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Full text of "Pharmacopeia of the American Institute of Homopathy"

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COLLEGE OF OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIANS 
AND SURGEONS LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 





PHARMACOPEIA 



OF THE 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE 



OF 



HOMCEOPATHY 



PUBLISHED FOR THE 

COMMITTEE ON PHARMACOPEIA 

OF THE 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



BOSTON: 

OTIS CLAPP & SON, AGENTS, 

No. 10 PARK SQUARE. 

1897- 




COPYRIGHT, 1897, 

BY COMMITTEE ON PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



THE RIVERDALE PRESS > 

C. A. W. Sl-ENCBK, 

BROOKLINE, MASS. 



r 



PREKACK. 



In submitting the result of its labors to the physician and pharma- 
cist, the Pharmacopeia Committee desires to lay special stress upon 
the general unanimity with which this work has been brought to 
completion, and to emphasize the fact that it is not an expression of 
the views of a bare majority of its members, but that, on the contrary, 
it represents their consentient opinions to a most gratifying degree. 

The early recognition of the desirability of obtaining a result 
founded on agreement in principle and mutual support, led to the 
adoption by the original Pharmacopeia Committee of the following 
plan of work : 

Cm The editor is directed to proceed, first, with that portion of the work to be 
Devoted to general pharmacy. As soon as certain subjects are completed, he 
shall cause twelve copies of his manuscript to be made, one of which shall be sent 
to each member of the committee. 

It shall be the duty of each member to carefully examine, and report upon the 
same within two weeks from the date of the receipt of his copy. 

He is expected to report his approval or disapproval of the whole or any part, 
and to freely suggest such changes, modifications, or additions as, in his opinion, 
will tend to improve the work and render it of greater value to both the physician 
and the pharmacist. 

When replies have been received from all members of the committee, the 
editor shall prepare copies of all suggestions offered, together with the reasons 
assigned, to which shall be added the names of the members offering such sug- 
gestions. 

Each member shall be required to vote upon each separate proposition, with 
this exception : he may decline to vote on any suggestion on which he may feel 
he has insufficient information to form an intelligent opinion, in which case he 
shall return his copy, noting this fact in place of the vote on such proposition. 

A majority vote of members of the committee voting must decide as to accept- 
ance or rejection, provided the vote includes the votes of two pharmacists and 
two that are not pharmacists. 

This plan of work has been closely followed, rendering the results, 
as we believe, of the greatest value obtainable by the united judgment 
of the committee. 

In addition to the efforts put forth by its individual members, the 
committee has received much assistance from Prof. Friedburg of New 
York, in the determining of chemical definitions and in the furnishing 
of chemical descriptions, and desires to here make suitable acknowl- 
edgment of its indebtedness. 



CONTENTS, 



Page 

PREFACE 3 

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 7-12 

COMMITTEE ON PHARMACOPEIA . . . . . . 13 

LIST OF AUTHORS CONSULTED 14 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 15-20 

PART I. 

GENERAL PHARMACY 21-49 

UNIT OF MEDICINAL STRENGTH 23 

MENSTRUA 27 

DRUGS AND MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES 32 

GENERAL TREATMENT OF DRUGS 34 

PREPARATIONS FROM DRUGS 34 

TINCTURES 35 

DILUTIONS 39 

TRITURATIONS 43 

MEDICATIONS 47 

PRESCRIPTIONS 48 

PART II. 

SPECIAL PHARMACEUTICS 51-596 

PART III. 

SELECT TABLES FOR REFERENCE 577-606 

LIST OF MEDICINES AND PRONUNCIATION .... 607-622 

INDEX 623 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



As long ago as 1868 a resolution was adopted in the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy, upon the motion of Dr. C. J. Hempel, for the 
appointment of a committee to prepare a Dispensatory which should 
embrace Pharmacy ; and such a committee was appointed, with Dr. 
Carroll Dunham as chairman. 

Reports of progress appear in the Institute Transactions from year 
to year down to 1874, when Dr. Dunham said, "The committee has 
reason to believe that this is the last time they will have to report 
' progress,' and that the work may be ready for circulation before the 
next session of the Institute." 

But owing to the long-continued illness of a leading member of the 
committee, the work was not made ready for the printer ; and during 
the following two years, preparations for the World's Homoeopathic 
Congress at Philadelphia and the death of Dr. Dunham, which 
occurred soon after this convention, prevented the publication. 
Efforts were made to secure for the Institute the manuscripts of the 
committee, after the death of Dr. Dunham, but they were without 
success. 

At the meeting of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 1886 
Drs. J. P. Dake, C. Wesselhoeft, and A. C. Cowperthwaite were 
appointed a committee to consider the question of publishing a Phar- 
macopeia. This committee reported as follows, at the following meet- 
ing, in 1 887 : 

Your committee appointed to consider and report on the advisability of 
having a Pharmacopeia issued under the auspices and by the authority of 
this body, would say that in view of the desirability and importance of 
uniformity in the processes and preparations of pharmacy in the various 
countries, and especially in view of the various opinions of late expressed 
by pharmacists writing upon the subject, it is our opinion that there should 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



be prepared and published a Pharmacopeia, by joint action of committees 
from several countries, as suggested by the chairman of this committee at 
the World's Homoeopathic Convention in London in 1881, and by Mr. 
Wyborn at the late convention at Basle. At the latter convention, a special 
committee, consisting of Drs. Cowl and Giesecke and Mr. Wyborn, was 
appointed to consider and report upon an International Pharmacopeia. 

In pursuance of such action, your committee would recommend the 
appointment at this time of a special committee to cooperate with the Amer- 
ican member of the International Committee ; and that such committee 
consist of Drs. Lewis Sherman, J. Wilkinson Clapp, and F. E. Boericke. 
And in order to bring the work into more definite shape, we would recom- 
mend that the special committee named be instructed to take the British 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopeia as a basis, and to report the character of the 
changes considered necessary to adapt the work to the needs of the profes- 
sion in all countries. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

J. P. DAKE, M. D., J 

A. C. COWPERTHWAITE, M. D., > Committee. 

C. WESSELHOEFT, M. D., ) 

This report was accepted, the recommendations adopted, and the 
appointments made. 

This committee reported as follows, at the following meeting held at 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., in 1888 : 

Your committee, which was appointed to confer with the American 
member of the Pharmacopeial Commission of the World's Homoeopathic 
Convention, with reference to the preparation of an International Pharma- 
copeia, beg leave to report that, owing to the prolonged absence in Europe 
of Dr. Walter Y. Cowl, it has not yet been possible to secure the desired 
conference with that commission. 

We would report further that, in pursuance of the instruction given in the 
resolution authorizing our appointment, we have examined the British 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia with reference to its adaptation to the wants 
of physicians in. the United States and other countries outside of Great 
Britain ; that we find this a book of great merit ; that we specially commend 
the care taken in the tincture-making processes, the recognition of the effect 
of natural-plant moisture in lowering the alcoholic strength of the fresh- 
plant tinctures; the prescription of alcohol of different strengths for the 
preparation of different drug tinctures, and the general accuracy of the 
detailed descriptions of drugs. We are instructed to suggest such changes 
as will improve the work and adapt it to use in this and other countries, 
outside of Great Britain. Among the changes we would suggest are the 
following : 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 



1. The substitution of the name "dilution "in place of "tincture" for 
attenuated liquid preparations. 

2. The use of distilled water as a standard of comparison between 
weights and measures. This would bring our system in harmony with the 
French decimal system and greatly simplify the descriptive processes. 
Instead of minim we would read grain-measure, just as in descriptions of 
volumetric analysis. 

3. The use of glass-stoppered bottles for distilled water. 

4. The introduction of alcohol of the specific gravity .820, which is now 
a standard grade in the United States, being the highest obtained by distil- 
lation without the aid of chemicals. 

5. The authorization of the decimal scale of notation, which is now in 
general use. 

6. The omission of reference to the therapeutic activity of certain prepa- 
rations. We think such references out of place in a work of this character. 

7. The introduction of maceration as a tincture-making process, alterna- 
tive with percolation. 

8. Making the dilutions to correspond in medicinal strength (drug power) 
with triturations of the same number, instead of making them -j^ as strong. 

9. The limitation of the sign <f> (zero reduced) to denote strongest liquid 
pharmacopeial preparation. 

10. The use of the sign o (zero) to denote original substances. 

n. The authorization of a single vernacular pharmacopeial name for 
each medicine. 

12. The alphabetical arrangement of all the caption names of medicines 
in a single series. This is merely to facilitate reference. 

13. A simplification of the process of trituration, and the requirement of 
a longer time to a given quantity of the finished product. 

On motion of Dr. I. T. Talbot, the following was adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed consisting of twelve members, 
six of whom shall be pharmacists, to prepare a Pharmacopeia which shall 
bear the authoritative sanction of this body. 

That this committee be instructed to confer with the Pharmacopeial Com- 
mission of the International Homoeopathic Congress held at Basle, Switzer- 
land, in 1886, and with committees which may be appointed for. the same 
purpose by foreign societies, with the intent of making the work, if possible, 
international in character. 

That this committee be instructed to use, as a basis, the " British Homoeo- 
pathic Pharmacopoeia, " due weight being given to other authorized pharma- 
copeias, and to obtain the fundamental facts, as far as possible, from original 
sources. 

That this committee be empowered to fill any vacancies in its membership 
caused by death or resignation. 



IO 



The following were appointed as the committee : 

Drs. J. P. Dake, C. Wesselhoeft, A. C. Cowperthwaite, T. F. Allen, 
Malcolm Leal, and H. R. Arndt, representing the practitioners of 
medicine, and Drs. Lewis Sherman, J. Wilkinson Clapp, F. E. Boericke, 
Henry M. Smith, James E. Gross, and Wm. Boericke, representing the 
practitioners of pharmacy. 

Drs. E. P. Colby and A. F. Worthington were elected by the com- 
mittee to take the places respectively of Drs. T. F. Allen and F. E. 
Boericke, who declined to serve. 

The committee of twelve organized immediately after its appoint- 
ment by the election of Dr. J. P. Dake, permanent chairman, Dr. 
Lewis Sherman, editor, and Drs. J. Wilkinson Clapp and Malcolm 
Leal, associate editors. 

At the meeting of the Institute, held at Minnetonka Beach in 1889, 
the Pharmacopeial Committee, in response to inquiries made through 
its chairman, was further instructed by the Institute as follows : 

1 . That the work shall not be adapted for the professional pharmacist 
only, but also to the needs and uses of the practitioner of medicine. 

2. That the work shall have a supplemental chapter containing instruc- 
tions as to the best modes and means for dispensing of medicines at the 
physician's desk and in the sick-room. 

3. That the publication and sale of the work shall be conducted by a 
regular publisher, who is to assume all risks and enjoy all profits. The 
committee is authorized and instructed to negotiate with a publisher to that 
end. 

At the meeting of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, held at 
Atlantic City, N. J., in 1891, the following resolution was passed : 

Resolved, That the Committee on Pharmacopeia be requested to reconsider 
their action by which the soluble elements of the plants are made the basis 
of the attenuations. 

"This resolution received careful consideration by the committee. It 
should, however, be recorded that it was no part of their plan to make the 
soluble elements of the plants the basis of attenuations, as they had made 
the dry crude drug the unit from which to compute the strength of all atten- 
uations, and by so doing had simply carried out the rule previously accepted 
by the Institute ' to make the dilutions to correspond in medicinal strength 
(drug power) with triturations of the same number.' " 

Still, the work did not progress as rapidly as was at first anticipated, 
owing to certain differences of opinion regarding our nomenclature. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. I I 

These questions having been brought to the attention of the Institute 
during its session in Washington in 1892, the following motion was 
passed : " That the Committee on Pharmacopeia be instructed to give 
precedence to the old Latin names of drugs in common use, and to 
place the new chemical names to the right and on the same line." 

These instructions have been carefully observed. Still, the commit- 
tee earnestly desired to embrace the present opportunity to take a step 
which may eventually lead to the improvement of our chemical nomen- 
clature. They considered that this resolution required that they 
should retain and give precedence to the old form of Latin titles, to be 
followed by the chemical names, but that this did not prevent them 
from introducing a third title which should retain the familiar Latin 
basic names and still answer to the requirements of a modern scientific 
nomenclature ; one that would not make any change in the abbrevia- 
tions found in homoeopathic literature and that would also be free from 
the objections which had been offered to the present chemical names. 

While a large majority of the committee strongly favored this plan, 
it met with decided opposition from the member then serving as 
editor, so much so that at the meeting of the Institute held in Chicago 
in May, 1893, the chairman asked for a special committee of three to 
meet with the Pharmacopeia Committee to assist in adjusting its plan 
of work. Two members of said committee, Drs. T. Y. Kinne and O. 
S. Runnels, listened to statements from the different parties interested, 
and made the following report, which was accepted by the Institute : 

The Special Committee appointed at the request of the Committee on 
International Pharmacopeia, to advise regarding some questions arising 
from the action of the American Institute of Homoeopathy at its session in 
1 892, beg leave to submit this report : 

Whereas, Doubts having arisen in the minds of some of the Committee on 
Pharmacopeia as to the intent of a resolution adopted by the Institute at its last 
session, which resolution is as follows 

Resolved, That the Committee on Pharmacopeia be instructed to give prece- 
dence to the old Latin names of drugs in common use and to place the new chem- 
ical names to the right and on the same line ; 

Therefore, Resolved, That there is nothing in the said resolution which prevents 
the Committee on Pharmacopeia from adding a third title to those already 
mentioned, wherever it shall be deemed best to do so, provided the ordered 
arrangement be not interfered with. 

Resolved, That the Committee on International Pharmacopeia be directed to 
proceed with all possible dispatch in the publication of this valuable work so 
nearly completed, so much needed, and already too long delayed. 



12 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 

The Institute having fully approved of the wish of the committee, 
in order to carry it into effect it became necessary to reorganize the 
editorial force and to instruct the new appointees to prepare as rapidly 
as possible, de novo, the text of a Pharmacopeia to be approved by the 
committee, under such rules and regulations as they might make. This 
was done, and the reorganized editorial corps entered upon the work 
with commendable zeal, and carried it to completion. 

The untimely death of Dr. J. P. Dake, whose loss is deeply 
deplored by the committee, rendered necessary the filling of the 
vacancy thus caused, and the election of a chairman. This was done, 
Dr. T. Y. Kinne, of Paterson, N. J., being chosen as a member, and 
Dr. Conrad Wesselhoeft, of Boston, as chairman. 

The committee trust that the profession will accept this work, and 
that it will find therein all that past experience has found to be good, 
and will appreciate some more recent departures which are intended to 
enhance the reliability of the work. 

It is earnestly hoped that each and every medical college will here- 
after include in its curriculum, instruction in the Principles and 
Practice of Pharmacy. The physician who dispenses medicine should 
at least be qualified to supplement the work of the professional 
pharmacist so thoroughly and accurately that his clinical reports will 
have a scientific value. 

Pharmaceutical knowledge seems to be even more important to 
homoeopathic than to allopathic practitioners, for the reason that only 
a portion of the former are within easy reach of the professional 
pharmacist who understands the preparation of medicines for homoeo- 
pathic use. 

On behalf of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY, for the 
purpose of diffusing useful knowledge, and of promoting uniformity 
in the strength and quality of medicinal preparations and in their 
literature as well, we commend this book to physician and pharma- 
cist, student and instructor. 

PEMBERTON DUDLEY, M. D., 
President of American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

EUGENE H. PORTER, M. D., 
Secretary of American Institute of Homoeopathy. 



COMMITTEE ON PHARMACOPEIA 



OF THE 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMEOPATHY. 



CONRAD WESSELHOEFT, M. D., Boston, Mass., Chairman. 

J. WILKINSON CLAPP, M. D., Boston, Mass., Secretary. 

LEWIS SHERMAN, M. D., Milwaukee, Wis. 

HENRY M. SMITH, M. D., New York, N. Y. 

JAMES E. GROSS, M. D., Chicago, 111. 

WILLIAM BOERICKE, M. D., San Francisco, Cal. 

A. C. COWPERTHWAITE, M. D., Chicago, 111. 

MALCOLM LEAL, M. D., New York, N. Y. 

H. R. ARNDT, M. D., San Diego, Cal. 

EDWARD P. COLBY, M. D., Wakefield, Mass. 

A. F. WORTHINGTON, M. D., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

T. Y. KINNE, M. D., Paterson, N. J. 



Editorial Sub-Committee. 

CONRAD WESSELHOEFT, M. D., Chairman. 
]. WILKINSON CLAPP, M. D., Secretary. 
HENRY M. SMITH, M. D. 
MALCOLM LEAL, M. D. 



LIST OF AUTHORS CONSULTED. 



ALLEN, Encyclopaedia of Pure Materia Medica. 

ALTSCHUL, Real Lexicon. 

AMERICAN Homoeopathic Pharmacopeia, O'Connor and Boericke and TafeL 

AMERICAN Homoeopathic Dispensatory, Gross & Delbridge 

AMERICAN Institute of Homoeopathy, Transactions. 

APPLETON, American Cyclopaedia. 

ARCHIV fur die Homceopathische Heilkunst. 

BENTLEY & TRIMEN, Medicinal Plants. 

BLOXOM, Chemistry, Organic and Inorganic. 

BRITISH Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. 

BRITISH Pharmacopoeia. 

BUCHNER, Homceopathische Arzneibereitungslehre. 

CLARKE, Constants of Nature. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA Britannica, gth edition. 

GEIGER, Handbuch der Pharmacie. 

GOULLON, Beschreibung der Pflanzen. 

GRAY, Field, Forest and Garden Botany. 

GRAY, Flora of North America. 

GRAY, Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States. 

GRUNER, Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. 

HAGER, Handbuch der Pharmaceutischen Praxis. 

HAHNEMANN, Chronic Diseases. 

HAHNEMANN, Materia Medica. 

HALE, New Remedies. 

HAMILTON, Flora Homceopathica. 

HUGHES & DAK.E, Cyclopaedia of Drug Pathogenesy. 

.'AHR & CATELLAN, Nouvelle Pharmacopee. 

JAHR & GRUNER, Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia and Posology. 

JAHR, Pharmacopoeia. 

KING, American Dispensatory. 

LINDLEY, Flora Medica. 

LINDLEY, Vegetable Kingdom. 

LOUDON, Encyclopaedia of Plants. 

MILLSPAUGH, Medicinal Plants. 

MURE, Pathogenesie Bresilienne. 

NATIONAL Dispensatory. 

PEREIRA, Elements of Materia Medica. 

PHARMACOGRAPHIA, Fluckiger and Hanbury. 

QUIN, Pharmacopceia Homceopathica. 

REMINGTON, Practice of Pharmacy. 

RICHTER, Organic Chemistry. 

ROSCOE & SCHORLEMMER, Treatise on Chemistry. 

SMITH, List of Medicines Mentioned in Homoeopathic Literature. 

STORER, Outlines of a Dictionary of Solubilities. 

UNITED STATES Dispensatory. 

UNITED STATES Pharmacopoeia. 

WARING, Pharmacopceia of India. 

WATSON, Bibliographical Index to North American Botany. 

WATTS, Dictionary of Chemistry, Morley and Muir. 

WEBER, Codex des Medicaments Homoeopathiques. 

WINKLER, Arzneigewachse. 

WOOD, Botanist and Florist. 

WOOD, Class Book of Botany. 

WURTZ, Dictionnaire de Chimie. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



In 1805, Hahnemann published the results of his observation for fifteen years in 
his " Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sanocorpore humano 
observatatis. Pars prima, textus (pp. 269). Pars secunda, index (pp. 470). Lip- 
siae, sumtu Joan. Ambros. Barthii." Between the years 1811 and 1832 were pub- 
lished his " Materia Medica " and " Chronic Diseases." In 1832 the first number of 
the "Archiv" was published. In all of these publications, general and special 
instruction was given for the preparation of our remedies. 

The first Dispensatory or Pharmacopeia was published by Dr. C. Caspari in 
1825, and the following list of titles, compiled by Dr. Henry M. Smith, embraces 
most, if not all, of the subsequent publications : 

1825. 

CASPARI. Homoopathisches Dispensatorium fur Aerzte und Apotheker. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. C. Caspari. Leipzig, Baumgartner. 8vo, pp. 67. 

1828. 

CASPARI. Homoopathisches Dispensatorium fur Aerzte und Apotheker. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. C. Caspari. Zweite, vermehrte Auflage. Leipzig bei Baum- 
gartner. 8vo, pp. xii, 58. 

1829. 

HARTMANN. Homoopathische Pharmakopoe fur Aerzte und Apotheker. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. Franz Hartmann. Auch unter dem Dr. Titel Caspari's Homoo- 
pathisches Dispensatorium fur Aerzte und Apotheker, worin nichtnurdie bis jetzt 
bekannten, sondern auch in Hofrath Hahnemann's neuestem Werke und die in Hart- 
laub's und Trink's Arzneimittellehre enthaltenen Arzneien aufgenommen worden 
sind. Herausgegeben von Dr. Franz Hartmann. Dritteund verbesserte Auflage. 
Leipzig, 1829. In der Baumgartnerischen Buchhandlung. 8vo, pp. iv, 144. . 

HARTMANN. Pharmacopoeia Homceopathica. Auctore Fr. Hartmann, M. D., 
Lipsiae, 1829, apud Baumgartner. 

CASPARI. Dispensatorium Homosopathicum. Denuo edit., auctum atque 
emend, a F. Hartmann. Et. s. tit.: Pharmacopcea Homoeopath. 8 maj. Lipsiae, 
1829. Baumgartner. 

BELLUOMINI. Modo generate di preparare i Medicamenti Omiopatici e di 
diluirli. 

LA RAJA. Element! di Farmacopea Omiopatica estratti dalla Materia Medica 
di S. Hahnemann e dagli Archivi della Med. Om. per cura del Dr. Vincenzo la 
Raja, con un indice comparativa di alcuni fenomeni prodotti nell' uomo sano dalla 
sostanza terapeutiche con quelli di alcune malattie naturali, per agevolare in par 
te L'Esercizio della Clinica Omiopatica. Napoli, 1829. 8vo, pp. 210. 

1830. 
WIDENMANN, DR. G. Medicamentorum Homreopathicis Praeparatio, Munich. 



l6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

I833- 

CASPARI. Homoopathische Pharmacopoeia fiir Aerzte und Apotheker. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. C. Caspari. Vierte Auflage. 

1834. 

QUIN. Pharmacopoeia Homoeopathica. Edidit F. F. Quin, M. D., Londoni : 
Veneunt apud S. Highley. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 165. 

CASPAR:. Dr. Caspari's Homoopathisches Dispensatorium fiir Aerzte und 
Apotheker, herausgegeben von Dr. F. Hartmann. 5te verbesserte und vermehrte 
Auflage. Leipzig, in Baumgartner's Buchhandlung. 8vo, pp. xvi, 164. 

(An edition in Latin was published this year.) 

1835- 

Pharmacope'e Homoeopathique, par L. NOIROT ET PH. MOUZIN. i6mo. Dijon 
& Paris. i2mo, pp. 460. This is incorporated in part second of Jahr's Manuel 
d'Homoeopathie. 

1836. 

WIXKLER. Ausfiihrliche Beschreibung sammtlicher Arzneigewachse, welche 
homoopathisch gepriift worden sind und angewendet werden. Fiir Homoopathi- 
ker zur Benutzung beim Einsammeln der Arzneikorper aus dem Pflanzenreiche. 
8vo, pp. 312. Erklarung der Abbildungen auf 156 Blattern. Leipzig, 8vo. pp. 61. 
Von Eduard Winkler. Leipzig, Magazin fiir Industrie und Literatur. 

WIXKLER. Abbildungen der Arzneigewachse welche homoopatisch gepriift 
worden sind und angewendet werden. 156 copper plates. Leipzig, Magazin fiir 
Industrie und Literatur. 4to, pp. 156. 

ROLLINK. Homoopathische Pharmacopoe nach neuesten Erfahrungen der 
verschiedensten Thierarzte und Apotheker, enthaltend alle bis jetzt gepriifte und 
angewandte homoopatische, auch die von Dr. Lux potenzirten isopathischen 
Arzneistoffe. Von Dr. A. Rollink, ausubendem praktischen Arzte. Leipzig, bei 
Adolph Reimann. 8vo, pp. vi, 298. 

1838. 

LA RAJA. Elementi di Farmacopeia Omiopatica. Dr. Vincenzo la Raja. 
Milano, Giovani Silvestri. 2 ed. 

ROLLINK. Homoopathische Pharmacopoe nach neuesten Erfahrungen fiir 
Menschenarzte, Thierarzte und Apotheker : enthaltend alle bis jetzt gepriifte und 
angewandte homoopathische, auch die von Dr. Lux potenzirten isopathischen 
Arzneistoffe. Von Dr. A. Rollink, 2te Auflage. Leipzig, Adolph Reimann. 8vo, 
pp. vi, 298. 

Pharmacopoea universalis, oder iibersichtliche Zusammenstellung der Pharma- 
copoen. Mit einer Pharmacopoe der homoopathischen Lehre. 3te Auff., 2 Bande. 
Weimar. 

1840. 

BUCHNER. Homoopathische Arzneibereitungslehre von Joseph Benedict Buch- 
ner. Miinchen, durch und Verlag von George Franz. 8vo, pp. 419. 

1841. 

JAHR. Nouvelle Pharmacope'e et Posologie Homoeopathique ou de la prepara- 
tion des medicaments homoeopathiques. izmo, Paris. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



1842. 

JAHR. New Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia and Posology, or the preparation of 
homoeopathic medicines and the administration of doses. By G. H. G. Jahr. 
Translated by James Kitchen, M. D. Philadelphia, J. Dobson. 8vo, pp. 306. 

1844. 

CASPARI. Homoopathisches Dispensatorium fur Aerzte und Apotheker, worin 
nicht nur die bis jetzt bekannten, sondern auch die in Hofr. Hahnemann's neuestem 
Werke, und die in Hartlaub's und Trink's Arzneimittellehre und klinischen Annalen 
enthaltenen Arzneien aufgenommen worden sind. Herausgegeben v. F. Hartmann. 
Auch unter dem Titel Homoopathische Pharmacopoe. 6 Auflage. gr. 8 s. Leipzig, 
Baumgartner. 

1845. 

GRUNER. Homoopathische Pharmacopoe, in Auftrag des Central Vereins 
Homoopathischer Aerzte bearbeitet und zum Gebrauch der Pharmaceuten heraus- 
gegeben, vcn Carl Ernest Gruner, Apotheker zu Dresden, mit einem Vorwort von 
Medicalrath Dr. C. F. Trinks, Dresden und Leipzig. 

DE HORATIIS. Homoopathische Pharmacopoea. 

1846. 

SCHMID. Homoopathische Arzneibereitung und Gabengrosse, von Dr. Georg 
Schmid. Wien, Braumiiller u. Siedel. 8vo, pp. viii, 309. 

1847. 

JAHR. Neuva Farmacopea y Posologia Homeopatica, o modo de preparar los 
medicamentos homeopaticos y de administrar las dosis. Madrid, Boix, editor de 
todas las obras homeopaticas. i2mo, pp. 340. 

1850. 

JAHR & GRUNER. New Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia and Posology; or, the 
mode of preparing homoeopathic medicines and the administration of doses. 
Compiled and translated from the German works of Buchner and Gruner and the 
French work of Jahr, with original contributions by Chas. J. Hempel, M. D. 
New York, Radde. i2mo, pp. 359. 

1852. 

BUCHNER. Homoopathische Arzneibereitungslehre von Joseph Buchner. 
Zweite sehr vermehrte Auflage. Miinchen, Druck und Verlag von Geo. Franz. 
8vo, pp. xvi, 468. 

BUCHNER. Supplement zur homoopathischen Arzneibereitungslehre. Miinchen. 
8vo. 

HAMILTON. Flora Homosopathica ; or illustrations and descriptions of the 
medicinal plants used as homoeopathic remedies. By Edward Hamilton, M. D., 
F. L. S. 36 plants, Aconite to Hyoscyamus. Vol. I. royal octavo, pp. 300. 
London, Bailliere. 

Caspari's homoopathisches Dispensatorium fiir Aerzte und Apotheker, worin 
nicht zur die bis jetzt bekannten, sondern auch die in Hahnemann's neuestem 
Werke und die in Hartlaub u. Trink's enthaltenen Arzneien aufgenommen 
sind. Herausgegeben von F. HARTMANN. 7 verb. u. verm. Aufl. mit 3 Abbildgn. 
Auch unter dem Titel : Homoopathische Pharmacopoe fiir Aerzte und Apotheker, 
v. DR. F. HARTMANN. Leipzig, Baumgartner. 8vo, pp. xix, 227. 

(A Latin edition was published this year.) 



l8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



JAHR & CATELLAN. Nouvelle Pharmacop^e Homoeopathique, ou histoire 
naturelle et preparation des medicaments homoeopathiques et posologie, ou de 
1'administration des doses. Par le Docteur G. H. G. Jahr et A. Catellan. 
Seconde edition, revue et considerablement augmented accompagne'e de 135 figures 
intercalees dans le texte. A Paris, chez J. B. Bailliere. i2mo, pp. vii, 436. 

HAMILTON. Flora Homceopathica : Vol. II., containing illustrations and 
descriptions of 30 plants : Ignatia to Verbascum. Royal octavo, pp. 223. London, 
Bailliere. 

1854. 

GRUNER. Homoopathische Pharmakopoe, im Auftrag der Centralvereins 
homoopathische Aerzte bearbeitet und zum Gebrauch der Pharmaceuten, 
herausgegeben mit Vorwort von Medicalrath Dr. C. F. Trinks. Zweite sorgfaltig 
durchgeseh. und sehr verm. Auflage. 8vo, pp. 259. Leipzig, Arnold. 

WEBER. Codex des Medicaments Homceopathiques ou Pharmacope'e pratique 
et raisonnee a 1' usage des Mddecins et des Pharmaciens. Par George P. F. Weber, 
Pharmacien homoeopath a Paris. Paris, chez J. B. Bailliere. i2mo, pp. xii, 440. 

1855. 

GRUNER. Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, compiled by order of the German 
Central Union of Homoeopathic Physicians and edited for the use of Pharmaceu- 
tists by Carl Ernest Gruner, Apothecary in Dresden. Authorized English edition. 
Translated from the second German edition. Leipzig, Ch. Arnold. 8vo, pp. 224. 

1859. 

DORVAULT, F. Beknopte Handleiding voor de homceopathische Pharmacie. 
Naar het Fransch. Arnhem. J. Van Egmond, Jr. 8vo, pp. iv, 47. 

1860. 

DEVENTER. Homoopathische Pharmacopoe von Ludwig Deventer. Mit einer 
lithographirten Abbildung. Berlin, E. Gross. 8vo, pp. xii, 172. 

JAHR, G. H. G. Y CATELLAN. Nueva Farmacopea Homeopdtica, o historia 
natural y preparacion de los medicamentos homeopdticos y posologia 6 de la 
administration de las ddsis. 2 edicion, revisado y conciderablemente augmentada 
con 135 figuras intercaladas en el texto. Traducido al Espanol por D. Silverio 
Rodriguez Lopez. Madrid, Bailliere. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 428. 

1861. 

HAGERO. Medicamenta homoeopathica et isopathica omnia, ad id tempus a 
medicis aut examinata aut usu recepta. Auctore Dr. H. Hagero. Lesnae, sumpti- 
bus et typis Ernesti Guntheri. 8vo, pp. 192. 

(The first section on general preparations was translated into German by 
Edward Hahn, and is published as an appendix.) 

1862. 

JAHR & CATELLAN. Nouvelle Phatmacope'e homoeopathique, ou Histoire 
naturelle, preparation et posologie ou administration des doses des medicaments 
homoeopathiques. 3" edition, corrigee et augmentee, avec 144 figures intercalees 
dans le texte. Paris, Bailliere. i2mo, pp. x, 436. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



1864. 

ALTSCHUL. Real-Lexicon fur homoopathische Arzneimittellehre. Therapie 
und Arzneibereitungskunde. Nach seinen off entlichen Vorlesungen an der Prager 
k. k. Universitat und unter steter Angabe der neuern einfachen Heilmittel der 
physiologischen Schule bearbeitet von Dr. med. Altschul. Sondershausen, Fr. 
Aug. Eupel. 8vo, pp. 450. 

CASPARI. Dr. Caspari's Homoopathisches Dispensatorium fur Aerzte und 
Apotheker. 8te Auflage neu bearbeitet von A. Margraf. Leipzig, Baumgartner's 
Buchhandlung. 12010, pp. 108. 

GRUNER. Homoopathische Pharmakopoe im Auftrag des Centralvereins 
Homoopathischer Aerzte. Bearbeitet und zum Gebauch der Pharmaceuten 
herausgegeben, von Carl Ernest Gruner. Dritte vermehrte Auflage. Leipzig, 
Arnoldische Buchhandlung. 8vo, pp. xii, 240. 

1865. 

GOULLON. Beschreibung der in der Homoopathischen Pharmacopoe Aufge- 
nommenen Pflanzen nebst dreihundert Tafeln naturgetreu colorirter Abbildungen, 
der Angabe ihrer Standorte, ihrer zur Verwendung kommenden Theile und ihrer 
Anwendungsweisse sowie derjenigen standigen Krankheitsformen, in denen sie 
sich heilkraftig erwiesen, haben von Dr. H. Goullon. Leipzig, W. Baensch. 410, 
pp. xix, 443. (Volume of 300 colored plates separate.) 

1870. 

British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Published by the British Homoeopathic 
Society. London. 8vo, pp. xiii, 336. 

1872. 

SCHWABE. Pharmacopoea homosopathica polyglottica. Bearbeitet und heraus- 
gegeben von Dr. Willmar Schwabe, homoopathischem Apotheker in Leipzig. 
Rendered into English by Siiss-Hahnemann, M. D., London. Redige" pour la 
France par le Docteur Alphonse Noack, Lyon. Durch dem homoopathischen 
Central Verein Deutchlands als homceopathische Normal Pharmacopoe autorisirt. 
Leipzig, Dr. W. Schwabe. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 251. 

1876. 

British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Published by the British Homoeopathic 
Society. Second Edition. London, printed by W. J. Johnson. 8vo, pp. xliii, 396. 

United States Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. First Edition. Chicago, Duncan 
Bros. 8vo, pp. 281. 

Homoopatische Pharmacopoe von Ludwig Deventer. Zweite vermehrte und 
verbesserte Auflage. Berlin, in Selbstverlage des Verfassers. 8vo, pp. 236. 

1880. 

SCHWABE. Pharmacopoea homoeopathica polyglotta. Bearbeitet und heraus- 
gegeben von Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Besitzer der homoopathischen Central- 
Apotheke zu Leipzig. Rendered into English by Lemuel Steffens, M. D., Phila- 
delphia. Re'dige' pour la France par le Docteur Alphonse Noack, Lyon. Voltata 
in Italiano dal Dottore Tommaso Cigliano, Napoli. Traducida al Espanol por el 
Dr. Paz Alvarez, Madrid. Durch den homoopathischen Central Verein Deutsch- 



2O AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 

lands und den Verein homoopathischer Aerzte Ungarns als homoopathische 
Normal-Pharmacopoe autorisirt. Zweite, vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage. 
Leipzig, Dr. W. Schwabe. 

SCHWABE. English Edition. Pharmacopoea homoeopathicapolyglotta. Edited 
by Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Leipzig. Rendered into English by Lemuel Steffens, 
M. D., Philadelphia. Second Edition revised and enlarged. Leipzig, Dr. W. 
Schwabe. New York, Boericke & Tafel. 8vo, pp. xii, 374. 

1882. 

British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Published under the direction of the 
British Homoeopathic Society. Third Edition. London, published for the British 
Homoeopathic Society by E. GOULD & SON. 8vo, pp. xix, 456. 

Companion to the British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of 1876, arranged in the 
form of a Dictionary by KEENE & ASHWELL, Manufacturing Homoeopathic 
Chemists. London, Keene & Ashwell. i2mo, pp. 132. 

American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Compiled and published by Boericke 
& Tafel, New York and Philadelphia. 8vo, pp. 523. 

1883. 

American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Second Edition, thoroughly revised 
and augmented by JOSEPH T. O'CONNOR, M. D. Compiled and published by 
Boericke & Tafel, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago. 8vo, pp. 511. 

1884. 

American Homoeopathic Dispensatory. By THEO. D. WILLIAMS, M. D. 
Chicago, Gross & Delbridge. 8vo, pp. 698. 

1885. 

American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Third Edition, thoroughly revised 
and augmented by J. T. O'CONNOR, M. D. Compiled and published by Boericke 
& Tafel, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago. 8vo, pp. 511. 

1890. 

American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Revised and augmented by JOSEPH T. 
O'CONNOR, M. D. Fourth Edition. Compiled and published by Boericke & 
Tafel, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago. 8vo. 



GENERAL PHARMACY 



OF 



DRUGS FOR HOMEOPATHIC USE. 



It is the object of this work to furnish the pharmacist, as well as 
the physician, with information needed for the preparation of drugs 
to be used as homoeopathic medicines, and to secure uniformity in 
their preparation. It is to be taken for granted that both physician 
and pharmacist possess sufficient knowledge of collateral sciences, 
such as chemistry, botany, physics, etc., so that it remains to instruct 
them only in the methods of preparing drugs in a manner peculiar to 
homoeopathic practice. 

As most drugs are now obtained from individuals and firms making 
a specialty of their production or collection on a large scale, with 
which the pharmacist is presumably familiar, we need only direct his 
attention to tests for their purity and genuineness. The physician, 
on the other hand, engaged in preparing his own medicines, will find 
detailed information concerning the sources, nature, collection and 
preparation of drugs. 

Essentials of Homoeopathic Pharmacy. The pharmacy of medicine 
for homoeopathic use differs in many essential details from other and 
older methods. Although accuracy is the basis of every method, it 
is doubly important in homoeopathic pharmacy, whose distinctive 
feature is its simplicity. Drugs, when prepared as medicines for 
homoeopathic use, are never mixed or compounded, but to render 
them available for use, each in its natural state is, after proper sub- 
division, added singly to some vehicle which will serve the purpose 



22 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

of a preservative, as well as a means of extension. Cleanliness, also, 
as required by homoeopathy, differs as much from that of the older 
pharmacy as the cleanliness of modern surgery differs from the 
practice before the days of antiseptic methods. It involves the 
most conscientious care in handling drugs of different kinds, and in 
keeping them from contact with each other ; in storing so as to 
protect from vapors, odors and dust of others, and in keeping them 
in cool, airy, dry and darkened places. 

Books of Reference ; names and titles. The retention of older botan- 
ical names is due to the technical terminology of a century, with 
its nomenclature which, like the names of animals yielding medicinal 
substances, it was deemed unsafe to change. As a rule, the Latin 
titles as heretofore used in the literature of homoeopathy, are retained ; 
the generic names of plants and animals are adopted as leading ones, 
excepting where usage has adhered to the specific name : e.g., Chamo- 
milla is retained in preference to the use of the present botanical 
genus name, Matricaria. The species name, however, has been added 
in all cases. 

The English derivatives from Latin titles are also preferred, owing 
to long usage, such as Aconite instead of Monkshood. The English 
titles of the chemical salts accord with the latest approved rules of 
chemical nomenclature. We have, however, omitted the use of the 
common English names, such as Iron, Gold, Silver and Lead, pre- 
ferring to arrange them under Ferrum (Ferric and Ferrous), Aurum, 
Argentum, Plumbum, etc., respectively. As salts of the rarer metals, 
such as Cadmium, Iranium and Magnesium, have no vulgar English 
names, this plan secures harmony in the use of names. 

The common synonyms of medical literature are retained, and the 
alkaloids and neutral proximate principles are not specially distin- 
guished by Latin terminology. Instead of Strychnia or Strychnine, 
we write Strychninum, and for Quinia we retain the older form of 
Chiriinum. 

According to the latest rules (of the International Botanical Con- 
gress of Paris in 1867) in all Latin titles the substantives begin with 
a capital, and the adjectives with a small initial, excepting those de- 
rived from names of persons, for instance, Pulsatilla nigricans, Pul- 
satilla Nuttalliana. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMfEOPATHY. 23 

The Unit of Medicinal Strength. 

In accordance with the suggestion made by the Special Committee, 
and adopted by the American Institute of Homoeopathy, at Niagara 
Falls in 1888, the Pharmacopeia Committee have prescribed the 
necessary rules to make the dilutions to correspond in medicinal 
strength (drug-power), with triturations of the same number (see In- 
troduction). This is in accordance with the intention of Hahnemann, 
and also with that of the older authorities on homoeopathic pharmacy. 
In illustration, we quote substantially from the Materia Medico. Pura 
of 1824, Vol. 2, page 30, and refer also to the Chronic Diseases, page 
182 (German edition), 1835, relating to the making of triturations : 

" In order to make alcoholic medicinal solutions of uniform strength, and to 
obtain from them readily determinable dilutions, add 20 parts of alcohol to one 
part of finely powdered drug-substance of such plants as are to be obtained only 
in their dry state." . . . 

" Each drop of such a tincture is to be considered as equal to one-twentieth 
(-/) part of medicinal power. In order to dilute it for homoeopathic use, the 
directions given under the head of "Arsenic " are to be followed. For this purpose 
take a vial containing 500 drops of alcohol, and add one drop of the strong tincture. 
This, after proper succussion, will yield a dilution to be labelled TuiTnrj each 
drop in this vial containing one ten-thousandth part of the medicinal power 
(substance)." 

" As the juices of fresh plants are in general prepared for homoeopathic use with 
equal parts of alcohol, it follows that each drop of this dilution is to be considered 
as containing one-half of a grain of medicinal power (substance). Hence, in the 
making of dilutions, two such drops are first intimately mixed with 98 drops of 
alcohol, in order that each drop of this mixture may contain V J V of the power of 
the plant, the vial to be labelled accordingly. The next dilutions are made as 
before directed." 

Hahnemann's object evidently was to formulate a standard rule 
according to which all alcoholic medicinal solutions (tinctures, ex- 
tracts, etc.) and their dilutions might be made of uniform drug 
power to be represented by the dry crude drug as the unit of strength 
in the case of tinctures made from dried substances, and by the plant- 
juice as the unit when made from fresh green drugs. 

To avoid the double standard made by Hahnemann, and to secure 
uniformity in strength (drug-power) of all preparations and attenua- 
tions, thereby making dilutions and triturations of equal degree cor- 
respond in medicinal strength, the committee have in all cases made 



24 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

the dry crude drug the unit from which to estimate strength. It 
should be understood, however, that the fresh green materials are 
still required in the preparation of tinctures, and that the plant- 
moisture is to be regarded as a part of the vehicle or menstruum, it 
being evident that the water contained in the plant is but a solvent 
and forms no part of its medicinal substance. Adopting this rule in 
our tincture-making processes, we have followed that excellent 
authority, the British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, thereby securing 
uniformity in strength. To quote from this work, Part I., pages 1 1 
and 1 2 : "In every instance, the dry crude substance is to be taken as 
the starting point from whence to calculate its strength, and, with very 
few exceptions, the mother tinctures contain all the soluble matter of 
one grain of the dry plant in ten minims of the tincture" 

The tincture, therefore, representing as it does one-tenth part 
medicinal substance, or, in other words, the soluble constituents of 
one-tenth its substance of crude drug, should represent the ix (y 1 ^), 
thereby corresponding in strength with the ix trituration. Uniformity 
is thus secured and the signs ix or ^, on whatever form of attenu- 
ation they may be found, will always represent a drug power of 
one-tenth, the sign 2x will show the presence of yi^ part drug 
substance, and the familiar 3x will show - t X part. 

When we consider how widely different are the methods employed 
by pharmacists as well as physicians in the preparation of homoeo- 
pathic tinctures and attenuations, some following the rules prescribed 
by Hahnemann, others modifications of these rules as given in some 
of our pharmacopeias, while yet others are making the mother 
tincture the basis from which to estimate strength irrespective of the 
drug power of the tincture used, it is evident that many will be 
required to change their present methods, notwithstanding they have 
become familiar, in order that we may adopt a standard and thereby 
secure uniformity in our preparations. 

After careful consideration of all the questions involved, the dry 
crude drug has been determined upon as the unit of strength, the 
committee being firmly convinced that by adopting this standard the 
most satisfactory results would be secured, and uniformity insured, 
with the least friction and inconvenience to both physician and 
pharmacist. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 2$ 

Unknown Substances. A homoeopathic pharmacopeia should not 
be encumbered with descriptions of uncertain and little-known sub- 
stances, as drugs which have not been properly "proved" or tested for 
their pathogenetic effects upon the normal living organism are of no 
value to the physician, and therefore of no importance to the 
pharmacist, who will not seek them in a work of this kind. 

Weights and Measures. 

Alcoholic and aqueous liquids are to be measured by volume, and 
the drug as a rule by weight. The metric system has been employed 
in the text of Part II. of this work, as this is the only one which offers 
a measure of weight commensurate with that of volume, and its 
arrangement on the decimal scale renders it peculiarly adapted to the 
uses of homoeopathic pharmacy. The physician or pharmacist who 
prefers to adhere to other systems more familiar can readily do so, 
and for such, tables for reference have been included in Part III. 

Utensils. 

The utensils used in the pharmacy of homoeopathic medicines do 
not differ from those used in pharmacy in general. They consist of 
bottles with glass and with cork stoppers, measuring glasses, sieves, 
mortars and pestles, spatulas, spoons, funnels, presses, and a variety 
of apparatus and machinery of a more or less complicated kind for 
the grinding of triturations and the making of pellets, tablets, etc., 
the description of which is omitted from a book which aims rather to 
elucidate principles involved in a certain method, than to describe 
mechanical details which may be varied by the needs or ingenuity of 
the pharmacist who now produces his wares on a large scale. 

The Apparatus essential to homoeopathic pharmacy consists of vessels 
and implements for the making of tinctures and solutions and for the 
trituration or grinding of hard and dry as well as of moist and soft 
substances with milk-sugar. Such implements, while common to 
general pharmacy, deserve some explanation relating to their use in 
homoeopathic pharmacy. 

These utensils, few in kind, include macerating jars, funnels and 
percolators for tinctures and other fluid preparations containing the 
soluble portions of vegetable substances ; also, mortars with their 



26 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

pestles and sieves, for the grinding and sifting of hard or insoluble 
substances. 

Special Description. Macerating jars, percolators, funnels and all 
vessels used in homoeopathic pharmacy should be of glass or glazed 
porcelain. No porous substance or metal will sufficiently protect 
drugs from contamination with each other. 

From the beginning of homoeopathic pharmacy it has been held as 
an inviolable rule to provide a separate macerator, percolator, funnel 
or vessel of any kind for the preparation and preservation of each drug. 
As far as possible this ideal rule should be observed. 

Presses should be lined with block-tin, as this is not porous and is 

practically insoluble. 

t 
Chopping-boards are unobjectionable if a separate one is provided 

for each article to be chopped on it. The board should previously 
have been cleansed by steam, a method to be mentioned later. 

Cleanliness and Cleansing of Utensils. The danger of contamina- 
tion of medicines with each other or with the impurities from many 
other sources, merits some special consideration. The whole subject 
of utensils and their cleanliness in homoeopathic pharmacy is embodied 
in the principle that each medicine must be prepared and admin- 
istered singly, that is, without admixture or contamination with other 
medicines or noxious influences of any kind. 

It has always been the aim of physicians and pharmacists to carry 
out this principle most minutely, especially on account of the extreme 
fineness of attenuations, fluid or dry, the protection of which against 
contaminating influences is justly to be considered as an object more 
difficult to attain than hitherto deemed possible. Some of the 
reasons for this will be found in the appended foot-note.* For the 
present we are limited to the following methods and precautions : 

*In the older works and treatises on homoeopathic pharmacy, as well as in those of today, the 
final purpose of all measures has been, and is, to reach a sufficient degree of attenuation. Quite apart 
from the question as to the divisibility of matter beyond the 24th decimal (i2th centesimal) attenua- 
tion, there can be no doubt that either within or beyond this limit, it is quite impossible to devise any 
precaution for the protection of medicines against extraneous admixtures of organic and inorganic 
matter. We therefore deem the following as an important subject for consideration, condensed from 
the original article : 

" In the making of dilutions there are many sources of error to be found in the utensils, the vehicles 
and in manipulation. Utensils are never obtained nor made absolutely clean, and it is more than 
doubtful if they ever can be. Cork is porous, and its interstices are rilled with many substances which 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 27 

For the purpose of cleansing utensils it will serve to wash and 
then to rinse them with the purest obtainable common water, after 
which distilled water, and, lastly, alcohol is to be used. The vessel 
or other implement is then to be inverted on blotting paper or some 
pure absorbent material until dry. 

We would also urge that cleansing by steam on a properly con- 
structed apparatus would insure the most perfect destruction of 
organic and other impurities. An apparatus of this kind need not be 
bulky, complicated nor expensive, and would save much time and 
labor. It could be applied to bottles and other vessels, as well as to 
mortars, pestles, percolators, macerators, etc. It has always been the 
custom to provide one of the last-named articles for each medicine, a 
condition which it is neither unreasonable nor difficult to fulfill, but it 
may be so in the case of more cumbersome and costly appliances for 
the production of pharmaceutical material on a large scale. It is 
here that steam cleansing would prove effectual and practical. 

Menstrua, Vehicles or Solvents. 

These should be inert, non-toxic substances, such as milk-sugar, 
water and glycerin. But as these are unable to dissolve or extract 
the toxic (medicinal) properties of most substances, alcohol is prefer- 
ably used, for its superior solvent and preservative qualities. 

The latter is not inert nor non-toxic, and is therefore not strictly in 
harmony with the principle of singleness of medicines. Yet, as there 

do not belong to the fluid contained in the corked vessel. A fractional part of the substance of mortars 
is always added to the trituration. In distillation a glass retort is always considerably attacked in the 
process, as is well known to chemists. If metals such as tin are used, there is danger of the contamina- 
tion with the lead of the solder. If tin is soluble in water even in the proportion of i to 100 millions 
of parts, we do not obtain pure water, but the fourth centesimal dilution. According to Fresenius, 
one litre of water dissolves fourteen milligrammes of Bohemian glass. Common sodium glass 
is much softer, and after distilled [or undistilled, Ed.] water has been contained in glass bottles for 
several days, we shall have a solution of glass somewhat stronger than the 3rd centesimal dilution. 
If glass is as soluble in alcohol as in water, this solution will contain silica, potassium, sodium, lime 
and lead. In consequence of the impurities of the components used in the making of glass, we shall 
have also iron, manganese, and, in the case of brown glass, uranium. 

" Milk-sugar, notwithstanding careful re-crystallization, will contain perceptible traces of the metals 
of the vessels used in making it. 

" When a dilution is made of any of the above substances, more of any of them is already contained 
in the vehicle than is added to it for the purpose of dilution." From an article entitled " The Purity 
of Medicines," by Dr. S. J. Van Royen, Allgcmaine Homeo. Zeitung, August 18, 1891, p. 183. See 
also Dr. Lembke, Ibid, June 4, 1891, p. 164. Also articles in the Transactions of the American Insti- 
tute of Homceopathy, referred to elsewhere. 

We have already alluded to the ever-present atmospheric dust containing carbon, sodium, innumer- 
able organic particles, and a multitude of microbes only to be destroyed by antiseptic means. 



28 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

is no other menstruum which will serve the same purpose, the drug- 
substance held in solution by it, preponderates so largely that the 
effect of the solvent vehicle is not generally noticed ; or, where that 
is the case in the proving of tinctures, or in their therapeutic use, the 
effect is to be eliminated by its characteristic signs. 

If an attenuated dilution, made as is usual with alcohol, is added to 
water or milk-sugar, the volatility of alcohol renders it innocuous and 
imperceptible. The chief advantage is, that it does not alter the 
chemical, toxic and medicinal properties of drugs, while at the same 
time it is their most reliable preservative, retaining their active 
properties for an indefinite time. 

The Object of Fluid Vehicles is two-fold. First, to extract and hold 
in solution the toxic properties of drugs, and, second, to dilute or 
expand tinctures or solutions, as will be explained in the paragraph 
on Dilutions. 

Alcohol, or Alcohol Fortior (strong alcohol), contains about 
91 per cent by weight or 94 per cent by volume of Ethyl Alcohol 
(C 2 H-OH=45.9), and about 9 per cent by weight or 6 per cent by 
volume of water. Its specific gravity at 60 F. (15.6 C.) is 820. 

Strong alcohol should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, and in a 
cool place, and, on account of its inflammable nature, remote from 
fire. It may be diluted to any degree with water. Strong alcohol 
is used principally in the preparation of tinctures. 

When the term Alcohol is used in the text of Part II., it is under- 
stood to refer to strong alcohol. 

Officinal Alcohol, or Dispensing Alcohol (Alcohol officinale) contains 
83 per cent by weight, or 88 per cent by volume, of Ethyl Alcohol 
(C 2 H 5 OH=45.9), and 17 per cent by weight, or 14 per cent by 
volume, of water. Its specific gravity at 60 F. (15.6 C.) is 840. 

This strength of alcohol may be made by adding i part by vol- 
ume of distilled water to 11.75 parts by volume of strong alcohol, or 
i part by weight of distilled water to 9.64 parts by weight of strong 
alcohol. 

Dispensing alcohol is used for making most of the dilutions from 
tinctures, as this degree of strength is more readily absorbed by both 
cane- and milk-sugar, and is consequently better suited for medicating 
purposes. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



Tests of Alcohol. Unless it corresponds to the following tests it is 
not suited to our purposes. It should be colorless, transparent and 
volatile, without residue at low temperature, and of agreeably pungent 
fragrance. It burns with a blue flame, and a few drops rubbed in the 
hand should disappear without leaving odor or stain. If a quantity 
of strong alcohol is evaporated to one-fifth its volume, and the same 
volume of pure sulfuric acid is added, the mixture should remain 
colorless, as a proof of the absence of fusel-oil and other impurities. 
Mixed with pure water in any proportion, it should remain clear. No 
weighable residue nor perceptible color should remain after evapora- 
tion of an ounce of alcohol in a clear glass vessel. When one volume 
of alcohol is mixed with half its volume of test solution of Potassium 
hydrate, the liquid should not at once become dark colored ; the non- 
appearance of this dark color will prove the absence of aldehyde, 
methyl alcohol, or oak tannin. When mixed with silver nitrate, and 
exposed to sunlight for twenty-four hours, there should be no pre- 
cipitate. The usual recommendation of re-distillation by the phar- 
macist is not practicable, as this process requires a more costly, com- 
plicated and perfect apparatus than would be likely to be in the outfit 
of any but a distiller, of whom a better article should be obtained. 

Distilled Water (Aqua distillatd). Much stress is laid in some phar- 
macopeias on the source from which water is taken. While it is 
good practice to take it from any source, pond or river, as free as 
possible from mineral and organic admixtures, for which it should be 
tested, pure water is to be obtained only by distillation All authori- 
ties agree that a copper still and worm with pure tin lining is the 
best so far as known, provided also that such a still has not been used 
for any other purpose. The process of distillation should be con- 
ducted at a gentle heat, and with the still but half filled with water ; 
the first five or six per cent should be rejected, and also the last 15 
or 25 per cent. It is well to receive it from the still at once into the 
glass-stoppered bottles in which it is to be kept. It is said that her- 
metically sealed, it will remain pure for years, but it is best to prepare 
only a limited supply at a time, because inorganic dust and microbes 
will enter, and the latter will rapidly multiply, causing a scum or a 
mucous-like sediment. 



3O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Tests of Distilled Water. This should be colorless, odorless and 
tasteless, leaving no residue when evaporated on a glass plate. It 
should be perfectly indifferent to litmus paper, and no precipitate 
should be found on the addition of barium chlorid, silver nitrate, am- 
monium oxalate, sulfuric acid or lime water, which, in the presence 
of carbonic oxid, will cause a white precipitate. 

Milk-Sugar (Sacckarum lactis or lactose). Chemical formula, 
C 12 H 22 O 11 H 2 O. Molecular weight, 359. 16. As its production, like 
that of alcohol, is not generally required of the pharmacist, a descrip- 
tion of the process is omitted, but the tests for its purity should be 
carefully observed. It is one of the constituents of milk, and is 
present in small quantities in vegetable substances, where it is 
detected by their undergoing lactic acid fermentation. Milk-sugar 
occurs in four-sided rhombic prisms which are odorless, of pure white 
color, of faintly sweet taste, gritty, and soluble in one part of boiling 
water and in about six parts of water at 60 F., and insoluble in 
alcohol, chloroform and ether. 

Tests of Milk-Sugar. Its perfect whiteness indicates freedom from 
fat. It should be non-hygroscopic, odorless and of its natural, faintly 
sweet taste. When pure, it should dissolve in hot water without 
cloudiness, and be neutral to litmus paper. Half an ounce of a hot 
saturated solution of milk-sugar added to an equal quantity of sodium 
hydrate to saturation, and gently warmed, will turn yellow and 
brownish-red, yielding a brick-red precipitate on the addition of a few 
drops of a saturated solution of copper sulfate. 

When suspected of impurity, the ordinary commercial milk-sugar 
should be purified by re-crystallization from its solution in distilled 
water, or by precipitation by use of strong alcohol from a filtered 
watery solution. After this, the precipitate is to be washed in dis- 
tilled water, dried, and preserved in a dry, cool place in carefully 
closed jars. 

Like alcohol and water, it is one of three substances so indispen- 
sable in the preparation of drugs for homoeopathic use. Like water, 
it has no toxic properties, while the hardness of its crystals renders 
it peculiarly useful in triturating hard and insoluble substances. It 
is easily made into tablets or other forms, which in their pores absorb 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 31 

medicinal solutions. Its preservative properties are superior to cane- 
sugar and most other substances, keeping the minutest particles of 
triturated metals untarnished by oxidization, for an indefinite time. 
Even readily deflorescent substances, like potassium iodid and others 
that are easily decomposed, are preserved by trituration with equal 
parts of milk-sugar, even if kept in paper capsules, for a much longer 
time than without the milk-sugar. 

Ether (sEther fortior}. Strong Ether, anesthetic. Ether consists 
of 96 per cent by weight of ethyl oxid (C 2 H 5 ) 2 O. Its specific 
gravity at 60 F. is 0.725. It contains beside, about four per cent of 
alcohol and a small proportion of water. It is a colorless, very 
volatile and inflammable liquid, the vapor of which, mixed with air, 
is explosive if in contact with a flame, and hence dangerous. It is 
soluble in ten times its volume of water, and is miscible in all propor- 
tions with alcohol. 

Tests. Ether is of a peculiarly characteristic and persistent odor. 
Mixed with equal proportion of water, well shaken and allowed to 
stand, nine-tenths will separate and float on top, undissolved. It is 
indifferent to blue litmus paper, and leaves no residue on evapora- 
tion. Ether is best preserved in hermetically closed tin cans in a 
cool place. It is used only for the solution of a few substances which 
will not dissolve in alcohol. 

Glycerin (Glycerinum, Glycerol) is obtained by the decomposition 
of animal fats and fixed oils. Its chemical formula is C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 . 
It is a clear, syrupy fluid, containing a small percentage of water. It 
is intensely sweet to the taste, very soluble in water and in alcohol, 
but insoluble in ether and chloroform. Its specific gravity at 60 F. 
is 1.25. 

Tests. In watery solution it is neutral to litmus paper. If mixed 
with water it slowly evaporates with the water at its usual boiling 
point ; but when heated by itself to a higher temperature, it emits 
acrid vapors. Mixed with six times its volume of distilled water, it 
should show no precipitate nor cloudiness when treated with hydrogen 
sulfid, barium chlorid, calcium chlorid, ammonium chlorid or strong 
alcohol. 



32 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



DRUGS AND MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES. 

A brief definition of the subjects, according to the tenets of 
homoeopathy, may assist the pharmacist in his important calling, and 
is here subjoined: 

Drugs are to be defined as substances which have the power of 
disturbing the health of the living organism. Each drug is capable of 
exerting this power in a manner peculiar to itself, and therein differs 
and may be distinguished from other drugs in their tests (provings) 
upon the normal organism. 

The toxic or pathogenic property or power of drugs under certain 
conditions known to the physician, becomes a curative agent in 
disease. Hence, substances which are primarily toxic or pathogenic, 
are secondarily medicines when prescribed in disease, and prepared 
for that purpose by the pharmacist. 

Derivation of Drugs. The mass of drugs, that is, the Materia 
Medica, is derived from, and already represents, all great natural 
divisions, such as animals, plants, minerals, and also many artificial 
products of chemistry. 

In the early days of homoeopathy, physicians, unable to obtain 
their materials in any other way, were obliged to collect and prepare 
their own medicines. But the increase in numbers of homoeopathic 
physicians and their growing duties soon compelled them to intrust 
the preparation of medicines to pharmacists trained in the special 
methods of the homoeopathic school. Homoeopathic pharmacy, there- 
fore, naturally fell into the hands of firms who obtain and prepare 
their material in large quantities. But it is still as desirable as ever 
that physicians should know how to prepare their own medicines and 
to collect their material for that purpose, according to the following 
general rules. 

Of the thirty-two or more animal substances, only a few are in 
common use. Plants used as homoeopathic medicines are much more 
numerous. Next to them in frequency of use come the chemical 
preparations, metals and minerals. The details of obtaining and 
preparing them will be stated under the head of each in Part II. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 33 

Animal Substances should be obtained from perfect and healthy 
specimens, and prepared in their pure and unadulterated state, 
unmixed with any other substance. They should be protected 
against light, air and moisture, if they are to be preserved before 
being made into tinctures or triturations. 

Whole Plants. These are to be collected in the flowering season 
during sunny weather. They should be carefully cleaned by shaking, 
gentle rubbing or brushing, without the contact of much water ; or, 
still better, only clean specimens are to be selected. 

Leaves and Herbs (Folia, Herbce) are to be collected when fully 
developed, shortly before the flowering season. 

Flowers (Flares} are most advantageously collected when just 
about to open, and in dry weather. 

Stems (Stipites) are cut after the development of the leaves, and 
treated like these. 

Barks (Cortices) of resinous trees are collected at or about the 
time of development of leaves and blossoms. Non-resinous barks 
are collected late in the autumn from young, vigorous trees. 

Woods (Lignd) are gathered early in the spring before the sap 
rises, also from vigorous young trees and tree-like shrubs. 

Roots (Radices). Those of annuals, as they die after the ripening 
of the seeds, are dug early in the fall. Those of biennials, in the 
spring. Perennial roots are collected in the second and third year, 
before they develop woody fiber. They should be cleansed without 
the use of much water, and used as fresh as possible. Roots obtained 
in the market should be carefully examined for mouldiness, dampness 
and woody appearance. 

Fruits, Seeds and Berries (Fructus, Semina, Baccce) are with few 
exceptions gathered when ripe. If succulent, they should be used 
for tinctures, etc., at once, while fresh and perfect. Only dried seeds 
and fruits may be kept in well-closed vessels. 



34 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

General Treatment of Fresh Succulent and Dried Drugs. 

Freshly gathered whole plants, flowers, and such roots as are to be 
used in their fresh state, should be made into tinctures (or tritura- 
tions) as soon as possible. If this can not be done at once, such 
substances should not be allowed to dry. This is best prevented by 
keeping them in a refrigerator or other place, the temperature of 
which is not far above the freezing point (32 F.). They should not 
be immersed in water, but merely sprinkled, in order not to extract 
or dilute the natural juice, the proportion of which is to be ascer- 
tained and considered as a part of the menstruum in making a 
standard tincture. 

The treatment of dried substances is different. Odorous sub- 
stances are to be kept perfectly isolated, in tightly closed boxes or 
vessels adapted to this purpose, in order that the peculiar odor of 
such drugs may not be imparted to others. This is too often the 
case in the premises of the general apothecary, where all wares are 
impregnated with the mingled odors and dust of various drugs and 
perfumes. Such a condition of things is absolutely to be prevented 
in an homoeopathic pharmacy. The precautions made use of should 
include those against light, heat and moisture. . 

Preparations from Drugs. 

General Principles. Starting with crude drugs, the next step 
is to qualify them for medicinal use. This involves two forms or 
conditions into which drugs are to be brought, the fluid and the dry 
form, to be governed by the following directions and principles. 

All substances soluble in the previously described menstrua or 
vehicles, are properly to be made into solutions or tinctures and their 
dilutions, but such moist and soluble substances may also be made 
into triturations with milk-sugar. But all insoluble or only partially 
soluble substances should be made into triturations only. 

Aqueous Solutions are made of substances which are soluble in 
water but not in alcohol, or of those which, when soluble in 
alcohol, are subject to chemical change or decomposition. 

These are to be dissolved in the proportion of -j^, ^fa, or -n^, 
depending upon the degree of solubility of the substance. Aqueous 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 35 

solutions are, as a rule, unstable and will keep but a short time. 
They should be clear and free from sediment, which if present may 
consist of crystals, confervae or colonies of microbes. Any cloudi- 
ness should cause them to be condemned. 

Solutions of Fluids in Alcohol. These are equivalent to tinctures, 
and are made of substances which either yield wholly or in part 
their medicinal properties to alcohol. This applies to liquids like 
turpentine, oils, etc. These are to be made on the decimal scale, that 
is, in the proportion of i part by weight of medicinal substance to be 
added to 10 parts by volume of alcohol, and hence equal to the first 
decimal dilution, to be marked ix. If not soluble in the proportion 
of i to 10, they should be made by adding I part by weight of drug to 
100 parts by volume of alcohol, and the product marked 2x. Such 
solutions are also to be made of alcohol of known strength, in order 
that the same may be employed in making the succeeding dilution, 
and also that it may dissolve all that is soluble, and prevent decom- 
position. (See "Dilutions.") 

If liquid acids or drugs contain water, this should 'also be deducted 
from that contained in the solvent, and the anhydrous acid or drug 
taken as the unit of strength. 

Tinctures or Alcoholic Solutions of Solids or Semi-Solids. 

These are made from a variety of substances which are wholly or 
partially soluble in alcohol. Such substances comprise all plants and 
parts of plants, such as barks, roots, woods, fruits and seeds, resins, 
gums and balsams. The list should also include minerals and chemi- 
cals which dissolve more readily in alcohol than in water. 

Substances such as phosphorus, and also volatile salts, are better 
prepared as solutions (tinctures) than as triturations, in the making 
of which they are volatilized and destroyed. Such substances are to 
be often freshly prepared. 

As most tinctures are made from plants or their parts, their treat- 
ment deserves special mention. It is very important that tinctures 
should be of uniform strength, instead of varying greatly on account 
of the variability of water contained in the same plant at different 
seasons and conditions of growth and protection. The variability of 



36 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

water in the solvents, especially in alcohol, has also added to the 
variability of tinctures and of the dilutions made from them, causing 
great uncertainty in practice. Hence, the following rules were first 
devised in the "British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia" and retained 
by us in this work. 

Fresh succulent plants and other substances containing water 
should be treated according to the fundamental rule, that the dry 
crude drug is taken as the starting-point from whence to calculate the 
strength of the tincture. Hence, the pharmacist is to proceed by first 
taking a suitable quantity of fresh plant or other substance contain- 
ing water. He is to weigh the same, and then to dry it by gentle 
heat of the water-bath until the scales indicate no further loss of 
weight. Thereupon the difference of weight between the fresh and 
dried plant substance will clearly indicate the weight of water evapo- 
rated, for which allowance must be made in the preparation of 
the menstrua. The dry crude material after evaporation is taken as 
the unit of strength, the tincture being made to represent I part of 
this dry crude material in each 10 parts of completed solution. It is, 
however, to be understood that the fresh green plant is to be used in 
the preparation of the tincture. 

Having determined how much of dry substance is contained in a 
given quantity of the fresh moist material (say, 10 Gm.), this is to be 
compared with the special tincture formula for this drug (Part II.). 
If its weight is below that given as the standard in the formula, add 
enough distilled water to the moist magma to equal the standard 
weight. If, on the contrary, the weight of the moist drug-substance 
exceeds the standard of the formula, deduct enough from that intended 
for the dilution of the solvent alcohol to reduce it to the standard 
weight. Or, when for practical reasons this cannot be done, resort 
to the slower method of evaporating, by cautious drying in moderate 
temperature, enough of the drug-moisture to reduce it to the standard 
of the formula. In this process, both in the case of deficiency and 
of excess of water in the drug, it is to be remembered that the 
tincture finally consists of alcohol and its proportion of water, plus 
that of the drug-substance dissolved. The preparation of tinctures 
is then continued according to one of the following processes of 
maceration or percolation : 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 37 

Maceration. This process is preferable in the treatment of large 
quantities of drug-material needing ample time for the extraction of 
medicinal properties. Such would be the case with gummy and 
mucilaginous substances, or those having much viscid juice which 
would prevent the alcohol from permeating the mass as rapidly as is 
the case in the process of percolation. 

If the drug-substance can be finely sliced or reduced to pulp in a 
glazed mortar, this should be done ; otherwise, it may be used whole 
or as directed under its special head in Part II. 

Having ascertained the excess or deficiency of water, strictly 
according to the rule given in the preceding paragraph, place the 
material reduced to magma, or in its natural state if unreducible, into 
a macerating jar or wide-mouthed bottle, and add the prescribed 
quantity of solvent, making it cover if possible the whole mass. The 
jar or bottle should be carefully stoppered or sealed to prevent 
evaporation, placed in a dark room of ordinary temperature, and 
shaken every day. The time necessary for the extraction and solu- 
tion of the medicinal substance is variable, and it is safe to allow the 
process of maceration to continue from two to four weeks, according 
to the nature of the material. Thereupon decant the clear liquid, and 
press out the residue through a clean linen cloth or bag. 

If the drug-substance is viscid or mucilaginous, and not readily 
acted on by the alcohol, use only one half of the solvent prepared for 
the purpose. After the maceration, press out the residue, triturate 
it lightly in a mortar, add twice its bulk of finely powdered green 
glass, and with the remaining half of the solvent subject the whole 
to the process of percolation rtext to be described. Then add the 
clear percolated and filtered liquid to that previously decanted, and 
preserve the now completed tincture in a well corked bottle in a dark 
and cool place. The mixing of strong alcohol and water is accom- 
panied by a contraction of, and consequent loss in volume. On the 
other hand, the liquefaction of solids is likely to cause an increase in 
volume. Both instances are to be compensated for according to the 
formulae referring to each drug in Part II. 

Percolation. Dry substances are to be reduced to a moderately 
fine powder in a mortar, and moist substances are to be reduced to 
pulp, either by means of a mortar or, if large quantities are used, in 



38 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

a mincing machine of tin without lead seams or solder, and capable 
of being cleaned thoroughly. 

The rule for the determination of water as above described must 
be carefully observed in the preparation. 

The medicinal substance should be carefully weighed and a quan- 
tity of the solvent (menstruum) prepared equalling about ten per cent 
in excess of the amount required by the formula as given in Part II.; 
in other words, there is required about ten per cent more of the 
solvent than would be used provided the tincture was prepared by 
the process of maceration, as the finished product will in all but a few 
instances, yield a tincture representing exactly ten per cent of the dry 
crude drug, and the surplus quantity of menstruum is required to 
make good the waste in retention in the percolate. If the process is 
properly conducted, the result will be that the first part of the tincture 
passing through the drug, will be very nearly, if not fully, saturated 
with the medicinal substance, and the last portion of the tincture, 
provided the menstruum be sufficient in quantity to exhaust the drug- 
substance, will be very nearly, if not entirely free from taste, odor or 
color other than that of the alcohol contained therein. 

If the percolator should not be provided with a stop-cock, insert a 
cork in the lower orifice, having first made a small, longitudinal groove 
in such a way that, by pressing the cork into the neck of the percolator 
with more or less force, the flow of the fluid may be regulated or 
entirely stopped. Insert a plug of absorbent cotton into the neck 
above the stop-cock or cork, cover this with a layer of coarsely 
powdered glass, then this with a layer of finely powdered glass half 
an inch deep, and lastly with a thin layer of coarser glass. The grades 
of coarseness can be obtained by coarser and finer sieves. Fine white 
sand may be used instead of glass. Spread the powdered drug or 
pulp little by little evenly upon the layers of glass, and press the mass 
down with a broad, flat cork on the end of a glass rod, more firmly if 
the mass is coarse than if it is fine, and particularly if the menstruum 
be strongly alcoholic. Next, cover the surface of the mass with a disc 
of filter paper or a thin layer of finely powdered glass or fine white 
sand. While holding down the mass by means of the flat cork, pour 
the solvent upon the contents of the jar until the mass is covered, 
allowing the fluid to run gently down the glass rod so that the glass 
or sand may not be displaced. Then cover the percolator to exclude 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 39 

dust and prevent evaporation. Close the valve or stop-cock as soon 
as the fluid begins to drop, and allow it to stand twenty-four hours or 
longer, according to the nature of the contents. Next allow the fluid 
to pass through the percolator into the receiver, drop by drop, regu- 
lating it by means of the stop-cock or cork so as not to allow the flow 
to exceed 10 to 30 drops in a minute. The menstruum should be 
cautiously and frequently added so as to maintain a surface above the 
powder, thereby preventing access of air. Proceed in this manner 
until the requisite quantity has passed into the receiver. The strong 
tincture resulting from either the process of maceration or percolation 
is then to be filtered through white filter paper, or absorbent cotton, 
directly into glass bottles, the same to be tightly stoppered, and 
preserved in a dark, cool place, each to be marked with the sign </> ^, 
indicating the strongest liquid preparation made directly from the 
medicinal substance, and also showing the proportion of drug sub- 
stance which the tincture represents, which proportion, under our 
rules is common to very nearly all of our tinctures. Any change of 
taste or odor indicates a deterioration, and as a rule they should 
remain clear and free from sediment. Changes of temperature will 
in some cases, however, cause precipitation, which should be removed 
by filtration. 

Dilutions or Liquid Attenuations. 

The homoeopathic axiom calls for the utmost simplicity in prescrib- 
ing and preparing drugs ; hence, only one medicine is used at a time, 
that is, it is never mixed with another medicine. It was also early 
discovered that a very small quantity of medicine would produce 
effects, provided it was well diluted with menstruum or solvent, by 
means of which expansion the immense increase in points of contact 
more than compensates for the minuteness of the quantity. 

The process of dilution by means of a progressive scale of i part 
of tincture to 100 parts of vehicle, known as the centesimal scale, was 
recommended by Hahnemann and adopted by him as the standard. 
Under this rule, each attenuation contained just y^ part as much 
of the drug-substance as the preceding attenuation. In order to 
secure intermediate grades of strength, there has since been intro- 
duced the method of diluting in the proportion of I in 10, in place of 



4O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

I in IOO, thus constituting the decimal scale. The great advantage 
offered in the use of this scale has led to its almost universal accept- 
ance and adoption for the preparation of dilutions and triturations, 
although many still adhere to the use of the centesimal scale in the 
marking of the strength. This adherence to a dual system has led 
to great confusion, and we have yet to learn of any satisfactory 
reason why it should be continued. We have therefore adopted the 
decimal system as the standard scale of attenuation and notation, 
under which each successive dilution or trituration contains just 
j^ as much of the drug-substance as the preceding dilution or 
trituration. 

Attenuation or Expansion is accomplished in the process of dilution 
as well as in that of trituration with milk-sugar, by the interposition 
of the vehicle between either the molecules of the fluid, or the 
particles of the solid drug to be attenuated. This interposition is 
molecular in the case of soluble substances. In dry triturations 
there occurs only the interposition of milk-sugar between the minutest 
particles attainable by trituration of hard, insoluble substances. In 
triturations of moist and soluble substances a molecular saturation of 
milk-sugar must be assumed to occur. 

In the decimal scale the original quantity of medicine is divided 
progressively by ten, so that the first decimal (ix) contains y 1 ^, the 
second decimal (2x) T ^, the third decimal (3x) -j^nnr f the 
original substance suspended in, and attenuated or expanded by the 
diluent, alcohol or other menstruum. As solutions and tinctures 
according to our rules are to contain one part of drug-substance 
in ten parts by volume of diluent, each tincture (with some exceptions 
to be stated) is equal or equivalent in medicinal strength to the first 
decimal dilution (-fa or ix).* 

Where certain drugs are insoluble in the proportion of I to 10 and 
require more solvent, like arsenicum album, phosphorus, sulfur, etc., 

* It is to be remarked and carefully considered that the principle involved does not relate to the 
scale but to attenuation by dilution (fluid or dry) in the widest sense. And as physicians experi- 
menting in this line, are beginning to perceive that the decimal scale affords less opportunity for 
the loss of curative power than the centesimal, they may quite probably in the future adopt some 
other scale, such as that of i : i, as offering greater advantages in regard to a. thorough division and 
distribution of drug matter without lessening in any way the " carrying up " of dilutions to any desired 
points. 

See Transactions of American Institute of Homceopathy, 1892, p. 113, " The Scale Employed in 
Making Dilutions and Triturations." 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 4! 

their original solutions or tinctures should be prepared in the propor- 
tion of i to zoo, or i to looo, dependent on the degree of solubility, 
and the resulting solutions or tinctures are to be regarded as the 2d 
decimal (2x) or 3d decimal ($x) respectively, as will be found in detail 
under the proper head in Part II. 

Divisibility of Soluble Medicinal Substances. Before stating the 
method of making dilutions, the pharmacist should be reminded that 
up to a comparatively recent period of the present century, matter 
was considered infinitely divisible, and hence there was no objection to 
the infinite dilution or attenuation of medicines. But since more 
recently the older monadic atomic theory has been developed into 
molecular science, now forming the basis of physics, chemistry and 
other branches of science, the infinite divisibility of matter is no 
longer upheld, and the limits of divisibility, for our purpose at least, 
are more than approximately placed in the neighborhood and some- 
what below the I2th centesimal or 24th decimal degree of attenuation 
of soluble substances. While we are bound to ignore nothing which 
modern science has revealed, and while we are desirous of keeping 
abreast of it, it is not incumbent upon us as pharmacists to limit by 
any arbitrary rule the degree of dilution or trituration which might be 
desired.* 

To make Dilutions or Attenuations of Soluble Substances, proceed as 
follows : 

Take a new, well-cleaned vial, a tube vial of a capacity of two 
drachms or more is to be preferred ; measure into it one cubic centi- 
meter of the tincture to be diluted, and with a file mark on the vial the 
height of the liquid. Then add nine cubic centimeters of the alcohol, 
and likewise mark the height of the whole on the vial ; cork it well 
with a well-washed, flawless cork, and shake it thoroughly until the 
contents are well mixed and blended. Pour this dilution into another 
clean, well-corked vial and mark it with the name of the medicine, 
followed by the sign 2x, indicating the second decimal dilution, the 
tincture from which it is made, according to the preceding specifica- 
tions being equal to the first decimal dilution or solution. 

*For further information see Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 1878, p. 135, 
ft seq.; p. 169, et seq. bottom numbers ; 1889, p. 176, et seq.; 1886, p. 147, et seq.\ 1887, p. 47, et 
seq. Neu' England Medical Gazette, March, 1887, May, June and July, 1880. Medical Current, 
November, 1890. 



42 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

The first vial bearing the marks is now to be used as the measuring- 
vial for subsequent dilutions or attenuations. These are to be made in 
the same manner, by pouring one cubic centimeter of the preceding 
dilution into the measuring-vial up to the lowest mark, and then adding 
9 cubic centimeters of alcohol to the highest mark, shaking, turning 
into another vial, labelling and marking it 3x, and so on as far as 
desired. Using the same measuring-vial will insure exactitude and 
save trouble of dropping or re-measuring. Dispensing alcohol is used 
from the 3x upwards, unless otherwise directed in Part II. 

The result of the whole process, including that of the making of the 
tincture, is easily understood by referring to the following synopsis : 

Belladonna <j> -fa . . . . i volume. 

Distilled Water 4 " 

Dispensing Alcohol 5 " 

Are equal to 10 volumes. 

Belladonna T ^ or 2x.* 

If tinctures are not made in accordance with our formula of i-io, 
if their medicinal strength is known, the volume of diluent required 
will have to be calculated accordingly. If the tincture is made in pro- 
portion of i-ioo, add 9 volumes of solvent to I of the tincture, and 
mark the dilution 3x. If the tincture is in proportion of i-iooo, the 
first dilution made as above is to be marked 4x, etc. 



* Dilutions made according to the centesimal scale as originally introduced by Hahnemann, and as 
followed in most pharmacopeias, differ from those made on the decimal scale in being prepared in 
proportion of i part to 99 parts of diluent. In all other respects the process is exactly as above de- 
scribed ; it is progressive dilution by 100 instead of by 10. Hence, if it is desirable to make dilutions 
on the centesimal scale it is only necessary to label, e. g., Belladonna 2X or ic (or Too) which it 
represents. One drop of this diluted with 99 drops of alcohol will then be the 2C, or 2d centesimal 
dilution, and so on ad libitum. 

The following table will illustrate the comparative medicinal strength of dilutions made according 
to both scales : 

Centesimal. Decimal. Drug to Alcohol. 

IX -10 

1C 2X -100 

3x -looo 

2C 4X -10,000 

jx -100,000 

jc ox -i ,000,000 

The numbers in the right-hand column indicating the degree of progressive dilution on the decimal 
and centesimal scales, are logarithms of -fa and joTf respectively. 

In illustration of what has been said concerning the loss of intermediate dilution and the possible 
loss of curative opportunities or "chances," it will be observed that the several decimal numbers i, 3, 
5 of the middle column are absent in the centesimal scale, having been skipped by too rapid progres- 
sion, which is not the case in the decimal scale. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 43 

Triturations. 

These consist of any medicinal substance ground as finely as possi- 
ble with milk-sugar, which by virtue of its hard and gritty nature is 
admirably adapted to the fine sub-division of the drug-matter ground 
with it. Triturations are analagous to dilutions on account of the inter- 
position of another neutral substance between the dry particles whose 
combined surface is greatly increased by their reduction to extreme 
fineness ; this, however, is not to be confounded with molecular fineness, 
which cannot be reached by mortar grinding. This sub-division enables 
a minute fraction of a grain to exert more toxic and curative influence 
respectively than a larger uncomminuted portion could do. 

Therefore, triturations of substances insoluble in water or alcohol, 
should not be used for dilutions. But as triturations may be made 
of soluble substances derived from vegetable, animal and chemical 
products, these may, if desired, be used for dilutions, though it is 
preferable to adhere to the rule before given, to make solutions of 
soluble substances, and to reserve insoluble substances for tritu- 
rations.* 

To make Triturations. The method of Hahnemann is still adhered 
to with the exception of using I part of the drug to 9 parts t instead 
of 99 parts of milk-sugar. And instead of adhering to the one-hour 
rule, the time to be allotted to triturations is determined by the 
nature of the substance triturated and by the fineness to which it is 
possible to reduce it. If an insoluble substance, this can best be 
determined by the microscopic test, as will be shown, t 

The limit of divisibility has been made the subject of careful research, which disclosed the fact 
that this limit, far from being indefinite or infinite, had distinctly discernable limits which it was 
impossible to transcend. By the mechanical method as used by us, all hard, practically insoluble 
substances are reduced in part to a degree of fineness in which each minutest particle, measuring 
WoTT to T~oVo of a millimeter cannot be reduced any further by any method so far devised. Another 
considerable part of the substance, e. -., charcoal, leaf gold or copper, does not reach this degree of 
fineness, and is present in large fragments in the most carefully made triturations. 

The minutest particles attainable by mortar trituration are equal in size to those obtained by 
precipitation, and, like these, they are not further reducible by trituration. (See Transactions 
American Institute, loc. cit.) 

These remarks have reference to the long established customs of attempting to make dilutions from 
the 3d centesimal or 6th decimal trituration, as this does not produce perfect solubility of ordinarily 
insoluble substances, in the sense hitherto erroneously accepted. 

t As proposed by Dr. E. Stapf, at Dr. Constantine Hering's suggestion. " Archiv." Vol. XVII., i. 

t Hahnemann's original method was as follows : Take 100 grains of fine milk-sugar and divide 
it into three equal parts. Then add one grain of the drug to one of the three parts of milk-sugar in a 



44 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Mortar and pestle should be as clean as it is possible to make them 
by steam or by washing them with water and rinsing with alcohol, 
and then drying by moderate heat, avoiding exposure to dust.* 

In making triturations by hand, physicians will do well to make 
them in limited quantities. But as these triturations are now made 
in large quantities to supply the extensive demand, apparatus and 
machinery of considerable power are required. 

Separate mortars are to be provided, especially for non-volatile or 
insoluble substances like copper, lead and other metals, charcoal, 
lime, sulfur, etc. The mortar should not be made to grind more 
than one-tenth of what it will contain, otherwise the trituration will 
be imperfect. 

First Trituration. The above details being arranged, add I part 
by weight of the drug to 9 parts by weight of finely powdered milk- 
sugar and triturate until the largest drug particles do not exceed T i 
of an inch in diameter. This rule is inapplicable to moist and soluble 
substances, and relates chiefly to those which are hard and practically 
insoluble, such as metals and minerals. It will be found difficult to 
reach the desired comminution under a time limit, and therefore the 
old one-hour rule is not to be depended on, some substances being 

mortar, mix well with a spatula, and then grind for six minutes with a moderate degree of force. 
The trituration is then to be scraped together during four minutes. Another third of milk-sugar is 
then added and treated exactly like the first third ; and finally the last third is added and proceeded 
with in the same manner. This results in the YOU" or ic trituration. The second centesimal, Y<fo oTf 
or 2C, is made by taking one grain of the first, and by proceeding with it in the manner described above. 
The third centesimal, nrcToUo" o or 3c, is made in the same manner. 

* The subject of cleanliness, and especially that of mortars, has been made the subject of study and 
of discussion, particularly in reference to the peculiar fact that if a new pestle is rubbed rather 
forcibly against a new and " clean " porcelain or wedgewood mortar, there appears a greyish-black 
streak apparently produced by the contact of the mortar-substance with the pestle, or, as suggested 
by Mr. Mitchell, from the admixture of carbon produced by the combustion of oxidizable matter in 
consequence of occasional percussion of the flinty surfaces. 

As this caused a marked darkening of triturations, it was once supposed to be due to the progressive 
sub-division, and proof of great fineness of the medicinal substance. Evidence that this was not the 
case, and other information concerning the subject, will be found in the following: 

" Effect of Trituration on Wedgewood and Porcelain Mortars." C. Wesselhoeft, M. D., Transact. 
Am. Inst. Horn. 1883, p. 339. 

"Development of Drug Power by Trituration and Succussion." Lewis Sherman, M. D., ib. 1886, 
p. 147. 

" Examination of Certain Drug Preparations." C. Wesselhoeft, M. D., ib. 1886, p. 158. 

" Report of Committee on Pharmacy: " paper by Lewis Sherman, M. D., ib. 1887, p. 47; paper by 
C. Wesselhoeft, M. D., p. 52. 

" On the Cause and Prevention of the Darkening of Milk-Sugar during Trituration," by Lewis 
Sherman, M. D., **. 1888, p. 48. 

" The Pharmacy of Triturations," by J. Wilkinson Clapp, M. D., ib. 1891, p. 550. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 45 

reducible in less, while most of the metals require much more time. 
When this stage has been reached (or, if the grinding has been pro- 
longed at least for two hours) the product is to be designated as the 
first decimal trituration, T \y (ix). 

Second Trituration. This is made by adding i part by weight of 
the ix trituration to 9 parts by weight of milk-sugar, and by continuing 
the process of trituration until the largest drug-particles have been 
reduced to not more than Yrnnr f an mcn m diameter, except in case 
of drugs with which experiment has demonstrated the impossibility of 
attaining this degree of fineness. 

The third, fourth and subsequent Triturations are to be made in the 
same manner, that is, by grinding i part by weight of the preceding 
triturations with 9 parts by weight of milk-sugar, until the largest 
particles of the third trituration do not exceed ^fao of an inch in 
diameter, with some few exceptions where experiment has demonstrated 
the impossibility of reaching this degree of fineness. In the fourth 
and subsequent grades the process of grinding should be continued 
until each 100 grains has received the same amount of trituration as 
was required to reduce the drug-particles in the 2x of the same 
medicine to the degree of fineness demanded by the tests given for the 
2x triturations. 

Tests of Triturations. After due consideration, the committee 
adopted the following tests for the determination of the quality, espec- 
ially of the second trituration, though the tests apply to all. The 
microscope is the best, if not at present the only means of determining 
the degree of comminution during trituration. In order to obtain the 
best observations, dry powder should not be used, but a small fragment, 
no larger than a mustard seed, should be dissolved on a glass slide by 
adding a minute drop of water and gently warming it over a spirit 
lamp, avoiding ebullition. It may then be examined under a covering- 
glass, or allowed to dry into a clear, varnish-like spot. A -inch 
objective will easily disclose the largest particles; but a higher power, 
such as a to |, is required to see and measure particles as minute 
as YTrVn mm - After a little practice, a much lower power will answer. 

This is not to be regarded as a severe test for the microscope, which 
will disclose much more minute objects. 

Other important tests are as follows : 



46 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

The powder should not feel gritty when rubbed between thumb and 
finger. 

If any drug particles are visible to the unaided eye by good daylight, 
the trituration is to be regarded as very coarse and imperfect. 

If three grains of a trituration are shaken in a two-drachm vial filled 
with water until the milk-sugar is dissolved, the liquid, after standing 
an hour, should not become clear in good transmitted light; this 
would demonstrate that the medicinal substance is so finely divided as 
to remain suspended in the liquid a long time. 

In getting beyond the application of the ordinary physical tests of 
drug-examination, the pharmacist must rely for assurance of sufficient 
fineness of his product, upon the thoroughness of his methods and 
means. It is well known that the drug, the neutral material and 
and mortar and pestle being the same, the fineness of the product 
must depend upon the following conditions : 

1. The time occupied in the process of trituration. 

2. The extent and correspondence in the curvature of the grinding 
surface of the pestle or pestles to the interior surface of the mortars. 

3. The weight or pressure of the pestles. 

4. The speed of pestles or mortar for a given time, or, in other 
words, the distance travelled by the pestles. 

To secure the necessary conditions, and to effect the object in view, 
various time-saving mechanical devices and different modes of applying 
power have been proposed. The principles of mechanics must be 
recognized as applicable here. 

Tincture Triturations are prepared directly from strong tinctures, 
consequently they contain the soluble constituents only of the drug, 
and should therefore be clearly distinguished from triturations made to 
include the entire drug-substance. They can be designated by adding 
a minus sign above the figure denoting strength ; for example, 73c^ indi- 
cating that this preparation contains less of drug material. 

In making add 10 cubic centimeters of strong tincture to 10 grammes 
of milk-sugar, mix carefully in a mortar with pestle and spatula, 
and cover with pure white paper until the moistened powder is nearly 
dry ; then triturate gently until quite dry, and preserve in glass or 
porcelain jars tightly closed, in a cool, dry place. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 47 

If the tincture used should represent a drug strength of y 1 ^, the 
resulting tincture-trituration should be marked Tx ; if, however, the 
tincture represents but y^, it should be marked ^ 

Succeeding triturations may then be made by adding to i part of 
this tincture-trituration 9 parts of milk-sugar and thoroughly mixing 
and triturating the same in conformity with rules given for the prepar- 
ation of other triturations, the product being marked ^ ^ etc., 
according to the amount of drug-substance it may represent. 

Forms of Vehicles for Prescription. 

These, like all other conditions of homoeopathic pharmacy, should be 
governed by simplicity and usefulness to the physician and patient. 
In other respects the forms and shapes of vehicles are of no impor- 
tance, and may be varied to suit taste and convenience only. For this 
purpose pharmacists have employed certain forms made of cane- and 
milk-sugar. These may be used simply as medicated powders or as 
pellets (globules), tablets, cones, etc. These are made of a sufficiently 
small size to serve as a convenient vehicle and dose. 

Trituration Tablets. A form may also be given to the triturations 
themselves ; and as these tablets are always of a known weight, they 
serve the purpose of measuring the dose and save the physician trouble 
and time. These forms are made by slightly moistening the milk-sugar 
or trituration with distilled water or dilute alcohol, and then by forming 
them into moulds. They are then carefully dried by spreading on 
clean surfaces, and covering them with paper. The moulds used should 
be made of a material unaffected mechanically or chemically by contact 
with the substance to be moulded. 

Medications. 

Medicated Powders are prepared by adding to each 10 grammes of 
milk-sugar i cubic centimeter of the next lower than the desired strength 
of dilution, mixing the same in a mortar with spatula, then triturating 
with a pestle until fully dry. The resulting powder will represent the 
degree of strength next above the dilution used in its preparation, and 
should be so marked. 



48 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Medicated Globules, also called pellets or pilules, are made almost 
exclusively of pure cane-sugar. They are formed into small globular 
masses of different sizes, designated according to the diameter of ten 
globules measured in millimeters. Globules are also made to a limited 
extent of milk-sugar, and these will absorb alcoholic dilution contain- 
ing a much larger percentage of % water than will those made of cane- 
sugar. They should each be made of the purest materials, should be 
perfectly white and odorless and able to withstand all the tests pre- 
scribed for cane- and milk-sugar. 

Globules are medicated by placing them in a vial, and adding the 
dilution in sufficient quantity and allowing them to stand a sufficient 
length of time to saturate them ; any excess of liquid is then to be 
poured off. If necessary to remove the surplus fluid, the vial may be 
inverted on a clean, white blotting-paper until the globules cease to 
cling together. 

In medicating cane-sugar globules, care should be exercised not to 
use a dilution having an alcoholic strength of much less than 88 per 
cent, or that of dispensing alcohol. 

Medicated Cones, also called disks, are made of cane-sugar and 
rendered more absorbent with the addition of a small quantity of egg 
albumen, which makes them very light and porous. They are formed 
into hemispherical masses, and are designated according to size by the 
diameter of base in millimeters. The common size, numbered 6, should 
absorb about two drops of dispensing alcohol. To prevent fermenta- 
tion, these cones should be kept in a dry atmosphere. They should be 
medicated by adding a sufficient quantity of the dilution to saturate 
them, and then by pouring off the excess of liquid. 

Prescriptions. 

The writing of prescriptions falls exclusively within the duties of 
the physician. He prefers to prepare and dispense his own medi- 
cines, he should exercise the greatest care and exactitude in giving 
his instructions to the pharmacist who is to be governed by them. 
Not the slightest doubt should exist concerning the physician's 
directions. 

i. The name of the medicine is to be plainly written, preferably in 
Latin or in one of the names given in the special part (II.). 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 49 

2. The form should next be stated as indicated in the examples 
given below, denning carefully by the signs in use whether 'a tincture, 
dilution, or trituration is desired. This is done by adding the abbrevia- 
tion tinct. or <f>, dil., trit., or, in case of either of the latter, to the 
number of the dilution or trituration the sign x or c (decimal or 
centesimal scale) as an exponent ; e. g., 3x, 6x, 3c, etc. 

3. If the medicated moulded form is desired, this is also to be 
plainly stated in words ; e. g., tablets, pellets, cones, etc. Such medi- 
cated powder or moulded preparation is best expressed in plain words, 
or, if preferred, the number with its exponent may be marked with 
line as explained under Tincture Triturations ; e. g., ^ indicating a 
medicated preparation of milk-sugar. 

4. The quantity should also be stated explicitly in the usual signs 
of metric or apothecaries' weight, or in words. 

5. The dose and its frequency of repetition is plainly to be written 
under the head of Signa or Directions. 

Abbreviations. While these facilitate the writing of prescriptions 
they do not add to their intelligibility, and hence should only be used 
in strict obedience to rules of abbreviation. 

Legibility is absolutely necessary in the writing of prescriptions, to 
avoid errors and waste of time. It is also desirable that physicians of 
different countries should write prescriptions in Latin, with which all 
pharmacists are sufficiently acquainted. 

Active Poisons. The maximum dose of very active drugs has been 
stated in Part II. under each substance, requiring special caution on 
the part of physician and pharmacist. 



PART II. 

SPECIAL PHARMACEUTICS. 



ABIES CANADENSIS. Hemlock Spruce. 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Pinus canadensis ; English, Hemlock spruce. 

Description. An evergreen tree attaining a height of from 70 to 80 
feet, with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, straight, with rough bark ; 
branches are slender, nearly horizontal and brittle ; the twigs pubes- 
cent ; the leaves are flat, i to 2 inches in length, green shining above, 
whitish beneath and downy when young. The cones are small, ovoid, 
terminal, persistent ; the scales are round and entire. 

Habitat. Native of North America, hilly woods, Canada to North 
Carolina. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 264; Millspaugh, 164. 

History. It was known as an article of pharmacy as early as 1759. 
It is the source of Canada pitch or balsam (sometimes erroneously 
called Balm of Gilead), also of an oil of spruce ; the inner bark is used 
in tanning. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Dr. H. P. 
Gatchell, Med. Inv. x. 54. (1873.) [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. i.] 

Parts Used. The fresh bark and buds. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Abies canadensis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 792 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



52 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ABIES NIGRA. Black Spruce. 

Natural Order. Coniferse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Resina Abietis nigrae, Pinus nigra; English, 
Black or double spruce. 

Description. An evergreen tree, from 60 to 80 feet high, with dark 
green leaves and ovate cones, I to i inches long, with thin and wavy 
edged scales. When an incision is made in the tree a gum oozes freely, 
almost white or colorless as it exudes, afterward turning of a pinkish 
and finally a brown color. 

Habitat Swamps and cold mountain woods, New England States 
to Wisconsin and northward, southward along mountains. 

History. From the twigs a decoction is made and used in the pre- 
paration of a beverage known as spruce beer. [Seaman, O. M. & S. 
Rep. I. 65 (1867); Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 2.] 

Part Used. The resin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength -fa. 

Abies nigra gum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

ABSINTHIUM. Common Wormwood. 

Natural Order. Composite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Absinthium vulgare, A. majus, A. rusticans, 
Artemesia absinthium; English, Absinth, Wormwood; French, 
Absinthe, Armoise amere ; German, Wermuth. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial, herbaceous plant, 3 to 4 feet 
high, with several roundish, furrowed stems ; lower leaves 6 to 8 inches, 
upper I to 3 inches long, both petiolate and sessile, pinnatifid. Yellow, 
hemispherical flowers, in paniculated racemes, appear in July and 
August. 






AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 53 

Habitat. Originally from Greece, indigenous to Northern Africa, 
north of Asia, the greater part of Europe, naturalized in the United 
States ; found mostly in mountainous regions, by roadsides, in sunny 
places. Fig., Jahr& Cat. 153; Bent, and Trim. 155; Millspaugh, 88. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic materia medica by Dr. 
Gatchell. The toxicological symptoms from the effects of an extract 
prepared from various species of Artemesia are described in Allen's 
Encyclopaedia, I. 2. 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant, gathered when in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y^. 

Absinthium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 700 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ACALYPHA INDICA. Indian Acalypha. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acalypha canescans, A. ciliata, A. spicata; 
English, Indian Nettle; Vernacular, Cupameni, Koopameni, Shwet- 
busunta, Moorkanda. 

Description. An annual herb, 2 feet high; stem round, smooth, 
branched ; leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate ; green flowers, axillary 
spikes, sterile above, fertile below. Flowers July to September. 

Habitat. Common in gardens in India, found on dung-hills; said 
by Dr. Henry Thomas to have been "first discovered in Vera Cruz, 
where it inhabits marshy places." 



54 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name derived from the Greek, signifying nettle. A 
common remedy in India, it was introduced into homoeopathic materia 
medica by Dr. Tonnere (1856), Horn. Month. Rev., London, I. 256. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 3.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincttire <f> : Drug strength, ^. 

Acalypha indica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

AODUM ACETICUM. Acetic Acid 

Acid, Acetic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC 2 H 3 O 2 ; 59.86. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum aceticum glaciale; Aceti acidum; 
English, Glacial acetic acid; French, Acide ac&ique; German, 
Essigsaure. 

Description. The glacial, or full strength Acetic Acid is a clear, 
limpid liquid, having a strong odor of vinegar and a sharp, acid taste. 
It crystalizes below 17 C. in flat, colorless, rhombic crystals. In closed 
vessels it can be kept in the liquid state at a temperature of 12 C., but 
agitation or the addition of a crystal of glacial acid causes it to solidify. 
It is soluble in all proportions in alcohol or water. When heated, it is 
vaporized, leaving no residue ; its vapor burns with a blue flame. It 
decomposes calcium carbonate only in the presence of water. It com- 
bines with metals forming acetates which are all soluble in water, the 
least soluble being argentic and mercuric acetates. Its specific gravity 
is about 1.058 at ordinary temperature, and its boiling point is 1 17.3 C. 
It is prepared by the distillation of dry acetates with sulfuric acid or 
acid potassium sulfate. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 55 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <j> : Drug strength -fa. 

Acid, Acetic (glacial), 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 900 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 
made, for immediate use only. 

c. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

ACIDUM BENZOICUM. Benzole Acid. 

Acid, Benzoic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC 7 H 5 O 2 ; 121.71. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum benzoicum sublimatum, Flores ben- 
zoes ; English, Flowers of Benzoin ; French, Acide benzoique ; German, 
Benzoesaure. 

Description. White, shining, permanent, crystalline plates, odorless 
when pure, but generally having a faint aromatic smell and a somewhat 
acid taste. Soluole in 500 parts of water and in 2 parts of alcohol at 
15 C. Benzoic acid, by the action of heat, melts at 121.4 C. (250.5 F.) 
Its specific gravity is 1.29. Its solutions are of acid reaction. Heated 
with calcium hydrate, benzol is produced. In natural solution of ferric 
chlorid it produces a flesh-colored precipitate of ferric benzoate. By 
the action of fuming nitric acid, substitution compounds are obtained. 
Deodorized by nascent hydrogen, benzoic acid gives benzaldehyd, 
benzyl alcohol and hydro-benzoic acid. It is generally extracted from 
gum benzoin, but is also contained in Tolu and Peru balsams and 
several other resinous exudations. The commercial product is now 
made synthetically from Toluol. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 

Acid, Benzoic, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 



56 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ACIDUM BORACICUM. Boric Acid. 

Acid, Boracic. 

Chemical Symbol. H 3 BO 3 ; 61.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum boricum; French, Acide borique; 
German, Borsaure. 

Description. White, transparent, shining scales having a pearly 
lustre, unctuous to the touch, inodorous and of an acid and astringent 
taste. When heated it melts, disengaging aqueous vapors which carry 
with them some of the acid. Between 80 C. and 100 C. it is converted 
into metaboracic acid, HBO 2 ; between 140 C. and 160 C. into pyro- 
boracic acid, H 2 B 4 O 7 , and at a red heat it loses all its water and is 
converted into anhydrid, B 2 O 3 . It is soluble in 25.6 parts of water; 
in 15 parts of alcohol at 15 C. and in 3 parts of boiling water. Its 
specific gravity is 1.43. Its aqueous solution, which is faintly acid, 
colors turmeric paper brown. It gives a green coloration to the 
Bunsen flame or alcohol flame. It readily forms ethers with alcohol. 
Heated with glycerin, a soluble, neutral ether is formed, called boro- 
glycerid, used as an antiseptic. It is found in volcanic 1 territories and 
in some mineral waters. It is also prepared by the decomposition of 
native borates with sulfuric acid. 

PREPARATION. 

Trituration: ix and higher. 

ACIDUM CARBOLICUM. Carbolic Acid. 

