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J * 

A Guide lo Ike Nations Birlkplace 

American Guide Series, , 




A Guid3 to its Places and People 

A Gu'de to the Green Mountain State 

A Gu'de in Word and Pictures 
fiode Island 

A Guide to ihe Smallest State 
sw Hampshire 

A Guide io the Granite State 

A Guide "Down East" 

A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and People 



A Guide to the Nation's Birthplace 

City and Capital 
ilchess County 

Ancestral Home of the President 
;w Castle on the Delaware 
Hawaii in the Jerseys 

\ Guids to a South2rn Metropolis 

A Guide to the City and Vicinity 
dar Rapids 

A Guide to Northeastern Iowa 

A Guids to Northeastern Illinois 
icoln, Nebraska Guide 
J Bellevue 

A Guide to Sarpy County, Nebraska 


io's Who in the Zoo 
pe Cod Pilot 

A Loquacious Guide 
icrican Stuff 
Bid for Liberty 
rmony Society in Pennsylvania 
les of Pioneer Pittsburgh 
ices to Play in Allegheny County 
kes in Berks 

ree Hikes Thru the Wissahickon 
erroastal Waterways 


ELST that were built during the loth, and c, 
l-'iftij Years after the Founding of the Cl' 


From the collection of the 



re linger 

v I library 

San Francisco, California 




American Guide Series 



Compiled by the Federal Writers' Project 
Works Progress Administration for the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 

Sponsored by the 



First Edition 




The Telegraph Press 




The Philadelphia Guide is one of the publications in the American Guide 
Series, written by members of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress 
Administration. Designed primarily to give useful employment to needy unem- 
ployed writers and research workers, this project has gradually developed the 
ambitious objective of presenting to the American people a portrait of America 
its history, folklore, scenery, cultural backgrounds, social and economic trends, 
and racial factors. In one respect, at any rate, this undertaking is unique ; it 
represents a farflung effort at cooperative research and writing, drawing upon all 
the varied abilities of its personnel. All the workers contribute according to their 
talents ; the field worker collects data in the field, the research worker burrows 
in libraries, the art and literary critics cover material relevant to their own 
specialties, architects describe notable historical buildings and monuments ; and 
the final editing of copy as it flows in from all corners of a state is done by the 
more experienced authors in the central offices. The ultimate product, whatever 
its faults or merits, represents a blend of the work of the entire personnel, aided 
by consultants, members of university faculties, specialists, officers of learned 
societies, oldest residents, who have volunteered their services everywhere most 

A great many books and brochures are being written for this series. As they 
appear in increasing numbers we hope the American public will come to ap- 
preciate more fully not only the unusual scope of this undertaking, but also the 
devotion shown by the workers, from the humblest field worker to the most ac- 
complished editors engaged in the final rewrite. The Federal Writers' Project, 
directed by Henry G. Alsberg, is in the Division of Women's and Professional 
Projects under Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant Administrator. 

Works Progress Administration 


A spirit of achievement abounds in Philadelphia, mark- 
ing the renaissance of Philadelphia's renown as a center 
of business, culture and enterprise. 

Philadelphia is a rich city. Not only is it wealthy in 
memories of those stirring times when a great political 
philosophy was born in Independence Hall, but it is 
laden with things which are richly American, such as the 
warm sincerity and hospitality of its people. 

I like to think of Philadelphia as a typical Pennsyl- 
vania city, shipping the stores of anthracite coal to every 
part of the world, marketing the products of the rich 
Pennsylvania farmlands, planning its future greatness 
with the other communities throughout the Common- 

A book can tell only a part of Philadelphia's story. 
The whole story can be known by seeing and enjoying 
these things which Philadelphia holds for visitors and 
Philadelphians alike. 

Mayor of Philadelphia 


THE Philadelphia Guide, one of the American Guide series of regional, state, 
city, county and sectional Guides being compiled by the Federal Writers' 
Projects, Works Progress Administration, marks the completion of the first major 
publication by the Pennsylvania staff. Representing almost two years' work by 
the Philadelphia Project and the State staff, it presents the traditions and history 
of the old city and the swiftly changing contemporary scene. It should prove in- 
teresting and instructive to Philadelphians, recalling as it does the quaintness 
and peace of the Quaker town, which served as the nucleus for the modern in- 
dustrial city. It is believed visitors will find it valuable. 

The first material was assembled in November 1935, when the Federal Writers' 
Project was started in Pennsylvania. During the following months a staff of 
editors, reporters, copy desk men, artists, map makers, research workers, and 
typists compiled, assembled, and edited the material. Historic lore uncovered by 
reporters was checked for authenticity by recognized authorities. Among the con- 
sultants were religious leaders, industrialists, educators, geologists, musicians, 
actors, painters, architects, scientists, librarians, physicians, labor leaders, social 
service workers, and bankers, who have given freely of their knowledge to ensure 
the accuracy of the Philadelphia Guide. During this period, of course, work on 
numerous other books and pamphlets was being carried forward. 

The project, part of the WPA program, was planned to provide work for un- 
employed newspapermen and magazine writers in a sphere where their talents 
and abilities could find expression in channels of value to the Nation. 

The first phase has been passed. It remains for those who read the Guide to 
decide whether the second objective has been attained. 

The gradual change in personnel and duties which has necessarily occurred dur- 
ing the long months the Guide was in the course of preparation makes it im- 
possible to give the entire staff, individually, the credit which each worker so 
richly deserves. Since the inception of the task, more than two hundred and 
forty men and women have at various times been engaged in some phase of the 
work of compiling, writing, checking, editing, and 1 illustrating this modern 
Baedeker of the Quaker City, meanwhile carrying on their work on other pub- 
lications of the American Guide Series. Death has taken the pen from the hands 
of some ; opportunity in private industry has called others. But throughout this 
kaleidoscopic change in the staff there has persisted a fine esprit dcorps of which 
the Philadelphia Guide is the first tangible memorial. 

We offer the Guide with a feeling of satisfaction and confidence ; satisfaction, 
that we have contributed something worthy to the city ; and confidence, that it 
will prove of real value to those who use it. 

Paul Comly French 
Pennsylvania State Director 
Federal Writers' Project 


December 1, 1937 




by Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator 
Works Progress Administration 


by S. Davis Wilson 

Mayor of Philadelphia 


by Paul Comly French, State Director 
Federal Writers' Project 



Information Facilities Climate 

Travel Sports 

Accommodations Theatres 

Shopping Night Clubs 








Prologue 20 

Penn and the Holy Experiment 23 

Early Settlement 31 

The Revolutionary Period 45 

A Century of Growth 60 

The Modern Metropolis 77 





Hub of Commerce and Industry 112 

Cradle of American Finance 125 

Public Utilities 137 

Transportation 142 

Labor and Labor Problems 147 


Religions 159 

Education 173 

Literature 184 

Growth of the Press 202 

Stage and Screen 213 

Music 234 

Painting and Sculpture 243 

Colonial Mansion to Skyscraper 

Architecture, The City of Yesterday and Today 256 

Old Plans and New, The City of Tomorrow 279 

Science 284 

Medicine 293 

Social Service 304 














(Maps with all tours) 



1. North of old "High Street" (City Tour 1) 385 

2. From City Hall to "Society Hall" (City Tour 2) 399 



1. South Broad Street Through the Melting Pot (City Tour 4) . . 441 

2. North Broad Street Where Houses Stand in Regiments 

(City Tour 5) 450 



1. City of Apartments (City Tour 7) 493 

2. Toward the Suburbs (City Tour 8) 505 


ALONG THE WATER FRONT (City Tour 10) 533 


1. East Park (City Tour 11) 547 

2. West Park (City Tour 12) 561 

THE TREE-LINED PARKWAY (City Tour 13) 575 

AROUND PENN'S CAMPUS (City Tour 14) 587 


Hills and Dales of the Wissahickon 

1. The Lower Valley (City Tour 15) 601 

2. Along Sparkling Cresheim Creek (City Tour 16) 607 

3. Around Valley Green (City Tour 17) 615 

Woodland Shadows of the Pennypack 

1. By the "OP Swimming Hole" (City Tour 18) 620 

2. Rendezvous for Izaak Waltons (City Tour 19) 621 

By Placid Cobbs Creek (City Tour 20) , 625 


To Brandywine Battlefield (Environs Tour 1) 629 

To Bryn Athyn Cathedral (Environs Tour 2) 651 

To New Hope and Washington Crossing (Environs Tour 3) 657 

Valley Forge (Environs Tour 4) 673 



INDEX 692 



Among the consultants, who gave generously of their time and knowledge are 
men and women prominent in many fields of activity in the City. While it would 
be impossible to give credit individually to all of those who assisted us, yet we 
are anxious for them to know that their advice and suggestions aided materially 
in the preparation of the Guide. 

There are some, however, to whom we are especially grateful. Included among 
these are Henry B. Allen, Director, Franklin Institute ; Dr. Jacob Billikopf, Chair- 
man of the former Philadelphia Regional Labor Relations Board; Reverend 
Frederick W. Blatz, St. Peters Church; L. Wharton Bickley, Building Superin- 
tendent, Federal Reserve Bank; Dr. Samuel Bradbury, Medical Director, Penn- 
sylvania Hospital; Lieut. Com. William W. Behrens, U. S. N.; Julian P. Boyd, 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Carl Boyer, Director, Wagner Free Institute 
of Science; Charles M. B. Cadwalader, President, Academy of Natural Sciences; 
Paul P. Cret, Architect; Horace T. Carpenter, Curator, Independence Hall; Frank 
A. Cook, Building Manager, Philadelphia Saving Fund Society; Mabel Corry, 
Secretary, New Century Club; Charles N. Christman, Director, Philadelphia Com- 
mercial Museum; Karl de Schweinitz, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Pub- 
lic Assistance; John C. Donecker, Secretary, Girard College; E. H. Dressel, 
Superintendent, U. S. Mint; Ross B. Davis, Chief Engineer, Bureau of Fire. 

George H. Fairchild, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Samuel Fleisher, 
Graphic Sketch Club; Harry H. Givens, Periodical Department, Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania; Samuel G. Gordon, Academy of Natural Sciences; Dorothy Grafly, 
Art Critic; Richard Gimbel of the Poe House; Carl F. Haussman, Rector, Zion 
German Lutheran Church; WillB Hadley, City Treasurer; Norman F. Hall, 
Chamber of Commerce; William Heim, Metropolitan Opera House; J. St. George 
Joyce, Director of Public Relations, Temple University; Fiske Kimball, Director, 
Pennsylvania Museum of Art; Howard A. Keiser, Superintendent, Academy of 
Music; Dorothy Kohl, Executive Director, Philadelphia Art Alliance; Elizabeth 
Kunkel, Secretary to the Director of Cedar Grove Mansion, Letitia Street House, 
Memorial Hall and Rodin Museum; George I. Lovatt, Architect; Reverend 
Clarence Long of Old Pine Street Church; Percy E. Lawler, Manager, Rosenljach 
galleries; Albert Mordell, Author; J. Hampton Moore, former Mayor of Phil** 
delphia; Henry T. Murdock, Dramatic Editor, Evening Public Ledger; Henri 
Marceau, Assistant Director, Pennsylvania Museum of Art; Edith P. MacKendrick, 
Assist. Treas., Monthly Meeting of Friends; Reverend W. R. McKean, Minister in 
charge of Christ Church; Dr. Louis Nusbaum, Board of Education. 

