal gave 
an interesting talk on fluidextracts, considering particularly 
their alcoholic variations, and a prescription clinic was 
afterward held, dispensing demonstrations being given and. 
difficult prescriptions considered by Cliarles L. Meyer and 
John I. Kelly. Other members of the branch were also- 
called upon to submit prescriptions out of the ordinary. 
The members of the senior and junior classes of the De- 
partment of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, and 
druggists generally, were invited to attend subsequent 
meetings of the branch. The co-operation of members- 
of the Maryland Pharmaceutical Association is also to- 
be freely sought, and it is expected that by a general) 
participation in the meetings the latter can be made of 
far greater benefit from an educational, professional and. 
scientific standpoint. 



INDrANAPOLIS BRANCH 



BALTIMORE BRANCH 



The Baltimore Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association held its November meeting in Harris Hall, of 



At the December meeting of the Indianapolis Branch, 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, H. S. Noel 
of the advertising department of Eli Lilly & Company,, 
discussed "Retail Drug Store Advertising." 

Mr. Noel outlined the fundamentals of drug store pub- 
licity by citing the necessity of a proper foundation upon 
which to build. The basis of all drug store advertising,, 
the speaker said, is made up of promotion work that is 
costless but highly essential if proper returns are to be 
had from the business. 

The druggist who secures the best returns from his- 
advertising expenditures, according to Mr. Noel, must see 
to it that customers are sold quality merchandise; that 
the store is the embodiment of cleanliness ; that both him- 
self and his clerks are courteous and accommodating; that 
salesmanship is well developed ; and that stock is kept up 
and properly displayed. Poor buying, slow turnover, bad: 
accounting methods, cheap merchandise, and neglect of 
costless advertising opportunities were given as chief reas- 
ons for the lack of success in many drug stores. The 
speaker laid special stress on the importance of good 
window displays and called attention to their value as 
trade winners. He also spoke of the need of price tickets 
on goods in the windows and outlined in a general way the 
proper arrangement and selection magnets. 

The value of a name was another subject that received 
attention, and the speaker was strong in the belief that 
whenever possible the druggist should feature his own 
first. The selection of a good selling slogan and how to 
capitalize on it was also advised. 

Constant advertising is necessary. It has been his obser- 
vation that many druggists advertise wlien business is dull 
and then claim that advertising does not pay them. Tak- 
ing advantage of the national advertising that is con- 
stantly appearing, and exploiting nationally advertised 
goods the druggist carries is good publicity to connect with, 
said the speaker ; the dealer helps should be used to the 
best advantage and made to serve the purpose for which 
they are intended. 

In conclusion the speaker took up the matter of how 
much to spend a year in advertising and emphasized the 
importance of careful planning, the selection of vyays and 
means, and the preparation of copy. Mailing lists, said 
Mr. Noel, are the most valuable adjunct the neighborhood 
store has. He told of the best ways of building a mailing 
list, of the importance of keeping it up-to-date and dis- 
cussed the commercial value of personal note letters under 
a two-cent stamp at the same time mentioning various 
drug store items that could be made especially productive 
by means of mailing lists. 

Following Mr. Noel's paper a discussion was led by E. 
R. Stucky'. Others who took part were: H. W. Carter, 
E. C. Reick, Maurice Schwartz, F. R. Eldred, Edward 
Merrell and F. H. Carter. 



30 THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA [January, 1917 

GUARANTEE LABEL LEGEND LAPSES RECOMMENDS ADMITTING POISONS TO MAILS 



U. S. Department of Agriculture Explains New Way 
for Manufacturers to Guarantee Foods and Drugs 



Postmaster Burleson Makes Suggestion for Amend- 
ment to Postal Laws in His Report to Congress 



Washington, D. C, December 18— The following legend, 
so familiar in the past on food and drug packages, "Guar- 
anteed by Manufacturer, under the Food and Drugs Act, 
June 30, 1916, Serial Number 265,424," is disappearing from 
labels. A method for guaranteeing foods and drugs which 
will be less misleading to the public has been provided by 
the officials in charge of the enforcement of the Food 
and Drugs Act. Under the new plan manufacturers may 
guarantee their products on the invoice or bill of sale, or 
by certain other methods, but according to a food inspec- 
tion decision which became effective on November 1, 1916, 
they may not make any statement regarding a guaranty or 
serial number on the labels of packages of foods and 
drugs which enter interstate or foreign commerce. How- 
ever, labels containing the guaranty legend and serial num- 
ber which were printed prior to May S, 1914, the date on 
which the first notice to discontinue the guaranty legend 
and serial number was issued, may be* used until May 1, 
1918, in order to prevent the loss that otherwise would 
occur from the destruction of such labels. 

The manufacturer, wholesaler, or other person residing 
in the United States and shipping foods or drugs into 
interstate commerce, according to the amended regulation, 
may print or stamp his guarantee on the invoice, bill of 
sale, or on any commercial paper that contains a list of the 
items of foods or drugs which he intends to guarantee. 
The Department of Agriculture does not prescribe the 
exact form that the guaranty shall take, but is of the 
opinion that the following wording will be satisfactory: 
I (\Ve), the undersigned, do hereby guarantee that 
the articles of food (and drugs) listed herein are not 
adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the 
Federal Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906, as 
amended. 

This statement should be followed by the signature, 
which may be printed or stamped if the invoice or other 
document is transmitted by the guarantor direct to the 
dealer, and the address of the guarantor. 

Originally it was provided in the rules and regulations 
that the manufacturer or wholesaler who desired to guar- 
antee that his products complied with the Food and Drugs 
Act might file a general guaranty with the Department of 
Agriculture to the effect that the foods or drugs he shipped 
into interstate commerce were not adulterated or mis- 
branded within the meaning of that act. Upon the receipt 
of a properly executed guaranty the Department assigned 
a serial number to the manufacturer or wholesaler who 
filed the guaranty. The manufacturer or wholesaler was 
authorized to use this number on his labels to indicate that 
the guaranty which he had filed with the Department cov- 
■ered the products on which the number was used. After 
this method had been in operation for some time it was 
found that the guaranty legend on the label was mislead- 
ing to the public. It was incorrectly assumed by consumers 
generally and some retail dealers that the guaranty legend 
on the label meant that a sample of the product had been 
examined by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and that 
in effect the U. S. Department of Agriculture actually 
guaranteed the product. 

The Food and Drugs Act provides that no dealer shall 
be prosecuted under the provisions of that Act when he 
can establish a guaranty signed by the wholesaler, jobber, 
manufacturer, or other party residing in the United States, 
from whom he purchases articles of food and drugs. The 
guaranty should be to the effect that the foods and drugs 
to which it applies are not adulterated or misbranded within 
the meaning of the Act. The object of this provision is to 
make the manufacturer or wholesaler or person who 
knows the composition of the food and drug products re- 
sponsible for their compliance with the provisions of the 
law. In many cases a dealer does not know the composition 
of the products he sells, and can not afford the expense 
of having an analysis made in order to determine it for 
himself. 



Washington, D. C, December 11 — In his annual report 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, Postmaster General 
Burleson makes a number of recommendations to Con- 
gress for the enactment of legislation affecting the Depart- 
ment. Among the tentative drafts of legislation so sub- 
mitted is that which would permit the transmission of 
poisons and medicines in the mails, for which manufac- 
turers and dealers in drugs and medicines have long con- 
tended. 

The legislation which provides that poisons and other 
objectionable matter shall be nonmailable also provides that 
the Postmaster General may permit the transmission of 
same in the mails, "under such rules and regulations as to 
preparation and packing as he shall prescribe." Under this 
authority the department promulgated the regulation con- 
tained in paragraph 4, section 472, of the Postal Laws 
and Regulations, which provides that medicines and anes- 
thetic agents, when properly packed, may be mailed by 
licensed physicians, dentists, or veterinarians who prepare 
or prescribe these commodities. This regulation, however, 
has been nullified by the decision of the Circuit Court of 
Appeals in the case of Bruce vs. United States (202 Fed., 
98), which holds that the Postmaster General's authority in 
admitting poisons to the mails is limited to prescribing 
regulations relating to the "preparation and packing" of 
such commodities and does not permit him to limit the 
mailing of poisons to any particular classes of patrons. 

It is, therefore, desired that the words "as to prepara- 
tion and packing," be eliminated from section 217 of the 
act of March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. L., 1131), in order that 
the limitation on the Postmaster General's discretion in 
admitting poisons to the mails may be removed. 

To permit medicines composed in whole or in part of 
poisons or poisons and anesthetic agents which are not 
outwardly or of their own force dangerous, or injurious 
to life, health, or property, and are not in themselves non- 
mailable, to be transmitted in the mails from manufac- 
turers or dealers to licensed physicians, surgeons, pharma- 
cists, dentists, and veterinarians, when inclosed in pack- 
ages in conformity with the requirements of the postal 
regulations, such packages to bear the label or super- 
scription of the manufacturer or dealer in the article 
mailed, amend section 217 of the Penal Code by omitting 
the words "as to preparation and packing," so that the 
section will read as follows : 

All kinds of poison, and all articles and compositions contain- 
ing poison, and all poisonous animals, insects, and reptiles, and 
explosives of all kinds, and inflammable materials, and infernal 
machines, and mechanical, chemical, or other devices or composi- 
tions which may ignite or explode, and all disease germs or 
scabs, and all other natural or artificial articles, compositions, or 
materials, of whatever kind, which may kill or in anywise_ hurt, 
harm, or injure another or damage, deface, or otherwise injure 
the mails or other property, whether sealed as first-class matter 
or not, are hereby declared to be nonmailable, and shall not be 
conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or station 
thereof, nor by any letter carrier; but the Postmaster General may 
permit the transmission in the mails, under_ such rules and regu- 
lations as he shall prescribe, of any articles hereinbefore de- 
scribed which are not outwardly or of their own force dangerous 
or injurious to life, health, or property: Provided, That all spiritu- 
ous, vinous, malted, fermented, or other intoxicating liquors of any 
kind are hereby declared to be nonmailable, and shall not be 
deposited in or carried through the mails. Whoever shall know- 
ingly deposit or cause to be deposited for mailing or delivery, 
or shall knowingly cause to be delivered by mail, according to 
the direction thereon or at any place at which it is directed^ to 
be delivered by the person to whom it is addressed, anything 
declared by this section to be nonmailable, unless in accordance 
with the rules and regulations hereby authorized to be prescribed 
by the Postmaster General, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or 
imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and whoever shall 
knowingly cause to be delivered by mail, according to the direc- 
tion thereon or at any place to which it is directed to be de- 
livered by the person to whom it is addressed, anything declared 
by this section to be nonmailable whether transmitted in accord- 
ance with the rules and regulations authorized to be prescribed 
by the Postmaster General or not, with the design, intent, or 
purpose to kill or in anywise hurt, harm or injure another, or 
damage, deface, or otherwise injure the mails or other property, 
shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than 
ten years, or both. 



Januaky, 1917] 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



31 



NEWS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS 



NEW YOKK R. D. A. ELECT OFFICERS 



At the regular meeting of tlie New York Retail Drug- 
gists' Association held on December 22, Uie following 
officers were elected : President, Dr. J. A. Klein ; first 
vice-president, Pincus Herz; second vice-president. Max 
M. Rosenberg; treasurer, H. Sarason ; financial secretary. 
Dr. B. Miller; corresponding secretary, A. Margulis ; re- 
cording secretary Dr. I. J. Blumenkranz ; trustees. Dr. 
Ed. Sher, M. Halperin, G. J. Palitz, Theo. Blackman and 
J. Pick. The following were elected to membership : Mrs. 
Goldstein and Messrs. A. Rosenberg, M. Moscovitz, I. B. 
Kipnis, N. Glassman and B. Carmine. The treasurer's 
report showed a balance of $207.54. 

Peter Diamond reported on legislative matters, paying 
particular attention to the narcotic hearing held in the 
City Hill during the month. He stated that trouble was 
brewing for the druggists, in that the Excise Commissioner 
had finally awakened and that already a number of drug- 
gists had felt that official's presence. He said that the 
conference committee would early send letters to the drug- 
gists containing questions relating to excise matters, which 
would carry answers furnished by the Excise Commis- 
sioner. He recommended that the association take 250 
copies of the booklet issued by the Propaganda Committee 
of the New York State Ph. A., these to be distributed by 
the members to physicians. Mr. Diamond was given a 
vote of thanks for his excellent report. Messrs. Peter 
Diamond and J. G. Palitz with Messrs. P. Herz and A. 
Margulis as alternates, were appointed to represent the 
association at the Stevens Bill hearing to be held in Wash- 
ington on January 5 and 6. Various committees in charge 
of the Twentieth Annual Ball Cabaret and Banquet to be 
given on Friday evening, January 26, at Lexington Hall, 
109 E. 116th St., New Y'ork, by the association, reported 
progress and Mr. Herz, chairman of the Journal Com- 
mittee, reported big success to date. 



OHIO VALLEY DRUGGISTS ELECT 



Ferdinand Ott was elected president of the Ohio Valley 
Druggists' Association at a meeting of the organization 
held last month at Cincinnati, in the Sinton Hotel. Other 
officers elected were : Henry J. Dusterberg, vice-president ; 
L. L. Bunnell, second vice-president; Edward Voss, third 
vice-president; Fred S. Kotte, secretary; Otto E. Kistner, 
treasurer ; Joseph Schneider, Charles G. Foertmeyer, Ralph 
Freiberg, Victor C. Muhlberg, board of control ; county 
directors: for Butler County, J. T. Fay; for Kenton 
County, E. L. Puck; for Campbell County, W. I. Blank. 
The election followed a hot contest between two tickets, 
Mr. Ott being the only successful candidate on his ticket. 
The association went on record as favoring the appoint- 
ment of George Stier, who made such <i splendid record 
as Federal narcotic inspector in Cincinnati, to be chief of 
the Bureau of Foods and Drugs of the Ohio Department 
of Agriculture. Charles Ehlers was named to represent 
the association before the Legislature. State Senator 
Charles F. Harding, former sev;retary of the association, 
addressed the members regarding pending legislation of 
interest. Retiring President Milton Franken presided 
at the dinner at which the new officers were installed, 
on December 12. 



ASSOCIATION ITEMS 



A whist in aid of the Women's Organization, Boston 
Association of Retail Druggists, was given November 23 by 
Colonel and Mrs. John W. Lowe at their home at Water- 
town. Mass. Among those present were George A. Ed- 
mands. Newtonville ; Mr. and Mrs. J. Hubert Green, New- 
ton Highlands ; Mrs. Gerry Russell, Watertown ; Mrs. Elie 
H. LaPierre, Cambridge : Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hudson, 
Mrs. Fred A. Hubbard. Mrs. G. Whitney Hubbard, New- 
ton : Mrs. W. H. Henderson, Maiden ; Mrs. L. W. Griffin, 
AUston; Mrs. Zillah Staples. C. Herbert Packard, East 
Boston: Mr. and ^frs. William Corner, Roxbury; Mrs. 
Fred W. Connolly. Dorchester. 



Jacksonville, Fla., retail druggists met recently at the 
Chamber of Commerce in that city, where they listened 
to an address by Dr. L. L. Froneberger, who has charge 
of the enforcement of the Harrison narcotic law; and 
Irwin M. McKenna, representing the United States Dis- 
trict Attorney's office of New York City. Each of the 
speakers set forth the obstacles encountered by the Govern- 
ment officials in the elimination of the drug evil, and asked 
the druggists for their co-operation. W. D. Jones pre- 
sided at the meeting. The following resolutions were 
adopted : 

"Be it resolved by the Jacksonville druggists in meeting as- 
sembled, that they are heartily in favor of the_ federal statutes 
regulating the sale, dispensing and use of narcotics known under 
the Harrison act; be it further 

"Resolved, That the association favors the repeal of the ex- 
emption provided in section 6 of said act as past experience with 
the practical enforcement of the law has demonstrated that the 
exemptions provided have afforded a temptation and means in 
the hands of the unscrupulous to violate the spirit and intent of 
the act; be it further 

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished to 
Deputy Collector L. L. Froneberger, with the request that he for-_ 
ward the same through the proper channel as the expression of 
the association to be used by the administrative officers of the 
government in making recommendations to congress looking to the 
improvement in the law." 



CHICAGO DRTJG SHOW A SUCCESS 



Chicago, III., December 18 — The success of Chicago's 
First Annual Drug Show has been pronounced all that its 
promoters and the numerous exhibitors expected it would 
be. Praise and congratulations have been lavished upon 
the officers and members of the Chicago Retail Druggists' 
Association, under whose auspices the exhibition was or- 
ganized and carried through. Besides the regular editions- 
of the C. R. D. A. News, which were larger than usual last 
week and the week previous, two special editions were 
gotten out during the week of the Drug Show, copies of 
which were distributed among the thousands of visitors 
during the week. The aggregate attendance at the show 
is conservatively estimated at about 100,000 for the nme 
days it continued. All of the exhibitors had their repre- 
sentatives on the job from beginning to end and a large 
number of orders for goods were booked, in some instances 
amounting to $4,000 or $5,000. 

The Beauty Contest continued through the week and the 
results were announced on the closing night, December 10, 
by the committee in charge of this feature, which was made 
up of the following : John J. Chwatal, James P. Crowley, 
A. C. Caldwell, John J. Boehm, John Mahaffy, Joseph Forb- 
rich, Isam M. Light, and S. C. Y'eomans. The awards were 
as follows: First Prize, Miss May Conklin, the Melba 
Girl; Second Prize, Miss Adelaide Zuehlke. the Norwich 
Girl; Third Prize, Miss May Cronin, the Wildroot Girl. 
The popularity contest was won by Miss Mary Baker, the 
Nuline Girl, the three other prizes being taken by Miss May 
Conklin, Miss Adelaide Zuehlke and Miss Charlotie Tem- 
pleton, the A. D. S. Peredixo Girl. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Executive Board of 
the Chicago Retail Druggists' Association took place Tues- 
day, December 12, when the financial secretary submitted 
his' report, showing a cash balance of $2,331.02 on hand 
November 30. In addition to the appropriations usually 
provided for in the budget, approval was given to one for 
$500 for U. S. P. and N. F. propaganda. 

The Board of Supervisors of the C. R. D. -\. also held 
a meeting December 12, at which recommendations were 
made for officers and trustees of the association who are 
to be chosen for the coming year. Those named by the 
board are the following: For president, A. C. Caldwell; 
for first vice-president, A. Umenhofer; for second vice- 
pre-iident. Harrv Bruun ; for third vice-president. Harry 
. Mover ; for secretary, Isam M. Light ; for treasurer. Chas. 
A Storer. For North Side trustees. J. H. Riemenschneider 
and Frank Ahlborn; for West Side trustees, John J. 
Chwatal, William Smale. Henry Siwecki. S. L. Antonowj 
for South Side trustees, O. U. Sisson, D. P. Seibert and 
Charles Friesnecker. 



32 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



CHARLES HOLZHAUER HEADS A.Ph.A. 



•Other Officers for 1917-18 Announced by Board of 
Canvassers 



The Board of Canvassers of the American Pharmaceuti- 
•cal Association met December 11 and counted the ballots 
cast in the annual election and have reported that the 
following individuals have received a plurality of the votes 
^nd are elected: 

President, Charles Holzhauer, Newark, N. J. ; first vice- 
.president, Alfred R. L. Dohme, Baltimore, Md. ; second 
vice-president, Leonard A. Seltzer, Detroit, Mich. ; third 
vice-president, Theo. J. Bradley, Boston, Mass. 

Members of the Council — Fred J. Wulling, Minneapolis, 
Minn.; G. M. Beringer, Camden, N. J.; Thomas F. Main, 
JSJew York City. 

The Board of Canvassers is composed of the following 
members ; A. D. Thorburn, Francis E. Bibbins, Frarlk H. 
Carter, Edward W. Stuckv. 



A. D. F. INSURANCE COMPANY PROSPEROUS 



At the recent meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
American Druggists' Fire Insurance Company held in Cin- 
cinnati, preliminary arrangements were made for the annual 
meeting of the directors and stockholders of the company, 
which is scheduled to take place on February 13. The 
■quarterly report shows that for the first nine months of 
the year the company wrote insurance of $14,018,676 at a 
premium of $145,749.08, an increase over the corresponding 
period of the preceding year of $1,776,824.11 at a premium 
■of $19,656.95. On September 30 the company had in force 
business amounting to $18,433,729.89 at a premium of $193,- 
176.20, divided among 10,098 risks. 

On September 30 the assets of the company amounted to 
$455,025.08 ; reinsurance reserve $80,738.28 ; other liabilities, 
■$3,611.46; leaving a net surplus as to policy holders of $370,- 
675.34. All reports indicate that the company is making 
splendid progress and it is stated that its savings to the 
retail drug trade of the country for lower premium charges 
in the cost of insurance will amount to nearly $70,000 for 
the year 1916. 



ECONOMICAL DRUG CO. GRANTED INJUNCTION 



Judge Jesse A. Campbell, of the Circuit Court of Cook 
'County, 111., has granted an injunction to the Economical 
Drug Company, 112 N. State St., Chicago, against Paul Lin- 
ger of the same city, enjoining him from using the name of 
■"The Twelfth Street Economical Drug Company" in con- 
nection with his drug business. In reviewing the testimony 
presented on both sides, the judge stated that he had 
reached the conclusion that the complainant was entitled 
to injunctive relief. He said that he did not find it 
necessary to hold that the complainant could appropriate 
the word "Economical" in such a manner as to prevent 
its use, under any conditions, by anyone else ; nor that 
the defendant had been g^iilty of actual fraud in respect 
to the matter. It is sufficient that the similarity in names 
is so marked as to confuse the public with respect to the 
identity of the business of the defendant, the evidence 
showing that such mistakes have occurred and are likely 
to recur. 

The defendant has decided not to appeal and is given 
until January 1 to remove all signs and replace all labels 
bearing the word "Economical." 

CRUCIBLE STEEL SPATULA FREE 



A Druggist's Advertisement in 
Philadelphia Newspaper in 1789 



Professor L. E. Sayre, dean of the School of Pharmacy, 
University of Kansas, and recently elected secretary of the 
Historical Section of the A.Ph.A., has always been inter- 
ested in anything that pertains to the development of 
pharmacy in this country. At the meeting of the A.Ph.A. 
held at Atlantic City in August, he presented a paper on 
"Pharmacy in New Jersey in the -Sixties as Recalled by 
an Apprentice," in which he interestingly related some 
of his experiences and observations of the practical work 
ot pharmacy in those days. In going over the archives 
of his family recently he found some old newspapers dat- 
ing back to 1789, and in one of them found the statements 
reproduced below which have a pharmaceutical interest. 
He has kindly sent this material to the Era in the belief 
that its reproduction here might be of interest to the 
druggists of the East. 

The Pennfylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser. 

Thursday September 17 1789. 

HAIR POWDER 

Manufactured by 

JOHN MURDUCK, 

At the ROSE, No. 5, Walnut ftreet, between Second 

and Third ftreets. 
Where Merchants, Captains of Veffels, Country Store 
Keepers and others, may be fupplied on the shortest notice, 
and on the most reafonable terms. 

From the experience he has had in the buffinefs, he flatters 
himfelf it will be in his power to give as much fatiiTaction 
as any one in the city, and fhould be much obliged to thofe 
who give him a preferance. 

At the same fhop may be had, the beft feanted hard and 
soft Pomatum, and other Articles in the Perfumery Way, 
neatly put up for Exportation. 

Said Murduck refectfully informs the Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen of the City and County, that he sells by Retail 
the following Articles. 

Scented and plain air Tooth brushes 

powder Shaving Boxes 

Beft fented hard and soft Ditto soap 
pomutum Wash balls 

Ladies tortoifefhell combs. Silk puffs 
Dreffing do Powder bags 

Rack do Eflfence of burgamot 

Hair pins of all fifes Ditto of lavender 

Bonnet do Ditto of lemon, &c 

Likewife Concave Razors and Penknives; new invented 
American Straps, that answer the purpose of grinding, 
honing and ftrapping, yhey would be particularly useful 
in Counting houses. 

Orders from the country will be thankfully received 
and carefully attended to. 

The Pennfylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser. 
Thursday September 10 1789. 
A small, Frefth Parcel of Doctor Bakers 
Antifcorbutic Dentifrice & Albion 

Eflfence, 
If just come to hand, and for sale at 

W. POYNTELLS 
Stationary, Jewellery and Cutlery Store, 
In Second ftreet, corner of Black Horfe alley, being the 
only place where it is sold by Wholefale. 



The Newskin Company of New York are putting out a 
very attractive Special Offer on their well-known prepara- 
tion. They will give free of charge to any retail dealer, 
$1 worth of New-Skin, 25c size, and a seven-inch spatula 
— crucible steel, hand polished — ■with an order for $4 worth 
of goods, special assortment — 4 dozen small size at 75 
cents a dozen, $3; Yz dozen medium size, at $1. All orders 
to go through jobbing houses. In operating the offer, the 
Newskin Company makes use of a premium certificate 
which entitles the dealer to the extra features and is ob- 
tainable through jobbing houses. 



Notice is hereby given. 
To fuch of the Owners of the Eftates which are fubject 
to Ground rents under 20 bufhels of wheat per annum, 
payable to the Truftees of the Univerfity, that the ftib- 
fcriber is empowered to fell the fame, and will receive 
Propofals for the Purchafe from any of the Owners of 
fuch Eftates. 

EDWARD FOX 
attorney for the Truftees of the Univerfity. 



Philadelphia, September 14, 1789. 
THE MEDICAL LECTURES 
will begin on Monday the fecond of November. 



January, 1917' 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



33 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



NEW YORK 



A lecture will be given by Prof. Curt P. Wimmer at the 
College meeting, to be held on Tuesday evening, January 
16. His subject will be "A Pictorial History of the College 
of Pharmacy of the City of New York." Dr. Wimmer 
has devoted a great deal of time to the studj- of this subject 
and has succeeded in assembling a considerable amount 
of historical material of interest. Pictures of the various 
buildings in which the College resided from time to time, 
pictures of men who have been prominent in the affairs 
of the College from its very beginning and finally pictures 
of publications, etc., issued or used by the College in the 
earlier days will be shown by means of lantern slides. 
These will undoubtedly serve to make the lecture one of 
intense interest. 

With the termination of the Christmas holidays, the 
interest of the Faculty and student body is now centered 
in preparations for the final examinations, which commence 
April 28. 

It is planned to re-organize the conditions governing the 
award of the Trustees' scholarships which annually provide 
tuition fees for two second-year students, so that there will 
be brought about a more general endeavor on the part of 
students to secure such honors. 

The College Orchestra is this year under the direction 
of Dr. Geo. Schneider, of the Analytical Chemistry Depart- 
ment. Dr. Schneider has succeeded in getting together a 
very complete organization composed as follows : Violins, 
Miss Elizabeth Kish, '19; S. Jacoff, '18; S. Maser, '18; 
N. Castellucci, '18; Joseph Triner, '18; J. D'Urgolo, '18; 
'cellos : K. Kirkland. '17 ; Dr. C. W. Ballard ; clarinets : 
E. Mazzolini, '18; R. Ferguson. '18; cornets: Miss May 
O'Connor, '17; W. Greenberg, '18; O. J. Blosmo ; special 
drums: David Feldman, '18; piano: P. Cagina, '18. 
Frequent rehearsals have been held and excellent music has 
been furnished at several of the student affairs. 

O. J. Blosmo of the Department of Pharmacy of the 
University of Minnesota is doing special work with the 
College in the various departments. His leave of absence 
from Minnesota will terminate in January. 

William Macsata and Frank T. Green, formerly students 
at the Medico-Chirurgical College of Pharmacy, are com- 
pleting their courses at the New York College. 

Jose Blanco, who completed three years' work at the 
University of Michigan, is working for his B.Sc. (Pharm.) 
degree. 

The second year class has elected the following officers : 
President, D. E. Gitlow : vice-president, S. Benjamin; secre- 
tary. Miss Alma .\dams ; treasurer, B. Markowitz; his- 
torian, J. J. Coronel; reporter, P. D. Bloom. 

The college has received a framed and enlarged photo- 
graph of the late Professor John Oehler, the gift of his 
widow. This will be given a prominent place in the college 
collection as an inspiration to those who will come after. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy will build its 
new S300,000 home at the corner of Longwood avenue and 
Worthington street, Boston, instead of Brookline and Long- 
wood avenues, as originally planned. The trustees voted, 
December 15, to exchange the original site for the new 
one, where there will be 90.000 square feet in a much better 
location. President C. Herbert Packard announced that 
sufficient gifts and subscriptions have been received to pay 
for the new building, and that work of construction is 
expected to begin in a short time. The present college 
building on St. Botolph street, Boston, has for several 
years been too small. 

Because of extra work connected with raising funds and 
making plans for a new college building, the trustees of 
Massachusetts C. P. have voted to postpone the New 
England Pharmacists' Institute that they had announced 
for this winter at Boston. 

A portrait of the late Dr. W. P. Bolles, professor of 



materia medica and botanj' from 1874 to 1884 and emeritus 
professor from 1884 till his death last March, has been pre- 
sented the college by his widow. 

Hugh C. Muldoon, instructor in analytical chemistry, 
has finished two years' work on a book, "Lessons in 
Pharmaceutical Latin and Prescription Writing and Inter- 
pretation," giving the rudiments of Latin that are neces- 
sary to the pharmacist. One feature is a great number of 
actual prescriptions taken from the files of prominent drug 
stores. 

The award of these scholarships is announced by the 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy: Massachusetts Phar- 
maceutical Association scholarship, Cecil L. Holden, Hud- 
son; Eastern Drug Company scholarship, Elmer H. De 
Loura, Edgartown; Brewer & Co. scholarship, Miss Edith 
M. Follensby, Southbridge ; Greenleaf memorial, Percy A. 
Leddy, Calais, Me. ; Baird memorial, Eugene L. Shark- 
ansky. Fall River. 



UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 



T. J. Long, '13, Ph.C. '14, who is with the Scallin Bros. 
Co., Mitchell, S. D., recently passed the board examination, 
ranking first in the group who took it at that time. 

Homecoming week brought many visitors to the city. 
The 1916 class had the largest representation : E. T. 
Bjornstadt, Waterloo; R. R. Douglass, Postville; N. J. 
Nemmers, Davenport ; J. C. Liek, Cedar Rapids ; William 
Moerschel, Homestead; Clementine Hingtgen, Lamotte; 
Albert Hennger, Dubuque; W. F. Meads, Ames. Other 
visitors were C. C. Narum of Northwood, and R. W. 
Sylvester of Clarksville, both of the 1906 class ; A. H. 
Kohl. '09, of Mason City; C. E. Jacobs, '14, of Fontanelle, 
and H. E. Rutenbeck, '14, of Lost Nation, Iowa. 

The president of the senior class has appointed the fol- 
lowing committees : Commencement, H. P. Currier, Shef- 
field, 111., and J. J. Byers, Colville, Wash. Invitations, H. 
J. Tierney, Ft. Dodge ; class breakfast, Florence I. Peter- 
man. Iowa City; memorial, L. A. Porter, Missouri Valley; 
frolic, Earl Ryan, Humeston, and C. R. Marks, Eldora; 
senior hop, Charles Carter, Shoshone, Idaho and R. E. 
Stewart, Spencer ; pin, E. L. Hazeldine, Sehx S. D. ; senior 
sing. E. J. Meister, Cedar Rapids, and N. E. Fuller, Chari- 
ton; hard times party D. T. Stanton, Ellsworth, Minn., and 
H. A. Stedman, Iowa City. 

E. L. Boerner, professor emeritus, and son Robert, '17, 
spent a few days in Chicago at the time of the drug show. 

Prof. R. A. Kuever and family spent Thanksgiving at 
Lowden, with Mr. Kuever's father and mother. 

The annual banquet of the Phi Delta Chi Fraternity 
was held at the Jefferson Hotel, Iowa City, on November 
9. Dr. C. S. Chase was toastmaster, and responses were 
made bv members as follows: "As I Remember," Prof. 
R. A. Kuever; "Comradeship," Prof. H. L. Dunlap ; "Our 
Objective." H. P. Currier; "Prospects for the Future." B. C. 
Rogers : "Professional Fraternities," Dean Wilber J. Teet- 
ers ; "Scholarship and Relation to Success in Life," Dr. 
W. J. Karslake. 

ST. LOUIS 



Professor F. J. Wulling, Dean of the College of Phar- 
macy of the University of Minnesota, and president of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, recently paid an 
informal visit to the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. The 
senior pharmaceutical laboratory class was at work when 
he arrived, but was adjourned to the lecture room after 
Professor Wulling had accepted an invitation from Pro- 
fessor Hemm to deliver a short address. Professor Wull- 
ing dwelt upon the advantages to be derived from a thor- 
ough pharmaceutical education in a first-class college of 
.pharmacv. He then discussed co-operation among phar- 
macists and urged the students to join the local, county, 
state and national associations representing the retail drug 
trade. Membership in organizations of this kind broadens 
the field of activity of the members and their responsibili- 



34 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January, 1917 



ties, and therefore makes them better professional men and 
more efficient members of their community. He begged to 
call especial attention to the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, as the one organization to which they had to 
look for the future uplift of pharmacy in the United States, 
and he invited them to join the association upon gradua- 
tion, and take up their share of responsibility as well as 
participate in the privileges which come to every member. 
Professor Wulling's address was received with enthusi- 
asm by the students, and unquestionably his wise- counsel 
will spur them to the best efforts they can make toward 
the maintenance of the dignity of the ancient and honor- 
able profession of pharmacy. 



JERSEY CITY 



At the November meeting of the College of Jersey City, 
President James E. Pope presented the plans for the new 
building which is to be erected in the Spring of 1917 on 
the college grounds, 96-100 Summit avenue. The plans 
were drawn by Mann & MacNeille, the well-known archi- 
tects and represent a handsome structure in Colonial 
style at the cost of $30,000. The building will be three 
stories high and will contain a large auditorium, two class- 
rooms, four spacious laboratories, library, offices, locker- 
rooms, student's quarters and dental clinic. 

The College of Jersey City now comprises a Department 
of Pharmacy with thirty students and a Department of 
Dentistry with one hundred and fifty students. The officers 
of the college are: James E. Pope, president; Joseph E. 
Bernstein, treasurer; and Joseph A. O'Connor, secretary. 
The Pharmacy Department has Dr. Joseph Koppel of 
Jersey City as dean. Dr. Otto Raubenheimer of Brooklyn 
as pro-dean, and Dr. Emil Roller of New York City as 
secretary. 



TJNIVEKSITY OF OKLAHOMA 



Ira Parker, who was a student in the School of Phar- 
macy from 1913 to 1915, is a partner in the Postoffice 
Pharmacy, corner Third and Robinson streets, Oklahoma 
City. 

Copy for the new Alumni directory is now in the hands 
of Errett R. Newby, who has charge of publishing it. He 
thinks he will be able to get out the directory before the 
Christmas holidays. 

Appro-ximately $300 worth of apparatus has just been 
added to the men's gym., according to Coach R. B. 
Soutar. The new equipment includes five mats, one low 
parallel, one large scale, and one wet spirometer. 

The annual dance given by the School of Pharmacy was 
held in Davis Hall on the Saturday preceding the Christ- 
mas vacation. It was largely attended. 

Paul R. Mills, Ph.C, '14, of Tulsa, was a visitor at the 
university recently and the guest of Prof. C. V. Nichols. 
Mr. Mills was recently connected with the Standard Oil 
Company but resigned his position to take up private work 
as a leasing broker in the oil fields of northeastern Okla- 
homa. 

The university orchestra made a tour of the southern 
part of the state during the first week in December, giving 
concerts in a number of cities. Several of the pharmacy 
students are members of this organization. 

The work_ of the second semester in the School of 
Pharmacy will begin February 2, 1917. A large increase 
iri enrollment is expected at that time as many of the be- 
ginning courses in pharmacy, chemistry, and materia 
medica will be repeated at that time. 

Nearly $600 worth of new apparatus for the pharmacy 
laboratories has just been received, making it possible for 
every student to have a complete supplv of material for 
use in the manufacture of the various official and unofficial 
preparations. A considerable quantity of this apparatus 
will be available for those students who are doing advanced 
work in drug analysis and Pharmacopoeia testing. 

The new wireless station of the university is now in full 
working order, the first message having been received 
December 5. This message consisted of weather reports 
from Arlington, Va. A message in Spanish was also re- 
ceived from Chihuahua. Me.xico. Since that time communi- 
cation has been established with several other stations, 
including several amateur stations at Oklahoma City, Fort 
Sam Houston and several Mexican stations not listed in 



the university radiography directory. The Oklahoma Daily 
is planning to print the press report sent out from the 
station at Arlington, Va., for free use at 2 a.m. every day. 
"The best in the world" — thus were the new chemical 
laboratories at the university characterized by Dr. Edwin 
DeBarr who maintains that he has no fear of contradiction 
in that statement. It takes more electricity to run the 
New Chemistry Hall than it does the whole city of Norman. 
One of the many improvements is the vacuum cleansing 
system. The plant, which is operated by a motor, is 
located in the basement, and from it pipes lead to every 
hall, where openings are conveniently located so that each 
room can be reached by attaching itifteen feet of rubber 
hose. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



The School of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, was the 
only school represented at the drug show recently held at 
the Coliseum under the auspices of the Chicago Retail 
Druggists' Association. The exhibit of the school included 
a number of the new official preparations made by students, 
among the preparations being the eli.xirs of low alcohol 
content and the petro.xolins. A series of processes of 
extraction and a selection of the specimens from the 
museum were shown, also photographs of the new college 
building and the laboratories showing the classes in opera- 
tion and the class picture of 1916. The exhibit of the 
school attracted a good deal of attention and was visited 
by a large number of persons, including many alumni. 
The members of the faculty took turns in caring for the 
exhibit during the hours that the show was open. Thg 
school was well pleased with the result and expects to 
repeat this exhibit next year. 

The senior class has organized and elected the following 
officers : President, Omar H. Whittington, Waldron, Ark. ; 
vice-president, Dayle Snyder, Astoria, 111. ; secretary. Grant 
Heidbreder, Quincy, 111. ; treasurer, Mrs. Alice Pelikan, 
Chicago, 111. ; sergeant-at-arms, Charles Wilson, Pomona, 
Calif. 

The women members of the classes of the school of 
pharmacy, of whom there are thirteen, took part in a 
dinner which was given in honor of Dr. Gates, the new 
Dean of Women of the University of Illinois. This din- 
ner was given by the women students of the professional 
schools of the university in Chicago, under the direction 
of Miss Metta Loomis, librarian of the Quine Library at 
the City Club on the evening of November 20. The Deans 
of the Chicago schools of the university spoke as did also 
Trustees Mrs. Laura B. Evans and Mrs. Ellen M. Hen- 
rotin. The responses for the women students were ar- 
ranged as a symposium. The representative of the College 
of Medicine made a diagnosis of the case of the woman 
student and prescribed the remedy. Miss Ruth Wilson of 
the School of Pharmacy then filled the prescription which 
was handed about to the assembled guests in the form of 
candy pills which were contained in pill boxes, but in place 
of the usual directions a felicitous motto appeared on the 
label. 

The Young Men's Christian Association is planning a 
building to be erected in the college district of the West 
Side of Chicago and where a thousand or more students 
may be accommodated and provided with housing facilities 
and social advantages. A dinner was recently held at the 
Union League Club and was presided over by President 
James of the University of Illinois at which this matter 
was discussed. The project is making headway and it is 
likely the building will be erected within the next year. 



UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 



Prof. Wm. A. Jarrett, of the Department of Pharmacy 
of the University of Maine, recently delivered an address 
to the physicians, nurses, and pharmacists of Portland 
on the "New Pharmacopoeia." This lecture was one of a 
series given in connection with the Educational Extension 
Department of the University. Other lectures announced 
to follow will take up commercial pharmacy, the manufac- 
ture of toilet preparations by the retailer, etc., all of them 
being free to those interested. The university has also 
distributed to the pharmacists of the State cards showing 
the important changes that have been made in the Phar- 
macopoeia. 



January,, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



35 



Board Examinations 



PENNSYLVANIA 



Connor, Holyoke; Harry L. Currier, Everett; James R. Suther- 
land, Salem. « ^ ,, • 

Assistants— Seth Hagopian, Chelsea ; Bagdasar B. Gooikasian. 
South Boston; Solomon Kramer, Boston; Carl E. Prindle, Arlington; 
Charles Watson, New Bedford; Herman Heller, Lynn; Raymond 
G. Cooper, Natick; Alfred J. Peloquin, Southbridge; Joseph E. 
Perry, New Bedford. 

ILLINOIS 



The Pennsvlvania State Pharmaceutical Examining Board an- 
nounced on Dec. 4 that 136 persons had passed the examinations 
for State licenses held at Philadelphia and Pittsburg last month. 

Of the forty-five that took the examination for registered phar- 
macists, thirty passed, and of the 153 that took the examinations 
for qualified assistant, 106 passed. The board will hold its next 
examinations here next March. Following is the list: 

Pharmacists— Morris L. Augenblick, Lillian Blieden, Lester Y. 
Brendle. John C. Cravens, Jr., Simon E. Finkelstein Adolph A. 
Goldblum, Joseph R. Guarini, John R. Guarini, John W HoUoway 
Goldblum, Joseph R. Guarini, John W. Holloway, Albert Ikan, 
Rienzi James, Marv P. Peizer, David H. Prince, Alfred A. Redner, 
Everett T. Robert's, Samuel Rothberg, Joseph Sarlo and Aaron 
Simkin, all of Philadelphia. 

Samuel H. Depew. Jr.. Lelano; Charles R. Eckert, Du Bois; 
Thomas G. Miller, Grantville; James E. Stuart, Harrisburg; Albert 
L. Kramer, Hazelton ; Le Roy O. Lohrman, Moore ; William O. 
Meese, Nesquehoning; Harry A. Starrett, Pittsburgh; Daniel B. 
Nagle, Reading; Henry L. Hansell, Roxborough; Harry R. Col- 
born, Sct-anton. Thomas A. Ryan; Susquehanna; Claude S>. La 
Dow, Wayne. 

Qualified Assistants— H. Clayton Anderson, Fred R. Clark, David 
M Ford, Dante A. Guinsti. John M. Hanna, Anthony A. Kobelak, 
David Nathanson and Max Peckersky, all of Pittsburgh. 

Merris A. Aarons. Oscar Abrahamson, Albert A. Bass, Jesse H. 
Boyer, Robert J. Burton, Ronald Campbell, Joseph D. Cartwright, 
Daniel Cooperman, Maurice B. Dabney, Abraham Davidson, bolo- 
mon H. Dompf, Charles J. Evans. Jr., Cleanthes C. Evangelidis, 
Bessie B. Fox, James J. Flood, John W. George, Charles F. God- 
lewski, B. V. Heller, Benjamin H. Hoffstem, Paul W. Irwin, 
Herman E. Leckstein, Michael Leckstein, Philip J. Lecklikner, 
Jr, Concett B. Lippi, Nathaniel H. Rappaport, William M. Riley, 
David Rosenweig, Mae Rubenstein, Mollie E. Stem, Milton Stein, 
William O. Seitzinger, Sarah Spoont, John A. Wenner and Joseph 
E. Zahn, all of Philadelphia. 

Charles B. Alloway, Erie; Frederick R. Pritchard, EdwardsviUe: 
Harry O. Wigle, Export; Frank X. Crockenberg, Honesdale; -"ilbert 
G. Kessel. Jeannette; William K. Stimer, Juniata; John J. Lscn, 
William L. Flcckenstein, of Johnstown; Harry V. Johnson, Kane; 
John F. Schuev, Kittanning; Harry H. Buch, Lancaster; Leroy P. 
Brown and Tohn M. Miller, Lewistown. 

Albert D. Boltz, Lebanon; Lothaire E. Crouse, Littletown : Karl 
B. Peckman; Joseph V. O'Neill, Mahanoy City James F. Foulk 
Harold C. Reimund and Homer E. Yochum, of Meadville; Robert 
M. Headings, Milroy : James C. Carstater, Mill Hall; Ralph Yarnall, 
Mount Carmel; Harry W. Childs, McKeesport; Walter Niklewski, 
Nanticoke; Karleen Packard. New Albany; Guy F. Bair, New Hol- 
land; Raymond G. Heath, North Wales. 

Paul Q. Barclay, Punxsutawney; Earl K. Eberly, Reading, John 
Carroll, Harrv J. Knoepfel and Mamie E. Morgan, of Scranton; 
Edward J Zemaitis, Shenandoah; Clifford P. Jackson, Swarth- 
more. Claude R. Klingaman, Steinsville; William J. Stoneback, 
Sellersville; R. Raymond Hull Tarentum. 

Altha R. Springer, Uniontown: Thomas J. Hughes, Washington, 
Merie McCarney, Waynesboro: Noel B. Fell, West Chester; Wil- 
liam J. Walter. Wilkesbarre : Dilley A Bowron Caldwell, O.; 
Samuel T. Richman, MuUica Hill, N. J.; Donald M.Frazer, Belle- 
fontaine, O.; William T. Conwell, Lewes, Del.; Harold L. Blancher, 
Loyal, Wis.; William K. Hyer, Sutton, W. Va. 

ALABAMA 



The Alabama Board of Pharmacy held an exatnination in the 
city of Montgomery in October. Out of a class of 41, 26 passed as 
pharmacists and 10 as assistants. Their names follow: 

Pharmacists: F. F. Moon, La Fayette; R. H. Scruggs, \ork. 
D. S. Whitesides, New Smyrna, Fla. ; Miss Bertha Hausman, Tus- 
caloosa ; James L. Owen, Pratt City ; L. R. Stone, Atmore ; R. K. 
Morgan, Birmingham; Homer Williamson, Pell City ; t. C). Cox, 
Harfford: V. C. Wood, Pratt City: W. C. Reid, Atmore; W. C. 
Stubbs, Adian, Ga.; P. L. Fields, Decatur; \\ iley Colquit, Brew- 
ton. C. L. Brown, Creighton; Miss J. S. Kennedy, Charleston, S. C., 
Miss Minnie Edwards, Cordova; L. N Camp, Atlanta, Ga ; ^.. b. 
Cowart, Calera ; Ch. R. McCartney, Mobile ; C. B. Rotton, Abanda , 
S T Guilford, Hartford: I. L. Carraway, Birmingham; O. b. 
Tucker, Camp Hill; P. R. Tarrant, Birmingham; C. F. Sweat, 

AsMSuAt Pharmacists-Lee P. Watts Lineville; G. M. Barlow, 
Orlando, Fla.; E. B. Thompson, Ashland; W. L Furman Pell 
Citv; W. B. Stanlev, Birmingham; J. F. Collins, Hartford, W. N. 
Gillespie, Bangor; A. W. Schmidt, Macon, Ga. ; \an Verry, Bir- 
mingham; C. Pace, Mobile. u i ... 

A resolution requiring that a two years grammar school at- 
tendance shall be exacted of all applicants hereafter was passed. 
The next meeting of the Board for examination of applicants for 
registration as pharmacists will be held in Birmingham on Feb- 
ruary 14. 

MASSACHUSETTS 



As result of the last examinations before the Massachusetts 
Board of Registration in Pharmacy 10 received full registration 
and nine were granted certificates as assistants, as follows: 

Fully registered— Frank G. Braconier, Campello ; Rene J. Miville, 
Lawrence: Forrest R Richardson. Leominster; Oliver Bellefleur. 
Boston; Harry S. Berinstein, Springfield; Charles J. Dietel, Jr^. 
<^outh Hadlev Falls: John J. Maloney, Worcester: William P. 



At the November meeting of the Illinois Board of Pharmacy 
held in Chicago, 35 of the 99 applicants for registered pharmacistjs 
licenses and 25 of the 55 candidates for assistant pharmacist s 
licenses passed successful examinations. Their names follow: 

Registered pharmacists— V.B. Andrzelozyk, Leo H. Ayers, Edw. 
A. Barwig, D. Borrelli, James F. Bradley, Frank Brykowski. Wm. 
S. Bucke, N. T. Engels, Marvel Folio, M. Ginsburg, C. M. Hay- 
ward, H. M. Hendrickson, Harry Kanta; Emanuel Kaucky, Louis 
Hogan, Samuel Krupkin, H. L. Landsman, S. C. Larson, N. L. 
Lieberman. C. M. McCord. Joseph Kaskow, Henry Kayzels, LeRoy 
A. Nix, .\lice E. Pelikan, F. D. Person, Wm. F. Piel, R. K. 
Reid, H. C. Spristema, Richard VanKempema, all of Chicago and 
A H. Hogard, Wilmette; S. P. Cline, Marion, V. L. Fletcher, 
Elgin; B. C. Crosse, Elgin; R. R. Schnitker, Chrisman ; Wm. F, 
Vogt, -Milwaukee. „ », t, , ti t» 

Assistant pharmacists— J. E. Baxa, D. D. Benzuly, Harry R. 
Davis, Isaac Felsher, Richard Gordon, D. E. Hepner, D. I. Kanter, 
R J. Kloff, J. E. Kostanski, R. E. Lee, Jacob Lieberman, P. A. 
McCauley, K. R. Magidovitz, H. V. Nichols, Theresa F Provost, 
L. H. Sarnatzky, S. D. Shoollin, E. W. Smith, H. F. Stegman, 
Aaron Werrick, Samuel Woolf, all of Chicago and T. C. Rose, 
Ottawa. R. W. Migeler, Joliet; L. C. Heudrburg, Bloommgton; 
A. J. Osberg, Rockford. , , , . • r v . 

The next meeting of the board for the examination of applicants 
for registered pharmacist and assistant pharmacist will be held 
in Springfield on Tuesday, January 9. . 

The next meeting of the board in Chicago for the examination 
of applicants for registered pharmacist will be held on Tuesday, 
March 6. On Thursday, March 8 an examination will be con- 
ducted for applicants for assistant pharmacist. 

The next apprentice examinations will be conducted on i'riday, 
January 5, 1917. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, according to its an- 
nual report, the Board of Pharmacy of the District of Columbia 
held quarterly examinations for which there were /:> applicants, 30 
of whom were successful and therefore licensed to practice phar- 
macy in the District of Columbia. Four applicants were licensed 
through reciprocal agreements, this making a total of 34 licenses 
granted during the year Five permits for the sale of poisons for 
use in the arts and as insecticides were issued, and twelve which 
had expired were renewed. , , , r , ^ i 

The treasurer's report showed a balance from last annual report 
of 5;ll.21 to which was added from receipts from all sources the 
sum of $754. The disbursements of the board amounted to $7W.2J 
Through its membership with the National Association of Boards of 
Pharmacy, reciprocal relations are enjoyed with 37 States. 

NEW YORK 



Warren L. Bradt, secretary of the New York State Board of 
Pharmacy, announces the following list of penalties received by 
the board for the months of October and November: Adulterated 
prescriptions. 7; junior violations, 10; adulterated pharmacopoeial 
products, 14; substitution, 3, and sale of proscribed drugs, 1, 
total 35. 

MAINE 



The Maine Commissioners of Pharmacy have issued certificates 
as druggists to thirty persons during the year 1916, their names 
being recorded in the office of the Secretary of State, between 
January 1 and September 1, inclusive. They are as follows: 

Under date of February 9, Leroy M York, Bangor ; T. Richard 
Pye, Portland; William N. O'Neil, Biddeford; Odias Demers, 
Sanford; Addison N. Williams, Strong; James E Buckley, Bangor; 
Ralph G. Whitney, Thomaston; April 12, Frank Irving Hargreaves, 
Sanford: Caroll R. Staples, Norridgewock ; George W.Hovey, Port- 
land; Marian L. Fifield, South Brewer. W m. A Jarrett, Orono 
(by reciprocation); Lewis O. Barrows, Newport ; June 27. Ray §■ 
Couteman, Portland; Otis S. Dubey, Fort Fairfield ; Elbert E. 
Hardy, Farmington; Earle A. Blanchet, Northampton, Mass ; 
Wm. J. Macklin, Millinocket; John C. Reardon, Portland; \\^. F. 
Quinn, Hallowell; Ralph W. Merrill, Brewer ; Horace E. Grant, 
Waterville; Harley F. Rawson, Buckfield: Frank G.Satey,- Bridg- 
ton. Freemont B. Fletcher, Augusta ; Frank G. Killig;ew Old 
Orchard (by reciprocation); August 9, David T. Kellej-, Biddeford, 
George L. Baker, Orono; Irving W. Chaney, Stoneham, Mass.; 
September 1, Bert P. Porter, Sanford (by reciprocation). 

LOUISIANA 



The Louisiana State Board of Pharmacy, through Secretary 
Toseih T Baltar. announces the result of the examination held 
in New Orleans, November 17-18, at Tulane. University, Nineteen 
in all presented themselves for examination and eight passed 
Ss registered pharmacist and one as. qualified assistant. Ihe 
following passed: Registered pharmacist-M.ss Rosa M. Breen, 
Louis Omen Bajon. Alfred S. Friel, Laurie C LeMaire, \y W. 
Lear. R. Frank Tliompson, Felix J. \ oizm, George J. Landry. 
Oualified assistant— Nicholas Persich. Jr. 



36 THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA [January, 1917 

DENTIFRICE FADS AND PUBLICITY WINS LAST CIRCLE A CORK CONTEST 



The retail market is almost choked with dentifrices. 
Every few days a dentist discovers a nevi' specific for 
pyorrhea, or a "cure" for "acid mouth," or times the flow 
of the saliva in the human mouth. Any such discovery 
is the signal for a new dentifrice, compounded to play 
on the latest dental fad. Many of the recent discoveries 
in dental research have been of unquestioned accuracy, 
and value to the profession. But they have been dimmed 
in the eyes of the public by too much publicity. 

The life of such so-called curative dentifrices is in direct 
proportion to the amount of advertising that is given them. 
Ask your dentist which he considers the best dentifrice. 
He will give you one of two answers — he will say: "Oh, 
they're all good enough"— or "They're all alike— which 
do yon like best? So-and-so's? Then use that one." 

His two answers are two ways of saying the same thing, 
namely: that a dentifrice can do just one thing, and if it 
accomplishes that thing, it is a good dentifrice. It must 
cleanse ^^ the teeth. The dentist knows that you cannot 
"doctor" a simple combination of precipitated chalk, flavor- 
ing and binder so as to make it radically diiTerent from 
any other combination of the same bases. So he says, 
"They're all alike." And so each manufacturer of a new 
tooth powder or tooth paste or mouth wash, because he 
knows that his product cannot differ radically from any 
of the others on the market, pins his faith to the fact 
that he has incorporated in his formula one per cent of 
something or other which is supposed to be a pyorrhea 
specific, or to produce an alkaline reaction in acid mouths, 
or to outlast the saliva which obliging Dame Nature has 
a way of renewing every half hour so as to clear the 
mouth of dentifrice. 

Fad dentifrices live only as long as the fad. They come 
and go. Any druggist, looking back at his purchases of 
five years ago, can find half a dozen names of tooth pastes 
and powders which enjoyed a brief vogue but which he 
now stocks only on demand. The trick dentifrices suffo- 
cate for want of advertising, and move off the shelves to 
make room for the brand the customer knows, and keeps 
coming back for. The heaviest seller in the dentifrice field 
today has been the most careful in its claims of medicinal 
value. A newcomer in the field is announcing his product 
as frankly "non-medicated" — a firm, by the way, with a 
close connection over many years with the dental profession. 
Its progress will be watched with interest, for it is so 
distinctly a plain cleanser, properly flavored, that its claims 
are almost faddish in their reaction to sound principles. 



CHICK-CHICK EASTER EGG DYES 



The Easter season of 1917 is near at hand and the wavs 
and means by which the druggists may prepare for this 
occasion are set forth with great particularity and atten- 
tion to detail in the attractive advertisement of Fred 
Fear & Co., 15 Jay St., New York, on another page of 
this issue of the Era. 

Chick-Chick Easter Egg Dyes have a name which appeals 
to the children and is easily remembered and pronounced 
by them. Fred Fear & Co.'s recent invention of trans- 
porting soluble dyes on specially prepared sheets which 
when used give up brilliant colors instantly, has revolu- 
tionized the egg dye business. The new invention jneans 
that you have no more tablets or powder dyes to break, 
sift, stain or spoil, making egg dyes an easy item for 
you to handle, and one that you can carry over in your 
stock for next year without having to worry whether it 
will be in salable condition next year or not. 

Easter Sunday falls this year on April 8, and now is the 
time to prepare for the Easter trade and the big profit vou 
will make in handling Chick-Chick Easter Egg Dves. 'On 
another page of this issue is an order blank which by filling 
in and mailing into chick-chick headquarters, you wifl 
receive through your jobber, not only your supply of Chick- 
Chick Easter Egg Dyes, but a set' of large heavy litho- 
graphed cut-outs with easel backs as well as other adver- 
tising matter. These cut-outs form a very attractive win- 
dow display for all kinds of Easter novelties and will be 
sure to catch and hold the trade of the children. 



The last (December) prize of 1000 Circle A corks in the 
monthly Circle A Cork competitions, was won by Thomas 
Reese, Jr., of Hopkins-Landquist Company, Winston- 
Salem, N. C. His entry deserves especial attention be- 
cause he has put himself in the customer's shoes, -which 
is the surest method of bettering business. 

"In details only can pharmacists show their superiority, 
for all else belongs to the Law of Pharmacy, which admits 
no difference. 

"Circle A Corks are in harmony with first-class prescrip- 
tion service." 

In other words, Brother Reese believes that the public 
takes the pharmacist's professional methods for granted 
and that it is only by little service niceties that stores are 
raised above the average. 

Other entries which brought honorable mention and 500 ■ 
Circle A Corks were those of C. C. Allen, of Allen Bros., 
Plane, Tex,, and E. L. Bedient, of the Ecker Drug Store, 
Corning, N. Y. Both wrote of the efficiency of Circle A 
Corks. This being the last of these monthly contests, the 
Armstrong Cork Company express their regret at not be- 
ing able to use more of the many meritorious entries, 
which vvere received from time to time. Their inability 
to utilize them was due to the peculiar limitations of cork 
advertising. However, they wish to thank the authors of 
these for making the contest so successful. 



BAYER-CAPSULES OF ASPIRIN 



Many physicians prefer to prescribe aspirin in capsule 
form, and to meet this demand Bayer-Capsules of Aspirin, 
containing 5 grains each, have just been placed on the 
market. They are put up in boxes of one and two dozen, 
each package bearing the "Bayer Cross," which serves as 
a guarantee of their genuineness. 

Bayer-Tablets of Aspirin, stamped on both sides with 
"The Bayer Cross," have gained the confidence of pharma- 
cists because they feel assured that they are buying and 
dispensing the genuine product. Such an assurance has 
been absolutely necessary because of the widespread substi- 
tution and adulteration to which aspirin has been subjected, 
as shown by the investigations of the United States Bureau 
of Chemistry and the municipal health boards of many 
large cities. 

The prices of Bayer-Tablets and Bayer-Capsules assure 
druggists a good profit. Artistic metal display signs in 8 
colors, showing in relief the packages of Bayer-Tablets and 
Bayer-Capsules of Aspirin, as well as electrotypes (sizes 
2.xl% in., lYi^Yi in.) for illustrating the druggist's own 
advertisements, will be furnished on application to The 
Bayer Company, Inc., New York. 



SURGEONS VISIT MULFORD LABORATORIES 



Surgeons attending the recent annual meeting of the 
Clinical Congress of Surgeons of North America, held at 
Philadelphia, took the opportunity while in the city of 
Brotherly Love to visit the Glenolden Laboratories of the 
H. K. Mulford Company. There were about fifty-five sur- 
geons in the party, the members of which visited each of 
the important buildings of the group located at Glenolden, 
the manufacture of the various biological products in detail 
being explained by Drs. F. E. Stewart, C. P. Brown, and 
C. W. Brown. The visitors were greatly surprised at the 
magnitude of the plant and the completeness of the biologi- 
cal laboratories and were highly pleased with what they saw. 



MODERN BUSINESS METHODS 



Under the title "Business Methods for Druggists" the 
Oliver Typewriter Company of 1499 Oliver Typewriter 
Bldg., Chicago, have issued an interesting pamphlet con- 
taining many good suggestions as to how druggists can 
use the typewriter to advantage. Copies of this pamphlet 
will be mailed free to any druggist who refers to this 
notice. 



January. 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



37 



Patents & Trademarks 



1,205, 
1.205 



PATENTS 
Granted November 21, 1916 

1,205.290— Avery S. Turner, Butte. Mont. Bottle washing brush. 

1,205,311— Francis M. A. Wybaillie and Lena Wybaillie, New York, 
N. Y. Sanitary tooth-brush holder. 
,493— Emil von Portheim. Prague, Austria-Hungary. Process 

of producing oxalic acid. 
619_Bjarne Hansen, assignor to Norsk Hydroelektrisk 
Kvaelstofaktieselskab, Christiania, Norway. Receptacle for 
chemical purposes. 

1,305,65?— Samuel Peacock, assignor by mesne assignments to Mar- 
den. Orth &' Hastings Co., Inc.. New York, N. Y. Process 
of producing magnesium compounds. 

1,305,723— Andrew Miller Fairlie. Copperhill, Tenn. Method of 
manufacturing sulfuric acid. 

1,205,724 — Ahdrew Miller Fairlie, Copperhill, Tenn. Method of de- 
termining sulfur dioxid. 

1,205,912— Sidney R. M. Malloch, Philadelphia, Pa. Non-refillable 
bottle. 

1.205,92-1 — ITSgo Noerdlinger, Florsheim-on-the-Main, Germany. Pro- 
cess for improving the antiseptic, fungicidal, and insectici- 
dal action of tar-oils. 

Re-Issue 

14^216 — Max Dohrn, assignor to Chemische Fabrik auf Actien 
(vorm. E. Schering), Berlin, Germany. 2-NaphthylquinoIin- 
4-carboxylic acids. 

Granted November 28, 1916 

1,206,063— Frank S. Washburn, New York, N. Y. Process of mak- 
ing nitric acid and other products. 

1,206,155 — Paul A. Starke and Eric A. Starke, assignors to Standard 
Oil Co., Richmond, Cal. Process for the synthetic pro- 
duction of nitrogen compounds, 

1,206,222— Arthur Hough, Lavigne, Quebec, Canada Production of 
ethylene glycol. 

1,206,273— Max Veeck and Carl E. Reichert, Philadelphia, Pa. Bot- 
tle cleaning or washing brush. 

1,206,321— Charles Hammesfahr, New York, N. Y. Tooth brush 
holder. 

1,306,335— Ole O. Kolstad, Duluth. Minn. Bottle. 

1,206,438— 1,206,439— Edmund Hoffman, assignor to -American Can 
Co., New York. N. Y. Sifter top container. 

1,206,440 — Edmund Hoffman, assignor to American Can Co., New 
York, N. Y. Sifter centainer. 

1,206,641— Hans Ackermann, San Francisco, Cal. Label pasting 
machine. 

1,206,661 — Alba C. Booth, Burlington, Vt. Closure for collapsible 
tubes. 

1,206,692— George Gill, Providence, R. I. Bottle cap opener. 

1,206,694 — ^James Green, assignor of one-third to Robert W Taylor, 
Bay St. Louis, Miss. Bottle 

Granted December 5, 1916 

1,206,792— Otto J. Aumuller, assignor of fifty one-hundredths to 
Linford S. Stiles, Kings County, N. Y. Bottle indicator. 

1.207,100— Harry L. Vaughan, Chicago, HI. Bottle opener. 

1,207,284 — Adolph Feldt and Paul Fritsche, assignors to Farbwerke 
vorm. Meister Lucius & Bruening, Hoechst-on-the-Main, 
Germany. Auromercaptobenzenes and process for making 
same. 

1,207,379— Frank Distler, O'FaMon, III. Bottle case. 

1,207,416— Ernst Kochendoefer, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 
Process for manufacturing nitrogen compounds. 

1,207,567 — Henry Whiting Lamb, Portsmouth, Va. Process of mak- 
ing ammonia and compounds thereof. 

Granted December 12, 1916 

1,207,706—1,207,707 1.207,705— Carl Bosch, Alwin Mittasch. and 

Christopher Beck, assignors to Badische Anilin & Soda 

Fabrik, Ludwigshafen-on-the- Rhine, Germany. Manufac- 
ture of oxids of nitrogen. 
1,207,758 — ^William Joseph Howe, Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada. 

Non-iefillable bottle. 
1,207,798 — Albert Parsons Sachs and Oscar Byron, Carnegie, Pa. 

Process of manufacturing sodium salts of sulfonic acids. 
1,307,802 — Otto Schmidt assignor to Badische Anilin Soda Fabrik, 

Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, Germany. Producing aromatic 

am ins and catalysts therefor. 
1,307,866— William R. Coppage, assignor of one-half to H. N. 

Brawner, Jr., Washington, D. C. Bottle washing machine. 
1,207,933— Joseph Moses Ward Kitchen, East Orange, N. J. Bottle 

closure. 
1,208,069— Roscoe P. Buffington, Baltimore, Md. Sanitary bottle 

stopper. 
1,208,212 — Eugene Stanley Richardson, Philadelphia, Pa. Cap and 

seal for jars, bottles, etc. 
1,208,242— Clarence W. \'ogt, Louisville, Ky. Ammonia generator. 
1,208,447 — Cyrus Arnone, New York, N. Y. Bottle stopper. 
1,208,475— Ray Hugh Callan, Trenton, Mo. Atomizer. 
1,208,529 — Fred Evans, assignor to Automatic Weighing Machine 

Co., Newark, N. J. Machine for securing metallic screw-. 

caps to bottles, jars, and the like. 
1,208,615 — Harvey F. Mitzel, assignor of one-half to William M. 
Rose, Hyde Park, Boston, Mass. Dipped rubber hot- 
water bottle and method of making. 
1,208,695- Karn Takemi, New York. N, Y. Dispensing closure.. 



TRADE MARKS 
Published November 21. 1916 

94,905— St. Claire Ransford-Gay, New York; N. Y. An antiseptic 

compound. 
96,610 — Zaudcr Bros., Inc., New York N. Y. Face powder, grease 

paints, dry rouge, etc. 
96,705— David Wroblewski, New York, N. Y. A liniment used 

for rheumatism, croup, etc. 
96,922 96,923 — Edwin J. Lipscomb, Duncan, Miss., and Memphis, 

Tenn. Remedy for diseases of the blood and skin, sores, 

rheumatism, headache, neuralgia, rheumatism, etc. 
97,608— Savannah Wallace, Augusta, Ga. A preparation for the 

hair, liair tonic, shampoo, etc. 
96,666— HedTone Co., Waco, Texas. A preparation for the 

treatment of headaches, fever, neuralgia, etc. 
97,886 — Watertown Carbonating Co., Watertown, S. D. Laxative 

medicinal water. 
98,727 — David W. Boyer, Cairo, III. A palliative for cancer, 

eczema, gangrene, etc. 
98,819— West Disinfecting Co., New York, N. Y. Disinfectants 

and insecticides. 

Published November 28, 1916 

93,416 — Lutellus Smith, Chicago, III. Toilet preparations, face 

creams, etc. 
96,663 — The Columbus Pharmacal Co., Columbus, Ohio. Medicinal 

preparation for coughs, croup, bronchial troubles, etc. 
96,986— Dr. A. C. Daniels, Inc., Boston, Mass. Hair tonic. 
97,80^1 — Edward F. McKay, Oklahoma, Okla. Homeopathic prep- 
arations for the treatment of colds, grippe, fever and sore 

throat. 
98,025 — Cassin. Ltd., Battersea, London, England A medicated 

tonic nerve food. 
98,505 — United Drug Co., Boston, Mass. Rubber goods, namely, 

water bottles, syringe bags, etc. 
98,668 — The E. L. Patch Co., Boston, Mass. Suppositories for 

hemorrhoids. 

Published December 5, 1916 

88,947— A. Bourjois & Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Toilet powder, 
rouge, solid face powder. 

91,700— Nathan Teplow, New York, N. Y. Oils used as a rem- 
edy for rheumatism, neuralgia, etc. 

95,388 — Ampoule Drug Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Aromatic spirit 
of ammonia, strychnin nitrate, nitroglycerin, (for medical 
purposes), etc. 

96,893 — Janie Lincoln, Toledo, Ohio. Complexion powder. 

96,945 — Leon Baron, New York, N. Y. Vermin and dandruff hair 
cleanser. 

96,623 — Warren J. Davis, Camden, N. J. A remedy for rheuma- 
tism and kidney diseases. 

97,382—0. G. Wilson, Centralia, Mo. A medicine for the treat- 
ment of influenza and distemper among horses. 

97,568 — The Armand Co., Des Moines, Iowa. Face powder, cold 
cream, hair wash. 

97,809— Fred. Phillips, New York, N. Y. A medicine for rheu- 
matic pains. 

98,057 — Royal Remedies Co., Waukegan, 111. A medicinal com- 
pound for la grippe, colds, intercostal neuralgia, etc. 

98,059 — Royal Remedies Co., Waukegan. 111. Preparation for 
checking excessive secretions of the skin, etc. 

98,232— Martin Kaplan, New York, N. Y. Shampoos and corn 
remedies. 

98,307— Van Antwerp's Drug Corporation, Inc., Mobile, Ala. 
Preparation for the destruction and prevention of roaches 
and water bugs. 

98,320 — Epaula M. Williams, Terre Haute, Ind. Cough syrup. 

98,383 — George Collins, Pittsburg, Pa. Salve for piles, boils, 
burns, etc. 

98,450— The Tropical Pharmacal Co., New York, N. Y. Medicines 
for the diseases of women, medicinal tonics, etc. 

98,563— Solomon R. Hambleton, Memphis, Tenn. An antiseptic 
lotion for use after shaving, etc. 

98,800— Roscoe F. Beauchamp, Philadelphia, 
eczema, pimples, etc. 

99,201 — Russia Cement Co., Gloucester, Mass. 

99,237— Paul Chovanecs, Johnstown, Pa. A 
orrhea. 



Pa. Salves for 

Cod liver oil. 
remedy for gon- 



Published December 12, 1916 

,582— Arthur A. Libby, Boston, Mass. Tooth cleaning prep- 
arations. 

279— The J. B. Williams Co., Glastonbury, Conn. Face lotions. 

,348— A. Bourjois, & Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Face powder 
and rouge. 

,618 — ^WindfieTd P. Snyder, Great Falls, Mont. A preparation 
for cholera in hogs and chickens. 

,659 — Joseph A. Gardner, Memphis, Tenn. Tablets for use by 
dentists in the treatment of teeth. 

,744 — A. Bourjois & Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Face powder 
and rouge. 

,821— American Sugar Co.. Ltd., Honolulu, Hawaii, Beeswax. 

,83S— The Dr>. J. H. McLean Medicine Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Remedies for complaints and disorders of the liver, kid- 
neys, and stomach and bilious affections. 

^859— Charles Green, New York, N. Y. A hair tonic. 

,863— William A. Minick, Glasgow, Ky. A remedy for snake 
bites, mosquito and all insect bites, piles, and all skin 
diseases. 

,877— Fruitone Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. A paste having 
laxative properties. 

,887— George Nikolow, New York, N. Y. Remedy for rheuma- 
tism. 



38 



THE phar:\iaceutical era 



[Januaby, 191T 



98,907— McDowell, Pyle & Co., Inc., Baltimore, ild. Candy 
cough drops. 

98,913— The Reese Co., Chicago, 111. Breath tablets. 

98,996— The Extirpo Specialty Co., Barre, Vt. A hair tonic. 

99,010— Howard E. Long, Cleveland, Ohio. An internal treat- 
ment for sore throat, hoarseness, tonsilitis, etc. 

99,024— Richard Hudnut, New York, N. Y. Perfume, talcum 
powder, face powder, dentifrices, etc. 

99,029— Molo Medicine Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. A chill tonic. 

99,062— Fries and Fries, Cincinnati, Ohio. Benzaldehyde. 



SATISFACTORY DRUd MILLS 



E. L. LILLIBRIDGE REMEMBERED BY FRIENDS 



Out of the line of usual festivities held during the holi- 
days was a surprise dinner arranged by the sales force of 
the Lillibridge-Weeks-Thurlow Compan\', manufacturers of 
druggists' glassware, etc., 31 Warren street, New York, in 
honor of E. L. Lillibridge. The function was held in the 
Japanese room of the Mouquin Cafe, 454 Sixth avenue, the 
members of the force taking the opportunity of giving 
tangible expression of the esteem in which they held Mr. 
Lillibridge, by presenting him with a silver loving cup. 

The presentation speech was made by Bert Green, who 
was followed by M. R. Thurlow and A. W. Weeks. Mr. 
Lillibridge in responding expressed his gratification at the 
appreciation accorded to him by the force and said that 
the company had experienced a most successful business 
year. During the evening the guests were entertained 
with songs and stories by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur N. Green. 
Those present were E. L. Lillibridge, A. W. Weeks, M. R. 
Thurlow, B. S. Green, Jos. B. Murphy, Hugh Bride, Arthur 
L. Dallery, William Brooks, Richard A. Murphy, Robert 
T. Xaser,' Charles F. Ludwig, and Mr. and Mrs. Arthur 
N. Green. 



TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF PROGRESS 



The history of the H. K. Mulford Company, Philadel- 
phia, has been coincident with the development of the new 
science of immunology, a science which has practically 
revolutionized the practice of medicine. The main facts 
relating to this history are interestingly told in the recent 
issue of The Mulford Digest under the caption "Twenty- 
Five Years of Progress," the illustrations accompanying 
the text conveying to the reader much information that 
could not well be imparted in any other manner. The 
growth of the Mulford Company has been phenomenal, 
and in perusing this story the reader is prompted to ask 
what is the secret of this success? The writer of the 
sketch replies : "The answer is to be found in the three- 
fold purpose of its founders, steadily maintained from the 
beginning, namely: The supplying of high-grade products, 
the prompt adoption of suggested improvements, and the 
placing in the hands of physicians and pharmacists of new 
products resulting from original research by medical 
scientists." 



PROCEEDINGS RECEIVED 



Pharmaceutical Associations : Kansas, meeting held at 
Kansas Citj', May 16 to 18; Michigan, meeting held at 
Detroit, June 20-22; New Jersey, meeting held at Long 
Branch, June 20-23; New York, meeting held at Richfield 
Springs, June 20-23 ; West Virginia, meeting held at Deer 
Park, Md., June 20-23. 

We acknowledge the receipt of two pamphlets, reprints 
of articles bv Oliver Atkins Farwell, of the Department of 
Botany of Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit, Mich. The first 
of these is entitled "Contributions to the Botany of Michi- 
gan No. 14 (Michigan Novelties)," a 16-page reprint from 
the 17th Annual Report, 191S, and the second, "The Genus 
Hippochaete in North America," a 12-page reprint from 
Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 1916. 



The New York County Pharmaceutical Society elected 
the following officers at its recent meting held at Aschen- 
bradel Hall. New York: President, Herman Walter; vice- 
president. C. F. Dill; treasurer, Thomas Latham. Preced- 
ing the election a dinner was served to the members. The 
members anticipate most profitable meetings throughout 
the coming winter. 



While many pharmacists probably purchase ground or 
powdered drugs for percolation from the large tirms mak- 
ing a specialty of this work, there are many times when a 
small lot of some seldom used drug is wanted in the 
ground form. Besides, there are many druggists who pre- 
fer to grind all their drugs for percolation or for other 
purposes for which ground drugs are needed. With the 
F4 mill made by the A. W. Straub Co., 3741-45 W. Filbert 
street, Philadelphia, every difficulty which has heretofore 
stood in the way of drug grinding in the drug store is 
removed. It grinds such chemicals as ammonium carbonate 
and copperas equally as well as it grinds roots and barks, 
and it will grind wet and oily substances as well as those 
which are dry. The problem of drug grinding is one 
which the thrifty druggist will look into. Full information 
in regard to these mills, together with prices, will be sent 
by the manufacturers on request. 



TREATMENT OF PYORRHEA 



The new booklet on Pyorrhea (Riggs' disease) and oral 
hjgiene recently issued by the Dentinol and Pyorrhocide 
Company, 110-112 West 40th St., New York, is being given 
wide distribution by retail druggists. The booklet has a 
commercial side in that it emphasizes the desirability of 
keeping the teeth clean and the gum tissues healthy bj' the 
use of Pyorrhocide Powder. The educational features of 
the booklet aim to inform the lay-reader how pyorrhea 
may be prevented and successfully treated — things about 
which, the public (the druggists' customers) is becoming 
vitally interested. Every word written on oral health is an 
advertisement for the drug store. 



MURRAY DRUG COMPANY TO DOUBLE PLANT 



The Murray Drug Company, wholesale druggists of 
Columbia, S. "C, established twenty-seven years ago, and 
a well-known member of the National Wholesale Drug- 
gists' Association, has recently purchased a plot of land 
37x208 feet adjoining its present quarters. The company 
plans to double the capacity of its stock and sales room 
at 911-913 Gervais street, and the construction of new 
buildings will be undertaken immediatelj'. The officers 
of the company are : President and manager, W. J. Mur- 
ray ; secretarj' and assistant treasurer, W. J. Murray, Jr. ; 
cashier and assistant manager, W. A. Coleman. 



CHICLE COMPANY ABSORBS STERLING GUM 



The American Chicle Company announces the purchase 
of the entire assets and good will of the Sterling Gijm 
Company, taking over the latter's plant at Long Island City 
which, the new owner announces, it expects to make the 
finest chewing gum factory in the world. The sales forces 
of the two companies will be combined into one efficient 
organization which will sell all varieties of the American 
Chicle Company's products, including Sterling gum. With 
the added factory equipment the company announces that 
it will be in a position to catch up with back orders and 
to take care of future business promptly. 



THE MULTIPLEX HAMMOND 



If you want to see an interesting advertisement look at 
advertising page 48, this issue of the Era, in which is 
illustrated some of the work it is possible to do on th§ 
Multiplex Hammond Typewriter. These manufacturers are 
making a specialtv of a typewriter for druggists and will 
be glad to send full particulars on application. Drop_ a 
postal card t6 the Hammond Typewriter Company. 588 
E. 69th St., New York City, asking for information regard- 
ing their special typewriter for druggists. 

— Dr. Robert P. Fischelis, of the staff of the H. K. 
Mulford Company, delivered a lecture on "Standardized 
Pharmaceuticals" to the senior class of Fordham. University 
on December 11. 



January, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



39 



THE DRUG MARKETS 



CAMPHOR QUOTATIONS TENDING UPWARD 



Increased Cost of Production Causes Manufacturers 

to Advance Prices on Strychnine Salts — 

OiJiuni Higher 



Xew York, Decemhor 20 — General conditions in the 
market are fair, with prices in some lines advancing, al- 
though there is a tendency on the part of many buyers 
to restrict their purchases to current requirements only, 
or to quantities sufficient to carry them by the turn of the 
year. Quotations on many articles have been advancing 
during the past tv^o weeks, owing mainly to the enhanced 
cost of raw materials and shrinkage in supplies. Among 
the items for which higher prices are asked are arnica 
flowers, camphor, caraway seed, chrysarobin, codeine and 
its salts, cumin seed, gamboge, Carthagena ipecac, diacetyl- 
morphine, cod liver oil, oil of rose geranium, lard oil, and 
Baltimore wormseed oil ; opium, morphine sulphate, poppy 
heads, potassium permanganate, silver nitrate crystals, and 
sugar of milk. Declines in prices are reported for citric 
acid, o.xalic acid, alkanet root, bismuth salts and combina- 
tions, cinchonidine and its salts, copper sulphate, bleached 
Irish moss, chlorinated lime, bulk, and oil of cade. 

In a general way the discussion of peace prospects has 
not apparently disturbed the market, the changes reported 
being attributed to natural causes and not to speculative 
effort. Certain botanical drugs are reported in small sup- 
ply, and there is a scarcity of caraway, poppy, anise, and 
coriander seeds, but it is expected that after the turn of 
the year, the last two articles will be in better supply, as 
shipments are now on the way to New York. In the 
market for heavy technical chemicals some interest has 
centered in the scarcity of sal ammoniac, which has ad- 
vanced in price. Epsom salt, owing to increased demand 
is slightly higher ; blue vitriol is also higher and oxalic 
acid has declined. Shellac has b6en inactive, although 
cable reports state that the situation is alarming in that no 
freight space will be available until some time after the 
first of the year. 

Opium — There is a strong demand for manufacturing 
purposes, and prices have advanced to $14.70@$15 for 
natural; $17@$17.25 for granulated, and $16.75@$17 for 
U.S. P. powdered. Cables from London report an advanc- 
ing market there. 

Morphine — Prices are tending upward in sympathy with 
the higher cost of opium, and jobbers are quoting $7.90@ 
$9.20 per ounce for sulphate; in eighths, $7.95@9.40 per 
ounce. Other salts are quoted as follows : Acetate, $3.75 
^9; hydrobromide, $8.80@$9; hydrochloride, $8.55® $8.75, 
each per ounce in eighths. Manufacturers report a mod- 
erate demand for alkaloid. 

Codeine — A firmer tone pervades the market and prices 
are tending upward in sympathy with opium and morphine. 
Revised quotations are as follows : Alkaloid. $10.45@ 
$12.95; hydrochloride. $9.65@$11.90; nitrate, $11.6S@$11.85 ; 
salicylate, $8.55@$8.75 ; phosphate, $8.45@$10; sulphate, 
$8.80@$10.65 per ounce, respectively. 

Quinine — No price changes have been made, but the 
tone of the market is firmer with prospects of active busi- 
ness in larger volume after the first of the year. Reports 
from Amsterdam state that supplies of bark there are 
ample for present needs, but the shipping facilities are 
limited and war risk rates are high. It is also stated that 
Russian and Italian requirements will be felt again in the 
near future, and that there is a good export demand for 
South American countries. Peace talk is not expected to 
have any material effect on prices and the tendency is for 
a firmer market. Jobbing prices are 56c@S7c per ounce 
in 100-ounce tins ; 60c@65c in S-ounce tins ; and 6Sc@68c 
in 1-ounce tins. 

AcETANiLiD — The market is in better supply and prices 
are tending downward, jobbers quoting 60c@68c per pound. 

AcETPHENETiDiN — American manufacturers are now sup- 
plying this synthetic in increasing quantities, and prices 



liave declined to $2.00(5^2.75 for U.S. P. Prior to the out- 
break of the European war, manufacturer's sales of 
this article were recorded at 84c per pound. 

Citric Acid — Following a downward revision of prices 
by manufacturers, and increased competition on the part 
of second hands, quotations are decidedly lower, and 
jobbers are quoting 66^c@67j^c per pound in kegs, and 
70c@7Sc for less than kegs. For granulated, 75c@85c is 
asked. 

Oxalic Acid — Increased competition between Dutch 
manufacturers and American makers, together with larger 
supplies and freer offerings, has resulted in a weak and 
lower market, with crystals quoted at 58c@60c, and pow- 
dered at 70c@75c. 

Arnica Flowers — Are in short supply and prices have 
advanced to $1.90@$2 per pound for whole, and $2(«,$2.15 
for powdered. 

Bismuth Combinations — A revision of manufacturers' 
schedules shows lower prices, and this taken with the 
lower tendency of the metal has caused jobbers to mark 
down the following: Subcarbonate, $3.60@$3.80; subgal- 
late, $3.SS@$3.85; subnitrate. $3.I0@;$3.25; subsalicylate, 
U.S.P., $5.20 per pound. 

Caffein — Increased competition between manufacturers 
and some activity on the part of second hands have caused 
an easier feeling among jobbers who have marked down 
prices to $13@$13.25 per pound for pure. Citrated is 
$8.25@$8.60 per pound. 

Camphor — The stronger position of the Japanese market 
influenced firmer and higher values on domestic refined, 
jobbers quoting 91;/2C@93}/2C per pound for refined in bulk, 
92>4c@94;/^c for ^-pound squares, 96i^c@98}/^c for pow- 
dered, and 93!/2C@95>^c for Japanese. Advices from 
Japan, it is said, indicate that the camphor monopoly will 
advance the price of camphor 6 yen per 100 pounds on 
January 1, which is equal to about 3c per pound. Celluloid 
manufacturers are taking large quantities of camphor and 
the tendency in prices is upward. 

Chloroform — Higher cost of alcohol and other basic 
■materials have tended to keep prices firm at 60c@6Sc per 
pound. There is a good demand for export. 

Chrysarobin — Is extremely scarce and prices have 
doubled, jobbers quoting $1.20@$1.30 per ounce. 

Copper Sulphate — Offerings of jobbing parcels are held 
at 16c@19c for small quantities, and barrels at 14c@15c. 
There is only a fair demand for export shipments and 
the market is somewhat unsettled. 

Cumin Seed — Is higher at 40c@S0c per pound. 

Fennel Seed — There is a good inquiry for ordinary at 
27c@32c per pound. German and Roumanian seed are 
practically out of the market and quotations are not avail- 
able. 

Flax Seed— Whole, cleaned, is higher at $12.50 per bar- 
rel; ground, is quoted at 8V2C@12c per pound. 

Gamboge — Has been tending upward since the beginning 
of the year, owing to increased costs in the country of 
production and the difficulties attending importation. 
Stocks are low and it is said that any order representing 
a considerable quantity would have to be distributed 
among various dealers to find the supplies necessary. It 
is collected in the interior of Siam and distributed to the 
various world centers by way of Canton or Calcutta. It is 
gathered during the rainy season from June to October, 
and reports indicate that the crops this year are not up to 
the average. Jobbers quote $1.60@$1.70 for blocky; $1.80 
@$1.90 for powdered, and $1.70@$1.80 for select bright 
pipe. 

Ipecac Root — Scarcity and increased demand has influ- 
enced a stronger feeling on the part of holders, and prices 
for Cartagena have been marked up to $2.60@$2.86 for 
whole, and $2.75@$3 for powdered. Rio continues at 
$3.75 @ $4. 



40 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[January , iyi7 



Juniper Berries — Advices from primary markets indi- 
cate strength and prices here have been advanced by 
jobbers to llc@15c per pound. 

Lime, Chlorinated — Prices have been sagging somewhat 
during the last two weeks and bulk is quoted at 65^c@llc 
per pound, according to buyer and quantity ordered. For 
export bleaching powder has been oiifered at 6c in small 
drums and 6)^c per pound in large drums. 

Oil, Caraway — The market is firmer under small offer- 
ings, jobbers quoting $3.75@$4 per pound. 

Castor Oil — Rising markets for beans in foreign coun- 
tries, supplemented by higher ocean freight rates and 
scarcity of freight room, has influenced an upward trend 
in prices here. The situation is further accentuated by 
the fact that supplies in the hands of the crushers are 
nearly exhausted and unusual developments are looked for. 
Jobbers quote lSj^c@2Sc per pound. 

Cod Liver Oil — Recent arrivals of Norwegian have been 
reported in this market, although quotations are practicallv 
unchanged at $125@$128 per barrel, and $4.S5ctf$4.60 per 
gallon. Newfoundland oil is in good supply, with the 
range of prices somewhat greater than that of last month. 
Jobbers quote $2.80@$3.10 per gallon. 

Oil, Coriander — -Prices have been cut in two and good 
oil is now obtainable at $1@$1.25 per ounce. 