Acid, Carbolic. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 5 OH; 93.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum Phenicum, Phenylicum crystallisatum ; 
English, Phenol, Phenic acid, Phenic alcohol, Phenylic acid, Phenylic 
hydrate ; French, Acide ph^nique ; German, Carbolsaure. 

Description. Colorless, crystalline needles having a specific odor 
and an acrid, burning taste. Very soluble in alcohol. According to 
the U. S. P., carbolic acid is soluble at 15 C. in about 15 parts of water, 
the solubility varying according to the degree of hydration of the acid. 
According to Alfred H. Allen, an accepted authority [Commercial 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 57 

Organic Analysis, Vol. II., page 537], "Liquid hydrous carbolic acid 
dissolves in about ii.i times its measure of cold water. This corre- 
sponds to a solubility of I part by weight in 10.7 for the absolute acid, 
the saturated solution containing 8.56 per cent of real phenol." It is 
deliquescent, and liquefies on exposure to moist air. On contact with 
the skin or with mucous surfaces it produces white patches. It coagu- 
lates albuminoids, and is a powerful antiseptic. It fuses at 37.5 C. and 
boils at 181.5 C. ; its specific gravity is 1.06. Its aqueous solution is 
neutral. It is soluble in its volume of glycerin, and is not separated 
from this solution on the addition of water. It slowly decomposes a 
boiling solution of potassium carbonate, forming potassium phenolate. 
Even dilute solutions of carbolic acid give with diluted ferric chlorid a 
violet-blue color. Fused with potassium hydrate, it yields oxybenzoic 
and salicylic acids. Concentrated sulfuric acid converts it into phenol 
sulfonic acid ; with nitric acid several products of substitution are 
obtained, among them picric acid. Carbolic acid is obtained from coal 
tar. A poison : Maximum dose 2 grains highly diluted with water. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> : -fa in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

ACIDUM CHROMICUM. Chromic Acid. 

Acid, Chromic. 

Chemical Symbol. CrO 3 ; 99.88. 

Synonyms. English, Chromic anhydrid, Chromium trioxid, 
Anhydrous chromic acid ; French, Acide chromique ; German, Chrom- 
saure. 

Description. Red, rhombic prisms, or needle-shaped crystals, odor- 
less, deliquescent, having an acid and metallic taste. Very soluble in 
water, forming an acid, orange-red solution. In contact with strong 
alcohol, glycerin, ether, phenol, or other organic solvents, chromic 
acid acts so violently that the reaction may be accompanied by a 
dangerous explosion. Dissolved in dilute alcohol it is gradually 
deodorized and the alcohol converted into aldehyd and acetic acid. 



58 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

At a temperature of 250 C. it gives off oxygen, leaving a residue of 
dark-green chromic acid. Its salts are generally of a yellow or yellow- 
red color. Its aqueous solution gives with lead salts a yellow precipi- 
tate of lead chromate ; with argentic salts a red-brown precipitate of 
argentic chromate. These chromates are insoluble in water, but 
soluble in nitric acid. Chromic acid is obtained from the decomposi- 
tion of chromates with sulfuric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <. -fa in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with distilled water ; to be freshly 
made, for immediate use only. 



AODUM CITRICUM. Citric Acid. 

Acid, Citric. 

Chemical Symbol. H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 -HH 2 O; 209.50. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum Citri s. limonum ; English, Citric acid ; 
French, Acide citrique ; German, Citronensaure. 

Description. Colorless, translucent, odorless, rhombic prisms, 
having a pleasant acidulous taste ; efflorescent in dry and deliquescent 
in moist air. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.63 part of water, and in 1.61 parts 
of alcohol. At a temperature of 75 C. its water of crystallization is 
expelled, and at 1.35 C. another molecule is given off, leaving aconitic 
acid. On further heating, it is broken up into carbon dioxid, acetone, 
itaconic and citraconic acids. When slowly ignited it is gradually 
decomposed without emitting the odor of burnt sugar, as does tartaric 
acid. The residue is very small. A weak aqueous solution is decom- 
posed spontaneously after a short time. Citric acid is obtained from 
lemon juice. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture < .- -fa in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 59 

ACIDUM FORMICUM. Formic Acid. 

Acid, Formic. 

Chemical Symbol. HCHO 2 ; 45.89. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum formicicum; English, Formic acid; 
French, Acide formique ; German, Ameisensaiire. 

Description. A colorless liquid, having a pungent acid odor and a 
burning taste; it crystallizes at o C. and boils at 100 C. ; soluble in 
all proportions in water, alcohol or glycerin. Its specific gravity is 
1.23. Applied to the skin, it produces a burning sensation, and even 
blisters. The vapor is inflammable and burns with a blue flame. By 
the action of heat, it is entirely vaporized. It is decomposed into 
water and carbon monoxid by the action of mineral acids. Oxidizing 
reagents convert it into water and carbon dioxid, while potassium and 
sodium oxids decompose it, with formation of a carbonate and libera- 
tion of hydrogen. When heated with solutions of the salts of mercury, 
silver or gold, these are reduced to the metallic state. It is contained 
in the acid secretion of the red ants, in the stinging hair of caterpillars, 
in various animal secretions and in stinging nettles, and is obtained by 
the oxidation of sugar, starch, gum and organic substances in general. 
The best mode of preparation consists, however, in heating oxalic acid 
with glycerin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>; ^ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ACIDUM GALLICUM. Gallic Acid. 

Acid, Gallic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC 7 H 5 O 5 +H 2 O ; 187.55. 

Synonyms. English, Trioxybenzoic acid, Dioxysalicylic acid; 
French, Acide gallique; German, Gallussaiire. 



6O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. Fine white or pale yellow, shining needles, odorless, 
with a faintly acid and astringent taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 100 parts 
of water and in 5 parts of alcohol ; also soluble in 1 2 parts of glycerin. 
At a temperature of 100 C. Gallic acid loses its water of crystallization 
and at about 240 C. it melts, yields carbon dioxid and a sublimate of 
pyrogallol, without residue. Its aqueous solution gives a brown color 
with alkalies, a dark blue color with persalts of iron, and it reduces to 
the metallic states salts of silver and of gold. It does not precipitate 
gelatine. It is obtained from nut-galls. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tinctrire <f> : y 1 ^ in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AODUM HYDROCYANICUM. Hydrocyanic Acid. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic. 

Chemical Symbol. HCN; 26.98. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum hydrocyanatum ; English, Prussic 
acid, Cyanhydric acid; French, Acide hydrocyanique ; German, 
Cyanwasserstoffsaiire. 

Description. A colorless and transparent liquid, having a specific 
and marked odor resembling bitter almonds ; in taste, at first cooling, 
then irritating and burning. It mixes readily with alcohol, water and 
ether in all proportions ; is inflammable and volatile ; boils at 27, and 
congeals at 1 5 C. It is a rapid and powerful poison, rarely admitting 
of treatment to counteract its effects, and should, therefore, be tasted, 
even in dilution, with the utmost caution. The strongest solution 
obtainable in the general trade is aqueous, and contains 2 per cent of 
the acid. This reddens litmus paper transiently, or if permanently, 
because of some acid impurity. It readily decomposes, and should be 
kept in small, amber-colored, cork-stoppered vials, in a dark, cool place. 
An active poison. Maximum dose of 2 per cent solution, zom. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 6l 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : Drug strength -j-^. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic, in 2 per cent solution, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 500 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 
All preparations of this acid should be freshly made. 

ACIDUM HYDROFLUORICUM. Hydrofluoric Acid. 

Acid, Fluoric. 

Chemical Symbol. HF1; 20. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum fluoricum, Acidum fluorhydricum ; 
English, Fluoric acid, Hydrogen fluorid; French, Acide fluorhy- 
drique; German: Fluorwasserstoff satire. 

Description. A colorless, very mobile liquid emitting fumes in the 
air, having a pungent, suffocating odor and a very acid, acrid taste. In 
contact with the skin or the mucous surfaces, it produces painful burns, 
inflammation and sores, which take long to heal. It solidifies at 
102.5 C. and liquefies again at 92.3 C. Its aqueous solution when 
saturated contains 36 per cent of pure acid, is colorless and corrosive, 
gives off fumes in the air, and must be kept in platinum, lead, gutta 
percha or paraffin vessels. It dissolves in all proportions in water and 
is entirely volatilized by heat. With solutions of calcium and barium 
salts, it gives white precipitates. It does not precipitate argentic 
salts, as the fluorid of that metal is soluble in water. It is obtained by 
heating calcium fluorid and sulfuric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution </> : Drug strength ^. 

Acid, Fluoric, sp. gr. 1.15, 278 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water. 

All preparations of this acid should be kept in bottles made of 
gutta percha or in glass bottles, the interiors of which are coated with 
paraffin or petrolatum. 



62 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ACIDUM LACTICU1VL Lactic Acid. 

Acid, Lactic. 

Chemical Symbol HC 3 H 5 O 3 ; 89.79. 

Synonyms. English, Isolactic, Ethyledene-lactic, or Oxypro- 
pionic acid ; French, Acid lactique ; German, Milchsaiire. 

Description. A colorless, syrupy liquid, having a faint, not disa- 
greeable odor, and a very acid taste. The specific gravity of the pure 
acid is 1.213. It is soluble in all proportions in water and in alcohol. 
At a temperature of 145 C. it is converted into dilactic acid, and at 
about 150 C. it gives lactid anhydrid in volatile, fusible, rhombic 
plates ; at a higher temperature it gives off inflammable vapors. When 
slowly ignited, it is entirely volatilized. It coagulates milk and 
albumen, and decomposes carbonates and acetates. By the action of 
nitric acid it yields oxalic acid, and with chromic acid, formic and 
acetic acid are produced. Its aqueous solutions do not precipitate 
argentic or barium salts. It exists in nature widely distributed in the 
vegetable kingdom ; it is a product of fermentation, and is obtained by 
the fermentation of casein. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <j> : Drug strength ^V- 

Acid, Lactic, sp. gr. 1.213, strength 75 per cent, 133 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x with dilute alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispens- 

ing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ACIDUM MURIATICUM. Hydrochloric Acid. 

Acid, Muriatic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC1 ; 36.37. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum hydrochloricum, Acidum hydrochlora- 
tum, Acidum chlorhydricum ; English, Hydrogen chlorid, Hydrochloric 
acid, Chlorhydric acid; French, Acide chlorhydrique s. muriatique; 
German, Chlorwasserstoffsaiire. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 63 

Description. In the gaseous state, it is colorless, has a pungent, 
suffocating odor, a very acid taste, and gives off abundant fumes in 
the air. It is condensed to a colorless liquid at a low temperature. 
It is freely soluble in water, and the saturated solution contains 43 
per cent of gas. This aqueous solution is a colorless liquid, fuming 
in air, of a suffocating odor and very acid taste. It is soluble in water 
or alcohol in all proportions. By the action of heat, it is entirely 
vaporized without decomposition. With argentic salts it gives a curdy, 
white precipitate of argentic chlorid, soluble in ammonium hydrate, 
insoluble in nitric acid. It is obtained by the decomposition of sodium 
chlorid with sulfuric acid. Acidum Hydrochloricum of the U. S. P. 
contains 31.9 per cent by weight of absolute hydrochloric acid and 68.1 
per cent of water; specific gravity 1.163 at 1 S C. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Acid, Muriatic, sp. gr. 1.163, 3 12 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 

made, for immediate use only. 
All preparations of this acid should be kept in glass-stoppered vials. 



ACIDUM NITRICUM. Nitric Acid. 

Acid, Nitric. 

Chemical Symbol. HNO 3 ; 62.89. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum nitri, Spiritus nitri acidus, Aqua 
fortis; English, Hydrogen Nitrate; French, Acide azotique s. nitrique; 
German, Salpetersaiire. 

Description. A colorless liquid with a pungent odor and a very 
acid taste. Brought in contact with the skin, it produces yellow spots. 
It is soluble in all proportions in water and dilute alcohol. With strong 
alcohol a violent reaction takes place, substitution products being 
obtained. Exposed to light or heated near its boiling point, it turns a 
reddish-yellow, owing to the formation of nitrogen oxids. Its specific 



64 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

gravity is 1.414 and boiling point 36 C. Exposed to heat it is entirely 
volatilized with decomposition. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, con- 
verting most metals into oxids or nitrates. It decomposes almost all 
organic substances. All the nitrates are soluble in water. It gives a 
brown coloration with ferrous sulfate dissolved in sulfuric acid, and a 
red coloration with brucin. It is prepared by decomposition of sodium 
nitrate with sulfuric acid. Acidum Nitricum of the U. S. P. contains 
68 per cent by weight of absolute nitric acid and 32 per cent of water; 
specific gravity 1.414 at 15 C. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : Drug strength $. 

Acid, Nitric, sp. gr. 1.414, 147 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 
made, for immediate use only. 

All preparations of this acid should be kept in glass-stoppered vials. 



ACIDUM NITRO-MURIATICUM. Nitro-hydrochloric Acid. 
Acid, Nitro-Muriatic. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum nitro-hydrochloricum, Acidum chloro- 
nitrosum, Aqua regia ; French, Acide chloro-azotique s. chloro-nitreux ; 
German, Salpetersalzsaure. 

Description. A liquid of a deep yellow color, an odor of chlorin and 
a very acid taste. It is soluble in all proportions in water, but should 
not be brought into contact with alcohol. It is entirely volatilized by 
heat, and cannot be kept for a long time. It dissolves gold and 
platinum, transforms metals into chlorids, and liberates iodin and 
bromin from their combinations. It is prepared by mixing nitric 
and hydrochloric acids in the following-named proportions : 

Nitric Add, 180 Cc. 

Hydrochloric Acid, 820 Cc. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 65 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution </> : Drug strength -j^. 

Acid, Nitro-muriatic, 279 Cc. 

Distilled water, a sufficient qtiantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 
made, for immediate use only. 

All preparations of this acid should be kept in ground-stoppered 
vials, and in a cool dark place. 



ACIDUM OXALICUM. Oxalic Acid. 

Acid, Oxalic. 

Chemical Symbol. H 2 C 2 O 4 (H 2 O) 2 ; 125.7. 

Synonyms. English, Hydrogen oxalate; French, Acide oxalique 
s. carboneux; German, Oxalsaiire. 

Description. Colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, odorless and 
having a strong acid taste ; not deliquescent. It is soluble in 1 5 parts 
of water at 15 C. and in 2.5 parts of alcohol. At 98 C. it fuses, and at 
1 60 C. sublimes partly unaltered, being partly decomposed into carbon 
dioxid and carbon monoxid without residue. When heated with sul- 
furic acid, the same action takes place, but when dissolved in the acid 
at a low temperature large crystals of anhydrous oxalic acid are 
deposited. Heated with glycerin it gives carbon dioxid and formic 
acid. Solutions of neutral or ammoniacal calcium salts form a white 
precipitate of calcium oxalate, insoluble in water, soluble in hydrochlo- 
ric acid and decomposed at a red heat into calcium oxid. It is found 
in the vegetable kingdom and occurs in rhubarb, curcuma, sorrel, ginger, 
valerian, quassia, orris, etc. It is obtained by heating sugar, starch, 
or molasses, with nitric acid. Oxalic acid is an active poison. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture </> / -fa in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 



66 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM. Phosphoric Acid. 

Acid, Phosphoric. 

Chemical Symbol. H 3 PO 4 ; 97.8. 

Synonyms. English, Orthophosphoric Acid; French, Acide phos- 
phorique; German, Phosphorsaiire. 

Description. The anhydrid, P 2 O 5 , consists of snow-white, odorless 
flakes, attracting moisture with avidity and giving metaphosphoric or 
glacial acid, HPO 3 , or of phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 , which is contained 
in the bones of animals. A third modification is pyrophosphoric acid, 
H 4 P 2 O 7 . Meta-phosphoric acid coagulates albumen, and gives a trans- 
parent, gelatinous precipitate with argentic nitrate. Pyrophosphoric 
acid does not coagulate albumen, and gives a white precipitate with 
argentic nitrate. Orthophosphoric acid is without action upon 
albumen, and gives a yellow precipitate with argentic nitrate. The 
officinal acid represents 85 per cent of the ortho modification. It is a 
colorless, odorless liquid having an acid taste; specific gravity 1.710. 
It is soluble in water and alcohol in all proportions ; when heated it 
loses water and is transformed at 200 C. into the pyro modification. 
It is extracted from bones. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution </> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Acid, Phosphoric, sp. gr. 1.710, strength 85 per cent, 118 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 
prepared, for immediate use only. 



ACIDUM PICRICUM. Picric Acid. 

Acid, Picric. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 OH; 228.57. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum carbazoticum ; English, Carbazotic 
acid, Nitrophenisic acid, Trinitrophenol ; French, Acide picrique; 
German, Pikrin satire. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



Description. Bright yellow needles or scales, without odor, having 
an intensely bitter taste; specific gravity 1.777. Soluble in 86 parts of 
water at 15 C. and readily soluble in alcohol. It melts at 122.5 C. an ^ 
should not be heated, as it is explosive. When cautiously heated, it 
sublimes without decomposition. Quickly heated in a test tube it 
detonates; on a platinum foil it burns with a smoky flame, without 
residue. Its aqueous solution is acid, producing on the skin and on 
organic matters a permanent yellow coloration ; it precipitates gelatin. 
It forms salts which are mostly yellow, crystalline, and very bitter ; they 
explode by percussion or by the action of heat. The potassium salt is 
soluble in 260 parts of water at 1 5 C. It is obtained by the action of 
nitric acid upon organic substances, such as indigo, sugar, starch, 
salicin, aloes, benzoin, silk, etc. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Solution: y^ in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ACIDUM SALICYLICUM. Salicylic Acid. 

Acid, Salicylic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC 7 H 5 O 3 ; 137.67. 

Synonyms. English, Ortho-oxybenzoic Acid; French, Acide sali- 
cylique; German, Salicylsaiire. 

Description. Snow-white, small, acicular, shining crystals, without 
odor and of a sweetish, faintly acid taste. It is soluble in 450 parts of 
water and in 2.4 parts of alcohol at 15 C. It fuses at 155.5 C., and if 
carefully heated sublimes without decomposition at 200 C. When 
rapidly heated to between 220 C. and 230 C. it gives carbon dioxid 
and phenol. Even very dilute aqueous or alcoholic solutions give a 
deep blue violet color with ferric chlorid ; this reaction, however, does 
not take place in the presence of alkalies, alkaline salts or acids. A 
mixture of salicylic acid and sugar gives a deep red color, changing to 
black when heated with sulfuric acid ; it is converted into chloranil by 



68 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

potassium chlorate. It disengages carbon dioxid from carbonates. It 
occurs in the free state in the flowers of Spiraea Ulmaria and as methyl- 
ester in Wintergreen oil. The commercial acid is prepared syntheti- 
cally from phenol. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j> : -^ in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 



AODUM SULPHURICUM. Sulfuric Acid 

Acid, Sulfuric. 

Chemical Symbol. H 2 SO 4 ; 97.82. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum sulf uricum ; English] Oil of vitriol, 
Hydrogen sulphate; French, Acide sulfurique ; German, Schwef el satire. 

Description. A colorless, odorless liquid, markedly caustic and 
corrosive and having a very sharp and acid taste. It is soluble in all 
proportions in water, with which it forms several definite compounds. 
The mixture of the concentrated acid with water is productive of high 
temperatures, therefore great care should be exercised. Under no 
conditions should the water be poured into the acid, but rather a fine 
stream of acid allowed to drip into the stirred water. Sulfuric acid 
produces ethers with violent activity when mixed with alcohol. It is a 
heavy liquid, with a specific gravity of 1.84. At a temperature of 
35 C. it congeals, and boils at 338 C., producing abundant white fumes 
without residue when in contact with moist air. Heated to a red heat 
it is dissociated into sulfur dioxid, oxygen and water. It carbonizes 
organic matters. With solutions of barium salts, a white precipitate of 
barium sulfate is obtained insoluble in acids; with solutions of lead 
salts, a white precipitate of lead sulfate insoluble in water or acids, 
but soluble in ammonium tartrate. Sulfuric acid is obtained by the 
oxidation of sulfur or sulfur dioxid in the presence of water. It con- 
tains 92.5 per cent by weight of absolute acid, and 7.5 per cent of 
water. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 69 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Acid, Sulfuric, sp. gr. 1.835, 108 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity, 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution, the solution 
to be measured when cold. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; to be freshly 
made, for immediate use only. 

All preparations of this acid should be kept in ground-stoppered 
vials. 



ACIDUM TANNICUM. Tannic Acid. 

Acid, Tannic. 

Chemical Symbol. HC 14 H 9 O 9 ; 321.22. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum gallo-tannicum, Tanninum; English, 
Tannin, Digallic acid ; French, Acide tannique ; German, Gerbsaiire. 

Description. An amorphous powder of a yellowish white color, 
frequently having a greenish tinge, odorless, of a very astringent 
taste. At 15 C. it is soluble in i part of water or in 0.6 part of 
alcohol. It dissolves at a moderate heat in i part of glycerin. Ex- 
posed to heat, it melts, blackens, burns with a bright flame without 
residue. Carefully heated, at a temperature of 215 C., pyrogallol 
sublimes, leaving a residue of black metagallic acid, insoluble in 
water, soluble in alkalies. Its aqueous solution, which has an acid 
reaction, precipitates albumen and forms with gelatinoids compounds 
which do not putrefy with ferrous salts ; no action takes place when 
oxygen is excluded, but with persalts of iron, a deep, blue-black color- 
ation is obtained. In concentrated solutions, a precipitate of the 
same color is formed and the persalts are reduced to ferrous salts. 
With cupric salts it gives a dark blue coloration and a precipitate of 
the same color in concentrated solutions. In the presence of alkalies 
and by exposure to air the solutions of tannic acid assume a brown 
coloration. It unites with all vegetable alkaloids forming whitish 
precipitates nearly insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and in acetic 
acid. lodin solutions containing tannic acid do not react upon starch. 
Tannic acid is obtained from nut-galls. 



7O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <f> : -$ with strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ACIDUM TARTARICUM. Tartaric Acid. 

Acid, Tartaric. 

Chemical Symbol. H 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 ; 149.64. 

Synonyms. English, Dioxysuccinic acid, Dihydroxysuccinic acid; 
French, Acide tartrique ; German, Weinsaiire. 

Description. Colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, odorless and 
having an acid taste, permanent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.8 part 
of water or in 2.5 parts of alcohol at the same temperature; also 
soluble in glycerin, but insoluble in chloroform and benzol. Sub- 
mitted to the action of heat, it fuses at 170 C., at 180 C. it loses 
water and is converted into the anhydrid ; between 200 and 21 1 C. it 
is decomposed. At a higher temperature it turns black, emits fumes 
having the odor of burned sugar, and is entirely decomposed into 
carbon monoxid and dioxid, hydrocarbons and water. When kept in 
fusion for some time, water escapes and tartrelic acid is produced. 
Its aqueous solution has an acid reaction and forms with calcium salts 
a white precipitate of calcium tartrate nearly insoluble in water, but 
soluble in ammonium chlorid and in acetic acid. With a concentrated 
solution of a potassium salt, a precipitate of acid potassium, tartrate 
is obtained. It is prepared from crude tartrates extracted from the 
juice of grapes, tamarinds, pineapples and other acidulous fruits. It 
is a by-product in the manufacture of cream of tartar from argols. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j>: ^ in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 71 

ACONITUM NAPELLUS. Aconite. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aconitum angustifolium, A. caule-simplex, A. 
coeruleum, A. dissectum, A. multifidum, A. Stoerckianum, A. tauricum, 
A. vulgare, Napellum coeruleum ; English, Friar's cap, Helmet 
flower, Monkshood, Wolfsbane; French, Aconit; German, Eisenhut, 
Sturmhat. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a tapering root, descending 
perpendicularly. The stem is erect, 2 to 6 feet high, round, smooth, 
green, and slightly hairy above. The leaves are alternate, long-stalked, 
spreading and palmately cut, the lower more deeply than the upper, 
into three or five segments, which are again divided. They are dark- 
green and shiny on the upper surface, paler and slightly hairy on the 
under. The flowers, which are of 'a dark-violet color, appear from 
May to July, are stalked and racemose, not numerous nor large. The 
calyx is wanting, sepals five, the upper helmet-shaped and beaked, 
nearly hemispherical, the two lateral are roundish and hairy internally, 
the lower two, oblong-oval. 

Habitat. It is found in wet, shady places in hilly districts ; grow- 
ing at high altitudes, throughout the mountainous regions. It grows 
throughout Siberia, extending to mountainous ranges of the Pacific 
coast of this country. It has also been introduced as an ornamental 
flower. It has become naturalized in the west of England and Wales. 
Fig., Flora Horn. I. i; Jahr. and Cat. 153; Winkler, i ; Goullon, 4; 
Bent, and Trim. 6. 

History. The name is said to be derived from Aconis, a city of 
Bithynia (Asia Minor), where it grew abundantly, and napus a turnip, 
from the shape of its roots. Its etymology is ascribed to Akone, a 
whetstone, a-konigos, without dust, as the plant grew on rocks desti- 
tute of soil; akon, a dart, because darts were poisoned therewith. 
Aconite was used as a medicine by the ancients and referred to in 
mythological history, but fell into disrepute until about the middle of 
the last century, when it was employed by Stoerck and given a place 
in the Pharmacopeia. Hahnemann published his provings of it in 
1805 in his "Fragmenta de Viribus Medicamentorum Positivus." 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 12.] 



72 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Parts Used. The whole plant and root gathered at the beginning 
of flowering. At the time Hahnemann made his provings the many 
species were not accurately distinguished, and it is not certain which 
were employed by him. In subsequent provings different species 
have been used indiscriminately. The root is much stronger than the 
herb or leaves, and is more uniform in strength. The results of careful 
and repeated experiments show the root to possess nine times the 
strength of the leaf. In the provings the symptoms of the herb, root 
and seed have not been separated, not even those of different species. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength T ^. 
Aconitum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 683 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol. 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ACONITUM E RADICK Aconite Root. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aconiti radix; English, Aconite root. 

Description. The root of A. napellus is a tuber, contracted below 
into a conical root resembling a parsnip, \ to I inch diameter at the 
crown and 2 to 3 inches in length. From a bud at the side, another 
tuber is formed at the end of a short branch, during the first summer, 
bearing a bud at its top, from which grows the stem of the succeeding 
year. This second root is fully developed in the fall of the first year, 
when the parent (officinal) becomes shrivelled longitudinally and 
covered with broken rootlets. This is dark-brown in color, has a 
thick bark, breaks with short fracture, showing white or gray inner 
substance, sometimes hollow in the center. A transverse section of 
the root shows a white central star-shaped, six- to eight-rayed pith. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 73 

The radish-like odor of the fresh root disappears on drying ; the taste 
is at first sweetish, then acrid and burning, with a persistent sense of 
numbness. As sold in market the roots of different species are found 
mixed with the officinal. Some of these are globular-ovate, smaller 
and with central pith having five rounded rays ; others are composed 
of three to five attached roots, with pith roundish and pentagonal; 
other roots resembling A. napellus in form, have an aromatic odor and 
pungent taste, and on transverse section exhibit circles of oil cells. 
Aconite root is an active poison. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -^ (by percolation). 
Aconite e radice in powder sufficiently fine to pass through 

a sieve having 40 meshes to the inch, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

ACTMA RACEMOSA, [See Cimicifuga racemosa.] 

ACT^EA SPICATA. Baneberry. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Actaea americana, A. brachypetala, A. lon- 
gipes, A. nigra, A. rubra, Radix Christopherianae; English, Cohosh, 
Herb Christopher, Baneberry ; French, Racine de Saint-Christophe ; 
German, Christophswurz. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a short, slender 
rhizome of blackish-gray color. The stem is erect, 2 to 3 feet high, 
leafless and scaly at the base. The leaves are two to three ternately 
compound and ovate ; leaflets sharply cleft and toothed. The white 
flowers which appear from April to June are on a short, thick, termi- 
nal, ovate raceme. Pedicels are the length of the flowers, scarcely 
thickened when in fruit. 

Habitat. It is a native of Central and Northern Europe, grows in 
bushy, mountainous, lime-stone districts. It has been found from 
Canada to Pennsylvania. Fig., Winkler, 2. 



74 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1852 by Dr 
Petroz. Journ. d. 1. Soc. Gal. III. 12. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 1. 45.] 
Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Actsea spicata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

ADONIS VERNALIS. Pheasant's Eye. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 
Synonyms. Latin, Adonis apennina; English, Pheasant's Eye. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, I foot high. Its lower 
leaves are abortive, the upper sessile, multifid. Its flowers appear 
from March to May, on the summit of each stem and branch; are 
bright yellow and cup-shaped ; the involucre absent, sepals five, petals 
five to fifteen. 

Habitat. It is a native of northern Europe and Asia and has been 
found growing spontaneously in Western New York and Kentucky. 

History. It has been recently introduced into medical practice. 
Parts Used. Entire fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Adonis vernalis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 250 Cc. = 350 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol. 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 75 

^SCULUS GLABRA. Buckeye. 

Natural Order. Sapindaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, /Esculus carnea, A. echinata, A. ohioensis, A. 
pallida, A. rubicunda, A. watsoniana, Pavia glabra, P. pallida, P. 
watsoniana ; English, Fetid, or Ohio Buckeye, Buckeye tree, Smooth- 
leaved horse-chestnut. 

Description. A large, deciduous, ornamental tree, 12 feet in height, 
with smooth bark, exhaling an unpleasant odor, hence its name. Its 
leaves are opposite, digitate, straight-veined and smooth. The flowers, 
which appear in May and June in a terminal panicle, are of a pale- 
yellow color, often polygamous, the greater portion with imperfect 
pistils and sterile. The fruit is in a capsule, prickly when young. 
The seeds are very large, with a mahogany-colored, shining coat, and 
a large, round, pale scar. 

Habitat. North America. Introduced from northern parts of 
Asia, through Southern Europe to England. It is found on river 
banks from West Pennsylvania to Michigan and Kentucky. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 44. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 
1864, New Rem. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 48.] 

Part Used. The fresh ripe nut, not including outside shell. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

yEsculus glabra, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 120 Cc. = 220 

Distilled water, 280 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

^ESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM. Horse Chestnut. 

Natural Order. Sapindaceae. 



76 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Castaneae equinse, Hippocastanum vulgare; 
English, Common horse-chestnut ; French, Marronier d' Inde ; German, 
Gemeine Kastanie. 

Description. A large, round-headed tree, 40 to 60 feet in height, 
with many branches ; tawny, smooth bark, white, not very firm wood. 
Leaves are opposite, bright-green, straight, digitate and obovate ; acute 
and serrate leaflets. The flowers appear in June in numerous pink 
and white pyramidal racemes. The fruit is large, smooth, mahogany- 
colored, with large, round, pale scab, in a fleshy, prickly shell. 

Habitat. Native of India, Persia, or Northern Turkey; introduced 
into and abundant in Britain, France and United States. Fig., 
Goullon, 40; Millspaugh, 43. 

History. It was introduced into Europe by an ambassador of the 
Ottoman Porte, who sent the seed to Vienna in 1576. It was intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice by Helbig, 1844. The name was 
originally applied to a species of oak; also, to a tree which bore 
esculent fruit esca-food. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 48.] 

Part Used. The fresh, ripe nut, not including outside shell. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -$. 

^Esculus hippocastanum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 
plant moisture 120 Cc. = 220 

Distilled water, 280 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Tritiirations : I x and higher. 

^THUSA CYNAPIUM. Fool's Parsley. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferas. 

Synonyms. English, Dog parsley, Dog poison, Fool's parsley, 
Garden hemlock, Lesser hemlock ; French, Cigue des Jardins ; German, 
Garten-schierling. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 77 

Description. A fetid, poisonous, annual herb, with tapering and 
branched whitish root. The stem, i to 2 feet high, is round, 
striate, leafy, not spotted, often purplish, branched and zigzag. 
The leaves are twice or thrice pinnatifid, bright green, sometimes 
tinged with red, wedge-lanceolate, lobed, and somewhat decurrent. 
The flowers are white, and appear from July to September. The 
involucre is wanting, but an involucrum of three long and narrow 
leaves distinguishes this plant from the garden parsley, from which it 
also differs in the peculiar and disagreeable smell of the leaves. 

Habitat. Common weed in gardens and cultivated fields through- 
out Europe ; also found about cultivated grounds from New England 
to Pennsylvania. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 15; Winkler, 10; Jahr and 
Cat. 155; Bent, and Trim. 125; Millspaugh, 65. 

History. The name is said to be derived from " Aitho," burn, 
from its acrid taste ; " Aithusa," beggarly, and also " Aithusso," to set 
on fire. It was confounded by many of the early writers with Conium 
maculatum, the general name Cicuta, from which it may be distin- 
guished by the absence of spots on its stem. It was introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1828 by Nenning. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. I. 59.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j- 1 ^. 

yEthusa Cynapium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3_x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3\ and higher. 



AGARICUS MUSCARIUS. Bug Agaric. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 



78 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Agaricus fulvus, A. imperialis, A. maculatus, 
A. plumbaeus, A. puella, A. pustulatus, A. verrucosus, Amanita citrinus, 
A. muscarius; English, Bug or fly agaric; French, Oronge fausse; 
German, Fliegenschwamm. 

Description. This mushroom has a sub-solid, bulbous stem, 4 to 9 
inches high, y z to i inch thick, with white gills. The pileus is 3 to 7 
inches broad, of a rich orange-scarlet color, but occasionally whitish, 
yellowish or brown. Its color varies according to the locality where 
it is found. It has numerous whitish, angular warts, which are viscid 
when moist. 

Habitat. Found in dry places in Northern Europe, Asia and 
America; not common in England, abundant in pine woods in some 
parts of Scotland and sandy deserts in Asia. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 21 ; 
Winkler, 4. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Stapf in 1828. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 69.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh fungus, with the exception of outer 
skin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength $. 

Agaricus muscarius, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AGARICUS EMETICUS. Emetic Mushroom. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 
Synonyms. Latin, Russula emetica; English, Acrid agaric. 

Description. A small, acrid mushroom, about 3 inches high, with 
a thick, stout stem. The upper portion is from 2 to 3 inches broad, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 79 

fleshy and firm; in shape obtuse, then depressed and funnel-form. 
The gills are narrow and closely set ; the flesh compact, white and 
cheesy. 

Habitat. It is found in the woods of Europe. 

History. Poisonous effects. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 68.] 

Parts Used. The fresh mushroom. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> ; Drug strength -^. 

Agaricus emet., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AGAVE AMERICANA. Century Plant. 

Natural Order. Amaryllidaceas. 

Synonyms.- English, American aloe, Century plant, Maguey; 
French, Maguey ; German, Agave. 

Description. A perennial herb, 3 to 30 feet high, fibrous-rooted, 
acaulescent, with dentate, lanceolate leaves 3 to 6 feet long, very thick 
and fleshy, with hard spines along the margins and at the points. 
Scape is branched, lofty and arborescent ; corolla tube contracted in 
the middle; pedicel as long as corolla. The pod is coriaceous and 
many-seeded. The seeds are flattened ; the flowers yellow. 

Habitat Florida, Mexico, Central and Tropical America. Culti- 
vated in south of Europe, for hedges. 

History. It was supposed to be the species from the juice of 
which the intoxicating pulque of the Mexicans was obtained, but this 
is doubtful. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1866 by Dr. 
Hale, New Rem. 2nd ed. 52. 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 



8O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Agave, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

pknt moisture 800 Cc. = 900 

Strong alcohol, 222 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, six parts distilled 

water, three parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AGNUS CASTUS. Chaste Tree. 

Natural Order. Verbenaceae. 

Synonyms. -Latin, Vitex agnus castus, V. verticillata ; English, 
Chaste tree ; French, Gattilier commun ; German, Keusch-lamm. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, 6 feet high, much branched, 
with opposite, petiolate, digitate leaves, five to seven partite, dark- 
green on upper, grayish on under surface, possessing a strong, 
aromatic odor. Flowers are numerous in long, terminal spikes, and 
blue or purplish in color. The berries resemble pepper-corn; are 
dark-purple, half-covered by green calyces, yellowish and hard within^ 
and with an aromatic odor and taste. 

Habitat. The shores of the Mediterranean, south of France and 
Greece, on sandy spots and at the base of rocks. It is also cultivated 
in gardens. Fig., Goullon, 318. 

History. It was used in medicine in the time of Dioscorides, and 
was introduced into homoeopathic practice by Stapf in 1831, Archiv. 
X. I. 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 127.] 

Part Used. The recently dried berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength fa. 

Agnus castus, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, loco Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 8l 

AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO. Corn Cockle. 

Natural Order. Carophyllaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lychnis githago ; English, Corn cockle. 

Description. -An annual herb, with dichotomous stem, 2 to 3 feet 
high, swelling at the nodes. The leaves are opposite, entire and 
linear, 3 to 5 inches long, % to y^. inches wide, of a pale-green color, 
fringed with long hairs. The flowers are few, appearing on long, 
naked stalks from June to July; are large, of a blue or purple color. 
The calyx tubular, coriaceous, five tubed, ovoid or cylindrical, longer 
than the corolla. The seeds are roundish and angular, and of a 
purplish-black color. 

Habitat. A common, pernicious weed, found everywhere in wheat 
fields. Fig., Goullon, 25 ; Millspaugh, 31. 

History. The name means crown of the fields. The seeds are 
poisonous, containing saponine. Introduced into homoeopathic prac- 
tice in 1854 by Dr. Kurtz, Zeit. f. Horn. Klin. III. 107. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 132.] 

Part Used. The ripe, dried seeds. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < ; Drug strength ^. 

Agrostemma, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS. Tree of Heaven. 

Natural Order. Simarubaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ailanthus procerus, Rhus cacodendron, R. 
chinense, R. hypsilodendron ; English, Chinese sumach, Tree of 
heaven; German, Gotterbaum. 



82 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous tree, from 30 to 60 feet high, with 
straight, smooth trunk, 2 to 3 feet in diameter and much branched. 
The leaves are 1% to 6 feet long, odd-pinnately compound and glab- 
rous. Flowers in terminal panicles, are staminate, pistillate or poly- 
gamous, exhaling a peculiar disagreeable odor. 

Habitat. Native of China. Introduced into England and brought 
to this country about 1800. Fig., Millspaugh, 35. 

History. From its general appearance it was thought to belong 
to the Rhus family. It is cultivated in France for the sake of its 
leaves, upon which the silk worm is fed. It was mistaken as the 
source of the Japan varnish, hence its name Japanese Varnish Tree. 
It was introduced into homoeopathic practice by Drs. Hering and 
Lippe in 1840-50. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 133.] 

Parts Used. The fresh bark of the young shoots, and the fresh, 
well-developed flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Ailanthus, moist magma containing solids 160 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ALETRIS FARINOSA. Star Grass. 

Natural Order. Haemodoraceae. 

Synonyms. English, Ague-grass, Ague-root, Aloe-root, Bettie- 
grass, Blazing-star, Colic-root, Crow corn, Devil's bit, Mealy starwort, 
Star grass, Star root, Unicorn root ; French, Al^tris farineux ; German, 
Mehlige Aletris. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial, acaulescent herb, with 
rhizome consisting of four to six joints, brownish externally and 
white internally, breaking with a mealy fracture, inodorous, with per- 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 83 

sistently bitter taste. The leaves are sessile, lanceolate and smooth, 3 
to 4 inches long, % inch wide, spread star-like on the ground. The 
flowers are in a slender, wand-like, crowded raceme, and on a nearly 
naked scape, I to 3 feet high, creamy white, appearing from May to 
August ; later, they have a wrinkled, mealy appearance. 

Habitat. It is indigenous to North America, and found in grassy 
or sandy woods. Common in New England and southward. 

History. The name signifies mealy, in allusion to the dust with 
which the plant seems to be covered. It is one of the most intensely 
bitter plants known. It was used as medicine by the aborigines; 
introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 1864, New 
Rem. p. 34. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 146.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -j^. 
Aletris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ALLIUM CEPA. Onion. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cepa ; English, Onion; French, Oignon; Ger- 
man, Zwiebel. 

Description. A bulbous biennial plant, the bulb being compressed, 
round or oblong. The scape appears the second year, is 3 to 4 feet 
high, straight and smooth. The flowers are terminal, umbelliferous 
and greenish-white. 



84 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



Habitat. Native of Hungary. Numerous varieties are universally 
cultivated. 

History. It has been used as a medicine from time immemorial. 
Homoeopathic provings were made by Dr. Hering in 1847, Am. Arz. 
Prufung. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 146.] 

Part Used. The fresh mature bulb of the red onion. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -j^. 

Allium cepa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; $x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ALLIUM SATIVUM. Garlic, 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Allium ophioscorodon, Porrum sativum; 
English, Garlic ; French, Ail ; German, Knoblauch. 

Description. An acaulescent, perennial, bulbous plant. The bulb 
is somewhat ovate, flattened below, tapering upwards, covered with a 
white membrane and composed of six or more small bulbs. The 
terminal scape is smooth, shining, solid, i^ to 2 feet high, surrounded 
by the sheathing leaves seven or eight in number all from the root 
stock. The flowers are umbelliferous, white, appearing in June and 
July. 

Habitat. Native of the Mediterranean region. Universally culti- 
vated. 

History. It was well known to the ancients, and was used as a 
medicine by Hippocrates, but is now rarely employed by the old 
school. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1852 by Dr. Petros, 
J. d. 1. Soc. Gal. III. 279. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 160.] 

Part Used. The fresh mature bulb. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 85 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -$. 

Allium sativum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ALNUS SERRULATA. Tag Alder. 

Natural Order. Betulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Alnus rubra; English, Common smooth or tag 
alder, Notch-leaved alder, Red alder. 

Description. A deciduous shrub or tree from 6 to 35 feet high, 
with numerous straight stems; bark smooth and brown, becoming 
rugged and black. The leaves are petiolate, obovate, acute at the 
base, serrate, green and smooth on both sides, often downy beneath. 
The flowers appear before the leaves, in March and April, from 
clustered catkins of the preceding season. 

Habitat. It is found in clumps, from New England to Wisconsin, 
Kentucky and southward ; in wet ground, marshes and along streams, 
where it forms thickets. In mountains and high altitudes it is a 
shrub. 

History. Its name signifies near the river. The wood is very 
durable when submerged. The bark is used in tanning, and to a 
limited extent in medicine. It was introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1866 by Dr. Hale (New Remedies, 2d ed.) under the old 
name of A. rubra. There are no provings, and Dr. Hale barely men- 
tions it in subsequent editions. 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 



86 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -^. 

Alnus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ALOE SOCOTRINA. Aloes. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aloe gummi, A. lucida, A. officinalis, A. rubes- 
cens, A. spicata, A. vera ; English, Hepatic, Mocha, Moka or Soco- 
trina aloes ; French, Aloes ; German, Aloe. 

Description. The shrub from which Aloe is obtained has a straight, 
woody stem, attaining a height of 6 feet, surrounded with leaf scars. 
The leaves form large tufts at the ends of the branches ; are 15 to 20 
inches long, slightly concave above and convex beneath, curved at first, 
then erect, tapering to a spinous point, with spines along the margins. 

Habitat. Southern and Eastern Africa, shores of the Red Sea and 
East Indies. Fig., Goullon, 259 ; Bent, and Trim. 283. 

History. It is said that Aloe was known as a production of the 
island of Socotra prior to the Christian era. It was introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by Helbig, who made provings of it in 1833. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 163.] 

Part Used. The inspissated juice of the leaves of one or more 
undetermined species, commonly known as Socotrine Aloes. It is in 
masses of a reddish-brown color, the varying shades deepening by 
exposure to the air. It is nearly transparent in thin films. Its 
fracture, usually smooth and resinous, is sometimes rough and 
irregular. It has a peculiarly strong and fragrant odor and an intensely 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 87 



bitter taste. Is almost entirely soluble in alcohol and sparingly in 
water. While dissolving in alcohol it exhibits microscopic crystals. 
For the preparation of tincture use the inspissated juice, coarsely 
pulverized. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Aloe, ico Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : 2x and higher. 



ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS. Dita Bark. 

Natural Order. Apocynaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Alstonia cuneata, Echites scholaris; English, 
Dita bark, Devil tree; Vernacular, Chatium, Pali-mara, Satium, 
Satween ; French, Ecorce de dita ; German, Ditarinde. 

Description. A tree 50 to 80 feet high, dark gray, rough, uneven 
bark ; leaves oblong, petiolate, 4 to 8 inches long, 2 to 4 inches wide, 
in whorls ; flowers greenish-white, appearing in December. The bark 
has a spongy texture, varying in thickness from ^ to y 2 inch, breaking 
readily with short, coarse fracture. Externally it is rough and uneven, 
dark-gray or brownish, with dark-brown spots ; internally, bright-buff 
color. It has a bitter taste, but no marked odor. 

Habitat. India, Ceylon, Burmah, Australia and throughout the 
East Indies. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 173. 

History. Named for Prof. Chas. Alston and "lignum scholare" 
from the use of the wood in making writing tablets for schools. It is 
mentioned as a medicine as early as 1678. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature in 1866, Monthly Horn. Rev. X. 50. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. I. 192.] 

Part Used. The dried bark. 



88 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength ^. 

Alstonia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

ALTHEA OFFICINALIS. Marsh-Mallow. 

Natural Order. Malvaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Marsh-mallow ; French, Racine de guimauve ; 
German, Altheewurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, having several stems springing 
from a thick, elongated, tapering root stalk, about 1 2 inches long. 
The stems are from 2 to 4 feet high, erect, firm, nearly unbranched, 
and covered with thick, woolly down. The leaves are alternate on 
stalks i y 2 to 3 inches long ; are greyish-green, velvety-downy on both 
sides, cordate ovate, irregularly serrate, sometimes three-lobed. The 
flowers, which are of a pale-purplish rose color, have short stalks, and 
appear in small, axillary, terminal clusters of 2 to 4, or solitary. The 
calyx is divided into 5 deep segments ; the corolla is cup-shaped ; the 
stamens are numerous and monadelphous. 

Habitat. Ditches and wet places near the sea, and tidal rivers in 
Europe, except Scandinavia and North Russia ; also in Asia Minor, 
Western Asia, Algeria, the southern counties of England, and in the 
United States on the borders of salt marshes from Maine to New York. 
Fig., Bent, and Trim. 35. 

History. The name Althea is derived from a Greek word meaning 
to heal. For medicinal use the plant is cultivated chiefly in Bavaria 
and Wurtemburg. The roots, which contain the desired mucilaginous 
substance, are taken in the autumn from plants two years old. The 
marsh-mallow is much more widely used on the continent, especially 
in France, than in this country. 

Part Used. The dried root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCROPATHY. 89 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Althaea, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



ALUMEN. Alum. 

Chemical Symbol. A1 2 K 2 (SO 4 ) 4 +24H 2 O ; 946.46. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aluminii et potassii sulphas, Sulphas aluminico- 
potassicus; English, Potassium alum, Aluminium and potassium 
sulphate ; French, Sulfate d' alumine et potassa ; German, Kali alaun. 

Description. Consists of large octahedral or cubical, colorless 
crystals of styptic taste. Exposed to the air it effloresces slightly, and 
when heated to about 92 C. fuses in its water of crystallization. 
Is soluble in 9 parts of water at I5C.; insoluble in alcohol. Some 
metals, such as zinc, iron, or generally metals which are soluble in dilute 
sulfuric acid, are dissolved in its aqueous solution. At a red heat it is 
decomposed into oxygen, sulfurous and sulfuric acids, with a residue 
consisting of alumina and potassium sulfate. With ammonia its aque- 
ous solution gives an abundant white precipitate, nearly insoluble in an 
excess of the precipitant ; with potassium or sodium hydrate, the 
gelatinous, white precipitate of alumina is dissolved in an excess of 
the alkalies. It is obtained from clay, which is transformed into 
aluminum sulfate, and this salt being dissolved in water is mixed with 
a solution of potassium sulfate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Solution <: - in distilled water. 



9O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ALUMESf A. Aluminum Hydrate. 

Chemical Symbol. A1 2 O 3 (H 2 O) 3 ; 155.84. 

Synonyms. English, Aluminum trihydrate, Aluminum hydroxide; 
French, Hydrate d' alumine; German, Thonerdehydrat. 

Preparation of crude. Aluminum hydrate is prepared by pre- 
cipitating ammonia alum with solution of ammonia as follows : 
Ammonia alum in crystals, 100 Gm. 

Solution of ammonia -j^, 100 Cc. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

Powder the alum and dissolve in ten fluid ounces of warm distilled 
water; add the ammonia, collect the precipitate on a calico filter, and 
wash it with hot distilled water until the washings cease to give a 
precipitate with barium chlorid, or any odor of ammonia when mixed 
with potassium hydrate and boiled. The alumina is then carefully 
dried on a water bath, and pulverized. 

Description. A very fine white powder, soft to the touch, tasteless, 
infusible, forming a paste with water, but not dissolved in it. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

ALUMINIUM METALLICUM. Metallic Aluminum. 

Aluminum. 

Chemical Symbol. Al. 27.04. 

Description. A metal of an almost silvery-white, strong lustre; 
sonorous. Of great elasticity and tensile strength. Very ductile. 
Specific gravity, 2.583, which is nearly one-third that of iron. Occurs 
abundantly in nature as aluminum silicate (clay, feldspar, mica, etc.). 
For the first time isolated by Woehler in 1827. Fusible at red heat, 
without vaporizing. Remains almost unchanged at ordinary tempera- 
tures as well as on heating, consequently it is used for cooking utensils. 
Most foods and drinks slightly attack vessels made of aluminum, but 
on continued use this attack decreases rapidly. It exerts no detri- 
mental influence upon health. 

Part Used. The pure metal. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



AMBRA GRISEA. Ambergris. 

Synonyms. Ambarum, Ambra ambrosiacea, A. cinerea, A. 
maritima, A. nigra, A. vera, Ambrosiaca, Succinum griseum. English, 
Ambergris ; French, Ambre gris ; German, Graue Ambra. 

Description. A morbid secretion of the liver or intestines of the 
sperm whale, found floating on the eastern coast of Japan and on the 
shores of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The most esteemed is found 
from Madagascar to Sumatra. It is in solid, spongy, rough, opaque 
balls, weighing from fifty to two hundred pounds, formed of concentric 
layers. It is of a grayish-brown color externally, with black and 
yellowish-red streaks and whitish specks internally. It is almost 
tasteless, has an aromatic odor, softens like wax by the warmth of the 
hands, and is inflammable. It is soluble in ether, or absolute alcohol 
by the aid of heat, and partially so in alcohol. Mentioned by Hahne- 
mann, Mat. Med. I., also in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 238. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture < : Drug strength -j-J^. 

Ambra grisea, 10 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions : 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMBROSIA ARTEMISLEFOLIA. Rag Weed 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ambrosia absinthifolia, A. elatior, A. hetero- 
phylla, A. paniculata, Iva monophylla; English, Bastard wormwood, 
Carrot weed, Hogweed, Mugwort leaved, Roman and wild wormwood. 

Description. An annual herb, extremely variable, from i to 3 feet 
high, erect, simple, and then branching ; pubescent stem. The leaves 
are thin, finely cut, opposite and alternating, twice pinnatifid, smooth 
above and hairy beneath. The flowers are greenish-white, appearing 
from July to October. 



92 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Canada to Brazil. In waste places everywhere. 
Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Ambrosia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMMONIACUM GUMML Gum Ammoniac. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Diserneston gummiferum, Dorema ammonia- 
cum, Peucedanum ammoniacum ; English, Gum ammoniac ; German, 
Ammoniak ; Vernacular, Bal-kurai, Kandal, Ooshak ; French, Gomme 
ammoniaque. 

Description. The principal source of gum ammoniacum, Dorema 
ammoniacum, is a perennial plant, with a stout, erect stem, 6 to 8 feet 
high, divided into numerous ascending branches, on which, on thick, 
short stalks, are small umbelliferous flowers. The plant abounds in a 
milky juice, which exudes on the slightest puncture, as the sting of the 
numerous beetles that infest the stem; the drops harden as they 
adhere or trickle down ; from the root also the juice exudes into the 
surrounding soil. The best gum is in globular grains or tears, varying 
in size from that of a pea to a cherry ; the poorer quality is in nodular 
lumps or masses. Externally the gum is of a pale, creamy-yellow 
color, darkening with age to a cinnamon-brown ; internally it is opaque 
and milky-white ; it is brittle, and has a waxy luster when broken ; it 
readily softens by warmth, becomes sticky, but does not melt ; it has a 
bitter, acrid taste, and a characteristic odor, and is partially soluble in 
ether and alcohol. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 93 

Habitat. The plant grows throughout Persia in arid, exposed 
situations. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 130. 

History. The name is supposed to be derived from the temple of 
Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan desert, where it is said to have been 
collected ; again, it is considered a corruption of Armeniacum, as it 
was imported through Armenia. It was named Diserneston from two 
botanists, whose names were both Ernest. The tree has been 
described as recently as 1833, though the gum was mentioned by 
Dioscorides. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Buchner, 
Hygea. XIII. 212. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 249.] 

Part Used. The gum. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

AMMONIUM ACETICUM. Ammonium Acetate. 

Ammonium Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 ; 76.87. 

Synonyms. Latin, Liquor ammonii acetatis, Spiritus mindereri; 
English, Solution of acetate of ammonium, Spirit of mindererus; 
French, Acetate d'ammoniaque liquide ; German, Ammoniumacetat- 
Losung. 

Description. An aqueous solution of ammonium acetate, con- 
taining about 7 per cent of the salt. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Ammonium carbonate, 5 Gm. 

Dilute acetic acid, 100 Cc. 

Add the salt gradually to the acid, and stir until dissolved. Care 
should be taken to select pure crystals of ammonium carbonate, free 
from the bicarbonate. The solution is unstable, and should be made 
fresh when wanted. 

Solution <f> : Drug strength y^. 

Ammonium acetate solution, 143 Cc. 

Distilled water, 857 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

To be prepared fresh when wanted. 



94 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

AMMONIUM BENZOICUM. Ammonium Beiuoate. 

Ammonium Benzoate. 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 C 7 H 5 O 2 ; 138.72. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii benzoas, Benzoas ammonicus; 
French, Benzoate d'ammoniaque ; German, Benzoesaures Ammonium. 

Description. Prismatic, colorless, transparent crystals, or white 
and granular, turning yellow on long exposure to the air; of a bitter, 
saline taste, and an odor suggestive of gum benzoin. It is soluble at 
15 C. in 5 parts of water and in 28 parts of alcohol, in 1.2 parts of 
boiling water and in 7.6 parts of boiling alcohol. The salt is prepared 
by crystallization, from solutions obtained by mixing either ammonium 
carbonate or ammonium hydrate with benzoic acid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 256. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMMONIUM BROMATUM. Ammonium Bromid. 

Ammonium Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol NH 4 Br; 97.77. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii bromidum; French, Bromure d'am- 
monium ; German, Bromammonium. 

Description. Long, colorless, easily soluble crystals, turning 
yellow on exposure to the air. Soluble in 1.5 parts of water and in 30 
parts of alcohol; can be sublimed. Prepared (i) by saturating a 
hydrobromic acid solution, with ammonium hydrate, or (2) by pouring 
bromin into an excess of aqueous ammonia, nitrogen being evolved at 
the same time. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 256. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritttrations : ix and higher, freshly prepared from the pure, color- 
less crystals. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 95 

AMMONIUM CARBONICUM. Ammonium Carbonate. 
Ammonium Carbonate* 

Chemical Symbol NH 4 HCO 3 NH 4 NH 2 CO 2 ; 156.77. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii carbonas, Ammoniae sesquicarbonas, 
Carbonas ammonicus, Sal volatile siccum; English, Volatile salt; 
French, Carbonate d'ammoniaque ; German, Kohlensaures Ammonium. 

Description. Consists of white, hard, translucent, crystalline 
masses, with strong, ammoniacal odor and saline taste. It loses both 
ammonia and carbonic acid on exposure to air and changes to opaque 
masses, and finally to a white powder. It is soluble in 5 parts of 
water at I5C. and is decomposed by hot water. Alcohol dissolves 
but a portion of the salt, leaving ammonium bicarbonate. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 259. 
PREPARATIONS. 

From the fresh, crystalline salt. 

a. Solution <$>: ^ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water. 

All preparations of this salt to be freshly prepared, and should be 
kept in well-stoppered vials. 

AMMONIUM CAUSTICUM. Ammonium Hydrate. 

Ammonia. 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 HO. 

Synonyms. Latin, Liquor ammonii caustici, Aqua ammoniae; 
English, Ammonia water; French, Eau d'ammoniaque; German, 
Ammoniak-Flussigkeit. 

Description. Ammonia gas (NH 3 ; 17) dissolved in water is a 
colorless, transparent liquid, with a powerful specific odor and a 
strongly alkaline taste and reaction. At ordinary temperatures, water 
is capable of absorbing 690 times its volume of ammonia. Aqua 
ammonias fortior (U. S.) has a specific gravity of 0.901 and contains 
28 per cent of the gas. It gradually becomes reduced in strength, 
from escape of ammonia, and the stronger ammonia water, as sold in 
commerce, usually has a specific gravity ranging from .900 to .920. 
Its density should be ascertained by use of hydrometer or specific 
gravity bottle. A solution containing 10 per cent of the gas has a 
specific gravity of .959. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 283. 



96 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Reduce strong ammonia water by adding distilled water until the 
mixture has a specific gravity of .959. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol ; to be 
freshly prepared. 



AMMONIUM IODATUM. Ammonium lodid. 

Ammonium lodid. 

Chemical Symbol NH 4 I; 144.54. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii iodidum; English, Iodide of ammo- 
nium ; French, lodure d'ammonium ; German, Jodammonium. 

Description. A white, granular powder, or minute, colorless, cubical 
crystals, odorless when white, having a sharp, saline taste. Markedly 
hygroscopic, turns yellow on exposure to air and light. At ordinary 
temperature, soluble in i part of water or in 9 parts of alcohol. It is 
decomposed by chlorin. On the addition of a little chlorin water to 
its aqueous solution, iodin is set free and can be dissolved in chloro- 
form, with a violet color; excess of chlorin will prevent this color 
reaction through the formation of colorless compounds. It is pre- 
pared by mixing solutions of potassium iodid and ammonium sulfate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher, freshly prepared. 

To be kept in well-stoppered vials, protected from the light. 



AMMONIUM MURIATICUM. Ammonium Chlorid. 

Ammonium Muriate* 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 C1; 53.38. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii chloridum, Ammonium chloratum, 
Sal ammoniacum ; English, Purified chloride of ammonium, Sal ammo- 
niac ; French, Chlorure d'ammonium ; German, Chlorammonium. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 97 

Description. Consists of whitish, translucent masses, with a 
fibrous, crystalline structure; very difficult to powder. The purified 
salt forms a snow-white, granular, crystalline, odorless powder, having 
a sharp, saline taste. It is soluble in 3 parts of water at 1 5 C. and 
sparingly soluble in alcohol. When dissolved in water a considerable 
reduction of temperature is observed; when its solution is heated 
with potassium hydroxid or with calcium oxid, gaseous ammonia 
is evolved ; with silver nitrate it gives an abundant, curdy-white 
precipitate, soluble in ammonia. It evaporates completely without 
fusing, at an elevated temperature, and on cooling is condensed again 
unchanged. It is obtained from ammonia and hydrogen chlorid. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 286. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution $: -^ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions: 2x with distilled water; 3x and higher, with dis*- 

pensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

All preparations of this salt should be freshly made. 

AMMONIUM NITRICUM. Ammonium Nitrate. 

Ammonium Nitrate* 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 NO 3 ; 79.9. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii nitras, Nitrum flammans; English, 
Nitrate of ammonium ; French, Azotate d'ammoniaque ; German, Salt- 
petersaures Ammoniak. 

Description. Colorless, hexagonal prisms. When fused it forms 
colorless, crystalline, odorless masses, having a sharp, bitter taste. It 
deliquesces in contact with moist air, and is soluble at ordinary 
temperature in half its weight of water and in 20 parts of alcohol ; on 
heating, its solution evolves ammonia and acquires an acid reaction. 
When rapidly heated it is decomposed into water, nitrous acid, and 
nitrogen, or into nitrous and nitric oxids, ammonium nitrite, and 
ammonia ; but if gradually heated, it is decomposed into water 
and nitrous oxid. It detonates when thrown upon red-hot charcoal, 
and is volatilized entirely by heat. It is obtained from nitric acid and 
ammonia. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 305. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <j>: -$ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 

All preparations of this salt should be freshly made. 

AMMONIUM PHOSPHORICUM. Ammonium Phosphate. 
Ammonium Phosphate* 

Chemical Symbol. (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ; 131.82. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii phosphas, Ammoniae phosphas, 
Phosphas ammonicus; English, Phosphate of ammonium, Diammo- 
nium orthophosphate ; French, Phosphate d'ammoniaque ; German, 
Phosphorsaures Ammoniak. 

Description. Consists of transparent prisms, with a cooling, saline 
taste. It effloresces superficially in a damp atmosphere through loss 
of ammonia. Soluble in 4 parts of water at common temperature, 
insoluble in alcohol. When heated it fuses, disengages ammonia, and 
at a red heat is entirely volatilized. Wood and textile fabrics immersed 
in its aqueous solution and then dried are charred by heat and burn 
without producing any flame. It is obtained by neutralizing a solution 
of phosphoric acid with ammonia. The liquid is evaporated, ammonia 
being added in small quantities in order to keep trie solution faintly 
alkaline; the crystals are quickly dried and preserved in well-closed 
vessels. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

AMMONIUM PICRICUM. Ammonium Picrate. 

Ammonium Picrate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 ONH 4 ; 245.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii picras, Ammonium carbazoticum ; 
English, Picrate of ammonium, Carbazotate of ammonium; French, 
Picrate d'ammoniaque. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 99 

Description. Consists of bright-yellow scales, or prisms, having an 
extremely bitter taste. Partially soluble in water, slightly soluble in 

alcohol. Quickly exploded by percussion or heat. 

i 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

As all picrates are very explosive, the triturations should be pre- 
pared in small quantities and with great care. 



AMMONIUM VALERIANICUM. Ammonium Valerianate. 
Ammonium Valerianate. 

Chemical Symbol. NH 4 C 5 H 9 O 2 ; 118.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ammonii valerianas, Valerianas ammonicus; 
English, Valerianate of ammonium; French, Valerianate d'ammo- 
niaque; German, Ammoniumvalerianat. 

Description. Consists of snow-white, or colorless, quadrangular 
plates, emitting the odor of valerianic acid, and having a sharp, sweet 
taste. Very soluble in water and in alcohol, ajso soluble in ether. Its 
aqueous solution is neutral, but by evaporation it turns acid through 
the loss of ammonia ; it is decomposed by alkalies, producing ammonia. 
By treating its solution with strong acids, oily valerianic acid is 
separated, which floats on the surface of the liquid. Submitted to 
heat, the greatest part volatilizes without decomposition, but a small 
part through the loss of ammonia is converted into an acid salt before 
vaporization. It is obtained by saturating valerianic acid with gaseous 
ammonia, and should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

AMPELOPSIS QUINQUEFOLIA. American Ivy. 

Natural Order. Vitaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ampelopsis hederacea, A. heptaphylla, A. 
hirsuta, Cissus hederacea, Hedera quinquefolia, Quinaria hederacea, 



IOO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Q. hirsuta, Vitis hederacea, V. quinquef olia ; English, American ivy, 
False grape, Five leaves, Virginia creeper, Wild-wood vine, Woodbine ; 
French, Vigne vierge ; German, Wilder Wein. 

Description. -A woody vine, climbing to the height of 40 to 60 
feet by tendrils with an adhesive foot, or by rootlets as well. The 
digitate oblong leaves have five coarsely serrated leaflets, are acuminate 
and dentate, with smooth surfaces, turning bright-crimson in autumn. 
The cymose flowers, greenish-white, appear in July. The calyx is 
slightly five-toothed ; the corolla of five concave petals, which expand 
before they fall. The berries are small, dark-blue, and ripen in 
October. 

Habitat. United States, in woods, thickets, and low, rich ground. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 40. 

History. Its name signifies resemblance to a vine, as from its 
woody stem it partakes of the character of a shrub. It was introduced 
into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 1866, New Remedies, 
2d ed. 

Parts Used. Fresh bark and young twigs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Ampelopsis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



AMYGDALA AMARA. Bitter Almond 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Amygdalus communis, Prunus amygdalus; 
English, Bitter almond ; French, Amandes ; German, Mandeln. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. IOI 

Description. The almond is a deciduous tree, 15 feet high, with 
spreading branches, purplish-brown wrinkled bark; the leaves are 
alternate, stipulate, oblong-lanceolate, finely serrate. The reddish, 
glabrous flowers are sessile, appearing in March and April. The fruit 
is a drupe \y 2 inches long, downy when young; the sarocarp leathery, 
and splitting away from the stone when ripe ; endocarp rugged and 
furrowed, smooth within. Solitary seed, I inch long, compressed, 
pointed at the top, blunt at the lower end. 

Habitat. Southern Asia, the Mediterranean, and warm countries 
generally. It grows wild in Sicily and Greece, and is cultivated 
throughout temperate Europe. Fig., Winkler, 20; Jahr and Cat. 159; 
Goullon, 100; Bent, and Trim. 99. 

History. There is no structural difference between the sweet and 
bitter almond ; the latter is somewhat the smaller. Bitter almonds 
were used in medicine during the middle ages. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature by Hartlaub and Trinks, 1828, R. A. M. L., I. 145. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 306.] 

Part Used. The dried, ripe seed-kernels. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j>: Drug strength jfa. 

Amygdalus, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 5 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 

AMYL NITROSUM. Amyl Nitrite. 

Amyl Nitrite. 

Chemical Symbol. CgH^NOa ; 116.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Amyl nitris, Amylium nitrosum, Amylaether 
nitrosus; English, Nitrite of amyl, Amylo-nitrous ether; French, 
Azotite d'amyl ; German, Amylnitrit. 



IO2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A straw-yellow, ethereal liquid, having a fruity odor 
and an aromatic taste, boiling at 98 C, and burning with a yellowish 
and smoky flame. It is insoluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol. 
On exposure to air and light it becomes acid, and must therefore be 
kept in small, well-closed bottles, stored in cool, dark places, or in 
small glass tubes, hermetically sealed. The commercial article con- 
tains about 80 per cent of amyl nitrite. It is obtained by directing 
nitrous vapors into isoamylic alcohol, or by distilling a mixture of 
potassium nitrite, isoamylic alcohol, and dilute sulfuric acid ; it is very 
volatile at ordinary temperature and inflammable. It should be kept 
in dark-colored and glass-stoppered vials, in a cool, dark place, away 
from lights and fire. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 309. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : T ^ in alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with alcohol. 



ANACARDIUM ORIENTALS Marking Nut. 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anacardium latifolium, A. officinarum, Avi- 
cennia tomentosa, Semecarpus anacardium; English, Marking nut; 
French, Acajou a pommes ; German, Caschunuss. 

Description. Semecarpus anacardium is an evergreen tree, 20 feet 
high, with rough, ash-colored bark and numerous spreading branches ; 
the leaves are petiolate, alternate, about 18 inches long, and 4 or 5 
broad. The flowers are small, and of a green-yellow color. The fruit is 
borne on a pear-shaped receptacle, and ripens in January or February. 
It is a blackish-brown, heart-shaped nut, with a somewhat reddish 
tinge, containing a corrosive, resinous juice in cells, between the hard 
outer shell and the sweet kernel. The juice is at first of a light color, 
of the consistency of honey, becoming blackish-brown and drying. It 
is not soluble in water, and only so in alcohol after it has been made 
alkaline. 

Habitat. Native of the East Indies, found in the dry, mountainous 
forests of Asia. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 27; Winkler, 128; Jahr and 
Cat. 1 60. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. IO3 

History. The name signifies being without a heart, as the pulp of 
the fruit, instead of having the seed enclosed, has the nut growing out 
of the end of it. This is not to be confounded with cashew nut (A. 
occidentale), which is lighter colored and kidney-shaped, instead of 
heart-shaped. The juice produces an inflammation of the skin, and 
hence should be carefully handled. Mentioned in homoeopathic litera- 
ture, Hahnemann's Chronic Diseases. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 
312.] 

Part Used. The resinous juice contained in the seed. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher, from the resinous juice. 



ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS. Scarlet Pimpernel. 

Natural Order. Primulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anagallis ccerulea, A. phcenicea; English, 
Common pimpernel, Poor man's or shepherd's hour, weather, or water 
glass, Scarlet pimpernel, Red chicken-weed ; French, Mouron rouge ; 
German, Gauchheil. 

Description. A trailing, annual plant, with stem 6 to 20 inches 
long, more or less procumbent, square, glabrous, and branching; the 
leaves are opposite, entire, ovate, and sessile, dotted on the under 
surface. The flowers are small, opposite, with pedicel longer than the 
leaves ; calyx and corolla both five-parted. They appear from June 
to August, in color varying, being scarlet, purple, blue, or white. 

Habitat. Native of Europe, Asia, and Africa, naturalized in the 
United States, and found in waste places along both the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts. Fig., Millspaugh, 108. 

History. The name signifies to laugh, expressing the qualities of 
the plant, which according to Pliny and Dioscorides, removed obstruc- 
tions of the liver, and thereby a cause of despondency. Opening and 
closing its flowers daily at regular hours, and not opening, but closing > 
if there be much moisture in the atmosphere, gave it one of its 
common names. It was introduced into homoeopathic literature in 
1846 by Dr. Schreter, N. Archiv. III. 3, 174. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. I. 329.] 



IO4 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Parts Used. The whole plant of the scarlet variety. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Anagallis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ANATHERUM MURICATUM. Vetiver. 

Natural Order. Gramineae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Andropogon muricatus, A. squarrosus, Phalaris 
zizanoides, Vetiveria odorata, Virana ; Vernacular, Bena, Cuscus, Khus 
khus, Vittie vayr, Woetiwear. 

Description. Andropogon muricatus is a large grass, with a 
fibrous root. The spikelets are in pairs, the terminal ones in threes, 
one being complete and awned, the other one or two sterile, awnless. 

Habitat. It grows abundantly in moist ground throughout India 
and Bengal. 

History. The derivation means bread and man. It is largely used 
in India for tatties or coverings for bamboo door and window screens on 
account of its odor, especially when moistened, as it not only cools but 
gives a fragrance to the hot wind. The root has been used in medi- 
cine since the time of Dioscorides. In 1837 it was worn in Paris as a 
cholera prophylactic. Its use is now almost exclusively confined to 
perfumery. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. L. Houat. 
Translated from Nouv. Donn. in N. A. J. H. XVIII. 176, Nov. 1869. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 330.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. IO5 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincttire < : Drug strength ^. 

Anastherum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications; ix and higher. 



ANGUSTURA. Cuspari Bark. 

Natural Order. Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Angustura cusparia, A. vera, Augustura, 
Bonplandia angostura, B. trifoliata, China amara aromatica, Cusparia 
febrifuga, C. trifoliata, Galipea cusparia, G. febrifuga, G. officinalis; 
English, Angustura, or cuspari bark; French, Ecorce d'angusture; 
German, Angustura-Rinde. 

Description. A small tree, 15 feet high, its slender trunk consider- 
ably branched, bark smooth, gray ; the leaves are alternate, smooth, 
trifoliate, leaflets sessile, or nearly so. The white flowers are large, on 
short, thick, densely pubescent stalks, appearing in August and 
September, the fruit ripening in October and November. The 
flowers and foliage have a peculiar, unpleasant odor. The bark is 
straight, flattish, more or less curved, or in quills, 6 inches long and 
i inch wide, not exceeding y& inch thick. It is covered by a yellowish- 
green, or brownish-mottled, somewhat corky layer, which may be 
scraped off with the nail, and the exposed surface then presents a dark- 
brown, resinous appearance. The inner surface is yellowish-brown, 
readily separable into layers ; it breaks with a short, resinous fracture. 
The exposed surface, under the microscope, shows minute white 
points, or lines. It has a bitter, feebly pungent, or somewhat aro- 
matic taste, and a peculiar, disagreeable, musty odor. 

Habitat. The eastern part of Venezuela on rich soil, from 600 
to looo feet above the sea. It extends to New Granada, but not 
to Brazil. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 31 ; Jahr. and Cat. 162; Bent, and 
Trim. 43. 



IO6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Introduced into Spain as a medicine in 1759, and the 
rest of Europe in 1788. It took its present name from the town of 
Angostura. In the beginning of the century a quantity of bark 
reached Europe from India, mistaken for cuspari, which turned out to 
be that of strychnos nux vomica, causing great alarm, and the pro- 
hibition for a time of the true bark. The false bark has no odor, but 
a pure, intensely bitter taste, no white spots, and when touched with 
nitric acid the fractured surface assumes an arterial, blood-red color, 
while the true bark has a dull, purplish color. The suberous layer of 
the false bark is colored emerald green by nitric acid, while that of the 
true is not acted on. Introduced by Hahnemann, R. A. M. L. VI. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 344.] 

Part Used. The dried bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -j^. 

Angustura, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

ANBLINUM. Anilin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 7 N ; 92.83. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anilina, Amidobenzol ; English, Phenylamine, 
Anilin oil ; French, Aniline ; German, Anilin. 

Description. A colorless oily liquid, turning red on exposure to 
air, having a burning, aromatic taste, and a peculiar, fishy odor. 
Sparingly soluble in water i to -^ but freely soluble in alcohol 
and ether. It dissolves sulfur, caoutchine, gum-copal, indigo, etc., 
and coagulates albumin. Although its basic properties are stronger 
than those of ammonia, its reaction is not alkaline. It is congealed 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. IO7 

by cold. Anilin and many oxidizing agents give intensely colored 
products. The reaction with calcium hypochlorite, which is character- 
istic, gives a violet color, readily turning to brown. Most of its salts 
crystallize easily. It is obtained when nitrobenzil is brought into con- 
tact with nascent hydrogen. Anilinum changes readily on exposure 
to light, turning yellow and finally brown with age. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 357. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : -fa in alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

Should be kept in glass-stoppered vials, protected from the light. 

ANILINUM SULPHURICUM. Anilin Sulfate. 

Anilinum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 6 H 5 NH 2 )SO 4 H 2 ; 283.48. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anilini sulphas; English, Sulfate of anilin, 
Phenylamin sulfate. 

Description. Consists of colorless crystals, easily soluble in water, 
less soluble in alcohol. It is not decomposed at a temperature of 
1 00 C., but at an increased heat, splits into water and anilin, and is 
converted into phenylsulfomic acid ; at a still higher temperature it 
gives off sulfurous anhydrid and anilin sulfite, leaving a residue of 
carbon. It is obtained from anilin and sulfuric acid. Should be kept 
in well-stoppered vials, protected from the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

ANTHEMIS NOBILIS. Chamomilc. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anthemis aurea, Chamomilla nobilis, Ormenis 
nobilis ; English, Chamomile, common, officinal, Roman, or true cham- 
omile ; French, Chamomille romaine ; German, Romische Kamille. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a small, branched rhizome, 
and numerous, sterile, recumbent, and fertile ascending pubescent 
stems 6 to 12 inches long, with numerous hairy branches. The leaves 



IO8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

I to 2 inches long, are greenish-gray, alternate, sessile, bi- or tri- 
pinnatifid. The heads are ^ inch wide, few, on long, terminal, pubes- 
cent peduncles. The numerous disk flowers are convex, polygamous, 
with yellow, tubular corollas. The ray flowers, twelve to twenty, are 
fertile, with white, oblong, oval corollas. The flowers appear from 
June to September. Single and double flowers are obtained by 
cultivation. 

Habitat. Rather common in England, growing on heaths, com- 
mons, roadsides, and similar places ; also in France, Spain, and Italy, 
somewhat naturalized in some of the Southern States. Fig., Goullon, 
142 ; Bent, and Trim. 154; Millspaugh, 84. 

History. It has been used as a domestic remedy since the six- 
teenth century. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1869 by 
Dr. Berridge, Month. Horn. Rev. XIII. 475. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. I. 358.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant beginning to flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> : Drug strength ^. 
Anthemis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM. Sweet Vernal Grass. 
Natural Order. Gramineae. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with culm 10 to 18 
inches high ; the spikes ovate, oblong. The spikelets are brownish- 
green, three-flowered, spreading at flowering from May to July. The 
lateral flowers, consisting of one palea, hairy on the outside and 
awned on the back, are neutral. One of the neutral flowers bears a 
bent awn from near its base, the other is short-awned below the tip. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. IOQ 

The central terminal flower, the smaller of two awnless paleae, is per- 
fect. Glumes are very thin, acute, keeled, the upper about as long as 
the flowers and twice the length of the lower. 

Habitat. Naturalized from Europe. It is found throughout the 
United States in meadows, pastures, etc. It has a very fragrant odor. 
Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^. 
Anthoxanthum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture i5oCc. = 250 

Distilled water, 100 

Strong alcohol, 777 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

ANTIMONIUM ARSENIdCUM. Antimonious Arsenate. 
Antimonium Arseniate. 

Chemical Symbol. SbAsO 4 ; 259. 

Description. A heavy, snow-white powder, containing 56 per cent 
of antimonium oxid and 44 per cent of ansenic acid. A poison. 
Maximum dose -^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

ANTIMONIUM CRUDUM. Antimonious SulficL 

Antimonium Crude. 

Chemical Symbol. Sb 2 S 3 ; 335.14. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antimonii sulphidum, Antimonii sulphuretum, 
Antimonium sulphuratum, Antimonium nigrum, Stibium sulfuratum 
nigrum, Sulfuretum stibicum ; English, Sulphide of antimony, Tri- 
sulphide of antimony, Black sulfid of antimony; French, Sulfure 
d'antimoine; German, Schwefelspiessglanz. 



IIO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A fused mass, which when broken presents a striated, 
crystalline texture, having a lead-gray metallic brilliancy ; when pul- 
verized, it is of an iron-gray color. It is insoluble in water, but dis- 
solves in hot, concentrated, hydrochloric acid, with production of 
hydrogen sulfid ; this solution, dropped into water, produces an 
abundant white precipitate, soluble in tartaric acid. Heated on 
charcoal it fuses, emitting abundant white fumes, and the odor of 
sulfur dioxid. Found in nature, and before purification it often con- 
tains sulfids of iron, lead, copper, and arsenic. It is purified by 
fusion, being more fusible than the sulfids to which it is allied. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 363. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

ANTIMONIUM IODATUM. Antimonious lodid, 

Antimonium lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. SbI 3 ; 499.19. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antimonii iodidum ; English, Iodide of anti- 
mony. 

Description. A dark-red substance, decomposed by water, forming 
an oxi-iodid, obtained by gently heating antimony and iodin in a dry 
flask. The elements suddenly combine, liquefy, and on cooling again 
become solid. It is removed by breaking the flask. It should be 
kept in a glass-stoppered bottle, protected from the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher; freshly made and protected from 
light and air. 

ANTIMONIUM OXYDATUM. Antimonious Oxid. 

Antimonium Oxid. 

Chemical Symbol. Sb 2 O 3 ; 287.08. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antimonii oxidum, Stibium oxydatum, Oxy- 
dum antimonicum ; English, Oxide of antimony ; French, Oxyde 
d'antimoine ; German, Antimonoxyd. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 1 I I 

Description. Heavy, white or grayish-white crystalline powder, 
slightly soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. When heated in air it 
turns yellow, takes fire, or is converted into the tetroxid Sb 2 O 4 . 
When heated with carbon it is reduced into brittle, metallic antimony. 
It is dissolved by hydrochloric acid, and when this solution is poured 
into water it produces a white precipitate. It is obtained by the 
combustion of antimony in air, or by the decomposition of antimony 
chlorid in aqueous solution by sodium carbonate. It is also found in 
nature as white antimony ore. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
I. 376- 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

ANTIMONIUM SULPHURATUM AURATUM. 
Antimonium Sulfid (golden). Antimonious Sulfid (yellow). 

Chemical Symbol. Sb 2 S 3 ; 335.14. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antimonii oxysulphuretum, Antimonii sul- 
phuretum aureum ; French, Sulfure d'antimoine pre"cipte" ; German, 
Gefalltes Schwefelantimon. 

Description. An amorphous, orange-colored powder, odorless and 
tasteless, gradually losing its color by the action of air and light. It 
is insoluble in water or alcohol. Heated in a dry, glass tube, it splits 
into sulfur, which is volatilized with a residuum of black, antimonious 
sulfid. Heated on charcoal it burns with a pale-blue flame, emitting 
the odor of sulfur dioxid and producing a white coating on the char- 
coal. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 377. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : i x and higher. 

APIS MELLIFICA. Honey Bee. 

Natural Order. Hymenoptera. 
Family. Apidae. 

Synonyms. English, The common hive bee; Frencli, Abeille; 
German, Honig Biene. 



112 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. The genus Apis is of European origin and is widely 
distributed throughout the civilized world. The swarms consist of 
the queen bee, several hundred drones, and ten thousand or more 
workers. The queen bees are the only perfectly developed females. 
The drones are males ; the workers, females. The eyes of the male 
are united above, the mouth parts are nearly aborted, and the hind 
legs are smooth. There are two paraglossae on the ligula in the 
female, and the maxillary palpi are one-jointed. The shorter abdo- 
men of the female marks the external difference from the male. 
This species is without terminal spurs on the hind legs. Only the 
queens and workers have the poison-apparatus, commonly called the 
sting. 

Part Used. The live bees. 

Preparation. Place live bees in a clean, wide-mouthed, stoppered 
bottle. After irritating them by shaking, the menstruum should be 
poured in and the whole allowed to macerate for ten days, being 
shaken twice daily. The resulting tincture should be poured off and 
filtered. The bees should not be pressed. The contents of the poison 
sac only is desired, but the tincture takes up in solution much of the 
animal fluids, besides honey from the abdomen and pollen adhering 
to the antennae. The drug strength of the tincture varies, depending 
on the season of the year when the bees are secured. When they are 
dormant, their poison is supposed to be less virulent. The tincture 
in drug strength is but little in excess of the third decimal tritura- 
tion of Apis virus. (See "Apis Virus.") 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture. 

Apis mellifica, containing solids 100 Gm., moisture 150 Cc. = 250 
Glycerin, 225 Cc. 

Distilled water, 225 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 425 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 113 

APIS VIRUS. Honey Bee Poison. 

Synonyms. Apium virus, Bee sting. 

Description. This poison is secreted in two poison glands, com- 
posed of long, ramose tubes, their minute structure resembling that 
of the salivary glands. The virus is poured into a pyriform sac, 
lodged near the base of the sting, which is provided with a special 
muscular apparatus for its sudden extension and withdrawal. The 
poison is thin and transparent, mixes readily with water or glycerin, 
and with alcohol gives a considerable precipitate. Its active principle 
is formic acid. About 20 grains (i l /3 gms.) of poison may be obtained 
from looo bees, which will weigh from 2 to 4 ounces ; 1000 of the 
poison sacs, including contents, weighing but 33 grains. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 400. 

Part Used. The poison. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Trituration : 2x T ^, using 500 bee stings to 67 gms. (1000 grains) 
of milk sugar. The darts and most of the sheaths may be removed 
from the trituration as soon as the virus has been fully incorporated 
into the sugar. 

Triturations : 3x and higher. 

The third decimal trituration very nearly equals in drug strength 
the strong tincture of Apis mellifica. 

APOCYNUM ANDROS^EMIFOLIUM. 

Spreading Dog's-bane. 
Natural Order. Apocynaceae. 

Synonyms. English, American ipecac, Bitter root, Catch fly, 
Dog's-bane, Fever twig, Fly-trap, Honey bloom, Ipecac milk, Milk- 
weed, Spreading dog's-bane, Wandering milkweed. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb 2 to 3 feet high; stem 
branching at the top; the root a long rhizome, from % to ^ inch 
thick. It has pale, brownish, wrinkled, transversely fissured bark; 
the surface smooth or downy. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long and 
two thirds as wide ; opposite, ovate, petiolate, dark-green above, paler 
and downy underneath. The flowers are pale rose colored or white, 



114 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

appearing from June to September in terminal, smooth, nodding cymes, 
loose-spreading. The fruit is in the form of two pendent pods, 3 to 4 
inches long. The seeds are many and oblong. 

Habitat. Borders of thickets. Common in hedges and fields from 
Maine to Florida, in dry, sandy soil. Fig., Millspaugh, 132. 

History. Both plant and root abound in a milky juice. It yields 
its properties to alcohol, and particularly water. Its virtues are 
impaired by age. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1844 by 
Attomyr, N. Arch. I. I, 181, and by Dr. J. H. Henry, 1854, Phil. J. of 
Horn. III. 368. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 424.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium, moist magma containing 

solids 100 Gm., plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

APOCYNUM CANNABINUM. Indian Hemp. 

Natural Order. Apocynaceas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Apocynum hypericifolium, A. pubescens, A. 
sibiricum ; English, Dog's-bane, Indian hemp ; French, Chanvre du 
Canada ; German, Canadische Hanfwurzel. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, resembling the A. andro- 
saemifolium, with a creeping root and a straight stem 2 to 4 feet high, 
dividing above in long, slender branches. The leaves opposite, petio- 
late, mucronate, when young downy beneath, 2 to 3 inches long, and 
finch broad. The flowers are greenish-white and appear from June to 
September in terminal and lateral cymes. Calyx divisions as long as 
corolla tube; corolla tube bell-form. The fruit is in pods 3 to 5 
inches long, slender and pendulous. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 115 

Habitat. Borders of thickets. Common in hedges and fields from 
Maine to Florida, in dry, sandy soil ; also common on river banks or 
banks of streams, and moist grounds. The different varieties run into 
one another. Fig., Millspaugh, 133. 

History. The Indians prepare a substitute for hemp from its 
fibre, hence one of its common names. It is replete with milky juice, 
which becomes hard like opium on exposure to the air. It was intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 1864, New Rem. 
ist ed. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 425.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength T 1 ^. 

Apocynum cannabinum, moist magma containing solids 100 

Gm., plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



APOMORPHINUM MURIATICUM. 

Apomorphinum Muriate. Apomorphin Hydrochloric!, 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 17 NO 2 HC1 ; 302.79. 

Synonyms. Latin, Apomorphinse hydrochloras, Apomorphinum 
hydrochloricum, Apomorphia ; English, Hydrochlorate or hydro- 
chloride of apomorphia, Muriate of apomorphia, Apomorphin ; 
French, Chlorhydrate d'apomorphine ; German, Apomorphin Hydro- 
chlorat. 

Description. Consists of small, white, shining crystals, without 
odor, turning green when exposed to air, and having a faintly bitter 
taste. Soluble in about 45 parts of water at 15 C. and in 45 parts of 
alcohol. It is decomposed when heated to 100 C. ; in aqueous solu- 
tion, at the same temperature, decomposition is more rapid. When 



Il6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

the aqueous solution is gently warmed, it turns green. Sodium 
carbonate produces a white precipitate in its solutions, which turns 
green on exposure to air ; it turns blood-red with nitric acid and is 
soluble in an excess of a solution of sodium hydrate with a purple 
color, which after a while turns black. It is obtained by heating 
morphin in a sealed tube with an excess of hydrochloric acid for 2 to 
3 hours, at a temperature of 140 to i5oC. Should be kept well- 
stoppered and in a dark place. Maximum dose as an emetic ^ grain. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 427. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

ARALIA QUINQUEFOLIA. Ginseng. 

Natural Order. Araliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aralia canadensis, A. quinquefolia, Aureliana 
canadensis, Ginseng quinquefolium, Panax americanum, P. ginseng, P. 
quinquefolium ; English and Vernacular, Chinese physic, Five-fingers, 
Garantogen, Gensang, Ninsin, Red berry, Tartar root. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb with a large, generally 
fleshy, fusiform root, terminating in fibres, sometimes branched, on 
the larger end of which is an irregular, cylindrical, knotty portion, 
narrower at its junction with the main root, showing scars of stems. 
Both parts are wrinkled transversely above, and sparsely so below. 
The stem is simple, erect, i foot high. The leaves are ternate or 
quinately lobed ; the leaflets obovate, thin, acuminate, serrate, and in 
two sets, three large and two small, all long petioled. The flowers, 
light-yellow, appear in June and July in terminal peduncled umbels. 

Habitat. Northern, Middle, and Western United States; found 
in rich, cool woods. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 212; Millspaugh, 70. 

History. Name derived from pan, all, and akos, a remedy, con- 
sidered a panacea by the Chinese from time immemorial. It is largely 
exported to China, and similar to if not identical with the species of 
that country. It was introduced into homoeopathic literature in 1836, 
a proving by Dr. Jouve, Bib. Horn. d. Gen., Dec. 1836. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 415.] 

Part Used. The freshly dried root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 117 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Ginseng, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ARALIA RACEMOSA. Spikenard. 

Natural Order. Araliaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Berry-bearing aralia, Petty morrel, Spike- 
nard ; French, Nard americain ; German, Amerikanische Narde. 

Description. Perennial, deciduous herb with an aromatic root and 
stem 3 to 5 feet high, smooth and widely branched ; the leaves large, 
bi-ternate and pinnate, with ovate, serrate, slightly downy leaflets. 
The flowers are small, umbelliferous and racemose, appearing in July. 

Habitat. Rocky woods in North America. Fig., Millspaugh, 69. 
History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1867 by Dr. 
Hale, New Remedies, 2d ed. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Aralia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 870 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ARANEA DIADEMA. Diadem Spider. 

Order. Araneidea. 
Family. Epeiridae. 



Il8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Epeira diadema; English, Diadem spider, 
Papal-cross spider ; French, Araigne"e a croix papule ; German, Kreutz 
Spinne. 

Description. This spider is readily distinguished from others of its 
species by its large globular abdomen. Its mandibles are used exclu- 
sively for biting. The head thorax is attached to the abdomen by a 
slender pedicel. Respiration is carried on by both the lungs and the 
trachea. The abdomen, which is not divided into segments, is often 
as large as a small nut. A longitudinal line of yellow and white spots 
traverses the back, and is crossed by three similar lines. The web is 
composed of spiral threads, crossed by other threads radiating from a 
center. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 433. 

Habitat. Europe and America, in stables and old walls, etc. 
Parts Used. The entire animal. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> ; Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Aranea diadema, containing solids 100 Gm., 

moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 724 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 



ARGENTUM CYANATUM. Argentum Cyanid. 

Argentum Cyanid. 

Chemical Symbol. AgCy; 133.64. 

Synonyms. Latin, Argenti cyanidum ; English, Cyanide of silver, 
Cyanuret of silver ; French, Cyanure d'argent ; German, Silbercyanid. 

Description. A white, amorphous, odorless, tasteless powder, 
turning brown on exposure to light and air. Insoluble in water or 
alcohol, soluble in potassium cyanid, ammonia, and sodium hyposulfite. 
When heated it fuses, gives off cyanogen, and leaves metallic silver. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



It is acted upon by boiling nitric acid, with the production of hydro- 
gen cyanid. Is prepared from silver nitrate and potassium ferro- 
cyanid. This salt should be kept in dark amber-colored vials away 
from the light. A poison : Maximum dose -fa grain. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 452. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher ; to be protected from light. 

ARGENTUM IODATUM. Argentum Iodid. 

Argentum Iodid. 

Chemical Symbol. Agl ; 234.19. 

Synonyms. Latin, Argenti iodidum ; English, Iodide of silver; 
French, lodure d'argent; German, Silberjodid. 

Description. An amorphous, light-yellow, odorless, tasteless pow- 
der, turning a greenish-yellow when impure on exposure to light. 
Insoluble in water or alcohol, soluble in about 2500 parts of stronger 
ammonia water. At a temperature of about 400 C. it melts to a 
dark-red liquid, which solidifies on the withdrawal of heat to a yellow, 
slightly translucent mass. It is dissolved by both the cyanid and 
iodid of potassium, and is decomposed by chlorin. It is obtained 
from silver nitrate and potassium iodid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

Preparations of this salt should be protected from light and air. 

ARGENTUM METALLICUM. Metallic Silver. 

Argentum. 

Chemical Symbol. Ag; 107.66. 

Synonyms. English, Silver ; French, Argent ; German, Silber. 

Description. A white, brilliant, tenacious, ductile metal, tasteless 
and odorless. Insoluble in water and alcohol ; soluble with nitric acid, 
the solution giving a heavy, white, curdy precipitate with aqueous solu- 



I2O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

tions of chlorids. It melts at a white heat, and absorbs oxygen, which 
is liberated when cooling, forming excrescences on the surface of the 
metal. Argentum does not oxidize in air, but is quickly tarnished by 
hydrogen sulfid. It can be distilled at a temperature of about 2800 
C. It is extracted from native silver ores. It is obtained as a black 
powder by the calcination of any organic silver salt, or in minute crys- 
tals by the decomposition of its neutral solutions by means of certain 
metals, such as copper and zinc. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
I. 436. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations ; ix and higher. 

ARGENTUM MURIATICUM. Argentum Chlorid. 

Argentum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. AgCl; 143.03. 

Synonyms. Latin, Argenti chloridum ; English, Chloride of silver ; 
French, Chlorure d'argent ; German, Silberchlorid. 

Description. A white, amorphous powder, odorless and tasteless, 
turning black on exposure to light. Insoluble in water and alcohol. 
It is dissolved in aqueous ammonia, and is reprecipitated from its 
solution when the ammonia is neutralized with an acid. When sub- 
mitted to heat, it fuses, and on cooling solidifies in transparent, 
yellowish plates. It has the property of absorbing large quantities of 
ammonia gas. It is reduced into metallic silver when in contact with 
nascent hydrogen. It is obtained from silver nitrate and sodium 
chlorid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 452. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Ttiturations: ix and higher, freshly prepared. 

ARGENTUM NITRICUM. Argentum Nitrate. 

Argentum Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. AgNO 3 ; 169.55. 

Synonyms. Latin, Argenti nitras ; English, Nitrate of silver; 
French, Azotate d'argent ; German, Silbernitrat. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 121 

Description. Consists of shining, colorless, odorless, tabular, 
rhombic crystals, with a burning, strong metallic taste. Soluble at 
15 C. in 0.6 parts of water, also in 2.6 parts of alcohol. It stains the 
skin black. Fused by the action of heat, it solidifies on cooling ; at a 
red heat it is decomposed, leaving metallic silver. With sodium chlorid 
its aqueous solution gives an abundant white precipitate of silver 
chlorid, soluble in ammonia. It is obtained from silver and nitric 
acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 436. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : ^ with distilled water. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with distilled water. 
Preparations of this salt should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. 

ARGENTUM OXYDATUM. Argentum Oxid. 

Argentum Oxid. 

Chemical Symbol Ag 2 O; 231.28. 

Synonyms. Latin, Argenti oxidum, Oxidum argenticum ; English, 
Oxide of silver ; French, Oxyde d'argent ; German, Silberoxyd. 

Description. A dark-greenish powder, odorless, having a strong 
metallic taste. Only slightly soluble in water, I part requiring 3000 
parts ; insoluble in alcohol. It decomposes slowly when exposed to 
light ; at a red heat gives metallic silver. Its aqueous solution is 
alkaline. It dissolves entirely in ammonia and in hot nitric acid. It 
is obtained by the decomposition of argentic nitrate with lime water, 
or an aqueous solution of potassium hydrate. It should not be 
triturated with readily oxidizable substances, or be brought in con- 
tact with ammonia. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Tritiirations ; ix and higher. 

ARGENTUM PHOSPHORICUM. Argentum Phosphate. 
Argentum Phosphate. 

Chemical Symbol. Ag 3 PO 4 ; 41; '.78. 

Synonyms. English, Argentum ortho-phosphate, Ortho-phosphate 
of silver. 



122 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. Argentum ortho-phosphate is a lemon-yellow powder 
resembling argentum iodid. It is insoluble in water, but readily solu- 
ble in acid, even in acetic acid. Aqueous ammonia dissolves it, and 
by evaporation it is obtained in yellow crystalline grains. It turns 
black, and is decomposed on exposure to light. When heated it turns 
red-orange, and melts at a strong red heat. It is distinguished from 
argentic iodid by being readily soluble in ammonia. It is obtained by 
treating argentic nitrate with an aqueous solution of an alkaline ortho- 
phosphate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher, to be protected from light. 



ARISTOLOCHIA MILHOMENS. Brazilian Snakeroot. 

Natural Order. Aristolochiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aristolochia cymbifera, A. grandiflora. 

Description. A climbing shrub, with glabrous stem. The leaves 
are large, alternate, long-petioled, pedate-nerved, with reticulated little 
veins between the nerves, cordate, smooth, with large, entire, reni- 
form, sheathing stipules. The very large, purple-spotted yellow 
flowers are solitary on a furrowed peduncle 4 to 5 inches long. 

Habitat. Brazil, in shady thickets. Fig., Mure, Mat. Med. 157. 

History. It has been mistaken for and used for guaco ; a popular 
remedy in Brazil, and reputed antidote to bites of serpents. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1849 by Dr. Mure, Pathogen. 
Bresilien, 315. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 475.] 

Part Used The fresh flowers or root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Aristolochia milhomens, moist magma containing solids 

loo Gm., plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 123 

ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENT ARIA. Virginia Snakeroot. 

Natural Order. Aristolochiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aristolochia hastata, A. hirsuta, A. officinalis, 
A. sagittata, A. virginica, Contrajerva virginiana, Endocleca bartonii, 
E. serpentaria, Serpentaria, S. virginica; English, Birthwort, Snake- 
weed, Virginia snakeroot ; Fremh, Serpentaire de virginie ; German, 
Virginische Schlangenwurzel. 

Description. A small, perennial herb, having a short, horizontal 
rhizome, with long, slender rootlets below, top scarred by previous 
stems, sending up numerous stems. The stems rise singly or sever- 
ally from the same root, are branched at the base, jointed, flexuous, 
cylindrical, fine, with a reddish tinge, and are generally less than a foot 
high. The leaves, on upper part of stem, are alternate, petiolate, 
oblong or ovate, thin, cordate, and acuminate. The flowers appearing 
in June and July grow close to the ground, have a stiff, leathery tex- 
ture and dull, brownish-purple color, radical pedicel, and many bracts. 
The calyx tube is smoothish, contracted in the middle, bent in the 
form of the letter S. 

Habitat. Found in rich woods from Connecticut to Louisiana 
and west to Illinois, common near the Alleghany mountains. Fig., 
Winkler, 1 1 ; Jahr and Cat. 275 ; Goullon, 246 ; Bent, and Trim. 246 ; 
Millspaugh, 138. 

History. Derivation from aristos, best, and locheia, parturition 
considered as an aid in expelling the placenta and exciting lochia. It 
is said to have been chewed by the Egyptian snake-jugglers to stupefy 
the snakes by their saliva. The root has a penetrating odor, some- 
what like valerian, and a bitter, pungent taste. It has long been used 
in medicine. Provings were made by Jorg in 1825. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VIII. 659.] 

Part Used. The root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength ^. 

Aristolochia serpentaria, root, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



124 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

ARNICA MONTANA. Leopard's Bane. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Caltha alpina, Chrysanthemum latifolium, 
Doronicum austriacum quartum, D. germanicum, D. montanum, D. 
oppositifolium, D. plantaginis folio alternum, Nardus celtica altera, 
Panacea lapsorum, Ptarmica montana; English, Celtic nard, Leopard's 
bane, Mountain arnica, Mountain tobacco ; French, Arnique ; German, 
Arnika, Wohlverleth. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a slender, blackish rhizome 
i to 2 inches long, from which are given off numerous filiform roots. 
The stem, 10 to 12 inches high, is erect, pubescent, rough, striated, 
either simple or with one pair of opposite branches. The leaves, \y 2 
to 3 inches long, are few, entire, sessile, opposite, obovate ; the radical 
ones crowded at the base, the upper smaller than the rest. The 
heads, 2 to 2^ inches wide, are large and solitary at the summit of 
the stem and lateral branches. The involucre is cylindrical, dull 
green, with purplish points and hairy. The disk flowers are yellow 
and numerous, with tubular corolla with five spreading teeth. The 
ray flowers are about fifteen in number, yellow in color. It flowers in 
July and August. 

Habitat. Moist, upland meadows of the cooler parts of Europe, a 
mountain plant in Central Europe, from the sea coast to the limits of 
eternal snow. It extends through Russia to Siberia. Is also found 
sparsely in the northwestern part of the United States. Fig., Flora 
Horn. I. 37; Winkler, 23; Jahr and Cat. 167; Goullon, 155; Bent, and 
Trim. 158. 

History. Name said to be derived from arnakis, lamb's skin, on 
account of woolly appearance of the leaf, also a corruption of ptarmica, 
a sternutatory. It was a popular remedy in the beginning of the last 
century as a panacea for contusions and bruises, hence called Panaceae 
lapsorum, but fell into disuse. It was mentioned by Hahnemann in 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 125 

1805, Frag. d. v. Med. 17. The whole plant was recommended by 
Hahnernann (R. A. M. L.), but the discovery on the flowers of the 
eggs of a parasitical fly has led to the use of the root. (See " Arnica 
Montana e radice.") [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 476.] 

Parts Used. The entire fresh plant, including the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Arnica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, too Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



ARNICA MONTANA E RADICE. 

Description. The powdered root of arnica was at first recom- 
mended by Hahnernann in his Fragmenta de viribus. The root is 
the dried rhizome, and the rootlets i to 2 inches long, ^ inch thick, 
cylindrical, contorted, rough from leaf scars. From the under surface 
are numerous wiry rootlets 2 inches long. Externally it is dark- 
brown, internally whitish. The odor is peculiar, like apples, faintly 
aromatic; the taste bitter, astringent. The fracture is sharp and 
brittle. When macerated in alcohol, or water, it retains its character- 
istic odor. It loses its virtue on exposure to the air. 

Part Used. The freshly dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength ^. 

Arnica e radice, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



126 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : I x and higher. 

ARSENICUM ALBUM. Arsenious Oxid. 

Arsenicum Album. 

Chemical Symbol. As 2 O 3 ; 197.68. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acidum arseniosum, A. arsenicosum ; English, 
Arsenic, White arsenic, Arsenious acid, A. anhydrid ; French, Acide 
arsenieux, Arsenic blanc; German, Arsenige Saure. 

Description. In the hydrated state, forms arsenious acid. When 
freshly prepared, consists of large, vitreous, amorphous masses, which 
gradually become opaque, crystalline and porcelain-like. Soluble in 25 
parts of water at ordinary temperature, and in alkalies ; quite sparingly 
soluble in alcohol. Its aqueous solutions give a yellow precipitate 
with hydrogen sulfid, soluble in aqueous ammonia. At a temperature 
of 218 C., it volatilizes without fusing. Its vapor is colorless and 
odorless, and on cooling, brilliant octahedrons are formed. Heated 
with reducing substances, such as charcoal, potassium cyanid or 
organic matters, it emits a strong garlic odor, and is reduced to the 
metallic state. It is found native, and is extracted from its ore. An 
active poison. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 496. Maximum 
dose T V grain, not to exceed grain per day. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: 2x and higher. 

b. Solution <: Drug strength y^-. 

Vitreous Arsenious acid, finely powdered, 10 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

Strong alcohol, 100 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

The powdered arsenic should be added to 800 parts of distilled 
water ; boiled in a flask to complete solution and filtered : the filtrate 
should be increased to 900 parts by the addition of distilled water, 
plus 100 parts of alcohol to complete the 1000 Cc. of solution. 

c. Dilutions : 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. I2/ 

ARSENICUM HYDROGENATUM. Hydrogen Arsenid. 
Arsenetted Hydrogen. 