Reverend Dr. E. A. E. Palmquist, Executive Secretary, Philadelphia Federation 
of Churches; Dr. Francis W. Pennell, Academy of Natural Sciences; Franklin H. 
Price, Librarian, Logan Square Library; Richard Peters, Jr., Secretary, Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania; David Philips, Public Relations Manager, P. R. T.; 
William J. Patterson, Librarian, Masonic Temple Library; Ormond Rambo, Jr., 
American Swedish Historical Museum; Reverend John Craig Roak, of Gloria Dei 
Church; Dr. C. Dudley Saul, Physician; Judge Frank Smith; Dr. Frank G. Speck, 
Professor of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Witmer Stone Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences; R. C. Sutton, Chief Administrative Assistant, Fort Mifflin; 
Herbert J. Tily, President, Strawbridge and Clothier; Dr. Francis H. Tees, Minister 
of St. George's Church; William Henry Welsh, Dir. of School Extension, Board 
of Education; Frances A. Wister, President, Philadelphia Society for Preservation 
of Landmarks; Louis W. Wilgarde, Secretary to Mayor Wilson; Harold A. West, 
Librarian, Mercantile Library; Thomas Washington, Rear Admiral, U. S. N.; and 
John E. Zimmermann, President, U. G. I. 

The editors of the Philadelphia Guide are indebted to Mr. William M. Camp- 
bell, delineator ; the Philadelphia Chapter, A.I.A. copyright holders ; and the 
J. L. Smith Co., publishers ; for permission to reproduce as an end piece the 
map Philadelphia from the map made by Johrt Reed in 1774. 



Penn in Armor 

Liberty Bell 

Delaware River Bridge Drawing by 

Christ Church Tower Drawing by 

Scene in Fairmount Park 

Perm's Ship "Welcome" Drawing by 

Workmans Place 

Friend's Meeting House 

Portrait of Benjamin Franklin 

by Joseph Wright 
State House 
1776 and 1876 

Declaration Table in Independence Hall 

Betsy Ross House Today 

Before Its Restoration 

Shippen-Wistar House 

James Wilson's Grave at Christ Church 

Musical Fund Hall Drawing by 

Monument to Negro Soldiers 

Smith Memorial 

Dewey's "Olympia," Philadelphia Navy Yard 

Tacony-Palmyra Bridge Drawing by 

Slum Scene 

New Year "Shooter" Drawing by 

Fire Plaques 

Old Market 

Curb Market at Ninth Street and 

Washington Avenue 
City Hall Tower 
Hosiery Worker 
Breaking up the Final 

Courtesy of the Historical Frpntis- 

Society of Pennsylvania 

Courtesy of the 
Academy of Fine Arts 
From old prints 
Courtesy of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania 


Old Ships and New 

Statue of Robert Morris at the 

Old Custom House 
Girard Bank 
Old Schuylkill Navigation Canal Lock 

in Fairmount Park 
Melted Steel 

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church 

Stenton House 

Gateway of Old Christ Church 

Board of Education Administration Building 

Penn Charter School 

The Poe House 

Poe House Interior 

Thomas Paine Drawing by 

Front Page News in The Pennsylvania 

Evening Post 

Transmitting Station of WCAU 
Walnut Street Theatre 

First Chestnut Street Theatre Drawing by 

Hedgerow Theatre 

Memorial Arch at Valley Forge Drawing by 
Academy of Music 

Drawing by Palmer 

Courtesy of John' P. Mudd 
The Midvale Company 



Courtesy of John P. Mudd 

The Midvale Company 









Reproduction copy 

Courtesy of WCAU 







Rodin's "The Kiss" 
T osaic, "The Dream Garden" after 
Maxfield Parrish 
our Towers 

City Hall and Independence Hall 
Old Stock Exchange and Philadelphia 

Saving Fund Society 
The Chew Mansion 
Doorway of Mt. Pleasant 

me of Robert Morris 
iming Pool at the Carl Mackley House 

J Mackley House 
founder's Hall, Girard College 
Federal Reserve Bank Building 
Natural Habitat Exhibits 

Academy of Natural Sciences 
Fitch's Steamboat "Perseverance' 

An Operation at Hahnemann 


Courtesy of Curtis 

Publishing Company 



Courtesy of the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum of Art 

Courtesy of Museum of 
Modern Art, New York 

Drawing by Palmer 

Courtsey of 

Sharp & Dohme 

Courtesy of Hahnemann 

Medical College 



Preston Retreat 

City Skyline from the Art Museum 

Points of Special Interest 

Old Gate at Independence Square Drawing by Schmidt 

Statue of Barry and Independence Hall Hightort 

Congress Hall Ritter 

Old City Hall Ritter 

American Philosophical Society Ritter 

Interior of Independence Hall Ritter 

Benjamin Franklin's Chair Ritter 

Carpenters' Hall ^Ritter 

The Powel House Ritter 

Franklin Institute by Night Egan 
League Island Navy Yard Crane Drawing by Palmer 

Zeiss Projector in the Fels Planetarium Ritter 

East Wing of Art Museum Egan 

Art Museum and the Old Water Works Kalmar 

Founder's Hall at Girard College Egan 
Stephen Girard Sarcophagus at Girard 

College Egan 

United States Mint 
City Hall and Skyline 

Drawing by Palmer 

City Tours 

St. George's Methodist Church Kalmar 

Elfreth's Alley Ritter 

Benjamin Franklin's Grave Ritter 

Christ Church Doorway Ritter 
Drinker House Drawing by Schmidt 

St. Peter's Church Ritter 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church Ritter 

Philadelphia Contributionship Ritter 

Mikveh Israel Cemetery Drawing by Schmidt 
William Penn Statue, Pennsylvania 

Hospital Highton 

Camac Street Ritter 

Clinton Street Ritter 

Sailing Boat Drawing by Giordano 

Doorway of S't. Mark's Church Ritter 
Armory of First Troop, Philadelphia 

City Cavalry Barnum 
















Rittenhouse Square Ritter 437 

Ridgway Library Ritter 446 

American Swedish Historical Museum Ritter 449 

Academy of Fine Arts Ritter 454 

Observatory at Central High School Kalmar 460 

Rodeph Shalom Synagogue Egan 460 

Dome of Lu Lu Temple Egan 462 

Mitten Hall, Temple University Egan 465 

Rear of Temple University Dormitories Barrtum 465 

Main Altar, Church of the Holy Child Courtesy of William Rittase 472 

Germantown Academy Highton 482 

The Wyck House Barnum 

Germantown Mennonite Church Barnum 

The Billmeyer House Barnum 

Convention Hall Kalmar 

Detail of Bartram House Ritter 496 

Bartram House Ritter 

Interior of Bartram House Highton 499 

U. S. Naval Home Kalmar 502 

Thirtieth Street Station, P.R.R. Drawing by Palmer 507 

Wynnestay Kalmar 509 

Seminary of St. Charles Borromeo Ritter 511 

St. Joseph's College Ritter 511 

Stetson Hat Company Courtesy of John B. 

Stetson Co. 516 

Curtis Publishing Company Courtesy of Curtis Pub. Co. 516 

Plant of J. G. Brill Co. Kalmar 522 

Delaware River Bridge Egan 536 
Sail Ship Drawing by Palmer 

Delaware Avenue at Noon Ritter 539 

Old Swedes' Church Ritter 541 

Old Swedes' Church Graveyard Ritter 541 

Old Sailing Vessels Egan 544 

Indian Medicine Man Ritter 550 

Exterior of Mt. Pleasant Ritter 553 

Interior of Mt. Pleasant Courtesy of the Pennsylvania 

Museum of Art 553 

Schuylkill River from West River Drive Ritter 556 

Boathouse Row Ritter 558 

Old Solitude Himes 563 

Interior of Letitia Street House Highton 565 

Sweet Briar Highton 567 

Letitia Street House Ritter 569 

Interior of Cedar Grove Mansion Courtesy of Pennsylvania 

Museum of Art 569 

Horticultural Hall Kalmar 573 

Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul Himes 577 

Entrance Gate of Rodin Museum Highton 577 

Facade of Rodin Museum Egan 582 

Train Drawing by Palmer 585 

Irvine Auditorium Ritter 591 

Entrance to U. of P. Quadrangle Ritter 591 

Franklin Field Drawing by Palmer 593 

Dormitories at Pennsylvania Ritter 595 

Statue of Benjamin Franklin Ritter 598 

Rittenhouse Mill Carter 606 

Devil's Pool Barnum 611 

Indian S'tatue Barnum 613 

Old Covered Bridge Barnum 616 

Livezey House Carter 616 

Concrete Bridge over Pennypack Creek Egan 620 

Pennypack Baptist Church Egan 623 

Cobbs Creek Park Trail Ritter 626 

XVI 11 

Environs Tours 

Swarthmore College 

Glen Riddle Homes 

Concord Meetinghouse 

Octagonal Schoolhouse 

Sproul Observatory 

Fort Mifflin 

Fort Mifflin Basking in an Olden Glory 

The Swedenborgian Cathedral 

Swedenborgian Cathedral, A Vaulted Portico 

Robbins House 

Old Forge Inn 

Friends Meetinghouse at Horsham 

Keith House at Graeme Park 

Canal at New Hope 

Gulph Mills 

Sign at King of Prussia Inn 

Valley Forge Chapel Interior 

Washington Memorial National Carillon 

Cabin at Valley Forge 




1. North of old "High Street" 

2. From City Hall to Society Hill 

1. South Broad Street and Through 

the Melting Pot 

2. North Broad Street Where Houses 

Stand in Regiments 

1. City of Apartments 

2. Towards the Suburbs 


1. East Park 

2. West Park 


Hills and Dales of the Wissahickon 

1. The Lower Valley 

2. Along Sparkling Cresheim Creek 

3. Around Valley Green 
Woodland Shadows of the Pennypack 

1. By the "OF Swimming Hole" 

2. Rendezvous for Izaak Waltons 
By Placid Cobbs Creek 


Along the Brandywine 

Swarthmore College Campus 

To Bryn Athyn's Cathedral 

New Hope, Artists' Colonial 


Valley Forge 





















Introductory Tour 

City Tour 1 
City Tour 2 
City Tour 3 

City Tour 4 
City Tour 5 

City Tour 5A 
City Tour 6 

City Tour 7 
City Tour 8 
City Tour 9 
City Tour 10 

City Tour 11 
City Tour 12 
City Tour 13 
City Tour 14 

City Tour 15 
City Tour 16 
City Tour 17 

City Tour 18 
City Tour 19 
City Tour 20 

Environs Tour 1 
Environs Tour 1A 
Environs Tour 2 
Environs Tour 3 

Environs Tour 4 





































/ " ^> 


/ GUIDE \ 






1. City Hall 

la. City Hall Annex 
Ib. Market Street Nat'l 
Bank Bldg. 

2. Wanamaker Store 
Lincoln-Liberty Bldg. 

4. Girard Trust Co. Bid 

5. Mitten Bank 

6. Broad Street Station 

7. Reyburn Plaza 

8. Masonic Temple 

9. Bulletin Building 

Legend numbers refer 
points of interest describ! 
in chapter, Heart of ti 
City, page 379. 


The Philadelphia which greeted travelers 
in former days is revealed in the excerpts 
from old Baedeker Guides. 

Information Facilities in Philadelphia 

Information Service. General information concerning Philadelphia may be 
obtained at railroad and bus stations ; street railway, air line, and steamship 
offices ; department stores ; newspaper offices ; and various civic agencies. (See 
Transportation section.) 