Oil, Rose Geranium — Ordinary is very high and scarce, 
jobbers quoting $18.S0@$18.7S. Quotations are not avail- 
able in Turkish. 

Oil, Lemon — The market is firm at $1.60(n$1.70 per 
pound. 

Oil, Juniper Berries — Acute scarcity of juniper berries 
and scant supplies of oil have forced prices upward, 
quotations in most quarters being from $17@$18 per pound. 

Oil, Baltimore Wormseed — Higher cost of production 
and a smaller output coupled with scant stocks in this 
market caused prices to advance to $3.85@$4.2S a pound. 

Potassium Permang.\nate — Is very scarce and high, 
$3.50@$3.75 being asked by jobbers for crystals, and $3.80 
(g$4 for powdered. 



Resorcin — The lower cost of raw materials and increased 
production have resulted in a marked reduction in quota- 
tions by makers, and jobbers have marked down their 
prices to $2(S-$2.I0 per ounce. 

S.\L0L — Similar conditions have contributed to an easier 
market for this salicylate, which is now obtainable at $2.75 
(«$2.90 per pound. 

Silver Nitrate — The higher price for metallic silver 
has caused manufacturers to advance their prices, and 
jobbers following suit have marked up crystal nitrate to 
58c(«;63c per ounce. 

Strychnine — Manufacturers have advanced their prices 
owing to the higher cost of production, and jobbers have 
revised their schedules of quotations as follows: Acetate^ 
$1.90@$2.07; alkaloid, $1.97(n$2.07; arsenate, $2.30; arsen- 
ite, $2.30; glycerophosphate, $3.35; hypophosphite, $2.55; 
nitrate, $2.25; phosphate, $2.35; sulphate, $L65, per ounce 
respectively. 

Tamarinds — Notwithstanding 
crease in stocks, this article is 
at $2.40(a'$2.50 per keg. 

Japan Wax — Comparison of prices with last month's, 
quotations shows a lower range, jobbers asking from 2Sc@ 
27c per pound. The market, according to cable advices 
from Japan, is firmer. 

Sugar of Milk — There is a good demand both here and 
abroad, and prices are higher in all markets. Jobbers 
quote 35c(S!38c per pound for powdered in bulk, and 36c@ 
40c for powdered in 1-lb. cartons. 



a recent report of a de- 
in fair supply and lower 



ERNST T. FRITZSCHE DEAD 



Fritzsche Brothers, distillers of essential oils and manu- 
facturers of chemical products. New York, on December 
27 received word of the death on December 21 of Ernst 
T. Fritzsche in Leipzig, Germany. Mr. Fritzsche was the 
senior member of Schimmel & Co., Miltitz, near Leipzig, 
the parent house of Fritzsche Brothers. He was in his 
66th year. 



A SAFE AND PALATABLE LAXATIVE 

FOR CHILDREN 



Mrs. Winslow^s Soothing Syrup 

ABSOLUTELY NON-NARCOTIC 
DOES NOT CONTAIN OPIUM, MORPHINE, NOR ANY OF THEIR DERIVATIVES 



FORMULA IS PLAINLY STATED ON EVERY BOTTLE 



Meets the Requirements of all Federal, State and Municipal Food and Dru'' 
Laws. Can be sold Throughout the World. 



Send for Some of Our High-class Advertising Matter 



Anglo American Drug Co. 



215-217 FULTON ST. 



NEW YORK 



JANILLUSTRATED V^^^^PUBUCATION FOR THE DRUG TRADE7 



Vol. L. 



New York, February, 1917 



No. 2 



The Pharmaceutical Era college of pharmacy activities 



PUBLISHED OX THE FIRST OF E.\CH MONTH 



D. O. Haynes & Co. 



. Publishers 



No. 3 P.\RK Pl.\ce, New York 

Telephone, 7646 Barclay Cable Address, "Era. Xe 



York." 



Domestic Rates 
Cuba, Hawaii. Porto 
the Philippines and Mexico.. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
to U. S.. 
Rico, 



To Canada postpaid 

To Foreign Countries in Postal 
Union 



Subscription $1.0Oayear 

With Era Price List 1.50 a year 

► Subscription 1.50a yea' 

With Era Price List 2.00 a year 

Subscription 2.00 a year 

With Era Price List 2.50 a year 
REMIT by P. O. or Express Order or New York Draft pay- 
able to order of D. O. Haynes & Co. Add 10 cents for collection 
charges if you send local check. 

Single Copies, 15 cents. 

Published at No. 3 Park Place, Borough of Manhattan. New 
York, by D. O. Haynes & Co., a corporation; President and treas- 
urer, D. O. Haynes; vice-president, E. j. Kennedy; secretary, 
D. O. Haynes, Jr. Address of Officers is No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Entered at the New York Post Office as Second-Class 
Matter. Copyright, ipjy, D. O. Haynes & Co. AW rights 
reserved. Title Registered in the United States Patent office. 

Table of Contents 



Editorial and Pharmaceutical Section 41-58 

41 
43 
45 
47 
49 
50 
52 
53 
56 
57 



orials 

"■"uggists Need a Buying Club? 

Pioneer Drug Store in Wisconsin 

Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

News of the A.Ph.A 

The Druggist and the State 

Books Reviewed 

^ 'estion Box 

of the Associations 

"len in Pharmacy 



New. ^ n Trade Section 

Savt . Time Means Saved Profits 

Business Catchers 

Wholesalers Give Annual Dinners 

Pharmaceutical Personals 

Obituaries 

A.D.S. Holds Annual Meeting 

National Drug Conference in Washington. 

Schools and Colleges 

News of Boards 

Patents and Trademarks 

Drug Markets 



59-76 
59 
63 
64 
65 
67 
69 

■ 70 
71 
72 
74 
75 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Inde-x Form 

INDEX TO GOODS .ADVERTISED Index Form 

INDEX TO READING PAGES Index Form 



That colleges of pharmacy are taking an active 
interest in the real problems of the present day 
is evident from the news happenings reported of 
these institutions in almost every issue of a pharm- 
aceutical journal. There was a time in the his- 
tory of pharmacy when the tendency of such in- 
stitutions was to hold aloof from general educa- 
tional work relating to the drug trade as a whole, 
and to confine their labors to those who might elect 
to go to the college. But that day has passed, and 
the acute obsei-ver of events has no difficulty in 
discovering that a broadening influence has been 
at work, for he will find that the college is now 
headed toward the trade, a reversal of the old 
policy of aloofness and what is better, an earnest 
that these institutions have caught the step of 
progress in the evolution of modem nhannacy. 

This movement of colleges of pharmacy is but one 
phase of the educational tendency of the present 
time. Universities throughout the land are send- 
ing their representatives to meet and to work with 
all kinds of organizations that have for their ob- 
jects the general dissemination of knowledge and 
the uplift of the human race, and which by means 
of their exten.sion courses and other a.gencies, are 
coming in direct contact with those who most 
need help. So far as this tendency relates to 
pharmaceutical work, the field is large and promis- 
ing of a fruitful haiwest. Pharmacy as actually 
practiced should have the benefit of all the re- 
sources of intellect and studj^ that the college can 
bring to it, and the idea of carrj'ing such informa- 
tion to the druggist, and of giving him the benefit 
of a scientific solution of his difficulties, is suffici- 
ent to fire the imagination and betoken a better 
day for American pharmacy. 

In our news columns this month is told the story 
of the work the School of Pharmacy of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee is attempting to do for the 
pharmacists of that State, which is only a similar 
movement to that now going on in various other 
educational centers. Druggists are being invited 
to submit an outline of their professional prob- 
lems for solution to the end that not only the in- 
dividual pharmacist may be helped, but that 
pharmacy as a whole may be benefitted. Educa- 
tional advancement is to be a most important fac- 



42 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February. 1917 



loi- iu the further progress of pharmacy during 
the next quarter of a century, and in tlie tierce 
coinpetuive warfare that is bound to be waged for 
the conniiereial supremacy of the future, there 
must be a mobilization and a correlation of all the 
agencies and forces that have anything to do with 
successful accomplishment. The Pharisaical ex- 
clusiveness of the college is a robe of the past, for 
the future demands that all educational institu- 
tions must don the working clothes of the intensive, 
never-ending present. That schools of pharmacy 
have caught this dominant spirit of the age and 
are in step with such progress is reassuring to 
those who believe in advancement. 



THE RIGHT KIND OF BOOKKEEPING 



PHARMACY IN ILLINOIS DISTURBED 



Illinois druggists are considerably perturbed by 
the proposal of Governor Lowden of that State to 
consolidate the board of pharmacy with that of the 
board of registration in medicine vmder the depart- 
ment of health, his argument being that such a 
consolidation will tend toward economy and effi- 
ciency. Reports from the State indicate that many 
druggists will protest against such a transfer, for 
they object to being placed under the possible con- 
trol of the medical profession, particularly should 
the officials of the new department be physicians. 

The argument advanced by the druggists is that 
they form a self-sustaining department of their 
own; that they are required to pay an annual li- 
cense which meets all of the expenses of the state 
board of pharmacy and provides a net income of 
something like $10,000 annually to the State. "Why 
then, they ask, should they be called upon to pro- 
vide a fund for the enforcement of the medical 
or other laws, when like fees for annual registra- 
tion are not demanded of physicians and practi- 
tioners in other professions? There is some justice 
in this claim, although it is our ob.servation that 
re-registration annually or biennially is a good 
thing for pharmacy as a whole. It enables the 
board to keep track of licensees, and it tends to 
eliminate the misuse of certificates. If such a pro- 
vision could be exacted of physicians it would be 
a good thing for medicine, but in either case, the 
State should stand the expense, the applicant for 
re-registration being required only to file the neces- 
sary request for the retention of his name on the 
official register. Certainly the State owes legiti- 
mate practitioners of any profession such protec- 
tion and it should stand all of the expenses con- 
nected therewith. 

The Governor meets the argument of the drug- 
gists by stating that the present working forces of 
the board of pharmacy will be carried bodily into 
the newly created department, and that the em- 
ployes thus transferred will be in the classified 
service so that their existing legal status will not 
be affected and all of their rights will be preserved. 
The intentions of the Governor may be business- 
like and tend to economy, but there is always a 
disturbance when the status of any board of pharm- 
acy is placed before a legislative body. The aver- 
age law-maker Imows about as much of phai-macy 
and its place in the scale of economic activities as 
the common laborer knows of cross fertilization or 
the suiwival of the fittest. 



Bookkeeping as practiced in the retail drug 
business is a most inconstant quantity, for there 
are hardly any two druggists who use the same 
method of keeping track of items of sales and ex- 
penses or who use inventories as a basis of valua- 
tion. There are various reasons for this neglect, 
the main one perhaps being due to the fact that in 
being schooled professionally, the druggist has 
been compelled in manj' instances to imbibe his 
mercantile training by his own effort and as a re- 
sult of his own experience. Of course, since the 
teaching of accounting has been seriously taken up 
by colleges of pharmacy, the application of tlie 
last-named allegation is not so apparent. Again, 
the difficulty of properly classifying the average 
drug stock with its multiplicity of items is some- 
what bewildering, so that the mere contemplation 
of the necessary detail to accomplish the work is 
generally sufficient to induce the use of any "old 
short cut" that looks promising. To meet these 
conditions has required more than ordinary ability, 
and as result, far too many have neglected the 
essentials of keeping track of the most necessary 
entries. 

In recent years, as we have hinted, colleges have 
been training their students in the basic prin- 
ciples of aceoimting and have emphasized the 
necessity of bookkeeping as a regular part of drug 
store work. The enforcement of the new income 
tax law is likely to further impress upon druggists 
the necessity of keeping an accurate set of books, 
for the regulations issued by the authorities for 
the collection of such taxes, presuppose that the 
druggist shall be able to show by his books his net 
earnings for the year so that the proper tax may 
be assessed. 

When it comes to dealing with the debtor prob- 
lem, an accurately kept set of books is likely to 
prove more important. The fact that an imfor- 
tunate business man has kept a satisfactory record 
of his engagements constitutes a point in his favor 
in the proceedings that are sure to follow. In this 
direction there is something to be learned from a 
new bankruptcy law recently placed on the statute 
books of the South African Union, a paragraph of 
which tells what the debtor faces if he fails to keep 
a proper accounting system. As reported in one 
of the exchanges from that country we are told 
that : 

Every trader must henceforth keep, in one of the offi- 
cial languages of the Union, proper books of account, and 
these books shall include detailed stock sheets, books 
showing all goods or property purchased, supported by 
proper and sufficient vouchers, books showing all cash 
receipts and disbursements and the dates thereof, books 
showing a daily record of all goods or property sold, on 
credit, and the full and proper addresses of all persons 
indebted to the trader. Such books, proper books, not a 
scrap of paper or penny memoranda forms, every trader 
is henceforth expected to keep, and if he goes insolvent 
and has not such books he goes to jail. 

Credit men and those interested in the study of 
bankruptcy law have shown keen interest in this 
provision of the South African law, but beyond 
meeting the conditions imposed by law and being 
thus able to keep out of jail, should not the drug- 
gist keep an accurate set of books for his own 
protection ? 



Do THE Retail Druggists Need A 
National Buying Club? 



PART ONE 



^Vlieu Louis K. Liggett resigned his position 
with the Viuol company and started out to oi'- 
ganize his retail drug friends into a manufacturing 
business of their owti, we do not believe that he 
had even the remotest idea that within a compara- 
tively few years he would be at the head of the 
largest ^strictly drug trade corporation in the 
world. 

Sir. Liggett was fortunate in the selection of his 
friends — the Retail Druggists — and he is entitled 
to a lot of credit for what he has accomplished for 
them and for himself. The foi-mation of the 
United Drug Company marked an important era 
in the history of the retail drug trade. It has 
taught the druggists the value of organization and 
co-operation. It has developed along some lines 
not originally contemplated, and some of its critics 
say that ^Ir. Liggett was prompted to serve his 
personal ambitions when he caused the company 
to be so largely capitalized and when he saddled it 
with the big chain of retail stores. But, as a 
whole, the business has been successful and it is a 
factor in the drug trade of no mean proportions. 
The experience gained, too, with this company wall 
surely help these druggists, and other retail drug- 
gists, in their further endeavors to adjust their 
businesses to constantly changing economic condi- 
tions which they must meet. 

While on this subject of the United Drag Com- 
panj^ some of our readers who are not share- 
holders may be interested in the figures showing its 
financial condition. 

The present corporation was organized under 
the laws of ^Massachusetts on March 29, 1916, and 
has an authorized capital of $52,500,000 divided as 
follows : 

First Preferred, 7% Cumulative $7,500,000 

Second Preferred, 6% Non-cumulative. 10,000.000 
Common Shares 35,000,000 



Merchandise 8,280,900 

Advance and Suspense accounts 494.863 



Tdtal $52,500,000 

The first preferred shares have a par value of 
$50 and the second preferred $100 a share, and 
recent quotations were First Pref. at $53 to $54; 
Second Pref. at $90 to $95 and Common at $70 to 
$75 a share. The amount of stock outstanding on 
June 1, 1916, was: 

First Preferred $ 5,086,350 

Second Preferred 9,109,000 

Common Stock 20,050,000 



Total $34,245,350 

The company's balance sheet as filed with the 
Boston Stock Exchange on June 30, 1916, was as 
follows : 

ASSETS : 

Property Account (A) $6,631,260 

Patents, Trade Marks, Good-will 23,527.465 

Cash • 958,402 . 

Accounts Receivable 2,506,66b 

Notes Receivable '89,135 



Total • $42,488,691 

LIABILITIES: 

Real Estate and Mortgage Bonds $ 662,500 

First Preferred Stock (B) 5,086,350 

Second Preferred Stock 9,109,000 

Common Stock 20,050,000 

Accounts Payable • 1,693,012 

Notes Payable (C) 3,458,427 

Capital Stock of Affiliated Co.'s to be 

acquired 233, 82o 

Depreciation Reserve 1,291,553 

Surplus • 904,024 

Total $42,488,691 

(A)— Increased by $460,000 to complete Buildings. 

(B)— Increased by $2,413,650. 

(C)— Decreased $1,953,650 by sale of Preferred stock. 

There are some pertinent facts in the statement 
to which we would invite attention. "Patents, 
Trade Marks, and Good Will at $23,527,465" is 
not only more than 55 per cent of the company's 
total assets, but a tremendous volume of "water" 
— it's a regitlar lake. If some of our large pharm- 
aceutical manufacturers or proprietaiy medicine 
houses should value such of their assets on a simi- 
lar basis, the "war brides" and automobile com- 
panies would envy their financial showings. 

Then, too, the interest charges are not to be 
sneezed at. Six per cent, on $42,500,000 is about 
$7,000 a day for 365 days in the year; and if there 
are 7,000 Rexall drug stores each store, on an 
average, must contribute $365 a year, or $1.00 a 
day, to pay these charges. How much the overhead 
charges amoimt to we cannot even guess, and what 
amotmts the company will be asked to contribute 
toward the present administration's various tax 
schemes, is an unknown quantity. 

Just how much of the capital stock is now 
owTied by the retail druggists who operate Rexall 
stores is not known to outsiders, but it is assumed 
that IMr. Liggett has taken good eare of his old 
friends. If we are correctly informed a majority 
of the company's securities are now in the hands 
of outside holders, and this is why some people 
allege that Mr. Liggett has sold out his friends to 
Wail Street. 

When the modem, up-to-date, frenried-finance 
germ begins to get in its fine work on the fertile 
brain of an ambitious, American business man, 
there is no telling what the harvest will be. and 
one really cannot blame some hard working, retail 
druggist shareholder whose monej^, and work, and 
patronage helped to make the United Drug Com- 
pany a possibilitv, if he occasionally says to him- 
self— 

"I suppose it's all right. Louis says it is: but 
these big figures are too much for me. I wish we 
owned it all as we did when it was first started; it 
sometimes makes me feel that it's getting away 

Page Forty-Three 



44 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



from lis and that we are working for some other 
fellows instead of for ourselves and our families." 

As to the advisability of such a large capitaliza- 
tion and the purchase of the Liggett and Riker- 
Ilegemau retail stores, opinions are divided. To 
any real friend of the drug trade, it does seem a 
pity that the original plans of the company as an 
organization "of diniggists for druggists" could 
not have been maintained. On the other hand, if 
the original shareholdere are satisfied with the 
present plans there is no reason why others should 
object. 

The primary purpose of these articles is not to 
discuss the financial status of the United Drug 
Company. We use it as a conspicuous example of 
retail druggists' organizations, and one which al- 
ready has many would-be followers. It is only fair 
to say that every druggist who is a Rexall share- 
holder is open to congratulations. It has made 
him a better business man, increased his profits, 
taught him how to use modern business methods — • 
and it has shown the entire drug trade the power 
and value of organization when properly directed. 

But there are only 7,000 Rexall druggists out of 
a total of 50,000 drug storas in the United States, 
and it is the entire retail drug trade that should 
be considered in any plans for its future welfare. 

On the basis of 50,000 drug stores, there is one 
store for each 2,000 of our population, and with 
300 wholesale druggists- we have an average of only 
160 drug stores for each jobber to supply. These 
figures naturally suggest, are there enough cus- 
tomers to support all of these distributor of drug 
store goods? If we ai-e to heed the warnings of 
our prominent economists, the next great step in 
meeting economic conditions will be in the matter 
of distribution. The first reconstraetion in the 
present economic era has been in production. Large 
combinations of capital entered the field of pro- 
duction and many smaller manufacturing plants 
have joined some combination, or have been forced 
to the wall. So, in the next generation, they say, 
many retailers will be eliminated and the number 
of retail stores will be greatly reduced. Professor 
Barnett of John Hopkins has stated that half of 
the people now engaged in distributing goods to 
the ultimate oonsumer should be engaged in pro- 



ductive labor. The increase in economic efficiency 
of distribution is already forecast by the partial 
elimination of the jobber and the rapid develop- 
ment in department stores, chain stores, and par- 
ticular!}' in the mail order houses. 

In confirmation of this we can draw up6n our 
own experience. During the fall and winter 
months oiu" subscription department is in touch, 
through the mails, with practically all of the retail 
druggists, and this correspondence brings forth a 
veiy large number of letters from retail druggists 
in all sections of the country. These lettei-s fre- 
quently refer to some conditions which prevail in 
the druggist's business, and during the past few 
months so many druggists have mentioned that 
they wish to sell out their drug stores that it has 
repeatedly called forth special comment. In many 
cases these druggists have been long established 
and have had a successful business, as shown by 
their financial ratings. And this is but one of 
several indications which have been brought to our 
attention, as proof positive of the changing condi- 
tions in the retail drug business. 

It is such facts that propel us to do something 
out of the ordinary to assist these dealers to em- 
ploy new methods and readjust their businesses to 
meet new economic conditions which are slowly but 
surely being forced upon them. And when some 
of our wholesale friends, or those manufacturers 
who distribute their products exclusively through 
the jobbing trade, have occasion to comment upon 
what the Era is saying or doing, we trust they 
will keep in mind that our fii-st obligation is to the 
retailer. It is our dut.y to meet this obligation with 
the best advice and the most helpful plans that our 
judgment and foresight will enable us to suggest, 
and to back up our suggestions with all the assist- 
ance we can render in the execution of any plans 
which promise to be helpful to the retail druggists. 

It is a condition and not a theorj' that confronts 
the retail druggists, and if necessary they must dis- 
card old and established customs and employ ag- 
gressive, perhaps radical methods, if they are to 
prevent the trade which is rightfully theirs from 
passing into the hands of other, and most power- 
ful interests. 

{To he continued) 



GBAPE CROP SmCALLEST IN YEARS 



Except for 1915, Last Season's Volume of Unferinent- 
ed Juice Pressed in Chautauqua Smallest Since 1908 



With a total grape crop in the Chautauqua district less 
by 2,765 carloads than last year, the volume of grape 
juice pressed is considerably under the average produc- 
tion. Figures gathered by The Grape Belt give the total 
1916 crop as '4.307 carloads, of which about 1,000 cars 
were pressed into wine and unfermented juice. The same 
paper estimates tlie grape juice production at 2,055,560 
gallons. 

Although the grape crop was less in volume high prices 
brought its value to the growers $65,178 higher than 1915, 
and set the record making total of $2,344,653. Among 
the juice pressers Armour and Welch paid the highest 
prices. At the close of the season Armour bought a 
considerable quantity of fruit at $65 a ton, a new high 
price. Welch's best price was $60, or $5 above the market 
average. It is said that some of the wine makers brought 



California grapes to their presses, the lower price of the 
fruit making up the transportation charges. 

Detailed figures from the other grape juice districts are 
not j-et available, but it is estimated that the Lake Michi- 
gan belt produced about 1,500,000 gallons and the Ohio 
belt close to half of this total. 



BAY STATE COLLEGE ALUMNI DINNER 



The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy Alumni Asso- 
ciation, January 17th, elected these new officers at its an- 
nual meeting and banquet at the Crawford House, Bos- 
ton : President, Dr. Howard H. Smith, '85 ; vice-presidents, 
J. E. Stacy, '99, Miss Jennie Sumner, '95, A. M. DuPaul, 
'15; secretary, G. L. Burroughs, '99; assistant secretar.v, 
Leon A. Thompson, '08; treasurer, Prof. Elie H. La- 
Pierre. '80 ; council member, Frank F. Ernst, '90. John 
J. Tobin, chairman of the Massachusetts Board of Regis- 
tration in Pharmacy, was elected an honorary member. 
Mr. Tobin was a guest, and the principal speaker. 



A Pioneer Drug Store in Wisconsin 

Exhibition in Wisconsin Library Museum Stirs Imagination 
and Dates Back to 1837 when First Stock of Drugs Entered 

the State 



One name and address on bottom of bottle, 

One glance into the bottle, 

One pasteboard bottle with wooden cover,.. 



ENTWINE about 
these three act- 
ualities a small 
amount of relevant 
imagination, and you 
have an interesting 
realistic story, of 
w h i c h O. Henr\- 
would justly be 
proud. The bottle can 
be found on the top 
shelf of the historical 
drug store in the mu- 
seum of the Wiscon- 
sin historical librar-. 
in Madison, and tl; 
name you will see on 
the bottom of the bot- 
tle is that of W. A- 
Thrayser, a pioneer 
druggist of New Lon- 
don, Wisconsin. In 
this container, as is 
evidenced by the 




Interior of Historical Drug Store 



bright red lining of its interior, Mr. Thrayser kept his 
stock of Vermillion, which he supplied to the Northern 
Wisconsin Indians, who used the vermillion to bedaub 
themselves in anticipation of the ancient war-dance. If 
this bottle were able to speak, it could, no doubt, relate 
innumerable thrilling and fascinating tales. 

Every article shown in the historical drug store, from 
the tiny liver pill to the butter-nut wood fixtures, were at 
one time used in some Wisconsin drug store or used by a 
dispensing phj'sician. Inasmuch as Wisconsin drug store 
history dates back to 1837, when the first stock of drugs 
was added to that of a general stock by the Armstrong, 
Ward & Bassett firm of Green Bay, a number of the 
objects have withstood the ravages of time for nearly 
three-quarters of a century. Twenty-one years elapsed 
however, from the introduction of drugs into the general 
store until the establishment of the first retail drug store, 
dealing exclusively in drugs. I. N. Norton is given credit 
for being the first retail druggist in the state of Wisconsin, 
having set up in busi- 
ness in Milwaukee in 
1858. 

Successive steps in 
the progress of phar- 
macy in this state are 
indicated by various 
means, one of which 
is by the transition 
from one style of 
bottle container to 
another. The differ- 
ent styles of bottles 
appear upon the 
shelves of the His- 
torical drug store, ar- 
ranged as you may 
see bottles now in 
some of our present- 
day pharmacies. The 
bottle to first serve 
the needs of the pio- 
neer druggist was 
made of paper, with 
a wooden base and 
cover. The transition 




from paper to tin marked an improvement in the container, 
for the tin protected the powdered drugs from the dele- 
terious effect of moisture and air. The tin bottles, and 

even the older paper 
bottles, were lacquer- 
ed and wood-grained 
to harmonize with the 
wooden fixtures, rend- 
ering the appearance 
of wooden bottles. 
Soon after the estab- 
lishment of the glass 
industry, glass bottles 
found their way to 
the shelves of the 
drug store, but these 
first bottles were not 
provided with the 
modern ground-glass 
stopper. Cork was 
used for the small- 
mouth bottles. For 
the large crude-drug 
bottles, either a wood- 
en or a tin cover 
served as stopper. 
The last step to per- 
fection in the manu- 
facture of pharmaceutical containers was the invention of 
the ground-glass stopper, which made the glass bottles 
impregnable to moisture and air, and added materially in 
the preservation of the crude drugs. 

Below the bottle shelving, encased in the butter-nut wood 
wall fixtures, are the conventional sliding drawers, which 
served as repositories for the many forms of coarse crude 
drugs and chemicals. The names upon the drawers im- 
part to one a singular knowledge of the drug plants that 
grew wild within the boundaries of the state. The crude 
drugs, such as Columbo, Ginseng, Dandelion, Spigelia, 
Senega, and Gentian were gathered by members of the 
pioneer druggist's family, or else they were bought from 
the Indians, who made a business of drug-gathering. 
Tapioca and Sago, now grocery stock, were also at one 
time, common articles of sale in the drug store. 

Who can recollect the days when druggists sold the 
small, flat, red-colored letter seals? Some charitably in- 
clined old druggist of the nineteenth century has be- 
queathed to the col- 
lector of pharmaceu- 
tical relics a bottle of 
the wax seals, a num- 
ber sufficient to seal 
several hundred let- 
ters. On the same 
shelf with the bottle 
of seals, amid an as- 
sortment of old-time 
patent medicines. I 
found, during my 
tour of inspection, a 
bottle of Tippecanoe, 
a strong favorite 
among the Indians 
for other purposes 
besides medical. Tip- 
pecanoe was manu- 
factured before the 
enactment of any re- 
formatory drug laws; 
consequently there is 
no statement as to the 
percentage of alcohol 
it contained. It is 

Page Foriy-Five 



Exterior of the Old Store 



46 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Februaby, 1917 



asserted, however, that Tippecanoe contained about 
eighty-five per cent of alcohol. 

Placed upon the wrapping counter is a package of car- 
bolated gauze, which was made by Schorse & Company, 
manufacturing pharmacists of Milwaukee. According to 
the records at the museum, this gauze is distinctive in that 
it is one of the first articles manufactured by Schorse & 
Company, who opened their plant in 1854 or 1855. A 
precursor of the modern popular cash register is at once 
recognized in the crude looking change-maker, which had 
its origin in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1883. It was used in 
the store of Mr. Salisbury of Mazomanie, Wisconsin, who 
contributed the change-maker to the historical collection 
a number of years ago. 

Those persons who have had the opportunity to view the 
Historical drug store will perhaps remember the large fur- 
nace and still in one corner of the room. It is constructed 
on the order of a range with various sized openings on 
the upper surface, in which repose earthen-ware pots, 
accommodated with handles. The furnace, forty, fifty, 
and even si.xty years ago, was a profitable investment for 
the druggist, because, the druggist, in those days, was 
obliged to prepare all his own ointments, cerates, decoc- 
tions, pills, and the like, for he had no manufacturing 
houses to provide him with this or that article by return 
mail. The still is an inseparable part of the furnace and 
consists of a two-gallon retort, placed in the rear of the 
furnace and provided with a vapor tube, extending from 
the still to a metal condenser. Dohmen, Schmidt & Com- 
pany, of Milwaukee, after having used this furnace for 
nearly fifty years, discharged it from active service in 
1898. 

The pioneer druggists had no show windows for the 
display of merchandise, for they dealt exclusively in 
drugs. So instead of seeing an attractive and orderly 
arrangement of candy or stationery, as we pass the His- 
torical drug store, we must gaze upon the conventional 
colored show-globes and leech jar. Colored show-globes 
and the leech jar still prevail in many of our present-day 
pharmacies, but they are relegated from the prominent 
position they held forty years ago. 

The drug mill was an important unit in the equipment 
of the pioneer store, because the crude drugs had to be 




Drug' Grinder and Still 

reduced to a coarse powder before being acted upon by 
solvents. The mill in the Historical drug store is con- 
structed on the principle of a coffee grinder and is of 
unfinished workmanship. Other important and interesting 
articles that are on exhibition in this now famous drug 
store are the indispensable iron mortar and pestle, used 
for cominution and powdering; a copper scales, brought 
from England in the early part of the nineteenth century 
and used by its donor, Dr. Joseph Green of Whitewater; 
a small wooden mill for the sifting of very fine powders, 
contributed by the Allcott drug store of Milwaukee ; ancf 
a pill-coating machine, almost an exact miniature of the 
large coating machines now in use in manufacturing 
plants. The coating machine was used in the store of 
Dunning & Sumner in Madison, for coating pills and 
tablets with gold and silver leaf, a common practice in 
former days. The butter-nut wood fi.xtures are a gift of 
T. H. Spence of La Crosse. 



Without some comment upon the prize relic of drug 
store antiques, this story would be incomplete, therefore 
allow me to introduce to you "Chlorinium," probably the 
first commercial disinfectant put in the market. This 
article is considered by the collector a greater treasure 
than any other article in the historical collection in 




Window Display In Store 

virtue of its service at Camp Randall during the Civil War. 
Chlorinium is another contribution from Dunning and 
Sumner of Madison. 

The Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association, an organiza- 
tion of more than a thousand retail druggists and clerks 
of the state, is deserving of inestimable praise for the 
work it has accomplished in providing the state museum 
with one of its most interesting exhibits. The Pioneer 
drug store has crystallized out of an act of that association, 
creating in 1898 a committee on historical pharmacy, of 
which Professor Kremers, director of the school in phar- 
macy at the University of Wisconsin, was made chairman. 

As a direct result of his appointment, students in the 
school of pharmacy, through daily association with Pro- 
fessor Kremers, became sympathetic and willing toilers 
in the search for pharmaceutical relics, and mainly through 
their later influence as members of the Wisconsin Phar- 
maceutical Association, has it been possible to bring to- 
gether into one collection a large variety of articles that 
are thoroughly representative of primitive Wisconsin 
pharmacy. 



NEW QUARTERS FOR VAN VLEET-MANSFIELD 
DRUG CO. 



The Van Vleet-Mansfield Drug Co., wholesale druggists, 
Memphis, Tenn., have now under construction a building 
at Second st. and Gayoso ave., that city, which they will 
occupy on completion and which it is said will be the 
equal of any wholesale drug house in the country. The 
building will be seven stories in height and built of brick, 
stone and re-inforced concrete. A covered drive is pro- 
vided to protect trucks in the process of being loaded, and 
from cellar to the top floor modern devices will be in- 
stalled and the building will be as near fireproof as can be 
made. The cost of the building will be about $75,000. 



COLUMBUS DRUGGISTS ELECT 



The retail druggists of Columbus, Ohio, met on Janu- 
ary 6th and elected the following officers for the coming 
year. President, D. H. Fobes ; Vice-President, H. L. Beck; 
Secretary, O. C. Wilson ; Treasurer, H. D. Westervelt ; 
Board of Control, L. W. Funk, William Kaemmerer, P. R. 
Barnes, Harry Dingman and A. W. Kiler. 

Plans were discussed for the entertainment of the Ohio 
Pharmaceutical Association which will be held in Colum- 
bus during the summer. 



The Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 

How Vaccines and Antitoxins are Officially 1 reated 



By F. E. STEWART, Ph.G., M.D., Phar.D.* 



(Continued from the January, 1917 Era Page 11) 



Tetanus Antitoxin 

THE bacillus of tetanus is widely distributed in Nature. 
It has been found by Nicholaier and others to occur 
in the superficial layers of the soil. "The earth of 
cultivated and manured fields seems to harbor this organ- 
ism with especial frequency, probably because of its pres- 
ence in the dejecta of some of the domestic animals.f The 
vegetative forms are not more resistant against heat or 
chemical agents than the vegetable forms of other micro- 
organisms. "Tetanus spores, however, will resist dry heat 
at SC^C. for about one hour, live steam for about five min- 
utes; five per cent carbolic acid kills them in twelve to 
fifteen hours ; one per cent bichlorid of mercury in two or 
three hours. Direct sunlight diminishes their virulence and 
eventually destroys them.f Protected from sunlight and 
other deleterious influences, tetanus spores remain v'iable 
and virulent for many years. Henrijean§ has reported her 
success in producing tetanus with bacilli from a splinter 
of wood infected eleven years before." 

While the bacillus tetanus is generally described as an ob- 
ligatory anaerobe, i. e. organisms for whose development 
the presence of free oxygen is directly injurious, j-et an- 
aerobic conditions may be dispensed with if tetanus bacillus 
be grown in symbiosis with some of the aerobic bacteria. 
When the simultaneous presence of two bacterial species 
within the same environment favors the development of 
both species, the condition is spoken of as symbiosis. It 
is well known to bacteriologists that tetanus spores will not 
develop in healthy tissues. The experts of the Bureau of 
Hygiene, Washington, D. C, have demonstrated this fact 
by adding tetanus spores to vaccine and then inoculating 
animals with the mixed vaccine, without in any instance 
producing tetanus, or lockjaw. A similar experiment was 
made by Dr. A. P. Kitchens of the Mulford Laboratories, 
upon the horse, an animal peculiarly susceptible to tetanus 
infection. But when tetanus spores are mixed with staphy- 
lococci or streptococci (pus producing microorganisms) 
they readily grow in sj'mbiosis and produce tetanus. 
Distribution of Bacilli 

"The comparative infrequency of tetanus infection is 
in marked contrast to the wide distribution of the bacilli in 
Nature. Introduced into the animal body as spores and 
free from toxin, they often fail to incite disease, easily 
falling prey to phagocv-tosis"— the destruction of the bacilli 
by the leucocytes and other body cells — "and other pro- 
tective agencies before the vegetative forms develop and 
toxin is formed. The protective importance of phagocj'tosis 
was demonstrated by Vaillard and Rouget** who introduced 
tetanus spores inclosed in paper sacs into the animal body. 
By the paper capsules the spores were protected from the 
leucocytes, not from the body fluids. Nevertheless, tetanus 
developed in the animals. The nature of the wound and 
the simultaneous presence of other microorganisms seem 
to be important factors determining whether or not the 
tetanus bacilli shall be enabled to proliferate. Deep, lacer- 
ated wounds, in which there has been considerable tissue 
destruction, and in which chips of glass, w-ood splinters, or 
grains of dirt have become embedded, are particularly fa- 
vorable for the development of these germs. The injur- 
ies of compound fractures and of gunshot wounds are es- 
pecially liable to supply these conditions, and the presence 
in such wounds of the common pus cocci, or of other more 
.harmless parasites, may aid materially in furnishing an en- 

• Director. Scientific Department, H. K. Mulford Company, 
t Hiss & Zinsser. A Text-Book of Bacteriology. New York and 
London. D, Appleton & Company. 1911. 
t v. Eisler und Pribram, in Levaditi. Handbuch, etc. Jena, 1907, ' 
§ Henrijean, Ann. de la Soc. Med. Chir. de Liege. 1891. 
" Vaillard and Rouget, Ann. de i'inst. Pasteur, 1892. 



vironment suitable for the growth of the tetanus bacilli. 
Apart from its occurrence following trauma, tetanus has 
been not infrequently observed after childbirth,! and iso- 
lated cases have been reported in which it has followed 
diphtheria and ulcerative lesions of the throat.J 

A definite period of incubation elapses between the time 
of infection with tetanus bacilli and the development of 
the first symptoms. In man this may last from five to seven 
days in acute cases, to from four to five weeks in the more 
chronic ones. Experimental inoculation of guinea-pigs is 
followed usually in from one to three days by rigidity of 
the muscles nearest the point of infection. This spastic 
condition rapidly extends to other parts and finally leads to 
death, which occurs within four or five days after in- 
fection."* 

Prevention of Tetanus 

The above are important points in considering the re- 
lation of the tetanus bacillus to emergencies constantly oc- 
curring not only in the experience of physicians and phar- 
macists, but the general public as well. The fact that tetanus 
may be readily prevented by the prompt use of tetanus anti- 
toxin immediately after the infection of a wound, the char- 
acter of which predisposes to the growth of the tetanus 
bacillus, is one of the most important facts in the science 
of immunolog)'. It is well exemplified by the wonderful 
record attending the use of tetanus antitoxin in the armies 
of the conflicting nations fighting on the fields of France, 
where the soil of the cultivated and manured fields 
harbors these microorganisms with especial frequency. In 
a lecture delivered by Maj. Robert Patterson of the 
Medical Corps of the United States Army and head of 
the Red Cross Society, Washington, D. C, at the Mul- 
ford laboratories, Glenolden, Pa., this distinguished 
authority said "We haven't any reliable figures, but I do 
know this about tetanus antitoxin, which is probably the 
product which has been sent abroad in greater quantities 
than any other product, — there are no statistics, but I have 
been reliably informed that when tetanus antitoxin has 
been used, the contrast between those who received and 
those who did not, is unbelievable. Before they got 
tetanus antito.xin there, the number of cases that de- 
veloped among wounded men was very alarming. So it is 
now a routine at any emergency hospital, as soon as the 
patient is received he gets a dose of tetanus antitoxin. 
No case of gunshot injury is considered as being properly 
treated until he has received a prophylactic dose of this 
agent." I have been informed that the usual routine is to 
repeat the dose after an interval of seven days and when 
indicated several doses are used. Under this method of 
prevention, tetanus has been practically banished from the 
armies of the combatants. 

I am also informed that it is a rule of large establish- 
ments where hundreds of horses are used for various pur- 
poses, such for example as the hauling of delivery wagons 
and the running of street cars, etc., to immediately inject 
500 units of tetanus antitoxin whenever the feet of these 
animals suffer a penetrating wound. Under this treatment, 
tetanus rarely, if ever, develops. 

Tetanus Versus Smallpox 

It is important for pharmacists to know that tetanus 
(lockjaw) is not caused by vaccination against smallpox. 
It has been my duty to investigate this subject in a number 
of cases ascribed to "poisonous virus" by the newspapers. 
In every case with which I have been brought in contact, 
not only the physician who did the vaccinating but also the 

TBaginsky. Deut. Med. Woch, 1893. 
t Foges, Wien. Med. Woch. 1893. 
* Hiss and Zinsser. 

Page Forty-Seven 



48 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Febeuary, 1917 



pharmacist who sold the vaccine, manifested unfortunate 
lack of information on this subject. Much opposition is 
being directed against the compulsory vaccination laws by 
the anti-vaccinationists and all cases of tetanus following 
vacoination are used by them as stock arguments against 
vaccination as a preventive of smallpox. In these cases the 
newspapers are generally full of sensational statements in 
which the case is ascribed to "impure virus." I have already 
referred to the experiments of the Bureau of Hygiene in 
this connection. 

The results of extensive investigations of this subject by 
Dr. John F. Anderson, Director of the Hygienic Labora- 
tories of the United States Public Health Service, are set 
forth in Public Health Report, vol. x.xx, No. 29, July 16, 
1915. The evidence is of a most exhaustive and convincing 
character. Surgeon Edward Francis, of the Division of 
Pathology and Bacteriology, working under Director An- 
derson, conducted experiments to determine the possibility 
of infecting guinea-pigs and monkeys, which are suscept- 
ble to both vaccinia and tetanus, lay inoculating with a 
mixture of vaccine and tetanus organisms. All experi- 
mental animals failed to develop tetanus, neither did the 
living tetanus germs establish tliemselves in the vaccina- 
tion sores, nor were there any symptoms of poison from 
tetanus toxin, which would have been the case if the germs 
has been able to grow in the sores. In other words, as 
stated by Dr. Anderson, "It is difficult, if not impossible, 
to produce tetanus in susceptible animals by vaccination 
with virus containing large numbers of tetanus organisms 
which have been purposely placed therein," 

It is pointed out by Dr. Anderson "that this conclusion 
is strengthened by the rarity of such cases, only 41 being 
recorded among over 31,000,000 vaccinated subjects during 
1904-1913, inclusive." 

This view was further strengthened by the failure of the 
Bureau of Hygiene to demonstrate tetanus organisms in 
a large amount of vaccine virus, specifically examined for 
that purpose. 

Production of Vaccine Virus 
The production of vaccine virus is conducted by the 
large propagators under government license, issued by the 
Bureau of Hygiene. No vaccine is permitted to enter into 
interstate commerce except under the inspection of the 
Bureau. The inspectors are always alert and are constantly 
examining the facilities of the manufacturers and testing 
their products by purchasing vaccine virus on an open 
market and examining the same for tetanus spores and 
other contaminating microorganisms. 

In conducting the work of the Bureau, samples of vac- 
cine virus sufficient for 2,000,000 vaccinations, obtained 
from the various propagators, have been examined, and not 
in a single instance were tetanus spores discovered in the 
vaccine. Dr. Anderson, therefore, further concludes, "that, 
in view of the failure to demonstrate tetanus organisms, in 
the large amount of vaccine virus specifically examined for 
that purpose, it seems exceedingly improbable that vaccine 
virus, as sold in the United States, contains organisms." 

If the vaccine virus of the United States had been at 
fault during the time in which the production has been 
under the observation of the Bureau of Hygiene, many 
more cases of tetanus should have followed vaccination. 

Further, no cases of tetanus following vaccination were 
reported in the United States Army and Navy during the 
ten years between 1904 and 1913 among the 585,000 per- 
sons vaccinated, although the lymph used came from the 
same stocks as were used by the civil population. This, Dr. 
.'Anderson states, "is an argument in favor of the con- 
tention that the cases of tetanus following vaccination in 
the country at large were not due to infection contained 
in the virus." 

Analysis of Cases 
The average period from vaccination to onset of symp- 
toms of tetanus in 83 cases of tetanus following vaccina- 
tion was 20.7 days, while the average mortality of 93 cases 
was 75.2 per cent., this being slightly higher than the mor- 
tality of cases of tetanus due to other causes with an in- 
cubation of ten days or less. 

Therefore, as concluded by Dr. Anderson, "cases_ of 
tetanus, occurring 15 or 20 days subsequent to vaccination, 
do not receive their infection through the vaccine virus. 
In all probability the infection is received about the tenth 
day." 



As stated by Dr. Anderson, "the infection with tetanus 
is received by a contamination of the vaccination wouna, 
such as may occur in the infection of any other surgical 
wound not properly cared for. No matter how carefully 
the physician cares for the wound produced by vaccination, 
infection may occur, because it is impossible to keep the 
patient under continuous observation. While it is true 
that it is difficult, if not impossible, to produce tetainus by 
injecting the tetanus germs into healthy tissues, yet a sup- 
purating wound, owing to the lowered resistance of the 
tissues, resulting from the growth of pus-producing organ- 
isms, is particularly susceptible to infection by tetanus 
germs derived from the soil or possibly blown in the dust 
by a passing wagon or automobile." 

Distribution of Vaccine Virus 

It should always be remembered that the occurrences of 
tetanus not following vaccination are far more frequent 
than post-vaccinal cases. For example, in 1909 the total 
vaccine virus distributed by the Health Department of 
Philadelphia, as recorded by Dr. Wadsworth, tlie Coroner's 
Physician, was 40,400; the total cases of tetanus investi- 
gated by the Health Department during the same year 
were 25, of these only three were post-vaccinal. In 1910, 
65,000 packages were distributed; total cases of tetanus re- 
ported, 30 (post-vaccinal, 4). In 1911, 44,133 packages were 
distributed; total cases of tetanus reported 24 (post-vac- 
cinal, 3). In 1912, total virus distributed by Health De- 
partment, 40, 844; total cases of tetanus reported 24 (post- 
vaccinal, 2). 

In these four years the city distributed 190,427 "vac- 
cinations," and Dr. Wadsworth estimates that private firms 
sold at least double this amount, making more than one- 
half million vaccinations in the city. Tetanus followed in 
only 13 cases, while there were 90 cases of tetanus having 
no relation to vaccination. This would certainly seem to 
demonstrate that tetanus following vaccination can be ac- 
counted for in the same way as tetanus following any other 
wound presenting proper conditions for the reception and 
development of tetanus spores. 

SERUM ANTITETANICUM, U.S.P. 
Antitetanic Serum 
Ser. Antitetan. — -Tetanus Antitoxin 
A fluid having a potency of not less than 100 units per 
mil, separated from the coagulated blood of the horse, 
Equus Caballus Linne, (Fam. Eguidae), or other large do- 
mestic animal, which has been properly immunized against 
tetanus toxin. It must be kept in sealed glass containers in 
a dark place, at a temperature between 4.5 degrees and IS 
degrees C. 

A yellowish or yellowish-brown, transparent, or 
slightly turbid liquid with sometimes a slight granular 
deposit; nearly odorless, or having an odor due to the 
presence of the antiseptic used as a preservative. 

Antitetanic Serum gradually loses in potency, the loss 
being greater at higher than at lower temperatures. 
The Serum must come from healthy animals, must be 
sterile, must be free from toxins or other bacterial, 
products, and must not contain an excessive amount of 
preservative (not more than 0.5 per cent, of phenol or 
cresol, when either of these is used), and the total 
solids must not exceed 20 per cent. Serum of a 
lower potency than 100 units per mil must not be sold 
or dispensed. Only such Sera may be sold or dis- 
pensed as have been prepared and propagated in estab- 
lishments licensed by the Secretary of the Treasury of 
the United States. 

The United States law requires that each coiitainer 
of Serum sold or dispensed by licensed establishments 
shall bear upon the label, in addition to the name of 
the Serum, the name, address and license number of 
the manufacturer and the date beyond which the con- 
tents cannot be expected to yield its specific results. 
The label must also contain the laboratory number 
of the Serum and the total number of antitoxic units 
claimed for the contents of the container. 

The standard of strength, expressed in units _ of 
antitoxic power, shall be that established by the United 
States Public Health Service. 

Average Dose— Hypodermic, 10,000 units. Protective, 
1,500 units. 



Februaky, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



49 



SERUM ANTITETANICUM PURIFICATUM, U.S.P. 

Purified Antitetanic Serum 
Ser. Antiten. Purif. — Antitetanic Globulins ; Concentrated 

Tetanus Antitoxin ; Refined and Concentrated Tetanus 

Antitoxin ; Tetanus Antitoxin Globulins. 

A solution in physiological solution of sodium chloride 
of certain antitoxic substances obtained from the blood 
serum or plasma of the horse Equiis Caballus Linne (Fam. 
Equidac), or other large domestic animal, which has been 
properly immunized against tetanus toxin. After the serum 
or plasma from the immunized animal has been collected, 
the antitoxin-bearing globulins are separated from the other 
constituents of the serum or plasma and dissolved in water; 
and sufficient "Sodium chloride is then added to make a 
solution containing from 0.6 to 0.9 per cent, of the salt. It 
has a potency of not less than 100 units per mil. It must 
be kept in sealed glass containers in a dark place, at a tem- 
perature between 4.5 degrees and 15 degrees C. 

A transparent or slightly opalescent liquid, with 
sometimes a slight graular or ropy deposit ; nearly 
odorless, or having an odor due to the presence of the 
antiseptic used as a preservative. The liquid is some- 
times more or less viscous. The serum must come 
from healtliy animals, must be sterile, must be free 
from toxins or other bacterial products, and must not 
contain an excessive amount of preservative (not more 
than 0.5 per cent, of phenol or cresol, when either of 
these is used), and the total solids must not exceed 20 
per cent. Serum of a lower potency than 100 units per 
mil must not be sold or dispensed. 

Purified Antitetanic Serum must comply with the 
requirements for loss of potency, control, labeling and 
standard for potency under Serum Antilctanicum. 

Average Dose — Hypodermic, 10,000 units. Protective, 
1,500 units. 

SERUM ANTITETANICUM SICCUM, U. S. P. 
Dried Antitetanic Serum 
Ser. Antiten. Sice. — Dried Tetanus Antitoxin 
Dried Antitetanic Serum is obtained by the evaporation 
of eidier Antitetanic Serum or Purified Antitetanic Serum 
in a vacuum, over sulphuric acid or other desiccating agent, 
or by passing over it a current of warm air freed from 
bacteria. It has a potency of not less than 1,000 units per 
gramme. It must be kept in hermetically sealed amber- 
colored glass containers, free from air, at a temperature be- 
tween 4.5 degrees and 15 degrees C, preferably in a dark 
place. 

Dried Antitetanic Serum is either in the form of 
orange or yellowish flakes or small lumps, or a yellow- 
ish-white powder, without odor. The serum is soluble 
in nine parts of distilled water, but the solution is 
opalescent and slightly viscous ; it may be dissolved 
more readily in larger amounts of distilled water or 
physiological solution of sodium chloride. For use, 
the serum must be dissolved in recently boiled and 
cooled distilled water under the most rigid aseptic con- 
ditions. The solution must be used immediately and, 
if there should be any serum or solution remaining, it 
must be discarded. Dried Antitetanic Serum if kept 
as directed does not lose in potency, as does the liquid 
serum. It is sometimes used as a dusting powder or 
for local application to infected wounds. 

It must comply with the requirements for control 
and labeling under Serutn Antitetaiiictim and the stand- 
a.rd of strength, expressed in units of antitoxic power, 
shall be that established by the United States Public 
Health Service. 
Average Dose — Hypodermic, 10,000 units. Protective, 
1,500 units. 

Preparation 
The production of tetanus antitoxin is analogous in every 
way to that of diphtheria antitoxin. The tetanus toxin for 
use in producing tetanus antitoxin is obtained by cultivat- 
ing the bacilli upon bouillon for eight or ten days at incu- 
bator temperature. The bacilli are afterwards separated 
from the bouillon by filtration through Berkefeld filters 
and the toxin preserved in liquid form by the use of an 
antiseptic, or it may be preserved in dried state after pre- 
cipitation by ammonium sulphate. 

After previous standardization to determine the strength 



of the toxin, it is used for immunizing healthy horses in 
the same way that diphtheria to-xin is employed in the 
production of diphtheria antitoxin. The antitoxic serum 
is then obtained by bleeding from the jugular vein as in 
the case of diphtheria antitoxin. It is then standardized 
and preserved with an antiseptic. 

As stated above, under Serum Antitetanicum Ptirifi- 
catum, the serum may be prepared by separating the anti- 
toxin-bearing globulin from the other constituents of the 
serum or plasma, dissolving same in water and adding 
sufficient sodium chloride, making a soli!iion containing 
from 0.6 to 0.9 per cent, of the salt. The process em- 
ployed for separating the antitoxin-hearing globulin from 
the serum or plasma is similar to that employed m the 
preparation of Serum Aniidiphthercticum Purij.caUtm. 
The method of preparing Dried Antitetanic Serum is 
sufficiently described under Serum Antitetanwum Siccum. 



NEWS OF THE A.PH.A. BRANCHES 



BALTIMORE BRANCH 



The Baltimore branch held its annual meeting January 
24th in the University of Maryland buildings with Louis 
Schultze presiding. The continuance of the Journal and 
Year Book were the subjects discussed during the first 
part of the meeting and it was finally decided to wait 
until the result of the referendum vote is known before 
proceeding further. 

Drs. Caspari and Kelly discussed the U.S.P. VIII and it 
was decided to consider it legal until it was proven other- 
wise. 

Among those who took part in the discussions were 
Messrs. Hancock, Lentz, Lowry, Schultze and Ware. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, 
H. A. B. Dunning; Vice-president, Francois Lentz; Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, B. Olive Cole ; Council Member, 
Herman Engelhardt, Membership Committee, Charles H. 
Ware; Professional Relations, C. L. Meyer; Science and 
practice of pharmacy, E. F. Kelly; Educational, Charles 
Morgan. 



CHICAGOANS DISCUSS FORMULAS 



The regular monthly meeting of the Chicago Branch, 
American Pharmaceutical Association was held at the 
College of Pharmacy building, 701 S. Wood street, 
December 15th. The subject of the evening was the 
A.Ph.A. Recipe Book and a large number of formulas 
were presented for discussion, including especially form- 
ulas for ointments and photographic materials. Wm. Gray 
and I. A. Becker, both members of the Committee on 
A.Ph.A. Recipe Book, took leading parts in the discussion. 

Professor Day called attention to the action of the As- 
sociation in providing for the publication in the December 
Journal of an index to the formulas so far submitted 
and which would provide a basis for further constructive 
efltorts. 

The Chicago Branch expressed to the committee its 
appreciation of the work already done and oflfered its 
co-operation to bring to an early completion this next 
great publication of the A.Ph.A. 



PHXLADELPHIA BRANCH 



The monthly meeting of the Philadelphia Branch saw 
several important business motions passed. Among them 
were the following, that process patents only be granted; 
that the original patentee receive royalty from subsequent 
patents ; reciprocity with other nations as regards manu- 
facture in this country; extension of the Paige bill to 
include all chemicals; exclusion of generic names from 
copyrights. The president appointed a committee of three 
to confer with the American Chemical Society on the last 
subject. 

Late in December the branch passed resolutions on the 
death of Martin Inventius Wilbert who died in Phila- 
delphia in December. Representatives of the branch also 
attended the services held in Philadelphia by representa- 
tives of friends. That service was held in the Philadel- 
phia college of pharmacy and forty-one representatives oi 
societies and organizations attended. 



The Phar macist and the State 

Are Certificate Renewals a Necessity? 



By C. F. NELSON 



A GREAT deal has been said concerning the state and 
Its relation to the individual citizen— so much so, in 
fact, tiiat I doubt, if anything that is really new can 
be brought forward here. And yet there are phases of the 
slate s attitude towards certain of its citizens— decidedly dis- 
cnnunating in character— which have been neglected for 
so long a time that it seems eminently proper to bring 
them up at this time for your attention and discussion. 

We all like to think of the state as something large and 
powerful, as it, of course, truly is; as a protector of the 
poor, the weak, and the helpless; as the guardian of the 
men and women who live within its boundaries. But above 
all else we like to feel that it stands for absolute justice, 
for equality of all men and women before the law and 
for the fullest measure of righteous action and impartial- 
ity. And so we come to feel the reality and the strength 
of this immaterial power which finds its embodiment in 
the capitol building. As the years go by, the citizens of the 
state come to experience more and more the reality and 
the unity of this spiritual entity. To most of us, then, 
the state stands as the embodiment of power, of law, of 
order, and pre-eminently, of justice and equality, without 
fear or favor. 

The particular phase of this question immediately before 
us, however, and to which I desire to invite your atten- 
tion concerns the relationship of a particular group of 
citizens to the state. To make the matter more simple, 
let us place this group within a larger group to which they 
belong and ask this question : "What relations do prof es- 
sional men and women have toward the state in which 
they live and labor and in turn what is the state's rela- 
tionship to them?" 

Pharmacy a Specialized Calling' 

It seems at the outset obvious that the professional man 
or woman bears a different relation to the state from that 
ot the average citizen. The professions represent special- 
ized callings, so highly specialized, in fact, that for the 
welfare and protection of its citizens the state has found 
It necessary to subject the men and women of this group 
to special tests of fitness; to require of them years of 
preparation and study before it is willing to permit them 
to practice the particular calling which they have chosen. 
These requirements are imposed for public safety and not 
for any benefit or monopoly in favor of those within the 
profession. The doctor, the lawyer, the pharmacist, the 
veterinarian, and now the teacher must satisfy certain 
requirements, pass certain tests, show evidences of fitness 
before being allowed to do the work they have prepared 
themselves to do, and this for the sake of public welfare 
and for that alone. 

What, then, in brief, is the present conduct of the state 
concerning the treatment of the groups upon which the 
restrictions mentioned above are put? How does the state 
in turn treat the doctor, lawyer, pharmacist, dentist, 
teacher? Do they all receive the same treatment or are 
certain of them discriminated against, and if so, how can 
this matter be corrected? 

The usual practice in our states consists in requiring 
candidates who desire to engage in the above callings to 
present themselves for examination at stated intervals be- 
fore examining boards usually appointed by the governor 
of the state. The examination successfully passed and 
other matters, such as educational requirements, personal 
record, length of service, etc., being satisfactorily met, the 
candidate is issued a license to practice his calling for life. 
In the case of school teachers this is not exactly the pro- 
cedure, a certificate usually being first issued for three 
years and at the end of that time, if the candidate has 
taught two of the three years, this certificate is extended 

* Proceedings of the Kansas Ph. A., 1916. 
Page Fifty 



without examination for life. These conditions obtain in 
medicine, veterinary medicine, law, dentistry and teaching. 
Pharmacist Should Have Life Certificate 
Now by some curious fate or anomalous set of condi- 
tions the pharmacist does not at all enjoy the same treat- 
ment from the state that his professional brethren do. To 
be sure, the state asks that he, too, take examinations, not 
only one, but three; that he give evidence of certain pre- 
lirninary education, as well as four years of apprentice- 
ship. The younger generation is, in addition urged to 
attend a school of pharmacy for two, three or four years. 
After all these conditions are complied with, the candi- 
date is issued a license to retail and dispense drugs, pois- 
ons and chemicals for twelve months, after which his 
license expires and he is no longer a pharmacist. By 
paying an annual due within a certain length of time he 
can, it is true, be reinstated, but should he neglect this 
for six months or a year, he automatically ceases to have 
any right to follow the calling which he has spent years 
in order to master. Why doesn't the state try this scheme 
on the doctor, the lawyer, the dentist? Why should the 
pharmacist be the only one discriminated against in this 
way? Can there be any possible reason why he should 
forget more about his business if he remained out of it 
for a few years or ceased paying annual dues than other 
professional men would? There can be only one right 
way to handle this matter and that is by issuing a life 
certificate with proper restrictions to the pharmacist. 
Professional Tenure and Yearly Dues 
We are at present much concerned with reciprocal 
registration — with trying to unify requirements in the dif- 
ferent states so that examinations passed in one shall be 
valid in all of the rest. This propaganda is exceedingly 
valuable for pharmacy in this country and should be 
pushed with all the vigor we possess. But along with it 
it seems we should also strive for a permanent profes- 
sional status in pharmacy. What if we do have reciprocal 
registration? We are still professional venders as long 
as we must each year pay an annual tax, as a punishment, 
it sometimes seems, for having spent years in learning a 
profession. Why not once a pharmacist, always a phar- 
macist? This condition obtains in all of the other pro- 
fessions. A doctor takes but one examination and the 
state permits him to practice medicine for life. The same 
is true of the dentist, of the lawyer, of the veterinarian, 
and also even of the grade school teacher. What 
logical reason is there that the pharmacist should be 
assessed yearly dues? Why should he annually help to 
support a state board of pharmacy which the state needs 
to protect its citizens and which the governor of the 
state appoints? We need boards of pharmacy and I am 
not arguing for a single instant against maintaining them. 
Their members should, if anything, be better paid than 
they now are. They should as well have a high-salaried 
secretary or president who devotes his entire time to this 
work. But these expenses should be borne by the state, 
which secures protection to its citizens from the rules 
and regulations that the Board of Pharmacy passes. We 
feel, moreover, that we have a right to be treated like 
other professional men, to pay a fee for examination and 
registration and then if we passed the examination suc- 
cessfully, to be registered for life as the other profes- 
sional men now are. Can there be anything more humili- 
ating to the profession of pharmacy than to have written 
on our statute books as a part of the rulings of our 
state board that if, after three months or a year, _ a phar- 
macist has not paid an annual due, he is automatically no 
longer a pharmacist? All the years_ of his professional 
training have been swept away in an instant. He must go 
back and satisfy the board by another examination that 
he knows his business before he can become a pharmacist 



Febrcaby, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



51 



again. It would be far better that his property were sold 
to pay for this tax than to have his professional standing 
so easily set at naught. How can the pharmacist ever 
hope to add dignity to his calling so long as his "profes- 
sional tenure" is so uncertain? 

Any Tax Not Imposed On All Alike Unjust 
The amount of money involved in satisfying the annual 
dues that the pharmacist has to pay is, to be sure, very 
small. Some might even argue from this, why not pay 
this small amount and keep still about it? Isn't it worth 
a dollar or a dollar and a half to you to be registered as 
a pharmacist for 'twelve months ? To which there is but 
one reply, yes, and many dollars, if pharmacy is a monop- 
oly which exists only to protect the pharmacist. If, how- 
ever, the state has seen fit to impose certain standards for 
the protection of its citizens, to insure the accurate and 
intelligent retailing and compounding of drugs and chemi- 
cals, then it is the state's duty and privilege to maintain 
the state board of pharmacy and to furnish the funds for 
prosecuting violations of the pharmacy laws ; and any tax, 
however small, which is not imposed on all professional 
men alike, is unjust and lowers the dignity of the calling 
which is discriminated against. 

Pharmacists should be alive to this question. It may 
seem small and insignificant to many because the amount 
involved is so little and yet if pharmacy is to come to its 
own as a profession, we may have as high ideals as we 
will ; we may set standards for the practice of pharmacy 
higher than they have ever been before ; we may have 
high school or college entrance requirements ; we may have 
reciprocal registration and all that, but until the state is 
willing to treat us in the same way and place us in the 
same position with reference to this matter of permanent 
registration as it now does the other professions, we are 
without the first and most fundamental step in gaining 
the public esteem and respect which our calling ought 
to have. 

Once a Pharmacist Always a Pharmacist 
Now it is undoubtedly true that in this country the 
discriminations we have spoken of have been in no way 
intentional or deliberate on the part of the legislature of 
any state. They have merely been a part of each state's 
growth, dating back to a time when the pharmacist's call- 
ing was so insignificant and vague and when the standards 
for requirements for practice were so low that no one 
paid any attention to him as a professional man. But 
that is all changed today. The educational requirements, 
professional training and years of actual experience which 
are now required of the pharmacist demand that he be 
treated like other professional men. Pharmaceutical asso- 
ciations should take up this matter with their state legis- 
latures. The time is ripe for us to come into our own 
in this respect. Let our slogan be "Once a pharmacist, 
always a pharmacist," and not "Once a pharmacist until 
the 31st of December or 1st of July a pharmacist" as our 
certificates now read. We ought to be recognized by the 
state and by the public as being bona tide professional 
men. We should have the permanent professional tenure 
which the doctor, the lawyer, the teacher, the dentist, and 
the veterinarian now have. As matters stand today, the 
pharmacist is grossly discriminated against, unintentionally. 
however. It seems certain that no state legislature would 
refuse to remedy this condition, once the matter is pre- 
sented to them. 

I have chosen to present this paper to you at this time 
because I feel sure that you are interested in the matter 
I have spoken of. I am also mindful of the fact that 
you live in a state whose slogan is, "Kansas leads, where 
others follow." I am further convinced that Kansas men 
and women have amply demonstrated that they dare to 
change an old order of things whenever they feel that by 
so doing they may benefit themselves and_ help others. 
There are about 2,300 regular physicians registered in the 
State of Kansas this year and about 3,030 of all kinds. 
There are registered veterinarians. There are about 2,000 
pharmacists registered in the State of Kansas at the pres- 
ent time. Last year the state legislature appropriated 
$4,442.86 for maintaining the state board of medical exam- 
iners for the biennium, 1916-17. $1,883.50 was appropriated 
by the same legislature for maintaining the state board 
of veterinary examiners. About $1,800 was received by 
the secretary of the state board of pharmacists for the 



renewal of pharmacy certificates during the past year, 
dues which no other set of men has to pay. It seems 
certain that the governor and the legislature of this state, 
if informed of this condition, w'ould be only too glad to 
give the pharmacist due justice in this respect; would be 
glad to change the pharmacy law to make it conform in 
this particular with that governing the practice of other 
professions mentioned. The small sum needed by the state 
to support the state board of pharmacy, if annual renewals 
were discontinued, would be insignificant indeed. 'The 
justness and fairness which would result would be in- 
estimable. 



NEW NEW YORK SANITARY CODE 



The Board of Health of New York has added a new 
section to the city's Sanitary Code, which deals with 
drugs. Under the provisions of the article, drug stores 
will be inspected regularly just as restaurants, grocery 
stores, confectioners' stores and such places of retail 
business are. 

The new article reads as follows : 

Sec. 129. Condemnation and Destruction of Drugs Authorized— 
Upon any drug or medicine being found by an inspector or other 
duly authorized representative of the Department of Health in a 
condition which renders it, in his opinion, unfit for human use, 
externally or internally, or in a condition or of weight, quality 
or strength, forbidden by the provisions of the Sanitary Code! 
such inspector or duly authorized representative of the said de- 
partment is hereby empowered and directed to immediately seize 
the said drug or medicine and affix thereto a label bearing the 
words "Seized by the Board of Health." Such drug or medicine 
when so labeled shall not be touched, disturbed, sold, offered for 
sale or given away, but shall be released, destroyed, or otherwise 
finally disposed of, as the Board of Health shall direct. 

Stripped of legal verbiage, the new order means that 
there is to be a close inspection of drugs, by drug inspec- 
tors. No provision has been made for inspection by men 
who know drugs, and none will be made for a few 
months. However, says Dr. Lucien S. Brown, head of 
the drug department for the Board, there are several in- 
spectors already employed who have studied drugs, and 
they will be used in the new inspection. 

The theory of the article is the same as those governing 
food stores. Inspectors will make periodical visits and 
will examine whatever appears to them suspicious. A 
complaint system will be used for drug stores in the same 
way that it is for the other trades. That is, citizens may 
telephone or report to tlie Board of Health any drug 
store of which they are suspicious and it will be inspected 
at once. 

"We do not mean this law as a hardship," said Dr. 
Brown, "but merely as a preventive. We will inspect 
druggists to a certain degree but we will also watch them 
through our complaints. The law was placed in the code 
merely to give us a control over drugs that we didn't have 
before. It should work out as well in that trade as it 
has in all others." 



COAST DRUGGISTS FALL OUT 



_ Trouble is reported in Washington over the 1917 conven- 
tion of the state druggists. Spokane planned for it, and 
the druggists chose that city. Now the coast druggists 
have demanded that the convention be held on he Pacific's 
shores and both divisions are angry. 

There is talk that the Eastern druggists mav break 
away from the state organization unless the convention 
goes to Spokane. Coast druggists, however, continue to 
insist on a coast convention in spite of the threats. There 
is only an outside possibility that the situation will be 
peaceably settled unless Spokane gets the convention. 

PURITAN DRUG CO. DISSOLVES 

Organized only six months ago, with a capital of S300,- 
000 and an announced intention of establishing a series of 
chain stores throughout Florida, the Puritan Drug Com- 
pany, early in January announced its dissolution. The 
dissolution was announced through an attorney for Caryl 
•F. Spiller. who was instrumental in promoting the con- 
cern. Mr. Spiller left Florida immediatelv after the an- 
nouncement had been made. The attorne'v said that the 
majority of the stock holders wanted the dissolution. Mr. 
Spiller will become a member of a large firm in the cen- 
tral west. 



52 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 




A MANUAL OF MATERIA MEDICA AND PHARMACOLOGY 

comprising all organic and inorganic drugs which are or have 
been official in the United States Pharmacopoeia, together with 
important allied species and useful synthetics, especially de- 
signed for students of pharmacy and medicine, as well as for 
druggists, pharmacists, and physicians. By David M. R. 
Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D., professor of botany, materia medica, 
and pharmacognosy in the Maryland College of Pharmacy, Uni- 
versity of Maryland, 6th edition, thoroughly revised. 492 ill. 
8 vo., 1001 pages, cloth. $5.25. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger. 

In this new edition the author has covered the field 
outUned in former editions, with such additions of new 
material as have been necessary to bring the work up to 
date and in consonance with the new revisions of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary. 
The arrangement of the drugs remains the same as that 
followed in previous editions, being based upon the prin- 
ciple of associating as nearly together as possible those 
substances, organic and inorganic, which have a common 
or allied origin, allowing those next related to follow in 
regular order, the basal or parental source being kept 
paramount. The volume opens with a discussion of the 
materia medica and the physiological drugs, the forms in 
which medicines can be used, the avenues by and through 
which they enter the human system, the means by which 
they are transmitted through the system, conditions which 
modify their action, dosage, etc. Then follows an out- 
line of the classifications of medicines, as arrangements 
by alphabetic sequence, by chemical constituents, by mor- 
phology and anatomy, and by therapeutic efltect. Thus, 
as we have indicated, the vegetable drugs are taken up in 
botanic sequence, beginning with the more simple and 
gradually approaching the more complex. Similar treat- 
ment is accorded the various animal drugs. 

Worthy of notice in this volume are the various "re- 
capitulation tables" introduced at various points, and which 
give in condensed and "chart" form the principal facts 
relating to drugs, as the name of the family or natural 
order to which the plant from which the drug is de- 
rived belongs, its botanic source, the part official, habitat, 
constituents, official preparations, medicinal properties, 
medicinal uses, doses, etc. The same procedure is fol- 
lowed with anirnal drugs, thus placing before the student 
in one place all of the salient facts of each drug he 
studies. Another feature of this work is that indicating 
the pronunciation of words more or less troublesome to 
the average student, and we are sure that if more study 
was devoted to this art there would not be the wide 
diversity an the pronunciation of scientific terms that pre- 
vails at the present time. The book has been reset and 
recast throughout and a number of new illustrations have 
been added, making this practically a new edition. For 
the pharmacy student it is one of the best manuals ex- 
tant on the subject, its use in many colleges of pharmacy 
as a prescribed textbook being evidence of this fact, while 
as a reference work for pharmacists and phj'sicians aloiig 
the line of sj-nonyms and condensed information it will 
prove highly serviceable. 



MYCOLOGICAL NOTES. By C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

We are in receipt of five issues of this interesting pub- 
lication, viz., those for December, 1915, and February, 
March, June and September, 1916, completing the series 
for the period named. Each number is fully illustrated, 
the front cover of each bearing a full page portrait of an 
eminent mycologist, the followmg being thus reproduced: 
The late Prof. J. B. Ellis, a leading American m3-cologist; 
W. G. Farlow, professor of cryptogamic botany at Har- 
vard University; Prof. H. C. Beardslee, Asheville, N. C. ; 
Fred J. Seaver, a graduate of Iowa University, and a 
rising young mycologist; and the late George E. Morris, 
of Waltham, Mass., who died on July 5, 1916. Botan- 
ists who specialize in mycology will appreciate the con- 
tributions that Mr. Lloyd has made to the literature of 
this interesting field of knowledge. 



ADVERTISING IN MOVING PICTURES. By Ernst A. Dench, 
The Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, O. 255 pages, 
$1.50 net. 

There is always room for a little more publicity. It 
really makes no difference what the line is you want to 
advertise or what purpose you have in view, you can 
always find some way to strengthen your sales by adver- 
tising. Naturally, with so much advertising throughout 
the country there is a pronounced desire for new things. 

In no sense can Mr. Bench's book be called a discus- 
sion of new methods of advertising, for in some ways, the 
motion pictures have been used in publicity campaigns as 
long as they have been used other ways. But Mr. Dench 
has presented ideas whch are of value, and many of them 
are new. Many of them are important in that they 
really have been used by large concerns and have been 
proved successful. 

From the viewpoint of the retailer, whether he be a 
druggist or grocer, the book has little value. Its sug- 
gestions are certainly too extensive and entirely im- 
practical to be of any use whatever. From the jobber's 
viewpoint, however, there is much to be gained, and the 
only possibility of help to retailers is found in that de- 
partment. Advertising on the scale suggested by Mr. 
Dench, however, is not for the retailer unless he can use 
films taken and arranged by the jobber. It is too 
costlv. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH 
of the territory of Hawaii for the twelve months ended June 
30. 1916. Honolulu, Hawaiian Gazette Co., Ltd. 

This report covers the activities of the Hawaiian Board 
of Health for the period named, including reports of the 
local U. S. Public Health officials, pure food bureau, and 
much information relating to the leprosy investigating 
stations, treatment of the disease, etc. According to Dr. 
W. J. Goodhue, resident physician of the Leper Settle- 
ment at Kalaupapa, Molokai, the remedies of proved value 
in the treatment of leprosy are narrowed_ down to chaul- 
moogra oil in some of its various combinations. In his 
opinion, important and necessary adjuvants are the vari- 
ous nervines, such especially as strjxhnine, the elixir of 
iron, quinine and strychnine phosphates, and especially 
the phosphates nucleinated. At the end of the fiscal year 
there were 138 licensed physicians in the territory, divided 
as to nationaIit>' as follows: .American 74, Japanese 41, 
British 13, German 4, Chinese 4, Portuguese 1, and Nor- 
wegian 1. 



LORD & THOMAS" POCKET DIRECTORY OF THE AMERI- 
CAN PRESS. 

This directory contains a complete list of the news- 
papers, magazines, farm journals, religious papers, for- 
eign language publications and other periodicals pub- 
lished in the United States, Canada, Porto Rico, Haw- 
aiian and Philippine Islands, together with such informa- 
tion as frequency of publication, figures indicating cir- 
culation, etc., printed alphabetically under the various 
towns in each State, their population, etc. The direc- 
tory contains more than 800 pages of closely printed mat- 
ter, is nicely bound in morocco and of a size that can be 
easily carried in the pocket. It is published by the well 
known firm of Lord & Thomas of Chicago and New 
York, and aims to place before the advertising space 
buyer all the information he needs in his effort to obtain 
publicity. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF 
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTS. Ninth annual meeting held 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, May 29 to June 1, 1916. 8 vo., 210 
pages, cloth. 

This volume is one of the most interesting and valu- 
able of the various annuals published by this association, 
and judging by the discussions and the reports presented, 
the meeting at Cedar Rapids must have been a most 
profitable one to all concerned. The reports of the com- 
mittees on credits and collections, on standardization and 
drug testing, and on efficiency and waste, exhibit careful 
study and are highly illuminating to all manufacturers 
whether they belong to the association or not. The asso- 
ciation now numbers more than forty manufacturing con- 
cerns in its active membership, and eight as associate 
members. The 1917 meeting is to be held at Atlantic City 
with the understanding that the members have consented 
"to cut out all special entertainments, including the ban- 
quet" 



THE QUESTION BOX 

The ' ^How to Do It ' ' Department 



Conducted by Pharmaceutical Experts 

For the benefit of ERA Subscribers 




Removing Cigarette Stains 
(E. P. P.) — Sodium perborate has been recommended 
as a skin bleach for the fingers, and we suggest you try 
it. The dry perborate may be applied by means of a 
dampened brush, or the fingers may be immersed in a 
little water in which a small quantity of the perborate has 
been dissolved. 

The following formula has been published for a prep- 
aration in powder form : Finely powdered castile soap, 30 
parts ; finely powdered pumice stone, 3 parts ; China clay, 
45 parts ; sodium perborate, 22 parts. Mix. 

Cigarette smoke contains, beside nicotine, various pyri- 
din bases and other ethereal products of the combustion 
of the tobacco and paper wrapper of the cigarette. The 
stains on the fingers are caused by the tobacco becoming 
moistened with the saliva coming in contact with the 
skin. 

Wine of Cod Liver Oil 

(Exporter) — The preparation usually exploited under 
the above title does not, (as its name would indicate,) 
contain cod liver oil, but is prepared from gaduol (morr- 
huol), a so-called alcohol-soluble extract which is said 
to contain the alterative principles of cod liver oil (iodine, 
bromine, phosphorus and alkaloids). Here are three for- 
mulas, the first being taken from "Pharmaceutical For- 
mulas" : 

(1) 

Morrhuol (gaduol) 80 grains 

Fluidextract of licorice 3 fl. ounces 

Glycerin 2 fl. ounces 

Syrup of wild cherry 4 fl. ounces 

Liquid extract of malt 8 fl. ounces 

Compound syrup of hypophosphites. 4 fl. ounces 

Fullers' earth (in powder) 240 grains 

Sherry wine to 40 fl. ounces 

Mix the morrhuol with the glycerin and triturate with 
the fullers' earth ; add the fluide.xtracts and syrup of wild 
cherry, allow it to stand for twenty-four hours, agitating 
occasionall}-, then filter and add the syrup of hypophos- 
phites ; lastly add sufficient sherry wine to make 40 fluid 
ounces. 

(2) 

Gaduol 64 grains 

Soluble iron phosphate 128 grains 

Alcohol 4 fl. drams 

Glycerin 4 fl. ounces 

Port wine, enough to make 4 drams 

'. 64 fl. ounces 

Mi.x the gaduol with the alcohol and add the fullers' 
earth ; triturate well and add the glycerin and wine. Let 
stand a day or so, shaking occasionally, and add soluble 
iron phosphate, previously dissolved in 1 ounce of hot 
water ; then filter, passing sufficient wine through the fil- 
ter to preserve the volume. Color with caramel. 

(3) 

Gaduol 64 grains 

Soluble iron phosphate 128 grains 

Alcohol 4 fl. drams 

Fullers' earth 4 drams 

Port and claret wine, of each equal 
parts, to make 16 fl. ounces 



Mix as directed in the preceding formula. .A.n elixir 
can be similarly made by using simple elixir in place of 
the wine. 



Haines' Test Solution 

(J. E. K.) — This test is employed to indicate the pres- 
ence of sugar in urine, being a modification of that known 
as Trommer's test in that it has the advantage of making 
use of a solution that remains stable almost indefinitely.. 
The solution consists of pure copper sulphate, 30 grains,' 
distilled water, 1 ounce; when a perfect solution is made 
pure glycerin, 1/2 ounce, is added; then after thorough mix- 
ing, 5 ounces of solution of potassa are added. Of this 
solution 1 to 2 Cc. are gently boiled in a test-tube. Then 
6 to 8 drops of the urine are added and the upper part of 
the solution is boiled gently for a second or two only. Pres- 
ence of sugar is indicated by the formation of a yellow or 
yellowish-red precipitate. 



Denatured Alcohol 

(J. E. K.) — "What is added to alcohol in the production 
of denatured alcohol?" 

The substances used to denature alcohol vary with the 
special purpose for which such denatured spirit is in- 
tended; in some cases methyl alcohol only is added, in 
others methyl alcohol and benzin or pyridine bases, and 
in still others methyl alcohol, castor oil, caustic soda lye, 
etc. The law permitting the denaturing of alcohol went 
into effect on Jan. 1, 1907, the operation of the same be- 
ing placed under the direction of the Internal Revenue De- 
partment. Under the provisions of the Department per- 
sons who use denatured alcohol in any manner except as 
expressly authorized by the law, will be held to be liable 
for double the amount of the tax on all the alcohol so 
used, in addition to the penalties, civil and criminal, ex- 
pressly provided for by the Act. The Internal Revenue 
Department has published about twenty formulas for de- 
naturing alcohol, all of which may be found in the of 
ficial bulletin issued by the department, a copy of which 
you can obtain by addressing the Commissioner at Wash- 
ington. The bulletin also contains regulations and instruc- 
tions concerning denatured alcohol as it relates to the 
various_ industrial applications, etc. In 1912 the Commis- 
sioner issued a series of seventeen formulas for the prep- 
aration of denatured alcohol to be used for general anti- 
septic purposes in hospitals and sanitariums, and exempt- 
ing such alcohol from tax. The denaturants named in 
these formulas are alum, camphor, carbolic acid, formal- 
dehyde, zinc sulphate, bichloride of mercury, hydrochloric 
cid, oil of cajuput, tannic acid, extract hamamelis, com- 
pound solution of cresol, et"., in most cases mixtures of 
these substances being employed. For further particulars 
you should consult the bulletin referred to above. 



Solubility of Oils in a Prescription 
(T. & M.) — "We cannot mix the following prescrip- 
tion without having the oil separate, 'Menthol, 0.25; oil 
of eucalyptus, 1.50; oil of gaultheria, 1.50; sodium car- 
bonate and sodium borate, of each, 4.50; glycerin, 20; 
distilled water, 120.' What is the difficulty?" 

This prescription is a combination or modification of 
the formulas for Dobell's solution and the antiseptic 
solution of the National Formulary, and the principal 
difficulty is due to the fact that the quantity of oils pre- 

Page Fifty-Three 



54 



THE PHAEAIACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



scribed is too great to be dissolved in the mixture of dis- 
tilled water and glycerin employed as the vehicle. Our 
method of compounding would be to dissolve the sodium 
carbonate and sodium borate in about 70 mils of water 
previously mixed with the glycerin; let the mixture stand 
for half an hour until ettervescence has ceased, then add 
the menthol and oils previously dissolved in about 5 mils 
of alcohol and 20 rails of distilled water. Mix both solu- 
tions and add about 2 grams of purified talc, let the mix- 
ture stand with occasional agitation for a day or so ; 
then filter, returning the first portions of the filtrate until 
it passes through clear. Finally add enough distilled 
water through the filter to make the whole measure 120 
mils. In this way you will at least get a saturated solu- 
tion of the oils, and that is about the best one can do 
with the formula. It can be diluted for use by adding the 
desired quantity of water moderately warm. 

Oak Bark Tanning 

(O. T. & T. Co.) — We are not familiar with the practi- 
cal details of tanning, the particular method employed and 
the exact treatment of the hide preliminary to the use of 
oak bark depending upon individual experience and other 
conditions. However, here is a formula for tanning by the 
use of oak bark, which we take from Spon's "Workshop 
Receipts:" 

"Take 1 cwt. of the limbs or branches, and ^ oi a cwt. 
of oak sawdust — the sooner the latter is used after being 
made the better — and K cwt. of the root; boil in 80 gal- 
lons of water, till reduced to from 50 to 60 gallons. Draw 
off the decoction, and put it aside for use. To the ma- 
terials left in the copper add 60 gallons of water and again 
boil until reduced to from 30 to 35 gallons. The liquor 
produced by this second boiling is to be employed in the 
first stage of tanning hides after they come from the beam ; 
and afterward the decoction first produced is to be em- 
ployed. The skins or hides having undergone the before- 
mentioned processes, add as much oak bark or tan liquor, 
or both, to the respective decoctions as is necessary to com- 
plete the tanning, The quantity of each will vary according 
to the strength of such decoctions ; which strength will de- 
pend upon the age and size of the tree, and other circum- 
stances." 

For more specific information we suggest you refer to 
to such books as those by Bennett, "Manufacture of 
Leather," ($4.50); Fleming, "Practical Tanning; a Hand- 
book of Modern Processes, Receipts, and Suggestions for 
the Treatment of Hides, Skins and Pelts of every descrip- 
tion," $4.00; and Watt, "Art of Leather Manufacture," a 
practical handbook in which the operations of tanning, cur- 
rying, and leather dressing are described. ($4.) 

Books on Embalming' 
(G. W. T.)— The following books on embalming have 
been recommended : 

Barnes, Art and Science of Embalming, 

Descriptive and Operative $5 . 00 

Clake & Dhonau, Official Textbook on Em- 
balming 2.00 

Dodge, Practical Embalmer 3.00 

Eckels, Practical Embalmer 3 . 50 

Myers Champion Textbook of Embalm-.. 5.00 

ing 5.00 

A periodical called The Embalmers' Monthly covermg 
this field is published by the Trade Periodical Co., 608 S. 
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Percentage Solutions Again 
(J. B. H.)— The Era Dose Book and other reference 
works give tables showing the quantity of substance and 
solvent to be employed for making the more common 
percentage solutions, most of these tables being calculated 
for solutions requiring q. s. distilled water to make 1 
pint, the per cent meaning so many hundredths of the fin- 
ished solution by weight In practice, to obtain a solution 
measuring, say 4 fl. ounces, it is necessary to ascertain 
what 4 ifl. ounces of distilled water will weigh. This 
weight we find to be 1825.4488 grains (456,3797 gr. x 4.) 
To make a 5% solution of silver nitrate measurmg about 
4 fl. ounces we can do one of two things; we can make 
1825.4488 grains the weight of the finished solution one 
twentieth of which will be silver nitrate. The amount of 



silver nitrate necessary for this purpose we find to be 91.27 
grains to which we add distilled waier until the solution 
weighs 1825.4488 grains. By the other method we can 
assume that 1825.44S8 grains is 95% or 19-20ths by weight 
of the solution desired and to which we add silver nitrate 
sufficient to make the whole weigh 20-20ths. Thus, if 
1825.4488 grains is 19-20ths one twentieth will be' l-19th 
of 1825.4488 or 96.07 grains; if this weight of silver ni- 
trate be taken and added to the water it will make a solu- 
tion weighing 1921.5188 grains, 5% of which is silver ni- 
trate. By the first method the volume of finished product 
is slightly less than 4 fl. ounces, while by the second method 
the volume is slightly in excess of the quantity named. 
This is due to the fact that 1 grain of the salt does not 
occupy the same space as 1 minim of water. 

Many druggists get around problems of this character 
by taking as the weight the nearest round number that is 
likely to yield the full volume of solution. The nearest 
round number to that e.xpressing the weight of a fluid ounce 
of water is 500, and calculating 500 grains to the fluid 
ounce we should require 50 grains of silver nitrate and 450 
grains of water to make a 10 per cent solution. The rea- 
son for this procedure is because we do not know exactly 
how much the salt when dissolved will increaseTIie volume 
of the finished solution. Four ounces will require four 
times the quantity. In measuring the solution thus made, 
the volume will fall a little short of four fluid ounces, 
but it will represent a true 10 per cent solution. A little 
"mental arithmetic" is all thst is usually required to work 
out most of the problems. The table in the Era Dose 
Book will give you the factors for the usual percentage 
solutions, but with its use or the use of any table for a 
similar purpose, the principles outlined must be con- 
sidered. 