Chemical Symbol. AsH 3 ; 77.9. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arsenicum hydrogenisatum ; English, Arsine. 

Description. A colorless gas, having a strong odor resembling 
garlic ; very poisonous ; burning with a blueish flame, yielding water 
and arsenious oxid. It is analogous in composition to ammonia. Is 
slightly soluble in water, absorbing its volume of gas ; insoluble 
in alcohol. It does not combine with acids nor bases. It is entirely 
absorbed by copper sulfate. From solutions of silver, gold and plati- 
num salts, it precipitates the metals, and is converted into arsenious 
oxid, which remains in solution. It is obtained when nascent hydrogen 
is liberated in contact with soluble arsenic compounds. The gas is a 
deadly poison, and its inhalation is attended with great danger. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 550. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <.- -^. A saturated aqueous solution, freshly pre- 

pared, will contain about i of its volume of the gas ; the 
ix solution can therefore be prepared by the addition of an 
equal quantity of distilled water. 

b. Dihitions: 2x and higher, with distilled water, freshly made. 
Caution : A deadly poison ; avoid inhalation, as the smallest 

quantity may cause serious, if not fatal results. 

ARSENICUM IODATUM. Arsenious lodid. 

Arsenicum lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. AsI 3 ; 454.49. 

Synonyms Latin, Arseni iodidum, Arsenicum jodatum, lodure- 
tum arseniosum, Arsenici iodidum ; English, Arsenious iodide, Iodide 
of arsenic, Ter-iodide of arsenic ; French, lodure d'arsenic ; German, 
Arsenikjodiir. 

Description. An orange crystalline, or purple mass, having the 
odor and taste of lodin, gradually losing iodin on exposure to air. It 
is soluble in 7 parts of water, and the solution when boiled and slowly 



128 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

cooled, deposits crystals of a compound of arsenious oxid with arsenic 
oxi-iodid, also soluble in 30 parts of alcohol. It is completely volatilized 
by heat, and with nitric acid emits violet vapors of iodin. Its aqueous 
solution is yellow, and gradually decomposes into arsenious and 
hydriodic acids. The commercial salt is often deficient in arsenic. 
It is obtained by heating iodin and arsenic together. It is also 
obtained by treating pulverized arsenic with a solution of iodin in 
carbon disulfid. A poison. Maximum dose y% grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher; freshly prepared and preserved in 
glass-stoppered bottles, protected from the light. 

ARSENICUM METALLICUM. Metallic Arsenic, 

Arsenicum Metal. 

Chemical Symbol. As; 74.9. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arsenum ; French, Arsenic; German, Arsenik. 

Description. Consists of very brittle metallic masses of a steel- 
gray color. It crystallizes in rhombohedrons, and is insoluble in water 
and alcohol. Is tasteless and odorless, but when rubbed in the hands 
emits a peculiar odor. On exposure to air, it oxidizes slowly and its 
surface turns black. Without previous fusion it volatilizes at a dull- 
red heat, emitting a garlic-like odor. Several organic arsenic radicles 
are known. A poison. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 554. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher, from the finely pulverized metal. 

ARSENICUM SULPHURATUM FLAVUM. 

Arsenicum Sulfid (yellow). Arsenious Sulfid. 

Chemical Symbol. As 2 S 3 ; 245.74. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arsenicum citrinum, Arsenii sulphidum, 
Arsenic trisulphide ; English, Yellow sulphide of arsenic, Orpiment, 
King's yellow; French, Sulfure jaune d'arsenic; German, Sulfide 
arsenieux, Goldgelb. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



Description. Artificially prepared, it is a lemon-yellow powder, 
without taste or odor, and insoluble in water and alcohol. It is dis- 
solved by aqua ammonia. It melts easily and completely volatilizes 
at a high temperature. Heated with charcoal it is reduced to the 
metallic state. It is found in nature, and is artificially prepared by 
decomposing an aqueous solution of arsenious oxid, or its alkaline 
salts, by hydrogen sulfid. A poison. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher. 



ARSENICUM SULPHURATUM RUBRUM. 
Arsenicum Sulfid (red). Arsenic Disulfid. 

Chemical Symbol. As 2 S 2 ; 213.8. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arsenicum rubrum, A. bisulfuretum, A. 
bisulphidum, Rubinus arsenicalis ; English, Bisulphide of arsenic, 
Red sulfuret of arsenic, Realgar; French, Rubis d'arsenic ; German, 
Sulfide hypoarsenieux. 

Description. A mineral, found native, consisting of orange-red 
prisms or scales, and answering to the same tests as the yellow sulfid 
of arsenic. An artificial product, called red orpiment, is made by 
fusing together 5 parts of arsenious acid and 3 parts of sulfur. The 
native mineral should be used. An active poison. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 557. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM. Southernwood. 

Natural Order. Composite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Abrotanum ; English, Lady's love, Old man, 
Southernwood ; French, Auronedes jardins ; German, Eberrante. 

Description. An evergreen under-shrub, with an upright stem, 3 
to 4 feet high. The leaves are grayish-green, alternate, the lower 
bi-pinnate, the upper pinnate capillary. The flowers are yellow, 



I3O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

appearing from August to October, fertile ; the heads nodding in 
wand-like panicles. The involucre whitish, downy, hemispherical ; the 
corolla naked. 

Habitat. Southern Europe. Cultivated for its fragrant foliage. 
Fig., Goullon, 150. 

History. Named for Artemis, one of the names of Diana ; accord- 
ing to Pliny, named for Queen Artemisia. The abrotanum signifying 
immottal, as a preservative of life. It is used in making beer. It was 
used in the Eastern countries as a moxa for the cure of gout. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1869 by Dr. Gatchell, U. S. M. & S. 
Jour. V. 291. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 558.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and young shoots. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Artemisia abrotanum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 794 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ARTEMISIA VULGARIS. Mugwort. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Artemisia heterophyllus, A. indica canadensis ; 
English, Mugwort, Wormwood ; French, Couronne de Saint-Jean ; 
German, Beifuss. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with creeping root. 
The stem, 2 to 3 feet high, furrowed and loosely branched. The 
lower leaves are laciniate, the middle pinnatifid and the upper 
lanceolate. The branches and lower surface of the leaves are 
whitish, woolly. The heads are numerous, small, somewhat racemose, 
ovoid. The flowers are all fertile, of purple color, appearing from 
August to October. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMtEOPATHY. 



Habitat. Naturalized from Europe. In Canada and the Atlantic 
states, found in waste places on banks of streams, roadsides, near 
dwellings. Fig., Winkler, 9; Jahr and Cat. 168; Goullon, 151; 
Millspaugh, 87. 

History. It was used as a popular remedy for epilepsy. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1838, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XII. 374. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 558.] 

Part Used. The root gathered in dry weather, taking care not to 
wash it. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture. <f> : Drug strength jfa. 

Artemisia vulgaris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 100 

Strong alcohol, 694 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

ARUM DRACONTIUM. Green Dragon. 

Natural Order. Araceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arisaema dracontium ; English, Dragon root, 
Green dragon ; French, Govet a dragon ; German, Drachen aron. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with wrinkled, clustered 
corm, from which arise numerous stems i to 2 feet high, each bearing 
a solitary leaf, pedately divided into seven to ten oblong, lanceolate, 
pointed leaflets. Spadix is awl-shaped, longer than the oblong con- 
voluted spathe, which is green, scaphoid, with a short, erect point. 
Flowers May and June. 

Habitat. North America, found in low grounds along streams. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 168. 

History. Mentioned in 1875 by Dr. Hart, Am. Horn. Obs. XII. 
537. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 363.] 

Part Used. The fresh plant. 



132 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> : Drug strength T ^. 

Arum dracontium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 

alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

ARUM MACULATUM. Wake Robin. 

Natural Order. Araceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arum vulgare, Aronis communis ; English, 
Common arum, Cuckoo-pint, Lords and ladies, Spotted arum, Wake 
robin ; French, Pied de veau ; German, Geflecter Aron, Aronswurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, having a whitish, tuberous root, 
about the size of a large nutmeg. The stem, i foot high. The leaves 
are radical, stalked, erect, hastate, sagitate, spotted a dingy purple or 
unspotted. White flowers appear from May to June on a purple 
spadix, which is club-shaped, obtuse, and shorter than the spathe, the 
latter being erect, pale green and occasionally spotted ; the scarlet 
berries remaining long after their spathe and the foliage have withered. 

Habitat. Found in middle and southern Europe in shady forests, 
coast of Barbary and the higher mountains of Madeira. Fig., Winkler, 
19 ; Jahr & Cat. 169 ; Goullon, 251. 

History. The root is used both as food and medicine. On first 
tasting, it is merely mucilaginous and insipid, but soon leaves a sensa- 
tion as if pricked by needles. This acrimony is lost in drying, and the 
roots become farinaceous and fit for boiling and baking. In the Isle 
of Portland, Britain, where the plant is very abundant, the roots are 
frequently eaten. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
1833 by Dr. Hering, Archiv. III. i, 169. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
I. 560.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 133 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Arum maculatum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

ARUM TRIPHYLLUM. Indian Turnip. 

Natural Order. Araceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arisaema triphyllum, Arum atrorubens; 
English, Bog onion, Canada turnip, Dragon's root, Dragon's turnip, 
Indian turnip, Marsh turnip, Pepper or wild turnip, Jack in the pulpit ; 
French, Gouet a trois feuilles ; German, Dreiblattriger Aron. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb. The root, a turnip- 
shaped corm, the lower and larger part tuberous and fleshy, with 
numerous white rootlets in a circle from its juncture with the stalk, 
bearing generally two opposite leaves on long, sheathing foot -stalks. 
The spadix often dioecious, is club-shaped, obtuse, much shorter than 
the spathe, the latter being flattened and in-curved, hooded at the 
summit with the petiole and sheath green, or often variegated with 
dark purple or whitish stripes or spots. Flowering from May to July. 

Habitat, Indigenous to United States and Canada. Found in 
rich woods and wet places. Fig., Millspaugh, 167. 

History. All parts of the plant have an intensely acrid juice. 
This acridity disappears on drying, the roots becoming palatable. 
They are used by the Indians for food, hence the name Indian turnip. 
Provings of it were made by Dr. James in 1844, published by Dr. 
Hering ,.i Horn. News, 1856. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 561.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



134 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Arum triphyllum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



ASAFCETIDA. Asafcetida. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asafoetida disgunensis, Ferula asafcetida, F. 
narthex, F. persica, Narthex asafoetida, Scorodosma fcetidum ; English, 
Assafetida ; French, Ase fetide ; German, Asant, Stinkasant, Teufels- 
dreck. 

Description. This gum resin is an amorphous mass, composed of 
agglutinated tears of a waxy consistency. It is white, but by contact 
with the air becomes rosy or reddish, and afterwards brownish. It has 
a shining surface; becomes brittle by age and cold; is softened by 
heat, so that it may be squeezed through a coarse cloth and freed from 
mechanical impurities. The best masses are clear, of a pale-reddish 
color, variegated with a great number of white tears, which have a 
bitter, acrid taste and a nauseous, alliaceous smell. It is inflammable, 
burning with a whitish flame and much smoke. This gum is soluble 
in alcohol. Its properties are impaired by age. 

Habitat. Persia and neighboring countries. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 
45 ; Winkler, 71 ; Jahr and Cat. 170; Goullon, 123 ; Bent, and Trim. 126. 

History and Source. This drug, or a similiar one, was described by 
Dioscorides and other medical authorities. Its present source seems 
to be from two umbelliferous plants, Ferula narthex (Narthex asa- 
fcetida) and Ferula scorodosma (Scorodosma foetidum), differing but 
slightly in minor characteristics. Both abound throughout in a milky 
juice, which is obtained from transverse cuttings of the roots, and 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 135 

which is allowed to dry and harden in tears or masses, being carelessly 
mixed with earth, or purposely so, to facilitate its drying. The mass 
thus dried contains from 3 to 5 per cent of oil, 50 to 65 of resin and 26 
to 32 of gum. The roots vary in size from i inch to 6 inches in 
diameter, and yield from a half-ounce to two pounds of juice. One 
drachm of the fresh juice is said to diffuse a more powerful odor 
through a close room than one hundred pounds of the drug. It was 
mentioned in homosopathic literature in 1822 by Dr. Franz, Archiv. I. 
3, 187. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 569.] 

Part Used. The gum resin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Asafoetida, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ASARUM CANADENSE. Wild Ginger. 

Natural Order. Aristolochiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Radix asari canadensis; English, Canada, 
Indian or Wild snake-root, Canadian or Kidney-leaved asarabacca, 
Canada ginger, Colt's foot, Heart-root, Indian ginger, Vermont snake- 
root, Wild ginger, Wild turnip ; French, Assaret du Canada ; German, 
Canadische Haselwurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with creeping, fleshy, somewhat 
jointed rhizome, T ^ to ^ inch thick, brown and wrinkled externally, 
whitish internally, hard and brittle. The stem is short, forked before 
leaving the ground, each branch bearing a reniform mucronate leaf, 3 
to 4 inches long, and 3 to 5 inches broad, with long, round petioles. 
A solitary brown flower grows from the fork of the stem upon a 
pendulous peduncle. The corolla is wanting, calyx brownish-purple. 
All the parts are downy or hairy. The time for flowering is April to 
July. 



136 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. The United States, common especially northward and 
along the Alleghanies, growing in woods, on hillsides and mountains. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 
1866, New Rem. 2d ed. 96. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> .- Drug strength ^. 

Asarum canadense, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ASARUM EUROPIUM, Asarabacca. 

Natural Order. Aristolochiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asarum vulgare, Nardum rusticanum; 
English, Asarabacca, European snake-root, Pole's foot, Hazelwort, 
Wild-nard; French, Cabaret de 1' Europe, Asaret; German, Hazel- 
wurz, Haselkraut. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with creeping rhizome, 
i^ inch thick, knotted and twisted, with a short, simple pubescent 
stem, i foot high. This bears a single pair of leaves, 2 inches wide, 
on long, downy petioles. These leaves are reniform, obtuse, glossy 
green, darkening as they wither, and having a pungent odor, not per- 
ceptible when fresh. The flowers are solitary, and appear from April 
to June, from the axils of the leaves, on short terminal pedicels ; calyx 
greenish without, brownish within ; corolla wanting. 

Habitat. Throughout Europe in moist, shady, hilly places. Fig., 
Flor. Horn. I, 53; Winkler, 8; Jahr & Cat. 171 ; Goullon, 247. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 137 

History. Name said to signify not a bandage, as it was omitted 
from the garlands of the ancients. It was introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1825 by Hahnemann, R. A. M. L. III. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 582.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant and root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Asarum Europaeum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ASCLEPIAS INCARNATA. Swamp Milkweed. 

Natural Order. Asclepiadaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asclepias amoena, A. pulcra; English, Flesh- 
colored asclepias or swallow-wort, Rose-colored or Swamp silkweed, 
Swamp milkweed, White Indian hemp ; FrencJi, Asclepiade incarnate; 
German, Fleischfarbige Schwalbenwurzel. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a thick, deep root. 
The stem, 2 to 3 feet high, is erect, branching, very leafy, nearly smooth, 
with scant, milky juice. The leaves are opposite, petioled, oblong- 
lanceolate, obscurely heart-shaped, acute, entire and smooth. The 
small rose-purple flowers appear from June to August in lateral and 
terminal umbels. 

Habitat. Found throughout the United States; very common 
northward in wet ground. 

History. Introduced in homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale, New 
Rem. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



138 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <. Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Asclepias incarnata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 735 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

ASCLEPIAS SYRIACA. Milkweed. 

Natural Order. Asclepiadaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asclepias cornuti; English, Milkweed, Silk- 
weed, Virginian swallow-wort, Wild cotton; French, Asclepiade a la 
soie; German, Schwalbenwurzel. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a root, or rhizome, 
a foot long, branched, % to i inch thick, knotty, finely wrinkled length- 
wise, few rootlets, thick white bark, odorless, bitter taste. The stem 
is large, stout, simple, somewhat branched, 3 to 5 feet high. Leaves, 
4 to 8 inches long, are opposite, lanceolate, oblong, ovate, petiolate, 
gradually acute, dark green above, downy beneath. The large, pale- 
purple flowers, June to September, are fragrant and in several axil- 
lary, sub-terminal, nodding umbels. Few of the flowers are fertile. 
These produce oblong, pointed pods, with sharp prickles, containing 
long silky fibres, with seeds attached. When punctured, the plant 
emits a milky fluid, containing water and a wax-like, fatty matter. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the United States, in rich or sandy soils, 
along roadsides and waste places. Fig., Millspaugh, 134. 

History. Named from Asclepias, its discoverer, or Esculapius. 
The tender shoots in the spring are eaten as asparagus ; sugar is made 
from the flowers, and cotton from the pods is used for filling beds. 
On account of its silkiness, it has been called Virginian silk or silk- 
weed. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 1866, 
New Rem. 2d ed. 103. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 590.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 139 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^ 

Asclepias syriaca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 800 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA. Butterfly Weed. 

Natural Order. Asclepiadaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asclepias decumbens; English, Butterfly weed, 
Canada root, Colic root, Flux root, Orange apocynum, Orange swallow 
root, Pleurisy root, Swallow root, Tuber root, White root, Wind root ; 
French, Racine d'asclepiade tubereuse ; German, Knollige Schwal- 
benwurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a large, fleshy, branching, 
white, sometimes fusiform-like root, i to 6 inches long, y 2 to i inch 
thick, the head irregular and knotty, annulate, wrinkled lengthwise, 
externally browish-orange color, internally yellowish-white ; the bark 
thin, odorless, and of a nauseous and slightly acrid taste. The stems 
are numerous, i to 3 feet high, erect, or oblique, round, hairy, green, 
or red, branching at the summit. The leaves are alternate, the lower 
ones petiolate, the upper sessile, hairy, dark-green above, paler beneath, 
wavy on the edge and on the older plants revolute. Flowers, July to 
August, are numerous, erect, bright-orange color, arranged in terminal 
corymbs. The seeds are ovate, flat, marginal, and terminate in long 
silken hairs. Unlike other plants of this family it is destitute of the 
milky juice. 

Habitat. United States, Massachusetts to Georgia, and west to 
Texas. Fig., Millspaugh, 135. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1856 by Savary, 
N. Z. f. H. K. 5. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 591.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



I4O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Asclepias tuberosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ASIMINA TRILOBA. Common Pawpaw. 

Natural Order. Anonaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Annona triloba, Asimina campaniflora, A. 
conoidea, Orchidocarpium arietinum, Porcelia triloba, Uvaria triloba; 
English, Pawpaw, American custard-apple ; French, Asiminier ; German, 
Dreilappige asimine. 

Description. An ornamental, deciduous tree, 10 to 20 feet high, 
with smooth, grayish, acrid, or foetid bark. The young shoots and 
expanding leaves are clothed with a rusty down and soon become 
glabrous. The leaves are alternate, entire, thin, obovate-oblong, 
petioles dark-purple. The dull-purple flowers, March to May, are 
i> inches wide, solitary and axillary, and appear with the leaves. 
The fruit, 2 to 3 inches long, resembles a banana, is yellowish, sweet 
and edible in October, after frost. 

Habitat. Native of Central United States, especially the Ohio 
valley. Banks of streams in rich soil, western New York and Pennsyl- 
vania to Illinois and southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 13. 

History. Named from Asiminier. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
I. 599-} 

Part Used. The ripe seed. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 14! 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Asimina triloba, 100 Grru 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing, alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS. Asparagus. 

Natural Order Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Asparagus; French, Asperge; German, 
Spargel. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb. The stem is erect* 
unarmed, terete, very branching, 2 to 4 feet high ; leaves setaceous, 
flexible, vasculate and filiform, pale pea-green, )^ inch to \y z inches 
long. Flowers green, axillary, nodding, solitary or in pairs. Berries 
globose, red, three-celled, two-seeded. 

Habitat. Found on the seashore of Britain and parts of Europe, 
and sandy plains in Russia, Turkey and Greece. Cultivated ; sparingly 
escaped from gardens into waste places on the coast. Fig., WinKier, 6. 

History Cultivated and highly esteemed as a vegetable in the 
time of Cato, 200 years B. C. Introduced into homoeopathic practice 
in 1840 by Dr. Buchner, Hygea XII. 426. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. I. 597. 

Part Used. The young shoots. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength T V 
Asparagus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. == 5 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



142 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

ASTERIAS RUBENS. Star Fish. 

Class. Echinodermata. 

Order Asteroid ea. 

Family. Asteriadae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Uraster rubens ; English, Common star fish. 

Description. A marine animal common to the Atlantic coasts in 
Europe, and to a limited extent in America. It is in shape like a star, 
having ray-like points, garnet-red to yellow in color. The central por- 
tion contains a globular sac, the stomach, the mouth being on the 
under surface and in the center ; the upper surface being covered with 
hard, knob-like protuberances. It has an eye in the extremity of each 
arm. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 602 ; X. 362. 

Part Used. The entire living animal. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>; Drug strength -^. 
Asterias rubens, containing solids 100 Gm., 

moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 637 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

ATHAMANTA OREOSELINUM. Mountain Parsley. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Athaminta oreoselinum, Apium montanum, 
Oreoselinum, Petroselinum montanum, Peucedanum oreoselinum, 
Polycresta ; English, Galbanum, Mountain parsley, Speedwell ; French, 
Persil sauvage; German, Bergpetersilie. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 143 

Description A perennial, deciduous herb. Stem 2 to 4 feet high, 
tapering, striated. Leaves are tri-pinnate, with petiolate segments, 
ovate, cut, pinnate, shining, nearly pointless, straggling. Flowers 
white, June to August. Fruit roundish, oval. 

Habitat. Native of Germany, hills of middle Europe and the 
Caucasus. 

History. Name signifying mountain and parsley. The whole 
plant was formerly held in such high esteem as to be known as poly- 
chresta. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1839 by Dr. Franz, 
Archiv. XVII. 3, 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. I. 607.] 

Part Used. Tincture of the whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> ; Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Athamanta oreoselinum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 
plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol. 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ATROPINUM. Atropin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 23 NO 3 ; 288.38. 

Synonyms. Latin, Atropia, Atropinum purum, Atropina ; English, 
Atropine; French, Atropine; German, Atropin. 

Description. An alkaloid, consisting of colorless, silky crystals, 
turning yellow on exposure to air, having a very bitter and acrid taste, 
melting at 90 C. and decomposing at a higher temperature, without 
residue. It is soluble in 130 parts of cold water at I5C. and in 3 
parts of alcohol. The aqueous solution is alkaline in reaction and 
powerfully dilates the pupil of the eye. It forms salts with acid, 
which crystallize with difficulty. Atropin and its salts are decomposed 
by caustic alkalies, emitting when heated an ammoniacal odor. It 



144 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

gives a yellowish color with nitric acid, and with colorless, concentrated 
sulfuric acid, a colorless solution, which turns yellow after some time, 
and on being warmed emits an odor resembling that of roses and 
orange flowers. When manganese dioxid is added to the solution of 
atropin in concentrated sulfuric acid, odors like that of bitter almonds 
and afterwards of benzoic acid are emitted. Its aqueous solutions are 
precipitated white by tannic acid, the precipitate being soluble in acids. 
If cyanogen is passed through its alcoholic solution, a blood-red colora- 
tion is produced. It is obtained from belladonna root. Atropin and 
its salts are very poisonous. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 
608 ; X. 367. Maximum dose -fa grain. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tritrirations : 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture 4> : ^ in alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2\ and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 2x and higher. 

ATROPINUM SULPHURICUM. Atropin Sulfatc. 

Atropinum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 17 H 23 NO 3 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 ; 674.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Atropinae sulphas, Atropiae sulfas, Atropia 
sulphurica ; English, Sulfate of atropin ; French, Sulfate d'atropine ; 
German, Atropinsulfat. 

Description. A white, odorless, partly crystallized powder, of a 
very acrid and bitter taste. Soluble in 0.4 parts of water and 6.5 parts 
of alcohol at 15 C. Fused by heat, it assumes a red color and volatil- 
izes entirely. A solution having a T^TF part of atropin sulfate has a 
very bitter taste. Its aqueous solution dilates the pupil, and is pre- 
cipitated by sodium carbonate, the precipitate having all the character- 
istics of atropin; it is also precipitated by barium chlorid. Its 
reactions with nitric and sulfuric acid are the same as with atropin. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, I. 608. Maximum dose -fa grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations ; 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture <j> : -fa in alcohol. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 145 

AURUM METALLICUM. Metallic Gold. 

Aurum. 

Chemical Symbol. Au ; 196.7. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aurum precipitatum, A. foliatum ; English, 
Precipitated gold, Gold leaf ; French, Or ; German, Gold. 

Description. A malleable, yellow metal, of a brown color when 
finely powdered. It is not acted upon by air even at a high tempera- 
ture, nor by moisture. Is insoluble in water, sulfuric, nitric and 
hydrochloric acids; soluble in aqua regia. It melts at 1240 C. Is 
found native. It is obtained as a brown powder, by treating its 
chlorid with aqueous solutions of iron protosulfate, or of oxalic acid. 
The powder takes a metallic aspect by burnishing. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, II. I. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher, of the fine precipitated metal. 

AURUM MURIATICUM. Auric Chlorid. 

Aurum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol AuCl 3 ; 302.81. 

Synonyms. Latin, Auri chloridum; English, Chlorid of gold, 
Muriate of gold ; French, Chlorure d'or ; German, Goldchlorid. 

Description. A yellow-orange, hygrometric salt, having a strong 
metallic taste. Freely soluble in water and in alcohol. Its aqueous 
solution stains the skin purple. With hydrogen sulfid a precipitate 
of gold sulfid is formed, which is soluble in alkaline sulfids. It is 
decomposed by heat, leaving a residue of metallic gold. It is 
obtained by dissolving pure gold in nitro-muriatic acid. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 14. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher, freshly prepared. 

b. Solution <f>: -fa in distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part solution, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

All preparations of Aurum muriate should be freshly made and 
protected from light. 



146 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

AURUM MURIATICUM NATRONATUM. 

Aurum et Natrum Muriate. Sodium Auro-Chlorid. 

Chemical Symbol. AuCl g NaCl 2H 2 O; 397.1. 

Synonyms. Latin, Auro-natrium chloratum, Aurum et natrum 
muriaticum, Auri et natri chloridum ; English, Chloride of gold and 
sodium ; French, Chlorure d'or et de sodium ; German, Natriumgold- 
chlorid. 

A mixture composed of equal parts by weight of dry chlorid of 
gold and chlorid of sodium. 

Description. Consists of long, four-sided, yellow prisms, having a 
metallic taste. Freely soluble in water, and at least one-half of it 
should be soluble in cold alcohol. It does not deliquesce when ex- 
posed to air. Its aqueous solution produces a dark-purple color of 
the skin. Submitted to a red heat, it is decomposed into sodium 
chlorid and metallic gold. Its reactions are the same as those of 
auric chlorid. It is prepared by adding sodium chlorid to auric 
chlorid and allowing the resulting salt to crystallize. It must not con- 
tain free hydrochloric acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 18. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Solution < . -$ in distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part ix solution, fotir parts dis- 

tilled water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 
Preparations should be protected from the light. 



AURUM SULPHURATUM. Auric Sulfid. 

Aurum Sulfid. 

Chemical Symbol. Au 2 S 3 ; 489.34. 

Synonyms. Latin, Auri sulphidum; English, Yellow sulphide or 
sulphuret of gold. 

Description. A flocculent, inodorous, tasteless, yellow substance, 
insoluble in water and alcohol. Soluble in ammonium and potassium 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 147 

sulfids. It loses its sulfur at a moderate heat, leaving a residuum of 
metallic gold. It is obtained by passing hydrogen sulfid into a cold, 
dilute solution of a gold salt. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 23. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AVENA SATF/A. Oat. 

Natural Order. Gramineae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Avena chinensis, A. nuda, A. orientalis; 
English, Oat; French, Farine d'Avoine; German, Hafermehl. 

Description. Annual grass, culms terete, erect, 2 to 4 feet high. 
Leaves few, alternate, 6 inches long, their sheaths long, split or bent 
on the side opposite the blade. The spikelets have two or three 
(rarely more) pendulous flowers. A genus distinguished by large 
membranaceous outer paleae, enclosing two to three flowers, each 
with bent awn. 

Habitat. Original source uncertain ; cultivated in all temperate 
climates, most successfully where the summer temperature is low and 
the atmosphere moist. Fig., Goullon, 280; Bent, and Trim. 292. 

History. There is no record of its cultivation earlier than the 
time of Pliny. 

Part Used. The fresh seed. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Avena sativa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 

Strong alcohol, 635 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



148 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

BADIAGA. Fresh Water Sponge. 

Natural Order. Spongiae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Spongia palustris, Spongilla fluviatilis, S. 
lacustris; English, Fresh water sponge, River sponge; French, 
Eponge des fleuves ; German, Russicher Flusschwamm. 

Description. Similar to marine sponge, having branching ramifi- 
cations from the thickness of a quill to that of a finger, resembling 
stag's horns, with rounded corners and ends. Contains numerous 
round white granules, one side of which is excavated. It grows 
detached from the soil ; is of a greenish color externally, and has a 
disagreeable fishy smell. It can be easily dried and pulverized. 

Habitat. It is found in stagnant waters and in ditches, abundantly 
in Russia, and less so in some parts of Germany. 

History. The powder is used in Russia to apply to bruises. It 
was introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1835 by Dr. Fielitz, Allg. 
Horn. Zeit. VII. 71, and mentioned by Dr. Hering, Guid. Sympt. 
II. 298. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 25.] 

Part Used. The dried sponge, pulverized. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



BALSAMUM PERUVIANUM. Balsam of Peru, 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Balsamum indicum nigrum, B. peruvianum 
nigrum, Myrospermum peruiferum, M. pereirae, Myroxylon pereirae, 
M. peruiferum; English, Balsam of Peru, Quinquino; French, Baume 
de Peron ; German, Perubalsam. 

Description. The source of this balsam is a tree about 50 feet 
high, with a straight, smooth trunk, coarse bark and spreading, 
ascending branches, 6 to 10 feet from the ground. The exudation 
from the trunk of the tree, after the removal of the bark, is an oleo- 
resin, which is collected on wrappings of rags, from which it is 
removed by boiling. During the latter process, impurities are 
skimmed off and the balsam obtained is a viscid liquid of the consist- 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 149 

ence of honey, black in bulk, but of a deep-orange color and trans- 
parent when in thin films. It has an agreeable odor, a warm, 
bitter taste, and is inflammable, giving off a fragant, white smoke. 
It is composed of about 38 per cent of black, brittle, odorless and 
tasteless resin, and 60 per cent of an aromatic, brown liquid. The 
balsam is soluble in about five parts rectified spirits. 

Habitat. San Salvador and Central America. Fig., Bent, and 
Trim. 83. 

History. It was in use as a medicament as early as the beginning 
of the i /th century. It was erroneously supposed to be the product 
of Peru, hence its name. It is used in the manufacture of soap for 
its fragrance and as it gives a soft, creamy lather. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by Dr. Lembke, N. Z. f. H. Kl. XII. 41. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 30.] 

Part Used. The balsam. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Balsam Peru, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 900 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 



BAPTISIA TINCTORIA. Wild Indigo. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Podalyria tinctoria, Sophora tinctoria ; English, 
Horsefly weed, Indigo broom, Indigo weed, Indigofera, Rattle bush, 
Wild indigo, Yellow broom ; French, Indigo sauvage ; German, Baptisie. 

Description. A perennial plant, with short, blackish and woody 
root, yellowish internally, knotty head, 2 to 3 inches broad, irregular 
broad stem-scars above, sending off many rootlets underneath. The 
stem, 2 to 3 feet high, is round, smooth, glaucous and very much 
branched. The leaves are small, alternate, palmately trifoliate, sub- 
sessile ; the leaflets are rounded at the extremity, cuneate at the base, 



I5O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

and about ^ inch long. Flowers, June to August, are bright yellow, 
and in small, loose, terminal racemes. Legume short, inflated, bluish- 
black, oval-globose, on a long stalk. 

Habitat. Growing in dry places in many parts of the United 
States, as far south as Florida and west to the Mississippi, occasion- 
ally in damp places. Fig., Millspaugh, 52. 

History. Its young shoots were eaten as asparagus. Provings 
were published in 1857 by Dr. W. L. Thompson, N. A. J. Horn. V. 
547. [Allen's Encye. Mat. Med. II. 31 ; X. 372.] 

Part Used. Bark of the fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength 1 J TT . 
Baptisia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 100 

Strong alcohol, 700 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher 



BAROSMA CRENATA. Buchu. 

Natural Order. Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barosma crenulata, B. eckloniana, B. odoratum, 
Baryosma odorata, Buchu crenata, Diosma crenata, D. crenulata, D. 
latifolia, Parapetalif era odorata ; English, Buchu ; Vernacular, Bookoo, 
Buku ; French, Feuilles de Bucco ; German, Bukublatter. 

Description. A slender, smooth, upright, evergreen shrub, 2 to 3 
feet in height, twiggy, somewhat angular branches, brownish-purple 
bark. The leaves, varying in form, are opposite, flat, short-stalked, 
spreading, about an inch long, ovate or obovate, acute, serrate, thick, 
glabrous on both sides ; under surface dotted with oil cells, one also in 
each serrature. The flowers are pink or whitish, terminal, solitary, on 
short, lateral, leafy branches. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



Habitat. Southern Africa, growing abundantly in stony, hilly 
valleys, but limited in extent. Fig., Goullon, 5 1 ; Bent. & Trim. 46. 

History. The leaves are odoriferous, and when powdered used by 
the Hottentots under the name of Bookoo or Buku for anointing their 
bodies. It was used as a medicine early in the i6th century. 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Barosma crenata, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Trituralions : ix and higher. 



BAROSMA SERRATIFOLIA. Buku. 

Natural Order. Rutacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Adenandra serratifolia, Diosma serratifolia, 
Parapetalifera serrata ; English, Buku ; Vernacular, Bucchu ; German, 
Gesagtblatteriger Buccostrauch. 

Description. A shrub, similar to Barosma crenata, having blunt- 
pointed, longer leaves, equally narrowed toward either end, i to i^ 
inches long, ^ mcn wide. 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Barosma serratifolia, ioo Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



BARYTA ACETICA. Barium Acetate. 

Barium Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol Ba2C 2 H 3 O 2 ; 254.62. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barii acetas; English, Acetate of barium, 
Acetate of baryta; French, Acetate de" baryte; German, Essigsaurer 
Baryt. 

Description. A white powder, soluble in 1.25 parts of water at 
I5C. It is obtained by the decomposition of barium carbonate or 
sulfid with acetic acid, the crystals thus obtained having the composi- 
tion (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Ba+H 2 O, which, when dried at o C, yield the 
anhydrous salt. When strongly heated, it splits into acetone and 
barium carbonate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 42 ; X. 372. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solutions <j>: T x in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions: To contain <f> one part, two parts distilled water, 

seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



BARYTA CARBONICA. Barium Carbonate. 

Barium Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. BaCO 3 ; 196.85. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barii carbonas, Barytae carbonas, Barium 
carbonicum, Carbonas baryticus ; English, Carbonate of barium ; 
French, Carbonate de baryte ; German, Kohlensaures Barium. 

Description. A white, soft, tasteless and odorless powder, slightly 
soluble in water, i part in 4000. Insoluble in alcohol. It dissolves in 
acid with production of carbon dioxid, the solution giving a heavy, 
white precipitate of barium sulfate, with soluble sulfates. At a 
strong, red heat, it melts into a white enamel, without decomposition ; 
at a stronger heat, is decomposed into carbon dioxid and barium oxid. 
It is formed when barium oxid is exposed to the air, and is obtained 
when an aqueous solution of barium chlorid or barium nitrate is 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 153 

treated with ammonium carbonate. The mineral witherite is a native 
barium carbonate, which sometimes occurs in large crystals. Men- 
tioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 49; X. 372. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

BARYTA IODATA. Barium lodid. 

Barium lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. BaI 2 2H 2 O ; 425.88. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barii iodidum; English, Iodide of barium; 
French, lodure de baryum ; German, Jodbarium. 

Description. Consists of small, colorless, slender needles ; deliques- 
cent. Soluble in 0.48 parts of water at ordinary temperature, readily 
soluble in alcohol. It is not decomposed by heat in a closed vessel, 
but in contact with air decomposes slowly at common temperature, 
more quickly when heated, giving off vapors of iodin and leaving 
barium oxid. It is produced when hydriodic acid gas is passed over 
barium oxid at a red heat, also by adding powdered barium carbonate 
to an aqueous, boiling solution of ferrous iodid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : ^ in dilute alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher, freshly prepared. 

BARYTA MURIATICA. Barium Chlorid. 

Barium Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. BaCl,2H 2 O; 243.56. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barii chloridum, Barytae chloricum ; English, 
Chloride of barium ; French, Chlorure de baryum ; German, Chlor- 
baryum. 

Description. Consists of colorless, translucent, rhombohedral lam- 
elhe, soluble in 2.18 parts of water at 15 C. ; slightly soluble in alcohol. 



154 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

The crystals decrepitate in the fire, and have an unpleasant, bitter and 
sharp saline taste. The aqueous solution gives a white precipitate 
with soluble sulfates. It becomes alkaline after fusion. It prevents 
the coagulation and putrefaction of blood. It is obtained from barium 
carbonate and hydrochloric acid, and is poisonous. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 65; X. 373. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>: -$ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain < one part, four parts distilled water, 

five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations ; ix and higher. 



BEBEERINUM SULPHURICUM. Bebeerin Sulfate. 

Bebeerinum Sulfate. 

Synonyms. Latin, Beberiae sulphas, Beberinae sulphas; English, 
Sulphate of beberine ; French, Sulfate de bebeerine ; German, Schwe- 
felsaures Bebirin. 

Description. Consists of brown, thin, translucent scales, having 
a bitter taste. Readily soluble in water and alcohol. The commercial 
salt is very rarely pure, containing nectandrin sulfate (C 20 H 23 NO 4 ) 2 
H 2 SO 4 , and other alkaloid sulfates. This commercial salt gives with 
from 6 to 8 parts of water a clear brown solution, but on further dilu- 
tion a precipitate is formed, caused by deficiency of sulfuric acid. It 
is decomposed by heat, without residue. It is prepared from bebeeru 
bark and from nectandra. The pure salt is yellowish-white in color. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



BELLADONNA. Deadly Nightshade. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Atropa belladonna, A. lethalis, Belladonna 
baccifera, B. trichotoma, Solanum furiosurn, S. hortense, S. lethal e, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 155 

S. magus, S. maniacum, S. mclanoceros, S. somniferum, S. sylvaticum ; 
English, Common dwale, Deadly nightshade; French, Belladone"; 
German, Tollkraut. 

Description. A large, bushy, perennial herb, with a thick, fleshy, 
juicy, branched and spreading root, pale-brown externally, white 
internally, when fresh. The stems are erect, 3 to 5 feet high, thick, 
cylindrical, smooth, dividing at first into three, then dichotomous, 
frequently branching, the youngest shoots pubescent. The leaves are 
numerous, alternate below, in pairs above, one larger than the other, 
short stalked, 3 to 9 inches long, ovate, entire, dark-green in color. 
The flowers, May to August, are solitary (rarely two or three 
together), axillary, stalked, drooping, pedicel as long or longer than 
the calyx, with short, glandular hairs ; calyx five cleft. Corolla, bell- 
shaped, about an inch long, cut into five lobes, dull reddish-purple, 
tinged with pale-green below. The berries ripen in September. The 
whole plant is fetid when bruised, and of a dark-purplish color. 

Habitat. Common in Europe, growing in ruins and waste places. 
Fig., Flora Horn. I. 60; Winkler, 18; Jahr and Cat. 172; Goullon, 
187; Bent, and Trim. 193. 

History. Named from Atropos, one of the fates, whose duty it 
was to cut the thread of human life. Belladonna fine lady, from 
being used as a wash to remove pimples. It was used by Leucota, the 
famous poisoner of Italy, to destroy beautiful women. Introduced 
into homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann, Frag. d. viribus 25. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 67; X. 373, 645.] 

Part Used. The whole plant, when beginning to flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Belladonna, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 47 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, foiir parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



156 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

BELLIS PERENNIS. Daisy. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. English, English daisy, Garden daisy, Hen and 
chickens ; French, La paquerette ; German, Maslieben. 

Description. A perennial herbaceous plant, stemless, scape naked, 
single headed. Leaves obovate, crenate. Flowers are white. Heads 
many flowered, radiate, the rays numerous and pistillate. Scales on the 
involucre herbaceous. Flowers March to August. 

Habitat. Great Britain. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1858 by Dr. 
Henry Thomas, B. J. Horn. XVI. 128. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
II. 128.] 

Part Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Bellis perennis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 683 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

BENZINUM NITRICUM. Nitro Benzol 

Betuinum Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 5 NO 2 ; 122.75. 

Synonyms. Latin, Benzinum petrolii, yEther petrolei, Nitroben- 
zolum; English, Petroleum benzin, Petroleum ether, Nitro benzine, 
Artificial oil of bitter almonds, Essence of mirbane; French, Esprit 
de pe*trole ; German, Petroleumbensin. 

Description. A yellowish, oily liquid having a very sweet taste 
and an odor suggestive of bitter almonds. It boils at 210 C. and 
crystallizes in needles at 3C. It is slightly soluble in water, and 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 157 

freely soluble in alcohol. Its vapors, when inhaled, produce head- 
ache and sleepiness. When in alcoholic solution it is readily con- 
verted into anilin by nascent hydrogen. Treated with strong nitric 
acid, it is converted into a mixture of isomeric dinitrobenzols C 6 H 4 
(NO 2 ) 2 . It is not acted upon by chlorin nor bromin at ordinary 
temperatures, but its vapor is decomposed when it is passed with 
chlorin through a red-hot tube, yielding also hydrochloric acid. It is 
prepared from benzol and strong nitric acid. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, II. 130; X. 383. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : -fa in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions : zx and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



BENZOINUM. Benzoin. 

Natural Order. Styraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Resina benzoe, Asa dulcis ; English, Gum 
benjamin; French, Benjoin; German, Benzoe. 

Description. A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin. 
Consists of large blocks of various shapes, of white, shining masses, 
agglutinated by a brown resin. Its odor is aromatic and its taste, 
slight at first, is, after a while, hot and aromatic and produces an 
irritation on the mucous surfaces. It is easily pulverized. Is insolu- 
ble in water, soluble in 5 parts of alcohol at a moderate tempera- 
ture. The residue insoluble in alcohol consists generally of earth and 
pieces of bark which have been added to increase the weight of the 
pure masses. When heated it gives off vapors of benzoic acid. In 
boiling water benzoic acid is dissolved. With alkaline solutions it 
forms benzoates. The white tears contain cinnamic acid. When 
treated with calcium oxid, vanillin is obtained, and when submitted to 
dry distillation the chief product obtained is benzoic acid, together 
with empyreumatic products and styrol. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, X. 385. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



158 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

BERBERINUM. Berberin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 20 H 17 NO 4 . 

Synonyms. Berberine, Berberia. 

An alkaloid found in Berberis vulgaris, Hydrastis canadensis, 
Calumba, Coptis, and other plants. 

Description. Consists of yellow prisms or needles, permanent in 
air, but turns brown at a temperature of 110, and blackens at 160. 
Of a bitter taste, and has a faint quinin odor on warming. It dis- 
solves in 300 parts of cold water, and is difficultly soluble in alcohol. 
Its solutions are neutral, and on being heated over a water-bath lose 
19.3 per cent of water. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 139. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM. Mountain Grape. 

Natural Order. Berberidaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Oregon grape root, Holly-leaved barberry. 

Description. A bushy, branching shrub, having a woody root, 
brownish externally, bright yellow internally, and a stem from 2 to 6 
feet high. The leathery leaves are pinnate, in 3 to 6 pairs, ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate, inequilateral, or slightly cordate at the base, \y 2 to 3 
inches long, with spinulose margins. The filiaments are two-toothed. 
The yellow flowers are in short, upright clusters, and open early. A 
dark-purple, nearly spherical, few-seeded berry forms the fruit of this 
variety. As generally sold, the intensely bitter tasting root appears 
in pieces about 12 inches long and % inch thick. Its yellow color 
within is due to the alkaloid berberin. 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

Habitat. Western United States; especially abundant in the 
northern part of the Pacific coast. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 159 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^ 

Berberis aquifolium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 100 Cc. = 200 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



BERBERIS VULGARIS. Barberry. 

Natural Order. Berberidaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Berberis canadensis dumetorum, B. irritabalis, 
B. pisifera, B. serrulata, B. sinensis, Oxycantha, Pedunculis race- 
mosis, Spina acida, Spinis triplicibus; English, Pipperidge bush; 
French, Epine-vinette ; German, Berberitzen. 

Description. A deciduous shrub with thick, branching, tough, 
porous root of pale-yellow color, with thin, inodorous, bitter bark of 
yellowish-gray color externally, and having a smooth, orange-yellow 
inner surface. The stem is from 3 to 8 feet high, higher under culti- 
vation, with thorny, alternate, angular branches, hanging at the top, 
bark light gray or yellow-brown, the wood fine and yellow. The leaves 
are in tufts somewhat obovate, more or less pointed, serrated and 
fringed, and with three-cleft, spreading, sharp thorns at the base of 
each leaf-bud. The flowers, May and June, are in drooping many- 
flowered racemes; are bright yellow with red glands, and are suc- 
ceeded by oblong, scarlet berries growing in loose bunches. 

Habitat. Common throughout Europe and north of Asia, natural- 
ized in New England and other parts of the United States, where it 
has become wild. Found in waste grounds and thickets. Fig., Flor. 
Horn. 1.88; Winkler,25 ; Jahr and Cat. 173; Goullon, 9; Millspaugh, 15. 



I6O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. The name is a corruption of amyrberis, amerberys or 
berberys, the Arabic name of the fruit. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1835 by Dr. Hesse, Bib. Horn, de Gen. v. 46. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 139.] 

Part Used. The bark of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 

Berberis vulgaris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 80 Cc.= 180 

Distilled water, 420 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



BISMUTHUM OXYDATUM. Bismuthous Oxid. 

Bismuthum Oxid 

Chemical Symbol. Bi 2 O 3 ; 465.68. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bismuthi oxidum, Oxydum bismuthicum ; 
English, Oxide of bismuth, Sesqui-oxide of bismuth; French, Oxyde 
de bismuth ; German, Wismuthoxyd. 

Description. A lemon-yellow, odorless, tasteless, partly crystalline 
powder, insoluble in water and alcohol ; soluble in nitric acid, without 
effervescence. It melts at a red heat, and solidifies on cooling to a 
glassy mass of a deeper color than the powder. It is reduced to the 
metallic state when heated on carbon. It is prepared from bismuth 
sub-nitrate and sodium hydrate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
II. 183. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : I x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. l6l 

BISMUTHUM SUBNITRICUM. Bismuth Sub-nitrate. 
Bismuthum Sub-nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol BiONO 3 H 2 O ; 304.71. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bismuth! subnitras, Bismuth! magisterium, 
Bismuthum album ; English, Subnitrate of bismuth, White bismuth ; 
French, Sous-azotate de bismuth; German, Basisches Wismuthnitrat 
Salpetersaures Wismuthoxyd. 

Description. A heavy, white, glossy powder in minute crystals, 
odorless and tasteless, almost insoluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, 
unaltered by air. It blackens when in contact with hydrogen sulfid. 
When moistened with water it has a slightly acid reaction. At a red 
heat it gives off yellowish-red vapors and leaves bismuthous oxid. 
Heated on charcoal, brittle globules of bismuth are obtained, and the 
charcoal becomes covered with a slight encrustation, orange-colored 
when hot, yellow when cold. It is prepared with bismuth, nitric acid, 
and water. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 186; X. 386. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 

BORAX. Sodium Pyroborate. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 B 4 O 7 , ioH 2 O; 380.92. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii boras, Sodae boras, Natrium biboricum, 
Natrum boracicum, Natrum biboracicum, Boras sodicus, Borax veneta ; 
English, Borate of sodium, Biborate of soda, Sodic pyroborate ; 
French, Borate de soude ; German, Natrium Pyroborat. 

Description. Consists of large, colorless, transparent, inodorous 
prisms having a cooling, sweetish taste. Soluble in 16 parts of 
water at I5C, insoluble in alcohol. In dry air it effloresces and 
becomes opaque. When heated it loses some water and forms a 
white swelled mass. At a red heat, all its water of crystallization is 
eliminated, it melts and on cooling assumes the appearance of color- 
less glass. It gives to the flame a yellow color, but when its solution 
is treated with hydrochloric acid it imparts to the flame a green color. 
It is a native salt. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 195. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



1 62 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

BOVISTA. Puff Ball. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bovista lycopodon, B. nigrescens, B. officinalis, 
Crepitus lupi, Fungus chirurgorum, F. ovatus, Lycoperdon bovista, 
L. areolatum, L. caelatum, L. gemmatum, L. globosum ; English, 
Warted puff ball ; French, Vesse-loup ; German, Bovist. 

Description. Stemless, globular in form, smooth, soft surface, 
varying from size of a pea to 12 inches in diameter, white inside and 
out when young, darkening with age and becoming black and stiff. 
The white, cottony contents become dark entangled fibers holding a 
quantity of black dust, or spores. 

Habitat. Most parts of Europe and Asia Minor, growing in dry 
meadows. Fig., Flora. Horn. I. 95 ; Winkler, 89; Jahr and Cat. 174. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1831 by Drs. 
Hartlaub & Trinks, R. A. M. L. III. i. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
II. 212 ; X. 386.] 

Part Used. The ripe fungus. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fo. 

Bovista, the ripe, dry powder, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

BRACHYGLOTTIS REPENS. Puka Puka. 

Natural Order. Composite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Brachyglottis forsteri ; Vernacular, Puka Puka. 

Description. A shrub, at times attaining the size of a tree 20 feet 
high, with large, broad, deeply toothed, glossy leaves, downy on under 
surface. Flower-heads numerous, small, yellow, in terminal panicles. 

Habitat. Native of New Zealand. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 163 

\ 

History. Name signifying a short tongue. It is used by the 
natives as paper, whence the native name puka puka came to be 
applied by them to English paper. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1878 by Dr. L. C. Fisher, N. A. J. Horn. XXVII. 41. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 386.] 

Parts Used. The green leaves and flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Brachyglottis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 Cc. 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



BRANCA URSINA. Bear's Breech. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acanthus vulgaris, Heracleum auritum, H. 
dulce, H. lanatum, H. panacea, H. sphondylium, Pastinacae vulgaris, 
Pseudo-acanthus ; English, Bear's breech, Common cow parsnip, Cow 
parsley, Hogweed, Masterwort; French, fierce; German, Barworz, 
Gemeine Barenklau. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb with a large, fusiform, 
branching root, yellowish externally, whitish internally. The stem, 
about 3 to 6 feet high, is erect, furrowed, hairy, branching at top. 
The leaves are pinnatifid, with large sheathing petioles and leaflets 
with 3 to 5 lobed segments. The flowers, appearing in June and July, 
are white, in huge umbels. The rind and root are acrid and contain 
sugar. 

Habitat. All over Europe, in meadows and edges of woods. 



164 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Named from Hercules. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1838 by Dr. Rosenburg, Arch. XVII. 2, 46. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 588.] 

Part Used. The whole plant during flowering. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Branca ursina, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm. 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 



BROMIUM. Bromin. 

Chemical Symbol. Br; 79.76. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bromum, Brominium ; French, Br6me; German, 
Brom. 

Description. A mobile, dark-red liquid at the ordinary tempera- 
ture, having a disagreeable, irritating and suffocating odor. It con- 
geals at 24 C., boils at 63 C., is soluble at 15 C. in 33 parts of water, 
but more readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform or carbon 
disulfid. Its aqueous solutions are decomposed and bleached by the 
action of light, and hydrobromic acid is formed. When in contact 
with water at a low temperature, bromin forms a hydrate, Br 2 ioH 2 O, 
having a clear, deep red color, and crystallizing in octahedrons. This 
hydrate is decomposed into bromin and water at a temperature of 
I5C. In contact with most of the metals it forms bromids and 
destroys organic matter. It is extracted from the water of mineral 
springs. It evaporates at low temperatures, and as it is very corrosive, 
the inhalation of its vapor must be avoided. Bromin should be kept 
in glass-stoppered bottles in a cool place. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, II. 229 ; X. 392. Maximum dose 3 minims, well 
diluted. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : Drug strength 

Bromium, in saturated aqueous solution (strength -^), 330 Cc. 

Distilled water, 670 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with distilled water. 

Bromin, in alcoholic solution, changes rapidly into hydrobromic 
acid, and its aqueous solution loses rapidly in strength and is decom- 
posed by action of light. The solutions and dilutions should, there- 
fore, be freshly prepared. 

BRUCINUM. Brucin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 23 H 26 N 2 O 4 . 

Synonym. Brucia. 

Description. Consists of white, silky, odorless, rhomboidal prisms, 
having an extremely bitter taste. This salt loses its water of crystalli- 
zation while efflorescing. Is soluble in 850 parts of water at common 
temperature, more soluble in alcohol and ether, very soluble at ordi- 
nary temperature in water saturated with carbon dioxid. Is feebly 
alkaline to litmus or phenol phthalein. At a temperature of 100 C. 
the crystals melt, leaving a wax-like mass ; at a higher temperature 
they volatilize without residue. Strong nitric acid gives a deep red 
color with brucin, changed to violet by stannous chlorid or white 
ammonium sulfid; chlorin or chlorin water gives a bright red color 
which is changed to brown by the action of ammonium hydrate. 
It is obtained from false angustura bark and from the seeds of 
strychnos nux vomica. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 249. 
A poison. Maximum dose y grain. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

BRYONIA ALBA. White Bryony. 

Natural Order. Cucurbitacae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bryonia vera, Uva angina, U. serpentina, Vitis 
alba, V. nigra; English, Black-berried bryony, Black-berried white 
bryony, White bryony, Wild hops ; French, Couleuvr^e ; German, 
Zaunriibe. 



l66 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A perennial, climbing, herbaceous vine, with a fusi- 
form, branched root 2 feet long, 2 to 4 inches thick, transversely 
wrinkled, yellowish gray externally, white internally, with a disagree- 
able taste, and a nauseating odor which disappears on drying. The 
stem is rough and channelled with spiral tendrils. The leaves are 
alternate, cordate, five-lobed, rough and of a bright green color. The 
flowers, June and July, are small, greenish yellow, monecious, in 
axillary racemes ; the male flower being on long peduncles, and the 
female larger than the male. The berries are globular and black, 
about y inch in diameter. 

Habitat. Middle and south of Europe, in vineyards and woods. 
Fig., Flor. Horn. I. 99; Winkler, 26 ; Jahr and Cat. 175; Goullon, in. 

History. One of the remedies mentioned by Dioscorides. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1816, R. A. M. L., 1st ed. V. 2. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 249; X. 392.] 

Part Used. The fresh root before flowering. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture (f>: Drug strength T ^. 
Bryonia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CACTUS GRANDIFLORUS, Night-Blooming Cereus. 

Natural Order. Cactaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cereus grandiflorus ; English, Night-blooming 
cereus ; French, Ciege a grandes fleurs ; German, Konigin der Nacht. 

Description. An evergreen undershrub, with a creeping root. 
The green, branching stem, i foot high, with 5 or 6 angles, is succu- 
lent and armed with clusters of 5 or 6 short radiating spines or bristles. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



The large, beautiful, sweet-scented yellow flower, with pure white 
petals, opening only once and in the evening, and closing again before 
morning, is nearly i foot in diameter. 

Habitat. Generally hot, stany places of tropical America. 

History. Name originally given by Theophrastus to a spiny plant 
of Sicily. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1864 by Dr. 
Rubini, El. Crit. Med. V. 514. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 321.] 

Parts Used. The flowers and young twigs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Cactus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture reduced to 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

CADMIUM SULPHURATUM. Cadmium Sulfid. 

Cadmium Sulfid. 

Chemical Symbol CdS; 143.48. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cadmii sulphidum; English, Sulphide of 
cadmium, Cadmic sulfid, Greenockite; French, Sulfure de cadmium; 
German, Schwefelcadmium. 

Description. Found in nature in yellow prisms. Artificially pre- 
pared, it is a yellow, odorless and tasteless powder, insoluble in water 
and alcohol, soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid with disengage- 
ment of hydrogen sulfid. At a red heat it melts and crystallizes in 
lemon-yellow plates. It is prepared by precipitating a solution of a 
cadmium salt with hydrogen sulfid, or by heating a mixture of sulfur 
and cadmium oxid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 330. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



l68 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CADMIUM SULPHURICUM. Cadmium Sulfate. 

Cadmium Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. 3CdSO 4 8H 2 O; 765.64, 

Synonyms. Latin, Cadmii sulphas, Sulfas cadmicus; English, 
Sulphate of cadmium, Cadmic sulfate ; French, Sulfate de cadmium ; 
German, Schwefelsaures Cadmiumoxyd. 

Description. Consists of colorless, odorless, transparent prisms, 
having an astringent, metallic taste, efflorescent in air, soluble in 1.6 
parts of water at ordinary temperature, slightly soluble in alcohol. 
Its aqueous solution gives a white precipitate with ammonia, soluble 
in an excess of reagent; with hydrogen sulfid, a yellow precipitate of 
cadmium sulfid, and with barium chlorid or nitrate, a white precipitate. 
At a white heat this salt is decomposed, sulfur dioxid and oxygen are 
given off, and cadmium oxid is left. It is prepared from cadmium 
oxid or carbonate and sulfuric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Trittirations : ix and higher. 



CAFFEINUM. Caffein. 

Caffeiru 

Chemical Symbol. C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 H 2 O; 211.68. 

Synonyms. Latin, Caffeina; English, Caffeine, Caffeia, Theine, 
Guaranine ; French, Cafeine Theine ; German, Koffem Kaff em, Them. 

Description. When crystallized, caffiein consists of colorless or 
white, opaque, silky needles, or long, slender prisms, odorless, and 
having a rather bitter taste. Soluble in from 75 to 80 parts of water, 
in from 35 to 50 parts of alcohol at 15 C., and in 500 parts of ether; 
slightly soluble in carbon disulfid. The reaction of these solutions is 
neutral. It is fusible, and is sublimed without residue. It gives a 
reddish yellow residue when dissolved in chlorin water and evaporated 
at the heat of a water-bath. At a higher temperature this residue 
becomes golden-yellow. In strong aqueous solution, a white, crystal- 
line precipitate is obtained with silver nitrate, long needles with 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 169 

mercuric chlorid, and yellow scales with palladium chlorid. Caffein is 
obtained from the leaves and berries of the coffee plant, and is also 
found in the leaves of the tea plant. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, X. 473. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CAINCA. David's Root. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cahinca, Chiococca anguicida, C. anguifuga, 
C. densifolia, C. racemosa, Serpentaria brasiliana; English, Cluster- 
flowered snow-berry, David's root; French, Cainga; German, Cainca- 
wurzel. 

Description. An ornamental evergreen shrub, about 6 feet high, 
with branched, reddish-brown root, striated lengthwise, with irregular 
and transverse fissures. The leaves are ovate, acuminate. The 
flowers, racemose, axillary, one-sided, and nodding, are fragrant, 
white, and appear in February. The berries are small and white. 

Habitat. West Indies, Florida, Central America, and a portion of 
South America, Island of Jamaica. Fig., Winkler, 47; Goullon, 135. 

History. Used by the natives of Jamaica as an antidote to snake 
bite. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1835, Arch, de L. 
Med. Horn. II. 73. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 332.] 

Part Used. The root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength T V- 
Cainca, 100 Gm., 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : I x and higher. 



I7O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CALADIUM SEGUINUM. American Arum. 

Natural Order. Araceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arum seguinum, Diffenbachia seguina; 
English, Dumb cane, Poison arum, Poisonous American arum, 
Poisonous pediveau ; French, Pediveau veneneux ; German, Giftiger 
Aron, Schierlings Caladium. 

Description. A small, arborescent, palm-like, evergreen under- 
shrub, with stem 5 to 6 feet high, slender, singularly spotted or scarred 
by remains of fallen leaves. Rhizome, very poisonous if chewed. The 
leaves are ovate, oblong, undulated, acute, with a thick mid-rib, and 
often perforated. Spathes axillary, 5 to 6 inches long, oblong, stalked, 
convolute with the apex of spadix just protruding. Spadix cylindrical, 
male wholly at apex, female wholly with abortive stamens intermixed 
at the base, and naked in the middle. Flowers are white, appearing 
in May. 

Habitat. West Indies and South America. Fig., Winkler, 29. 

History. Meaning unknown. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1832 by Dr. Hering, Arch. XL; 2, 160. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. 11.337; X. 398.] 

Part Used -The fresh plant or root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -^. 
Caladium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CALCAREA ACETICA. Calcium Acetate of Hahnemann. 
Calcarea Acetate Hahn. 

Chemical Symbol. Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ; 157.63. 

Synonym. Hahnemann's acetate of lime. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 171 

The substance used by Hahnemann was an impure acetate of lime, 
prepared in the following manner : Boil clean oyster shells for an hour, 
in pure water, break or crush to a coarse powder in a wedgewood or 
porcelain mortar, dissolve in dilute acetic acid by aid of heat until the 
acid is saturated, filter and reduce by evaporation to one-fifth its 
volume. The solution obtained will be of a deep yellow color, which, 
after a time, precipitates a dark brown, mucilaginous substance leaving 
a lighter colored liquid. To this lighter colored liquid add an equal 
quantity of dispensing alcohol. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
II. 344. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution < .' Drug strength -fa. 

The above preparation should contain about ten per cent of acetate 
of lime, hence may be considered the ix solution. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

CALCAREA ARSENICICA. Calcium Arsenate. 

Calcarea Arseniate. 

Chemical Symbol. Ca 3 (AsO) 4 ; 483.17. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii arsenias; English, Tricalcium ortho- 
arsenate. 

Description. A white, crystalline powder, insoluble in water, 
obtained by adding sodium arsenate to calcium chlorid. An active 
poison. Maximum dose T ^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

CALCAREA BROMATA. Calcium Bromid. 

Calcarea Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol. CaBr2; 199.43. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii bromidum, Calcium bromatum ; English, 
Bromide of calcium ; French, Bromure de calcium ; German, Bromcal- 
cium. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



Description. A white, granular or powdery, neutral salt, having an 
extremely bitter and saline taste. Deliquescent in air. It is soluble 
at I5C. in 0.7 parts of water and I part of alcohol. It melts at a 
red heat, giving off bromin. Its aqueous solution is decomposed by 
chlorin ; bromin is set free, and can be dissolved in chloroform, with a 
reddish color. It gives with ammonium oxalate a white precipitate, 
insoluble in acetic, soluble in hydrochloric acid. It is prepared by 
dissolving pure calcium carbonate in hydrobromic acid and evaporating 
the solution. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 394. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

CALCAREA CARBONICA. 

Calcarea Carbonate Hahn* Calcium Carbonate of Hahnemann. 

Chemical Symbol CaCO 3 ; 99.76. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcarea ostrearum, Ostrea edulis, Testa 
ostryas ; English, Oyster shells, Impure carbonate of lime; French, 
Carbonate de chau ; German, Calciumkarbonat. 

The substance used by Hahnemann was an impure carbonate of 
lime as it exists in the oyster shell. Take well selected, tolerably thick 
oyster shells, clean and break in a wedgewood or porcelain mortar, 
select the pure white portions which exist between the exterior and 
inner surfaces, wash carefully in distilled water, dry over a water bath, 
and reduce to a fine powder. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
11.351. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

CALCAREA CAUSTICA. Calcium Hydrate, 

Calcarea Caustic. 

Chemical Symbol. CaH 2 O 2 ; 73.83. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii hydras, Calcis hydras; English, Hydrate 
of calcium, Hydrate of lime, Slacked lime; French, Chaux hydratee; 
German, Kalkhydrat. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 173 

Description. A soft, white, odorless powder, with a strong alkaline 
taste. Soluble at 15 C. to the extent of 0.137 parts in 100 parts of 
water ; insoluble in alcohol. It dissolves in acids without the evolu- 
tion of gas. Exposed to air, it absorbs carbon dioxid, and is trans- 
formed into the carbonate. Submitted to a red heat it loses its water 
of crystallization and leaves anhydrous oxid (CaO). Its aqueous solu- 
tion gives a crystalline, colorless precipitate with ammonium oxalate. 
Soluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids. This salt is obtained by 
burning Carrara marble in a covered crucible until the addition of 
hydrochloric acid no longer causes effervescence. After cooling, it is 
placed in a porcelain capsule and slaked by adding one-half its weight 
of distilled water. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 385. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solutions <j> : 3x drug strength 10 1 00 . 
Fresh slaked lime i Gm., 

Distilled water, icoo Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 4x and higher, with distilled water. 

All preparations of this medicine should be freshly prepared and 
kept in green glass or bohemian glass bottles. 

CALCAREA FLUORICA. Calcium FIuoricL 

Calcarea Fluorid. 

Chemical Symbol. CaF 2 ; 77.91. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii fluoridum; English, Calcic fluorid, 
Fluor spar. 

Description. Occurs in nature in large deposits. When powdered, 
it is whitish gray, inodorous and tasteless. It is soluble in 26544 parts 
of water at 15 C. It is contained in bones and teeth. It melts at a 
low, red heat, and after fusion assumes the appearance of a glassy 
substance. Treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, it evolves hydro- 
fluoric acid vapors which corrode glass and leave a residue of calcium 
sulfate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 398. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 



174 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CALCAREA HYPOPHOSPHOROSA. 

Calcarea Hypophosphite. Calcium Hypophosphite. 

Chemical Symbol. Ca2PH 2 O 2 ; 169.67. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii hypophosphis, Calcis hypophosphis., 
Calcium hypophosphorosum, Hypophosphis calcicus ; English, Hypo- 
phosphite of lime ; French, Hypophosphite de chaux ; German, Unter- 
phosphorigsaurer Kalk. 

Description. Consists of a white, crystalline, glassy powder, odor- 
less, having a bitter, nauseous taste. In the dry state it is permanent, 
but in aqueous solution it is gradually transformed by oxidation with 
calcium phosphate. Heated in a dry tube, it deflagrates, emits inflam- 
mable phosphorus vapors and leaves a residue of calcium pyrophosphate 
with small quantities of red phosphorus. It is soluble in six parts of 
water at 15 C; insoluble in alcohol. It is obtained from phosphorus 
and calcium hydrate suspended in water. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



CALCAREA IODATA. Calcium lodid. 

Calcarea lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. CaI 2 ; 292.97. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii iodas; English, Iodide of calcium, Calcic 
iodide ; French, lodate de chaux; German, Jodsaurer Kalk. 

Description. A white salt, crystallizing in pearly scales, markedly 
deliquescent. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.49 parts of water; readily soluble 
in alcohol. When its aqueous solution is exposed to air, it is partly 
decomposed, and a precipitate of calcium carbonate is formed. It 
gives a white precipitate with ammonium oxalate. It is obtained by 
dissolving calcium hydrate in hydriodic acid. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, II. 392. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 175 

CALCAREA MURIATICA. Calcium Chlorid. 

Calcarea Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. CaCl., ; 110.65. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii chloridum, Calcium chloratum, Chlori- 
dum calcicum ; English, Chloride of calcium, Calcic chlorid, Muriate 
of lime, Hydrochlorate of lime; French, Chlorure de calcium ; German, 
Chlorcalcium. 

Description. A white, odorless, hygrometric salt, with a saline, 
bitter taste. It is soluble in 1.35 parts of water at common tempera- 
ture, and in 8 parts of alcohol. Fuses at a red heat without decompo- 
sition, but at a higher temperature is partially decomposed. Some 
hydrochloric acid is disengaged and calcium oxid formed, which gives 
to the salt an alkaline reaction. Ammonium oxalate produces a white 
precipitate in its aqueous solutions. It is prepared from calcium oxid 
or its carbonate and hydrochloric acid. It must be kept in well- 
stoppered bottles. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 646. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>: ^ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions : 2x with dilute alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispens- 

ing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

Preparations of this medicine should be freshly made and kept in 
well-stoppered bottles. 



CALCAREA OXALICA. Calcium Oxalate. 

Calcarea Oxalate. 

Chemical Symbol. Ca2CO 2 ; 127.69. 

Synonyms. English, Oxalate of lime. 

Description. A white, crystalline powder, odorless and tasteless, 
permanent in air. Soluble in 500,000 parts of water; insoluble in 
alcohol, or acetic acid, but dissolved by hydrochloric acid. At a red 
heat it is decomposed into carbon monoxid and calcium carbonate ; a 



176 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

further decomposition takes place at a higher temperature, the calcium 
carbonate being decomposed into carbon dioxid and calcium oxid. It 
is prepared from a soluble salt of calcium and oxalic acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CALCAREA PHOSPHORICA. Calcium Phosphate. 

Calcarea Phosphate* 

Chemical Symbol -Ca 3 2PO 4 ; 309.33. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii phosphas praecipitatus, Calcis phos- 
phas, Calcium phosphoricum, Phosphas calcicus praecipitatus ; English, 
Precipitated phosphate of calcium, Tri-calcic phosphate ; French, Phos- 
phate de chaux hydrate; German, Calciumphosphat. 

Description. A white, amorphous, tasteless, odorless powder; 
sparingly soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, soluble in nitric and 
hydrochloric acids and precipitated by ammonia from these solutions. 
At a strong red heat, it melts without decomposition, yielding, on 
cooling, a porcelain-like mass. It is contained in bones (80 per cent), 
and extracted from them by dissolving in hydrochloric acid and pre- 
cipitating with ammonium hydrate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, II. 394 ; X. 400. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CALCAREA SULPHURICA. Calcium Sulfate* 

Calcarea Sulfate* 

Chemical Symbol. CaSO 4 2H 2 O; 171.65. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcii sulphas, Calcis sulphas; English, Sul- 
phate of calcium, Calcic sulfate, Gypsum; French, Sulfate de chaux; 
German, Calciumsulfat. 

Description. A white, amorphous, odorless, tasteless powder, 
soluble in 410 parts of water at 15 C, and in impure alcohol. Mixed 
with water, it forms a soft mass, which hardens after some time. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



Exposed to air, it becomes granular and loses the property of solidifying 
when mixed with water. It is obtained by the calcination of native 
calcium sulfate, CaSO 4 .2H 2 O. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
II. 410. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations ; ix and higher. 

CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. Garden Marigold 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Caltha officinalis, C. sativa, C. vulgaris, Flos 
omnium mensium, Solseginum aureum, Solis sponsa, Verrucaria; 
English, Garden marigold, Marigold; French, Fleur detons les mois; 
German, Ringelblume. 

Description. An annual herb with fibrous root. The stem is 
straggling, 6 to 18 inches high, with numerous bushy branches, 
striated, green, succulent, pubescent. The leaves are oblong, acute, 
somewhat succulent, broad, and a little cordate at the base, the upper 
lanceolate, the margins entire often hispid with short hairs. Flower- 
heads are large, terminal, solitary, upon each branch, yellow or orange. 
The flowers appear the greater part of the summer and fall, closing 
toward night ; are mucilaginous and have a disagreeable odor. 

Habitat. Native of France and southern European fields and 
cultivated grounds generally. Fig., Flor. Horn. I. no; Goullon, 159. 

History. Named Calendula because it flowers during the calends 
of each month. It was known as a remedy in the i6th century, but 
fell into disuse. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. 
Franz in 1838, Archiv. XVII. 3, 179. [Allen's Encyc. Mat Med. II. 
419; X. 405.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowering tops. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ ' Drug strength ^. 
Calendula, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 600 Cc. = 700 

Strong alcohol, 437 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



178 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; $x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA. Mudar. 

Natural Order. Asclepiadaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asclepias gigantea, A. procera, Calotropis 
hamiltonii, C. procera ; Vernacular, Mudar ; French, Ecorce de racine 
de Mudar; German, Mudarwurzelrinde. 

Description. An ornamental, evergreen plant with a long, woody, 
branching root, and large, erect stem 6 feet high, branching and 
downy. The leaves are opposite, sessile, cordate, entire. The flowers 
appear from July to September, are small, whitish or reddish, numer- 
ous on one stalk. All parts of the plant yield a milky, acrid juice. 

Habitat. India, the southwestern part of Asia, and Egypt; com- 
mon in dry, waste ground. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 176. 

History. The name is derived from kalos, beautiful, and tropis, 
a keel. It has long been esteemed as a native remedy, and was intro- 
duced into the old-school pharmacy in 1826. It was first mentioned 
in homoeopathic literature in 1878 by E. B. Ivatts, Horn. World, 
XIII. 15. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 651.] 

Part Used. The root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

/ 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength ^. 

Calotropis gigantea, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 179 

CALTHA PALUSTRIS. Cowslip. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Caltha arctica ; English, Cowslip, Marsh mari- 
gold ; French, Populage, Souci d'eau; German, Kuhblume. 

Description. A perennial, aquatic herb, with a stout, furrowed, 
erect, hollow, glabrous stem. The large leaves are roundish or kidney- 
shaped, cordate at the base, notched, crenate or nearly entire, glossy. 
The conspicuous bright-yellow flowers appear from May to August. 

Habitat. Throughout Europe generally, western Asia and North 
America, in marshy meadows and along borders of ponds, rivers, and 
brooks, common northward. 

History. Name from kalathos, a goblet, in allusion to the golden 
calyx. Mentioned in homoeopathic practice in 1825 by Dr. Roth, Mat. 
Med. I. 326. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 421.] 

Part Used. The whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength T \j. 

Caltha palustris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CAMPHORA. Camphor. 

Chemical Symbol C 10 H 16 O; 151. 66. 

Synonyms. Camphor officinarum ; Frefich, Camphre; Gentian, 
Kampfer. 

Description. The concrete volatile oil obtained by distilling the 
wood of the camphor laurel, Camphora orncinarum, and imported from 
China and Japan in the crude state. It is purified by sublimation, and 
appears in white, tough, translucent, crystalline cakes, having a 



ISO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

characteristic odor and a pungent taste, which is followed by a sensa- 
tion of cold. At the ordinary temperature it slowly evaporates. It 
is sparingly soluble in water ; freely soluble in alcohol, ether or chloro- 
form. Its specific gravity at 15 C. is from 0.990 to 0.995. Camphor 
fuses at 175 C., boils at 205 C., and sublimes entirely when heated. 
It burns with a sooty, luminous flame. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, II. 422; X. 405. 

Habitat. China and Japan. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Camphor, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher, freshly made and well stoppered. 

e. Saturated tincture : Drug strength \. A saturated solution in 

strong alcohol. This is also known under the name of 
Rubini's Camphor. 

CAMPHORA MONOBROMATA. Camphor Monobromid. 
Camphor Monobromid* 

Chemical Symbol C 10 H l5 BrO; 230.42. 

Synonyms. English, Monobromated camphor, Bromated cam- 
phor, Brominated camphor ; French, Camphre monobrome ; German, 
Monobromkampfer. 

Description. Consists of prismatic, colorless needles of camphor- 
like odor and taste. Insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol. It 
is permanent in air and is not affected by sun-light; melting point 
76 C. On the water-bath it volatilizes and on cooling forms white 
needles. At 274 C. it is entirely volatilized with partial decomposi- 
tion. It dissolves in sulfuric acid and is separated by adding water to 
this solution. It is prepared from bromin and camphor. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. l8l 

CANNA ANGUSTIFOLIA. Indian Shot. 

Natural Order. Cannaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Canna glauca; English, Indian shot, Wild 
plantain; Vernacular, Imbiri; French, Balisier; German, Blumenrohr. 

Description. An evergreen herb, with a creeping, tuberous 
rhizome, having numerous rootlets. The stem is erect, cylindrical, 
knotty, 6 feet high. The leaves arise from the knots, are alternate, 
large, lanceolate, sheathing, with strong midrib. The flowers are 
yellow, appearing in July and August, terminal, spiked, or racemose, 
with glumaceous bracts. The seeds are round, hard, black, shiny, 
heavy, T ^ inch in diameter, and sometimes used in the East Indies as 
shot. 

Habitat. Brazil and other South American countries ; growing in 
damp soil, or on the borders of brooks. Fig., Mure, 350. 

History. Name of Celtic origin, signifying a cave or mat. The 
roots abound in starch, some of the species being edible. Introduced 
into homoeopathic practice in 1849 by Dr. B. Mure, Pathog. Bresil. 350. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 447.] 

Part Used. The leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^ 

Canna, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CANNABIS INDICA. Indian Hemp. 

Natural Order. Urticaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Herba cannabis Indicae; English, Indian hemp, 
Indian cannabis ; Vernacular, Gunjah-Bhang, Birming, Ganja, Hashish ; 
French, Chanvre indien; German, Indischer Hanf. 



1 82 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. An East Indian variety of Cannabis sativa. The plant 
grown in India differed somewhat from that cultivated in Europe, and 
was supposed to be a different species, but the variations were so 
unimportant botanically that the distinction has been abandoned. 
There is a dissimilarity, medicinally, between the hemp grown in India 
and that raised elsewhere, as there is also a great difference between 
that grown at an altitude of 8000 feet and that cultivated on the plains. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1841 by Dr. Trinks, Allg. 
Horn. Zeit. XX. 268. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 448; X. 409.] 

The substance used in the earlier provings of Cannabis indica was 
the resin prepared from the gun j ah, or dried flowering tops of the 
female hemp, commercially called Cannabin. 

Part Used. The alcoholic extract, each Gm. of which represents 8 
Gms. of the tops of Indian hemp. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Cannabis indica alcoholic extract, 12.5 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



CANNABIS SATIVA. Hemp. 

Natural Order. Urticacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cannabis europea, C. chinensis, Polygonum 
viridiflorum ; English, Hemp, Gallow grass; French, Chanvre; Ger- 
man, Hanf. 

Description. Annual plant 4 to 10 feet high. The stem is erect, 
grooved or angular, much branched in plants growing separately, but 
when cultivated in masses, generally straight and unbranched. It is 
woody at the base, slightly rough, tomentose and with fibrous bark. 
The leaves are numerous, the lower opposite, the upper alternate, and 
are composed of from 5 to 7 lanceolate, sharp-pointed leaflets radiating 
from the top of the stalk, each strongly and sharply serrate, rough, 
dark green above, pale and downy beneath. The flowers, June to 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 183 

August, are dioecious, the males being in axillary racemes and gen- 
erally at the top of the plants or ends of the branches ; the females 
axillary in short spikes. The fruit, commonly known as hemp seed, is 
a small, grayish-colored, smooth, shiny nut, containing a single, oily 
seed. 

Habitat. A native of the temperate parts of Asia, it is now culti- 
vated in all parts of the world. Fig., Flora. Horn. I. 134; Winkler, 
56; Jahr and Cat. 180; Goullon, 232; Bent, and Trim. 231; Mills- 
paugh, 154. 

History. The name is said to be derived from the Celtic can, a 
reed, and ab, small ; that it was known to the Arabs under the name 
of ganeb. It is mentioned as in use as a medicine by the Chinese as 
early as the beginning of the third century. Hahnemann mentions it 
in 1811 in the first edition of his R. A. M. L. vol. I. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. II. 492; X. 427.] 

Part Used. The flowering tops of the fresh cultivated plants, both 
male and female. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Cannabis sativa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, too Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CANTHARIS. Spanish Fly. 

Order. Coleoptera. 

Family. Cantharidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Meloe vesicatorius, Muscas Hispanicas, Lytta 
vesicatoria,Cantharides ; Scientific name, Cantharis vesicatoria ; English, 
Oil beetle, Blister beetle; French, Cantharides; German, Spanische 
Fliegen, Kanthariden. 



184 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A bronze-green beetle from ^ to I inch long and | 
to YI inch broad. Its vertical head is sharply narrowed behind into a 
neck and is not set into the prothorax. The eleven-jointed antennae 
are filiform. A longitudinal channel traverses the thorax, which is 
the same width as the head. The hind coxas are large and prominent ; 
the coxal cavities, open behind. The claws are cleft or toothed. This 
insect is supplied with ample, membranous, brownish-transparent 
wings. It has a strong disagreeable odor. Its blistering properties 
are due to a substance called cantharidin. Pure cantharidin is insolu- 
ble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol, readily soluble in ether. It 
crystallizes in four-sided prisms or laminae. May be extracted with 
ether ; purified by separation from the accompanying oils and by 
crystallization. It is said that nearly 13,000 dried insects weigh but a 
kilogramme. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 505 ; X. 429. 

Habitat. Middle and southern Europe and in southwestern Asia, 
where it feeds upon ash, lilac and other trees. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -^. 

Cantharis, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications / 3x and higher. 



CAPSICUM ANNUUM. Red Pepper. 

Natural Order. Solanaceas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Capsicum cordiforme, C. longum, C. grossum, 
Piper hispanicum, P. indicum vulgatissimun, P. turcicum; English, 
Bird pepper, Cayenne pepper, Chilly, Cockspur pepper, Guinea pepper, 
Guinea pods, Red pepper, Spanish pepper, Tochillies ; French, Poivre 
d'Inde, P. d'Espagne; German, Spanisher Pfeffer. 

Description. An herbaceous annual, 2 feet or a little more in 
height, with smooth, dichotomous stem, and alternate, glabrous, petio- 
late leaves, one from the side of each bifurcation, 2 to 3 inches long, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 185 

with solitary white flowers appearing in July. The fruit is smooth 
and shining, variable in form and color, long, straight, acute or short, 
thick and obtuse, red or yellow, sometimes both colors on the same 
plant. 

Habitat. Probably a native of South America, now grown in the 
warmer regions of the globe, and scarcely known wild. Fig., Flora 
Horn. I. 143; Winkler, 54; Goullon, 185; Bent. & Trim. 189. 

History. Name derived from kapto, to bite, on account of the 
biting of the seed and pericarp, or from capsa, a chest, from the form 
and structure of the pericarp. It was introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1805 by Hahnemann, Frag, de Viribus Med. 64. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 540; X. 432.] 

Parts Used. The ripe capsules and seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Capsicum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 50 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 95^ Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



CARBO ANIMALIS. Animal Charcoal. 

Synonyms. English, Leather charcoal; French, Charbon animal; 
German, Knockenkohle. 

Preparation. Place a thick piece of oxhide on red hot coals, and 
leave it there so long as it burns with a flame. As soon as the flame 
ceases, lift off the red-hot mass and press it between two flat stones. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 549. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



1 86 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CARBO VEGETABILIS. Vegetable Charcoal, 

Synonyms. Latin, Carbo ligni, C. praeparatus; English, Wood 
charcoal; French, Charbon vegetal; German, Holzkohle. 

Description. Charcoal, prepared from selected birch or beech 
wood. A black, porous, brittle substance, odorless and tasteless. In- 
soluble and infusible. When heated in air it is converted into carbon 
dioxid or oxid. When burned it should give no smoke or unpleasant 
odor. Absence of flame shows freedom from organic compounds. It 
has marked absorbtive power of gasses ; when saturated with them, 
this power may be restored by re-heating the charcoal. It is denser 
when obtained by pile-burning than when prepared in retorts. The 
best pieces show the form and texture of the wood used. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 565 ; X. 432. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



CARBONIUM SULPHURATUM. Carbon Disulfid 

Carbon Disulfid. 

Chemical Symbol. CS 2 ; 75.93. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carbonii bisulphidum, Carbonei disulphidum. 
Carboneum sulfuratum, Alcohol sulfuris ; English, Bisulphide of car- 
bon ; French, Sulfure de carbon ; German, Schwefelkohlenstoff. 

Description. A very mobile, colorless liquid, possessing a high 
refractive power, with an ethereal, not disagreeable odor when pure. 
It is soluble in 1000 parts of water at 15 C. ; very soluble in alcohol. 
It burns with a blue flame, giving off sulfur dioxid and carbon dioxid 
vapors. It evaporates rapidly at ordinary temperature, producing 
cold. Its taste is aromatic. When impure, it has a repulsive, fetid 
odor, due to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds. It is obtained 
from sulfur and carbon. Its vapor is very inflammable at high 
temperature. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, II. 617; X. 445, 
653- ' 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. . 187 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Carbon disulfid, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 900 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3-\ and higher. 



CARDUUS BENEDICTUS. Blessed Thistle. 

Natural Order. Compositas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calcitrapa lanuginosa, Centaurea benedicta, 
Cnicus benedictus, Herba cardui benedicti; English, Blessed thistle, 
Carduus plant, Cursed thistle, Holy thistle, Lovely thistle, Spotted 
carduus, Spotted thistle, Star thistle, Thistle root; French, Chardon 
benit; German, Benedictendistel. 

Description. An annual herbaceous plant, 2 feet high. The leaves 
are lanceolate, amplexicaul, pinnatifid, irregularly dentate and shiny, 
the lower petiolate, the upper sessile. When fresh they are bright- 
green and feel greasy, when dried they are grayish-green and woolly. 
The heads are yellow, many flowered, the ray flowers tubular and 
sterile, shorter than the rest, which are tubular and perfect. 

Habitat. Europe, found by roadsides, scarcely naturalized in this 
country. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 182; Goullon, 156. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1826 by Noack 
and Trinks, Prakt. Mittheil. d. corres. Gessell. horn. Aerzt. 1826, 23. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 633.] 

Part Used. The whole plant in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength y^. 
Carduus benedictus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



188 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



CARDUUS MARIANUS. St. Mary's Thistle. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cnicus marianus, Silybum marianum; English, 
Blessed thistle, Milk thistle, Our Lady thistle, St. Mary's thistle; 
French, Chardon Marie; German, Frauendistel. 

Description. A biennial, deciduous herb, a weed with tap root; 
the stem, for the most part, glabrous, 4 to 5 feet high, solid, round, 
branched. The leaves are amplexicaul, spinous ; the radical pinnatifid, 
dark shining green, white veined. The purple flower-heads, appear- 
ing in June and July, are large, solitary, terminal, erect, with the stout 
spines of their calyx-scales very conspicuous. 

Habitat. Southern Europe and Great Britain. 

History. Fabled to have had a portion of the Virgin Mary's milk 
fall on the leaves, producing the white veins. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1852 by Dr. Reil, Horn. v. j. Schrift III. 453. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 635.] 

Parts Used. Tincture of the plant at flowering, or its seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Carduus marianus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part solution, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 1 89 

CARYA ALBA. Hickory Nut. 

Natural Order. Juglandaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carya squamosa, Juglans alba, J. compressa, J. 
squamosa; English, Shag-bark, Shell-bark, Walnut; German, Weisse 
Amerikanische Wallnusbaum. 

Description. A handsome tree, 30 to 40 feet high, 2 or 3 feet in 
diameter, of very hard wood, the old trunk very shaggy, bark exfoliat- 
ing in rough strips. Its leaves are alternate, pinnate, finely serrate, 
the three upper obovate, lanceolate, the lower pair much smaller and 
oblong lanceolate, all taper-pointed. The sterile flowers are in slender 
catkins from the wood of the preceding year. Fertile flowers, 2 to 3 
together, on a terminal peduncle, appear in April and May. The fruit 
is globular, somewhat flattened, nearly pointless, with a rather thin, 
whitish shell and large kernel, and ripens in October. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the Atlantic States from Maine to the 
Carolinas; found in rich moist woods. Fig., Millspaugh, 157. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1852, N. A. J. 
of Horn. II. 473. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 17.] 

Part Used. The nuts. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^ 

Carya alba, too Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CASCARILLA. Cascarilla. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Clutia eluteria, Croton eleuteria, C. glabellus 
elutheria; English, Bahama cascarilla, Cascarilla bark, Eleuthera 
bark, Seaside balsam, Sweet bark, Sweet wood ; French, Cascarille ; 
German, Cascarilla. 



IQO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description The bark of an evergreen shrub or tree, 6 to 20 feet 
high, with few alternate petiolate, ovate-lanceolate leaves, and small, 
white, odorous, axillary, racemose flowers. It is in quills from % to y 2 
inch in diameter and i to 3 inches long, T ^ inch thick, of dull brown 
color, but usually covered with a grayish, easily detached, corky layer 
upon which are white patches of a minute lichen. It is hard and 
compact, and breaks with a resinous fracture ; the taste is warm, 
aromatic, nauseous and bitter. When burned the bark emits a char- 
acteristic musk-like odor. 

Habitat. Native of the Bahamas and other West Indian islands. 
Fig., Winkler, 30 ; Goullon, 224 ; Bent, and Trim. 238. 

History. It was confounded with cinchona bark, the name signi- 
fying in Spanish, little bark. It was introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1835 by Dr. Stapf, Archiv. XV. I. 184. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. III. 18.] 

Part Used. The bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength -$. 

Cascarilla, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



CASTANEA VESCA. Chestnut, 

Natural Order. Cupulif erae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Castanea edulis; English, Chestnut; French, 
Chataigne, Marron ; German, Kastanie, Maronenbaum. 

Description. A large, deciduous timber tree, 50 feet high, and 2 to 
4 feet in diameter, light, coarse-grained wood. The trunk has a thick, 
corrugated bark, and irregular and contorted branches. The leaves 
are alternate, oblong-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, pointed, smooth, and 
green on both sides. The flowers appear in June or July, later than 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



the leaves, in axillary catkins near the end of the branches. The nuts 
ripen in October, are coriaceous, ovoid and enclosed, 2 or 3 together, 
or solitary, in a hard, coriaceous, very prickly, 4-valved involucre. 

Habitat. Found in rocky or hilly woods from Maine to Michigan, 
Kentucky and southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 158. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1873 by Dr. 
Hale, New Rem. 30! ed. 124. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 21.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -fa. 

Castanea vesca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 3 1 5 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



CASTOREUM. Castor. 

Order. Rodentia. 

Family. Muridae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Castoreum sibiricum; English, Castor fiber, 
Beaver ; French, Castoreum ; German, Bibergeil. 

Description, This substance is stored in the genital glands of both 
the male and the female beaver. It is yellowish and somewhat cheesy 
when fresh ; reddish-brown, hard and brittle when dry, with a resinous 
fracture. It has a strong, foetid odor, and a bitter, acrid, nauseous 
taste. Is largely soluble in ether and stronger alcohol. The glands 
themselves are in pairs, fig-shaped, firm and heavy, brown or grayish- 
black, and about 3 inches long. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
III. 24; X. 452. 

Habitat. Russia and America. 



IQ2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> ; Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Castoreum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES. Blue Cohosh. 

Natural Order. Berberidaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Leontice thalictroides, Leontopetalon thalic- 
troides; English, Blue cohosh, Blueberry root, Leontice, Pappoose 
root, Squaw root ; French, La Leontice ; German, Loewenblatt. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, having a contorted 
rhizome, with many knots, showing scars of previous stems. The 
stem, i to 2Y-Z feet high, arises from several scales and terminates in a 
large, tri-ternately compound leaf, without any long petiole, the leaflets 
obovate, wedge-form. The purplish or yellowish-green flowers appear 
in April and May, in a loose raceme or panicle. 

Habitat. The United States, from Canada to Carolina and Ken- 
tucky, low moist grounds, mountains and shady hills, near running 
streams or on grounds which have been overflowed, common west- 
ward. Fig., Millspaugh, 16. 

History. The name is derived from kaulos, a stem, and phyllon, a 
leaf, as the stem appears to be a leaf-stalk. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature by Dr. E. M. Hale, N. A. J. of Horn. VI. 372. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 34.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture (f> : Drug strength y^. 
Caulophyllum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CAUSTICUM. Hahnemann's Causticum. 

Synonyms. Latin, Tinctura acris sine kali. 

A preparation introduced into homoeopathic pharmacy by Hahne- 
mann, and peculiar to homoeopathy. It is of uncertain nature and 
strength, hence should be made in exact accordance with Hahne- 
mann's directions, which are as follows : 

" Take a piece of recently burnt lime, weighing about two pounds, 
immerse it for a minute in a vessel full of distilled water, and then lay 
it in a dry cup, where it soon becomes pulverized, giving out much 
heat and a peculiar odor, called the vapor of lime. Of this fine 
powder you take 2 ounces, and place it in the mortar which has been 
previously warmed, and then mix it with a solution of 2 ounces of 
the bi-sulfate of potash in 2 ounces of boiling hot water, the potash 
before being dissolved having been exposed to a red heat, melted, 
cooled again, and then pulverized. This thickish preparation is 
inserted into a small glass retort, to the open end of which the 
receiver, which ought to be dipped in water to half its height, is 
fastened by means of wet bladder. The liquid is distilled over by 
gradually approaching a coal fire to the retort, and until the prepara- 
tion is perfectly dry. The liquid in the receiver is about one ounce 
and a half, as clear as water, and containing the Causticum in a con- 
centrated form, which smells like the lye obtained from potash, and 
has an astringent and burning taste on the back part of the tongue. 
Its freezing point is below that of water ; it promotes the putrefaction 
of animal substances which are placed in it ; with the salts of Baryta 
it gives no trace of sulfuric acid, nor any trace of lime-earth with the 
oxalate of ammonia." Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 35; 
X. 455- 



IQ4 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tinctiire <f>: 

Causticum, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 500 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS. New Jersey Tea. 

Natural Order. Rhamnaceas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ceanothus herbaceous, C. intermedius, C. 
officinalis, C. perennis, C. sanguineus, C. tardiflorus, C. trinervus ; 
English, New Jersey tea, Red root, Red-root-bark tree; French, 
Ceanothe; German, Seckelblumen Wurzel. 

Description. An ornamental, deciduous shrub, with large and 
dark-red root. The stem is from 2 to 4 feet high, slender, with many 
round and smooth branches, the younger of which are pubescent. 
The leaves are rounded, or cordate at the base of the stem, acuminate 
serrate, nearly smooth above, and whitish tomentose beneath ; the 
pubescence of the veins and petioles somewhat reddish. The flowers 
are white, in crowded panicles from the axils of the upper leaves, 
appearing in July. 

Habitat, North America ; found in dry woodlands. 

History. It was used during the Revolutionary War as a substi- 
tute for tea, hence the name. Introduced into homoeopathic practice 
in 1873 by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 3d ed. 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength ^. 
Ceanothus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CEDRON. Cedrone. 

Natural Order. Simarubaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Simaba cedron, Simaruba cedron ; English., 
Cedrone, Rattlesnake beans ; French, Cedron ; German, Cedron-Bohne. 

Description. The seed of a small, erect tree, not exceeding 6 
inches in diameter, with umbelliferous, terminal branches, large, glab- 
rous, pinnate leaves and pale-brown flowers, in long-branching racemes. 
The seed is about an inch and a half long and half an inch in diameter. 
It is convex on one side, flat or slightly concave on the other, with an 
ovafscar near one extremity of the flat surface. It is of a yellowish- 
ash color, hard, tough and compact in texture, readily cut, inodorous, 
and of an intensely bitter taste. 

Habitat. West Indies, Central America, and U. S. of Colombia. 

History. Used by the natives of Central and South America as 
long ago as the beginning of the i8th century, as an antidote for 
snake-bites. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1851, N. A. 
Horn. Journ. I. 272. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 70.] 

Part Used. The dried seed. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^. 

Cedron, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Tritnrations : ix and higher. 

CEPHALANTHUS OCODENTALIS. Button Bush. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceas. 



IQ6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. English, Button bush, Buttonwood, Crane willow, 
Globe flower, Pond dogwood, Snowball ; French, Bois de plomb ; 
German, Knopfbusch. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, about 6 feet high, having a 
smooth or pubescent, opposite branching stem, with large, opposite, 
petiolate, ovate, dark-green, smooth leaves. The white flowers, appear- 
ing in July and August, are axillary, terminal, densely aggregated in 
globular peduncled heads. 

Habitat. United States and Canada; found in wet places and 
borders of streams. Fig., Millspaugh, 76. 

History. Name derived from the Greek kephale, a head, and an- 
thos, a flower. A short proving was published in 1875 by Dr. E. D. 
Wright, Am. Horn. Obs. XII. 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 456.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 
Cephalanthus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Diltitions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 

CEREUS BONPLANDIL 

Natural Order. Cactaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cactus bonplandii, Opuntia tuna. 

Description. A variety of Cereus grandiflorus, having large, oval, 
oblong joints, long, yellowish, awl-shaped thorns and spotted, reddish 
flowers. 

Habitat. Tropical America. 

History. Provings published in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 80. 

Part Used. The fresh stems. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. IQ7 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -fa. 

Cereus bonplandii, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture reduced to 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 

CERIUM OXALICUM. Cerium Oxalate. 

Cerium Oxalate. 

Chemical Symbol Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 9H 2 O ; 704.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cerii oxalas, Oxalas cericus ; English, Oxalate 
of cereum ; French, Oxalate de cerium ; German, Oxalsaures Ceroxy- 
dul, Ceroxalat. 

Description. Consists of a white, granular powder, odorless and 
tasteless ; permanent in air. Insoluble in water or alcohol, soluble 
without effervescence in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. At a red 
heat it is decomposed, leaving a residue of reddish-yellow eerie oxid. 
Heated to a dull redness a reddish-brown powder is obtained and 
may be entirely dissolved in boiling hydrochloric acid. Boiled with 
potassium or sodium hydrate test-solution and filtered, no precipitate 
should form on the addition of ammonium chlorid or ammonium sulfid 
test-solutions. As usually sold it has a slightly pink color due to 
some compound of didymium. It is obtained from the metal cerium. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CHAMOMILLA. Chamomile. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anthemis vulgaris, Chamaemelum vulgare, 
Chamomilla nostras, C. officinalis, C. vulgaris, Chrysanthemum 



198 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

chamomilla, Leucanthemum, Matricaria chamomilla, M. suaveolens ; 
English, Bitter chamomile, Corn fever-few, German chamomile, Wild 
chamomile ; French, Chamomille commune ; German, Feld-Kamille. 

Description. An annual herb, with large, woody, fibrous root. 
The stem is erect, I to 2 feet high, solid, smooth, shining, strongly 
striate, with long, slender branches. The leaves are numerous, alter- 
nate, sessile, amplexicaul ; the upper simple, the others bi- or tri- 
pinnatifid ; the segments strap-shaped, narrow and minutely pointed. 
The flowers, May to August, are y? inch wide, numerous, terminal, 
solitary on striated, naked peduncles. The ray florets are white, 
reflexed at night, oblong, with 3 teeth ; the disk florets are yellow, 
conical and prominent. 

Habitat. Found in waste or cultivated ground throughout 
Europe, except the extreme north, extending through northern Asia 
to the peninsula of India ; also in Australia, where it is a troublesome 
weed. Fig., Flora. Horn. I. 147; Winkler, 95; Jahr and Cat. 183; 
Goullon, 146; Bent, and Trim. 155. 

History. Chamomilla, from chamaemelum, matricaria, from matrix. 
It has been in use long and extensively as a domestic remedy. It was 
introduced into homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag, 
de vir. 73. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 89 ; X. 456.] 

Part Used. The whole plant in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength yV 
Chamomilla, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CHELIDONIUM MAJUS. Celandine. 

Natural Order. Papaveraceae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



Synonyms. Latin, Chelidonium haematodes, Papaver corniculatum 
luteum ; English, Calandine, Celandine, Tetter-wort ; French, Che"li- 
doine; German, Schollkraut. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a fusiform root, 
externally reddish-brown, internally whitish, extremely bitter. The 
stem is erect, 2 feet high, branching, hirsute, very brittle, and having 
a saffron-colored acrid juice. The leaves are large, alternate, petio- 
late, glaucous, lyrate pinnatifid, border lobed or crenately cut. The 
small, yellow flowers, from May to October, are pedunculated, umbel- 
late, axillary in clusters. 

Habitat. Naturalized from Europe, found in waste grounds near 
dwellings. Fig., Winkler, 50; Jahr and Cat. 184; Goullon, 12; Mills- 
paugh, 21. 

History. Name derived from cheledon, a swallow, as the flowers 
were said to bloom and wither with the arrival and departure of the 
swallows. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1819 by 
Hahnemann. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 127.] 

Parts Used. The entire fresh plant, including root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -^. 
Chelidonium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



CHELONE GLABRA. Balmony. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chelone alba, C. obliqua, Pentstemon auctus; 
English, Balmony, B. snake-head, Bitter herb, Broomshell flower, Fish 
mouth, Salt rheum weed, Shell flower, Snake head, Turtle head; 
French, Chelone; German, Glatte Chelone. 



2OO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A smooth, deciduous, perennial, herbaceous plant. 
The simple, smooth, erect stem is about 4 feet high, branching and 
somewhat quadrangular. The leaves, varying in width, are opposite, 
short petioled, lanceolate, pointed, serrate, smooth and shining. The 
large, white, rose-colored or purple flowers appear from July to 
September, nearly sessile, in short, dense, terminal spikes, and each 
furnished with 3 bracts. 

Habitat. United States, Newfoundland to Saskatchawan, south 
to Florida. Common in wet places. 

History. Name from chelone, a tortoise, from the resemblance 
of the flower to the head of a turtle. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 2d ed. 190. 

Part Used The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength ^. 
Chelone, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 



CHENOPODIUM ANTHELMINTICUM. Wormseed. 

Natural Order. Chenopodiaceae. 

Synonyms. Ambrina ambrosioides, A. anthelmintica, Chenopo- 
dium ambrosioides, var. anthelmintica, C. suffruticosum, Cina ameri- 
cana, Orthosporum anthelminticum ; English, American wormseed, 
Jerusalem oak, Stinking weed, Worm goose-foot, Wormseed; French, 
Semences de che"nopode anthelmintique ; German, Amerikanischer 
Wurmsamen. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2OI 

Description. An evergreen, perennial under-shrub. The stem is 
erect, i to 3 feet high, branched, often rigid and furrowed. The leaves 
are numerous, alternate, spreading, lanceolate, sessile, dentate. The 
flowers are small, in long, slender, axillary terminal racemes, green in 
color, and appear in July and August. The whole plant is aromatic. 

Habitat. The United States, naturalized from tropical America. 
Found in waste places, mostly southward. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 216 ; 
Millspaugh, 140; Goullon, 214. 

History. Name from chen, a goose, and pous, a foot. Proved in 
1842 by Dr. J. Jeanes, Raue's Record, 1872, 30. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. III. 1 80; X.4S7.] 

Part Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -^. 

Chenopodium anthel., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 737 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CHIMAPHILA UMBELLATA. Pipsissewa. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chimaphila corymbosa, Pyrola corymbosa, P. 
umbellata; English, American wintergreen, Ground holly, Ground 
leaf, King's cure, Noble pine, Pipsissewa, Prince's pine, Rheumatism 
weed, Round-leaved consumption cure, Shin leaf, White leaf ; French, 
Pyrole ombell^e ; German, Doldenformiges Wintergrun. 

Description. A perennial, evergreen shrub, with a long, creeping, 
yellowish root. The stem is 4 to 10 inches high, generally simple. 
The leaves, i to 2 inches long, are at the top of the stem in irregular 
whorles ; are shortly petiolate, lanceolate, acute, serrate, shiny green. 
The fragrant white or purplish waxy flowers appear in June and July 
in terminal pedunculated umbels. 



GT-OK 



2O2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. North America, northern Asia, northern and central 
Europe. Found in high, dry woods from Canada to Georgia and west 
to the Pacific. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 165 ; Millspaugh, 104. 