Travelers' Aid Society, 307 S. Juniper St., maintains information desks at 
principal railroad stations. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company (P. R. T.), 224 S. Broad St., supplies 
information concerning trolleys, busses, subways, and elevated railways. 

American Airlines, Inc., Eastern Airlines, Inc., and United Air Lines, ticket 
office, 1339 Walnut St.; Pan-American Airway System, 1620 Walnut St.; Trans- 
continental & Western Air Lines, Inc., 1417 Chestnut St. 

The two major automobile clubs the A. A. A., at 23 S. 23d St., and the 
Keystone, at Broad and Vine Sts. furnish road maps and special service to mem- 
ber and keep on file folders descriptive of places of special interest to visitors. 
They outline motor routes, indicating detours and roads under construction. 

The Chamber of Commerce, 12th and Walnut Sts., and the Board of Trade, 
Bourse Bldg., 5th St. near Chestnut, supply data concerning commercial Phila- 

The leading daily newspapers are: Record (morning) ; Inquirer (morning) ; 
Evening Bulletin; Evening Public Ledger; Daily News (evening). All except the 
Bulletin 1 and Daily News conduct resort and travel bureaus. 

Publications. The following will be found useful: BoycTs Official Philadelphia 
Street and Trolley Guide and the Bulletin Almartac and Year Book, both avail- 
able at newsstands and stationery stores; Glimpses of Philadelphia, Chamber of 
Commerce, 12th and Walnut Sts.; Hotel Greeters Guide of Philadelphia and 
This Week in Philadelphia, both available at most of the large hotels ; Philadel- 
phia Guide Book, Horn and Hardart "Automat" restaurants; The PJ?T. Traveler, 
P.R.T. Traveler's Lecture List, and P.R.T. Route Map, Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Co., N.W. corner Broad and Locust Sts.; and Unique Tours, Automobile Club of 
Philadelphia, 23 S. 23d St. 


Railroad Stations. Pennsylvania R.R. Thirtieth St. Station, 30th and Market 
Sts.; Broad St. Station, Broad and Market Sts.; Suburban Station, 16th St. and 
Pennsylvania Boulevard; North Philadelphia Station, Broad St. and Glenwood Ave. 

Baltimore & Ohio 24th and Chestnut Sts. 

Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines Market St. Ferry. 

Reading Company Terminal, 12th and Market Sts.; North Broad St. Station, 
Broad and Huntingdon Sts. 

Baedeker's (1893) ; . . . Tramways run from all . . . suburban 
stations ... or ferries to the chief centres of the city and Hotel 
Omnibuses (25c) meet the principal trains. 


Highways. Six US highways lead into Philadelphia. 

(See Philadelphia and vicinity map for highways and by-passes) Two bridges 
connect Philadelphia wilh New Jersey: Delaware River Bridge from Camden 
(toll 20 cents) ; Tacony-Palmyra Bridge (toll 30 cents). 

Bus Stations. Greyhound Lines terminal, Broad Street Station. 

Reading Transportation Co. terminal, 12th and Market Sts. 

Doylestown and Easton Coach Co. terminals, Broad Street Station, Reading 
Terminal, 12th and Filbert Sts., and Broad St. and Erie Ave. 

Island Beach Stages terminal, 1233 Filbert St. 

Martz Trailways terminal, 13th and Filbert Sts. 

Public Service Interstate Transportation Co. terminal, 13th and Filbert Sts. 

Trenton-Philadelphia Coach Co. terminals, 13th and Filbert Sts., Broad Sit. 
and Erie Ave., 5th St. and Roosevelt Blvd. 

Short Line terminal, 1311 Arch St. 

Safeways Trails System terminal, 13th and Filbert Sts. 

Red Star terminal, 13th and Filbert Sts. 

Pan-American Bus Lines terminal, 1233 Filbert St. 

In addition there are fleets of busses, with terminals on Filbert St. between 
12th and 13th Sts., that cover metropolitan Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ad- 
jacent S'tates. Broad Street (east side), is the converging place for most busses 
from New Jersey points. 

Suburban electric railway lines with their terminus at 69th St. provide access 
to the city via 69th St. Terminal. 

The High-Speed Line (fare 10 cents), between Philadelphia and Camden, across 
the Delaware River Bridge, connects with subway lines at 8th and Market Sts., 
Philadelphia, and with seashore trains in Camden. 

Airports. Central Airport, Crescent Blvd., Camden, 5 mi. S. E. of city for 
American Airlines, Inc., Eastern Airlines, Inc., Pan-American Airways System, 
and United Airlines. Ticket office, 1339 Walnut St. ; Transcontinental and Western 
Airlines, Inc., 1417 Chestnut St. (regular limousine service from 1417 Chestnut St. 
and Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, 75 cents; taxi fare from City Hall, $1.50; bus 
fare, 20 cents). 

Planes entering Central Airport are served from the Eastern Airlines, T.W.A., 
American Airlines, and United States Airmail Service. 

Ferries across Delaware River. Pennsylvania ferries dock at the Market St. 
wharf (fare 5 cents, 10 tokens for 30 cents; automobiles, 20 cents, strip of 10 
tickets, $1.50). Reading ferries dock at the Chestnut St. wharf and South St. 
wharf (fare 4 cents, 10 tickets for 25 cents ; automobiles, 25 cents). 

Passen'ger Steamship Piers. Wilson Line, Delaware Ave. and Chestnut St.; to 
Pennsgrove, N. J., Chester, Pa., and Wilmington, Del. This line also offers moon- 
light excursions on the river. 

Ericsson Line, Inc., Delaware Ave. and South St.; to Baltimore, by way of the 
Delaware & Chesapeake Canal. 

Local Street cars and busses. The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company (trolley 
and subway fare, 8 cents; 2 tokens, 15 cents; bus fare, 10 cents) operates trolleys, 
subway lines, and busses to virtually every part of the city. 

Baedeker's (1893) : . . . Electric, Cable or Horse cars traverse 
all the principal Sts., (fare 5c, transfer tickets 8c) . . . Omni- 
buses ply up artd down Broad St. and in Diamond Street. . . . 

Passengers may obtain free transfer tickets, when fare is paid by cash or 
token, enabling them to connect with other trolleys or subway lines. These are 
accepted on most of the routes. To connect with certain other routes an "ex- 
change ticket" is sold for three cents, at the time fare is paid. Conductors will 


explain when a free transfer will do and when an exchange is necessary, if in- 
formed of the destination desired. 

Taxis. Adequate service to all parts of city and suburbs (rates 20 cents for 
first l /4 mile, 5 cents each additional Vi mile). 

Baedeker's (1893) : . . . Hansoms (1-2 persons) l l / 2 M., 25c . . . 

Four wheelers, 1-2 pefrs. 50c., 75c . . . One trunk or valise free, 

each extra article of luggage 6c . . . 

Sight-seeing Busses. Tours of the historical, business, and residential sections, 
Fairmount Park, and Valley Forge are offered daily by two companies: the Royal 
Blue Line Company of Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Ninth and 
Chestnut Sis.; the Gray Line, Keith's Theatre Bldg., 1116 Chestnut St. (rates, 
city tour, 3 hours $2.00; l l / 2 hours, $1.00; Valley Forge tour, $3.00). 

Chartered bus transportation is obtainable through the Mertz White Way Lines, 
Inc., 3210 Spring Garden St.; the P.R.T. Co., Broad and Locust S'ts.; and the 
two sight-seeing bus companies listed above. 


Hotels. These run the gamut from 25-cent "flop-houses" to the palatial central 
city hotels. Room rates in the better hotels range from $2 up. (See Central 
City map.) 

Baedeker's (1893) : . . . Aldine, 1910 Chestnut St., a good family 
hotel, $3 l / 2 -5 . . . Greens, 8th and Ches.nut Sts., R. from $1, for 
men . . . 

Restaurants. Every type, from lunch wagons and automats to famous sea food 
houses and pretentious dining rooms. There are a number of foreign restaurants, 
including Italian, French, Jewish, Russian, Swedish, German, Rumanian, and 

Baedeker's (1893) . . . Bellevue Hotel (somewhat expensive) . . . 
Reisser, 5th St. above Chestnut, for men, with a "Rathskeller" down- 
stairs . . . Dennett's Lunch Room, 529 Chestnut St., 13 S. 9th St., 
an'd 1313 Market St. (Low prices.) 

Liquor Stores. As the sale of liquors and wines in Pennsylvania is a State 
monopoly, spirituous beverages in Philadelphia are dispensed through State 
liquor stores operated by the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board. Beverages are 
sold in sealed containers, which must not be opened on the premises. Liquor is 
sold by the drink only in taprooms and restaurants licensed for the purpose. 
Beer, ale, and porter cannot be obtained in liquor stores, but are offered for 
sale in thousands of taprooms throughout the city. 

State liquor stores, conveniently placed in every section of the city, are open 
from 10 to 9 daily, except Sundays and legal holidays. However, two central 
stores are open until 11 p. m. one at 1334 Walnut St., the other at 734 Market St. 

Street Numbering 

The numbered streets run north and south. A system which allots one hundred 
numbers to each block is used for designating all addresses. In general, the 
north and south streets are numbered each way from Market St. odd numbers 
on the east side, even numbers on the west. 

In the central section of the city, the east-west streets are numbered westward 
from Delaware Ave., on the eastern water front. Farther north, where the city 


stretches eastward, Front St. is the dividing line from which the numbers start 
in either direction. On all east and west streets, odd numbers are on the north 
side, and even numbers on the south. 

Germantown, Manayunk, Kensington, and other outlying sections have their 
own numbering arrangements, dating back to the time when they were separate 

Shopping Information 

The shopping center of Philadelphia a half century ago was at 8th and Market 
Sts. Today most of the leading stores are on Chestnut St. from 10th to 19th, on 
Walnut St. from 10th to 17th, and on Market St. from 7th to Broad. Most of 
the city's largest department stores are in the last-named section. 

On Market St. from 6th to 16th, and on cross streets between Arch and Wal- 
nut, may be found a great number of smaller shops which deal mainly in lower- 
priced merchandise. 

The important retail jewelry establishments are on Chestnut St., east of Broad. 
The wholesale jewelry trade is centered on Sansom St. between 7th and 8th, and 
the jewelers' "curb market'.' operates in this vicinity. 

Exclusive dress and fur shops are on Chestnut and Walnut Sts. between 10th 
and 17th, as well as on cross streets between these thoroughfares. Stores carrying 
select men's goods are also on Chestnut St. between 10th and 19th, and on 
Walnut St. east of Broad. 

Some of the downtown stores have branches in sections outside the congested 
areas. These sections include West Philadelphia, Germantown, Kensington, and 
Frankford, and such suburbs as Upper Darby (69th St.), Ardmore, and Jenkin- 

The Dock St. Market is the largest wholesale produce center in Philadelphia. 
Prominent among the retail produce centers is the Reading Terminal Market, 
12th St. between Filbert and Arch. On South and Bainbridge Sts., from 2d to 
10th Sts., schleppers, or barkers, buttonhole the passerby in front of many stores. 

On 9th St., between Christian and Wharton, is the city's colorful Italian market. 
Here pushcarts, filled with fish, meats, and vegetables, line the curbs on both 
sides of the street. The typical Jewish market is on 4th St. between South and 
Catharine. Here, in addition lo foodstuffs, a large assortment of dry goods and 
wearing apparel of the cheaper grade is offered for sale. Along Marshall St. be- 
tween Poplar St. and Girard Ave. is another Jewish market. 