Reaction in Cream of Tartar Baking Powder 

(W. H. L.) — When cream of tartar and sodium bicar- 
bonate, the usual constituents of baking powder, react in 
breadmaking, tlie products are carbon dio.xide, Rochelle 
salt, and water. Cream of tartar is acid potassium tar- 
trate; Rochelle salt is sodium potassium tartrate; and the 
reaction is represented by the equation — 

KHC,H*Os-fNaHC03=KNaC.H40e-l-COjH-H,0. 

The carbon dio.xide when released lightens the bread, 
and the Rochelle salt formed is not present in sufficient 
quantity to have any untoward efltect. The author of 
"Pharmaceutical Formulas" states that the ideal baking 
powder is one consisting of cream of tartar (100%i) 69 
parts, sodium bicarbonate 31 parts, with amylaceous 
diluent up to half the combined acid and alkali. Cream 
of tartar is said to be better than tartaric acid for two 
practical reasons, which substantially are one in theory: 
first, powders containing cream of tartar keep their prop- 
erties longer, and. second, in the dough the carbon diox- 
ide is evolved more steadily and slowlv than is the case 
with tartaric acid. The same authority gives in the fol- 
lowing list the quantities of acid substances commonly 
used in making baking powders which neutralize the stated 
quantity of sodium bicarbonate. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOj, 1 av. ounce (437.5 
grains) neutralizes: 

Acid phosphate of ammonium (NH,H.P04=11S), 300 
grains. 

Acid phosphate of calcium [CaH.(PO.)2H:0,=252], 
330 grains. 

Acid phosphate of potassium (KH2PO,=136), 354 
grains. 

Acid phosphate of sodium (NaH-PO,, H,0 = 158), 418 
grains. 

Acid sulphate of potassium (KHSO.= 136), V/z ozs.. 42 
grains. 

Acid sulphate of sodium, dried (NaHSO4=120), 1 oz., 
188 grains. 

Alum, dried [AU(SO.)„(NH.),SO.=468], 428 grains. 

Citric acid (HAH.O,. H,O=208.5). 380 grains. 

Cream of tartar (KHC,H.O,= 186.75), 2 oz., 120 grains. 

Tartaric acid (H,C,H,Oe=148.92), 390 grains. 

In each case a slight allowance is made for impurity 
natural to the substances. Complete neutrality is not 
obtained with calcium phosphate when used in baking 
powder, the reaction being: 



Februaby, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



55 



CaH. (PO.),+2NaHCO, = Na^P0.+CaHP0.+2C0, 
-f2H,0. 

Commercial calcium acid phosphate contains from 2 to 
50 per cent, of calcium sulphate, and for baking powders 
it is customary to use two parts to one part of sodium 
bicarbonate. 



Fadeless Hair Dyes Impossible 
(J. M. \y.) — It is practicably impossible for us to name 
a hair dye that is "lixed and will not fade," nor can we 
name a manufacturer of such a dye. The reason for this 
must be obvious: As you will readily comprehend, the 
dyeing of growing hair upon the head is an altogether 
different proposition from that of dyeing wool in the man- 
ner you seem to indicate. Hair on the head is continually 
growing at a rate estimated by physiologists to be about 
eight or ten inches per year. When it is considered that 
this new growth has never been touched by dye, it is easy 
to understand why subsequent and repeated coloration is 
needed to keep the hair somewhere near a uniform shade, 
however "permanent" the particular dye employed may be 
claimed to be. If the hair be removed from the head, no 
particular difficulty obtains in giving it a permanent color. 
The hair structure does not change after the hair is re- 
moved from the head, and the problem of dyeing it is 
similar to that of dyeing wool which has been shorn from 
the back of the sheep. But if you were to attempt to dye 
wool on the sheep the same difficulty as to permanency 
would be encountered. The new growth of hair or wool, 
as the case may be, by the appearance of new filaments 
that have never been dyed, gradually eliminate the color. 
It can thus be said that all hair dyes, however successfully 
they may have been employed, require frequent applica- 
tions to keep the hair near a uniform tint. 

Hair dyes containing silver are generally conceded o 
be the most permanent, the salts of this element tending 
to blacken by oxidation on exposure to the light, the color 
remaining so long as it is not superseded or rather elimi- 
nated by a new growth of hair. Here is a standard 
formula : 

Bottle No. 1 

Pyrogallic acid J^ dram 

Sodium metasulphite 10 grains 

Water 2 ounces 

Bottle No. 2 

Silver nitrate 20 grains 

Stronger ammonia water q. s. 

Water, enough to make 2 ounces 

Dissolve the silver nitrate in ]/2 ounce of water, add 
the ammonia water until the precipitate is redissolved, 
and make up to 2 ounces with water. 

Apply with short-handled tooth brushes of black and 
white bristles, as follows : Cleanse the hair from all 
grease by washing it with warm water having a little 
washing soda dissolved in it, and dry with a towel. Next 
pour a little of the fluid in bottle No. 1 into a saucer and 
apply with the white-haired brush ; immediately after use 
a little of the liquid from bottle No. 2 in the same way 
with the black brush, avoiding as much as possible touch- 
ing the skin. Wipe the parts around the hair receiving the 
dye with a damp sponge, and do not wash or grease the 
hair for several hours after applying the dye. Preferably 
the dye should be applied at night. For other formulas see 
August, 1916, Era, page 318. 



Salicylic Corn Remedy 
(G. O. S.) — A typical formula for a corn remedy con- 
taining salicylic acid will be found in the National Formu- 
lary under the title "Compound Salicylic Collodion." The 
formula given in the last edition of the w-ork named differs 
slightly from that employed in previous editions, the new 
formula calling for fluidextract of cannabis instead of ex- 
tract of Indian hemp. The synonym "corn collodion" has 
also been dropped. The new formula reads as follows : 

Salicylic acid 11 grams 

Fluidextract of cannabis 10 grams 

Flexible collodion, a sufficient quan- 
tity to make 100 grams 

Dissolve the salicylic acid in 75 grams of flexible col- 



lodion in a tared bottle. Add the fluidextract of canna- 
bis and finally enough flexible collodion to make the prod- 
uct weigh lUO grams. The corn remedy is frequently put 
up in small bottles closed w'ith stoppers (rubber) to which 
a camel-hair brush is. affixed. The usual directions given 
are to apply the collodion night and morning, the feet 
being bathed in warm water every second or third night, 
and as much of the corn scraped off as may be readily de- 
tached. This is followed by another application of tlie 
collodion which may be repeated if necessary. The prod- 
uct tends to thicken on evaporation of the ether of the col- 
lodion. This condition may be remedied somewhat by 
additional ether to make up the loss. 



THE PLASTER SEASON 



Ring a bell, ring a bell, the plaster season is here, and 
yet there are heaps of people in the retail drug business 
who don't know it. From this time of year on coughs, 
colds, rheumatic pains, and numerous other ailments call- 
ing for plasters, will be prevalent. 

Get out your plaster stock and study up what each one 
is especially recommended for. A kidney plaster has a 
legitimate use but isn't intended to be used for a strength- 
ening plaster or a toothache plaster. Many mothers whose 
children are troubled with respiratory troubles will be glad 
to know of the efficacious spice plaster and will feel safer 
to have something of this kind in the house. Capsicum 
plasters have a definite use when a strong counter irritant 
is needed, and are especially recommended in case of 
asthma, bronchitis, sciatica, spinal disease, rheumatism, 
pleurisy, neuralgic pains, backache, lumbago, chest pains, 
and coughs. As a usual thing the medication is bella- 
donna and capsicum, both of these excellent for an exterior 
application in the cases mentioned. 

It is a splendid time to cash in on mustard plasters and 
if you have them in different strengths, be familiar enough 
with your goods that you know which to offer without 
laboriously studying out the directions before your cus- 
tomer. Be able to tell just how they shall be applied, both 
in pressure of blood to the head, in local congestions, in 
sleeplessness, in affections of the chest, in stomach troubles, 
nausea, and seasickness, in abdominal troubles, and to the 
feet. Remember that there is a whole lot you can learn 
just about mustard plasters. Then, if you talk about them 
in your advertising, other people will think you know and 
will be ready to pay you for your knowledge. 

There are people who are continually troubled with nau- 
sea when traveling. Tell them about your spice plasters, 
also how useful they are in case of cholera morbus. There 
are other plasters which will only be dispensed upon the 
prescription of a physician, but many times physicians are 
like housekeepers who make one kind of cake and dessert 
for a long time and then forget all about it until they 
meet the same excellent viands on some one else's table. 

Bring back to your doctor's attention the efficacy of an 
aconite plaster, or a good, reliable cough plaster, or a 
mercurial plaster, a rhus tox plaster, a salicylic plaster, or 
one made of salicylic acid and cannabis indica. 

Oh, there are lots of others, for the feet, and many 
people are troubled with their feet in cold weather. There 
are dental plasters as well as others of well-known the- 
rapeutic value. 

Be prepared to tell people that plasters apply the medica- 
tion to the exact spot needed ; that they offer a continual 
and gentle massage to the affected part ; and that their use 
does not interfere with one's regular business in any way. 
The value of plasters has long been known to the medical 
profession. They offer a protection to the diseased area 
against changes of temperature. They stay in place, do 
not soil the clothing, and exert an influence upon the 
nerve endings, and therefore aid in the alleviation of pain. 

Push plasters ! There is money in them ! Every person 
in your locality is very liable to need a plaster before 
the season is over. Many will not know that a plaster 
offers the help and relief they would welcome. It is up to 
you to tell them about it ! 



The educational committee of Louisville (Ky.) Chapter 
is planning to raise money by a sale of waste paper. At 
present prices this should bring in quite an amount of 
money. 



56 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



NEWS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS 



ST. PAUL ASSOCIATION MEETING 



CHICAGO DaUGGISTS AGAINST CONSOLIDATION 



St. Paul retail druggists, at an association meeting 
January 18 at the Commercial Club, elected officers for 
"the ensuing year. Pursuant to custom, there were two 
nominees for each office, the balloting being for the fol- 
lowing : For president, E. A. Otto, incumbent and F. W. 
Smetana; for first vice president, C. F. Clough and S. 
B. Barnett; second vice president W. H. Sears and O. C. 
Reder; secretary, H. Martin Johnson, incumbent, and M. 
A. Karras ; treasurer, Wesley St. Clair and A. B. Kellam ; 
executive committee, Charles Geissel, M. A. Lillis and Gus- 
tav Dickman. 

Representative Albin E. Bjorklund, St. Paul attorney, 
is chairman of the public health and pure food committee in 
the Minnesota House of Representatives. He is from 
the thirty-seventh district, and is secretary of the Martin 
Johnson Drug Company. Pharmacists are a rarity in the 
legislature, now in session, but Representative L. D. 
Brown is a drug store owner at Little Falls. 

The St. Paul Retail Merchants' Advisory association, 
composed of representatives of the druggists, cigar makers, 
hardware dealers, meat dealers and grocers, has elected 
a Legislature committee to look after legislation proposed 
or pending during the present session. President E. A. 
Otto of the druggists association and Secretary Johnson, 
represent the pharmacists, J. H. Trost and Julius Perlt, 
the grocers ; Percy Nash and O. C. Klimenhagen, meat 
dealers ; H. C. Hertz and J. C. Stuhyman, hardware deal- 
ers ; J. Danchertsen and R. R. Roberts, cigar dealers. 



RHODE ISLAND PHARMACISTS ELECT 



Nicholas F. Reiner of Providence was re-elected Presi- 
dent of the Rhode Island Pharmaceutical Association at 
its 43rd annual meeting on January 10th. In addition to 
the election of officers, the state druggists heard reports 
and addresses. 

President Reiner made the opening address, speaking 
about the illegal traffic in drugs, a topic that is interesting 
druggists all over the couutry. Prof. John E. Groff of the 
Rhode Island College of Pharmacy gave a talk on the 
changes in the new Pharmacopoeia and Louis K. Liggett, 
of the United Drug Company, spoke on the "Evolution of 
a Drug Store." The officers, beside Mr. Reiner, elected at 
the meeting were : 

Vice-president, Charles E. Keller, Arctic Center ; secre- 
tary, Owen E. Barrett, Providence ; treasurer. Earl H. 
Mason, Providence ; Executive Committee, Edward T. Col- 
ton, Providence ; M. H. Corrigan, Providence ; and A. J. 
Johnson, Pawtucket; life honorary member, Prof. John 
E. Groff. 



KINGS COUNTY HEARS DR. ANDERSON 



Dr. William C. Anderson, Dean of Brooklyn College of 
Pharmacy spoke to the members of the Kings County 
Pharmaceutical Society in the college hall at the Jan- 
uary meeting. The speaker discussed the new bills which 
affect members of the association and which are now 
pending before the city, state or national government. He 
was particularly clear in regard to the proposed New York 
Board of Health measure which allows the sale of bi- 
chloride of mercury tablets to the public if they are shaped 
in such a way as to make them exceedingly difficult to 
swallow. Dean Anderson pointed out that the amendment 
would help both physicians and druggists and that with a 
small amount of care the citizens of New York would 
also be protected from a danger which has found them 
often of late. 

He also told the meeting that the new state laws on 
narcotics would limit the sale of those drucrs even more 
closely than the laws at present in force. All of the sub- 
jects discussed by the speaker were further discussed by 
the twenty or more members who were present at the 
meeting. 



On Tuesday evening, January 16th, the Executive Board 
of the Chicago Retail Druggists' Association held a spe- 
cial meeting, at which the following members were pres- 
ent : Messrs. Riemenschneider, Bruun, Sisson, Light, 
Seibert, Chwatal, Friesnecker, Umenhofer, Caldwell, and 
Antonow. President A. C. Caldwell presided. Julius H. 
Riemenschneider was elected chairman of the Executive 
Board for the coming year and the following Committee 
on Publication was chosen : Isam M. Light, A. C. Cald- 
well and J. H. Riemenschneider. One question discussed 
with warmth was the proposal now under consideration by 
Governor Lowden to consolidate the State Board of 
Pharmacy with other state boards, such as the medical, 
dentist, barber, etc. It is understood that Chicago pharm- 
acists are greatly opposed to the proposed action and will 
use their influence to prevent it from being taken. 



GUILFORD PRESIDENT FOR THIRD TERM 



The Rochester Pharmaceutical Association, at a recent 
meeting, re-elected Harry B. Guilford, owner of the two 
Guilford drug stores here, president for the third con- 
secutive year. David H. Moore was elected vice-president 
and E. H. Gram secretary and treasurer. Business con- 
ditions were reported good and the general outlook for 
continued prosperity favorable. William F. Esterheld, 
chairman of the Entertainment Committee, submitted a 
pleasing program and Elmer E. Chilson, president of the 
New York State Pharmaceutical Association, gave an in- 
teresting talk on narcotic legislation and the benefits to 
be derived therefrom by the general public. President 
Guilford was given a rising vote of thanks for a success- 
ful administration during the past year. 



MILWAUKEE PH.A. PLEDGES CO-OPERATION 

The Milwaukee Pharmaceutical Association held its an- 
nual meeting on January 18th, and passed a resolution 
pledging the co-operation of the society to the state dairy 
and food commission in keeping drug preparations up 
to the standard required by law. George Weigle. state 
dairy and food commissioner, attended the meeting. 

J. J. Possehl was re-elected president of the association. 
Other officers elected were: Vice-president. Otto Hack- 
endahl ; secretary, William Kaiser ; treasurer, Louis H. 
Kressin ; members executive committee, Georse H. Kas- 
ten, A. R. Eberle. Sol. A. Eckstein. H. E. Kra'^ft, F. L. E. 
Drozniakiewicz, Peter Glysz and William Kaiser. 

The reports of the officers showed the association is 
in exfellent standing and healthy condition. During the 
past year ninety-five new members were added to the roll, 
bringing the total membership to 202. Plans for the 
state convention of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, to be held in Milwaukee. June 25th to 29th, were 
discussed. The entertainment feature of the convention 
is in the hands of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Trav- 
elers' Association, which recently entertained the mem- 
bers of the executive board at a mid-year banquet at the 
Maryland Hotel. C. A. Baumbach. president of the 
travelers' organization, was toastmaster, and Secretary 
M. H. Pritchard, chairman of the arraneements commit- 
tee. W. F. Pfleuger. J. J. Possehl, E. G. Raeuber. Sol. 
Eckstein. J. F. Sugden, George H. Kesten, L. G. Mack 
and William H. Reese were among the speakers. The' 
music was furnished by Horlick's quartet, of Racine. 



The Louisiana State Pharmaceutical .Association will 
hold its thirty-fifth annual meeting at the Hotel Grune- 
wald. New Orleans, on May Sth to 10th inclusive. 

The Oklahoma Pharmaceutical Association has com- 
pleted arrangements for its first mid-winter convention 
which is to be held at Oklahoma City on February 13th 
to ISth. The Lee-Huckins Hotel has been selected as 
headquarters, and addresses bv Stanley A. Dennis on 
"Cutting Down the Business Death Rate." and W. T. 
Goffe on "Salesmanship" are included. 



February, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



57 



WOMEN IN PHARMACY 



Conducted by Emma Gary Wallace 



Planning a Mid-Winter Sales Campaign 

Feattu'ing Rubber Goods, Electric Pads, Stoves and Spices 



February Specials 

THE first week in February may be appropriately 
devoted to promoting the sales of winter rubber 
goods, flash tights, electric heating pads, and quick 
heat stoves. These things all have a relationship. They 
have to do with keeping things warm, relieving pain by 
heat, and making it convenient to use tliese articles day 
or night. 

We usually have our coldest weather in February, and 
so hot water bags for aged people, babies, those who 
have neuralgia or localized pain, and electric heating 
pads, are all timely. Mothers of young children appre- 
ciate a quick heat stove like a solid alcohol one whicli 
can be used at night by the bed side. 

Window displays, newspaper advertising, and special 
appeal letters will all bring trade at this time. It will 
be no trouble to secure the names of the mothers of 
young children from the Birth Registration list and to 
send to them and to families likely to be interested on 
account of ample means or sick people, a special letter 
concerning cold weather comforts. It may be a good 
plan to make special sales offers on rubber goods, allow- 
ing 25c for each old bag brought back in exchange. 
Emphasize the thought that vi'hen these articles are want- 
ed, they are wanted at once and zvanted badly. 

It is better to push a certain group of related articles 
for a short time than to spread one's energies over too 
long a time. It is a case of firing at a target and hitting 
it, or using a lot of powder only and aiming at a whole 
flock of birds. 

Coughs and Colds 
Coughs and colds will be prevalent and there will be 
many inquiries for plasters, cough medicines, and poul- 
tices. The druggist will win lasting gratitude by being 
able to explain just what sort of a plaster is needed or 
how to make a good pouWce. One successful physician 
directs a flaxseed meal poultice to be made by taking 
seven (7) tablespoonfuls of the meal and one of mustard. 
These are mixed together with water and cooked about 
ten minutes. Care should be taken the mixture does not 
burn. It is then spread between layers of cheesecloth, 
cooled until it can be borne, and applied. Even children 
will bear this nicely. The mustard keeps the flaxseed 
from becoming clammy and cold,, and the flaxseed is 
soothing and does not dry out in a few moments and get 
stiff and hard like mustard. 

This is the season of the year for emulsions of linseed 
and cod liver oil, for the use of reliable but simple 
cough formulas such as N. F. Syrup of White Pine 
Comp., for croup remedies, and atomizers and sprays to 
relieve the catarrh left \>y colds, and to keep the throat 
in a healthy condition. 

A good deal of educative work can be done in a solid 
week by a drug store force and its publicity. People 
may read and not need to apply the information at once, 
but sooner or later they will remember that Blank's is 
the place for this sort of thing. 

The Third Week 
During the winter time we can digest heavier food and 
the appetite craves that which is more highly seasoned. 
This is the time to push olive oil as a food product. 
Now as a matter of fact, many people do not know how 
to make a good mayonnaise dressing, and a first-class 
selling scheme is to have several hundred recipes struck 
off, giving exact directions how to make mayonnaise 
dressing. If you can get the formula of some well-known 



cook in your own locality, and she will permit her name 
to be used in connection with the recipe, the sales plan is 
better yet. Sometimes the gift of a couple bottles of 
olive oil will make a cateress or good cook willing t6 
permit this. If not more than fifty or a hundred recipes 
are wanted, they can be run off on the typewriter by 
means of making carbon copies, or on a mimeograph, 
but the expense of the printed ones is not a great deal. 
Of course, a recipe is not given away except with a bottle 
of the olive oil. 

Spices should be pushed at this time of the year, for 
nipst people will be out of them after the holiday cook- 
mg, and this is an excellent time for the druggist to call 
attention to the superior nature of his or her wares. It 
is a good plan to have a demonstration and this is not 
difficult to arrange. A table spread with a white cloth 
placed near the front of the store with an attractive, 
yoimg woman in charge will make a good beginning. 

Have a display of spices to be sold and also the ex- 
tracts to correspond with these spices, or flavoring oils 
for candy making. The young woman demonstrator in 
charge should be able to tell just how each spice is pre- 
pared, where it is grown, and some of the points of par- 
ticular care with which these goods are made. Thus, a 
spice may be not only pure, but full strength— that is, 
may be ground in a mill wholly devoted to the use of that 
one particular flavor in place of a number of different 
spices being ground in the one mill. In fact, there is a lot 
of interesting material to dig up. Sometimes it is 
permissible to take cheaper grades of spices which should 
be unnamed and to display them side by side with the 
better quality to_ show the difference and not for the 
purpose of knocking any one's goods. 

Tarragon vinegar is another material which may come 
m side by side with the other goods and if novelties in 
any line are carried, it is a good idea to stock a number 
of French dressing bottles in decorative styles for this 
week. There are two firms at least which make very 
choice table bottles for French dressing with the exact 
proportions marked on the bottle. In or^der to show how 
attractive these bottles look when filled, have one pre- 
pared for table use to show. 

A Bunning Mate Sale 
Let the fourth week be a Running Mate Sale — that is, 
articles which naturally go together so combined and 
offered at a special price. The Running Mate Sale may 
be arranged by days or the same schedule used for the 
whole week— a package of emery boards, a jar of nail 
polish, a buffer, and a couple of orange sticks: a tooth 
brush and a tube of tooth paste; a liair tonic and a 
scalp pomade; a cake of soap, a sanitary wash cloth, and 
a box of talcum powder, etc., etc. A very interesting list 
may be made up and this sort of a sale has the advant- 
age that articles are suggested to people which they would 
not think of actually needing. If the sales can be in- 
creased in volume and more articles sold to each person, 
a considerable gain will have been made. 

A representative of a firm of chain drug stores claimed 
in a recent periodical that sufficient customers were served 
in the different stores that if each one could be sold 
one cent's worth more than the previous year, it would 
total a $100,000 increase. In smaller places a much greater 
increase should be made per person by means of having 
a definite sales plan for every week and by concentrating 
one's selling energies, advertising vim, and good judg- 
ment on the articles in question. 



58 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



THE PHARMACIST AND HIS HANDWRITING 



To be sure, this is largely the day of the typewriter, 
but there are still many druggists who address their 
labels by hand. It is unfortunately true that some well- 
educated and competent people, write a wretched hand, 
but the fact remains that clear, firm, business-like hand- 
writing, invariably establishes confidence, where a 
scraggly, child-like sprawl arouses question and doubt. 

Almost any one can cultivate a good business hand if 
he will but take llie time. 

A young man came into a drug store to gain his prac- 
tical experience. His handwriting w-as that of a boy of 
ten. He was really a fine fellow of promising mind. He 
had not been in the place long before the proprietor said 
to him : 

"George, I want you to buy a copy book and to start in 
and learn to write. We have a typewriter here, to be 
sure, and prescriptions are copied upon it and our labels 
written upon it, but no one who aims to be a druggist 
can afford to write like that ! Now, I know you've got 
it in you to stick to this simple requirement until you 
master it. When you go to college and when you write 
your examinations, such handwriting as yours will count 
against you." 

"I don't see wh}-," retorted George, "If I've got the 
facts in my head." 

"I'll tell you why," answered his employer, "such crazy 
looking writing does not show organized thought or a 
proper control of the muscles of the arm and hand. To 
be a good druggist, you must be a good thinker, and 
have a steady eye, brain, muscle, and nerve. Go to it, 
boy, and overcome your handicap." 

George saw the point and before long a marked im- 
provement was observable. Only recently he passed the 
State Board, and in announcing his success to his first 
employer, he asked the question, "What do you think of 
my handwriting now?" 

It was like copy plate — clean, fine, strong, and without 
hesitation — a handwriting to inspire confidence and re- 
spect. 



AROUND THE CIRCUIT 



Chicago Chaipter W. O. N. A. R. D. held a most suc- 
cessful Christmas Party at the Hotel LaSalle, Friday 
afternoon. December 29th. It was arranged primarily 
for the children but the older people seemed to enjoy it 
just as much as the younger ones. Over five hundred 
people of all ages were present. Mrs. Louis Diddier 
wrote a play entitled "The Christmas Spirit," especially 
for the occasion, trained the children and staged it. It 
was a great success. Among the children and older peo- 
ple who took part were the Misses Helen Froint, Bernice 
Hoelzer, Bernice Golden, Louise Ackley. Amy Widder, 
George and Dorothy Burhop, Charles and Ruth Walgreen, 
the Lehman boys. Lucia. Maria and Leona Kuflewski, 
Hally, Kenneth and Russell Alexander, Esteline, Louise 
and Joseph Forbrick, Lucetta Light, Alta Christensen, 
Nancy Grubb, Donald Wulz and Louis Haering. Mrs. 
Maud'e Corken took the part of the Christmas Spirit. 
There was a gift for each child and a treat of ice cream. 
cake and candy. Of course there was a Christmas tree 
and a sure-enough Santa Claus who looked remarkably 
like Albert Hoelzer. The Chapter is to be congratulated 
upon such a splendid affair. 

The January meeting took the form of a Birthday 
Party to celebrate the eleventh anniversary of the or- 
ganization of the Chapter. r /^ /- -n t-> 

The regular December meeting of the W. O. C. R. D. A. 
dealt particularly with household problems. Mrs. John 
Bley was the principal speaker. Some attention was 
given to charity work and educational methods. There 
was a goodly attendance which was somewhat surprising 
considering the fact that the week before had been a 
strenuous one, owing to the popularity and success of the 
Chicago Drug Show. 

Indianapolis Chapter. No. 20. is progressing nicely under 
the able leadership of Mrs. Edward Ferger, who sent 
greetings to the membership and best wishes for a happy 
New Year. 



A Ladies' afternoon was given January 19th, by the 
Chicago Drug Club Bowling League, at Bensingers Al- 
leys on Randolph street. There were regular bowling 
contests among skilled players which the ladies watched 
with enthusiasm. After that, the ladies themselves en- 
tered the lists and bowled for some very lovely prizes 
in the way of choice perfumes, donated for the occasion 
by John IBlocki & Son. Refreshments were served and 
after this, a theatre party was enjoyed by a number of 
the guests. 



Miss Sophia Louise Averj', daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Hamilton Aver}-, was married on Thursday eve- 
ning, December 28th, to John Gurney Burtt. The 
wedding took place at the University iCongregational 
Church of Chicago. Mr. Avery is a former successful 
druggist of Chicago, having sold out his business to as- 
sume the presidency of the American Druggists Fire In- 
surance Company. Mrs. Avery was the first National 
Treasurer of the W. O. N. A. R. D. and served as first 
president of the Chicago Chapter. The best wishes of 
hosts of friends follow the 3'oung couple in the voyage 
of life. 



Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Eckstein of Milwaukee, Wis., re- 
membered many of their W. O. friends with a charming 
acrostic card of greeting: 

"New Year greeting friend of mine 
And happiness to you: 
Roseate days for thee and thine 
Dawn this whole year through." 



Cincinnati Chapter, No. 5, W. O. N. A. R. D., held its 
Christmas meeting at the home of the President, Mrs. 
Otto Katz. There was a program of music and every 
lady received the gift of an ivory fan from Mrs. Katz. 
The ladies played cards, voted a Christmas gift of $5 
for Bethesda Hospital and had a delightful time gener- 
ally. A committee of ladies assisted Mrs. Katz in the 
entertainment. Among these were Mrs. Charles Ehlers, 
Miss Blesi, Mrs. McElhany, Mrs. D. E. Murphy, and 
Mrs. L. Lutterman. 



The January meeting of the W. O. B. A. R. D. was 

held at the Hotel Brunswick. A delightful afternoon was 
enjoyed. Mrs. Mabel J. McKay gave a brief lecture on 
"Columbia." There were several musical numbers and 
refreshments. 



Women pharmacists are pained to learn of the death 
of Miss Ella A. Nelson who was proprietor of the Regal 
Pharmacy, Portland, Oregon. Miss Nelson was a suf- 
ferer from the White Plague, although she worked until 
the last, the end coming at the close of her day's labor. 



The December meeting of the Louisville Chapter was 
held at the Main Library. As everyone knows, Louis- 
ville is the home of Alice Hegan Rice, author of "Mrs. 
Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch." There is a settlement 
house in that city known as "The Cabbage Patch Settle- 
ment House," and Dr. Annie Veech holds a clinic there 
twice a week. She was the main speaker at this meeting 
and gave information concerning the benevolent 3V0rk 
done. Mrs. James Leech one of the board of directors 
of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, was there 
and gave a report of the Biennial held in New York in 
the spring. 

Mrs. Nellie Florence Lee, financial secretary of the 
W. O. N. A. R. D., has been suffering from a recent in- 
disposition. Her many devoted friends everywhere trust 
that she will soon be entirely recovered. 



Philadelphia Chapter, No. 6, gave a delightful Christ- 
mas Party for the children. Members who had no chil- 
dren of their own. were privileged to invite a child, and 
a number of children from a nearby Settlement House 
were entertained as guests. Gifts of toys, books, and 
clothing were made to these children. The children of 
the members entertained royally and treated to refresh- 
ments and caniy. 



Saved Time Means Saved Profits 



Business kept Moving Brings Trade and Money 



THIS is a story of time and the relation it bears to 
profits. Systematic checking of time means profits 
and there is a druggist in New York, with whom the 
question of minutes .is becoming more and more im- 
portant, who has corralled Father Time to his own satis- 
faction, at least. 

This druggist has no desire to go into the actual 
amount of his profit, but he is willing to go into his 
method of roping and tieing the veteran gentleman around 
whom the entire universe is supposed to move. Lord is 
the druggist's name, William Henry Lord, and he main- 
tains his store at tlie upper end of Manhattan Island, al- 
most where the real city fades away into The Bronx. 

Along with the discussion of time, and what it has meant 
to the druggist, there is a question of stock, and how he 
has turned it over. There are a few authorities who 
claim that the average chain drug store turns over its 
stock 12 or 14 times a year. Mr. Lord hasn't been able 
to reach that average yet, but he does turn over his stock 
5 or 6 times. Efficiency experts, as well as real business 
men, are always willing to go on record with a state- 
ment that judicious turning over of stock means profit. 

To begin with time, and the influence it has on turning 
over of stock. 

W.X. Lord believes in advertising, and he believes that 
those druggists who disagree with him are very poor busi- 
ness men. But, Mr. Lord is a druggist in the largest city 
in this country and there are one or two competitors. 
Also the sectional newspapers of New York are not far- 
famed as advertising mediums for his sort of publicity. 
The city papers, of course, are out of the question. Of 
what use would a Coney Island reader of a morning paper 
find an advertisement of a drug store at the very upper 
end of Manhattan? 

Mr. Lord advertises with mailing cards and with slides 
in the local motion picture house. He is a firm believer 
in his little business notices — which are sent out each 
month and which are always diflferent — but he feels the 
motion picture advertisement is not as successful as it 
ought to be. In any event, Mr. Lord's advertising policy 
has brought him customers and that is where time steps in. 

Early in his effort to turn over his stock as often as 
possible, he adopted a policy of selling at lower prices. 
He took a small profit, but hoped to take it often. When 
the cards first had an effect and customers came to the 
store, he found that as many as si-x or seven would be 
there at once. And with six or seven customers in a 
New York store, the owner can afiford to take no chances. 
If he cannot wait upon them, they will gather up their 
money, and like the Arabs, slip away into the night and 
another store. 

Too Many Customers at One Time 

Mr. Lord could not take care of them. Some of them 
did go away. Even with himself and two clerks trying 
their best to wait upon everybody. That was when the 
druggist began to consider time, and what it meant to 
save it. His simple idea was that if he could save steps 
and work for the salesmen, they could apply what had been 
saved on the next customer who was waiting to be served. 

The druggist called upon his common sense and watched 
a clerk gather in an article from the top shelf. The clerk 
had to climb upon a lower shelf to get it and lost three or 
four minutes in that way. 

Customers have often w-ondered just why it was that 
drug stores persisted in putting stock that is often called 
for, either way at the rear of the store, or under the show 
case, or on the top shelf. In a majority of drug stores 
these days, the lower shelves are filled with bottles of 
medicines or preparations that should not be there. Up 
above them is the place for the stuff that is needed and 
every time the clerk wants to reach that he has to stretch.' 

Mr. Lord wondered in the same way. He was puzzled 
as to just why he had done it. Then he went out and 



purchased some tables. He got some new show cases and 
changed his store. The goods that were wanted most 
frequently were placed on the table, easy to reach. There 
were not many of them placed there, more were in re- 
serve. Talcum powder, tooth paste, brushes, rubber goods, 
bo.xed articles, stationery, in fact everything that is asked 
for by the customer who "just drops in" found a place 
on the tables in the centre of the store. 

The drugs, bottled medicine and things which might 
break were put back of the counters, but on a lower shelf. 
The bottles, so necessary to a pharmacist, found a resting 
place a little higher up. They might be heavy to lift, 
reasoned Mr. Lord, but for every time he had to lift one 
bottle he would have had to stretch up for five cans of 
talcum powder. 

Saves Time in Serving Trade 

When everything was in readiness to save time, and the 
advertising cards were out again, Mr. Lord again began 
to watch his clerks. With six or seven women in the 
store at once, the clerks were able to work with more 
speed. They served one woman, wrapped up her parcel 
and served another in the time it took them to partially 
serve one before the change. Mr. Lord had succeeded 
in saving time, and time meant profits to him. For the 
women returned to the store, the men came too, and busi- 
ness grew. 

The arrangement of the tables and the counters in the 
Lord store is as simple as possible. Instead of the long 
counters which boast an entrance at either end, he has 
arranged counters with three entrances along the side 
of the store. That allows the clerks to move fast in go- 
ing from one place to another, and it saves steps for them, 
which is also saving time. 

His tables are in the center of the floor with space for 
the trade to walk around them. Shoppers who have that 
fatal habit of picking up articles and handling them can 
do it if they wish. Some of them, and the number is in- 
creasing, help to save time by going to the table, getting 
their articles, and carrying them to a clerk for him to 
wrap up. 

In the advertising cards, Mr. Lord has made a point 
of the service. The last card, for instance, said: 

"You can get what you want, get it right, and 
get it in a hurry at the Lord Pharmacy." 

One of the things he does not want to talk about is the 
exact amount of his profits. He doesn't mind saying that 
he is making more money out of his store now than he 
did under the old slower system, however. 

"I don't try any selling schemes," he says, "other than 
my card advertising and now and then a slide. I have 
a 'leader' each week and try to force that, but I have 
merely tried to work up an efficient business which will 
save the shopper's time and will also save mine. It has 
proven a success." 

Double Checking System, Too 

Saving time is not all that lias happened as a result of 
the policy adopted, however. At first, the druggist had 
no system of checking his stock. He could not tell exactly 
what lines were making him money and what were losing. 
As so often happens in a retail drug store, no effort was 
made to systematize the entire business. There was no 
division of lines, and consequently the buying was poor. 

Speed had been achieved in the Lord store, but he was 
not getting anywhere, merely because he didn't know 
exactly what he was doing. 

So he introduced the duplicate checks on counter sales. 
These aided in the general effort to get profits, and also 
saved a little time. Whenever a sale was made, two checks 
were made out, one going to the customer and the other 
being kept for stock reference. And by using those, Mr. 
Lord keeps tabs on what he is doing. 

By a reference to the sales slips, in checking up the day's 
work, and by a record of those references, he controls his 

Page Fifty-Nine 



60 



THE PHARaiACEUTICAL ERA 



[Pebbuaey, 1911 



stock. He knows just what goods are selling and what 
goods are not. From that knowledge it is easy to figure 
out the percentage of profit that should be had from the 
selling goods, to give a gain on the idle stock. Mr. Lord's 
system, itself, is simple, and does not go much further 
than the knowledge. But there are ramifications and 
developments possible that would give a druggist a posi- 
tive knowledge of just where he fails and just where he 
wins. 

If Mr. JLord were to carry his scheme to its natural 
end, for instance, he would know : 

1. If the percentage of profit on the stocks which sell 
is great enough to make those which do not sell profit- 
able buys. 

2. If it is safe to carry stock that does not sell rapidly. 

3. How much the overhead on storage room eats the 
profits made on the goods which do sell frequently. 

4. What goods sell and what goods do not. Therefore, 
how to buy correctly. 

Must Know Stock Conditions 

In the druggist trade, as in any retail trade, it is 
necessary for the proprietor to know exactly, not by 
guess work, how his stock stands or turns over, and why. 
The New York druggist has made an approach towards 
that end but he has not gone far enough. It is perfectly 
possible to systematize b\iying, and to control stock in 
every detail. 

One development of the duplicate checking system keeps 
a record of the daily transactions. At the end of the 
week he knows that he has sold 25 toothbrushes, 10 bottles 
of a certain brand of cosmetics and 20 cans of shaving 
soap. But he has sold only 3 bottles of another cosmetic 
and candy doesn't seem to sell at all. There are several 
candy stores in the neighborhood. 

To the druggist, once he studies his sales slips, it is 
clear Uiat one brand of cosmetics is more popular than 
the other, and he cuts down in his purchase of the second 
grade. Proving that candy is not a big seller in his 
store, he buys less of it. And in the case of other stock, 
he follows the same procedure. That which clearly 
doesn't sell is cut down, while "push" is put on that 
which does sell. In that way, the druggist finds himself 
with no large stock of goods which are not good sellers 
for his trade. He might purchase five cases of writing 
■ paper and five of candy. The writing paper might sell 
three times as fast as the candy. The druggist merely 
buys one third the amount he usually gets when he pur- 
chases his candy. 

Buying and selling are so closely identified that they can 
be equalized. Stock is the method. If you are running 
a small profit, practically a cut rate store, you must keep 
your stock moving. There are an hundred and one ways 
of doing that, perhaps, but conservation of time and an 
accurate knowledge of stock are necessary. "Leaders" help, 
putting pressure on any selling feature is of great assist- 
ance, but very little profit is going to be shown by a store 
that wastes time. Mr. Lord has found one method of 
saving time and his store is showing a profit. 



Fritzsche Brothers; John T. Barry, D. D. Williamson & 
Co. ; Charles C. Bruen, Bruen, Ritchey & Co. ; Herbert D. 
Robbins, McKesson & Robbins. 



DRUG TRADE SECTION ELECTS OFFICERS 



The Drug Trade Section of the New York Board of 
Trade and Transportation held its annual meeting and elec- 
tion of officers at the Drug and Chemical Club, 100 Will- 
iam street. New York, Wednesday, January 3. One of the 
principal features of the meeting was the report of the 
Committee on Legislation, which urged that the amend- 
ments to the Boylan law be pushed at Albany. ' 

A report of the executive committee showed that the 
committee was satisfied with the recommendations of Post- 
master Burleson on Congressman Griffin's bill to permit 
the mailing of medicines containing poisons and the bill 
will not be pushed. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: Chairman, 
Burton T. Bush, Antoine Chiris Co. ; vice-chairman, 
Howell Foster, SchiefTelin & Co. ; treasurer, William A. 
Hamann, Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co. ; represen- 
tative of section on board of directors, Frank L. McCart- 
ney, retiring chairman. 

Executive Committee; Torrens C. Currens, chairman, 
Norwich Fharmacal Companv; Frederick E. Watermeyer, 



PATENT MEDICINE REGULATION 



A proposed law has been offered to the State legislature 
of New York that has all the essentials of the so-called 
Goldwater ordinance which was passed in New York City 
last year. It provides that all proprietary medicines shall 
be registered with tlie State Board of Health and that 
the names of their ingredients, and the claims made for 
those ingredients shall also be filed. Violation of the 
proposed law is to be a misdemeanor. Assemblyman 
Fertig of New York County introduced the measure. 



U,S.P. CONVENTION RESOLUTION REJECTED 



Secretary Houston of the Department of Agriculture has 
notified Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, president of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia! Convention, that he does not consider the re- 
quest of the convention for an act of Congress providing for 
the recognition of the new Pharmacopoeia necessary or proper. 
Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Dr. J. H. Beal and Dr. Wiley 
had submitted to Secretary Houston and Dr. Alsberg a form 
of resolution to be brought before Congress with the view 
of aiding in prosecutions by preventing the question of 
jurisdiction being raised at trials on the ground that the 
standards established by the Pharmacopoeia were set up 
subsequent to the passage of the Food and Drugs Act. 
Secretary Houston said in his letter to Dr. Wiley: 

"It is highly improbable, in the opinion of the Department, 
that if the resolution were presented at the opening day of 
the session. Congress would act on it before January 1, 1917. 
Action on or after that date, of course, would defeat the pur- 
poses of the resolution." 



Large Exhibition of Chemicals 



One of the largest, if not the largest, chemical display 
ever gathered in this country was shown in the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York during the last 
week in December in connection with the annual conven- 
tion of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. Seventy-four of the eighty-five known ele- 
ments were shown. Explosives formed one portion of 
the exhibit, but in another were shown chemicals as de- 
veloped for every purpose. 



DRUG CLERKS FORM UNION 



The drug clerks of Salt Lake City, Utah, have organized 
a union in that city, and will soon submit a demand upon 
the proprietors for uniformity of hours and a scale of pay 
that will give registered drug clerks a better standing and 
more financial consideration. It is claimed that in some 
of the stores, the clerks work ten hours one daj' and nine 
hours the next, while in stores of equal standing theywork 
eleven and even more hours a day. The clerks desire to 
have the hours adjusted to a maximum of ten hours a 
day. The registered clerks also want more salary than 
is paid to the unregistered clerks. The new union expects 
that the proprietors will grant most of its requests. 



The Boston Druggists' Association, the veteran dining 
organization, opened its season with a dinner at Young's 
Hotel. Tuesday evening, November 28. with E. L. Patch 
presiding and 85 present. Prof. S. M. Gunn of Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, the principal guest, spoke 
on "How to Live a Little Longer." 



Dental week was observed in Chicago beginning December 
2. This is an idea that could be used to good purpose 
elsewhere, the drug stores concentrating their advertis- 
ing and window displays upon tooth brushes, tooth pastes, 
tooth powder, dentifrices and mouth washes, dental floss, 
and other things for keeping the teeth clean and in repair. 
Dental Week was set aside by the Chicago Board of 
Health to call attention to the importance of conservation 
of the teeth and the health in general as it is dependent 
upon the condition of the teeth. 



Druggists' Profits Only 5.5 Per Cent 

Statistics Show Stores Failed to Raitk With Other Retailers 

in November Sales 



ALONG with the increase in sales, advertising and 
profits that was found all over the United States in 
Novemher, 1916, over the same month of 1915, the 
drug trade showed a slight increase. Its average, how- 
ever, was below that of other retail lines, and in sales it 
fell off a rather large amount when compared to the 
business of other retailers. Associated Advertising, 
which has prepared a series of charts and has published 
them in its current issue, shows that the druggist had an 
11.6 per cent gain against 15.9 per cent for other retailers. 

"It is interesting to note," continues Associated Adver- 
tising, "that the druggist made the smallest increase in 
advertising, excepting only the grocer. The druggist 
gained 3.1 per cent which is more than 2 per cent below 
the average gain in advertising in all lines. 

"The druggist failed to apply selling forces as vigor- 
ously as did merchants in some other lines, and so some 
of the trade that might have come to him went elsewhere. 
The biggest increase in drug sales was in the Philadelphia 
district, with 26.4 gain, and the same district showed a 
gain of 7.4 per cent in drug store advertising. It is quite 
likely that increased advertising was both cause and effect 
of the bigger sales there." 

Dividing the country into Federal Reserve Districts, the 
magazine has given a table to show where there were 
gains, and how much. Reprinted here, it shows just how 
the small general average was made. 

F.R.D. 1.— (Boston) 20.3 

F.R.D. 2— (New York) 15.9 

F.R.D. .3— (Philadelphia) 26.4 

F.R.D. 4— (Cleveland) 18.6 

F.R.D. 5— (Richmond) 9.9 

F.R.D. 6— (Atlanta) 13.8 

F.R.D. 7— (Chicago) 15.8 

F.R.D. 8— (St. Louis) 11.7 

F.R.D. 9— (Minneapolis) 17.5 

F.R.D. 10— (Kansas City) 20.7 

F.R.D. 11— (Dallas) 21.4 

F.R.D. 12— (San Francisco) 20.9 

General Average 16.9 

Drug Stocks Show Slight Increase 

As for drug stock gains, those, too. showed a slight. 
increase. Few articles were exceedingly high in price and 
Associated Advertising points out that it "would not be 
logical to credit a great deal of the increase in value to 
the higher prices of drugs. Also, because the druggist 
carries some stock for a rather long time, it appears 
that in November, 1916, he was carrying a larger stock 
than he was in the same month of the preceding year." 

The genera! average gain in stock was 10.2 but in the 
Atlanta district they were increased 35 per cent while 
the central west, the Minneapolis district could show a 
gain of only 2.7. Philadelphia ranked second in the gen- 
eral increase with 16.1 while New York could show but 
8 per cent. 

Concerning profits there i? another disappointment. The 
general average was only 3.5 per cent, and the Richmond 
district showed a loss of 5.5. 

"The druggist." says Associated Advertising, "like the 
grocer, foimd himself between the demands for higher 
prices on the part of the manufacturer and jobber on the 
one hand, and the decided disinclination of the public to 
pay more for goods on the other, to the end that his 
profits increased only 5.5 per cent. 

"If the druggists of the country had made as good a 
net profit on things sold in November, 1916, as in Novem- 
ber, 1915. there would have been a much larger increase 
in profits, of course. In ordinary circumstances, net 
profits should increase disproportionately as sales go up. 

"It is interesting to note that the New York distric! 
with a 15.9 increase in sales made the biggest increase in 
net profits, and it would seem that druggists in other 



sections might have done better than they did in the light 
of their increased sales." 

The table of profits, by Federal Reserve Districts, as 
printed in the Associated Advertising statistics, is as fol- 
lows: 

F.R.D. 1— (Boston) 16 

F.R.D.- 2— (New York) 17.1 

F.R.D. 3— (Philadelphia) 9.6 

F.R.D. 4— (Cleveland) 8.4 

F.R.D. 5— (Richmond) — S.5 

F.R.D. 6— (Atlanta) 3.8 

F.R.D. 7— (Chicago) 5.3 

F.R.D. 8— (St. Louis) 5.0 

F.R.D. 9— (Minneapolis) 7 2 

F.R.D. 10— (Kansas City) 3.3 

F.R.D. 11— (Dallas) 13.3 

F.R.D. 12— (San Francisco) 13.2 

General Average ' 5.5 

The table for other lines, in sales, advertising and 
profits is as follows: 

Line Sales Ads Profits 

Clothing 20.3 3.9 14.12 

Grocery 18.8 2.8 5.9 

Hardware 21.5 6.7 8.4 

Jewelry 22.4 Z.! 10.9 

No effort is made to compare the trades in any sections 
except on the percentage system, and aside from com- 
ment on the selling by drug stores. Associated Adver- 
tising has made no effort to show "the why" of condi- 
tions. ^ But it is interesting to note that in the face of 
the biggest difficulties, and the highest price asked for 
necessities and stock, the jeweler showed the biggest sales 
increase. Jewelers also did very little advertising. 

NEW BAY STATE COLLEGE 



George R. White Donor of Building 



George R. White, head of the Potter Drug & Chemical 
Corporation of Bostori, has offered to give the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy its new $500,000 college 
building to be erected at Longwood avenue and Worthing- 
ton street, Boston, to replace the present college building 
on St. Botolph street. The new structure will be ready 
for occupancy December 1, 1917., and will be the finest 
home of any pharmacy college in the country, according 
to the plans. 

It will occupy a site covering 75,000 square feet, with a 
oOO-foot frontage on Longwood avenue and 250 feet on 
Worthington street. The exterior will be of renaissance 
design, with an imposing central Ionic portico of six col- 
umns of limestone, each 28 feet high, approached by a 
heavy flight of granite steps. The lower story will be 
built entirely of heavy rusticated limestone and the two 
upper stories of red brick laid in broad joints. A walk 
80 feet long, paved with large slabs, will run to the street. 

On the first floor will be two laboratories, each ac- 
commodating 400 students ; and on the second floor will 
be two lecture rooms each accommodating 300, and offices 
for the instructing staff, together with a homelike library 
and separate quarters for the men and women students. 
The main staircase will lead to George Robert White 
hall, seating 500. and finished and paneled in chestnut, with 
a stucco ceiling and great stone chimneypiece. On this 
floor also will be a buffet, three classrooms, an alumni 
room and the materia medica and biological libraries. 

Concrete exit stairways will run in towers from top to 
bottom. An air washer, fan ventilating system, and indi- 
rect lighting will be among other conveniences. 

George R. White, who gives the new building, is Bos- 
ton's largest individual tax payer. He lives at 285 Com- 
monwealth avenue. Back Bay. Over 30 years ago he be- 
gan work with the old-time drug firm of Weeks & Potter 

Page Sixty-One 



62 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



as a paste boy, pasting up the firm's advertisements. At 
the age of 26 he was made a partner, and later formed 
the Potter Drug & Chemical Corporation, which manu- 
factures the Cuticura preparations. 

Mr. White is an art critic, a student of music,, and 
owns a fine library. He has a summer home at Man- 
chester, on the North Shore, that is one of the show 
places of that watering place. 



show cases, Frank VanDuyne being president and Rhoda 
Temple, secretary and treasurer. 



N. T. B. D. A. HOLDS MEETING 



The regular monthly meeting of the N. Y. R. D, A. was 
held at the Dakota Club, on Friday evening January 19, 
1917. In response to the invitation sent by the Bronx 
Co. Pharmaceutical Association a representative delegation 
of this association will attend their "Get-Together" Din- 
ner. In answer to the request sent by the New York 
Branch of the A.Ph.A., thatj;he druggists be well repre- 
sented at the joint-meeting of the physicians and drug- 
gists, all members, who can spare the time, will be present. 

The association went on record as disapproving of the 
practice of the giving out of Calendars and Souvenirs 
during Christmas and New Years. Mr. Diamond reported 
that the Anti-Narcotic Committee had held a meeting and 
that hardly any change would be made in the present 
Boylan Law that would be detrimental to the druggists. 
The Alcohol fnattcr is in abeyance and the Stephens Bill 
Hearing in Washington was taken up seriously. Several 
bills regulating the pharmaceutical profession have already 
appeared at Albany, to wit : Assembly Bills Nos. SO, 108 
and lis by Assemblymen Fertig and McNab, and Senator- 
ial Bill No. 63 by Senator Hefferman, amending the tax 
law, providing for a tax on the sale or transfer of any 
goods when accompanied by a trading stamp, coupon, re- 
bate ticket, etc. This association favors supporting this 
bill, also wishing to have included the following: that 
the actual giving of souvenirs or tickets for such souv- 
enirs, with a sale or transfer of goods, be taxed in the 
same way as provided for in this bill. 



EASTERN DRUG CO. MEETING 



The annua! meeting of the Eastern Drug Co. Employ- 
ees' Mutual Benefit Association, was held at the office 
of the Eastern Drug Co., Thursday evening, January 2S, 
1917, and the following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: President, Wm. H. Quinn ; vice-president, E. 
Barton Thompson; treasurer, John F. Miller; secretary, 
Russell Spurr; executive committee, Esther M. Hopkins, 
Frank Harris, John E. Reardon, Orrin A. Barnard, Jr., 
Robert W. Hearn. 

Preparation was started for the annual entertainment 
which is to be held during the Spring, and assurances 
were extended by all that a bang-up show would be pre- 
sented to their many friends. 



TRAVELING MEN'S DINNER 
The Traveling Men's Auxiliary of the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association held its third annual dinner 
at Colaizzi's, 37 West 24th street. New York City, on 
Saturday night, January 20th, 1917. 

A large private banquet room had been obtained for 
the occasion and thirty-seven members of the Auxiliary 
together with Mr. Garret Byrnes, President of the parent 
.Association and Mr. C. J. McCloskey, Ex-President sat 
down at a long table decorated with pink carnations. 

.\fter dinner President Geo. F. Whiting asked Mr. Geo. 
W. Buckens to act as Toastmaster and he in turn called 
upon both Mr. Byrnes and Mr. McCloskey for addresses. 
Speeches were also made by different members and all 
voted the affair a big success. A special vote of thanks 
was given the Dinner Committee. Messrs. Ben. S. Isaacs, 
A. J. Stephens and J. A. Sangston. 

TWIN CITIES COMPANIES TO MERGE 



St. Paul. Minn., January 27. — Though _ official an- 
nouncement has not yet been made, a deal is being con- 
cluded here which will bring about the merging of the 
Minneapolis Drug Company and the St. Paul Show Case 
&• Fixture Company, 43-45 West Water street, St. Paul. 
The latter concern is a manufacturer of store fixtures and 



C. R. D. A. COMPLETES StJCCESSFTJL YEAR 

Officers were elected for the ensuing year by the Chi- 
cago Retail Druggists, at a meeting held on January 9th, 
the so-called Supervisors' ticket being successful in the 
contest: President, A. C. Caldwell; 1st vice-president, 
Adolph Umenhofer; 2d vice-president, Harry Bruun; 3d 
vice-president, Harry Moyer ; secretary, Isam M. Light; 
treasurer, Charles A. Storer. 

Trustees : North Side, Julius H. Riemenschneider and 
Frank H. Ahlborn ; West Side, John J. Chwatal, Henry 
Siwecki, William Smale and Samuel Antonow ; South 
Side, Charles Friesnecker, D. P. Seibert and O. U. Sisson. 

The president's annual report recently submitted by the 
retiring president, John J. Chwatal, stated that the year 
just past was the most active and successful in the history 
of the association. The retiring president recommended 
that $1,000 of the funds in the treasury be invested in ap- 
proved securities, which would make, he said, a total of 
$S,000 of the association's funds now profitably invested. 
The amount cleared by the Drug and Chemical Show 
held under the auspices of the Association at the Coliseum, 
December 2 to 10, 1916, netted $708.44 for the association, 
and he recommended that the officers be authorized to 
make the necessary arrangements to hold a single show 
some time during the fall of 1917. 

The annual report of Julius H. Riemenschneider, chair- 
man of the Executive Board of the Association, showed 
that the year 1916 brought a larger increase in member- 
ship and therefore a greater gain in dues collected than 
that of any previous year, the amount of dues collected 
from new members being more than $600. The expendi- 
tures for 1917 are estimated, he said, at about $2,500 more 
than last year, part of this being $500 added to the ap- 
propriation for the use of the U.S. P. and N.F. committee 
and $135 additional dues to be paid the N.A.R.D. 



N. W. D. A. ANNXTAl MEET IN CHICAGO 



Arrangements for the annual convention of the Na- 
tional Wholesale Druggists' Association, which is to be 
held this year in Chicago, are now under way. Some 
days ago representatives of the wholesale drug trade and 
allied interests of Chicago, met and selected Chas. E. 
Matthews, manager of Sharp & Dohme's Chicago house, 
as chairman of the Committee on Arrangements and En- 
tertainment, along with an Executive Committee com- 
posed of the following well-known gentlemen : G. T. 
Bauer, Frank M. Bell, Frank A. Blair, A. R. Brunker, 
William Buss. L. J. Freundt, A. J. Horlick. F. Keeling, 
Jr., .'\. S. Levis. Jas. W. Morrisson, Harold Sorby. 

Chairman Matthews has appointed a number of com- 
mittees and later information relating to hotel headquart- 
ers, date of convention, as well as other particulars will be 
announced. 



BOSTON RETAIL DRUGGISTS ELECT 



The Bo.ston Association of Retail Druggists elected 
John J. Tobin. Chairman of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Registration in Pharmacy, president. January 
10th, to succeed Joseph T. Waterhouse, whose health does 
not permit him to serve another term. Mr. Tobin had 
declined the nomination, but received unanimous election. 
Other officers elected were : W. H. Pierce, S. V. Rin- 
tels, Leon Thompson, vice-presidents ; Charles H. Davis, 
secretary; L. W. Griffin, treasurer; P. J. Cuddyer. S. V. 
Rintels. W. H. Pierce, John H. Dorsey, John R. Sawyer, 
Arthur C. Morey, Charles A. Stover, George E. Grover, 
Frank H. Salisburv, C. Herbert Packard, C. W. Freeman, 
J. E. O'Connell, \V. H. Glover, Sherman N. Sears, execu- 
tive committee ; Frank F. Ernst. James F. Finneran. Prof. 
Elie H. LaPierre. Charles A. Stover. Arthur C. Morey, 
publicity committee. The annual dinner, free to paid up 
members, was served at the Quincy House before the an- 
nual meeting. 



E. A. Otto was re-elected president of the St. Paul 
Retail Druggists' Association at the recent annua! meet- 
ing, held in St. Paul, Minn. 



^U4'me4'>s Catchers 



What the Pushers 
Are Pushing. . . 




A BOX of cards is an innocent looking bit of equipment 
for any sort of a business house. It is, perhaps, 
more innocent looking in a drug store — there are 
sorne druggists who may think it so innocent that it is 
entirely out of place. In New York, however, there is 
one pharmacist who thinks differently on the subject of 
a box of cards and who also has a sense of supreme 
modesty. He has a fine store on 12Sth street but shrinks 
from the light of publicity. Here's what he says about 
the bo.x of cards. 

"I don't claim I've built up a big business on that box 
of cards, nor even that I have built up the present busi- 
ness entirely through its potency. But I do claim that it 
has been a big aid and that every day it is getting to be 
more and more of a necessity. 

"About two years ago the thought came wandering into 
my mind that the layman or purchaser might have ideas 
on my business that I had iverlooked. So I set out to 
get those ideas, figuring that if they were of any use, and 
I put them to that use, the man who had the idea would 
feel an interest in its development and so buy goods 
from my store. 

"I got a cheap card index. Box and everything. Then 
I asked two or three men who had been coming into the 
store to give me some ideas. When I got the first one I 
put it down under a title in the index. It was a simple 
little idea — that I should put my telephone number on my 
prescription labels. I did, and it helped. 

"Of course the idea grew slowly into a full fledged 
plan until now many customers come in and from a ma- 
jority of them I get a suggestion. 

"I have even placed a suggestion box in the store and 
some of the customers drop little notes in there telling 
me how I could improve my business. I have noticed 
that those who make the most suggestions are my best 
customers and they often come in, when I am not busy, 
and talk over their suggestions. 

"The same man who thought it would be a good scheme 
to put my telephone number on my prescription labels also 
suggested that I should have a private telephone for my 
prescription department, not one that was in use taking 
orders for other things in the store. I utilized that sug- 
gestion and although there was considerable difficulty 
the first day or two in getting my clerks and customers 
accustomed to the two phones it has worked out very 
well. Now my prescription phone is used only by those 
who want prescriptions filled in that way and it is a 
success. 

"Another suggestion I have in my little box of cards 
has brought me outside trade — the transient sort. A lady 
said she didn't like the sameness of windows. I ought 
to change mine frequently, said she. Now I change the 
window display every three days, and always have one 
central idea in it. Today it may be talcum powders, 
three days from now, hot water bottles. I have tried to 
make the windows inviting, and think I have succeeded 
because I have noticed persons look into the window 
and then come in to purchase. Which, after all, is 
what we are all wanting to see." 

This particular druggist didn't want his name used 
because of the publicity of it, he said, but his idea could 
not be hidden behind such a modest front. 



F. W. Ryer, a Brooklyn druggist, whose well stocked 
and inviting store is near the Church avenue station of 
the Brighton Beach "L", uses a small circulating library 



as an advertisement and trade bringer for his store. He 
makes no claim that the idea is new, but he keeps his 
bookis new, and that makes it a stronger advertisement. 

"There are many stores that have circulating libraries," 
says Mr. Ryer, "but I have noticed tliat in many of them 
the books are old. In some libraries I have found that 
books printed three and four years ago are on exhibi- 
tion and the readers don't pay any attention to them. 

"I try to keep abreast of the literary times with my 
libraries. I do not beat the newspapers, perhaps, but 
new books are in my library very soon after they appear, 
and I often get my books ready before the public libraries. 
Having new books on hand all the time, means that 
readers come in to get them because they are new, and 
come in often to see the new assortment. Of course 
that brings trade, and I think it brings me more trade 
than if I kept a dull and old assortment. If customers 
find new books they will believe I carry the latest in the 
drug line, which I do." 



DRUGGIST BOOMS TRADE WITH "MOVIES" 



An Indianapolis druggist has decided that a good way 
to boom his business is to draw trade into his sectirn 
through a motion picture house. J. A. New, of the drug 
firm of Binkley and New of College avenue and Forty- 
Second street, got several retail store owners of his dis- 
trict together and formed a stock company. 

The owner of the building in which Mr. New bad his 
store then built a motion picture house and the newly 
formed company manages it. Favorite plays for the 
"movie" fans, by well known actors and actresses are 
featured throughout the district and the "Nordland" is al- 
ready making a success. The retailers who formed the 
company, of course, use the playhouse for advertising pur- 
poses and thereby catch their trade "going and coming." 
New homes have been built in the section, not perhaps be- 
cause of the playhouse, but they have all helped in the de- 
velopment. The section was a new one when the drug 
firm started its work, but it is now leaping up in long 
bounds. 



ST. JOSEPH'S TROUBLES 



The St. Joseph Journal jays that drug stores are be- 
coming restaurants and that there is a great deal of dif- 
ficulty in distinguishing which is which. The following 
incident is said to have occurred in St. Toseph, although 
that Missouri town has always seemed quite normal. 

A man hurried into a drug store there and asked for 
some pills and castor oil. He was told the concern was 
just out of those things. 

"Where's a good restaurant?" he asked. 

"We can feed you," responded the druggist. 

"I don't want feed," said the man as he left, "but I want 
to see if I can get pills and castor oil in a restaurant." 



Middleboro, Mass., is to have an endowed drug store 
when certain provisions of the will of the late David C. 
Pratt, once a member of the Governor's council, become 
effective. The establishment, the will provides, is to be 
in charge of a registered pharmacist and supplies are to 
be furnished free to "deserving and needy persons." The 
estate is valued at $276,000. one-third of which, on the 
death of his widow, is to be set aside for the purpose 
named. 

Page Sixty-Three 



€4 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



WHOLESALERS GIVE ANNUAL DINNERS 



The Western Wholesale Drug Co., Los Angeles, Cal., 
recently tendered a banquet to its officers and employes at 
the Athletic Club in that city. L. D. Sale, president of the 
company, was toastmaster, and responses were made by L. 
Scliifl:", J. E. Sullivan, A. T. Johnson, A. V. Nelson and 
N. E. Walthal. After the banquet all present went to the 
theatre as the company's guests. 

The salesmen and department heads of the Blumauer- 
Frank Drug Co., Portland, Ore., closed a three days sales- 
men's convention with a banquet in the Crystal room of the 
Benson Hotel in that city. R. G. Persell served as toast- 
master and many tributes were paid to the president and 
manager, H. J. Frank, and other officers of the company. 

The third annual banquet of salesmen and department 
managers of the Yahr & Lange Drug Co., wholesale drug- 
gists, Milwaukee, Wis., held at the Maryland Hotel re- 
cently, was epoch making in that various speakers reviewed 
past successes and made suggestions for the good of future 
methods of business. L. A. Lange was toastmaster and 
the speakers were C. G. Foster, M. P. Rosenthal, Fred E. 
Yahr, John Dummer, of Milwaukee ; Stanley H. Knight 
and Ira Davis, of Chicago; William J. Faxe, Escanaba, 
Mich.; C. A. Laefelbein, Madison, Wis.; A. G. Reichen- 
bach, Detroit, Mich. ; A. E. Arial, New York, and J. Wild- 
ermann, Chicago. 

The Decatur Drug Company, Decatur, 111., entertained 
its employes in that city on New Year's Day with a tur- 
key dinner, which a local reporter described as being like 
"an immense family affair when all of the children came 
back to spend the holidays with the home folks." Fifty- 
five of the company's employes gathered around the table 
and five turkeys were carved. The dinner was followed by 
a social hour during which H. C. Burks acted as toast- 
master and called upon various individuals for short talks. 

Members of the Calvert Drug Company and their guests 
to the niimber of about 75 attended the annual dinner and 
exhibition arranged in the Roof Garden of the Emerson 
Hotel in Baltimore Dec. 14. A display was arranged in 
the same apartment. Every member was asked to bring 
one or more druggists of the city, who are not members 
of the company, which operates on the co-operative plan. 
The idea was to give every one an adequate conception of 
the lines handled by the Calvert Company, of which R. E. 
Lee Williamson is general manager. 

SQUIBB GET-TOGETHER MEETING 



The "Squibb Get-together" was one of the features of 
the after-holidays in New York._ Salesmen, department 
heads, branch managers and everybody else was present 
at the meeting and it was one grand good time, aside 
from the business value it held for everyone concerned. 

The company invited its men to New York to discuss 
things with them. It not only invited them, it paid their 
expenses. And after it got them here it put them up at 
a nice hotel and paid for everything there. From Janu- 
ary 13th, the men were guests of the company and each 
day went to classes in salesmanship, science and to ex- 
aminations. Written "exams" were held and the men 
were put through a rigid course of sprouts after officers 
and department heads had made speeches to them and 
explained things. 

On January 19th there was a banquet at the Astor. Di- 
rectors and officers of the company spoke and everybody 
had a good time. It was a real banquet with exhibitions 
of dancing and music thrown in to help enliven the 
evening. 

The E. R. Squibb & Sons Company spent a large sum 
on the gathering but officials say that it was well spent. 
It taught the men a great deal and it helped the officials 
to further understand their men. 



Fifty persons connected with the McCoy-Howe Co.,- 
nanufacturing pharmacists, Indianapolis, Ind., attended 
a banquet on January 2d at the German House in that 
city in honor of Louis Engelking, for twenty-five years 
connected with the sales department of the company. Mr. 
Engelking was presented with a gold watch in recognition 
of his long service. 



WANTS LOCAL NARCOTIC LAW IN D. C. 



In his annual report to the Commissioners of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Inspector of Pharmacy R. A. Sanders 
recommends that Congress be appealed to "for a local 
law that will cover the shortcomings of the pharmacy and 
Harrison laws, making any violation of the same an in- 
dictable offense, with a maximum penalty, a $2,000 fine or 
five years, or both, in the discretion of the court. 

"It is alarming to note the terrible evils of the drug 
habit, and almost impossible to estimate its enormous 
proportions, as it is fostered in secrecy, and its responsi- 
bility for a large portion of the crimes against the com- 
munity. The illegal traffic and use of narcotic drugs can 
not be eradicated by the mere regulation or prevention of 
open sales. The very essence of it is secrecy and it is 
only by arbitrary measures that we may hope to cope 
with the situation. 

"The provisions of our local pharmacy law are not ade- 
quate for the suppression of this dangerous traffic, and the 
United States Supreme Court held that the Harrison law 
was a registration and taxing act and not a police meas- 
ure." 

As the result of the quarterly examination held in Janu- 
ary, licenses to practice pharmacy were granted to six ap- 
plicants, one of whom was Sister Mary Constantine. The 
next examination of the board will be held on April 
12th and 13th. 



NORWICH BOOTH AT DRUG SHOW 



There were many interesting booths at the Chicago 
Drug and Chemical Show held recently in the Coliseum 
in Chicago, but one of the best was that exhibited by the 
Norwich Pharmacal Company. The Norwich beacon, 
placed 28 feet above the floor, a miniature lighthouse, 
threw its rays all over the show floor and attracted many 
druggists to the booth. 

Inside, the Norwich general line was displayed. "Un- 
guentine," "Norwich Dental Cream" and other specialities 
were exhibited strongly and a pleasing impression was 
given by the entire booth. During the show, hundreds 
of samples of the dental cream were given away by 
salesmen, assisted by Miss Adelaide Zuelke "the Norwich 
girl." 



EULOGIZE THE LATE DR. M. I. WILBERT 



The District of Columbia Pharmacists' Association, on 
December 27th held a memorial meeting at which mem-: 
bers of both the pharmaceutical and medical professions 
paid tribute to the memory of the late Dr. Martin I. 
Wilbert, who recently passed away in Philadelphia. Reso- 
lutions were adopted, copies of which were forwarded to 
the family of Dr. Wilbert and the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, of which he was also a prominent mem- 
ber. Dr. Murray Gait. Motter. Dr. A. Chestnut, Louis 
Flemer, W. H. Bradbury, M. A. Pozen and S. L. Hilton 
made short addresses in eulogy of the deceased. 

At a business meeting earlier in the evening. Dr. W. 
W. Stockberger was elected to serve the organizations as 
president during the ensuing year, the other officers 
chosen being S. L. Hilton, first vice-president; Dr. W. S. 
Hubbard, second vice-president; H. C. Fuller, secretary, 
and Louis Flemer, treasurer. 



MULFORD ANNIVERSARY PARTY 



The H. K.Mulford Company celebrated its 25th anni- 
versary by a conference of salesmen which terminated 
with a banquet in the Union League Club of Philadelphia 
on December 29th. Among the speakers were H. K. Mul- 
ford. Dr. John D. McLean. Milton Campbell, E. T. Hahan. 
F. L. Christman. Prof. Joseph P. Remington. Howard 
B. French. Dr. E. G. Eberle and Edward J. Cattell. City 
statistician who represented the Mayor of Philadelphia. 



The Ohio State Board of Pharmacy elected the follow- 
ing officers at its annual meeting recently: President, Ed- 
ward Voss. Jr.. Cincinnati ; treasurer, A. L. Flander- 
mever, Cleveland ; executive secretary, M. N. Ford, Co- 
lumbus. 



February, 1917] 



THE PnARMACEUTICAL ERA 



65 



PHARMACEUTICAL PERSONALS 



CELEBRATE DIEKMAN'S 25th ANNIVERSARY 



CHARLES A. WEST CELEBRATES JUBILEE 




G. C. DiEKMAX 



Under the auspices of the Alumni Association, the 
Board of Trustees and the Faculty of the New York 
College of Pharmacy, a testimonial dinner was tendered 
to Prof. George C. Diekman at the Drug and Chemical 
Club, New York, on the evening of January 23d, the 
occasion celebratmg the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his services as a 
teacher in the college, which is now 
an integral part of Columbia Uni- 
versity. The friends and guests 
present numbered more than two 
hundred, and among them were a 
large number of his present and 
former colleagues on the faculty and 
the New York State Board of Pharm- 
acy, his membership in the last 
named organization extending over 
a period of twenty-two years. 

Samuel W. Fairchild, a former 
president of the New York College 
of Pharmacy, had been selected to 
preside at the dinner as toastmaster, 
but owing to ill-health he was not 

able to be present. His place was taken bj- Prof. Charles 
F. Chandler, who in spite of his eighty years, proved him- 
self a pastmaster in the art of college "reminiscing" and 
of discharging the duties of an up-to-date toastmaster. 
Caswell A. Mayo started the program by reading a letter 
from Dr. William H. Carpenter, provost of Columbia 
University, who was to have responded to the toast "Twen- 
ty-Five Years as a Teacher," but was unable to be present. 
Prof. Chandler followed with a very interesting talk on 
"Diekman and the Board of Trustees," and related that 
at the time Dr. Diekman was invited to join the faculty, 
the only criticism raised was that based on the fact that 
Diekman was "from Brookh'n," but he (Chandler) took 
the view that such experience should qualify the young 
professor for work on the faculty, for having resided in 
Brooklyn, and having acquired a knowledge of the sharp 
methods practiced over there, Diekman could no doubt 
give the New Yorkers some points they really needed. 

Other speakers who responded to toasts were Dr. H. 
H. Rusby, who spoke on "Diekman and the Faculty;" 
Thomas F. Main, honorary president of the Alumni As- 
sociation, on 'T)iekman and the Alumni ;" and Pasquale 
Guerrieri, "Diekman and the Fraternities." As tangible 
tokens of friendship and regard, Dr. Rusby, on behalf of • 
the faculty, presented Dr. Diekman with a silver loving 
cup ; Earle T. Keenan for the third year University class 
presented a beautiful cane, and Thomas F. Main, on be- 
half of the Alumni Association, presented a set of elabor- 
ately engrossed resolutions testifying to Dr. Diekman's 
great work as an educator in pharmacy. 

Dr. Diekman graduated from the New York College of 
Pharmacy in 1888 as a member of the famous "blizzard 
class," and in 1892 became a member of the faculty, serv- 
ing until 1895 as an instructor, when he was chosen pro- 
fessor of pharmacy, a position he has since held. He 
holds membership in the A. Ph. A., the National Associa- 
tion of Boards of Pharmacy and the New York Ph.A.. 
while he has been a member of the New York Board of 
Pharmacv for twenty-two vears, serving as its president 
in 1910. ' 



— H. T. Houghton, the pioneer druggist of Englewood, 
111., for more than thirty years a druggist at 6600 Went- 
worth avenue. Chicago, has sold out to Paul Kepner and 
will retire from active business. Mr. Houghton is sixty 
j'ears old and has had a successful career, being the 
owner of the building in which his store is located. He 
is a charter member of the Chicago Retail Druggists' As- 
sociation. 

— A. ^f. KoPKiNS, of Cincinnati, O.. has resigned as 
Secretary of the Dow Drug Company there. 



Charles A. West, vice-president of the Eastern Drug 
Co., Boston, Mass., and a former president of the Na- 
tional Wholesale Druggists' Association, on January 1st 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his entrj' into the 
drug business. He has spent his whole business career 
in the wholesale trade, in- 
cluding every station from 
errand boy to the manager 
of the drug department of 
the largest wholesale con- 
cern in the New England 
section of the country. His 
membership in the N. W. 
D. A. covers a period of 
thirty years and during 
that time he has been a 
regular attendant at the an- 
nual conventions of the or- 
ganization. He has served 
on many important com- 
mittees, and for a number 
of years was chairman of 
the Legislative Committee 
of the association. 

Mr. West is a native of 
Boston and was born in 
1850. After graduating 
from high school, he ent- 
ered the employ of Reed, 
Cutler & Co., wholesale 
druggists in Broad street, 

as office bo}'. He continued with the company for twenty 
years, sixteen of which he spent on the road as a com- 
mercial traveler, his territory covering at various times 
all of New England and New York State. In 1887, with 
Bernard Jenney, Jr., he formed the wholesale firm of 
West & Jenney. a concern which thirteen years later was 
one of the four wholesale houses that merged into the 
Eastern Drug Co. Upon the organization of the new 
corporation, Mr. West was made vice-president and given 
charge of the drug department, a position he has since 
continuously held. 

Mr. West, apart from his connection with the Eastern 
Drug Co. and the American Camphor Refining Co., of 
which he has been president, has served the drug trade 
in many capacities. He is a charter member of the 
Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical Association, and has 
served as a trustee of the Massachusetts College of 
Pharmacy. In 1892 he was president of the Boston Drug- 
gists' Association. He also holds membership in various 
clubs and societies, and it is safe to say that in all of 
his long experience he has given to the trade with which 
he has been identified the best thought of a resourceful 
mind, backed by the energy of a successful business man. 




Ch.arles A. West 



PERSONAL BREVITIES 



— H. BiTTNER of the Bittner Drug Store in Saginaw, 
Mich., was a swindler's victim recently. He was asked to 
send a package costing 43 cents to a house and was told to 
send the change for $10 with the messenger. A man met 
the messenger, gave him a "fake" envelope, took his pack- 
age and change, and has not been seen since. 

— J. A. WiLKERsoN and Thomas B. Chambers, managers 
of St. Louis stores of the Johnson-Enderle-Paulev com- 
pany will be married in Tune to Miss Mary Meadth and 
Miss Elsie Bauer, respectiveh'. It will be a double cere- 
mony, a double honeymoon, and then the two couples will 
live near each other. 

— Edward G. Kennedy, inspector for the Illinois 
Pharmacy Board has resigned. He will enter the drug 
business with a Chicago concern. 

— Samuel Bienstock. druggist of Hartford, Conn., was 
endorsed by the druggists of his city as a candidate for 
State Pharmacy Commissioner at a January meeting. 



66 



THE PHARjMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Februarx-, 1917 



— H. H. Whyte, general sales manager of the H. K. 
Mulford Companj', returned from a six-weeks' tour of 
the United States recently. He visited all of the branch 
houses of the company from coast to coast, as well as 
representatives and a number of the principal customers 
of the firm throughout the countr3'. Mr. Whyte reports 
that business is good everywhere and future prospects are 
excellent. 

— C. S. Perry, 63 years old, a druggist of 958 West 
Sixth street, Cincinnati, is recovering from an experience 
which came very nearly taking his life, one night in De- 
cember. Mr. Perry was attacked by highwaymen and was 
knocked unconscious with a club. Charles Wildon, a 
negro, was arrested. 

— Welch Wilmarth's drug store in Minneapolis was 
burned December 16 and during the fire the Minneapolis 
Drug company, which is connected with the Welch, Wil- 
marth concern, invited firemen to smoke, drink soda, and 
eat in its store. The fire damage to the building was 
$25,000. 

— John F. Queexy, president of the Monsanto Chemi- 
cal Works, St. Louis, just before sailing for Australia 
with his wife and daughter for a period of rest and recre- 
ation, was elected president of the Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation of St. Louis at the annual meeting of that or- 
ganization held on January 16th. 

— John W. Kix'ela, one of the best known of the 
younger business men of Calumet, Mich,, has purchased 
the interest of Dr. O. H. Sorsen in the Metropolitan 
Pharmacy of that city, thereby becoming sole owner. The 
store recently has been thoroughly modernized and is now 
one of the finest pharmacies in the Copper Country. 

— F. T. Chadwick, Jr., druggist of Princeton. N. J., and 
Asbury Park, N. J., has offered his Asbury Park store 
for sale. Mr. Chadwick feels that the hard winter work 
in Princeton followed by the harder summer work in 
Asbury is too much for him. 

— William E. Farnsworth, vice-president of the Sis- 
son Drug Company. Hartford, Conn., was presented with 
a large bouquet of flowers in observation of his 40th birth- 
day recently. Directors of the company were responsible 
for the gift. 

— Frank Lighter, druggist of Randolph, Wis., accord- 
ing to the Advance of that city, had a very narrow escape 
from a serious injury a short time ago while attempting 
to warm an acid, the bottle breaking and burning his hand 
and arm quite badly. 

— Walter L. S.^-Lmon, of Boston, has gone to Winni- 
peg. Canada, as manager for the Liggett organization 
there. E. L. Meserve has been made manager for Con- 
necticut succeeding F. L. Tompkins, who leaves that field 
for Xew York. 

—Louis K. Liggett, head of the United Drug Company, 
has announced a policy to help worthy poor. Prescriptions 
will be filled free of charge in all the United chain stores, 
on presentation of a certificate showing the person to be 
actually poor. 

—Fred C. Dodds, of Springfield, 111., aided in the prose- 
cution of Dr. N. L. Johnson of Chicago, who was charged 
with selling a large quantity of morphine to a woman. 
Mr. Dodds is secretary of the state board of pharmacy. 

—John Hannecke, druggist at 5400 West ave., St. Louis, 
Mo., was severely burned on the right hand recently while 
attempting to extinguish a blazing garment on his son which 
had accidentally caught fire. The son was unhurt. 

— E. E. Burlingame of Philadelphia and Harry Weed 
of Brooklyn have exchanged territory as Liggett managers, 
Mr. Burlingame going to the Brooklyn and New York field 
while Mr. Weed goes to Philadelphia. 

— O. L. Hancock of 1512 North Second street, Vin- 
cennes, Ind.. has purchased the drug store of Albert F. 
Miller of Vincennes. The O. L. Hancock Co. was for- 
merly in Campbellsburg, Ind. 

— TuLivs Kalish, druggist of 283 Grand street. New 
York, has been made defendant in a $5,000 damage suit by 
a girl who charges that peroxide she purchased in his store 
made her hair come out. 



— Harry Spencer Anderson, the newsboy heir to $25,000 
in Toledo, Ohio, is a drug clerk in Reading, Pa. Ander- 
son cannot get his money until he is 21 and he refuses 
to return to Toledo. 

— Rawleigh Company employes of Freeport, 111., received 
Christmas presents from the firm during the holidays. 
Every employee was given a goose, for which the company 
appropriated $1,000. 

— Dr. E. J. Kirk of Jacksonville, Florida, has associ- 
ated himself with the Bettes Pharmacy. He has been a 
druggist in the Florida city for many years and is well 
known there. 

— E. T. Off, Fred Buck and Fred H. Roberts are mak- 
ing a special effort to stop the importations of drugs into 
California from Mexico. At present they are working in 
San Diego. 

— Charles V. Ryan, of 194 Main street, Springfield, 
Mass., is being supported by Democrats as a candidate for 
the directorate of the Federal Farm Loan Bank in Massa- 
chusetts. 

— A. N. O'Keefe, vice president of the Southern Drug 
Company of Jacksonville, Florida, was presented with a 
gold watch by employees of the concern just before Christ- 
mas. 

— -George L. Baldauf, prominent Milwaukee, Wis., 
pharmacist, secretary and treasurer of the Baldauf Drug 
Co., 3426 North avenue, has been elected president of the 
Wisconsin State Savings Bank of that city. 

— -Prof. Fred Mayer, dean of the College of Pharmacy, 
Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis., recently spent a 
short vacation near Butternut, Wis., on Turtle river, in 
northern Wisconsin. 

— William J. Schelbe, druggist of Springfield, 111., was 
married to Miss Elsie AI. Burt of the same city early in 
January. Mr. Schelbe is proprietor of the Laurel street 
pharmacy. 

— Dr. J. M. Evans, who conducted the Pioneer Pharm- 
acy at Evansville, Wis., has disposed of the stock and 
business to R. C. Schoen, Ph.G., of New Holstein, Wis., 
who has taken possession. 

— John E. Crowdle, after being a clerk for 25 years 
in the Fred A. Hubbard pharmacy at Newton, Mass., 
opened a new drug store early in January at 329 Wash- 
ington street, same city. 

— A. O. Batson, for several years a drug clerk in 
Somerville, Mass., has opened a drug store at Trapelo 
road and Common street, Waverly, Alass. 

— George N. Harris, druggist at Silsby and Broad streets, 
Lynn, Mass., has bought the drug store of C. Y. Sawyer, 
at Ireson and Union streets, Lynn. 

— Dobson's Drug Store of Brockport, N. Y., suffered a 
$10,000 fire loss early in January, when a blaze swept 
through the entire block in which it is located. 

— P. C. Brooks, Chicago Heights manager of the Gen- 
eral Chemical Company, has been transferred to East St. 
Louis. He left for his new position in January. 

— H. E. GuNN, 48 years a druggist in Uxbridge, Mass., 
has retired from active business. His son. Dr. George B. 
Gunn. will succeed him in his store. 

— S. J. CuRLEE, of Flora, 111., and his son R. A. Curlee, of 
Chicago, have purchased the drug store in Waukegan, 
owned by E. A. Nordling. 

— H. B. Me.\der, of Oakland, Cal., has been appointed by 
Governor Hiram W. Johnson as a member of the State 
Board of Pharmacy, to succeed the late D. M. Sutherland. 

— Ferdinand Ott, of Cincinnati, was recently elected 
president of the Ohio Valley Druggists' Association. 

—A. H. Shavnin. druggist of Los Angeles, gave 400 
children a New Year's dinner. 

— Louis B. Terney. druggist of Springfield. Mass., was 
married to Miss Sarah Goodless at home on January 10th. 

— Samuel Chesbro of Willimantic, Conn., has sold his 
lucrative drug business to the Bay State Drug Company. 



February, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



67 



DEATHS IN THE DRUG TRADE 



DK. HAMILTON WRIGHT 



Dr. Hamilton Wright, author of tlie Harrison anti- 
narcotic law, and an authority on narcotics, died recently 
at his residence in Washington, following an attack of 
pneumonia. He woa fame throughout the country through 
his efforts to solve die opium problem. 

He was educated in Bos- 
ton, Montreal and Heidel- 
berg and in 1909 became 
prominent among drug 
workers. He acted as chair- 
man and American delegate 
to the International Opium 
Commission in Shanghai 
and there he did a great 
\york for this country. Lat- 
er he was sent to the con- 
ference in The Hague and 
twice acted as American 
representative there. Be- 
fore his activity in this 
country, in 1899 to 1903, he 
was an assistant in the 
London laboratories and 
made extensive researches 
among the Malays. 

nnH^wTi?? !.n°? *' '"■ Dr. Hamilton Wright 

ond Hague conference m 

1913, Dr. Wright prepared a bill suppressing the opium 
trade. It was known as the Harrison bill and is still in 
effect, although it has been amended and changed since 
he originated it. He was a leading advocate of all meas- 
ures tending to stamp out the opium evil in this countrj'. 
In 1915 he went to Europe to assist in the relief work 
in the war zone and while there was seriously injured in 
an automobile accident which made him ill during the 
last year of his life. Ten days ago penumonia set in 
and he never recovered. He was married in 1899 to Miss 
Elizabeth Washburn, daughter of the late Senator William 
Drew Washburn of Minnesota. She survived him with 
her five cliildren. Dr. Wright was a member of most 
of the scientific associations of the country. 

N. GRAY BARTLETT 



maceutical Association, and was the recipent of several 
honorary degrees fyjni universities. Two sons, AUyn R. 
and John K. Bartlett survive him. 

SHELLY B. JONES 




N. Gray Bartlett, pioneer druggist of Chicago, and for 
many years a professor in the faculty of the Chicago Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, died at his residence in that city on 
Jan. 4. He was born in Louisville, Ky., in 1840, where he 
was educated in the public schools and the Louisville 
Literary Academy. He subsequently pursued the study 
of chemistry under Prof. Wright of the Kentucky School 
of Medicine, and served as apothecary in a public dis- 
pensary, later entering the drug business with J. L. Mor- 
ris & Sons of Louisville. In 1861. he went to Chicago 
and entered the employ of E. H. Sargent, and also ma- 
triculated in the Chicago College of Pharmacy from which 
he graduated in due course. In 1866 he went to Keokuk, 
Iowa, and associated himself with his brother in the drug 
business. Upon his return to Chicago in 1870, he was 
chosen as professor of chemistry in the Chicago Medical 
College, and shortly thereafter was elected editor of The 
Pharmacist, the monthly journal published by the Chicago 
College of Pharmacy. 