History. The name from cheima, winter, and phileo, to love, a 
translation of one of its common names, wintergreen. It was used in 
medicine as early as 1578, as stated by Dr. S. A. Jones, who first 
mentions it in homoeopathic literature in 1875, Am. Horn. Obs. XII. 
300. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 181; X. 458.] 

Part Used The whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -^. 
Chimaphila, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CHININUM ARSENICICUM. Quinin Arsenate. 

Chininum Arseniate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) 2 H 3 AsO 4 .8H 2 O; 926.10. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quininae arsenias; English, Arseniate of 
quinine, Triquinia arseniate ; French, Arseniate de quinine 

Description. Long, white, odorless, bitter prisms; sparingly solu- 
ble in water and alcohol, and containing 74 per cent of quinin and 
10.6 per cent of arsenic acid As 2 O 5 . Obtained in saturating a hot 
solution of arsenic acid with quinin. A poison. Maximum dose % 
grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 2O3 

CHININUM ARSENICOSUM. Quinin Arsenite. 

Chininum Arsenite. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) 3 H 3 As 2 O 8 .3H 2 O; 1148.68. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quininae arsenis ; English, Arsenite of quinine ; 
French, Arsenite de quinine. 

Description. White, inodorous, bitter prisms, slightly soluble in 
water, soluble in 15 parts of alcohol at ordinary temperature. Pre- 
pared with argentum arsenite and quinin hydrochlorid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 214. A poison. Maximum dose ^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 

CHININUM MURIATICUM. Quinin Hydrochlorid. 

Chininum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 HC1.2H 2 O; 395.63. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quininae hydrochloras, Quiniae hydrochloras, 
Chininum hydrochloricum ; English, Hydrochlorate of quinine, Muriate 
of quinine, Quinia hydrochlorate ; French, Chlorhydrate de quinine; 
German, Chininhydrochlorat. 

Description. White, silky, odorless, bitter, crystalline needles. 
Soluble in 34 parts of water at 15 C. and in 3 parts of alcohol. At 
ordinary temperature it is permanent in air. At a moderate heat it 
loses its water of crystallization (9.08 per cent) and effloresces. 
Diluted solutions are slightly fluorescent. On ignition it is slowly 
volatilized without residue. It gives the reaction of quinin with 
chlorin water and ammonia. With argentic nitrate a white, curdy 
precipitate is thrown down. It is obtained from quinin and hydro- 
chloric acid, also by the decomposition of quinin sulfate with barium 
chlorid. It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles and in a dark 
place. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 214. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



2O4 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CHININUM PURUM. Quinin. 

Chininum. 

Chemical Symbol. C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 .3H 2 O ; 377-22. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quinina; English, Pure quinine; French, 
Quinine; German, Chinin. 

Description. It is known in three different states of hydration, viz., 
the monohydrate, dihydrate and trihydrate ; also, anhydrous. The 
anhydrous form is amorphous. In hydrated form it is white, inodor- 
ous, very bitter, and crystallizes in hexagonal prisms. In dry air it 
becomes opaque. It has an alkaline reaction. Is soluble in 1,670 
parts of water at 15 C. and in 6 parts of alcohol. Concentrated 
sulfuric and nitric acids dissolve quinin without color. Strongly 
heated in air it turns brown, burns with flame, evolving an aromatic 
odor and leaves no residue. Its solutions in acids are precipitated 
by ammonium hydrate, potassium and sodium hydrates and their 
carbonates. The precipitate is at first white and flocculent, but after 
a short time assumes a tenacious and viscid appearance. Quinin and 
its salts give an emerald green solution with chlorin water and an 
excess of ammonium hydrate, the green color changing into purple 
on the addition of potassium ferrocyanid. This reaction is character- 
istic. It is prepared from cinchona bark. It should be kept protected 
from the light and air. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



CHININUM SULPHURICUM. Quinin Sulfate. 

Chininum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 .7H 2 O ; 870.22. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quininae sulphas, Quiniae sulphas, Sulfas quin- 
icus; English, Sulphate of quinia; French, Sulfate de quinine; Ger- 
man, Chininsulfat. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 205 

Description. Consists of snow-white, light, odorless, extremely 
bitter crystallized needles. Soluble in 740 parts of water at 1 5 C. It 
dissolves in 60 parts of alcohol. Its aqueous solution, especially when 
acidified with sulfuric acid, presents a vivid, blue fluorescence. At 100 
to 115 C., it loses its water of crystallization. At 160 C. it becomes 
phosphorescent on trituration, and at a red heat is decomposed, burning 
slowly without residue. Exposed to light, it turns yellow. Its aqueous 
solution gives a white precipitate of barium sulfate with barium chlorid, 
and with ammonia a precipitate of quinin. It gives the reaction of 
quinin with chlorin water and ammonia. It is efflorescent when 
exposed to air. It is prepared from quinin and sulfuric acid. It 
should be kept well-stoppered and protected from the light. Men- 
tioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 215; X. 461. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritiirations : ix and higher. 



CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICA. Fringe Tree. 

Natural Order. Oleaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Fringe tree, Oldman's beard, Poison ash, 
Snow-drop tree, Snow-flower, Virginian snow-flower tree; French, 
Chionanthe; Get-man, Schneebaum. 

Description. An ornamental, deciduous tree, 10 to 30 feet high. 
The leaves are opposite, petiolate, oval, oblong, smooth, spreading, 
entire, 6 to 12 inches long, 3 to 5 inches wide. The flowers are white, 
appearing from April to June, axillary, panicled with filiform-branched 
pedicels. 

Habitat. Common in southern Pennsylvania and southward; 
found on river banks and sandy plains. Fig., Millspaugh, 136. 

History. The name from chion, white or snow, and anthos, a 
flower. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. E. M. 
Hale, New Rem. 4th ed. 209. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 463.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 



2O6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength $. 
Chionanthus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 637 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dihitions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CHLORINUM. Chlorin. 

Chlorum. 

Chemical Symbol. Cl; 35.37. 

Synonyms. English, Chlorine ; French, Chlore ; German, Chlor. 

Description. A greenish-yellow, irrespirable gas, nearly two and a 
half times as heavy as air; specific gravity, 2.47. It is liquefiable at a 
temperature of 34 C., or by a pressure of 8.5 atmospheres at I2.5 C. 
At I5C, one volume of water dissolves two volumes of this gas. 
This solution, when exposed to a temperature approaching o C., 
deposits crystals of chlorin hydrate (C1(H 2 O) 5 ) and becomes colorless. 
It is a very active germicide; it combines with all the elements, 
excepting fluorin, sometimes with evolution of heat or light, or even 
explosion. With hydrogen it combines slowly, forming hydrogen 
chlorid under the influence of diffused light, and with explosion, when 
exposed to direct sunlight, or to highly actinic artificial lights. It is 
readily fixed by many organic bodies, by addition or substitution. In 
contact with water it acts as a powerful bleaching agent. It may be 
prepared from hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxid. Chlorinum 
is also used in medicine in the form of chlorin water, which should 
contain at least 0.4 per cent of the gas. It is a greenish-yellow, clear 
liquid, with a suffocating odor and a disagreeable taste of chlorin. 
Evaporation gives no residue. This aqueous solution is officinal, and 
according to the United States Pharmacopoeia is prepared as follows : 

" Place the dioxide in a flask connected by a suitable tube with a 
small wash bottle containing fifty (50) cubic centimeters of water, and 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2O7 

connect this with a bottle having a capacity of one thousand (1000) 
cubic centimeters, and containing four hundred (400) cubic centimeters 
of distilled water, which has previously been boiled and allowed to 
cool. Add to the dioxide in the generating flask the hydrochloric 
acid, previously diluted with twenty-five (25) cubic centimeters of 
water, and, by means of a sand bath, apply a gentle heat. Conduct 
the generated chlorine through the water contained in the wash bottle 
into the bottle containing the distilled water, which should be loosely 
stopped with cotton and kept, during the operation, at a temperature 
of about 10 C. (50 F.). When the air has been entirely displaced by 
the gas, disconnect the bottle from the apparatus, and, having inserted 
the stopper, shake the bottle, loosening the stopper from time to time, 
until the gas ceases to be absorbed. If necessary, reconnect the 
bottle with the apparatus, and continue passing the gas and agitating 
until the distilled water is saturated. Finally, pour the chlorine water 
into small, dark amber-colored, glass-stoppered bottles, which should 
be completely filled therewith, and keep them in a dark and cool place. 
Chlorine water, even when kept from light and air, is apt to deterio- 
rate. When it is required of full strength, it should be freshly 
prepared." Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 269; X. 464. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>: 3 X -nsW 

Chlorin water U. S. P. containing 0.4 per cent chlorin, 250 Cc. 

Distilled water, 750 Cc. 

To make 1000 Cc. of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 4x and higher, with distilled water. 
All preparations should be freshly made. 

CHRYSAROBINUM. Chrysarobin. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. French, Chrysarobine ; German, Chrysarobin. 

Description. A neutral principle in its impure, commercial form, 
extracted from Goa powder, a substance found deposited in the wood 
of Andira Araroba. This principle is commonly misnamed chryso- 
phanic acid. Goa powder contains about 80 per cent of its weight of 
chrysarobinum. When pure it is a tasteless and odorless dull orange- 



2O8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

yellow powder, subliming in bright yellow needles. Exposed to the 
air, moistened with water, it absorbs oxygen and is converted into 
chrysophanic acid. It is slightly soluble in cold water or alcohol ; 
practically soluble in 150 parts of boiling alcohol, in 33 parts of boil- 
ing benzol, and in solutions of the alkalies. It fuses at 304 F. The 
aqueous solution does not affect litmus paper. Chrysarobinum dis- 
solves in concentrated sulfuric acid, assuming a deep red color, and is 
precipitated by water, unchanged. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

CICHORIUM INTYBUS. Chicory. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chichorium sylvestre, Intybum erraticum; 
English, Chicory, Wild succory; French, Chicoree; German, Cichorie. 

Description. A perennial, branching herb, with a woody, branch- 
ing, fusiform root, having a milky juice. It remains fleshy under 
cultivation. The stem is 2 to 3 feet high, bristly and hairy. The 
leaves are alternate, the lower oblong, lanceolate, those on branches 
varying to mere bracts. The flower-heads are axillary, terminal, 
appear July to September, in mornings and on cloudy days, withering 
in sunshine. 

Habitat. Europe ; it has been naturalized in this country along 
the Atlantic coast. Fig., Millspaugh, 93. 

History. Used as a substitute for coffee. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature by Dr. W. Cattell, Brit. J. of Horn. XI. 521. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 181 ; X. 467.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -j^. 
Cichorium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gin., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 637 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 2OQ 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 

CICUTA MACULATA. Spotted Water Hemlock. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cicutaria maculata, Sium douglasii; English, 
American water hemlock, Beaver poison, Children's bane, Death of 
man, Musquash root, Poison root, Snakeweed, Spotted cowbane, 
Water parsley, Wild hemlock; French, Cigue d'Amerique; German, 
Amerikanische Wasserchierling. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, having fleshy and tuber- 
ous roots. The stem, from 3 to 6 feet high, is stout, branched at 
the top, streaked with purple, except when the plant grows in the 
shade, when it is green. The leaves, with clasping petioles, are com- 
pound ; leaflets spreading, lanceolate, serrate, sometimes lobed, pointed. 
The flowers, appearing in June to August, are white, in long pedun- 
cled axillary umbels. 

Habitat. Common in swamps in North America. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 67. 

History. The root is a most deadly poison. Mention is made of 
it in Am. Horn. Obs. VIII. 412. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 281 ; 
X. 467-] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Cicuta maculata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



210 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CICUTA VIROSA. Water Hemlock. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cicuta aquatica, Cicutaria aquatica, Slum 
majus angustifolium ; English, Cowbane, Long-leaved cowbane, Long- 
leaved water hemlock, Long-leaved water parsnip, Poisonous cowbane, 
Snakeweed, Water cowbane, Water hemlock, Water parsnip ; French, 
Cigue vireuse ; German, Wasserschierling. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous plant, with a thick, white, 
fleshy, tuberous, hollow root having circles of slender rootlets. The 
stem is 2 to 4 feet high, hollow, branched, furrowed, smooth and 
often reddish. The leaves are long, on long-sheathing petioles, are 
bi-ternate, pinnate, bright-green in color, with spear-shaped, pointed, 
opposite, petiolate, sharply serrate leaflets from i to 2 inches long. 
The white flowers are numerous, small, on long, slender pedicels, in 
large, upright umbels, not crowded, partly terminal and partly oppo- 
site, appearing from July to September. 

Habitat. Arctic regions, growing in swamps and wet places. 
Fig., Flora Horn. I. 168; Winkler, 42 ; Jahr and Cat. 187; Bent, and 
Trim. 119. 

History. This plant is a deadly poison, its virulence depending 
somewhat upon the time and place of gathering. It is not identical 
with conium. Homoeopathic authority, Hahnemann, R. A. M. L. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 281.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Cicuta virosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 211 

CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA. Black Cohosh. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Actaea gyrostachya, A. monogyna, A. orthos- 
tachya, A. racemosa, Botrophis actseoides, B. serpentaria, Christo- 
pheriana canadensis racemosa, Cimicifuga serpentaria, Macrotys 
actaeoides, M. octreoides, M. racemosa, M. serpentaria ; English, Black 
cohosh, Black snakeroot, Bugbane, Deerweed, Rattleroot, Rattlesnake 
root, Rattleweed, Richweed, Squawroot ; French, Racine d'actee a 
grappes; German, Schwarze Schlangenwurzel. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous plant, with thick, short, hori- 
zontal, tough root, with numerous long fibers underneath, scarred 
from fallen scales. It is blackish externally, whitish internally, with a 
peculiar, disagreeable odor, and bitter, astringent taste. The stem is 
straight, simple, cylindrical, smooth, 3 to 8 feet high. The leaves are 
bi- or tri-pinnate, lower very large, upper smaller, leaflets cut and 
serrate. The flowers appear in June and July, are numerous, y 2 inch 
wide, on slender horizontal pedicels, forming a terminal raceme I to 3 
feet long, white and fetid. The fruit ripens in September. 

Habitat. Rich woodlands, edges of fields, newly cleared hillsides 
in the United States from Maine to Michigan, Canada and southward. 
Fig., Bent and Trim. 8; Millspaugh, 11. 

History. Derivation of name from cimex, a bug, and fugo, to drive 
away. It was a popular remedy among the aborigines. Its properties 
were made known to the medical profession in 1696. Mentioned 
in homoeopathic literature in 1856 by Dr. A. Houghton, N. A. J. of 
Horn. V. 27. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 468.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength T ^. 
Cimicifuga, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 650 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



212 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



CINA. Wormseed. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Absinthium austriacum tenuifolium, A. ponti- 
cum tenuifolium, A. seriphium, A. tridentium herbarior, Artemisia 
austriaca, A. contra, A. lercheana, A. maritima, var. stechmanniana, 
var. pauciflora, A. santonica, A. vahliana, Semen contra, S. sanctum, 
S. santocini, S. zedoariae, S. zinae, Sementina; English, Tartarian 
southern-wood, Wormseed ; French, Graine de zedoaria ; German, 
Zittersaame Wurmsaame. 

Description. An evergreen, perennial shrub, with many slender, 
erect, flowering stems, i foot high, much branched, having at first 
leaves at the base, afterward bare. The flower-heads are about T ^ to 
\ inch long, oblong, ovoid, sessile, pale brownish-green color, resem- 
bling seeds, odorous with bitter taste. They are densely arranged 
along the upper portions of the branches. The flowers appear in 
September. 

Habitat. Barbary and the Levant. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 176; 
Winkler, 12; Jahr and Cat. 188; Goullon, 152. 

History. This medicine is said to have been introduced into 
Europe by the Crusaders as an anthelmintic, but was not so much 
used after the discovery and isolation of the proximate principle, San- 
tonin. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1829 by Hahnemann, 
R. A. M. L. Vol. I. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 307; X. 460.] 

Parts Used. The flower-heads of the Aleppo or Levant Artemisia 
contra, as imported. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Cina, ioo Gm. 

Strong alcohol, loco Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 213 

CINCHONA OFFICINALIS. Peruvian Bark. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, China fusca, C. officinalis, Cinchona calisaya, 
C. cinerea, C. cordifolia, C. corona, C. flava, C. lancifolia, C. oblongi- 
folia, C. officinalis, C. rubra ; English, Peruvian bark ; French, Luin- 
quina; German, Chinarinde. 

Source and Description. Cinchona bark is obtained from several 
species of an extensive order of evergreen shrubs or trees. In 
some localities and latitudes it is a beautiful forest tree, 60 to 80 feet 
high; in other places and higher latitudes, it is a shrub, 6 to 10 feet 
high. The bark is obtained from the branches, trunk and root. It 
differs more or less in form, marking, structure, taste and odor; that 
from the branches and stems being thinner, curling in quills ; that 
from the trunk, thicker and in flat and irregular shapes; while the 
bark of the root is in chips. A former classification, by color, as 
yellow, red, and pale, is disregarded as unreliable. The calisaya, or 
yellow bark, derived from Cinchona calisaya, is generally in quills \y 2 
to 2^ feet long, 2 inches in diameter, % to % inch thick, externally 
gray, internally light cinnamon color, with ridges, if any, longitudinal, 
and numerous longitudinal and transverse fissures. The Cinchona 
rubra or red bark, is from C. succirubra, similar in appearance to the 
former, in quills, broader and thicker, externally of a dingy brownish 
gray, internally redder, having prominent longitudinal ridges with 
warty protuberances, with or without transverse fissures. The Loxa 
or crown bark is obtained from the C. officinalis, in shorter and 
smaller quills, 3 to 18 inches long, ^ to ^ inch in diameter, variable 
in thickness, dark in color, almost black externally, internally paler 
than the others. 

Habitat. A native of South America; seldom found in its wild 
state, but cultivated largely in India, and the islands of Ceylon and 
Java, the former locality yielding only about one-twentieth of the 
world's supply. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 52 ; Winkler, 36 ; Jahr and Cat. 
186; Goullon, 137; Bent, and Trim. 141. 

History. The discovery and history of this remarkable drug is 
traditional. Introduced into Europe about 1632, it was not known to 
naturalists until 1737. It is of particular interest to the homoeopathic 



214 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

school as being the immediate cause, while studying its effects, of 
Hahnemann's discovery of the law of cure. Fragmenta de Viribus 
Medicamentorum Positivus. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 182; X. 
460.] 

Part Used. The bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <l>: Drug strength -$. 

Cinchona, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



CINCHONINUM SULPHURICUM. Cinchonin Sulfate. 
Cinchoninum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol (C 19 H 22 N 2 O) 2 H 2 SO 4 .2H 2 O; 720.54. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cinchoninae sulphas, Cinchoniae sulphas; 
English, Sulphate of cinchonine ; French, Sulfate de cinchonine ; 
German, Schwefelsaures Cinchonin. 

Description. Consists of hard, white, shining, odorless, very bitter 
prisms. Permanent in air. Soluble in 66 parts of water at 15 C. and 
in 10 parts of alcohol. At 100 C. it gives off its water of crystalliza- 
tion ; at 240 C. it melts like wax, is partially volatilized, turns dark- 
red, then burns, emitting vapors of an aromatic odor and leaving no 
residue. Its solutions are not fluorescent. It gives a white precipi- 
tate of barium sulfate with barium chlorid, and a white precipitate of 
cinchonin with ammonia. It is obtained from cinchona bark. Men- 
tioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 316. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 215 

CINNAMOMUM. Cinnamon. 

Natural Order. Lauraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Canella zeylanica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, 
Laurus cassia, L. cinnamomum ; English, Cinnamon ; French, Canelle ; 
German, Zimmt. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 20 to 30 feet high, with erect 
trunk, 12 to 18 inches in diameter, smooth ash-colored bark, and 
numerous wide-spreading, declining branches. The leaves are oppo- 
site, petiolate, bright-green above, pale beneath, and white veined. 
The flowers are large, panicled, terminal, drooping, axillary. The 
bark is thin as writing paper, brittle, dull yellowish-brown externally, 
darker brown internally, having little holes on outer surface where 
leaves have been removed. It has a fragrant odor, a warm sweet and 
aromatic taste. It is imported in sticks J^ inch thick, composed of 
rolled quills covering smaller quills. 

Habitat. Ceylon, growing from the sea level to an elevation of 
3,000 feet, exceedingly variable in form and size, extensively cultivated. 
/7-.,Winkler,45 ; Jahr and Cat. 189; Goullon, 218; Bent, and Trim. 224. 

History. It was held in high esteem and seems to have been the 
spice most sought for in all oriental voyages. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1855, Hirschel's Archiv. f. r. u. a. Arzneiwirkungs- 
lehre, I. 195. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 333; X. 470, 654.] 

Part Used. The inner bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Cinnamomum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 

CIRSIUM ARVENSE. Canada Thistle. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 



2l6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. English, Canada thistle; French, Le chardon ; German, 
Haberdistel. 

Description. A low, branched herb, with extensively creeping 
root. The leaves are alternate, spreading or lanceolate, smooth, or 
slightly woolly beneath, with prickly margins. The flowers are purple 
and appear in July and August, in small, naked, numerous heads. 

Habitat. Naturalized and found in cultivated fields and pastures. 
Common at the north. A very troublesome weed. 

Parts Used The whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Cirsium arvense, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 735 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



CISTUS CANADENSE. Frost-weed 

Natural Order. Cistaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cistus helianthemum, C. ramuliflorum, Helian- 
themum canadense, H. corymbosum, H. ramuliflorum, H. rosmari- 
folium, Heteromeris canadense, H. michauxii, Lechea major; English, 
Canadian rock-rose, Garden sunflower, Frost-plant, Frost-weed, Frost- 
wort, Holly-rose, Ice-plant, Rock-rose, Scrofula-weed ; French, Le ciste 
Canade; German, Canadisches Sonnenroschen. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous, herbaceous plant, i to 2 feet 
high, with pubescent stem, simple at first. The leaves are simple 
entire; the lower opposite, the upper alternate. The flowers are 
yellow, of two sorts, the primary few or solitary, large, pedunculate ; 
the secondary are small, clustered, axillary, nearly sessile. They 
appear from June to August, open only once in sunshine and cast 
their petals by the next day. Late in autumn, moisture issuing from 
the cracked bark at the root is found crystallized in the early morning, 
hence the name, frost-weed. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2 1/ 

Habitat. Maine to Wisconsin and southward, in dry, sandy soil; 
rare west of the Alleghanies ; also found in Canada. Fig., Jahr and 
Cat. 190; Millspaugh, 28. 

History The name derived from helios, sun, and anthemon, 
flower. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1835 by Dr. Bute, 
published in 1865 by Dr. Hering, Hahn. Month. Supplement, Vol. i. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 333.] 

Parts Used The entire fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture (f>: Drug strength ^. 

Cistus canadense, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CLEMATIS ERECTA. Virgin's Bower. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Clematis recta, Flammula jovis, F. recta; 
English, Upright virgin's bower; French, Clematite cleorte; Get man, 
Brennende Waldrebe. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous, climbing plant, with a white, 
fibrous root. The stem is about 3 feet high, greenish or reddish, 
nearly smooth. The leaves are large, opposite, with petiolate leaflets 
five to nine. The flowers, appearing from July to October, are white, 
in upright, terminal umbels. It climbs by the twisting of the leaf 
stalks. All parts are extremely acrid, the acridity being diminished 
by drying. 

Habitat. Native of southern Europe and northern Africa; com- 
mon in woods. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 180; Winkler, 51 ; Goullon, I. 



2l8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name from klema, a vine. It was employed in the old 
school pharmacy as a local irritant ; used by .beggers to create com- 
passion for the ulcers it produced. It was introduced in homoeopathic 
literature in 1828 by Hahnemann, Archiv. VII. I. 177. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 340.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves and stems shortly before blossoming. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> : Drug strength ^. 

Clematis erecta, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

COBALTUM METALLICUM. Metallic Cobalt. 

Cobalt* 

Chemical Symbol. Co; 58.6. 

Description. A not very abundant, steel-gray, hard, brittle metal. 
It tarnishes in moist air. Is soluble in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, 
freely soluble in nitric acid. Specific gravity approximately 8.8. It 
oxidizes at a red heat. By passing a current of pure hydrogen through 
a solution of its chlorid, the metal is obtained for homoeopathic pur- 
poses in a spongy form. Cobalt is frequently rendered impure by the 
presence of nickel, or its salts may contain arsenic. If arsenic, it may 
be detected by treating a solution of the salt, acidified with hydro- 
chloric acid, with hydrogen sulfid. Cobalt occurs as smaltine, or tin- 
white cobalt; cobalt bloom, erythin, or arsenate; cobalt glance, or 
sulfarsenate ; earthy cobalt or wad, and as speiss cobalt from which 
cobalt salts are frequently obtained. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, III. 361. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2IQ 

COCAINUM MURIATICUM. Cocain Hydrochlorid. 

Cocainum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 21 NO 4 HC1; 338.71. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cocainae hydrochloras ; English, Hydro- 
chlorate of cocaine. 

Description. Consists of a white, crystalline powder, or of trans- 
parent, colorless, odorless prisms. Is permanent in air. Soluble in 
0.48 parts of water at 15 C. and in 3.5 parts of alcohol. Its aqueous 
solution has a bitter taste and produces on the tongue a tingling sensa- 
tion, followed by numbness. Submitted to heat it burns without 
residue. Freshly made solutions are neutral. It must not give any 
precipitate with either barium chlorid or ammonium oxalate. Its 
aqueous solution gives a yellow precipitate with auric chlorid, platinic 
chlorid, picric acid; also a white precipitate with mercuric chlorid, 
stannous chlorid, alkalies and their carbonates. It is dissolved by 
cold mineral acids without coloration. It is prepared from cocain 
an alkaloid of erythroxylon coca and hydrochloric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



COCCULUS INDICUS. Indian Cockle. 

Natural Order. Menispermaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anamirta cocculus, A. paniculata, Cocculus 
suberosus, Menispermum cocculus, M. heteroclitum, M. monadelphum ; 
English, Indian cockle, Oriental berries; French, Coque du Levant; 
German, Kokkelskorner. 

Description. A climbing shrub, with corky, ash-colored, deeply 
corrugated bark. The leaves are alternate, on long petioles, thickened 
at the ends, smooth, coriaceous, broad. The flowers are small, 
dioecious, in pendulous, compound racemes. The fruit is a dry, light, 
roundish nut, y^ inch in diameter, grayish-black, wrinkled externally, 
with a white, thin, internal shell, containing an oily, whitish-yellow, 
odorless, but intensely bitter seed, not filling the cavity. 



22O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Malabar and East India Islands. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 
184; Winkler, 3; Jahr and Cat. 192; Goullon, 8; Bent, and Trim. 14. 

History. It was principally used for stupefying fish. Mentioned 
by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag. d. v. Med. Pos. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. III. 338.] 

Part Used. The seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincttire <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Cocculus indicus, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

The tincture should be filtered at a temperature of or below 50 F. 
to remove the fatty acids. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

COCCUS CACTI. Cochineal. 

Order. - Homoptera. 
Family. Coccidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Coccinella Indica, Coccionella ; French, Coche- 
nille; German, Nopal- Schildlaus. 

Description. Only the female of this species is made use of in 
medicine. The male is smaller than the female ; has a snout in the 
thorax and a red body which ends in two long bristles. The female 
is much larger ; has a bluish-red oval body, transversely striated, with- 
out wings or terminal bristles. She lays several thousand eggs in a 
season and then dies, the eggs remaining in the body, from which the 
young are soon hatched. They are allowed to grow until the females 
become fecundated, when the majority are brushed from the cactus 
plants upon which they feed, and killed by immersion in hot water. 
They are afterwards dried in the sun, or in ovens built for the purpose. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 402. 

Habitat. The cochineal insect is found native in Mexico and 
Central America, but is now cultivated in the East and West Indies, 
Algiers, and in the southern part of Spain. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 221 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 

Coccus cacti, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

COCHLEARIA ARMORACIA. Horse Radish. 

Natural Order. Cruciferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Armoracia rusticana, A. sativa, Cochlearia 
rusticana, Nasturtium amphibium, N. armoracia, Raphanus rusticanus, 
Roripa rusticana, Sisymbrium amphibium, S. indicum ; English, 
Amphibious cress, Horse radish, Scurvy grass, Water cress, Water 
radish ; French, Radis de cheval ; German, Meerrettig. 

Description. A perennial, herbaceous plant, with fusiform root 
large, long, scarred, nearly smooth, with thick, horizontal branches, 
brownish-yellow externally, whitish internally, very pungent and acrid 
when broken. The stems are erect, 2 or 3 feet high, branched at the 
top. The leaves are alternate ; the radical leaves are very large, 
oblong, crenate, rarely pinnatifid; the stem leaves are lanceolate. 
The flowers are white in terminal racemes and appear in May and 
June. 

Habitat. A native of Russia. Found throughout the United 
States and Canada in moist grounds, escaped from cultivation. Fig., 
Winkler, 39; Jahr and Cat. 166; Goullon, 15; Bent, and Trim. 21. 

History. So called from cochlear, a spoon, from the shape of the 
leaves. During the middle ages the root and leaves were used as a 
medicine and a condiment. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
1838 by Dr. Franz, Archiv. XVII. 3, 176. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
III. 429-] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



222 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 
Cochlearia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CODEINUM. Codein. 

Chemical Symbol. C 18 H 21 NO 3 H 2 O ; 316.31. 

Synonyms. Latin, Codeina; English, Codeia, Methyl morphine; 
French, Codeine; German, Codein, Kodein. 

An alkaloid prepared from opium. 

Description. Consists of white, or yellowish-white, partially trans- 
lucent, rhombic prisms, odorless, and having a slightly bitter taste. It 
effloresces in warm air. Is soluble in 80 parts of water at 15 C. and 
in 17 parts of boiling water ; freely soluble in alcohol and chloroform. 
At 120 C. it loses its water of crystallization and melts at 150 C., 
forming a 'colorless liquid; reaction alkaline. It burns without 
residue. Its aqueous solution precipitates the salts of ferrum, 
cuprum, plumbum and several other metals. Codein may be dis- 
tinguished from morphin by the fact that it does not separate iodin 
from iodic acid, nor does it become blue on the addition of ferric 
chlorid. With chlorin water, codein gives a colorless solution, which 
ammonia turns red-brown. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 
430; X. 473. Maximum dose i l / 2 grains, or by injection one-half as 
much. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations ; ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 22J 

COFFEA CRUDA. Coffee. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Coffea arabica, C. laurifolia, C. vulgaris, Jas- 
minum arabicum ; English, Coffee ; French, Cafe" ; German, Kaffee. 

Description. An evergreen pyramidal-shaped shrub, of which 
there are many species, with spreading roots. The stem is straight, 
4 inches thick, 10 to 16 feet high, with long, horizontal, arching, 
opposite branches. The leaves are oval, opposite, petiolate, smooth, 
dark green. The flowers are axillary, nearly sessile, white and fragrant. 
The fruit is a fleshy berry, resembling a cherry, changing from green 
to red, then becoming dark purple. The fruit contains two seeds 
which, divested of their coverings, constitute coffee. 

Habitat. Low mountains of Arabia and tropical parts of Africa, 
and cultivated in West Indies, tropical America, India, Ceylon and 
various places where the temperature is sufficiently high and uniform. 
Fig., Flora Horn. I. 190; Winkler, 31; Jahr and Cat. 193; Goullon, 
133; Bent, and Trim. 144. 

History. The name is possibly derived from Coffa, a province in 
Africa, where it is indigenous in great abundance. It was used as 
early as the ninth century. It is not officinal in the U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1823 by Dr. 
Stapf, who published its pathogenesis, Archiv. II. 3, 150. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 435.] 

Part Used. The seed; using the best unroasted Mocha coffee. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a.' Tincture </> . Drug strength ^. 

Coffea cruda, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE. Meadow Saffron. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 



224 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms Latin, Colchicum anglicum, C. commune; English, 
Meadow saffron, Naked lady, Tuber-root, Upstart, Wild saffron ; 
French, Colchique ; German, Herbstzeitlose. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a short subterranean stem, 
having three to five dark-green shining leaves, 6 to 12 inches long and 
i to 2 inches broad, appearing in April. A solitary, large, reddish-lilac 
colored flower, with a tube 6 to 7 inches long, appearing for a few 
days only, the preceding September or October. The bulb, or corm, 
is somewhat the shape of a chestnut ; has a tuft of filiform roots 
beneath, an external brown and internal reddish-yellow coat. When 
gathered, about a year old, it is from I ^ to 2 inches in length, I inch 
wide at the lower end, flattened on the side on which a new corm is 
forming, and rounded on the other. The interior is white, firm, fleshy 
and homogeneous, unlike the tulip, which is scaly. It yields a milky 
juice of an acrid, bitter taste and disagreeable smell. 

Habitat. It is found in moist meadows, in middle and southern 
Europe to the Mediterranean, Greece, Turkey and the Crimea, and in 
many parts of England. In the Swiss Alps it is found at an altitude 
of 5,000 feet. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 199; Winkler, 34; Jahr and Cat. 
195 ; Goullon, 265 ; Bent, and Trim. 288. 

History. It is named from Colchis, a province of Armenia. It 
was used in medicine as early as the thirteenth century, as the prin- 
cipal ingredient in all gout specifics. It was introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice by Stapf in 1826, Archiv. VI. I, 136. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. III. 448; X. 474.] 

Parts Used. The fresh bulbs; dug in the spring, according to 
Stapf. Its medicinal virtue appears to depend largely on the soil and 
climate where grown and the season when it is gathered. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 
Colchicum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 22$ 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS. Stone-Root. 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Collinsonia decussata, C. ovalis, C. scrotina; 
English, Canada snake-root, Hard-hack, Heal-all, Horse or Ox-balm, 
Horse-weed, Knob-root, Knob's grass, Knot-root, Rich-weed, Rock- 
weed, Stone-root ; French, Baume de cheval ; German, Collinsonie. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, 3 to 4 feet high, with a 
very hard, nearly horizontal rhizome, with irregular branches from 
3 to 6 inches long. The upper surface is very knotty, the lower less 
so, and with many simple rootlets. The stem is smooth and some- 
what angular. The leaves are opposite, petiolate, 3 to 8 inches long, 
simple, ovate, cordate at base. The flowers are greenish-yellow, 
numerous, on slender petioles in loose and panicled terminal racemes, 
appearing from July to September. 

Habitat. New England, Michigan, Kentucky and southward to 
Florida, abundant along the Alleghanies ; found in rich, moist woods. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 119. 

History. Named for Peter Collinson. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature in 1857 by Dr. Carroll, N. A. J. Horn. V. 548. (Hale's New 
Remedies.) [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 507; X. 476.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Collinsonia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



226 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



COLOCYNTK Bitter Apple. 

Natural Order. Cucurbitaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Citrullus colocynthis, Colocynthis vulgaris, 
Cucumis colocynthis; English, Bitter apple, Bitter cucumber, Bitter 
gourd ; French, Coloquinte ; German, Koloquinten. 

Description. An annual, deciduous, trailing vine, with large, long, 
woody and branched roots, from which arise several slender, rough, 
angular, tough stems, with alternate, petiolate, multifid leaves, variable 
in size. The flowers are yellow, large, solitary, axillary, monoecious, 
pedunculate, appearing from May to August. The fruit, pepo or 
gourd, the size and shape of an orange, from 2^ to 3^ inches in 
diameter, is yellow, with a thin, solid, smooth rind. It is found in this 
market dried, and known as the Turkey or peeled variety. It is in the 
form of pithy, light, nearly white balls, consisting of the dried internal 
pulp and imbedded seeds, inodorous, with an intensely bitter taste. 

Habitat. It grows in warm and dry situations over an extensive 
area, in India, Ceylon, Arabia, Northern Africa, Cape of Good Hope 
and Japan. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 210 ; Winkler, 46; Jahr and Cat. 196; 
Goullon, no; Bent, and Trim. 114. 

History. It was known to the Greek and Roman physicians as 
well as to the Arabian, as early as the eleventh century. It was 
proved by Hahnemann in 1821, R. A. M. L. 2d ed. II. 173. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 477.] 

Part Used. The pulp of the fruit ; rejecting the seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Colocynth, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 22"J 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications; 3 x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

COMOCLADIA DENTATA. Guao. 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Vernacular, Guao ; English, Bastard Brazil wood ; 
Toothed-leaved maiden-plum ; French, Comoclade ; German, Die 
Astlose. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, 4 to 8 feet high, with erect 
trunk, not much branched. The top branches are tufted, hence the 
name, derived from the Greek, signifying hair and branch. The leaves 
are divided, leaflets 6 to 10 pairs, with an odd terminal one, pinnate, 
acute, toothed, with a brownish tinge at the margin, shining green 
above, downy beneath. The flowers are small, bluish-brown, in 
clusters, appearing in July. All the parts emit a milky, glutinous 
juice, becoming black by exposure, staining linen or skin indelibly. 
If the tree be wounded ever so little it emits an odor of dung. 

Habitat. Cuba and San Domingo, growing luxuriantly near the 
coast, on barren or stony soil. 

History. The natives of Cuba think it fatal to sleep under it. 
All parts are poisonous to touch. Mentioned in homoeopathic litera- 
ture in 1853 by Dr. J. G. Houard, Phil. J. of Horn. IV. 73. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 509 ; X. 478.] 

Parts Used. The leaves and bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> ; Drug strength -^ 
Comocladia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 830 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



228 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CONIUM MACULATUM. Poison Hemlock. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cicuta vulgaris, Conium major, Coriandrum 
cicuta; English, Herb-Bermet, Cicuta, Hemlock, Poison hemlock, 
Poison parsley, Spotted hemlock ; French, Grande cigue ; German, 
Schierling. 

Description. A biennial, deciduous herb, with a tap-shaped, simple, 
whitish root. The stem is erect, branching, round, hollow, except at 
the joints, smooth, spotted, reddish-brown, glaucous, and from 4 to 
8 feet high. The leaves are large, alternate, with long furrowed 
petioles, sheathing at their base, tri-pinnate, with lanceolate, pinnatifid 
leaflets. They are dark, dull green above and pale beneath, with a 
fetid odor when bruised. The flowers, June and July, are perfect, 
white, terminal, in umbels, with 10 or more rays. 

Habitat. It grows in waste places in temperate countries of Asia, 
Europe and northern Africa. It has been naturalized in some portions 
of North America. Found in waste places near the water. Fig., Flora 
Horn. I. 219; Winkler, 49; Jahr and Cat. 197; Goullon, 129; Mills- 
paugh, 68. 

History. This plant is generally supposed to be the Greek Koneion 
(from Konos, a cone or top), the celebrated state poison. It was called 
by the Romans, Cicuta, and known in the fourth or fifth century, B. C. 
In 1825, Hahnemann published his proving, R. A. M. L. 2d edition. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 519; X. 490.] 

Part Used. The whole fresh plant in blossom. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .' Drug strength -$. 
Conium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 637 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 22Q 

CONVALLARIA MAJALIS. Lily of the Valley. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lilium convallium ; English, Lily of the valley, 
May lily ; French, Muquet ; German, Maiblumen. 

Description, A low, perennial, stemless herb, with a creeping, 
whitish branched rhizome the thickness of a quill, having 2 or 3 
elliptic, radical leaves, with long, sheathing petioles, enrolled one 
within the other, so as to appear like a stalk. The fragrant white 
flowers are bell-shaped with six recurved lobes, nodding on an angled 
scape 6 inches high, bearing a one-sided raceme, and appear in May. 

Habitat. Europe and Asia, cultivated in gardens. Introduced 
into the United States, found in the Alleghanies from Virginia south- 
ward, sparingly on the Atlantic coast, or New England States. Fig., 
Goullon, 253. 

History. Name derived from the Latin convallis, a valley. It was 
mentioned as a remedy by Galen. Noticed in homoeopathic literature, 
Hahn. Monthly, XVI. 692, Nov. 1881. 

Parts Used The whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -fa. 
Convallaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

CONVOLVULUS DUARTINUS. Morning Glory. 

Natural Order. Convolvulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Calonyction speciosum, Convolvulus pulcherri- 
mus, Ipomoea bona-nox ; English, Morning glory, Brazilian morning 
glory. 



23O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous, smooth, climbing herb, 10 feet long. 
The leaves are large, lanceolate, entire, generally cordate, rising from 
the axils of the flower-bearing branches. The flowers are white, 
trumpet shaped, in twos or threes, pediceled, appearing in July and 
August. 

Habitat. West Indies; cultivated in Europe and America. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Mure in 1849, 
Pathogenesie Bresilienne, 307. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 553.] 

Part Used. The flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Convolvulus duartinus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



COPAIVA OFFICINALIS. Balsam of Copaiba. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Copaifera glabra, C. jacquini, C. lansdorffii, C. 
laxa, C. multijuga, C. nitida, C. officinalis, C. sellowii ; EnglisJi, Balsam 
of copaiba; French, Oleo-r6sine (Baume) de copahu; German, Copaiva- 
balsam. 

Description. An oleo-resin, obtained from several species of ever- 
green trees, varying from the dimensions of shrubs to forest trees, 
growing in moist forests and in dry and high altitudes. It is a clear, 
transparent liquid, of the consistence and color of olive oil, having a 
peculiar aromatic odor, and persistent, acrid, hot, bitterish, nauseous 
taste. It is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. On exposure to 
the air it becomes thicker, dark colored, dries and is brittle. That 
obtained from Brazil is esteemed the best. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 25! 

Habitat. Native of Central and South America ; cultivated in the 
West Indies and elsewhere. Fig., Winkler, 40; Goullon, 81 ; Bent, 
and Trim. 93. 

History. Mentioned by Hahnemann, Fragmenta de Viribus Medi- 
camentorum, 116. It was described and used in medicine in the 
seventeenth century. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 554; X. 491.] 

Part Used The oleo-resin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength ^. 

Copaiba, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 900 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CORALLIUM RUBRUM. Red Coral. 

Order Actinoida. 

Family. Gorgoniadae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Gorgonia nobilis, Isis nobilis; English, Red 
coral; French, Corail rouge; German, Rothe Koralle. 

Description. This structure is the product of the coral Zoophyte. 
It resembles a branching shrub without leaves ; is compact and solid, 
and of a rose or red color. It is hard and brilliant ; can be polished 
like gems, and shines like garnet. Besides the central axis, which is 
hard and brittle, the stem has a soft covering, or epidermis, which 
is friable or brittle when dry. From cavities in the epidermis, small, 
milk-white polypes protrude. Each polype has a mouth surrounded 
by arms, ciliated or covered with fine fringes. The epidermis is of a 
delicate white tissue, containing the long cavities of the polypes 
and numerous canals sprinkled with small calcareous corpuscles. 
Carbonate of lime is the chief of the chemical constituents of the red 
coral, while rather more than four per cent of oxid of iron gives it 
its color. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 561. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



232 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

CORIARIA RUSCIFOLIA. Toot-Berry. 

Natural Order Coriaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Coriaria sarmentosa, C. tormentosa; English, 
Toot-berry, Toot-poison ; Vernacular, Tupa-kihi, Tutee, Tutu ; French, 
Redoue ; German, Gerberstrauch. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, 6 to 20 feet high, with angular 
branches. The leaves are opposite, entire, simple, ribbed, sub-ovate, 
shining dark green, I to 3 inches long. The flowers are very minute, 
axillary, in drooping racemes ; are either hermaphrodite, monoecious or 
dioecious. 

Habitat. New Zealand. 

History. Name derived from Corium, a hide. The juice of the 
berries affords a pleasant drink. The seeds are very poisonous. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1866 by Dr. J. Giles, Monthly 
Horn. Rev. IX. 278, X. 188. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 564; 
X. 492.] 

Part Used. The seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^ 

Coriaria, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CORNUS CIRCINATA. Round-Leaved Dogwood. 

Natural Order. Cornaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cornus rugosa, C. tomentulosa; English, Alder 
dogwood, Cornea, Dogwood, Green osier, Round-leaved cornel, Round- 
leaved dogwood, Swamp sassafras ; French, Cornouiller a feuilles 
arrondies ; German, Canadisches (Rundblatteriger) Kornel. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 233 

Description. A deciduous shrub, 6 to 10 feet high, with greyish 
bark. The branches are green, opposite, straight and slender; the 
younger are red spotted, the older warted. The leaves are opposite, 
simple, round, oval, abruptly pointed, 2 to 5 inches broad, woolly 
underneath. The flowers are white, perfect, in terminal, open, very 
spreading cymes, appearing in June. 

Habitat. North America; found in rich soil in copses from 
Canada to the Carolinas, west to the Mississippi. Fig., Millspaugh, 72. 

History. Name from cornu, a horn, on account of the hardness 
of the weed. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Marcy in 
1853, Phil. J. of Horn. II. 206, July, 1853. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
III. 565-] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y^. 

Cornus circinata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CORNUS FLORIDA. Dogwood. 

Natural Order. Cornaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Benthamidia florida; English, American box- 
wood, Bitter red-berry, Box-tree, Boxwood, Dog-tree, Dogwood, Great 
flowering dogwood, Large flowering cornel, Male Virginian dogwood, 
New England boxwood ; French, Cornuillier a grandes fleurs ; German, 
Grossbliithige Kernel. 

Description. A deciduous tree, 12 to 30 feet high, much branched, 
with dark greyish, thick, rough bark on the trunk, branches smooth, 
with scars of previous leaves. The leaves, 3 to 4 inches long, are 



234 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

opposite, petiolate, entire, ovate, acute at both ends, slightly rough, 
dark green above, paler beneath, finely pubescent when young. The 
flowers appear in May to June, are small, sessile, greenish, 12 to 20 
on expanded end of stout peduncle, an inch or more in length, the 
whole surrounded by a white involucre of 4 inversely heart-shaped 
leaves, rose-tinted in the notches. 

Habitat. United States, from Massachusetts to Florida, westward 
to the Mississippi; found in rocky woods. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 136 ; 
Millspaugh, 71. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Dr. Bates in 
1864, Am. Horn. Obs. I. 29, Feb. 1864. (Rale's New Rem.) [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 492.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Cornus florida, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CORNUS SERICEA. Swamp Dogwood. 

Natural Order. Cornaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cornus alba, C. amomum, C. coerulea, C. 
cyanocarpus, C. lanuginosa, C. obliqua, C. polygama, C. rubinginosa ; 
English, American red cornel, Blue-berried cornus, Blue-berried, 
Female or Swamp dogwood, Kinnikinnik, Red osier, Red rod or 
willow, Rose willow, Silky cornel, Silky-leaved dogwood, Willow rose ; 
French, Cornouille soyeux ; German, Sumpf-Kornel. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 235 

Description. A deciduous shrub, with stem 5 to icfeet high, with 
spreading branches and woolly twigs, the bark having a distinct purple 
tint, a slight odor, and a somewhat bitter, astringent taste. The 
leaves are opposite, large, petiolate, narrowly ovate, or elliptical- 
pointed, entire, silky-downy, often rusty beneath. The yellowish- 
white flowers appear from June to August, in depressed, woolly, open 
and flat-spreading cymes. 

Habitat. North America, from Canada to the mountains of South 
Carolina ; common in wet places. Fig., Millspaugh, 73. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1879. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 493.] 

Part Used The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Cornus sericea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



COTYLEDON UMBILICUS. Pennywort. 

Natural Order. Crassulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Umbilicus pendulinus ; English, Hipwort, 
Kidneywort, Navelwort, Pennywort ; French, Cotylet ; German, Nabel- 
kraut. 

Description. An evergreen herb, with fleshy, tuberous root, from 
which rises in summer a stalk, with radical, succulent leaves, which 
change their peltate form and pass into bracts. The stem is simple, 
or slightly branched, 4 to 12 inches high. The pale, small, roundish, 
bell-shaped flowers appear in June and July, in long, pendulous racemes. 



236 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. A common weed in the west of England, parts of Wales, 
southern and western Europe ; found on the sides, or in the crevices, 
of damp rocks and walls. 

History. Name derived from kotyle, a vessel, or cup. Introduced 
into homoeopathic practice in 1853 by provings by Dr. Craig, B. J. of 
Horn. XI. 598. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 571.] 

Part Used The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < , Drug strength -$. 
Cotyledon, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 600 Cc. = 700 

Strong alcohol, 332 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, six parts distilled 

water, three parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



CREOSOTUM. Creosote. 

Synonyms. Latin, Kreosotum ; English, Kreosote ; French, Cre"o- 
sote; German, Kreosot. 

Description. Consists of a colorless oily liquid, becoming yellowish 
with age, and having a disagreeable smoky odor and a caustic burning 
taste. With 120 parts of hot water it forms a clear solution, which 
becomes turbid on cooling, while with 150 parts of water at 15 C. it 
forms a partially clear solution. It is freely soluble in alcohol, ether, 
chloroform, benzin, carbon disulfid, glacial acetic acid, and in fixed and 
volatile oils; reaction neutral; specific gravity from 1.035 to 1.085. 
When heated it volatilizes without residue. Creosote boils at about 
205 C. and forms a gelatinous substance on cooling. It burns with a 
luminous, sooty flame, is a non-conductor of electricity and very 
refractive to light ; it produces a white stain on the skin. With 
bromin water its aqueous solution gives a resinous precipitate ; with 
ferric chlorid, a gray-green or transient blue color, changing to dingy 
brown, accompanied by turbidity of the liquid and the separation of a 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 237 

flocculent precipitate. It is decomposed by strong nitric and sulfuric 
acids. Creosote is a mixture of several compounds, and is obtained 
by the distillation of wood-tar. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
V. 408 ; X. 569. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: ^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher ; freshly prepared. 

CROCUS SATIVUS. Saffron. 

Natural Order. Iridaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Crocus autumnalis, C. hispanicus ; C. officinalis, 
C. orsinii, C. verus ; English, Saffron, Fall crocus ; French and German^ 
Safran. 

Description. A small plant, 6 inches high, with fleshy, bulb-like 
corm, with grassy leaves. The flower is large, of lilac or bluish-purple 
color, appearing in September and October. It has a large orange-red 
stigma, the three pendulous divisions of which protrude beyond the 
perianth and are the parts used in pharmacy. The stigmata are I to 
\yz inches long, brownish-red, the upper portion expanded and notched 
at the extremity. The odor is penetrating and aromatic, and the taste 
bitter. 

Habitat. A native of Asia Minor, Greece, Italy and Persia; natu- 
ralized in England, France and Spain, and also to a limited extent in 
Pennsylvania. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 231 ; Winkler, 57; Jahr and Cat. 
199; Goullon, 276; Bent, and Trim. 274. 

History. It is the krokos of the ancient Greek physicians and the 
zaffaran of the Arabians. Proved by Stapf in 1836. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. III. 578 ; X. 495.] 

Part Used. The dried stigmata. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Crocus sativa, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



238 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



CROTALUS. Rattlesnake. 

Order. Orphidia. 
Family. Crotalidse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Crotalus horridus, C. durissus ; English, Large 
North American rattlesnake, Banded rattlesnake. 

Description. Head, broad and triangular, with a deep, scaly pit on 
each side, below and in front of the eye ; the parietals and frontals 
are scale-like and the nasal plate divided. The hollow fangs are 
recurved and consist of two fully developed ones, ^ of an inch long, 
and four to six undeveloped pairs y% to y 2 of an inch long. The neck 
is contracted, while the body is 40 or more inches in length, the back 
and sides covered with keeled scales, the belly with unkeeled plates. 
The tail ends in .a rattle, consisting of from 6 to 20 depressed horny 
rings ; each ring has a posterior tongue-shaped portion, which is held 
in the hollow of the anterior part of its succeeding fellow by a knob, 
called the button. Several joints may be added to the rattle each 
season. The general coloration varies from yellowish-tawny to 
blackish-brown, with the belly of lighter shades and the tail black. 
The venom, secreted in a sac at the base of the fangs, is greenish- 
yellow, odorless and tasteless; reaction acid; specific gravity 1.054. 
It dries in solid, yellow, fragile particles, transparent or translucent, 
and seemingly indestructible by time. Dr. S. Weir Mitchell states 
that the toxicity of dried venom proved unimpaired after 22 years ; 
of venom kept in glycerin, after 19 years. The toxicity depends on 
the presence of venom-globulines, is not affected by brief boiling, or 
by brief exposure to strong acids ; permanganate of potassium is the 
best local antidote. The venom mixes readily with water or glycerin, 
but throws down a large precipitate with alcohol. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, III. 588 ; X. 495. 

Part Used. The venom ; procured by compressing the gland, 
while the serpent is either pinioned in a frame or under the influence 
of chloroform. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 239 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solutions <f>: j-J^ in glycerin. 

b. Dilutions : 3x and higher, with glycerin. 

c. Tritnrations : 3x and higher. 



CROTON TIGLIUM. Croton Oil. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Croton jamalgota, Granatiglii, Oleum crotonis, 
Tiglium officinale ; English, Croton oil, Croton oil plant, Purging nut ; 
French, Huile de croton; German, Crotonol. 

Source and Description. An evergreen tree, 15 to 20 feet high, 
with a smooth bark and slender branches, having alternate, petiolate 
leaves, and green, racemose, terminal flowers, appearing from August 
to September. The seeds are oblong-ovate, somewhat angular, about 
the size of a coffee bean, with a pale-brown skin, covering a smooth, 
thin, brittle, green shell, and an oily, white, inodorous kernel, the taste 
of which, at first mild and oleaginous, becomes nauseous and persist- 
ently acrid. 

Habitat. East Indies and the Coromandel coast. Fig., Winkler, 
24; Goullon, 225 ; Bent, and Trim. 239. 

History. Used in medicine in the seventeenth century. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1834 by Joret, A. H. Zeit. IV. 
369. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 606; X. 498.] 

Part Used. The oil. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture < : T ^ with strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions : 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CUBEBA OFFICINALIS. Cubebs. 

Natural Order. Piperaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Piper caudatum, P. cubeba; English, Cubeb 
pepper, Cubebs; French, Cub^be; German, Kubeben. 



240 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A large, climbing shrub, with smooth, zigzag, striate 
stem. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, entire, 
glabrous, 6 inches long. The flowers are minute, dioecious, in solid 
spikes, opposite the leaves. The berries grow in clusters, are globular, 
depressed at the base, slightly pointed at the apex, wrinkled, greyish- 
brown color, resembling black pepper, with strong, aromatic odor, and 
a bitter, acrid, persistent taste. 

Habitat. Java and the adjacent islands. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 201 ; 
Bent, and Trim. 243. 

History. Name from the Arabic kababah ; used in medicine in 
the tenth century. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Noack 
in 1832, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XV. 369. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 
626 ; X. 498.] 

Part Used. The berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Cubeba, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



CUNDURANGO. Condor Plant. 

Natural Order. Asclepiadaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Echites acuminata, E. hirsuta, Equatoria 
garciniana, Condurango, Gonolobus cundurango, G. tetragonus, Pseus- 
magennetus equatoriensis ; English, Condor plant. 

Description. A vine from 10 to 30 feet long, i to 2 inches in 
diameter, with smooth, ash-gray bark, more or less marked with 
greenish or blackish lichens. The bark comes in the form of quills, 
about y 1 ^ to inch thick, brownish-gray, externally wrinkled and warty, 
the inner surface lighter in color and dotted with light-brownish cells. 
It is odorless and has an acrid, bitter taste. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 24! 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1871 by Dr. 
Dunham, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 31. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. i.] 

Part Used The dried bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> / Drug strength 3^. 

Cundurango, - 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

CUPRUM ACETICUM. Cupric Acetate. 

Cuprum Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. Cu (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 H 2 O; 198.86. 

Synonyms Latin, Cupri acetas, Acetas cupricus, Flores virides 
ae'ris ; English, Acetate of copper, Cupric acetate, Crystallized verdi- 
gris, Copper verditer, Crystals of Venus ; French, Acetate de cuivre, 
Crystaux de V6nus ; German, Kupferacetat, Griinspau. 

Description. Green-blue prisms, nearly transparent, with an odor 
of acetic acid and a strong metallic taste. Soluble in 15 parts of 
water at 15 C. At a temperature of 100 C. it loses its water of crys- 
tallization; at no C., vapors of acetic acid are given off, and at 
270 C. it is decomposed into' acetone, carbon dioxid and metallic 
copper. With ammonium hydrate, or ammonium carbonate, it gives 
a greenish-blue precipitate, soluble in an excess of the reagent, forming 
a liquid of a deep-blue color. It is obtained from copper and acetic 
acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 16. A poison. Maxi- 
mum dose } grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher; freshly made. 



242 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Solutions : y^ 2x in distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with distilled water. 
All preparations of this salt should be freshly made. 



CUPRUM ARSENICOSUM. Hydric Cupric Arsenite. 
Cuprum Arsenite. 

Chemical Symbol. CuHAsO 3 ; 186.96. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cuprii arsenis ; English, Arsenite of copper, 
Sheele's green ; French, Arsenite de cuivre. 

Description. A pulverulent, light-green compound, often used as 
a pigment color. It is insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in 
alkalies, ammonium hydrate and acids. Its solution in potassium 
hydrate is blue ; when boiled, cupric oxid is deposited and the liquid 
contains potassium arsenate. It is prepared by adding potassium 
arsenite to a solution of copper sulfate. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, IV. 28 ; X. 500. A poison. Maximum dose I grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CUPRUM CARBONICUM. Cupric Carbonate. 

Cuprum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. CuCO 3 +Cu(OH) 2 +H 2 O. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cupri carbonas ; English, Carbonate of copper, 
Hydrated-dibasic cupric carbonate ; French, Carbonate de cuivre ; 
German, Kohleusaurer Kupfa. 

Description. It is found native as malachite. It is also obtained by 
precipitating a solution of sulfate of copper with a solution of carbonate 
of sodium ; a blue precipitate of CuCO 3 +CuOH 2 -f H 2 O is thrown down. 
This, on standing, is converted into a green powder, having the com- 
position of malachite. Insoluble in water, and becoming black when 
boiled in it ; soluble with effervescence in hydrochloric acid ; soluble 
without residue in solutions of ammonia, forming a deep blue, and in 
potassium cyanid, forming a colorless liquid. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 243 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

CUPRUM METALLICUM. Metallic Copper. 

Cuprum. 

Chemical Symbol. Cu ; 63.18. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cupreum filum ; English, Copper, Copper wire; 
French, Cuivre; German, Kupfer. 

Description. A malleable, ductile metal, of a reddish color, often 
found in the native state. Its specific gravity is 8.9 and its melting 
point 1300 C. ; it is a very good conductor of heat and electricity. It 
dissolves readily in nitric acid, giving a blue solution. Its solutions 
give with ammonium hydrate a precipitate, which is dissolved in an 
excess of the precipitant, forming an intense blue liquid, having the 
property of dissolving cellulose ; with hydrogen sulfid a black precipi- 
tate is obtained, and with potassium ferrocyanid a red-brown precipitate 
appears. When a strip of iron or of zinc is immersed in the solution 
of a copper salt, metallic copper is separated. It is not acted upon by 
dilute sulfuric acid, and for this reason it is employed as the negative 
plate in galvanic batteries ; it forms two series of salts, cuprous and 
cupric. Exposed to air it is slightly tarnished. It is extracted from 
its ores, which are abundant in nature. Pure copper is obtained by 
allowing a solution of copper sulfate to remain in contact with pure 
zinc ; pure metallic copper is deposited as a fine spongy mass, which, 
after washing and drying, yields a soft, impalpable, dark-red powder. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 34. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : \ x and higher. 

CUPRUM SULPHURICUM. Cupric Sulphate. 

Cuprum Sulphate. 

Chemical Symbol. CuSO 4 .sH 2 O ; 248.8. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cupri sulphas, Sulfas cupricus, Cuprum 
vitriolatum ; English, Sulphate of copper, Blue vitriol, Roman vitriol, 



244 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Blue stone ; French, Sulfate de cuivre, Vitriol bleu ; German, Kupfer- 
vitriol, Schwefelsaures Kupfer. 

Description. Transparent, odorless, deep-blue prisms, with a 
strong, styptic, metallic taste, soluble in 2.5 parts of water at ordi- 
nary temperature, almost insoluble in alcohol; slightly efflorescent. 
Heated at 240 C, this salt loses its water of cystallization and becomes 
amorphous and white; by the addition of water, the blue color reap- 
pears. At a red heat it is decomposed into sulfur dioxid, oxygen and 
black cupric oxid. Its aqueous solution gives a white precipitate 
with barium sulfate and a deep-blue color with an excess of ammonium 
hydrate. It is obtained from native copper pyrites. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 34; X. 503. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



CURARE. Curare. 

Synonyms. Latin, Strychnos gujanensis, S. toxifera; Vernacular, 
Ourary, Surari, Urali, Urari, Woorali, Wourali, Wourari, Wurali. 

Description. A South American arrow poison, supposed to be 
made of several species of strychnos, with possibly some animal 
poison. It is of variable composition, depending somewhat upon the 
locality where it is prepared or obtained, whether from French or 
British Guiana, the Rio Negro, upper Amazon or Orinoco. The 
manner of its preparation has been witnessed and described by various 
travelers. It was at first obtained in Europe in the form of a thick 
syrup, but now is generally made as a blackish, brittle, resinous extract 
in little gourds or clay jars, into which it had been poured as a liquid. 
It is hygroscopic and sparingly soluble in water and alcohol, to both 
of which, however, it yields its poisonous properties. Maximum dose 
T V grain. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1857 by proving 
by Dr. Schlosser, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 55, 137. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 37.] 

Part Used. The extract. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 24$ 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture < : Drug strength ^fa. 

Curare, ioo Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications : 3x and higher. 

CYCLAMEN EUROPIUM. Sowbread. 

Natural Order. Primulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Artanita cyclamen, Cyclamen hederaefolium, 
C. neopolitanum, C. officinalis, C. orbiculare, C. vernum ; English, 
Sowbread ; French, Pain de pourceau ; German, Schweinsbrod. 

Description. A perennial plant, with a large, depressed, globular 
root, brown externally, white internally, with numerous rootlets. The 
stem, 3 inches high, is erect, with radical leaves on long petioles, 
orbicular and cordate, crenate, or dentate, dark-green above, purple 
beneath. The sweet-scented, purple flowers are single, drooping, on 
long pedicels, and appear in August. 

Habitat. Southern parts of Europe ; growing in valleys, shady 
places and rocky woods. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 238; Winkler, 28; Jahr 
and Cat. 202. 

History. Name from cycles, a circle, the shape of the root. It 
was extensively used by the old school, but is now discarded. Proving 
by Hahnemann in 1826, R. A. M. L. 2d ed. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 46.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 
Cyclamen, moist magma containing solids ioo Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



246 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

CYPRIPEDIUM PUBESCENS. Lady's Slipper. 

Natural Order. Orchidaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cypripedium luteum; English, American 
valerian, Bleeding heart, Indian shoe, Lady's slipper, Large yellow 
lady's slipper, Moccasin root, Nerve root, Nervine, Noah's ark, Umbit 
root, Water nerve root, Yellow lady's slipper; French, Valeriane 
ame'ricaine ; German, Gelbfrauenschuh-Wurzel. 

Description. A perennial, horizontal plant, with the root scarred 
with old leaves above, with many fibrous rootlets below. The stem is 
pubescent, i to 2 feet high, erect and leafy. The leaves are alternate, 
pubescent, large, ovate, lanceolate, sheathing at base, 4 to 5 inches 
long and 2 to 3 inches broad. The flowers are large, yellow, scentless, 
terminal, solitary or in pairs, shaped like an Indian moccasin, hence, 
one of the common names ; they appear in May and June. 

Habitat. Bogs and damp low woods; common northward, west- 
ward and southward along the Alleghanies. Fig., Millspaugh, 170. 

History. Name derived from kypris, venus, and pod ion, a sock, 
or buskin ; used in old-school pharmacy, and introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice by Dr. Hale, 1864, New Remedies. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Cypripedium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 247 

DAPHNE INDICA. Sweet-Scented Spurge Laurel 

Natural Order. Thymelaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Daphne cannabina, D. lagetto, D. odora; 
English, Sweet-scented spurge laurel; French, Laur^ole de Chine; 
German, Lorbeerblatteriger Spitzenbast. 

Description. An ornamental, evergreen shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, 
with a straight stem, branching at the top. The leaves on the upper 
part of the branches are alternate, lanceolate, smooth, shining, \y 2 to 
2 inches long, i inch broad. The flowers are white, fragrant, almost 
sessile, 10 to 15 in terminal bunches, and appear from March to 
December. 

Habitat. West Indies and China. 

History. The Greek name for laurel, said to be from daio, to burn, 
and phone, a sound, as it crackled when burning. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by Dr. Bute in 1837, Correspondenzblatt, 15, 
June 22, 1837. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 66.] 

Part Used. The bark of the branches. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength -fa. 

Daphne indica, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

DATURA ARBOREA. Tree Stramonium. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Brugmansia Candida, B. gardneri; English, 
Tree stramonium. 

Description, An ornamental, evergreen tree, 10 feet high, with 
pubescent stalks and branches, and oblong, entire, powdery leaves. 
The flowers appear from July to October, are long, axillary, pendu- 
lous, white within, pale-yellow outside, very fragrant, one tree per- 
fuming the air of a large garden. 



248 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. It is indigenous to Peru, and is also found in California 
and the southern borders of the United States cultivated in gardens 
and conservatories. 

History. Name from the Arabic, tatorah. Introduced in homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1872 by Dr. Poulson, Medical Investigator, IX. 261. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 68.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength -^. 
Datura, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



DICTAMNUS ALBUS. White Fraxinella. 

Natural Order. Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Dictamnus fraxinella ; English, Bastard dittany, 
White fraxinella. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with an almost woody 
base, a long, branching, succulent root, about the thickness of a finger. 
The stem is erect, about 3 feet high, slightly angular, with green 
streaks, red, resinous glands and terminates in a spike. The leaves 
are alternate, shining, pinnatifid, ovate, with 9 to 13 ovate-serrate 
leaflets. The large white flowers appear in May and June in terminal 
racemes. The whole plant, when gently rubbed, emits an odor like 
that of lemon peel, but when bruised, it has something of a balsamic 
scent. It abounds in a volatile oil, so that the atmosphere surrounding 
it becomes inflammable in hot weather. 

Habitat. Germany, Italy, France and Russia in mountainous 
woods and stony hills. Fig., Winkler, 59 ; Jahr and Cat. 203 ; Goul- 
lon, 53. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 249 

History. The name fraxinella, from the resemblance of its leaves 
to those of the ash, fraxinus. The aromatic, bitter bark of the root 
was formerly used in medicine. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature 
by Noack and Trinks, Handbuch der horn. Arzneimittellehre, 1843, I. 
675. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 75.] 

Part Used The bark of the root and rootlets. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 
Dictamnus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



DIGITALIS PURPUREA. Fox Glove. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Campanula sylvestris, Digitalis speciosa, D. 
tomentosa ; English, Fairy fingers, Fairy's gloves, Fox glove, Purple 
fox glove, Purple glove ; French, Gant de Ndtre Dame ; German, Finger- 
hut, Schwulstkraut. 

Description. A biennial, deciduous plant, with root of numerous, 
long and slender fibers. The stem is solitary or several, straight, 
wand-like, leafy, roundish, with slight angles, pubescent, reddish in 
color, 3 to 7 feet high. The leaves are alternate, ovate, or oblong- 
crenate, rough, pubescent, dull-green above, whitish underneath ; the 
radical leaves, the largest, often i foot long. The numerous flowers, 
sometimes 60, appearing from June to August, in a terminal, erect, 
simple, unilateral raceme, are pendulous, nearly bell-shaped, I inch 
long, purple, sometimes white, marked inside with blood-colored spots 
and hairs. 



25O - THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Southern and Central Europe, England, Norway, Madeira 
and the Azores ; found in sandy soil, pastures and by roadsides. Fig., 
Flora Horn. I. 242; Winkler, 61 ; Jahr and Cat. 204; Goullon, 179; 
Bent, and Trim. 195. 

History. The name derived from digitale, the finger of a glove. 
It has long been used as a medicine; the date of its introduction being 
uncertain, probably the sixteenth century. Mentioned by Hahne- 
mann, 1805, Frag, de Vir. Med. Positiv. 123. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 92; X. 505, 655.] 

Part Used. The leaves of the second year's growth, gathered 
before flowering. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture (f>: Drug strength ^. 
Digitalis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



DIOSCOREA VILLOSA. Wild Yam. 

Natural Order. Dioscoreaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Dioscorea quinata, D. paniculata, Ubium 
quinatum ; English, China root, Colic root, Devil's bones, Hairy yam, 
Rheumatism root, Wild yam. 

Description. A slender, herbaceous, deciduous, perennial vine, 
growing from knotty and matted root-stalks. The root is horizontal, 
long, branched, crooked, woody, light-brown externally, white inter- 
nally, wrinkled longitudinally, with many long, tough fibers, inodorous, 
with a pleasantly bitter mucilaginous taste. The stem is round and 
twining, 5 to 15 feet long, generally smooth, never villous. The 
radical leaves are sometimes in fours, the middle nearly opposite, the 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2$ I 

upper alternate, petioled, more or less pubescent underneath, cordate, 
acute. The small, pale, green-yellow flowers appear in July, the sterile 
in drooping panicles, the fertile in drooping racemes. 

Habitat. Thickets and moist localities in the United States, New 
England to Wisconsin, southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 174. 

History. Named after Dioscorides. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature by Dr. Nichols in 1866, Am. Horn. Observer, III. 357. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 123 ; X. 506, 511.] 

Part Used. The fresh root; gathered before flowering, or when 
the stem dies down in the autumn. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Dioscorea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



DIRCA PALUSTRIS. Wicopy. 

Natural Order. Thymelaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Leather wood, Moose wood, Rope bark, 
Thong bark, Swamp wood, Wicopy. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, with erect stem, 3 to 6 feet high, 
much branched, jointed branchlets, with smooth, yellow-brown, fibrous 
and remarkably tough bark. The leaves are alternate, entire, oval, 
obovate, smooth, with short petioles, the bases of which conceal the 
buds of the following season. The light-yellow flowers appear from 
March to May, preceding the leaves, three in a cluster, from a bud of 
three dark, hairy scales, forming an involucre, from which soon pro- 
ceeds a leafy branch. 



252 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Damp, rich woods, sometimes in swamps, of New 
England, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and especially northward. 

History. Name derived from the Greek, dirka, a fountain, in 
reference to its habitation. On account of its toughness the twigs 
are used for rods and the bark for ropes. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1874 by Dr. Spooner, N. Y. Journal of Horn. II. 
424. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 165.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <.- Drug strength T ^. 

Dirca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 150 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

DOLICHOS PRURIENS. Cowhage. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carpopogon pruriens, Mucana pruriens, M. 
prurita, Stitzolobium pruriens ; English, Cowitch, Kiwach ; French, 
Pois velus ; German, Kratzbohnen. 

Description. A large, evergreen, herbaceous vine, with branching 
stem extending 12 feet, scabrous at first, afterward glabrous. The 
leaves are alternate, pinnately trifoliate, on long, scabrous petioles, a 
foot apart on the stem, with entire, ovate, acute leaflets, glabrous 
above, scabrous beneath. The dark-purple flowers appear in threes, 
on short peduncles, in axillary, pendulous racemes. The pod is 3 
inches long, ^ inch broad, densely covered with short, sharp, quad- 
rangular, prismatic, reddish hairs, which contain a brown granular 
matter, partially filling the space within them. When these hairs 
penetrate the skin they cause an unbearable itching, which is much 
increased by washing and rubbing. 

Habitat. West Indies and other parts of tropical America. Fig., 
Bent, and Trim. 78. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 253 

History. Dolichos is the name of an edible plant, described by 
Dioscorides ; mucana is the Brazilian name of a species mentioned in 
the seventeenth century ; pruriens, itching, caused by the hairs. The 
hairs were officinal and used as a mechanical anthelmintic. Mentioned 
in homoeopathic literature in 1851 by Dr. Jeanes, N. A. Journal of 
Horn. I. 209. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 167.] 

Part Used. The setae, which cover the pods; they consist of 
short, strong, reddish hairs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength -^ 

Dolichos, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA. Sun-Dew. 

Natural Order. Droseraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Drosera capillaris, Rorella rotundifolia, Ros- 
solis; English, Moor-grass, Red-rot, Round-leaved sun-dew, Sun-dew, 
Youth-wort ; French, Rose"e du soleil ; German, Sonnenthau. 

Description. A low, perennial, almost stemless, aquatic herb, with 
thin, short, fibrous root. The leaves are radicle, clustered, orbicular, 
circinate, abruptly narrowed into the spreading, hairy petioles, pale- 
green on the lower surface, covered on the upper with long, red, viscid 
hairs, each bearing a small gland at the top, which exposed to the sun 
exudes a clear, shining juice, whence the name. These hairs are 
irritable, so that when an insect lights upon the leaf it bends down 
and holds it prisoner. The flowers, opening only in sunshine, appear 
in July and August, on a naked scape 2 to 6 inches high, in a one-sided 
raceme which nods at the top, so that the opening flower appears 
terminal. 



254 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Northern and Central Europe, United States from 
Florida northward; found in sandy swamps. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 
256 ; Winkler, 62 ; Millspaugh, 29. 

History. Name from the Greek, droseros, dewy. It was used in 
medicine in the sixteenth century, but fell into disuse until introduced 
into homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag, de Vir. 
Med. Pos. 128. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 170.] 

Parts Used The entire fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Drosera, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

DUBOISIA MYOPOROIDES. Dubosia. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Description. A tall shrub, or small tree, with a firm, close-grained 
wood, soft and white. The odorless, bitter tasting leaves are alternate, 
short-stalked and rather smooth, 2 to 4 inches long, y z to I inch broad 
near the middle, lanceolate and narrowed at the apex and base ; a 
slight ridge on the upper side marks the prominent midrib. The 
small, white, or pale-lilac flowers are arranged in terminal centrifugal 
panicles and have four didynamous stamens with reniform anthers. 
The fruit, an indehiscent black berry, is small and nearly globular ; 
it contains a few curved seeds, with a crustaceous, tubercular, rugose 
testa. ' Duboisia contains an alkaloid duboisin, which is supposed to 
be identical with hyoscyamin. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
X. 507- 

Habitat. Australia. 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 255 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < ; Drug strength ^. 

Duboisia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



DULCAMARA. Bittersweet. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Amara dulcis, Caules dulcamara, Dulcamara 
flexuosa, Dulcis amara, Solanum dulcamara, S. lignosum, S. scandens, 
Vitis sylvestris ; English, Bittersweet, Bittersweet nightshade, Fellon 
wood, Garden nightshade, Nightshade, Scarlet berry, Violet bloom, 
Woody nightshade; French, Douce-amere; German, Bittersiiss. 

Description. A deciduous, climbing shrub, with a woody, irregu- 
larly branched, creeping, yellowish-green root, smelling like a potato. 
The stem, from 8 to 10 feet high when supported, woody at the base, 
pubescent above, is alternately branched, with lower branches dark, 
greenish-yellow; the younger, purplish. The leaves are alternate, 
petiolate and entire ; the lower ones cordate, the upper, hastate, or 
with two ear-like lobes at base, pubescent beneath. The purple 
flowers appear from May to September in small, lateral, extra axillary, 
drooping cymes. The berries are scarlet, oval and poisonous. 

Habitat. Widely distributed in Europe, Asia, Africa and North 
America ; found in mossy banks and disused ground around dwellings, 
fences and hedges. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 261 ; Winkler, 136; Jahr and 
Cat. 205; Goullon, 186; Bent, and Trim. 190; Millspaugh, 124. 

History. From dulcis, sweet, and amara, bitter, as when chewed, 
the plant is at first bitter, then sweet. It was used as a medicine as 
early as the thirteenth century. Introduced in homoeopathic practice 
by Hahnemann in 1811, R. A. M. L. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
178; X. 511.] 



256 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Parts Used. The whole plant before flowering; plants growing 
where the rootlets run into the water are preferable. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Dulcamara, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 685 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



ELAPS CORALLESJUS. Coral Snake. 

Order. Ophidia. 

Family. Elapidae. 

Synonym. English, Coral viper. 

Description. The head of this snake is small, round and depressed, 
with a short, broad muzzle, and is not separated from the body by a 
distinct neck. Its jaws are supplied with sharp teeth, and the fangs 
stand alone in the upper jaw. The body is covered with smooth 
scales, colored to form bands of the brightest black and red ; these 
rings are equi-distant. About 200 transverse shields cover the belly. 
The muzzle and forehead are black, as also the first ring of the neck. 
The length of the snake is about 2^ feet ; very poisonous. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 190. 

Habitat. Brazil. 

Part Used. The venom; procured by compressing the gland 
while the serpent is either pinioned in a frame, or under the influence 
of chloroform. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution : 2x, T ^ in glycerin. 

b. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with glycerin. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



ELATERIUJVL Squirting Cucumber. 

Natural Order Cucurbitaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cucumis agrestis, C. asininus, Ecbalium 
agreste, E. elaterium, E. officinarum, Elaterium cordifolium, Momor- 
dica elaterium ; English, Squirting cucumber, Wild cucumber ; French, 
Concombre sauvage ; German, Springgurke. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with several trailing 
thick stems, I to 4 feet long, and with alternate, cordate leaves. The 
flowers are dioecious, the male flowers several together, female gener- 
ally solitary, appearing in June and July. The fruit is an elliptical 
gourd, \y 2 inch long, I inch thick, yellow when ripe, prickly, filled 
with a watery, nearly colorless, transparent juice, in which the seeds 
are immersed, and when ripe, separating from the stalk suddenly and 
violently expelling the juice and seeds. From the juice around the 
seeds of the nearly ripe fruit the elaterium is deposited, which Dr. 
Clutterbuck (by whose name the best is known) found contained the 
active substance. This is in irregular, thin fragments, light, friable 
and opaque, bright pale-green, becoming grayish with age. It has a 
fine granular fracture, an acrid, bitter taste and a faint odor of tea. 

Habitat. A common weed in the south of Europe and Mediter- 
ranean countries, extending as far east as Persia ; cultivated in Eng- 
land. Fig., Goullon, 112; Bent, and Trim. 115. 

History. Name from ekballo, to throw out ; elaterion, purging. 
It was known in the time of Dioscorides. The experiments of Clutter- 
buck were in 1819. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1846 by 
Dr. C. B. Matthews, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. p. 124. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 200.] 

Part Used. A sediment from the juice of the fruit, obtained as 
follows: "Cut the fruit lengthwise and lightly press out the juice; 
strain it through a hair sieve and set aside to deposit ; carefully pour 
off the supernatant liquid ; pour the sediment on a linen filter and dry 
it on porous tiles in a warm place. The decanted fluid may deposit 
a second portion of sediment, which can be dried in the same way. 
B. H. P." Maximum dose ^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



258 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

EPIG^A REPENS. Trailing Arbutus. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Gravel laurel, Gravel plant, Gravel weed, 
Ground laurel, May flower, Mountain pink, Trailing arbutus, Winter 
pink. 

Description. An evergreen undershrub, with a red and brown 
fibrous root having many tangled rootlets. The stem is 6 to 18 inches 
long, woody, rounded and hairy, with a brown bark. The leaves are 
alternate, entire, cordate, ovate, petiolate, 2 inches long. The flowers 
are white, pink, or rose-colored, appearing early in the spring in small 
axillary clusters from scaly bracts, and are very fragrant. 

Habitat. Common from Newfoundland to Saskatchawan and 
southward to Florida, in sandy woods, or rocky hillsides, especially 
in the shade of pines and on rich, damp, mossy banks. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 101. 

History. Name derived from epi, upon, and gaia, the earth. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1873 by Dr. Hale, New 
Rem. 3d ed. 216. 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Epigaea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dihitions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

EPIPHEGUS VIRGINIANA. Beechdrop. 

Natural Order. Orobanchaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Epiphegus americanus, Orobanche virginiana; 
English, Beechdrop, Broom rape, Cancer-root, Squaw-root; French, 
Orobanche de Virginie ; German, Krebswurz. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 259 

Description. A low, perennial, parasitic herb, having a globular, 
scaly, tuberous root, and a slender, branching, angular, purplish or 
yellowish-brown stem, 6 to 18 inches long, covered with scattered 
scales. The flowers, whitish and purple, are scattered on racemes, or 
spikes, and appear from August to October. The whole plant has a 
bitter, nauseous, somewhat astringent taste. 

Habitat. North America, New Brunswick to Florida, westward 
to Missouri ; growing on the roots of beech trees. 

History. Name from epi, upon, phegos, the beech. 
Parts Used. The whole plant; collected in autumn. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 
Epiphegus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: jx and higher. 



EQUISETUM HYEMALE. Scouring Rush. 

Natural Order. Equisetaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Dutch rush, Horse tail, Polishing rush, 
Scouring rush, Shave grass ; French, Prele ; German, Schachtelhalm. 

Description. An evergreen herb, leafless, with creeping rhizomes, 
and a tall, stout, rush-like, hollow and jointed stem, \y z to 4 feet high, 
rarely branched, evenly and many grooved, with the cuticle abounding 
in silex. It is flowerless, and at each joint of the stem a black line of 
teeth appears. 

Habitat. It is found in fields and wet places, almost universally. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 179. 



26O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name from equus, horse, and seta, bristle. Long used 
in old-school practice. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1873 
by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 3d ed. Proving of Dr. Smith, 1876. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 204; X. 512.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y^. 
Equisetum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 1 50 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ERECHTHITES HffiRACIFOLIA. Fire Weed. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Senecio hieracifolius ; English, Fire weed, Fire 
wood. 

Description. A coarse annual herb, having a grooved, hairy, erect 
stem, i to 7 feet high, with alternate, simple leaves, the upper ones 
with clasping base, lanceolate, acute, dentate, and of a light-green 
color. The numerous, whitish, terminal flowers appearing from July 
to September are panicled, the corymbed heads many flowered. The 
whole plant has a rank odor. 

Habitat. North America from Newfoundland southward ; found 
in moist woods, common in recent clearings, where the ground has 
been burned over, hence its popular name. Fig-, Millspaugh, 90. 

History. Name signifying to trouble. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature in 1853 by Dr. Birnstill, Quart. Horn. Journ. n. s. I. 92. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 210.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 26 1 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Erechthites, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ERIGERON CANADENSE. Canada Fleabane. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Erigeron paniculatus, E. pusillus, E. strictum, 
Senecio ciliatus; English, Blood stanch, Butter horse weed, Butter 
weed, Canada fleabane, Colt's tail, Fleabane, Horse weed, Mare's tail, 
Pride weed, Scabious ; French, Herbe d' erigeron ; German, Berufkraut. 

Description. An annual shrub, with erect, wand-like, bristly stem, 
i to 5 feet high, with numerous ascending branches, mostly in the 
upper part. The radical leaves are sessile, obovate, with few deep 
large teeth, soon withering ; the stem leaves are numerous, alternate, 
lanceolate, generally entire, glabrous above, hairy beneath. The 
flowers appear from June to October, are in numerous, cylindrical, 
panicled heads, ^ inch long, arranged in terminal racemes ; the disk 
flowers are yellow, with a hairy pappus ; the ray, white or purple, very 
narrow and in several rows. 

Habitat. Native of America; widely distributed throughout the 
temperate regions. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 149; Millspaugh, 80. 

History. The name derived from er, spring, and geron, an old 
man, suggested by its hoary appearance in the spring. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1856 by Dr. H. Ring, N. A. Journ. of Horn. 
V. 282. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 211.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 



262 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Erigeron, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x an 1 higher. 



ERIODICTYON GLUTINOSUM. Yerba Santa. 

Natural Order. Hydrophyllaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eriodictyon calif ornicum, Wigandia californica; 
English, Bear's weed, Consumptive's weed, Mountain balm, Yerba 
santa. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, with a stem 3 to 5 feet high, 
having alternate, petiolate, lanceolate leaves, more or less serrate, 
glabrous above, whitish beneath, with a minute and close tomentum, 
2 to 3 inches long, ^ to ^ inch broad, glutinous, with a balsamic 
resin. The flowers are showy, purplish-blue, funnel-formed, ^ inch 
long, in axillary and terminal racemose clusters. 

Habitat. Central California to Northern Mexico; found among 
rocks and on dry mountains. 

History. Proving by Dr. Pease. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
218; X. 513.] 

Part Used. The leaves, recently dried. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Eriodictyon, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 265 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM. Button Snake-Root. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eryngium petiolatum, E. praelatum, E. virgin- 
ianum, E. yuccaefolium ; English, Button snake-root, Corn snake-root, 
Rattlesnake master, Water eryngo, Water snake-root. 

Description. A perennial, evergreen shrub, having a rhizome 
^ to y 2 inch long, with numerous short branches terminating with a 
more or less deeply cut-shaped scar. The stem is simple, from I to 5 
feet high, with grass-like, dentate leaves from 6 inches to 2 feet long, 
taper-pointed, prickly, coriaceous. The white flowers are inconspicu- 
ous, appearing in July and August, in terminal, compound umbels, 
larger than the leaflets of the involucre. 

Habitat. New Jersey to Wisconsin and southward; found in dry 
or damp pine barrens, or on the prairies, never aquatic. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 62. 

History. From erygein, to belch; according to Dioscorides, a 
specific for flatulence. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1855 
by Dr. Parks, Hill and Hunt's Surgery, p. 400. Proving by Dr. Mc- 
Clelland, 1865, Am. Horn. Obs. II. 180. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. 213.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Eryngium aquaticum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



264 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ERYNGIUM MARITINUM. Sea Holly. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 
Synonyms.- English, Eringo, Sea holly. 

Description. An evergreen herb, with an extensive, creeping, 
cylindrical, fleshy root. The stem, \y z feet high, is glaucous, with 
radical, short, roundish, spiny leaves. The blue flowers appear from 
July to October, stalked in thistle-like heads. 

Habitat. Great Britain; found on sandy sea shores. 

History. The root was used as an aphrodisiac, being known in 
Shakspeare's time as the kissing comfits of Falstaff. A proving by 
Ivatts was published in November, 1873, Am. Horn. Obs. X. 564. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 21.7.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant, with the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Eryngium maritinum, moist magma containing solids lOoGm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



ERYTHROPHLEUM JUDICIALE. Sassy Bark. 

Natural Order Leguminoseae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Afzelia grandis, Erythrophlaeum guineense, 
Fillaea suavoliens; English, Mancona bark, Ordeal bark tree, O. doom- 
bark, Sassy bark; French, Ecorce de man96ne; German, Mancona- 
Rinde. 

Description. A large tree, attaining the height of 100 feet, with 
spreading branches, bi-pinnate, coriacious leaves, and flowers in com- 
pound terminal racemes. The bark, ^ inch thick, comes in flat or 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 265 

curved various-sized pieces, hard, brittle and fibrous, with a warty, 
fissured, corky, reddish-brown layer externally, and a yellowish-brown, 
spotted internally. It is odorless, and of a bitter, astringent taste. 

Habitat. Central and Western Africa. 

History. Name from erythros, red, the color of the juice. Used 
by the natives as an arrow poison. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 
5I5-] 

Part Used The dried bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J>: Drug strength ^. 

Erythrophlaeum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Ttiturations : ix and higher. 



ERYTHROXYLON COCA. Coca. 

Natural Order. Erythroxylaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Coca leaves; French, Feuilles de coca; 
German, Cocablatter. 

Description. A bushy, perennial shrub. The stem, 4 to 6 feet 
high, is much branched : bark of stem wrinkled, of young twigs smooth. 
The leaves are alternate, entire, lanceolate or obovate, narrowing into 
short petioles, emarginate, I to 2 inches long, I to \y 2 inches broad, 
thin, smooth, bright-green above, purplish or glaucous beneath. The 
midrib is prominent, with a characteristic curved line on each side, 
running from the base to the apex. The yellowish flowers are in 
axillary clusters, on slender, drooping, glabrous stalks. 



266 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. South America ; cultivated in Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and 
Colombia; found in damp, warm valleys and on mountain slopes at an 
elevation of from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. Fig., Goullon, 44; Bent, and 
Trim. 40. 

History. Name from erythros, red, and xylon, wood. The plant 
begins to yield in 18 months and continues productive for 50 years. 
Proving by Dr. Mueller, 1856, Horn. v. j. Schrift VII. 443 ; B. J. Horn. 
XV. 529. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. III. 369; X. 470.] 

Part Used. The leaves, recently dried and carefully selected. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Erythroxylon coca, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 

ESERINUM. Eserin. 

Chemical Symbol . C 1 5 H 2 x N 3 O 2 . 

Synonyms. Latin, Physostigmin ; English, Eserine. 

Description. An alkaloid from the unpeeled seeds of physostigma 
venenosa Calabar bean. It is in the form of colorless, rhomboidal, 
tabular crystals, hygroscopic, readily changing to a resin-like mass, 
bitter tasting, melting at 194 Fahr., readily soluble in ether, alcohol 
and chloroform, sparingly in water, also soluble in acids, neutralizing 
them and forming soluble salts. An active poison. Maximum dose 
fa grain. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Dr. McGuire, 
1878, Am. Horn. Obs. XV. 195. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 516.] 

Part Used. The alkaloid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 267 

EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. Fever Tree. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eucalyptus globosus; English, Australian 
fever or gum tree, Blue gum tree. 

Description. An ornamental, evergreen tree, one of about one 
hundred and thirty-five described species, growing to a height of 50 
feet in five or six years, acquiring the height of 100 to 300 feet, and 
having a smooth, pale-gray bark. The leaves, i foot long, are oppo- 
site in young plants, becoming alternate as they get older, entire, 
lanceolate, thick and leathery, varying according to age, from a glau- 
cous-white to bluish-green color. The flowers are large and white, 
appearing from May to July later in Australia, pedunculate, axil- 
lary, single and clustered. 

Habitat. Australia, Tasmania; cultivated in Europe and on the 
Pacific coast of America; found on valley sides and moist slopes of 
woody hills. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 109. 

History. Name from eu, well, and kalypto, to cover with a lid. 
Introduced in Europe in 1856. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature 
in 1869 by Dr. Roder, All'g. Horn. Zeit. 78, 46. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 228.] 

Part Used. The leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 

Eucalyptus, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 914 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

EUGENIA JAMBOS. Rose Apple. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eugenia vulgaris, Myrtus jambos; English, 
Malabar plum tree, Narrow-leaved eugenia, Rose apple. 



268 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. An evergreen tree, attaining the height of 25 feet or 
more. The leaves are alternate, entire, lanceolate. The flowers are 
large, greenish-yellow, appearing from February to July in groups of 
four, on terminal peduncles. The tree is always in flower or fruit." 
The fruit is edible, the root and skin of kernel very poisonous. 

Habitat. East Indies and the warm countries of America. 

History. Named in honor of Prince Eugene of Savoy, a patron 
of botany; jambosa, a Malay name. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1832 by Dr. Hering, Archiv. XII. I, 187. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 231.] 

Part Used. The fresh seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincttire <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Eugenia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 3.33 

Strong alcohol, 797 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS. Wahoo. 

Natural Order. Celastraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Euonymus caroliniensis, E. latifolius, E. tristis ; 
English, Bitter ash, Burning bush, Indian arrow wood, Purple spindle 
tree, Spindle bush, Spindle tree, Strawberry tree, Wahoo. 

Description. A deciduous shrub having an erect stem, 6 to 14 
feet high, straight, quadrangular and smooth, with branches light-gray 
in color, the small ones being purplish; the ridged bark has white, 
warty spots. The leaves are opposite, petiolate, oblong, acuminate, 
serrate, pubescent beneath, 2 to 5 inches long. The flowers are 
purple, appearing in June in loose cymes, commonly in fours, on 
axillary peduncles. 

Habitat. Northern part of the United States east of the Missis- 
sippi ; found in moist open woods and along rivers. Fig., Millspaugh, 
42. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 269 

History. Name from eo, well, and onoma, a name. Introduced 
into homoeopathic literature in 1867 by Dr. Hale, New Remedies, 2d 
ed. 340. 

Part Used The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Euonymus atropurp., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 797 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



EUONYMUS EUROP^US. Burning Bush. 

Natural Order. Celastraceae. 

Synonyms. English, Burning bush, European spindle tree, Spindle 
tree ; French, Bonnet de pretre ; German, Spindelbaum. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, with branching stem, 1 5 to 20 
feet high, with alternate, simple, oblong, lanceolate, short petioled 
leaves, smooth and small. The greenish flowers, appearing from May 
to July, are in threes on a compressed stalk. The fruit is a red, quad- 
rangular, hooded capsule. 

Habitat. All over Europe and Great Britain ; found in woods ; 
cultivated in gardens, in hedges. Fig., Winkler, 68. 

History [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 234; X. 518.] 
Part Used. The fruit, as it begins to redden in August. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength T V 
Euonymus europaeus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



2/O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

EUPATORIUM AROMATICUM. White Snake-Root. 

Natural Order. Compositse. 

Synonyms. English, Pool-root, White snake-root. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a nearly simple, 
erect, smooth or slightly pubescent stem, 4 feet high. The leaves are 
on short petioles, three-nerved, ovate, acute, bluntly serrate, glabrous 
and thick. The white flowers appear from July to September in 8 to 
30 flowered corymbose heads. 

Habitat. North America; found in copses near the coast from 
Massachusetts to Virginia and southward. 

History. Named from Eupator, king of Pontus, who used it in 
medicine. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1864 by Dr. Hale, 
New Remedies. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tinctiire <f> : Drug strength T ^. 

Eupatorium arom., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM. Boneset. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eupatorium connatum, E. salviaefolium, E. 
virginicum; English, Ague weed, Boneset, Crosswort, Feverwort, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 271 

Indian sage, Joe-pye, Sweating plant, Teasel, Thorough root, Thorough 
wax, Thorough wort, Vegetable antimony ; French, Herbe d'eupatoire 
perfoliee ; German, Durchwachsdost. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a horizontal root. 
The stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is stout, erect, villous, round and branching 
at the top. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate, prominently ribbed, 
rugose, united at the base around the stem (connate-perfoliate), 
serrate, shining-green above, pubescent beneath, 5 to 8 inches long, 
I to 2 inches wide at the base. The purplish-white flowers, appearing 
from August to October, are in 30 to 40 flowered heads, stalked, rather 
small, in dense, opposite branched, axillary and terminal cymes. 

Habitat. North America ; found in low grounds from Nova Scotia 
and Dakota to Florida and Louisiana. Fig:, Bent, and Trim. 147; 
Millspaugh, 79. 

History. One of the most extensively used plants in domestic 
practice. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Williamson 
in 1845, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 1845, r 35- [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. 234; X. 520.] 

Parts Used The fresh leaves and tops, while in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T 1 iT . 

Eupatorium perfoliatum, moist magma containing solids lOoGm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM. Trumpet Weed. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Eupatorium maculatum, E. ternifolium, E. 
trifoliatum, E. verticillatum ; English, Gravel root, Joe-pye, Joe-pye 
weed, Purple boneset, Queen of the meadow, Trumpet weed ; German, 
Purpurrother Wasserhanf. 



272 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a rigid, erect, 
hollow, stout, simple stem, 2 to 12 feet high, punctate in lines, purple 
above the nodes, often maculate. The leaves are whorled, mostly in 
fives, stalked, reticulate, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely serrate 
and roughish. The purple flowers appear from August to October, in 
terminal, dense, compound, corymbose heads. 

Habitat. North America ; found in low grounds from New Bruns- 
wick to Saskatchawan, south to Florida and westward to New Mexico 
and British Columbia. Fig., Millspaugh, 78. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1864 by Dr. 
Hale, Am. Horn. Obs. I. 133. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 237.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Eupatorium purpureum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

EUPHORBIA COROLLATA. Flowering Spurge. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Tithymalus marinus; English, Blooming 
spurge, Bowman's root, Flowering spurge, Large flowering spurge, 
Milk purslain, Milk-weed, Snake milk, Wandering milk-weed, Wild 
hippo, Wild ipecac ; French, Euphorbe ; German, Wolfsmilch. 

Description. -A perennial herb, having a large, branching root, 
with a number of simple, round, erect stems, i> to 3 feet high, glab- 
rous, or somewhat hairy, having a milky, acrid juice. The leaves of 
the stem are alternate, of the pedicels opposite, at the base of the 
inflorescence whorled, the number corresponding with that of the pedi- 
cels; they are entire, ovate, lanceolate, i^ to 2 inches long, % to Yz 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 2/3 

inch wide, smooth above, slightly hairy beneath. The flowers, appear- 
ing from July to October, are in axillary and terminal branches of 5 
to 7 rays, each 2 or 3 forked ; the 5 showy white appendages of the 
involucre appearing like petals. 

Habitat. North America, New York to Wisconsin and southward ; 
found, rather sparsely, in rich or sandy soils, dry meadows and open 
woods. Fig., Millspaugh, 148. 

History. Named after Euphorbus, physician to Juba, king of 
Mauritania. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1862 by Dr. 
Hale, N. A. Journ. of Horn. XI. 49. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
244.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength ^. 

Euphorbia corollata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

EUPHORBIA HYPERICIFOLIA. Large Spotted Spurge. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Black parsley, Large spotted spurge, Milk 
parsley ; German, Johanneskraut, Blattrige Wolfsmilch. 

Description. An annual herb, with a stem from 8 inches to 2 feet 
high, erect, divergently branched, glabrous, or diffusely villous. The 
leaves are opposite, oblique, slightly cordate, ovate-oblong, sometimes 
falcate, serrate, ^ to \y 2 inches long, often with red spots, or red 
margins. The numerous flowers appear in summer and autumn, with 
peduncles longer than petioles, in loose, leafy, terminal cymes. The 
involucral appendages are entire, large and white, or small and red. 



274 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America ; very common ; found in 
open places in cultivated soil. Fig., Millspaugh, 147. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 245.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 



EUPHORBIUM OFFICINARUM. Gum Euphorbium. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Euphorbia resinifera, E. tenella, Euphorbium 
polygonum ; English, Gum euphorbium, Spurge ; French, Gomme- 
r^sine d'euphorbe ; German, Euphorbium. 

Description. The resinous juice, or gum resin, of euphorbia resini- 
fera, a fleshy, leafless, perennial plant, resembling a cactus. The erect 
stem, 4 to 6 feet high, is simple at first, becoming woody and branched 
with age, angled or furrowed, with longitudinal fissures, with blunt 
angles, along which are scales, each bearing 2 short, sharp, spreading 
spines, % inch long. The juice is obtained by incisions in the fleshy 
branches, causing an abundant exudation of an exceedingly corrosive 
milky juice, which hardens by exposure to the air, encrusting the 
stems from which it is collected late in the summer. The drug is 
found in market in irregular pieces, less than an inch across, of a dull- 
yellow or brown waxy-looking color. It is brittle, translucent, odor- 
less, except when heated, with a persistent, extremely acrid taste ; its 
dust excites violent sneezing. It is soluble in alcohol, melts and burns 
with a brilliant flame. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 275 

Habitat. Native of Morocco ; growing on the lower slope of the 
Atlas Mountains. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 268 ; Winkler, 67 ; Goullon, 
229 ; Bent, and Trim. 240. 

History. Euphorbium was known to the ancients and described 
by Dioscorides and Pliny. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by 
Hahnemann in 1837, Chr. Krankheiten, 2d ed. III. 277. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 246; X. 521.] 

Part Used. The gum-resin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Euphorbium, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 



EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS. Eyebright 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Euphragia alba, Euphrasia Candida, E. latifolia, 
E. pratensis, E. pusilla; English, Euphrasy, Eyebright; French, 
Euphraise; German, Augentrost. 

Description. An annual herb, with a white, fibrous root, and an 
erect, opposite, branching, hairy stem, 3 to 6 inches high. The leaves 
are opposite, ovate or lanceolate, bluntly dentate ; the lower ones 
crenate, the floral, bristly-toothed. The flowers are small, solitary, 
very abundant, whitish, yellowish or bluish, inodorous, and appear 
from June to September, in leafy, axillary spikes at the tops of stems 
and branches. 

Habitat. Europe and the summits of the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire, Lake Superior region and northward. A dwarf 
variety, i to 5 inches high, with very small flowers. Fig., Flora Horn. 
I. 275; Winkler, 266; Millspaugh, 115. 

History. The name from Euphrosine, one of the muses, express- 
ing joy or pleasure. Known as a remedy for the eyes as early as 1300. 



2/6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann in 1819, R. A. 
M. L., V. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 254.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Euphrasia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



EUPIOR Eupion. 

Description. Consists of a colorless, transparent, light oil, taste- 
less, and having a flower-like odor. It volatilizes noticeably at the 
ordinary temperature. Is soluble in water, slightly soluble in dilute 
alcohol ; mixes readily with absolute alcohol, ether, fixed and volatile 
oils ; specific gravity 0.65 at 20 C. It is unchanged by acids, alkalies 
and by light. Eupion unites with bromin, iodin and chlorin without 
decomposition. It is obtained from wood-tar, during the process of 
distillation. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 266. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : -^, with strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with strong alcohol ; freshly made. 



FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM. Buckwheat. 

Natural Order. Polygonaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Polygonum fagopyrum; English, Buckwheat. 

Description. An annual herb, with an erect, delicate, branched, 
smoothish, juicy stem, 18 inches to 3 feet high, and triangular-cordate, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 277 

sagittate, acute leaves, with stipules in the form of semi-cylindrical 
sheaths. The fine, white flowers, tinged with green, or rose color, 
appear from June to September, in terminal and axillary corymbose 
racemes. 

Habitat. Native of northern or central Asia; found in old fields, 
remaining as a weed, where it has once been cultivated. Introduced 
and cultivated in Europe and the United States. Fig., Millspaugh, 142. 

History. Name derived from phegos, the beech, and pyros, wheat, 
from the resemblance of the grain to the beech nut. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1873 by Dr. Hitchcock, Trans. Am. Inst. 
Horn. 1873, 278. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 277.] 

Parts Used. The whole plant at maturity. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Fagopyrum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 797 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



FERRUM ACETICUM. Ferric Acetate. 

Ferrum Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. Fe 2 6C 2 H 3 O 2 ; 464.92. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri acetatis, F. acetas ; English, Acetate of 
iron, Ferric acetate ; French, Acetate de fer ; German, Essigsaure 
eisen. 

Description. An uncrystallizable salt; freely soluble in water, 
giving a dark-brown solution, also soluble in alcohol. The aqueous 
solution is decomposed by boiling. It has the odor of acetic acid, and 
a strong, metallic, styptic taste; gives a blue precipitate with potas- 



278 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

sium ferrocyanid. It is obtained from ferric oxid and acetic acid, or 
by the decomposition of a solution of ferric sulfate with lead acetate. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 303. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations ; 2x and higher. 

b. Solution: -fa in distilled water; freshly made. 

c. Dihttions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; freshly made. 

FERRUM ARSENICICUM. Ferrous Arsenate. 

Ferrum Arseniatc. 

Chemical Symbol. 3Fe(FeO)AsO 4 i6H 2 O; 1086.74. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri arsenias, Arsenias ferrosus; English, 
Arseniate of iron, Ferrous arseniate, Triferric diarseniate; French, 
Arseniate de fer; German, Arsensaures eisen. 

Description. A greenish-blue, amorphous, odorless and tasteless 
powder. Insoluble in water, soluble in ammonium citrate. It is 
obtained by precipitating a mixture of sodium arsenate and ferrous 
sulfate with acid sodium carbonate. A poison. Maximum dose y^ 
grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

FERRUM BROMATUM. Ferrous Bromid. 