The oldest market in the city is the Second St. or "Headhouse" Market, at 2d 
and Pine Sts. The first section of the market house was built in 1745, the "Head- 
house" in 1800. Here is carried on a flourishing trade in meats and general 

Climate and Clothing 

Summer temperatures in Philadelphia occasionally rise above 100, but the 
summer mean is well below that figure. The high humidity, however, often 
renders the atmosphere oppressive. Garments suggested for the warm season are 
those of pongee, silk, linen, cotton, Palm Beach cloth, and other lightweight 

In winter, as a rule, there are fewer than 100 days with a temperature below 
freezing. Here again, however, the high humidity accentuates the discomfort. Zero 
temperatures are seldom experienced. During part of the season it is possible to 
get along in comfort with a light overcoat. It is advisable to be equipped with all 


the accessories for winter wear, including raincoats and overshoes, since much of 
the precipitation occurs in the form of rain or sleet, rather than snow. Blizzards 
are rare only once or twice in a lifetime does the average Philadelphian see 
his city snowbound. 

Amusements and Sports 

Philadelphia is well supplied with facilities for every type of sport and amuse- 
ment, both indoor and outdoor. The city's great breathing spot, Fairmount Park, 
furnishes exceptional opportunities for recreation. In addition there are, in the 
city and vicinity, numerous baseball fields, among them the two major-league 
parks, football and other athletic stadia, golf links, tennis courts, bathing beaches, 
swimming pools, a famous regatta course, gymnasiums, concert halls, auditoriums, 
theatres, and night clubs. 

Public Parks. Numbering nearly 150 and set here and there in the various sec- 
tions of the city, these help fill the recreational needs of both children and 
adults. Except for the extensive areas covered by Fairmount and the other large 
parks, each occupies one or two city blocks. 

The central city parks are: Rittenhouse Square, 19th and Walnut Sts.; Logan 
Circle, 19th St. and the Parkway; the Parkway proper; Independence Square, 6th 
and Chestnut Sts.; Washington Square, 6th and Walnut Sts.; and Franklin 
Square, 6th and Race Sts. 

Amusement Parks. Woodside Park, Ford Road and Monument Ave., in Fair- 
mount Park (open June, July, and August), is the only amusement park within 
the city limits. Fireworks displays are a regular Friday evening feature. 

Willow Grove Park, Easton and Old York Roads, Willow Grove, (open, June, 
July and August), has served as a popular amusement park for Philadelphians 
for more than 40 years. 

Lakeview Park, 8400 Pine Road, Fox Chase, and Penn Valley Park, Trevose, 
are on the outskirts of the city. 

Stadia and Other Athletic Fields. Municipal Stadium, Broad St. and Pattison 
Ave. (seating capacity, 102,000), owned by the city, is one of the largest stadia 
in the world. Among the sports presented here are football, baseball, track, 
boxing, wrestling, midget, auto racing, bicycle racing, and soccer. 

Major league baseball fields: National League, Broad and Huntingdon Sts. 
(seating capacity, 18,500) ; American League, 21st St. and Lehigh Ave., (seating 
capacity, 29,000). The latter is generally known as Shibe Park. 

Franklin Field, 34th and Spruce Sts. (seating capacity, 80,000), is the outdoor 
stadium of the LTniversity of Pennsylvania. 

Temple University Stadium, Vernon Road and Michener St. (seating capacity, 
40,000) . 

German-American Field, 8th St. and Tabor Road (seating capacity, 1,500), is 
equipped for soccer, tennis, and trapshooting. 

Yellowjackets' Field, Frankford Ave. and Devereaux St. (seating capacity, 
5,000), is the scene of motorcycle and midget auto races and football games. 

Indoor sports events are presented at the Arena, 4500 Market St. (seating 
capacity, 6,000 to 10,000). Boxing, wrestling, and tennis matches and ice-hockey 
and basketball games are presented here. At times it is turned into a public ice- 
skating rink. Adjoining is an outdoor stadium (seating capacity, 9,500) in which 
boxing and wrestling matches are held in warm weather. 

The University of Pennsylvania Palestra, 33d and Chancellor Sts. (seating 
capacity, 10,000), is equipped for basketball. 

Golf Links and Tennis Courts: (See map for complete list.) 

Municipal and semipublic golf courses within city limits : Karakung and 


Cobbs Creek, 72d St. and Lansdowne Ave.; Holmesburg, 9500 Frankford Ave.; 
Juniata, M and Cayuga Sts.; and League Island, League Island: Park. 

In suburban sections: Baederwood at Noble; Beverly Hills at Beverly Hills; 
Glenside at Glenside ; Hi-Top at Drexel Hill ; Langhorne at Langhorne ; Mary 
Lyon and Sharpless at S'warthmore; Pennsylvania at Llanerch; Valley Forge at 
King of Prussia; and Wissahickon at Ft. Washington. In all of these the "pay 
as you play" plan is in force. 

Numerous private golf courses and country clubs lie within a 25-mile radius of 
the center of Philadelphia. Most of these ar<e available only to members and 
their guests. 

Municipal and public tennis courts within city limits: Allen's Lane, 283 Roch- 
elle Ave.; Baederwood, Old York Road, north of Hart Lane; Chamounix, Return 
Drive east of Ford Road; Cobbs Creek, 63d and Walnut Sts.; English Building, 
52d St. and Parkside Ave.; Fisher's Park, 5th and Spencer Sts.; Garden Court, 
47th and Pine Sts.; Hunting Park, 9th St. and Hunting Park Ave.; Kingsessing 
Recreation Center, 49th St. and Chester Ave.; League Island Park, Broad St. and 
Pattison Ave.; Passon, B St. and Olney Ave.; Spruce Tennis Club, 49th and 
Spruce Sts.; Walnut Park Plaza, 62d and Walnut Sts.; and Woodford, 33d and 
Dauphin Sts. 

Private tennis courts are connected with colleges, country clubs, and athletic 
organizations, such as the Penn Athletic Club, Drexel University, Y.M.C.A., 
Philadelphia Country Club, Racquet Club, etc. Their use is limited to members 
and their guests. 

Swimming Pools and Bathing Beaches. Most of the public recreation grounds 
have outdoor swimming pools, and virtually every sport and social club, as well 
as every branch of the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., has its pool. Most of the latter 
are indoors. Other swimming pools to which the general public is admitted are 
in hotels, apartment houses, athletic fields, etc. 

The city's two public bathing beaches are Pleasant Hill Park, Torresdale, on 
the Delaware River, and League Island Park, near the junction of the Delaware 
and Schuylkill Rivers. These facilities, open to all, are well policed and care- 
fully guarded. 

Concert Halls and Auditoriums. Academy of Music, Broad and Locust Sts. 
(seating capacity, 2,729), and the Academy of Music Foyer, in the same build- 
ing, are used for musical productions and for lectures, debates, and addresses. 
This building is the home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Philadelphia 

Municipal Auditorium, better known as Convention Hall, 34th St. and Vintage 
Ave. (seating capacity, 13,500). 

Witherspoon Auditorium, Juniper and Walnut Sts. (seating capacity, 1,000). 

Among the auditoriums on the University of Pennsylvania campus is Irvine 
Auditorium, 34th and Spruce Sts. (seating capacity, 2,127). 

All the leading hotels have ballrooms which are used for amateur theatricals 
as well as for dancing. 

Robin Hood Dell, in the heart of Fairmount Park, (seating capacity, 6,000), is 
an open-air amphitheatre, where both symphony and opera are presented on 
summer evenings. 

Theatres. Philadelphia supports four legitimate theatres, although the bookings 
are not continuous: Forrest Theatre, Walnut and Quince Sts. (seating capacity, 
2,000) ; the Erlanger Theatre, 21st and Market Sts. (seating capacity, 2,000) ; the 
Locust Theatre, Broad and Locust Sts. (seating capacity, 1,580) ; and the Chest- 
nut Street Opera House, Chestnut St. between 10th and llth (seating capacity, 
1,646) . 

Several of Philadelphia's theatres have become landmarks. Among them are 


the Walnut Street Theatre, 9lh and Walnut Sts. (seating capacity, 1,512), which 
presents Yiddish plays; the Metropolitan Opera House, Broad and Poplar Sts., 
(seating capacity, 3,482), which lends itself to various forms of entertainment 
from motion pictures to opera ; and the Academy of Music, mentioned above. 

Burlesque : Bijou, 8th and Race Sts. (seating capacity, 1,400) ; Trocadero, 10th 
and Arch Sts. (seating capacity, 1,100) ; and Shubert, Broad St. below Locust 
(seating capacity, 1,700). 

Negro productions: Nixon Grand, Broad St. and Montgomery Ave. (seating 
capacity, 3,200). 

Amateur and semi-professional : Plays and Players, 1714 Delancey St. ; Alden 
Park Little Theatre, Chelten and Wissahickon Aves.; Students' Little Theatre, 
2032 Chancellor St. ; the Germantown Theatre Guild, 4821 Germantown Ave. 

Motion Pictures: There are approximately 200 motion picture houses. The 
largest of those in central city are the Aldirie, 19th and Chestnut S'ts. (seating 
capacity, 1,400) ; the Boyd, Chestnut St. west of 19th, (seating capacity, 2,500) ; 
the Fox, 16th and Market Sts. (seating capacity, 2,467) ; the Stanley, 19th and 
Market Sts. (seating capacity, 3,100). 

Night Clubs: Philadelphia has numerous night clubs and cabarets, ranging 
from those having a cover charge to the less luxurious with neither cover nor 
minimum charge. Some of the best of the night clubs are operated in hotels and 
restaurants of established reputation, mostly in the central city section. 

Broadcasting Stations 

WCAU (1170 kw) 1622 Chestnut Street. (An affiliate of the Columbia Broad- 
casting System) 
KYW (1020 kw) 1622 Chestnut Street. 

WFIL (560 kw) Widener Building (KYW and WFIL are affiliated with the 
National Broadcasting Co., Inc.) 

WIP Broadcasting Station (610 kw) 35 So. 9th St. (An affiliate of the Mutual 
Broadcasting System) 

WDAS Broadcasting Station, Inc. (1370 kw) 1211 Chestnut St. 
WHAT Broadcasting Station (1310 kw) Ledger Building 
WPEN Studios (920 kw) 22d and Walnut Sts. 
WTEL Studios (1310 kw) 3701 N. Broad St. 
All may be visited by tourists. 








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Dates in many of the following events of general interest 
vary annually. Events lacking definite dates are either listed 
in" the week in which they usually occur or are marked 
"rt.f.d." (no fixed date) and take place during the month 
under which they are listed. 

Mummers Parade, northward on Broad St. 

Welsh Eisteddfod, auspices of First Presbyterian Church. 

Poor Richard Celebration; Christ Church Services; Wreath on 

Franklin's grave; Banquet at Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt's Birthday Ball, Convention Hall. (While 

President) ; 
Saddle Horse Association Indoor Show, 103d Cavalry Armory. 

National Home Show, Commercial Museum. 

Presentation of Bok Award for greatest service to city, Academy 
of Music. 

Chinese New Year Celebration date depending on lunar con- 
ditionRace St. between 9th & 10th. 

Exhibition of works by blind, Gimbel Brothers Store. 

Flower Show, Commercial Museum. 

Charity Horse Show, 103d Cavalry Armory. 

Motorboat and Sportsmen's Show, Commercial Museum. 