In 1871, he became a member of the faculty of his alma 
mater, occupying in turn the chairs of chemistry and 
pharmacy. He also served as trustee and for three terrns 
was president of the corporation and a leading spirit in 
the management of the school. He resigned his professor- 
ship in 1895 much to the regret of the college authorities. 
From 1872 until about a decade ago he conducted a drug 
store in addition to his many other duties. his_ profes- 
sional work as an analytical and consulting chemist earn- 
ing for him the name of being one of the busiest men 
in the city. He was a life member of the American Phar- 



Shelly B. Jones, for nineteen years a prominent drug- 
gist of Marquette, Mich., died January 5th at his home. 
He was 54 years old. He had been ill with pneumonia 
for four days. Mr. Jones was born in Greenville, Mich., 
in 1862. He was graduated from Albion College in 1883 
at the age of 21 years. He went immediately to Baraga 
County and 19 years ago he went to Marquette as a 
drug clerk. Three years later he entered the business 
for himself and since then has operated his own store. 

He had been prominent in politics for the past ten 
years, adhering to the Democratic party, altliough he 
had never held a public office. In 1891 he married Miss 
Nettie Culver. She died two years ago and he remarried. 
One daughter Denise, survives him. 

BENJAMIN S. COOBAN 



Benjamin S. Cooban, 46, a well known pharmacist of 
Englewood, a suburb of Chicago, died on Dec. 31 from 
diabetes. He was a native of Bradford, Pa., and went to 
Chicago 26 years ago. Two years later he established a 
drug store at 459 West Sixty-third street (Englewood), 
which he conducted up to the time of his death. Mr 
Cooban was a well known contributor to pharmaceutical 
journals on commercial and trade topics. He was a mem- 
ber of the American Pharmaceutical Association. His 
funeral which was held in St. Bernard's Catholic Church, 
was attended by the officers of the C. R. D. A., ot which 
he had long been an active member. His widow and one 
son survive. 



EUGENE ZIMMERMAN 



Eugene Zimmerman, a life long resident ot Peoria, 
III., who had been in the drug business in that city since 
1882. died at his home in Peoria on December 22d, at 
the age of 58. Last September, Mr. Zimmerman was 
operated upon and from that time until he died he grew 
worse. In 1882 Mr. Zimmerman opened his business at 
2113 Adams street and remained at that address until 
1893 when he opened a new and larger store on Knox- 
ville avenue. He is survived by his wife and hve 
children. 



SUMNER W. BIXLER 



Sumner W. Bixler, of Constantine, Mich., died sud- 
denly in his home there at the age of 59. He had been 
associated for manv vears with the Heimbach Drug Store 
of Constantine. Mr. Bixler left his store on Saturday 
evening and went directly to his apartment. He was not 
seen on Sunday and when friends went to look for him 
they found him dead, of heart disease. He is survived by 
his' wife and one daughter. 

DR. J. J. PIERRON 

Dr Joseph J. Pierron, for many years, a prominent 
dru<^gist in Lincoln, III., died recently in his Chicago 
honie Dr. Pierron and his brother, Ferdinand, went to 
Lincoln several years ago from Beloit. Wisconsin and 
there founded the drug store which, at the present, terdi- 
nand Pierron manages. Burial services were held in 
Cincinnati. 

—Andrew Moore, a retired druegist of Charleston, 111, 
died at his home. He was in his 80th year. _ He was 
born in College Corner, Ohio, and went to Illinois in 1860. 
He first opened a drug storein Mattoon. About 12 years 
ago he retired from the business. 



68 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



RECENT DEATHS 



—George Tonnar, a former druggist of Menomonie, 
Wis., died recently at the Pacific branch of the National 
Home of Veterans at Los Angeles, Cal. Mr. Tonnar was 
born in Germany, in 1843, coming to this country with his 
parents m 1858. After an active army career during the 
Civil war, he attended Georgetown V'niversity, graduating 
as a physician. He never practiced medicine but engaged 
in the drug business, first at Dubuque, la., and then at 
Menomonie. He opened a pharmacy in Chicago during 
the World's Fair period, returning to Menomonie in 1895 
and re-engaging in the business there. He retired in 1913. 
His widow, one son and two daughters survive. 

— ^Henry Edward Ranous, who had been engaged in 
the drug business since 1887 at Janesville, Wis., died 
January 10th, after a lingering illness of several months 
duration. He was born at Watertown, Wis., in 1870, and 
went to Janesville where he graduated from high school, 
and entered the drug business. In 1896 he became part- 
ner of the late Dr. St. John, purchasing the Prentice & 
Evenson pharmacy which was operated under the name 
of H. E. Ranous & Co. He was prominent in church and 
fraternal organizations. His parents, one sister and a 
brother survive. 

—Otto Wintermeyer, druggist of 1005 West Madison 
street, Chicago, was found dead behind his counter on 
the night of January 4th. He was 42 years old, a bachelor 
and was well known on the West Side although he had 
owned his store only a few months. Mr. Wintermeyer 
had lived in Chicago for 25 years and most of that time 
had been spent in the drug business. There was a mys- 
tery about his death and the Chicago police are investi- 
gating it. 

— Humphrey C. Moynihan, one of the oldest druggists 
in Southbridge, Mass., died January Sth at his home there. 
Typhoid pneumonia was the cause of death. He was in 
his 67th year. He was born in Quincy and went to South- 
bridge when he was a young man. He had maintained a 
drug store there for 28 years. He is survived by two 
sons. Harry C, of Southbridge and Humphrey of Wins- 
ton-Salem, N. C. 

—John Stephen Penberthy, veteran druggist of Flor- 
ence, Wis., died at his home in that city recently of arterio- 
sclerosis after an illness of three weeks. Mr. Penberthy 
was a native of Wisconsin. In 1881 he established a 
pharmacy in Florence. He was nearly 74 years old. 
Mr. Penberthy was married twice. Surviving are four 
sons and one daughter. One son, I. E. Penberthy, is 
engaged in the drug business in Chicago. 

— Edw.'Vrd J. Griffith, who conducted a drug store for 
more than thirty years in Oil City, Pa., is dead. He was 
born in Warren, Pa., and when a young man went to 
New York City, where he was engaged for some time 
with his father and two brothers in the drug business. 
He was a Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine. 
His widow survives. 

— R. H. Moore, of the R. H. Moore Drug Co., Franklin, 
Ky., dropped dead on the street in that city on January 
6th. He had been associated with the drug business for 
forty years and had amassed a fortune. He was a direc- 
tor of the Simpson County Bank. At the time of Mr. 
Moore's death his wife was at St. Petersburgh, Fla., 
where she was spending the winter. 

—Herbert E. Bucklen, of Chicago, 111., who amassed 
a fortune estimated at $7,000,000 in the manufacture of 
patent medicines, railroads and real estate, died at his 
home in that city on January 10th. He was 68 years 
of age. He was noted as the builder of the St. Joseph 
Valley Railway, which runs from Elkhart, Ind., to Colum- 
bus, Ohio. His widow and three children survive. 

—John Tilma, 62 years of age, a druggist of 245 Wat- 
son street, Buffalo, N. Y., dropped dead recently while on 
his vvay to consult his lawyer concerning certain changes 
he wished to make in his will. Mr. Tilma was a man of 
considerable propert>'. and had been engaged in the drug 
business in Buffalo since 1887. He was born in Holland 
and settled in Buffalo in 1882. Death was due to apoplexy. 
He is survived by his wife and three brothers. 

— Dr. LiLBtTRN Wallace Spooner-, who for a number 



of years was engaged as a pharmacist in Charlottesville, 
Va., was found dead in his room at the Victor Hotel, 
Washington, on December 28th. Dr. Spooner was sixty 
years of age. He retired from the drug business several 
years ago. 

— Benjamin W. Smith, formerly a retail druggist at 
Dallas, Texas, and later a manufacturer of proprietary 
medicines is dead. He was born at Ocean Springs, Miss., 
in 1856. He was an active member of the Odd Fellows' 
fraternity. His widow, one son, Ben W. Smith, Jr., and 
two daughters survive. 

—Lewis Darling, M.D., physician and surgeon, pen- 
sioner of the U. S. Navy, and member of the firm of 
L. & W. W. Darling, druggists at Lawrenceville, Tioga 
Co., Pa., died suddenly at his home in that place, October 
20, 1916, aged 76 years and 1 day. Burial was at Law- 
renceville, Pa. 

— George R. Harris, a druggist in San Francisco dur- 
ing the gold craze sixty years ago, and later a druggist 
in New York City and New Jersey, died at his home in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., on January 18th. He was in his 83d 
year and was a native of St. Johns, N. B. 

— Charles Marchand, well known to many druggists 
of the country as a manufacturer of hydrogen peroxide, 
died at his home at Sea Gate, Long Island, on January 
16th. The funeral services were held in the Church of 
St. Vincent de Paul, New York City, on January 18th. 

— Mrs. Elizabeth D. McKesson Camp, widow of Hugh 
Nesbitt Camp, and daughter of the late John McKesson, 
founder of the firm of McKesson & Robbins, wholesale 
druggists. New York, died at her home in the Metropolis 
on January 4th. She was 81 years of age. 

— Charles P. Hannaford, for many years a druggist of 
Winthrop, Me., died on January 15th after a long illness. 
He was 70 years of age and for some years his son had 
taken charge of his business. His widow, one son, and a 
daughter survive. 

— Alfred J. Tartiss, a former Rochester, N. Y., drug- 
gist, died at Utica, on January 9th, of pneumonia, his 
wife dying the following day of the same disease. He . 
was 78 and was born in Newark, N. J., and his wife 
was 73. 

—Jerry P. Fenton, 48 years old, a druggist of Omaha, 
Nebraska, dropped dead on January 2d, as he was leaving 
his store. Mr. Fenton was survived by his wife and 5 
children. 

— Edwin T. Moore, naval pharmacist in the Boston Navy 
Yard died late in December. Funeral services were held 
on New Year's Day. Mr. Moore was born in 1856 in 
Newbury, Vt. 

— Charles Thoman of Struthers, Ohio, died suddenly in 
his drug store on December 27th. He was born in East 
Lewiston, Ohio, in 1886 and was a graduate of Scio 
college. He had been a druggist in Struthers for 6 years. 

— Dr. John E. Younglove, 90, a retired druggist of 
Bowling Green, Ky., died on January 2d of paralysis. He 
was born in Johnstown, N. Y., and started in the drug 
business with his brother in Bowling Green in 1846. 



HEARINGS ON STEPHENS BILL 



The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce of Congress is conducting hearings on the Stephens 
Bill to standardize prices on trade-marked goods. Sup- 
porters of the bill were present in large numbers. Edmond 
A. Whittier, Secretary-Treasurer of the American Fair 
Trade League, said: 

"At last the poverty in the argument and material of 
the trading stamp and price-cutting opponents of the 
Stephens Honest Advertising bill, is clearly disclosed. 
Congress already knows that the small, independent busi- 
ness men of the country are unitedly appealing for this 
relief from the most oppressive existing form of unfair 
competition. 

"Friends of the Stephens Bill are well satisfied that, 
without exception, every witness who has so far spoken 
for our opponents, has helped the cause of honest iner- 
chandising by his weakness in argument and lack of 
knowledge of the facts." 



February, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



69 



A.D.S. MEETING IN NEW YORK 



President Goddard Reports on Financial Conditions 



American Druggist Syndicate members, numbering at 
least 500 met in convention the first four days of the 
week of January 22d in the new A.D.S. building in Long 
Island City, N. Y. The building itself was not fully 
completed, but the arrangement for the convention was 
good and there was room enough for all. In connection 
with the meeting there was a drug and chemical exhibit 
which proved interesting. 

A wide field of subjects was discussed. Reports of all 
the officers were read and were received and papers on 
selling, transportation, buying, stocking, and formulae 
were read. The druggists who attended the convention 
left it feeling well repaid for their visit. 

The session opened Monday with a discussion of nar- 
cotics and the new bill proposed in New York. Justice 
Cornelius F. Collins, of the Court of Special Sessions, ad- 
dressed the gathering, telling them what his committee 
of judges had decided would be an adequate relief in the 
problem. He advocated triplicate prescriptions for ad- 
dicts, one to be filed with the Board of Health, and the 
others with the doctor and druggist. The convention was 
unanimous in supporting the proposed bill. Dean W. C. 
Anderson of the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy re- 
sponded. 

A real feature of the morning was the speech by 
Arthur Brisbane, editor of the New York Evening Jour- 
nal. Mr. Brisbane spoke on prohibition, among other 
things, and also touched on the drug trade. 

During the Monday session, Charles H. Goddard, presi- 
dent of the A.D.S. read his report. That, too, was well 
received. Among other things he said that the new 
building was owned by the association and that $200,000 
in notes had been paid off. He also said that an 8 per 
cent dividend had been voted and would be paid Febru- 
ary 10th. 

"The year just closed," he continued, "has been the most 
successful one we have ever experienced. Our volume 
exceeds the best previous twelve months by approximately 
$1,000,000, largely confined to our own manufactured prod- 
ucts. With few exceptions the A.D.S. has been forced 
to fight for every dollar's worth of business that it has 
got since the date of birth, and the success was over a 
very rocky road. 

"There has already been returned to the stockholders 
nearly $2,000,000 in dividends within the past year. Those 
who invested their $100 with me at the first call have al- 
ready got their money back with . three or four hundred 
percent added in direct returns." 

George W. Luft, treasurer read his report showing that 
the exact net surplus for 1916 was $4,672,972.25. There 
are no notes payable, no bonds and no loans on real 
estate. There is, however, $8,500.40 in unclaimed divi- 
dends. 

During the Tuesday session. Secretary of Commerce 
Redfield sent a report in which he said that this country 
has become one of the largest exporters of drugs and 
chemicals. 

"As compared with the total exportation of $27,000,000 
during the fiscal year of 1913 we sold abroad during 1916 
over $124,000,000 in drugs, chemicals and dyes," was the 
way his report read. 

That the business between the United States and Ger- 
many, after the war, would be greater than ever before 
in dyes, drugs and chemicals, and that the relations would 
be closer, was the prediction of Count Johann von Bers- 
toff. German ambassador to this country. 

Borough President Maurice J. Connolly of Queens, the 
county in which the A.D.S. building stands, addressed the 
gathering welcoming them to Long Island City. He said 
that the need of drugs was becoming more and more acute 
and called the trade the "savior of the people." 
Interesting Papers Are Read 

Papers were read by Senator William J. Bullock of 
New Bedford. Mass.. on "Modern Pharmacy;" E. W. 
Stucky of Indianapolis. "Selling A.D..S. Merchandise;"' 
M. G. Gibbs, Washington, D. C. "The Relation of the 
A.D.S. Salesman to the Junior Clerk in the Drug Store" 



and "Window Dressing" by two expert window dressers 
of New York's chain stores. The most interesting paper 
was Senator Bullock's who told of means and methods 
that have been and can be used to strengthen the modern 
drug store trade. Senator Bullock said that the drug 
store of today could nqt hope to live against competition 
without a systematic and forceful advertising campaign 
and modern methods in very department. 

Transportation was the theme of the Wednesday con- 
vention and both sides of the issue were carefully and 
freely discussed. Communications giving the railroad's 
side of the question were read from A. H. Smith, presi- 
dent of the New York Central ; Daniel Willard, B. and 
O.; W. G. Besler, Central of New Jersey, Hale Holden, 
C, B. and Q., and E. P. Ripley of the Santa Fe. These 
officials of the roads discussed congestion and its relation 
to the retailer. All of them pointed out the necessity for 
ordering early enough to avoid difficulties in case their 
shipment ran into a congestion. 

"How A.D.S. druggists can co-operate with the rail- 
roads to overcome delay" was discussed by Charles Con- 
ley, who also told his hearers that they could save time 
and delay in getting seasonable and other needed mer- 
chandise they require ^n time by stocking up early and 
keeping their stock in such a way as to never be forced 
into an emergency. The transportation discussion was 
valuable and was of assistance in buying. 

"The Future of A.D.S." by Rees C. Roberts of Ambler, 
Penn., was a paper advocating stronger co-operation. Mr. 
Roberts is a firm believer in the co-operation or associa- 
tion system of buying and pointed out how the druggist 
member of A.D.S. could gain both ways by steady and 
persistent patronizing of the company. 

J. C. Watson of Philadelphia ended the Wednesday pro- 
gram with an interesting paper entitled "Learning by 
experience." 

Miss E. V. Maguire of New York, presented one of 
the most interesting papers of the entire convention when 
she read her article on "The Appeal to the Eve and the 
Psychology of the Power of Display as a Trade Win- 
ner." It was both a technical and an efficient article. It 
was a strong paper that won well merited applause. 

The last day was given over to A.D.S. work. Pushing 
the line was one of the features. Salesmen and adver- 
tising heads made speeches while department heads 
showed the value of their particular lines. 

During the entire convention, the theatres of New York 
were open to the members of the body at half price. On 
Monday there was a dance and on Tuesday a "free stag 
party for ladies" at the Standard Theatre. Lunch was 
served each day in the A.D.S. restaurant for employees. 



ASSOCIATION NOTES 



The Minnesota State Pharmaceutical Association will 
meet in St. Paul, February 13-15, 1917^The St. Paul hotel 
and roof garden will be the meeting place and practically 
the entire eleventh floor of the building will be devoted 
to exhibits. The annual banquet will be held February 14 
The Minneapolis Drug Band will play. 

The Meyer Bros. Drug Company of St. Louis held its 
annual convention during December. Heads of depart- 
ments made speeches and lunches and dinners further 
marked the week's program. 

Managers of the Connecticut stores in the Riker chain 
met at Cafe Mellone, New Haven, on Dec. 20 and dined 
Fred L. Tompkins, of Providence, who was manager of 
all the stores of the district. Mr. Tompkins left Connec- 
ticut to go to New York where he will have an executive 
position with the company. E. L. Meserve isucceeded as 
Connecticut manager. 

The woman's organization of the Chicago Retail Drug- 
gists Association gave its annual Christmas party in the 
ballroom of La Salle Hotel, the Friday following Christ- 
mas. Gifts were distributed and an interesting dance fol- 
lowed the entertainment. 

San Antonio is already plannng for the Texas Retail 
Druggists' Association convention to be held in that city 
in June. A committee has been appointed and plans for 
entertainment are already being outlined. 



70 



THE PHARIVIACEUTICAL ERA 



[Februaey, 1917 



BALTIMORE DRUGGISTS MEET 



The second annual meeting of the Baltimore Retail 
Druggists' Association, which was held at the Emerson 
Hotel, attracted an attendance of not less than 100. The 
election of officers resulted as follows : President, R. E. 
Lee Williamson, general manager of the Calvert Drug 
Company; First Vice-President, Charles Morgan, of Mor- 
gan & Millard ; Second Vice-President, Charles H. Knight, 
of Knight & Andrews; Recording Secretary, George A. 
Bunting ; Corresponding Secretary, Alelville Strasburger ; 
Treasurer, H. George Wendel. 

A banquet followed the meeting. Mr. Williamson acted 
as toastmaster, and the speakers included Dr. A. R. L. 
Dohme, William H. Alger, John B. Thomas and Walter 
Pierce. 



NATIONAL DRUG TRADE CONFERENCE 



James F. Finneran, R. C. Stofer, Dr. A. R. L. Dohme 
and Fred K. Fernald. 

The delegates to the conference were, John C. Wallace, 
Xew Castle, Pa., S. L. Hilton, Washington, and J. H. 
Beal, Urbana, 111., A.Ph.A.: F. E. Holliday, New York, 
C. Mahlon Kline, Philadelphia, and George W. Lattimer, 
Columbus, N. W. D. A.: Samuel C. Henry, Philadelphia, 
James F. Finneran, Boston and Eugene C. Brokmeyer, 
Washington, N. A. R. D. : J. Fred Windolph, Norwich, 
N. Y. A. A. Ph. C: Charles J. Lj-nn, Philadelphia, Dr. 
A. R. L. Dohme, Baltimore and Charles M. Woodruff, 
Detroit, N. A. M. of M. P.: Fred K. Fernald, Elkhart, 
Ind., P. A. of A. 



The National Drug Trade conference was held early 
in January in Washington, and its sessions were held in 
private. Several important resolutions were passed, and 
the Conference completed other important matters of 
business. 

The first meeting was that of the executive committee 
which was held January 15th. The committee recom- 
mended the following resolutions which were later adopt- 
ed by the conference. 

"That each constituent organization be requested to pay 
an assessment of $50 for the expenses of the conference." 

"Whereas. Various amendments to' the Harrison Act have been 
suggested, many of them imposing heavier burdens upon the drug 
trade than are made necessary by any purpose of the law, and 

"Whereas, The act has been as effective as any law could reason- 
ably be expected to "be, and any further burden upon the drug 
trade would be unjust and oppressive, therefore be it 

"Resolved, That we petition Congress not to amend the Har- 
rison Act in any other respect than the following: 

"Resolved, That Section 8 be amended so as to read, 

" 'Sec. 8. It shall be unlawful for any person not registered 
under the provisions of this act and who has not paid the tax 
provided for by this act, to offer for sale, or have in his possession 
lor sale, or under his control for sale, any of the aforesaid drugs, 
and possession or control by any person who is not registered 
under the provisions of this act, and who has not paid a special 
tax provided for by this act, shall be prima facie evidence of a 
violation of this provision whether such person is a person in- 
cluded in Sec. 1 of this act or not: Provided, etc., as in Sec. 8 
of the Harrison Act.' " 

The Conference further discussed a resolution endors- 
ing the recommendation of the Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue that some provision be made for the treatment 
of indigent persons addicted to the use of narcotic drugs. 
Mr. L>'nn's resolution regarding compulsory health in- 
surance and the evils of hasty legislation was also dis- 
cussed. The Conference recommended that such health 
bills be not passed for the present. 

Another resolution, upon which Messrs. Dohme, Finner- 
an and Lynn spoke at length was as follows : 

"Whereas, Custom has established standards for the important 
food products which were generally recognized by laws, rules and 
regulations in various states, and 

"Whereas, Attempts to establish standards for foods and drugs 
will tend to discourage initiative research and improvement on 
the part of producers and manufacturers, be it 

"Resolved, That the National Drug Trade Conference respect- 
fully protests against the establishment of arbitrary standards for 
food and drugs beyond those already made, and especially against 
attempts to establish standards for articles originally devised and 
introduced by producers and manufacturers and for which such 
producers and manufacturers have already established standards 
based on their experiences." 

The Kern-Doremus bill was unanimously approved. 
This prohibits the use of mails to letters, packages and 
other advertisements bearing publicity on spirituous 
liquors. A fine of $1,000 is provided for a violation of 
this act. 

The metric system was endorsed and the remainder of 
the session was taken up with a discussion of the food 
and drug laws. The entire matter was referred to the 
Executive Committee which was instructed to look into 
it and report as soon as possible. 

The new officers elected were John C. Wallace, presi- 
dent : SaiTiuel C. Henry, first vice-president; Dr. Wallace 
C. Abbott, second vice-president; C. Mahlon Kline, third 
vice-president ; Charles M. Woodruff, secretary. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee will be John C. Wallace. Charles M. 
Woodruff, Prof. Tames H. Beal. George W. Lattimer 



BUYING THROUGH ASSOCIATIONS 



Association or co-operative buying is no new scheme. 
But in these days when bulk purchases mean cut costs 
and much lower prices generally, it is becoming an ad- 
visable scheme. Perhaps there was a time when the wis- 
dom of such a move was not as great; perhaps there may 
be such a time in the future, but for the present, for the 
term of the war and for a rather long period beyond 
that, it is safe, sane and mighty good wisdom. 

What does it avail a druggist in a town with three or 
four other pharmacists to cut off his nose to spite his 
face? He is forced to pay a lot for stock, just as his 
competitors are, and there is very little profit for anyone 
concerned. True, if, under an association plan, one drug- 
gist could buy cheaper and make more money, his com- 
petitors could also, but business is not a dog in the 
manger proposition, and there would be a benefit for 
everyone, while the competition, a healthy attribute of 
business, would remain the same. And everyone would 
make money. 

This story is the result of a talk with the buyer for one 
of the important departments of a big chain store. He 
was talking about his own department, and he showed 
quite clearly how his chain, with its need of bulk pur- 
chases could buy cheaper than any single store could 
ever hope to do. 

It is not breaking a confidence to say that the depart- 
ment referred to is tobacco and cigars. This chain store 
can buy the most common brand of cigarettes, for in- 
stance, at a price amazingly lower than is usually quoted. 
According to the head of this department cigarettes which 
retail at 10 cents, and which are put up 50 packages to 
the box, cost the chain stores in the neighborhood of 
$3.78. The drug store which handles that brand would 
have to pay $4.15 or $4.20. The chain store gets the re- 
duction because it buys in large quantities. If three drug 
stores co-operated and Ijought cigarettes, together, they 
would be able to get them at a lower price. 

The same facts hold good for many other articles, al- 
though there are some, of course, for which the price 
is unchanged if one package or a hundred is purchased. 
But in most of the stock, in side lines especially, that is 
the side lines that are general to a pharmacy and which, 
therefore, are very nearly regulars, money can be saved. 

Aside from the dollars and cents saved in actual buy- 
ing, there can also be saved a bit in transportation charges. 
There are several other arguments that can be advanced, 
and that have been advanced in favor of co-operative 
buying, but the most important one is that stock pur- 
chases made cheaply mean money saved. And money 
saved means profit. Doesn't it? 



BOSTON DRUGGISTS ELECT 



The Boston Druggists' Association re-elected Prof. E. 
L. Patch president in its annual meeting and banquet at 
Young's Hotel. Boston. January 23d. Other officers chosen 
for 1917 were: Secretary, Harry C. Wiggin; treasurer. 
C. Herbert Packard, president Massachusetts College of 
Pharmacv; executive committee. W. S. Briry. C. P. Rip- 
lev, H. E. Bowman, .A.. H. Barflett. Charles C. Hearn. F. 
W. Doliber. Fred L. Carter; membership committee. C. E. 
M. Harrington. Ralph R. Patch. H. C. Otis. H. W. De- 
Coster, and R. A. Newton. Bass solos by Edward F. 
Orchard, and a talk on "The United States Na\-y Today." 
by Naval Constructor Frederick G. Coburn, U. S. N., fol- 
lowed. 



February, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



71 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE 



UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMLA. 



The School of Pliarmacy of the Universitj' of Tennes- 
see has arranged to work out with the pharmacists of that 
State the causes of incompatibilities which sometimes arise 
in compounding prescriptions. This departure is the re- 
sult of numerous suggestions for conducting work of this 
character, which will be in charge of Dr. R. L. Crowe, 
head of the school. 

The school will also endeavor to acquaint druggists of 
the State with synthetic preparations and furnish inform- 
ation concerning the same, and invite Tennessee pharm- 
acists to send all prescriptions which present difficulties to 
the new department, where investigation will be made and 
the result announced to the druggist as soon as possible. 



HIGHLAND PARK 



The Mortar and Pestle Club, an organization of pharm- 
acy students founded about ten years ago, has shown 
more than its usual activity this year. It has abolished 
the "annual exhibit," whicli has been held for a good 
many years. In its stead this year the club will establish 
a complete departmental library. It has been hoped to 
house this in a well furnished club room on the floor 
below the laboratories. The exact location is in the 
front of Science Hall and faces the stair landing. To 
this library will be added the valuable technical publica- 
tions now in the General library in the Administration 
building. 

Women have been talking back for quite a while. It 
remained for the Highland Co-ed Hiking Club to prove 
that they can walk back. Their initial attempt was a 28 
mile walk. ^ 

Twenty-five students recently reported to the Band Di- 
rector for try outs. 



LOUISVILLE 



The Board of Directors of the Louisville College of 
Pharmacy at a recent meeting decided to inaugurate a 
campaign for new members of the college. All individuals 
interested in any way in the progress of pharmacy, botany, 
materia medica, chemists, and registered pharmacists of 
the State are eligible, and a systematic appeal will be made 
to enlist their support. John J. Sieberz, secretary of the 
college, has charge of the campaign. 



BUFFALO 



The student classes in the Buflfalo College of Pharm- 
acy have elected the following officers : 

Senior Class: President, E. B. Stone; vice-president, 
Carlton Stacey; secretary. Gladys McMaster: treasurer, 
Caroline Gallup; Bison representative, Conrad Blessing; 
athletic representative. B. J. Dowd ; marshal, L. P. Whit- 
ney; chief leader, Norman C. Paul. 

Freshman Class : President, Thomas Kerwick ; vice- 
president, Vesta Cole : secretary, Catherine Gallagher ; 
treasurer. Lester Ward ; Bison representative. Francis B. 
Lanszewski : athletic representative, Leslie March ; mar- 
shal, Theodore Schmits. , 

At the annual mid-winter dinner of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the Buffalo College of Pharmacy held at the 
Hotel Statler on Thursday evening, January 18th, Prof. 
Wilbur L. Scoville gave an interesting address on the 
changes which have been made in the Ninth revision of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia. 



ST. LOUIS 



Oscar G. Salb, gave a physiological test of drugs on 
lower animals, guinea pigs, roosters, frogs and dogs, be- 
fore students and others at the St. Louis College of 
Pharmacy the evening of January 10th. This was said 
to have been the first time the test had been demonstrated 
to a class in St. Louis. 



The State Board of Pharmacy held the practical part 
of their January examination in the laboratories of the 
School of Pharmacy, Wednesday, January 10th. Twenty- 
si.x candidates were present, and nine passed. 

Plans arc now being made by the president's office for 
the dedication of the new Chemistry Hall, on Friday, 
January 26th, and a number of prominent speakers are 
being secured for the occasion. Governor Williams has 
been asked to make the opening address, and Prof. Wil- 
liam A. Noyes, director of the chemical laboratory of 
the University of Illinois, will deliver the dedicatory ad- 
dress. Others who have been asked to take part in the 
ceremonies are, J. M. Aydelotte, secretary of the state 
board of affairs, R. H. Wilson, state superintendent of 
public instruction, L. Chas. Raiford, head of the depart- 
ment of chemistry at the A. & M. College and J. A. 
Holmboe, of the Holrnboe Construction Company. 

The regular summer session begins June 6th. 

An enrollment of more than 1.500 students is expected 
in the summer session, and an attempt is being made to 
secure the services of several of America's greatest edu- 
cators in addition to the regular faculty. 

Governor Williams, and the State Board of Education, 
along with J. M. .\ydelotte have recommended that the 
legislature appropriate $400,000 for salaries, maintenance 
and upkeep of buildings, for the year 1917-18, and $365,000 
for the year 1918-19. Their recommendations also include 
$150,000 for an Auditorium and $75,000 for building and 
equipping an additional wing for the library. 



PERCOLATORS A SELLING SIDE-LINE 



Percolators are becoming prominent in homes. The old 
coffee pot is going out the back door and the copper «r 
brass containers that make the coffee "bubble" and make 
it sweeter and stronger are gaining so much in favor 
that they are rapidly getting themselves out of the luxury 
class into the necessary. 

Druggists all over the country carry Thermos bottles 
as a side line. Is there any good reason why they should 
not carry percolators? Most pharmacists have a fairly 
well established trade in wood alcohol which is built up 
by percolator users, and are making a little money from it. 

Percolators can be purchased reasonably and they show 
a good profit. The person who wants to buy a percolator, 
alcohol burner, has to go either to a department store or 
to a store which deals especially in articles of that nature, 
and he is forced to pay a high price for what he wants. 
Of course, percolators are e.xpensive to a degree, but a 
druggist would not have to sell them at the price other 
stores demand. He could cut under $1 or $2 and still 
make a good profit. 

Then, too, percolators would lend themselves to a fine 
display. They are enticing little things, and a table with 
four or five of them showing up in the center of the 
store would attract. Not only would customers be drawn 
to them for their own sake, but such a display would 
liven the store and so increase the effectiveness of stock 
which is expected to "turn over" more rapidly. 

Electric and alcohol burning percolators are made, the 
former sold to a special class of homes. Electric cook- 
ing aids are. of course, valuable, but there may come a 
time when the owner will move to a house in which 
there is no electricity and it becomes useless. The alcohol 
burner is always useful and it is certainly true that the 
percolator makes better cofltee than the old-fashioned pot. 

On the same line, it might be well to put in a few chaf- 
ing dishes. But chafing dishes are something of a lux- 
ury, even now. The public has not been universally edu- 
cated up to after dinner late at night suppers, and for 
the most part that is what chafing dishes are used for. 
But the coffee drinking public — and it is a public that in- 
cludes almost every one who will ever come into your 
store — is one which demands good drink, and percolators 
make better coffee than the old-fashioned coffee pot 



Driving Dollars Away By Neglect 

How a Druggist is Losing a Once Profitable Trade 



THIS is the story of two druggists, in the same neigh- 
horhood; one of them is Going, and the other is 
Coming. And inasmuch as the fact that the one who 
is losing his grip on his trade is responsible for the coming 
of the other, it ought to be worth while to find out the 
whys and wherefores of the situation. It is interesting, 
always, to find out why a man has succeeded ; there is 
inspiration in it. But nearly always, there is equal interest 
and profit in examining into the causes of failure. Be- 
tween knowing what to do and what not to do, a wise man 
can find a way to avoid failure and thereby win success. 

The druggist who is losing out, and who has been labeled 
by friends and customers, sadly and regretfully, as a Has- 
Been, has only himself to blame for this condition. Some 
years ago he established himself in a growing suburb, with 
no competition whatever; and as the shop was new and 
a much-appreciated convenience, he got all the business 
there was to get. His soda-fountain was the most popular 
place of resort in the village, and he flourished like the 
proverbial green bay tree. In fact, he might very well 
have got rich right there, if he had not let his prosperity 
go to his head. But that is what happened. 

"There's no reason why I should work my head off 
around the store any longer," he confided to his wife, 
after things had been coming merrily his way for a time. 
"We've got the business cinched, and things couldn't be 
moving along better if I had fixed up the program myself. 
The boys can run things very nicely, and I'm going to give 
myself a rest, and take things comfortably for awhile. 
We'll enjoy things while we can, and let the business take 
care of itself and us too." 

That sounded pretty good to Mrs. Druggist, of course; 
she had wanted a nice little automobile for a long time, 
arid now was the time to get it. And she had wanted a 
trip to New York, just to look in at the theaters and do 
some shopping, and she got that too. The druggist got 
his rest — to which, of course, he was perfectly entitled, 
because the man who has handled a drug business for a 
few years knows what hard work is. He doesn't belong 
to a union which limits his work and boosts his pay, 
unfortunately. 

But there is something in the Good Book about modera- 
tion in all things; and there should be moderation in a 
druggist's vacation, especially where the business depends 
upon his personal efforts, as it usually does. In this case, 
when the druggist had got into the habit of dropping into 
the store at nine or ten o'clock in the morning, taking a 
couple of hours for lunch, attending the ball games when- 
ever he felt like it, staying away altogether in the evenings, 
arid otherwise conducting himself like a gentleman of 
leisure, it soon became apparent that it was affecting busi- 
ness. 

The Boss Was Missed 

"What's become of the boss?" asked a customer who had 
been in the habit of buying all of his cigars, magazines 
and miscellaneous goods at the store, instead of in the 
city. "Haven't seen him around here in a month of Sun- 
days, and I'm getting rusty in my political arguments. 
He isn't sick, is he?" 

The prescription clerk of whom he asked the question 
grinned amiably, as he handed out the box of cigars the 
customer indicated he desired to pick from. 

"Sick?" he repeated. "I should say not! Never felt 
better in his life, I should say. No, sir, he's enjoying 
himself, and I wish I could do the same. He looks in 
and sees that we are keeping things running as they 
should, though. What do you think of the pennant race? 
Some finish, isn't it?" 

The customer agreed that it was some finish, and they 
proceeded to discuss the probabilities of the matter ser- 
iously, for some minutes. The customer, himself a retail 
merchant in the downtown district, and a keen one, seemed 
to have his mind well enough on the argument; but his 
eyes were busy, and he noted several things during the 
conversation. 

First, he noted that the boy who attended to the business 
at the fountain was not on the job, although a young 

Page Seventy-Two 



couple had come in some minutes back and sat down as if 
waiting for a drink. The dispenser was outside, on the 
sidewalk, joking with some other youngsters of his own 
age, in the confident knowledge that his boss would not 
be there to see that he kept at his work. Next, the cus- 
tomer noted that one or two other people were apparently 
waiting for attention, and he even took occasion to sug- 
gest as much to the clerk talking to him ; but that gentle- 
man carelessly said that "They can wait" and continued 
the conversation. And he wondered, also, whether the 
cigars he had taken — three for a quarter — would be charged 
or forgotten. 

A Disappointed Customer 

Then the telephone rang. Reluctantly, the prescription 
clerk left the chances of the Braves and the Dodgers 
hanging in midair while he answered the call. 

"Jones' Pharmacy," he said, as he took down the re- 
ceiver. Then he listened a moment. 

"Blank's Food?" he repeated. "No, I don't think we 
have that. Wait a minute, and I'll find out." 

He ran over to the shelf bearing several makes of in- 
fants' foods, and took a glance. 

"Nothing doing," he announced, as he returned to the 
'phone. "I remember selling the last can this morning, 
and we haven't had time to get any more in. You ought 
to be able to get it downtown." 

That ended the conversation, and the man Jones had in 
charge came back to the cigar counter to resume his talk 
on the baseball situation. 

"Gee, but that dame was sore !" he laughed. "We've 
been selling her a couple of packages of that food every 
week, and she's mad now because we're out of it. She 
seems to think we ought to keep an eye on her personal 
requirements, and make an effort to satisfy them — as if 
we could pay any particular attention to any one customer. 
She said just now that she's going to take my suggestion 
and get what she wants downtown in the future. I should 
worry !" 

The customer was rather staggered at this cheerful dis- 
regard of the welfare of the business. 

"Well, but look here," he gently suggested, "don't you 
think it pays to see that you can supply customers' wants ? 
Jones put in this brand of cigars because I — and several 
other customers — like it. Why wouldn't it have been a 
good idea for you, aside from any question of sensible 
stockkeeping, to prevent j'ourself from running out of a 
staple article, to see that you kept this particular food on 
hand for this customer? When you sold the last can, 
why didn't j'ou order more at once ? In fact, the way I 
do in my haberdashery is to order when I get to the last 
case of a given article, generally speaking. Why couldn't 
you do the same, especially on a line that moves ?" 

"Maybe we ought to do that," acknowledged the cheerful 
and careless clerk. "But we never have, and that's alt 
there is to it. Mr. Jones used to know the stock pretty 
well, and he kind of kept track of things by memory; I've 
known him to send out and buy an article at another drug- 
store, a fifteen-minute car-ride away, at retail price, rather 
than tell a customer he couldn't supply it. But I don't 
think that's good business. Anyhow, that woman needn't 
have got so sore." 

"y[o, I suppose not," said the customer, as he moved 
away. "But you'll know how it is yourself when you get 
to raising a baby or two, and need things for them." 

And he said to himself : 

"No wonder Jones is losing out. And I'll bet a big 
iron dollar that any number of items don't get charged dur- 
ing an average dav — those cigars of mine, for instance." 
Goods Sold But Not Charged 

As it happened, he was right ; for things went too much 
haphazard at the once popular Jones' store for charges to- 
be made of all of the items. People were in the habit of 
having things sent, or of dropping in and picking up a film, 
or a magazine, or having a few drinks, and charging them ; 
and Jones never let these items get away. The ease with 
which an account could be run had helped largely in build- 
ing up his highly desirable neighborhood trade ; but he- 



February, 1917] 



THE i'lIARMACEUTICAL EKA 



73 



was a collector of ability, and let nothing escape. Now, 
however, an astonishing amount of goods went out which 
never got on the books. 

These things get about. One dissatisfied customer — like 
the one whose baby had to go without his usual food, 
while a special trip was made for it — can do an infinite 
amount of damage; and, be it remembered, live young men 
in the business are always looking for good openings for 
a fresh, clean, up-to-date store. Such a one found just 
such an opening in the suburb referred to, sizing up the 
situation carefully and deciding coolly that Jones' store 
couldn't stand real competition, of the sort he intended to 
furnish. 

The new store was all that it should be in the matter 
of equipment. It had a handsome and modern fountain — 
which Jones' did not — and a full, fresh stock of standard 
preparations, as well as of well-selected novelties and 
side-lines. Moreover, it had a little delivery car which 
the new man freely advertised was intended to be used. 
He circularized virtually the entire village, setting forth 
what he had to offer, and invited visits and business; and 
he got both. 

And by the time Jones had become really alarmed at 
his dwindling receipts, both gross and net, and made a 
start at finding out what the trouble was with his once 
prosperous business, the new man seemed to have the 
cream of it, and a good deal more. As a matter of fact, 
Jones hasn't discovered yet that la.x methods and indiffer- 
ence to customers and their needs have ruined his business. 
But he realizes the great, sad truth that it is a good deal 
easier to lose business than it is to build it up — a truth 
which is worth remembering. 



of pharmacy he says is open to some question, "but even 
this should not be far away." 



NEWS OF THE BOARDS 



UTAH 



The Utah Board of Pharmacy recently filed its biennial 
report with the Governor in which it was stated that a 
canvas of the druggists of the State brought replies which 
indicated that a large preponderance of the pharmacists 
prefer not to be considered peddlers of intoxicants if a 
statewide prohibition measure is passed. The board in 
its report asks for a law providing for the registration 
of druggists and a law requiring itinerant peddlers of 
nostrums to register, take out licenses and be subjected to 
the same rules which govern other drug dealers. Com- 
plaints it is alleged, have been received from country 
merchants that peddlers work the various country routes 
with drugs which have not the indorsement of regular 
dealers. 

The board also asks for a law to prevent the indis- 
criminate use of peyote, which is being used by the In- 
dians in the southern part of the state in their religious 
rites, and recommends that it be listed as a narcotic drug 
under government control. Recommendation is made that 
the fee for examinations of pharmacists for license be re- 
duced from $25 to $15. The receipts of the board for 
the two vear period under review are reported to be 
$3,347.94, "and the disbursements $3,125.86. During the 
year 36 applicants passed satisfactory examinations to 
practice, and 18 were granted certificates on the recipro- 
cal exchange basis adopted with other states. 



KENTUCKY 



The annual report of the Kentucky Board of Pharm- 
acy just published gives the total number of registrations 
in force in that state as 1,613 registered pharmacists and 
100 assistants. During the year 41 persons were regis- 
tered as pharmacists, and 37 as assistants. In this report 
the attorney of the board, Edward Bloomfield, states that 
several amendments are absolutely needed to the present 
pharmacy law; 1, providing that no one be permitted to 
own or conduct a drug store who is not himself a pharm- 
acist ; 2, that no corporation or association should be per- 
mitted to conduct a store, and 3. requiring a higher pre- 
liminary education of applicants desirous of registering as 
pharmacists. The attorney states that every applicant' 
should at least be a graduate of a high school or its 
equivalent. Whether Kentucky is ready to demand that 
all applicants in addition should be graduates of a college 



OHIO STATE BOARD ELECTS 



At a recent meeting, the Ohio State Board of Pharm- 
acy elected the following officers. President, Edward Voss, 
Jr., of Cincinnati ; Treasurer, A. L. Flandermeyer, Cleve- 
land; Executive Secretary, M. N. Ford, Columbus. 

LOUISIANA PHARMACISTS UPHOLD LAW 



The Louisiana Board of Pharmacy in its 28th annual 
report to the Governor, which has just been published, 
contains some interesting information concerning the 
status of pharmacy in that State. Secretary Baltar states 
that since the organization of the board there has never 
been such a close inspection of drug stores as that 
undertaken last year, and that of the 511 stores inspected, 
all but one were in charge of registered pharmacists, 
showing that the pharmacists of the State believe in up- 
holding the law. During the year 55 applicants were 
passed as registered pharmacists and 35 as assistant pharm- 
acists. There were 56 apprentices registered and 767 re- 
registration certificates issued. Nine pharmacists were 
registered by reprocity from other States, and four Louisi- 
ana pharmacists applied for registration in other States. 



WISCONSIN BOARD EXAMINES APPLICANTS 



The Wisconsin Board of Pharmacy held its January 
examination at Madison, concluding its meeting on Janu- 
ary 15th. Forty-three of the sixty-two applicants were 
successful, eighteen of the number being granted regis- 
tered pharmacists' certificates, and twenty-six, assistant 
pharmacist's certificates. The meeting of the board ex- 
aminers was attended by H. G. Ruenzel, president, Mil- 
waukee: G. V. Kradwell, Racine; C. J. Boverg, Eau 
Claire; B. J. Kremer, Fond du Lac; and Edvyard Williams, 
secretary, Madison. The next meeting will be held in 
Madison on April 10th-13th. 

TRIBUTE TO DR. WILBEET 



The following resolution has been unanimously adopted 
by the members of the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry of the American Medical Association, 

"The death of Martin Inventius Wilbert, a member of the Coun- 
cil of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Asio- 
ciation since its organization, removes one of its most able and 
loyal members. He was possessed of an intellectuality and a man- 
hood which commanded the attention and respect of the members 
of both the medical and the pharmaceutical professions. He was 
fearless, honest and unselfish. He was uncompromising in his 
denunciation of the evils which beset the practice of medicine 
and pharmacy, but was never ungracious either with his pen or 
in his speech. If after due deliberation he was sure that a definite 
policy should be promulgated to improve the conditions of tn"e 
professions, he proclaimed his view and conducted a campaign that 
inevitably received the support and recognition of those best in- 
formed. He gave a life of service with never a thought of reward 
and earned every honor which was bestowed on him. His knowl- 
edge of pharmacy was such that he could have obtained prominence 
in the manufacturing field and with it would have come a large 
measure of financial reward. But he chose to devote his thought 
and energies to the general good rather than to his own profit. 
His influence on medicine and pharmacy was unique. The force- 
fulness of his personality was equaled only by his modesty and 
sincerity. His greatest work— one which will be cherished as a 
part of the history of the American Medical Association— was his 
devotion to the aims and objects of the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry and his unselfish and indefatigable labors in its' behalf. 

"We, the members of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry 
of the American Medical Association, mourn the loss of one of 
our most useful associates, and one whose life may be held up 
to the younger generation of pharmacists as an example of un- 
selfishness and devotion to high ideals." 



MASSACHUSETTS ALUMNI ELECT 



Dr. Howard H. Smith, '85. presided at the annual ban- 
quet of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy Alumni 
Association at the Crawford House, Boston, January 17th. 
These new officers were elected: Dr. Smith, president; 
J. E. Stacy. Miss Jennie Sumner, A. M. DuPaul. vice- 
presidents; G. L. Burroughs, secretary; Leon A. Thomp- 
son, assistant secretary; Frank F. Ernst, member of the 
council ; Prof. E. H. LaPierre, treasurer. 



74 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



Patents & Trademarks 



TRADE MARKS 



PATENTS 



1,20S, 

1,20S, 

1.209, 
1,209, 

1,209, 
1,209, 

1,209, 

1,209, 
1,209, 



1,209, 
1,209, 
1,210, 



1,210, 
1,210, 



1,210, 



1,210, 
1,210, 



1,210, 
1,210, 
1,210, 

1,210, 



1,211, 
1,211, 
1,211, 
1,211, 

1,211, 

1,211, 

1,211, 

1,21 1: 

1,211, 

1,211; 

1,211, 

1,211 
1.211, 
1,211, 



1,211, 
1,211, 

1,212, 

1.212, 

1,212, 

1,212, 
1,212, 

1,212, 

1,212, 

1,212, 
1.212, 

1,212, 

1,213, 



Granted December 19, 1916 

,833— Alexander S. Ramage. assignor to Bostaph Engineering 

„., r,'J7,'P^">'' Detroit, Mich. Process of producing phenols. 

,S/V— Wilhelm Wollenweber, Bochum, Germany. Manufacture of 
acid ammonium phosphate. 

S'~?',?"'=^^'^'> '^- Shotvvell, Monroe, La. Collapsible funnel. 

091— Albert Westlake, New York, N. Y. Fibrous cap for bot- 
tles. 

■Ja^~§°p'^''' ^- Brelsfoard, Maroa, 111. Cover for tooth brushes. 
,201— Paul Radmann, Godegard. Sweden. Method of producing 

soluble alkaline compounds. 
,245, 1,209,246— Edwin O. Barstow. assignor to the Dow Chemical 

Company, Midland, Mich. Method of making magnesium 

chlorid and the like. 
,512— Joel Starrels, New York, N. Y. Process for producing 

fjtty acids of high purity and melting-point. 
,516— Charles E. Thompson, assignor of one-half to Francis H 

Wager, Troy, N. Y. Tooth brush. 

Granted December 26, 1916 

,807— George E. Brown, Lowell, Mass. Carrier for bottles 

n??^?}.'"'^"'^'' J' Lawson, Yonkers. N. Y. Bottle sealing cap. 

,053— Charles W. Duval, assignor of two-thirds to Maurice J. 
Couret, New Orleans, La. Process of manufacturing a 
yaccm for the prevention of Hog-cholera and product there- 
from. 

,102— David E. Riggins. Perry, Okla. Bottle holder. 

,250— Frank E. Young, Canton, Ohio. Method of and apparatus 
for manufacturing alcohol from garbage. 

281— William L. Drouilhet, Galveston, Tex. Bottle attachment. 
Granted January 2, 1917 

,623— John C. Feser, Brooklyn. N. Y. Tooth brush. 

'651— Anton Jahl, Linz. Germany. Process for making pure, 
highly concentrated hydrogen peroxid from the peroxid of 
an alkaline earth. 

^26— Daniel Tyrer. Stockton, England. Manufacture of phenol. 

,/2S— John C. Uhlein, Watertown, N. Y. Non-refillable bottle. 

,892— Clara Borchmann, New York, N. Y. Cover for recep- 
tacles. 

,949— William John Knox, assignor by mesne 
General Research Laboratories, New 
Medicinal compound. 

1O27— Charles A. Youngman, Louisville, Ky 
machine. 



assignments, to 
York, N. Y. 

Bottle fillinc 



227— Fritz Pollak, Berlin, Germany. Process for the manu- 
facture of insoluble condensation products. 

253— George William Sinclair, Odda, Norway. Apparatus for 
the treatment of calcium cyanamid. 

'3^''— i?.''^^'''* ^- Mohr, and Remus A. Brach, Bloomfield, Nebr. 
Filter. 

Granted January 9, 1917 

■''1^— Lee E. H. Cone, Midland, Mich., assignor to The Dow 

Chemical Co., Midland, Mies. Method of making indoxyl 

and derivatives, 
■tfil— John R. Long, Orrville, Ohio, assignor of one-fourth to 

John C. Gibson, Akron, Ohio. Shellac-jar. 
,468— William J. McLean, Everett, Mass. Tooth brush handle. 
rJ'^Sj*. Wheeler, Castleton, N. Y. Dispensing cabinet. 
5»— Phihpp Eyer. Halberstadt, Germany, assignor to the Firm 

of Rudolph Koepp & Co., Oestrich-on-the-Rhine, Germany. 

Production of antimonates. 
,666— Walter T. Bobo, Battle Creek. Mich., assignor to The 

Easy Truss Co., Battle Creek, Mich. Truss pad. 
,704— Eric Berkeley Higgins, Wallasey, England. Conversion 

of unsaturated into saturated compounds. 
.712— James E. Keefe. Chicago, 111. Dentifrice. 
''37— Andrew A. Martini, Buffalo, N. Y. Medicine device 
,923— Louis M. Dennis, Ithaca. N. Y. Method of separating a 

sulfonic acid of a hydrocarbon of the aromatic series from 

sulfuric acid and of convertitig the sulfonic acid into a 

salt. 
,934— Edgeworth Greene, Montclair, N. J. Bottle. 
,945— Jacob W. Kaiser, East Cleveland, Ohio. Dispensing 

receptacle. 
,001— Harry T. Baxter, Nauvoo, III. Taoth brush. 
Granted January 16, 1917 

,229— William Jones. New York, N. Y. Apparatus for the 
production of oxygen and hydrogen gases. 

,359— Sidney H. Katz and Frank K. Ovitz, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Process for the manufacture of formates. 

,373— George H. Love, Pueblo, Colo. Tooth brush. 

504— Constantin Krauss, Cologne-Braunsfeld, and Paul Staehe- 
lin, Knapsack, near Cologne, Germany. Process of pre- 
paring nitrogen compounds. 

,612— Louis M. Dennis, Ithaca, N. Y. Method of separating 
benzene sulfonic acid from sulfuric acid and of con- 
verting the benzene sulfonic acid into a salt. 

,645— Arthur L. Kane, and John J. O'Neil, Newport, R. I. 
Tooth brush holder. 

'871— Leonard G. Abbott, Boston, Mass. Bottle stopper. 

,928— Bernhard Jacques Flurscheim, New York, N. Y. Process 
of manufacturing diphenylamin. 

,927— Thomas Arthur Flood, Salt Lake City, Utah. Vaccinating 
device. 

,130— Richard M. Page, Denver, Colo., assignor of seven-tenths 
to Charles I. Hays, Denver, Colo. Poison bottle indicator. 



Published December 19, 1916 

97,111— George Borgfeldt & Co., New York, N. Y. Face powder, 
toilet powder, etc. 

97,720— Society of Chemical Industry in Basle, Basel, Switzer- 
land. A pharmaceutical product— viz., the con\bination of 
metal-organic albumin applicable as substance for sero- 
logical examinations. 

98,398— Aseptic Products Co., Long Island City, N. Y. Medical 
and surgical plasters. 

98,681— Magdalena Chejlava, Chicago, 111. A salve for cuts, 
bruises, etc. 

59,0^8— Gustav A. Strahike, Alton, III. Hair growers and tonics. 

99,099— Samuel Thomas, Lebanon, Oreg. A preparation for the 
kidneys. 

99,111— Columbus P. Ashburn, Bristol, Va. A remedy for diph- 
theria and sore throat. 

Published December 26, 1916 

82,284— John Sterling Royal Remedy Co., Kansas City, Mo. A 

remedy for catarrh, syphilis, and rheumatism. 
91,229— The William S. Merrell Chemical Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fluid medicines made from plant drugs and known as 

tinctures. 
91,876— Koloman Kovacs, Duquesne, Pa. Remedies for rheuma- 
tism, headache, roughness and dryness of the skin, etc. 
94,538— Hikell Mfg. Co., Omaha, Nebr. Talcum, liquid face 

powder, etc. 
96,461— Arnold Carson, Philadelphia, Pa. Salves for healing 

wounds and skin diseases. 
96,947— Leon Baron, New York, N. Y. Inflammations, eruptions 

and irritations of the skin. 
98,492— Cordelia Louise Caron-Morin, Manchester, N. H. Nerve 

medicine. 
98,804— Frank W. S. Elstroth, Brooklyn, N. Y. Salve used as an 

emollient in treating burns, scalds, cuts, etc. 
99,040— Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Co., Battle Creek, Mich. A 

drug specifically described as soda mints. 
99,119— Eckman Manufacturing Co., Camden, N. J. Tablets for 

coughs, colds, asthmatic and bronchial troubles. 

Published January 2, 1917 

96,362 — Robert A. Odier, Geneva. Switzerland. Lotions, pomades, 
and powders for use in the treatment of wounds. 

97,521 — Poland & Savage, Philadelphia, Pa. A remedy for epilep- 
tic fits and convulsions. 

97,823— David A. Saltz, New York, N. Y. Hair remover. 

97,948— Conway & Hall, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. Medicinal 
tablets for anemic conditions of the blood. 

98,041— George Borgfeldt & Co.. New York. Solid alcohol. 

98,367 — La Guardias and Co.. New York, N. Y. Hair tonic. 

98,828— Clarke Guthrie Co., Philadelphia, Pa. A dental, medical 
and surgical disinfecting fluid. 

98,923 — The Germicide Co., Denver, Colo. An antiphlogistic prep- 
aration or plastic dressing. 

98,979— Griffith Chemical Co., Freeport, HI. A pharmaceutical 
preparation for use as an antiseptic astringent and 
hemostatic. 

99,053- The Jelol Co., New York, N. Y. A medical preparation 
of olive oil. 

99,075 — The Avalon Farms Co., Chicago, HI. Liquid worm-killer, 
bone-blister, poultry tablets, etc. 

99,115 — Frank Buss, St. Louis, Mo. A medical salve or ointment. 

99,126 — Natski Medicine Co. Moweaqua, 111 A blood purifier. 

99,186— Banks A. Bennie, Nashville, Tenn. A liniment for the 
treatment of rheumatism. 

99,238— Duane Laboratories, New York, N. Y. Paste for treat- 
ment of soft bleeding gums. 

99,293— The Elcaya Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Toilet cream. 

99,334— W. J. Bush & Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Glycerin sub- 
stitutes. 

99,409— Hall & Ruckel, New York, N. Y. A depilatory powder. 

99,488, 99,491— Waldes & Co., Prague-Wrschowitz, Austria Hun- 
gary. Powder paper. 

99,509— George A. Pettitt, Syracuse, N. Y. Eye wash. 

99,510 — Lulah M. Smidt, Los Angeles, Cal. Liquid and solid 
superfluous hair remover. 

99,528 — Frederick Stearns & Co., Detroit, Mich. A reconstructive 
tonic. 

99,622 — ^Entol Products Co., Inc., New York, N. Y. Antiseptic nad 
healing lotion. 

99,62-1 — Frost Remedy Co., Albany Mo. A remedy for asthma. 

99,823 — Monahan Medicine Co., Asheville, N. C. A remedy for 
trachoma and other affections of the eyes. 
Published January 9, 1917 

91,023 — The Scholl Manufacturing Co., Chicago, HI. Corn pads, 
corn plasters, foot ointments, etc. 

92.969— A. S. Campbell Co., Boston, Mass. Hot water bottles. 

99,337 — Nora Cole, Allentown, Pa. A chemical ink eraser. 

99,620 — The Dional Syndicate. London, England. Antiseptic prep- 
aration for healing wounds, cuts. etc. 

Published January 16, 1917 

93,992 — Otto A. Glenner, Chicago. 111. A germicide for diseases of 
the mucous membrane and skin. 

97,613— Charles S. Berry, Little Rock, Ark. Minted epsom salts. 

98,762— Alle-Rhume Remedy Co., Rochester. N. Y. An internal 
remedy for rheumatism, liver, kidney, stomach, etc. 

99,023 — Isidore Horovitz, Savannah, Ga. A tonic in tablet form. 

99,072 — Viroculin Co., Waterbury, Conn. Medicinal preparation 
for treatment of the eyes. 

99.079— Madam's Buford & Owens, Oklahoma, Okla. Hair oil. 

99,148 — Essen Remedy 'Co., Newark, N. J. A medicine for in- 
digestion. 

99,285 — Star Eczema Co., Corsicana. Tex. Eczema remedy. 

99,296 — Farbwerke vorm Meister Lucius & Bruning, Hochst-on- 
the-Main, Germany. A chemical compound for tuberculous 
diseases. 



February, 1917] 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



75 



THE DRUG MARKETS 



OCEAN FREIGHT RATES ADVANCE PRICES 



Domestic Production of Salicylic Acid and Numerous 
Synthetics Responsible for Some Declines. 



Xew York, January 25. — Business in the drug and 
chemical market during the past fortnight has been fairly 
active, the tendency of many price changes being upward. 
Higher war risk rates on account of the presence of a 
German raider in the South Atlantic have become an im- 
portant factor in the shipment of drugs and chemicals, 
and the advancing rates in consequence thereto, along 
with the demand for freight space, have done much to 
cause a firmer feeling for a number of articles. The most 
important development, perhaps, has been in the general 
reduction in the prices of salicylates and other so-called 
s)Tithetic products, due mostly to increased production by 
domestic manufacturers. The opium market shows 
strength, and importers are much concerned over future 
supplies, owing to the difficulty in procuring the release of 
stocks abroad. Slight advances are noted for morphine 
and its salts. Quinine is unchanged, with a good demand. 
All varieties of camphor are higher. 

Among the most important price advances noted are 
those for o.xalic acid, arnica flowers, codeine and its salts, 
creosote carbonate, cubeb berries, fenugreek, gamboge, 
guaiacol carbonate, magnesium sulphate, manna, both large 
and small flake; various potassium salts, Spanish and 
American saffron, salicin, Castile soap, sparteine sulphate, 
storax, strontium bromide and thymol. The price de- 
clines noted cover the various salicylic compounds re- 
ferred to above, acetanilid. acetphenetidin. antipyrin, asa- 
fetida, bromoform, glycerin, hemp seed. Rio ipecac, men- 
thol, various essential oils, cottonseed, rape seed and salad 
oils ; resorcin, sodium cacodylate and Belgian valerian 
root. A revision in the schedule of prices for bismuth 
salts is also given. Botanical drugs of various kinds are 
tending upward, based on a stringency of supplies and 
crop reports, while the situation with regard to imported 
crude drugs is somewhat uncertain, owing to shipping dif- 
ficulties and war risk rates which, in some instances, are 
almost prohibitive. 

Opium — While the prices quoted show a slight advance 
over those of last morith. the condition of the market is 
far from satisfactory, and importers are much concerned 
over their ability to secure future supplies, owing to the 
difficultj' in procuring the release of stocks which are 
held abroad. Jobbers are now quoting $15.70@$15.7S per 
pound for natural, $18@$18.25 for granulated, and $17.75 
@S18 for U.S.P. powdered. 

Morphine — The strong market for the basic material, 
and the uncertainty surrounding future supplies, have 
caused manufacturers to advance their prices for all salts, 
the revised quotations being as follows : Acetate, in J^th- 
oz. vials, per ounce. $9.7S@$10; hydrobromide, ^th-oz. 
vials, per ounce, $9.35@$9.50 ; hydrochloride, J^th-oz. vials, 
per ounce. $9.75@$10; meconate, per ounce. $10.60; sul- 
phate, 5^th-oz. vials, per ounce. $8.35@$9.95 ; in ounces, 
per ounce. $8.35@$9.75. The alkaloid has also been ad- 
vanced to $11.S0@$11.60 per ounce in J^th-oz. vials. 

Codeine — In sympathy with the increased strength for 
opium this alkaloid and its salts have been advanced to 
$10.45(ffi$14 per ounce for alkaloid; $10.55@$12.60 for hy- 
drochloride; $12.60@$12.80 for nitrate; $9.25@S10.70 for 
salicylate; $9.20@$10.70 for phosphate, and $9.65@$11.25 
for sulphate. It is said that manufacturers are refusing 
to enter orders for large quantities for future delivery. 

Quinine — The market is firm and there is^ a good de- 
mand, but jobbing prices continue at 56c@57c per ounce 
for bulk in 100-oz. tins, 60c@65c in 5-oz. tins, and 6Sc@ 
68c in 1-oz. tins. 

AcET.\Nn.iD — Increased production and a moderate de- 
nrand have caused an easier feeling in the wholesale 
market and prices have declined to 58c@65c per pound. 

Acetphenetidin — Similar conditions prevail with regard 



to this synthetic, with the further fact that holders in 
some quarters display an inclination to realize on their 
stocks. Jobbers are now quoting $1.50@$1.85 per ounce 
as against $2.60@$2.75 a month ago. 

Benzoic Acid — There is an active demand for this acid 
from toluol, and quotations have been advanced to $12 
@$12.80 per pound. Sodium benzoate, however, continues 
at the price quoted last month, $8.50@$9 per pound. Eng- 
lish benzoic acid, true, is slightly easier at 90c@$l per 
ounce. 

Oxalic Acid — Is higher at 60c@65c per pound, although 
arrivals of foreign make have been reported. 

S.\LicvLic Acid — Increased production has materially re- 
duced prices all along the line, and jobbers are now quot- 
ing $1.22@$1.27 per pound for 1-lb. cartons, and $1.20@ 
$1.25 in bulk. 

Antipyrine — Is also lower and tending downward, 
wholesale lots being quoted at $1.20@$1.4S per ounce, as 
to size of order. 

Aniseed — Market conditions are firm, due to the rise 
in war risks and charges affecting future shipments, quo- 
tations having been advanced to 30c@35c. 

Bismuth and Its Salts — Following the lead of manu- 
facturers, jobbers have recently revised their schedule of 
prices for the more important salts, as follows : Citrate 
and ammonium, $5.S0@$5.65 per pound: powdered hy- 
droxide, $5.05; oxychloride, S4.35 ; phenolsulphonate, $5.20; 
salicylate, 40 per cent. $4.75; subbenzoate. $6.50@$7.50; 
subcarbonate, $3.60@$3.80; subgallate. $3.55@$3.85; sub- 
iodide, $5.85@$6.90; subnitrate, $3.10@$3.25, and subsali- 
cylate, basic U.S.P., $5.20. 

Bromoform— Has declined to $3.75@$4 per pound. 

Camphor — Heavy demand by celluloid manufacturers 
and other conditions, have caused an advancing market, 
and jobbers now quote 93j^c@95c per pound both for 
refined, in bulk and J4-lb. squares, and 98j^c@$l for 
powdered. Japanese is held at 9Sj4c@$l per pound. 

Cubeb Berries — Are somewhat scarce and firm at an 
advance to 75c@80c per pound. 

Diacetylmorphine — This alkaloid prepared from i.ioi- 
phine by acetylization is higher in sympathy with the basic 
material, jobbers quoting S12.25@$12.65 per ounce for tl.j 
alkaloid, and $11.0S@$11.25 for the hydrochloride. 

Fennel Seed — Scarcity of supplies and increased war 
risks on shipments from abroad have advanced prices to 
31c@40c per pound. 

Fenugreek Seed — There is considerable demand at 
higher prices, 10c@12c per pound being quoted. 

Gamboge — There is a growing scarcity for all grades 
and the market rules firm with blocky quoted at $1.90@ 
$2, powdered at $2@$2.20, and bright select pipe at $2.05 
@$2.25. 

Glycerin — The general decline in prices for various 
fats and oils and competition among refiners have tended 
to lower quotations, jobbers asking S5c@56c per pound 
for C.P. in bulk (drums and barrels added), 56c@57c in 
cans, and 61c@65c for less. 

Guaiacol Carbonate — Stocks are in meager supply and 
prices have advanced to $5.25 per pound. 

Iceland Moss — Is higher at 32c@35c per pound. 

Ipecac Root — The market is quiet and featureless^ with 
a decline noted in the price of Rio to $3@$3.25 per 
pound. Cartagena continues to be quoted at $2.50@$2.65 
for whole, and $2.62@$2.80 for powdered. London ad- 
vices report a firmer market there for the last named 
variety. 

Jalap Root — Is firmer with jobbing prices advanced to 
20c@25c for selected root, and 30c@3Sc for powdered. 

Lead Acetate — There is a considerable consuming de- 
mand, with jobbing quantities quoted at 22c@2Sc per 
pound. 

Manna — Stocks are in light supply and higher prices 



76 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[February, 1917 



prevail lor all varieties, large flake being held at $1.60@ 
$1.70, and small flake at $1.20@$1.2S. Sorts are unchanged 
at 50c@60c. 

Menthol — Foreign markets are reported strong, but 
buying here has been inactive, and jobbers have reduced 
quotations to $3.50@$3.75 per pound. 

Mustard Seed — Cables from foreign markets report 
strength and stocks are firmly held here at the following 
quotations: Black, 25c@30c; ground, 26c@30c; white, 26c 
(g33c; ground, 20c@22c. Recent importations from Yoko- 
hama and London have been reported. 

Oil Bergamot — Primary markets are reported quiet and 
the demand is somewhat slow. Jobbers are quoting $6.90 
(o$6.95 per pound. 

Haarlem Oil — Absence of arrivals from abroad and 
firmer primary markets have influenced an upward trend 
in prices, Dutch being quoted at $3.80@$4 per gross. 

Oil i^emox — -The market abroad shows strength, but 
jobbing prices here are somewhat lower, $1.55@$1.60 per 
pound being asked. 

Oil Orange — Increased arrivals and slightly lower prim- 
ary markets have caused a decline in price for West In- 
dian oil, jobbers quoting $3.30@$3.40 for sweet. It has 
been stated that an effort is on foot to distil orange oil in 
this country, and that the Government is now in possession 
of the necessary machinery for this purpose. 

Oil Wintergreex — Following the general reduction by 
manufacturers in the prices of synthetic (methyl salicy- 
late), this article is now held at $1.1S@$1.20 per pound. 
The natural oil remains firm at $4.75@$5.00 per pound. 

Cottonseed Oil — There has been a gradual advance in 
manufacturers' prices, and the general trend is upward. 
The domestic demand shows increasing strength and there 
is some inquiry from abroad. Jobbers quote $1.20@$1.2S 
per gallon. Salad oil is similarly influenced and prices 
have been advanced to $1.20@$1.25 also. 

Potassium Salts — Spot stocks of many of these salts 
continue scarce, although for most of them prices remain 
unchanged at last month's quotations. Those which show 
an advance are the bicarbonate, which is held at $1.90@ 
$2.20 per pound: bichromate, 90c@$l ; cyanide, $2.25@ 
$2.50, and permanganate, $3.75@$4. 

Raspberries — The demand for dried berries for mak- 
ing syrup and fruit bases for lozenges has practically de- 
pleted this market, and supplies are likely to be scarce 
until after next season's crop can be gathered. Jobbers 
quote 5Sc@60c per pound at this writing, but higher prices 
are predicted 

Resorcin — Increasing supplies from manufacturers and 
liberal offerings from holders have caused a decline in 
prices, jobbers quoting $1.4S@$1.58 per ounce for pure 
white. 

Saffron — All varieties are higher, American being quot- 
ed at $1@$1.10, and Spanish, true Valencia, at $12.50@$13, 
the last named being in scanty supply. 

Sparteine Sulphate— Is higher at $2@$2.1S per ounce. 

Thymol — Continues to advance in sympathy with ad- 
vices from primary sources. A considerable consuming 
demand is also reported. Jobbers quoting $13.7S@$14.2S 
per pound. 

Valerian Root — Increasing freight rates on foreign 
shipments and scarcity of spot stocks have influenced a 
firmer feeling in this market, and prices have been marked 
up to 70c@75c per pound for whole Belgian, and 80c@8Sc 
for powdered. 

Bayberry Wax — There is a moderate demand, and hold- 
ers appear to have a grip on the situation. Jobbing prices 
have been advanced to 35c@40c per pound. 



OPPOSITION FOR NARCOTICS BILL 



A FREE SPATULA IN NEWSKIN 



The Newskin Co. of New York, is making a special 
offer to retail druggists with an order for $4.00 worth 
of goods, assorted sizes — 4 dozen small size at 75c, ]/> 
dozen medium at $1.00. They will send free of charge 
to the retailer $1.00 worth of New-Skin. 2Sc size, and a 
seven-'nch Spatula — crucible steel, hand polished. In 
operating the offer, The Newskin Company makes use of 
a Premium Certificate, entitling the dealer to the extra 
features, which Certificates are obtained through jobbing 
houses. 



At a hearing of the State Legislative Narcotics Commit- 
tee, of which Sen. Whitney is chairman, on the new State 
narcotic law that is proposed by the judges committee of 
New York City, Dr. William J. Schieffelin of Schieffelin 
& Co., with other wholesale druggists opposed the tripli- 
cate filing of prescriptions advocated by the framers of the 
bill. F. E. Holliday, secretary of the National Association 
of Wholesale Druggists also spoke. Their contention was 
that the proposed law added to the burden of the druggist 
unnecessarily. 

Representatives of all the manufacturing houses present 
agreed that the domestic and export sale of narcotics had 
decreased substantially during the past year. John W. 
Perry, of Merck & Co., said that the exports to Mexico 
were practically nothing and Canadian shipments only a 
trifle larger. 

Charles A. Loring, of Powers-Weightman-Rosengarten 
Company, stated that his concern sold drugs only to 
wholesale firms and manufacturers of medicinal products. 
He insisted that the sales of his firm had decreased ma- 
terially. Edward Plaut, of Lehn & Fink, Theodore R. L. 
Loud of the New York Quinine and Chemical Works 
and Jacob Weil of Britt, Loeffler & Weil also spoke. 



A NEW SPECIALTY 



ested 
manu 
street 



Druggists who want to im- 
prove the looks of their pack- 
ages and facilitate their deliv- 
ery will be interested in the 
new Senseman Stringless Tags 
which are illustrated herewith. 
These tags are very quickly 
and securely attached to the 
string on the package and 
avoid all necessity of tying 
knots or using a paste brush. 
They add to the attractiveness 
of the package and are sure to 
make a favorable impression 
on customers. These tags are 
supplied with druggists' name 
and address, and those inter- 
should send for samples and prices. They are 
factured by the Senseman Printing Co., 105 N. 5th 
Camden, N. J. 




NEW PACKAGES FOR PHENOLAX WAFERS 



Phenolax Wafers made by The Upjohn Company are 
now offered in a package of 30 wafers to the bottle — all 
other packages having been withdrawn. The object of this 
action is to distribute the limited supply of Phenolphtha- 
lein in such a way that the retail trade will be able, with- 
out loss, to supply the consumer with a limited number of 
Phenolax Wafers (30) at the same pripe per wafer as 
when the 100 package was on the market. 



ELCAYA MOVES 



James C. Crane, Sole Agent of the Elcaya Toilet 
Preparations has moved to the Remsen Building at Madi- 
son avenue and Thirty-Second street. New York City. 
Mr. Crane started business 16 years ago in a small office 
at 108 Fulton street, which cost him $5.00 a month. He 
has succeeded in building up a large business in his spe- 
cial toilet preparations, and the growth of the business is 
illustrated by the fact that in his new quarters he occu- 
pies the entire floor. 

5% ON FREEZONE 



The Edward Wesley Company of Cincinnati, proprietors 
of "Freezone" have announced that on orders of six 
dozen through your jobber special discount. 5 per cent, 
will be allowed. The manufacturers also announce that 
they will advertise this product very thoroughly, and they 
guarantee retailers that if the goods do not sell fast 
enough they will take them back for cash at the price 
paid for them. 



I * AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY PUBUCATION FOR THE DRUG TRADE. 



Vol. L 



New York, March, 1917 



No. 3 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACU MONTH 



CHEMICAL COMPANIES' EAKNINGS 



D. O. Haynes & Co. 



Publishers 



No. 3 Park Place, New York 



Telephone. 76^6 Barclay 



Cable Address, "Era, New York.' 



Domestic Rates 
Cuba, Hawaii, Porto Rico, 
the Philippines and Mexico.. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 

to U. S., 

Subscription $1.00 a year 

With Era Price List 1.50 a year 

► Subscription 1.50 a yea' 

With Era Price List 2.00 a year 



Subscription 2.00 a year 

With Era Price List 2.50 a year 



To Canada postpaid 

To Foreign Countries in Postal 

Union 

REMIT by P. O. or Express Order or New York Draft pay- 
able to order of D. O. Haynes & Co. Add 10 cents for collection 
<harges if you send local check. 

Single Copies, 15 cents. 

Published at No. 3 Park Place, Borough of Manhattan. New 
York, by D. O. Haynes & Co., a corporation; President and treas- 
urer, D. O. Haynes; vice-president, E. J. Kennedy; secretary, 
D. O. Haynes. Jr. Address of Officers is No. 3 Park Place, New York. 

Entered at the New York Post Office as Second-Class 
Matter. Copyright, 1917, D. O. Haynes <S- Co. All rights 
reserved. Title Registered in the United States Patent office. 



Table of Contents 



Editorial and Pharmaceutical Section 77-94 

Editorials 77 

Do Druggists Need a Buying Club ? 75 

Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 83 

Druggists' Weights, Scales and Graduates 85 

United Drug Co. vs. W. N. Joyner 86 

Efficiency, Key Note of Navy Drug Store 87 

Chemistry of Modern Washing 88 

Question Box 89 

Books Reviewed 92 

Women in Pharmacy 93 

News and Trade Section 95-112 

Fishing Tackle in the Drug Store 95 

Pharmaceutical Personals 97 

Obituaries 99 

Phonographs — Do They Bring Trade? 101 

Use of Aspirin as a Trade-Mark 101 

Sargol Makers Fined $30,000 102 

Sixty-Three Years a New York Druggist 103 

Business Catchers 105 

Schools and Colleges 106 

American Drug Manufacturers Meet 108 

Running Chemical Swindle Down 109 

Patents, Trade-Marks, etc 110 

Drug Markets Ill 

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Index Form 

INDEX TO GOODS ADVERTISED Index Form 

INDEX TO RE.ADING PAGES Index Form 



If uo other statistics were available, the heavy 
earnings revealed in the reports of many manu- 
facturing chemical companies would indicate that 
the American chemical industry has enjoyed since 
the beginning of the European war, an era of un- 
precedented prosperity. The industry as a whole 
has enjoyed an enormous export trade at most 
remimerative prices, and if this were not enough, 
increased domestic consumption has added very 
materially to the financial returns of those engaged 
in such manufacturing. Whether American manu- 
facturers will be able to retain their hold on a 
considerable portion of this new export business 
and at the same time meet the needs of domestic 
consumption after the cessation of hostilities, must 
for some time largely remain a debatable question, 
but the present outlook seems to favor the belief 
that we now have a grip on the situation that can- 
not be easily loosened. Historic events are now 
being staged, but the chemist will continue to be 
the great protagonist in the arena of international 
activity. 



BUSINESS AliTO THE METRIC SYSTEM 



The recent organization in this city of a national 
association to promote the adoption of the metric 
system of weights and measures in this country 
and the fact that business men were prime movers 
in its formation is significant. Among the or- 
ganizations which had representatives at the meet- 
ing were the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
the National Wholesale Druggists' Association, the 
National Association of Retail Druggists, and the 
American Chemical Society, all of which are di- 
rectly associated with the drug trade. The war 
has aided greatly in disseminating a knowledge of 
the metric system among American workmen en- 
gaged in manufactures for Europe, and its early 
adoption would greatly assist in promoting for- 
eign trade. Dr. George F. Kunz, who addressed 
the meeting, said that both England and the United 
States had been slow in realizing the waste of time 
and the chances of error involved in translating 
the terms of a logical and consistent standard of 
weights and measures into those which only owe 
their use to a blind maintenance of tradition. In 
the scientific professions, the country has already 
adopted the metric system to a much greater de- 

Page Seventy-Seven 



78 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



gree than the average person suspects, while for 
the pharmacist it is the system employed in both 
of his official guides, the Pharmacopoeia and Na- 
tional Formulary. 



DEAL LANGUAGES AND NOMENCLATUEE 



Considei-able attention has recently been directed 
to the expert conclusions formulated by Dr. Flexner 
with regard to the enormous waste that takes place 
each year in our educational system by devoting so 
much time to the study of the so-called "dead" 
languages. Not only have these conclusions at- 
tracted attention, but they have been adopted as 
the basis of an interesting experiment that is to be 
financed by the RockefjUer Foundation in an at- 
tempt to work them out practically in a school 
that is to be under the administration of Teachers 
College in New York City. 

The dominant note in Dr. Flexner 's proposition 
is a challenge to the traditional methods of study, 
for it would eliminate not only the study of Greek 
and Latin, but mathematics beyond elementary 
arithmetic, while formal grammar would be cast 
aside. History, except as it may bear on modern 
problems, would also be proscribed, and the effort 
would be made to equip the mind ^^ath the "ma- 
terial of language and science which form the stuff 
of actual life." To many this proposition will be 
designated as revolutionary, while others will feel 
quite safe in predicting that the program and ob- 
ject to be thus attained will never get beyond the 
experimental stage. 

As pharmacists working for the higher educa- 
tional qualifications of those who would enter our 
calling, we are deeply interested in this project. 
The language of medicine and pharmacy in so far 
;:.s their peculiar nomenclature is concerned, harks 
back to the days of the past, notwithstanding the 
fact that in the quick march of education but few 
students have any competent knowledge of the im- 
portant portion that both Latin and Greek have 
contributed to the formation of scientific terms in 
general and particularly of those with which we as 
pharmacists have greatest use. In law, medicine, 
biL'giness and trade, Latin is in frequent and con- 
stant use, while the expressive language of Greek 
genius is ever present in the literature of all 
science. 

So far as the languages go in drug store work, 
a rudimentary knowledge is better than no knowl- 
edge at all, for even a minimum of training will 
enable the possessor of such knowledge to look up 
his words in a lexicon and thus apply the etymology 
nf those terms in his scientific nomenclature which 
directly owe their origin to the mother tongues of 
the Greek and Latin races. 

The physician may write his prescription, as Dr. 
Fantus of Chicago would have him do, without re- 
course to the language of the Ca:'sars, and the stu- 
dent of pharmacy can doubtless make some head- 
way without any training in the historic develop- 
ment of language ; but the lack of even a minimum 
of such knowledge is bound to prove a handicap 
by eliminating the cultural aspect of advancement. 



On the other hand, the possession of such knowl- 
edge, fragmentary^ though it be, will tend to in- 
crease the range of the student's ideas and to give 
him a better grip on the information locked up in 
the intricacies of medical and pharmaceutical 
nomenclature. In the final analysis, most of us 
will agree that a knowledge of these languages does 
occup.y a most important place in the literature of 
our calling. New methods may be needed to bring 
such knowledge within the scope of the modern 
school and to conform with the advanced ideas of 
the least expenditure of mental energy, but to con- 
demn the acquirement of some acquaintance of 
these dead languages as a useless waste of time 
does not accord with trustworthy medical experi- 
ence or with the best pharmaceutical practice. 



EDITOKIAI COMMENTS 



The Society for the Prevention of Crime, New 
York City, has issued a report in which it is said 
that the Federal Antinarcotic law and the Boylan 
law of the State have both failed to cut off the 
sources of supply of narcotic drugs to addicts, and 
the suggestion is made that "the ultimate solution 
of this stupendous problem may require that all 
habit- forming drugs shall be manufactured or dis- 
tributed by the Federal Government." This brings 
into view a phase of paternalism not considered by 
the founders of the Republic. Most pharmacists 
will agree that any further legislation for the 
purpose shoiild be based only upon a careful, sys- 
tematic and scientific investigation by competent 
and unbiased individuals, and not upon the opin- 
ions and say-so of notoriety-seeking reformers. 



Druggists of North Carolina are much concerned 
over pending bills in the Legislature of that State- 
which aim at the practical elimination of the sale 
of proprietary medicines by retail druggists and 
others. The newly elected Governor on taking his 
seat made a number of recommendations of this 
character, and being a son of a doctor, some of the 
druggists are satisfied that the physicians have a 
hand in these activities. Reports from the State 
indicate that the driiggists are preparing to take 
concerted action against what they consider undue 
legislation, feeling that their business has never 
before been menaced by so many conflicting meas- 
ures as now. 



Many newspaper publishers have been aroused by 
recent moves which they claim would give the Post- 
master General autocratic power over newspapers, 
and by the menace of the "Corrupt Practices" act, 
which would give the authorities power over the- 
news columns and advertising columns as well. 
They say that no end of trouble would arise if the 
officials of the Bureau of Chemi.stry were given 
power to extend their super-vision to every state- 
ment made in advertising with respect to foods- 
and drags as they now have over the printed mat- 
ter on labels of products iinder the Food and Drugs^ 
Act. 



Do THE Retail Druggists Need A 
National Buying Club? 



PART TWO 



In the first of this series of articles we referred 
lo the great advancement that had been made in 
production, also to the predictions of leading 
economists that the Jiext great development in mer- 
chandizing would be in distribution. Economic 
forces are always at work to make goods more 
cheaply and to deliver them at a lower cost to the 
ultimate consumer. It is safe to say that the next 
generation will doubtless see many improvements 
in our present clumsy methods of distribution. 
These economic influences are beyond the power of 
man, or group of men, or any man made laws. 

In the drug trade, these economic changes began 
to assert themselves about the time that the 
X. A. R. D. was organized or just prior to the 
beginning of the present centurj\ This organiza- 
tion was the direct result of conditions which the 
retail druggists found unbearable and they were 
forced to do something to protect their interests. 
Following this we have such organizations as the 
United Drug Company, the American Druggists' 
Syndicate, the Co-operative Wliolesale Dinig con- 
cerns and the local Buying Clubs of druggists, all 
of which have been helpful in assisting di'uggists 
to meet new conditions. 

During this period we have also seen the great 
mail order houses grow to enormous proportions 
with the parcels post as their active partner ; also 
the chain stores, the department stores, the 5 and 
10 cent stores and the peddlers' wagons with their 
millions of sales. .Physicians' suppUes is another 
branch of the drug business which has gone 
through many changes during the past twenty 
years. 

All of these developments have had their effect 
on the business of the retail druggists. Millions of 
dollars worth of goods which previously were sold 
throiigh the retail drug stores are now sold each 
year bj^ these newer selling agencies. The drug- 
gists are now forced to meet competition that was 
unknown a few years ago. This competition is 
most powerful ; no individual druggist can meet 
it alone; co-operation and consolidation are abso- 
lutely necessarj^ for the druggists to successfully 
meet these new competitors. 

The druggists must not overlook the fact that the 
business of these big competitors is rapidly in- 
creasing. Sears. Roebuck & Company's gross sales 
for 1916 are reported at $146,838,507 or an in- 
crease of $34,172,782 over 1915. The "Wool worth 
5 and 10 cent stores for 1916 had gross sales of 
more than $87,000,000 and net profits of $8,600,000. 
These are but striking examples among hundreds 
of these concerns and their number is rapidly 
growing. There are eight or ten big family publi- 
cations devoted primarily to advertising goods sold 
by mail with a total circulation of over ten mil- 
lions copies each month, this being entirely sepa- 
rate from the millions of catalogues sent out by the 
big mail order houses. 



"What proportion of these big sales are goods 
handled by druggists is not known, but every drug- 
gist knows that it is considerable and that it is in- 
creasing. The number of mail order manufactur- 
ers of toilet goods, novelties, proprietary medi- 
cines, etc., is growing rapidly. 

"We recently had the opportunity of reading a 
circular letter written by the president of one of 
the large mail order houses and addressed to its 
employees. There was one significant statement 
in this letter. "We cannot repeat his exact words 
but in substance he said : 

Our principal competitors are the small 
merchants, particularly in the smaller 
towTis, but they are not organized and un- 
til they do organize we need not fear their 
competition. 

It is a tremendously significant fact that the 
great strength of the chain store, the department 
store, the five-and-ten cent store and the mail- 
order house is, in each case, its buying power. Be- 
cause it can buy in large quantities it gets the price 
which enables it to under-sell the smaller dealer 
and still make a good profit. It is a no uncommon 
transaction for a mail order house to take a manu- 
facturer's entire output, thereby saving him all ex- 
pense for selling and all financial risk. Naturally, 
the manufacturer gives such a buyer his lowest 
possible price, decidedly lower than he can afford 
to make to any ordinary jobber, much less to a 
retailer. 

It is but natural that the manufacturer should 
seek the larger customer and offer him eveiy in- 
ducement to buy. He can afford to sell 1,000 gross 
to one customer much cheaper than 1 gross each to 
1,000 customers, but if the 1.000 druggists would 
bunch their orders the manufacturer would sell 
them at the 1,000 gross price. The consumer will 
buy where he can buy cheapest and the retail drug- 
gist cannot expect the public to buy from him just 
to keep him in business. There is little sentiment 
in business. The big retailer's great strength is in 
his buying-power and the retail druggist must de- 
velop an equally strong buying power, if he ex- 
pects to meet his competitor on his own ground. 

These big retail selling agencies with their enor- 
mous buying power and unlimited capital are the 
most serious competitors that the retail merchants 
in our smaller towns, including retail druggists, are 
compelled to meet and the sooner the retail drug- 
gists realize this fact the better it will be for their 
future. The combined buying power of ten thou- 
sand retail druggists is larger, in drug store mer- 
chandise, than that of any one mail order house, 
but the number of mail order houses is constantly 
increasing and those in existence rapidly growing. 