Ferrum Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol. FeBr 2 ; 215.4. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri bromidum ; English, Bromide of iron; 
French, Bromure ferreux ; German, Eisenbromid. 

Description. Consists of crystalline masses, deliquescent, and of 
a styptic taste ; soluble in water or alcohol. Its aqueous solution is 
of a light-green color. It is obtained from metallic iron and bromin. 
It should be kept protected from light and air. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 2/9 

FERRUM CARBONICUM. Ferrous Carbonate. 

Ferrum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. FeCO 3 ; 1 1 5.73. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri carbonas, Carbonas ferrosus ; English, 
Carbonate of iron, Saccharated carbonate of iron ; French, Proto- 
carbonate de fer ; German, Kohlensaures eisen. 

Description. An amorphous, greenish, odorless powder, having a 
faint metallic taste ; insoluble in water and alcohol, readily dissolved 
with effervescence in diluted hydrochloric acid. In a damp atmos- 
phere, it is slowly converted into ferric oxid ; at a red heat, it loses its 
carbon dioxid, and is converted into brown-red ferric oxid. It is 
obtained from ferrous sulfate and acid sodium carbonate, and may be 
protected, to a certain extent, from oxidation by use of cane sugar. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 303. 

Preparation of the saccharated ferrous carbonate, U. S. P. : 
Ferrous sulfate, 50 Gm. 

Sodium bicarbonate, 35 Gm. 

Cane sugar in fine powder, 1 

~. ... . > each a sufficient quantity. 

Distilled water, ) 

To make one hundred grammes. 

Dissolve the ferrous sulfate in two hundred (200) cubic centimeters 
of hot distilled water, and the sodium bicarbonate in five hundred (500) 
cubic centimeters of distilled water, at a temperature not exceeding 
50 C. (122 F.), and filter the solutions separately. To the solution 
of sodium bicarbonate, contained in a flask, having a capacity of about 
one thousand (1000) cubic centimeters, add, gradually, the solution of 
ferrous sulfate, and mix thoroughly by rotating the flask. Fill up the 
flask with boiling distilled water, cork it loosely, and set the mixture 
aside. When the precipitate has subsided, draw off the clear, super- 
natant liquid by means of a siphon, and then fill the flask again with 
hot distilled water and shake it. Again draw off the clear liquid, and 
repeat the washings with hot distilled water in the same manner, 
until the decanted liquid gives not more than a slight cloudiness with 
barium chlorid test-solution. Finally, drain the precipitate thoroughly 
on a muslin strainer, transfer it to a porcelain capsule, containing 
eighty (80) grammes of sue:ar, and mix intimately ; evaporate the 



28O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

mixture to dryness, by means of a water-bath, reduce it to powder and 
mix intimately with it, if necessary, enough well-dried sugar to make 
the final product weigh one hundred (100) grammes. Keep the 
product in small, well-stoppered bottles. This preparation contains 
about 20 per cent of ferrous carbonate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : Equal portions of the saccharated ferrous carbonate 

and milk sugar will make the ix trituration. 
Preparations of this salt should be freshly made. 



FERRUM IODATUM. Ferrous lodid 

Ferrum lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. FeI 2 ; 308.94. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferrum iodidum, Ferri iodidum saccharatum ; 
English, lodid of iron, Saccharated iodid of iron; French, lodure de 
fer; German, Jodeisen. 

Description. A yellowish-grey, odorless, hygroscopic powder, 
having a sweetish metallic taste, and a faint acid reaction. It is 
partially soluble in alcohol; soluble in 7 parts of water at 15 C, 
forming a clear, limpid solution, which gives a greenish precipitate 
with ammonium hydrate, a blue precipitate with ammonium ferricy- 
anid, and acquires a blue color, upon the addition of starch and a 
small quantity of chlorin water. Heat decomposes it, volatilizes the 
iodid and gives a residue of ferric oxid. It is obtained from metallic 
iron and iodin. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 324. 

Preparation of the saccharated ferrous iodid, U. S. P. : 

Iron, in the form of fine, bright wire, and cut into small pieces, 6 Gm. 
Reduced iron, I Gm. 

Iodin, 17 Gm. 

Distilled water, ) each a suffident quantity . 

Sugar of milk, recently dried, j 
To make one hundred grammes. 

Mix the iron wire, iodin and twenty (20) cubic centimeters of 
distilled water in a flask of thin glass ; shake the mixture occasionally, 
until the reaction ceases and the solution has acquired a green color 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 28l 

and lost the smell of iodin ; then filter it through a small, wetted 
filter into a porcelain capsule, containing forty (40) grammes of sugar 
of milk. Rinse the flask and iron wire with a little distilled water, 
pass the rinsings through the filter into the capsule, and evaporate, on 
a water-bath, with frequent stirring, until a dry mass remains ; transfer 
this quickly to a heated iron mortar, reduce it to a powder and mix it 
intimately by trituration, with the reduced iron and enough sugar of 
milk to make the final product weigh one hundred (100) grammes. 
Transfer the powder at once to small and perfectly dry bottles, which 
should be securely stoppered and kept in a cool and dark place. 

The above preparation contains about 20 per cent of ferrous iodid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : Equal parts of saccharated ferrous iodid with milk 
sugar will make the ix trituration. 

FERRUM LACTICUM. Ferrous Lactatc. 

Ferrum Lactate. 

Chemical Symbol. Fe 2C 3 H 5 O 3 .3H 2 O; 287.34. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri lactas, Lactas ferrosus ; English, Lactate 
of iron ; French, Lactate de fer ; German, Eisenlactat. 

Description. A greenish-white or yellowish crystalline powder, 
with a slight peculiar odor, and a mild metallic taste ; reaction, acid. 
In a damp atmosphere, it is slowly converted into ferric lactate. Is 
soluble in 40 parts of water at 15 C. ; almost insoluble in alcohol. 
At a red heat, it is decomposed, emitting white acid vapors, having 
the odor of burnt sugar, and leaving a residue of ferric oxid. It is 
prepared with lactic acid and metallic iron, or by mixing a solution of 
sodium lactate with ferrous chlorid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

FERRUM MAGNETICUM. Fcrro-Fcrric Oxid. 

Ferrum Magnetic. 

Chemical Symbol. Fe 3 O 4 ; 231.48. 



282 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri oxidum magneticum, Ferrum oxydatum 
magneticum, Oxydum ferroso-ferricum ; English, Magnetic oxide of 
iron, Black oxide of iron, Loadstone ; French, Oxyde ferrose-ferrique, 
Oxyde de fer noir (magn^tique) ; German, Magneteisen, Eisenoxyd- 
oxydul. 

Description. A brown-black, tasteless, odorless, magnetic powder. 
Insoluble in water and alcohol ; soluble in diluted hydrochloric and 
sulfuric acids. This solution gives all the reactions of the salts of 
iron. Strongly heated in air, it is transformed into red ferric oxid. 
It is found very abundantly in nature, and is artificially prepared from 
a mixture of ferrous and ferric salts and sodium hydrate. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 522. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



FERRUM METALLICUM. Iron by Hydrogen. 

Ferrum. 

Chemical Symbol. Fe ; 55.88. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferrum reductum, F. redactum, F. hydrogenio 
reductum ; English, Iron reduced by hydrogen ; French, Fer reduit par 
1'hydrogene ; German, Reducirtes eisen. 

Description. A fine, dark-grey, tasteless and lusterless powder. 
Permanent in dry air, but in a moist atmosphere converted into ferric 
oxid. In case this reduction takes place at a temperature lower than 
red heat, the reduced iron powder will burn in contact with air 
pyrophorus iron. Insoluble in water and alcohol. It is magnetic, 
and burns easily when in contact with a lighted taper. Is dissolved 
by diluted hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, evolving hydrogen gas. It 
is obtained by the reduction of ferric oxid by hydrogen gas at a high 
temperature. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 303. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations ; ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 283 

FERRUM MURIATICUM. Ferric Chlorid. 

Ferrum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol Fe 2 Cl e .i2H 2 O; 539.5. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri chloridum, F. perchloridum, Ferrum 
sesquichloratum, F. muriaticum oxydatum, Chloridum vel chloruretum 
ferricum; English, Chloride of iron, Sesquichloride (perchloride) of 
iron, Ferric chloride ; French, Perchlorure de fer, Chlorure ferrique ; 
German, Eisenchlorid. 

Description. When obtained directly by the action of chlorin gas 
upon metallic iron, it is crystallized, has a brown color, and a metallic 
luster. Prepared in the wet way, it forms orange-yellow crystalline 
masses, readily deliquesces, has a slight odor of hydrochloric acid, and 
a strong metallic taste. It is volatilized by heat. Is very soluble in 
water and in alcohol. Its aqueous solution gives a blue precipitate 
with potassium ferrocyanid and a deep-blue coloration with ammonium 
sulfocyanate. It is prepared by dissolving metallic iron in hydro- 
chloric acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 329. 

Preparation of the solution of ferric chlorid, U. S. P. : 
Iron, in the form of fine, bright wire, and cut into small pieces, 150 Gm. 
Hydrochloric acid, 870 Gm. 

Nitric acid, ) . . 

> each a sufficient quantity. 
Distilled water, J 

To make one thousand grammes. 

Introduce the iron wire into a flask, having a capacity of about two 
thousand (2000) cubic centimeters, pour upon it a mixture of five 
hundred and forty (540) grammes of hydrochloric acid and two 
hundred and fifty (250) cubic centimeters of distilled water, and let 
the mixture stand in a moderately warm place, until effervescence 
ceases ; then heat it to the boiling point, filter it through paper, and, 
having rinsed the flask and iron wire with a little hot distilled water, 
pass the rinsings through the filter. To the filtered liquid, add two 
hundred and eighty (280) grammes of hydrochloric acid, add the 
mixture slowly and gradually, in a stream, to eighty (80) grammes of 
nitric acid, contained in a capacious porcelain vessel, and warm gently. 
After effervescence ceases, apply heat, by means of a sand-bath, until 
the liquid is free from nitrous odor; then test a few drops of the 



284 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

liquid, diluted with water, with freshly prepared potassium ferricyanid 
test-solution. Should this reagent produce a blue color, add a little 
more nitric acid, drop by drop, as long as effervescence is observed, 
and evaporate off the excess. Finally, add the remaining fifty (50) 
grammes of hydrochloric acid and enough distilled water to make 
the solution weigh one thousand (1000) grammes. A reddish-brown 
liquid, having a faint odor of hydrochloric acid, an acid, strongly 
styptic taste, and an acid reaction; specific gravity, about 1.387 at 
15 C. (59 F.). This preparation contains about 37.8 per cent of the 
anhydrous salt. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^ 

Solution of ferric chlorid, U. S. P., 264 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



FERRUM PHOSPHORICUM. Ferric Phosphate. 

Ferrum Phosphate. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri phosphas, U. S. P., 1860. 

Description. Consists of a bluish-gray powder, odorless and taste- 
less. Insoluble in water or alcohol; soluble in hydrochloric acid, 
forming a yellow solution, which gives a dark-blue precipitate with the 
ferro- or ferricyanid of potassium. With barium chlorid a slight 
turbidity is noticed, but the solution shows no change when treated 
with hydrogen sulfid. No precipitate is thrown down when sufficient 
tartaric acid is added to the acid solution and an excess of ammonia. 
The powder has a greenish-gray color when warmed, or grayish-brown 
at a higher temperature. The filtrate obtained after boiling it with 
caustic soda gives, when neutralized, a yellow precipitate with nitrate 
of silver. On treating the powder with hot distilled water and heating 
it on platinum foil, it should evaporate without residue. This salt is 
obtained by mixing the solutions of sulfate of iron, and phosphate and 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 285 

acetate of sodium, and then washing and drying the resulting precipi- 
tate. This should not be confounded with the ferri phosphas of the 
U. S. P. 1890. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 525. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



FERRUM SULPHURICUM. Ferrous Sulfate. 

Ferrum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. FeSO 4 7H 2 O; 277.42. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ferri sulphas, Sulfas ferrosus, Ferrum vitriola- 
tum purum, Vitriolum martis purum; English, Sulphate of iron, Ferrous 
sulphate ; French, Sulfate ferreux ; German, Ferrosulfat, Schwefelsaures 
Eisenoxydul. 

Description. Consists of large, green, odorless crystals, having a 
saline, styptic taste. Soluble in 1.8 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble 
in alcohol. Efflorescent on exposure to air, it finally loses its crystal- 
line form and appears as a yellowish-white powder. At a temperature 
of 115 C., the salt loses 6 molecules of water and assumes the form of 
a powder ; at a red heat, the last molecule of water is expelled and 
sulfur dioxid, sulfuric acid and oxygen are disengaged, with a residue 
of red ferric oxid. Its aqueous solutions are finally decomposed ; 
they give a white precipitate with barium chlorid and all the reactions 
of ferrous salts. It is prepared from metallic iron and diluted sulfuric 
acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 528. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



FERRI ET QUININE QTRAS. Iron and Quinin Citrate. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chininum ferro-citricum ; English, Citrate of 
iron and quinine; French, Citras ferrico-quinicus ; German, Eisenchinin- 
citrat. 



286 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



Description. Consists of transparent, greenish or reddish-brown 
scales, odorless, and having a bitter and slightly ferruginous taste. 
Permanent in dry, slowly deliquescent in damp air; slowly, but 
entirely soluble in cold water, more quickly so in hot ; slightly soluble 
in alcohol, insoluble in ether; reaction of aqueous solution, slightly 
acid. The addition of tannin gives a grayish-black precipitate the 
mixed tannates of iron and quinin. Ammonia darkens the aqueous 
solution, and causes the formation of a white, curdy precipitate. By 
adding potassium ferrocyanid, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, to 
its filtrate, a blue precipitate is obtained. This salt is obtained by 
dissolving citrate of iron in distilled water, adding quinin, evaporating 
the solution and drying the remainder on plates of glass. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



FERRI ET STRYCHNINE CITRAS. 

Iron and Strychnin Citrate. 

Synonyms. English, Citrate of iron and stychnine; French, Citrate 
de fer et de strychnine ; German, Citronensaures Eisen-Strychnin. 

Description. Consists of thin, transparent scales, of a dark-red to 
yellowish-brown color, odorless, and having a bitter and somewhat 
ferruginous taste. Deliquescent in damp air ; quickly and entirely solu- 
ble in water, partially soluble in alcohol. It chars when strongly heated. 
The residue of ferric oxid should not give an alkaline reaction with 
litmus paper ; reaction of aqueous solution slightly acid. The addi- 
tion of ammonia water darkens the liquid and causes a white precipi- 
tate, which is soluble in boiling water; heated with potassium or 
sodium hydrate test-solution, a brownish-red precipitate is obtained, 
while vapor of ammonia is thrown off. This salt is obtained by dis- 
solving citrate of iron and ammonium in distilled water, also strychnin 
and citric acid. The two solutions are then mixed, partially evapo- 
rated, spread on plates of glass and dried in scales. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 287 



FILIX MAS. Male Fern. 

Natural Order Filices. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aspidium filix mas, Dryopteris f. m., Lastrea 
f. m., Nephrodium f. m., Polypodium f. m. ; English, Male fern ; 
French, Fougere male ; German, Mannliches Farrenkraut. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with short, unbranched 
rhizome, I inch in diameter, but appearing much larger on account of 
many matted fibers, forming a turfy head, blackish and scaly, having 
numerous, long, slightly branched, filiform roots. The fronds (or 
leaves), i to 3 feet long, from extremity of rhizome, are bi-pinnate, 
erect, appearing like a plume, with long, stiff, channelled petioles. 
The fruit consists of minute, brown, ovoid spores, in receptacles 
attached along the midrib on the back of the fronds. The fern has a 
disagreeable odor, and a nauseous, bitter, astringent taste. 

Habitat. Western United States, Lake Superior to the Pacific, 
along the Rocky Mountains to Mexico, parts of South America, all 
temperate parts of Europe and Asia; found in shady places. Fig., 
Winkler, 98 ; Jahr and Cat. 209 ; Goullon, 294 ; Bent, and Trim. 300. 

History. Name derived from aspis, a round shield, from the shape 
of the membrane enclosing the spores. Used by the ancients as a 
vermifuge. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1833 by Dr. 
Hartman, Allg. Horn. Zeit. II. 67. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
332 ; X. 528.] 

Part Used. The root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^V 

Filix mas, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 658 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with alcohol. 



FRAGARIA VESCA. Strawberry. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 



288 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Fragulae, Trifolii fragiferi; English, Straw- 
berry ; French, Fraisier vulgaire ; German, Gemeine Erdbeere. 

Description. A stemless, perennial herb', having a brown, hori- 
zontal, knotted root, with long, creeping sprouts (stolons) that take root 
again. The leaves are radical, ternately compound, obovate, coarsely 
serrate, downy above, hairy beneath, stipules cohering with the base 
of the petioles, which with the scapes are usually hairy and much 
longer than the leaves. The white flowers appear from April to June, 
in loose cymes on long scapes. The fruit is an enlarged, globular, 
pulpy receptacle, on the surface of which the seeds are scattered. 

Habitat. United States; common in fields and rocky places, 
indigenous northward. Fig., Winkler, 70; Millspaugh, 55. 

History, -Name derived from fragrans. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1833 by Dr. Gross, Archiv. XIII. i, 85. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 365 ; X. 529.] 

Parts Used. The ripe fruit, or whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Fragaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

FRASERA CAROLINENSIS. Columbo. 

Natural Order. Gentianaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Frasera walteri, Swertia difformis ; English, 
American columbo, Columbo, Indian lettuce ; French, Colombo d'Ame- 
rique ; German, Amerikanische Colombowurzel. 

Description. A biennial, or triennial, deciduous herb, with a very 
thick, long, fusiform, rugose, yellow and bitter root. The dark-purple 
stem is smooth, erect, cylindrical, succulent, 4 to 8 feet high, i to 2 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 289 

inches thick at the base. The leaves are mostly in whorls, of four to 
six, rarely opposite, smooth, oblong, lanceolate, entire, 3 to 12 inches 
long, i to 3 inches broad, decreasing toward the top. The flowers are 
yellowish-white, with small brown-purple dots, and appear in July, in 
loose pyramidal panicles. 

Habitat. United States, southwestern New York to Wisconsin 
and southward ; found in rich, dry soil. 

History. Named for John Eraser. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature by Dr. Hale in 1867, New Rem. 2d ed. 377. 

Part Used. The root, two years old, dug in October or November. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength -fa. 
Frasera, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 870 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

FUCUS VESICULOSUS. Sea Wrack. 

Natural Order. Algae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quercus marina; English, Black tang, Bladder 
fucus, Common sea wrack, Kelp ware, Sea kelp, Sea ware ; French, 
Fucus vesiculeux ; German, Blasentang. 

Description. This sea-weed is 2 to 4 feet long, with a flat, branch- 
ing thallus, or leaf, y? to i inch wide, smooth and glossy, with entire 
margins and a prominent midrib, extending its entire length. Spheri- 
cal or oval air vessels, growing as large as a hazel-nut, are found on 
either side of the midrib, generally in pairs. The fruit consists of 
globular vessels, filled with a clear, tasteless mucus, arranged in 
elongated receptacles at the ends of the branches. The sea-weed is of 
brownish-green color, becoming nearly black when dried, having a 
peculiar odor, and a nauseous, mucilaginous, salty taste. 

Habitat. Found in north Atlantic and Pacific oceans, attached 
to rocks by its expanded, woody root. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



History. Name derived from phukos, Greek for sea-weed. When 
quickly dried in the sun, it becomes brittle, but dried by artificial heat, 
it remains hygroscopic. It has long been known as a remedy for 
obesity. Introduced into homoeopathic literature in 1863, Monthly 
Horn. Rev. Lond. VII. 8 ; B. J. Horn. XXI. 171. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 369.] 

Parts Used. The entire sea-weed. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 
Fucus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



GAMBOGIA. Gamboge. 

Natural Order. Guttiferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cambogia, Catharticum aureum, Garcinia 
hanburii, G. morella, var. pedicellata, Gummi cambogia, G. gutti, G. 
victoria, Gutta gamba, Hebradendron gambogioides ; English, Gam- 
boge; French, Gutte, Gomme-gutte ; German, Gummigutt, Gutti. 

Description. A gum-resin from several species of the Garcinia, a 
tree 35 to 50 feet high, with a thick, orange-brown bark, and many 
spreading branches. These trees yield on cutting, or by breaking off 
the leaves and shoots, a yellow, opaque juice, hardening on exposure. 
The best gamboge is in cylindrical rolls, from i to 3 inches in diam- 
eter, sometimes hollow in the center, from having been collected and 
hardened in joints of bamboo. It is also found in lumps or flat cakes. 
The pieces are striated longitudinally, from the inside of the bamboo, 
and are externally of a dull-orange color, with occasionally greenish 
stains. It is brittle, its fracture is smooth, opaque, glistening, of a 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHV. 2QI 

uniform reddish-yellow color, its powder bright-yellow. It is odorless, 
and has an acrid taste; is soluble in excess of water and partially 
soluble in alcohol. 

Habitat. Siam, Cambodia and southern parts of Cochin China. 
Fig., Bent, and Trim. 33. 

History. Garcinia, named for Garcin, an oriental traveler, Gam- 
bogia, from the Province of Cambodia, one of its sources, and gummi 
gutta, from the fact of the juice issuing by drops. Introduced into 
homoeopathic literature in 1843. Proving by Nenning, Noack and 
Trinks, Handbuch, I. 80 1. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 373.] 

Part Used. The gum-resin. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Gambogia, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : I x and higher. 

GAULTHERIA PROCUMBENS. Wintergrccn. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Gaultheria humilis, Gautiera procumbens, G. 
repens; English, Boxberry, Checkerberry, Creeping wintergreen, 
Ground holly, Jersey tea, Mountain tea, Partridge berry, Tea berry, 
Spice berry, Wintergreen ; French, Th6 du Canada ; German, Cana- 
discher Thee. 

Description. An evergreen, trailing vine, with a slender, procum- 
bent stem, giving off root fibers, and erect branches 3 to 5 inches 
high, leafy at summit. The leaves are alternate, shortly-petiolate, 
oblong-obovate, tapering at base, acute, serrate, smooth, shining, 
thick, i to \% inches long. The flowers appear in July, are pale-pink 
or crimson, waxy looking, few in number, axillary and pendulous. 

Habitat. Newfoundland to Lake Superior, the Atlantic States 
along the Alleghanies to upper Georgia ; found in cool, damp woods in 
the shade of evergreens. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 164 ; Millspaugh, 102. 



292 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name from Dr. Gaultier. Poisonous effects mentioned 
in Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 384. 

Part Used. The fresh herb. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -^. 
Gaultheria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 315 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS. Yellow Jessamine. 

Natural Order. Loganiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anonymos sempervirens, Bignonia semper- 
virens, Gelsemium luteum odoratum, G. lucidum, G. nitidum, Jasminum 
luteum odoratum, Lisianthus sempervirens; English, Bignonia, Caro- 
lina jessamine, Field jessamine, Wild jessamine, Woodbine, Yellow 
jessamine; French, Jasmin sauvage; German, Gift Jasmin. 

Description. An evergreen, climbing shrub, with a woody, much 
branched root, attaining a diameter of 2 inches, and having a cinnamon- 
brown colored bark and light-yellow wood, with a pleasant bitter taste. 
The stem is smooth, branching, grows to great length, at first is light- 
slate colored, and later, purplish. The leaves are opposite, persistent, 
short-petioled, lanceolate, acute at both ends, entire, dark, bright-green 
above, pale beneath. The flowers are large, i to \y 2 inches long, 
sweet-scented, funnel-shaped, appearing in March and April, in small, 
axillary clusters. 

Habitat. Rich moist grounds along the seacoast from eastern 
Virginia and southward into Mexico. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 181 ; 
Millspaugh, 130. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 2Q3 

History. Name derived from gelsemino, the Italian name of jessa- 
mine. It was brought into notice as a medicine by being accidentally 
administered for another plant. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature 
by Dr. Metcalfe in 1853, N. A. J. of Horn. III. 99. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 385; X. 529.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength fa. 
Gelsemium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

GENISTA TINCTORIA. Dyer's Weed. 

Natural Order. Leguminosse. 

Synonyms. English, Dyer's broom, Dyer's weed, Dyer's green-_ 
weed, Green weed, Greenwood, Woad-waxen; French, Gen6t des tein- 
turiers ; German, Farberginster. 

Description. An evergreen, thornless shrub, with an erect, branch- 
ing stem, i foot high, striated, angled. The leaves are alternate, sim- 
ple, lanceolate, nearly smooth, and sessile. The yellow flowers appear 
in June in terminal, racemose spikes. 

Habitat. Indigenous to Asia and Europe, naturalized in the 
United States ; found on sterile hills in eastern New York and Massa- 
chusetts. Fig., Millspaugh, 46. 

History. Name derived from the Celtic, gen, a bush. Introduced 
into homoeopathic literature in 1836 by Dr. Trinks. Poisonous effects 
mentioned in Allg. Horn. Zeit. IX. 287. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. 403-] 

Parts Used The whole fresh plant. 



294 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J>: Drug strength ^. 
Genista, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



GENTIANA CRUCIATA. Crosswort 

Natural Order. Gentianaceae. 

< 

Synonyms. Latin, Gentiana minoris ; English, Crosswort gentian; 
French, Gentiane croisette ; German, Kreuze Enzain. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a smooth stem I 
foot high, two-edged, narrowed at base. The leaves are opposite, entire 
and sessile. The flowers are dark-blue, appearing in June and July. 

Habitat. Austria. 

History. Named for Gentius, king of Illyria; supposed to possess 
special virtues, because its leaves grew in form of a cross. One of the 
many panaceas for hydrophobia. Mentioned in homoeopathic litera- 
ture in 1845 by Dr. Watzke, Oest. Zeit. f. Horn. I. 3, 133. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 404.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength 1 ^. 

Gentiana cruciata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 295 

GENTIANA LUTEA. Yellow Gentian. 

Natural Order. Gentianaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Gentiana lutetia, G. majoris, G. rubra; English, 
Bitter wort, Common gentian, Great yellow gentian, Yellow gentian ; 
French, Gentiane jaune, Grande gentiane ; German, Gelber Enzain. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a cylindrical, 
branching root, 2 to 3 feet long, I inch thick, and a thick, hollow, 
round stem 4 feet high. The leaves are opposite, sessile, entire, ovate, 
glaucous and of a bright-green color. The flowers are large, yellow, 
pedicellate, whorled in axillary clusters. 

Habitat. Southern and central Europe, growing on grassy moun- 
tains. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 211 ; Goullon, 174. 

History. A common remedy in the middle ages. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1841 by proving by Dr. Buchner, Hygea, 
XIV. i. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 407.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Gentiana lutea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

GERANIUM MACULATUM. Wild Cranesbill. 

Natural Order. Geraniaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Geranium pusillum ; English, Alum root, 
Cranesbill, Crowfoot, Geranium, Spotted cranesbill, Spotted geranium, 
Storksbill, Tormentilla, Wild cranesbill; French, Pied-de-cornielle ; 
German, Flechstorchschnabel-Wurzel. 



2Q6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a thick, cylindrical, 
branched, pale-brown rhizome, giving off filiform rootlets. The stem 
is erect, about I to 2 feet high, cylindrical, dichotomous, green and 
hairy. The leaves are opposite, five-parted, with wedge-shaped lobes, 
cut at the ends ; the root leaves are large, on long, hairy petioles ; the 
stem leaves on short petioles, bright-green, hairy or smooth above, 
pale and covered with erect hairs beneath. The old leaves have 
whitish-green spots, whence the name. The flowers are purple, and 
appear from April to June in small, terminal, cymose umbels. 

Habitat. North America, extending from Canada through the 
United States ; found in open woods and fields. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 
42; Millspaugh, 32. 

History. The name from geranos, a crane. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1870 by Dr. Beckwith, O. Med. and Surg. 
Rep. IV. 127. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 407; X. 534.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Geranium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



GERANIUM ROBERTIANUM. Herb Robert. 

Natural Order. Geraniaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Geranium inodorum; English, Herb Robert; 
French, Herbe a Robert ; German, Ruprechtskraut. 

Description. A strongly scented, annual herb, with a stem sparsely 
hairy. The leaves are three- to five-parted, with trifid-pinnatifid lobes. 
The flowers are small, reddish-purple, appearing from April to October. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCF.OPATHY. 2Q7 

Habitat. Great Britain, introduced into the United States ; found 
in moist woods and shady ravines ; common northward. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic literature in 1854 by Dr. 
Weitenweber, Prag. Monatsch'ft, II. 1,2. 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Geranium Robert., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3\ and higher. 

GEUM URBANUM. Herb Bcnnct. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Caryophyllata alba, Geum agrimonoides, G. 
album, G. canadense, G. carolinianum, Sanamunda, Sieversia carolin- 
iana ; English, Common avens, Herb Bennet ; French, Benoite, 
Galiote ; German, Wahres Benedictenkraut. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with erect, slightly 
branched stem, I to i ^ feet high, slender, smoothish, or softly pubes- 
cent. The radical leaves are lyrate-pinnate, the cauline, ternate. The 
flowers are bright-yellow, solitary and terminal, appearing from May to 
August. The root has an odor of cloves and a bitter taste, is 2 to 3 
inches long, ^ inch thick, slightly branched, beset with hairy leaf- 
sheaths, externally blackish-brown, internally whitish, with a red center. 

Habitat. United States, Pennsylvania northward, central and 
northern Europe and northern Asia ; common in wet hilly locations, 
borders of woods. Fig., Goullon, 95. 

History. Named from geyo, to give a relish. Its medicinal 
properties were mentioned by Pliny in the first century. Introduced 
into homoeopathic literature in 1853 by Wuerzler, Horn. v. j. Schrift, 
IV. 104. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



2Q8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>. Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Geum urbanum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 

GLONOINUM. Glonoin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 3 H 5 (NO 3 ) 3 . 

Synonyms. English, Glonoine, Nitro-glycerin. 

Description. Consists of a heavy, yellowish, oily liquid (said to be 
colorless when pure), odorless, and having a sweetish, pungent taste. 
Is almost insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether and 
methylated spirit; specific gravity, about 1.6. It solidifies in the form 
of long needles when subjected for some time to a temperature of 
8 C. Glonoin boils at 180 C., exploding with great violence if con- 
fined within a closed vessel. Its explosive property is very marked, 
and is brought into action by the slightest jar or blow, or even by the 
concussion of the atmosphere. When kept long it undergoes partial 
decomposition, forming glycerin and oxalic acids, and some of the 
lower oxids of nitrogen ; combined with infusorial earth it forms 
dynamite. Glonoin is obtained by adding glycerin to a mixture of 
concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. It is extremely poisonous, 
and the inhalation of its vapors causes prostration and severe aching 
in the head. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 425 ; X. 534. 
Maximum dose -fa grain. 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 

Glonoin, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 2Q9 

The preparation of the tincture should not be attempted by any one 
not accustomed to its manipulation, on account of the danger of explo- 
sion ; a slight blow or sudden jerk may cause a serious if not fatal 
accident. The tincture and 2x dilution should also be kept and 
transported in such an enclosure as to preclude any possibility of 
breakage, as the spilling of the solution and consequent evaporation of 
the alcohol may lead to an explosion. 



GNAPHALIUM POLYCEPHALUM. Everlasting. 

Natural Order. Composite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Gnaphalium conoideum, G. obtusifolium ; 
English, Common everlasting, Indian posey, Indian tobacco, Sweet- 
scented life-everlasting ; French, Immortelle; German, Immerschon. 

Description. A fragrant herb, with an erect, terete, woolly stem, 
I to 2 feet high, with numerous, glabrous or pubescent terminal 
branches. The leaves are alternate, sessile, lanceolate, tapering at 
the base, slightly amplexicaul, smoothish above. The flowers appear 
from July to October in numerous heads, clustered at the summit of 
panicled corymbose branches ; they are ovate-conical before expansion, 
afterwards obovate. The scales of the whitish involucre are ovate and 
oblong ; the tubular florets are yellowish. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America, from Canada and Wis- 
consin to Florida and Texas ; common in old fields and woods. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 89. 

History. From gnaphalon, soft down. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1858 by a proving by Dr. Banks, N. A. J. of 
Horn. VII. 383. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 456.] 

Part Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -^ 
Gnaphalium pol., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 3*5 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



3<X> THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

GNAPHALIUM ULIGINOSUM. Low Cudweed. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. English, Balsam weed, Life-everlasting, Live forever, 
Low cudweed, Mouse ear, Old field balsam, Pearly everlasting, Sweet 
balsam, White balsam. 

Description. An annual herb, with a woolly, diffusely branched, 
tufted stem, 3 to 6 inches high, with leaves sessile, lanceolate or linear, 
with cottony surface. The yellowish-brown flowers appear in small, 
terminal, sessile, capitate clusters, subtended by leaves. 

Habitat. Eastern and northern United States; introduced from 
Europe ; found common in low grounds by roadsides. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1860 by proving 
by Dr. Woodbury, Trans. Mass. Horn. Soc. II. 115. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 456.] 

Part Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -$. 

Gnaphalium ulig., moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 315 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM. Cotton Plant 

Natural Order. Malvaceae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 3OI 

Synonyms. Latin, Gossypium album, G. nigrum, Lana gossypii ; 
English, Cotton plant ; German, Baumwolle. 

Description. A biennial herb, having a cylindrical, solid, smooth or 
pubescent stem with numerous glands, varying according to soil and 
climate, from 3 to 15 or 20 feet high, and widely spreading branches. 
The leaves are numerous, alternate, long-petioled, five-lobed, mucro- 
nate, with glands similar to those on the stem. The flowers are single, 
large, i to 4 inches in diameter, and appear in July on axillary stalks. 

Habitat. East Indies and Europe, many parts of Asia, and 
America ; found in all parts of the world, between 36 north and 
south latitudes. Fig., Goullon, 30; Bent, and Trim. 37. 

History. From goz and gothn, Arabic, signifying soft substance. 
Used in medicine as an external application only, until within a few 
years. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1851, N. A. J. of 
Horn. I. 273. A short proving in 1869 by Dr. Williamson, Hahn. 
Month. IV. 315. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 458; X. 538.] 

Parts Used. The inner bark of the root and seed. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Gossypium, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 600 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 437 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, five parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

GRANATUM. Pomegranate. 

Natural Order. Granateae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Punica granatum; English, Pomegranate; 
French, Grenadier; German, Granatum-Baum. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous shrub, or low tree, having a 
slender stem 18 feet high, with branches its entire length, with spiny 
ends. The bark is light-brownish-gray, furrowed longitudinally; 



3O2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

shoots and buds, red. The leaves are I to 2 inches long, usually 
opposite, sometimes alternate, lanceolate, pointed, entire, shining. 
The flowers are large, scarlet, appearing from June to September, 
solitary, or in clusters of two or three, axillary in the upper leaves. 
The fruit is the size of an orange, depressed globose, with numerous 
seeds, each in a fleshy, pink-colored, translucent coating. 

Habitat. Indigenous to Asia; found inmost sub-tropical coun- 
tries. Fig., Winkler, 115; Goullon, 109; Bent, and Trim. 113. 

History. The fruit was called by the ancients, malum punicum, 
Carthaginian apple, as the tree was known in the vicinity of Carthage, 
whence the name, punica. The name is also said to be derived from 
puniceus, scarlet ; granatum, also, from the numerous seeds (grana). 
The pomegranate has been known and prized from remote antiquity. 
Parts of the tree were known as medicinal, and also used among the 
Romans for tanning leather. Introduced into homoeopathic literature 
in 1839 by Dr. Mueller, Hygea, X. 137. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. 460.] 

Part Used. The dried bark of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength -fa. 

Granatum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



GRAPHITES. Graphite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carbo mineralis, Cerussa nigra, Plumbago; 
English, Black lead ; French, Graphite ; German, Reisblel 

Description. Is a blackish-gray, lustrous, soft, unctuous, odorless 
metal, crystallizing in hexagonal plates of a specific gravity of from 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 303 

1.8 to 2.5. It is a good conductor of electricity, and contains a small, 
indefinite amount of iron. Next to the diamond it is the purest 
natural form of carbon. Graphite is obtained from several countries, 
but is found in the greatest purity in the Borrowdale mine in England. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 467. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS. Hedge Hyssop. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Centauroidis, Digitalis minimae ; English, 
Hedge hyssop ; French, Gratiole ; German, Gnadenkraut. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a creeping, scaly 
rhizome. The stem is i foot high. The leaves are opposite, sessile, 
three-nerved, lanceolate, serrate, smooth, pale-green. The flowers are 
whitish or reddish, solitary, axillary, tubular, having yellow hairs. 
The plant is inodorous, with an acrid, bitter taste. 

Habitat. Central Europe, North America and extra-tropical 
Australia. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 215 ; Winkler, 72; Goullon, 180. 

History. From gratia, grace of God. It formerly had a place in 
medicine. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1829 by Dr. 
Herrmann, Archiv. XVII. 2, 164. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 491.] 

Parts Used The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -^. 
Gratiola, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



304 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



GRINDELIA ROBUSTA. Gum Plant. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Grindelia latifolia; English, Gum plant, Broad 
gum plant, Wild sunflower ; French, Grindelia ; German, Grindelien- 
kraut. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, or shrub, with branch- 
ing, usually stout, smooth, pale stem, i to 3 feet high. The leaves 
are 3 to 4 inches long, broadly spatulate near the bottom, and sessile 
or clasping at the top, more or less sharply-serrate, nearly smooth, or 
with a few glandular hairs, pale-green color, finely dotted, the upper 
surface sometimes covered with patches of glossy resin. The yellow 
heads have numerous flowers, are I to 2 inches broad, solitary and 
terminal, blooming in May and continuing several months. The plant 
has a balsamic odor, and a pungent, bitter, aromatic taste. The 
distinction between this species and Grindelia squarrosa is not well 
marked. 

Habitat. Common along the Pacific coast of North America to 
Mexico, and found on hills and mountains inland. 

History. Named for Grindel, a German botanist. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1876 by Dr. Seward, Horn. Times, IV. 124. 

Parts Used. The leaves and unexpanded flower heads. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength jfa. 

Grindelia robusta, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 87-7 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



GRINDELIA SQUARROSA. Snake-Headed Grindelia. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. English, Gum plant, Snake-headed grindelia. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 305 

Description. An herb, very similar to the Grindelia robusta, the 
characteristics pointed out by different authorities not seeming to 
hold, the one species running into the other. The difference in the 
leaves, flowers, etc., is not constant. 

Habitat. The western coast of North America, said to be very 
common on the plains and in valleys, but not on the hills and moun- 
tains. 

History. Same as preceding species. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature in 1876 by Dr. Bundy, Horn. Times, IV. 125. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 539.] 

Parts Used. The leaves and unexpanded flower heads. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 

Grindelia squarrosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 877 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 2x and higher. 



GUACCX 

Natural Order Composite. 
Synonym. Mikania guaco. 

Description. An herbaceous, shrubby, climbing plant, with round, 
furrowed, hairy branches. The leaves are petioled, ovate, acuminate, 
shortly narrowed at the base, dentate, netted, rough above, hairy 
beneath. The flowers are in axillary, corymbose, somewhat ternate 
heads. 

Habitat. Hot, damp places in South America, on the banks of 
the river Magdalena. 

History. Named for Jos. Mikan, professor of botany. Mentioned 
in homoeopathic literature in 1832 by a correspondent of the Allg. 
Horn. Zeit. I. 128; a medico-historical sketch by Dr. Dunham, Am. 



306 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Horn. Rev. III. 424. Considered by the Indians of South America as 
an antidote for the bites of venomous serpents. 

Part Used. The leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Guaco, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



GUAIACUM OFFICINALE. Guaiac. 

Natural Order. Zygophyllaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lignum guajaci, L. indicum, L. sanctum, L. 
vitae, Palus sanctus ; English, Jamaica guiacum, Lignum vitae ; French, 
Bois de gayac (de gaiac); German, Guajakholz. 

Description. The resin of an evergreen tree, or shrub, 40 to 60 
feet high, having smooth bark, numerous spreading branches, oppo- 
site, abruptly pinnate, smooth, bright-green leaves, and blue, finely 
pubescent, pedunculate flowers, appearing in February. The resin, or 
gum, is obtained by spontaneous exudation by incisions in the trunk, 
boring a hole lengthwise through short pieces, placing one end in a 
fire and receiving the melted resin from the other, and by boiling 
chips and sawdust and skimming the material rising to the surface. 
Guaiac is in pieces of irregular size and shape, intermixed with frag- 
ments of wood and bark. It is of greenish or reddish-brown color, 
brittle, lustrous fracture, transparent in thin plates, grayish-white 
when freshly powdered, becoming green on exposure, having an odor 
of vanilla, and an acrid taste. It is soluble in alcohol, partially so 
in water. 

Habitat. West India islands and South America. Fig., Jahr and 
Cat. 215; Winkler, 73; Goullon, 49; Bent, and Trim. 41. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 307 

History. Guaiac is the South American name. This gum was 
used in medicine and held in high repute as early as the sixteenth 
century. It was first mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1818 by 
Hahnemann, R. A. M. L. IV. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 515.] 

Part Used. The resin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Guaiacum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



GUAREA TRICHILOIDES. Red Wood. 

Natural Order. Meliaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Ash-leaved guarea, Ball-wood, Red wood. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 15 feet high, giving out a strong 
smell like musk. The leaves are Jarge, pinnate, short-petioled, tumid 
and inflated. The white, inconspicuous flowers appear in axillary 
clusters in May and June. 

Habitat. South America and Cuba. 

History. Guara, the local name in Cuba. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1840 by Petroz, Hygea, XII. 473. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Mat. IV. 512.] 

Part Used. The dried bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Guarea, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS. American Coffee Tree. 

Natural Order. Leguminosas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Guilandina dioica; English, American coffee 
tree, Chicot, Kentucky coffee tree, Kentucky mahogany. 

Description. A deciduous tree, growing 20 feet high, with very 
rough bark and few branches, which when young appear like canes 
and in winter as dead, being destitute of anything like a bud. The 
leaves are bi-pinnate, 2 to 3 feet long, with large, partial leafstalks, 
with 7 to 13 ovate leaflets, armed with thorns. The flowers are white, 
appearing in June. 

Habitat. Found in rich woods along rivers from western New 
York and Pennsylvania to Illinois southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 53. 

History. Name derived from gymnos, naked, and klados, a branch. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice by a proving by Hering in 1851, 
N. A. J. Horn. I. 156. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 519.] 

Part Used. The fresh pulp surrounding the seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 
Gymnocladus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 309 

H^MATOXYLON CAMPECHIANUM. Logwood. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Haematoxyli lignum, H. spinosum, Lignum 
campechianum, L. campescanum, L. coeruleum; English, Logwood, 
Peachwood; French, Bois de campeche, Bois d'Inde; German, Blau- 
holz, Campecheholz. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 20 to 40 feet high, with crooked 
and deformed trunk, 6 to 20 inches in diameter, and spreading 
branches ; twigs smooth, beset with small white dots ; wood dark and 
very hard, the inner bark and wood red. The leaves are alternate, 
abruptly pinnate. The flowers are small, yellow, slightly fragrant, 
longer than the leaves, on longish pedicels in axillary racemes. 

Habitat. Native of Campeachy (whence its specific name) and 
other parts of tropical America and West India islands. Fig., Goullon, 
78 ; Bent, and Trim. 86. 

History. Name derived from haima, blood, and xylon, wood. 
Used chiefly as a dye; employed in medicine in 1746. Introduced 
into homoeopathic literature in 1839 by a proving by Jouve, Bib. Horn, 
de Genev. L 47. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 523.] 

Part Used. The heart of the wood. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength -$. 

Haematoxylon, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 

HAMAMELIS VIRGINICA. Witch Hazel. 

Natural Order. Hamamelaceae. 



3IO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Hamamelis androgyna, H. corylifolia, H. dioica, 
H. macrophylla, Trilopus dentata, T. nigra, T. rotundifolia, T. virgin- 
iana ; English, Magician's rod, Pistachio nut, Striped alder, Snapping 
hazel-nut, Spotted alder, Winter bloom, Witch hazel ; French, Hama- 
meUis; German, Hamamelis, Zauberhasel. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, 5 to 15 feet high, and 4 inches in 
diameter at the base, with numerous, long, flexuous, forking branches, 
with smooth, brown bark, becoming grayish and fissured with age. 
The leaves, 3 to 6 inches long, are obovate or oval, straight-veined, 
wavy-dentate, somewhat downy when young, becoming smooth with 
age. The flowers are yellow, appearing in September and October in 
small axillary heads, usually surrounded by a scale-like, three-leaved 
involucre. 

Habitat. Damp woods in the United States and Canada. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 58. 

History. The name derived from hama, with, and melon, an apple. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1851 by a proving by Dr. 
Preston, Phil. Journ. of Horn. I. 460. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
528.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark of the root and twigs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Hamamelis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



HECLA LAVA. Hecla Lava. 

Description. Is the finer ash, which fell in distant localities from 
Mount Hecla. According to Prof. Morris of University College, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 31 1 

London, its principal constituents are combinations of silica, alumina, 
lime, magnesia and some oxid of iron. It also sometimes contains 
arnarthite and other minerals. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES. Pennyroyal. 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cunila pulegioides, Melissa pulegioides, Zizi- 
phora pulegioides ; English, American pennyroyal, Squaw mint, 
Stinking balm, Tickweed; French, Herbe de pouliot ameYicain ; 
German, Amerikanischer Polei. 

Description. An annual herb, with small, branched root, erect, 
quadrangular stem, 6 to 15 inches high, and opposite, pubescent 
branches. The leaves are opposite, petioled, close, strongly veined, 
oblong-ovate, obscurely serrate, smooth above, paler and dotted with 
glands beneath, i inch long, diminishing in size toward the top. The 
bluish, pubescent flowers appear from June to September, few in 
number, in axillary whorls. The plant has a taste and odor similar to 
the true pennyroyal of Europe, Mentha pulegium. 

Habitat. North America; common in sandy fields, hills and open 
barren woods, always dry places. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 200; Mills- 
paugh, 1 1 8. 

History. The Greek name for mint. Incidental proving pub- 
lished in 1854 by Dr. Toothaker, Phil. Journ. of Horn. II. 655. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 543.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -fa. 
Hedeoma, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



312 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

HEDYSARUM ILDEFONSIANUM. Brazilian Burdock. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carapicho, Hedysarum desmodium. 

Description. An herb, with stem about 3 feet high, brownish, 
woody, branched, pubescent, especially at the upper part. The leaves 
are alternate, pinnate, trifoliate, with ovate leaflets, slightly tomentous, 
petioled, with two stipules. The flowers are single, in loose terminal 
spikes on single thread-like peduncles. 

Habitat. Brazil. 

History. Name, hedysarum, is from two Greek words, meaning 
sweet smell. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1849 by Dr. 
Mure, Pathogen. Bresilien. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 545.] 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Hedysarum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. Sunflower. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. English, Common sunflower, Sun rose; French, 
Helianthe, Grand soleil ; German, Sonnenblume. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 513 

Description. An annual herb, with an erect, rounded, rough stem, 
3 to 1 8 feet high. The leaves are opposite below, alternate above, 
petioled, conspicuously three-ribbed, broadly ovate or cordate, serrate, 
rough, 5 to 10 inches long, 4 to 8 inches broad. The flowers appear 
in the latter part of summer, are from 8 to 12 inches in diameter, with 
bright-yellow, ligulate ray florets, and a flat, brownish disk, nodding 
heads, with long peduncles, gradually thickening into a funnel-form 
base at the involucre. 

Habitat. Tropical America, cultivated in the United States, 
Europe and China. Fig., Millspaugh, 83. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1840 by Drs. 
Peschier and Cessole, Bib. Horn, de Gen. VI. 360. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 545.] 

Part Used. The mature flower heads. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T V 
Helianthus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. == 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



HELIOTROPIUM PERUVTANUM. Heliotrope. 

Natural Order. Borraginaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Garden heliotrope, Sweet heliotrope. 

Description. An evergreen, trailing herb, with a branching, 
shrubby, rough, hairy stem, I to 2 feet long. The leaves are alter- 
nate, entire, lanceolate-ovate, rough, and slightly tomentous. The 
lilac-colored flowers appear from May until September, are symmet- 



314 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

rical on short pedicels on one side of a spike, which is rolled up at 
the end and straightens as the blossoms expand ; very fragrant. 

Habitat. Peru, cultivated in gardens. 

History. The name derived from helios, the sun, and trope, twin- 
ing, the flowers being said to turn toward the sun. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1841, Archiv. XIX. I, 188. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IV. 546.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength T ^. 
Heliotropium, moist magma containing solids too Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 

HELLEBORUS FCETIDUS. Bear's Foot 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Bear's foot, Setterswort, Stinking hellebore; 
German, Stinkende Uieswurzel. 

Description. An evergreen herb, with stem i l / 2 feet high. The 
leaves are numerous, some of the lower ones radical, others short 
petioled, pedate, with oblong, linear segments, forming a large and 
thick tuft, very smooth ; color, deep-green. The flowers appear from 
February to May, are green, globular, from the sepals converging at 
their extremities, in drooping, loosely spreading panicles, with numer- 
ous bracts. 

Habitat. Southern and parts of central Europe, and England; 
found in shady places. 

History. Name derived from helein, to cause death, and bora, 
food. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1853 by Cattell, Brit. 
Journ. of Horn. XI. 343. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 546.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 315 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Helleborus fcetidus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 797 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

HELLEBORUS NIGER. Christmas Rose. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Elleborum nigrum, Helleborus grandiflorus, 
Melampodium, Veratrum nigrum ; English, Black hellebore, Christmas 
rose ; French, Elle"bore noir ; German, Schwarze Uieswurzel. 

Description. A perennial, nearly evergreen herb, with cylindrical, 
brownish-black, knotted, brittle, fleshy rhizome, I to 3 inches long, ^ 
to y 2 inch thick, with numerous branches, interlaced with many stout, 
straight, brown, fibrous roots. The leaves are on long footstalks, 
which spring directly from the root ; these stalks are cylindrical, 
tapering, smooth, shining and pale-green, mottled with red ; the leaves 
are pedate, and deeply divided into several nearly separate lobes, 
smallest near the petiole, coarsely serrate in the upper part, dark- 
green above, paler below. The flowers, appearing in mid-winter, 
December to March, on a scape shorter than the petiole, are at first 
pinkish-white, becoming greenish. 

Habitat. Central and southern Europe; found in sub-alpine 
wooded regions, cultivated in gardens. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 218; 
Flora Horn. I. 285 ; Winkler, 76 ; Goullon, 3 ; Bent, and Trim. 2. 

History. It was highly esteemed as a medicine by the ancients, 
but it is doubtful if the plant described by Dioscorides is the same as 
the present species. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1805 
by Hahnemann, Frag, de Vir. 135. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 
547 ; X. 540.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



316 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Helleborus niger, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



HELONIAS DIOICA. False Unicorn. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Abalon albiflorum, Chamaelirium carolinianum, 
C. luteum, Helonias lutea, H. pumila, Melanthium densum, M. dioicum, 
Ophiostachys virginica, Veratrum luteum ; English, Blazing star, 
Colic root, Devil's bit, False unicorn, Starwort, Unicorn plant. 

Description. A perennial herb, having a thick, light-colored, 
tuberous root-stock, with many long roots from the base of the stem, 
and fibrous rootlets from its thickest portion. The stem, i to 3 feet 
high, is wand-like, smooth and leafy. The leaves are alternate ; those 
of the upper stem, small, lanceolate and sessile; those of the base, 
larger, spatulate, tapering into petioles, parallel veined, oblong-lanceo- 
late. The flowers are white, appearing from June to August, in long, 
terminal panicles. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the United States and Canada; found in 
rich woods, moist, low grounds, western New England to Illinois and 
southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 177. 

History. Name derived from helos, a marsh, in reference to its 
habitat, and chamai, on the ground, and leirion, lily. Proved in 1868 
by Dr. Jones, Am. Horn. Obs. VIII. 178. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IV. 565.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 317 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength ^. 
Helonias, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



HEPAR SULPHURIS CALCAREUM. 
Hcpar Sulfur, Impure Calcium SulficL 

Chemical Symbol. CaS. 

Synonyms. English, Liver of sulfur; French, Foie de soufre cal- 
caire; German, Schwefelleber. 

Description. Consists of white, porous, friable masses, or a white 
amorphous powder, with the odor and taste of sulfuretted hydrogen. 
Is insoluble in water or strong alcohol ; soluble in hot hydrochloric 
acid, with the evolution of sulfuretted hydrogen. With oxalate of 
ammonia the solution gives a white precipitate. Hepar sulfur is an 
impure sulfid of calcium, obtained from calcined oystershells and 
flowers of sulfur. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IV. 572. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

This should be prepared according to Hahnemann's directions, viz., 
by mixing equal weights of clean and finely powdered oystershells and 
well-mashed flowers of sulfur, placing them in a hermetically-closed 
clay crucible, and keeping the mixture at a white heat for at least ten 
minutes. The product is to be cooled and preserved in glass-stoppered 
bottles, protected from the light. 



3l8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

HEPATICA TRILOBA. Liverwort. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anemone hepatica, Hepatica americana, H. 
nobilis ; English, Early anemone, Kidney liver-leaf, Liver-leaf, Liver- 
wort, Round-lobed hepatica, Trefoil; French, Herbe de hepatique ; 
German, Edelleberkraut. 

Description. An evergreen, stemless herb, with a fibrous root. The 
leaves are radical, on long, slender petioles, with three ovate, obtuse or 
rounded lobes, sub-coriaceous, light-green and hairy when young, dark 
olive-green and purplish beneath when old. The flowers, blue, 
purplish, or nearly white, appear from March to May, are solitary, 
terminal, on long, hairy scapes, circinate, then erect, with three-leaved 
involucre. 

Habitat. United States, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, east and 
northeast to the Atlantic; found in rich, open woods. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 2. 

History. The name is derived from hepaticos, from a fancied 
resemblance to the lobes of the liver. Formerly had a place in the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1858 
by Dr. Kimball, N. A. Jour, of Horn. VI. 526. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IV. 588.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 
Hepatica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 683 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS. Seven Barks, 

Natural Order. Saxifragaceae. 
Synonym. English, Seven barks. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 319 

Description. A deciduous, perennial shrub, with a woody, branch- 
ing root, with numerous rootlets, from the thickness of a quill to that 
of a finger, pale-brown externally, whitish internally, and having a 
sweetish, pungent taste. The stem is glabrous, 6 feet high, with 
grayish or light reddish-biown bark, detachable in thin, concentric 
layers, whence the name, seven barks. The leaves are opposite, 
petioled, ovate, rarely cordate, nearly glabrous, pointed, serrate, green 
on both sides. The flowers are numerous, greenish or pinkish-white, 
appearing in July in compound cymes. 

Habitat. New Jersey to Illinois and southward ; found on rocky 
banks. 

History. Name from hudor, water, aggeion, a vessel. Used as a 
remedy by the Cherokee Indians. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength ^ 
Hydrangea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



HYDRASTINUM. Hydrastin. 

Hydrastin. 

Chemical Symbol C 22 NH 23 O 6 ; 397.2. 
Synonyms. English, Hydrastia, Hydrastine. 
An alkaloid of Hydrastis canadensis. 

Description. Consists of white or colorless, shining, four-sided 
prisms, odorless, and without taste except in combination with some 
salt, then bitter and somewhat acrid. Is insoluble in water, readily 



32O ' THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzol; reaction alkaline. 
With the acids it forms soluble and bitter-tasting salts ; it fuses at 
135 C. Is precipitated from its saline solutions by the alkalies and 
by tannic acid. On the addition of bichromate of potassium, sulfuric 
acid, or red-lead oxid, its color changes to red, but unlike strychnin, 
has no tint of blue or violet. This alkaloid is obtained from the roots 
of Hydrastis canadensis. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS. Golden Seal. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Warneria canadensis; English, Eye balm, 
Golden seal, Ground raspberry, Indian dye, Indian paint, Indian 
turn eric, Ohio curcuma, Orange root, Tumeric root, Yellow eye root, 
Yellow paint, Yellow puccoon, Yellow root, Yellow seal ; French, 
Sceau d'or; German, Canadische Gelbwurzel. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, having a thick, knotted, 
horizontal, bright-yellow rhizome, with slender roots beneath. The 
simple, erect stem, 6 to 12 inches high, is sub-cylindrical, with down- 
ward-pointed hairs. There are two alternate leaves near the top, the 
lower petiolate, the upper sessile; sometimes there is a petiolate, 
radical leaf; they are veiny, orbicular-cordate at base, five- to seven- 
lobed, doubly-serrate, and 4 to 9 inches wide at the summit. A 
single, small, terminal, erect, greenish-white, apetalous flower appears 
in April and May. 

Habitat. Canada and the United States, east of the Mississippi ; 
found in rich woodland and mountainous districts. Fig., Bent, and 
Trim, i ; Millspaugh, 9. 

History. The name derived from hudor, water, and drao, to act. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1866 by provings published 
in Am. Horn. Obs. III. 516. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 613.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 321 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -fa. 
Hydrastis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher (from dried root). 



HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA. Indian Pennywort. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrocotyle nummulariodes, H. pallida; 
English, Indian pennywort, Thick-leaved pennywort, Water penny- 
wort; French, Hydrocotyle; German, Wassernabel. 

Description. An evergreen, creeping herb, having a vertical rhi- 
zome, with long, slender, prostate, smooth branches and long internodes. 
The leaves, crowded at the nodes, are long, petiolate, sheathing at the 
base, radiately-veined, reniform, dentate-crenate, smooth, thick, dark- 
green, depressed in the center, so as to hold a drop of water, hence 
the name. The small, pink flowers appear from July to October in 
many flowered, axillary, sessile umbels. 

Habitat. Throughout the tropical regions ; found in shady, swampy 
places. Fig., Goullon, 144; Bent, and Trim. 117. 

History. Name derived from hudor, water, cotyle, a cavity. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1857 by proving by Dr. Andouit, 
Jour. d. 1. Soc. Gal. ns. i, 337. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 625.] 

Parts Used. The whole dried plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength ^. 

Hydrocotyle, 100 Gm. 

^Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



322 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



HYDROPHYLLUM VIRGINICUM. Waterleaf. 

Natural Order. Hydrophyllaceae. 
Synonyms. English, Burr flowers, Waterleaf. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a creeping, scaly- 
toothed rhizome. The stem, i to 2 feet high, is generally simple, 
sometimes bifurcated, smoothish. The leaves are multi-pinnate, with 
5 to 7 divisions, ovate, lanceolate, pointed, sharply dentate, the lower 
mostly two-parted, the upper confluent. The flowers are pinkish- 
white, appearing from June to August, in terminal and upper axillary, 
cymose clusters, peduncles forked, and longer than the petioles of the 
upper leaves. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America from Canada southward to 
the mountains of North Carolina and northward to Alaska ; found in 
moist, shady ground. Fig., Millspaugh, 122. 

History. Name derived from hudor, water, and phullon, a leaf. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1874 by an incidental proving 
by Dr. Hoyt, Am. Horn. Obs. II. 99. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
V. 19-] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Hydrophyllum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2\ to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications; 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 323 

HYOSCYAMUS NIGER. Henbane. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hyoscyamus agrestis, H. flavus, H. lethalis, 
H. pallidus, H. vulgaris, Jusquiami; English, Black henbane, Foetid 
nightshade, Hogbean, Poison tobacco; French, Jusquiame; German 
Bilsenkraut. 

Description. A biennial, deciduous herb, with a fusiform root, and 
tapering, thick, stiff, cylindrical stem, 6 inches to 2 feet high, scarcely 
branched, covered with long hairs tipped with a minute black gland. 
The leaves are alternate, sessile, the upper clasping, oblong, irregularly 
lobed, sinuate-dentate, thin, pale-green, hairy, large below, becoming 
bracts above. The nearly sessile flowers are dull-yellow, strongly 
reticulated with purple veins, appearing from June to August in 
axillary, one-sided, leafy spikes. The whole plant is thickly covered 
with closely woven hairs, and has a sticky, heavy-smelling exudation. 

Habitat. Europe, Asia and America; found in sandy ground, on 
roadsides and waste places. Fig., Flora Horn. I. 292 ; Jahr and Cat. 
219; Winkler, 75 ; Goullon, 189; Bent, and Trim. 194; Millspaugh, 126. 

History. Name derived from hyos, a hog, and kyamos, a bean. 
Its medicinal properties were known to the ancients. It fell into 
disuse in the early part of the last century, to be again introduced by 
Storck. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1805 by Hahne- 
mann, Frag. de. Vir. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 25 ; X. 543.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant of the second year's growth. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 
Hyoscyamus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 450 Cc. = 550 

Strong alcohol, 585 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 
v water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 

alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



324 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

HYOSCYAMINUM SULPHURICUM. 

Hyoscyaminum Sulfate. Hyoscyamin Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 17 H 23 NO 3 ) 2 .H 2 SO 4 ; 674.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hyoscyaminae sulphas; English, Sulphate of 
hyoscyamine ; French, Sulfate d'hyoscyamine ; German, Hyoscyamin- 
sulfat. 

A neutral sulfate of an alkaloid prepared from Hyoscyamus. 

Description. A white powder, sometimes crystalline, odorless, with 
a very bitter taste ; deliquescent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.5 part 
of water and in 2.5 parts of alcohol; reaction neutral. Its aqueous 
solution gives a white precipitate with barium chlorid, but no precipi- 
tate with platinic chlorid. It is extracted from the seeds of Hyoscya- 
mus niger. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 20. A poison. 
Maximum dose -fa grain. It should be kept in a well-stoppered bottle, 
protected from the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher ; freshly made. 



HYPERICUM PERFORATUM. St. John's Wort. 

Natural Order. Hypericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Fuga daemonum, Herba solis, H. umbelicalis, 
Hypericum officinale, H. pseudo perforatum, H. virginicum, H. vul- 
gare; English, John's wort, St. John's wort; French, Millepertuis, 
Chasse-diable ; 'German, Johanniskraut, Hartheu. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a woody, branch- 
ing, dark-brown root. The stem, I foot or more high, much branched 
and corymbed, producing runners from the base, is somewhat two- 
edged and smooth. The leaves are opposite, entire, oblong, punctate, 
with numerous scattered pellucid dots. The flowers are deep-yellow, 
appearing from June to September, in terminal, open, leafy cymes. 
The whole plant is dark-green in color, and has a strong balsamic odor 
when rubbed, a very acrid juice, and is known as a pernicious weed 
difficult to extirpate. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 325 

Habitat. Europe, northern Africa, a considerable portion of Asia, 
and naturalized in North America and other countries ; found in fields, 
groves and hedges. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 221 ; Goullon, 39; Mills- 
paugh, 30. 

History. Name of uncertain derivation, said to be from hyper, 
above, and eicon, an image, the superior part of the flower repre- 
senting a figure. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1837 by a 
proving by Dr. Mueller, Hygea, V. 484. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
V. S3! X. 543.] 

Parts Used. The whole plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength ^. 
Hypericum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 780 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

IBERIS AMARA. Bitter Candytuft 

Natural Order. Cruciferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lepidium iberis ; English, Bitter candytuft. 

Description. An annual herb, with a smooth, glaucous, branching 
stem, i to 2 feet high. The radical leaves are 2 inches long, petiolate, 
pinnatifid, or deeply serrate ; the stem leaves are smaller, somewhat 
grass-like, lanceolate, acute, dentate. The minute white flowers appear 
in June and July in racemose cymes. The whole plant has a pungent 
taste. 

Habitat. Southern Europe to Siberia, also England. 

History. Name derived from Iberia, Spain. Proved in 1872 by 
Dr. Hale, U. S. Med. and Surg. Jour. VII. 295. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. V. 60.] 

Part Used. The seeds. 



326 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Iberis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 100 Cc. = 200 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



IGNATIA AMARA, St. Ignatius' Bean. 

Natural Order. Loganiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Faba febrifuga, F. indica, F. sancti ignatii, 
Ignatiana philippinica, Pasaqueria longiflora, Strychnos ignatii, S. 
philippensis ; English, St. Ignatius' bean ; French, Feve de Saint 
Ignace; German, Ignazbohne. 

Description. A shrub, or tree, with erect stem, and long, twining, 
opposite, glabrous branches. The leaves are opposite, petiolate, ovate, 
acute, 6 to 8 inches long. The flowers are white, long, numerous, in 
small, axillary panicles, having the odor of jasmine. The fruit is pear- 
shaped, with the seeds imbedded in a bitter pulp, 20 to 24 in number, 
somewhat the shape of an almond, but irregular, apparently from 
compression while soft, blackish-gray or clear-brown in color, with a 
brownish, horny, translucent shell, very hard and difficult to split, 
appearing glabrous, but having fine down, odorous, with a lasting, 
bitter taste. 

Habitat. Philippine Islands, naturalized in China. Fig., Flora 
Horn. II. i ; Winkler, 125; Bent, and Trim. 179. 

History. Named for the founder of their order by the Jesuits, who 
introduced the seeds into Europe the latter part of the seventeenth 
century from the Philippine Islands, where they were worn by the 
natives as amulets. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Hahne- 
mann in 1805, Frag. de. Vir. Med. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 66.] 

Part Used. The bean. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 327 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Ignatia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 150 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 870 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



ILEX OPACA. American Holly. 

Natural Order. Aquifoliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ageria opaca, Ilex aquifolium, I. canadensis, I. 
laxiflora, I. quercifolia; English, American holly; German, Stech- 
palme. 

Description. A tall shrub, or tree, 20 to 40 feet high, having a 
rich, shining, perennial green foliage. The evergreen, coriaceous 
leaves are petiolate, oval, acute, about 2 inches long, with rigid, sharp 
spines along the toothed margin ; they are odorless, and bitterish in 
taste. The loosely clustered flowers appear in June, along the base 
of the young branches. The berries are less red, and the nutlets less 
veiny than in the European holly. 

Habitat. United States, Maine to Pennsylvania, in moist wood- 
lands near the coast, and from Virginia southward. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1871 by Dr. 
Hendrichs, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 83, 129. 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Ilex opaca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



328 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dihitions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



ILEX PARAGUAYENSIS. Paraguay Tea. 

Natural Order. Ilicineae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ilex mate, I. paraguensis, Mate, Psorulea 
glandulosa; English, Jesuit's tea, Paraguay tea, St. Bartholomew's tea. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 30 feet high, with leaves oblong 
or lanceolate, obtuse, remotely serrate. The flowers are white, 
pedunculate, in axillary cymes. 

Habitat. Brazil and the Argentine Republic. 

History. Extensively used as a beverage in parts of South 
America ; drunk from a kind of teapot called mate". [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VI. 173.] 

Part Used. The leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Ilex paraguay en sis, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

ILLICIUM ANISATUM. Star Anise. 

Natural Order. Magnoliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anisum canadensis, A. chinensis, A. indicum, 
A. stellatum, Cymbostemon parviflorus, Illicium japonicum, I. parvi- 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 32Q 

florum, I. religiosum, I. verum, Semen badiana ; English, Sacred anise 
tree, Star anise ; FrencJi, Anise e'toile' ; German, Stern-Anis. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, or small tree, 10 to 30 feet high, 
much branched. The leaves are alternate, crowded, petioled, entire, 
lanceolate, smooth, shining, thick, and with minute pellucid dots. 
The greenish-yellow flowers appear from January to April, and some- 
times again in the autumn. The solitary seeds in boat-shaped carpels 
of eight divisions, at first upright, then spreading into a radiate whorl, 
are ovate, compressed and shining. They have an aromatic taste and 
smell like fennel. 

Habitat. China, and introduced into Japan. Fig., Winkler, 79; 
Goullon, 6 ; Bent, and Trim. 10. 

History. Known as early as the tenth century, and although 
having many synonyms it is doubtful if star anise is the product of all. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1838 by a proving by Dr. 
Franz, Archiv. XVII. 3, 175. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 91.] 

Part Used. The dried seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength ^. 

Illicium anisatum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



INDIGO. Indigo. 

Natural Order. Leguminoseae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Color indicus, Indicum, Indigofera argentea, I. 
anil, I. glauca, I. indica, I. tinctoria, Pigmentum indicum ; English, 
French and German, Indigo. 

Description. A dye, obtained from several species of indigofera 
and other plants. The former, and chief source, is an annual, some- 
times perennial, herb or shrub, 3 to 4 feet high, straight branched, 



33O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

downy stem, with alternate pinnate leaves, 3 to 4 inches long, having 
purplish, bluish, axillary, racemose flowers. It is met with in hard, 
brittle, odorless, tasteless lumps, the result of fermentation, at first 
green-colored, becoming insoluble and intensely blue by oxidation in 
the air, and having a coppery luster when rubbed by a smooth body. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the East Indies and Asia, naturalized in 
the United States. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 223; Winkler, 80; Bent, and 
Trim. 72. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1832 by a 
proving by Hartlaub and Trinks, Annal. d. Horn. kl. III. 329. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 92.] 

Parts Used. The whole substance. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Trituration s : ix and higher. 



INDIUM METALLICUM. Indium. 

Chemical Symbol. In; 113.6. 

Description. Is a silvery-gray, lustrous, malleable and ductile 
metal, softer than lead. It is unchanged by air at the ordinary tem- 
peratures. Is soluble in dilute acids, with the evolution of hydrogen 
and the formation of salts. From its solution with hydrochloric acid 
a deliquescent chlorid is obtained ; dissolved with this it is precipitated 
as a hydrate by ammonia and potash, being insoluble in an excess of 
either reagent. When strongly heated in air it burns with a blue- 
violet flame and brownish fumes. Its salts color flame blue-violet. 
Heated it combines directly with chlorin, bromin, iodin and sulfur. 
It leaves a lead-like mark when rubbed on paper. Indium belongs to 
the iron group, is obtained from zinc, and was discovered by Reich 
and Richter in the zinc-blende of Freiburg. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, X. 550. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 331 

INULA HELENIUM. Elecampane. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Corvisartia helenium, Enula campana; English, 
Elecampane, Scabwort ; French, Aune'e commune (officinale) ; German, 
Helenenwurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with branching, mucilaginous, 
aromatic, bitter, more or less tap-shaped root, 6 inches long, I to 2 
inches thick, with rough, flaky, thick bark. The round, furrowed, 
solid, branching stem is 3 to 5 feet high and downy above. The 
leaves are alternate, those from the root ovate, petioled, the others 
partly clasping, green above, woolly beneath, 18 inches long, 4 to 6 
inches broad. The yellow flowers appear in August, in large, terminal, 
solitary or corymbose heads, on long, axillary peduncles, which some- 
times have small leaves midway in their length. 

Habitat. Naturalized from Europe, grows spontaneously in the 
United States ; found in damp places and along roadsides, escaped from 
gardens. Fig., Goullon, 141 ; Bent, and Trim. 150; Millspaugh, 81. 

History. The common name, a corruption of Enula-campana ; the 
derivation of botanical name, uncertain. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1860 by an incidental proving by Dr. Bayard, Trans. 
Am. Inst. Horn. 1860, 58. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 112; X. 
550.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J> ; Drug strength -j^. 

Inula helenium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 874 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

IODIUM. lodin. 

Chemical Symbol. I; 126.53. 



332 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, lodum, lodinium, Jodium; French, lode; 
German, Jod. 

A non-metallic element. 

Description. As described by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, iodin con- 
sists of " heavy, bluish-black, dry and friable rhombic plates, having a 
metallic luster, a distinctive odor, and a sharp, acrid taste." It volati- 
lizes at ordinary temperatures. Is soluble in from 5,000 to 7,000 parts 
of water and in 10 parts of alcohol at 15 C. ; freely soluble in ether, 
chloroform, carbon disulfid and benzol, also in aqueous solutions of 
iodids; specific gravity, 4.95. It fuses near 115 C., congeals at 
113.6 C., and boils at from 175 to 250 C. Its vapor corrodes the 
skin and mucous membranes, and colors skin or paper with a red to 
dark-brown, fleeting stain. Iodin vapor is the heaviest known, being 
8.72 times as heavy as air. This element imparts a blue color to 
starch-paste, and even ^OTTO-SIT P art mav tnus ^> e recognized. Iodin is a 
non-metallic substance, obtained chiefly from the ashes of sea-weeds, 
also from the mother-liquor of Chilian sodium nitrate. Iodin should 
be kept in ground-stoppered bottles, and in a cool place. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 119; X. 551. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Iodin, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, icoo Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher; for immediate use only. 



IPECACUANHA. Ipecac. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Callicocca ipecacuanha, Cephaelis emetica, C. 
ipecacuanha, H ipecacuanha, H. brasilienses, H. dysenterica, Ipeca- 
cuanha fusca, I. officinalis, Psychotria ipecacuanha^ English, Brown 
ipecac ; French, Ipecacuanha ; German, Brechwurzel. 

Description. A half-shrubby, perennial plant, with several spread- 
ing, twisting roots, about the size of a goose quill, simple, or somewhat 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 333 

branched, descending obliquely into the ground. The stem, 2 or 3 
feet long, partly under ground, rooting easily, is smooth and gray at 
the base, pubescent and green above. The leaves are opposite, petio- 
late, obovate, acute, entire, blackish-green, somewhat rough above, 
pale, downy and veined beneath, 3 to 4 inches long, I to 2 inches 
broad, with large stipules. The flowers are very small, white, sessile, 
10 to 20 in a dense head, on an axillary, but apparently terminal, 
peduncle, surrounded by an involucre of four bracts. The dried root, 
as met with, is l /b to ^ inch thick, composed of a thread-like center 
wholly or partially encircled with knotty ridges, also wrinkled length- 
wise. It is brittle, externally brown, internally whitish-gray and 
somewhat resinous, or waxy. 

Habitat. Brazil and the upper part of South America; growing 
abundantly in hot, moist forests. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 8 ; Jahr and 
Cat. 225; Winkler, 58; Goullon, 134; Bent, and Trim. 145. 

History. The name, signifying vomit-root in the vernacular, is 
given to various roots, and although described in 1648, the source of 
the Cephaelis ipecacuanha was not known till 1800. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag. de. Vir. Med. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 137; X. 551.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength T ^. 

Ipecacuanha, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : I x and higher. 



IRIDIUM METALLICUM, Indium. 

Chemical Symbol. Ir; 192.5. 

A rare metal found in the Uralian ores of platinum. 



334 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. Consists of a white, brittle metal, difficultly fusible 
in a powerful oxy-hydrogen flame. When completely fused it is 
obtained as a white, lustrous, compact mass, looking like polished 
steel, rather malleable at a red heat, brittle when cold ; specific gravity 
of porous iridium varies from 16 to 19. This metal is harder than 
iron. When strongly heated it remains insoluble in all acids, but 
becomes soluble on being fused with niter and caustic potash. Com- 
pact iridium is not oxydised when heated in oxygen, but black iridium 
changes to Ir 2 O 3 , and again decomposes at 1,000 C. It is prepared 
from osm-iridium and platin-iridium, the residue obtained from heating 
platinum ore with aqua regia, and should be kept in ground-stoppered 
bottles in a cool place. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



IRIS VERSICOLOR. Blue Flag. 

Natural Order. Iridaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Blue flag, Flag lily, Liver lily; French, 
Glateul bleu; German, Amerikanischer Schwertlilie. 

Description. A perennial herb, with creeping, more or less tuber- 
ous rhizome, with 2 to 4 lateral branches, the under surface beset 
with fibrous rootlets. The stem is leafy, I to 3 feet high, stout and 
angular on one side. The leaves are erect, sword-shaped, or grassy, 
equitant, 3 to 4 inches wide, i to i^ feet long. The violet-blue 
flowers, variegated, with greenish, yellowish, or white and purple 
veins, are short peduncled, 2.y 2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 6 on each plant, 
and appear in May and June from a spathe, with 2 or more leaves, or 
bracts. 

Habitat. Europe, northern Africa, northern India, general in the 
United States; found in wet places. Fig., Millspaugh, 173. 

History. Name from iris, rainbow. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature in 1851 by Dr. Kitchen, N. A. Jour. Horn. I. 461. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 153 ; X. 552.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 335 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^ 

Iris versicolor, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



JACARANDA CAROBA. Caroba Bark. 

Natural Order. Bignoniaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Bignonia caroba; English, Caroba bark; 
German, Carobablatter. 

Description. A tree, 20 to 30 feet high, with white wood, and 
opposite, abruptly bi-pinnate leaves, with large white flowers, appear- 
ing in September in terminal panicles. 

Habitat. Brazil ; common in gardens and on plantations. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1849 by Dr. 
Mure, Pathogen. Bresil. 279. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 176.] 

Part Used. The flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Jacaranda, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



JALAPA. Jalap. 

Natural Order Convolvulaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chelapa, Convolvulus jalapa, C. purga, Exo- 
gonium purga, Gialappa, Ipomoea jalapa, I. purga, I. schiedeana, 
Mechoacanna nigra; English, Jalap, Jalap root; French, Jalap; 
German, Jalape, Jalapenknollen. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial vine, with a tuberous, fleshy, 
nearly globular root, becoming fibrous and tapering below. The 
stem, over 12 feet long, moderately branched, is warted and smooth, 
brownish, twisted and furrowed. The leaves are alternate, thick, 
petiolate, entire, cordate, ovate, smooth, pale, and veiny beneath, 4 or 
5 inches long. The numerous, purplish-pink flowers appear from 
August to September, on long, wiry, twisted peduncles, in axillary 
cymes. The dried root is met with either whole, split in two, or trans- 
versely sliced. The entire root, which is preferable, is irregularly 
globular, ovate, or pear-shaped, heavy, compact, brittle, externally 
brown and wrinkled, internally grayish, of a rather nauseous odor, 
and a sweetish, acrid taste. 

Habitat. Mexico, Florida and the Carolinas, and the eastern 
slope of the Mexican Andes. Fig., Winkler, 77-81 ; Jahr and Cat. 
227; Goullon, 177-178; Bent, and Trim. 186. 

History. Name derived from the city of Jalapa. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1843 by Noack and Trinks, Handbuch d. 
Horn. M. L., I. 86 1. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 181.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Jalapa, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 337 

JATROPHA CURCAS. Physic Nut, 

Natural Order Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Castiglionia lobata, Curcas purgans, Ficus 
infernalis, Nux cathartica americana, Ricinus americanus, R. majoris; 
English, Angular-leaved physic nut, Barbadoes nut, Purging nut ; 
French, Pignon d'Inde (des Barbades) ; German, Purginuss, Schwarze 
Brechnuss. 

Description. A smooth barked, light ash-colored, evergreen shrub, 
attaining a height of 20 feet. The leaves, alternate, crowded at the 
apex of the branches, are three- to four-lobed, cordate, entire, smooth, 
6 to 1 8 inches long, including petioles. The flowers are small, greenish- 
yellow, in stalked cymes. The fruit is globular and fleshy, size of a 
filbert, black when ripe, containing 3 seeds in distinct cells. 

Habitat. India and tropical America ; found also in all tropical 
countries, where it is cultivated for the seeds. Fig., Winkler, 82. 

History. Name derived from iatron, a remedy, and phago, to eat. 
Mentioned by Dr. Hering in 1833, Allg. Horn. Zeit. II. 24. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 182 ; X. 554.] 

Part Used. The dried seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture </> ; Drug strength ^. 

Jatropha, zoo Gm. 

Strong alcohol, icoo Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 



JUGLANS CINEREA. Butter Nut. 

Natural Order. Juglandaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Juglans cathartica, J. oblongata; English, 
Butter nut, Lemon walnut, Oil nut, White walnut. 



338 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous tree, 30 to 50 feet high, with gray bark, 
widely spreading branches, the young twigs downy and clammy. The 
leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate, with serrate leaflets, oblong, lanceo- 
late, rounded and pointed, downy, especially underneath. The flowers 
appear in April and May ; the barren, hanging in catkins from the 
sides of the last year's fruit ; the fertile ones, in short spikes at the ends 
of the new shoots, are sessile, pubescent and viscid. The fruit ripens 
in September, the nut deeply cut and rough, with ragged edges, two- 
celled at the base, very oily. 

Habitat. United States; found in rich woods. Fig., Bent, and 
Trim. 247. 

History. From Jovas and glans, nut of Jove. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1852. Proving of Dr. Paine, Hale's New 
Rem. 2d ed. 621. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 193; X. 554.] 

Part Used. The inner bark of root and branches. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength T ^. 

Juglans cinerea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 1 50 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 780 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



JUGLANS REGIA. English Walnut 

Natural Order. Juglandaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Nux juglans; English, Common English 
walnut, English walnut, European walnut ; French, Noix commune. 

Description. A deciduous tree, 50 feet high, with branches 
smooth, angular, and somewhat speckled. The leaves are alternate, 
pinnate, with about 9 leaflets, oval, sub-serrate, smooth, nearly equal 
sized. The flowers appear in April and May, the male flowers in 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 339 

catkins, the female flowers on peduncles on the ends of branches. 
The smooth, globose fruit has a fibrous, fleshy, indehiscent epicarp, 
and a rough, irregularly-furrowed shell, or endocarp. The green 
pericarp and leaves have a peculiar odor, and a somewhat astringent 
and bitter taste. 

Habitat India to Persia, and temperate Europe. Fig., Goullon, 27. 

History. Used as a medicine since the time of Hippocrates; at 
one time a popular domestic remedy. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1845 by a proving by Dr. Mueller, Hygea, XXII. 70. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 197.] 

Parts Used. The leaves and green, unripe fruit. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength ^. 

Juglans regia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

. To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, five parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



JUNCUS EFFUSUS, Rush. 

Natural Order. Juncaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Juncus communis, J. lavis; English, Bulrush, 
Common rush, Soft rush ; French, Jonc commune. 

Description. A perennial, grass-like plant, 2 to 3 feet high, with a 
matted, running, short rhizome, bearing thick tufts of stems. The 
pliant, erect, cylindrical scape contains a soft, spongy pith, and is 
furnished at the base with short leaflets, or leaf-bearing sheaths. The 
numerous, small, greenish flowers, appearing in June and July in a 
sessile, spreading panicle, which protrudes from the side of the scape, 
about half-way up, have lanceolate sepals and three white anthers as 
long as filaments. The yellowish seeds are about ^ inch long. 



34O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Marshy grounds everywhere in the temperate and arctic 
zones. 

History. Name derived from jungo, to join; ropes were first 
made of rushes. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1841 by a 
proving by Wahle, Archiv. XIX. 2, 183. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
V. 204.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Juncus effusus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain ow part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA. Red Cedar, 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. English, Red cedar; French, Cedre de Virginie; 
German, Virginische Ceder, Rothe Ceder. 

Description. A straight, evergreen tree, 30 to 90 feet high, with 
many horizontal branches ; its surface disfigured by minute-knots and 
twigs, covered with densely imbricated leaves, increasing in size as 
the branches grow, until they become broken up and confounded with 
the rough bark. The wood is durable, compact, reddish and odorous. 
The leaves are fleshy, ovate, concave, rigidly acute, with a small gland 
on the middle of their outer side, growing in pairs, and uniting at the 
base, and to pairs above and below. The flowers, in April and May, 
are in smooth, oblong aments. This tree yields small, bluish berries, 
covered with a white powder. 

Habitat. Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, westward to Texas, 
Nevada to British Columbia; growing in dry, rocky places. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 34! 

History. Incidental proving reported by Dr. Allen, Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. V. 207 ; X. 554. 

Part Used. The fresh twigs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -fa. 

Juniperus virgin iana, moist magma containing solids lOoGm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 874 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

KALI ACETICUM. Potassium Acetate. 

Kali Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. KC 2 H 3 O 2 ; 97.89. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii acetas, Potassae acetas, Acetas potas- 
sicus, s. kalicus, Terra foliata tartari ; English, Acetate of potash, 
Potassic acetate, Diuretic salt; French, Acetate de potasse; German, 
Kaliumacetat, Essigsaures kali. 

Description. Consists of a snow-white powder, or of crystalline 
masses, of a pearly appearance, odorless, and having a strong saline 
taste. It is markedly deliquescent. Is soluble in 0.36 parts of water 
at 15 C. and in 1.9 parts of alcohol; it fuses at 280 C. ; is decom- 
posed at a higher temperature, emitting acid vapors and leaving a 
residue of potassium carbonate. Its aqueous solution gives a crystal- 
line precipitate with acid potassium tartrate, and a deep-red coloration 
with a few drops of a solution of ferric chlorid. Heated with sulfuric 
acid, vapors of acetic acid are given off. It is prepared from potassium 
carbonate and acetic acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 210. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution: -fa in distilled water. 

b. Diltttions: 2x and higher, with distilled water. 
All preparations of this salt should be freshly made. 



342 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

KALI ARSENICOSUM. Potassium Arsenite. 

Kali Arsenite. 

Chemical Symbol. HK 2 AsO 3 . 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii arsenitis, Potassii arsenis, Kali arsenio- 
sum ; English, Arsenite of potassium. 

Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 22 ; X. 555. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f>: -j-j^. 

Arsenious acid, fine powder, 10 Gm. 

Potassium bicarbonate, 20 Gm. 

Alcohol, 50 Cc. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

Dissolve the arsenious acid and potassium bicarbonate in one 
hundred (100) cubic centimeters of distilled water by boiling; after 
the liquid has cooled, add sufficient distilled water to make the solution 
equal nine hundred and fifty (950) cubic centimeters ; then add fifty 
(50) cubic centimeters of alcohol, and filter. This may be regarded 
as the 2x, y^j- solution. 

b. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

KALI BICHROMICUM, Potassium Dichromate. 

Kali Bichromate. 

Chemical Symbol. K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ; 293.78. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii bichromas, Potassae bichromas, Kalium 
dichromicum, Bichromas kalicus, Kali chromicum rubrum ; English, 
Bichromate of potassium, Potassic dichromate, Red chromate of 
potash, Bichromate of potash ; French, Bichromate de potasse ; German, 
Kaliumdichromat, Doppeltchromsaures Kali. 

Description. Consists of large, anhydrous, orange-red, tabular 
crystals, without odor, and of a bitter, metallic taste; permanent in 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 343 

air. Soluble in 10 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. 
Exposed to heat the crystals melt below redness and are converted 
into powder ; at a red heat they are decomposed into oxygen, chromic 
oxid and potassium chromate. The aqueous solution has an acid 
reaction, gives a yellow precipitate with plumbic acetate, and a red 
precipitate with argentic nitrate. Heated with concentrated sulfuric 
acid and alcohol the liquid acquires a deep-green coloration. This 
salt is prepared from chrome iron ore. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, V. 213 ; X. 556. Maximum dose y, grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Solution : ^, with distilled water ; freshly made. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with distilled water; freshly made. 
All preparations of this salt should be kept but a limited time. 



KALI BROMATUM. Potassium Bromid. 

Kali Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol. KBr ; 1 18.79. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii bromidum, Kalium bromatum, Bro- 
muretum potassicum, s. kalicum; English, Bromide of potassium, 
Potassic bromide ; French, Bromure de potassium ; German, Brom- 
kalium, Kaliumbromid. 

Description. Consists of anhydrous, translucent, colorless, odorless 
crystals, having a strong saline and metallic taste ; permanent in air. 
Soluble in 1.6 parts of water at ordinary temperature, and in 200 parts 
of alcohol. By the action of a white heat it is volatilized without 
decomposition. Its aqueous solution gives a white precipitate with 
acid sodium tartrate. With chlorin water, bromin is set free and can 
be dissolved in chloroform or carbon disulfid with a reddish coloration. 
Argentic nitrate produces a yellowish-white precipitate of argentic 
bromid, insoluble in nitric acid, but soluble in ammonium hydrate. It 
is prepared from potassium carbonate and bromin. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 264; X. 557. 



344 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <f> : T L, with distilled water ; freshly made. 

b. Dilutions: 2x, with dilute alcohol; 3x and higher, with dis- 

pensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher; freshly made. 

KALI CARBONICUM. Potassium Carbonate. 

Kali Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. K 2 CO 3 ; 137.91. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii carbonas, Potassae carbonae, Kalium 
carbonicum (purum, s. e tartaro), Carbonas potassicus, s. kalicus, 
Potassii carbonas purus, Sal tartari ; English, Carbonate of potassium, 
Potassic carbonate; French, Carbonate de potasse; German, Kalium- 
carbonat, Kohlensaures Kali. 

Description. A white, deliquescent, odorless, granular powder, 
having a strong alkaline taste. Soluble in I part of water at 15 C., 
insoluble in alcohol. It dissolves in dilute acids, with a production of 
carbon dioxid ; is unchanged by heat. Its aqueous solutions are alka- 
line, and give a white, granular precipitate with an excess of tartaric 
acid. It gives to the flame a violet coloration. It is obtained from 
the ashes of plants. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 281 ; 
X. 558. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher; freshly made. 

KALI CAUSTICUM. Potassium Hydrate. 

Kali Caustic. 

Chemical Symbol. KOH ; 55.99. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassa, Potassii hydras, Potassae hydras, 
Potassa caustica, Kali purum, Kali causticum fusum, Kali hydricum 
fusum, Oxydum potassicum, Lapis causticus chirurgorum; English, 
Hydrate of potassium, Potassic hydrate, Caustic potash, Hydrate of 
potassa ; French, Potasse caustique ; German, Aetzkali, Kalium-Hydrat. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 345 

Description. Consists of white, hard, opaque masses, showing a 
crystalline texture when broken, odorless and caustic, extremely 
deliquescent. Exposed to air it absorbs water and carbon dioxid. 
Freely soluble at 15 C. in 0.5 part water, or in 2 parts of alcohol. 
Heated at 530 C. it melts to a clear liquid, and at a bright-red heat is 
volatilized without decomposition; it gives the flame a violet color. 
Its aqueous solution has a soapy feel. It forms precipitates with most 
of the metallic salts. Boiled with organic matter containing nitrogen 
it emits ammonia gas ; saturated with hydrochloric acid and treated 
with platinic chlorid, a yellow precipitate is obtained, and with tartaric 
acid it gives a colorless crystalline percipitate. It is obtained from 
potassium carbonate and calcium hydrate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <$>: Drug strength ^. 

Kali causticum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of solution. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



KALI CHLORICUM. Potassium Chlorate. 

Kali Chlorate. 

Chemical Symbol. KC1O 3 ; 122.28. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii chloras, Potassae chloras, Kalium 
chloricum, Kali oxymuriaticum, Kali muriaticum oxygenatum, Chloras 
potassicus, s. kalicus ; English, Chlorate of potassium, Potassic 
chlorate, Chlorate of potash, Hyperoxymuriate of potassa; French, 
Chlorate de potasse ; German, Kaliumchlorat, Chlorsaures Kali. 

Description. Colorless, transparent, odorless, rhomboidal prisms, 
having a cooling, saline taste. Anhydrous and permanent in air. It 
deflagrates when thrown upon burning charcoal, and may produce 
explosions when triturated carelessly with sulfur and organic sub- 
stances, such as charcoal, sugar, etc. It is soluble in 16.7 parts of 
water at 15 C. ; insoluble in absolute alcohol. It is decomposed by 
heat into oxygen and potassium chlorid. Its concentrated aqueous 



346 THE PHARMACOPEIA OE THE 

solution gives with tartaric acid a colorless, crystalline precipitate; 
with concentrated sulfuric acid it detonates. It is prepared by con- 
ducting chlorin gas into a saturated solution of potassium hydrate. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 316; X. 561. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Ttiturations : ix and higher; prepared with care to avoid 

explosion. 

b. Solution': y^ in distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 3x, with dilute alcohol; 4x and higher, with dis- 

pensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 4x and higher. 



KALI CHROMICUM. Potassium Chromate. 

Kali Chromate. 

Chemical Symbol. K,CrO 4 ; 193.9. 

Synonyms. English, Chromate of potassium, Normal potassic 
chromate, Chromate of potash, Yellow chromate of potash. 

Description. Consists of yellow, anhydrous, odorless crystals, with 
a metallic saline taste. Soluble in 0.20 parts of water at 15 C. ; insolu- 
ble in alcohol. Its aqueous solution is alkaline, and is partly decom- 
posed by evaporation, with formation of potassium dichromate. Acids, 
even carbon dioxid, change its solution from yellow to red, producing 
potassium dichromate. It fuses at a red heat without decomposition. 
It is prepared by adding potassium carbonate to a hot solution of 
potassium dichromate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 562. 
A poison. Maximum dose Y$ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



KALI CYANATUM. Potassium Cyanid. 

Kali Cyanid. 

Chemical Symbol. KCN; 65.01. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. ,>47 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii cyanidum, Kali cyanuretum, Kalium 
cyanatum, Cyanuretum potassicum, s. kalicum ; English, Cyanide of 
potassium, Potassic cyanide ; French, Cyanure de potassium ; German, 
Kaliumcyanid, Cyankalium. 

Description. Consists of white, opaque, very poisonous masses, 
odorless when dry, emitting an odor of hydrocyanic acid when moist ; 
deliquescent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 2 parts of water; sparingly 
soluble in alcohol. It fuses at a low, red heat. The aqueous solution 
is alkaline, and disengages hydrocyanic acid when treated with 
hydrochloric or sulfuric acid ; with argentic nitrate a white precipitate 
is obtained. This precipitate of argentic cyanid is soluble in potas- 
sium cyanid and in ammonium hydrate. It gives with ferrous sulfate 
and an excess of hydrochloric acid a blue precipitate. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 323 ; X. 562. An active poison, even caus- 
ing dangerous symptoms when raw cutaneous surfaces are exposed 
to its action. Maximum dose y& grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

This salt and its preparations should be freshly made. 



KALI FERROCYANTUM. Potassium Ferrocyanid. 

Kali Ferrocyanid. 

Chemical Symbol. K 4 Fe(CN) 6 .3H 2 O ; 421.76. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii ferrocyanidum, Potassae prussias flava, 
Kali ferrocyanuretum, Kalium borussicum, Cyanuretum ferroso-potas- 
sicum ; English, Ferrocyanide of potassium, Potassic ferrocyanide, 
Yellow prussiate of potash ; French, Prussiate jaune de potasse, Ferro- 
cyanure de potassium ; German, Ferrocyankalium, Blutlangensalz. 

Description. Consists of large, transparent, yellow tabular crystals, 
odorless, and of a saline taste. Soluble in 4 parts of water at -15 C. ; 
insoluble in alcohol. Heated to 100 C. the salt loses its water of 
crystallization and is transformed into a white powder ; at a red heat 
it is decomposed and leaves a residue of potassium cyanid, ferric oxid 
and carbon. Its aqueous solution is neutral, and gives with ferric 
salts a blue, with copper salts a brown, with acid sodium tartrate a 



348 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

colorless crystalline, and with cobaltic nitrite a yellow, precipitate. It 
is prepared by heating organic substances rich in nitrogen, with 
potassium carbonate and iron. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
V. 330. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



KALI HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM. 

Kali Hypophosphite. Potassium Hypophosphite. 

Chemical Symbol. KH 2 PO 2 ; 103.91. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii hypophosphis, Kalium hypophos- 
phorosum, Hypophosphis potassicus, s. kalicus ; English, Hypophos- 
phite of potassium, Potassic hypophosphite ; French, Hypophosphite 
de potasse; German, Kaliumhypophosphit, Unterphosphorigsaures 
Kali. 

Description. Consists of white, opaque, sometimes crystalline 
masses, odorless, and of a strong saline taste. It is extremely deli- 
quescent. Is soluble at 15 C. in 0.6 part of water, and in 7.3 parts 
of alcohol. When heated it gives off moisture and subsequently 
hydrogen phosphid, which burns with a bright flame, leaving a 
residue of potassium phosphate. It explodes violently when heated 
with nitrates or chlorates. Its aqueous solution is neutral, and with 
tartaric acid gives a colorless, crystalline precipitate. A white pre- 
cipitate is formed when mercuric chlorid is added to the aqueous 
solution, acidified with hydrochloric acid. It is obtained from calcium 
hypophosphite and potassium carbonate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

If. Solution: -$ in distilled water or syrup. 

KALI IODATUM. Potassium lodid. 

Kali lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. KI; 165.56. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 349 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii iodidum, Kali hydroiodicum, Kalium 
jodatum, loduretum potassicum, s. kalicum ; English, Iodide of potas- 
sium, Potassic iodide ; French, lodure de potassium ; German, Jod- 
kalium. 

Description. Consists of colorless, semi-transparent, or opaque, 
anhydrous crystals ; permanent in dry, but deliquescent in moist air. 
They have a slight odor of iodin, and a saline, bitter, metallic taste. 
Are soluble in 0.75 part of water and in 18 parts of alcohol at 15 C. 
This salt fuses below red heat, and volatilizes without decomposition 
at a higher temperature. Its aqueous solution is neutral, and gives a 
colorless, crystalline precipitate with tartaric acid, a yellow precipitate 
with argentic nitrate, insoluble in ammonia, and a bright-red precipi- 
tate with mercuric chlorid, soluble in either the solution or the 
reagent ; with chlorin water, iodin is liberated and can be dissolved in 
chloroform or carbon disulfid with a violet coloration. This salt 
treated with sulfuric acid gives off violet vapors of iodin. It is pre- 
pared from potassium hydrate and iodin, and should be kept in well- 
stoppered bottles. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 331 ; 
X. 562. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : i x and higher. 

b. Tincture <f>: ^, with dilute alcohol. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 2x and higher. 

KALI MURIATICUM. Potassium Chlorid. 

Kali Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. KC1 ; 74.4. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii chloridum, Kalium chloridum, Chlo- 
ruretum potassicum, Sal digestivum Sylvii ; English, Chloride of 
potassium, Potassic chloride ; French, Chlorure de potassium ; German, 
Kaliumchlorid, Chlorsaures Kali. 

Description. Consists of white, odorless, permanent cubes, with a 
saline taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 3 parts of water, slightly soluble in 
alcohol ; decrepitates when heated ; melts at a low, red heat, and 
volatilizes without decomposition at a higher temperature. Its aque- 



350 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

ous solution gives the potassium test with tartaric acid (vide supra), 
and a white precipitate, insoluble in ammonium hydrate, with argentic 
nitrate. The salt is decomposed by nitric or sulfuric acid, giving off 
hydrochloric acid. It is prepared from potassium carbonate and 
hydrogen chlorid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

KALI NITRICUM. Potassium Nitrate. 

Kali Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. KNO 3 ; 100.92. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii nitras, Potassae nitras, Kalium nitri- 
cum, Nitrum depuratum, Sal petrae, Sal nitri, Nitras potassicus, s. 
kalicus; English, Nitrate of potassium, Potassic nitrate, Nitrate of 
potash, Niter, Saltpeter; French, Azotate (nitrate) de potasse, Nitre 
prismatique, Salpetre; German, Kaliumnitrat, Salpetersaures Kali, 
Sal peter. 

Description. Consists of long, striated, odorless, colorless prisms, 
having a cooling, saline taste. Is permanent in air. Soluble at 15 C. 
in 3.8 parts of water, very sparingly soluble in alcohol. It fuses below 
redness, and when thrown upon burning coal it deflagrates. At a high 
temperature it is decomposed, giving off oxygen, nitrogen, and leaving 
a residue of potassium nitrate and nitrite. Its aqueous solution is 
neutral, and gives a brown coloration with ferrous sulfate and sulfuric 
acid ; with diphenylamin and sulfuric acid it gives a blue solution. It 
is both a natural and an artificial product, and may be obtained from 
potassium carbonate and nitric acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, V. 355; X. 565. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

KALI OXALICUM. Potassium Oxalate. 

Kali Oxalate. 

Chemical Symbol. HKC 2 O 4 ; 127.81. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 351 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii oxalas ; English, Oxalate of potassium, 
Potassic oxalate, Salt of lemons, Salt of sorrel; French, Oxalate de 
potasse. 

Description. Consists of transparent, odorless, colorless crystals, 
with an acid, saline taste. Soluble in 40 parts of water at ordinary 
temperature; insoluble in alcohol. At a red heat it is decomposed, 
leaving a residue of potassium carbonate. Its aqueous solution has an 
acid reaction ; when neutralized it gives with calcium chlorid a color- 
less, crystalline precipitate. It is contained in the juice of various 
species of sorrel. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 384. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



KALI PERMANGANICUM. Potassium Permanganate. 
Kali Permanganate. 

Chemical Symbol KMnO 4 ; 157.67. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii permanganas, Potassae permanganas, 
Kali hypermanganicum crystallisatum, Kalium permanganicum, Hyper- 
manganas potassicus, s. kalicus ; English, Permanganate of potassium, 
Potassic permanganate, Permanganate of potash ; French, Permanga- 
nate de potasse; German, Kaliumpermanganat, Uebermangansaures 
Kali. 

Description. Consists of dark-purple crystals, of a metallic luster; 
permanent in air, and of an astringent taste. Is soluble in 16 parts of 
water at 1 5 C. ; is decomposed in contact with alcohol. It decrepi- 
tates when thrown upon burning coal, and is decomposed with explo- 
sion when triturated with sulfur, potassium chlorate, or inflammable 
bodies ; at a red heat it is decomposed, giving off oxygen. Its aqueous 
solution is purple, and a very small quantity of the salt is sufficient to 
give an intense color to a large volume of water. This solution, which 
is neutral, turns green on the admixture of potassium hydrate. It is 
decolorized by most organic substances. This. salt is prepared from 
manganese dioxid and potassium hydrate. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, V. 351. 



352 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution: y^, 2x in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions : 3x and higher, with distilled water. 

All preparations of this salt should be freshly prepared and kept 
in glass-stoppered bottles. 



KALI PHOSPHORICUM. Potassium Phosphate. 

Kali Phosphate. 

Chemical Symbol. K 2 HPO 4 ; 173.86. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii phosphas, Potassae phosphas, Kalium 
phosphoricum ; English, Phosphate of potassium ; French, Phosphate 
de potasse ; . German, Phosphorsaures Kali. 

Description. Consists of white, amorphous, odorless masses, of a 
saline taste; deliquescent in air. Freely soluble in water. It melts 
readily at a low temperature, and at a red heat is converted into 
pyrophosphate. Its aqueous solution gives with argentic nitrate a 
yellow precipitate, soluble in nitric acid. It is prepared with potassium 
carbonate and phosphoric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



KALI PICRICUM. Potassium Picrate. 

Kali Picrate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 2 K(NO 2 ) 3 O; 266.60. 

Description. Consists of yellow prisms, of a metallic appearance, 
and bitter taste. Soluble in 260 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble in 
alcohol. When heated it assumes an orange color, but becomes yellow 
again on cooling ; at a strong heat it decomposes with detonation and 
is exploded by shock. Its aqueous solution gives a yellow color to the 
skin. It is prepared by neutralizing a hot aqueous solution of picric 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 353 

acid with potassium hydrate. All picrates require great care in 
handling, because of their tendency to explode when exposed to heat, 
shock, or the actinic rays of light. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, V. 386. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher; prepared with care to prevent explo- 
sion. 



KALI SULPHURICUM. Potassium Sulfate. 

Kali Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. K 2 SO 4 ; 173.88. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii sulphas, Potassae sulphas, Kalium 
sulfuricum, Sulfas potassicus, s. kalicus, Arcanum duplicatum, Tar- 
tarus vitriolatus, Sal polychrestum, Glaseri; English, Sulphate of 
potassium, Potassic sulphate, Sulphate of potash, Vitriolated tartar; 
French, Sulfate de potasse; German, Kaliumsulfat, Schwefelsaures 
Kali. 