Penn Relay Carnival, Franklin Field. (Last Friday and Saturday). 
Sunrise Services, Reyburn Plaza, Franklin Field, and Temple 

Launching of ship of flowers on the Delaware in memory of 
deceased naval veterans, Race St. Pier. 

Boys Week, ending Saturday with parade on the Parkway to In- 
dependence Hall via Chestnut St. 

Dewey Day Celebration at Navy Yard. 

Folklore Festival, Academy of Music. 

Philadelphia on Parade, Convention Hall. 

Flower Mart, Rittenhouse Square. 

Germantown May Market, Vernon Park. 

Hobby League, Annual Show and Exhibition, Franklin Institute. 
(Usually held early in May, but some years in latter part of 




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Flag Day Celebration, Betsy Ross House. 

Field Mass for Police and Firemen, Logan Circle. 

Clothes Line Art Exhibit, Rittenhouse Square. 

Wissahickon Day, Riders and Drivers Meet, Wissahiekon Farms. 

Historical Pageant and Fete at Old Swedes' (Gloria Dei) Church. 

Opening of Robin Hood Dell concert season, Fairmount Park. 

Celebration in Independence Square. 

People's Regatta on the Schuylkill River. 

Clan-na-Gael Athletic Games, Northeast High School Field. 

Lafayette Day, observed at Independence Hall. 

Constatter Volkfest Verein. (German Celebration held Labor Day 
and following Tuesday), Philadelphia Rifle Club. 

Columbus Day Celebration at monument in Fairmount Park. 

Navy Day, open house at Navy Yard. 

Electrical and Radio Show, Convention Hall. 

Opening of Philadelphia Orchestra concert season, Academy of 


Food Fair and Better Homes Exposition at Commercial Museum. 
Opening of Philadelphia Forum season, Academy of Music. 

Kennel Club dog show, Convention Hall. 

Automobile show, Convention Hall. 

Thanksgiving Day Gimbel Toyland Parade (morning). 

Penn-Cornell Football Game (afternoon). 
Army-Navy Football Game, Municipal Stadium. (Schedule for 

Philadelphia from 1936 to 1938. 

Takes place Saturday following Thanksgiving Day. 

Christmas Ball, Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. 
Christmas Eve carol singing, Reyburn Plaza. 
Sounding of Liberty Bell, Independence Hall. 

Assembly Ball, Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. (Held 1st or 2d Friday). 
Charity Ball, Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. (Some years held late in 



Its position as a center of many of the cultural fields enables Phila- 
delphia to offer, from its wealth of sight-seeing treasures, an array of 
places of special interest to the visitor. Reference to the index will 
guide the reader to more complete information on the places included 
in the following lists : 


Carpenters' Hall, Chestnut St., east of 4th. 

Christ Church, 2d St., north of Market. 

Independence Hall, Independence Square, 6th and Chestnut Sts. 

Old Swedes' Church, Swanson St., south of Christian. 

William Penn (Letitia Street) House, Fairmount Park, west of 

Girard Ave. Bridge. 
Betsy Ross House, 239 Arch St. 


American Philosophical Society, 5th and Chestnut Sts. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 13th and Locust Sts. 
Independence Hall, Independence Square, 6th and Chestnut Sts. 
Library Company of Philadelphia, Juniper and Locust Sts. 


Free Library of Philadelphia, 19th St. and the Parkway. 

Graphic Sketch Club, 711-19 Catharine St. 

La France Art Museum, 4420 Paul St., Frankford. 

Memorial Hall, Parkside Ave. at 43d St. 

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Broad and Cherry Sts. 

Pennsylvania Museum of Art, 25th St. and the Parkway. 

Rodin Museum, 22d St. and the Parkway. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, 19th St. and the Parkway. 

Franklin Institute Museum and Fels Planetarium, 20th St. and 
the Parkway. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science Museum, 17th St. and Mont- 
gomery Ave. 

Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 36th St. and Woodland 



Edgar Allan Poe House, 530 N. 7th St. 

Free Library of Philadelphia, 19th St. and the Parkway 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 13th and Locust Sts. 

Leary's Book Store, 9 S. 9th St. 

Library of University of Pennsylvania, 34th St., north of Spruce. 

Mercantile Library of Philadelphia, 14 S. 10th St. 

Sullivan Memorial Library, Park Ave. and Berks St. 


Awbury Arboretum, Washington Lane and Chew St. 

Bartram's Gardens, 54th St. and Eastwick Ave. 

Botanical Gardens of University of Pennsylvania, South St., west 

of Schuylkill River. 
Fairmount Park. 
Herbarium of Academy of Natural Sciences, 19th St. and the 


Horticultural Hall, Fairmount Park at 44th St. and Parkside Ave. 
Morris Arboretum, Meadowbrook Lane and Stenton Ave. 
Woodward Estate, Mermaid Lane and McCallum St. 


Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, 18th St. and the Parkway. 

Church of the Brethren, 6613 -Germ an town Ave. 

Friends Arch Street Meeting House (Orthodox), 4th and Arch 


Old Pine Street Presbyterian Church, 4th and Pine Sts. 
Rodeph Shalom Synagogue, Broad and Mount Vernon Sts. 

St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church, 4th St., above Race. 
St. Joseph's R. C. Church, Willing's Alley (between 3d and 4th 

Sts., south of Walnut) . 
Race Street Meeting House (Hicksite), S. W. Cor. 15th and Race 


First Church of Christ (Scientist), 4012 Walnut St. 
Holy Trinity Episcopal Church, S. W. Cor. 19th and Walnut Sts. 
Grace Baptist Temple, S. E. Cor. Broad and Berks Sts. 
Swedenborgian Church (Church of the New Jerusalem), N. E. 

Cor. 22nd and Chestnut Sts. 


Academy of Music, Broad and Locust Sts. 
Curtis Institute of Music, 18th and Locust Sts. 
Robin Hood Dell, Fairmount Park, west of Ridge Ave. and Hun- 
tingdon St. 
Settlement Music School, 416 Queen St. 



Art Alliance, 251 S. 18th St. 

Art Club of Philadelphia, 220 S. Broad St. 

Philadelphia Sketch Club, 235 S. Camac St. 

Plastic Club, 247 S. Camac St. 

Print Club, 1614 Latimer St. 

Graphic Sketch Club, 719 Catharine St. 


Boyer Galleries, Broad St. Suburban Station Building, 16th St. 

and Pennsylvania Blvd. 

Gimbel Galleries, Gimbel Store, 9th and Chestnut Sts. 
Modern Galleries, 1720 Chestnut St. 
Newman Galleries, 1625 Walnut St. 
Rosenbach Galleries, 1320 Walnut St. 


Christ Church Burial Ground, 5th and Arch Sts. (Grave of Benja- 
min Franklin) . 

Portuguese Hebrew Burial Grounds, Spruce Street, east of Ninth. 
(Grave of Rebecca Gratz) . 


Benjamin Franklin Statue, 9th and Chestnut Sts. 

Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain, Fairmount Park near 
52d St. and Parkside Ave. 

Christopher Columbus Statute, Belmont and Parkside Aves. 

Cowboy Monument (Frederic Remington) , East River Drive 
above Girard Ave. Bridge. 

Equestrian Statue of Gen. U. S. Grant, East River Drive, Fair- 
mount Park. 

Equestrian Statues of Generals McClellan, Reynolds, and Meade, 
north plaza of City Hall. 

Joan of Arc Statue, Fairmount Park near 31st St. and Girard 

Lincoln Monument, Lemon Hill, Fairmount Park. 

Robert Morris Statue, Chestnut St., between 4th and 5th Sts. 

Smith Memorial, Fairmount Park near 42d St. and Parkside Ave. 

Washington Monument, 25th St. and the Parkway. 

Washington Statue, Chestnut St. between 5th and 6th Sts. 

William Penn Statue, atop City Hall. 

xxxi i 

SeaZ of Philadelphia 
'Let Brotherly Love Continue' 


and its 

Liberty Bell 
"Ring out for Liberty 9 


PHILADELPHIA through the countless changes of the past two 
hundred and fifty years has retained something of the rhythm 
and color of its pioneer days and some of the spirit and inten- 
tions of its founder. While it lacks a certain sophistication common 
in the larger American cities, yet beneath its surface calm throbs a 
pulse of activity peculiarly Philadephian. Despite its air of provin- 
cialism, the City of Penn claims justly a record of solid accomplish- 
ments not only in the arts and sciences, but in industry and commerce. 

Actually, Philadelphia is neither "slow" nor quiet. Against the 
bronze statue of William Penn atop City Hall beat the sound waves 
of a million-tongued titan ; alien accents and the stridency of the 
Machine mingling with the gentler tones of an older day. (Gone 
is the "Greene Countrie Towne" established 'among the tall pines 
two and one-half centuries ago; the alchemy of progress has trans- 
muted it into a great industrial city, and the ferment of commerce 
has altered its face.) Its voice is the voice of <aj city of contrasts 
a city of wealth and poverty, of turmoil and tranquillity, of stern 
laws often mitigated by mild enforcement ; a city proud of its world- 
molding past and sometimes slow to heed the promptings of modern 

Its Colonial primacy, which the Republic's growth has long since 
annulled, has set it apart, in some respects, from its American sisters. 
But, like many other centers of conservatism, Philadelphia during 
the 1930's has given evidence of a better understanding of the place 
it should occupy in the national scene. 

Although it wears with somber dignity the halo of great age, it 
was only yesterday that its colonization ceased, and time began to 
amalgamate the many nationalities composing its citizenry. Thus 
it bears the stamp in greater or less degree of a polyglot humanity 
the sedate Quaker; the Swede, touched by mysticism; the thrifty 
and methodical German; the imperturbable Englishman; the Celt, 
excitable, idealistic; the energetic and vivid Jew; the underprivileged 
Negro ; the mercurial Italian ; and the fatalistic Slav. 

Except for its tree-shaded squares and parks, Penn could not have 
envisioned the present municipality, with its 129 square miles en- 


compassing a far-flung checkerboard of streets thoroughfares 
crowded with raucous traffic and flanked by solid rows of buildings. 
With one exception, Penn's open squares are preserved in the city's 
heart just as he laid them out. 

A spirit of reserve has become proverbially characteristic of the 
city and its people. Philadelphia is hesitant in proclaiming the 
efficiency of its soundly welded commercial and industrial mechanism. 
Sanctuary of artist and scientist though it is, it makes no vulgar 
display of the refinements of cultural and scientific preeminence 
which clothe it with traditions reminiscent of Old World capitals. 

Nucleus of a "holy experiment" in colonization, it was dearly 
loved by the early settlers, and that love endures among its people 
today. Though ranking among the great cities of America, there sur- 
vives beneath its urbanity more than a trace of provincialism. Like 
most American centers of population, its growth has been the re- 
sult of consolidation. Made up of a number of communities, it is 
essentially a city of faubourgs combined with Penn's original town 
under a dual city and county government. Today, despite mass trans- 
portation, mass schooling, and mass thought, these sections retain 
many of the mannerisms, local loyalties, and physical idiosyncrasies 
inherited from the Quaker, Swede, and German communities of early 
days. Districts such as Frankford, Kensington, Nicetown, Rox- 
borough, Manayunk, Germantown, and West Philadelphia inde- 
pendent in local government until the Act of Consolidation of 1854 
have their own newspapers, community interests, shopping centers, 
and Main Streets. 