In a few years it will not be so easy, perhaps im- 
possible, for the druggists to meet this competition. 

The one big fact that must be apparent to every 
druggist who has given this subject any eonsidera- 

Page Seventy-Nine 



80 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



tiou is, that he must buy as cheap as his competi- 
tor if he expects to meet the other fellow's selling 
price. There ai-e many other things that he must 
also do, but to start with he must buy right, or he 
will have no occasion to do the other things. 

This, question of buying is one of the big prob- 
lems before the drug trade at the present time and 
its successful solution will be of inestimable value 
to the retail druggists. We are not unconscious of 
the many new channels which manj' of the drug- 
gists now have for making their purchases, such as 
local buying clubs, co-operative jobbing houses and 
the several manufacturing companies who operate 
purchasing departments for their shareholders. 
The.se are all helpful, each in its special field, and 
they furnish a satisfactory service for supplying 
most of the druggist's routine requirements. But 
something else is needed ; something that will have 
a larger buying power and that can supply the 
druggist with those goods which he requires to en- 
able him to maintain his prestige and hold the trade 
of his locality. This new agency must be so large 
that its combined buying power will be recognized 
as the largest and the most influential in this coun- 
try for certain lines of goods that are handled by 
retail druggists. It must meet the mail order 
house, the 5 and 10 cent store, the chain store and 
the department store and go them one better. The 
public must recognize that any druggist who is a 
member of this new buying organization is in a 
position to purchase at rock-bottom prices. 

The only way that this can be accomplished is 
for a large number of druggists to bunch their 
orders. It must be a National buying club in 
every sense of the word, with many thousands of 
druggists as members, and carry with it a much 
larger buying power than that of any other pur- 
chasing agency for the lines of merchandise which 
these druggists require. 

Such a National buying organization should be 
composed entirely of retailers and absolutely under 
their control. It should be devoted entirelj' to the 
one subject of buying with no manufacturing or 
other axes to grind, and there should be no middle- 
man's profits of any kind whatsoever. 

So far we have purposely refrained from ex- 
pressing, our views as to how a National Buying 
Club for druggists should be organized, how it 
should be conducted, what lines of goods it would 
purchase, how these goods would be distributed and 
what selling methods the retail druggists should 
follow to enable them to meet any and all competi- 
tion that niay come into their respective territories. 
But we are prepared to say that all of these things 
are perfectly feasible and can be carried out suc- 
cessfully at a comparatively small expense to each 
retail druggist, and the results would revolutionize 
the retail drug business in this country. 

We have every confidence in the praeticall value 
of the plan which we have evolved for such a Na- 
tional buying organization, but we are not so sure 
that the retail druggists are, as yet, ready for the 
undertaldng. Soon as we feel satisfied that a sub- 
stantial number of druggists recognize the need of 
such a buying agency we shaU consider it our duty 
to give them the full benefit of our conclusions. 



As we have previously stated, our first obligation 
in this matter is to the retail druggists, but we 
have no desire to intrude our views or suggestions 
upon our retail friends until they are ready to re- 
ceive the same. 

We publish herewith the views of several drug- 
gists on this subject, gathered by our correspond- 
ents. It is interesting to note the growing senti- 
ment in favor of this movement and now that the 
subject is fairly before the drug trade, we trust 
that other druggists will be prompted to send us 
their views, either for publication or for our per- 
sonal guidance. We fully appreciate that some 
retailers, because of other connections, might not 
care to write us for publication. 

We predict that it is only a question of time 
when all thinking druggists will recognize the 
necessity for such a buying organization, and we 
hope that our agitation of the subject may hasten 
its realization. 

{To be continued) 



Views of Leading Druggists on 

a National Buying Club 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



"A national buying exchange looks at the first glance 
like a whale of a plan. Its bigness is, without analyzing 
the proposition, almost too much to grasp. It looks 
good. Will its expense be controllable? Will it give the 
retailer the advantages of ordering from nearby markets? 
In other lines, co-operative buying has led to quarreling. 
Transportation charges have been a stumbling block, 
which of course infers lack of proper organization and 
refinement of working plans. Some say that individual 
buying means more individuality among retailers. Needs 
of druggists are very individual, depending on location, 
population movements and neighborhood demands and 
conditions. A school or a factory built in the vicinity 
of a drug store may change the whole business in three 
months. It is easy to see that co-operative buying, such 
as The Era discusses in an unprejudiced way and with 
an open mind, will have its advantages in respect to these 
problems. There may be disadvantages, and likely will 
be. Will they really amount to much ; or will they be out- 
weighed by the advantages, clearly and markedly? What 
about the jobber?" 

This composite interview from retail druggists in Mil- 
waukee, summarizes the things that are on their minds 
since the startlingly frank article in the February issue of 
The Era. The subject of a national buying club has been 
a chief topic for discussion, for Milwaukee has a success- 
ful local buying club. Its success throws the balance of 
opinion in favor of a national club. 

Must Do Something Quickly 

J. J. Possehl, president of the Wisconsin state pharm- 
aceutical organization said: "The local organization has 
made good. The plan for a national organization looks 
fine. It's a big undertaking. Time will be necessary to 
work it out and experience bought at the expenditure of 
time must tell the story. Proper organization, with full 
cognizance of details which only a national organization 
must meet with, and which a local would never even 
know about, ought to get the desired results. _ Certainly, 
there is a need to do something, and do it quickly about 
this buying end of the business." 

Eckstein Warns Ag'ainst Jealousy 

Sol Eckstein, Wright Drug Co., with three stores in 
Milwaukee, and a leader in national association affairs, 
said: "Jealousy among members has often proved a 
stumbling block in buying club operations. It has killed 
some enterprises of that kind. There is a buying club 
here and it is successful. The jobbers, in many cases, 
will be hard hit by both local and national buying clubs. 



:^rARCH, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



81 



The buying club idea means easier collections, and more 
prompt ones, for those wlio sell the clubs. A national 
club, for a time at least — and a long time, undoubtedly — 
couldn't buy in the aggregate as much (even considering 
only a group ot lines or products) as the drug jobbers 
of the United States. Could the club get the prices, then, 
that are necessary to make it a success, carry its over- 
head and all that? There are points to think about." 
Freiglit Rates 

Hugo Wussow. Wussow Drug Co., a leader in local 
and state association affairs, bore especially on the matter 
of freight charges : "Such a plan looks good. Buying 
right is only a working out of the law of self-preserva- 
tion," he remarked. "Sometimes I think the business, as 
a whole, will not suffer if a lot of the little, fly-by-night 
stores are wiped out. A national club will have problems 
of distribution and freight charges to face. No doubt 
proper organization will solve them. But, I say, look out 
for distribution and freight charges." 

Wants Social Intercourse 

William Thomson, a guiding spirit in local organization 
work and particularly the social features of it, said: "It 
seems impossible to do without jobbers. Therefore, the 
trade, as a whole, is not able to get very far with plans 
that will strike a deadly blow at the jobber. Local buy- 
ing clubs succeed largely because of the contact betw-een 
members, social and business. Will a national buying 
club be too unwieldy to permit of this contact? Our 
local club has certainly succeeded and the plan for a na- 
tional club, ipso facto, looks mighty good. The Er.\ is 
to be complimented on furnishing a fruitful subject for 
discussion and thought, just at this time." 

Otto Hackendahl, of the Hackendahl Drug Co., said : 
"The plan has my endorsement. I am for a national buy- 
ing club. However, let there not be too many heads. Look 
out for overhead. Let the plan of organization guard 
against possibilities of disputes which co-operative effort 
is far from being free of. so far as it has been tried in 
a number of lines of retailing." 

Local Club Saves 5 to 15 Per Cent 

Herman L. Emmerich pointed to the S to 15 per cent 
of savings on purchases by the local club, as an endorse- 
ment for the buying club idea. "Many druggists seem 
unfortunately asleep or careless," he added. "Our club 
here isn't anywhere as near big as it ought to be. Some- 
times I get disgusted with the lack of interest and appre- 
ciation for scientific buying methods. Yet, retail drug- 
gists as a class are far ahead on these matters compared 
with other lines of retailing. But, in spite of the fact that 
a very intelligent class of men are engaged in the drug 
trade, compared with some others, there are a lot of men 
in it who refuse to think. Let those who do the work of 
solving the problems of a national buying club seriously 
think about this. The jobbers will not like it. if the club 
means what I think it will. The jobber has been mighty 
useful, not only to the little druggists w-hom he carries 
and whose 'banker' he is. There are druggists, however, 
who will say 'let the jobber look out for himself.' It is 
not surprising that retailers put their own interests first, 
is it? I endorse the idea for a national buying clubs, so 
far as I understand it. Success to The Er.\!" 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



J. A. Wilkerson, manager of the Seventh and St. 
Charles store of the Johnson-Enderle-Pauley chain in 
St. Louis approves of the principle of the national buy- 
ing club for retail druggists. On certain articles, he says. 
mail order and cut prices make it impossible for the av- 
erage retailer to hold his ow'n except through service and 
personal following in his own limited retail district. He 
points out that a popular toilet article, selling as a leader — 
or what he might term an inducer — the average druggist 
cannot sell at lower than 44 cents, or six cents off the 
regular selling price, w'hile the buyer of big lots can sell 
at 39 cents and about break even while depending on 
other purchases of staples and other articles for a profit 
on the customer's visit. 

J. Weipert, St. Louis druggist, thinks that, with proper 
organization, economically conducted, a national buying 
club would benefit the average retail druggist who is 



not generally in position to buy staples in sufficient quan- 
tity to get an extra discount. 

I'rancis Summ, South Side St. Louis druggist, supports 
the idea of the national retail buying club, because of his 
store's experience in saving an average of $12 a month 
by buying many articles through a buying organization 
10 which many St. Louis druggists belong. 
Like One Price to All 

T. L. Draper, another South Side druggist in St. Louis, 
favors the idea of a national retail druggists' buying club, 
but only if such an organization could be made suffici- 
ently strong that freights and other incidental expenses 
could not overcome the extra inducement. Mr. Draper is 
strong for the one price to everybody proposition, with no 
one from manufacturer to retailer gaining atiy more than 
a reasonable profit. He believes that the buying public 
of America is strong for quality first and does not be- 
grudge a reasonable profit. He believes that, with one 
price to all, buying and selling, and reasonable profits 
only, the merchant's incentive to cut prices and scratch his 
head for leaders and inducements would be replaced by a 
higher class of merchandising activity, that of better ser- 
vice and more sympathetic and personal relations with 
his buying public. He thinks the average retailer's 
strength lies in quality, reasonable price and sympathetic 
service. He believes in giving a store a personality, and 
suggests that the best way to lose some of the best cus- 
tomers is to give them the impression that the druggist is 
feverishly bent only on getting his money by any and 
every inducement. He likes standard goods, reasonable 
profits, but he agrees that there are certain forms of com- 
petition which have to be met and could be met by a co- 
operative buying organization so conducted that its bene- 
fits would ise for the druggist and not for a few big 
leaders. 



BOSTON, MASS. 



"The idea of a national buying club is O. K.," said 
Charles H. Davis, secretary of the Boston Association of 
Retail Druggists, "but the small buying clubs, like the 
South Boston Buying Club or the Franklin Buying Club 
of Somerville, work out well, because they have small 
territory to cover. The small clubs can take on goods 
in which there is practically no profit, in sufficient quali- 
ties to get all the discounts, yet the distribution expense 
cuts down the saving. Nevertheless, the distribution ex- 
pense in the small, local buying clubs is small when com- 
pared to what it would be with a national club. 

"The druggists' associations in this section have steered 
clear of going into buying organizations, because, since 
the experience of the old New England Pharmaceutical 
Association, they know that adding §uch a feature to a 
local association means its downfall. 

"I find that goods, such as I understand it is proposed 
that a national buying club handle, can be had of the 
.'\.D.S. as reasonable as could well be expected. But one 
disadvantage about going into the United Drug Co. plan 
is that, to my mind, the individual druggists lose, in a 
large measure, the identity and prestige that they should 
maintain." 



ST. PATTL, MINN. 



From a Trade Pa,cifist 

"In forming national buying clubs one is simply helping 
the mail order houses and department stores." declared 
H. Martin Johnson, secretary of the local retail dru,ggists' 
association. "In taking up a line of 'sales leaders', ifsuch 
'bait' is the same as that handled by mail order houses and 
department stores, the sooner we quit handling such items, 
the better off we shall be. I feel sure that if the drug- 
gists would cease handling nationally advertised articles 
that are handled by department stores, the manufacturers 
eventually would make terms with the druggists. When 
one tries to compete with the mail order houses and the 
department stores, one merely helps the people who are 
causing all the trouble." 

C. T. Heller who operates two stores in St. Paul, said: 
"I am not enthusiastic about such clubs. They mav be 
started but they frequently fail to stand up. though there 
is a good chance to eliminate middlemen's profits." 



82 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[•March, 1917 



C. W. Haase, manager of the City Drug store, said: 
"It looks like a good thing. It would make good sales 
leaders available at lower prices, and would eliminate 
middlemen's profits." 



A PHILANTHROPIC PHARMACIST 



Comparatively few pharmacists have the faculty 
of amassing a competency that will enable them to 
leave benefactions on their death to other than their 
immediate families. Exceptionally favored indi- 
viduals connected with pharmacy have occasionally 
remembered colleges of pharmacy or other organiz- 
ations devoted to the welfare of humanity, but the 
establishment of a trust fund by a deceased pharm- 
acist for the operation of a drug store is rather 
unusual, if not unique in the history of pharmacy. 
As reported in the Era last month, an endowed 
pharmacy is to be established in Middleboro, Mass., 
when the provisions of the will of the late David 
G. Pratt, once a member of the Governor's council, 
become effective. By the terms of the testator's 
will, one-third of his estate, valued at about 
$276,000, is to be set aside on the death of his 
widow for the purpose named. 

The testator directs that the pharmacy when 
established shall be in charge of a registered pharm- 
acist and furnish supplies free "to deserving and 
needy persons, ' ' and also to ' ' sojourners. ' ' Besid&s 
affording this assistance, drugs and medicines will 
be sold for cash to those able to pay, the surplus 
accumulating from the money so invested to be de- 
voted to the building of roads and sidewalks in the 
town where the testator spent the greater part of 
his life. The institution of this charitable under- 
taking, in so far as it relates to helping the poor 
and needy, may not be exactly of the type that 
others with a plethora of this world's goods to de- 
vise would elect, but in its conception, the late I\Ir. 
Pratt's act must be placed in the same category 
which contains the promptings that have actuated 
and dominated the minds of the philanthropists 
and humanitarians of all ages. No better epitaph 
is needed than that "they loved their fellow men." 



PROBLEMS OF PLANT CULTIVATION 



Considerable has been written in the public press 
since the beginning of the European war by vari- 
ous individuals setting forth widely divergent views 
concerning the possibilities of medicinal plant culti- 
vation in the United States. These contributions 
in their entirety are illuminating in that they rep- 
resent our present unpreparedness and also, our 
former dependence upon foreign countries for 
many of the so-called "crude" drugs, as well as 
what we could do, perhaps, were we to devote in- 
telligent effort to the establishment of a drug plant 
industry upon our native soil. 

Among the noteworthy contributions on this sub- 
ject is one by Dr. H. H. Rusby. dean of the New 
York College of Pharmacy, which appears in a re- 
cent issue of the Columbia University Quarterly, 
and which is worth reading by all pharmacists, 



especially bj- those who are at all interested in 
drug plant cultivation. As Dr. Rusby sees it, the 
greatest possibilities of this industry seem to lie 
in the cultivation of drug plants by large corpora- 
tions or under Government supervision with public 
aid, while he warns the individual against "an en- 
terprise which he believes would only become 
profitable in exceptional cases. 

The reasons behind these conclusions are not dif- 
ficult to understand. The advantages of cultivat- 
ing most medicinal plants over collecting those 
which have grown wild are obvious; cultivation 
assures a dependable supply, lessens the possibility 
of the admixture of other plants through ignorance, 
is cleaner and more likely to insure careful pre- 
servation in packing and marketing. Against these 
advantages stands the fact that a large part of the 
drugs in use are consumed in such small quantities 
that their cultivation on a profitable scale would 
soon overstock the market. 

A still greater objection to the entry of a large 
nulnber of agriculturalists into this comparatively 
new industry is the fact, stated by Dr. Rusby, that 
we have not at the present time the necessary 
knowledge of methods to render cultivation suc- 
cessful. In the great drug plant producing coun- 
tries now devastated by war, the collected knowl- 
edge and experience of generation after generation 
of growers have made the highest development of 
such an industry possible, but without such knowl- 
edge we could not hope to obtain immediately the 
highest success in similar work here, even though 
conditions of climate and commercial prospects are 
most favorable. There is, therefore, much to justi- 
ty the contention that drug experiment stations 
should be established and maintained at public ex- 
pen.se and thus provide a means whereby the pe- 
culiar problems of drug plant cultivation could be 
studied and passed along for commercial utiliza- 
tion. 



The desire of society to do justice to the indi- 
vidual hurt by conditions beyond his control is 
being manifested in the many enactments dealing 
with public health, and is also reflected in the de- 
cisions of courts in cases relating to workmen's 
compensation laws. But now comes a new angle 
on the power of the State to protect its citizens. 
Under the terms of a bill which is to be presented 
to the South Dakota Legislature, surgeons who re- 
move a vermiform appendix which is not diseased 
will not be paid for the operation. If the bill 
should become a law, the removed organ must be 
sent to the laboratory for examination, after which 
it will be returned to the original possessor with 
a report. If not found diseased, the bill relieves 
the patient of all financial responsibility attending 
the operation. The function of this rudimentary 
organ, which possibly served in the prehistoric 
days of the evolution of the species the purpose of 
storing food in the lower animals, has been a much 
discus.sed subject. The South Dakota proposition 
is illuminating, if nothing more, for if enacted, it 
will at least serve to let in a little "daylight" on 
this part of man's anatomy. 



The Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 

How Vaccines and Antitoxins at'c Officially Treated 



Y. E. STEWART, Ph.G., M.D., Phar.D.* 

(Continued from the February, 1917, Era, page 49) 



History of Smallpox 

FINALLY let us consider what has been accomplished 
in the treatment of infectious diseases by the biologi- 
cals now official in the United States Pharmacopoeia: 
namely, Smallpox Vaccine, Diphtheria Antitoxin and 
Tetanus Antitoxin. 

You of course know that smallpox, or variola, is an 
acute, highly infectious and contagious disease occurring 
in all countries, and characterized by the sudden onset of 
a high fever, followed, in a few days, by an eruption of 
the skin, which passes through the successive stages of 
papule, vesicle, desiccation and desquamation. 

Smallpox is one of the most fatal and hideous of dis- 
eases. Those who recover are usuallj- disfigured for life. 
Total blindness is not an uncommon result. 

History : — Smallpox prevailed in China many centuries 
before the Christian era. It was first accurately described 
by Rhazes, an Arabian physician, 900 years before Christ. 
The Great Plague, described by Galen (A. D. 130-200), 
and the Black Death, which prevailed in epidemic form in 
Europe, were doubtless smallpox — "pestilence" and 
"plague" being used synonymously with smallpox and 
other eruptive fevers. Smallpox prevailed in the sixth 
century and again during the Crusades. In Hindostan, 
according to the tradition of the Brahmins, it is of re- 
mote antiquity. Several goddesses worshipped in India 
were supposed to preside over smallpox and to determine 
the fate of those afflicted with the disease. 

Among the ancient Romans the first authentic description 
of the disease was given by Philo, a Jewish author who 
lived during the time of the Roman Emperor Claudius 
Caesar (40 A. D.) 

In 570 A. D., Merius, erf Avenches, Bishop of Lausanne, 
described a violent malady which broke out in Italy and 
France, to which he referred as z-ariola, this being the 
first mention of the word variola in literature. 

Smallpox was known in Arabia in 569 A. D., and was 
found existing in Japan when Europeans first visited that 
country. The Code of Annals of L'Ister reports that in 
679 a grievous leprosy prevailed in Ireland, which is sup- 
posed to have been smallpox. 

Smallpox is believed to have been introduced into Amer- 
ica by the Spaniards, it having first appeared in Mexico 
in 1520. It broke out in Massachusetts in 1633. 

Cause of Smallpox. The cause of smallpo.x is unknown. 
The disease is probably due to a living germ of vegetable 
or animal origin — i. e., bacterial or protozoan. Strepto- 
cocci, though often found in the smallpox vesicles and 
pustules, and often contributing materially to the pro- 
duction of a fatal outcome, may be regarded as secondary 
in significance. 

Ancient Method of Immunity by Inoculation. 

As already stated in my first article, centuries before 
the Christian era the Chinese observed the immunity 
against a second attack enjoyed by those who had survived 
the smallpox, and accordingly attempted to obtain im- 
munity against the disease by inoculation, using the crusts 
from smallpox patients for that purpose. The Brahmins 
had also discovered that the inoculation of smallpox pro- 
duced tlie true disease in a mild form, so that tlte malady 
proved fatal only to one in one hundred, or, under the 
most favorable circumstances one in three hundred. Lady 
Mary Wortley Montague, wife of the British Ambassador 
to Turkey, became acquainted with the method and in- 
troduced the idea of inoculation for the purpose of pro- 
tection into England in 1718; but. as already stated, it 
became evident that while immunity was secured in the 
inoculated person, the disease thus induced could be spread 
as rapidly as by the natural form, and the practice w-as 
abandoned. 

* Director, Scientific Department, H. K. Mulford Co. 



I have already told you that Jenner had become ac- 
quainted with the fact that the peasantry in various parts 
of the world, particularly in 'England, believed that sores 
on the hands of persons who milked cows affected with 
cow-pox were immune from smallpox, and that he studied 
the phenomena and by experiment proved this belief to 
have a solid foundation. Also that he recommended vac- 
cination with vaccine taken from the udder of the cow 
suffering with vaccinia as a preventive of the disease, and 
that the method was finally adopted in Great Britain and 
the United States. 

Vaccination Against Other Diseases 

I have already called your attention to the work of 
Pasteur; how he was animated by the wonderful discov- 
ery to continue the experiments in regard to vaccination, 
and succeeded in devising methods for vaccinating against 
other infectious diseases ; so that now we have methods 
for immunizing against typhoid fever, the bubonic plague, 
cholera, streptococcic infections, pneumonia, and even com- 
mon colds. 

In writing of the death of Queen Mary of England 
from smallpox in 1694 Lord Macaulay said : "That dis- 
ease, over which science has achieved a succession of glor- 
ious and beneficent victories, was then the most terrible 
of all the ministers of death. The havoc of the plague 
has been far more rapid, but the plague has visited our 
shores only once or twice within living memory; and the 
smallpox was always present, filling the churchyards with 
corpses ; tormenting with constant fears all whom it had 
not yet stricken, leaving on those whose lives it spared 
the hideous traces of its power, turning the babe into a 
changeling at which the mother shuddered, and making 
the eyes and cheeks of the betrothed maiden objects of 
horror to the lover." 

The Harleian collection in the British Museum contains 
an Anglo-Saxon manuscript written in^ the tenth century, 
one of the pious exhortations of which is as follows : 

"In the name of the Father, of the Son and the Holy 
Ghost, Amen. May our Saviour help us. Oh Lord of 
Heaven ! Hear the prayers of Thy man-servants and of 
Thy maid-servants. Oh, Lord Jesus Christ, I beseech 
thousands of angels that they may save and defend me 
from the fire and power of the smallpox and protect me 
from the danger of death. Oh, Christ Jesus, incline Your 
ears to us." 

This aflfecting prayer shows strongly the terror which 
the smallpox inspired at that time. 

Before the introduction of vaccination, smallpox was 
the greatest scourge that ever affected the human race. In 
1796 Junker wrote that 400.000 lives were lost vearly by 
smallpox. In 1803 King Frederick William, of Prussia, 
in an edict, stated that 40,000 died annually in Prussia of 
the disease. From 1761 to 1800, in the city of London, 
there was an average death rate of 2037 persons yearly 
from smallpox. From 1700 to 1800 it is estimated that an 
average of 800.000 persons died yearly from smallpox 
throughout the world. 

The general fatality of smallpox among those who have 
never been vaccinated is greatest in children between one 
and ten years of age, reaching as high as 58 per cent. 
Before Jenner's discovery, it is estimated that one-tenth 
of all tiie children born die of smallpox. Between the 
ages of fifteen and twenty the fewest deaths occur, .\fter 
the fortieth year, and as old age approaches, the fatality 
is again high. 

In general the prognosis is worse in women than in 
men, on account of the complications of child-birth and 
the conditions which favor the hemorrhagic variety of the 
disease. On the other hand, among men. irregular habits 
and the excessive use of alcohol increase the death rate. 
.'Kmong dissolute persons of both sexes the prognosis is 
very grave. Badly nourished and overworked people, con- 

Paqe Eighty-Three 



84: 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Makch, 1917 



fined to dark and ill-ventilated rooms, and those depressed 
by scrofula, syplijlis, tuberculosis, or those convalescing 
from fevers or other diseases, readily succumb to it. 

The death rate is usually higher at the commencement 
of an epidemic than at its close, because those most sus- 
ceptible or wholly unprotected are usually first attacked. 

The simplest form is known as the discrete variety. If 
the pustules be so close to each other that they join, the 
case is confluent. The variety with bloody inhltration is 
called hemorrhagic, or black smallpox. In the form of 
black smallpox, practically all patients die. In the con- 
fluent form, more than three-fourths die. In the semi- 
confluent form, about one-half die, and in the discrete, 
one-fourth to one-twentieth. 

Benefit Conferred by Vaccination. 

The immense benefit conferred upon humanity by vac- 
cination against smallpo.x is hard to realize at the present 
time, even by those who are familiar with the history of 
the subject. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century, when small- 
pox — which at first assumed epidemic form in Europe 
about 1700— had become a veritable scourge, it suddenly 
began to decline, and this decline continued for decade 
after decade until the disease lost its terrors, and the great 
majority of physicians had never so much as even seen a 
case. How was this almost miraculous change to be ac- 
counted for? There can be but one reply to this query: 
the introduction of protective vaccination by Jenner and 
its general adoption have controlled and practically eradi- 
cated smallpox. 

It is now believed that a thorough and continuous prac- 
tice of vaccination would blot out smallpox from the face 
of the earth. 

From the beginning there has been opposition to vac- 
cination, some of which prevails even at the present time. 
The Anti-vaccination Society was formed in London to 
combat Jenner in his work. AH kinds of arguments were 
brought forward against vaccination. It was claimed that 
the physical characteristics of the bovine species were 
transmitted by the vaccine, and that the persons who sub- 
mitted to the operation developed horns and hoofs like a 
cow. Thousands of circulars were distributed, illustrated 
by a very remarkable picture, entitled "The Cow-Pox; 
or the Wonderful Effects of the New Inoculation." This 
picture represented vaccinated persons with the heads of 
cows growing out of their foreheads. Women, otherwise 
good looking, were represented as having horns and hair 
of a cow in place of the natural hair. Various portions of 
the cow grew out of the body in different places. 
Only Method of Combating Epidemics 
Equally foolish arguments are advanced by the Anti- 
yaccinationists of modern times. While they admit there 
is no danger of horns and hoofs growing upon those who 
are vaccinated, they have equally foolish arguments to ad- 
vance in opposing to the practice. They are trying by 
every means in their power to have annul'led the laws re- 
quiring compulsory vaccination. If compulsory vaccina- 
tion were abolished and the Anti-vaccinationists succeeded 
in convincing people that vaccination should not be prac- 
tised, we would soon have a return of the dreadful small- 
pox epidemics of the middle ages. Epidemics of smallpox 
are an ever-present menace and can only be combatted 
by vaccination and strict quarantine. Thus, in Donar- 
nenez. a small city in Finistere, France, of about 10,000 
inhabitants, where vaccination has been singularly neglect- 
ed, an epidemic of smallpox broke out in 1887 'and "l888. 
in which 1931 persons, nearly one-fifth of the entire popu- 
lation, died. 

In the report of the Municipal Hospital of Philadelphia 
for 1899, Dr. W. M. Welch gives the average mortality 
previous to the epidemic of 1894-95 as 58.38 per cent, while 
during the epidemic of 1871-72 the death rate in unvac- 
cinated cases reached the appalling figure of 64.41 per 
cent. Imagine one of our large cities, filled with unvac- 
cinated persons, .subjected to an epidemic of smallpox 
with a .mortality of 64.41 per cent. Such an epidemic 
would carry off more than half of the entire population. 
Which is to be preferred: smallpox, with its horrors, 
or a sore arm resulting from vaccination? Consider the 
facts: observe the horrible nature of the disease; remem- 
ber the terrible mortality and the disfigurement of the 



survivors, and then let every person answer this question 
for himself. 

As for the danger of transmitting other diseases by 
vaccination, the possibility did exist before the intro- 
duction of the modern methods of producing vaccine. 
In early times the vaccine virus was passed from -one per- 
son to another, the serum from the vaccine lesion of vac- 
cinated persons being employed to vaccinate others. If 
the serum was taken from a person suffering from a 
constitutional disease, there was, of course, danger of 
transmitting the disease to others. This has been entirely 
obviated by the use of bovine virus and the modern safe- 
guards thrown around its preparation, as described in my 
first paper on the subject of the biologicals of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia. 

The danger of post-vaccinal tetanus, which is now being 
used as a scarecrow by the Anti-vaccinationists, is not to 
be feared. The United States Bureau of Hygiene issued a 
bulletin on this subject, which formed the basis of a paper 
which I contributed to the Proceedings of the Philadelphia 
Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association and 
was afterwards published in the Journal of that Associa- 
tion. In this bulletin, it was clearly demonstrated that 
there is no danger of causing tetanus by vaccination any 
more than there is of causing tetanus by any surgical 
operation. The wound produced by the physician in vac- 
cination, although trivial, should be considered in the 
light of a wound produced by the surgeon in operation and 
should be cared for with as much attention as though a 
limb had been amputated or the abdomen opened by the 
surgeon's knife. 

Quarantine Alone a Failure 

The claim that sanitation and quarantine are all that 
are necessary to prevent the spread of smallpo.x has been 
demonstrated as misleading by well-recognized authorities 
on the subject. Dr. George Dock, one of America's lead- 
ing physicians, an author and teacher, in the Journal of 
the Missouri State Medical Association, January 1912, 
calls attention to the failure of quarantine as a preventive 
against the disease. His charge that quarantine is in- 
effectual is illustrated by the experience of an institution 
for the feeble-minded at Lapeer, Mich., in October, 1910, 
and at Saginaw in the same year. 

The limits of this paper will not permit a more extended 
reference to this phase of the subject. However, the 
proofs given by Dr. Dock are well worthy of consideration 
by those who are combatting the dangerous attempts of 
the Anti-vaccinationists to abolish compulsory vaccination. 

Dr. Dock closes his paper by saying: "When we read the 
thoughtless expressions of Anti-vaccinationists we often 
feel as if the best thing to do with them would be to leave 
them to their folly, but consideration of statistics shows 
how unfair that would be. There are the minors, who pay 
a disproportionate toll in such cases. In Saginaw, for 
example, of the 156 cases, forty-five were under 10 years 
of age, thirty-five from ten to twenty — more than one-half 
minors. This shows the supreme selfishness of those 
who hold that vaccination should be left to the conscience 
or the complaisance of the individual." 

In this connection, it may not be out of place to repeat 
Dr. Osier's famous challenge to the Anti-vaccinationists : 

"A great deal of literature has been distributed casting 
discredit upon the value of vaccination in the prevention 
of smallpox. I do not see how anyone who has gone 
through epidemics, as I have, or who is familiar with the 
history of the subject, and who has any capacity left for 
clear judgment, can doubt its value. Some months ago 
I was twitted by the editor of the 'Journal of the Anti- 
vaccination League for 'a curious silence' on this sub- 
ject. I would like to issue a Mount Carmel-like challenge 
to any ten unvaccinated priests of Baal. I will go into 
the ne.xt severe epidemic with ten selected vaccinated per- 
sons and ten selected unvaccinated persons. I should pre- 
fer to choose the latter — three members of Parliament, 
three anti-vaccination doctors, if they could be found, and 
four anti-vaccination propagandists. And I will make 
this promise, neither to jeer nor to jibe when they catch 
the tiisease, but to look after them as brothers, and for 
the four or five who are certain to die I will try to ar- 
range the funerals with all the pomp and ceremony of an 
Anti-vaccination demonstration." 

(To be Continued.) 



Druggists' Weights, Scales and Graduates 



By GEORGE J. WEIGLE,* 

Slate Dairy and Food Commissioner, Wisconsin^ 



THE Wisconsin department of weights and measures 
is one of the first State departments to take up the 
testing of the appHances used back of the prescrip- 
tion counter in determining the ingredients entering into 
the composition of prescriptions. 

In May, 1914, the attention of the delegates attending 
the national conference of weights and measures officials 
was called to this most important matter. In an address 
delivered, it was shown that many of the weights, scales 
and graduates used by druggists were grossly inaccurate. 
The inaccuracies were due in part to the manufacture 
of defective weighing and measuring appliances and in 
some instances to carelessness or ignorance on the part of 
the druggist. In the absence of systematic inspection of 
these appliances, and in the absence of definite regula- 
tions, manufacturers sacrificed accuracy in their efforts 
to undersell competitors by placing a cheaper product 
upon the market. They were forced to do this through 
competition. Prescription weights were stamped from 
sheet metal, no attempt being made to adjust the weights 
within the limits of accuracy. To this class of weights 
belong the small set of denominations from 2 grams to 14 
grain selling for a quarter or less, with which you are all 
more or less familiar. 

Prescription scales of improper design and lacking in 
sensibility and accuracj- were manufactured and sold re- 
gardless of use. 

Glass Graduates Inaccurate 

Glass graduates of manifold design with the graduation 
marks indicating anything but the correct capacity were 
found in common use. Graduates with the graduation 
marks blown in the glass were even found in use for 
prescription purposes. That these graduates were not 
made with the intent to defraud the public is quite evi- 
dent, for many of the graduates of the smaller sizes were 
of larger capacity than that indicated. It is not unusual 
to find prescription graduates 10 per cent or even more 
too large. For many years there has been a systematic 
inspection of the weights, scales and measures in grocery 
stores and meat markets, but no inspection of the appli- 
ances used by the druggists. The druggists did not re- 
ceive the protection offered to other tradesmen. This is 
made manifest in our state by a comparison of the num- 
ber of inaccurate appliances found in drug stores as com- 
pared with the number found in groceries, meat markets 
and other places of business. 

During the year 1915, 26.3 per cent of the glass gradu- 
ates tested by city sealers of weights and measures were 
found inaccurate, whereas during the same period of time 
but 14.5 per cent of the tin measures tested were found 
inaccurate. The inaccuracies in the tin measures were 
largely due to dents and to the accumulation of oil and 
other materials on the inside of the measure. The inac- 
curacies of the glass graduates are due entirely to im- 
proper calibration on the part of the manufacturer. 

During the year 1915, 34.2 per cent of the prescription 
weights tested by city sealers were found to be inaccurate, 
whereas only 10.3 per cent of the weights used in other 
lines of business were inaccurate. The condition here is 
due not only to the manufacturer but in a very large 
degree to carelessness on the part of the druggist. Many 
druggists in cleaning weights that are slightly tarnished 
use dilute acid or ammonia. Each time this is done some 
of the metal is dissolved and the weight becomes corres- 
pondingly light. It is not unusual to find prescription 
weights 10 or IS per cent light and in many instances 
reports received at our office show that weights which 
have been in use for a number of years are from 25 to 
40 per cent light. Even the wear caused by throwing the 
weights together loosely in a box or drawer will soon 
cause the weights to become light beyond the tolerances 
permissible. For this reason it is advisable for druggists 
to use block weights. 

* Portion of an address before the Wisconsin Ph. A., from the 
1916 Proceedings. 



While it is not advisable to clean weights, the opposite 
procedure is necessary in the case of the prescription scale 
or balance. A watch will not keep good time without an 
occasional cleaning. Neither will a scale weigh accurately 
if it receives hard usage and is never cleaned or adjusted. 
Periodical Inspection th.e Remedy 

The remedy for the above conditions lies in a periodical 
inspection. This alone, however, is not sufficient. The 
manufacturer of these appliances must be regulated. The 
state of Wisconsin is the first state to our knowledge to 
issue specifications for prescription balances and weights. 
The specifications adopted in Wisconsin have been re- 
cently adopted in the state of Minnesota. At the last 
conference of weights and measures officials at the Bu- 
reau of Standards, specifications for both prescription 
scales and prescription graduates were adopted. The adop- 
tion by the conference of these specifications will have a 
tendency to bring about a much needed uniformity 
throughout the entire country. Manufacturers are fall- 
ing into line to produce weighing and measuring appli- 
ances that comply with specifications. Henry Troeniner 
of Philadelphia has issued a new catalogue which is a 
decided improvement over any previous issues, in that 
it takes as its basis of classification the tolerances and 
specifications adopted by weights and measures officials. 
Prescription Balance Errors 

It might be well at this point to call attention to a few 
of the more important regulations. Prescription balances 
are divided according to use into two classes, viz., Class 
A and Class B. To the former class belong such balances 
as the New Triumph and the Favorite. Many of the 
common box prescription balances belong to Class B. The 
balances are classified on a basis of sensitiveness. The 
sensibility of a Class A balance must not exceed .1 grain, 
that of a Class B balance .5 grain. Class B balances are 
to be used only in the rougher weighing. It is to be re- 
membered that the less sensitive a balance becomes the 
greater are the opportunities for error. It is impossible 
to make direct weighings of less than 10 grains with aiiy 
degree of accuracy on a Class B balance of J^ grain 
sensibility. Experiments made at the office of weights 
and measures at Madison show that when loads of one 
grain are weighed on a balance of the type mentioned 
above, errors either in excess or deficiency amounting to 
as much as 15 per cent result. The errors are not due to 
the fault of the operator but to the sluggish action of the 
scale. It is, therefore, highly important that every drug- 
gist doing prescription work be provided with a Class 
A balance. It is also advisable, though not absolutely es- 
sential, for druggists to have a Class B balance. The 
use of a Class B balance for weighing the larger loads 
will prolong the life of a Class A balance. The new 
regulations require the manufacturer to label the balance 
•to show the class to which it belongs, and the capacity of 
the balance. All prescription balances are now requiredto 
be provided with a pointer or other indicating device 
moving over a graduated scale. The manufacturer is 
prohibited from placing the graduations on the beam too 
closely together, and the balance must be provided with 
the proper means for the arrestment of the pans. 

The nominal value of all weights must be clearly indi- 
cated by lines, dots, figures or other appropriate method. 
The weights must be tested by the manufacturer and 
brought within the tolerances prescribed by this depart- 
ment. In this connection it might be well to mention that 
the manufacturers' tolerance is only one-half as large as 
the tolerance allowed the druggist. 

Specifications for Glass Graduates 

New specifications for glass graduates to become ef- 
fective January 1, 1917, will be issued. These specifica- 
tions will be the same as those adopted at the conference 
at Washington. The specifications provide for two types 
of graduates, the cylindrical and the conical. A definite 
ratio between the height of the graduate and the diameter 

Page Eighty-Five 



ae 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



at the highest point is expressed for the guidance of the 
manufacturer. In the case of cylinders this ratio is S to 
1 ; m the case of cone graduates 2 to 1. The new speci- 
fications will eliminate the flat bottom graduate common- 
ly known as the Acme. Duplicate graduates will be per- 
mitted, but the main graduations on this type of gradu- 
ate must extend one-half the distance around the gradu- 
ate so that when it is necessary to do careful measuring 
a proper setting of the ends of the lines can be obtained. 
Other matters taken care of in the new specifications are 
the temperature of calibration, 20 degrees C, the marking 
of the graduate to indicate whether the same is to de- 
liver or to contain, the regulation of the thickness of the 
graduation marks and the elimination of graduates in 
which the lines are blown. 

In this connection it might be stated that many drug- 
gists have more sizes of graduates than are really neces- 
sary. Graduates of the capacities of 2 dram, f ounce. 
4 ounces and 1 pint will answer all of the requirements of 
the ordmary drug store. It is not advisable to use grad- 
uates of the larger capacities in the measuring of small 
quantities. For example, it is not advisable to use a pint 
graduate in measuring 2 drams or J^ ounce. Either a 2 
dram or a 1 ounce graduate should be used for this pur- 
pose. 

In conclusion, it might be said that while the report for 
the past year has not as yet been compiled, it is our 
behet that when issued it will show a decided improve- 
ment over the report for the previous vear. inasmuch as 
field men report the purchase of improved types of weigh- 
ing or measuring appliances used back of the prescription 
counter and the exercise of greater care by the druggist 
in handling and use of the same. 



WOULD AMEND HARRISON LAW 



Senator Thompson has offered an important amend- 
ment to the Harrison Narcotic bill which would prohibit 
mescal and mescal buttons. The bill has been offered to 
the House of Representatives and was at once placed be- 
fore the Committee on Wavs and Means, after it had 
passed the Senate. 

^ The new amendment provides that "on and after the 
first day of March, every person who produces, imports, 
manufactures, _ compounds, deals in. dispenses, sells, dis- 
tributes, or gives away opium, anhalonium (mescale or 
mescale buttons) or coca leaves or any compound, manu- 
facture, salt, derivative, or preparation thereof, shall reg- 
ister with the collector of internal revenue of the dis- 
trict his name or style, place of business, and place or 
places which such business is to be carried on : Pro- 
vided, that the office, or if none, then the residence of 
any person shall be considered for the purposes of this 
act to be his place of business. 

"At the time of such registry and on or before the first 
day of July annually thereafter every person who pro- 
duces, imports, manufactures, compounds, deals in, dis- 
penses, sells, distributes or gives away any of the afore- 
mentioned drugs shall pay to the said collector a special 
tax at the rate of $1 per annum." 

The amendment has the further provisions to be found 
in the other clauses of the Harrison act and is to be en- 
forced by the Secretary of the Treasury and the collector 
of the internal revenue through the usual channels. 



WANTS PHARMACISTS TO CO-OPERATE 



^The American Chemical Society is scheduled to meet in 
Kansas City during the week beginning April 9. 1917. The 
officers of the Pharmaceutical Division are desirous of 
preparing an interesting program for this meeting and 
any and all of the readers of this paper are invited to 
•contribute. A symposium on the ninth decennial revision 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia is in progress. If 
any one can or is willing to contribute to this symposium 
on any subiect. such contributions would be greatly ap- 
preciated. Contributions can be sent to the secretary. Dr. 
Beal. Urbana, Illinois, or to the chairman, Dr. L. F Keb- 
ler, 1322 Park Road. Washington, D. C. 



UNITED DRUG CO. VS. W. N. JOYNER 

Editor, The Pharmaceutical Era: 

We notice in your January, 1917, issue an article begin- 
ning on page 29 relative to Wilber N. Joyner, in which 
several references are made to the so-called "United Drug 
Company" owned and operated by Wilber Newe]I Joyner. 

The following statement is made in this article: 

Mr. Joyner organized the United Drug Company six years ago, 
the object being to operate a chain of stores throughout the north- 
west, with a parent store in Spokane. 

Several locations, according to Mr. Joyner, have been secured in 
other towns in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana. 

He announces that many stores will be started by United Drug 
Company in a short time. 

We enclose herewith a copy of the writ of injunction 
issued January 5, 1917, from the District Court of the 
United States. Eastern District of Washington, Northern 
Division, in the case of United Drug Company, plaintiff, 
vs. "United Drug Company," Joyner's Original Cut Rate 
Drug Company and Wilber N. Joyner, defendants, wherein 
said defendants are perpetually enjoined: 

from further infringing upon the rights of, and unfairly com- 
peting with, the plaintiffs, or either of them, in the premises; and 
especially from employing or using the aforesaid names "United 
Drugs," "United Drug Company," "Orderlies," "Orderlets," or 
any of them, or any variation thereof, or any word_ or symbol so 
nearly similar thereto as to be calculated to be mistaken for or 
confused with said names or any of them, either alone or in con- 
nection with other words, figures, symbols or accompaniments, 
upon or in connection with any pharmaceutical, medical, chemical, 
or other preparation, drug or chemical, or any article of merchan- 
dise bought, sold, used or dealt in by wholesale or retail drug- 
gists or the like; 

In view of the statements made in the article, and the 
confusion that will likely arise throughout the trade on 
account of the references to the name United Drug Com- 
pany, we assume that you had no knowledge of our pro- 
ceedings against Joyner and his sub-companies, and trust 
you will give the necessary publicity to this injunction. 
Very truly yours, 
Legal Department (United Drug Co.) 
Boston, Jan. 29, 1917. A. W. Murray 

P. S.' — Joyner did not appeal, but has removed the signs 
bearing the name "United Drug Companv." 

A. W. M. 



-WANT PROTECTION FOR GINSENG 



Michigan ginseng growers, at their meeting in Lansing 
the latter part of January, decided to petition the Michi- 
gan state legislature for laws to protect the growing of 
medicinal plants, particularly ginseng, in the state. The 
resolution was introduced by C. W. Vining of Lakeview 
asking that the state provide some means by which the 
growers would be protected on all sides. 

Discussion of ginseng raising was then had. Penn Kirk, 
editor of the Ginseng Journal told of the value of pro- 
duction of golden variety, and stated that Italy and Eng- 
land were to try experiments. He claimed that there w:is 
no importation danger from abroad because of the stability 
of ginseng and the rapid consumption of it. Virginia 
creeper was suggested as a good foliage maker and shield 
for the growing plants. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, 
Dale S. Price of Portland : secretary and treasurer. E. L. 
Wilder of Muskegon Heights. 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE MEN ELECT 



The Cocoa and Chocolate Manufacturers' Association 
held an organization meeting in the Hotel Mc.-\lpin. New 
York, on January 26th, and elected officers for the coming 
year in an executive session. The purpose of this meeting 
was to discuss problems with several non-members who 
were interested and to prepare the way for the installation 
of officers in March. 

The following were chosen for the coming year: Presi- 
dent. Louis Runkel. Runkel Brothers. New York; vice- 
president, S. S. Marvin. Pennsylvania Qiocolate Company, 
Pittsburg; treasurer, Frank D. Hnyler, Huyler's, New 
York. 



Efficiency, Key Note of Navy Drug Store 

Brooklyn Supply Station Feeds Entire Sea Force 



U. S. S. Florida 



IN THESE days of preparedness, war talk, launching of 
new battleships, and "greater Navy," there is an inter- 
esting feature that is claiming the attention of Brook- 
lyn. In perhaps the busiest 
part of that city of homes, 
antiquated trolley systems, 
and conservative elements 
is the Navy's big drug 
store, and it appears to be 
assuming an importance, 
greater every day. 

The drug store is in the 
corner of the Naval Hos- 
pital reservation on Flush- 
ing avenue, just beyond 
Wallabout Market in which 
thousands of wagons and 
automobiles go back and 
forth each day. It is an 
unassuming building, re- 
cently enlarged, but from ;t 
the drugs which are sup- 
plied to all of the Naval 

stations, hospital ships, sick bays, and warships, are dis- 
pensed. The managers of that drug store. Naval Medical 
Inspector R. P. Crandall and his assistants, Pharmacist 
A. A. O'Donaghue and Pharmacist Schaffer, do not put 
up prescriptions, but they deliver more drugs over the 
counter in a day than many drug stores do in a year. 

To supply the Navy from one depot is too gigantic a 
task, even for the United States. So other depots are sup- 
plied from the central station. There is another depot 
in Mare Island Navy Yard and a third in Canacao, with 
branches in all navy yards ; but supplies for every one of 
these come directly from Brooklyn. 

Your Uncle Sam, as a business man is modest. These 
days the most hardened reporter on one of the great 
New York daily papers can't get within "a mile" of the 
inside of the drug store. The Era interviewer was ex- 
cluded in the same way. It is not, however, that the 
Navy department doesn't want the American druggists to 
know how it does business, it is because Europe is at 
war, and secrets are secrets, and should be kept. 

Navy Yard Exclusiveness 

The writer of this little story remembers an incident 
that happened to a daily newspaper man that might be 
related, at the risk of taking the druggist away from his 
business for a moment. It was during the Vera Cruz 
troubles a few years back, when many sailors and soldiers 
were injured there. The hospital ship Solace returned 
with several hundred wounded and the reporter was as- 
signed by his managing editor to "cover" the return to 
Brooklyn. 

When he got to the hospital entrance, after seeing the 
ship dock and getting what information he could from 
those wounded men who were not at once removed to 
the hospital, he was denied entrance. The best "stories" 
were, of course, in the hospital. But, as the Naval au- 
thorities do with their drug store, so do they do with the 
hospital in war time, or near-war time. No one is ad- 
mitted to the yard. 

The reporter did not like to be denied. So he wandered 
up Flushing avenue a few blocks and when the marine 
who was on guard was looking at the sights in 
Wallabout Market, slipped through the officers' private 
entrance. On the lawn of the hospital he got a good 
"beat" interview, but it took his paper two or three weeks 
(which they gladly spent, by the way) in smoothing over 
Uncle Sam so that he would give the courtesies of the 
yard to reporters of that paper thereafter. 

Some such thing might happen if a determined effort 




to get into the drug store in the hospital yard was made. 
The officials are more than ever strict now, however, and 
it would be impossible to avoid real trouble, if one were 

to "sneak" or try to get into 
the yard. He probably 
would never get inside, ex- 
cept to go to the guard 
house as a matter of fact. 

This much can be said 
about the big drug store 
there, however. It is in a 
remarkably small building, 
but it is a most efficient 
place. The quantities of 
drugs — you can imagine 
what it handles when it 
supplies eleven naval sta- 
tions, ten or fifteen navy 
yards, and more than 200 
ships, together with several 
smaller donations to supply 
ships, emergency stations, 
etc. — are never allowed to 
accumulate. The drug supply station is an admirable les- 
son in how to turn over drug stock in a hurry. 

Inspector Crandall has worked out a scheme by which 
every available inch in his three-story building is occu- 
pied. By the way, the building is not more than 50 feet 
long by 40 feet wide, so you can really get an idea of 
what the Inspector has to work with. It is near the 
water's edge, however, and with the Navy Yard marine 
squad turned into_ shipping clerks, taking the supplies 
direct to the waiting steamers or floats, the stock can 
be handled quickly and carefully. 

Not the least interesting feature of the work of this 
drug_ store is the supplying of a battleship. Take the 
Mississippi, for instance, the giant that was launched at 
Newport last month. Soon she will be ready for sea 
trips and before she gets her trial she will be sent up 
to New York. There she will lie alongside dock number 
one, and will be supplied. Among other things, her drug 
store will be put aboard. 

Did you ever see a warship's drug store? It's a clever 
little room, with just enough space in it for moving 
around, the rest given over to boxes, cases and bottles — 
although as few bottles as possible. Bottles break, you 
see, and when a ship gets to rolling, there is difficulty. 
Medicine for colds, cramps, dressings for minor injuries, 
pills of all description, and that sort of thing predominate. 
Of course there are more heroic drugs, which are used 
in connection with the sick bay. 

The astonishing part of it all is that it is cramped into 
such a small space. But the ship's medical officers are 
as mandatory on the subject of efficiency as the strictest 
head of the greatest department store in existence. There 
is no waste. It would never be permitted. There is no 
waste room, either. The pharmacist can get the pills 
the "medic" asks for in two or three seconds. It could 
not be otherwise. Suppose a big gun exploded aboard 
and six or seven sailors were badly hurt. They were 
taken to the sick bay — wouldn't it be a fine "howdye-do" 
if the drug store was in such condition that the needed 
salve and medicine could not be supplied very quickly? 
It is part of the business of Inspector Crandall and 
assistants to see that every battleship, every destroyer, 
every cruiser, every submarine, every supply ship and 
most of all, every hospital ship has its full quota of sup- 
plies. He must also fill requisitions from the Naval sta- 
tions and Navy yards. And besides that, his little store 
must see that the sub-supply depots in Canacao and Mare 
Island are always filled so that there need be no delay in 
supplying ships that may be operating from either of 
those bases. 

Page Eighty-Seven 



The Chemistry of Modern Washing 

Function of Soap and of Alkali and Their Uses 



THROUGH the efforts of tlie Committee of the 
American Chemical Society, many points of general 
interest are being brought to the attention of the 
general public through the daily and technical press, and 
it is a common saying that in time the most complex 
invention comes back in principle and even in form to the 
simple elemental type from which it was derived. 

Something of this same kind of "reversion" has cer- 
tainly taken place in the apparently simple process of 
getting things clean. These cleaning processes vary in 
character from the everyday washing of clothes to the 
washing of automobile rims before finishing; from the 
washing of wool as it comes from the back of the sheep 
to the washing of a man-o-war's deck. 

Wood Ashes Early Source of Alkali 

In earlier times, when an article was to be cleansed, it 
was washed with the aid of soap as a matter of course, 
and no thought was given as to why soap should be a 
cleansing agent. These early soaps were efficient cleans- 
ers, but in many cases were hard on the materials that 
were cleansed. Certain kinds of "dirt" were not removed 
by the soap but by mechanical action, and often the 
cleaning was accomplished only by the wearing off of the 
contaminated surface of the article being cleaned. These 
earlier soaps were rather crudely made from mi.xed fats, 
and the homely processes used generallj' insured a large 
excess of free alkali. The early source of the alkali was 
principally wood ashes, which contained considerable 
amounts of potash. Later, in about 1823, artificial alkali, 
which was in the form of caustic soda, began to be used 
in England. This soda alkali had the advantage of pro- 
ducing a hard soap and in many cases was not so de- 
structive on the articles that were cleansed. Later, they 
began to make selection of the fats used in the manu- 
facture of the soap, and then soaps containing but very 
little excess alkali were produced, and it was found that 
these soaps did not have the cleansing power of the 
earlier soaps which contained the excessive alkali. It, 
therefore, became the custom to incorporate varying 
amounts of soda ash or other mild forms of alkali in 
soap, but time proved that in many cases these forms of 
alkali were still too strong. 

Development of Commercial Cleansing 

As the population became more congested, there were 
developed commercial cleansing organizations which made 
a business of cleansing various articles for the public. 
With this development the people became more critical 
as to the efficiency of the cleansing operation and the at- 
tack on the goods cleansed. Naturally, therefore, atten- 
tion was directed to securing efficient cleansing without 
destruction of goods. It was found that alkali had a 
distinct function in the operation and that in many cases 
the cleaning could be entirely effected by the alkali alone. 
In other cases it was found that the operation could be 
divided and that the use of the alkali in a separate opera- 
tion gave increased efficiency and a lower cost. In these 
investigations it developed that the soap acted in a more 
or less mechanical manner and removed only such ma- 
terials as could be washed away in a solid state or in an 
emulsion. It was found that some of the "dirt" was "set" 
in the goods and made more difficult to remove by the 
action of soap, but that if the goods were treated first 
with some form of alkali this material would be taken out. 

It was found that various operations required soda of 
varying character, and that the soda alkalis were in most 
cases fully as efficient as potash alkalis and more econo- 
mical to use. Hence the use of alkali in cleansing" re- 
solves itself almost universally into the use of soda in 
cleansing. In the cleansing of textiles, it was found that 
under ordinary working conditions the action of caustic 
soda, or lye. and soda ash was too harsh and as a re- 
sult of this there came to be used milder forms of soda, 
such as borax. 

This, however, was expensive, and later there was de- 

Page Eighty-Eight 



veloped another form commonly known as sesquicarbonate 
of soda, whicli was an efficient cleanser without unduly 
attacking the goods cleansed. On account of the diffi- 
culties of manufacture of the sesquicarbonate many 
firms made up mixtures of soda ash and bicarbonate of 
soda appro.ximating the composition of sesquicarbonate 
and possessing more or less of the properties of that 
compound. These materials have a very mild action and 
are especially adapted in all cleansing operations where 
soda is suitable, where the materials to be cleansed would 
be attacked by alkalis as strong as soda ash or where the 
operator's hands come in contact with the cleansing solu- 
tion, such as in the cleansing of containers and apparatus 
in dairies and creameries, and other food containers. 

With the increase in the marketing of food products or 
beverages in bottles and the increase in size of the plants 
producing these materials, there were developed machines 
for the automatic cleansing of the bottles used. It was 
found in this case that a strong form of soda was re- 
quired to give efficient results, and for this purpose 
caustic sodas or mixtures of caustic soda and soda ash 
are generally used. It has been found that soda is 
applicable to many other cleansing operations where it 
shows advantages in economy and efficiency of cleans- 
ing. Some of these domestic purposes are the cleansing 
of unfinished wood floors, tile floors, marble walls and 
fixtures, and the washing of dishes in hotels and res- 
taurants, in dish-washing machines. 



HOME-GROWN LEMON-GRASS OIL 



The attention of growers of volatile oil plants is called 
to the possibilities of profit in the production of lemon- 
grass oil in a new publication of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Bulletin No. 442, Because of the overhead 
charges for a plant which will be in use only a few weeks 
in the year, the production of lemon-grass oil by itself, 
it is said, probably will not be profitable, but by growing 
it in conjunction with other volatile oil plants, a long 
distilling season may be attained and greater use obtained 
from the distilling plant. 

At the present time about 100,000 pounds of lemon- 
grass oil are used in the United States, chiefly in the 
perfume and soap industries. Practically all of this oil 
is imported, most of it being produced in the East Indies. 
There seems to be, however, no reason why lemon-grass 
cannot be grown successfully in the subtropical portions 
of the United States. 

The plant does best on well-drained, sandy loam, biit it 
is suggested that the high pine lands of the Florida pen- 
insula would be suitable. Newly cleared sandy pine land 
without any previous application of lime has given good 
results. On the other hand, poorly drained soil should 
not be used. The crop, it is said, may be planted with 
safety where the temperature does not fall below 25 de- 
grees F. 

The first year, two cuttings can be made, thereafter 
three harvests a year should be expected. Close cutting 
is not profitable because of the low oil content in the 
lower portion of the plant. 

Commercially, the investigators of the Department of 
Agriculture have had no difficulty in selling samples of 
the oil produced in their experiments in Florida at a 
price equivalent to that obtained for the better grades of 
imported oil. Eighty cents per pound is taken as the 
average price to be expected under average conditions. 
A well-cared-for acre of lemon-grass should yield, it is 
said, about 35 pounds, or a gross income of $28 an acre. 
After the first year the expense of growing the grass 
and distilling the oi! is estimated at approximately $17 
an acre. In this estimate, however, it is pointed out. no 
allowance is made for such charges as taxes, insurance, in- 
terest, or depreciation of outfit. These items are of suf- 
ficient importance to make it doubtful whether the pro- 
duction of lemon-grass oil by itself can be recommended. 



THE QUESTION BOX 

The '''How to Do It'' Department 



Conducted by Pharmaceutical Experts 

For the benefit of ERA Subscribers 




Gelanthum: Unna's Jelly 

(T. R. L.) — The composition of "gelanthum," also 
known as "Unna's Jelly" has been variously stated. Ac- 
cording to the National Standard Dispensatory, "it is 
said to contain 2^ per cent each of gelatin and traga- 
canth. 2 per cent of thymol, and 5 per cent of glycerin, 
and is flavored with rose water." 

An English pharmaceutical journal gives these formulas: 

(1) 

Tragacanth ISO grains 

Gelatin 120 grains 

Glycerin 6 fl. drams 

Thymol J4 grain 

Distilled water a sufficiency 

The first two ingredients are placed in a covered jar 
with 10 ounces of water, the jar is then transferred to a 
steam bath for 24 hours. The product is then pressed 
through muslin, well mixed, the glycerin added, heated on 
a waterbath' for an hour, and finally made up to 12 
ounces with water containing the thymol in solution. 

(2) 

Tragacanth 110 grains 

Gum acacia 30 grains 

Gelatin 120 grains 

Distilled water 10 fl. ounces 

Make a paste as in the preceding formula, adding: 

Glycerin 6 fl. drams 

Heat again and make up with thymol water to 12 
ounces. 

This preparation has been suggested by Unna as a 
vehicle for the application of ichthyol, salicylic acid, res- 
orcin, and other skin remedies, and is said to be preferred 
to fatty vehicles on account of its water-soluble character. 
See also the formulas for dermatologic pastes of the Na- 
tional Formulary, 4th revision. 

Sabadilla in Tear-Producing Gases 
(M. H. W.) — We do not know to what extent sabadilla 
is used in the present war for the manufacture of as- 
phyxiating and tear-producing gases, but last year Consul 
Homer Brett, of La Guaira, Venezuela, reported to the De- 
partment of Commerce that a telegram from England had 
been published in Caracas stating that such was the case, 
and this, coupled with the fact that sabadilla seeds and 
all preparations compounded from them were declared 
contraband of war by England, has no doubt given some 
credence to the story. Consul Brett reported the follow- 
ing facts concerning sabadilla, which is exported only 
from Venezuela: 

"Sabadilla, known locally as 'cevadilla,' a diminutive of 
the Spanish word 'cebada,' meaning barley, is the name 
of a plant of the lily family, botanically called 'Veratrum 
sabadilla Retztus,' occurring only in Venezuela and Mexi- 
co. The highly-poisonous seeds have long been used in 
medicine. The substances produced from sabadilla seed 
are cavadine, or crystallized veratric. an alkaloid with the 
formula Cj.HjbOsN ; veratric acid (CsH.oO,), and sabadal- 
line (CmHsjOsN). This last is an amorphous, pleasant 
smelling alkaloid, that accelerates the beating of the heart. 
"While nothing is known in La Guaira as to its use in 
the production of war gases, it is a fact that sabadilla dust 
irritates the eyes, the throat, and especially the nose so 



much that laborers working with it are obliged to wear 
protecting masks. Sabadilla powder is used by cattle 
raisers in this country as an insecticide with excellent re- 
sults. It is stated that in Europe it is used in the manu- 
facture of disinfectants, and that in the Balkan States 
and Russia it is employed in tanning fine leathers and as 
a mordant for dyes. The first exportation from Venez- 
uela was made to Hamburg 25 or 30 years ago. The 
foreign demand has never amounted to more than 5,000 
sacks annually. Whenever production passes beyond this 
point the price has fallen below the cost of gathering. 
It is not a cultivated crop, but might become such if new 
uses were discovered which would cause an increased 
and regular demand." 

The exports of sabadilla to all countries, as stated by 
Consul Brett, amounted to 256,546 kilos in 1913, 169,228 
kilos in 1914, and 86,248 kilos for the first six months of 
1915, most of the product previous to 1915 going to Ger- 
many. For the entire year of 1915 exports of sabadilla 
to the United States, as declared at the La Guaira con- 
sulate and the Caracas agency, were 61,433 pounds, valued 
at $9,097, as against 73,732 pounds, worth $7,454, in 1914. 
He also added that the newspapers stated that immedi- 
ately after the publication of the telegram referred to 
above, the price of sabadilla seed in Caracas rose from 
40 bolivars ($7.72) to 60 bolivars ($11.58), but that none 
was to be had in that market. Any one who has worked 
with veratrine knows how even the most minute quantity 
of this substance is powerfully irritating to the nostrils, 
and that when applied to the mucous membrane of the 
nose and throat, it produces violent sneezing and cough- 
ing, effects which pharmacologists state "are due to the 
stimulation of the peripheral endings of the sensory 
nerves." We suggest that you read what the dispensa- 
tories have to say concerning this drug. 



Paste for Cleaning the Hands 
(E. T. H.) — Various formulas for preparations in paste 
form for cleaning the hands of workmen have been sug- 
gested as is shown from the following taken from the 
Era Formulary: 

Hand Paste 

(1) 

Soft soap 16 ounces 

Ammonia water 1 ounce 

Pumice stone, fine powdered 6 ounces 

Mix well and put up in well closed cans. 
(2) 

Soft soap 1 pound 

Fine sand 1 pound 

Glycerin 4 ounces 

Mix well. 

Soap Paste for Motorists 
Soft soap, 80 parts; solution of ammonia, 5 parts; ben- 
zine, or oil of turpentine, q. s. ; finely levigated pumice 
stone, 30 parts. This may be made by first mixing the 
soap and solution of ammonia, incorporating the solvent 
and then adding the pumice stone. A non-gritty paste 
may be made by melting 3 parts of soft soap at a gentle 
heat, removing from the fire, and gradually incorporating 
oil of turpentine, 1 fl. part. 

Page Eighty-Nine 



90 



THE PHARIIACEUTICAL ERA 



[JUrch. 1917 



Manufacture of Extract of Beef 
(W. H. B.) — Extract of beef as made by the Liebig 
process is usually prepared as follows: Fresh lean beef, 
freed from sinews, is thoroughly chopped or minced in a 
suitable apparatus and extracted with ten times its weight 
of water heated by steam. The mixture is strained and 
the liquid set aside for a few hours to become cold, when 
fat and gelatine separate and are removed. Finally the 
liquid is evaporated in a vacuum apparatus to the sub- 
sistence of a soft extract. In some establishments, the 
original mixture of meat and water or the subsequently 
strained liquid, is boiled for some time to get rid of the 
coagulable albumen. 

The yield of extract which, when prepared by the above 
process, consists wholly of the water soluble constituents 
of the meat, varies from 2.25 to 3 per cent of the weight 
of the meat used, so that one gram should represent about 
30 grams or one ounce should represent nearly two pounds 
of lean beef. According to Dr. Wiley ("Foods and Their 
Adulteration"), the Liebig method of preparing beef ex- 
tract is practically that described for making a soup stock 
under pressure, instead of using only the trimmings and 
refuse of the animal. However, "the whole of the flesh is 
usually employed. The bones are sometimes used in the 
making of a beef extract. The fresh meat is cut into 
small pieces and extracted under pressure as already de- 
scribed. After cooking and filtering the product, it is 
brought in vacuo to a proper consistence." According to 
Wiley's statement, "it requires about 34 pounds of meat to 
yield one pound of concentrated extract, and this extract 
may be diluted for consumption so as to make from 6 to 
7 gallons of beef tea. Liebig does not recommend the 
presence of gelatin in beef extract because, being cheaper 
in quality, it is an adulteration of the genuine article, which 
should contain only the pure bases and not the gelatinous 
principle of the meat in the tendons and bones." 



Almond Lotion 
(F. L. M.) — "Please publish a formula for a good 
almond lotion in the Era and oblige." 
Here are two formulas : 

(1) 

Sweet almonds 1 ounce 

Alcohol ly^ ounces 

Glycerin 4 fl. ounces 

Boric acid 32 grains 

Tragacanth 40 grains 

Rose water q. s. 

Mix the glycerin with 11 il. ounces of rose water and 
make a mucilage with the tragacanth. Blanch the almonds, 
and emulsify with the glycerin, rose water and tragacanth 
mixture in three portions of five ounces each, straining 
after each operation. Add the alcohol containing the 
boric acid in solution and make the product up to 1 pint. 

(2) 

Blanched sweet almonds 1 ounce 

Glycerin 1 ounce 

Simple tincture of benzoin yi fl. ounce 

Oil of ylang ylang 5 drops 

Powdered borax 1 dram 

Rose water, enough to make 20 fl. ounces 

Add the borax to the blanched almonds and beat to a 
smooth paste. Gradually dilute with the rose water, strain- 
ing through fine muslin until 15 fl. ounces is obtained. 
Add the tincture to the emulsion very gradually, shaking 
well after each addition; lastly add the oil of ylang ylang, 
with enough rose water to produce 20 fl. ounces. If de- 
sired, J4 ounce of fresh curd soap, cut in fine shavings, 
may be dissolved in a portion of the rose water by the 
aid of gentle heat. This prevents separation. 

Waterproofing Wearing Apparel 
(E. W. P.) — \ process using wool fat and described 
in one of our foreign exchanges some time ago for the 
rapid and extemporaneous treatment of military uniforms 
for the purpose of rendering them impermeable to water, 
is as follows : Dissolve 500 grams of lanolin in the re- 
quired amount of chloroform, mix with 4500 grams of 
gasoline and lightly impregnate the uniforms by immers- 



ing them in the mixture for a few minutes ; express the 
excess liquid and dry in air. 

A modification of this process consists in the use of a 
5 or 10 per cent solution of wool fat in any fat solvent, 
such as petrol, carbon tetrachloride, or benzene. If petrol 
or benzene is used it should contain half its volume of 
carbon tetrachloride or of dichlorethylene, in order to 
render it non-inflammable. The clothes are merely soaked 
in the solution, kneaded and moved about for a few min- 
utes, then wrung out and hung up to dry in the open air. 
There is no need to remove buttons or facings. An 
aluminum salt process is to impregnate the material for 
twenty-four hours with 5° Be aluminum acetate solution, 
diluted 1 to 40 with water, then dry in hot air, and draw 
through a 5 per cent soap solution. A trace of undecom- 
posed soap remains in the fabric, and this is removed by 
passing the soaped fabric through a solution of alum or 
aluminum acetate, rinsing, and drying. In using this 
process, the metal buttons should be removed. 



Deodorizer for Inside Closets 

(M. G. F.) — In further reply to your querj', January 
1917 Era, page 16, a subscriber suggests that you use caus- 
tic soda for cleaning inside closets, this being one of the 
substances employed for that purpose. 



Dressing for Top of Dispensing Counter 

(Dispenser) — Any of the usual methods employed for 
laboratory table tops will answer equally well with wooden 
topped dispensing counters, a number of which have been 
published in previous volumes of the Era. A so-called 
acid proof solution, recommended by one authority, is 
the following: Solution 1 — Iron sulphate, 4 parts; copper 
sulphate, 4 parts ; potassium permanganate, 8 parts ; water, 
enough to make 100 parts. Solution 2 — Aniline, 12 parts ; 
hydrochloric acid, 18 parts ; water, enough to make 100 
parts. Apply solution No. 1 first, when hot. When it 
has dried, remove the excess by thorough rubbing, and 
then apply solution No. 2. When the wood is dry, apply 
a thin coat of linseed oil thinned with turpentine. 

A method recommended by F. W. Nitardy in the Jour- 
nal of the A. Ph. A. some years ago, directs the removal 
of the varnish, if the top has been varnished, and a thor- 
ough cleaning of the wood with soap and water. Then 
allow the wood to dry. Prepare a saturated solution of 
potassium chlorate, heat to boiling, and apply to the 
wood while hot, so that it will penetrate the fibre. When 
dry, apply a second coat in the same manner. Now pre- 
pare a 20 per cent, solution of copper sulphate and apply 
boiling hot, after the former has dried, allowing the wood 
to become well saturated and taking up any surplus 
liquid remaining after 10 or 15 minutes, so that no ap- 
preciable crystallization takes place on top of the wood. 
When this is dry, apply a solution made by dissolving 90 
parts by volume of aniline oil in 60 parts by volume of 
hydrochloric acid, diluted to 500 parts with water, and 
allow that to well penetrate the wood. Let this coat dry 
about 6 hours or over night, then apply a heavy coat of 
hot, raw linseed oil. Allow to stand 6 hours or over night 
and scrub well with soap and water until all surplus 
color has been removed, that is, until the water stays 
clean ; then allow to dry and well rub down with linseed 
oil, applying several coats (a day or two apart) if neces- 
sary to completely fill the pores of the wood. This givec 
a deep-black finish, with a slight gloss, which, it is claimed, 
can be kept in perfect condition by an occasional scrubbing 
with soap and water and a subsequent rubbing down with 
linseed oil. 



Be-Inking Ribbons in Duplicating Machines 

(T. W. F.) — We are unable to give the formula or 
formulas employed in the various copying machines in use. 
For re-inking ribbons the following formula has been sug- 
gested : .\niline black, 1 ounce ; pure grain alcohol, 15 
ounces; concentrated glycerin. IS ounces. Dissolve the 
aniline black in the alcohol, and then add the glycerin. 
This is for a black ink. For blue, use Prussian blue, and 
for red, use red lead instead of aniline black. The ink 
thus made is also recommended for rubber stamping pads. 

A process for making mimeograph inks recently pat- 
ented in the United States, contains the following points 
which show the line along which some inventors are work- 



M.VKCH, lyiTJ 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



91 



ing: (a) A carbon black pigment is ground with a min- 
eral oil with or without the addition of a small propor- 
tion of blue pigment, and the mixture is incorporated with 
Turkey-red oil or other sulphonated oil. (b) A colored 
pigment of lake color is used instead of the black pig^ 
ment specified in the preceding, (c) A dj'estuff of the 
desired color, or its base is dissolved in alcohol, and then 
an acid capable of forming oil-soluble colors and a small 
proportion of a solvent for basic aniline dyestuffs are 
added. The solutionis ground with a mineral oil, with 
or without the addition of another pigment, and Turkey 
red oil is added to the mixture. As we have stated, this 
process is covered by U. S. patent. 

As a rule almost any good stencil ink will work when 
used with the ordinary duplicating machine, the following 
formula for such an ink being taken from our files : 
Shellac, 2 ounces ; borax, 2 ounces ; water, 25 ounces ( 
gum arable. 2 ounces; Venetian red, lampblack, Prussian 
blue, or any desired coloring substance, a sufficiency. Boil 
the shellac, borax, and some water until solution is effect- 
ed; add the gum arabic and withdraw from the fire. When 
the solution has become cold, complete to 25 ounces with 
water and add enough more of the coloring substances to 
bring the ink to a suitable consistency. 

Golden Tincture 

(H. E. B.) — A wide variety of opinion prevails as to 
just what preparation is wanted when "golden tincture" is 
called for. In a former edition of Remington's "Prac- 
tice of Pharmacy," the following formula is given under 
this title: 

Ether 2 fl. ounces 

Tincture of opium 2 fl. ounces 

Chloroform 4 fl. drams 

Alcohol 2 fl. ounces 

Mix. Dose, 3 to 20 drops. 
An Eclectic preparation called "golden tincture" is made 
as follows : 

Balsam of tolu 1 ounce 

Guaiac resin 1 ounce 

Hemlock gum 1 ounce 

Myrrh 1 ounce 

Oil of hemlock Vi fl. drams 

Oil of wintergreen 1 fl. ounce 

Alcohol 4 pints 

Reduce the solids to a coarse powder, mix all, macerate 
for 14 days agitating frequently, and filter. Recommend- 
ed for rheumatism, colic, pains in the stomach, chest, etc. 
It has been stated in the pharmaceutical journals that 
Hoffmann's Anodyne, colored with tincture of turmeric, 
is usually dispensed in German communities on orders for 
"golden tincture." If we remember correctly, the name 
has also been applied to Bestuscheff's Tincture (Ethereal 
tincture of Ferric Chloride, N.F.), although we cannot 
locate our authority for this designation at this time. 
Under the title "Goldtinktur," suggested by Hager this 
formula has been printed: 

Potassium acetate l4 ounce 

Caramel 90 grain? 

Spirit of ethyl chloride V/2 fl. ounces 

Acetic ether 2 fl. drams 

Simple syrup VA fl. ounces 

Water 2 fl. ounces 

Alcohol 12 fl. ounces 

Dissolve the caramel in the water and add the other 
ingredients. 

iFrom this array of formulas it is somewhat difficult to 
say whether any one of them will meet the requirements 
or not. It is probable, however, that this can be de- 
termined from the customer who should be able_ to tell 
■what use he may want to make of the preparation. 

Formulas for Tooth Paste • 

(W. L. B.) — As a rule toothpastes are powders like 
precipitated chalk, powdered cuttlefish bone, charcoal, cin- 
chona or other substance mixed with a sweet excipient, 
such as honey, simple syrup or glycerin, etc., to form a 
paste of suitable consistency. Sugary excipients are more 
or less objectionable, unless the paste be used quickly, as 



they gradually ferment and react on the other ingredients. 
A so-called "ideal" excipient and suitable for most tooth 
pastes, is the following from the Era Formulary: 

Saccharin 8 grains 

Alcohol '. I ounce 

Glycerin 3 ounces 

Water 9 ounces 

Gelatin 2 drams 

Dissolve the gelatin in the water on a water bath. Dis- 
solve the saccharin in the alcohol, add the glycerin, and 
mix the two solutions. As stated, this will work with 
most powders, except when borax forms a part. In such 
a case the glycerin may act on the borax, liberating boric 
acid, which in turn will set free carbonic acid gas from 
calcium carbonate, (chalk), in consequence of which the 
paste will become spongy. 

Here is a formula in which soft soap and glycerite of 
starch are employed : 

Soft soap 1 ounce 

Glycerin : 8 ounces 

Starch Vi ounce 

Water 16 ounce 

Precipitated chalk 6 ounces 

Oil of peppermint 5^2 ounce 

Coloring q. s. 

A glycerite of starch is prepared with the starch, glycer- 
in and water, the soap added, and with the flavoring and 
coloring added, rubbed into a homogeneous paste. The 
precipitated chalk, after bolting through a No. 14 bolting 
cloth sieve, is then added, and the whole vvorked into a 
smooth paste, which is conveniently filled into tubes by 
the aid of a sausage stuffer. The flavor may be changed 
to suit, and the coloring may be omitted. In large quan- 
tities the mixing may be done with a bread mixer, putty 
machine or other mechanical contrivance. 



Shaving Paste for Collapsible Tubes 
(G. R.) — Try the following: Lard, 7 pounds; caustic 
potash, 1 pound; water, 3 pints; glycerin and perfume, a 
sufficient quantity. Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel 
over a waterbath ; dissolve the caustic potash in the water, 
and pour the solution very slowly into the melted lard, 
stirring thoroughly all the time until saponification is 
completed. Then add the requisite perfume, and suffi- 
cient glycerin to render the mass thin enough to be adapt- 
ed for use in tubes. 

The following formula has been recommended for a 
cream or paste for use in shaving without a brush : 

Stearic acid 200 grains 

Ammonia water (28 per cent) 15 minims 

Solution of potash (5 per cent)... 360 minims 

Glycerin 1 fl- ounce 

Water 9 fl. ounces 

Perfume a sufficiency 

Melt the acid, add the hot water, glycerin, and solution 
of potash, previously mixed and brought to a temperature 
of 80 degrees C, adding the ammonia water just before 
mixing with the stearic acid. Stir and heat a few mo- 
ments" until the mixture thickens, then cool, and add the 
perfume. For perfume a mixture of lavender and bay 
oils is said to be particularly suitable. 

Preventing Moisture on Eye Glasses 
(E. C. .\.)— The following formula has been published 
for a preparation to prevent the deposition of moisture 
on eye glasses : 

Potassium oleate 2 av. ounces 

Glycerin 1 A- ounce 

Oii of turpentine 1 A- dram 

Soft soap may be used instead of potassium oleate, al- 
though the results are not so satisfactory. Melt the ole- 
ate and glycerin together on a waterbath, then add the oil 
of turpentine. Should the paste be too thick it may be 
thinned by the addition of more glycerin. 

.\nother method of securing the same results is to ap- 
ply a very thin coating of vaseline or white oil which it 
i^ said, will prevent the deposit of moisture on eye 
glasses. 



92 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



Books Reviewed 



MANUAL OF ORGANIC MATERIA MEDJCA AND PHARM- 
ACOGNOSY. An introduction to the study of the Vegetable 
Kingdom and the Vegetable and Animal Drugs. (With syllabus 
of inorganic remedial agents.) Comprising the botanical and 
physical characteristics, source, constituents, pharmacopoeial 
preparations, insects injurious to drugs, and pharmacal bot.TUy. 
By Lucius E. Sayre, B.S., Ph.M., dean of the School of 
Pharmacy, professor of materia medica in the University of 
Kansas, etc. Fourth edition, revised, 8 vo., 606 pages, 302 
illustrations, cloth, $4.50 Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

In presenting a new edition of this standard work, the 
author comments on the fact that the last revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia has required, on the part of revisers, 
very exceptional work directed toward the subject of stan- 
dards, and that inasmuch as the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia, as well as the National Formulary, is mentioned in 
the statute known as the Food and Drugs Act, this re- 
vision has become of greatest importance. Recognizing 
this, he has taken great pains in the revision of this edi- 
tion of his volume in an endeavor to have it conform in 
every particular to those works, and especially that it 
shall conform to the official standards. 

We believe that he has accomplished this undertaking, 
and that the continued usage of this book will fail to 
discover any glaring inaccuracies. Users of previous edi- 
tions of this materia medica will find in this volume 
some changes in the manner of presentation. Thus, the 
Families of plants yielding organic drugs have been re- 
arranged, the order followed being that adopted by all 
botanists of note at the present time, commencing with 
the Algae, Fungi, and other cryptogamous growths. This 
method has required an entire transposition of the na- 
tural orders of the former edition. The chapter on in- 
organic chemicals has been enlarged, while added to this 
is a brief chapter on therapeutic action, which is intended 
as a suggestion to students of how to expand their knowl- 
edge in this direction by reference to other works. 

The text is divided into four parts, as follows: Part 
I, A Study of Drugs, which covers classification, titles of 
new remedies, a conspectus of official drugs arranged ac- 
cordin.g to structural characteristics, and a conspectus of 
official and unofficial drugs arranged according to promi- 
nent physical properties and subdivided by odor and 
taste. Part II, Drug Descriptions, which embraces four 
sections covering respectively, organic drugs from the 
vegetable kingdom, which are described and arranged ac- 
cording to families or natural orders, from Algae to 
Compositae; animal drugs; synopsis of natural orders or 
families, and of drugs arranged according to Part II ; 
and drug assay processes. Part III, Insects injurious to 
Drugs ; and Part IV, Powdered Drugs, in which are set 
forth methods of identification and official drug powders, 
reagents and processes, and methods of illustrating the 
character of cell-walls and cell-contents. In the matter of 
illustrations explanatory of the text, this book is very 
complete, while the occasional insertion of outline maps 
with the drugs indicated in their natural localities will 
prove instructive to the student; especially at this time 
when commercial necessity has caused the grower of drug 
plants to study as he has never studied them before the 
natural history and habitat of such plants. Whether as 
a textbook for the student or a reference work for the 
pharmacist, we are sure this volume will continue to hold 
its own with the several very satisfactory works already 
covering this field. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHIC GUIDE FOR STUDENTS OF THE HIS- 
TORY OF PHARMACY. By Edward Kremers. 8 vo., 55 pajes. 
Published by the University of Wisconsin. Madison. 
This Ijullctin may be taken to represent a new direction 
in the instructional methods of colleges of pharmacy, and 
so far as we can recall, it is the first systematic attempt 
that has been made in this country to provide an outline 
or bibliographic guide for the study of the history of 
pharmacy. The cultural value of such study and the 
broadening influence it may have upon the student will 
prove beneficial in the highest degree, for a knowledge 
of the evolution of one's call'-ng helps to link it up with 
the world's progress. According to Dr. Kremers, any 
attempt at a classification of pharmaceutical history can- 
not be based on periods of either chemical or other devel- 



opment, neither on the more artificial milestones, the cen- 
turies, but must rest on those characteristics that are 
comprised in the German word "kulturgeschichtlich." In 
other words, the history of pharmacy should be regarded 
as a part of the history of civilization. In accordance with 
this underlying principle, the classification according to 
periods of general history with the subordinate classffica- 
tion according to races and political units is suggested as 
seemingly the most rational. 

This classification (according to periods of general his- 
tory) the author presents as follows : 1, First period, an- 
tiquity; pharmacy as practiced in the civilized countries 
of antiquity, a, Egypt; b, Asiatic countries; c, Greece; d, 
Rome. 2, Second period, Middle Ages ; the practice of 
pharrnacy by the Arabians. 3, Third period, the pharm- 
aceutical renaissance in the European (Christian) states 
and the development of pharmacy in their colonies ; A, 
The Romance countries; a, Italy; b, France and French 
colonies; c, Spain, Portugal and colonies; d, Roumania. 
B, The Germanic countries; a, England and her colonies; 
b, the German states. C, The Slavic and Magyar coun- 
tries, p, The United States of America. 4, Supplement: 
A, Asiatic countries which exerted little or no influence 
on European civilization ; a, China ; b, Japan. B, Semi- 
civilized and barbaric peoples ; a. The American Indian ; 
b, the Negro, etc. 

We have read this bulletin with a great deal of interest 
and can congratulate the author on the manner in which ne 
has assembled his material and articulated it into a con- 
nected whole. If the educational dictum is true that a 
knowledge of civics and history is necessary for good 
citizenship, as these subjects are emphasized in our com- 
mon schools, then surely a knowledge of the evolution of 
pharmacy must have place in the education of the pharm- 
acy student if he is to be raised to the level of practi- 
tioners in other lines of professional work. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY RELATING TO BOTANY, EXCLUSIVE OF 
FLORAS. Vol. II, No. 12; January, 1917. Authors, M. Edith 
Wycoff, librarian. Published by the Lloyd Library, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

This bulletin is No. 25 of the bibliographical contribu- 
tions of the Lloyd Library and contains, as stated above, 
a bibliography relating to botany by authors whose names 
begin with the letter M. According to the prefatory 
statement, the Lloyd Library at this time contains 46,298 
volumes devoted almost exclusively to botany, materia 
medica, and pharmacy, with a section on Eclectic medi- 
cine. The catalogue has been compiled from all avail- 
able sources, such as Jackson's "Guide to the Literature 
of Botany," Pritzel's "Thesaurus Literature Botanicae," 
"Botanische Centralblatt," "Index Catalogue of the Libra- 
ry of the Surgeon-General's Office," Catalogue of tha 
Library of the British Museum, Catalogue of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, and book notices in journals, thus 
making available to a vast number of readers information 
concerning botanical literature the avera.ge individual could 
never hope to know about.. American botanists and stu- 
dents, and especially research workers, are sure to ap- 
preciate this effort undertaken by the Lloyd Library. 



THE METRIC SYSTEM FOR DRUGGISTS. By D. Chas. O'Con- 
nor, author of "Commercial Pharmacy," etc. 4x6 inches, 21 
pages, paper, SOc. Boston, Spatula Publishing Co. 

This little pamphlet represents an attempt of the author 
to brin.g the metric system as applied to pharmacy within 
the understanding of drug clerks, and particularly to aid 
them in their efforts to pass State board examinations. 
So far as we can discover, the treatment of the subject 
is satisfactory so far as it goes, but the pamphlet cannot 
be classed in the same category as the excellent bulletins 
on the metric system issued by the Bureau of Standards 
at Washington, nor does it offer anything that is not to 
be found in the chapters on the same subject given in 
most of the standard works on practical pharmacy. 



A woman went into a drug store out in Belvidere. 111.. 
if we are to believe the "Republican" of that city, and 
asked to have a clerk open a bottle of ointment she had 
purchased. He asked her why and she replied something 
in this manner: 

'Tve heard there was often a fly in the ointment. I 
wanted to be sure nothing like that happened in the kind 
I buy." 



March, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



93 



WOMEN IN PHARMACY 



Conducted by Emma Gary Wallace 



Selling Campaign For the First Spring Month 

Housecleaning and Other Supplies for the Feminine Population 



Our March Sales 

AS WE have begun the year by focusing our selling 
forces on some one line of articles every week, we 
must keep the good work up throughout the month 
of March. 

First Week — Renovators 

The thrifty housewife, the business woman, and in fact, 
the entire feminine population, begin to think of their 
spring clothes early in March, and magazines are full of 
new styles. The shop windows are entrancing with be- 
witching modes. BUT all of us cannot sally forth and 
buy an entire wardrobe much as we would like to do so. 
Most of us have got to go over our boxes and bundles 
and sort out the things which can be renovated and used 
to good purpose. Here is where the druggist comes in. 