Description. Consists of colorless, hard, transparent prisms, or of 
a white, odorless powder, having a sharp, bitter, saline taste. Soluble 
in 9.5 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. When heated the 
crystals decrepitate; they impart a violet-color to the flame. The 
aqueous solution gives a white precipitate with barium chlorid, and a 
colorless, crystalline precipitate with tartaric acid, or with acid sodium 
tartrate. This salt is obtained from potassium carbonate and sulfuric 
acid ; it is exceedingly hard and difficult to triturate. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 387 ; X. 568. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

KALI TARTARICUM. Potassium Tartrate. 

Kali Tartrate. 

Chemical Symbol. K 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 .H 2 O; 243.66. 



354 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassii tartras, Potassae tartras, Kalium tar- 
taricum, Tartras potassicus, s. kalicus, Tartarus solubilis; English, 
Tartrate of potassium, Potassic tart rate, Tartrate of potash, Soluble 
tartar ; French, Tartrate de potasse, Tartre soluble ; German, Kalium- 
tartrat, Neutrales weinsaures Kali. 

Description. A white, granular, odorless, crystalline powder, with 
a mild saline taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.7 part of water; almost 
insoluble in alcohol. When heated it melts, chars, and gives off 
inflammable vapors, with an odor of burnt sugar; when ignited it 
leaves a residue of carbon and potassium carbonate. Its aqueous 
solution gives a white precipitate with barium chlorid and with 
plumbic acetate, both precipitates being soluble in nitric acid. It is 
obtained from potassium carbonate and tartaric acid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 387. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



KALMIA LATIFOLIA. Mountain Laurel. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Camaedaphnefoliis tini, Cistus chamaerhodo- 
dendros, Ledum floribus bullatis ; English, Big-leaved ivy, Broad-leaved 
laurel, Calico bush, Ivy, Lambkill, Laurel, Mountain laurel, Spoon- 
wood, Spoonbunch ; French and German, Kalmie. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, or tree, 4 to 20 feet in height, 
with a smooth stem, and irregular, tortuous, terete branches. The 
scattered leaves are mostly alternate, petioled, entire, ovate, lanceo- 
late, ternate and tapering to each end, coriaceous, bright-green on 
both sides. The numerous flowers are rose-red to pink, varying to 
white, clammy-pubescent, and appear from May to July at the ends of 
the small branches, in umbel-like corymbs. 

Habitat. Common from Maine to Ohio and Kentucky as a shrub 
4 to 8 feet high, found on rocky hills and damp soil; tree-like, 10 to 
20 feet high, forming dense thickets in the mountains from Pennsyl- 
vania southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 103. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 355 

History. Name from Peter Kalm, a pupil of Linnaeus. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1845 by a proving of Dr. Hering, 
Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 1845, 154. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 388.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Kalmia latifolia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



KINO AUSTRALIENSIS. Australian Red Gum. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Kino; English, Australian kino, Australian 
red gum, Botany Bay kino, Eucalyptus kino; French, Kino de 1'Inde; 
German, Kino. 

Description. An exudation of several species of the Eucalyptus. 
It is found in dried masses in the crevices and on the bark of the trees, 
or is obtained by incisions made through the bark yielding a red juice, 
which is dried by exposure to the air and sun; it is met with in 
smooth, angular, dark reddish-brown pieces in thin layers, transparent, 
and of a garnet hue ; it is odorless, and has an astringent and sweetish 
taste. Is partially soluble in water, and entirely so in alcohol. 

Habitat. Western Australia. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1863 by a 
proving by Dr. Blundell, Month. Horn. Rev. VII. 199. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 403.] 

Part Used. The gum. 



356 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Kino, loo Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



LACHESIS. Lachesis. 

Order. Ophidia. 
Family. Crotalidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Trigonocephalus lachesis (?); English, Lance- 
headed viper ( ? ). 

Description. The virus of a South American serpent, supposed 
to be the Trigonocephalus lachesis. It was introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice by Dr. Hering, who obtained it from the living snake 
by stunning it with a blow, and then collecting the poison on sugar by 
pressing the fang upwards against the poison sac. Much difficulty, 
however, exists in identifying the exact species referred to by Dr. 
Hering, and from the general description given and the common name 
applied, it is a question whether the provings were not made from the 
Lachesis mutus, or the Craspedocephalus lanceolatus, rather than 
from the Trigonocephalus lachesis. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, V. 432. 

Part Used. The venom. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations. 

b. Dilutions. 

LACHNANTHES TINCTORIA. Red Root. 

Natural Order. Haemodoraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Dilatris caroliniana, D. tinctoria, Heritiera 
gmelini, H. tinctoria, Pyrotheca tinctoria; English, Dyer's dilatris, 
Red wood, Spirit weed. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 357 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a deep orange-red 
fibrous, cylindrical, and more or less horizontal ligneous rhizome. 
The stem, i to 2 feet high, is erect, simple, hairy above the last leaf. 
The leaves are alternate, equitant, sword-shaped, clustered at the base 
and scattered on the stem. The dingy-yellow, woolly flowers appear 
from July to September in dense compound cymes. 

Habitat. United States, Rhode Island to Florida; found in sandy 
swamps near the coast. Fig., Millspaugh, 171. 

History. Name derived from lachno, wool, and anthos, flower. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1864 by a proving by Dr. 
Lippe, Am. Horn. Rev. IV. 457. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 471.] 

Part Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Lachnanthes, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LACTUCA VIROSA. Poisonous Lettuce. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Intybus angustus, Lactuca foetida, L. sinnata; 
English, Acrid lettuce, Poisonous lettuce, Prickly lettuce, Strong- 
scented lettuce ; French, Laitue vireuse ; German, Gif tlattich. 

Description. A deciduous, biennial herb, with a brown tap root. 
The solitary, erect stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is round, prickly, smooth, 
sparingly leafy, slightly branched, pale glaucous-green. The leaves 
are horizontal, obtuse, prickly, finely-dentate, nearly smooth, the radi- 
cal ones numerous, 6 to 8 inches long, obovate, undivided, depressed ; 



358 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

those of the stem are smaller, often lobed, arrow-shaped, clasping ; the 
midrib of all is more or less beset with prickles. The small, pale- 
yellow flowers appear in August, in numerous panicled heads, with 
many small, cordate bracts. Involucre scales, downy at the tip. The 
whole plant abounds in a bitter, milky juice of a narcotic odor. 

Habitat. Western and southern Europe to Siberia; naturalized 
in some parts of New England ; found in hedges, old walls, ruins, and 
edges of fields. Fig., Winkler, 87; Goullon, 161 ; Bent, and Trim. 160. 

History. Name derived from lac, milk, on account of its milky 
juice. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1840 by provings by 
Dr. Seidel, Jour. f. Horn. A. M. L., II. 2, 29. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. V. 487; X. 570.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <(>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Lactuca virosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



LACTUCARIUM. Lettuce Opium. 

Synonyms. Latin, Thridace ; English, Lettuce opium ; French, 
Lactucarium ; German, Giftlattichsaft. 

Description. A white, rather thick, milky juice, obtained by 
incision from several species of lactuca, forming scales, or lumps 
on exposure to the air. It is met with in irregular and shrunken 
pieces of a reddish-brown color externally, internally opaque, waxy, 
and when recent, creamy, becoming dark on exposure. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 359 

History. Provings were made at the same time Lactuca virosa 
was experimented with. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 487 ; X. 570.] 
Part Used. The concrete juice. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

LAMIUM ALBUM. Dead Nettle. 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Galeopsidis maculata, Lamium foliosum, L. 
laevigatum, L. maculatum, L. vulgatum; English, Blind nettle, Dead 
nettle, White archangel ; French, Ortie morte ; German, Taubnessel. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with cylindrical branched 
root, and stem 2 feet high, quadrangular, simple, decumbent at the base 
and hairy. The leaves are opposite, petioled, ovate, cordate, acuminate, 
serrate, smooth, and veined below. The large, white, sessile flowers, 
with the tube curved upwards and contracted at the base, having inside a 
hairy ring, appear from April to September, in axillary, twenty-flowered 
whorls. The plant emits a very disagreeable odor when bruised. 

Habitat. Great Britain, France and Germany; naturalized in 
eastern New England; found in wet ground, hedges, ditches and along 
roads. Fig., Winkler, 86; Millspaugh, 121. 

History. Name derived from lamios, the throat, from the form of 
the flower. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1832 by provings 
by Stapf, Archiv. XII. 2, 179. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 501.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and flowers. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Lamium album, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincti^re. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



360 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

LAPIS ALBUS. Gastein Rock, 

Synonym. Latin, Silico-fluorid of calcium. 

Description. Is a species of gneiss, held in suspension in the 
waters of the mineral springs of Gastein, Germany, which take their 
rise from the foot of the Tauern Mountains. The trituration first 
used was made from the gneiss rock. Dr. v. Grauvogl, the discoverer 
of this remedy, calls it a white, primitive, calcium gneiss. The springs 
are probably the most reliable sources from which it can be obtained. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



LAPPA MAJOR. Burdock. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arctium bardana, A. lappa, Bardana, Lappa 
minor, L. officinalis, L. tomentosa; English, Bat weed, Burdock, Hare 
burr; French, Bardane, Glouteron; German, Klette. 

Description. A coarse, biennial weed, with a simple, spindle-shaped 
root i foot or more long, brown externally, white and spongy inter- 
nally, having thread-like fibers and withered scales near the top, with a 
feeble, unpleasant odor, and a mucilaginous, sweetish and somewhat 
bitter taste. The stem, 3 feet high, is round, furrowed, succulent and 
pubescent, erect, branching and leafy. The large leaves are alternate, 
long-petioled, the upper ovate, the lower heart-shaped, dentate, green 
above, whitish, cottony beneath. The purple flowers appear from July 
to October in smooth heads, the imbricated scales of the involucre 
forming a hooked bur. 

Habitat. Found throughout Europe and northern Asia; natural- 
ized in the United States. It flourishes in nearly all climates in waste 
places and around dwellings in manured soil. Fig., Goullon, 157, 158; 
Millspaugh, 92. 

History. Name derived from lappa, the Latin for bur, or from the 
Celtic, llap, a hand, because it lays hold of everything near. [Hale's 
New Rem. 3d ed.] 

Parts Used. The fresh root and seed. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 361 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength fa 

Lappa major, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LATHYRUS SATIVUS. Wild Vetch. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Vernacular, Kesaree, Teoree; English, Chickling, 
White or wild vetch, Chick pea ; German, Weisse deutsche Kicher. 

Description. A deciduous, annual climber, with a stem 3 feet high. 
The leaves are alternate, pinnate, with petioles ending in tendrils, 
leaflets in single or more pairs. The purple flowers appear singly in 
June and July on axillary peduncles. 

Habitat. Levant, and at one time extensively cultivated in southern 
Europe. 

History. The name, derived from la and thouros, anything excit- 
ing, alluding to the medicinal qualities of the bean, was given by Theo- 
phrastus ; although the seeds were ground and mixed with wheat in 
bread making, it is a rank poison to most animals. Symptoms in 
poison cases reported in 1845, Brit. Jour, of Horn. III. 257. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 504.] 

Part Used. The dried seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



362 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

LAUROCERASUS. Cherry Laurel 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cerasus folio laurino, C. laurocerasus, C. trape- 
zuntina, Padus laurocerasus, Prunus laurocerasus, P. lusitanica; 
English, Cherry bay, Common cherry laurel ; French, Laurier-cerise ; 
German, Kirsch-Lorbeer. 

Description. A small evergreen shrub, or tree, 12 to 20 feet high, 
smooth in every part, with pale-green, shining shoots. The leaves, 4 
to 6 inches long, \y 2 to 2^ inches wide, are alternate, short-petioled, 
oblong, acuminate, re-curved at the point, remotely-serrate, shining, 
coriaceous, with 2 or 4 small yellow glands at the base beneath. The 
white, yellow-tinged flowers, with peduncles shorter or as long as 
the leaves, appear in April and May, in axillary, erect racemes. The 
presence of prussic acid in all its parts gives the plant a decided flavor 
and odor, noticeable only when it is bruised. 

Habitat. The Levant, and found throughout temperate Europe. 
Fig., Flora Horn. II. 18; Jahr and Cat. 230; Winkler, 37; Goullon, 
103 ; Bent, and Trim. 98. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1828 by prov- 
ings of Hartlaub and Trinks, R. A. M. L., I. 127. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. V. 506 ; X. 572.] 

Part Used. The leaves gathered in July and August when they 
have more prussic acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength ^ ; freshly made. 
Laurocerasus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 363 

LEDUM PALUSTRE. Wild Rosemary. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anthos sylvestris, Ledum decumbens, L. 
silesiacum, Rosmarinum sylvestre; English, Marsh cistus, Marsh 
ledutn, Marsh tea, Silesian rosemary, Wild rosemary ; French, Romarin 
sauvage ; German, Wilder Rosmarin. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, with stem 2 to 3 feet high, with 
several clustering rounded branches covered with a rust-colored fur ; 
bark of stem ash-colored. The leaves, 2 inches long, YT, to % inch 
broad, are alternate, short-petioled, lanceolate, rolled back on the 
edges, glabrous, green and shining above, red, rust-colored and downy 
beneath. The numerous white or pale-rose-red flowers appear in dense 
terminal corymbs, with filiform, pubescent pedicels. The whole plant 
has a heavy aromatic odor, and a camphoraceous, bitter taste. 

Habitat. Northern Europe, Asia, New Foundland, Labrador to 
Alaska and Aleutian Islands ; found in bogs. Fig. % Flora Horn. II. 
23 ; Winkler, 91 ; Goullon, 165. 

History. Proving by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag, de Vir. Med. 169. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 531.] 

Part Used The fresh herb. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < .- Drug strength ^. 

Ledum palustre, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Strong alcohol, 840 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

LEPTANDRA VIRGINICA. Culver's Root. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Callistachya virginica, Eustachya alba, E. pur- 
purea, Leptandra purpurea, Paederota virginica, Veronica incarnata, 
V. japonica, V. sibirica, V. virginica; English, Black root, Bowman's 



364 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

root, Brinton root, Culver's physic, Culver's root, Tall speedwell, Tall 
veronica, Veronica, Virginia speedwell ; French, Racine de leptandra, 
s. de veronique de Virginie ; German, Leptandra-Wurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a short horizontal, often 
branched, blackish rhizome, thick as a finger, 6 to 12 inches long, 
scarred on the upper surface, and giving off horizontally in every 
direction, numerous, long, slender roots. When fresh the root has a 
faint odor, and a bitter, nauseous taste, less perceptible when it is dry. 
The stem, 2 to 7 feet high, is simple, straight, smooth, or slightly 
downy. The short petioled leaves, 3 to 5 inches long, four- to seven- 
whorled, are lanceolate, pointed, finely-serrate, nearly glabrous, pale 
beneath, the upper ones much the smaller. The flowers, varying in 
color from white to pink, or purple, appear in July and August, in 
terminal axillary, spike-like, densely-flowered racemes, minutely bracte- 
ate, 6 to 10 inches long, commonly with several shorter ones. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the United States from Vermont and 
Wisconsin, southward in the hills to Georgia, also Japan and eastern 
Indies; found in limestone countries in moist woods and barrens. 
Fig., Bent, and Trim. 196; Millspaugh, 114. 

History. Name derived from leptos, slender, and aner, anther. 
Veronica said to be a corruption of Betonica; officinal in the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1851 by a 
fragmentary proving by Dr. Gatchell, Am. Mag. of Horn. I. 18. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 556.] 

Part Used. The fresh root of the second year's growth. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Leptandra, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 565 

LILIUM TIGRINUM. Tiger Lily, 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Spotted lily, Tiger lily; German, Tiger 
Lillie. 

Description. A perennial plant, with bulbous root. The stem, 4 
to 6 feet high, is unbranched and woolly. The leaves are scattered, 
sessile, three-veined, the upper cordate-ovate, the axils bulbiferous. 
The large flowers, which appear from July to September in a pyramid 
at the summit of the stem, are dark-orange colored, with dark or very 
deep crimson, somewhat raised spots, having the appearance of the 
spots of the tiger, whence the name. 

Habitat. China and Japan ; widely cultivated in gardens. 

History. From Celtic, li, signifying whiteness. The bulbs are 
said to be used as food in Japan. Introduced into England from 
China in 1804; first used in medicine in 1867, when it was introduced 
into homoeopathic practice by a fragmentary proving by Dr. Payne, 
Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 2, 93. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 560.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -fo. 

Lilium tigrinum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 700 Cc. = 800 

Strong alcohol, 333 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, five parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LINARIA VULGARIS. Toad Flax. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antirrhinum linarium ; English, Butter and 
eggs, Ramsted, Snap dragon, Toad flax, Yellow toad flax ; French, 
Linaire commune ; German, Leinkraut, Flachskraut. 



366 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with creeping, some- 
what woody, fibrous, white root. The stem, 2 feet high, is erect and 
simple. The leaves, i to 3 inches long, and narrow, are alternate, or 
more or less scattered or whorled, linear-lanceolate, acute, pale-green, 
scarcely glaucous. The bright-yellow flowers, with chrome-colored 
pallets, appear during the summer months, in terminal, densely- 
flowered racemes. 

Habitat. Europe; naturalized in America; a very showy, but 
pernicious weed; found in fields, roadsides and waste places in dry, 
sandy soil. Fig., Goullon, 184; Millspaugh, in. 

History. So named on account of its similarity to linum, flax. 
Used in decoction as a fly poison. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1857, by a proving by Dr. Mueller, Zeit. d. Ver. d. Horn. 
Aertz. Oest. I. 41. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 587.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 
Linaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LINUM CATHARTICUM. Purging Flax. 

Natural Order. Linaceae. 
Synonym. English, Purging flax. 

Description. An annual herb, with very small tapering root. The 
one or more stems, seldom more than a foot high, are slender, erect, 
and much branched when single ; when more than one they are curved, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 367 

obliquely ascending and smooth, with spreading, forked, terminal 
panicles. The leaves are opposite, obovate-lanceolate, entire, smooth. 
The small, white, tremulous flowers appear from June to August, and 
are pendulous before expansion. 

Habitat Great Britain and Europe generally ; a troublesome 
weed ; found in dry pastures. 

History. Name from the Celtic, llin, a thread. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by provings by Dr. Gelston in 1858, Brit. Jour, 
of Horn. XVI. 147. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 588.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Linum catharticum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 50 Cc. = 150 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 



LITHIUM BENZOICUM. Lithium Benzoate. 

Lithium Benzoate. 

Chemical Symbol Li C 7 H 5 O 2 ; 127.72. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lithii benzoas, Lithium benzoicum, Benzoas 
lithicus ; English, Benzoate of lithium ; French, Benzoate de lithine ; 
German, Lithiumbenzoat, Benzoesaures Lithion. 

Description. A white, light crystalline powder, or shining crystal- 
line scales, having a mild odor of benzoin, and an alkaline, sweetish 
taste; permanent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 4 parts of water and in 
12 parts of alcohol. When heated it melts, and at a higher tempera- 
ture it chars and is decomposed, giving off inflammable vapors of 



368 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

benzol with other decomposition products of benzoic acid, and leaving 
a residue of carbon and lithium carbonate; it gives to the flame a 
bright-red color. It is prepared from lithium carbonate and benzoic 
acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



LITHIUM BROMATUM. Lithium Bromid. 

Lithium Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol Li Br ; 86.77. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lithii bromidum, Bromuretum lithicum ; 
English, Bromide of lithium ; French, Bromure de lithium ; German, 
Bromlithium, Lithiumbromid. 

Description. A granular, odorless, white powder ; having a sharp, 
bitter taste; extremely deliquescent. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.6 part 
of water; very soluble in alcohol. It melts at a dull-red heat, and 
at a white heat slowly volatilizes ; it gives to the flame a bright-red 
color; its aqueous solution is neutral. When concentrated it gives 
a white precipitate with ammonium carbonate. The addition of 
chlorin water liberates bromin, which can be dissolved in chloroform 
or carbon disulfid with a red-orange color. It is obtained from lithium 
carbonate and bromin. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

If. Tincture <j>: -fa in alcohol. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 



LITHIUM CARBONICUM. Lithium Carbonate. 

Lithium Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. Li 2 CO 3 ; 73.87. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 369 

Synonyms. Latin, Lithii carbonas, Lithiae carbonas, Carbonas 
lithicus; English, Carbonate of lithium, Lithic carbonate; Frenc/i, 
Carbonate de lithine, Carbonate lithique ; German, Lithiumcarbonat, 
Kohlensaures Lithion. 

Description. A light, white, odorless, crystalline powder, having a 
mild alkaline taste, and an alkaline reaction ; permanent in air. Solu- 
ble in 80 parts of water at I5C, much more soluble in water con- 
taining carbon dioxid; insoluble in alcohol. On heating, the salt 
melts at a dull redness, and corrodes glass, silver and platinum; it 
effervesces with acids and imparts to flame the characteristic rose 
color produced by lithium and its salts. It is prepared from lithium 
chlorid, or sulfate and ammonium carbonate. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, V. 601. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

LOBELIA CARDINALIS. Cardinal Flower. 

Natural Order Lobeliaceas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lobelia coccinea, Trachelium americanum; 
English, Cardinal flower, Red cardinal plant, Red lobelia. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb. The stem, 2 to 4 feet 
high, is erect, simple, smooth, or finely pubescent. The leaves are 
alternate, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, tapering at both ends, slightly 
dentate, cartilaginous. The large, showy, scarlet flowers appear from 
May to September, in elongated, terminal racemes, rather one-sided ; 
leafy pedicels much shorter than the leaf-like bracts. The plant has 
a milky, acrid, poisonous juice. 

Habitat. North America from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan 
southward, east of the Mississippi to Florida and southwestward to 
Texas ; common in low ground, light rich soil ; found on muddy banks 
of streams. Fig., Millspaugh, 97. 

History. Named for Mathias de Lobel, or de 1'Obel, physician 
and botanist to James I. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
1845, by a proving by Dr. Dubs, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. I. 200. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 609.] 

Parts Used The whole fresh plant. 



370 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Lobelia cardinalis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LOBELIA INFLATA. Indian Tobacco, 

Natural Order. Lobeliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rapuntium inflatum; English, Asthma root, 
Bladder-podded lobelia, Bugle weed, Emetic herb, Emetic weed, Eye 
bright, Fever cure, Indian tobacco, Lobelia, Puke root, Wild tobacco; 
French, Herbe de lobelie enflee ; German, Lobelienkraut. 

Description. An annual or biennial herb, with slender, fibrous, 
yellowish-white root. The stem, 8 inches to 2 feet high, is round, 
erect, striated, leafy, paniculately branched above, divergently hirsute 
below, somewhat angled. The leaves are alternate, irregularly scat- 
tered, the lower petioled, the others sessile, veiny, ovate, or oblong 
below, foliaceous or subulate bracts above, longer than the pedicels, 
acute, irregularly dentate, thin, pubescent and pale-green. The incon- 
spicuous, small, irregular, pale-blue flowers appear from July to 
October, in loose, terminal, leafy, spike-like racemes, each from the 
axil of a small leaf. The plant yields a milky, acrid, poisonous juice. 

Habitat. North America from Hudson Bay to Saskatchewan, 
southward to Georgia and the Mississippi; common everywhere. 
Fig., Goullon, 162 ; Bent, and Trim. 162 ; Millspaugh, 99. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1841 by a 
proving by Noack, Hygea, XV. 37. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
V. 611.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 371 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Lobelia inflata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LOBELIA SYPHILITICA. Blue Cardinal Flower. 

Natural Order. Lobeliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lobelia coerulea(?), L. glandulosa, L. reflexa, 
Rapuntium syphiliticum ; English, Bladder-podded cardinal flower, 
Blue cardinal flower, Blue lobelia, Great blue lobelia, Great lobelia. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with simple stem i to 3 
feet high, leafy, somewhat hirsute. The leaves, 2 to 6 inches long, 
i inch wide, are alternate, ovate-lanceolate, acute at each end, 
unequally-serrate, thin, somewhat hirsute. The light-blue, rarely 
white, flowers, nearly i inch long, appearing from July to October, 
with pedicels longer than the leafy bracts, are solitary, axillary, and 
crowded in a long spike or dense raceme. The whole plant has a 
rank smell, and yields a milky, acrid, poisonous juice. 

Habitat. United States, Canada to Georgia and Louisiana, and 
west to Dakota; common in low grounds, marshy borders. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 98. 

History. Named syphilitica, from its use as a remedy for syphilis 
by the American Indians. It was called coerulea, from the color of 
the flower, by Dr. Hering, as a better name than the former, but 
should not be confounded with the Lobelia coerulea, which is found in 
southern Africa. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Jeanes 
in 1870, Hahn. Month. VI. 333. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 618.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 



372 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincttire < ." Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Lobelia syphilitica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 435 Cc. = 535 

Strong alcohol, 600 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3% and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



LOLIUM TEMULENTUM. Darnel. 

Natural Order. Gramineae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lolium arvense, L. robustum ; English, Bearded 
darnel, Darnel, Tare, Poisonous darnel ; French, Ivraie ; German, Lolch, 
Taumslkorn, Taumellolch. 

Description. An annual herb, with a downy, fibrous root. The 
several stems are 2 to 3 feet high, leafy, round, stiff, often branched 
from the lower nodes, smooth, shining below, rough above. The dark- 
green leaves, 5 to 10 inches long, ^ to >^ inch wide, with short ligules, 
are spreading, drooping, gradually tapering to the apex, and rough on 
the upper side. The many five- to seven-flowered, sessile spikelets 
are arranged singly, edgewise, alternately, on opposite side of the 
elongated, somewhat flexuose rachis. The seeds ripen in August, on 
a spike 6 to 12 inches long with a rough stalk. 

Habitat. Europe, western Asia, northern Africa and India; intro- 
duced into the United States ; a pernicious weed found among wheat, 
oats and barley in rainy seasons. Fig., Winkler, 92 ; Bent, and Trim. 
295. 

History. From loloa, the Celtic name for the grass, temulentum, 
drunken, from its alleged effects. Mentioned in homoeopathic litera- 
ture in 1836, Allg. Horn. Zeit. VIII. 351. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
V. 622.] 

Part Used. The dried ripe spikelets, or seeds. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 373 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -^. 

Lolium, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



LUPULINUM. Lupulin. 

Natural Order. Urticaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Glandulae lupuli ; English, Hop grains ; French, 
Lupuline; German, Hopfenmehl, Lupulin. 

Description. A bright, brownish-yellow (becoming yellowish- 
brown), granular, resinous powder, having an aromatic odor, and the 
bitter taste peculiar to hops. The powder is composed of minute, 
irregularly round, or hood-shaped, and reticulate granules filled with a 
yellow matter, at first liquid, afterwards resinous. It is obtained from 
the strobiles of dry hops, constituting about 10 per cent of their 
weight. This powder should prove free from sand when agitated with 
water. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



LUPULUS. Hops. 

Natural Order. Urticaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Humulus lupulus, Strobili humuli, S. lupuli; 
English, Hops; French, Houblon; German, Hopfen. 

Description. A perennial plant, giving out annular, rough, flexible 
stems, which twist and twine from left to right about near-by objects, 



374 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

often climbing to a great height. The leaves are opposite on long 
petioles, are serrate, prickly, rough, of a deep-green color above; the 
larger are three- to five-lobed. The numerous flowers are axillary and 
supplied with bracts ; the male, yellowish-white, and arranged in 
panicles ; the female, on a separate plant, pale-green, and in solitary, 
peduncled aments of membranous scales, which form the ovoid cone, 
or strobile. The scales bear the achenia at the base, where both are 
covered with numerous yellow shining glands, in mass appearing as a 
granular powder. The ovate strobiles are I to iy 2 inches long of an 
aromatic odor, and a bitter taste. 

Habitat. This plant is indigenous to North America and Europe; 
specially common in the northern and western portions of the United 
States. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 232 ; Goullon, 233 ; Bent, and Trim. 230. 

History. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, V. 625. 
Part Used. The freshly dried hop strobiles. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Timture <f>: Drug strength -$. 

Lupulus, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 2x and higher. 



LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM. Tomato. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lycopersicum ceresiforme, Mala aurea, M. 
lycopersica, Poma amoris, Solanum lycopersicum ; English, Love 
apple, Tomato ; French, Pomme d'amour ; German, Liebsapfel. 

Description. An annual, cultivated plant, of many varieties, with 
a weak, trailing stem, hirsute on the branches, and more or less 
glandular. The leaves are alternate, pinnately-compound, the larger 
leaflets incised and dentate, the small interposed ones, rounder and 
often entire, interruptedly, one- to two-pinnate. The yellowish flowers 
appear from July to September, in racemes opposite the leaves. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 375 

Habitat. Warm parts of America; cultivated in most warm or 
temperate countries. The whole plant has a rank scent and watery 
juice. 

History. Name derived from lukos, a wolf, and persicon, a peach. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1839, by a proving by Dr. 
Gross, Archiv. XVII. 3, 183. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. V. 627.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Lycopersicufn, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM. Club Moss. 

Natural Order. Lycopodiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lycopodium inflexum, Muscus clavatus, M. 
squamosus vulgaris, M. terrestris repens, M. ursinus, Pes leoninus, P. 
ursinus ; English, Club moss, Stag's horn, Witch meal, Wolf's claw, 
Vegetable sulphur; French, Soufre vegetal; German, Barlappsamen. 

Description. An evergreen trailing plant, with roots of several 
strong, scattered fibers, resembling a wolf's foot. The stem creeps 
extensively, and gives off at intervals solitary, straight, simple, wiry 
shoots, with very leafy ascending branches, the fertile terminating in 
a slender peduncle, bearing two or three linear cylindrical spikes. 
The leaves are numerous, small, persistent for many years, scattered, 
incurved linear and light-green. The brown flowers appear in July 
and August in erect spikes, mostly in pairs, each composed of an axis 
and many closely appressed scales. In the axils of the scales are very 
minute, more or less flattened, reniform, coriaceous, one-celled spores, 
forming together a pale-yellow powder. This powder is inodorous, 
tasteless, floating on and not wet by water, showing under the micro- 



3/6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

scope four-sided reticulated granules with short projections on the 
edges ; under long-continued trituration, whereby the shell of the 
spores is broken, it becomes a lightish-brown unctuous mass. 

Habitat. Europe and United States ; found in dry woods and 
hilly pastures, especially northward. Fig., Winkler, 90; Goullon, 296; 
Bent, and Trim. 279; Millspaugh, 180. 

History. Name derived from lukos, a wolf, and pes, a foot ; used 
in medicine principally as an absorbent application in excoriations until 
introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1828, by a proving of Hahne- 
mann, Chron. Krank. ist ed. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. -Med. VI. i ; 
X. 577-] 

Part Used. The spores. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher; the ix and 2x should be freshly 

made and thoroughly triturated. 

b. Tincttire (f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Lycopodium, previously triturated for many hours, to break 

the spores, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, a siifficient quantity. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : ix and higher. 

N. B. To obtain satisfactory preparations of lycopodium, much 
time and labor must be employed in the process of triturating the 
spores, that the oil contained therein may be extracted ; this can be 
most effectively accomplished by grinding with milk-sugar. The 
trituration, therefore, is without doubt the most reliable form of 
preparation. 

LYCOPUS VIRGINICUS. Bugle Weed. 

Natural Order. Labiatse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lycopus macrophyllus, L. pumilus, L. uni- 
florus ; English, American archangel, Bitter bugle, Bugle weed, Gipsey 
weed, Gipsey wort, Paul's betony, Red archangel, Sweet bugle, Water 
bugle, Water horehound, Virginia horehound; French, Lycope de 
Virginie ; German, Virginischer. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 377 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a creeping root. 
The stem from 6 to 18 inches high, obtusely four-angled, with long, 
slender runners from the base, is smooth, often purplish. The leaves 
are 3 inches long, opposite, entire toward the base and short-petioled, 
ovate-lanceolate, the lower pinnatifid, the upper remotely-serrate, 
somewhat rough, purplish, and beset with granular dots on the under 
surface. The small white flowers appear from June to September, in 
axillary, sessile, small capitate clusters. The whole plant has a mint- 
like odor and aromatic taste. 

Habitat. North America and temperate regions of Europe, Asia 
and Australia northward; common in shady, moist places. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 1 17. 

History. Name derived from lukos, a wolf, and pes, a foot, from 
fancied resemblance of the cut leaves to a wolf's foot. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1855, N. A. J. of Horn. IV. 114. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 69.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Lycopus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

MAGNESIA CARBONICA. Magnesium Carbonate. 

Magnesium Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. Approximately (MgCO 3 ) 4 Mg(OH) 2 . 5H 2 O; 
484.62. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnesii carbonas, Magnesiae carbonas, Mag- 
nesium carbonicum, Magnesia hydrico-carbonica, Carbonas magnesi- 
cus ; English, Carbonate of magnesium, Magnesic carbonate ; French, 
Carbonate de magnesie, Magnetic blanche; German, Magnesium- 
karbonat, Weisse Magnesia. 



378 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A light, white, odorless powder, with a mild earthy 
taste. Soluble in 2500 parts of water at ordinary temperature; 
insoluble in alcohol. At a red heat it is decomposed into carbon 
dioxid, leaving a residue of magnesium oxid ; it is decomposed by 
acids, giving off carbon dioxid. It is prepared from magnesium sulfate 
and sodium carbonate. Light and heavy magnesium carbonates differ 
in the degree of aggregation of their molecules. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VI. 85. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MAGNESIA MURIATICA. Magnesium Chlorid 

Magnesium Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. MgCl 2 ; 95.04. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnesii chloridum ; English, Chloride of 
magnesium, Magnesic chloride, Muriate of magnesia ; French, Chlorure 
de magnesium ; German, Chlor Magnesium. 

Description. Consists of colorless, odorless crystals, having a 
bitter saline taste; very deliquescent in air. Soluble in 1.8 parts of 
water and in 7 parts of alcohol at 15 C. It melts to a clear liquid at 
a low, red heat. Its aqueous solution gives a colorless, crystalline 
precipitate with sodium phosphate, soluble in hydrochloric acid. It 
can not be prepared directly by the evaporation of a solution of 
magnesium chlorid, obtained with ammonium carbonate and hydro- 
chloric acid, as this solution is decomposed into hydrochloric acid and 
magnesium oxid when heated; to prevent this decomposition, 
ammonium chlorid is added to the solution and the ammonium mag- 
nesium chlorid decomposed at a red heat, leaving pure magnesium 
chlorid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 112. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture <f>: -^ in dispensing alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 

e. Aqueous Solution: ix and higher; for immediate use only. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 379 

MAGNESIA OXYDATA. Magnesia. 

Magnesium Oxid. 

Chemical Symbol. MgO; 40.26. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnesia, M. usta, M. levis, M. calcinata; 
English, Light magnesia, Calcined magnesia; French, Magnetic 
calcine'e ; German, Gebrannte Magnesia. 

Description. A white, very fine, light, odorless powder, with a mild 
alkaline taste. Soluble in 5142 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble in 
alcohol. Heated to a red heat it emits a very brilliant white light. 
It dissolves in acid, and this solution, when saturated with ammonium 
hydrate, gives a colorless, crystalline precipitate with sodium phos- 
phate; soluble in hydrochloric acid. It is obtained by heating mag- 
nesium carbonate to a red heat. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MAGNESIA PHOSPHORICA. Magnesium Phosphate. 
Magnesium Phosphate. 

Chemical Symbol. MgHPO 4 7H 2 O; 238.82. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnesii phosphas; English, Phosphate of 
magnesium, Hydric magnesic phosphate ; French, Phosphate de mag- 
ne"sie; German, Phosphorsaures Magnesia. 

Description. Thrown down from soluble magnesium salts by 
disodium phosphate as a white precipitate. Difficultly soluble in 
water; insoluble in alcohol. The tertiary phosphate, (PO 4 ) 2 Mg 3 , 
accompanies in small quantity the tertiary calcium phosphate in bones 
and ashes of plants; the primary salt, (PO 4 H 2 ) 2 Mg, has not as yet 
been obtained. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



380 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

MAGNESIA SULPHURICA. Magnesium Sulfate. 

Magnesium Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. MgSO 4 7H 2 O; 245.84. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnesii sulphas, Magnesiae sulphas, Mag- 
nesium sulfuricum, Sal amarum, Sal Epsomense, Sal anglicum, Sal 
Sedliceuse, Sulfas magnesicus; English, Sulphate of magnesium, 
Magnesic sulphate, Epsom salt ; French, Sulfate de magnesie, Sel 
d'Epsom, Sel de Sedlitz; German, Magnesiumsulfat, Schwefelsaures 
Magnesia. 

Description. Consists of small, transparent, colorless, odorless, 
crystalline needles, with a bitter, saline taste; efflorescent in dry air. 
Soluble in 1.5 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. When 
heated it melts and gives off six molecules of water ; at a red heat the 
last molecule of water is disengaged. Its aqueous. solution gives with 
barium chlorid a white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid ; 
with an excess of ammonium hydrate and sodium phosphate it gives a 
colorless, crystalline precipitate, appearing immediately in concen- 
trated solution, but only after some hours in diluted solutions. It is 
prepared from magnesium carbonate and sulfuric acid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 131. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 

MAGNOLIA GLAUCA. Magnolia. 

Natural Order. Magnoliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Magnolia fragrans, M. longifolia, M. virginiana, 
var. glauca; English, Beaver tree, Magnolia, Laurel, Small or laurel 
magnolia, Swamp sassafras, Sweet or white bay, White laurel ; French, 
Magnolier glauque ; German, Graugriine Magnolie. 

Description. An ornamental, deciduous shrub, or tree, 4 to 40 feet 
high, with bright, smooth, green twigs, scarred with rings at the 
insertion of the leaves by the fall of the stipules. The leaves are 
alternate, scattered along the branches, feathered-veined, oblong-ovate, 
obtuse, shining above, glaucous and white beneath, marked with 
minute transparent dots. The globular white flowers appear from 
May to August, are single, terminal, 2 inches long and very fragrant. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 381 

Habitat. North America ; found in swamps from Massachusetts 
southward near the coast, and as far west as Cumberland county in 
Pennsylvania ; only a shrub in the northern states, and an evergreen 
tree, attaining the height of 40 feet, in the south. Fig., Millspaugh, 12. 

History. Named for Pierre Magnol. The bark was officinal in 
the U. S. Pharmacopoeia until recently. Mentioned in homoeopathic 
literature by Dr. Jones in 1875, Am. Horn. Obs. XII. 304. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Mat. VI. 142.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Magnolia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 50x3 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

MANCINELLA. ManchineeL 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hippomane mancinella, Mancinella venenata; 
English, Manchineel, Manchioneal ; French, Mancenillier ve"ne"neux ;. 
German, Manschinapfel. 

Description. A very poisonous evergreen tree, 12 to 15 feet high, 
with grayish bark, white soft wood and branching top, giving it the 
appearance of a fruit tree. The leaves are alternate, long-petioled, 
oval, somewhat cordate, acute, finely serrate, shining, with a roundish, 
depressed, brownish gland at the junction with the petiole. The 
flowers are monoecious, in long, lax, terminal spikes, the male about 
30 in number above, the female, solitary, sessile, axillary below. 

Habitat. Found on the seacoast of the West India Islands. Fig.,. 
Mure, Path. Bres. 

History. Name from hippo, a horse, and mane, madness, given 
by the Greeks to a plant which made horses furious. It was believed 
to be fatal to sleep under the branches. The whole tree abounds with 



382 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

a white, poisonous, very caustic milk, which acts as an escharotic. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1849, by Dr. Mure, Pathogen. 
Bresil. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 142.] 

Parts Used. The fresh fruit, leaves and bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -$. 
Mancinella, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

MANGANUM ACETICUM. Manganous Acetate. 

Manganum Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. Mn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ; 174.52. 

Synonyms. Latin, Manganesii acetas, Acetas manganosus; 
English, Acetate of manganese, Manganous acetate ; French, Acetate 
de manganese ; German, Essigsaurer Braunstein. 

Description. Consists of pale-red, odorless, permanent, trans- 
parent plates, having an acid, metallic taste. Soluble in 3.5 parts of 
water at 15 C. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 151. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

MANGANUM CARBONICUM. Manganous Carbonate. 
Manganum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. MnCO 3 ; 114.65. 

Synonyms. Latin, Mangani carbonas, Manganesii carbonas; 
English, Carbonate of manganese, Manganous carbonate; French, 
Carbonate de manganese ; German, Kohlensaurer Braunstein. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 383 

Description. A pale-red, tasteless powder; permanent in air. 
Soluble in 7680 parts of water at ordinary temperature, and in 3480 
parts of water, saturated with carbon dioxid, at the pressure of the 
atmosphere; insoluble in alcohol. Heated to redness in the air it 
assumes a dark-brown color and is converted into manganous-manganic 
oxid ; ignited in hydrogen it gives a greenish-gray manganous oxid ; 
when recently prepared it is soluble in ammonium salts. It is pre- 
pared by precipitating manganous salts with sodium carbonate. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 151. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MANGANUM MURIATICUM. Manganous Chlorid. 
Manganum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. MnCl 2 .4H 2 O ; 197.38. 

Synonyms. Latin, Mangani chloridum; English, Chloride of 
manganum, Manganese chlorid. 

Description. Consists of pale rose-colored masses, of a crystalline 
texture, odorless, and deliquescent. Soluble at 15 C. in 1.5 parts of 
water and in 2 parts of alcohol. It melts to an oily liquid at a dull- 
red heat ; is decomposed by heat in a moist atmosphere, giving off 
hydrochloric acid and leaving a residue of manganous-manganic oxid. 
It is prepared with dry chlorin gas and manganous carbonate. Men- 
tioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 165. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture <f>: -^, with dilute alcohol. 

c. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 



MANGANUM OXYDATUM NIGRUM. 

Manganum Oxid. Manganous Oxid. 

Chemical Symbol. MnO 2 ; 86.72. 



384 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Mangani dioxidum, Mangani oxidum nigrum, 
Manganesii oxidum nigrum, Manganum hyperoxydatum, Oxidum 
manganicum ; English, Manganese dioxide, Manganese peroxide, Black 
oxide of manganese, Pyrolusite ; French, Oxyde (Peroxyde) de man- 
ganese; German, Braunstein Mangansuperoxyd. 

Description. Consists of iron-black, or steel-gray, opaque, lustrous, 
crystalline and amorphous masses, or of rhombic crystals ; specific 
gravity 4.82. It has at the same time, both feebly basic and feebly 
acid properties. It seldom occurs pure, but is generally combined 
with other manganese ores, and also contains silica, ferric oxid and 
traces of the oxids of cobalt and nickel. It is obtained pure, artificially, 
by boiling out the residue resulting from a moderate ignition of its 
nitrate with nitric acid. The residue thus secured is well washed and 
moderately heated. This salt is obtained in Thuringia, Bohemia and 
Moravia, also in France, Spain, and abundantly in certain sections of 
the United States. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 166. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MELILOTUS ALBA. White Melilot 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Melilotus leucantha, M. officinalis, van alba, M. 
vulgaris ; English, White melilot, Sweet-scented clover. 

Description. An annual or biennial he'rb, 2 to 4 feet high. The 
leaves are petioled, tripinnate, with truncate, serrate leaflets and awl- 
shaped stipules. The small white flowers appear from July to 
September in spiked racemes. The plant is very fragrant on drying. 

Habitat. India and Europe; naturalized in the United States; 
found eastward and in New York, in waste or cultivated grounds. 

History. Provings, together with those of Melilotus officinalis, 
made in 1870, by Dr. Bowen, U. S. Med. and Surg. Jour. V. 317. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 176; X. 577.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowering tops. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 385 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Melilotus alba, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

MELILOTUS OFFIdNALIS. Yellow Melilot. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Trifolium officinale; English, King's or sweet 
clover, Melilot, Sweet, white or yellow melilot; French, Me"lilot; 
German, Steinklee, Melilotenklee. 

Description. An annual herb, 2 to 4 feet high, erect, with spread- 
ing branches. The leaves are tripinnate, with lanceolate, oblong, 
obtuse, remotely-serrate leaflets. The yellow flowers appear from 
July to September, with short pedicels, in axillary racemes. The 
whole plant is very fragrant when drying. 

Habitat. Southern and central Europe; in the United States, 
common in waste or cultivated grounds. Fig., Goullon, 69; Mills- 
paugh, 49. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1870, by prov- 
ings by Dr. Bowen, U. S. Med. and Surg. Jour. V. 317. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 176; X. 577.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowering tops. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
' Melilotus officinalis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



386 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



MENISPERMUM CANADENSE. Moonseed. 

Natural Order. Menispermaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cissampelos smilacina, Menispermum angula- 
tum, M. smilacinum; English, Canada wormwood, Canadian moon- 
seed, Moonseed, Texas sarsaparilla, Vine maple, Yellow parilla; 
French, Menisperme du Canada ; German, Canadisches Mondkorn. 

Description. A woody, evergreen vine, with a long, cylindrical, 
yellow root. The stem is slender, 8 to 15 feet long. The leaves are 
alternate, palmate, peltate, cordate, roundish, three- to seven-angled, or 
lobed, with petioles inserted near the base and about the length of the 
leaves. The small greenish-yellow or white flowers appear in June 
and July in axillary panicles. 

Habitat. Eastern United States; found on banks of streams. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 14. 

History. Name derived from mene, moon, and sperma, seed, so 
called on account of the crescent shape of the seeds. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1873, by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 3d ed. 318. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 177.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -$. 
Menispermum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 387 

MENTHA PIPERITA. Peppermint. 

Natural Order. Labiatse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Mentha hircina, M. officinalis, M. viridi aqua- 
tica ; English, Peppermint ; French, Menthe poivree ; German, Pfeffer- 
minze. 

Description. An odorous, perennial herb, with creeping, spreading 
rhizome, multiplying by underground shoots. The stem is square, I 
to 3 feet high, somewhat hirsute. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, 
opposite, petioled, ovate, oblong, rounded, acute, sharply serrate, dark- 
green and smooth above, paler below, with numerous glands, sparingly 
pubescent on the nerves. The small, purple flowers appear during 
the summer, forming mostly terminal, interrupted spikes or heads. 

Habitat. Europe, parts of Asia and Africa, and North America, 
in low grounds, along brooks; cultivated. Fig., Goullon, 210; Bent, 
and Trim. 203 ; Millspaugh, 1 16. 

History. Name derived from Mintha, a mythological character. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1853, by a proving by Dr. 
Demeures, J. d. 1. Soc. Gal. IV. 115. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 
1 80; X. 578.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Mentha piperita, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA. Buckbean. 

Natural Order. Gentianaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Trifolium amarum, T. aquaticum, T. fibrinum ; 
English, Bitter worm, Bogbean, Brookbean, Buckbean, Marsh trefoil, 



388 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Water shamrock ; French, Trefle d'eau (demarais); German, Fieberklee, 
Dreiblatt. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a rhizome penetrating hori- 
zontally a great distance into the bog, marked by the remains of 
sheaths of previous petioles. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate, and 
arise from the rhizome on long petioles with broad, sheathing stipules 
at the base, with pale, ovate, nearly sessile, irregularly edged, glab- 
rous, somewhat fleshy leaflets, \y 2 to 3 inches long, with prominent 
mid-ribs. The few white or pinkish flowers appear in May and June, on 
a round scape having a smooth, conical raceme 3 inches long, on stout, 
glabrous pedicels from the axils of the previous year's leaves. The 
whole plant, especially the root, is intensely bitter. 

Habitat. Temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In the 
United States, Pennsylvania and New England, common in boggy 
soil. Fig., Winkler, 93; Jahr and Cat. 236; Bent, and Trim. 184; 
Millspaugh, 129. 

History. Name signifying mensis, a month, and anthos, a flower. 
The leaves were formerly officinal, and were used in Lapland as a sub- 
stitute for hops. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1826, by 
Hahnemann, R. A. M. L. 2d ed. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 183.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 
Menyanthes, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

MERCURIALIS PERENNIS. Dog's Mercury. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cynocrambes, Mercurialis montane ; English, 
Dog's mercury ; French, Mercurials vivace ; German, Bingelkraut. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 389 

Description. A deciduous herb, with extensively creeping root. 
The stem, I foot high, is square, branchless, leafy above. The 
leaves, 2 to 3 inches long, are opposite, petioled, ovate, acute, serrate, 
rough, with small stipules. The green flowers appear in April and 
May, in long, lateral, erect spikes; the barren, more numerous than 
the fertile ones, on separate plants, also in spikes, the latter being less 
evident because concealed among the upper leaves. The whole plant 
is very poisonous, and is not eaten by any animal. The male and 
female plants are not intermixed, but each sort grows in large patches, 
and increases by the root rather than from seed. 

Habitat. Europe, in shady, mountainous forests, in strong or 
moist soil. 

History. Name from the god Mercury; possibly corrupted from 
muliercularis useful to women. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1843, by a proving by Dr. Hesse, Archiv. XXI. 2, 141. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 193.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T ^. 
Mercurialis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 537 Cc. = 637 

Strong alcohol, 500 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



MERCURIUS ACETICUS. Mercurous Acetate. 

Mercurius Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg (C 2 H 3 O 2 ); 259.66. 

Synonyms. Latin, Mercurius acetatus; English, Acetate of mer- 
cury, Mercurous acetate, Subacetate of mercury ; French, Acetate de 
mercure; German, Essigsaures Quecksilber. 



3QO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. Consists of colorless, brilliant prisms having a 
sharp, metallic taste. Permanent in air. Soluble in i part water at 
15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. It is decomposed by heat into carbon 
dioxid, acetic acid and metallic mercury. It is obtained by dissolving 
red oxid of mercury in warm acetic acid, and should be kept well 
stoppered and protected from the light. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, VI. 235. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MERCURIUS SUBLIMATUS CORROSIVUS. 

Mercurius Corrosivus. Mercuric Chlorid. 

Chemical Symbol. HgCl 2 ; 270.54. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri chloridum corrosivum, Hydrargyri 
perchloridum, Hydrargyrum bichloratum, Hydrargyrum muriaticum 
corrosivum, Hydrargyri bichloridum ; English, Corrosive mercuric 
chlorid, Perchloride of mercury, Corrosive sublimate, Bichloride of 
mercury ; French, Sublime corrosif, Chlorure mercurique ; German, 
Quecksilberchlorid. 

Description. Consists of colorless, prismatic crystals, or heavy, 
white crystalline masses, odorless, and of a strong metallic taste. 
Permanent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 16 parts of water and in 3 
parts of alcohol. It melts at 265 C., forming a colorless liquid, and 
volatilizes at 300 C. without residue. Its aqueous solution has an 
acid reaction, and decomposes on exposure to light, mercurous chlorid 
being formed and hydrochloric acid liberated ; this decomposition can 
be prevented by free hydrochloric acid or ammonium chlorid. It 
gives a yellow precipitate with calcium hydrate ; a black precipitate 
with hydrogen sulfid ; a white, curdy precipitate with argentic nitrate, 
and a bright-red precipitate with potassium iodid. It coagulates 
albumen. This salt is obtained from mercuric sulfate and sodium 
chlorid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 236 ; X. 579. An 
active poison. Maximum dose % grain. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 3QI 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: ^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: 2x and higher. 

MERCURIUS CYANATUS. Mercuric Cyanid. 

Mercurius Cyanid. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg(CN) 2 ; 251.76. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri cyanidum, Mercurii cyanuretum, 
Hydrargyrum cyanatum, H. borussicum, Mercurius cyanatus, s. 
borussicus ; English, Cyanuret of mercury, Bicyanide of mercury ; 
French, Cyanure de mercure ; German, Cyanquecksilber. 

Description. Consists of colorless, odorless prisms, having an 
extremely bitter, metallic taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 12.8 parts of 
water and in 1 5 parts of alcohol. When submitted to heat it decom- 
poses into metallic mercury and cyanogen gas, burning with a purple 
flame. On further heating, the black residue, consisting of paracy- 
anogen and mercury, is entirely volatilized. The salt is decomposed 
by hydrochloric acid, with formation of hydrocyanic acid and mercuric 
chlorid. Its aqueous solution yields a black precipitate with hydrogen 
sulfid, but gives no precipitate with potassium iodid or argentic nitrate, 
double compounds soluble in water being formed. It is obtained by 
dissolving mercuric oxid in hydrocyanic acid, and is very poisonous. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 263. Maximum dose % grain. 
It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, protected from the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 



a. Tincture <f> : y^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 3x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: 2x and higher. 



MERCURIUS DULCIS. Mercurous Chlorid. 

Mercurius Dulcis. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg 2 Cl 2 ; 470.34. 



392 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri chloridum mite, H. subchloridum, 
Hydrargyrum chloratum (muriaticum) dulce, Calomelas, Chloruretum 
hydrargyrosum ; English, Mild mercurous chloride, Subchloride of 
mercury, Calomel ; French, Protochlorure de mercure ; German, 
Quecksilberchlorur. 

Description. Consists of white, fibrous, crystalline masses, or more 
generally of a heavy, white, smooth, impalpable powder, odorless and 
tasteless. Insoluble in water and alcohol. When heated it sublimes 
entirely without previous fusion. Boiled with water, metallic mercury 
separates and mercuric chlorid is formed. In contact with ammonium 
hydrate, it turns black ; the same reaction is produced with calcium, 
potassium and sodium hydrates. Heated with sodium carbonate, it is 
decomposed, metallic mercury and sodium chlorid being formed. It 
is prepared from mercurous sulfate and sodium chlorid. The mixture 
of the dry salts is heated and the mercurous chlorid sublimes, leaving 
a residue of sodium sulfate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 
266. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

MERCURIUS IODATUS FLAVUS. Mercurous lodid. 
Mercurius Protoiodid. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg 2 I 2 ; 652.66. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri iodidum flavum, Mercurii iodidum, 
Hydrargyri iodidum viride, Hydrargyrii proto-ioduretum, loduretum 
hydrargyrosum ; English, Yellow mercurous iodide, Green iodide of 
mercury, Protoiodide of mercury, yellow or green ; French, Proto- 
iodure de mercure; German, Quecksilberjodiir. 

Description. A yellow, unstable, amorphous powder, without odor 
or taste. Insoluble in water or alcphol. On exposure to light it is 
transformed into red mercuric acid. When heated it turns red-brown, 
and sublimes without residue. It is prepared from mercurous nitrate 
and potassium iodid. It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, 
protected from the light. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 269. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher; freshly made. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 393 

MERCURIUS IODATUS RUBER. Mercuric lodid. 

Mercurius Biniodid. 

Chemical Symbol. HgI 2 ; 452.86. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri iodidum rubrum, Hydrargyrum 
biiodatum, Mercurius biniodatus, Deutoioduretum (biniodidum) 
hydrargyri, loduretum hydrargyricum ; English, Red iodide of mer- 
cury, Biniodide of mercury; French, lodure mercurique; German, 
Rothes Jodquecksilber, Quecksilberjodid. 

Description. Consists of a brilliant red, crystalline powder, or of 
prismatic needles, without odor, and of a faint metallic taste. It is 
permanent in air. Is discolored by light, becoming yellow, and must 
therefore be kept in a dark place. Is almost insoluble in water ; 
soluble in 130 parts of alcohol at 15 C. It turns yellow before 
fusing, which occurs at 240 C., and at a higher temperature sublimes 
in bright-yellow, tabular crystals, which become red on cooling. 
Heated with sulfuric acid and manganese dioxid, violet vapors of 
iodin are given off. It is prepared from mercuric chlorid and potas- 
sium iodid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 282. A poison. 
Maximum dose % grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : I x and higher. 



MERCURIUS NITRICUS. Mercuric Nitrate. 

Mercurius Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg(NO 3 ) 2 ; 323.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyrum nitricum; English, Nitrate of 
mercury. 

Description. Consists of large, yellowish crystals, having a strong 
metallic taste ; deliquescent in air. Readily soluble in a small amount 
of water, decomposed by a large quantity, freely soluble in water 
acidulated with nitric acid. It is decomposed by heat, without residue. 
Its solutions give with potassium iodid a bright-red precipitate, soluble 



394 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

in an excess of precipitant. It deposits metallic mercury upon copper. 
This salt is prepared from mercury and nitric acid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 292. A poison. Maximum dose % grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

MERCURIUS PR^ECIPITATUS ALBUS. 

Mercurius Praecipitatus Albus. Mercur-Ammonium ChloricL 

Chemical Symbol. NH 2 HgCl; 251.18. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyrum ammoniatum, H. praecipitatum 
album, H. amidato-bichloratum (ammoniato-muriaticum), Hydrargyri 
ammonio-chloridum ; English, Ammoniated mercury, Mercuric- 
ammonic chloride, White precipitate; French, Chloramidure de mer- 
cure, Mercure precipite blanc ; German, Weisser Quecksilberpracipitat, 
Quecksilber-Chloridamidid. 

Description. A white, amorphous, odorless powder, having a 
styptic, metallic taste. Almost insoluble in water and in alcohol. 
At a red heat it is entirely volatilized. Heated with sodium hydrate 
solution it turns yellow, and ammonia gas is given off. It is entirely 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. It is prepared from mercuric chlorid 
and ammonium hydrate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 
294 ; X. 583. A poison. Maximum dose ^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

MERCURIUS PR^CIPITATUS RUBER 

Mercurius Praecipitatus Ruber. Mercuric OxicL 

Chemical Symbol. HgO ; 2 1 5.76. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri oxidum rubrum, Hydrargyrum 
oxydatum, Hydrargyri nitrico-oxidum, Mercurius corrosivus (praecipi- 
tatus) ruber, Oxydum hydrargyricum ; English, Red mercuric oxide, 
Peroxide of mercury, Red precipitate ; French, Deutoxide (peroxyde) 
rouge de mercure, Precipite rouge ; German, Rothes Quecksilberoxyd, 
Rother Pracipitat. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 395 

Description. A granular, yellowish-red, odorless powder, at first 
tasteless, but after some time developing a faint metallic taste. It is 
insoluble in water and in alcohol, but is dissolved by hydrochloric and 
nitric acids. On exposure to light it assumes a dark-brown color. 
Heated to 400 C. it turns black, reassuming its original color on cool- 
ing. At a red heat it is decomposed into oxygen gas and metallic 
mercury. It may be obtained from a mixture of mercuric nitrate and 
metallic mercury. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 295 ; X. 
584. Very poisonous. Maximum dose, % grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MERCURIUS SOLUBILIS HAHNEMANNL 
Mercurius Solubulis. Hahnemann's Soluble Mercury. 

Chemical Symbol Approximately, Hg 4 ON.H 2 NO 3 +NH 4 NO 3 . 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyrum oxydum nigrum Hahnemanni, 
H. oxydulatum nitricum ammoniatum, Dimercurosammonium nitrate; 
English, Mercury oxide black Hahnemann, Ammoniated nitrate of 
mercury ; French, Mercure soluble de Hahnemann ; German, Hahne- 
mann's Anflosliches Quecksilber. 

Description. A heavy, grayish-black powder, of a slightly acrid, 
metallic taste. Insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is entirely 
volatilized by heat with decomposition. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, VI. 296. 

This preparation was discovered by Hahnemann, but its use was 
later abandoned by him, he signifying his preference for pure mercury 
(mercurius vivus). The process recommended by him is as follows: 

" Having purified the mercury it is dissolved cold in common nitric 
acid, which requires many days. The salt which results is dried on 
blotting paper, and triturated in a glass mortar for half an hour, adding 
one-fourth of its weight of the best alcohol ; the alcohol, which has 
been converted into ether, is thrown aside, and the trituration of the 
mercurial is continued with fresh alcohol for half an hour each time, 
until this fluid no longer has the smell of ether. That being done the 
alcohol is decanted and the salt dried on blotting paper, which is 



396 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

renewed from time to time ; afterwards it is triturated for a quarter 
of an hour in a glass mortar with twice its weight of distilled water ; 
the clear fluid is decanted, the salt is again washed by a second 
trituration with a fresh quantity of water, the clear fluid is united to 
the preceding, and thus we have an aqueous solution of all that the 
saline mass, consisting of mercurial nitrate, really saturated. The 
residuum is composed of other mercurial salts, of chlorid and sulfate. 
Finally, this aqueous solution precipitates by caustic ammonia, the 
so-called black oxid of mercury (blackish-gray oxidule of mercury)." 

Hahnemann's method is complex, and the resulting product likely 
to prove unsatisfactory. The following formula, from the British 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, will give better results and secure uni- 
formity in the preparation : 

Mercury, by weight, 85 Gm. 

Nitric acid, 380 Cc. 

Ammonia, strong solution, 15 Cc. 
Distilled water, a stifficient quantity. 

" Mix the nitric acid with two hundred and thirty-five (235) cubic 
centimeters of the water in a flask, and digest the mercury in mixture, 
applying a gradually increased heat until about seventy (70) grammes 
of the metal have dissolved and a small portion of the solution diluted 
with about twenty times its bulk of distilled water yields a perfectly 
black precipitate with ammonia. Dilute the hot solution with three 
hundred and fifty (350) cubic centimeters of the water, and, while warm, 
filter it into a vessel containing four times its bulk of cold distilled 
water. Having thoroughly mixed the filtrate with the water, add the 
solution of ammonia, previously diluted with two hundred and ninety 
(290) cubic centimeters of distilled water in a thin stream, stirring 
constantly meanwhile ; as soon as the precipitate has subsided, decant 
the supernatant liquid, shake the precipitate with a fresh portion of 
distilled water, collect it on a filter, wash thoroughly, and dry it 
between folds of filtering paper without the aid of heat." 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, protected from the 
light. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 397 

MERCURIUS SULPHURATUS NIGER. 

Mercurius Sulfid (black). Mercury Sub-Sulfid. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg 2 S; 431.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri sulphidum nigrum, ^thiops 
mineralis, Hydrargyri sub-sulphidum ; English, Sub-sulphide of mer- 
cury, Black sulphuret of mercury. 

Description. A fine, black, heavy, tasteless and odorless powder, 
insoluble in water and in alcohol. Entirely volatilized by strong heat, 
forming metallic mercury and red mercuric sulfid. It is made by 
triturating equal parts by weight of mercury and sulfur until all 
metallic globules have disappeared. When examined under a strong 
lens, it should not show any free globules of mercury. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



MERCURIUS SULPHURICUS. Mercuric Sulfate. 

Mercurius Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. HgSO 4 ; 295.62. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyri sulphas, Hydrargyrum sulphuri- 
cum, Mercurius vitriolatus, Sulfas mercuricus; English, Persulphate 
of mercury, Normal mercuric sulphate; French, Deuto-sulfate (per- 
sulfate) de mercure, Sulfate mercurique; German, Schwefelsaures 
Quecksilberoxyd. 

Description. A white, crystalline powder of a strong, saline, 
metallic taste. It becomes yellowish-brown when heated, and white 
again on cooling. It bears an incipient red heat without alteration, 
and at a higher temperature volatilizes completely, with partial decom- 
position. In contact with water it is decomposed with the formation 
of a yellow powder. It is obtained from metallic mercury and sulfuric 
acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 325. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



398 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

MERCURIUS VIVUS. Mercury. 

Mercurius. 

Chemical Symbol. Hg; 199.8. 

Synonyms. Latin, Hydrargyrum, H. vivum, Argentum vivum; 
English, Quicksilver ; French, Mercure, Vif-argent ; German, Queck- 
silber. 

Description. A silver- white metal, without odor or taste ; liquid 
at the ordinary temperature. Insoluble in water or alcohol. It boils 
at 350 C., and solidifies at 39-5 C. It does not oxidize in air, but 
when heated is transformed into mercuric oxid, which, by further 
application of heat, is decomposed into oxygen gas and metallic 
mercury. It is dissolved by nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, and 
its solution gives a bright-red precipitate with potassium iodid. It is 
found native. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 208 ; X. 578. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



MERCURIUS ET KALI IODATUS. 

Mercurius et Kali Iodid. Potassium Mercuric Iodid. 

Chemical Symbol HgI 2 2KI ; 783.98. 

Synonyms. Latin, Potassium iodohydrargyrate, Mercurius iodatus 
cum Kali iodato ; English, Mercuric potassic iodide, Iodide of mercury 
and potassium. 

Description. Consists of long, yellow prisms, having a strong 
metallic taste. Soluble in alcohol, but decomposed by water and by 
dilute acids. By the action of heat it gives off water, then melts to a 
red liquid, from which mercuric iodid separates. It is prepared with 
potassium iodid and mercuric oxid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher ; the lower triturations prepared fresh. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



MEZEREUM. Mezereon. 

Natural Order. Thymelaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chamaedaphne, Chamaelia germanica, Coccus 
chamelacus, C. gnidus, Daphne gnidium, D. laureola, D. mezereum, 
Daphnoides, Laureola, Mezerum germanicum, M. officinarum, Thyme- 
lae ; English, Mezereon, Spurge olive ; French, Laure"ole gentile ; Ger- 
man, Seidelbast, Kellerhalls. 

Description. A hardy, deciduous shrub, with stem i to 4 feet high, 
with smooth, gray bark, easily detachable from the wood, and branches 
upright, alternate, smooth, tough and pliant. The leaves, 2 inches 
long, are alternate from the ends of branches, petioled, scattered, 
lanceolate, entire, very smooth, green, somewhat glaucous beneath. 
They appear after the flowers, and are soon followed by flower buds 
of the next season. The fragrant, purple, rose-colored flowers (rarely 
white) appear from February to April, in lateral clusters on shoots 
of the preceding year, in axils of fallen leaves, 3 on a stem. The 
bark, when fresh, has an unpleasant odor, which disappears as the 
bark dries. The bark of the root is at first sweetish, but afterwards 
has a highly acrid taste. 

Habitat. Europe, from Lapland to Sicily, especially in the cen- 
tral countries. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 33; Winkler, 60; Goullon, 223; 
Bent, and Trim. 225. 

History. Name derived from the Persian name, Madzaryoun ; 
also from daphne, daio, to burn, and phone, noise, crackling when 
burning. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1805, by Hahne- 
mann, Frag. d. Vir. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 330; X. 584.] 

Part Used. The bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < , Drug strength -$. 
Mezereum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



4OO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

MILLEFOLIUM. Yarrow. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Achillea alba, A. millefolium, A. myriophylli, 
A. setacea ; English, Milfoil, Nose-bleed, Yarrow ; French, Herbe au 
charpentier ; German, Schaafgarbe. 

Description. An evergreen herb, having a slender, creeping rhi- 
zome, with numerous filiform rootlets, and long, reddish stolons, with a 
succulent scale at each node. The stem, i to 2 feet high, is erect, stiff, 
slightly striate, branched above, more or less covered with white, 
shaggy hair. The leaves are simple, alternate, bi-pinnatifid, with 
linear divisions, crowded ; the radical ones are 6 inches long, with 
wide, lanceolate, oblong petioles; the cauline are smaller, sessile 
and oblong. The flowers appear from June to October in compound, 
flat-topped corymbs, involucre oblong, imbricate pale-green. The 
four or five ray florets are short, white, sometimes rose-colored ; the 
eight to twelve disk flowers are bi-sexual. 

Habitat. Widely distributed throughout Asia and North America; 
found in dry meadows, waste grounds and roadsides. Fig., Winkler, 
13 ; Goullon, 145 ; Bent, and Trim. 153 ; Millspaugh, 85. 

History. Name, achillea, from Achilles, who is said to have applied 
it to wounds. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1833, by prov- 
ings of Nenning, Hartlaub and Trinks, Annal. d. H. Klinik, IV. 344. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 366.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 
Millefolium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 40 1 

MIMOSA HUMILIS. Mimosa. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 
Synonym. English, Sensitive plant. 

Description. An annual shrub, the smallest of the mimosae. The 
stem, i foot high, attains the height of 3 feet or more if kept under 
glass ; is feeble, rather woody, branched, pubescent above, and covered 
with very sharp prickles. The leaves are alternate, bi-pinnate, the 
pinnae, three- or four-paired, with small linear leaflets (6 to 12 on each 
side of the petiole), which close at the least contact. The small, 
sessile, violet flowers form silky tufts or hairs. 

Habitat. Prairies around Rio Janeiro, having been in cultivation 
more than 300 years. Sparingly naturalized in Florida. Fig., Mure, 
Mat. Med. 49. 

History. Name derived from mimos, a mimic, the leaves resem- 
bling animals in their sensibility. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1849, by Dr. Mure, Pathogen. Bresil. Paris, 146. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 372.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Mimosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



MITCHELLA REPENS. Partridge Berry. 

Natural Order. Rubiaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Checker berry, Deer berry, One berry, Par' 
tridge berry, Squaw vine, Winter clover. 



4O2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A smooth, trailing, perennial herb, with cylindrical, 
branched, horizontal root. The stem, 6 to 14 inches long, is glabrous, 
widely branching and rooting at each axilla. The leaves are y 2 inch 
long, opposite, petioled, round-ovate, entire, dark, shining, green, often 
variegated with whitish lines, with minute stipules. The fragrant, 
white, sometimes pinkish, flowers appear in June and July in terminal 
pairs. The berry-like, scarlet-red fruit has an agreeable taste, and 
consists of two united ovaries containing several stony seeds. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America from Canada to southern 
extremity of United States ; found also in Mexico and Japan. Common 
in dry woods, creeping about the roots of trees. Fig., Millspaugh, 77. 

History. Named for Dr. John Mitchell. Introduced into homoe- 
opathic practice in 1866, by Dr. Duncan, U. S. Med. and Surg. Jour. 
I. 252. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 373.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <ft : Drug strength ^. 
Mitchella, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

MOMORDICA BALSAMINA. Balsam Apple. 

Natural Order Cucurbitaceae. 
Synonym. English, Balsam apple. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial, climbing herb, with stem 4 
feet high, and lobed leaves. The yellow or white flowers are monoe- 
cious and solitary, and appear in June and July. The fruit is small, 
orange-colored, warted, about as large as a walnut, roundish, ovate, 
narrowed at each end, having a cordate, dentate bract above the 
middle of the peduncle. It is red when ripe, bursting irregularly and 
suddenly scattering its seeds. 

Habitat India. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 403 

History. Name derived from mordeo, to bite, or to chew, in refer- 
ence to the bitten appearance of the seeds. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice by Dr. Mercier, West. Jour. Horn. I. 42. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 378.] 

Part Used. The fresh ripe fruit. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -j^. 
Momordica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 

MONOTROPA UNIFLORA. Indian Pipe. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Monotropa morisoniana; Englisli, Bird's nest, 
Corpse plant, Fit plant, Fit root, Ice plant, Indian pipe, Ova ova, Pine 
sap, Pipe plant. 

Description. A parasitic plant, with numerous rootlets, forming a 
ball of densely-matted fibers. From each clump arise several simple, 
sub-cylindrical, smooth, leafless stems, 2 to 8 inches high. Small tri- 
angular scales, in place of leaves, enlarge and become ovate, spatulate, 
foliaceous bracts towards the summit of the stem, where they pass 
into the flower. The flowers appear from June to August, are single, 
terminal, declined, becoming horizontal, slightly pubescent, waxy- 
white, except where the yellow anthus and flesh-colored pistils are 
disclosed. 

Habitat. Florida to Mississippi and thence northward ; common 
in dark, rich woods. Fig., Millspaugh, 105. 

History. From monos, one, and tropos, to turn, the flowers turn- 
ing one way. Case of poisoning mentioned in 1879, Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. X. 585. 

Part Used. The fresh plant. 



404 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Monotropa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture reduced to 600 Cc. = 700 

Strong alcohol, 435 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, five parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



MORPHINUM. Morphin. 

Morphium. 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 19 NO 3 .H 2 O; 302.34. 

Synonyms. Latin, Morphina, Morphia; English, Morphia; 
French, Morphine; German, Morphin. 

Description. Consists of transparent, colorless or white prismatic 
crystals, or fine needles, without odor, and having a bitter taste; 
permanent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 4350 parts of water and in 300 
parts of alcohol. Heated at 100 C. it becomes anhydrous, and at a 
higher temperature burns without residue. Its solution has an alkaline 
reaction, and with acid yields salts, most of which are crystallizable ; 
with nitric acid it gives an orange-red color, changing to yellow; 
mixed with sugar and sulfuric acid it assumes a bright-purple color, 
gradually changing to violet-blue, blue, green and yellow ; dissolved 
in sulfuric acid, and the solution heated to 150 C., the addition of a 
little nitric acid produces a violet-blue color, changing quickly to 
blood-red, and afterwards to deep-orange ; with chlorin water it gives 
an orange color. It liberates iodin from periodic acid. Solutions of 
argentic nitrate, gold chlorid and chromic acid are reduced by morphin 
and its salts ; with ferric chlorid it gives a deep-blue color, destroyed 
by free acids and alcohol but not by alkalies. It is extracted from 
opium. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 378. Maximum 
dose y<2 grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : i x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE- OF HOMCEOPATHY. 405 

MORPHINUM ACETICUM. Morphin Acetate. 

Morphinum Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 19 NO 3 .HC 2 H 3 O 2 .3H 2 O; 398.12. 

Synonyms. Latin, Morphinae acetas, Morphiae acetas, Morphium 
aceticum, Acetas morphines, Acetas morphicus ; English, Acetate of 
morphine, Acetate of morphia ; French, Acetate de morphine; German, 
Morphinacetat, Essigsaures Morphin. 

Description. A white, crystalline, bitter tasting powder. Soluble 
in 2.5 parts of water, and in 47.6 parts of alcohol at ordinary tempera- 
ture. It is entirely volatilized at a red heat. Its aqueous solution 
decomposes when in contact with air, with loss of acetic acid. It gives 
the reactions of morphin, and is obtained by dissolving morphin in 
acetic acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 585. Maximum 
dose y 2 grain. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

MORPHINUM MURIATICUM. Morphin Hydrochlorid. 
Morphinum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 17 H 19 NO 3 HCL.3H 2 O; 374.64. 

Synonyms. Latin, Morphinae hydrochloras, Morphiae hydro- 
chloras, M. murias, Morphinum hydrochloricum, Murias (hydrochloras) 
morphicus, Morphia muriatica ; English, Hydrochlorate of morphine, 
H. of morphia, Muriate of morphia ; French, Chlorhydrate de mor- 
phine; German, Morphinhydrochlorat, Salzsaures Morphin. 

Description. A colorless, transparent, crystalline powder, without 
odor, and having an extremely bitter taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 24 
parts of water and in 62 parts of alcohol. It is fused and entirely 
volatilized by heat. Its aqueous solution is more stable than that of 
the acetate. With argentic nitrate a white, curdy precipitate, insolu- 
ble in ammonia, is obtained. It gives the reactions of morphin, and 
is prepared from morphin and hydrochloric acid. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 585. Maximum dose ^ grain. 
PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations ; ix and higher. 



406 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

MORPHINUM SULPHURICUM. Morphin Sulfate. 

Morphium Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. (C 17 H 19 NO 3 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 .5H 2 O; 756.38. 

Synonyms. Latin, Morphinae sulphas, Morphiae sulphas, Sulfas 
morphicus; English, Sulphate of morphine, Sulphate of morphia; 
French, Sulfate de morphine ; German, Morphinsulfat, Schwefelsaures 
Morphin. 

Description. Consists of colorless, transparent, silky crystals, 
without odor, and having an extremely bitter taste. Permanent in 
air. Soluble at 15 C. in 21 parts of water and in 702 parts of alcohol. 
Volatilized by heat without residue. Its aqueous solution is neutral, 
and gives a white precipitate with both ammonium hydrate and barium 
chlorid. It gives the reactions of morphin, and is prepared from 
morphin and sulfuric acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 
585. Maximum dose y z grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Ttiturations : ix and higher. 



MOSCHUS. Musk, 

Class. Mammalia. 
Order. Ruminantia. 

Synonyms. Latin, Moschus orientalis, M. tibetanus, M. tunquin- 
ensis ; English, Musk ; French, Muse ; German, Moschus. 

Description. The dried secretion from the preputial follicles of 
the musk deer. It consists of different sized, dark, reddish-brown, 
somewhat unctuous grains or crumbs, having a bitterish taste, and a 
peculiar, penetrating, persistent odor, which is much lessened when 
the grains are dried, but which reappears when they are moistened. 
Musk is 50 per cent soluble in water and dilute alcohol, and slightly 
soluble in strong alcohol. It should have no ammoniacal odor, but 
should give a slightly urinous odor when freed from particles of hair 
and skin and heated on platinum foil. Treated with potassa, it gives 
off ammonia. Musk contains chloresterin, fatty substances and acids, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 407 

resinous matter, salts and gelatinous and albuminous compounds. Its 
odoious principle is probably a product of decomposition in the pres- 
ence of moisture. The best musk is the Chinese, Thibet or Tonquin, 
and should be secured in the original sacs, as extensive adulteration of 
the grains is common. The musk-sac is obtained only from the 
male, is situated near the preputial orifice, and contains from 60 to 130 
grains. Its diameter is about 2 inches, width rather less, thickness 
about y* inch. Stiff, grayish-brown hairs are arranged on the outside 
about the opening in the center of the sac. The sacs should show no 
evidence of having been opened. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
VI. 398. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <f> : Strength ^. 

Pure musk, 50 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

The musk should first be added to a small quantity of water and 
rubbed in a mortar until a smooth mixture is obtained, and then the 
remainder of the water and the alcohol added. The tincture will then 
be made by maceration. 

c. Dilutions : 2x to contain two parts tincture, four parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



MUREX PURPUREA. Murex. 

Class. Mollusca. 
Order. Gasteropoda. 
Family. Muricidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Murex brandaris, Purpurea patula; English, 
Purple fish ; French, Coquille a pourpre. 

Description. Consists of the juice which is found in a membranous 
sac, situated between the heart and liver of this variety of sea-snail 



408 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

which belongs to the genus Murex, or genus Purpura. The fresh 
juice sometimes appears as a tough, viscid, colorless or greenish liquid, 
which by degrees becomes of a beautiful red color on exposure to the 
air. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 412. 

Habitat Found abundantly on the shores of the Mediterranean 
and Adriatic seas. 

Part Used. The dessicated juice. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

MYGALE LASIODORA. Texan Bird Spider. 

Order. Araneidea. 
Family. Mygalidae. 

Description. A large spider which spins no web, but which makes 
its home in clefts of hollow ravines, in volcanic tufas, or in decomposed 
lava. It has eight eyes ( * .* Y hairy feet, nearly equal in size, the 
fourth and fifth pairs being somewhat larger than the others. It 
generally feeds on ants, but often climbs trees by night to catch small 
birds. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 431. 

Habitat. Texas. 

Parts Used. The whole spider. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : $, with dilute alcohol. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



MYRICA CERIFERA. Bayberry. 

Natural Order. Myricaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Bayberry, Candle berry, Myrtle bayberry 
tree, Sweet gale, Wax berry, Wax myrtle; French, Arbre a suif; 
German, Wachsbaum. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 4OQ 

Description. An ornamental, evergreen shrub, with acrid astringent 
root. The stem is 3 to 8 feet high with numerous branches, especially 
at the summit, the twigs pubescent. The leaves are alternate, oblong- 
lanceolate, narrowed at the base, sub-serrate at the apex, shining and 
resinous, dotted on both sides, and very fragrant. The apetalous 
flowers appear in May and June, the sterile in oblong, the fertile in 
ovoid catkins, from axillary, scaly buds. The scales of the male cat- 
kins are acute, erect, ^ to ^ inch long, sessile along last year's 
branches ; the female are on a different shrub, half the size of the 
male. The fruit consists of globular, blackish, one-sided nuts about 
the size of a pea, with a white, waxy outer covering. 

Habitat. North America, along the Atlantic coast from Florida 
northward, rare in the interior ; found in sandy soil, on and near the 
seashore, also on Lake Erie. In the south it is a small evergreen 
tree, in Delaware and New Jersey a tall semi-deciduous shrub, in the 
north dwarfed and deciduous. Fig., Millspaugh, 160. 

History. Name possibly derived from murika, the ancient name 
of some shrub. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1864, by 
provings published in Trans. Mass. Horn. Med. Soc. II. 397. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 432.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> . Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Myrica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 797 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



MYRTUS COMMUNIS. Myrtle. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 
Synonym. English, Common myrtle. 



4IO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. An evergreen shrub, 6 feet high. The leaves are 
opposite, ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire, shining, marked with trans- 
parent dots. The solitary, sweet-scented, white flowers appear in 
July and August, on axillary pedicels about as long as the leaf. The 
fruit is a roundish, oval or sub-globular, deep-purple berry the size of 
a pea, aromatic and astringent. 

Habitat. Western Asia. Naturalized in Europe; found on rocks 
and in heaths of southern Europe. 

History. Name derived from the Greek myrtos, perfume. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1851, by a proving of Dr. Wahle, 
N. A. Jour. Horn. I. 74. 

Parts Used. The fresh shoots and leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Myrtus communis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

NABALUS SERPENTARIA. Rattlesnake Root. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Nabalus albus, var. serpentaria, Prenanthes 
serpens ; English, Cancer weed, Lion's foot, Rattlesnake root, White 
lettuce; French, Pied d'Leon, Laitue blanc; German, Weisser Lattich. 

Description. A perennial herb, with spindle-shaped, tuberous root. 
The stout, upright, leafy stem is i to 6 feet high, glabrous, or slightly 
hirsute, sometimes purple-spotted or -splashed. The leaves are irregu- 
larly alternate, diversely variable, deeply divided, rough-ciliate, thickish. 
The greenish-white, yellow or purplish flowers appear late in the 
summer and autumn, in eight- to twelve-flowered corymbose, thyrsoid, 
paniculate, drooping heads, mostly glomerate at the summit of ascend- 
ing branchlets, or peduncles. The root is extremely bitter. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 4! I 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America, common especially north- 
ward ; found in rich soil on the borders of woods, sometimes in sterile 
soil in open ground. Fig., Millspaugh, 94. 

History. The name probably from nabla, a harp, in allusion to 
the lyrate leaves the plants sometimes present. The milky juice, or a 
decoction of the root was used as an antidote to the bite of a rattle- 
snake. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1855, by Dr. Lazarus, 
N. A. J. of Horn. IV. 352. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 444.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength ^. 
Nabalus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

NAJA TRIPUDIANS. Naja. 

Class. Reptilia. 

Order. Ophidia. 

Family. Elapidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cobra de capello; English, Hooded snake, 
Adder of the hood, Spectacled snake ; French, Serpent a lunette ; Ger- 
man, Brillensohlange. 

Description. An oviparous, poisonous serpent, varying in length 
from 2 to 6 feet. Neck dilatable to ninth or tenth vertebra, and about 
i inch thick, often marked with two black-centered white spots 
united in front by a curved line. Fangs caniculated and placed in 
front of the superior maxillae, with smaller, solid teeth behind them. 
The sixth upper labial scale, which is small, forms a suture with a 
large, temporal scale. Cobra venom is amber colored, viscous and 
frothy, and contains proteids belonging to the peptones. Reaction, 
acid. Specific gravity, from 1.046 to 1.095. That portion of the 



412 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

venom soluble in strong alcohol is extremely poisonous, while the 
albuminous precipitate obtained is only slightly so. A yellow, acrid, 
pungent powder is left on evaporation. Brief exposure to strong 
acids does not affect the toxicity of this poison. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VI. 445. 

Habitat. Hindoostan. 

Part Used. The venom, procured by compressing the gland while 
the serpent is either pinioned in a frame or under the influence of 
chloroform. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution <j>: in glycerin. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with glycerin. 

c. Triturations : 3x and higher. 



NAPHTHALINUM. Naphthalin. 

Chemical Symbol C 10 H 8 ; 127.7. 

Synonyms. English, Napthalene ; French, Napthalene ; German, 
Naphtalen. 

A hydrocarbon obtained by distillation from coal-tar oil. 

Description. When sublimed this salt consists of colorless, trans- 
parent, lustrous scales, or when crystallized, of rhombic tables or 
prisms, having a faint tar-like odor, and a somewhat pungent taste. 
At ordinary temperatures it volatilizes slowly. It is insoluble in water, 
or in aqueous solutions of alkalies; soluble in 15 parts of alcohol, and 
also soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulfid, or in warm fixed and 
volatile oils; specific gravity, 1.15. It melts at 80 C. and boils at 
218 C. The vapors obtained by heating it in air are ignited with 
difficulty, and burn with a red, sooty flame ; when heated, perfectly 
pure naphthalin is entirely volatilized. It gives a colorless solution 
with concentrated sulfuric acid. On dissolving this salt and picric 
acid in hot alcohol, union takes place, and on cooling golden-yellow 
needles are formed, which yield all the picric acid to ammonia. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 413 

NARCEINUM. Narcein. 

Chemical Symbol. C 23 H 29 NO 9 ; 462.05. 

Synonyms. English, Narceine, Narceia; German, Narcein. 

An alkaloid obtained from opium. 

Description. Consists of long, quadrangular prisms, or of white, 
silky crystals, without odor, and of a slightly bitter taste. It is soluble 
m 375 parts of water; sparingly soluble in cold alcohol; insoluble in 
ether. The addition of a moderate amount of iodin, or of mineral 
acids, results in the formation of a bluish compound. Narcein yields 
crystallizable salts, which are seldom freely soluble in water. Its 
hydrochlorate gives a highly basic salt. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, VI. 466. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Ttiturations : ix and higher. 



NARCOTINUM. Narcotin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 22 H 23 NO 7 ; 412.07. 

Synonyms. English, Narcotine, Narcotia, Narcotina; German^ 
Desrosnesches Salz, Narkotin, Opian. 

An alkaloid obtained from opium. 

Description. Consists of colorless, shining, rhombic prisms, or of 
white, flexible, silky needles, odorless and tasteless. Soluble in 400 
parts of boiling water, in about 100 parts of alcohol, 33 of ether, 27 of 
benzol and in 2.7 parts of chloroform; almost insoluble in cold water; 
insoluble in cold, dilute acetic acid. This salt melts at 176 C. It is 
neutral to litmus paper. Its salts, which are mostly uncrystallizable, 
have a bitter taste and an acid reaction ; with cold sulfuric acid it 
forms a colorless solution which changes, when a trace of nitric acid is 
present, to yellow, orange and red. The latter color is destroyed on 
the addition of more nitric acid. A precipitate is obtained from its 
solution in hydrochloric acid on the addition of caustic potash, or 



414 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

other caustic alkali. Narcotin is obtained from opium, being sepa- 
rated from morphia by the use of ether. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VI. 468. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



NATRUM ARSENICICUM. Sodium Arsenate. 

Natrum Arseniatc. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O; 311.46. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii arsenas, S. arsenias, Natri arsenias, 
Natrium arsenicicum, Arsenias natricus (sodicus) ; English, Arsenate 
of sodium, Arseniate of soda, Arsenate of soda, Hydro-disodic arse- 
niate; French, Arsdniate de soude; German, Natriumarsenat, Arsen- 
saures Natron. 

Description. Consists of colorless, transparent, odorless, hard 
prisms, having a faintly alkaline taste ; efflorescent and deliquescent. 
Soluble in 4 parts of water at 15 C, and slightly soluble in alcohol at 
the same temperature. In dry air it loses five molecules of water and 
appears as a white powder, which when heated to 148 C. gives off the 
two more molecules of water. Its aqueous solution gives a white 
precipitate with barium chlorid, and a brown-red precipitate with 
argentic nitrate, both soluble in nitric acid ; acidified with hydrochloric 
acid, and heated in contact with a bright strip of copper, a steel-gray 
film of a metallic appearance is deposited on the copper. Its flame is 
of a bright-yellow color. Fused upon charcoal it gives the garlic-like 
odor of arsenic. It is obtained by fusing arsenious oxid with sodium 
carbonate. A poison. Maximum dose y& grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher. 

NATRUM BROMATUM. Sodium Bromid 

Natrum Bromid. 

Chemical Symbol. NaBr; 102.76. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 415 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii bromidum, Natrium bromatum, Bromure- 
tum sodicum ; English, Bromide of sodium ; French, Bromure de 
sodium ; German, Brom natrium. 

Description. A white, crystalline, odorless powder, having a bitter 
taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 1.2 parts of water and in 13 parts of alcohol. 
At a red heat it is volatilized without decomposition. Its aqueous 
solution gives a yellow precipitate with argentic nitrate ; when treated 
with chlorin water, bromin is liberated and can be dissolved with a 
reddish-brown color in chloroform or carbon disulfid. It is prepared 
with sodium hydrate and bromin. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, VI. 498. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

NATRUM CARBONICUM. Sodium Carbonate. 

Natrum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 CO 3 .ioH 2 O; 285.45. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii carbonas, Sodae carbonas, Natrium car- 
bonicum, Carbonas sodicus, Sal sodae depuratus ; English, Carbonate 
of sodium, Sodic carbonate ; French, Carbonate de soude ; German, 
Natriumcarbonat, Kohlensaures Natron. 

Description. Consists of large, colorless, odorless crystals, of a 
strong alkaline taste. Soluble in 1.6 parts of water at 15 C. ; insoluble 
in alcohol. It loses its water of crystallization at a low temperature, 
and at a red heat the anhydrous salt melts; it effervesces strongly 
with acids. Its flame is of a bright-yellow color. This salt is extracted 
from the ashes of sea-weeds, and is also prepared from sodium chlorid, 
which is converted into neutral sodium sulfate, and decomposed by 
calcium carbonate and charcoal. Another method by which it is 
obtained is the ammonia-soda process, based upon the fact that when 
carbon dioxid is passed through a solution of sodium chlorid in 
ammonium hydrate, acid sodium carbonate is produced, and trans- 
formed into sodium carbonate by heat. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, VI. 498. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



4l6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

NATRUM CAUSTICUM. Sodium Hydrate. 

Natrum Caustic. 

Chemical Symbol. NaHO; 39.96. 

Synonyms. Latin, Soda caustica, Natrium hydricum ; English, 
Soda, Hydrate of sodium, Caustic soda, Sodic hydrate, Sodium 
hydroxide ; French, Soude caustique ; German, Natron, Aetznatron. 

Description. Consists of white, hard, opaque, inodorous masses, 
having a strong alkaline taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 1.7 parts of water, 
freely soluble in alcohol. On exposure to the atmosphere it absorbs 
water and liquefies, then solidifies again and becomes efflorescent in 
consequence of the absorption of carbon dioxid and the crystallization 
and efflorescence of sodium carbonate. It is not decomposed by heat. 
Its flame is of a bright-yellow color ; its aqueous solution is alkaline, 
and produces a precipitate with most of the metallic salts. It is pre- 
pared with sodium carbonate and calcium hydrate and is strongly 
corrosive. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Solution: -^ in distilled water. 

b. Dilutions: 2x, with dilute alcohol; 3x and higher, with dis- 

pensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

NATRUM HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM. 

Natrum Hypophosphite. Sodium Hypophosphite. 

Chemical Symbol. NaH 2 PO 2 .H 2 O; 105.84. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii hypophophis, Sodae hypophosphis, Natri 
hypophosphis, Natrium hypophosphorosum, Hypophosphis sodicus; 
English, Hypophosphite of sodium, Sodic hypophosphite ; French, 
Hypophosphite de soude ; German, Unterphosphorigsaures Natron. 

Description. Consists of a white granular powder, or of small, 
transparent, shining plates, without odor, and of a bitterish-sweet 
taste ; markedly deliquescent. Soluble at 1 5 C. in I part of water 
and in 30 parts of alcohol. When heated above 200 C. hydrogen 
phosphid, burning with a bright-yellow flame, is given off and a 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOiOPATHY. 417 

residue of sodium phosphate and red phosphorus is left. Triturating 
or heating the salt with nitrates, chlorates or any oxidizing agents 
causes a violent explosion. Its aqueous solution gives with argentic 
nitrate a white precipitate, which quickly turns black ; when the solu- 
tion is acidified with hydrochloric acid the addition of mercuric chlorid 
gives a white precipitate of mercurous chlorid and metallic mercury. 
This salt is prepared with calcium hypophosphite and sodium car- 
bonate, and should be kept well stoppered. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



NATRUM MURIATICUM. Sodium Chlorid. 

Natrum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. NaCl; 58.37. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii chloridum, Natrium chloratum, Chlo- 
ruretum sodicum, Sal commune, s. culinare ; English, Chloride of 
sodium, Sodic chloride, Common salt, Table salt ; French, Chlorure 
de sodium, Sel commun ; German, Chlornatrium, Kochsalz. 

Description. Consists of transparent cubes, or a white, odorless, 
crystalline powder, of a well-known saline taste. It is permanent in 
air, unless contaminated with magnesium chlorid, when it becomes 
moist in damp atmosphere. Soluble in 2.8 parts of water at 15 C. ; 
very slightly soluble in alcohol. Heated it crepitates, and at a bright- 
red heat it fuses and is slowly vaporized with partial decomposition. 
Its aqueous solution is neutral ; it gives with argentic nitrate a white, 
curdy precipitate, soluble in ammonia, insoluble in nitric acid ; it 
gives to flame a bright-yellow color. It is found as rock salt, and 
extracted from sea water. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 
528. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tritnrations: ix and higher. 

b. Solution : -$ in distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 2x, with distilled water; 3x, with dilute alcohol ; 4\ 

and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 4x and higher. 



41 8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

NATRUM NITRICUM. Sodium Nitrate. 

Natrum Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. NaNO 3 ; 84.89. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii nitras, Sodae nitras, Natrium nitricum, 
Nitras (azotus) sodicus, Nitrum cubicum ; English, Nitrate of sodium, 
Sodic nitrate, Cubic niter ; French, Azotate (nitrate) de soude, Nitrate 
de Chili ; German, Natriumnitrat, Chilisalpeter. 

Description. Consists of anhydrous, transparent, colorless, slightly 
deliquescent crystals, having generally a moist appearance, odorless, 
and of a cooling, saline, somewhat bitter taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 
1.3 parts of water and in 100 parts of alcohol. It deflagrates with 
burning charcoal, and explodes when heated with inflammable sub- 
stances. At a red heat it is decomposed, giving off oxygen and 
forming sodium nitrite. On further heating, nitrogen and nitrous 
oxid are evolved and a residue of sodium oxid and sodium dioxid is 
obtained. Its flame is of a bright-yellow color. Its aqueous solution, 
which is neutral, gives with diphenylamin and sulfuric acid a blue 
coloration. It is prepared from sodium carbonate and nitric acid, and 
is found native as Chili-saltpeter. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, VI. 598. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

NATRUM PHOSPHORICUM. Sodium Phosphate. 

Natrum Phosphate. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 HPO 4 .i2H 2 O; 357.52. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii phosphas, Sodae phosphas, Natrium 
phosphoricum, Phosphas sodicus (natricus) ; English, Sodium ortho- 
phosphate, Phosphate of sodium (soda), Hydro-disodic phosphate; 
French, Phosphate de soude ; German, Natriumphosphat, Phosphor- 
saures Natron. 

Description. Consists of colorless, transparent, odorless prisms, 
having a cooling, saline taste; efflorescent. Soluble in 5.8 parts of 
water at 1 5 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. At 300 C. all its water is 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 419 

expelled and it is converted into sodium pyrophosphate. Its aqueous 
solution is slightly alkaline to litmus, but not to phenolphtalein. It 
gives with argentic nitrate a yellow precipitate, soluble in nitric acid 
and in ammonia ; with ammonium hydrate and magnesium chlorid a 
colorless, crystalline precipitate, soluble in acetic acid, and with ferric 
chlorid a white precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid. It is prepared 
from phosphoric acid and sodium carbonate. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VI. 60 1. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



NATRUM SALICYLICUM. Sodium Salicylate. 

Natrum Salicylate. 

Chemical Symbol. NaC 7 H 5 O 3 ; 159.67. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii salicylas, Natrium salicylicum ; English, 
Salicylate of sodium ; French, Salicylate de soude ; German, Natrium- 
salicylat. 

Description. A white crystalline powder, nearly odorless, and 
having a sweetish taste; permanent in air. At 15 C. it dissolves in 
1.5 parts of water and in 6 parts of alcohol. It is decomposed by 
heat ; inflammable vapors are evolved and a residue of sodium car- 
bonate is left. Its aqueous solution, which is slightly acid, gives a 
violet color with ferric chiorid ; while in a concentrated solution this 
coloration is nearly black. The concentrated solution gives with 
hydrochloric and sulfuric acids a white crystalline precipitate, soluble 
in hot water. This salt is prepared from salicylic acid and acid sodium 
carbonate. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 610. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

NATRUM SULPHO-CARBOLICUM. 

Natrum Sulfo-Carbolate. Sodium Sulfo-Carbolate. 

Chemical Symbol. NaSO 3 C 6 H 4 (OH).2H 2 O; 231.56. 



420 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii sulphocarbolas ; English, Sulphocarbolate 
of sodium, Sulphophenate (phenolsulphonate) of sodium ; French, Sul- 
phophenate de soude ; German, Phenylschwefelsaures Natron. 

Description. Consists of colorless, transparent, nearly odorless, 
permanent prisms, having a cooling, saline, bitter taste. Soluble at 
15 C. in 4.8 parts of water and in 132 parts of alcohol. When heated 
it loses its water of crystallization and is converted into a powder ; at 
a higher temperature it emits inflammable vapors, having the odor of 
phenol, and leaves a residue of sodium sulfate. Its aqueous solution 
is neutral, and gives a violet coloration with ferric chlorid; when 
fused with potassium hydrate, pyrocatechin is obtained. It is pre- 
pared from phenol, sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



NATRUM SULPHURICUM. Sodium Sulfate. 

Natrum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 SO 4 .ioH 2 O; 321.42. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii sulphas, Sodae sulphas, Natrium sulphuri- 
cum, Sulfas sodicus (natricus); English, Sulphate of sodium (soda), 
Sodic sulphate, Glauber's salt ; French, Sulfate de soude, Sel de Glau- 
ber; German, Glaubersalz. 

Description. Consists of large, colorless, transparent, odorless 
prisms, having a cooling, saline, bitter taste. It effloresces in air, 
leaving a white powder. Is soluble at 15 C. in 2.8 parts of water; 
insoluble in alcohol. When heated its water of crystallization is 
given off, and at a red heat it fuses without decomposition ; at a white 
heat it volatilizes with partial decomposition. Its aqueous solution, 
which is neutral, gives a white precipitate, insoluble in acids. This 
salt is prepared from sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, VI. 611. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 421 

NATRUM SULPHUROSUM. Sodium Sulfite. 

Natrum Sulfite. 

Chemical Symbol. Na 2 SO 3 7H 2 O; 251.58. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sodii sulphis, Natrium sulphurosum, Sulfis 
sodicus (natricus) ; English, Sulphite of sodium, Sodic sulphite ; 
French, Sulfite de soude ; German, Natriumsulfit, Schwefelsaures 
Natron. 

Description. Consists of colorless, opaque crystals, nearly odor- 
less, and having a cooling, saline, bitter taste, with an after taste of 
sulfur dioxid. Soluble in 4 parts of water at 15 C., sparingly soluble 
in alcohol. At a low temperature it loses its water of crystallization 
and becomes a powder ; at a red heat it fuses into a mixture of sodium 
sulfite and sodium sulfate. Its aqueous solution, which is slightly 
alkaline, gives off sulfur dioxid on the addition of sulfuric or hydro- 
chloric acids, the solution remaining clear, no sulfur being separated ; 
with barium chlorid it gives a white precipitate, soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. It is prepared by passing a current of sulfur dioxid into 
a solution of sodium carbonate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher ; freshly made. 



NICCOLUM CARBONICUM. Nickel Carbonate. 

Niccolum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. NiCO 3 ; 118.45. 

Synonyms. Latin, Niccoli carbonas; English, Carbonate of 
nickel ; French, Nickel carbonate ; German, Nickelkarbonat. 

Description. A greenish-white, crystalline powder ; permanent in 
air. Insoluble in water; soluble in ammonium carbonate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



422 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

NICCOLUM METALLICUM. Metallic Nickel. 

Niccolum. 

Chemical Symbol. Ni ; 58.6. 

Synonym. English, Nickel. 

Description. A malleable, magnetic metal, resembling silver in 
appearance. Insoluble in water and alcohol. Its specific gravity is 
8.8 and its melting point 1500 C. It is dissolved by sulfuric acid, 
the solution giving a brownish-black precipitate with ammonium 
sulfid; a green precipitate with ammonium hydrate, soluble in an 
excess of precipitant, forming a violet solution; a light-green pre- 
cipitate with potassium and sodium carbonates; a green precipitate 
with sodium phosphate, and a light-green precipitate with potassium 
ferrocyanid. It is extracted from its ores. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VI. 633. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Trititrations: ix and higher. 



NICCOLUM SULPHURICUM. Nickel Sulfate. 

Niccolum Sulfate. 

Chemical Symbol. NiSO 4 7H 2 O; 280.14. 

Synonyms. Latin, Niccoli sulphas ; English, Sulphate of nickel; 
French, Sulfate de nickel ; German, Nickelsulfat. 

Description. Consists of green, transparent, odorless, efflorescent 
prisms, having a sweet, astringent taste. Soluble in 3 parts of water 
at 15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. It loses its water of crystallization 
at a temperature of 250 C. Its aqueous solution is slightly acid, and 
gives with barium chlorid a white precipitate, insoluble in acid ; with 
ammonium hydrate a green precipitate, which dissolves in an excess 
of ammonium hydrate, producing a violet solution. It is obtained in 
dissolving nickel in dilute sulfuric acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 423 

NUPHAR LUTEUM. European Pond Lily. 

Natural Order. Nymphaeaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Nenuphar luteum, Nymphaea lutea; English, 
European pond lily, Small yellow pond lily ; French, Nuphar jaune; 
German, Gelbe Seerose, Gelbe Wasserlilie. 

Description. A perennial, aquatic herb, with a horizontal, thick 
rhizome, from which arise the petioles and peduncles. The earlier 
and submerged leaves are roundish, very thin, the floating ones oval 
and usually narrow, or closed, cordate, entire ; petioles, obscurely tri- 
angular, smooth, bright-green on each side. The yellow flowers 
appear in June and July, are axillary, solitary, and have a perfume 
of brandy. Frequently mistaken for the Nuphar advena, from which 
it is somewhat difficult to distinguish it. 

Habitat. Native of most parts of Europe ; found in pools and 
ponds, and also found at Manayunk, near Philadelphia. 

History. Name derived from naufar, or nyloufar, the Arabic name 
of Nymphaea. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1852 by Dr. 
Pitet, J. d. 1. Soc. Gal. II. 12. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 59.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Nuphar luteum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture reduced to 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, * 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

NUX MOSCHATA. Nutmeg. 

Natural Order. Myristicaceas. 

Synonyms. Latin, Myristica aromatica, M. fragrans, M. moschata, 
M. officinalis, Nuces aromaticae, N. nucistae, Nuclei myristicae, Nux 
myristica, Semen myristica; English, Nutmeg; French, Le muscadier; 
German, Muskatnuss. 



424 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



Description. A cultivated, evergreen tree, 30 to 60 feet high, with 
numerous spreading branches, and covered with grayish-brown, smooth 
bark. The leaves are alternate, shortly-petioled, simple, oblong, acumi- 
nate, smooth, dark-green, paler beneath, and aromatic. The greenish- 
white flowers, 2 to 6 in number, appear in small axillary racemes. The 
fruit resembles a peach, is solitary and smooth, with a longitudinal 
groove on one side, and bursts in two pieces exposing the false 
arillus, known as mace. The seed itself has a thick, hard, outer shell ; 
its removal when dried exposes the nuclei of the seed, the nutmeg of 
commerce. 