The staid manner of the early Quakers has left its impress on the 
city's character and has perhaps been responsible for the long pres- 
ervation of such anachronistic statutes as the Sunday Blue Laws of 
1794. Some of these laws were repealed in 1935. Although the 
Quaker element in general has abandoned its traditional sedateness 
for more modern modes and manners, there are many Friends who 
still observe quaint amenities of the past in the intimacy of their 
homes, thee-ing and thou-ing one another as in the days of Penn. 
Philadelphia's broad expanse rests upon lands generally flat or 
rolling, except where the Wissahickon and Fairmount hills or the 
Chestnut Hill and the Manayunk elevations break the terrain. To 
the stranger it may seem peculiar that, in a city with so much room, 
the houses crouch side by side in rows; and that in congested areas 
where space is scarce there are notably few skyscrapers. The reason 
for the prevailing "row house" may have its root in the pro- 
vincialism of the city, but skyscrapers are few for a reason obviously 
economic there is no great demand for them. 

Until comparatively recent years the city's low horizon was broken 
only by the looming tower of City Hall. This building is still the 


city's highest, but now its eminence is challenged by newer giants 
nearby in particular, the ultra-modern Philadelphia Saving Fund 
Society building, two blocks eastward. Nearby to the northwestward, 
where in former years sprawled an ugly melange of dilapidated 
dwellings, rise stately temples of art and science which overlook the 
landscaped Parkway and lend grace and dignity to the central city. 

Also pleasing to the eye are such remote portions of the city as 
Germantown, Chestnut Hill, Overbrook, and Oak Lane. These are 
residential sections where imposing homes, spacious lawns, and a 
multiplicity of trees provide the dominant scene. Even the row 
houses here have individuality. The traditional red brick often 
gives way to stucco and field stone, and variations in design break 
the monotony of constant repetition. 

In its multiplex building design, Philadelphia presents another 
facet of its paradoxical make-up. Within and around it is preserved 
a heritage of fine Colonial architecture in brick and stone, perhaps 
unsurpassed by that of any other city in the Nation. To the first 
structures, built by the Swedes, have been added buildings by Welsh- 
men, Englishmen, and later craftsmen of various nationalities. 

A short walk in older sections of Penn's "Towne" reveals a wealth 
of historic buildings public, ecclesiastical, and domestic and 
quaint back streets and courts. The many well-designed doorways, 
dormer windows, iron handrails, foot scrapers, and fire plaques make 
a stroll through these streets an interesting adventure. Interspersed 
with pre-Revolutionary structures are public buildings of the early 
Republic and the grotesque architecture of the late nineteenth cen- 
tury. The twentieth century, too, has thrust its bulk and ultra- 
modernism upon the city, without effacing the Philadelphia of yester- 
year. Though the shadow of skyscrapers may fall across such hal- 
lowed shrines as Independence Hall and Christ Church, the heavy 
hand of commerce leaves them unscathed. 

But Philadelphia has its "tenderloin" and its slums. The former 
finds its fullest expression in the region bordering Eighth Street north 
of Arch, where for several blocks it basks in the tawdry glory of 
brash neon signs and burlesque posters. Cheap restaurants and hot- 
dog stands fill the air with odors that mingle with the reek of alcohol, 
the stench of uncollected garbage, and the smell of humanity un- 
washed. Here, in this section of flophouses, shooting galleries, mis- 
sions, and bawdy houses, live and circulate the least prepossessing 
of Philadelphia's citizenry. 

Even more odious are the city's slums. Two areas especially 
poisonous have their eastern extremities along the Delaware River: 
one bounded, approximately, on the south by Race Street, on the 
west by Fifth, and on the north by Girard Avenue; the other em- 
braced in the area between Christian Street on the south and Lombard 


on the north, with its western limit near Eighth Street. These are 
neighborhoods of the handbox house and the vermin-infested hovel. 
Here man's need for shelter has been exploited to the utmost. It is 
only fair to add that preliminary steps have been taken to eliminate 
not only these slum sections, but also others scattered in various parts 
of the city. 

Viewed from an airplane, central Philadelphia presents tan orderly 
pattern of squares laid within the angles formed by two coordinate 
axes: Broad Street and Market Street. The former, reputedly the 
longest straight intracity thoroughfare in the world, forms the north- 
to-south axis; the latter, the east-to-west. Diagonal avenues, many 
following across the city the course of Colonial highways, occasion- 
ally modify the geometrical rigidity of these squares. 

If the plane approaches from the west, Fairmount Park's wooded 
hills and glens appear as a small wilderness entrapped, but un- 
ravaged, by the encircling tentacles of municipal and suburban 
development. From the southernmost limit of its green depths, the 
broad, tree-lined Parkway sweeps majestically toward City Hall, 
which stands directly upon what would be the intersection of Broad 
and Market Streets. 

The mammoth Thirtieth Street Station of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
and the new Post Office building can be picked out readily from 
above, standing as they do on the west bank of the Schuylkill River 
a stream silvery in Penn's time, but now blackened and polluted 
by the waste of factories. The railroad tracks leap across the river to 
parallel Market Street, flanking the northern side of the Market Street 
axis with a gigantic welt of masonry and steel. This elevated right-of- 
way, or "Chinese Wall" as it is locally termed, has long been con- 
sidered a civic nuisance. 

Not far south of the wall stand ancient dwellings, once the homes 
of Philadelphia's old families. The old families have long since de- 
parted, and many of the homes have become rooming houses or tap- 
rooms. Nearby are the luxurious apartment hotels of Ritlenhouse 
Square and the age-mellowed dwellings of Delancey Street last 
strongholds of that old aristocracy most of whose members have re- 
treated to the suburbs, leaving a diminishing rear guard to stem the 
tide of change. 

A point directly over City Hall offers the best view of the blocks 
of squares spreading in every direction big blocks, for Penn in- 
tended that each householder should have sufficient space for a garden 
plot. There are few such plots now; all available footage has been 
given over to solid ranks of houses, one row backed up against an- 
other in shameless intimacy. 

Farther eastward, beyond the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society 
skyscraper, the skyline undulates to the water front, where the city 


ends abruptly in a region of piers, wharves, and warehouses. Here, 
on the Delaware River's west bank and stretching for miles to north 
and south, lies the only large fresh-water port on the Atlantic sea- 
board a port which, though 88 miles from the Delaware capes, 
ranks among the world's greatest shipping terminals in point of 
cargo tonnage as well as in wharfage facilities. 

Stretching across the river is one of the world's largest suspension 
bridges the Delaware River Bridge, linking Philadelphia with 
Camden, N. J. Beneath its span move tug and barge in endless pro- 
cession ; in its shadow huge freighters are constantly loading and un- 
loading cargoes consigned to or brought from every corner of the 

Southward lies a virtual honeycomb of homes. Block after block 
of houses extend to the brink of the Delaware River, to within a mile 
and a half of the Philadelphia Navy Yard and to the gigantic oil 
refineries that have added to Philadelphia's economic worth at the 
expense of its fragrance. 

Immediately south of the business district is the second largest 
Negro section, a patchwork made up of bits of Memphis, Birming- 
ham, and New Orleans transplanted to Philadelphia. Here are the 
laborers and the children of laborers, imported principally by the 
politico-contractor firms. 

Philadelphia's "Little Italy" stretches south from the Negro sec- 
tion to the oil-suffused flats of the Delaware near the Navy Yard. This 
district, thoroughly alive, teems with humanity; reflecting struggle, 
emotion, and Latin intrigue. Provalone cheeses dangle in store win- 
dows, sloe-eyed sons of Sicily and Calabria loiter on corners, and the 
musty odor of red wine predominates. 

Delaware River Bridge 


South of Oregon Avenue and a bit west, the marshes that fringe 
the Delaware are dotted with huge silvery tanks. Here and there cabins 
and the frame shacks of produce farmers appear, but the rustic cry 
of the rooster is lost in the mournful blasts of foghorns as oil tankers 
move into their slips in the Delaware or the lower Schuylkill. 

Considering facets which, even though intangible, are important 
in a summation of the city's character, Philadelphia is figuratively 
two cities. One is the sprawling municipality of two million persons 
living and working compactly within the corporate limits. The other 
is the "city" of a half million which does its work within Philadelphia, 
but lives its private life on the exclusive Main Line or in other sub- 
urbs. Each morning by train, motorcar, bus and trolley the half 
million descend upon the city to assume their duties in its offices and 
mills and factories, until evening speeds them homeward. 

Among these half-million commuters are most of those who hold 
social and commercial hegemony over Philadelphia members of 
old families who regard themselves as the real Philadelphians. They 
are the holders of the city's vested trusts, members of its exclusive 
Assembly ; and of such organizations as the Racquet Club and the 
Union League the latter a political stronghold, where tenets of 
the Republican party have been entrenched since the Civil War. They 
govern the city's banks and its insurance companies, and establish 
the financial policies of its industries. 

Endowed with inherited wealth and traditional conservatism, most 
of them are reluctant to change. Under their guidance, until recently, 
the average citizen remained quiescent; with few exceptions labor 
troubles were of little consequence, despite the city's heritage in 
unionism, and radical economic philosophies made no appreciable 
headway. Much of this apathy may have been due to the fact that 
Philadelphia, prior to the Wall Street panic of 1929, had an aver- 
age of owner-occupied homes reaching 50 per cent or higher. It is 
significant that when many of those homes were forfeited by fore- 
closures, chiefly because of the collapse of building and loan associa- 
tions, the yeast of change began to ferment. In the political and 
economical mutations of the current decade, moreover, there per- 
meated through every strata of society the realization that the right 
of the worker to a job is an essential factor in the economic well- 
being of the nation. 

Locally known as the "City of Homes" and the "Workshop of the 
World," Philadelphia is both of these within certain limitations. The 
former designation has lost much of its appropriateness since the 
social cataclysm of the early 1930's, when thousands of homeowners, 
bereft of their property, had to rent apartments or portions of single 
dwellings. With the easing of the economic tension, some of these 
again began to acquire homes for themselves, but the majority have 



demonstrated their ability to live contentedly in apartments or rented 

The city's reputation as a world's workshop has continued up to 
the present materially undamaged. Philadelphia has fulfilled the 
economic destiny prescribed for it by its geographical position close 
to nature's storehouses of ores and fuel, and linked to them by 
ample facilities for rail and water transportation. Within its bound- 
aries are contained thousands of factories engaged in scores of differ- 
ent industries. While its industrial activities are centered in no partic- 
ular section, the northeast region, embracing Kensington, Frankford, 
and Tacony, has the most diversified manufactures and the greatest 
number of plants in operation. This is the country's leading district 
for textiles and the home of the largest saw-making plant in existence. 
Other famous Philadelphia-made products are radio reception units, 
hats, streetcars, automobile bodies, cigars, and carpets. The value 
of its industrial output is approximately a billion dollars annually. 

Since the days of Benjamin Franklin, David Rittenhouse, James 
Logan, and Benjamin West, Philadelphia has maintained a high posi- 
tion in the world of culture and learning. Although such a skyscraper 
institution as Temple University is symptomatic of the intrusion of 
modern influences upon the city's ancient dignity, this college has 
become as much a part of educational Philadelphia as has a much 
older institution, the famed University of Pennsylvania. The city 
of Penn may cherish the old, but it does not shun the new. Thus 
there are century-old banks, hospitals, colleges, manufactories, clubs, 
hotels, and libraries standing side by side with those of recent origin. 
Forces ancient and modern, along with those transitional influences 
which link the new and the old in Philadelphia, impart to the city 
an atmosphere distinctly its own, and place their indelible imprint 
upon the living mosaic of its people. 