Push dyes, cleaning materials, spot removers, soap bark, 
hat cleaning material, hat bleaches, glove cleaners, and 
so on. Now don't think you can do this all by yourself. 
Have a confidential chat with a dyer in the neighborhood. 
Show him that you are going to help him get more busi- 
ness and get it early. Ask him to let yon put a first-class 
sample of his work in your window. Of course, you will 
put a card on it saying who renovated it. Make it plain 
to him that you are going to fill the window with dye 
packages and cleaners yourself, and that you will suggest 
by display card that small jobs can be done quite satis- 
actorily at home, although anything difficult is better put 
in the hands of a professional. In this way you will both 
get lots of business that would not come to either of you 
otherwise. It is suggestive to have some uncleaned hats 
and garments and some which have been renewed. With 
the high cost of living, people will be glad to economize 
this year. One store which did a fine business last year 
in this line of goods, had a demonstrator — an attractive 
young lady — explain how silks, woolens, feathers, curtains, 
etc., could be renewed with the materials for sale. 
Second Week — Tonics 

.\t this time of }'ear, tonics of all kinds are seasonable- 
hair tonics, skin tonics, and those for the system. The 
long, cold winter with its heavj- diet and indoor life has 
depleted us more than we realize. Tell people how to 
fortify themselves anew. Do not claim that you have 
found' the eli.xir of life, or someone may call your bluff ! 
Give a commonsense explanation of why tonics are need- 
ed and what the ones you offer are intended to do. 

The artificial heat of the house encourages dry and fall- 
ing hair, and this together with cold winds, tends to make 
the skin harsh and its texture coarse. The fact that every 
spring brings a perennial crop of foul-air borne diseases 
of the bronchitis-pneumonia type, is in part due to the 
fertile soil in which the germs fall. In the spring time 
our resistance to disease is likely to be much less than 
at the beginning of the cold weather season, because we 
have not lived as much in the open, have breathed arti- 
ficially-heated air the greater part of the time, and our 
habits have been more sedentary so that the waste prod- 
ucts of tho body have been less thoroughly eliminated. 
Emphasize these points in offering remedies to meet 
March needs. 

Third Week — Housecleaning Supplies 

The forehanded housewife is now beginning to as- 
semble her supplies for housecleaning, and the early bird 
will get the worm — that is to say, the one who offers her 
or suggests to her what she needs, will make the sales. 



Urge her to save her hands and nails by using rubber 
gloves and good cleaning sponges. Give a list of dirt 
and stain chasers, such as ammonia, javelle water, de- 
odorants and disinfectants, sachet powder in neat, little 
bags or quantity lots for linen closets and dressing cases, 
wall paper cleaners, chamois, silver cream, furniture pol- 
ish, fragrant pastilles, chloride of lime, sulphur candles, 
washing compounds, and anything and everything which 
will cut work in two. 

Here again, point out that half the battle is to have 
supplies on hand to begin with, and that there is no 
economy in scrubbing expensive goods to pieces if a 
little washing compound or cleaner will remove the ob- 
jectionable spots. Push housecleaning supplies and em- 
phasize the need of sanitation and that cleanliness is 
sanitation reduced to everyday terms. 

Fourth Week — Thrift Week 
Some banking institutions annually set aside a Thrift 
Week, and the idea is a wordiy one. Every drug store 
will do well to have a Thrift Week too — a time when 
oddments will be closed out and turned into cash. This 
will be a money saving opportunity for customers. Broken 
lots of toilet and stationery goods, lines which are being 
closed out or upon which there is a heavy enough stock 
that special prices can be made to reduce the quantity', 
can all be considered in this connection. 

Advertise special thrift sales every day or all week as 
your locality may warrant. Do not think so much of 
what you've got to get rid of as of what people will be 
interested to buy. This will suggest leaders at least, and 
the things you wish to close out, can be used for the 
main bulk of the special offerings. 

Do not forget that this is water glass time. This is 
not an experiment. Having a family of several people to 
cater for, the writer of this article put down ninety 
dozen eggs last April and May, using water glass. This 
has effected a nice saving, and although there are only 
a few dozen left, not a single doubtful one has been met 
so far. The secret is to prepare the water glass accord- 
ing to directions, boiling the water first and letting it 
cool, and using strictly fresh, newly-laid eggs. A stone 
jar is best for a container. 

The one who would sell water glass and make money on 
it, must buy a good grade product, for if you sell a poor 
water glass and Mrs. Blank loses all her eggs, she will 
advertise the fact and spoil your trade ever after. Get 
first-class stock and be prepared to explain to people just 
how to use it. Advertise and show them that by buying 
eggs at from twenty to twenty-five cents a dozen in place 
of from fifty to sixty cents enough money can be saved 
to buy the children their shoes for a year. Most drug 
stores should be able to work off several barrels of water 
glass a year by pushing it. It should be all bottled and 
labelled and displays made in the window of the water 
glass and fresh eggs. A printed card telling how to use it 
will show how simple it is. 

March should be a money-maker in every drug store. It 
usually is. 



Queen City Chapter, No. 5, W.O.N..A..R.D.. will cele- 
brate its tenth anniversary with a Birthday Party, Feb- 
ruary 22d. This will be given at the residence of Mrs. 
John C. Otis, 1613 Ruth avenue. Walnut Hill. Cincinnati. 
The charter members of the organization will all assist 
in receiving. 



04 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Makch, 1917 



CONCERNING THE WORK OF DEMONSTRATION 



If we give space at all in our stores to a demonstrator, 
it is important that these people know just what they want 
to do and how to do it. 

Sometimes it may not be necessary to go outside and 
to hire a special demonstrator, for there should be some- 
one on every store force capable of taking up this work 
in connection with some article for a few days. 

A good demonstrator is one who can interest whoever 
may pass near by in what is offered for sale, and having 
interested them, can show the advantage and superiority 
of the goods offered and in a fair percentage of cases, 
bring about a sale. 

Just how is this done? 

Mrs. Housewife comes in to purchase a bottle of cough 
syrup. She notices that there is a demonstrator occupy- 
ing a prominent space. This demonstrator is preferably 
a woman, is of attractive personality, daintily, neatly and 
suitably dressed, is not officious or forward, yet is evi- 
dently on hand to show her goods to whoever may be 
interested in them. 

A demonstrator booth with a bright canopy top, an 
arbor, or a gaily decorated table all have a psychological 
effect. The very fact that they are unusual attracts at- 
tention, and like as not causes the customer to pause for 
a moment at least, to see what is being offered. Now 
that moment is what must be made to count. A pleasant 
smile of greeting, a prompt taking up of the goods and a 
brief but pointed and intelligent explanation, will change 
the general interest into close attention. A clever 
demonstrator can easily keep three or four people or iiiore 
interested at the same time. One thing to avoid is_ a 
monotonous repetition of a stereotyped rigmarole which 
has evidently been learned and recited parrot-like a great 
number of times. The personal element counts, especially 
with women customers. 

If possible, a sale should be made before the prospect 
leaves the booth, although it is a mistake to over-urge. 
A special offering in price or quality will usually effect 
this. People who pass on, promising to think it over, are 
not likely to come back. A clever demonstrator is not 
an order taker. He or she is a salesman of the first order. 

In the same way, the clerk behind the counter must be 
prepared to demonstrate when occasion arises, not one 
line of articles, but all those handled by his department. 
If he is showing rubber goods, he must be prepared to 
show why they are good value, where the superior pomts 
of excellence are, how they should be cared for, and to 
explain why they are well worth the price. If he is sell- 
ing plasters, it is not enough to suggest a plaster and take 
the money. He should be prepared to tell why the plaster 
offers, a valuable means of medication which does not in- 
terfere with the occupation of the wearer, holds the medi- 
cation in place and offers a gentle but continuous mas- 
sage to the muscles. Good commonsense and a sound 
reason will appeal to most people, and people are flattered 
to have someone take interest and time to give them good 

reasons. ■n.rxjxr 

In every customer's mind is always the question .WHY, 
when they are looking at new goods or even considering 
the advisability of selection. The demonstrator or sales- 
man who thinks of what is in his own mind only, will not 
get very far. He must be prepared to perceive that ques- 
tion in the mind of the customer and to answer it. If he 
does that, it will be necessary for him to put himself 
somehow in the other fellow's place. A demonstrator 
selling a glove cleaner, must know why the prospect is in- 
terested. Is it in the interests of econmy, sanitation, bet- 
ter grooming, or what? Knowing this, the salesman can 
easily emphasize the points which will make the sale. 

AROUND THE CIRCUIT 

Mrs F. B. Twitchell. Chairman of the Press Commit- 
tee of the Boston Chapter, reports that the January meet- 
in" of Boston Chapter. W.O.B.A.R.D., was held at The 
Bninswick. The President was in the chair. Notices of 
Federation Conferences were given. Mrs. F. B. Twitchell 
reported a Legislative Conference held by the Bnsrhtelm- 
stone Club of Allston. Mrs. Mabel J. McKay of Newton 
Highlands gave a delightful talk on life in Colombia. 
S \.. illustrated by native costume, curios, and national 



airs. !Mrs. Amy S. Shumway of Newton Highlands 
played a fine selection from Greig. Tea and a social hour 
closed a pleasant meeting. 



At the present writing, Philadelphia Chapter, No. 6, is 
planning to celebrate the tenth anniversary of its organiz- 
ation, February 13th and 14th. A royal good time has 
been planned for. Mrs. William E. Lee, President 'of the 
Chapter and Financial Secretary of the National Or- 
ganization, will give her usually delightful "At Home," 
February 13th. This is to be followed by a banquet at 
the Hotel Sewell, with a dance for the young people at 
10 o'clock. Mrs. Leslie O. Wallace of Auburn, who or- 
ganized the Chapter ten years ago, and Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, dean of the Philadelphia College of Pharm- 
acy, are expected to be present as guests. 



The January meeting of the Woman's Pharmaceutical 
Association was held January 13th at the home of Mrs. 
M. M. Gray, 4151 Gladys avenue, Chicago, where it cele- 
brated its fourteenth birthday. Dr. Charlotte E. Stimson 
gave an interesting resume of the work of the Chapter 
du.ing its fourteen years of life. Refreshments were 
served by the hostess assisted by Mrs. Kneass and the 
attendance was a very good one. The occasion was a 
very happy one and we trust this Chapter may continue 
for man}-, manj' more years in the good work in which it 
has been engaged during these its childhood years. 



The women closely connected with the drug trade 
throughout the United States look with dread and appre- 
hension upon the probability of war, and regardless of 
nationality, we hope and pray that our fair country may 
be spared the horrors of war. Of course, we would not 
have dishonorable or cowardly peace, but we have no de- 
sire if it can be avoided, to be dragged into the con- 
flagration of nations. 



Cincinnati Chapter, No. 5, recently contributed to the 
"Save the Zoo" fund of that city, believing that it is for 
the benefit, particularly of the children of the city, to 
keep this great attraction at its best. The Chapter also 
expressed its interest in Bethesda Hospital by a Christ- 
mas gift of money raised by means of a silver collection. 



Mobile Chapter, No. 9, held the first meeting of the 
year with Mrs. S. H. Colvin. Officers were elected for 
the ensuing twelve months as follows : President, Mrs. 
J. M. Newton; vice-president, Mrs. John Rutherford; 
secretary, Mrs. Philip Ebbeck; treasurer, Mrs. James 
Dumas. 



The Milwaukee Druggists' Ladies' Society gave a very 
enjoyable dance at the Hotel Maryland, January 11th. 
This organization is planning to entertain the visiting 
ladies of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association with 
an elaborate entertainment when they meet in Milwaukee 
in June. 



The Chicago Drug Club celebrated Ladies' Night, Mon- ' 
day, January 22d, at the Hotel Sherman. The members 
brought their wives and lady friends, so that there were 
more than five hundred present. Benson's famous or- 
chestra was on hand and a special vaudeville program was 
presented. It was thoroughly enjoyed by all present. 



Indianapolis Chapter, No. 20, recently gave a dance 
which netted their treasury $50. This Chapter discusses 
each month some question of interest to them as drug- 
gists' wives. The last subject considered was "What Can 
the W.O.N.A.R.D. Do to Help the N.A.R.D.?" 



Miss Jennie Eloise Bell of the Chicago College of 
Pharmacy, class of 1886, recently passed awa\' at her home 
in Chicaso. She was one of the first women graduates 
of the Chicago College of Pharmacy and a prominent 
member of the Eastern Star. 



The Chicago Chapter, W.O.N.A.R.D.. gave an enjoy- 
able card party, February 13th. Refreshments were served 
and a number of very handsome prizes awarded. The 
decoration? were suitable to the valentine season. 



-etc 



Fishing Tackle in the Drug Store 

A Strong Side Line That Is Very Important 



THERE isn't any reason why a person shouldn't go 
out fishing with a long narrow twig, a tomato can 
full of worms and a desire to catch trout on a hair- 
pin, except that he probably won't get any fish. He'll be 
more than likely to catch nothing but a cold and a scold- 
ing from his wife for staying out so late. That may be 
considered recompense for a day's outing without an out- 
fit, because you never can tell about humanity, but under 
most circumstances, a little of such a day goes a long 
distance. 

On the other hand, the person who trots out to the 
brook in which a dilapidated sunfish has summered and 
wintered for going on ten years without molestation, and 
plans for a day's fishing aided and abetted by a small 
two-ton truck load of paraphernalia of different de>cr'p- 
tion, may not have 
any greater success. 
Somewhere between 
these two there is a 
happy medium, made 
the more happy by 
the probability of a 
successful catch if 
Nature will do her 
part. You can buy the 
best rod known to 
man and then no; 
catch a single fish it 
Nature puts it into 
their heads to forget 
all about flies, spoons, 
bait and whatnot, of 
course. 

This matter of hap- 
py medium isn't con- 
fined to fishing, by ]^ 
any means. No one 
with any philosophy 
in his soul will so 

contend. But this particular story deals 
with fishing, you see. It is printed at this 
particular time because very soon there is 
going to pop up in the town near the fish- 
ing stream a peculiarly dressed individual 
who will Waltonize in the woods nearby. 
The hardware store will probably sell him 
most of his tackle. Now comes the pur- 
pose of the story — the drug store should 
do it. 

You, Mr. Druggist, will have to sell that 
visitor a couple of quarts of anti-mosquito 
dope unless you happen to live in a rural 
Utopia. If you do live there, by the way. 
you have no business being in your busi- 
ness. Under ordinary circumstances, how- 
ever, you'll have to sell the dope, so you 
might just as well save his feet and sell 
him everything else. If he gets the habit of coming to 
the drug store first, the hardware man will have to be- 
come a plumber and watch for leaks. There is far more 
logic in the sale of fishing tackle among druggists than 
among hardware men. 

City Trade, Too, is Possible 

Added to the possibilitj' for the town druggist is that 
of the city man. The regular fish stores, which supply 
nothing but fishing goods, aren't going out of the business 
yet of course, but the druggist with an eye to a success- 




ful venture can so utilize his stock as to add fishing 
tackle and make it pay. Perhaps the customer is going to 
start from uptown — he'll welcome the opportunity for 
purchase without having to go way off down to the 
center of the city and find the store closed when he gets 
there anywaj-. 

No, there isn't one good reason in the world why the 
average druggist who exists in a town that carries a sport- 
ing spirit shouldn't sell fishing tackle. If there is no 
sporting spirit, by the way, it's time the druggist got up 
on his ear and introduced it. A supply of fishing tackle 
is as good as anything else. No matter which way you 
turn, Mr. Druggist, we've got you. You ought to carry 
fishing tackle as a side line. 

Xow, havinj' decided that fishing tackle is a good side 
line, let us turn to the ne.xt 
sub-head. What kind of 
tackle should be carried ?"ter- 
tainly, the Denver druggist 
who carries a lot of fine salt 
water lines, and some cod 
hooks with tarpon apparatus 
on the side, would not be 
headed for success. What ne 
ought to handle is trout out- 
fits. Down in the Mississippi 
Valley bass is caught — don't 
put in eel spears. Up in the 
Adirondacks nothing is caught, 
but there are still a vast num- 
ber of anglers who go there 
for the rest. They must have 
their outfits. Trout and bass, 
they want. Down along the 
coast it's salt water fish, blues, 
cod and further south, tarpon. 
Flies aren't very successful 
there. 

There are different 
kinds of fishing sup- 
plies. The druggist 
who wants to make 
money and decides to 
sell fishing goods 
should first know 
what is caught in his 
territory. If you are 
unfortunate enough 
to be in a place where 
no fish are caught, 
you'd better not put 
in the stuff. You can 
sell soda and make up 
a scheme of recipro- 
cation with the near- 
est movie house. 
Sometliliig will be written about the proposition in the 
Er.\ one of these days. But if you do have a lake or a 
trout brook near you, and if the men and women of 
your town like to go fishing, know what they expect to 
catch. 

If it is a territory where bait is used, be sure to get 
bait rods. We cannot give an exact estimate of the cost to 
you, but we do know that the cost price is low enough 
for you to sell at a good retail profit. A bait casting 
rod may be bamboo, steel, willow or almost anything, but 
it* is to your advantage to get a good rod, a reputable 

Page Ninety-Five 





96 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



make, to handle. They come from $1.00 to almost any 
price you dare to pay or think you can get. 

Then there are the fly and the baby bamboo rods for 
mountain fishing. In both there is profit. The light stream 
angling rod, for semi-mountainous districts, must be power- 
ful, strong and pliable. Such a rod as the "Eclipse" is a 
safe rod to handle. It gives satisfaction and is a good 

money-maker. 

There is nothing in it for 
the druggist if he doesn't 
consider both sides. He 
should not buy outfits that 
are too expensive. The man 
who would pay a large 
price will generally go to the 
fishing tackle store and get 
his stuff direct, from top to 
bottom. The druggist's field 
is with the man in between. 
The medium goods are the 
ones he should handle, and 
they are the ones which will 
make money for him. 

Mountain and Pond 
Fishing 

We never had the slight- 




Stream Flies 



est idea that there was so much to be learned in fishing 
until we got enthusiastic and began to study the possibili- 
ties for druggists. Most of our fishing has been done 
by seines, and we caught the fish when Captain Frank 
Cahoon, a real Cape Codder, brought it in in the cockpit 
of his big surf boat. You don't have to work for what 
you eat on Cape Cod in the summer time. 

If you serve a trade that will use a pond or small lake 
for its fishing, you should be sure to put in a stock af 
light weight rods. These sturdy little rods are good 
casters and are light enough to be easily handled. The 
"Baby Catskill" for instance is a rod that has been tried. 
Your customers will like that rod and be properly appre- 
ciative. 

Leaving the questions of rods, the druggist who makes 
a success with this highly desirable side line, must use 
discretion in choosing spoons, flies, leaders, lines and such 
things. You will not need heavy lines, unless it is your 
purpose to serve anglers who will do salt water fishing. 
Fine and medium fine lines will serve the purpose, and 
you should again choose with a stern eye towards the fish 
that are caught in your neighborhood. In the matter of 
flies, there are some that will not be needed. As in many 
other products, superfluous flies are made by the manu- 
facturers. They are lu.xuries. Some of them, the smaller 
and medium class flies, are needed for good fishing, and 
those you should have. Trout flies on eye hooks are be- 
coming more and more popular and those are the sort 
you should handle. 

As for other supplies for fishermen, you need carry no 
great stock. It is difficult to conceive of a drug store 
having a large call for creels, baskets, fly boxes and so 
forth. There certainly will be some sort of a call, but 
here again it is true that the man who buys from the drug 
store, unless the line has been developed to a specialty 
and is advertised and credited with supplying every pos- 
sible need, will not need everything that a fisherman uses. 
If you are able to make yourself a specialist in fishing 
goods, so much the better, but if yours is a general trade, 
similar to that you have in other side lines, you will do 
well to choose "your stock with utmost care. Fishing 
goods are too expensive to leave on the shelf. You must 
sell them to profit, but if you do sell them, you make a 
nice amount. 

Displays of Fishing Goods 

Turning to another feature : 

Every drug store owner and every person who trades, 
likes to enter a good shop. He likes to peer about him 
and see things tastefully and invitingly displayed. 

As soon as the warm weather comes, or as soon as the 
law is off the fish of your neighborhood, is the time to 
get busy with vour display. A window given to the feat- 
uring o'f fishing tackle is easily made. In the center, fcr 
instance, could be placed a creel or a basket with rods 
leaning against it. If it is possible to get a stuffed fish, 
so much "the better. It could be placed in front of the 



box. Then, along the floor of the window space could 
be placed the hooks, flies, lines, spoons, and smaller stock. 

It is possible to go much further than that. The active 
druggist, if he is a fisherman, will know whether bass are 
biting up near the Red Brook or not. If he does not 
happen to be an enthusiastic angler himself, he will know 
some one about the town who is. It is easy enough to 
lind out where the best bass can be caught. In one 
corner of the window, or along the window pane, it 
would be possible to place cards giving that information 
to the prospective tackle buyers of the town. In case 
}'0U are on tidewater, a schedule showing the tides will 
answer the same purpose. 

There are many bits of local information that fisher- 
men like. The keen druggist makes it his business to 
find out where the best fishing places are, and whatever 
other information he should have. Some of this he can 
give away free by means of cards in the window — the 
remainder he can keep and give to purchasers when they 
are busy buying goods. If the druggist keeps himself 
well informed on fishing he can make his store a clear- 
ing house for knowledge that will be invaluable to him 
as an advertiser. 

Here are some of the different classes of fishing and 
the rods and other outfit that should be sold for them : 

Trout fishing with flies — very light rods, such as the 
Eclipse, Long Island, Catskill, etc. Made pliable to give 
a large casting area. 

Large stream and lake fishing — strong, powerful rods, 
much heavier than the first class. Medium weight and 
heavy lines, strong, accurate and quick working reels. 

Mountain brook fishing — smaller rods, must be strong. 
Reels of steel, strong and speedy. Silk lines of good 
strength. 

Salt water — trolling lines or rods strong enough to 
fight with. Powerful lines. 



STATE NARCOTICS COMMITTEE REPORTS 



Criticism of the medical profession, as well as sugges- 
tions for new legislation which are radical, marks the re- 
port of the New York State narcotics committee which 
was handed to the legislature on the night of February 
19th. Senator George H. Whitney of Mechanicville is 
chairman of the committee. 

"Your committee is inclined to criticize the medical 
profession for its lack of study," reads the report. "Evi- 
dence shows that many addicts have died under treatment 
and that a great number of those discharged as 'cured' 
are driven back to the use of drugs." 

The committee's report insists that narcotic drug ad- 
dicts should not be classed with any other sort of addicts, 
least of all with alcoholics. The constant use of the 
drugs has been recognized as bringing on a regular dis- 
ease, says the report, and it is not possible to treat it as 
alcoholic diseases are treated. 

Supplementary remedial legislation should be enacted 
as soon as possible, the report says, although the com- 
mittee asks for time in which to make further investiga- 
tions. Records of narcotic drugs and even of addicts 
themselves are suggested. 

Such legislation, the report continues, should provide 
for a complete record of narcotics distributed through 
legal mediums in the form of triplicate order blanks upon 
which doctors, druggists and other users should obtain 
their supply from the manufacturers or jobbers. Every 
user should be required to keep a copy on forms supplied 
showing just what was purchased and how and when it 
was sold says the report. 

To complete the triplicate system the committee asks 
that the new law provide that a copy of the blank be sent 
to the dealer and another copy to the State Board of 
Health. A further regulation asked is that a complete 
?nd accurate inventory of all narcotics sold by whole- 
salers or jobbers in the state be kept on file with the State 
Board of Health. This, it is suggested will help to keep 
track of all the narcotics in the state, and will enable in- 
spectors, to a certain degree, to find out who the illegal 
users are. 

The committee has been in session in New York for 
several months. 



.AIarch, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



97 



PHARMACEUTICAL PERSONALS 



WliiLIAM B. STRONG OF MILWAUKEE 



WYNN L. EDDY, DRUGGIST -LEGISLATOR 



Loyalty to one's alma mater, as shown by "the wave 
of unadulterated gladness" experienced by William B. 
Strong when the footbsU aggregation representing Carle- 
ton College of Minnesota descended on Chicago last fall 
and carried away the honors of a gridiron contest with 

the representatives of Chi- 
cago University, furnishes 
the "peg" on which a writer 
m a recent issue of the 
Senthtct hangs the life story 
of "one of the men you 
meet in Milw^aukee." Mr. 
Strong completed his edu- 
cation at Carleton College 
more than a quarter of a 
century ago, and the loyal- 
ty he has always main- 
tained toward the institu- 
tion, has been one of his 
striking characteristics in 
business and social life. 

Mr. Strong is well known 
in the drug trade as the 
vice-president and treasur- 
er of the Milwaukee Drug 
Co., wholesale druggists. 
William B. Strong He is a native of Minne- 

sota, and after graduation, 
decided to enter the railroad business, which he did, 
working for a time with the C. B. & Q., and later with 
the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul line. He then tried 
the Illinois Steel Co., but finding the work uncongenial, 
entered the employ of Green & Hutton, an old established 
wholesale drug house, which later became the Jerman, 
Pflueger & Kuehmsted Co., and subsequently reorganized 
as the Milwaukee Drug Co. He began at the bottom of 
the ladder and has occupied successive positions of trust 
and responsibility until attaining his present official 
standing, which carries with it the active management 
of the company's business. He has served as vice-presi- 
dent of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association, 
and is a frequent attendant at the annual meetings of 
that organization. In his city he is identified with a num- 
ber of social activities. He is a member of the Milwaukee 
Club, the University Club, and the Milwaukee .Athletic Club, 
besides holding membership in various Masonic bodies. 




FAREWELL DINNER TO ERNEST BERGER 



Ernest Berger, of Tampa, Fla., a member of the Florida 
Board of Pharmacy since 1901, and for a number of 
years its president, was recently tendered a farewell din- 
ner by his associates on the occasion of his retirement 
from the board by reason of the expiration of his term 
of office. At the function given in 
honor of Mr. Berger. W. D. Jones, 
president of the board, expressed the 
regrets of the board members who 
•would be deprived of Mr. Berger's 
fellowship in an official capacity, and 
as an evidence of their appreciation 
and good-will, presented him with a 
solid gold Knights Templar charm. 
The address which accompanied the 
charm was signed by all members of 
the board and included the names of 
W. D. Tones, president; Leon Hale, 
H. H. D'.Memberte. and D. W. Ram- 
saur, secretary and treasurer. 

Mr. Berger is an enthusiastic 
member of the A. Ph. A., and has an 
extended acquaintance throughout 
the drug trade. He has served the A.Ph.A. as vice- 
president, and was president of the National Association 
of Boards of Pharmacv in 1913-14. 




Ernest Berger 



Increasing interest in the political affairs of their re- 
spective communities is shown by the large number of 
names of druggists that are to be found in the member- 
ship directories of legislative and municipal bodies 
throughout the country. Some of these pharmaceutical 
worthies were no doubt born to this 
greatness, but most of them have at- 
tained these positions by reason of 
their personal qualifications and the 
good-will of the electors in their re- 
spective localities. One pharmacist 
who has all of the qualifications im- 
plied in the foregoing remarks is 
Wynn L. Eddy, of Brigham, Utah, a 
member of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association since 1908, and 
now a representative in the State 
Legislature from Boxelder County. 

Mr. Eddy is a Wolverine by birth, 
but early went to Texas where he at- 
tended the Blanco high school and 
Baylor University. In 1890 he en- 
tered the drug business at Winlock, 

Wash., where he remained until 1894, when he moved 
to Brigham City and opened a drug store. He took an 
active part in the campaign for securing statehood for 
Utah, and has been a delegate to every city, county and 
State Convention of the Democratic party since. He has 
always been actively engaged in the affairs of the Utah 
Pharmaceutical Association, which he served as presi- 
dent in 1909 and 1910. He has also served on the State 
Board of Pharmacy, as member of the city council for a 
number of years, and as chairman of his party county 
committee. He was elected to the Legislature last Nov- 
ember. His activities for attempting to secure amend- 
ments to the pharmacy law in that State are well-known. 




\\'vxx L. Eddy 



FERD. A. MUELLER OF INDIANAPOLIS 



Ferd. A. Mueller, a druggist of more than forty years 
standing, is being prominently mentioned in the news- 
papers of the Hoosier capital as a candidate for mayor 
on the Democratic ticket. He was born and reared in 
Indianapolis, and with the exception of the time he spent 
in the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, has always re- 
sided in his native city. He has taken an active part in 
promoting the interests of the Indiana Veterinary College 
and the Indianapolis College of Pharmacy, and is a life 
member of Murat Temple of Shriners. He is president 
of the German Orphans' Home Board and belongs to virt- 
ually every German society in Indianapolis. He also is a 
member of the Indiana Democratic Club and was one .of 
the originators of the Continental National Bank. He 
recently declared that if he consented to make the race 
for the mayoralty, and is successful in being nominated 
and elected, he will stand for economy in city affairs and 
for law enforcement. 



OUT FOR BOARD OF PHARMACY MEMBERSHIP 



Philip V. Erard, president of the Springfield Pharm- 
acists' Association, and a member of the Board of Health 
of that city, has announced his candidacy for appoint- 
ment as a member of the Massachusetts Board of Pharm- 
acy, and he believes that he stands a good chance of 
being one of the three men whose names will be recom- 
mended to the Governor by the State association. Mr. 
Erard is a Republican in politics and is a vice-president 
of the Massachusetts Franco-Republican Club which has 
5,000 members throughout the Commonwealth and exerts 
considerable influence in State politics. He operates two 
drug stores in Springfield. 



98 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



PERSONAL BREVITIES 



— Charles R. Sherman, of the Sherman-McConnell 
Drug Co., Omaha, Neb., represented the druggists of 
Omaha and of the State at a recent hearing of the special 
prohibitory committee of the Legislature and urged the 
lawmakers to make it impossible for druggists to sell 
liquors. Mr. Sherman said that reputable druggists now 
in business do not want to sell liquor after May 1st, and 
that they want it made impossible for "bootleggers" to 
disguise themselves as druggists. He believes that the law 
should prohibit a druggist from selling any liquor but 
alcohol, and then only when so modified as to make it 
unavailable as a beverage. The Committee, it is said, will 
not report a "bone dry" law, but will propose a measure 
which will prohibit "bootlegging" as nearly as possible. 

— Clifford W. Bass, who established a drug business in 
Portsmouth, N. H., in 1904, has sold his pharmacy to 
O. J. Allinson of New York, and will go into the oil busi- 
ness in Oklahoma. Mr. Allinson was connected with the 
Riker-Hegeman and Caswell-Massey companies in New 
York for many years, and for the last five years ran a 
drug store in Newton, N. J., which he sold last July. 

— Ds. D. B. McMahan, druggist of Denver, Col., and 
his assistant Ralph J. Coombs, were the victims of a dar- 
ing hold-up early in February. Dr. McMahan was shot by 
the bandit as the latter forced both men to hold up their 
hands in the prescription department of the store. The 
hold-up was made while several women were in the front 
part of the shop listening to some new phonograph records. 

— J. p. Cooper, who has been in the drug business at 
Fordsville, Ky., for thirty years, has sold his drug store 
to Sam. Bennett, whose son, a graduate of the Louisville 
College of Pharmacy, will conduct the business. Mr. 
Cooper was elected .cashier of the Fordsville Bonk, and 
assumed his duties on February 1st. 

_ — Capt. Isaac E. Emerson, head of the Emerson Drug 
Company, of Baltimore, has been re-elected commodore 
and president of the Baltimore Yacht Club, with Parker 
Cook, of the same company, as a member of the Board of 
Governors. 

— Adolph Spiegel, head of the A. Spiegel Drug Co., 
Milwaukee. Wis., is recovering satisfactorily following an 
accident January 22d, when he broke a leg in crossing a 
downtown street to reach his store. Mr. Spiegel is rest- 
ing easily at his home in that city. 

— Louis I. Schreiner, vice-president of the United 
Drug Co., is chairman of the building committee in charge 
of erecting a $50,000 clubhouse for the Commonwealth 
Country Club at Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

— Claude M. Cook, of San Jose, Cal., was fatally in- 
jured early this month when he was hit by an automobile. 
He received a fracture of the skull and concussion of 
the brain besides minor injuries. 

— Alexander Roth will be new manager of the Lorain 
Drug Company store in Lorain, Ohio. W. B. Rathbun, 
present manager, has returned to Lakewood where he will 
open a store of his own. 

— Eugene A. Sayre, proprietor of the Economy Drug 
Store of Elgin, 111., has been elected president of the 
Elgin Merchants' Association, a position of some import- 
ance in the watch city. 

— C. E. Robertson, of St. Charles, 111., recently bought 
out a new drug store, but since completing the deal has 
been ill with pneumonia and has not opened the store 
for business. ' 

— LuDWiG Schiff, general manager of the Western 
AVhoIesale Drug Company, is building one of the most 
"beautiful homes in the Windsor Square section of Los 
Angeles. 

— Frank Amick, a druggist of Denver, Colo., shot at 
and killed a man who was breaking into his store at 
night. Amick was released when he had told the court 
his story. 

— John H. Beise, of Fergus Falls, Minn., is a new 
member appointed to the board of pharmacy by Governor 
Burnquist. He succeeds Robert L. Morland of Worthing- 
ton. 



— P. N. Hall of Springfield, Mass., has announced his 
candidacy to succeed William E. Martin of Holyoke as a 
member of the Massachusetts State Board of Pharmacy. 

^D. A. Nywall, for many years prominent in the drug 
trade of Scandia, Kansas, has purchased a large store in 
Formoso, Kansas, and will at once return to the business. 

— G. D. Ellvson, of Des Moines, is the delegate for 
the American Association of Pharmaceutical Chemists to 
the National Chamber of Commerce in Washington, D. C. 

—Caldwell Sweet, of Bangor, Me., celebrated his 42d 
anniversary as a druggist in January. A special anni- 
versary sale was a feature of the observation ceremonies. 

— W. E. AuLT of Claremore, Okla., has sold his store 
there and will move to Kansas where he will locate a 
new store in one of the numerous small Kansas towns. 

— Edward O'Donnell of the Cobb-Hersey Co., Boston, 
is backing a new drug store to be opened soon at Essex 
street and Atlantic avenue, opposite the Hotel Essex. 

— Dale G. Kilburn, who has been in business for 13 
years, in Quincy, 111., is to move to Olney. Mr. Kilburn 
is one of the best known druggists of the state. 

— Walter Johl, of 4601 North Clarke street, Chicago, 
was visited by robbers who "cleaned out" his cash till 
and took a large amount of his drug supplies. 

— Julius Bauer of Des Moines, has sold his drug store 
there and is planning to go to South America. He is 
thinking of opening a store in Buenos Ayres. 

— O. T. Erhast, of Birchwood, Wis., has been elected 
president of the newly formed commercial club of the 
town. Mr. Erhart is a well-known druggist. 

— Harry Beiling, president of the Graham Drug Com- 
pany, has announced himself as candidate for Mayor on 
the Republican ticket in Jef fersonville, Ind. 

— Harry M. Church for many years a New Bedford, 
Mass., druggist is a candidate for treasurer and collector 
of taxes in Mattapoisett, a nearby city. 

— Joseph F. Daley, for 20 years proprietor of a store 
in Hartford, has purchased a new store and will con- 
tinue in the business on Maple avenue. 

— D. I. Mills, a prominent druggist of Pine Bluff, 
Ark., was operated upon for appendicitis late in Janu- 
ary. He is on the road to recovery. 

— G. H. H.\RDiNG, of Ansonia, Conn., has had on exhi- 
bition all of the 219,150 prescriptions filled by the store 
since it was founded 71 years ago. 

— -Mrs. a. L. Cooke, of Ponticello, Idaho, has sold the 
drug store she has owned in that town for many years 
to G. W. Deer, B. M. Hines and B. F. Hough. 

—George Lowe, of High Point, N. C, has resigned his 
position with the Hart Drug Company and will study 
pharmacy in Philadelphia. 

— H. Henry Knipple has sold the City Drug store, 6-8 
West Sixth street, St. Paul, to P. W. Morton, a real estate 
dealer of Winthrop, Minn. 

— C. C. Bechtel, who has for many years operated a 
drug store in Wooster, Ohio, has retired from the trade. 
His store will be closed. 

— Sol a. Eckstein of Milwaukee, has just completed 
his 43rd year as a druggist. Mr. Eckstein is president of 
the Wisconsin Ph.A. 

— Hugh McClay, of Joplin, Mo., has left that city and 
will go into the drug business with his father in Plain- 
ville. Kansas. 

— E. P. Shrader of Grinnell, Iowa, has sold the drug 
store he has operated in that city for 15 years to Bates 
and Godbey. 

— I. N. Irwin celebrated his 40th year in the drug 
business in Decatur, 111., during the last few weeks of 
January. 

— Abel B.\ynon. of Scranton. Pa., was married to Miss 
Hazel Deitz, of Throop, Pa., early in February. 

— Sir Joseph Beecham, the noted pill manufacturer who 
died last summer left an estate of $5,000,000. 

—P. W. Babcock of Lewiston. Me., has been chosen 
president of the Maine Rexall Club. 



March, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



99 



DEATHS IN THE DRUG TRADE 



DB. WILLIAM C. ALPERS 



NATHANIEL J. RUST 




Dr. William C. Alpers, dean of the Cleveland School of 
Pharmacy of Western Reserve University, and president 
last year of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
died at his home in Cleveland on February 21. He had 
been in poor health for more than a j'ear, and it was by 
great effort that he per- 
formed the duties of pre- 
siding officer at the meeting 
of the A.Ph.A. held in 
Atlantic City last August. 
His presidential address de- 
livered on that occasion. 
was one long to be remem- 
bered by all of those who 
heard it, for its elements of 
censure, criticism and vol- 
uminousness, while its de- 
livery furnished one of the 
most dramatic situations in 
the history of the associa- 
tion. 

Dr. Alpers was born in 
1851 at Hamburg, Ger- 
many. When about 12 
years of age he went to 
Hanover, where he spent 
some time in the "gym- Dr. W. C. Alpers 

nasium," which was later 

followed by two years of special work in mathematics and 
chemistry at the Hanover School of Technology. In 1870 
he began his service in the German army, taking part 
in the Franco-Prussian war and participating in some of 
its most important battles. He was twice wounded, and 
on completion of his term of service, was discharged with 
the rank of lieutenant. He then entered the University 
of Goettingen, where he remained until 1872, when he came 
to the United States. For a time he taught mathematics 
in a private school in New York City, but soon moved to 
Bayonne, N. J., where he opened a pharmacy. In 1894 
he was appointed a member of the New Jersey Board of 
Pharmacy, and two years later was selected as manager 
of the retail pharmacy which Merck & Co. established in 
connection with their laboratory in University Place, New 
York City. When the pharmacy was discontinued in 1899, 
Dr. Alpers bought many of the fixtures and opened a 
professional pharmacy in the Imperial Hotel building. 
New York, continuing it with considerable success until 
June, 1906. when he disposed of it to the Caswell-Massey 
Co., remaining for a time with the company as manager. 
He later became identified with the Alpers Chemical Co.. 
IS Wall street. New York, and also, for a time operated 
a pharmacy on Columbus avenue. 

For years Dr. Alpers was prominent in the German- 
American life of New York City, and was a frequent con- 
tributor to German periodicals. He had received many 
honors from pharmacists in recognition of his ability. He 
served as president of the Manhattan Pharmaceutical 
Association ; as chairman of the New York Branch of the 
A.Ph..A.. and during his residence in New Jersey, was one 
year president of the State Pharmaceutical Association. 
He was also identified with many other organizations of a 
scientific character. He was elected dean of the Cleveland 
School of Pharmacy in 1913, a position which he filled 
while carrying on his duties as an editor of the Deutsch- 
Amerikanischc Apothekcr Zcitung of New York. He was 
also the author of a number of hooks and monographs on 
pharmacy and allied subjects. He received the deeree of 
Doctor of Science from the University of New York in 
1899. He was twice married, his first wife dying about 
ten years ago. His wife by his second marriage and four 
children by his first wife survive him. 



Nathaniel J. Rust, for nearly 50 years well-known in the 
drug trade of Boston, and prominent in politics as a 
Republican from 25 to 40 years ago, died February 6th, 
at his home, Boston, aged 84. Born in Gorham, Me., 
November 28, 1833, he first became interested in pharm- 
acy while a student in Gorham Academy and Oxford 
Normal Institute at Paris, Me., and was assistant in die 
drug store of his brother, Dr. William Rust. In 1851 he 
went to Boston. For seven years he was connected with 
the wholesale drug firm of Weeks & Potter. His promi- 
nence in the drug business naturally drew him into other 
lines of activity. He became president of the North End 
Savings Bank, Dorchester Gas Light Co., the Manchester 
Mills, the Lincoln National Bank, Boston Storage Ware- 
house Co., Carver Cotton Gin Co., and was a director in 
many other commercial and financial institutions. He 
served in the state legislature in 1874, '75 and 76; in the 
city council in 1878 and '79, as alderman in 1891 and '92. 
and was for many years a sinking fund commissioner of 
Boston. He was prominent in Masonry. Mr. Rust was 
married in 1863 to Miss Martha C. Carter of Gorham, 
Me., and to them four children were born : Martha C. 
Rust, Mary Alice Rust, Edgar Carter Rust, and Nathaniel 
J. Rust, Jr. 

JOHN LEADBEATER 



John Leadbeater. one of the best known druggists in 
his section, secretary and treasurer of the Retail Drug 
Corporation, Inc., passed away at his late home at 504 
Prince street, .'Alexandria, Va., from Bright's disease, on 
January 29th. Mr. Leadbeater who was 46 years old was 
a graduate of pharmacy of the National College of 
Pharmacy, Washington, D. C, and had been identified 
with the wholesale drug business since his graduation. 
He had been in poor health for some time past, although 
it was but a few days prior to his death that his illness 
necessitated his confinement to his home. He was first 
vice-president of the Columbia Fire Engine Company 
and a former member of the City Council from the first 
ward. Mr. Leadbeater was the son of Lucy and the late 
Edward S. Leadbeater. His wife was Miss Mary Morrill 
of Conway Center. N..H., who, with three sons and three 
daughters survives him. 



WILLIAM R. HALL 



William R. Hall, former Mayor of Manistee, Mich., 
founder of the Hall Drug Company, and for many years 
a leader in civic work in that city, died suddenly in the 
railroad station of Manistee. Mr. Hall was born in 
Painesville, Ohio, in 1847 and began in the drug business 
in Manistee in 1868 as a clerk. In 1869 he bought his 
own store and from that time until 1914 was active in the 
trade. He was elected Mayor of Manistee in 1912. 



MRS. HELEN A. NOYES 



Mrs. Helen A. Noyes, widow of Daniel R. Noyes, 
founder of the wholesale drug firm of Noyes Brothers 
& Cutler of St. Paul, died at her home. 366 Summit 
avenue, St. Paul, February 10th. Mrs. Noyes was born 
in Alton, 111., seventy-five years ago. Her husband died 
in 1908. Surviving are three daughters and two sons : 
Mrs. W. A. Brown. N. Y. City; Mrs. Rollin S. Saltus, 
Mount Kisco, N. Y. ; Mrs. Thatcher M. Brown, Red 
Bank, N. J. ; D. Ravmond Noyes, New York, and Win- 
throp G. Noyes of St. Paul. 



JACOB S. FRANTZ 



— C. W. Dannell, 47 years old, of St. Paul. Minn., an 
employe of Noyes Brothers and Cutler, died of pneu- 
monia at Bethesda Hospital late in January. 



Jacob S. Frantz. for more than thirty-five years a retail 
druggist in Danville, 111., died in Jacksonville, 111., on 
January 27th. He had been in a sanitarium for a number 
of months. He was born in Elderton, Pa., on November 



100 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



8, 184U, but went west in 1868 and settled in Sydney. In 
1867 he was married and soon after went into the drug 
business as a clerk. Later he took over his own store 
and for 35 years has been -a well-known man in the trade. 
He established tlie first pharmacy in Oaklawn as a branch 
of his Danville store. He is survived by his widow and 
one daughter. 



W. H. McGARRAH 



W. H. McGarrah, a resident for half a century and one 
of the oldest druggists of Scranton, Pa., died on Febru- 
ary 17th, following a three days illness of bronchial pneu- 
monia. He was born in New York City in 1848 and en- 
tered the drug business in Scranton forty-five years ago, 
becoming a member of the firm of McGarrah & Thomas, 
a partnership which continued until a few years ago. It 
is said that many of the prominent druggists of Scran- 
ton had received their early training under the eye of 
Mr. McGarrah. He was a 32d degree Mason and a mem- 
ber of Schiller Lodge, F. & A. M. Four children survive, 
William H., Jr., a druggist of Philadelphia, Russell, a 
teacher of chemistry, Donald, a student, Henrv, an elec- 
trical engineer, and Mrs. C. E. Swartz, all but the first- 
named being residents of Scranton. 



RECENT DEATHS 



— Cyrus P. Calvert, president and treasurer of the 
Calvert Aniline and Chemical Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, until 
ill health necessitated his retirement from business a year 
ago, is dead at the age of 72. He had been engaged in 
the drug and chemical business for fifty years, and was 
mayor of Hartwell in 1902. He was born in Burlington, 
Ky., and was a friend of Prof. John Uri Lloyd, w^ho is 
said to have found inspiration for his story "Stringtown 
on the Pike" in their acquaintance. Mr. and Mrs. Calvert 
celebrated their golden wedding in October, last year. 

—Anthony B. McCarty, of the McCarty Drug Co., 
Joplin, Mo., died of a complication of diseases on Febru- 
ary 6th. He was born in New Jersey in 1838 and moved 
to Missouri in 1858, opening one of the first drug stores 
in Joplin in 1876. He was a veteran of the civil war. 
serving in the 137th Illinois infantry. He had also served 
the city as mayor. He is survived by his widow, two 
brothers and one sister, his brother L. C. McCarty being 
connected with him in the drug business at Joplin. 

— J. F. Li-EWELLYN, a former president of the Missouri 
Pharmaceutical Association, and a leading druggist in 
Northeast Missouri for more than forty years, is dead 
at Mexico, that State. He was a frequent contributor to 
various pharmaceutical journals and was local observer 
for the U. S. weather bureau. He was 71 years of age. 
He joined the A.Ph.A. in 1867 and later became a life 
member of that organization. 

— George R. Collier, proprietor of the Collier Drug Co., 
one of the oldest drug houses on the Maryland peninsula, 
died at Salisbury, Md., on January 21st of pneumonia. 
He was 51 years of age, and a great lover of blooded 
horses. He was identified with the National Trotting 
Association, and was an official at many of the race 
meets held on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. He leaves a widow. 

— H.\ERY A. Reindoll.\r, who for twenty-five vears con- 
ducted a pharmacy at Strieker street and 'Lafayette 
avenue, Baltimore, Md., died recently after an illness of 
about a month from kidney trouble. He was born in 
Carroll County, Md., in 1873. His widow, three sons and 
two daughters survive. A brother, Frank Reindollar, is 
a druggist of Baltimore. 

— Dr. Arthur Lamson, of Upton, Mass., for 12 years a 
druggist there and at one time an officer of the Massa- 
chusetts Pharmaceutical Association, died at his home in 
his forty-fourth year. He was born in Hinsdale, N. H., 
and was educated there. He was a selectman in Upton 
for many years. His widow and two sisters survive him. 

— John R. Miller, aged 61, for years engaged in the 
drug business in Indianapolis, Ind.. died on February 9th. 
With the exception of a few years when he was president 
of the Indianapolis Drug Co., he was in the emplov of the 
Daniel Stewart Co., and the Kiefer-Stewart Co. He was 
born in Hamilton, Ohio. 



— AiME Joseph La Chapelle, 30 years old, of Turners 
Falls, Mass., died at his home. He was a native of the 
town and had spent his life there. He was graduated 
from St. Hyacinth, P. Q. and the Massachusetts College 
of Pharmacy. He was proprietor of the Opera House 
Pharmacy. 

— M^ B. Sotoloff, a druggist of Philadelphia died Feb- 
ruary 7th. He was 32 years old and had been in the drug 
business 10 years. He was a graduate of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and was one of the organizers of 
the Maccabees. Mr. Sotolof f is survived by his widow and 
one child. 

— John F. Sullivan of Fall River, Mass., died in Jan- 
uary at his home there. He was one of the most promi- 
nent druggists of the mill city and was owner of the 
"Silver Front" pharmacy. He served for a number of 
years in the army. He was once a city councilman. 

— E. N. LooMis, druggist of Hannibal, Mo., was found 
dead in bed in his room above his store on February 5th. 
Death was due to heart failure. He was about 68 years 
of age, and had been a resident of Hannibal for about 
45 years. He is survived by one daughter. 

— M.'VRTiN L. Miller died February 3d in Steubenville, 
Ohio, where he had owned a drug store for many years. 
He was born in Pittsburg and studied pharmacy in that 
city. In 1854 he opened a drug store there but later went 
to Ohio. He leaves four children. 

— Anthony Schnitzler, 38, for fifteen years a drug- 
gist of Long Island City, N. Y., died on February 15th 
from Bright's disease. He was a member of Queensboro 
Lodge of Elks and of Island City Lodge, F. & A. M. He 
is survived by his widow. 

— D. George Burr, for many years a member of the firm 
of Gilman Brothers, wliolesale druggists in Boston, died 
February 9th. He was 68 years old. Mr. Burr was born 
in West Fairlee, Vt. His widow, two sons, two daughters 
and a sister survive him. 

— Peter J. Prior, Jr., died after an illness of several 
months in Hartford, Conn. He was born in Plainville, 
Conn., and had been owner of a drug store there for 10 
years. He leaves his father, postmaster of Plainville and 
two brothers. 

— Joseph Walker Scofield died in Chicago. He was 
born in Waterford, N. Y., in 1842, and entered the drug 
business of Chicago in 1868. He was secretary of the 
Fuller and Fuller Companj'. His wife and two children 
survive him. 

— Dr. Pearce Kintzing, who introduced the carbolic 
acid treatment into Baltimore and who was the author of 
a number of textbooks died January 30th in Chicago. He 
was a native of Lock Haven, Pa., and was 55 years old. 

— George W. Covington, druggist of Chestertown, Md., 
died February 2d. He was in his 83d year. Mr. Coving- 
ton was born in Middleton, Del., but entered a store in 
Chestertown in 1851. He is survived by three children. 

— James J. Kerwin, of Manchester, N. H., died at his 
home on February 4th. He was 44 years old. He had 
been the head of the firm of Kerwin and Sheehan for 
14 years. His widow and four children survive him. 

— William F. Player, salesman for Bruen, Ritchey & 
Co., wholesale druggists, New York City, died on Janu- 
ary 25th at his home in Brooklyn, N. Y., aged 54. He 
was a Past Noble Grand of Magnolia Lodge, I.O.O.F. 

— ^J. A. Fuller, aged 60 years, for many j-ears a drug- 
gist of Omaha. Neb., and recently a special a.sent of the 
Standard Oil Co., in that territory, is dead. He is sur- 
vived by a widow, three sons and one daughter. 

— Malcolm Halsey, 36 years old who conducted a drug 
store at Bellport, L. I., and was formerly a village trus- 
tee died February 6th. He was survived by his widow, 
his father, two brothers and two sisters. 

— Everett F. Corliss, for thirty years storekeeper and 
pharmacist at the State institutions in Howard, R. I., is 
dead after an illness of about two years. He was born in 
West Newberry, Vt., 59 years ago. 

— John N. Dille, 83 years old, a druggist of Prosperity, 
Pa., died February Sth. For many years he conducted a 
drug store in Washington, Pa. He is survived by two 
sons, one daughter and a brother. 



AIarch, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



101 



Phonographs — Do They Bring Trade ^^ 



The old-fashioned talking machine is as much a thing 
of the past as is the druggist who doesn't take a profit 
from the needs of his neighborhood through a paying side- 
hne. Progress has developed the phonograph as well as 
the drug business and it begins to look as if the druggist 
might be still further developed by taking a certain pro- 
portion of his growth along with the phonograph. 

There are many arguments that can be brought out on 
both sides when the question of phonographs as a side line 
is brought up for debate. At first blush they don't look 
feasible and their popularity in such a position is doubt- 
ful. But there is a chance for the druggist who dares to 
handle them. An agency is usually available, and it would 
seem that phonograph handling by the drug store had 
better be done in that way. 

Neighborhoods are progressive and slightly antagonistic. 
It is human nature for Mrs. Brown to want what Mrs. 
Jones has, only something a little better. If Mrs. Jones 
has a phonograph, and Mrs. Brown has none, it's not a 
bad bet that Mrs. Brown will go to the city and get her 
a machine as soon as her husband's pay envelope is at 
hand. Unless the druggist carries a stock. Of course, such 
a procedure is not always bound to happen, because Mrs. 
Brown may be conscientious enough to pay her butcher's 
bill before she gets the machine. But if there is a way 
to do it, she is going to have a machine, and have it before 
Mrs. Jones changes hers for a player piano. 

To be frank, the field for phonographs is a limited one 
and it holds all sorts of difficulties. In limited ways, the 
druggist in a medium sized city, a suburban town, or even 
a section of a large city, and certainly in the country, 
could make it pay and pay big. 

The more expensive machines, which retail for from 
SlOO to $500 are out of the question. In the first place 
they tie up too much money in stock. In the second place, 
customers will rarely pay for them in cash. The install- 
ment plan involves an intricate system of bookkeeping, to 
say nothing of the danger from bad debts. It also means 
the engagement of an expert salesman, for to make a $100 
or a $500 sale one must know what he is doing. Then, 
too, such machines would not sell rapidly. The commis- 
sions to be made as agent would not cover the expenses 
of the sale. Here are some appro.ximate figures which go 
to prove that handling the expensive machines is not good 
business. 

Book-keeping on the sale (including salaries) $15 

Interest on installment plan 2 

Express, overhead, stock room, etc 2 

$19 
Commission 10 per cent on $100 10 

Even if the commission granted were larger than 10 per 
cent, as it almost certainly would not be, it would hardly 
be 20 per cent, and to sell the expensive machines at $100 
and more the druggist will have to get at least 20 per 
cent to give him a profit. 



Money iu Lower Priced Machines 

Where the money lies in phonographs is in the smaller 
boxes. The $15, $25, $50 and perhaps $75 types can be 
made to pay. In those there will be no bookkeeping, be- 
cause the buyer will pay cash. There will be no money 
lost on investment and interest through the time pay plan. 
And the commission for sales will be a bit higher. 

Perhaps the greatest advantage in a phonograph depart- 
ment, however, lies in the records and the possibilities to 
be found there. A good line of records is a paying propo- 
sition. Not only can you sell your own machine customers 
but you can use those who have bought their phonographs 
elsewhere. They all want records. And the druggist can 
supply their needs. 

There is profit in records. Most every music store, 
which specializes in machines and records, finds itself 
making its best money from the latter. That is because 
there is a steady demand. Just as it is true of percolators, 
modern people are buying phonographs not as a luxury 
but as a need. 

Going even further than buying and selling. Phono- 
graph records are the best advertising medium that can be 
used within the four walls of the store. They are better 
than cards, they are better than "word of mouth" evangel- 
ism. They are interesting, and they combine tlie best there 
is in music, which has a charm for every man, woman and 
child, with the opportunity to talk directly about your own 
goods. It is the easiest thing in the world to have a spe- 
cial record made. Such a record, shaped interestingly, 
telling the story of your store in such a way as not to 
bore hearers, will cost perhaps $10. 

Indirectly the advertising value of a phonograph dep.art- 
ment is more important. There are nights, in your store, 
when you wonder why people don't come out. They stay 
at home because there is no place to go. There are after- 
noons when the women customers lack interest. If a wo- 
man dropped into the store and found two or three of 
her friends listening to a good machine play a good, high- 
class record, and knew that there was to be a concert for 
an hour more, she'd remain. If she remained, she'd buy 
her pills there later in the evening when her son got an 
acute stomach ache from too frequent trips into her 
neighbor's orchard. 

One of the big phonograph makers in New York runs 
periodical concerts. In front of the building are always a 
line of big automobiles. The advertising is invaluable. 
You might not get a line of machines in front of your 
drug store, but if you give a phonograph concert, care- 
fully choosing your records, you'll not only attract people 
but you will sell your machines and the records that go 
with them. 

There is a possibility in talking machines. They must be 
carefully handled, of course, all stock of high price must 
be looked after in that way. If some sort of care is given 
them, however, they ought to show something of a profit 
for the druggist who carries them. 



TJSE OF ASPIRIN AS A TRADE-MAKK CLAIMED 



The patent on acetyl salicylic acid held by the Bayer 
Company, Inc., of New York, which product has been 
marketed in the United States under the trade-marked 
name "aspirin," expired on February 17th, and now any 
manufacturer is at liberty to make the acid and sell it 
under its chemical name. The Bayer Co., however, does 
not propose to permit the use of the word "aspirin" to any 
other than those of its own choosing, and has served notice 
on the trade that it has the sole right to the use of this 
name as a trade-mark, even though the patent has expired, 
and that any violation of these rights will be vigorously 
prosecuted. 

Under the patent laws of the United States the Bayer 
Company has held a monopoly on acetyl salicylic acid by 
virtue of a product patent granted for a term of seventeen 
years, thus preventing the manufacture of the substance 
by any other process that might be devised. Now, it has 
been announced, a number of American manufacturers will 
early begin to supply the domestic article, at least under 



its chemical name. Whether any one other than the Bayer 
Co. will attempt to use the name "aspirin" for acetyl 
salicylic acid remains to be seen. The argument is made 
by some in the trade that aspirin is a name and not a 
trade-mark or brand ; that the product was introduced 
as aspirin and not as aspirin brand of acetyl salicylic acid, 
and therefore the name by such usage should belong to the 
substance and not to the inventor of the name. The Bayer 
Co. stoutly asserts that the trade-mark "aspirin"_ is its ex- 
clusive property, and therefore only acetyl salicj'lic acid 
manufactured by it can be marketed and sold as "aspirin." 



A. B. HUESTED & CO. INCORPORATED 



One of the oldest retail pharmacies in the central sec- 
tion of New York, that of A. B. Huested & Co., Albany, 
was incorporated on February 5th, with capital stock of 
$50,000, the charter authorizing the company to deal in 
and to do everything necessary to the conduct of a whole- 
sale and retail business. The directors are Garrett V. Dil- 
lenbach, Edward Loeb and A. L. Dillenbach. 



102 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



SARGOL MAKEKS FINED $30,000 
Promise Not to Appeal Fake Advertising Case 

United States District Judge Ray, sitting in Auburn, 
N. y., on February 17th fined Wylie B. Jones and Her- 
bert E. Woodward, makers of Sargol, the proprietary 
medicine, $30,000. The defendants promised not to appeal 
the case in return for the leniency of the court in not 
imposing a lengthy jail sentence. 

The trial had gone on for thirteen weeks. It was actu- 
ally a trial on the charge of using the mails to defraud, 
but it amounted to a battle between clean and "fake" ad- 
vertising. The Sargol company advertised that its prepa- 
ration would make people who weighed too little to be 
normal, perfect in that respect. It did not do it. That 
in a nutshell was the case against the company although it 
was charged that they persisted in using the mails to tell 
prospective buyers of its advantages. 

There was a "money back" clause in the contract, but 
during the trial it was brought out by several witnesses 
that no money was forthcoming unless the purchaser pro- 
duced two witnesses who would sign a letter stating that 
he had used the medicine and it had done him no good. 
He had to return the box cover in addition to that. While 
the demand for the box cover was on the packages, there 
was no mention of the two witnesses. 

The company pleaded "not guilty" to the indictment of 
n counts brought against them. They called hundreds of 
witnesses to show that they were not guilty. But the jury, 
after thirteen weeks of listening to the trial found them 
guilty in about four hours' time. 

During the trial the financial affairs of the Sargol 
makers were gone into with great care. It was shown that 
the profit from the medicine had been great. During its 
course, the books of the concern were shown to the jury 
and each day's earnings for over a year were carefully 
examined. Practically all of the correspondence of the 
company w^as on hand and it took two trucks to bring 
everything to the courthouse. There were 25.000 exhibits. 
One of the contentions of the company was that manv 
people had written to it telling of the great good Sargol 
had done them. These endorsers, to some extent were 
in court, but in more cases it was found impossible to 
reach them. One, a mysterious "Dr. Smith," who wrote 
that it was the best thing he had ever seen could not be 
found, although his commendatory letter was offered. It 
was not accepted. Judge Ray ruling that there was no 
evidence that such a person ever existed. 
Ingredients of Sarg'ol 
There were many "high lights" to the trial, of course. 
Chemical experts analyzed the product and found that it 
contained, essentially, the following ingredients : 

Extract of sabal 80 grains 

Calcium hypophosphite 20 grains 

Sodiurn hypophosphite 10 grains 

Potassium hypophosphite 10 grains 

Lecithin 5 grains 

Extract of nux vomica 3 1/3 grains 

Medical experts went over the preparation with great 
care. There was considerable discussion as to the value 
of hypophosphites in growing fat. The doctors for the 
defense contended it was of great value while the experts 
for the_ prosecution were as insistent against its use. From 
a medical viewpoint and in the character of evidence 
produced by both parties, the trial was one of the most 
interesting that has been held, especially at this time when 
other cases brought by the government are about to be 
tried on similar charges. 
In sentencing the defendants, Judge Ray said : 
"In the opinion of the court the jury were justified in 
finding the verdict which they did. The imposition of a 
heavy fine with imprisonment would be justified in this 
case were it not for the fact that the evidence also 
shows that one of the United States postal inspectors, 
not now in the service, was informed of the nature of 
this business long before this action was started, and that 
he took no action. 

"These defendants have borne a good reputation, and 
the evidence is that this is their first offence, although 
it- is one that was long continued. To be sure the amounts 



they received were small, but they covered the entire 
country. 

"The evidence shows that there were thousands who 
reaped no benefit from the treatment, but who preferred 
to keep silent rather than to have the fact that they had 
lost their money become known. The evidence shows 
that Sargol could not and would not do what they claimed 
for it." 

The following sentence was then pronounced: "In the 
case of Wylie B. Jones, that he shall pay a fine of $10,000 
on the first count, one of conspiracy, and on the second, 
third, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh 
and twelfth counts the sum of $1,000 each — the fourth 
count was withdrawn during the trial. 

"In the case of Herbert E. Woodward the sentence is 
that on the first count he pay a fine of $2,000, on the sec- 
ond, third, fifth, sixth and seventh counts $1,000 each, 
and on the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth 
counts $600 each. 

"These fines," continued the judge, "make an aggregate 
of $30,000, and this sum will not half pay the expenses 
which the United States has been to in the prosecution of 
this case, nor does it make restitution to any one. I feel 
sure, however, you gentlemen, with the reputation which 
you have heretofore borne, will show the people of Bing- 
hamton, or wherever you may be, that j-ou intend to be 
and will be upright and honorable citizens, and that this 
was a misapprehension of the law and that you will be 
law-abiding citizens, worthy of the respect of your fel- 
low men." 



PROPOSED AMENDMENTS IN ILLINOIS 



What is popularly called Governor Lowden's "consoli- 
dation bill" has been passed by the Illinois House of 
Representatives at Springfield, and it is expected also 
that the bill will be soon passed by the Senate. It is a 
measure in which the governor has taken the greatest 
interest. The enactment of the proposed law will change 
very materially the status of the Illinois State Board of 
Pharmacy. 

It provides that five examiners shall be appointed by 
the governor and that all of them shall be druggists. 
Their duties will mainly consist, it is said, of examining 
candidates for registration as pharmacists in Illinois and 
in determining the fitness of such applicants ; but the 
work of the pharmacy board will be done under a new 
state department, which is to be known as the Depart- 
ment of Registration and Education. Parts of the Con- 
solidation Bill, which touch upon the State Board of 
Pharmacy are the following: 

Neither the director, assistant director, superintendent of regis- 
tration, nor any other officer in the department of registration 
and education shall be affiliated with any college or school^ of 
medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, optometry, embalming, 
barbering-, veterinary medicine and surgery, architecture or struc- 
tural engineering, either as teacher, officer or stockholder, r.or 
shall he hold a license or certificate to exercise or practice any 
of the professions, trades, or occupations regulated. 

No member of an advisory and non-executive board shall re- 
ceive any compensation. 

Each officer whose office is created by this act shall be ap- 
pointed by the governor. 

Nothing in this act shall be construed to amend, modify, or 
repeal the state civil service law. 

The Department of Registration and Education shall have power: 
To exercise the rights, powers and duties vested by law in the 
State Board of Pharmacy. 

The Department of Registration and Education shall wherever 
the several laws regulating professions, trades _ and occupations 
which are devolved upon the department for administration so re- 
quire, exercise, in its name, but subject to the provisions of this 
act, the following: 

1. Conduct examinations to ascertain the qualifications and fit- 
ness of applicants to exercise the profession, trade or occupation 
for which an examination is held; and pass upon the qualifications 
of applicants for reciprocal licenses, certificates and authorities; 

2. Prescribe rules and regulations for a fair and wholly im- 
partial method of examination of candidates to exercise the re- 
spective professions, trades or occupations. 

For the pharmacists, five persons, each of whom shall be a 
competent registered pharmacist, in the state, and shall have had 
ten years experience in the dispensing of physicians' prescriptions 
since said registration. 

The action or report in writing of a majority of the persons 
designated for any given trade, occupation or profession, shall be 
sufficient authority upon which the director of registration and 
education may act. 



Sixty-Three Years a New York Druggist 

Gustavus Ba/ser Recalls old Days in City 



THERE is a section in cosmopolitan old New York 
that furnishes food for imagination. One has but to 
walk through it ^o think that he is not so far away 
from the Steppes, the cities of lower Russia or the capitol 
of some most foreign country. He rarely hears a word of 
English, and when he does it is with an accent that shows 
the force of the Russian language, or perhaps, now and 
then, the more Gaelic twang of an Irishman. 

The Irish do not live in the section, that is certain. 
But an all-wise Police Commissioner has sent Irish police- 
men into it to keep order, and that's why one hears an 
outburst of Gaelic every now and then. The rest, how- 
ever, is the gutteral and nasal combination of the Rus- 
sian Jew. whose children know the English language, and 
■even the more hybrid American, but every shop window, 
every street corner and every tenement house has a 
"song note" decoration on it somewhere. 

What has that to do with drugs, or the drug trade? 
Xothing actually, but in the midst of New York's con- 
gested Jewish section there is a drug store of the old 
class, a breath of the "before the war days," a store that 
takes visitors back to the time when the East River 
was used by ship builders and when Avenue B was a 
street of aristocrats. 

The owner of the store is Gustavus Balser, a druggist 
of the old school, and he has been at the same place of 
tusiness for 63 years. He is the oldest druggist in the 
city, and his clerk comes very near to being the man who 
has remained longest in one place of all the clerks in 
the city. 

Mr. Balser's store is a relief. It is a pharmacy pure 
and simple. It is in nowise a modern city drug store. It 
has one department and only one — prescriptions. And 
although he does not know much of the Jewish language, 
Mr. Balser can fill prescriptions for the most orthodox 
and does it. He does not do a large business, but he 
does what he does do very well. 

Store Opened in 1854 

The store was opened at 137 Avenue B in 1854. There 
was a garden behind the building and from the windows 
of the work shon Mr. Balser could look to the river and 
see the ship building, then an important New York in- 
dustry. Now there is a tenement house packed in 
against the fence of a small back yard, and the onlv view 
possible is a clothes-line of doubtful age and a kitchen of 
doubtful efficiency. 

Modern times liave changed the neighborhood. When 
the Balser store opened the clientele was "American, and 
good American at that." he says. Then came the str-ke 
among the ship builders, the consequent riots of 1S60, 
the war * * * and Germans. After the Germans, 
who were of a high class, came French of the same stand- 
ing. About 1872 the neighborhood began to change again, 
and Irish and Irish-.^mericans began to find homes there. 
It was. built up. The low brick buildinsrs of the early 
80's orave way to tenement houses in 1895 and the Irish 
wouldn't remain. 

As Hibernian wanderers folded their tents and ordered 
furniture vans, a new race came in. The Jews were find- 
ing a resting place. They began to come in 1895 and 
1900 and they've been coming ever since. The lower 
East side is the home of the Jew now. and the Balser 
store, identicallv the same as it was in 1854 is catering 
to them as it did to the American neighborhood of the 
earlier time. 

Perhaps there have been a few repairs to the store, but 
there have been no changes. When it was opened, Mr. 
Balser elected to use hard wood in his fixtures, and the 
hard wood has stood the test. Its arched cabinets and 
hieh. inconvenient shelves are still there. Its heavv 
drawers with clear white handles lettered in gilt are stilj 
much in evidence. Its small show window, with weird 
show globes of brilliant liquids still attracts, and the only 



sign on the whole shop front is the little name plate on 
the door — just as it was in 1854. 

.It is natural that Mr. Balser should have worked up a 
friendly and intimate trade in his early days as a shop 
keeper. He did not expect to keep that trade when the 
families moved away, but even today he has customers 
from great distances. 

Customers Have Stuck by Him 

"Some people come over here from Jersey City and 
Brooklyn," he says. "Others come down from way up- 
town New York. And they are not all the ones who 
traded with me when they lived down here themselves. 
Some of them are sons and daughters. The younger 
generations of the old families have done what their 
parents did, and I fill many prescriptions from Jersey and 
even further away. 

"I have always compounded my drugs carefully. I do 
very little, I may say no proprietary medicine business, 
and have built my reputation on my prescription work. 
The doctors who lived here in the 70's and who have 
good practises uptown or in Brooklyn often send me pa- 
tients for prescriptions because they know my work and 
don't know that of more modern druggists. 

"These days there are no more pharmacists in New 
York. You may run across one now and then, but it is 
seldom. The old style chemist has gone and in his place 
has sprung up the small department store that calls itself 
a drug store just to have a name. Those who do pre- 
scription work don't do it in the old way. 

"Why, here I have what I believe to be the only drug 
store distillery plant in the city. When we began busi- 
ness it was a necessity, now it is done away with. Yet 
I have distilled and purified every drop of water that has 
gone out of this store in 63 years myself. 

"There's another thing about prescriptions that is pe- 
culiar. In the old times a doctor could write. Now he 
seems to try to figure out just how unreadable he can 
make his order. My books, which have every prescrip- 
tion I have ever filled in them, 52,069, show the differ- 
ence. 

"The neighborhood doctors of 30 years ago wrote clear- 
ly and simply. The new ones who have come in lately 
write atrocious hands. The newer the practitioner :he 
worse his writing is what I have found. And the simpler 
the formula wanted the worse the writing is. That fools 
the people, you see." 

Sees Need of Prescription Druggists 

Mr. Balser is a big man, with gray hair that flows back 
from his forehead in waves. He mpresses one as a man 
who knows what he says, and he* insists that New York 
Citv. at least, needs more purely prescription druggists. 

"Most of the druggists of today compound very few 
drugs. They fill prescriptions, but with drugs already corn- 
pounded. Perhaps they are not exactly proprietary medi- 
cines but they are easy to procure. The physicians are 
forgetting how to prescribe as they formerly did. And 
I believe it is because the druggists don't know how to 
put up what is wanted." 

Along with his recollections of the drug trade in the 
citv— he won't say it is a drug trade growth— Mr. Balser 
tells other interesting features of the life he has led. 
When he was a boy of ten years old. for instance, he 'eft 
his farm home at Greenwich and Liberty streets---now 
a closely packed corner that hasn't an inch of dirt to 
boast— with "Bill" Cody, who was better known as Buf- 
falo Bill and who died recently, to go hunting. 

Mr. Balser says that Bill Cody's residence in New York 
is not well known. Yet when both were ten j'ears old, 
Cody lived here for a few months and was even then a 
great hunter. Later he went west with his family and 
it was then that fame began to come to him. 

The veteran pharmacist did not want to go into the 
drug business. He had studied under private tutors to 

Page One Hundred and Three 



104 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



become an engineer and dealing with sick people was 
something he had no desire to do. His father and two 
brothers were physicians and were successful, but Mr. 
Balser couldn't bear to be around a sick bed. He felt 
he could not be a good doctor and would not try it. 

His brother founded the store at 137 Avenue B, and 
shortly after it was founded was given a Federal posi- 
tion of importance. 

"Trapped as a Druggist" 

"That ended me as an engineer," says Mr. Balser, "I 
was trapped and before I knew it I became a druggist. 
I took the store for him for awhile and then the war 
came and he went to it as a surgeon. I went as an assist- 
ant to the medical staff and when it was all over I came 
back here and settled down again as a druggist. 

"I've been a pharmacist ever since. I've had only one 
clerk and he is here now. I've done some traveling and 
i am happy. I have known many famous surgeons and 
was very friendly with Dr. Jacoby when that worthy 
first came to this country. We studied a bit togethe.- and 
I have followed him closely ever since. 

"Then, too, I have done some teaching in Columbia, 
when that college was downtown. When it moved uptown 
I didn't go along because I was only a teacher by proxy 
in a way. When they couldn't get any one else to go 
and talk to the boys, I'd go, and we got along very well." 

Frank M. Austen is the clerk. For 27 years he has 
been with his employer and most of the 27 years he has 
traveled from East New York — in the furthest reaches 
of Brooklyn — to Avenue B. Such a trip is not easy, but 
bright and early every morning Mr. Austen has turned 
up, and has worked all day. "Then he has taken a long 
trip via street car or "L" — when he first began his em- 
ployment it was a long walk. 

The Balser store is an oasis in a difficult part of the 
city to appreciate. It is also a relief among drug stores, 
because, whether one agrees with his theory of a merely 
prescription business or not, it is refreshing in a certain 
way to find such a store. 



KNOW YOUR CUSTOMERS BY NAME 



They Are Flattered and Kemember You, Too 



SEND MONEY WITH TELEGRAPH ORDERS 



The Western Union Telegraph Company has instituted 
a new scheme whereby money can be sent with orders 
forwarded over the telegraph wires. The new system is 
designed to aid both buyer and seller and is as simple 
as can be devised. 

Heretofore, when money was sent by the wire, orders 
or instructions relating to the remittance had to be sent 
in separate messages. That meant that the sender had to 
pay for two messages. Now, money transfers between 
United States points may include orders or instructions 
as to what the money is to cover. 

The new order is particularly helpful to the druggist. 
It is a truism that money sent with an order will hurry 
the order. The druggist who suddenly finds himself 
short in some of his ipost important stock, may order it 
and pay for it in a hurry that assures him prompt delivery. 
It is even possible to use code. The cost of the mes- 
sages is the cost of sending the money plus one cent a 
word charge for the order. Already the Western Union 
has found that the new plan has simplified business ar- 
rangements. 



PHILADELPHIA DRUG EXCHANGE 



At the S6th annual meeting of the Philadelphia Drug 
Exchange last month, Clayton F. Shoemaker, chairman of 
the committee on legislation, presented on behalf of the 
board of directors his annual report, detailing the general 
conditions of business, with special reference to the in- 
terests of the drug and chemical trade and the rapid 
growth in exports by reason of war conditions. Treas- 
urer Anthony M. Hance presented the financial report. 

The following officers were elected for 1917: Presi- 
dent, John Fergusson ; vice-president, Harry B. French ; 
secretary, Joseph W. England; treasurer, Anthony M. 
Hance ; directors — Charles E. Hires, A. Robinson Mc- 
Ilvaine, Dr, Adolph W. Miller, Harry K. Mulford, Adam 
Pfromm. Clayton F. Shoemaker, Richard M. Shoemaker 
and Walter V. Smith. Addresses were made by Adam 
Pfromm, Walter V. Smith and George E. Bartol, presi- 
dent of the Bourse. 



Can you say to the man coming into your door : 

"Good afternoon, Mr. Jones"? 

And realize that you have the name exactly right and 
that he realizes it, too? 

If you can do that, you've gone a long way towards the 
heart and trade of Mr. Jones. If you can do the same 
thing for Mr. Smith, Mrs. Brown, Mrs. Robinson, Mr. 
Green or Mrs. Black, you've made inroads on their cus- 
torri, too. 

The simplest form of good public service is flattery. 
When politics first became a profession or a menace, it 
depends upon who is in control of your town, flattery of 
voters entered the field. It still holds sway. If you 
wanted to start a dancing class you wouldn't write letters 
to everybody and anybody; you'd find out whom you 
wanted and then tell them that the fate of the class de- 
pended upon them. Which is flattery. 

If you have a good prescription department in your 
store, you want to use it. Why don't you become ac- 
quainted with the people who will help you? You do, to 
some extent. But if you could call each one by name, and 
each one knew that when he went into the store, he was 
going to a place where he was known, you could use it 
easier. 

Knowledge of customers' names doesn't begin and end 
with prescriptions, of course. It is easy to follow through- 
out the whole business. 

Of course it isn't good business to let the customers 
know you are flattering them, and you and they may not 
even think you are. But it does flatter just the same, to 
be able to go into a store and know that you are known. 

The other day a Brooklyn woman went into a drug 
store she had traded in just once before. There are two 
stores near each other. She had chosen the second store 
bcause it was a block nearer her home, but she went into 
the first because she was passing at that particular time. 
The owner called her by name. Now she walks the extra 
block and trades there. This is a true incident because if 
is entirely possible to produce the man who pays the bills. 

There are two things which really do happen in a store 
in which the customers' names are known. The ■ first is 
that the customer feels at home, and has a feeling of 
security. The second is that the druggist knows with 
whom he is dealing and can talk his stock a great deal 
better. 

It is easy enough to learn names. First there is the 
telephone directory, that ever helpful source of profit. 
Then there is the gentle method of diplomacy. Then 
there are the butchers and grocers of the neighborhood 
whose charge accounts will be of assistance. Again there 
are the policemen of the "beat." And there are the ser- 
vants. Last but not least, there is your own discernment, 
which can pick up honorable knowledge from scraps of 
paper, such as letters held in the hand, the name on other 
packages, etc. It is really too easy. 

For the amount of mental labor expended, call it de- 
tective work if you will, there is much to be gained. Once 
a person feels secure in your store, he will want to trade 
there. Don't you feel better yourself when you can go 
into a place and be called by name? Of course, reverting 
back to the opening statements, it is a form of flattery, 
but it is a workable form. It means trade. 

There is a druggist in Cambridge. Mass., who has 
worked out the "knowing names" scheme to an even 
greater extent. But he has had a peculiar situation to 
work in, of course. He is situated in Harvard Square, 
directly opposite the university and his trade is largely 
university trade. He hasn't the name of every Harvard 
student on his finger tips, but he knows so many of them 
that you can drop into the Billings and Stover store at 
almost any time and learn if Bill Brown has been seen 
around lately. 

His idea is simple. He believes that if he knows the 
Harvard students his place will be a clearing house for 
news about them. He makes Harvard his center. The 
result is that nine times out of ten the man who wanted 
Bill Brown will do all his trading in the Billings and 
Stover store, and Bill Brown will do it, too. 



^u^ine4:4: Catchers 



What the Pushers 
Are Pushing. . . 




FLATBUSH, which is one of the most residential of 
Brooklyn's residential sections, has become accustomed 
to a motor cycle to the side of which is attached a 
carrier car. The motor cycle with its delivery attachment 
is presided over by a gentleman of color who wears a uni- 
form and a happy inviting smile. The machine is painted 
red, with white lettering, and the adage the motor cycle 
carries through the streets of the district is "Reid & 
Snyder, druggists, 741 Flatbush avenue." 

The motor cycle is not in itself a remarkable thing. 
New York has plenty of them. But the point is that Reid 
& Snyder have caught a lot of business through its use, 
and are daily catching a still larger amount. It is of 
course the delivery wagon for the company. A telephone 
system which has been so carefully used that all of Flat- 
bush knows the number, is the background for the motor 
cycle and it has now come to pass that Reid & Snyder do 
almost as much business over their telephone as they do 
over their counters. 

It is merely a question of education. The firm set out 
to teach Flatbush that the Reid & Snyder drug store was 
one of the best places to trade within the city limits and 
i; has succeeded in doing very nearly that. At least, it 
i.=; no unusual thing to see either the delivery motor cycle 
or the Ford delivery car which the concern also operates 
as far down as Coney Island or even way down in the 
center of Brooklyn. When a purely district store in a 
city like Brooklyn can do such a trade outside the section 
it is supposed to serve, there must be something in the 
delivery wagon. 

The Reid & Snyder store itself is a fine place. It is a 
pleasure to do business there and to watch business bein^ 
done. The partners are both young men who believe in 
modern ideas. Everj-thing about the store is in the best 
of shape. The soda fountain is a handsome thing from 
which it is more than a real pleasure to drink. It is 
presided over by a gentleman of color who wears a clean 
natty uniform and who never fails to smile while mixing 
a drink. Did it ever occur to you that there is a great 
business value in a smile? 

In any event, the Flatbushite who wants a package of 
talc powder or shaving soap, reaches for the telephone and 
calls up the firm. The order is accepted and put up, and 
in a surprisingly short while, the motor cycle dashes up 
to the house door, he signs and pays for his purchase and 
then decides that hereafter he'll buy everything from Reid 
& Snyder's. A decision which Reid & Snyder have no 
objection to aiding in every way at their command. 

Modern stores demand modern ideas. It is certainly 
impossible to point out that fact too often. In the Reid 
& Snyder store there are modern ideas, and there is an 
atmosphere of profit and success. A motor cj'cle costs 
SlOO or perhaps a bit more as an original outlay. It will 
soon pay for itself. In the case of the Flatbush store it 
.has come very nearly paying not only for itself but for 
the automobile the concern also uses. 



Out in Ifadison, Wisconsin, Henry Lewis, who has a 
drug store on State street has a novel means for attracting 
people to his shop and so making them customers. Mr. 
Lewis is a curio collector, and he has turned his hobby to 
good account, which is something that doesn't often happen 
with hobbies. His collection of curios is on exhibition in 
his store. It is easy to imagine how many people stop at 
that counter to look over the collection, and later buy 
something just because they feel interested. 



There are over 500 old coins of various sizes and de- 
nominations, old newspapers, yellow with age are there, 
old style watches, stamps, knives, pistols of a century or 
50 years ago, badges and emblems of former generations, 
letters, "fake" money, peculiar prescriptions and even sales 
tickets for slaves are there. It is not only a valuable col- 
lection from the advertising standpoint, it is a valuable 
exhibition of curios. 

One of the most interesting of the newspapers is the 
Vicksburg Daily Citizen of July 2, 1863. The copy was 
printed on wall paper of a faded hue and was circulated 
evidently to encourage the soldiers and citizens besieged 
in the town which fell two days later. It is an interesting 
copy in every detail, but perhaps the best reading in it is 
the comment of the publishers on the condition of the 
"Yankees" and the comment of the self-same Yankees, 
made in a foot-note. The Citizen says that the Union 
soldiers are "deserting. Fever, dysentery and disgust are 
their companions and Grant is their master. The boys 
are deserting daily over the river in the region of War- 
rentown, cursing Grant and the abolitionists generally. 
The boys are down on the earth and burrowing in hot 
v/eather and with bad water." 

This collection of curios has attracted a great many 
people into the Madison store. It is certainly odd to find 
such a thing in a drug store, but it is as important a 
trade bringer or business catcher as the circulating library, 
the telephone booth, the stamp seller, or the periodical 
counter. Mr. Lewis believes that it brings people into his 
place and that once they get in they can be sold goods. 
Since most people feel a bit backward about enjoying 
such an exhibition free, there is every likelihood that they 
will stop in and buy something. Mr. Lewis, in airing his 
hobby, has certainly been able to catch a good business 
catcher. 



DRTIG STOKES CONSERVING STOCK 



A situation has developed in New York, and it is re- 
ported to be true all over the country, markedly so in the 
Eastern states, which is causing the jobbers and manufac- 
turers considerable worry. The retail druggists are doing 
everything they can to conserve stock, are buying as close 
to the mark as possible, and in many cases, are cutting 
down from SO to 75 per cent on normal orders. Not only 
is this true with drugs, chemicals and medicinal prepara- 
tions, but it appears to be true, to some extent, in goods 
more easily classed as side lines. 

laternational conditions are given by the jobbers as be- 
ing at the bottom of the difficulty. The theory is that 
the retailers are taking no chances. Unsettled business 
finds the druggist in just as much trouble as it finds other 
retailers, the jobbers say, and the druggist will not put in 
a large stock of anything that he can not turn over quickly. 

The jobbers are very careful, of course, to point out the 
fallacies of the stand. But their sales sheets show that the 
education is not exceedingly successful. Another thing 
that worries them, along with the conservation wave, is 
that when retailers do buy they purchase goods of a 
cheaper variety wherever possible. One of the big New 
York manufacturers who puts up a tooth powder which 
sells over the counter in IS and 25 cent packages, has 
found that recent orders almost entirely are for the 15 
cent size. Another instance, they point out, of "taking no 
chances." 

Page One Hundred a..d Five 



106 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 1917 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



OKLAHOMA UNIVERSITY 



Dedicatory services for the new chemistry hall were 
held at the University last month, the ceremonies being 
opened by Governor Williams and followed with addresses 
by State Superintendent R. H. Wilson, President Strat- 
ton D. Brooks of the University, and William A. Noyes, 
director of the chemical laboratories at Illinois University. 
The new building is drawn from the plans of Dr. Edwin 
DeBarr, vice-president of the University, after an in- 
spection trip covering the leading universities and sci- 
entific laboratories of the United States and Europe. The 
building is the second largest to be added to the campus 
within the past four years, and was made possible through 
an appropriation of $125,000 by the 1915 legislature. 

An effort is being made by the University to secure an 
appropriation of $7,500 from the present legislature to 
purchase a standardization equipment bureau and to estab- 
lish a State laboratory of this kind. It is now necessary 
to send all scales and measuring apparatus to Washing- 
ton to be tested by the Government. 

Military surgery and medicine is a new course to be 
given to the University medical students, according to 
word received by Dean Leroy Long from General Gorgas, 
surgeon-general of the army. The course will commence 
at once, an army surgeon being on his way from the East 
to take up the work of instruction. 

An enrollment of 1,500 is expected for the 1917 sum- 
mer session according to present indications. Several 
courses in pharmacy and chemistry for pharmacy stud- 
ents will be given. The work will be in charge of the 
regular members of the University faculty. 



JERSEY CITY 



The College of Jersey City on February 7th celebrated 
the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of selenium 
by Jons Jakob Berzelius, the great Swedish chemist, who 
enriched chemistry by his investigations. The main fea- 
ture of the exercises was a lecture entitled: "The Centen- 
nary of the Discovery of Selenium and its use in Pharm- 
acy, Medicine and Industry," presented by Friedrick Klein, 
Ph.D., director of the chemical laboratory of the college, 
and who has made selenium a lifelong study. 

Dr. Klein gave the origin of the name, from the Greek 
selene, meaning "moon," and also told of its discovery. 
Selenium was first observed as a red powder deposited in 
the leaden chambers used in the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid at Gripsholm, Sweden. The speaker also called at- 
tention to the valuable uses of selenium in pharmacy, medi- 
cine and industry, one of its principal applications that 
has been brought forward of late is in the treatment of 
malignant growths or cancer. The lecture was illus- 
trated by numerous experiments, and was well attended 
by students, members of the alumni association, and rep- 
resentatives of the pharmaceutical, medical and dental 
profess'ons. A lively discussion followed the lecture and 
Dr. Klein was given a rising vote of thanks. 