Habitat. East Indies, West Indies and South America. Fig., 
Flora Horn. II. 40; Jahr and Cat. 241 ; Winkler, 94; Goullon, 220; 
Bent, and Trim. 218. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1833 by Dr. 
Helbig, Heraklides, I. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 61.] 

Part Used. The dried seed, coarsely powdered. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Nux moschata, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



NUX VOMICA. Poison Nut. 

Natural Order. Loganiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Nux vomica officinarum, Solanum arboreum 
indicum maximum, Strychnos colubrina, S. ligustrina, S. nux vomica; 
English, Poison nut, Quaker buttons ; French, Noix vomiques ; German, 
Krahenaugen. 

Description. An evergreen tree, with a short, crooked, thick trunk, 
with smooth ash-colored bark, irregularly branched, the twigs highly 
polished and deep-green. The leaves are opposite, short-petioled, oval, 
three- to five-veined, shining and smooth on both sides, \y 2 to 4 inches 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 425 

long, i to 3 inches broad. The small greenish-white flowers appear in 
the cold season, in small, terminal corymbs. The berry is round, 3 to 
4 inches in diameter, bright-orange colored when ripe, covered with a 
hard, smooth shell, filled with a soft, bitter, gelatinous pulp, in which 
the seeds, i to 5 in number, are immersed ; these are flat, irregularly 
orbicular, about i inch in diameter, ^ inch thick, slightly concavo- 
convex, with a broad, thickened margin, giving a central-depressed 
appearance; they are light-grayish or greenish in color, glistening, 
horny, and have an extremely bitter taste. 

Habitat. Coromandel, Ceylon and elsewhere in the East Indies. 
Fig., Flora Horn. II. 45; Jahr and Cat. 243; Winkler, 134; Goullon, 
173; Bent, and Trim. 178. 

History. Said to have been introduced into medicine by the 
Arabians. It was described about 1540; introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1805 by Hahnemann, Frag, de Vir. Med. 143. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 83.] 

Part Used. The seeds, coarsely powdered. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength T L. 

Nux vomica, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



NYMPH^A ODORATA. Sweet Water Lily. 

Natural Order. Nymphaeaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Castalia pudica; English, Beaver root, Cow 
cabbage, Cow lily, European white water lily, Frog lily, Spatter dock, 
Sweet-scented white pond lily, Sweet water lily, Toad lily, Water 
cabbage, Water h'ly, Water nymph, White lily ; German, Seerose. 

Description. A perennial, aquatic, stemless herb, with horizontal 
rhizome. The leaves, always floating, are orbicular, peltate, cordate, 



426 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

cleft at the base to the petiole, entire, smooth and shining, dark-green 
above, wine color beneath, plainly marked with interlacing veins ; the 
stipules, broadly triangular, knotted at the apex and appressed to the 
root-stock. The flowers, appearing from June to September, are 
large, white, showy, solitary, axillary, very fragrant, opening in the 
morning and closing in the afternoon, often 6 inches in diameter 
when fully expanded. 

Habitat. Common eastward and southward in the United States. 
This species is tropical or subtropical. It is generally found in ponds 
and slow flowing water. Fig., Millspaugh, 18. 

History. Name derived from Nymphe, a water nymph. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1866, Hale's New Rem. 2d ed. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 127.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength T ^. 

Nymphaea odorata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



(ENANTHE CROCATA. Water Dropwort 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, CEnanthe apiifolia; English, Dead tongue, 
Drop water, Hemlock water drop, Water hemlock, Water lovage, 
Yellow water dropwort ; French, CEnanthe safranee ; German, Giftige 
Rebendolde, Safrandolde. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, consisting of many 
hinge-like branches. The stem is hollow, 2 to 4 feet high, much 
branched, somewhat forked, leafy, round and furrowed. The lower 
leaves are large, spreading, tri-pinnate, thin, glabrous and dark-green ; 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 427 

the upper are much smaller, often opposite, nearly sessile and pinnate. 
The white flowers appear from June to August, in large, terminal, 
convex umbels, containing about twenty small, not crowded, flowers. 
The root contains a white^ milky juice, becoming yellow on exposure 
and having a sweetish taste. A very poisonous plant. 

Habitat. Britain, India, France and Spain, where it grows in 
marshes and along rivulets ; possibly found in the United States. 
Fig., Winkler, 102; Bent, and Trim. 124. 

History. Name from oina, vine, and anthos, a flower, from its 
odor, resembling that of the vine in flower. Mentioned in homoeo- 
pathic literature in 1834, Archiv. XIV. 2, 188. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VII. 128.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength ^. 
CEnanthe, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 600 Cc. = 700 

Strong alcohol, 435 Cc. 

To make .one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



(ENOTHERA BIENNIS. Evening Primrose. 

Natural Order. Onagraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, CEnothera gauroides, CE. parviflora, Onagra 
biennis, O. vulgaris, Onosuris acuminata ; English, Evening primrose, 
Large evening primrose, Scabish, Tree primrose ; French, Onagre ; 
German, Nachtkerze. 

Description. A deciduous, biennial herb. The root is conical, 
with thin, yellow or brownish bark, the first year fleshy and succulent, 
becoming fibrous and woody in the second year. The stem is 3 to 6 
feet high, erect, hirsute. The leaves are alternate, 2 to 6 inches 
long, ovate-lanceolate, flat, acute, obscure, dentate and pubescent ; the 



428 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

cauline are sessile, the radical contracted into petioles. The yellow, 
odorous flowers appear from June to August, in terminal, rather leafy 
spikes ; they are nocturnal, and wither the next day. 

Habitat. United States, Canada to the gulf of Mexico, Atlantic 
to the Pacific coast; found in fields and waste places. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 60. 

History. Name derived from oinos, wine, and thera, a catching, 
or hunting, and given to some of the plants the roots of which were 
eaten to awaken a taste for wine. Introduced into homoeopathic prac- 
tice in 1873 by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 3d ed. 341. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VII. 137.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^ 
CEnothera, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

OLEANDER. Rose Laurel 

Natural Order. Apocynaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Nerium album, N. oleander, N. splendens, N. 
variegatum ; English, Rose bay, Rose laurel; French, Laurier rose; 
German, Oleander, Rosenlorbeer. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, with ligneous, branching root. 
The stem is 8 to 15 feet high, several inches thick, branched and 
glabrous. The leaves, whorled in threes, are short-petioled, linear- 
lanceolate, ribbed beneath, coriaceous, with parallel veins. The 
numerous, odorless, red (sometimes white) flowers appear from June 
to October, in numerous terminal corymbs opening in succession. 
The whole plant is poisonous. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 429 

Habitat. Southern Europe and India, escaping from gardens, 
inclined to be spontaneous in India; found in moist situations. Fig., 
Flora Horn. II. 60; Winkler, 96. 

History. Name, nerium, from neros, humid. This plant was 
described by Dioscorides ; introduced into homoeopathic practice by 
Hahnemann in 1829, R. A. M. L. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 
I38-] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <J>: Drug strength -^. 
Oleander, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



OLEUM ANIMALE. Animal Oil. 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum animale aethereum, O. animate Dippelii, 
O. cornu cervi ; English, Dippel's animal oil ; French, Huile animale 
de Dippel ; German, Hirschhorngeist. 

Description. Consists of a colorless, or slightly yellow, thin, oily 
liquid, with a penetrating but not disagreeable odor, and an acrid, 
burning taste, which changes to a cool and bitter one. It darkens 
and thickens on exposure to air and light, and is extremely volatile. 
It is soluble in about 80 parts of water, freely soluble in alcohol, ether 
and in fixed and volatile oils ; specific gravity, about 0.75. A drop on 
white paper will evaporate without leaving a gray stain. It contains 
a large number of volatile bases, including pyrrol, pyridin, picolin, 
lutidin, collidin and others. This empyreumatic oil is obtained in 
the preparation of bone-black, and is further distilled and rectified for 
medicinal use. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VII. 149. 



43O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: ^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : 2x and higher. 



OLEUM CAJUPUTL Oil of Cajuput. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum melaleuca cajuputi; French, Huile de 
cajeput; German, Cajeputol. 

A volatile oil, distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca leucadendron. 

Description. A limpid, mobile, greenish oil, having a strong, 
agreeable odor, as of camphor and rosemary, and a warm, bitterish, 
camphoraceous taste, followed by a sensation of coolness. It is 
extremely volatile. Is wholly soluble in alcohol, and is neutral to 
litmus paper; specific gravity,.o.9i 100.94. Cajuput oil is inflammable 
and burns without residue. It dissolves iodin with or without the 
giving off of a few reddish vapors; on the addition of ammonia it 
becomes of a yellowish color; with sulfuric acid a reddish, changing 
to a purplish-brown. Its green color is due to the presence of copper, 
and maybe destroyed by treating with dilute HC1. It should be kept 
in well-stoppered bottles in a cool place. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: ^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 



c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : 2x and higher. 



OLEUM MORRHUE. Cod Liver Oil. 

Class. Pisces. 
Order. Teleostei. 
Family. Gadidae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 431 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum jecoris aselli, O. hepatis morrhuae; 
French, Huile de foie de morue ; German, Leberthran, Stockfisch- 
leberthran. 

A fixed oil, obtained from the fresh livers of Gadus morrhua. 

Description. A limpid, thin, pale-yellow, fixed oil, having a some- 
what fishy odor, and a characteristic, smooth, slightly acrid, fishy taste. 
The darker varieties have a more pronounced and disagreeable odor 
and taste. The pale-yellow oil is soluble to the extent of 2.5 parts in 
cold alcohol, or i to 2 per cent more in boiling alcohol. Soluble in 
ether, chloroform and carbon disulfid in all proportions; specific 
gravity at 15 C, 0.920 to 0.925. A violet color, quickly changing to a 
brown-red, is obtained by adding sulfuric acid. This change is due to 
the presence of biliary compounds. The color of cod liver oil may be 
changed to purple, then violet and brown, by adding nitric acid. This 
oil contains several glycerides such as olein, stearin, palmitin and 
myristin. It should be kept in well-stoppered and dry bottles. Men- 
tioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VII. 169. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tiiturations : ix and higher; freshly made. 



OLEUM RICINL Castor Oil. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum Palmae Christi, Ricini oleum; French, 
Huile de ricin; German, Ricinusol. 

A fixed oil, expressed from the seeds of Ricinus communis. 

Description. A nearly transparent, colorless, or slightly yellow, 
thick, viscid, fixed oil, having a mild, mawkish odor and a bland and 
rather nauseous taste. In thin layers it dries slowly to a clear varnish 
on exposure to the air, in larger quantities becoming rancid and of an 
acid reaction. It is soluble in all proportions in absolute alcohol, 
ether and glacial acetic acid ; specific gravity, 0.950 to 0.970 ; reaction 
neutral. Castor oil boils at about 265 C. It thickens with nitrous 
acid, and finally congeals. Agitated with water and nitric acid in 
equal parts it gives a whitish mixture, which becomes yellow on the 
addition of nitrous acid. It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. 



432 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: T ^ in strong alcohol. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



OLEUM SANTALL Oil of SantaL 

Natural Order. Santalaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum santalum album, O. santali flavi; 
English, Oil of sandal wood, Oil of santal ; French, Essence de 
santal ; German, Santelol. 

Description. A thick, pale-yellow, volatile oil, having a strong, 
aromatic odor, and a pungent, aromatic taste. It is freely soluble in 
strong alcohol ; specific gravity, 0.970 to 0.978 ; reaction, slightly acid. 
According to the United States Pharmacopeia, if ten cubic centi- 
meters of a mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of 
water be added to one cubic centimeter of the oil a perfectly clear 
solution should result ; adulterations are common. This oil is distilled 
from the wood of Santalum album in Germany, India and England, 
that prepared in England being considered the purest. Oil of santal 
should be kept in well-stoppered bottles in a cool place, protected 
from the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : 2x and higher. 

b. Tincture $: ^ in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 



OLIBANUM. Olibanum. 

Natural Order. Burseraceae. 

Synonyms. English, Frankincense, Gum olibanum; French, 
Encens ; German, Weihrauch. 

Description. Is the concrete juice of several species of Boswellia. 
These trees have imparipinnste leaves and serrate leaflets. The flowers 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 433 

are decandrous, small and racemose. The three-celled, drupaceous 
capsules contain three seeds. The juice itself appears here as color- 
less, slightly yellow or reddish, irregularly rounded, or oblong, separate 
tears from % to Yi of an inch in diameter, with a balsamic odor and a 
somewhat bitterish taste. It is almost entirely soluble in alcohol ; by 
triturating it with water a white emulsion is obtained. It softens 
when heated and burns with an agreeable, aromatic odor. Its fracture 
has a waxy luster. Olibanum is obtained by making deep incisions in 
the trees and collecting the milky juice which exudes after it has 
hardened. It is imported from Arabia, or northern Africa. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



ONOSMODIUM VIRGINIANUM. False Cromwell. 

Natural Order. Borraginaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lithospermum virginianum, Onosmodium 
hispidum ; English, False gromwell, Gravel weed, Wild Job's-tears. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a coarse and hispid, rather 
slender stem, i to 2 feet high. The leaves are alternate, oblong- 
lanceolate, i to 2^ inches long, ^ to ^ inch broad, the lower narrow 
at the base, rib-veined, sessile, entire. The flowers are whitish-green, 
or yellowish, appearing during the summer in terminal, recurved, 
elongated, and finally erect, raceme-like clusters. 

Habitat. North America, New England to Virginia and south- 
ward ; found on hillsides. 

History. From onosma and eidos, resembling onosma. 
Parts Used. The root and seed. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Onosmodium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



434 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

fi. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 
water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: $x and higher. 



OPIUM. Opium. 

Natural Order. Papaveraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Laudanum, Meconium, Opium crudum, O. 
thebaicum, Papava hortense, P. officinale, P. sativum, P. setigerum, P. 
somniferum, P. sylvestre, Succus thebaicus; English, Poppy; French 
and German, Opium. 

Description. The product of several species of the poppy, prin- 
cipally Papava somniferum, an annual herb from 4 to 6 feet high, with 
white, fibrous, tapering root. The stem is erect, round, branched, 
smooth, glaucous. The large leaves are alternate, clasping, cut-lobed, ' 
dentate. The solitary white flowers appear in June in Europe and in 
February in India, on axillary peduncles. The capsule is smooth, 
glaucous, globular, 2 to 4 inches in diameter, flattened top and bottom, 
containing numerous seeds, which are destitute of narcotic properties 
and even used as an aliment. All parts of the plant contain a white 
juice, most abundant in the capsules, from which it is obtained before 
they are ripe and evaporated to different degrees pf consistency. The 
best opium is that which comes from the Turkish provinces. It 
is found in masses of various sizes, of compressed, globular form, with 
remnants of leaves, hard and shining externally, soft and tenacious 
within, becoming brittle on exposure to the air. It has a peculiar, 
heavy, narcotic, disagreeable smell, and bitter, nauseous, warm taste; 
is of a dark-brown color, yellow when reduced to powder, readily 
inflammable, and yields its virtue to water and alcohol. 

Habitat. Supposed to be a native of the Levant, distributed over 
Europe and temperate Asia. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 65; Winkler, 107; 
Jahr and Cat. 246; Goullon, 10; Bent, and Trim. 18. 

History. The medicinal properties of the juice of the poppy were 
known prior to the Christian era, at a period as remote as the begin- 
ning of the third century B. C. Introduced into homoeopathic practice 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 435 

by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag, de Vir. Med. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VII. 173.] 

Part Used. The inspissated juice, constituting the opium of com- 
merce. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Opium, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

OPUNTIA VULGARIS. Prickly Pear. 

Natural Order Cactaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cactus humifusus, C. opuntia, Opuntia humi- 
fusa, O. intermedia, O. italica, O. maritima; English, Indian fig, 
Prickly pear ; French, Figue de Barbaric ; German, Indische Feige. 

Description. A peculiar, succulent plant, with fleshy, thick, flat, 
prickly stem, of broadly-ovate joints, leafy when young, prickly when 
old. The leaves are minute, ovate-subulate and appressed, axils 
bristly, rarely with a few small spines. The solitary, sulphur-yellow 
flowers are sessile and appear in June along the ridges of the joints. 

Habitat. America, naturalized in southern Europe; found in 
sandy fields and dry rocks from Nantucket, Mass., southward, usually 
near the coast, on the Pacific seaboard and on arid land in south- 
western United States. Fig., Millspaugh, 61. 

History. Named by Theophrastus, from the Opuntiani, around 
whose city of Opus it grew. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature 
in 1841, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XIX. 128. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VII. 237.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 



436 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength -$. 
Opuntia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture reduced to 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 468 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

OSMIUM METALLICUM. Osmium. 

Chemical Symbol. Os; 190.3. 

Synonym. French and German, Osmium. 

Description. Appears as a lustrous, blue-white, compact mass, or 
as a grayish-black powder without luster, which, however, it exhibits 
when burnished. When strongly heated in air its compact mass 
ignites, and burns until the source of heat is removed; when pre- 
pared at extremely high temperatures it may be heated to 225 C. 
without change. It has been heated to the temperature at which 
rhodium melts (2000 C.) without being fused, and has been obtained 
in bluish-black, easily divided lumps by igniting precipitated osmium 
sulfid at the melting temperature of nickel in a gas-coke crucible. In 
its finely divided state osmium is highly combustible, and burns 
when ignited till completely volatilized as tetroxid. After exposure 
to red heat it is less combustible, and nitric and nitro-muriatic acids 
will not oxydize it. It is obtained by separation from iridium, 
ruthenium and other metals and from platinum residues. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, VII. 241. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM. Sour Wood. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Andromeda arborea ; English, Sorrel tree, Elk 
tree. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OK HOMCEOPATHY. 437 

Description A forest tree, 15 to 40 feet high, with peach-shaped, 
deciduous, membranous leaves, 4 to 5 inches long, oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, serrulate on the margin, glabrous, or at first glaucous, and 
placed on slender petioles. The white flowers are panicled, in long, 
one-sided racemes, and appear in June and July. The sepals are six 
in number ; the fruit, an oblong, pyramidal, five-celled and five-valved 
pod. The foliage has a pleasant, refreshing, acidulous taste. 

Habitat. Rich woods in Pennsylvania, Ohio and along the Alle- 
ghany region to Florida. 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Oxydendrum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



P^EONIA OFFICINALIS. Peony. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rosa benedicta; English, Double peony; 
French, Pivoine; German, Gichtrose. 

Description. A tuberous-rooted, ornamental, perennial herb. The 
root is oblong, rounded, provided with brown tubercles, disposed like 
strings of pearls, of an offensive, stupefying smell. The stem is 2 to 3 
feet high, simple, branched and smooth. The leaves are alternate, 
petiolate, smooth and green; the lower are bi-ternate, the upper 
ternate, the leaflets oval and lobed. The red flowers, appearing in 
May and June, are large and terminal. 

Habitat. In various parts of Europe, especially the southern; 
found in woods and groves. Fig., Winkler, 106 ; Goullon, 5. 



438 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Named for Dr. Paeon. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1845 by Dr. Schelling, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 28, 182. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 276.] 

Part Used. The fresh root, dug in the spring; that dug in August 
is inert. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Paeonia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



PALLADIUM. Palladium, 

Chemical Symbol. Pd; 106.35. 

Description. A fairly malleable, ductile, white metal, somewhat 
softer than platinum, obtained in a gray, metallic, spongy form, or in a 
firm, compact mass. In the compact form it acquires a high polish 
from burnishing, and may be hammered into thin plates, or drawn 
into fine wire. It is soluble in acids, especially in nitro-muriatic acid; 
specific gravity, 11.4 at 22.5 C. ; it is fused with great difficulty. 
Heated to 2000 C., in the oxy-hydrogen flame, it volatilizes in greenish 
vapors, then condenses to a brownish sublimate. Strongly heated in 
air it is superficially oxydised, the film of oxid being reduced at a 
higher temperature. In its chemical relations palladium resembles 
ruthenium and rhodium. It is obtained from the solution which 
results when platinum ore is heated in aqua regia. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, VII. 280. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 439 

PAREIRA BRAVA. Pareira. 

Natural Order. Menispermaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Chondodendron tomentosum, Pareirae radix; 
French and German, Pareira brava. 

Description. In medicine this name refers only to the roots of the 
Chondodendron tomentosum, which is a tall, climbing, woody vine, 
with broadly-ovate, cordate, long-petioled leaves, about i foot in 
length, smooth above and covered with an ashy wool beneath. The 
tiny flowers are unisexual and racemose, while the black oval fruit is 
about the size of a large grape and appears in bunches. The roots 
vary from ^ of an inch to 4 inches in diameter, and are obtained in 
sub-cylindrical, tortuous, fissured and ridged pieces from 4 to 6 inches 
long, dark-brown or blackish-gray externally, pale-brown internally 
and showing a fibrous fracture. The thin bark surrounds a porous 
wood, having two or more concentric zones, separated by waxy tissue, 
arranged in irregular circles. Pareira brava is almost odorless, and 
has a distinctly bitter taste. 

Habitat. West Indies and Central America. 
Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture </> : Drug strength -j^. 

Pareira brava, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 

PARIS QUADRIFOLIA. Herb Paris. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms Latin, Aconitum pardalianches, A. salutiferum, 
Solanum quadrifolium bacciferum, Uva lupulina; English, Four- 



44O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

leaved grass, Fox grape, Herb Paris, One berry, True love ; French, 
Parisette, Raisin de renard ; German, Einbeere. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with vertical, rampant, 
rounded, jointed, fleshy, white root. The stem is 6 to 12 inches high, 
erect, single, round. The leaves, at the top of the stem, are short- 
petiolate, opposite, disposed as a cross, veined, broad, oval, pointed, 
entire, glabrous, shining beneath. The yellowish-green flowers 
appear in May and June on a terminal peduncle, I to 2 inches long 
and furrowed. All parts of the plant are green and in fours. 

Habitat. Throughout Europe in wet woods. Fig., Flora Horn. 
II. 98; Winkler, 114. 

History. Name derived from par, equal, alluding to the regularity 
of its parts. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1829 by Dr. 
Stapf, Archiv. VIII. i, 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 282.] 

Parts Used. The whole plant in flower. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Paris quadrifolia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

PASSIFLORA INCARNATA. Passion Flower. 

Natural Order. Passifloraceae. 

Synonyms. English, Maypop, Rose-colored passion flower, White 
passion flower. 

Description. A perennial herb, stem nearly smooth, climbing by 
tendrils, 20 to 30 feet high. The leaves h.ave petioles bearing two 
glands; are alternate, three-lobed, serrated, smooth. The flowers, 
appearing from May to July on jointed, axillary peduncles, are large, 2 
inches broad, nearly white, with a triple, purple and flesh-colored 
crown. 

Habitat. Virginia and southern Kentucky, in dry soil. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 44! 

History Name derived from passio, passion, and flos, flower. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hall in 1875, New Rem. 
4th ed. 483. 

Part Used. The leaves of plant growing on the uplands. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength ^. 
Passiflora, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

PASTINACA SATIVA. Parsnip. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 
Synonym. English, Parsnip. 

Description. A biennial herb, with a fusiform, long, fleshy, succu- 
lent, white or cream-colored, sweet and aromatic root. The stem, 3 
to 6 feet high, is grooved and smooth. The leaves are pinnately com- 
pound ; the leaflets, 3 to 8 pairs, are ovate or oblong, obtuse, dentate, 
shining above ; petioles sheathed. The yellow flowers appear in July, 
in large and flat terminal umbels. 

Habitat. Introduced in Europe, from India to Britain. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 63. 

History. Name derived from pastus, nourishment. Effects of 
eating old roots, reported in Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 291. 

Part Used. Roots of the second year's growth. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Pastinaca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 787 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



442 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

PAULLINIA PINNATA. Winged Leaved Paullinia. 

Natural Order. Sapindaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Paullinia timbo; English, Winged leaved 
paullinia ; Vernacular, Cururu-ape, Guaratimbo, Timbo sipo. 

Description. An evergreen, climbing herb, with long, fasciculate, 
branching roots, hairy at their extremities. The stem is 15 feet long, 
of flexible, tenacious wood, with slender, slightly pubescent branches, 
having deep, parallel furrows. The leaves are alternate, with winged 
petioles ; leaflets, in two pairs with an odd one, are sessile, ovate, 
lanceolate, crenate. The small white flowers appear in axillary spikes 
which are accompanied by leaflets. 

Habitat. Found in the woods in the West Indies and Brazil. 
Fig., Mure, Mat. Med. 

History. Named by Linnaeus for Simon Paulli. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice by Dr. Mure, Pathogen. Brazil. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 292.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Paullinia pinnata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Strong alcohol, 787 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. ' 

PAULLINIA SORBILIS. Brazilian Cocoa. 

Natural Order. Sapindaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Paullinia cupana, Guarana; English, Brazilian 
cocoa, Guarana bread ; French and German, Guarana. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 443 

Description. A preparation of the seeds of the Paullinia, a climb- 
ing shrub with angular, smooth stem and alternate, long-petioled, 
variously divided, compound leaves. Flowers are white, 4 inches or 
more long, in erect, axillary racemes. The seeds, having the appear- 
ance of miniature horse-chestnuts, ripen in October, are roasted, 
powdered, mixed with water, and moulded into cylindrical or globular 
masses, hardened in the sun or by the smoke of a fire. They are 
brittle, dark reddish-brown, slightly bitter in taste, and with an odor 
of chocolate. 

Habitat. South America, northern and western provinces of 
Brazil. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 67. 

History. The name Guarana is derived from Guaranis, the tribe 
of Indians by whom it is exclusively made. The shrub is named for 
Prof. Paulli, or Paullini, and sorbilis, potable, from its use as a drink. 
It is extensively used in Brazil, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and other parts 
of South America, as a remedy and as a refreshing beverage. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1857, N. A. Jour, of Horn. VI. 125. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IV. 511 ; X. 539.] 

Part Used. Paste made from the seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



PENTHORUM SEDOIDES. Stone Crop. 

Natural Order. Crassulaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Stone crop, Virginia stone crop, Ditch-stone 
crop. 

Description. An evergreen, perennial herb, with erect stem, about 
i foot high, simple, or somewhat branched, and angled. The leaves 
are scattered, sessile, lanceolate, acute at both ends, and sharply- 
serrate. The yellowish-green flowers appear from July to October, 
loosely spiked along the upper side of the naked branches of the cyme. 

Habitat. United States ; found in open, wet places generally. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 57. 



444 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name derived from pente, five, possibly in allusion to 
the five marked angles of the capsules, or the quinary order of the 
flowers, and horos, a boundary. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1876 by Dr. Morrow, U. S. Med. Invest, n. s. III. 564, June 
15, 1876. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 301.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Penthorum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



PETROLEUM. Coal Oil. 

Synonyms. Latin, Oleum petrae album, O. terras; English, Rock 
oil, Coal oil ; French, Petrole, Huile mineral ; German, Steinol, Bergol. 

Description. Consists of a thin, limpid, colorless, or pale-yellow 
liquid, having a characteristic odor and taste. Specific gravity 0.8 to 
0.9. It evaporates entirely when dropped on white paper without 
leaving a greasy stain. Petroleum is inflammable, and burns with a 
bright, sooty flame. It is a native rock oil, obtained largely from wells 
sunk in the ground. The name is used to designate several liquid 
hydrocarbons. The substance used by Hahnemann in his proving of 
this drug was obtained by agitating the liquid portion of crude Ragoon 
rock oil with sulfuric acid, and rectifying the portion upon which the 
acid does not act. To remove other volatile oils it should be washed 
with an equal quantity of strong alcohol. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, VII. 311. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 445 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j> : ^ with strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 

PETROSELINUM SATIVUM. Parsley. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Apium hortensis, A. petroselinum, Carum 
petroselinum ; English, Parsley, Garden or rock parsley; French, 
Persil; German, Gemeine Petersilie. 

Description. A biennial herb (or perennial if not allowed to 
flower), with a spindle-shaped, whitish, fleshy root. The stems, 2 to 
4 feet high, are smooth-branched, glabrous, striated, with long, thin 
branches. The leaves are alternate, mostly compound, smooth, pale- 
green, and shining ; the radical leaves are bi-ternate, on long, channelled 
stalks ; the cauline are linear, pinnate, with smooth, three-lobed leaflets, 
notched at margin. The small, pale-yellow flowers appear in June 
and July in terminal, compound umbels. 

Habitat. Native of eastern and southern Europe and India, 
growing on shady rocks. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 249. 

History. Name derived from petros, rock, and selinum, parsley. 
Introduced into homoeopathic literature in 1841 by Dr. Bethman, 
Archiv. XVIII. 3, 34. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 333.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength y\y. 
Petroselinum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 450 Cc. = 550 

Strong alcohol, 586 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



446 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PHELLANDRIUM AQUATICUM. Water Hemlock. 
Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, CEnanthe phellandrium, CE. sarmentosa, Foenic- 
ulum aquaticum, F. caballinum ; English, Five-leaved water hemlock, 
Drop-wort, Water hemlock ; French, Cigue aquatique, Fenouil d'eau ; 
German, Wasserfenchel. 

Description. A biennial herb, with spindle-shaped, thick root, 
with many whorled fibers, horizontal, crooked, oblique, resembling a 
turnip. The stem, 2 to 5 feet high, is hollow, furrowed, half immersed 
in water, very bushy, with numerous spreading, leafy branches. The 
dark-green and shining leaves are petiolate, spreading, tri-pinnate, with 
innumerable fine, expanded, acute segments. The numerous white 
flowers are all fertile, the upper ones largest, appearing in short, 
stalked umbels, opposite the leaves. 

Habitat. A native of northern Asia; found nearly all over Europe 
in swamps and ditches. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 250. 

History. Named from phello, to deceive, and aner, a man, and 
also oenanthe, signifying wine-flower, in allusion to the vinous odor of 
the blossoms. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1829 by 
Hartlaub and Trinks, R. A. M. L. II. 138. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VII. 335-] 

Part Used. The fresh dried fruit. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 

Phellandrium, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 



PHOSPHORUS. Phosphorus. 

Chemical Symbol. P ; 30.96. 
Synonyms. French, Phosphore; German, Phosphor. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 447 

Description. A transparent or translucent, colorless or pale-yellow 
solid, of a waxy-luster and consistency at ordinary temperatures, but 
brittle and crystalline at low temperatures. It is odorless and taste- 
less until exposed to the air, when it emits white vapors, luminous in 
the dark and of a garlicky odor. It is soluble in 350 parts of absolute 
alcohol at 15 C, in 240 parts of boiling absolute alcohol, in about 667 
parts of 95 per cent alcohol, in 80 parts of absolute ether, and in about 
50 parts of any fatty oil; insoluble, or nearly so, in water; specific 
gravity, 1.83. Phosphorus is very inflammable, ignites at 50 C., and 
burns with a brilliant white flame ; it melts at 44 C. and boils at 
288 C. ; it unites directly with oxygen, sulfur, iodin, chlorin, bromin 
and a number of metals, precipitating some of the latter from their 
solutions. Kept under water, exposed to light and air it corrodes 
superficially and becomes white and opaque. It is obtained in the 
crude state from calcined bones. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
VII. 366. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength ^ T . 

Take of phosphorus an excess (two grammes or more) and intro- 
duce the same into a flask containing one thousand cubic centimeters 
(1000 Cc.) of 95 per cent alcohol. Heat over a water bath until the 
phosphorus is melted ; then shake vigorously until any excess of the 
drug is solidified. This saturated solution will equal in drug strength 
about one part in six hundred and sixty-seven (^7). To compensate 
for loss by oxidation, and so retain the full strength of the solution, a 
small piece of phosphorus should be kept in each bottle containing 
the tincture, and be renewed whenever coated with the amorphous 
variety. 

b. Dilutions: 3x to contain two parts tincture, one part alcohol; 

4x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



PHOSPHORUS RUBER. Red Phosphorus. 

Chemical Symbol. P ; 30.96. 

Synonyms. Englisli, Amorphous phosphorus; Red phosphorus. 



448 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. Consists of a dark-red mass or powder, insoluble in 
alcohol, ether and carbon disulfid. It remains unaltered in dry air, is 
infusible, and volatilizes slowly above 260 C. ; specific gravity, 2.19. 
It is not readily combustible, and may be handled freely, as it does 
not take fire by friction at ordinary temperatures. Red phosphorus 
may contain small quantities of common phosphorus, which will float 
in a solution of chlorid of calcium and bisulfid of carbon, while the red 
phosphorus sinks to the bottom. Phosphorus ruber is an allotropic 
form of phosphorus, which may be obtained by heating ordinary 
phosphorus many hours at 240 C., in a sealed glass tube. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher; prepared from the pure red phos- 
phorus, free from any particles of common phosphorus. 

In preparing the ix and 2x triturations the mass should be kept 
moistened with alcohol during the process. 



PHYSOSTIGMA VENENOSUM. Calabar Bean. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Esere, Faba calabrica, F. physostigmatis ; 
English, Calabar bean, Chopnut, Ordeal bean; French, Feve de calabar ; 
German, Kalabarbohne. 

Description. A perennial, twining climber. The stem is woody, 
reaching 50 feet in length, with a diameter of 2 inches at the base, 
cylindrical, smooth and slender. The leaves are large, alternate, 
pinnately-trifoliate, stiff, petiolate, thickened at the base, leaflets 
stalked. The purplish, bean-like flowers appear in axillary, pendulous 
racemes. The fruit is an oblong legume, about 7 inches long, contain- 
ing 2 or 3 seeds. These, somewhat reniform in shape, straight or 
concave on one side, convex on the other, are i to i ^ inches long, 
24 inch broad. A broad, black furrow with raised edges extends along 
the convex side. They are hard, brittle, rough, shining, of a dark- 
brown color, without odor or marked taste. They impart their virtue 
entirely to alcohol, imperfectly to water. 

Habitat. A native of the southern part of Africa ; introduced 
into Brazil and India. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 80. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 449 

History. The name derived from physa, a bladder, and stigma, 
supposing the stigma was hollow and inflated ; introduced into homoe- 
opathic practice in 1864 by Dr. Reute, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 68, m'blatt 19; 
Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 1874, 173. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 
466.] 

Part Used. The bean. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -^. 

Physostigma, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



PHYTOLACCA DECANDRA. Poke. 

Natural Order. Phytolaccacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Blitum americanum, Phytolacca americana, P. 
vulgaris, Solanum magnum virginiam, S. racemosum americanum; 
English, American nightshade; Vernacular, Coakum, Chougras, 
Garget, Pecatacalleloe, Pigeon-berry, Pocan, Poke, Scoke; French, 
Morella a grappes ; German, Americanische Kermesbeere. 

Description. A tall, stout, perennial herb, with large, fleshy, 
branching root, often 4 to 6 inches in diameter, easily cut or broken, 
with a very thin, brownish bark, internally marked with thick concen- 
tric rings. The annual stem, 4 to 10 feet high, I inch in diameter, is 
erect, cylindrical, hollow, branching, smooth, and of a purplish color 
when mature. The leaves are large, scattered, petiolate, entire. The 
white flowers appear from July to September, in terminal racemes, 
which become lateral and opposite the leaves as the plant grows. The 
fruit is a dark-purple, juicy berry, ripening in autumn. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America, and has become a com- 
mon weed in Mediterranean countries ; found on cleared and in low 
ground, also on the side of new roads. Fig., Millspaugh, 139. 



45O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Name derived from phyton, plant, and lac, from the 
coloring properties of the berries. The vernacular is a perversion of 
pocan, the Indian name. Mentioned by Hahnemann in his "Lesser 
Writings." History in Hering's Mat. Med. 424. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VII. 502.] 

Part Used. The fresh root, not too rank in growth. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength -fa. 
Phytolacca, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

PICROTOXINUM. Picrotoxin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 30 H 34 O 13 ; 600.58. 

A neutral principle, obtained from the seeds of Anamirta panicu- 
lata, commonly called Cocculus indicus. 

Description. This substance is described as consisting of "color- 
less, flexible, shining, prismatic crystals, permanent in the air, odorless, 
and having a bitter taste and a neutral reaction. Soluble in 240 parts 
of water and in 9 parts of alcohol at 15 C., in 25 parts of boiling water, 
and in 3 parts of boiling alcohol ; also soluble in acids and in solutions 
of the alkalies. When heated to about 200 C. the crystals melt, 
forming a yellow liquid ; when heated on platinum foil they char, and 
are finally completely dissipated. Concentrated sulfuric acid dissolves 
picrotoxin with a golden-yellow color, which turns violet-red on the 
addition of a trace of bichromate of potassium. The aqueous solution 
should remain unaffected by solutions of salts of mercury or platinum, 
tannic acid, iodid of mercury and potassium, or other reagents for 
alkaloids." U. S. P. A poison. Maximum dose -fa grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 451 

PILOCARPINUM MURIATICUM. 

Pilocarpinum Muriate. Pilocarpin Hydrochlorid. 

Chemical Symbol. C 1 1 H 1 6 N 2 O 2 H Cl ; 243.98. 

Synonyms. Latin, Pilocarpinae hydrochloras, Pilocarpinum hydro- 
chloricum ; English, Hydrochlorate of pilocarpine ; French, Hydro- 
chlorate de pilocarpine ; German, Pilocarpinhydrochlorid. 

The muriate of an alkaloid obtained from Pilocarpus. 

Description. Consists of small, white, inodorous crystals, having 
a slightly bitter taste, Deliquescent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 1.5 
parts of water and in 7 parts of alcohol. It is decomposed by heat 
without residue. Its aqueous solution, when concentrated, gives a 
white cloudiness with sodium hydrate, and a yellow precipitate with 
platinic chlorid. A dilute solution gives a white precipitate with 
mercuric chlorid, and a yellow precipitate with phosphomolybdic acid. 
Sulfuric acid forms with the salt a colorless liquid. In the presence 
of a small quantity of potassium dichromate, the solution assumes 
a green color, as also with nitric acid. The salt is prepared with 
pilocarpin and hydrochloric acid. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, VII. 535. It should be kept in well-stoppered vials. A poison. 
Maximum dose y$ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



PILOCARPINUM NITRICUM. Pilocarpin Nitrate. 

Pilocarpinum Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. C^H^N^aHNOg ; 265.5. 

Synonyms. Latin, Pilocarpinae nitras; English, Nitrate of pilo- 
carpine ; French, Azotate de pilocarpine. 

The nitrate of an alkaloid, obtained from Pilocarpus. 

Description. Consists of a white, crystalline powder, or of acicular 
crystals. Soluble in 8 or 9 parts of water at ordinary temperature. It 
forms with sulfuric acid a yellow solution, which turn green on the addi- 
tion of a small fragment of potassium dichromate. Special reactions 

(. 01 I I 01 i> 



452 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

are not known. It aqueous solution gives the tests for pilocarpin 
(vide supra). It is prepared from pilocarpin and nitric acid. It should 
be kept in well-stoppered vials. A poison. Maximum dose y^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



PILOCARPUS. Pilocarpus. 

Natural Order - Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Vernacular, Jaborandi ; Latin, Pilocarpi f oliola. 

"The leaflets of Pilocarpus selloanus, Engler (Rio Janeiro jabo- 
randi)and of Pilocarpus jaborandi, Holmes (Pernambuco jaborandi). "- 
U. S. P. "The dried leaflets of Pilocarpus pennatifolius, Lemaire." 
-Br. P. 

Description. This is a small branched shrub, 4 to 6 feet high, hav- 
ing a smooth, gray bark, spotted with white dots. The alternate, 
imparipinnate leaves, 12 to 18 inches long, are made up of four to ten 
short-stalked, ovate, or ovate-oblong, coriaceous leaflets, 3 to 4 inches 
in length, green and shining above, paler and smooth, or hairy, 
beneath, with a prominent midrib and many minute, pellucid glands, 
common to the entire blade. The small flowers are on thick pedicels. 
The foliage is nearly odorless, or slightly aromatic when bruised, 
having an aromatic, warm and somewhat bitter taste. The alkaloid, 
pilocarpin, is obtained from the aqueous solution of the alcoholic 
extract of the leaflets. 

Habitat. Brazil, especially near Pernambuco. 
Part Used. The dried leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength $. 

Pilocarpus, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 






AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOM(KOPATHV. 453 

PIMPINELLA SAXIFRAGA. Burnet Saxifrage. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Pimpinella alba, P. hircinae, P. nostratis, P. 
umbelliferae, Tragoselinum ; English, Bibernell, Burnet saxifrage, 
Pimpinel, Saxifrage ; French, Grand boncage ; German, Pimpinell. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with long, cylindrical, 
sub-fusiform, slightly fibrous, tough, woody root, grayish-yellow 
externally, white within, highly aromatic and pungent. The stem, 6 
to 24 inches high, is solid, round, striated, slightly downy, branched, 
furrowed and smooth. The leaves are petiolate, oblong, pinnatifid, 
finely dentate and smooth ; the radical are roundish, the cauline linear. 
The white flowers appear in autumn. 

Habitat. Found all over Europe, Crimea, Persia, in dry gravelly 
and chalky pastures and rocky ground. 

History. Name altered from bi-pennula, or twice pinnate. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1845 by a proving by Schelling, 
Allg. Horn. Zeit. XXVIII. 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 538.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -^. 
Pimpinella, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



PINUS SILVESTRIS. Scotch Pine. 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. English, Red, Norway, Riga, Scotch or Baltic pine, 
Scotch fir, Wild pine. 



454 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. An evergreen tree, varying in size according to soil 
and place of growth, being a mere shrub in high elevations, and attain- 
ing a height of 100 or more feet in more favorable positions. The 
leaves, in pairs from single sheaths, are spirally disposed, about 2 
inches long, linear, narrow, obtuse, with a small point. The erect, 
terminal catkins appear in May; the male, in aggregated spikes, 
sulfur colored ; the females are solitary, globular and variegated with 
purple and green. The fruit the first year is lateral, stalked, ovate 
and green, the second year becoming hard and woody, the scales 
opening, permitting the dispersion of the winged seeds. 

Habitat. A very extensive geographical range from the Med- 
iterranean to Siberia ; found on sandy hills and in woods. Fig., Bent, 
and Trim. 257. 

History. Name of Celtic origin, pin or pen, meaning rock or 
mountain. It is the source of common turpentine. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1853 by Dr. Demeures, J. d. 1. Soc. Gall. IV. 
114. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 141.] 

Part Used. The fresh shoots. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Pinus silvestris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 870 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

PINUS LAMBERTIANA. Sugar Pine. 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Pinus excelsa ; English, Sugar pine. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 200 to 300 feet high and 20 feet 
in diameter. The leaves are in fives, rigid, roughish, with very short 
sheaths. The cones are thick, 14 to 16 inches long, cylindrical, with 
loose, roundish scales. 

Habitat. North America from Mexico along the mountains to 
the Columbia river. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMGEOPATHY. 455 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1874 by Dr. 
Throop, Trans. N. Y. State Horn. Med. Soc. 149. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VII. 540.] 

Part Used. The inspissated sap. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^ 

Pinus lambertiana, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

PIPER METHYSTICUM. Kava Kava. 

Natural Order. Piperaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Macropiper methysticum ; Vernacular, Ava 
kava, Kava kava, Karva. 

Description. A shrub, with a thick, woody, fibrous, rugged, 
aromatic rhizome, with very thin bark, grayish-brown externally, 
yellowish-white internally. The stem is erect, wavy and knotty. 
The leaves are alternate, radiate-veined, roundish or cordate. The 
insignificant flowers are solitary, axillary, on short, pedunculated, 
spreading spikes. 

Habitat. The Society, Friendly and Sandwich islands. 

History. Used by the natives as a remedy in rheumatism and 
venereal disease. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1873 by 
Dr. C. F. Nichols, N. E. Med. Gaz. VIII. 101. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VII. 542.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength ^. 

Piper methysticum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



456 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PIPER NIGRUM. Black Pepper. 

Natural Order. Piperaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Piper trioicum ; English, Black pepper, Murich ; 
French, Poivre noir (commun) ; German, Schwarzer Pfeffer. 

Description. An evergreen, trailing or climbing shrub, with a 
stem 6 to 20 feet long, flexuose, dichotomously branched, the joints 
swelling and throwing out radicals which adhere to bodies, or strike 
into the ground. The leaves are alternate, five- or seven-nerved, 
broad, ovate, acuminate, smooth, green and glossy, pale beneath, 
coriaceous. The staminate and pistillate flowers appear in June 
opposite the leaves, chiefly on the upper ends of the branches, are 
stalked, 3 to 6 inches long, slender, drooping. The fruit, ripening 
irregularly the year round, is small, roundish, wrinkled, brownish- 
black, and contains grayish-yellow globular seeds. 

Habitat. East and West Indies. Fig., Goullon, 244; Bent, and 
Trim. 245. 

History. Translation of Houat's proving, Hahn. Month. II. 369, 
1867. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 552.] 

Part Used. The dried unripe berries, coarsely powdered. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T ^. 

Piper nigrum, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

PISCIDIA ERYTHRINA. Jamaica Dogwood. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. English, Jamaica dogwood; French' and German, 
Piscidie. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 20 feet high, with spreading 
branches. The leaves are pinnate, the leaflets, 3 to 4 pairs, with an 
odd one, oblong, rounded at base, downy on both sides when young, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 457 

smooth when old. The flowers are whitish, tinged with purple, in 
axillary, compound racemes on three-cornered, downy stalks. 

Habitat. Common in the West Indies. 

History. Name from pisces, a fish, as the bark is used as a fish 
poison. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 552.] 

Part Used. The dried bark of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fo. 

Piscidia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2\ and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



PLANT AGO MAJOR. Plantain. 

Natural Order. Plantaginaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Greater plantain, Plantain, Ribgrass, Way- 
bred; French, Grand plantain; German, Grosser Wegerich. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with a stem 12 to 18 
inches high. The leaves are radical, five- to seven-ribbed, ovate, den- 
tate, abruptly narrowed into a channelled petiole, which latter is 
smooth or somewhat hairy. The perfect, small, whitish flowers appear 
in May and June, one or more in number, in dense, long, slender 
spikes raised on naked scapes. 

Habitat. Naturalized from Europe and Japan ; found everywhere 
in North America by the wayside (hence the common name, way-bred), 
in moist grounds, and especially near dwellings. Fig., Millspaugh, 107. 

History. Name derived from planta, from the resemblance of the 
leaves to the sole of the foot. Mentioned in homoeopath'ic literature 
in 1861 by Dr. Aranzo, El. Crit. Med. 2. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VII. 553-] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 



458 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T ^. 
Plantago, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 683 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3.x and higher. 



PLATINUM METALLICUM. Metallic Platinum. 

Platinum. 

Chemical Symbol. Pt; 194.3. 

Synonyms. English, Metallic platinum; French, Platine, Or 
blanc ; German, Platin. 

Description. A silver-white metal, soft, malleable and ductile. 
Specific gravity, 21.5 ; fusing point, 2000 C. It is not oxidized in air 
at a red heat. It is soluble in hot nitro-hydrochloric acid, with which 
it forms a yellow solution of platinic chlorid, crystallizing with 
hydrogen chlorid and water on evaporation of the liquid. It combines 
with oxygen and forms a monoxid, PtO, and a dioxid, Pt 2 O, both 
being reduced to the metallic state at a red heat. It is found native. 
Spongy platinum consists of the very finely divided metal, and can 
be readily prepared by gently heating the double chlorid of platinum 
and ammonium, forming a porous mass. Mentioned in Allen's Ency- 
clopedia, VII. 574. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher; from the spongy platinum. 

PLATINUM MURIATICUM. Platinum Hydrochlorid. 
Platinum Muriate. 

Chemical Symbol. PtCl 4 5 H 2 O ; 425.58. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 459 

Synonyms. Latin, Platini chloridum ; English, Platinic chloride; 
French, Perchlorure de platine ; German, Platinchlorid. 

Description. Consists of red-brown, crystalline, odorless needles 
having a sharp, metallic taste ; readily deliquescent in air. Freely 
soluble in water, also soluble in alcohol. It is decomposed by heat, 
giving off vapors of hydrochloric acid and leaving a residue of potas- 
sium chlorid and metallic platinum. Its aqueous solution gives a 
brown-black precipitate with hydrogen sulfid, soluble in ammonium 
sulfid, and a yellow precipitate with potassium and ammonium hydrate. 
It is prepared by dissolving platinum metal in aqua regia and evaporat- 
ing with hydrochloric acid until entirely free from nitric acid. The 
hydrogen in chloroplatinic acid can be readily displaced by metals 
(including alkaline metals), and by such change the salts termed 
chloroplatinates, or platinichlorids, are obtained. Mentioned in 
Allen's Encyclopedia, VII. 589. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Solution: ix, with distilled water. 

c. Dilutions: 2x, with dilute alcohol; 3x and higher, with dis- 

pensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 3x and higher. 

The solution and lower dilutions should be kept in Bohemian glass 
bottles, free from lead. 



PLATINUM ET NATRUM MURIATICUM. 
Platinum et Natrum Muriate. Sodium Platino Chlorid. 

Chemical Symbol. 2NaClPtCl 4 .6H 2 O ; 560.28. 

Synonyms. Latin, Platini et natri chloridum; English, Sodio- 
platinic chloride. 

Description. Consists of light-red prisms, readily soluble in water 
and in alcohol. It is made by evaporating chloroplatinic acid with 
sodium chlorid. The resulting light-red triclinic prisms or tables 
have a specific gravity of 2.499 > when heated to 100 C. they become 
anhydrous, and are changed to a yellowish-red powder, easily soluble 
in water and alcohol. 



460 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : I x and higher. 

b. Solution: ix, with distilled water. 

c . Dilutions : 2x, with dilute alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispens- 

ing alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 

The solution and lower dilutions should be kept in Bohemian glass 
bottles, free from lead. 

PLECTRANTHUS FRUCTICOSUS* 

Shrubby Plectranthus. 
Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Description. An ornamental undershrub, with a shrubby, polished 
stem, 3 feet high, the brown or purple flowers appearing from June to 
September in compound racemes, on three-parted peduncles. 

Habitat. The warmer parts of Africa and South America. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1862 by a 
proving by Dr. Pratobevera, Zeit. d. Ver. d. H. A. Oest. I. 2, i. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 590.] 

Parts Used. The whole dried plant. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Plectranthus, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 

PLUMBAGO LITTORALIS. 

Natural Order. Plumbaginaceae. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with branching root 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 461 

and creeping, rounded stem, covered with short, stiff hairs. The 
leaves are opposite, simple, trapezoid, smooth, coarsely-dentate, 
gradually tapering to a short channelled petiole, adhering to that of 
the opposite side and forming tufts at certain intervals, whence arise 
adventitious roots. The yellowish-white flowers appear in small, 
fifteen- to twenty-flowered, axillary heads, arising from an involucre 
with five divisions and supported by a somewhat filiform peduncle. 

Habitat. Along the shore in the bay of Rio Janeiro. Fig., Mure, 
Mat. Med. 138. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1849 by Dr. 
Mure, Pathogen. Bresil, 241. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VII. 601.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength ^. 

Plumbago littoralis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one .thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c . Medications : 3x and higher. 



PLUMBUM ACETICUM. Plumbic Acetate. 

Plumbum Acetate. 

Chemical Symbol. Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 .3H 2 O; 378. 

Synonyms. Latin, Plumbi acetas, Acetas plumbicus, Saccharum 
saturni; English, Acetate of lead, Plumbic acetate, Sugar of lead; 
French, Acetate de plomb, (Sucre) de saturne ; German, Essigsaures 
Bleioxyd, Bleizucker. 

Description. Consists of colorless, glossy, transparent prisms, or 
heavy, white, crystalline masses, having a faint odor of acetic acid and 
a sweet, astringent, metallic taste. Soluble at 15 C. in 1.75 parts of 



462 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

water and in 21 parts of alcohol. At 100 C. it loses water and a por- 
tion of acetic acid, and at a higher temperature is decomposed, giving 
off acetic acid and acetone, leaving a residue of finely divided lead 
mixed with oxid and carbonate. Its aqueous solution gives a black 
precipitate with hydrogen sulfid, a white precipitate with ammonium 
hydrate, and a yellow precipitate with both the iodid and the dichro- 
mate of potassium. It may be obtained from plumbic carbonate and 
acetic acid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher; freshly made. 

b. Solution : T ^ in distilled water ; freshly made. 

c. Dilutions: 2x, with dilute alcohol; 3x and higher, with dis- 

pensing alcohol: 

d. Medications : 3x and higher. 



PLUMBUM CARBONICUM. Plumbic Carbonate. 

Plumbum Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol. (PbCO 3 ) 2 Pb(OH) 2 ; 772.82. 

Synonyms. Latin, Plumbi carbonas, Cerussa, Plumbum hydrico- 
carbonicum, Carbonas plumbicus ; English, Carbonate of lead, White 
lead ; French, Carbonate de plomb, Blanc de plomb ; German, Blei- 
weiss, Bleicarbonat. 

Description. A heavy, white, odorless, tasteless powder; per- 
manent in air. Insoluble in water and in alcohol. When strongly 
heated it turns yellow, and when mixed with charcoal and exposed to 
a red heat it gives metallic lead. It dissolves with effervescence in 
acetic and nitric acid, and when concentrated these solutions give a 
white precipitate with hydrochloric sulfuric acid, a yellow precipitate 
with potassium iodid or potassium dichromate, a black precipitate with 
hydrogen sulfid, and a white precipitate with potassium or sodium 
hydrate, soluble in an excess of the precipitant. When the salt is 
exposed in atmosphere containing hydrogen sulfid, it turns black. It 
is obtained from the action of carbon dioxid upon plumbic acetate. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 463 

PLUMBUM CHROMICUM. Plumbic Chromate. 

Plumbum Chromate. 

Chemical Symbol. PbCrO 4 ; 322.14. 

Synonyms. Latin, Flumbi chromas; English, Chromate of lead, 
Chrome yellow, Lemon yellow. 

Description. A heavy, odorless, tasteless, yellow, amorphous 
powder. Insoluble in water, alcohol and dilute acids. At 250 C. it 
turns reddish-brown, and at a higher temperature gives off oxygen, 
leaving a residue of chromic oxid and basic lead chromate. It is 
obtained by the precipitation of a soluble lead salt with potassium 
chromate solution. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VIII. 129. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



PLUMBUM IODATUM. Plumbic lodid. 

Plumbum lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. PbI 2 ; 459.46. 

Synonyms. Latin, Plumbi iodidum, loduretum plumbicum; 
English, Iodide of lead, Plumbic iodide; French, lodure de plomb; 
German, Jodblei. 

Description. A bright-yellow, odorless powder, or shining, golden- 
yellow scales, having a slight metallic taste ; permanent in air. 
Soluble at 15 C. in about 2000 parts of water, slightly soluble in 
alcohol, also soluble in aqueous solutions of potassium and sodium 
hydrate, sodium hyposulfite and ammonium chlorid. It is decom- 
posed by heat, giving off violet vapors of iodin and leaving a residue 
of plumbic oxyiodid. It is obtained by the decomposition of a soluble 
plumbic salt with potassium iodid. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 



464 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PLUMBUM METALLICUM. Metallic Lead. 

Plumbum. 

Chemical Symbol. Pb; 206.4. 

Synonyms. English, Lead; French, Plomb; German, Blei. 

Description. A bluish-gray metal, having a brilliant, metallic 
luster; very malleable and ductile ; specific gravity, 11.4. It fuses at 
325 C. and volatilizes at a white heat. Exposed to a moist atmos- 
phere it loses its brilliancy and is oxidized. It dissolves in distilled 
water. Heated in contact with air it is transformed into the oxid. Its 
solvent is nitric acid, and from this solution the reactions of lead are 
obtained. It is extracted from its ores, which are abundant in nature. 
Pure lead may be obtained in a finely divided state by placing rods of 
polished zinc in a solution of pure acetate of lead, i part to 100 parts 
of distilled water ; the fine crystals of lead, which adhere to the rods, 
should be quickly removed and washed with hot distilled water, care 
being used not to press the metal into masses. Mentioned in Allen's 
Encyclopedia, VIII. i. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



PODOPHYLLIR Resin of Podophyllum. 

Synonyms. Latin, Resina podophylli, Podophyllinum ; English, 
Podophyllin, Resin of May apple ; French, Resine de podophylle ; 
German, Podophyllumharz. 

Description. Consists of a grayish- white, or greenish-yellow, amor- 
phous powder, having a slight peculiar odor, and a peculiar, somewhat 
bitter taste. Soluble in ammonia, and in alcohol in all proportions ; 
freely soluble in alkaline liquids, soluble to the extent of 15 to 20 per 
cent in ether and 80 per cent in boiling water, from which it is almost 
entirely reprecipitated on cooling. It softens at 120 C. and melts 
completely at 124 C. With sulfuric acid its color changes to a bright 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 465 

yellow, and on the addition of nitric acid, to purple and then brown 
This substance is the resinous principle of podophyllum obtained by 
precipitation. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM. May Apple. 

Natural Order. Berberidaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Aconltifolius humilis, Anapodophyllum cana- 
dense, A. peltatum, Podophyllum callicarpum, P. montanum ; English, 
Duck's foot, Ground lemons, Indian apple, Ipecacuanha, Mandrake, 
May apple, Pecan, Raccoon berry, Wild lemon, Wild mandrake, Yellow 
berry ; French, Podophyllum ; German, Entenfus, Fussblattwurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a smooth, horizontal, cylin- 
drical root, a foot or more in length, y inch thick, giving off a few 
fibrous rootlets ; the annual growth being distinguishable by scars of 
previous stems. The flowerless, or flowering stems, are simple, 
single, erect, rounded, 8 to 18 inches high; the former surmounted 
by a single leaf, the latter bifurcating at the top, having two leaves 
and a flower at the bifurcation. The leaves of the flowerless stem are 
seven- to nine-lobed, roundish, peltate in the center, somewhat resem- 
bling an umbrella ; those of the flowering stems are opposite, somewhat 
one-sided, and deeply lobed, lobes incised and dentate, drooping at the 
edges and strongly marked by ribs below, smooth above, slightly 
pubescent beneath, 4 to 6 inches in diameter. The single, white, 
pedunculated flower appears in May in the fork of the stem (some- 
times varying in locality), having three fugacious bracts beneath the 
flowers. The yellow, oval fruit, I to 2 inches long, appears in July 
and August. 

Habitat. Indigenous throughout the United States ; found in 
moist, shady woods and low, marshy ground. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 
17; Millspaugh, 17. 

History. Named from pous, a foot, and phyllon, a leaf, from 
resemblance of the leaf to the web-foot of an aquatic bird. Intro- 



466 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



duced into homoeopathic practice in 1842 by a proving by Dr. William- 
son, Horn. Exam. III. 321. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 130.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Podophyllum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 683 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 

d. Tritnrations: ix and higher; prepared from the dried root. 



POLYGONUM PUNCTATUJVL Water Smart Weed. 

Natural Order. Polygonaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Polygonum acre, P. hydropiperoides ; English, 
American water pepper, Biting knot, Biting persicaria, Knot weed, 
Smart weed, Water pepper, Wild smart weed. 

Description. An annual, aquatic herb, with fibrous, whorled root. 
The stem is I to 5 feet high, branching, smooth, shining, more or less 
red, with swollen joints. The pellucid-dotted leaves are alternate, 
petiolate, entire, lanceolate, undulated, with stipules in the form of 
sheaths, placed above the swollen joints of the stem. The flowers 
appear during the summer and autumn, mostly green, on nodding 
spikes, usually short, or interrupted. The plant has a watery juice, 
so acrid as to act as a vesicant. 

Habitat. United States; common in moist or wet ground. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 141. 

History. Name derived from poly, many, and gonu, knee. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1859 by Dr. Payne, Trans. Am. 
Inst. Horn. 1859, 32. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 136.] 

Parts Used The whole fresh plant. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 467 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^. 

Polygonum punctatum, moist magma containing solids lOoGm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3\ and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

POLYPORUS OFFICINALIS. Larch Agaric. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 

Synonyms. Latin, Agaricus albus, A. laricis, Boletus laricis, B. 
officinalis, B. purgans, Fungus laricis, Polyporus laricis ; English, 
Larch agaric, L. boletos, Purging agaric, White agaric ; French, Agaric 
blanc ; German, Larchenschwamm. 

Description. A fungus, growing on the larch tree. It is of various 
sizes, from that of a fist to that of a child's head or larger, and shaped 
somewhat like a horse's hoof. The hymenium is concrete, with corky, 
fleshy, zoned, smooth pileus of sub-rotund, yellowish pores. As found 
in commerce it is deprived of its hard, brownish or reddish outer coat, 
and consists of a white, spongy, farinaceous, friable mass, difficult to 
pulverize, as it flattens by rubbing, but readily grated into a powder. 
It has a faint odor, and a sweetish, afterward acrid and lastingly bitter 
taste. 

Habitat. Found on old larches in central and southern Europe, 
also on the Siberian larch in the northern part of Asia. It is collected 
in autumn and winter. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1865 by a 
proving by Dr. Burt, under the name of Boletus laricis, West. Horn. 
Obs. II. 154. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. II. 188.] Subsequently, on 
learning that the genus "Boletus" has the hymenium composed of 
"sporable tubes," Dr. Burt published a second proving (including the 
first) in 1868, Am. Horn. Obs. V. 58. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 141.] 

Part Used. The dried fungus, as imported. 



468 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Polyporus officinalis, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



POLYPORUS PINICOLA. Pine Agaric. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 

Synonyms. Latin, Boletus pinus; English, Pine agaric. 

Description. A fungus, growing on pine, tamarack, birch, fir and 
other trees. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1868 by a 
proving by Dr. Burt, Am. Horn. Obs. V. 268. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VIII. 149.] 

Part Used. The mature, dried fungus. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations: ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^y. 

Polyporus pinicola, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 469 

POPULUS TREMULOIDES. Aspen. 

Natural Order. Salicaceae. 

Synonyms. English, American aspen, American poplar, Aspen, 
Aspen poplar, Quaking aspen, Quiver leaf, Trembling poplar, White 
poplar. 

Description. A deciduous tree, 20 to 50 feet high, 8 to 12 inches 
in diameter, with smooth, greenish-white bark, branches somewhat 
angular, buds large, scaly, and covered with a reddish-brown, resinous 
varnish. The inner bark is tender, sweet, and has a pleasant flavor. 
The leaves are alternate, roundish-cordate, sharply pointed, small, 
erect, dentate, with downy margins, smooth on both sides; petiole, 
long, slender, laterally compressed, which accounts for the continual 
agitation of the foliage by the slightest breeze. Both the stamiriate 
and pistillate flowers appear in March and April, before the leaves, in 
catkins, with scales cut into from 3 to 4 linear divisions, fringed with 
long hairs ; the staminate catkins are conspicuous in early spring by 
their length and the red tint of the numerous stamens; the pistillate, 
a little later, are remarkable for the quantity of white, cottony down, 
enveloping the seeds. 

Habitat. Native of temperate climates. Indigenous to most parts 
of North America; common in woods. Fig., Millspaugh, 162. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by Dr. Hale in 
1858, N. A. J. of Horn. VI. 553 ; XV. 381. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 154.] 

Parts Used. The inner bark and leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength ^. 
Populus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



47O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

POTHOS FCETIDUS. Skunk Cabbage, 

Natural Order. Araceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arum americanum, Dracontium foetidum, 
Ictodes foetidus, Symplocarpus foetidus ; English, Bear's foot, Bear's 
leaf, Collard, Cow collard, Foetid hellebore, Irish cabbage, Itch weed, 
Meadow cabbage, Poke, Polecat collard, Polecat weed, Skoka, Skunk 
cabbage, Skunk weed, Stinking pothos, Swamp cabbage; French, 
Racine de pothos f etide ; German, Stinkende Drachenwurzel. 

Description, A stemless, perennial herb, with a strong mephitic 
and alliaceous odor. The tuberous root, 3 to 5 inches long, 2 inches 
thick, terminates abruptly in giving off numerous fleshy fibers, which 
penetrate the boggy earth two or more feet. The numerous, short- 
petiolate leaves, crowded in a cluster, are ovate, cordate, acute, smooth, 
i to 2 feet long, with numerous pale-colored fleshy veins. The pur- 
plish-white flowers appear in earliest spring before the leaves, concealed 
in a singular, spongy, ovoid spathe, having a shell-form, auriculated 
base, acuminate top, incurved edges and covered with dull brownish- 
purple spots. 

Habitat. Exclusively a native of North America ; found in abund- 
ance in swamps, meadows and ditches. Renowned for the odor, which 
is scarcely less offensive than that of the skunk. Fig:, Millspaugh, 169. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1837, Corres- 
pondenzblatt. d. Horn. Aerzt. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 155.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength ^. 

Pothos foetida, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, fotir parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 471 

PRINOS VERTICILLATUS. Black Alder. 

Natural Order. Aquif oliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ilex verticillata ; English, Black alder, False 
alder, Fever bush, Saw-leaved oak, Scarlet oak, Striped alder, Winter 
berry ; French and German, Prinos. 

Description. An annual, deciduous shrub, with erect stem, 6 to 
10 feet high, alternate branches its entire length, of a bluish-gray or 
ash color. The simple leaves are alternate, short-petiolate, obovate, 
lanceolate, acuminate, doubly serrate, smooth, dark-green; the veins 
beneath, hairy. The small, white, dioecious flowers are short-pedun- 
culate, appearing from May to August, in axillary, sessile umbels. 
The fruit is a globose berry, about the size of a large pea, in verticil- 
late bunches, prominent and bright scarlet, changing to purplish. 

Habitat. North America, from Canada to Georgia ; found in low 
grounds near swamps ; common especially northward. Fig., Mills- 
paugh, 1 06. 

History. The Greek name of an evergreen oak, from prio, to saw, 
on account of its strongly toothed leaves ; also a Greek name of the 
holly. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 155.] 

Parts Used. The bark and berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < ; Drug strength ^. 

Prinos verticillatus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2\ to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



PRUNUS PADUS. Bird Cherry. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 



4/2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Cerasus padus, C. racemosus, Padus avium, 
P. vulgaris, Prunus racemosus ; English, Bird cherry. 

Description. A deciduous tree, 30 feet high, with purple bark, 
leafy branches, and beautifully veined wood. The leaves are oval, 
elliptic, doubly serrate and rugose, the petioles having two glands. 
The white, odorous flowers appear in April and May, in pendulous 
racemes. 

Habitat. A native of northern Europe and Asia; found in moist 
woods and along borders of forests in valleys. 

History. Origin of the name unknown. The Greek called it 
proune, and the Latin prunus ; Padus, one of the names of Theophras- 
tus. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1853 by a proving by 
Dr. Lembke, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 45, 376. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 156.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Prunus padus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



PRUNUS SPINOSA. Blackthorn. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acacia germanica, A. nostrates, Prunus com- 
munis, P. instititia; English, Blackthorn, Sloe tree; French, Epine 
noire; German, Schlehdorn. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, or tree, 3 to 5 feet high, with 
blackish-gray bark and thorny branches. The leaves are obovate, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 473 

oblong, sharply-serrate, becoming glabrous, downy beneath. The 
white flowers appear in early spring, from separate, lateral, scaly buds 
on glabrous pedicels, few or several, in simple, umbel-like clusters. 

Habitat. Europe, introduced into America; found in New Eng- 
land to Pennsylvania by roadsides and in waste places. 

History. The leaves are used as a substitute for tea, and as an 
adulteration of the black tea of China. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1834 by a proving by Dr. Wahle, Archiv. XIV. 3, 169. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 157.] 

Part Used. The buds, just before flowering. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Prunus spinosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



PRUNUS VIRGINIANA. Wild Cherry. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Prunus serotina (Ehrhart), Cerasus serotina, 
D. C., Cerasus virginiana (Michaux); English, Wild black cherry; 
French, Ecorce de cerisier de Virginie ; German, Wildkirschenrinde. 

Description. A forest tree, often reaching the height of from 60 
to 80 feet, with a firm, close-grained wood, of a slightly reddish or 
brownish-red color. Its alternate, oblong-lanceolate leaves are 3 to 5 
inches in length; are tapering, finely-serrate and petiolate. The small 
white flowers appear in elongated, terminal racemes, 4 to inches 
long, while the small globose fruit is a purplish-black drupe, with a 
sweet, yet bitterish taste. The bark from young trees is obtained 



474 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

commercially in irregular pieces, about T ^ inch thick, smooth, shining, 
and of a brownish-green color externally, or, when taken from older 
trees, and without the overlying corky layer, is about l /% inch or more 
in thickness, of a rusty-brown color externally and a somewhat paler 
brown internally. Wild cherry bark contains tannin, gallic acid, resin, 
starch and other vegetable principles, besides a volatile oil, containing 
hydrocyanic acid, which may be obtained by distillation. 

Habitat. United States and Canada ; found in woods. 
Part Used. The fresh inner bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength T ^. 

Prunus virginiana, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 



PTELEA TRIFOLIATA. Shrubby Trefoil. 

Natural Order. Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Amyris elemifera, Ptelea viticifolia; English, 
Ague barb, Hop tree, Shrubby trefoil, Swamp dogwood, Wafer ash, 
Winter fern ; French, Orme a trois feuilles ; German, Hopfenbaum. 

Description. A tall, deciduous shrub or tree, 6 to 12 feet high. 
The leaves are alternate, long-petioled, ternate, the leaflets nearly 
sessile, ovate, pointed, downy when young. The small, greenish- 
white, malodorous, polygamous flowers appear in June in compound, 
terminal cymes. 

Habitat Indigenous to America; found in rocky places, Pennsyl- 
vania to Wisconsin, and southward. Fig., Millspaugh, 34. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 475 

History. Greek name of the elm, from ptao, to fly, in allusion to 
the winged seed vessels. Introduced into homoeopathic literature in 
1868 by Dr. Hale, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 157. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VIII. 177.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 

Ptelea trifoliata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 250 Cc. = 350 

Strong alcohol, 777 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



PULSATILLA. Wind Flower. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anemone pratensis, Herba venti, Pulsatilla 
nigricans, P. pratensis, P. vulgaris ; English, Meadow anemone, Pasque 
flower, Wind flower ; French, Pulsatille ; German, Kuchenschelle. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a spindel-shaped, 
thick, ligneous, dark-brown, oblique, several-headed root. The stem, 
3 to 5 inches high, is simple, erect, rounded. The leaves are radical, 
petiolate, bi-pinnatifid, with linear segments ; at the base, surrounded 
by several ovate, lanceolate sheaths. The flowers, varying in color 
from dark violet to light blue, appear from March to May, and are 
bell-shaped, pendulous, terminal, reflexed at the apex, surrounded by 
a distinct sessile involucre, composed of 3 palmately divided and cleft 
bracts with linear lobes. The plant, clothed with long, silky hairs, 
is inodorous, but when rubbed exhales an acrid vapor, and has a 
burning, acrid taste. 

Habitat. Open fields and plains, in dry places in many parts of 
Europe, Russia, and Turkey in Asia. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 102 ; Jahr 
and Cat. 254; Winkler, 109, no. 



4/6 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1805 by 
Hahnemann, Frag. d. Vir. Med. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 
205.] 

Part Used The fresh plant, when in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Pulsatilla, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, , 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



PULSATILLA NUTTALLIANA. American Pulsatilla. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Anemone flavescens, A. ludoviciana, A. nut- 
talliana, A. patens, var. nuttalliana, A. pratensis, Clematis hirsutissima, 
Pulsatilla patens ; English, American pulsatilla, Crocus, Goslin weed, 
Hartshorn plant, May flower, Pasque flower, Prairie flower, Wind 
flower, Wood anemone. 

Description. A perennial herb, with branched root. The stem is 
4 to 12 inches high, erect, hairy. The leaves are radical, on long, 
hairy petioles, arising from the rhizome, ternately divided, deeply cleft, 
the lobes linear and acute. The whole plant is covered with long, 
silky hairs. The light, purplish-blue flowers, appearing in March and 
April, before the leaves, are erect and terminal; the lobes of the 
involucre, like those of the leaves, at the base united into a shallow 
cup. 

Habitat. Dry, sandy soil, prairies, from Wisconsin northward and 
westward to the Rocky Mountains. Fig., Millspaugh, i. 

History. Name from Anemos, the wind, as the flowers were sup- 
posed to open only when the wind was blowing. Called Pasque flower, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 4/7 

as it blossoms at Easter. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1865 
by Dr. Hale and proved by Dr. Burt, U. S. Med. and Surg. Journ. I. 
65. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 242.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture^: Drug strength ^. 

Pulsatilla nuttalliana, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



PYRUS AMERICANA. American Mountain Ash. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 
Synonym. English, American mountain ash. 

Description. A tree, or tall shrub, with smooth, round, grayish 
branches and close grained, not very hard wood. The leaves are odd- 
pinnate, 13 to 15 leaflets, lanceolate, tapering, pointed, sharply-serrate, 
with pointed teeth, bright-green, rather shining above, paler under- 
neath ; rachis and petiole, reddish and elongated ; leaf-buds pointed, 
glabrous and somewhat glutinous. The numerous white flowers 
appear in June in large and flat cymes and have a slight almond-like 
smell. 

Habitat. Maine to Pennsylvania and Michigan, southward along 
the whole length of the Alleghanies ; found in swamps and mountain 
woods. 

History. Name from the Celtic, peren, pear. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1878 by Dr. Gatchell, Am. Horn. Obs. XV. 
520. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 623.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 



4/8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < / Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Pyrus americana, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 740 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



QUASSIA AMARA. Bitter Wood. 

Natural Order. Simarubaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Surinam quassia ; French, Bois amer ; German, 
Quassienholz. 

Description. A small, branching, evergreen tree or shrub, 20 feet 
high, with white, light wood, the bark and leaves resembling those of 
the ash. The leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate, the five leaflets short- 
petioled, acute at both ends and smooth. The large crimson flowers 
are hermaphrodite, appear in June and July in long terminal racemes. 
All parts are intensely bitter, its bitterness being more intense and 
durable than that of almost any other known substance. The wood 
as obtained in market is in 3 to 6 feet lengths, is dense in texture, 
rather hard and tough, yellowish-white and frequently marked with 
irregular* black lines, or patches. The bark is very fragile, about -^j to 
-^ inch thick, of a gray color externally, and a whitish, smooth appear- 
ance internally. 

Habitat. Native of Surinam. Fig., Goullon, 54. 

History. Named by Linnaeus in memory of Quassi, a negro of 
Surinam, who acquired a reputation with it in the treatment of 
malignant fevers. It has been known since the middle of the 
eighteenth century. It is not to be confounded with the Jamaica 
Quassia of which cups are made, which, though a similar tree, is larger. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1860 by a proving by Drs. 
Mueller and Eidherr, N. Zeit. f. Horn. Kl. V. i. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VIII. 254.] 

Parts Used. The dried root, bark and wood. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 4/9 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Quassia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



QUILLAIA SAPONARIA. Soap Bark. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Quillaja molinae, Q. saponaria, Q. smegmader- 
mos, Smegmaria emarginata ; English, Quillaia bark, -Soap bark; 
French, fecorce de quillaya ; German, Seif enrinde. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, or tree, 10 to 60 feet high, with 
alternate, short-petioled, oval, entire, smooth, shining, leathery leaves. 
The white pedunculate flowers appear from April to July, are dioecious, 
axillary. The wood is very hard. The bark is found in the market 
in large flat pieces, i to 3 feet long, several inches wide, ^ inch thick; 
the outer surface is rough, brownish -white, with small patches of 
corky layer attached, the inner surface whitish and smooth, breaking 
into splinters, a transverse section having a checkered appearance. It 
is inodorous, has a persistent acrid taste, and on mixing with water 
foams like soap, whence its name. 

Habitat. Indigenous to Peru, Chili and Brazil. 
History Described by the Abbe Molina in 1782. 
Part Used The dried bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Quillaia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



480 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

RANUNCULUS ACRIS. Tall Buttercup. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ranunculus calif ornicus, R. canus, R. delphini- 
folius, R. dissectus, R. fascicularis ; English, Acrid buttercup, Bach- 
elor's button, Burwort, Buttercup, Crowfoot buttercup, Meadow bloom, 
Meadow crowfoot, Tall buttercup, Tall crowfoot, Upright buttercup, 
Upright crowfoot, Yellow weed ; French, Renoncule acre ; German, 
Scharfhahenfuss. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a root having a 
somewhat tuberous crown and many long simple fibers. The stem, 2 
to 3 feet high, is erect, round, hollow, leafy, hirsute and branched 
above. The radical leaves are on long, upright, hairy petioles, three- 
lobed, variously subdivided ; the cauline leaves sessile, with fewer and 
narrower segments, the uppermost much smaller, in three linear entire 
lobes, or simple and linear. The bright-yellow flowers, appearing from 
June to August, are axillary and terminal. The whole plant is 
extremely acrid, causing inflammation when handled ; this acridity is 
dissipated on drying. 

Habitat. Introduced into the United States from Europe, common 
eastward ; found in meadows and fields. Fig., Millspaugh, 6. 

History. Name derived from rana, a frog, on account of its moist 
habitat. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1828 by Dr. Franz, 
Archiv. VII. 3, 218. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 256.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <.- Drug strength ^. 
Ranunculus acris, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 481 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3 x and higher. 

RANUNCULUS BULBOSUS. Buttercup. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ranunculus tuberosus ; English, Buttercup, 
Bulbous crowfoot, Crowfoot ; French, Renoncule ; German, Hahnen- 
fuss. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, the root a fleshy, round- 
ish, depressed corm, I inch in diameter, sending out rootlets under- 
neath. The several stems are i foot high, erect, round, branched, 
hairy, without runners. The radical leaves are ternate, the lateral 
divisions sessile, the terminal petiolate, three-parted, wedge-shaped, 
cleft and dentate. The numerous glossy-yellow flowers, more than an 
inch broad, appear from April to August, are solitary, terminal, on 
angular, furrowed, bristly peduncles. The whole plant is exceedingly 
acrid, raising blisters, sometimes followed by deep sloughing ulcers. 

Habitat. Europe, naturalized in the United States; found in 
grassy fields and along roadsides. Very abundant only in New Eng- 
land. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 109; Winkler, 119; Millspaugh, 5. 

History. It is one of the oldest known drugs, employed externally, 
and as a vesicant prior to the use of cantharides. The acridity is lost 
by boiling and drying, several species being eaten as salad after boiling. 
The acridity of the leaves and stems varies during fructification ; the 
fibers of the root are acrid previous to this period, not afterwards. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1821 by a proving by Dr. 
Franz, Archiv. VII. 2, 165. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 257.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant, gathered during flowering. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Ranunculus bulbosus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



482 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

RANUNCULUS FLAMMULA. Spearwort. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ranunculus alismaefolius, R. ambigens, R. 
lingua, R. robini; English, Lesser spearwort, Spearwort. 

Description. A perennial herb, with stem about i foot high, 
smooth, reclining or ascending, branched, leafy, hairy near the top. 
The leaves, i to 2 inches long, are alternate, on flat, channelled, half- 
sheathing petioles, lanceolate or linear, nearly entire. The bright 
yellow flowers appear from June to September on smooth, round, 
naked peduncles, are terminal, and opposite the leaves. 

Habitat. Europe, Asia and Barbary ; found in wet places, and in 
the United States on the shore of Lake Ontario and northward. 

History. Recognized as one of the many species of Ranunculus 
in the old pharmacopeias. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by 
Dr. Franz in 1828, Archiv. VII. 3, 219. 

Parts Used. The entire fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Ranunculus flammula, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

RANUNCULUS REPENS. Creeping Buttercup, 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 483 

Synonyms. Latin, Ranunculus clintonii, R. intermedius, R. lanu- 
ginosus, R. prostratus, R. tomentosus; English, Common crowfoot, 
Creeping buttercup, Creeping crowfoot. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial, obnoxious herb. The stems 
are hairy, or nearly glabrous, erect in dry soil, creeping in moist situa- 
tions, from 6 inches to 3 or 4 feet long according to the habitat. The 
leaves are tri-ternate, the divisions petiolate, especially the terminal, 
broadly wedged-shaped, or oval, unequally three-cleft, variously cut. 
The bright-yellow flowers appear from May to August on the upright 
stems before the long runners are formed, on furrowed peduncles, with 
corolla much larger than the spreading calyx. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America from Georgia northward 
and westward; found in ditches, moist or shady places. It is less 
acrid than the other species. Fig., Millspaugh, 4. 

History. With the other species it had place in the old pharma- 
copeias. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1828 by Dr. Franz, 
Archiv. VII. 3, 218. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 270.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Ranunculus repens, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS. Celery-Leaved Buttercup. 
Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Herbe sardoa, Ranunculus palustris ; English, 
Celery-leaved buttercup, Celery-leaved crowfoot, Cursed crowfoot, 
Marsh crowfoot; French, Herbe sardonique, Grenouillette d'eau; 
German, Gifthahnenfuss. 



484 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A perennial herb, with fibrous root. The stem, very 
smooth (except when the peduncle appears somewhat hairy), is I to 2 
feet high, thick, round, hollow, repeatedly branched and leafy. The 
lower leaves are petiolate, rounded, bluntly-lobed and cut ; the upper 
are sessile, with deeper and narrower segments ; the uppermost, accom- 
panying the flowers, are lanceolate and undivided. The small pale- 
yellow flowers appear from May to August, are solitary, or sometimes 
in corymbs with the calyx, hairy and reflexed, the five or more petals 
flat, with a little gland on the inside of the base of each. 

Habitat. Europe, Asia and the United States; found in wet 
patches by the side of water. Fig., Winkler, 118; Millspaugh, 3. 

History. Name from rana, a frog, from the species inhabiting wet 
places, or the resemblance of the leaves to a frog's foot. A species 
long in use in European pharmacy. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1828 by a proving by Dr. Franz, Archiv. VII. 3, 217. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 270.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -^. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



RAPHANUS SATIVUS. Radish. 

Natural Order. Cruciferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Raphanus hortensis, R. nigrum, R. raphanis- 
trum; English, Bl^ck or garden radish; French, Rave; German, 
Gartenrettig. 

Description. A very variable, biennial or annual herb, with long, 
round, tapering, tender or hard (according to age), differently colored, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 485 

delicate or pungent root. The stem is erect, i to 2 feet high, glaucous, 
somewhat bristly and branched below. The leaves are alternate, petio- 
late or sessile, lyrate, dentate, rough, the terminal lobe oval or some- 
what obovate. The pink, purple or whitish flowers appear in May and 
June in terminal racemes or corymbs. 

Habitat. China, Japan and the western part of Asia; introduced 
into the United States. A troublesome weed in fields in New Eng- 
land to Pennsylvania and westward. Fig., Millspaugh, 26. 

History. Name derived from ra, quickly, and phaino, to appear, 
from its rapid germination. But little used in medicine. Introduced 
into homoeopathic practice in 1840 by a proving by Dr. Nusser, Rev. 
Crit. et Ret. d. 1. Mat. Med. I. 545. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 

277.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 
Raphanus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



RATANHIA. Rhatany. 

Natural Order. Polygalaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Krameria triandra, Ratanhia peruviana; 
English, Mapato, Pumacuchu, Rhatany; French, Ratanhia, Ruiz et 
Pavon; German, Ratanhiavvurzel. 

Description. A low shrub, with long, horizontal, branched root. 
The stem is procumbent, tapering, with branches 2 to 3 feet long, the 
younger covered with soft hairs, giving a white, silky appearance. 
The few leaves, ^ inch long, are alternate, sessile, round, crowded, 



486 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

oblong, obovate, acuminate, entire, covered on both sides with silvery 
hairs. The scarlet flowers, blooming nearly all the year, chiefly in 
October and November, are large, solitary, on axillary peduncles. 
Ratanhia root consists of a hard, tough, central, woody portion, and 
a thin, separable, rough, scaly bark, brownish or reddish-yellow in 
color externally, brownish-red internally, difficult to pulverize, odor- 
less, and having a bitter, astringent and sweetish taste. 

Habitat. Native of Peru ; growing in dry sandy places at an eleva- 
tion of 3000 to 8000 feet above the sea. Discovered by Ruiz in 1779. 
Fig., Winkler, 84 ; Goullon, 43 ; Bent, and Trim. 30. 

History. Named krameria for Dr. Kramer; rhatany, an Indian 
word signifying creeping. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
1831 by provings by Drs. Hartlaub and Trinks, R. A. M. L. III. 53. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 290.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <$>: Drug strength -^. 

Ratanhia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

* 

RESORCINUM. Resorcin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 4 (OH),; 109.74. 

Synonyms. English, Resorcinol, Metadioxybenzol ; French, Resor- 
cine; German, Resorcin. 

Description. This oxyphenol crystallizes in short, colorless, rhom- 
bic prisms or plates, odorless, and having a disagreeably sweet and 
rather acrid taste. It becomes reddish on exposure to the air. Is 
freely soluble in water, alcohol and ether ; less readily soluble in carbon 
disulfid, chloroform and benzol; reaction neutral. It melts at 118 C. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 487 

and boils at 276.5 C. Resorcin burns with a bright flame, without 
residue. Chlorinated lime colors its solution a transient violet, ferric 
chlorid a purplish-black, disappearing on the addition of ammonia. It 
should melt to a clear colorless liquid when carefully heated in a test 
' tube ; at a higher heat should volatilize with white vapors and without 
residue, or leaving only a little charcoal. It is obtained from the 
alcoholic extract of ammoniac, or galbanum, or by a cheaper process 
from benzol, and should be kept well-stoppered and protected from 
the light. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <f>: ix in alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 2x and higher, in dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications: ix and higher. 

RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS. Purging Buckthorn. 

Natural Order Rhamnaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Frangula caroliniana, F. fragilis, Sarcomphalus 
carolinianus, Spina cervina ; English, Buckthorn, Hartsthorn, Purging 
buckthorn, Waythorn; French, Bourquepine, Nerprun; German, 
Kreuzdorn, Wegdorn. 

Description, A deciduous shrub, with stem 5 to 10 feet high, 
alternate, or nearly opposite branches, spreading, straight, round, 
smooth, hard, rigid ; branchlets thorny, ending in a strong spine after 
the first year. The bright-green leaves are mostly alternate, frequently 
fasiculate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, minutely-serrate, smooth, 
petioles and young leaves downy. The greenish-yellow, polygamous 
or dioecious flowers appear in May and June in axillary clusters on the 
last year's branches. The bluish-black berries, four-celled and four- 
seeded, are globular, somewhat flat on top, smooth and shining, having 
an unpleasant odor and a bitter, acrid, nauseous taste. 

Habitat. Northern Africa, greater part of Europe from the Cau- 
casus to Siberia; it grows in thickets; sparingly naturalized in the 
United States, where it is cultivated for hedges, appearing spontane- 
ously on the Hudson River. Fig., Goullon, 57; Bent, and Trim. 64; 
Millspaugh, 41. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



History. Named from the Celtic, ram, a tuft of branches, from the 
resemblance of the thorns to a stag's horns. As Spina cervina it was 
known as early as the thirteenth century. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1850. Case of poisoning by eating the berries 
reported, Allg. Zeit. f. Horn. II. 139. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 301.] 

Part Used The ripe berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Rhamnus catharticus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



RHAMNUS FRANGULA. Buckthorn. 

Natural Order. Rhamnaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Frangula caroliniana, F. vulgaris; English, 
Alder buckthorn, Berry-bearing buckthorn, Black alder, Buckthorn 
alder, European (black) alder buckthorn. 

Description. A thornless shrub, with slender, somewhat straggling 
stem, 6 to 12 feet high, with smooth, purplish-gray bark; the extremi- 
ties of the young branches, buds and petioles having short reddish- 
yellow down. The leaves are alternate, \y 2 to 2^ inches long, 
petioled, with very small deciduous stipules, entire, smooth, bright- 
green, rather flaccid and undulating. The flowers are very small, 
bi-sexual, appearing from April to June in small clusters on slender, 
drooping, axillary peduncles. The bark is found in market ^ inch 
thick in small quills of a gray, brownish-gray or blackish-brown color 
externally, with whitish, warty, transversely-elongated protuberances, 
the inner surface smooth, brownish-yellow, somewhat fibrous in tex- 
ture, odorous, with a pleasant, sweetish taste. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 489 

Habitat. Found throughout Europe, extending into Siberia, the 
Caucasus and Mediterranean coast of Africa, also in the United States 
along the river-banks of New Jersey, Virginia, Kentucky and south- 
ward. Fig., Goullon, 58; Bent, and Trim. 65. 

History. Name from frango, to break, from its brittle stems. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1850, Allg. Zeit. f. Horn. II. 
139. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII.' 302.] 

Part Used. The bark of the young branches, gathered in spring 
and kept at least one year. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^j-. 

Rhamnus frangula, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations: ix and higher. 



RHAMNUS PURSHIANA. Cascara. 

Natural Order. Rhamnaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cascara sagrada; English, Chittem bark, 
Sacred bark. 

Description. A small tree not more than 20 feet high, with flexu- 
ous branches. The leaves, 2 to 7 inches long, i to 3 inches wide, are 
ovate, obtuse, acutely-pointed, finely-serrate, thin, pubescent beneath. 
The flowers are large, in cymose umbels. The bark is found in market 
in small, smooth pieces, or in quills, breaking with a short fracture, 
the external layer having pale, broad warts on its outer surface, which 
is whitish or brownish-gray, while the inner is yellowish or light- 
brown, becoming dark. It is inodorous and has a bitter taste. 

Habitat. Found in California and northward to British America. 

History. Name derived from the Celtic, ram, branching, and from 
Dr. Pursh. 

Part Used. The bark, at least two years old. 



490 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength $. 

Rhamnus purshiana, ioo Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



RHEUM. Rhubarb, 

Natural Order. Polygonaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rhabarbarum, Rheum compactum, R. emodi, 
R. muscoviticum, R. officinale, R. palmatum, R. rhaponticum, R. 
russicum, R. undulatum ; English, Indian (China) rhubarb, Rhubarb; 
French, Rhubarbe; German, Rhabarber. 

Description. The root of one or more undetermined species. 
What is known as the Chinese or Indian rhubarb (Rheum sinense and 
Rheum indicum) is in hard, compact, cylindrical, conical or flattened 
pieces, externally of a brownish-yellow color, having a smooth, powdery 
surface as though the bark were scraped off ; on breaking it presents 
a ragged, uneven surface, with various shades of dull-red, yellow and 
white, with darker colors and marked with dark lines, forming starlike 
spots. The pieces are perforated with small holes, where a cord has 
been used for suspension during drying. It has a peculiar, unpleasant, 
aromatic smell, a bitter, astringent taste and a grittiness when chewed, 
and forms a yellowish-brown powder, with a reddish-brown tinge when 
pulverized. 

Habitat. India, China, Tartary, Thibet, also grown in various 
parts of Europe, England, France, Belgium and Germany. Fig., 
Flora Horn. II. 124; Winkler, 124; Goullon, 213; Bent, and Trim. 215. 

History. The derivation of the name supposed by Linnaeus to be 
from reo, to flow, the root causing a discharge of bile. It was in use 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 491 

as a medicine by the Chinese long before the Christian era. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1805 by Hahnemann, Frag. d. 
Vir. Med. 185. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 503.] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength -j^. 

Rheum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



RHODODENDRON CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

Golden Flowered Rhododendron. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rhododendron officinale ; English, Golden or 
yellow flowered rhododendron, Rosebay, Yellow snow rose ; French, 
Rose de Siberie; Get man, Alpenrose, Gichtrose, Schneerose. 

Description. An evergreen undershrub, from y 2 to \y 2 feet high, 
i inch thick, covered with brown bark and having spreading branches. 
The leaves are alternate, much-veined, oblong, tapering into the 
petiole, obtuse, reflexed, scabrous above, pale rust-colored beneath. 
The large yellow flowers appear in June and July on long peduncles 
in terminal umbels among large downy scales. 

Habitat. It grows on the highest snow-clad mountains of Siberia, 
the low mountains of Kamtschatka and the high Alps. Its habitat 
and time of gathering affect its efficacy. Fig., Winkler, 121 ; Goullon, 
164. 

History. Name derived from rhodon, a rose, and dendron, a tree. 
The leaves, buds and twigs have been used in medicine since the latter 



492 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

part of the last century. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
1831 by provings by Dr. Seidel, Archiv. X. 3, 139. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VIII. 311.] 

Parts Used. The dried leaves and flower buds, gathered when the 
latter are well developed, but not opened. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength -fa. 

Rhododendron, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

RHUS AROMATICA. Fragrant Sumach. 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Betula triphylla, Lobadium aromaticum, Rhus 
canadensis, R. suaveolens, Turpinia glabra, T. pubescens; English, 
Fragrant sumach. 

Description. A straggling bush, with stem 4 feet high and tough 
wood. The odorous leaves are ternate, ovate, unequally dentate, 
pubescent when young, thickish when old. The middle leaflets are 
wedge-shaped at the base. The pale-yellow flowers appear from April 
to May, preceding the leaves, in clustered, scaly-bracted spikes. Not 
poisonous. 

Habitat. Found on dry rocky soil, Vermont to Michigan, Ken- 
tucky and westward. Fig., Millspaugh, 39. 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Rhus aromatica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 700 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 493 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with disfensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



RHUS GLABRA. Common Sumach, 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rhus carolinense, R. elegans, R. virginicum; 
English, Common, smooth, Pennsylvania and upland sumach ; French, 
Sumac; German, Sumach. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, with stem 2 to 12 feet high, more 
or less bent, divided into straggling branches, covered with smooth, 
light-gray or somewhat reddish bark, with small scattered warts. The 
leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate, 11 to 31 leaflets, petioles crimson, 
leaflets lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, glabrous, green on their upper 
surface, downy beneath ; in autumn their color changing to a beautiful 
red. The greenish-white polygamous flowers appear in June and July 
in a terminal thyrsoid panicle. 

Habitat. Found in North America on rocky or barren soils. 
Fig., Millspaugh, 36. 

History. Used by the Chippeway Indians. Mention made in 
1853, N. A. J. Horn. VI. 553. Proving by Dr. Marshall in 1866, Kale's 
New Rem. 2nd ed. 872. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 329.] 

Parts Used. The fresh bark and leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Rhus glabra, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



494 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



RHUS TOXICODENDRON. Poison Ivy. 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rhus humile, R. pubescens, R. radicans, R. 
toxicodendron, R. verrucosa, Vitis canadensis; English, Poison ash, 
oak or vine, Mercury vine, Three-leaved ivy, Trailing sumach ; French, 
Arbre a poison, Sumac veneneux; German, Gift Sumach, Wurtzel 
Sumach. 

Description. A deciduous shrub, with reddish, branching stem, I 
to 3 feet high, or climbing by rootlets over rocks, etc., or ascending 
trees, in which latter case it becomes Rhus radicans. The leaves are 
alternate, ternate, the lateral leaflets unequal at the base and sessile, 
the terminal one larger at the end of a prolongation of the common 
petiole (cauline differing from the radical), rhombic-ovate pointed, 
variously notched or entire, cut-lobed, downy beneath, thin ; the char- 
acter of the leaves somewhat inconstant, depending probably on the 
situation and proximity of supporting objects. The small greenish- 
white flowers are polygamous and appear in June in loose and slender 
axillary panicles. The whole plant has a resinous, milky, acrid juice, 
staining black and extremely poisonous. 

Habitat. In the United States ; found in thickets and low grounds. 
Fig., Flora Horn. II. 130; Winkler, 117; Jahr and Cat. 260; Goullon, 
60; Millspaugh, 38. 

History. Name derived from the Celtic, rhudd, signifying red, 
alluding to the color of the flowers and leaves of some of the species 
in autumn. It has been used to a limited extent in old-school phar- 
macy. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1816 by Hahnemann, 
R. A. M. L., II. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 330.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>. Drug strength ^. 
Rhus toxicodendron, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 495 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

CAUTION. The tincture poisons the skin, and bottles containing it 
should therefore be handled with great care. 

RHUS VENENATA. Poison Sumach. 

Natural Order. Anacardiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Rhus vernix, R. vernicifera; English, Dog 
wood, Poison ash, elder, sumach, tree or wood, Varnish tree, Varnish 
or swamp sumach. 

Description. A beautiful shrub, or small tree, 10 to 30 feet high, 
i to 5 inches in diameter, trunk a dark-gray, color of the branches 
lighter and of the twigs and petioles a beautiful red. The stems are 
erect, branching at the top, smooth, or nearly so. The leaves are odd- 
pinnately compound, seven- to thirteen-petioled leaflets, ovate-lanceo- 
late, acute, entire, smooth. The greenish-white polygamous flowers 
appear in June in loose, slender, erect panicles in the axils of the 
uppermost leaves. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America from Florida to the Mis- 
sissippi and northward to Canada; found in swampy ground. Fig., 
Millspaugh, 37. 

History. This is the most poisonous species of the rhus and 
affords the Japan varnish. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 
J 835 by a proving by Dr. Bute, Archiv. XV. i, 179. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VIII. 378.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and stem. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Rhus venenata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

CAUTION. The tincture poisons the skin, and bottles containing it 
should therefore be handled with great care. 



496 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

RICINUS COMMUNIS. Castor Oil Plant 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ricinus africanus, R. europaeus, R. inermis, R. 
laevis, R. lividus, R. viridis ; English, Castor oil plant, Palma Christ! ; 
French, Semence de ricin ; German, Ricinussamen. 

Description. The seeds of a tree, or shrub, varying from 4 to 40 
feet in height, according to its position. In the most favorable regions 
it attains a height of 40 feet ; in the Mediterranean countries it is a 
small tree 10 to 15 feet high, while in the temperate parts of America 
and Europe it is cultivated as an annual of 4 or 5 feet. The fruit is a 
blunt, somewhat globular, greenish, deeply grooved, prickly capsule, 
with three projecting sides, having three cells, containing one seed 
each. The seeds are y$ to y? inch long, ^ to ^ inch broad and % 
inch thick, ovate, compressed, convex on one side, smooth, shining, 
with brown or black spots and exhibiting a great variety of colors. 

Habitat. India, cultivated in temperate latitudes of North America 
and Europe. Fig., Winkler, 122; Goullon, 227; Bent, and Trim. 237. 

History. It was known in Egypt in the time of Herodotus (400 to 
500 B. C). It was used for illuminating, afterwards as an external 
remedy and later as a purgative. Mentioned in homoeopathic litera- 
ture in 1841 by Dr. Buckner, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XX. 9. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 400; X. 628.] 

Part Used. The dried ripe seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Ricinus communis, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, loco Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 



ROBINIA PSEUDACACIA. Locust. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 497 

Synonyms. Latin, Pseudacacia odorata, Robinia fragilis; English, 
Black, false or yellow locust, False acacia, Locust ; French, Robinier ; 
German, Falsche Acacien. 

Description A deciduous tree, from 40 to 80 feet high, I to 4 feet 
in diameter, with erect, straight trunk, dark rough bark and yellow, 
light, hard, durable wood. The branches are naked, spinous when 
young, the spines taking the place of stipules. The leaves are odd- 
pinnate, nearly sessile, obovate or oblong, leaflets smooth, with prickly 
spines. The white fragrant flowers appear in May and June in slender, 
loose, pendent, axillary racemes. 

Habitat. United States, southern Pennsylvania to Illinois and 
southward ; cultivated as an ornamental tree and for its valuable 
timber. Fig., Millspaugh, 50. 

History. Named for Jean Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. of France. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Dr. Burt in 1864, Am. Horn. 
Obs. I. 61. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 402; X. 608.] 

Part Used The fresh bark of the young twigs, or of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength J$. 
Robinia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Strong alcohol, 840 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dihitions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



RUMEX ACETOSA. Sorrel. 

Natural Order. Polygonaceae. 
Synonyms English, Field or common sorrel. 

Description. A perennial herb, having a long, tapering, somewhat 
woody root. The stem is i to 2 feet high, erect, simple, leafy, striated. 
The radical leaves are petiolate, somewhat ovate-lanceolate, arrow- 
shaped, with two lateral teeth, the cauline sessile, more oblong, 



498 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

narrower and entire. The small, reddish dioecious flowers appear in 
the spring in terminal, erect, compound, whorled, naked panicles; 
the staminate are green, with a reddish tinge, the pistillate redder. 

Habitat. Great Britain; found abundant in waste places, sterile 
and worn fields. 

History. The leaves, containing oxalate of potash, are agreeably 
sour and are used for salads and soups. The effects of eating the 
leaves published in Lond. Med. Gaz. 1847, and N. A. J. of Horn. IV. 
114 (1855). [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 415.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Rum ex acetosa, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; '3 X an d higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



RUMEX CRISPUS. Yellow Dock. 

Natural Order. Polygonaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Curled, narrow, sour, or yellow dock, Garden 
patience ; French, Patience frisee ; German, Krauser Ampfer. 

Description. A smooth, perennial herb, with deep, spindle-shaped, 
yellow root. The smooth stem, 3 to 4 feet high, is angular, furrowed, 
somewhat zigzag. The leaves are lanceolate, petiolate, whorled, acute, 
wavy-curled, smooth, lightish-green in color; the radical leaves long- 
petioled, truncate, or scarcely heart-shaped at the base, the cauline 
acute at both ends, nearly sessile. The numerous, small, incon- 
spicuous greenish flowers appear from May to August in long, slender 
racemes. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 499 

Habitat. Naturalized from Europe, found everywhere in the 
eastern part of the United States. One of the most troublesome 
weeds ; very common in cultivated and waste grounds, and extremely 
difficult to eradicate. Fig., Millspaugh, 143. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1852 by prov- 
ings by Dr. Joslin, Phil. Journ. Horn. I. 289. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. VIII. 417.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Rumex crispus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



RUTA GRAVEOLENS. Rue. 

Natural Order. Rutaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Ruta hortensis, R. latifolia, R. montana, R. 
sativa, R. vulgaris ; English, Bitter herb, Countryman's treacle, Garden 
rue, Rue; French, Rue des jardins; German, Garten Raute. 

Description. An evergreen undershrub. The several stems are 
about 2 feet high, shrubby branching, cylindrical and slender. The 
leaves, from 3 to 4 inches long, are alternate, long-petiolate, supra- 
decompound ; the leaflets oblong, the terminal obovate ; the uppermost 
leaves are simply-pinnate, triangular-ovate in outline, obtusely-crenate, 
subcoriaceous, bluish-green. The yellow flowers appear from June to 
September in terminal, branched corymbs on subdivided peduncles. 
All parts of the plant are filled with transparent dots; the leaves 
are beset with small glands, containing an oil of a peculiarly strong 
balsamic odor and of an aromatic, bitter, acrid taste. 



50O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Western Asia and Canary Islands, naturalized in southern 
Europe, where it is common in sterile waste places ; cultivated in India 
and United States. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 143; Winkler, 120; Jahr 
and Cat. 262; Goullon, 50; Bent, and Trim. 44. 

History. Ruta is about the same in all languages, graveolens, 
strong smelling. It was held in high esteem at the time of Hippo- 
crates. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1818 by Hahnemann, 
R. A. M. L. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 431.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Ruta graveolens, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

SABADILLA. Cevadilla. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Asagraea officinalis, Cebadilla, Helonias offici- 
nalis, Hordeum causticum, Melanthium sabadilla, Sabadilla officinarum, 
Schoenocaulon officinale, Veratrum officinale, V. sabadilla; English, 
Cevadilla seeds, Indian caustic barley; French, Sebadille ; German, 
Sabadillasaamen. 