Thousands of its residents have never seen the Liberty Bell ; many 
thousands have never attended a concert of the world-famous Phila- 
delphia Orchestra. Naturally, only a small percentage of the city's 
population is represented in the student bodies of its art academies, 
music schools, and other institutions of specialized or general in- 
struction. But these cultural and historic institutions, whether or 
not they are of traditional prominence in their various realms, give 
to the Philadelphian a complacent pride which outsiders often mis- 
interpret as deliberate snobbery. 

The city can be seen in its most rollicking aspect on New Year's 
Day, when King Momus and his court rule Broad Street, filling the 
wide thoroughfare with joyous nonsense. It can be seen in its quietest 
hours from two to five every morning, when even downtown streets 
are virtually deserted. After seven and up to nine in the morning, and 
from five until seven in the evening the central area is a bedlam 


of clanging trolleys, rumbling busses, snarling motorcars, and hurry- 
ing throngs. 

Commuters and shoppers from outlying districts and suburbs en- 
train at Reading Terminal or the Pennsylvania Railroad stations, or 
take subway or elevated line leading west to 69th Street, north to 
Olney, northeast to Frankford, or east across the Delaware River 
Bridge to Camden. Out the broad Parkway from City Hall flows a 
river of automobiles, halting at regular intervals before the command- 
ing glare of intersection lights. 

By 7:30 there is a lull in the central city as the sphere of activity 
shifts to the home. Though in any large community the suspension 
of traffic at this hour is noticeable, in Philadelphia the dinner hour 
quietude is as definite a demarcation between the day's work and 
the evening's recreation as twilight is between sunshine and darkness. 
To many Philadelphians the evening's entertainment may include 
a "show" at one of the few remaining theaters, a film at one of the 
numerous movie palaces, or perhaps an athletic contest at one of the 
sports centers. Others may attend a concert or a lecture at the Academy 
of Music, while another element inevitably gravitates toward taproom 
or night club. But the greater number of Philadelphians will remain 

at their hearths. From countless 
rows of houses, standing in 
block-long anonymity against 
the blackness of night, will come 
in imperishable steadfastness 
the soft, warm lights of home, 
and the gentle tumult of chil- 
dren being marshaled for bed. 
On the morrow the city will 
arise to cope anew with its cur- 
rent problems; it will turn an 
inquiring face to the future, 
even while looking back in mem- 
ory to the misted glory of its 

Christ Church Tower 
Whose bells rang on market day' 




PHILADELPHIA and its suburbs comprise an area unusual in 
the variety of its landscape. The region lies in parts of three 
distinct physiographic provinces tracts of country in which 
geographic and topographic features derive from definitely different 
geological conditions. These three provinces, which form the border- 
lands of the Philadelphia area, are known scientifically as the At- 
lantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, and the Triassic Lowland. 

Philadelphia County, coextensive with the city, forms an area of 
129.714 square miles. The entire Philadelphia district, geologically, 
comprises 915.285 square miles, extending approximately 34.50 miles 
from north to south and 26.53 miles from east to west. 

The county itself is bounded on the south by Bow Creek, Back 
Channel, Delaware County line, and the Delaware River ; on the east 
by the Delaware River and Poquessing Creek ; on the north by Po- 
quessing Creek, the Montgomery County line, the Philadelphia, New- 
town & New York Railroad (a branch of the Reading Co.), Chelten- 
ham Avenue, Cresheim Avenue, Stenton Avenue, and Northwestern 
Avenue ; on the west by the Schuylkill River, City Line Avenue, and 
Cobbs Creek. 

The Coastal Plain, within which the southeastern corner of the 
county lies, consists of a raised section of sea deposits, covered in part 
by subsequent erosion products brought down largely by the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill Rivers from higher land nearby, and in part by 
"glacial outwashes," glacial clay, and sands washed down from the 
region north of Easton. 

The process by which the Coastal Plain originated causes the Phila- 
delphia area to be flat, with a gentle rise eastward from the Schuyl- 
kill, and a gradual decline southward to the Delaware. The formations 
in this area are composed of sands, clays, and gravels, with subter- 
ranean watercourses here and there which form quicksands. 

The Piedmont Plateau, a higher elevation, underlies the major 
part of the Philadelphia area. The rock formations of this area, very 
ancient geologically, appear along the East River Drive in Fairmount 
Park, along Wissahickon Creek, and in the Germantown and Chest- 
nut Hill sections. 



The rock structure of the Triassic Lowland is scientifically the least 
revealing within the Philadelphia area. It lies to the north of White- 
marsh Valley, and includes the wide region of flat and rolling country 
extending northeast and west from Fort Washington, Norristown, and 
the Trenton cutoff of the Pennsylvania Railroad, running as far as 
the Reading Hills and even extending into Lancaster County. The 
Triassic Lowland includes a great part of Bucks, Montgomery, Lan- 
caster, Chester, and Delaware Counties. 

Rivers : Two major streams, the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, 
form a junction at the southernmost extremity of Philadelphia. The 
former skirts the city on the east ; the latter takes a southerly course 
through the city before flowing into the larger stream. 

The Delaware River, from its source to the point where it flows into 
Delaware Bay, is 410 miles long, and drains an area of 12,012 square 
miles. It is navigable by ocean steamers as far as Trenton, the tidal 
limit, 130 miles from the Delaware capes. For approximately 35 miles 
the Delaware flows through the Philadelphia area. The stream is sub- 
ject to seasonal fluctuations in volume. 

The Schuylkill, approximately 100 miles long, has a drainage area 
of 1,915 square miles. With headwaters in the anthracite belt of 
Schuylkill County, it flows across the Triassic Lowland and the Pied- 
mont Plateau. Its chief tributaries are the Perkiomen and Wissa- 
hickon Creeks. 

The divide separating the basins of the Delaware and Schuylkill 
Rivers in the southwest is marked in general by the route of the 
western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In this southern re- 
gion, the Delaware watershed is drained by Cobbs, Darby, Crum, 
Ridley, and Chester Creeks, which empty into the Delaware River ; 
and the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creeks, which empty 
into the Christiana River, a tributary of the Delaware. On the divide 
between the Schuylkill and Delaware basins on the northeast are 
Germantown and Chestnut Hill. In this section the watershed is 
drained by Pennypack, Tacony, Poquessing, Neshaminy, Mill, Com- 
mon, Durham, Brock, and Pidcock Creeks. 


PHILADELPHIA'S flora differs little from that of other large cities 
in the East. However, the city's progress in the field of experi- 
mental horticulture is noteworthy. This experimentation was begun 
by pioneer settlers in the district. Members of the Penn family, in 
fact, brought to the New World saplings of cherished trees, shoots of 
cultivated plants, and many types of shrubs and flowers. 

By far the greatest of early horticulturists was John Bartram. 
Not satisfied to confine his researches to his home area, Bartram 



roved from Canada to Florida, obtaining an inclusive collection of 
American plants for the botanical gardens of Colonial Philadelphia, 
and for shipment to England. Many of the trees he planted before the 
Revolutionary War still stand. 

The horticultural halls and greenhouses of Philadelphia contain a 
myriad of trees, plants and shrubs, and the naturalist finds the flora of 
Fairmount Park most interesting. Trees comparatively rare may be 
found throughout the city's park system. These include the trans- 
planted balsam fir, red spruce, Chinese juniper, and Chinese elm, 
and the native shagbark hickory and sweet gum. Poisonous plants 
found in the section are poison ivy and poison sumach. 

Among the more common American trees growing in the Phila- 
delphia district are the red or soft maple, a tree that graces the banks 
of streams or marshes ; the flowering dogwood ; the white ash ; the 
black oak ; the white oak ; and the beech. 

Common locally are the black locust, the wood of which is valuable 
for shipbuilding and lathe work ; the American plum, a small tree 
productive of delicious fruit ; the wild cherry ; the black or sour 
gum ; the black ash ; the green ash ; the hackberry, and the red 

Other trees familiar in the area include the sycamore or button- 
wood ; the black walnut ; the butternut ; the mockernut hickory ; 
the shellbark hickory ; the red birch ; the sweet or black birch ; the 
hop-hornbeam or ironwood ; the linden, and the sugar or hard maple. 

In the glades and woods of the area are found the blue-water 
beech ; the large-toothed poplar ; the hemlock spruce, and the red 

Members of Philadelphia's arboreal family more rarely encountered 
in or near the city include the tulip tree ; the papaw, a small tree 
found in the rich bottom lands ; the horse chestnut, originally a 
native of southern Asia but long since naturalized as a shade tree ; 
the box elder, or ash-leaved maple, a tree that occasionally beautifies 
the banks of streams and lakes in the area, and the white pine. 

According to tree census figures for 1937, Philadelphia contains 
more trees than any other city in the world. Reports of the Fairmount 
Park Commission show that there are 157,773 trees on the city streets, 
and approximately 500,000 in Fairmount Park, and a million in the 
various other parks throughout the city. 

Some curious kinds of plants may be found in certain sections 
of Philadelphia. Some are indigenous, others have been transplanted 
from foreign countries and various parts of the United States. The 
common dodder's or love vine has small white flowers ; a parasite, 
it feeds on the herbs and shrubs to which it clings. The ghost plant, 
usually found under pine or oak trees, takes its nourishment from 
the roots of other plants. The compass plant, a foreign species, re- 



ceives its name from the fact that some of the leaves point north, 
others south, enabling the lost traveler to reestablish his position. 
The mad dog skullcap, found in shaded, wet places, was once con- 
sidered a cure for rabid dogs ; this plant belongs to the mint family, 
and has blue flowers and a smooth stem. 

The indigenous skunk cabbage, known to the early Swedish settlers 
in the Philadelphia section as "bear weed," is among the first har- 
bingers of spring. It has a thick rootstalk and a cluster of large veiny 
leaves. It is a perennial herb, with an unpleasant odor. Brightening 
sandy spots of suburban Philadelphia is the butterfly weed, so named 
because of its gaily colored flowers. The flowers are brilliant orange 
and borne in dense clusters. 


DURING the migratory season, many transient birds visit south- 
eastern Pennsylvania. Among the winter birds are the song, 
tree, and English sparrows; starling, winter wren, slate-colored snow- 
bird, white-throated cardinal, tufted titmouse, red and white-winged 
crossbills, pine finch and gold finch, herring gull, titlark, brown 
creeper, and golden-crowned kinglet. Birds of prey include the red- 
tailed, sharp-shinned and sparrow hawks ; the snowy owl, and the 
long-eared, short-eared and saw-whet owls. 

With the arrival of spring, Philadelphia's bird kingdom is well es- 
tablished. Crows fill the moist, warm air with raucous cries, snow- 
birds and tree sparrows linger in the fields, the fox-colored sparrow 
appears, cedar birds perch on the branches of red cedars, and the 
melody of song sparrows vies with the hammered tattoo of the wood- 
peckers. Other visitors are the robin, bluebird, house wren, dove, 
red-winged blackbird, and purple grackle. The crow, quail, horned 
owl, downy woodpecker, screech owl, barn owl, and cedar bird are 
found here through the year. 

The European starling, now common to many Atlantic coastal 
cities, where it nests in the niches of public buildings, first appeared 
in Philadelphia in 1904. According to ornithologists, the starling now 
outnumbers even the English sparrow in the city and suburbs. 