IOWA UNIVERSITY 



The Summer Session Committee of the University has 
announced that a four weeks' course of lectures will be 
given during .August upon pharmacy and the changes of 
the new Pharmacopoeia. The work will be in charge of 
Dean Teeters and Prof. Kuever, and four lectures a day 
will be given. 

F. F. Ingram. Jr.. grand secretary of the Phi Delta Chi 
fraternity, is announced to give an illustrated lecture at 
the college of pharmacv on February 16th on the subject 
of "Collecting Material from the Ends of the Earth for 
Use in American Perfumes." 

Dr. Robert P. Fischelis, representative of the H. K. 
Mulford Company, Philadelphia, addressed the students 
of the college on February 9th on t'^* "Cult'vation of 
Medicinal Plants." The lecture was illustrated. 



1. A. Anderson, of Randall, Iowa, received the 'degree 
of Ph.G. at the mid-year convocation. 

The College is represented in the present Iowa legisla- 
ture by Senator J. M. Lindly, of Winfield, and Repre- 
sentative W. M. Becker, of Elkader. Both hold the chair- 
manship of the committee on pharmacy in their respective 
branches of the legislature, and are members of the ap- 
propriations and other important committees. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



The senior class of Massachusetts College of Pharmacy 
has elected these officers : President, Percy A. Leddy of 
Calais, Me. ; vice-president. Miss Edna M. Follensbv of 
Southboro; secretary, Stanley W. Foulser of Boston; 
treasurer, Cecil L. Holden of Hudson ; valedictorian, El- 
mer H. DeLoura of Edgartown. 

An association has been formed to have general control 
of athletics at the college. The governing board is a coun- 
cil of five members, four from the student body and one 
from the faculty, as follows : Joseph Sullivan, presi- 
dent ; H. C. Bernner, vice-president ; H. C. Muldoon. sec- 
retary-treasurer ; Raymond Mulveny, and Saul Shalit. 
Basketball, hockey and bowling teams and a rifle club 
have been formed. 



ST. LOUIS 



The course of special lectures to students of all classes 
organized at the St. Louis College last autumn was con- 
tinued on January 10th, when Oscar G. Salb, a graduate 
of Purdue L^niversity and at present active in biological 
research in St. Louis, delivered an evening lecture on 
"Physiological Testing of Drugs on the Lower Animals," 
illustrated by practical demonstrations. Aconite, cannabis 
indica, ergot, and digitalis were the drugs selected, and 
their action was shown by experiments so carefully se- 
lected that the audience readily grasped the principles 
underlying their application. 

On January 25th a visit was paid to the Missouri Bo- 
tanical Garden under the guidance of Prof. Hemm and 
Associate-Prof. Suppan, fifty-eight members of the classes 
being present. G. A. Pring, superintendent of the collec- 
tion of orchids and other exotics at the garden, showed 
the general arrangement of the various departments and 
pointed out a number of plants of medicinal and economic 
interest. The expedition was chiefly of an explanatory 
nature, to enable the students to find the position of any 
particular medicinal plant or plants which they might de- 
sire to study in the growing state. When the weather be- 
comes favorable for the outside growing of plants, an- 
other visit will be made to tlie garden. 



NAKCOTICS COMMITTEE HOLDS HEARING 



At a hearing held at Albany on February 6th by the 
New York State Legislative Narcotic Committee, of 
which Senator George H. Whitney is chairman, a number 
of witnesses declared that the sale and use of habit- 
forming drugs were slowly decreasing throughout the 
State as a result of the Boylan law, and that corrective 
legislation designed to prevent the importation of these 
drugs from other states or foreign countries was the 
onlv absolute preventive. 

Charles Gibson, of Walker & Gibson, wholesale dru.g- 
gists, stated that in his opinion, the general consumption 
of drugs had decreased during the past two years since 
the Boylan law had been in effect. He estimated there 
were between 100 and 150 addicts in Albany. He de- 
clared that the sale of heroin throu.gh his firm at_ present 
was negligible, while the consumption of morphine was 
only fifteen per cent of what it had been before the 
results of the law became apparent. Dr. E. Von Salis, 
chief chemist of the Bayer Co., Rensselaer, manufacturers 
of chemicals, dyestuffs, etc.. said his company only sold 
drugs to reputable vv'holesalers. 



March. 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



107 



WHOLESALE DRUG FIRMS COMBINE 




Bruen. Ritchey and Schieffelin & Co. in Merger 

Bruen, Ritchey & Co. will go out of business on April 
1st of this year. The wholesale drug firm will be ab- 
sorbed by Schieffelin & Co. after 78 years of business 
in New York Cit)'. 
William P. Ritchey. at present head of the Bruen, 

Ritchey & Co. firm 
will retire from active 
business but he plans 
to maintain a posi- 
tion, in an advisory 
capacity, with Schief- 
felin & Co. He is to 
be vice-chairman of 
the executive board 
of that concern. 

No announcement 
has been made, nor 
will be made yet, ac- 
cording to Air. Rit- 
chey, as to the finan- 
cial details of the 
merger. It is under- 
stood that Schieffelin 
& Co. purchased all 
the stock and good 
will of the other con- 
cern and that all the 
details have been 
practically arranged. 
Nothing more re- 
mains to be done ex- 
cept the formal trans- 
Dr. W. J. Schieffelin fer on April 1st. 

The combination brings together two of the oldest 
and best established wholesale drug firms of New York. 
Both have been in business for many years, although the 
organization of Schieffelin & Co. far antedates that of 
the Bruen. Ritchey & Co. The business of the former 
was actually established in 1781, but it was not until 1794 
that the Schieffelin family became actively interested. 
Then it was purchased from Effingham Lawrence by 
Jacob Schieffelin and since that time has always had a 
Schieffelin at its head. Dr. William Jay Schieffelin, the 
present president, representing the fifth generation in di- 
rect line. The Schieffelin Company is incorporated and 
has the following officers: President, Dr. William Jay 
Schieffelin; first vice-president, William L. Brower; sec- 
ond vice-president, Schuyler Schieffelin; third vice-presi- 
dent, Howell Foster ; secretary, Henry S. Livingston ; 
treasurer. Henry S. Clark. 

Bruen, Ritchey & Co., which enters the merger, is also 
a firm of long standing. It was organized in 1839, and 
on April 1st, the date fixed for the consolidation, it will 
have completed seventy- 
eight years of active busi- 
ness life. The late .-Mbert 
Bruen, who died in Sep- 
tember, 1914. became iden- 
tified with the business in 
1850. associating himself 
with Israel Minor who then 
conducted a wholesale busi- 
ness at 214 Fulton street, 
the present location of the 
firm. In 1857 he bought 
out Mr. Minor's interest 
and operated the business 
with other partners until 
William P. Ritchey entered 
the company, when the 
name was changed to Bru- 
en, Ritchey & Co.. a firm 
in which Charles C. Bruen. 
a son of the late .\lbert 
Bruen, _ is a partner, and 

who with Mr. Ritchey, for years has been actively identi- 
fied in the management of the company's business. 
Both concerns have long been members of the National 




Wm. p. Ritchey 



\\holesale Druggists Association, and have contributed 
of their forces to fill important official positions in the 
work of that organization. Dr. Schieffelin has served on 

hfrno ZTTT' ^'"^ "". P'f"^^"' °f the association 
in 1910, while for a number of years Mr. Ritchey has 
been chairman ot the committee on proprietary goods 
. Ihe company s plans are yet to be announced, but there 

nr."c.°r.'^"""°'; ''"' ^,^f '•'"= ^"' represent modern and 
progressive ideas. Ihe men behind the merger believe 

hat such Ideas will go a long distance towards makin' 
the new venture successful, a subject on which Mr. Ritche? 
said he felt quite sure. But he would not discuss any 
other subject m connection with the deal. Officers of 
both companies would not talk of the plan of consolida- 

lon, and when asked if it was a purchase outr"gh by 

bers of Bruen, Ritchey & Co., representatives of both con- 
cerns said It was too early to discuss the matter. 

NEWS O F THE BOARDS 
KENCXJCKY 



The Kentucky Board of Pharmacy examined a class of 
twenty-two apphcants for registration at its January 
meeting held at Covington. Nine of the applicants passed 
as registered pharmacists, and five qualified as assistants 
ml 'IZ 5f ammation will be held in Louisville on April' 
10th and 11th, and applications must be in the hands of 
the secretary at least ten days before the meeting. 

ILLINOIS 

acv'hlH^fn""f--'"r'i!J^ °^ ^"l"°'= Board of Pharm- 
acy held m Springfield, twenty of the fifty-five appli- 
cants for registered pharmacists' license; seven of the 
eighteen candidates for assistant pharmacist license and 
four applicants for local registration passed succwsful 
examinations. The next meeting for the examination of 
applicants for registration as pharmacists will be held in 
the County Building, Chicago, on March 6th. Applicants 
for registration as assistants will be examined by the 
board on March 8th, ■' 



VIRGINIA 



The Virginia Board of Pharmacy examined thirty-three 
hefd'Tn R h' ^eg/fation as pharmacists at the meet[n| 
held in Richmond on January 16-17th, seven of whom 
were successful and were granted full registration, whik 
tour were granted registered assistant's certificates on the 
examination. Two applicants who applied for the reeis- 
tered_ assistant examination were successful The next 
examination will be held on April 24th and 25th this 
examination beginning on the fourth Tuesday of the ^onth 
instead of the third Tuesday as heretofore, on accoZ of 
the annual meeting date at that time being fixed hv law 
.'\]1 other examinations will be held on the third Tuesday 
of the month as announced. ucsuay 



MISSOURI 



-"^^ a result of the examination of the Missouri Board 
of Pharmacy held at Jefferson City on Januarv 8th and 
9th, SIX applicants successfully passed as registered pharm- 
acists, and four as assistants. The next meeting of the 
board will be held on April 9th at Kansas City. 

NEW YORK 



Warren L. Bradt, secretary of the New York «;t^t» 
Board of Pharmacy, Albany, has jus' issii^d a hst con! 
taming the names of 51 candidates who successfullv 
pharmac^ts. ''""'"' '^'^' -■^-■'-'--. ^^ registered 



BIASSACHTJSETTS 

As a result of the January examinations by the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Registration in Pharmacy six- 
teen applicants were given full registration and nine were 
given assistants certificates. 



108 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 191 < 



MEDICiNAL MANUFACTURERS CHANGE NAME 



Bioloeical Section Organized at Annual Meetine 



The National Association of Manufacturers of Medici- 
nal Products held its last annual meeting under that name 
in tlie Waldorf Astoria, New York, February 6th and 7th. 
From now on it will be known as the American Drug 
Manufacturers' Association. 

Among the other important matters of business which 
were passed was the organization of a biological section. 
Reports of officers and delegates to other conventions 
were heard and approved. The formation of the biological 
section marked the first of the branches planned by the 
organization. As the association grows older other sec- 
tions will be formed so that the field will be covered 
in detail in every way. 

The election of officers resulted in the selection of 
Charles J. Lynn to succeed himself as president; R. C. 
Stofer of Norwich, vice-president; Franklin Black of New 
York, treasurer and W. J. Woodruff of Detroit, secretary. 

Among the resolutions that were adopted was one creat- 
ing an advisory committee on standards and deteriora- 
tion, to be composed of one representative of each of the 
member companies and firms. This committee will work 
in co-operation with, and will be supplemental to, the 
smaller standing committee of the association. The task 
of setting up standards in the drug trade, which will be 
practicable not only in the laboratory, but also in quan- 
tity production, will, it was stated, require a long period 
of careful investigation. The object of perfecting these 
standards is not merely to aid manufacturers but to give 
to the public the benefit of new discoveries wliich will 
not be available until industrially practical standards are 
determined. 




C. M. W^OODRUFF 



C. J. Lynn 



The association passed a resolution endorsing the estab- 
lishment of a convention, such as is now being consid- 
ered, for the international registration of trade-marks, 
particularly as the scheme applies between the United 
States and South American countries. Another resolution 
created a bureau for the recording of trade-marks and 
labels which could not be registered under the United 
States law by the Government. 

George Simon, delegate to the metric conference held in 
connection with the recent convention here of the .Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, recom- 
mended in his report that the association apply for mem- 
bership in the recently organized association for the ad- 
vocacy of the metric system. The medicinal association 
expressed itself heartily in sympathy with this movement. 

Charles M. Woodruff gave a detailed account of the 
nine resolutions passed by the National Drug Trade Con- 
ference at Washington and Dr. A. R. L. Dohme went 
into like detail in discussing the Atlantic City convention 
of the A. Ph. -A. The reports made by the other delegates 
summed up the work done by the various conventions. 

Dwight T. Scott, who was delegate to the League to 
Enforce Peace and Henry C. Lovis, delegate to the World's 
Court Congress, had two of the most interesting reports 
to offer, because of the international situation at the 
present time. Mr. Scott told of the development of the 



League and pointed out why such an organization would 
soon become of prmie importance. The members of the 
Association were exceedingly interested in the report. 

An interesting feature ot the convention was the ad- 
dress by Dr. Charles F. Herty, formerly president of the 
American Chemical Society, who discussed the adoption 
of the tariff on coal-tar products and sulphur colors and 
the exceptions that were put in the bill at the last moment. 
As the bill now stands, he said, there is no payment of a 
specific duty of five cents a pound on all indigoids, and 
it was his contention that chemists of this country would 
be greatly injured by the provision. He said that only 
one man, a consumer in South Carolina who does not 
produce any indigoids had asked to have the duty re- 
moved, and characterized the provision as a "joker" slipped 
over at night. Dr. George Simon responded but admitted 
he did not know that the duty clause had been removed. 

H. C. Lovis reported for the committee on industrial 
preparedness that he had been in conference with Federal 
authorities and experts and predicted that great progress 
in medicinal development would be made the coming year. 
He touched lightly upon diplomatic conditions, and added 
that domestic preparedness in the industrial field meant, 
that there was little to worry about in the drug field. 

Franklin Black, treasurer of the Association reported 
that the working funds were in good order and President 
Charles J. Lynn told of the work that had been done. 
Reports of committees follow-ed and in the evening there 
was a smoker and private vaudeville show. 

The Executive Committee offered resolutions opposing 
in general form, the new New York state narcotic law 
which requires filing of registration of products and the 
triplicate filing of prescriptions filled from narcotic drugs. 
The committee also recommended a closer relation be- 
tween medicinal manufacturers. 

The banquet Wednesday evening was a leading feature. 
Major General Leonard Wood, commander of the De- 
partment of the East, traced the surgery and medicinal 
work that was done in Porto Rico and at Panama in an in- 
teresting manner but kept off the subject of preparedness. 
Rear Admiral Bradley N. Fiske, of the Naval W'ar Col- 
lege made a plea for patriotism and solid backing for 
President Wilson. Marcus M. Marks, President of Man- 
hattan Borough, spoke on his favorite topic, "Daylight 
saving" and Dr. Nehemiah Boynton. pastor of the Central 
Congregational Church, of Brooklyn, made one of the 
clever speeches for which he is famed. President Charles 
T. Lynn was toastmaster at the banquet. At noon, on 
each of the convention days, a luncheon was served in 
the Waldorf Apartments. 

The membership committee of the Association reported, 
as the convention ended, that there were only four medi- 
cinal manufacturing firms in the country which are not 
members of the Association. Eleven firms were taken in 
at this convention and the total membership is now above 
forty. 

CARTER, CARTER & MEIGS JUBILEE- 



The Carter, Carter & Meigs Co., of Boston, gave its 
first annual jubilee for its 250 employees, February 1st, in 
Convention Hall. Boston. The jubilee opened with a din- 
ner, with Frederick W. Alexander, toastmaster, and ad- 
dresses by President Howard D. Brewer of the company 
and President Henry L. Tafe of the Employees' Alutual 
Benefit Association.' Mr. Brewer told of plans to occupy 
a new building, which, he said, would mark the start of a 
new era for the firm. A vaudeville programme followed. 
General dancing followed, in charge of Fred White, floor 
director, and R. E. Tilley. Joseph F. Ryan. John F. Mur- 
phy and W. E. Calder. aids. 

TRADING STAMP REGULATIONS 



Three legislative bills for either the abolition of trading 
stamps in Massachusetts, or their regulation by the state, 
were advocated by Charles C. Hearn and Frank J. Camp- 
bell, on behalf of the Massachusetts State Pharmaceutical 
Association, at a hearing before the Legislative Joint Ju- 
dicial Committee, February 7th. Mr. Hearn said that 
pharmacists regard trading stamps as unfair competition. 
Mr. Campbell said that newspaper advertising is fair 
competition. 



■March. 1017] Til K PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 109 

EUNNING CHEMICAL SWINDLE DOWN CAPITALIZING PATRIOTISM IS POSSIBLE 



Bismuth Subnitrate Deal Interests Authorities 



Much Can Be Done by the Keen and Honest Druggist 



• The District Attorney of New York county, private de- 
tectives from two concerns and various other investigators 
are searching for information, in and around New York, 
concerning a swindle in bismuth subnitrate that startled 
the chemical world last month. A "John Doe" inquiry has 
already been held by the city and there is a probability 
that the Federal government may take the case up under 
the Interstate Commerce act. 

The swindle was uncovered when 100 packages of "bis- 
muth subnitrate" bearing the Merck & Mallinckrodt labels 
were found b}' a St. Louis manufacturer to contain noth- 
ing but precipitated chalk. Five pound packages weighed 
but four and a fraction pounds. 

Investigation was immediately started and it was learned 
that the goods had been purchased by the New York 
office of the manufacturer through a broker, Samson 
Rosenblatt of 261 Broadway. The deal had been put 
through by telephone. It then developed that one or two 
other New York concerns had purchased the bismuth from 
Rosenblatt or a man named Weiss, of Wall street. When 
the deal was called to his attention, Rosenblatt sent checks 
covering the losses and began another investigation of his 
own. 

Rosenblatt told his story to a -representative of this 
paper. He also offered a package of the alleged bismuth 
as a sample. It weighs much less than five pounds, al- 
though it is clearly stated on the label that that is the 
weight of the package. 

"I bought my first lot of the stuff from a man named 
Lifschitz of 221 East Broadway," said Rosenblatt, "When 
I needed some more I purchased it from this man Weiss. 
He also bought from Lifschitz, so that we together got 
500 pounds from him. Lifschitz does a small wholesale 
drug business under the name of the Lifschitz Drug 
Company." 

Investigation of the Lifschitz company disclosed the in- 
teresting fact that Lifschitz occupies some sort of desk 
room in his wife's dress making establishment in a Dack 
apartment on East Broadway near Clinton street — the 
lower East side. There is no sign on the doors, and 
nothing to indicate that Lifschitz is to be found there 
except his wife's dress making advertisement. The tele- 
phone book shows that Lifschitz is at 224 East Broad- 
way. He is actually across the street at 221. 

It was difficult to locate Lifschitz, but he was finally 
found in the offices of A. Swedish at 10 Hester street, 
in the drug store of a man named Aaronwitz, Swedish's 
brother-in-law. Lifschitz said he had not actually pur- 
chased the bismuth subnitrate but that Swedish, who was 
formerly his partner had done it. Swedish said he bought 
it. using part of his own money and part of Lifschitz'. 
Both of them were summoned before Assistant District 
Attorney Rj'ttenberg for examination. 

Swedish told the investigator the following interesting 
story : 

"I bought the stuff from a man named Sol Gardener of 
37 Spring Valley road. Hackensack, N. J. He delivered 
!t and we paid him cash right here in this store. I've 
never seen him since and I went to Hackensack with a 
private detective to look him up and there is no such 
address. 

"I met Gardener in the L^nited Drug Exchange. I was 
down there smoking one afternoon talking to a friend of 
mine when this well dressed stranger came up. He quot- 
ed some prices on quicksilver and bismuth to my friend 
and they went away to talk in private. I had heard the 
prices, however, and they interested me. So I went down- 
stairs and waited for the stranger to come out. When he 
did I asked him for quotations. 

"He said then that he didn't have much to offer at that 
particular time. But he said he would write. I asked for 
his address and he gave it to me but told me that I mustn't 
write there because he was often on the road and rarely 
in his office. When he had some goods he would com- 
municate with me. he said. A few days later I got a 
postal card (he said Lifschitz had the card but neitlier 
produced it) quoting me mercury and bismuth subnitrate. 
The bismuth was quoted at $2.10 a pound." 



America is waiting for developments, as America should 
wait. But throughout the country there is a seething pa- 
triotism that is beginning to be felt. Further and further 
backward is fading the hope of peace built upon the 
foundations of freedom from military service of the past. 
Preparedness is in the air. 

These are days in which peace is a desirable thing, but 
in which some martial spirit is necessary. The United 
States is not ready, of course — but preparations to make 
her ready arc going on. It is patriotism that is behind 
those preparations. It is a fine patriotism and it is one 
in which this country is going to grow. 

There would never be a question as to the technical 
right to capitalize peace. There should not be such a 
question in capitalizing patriotism. One need not make 
a profit out of government supplies to capitalize patriotism. 
But he can do it. by merely watching the trend of events 
and modeling his business to meet the requirements of that 
trend. 

This is not an editorial, although it may sound that way. 
It is an idea that got its germ in a window display in a 
hardware store. In that display were American flags, a 
picture of an American warship, another of a big gun, and 
a copy of President Wilson's speech to the .A.merican Sen- 
ate in which diplomatic relations with Germany were offi- 
cially broken. The hardware man had presented a window 
that was absolutely foreign to his business, there wasn't 
a wrench, a pan or a nail on exhibition. But there was 
patriotism. He had capitalized the feeling in his neigh- 
borhood, you see, and was getting attention, and by un- 
breakable laws was getting trade, through his patriotic 
window display. 

It is simple for the druggist. Even such an effort as 
was made by this hardware dealer is of value. If that 
sort of display gains nothing else, it brings attention to the 
store. That is a form of advertising that is not to be 
despised and one which brings results. In the last analysis 
advertising of the general and more common kind is little 
more than an attention getter for the retail drug store. 
But a window display has the advantage of propinquity. 
It can reach out and drag people inside, or it can put 
up a warning hand and turn them away. It's dollars to 
doughnuts, however, that in the case of a "patriotic win- 
dow" in these, seething times, people will be brought in- 
side, where their presence will do the most good. 

Other Capitalization Possibilities 

While such a window display offers advantages, there 
are other things that can be done to help. It isn't such a 
bad idea to decorate the entire store in the National colors. 
Of course, most druggists are pacifists just as are other 
people, but there is the noise of war in the air. Peace is a 
bit further away than it was before February 1st. So a 
tastefully decorated store is in the scheme of things and 
makes a buyer feel that he is in the midst of a shop 
where the United States and her difficulties are an im- 
portant consideration. 

Now, the possibilities grow greater as you consider the 
question longer. You can revert to the National holiday 
specials at the soda fountain. If you are really alive, 
you can have printed (getting your copy from any news- 
paper files') the notes and papers that have passed between 
the L^nited States and Germany. These may be given 
away as souvenirs or extras with purchases. 

Again, it is entirely possible to boom preparedness in 
every conceivable way. There are very few towns, now, 
which haven't either a militia company or some sort of a 
training corps. In the town, somewhere, there is a body 
of men who are getting ready. To that body the druggist 
can appeal with posters, ads, and such things. 
_ The further one goes in consideration of the capitaliza- 
tion proposition the more he becomes assured that it can 
be made to pay. Here's another idea. Women are already 
getting in line to help if they are needed. Many of them 
want to do Red Cross or First Aid work if it becomes 
necessary. Youhave the help to give them in their search- 
ing for instruction. 



110 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 191T 



Patents & Trademarks 



PATENTS 



Granted January 23, 1917 

1,213,142— Jonas W. Aylsworth. East Orange, N. J.; Adelaide M. 
Aylsworth and the Savings Investment and Trust Com- 
pany, of East Orange, executors of said Jonas W. Ayls- 
worth, deceased. Production, of phenol and other sub- 
stances. 

1,213,143 — Same as preceding. Apparatus for organic chemical re- 
actions. 

1,213,235— Paul D. Meiers, Granite City, 111. Cover for tooth brush. 

1,213,261 — Erich Rietz, assignor to Synthetic Patents Co., Inc., New 
York, N. Y. Cholic-acid formaldehyde condensation 
product. 

1,213,307— Walter Wachs and Rockwell L. Gallup, Chicago, III. 
Bottle washing machine. 

1.213.452— Wilson M. Brady, Baltimore, Md. Stopper extractor. 

1,213,464 — Alex B. Davis, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor to Eli Lilly 
& Co., Indianapolis, Ind. Compounds of cinchona alka- 
loids and 2-phenyl-quinolin-4-carboxyIic acid. 

1,213,465 — Alex B. Davis, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor to EH Lilly 
& Co., Indianapolis, Ind. Cresol condensation product. 

1,213,486, 1,213,487— Harold Hibbert and Harold Arthur Morton, 
Pittsburg, Pa., assignors to Union Carbide Co., New York, 
N. Y. Method of making acetaldehyde. 

1,213,724 — Oscar T. Zinkeisen, assignor to Fore Chemical Works, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. Process of purifying crude acetate 
of lime. 
1,213,740 — George Calvert, London, England. Manufacture of for- 
maldehyde. 

Granted January 30, 1917 

1,213,921 — Otto Liebknecht and Alois Schaidhauf, assignors to 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., New York, N. Y. 
Stable hydrogen peroxide and method of making the same. 

1,213.939 — ^Adam Ostheimer, Cleveland, Ohio. Thermometer. 

1,213,959— Aaron Segall, New York, N. Y. Sanitary bottle cap. 

1 ,214,008— Edgard Ciselet and Camille Deguide, Brussels, Belgium. 
Treatment of natural calcium phosphate. 

1.214,026 — Frederick Hachmann, assignor of one-half to Fred C. 
Schoenthaler, St. Louis, Mo. Bottle closure. 

1,214,206 — Cornelius J. Marvin, assignor to The Braun Corporation, 
Los Angeles, Cal. Process of generating hydrocyanic acid 
gas. 

1,214,229— Frederick Sharpe, Liverpool, England. Apparatus for 
carbonating lead oxid. 

1,214,324 — Henry Kraut, Summit, N. J. Non refillable bottle. 

l,214,329^Simon Lazarus. Louisville, Ky. Non refillable bottle. 

1,214,414 — Ludwig Berend, Amoneburg-on-the-Rhine, Germany. Con- 
densation product from phenols and formaldehyde. 

Granted February 6, 1917 

1,214,519 — ^Jean Demuth, Le Muy, France. Machine for sorting 
corks. 

1,214,550— John D. Karle, Roselle Park, N. J. Bottle stopper. 

1,214,556 — Nate Le Vene, San Francisco, Cal., and Esa Fee, Chi- 
cago, 111. Sanitary tooth brush. 

1,214,734 — George A. Williams, assignor to The Williams Sealing 
Corporation, Waterbury, Conn. Bottle and cap. 

1,214,746— Thomas S. Bell, Baltimore, Md. Bottle cap. 

I,214j802— Theodore H. Low, New Haven, Conn. Bottle opener. 

1,214,924 — Paul Karrer, assignor to Farbwerke vorm. Meister 
Lucius & Bruning, Hochst-on-the-Main, Germany. Com- 
plex arseno compounds and process of making same. 

1,214,938— Hugh Metcalfe, Almonte, Ontario, Canada. Poison-bottle 
guard. 

1,215,023— Andrew J. Hitchcock, Nashville, Tenn. Non refillable 
and self closing bottle. 

Granted February 13, 1917 

1,215,351 — Charles A. Doremus, assignor of one-half to John S. Hoyt, 

Darien, Conn. Process for producing aluminum hydrate. 
1.215,495— Charles W. Cram. Olney, 111. Bottle bracket. 
1,215,517— Frederick C. Gillen, assignor to William A. Krasselt, 
Milwaukee, Wis. Process for obtaining potash from 
potash rocks. 

1,215,544— Louis C. Jones and Fred L. Grover, assignor to The 
Solvay Process Co., Solvay, N. Y. Process of recovering 
potassium chlorid from alkaline deposits. 

1,215,545— Same as preceding. Process of recovering borax from 
alkaline deposits. 

1,215,546— Same as preceding. Process of recovering potassium and 
magnesium chlorids from natural deposits. 

1,215,576— John D. Pennock and Louis C. Jones, and Fred L. Grover, 
assignors to The Solvay Process Co., Solvay, N. Y. Pro- 
cess of separating mixed potassium chlorid and borax. 

1,215,737— George Stahl, Jersey City, N. J. Closure for bottles. 
jars, and other receptacles. 

1,215,798— George E. Hager. Brooklyn, N. Y. Non refillable bottle. 

1,215,812— Jacob J. Illian, Milwaukee, Wis. Bottle capper. 

1,215,823— Isabel M. Lewis, Washington, D. C Medicine adminis- 
tering device. 

1,215,903— Benjamin T. Brooks and Irwin Humphrey, assignors to 
Gulf Refining Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. Manufacture of 
glycols. 

1,216,036-Erastus E. Winkley, Lynn, Mass. Bottle filling and cap- 
ping machine. 

1.216,045— James Allen, Washington, D. C. Stopper for bottles or 
the like. , 

1,216,(M6— Robert A. Archibald, Oakland, Cal. Lymph-gland extract 
and method of making same. 

1,216.095— Robert B. Dula, Tarrytown, N. Y. Apparatus for dis- 
pensing packages. 



1,216,159— Raleigh R. Oldham, Laurel, Wash. Knock-down tooth 
bmsh. 

1,216,174— Winfield B. Sifton, Westminster, London, England. Pro- 
cess for the production of toluene. 

1,216,177— Thomas C. Spelling, New York, N. Y. Stopper. 

1,216,199— Ernest S. Barker, assignor to United Drug Co., Boston, 
Mass. Dispenser for liquids. 



TRADE-MARKS 



Published January 23, 1917 

80,S71 — Sam Anthony. Johnstown, Pa. A remedy for rheumatism. . 

89,766— James H. McCormick, Comstock, Mich. Headache, neural- 
gia and rheumatism tablets, etc. 

93,650— Salux Drue Co., St. Louis, Mo. Perfumes, cold cream, etc. 

94,389-O-Mi Specialty Co., Chicago, 111. A polish for the finger- 
nails. 

97,146-Philo Hay Specialties Co., Newark, N. J. Talc, nail' 
polishers, deodorizer, etc. 

98,156— George Borgfeldt & Co., New York, N. Y. Face powder,, 
toilet powder, etc. 

98,815— The Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Medicinal 
linseed oil for human and animal use, and paranitranilin_ 

98,829— Capa Drug Co.. Washington, D. C. Ointments and salves, 
etc. 

99,243 — George C. V. Fesler, St. Louis, Mo. A remedy for coughs,, 
colds, and la grippe. 

99,523 — Mary Lewey, New York, N. Y. Freckles, blackheads, and 
similar diseases of the skin. 

99,540— Mary Gladys Farley, North Bergen, N. J. A depilatory. 

Publislied January 30, 1917 

82,222— Louis P. Wickland, Genoa, Ohio. Hair tonic. 

90,491 — Mae Tynion, New York, N. Y. A preparation for the- 

treatment of lumbago, rheumatism and swollen joints. 
95,072— Davis & Geek, Inc.. Brooklyn, N. Y. Germicides, medi- 
cated lubricating jelly, etc. 
95,410 — Antonio Centanni, Chicago, 111. A liniment for rheumatism^ 

neuralgia, etc. 
96,077 — The Bromo Remedy Co., Chicago. 111. Rheumatic remedies. 
97,569 — ^The Armand Co., Des Moines, Iowa. Face powder, cold 

cream, etc. 
97,841 — Marion Stock Remedy Co., Ocala, Fla. A blood modifying 

preparation. 
98,172- The United Alkali Co., Limited, Liverpool, England. 

Caustic soda, caustic potash, raanganate of soda. etc. 
98,39a-The New York Shield Co., New York, N. Y. Perfumery, 

toilet waters, etc. 
98,670— The Rike-Kuraler Co., Dayton, Ohio. Toilet water, talcum 

powder, etc. 
99,016^Pildoras Nacionales Corporation, New York, N. Y. Anti- 
malaria pills. 
99,522— L. A, Howard Co., Minneapolis, Minn. Preparations tor 

the treatment of rheumatism, catarrh, etc. 
99,5Z4 — Alexandre Berube, Berlin, N. H. Tooth powder and 

cream. 
99,651 — Joseph C. Devlin. Lynn, Mass. Tooth powder and paste. 
99,687— Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit, Miuh. Peptic coagulant. 
99,699 — Frederick W. Clements, Rochester, N. Y. A medicinal 

tonic, blood and tissue builder. 
99,727 — The Herolin Medicine Co., Atlanta, Ga. Hair dressing. 
99,800— The Warren Laboratories Co., Marietta, Ohio. Liniment 

for rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, etc. 
99,889 — Fason & Gallagher Drug Co., Kansas City, Mo. Perfumes, 

etc. 
99.90-1 — Tinas Company, Detroit, Mich. A remedy for dandruff, 

eczema, etc. 
99,936— Fairchild Bros. & Foster, New York, N. Y. A pharma- 
ceutical preparation for relief of indigestion. 
99,987- John L. McKenna, New York, N. Y. An antiseptic pow- 
der. 
99,988— John L. McKenna, New York, N. Y. A treatment for the 

hair and scalp and eczema. 
99,998— E. D. Blaisdell, Minneapolis, Minn. Pile ointment. 

Published February 6, 1917 

97,607 — George E. Theodopoulos, New York, N. Y. Tooth powder. 

98,248 — George Schmitt, Newark, X. J. A non poisonous balsam 
for burns, scalds, bruises, etc. 

98,636-Albert F. Marks, Park Falls, Wis. Headache powders. 

98,909— Mary E. Phillips, Indian,apolis, Ind. Hair grower. 

99,11&— The Baptisine Pharmacal Co., St. Louis, Mo., An anti- 
septic lotion, 

99,141— Lulu O'Dell. St. Louis. Mo. A preparation used in 
dressing and growing hair. 

99,235 — Charles Brizzolara, Richmond, Va. A medicine for treat- 
ment of rheumatism and gout. 

99,242 — Louis A. Foix, Ysleta. Tex. A remedy for indigestion. 

99,397— Pierce A. Dietrich, Philadelphia, Pa. Corn and callug 
plaster, headache and neuralgia powders, etc. 

99,519— The Flash Co., Greenville, S. C. Hair and scalp remedy. 

99,554— Edward J. Moore Sons, New York, N. Y. Capsules for 
diseases of the urinary organs and bladder. 

99,621— The Dental and Toilet Products Corporation, New York, 
N. Y. A mouth wash, antiseptic and astringent. 

Published February 13, 1917 

96.201— Frazar & Co., New York. N. Y. Manganese salts 

96.591— McKesson & Bobbins, New York, N. Y. Perfumery, tal- 
cum powder, etc. 

99,895— H. S. Lambdin, Peru, Kans. An ointment for skin erup- 
tions. 

99,946— Reade Manufacturing Co., Hoboken, N. J. A medicinal 
salve for burns, scalds, cuts, etc. 



March, 1917 



THE rHARMACEUTlCAL ERA 



in 



THE DRUG MARKETS 



OPIUM ADVANCED TO RECORD PRICES 



Market Unsettled and Pi'ospective Conditions not 
Reassuring — Many Staples Moving Upwara 



New York, February 21 — The seriousness of the inter- 
national situation as reflected in the news despatches 
from day to day since our last report, has been provoca- 
tive of an excited and unsettled market, and one pos- 
sessing many of the features which characterized the buy- 
ing and selling of two years ago. The shipping situation 
has become more uncertain on account of the declaration 
of a ruthless submarine warfare by Germany, while the 
embargoes put into operation by most of the railroads 
operating in this part of the country have curtailed the 
shipments of goods, even were stocks in plentiful supply, 
which they are not. As it is, the trade is waiting devel- 
opments, not only from abroad but also on the action 
the United States Government may take. 

Perhaps the significant feature of the market has been 
the sharp advance in the price of opium, the stocks of 
which are so low that manufacturers are holding supplies 
for making morphine, which has also advanced to record 
prices, a position that is likewise held by codeine and its 
salts. Quinine is also advancing, manufacturers not know- 
ing whether cinchona bark is being shipped from Amster- 
dam or not, the censorship of cablegrams from abroad 
preventing the usual means of getting this information. 
Mercurials, too, have followed the upward trend of mer- 
cury, which has advanced under active buying by muni- 
tion makers and speculators. Under an active buying 
movement, glycerin has moved upward, while such staples 
as citric and tartaric acids and many of their salts have 
been advanced. Among other important advances in 
prices are the quotations given for cantharides, buchu 
leaves, caffein, lycopodium, menthol, Haarlem oil, Epsom 
salt, oil of sandalwood, potassium chlorate and perman- 
ganate, thymol, distilled e.xtract of witch hazel and Hub- 
bock's English oxide of zinc. 

Declines in prices are restricted to but few articles. 
Acetphenetidin. salicj'lic acid and salicylates, iodine and 
iodides, phenolphthalein, are lower, while a small num- 
ber of other commodities are reported as being easier. 

Opium — Stocks are so low that manufacturers are hold- 
ing supplies for making morphine, and have practically 
withdrawn all offers during the past week. Previously the 
market had advanced sharply, and in some quarters, prices 
are quoted "nominal." A few dealers quote as high as 
$25 per pound for natural, thus establishing record high 
prices for this narcotic. The replenishment of stocks is 
causing importers some concern, owing to the German sub- 
marine blockade of ports of shipment abroad. 

Morphine — Owing to the continued uncertainty of fu- 
ture supplies of opium, this alkaloid and its salts have been 
repeatedly advanced during the month, jobbers now quot- 
ing for sulphate $10.75@$12.95 per ounce in ounces, and 
$11@$13.20 per ounce in i'sths. Other salts have been ad- 
vanced as follows: Acetate, $13.20; hydrobromide, $16.45; 
hydrochloride, $13.20 ; meconate, $13.20, each per ounce 
in i/^th-oz. vials. Alkaloid is held at $16.45 per ounce in 
^th-oz. vials. Manufacturers are refusing to book orders 
or contracts for forward delivery. 

Codeine — This alkaloid has also advanced sharply, due 
to the position of opium, and manufacturers are not book- 
ing contract orders. Latest jobbing quotations are as fol- 
lows: Codeine, $14.65@$16.15 ; hydrochloride, $13.20@ 
$16.40; nitrate, $13.20@$16.40; phosphate, $n.lO@$13.65 ; 
sulphate, $12.80^14.55. 

Quinine — The market for this salt is erratic. and_ prices 
are advancing, jobbers quoting on the basis of 8Sc(n97c 
per ounce in 100-oz. tins; 95c@$l in 5-oz. cans, and $1@ 
$1.05 in 1-oz. cans. Price schedules have also been re- 
vised as follows: Alkaloid, $1.64; acetate. $1.81; arsen- 
ate, $1.60: arsenite, $1.60; bisulphate. $1.04@$1.07: citrate, 
$2.47; glycerophosphate, $2.47; hydrobromide, $1.42; hy- 



drochloride, $1.42; hypophosphite, $1.61; phenolsulphon- 
ate, $1.44; lactate, $1.61; salicylate, $1.39. Owing to de- 
lay and censorship of cablegrams, it is stated, manufac- 
turers do not know whether cinchona bark is being 
shipped from Amsterdam and are even in doubt about the 
price of quinine abroad. It is advancing in London, but 
nothing definite may be known until after the auction 
sales at Amsterdam on February 23d. 

Caffeine — This alkaloid has advanced to $13@$1325 per 
pound, with scant supplies and steady buying inquiries- 
reported. Citrated is also higher at $8.55@$9 per pound. 

Camphor — Holders of domestic refined have advanced' 
prices and the market shows strength. Jobbers are quot- 
ing .93}4c@95c per pound in bulk and J4-lb. squares. Pow- 
dered 98}4c@$l ; Japanese, 98'.^c@$l. 

Glycerin- — The market for refined has materially 
strengthened under an active buying demand, C.P. being 
held at 57c@58c per pound in bulk, drums and barrels in- 
cluded; cans, 58c@59c; less, 62c@70c. A contributing fac- 
tor of some importance is the increased demand and high- 
er prices for fats and a renewal of buying orders. 

Mercury — In sympathy with higher prices of mercury, 
all schedules have been revised and quotations have sharp- 
ly advanced for all mercurials, as follows : Mercury, 
$2.0S@$2.30; ammoniated, pure precipitated, $2.40@$2.60; 
bichloride (corrosive sublimate), $1.66@$1.76; powdered, 
$1.61@$1.71; bisulphate, $1.64@$1.74; cyanide, $5; chlor- 
ide, mild (calomel), $1.77@$1.98; iodide, green (protiod- 
ide), $4.70@$4.90; red iodide (precipitated biniodide), 
$4.75@$S; red oxide (red precipitate), $2.35@$2.47; yellow 
oxade (oz.), 20c; sulphate (Turpeth mineral), $3.40@ 
$3.55 ; sulphocyanate, $3@$3.2S. 

Cantharides — Scarcity of supplies and the uncertainty 
attending future shipments from abroad are responsible 
for higher prices, jobbers now quoting $4.75@$S for Rus- 
sian sifted, and $5.25@$5.S0 for powdered. Chinese is of- 
fered at $1.50@$1.60 for whole, and $1.70i@$1.80 for- 
powdered. 

Buchu — Both long and short leaves are higher, jobbers 
quoting as follows: Long, whole $1.4S@$1.55; powd- 
ered. $1.55(g$1.60; short, $1.50@$1.60; pow^dered, $1.60@ 
$1.70. 

Lycopodium — Under an active demand and curtailment 
of stocks, prices have sharply advanced to $1.4()@$1.50. 

Menthol — There has been a steady buying movement 
and spot supplies are well cleaned up, jobbers quoting $4 
@$4.50 per pound. Cables from Japan indicate a steady 
market. 

Haarlem Oil — Small arrivals from Holland and an un- 
certainty of obtaining future supplies, coupled with larger 
buying orders, have resulted in an advance of prices, 
Dutch being held at $3.8S@$4.25 per gross. 

Oil of Sandalwood — English is in scant supply and' 
prices have advanced to $12@$12.75 per pound. West In- 
dian remains at $4.75@$5 per pound. 

Oil of Caraway — Prices advanced on account of scarci- 
ty, quotations now obtaining being $4.75@$5.2S per pound. 
The scarcity of stocks and a good inquiry have forced 
prices upward, 65c@70c per pound being asked for whole 
seed ; powdered. 70c@7Sc. 

Castor Oil — Leading pressers recently announced an ad- 
vance in prices, based on light supplies and a firm mar- 
ket in Holland. Jobbers quote 22j4c@24c per pound for 
American oil. 

Oil of Benne — Imported (sesame), is held at $1.45@ 
$1.60 per gallon. 

Oil of Eucalyptus — Revised prices show a narrower 
range, quotations being $1@$1.10 per pound. 

Oil, Neatsfoot — Is also higher at $1.30@$1.5O per gal- 
lon. 

Citric Acid — Following an advance in manufacturers' 
prices and an active demand, jobbers have marked up 



112 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[March, 19]' 



their quotations to 80c@81c per pound for crystal in bulk 
by the keg, and 8Sc@90c for less than a keg. Granulated 
is held at from 90c@$l per pound. A few of citrates 
have also been marked up. 

Tartaric Acid — Manufacturers have announced an ad- 
vance in prices for both crystal and powdered, due to 
higher cost of production. Jobbers quote 83c@90c for 
crystal, and 82c@89c for powdered. 

Cream Tart.\r — In sympathy with the advance in the 
price of tartaric acid, cream tartar has also been ad- 
vanced to 51c@5Sc for powdered. 

Seidlitz Mixture — In sympathy with the higher prices 
for basic materials, this preparation has also been ad- 
vanced in price, jobbers quoting 30c@35c per pound. 

Chamomile Flowers— Notwithstanding first hands re- 
port a lack of stocks and stronger primary markets, quo- 
tations show a downward revision for Hungarian, which 
are held at 6Sc@70c per pound. Roman or Belgian flow- 
ers are higher, 80c@85c being asked. 

Cinchona Bark — Prices are tending upward, red bark 
teing quoted at 55c@60c per pound. As stated above, 
manufacturers of quinine do not know- whether bark is 
being shipped from Amsterdam or not ; while recent im- 
portations here have been small. Besides the advances 
noted for quinine and its salts, cinchonidine alkaloid has 
"been marked up to $1.32 per ounce, while cinchonine alka- 
loid shows a decline, 74c@82c per ounce being asked. The 
sulphate of the last-named alkaloid is also lower at SOc 
•@57c. 

Iodine and Iodides — Iodine is in better supply and prices 
"have been marked down to $3.60@$3.65 per pound for 
resublimed. In sympathy with this decline, all iodides are 
also lower, a revision of the schedules showing the fol- 
lowing quotations: Ammonium, $4.10@$4.60; bismuth 
(subiodide), $5.1S@$5.50; cadmium, $4.7S@$5.50; calcium, 
■$4.10@$4.60; lithium, (oz.), 48c; potassium, $3.0S@$3.5S ; 
sodium, $4.2S@$4.50; zinc, (oz.) 28c@32c. 

Salicylic .^cid — Increased output on the part of domes- 
tic manufacturers, and the easier position of phenol, have 
caused prices to decline to 90c@$l per pound in cartons, 
and 90c@95c for bulk. A corresponding decline is noted 
for the salicylates, sodium being held at $1.05@$1.10 per 
pound; salol, $1.7S@$1.85; methyl salicylate (synthetic oil 
■of wintergreen), 95c@$l. 

Potassium Chlorate — Spot stocks are scarce, and prices 
are higher, 71c@80c per pound being asked for crystal, 
95c@$1.05 for granulated, and 7Sc@80c for powdered. 

Potassium Permanganate — Has reached the highest 
price it has attained since the beginning of the war, if 
not the highest price ever quoted for this chemical. The 
interruption of importation of supplies from Germany, and 
the lack of manufacture here, together with the scarcity of 
the basic potassium, are responsible for these conditions, 
and as a result many processes in which this chemical 
-was formerly employed have been superseded by pro- 
cesses using other o.xidizing agents. Jobbers quote $S@ 
$5.50 per pound. 

Distilled Extract of Witch Hazel — There is a dis- 
tinct scarcity of supplies reported and dealers have ad- 
vanced their prices to 73c@90c per gallon; by the barrel, 
57^c@60c per gallon. Witch hazel leaves are quoted at 
15c@26c per pound. 

Arnica Flowers — Smallness of spot stocks and the un- 
certainties surrounding the arrival of future supplies have 
caused a spectacular advance in the price of these flow- 
ers, jobbers now quoting $2.20@$2.30 for whole; $2.30@ 
$2.35 for powdered, and $2.25@$2.30 for ground. 

CuBEB Berries — Higher primary markets and light spot 
stocks have caused prices to advance to 70c@7Sc for sift- 
ed berries, and 85c@90c for powdered. 

DiACETYLMORPHiNE — A marked advance is noted for this 
derivative, the alkaloid being held at $13.9S@$14.50 per 
ounce and $12.60@$13.25 for hydrochloride. Heroin is 
also correspondingly higher. 

Celery Seed— Following reports from Marseilles and the 
uncertainty attending the future arrival of supplies, this 
seed has advanced at 38c@40c per pound. 

Stor.\x, Liquid — Offerings have been extremely limited 
and $5.75@$6 is quoted by jobbers. 

Thymol — .Available supplies are firmly held and the 
market is decidedly higher at $14@$15 per pound. 



Juniper Berries — Are slightly easier, recent arrivals of 

supplies causing dealers to lower their prices to 13c@17c. 

Lactucarium — Has advanced to $5.50(S;$7.S0 per pound. 

NO"W THE MOXINT-MIZE DRUG CO. 



The stockholders of the Wherrett-Mize Drug Co., whole- 
sale druggists, Atchison, Kansas, held a special- meeting 
on February 12th and adopted a resolution to change the 

name of the company to 
that of the Mount-Mize 
Drug Co., which will take 
over all of the assets and 
liabilities of its predecessor. 
The change in name is a 
recognition of the services 
of C. J. Mount, the stock- 
holders' resolution stating 
that Mr. Wherrett had not 
been connected in any ca- 
pacity with the business for 
more than two years, and 
that Mr. Mount had put it 
on a paying basis. 

Mr. Mount has been 
president of the company 
for several years and is 
well and favorably known 
to all the drug trade 
_ ^ ,^ throughout the Missouri 

C. J. Mount Rjver territory. The Mount- 

Mize Drug Co. announces 
that the change in name effects no change in the owner- 
ship, officers or policy of the company, as the business 
has been constantly increasing ever since the adoption 
of the Mount sales contract about two years ago. 




PROPOSED LEGISLATION IN OHIO 



Theodore D. Wetterstroem, secretary of the Ohio 
Pharmaceutical Association, has taken up with the Ohio 
Legislature, on behalf of the organization, what he re- 
ferred to as "the promiscuous and unrestricted sale of 
poisons and such drugs as have power to upset or derange 
the functions of the human anatomy," declaring that pres- 
ent regulations have not proved sufficient to stop the 
traffic, and that the proposals to license the traffic, under 
measures now before the Legislature, are inadequate. Mr. 
Wetterstroem said further : 

"There is nothing to prevent an irresponsible manufac- 
turer from putting up in package form any poison and 
calling it some fancy name and placing this in the hands 
of the unqualified dealer to sell to the consumer at an 
alluring profit. This situation now exists. It is no 
wonder that they object to disclosing their formula, for 
their wonderful discoveries usually dwindle down to the 
cheapest and commonest drugs and their sales would dis- 
continue, for the public usually wants a run for its money. 

"The manufacturer of patent or proprietary medicine 
who will not disclose the character of his product hasn't 
a leg to stand upon and should not receive favor from 
any dealer or the public, no matter what the profits may 
be. This may be a little ahead of the times, but Ohio 
always has been in the lead, and this is only another step 
to safeguard the public welfare as well as its pocketbook." 

In this connection the Ohio Pharmaceutical Association 
has presented to the Legislature certain measures for the 
regulation of the drug traffic. Dr. Frank Cain, dean of 
the Queen City College of Pharmacy, has appeared be- 
fore the Legislature on behalf of these measures, and has 
secured the promise of support by the Hamilton County 
delegation for them. 

Louisville Chapter, No. 11. W.O.N.A.R.D., held its Jan- 
uary meeting at the main Library. Miss Mattie Tucker 
gave an interesting talk on "Development of Education in 
Kentucky." .-Xmong the recent social activities of the 
Chapter was a delightful Christmas Jack Frost Party at 
Teapot Inn. Jack Frost was present in person with his 
elves, and presented every child with a goodly supply of 
candy icicles and a snow cloud which proved to be a 
white balloon. Refreshments were served. 



^ UM^MKJAE JIEU 



m 






ESTABUSHED 1887 






THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA, , . 



.n./'-V^ 



(> <^-r^) 



iltiHiti 



AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR THE DRUG TRADE 



Vol. L 



New Yobk, April, 1917 



No. 4 



The Pharmaceutical Era 

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST OF EACH MONTH 



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Table of Contents 



Editorial .\xd Pharmaceutical Section 1 13-128 

Editorials 113 

Why Pharmacists want Prerequisite Laws 115 

Buying Club an Aid to Retailers and Jobbers 117 

Obligations and Opportunities 118 

Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 119 

Question Box 121 

Books Reviewed 124 

Associations and Boards 125 

News of the Schools and Colleges 126 

Women in Pharmacy 127 

News and Trade Section 129-144 

The Live Druggist and Baby Week 129 

Buying and Selling Drug Merchandise 131 

Educating the Sales Force 131 

Sowing Seeds to Reap Dollars 133 

The Druggist, the Movie, and the Public 134 

Periodicals, the Side Line Issue 135 

Lack of Expert Clerks in Xew York 136 

Who's Who and What's What in the Trade 137 

Personal Notes 137 

Obituaries 139 

Xew Preparations of 1916 141 

Patents, etc 142 

Drug Markets 143 

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Advertising page 26 

INDEX TO READIXG PAGES. .. ..Advertising page 25 



SUPPLIES FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 

The ilrug trade will be interested in the statement 
Troiu Washington that the Council of National De- 
fense has organized a sub-committee on the stand- 
ardization of drugs, surgical supplies and equip- 
ment necessary to outfitting the American Red 
Cross, ho.spital corps and other organizations for 
the attention of the ill and wounded in wartime. 
The committee which is to deal directly with medi- 
cines, sanitation, etc., is to be headed by a military 
surgeon, an arrangement which is a.s it should be, 
but the suggestion has been made that the effec- 
tiveness of the committee could be greatly increased 
if its membership was made to include a man ex- 
perienced in the purchasing, testing and distribu- 
tion of medical supplies. It is the intention of the 
Council to prepare further for the standardization 
of all equipment for hostilities by calling in all 
manufacturers in order that war supplies may be 
issued with the least possible delay, and the neces- 
sity of having an experienced man to represent the 
Government in the drug and chemical line seems 
to be as obvious as it is imperative. 



PREPAREDNESS TRAINING IN COLLEGES 

As told in our news columns this month, the stu- 
dents of the ^Ia.ssachusetts College of Pharmacy 
have organized a company for instruction in the 
duties of pharmacists in military organization, and 
hereafter will hold weekly drills and give as much 
time as possible to acquiring some knowledge of 
the duties that will be required of them should 
they be called upon to defend their country. The 
scope of the pharmacist's duties, should the coun- 
try call him to its defen.se, was fairly well indicated 
by Dean Bradley who said that he must not only 
fight for the lives of his own countnaiien, but 
also for those of the enemy who may happen to 
be taken prisoner. Indeed, it will be surprising 
if his work will not take on a wider range once 
liostilities begin, and in the mobilization of the 
Nation's manhood and materials we shall find him 
in the various lines of work that his training and 
experience particularly fit him for. His acquaint- 
ance with handling medicinas and sanitary equip- 
ment should enable him to take his place in the 
great depots where such supplies are distributed, 
and when one begins to talk of the medical re- 
quirements of an army of 750,000 or more men, 
the services of many pharmacists will be needed. 

From other institutions come reports of a similar 
Page One Hundred and Thirteen 



114 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



interest iu the Nation's need at this particular 
time, and if these have any value whatsoever, the 
average citizen can rest assured that the colleges 
of pharmacy will do their share in the work neces- 
sary to meet whatever conflict may come. The 
warfare of the Twentieth Century is a contest that 
calls into requisition all of the resources of applied 
science, and if he be needed, the pharmacist, as 
well as the engineer, chemist, and medical man will 
have plenty of places to fill in the grand mobiliza- 
tion of the countrj-'s fighting equipment as repre- 
sented in units of men and materials. 

How the Government can utilize the services of 
the pharmacist to best advantage is a problem that 
the authorities doubtless have well considered. If 
his aptitude and training are to be utilized to the 
fullest extent, he should be assigned to duties in 
keeping with his professional education. His 
knowledge of antiseptics, surgical dressings, and 
the remedies and paraphernalia of hospital work 
will cause a demand for his services in the hos- 
pital corps, while he should be available in helping 
to unravel the multitudinous details of manufac- 
turing and distributing such supplies. If each 
man can best serve his country in the position for 
which he is trained, it is evident that the gradu- 
ate in pharmacy will not be found "driving a four- 
mule team while his place as pharmacist is filled 
bv a mechanic." 



This information concerning official drugs and 
preparations iu epitomized form, is just what phy- 
isicians, pharmacists and students need, for this 
knowledge is suggestive and helpful to the first- 
named, for it encourages them to prescribe official 
remedies, and legitimate pharmacy can have no 
better support than that which accompanies such 
prescriptions. To the student, it represents in vest 
pocket form the salient features of both U.S. P. 
and N.F. 



THE ERA KEY TO THE U.S.P. AND N.F. 

The kindly reception accorded the Era Key, and 
its record of thousands of copies sold since its first 
publication a quarter of a century ago, is a posi- 
tive tribute to its usefulness. Without pretend- 
ing to take the place of the Pharmacopoeia, it has 
enabled physicians and pharmacists to acquire in 
epitomized form the principal facts needed for 
prescribing and dispensing. In recent years, how- 
ever, and particularly since the Federal Food and 
Drugs Act became effective and named both the 
Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary as 
official guides, there has been a demand for simi- 
lar information concerning the last named work, as 
that book is now of equal importance to the Pharm- 
acopoeia in the matter of standards. 

In preparing a new edition of the Era Key, 
which, as announced on another page of this .jour- 
nal, is now ready for delivery, cognizance has been 
taken of this demand, and the new edition not onlj' 
contains the salient facts of the Ninth Revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia, but also those of the Fourth 
Revision of the National Formular}% the practic- 
ally simultaneous publication of these standard 
works making such treatment possible. This de- 
parture, while it has greatly increased the number 
of pages in the book, is none the less of direct value 
for those who use it. As will be apparent from the 
specimen pages shown in the advertisement, the 
"Key"' contains a complete alphabetical list of 
the clrugs. chemicals and preparations in the U.S.P. 
ind the N.F.. giving Latin titles, official abbrevia- 
iions. English names and synonyms; definitions 
and drug strength ; therapeutic properties, average 
doses in metric and apothecaries' systems, and in 
the ca?e of drugs, their habitat, constituents, and 
the official preparations made therefrom. 



PROF. C. LEWIS DIEHL 

In the death of Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., pharmacy loses one of its grand old men. 
For half a century he had served almost continu- 
ously as reporter on the progress of pharmacy of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, a work 
exacting enough for the average mortal, but which 
with Diehl was only one manifestation of his tire- 
less energy and versatilitj'. ilember of the 
Pharmacopoeial Revision Committee, chairman of 
the N.F. Revision Committee, teacher in a college 
of pharmacy, board of pharmacy member, soldier 
in the Civil War and chemist in the United States 
Laboratory, he typified in no slight degree the ex- 
tended ramifications of modern pharmacy. It is 
difficult to estimate the value of his life's work, 
but to many he exemplified the ideal character of 
the "Master in Pharmacy," an honorary title 
which his Alma Mater saw fit to confer upon him 
in 1887. 



The story on a buying club for druggists, which 
has been appearing for the past two issues of the 
Era does not appear this month. Lack of space 
and pressure of time made it necessary to exclude 
the story. In the I\Iay issue, however, another in- 
stallment will appear. 



Pharmacists who have been in business for a number of 
years are aware that at recurrent periods both old and 
new legislators cast about for subjects worthy of their 
distinguished consideration. Too frequently they think 
they discover a mote in the eye of modern pharmacy and 
straightway proceed to remove it by legislative methods 
or else prescribe treatment which neither relieves the pa- 
tient nor benefits the body politic. Out in Illinois a bill 
was recently introduced in the Legislature which provide^ 
that "all liquids now recognized as poisons should be 
placed and kept in three-cornered bottles." The bill was 
advanced to third reading when a senator asserted there 
was a patent on the particular style of bottle prescribed, 
and that one concern controlled the entire supply. Re- 
sult, the bill is "resting," while some of the senators are 
trying to find out w-hether any inventor really has a 
"corner" on the bottles or not. About seventeen years 
ago New York pharmacists had to fight a similar bill in 
the Legislature at Albanj'. and the Illinois incident goes to 
prove that "there is nothing new under the sun," and that 
law-makers will have to be watched as closely and con- 
stantly this year as ever before, if deleterious legislation 
is to be prevented. 



The constitutionality of the "Goldwater formula disclos- 
ure ordinance." otherwise known as Sections 116 and 117 
of the Sanitary Code of the Board of Health of New York 
City, is vet undecided, papers for the proper presentation 
of the te"st cases brought by E. Fougera &• Co., Inc.. et al. 
having recently been filed' in the Appellate Division^ of 
the Supreme Court. Whatever the outcome of the litiga- 
tion may be, many in the trade will continue to belieY.e 
Government officials already have sufficient authority to 
reduce the regulation of all proprietary medicines to 
satisfactory working basis. 



Why Druggists AskPrerequisite Legislation 

By DEAN FREDERICK J. WULLING, Pres. A.Ph.A. 
[As most Era readers know, the phannacists of ]\Iinnesota through the Minnesota Pharmaoeu- 
tical Association have been conducting a very active campaign in that State to secure an amend- 
ment to the pharmacy law which would require graduation from recognized colleges of pharmacy as a 
prerequisite to examination and registration by the board of pharmacy. At the recent annual banquet 
of the association, held in St. Paul, Dean Frederick J. Wulling of the University of Minnesota College 
of Pharmacy and present president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, was called upon and 
delivered the follow-ing address, which although extemporaneou-s, quite clearly reflects the views of 
many pharmacists in other States, especially in New Jersey, Iowa, and one or two others, where efforts 
are being made to secure such legislation. Through the courtesy of Dean Wulling, the Er.\ is able 
to present the address which was taken down bv Reporter B. J. Smith.— Ed.] 




Prof. F. J. Wulling 



I RECORD the pharmacists of Minnesota as a group of 
most unselfish men and women. They rarely ask 
anything for themselves ; they have always had in 
mind the quality of the service that they expect to give 
to the people of the state. All legislation relating to 

pharmac)' that is on the 
statute books has had its 
initiative in the state asso- 
ciation. This legislation 
has made it more difficult 
for the pharmacists to prac- 
tice. The pharmacists have 
always recognized that they 
were organized for the 
purpose of rendering an ac- 
celeratingly efficient service 
to the people. 

Now, what about the kind 
of service they are render- 
ing? In my humble opin- 
ion it is a service almost 
identical with that rend- 
ered by the medical profes- 
sion, and I think it is re- 
garded by common judg- 
ment as a most humanitar- 
ian service. I therefore as- 
sert, affirm and claim that the service is not an humble 
service. In order to give that kind of service a certain 
minimum of qualification is necessary. The pharmacists 
feel at this time that the efficiency of the calling must be 
raised. If the pharmacists are to be consistently classi- 
fied, they must be regarded as medical specialists. I be-, 
lieve their service is next to medical service in quality. 
We know that it is not so held in the estimation of the 
people. There must be a reason for that. The reason 
lies with the pharmacists themselves. I believe, as a 
group, we have not sufficiently recognized the intrinsic 
value of our calling to mankind. We are now beginning 
to realize what we ought to stand for and we are begin- 
ning to make efforts to obtain that recognition. Pharm- 
acy at the present time is in the ascendancy everjTvhere 
in this country. There are many evidences of that. 
Some may take issue with me and say there are many who 
think that there is disintegration in the multiplication of 
the commercial activities of the pharmacists. If I had 
time, I could point out to you and prove that this is not 
true. Everywhere in this countr}-, especially in the larger 
cities, purely pharmaceutical establishments are constantly 
increasing in number — those kinds of establishments which 
are employing themselves with the prime object of prac- 
ticing professional pharmacy. The pendulum has almost 
swung to the other end of the arc and it is coming back 
by virtue of a natural law. The practice of pharmacy 
will return to and exceed the professional status that it 
occupied not very many years ago. 

I have no fault to find whatever with the pharmacists 
during the past three or four decades. I could prove to 
you, I believe, if I had the time, that some pharmacists 
who are selling row-boats, pianos, etc.. or conducting un- 
dertaking and embalming establishments, are. in a way, 
justified in this sort of business. They have been com- 
pelled by circumstances to enter into that kind of activity. 



I want you to take it for granted that these are just as 
good citizens as other members of the community. Many 
of the pharmacists who are commercial at the present 
time, in their hearts wish they could be strictly profes- 
sional pharmacists, and it is those pharmacists especially 
who are today asking help to assert their professional 
status. There are many ways in which they feel they can 
return to their proper sphere. One of them is the eleva- 
tion of the requirements for the practice of pharmacy. 
This state is on record as having always recognized the 
need of a sufficient training in all callings. There has 
been a difference of opinion from the very beginning as 
to the minimum of the requirements — never as to the re- 
quirements — but merely as to the amount of the require- 
ments. Pharmacists were at one time quite content with 
a very low standard, but they have raised that standard 
continually. They have now arrived at a point where 
they are expressing a conviction that another step is neces- 
sary and are asking the legislature, through this organ- 
ization, to enact a prerequisite law making high-school or 
college training a prerequisite for the practice of pharm- 
acy. That is a request that comes from the pharmacists 
themselves. What will be the result if it is granted? 
Gradually the service of the calling will improve and its 
benefit will accrue to the people of the state. The pharm- 
acists, therefore, are asking for an opportunity to give 
better service. It is in the hands of the legislature to 
grant this, not only because it is asked by the pharmacists, 
but because it is the inherent duty of every citizen of this 
great Commonwealth including the legislators to support 
and stimulate any upward trend that makes for better 
service, and that makes life safer in the state. That is 
one reason why I believe the pharmacists have a right to 
expect the support of every member of the legislature 
who is in any way interested in the welfare of the people. 

Education to Help Druggists 

We who are educators recognize that most upward steps 
are connected with education. Think for a moment what 
the country would be without education. Realize, if you 
will, that our form of government which our wise fore- 
fathers regarded and established as the best in the world, 
and which is still so regarded, is based entirely upon a 
minimum average intelligence which must reach far be- 
3'ond the minimum intelligence under most other forms of 
government. This government will continue only ?o long 
as the average intelligence is fairly high. The disintegra- 
tion of a republic is always preceded by a lowering of 
the average intelligence. I think our average intelligence, 
without referring also to the necessity of a high moral 
avera.ge. is the outgrowth of a high sense of duty toward 
our neighbor, and to many other factors that enter into 
the development of civilization such as we have in this 
great country of ours. 

The average intelligence that we are enjoying in this 
country is the result of compulsory education through the 
grades, high schools, universities and other institutions 
of learninff. These are basic and fundamental. The re- 
public is built upon high aims and purposes. The pro- 
.fession of pharmacy so far has built very wisely. It 
wants to build another story to its structure, and it wants 
to make that firm and solid. It wants to do it wisely. 
It has had this subject under consideration for a long 

Page One Hundred and Fifteen 



IIG 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Apkil. 1917 



time. The pharmacists of the state, through this asso- 
ciation, have determined that this is the next step. Tak- 
ing it will not work a hardship on the poor boy. I believe 
there are no financially poor boys in this state. If you 
will allow me to define a poor boy, as I understand that 
term, I will say he is a boy who is poor in initiative, poor 
in spirit, poor in stability, etc. ; he is a poor boy who will 
not acquire a training or an education in thi^ practically 
education-free country. We do not want such a boy to 
become an applicant for entrance to our calling. 

The boy who is poor in dollars may be and usually is 
rich in natural endowment and may become a most suc- 
cessful member of the calling if he will make a sufficient 
effort. There are many of very humble origin who have 
achieved some success. We have with us tonight as one 
of our guests a gentleman from Philadelphia who is an 
example, as I am, and as many of us are, of the evolution 
of the dollar-poor boy into one who has earned the 
esteem and respect of his fellows. The efficient poor boy 
is the one who will make his own way, who will utilize 
every resource and make every honest endeavor to suc- 
ceed. He is the boy who depends primarily upon himself. 
It does not matter that he has no money. Lack of 
money cannot deprive him of an education. So, I cannot 
see how the enactment of this proposed prerequisite law 
would work any hardship. We must feel this way: that 
we are now in possession of a trust which has been hand- 
ed down to us by our predecessors. We are administer- 
ing upon this trust. We love our calling. Many of us 
have devoted our lives to it. Many of us are foregoing 
wealth, in a degree, for the ideal that we stand for. 

Some of us are subject to ridicule because we have 
ideals and stand by them. I would rather be among those 
who stand by their ideals to the end, than among those 
who would give up their ideals for the things that are 
material, because there is a greater reward. This trust 
is in our hands for a brief time only. We must hand it 
down to our posterity, and it is a duty incumbent upon 
us to take this trust, as it is handed to us. to develop it 
and to hand it to our successors in a much more highly 
developed condition. If we do not do so we are not 
contributing anything toward the development of civiliza- 
tion : and while I do not know the purpose of this life, I 
do feel convinced there is a duty devolving upon us : the 
duty to do our very best with the things that we have, to 
stimulate this evolutionary process in such a way that 
when we are gone it can be said that we have done some- 
thing for posterity; that we have employed our abilities 
and our time in a way that meets the approval of those 
who succeed us, for our judges are those who will come 
after us. That, as you know, is the lesson and the duty 
that history teaches. 

First Appearance for Propaganda 

I said a year ago that I would not take any part in the 
prerequisite propaganda. This is the first time I have 
spoken in behalf of this particular measure. I think I 
am perfectly consistent in speaking to you this evening 
as I have because I have waited until the pharmacists have 
expressed themselves. I am an educator and if this pre- 
requisite measure passes, more students will come to the 
college and thus increase my work which is alreadv al- 
most burdensome. In advocating the prerequisite I am 
not thinking of mv personal comfort. Surelv there will 
be no personal advantage to me. I am willing that the 
csll of higher pharmacy and the ultimate result of the 
elevation of that calling and hence better service to the 
state, be upon me vour humble servant who is always at 
the command of the calling. 

I think at this time I am entitled to sneak upon this 
prerequisite measure because the pharmacists have gone 
on record by their votes — over eightv oer cent of the 
pharmacists of the state have recorded an affirmative 
vote in favor of this measure. 

I shall not speak more, except to s'lve you this last 
tbonrfit. We are often confronted with the necessity of 
obtaining the adA'ice or service of those who know: those 
who have had exnerience : those who are experts. This 
i= illustrated by the way manv boards of directors_ solve 
their problems. Thev sav. "Who is the best man in the 
country to carrv out this work?" No one mentions 
names. A committee 's established to find the best man 
and secures him, usually on his own terms. The point is 



to get the best man to render the particular service, one 
who will do the work expertly. I believe that is the way 
we should do many of our things. What would happer^ 
if we did all our things that way? They would be done 
by the best talent available for them. That is what the 
pharmacists want at the present time. They want the 
country drug store, the middle-of-the-block drug sfore and 
the corner drug store to be administered by a man who is 
an expert. We have many such now, but they are not as 
universal as they might be. We are recognizing this and 
admitting it. We want that condition to change so that 
there will be an expert pharmaceutical practitioner in every 
drug store and I believe we have a right, as a group of 
men who have been loyal to the interests of the common- 
wealth in every other respect, to expect from those who 
have it in their power to grant this to bring about the 
conditions desired. 



SUPPRESSION OF THE OPIUM TRAFFIC 

IN CHINA A BATTLE OF TEN YEARS 



Government Closes More Than 1,000,000 Dens — 
Moderate Smokers Cured by Medical Treatment — 
Victims Over 60 Exempt — Work of International 
Commission 

China's edict against opium, issued in 1907, provided 
that the traffic was to come to an end in ten years, and 
March 31, 1917, marks the end of the drug evil so far as 
government recognition of the trade is concerned. Charles 
Stirrup writes in the New York Sun : 

"During the last two or three years only old and elderly 
people and the weakest and worst victims of the habit 
have used opium. Smokers have been held up to public 
scorn and the secret pill eaters in Government service 
have been dismissed from office. Growers who have 
produced the poppy in remote places have been severely 
punished. 

"Xotwithstanding rioting and bloodshed in many cities 
and widespread destruction of property by mobs the work 
of reform has been relentlessly pushed ahead. In one 
city alone 7,000 dens were closed and between 1,000,000 
and 2,000,000 scattered all over the country have been put 
out of business. No longer are the passenger steamships 
encumbered by the sprawling forms of men who have 
smoked themselves insensible. Huge bonfires of pipes 
have been publicly burned in every city to the applause of 
men who formerly spent one-fourth or one-third of their 
small wages on the drug that impoverished them. 

"Moderate smokers are treated in a manner both drastic 
and effective. The cure is either swallowed or adminis- 
tered hypodermically and is given the patient at the time 
he takes the drug. If the ravages of the habit have not 
been extensive and his stomach only is concerned he is 
so nauseated that in as short a time as five days he will 
f\ve up the indulgence. The Government cure includes 
IS per cent tincture of belladonna, fluidextract of prickly 
ash (xanthoxylum), and fluid extract of hyoscyamus. 

"The regulations laid down in the decree that has now 
reached its point of completion, included the following: 
Smokers to report themselves and take out licenses ; Gov- 
ernment officials under 60 years of age to cleanse them- 
selves of the habit within six months ; all dens to be 
closed after six months ; no pipes or lamps to be made or 
sold after six months: the cultivation of the poppy in 
China and the importation of the drug from abroad to be 
steadily diminished; shops for the sale of the drug to be 
closed' on March 31st, 1917, when the entire traffic was 
to come to an end. 

"A vice of such magnitude was not to be banished with- 
out a tremendous, sustained and uncompromising fi.ght 
and it was feared that even the resolute men who formed 
the Government would find the task they had set them- 
selves bevond their power of accomplishment. But they 
never wavered and found strong support in the Interna- 
tional Opium Commission, which, representing the United 
States and Great Britain as well as China, met in Shang- 
hai in February, 1909. and agreed to do all in its power 
to help to end the opium curse. This commission was 
largely the outcome of American leadership and its chair- 
man was an American, Bishop Brent." 



Buying Club aid to Retailers and Jobbers 

This Organization Has Made Important Steps Forward 



By JOHN L. MEYER 



Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee and other cities have local 
buying clubs of retailers. Information both from the "in- 
side" and outside absolutely proves that these clubs are 
succeeding. They are growing comfortablj', which in a 
measure answers the question of future prosperity. 

Another interesting feature to an investigator who is 
not a druggist, but who has been a student of retailing for 
many years and in many lines, is this : 

How are they started, and kept agoing? 

No doubt many a retail druggist who is not within reach 
of such an organization, frequently wonders about these 
items when he gets to thinking about his own buying 
problems. 

Let's take a typical buying club, such as the writer has 
just had an opportunity to investigate deeply and thor- 
oughly. This is going to be a true story, even if "no 
names are mentioned." It is not even a composite story — 
which is one reason for not mentioning names ! Modesty, 
we will say. forbids ! 

Now, let us go back to the days of two years ago. At 
that time the buying problems of the retail druggist un- 
doubtedly reached an interesting point of development, 
second in interest only to the period not so very long 
after, and sometimes known as the war-price period. 

A druggist in the city where this story has its source 
had just fallen down on a deal for the sale of his store. 
He failed to get within a few thousands of his price. In 
a way, he felt insulted. So he called up four fellow re- 
tail druggists and asked them to go bowling. Every one of 
the four responded. 

At the bowling partj' a few things cropped out which — 
to make it short — led to the establishment of regular 
bowling nights, and a buying club 1 

At first it was a recalcitrant infant. Some of the early 
manoeuverings are interesting. There was no formal or- 
ganization. Bill Jones, we will call him, laid out the plot. 

"You." he said to Henry, "are strong on photographic 
and stationery sales because of the college near you. And, 
you, John, are in the foreign section of the town and I 
guess your sales are pretty well centered on certain lines. 
Now. .■\lbert. you are on the outskirts near the community 
market, and you do a whale of a business in seeds and 
farm requirements. Jimmie is downtown. 

"Each one of us is a specialist. I think I have it on all 
of you for prescription business and staples. Now, each 
specialist, myself included, will take orders from all of us 
for supplies in his own line that he knows best how to 
handle, then total up, buy and distribute. It's cash on de- 
livery. No overhead, of course, and each profits only on 
the goods he himself sells, not on what he passes along." 

■Understanding to Fill In Shorts 

That was the beginning. Coupled with these arrange- 
ments was an understanding to mutually fill in shorts and 
help each other in every other way. Ideas were exchanged. 
While not directly applicable always the ideas could be 
amended or changed to suit conditions of each store. 

Today the club has an office and a regular name al- 
though not in the directories. The office is also a ware- 
room, and there are sometimes $8,000 worth of goods in 
it. Not long after the club was started, each "member" 
put in $100. When the room was engaged, everybody 
put in another hundred. The affair is now participated in 
by 38 members. A young lady attends to the office. Each 
participant gets his own deliveries. The buying is still 
handled about the way that it was at the start. One par- 
ticipant, however, is elected to be a sort of a chief fac- 
totum — a head buyer, if you please — for six-month periods. 
The job rotates. Only a very little accounting is neces- 
sary, and the overhead is gratifyingly near nothing. 



The club has the hearty support of most of the local 
jobbers, and of some that are located in other cities. They 
give the quantity discounts cheerfully on many lines. Of 
course, the aggregate of the business handled through the 
club with the participants is only a small percentage of 
the total business that the jobbers do with the individuals 
in the ordinary way. Some manufacturers do not allow 
their quantity contracts with retailers who agree to buy 
a certain volume per year or six months, to be used for 
the club. No attempt has been made to violate such ar- 
rangements. There are a plenty of opportunities to buy 
all that is sought and bought. 

Other manufacturers, of course, decline to recognize 
the proposition or to sell to it at quantity prices. Some 
do not give quantity prices in any event and the club is 
not interested in them as a club. 

Now and then, particularly during the recent days of 
rising prices and shortages of goods, the club has made a 
"nice killing," by hitting the market just right. It was not 
all guess work, either. Among the 38, or any division of 
the number, there is always a sufficient amount of fore- 
sight, or even "hindsight" to know what is going on and 
how to meet it. 

A big feature, as has been indicated, is found in the 
dispatch with which orders are handled; another pleasing 
time-saver refers to handling shorts. This applies to club 
headquarters as well as to the individual stores. There 
is, in other words, a greater feeling of mutuality. Re- 
cently, a druggist in an outlying section was called on for 
a quantity of chloride of gold, something that he had 
never had in his store. It was wanted right quickly, too, 
in a matter of life and death. The young lady at the 
office got it for him in less than an hour. She hap- 
pened to know of a store which had a goodly supply. 

No club buying is done except of goods that experience 
has shown to be really desirable for the club proposition. 
Those goods— staples and others— that quite regularly ap- 
pear as shorts in most of the stores, are kept in stock and 
watched with perhaps a little more care than the others, 
to avoid untimely exhaustion of supplies at headquarters. 
Experience has been capitalized thoroughly. 

The jobbers, in the course of events, have co-operated. 
In the city of this story, the jobbers have developed into 
specialists to an extent. The club has this in mind, which 
expedites buying. Good tips are often received from the 
jobbers. They find that credit and collections matters 
have been simplified. So far as the club is concerned, it 
is "cash on delivery" as a rule. The amount of delivery 
is charged against the $200 in the pot, and the two hun- 
dred must be filled out again without delay. But, no col- 
lection is made while any of a member's goods remain 
in storage. It is not until purchases are actually with- 
drawn that the money for them must be paid over, and 
then only to the extent of the withdrawal. 



DRUGGIST FAVORS BUYERS CLUB 
The Ph.\rmaceutical Era, 

New York. 
Gentlemen : — 

I think the Idea of a National Buying Club is the best 
thing for a retail druggist that can happen, and it will be 
necessary for this idea to be carried out if the retail 
druggists expect to make money or in some cases even 

Lafayette has no such organization, and I would like 
to inquire if I can get in touch with any club for this 
purpose now? 

R. C. S NODDY, 

W. Lafayette, Indiana. 
Page One Hundred and Seventeen 



118 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



OBLIGATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES 




Dr. Henry Kraemer Points Them Out — Speaks to En- 
thusiastic Baltimore Meeting — Microscope as Aid 
to Drug-gist — Need of Study and Work 

Baltimore, March IS— One of the most interesting and 
largely attended meetings of the Baltimore Retail Drug- 
gists' Association was that held last Monday evening, with 
Prof. Henry Kraemer of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy as the drawing card. It had been widely an- 
nounced that Professor 
Kraemer would discourse 
on "Obligations and Oppor- 
tunities" and he took up 
wholly the professional and 
scientific side. 

He laid great stress on 
the druggist knowing thor- 
oughly the products which 
he sells and familiarizing 
himself^ intimately with the 
properties and the structure 
9f drugs, roots, herbs and 
other articles. As for the 
opportunities, that is, the 
chances of gaining the 
knowledge regarded as es- 
sential, Dr. Kraemer said 
they were far greater and 
better than ever before. 
The speaker was not so 
much disposed to lay stress Dr. IIe.nry Kraemer 

upon chemical analyses as 

a means of determining quality and strength, but de- 
clared far better and more accurate results could be ob- 
tained by close inspection, taste and other physical means. 
A great aid in the work of determination was the micro- 
scope, which showed minutely and plainly the specific 
structure of different substances and made mistakes im- 
possible. By way of illustration Dr. Kraemer threw upon 
the screen pictures of microscopic specimens and explained 
carefully the differences that presented themselves to the 
practiced eye. 

He projected side by side with pictures of certain 
roots and other articles illustrations of substitutes or 
adulterants to prove how easy it was to detect impurities. 
Many of these adulterants, he explained, were not inten- 
tionally added, but got mixed up with the genuine galeni- 
cals perhaps in the gathering, but the microscope showed 
them clearly. Smell, taste and knowledge of appearance, 
he said, were far better guides, aided by the microscope, 
than chemical analyses, and they were means within the 
reach of every pharmacist, requiring no elaborate ap- 
paratus or specialized knowledge. 

Dr. Kraemer, however, also touched upon some of the 
more commercial aspects of pharmacy by giving with re- 
gard to various substances their formulas. Thus he took 
up face powder, and showed how the microscope afforded 
an accurate test, and in this connection he showed how 
cheaply face powder could be made and how big a price 
the druggist could get for it. There were other illustra- 
tions hardly less striking, this coming within the scope 
of the up-to-date and thoroughly equipped pharmacist's 
opportunities. 

Among those present were Dr. Charles Caspari. Jr., 
pure food and drug commissioner for Maryland ; Henry 
P. Hynson and others of the Department of Pharmacy, 
University of Maryland, and many of the most promi- 
nent druggists in the city. 

R. E. Lee Williamson, president of the association, pre- 
sided. 



SABGOL DENIED TTSE OF MAILS 

Not content with imposing a $30,000 fine on the makers 
of Sargol, the remedy that was found fraudulent last 
month after a lengthy trial, the United States Govern- 
ment has denied the production the use of the mails. All 
mail addressed to the company in Binghamton will he held 
in local offices and then forwarded to the Dead Letter 
Office in Washington, while the company will not be 
permitted to send mail under the firm letterheads. 



DETERMINING ALCOHOLIC PERCENTAGE 

Dr. Clifford 0. Miller Explains Method at Baltimore 
Branch Meeting — Detailed Explanation — New 
President Chosen 

The principal feature of the February meeting of the 
Baltimore Branch of the A.Ph.A., held in Harris Hall, 
of the University of Maryland, was a talk on "The De- 
termination of Alcoholic Percentages of Pharmaceutical 
Preparations," with practical demonstrations by Dr. Clif- 
ford O. Miller, of the State Board of Health. 

Dr. Miller made a general statement concerning the 
determination of alcohol by the evaporation method, but 
pointed out that this method does not give altogether 
satisfactory results where the evaporation of the alcohol 
causes the separation of substances which do not dissolve 
in the added water. He showed the general types of dis- 
tilling apparatus in use, such as the goose neck, the Kjel- 
dahl distilling bulb, and the Hempel column. He then 
demonstrated a column he had devised, stating that this 
column is extremely useful where very small quantities of 
alcohol are present and where concentration of the alcohol 
in the distillate means a more accurate determination of 
the alcoholic percentage. 

In this apparatus a thermometer is used to record the 
temperature of the vapor and this serves to show the 
character of the distillate, as well as the completion of 
the distillation, the temperature dropping to approximately 
30 degrees C. when the vapor no longer contains alcohol. 

A pycnometer fitted with a thermometer is used to 
obtain the specific gravity of the distillate, 25 degree C. 
being found a more convenient temperature at which to 
work than 15.56 degree C, as given in the U.S. P. IX. 

Dr. Miller explained the use of the immersion refrac- 
tometer in the accurate and rapid determination of the 
percentage of alcohol in the distillate, as well as the de- 
tection of any methyl alcohol which may be present. If 
the reading of the refractometer indicates a percentage of 
alcohol agreeing with that obtained from the specific 
gravity it may be assumed that no methyl alcohol is 
present. If however, there is an appreciable amount of 
methyl alcohol present, the low refractometer reading 
will indicate the fact at once. 

After presenting the general method of alcoholic de- 
termination. Dr. Miller gave methods for overcoming some 
difficulties likely to arise. A carbonated liquid may be 
freed from carbon dioxide before distillation by pouring 
from one vessel to another. The foaming of new wines 
may be overcome by the addition of tannic acid or paraf- 
fin, the paraffin being more satisfactory as it forms a 
layer over the liquid and almost entirely prevents foaming. 

The bumping which often occurs in distillation can be 
overcome by adding a few pieces of pumice which have 
been heated to red heat, plunged in distilled water, and 
left under water until used. Pieces of broken glass or 
glass beads, or capillary tubes closed at one end also 
serve very well. 

In cases where the preparation contains fats, volatile 
oils, soap, volatile bases or acid, or other volatile sub- 
stances such as ether, iodine, etc., these are eliminated be- 
fore the distillation is carried out. In those preparations 
containing volatile acids the acids are best fixed by sodi- 
um carbonate, added to the distilling flask. Those con- 
taining ammonia are best fixed with phosphoric acid. 

Preparations containing free iodine are first freed from 
iodine by decolorizing with zinc and adding a few mils of 
sodium hydroxide solution. The iodine may be eliminated 
by means of sodium thiosulphate, but in this case sodium 
hydroxide solution must also be added to prevent the 
sulphur from distilling over with the alcohol._ If volatile 
alkaloids are present, these may be fixed with tannin. 

Volatile oils, camphor, oils, fats, and soap are removed 
by adding saturated salt solution and shaking out with 
petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract is washed 
with saturated salt solution and the washings are added 
to the distilling flask. In soaps containing ammonia 
acidified salt soluton is added, the acid being used to fix 
the ammonia. Alcohol-ether mixtures are miscible with 
either water or petroleum ether alone, but with the simul- 
taneous addition of both, the alcohol mixes completely 
with the water and the ether with the petroleum ether. 



The Biologicals of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 

How Vaccines a7id Antitoxins are Officially Treated 



F. E. STEWART, Ph.G., M.D., Phar.D.' 

(Concluded from the March, 1917 Era, Page 84) 



AS FOR the efficacy of diphtheria antitoxin, there are 
very few physicians, and fortunately the number 
is growing even fewer, who are not fully convinced 
of its efficacy for tlte treatment of what used to be con- 
sidered the most fatal of children's diseases. 

The antitoxin treatment of diphtheria came into use in 
the year 1895. After it had been on trial for about one 
and one-half years, with reports coming from scientific 
observers both in hospital and private practice in all parts 
of the world, the subject was taken up for official dis- 
cussion by the New York Academy of Medicine. In this 
discussion Professor William H. Thompson, M.D., LL.D., 
called attention to the fact that the verdict about any al- 
leged remedy must depend upon the findings of a jury, 
whose members should not only be competent but also so 
numerous and of such difference in locality and nation- 
ality that all personal and local influences can be safely 
left out of account. It was proved, by the accumulation of 
evidence resulting from the investigations of many com- 
petent observers, that diphtheria antitoxin reduced the 
mortality from diphtheria in the localities where it was 
being used, fully one-half. The testimony brought before 
the Academy was overwhelmingly in its favor. Since that 
time favorable testimony from all over the world has been 
steadily increasing, and untoward results claimed for it by 
its detractors have been proved to be due to causes othar 
than antitoxin. The verdict of the profession at the pres- 
ent time is that diphtheria antitoxin has reduced the mor- 
tality from about 40 per cent diphtheria to less than ten 
per cent. 