Description. The seeds of several species of bulbous rooted, 
herbaceous plants, 3 to 5 feet high, with linear tapering, entire leaves 
and yellow flowers. The fruit consists of three slightly spreading, 
brownish, papery follicles, about y z inch long, united at the base, 
spreading somewhat towards the apex, opening by their ventral 
suture ; each follicle contains usually two, sometimes six seeds ; these 
are \ to \ inch long, narrow, pointed, flattened on one side, convex on 
the other, shining, rugose, blackish-brown, inodorous, and have a per- 
sistent, acrid and bitter taste. The seeds yield 3 per cent of veratrin. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 5OI 

Habitat. Mexico, West Indies, Guatemala and Venezuela ; found 
in grassy plains on open hills from 3,500 to 4,000 feet above sea level. 
Fig., Winkler, 1 50 ; Jahr and Cat. 263 ; Goullon, 264 ; Bent, and 
Trim. 287. 

History. Described in 1571 as in use by the Indians of New 
Spain as a caustic. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1825 by 
provings reported by Dr. Stapf, Archiv. IV. 3, 119. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VIII. 443.] 

Part Used. The dried capsuled seeds, as imported. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < ; Drug strength -jfa. 

Sabadilla, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

SABAL SERRULATA. Saw Palmetto. 

Natural Order. Palmaceae. 

Synonym. Latin, Chamaerops serrulata. 

Description. A creeping, evergreen shrub, 2 to 3 feet long, with 
large fibrous roots extending outward several feet from the stem. 
The densely set, large leaves, with aculeate-serrate petioles, are pal- 
mately fan-shaped, plaited and many cleft with fibrous threads hanging 
between the segments. The small, perfect, greenish-purple flowers 
appear from June to August on a thick, branching spadix. The 
oblong-ovate, dark-purple or brown fruit ripens in October, November 
and early in December, its yield being larger in alternate years. It 
contains a pit or seed, resembling that of the olive ; has an aromatic 
odor, and a taste at first sweet, afterward pungently bitter, and finally 
smooth and oily. 

Habitat. Barrens, South Carolina to Florida. 
Part Used. The fresh ripe fruit. 



5O2 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Sabal serrulata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, fotir parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



SABINA. Savin, 

Natural Order. Conif erae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Juniperus fcetida, J. lycia, J. prostrata, J. sabina, 
Sabina officinalis, S. sterilis, S. vulgaris ; English, Savin ; French, 
Sabine ; German, Sadebaum. 

Description. A compact, evergreen shrub, spreading horizontally 
or rising erect to the height of 3 to 15 feet. The trunk, sometimes a 
foot in diameter, has a pale, reddish-brown, scaly bark. The slender, 
round, tough branches and bright-green young twigs are closely 
covered with short, acute, imbricating leaves. The leaves opposite, 
or in threes, erect, firm, smooth, pointed, dark-green, with surface 
glandular in the middle, are very bitter and have a strong, disagree- 
able smell. The flowers, appearing in May and June, are unisexual, 
dioecious, very small ; the male in catkins, the female in cones at the 
extremities of the lateral branches. 

Habitat. Southern and middle Europe, Russia, in Asia and North 
America ; found throughout a large portion of the colder temperate 
regions of the northern hemisphere, except in the Scandinavian 
peninsula, varying much in growth ; found on rocky banks from Maine 
to Wisconsin and further northward. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 148; 
Winkler, 83 ; Jahr and Cat. 264 ; Goullon, 291 ; Bent, and Trim. 254. 

History. The name from the Celtic, jeneprus, signifying rough, 
or rude ; Sabina, the Latin name for the plant. Introduced into 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 503 

homoeopathic practice by provings of Hahnemann and others, Archiv. 
V. i, 151. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 458.] 

Parts Used. The fresh stems and leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength -j^. 
Sabina, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 112 Cc. = 212 

Strong alcohol, 903 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



SALICINUM. Salicin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 13 H 18 O 7 ; 285.33. 

Natural Order. Salicaceae. 

Synonyms. French, Salicine; German, Salicin. 

Description. A crystalline glucoside, obtainable, when pure, in 
the form of white, shining scales or needles, or as colorless plates, or 
flat rhombic prisms, odorless, and of an extremely bitter taste ; per- 
manent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 28 parts of water, in 30 parts of 
alcohol, and in acetic acid ; insoluble in ether, chloroform and benzin ; 
reaction neutral. It melts at 198 C., cooling to a crystalline mass, 
and when ignited, burns without residue; with cold sulfuric acid, 
salicin gives a bright-red solution, which takes up water from the air 
and deposits a red powder, rutilin. Salicin is not precipitated from 
its aqueous solution by tannic or picric acid, nor by mercuric potas- 
sium iodid test solution ; this test differentiating it from alkaloids and 
indicating their absence. It is obtained from the bark of several 
species of salix and populus. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
VIII. 473- 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



504 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

SALIX NIGRA. Black Willow. 

Natural Order. Salicaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Salix ambigua, S. falcata, S. ligustrina, S. 
purshiana ; English, Black willow. 

Description. A shrub or tree, 15 to 25 feet high, with rough black 
bark and very brittle branches at the base. The leaves have small 
deciduous stipules, are alternate, narrowly-lanceolate, pointed and 
tapering at each end, serrate, smooth (except on the petioles and mid- 
rib), green on both sides. The flowers appear in May and June in 
peduncled catkins on the summit of the lateral leafy branches of the 
season ; scales entire, greenish-yellow, more or less hairy, falling 
before the pods are ripe. 

Habitat. United States, frequent along streams, especially south- 
ward. 

History. Name derived from the Celtic, sal, near, and lis, water. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature by Dr. Wright in 1875, Am. 
Horn. Obs. XII. 177. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 630.] 

Part Used The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -^. 

Salix nigra, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

SALIX PURPUREA. Purple Willow. 

Natural Order. Salicaceae. 

Synonyms. Lathi, Salix helix, S. lambertiana, S. monandra; 
English, Bitter, purple or red willow ; German, Purpurishe Weide. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 50$ 

Description. A deciduous tree, shrub, or trailing bush, 6 to 10 
feet high, with very smooth and bitter bark, and terete, tough, pliable 
branches, the twigs sometimes olive-colored or reddish. The leaves, 
opposite and alternate on the same plant on short, stout petioles, are 
simple, oblanceolate, pointed, minutely and sparingly dentate, smooth, 
light, rather glaucous and. green. The flowers appear "in April and 
May in slender catkins, scales round and concave, very black, hirsute 
and persistent. 

Habitat. United States, introduced from Europe; found in low 
grounds. Fig., Millspaugh, 161. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by fragmentary 
proving in 1870 by Dr. Duncan, N. Y. State Trans. 328. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 475.] 

Part Used. The fresh bark. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Salix purpurea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 j Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



SALOL. SaloL 

Chemical Symbol. C 6 H 5 C 7 H 5 O 3 ; 213.49. 

Synonyms. Latin, Salolum ; English, Phenyl salicylate; French, 
Salicylate de phenol; German, Salicylsaure-Phenylaether, Phenyl- 
salicylat. 

Description. Consists of a white, crystalline coarse powder, having 
a faint aromatic odor and a slight taste of carbolic acid. It is insoluble 
in water; soluble in 10 parts of alcohol at 15 C., also soluble in ether, 
benzol and in fatty oils; reaction neutral. It melts at from 42 to 



506 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

43 C. Salol is the phenylic ether of salicylic acid, consisting of 60 
parts by weight of salicylic acid and 40 parts of phenol. Having no 
unpleasant taste it is often used in place of salicylic acid, decomposing 
in the intestinal canal into salicylic and carbolic acids. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Ttitumtions: ix and higher. 



SALVIA OFFICINALIS. Sage. 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Synonyms. English, Garden sage, Sage; French, Sauge officinale; 
German, Salbei. 

Description. A low, straggling, deciduous, perennial undershrub, 
with ascending or decumbent stem 3 feet high, giving off roots at the 
nodes, bluntly quadrangular, with erect, hoary branches, leafy at 
the base, those bearing flowers i to \y 2 feet long, tomentose. The 
leaves are numerous, opposite, crowded on the barren branches, entire, 
petiolate, oblong, narrowed or rounded, rugose, the lowermost white, 
with wool beneath ; floral leaves sessile, ovate, acuminate, and striated at 
the base, veiny above, woolly and whitish beneath. The large flowers 
are blue, variegated with white, on short pubescent peduncles, arranged 
in axillary cymes of three or five. All parts of the plant are more or 
less glandular, have a strong aromatic odor and a bitter, somewhat 
astringent taste. 

Habitat. Indigenous to southern Europe, extensively cultivated in 
England, France, Germany and the United States. 

History. The name derived from the Latin, salvo, to heal. 
Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 
Salvia officinalis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS. Elder, 

Natural Order. Caprifoliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sambucus glauca, S. humilis; English, Ameri- 
can, black, Canadian, common, or sweet elder, Elder, Elder blooms; 
French, Sureau du Canada ; German, Canadische Hollunder. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous shrub, 5 to 10 feet high, with 
large white pith, scarcely woody. The leaves, 6 to 12 inches long, are 
opposite, petiolate, odd-pinnate; leaflets 7 to n, opposite, petioled, 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, strongly-serrate, mostly smooth, the 
lower tri-foliate, glabrous above, paler, slightly hairy beneath. The 
white, odorous flowers appear from June to August in five-parted 
corymbose cymes. 

Habitat. United States and Canada from New Brunswick to 
Saskatchewan, southward to Florida and Texas, westward to Arizona ; 
found in rich soil in open places, thickets, along fences and hedges. 
Fig., Bent, and Trim. 138; Millspaugh, 75. 

History. Name from sambuca, a musical instrument made of the 
wood on account of its hardness. The flowers and other parts of 
the plant have been employed in domestic practice for a long while. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice by a proving by Dr. Uebelacker. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 476.] 

Part Used. The fresh flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Sambucus canadensis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



5O8 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

SAMBUCUS NIGRA. European Elder. 

Natural Order. Caprif oliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sambucus acinis albis, S. laciniatis follis, S. 
maderensis ; English, Black berried European elder, Bore tree, Com- 
mon European elder, Elder; French, Sureau; German, Schwarzer 
Hollunder. 

Description. A deciduous tree, 15 to 20 feet high, branching 
towards the top, with rough, whitish bark, filled with whitish, light, 
spongy pith. The leaves, i to 3 inches long, are opposite, petioled, 
odd-pinnate, the two to four opposite leaflets oval, rounded, acuminate, 
sharply-serrate, glabrous and shining, paler beneath. The creamy- 
white flowers appear from May to July in five-parted cymes ; some in 
each are sessile, having a sweetish but faint smell. 

Habitat. Great Britain, greater part of Europe, Caucasus, Siberia 
and Japan ; found in woods and waste places. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 
154; Winkler, 135; Goullon, 131; Bent, and Trim. 137. 

History. It was employed as a medicine by Hippocrates (400 
B. C.). Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1819 by Hahne- 
mann, R. A. M. L., V. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 477.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> ; Drug strength ^. 

Sambucus nigra, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 267 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 509 

SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. Blood Root. 

Natural Order. Papaveraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sanguinaria acaulis, S. grandiflora, S. minor, 
S. vernalis ; English, Blood root, Indian paint, Pauson, Puccoon, Red 
puccoon, Red root, Tetterwort, Turmeric; French, Sanguinaire du 
Canada; German, Blutwurzel. 

Description. A perennial, acaulescent herb, with a red cylindrical, 
prostrate rhizome, 2 to 4 inches long, ^ to ^ inch thick, slightly- 
branched, with fibrous roots beneath, and having an abundant, red- 
orange, acrid juice. The leaves, arising from each bud of the rhizome, 
are five to nine palmately-lobed on long red-orange colored petioles, 
glabrous, pale-green above, bluish-white beneath, with orange-colored 
veins, and not attaining full growth until the flowers have fallen. The 
handsome, white flowers, i to i^ inches in diameter, appear in April 
and May on a one-flowered, naked scape, 6 inches high, the bud erect, 
the petals usually eight, not crumpled. 

Habitat. United States and Canada ; common in open rich woods 
and along shaded streams. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 20; Millspaugh, 22. 

History. The name derived from the color of the juice. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1837 by provings by Dr. Bute, 
Correspondenzblatt, III. 2. [Allen's Encyc. Mat Med. VIII. 481.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y^. 
Sanguinaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications; 3x and higher. 



5IO THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

SANTONINUM. Santonin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 15 H 18 O 3 ; 245.43. 

Synonyms. English and French, Santonine; German, Santonina. 

Description. Consists of colorless, lustrous, right rhombic prisms, 
odorless, and of a bitter taste. Sunlight gives it a yellow color. It is 
nearly insoluble in cold water; soluble in 250 parts of boiling water, 
43 parts of cold alcohol and 2.7 parts of boiling 90 per cent alcohol, 
in 72 parts of cold and 42 parts of boiling ether, also soluble in strong 
acetic acid, volatile oils, and in warm olive oil ; reaction neutral. It 
forms a colorless liquid at 170 C, and when slowly cooled recrystal- 
lizes, while rapidly cooled it forms an amorphous mass ; in small 
quantities it sublimes without decomposition in white needles when 
carefully heated to a little above its melting point ; with sulfuric acid 
it forms a colorless solution and is precipitated by water without 
alteration ; when a test solution of bichromate of potassium is added 
to the supernatant liquid it should remain unchanged ; by dissolving 
a small quantity of santonin in chloroform adulterations of gum, 
boracic acid and salicin may be detected, as they will remain undis- 
solved. Santonin is the active principle of santonica, the unexpanded 
flower heads of Artemisia maritima, var. Stechmanniana. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, VIII. 497. A poison. Maximum dose 4 
grains ; children of 2 years % grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



SARRACENIA PURPUREA. Pitcher Plant. 

Natural Order. Sarraceniaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sarazina gibbosa, Sarracenia gronovii, S. hete- 
rophylla, S. leucophylla; English, Eve's cup, Fly trap, Huntsman's 
cup, Pitcher plant, Side saddle flower, Side saddle plant, Water cup ; 
French and German, Sarracenie. 

Description. A perennial bog herb, with conical, oblique, some- 
what ligneous root, I inch long, with numerous, yellowish-brown, 
fibrous rootlets. The leaves are radical, pitcher-shaped, composed of 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 511 

four parts ; the petiole about one-third the length, slender, dilated at 
the base and somewhat equitant; the tube ovate, narrowing to the 
petiole and longitudinally marked with reddish veins ; the hood auricu- 
late, cordate, wavy, covered in the throat with numerous, stiff, sharp, 
curved bristles, pointing downward ; the wing broad, laterally undu- 
lated, passing along the median line of the upper surface of the tube 
from the base of the hood to the petiole. These curious leaves lie 
in bogs looking up towards the nodding flower, and are half filled 
with water and drowned insects. The single, large, reddish-purple, 
terminal, nodding flower appears in June upon a long, smooth and 
naked scape. 

Habitat. In boggy places from Canada southward, from New 
England to Minnesota, north to Illinois, southward, east to the Alle- 
ghany. Fig., Millspaugh, 19. 

History. Name in honor of Dr. Sarrazin. Introduced into homoe- 
opathic practice in 1863, Bui. d. 1. Soc. M. H. de France, IV. 581. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 514.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant, including the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 
Sarracenia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



SARSAPARILLA. Sarsaparilla. 

Natural Order. Smilacese. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sarza, Smilax medica, S. officinalis, S. peru- 
viana, S. sarsaparilla, S. syphilitica ; English, Wild liquorice ; French, 
Salsepareille ; German, Sarsaparella. 



512 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A climbing, deciduous shrub, with long slender roots 
covered with wrinkled bark, inodorous, with a mucilaginous, very 
slightly bitter taste ; internally, mealy, yellowish-white, compact and 
easily split. The stem, 4 feet and upward in height, is prickly, nearly 
square. The leaves, i foot long, 4 to 5 inches broad, are alternate, 
petioled, having tendrils above the base, five-nerved, ovate, lanceolate, 
cordate, cuspidate, glaucous beneath, leathery, smooth. As found in 
market the dried roots are long and cylindrical, thinner toward the 
extremities, somewhat furrowed longitudinally, beset with a beard, or 
thin, branching fibers, and of a bright-brownish or reddish-yellow color 
when freed from adhering particles of earth. 

Habitat. Indigenous to New Granada, northern half of South 
America, Central America, coast land of Mexico, cultivated in the 
Island of Jamaica. It is afforded by several plants of the genus 
Smilax. The plants inhabit swampy tropical forests, which are 
extremely deleterious to health and are only explored amid great 
difficulties. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 159; Goullon, 254; Bent, and Trim. 
289, 290. 

History. Name from the Spanish zarza, a bramble, and parilla, 
a vine. Sarsaparilla was known as early as 1545, when it became a 
popular remedy in Europe and has so continued. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1818 by Hahnemann, R. A. M. L., IV. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 526.] 

Part Used. The dried root, as imported from Jamaica, or red 
sarsaparilla, as imported from Central America. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture $ ' Drug strength ^. 

Sarsaparilla, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

c. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 513 

SASSAFRAS. Sassafras Bark. 

Natural Order Lauraceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Laurus sassafras, Sassafras officinale ; English, 
Sassafras bark ; French, Sassafras ; German, Fenchelholzrinde. 

Description. A deciduous, spicy, aromatic tree, 15 to 20 feet high, 
with yellowish-green twigs and very mucilaginous foliage. The stem 
is much branched ; branches slender, with smooth orange-brown bark, 
buds covered with red scales. The leaves are alternate, simple, with 
prominent veins beneath, ovate, entire or three-lobed, glabrous, finely- 
downy beneath. The small greenish-yellow flowers are dioecious, or 
nearly so, and appear in April in naked, clustered, peduncled, drooping, 
corymbose racemes. The dried bark appears in small, irregular, very 
brittle fragments, of a brownish-red color, sweetish taste and fragrant, 
aromatic odor ; while the root comes in crooked, branching pieces of 
various sizes and of a yellowish-white, pale-brownish or reddish color. 

Habitat. United States from Canada to Florida; found in rich 
woods. Fig., Winkler, 129; Jahr and Cat. 266; Goullon, 216; Bent, 
and Trim. 220. 

Part Used. The dried bark of the root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength -fa. 

Sassafras, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 814 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

SCILLA MARITIMA. Squill. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cepa marina, Ornithogalum maritimum, O. 
scilla, Pancratium verum, Sancratium, Scilla hispanica, S. maritima, 



514 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

S. rufa magna vulgaris, S. vulgaris radice rubra, Squilla hispanica? S. 
rubra, S. vulgaris, Urginea maritima, U. scilla; English, Sea onion, 
Squill ; French, Ognon marin ; German, Meerzwiebel. 

Description. A bulbous rooted, perennial plant, with broad, lanceo- 
late, channelled, spreading, recurved, pointed, somewhat undulated, 
dark-green leaves, appearing long after the flowers. The whitish 
green-nerved flowers have six stamens inserted on the base of the 
sepals and form a long raceme, the termination of a scape of from 3 to 
4 feet in height. The bulbs, which are the officinal part, are fibrous 
rooted, roundish, ovate, very large, half above ground, either pale- 
green or red, with fleshy scales attenuated on their edges, closely piled 
over each other, covered by thin, dry, exterior scales, appearing like a 
membrane, the intermediate scales having the most energy. 

Habitat. On the sandy beach of the Mediterranean, shores of 
the Atlantic and the coast of Asia and Africa. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 
163; Winkler, 137; Jahr and Cat. 278. 

History. One of the most ancient remedies, known as Epimenidea, 
on account of its use by Epimenides, who flourished in the seventh 
century B. C. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1817 by 
Hahnemann, R. A. M. L., III. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 118.] 

Part Used The fresh bulb. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^. 

Squilla, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 250 Cc. = 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



SCROPHULARIA NODOSA. Figwort. 

Natural Order. Scrophulariaceae. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 515 

Synonyms. Latin, Galiopsis, Ocimastrum, Scrophularia foetida, 
S. lanceolata, S. majoris, S. marilandica (Gray), S. vulgaris ; English, 
Carpenter's square, Figwort, Heal all, Holme's weed, Knotty-rooted 
figwort, Scrofula plant, Square stalk; French, Scrofulaire vulgaire; 
German, Braunwurz. 

Description. A smooth, deciduous herb, with whitish fibrous root 
beset with fleshy knobs. The stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is simple, four- 
sided, with blunt angles. The leaves are opposite, petioled, three- 
nerved, ovate, oblong below, lanceolate above, cordate, cut-serrate. 
The small, greenish-purple, or lurid, flowers appear from May to 
September in loose, drooping cymes, forming a terminal, narrow 
panicle. 

Habitat. Europe, variety Marilandica in the United States and 
Canada, introduced from Europe and northern Asia ; found along the 
borders of woods and dry roadsides. Fig., Millspaugh, 112. 

History. Name from the root, having a resemblance to scrofulous 
tumors. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1838 by a proving 
by Dr. Franz, Archiv. XVII. 3, 184. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 546, including var. marilandica.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Scrophularia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2\ to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

SCUTELLARIA LATERIFLORA. Skull Cap, 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

i 

Synonyms. English, Blue pimpernel, Blue skull cap, Large- 
flowered skull cap, Mad-dog skull cap, Side-flowering skull cap, Hood- 



516 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

wort, Hooded willow herb, Mad-dog weed, Mad weed, Skull cap, 
Woodwort ; French, Scutellaire, La toque; German, Helmkraut, 
Schildkraut. 

Description. A perennial, bitter herb, with fibrous root. The 
stem, i to 2 feet high, is upright, much-branched, four-sided, smooth 
(except on the softly pubescent angles). The leaves, 2 to 3 inches 
long, are opposite, petioled, lanceolate-ovate, or ovate-oblong, rounded, 
pointed, coarsely-serrate. The small blue single flowers appear in 
July and August in opposite, axillary, unilateral leafy racemes ; the 
first pair of leaves similar to those of the stem, the rest gradually 
reduced to bracts. 

Habitat. Indigenous to North America from Canada to Florida, 
and westward to British America, Oregon and New Mexico ; common 
in wet shady places and wet borders of streams. Fig., Millspaugh, 120. 

History. Name from scutella, a saucer, or shallow dish, alluding 
to the fruiting calyx. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1864 
by Dr. Hale, New Rem. ist ed. 389. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
VIII. 549-] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength $. 
Scutellaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 500 Cc. = 600 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



SECALE CORNUTUM. Rye Ergot. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 

Synonyms. Latin, Acinula clavus, Clavaria clavus, Calvi siliginis, 
Claviceps purpurea, Clavus secalinum, Ergota, Sclerotium clavus, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



Secale clavatum, S. corniculatum, S. luxurians, S. maternum, S. 
temulentum, S. turgidum, Secalis mater, Spermoedia clavus; English, 
Cockspur, Cockspur rye, Ergot of rye, Horned rye, Spurred rye; 
French, Ergot; German, Mutterkorn. 

Description. A fungus, growing upon the seed of the Secale 
cereale and other grain. The grains, or ergots, are from YT, to y^ 
inch long and % to ^ inch in diameter, subcylindrical, or obtusely- 
triangular, tapering toward the ends, generally somewhat curved, 
transversely-fissured, having three longitudinal furrows, and a detach- 
able, yellowish hood at the apex ; externally it is purplish-black, 
internally whitish, with purplish striae ; the surface is of uniform 
texture and breaks with a smooth fracture. It has a peculiar, offen- 
sive odor, a rancid taste and deteriorates when kept a long time. 

History. The use of Secale in obstetric practice was first men- 
tioned in the sixteenth century. Introduced into homoeopathic prac- 
tice in 1832 by Hartlaub and Trinks, Annalen der Horn. Klinik, III. 
228. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 551.] 

Parts Used. The whole (fresh dried) fungus. It should be gath- 
ered at the time of its greatest development, which is just before time 
of harvesting, and the preparation should be made fresh each season. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength Y 1 ^. 

Secale, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Ttiturations : ix and higher; freshly prepared. 

SELENIUM. Selenium. 

Chemical Symbol Se; 78.87. 

Description. A rare, non-metallic element, analogous to sulfur in 
many of its chemical relations. It is a reddish-brown, somewhat 



518 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

lustrous and translucent, amorphous, brittle substance, which forms a 
tasteless and odorless scarlet-red powder when pulverized. It is 
insoluble in water and alcohol ; slightly soluble in carbon disulfid, 
from which solution it crystallizes; specific gravity, from 4.3 104.5. 
It fuses and boils slightly above 100 C, and when heated in the air 
burns with a blue flame, giving off reddish vapors, having the odor 
of carbon disulfid ; with strong sulf uric acid it forms a green solution, 
and may be precipitated from it unchanged by adding water; on the 
addition of a little hydrochloric acid and sulfuretted hydrogen to its 
solution with nitric acid, a yellow precipitate, soluble in ammonium 
sulfid, may be obtained. Selenium is found associated with sulfur, or 
occasionally replacing it in certain metallic combinations. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, VIII. 576. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



SEMPERVIVUM TECTORUM. House Leek. 

Natural Order. Crassulaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Common house leek; French, Grande jou- 
barbe; German, Hauswurz. 

Description. An evergreen, perennial herb, with fibrous root hav- 
ing several rosaceous tufts of numerous leaves. The stem, i foot 
high, rising from one of these tufts, is round, pubescent, and terminates 
in a many-flowered cyme with spiked branches. The leaves are narrow, 
sessile, alternate, oblong, acute, keeled, fringed, and exceedingly succu- 
lent. The large rose-colored flowers appear from June to September 
and are odorless. 

Habitat. Indigenous to the Alps, growing spontaneously through- 
out Europe and cultivated in the United States. 

History. Name signifying, live forever. Reported by Linnseus, 
as used as a preservative to the roofs of houses in parts of Sweden. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1855 by Dr. Kallenbach, 
Allg. Horn. Zeit. 50. 126. (Rale's New Rem.) 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 519 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength ^. 
Sempervivum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

To ma'ke one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, five parts distilled 

water, four parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

SENEdO AUREUS. Ragwort. 

Natural Order Compositse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Senecio gracilis; English, False valerian, 
Golden senecio, Life root, Ragwort, Squaw weed, Uncum ; French, 
Senec/m; German, Kreuzpflanze. 

Description. A perennial herb, having a thin, slender, horizontal 
root, i to 2 inches long, with numerous slender rootlets. The stem, 10 
to 30 inches high, is smooth or woolly when young. The leaves are 
alternate, varying ; the radical, long-petioled, round, cordate, crenately- 
dentate; the lower cauline are lyrate, the upper pinnatifid, usually 
lanceolate, sessile, or partly clasping. The flowers appear in May and 
June in heads consisting of from eight to twelve yellow ray florets. 

Habitat. United States, common everywhere in the north and 
west; found in swamps. Fig., Millspaugh, 91. 

History. Name from senex, an old man, alluding to the hoary 
hairs which cover many species. Introduced into homoeopathic prac- 
tice in 1866 by proving by Dr. Small, U. S. Med. and Surg. Jour. I. 
150. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 582.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> : Drug strength ^. 
Senecio, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc.= 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



52O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



SENEGA. Seneca Snakeroot. 

Natural Order. Polygalaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Poly gala senega, P. virginiana, Seneca ; English, 
Rattlesnake milkwort, Rattlesnake root, Seneca snakeroct, Snakeroot ; 
French, Polygala de Virginie ; German, Senega wurzel, Kljpperschlan- 
genwurz. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous herb, with thick, hard, knotty 
root, y 2 inch thick, sometimes slightly branched, somewhat acid and 
acrid. The several stems are simple, 6 to 12 inches long. The leaves 
are alternate, sessile, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, rough. The 
very irregular greenish-white flowers appear in May and June, and are 
nearly sessile, in solitary close spikes. 

Habitat. United States, western New England to Wisconsin, 
Kentucky and Virginia; found in open, rocky woods and plains. Fig., 
Flora Horn. II. 176; Winkler, 113; Jahr and Cat. 271 ; Goullon, 41; 
Bent, and Trim. 29 ; Millspaugh, 45. 

History. Name from polus, much, and gala, milk, from its sup- 
posed effects. Used among the Seneca Indians (whence its common 
name) as an antidote to snake bites. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1830 by proving by Seidel, Archiv. IX. 2, 175. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. VIII. 586.] 

Part Used The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> . Drug strength -fa. 

Senega, too Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 



b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



SENNA, Senna. 

Natural Order Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cassia acutifolia, C. aethiopica, C. lanceolata, 
C. lenitiva, C. obovata, C. officinalis, C. senna, Senna acutifolia, S. 
alexandrina ; English, Alexandrian senna, False senna, Nubian senna ; 
French, Sene; German, Sennesblatter. 

Description. The leaves of several species of the genus Cassia as 
mentioned above. The Senna plants are low, perennial, bushy shrubs, 
2 to 4 feet high. The leaves are i inch long, alternate, pinnate, short - 
petioled, lanceolate, with a sessile gland above the base of the petiole, 
entire, finely-pubescent or nearly smooth. The long pale-yellow 
flowers are in terminal racemes. The kind used in homoeopathic 
practice is known as the Alexandrian senna. It has a faint, sickly 
odor, with a slightly bitter, sweetish and nauseous taste. 

Habitat. Native of Arabia and tropical Africa. Fig., Winkler, 
38 ; Jahr and Cat. 272 ; Goullon, 86 ; Bent, and Trim. 90. 

History. Senna is the Arabic name of this drug; in use by 
Arabian physicians in the ninth or tenth century. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. VIII. 599.] 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture < . Drug strength -^. 

Senna, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



522 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Tritumtions: ix and higher. 



SEPIA. . Sepia. 

Class. Mollusca. 
Family. Sepiadae. 
Order. Dibranchiata. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sepia vera, S. succus ; English, Inky juice of 
the cuttle fish. 

Description. This brownish-black substance is the dried inky 
secretion of a cephalopodous mollusc, called the cuttle fish. The 
liquid is contained in an oval pouch, nearly the size and shape of a 
grape, communicating with the rectum by a long excretory duct. As 
it appears commercially, Sepia consists of a brittle solid mass almost 
tasteless and having a faint smell of sea fish. It breaks with a con- 
choidal, shining fracture. It is insoluble in alcohol, also insoluble in 
water, but readily diffuses in it and slowly precipitates. It is obtained 
from the Mediterranean, and should be procured enclosed in the sac 
in which it is dried. The sepia prepared for artists is unfit for 
medicinal use. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, VIII. 600. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tiiturations: ix and higher. 

The lower triturations require much time and labor in their pre- 
paration, as Sepia is difficult to subdivide. 



SILICEA.- Silica. 

Chemical Symbol SiO 2 . 

Synonyms. English, Silicic anhydride, S. oxid, Oxide of silicon, 
Quartz, Rock crystal pure flint, Silex ; French, Silice ; German, Si'lice. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 523 

Description. As prepared by the second method given below, 
Silicea consists of a white amorphous powder, odorless and tasteless. 
Soluble in water and in dilute acids, excepting only hydrochloric acid. 
If 10 grains be placed in a filter, and repeatedly washed with 100 
grain volume of distilled water, the filtrate will exhibit only a faint 
cloudiness on the addition of a solution of nitrate of silver. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. i. 

Preparations. Hahnemann directs that this be prepared as fol- 
lows : 

"Take half an ounce of mountain crystal and expose it several 
times to a red heat, or take pure white sand and wash it with distilled 
vinegar; when washed, mix it with two ounces of powered natrum; 
melt the whole in an iron crucible until effervescence has ceased, and 
the liquefied mass looks clear and smooth, which is then to be poured 
upon a marble plate. The limpid glass, which is thus obtained, is to 
be pulverized while warm and to be filled in a phial, adding four times 
its own weight of distilled water (the phial being exactly filled to a 
level and a stopper being put in immediately). This mixture forms 
a solution which remains always clear; but upon pouring it into an 
open phial, which is loosely covered with paper, it becomes decom- 
posed, and the snow-white silica separates from the natrum and falls 
to the bottom of the phial." 

Silicea may also be prepared by the following and better process 
as described in the British Homoeopathic Pharmacopeia: 

Take of Silica, in powder, I part. 

Dried carbonate of sodium, 4 parts. 

Fuse the sodic carbonate in a roomy clay crucible, then gradually 
add the powdered silica. When evolution of carbonic gas ceases, 
pour the fused mass upon a clean marble slab. While still warm, 
pulverize it in a mortar ; place in a wide-mouthed bottle, with enough 
distilled water to dissolve it ; stopper and cap with wet bladder. The 
next day dilute the solution, and rapidly filter through cotton wool. 
Add to the filtered liquor from time to time, small quantities of 
hydrochloric acid. The hydrated silica will be thrown down as a 
bulky gelatinous white precipitate. Collect this and wash with 



524 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

distilled water upon a square frame filter, until the filtrate is tasteless 
and shows only a faint cloudiness, with a solution of nitrate of silver ; 
then dry upon a porcelain water-bath. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

SILPHIUM LAQNIATUM. Compass Plant. 

Natural Order Compositae. 

Synonyms. English, Compass plant, Jagged leaved silphium, 
Pilot weed, Polar weed, Rosin weed, Turpentine weed. 

Description. A coarse, tough, deciduous, perennial herb, with a 
very large, thick root and copious, resinous juice. The stem is 3 to 12 
feet high, stout, terete, leafy to the top and hirsute. The leaves are 
alternate near the base, pinnatifid, with petioles dilated and clasping ; 
their divisions are lanceolate or linear, cut-lobed or pinnatifid, rarely 
entire ; radical and lower leaves vertical, 12 to 30 inches long, ovate in 
outline. The bright-yellow flowers appear from July to September 
in few heads, i to 2 inches broad, somewhat racemose, with scales of 
the involucre ovate, tapering into long, large spreading rigid points. 

Habitat. United States, Michigan and Wisconsin, thence south- 
ward and westward ; found on the prairies. 

History. Silphion, the ancient name of a plant producing a gum- 
resin ; the leaves said to present their edges north and south, hence 
called Compass plant. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1864 
by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 

Parts Used The fresh herb. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Silphium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 874 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 525 

SINAPIS ALBA, White Mustard. 

Natural Order. Cruciferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Brassica alba, Leucosinapis alba; English, 
White mustard, Yellow mustard seed; French, Moutarde blanche; 
German, Weisser Senf. 

Description. An annual herb, with stem 2 to 3 feet high, bright- 
green, erect, with few ascending branches nearly smooth, or with 
bristling reflexed hairs. The leaves are alternate, petioled, pmnatifid, 
the lowest hairy, with a large terminal lobe, and the divisions cut down 
to the midrib. The pale-yellow flowers, y z inch in diameter, appear in 
June and July in terminal corymbs, extending as the fruit forms into 
an elongated raceme. The pods are bristly, ascending on spreading 
pedicels, more than half their lengths occupied by the sword-shaped, 
one-seeded beak. The seeds are pale, acrid and pungent. 

Habitat. Introduced from Europe, cultivated in the United 
States ; found in most quarters of the globe, especially in the Medi- 
terranean regions. The seeds dropped and buried retain their vegeta- 
tive qualities an unknown length of time, so that where mustard has 
once been grown it will come up occasionally for a century or more 
afterwards. Fig., Goullon, 18; Bent, and Trim. 23; Millspaugh, 23. 

History. Sinapi, said to be derived from the Celtic, nap, a turnip, 
mustard, from mustum ardens, hot-must ; the sweet-must of new wine 
being one of the ingredients of French mustard. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1864 by a proving by Dr. Bojanus, Horn, 
v. j. Sch. XV. 56. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 40.] 

Part Used. The fresh ripe seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength -^ 

Sinapis alba, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, IOOO Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



526 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

SINAPIS NIGRA. Black Mustard. 

Natural Order. Cruciferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Brassica nigra, B. sinapioides, Melanosinapis 
communis; English, Black mustard, Brown mustard, Red mustard; 
French, Moutarde noire ; German, Schwarzer Senf. 

Description. An annual herb, with a fusiform, thin, branching 
root. The stem is erect, 2 to 4 feet high, rough, hirsute, much 
branched. The leaves are alternate, petioled and variously shaped ; 
the radical being large, lyrate, rough, lobed, dentate, the cauline 
narrow and smooth. The small yellow flowers appear from May to 
September in a dense head at first, extending as the fruits form into 
an elongated raceme. The pods are small, bluntly quadrangular, 
nearly smooth, bivalvular. In each valve are four to six spherical or 
slightly oval seeds about -fa inch in diameter and weighing -fa of a 
grain, of dark red-brown color, with whitish-gray coating, pitted, hard, 
inodorous when dry, and having a pungent, penetrating, irritating 
acrid taste when moist. 

Habitat. Fields and banks all over Europe, excepting the most 
northern latitudes ; naturalized in the United States ; a common weed 
found in waste places and cultivated gardens. Fig., Goullon, 19; 
Bent, and Trim. 22 ; Millspaugh, 24. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1853 by Catell, 
B. J. Horn. XL 524. Proving by Dr. Butler in 1872, N. A. J. Horn. 
XX. 540. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 46.] 

Part Used. The fresh ripe seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Sinapis nigra, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : I x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 



SOLANINUM. Solanin. 

Chemical Symbol. C 42 H 75 NO 15 (Hilger). 

Description. Consists of an opaque white powder, or of fragile 
acicular crystals, odorless, and having a bitter taste. It is difficultly 
soluble in water, soluble in strong alcohol or in ether. It neutralizes 
acids and forms salts with them, which are mostly gummy in con- 
sistency. Its solution changes to a deep-brown or brownish-yellow 
color when iodin is added, or to reddish-yellow, then purplish-violet 
with sulfuric acid, finally becoming brown and depositing a brown 
powder. Solanin is an alkaloidal glucoside, found in solanum nigrum 
and solanum dulcamara, but most conveniently obtained from the 
sprouts of the common potato. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
IX. 55. Maximum dose I grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



SOLANUM ARREBENTA. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arrebenta cavallos, Solanum rebenta. 

Description. A fibrous rooted herb, with stem 10 to 16 inches 
high, branching in regular bifurcations, when young having strong 
thorns growing from above downward. The leaves are alternate, five 
obtusely-lobed, cordate, slightly pubescent, with nerves furnished with 
a few irregularly distributed thorns. The flowers are in groups of two 
or three on axillary peduncles. 

Habitat. Brazil, around Rio Janeiro; found along roads and in 
cultivated places. Fig., Mure Mat. Med. 216. 

History. Introduced in homoeopathic literature in 1849 by Dr. 
Mure, Pathogen Bresil, Paris ed. 359. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IX. 56.] 

Part Used. The dried leaves. 



528 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Solan um arrebenta, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



SOLANUM CAROLINENSE. Horse Nettle. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Solanum virginianum (?); English, Horse 
nettle. 

Description. A perennial herb, with a stem I to 2 feet high, erect 
and prickly. The leaves are alternate, ovate-oblong, acuminate, sinu- 
ate or angular, roughish, pubescent, prickly along the midrib, rank 
scented. The large pale-blue or white flowers, i inch in diameter, 
appear from June to September in simple, loose, axillary racemes. 

Habitat. Connecticut to Illinois and southward; a wild weed 
common in sandy soil along roadsides. 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Solanum carolinense, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Distilled water, 635 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 52Q 

SOLANUM MAMMOSUM. Nipple Nightshade. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Nipple nightshade, Apple of Sodom ; French, 
Solanum mammiforme ; German, Zitzenformiger Nachtschatten. 

Description. An annual herb, with stem 4 feet high, erect, branch- 
ing, villous, with scattered prickles. The leaves are large, alternate, 
irregularly angular, subcordate, lobed, prickly on both sides and very 
villous, yellow-nerved on the lower surface, the midrib furnished 
with dark-yellow prickles. The flowers appear in July and August, 
are pale-blue, violet or grayish in a scattered panicle. The berries are 
yellow, each formed like a teat, whence the specific name. 

Habitat. West Indies ; growing in hedges and cultivated places. 
Fig., Winkler, 126. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1833 by a 
proving by Dr. Hering, Archiv. XIII. 2, 184. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. IX. 56.] 

Part Used. The fresh ripe berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Solanum mammosum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. == 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

SOLANUM NIGRUM. Black Nightshade. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Solanum crenato-dentatum, S. inops, S. ptero- 
caulon, S. ptycanthum, Solatrum nigrum ; English, Black nightshade, 
Common nightshade, Garden nightshade; French, Morelle noire; 
German, Schwarzer Nachtschatten. 



53O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A poisonous, annual herb, with thready, branching, 
ligneous root. The stem, 3 feet high, is erect, angular, much-branched, 
spreading, and rough on the angles. The leaves are alternate, petio- 
late, ovate, acute, varying from sinuate-dentate to entire, smooth, the 
younger parts pubescent ; they are much perforated by insects. The 
very small white flowers have a musky odor, and appear from June to 
September in lateral, drooping, extra-axillary umbels. The berries 
are about the size of a pea, blue-black, globular, clustered. 

Habitat. United States, naturalized from Europe; common in 
damp and shaded places, and especially in cultivated and waste 
grounds. Fig., Winkler, 130; Jahr and Cat. 277; Millspaugh, 125. 

History. Formerly had a place in the old-school pharmacy. Men- 
tioned in homoeopathic literature in 1840, Hygea XIV. 403. A proving 
was published in 1853 by Dr. Lembke, Allg. Horn. Zeit. 45, 74. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 57.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant and berries. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Solanum nigrum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications ; 3x and higher. 

SOLIDAGO VIRGA-AUREA. Golden Rod 

Natural Order. Compositae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Solidago alpina(P), S. glomerata(?); English, 
Golden rod ; French, Verge d'or ; German, Goldruthe. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with an oblique, thin 
rhizome. The stem is erect, 2 feet high and upwards. The radical 
leaves are elliptical, tapering into a petiole, slightly serrate ; the cauline, 
lanceolate. The yellow flowers appear from July to September, are 
erect, crowded in axillary pediceled racemes. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 53! 

Habitat. Northern United States, Europe and Asia ; an extremely 
variable species. 

History. Name from solidari, to unite, on account of the vulnerary 
qualities of the plants. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength -j^. 

Solidago virga-aurea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



SPIGELIA. Pink Root. 

Natural Order. Loganiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Spigelia anthelmia (Linn6), Anthelminthia 
quadriphylla ; English, Annual worm grass, Pink root, Worm grass; 
French, Brinvilliers, Poudre aux vers ; German, Wurmtrechende. 

Description. An annual herb, with short, blackish, hairy root, 
divided into numerous long, thin branches. The stem, i to \y 2 feet 
high, is rounded, upright and fistulous. The leaves are terminal, four 
in number, disposed in the form of a cross, sessile, oval or lanceolate, 
entire, glabrous. The white flowers appear in July in thin elongated 
spikes. The fresh plant has a fetid odor and a nauseous, persistent 
taste. 

Habitat. West Indies and South America. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 
181 ; Winkler, 127; Jahr and Cat. 278. 

History. Named after Prof. Spigelius. Admitted to the old-school 
pharmacopeia in 1751. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1819 
by Hahnemann, R. A. M. L., V. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 75.] 

Parts Used. The dried herb. 



532 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -fa. 

Spigelia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications:- 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

SPIREA ULMARIA. English Meadow Sweet. 

Natural Order. Rosaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Barba caprina, Regina prati; English, Hard- 
hack, Meadow sweet, Queen of the meadow ; French, Reine des pres, 
Spiree ulmaire ; German, Spierstaude. 

Description. An ornamental, perennial herb, with tuberous, black- 
ish, horizontal, fibrous root, the size of a finger. The stem, 2 to 4 feet 
high, is straight, somewhat angular, leafy, furrowed, smooth and reddish. 
The dark-green leaves, downy beneath, are odd-pinnatifid, the end lobe 
larger and three-cut, the others undivided ; the leaflets oval, unevenly- 
dentate, the spaces between the side leaflets occupied by smaller 
leaflets. The numerous, fragrant, white flowers appear from June to 
October at the summit of the stem in a large corymbose panicle. 

Habitat. Great Britain, Europe and southern Asia; common in 
meadows and along ditches ; cultivated in gardens. 

History. Name, signifying cord, was bestowed by Pliny on plants, 
whose blossoms were used in garlands. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice by Dr. Bojanus, Horn. v. j. Sch. XIV. 2, 113. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. IX. 101.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Spiraea ulmaria, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 1 50 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 533 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



SPONGIA. Sponge. 

Class. Porif era. 

Order. Ceratospongiae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Spongia tosta, S. officinalis, S. usta. 

Description. Two or more species of spongia, known as Turkey 
sponge, are used. The horny skeleton, from which the desired sub- 
stance is prepared, consists mostly of siliceous or calcareous matter, 
while the spongy portion is soft, elastic and compressible, and traversed 
by many lacunae, with circular openings on the surface. Bleached 
sponges are not suitable for medicinal purposes, and those selected 
must be carefully freed from all foreign substances, then cut in small 
pieces and roasted until brown and friable. The best variety is 
obtained from the Mediterranean, near Syria and Greece. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 106. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Spongia, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



STANNUM METALLICUM. Metallic Tin. 

Stannum. 

Chemical Symbol. Sn ; 1 18.8. 

Synonyms. English, Tin; French, Etain; German, Zinn. 



534 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Description. A silver white metal ; specific gravity, 7.3. It melts 
at 230 C. ; at a temperature of 100 C. it is ductile and malleable, 
but at 200 C. is so brittle than it can easily be powdered. It is 
superficially oxidized in moist air ; melted in open vessels it is rapidly 
transformed into stannic oxid; it is dissolved by hot sulfuric acid, 
forming a sulfate, and is also soluble in hydrochloric acid. These 
solutions give leather brown precipitates with hydrogen sulfid, soluble 
in ammonium sulfid. Stannum is extracted from its ores. It can be 
obtained in the form of a fine crystalline deposit known as the tin 
tree, by immersing a piece of sheet zinc in a solution of tin chlorid. 
This precipitate should be washed in hot distilled water. Mentioned 
in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 129. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

STAPHYSAGRIA. Stavesacre. 

Natural Order. Ranunculaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Delphinium staphysagria, Staphydis agria, S. 
pedicularis, Staphysagria macrocarpa ; English, Louse seeds, Palmated 
larkspur, Stavesacre; French, Staphisaigre; German, Lausesamen, 
Stephanskorner, Stephanskraut. 

Description. An ornamental, annual herb, with large tapering root. 
The stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is stout, upright, cylindrical and slightly 
branched. The leaves, 4 to 5 inches in diameter, are alternate, broad, 
palmately five- to nine-cleft, petioled, pubescent or nearly smooth 
above, hairy on the veins beneath. The light-blue flowers appear 
from April to August in lax racemes, the entire plant softly pubescent. 
The fruit consists of three straight, oblong, downy capsules, in each 
of which are about twelve seeds packed in two rows. The seeds, 
about }{ inch long, are irregularly four-sided, pyramidal, sharp-angled, 
little flattened, rough, testa wrinkled, pitted, blackish-brown, rather 
brittle, enclosing a soft, whitish, oily albumen. 

Habitat. Native of Italy, the Greek Islands and Asia Minor, 
now found throughout the Mediterranean regions and Canary Islands; 
growing in waste and shady places. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 184; 
Winkler, 58; Jahr and Cat. 280; Bent, and Trim. 4. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 535 

History. Known to the ancients in the time of Hippocrates 
(400 B. C). Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1819 by Hahne- 
mann, R. A. M. L., V. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 147.] 

Part Used. The seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength ^. 

Staphysagria, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 



STICTA PULMONARIA. Lungwort. 

Natural Order. Lichenes. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lichen pulmonarius, Lobaria pulmonaria, 
Muscus pulmonaria, Pulmonaria reticulata, Sticta pulmonacea, S. pul- 
monalia ; English, Lungmoss, Lungwort, Oaklungs, Tree lungwort ; 
French, Pulmonaire de Chene ; German, Lungenkraut. 

Description. A lichen, with wide spreading, olive-green thallus, 
pale-brown when dry, pitted and reticulated, smooth, or having whitish, 
powdery warts in the reticulations, frequently elongated, bearing 
scattered or tufted granules, lancinated, broadly-lobed and sinuate, 
having brownish downy fibers beneath, the swellings bare, the shields 
mostly marginal, red-brown, with thick border. 

Habitat. Found on trunks of trees in New England, New York 
and Pennsylvania in the mountainous districts. 

History. Name from stiktos, dotted, and pulmon, the lung, sup- 
posed to possess the same nutritive qualities as Iceland moss; used in 
Siberia as a substitute for hops in brewing. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1863 by Dr. Burdick, under the name of Sticta 
sylvatica, N. A. J. Horn. XIV. 202. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 
167.] 

Parts Used. The whole lichen. 



536 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength -j^. 

Sticta, ioo Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b\ Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 
water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

STUJLINGIA SYLVATICA. Queen's Delight. 

Natural Order. Euphorbiaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sapium sylvaticum; English, Cock-up-hat, 
Queen's delight, Queen's root, Silver leaf, Stillingia, Yaw root ; 
FrencJi and German, Stillingie. 

Description. A perennial herb, with large woody root, I foot long, 
2 inches in diameter above, tapering downward, a little branched, 
somewhat fibrous, crowned with the scars of numerous stems. It is 
fleshy when fresh, wrinkled longitudinally when dry, externally light- 
brown, internally of a pinkish tint, tough, breaking with a fibrous 
fracture, with a strong, disagreeable odor, disappearing on drying, 
and a bitter, acrid taste, leaving a burning impression on the tongue. 
The numerous stems are i to 3 feet high, erect, smooth, umbellately 
branched. The leaves are alternate, nearly sessile, having two glands 
at the base, varying in form from ovate and obovate to oblong-lanceo- 
late, narrowed at the base, acute or blunt, finely-serrate, with a gland 
in each serrature, thick and fleshy. The yellow monoecious flowers 
appear from April to September in a terminal spike, the fertile 
flowers few, at the base of a dense, sterile spike. The plant emits 
an acrid, milky juice when bruised. 

Habitat. United States, New York to Indiana, Carolina, East 
Virginia, southward to Florida, westward to Louisiana and Texas; 
found on dry sandy soil, pine barrens. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 441 ; 
Millspaugh, 451. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 537 

History. Named for Dr. Stillingfleet, the English botanist. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1866 by provings published 
by Dr. Hale, New Rem. 2d ed. 1003. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IX. 169.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Stillingia, moist magma containing solids. 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc.= 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



STRAMONIUM. Thorn Apple. 

Natural Order. Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Datura lurida, D. stramonium, Solanum 
maniacum, Stramonium foetidum, S. majus album, S. spinosum, S. 
vulgatum ; English, Apple of Peru, Devil's apple, Jamestown weed, 
Jimpson weed, Stink weed, Stramonia, Thorn apple; French, Pomme 
6pineuse; German, Stechapfel. 

Description. A fetid, noxious, annual herb, with spindle-shaped, 
almost vertical, ligneous, fibrous, whitish root. The stem, 3 feet high, 
is erect, round, dichotomously-branched, glabrous and green. The 
leaves, 5 to 6 inches long, are alternate, at times opposite, more or 
less scattered on short round petioles in the forks of the stems, ovate, 
triangular, unequal at the base, sinuate-dentate, smooth, dark-green 
above, pale beneath ; the older leaves are perforated by worms. The 
white flowers appear from July to October, are 3 inches long on short 
axillary peduncles and sweet scented, especially at night ; at night the 
leaves next the flowers rise up and enclose them. A nearly globular, 
very prickly capsule encloses numerous odorless, or nearly odorless 



538 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

wrinkled seeds, which are reniform and flattened, and of a dull brown- 
ish-black color when ripe. Every part of the plant is poisonous. 

Habitat. Doubtful origin ; found everywhere, except in the colder 
temperate and arctic regions ; common in waste grounds near habita- 
tions in the United States. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 188 ; Winkler, 63; 
Jahrand Cat. 281 ; Goullon, 188; Bent, and Trim. 192; Millspaugh, 127. 

History. Name derived from the Greek, signifying mad apple. 
Long used as medicine; described by Dr. Fuchsius in 1543. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice by Hahnemann in 1805, Frag. d. 
Vir. 239. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 175.] 

Parts Used. The fresh plant in flower and fruit. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <fr : Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Stramonium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc.= 300 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, tliree parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

STRONTIUM CARBONICUM. Strontium Carbonate. 
Strontium Carbonate. 

Chemical Symbol SrCO 3 ; 149. 

Synonyms. Latin, Strontii carbonas, Strontianae carbonas, Stron- 
tiana carbonica, Carbonas stronticus ; English, Carbonate of strontium ; 
French, Carbonate de strontiane; German, Kohlensaurer Strontian. 

Description. Consists of a white, light, fine powder, resembling in 
appearance carbonate of magnesium. It is insoluble in water, unless 
it contains carbonic acid, and in alcohol. It dissolves readily in equal 
parts of nitric acid and distilled water, and in hydrochloric acid form- 
ing colorless solutions. These solutions, when a solution of sulfate of 
lime is added, give a white precipitate after standing a few minutes ; 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 539 

when its solution with nitric acid is evaporated and allowed to crystal- 
lize, the crystals give a brilliant red color to the blowpipe flame. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 224. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritumtions : ix and higher. 

STROPHANTHUS HISPIDUS. 

Natural Order. Apocynaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Strophanthus kombe (?); Vernacular, In6e, 
Onage, Onaye. 

Description. An ornamental, evergreen, climbing shrub. The 
stem is several inches in diameter, 3 feet long, or climbing to the tops 
of the highest trees, coiling on the ground and hanging in festoons 
from tree to tree with dichotomous branches. The leaves are mucro- 
nate, acuminate. The flowers, cream-colored or yellow at the base, 
purplish-spotted above, appear in February and March in terminal 
cymes. The seeds, about f inch long and } inch broad, are oblong- 
lanceolate, slightly twisted, rounded at the base, narrowing toward the 
end, flattened, blunt-edged, ridged on one side, more or less covered 
with silky hairs, varying in color from grayish-green to brown, with an 
oily, white, bitter, nearly odorless kernel. 

Habitat. China, tropical Africa and Asia; inhabiting forests 
between the coasts and center of the continent. 

History. Name derived from strophos, to twist, and anthos, a 
flower, in allusion to the segments of the corolla, which are twisted 
before expansion. The wood is used for planks in India and a prepara- 
tion of the seeds as arrow poison in Africa. 

Part Used. The fresh ripe seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Strophanthus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 870 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



54O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

STRYCHNINUM NITRICUM. Strychnin Nitrate. 

Strychninum Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. C 21 H 22 N 2 O 2 .HNO 3 ; 396.20. 
Synonyms. Latin, Strychninae nitras; English, Nitrate of strych- 
nine. 

Description. Consists of bright, colorless, silky, odorless needles, 
having an exceedingly bitter taste ; appreciable even in a very dilute 
solution. Soluble at ordinary temperatures in 90 parts of water and 
in 70 parts of alcohol. It is decomposed by heat and is entirely volati- 
lized. Its aqueous solution gives with ferrous sulfate and sulfuric 
acid a brown coloration ; its reactions are those of strychnin. It is 
prepared from strychnin and nitric acid. An active poison. Maxi- 
mum dose ^j grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : 2x and higher. 

STRYCHNINUM PURUM. Strychnin. 

Strychninum. 

Chemical Symbol. C 21 H 22 N 2 O 2 ; 333.31. 

Synonyms. Latin, Strychnina, Strychnia; English, Strychnin; 
French, Strychnine; German, Strychnin. 

Description. Consists of a white crystalline powder, or of small, 
brilliant, colorless, transparent, octahedral, odorless crystals, having a 
persistent, bitter taste, which is still perceptible if the salt is dissolved 
in 700,000 parts of liquid. It is permanent in air. Is soluble at 15 C. 
in 6700 parts of water and in no parts of alcohol. It is decomposed 
by heat, emits vapors and leaves no residue; it dissolves in sulfuric 
acid without color, but on the addition of a little plumbic peroxid a 
blue color is obtained, which successively changes into violet, red 
and yellow; if instead of plumbic peroxid a fragment of potassium 
dichromate is added to a dilute solution of strychnin, a deep-violet 
color is obtained ; with sulfuric acid and potassium ferricyanid it gives 
a violet color, changing to red and yellow; with sulfuric acid, contain- 
ing nitric acid, a purplish-violet color is obtained on the addition of 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 54! 

manganese dioxid. It does not give any eolor-reaction with nitric acid. 
It is extracted from either ignatia or nux vomica. Strychnin should 
be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
IX. 233. An active poison. Maximum dose -fa grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher. 



STRYCHNINUM SULPHURICUM. Strychnin Sulfate. 
Strychninum Sulfate* 

Chemical Symbol. (C 21 H 22 N 2 O 2 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 5H 2 O; 854.24. 

Synonyms. Latin, Strychninae sulphas; English, Sulphate of 
strychnine; French, Sulfate de strychnin; German, Schwefelsaures 
Strychnin. 

Description. Consists of colorless, transparent, odorless crystals, 
having an intensely bitter taste; perceptible even in a highly dilute 
solution ( i in 700,000); efflorescent in dry air. Soluble at 15 C. in 
50 parts of water and in 109 parts of alcohol. It fuses at 200 C., and 
at a higher temperature is volatilized without residue. Its aqueous 
solution gives with barium chlorid a white precipitate, insoluble in 
acids; it gives the reactions of strychnin. It is prepared from 
strychnin and sulfuric acid. Strychnin sulfate should be kept in 
well-stoppered bottles. An active poison. Maximum dose -fa grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: 2x and higher. 

SULPHUR. Sulfur. 

Chemical Symbol. 8531 .98. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sulphur sublimatum, Flores sulphuris ; English, 
Sublimed sulphur, Flowers of sulphur, Brimstone; French, Soufre, 
Fleurs de soufre ; German, Schwefel, Schwefelblumen. 

Description. Consists of a fine, yellow, somewhat greenish and 
gritty powder, having a slight sulfurous odor and a faintly acid taste. 
It is insoluble in water, and but slightly soluble in alcohol, varying 



542 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

much in degree, dependent upon temperature and the physical form 
of the sulfur itself, from about I to 3000 in absolute alcohol to about 
i to 5000 in 95 per cent alcohol at 60 F. ; soluble in bisulfid of carbon, 
with a residue of crystalline sulfur, which dissolves in a boiling solution 
of an alkaline hydrate. It melts at 115 C., and is volatilized with only 
a trace of fixed residue at a higher temperature, or in the presence of 
air burns to sulfur dioxid. Water, in which sulfur has been agitated, 
shows an acid reaction owing to the presence of sulfuric acid, unless 
freed from acidity with diluted water of ammonia. Pure sublimed 
sulfur should not redden blue litmus paper. If digested with 2 parts 
of a solution of ammonia i to 10, and filtered, the filtrate, when 
supersaturated with hydrochloric acid, should remain unaltered, and 
no precipitate should be produced by passing hydro-sulfuric acid 
through the filtrate. Sulfur exists in three forms, the crystalline, the 
amorphous, and as a soft or oily substance. It is most abundantly 
obtained from native sulfur found in Italy and Sicily, but is widely 
distributed in nature in combination with many metals forming 
sulfids. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 276. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <f> : ^^-3, in strong alcohol. 

c. Dilutions: 4x to contain five parts tincture andyfo*? parts strong 

alcohol. 

d. Medications: 4x and higher. 



SULPHUR IODATUM. Sulfur Di-Iodid 

Sulfur lodid. 

Chemical Symbol. S 2 I 2 ; 317.02. 

Synonyms. Latin, Sulphuris iodidum, loduretum sulfuris ; English, 
Iodide of sulphur; French, lodure de soufre; German, Jodschwefel. 

Description. A grayish mass of crystalline appearance, with a 
metallic luster, having the odor of iodin and a metallic, acrid taste. 
Exposed to air it loses iodin. It is almost insoluble in water, but 
freely soluble in carbon disulfid. It is decomposed by heat into 
iodin and sulfur, and is partially decomposed by boiling in water. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 543 

Alcohol and ether dissolve its iodin, leaving the sulfur. It is doubtful 
whether it is a distinct chemical combination, or only a mixture. It 
is prepared from iodin and sulfur. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, IX. 415. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



SUMBUL. Musk Root. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Euryangium stimbul, Ferula sumbul, Jata- 
mansi, Nardostachys jatamansi, Sumbulus moschatus ; English, Musk 
root, Spikenard of the ancients ; French, Racine de sumbul ; German, 
Sumbul wurzel. 

Description. A tall, perennial plant, of limited duration, dying 
after flowering, with large cylindrical root, 4 to 5 inches in diameter, 
divided below into several long, descending branches. The stem, 8 
feet high, is nearly straight, glabrous, purple, with slender branches 
in the upper half. The radical leaves, 30 inches long, with short, 
channelled, sheathing petioles, are triangular, ternate, leaflets ovate, 
smooth, flat, bright-green ; cauline leaves smaller and finally reduced 
to sheathing bracts. The flowers are polygamous in pedunculate, 
terminal umbels. The root is externally blackish, internally white, 
very fibrous, having the odor of musk. It is met with in the form 
of transverse sections, from I to 1% inches long, 2 to 5 inches in 
diameter, with dusky light-brown epidermis and an interior porous 
structure consisting of coarse, easily separable fibers. The freshly cut 
surface of a transverse section presents, within the epidermis, a white 
layer surrounding a yellow substance, which forms the greater part of 
the root. The odor resembles musk, the taste is at first sweetish, 
afterwards bitter and balsamic. 

Habitat. Central Asia, Russia and India; growing at an altitude 
of 3,000 or 4,000 feet. Fig., Bent, and Trim. 131. 

History. The name is Arabic, and signifies an ear or spike. The 
drug was first introduced into Russia in 1835 as a substitute for musk. 



544 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1848 by a proving by Dr. 
Lembke, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XXXIV. 273. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
IX. 443-] 

Part Used. The dried root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Sumbul, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

SYMPHORICARPUS RACEMOSA. Snow Berry. 

Natural Order. Caprif oliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Symphoria racemosa; English, Snow berry, 
St. Peter's wort. 

Description. A deciduous, ornamental shrub, from 2 to 4 feet high, 
low branching, with leaves opposite, ovate, entire. The small roseate 
flowers appear from July to September in loose, interrupted, often 
leafy, terminal racemes. The fruit is a globous two-seeded berry, 
snow-white in color, and about the size of a currant. 

Habitat Mexico and the United States, western Vermont and 
Wisconsin to Pennsylvania ; found on rocky banks. 

History. Name from symphoreo, to accumulate, and karpos, fruit, 
in allusion to the clusters of berries. 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength T ^. 
Symphoricarpus, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 200 Cc. = 300 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 545 

SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE. Comfrey. 

Natural Order. Borraginaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Consolida majoris; English, Comfrey, Gum 
plant, Healing herb, Chocolate root ; French, Consoude ; German, 
Gebrauchlicher Beinwell, Wundenheil. 

Description. A large, coarse, showy, perennial shrub, with tuber- 
ous, oblong, fleshy root, yielding much mucilaginous juice. The stem, 
3 to 4 feet high, is hairy, branched, winged above by the decurrent 
leaves. The leaves are alternate, entire, wavy, rough-edged ; the 
radical leaves ovate-lanceolate, decurrent, tapering into a petiole, 
the cauline narrower. The yellowish-white, rarely purplish, flowers 
appear from May to July, singly or in pairs, on nodding, racemose, 
hairy peduncles. 

Habitat. Great Britain, introduced into the United States, spar- 
ingly in the north Atlantic states ; found in moist places, escaped from 
gardens. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 282. 

History. Name derived from Symphyo, signifying a union, and 
phyton, a plant, the plant having for a long time been considered a 
vulnerary. It has been used in place of coffee in time of war. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $: Drug strength ^. 
Symphytum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

SYZIGIUM JAMBOLANUM. Jambol Seeds. 

Natural Order. Myrtaceae. 

Description. A tree, having hard, durable timber and an astringent 
bark ; used in dyeing. The flowers are in cymes or corymbs. The 



546 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

fruit is edible. The seeds are irregular ovoid masses, about the size of 
coffee berries, reddish to dark-brown externally, and somewhat darker 
internally ; taste and odor slightly peppery. 

Habitat. Common in many parts of India. 
Part Used. The seeds. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations: ix and higher. 

TABACUM. Tobacco. 

Natural Order Solanaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Consolida indica, Hyoscyamus peruviana, 
Nicotiana auriculata, N. macrophylla, N. tabacum ; English, Tobacco ; 
French, Tabac; German, Tabak. 

Description. A tall, annual, rank, acrid-narcotic, mostly clammy- 
pubescent, herbaceous plant, with large fibrous tap root. The stem, 
from 3 to 6 feet high, is erect, round, hairy,- branching near the top. 
The leaves are numerous, alternate, sessile, entire, oblong-lanceolate, 
the lower 2 to 3 feet long, decurrent, acuminate, bright-green above, 
paler beneath. The pink flowers appear in July and August in loose 
terminal panicles, having long linear bracts at the divisions of the 
peduncle. 

Habitat. The island of Cuba, introduced into the United States 
from South America ; found spontaneous in waste grounds along the 
western borders of the United States. In nearly all warm countries 
of both hemispheres the cultivation of tobacco is now carried on. 
Fig., Winkler, 99; Jahr and Cat. 283; Goullon, 190; Bent, and Trim. 
191 ; Millspaugh, 128. 

History. Nicotania, named for John Nicot, who is said to have 
introduced tobacco into Europe. Tobacco, said to be a native name 
for the pipe used by the Indians in smoking. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1831 by provings published in Hartlaub andTrinks, 
R. A. M. L., III. 94. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 467; X. 637.] 

Part Used. The recently dried leaves; those imported from 
Havana are preferred. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 547 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture^: Drug strength ^. 

Tabacum, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 824 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



TAMUS COMMUNIS. Black Bryony. 

Natural Order. Dioscoreaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Black bryony; French, Le tamier; German, 
Schwarzwurzel. 

Description. A deciduous, annual, twining herb, with large 
fibrous, tuberous root, with black warty masses attached to it, black 
externally, white internally and greasy looking. The stem is 10 feet 
or more long. The leaves, 2 to 3 inches long, are alternate, petiolate, 
undivided, cordate, taper-pointed, bright, shining. The small, yellow- 
ish-green, dioecious flowers appear from May to August in terminal 
racemes. 

Habitat. England, a native of west, central and southern Europe, 
extending to the Caucasus ; found in hedges, open woods and bushy 
places. 

History. Name used by Columella and others, for a plant resem- 
bling a vine and bearing fruit not unlike the grape. The roots are so 
acrid that the pulp has been used as a stimulating plaster; the young 
shoots are so mild as to be good for eating when dressed as asparagus. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -j^. 
Tamus communis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 



b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TANACETUM VULGARE. Tansy. 

Natural Order. Composite. 

Synonyms. Latin, Athanasia ; English, Common or double tansy, 
Tansy ; French, Tanaisie ; German, Rainfarn. 

Description A deciduous, perennial herb, with branching, hard, 
fibrous root. The stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is smooth, erect, obscurely- 
hexagonal, striated, often reddish, somewhat pubescent, branched 
toward the summit and leafy. The leaves are alternate, bi-pinnatifid, 
inciso-serrate, dark-green and smooth. The yellow flowers appear 
from July to October in dense terminal corymbs. The whole plant 
has a strong aromatic smell and a bitter taste. 

Habitat. United States and Europe ; growing wild on roadsides 
and in old fields. Fig., Winkler, 140; Jahr and Cat. 285; Goullon, 
154; Millspaugh, 86. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1833 by Dr. 
Hering, Archiv. XIII. I, 170. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 503; 
X. 637-] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and twigs when in flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^y. 
Tanacetum, moist magma containing solids ico Gm., 

plant moisture 350 Cc. = 450 

Strong alcohol, 687 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 549 

TANGHINIA VENENIFERA. Madagascar Poison Nut. 

Natural Order. Apocynaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cerbera lactaria, C. laurifolia, C. odollam, C. 
tanghin, Tanghinia madagascariensis, T. veneniflua; English, Mada- 
gascar poison nut ; Vernacular, Tanghin. 

Description. A tree, with erect branches and thickish, alternate, 
lanceolate, tapering, entire, sub-coriaceous leaves, 4 to 10 inches long, 
crowded toward the points of the branches and directed upward. 
The flowers white, with rose-colored tinge on the outside and a red 
circle around the mouth, are in large terminal cymes, each supported 
by a couple of bracts. The fruit is ellipsoid 2 to 3 inches long, some- 
what pointed at the ends, with smooth purplish skin tinged with green, 
containing a hard stony seed surrounded by a thick fibrous flesh. 
The kernel of the fruit, about the size of an almond, is said to be 
sufficient to destroy twenty persons. 

Habitat. Madagascar. 

History, Used as an ordeal. A small piece is swallowed by the 
person to be tried, if retained in the stomach it is quickly fatal and is 
considered to prove him guilty, if vomited the person's innocence 
is established. Case of poisoning mentioned in Brit. Jour, of Horn. 
XVIII. 514. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 508.] 

Part Used. The seed, as imported. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 

Tanghinia, loo Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

d. Tritnrations ; ix and higher. 

TARAXACUM OFFICINALE. Dandelion. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 



55O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Dens leonis, Lactuca pratense, Leontodontis, 
Leontodon officinalis, L. taraxacum, L. vulgare, Taraxacum dens 
leonis, T. vulgare; English, Balloon plant, Dandelion, Monkshood, 
Puff ball ; French, Dent de lion ; German, Lowenzahn. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, having a vertical, fusi- 
form or cylindrical root, a foot or more in length, J4 to i inch in 
diameter, simple or slightly branched, smooth, externally yellowish- 
brown or black, internally white. The numerous spreading leaves, 
6 to 7 inches long, are radical, pinnatifid, with sharp unequally toothed 
lobes pointing downwards, tapering, sessile, smooth, bright shining- 
green. The flowers appear from April to September on scapes, 
longer than the leaves, erect, smooth, brittle, naked, in heads ^ inch 
wide, of a uniform golden-yellow, and expand only in the morning and 
in fine weather. The whole plant contains a milky juice, of a saltish, 
bitter taste. This is not to be mistaken for the fall dandelion. 

Habitat. Europe, temperate Asia, Algeria, the Azores, Japan and 
North America, but not found in the southern hemisphere ; a trouble- 
some weed difficult to eradicate from fields and pastures, everywhere 
in the north. Fig., Flora Horn. II. 198; Winkler, 85; Goullon, 160; 
Bent, and Trim. 159; Millspaugh, 95. 

History. Name from tarasso, to excite, and achos, pain ; also leon 
and odons ; the common name is a corruption of the French, dent de 
lion. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1819 by Hahnemann, 
R. A. M. L., V. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 509.] 

Parts Used. The whole plant, gathered before the perfection of 
the flower. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength ^. 
Taraxacum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 551 

TARENTULA CUBENSIS. Cuban Tarantula. 

Class. Arachnida. 

Order. Araneidea. 

Family. Lycosidae. 

Synonym. English, Cuban spider. 

Description. A large, dark-brown hairy spider, found in Cuba and 
Mexico, and belonging to the same family as the Tarentula hispana. 

Parts Used. The entire living spider. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Tarentula cubensis, I part. 

Distilled water, 2 parts. 

Glycerin, 2 parts. 

Strong alcohol, 5 parts. 
To make one hundred parts of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TARENTULA HISPANA. Tarantula. 

Class. Arachnida. 

Order. Araneidea. 

Family. Lycosidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Lycosa tarantula, Aranea tarentula. 

Description. A stout, hairy spider, having six eyes and several 
pairs of legs, the third pair being the shortest. Its body is from ij^ 
to 2 inches long, of a grayish-brown color above, and a deep saffron- 
yellow below, with a transverse black band. The margin of the 
thorax is gray, with a radiated dorsal line of the same color, while 
the anterior part of the dorsum is marked with triangular spots. 
The virus of the male seems to be identical with that of the female. 
Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 516. 



552 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. This spider is a native of South America, and is found 
in the south of Europe, especially in Spain. 

Parts Used. The entire living spider. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> / Drug strength ^. 

Tarentula hispana, I part. 

Distilled water, 2 parts. 

Glycerin, 2 parts. 

Strong alcohol, 5 parts. 
To make one hundred parts of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, jive parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TARTARUS EMETICUS. 

Tartar Emetic. Potassium Antimonyl Tartrate* 

Chemical Symbol. 2KSbOC 4 H 4 O 6 .H 2 O; 662.42. 

Synonyms. Latin, Antimonii et potassii tartras ; English, Tartrate 
of antimony and potassium, Potassio-antimonic oxytartrate, Tartarated 
antimony; French, Tartrate d' antimoine et de potasse; German, Brech- 
weinstein. 

Description. Consists of transparent, colorless crystals, turning 
white and opaque on exposure to air, or of a white, granular, odorless 
powder, having a sweet, metallic taste. Soluble in 17 parts of water 
at 15 C. ; insoluble in alcohol. At a temperature of 108 C. it loses 
its water of crystallization ; at a red heat it is decomposed, emitting 
vapors having the odor of burnt sugar, and leaving a residue which 
has an alkaline reaction. Its aqueous solution is slightly acid and 
gives a white precipitate with hydrochloric acid, soluble in an excess 
of precipitant, an orange-red precipitate with hydrogen sulfid, a white 
precipitate with potassium carbonate, and a flocculent, grayish pre- 
cipitate with an infusion of galls, an excess of the latter redissolving 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 553 

the precipitate. It is prepared from antimonic oxid and a solution of 
acid potassium tartrate. It should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. 
A poison. Maximum dose, as an emetic, ^ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

Triturations : ix and higher. 



TAXUS BACCATA. Yew. 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. English, Ground hemlock, Yew; French, Coniferes, 
If commun ; German, Eibenbaum. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 20 feet high, with a straight 
trunk variously channelled longitudinally, and smooth, deciduous 
bark. The branches are horizontal, spreading in opposite directions. 
The leaves, i inch long, are alternate, thickly set, linear, flat, nearly 
sessile, entire, slightly revolute, smooth, dark-green and shining above, 
paler, with prominent midribs beneath, terminating in small blunt 
points, having a fetid odor. The apetalous flowers appear from 
February to April on separate trees on the underside of the twigs; 
the staminate receptacles, globose, axillary, solitary, large, from a 
scaly-imbricated bud, are light brownish-white with abundant pollen ; 
the pistillate are green, resembling with their scaly bracts a little 
acorn. 

Habitat. Great Britain, Europe, Japan and in limestone coun- 
tries ; found in mountainous woods. The variety canadensis, a low 
bush, is found in the United States. Fig., Winkler, 141 ; Jahr and 
Cat. 286; Bent, and Trim. 253. 

History. Name from toxos, a bow, in making which the wood 
was used, yew, a corruption of the Celtic, iw, green ; trees said to live 
more than a thousand years. The wood is red, veined, very hard, 
smooth, durable, and very poisonous, especially the young shoots. 
Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1835 by a proving by Dr. 
Gastier, Bib. Horn. d. Gen. IV. 193. (Archiv. XV. i, 187.) [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 549.] 

Part Used. The fresh twigs. 



554 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Taxus baccata, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Strong alcohol, 874 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 

TELLURIUM. Tellurium. 

Chemical Symbol. Te ; 125. 

Description. A white, shining, crystalline, brittle, semi-metallic 
solid, closely allied to selenium and sulfur. It is unchanged by 
exposure to the air. Slightly soluble in concentrated hot sulfuric 
acid, but afterwards separating, if the solution is diluted ; soluble in 
highly concentrated caustic potash solution. It fuses at 455 C. and 
boils at 139 C., giving off golden-yellow vapors ; specific gravity, 6.65. 
When heated in air it burns with a brilliant blue-green flame, emitting 
a peculiar, garlicky odor and forming poisonous white clouds of 
tellurium anhydrid. A clear solution may be obtained with nitric 
acid which, when treated with sulfuretted hydrogen, throws down a 
brown precipitate, wholly and readily soluble in ammonium sulfid. 
Tellurium is found native in small quantities, chiefly in Hungary and 
Transylvania, and in this country in Virginia. It is generally asso- 
ciated with gold and silver. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, 
IX. 555- 

PREPARATIONS 

Triturations : ix and higher. 

TEREBINTHINjE OLEUM. Oil of Turpentine. 

Synonym. Latin, Oleum terebinthinae. 

Description. Consists of a limpid, colorless, mobile liquid, with a 
penetrating characteristic odor and a pungent, bitter taste. It is 
highly volatile and inflammable. It is almost insoluble in water; 
soluble in three times its volume of alcohol (specific gravity, 0.8 16), 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 555 

and in from 8 to 12 parts of alcohol (specific gravity, 0.845), readily 
soluble in ether and in boiling alcohol, but is deposited from the latter 
on cooling; reaction, slightly acid ; specific gravity, 0.855 to 0.870. It 
takes fire in contact with a mixture of nitric and sulfunc acids. 
Is violently acted upon by bromin, chlorin or powdered iodin. When 
a small quantity is evaporated it should leave only a very slight 
residue; when perfectly pure this oil consists exclusively of carbon 
and hydrogen. It is obtained by distillation and rectification from 
the oleo resin, or turpentine, of several species of Pinus, especially 
Finns palustris. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, IX. 571. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </>: Drug strength -fa. 

Oil of turpentine, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 900 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher; freshly made. 

TEUCRIUM MARUM VERUM. Cat Thyme. 

Natural Order. Labiatae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Cortusae syriaca, Herba cyriaci, Marjorana 
syriaca, Marum syriacum, M. verum ; English, Cat thyme, Syrian 
herb mastich ; French, Germandree maritime ' } German, Katzenkraut. 

Description. An evergreen shrub, with stem i l / 2 feet high, branch- 
ing, glabrous below, pubescent above. The leaves are opposite, entire, 
petioled, ovate, acute, downy beneath, bright-green. The pale-pur- 
plish flowers appear from July to September in one-sided axillary 
racemes. 

Habitat. Spain, indigenous in southern Europe, and cultivated in 
gardens. Fig., Winkler, 143 ; Goullon, 207. 

History. Named for Teucer, a Trojan prince, who first used it as 
medicine, marum, Arabic, signifying bitter. The younger branches 
and leaves when bruised emit a volatile, aromatic smell, exciting 
sneezing. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1826 by provings 
of Stapf, Archiv. V. 2, 149. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. VI. 167.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant, gathered just before flowering. 



556 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^ 
Teucrium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



THASPIUM AUREUM. Meadow Parsnip. 

Natural Order. Umbelliferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Carum aureum, Sison aureus, S. trifoliatum, 
Sium trifoliatum, Smyrnium acuminatum, S. aureum, S. luteum, Zizia 
aurea ; English, Golden alexander, Meadow parsnip, Musk-quash root, 
Roundheart ; German, Gelben Pastinake. 

Description. A curious, deciduous, perennial herb, with fusiform 
root 2 to 4 inches long, y 2 to % inch in diameter, externally brown, 
internally yellow ; when fresh, having a strong, unpleasant, nauseating 
odor. The stem, i to 3 feet high, is erect, somewhat branched. The 
leaves are alternate, ternate or biternate ; the radical long-petioled, 
the cauline nearly sessile ; the leaflets, I to 2 inches long, are oblong- 
lanceolate, sharply-cut-serrate, with wedge-shaped entire base. The 
deep-yellow flowers appear from June to July in compound axillary or 
terminal umbels on long naked peduncles, involucre absent. The 
whole plant is glabrous. 

Habitat. United States ; found on moist river banks. Fig., Trans. 
N. Y. State Horn. Med. Soc. VIII. 249 (1870); Millspaugh, 66. 

History. Name a play upon Thapsia, a genus, so called from the 
island of Thapsus. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1855 by 
a proving published by Dr. Marcy, N. A. J. Horn. IV. 52. [Allen's 
Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 234.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 557 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </> / Drug strength ^. 

Thaspium aureum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



THEA SINENSIS. Tea, 

Natural Order. Camelliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Camellia thea, C. theifera, Thea assamica, T. 
bohea, T. caesarea, T. imperialis, T. stricta, T. viridis ; English, Tea ; 
French, Th6 vert imperial ; German, Chinesicher Thee. 

Description. A cultivated, evergreen shrub, 6 feet high, or under 
favorable conditions a tree attaining the height of 30 feet. The stem 
is branched, bright-brown, smooth, pubescent when young. The 
leaves, 2 to 4 inches long and I inch broad, are alternate, short-petioled, 
strongly-veined, with the leaf convex in the intervals, ovate-oblong or 
lanceolate, entire toward the base, acuminate, or emarginate, irregu- 
larly and distantly dentate-serrate, glabrous, shining on both sides, 
blistered when old, slightly-pubescent beneath, coriaceous. The 
solitary, white, odorous flowers are axillary on short peduncles. 

Habitat. Probably a native of Assam ; cultivated in China, Japan 
and various parts of eastern Asia. Fig., Winkler, 144 ; Jahr and Cat. 
288; Bent, and Trim. 134. 

History. Named Camellia from Joseph Camel, or Kamel, a Dutch 
missionary and naturalist, thea, the Latin rendering of the Chinese 
Teh. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by provings published 
by Dr. Roth, Mat. Med. I. 510. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 583.] 

Part Used The dried leaves, as imported. 



558 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength ^. 

Thea sinensis, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 400 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Triturations : ix and higher. 



THERIDIOR Black Spider of Curacoa. 

Class. Arachnida. 
Order. Araneidea. 
Family. Agelenidae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Theridion curassavicum ; English, Black spider 
of Cura^oa, Orange spider; Vernacular, Aranja; French, Araignee 
noire du Cura9oa ; German, Feuerspinnchen. 

Description. The body of this variety is about the size of a cherry 
stone, with three distinguishing bright orange-red points at the back, 
the largest of them placed just above the anus. The thorax is black 
and the feet also, the latter being covered with short, stiff hairs ; the 
young are of a beautiful velvet black, marked with several antero- 
posterior white lines, made up of white dots ; the females are marked 
with similar stripes, only larger, yellow and cruciform, the middle line 
terminating in the spot above the anus; both sexes have a square, 
yellow spot, notched on the edges, covering nearly the whole belly. 
This spider is found on orange trees. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclo- 
pedia, IX. 592. 

Habitat. The West Indies. 

Parts Used. The entire living spider. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. SS9 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 

Theridion, i part. 

Distilled water, 2 parts. 

Glycerin, 2 parts. 

Strong alcohol, 5 parts. 

To make one hundred parts of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



/THLASPI BURSA PASTORIS. ~) Shepherd's Purse^ 

Natural Order. Cruciferse. 

Synonyms. Latin, Capsella bursa pastoris ; English, Shepherd's 
purse ; French, Bourse de pasteur ; German, Hirtentasche. 

Description. An annual herb, 6 to 12 inches high, with an erect 
stem, nearly smooth above, hairy beneath, striate and branching. The 
radical leaves are clustered, pinnatifid or toothed, while the cauline 
are smaller, alternate, arrow-shaped and sessile. The white flowers, 
appearing from April to September in terminal corymbs, are very 
small and have four sepals and four petals. The triangular, obcordate- 
shaped pods contain the numerous brown seeds. 

Habitat. Europe and America ; found in pastures and gardens 
and along roadsides. 

Parts Used. The fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Thlaspi, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 600 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



560 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



THUJA OCCIDENTALIS. Tree of Life. 

Natural Order. Coniferae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Arbor vitae, Cedrus lycea; English, American 
arbor vitae, False white cedar, Tree of life, White cedar ; French, Thuia 
du Canada, Arbre de vie ; German, Lebensbaum. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 20 to 50 feet high, with sprays, or 
branchlets, flat and spreading, dark-green and rather glaucous above, 
pale beneath, yielding a pungent, aromatic oil. The wood is light and 
very durable. The leaves are persistent, appressed, imbricated in four 
rows on the two-edged branchlets ; they are of two kinds on alternate 
or separate branchlets, one form awl-shaped, the other short, squamose, 
both having a small dorsal gland filled with a thin aromatic turpentine. 
The flowers appear in May and June, mostly monoecious on different 
branches in very small, terminal, ovoid catkins. 

Habitat. United States, common from Pennsylvania northward, 
rare southward ; found in swamps and on cool rocky banks. 

History. The name an alteration of Thya from the Greek, to 
sacrifice, its wood being used in sacrifices. Introduced into homoeo- 
pathic practice in 1819 by a proving by Hahnemann, R. A. M. L., V. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. IX. 576.] 

Parts Used. The fresh leaves and twigs. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -fa. 

Thuja, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 135 Cc. = 235 

Strong alcohol, 885 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: 2x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 561 

TILIA EUROP^A. Lime Tree. 

Natural Order. Tiliaceae. 

Synonyms. English, Common linden, Lime tree; French, Fleurs 
de tilleul ; German, Lindenbliithen. 

Description. A tree, 60 to 120 feet high, with smooth, round, 
spreading, leafy, brown branches, green while tender. The leaves, 3 
to 4 inches broad, rather more in length, are alternate, stipulate, 
petioled, simple, unequal at the base and somewhat heart-shaped as 
well as entire, acute, acutely- and unequally-serrate, quite smooth and 
bright-green above, paler or slightly-glaucous beneath; the stipules 
oval, smooth, in pairs at the base of each petiole, soon deciduous. 
The fragrant, greenish flowers appear in June in axillary drooping 
cymes of six to ten flowers, which have a leaf-like bract attached to 
the long peduncles. 

Habitat. Northern part of Europe ; very common ; cultivated as 
a shade tree in the United States. Fig., Jahr and Cat. 291. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1848 by a 
proving by Dr. Miiller, Oest. Zeit. f. Horn. IV. 380. [Allen's Encyc. 
Mat. Med. X. i.] 

Part Used The fresh flowers. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 

Tilia europaea, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TONGO. Tongo Bean. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 



562 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Baryosma tongo, Coumarouma odorata, Dip- 
terix odorata; English, Tongo bean, Tonka bean, Torquin bean, 
Sweet-scented tonquin bean ; French, Feve Tonka ; German, Tonko- 
bohne. 

Description. An evergreen tree, 60 feet high. The leaves are 
large, alternate, pinnate, the four short-petioled leaflets oval, entire, 
pointed. The purple flowers, with violet veins, are in terminal 
racemes. 

Habitat. Guiana and South America generally. Fig., Winkler, 
65 ; Jahr and Cat. 292. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice by a proving by 
Nenning, Annalen d. Horn. Kl. IV. 125. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
X. 14-] 

Part Used. The bean. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength -j^. 

Tongo, 100 Gm. 

Strong alcohol, 1000 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

c. Medications: ix and higher. 

d. Tritnrations : ix and higher. 



TRADESCANTIA DIURETICA, Spiderwort 

Natural Order. Commelynaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Commelina, Tradescantia commelina, Trapoe- 
raba ; English, Spiderwort. 

Description. An annual herb, with stem erect, or a little inclined, 
branching and cylindrical. The leaves are alternate, sheathing, some- 
what lanceolate, constituting tufts at the ends of the branches. The 
blue flowers, four to six in number, appear on long peduncles from 
the terminal tufts. 

Habitat. Brazil. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 563 

History. Named for John Tradescant, gardener to Charles I. 
Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1849 by Dr. Mure, Pathogen. 
Bresil, Paris ed. 288. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 21.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength -j^. 
Tradescantia, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions ; 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE, Cloven 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Trifolium campestre, T. minimum, T. plumo- 
sum, T. procumbens ; English, Common or red clover ; French, Trefle ; 
German, Ackerklee. 

Description. A cultivated, biennial, or short-lived perennial plant, 
with a large, diffusely branched root. The many stems, i to 3 feet 
high, are ascending and somewhat hairy. The leaves are alternate, 
trifoliate, leaflets oval, often notched at the end, nearly entire, marked 
on the upper side with a pale spot, stipules awned, broadly-lanceolate, 
clasping at the base, surmounted by an awl-shaped tip. The purplish- 
red, sweet-scented flowers appear from May to September in dense, 
ovate, sessile heads. 

Habitat. Great Britain, introduced into the United States from 
Europe; found in fields and meadows. Fig-, Millspaugh, 47. 

History. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1870 by prov- 
ings reported by Dr. Duncan, Trans. N. Y. St. Horn. Med. Soc. VIII. 
238. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 22.] 

Part Used. The fresh flower-heads. 



564 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Trifolium pratense, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TRIFOLIUM REPENS. White Clover. 

Natural Order. Leguminosae. 

Synonyms. English, White clover ; French, Trefle blanc ; German, 
Wiesenklee. 

Description. A perennial, deciduous trailer. The stem is smooth, 
slender, spreading and creeping. The leaves are alternate, long- 
petioled, trifoliate, leaflets ovate-oblong, emarginate, serrulate, with a 
caret-shaped spot on the upper surface, pale and indistinct, stipules 
entire, scale-like. The flowers, changing from creamy-white to deep- 
rose and finally to a rusty-brown color, appear from May to September 
in small loose umbels on long peduncles. 

Habitat. Great Britain and the United States northward ; found 
in pastures, waste places and in woodland. Fig., Millspaugh, 48. 

History, Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1870 by prov- 
ings reported by Dr. Duncan, Trans. N. Y. St. Horn. Soc. VIII. 237. 
[Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 22.] 

Part Used. The fresh flower-heads. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 
Trifolium repens, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 565 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



TRILLIUM. Wake Robin. 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Trillium cernuum, T. pendulum; English, 
Drooping trillium, Nodding trillium, Wake robin. 

Description. An ornamental, perennial herb, with a short tuberous 
rhizome. The stem, 18 inches high, is stout, simple and naked. The 
leaves at the summit of the stem, in a whorl of three, are short-petioled, 
almost sessile, more or less ribbed, net-Veined, broadly-rhomboid and 
abruptly-pointed. A large white flower appears in the spring on a 
short terminal, recurved peduncle. 

Habitat. North America, New England to Virginia, Kentucky 
and southward, common eastward ; found in moist woods. 

History. Name from trilix, triple, the calyx having three sepals, 
the corolla three petals, the pistil three styles and the stem three 
leaves. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1853 by a proving 
of Dr. Minton. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 637.] 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f> : Drug strength ^. 
Trillium, moist magma containing solids 100 Gra., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 
To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



566 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

TRIOSTEUM PERFOLIATUM. Wild Ipecac. 

Natural Order. Caprifoliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Triosteum floribus verticillatis sessilibus, T. 
folliis connatis, f. s. v., T. majus ; English, Bastard, false or wild ipecac, 
Cinque, Dr. Tinker's weed, Dog grass, Fever root or wort, Horse- 
gentian or ginseng, Quickens, Sweet bitter, Tinker weed, White 
gentian or ginseng, Wild coffee, Witch grass ; French, Trieste ; 
German, Breitblatteriger, Dreistein. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial shrub, with a thick, fleshy 
root, subdivided into several horizontal sections, externally yellowish 
or brownish, internally whitish, with a sickening odor and a bitter, 
nauseous taste. The stem, 2 to 4 feet high, is simple, hollow, glandu- 
larly-pubescent and reddish. The leaves are large, opposite, ovate- 
spatulate, abruptly-narrowed, perfoliate, acuminate, sinuate, hairy 
above, downy beneath and prominently reticulate-veined. The dull- 
or reddish-purple flowers, one to six in number, appear in May and 
June, are sessile in axillary whorls in the middle of the stem, each axil 
having two or three linear bracts. 

Habitat. Canada and the United States, southward and westward 
to Alabama ; found in rich woodlands, not rare. Fig., Millspaugh, 74. 

History. Name derived from treis, three, and osteon, bone, the 
fruit having three nutlets ; shortened from triosteospermum. It was 
held in high estimation by many Indian tribes. Introduced into 
homoeopathic practice in 1844 by Dr. Williamson's provings published 
in Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 1844-5, 2 49- [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
X. 25.] 

Part Used The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^. 
Triosteum, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 185 Cc. = 285 

Distilled water, 215 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 567 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 



TRITICUM REPENS. Couch Grass. 

Natural Order. Gramineae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Agropyrum repens; English, Couch, dog or 
quick grass, Quickens, Quitch ; French, Chiendent ; German, Quecken- 
wurzel. 

Description. A perennial herb, with whitish, creeping, jointed 
rhizome, having a bunch of fibrous rootlets at each joint. The culm, 
2 to 4 feet high, is hollow, closed at the joints. The leaves are two- 
ranked, alternate and flat, often roughish and pubescent above. The 
four to eight flowered-spikelets are glabrous or nearly so; rachis 
glabrous, rough on the edges ; awns, when present, straight. 

Habitat. A native of Europe, naturalized throughout the northern 
hemisphere, indigenous northwestward, and a pest in cultivated 
grounds and fields. 

Part Used. The fresh root. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture </ Drug strength ^. 

Triticum repens, moist magma containing solids 100 Gin., 

plant moisture 233 Cc. = 333 

Distilled water, 167 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

TUSSILAGO PETASITES. Butter Bur. 

Natural Order. Compositae. 



568 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Petasites, Petasitides vulgaris; English, Butter 
bur, Colt's foot, Pestilence, Pestilent wort ; French, Herbe aux teigneux ; 
German, Pestilenzwurz. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a creeping rhizome 
12 to 1 8 inches long, branching, about ^ inch thick, joints about 2 
inches long, grayish-white or pale-brown and stem about a foot high. 
The leaves, 4 inches long and broad, are radical, long-petiolate, roundish, 
heart-shaped, with approximating lobes, angular-dentate, dark-green and 
smooth above, white, tomentose beneath. The flesh-colored flowers 
appear in March and April in an ovate-oblong thyrsus. 

Habitat. Great Britain; found in sandy meadows and on the 
banks of streams, common. 

History. Name derived from tussis, a cough, petasos, a broad 
covering, alluding to its leaves, which are large enough to shelter 
poultry from the rain. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1844 
by Dr. Rosenberg, Archiv. XXI. 2, 81. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
X. 32.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Tussilago petasites, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 567 Cc. = 667 

Strong alcohol, 470 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 

URTICA DIOICA. Common Nettle. 

Natural Order. Urticaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Urtica majoris; English, Common nettle, Great 
stinging nettle; French, Ortie brulante; German, Grosse Brennessel. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with branching, creep- 
ing, fibrous root and fleshy rootlets. The stem is 2 to 3 feet high, 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 569 

erect, covered with rigid stinging hairs, the upper part downy and of 
a dull-green color. The leaves are opposite, long-petioled, ovate, 
cordate, acuminate, deeply-serrate, downy underneath, also armed 
with stings, stipules distinct. The apetalous flowers, often dioecious, 
are in much-branched axillary spikes. 

Habitat. Great Britain, all over Europe, Barbary, Siberia and 
Japan, naturalized in the United States, chiefly eastward ; found in 
waste places and on roadsides. 

History. Name from uro, to burn. The stalk is capable of being 
made into rope, woven into cloth and made into paper. Mentioned in 
homoeopathic literature in 1856, Hirschel's Archiv. II. 162. 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture $ : Drug strength ^. 

Urtica dioica, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 300 Cc. = 400 

Distilled water, 200 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



URTICA URENS. Dwarf Nettle. 

Natural Order. Urticaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Urtica minora; English, Dwarf nettle, Small 
stinging nettle; French, Ortie grieche, Petite ortie; German, Bren- 
nessel, Nesselkraut. 

Description. A stinging, annual herb, with stem i to 2 feet high, 
erect, four-angled and branching, stings few, very virulent, and a 
tough, fibrous bark. The leaves are opposite, elliptical, five-ribbed, 
coarsely- and deeply-serrate. The apetalous, monoecious flowers appear 
from June to September in nearly simple axillary clusters, shorter than 
the petioles, two small clusters in each axil. 



57O THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Habitat. Great Britain, everywhere in cultivated places, United 
States, naturalized from Europe, scarce; found eastward in waste 
grounds near dwellings. Fig., Winkler, 146; Millspaugh, 153. 

History. Name nettle from Anglo Saxon, naedl, needle. Intro- 
duced into homoeopathic practice in 1836, Allg. Horn. Zeit. VIII. 81. 
[Alle's Enncyc. Mat. Med. X. 47.] 

Parts Used. The whole fresh plant. 
PREPARATIONS, 

a. Tincture < : Drug strength y 1 ^. 

Urtica urens, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 400 Cc. = 500 

Distilled water, 100 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, five parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

USNEA BARBATA. Bearded Usnea. 

Natural Order. Lichenes. 

Synonyms. English, Bearded or drooping usnea. 

Description. A genus of lichens. The thallus, 4 feet long, is 
rounded, smoothish, generally pendulous with a central thread, thick- 
ish, pale greenish-gray; the divergent branches fibrillose, capillary at 
their extremity, articulated below. 

Habitat. Found growing on rocks and trunks of trees. 

History. Name from the Arabic, achneh, or achnen, the general 
name for lichens. 

Parts Used. The entire lichen. 
PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <: Drug strength ^. 

Usnea barbata, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 730 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 571 

b. Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, two parts distilled 

water, seven parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 2x and higher. 

USTILAGO MAIDIS. Maize Smut. 

Natural Order. Fungi. 

Synonyms. English, Ergot of corn, Maize smut, Corn smut; 
German, Maisbrand. 

Description. A fungus, growing on the stems, grains and tassel 
of Indian corn in masses, varying in size from a cherry to that of a 
child's head, smooth, spherical or lobed, of a bluish tinge becoming 
blackish, composed of innumerable minute globular spores covered 
with small pointed processes. It has a peculiar, heavy, unpleasant 
smell. 

History. Mentioned in homoeopathic literature in 1845 by Dr. 
Kiichenmeister, Allg. Horn. Zeit. XXVIII. 145; provings reported by 
Dr. Hoyne, Trans. Am. Inst. Horn. 1872, 201. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. 
Med. X. 49.] 

Parts Used. The trituration of fungus when it has turned black, 
but before affected by frost, and the tincture of fresh ripe fungus. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Triturations : ix and higher. 

b. Tincture <t>: Drug strength ^ 

Ustilago maidis, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 100 Cc. = 200 

Distilled water, 300 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

Dilutions: 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 
water, six parts alcohol; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

d. Medications : 3x and higher. 

UVA URSL Bearberry. 

Natural Order. Ericaceae. 



c. 



572 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

Synonyms. Latin, Arbutus uva ursi, Arctostaphylos officinalis, 
A. uva ursi, Daphnidostaphyllis fendleriana ; English, Bearberry, 
Bear's grape, Mountain box, Red berry, Red-berried trailing arbutus, 
Upland cranberry ; French, Arbousier, Raisin d'ours, Busserole ; 
German, Barentraube, Barenbeere, Steinbeere. 

Description. A low, evergreen, trailing shrub, with thick, creeping 
roots. The stem is woody, rooting, the young shoots only turning 
upwards, the pale-brown bark scaling off in patches. The crowded 
leaves are alternate, short-petioled, obovate or spatulate, acute, entire, 
smooth, thick, with a net-work of veins beneath, inodorous when fresh, 
having the odor of hay when dry, with a bitter, astringent taste, 
becoming sweetish. The white flowers appear in May on short 
reflexed peduncles in small terminal racemes. The fruit is a red 
berry-like drupe with five to ten seed-like nutlets. 

Habitat. Most parts of Europe, northern Asia, United States, 
Pennsylvania to New Mexico, northern California and as far north as 
the arctic circle; found on mountains, in rocky places and on bare 
hills. Fig., Winkler, 15; Jahr and Cat. 295; Goullon, 163; Bent, and 
Trim. 163; Millspaugh, 100. 

History. Name from arktos, a bear, and staphyle, a grape. Used 
in medicine in the thirteenth century. Introduced into homoeopathic 
practice in 1848 by Noak and Trinks. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. 
X. 56.] 

Part Used. The fresh leaves. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <f>: Drug strength ^ 

Uva ursi, moist magma containing solids 100 Gm., 

plant moisture 150 Cc. = 250 

Distilled water, 250 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 635 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, three parts distilled 

water, six parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications: 3x and higher. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 573 

URANIUM NITRICUM. Uranium Nitrate. 

Uranium Nitrate. 

Chemical Symbol. UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O; 502.26. 

Synonyms. Latin, Uranii nitras; English, Nitrate of uranium, 
Uranic nitrate. 

Description. Consists of greenish-yellow, dichroic crystals, having 
a metallic taste; efflorescent in air. Soluble at 15 C. in 0.5 parts of 
water and in 0.35 parts of alcohol. Is decomposed by heat with 
the evolution of water and acid and a residue of uranic oxid. Its 
aqueous solution is decomposed by heat, depositing a lemon-yellow 
powder. Mentioned in Allen's Encyclopedia, X. 41. A poison. 
Maximum dose y$ grain. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tt iterations : ix and higher; freshly prepared and protected 

from the light. 

b. Tincture <j> : -^, in strong alcohol ; freshly prepared. 

c. Dilutions : 2x and higher, with dispensing alcohol. 

d. Medications : 2x and higher ; freshly made. 



VALERIANA OFFICINALIS. Valerian. 

Natural Order. Valerianaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Phu germanicum, P. parvum, Valeriana angusti- 
folia, V. minor, V. sambucifolia, V. sylvestris major; English, All-heal, 
Great wild valerian, Heal-all, Valerian; French, ValeYiane sauvage, 
Petite valeriane ; German, Augenwurzel, Katzenbaldrian. 

Description. A deciduous, perennial herb, with a tuberous, short, 
upright root-stock, having numerous, slender, fleshy, tapering, pale- 
brown rootlets, 3 to 4 inches long, and sending out runners, at the end 
of which young plants are formed. The solitary, erect stem, 3 to 4 
feet high, is hollow, furrowed, branched only at the top and hirsute at 
the. base. The few leaves are opposite, pinnate, coarsely-serrate, 
clasping ; the radical on long petioles, the cauline much smaller and 



574 THE PHARMACOPEIA OF THE 

passing into bracts above; the opposite, or alternate, leaflets are 
sessile, lanceolate, dentate, ^ to 2^ inches long. The numerous, 
small, white or flesh-colored flowers appear in June and July in 
crowded sessile bunches of three at the extremities of the final 
divisions of the trichotomous, compound, spreading cymes, terminating 
the stem and branches, the whole forming a large, more or less flat- 
topped cyme. The roots have a camphoraceous, bitter, unpleasant 
taste, and a strong turpentine-like odor, acquired in drying. The best 
grow in dry situations. 

Habitat. Great Britain and Europe generally, also Asia, Japan 
and Iceland ; found in dry pastures as well as in wet places. Fig., 
Flora Horn. II. 205; Winkler, 148; Jahr and Cat. 295; Goullon, 138; 
Bent, and Trim. 146. 

History. Name first met with in the ninth or tenth century, of 
uncertain origin. Introduced into homoeopathic practice in 1805 by 
Hahnemann, Frag. d. Vir. 251. [Allen's Encyc. Mat. Med. X. 59.] 

Part Used. The root, recently dried. 

PREPARATIONS. 

a. Tincture <j> : Drug strength -j^-. 

Valeriana, 100 Gm. 

Distilled water, 500 Cc. 

Strong alcohol, 537 Cc. 

To make one thousand cubic centimeters of tincture. 

b. Dilutions : 2x to contain one part tincture, four parts distilled 

water, Jive parts alcohol ; 3x and higher, with dispensing 
alcohol. 

c. Medications : 3x and higher. 

d. Triturations : ix and higher. 

VERATRINA. Veratriru 

Natural Order. Liliaceae. 

Synonyms. Latin, Veratrinum ; English, Veratria, Veratrine; 
French, Veratrine ; German, Veratrin. 

A mixture of alkaloids, obtained from the seeds of Asagrcea 
officinalis (Sabadilla). 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMCEOPATHY. 575 

Description. Consists of a white or grayish-white amorphous 
powder, or of crystalline needles, odorless, and having a strongly 
bitter, acrid and persistent taste, followed by a sensation of tingling 
or numbness. In the most minute quantities it causes sneezing when 
introduced into the nose ; it is unchanged by exposure to light. It is 
soluble in 3 parts of strong alcohol, 6 parts of et