Importance of Antitoxin 
This verdict is now unanimous, and the discovery of the 
antitoxin treatment of diphtheria stands alongside the dis- 
covery of vaccination for smallpox as a triumph of scien- 
tific medicine. 

These wonderful results, however, can only be secured 
when diphtheria antitoxin is used in a proper manner. 
Two things are requisite; namely, properly prepared diph- 
theria antito.xin, and proper application of the product for 
the treatment of diphtheria. 

It is true that the adoption of a common standard estab- 
lished by the U. S. Public Health Service has mini- 
mized the difference between the various brands of diph- 
theria antitoxin on the market, but it is not true that all 
brands of diphtheria antitoxin are the same in quality. 
Nothing can take the place of special skill and care in the 
preparation of the product, so there will always be reason 
for discriminating in ordering or prescribing diphtheria 
antitoxin. 

When diphtheria antitoxin is given on the first day of 
the disease, the mortality does not exceed 0.34 per cent ; 
when not given until the second day, the mortality is 1.46 
per cent; third day, 3.24 per cent; fourth day, 10.8 per 
cent; later than the fourth day, 23.1 per cent. 

The above statement is taken from the Bulletin of the 
Chicago Health Department, February 13, 1904. 

Dr. Jules Comby,the famous pediatrist of Paris, in his 
paper entitled "Serotherapy," read before the Fourteenth 
International Medical Congress in 1903, stated that the 
use of diphtheria antitoxin decreases the mortality of diph- 
theria 75 per cent (three-fourths), and if employed during 
the first forty-eight hours, abolishes the mortality entirely. 
Dr. Zahorskj' reported in his paper entitled "Mortality 
of diphtheria in private practice under antitoxin treat- 
ment." Medical News, December 5, 1903. that a mortality 
of only 1.5 per cent in 1.610 cases justified the belief that 
no patient with diphtheria should die if antitoxin is used 
in a proper manner; namely, in full doses and early in 
the case. 

The subsequent use of diphtheria antitoxin by the pro- 
fession has only strengthened the evidence contained in 
these reports. 

•Direstor, Scientific Department, H. K. Mulford Co. 



Dosage of Diphtheria Antitoxin 

The question of dosage of diphtheria antitoxin does not 
depend so much upon the age of the child as on the 
severity of the symptoms. As pointed out in an editorial 
published in the Medical News, October 29, 1904, and 
many times since verified by competent observers, even 
for an infant, if there are threatened symptoms of ex- 
tensive nasal or laryngeal involvement, 5,000 antitoxic 
units should be given at once. Repetition of the dose de- 
pends entirely upon the effect that is secured. If there 
is a drop in temperature, relief in breathing, a quieter 
pulse, and generally a more comfortable condition, espe- 
cially if the membrane assumes a granular appearance and 
begins to disintegrate or clear up, the dose need not be 
repeated. If these favorable changes are not noted be- 
yond the usual time for repeating the dose, it means that 
the toxins are not neutralized. If in doubt, when there 
has been but a partial reaction and only a slight remission 
of symptoms, it is better to be sure than sorry, and repeat 
the dose. Failure to do so means the assumption of an 
undue responsibility of the part of the physician. 

The experience of the profession since the publication 
of this editorial has demonstrated that the dosage recom- 
mended at the time of its publication was not sufficient. 
According to Levinson, Medical Record, January 6, 1912, 
the amount of antitoxin to be administered should be much 
larger. "For instance," he says, "a physician gives 5,000 
units in a nasal or laryngeal case and then wonders why 
the patient does not recover, although it is plain that the 
child did not receive enough antitoxin. Our work at the 
Contagious Diseases Hospital has taught us several things 
that can be laid down as a rule: (1) a prophylactic dose 
should not be less than 5,000 units ; (2) curative doses in 
tonsillar diphtheria should not be less than 10,000 units ; 
(3) curative doses in nasal or laryngeal diphtheria should 
not be less than 25,000 units." He advises against the fear 
of giving too much antitoxin, and says: "If the heart 
does not degenerate as a result of the diphtheria toxin, the 
antitoxin will do no harm. We have cases on record in 
which patients have received as high as 85,000 units and 
have recovered without any bad effect on the heart." 
Use for immunization 
State Commissioner Dixon of Pennsvlvania reports rec- 
ords of dosages of 52,000, 57,000, 63,000, 68,000 and 117,000 
units, resulting in recovery without renal or cardiac com- 
plications. 

The limits of this paper will not permit further discus- 
sion of antitoxin dosage, except to call attention to the 
statements of Dr. William H. Park, of the New York 
Board of Health, made in the Cutter lecture on preventive 
medicine delivered at Harvard Medical School, March 13, 
1912. He said: 

"During last year the lowest mortality of both Boston 
and New York was attained, Boston having 18 and New 
York 28 per 100,000. For the first two months of 
1912 the mortality in New York has been less than that 
of last year by 20 per cent, so that if this rate continues 
it will be only 22 per 100,000. Now, when you think that 
in 1903 and 1904 we had an average of 150 deaths per 
100.000, while last year in New York we had an average of 
only 28, and that this year, if the remaining ten months are 
like the first two. it will be only 22, you see that there is 
reason for enthusiasm in our further efforts practically to 
eradicate this disease." 

"It is now the common practice to have_ the children 
immunized in any family where diphtheria is found, and 
frequently the adults also. I am sure that to the immuniz- 
ation, as much as to the treatment of actual cases, is due 
the fall in the mortality of New York City, so that, in- 
stead O'f an average of 150. only 28 out of 100.000 persons 
die. The immunization dose advised by the Health De- 
partment is 1.000 units in diphtheria and 1.500 units in te- 
tanus. This should be repeated in fen days if danger of 
infection still exists." 

Pane One Hundred and Nineteen 



120 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April. 1917 



Dr. Park further states that after much e-xperience he 
recommends the following dosage : 

Very mild cases 2,000- 3,000 units for first dose 

Moderately severe cases. .4,000- 6,000 units for first dose 

Very severe cases 8,000-10,000 units for first dose 

He calls attention to the importance of giving antitoxin 
protnptly and in large initial doses, with the object of 
getting as quickly as possible, enough antitoxin into the 
blood to neutralize any toxin present there, so that no 
further toxin is able to pass out to the tissue cells. 
Method of Administration 
Finally, Dr. Park calls attention to the necessity of 
adopting the intravenous method in severe cases, in the 
following words : 

"Before closing I wish to urge the intravenous injection, 
not only in cases of malignant diphtheria, but in all cases 
of tetanus. The difference during the first day in the 
amount of antitoxin in the blood when injected intraven- 
ously is ten times greater than when injected subcutane- 
ously. At the end of six hours one has by the subcutane- 
ous method 2 units, and by the intravenous method 20 
units in each c.c. of the patient's blood. As the hours pass 
the one diminishes and the other increases, but even at the 
end of 24 hours you have 12 units against 6 units. I feel 
certain that 5,000 units given intravenously has as much 
effect as 20,000 given subcutaneously. Intravenous injec- 
tions of refined antitoxin have been made by us in nearly 
200 cases and have given no bad results. We have given 
a large number of children and adults other serums, in- 
travenously, in large amounts, and in all our experience 
we have had only one patient who showed bad symptoms. 
In little children one must cut down on the vein, but with 
adults and larger children it is a very simple method. The 
serum must always be warmed to blood heat before in- 
jecting.* I think that in all cases of septic diphtheria we 
should give a dose intravenously, but in mild and early 
cases it is sufficient to give it subcutaneously. Intramus- 
cular injections are absorbed in about one-half the time 
required by the subcutaneous ones when the serum stays 
in the muscle substance, but in practice it often escapes." 
Tetanus Antitoxin 

Finally, in regard to tetanus antitoxin, it has long been 
known that the prompt injection of 1,500 units after the 
reception of a wound will, as a rule, produce sufficient im- 
munity to prevent an attack of the disease. This was the 
belief before the beginning of the great European war. 
This belief was largely justified by the experience of the 
profession, but it has been somewhat modified by the his- 
tory of tetanus antitoxin as used by the armies in France 
where the ground is loaded with tetanus spores due to 
fertilization by animal manure. 

Early in the European war, the mortality from tetanus 
was a menace to both armies engaged in the great conflict. 
We have as yet no reliable statistics on the subject, yet it 
has been stated that about ten or twelve per cent of all the 
wounded were attacked by the tetanus bacillus and about 
90 per cent of them died. The prophylactic injection of 
tetanus antitoxin was therefore adopted as a routine meas- 
ure in every case of gunshot wound, and the mortality rate 
was immediately enormously reduced. Yet in spite of this 
measure a certain number of cases of tetanus continued to 
occur. 

It therefore became quite important that a special study 
should be undertaken by the Medical Department of the 
British Army to determine the true value of tetanus anti- 
toxin as a prophj'lactic agent against tetanus and also to 
ascertain the best method for using antitoxin in such a 
manner as to obviate the fear of harmful effects from re- 
peated injections of horse serum. 

A study of statistics by Sir David Bruce of the British 
Army, after sufficient time had elapsed to accumulate evi- 
dence concerning this practice, demonstrated that the pro- 
tection afforded by single injections of tetanus antitoxin 
is not complete; therefore, repetition of the injection at 
intervals of seven days was recommended as a precaution- 
ary measure in order to keep up the protection. 

Occasionally this precaution was neglected because of 
the fear of harmful effects from repeated injections of 
horse serum and for that reason cases of tetanus occurred 

* Care must be exercised not to brine the seram to a higher 
temperature than 98 deg. F., on account of the tendency to coagula- 
tion. — Ed. 



which would have been prevented if the dose had been 
repeated at seven day intervals as recommended. 

The results of further studies are reported in papers 
published in the Lancet, London, January 20th and 27th, 
1917. They include reports from Colonel Sir William B. 
Leischman,t of the Army Medical Service, and Major A. 
B. SmallmanJ and Captain H. Burrows,§ both of the 
Roj-al Army Medical Corps. 

Commenting on these papers, the editor of the Lancet 
calls attention to the important points brought out by these 
investigations which may be summarized as follows : 
Summary of Investigations 

1. It is incontestibly proved that a prophylactic dose of 
tetanus antitoxin has a really wonderful effect in prevent- 
ing the disease. 

2. Even in cases where the dose of antitoxin has been, 
instjfficient to prevent the disease but sufficient to modi- 
fy it, almost as striking results have been obtained. 

3. The investigations of Leischman and Smallman show 
that the death rate from the disease was very definitely 
less when the dose was given within 24 hours of the in- 
fliction of the wound as compared with the death rate in 
those cases in which the injection was given later. 

4. The statistics indicate clearly that the earlier the 
dose is given the longer the incubation of the disease; 
consequently success in the treatment of tetanus occurring 
as a result of insufficient prophylactic dosage is propor- 
tionately augmented. 

5. The danger of anaphylactic shock from the injection 
of tetanus antitoxin is negligible when the prophylactic 
dose is contained in such a small quantity as 3 c.c. of 
horse serum, whatever the interval after the preceding in- 
jections. Highly concentrated serum, in doses sufficient 
to maintain protection, may be repeated at weekly inter- 
vals as long as it is considered advisable, without any fear 
of the occurrence of anaphylaxis. 

Therapeutic tJse of the Serum 
In the opinion of the editor of the Lancet, the most im- 
portant conclusions to be drawn from the work of Colonel 
Leischman and Major Smallman are these: 

1. In the treatment of tetanus when it has once de- 
clared itself, the intramuscular and subcutaneous routes 
should be selected in preference to any other. 

2. The intrathecal (intraspinal) route is by no means 
free from danger and of doubtful efficiency. 

3. The intravenous route is no more efficacious and is 
certainly more dangerous than either the intramuscular or 
subcutaneous methods. 

4. The dose for intramuscular and subcutaneous routes 
should be not less than 10,000 units per day for the first 
few days. 

5. After the therapeutic use of the antitgxin. careful 
examination of facts seems to show that the mortality 
after dosage of 20,000 units is less than when smaller 
dose has been given. 

6. It is advisable that the administration of the anti- 
toxin should not be abandoned too early for there may 
be a recurrence. 

7. There appears to be proof that any operation after 
tetanus has declared itself, has a tendency to increase the 
mortality; therefore, it is wise to give a dose of antitoxin 
before operating should operation be needed. 

8. The larger doses of horse protein necessary for ad- 
ministration in using tetanus antitoxin therapeutically may 
become a source of anaphylactic phenomena. This can be 
entirely avoided according to Captain S. Wyard, R.A.M.C, 
in the following manner : 

"A small rectal injection of the serum should be given 
within 12 hours, which renders the individual safe from 
anaphylaxis no matter how large a dose is given subcu- 
taneously; or. if this amount of delay is thought inad- 
visable, the same result can be obtained by a succession of 
subcutaneous doses beginning with a very small dose and 
rapidly rising to a large and efficient one." 

The editor of the Lancet says that observation of these 
precautions should be sufficient to remove all risks of 
(Continued on Page 141) 

tSir William B. Leischman, C.B., F.R.S.. F.R.C.P.. LL.D., 
K H.P.. Col. Army Medical Service, and 

tA. B. Smallman, D.S.O., M.D.. D.P.H.. Maj. Royal Army 
Medical Corps. Lancet Jan. 27. 1917, page 131— Recent cases of 
Tetanus In the British Expeditionary Force. 

§H. Burrows. M.B.B.S.. London, F.R.C.S., England. Capt. R.A. 
M.C. Modified Tetanus. Lancet Tan. 27, 1917, page 139. 



THE Q UE STION BOX 

The ''How to Do It'' Department 



Conducted by Pharmaceutical Experts 

For the benefit of ERA Subscribers 




Therapy and Uses of Corn Oil 

(S. D. Co.) — So far as we are able to discover, corn 
oil or oil oi maize has not been much used as a therapeu- 
tic agent, although it is said to possess properties similar 
to those of rape seed and olive oils. It has also been 
stated that it may be satisfactorily employed pharmaceu- 
tically to replace cotton seed oil, over which it is said to 
possess the advantage of being more easily absorbed by 
the skin. It has been employed in the preparation of oint- 
ments, as diachylon, nitrate of mercury, etc., and in lini- 
ments m place of cotton seed or olive oil. It has never 
been employed to any great extent for internal administra- 
tion as a rHedicine. 

According to Lewkowitsch ("Chemical Technology of 
Oils, Fats, Waxes, etc.".), well-refined maize oil is used 
for edible purposes (salad oil^. He states that since its 
■"grainy" taste is objectionable, the edible quality is mostly 
mixed with edible cotton seed oil and other edible oils. 
it is also used in the manufacture of oleomargarine, and 
of "compound lard," replacing cotton seed oil. Maize oil 
which cannot be employed for edible purposes, is used for 
making soft soap for which it is said to be eminently suit- 
able. A "cotton softener," largely used in the United 
States, contains maize oil soap. For hard soaps, maize 
oil is not suitable. Lower qualities are used as burning 
oil. The oil has been recommended for lubricating, but 
on account of its gumming properties, it cannot be use- 
fully employed for the pnrpose. Lewkowitsch also says 
that notwithstanding many statements to the contrary, the 
oil cannot be used as a paint oil on account of the poor 
drying properties which paints prepared with it possess. 
Before soya bean took its place, it found extensive em- 
ployment in the United States for the manufacture of 
vulcanized maize oil. 

When expressed, the oil is golden-yellow, but that ob- 
tained by e.xtraction has a brownish color. The peculiar 
odor and taste are said to be due to the presence of a 
volatile oil. It is readily soluble in acetone, and diffi- 
cultly soluble in alcohol and glacial acetic acid. It contains 
the glycerides of palmitic, stearic, arachic, oleic and lino- 
leic acids, and if poured in thin layers on an exposed 
glass plate at 50 degrees C, it dries perfectly in 18 hours. 
Its saponification value lies between 191 and 193, and its 
iodine value between 113 and 120. Subjected to the elaidin 
test it produces a mass of lard-like consistence ("National 
Dispensatory"). Lloyd ("American Dispensatory") rec- 
ommends its use in the preparation of ammonia liniment. 
We can find no reference to its use in emulsions, and 
from the considerable literature consulted, we can find 
no data that would lead us to believe it possesses any 
particular properties other than those noted above. 



Protecting' Seed Corn from Crows 

(X. Y. Z.) — "Please publish a formula for a prepara- 
tion to put on seed corn that will prevent crows from 
pulling up the sprouted grain and which will not interfere 
with germination, nor become sticky like tar?" 

We have made some inquiry and have searched con- 
siderable literature relating to growing crops in the hope 
of finding a method which would come within the limi- 
tations of this request, and have concluded that if there is 
any better method than that of coating the seed corn with 
-tar. which seems to have been quite extensively employed, 
Jt has not received the publicity it should deserve. In fact 



the tar method has been recommended by an expert ol 
the United States Department of Agriculture in prefer- 
ence to any other, and he states that in his experience, not 
a single kernel of tarred corn was disturbed by crows, 
while rows of untarred seed immediately adjoining were 
almost entirely destroyed. In a study of the habits of 
grain-eating birds, the expert found that dry, hard corn 
was not palatable food for the crow, but that corn that 
has been softened and sweetened in the process of germ- 
ination is a favorite food and is eagerly sought by the 
crows. He states that the tarring process is the only 
satisfactory remedy he can suggest, and if it is properly 
done it is a preventive, as it neither injures the vitality of 
the grain nor prevents the use of machinery in planting. 
If any subscriber of the Era has knowledge of any method 
that will conform to the specifications stated in the above 
query he is asked to communicate it to the Question Box 
for the general information of readers. 



Making- Castor Oil Capsules 

(C. E. C.) — As a rule, castor oil capsules are produced 
by manufacturers who make a specialty of such products 
on a somewhat extended scale, the empty capsule to con- 
tain the oil being first made in suitable sizes, and the oil 
being then run in by means of a pipette, burette, or other 
suitable device. Castor oil is usually dispensed in soft 
capsules which are made of gelatin with enough glycerin 
added to the capsule mass to make the empty capsule 
when completed flexible and slightly elastic. As described 
in most text books on pharmacy, the capsules are oviform 
and in one piece, with an elongated neck at one end. When 
ready to be filled the necks are cut off, and the capsules 
stood on end in sockets of wood or plaster of paris. The 
liquid is then dropped in with a pipette or burette, care 
being taken not to get any on the outside. The capsules 
are sealed, either by melting the detached necks and apply- 
ing the hot melted fluid to the open end of the capsule, 
or by pressing a hot spatula on the open end, which melts 
the gelatin and causes it to flow together. 

The empty capsules are manufactured by dipping an ap- 
propriate mold into the mass, which is made by dissolv- 
ing gelatin in a mixture of hot water and glycerin in such 
proportions that the mass is fluid when heated on the wa- 
terbath, and solid when cold. Into the melted mass an 
appropriate mold, made of bone or ivory, is dipped, with 
the result of coating each mold with a layer of gelatin. 
When the molds are taken from the molten mass and 
placed in a cool place, the coating of gelatin rapidly 
solidifies, and the solid dry capsules are stripped from 
the molds by the fingers of the operators. By increasing 
the quantity of glycerin, as stated above, the capsule is 
made elastic. Practically all of the capsules made in this 
country are made by the manufacturer who specializes in 
this work, and who in most instances can produce them 
more cheaply than can the retail druggist. Some manu- 
facturers have very intricate and highly specialized ma- 
chinery for this work. Outside of the contributions that 
are to be found in periodical literature, and chapters on 
the subject in works on practical and dispensing pharm- 
acy, we know of no book wholly devoted to the manu- 
facture of gelatin capsules. Among the manufacturers 
who make gelatin capsule machinery are the Arthur Colton 
Co., Detroit, Mich., and the F. J. Stokes Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Page One Hundred and Twenty-One 



122 



THE PHARHIACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



Protecting Walls from Moisture 
(Dr. M. F. A.) — Waterproofing building material be- 
longs to Uie department of chemical engineering rather 
than to pharmacy, and the best we can do is to give you 
a few formulas taken from our files for protecting walls, 
etc., from moisture : 

(1) 
Dissolve J4 pound of mottled soap in one gallon of 
water. When dissolved, apply the solution over the brick- 
work, using a large flat brush, and being careful not to 
allow the application to form a lather or froth on the sur- 
face. Then let the wall dry for twenty-four hours. Pre- 
pare another solution by dissolving J4 pound of alum in 4 
gallons of water, allow to stand for twenty-four hours, 
then apply the solution over the coating of soap on the 
wall, using the brush as before. The work should be done 
in dry weather. In the reaction which follows the appli- 
cation of the solution of alum, an aluminum soap is formed 
which is impervious to moisture. 

(2) 
Damp proof composition — Mineral naphtha, 20 gallons; 
mineral turps, 10 gallons; rosin, 112 pounds; dammar 
siftings, 28 pounds. Run the rosin, take away from the 
fire when melted, and add the turps and naphtha ; add the 
dammar siftings, and mix until dissolved. When thor- 
oughly mixed, add 2J4 gallons of boiled oil, and strain. 
The mixture can be tinted bj' using from I'/i to 2 pounds 
of an ordinary pigment like zinc sulphide, Brunswick 
green, Venetian red, etc. 

(3) 
Talc, 90 parts; white dextrine, 11 parts; plaster of 
paris, 11 parts; calc spar, 4 parts; alum, 4 parts; cooking 
salt, 2 parts. Powder thoroughly and mix intimately. To 
use, stir 4 parts of the mixture in 3 parts of boiling water 
until a cream-like semi-liquid results. Any desired color 
can be stirred in. The creamy mixture can be put on any 
surface that it is desired to protect ; it is claimed that 
the application can be easily and evenly effected, and that 
the coating is "proof against fire and water, and will not 
scale off." 



Zacaton 

(Importer) — Zacaton. known botanically as Epicampes 
macroura, is an unusually hardy, heavy cropping peren- 
nial grass of profuse growth in Mexico and -Central 
America. The roots are used in the manufacture of 
brushes. The tops form a possible source of pulp, which, 
it is said works up into excellent machine-finish book 
paper. The pulp is soft, bulky and short fibred and could 
probably be used in the same manner as soda poplar pulp. 
According to experts of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, it would appear possible to grow zacaton as a crop 
in the United States. 



Making Potassium Oleate 

(E. C. A.) — Potassium oleate, used in the formula for 
preventing moisture on eye glasses, March Era, page 91, 
can be obtained in the market, but it may also be quite 
easily made by the interaction of oleic acid with potassium 
hydroxide. This method is that employed in making the 
ordinary soft or green soap, which is prepared by heating 
olive oil, the chief constituent of which is olein or the 
glyceride of oleic acid, with potassium hydroxide and wa- 
ter, and allowing the mixture to cool. The resulting prod- 
uct or soap, consists chiefly of potassium oleate, but also 
contains the glycerin formed in making it. In practice 
it is quite probable that this soap could be employed in 
place of the potassium oleate directed in the formula, due 
allowance being made for the small quantity of glycerin 
in the soap. 

Or you can make a potassium oleate by neutralizing 
oleic acid with potassium hydroxide, 100 parts of KOH 
being required to saturate .503.6 parts of oleic acid C100% 
HQsHs-O;"). as shown in the following equation and state- 
ment of proportion : 

KOH -f- HC„H„0~ = KC„H„0, -f H,0 
56.11 + 282.27 = 338.38 + 18.016 

From these data we get the proportion; 56.11 : 100 :: 
282.27 : X. in which x = 503.6. 



Potassium oleate can also be made as follows : 

Potassium bicarbonate 75 grams 

Oleic acid 210 grams 

Add the potassium bicarbonate gradually to 3,000 Cc 
of boiling water. When effervescence has ceased and the 
bicarbonate has been converted into normal carbonate of 
potassium, add the oleic acid, stir well, and continue heat- 
ing the mixture gently, add more water, if necessarj-, until 
saponification is complete. The resulting solution can be 
evaporated (or diluted with water) to bring it to the de- - 
sired consistency. 

Potassium oleate, KCisHjjOs, forms a transparent, jel- 
ly-like mass, which is far more readily soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether, than sodium oleate. One part of po- 
tassium oleate requires for complete solution 4 parts of 
water, or 2.15 parts of alcohol, or 29.1 parts of boiling 
ether. 



Bon-Opto Tablets 

(X. Y. Z.) — We cannot give the formula for this pro- 
prietary preparation which is claimed by the manufac- 
turers to "improve the eye sight and to allow the user 
to dispense with eye glasses." However, we find that the 
preparation has recently been investigated by the New 
Hampshire Board of Health, a report of which appears in 
the January Bulletin of the board, as follows: 

"This preparation, which sells for one dollar, consists 
of a 'solution bottle,' a small aluminum eye-cup, and a vial 
containing fourteen tablets each weighing six grains. The 
analysis showed common salt, 39.52 per cen: ; crystallized 
zinc sulphate, 6.83 per cent; boric acid, 39.69 per cent; 
menthol, a small quantity. There is nothing peculiar, un- 
usual or expensive about the essential ingredients, which 
are common salt and boric acid, together with a little as- 
tringent zinc salt and cooling menthol. Exception must 
be taken to the recommendations of the makers that this 
product be used as a prophylactic for normal eyes. Thus 
they state that 'comparatively few people appreciate the 
need of an eye-cup and Bon-Opto to use as an eye bath. 
But both should be in every bath-room and possessed and 
used at times by every individual. Parents should teach 
their children to cleanse the eyes just as they teach them 
to cleanse the face and hands. Bon-Opto eye-cup and so- 
lution are as much toilet necessities as tooth brush and 
tooth paste. This is true even when the eyes are in no 
way afflicted.' Although calculated to boom the use of 
salt and boric acid at one dollar per vial, such advice, as 
applied to healthy normal eyes, is not only absurd but 
pernicious. The makers also issue a series of progressive 
'eye exercises' extending over a period of six months, some 
of which are decidedly amusing. Based upon a theory that 
nearsightedness, farsightedness, squinting, and astigmatism 
have their origin in a mental state rather than represent- 
ing an actual physical infirmity, the promoters urge that 
you 'therefore make up your mind with determination that 
with the assistance of Bon-Opto you will overcome your 
eye troubles.' " 



Bedbug and Roach Destroyer 

(P. Mfg. Co.) — We have printed quite a good many 
formulas for bedbug and roach destroyers, and also re- 
ports of a number of commercial preparations on the 
market recommended for the purpose, and have yet to 
find one that has proved satisfactory to everybody. The 
consensus of opinion and experience seems to indicate 
that the most effectual remedy is gasoline. but_ as its use 
is attended with great danger on account of its inflam- 
mability, its employment in most places is practically pro- 
hibitive. A non-inflammable insecticide of this type rec- 
ommended by some, is the following: 

Carbon tetrachloride 1 pint 

Denatured alcohol 3 pints 

Mix. Use with a sprayer by which the fluid may be in- 
jected into the haunts of the vermin. It is claimed that 
it is effectual for getting rid of bugs that infest rooms, 
beds, closets, etc.. and will not injure the colors of fabrics, 
curtains, etc. 

It is reported that some of the commercial powders 
contain vary-ng proportions of sodium fluoride, which has 



April, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



123 



also been recommended as an effectual insecticide. We 
take from our files the following type formula : 

Silex 22 parts 

Sodium fluoride 40 parts 

Sodium chloride 10 parts 

Dried sodium carbonate 5 parts 

Sodium sulphate 10 parts 

Mix. 

Recently a writer in the Journal of the A.M.A. recom- 
mended the use of bromine for the purpose, a method 
which seems to be worthy of trial. An ounce bottle of 
bromine is placed in a room, the windows of which have 
been tightly closed. The cork of the bottle is then re- 
moved, the door quickly closed, and the room left for 
twenty-four hours, when it is opened and aired. The 
writer states that the fumes of the bromine do not seem 
to affect anything but the bugs and their eggs, which are 
quickly put out of commission by the treatment. It is not 
expected that this method is adapted for commercial ex- 
ploitation like the ordinary packaged preparations, but it 
is claimed that it will do the work. 



Hoffman's Anodyne 

(H. E. B.) — "Hoffman's Anodyne" is now an official 
synonym for "Spiritus Aetheris Compositus," abbreviated 
"Sp. .A.ether. Co.," or "compound spirit of ether" of the 
National Formulary, 4th revision, and under the provisions 
of the Federal Food and Drugs Act, such synonym with- 
out qualification cannot be legally applied to any other 
preparation. The formula is identical with that for com- 
pound spirit of ether of the U.S. P. VIII, but for which 
the synonym "Hoffman's Anodyne" was not officially 
given. The formula is as follows : 

Ether 325 mils 

Alcohol • 650 mils 

Ethereal oil 25 mils 

Mix them. Average dose : Metric, 4 mils — apothecaries, 
1 fluidrachm. 

The designation "Hoffman's Anodyne" should not be 
confused with "Hoffmann's Drops," which is an official 
synonym for "Spiritus Aetheris," abbreviated "Sp. Aether.," 
or spirit of ether of the U.S. P. IX. Presumably the spell- 
ing of the name "Hoffman," as employed in the National 
Formulary is due to a typographical error, as the name 
is spelled "Hoffmann" by most authorities. In a paper 
contributed to the A.Ph.A. in 1903 by the late Martin I. 
Wilbert on "Personal Name Synonyms in the U.S. P.," it 
is stated that "the compound spirit of ether was first pre- 
pared by Friederich Hoffmann in the early years of the 
18th century. Hoffmann was born at Halle, February 19, 
1660, and is usually considered one of the leaders of Ger- 
man medicine. Hoffmann was the first professor of 
medicine at Halle, and was the author of 'Systema Medi- 
cinae Rationalis.' His dictum that 'experience and sense 
are the basis of medicine' is as true today as it was 
then. Hoffmann died at Halle, November 12, 1742." 



To get a transparent preparation, the very finest gelatin 
should be employed. 

Another formula directs the following: 

Isinglass 1 ounce 

Water 24 ounces 

Glycerin 6 ounces 

Boric acid '. 2 drams 

Soak the isinglass in water over night, then gently heat 
until dissolved. While still hot add the water and glyc- 
erin in which the boric acid has been previously dissolved, 
and allow it to stand until cold. Gelatin may be used in 
place of isinglass, but it will not make so clear a mixture. 

A formula for a so-called "greaseless" cream, which is 
said to be satisfactory, but which does not produce a 
"transparent" preparation, is the following; 

. Stearic acid 3 ounces 

Glycerin 3 ounces 

Water 6 ounces 

Potassium carbonate J4 ounce 

Powdered tragacanth 4 drams 

Borax I5/2 drams 

Perfume, a sufficiency. 
Place the glycerin on a waterbath, heat to 150 degrees 
F., and add the tragacanth, previously rubbed up with a 
little alcohol. Add the stearic acid, heat till melted, then 
add the borax and potassium carbonate dissolved in the 
hot water. Stir until the mixture begins to set, then add 
the perfume. Other formulas for preparations of a simi- 
lar character will be found in the Era Formulary. 



Transparent Toilet Cream 
(J. N. C.)— We cannot give the formula for the pro- 
prietary preparation, but it is possible to make a so-called 
"transparent" cream on the type of a glycerin jelly, using 
a fine grade of French gelatin, isinglass, or agar agar, the 
following formula having been suggested for a prepara- 
tion of this character: 

Thin French gelatin 4 drams 

Water 5 ounces 

Glycerin of borax 10 ounces 

Triple rose water 6 ounces 

Soak the gelatin in the water all night in a gallipot, and 
next morning place the pot in a sauce-pan with water, and 
heat until dissolved. Add the glycerin and rose water, 
previously mixed with a teaspoonful of white of egg. 
Heat until the albumen coagulates, and filter while hot 
through a twill bag. The jelly may be colored red with 
cochineal or golden with saffron, the coloring in either 
case being add to the water used in the manufacturing. 



Musterole: Sage and Sulphur Hair Tonic 

(J. A. W.) — We cannot give the formula for "muster- 
ole" and the only information we have concerning the 
preparation is that stated in Judgment No. 4358, issued by 
the Department of Agriculture, in which is set forth the 
fact that the manufacturers of the preparation were found 
guilty of misbranding and were fined $25. It is also 
stated that analysis of a sample by the Bureau of Chem- 
istry showed "that it was essentially a combination of oil 
of mustard, menthol and, evidently, camphor, in a fatty 
base such as lard." 

A proprietary so-called "sulphur and sage hair remedy," 
analyzed by the Bureau of Chemistry and reported in 
Judgment No. 4486 showed the following composition : 

Sulphur 0.81 per cent 

Lead acetate (anhydrous) 0.76 per cent 

Solids other than lead, glycerin and 

sulphur 0.19 per cent 

Glycerin ; present 
Capsicum : present 
Cantharidin test ; negative. 
On this showing, misbranding was alleged and an in- 
formation filed, the manufacturer pleading guilty, the 
court imposing a fine of $25. 

A formula for a "sage and sulphur hair tonic," pub- 
lished some years ago in the Era is as follows : 

Sage I ounce 

Boiling water 1 pint 

Steep for an hour, strain and add : 

Glycerin 2 ounces 

Borax Ya ounce 

Lac sulphur Va ounce 

Tincture of cantharides Va ounce 

Perfume with oil of bergamot. 
Shake well and apply with a soft sponge. 
As you must know, sulphur as an element is practically 
insoluble in water and nearly insoluble in alcohol, but 
dissolves in hot solutions of the fixed alkalies and alka- 
line earths, forming sulphides. 

To Clean Mortars 
(F. W.) — A German authority recommends the use of 
a stiff paste made with powdered pumice and strong 
commercial sulphuric acid. The inside of the dirty mortar 
is covered fairly thickly with this and set aside for a few 
hours. It is then washed off with water and will leave 
a clean surface. If the mixture has badly stained the 
mortar, triturate a little potassium bichromate with sul- 
phuric acid about the sides, rinsing out well with water. 



124 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



Books Reviewed 



MATERIA MEDICA and THERAPEUTICS INCLUDING PHARM- 
ACY and PHARMACOLOGY. By Reynold Webb Wilcox, M.A 
M.D., LL.D., D.C.L., president of the American College ol 
Physicians, professor of medicine (retired) at the Post-Gradu- 
ate Medical School and Hospital, etc. Ninth edition, revised in 
accordance with the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, IX. with index of 
symptoms. 12 mo., 860 pages, cloth, $3.50. J^hiladelphia, P. 
Blakiston's Son & Co. 

For years Wilcox's Materia Medica has been used as a. 
text book in many colleges of pharmacy, and we believe 
this edition will continue to be so employed, although it is 
primarily recommended by the author to the medical stu- 
dent and practitioner. The work is divided into two parts, 
the first being devoted to materia medica and pharmacy, 
in which full attention is given to pharmaceutical pro- 
cesses, to the various kinds of preparations, with their 
dosage, and to the art of prescribing; after which the de- 
scription of remedies is taken up in detail. The thera- 
peutic agents are divided into two sections, the inorganic 
and organic materia medica, and the general classification 
adopted is one based on the grouping of the articles ac- 
cording to the chemical or physiological divisions to which 
each belongs. According to the author, the course of in- 
struction on materia medica should include the perform- 
ance of the simpler pharmaceutical operations, demonstra- 
tions of the drugs and preparations, and practice in pre- 
scription writing. 

The second part of the book deals with pharmacology 
and therapeutics, the classification employed being based 
on the particular physiological system upon which the 
various agents principally act. There is a very complete 
presentation of the pharmacopoeial remedies with their 
pharmacological action and therapeutic uses, this informa- 
tion, so far as we are able to discover, representing the 
latest views of the highest authorities. We are impressed 
with the logical and orderly arrangement the author has 
employed in presenting his facts in this work, but it is to 
be regretted that he did not incorporate in his volume the 
materia medica of the National Formulary which, so far 
as pharmacists are concerned, and many physicians as well, 
is just as "official" and authoritative under the law as is 
the materia medica of the Pharmacopoeia. 



YEAR BOOK OF PHARMACY, comprising abstracts of papers re- 
lating to pharmacy, materia medica, and chemistry contributed 
to British and foreign journals from July 1. 1915, to June 30, 
1916, with the transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference at its 53rd annual meeting held in London, July 12, 191d. 
12 mo., 540 pages, cloth. London, J. & A. Churchill. 

This volume, prepared primarily for members of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, contains the proceed- 
ings of the annual meeting of that organization, and ab- 
stracts of scientific papers published throughout the world 
relating to such subjects as current work in chemistry, 
essential oils, materia medica, galenical pharmacy, dispens- 
ing notes, new remedies, apparatus, formulas, processes, 
etc. In some respects the volume covers the same field 
as that of the present Year-Book of the A.Ph.A., the sec- 
tion on Xotes and Formulae particularly furnishing much 
practical information that will be found useful in daily 
drug store work behind the counter. As a frontispiece, 
the volume carries a portrait of Dr. David Hooper, F.I.C., 
president of the Conference in 1916, whose presidential 
address on the "Drug Resources of India and the Colonies," 
which appears in full in the proceedings, was declared to 
be one of the features of the meeting. The president of 
the Conference for the current year is Chas. Alexander 
Hill, B.Sc, F.I.C., London. 



EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES WITH MUSCICIDES AND OTHER 
FLY-DESTROYING AGENCIES. By Ralph B. Phelps and 
Albert F. Stevenson. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 108. 
United States Public Health Service. 

This bulletin represents a scientific investigation of the 
use of muscicides or fly poison preparations, and the facts 
presented will certainly cause many to revise their opin- 
ions of the various substances that have been recommended 
for eliminating the fly nuisance in the household. In this 
study, the relative coefficient which served as a standard 
basis of comparison and which was developed by the au- 
thors in their work, was one thousandth normal sodium ar- 
senite. Of the large number of substances tried, the work 
indicated three substances of decided value, namely, form- 
aldehyde, sodium salicylate, and sodium fluoride. The first 
two of these in the concentrations used and the quantities 
exposed would be practically harmless to man, while sodi- 
um fluoride, even in this dilution, would probably be cor- 
rosive when mixed w-ith the hydrochloric acid of the stom- 
ach. Potassium dichromate and quassia syrup were found 
to be of little value, while formaldehyde, when properly 
prepared, was found to be much more efficient than the 
standard arsenite solution. The most efficient strength of 
the formaldehyde solution was found to be from 0.5 to 1 
per cent., equivalent to 1.25 to 2.5 per cent of the solution 
sold as formalin. A muscicide of almost equal efficiency 
and of distinctly superior qualities in many ways was found 
in sodium salicylate, a 1 per cent solution of which is rec- 
ommended. 

In the tests on sticky papers it was found that those 
made with a solution of rosin in castor oil were far su- 
perior to those made with rosin and other oils. A prepa- 
ration composed of 1 part by weight of castor oil and 2 
parts of white rosin was most satisfactory and gave as 
good results as the common sticky preparations on the 
market. 



BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. Report of 
the Director of the Pharmaceutical Experiment Station for the 
fiscal years July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1916. 52 pages. Madison, Wis. 

According to Director Kremers, interest in the activi- 
ties of the station has not lessened since its establishment 
three years ago, the principal manifestation of this in- 
terest being shown in the visits to the garden and station 
laboratory, both by residents of the State and representa- 
tives of distant states. The medical profession has also 
begun to realize the benefits to be derived in medical 
practice from the cultivation of medicinal plants and the 
scientific production of so-called crude drugs and their 
preparations. 

During the two sea' ons under consideration, a tabula- 
tion shows that 64 plants were cultivated in 1914, and 57 
in 1915. the policy being to restrict the number of species 
cultivated and to try out on a semi-economic scale those 
medicinal plants which had proven a cultural success. 
Among the drugs grown and studied were wormwood, 
datura, digitalis, and horsemint, the last named being in- 
vestigated as a possible source of thymol. During the 
summer of 1915, Prof. E. R. Miller, chemist of the station 
collected 4039 pounds of Monarda fistulosa, and at the 
time the report was written, was engaged in the study of 
the volatile oil obtained therefrom and from which he 
separated carvacrol, a large sample of which had been 
supplied to the Hygienic Commission of the Rockefeller 
Foundation for its campaign against hookworm in Ceylon. 
The bulletin also contains a contribution on ""Wisconsin 
Thvmol." bv Edward Kremers : on "Wisconsin Worm- 
wood Oils of 1914 and 1915," by E. R. Miller; on the 
".\pparent and Real Ash Content of Digitalis," by Nor- 
bert Mueller, and a "Preliminary Report on Co-operative 
Experiment." by C. M. Woodworth and H. A. Langen- 
han. We believe that no pharmacist can read this report 
without concluding that the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical 
Experiment Station has demonstrated its value, and to 
increase its possibilities in rendering service to the state 
and country at large it should receive as recommended by 
the Director a special appropriation for the continuation 
of its meritorious work. 



FERN NOTES. By Oliver Atkins FarTvell. 

This bulletin is a reprint' from the 18th annual Report 
of the Michigan .A.cademy of Science, December, 1916, and 
puts on record some of the author's results and conclusions 
arrived at during a course of study embracing botanical 
researches in the field, herbarium and library. One par- 
ticularly interesting "Note" in this collection relates to the 
use of the name Filix as employed to designate the genus 
represented by the male fern. 



"Trichlor-Tertiarybutyl .Mcohol .\nesthe?ia" by L. W. 
Rowe. of the research laboratory of Parke. Davis & Co., 
is the title of a pamphlet we have received. This com- 
pound was first used by Abel in 1892, but its preparation- 
was not made nractical until 1899. when it was placed OU' 
the market under the name of "chlorefone." 



ApiiiL, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



125 



ASSOCIATIONS 



BOARDS AND BRANCHES 



MINNESOTA ASSOCIATION MEETS 

Minnesota druggists held a three day convention in St. 
Paul late in February and favored resolutions abolishing 
trading stamps and coupon systems, a law establishing 
educational prerequisite for schools of pharmacy, and a law 
Minnesota college of pharmacy was authorized. 

Dean Wulling, in an interesting speech said that a 
separation of professional and commercial pharmacy could 
be looked for in the store of the future. K. C. Brockmeyer 
of Washington, D. C, urged the druggists to bring pres- 
sure on Congress as other bodies of men have succeeded 
in doing. 

There was a lengthy discussion of impure drugs in 
which it was suggested that druggists make chemical 
analysis of drugs themselves as that was the only way to 
get protection. 

The Minnesota association elected L. J. Aberwald of 
St. Paul, former treasurer, president, succeeding John F. 
Danek of Minneapolis, and other officers as follows: 
Charles MacGregor, Detroit, first vice-president ; Edward 
A. Grotchau, Duluth, second vice-president ; W. C. Haney, 
Marshall, third vice-president; E. L. Newcomb, University 
of Minnesota, secretary; R. J. Messing, St. Paul, treas- 
urer; John Danek, Minneapolis, executive committeeman. 

New officers of the Northwestern branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association are : Truman Grif- 
fen, Minneapolis, president; C. H. Bollinger, St. Paul, 
vice-president; Prof. Charles H. Rogers, University of 
Minnesota, secretary-treasurer; F. A. U. Smith, and F. M. 
Parker of St. Paul, and W. S. Smetana, Hopkins, execu- 
tive committeemen. 

The Commercial Travelers' auxiliary elected as follows : 
H. Hauter. Minneapolis, president; W. H. Snider, Minne- 
apolis, first vice-president; J. Loes. Minneapolis, second 
vice-president ; D. C. Wokeman, Duluth, third vice-presi- 
dent ; W. B. Fields, St. Paul, secretary. 

J. P. Jelinek, St. Paul ; J. Y. Breckinridge, Pine City ; 
Dr. C. W. Drew and A. J. Kleine, Minneapolis, were made 
life members after having paid dues to the association for 
twenty years. 



KINGS COUNTY OPPOSES FERTIG BILL 

The Kings County Pharmaceutical Society, at its March 
meeting went on record as being strongly opposed to the 
bill introduced at Albany by Assemblyman Fertig, called 
the "formula disclosure bill." The bill would compel 
druggists to put the formula together with the quantity 
of all ingredients used in any package of medicine sold 
by them, on the label of each package. The contention of 
the druggist is that the law is all right in so far as it 
covers actual proprietaries, but that it should not be used 
for all medicines, since private compounds would at once 
become public. 

The report of the committee which had in charge the 
dinner given to the doctors was that the banquet was the 
best ever held. Thomas J. France announced that the 
commencement of the College of Pharmacy would be 
held in the Brooklyn Academy of Music on May 14th. 



MASSACHUSETTS COMPANY FORMED 

A company for instruction in the duties of pharmacists 
in military organization has been formed by over 80 
students in the Massachusetts College of Pharrnacy. 
Every Saturday drills are being held, with occasional 
mid-week meetings. 

George L. Burroughs, a Boston druggist, launched the 
movement in a mass meeting, March 9th. Dean Theo- 
dore J. Bradley said that the pharmacist has peculiar du- 
ties, for he must not only fight for the lives of his own 
countrymen, but also for those of the captured enemy. 

Sergt. John J. Murphy, of the Army, instructor of the 
company, declared that each man can best serve his coun- 
try by serving in the position for which he is best fitted. 
On the Mexican border recently, he said, he found a 
pharmacist driving a four-mule team, while the pharm- 
acist in his own regiment was a machinist. 



KANSAS 

At the fourth quarterly meeting of the Kansas Board 
of Pharmacy, held at Wichita, February 14th and 15th, 
fifty applicants were present to take the examination, 
of wliicli number, twenty-one were successful. Five 
pliarmacists were registered on diploma, and three by 
reciprocity, while the names of seven were restored to the 
register. The next quarterly meetnig of the board will 
be held at Topeka on Alay 17th and 18th, at 9 o'clockj 
A.M., and applicants desiring to take the examination 
should notify Secretary W. E. Shcrriff, Ellsworth, Kan- 
sas, at least five days before the date of meeting. 



NEW JERSEY 

Sixteen applicants successfully passed the Xew Jersey 
Board of Pharmacy examination held at the State House, 
Trenton, on January 18th and 19th, and were granted 
certificates as registered pharmacists. Seven applicants 
were successful as registered assistant pharmacists. The 
next examination will be held on April 19tJi and 20th, 
and candidates for examination must file their applica- 
tions with the secretary, Edgar R. Sparks, Burlington, 
N. J., at least ten days before the date of examination. 



LOUISIANA 

The Louisiana Board of Pharmacy examined twenty- 
eight applicants at Tulane University, New Orleans, on 
February 16th and 17th, of whom seventeen passed as 
registered pharmacists and one as a qualified assistant. 
The examining committee was composed of Gus Seeman, 
pharmacy, Edward H. Walsdorf, materia medica. A. Di- 
Trapani, practical work, and John H. Taylor, chemistry. 
The next examination will be held at New Orleans, May 
18-19. 



CHICAGO BRANCH 

At the last meeting of the Chicago branch of the 
A. Ph. A., held at Kuntz-Remmlers, L. D. Jones presented 
a new device for inducing breathing in new born infants 
afflicted with asphyxia neomonatorium or for resuscitat- 
ing infants or little children with asphyxia from other 
causes. 

The principal subject of discussion was the report sub- 
mitted by Dr. J. H. Beal for the committee appointed at 
the previous meeting to consider the matter of Compul- 
sory Health Insurance. Dr. Beal stated that this subject 
was the most deserving of study of any legislation yet 
placed before the druggist. It is more important than 
the Food and Drug Act or the State Pharmacy Acts. 
Either it sounds the death-knell of what little drug busi- 
ness remains to the pharmacist or it restores to him a real 
drug business. 

Dr. Bernard Fantus endorsed the report, especially the 
recommendation that the branch continue to study the 
whole subject in a purely judicial frame of mind, and to 
reach conclusions that shall be as nearly as possible devoid 
of partisan bias or prejudice growing out of professional 
relations to the sick. He considered that it would be a 
most suicidal policy to antagonize the bill just because it 
would take the bread and butter from druggists. The posi- 
tion of the physician, pharmacist and Yiurse should be 
definitely assigned and defined in the bill before intelli- 
gent criticism can be offered. The interested professions 
should be prepared to offer suitably drawn sections cov- 
ering their ideas as to the positions the professions should 
occupy under the laws. 

Many others took part in the discussion, and the gen- 
eral opinion seemed to be that the subject required ex- 
tensive study and that hasty action on the part of state 
legislatures to enact such a bill into law should be de- 
precated and strongly opposed. 

The report of the committee with recommendations, was 
endorsed and referred for publication and a vote of 
thanks w-as extended to the chairman and his colleagues 
for the excellent report. 



126 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA 

Presideiu Brooks has been requested by the U. S. naval 
department to nominate some of the present senior class 
for appointment as second lieutenant in the marine corps 
at a salary of $1,700. 

The University of Oklahoma in raising $1,100 for the 
Belgian War Relief fund has made a creditable showing 
compared with the larger schools. The University of 
Texas contributed $1,445; Ohio University, $3,200; Chi- 
cago University, $2,850; and Yale $5,500. 

Oklushe Degataga, the Indian student club, met re- 
cently and elected officers and formulated plans for the 
celebration of Indian Day. A barbecue, an Indian ball 
game between the Chickasaws and Choctaws, and several 
big speakers will be the features of the celebration which 
will be held in May. 

Students in the school of pharmacy were dismissed from 
their pharmacy classes and attended the meeting of the 
Oklahoma Pharmaceutical Association at Oklahoma City 
in a body. ' Calvin Arnold was elected cheer leader and 
led them in their yells during their stay in Oklahoma City. 

Professor Earle S. Porter of the department of chem- 
istry has been granted a year's sabbatical leave beginning 
September 1, 1917. He will do graduate work in Co- 
lumbia University. 

Plans for a new athletic field and gymnasium to be 
located just south of Boyd field and the handball courts, 
work to commence just as soon as sufficient funds are 
secured within the grounds and equipment appropriations, 
are being formulated by Athletic Director Ben G. Owen. 
The new grounds will cover something like 30 acres of 
university land just south across the road from the hand- 
ball courts. One of the main features will be a separate 
enclosure for a large oval track and a well sodded grid- 
iron. 

More than 75 pharmacists attending the meeting of the 
State Ph. A., at Oklahoma City, visited the university and 
spent two hours visiting the school of pharmacy and the 
new chemistry building. They were addressed by Dr. 
Edwin DeBarr on the construction of DeBarr Hall. The 
visitors then returned to Oklahoma City. Dean C. H. 
Stocking of the School of Pharmacy believes that the 
meeting was the most successful in the history of the 
association. A matter of great importance to this and 
other institutions offering courses in pharmacy was the 
adoption of a resolution favoring graduation from a rec- 
ognized school of pharmacy as pre-requisite to obtaining 
the state certificate. 

Oklahoma's 1917 summer session according to the di- 
rector will begin a week earlier than it was originally ar- 
ranged for. Registration begins June 2d and will end 
Monday. June 4th. June 5th will be occupied by com- 
mencement so class work will not begin until Wednesday, 
June 6th. The session will end July 31st. At this session 
several courses in pharmacy and chemistry will be of- 
fered. 



CREIGHTON UNIVERSITY 

G. W. Xoble, general agent of the New England Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, recently delivered a very inter- 
esting lecture on insurance to the combined classes of the 
college of pharmacy. This was the third of a series of 
lectures on special subjects arranged by Dean Newton for 
the second semester. 

N. C. Wood, master accountant and "efficiency expert." 
will deliver a course of several lectures, early in April on 
"Salesmanship and Efficiency in Pharmacy." 

Founder's Day was observed as a holiday by the stu- 
dents and the faculty were tendered a banquet at Hotel 
Fontenelle. 

A record of one hundred and two prescriptions com- 
pounded in four hours was made by the section of stu- 
dents in the prescription room of the Free Dispensary. 

Lieutenant W. W. Waddell, of the Omaha Navy Recruit- 
ing Station, addressed the students on the subject, "Pre- 
paredness." 



ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY 

The executive committee of the Alumni Association 
of the University of Illinois School of Pharmacy met re- 
cently and decided to hold a "William B. Day Testimonial 
Dinner" on June 6th, this date being the 25th anniversary 
of Prof. Day's graduation from the school and since which 
time, he has faithfully served the pharmaceutical profession 
in many ways. Representatives of every branch of pharm- 
acy, wholesale, retail, the teaching profession, and especial- 
ly of the A.Ph.A. and I.Ph.A., will be invited to attend 
the dinner. The Alumni Association will finance and di- 
rect the project, with the president and secretary in charge. 
The Alumni Ebert Scholarship fund, according to the 
report of the treasurer, has a balance on hand of $642, and 
the committee decided to collect the outstanding pledges 
and enough new subscriptions to bring the sum up to 
$1,000, the interest on which would be given yearly as a 
prize to the student graduating with the highest general 
average. 

President Leo L. Mrazek of the association, announced 
that he would give $25 each year to the student attaining 
the highest average in chemistry, thus completing the list 
of prizes for each department of the school, a prize of $25 
contributed by Andrew Scherer providing a prize for the 
student receiving the highest standing in pharmacy. A 
microscope is awarded annually by Herman Fry for ex- 
cellence in materia medica, and the proposed Ebert fund 
will provide a prize for the student attaining the highest 
general average. 



IOWA UNIVERSITY 

The Iowa Pharmaceutical Association at its recent meet- 
ing in Des Moines, recommended by unanimous vote that 
a prerequisite bill be introduced into the Legislature at 
once. 

P. K. Husten. 'IS. formerly storekeeper in the depart- 
ment of chemistry, has returned from Texas where he 
was a member of the hospital corps of Company A, 
Iowa National Guard. 

H. P. Currier, '17, of Sheffield. 111., and N. E. Fuller. 
'17. of Chariton, la., attended the meeting of the Grand 
Council of the Phi Delta Chi fraternity held recently at 
Lincoln. Neb. 

The members of the faculty of the College of Pharm- 
acy were much in evidence at the recent meeting of the 
Iowa State Ph. A. held at Des Moines. Dean Teeters and 
Profs. Kuever, Cooper and Boerner being present. There 
was also a goodly representation of former students. 



WAR BRINGS FLOOD OF "FAKE' DRUGS 

War, with its accompanying scarcity of drugs, has 
brought a new danger to druggists and other consumers in 
this country. Spurious drugs are being thrown on the 
market in large quantities, and associations, business 
houses, civil authorities and brokers all over the country 
are beginning investigations to run down what is believed 
to be a ring or gang, operating as peddlers to sell the stuff. 

Hard upon the heels of the bismuth subnitrate swindle 
in New York, which has ended in court action and the 
holding of Benjamin Lifschitz, who sold the stuff, for 
further trial, comes a report from Minnesota that spurious 
saffron is on the market and from San Francisco that 
sawdust is being sold for saccharine. Other complaints 
have been heard from the West, and a wholesale drug 
house in Chicago complains that quinine is being adulter- 
ated to a great extent. 

In New York, the authorities who are making investi- 
gations feel sure that a ring is handling the goods. 

"With market prices so high." explains one of the offi- 
cials, "it is but natural that peddlers should try to slip 
over some smaller quantities. They were able to do this 
and they found they could make sales without any ques- 
t-ons from the purchaser. He was only too glad to get 
the goods. 



April, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



127 



WOMEN IN PHARMACY 



Conducted by EMMA GARY WALLACE 



Women Druggists and Baby Week 



FROM May 1st to 6th has been announced by the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs as the dates for 
the Nation-Wide Baby Week Campaign. This year 
the observance will be much more universal and on a 
larger scale than heretofore, for the educative value of the 
movement has been amply proven to be verj' great. 

In some places the recent epidemic of Infantile Paralysis 
will make caution necessary. Where there is the least 
danger or fear of danger, in getting a lot of babies to- 
gether, the Local Health and State authorities should be 
consulted and their wishes and directions strictly followed. 
Even although they may disapprove of bringing the little 
people together for parades or contests of any kind, it is 
not necessary to give up Baby Week celebration. There 
is no possible objection "to the mothers and those inter- 
ested in the care of children coming together and learning 
all they can on the subject of child welfare. 

In addition to this the Children's Bureau of the Federal 
Government is anxious to teach the mother how to take 
care of herself, believing firmly that a healthy, well-cared- 
for mother is necessary if the child is to achieve its best. 
If you are not already familiar with the bulletin on "Ma- 
ternal Mortality" by Dr. Grace L. Meigs, of the Children's 
Bureau, send for it. 

If you can't as a woman pharmacist, get things started 
for a Baby Week, don't scorn a BABY DAY. This is not 
ideal, but it is better than nothing, and a single day to 
which everybody turns out and which is chock full of in- 
terest and enthusiasm is better than several days which 
have comparatively little to offer. Of course there is 
plenty which is vital to occupy a whole week, but all com- 
munities do not adapt themselves to new ideas at once and 
have to be educated through smaller beginnings. Don't 
be afraid of raising too much money, for if there is any 
left over it can be used as a fund to start some needed 
movement of a permanent nature for the babies. 

Only recently our Government has wakened up to the 
importance of complete Birth Registration. The Govern- 
ment has an important leaflet on this matter and the wo- 
man pharmacist will do well to furnish herself with a sup- 
ply and to distribute these on her own initiative in drug 
store packages. To go to the Birth Registration Bureau 
will give you the list of those already registered, but will 
not help with any omitted. There is no reason why the in- 
dividual business woman may not justly undertake some 
work to connect herself specifically with leadership in 
baby welfare work. Here are some things you can do: 
Things Possible for Baby Week 

Offer a prize of a big doll or a watch for the best 
original Baby Week Poster hand made by children in the 
Grade School ; a fountain pen for the best Poster from 
the Grammar School ; and a five dollar gold piece to the 
most artistic one from the High School. For the sake of 
uniformity, specify the size of the Posters, making the 
three sets slightlydifferent. Have every contestant write 
his or her name on the back of the submitted Poster. 
Make window displays of these. They will attract a lot 
of attention, or if you prefer, award two, three, and five 
dollars worth of drug store goods to be chosen by the 
winner. 

Another contest can be held for the women or mothers 
of the town. A 500 word essay on "How to Care for the 
Baby," or answers to a series of questions printed on a 
blank, would answer admirably. Have several prominent 
people assist in judging and advertise it. This will be a 
benefit to the people who take part for it will_ help them 
to crystalize their thoughts on the subject and it will be a 
benefit to you because you can make friends of every con- 
testant by unexpectedly sending some little souvenir as a 
"Recognition" of excellent' effort. Such a souvenir may 



not be anything very expensive, but it should be a drug 
store article. It will depend upon how many contestants 
you have and how much you can afford to give. A 
book on the care of the child will send people back to 
you again and again for supplies ; a baby size hot water 
bag will be appreciated; or even a package of absorbent 
paper articles for the summer picnicker. 

Do you know that the United States Health Service 
prints a lot of helpful literature in languages which our 
foreign population can read? Have you any of these 
people in your locality? Earn their everlasting gratitude 
by giving them something they would not get hold of 
otherwise. 

It will pay to make a window display which will actu- 
ally tell a story. Never mind if it isn't as artistic or 
beautiful to the eye as the window of the jeweler or the 
department store. A striking window could be made by 
dividing the space into two parts. On the one side have a 
small, clean, well-cared-for room with a little stationary 
bed, a big doll in it, and the bed screened from flies. 
On a table have a covered glass container with nipples in, 
a sterilizer, and other baby equipment. 

On the opposite side fix up as big a contrast as you 
can — a dirty floor, a big doll or baby creeping on the 
floor, a bottle lying near with the nipple resting in the 
dirt, and flies lighting all around. If you can't find any 
artificial flies, (and probably you can't), fix up a few 
dozen by taking little wisps of thin, gauzy black nialine 
twisted up like wings, and caught in the middle. Get a 
bunch of invisible hair pins (a woman can do anything 
with a hair pin you know) and stick a hair pin or com- 
mon black pin down in the middle of the fly and anchor it 
wherever you want it. 

Over one side put a placard, saying : 

The DON'T CARE Family lives here. Disease and dirt 
invariably go together. All dirt is not visible to the naked 
eye. Come in and we'll tell you how to use antiseptics, 
disinfectants, and simple fumigators. 

On the other side have a similar placard, which reads : 

The DO CARE Family lives here. Health, prosperity, and 
happiness are theirs as a matter of course. They believe 
in prevention. They don't let the germs multiply when 
they can help it. Come in and we'll tell you some things 
you may be glad to know. 

If there is a young woman available in the store who 
can dress as a Red Cross Nurse for the week, it will 
be a drawing card. Advertise her as the "Ask Me a 
Question Lady." Now every woman, and every man too 
for that matter, who comes in to ask a question will re- 
veal at once exactly where his or her interest is located, 
and the wise Red Cross Girl will follow up that lead with 
appropriate suggestions. 



Louisville Chapter, No. 11, is continuing its excellent 
work of previous years, and the fund grows for the 
Chapter Club House. Both Mrs. J. J. Seiberz and Miss 
Eleanor Diehl. second Vice-Presidnt, have recently been 
hostesses each to a "500" card party. 

Miss Clara Hulskamp opened her home for the Ex- 
ecutive meeting of the Chapter February 26th. The same 
day the regular Chapter gathering was held at the Main 
Library. Mr. Johnson gave a talk on "The feeble-minded 
of the state and their care." 

Miss Emma Frick, President of the Chapter, has been 
signally honored by being elected one of the Directors of 
the Greater Louisville Savings and Building Association. 
Chapter No. 10 has always taken an enviable position in 
the club work of its home city, and it is fortunate in hav- 
ing identified with it women of affairs in both a business 
and. a professional way. 



128 



THE PHAKMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



AROUND THE CIRCUIT 

The members of the Ladies' Auxiliary of the Cali- 
fornia Pharmaceutical Association, are making elaborate 
preparations for the entertainment and good fellowship 
of those who will attend the State Pharmaceutical meet- 
ing to be held in Oakland in the month of May. The 
Oakland branch of the Ladies' Auxiliary is especially 
active in this connection. A preliminary meeting of ar- 
rangement was recently held at Hotel Oakland, at which 
Mrs. Ashmead, Mrs. Tallman, and Mrs. Colson acted as 
hostesses. Twenty-five of the members were present and 
a delightful banquet enjoyed. The decorations were prim- 
roses and asparagus ferns. Card games followed. Mrs. 
Wagner was awarded first prize; Mrs. Foster, second 
prize, and Mrs. Batton the guest prize. A business ses- 
sion was held and plans laid for the May program. 



The members of the San Francisco Ladies' Auxiliary 
of the California Pharmaceutical Association believe in 
taking their gentlemen friends into account occasionally. 
On Januarv 9th they entertained their husbands, brothers, 
and sweethearts with a theatre party at the Orphean. 
Following this they escorted their guests to a prominent 
downtown cafe and treated them to a supper dansant. 



The women of the drug trade will not be slow in show- 
ing themselves loyal to their country, by joining in pre- 
paredness plans for relief and aid. They proved them- 
selves liberal in sending contributions for the work of 
the Red Cross abroad, and were so situated that their 
money and influence procured a large number of sup- 
plies This is an occasion for the application of the 
motto "DO IT NOW." 



Philadelphia Chapter, No. 6, celebrated its tenth birth- 
day in February. One of the delightful annual affairs 
connected with the chapter anniversary is an "At Home" 
which the President, Mrs. William Estelle Lee, has given 
ever since the women were first invited to come and get 
acquainted and to be charter members of the new chapter. 

The tenth birthday was a notable affair in every way. 
The "At Home" was given at Mrs. Lee's residence, Feb- 
ruary 13th, and was very largely attended. February 14th, 
an anniversary banquet was given to which ninety-seven 
sat down. Mrs. Lee was presented with a magnificent 
bouquet of American Beauty roses with stems of great 
length. 

As Mrs. Lee finished her speech, the orchestra swung 
into "Annie Laurie," and her hearers looked up quickly 
and smiled, remembering her ability as a singer and the 
fame which was hers through singing "Annie Laurie 
5n the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, upon the occasion of 
the visit of the druggist folk there when the N.A.R.D. 
Convention was held in Louisville. In response to the 
urging of her hearers. Mrs. Lee sung this song again 
with all her old-time feeling and sweetness. 

Among those who sent letters and telegrams of greet- 
ing and congratulations, were Mrs. R. Natt, Mrs. J. Ly- 
den White, Mrs. Herman Lambeck, Mrs, J. F. Water- 
house, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Potts, and Mrs. Leslie O. 
Wallace. 



A GIFTED PHARMASISTER 

Miss Lillian HUeden is one of the successful young 
women pharmacists of Philadelphia. While attending 
High School and on her summer vacations, she filled a 
spare time position in a drug store and assisted with the 
clerical work. This gave her an interest in and a taste 

for the profession of 
pharmacy, and she determ- 
ined to follow that line of 
work. 

While a junior student in 
the pharmacy class of 
Temple University, she was 
able to study, hold a part 
time position in a drug 
store and fill a small posi- 
tion in a hotel as well. In 
her senior year she pro- 
cured a scholarship. This 
enabled her to leave her po- 
sition and to take a more 
active part in the school 
life. She suggested that 
her class have a class book 
and was made class poetess, 
thus giving that body the 
honor of being the first 
pharmacy class of Temple 
University to have a class 
book printed. 
Miss Lillian says she is sometimes asked: "What 
made you study pharmacy? Look at your sister Rose, 
who was the honor student when she graduated in 1912. 
Does she receive proper recompense for her work and 
the training it involved?" Miss Lillian feels that while 
there may be room for doubt, that pharmacy is both an 
honorable and a humane profession. Both young ladies 
are the daughters of Rabbi and Mrs. Benjamin Blieden 
of South Philadelphia. 

Miss Lillian is an enthusiastic admirer of President 
Wilson. At the time of his re-election, she indited a 
poem commemorative of the occasion which she sent di- 
rectly to him and received in reply a very gracious ac- 
knowledgment. 



Milwaukee Chapter entertained the members of Chi- 
cago Chapter at a Musical on Wednesday, February 28th, 
at the Deutscher Club. A luncheon was served at this 
well-known and fashionable Club upon the arrival of the 
guests The Chicago delegation was thirty m number. 
and among them was Mrs. J. H. Riemenschneider, Presi- 
dent of the W.O.N.A.R.D. Mrs. Herman Lambeck wel- 
comed the guests, and Mr!;. Riemenschneider and Mrs. 
Forbrick President of the Chicago Chapter, responded. 

Mrs Hans Bruening accompanied by Mrs._ F eetwood 
Diefenthaeler, well-known in Milwaukee musical circles, 
delighted the audience with her songs, as did Mr De 
Bona, harpist, with his selections. Everyone enjoyed lit- 
tle Miss Edith Stroesser in her graceful dances. Ihe 
Musical closed bv the singing of patriotic airs in which 
all joined As the members of Milwaukee Chapter, No. 
19, had guest privileges, there was a large and repre- 
sentative gathering. 




Miss LiLU.\N Blieden. 



A DAUGHTER OF ALABAMA 

Miss Bertha Nill Hausman is the charming woman 
pharmacist in the South Side Drug Store, of Tuscaloosa, 
Ala. The business is owned by Dr. Frank Hausman, the 
young lady's father, for in this as in many other cases, it 
iias happened that a fondness for pharmacy has been 

born of close association 
with it. 

Miss Bertha Nill was 
born in Jasper, Ala., on 
Christmas Day, 1896. She 
graduated from the Tusca- 
loosa High School June, 
1913, attended the Universi- 
ty of Alabama 1913-14-15, 
ana while there took special 
laboratory work. Following 
this, she attended the 
Southern College of Pharm- 
acy in Atlanta, Ga., gradu- 
ating March 18, 1916. She 
passed the State Board of 
Georgia, April Sth of the 
same year, and the Ala- 
bama State Board, October 
17, 1916. 
Miss Nill's ambition is to 
Miss B. N. Hausman. be a practicing physician, 
but not being of robust 
physique, her parents have tried to persuade her to be 
content with the practice of pharmacy. She is proving 
eminently successful in this line at the present time. She 
is much beloved by the people who know her because 
of her conscientiousness, thoroughness, and kindness of 
heart. Truly Alabama received a charming Christmas 
gift in the person of Bertha Nill Hausman. 




The Live Druggist and Baby Week 

Why the Pharmacist Should head the Workers 

By EMMA GAB.Y WAIiLACE 



WHAT are you going to do this year to make Baby 
Week a conspicuous event in jour locality? If you 
haven't begun already to think and plan for the 
1917 Baby Week Campaign, not another moment of delay 
should be permitted to steal away your chances of prestige 
in this connection. 

Now, to be perfectly honest — and when we have a 
family gathering it's a good thing to confess our sins and 
forsake them — the writer of this article was terribly chag- 
rined last year to see how little attention the legitimate 
drug trade paid to Baby Week. In most cases and places 
they left the dry goods stores, and furniture stores, and 
real estate offices 
(just think of it!) to 
talk about baby bon- 
nets, baby carriages, 
and a nice, healthy 
home for the baby. 

In afl too many in- 
stances the public did 
not realize the under- 
lying, fundamental 
principles of the Ba- 
by Week Movement 
nor the educational 
part of it, and hun- 
dreds — yes thousands 
of druggists, didn't 
know a thing about 
Baby Week until it 
was all over. Many 
haven't much idea of 
it yet. That is just 
why we are going to 
talk a lot about it this 
month. It iTiys to 
read one's trade pa- 
per. The trade paper 
which counts doesn't 
come tagging along in 
the dust of the pro- 
cession, it's right up 
in the band wagon 
leading the parade ! 




The first Baby Week was celebrated in Chicago in the 
month of April, 1914. Good for Chicago! Then Grand 
Rapids followed with a similar celebration in 1915. It 
attracted attention, the idea was good, and people began 
to talk about it. The newspapers took it up with the club 
women. 

Now, many women's clubs and organizations had been 
fighting for clean milk, and the doing away with infant 
narcotics, and teaching mothers how to feed and care for 
their children, and aiding and abetting any big welfare 
movement which had child betterment for its purpose. 
What more natural then, than that the General Federation 
of Women's Clubs should request the Government to pro- 
mote a nation-wide campaign along educational and prac- 
tical demonstration lines for the benefit of the public, and 
that it be of a week's duration? 

To this end the Children's Bureau, with Miss Julia C. 
Lathrop at its head, proceeded to do all in its power — 
and that is saying a lot — to make a success of the 1916 
Baby Week. The plan appealed to thinking people and 
especially to those who had anything to do with the pro- 
motion of the public good health. 

This year every locality, whether it be a hamlet of 500 
or a city of hundreds of thousands, should make prepara- 
tions in ample time to have a Baby Week which will make 
everybody sit up and take notice. Let us remember that 
we cannot do good work in a flurrv and that preparations 
should be made or started as long in advance as possible. 



The Scope of the Campaign 

It is not enough to get together a lot of baby foods and 
baby supplies and advertise a sale of them, or perhaps 
leave them right on the shelves and list your baby supplies 
in the newspaper. This is not the point at all ! Naturally 
we want to sell goods if we can, but in place of making 
a little spurt which will last a few days, we can if we 
will, go about it so that the regular sales of baby goods 
will be greatly increased, people will buy intelligently, and 
will seek a regularly equipped and educated man or woman 
to furnish them with goods of this character. They will 
not buy them from a mail order house, or off a bargain 

counter. Nor will they 
follow the advice of 
the next door neigh- 
bor who declares she 
ought to know how to 
bring up children be- 
cause she has buried 
ten. 

The purpose of the 
Baby Week Cam- 
paigns is first of all 
to give the parents of 
a community an op- 
portunity to learn 
how to take care of 
their babies, what 
they need to do it 
with, and the import- 
ance of having the 
right supplies at the 
right time. 

Secondly, the pur- 
pose of the campaign 
is to impress upon the 
community the im- 
portance of its babies, 
the outstanding facts 
relating to the wel- 
fare of children, and 
the need of systema- 
tic, regular work con- 
stantly and intelli- 
gently carried on by the authorities in their behalf. 

Do you know that in New Zealand they are far. far 
in advance of us? There the Government interests itself 
in the welfare of the expectant mother, not merely from 
a humanitarian standpoint, but as a matter of sound busi- 
ness judgment. Does it pay? Answer the question your- 
self. Does it pay to keep the mother in the home, the 
wife by her husband's side, the mature woman in the 
community? Here are some facts. 

The Government has recently made a study of the child- 
birth death rate in sixteen countries in order to find out 
how we compare in up-to-dateness in this respect. Do you 
know that the United States stands fourteenth on the list, 
only Switzerland and Spain having higher rates than we 
have? Sweden, Italy, and Norway show the lowest rates. 
Don't you think it is time that we had a Baby Week 
Campaign, and when we get to it we will wake up to the 
fact that we will do best for the babies when we save 
their mothers alive to take care of them? 
How New York Did It 
In 1916, New York laid out a sensible program with a 
definite purpose for each of the seven days. Here is the 
program. It may suggest to you how you could go and 
do likewise. 

Saturday. Baby Sabbath observed in Jewish Synagogues by read- 
ing of Mayor's letter in the pulpits, by special sermons, and other 
exercises. 

Page One Hundred and Twenty-Nine 



"Weighing In" for the Doctor 



130 



THE PHAEMACEUTICAL ERA 



[Apri-l, 191 T 



Saturday, Sunday to be observed in churches, illustrated articles 
in Sunday newspapers. 

Monday, Little Mothers' Day to be observed in the Public and 
Parochial Schools of the city by the reading of a letter from the 
Mayor and the distribution by the children of one million pieces 
of educational literature to the mothers. 

Tuesday, Milk Station Day to be observed as "visiting day" in 
the public and private infant milk stations. Delegations from 
Commercial and Civic Organizations to visit certain stations in 
official automobiles. 

Wednesday, Hospital and Clinic 
Day to be observed as above in 
the hospitals and clinics and dis- 
pensaries. 

Thursday, Nursery and Demon- 
stration Day to be observed in the 
morning at all institutions shelter- 
ing well babies such as Day 
Nurseries, Temporary Shelters, Con- 
valescent Homes, and Asylums. 
Grand automobile ride for mothers 
and babies in the afternoon. Award- 
ing of Grand Prize to winner of 
Better Babies Contest. 

Friday, Outing Day, free ferry 
rides and steamboat e-xcursions 
for mothers and babies, special 
music in parks, recreation piers, and 
play grounds. 

It is necessary first of all to 
get together a body of repre- 
sentative citizens, and don't 
forget the women. The ques- 
tion arises : "Who will call the 
gathering?" May be you can 
get some organization of broad 
appeal or your Women's Clubs 
or your Chamber of Commerce 
stirred up. If you can't, look 
about and see the key people 
likely to be interested. Call 
them together yourself, ^ tell 
them what's doing. Appoint a 
Chairman of the Baby Week 
Campaign Committee and go to 
the task ! Remember, you will 
get out of this exactly in pro- 
portion to what you put into 
it! 

How To Go About It 




Three of a Kind 



The more people you can in- 
terest, the better ; besides there is a lot of work to do if 
you are going to make Baby Week count. There should 
be an Executive Committee with administrative sub-com- 
mittees on Finance, Volunteer Helpers, Automobiles, etc. ; 
a Committee on Baby Welfare Information; a Committee 
on Program ; a Publicity Committee with sub-committees 
on Press Work, Special Printing, Advertising, etc. 

It is going to take a little money to operate this. But 
not too much. In New York, what would have cost 
regularly $200,000 in all probability, was secured for about 
$650 in actual cash, because so much space and work were 
eagerly contributed free. If there is a Directory of Or- 
ganizations in your town the Committee in charge should 
get each organization to contribute a certain amount just 
as though they were to bring a big Convention or have a 
civic celebration or a Fourth of July parade. 

Once the Committees are appointed, they will find a 
great deal of material ready to be had for the asking. 
This is surprising in view of the newness of the movement 
and shows how the idea promptly caught. The Children's 
Bureau will send on application, articles on various topics 
about Baby Week that may be adopted for local use. 

There must be a large number of volunteer "Explainers," 
and here is where your women customers will be glad to 
help. The "Explainers" take turns at the Baby Welfare 
exhibits to make clear whatthey all mean and the signifi- 
cance of the facts and statistics. 

Your State Board of Health will be glad to co-operate 
with literature, material for exhibits, and possibly stere- 
opticon slides. Additional information and helps may be 
obtained from the Child Welfare Exhibits Department, 
Russell Sage Foundation, New York. 



If possible, there must be a central exhibit hall. A 
large drug store may feel like maintaining an individual 

booth throughout the week, or several druggists or the . .,. - , ..^ .= - , . j, j 

local Retail Drug Association could club together to good into a puny, ailing child if not properly handled 



purpose. Have a booth jointly maintained under a con- 
spicuous sign something like the following: 

"At The Babies Service 

With Pure Foods, Pure Drugs, And Every Modern, Scientific 

Device." 

Of course, in such a booth there should be a displav of 
infant foods and all kinds of apparatus for preparing 
these foods, such as sterilizers, graduates, bottles, nipples, 
bottle brushes, alcohol stoves, etc., etc. There should be 
someone constantly on hand in 
this booth, prepared to explain 
how to use the articles, how to 
prepare the foods, why it is 
important to modify milk, the 
difference between cane sugar 
and sugar of milk in an in- 
fant's dietary, when beef juice 
should be given, orange juice, 
coddled egg, and just how to 
prepare them, how to pepton- 
ise food and a thousand and 
one other things the average 
mother is eager to learn. It 
would be timely to have the 
demonstrator explain to her 
the difference between sterile, 
absorbent cotton and ordinary 
cheap bargain-counter stuff; 
the use of boric acid solution 
in keeping baby's mouth and 
eyes clean, and for keeping the 
nipples sterilized. 

Of course, there will be no 
attempt to encourage home 
medication. This would be a 
mistake, but on the subject of 
milk modification alone, half a 
dozen slips might be prepared 
explaining that cow's milk con- 
tains so much more proteid or 
curd than mother's milk, that 
it is necessary to reduce it with 
water or gruel ; that cow's 
milk contains much less sugar 
of milk than mother's milk, so 
when it is reduced, it is still 
further weakened in its sugar content so more sugar must 
be added ; that sugar of milk is not included for its 
sweetening quality, but rather because it gives a neces- 
sary food constituent; and such facts. 

The more of these educational slips you can get your 
local Committee to print, the better. Make them brief, 
however. Boil down your facts, and have each slip treat 
of just one phase of the subject. You can go on distribut- 
ing these throughout the whole year, for babies are not 
going to stop being babies when the week's celebration is 
over. It will even pay you to have some of these slips 
printed yourself and go on using them in the drug store 
packages. 

It is perfectly legitimate and entirely proper to make 
one's own store radiate the Baby Week spirit. The win- 
dow displays should be carefully thought out, should be 
planned to be attractive, and yet point a lesson. The in- 
side of the store should be given a touch of a suitable 
decoration. Baby blue would be an appropriate color. 
Show baby supplies prominently and if the situation war- 
rants, it would be a good plan to have a trained nurse on 
duty in the store throughout the week to explain and an- 
swer questions. A trained nurse who did not have an 
engagement for the week could well afford to give her 
time or to make a special price because of the experience 
she would gain and the great number of probable patrons 
she would meet. 

I would suggest that placards be used about the store 
freely and that they be prepared especially for this occa- 
sion. General statements will not count for much. Get 
facts from your State Board of Health or the Children's 
Bureau at Washington, or your local Board of Health. 
Emphasize the thought that it is vastly more important to 
conserve child life than to improve our animal husbandry 
or save our fruit trees. Point out that parents who safe- 
guard the health of their children are economizing in the 
best possible way, for a puny, ailing infant will grow up 



A.PR1L, 1917] 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



131 



RUYIhiG AND SELLINr; 

Educating the Store's Sales Force 



JN a drug store handling thousands of items, it is dif- 
ficult for the ordinary salesman to become acquainted 
with the special selling points of each particular prod- 
uct. Manufacturers are inclined to criticise retailers for 
not showing more aggression in handling their goods, and 
to suggest that retail clerks are lacking in capacity be- 
cause they do not give the same convincing "line of talk" 
to the customer that the traveling man representing the 
house producing the goods gives to the buyer. 

It is a physical impossibility for anybody to assimilate 
as complete knowledge of the various lines as a specialty 
salesman, handling but one product or "family of prod- 
ucts" can readily acquire. If he learns to know the loca- 
tion of the stock, prices of goods and a few things of 
that kind, so that he can wait on customers promptly, he 
has done as much as is usually expected. 

It will be Feadily admitted that this is not the ideal sys- 
tem. The druggist who puts goods in stock expects to 
sell them, and it is more to his interest than the manu- 
facturer's to move that particular lot of merchandise. If 
his salespeople are not "up" on a product, they cannot 
talk it effectively, they are unable to push it with the re- 
sults which are expected, and the item, no matter how 
desirable it may be, turns out to be a sticker. It is ap- 
parently nobody's fault when this happens with worth- 
while merchandise. The goods are all right, they were 
bought at a satisfactory figure, the salespeople did their 
best to move them — but they stuck. 

Of course, there is a weak link somewhere in the mer- 
chandising chain. It will probably be asserted, to begin 
with, that the druggist should have advertised the line 
vigorously, displayed it in his windows, called a meeting 
of the salesforce and outlined his plans for a campaign, 
so that all of them would become properly enthused. 
True, this might be done ; but suppose the druggist is 
confronted with the task of selling 20,000 or more items : 
is he to be expected to use this method with regard to 
each one of them? 

Common Sense In Selling 

The common-sense plan, it will be admitted, is to take 
a middle course, and neither neglect specialties which re- 
quire exploitation and more or less pushing on the part 
of the clerks, nor expect the clerks to master the sales 
arguments to a degree rivaling the sales representatives of 
the manufacturers. By fixing a "dose" which is well with- 
in the capacity of the individual salesman to take, the 
druggist insures an interested effort on his part to make 
use of the information. In other words, a reasonable 
amount of information about some particular item of the 
stock will be made use of, when an effort to cram him 
with an unlimited number of assorted facts about various 
lines would defeat its own purpose. 

Inasmuch as the window displays are relied on for the 
most part to interest transient trade and to pull people 
inside the store, it is apparent that every salesperson 
should know something about the goods which are being 
shown in the windows. If the clerk indicates a lack of 
detailed knowledge about the specialty which is being of- 
fered, the interest of the prospective purchaser, which is 
just being kindled, will be thoroughly quenched, and the 
sale will be lost. But if the salesman can give an inter- 
ested and interesting statement about the goods, bringing 
out the leading points and emphasizing the logical selling 
arguments, the sale can be closed without any difficulty, 
because the customer has already indicated that he is in- 
terested. 

The question as to the proper form in which to provide 



this information for the benefit of the salespeople is an 
interesting one. Some druggists supply their force with 
copies of all newspaper advertising which they are run- 
ning, the newspaper ads coinciding, of course, with the 
window displays as well as the showing of goods inside 
their store. This helps to the extent of familiarizing the 
clerks with prices on such items as are specially marked 
for the occasion, but the average drug store "ad" does not 
contairi a great amount of selling talk about any one item. 
If it did, the descriptions of items shown in the ad would 
be so elaborate as to tax the patience as well as the 
memory of the clerk. 

Buck & Rayner's Plan 

The plan used in the State street store of Buck & Ray- 
ner, in Chicago, impresses the writer as being effective, 
reasonable and based on good merchandising ideas and 
common sense as well. It involves the use of a card, 
which is given to each member of the salesforce, and 
which gives the sales arguments pertaining to the one 
item which is being boosted at that time by means of the 
window display. All that any clerk is asked to do, in 
other words, is to become familiar with a single item of 
the stock. The card is carried in his pocket, and is read 
or referred to often enough to enable the salesman to re- 
peat the information which it carries without having to 
hesitate or "stall." Moreover, since the talking-points are 
succinctly put, the clerk who uses an effort to grasp the 
ideas soon is able to speak authoritatively and thus to 
impress the purchaser with the fact that he is thoroughly 
familiar with the goods he is trying to sell. 

However, to get back to the Buck & Rayner idea, the 
card plan is one which is simple and effective because 
it enables the clerk to learn all about at least one im- 
portant specialty, and as a new card is issued weekly, on 
an average, the force has an opportunity to absorb its 
"lesson" without difficulty, with the net result that all of 
the clerks gradually become more or less expert in hand- 
ling the stock and explaining it for the benefit of cus- 
tomers. 

A sample card which the manager of the store referred 
to submitted was three and a half inches wide by five and 
a half inches deep, and was made of stiff cardboard so 
that it could be handled for some time without breaking 
or tearing. The name of the article and the principal 
talking-points were shown in red ink. The cards were 
individually typewritten. That one handed to the writer 
carried the following, shown in about the style indicated: 

SALES CARD 

Jacrose Cold Cream Soap — Ingredients 

Cold Cream, 10 per cent 

Cocoanut Oil 

Albumin 

Purified Tallow Soap Base 

(Same Tallow as used in making Butterine) 

Talking Points: 

Cold Cream 10 per cent removes impurities by "cold cream 
action," prevents _ chapping and protects the skin. 

Cocoanut Oil gives an elegant, free, creamy lather even 
with very "hard" water. 

Albumin neutralizes every bit of alkali, rendering the 
soap delightfully bland and soothing; prevents a "shiny 
skin" appearance. 

Jacrose Perfume: exquisite odor brought out by contact 
with water. 

Jacrose Cold Cream Soap soothes, whitens and preserves 
the skin and prevents enlarged pores. 
Suggest Jacrose Cold Cream. 

A good clerk could master all of these features in a 
short time, and with comparatively little effort would 
soon be able to point out to the inquiring customer just 



132 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL ERA 



[April, 1917 



why he ought to have this particular product. And, as 
suggested, after handling a number of these cards, he 
would have become familiar, without realizing it, with 
many of the principal lines handled by the store. 

In the larger stores, of course, the plan of department- 
izing helps a great deal. With a clerk working in only 
one department, and not being expected to work all over 
the store, except in cases of emergency, he has a chance 
to study the stock under his immediate supervision, and 
to work up more elaborate sales arguments than it would 
be possible for him to develop if he were "running at 
large" through the entire stock. In this case only the 
buyer and manager would find it necessary to keep the 
facts about everything in stock at their fingers' ends, and 
the salesmen would in a large measure develop into spe- 
cialists, just as the prescription men are specialists. 

But if your men seem not to supply the peppery work 
which is desirable when a customer asks for information 
about something shown in the window, adopt the plan of 
supplying sales cards containing the information, and 
notice the difference. 



CLEANING UP IN SPRING 



When April Comes Dust Should Go In Store and 
Home Alike 

This is an age of ultimatums. Germany has been send- 
ing them broadcast, the United States has been doing 
pretty well, March winds are doing it now to everybody 
and everything * * * vvhy shouldn't the druggist get 
on the band wagon and send an ultimatum to dirt and 
stock losses? 

It may be all right for the druggist to be "too proud to 
fight." But there comes a time when such a stand is 
dangerous. He must either fight or run away. When 
tlie druggist finds that the dirt and inefficiency in his 
store have become so strong that they kill his business, that 
they commit overt acts every day in the year, then he 
sho