The starling has "taken over" many of Philadelphia's central city 
commercial buildings and many public buildings on the Parkway. In 
the autumn countless flocks nightly perch in the eaves of the Art 
Museum and the Public Library, to the annoyance of custodians. At- 
tempts to discourage this pest by firing roman candles at their roost- 
ing places have resulted in only temporary relief. 

With so much of the wildwood atmosphere still preserved, Phila- 
delphia has its share of bats, squirrels, chipmunks, rabbits, weasels, 
and the smaller rodents, such as the meadow mouse and the white- 



footed deer mouse. The raccoon and opossum are now rarely found, 
but are still encountered in the deeper rural sections of this district. 

Scene in Fairmount Park 
"Sylvan glades and purling streams 9 


THE first men known to occupy what is now Philadelphia were 
Indians of the Lenni-Lenape tribes. The Lenni-Lenape, whom 
the English later named the Delawares, were one of the more 
important nations inhabiting the eastern regions when Europeans 
first arrived. They belonged to the great Algonkian linguistic stock 
a:nd, according to their own legends, had migrated eastward from the 
country beyond the Mississippi. 

The Lenni-Lenape nation was divided into three main tribal groups 
the Munsee, Unami, and Unalachtigo. Philadelphia history is con- 
cerned chiefly with the Unami (or "Turtle") tribe of Lenape, though 
the Susquehannocks and Shawnees (the former of Iroquoian stock, 
the latter of Central Algonkian) figured in the city's early history. 

Penn's land treaties were negotiated with the Unami, who occupied 
both sides of the Delaware from the mouth of the Lehigh River to 
what is now New Castle, Del. Their main village or capital, Shacka- 
maxon, (Ind., place of eels) is generally supposed to have been the 
scene of the famous treaty conference held by William Penn on the 
west bank of the Delaware in the autumn of 1682. The village site, 
now part of Philadelphia, is known as Penn Treaty Park, and one of 
the streets in the vicinity bears the name "Shackamaxon." 

Many other sections of the city retain names given them by the 
Indians. Some of the more picturesque are Manayunk, "where we go 
to drink" ; Wissahickon, "yellow stream" or "catfish stream" ; Pass- 
yunk, "in the valley" ; and Wingohocking, "a favorite spot for plant- 
ing." Others are Kingsessing, "bog meadow" or "the place where 
there is a meadow" ; Pennypack, "still water" ; Tacony, "wood or 
uninhabited place" ; Tioga, "at the forks" ; Tulpehocken, "the land 
of turtles" ; and Wissinoming, or Wissinaming, "where we were 
frightened" or "a place where grapes grow." The area embraced in 
Philadelphia was called Coaquannock, or "grove of tall pines." 

The Unamis had large heads and faces, and their noses were 
sharply hooked. Mainly a sedentary and agricultural people, they 
lived on maize, fish, and game. Men of the tribe dressed in breech 
clout, leggings, and moccasins, with skin mantle or blanket thrown 
over one shoulder. Their heads were shaved or clipped, except for a 
scalp lock generously pomaded with bear's grease and bedecked with 
ornaments. The women garbed themselves in leather shirt or bodice, 



with skirt of the same material. They wore their hair plaited, the 
long tails falling over their shoulders. 

Before the advent of Dutch and Swede upon the Philadelphia 
scene, the Indians lived in lodges of birch hark. The more sturdy log 
hut of later date probably was copied from the whites, although Iro- 
quoian peoples lived in log dwellings prior to white contact. . 

Not long before Penn arrived in the New World, a group of 
Shawnees had migrated northward into Pennsylvania, some of them 
locating for a time on the flats below Philadelphia. The Susquehan- 
nocks from Maryland, known as "Black Minquas" to the Swedes, had 
preceded them and were well known to the early settlers. 

After a brief sojourn in the vicinity, the Shawnees moved north- 
ward to the Wyoming Valley, and thence to western Pennsylvania and 
Ohio. The Susquehannocks, waging bitter warfare with the Iroquois 
Confederacy, were driven from their Pennsylvania strongholds early 
in the period of white colonization. 

Probably no more intimate picture of the Indian living in and near 
Philadelphia can be given than that of William Penn to the Free 
Society of Traders in his letter of 1683. Penn wrote : 

For their persons, they are generally tall, straight, well built, and 
of singular Proportion. They tread strong and clever, and mostly walk 
with a lofty Chin. Of complexion Black, but by design, as the Gipsies 
in England. They grease themselves with Bear's fat clarified ; and us- 
ing no defence against sun or weather, their skins must needs be 
swarthy. Their eye is little and black, not unlike a straight-look't 
Jew. The thick Lip and flat Nose, so frequent with the East Indians 
and Blacks, are not common to them ; for I have seen as comely 
European-like faces among them, of both sexes, as on your side of 
the Sea. And truly an Italian Complexion hath not much more of 
the White ; and the Noses of several of them have as much of the 
Roman. Their Language is lofty, yet narrow ; but like the Hebrew in 
signification, full. Like short-hand in writing, one word serveth in the 
place of three, and the rest are supplied by the Understanding of the 
Hearer ; Imperfect in their Tenses, wanting in their Moods, Parti- 
ciples, Adverbs, Conjunctions and Interjections. I have made it my 
business to understand it that I might not want an Interpreter on any 
occasion, and I must say that I know not of a language spoken in 
Europe that hath words of more sweetness or greatness, in Accent 
and Emphasis than theirs ; For instance, Octokekon, Rancocas, 
Oricton, STiak, Marian, Poquesian, all of which are names of places, 
and have grandeur in them Sepassen, Passijon, the names of places; 
Tamane, Secane, Menanse and Secatareus, are the names of persons. 

If an European comes to see them, or calls for Lodgings at their 
House or Wigwam, they give him the best place, and first cut. If they 
come to visit us they salute us with an Itah! which is as much as to 
say, "Good be to you !" and set them down, which is mostly on the 
ground, close to their heels, their legs upright ; it may be they speak 
not a word, but observe all passages. If you give them anything to 



eat or drink, be it little or much, if it is given with kindness they 
are well pleased ; else they will go away sullen, but say nothing. 

In sickness, impatient to be cured ; and for it give anything, es- 
pecially for their children to whom they are extremely natural. They 
drink at those times a tisan, or Decoction of some Roots in Spring 
Water ; and if they eat any flesh it must be of the Female of any 
Creature. If they dye, they bury them with their Apparel, be they 
Men or Women, and the nearest of Kin fling in something precious 
with them as a token of Love. Their Mourning is blacking of their 
faces, which they continue for a year. Some of the young women are 
said to take undue liberty before Marriage for a portion ; but when 
married chaste. 

Their Government is by Kings, which they call Sachama, and those 
by succession, but always of the Mother's side. For instance, children 
of him who is now King will not succeed, but his Brother by the 
Mother, or the Children of his Sister, whose Sons (and after them the 
Children of her Daughters) will reign ; for Woman inherits. The 
Reason they render for this way of Descent is, that their issue may 
not be spurious. The Justice they have is Pecuniary. In case of any 
Wrong or evil Fact, be it Murther itself, they atone by Feasts and 
Presents of their wampun, which is proportioned to the quality of 
the Offence, or Person injured or of the Sex they are of. 

For their Original, I am ready to believe them of the Jewish Races. 

Penn's entire approach to the native was the outgrowth of a com- 
bination of characteristics that today seem contradictory. He held an 
unquestioning belief in the right of the white men, whom he con- 
sidered God's chosen people, to populate the new land, in the right 
of Christians to dispossess the aborigines. But his abiding sense of 
humanity softened to gentleness the stern measures to which such a 
belief would appear naturally to lead. Although a shrewd real estate 
man, promoting his interests even to the extent of circularizing 
Europe, he dealt generously with the Indians. The result indicated 
the promptings of his heart, which softened his views on the subject 
of white invasions and confirmed his belief that peaceful expansion 
of the Colony depended on the courteous and kind treatment of the 

It is doubtful if even the best intentions could have saved the 
Indians from a fate that hinged, not so much on the wishes of in- 
dividual men, as on the inexorable forces working upon European 
society. Penn treated the Indians with more consideration than any 
other Colonial Governor. His successors acted in a quite different 
spirit. It was not long after Penn was in his grave, that the Pro- 
prietors tricked the Indians out of a large slice of land by means of 
the notorious Walking Purchase. 

The Walking Purchase of 1737 was resorted to in settling a contro- 
versy due to a loosely drawn deed covering a tract extending from a 
point a short distance above Trenton, west to Wrightstown in Bucks 
County, northwest and paralleling the Delaware River as far as a 



man could walk in a day and a half, and then east to the Delaware, 
following a line not denned in the deed. 

Thomas Penn finally prevailed upon the Indians to agree to the 
terms of the document, and preparations were made for the walk. 
Instead of the leisurely method of walking, which the natives ex- 
pected, the whites advertised for fast walkers, marked trees to in- 
sure a straight line of travel, and made every effort to procure the 
greatest amount of land. Three walkers were hired, two of whom fell 
out, hut the third reached a point more than 60 miles from the start. 
The deceit was continued by drawing the line at an angle, rather than 
straight, thus claiming the best lands of the Minisink region. 

With the development of Philadelphia, Indians retreated to the 
outskirts, and finally to remoter regions, being pushed northward and 
westward as the frontiers spread out. Not long after the Walking 
Purchase, the last Delaware council fire died out upon the Wis- 
sahickon's hills, leaving Philadelphia to the white man and the white 
man's ways. Today about 150 Indians live in the city. They are not 
subjected to discrimination, and on the whole are entirely adjusted 
socially. The descendants of the Delawares and their historic allies 
are now domiciled in Oklahoma, numbering about 1,200 ; in Ontario 
about 400; with some scattered in Kansas and Wisconsin. Research 
in this important field, long neglected, has been carried on since 1928 
through the University of Pennsylvania Research Fund. 

Two small plots of ground were set aside in 1755 by John Penn, 
William Penn's grandson, as camping sites for Indian delegations 
visiting the city. One plot, formerly part of the Penn lawn, is off 
Second Street, behind the Keystone Telephone Building, between 
Walnut and Chestnut Streets. The other is behind the Ritz Carlton 
Hotel. Believed to have been deeded to the Six Nations, the grants in 
recent years have been the source of much publicity and a certain 
amount of legal bickering. In 1922 five Indian chiefs from New York 
visited Philadelphia to ascertain the legal status of their claim upon 
the onetime reservations. At this time, John Caskell Hall, a descendant 
of William Penn, "rededicated" the Second Street tract as an Indian 
camping site in the presence of Pennsylvania's Governor and Phila- 
delphia's mayor. The ceremony was considered, even by the visiting 
chiefs, as nothing more than a rhetorical gesture. 

Philadelphia is unimportant archeologically. Although most of the 
city stands upon a very ancient land mass, possibly rich in paleonto- 
logical and archeological remains, no evidence that man existed in 
the area prior to the coming of the Indian has been found. The 
nearest approach to a paleontological discovery was a section of a 
petrified tree dug up in 1931 by workmen excavating for the Eighth 
Street Subway. Even that find has not yet proved to be of scientific 
value, since neither its age nor its origin has been determined. 



And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement named before thou 
wert born, what love, what care, what service and what travail has 
there been to bring thee forth, and to preserve thee from such as 
would abuse and defile thee. 



A TINY ship, with weather- 
beaten sails billowing above 
her cluttered deck, limped 
into Delaware Bay on the after- 
noon of October 24, 1682, and beat 
slowly upriver against a northerly 
wind. She was the 300-ton Wel- 
come, bound from Deal, England, 
to New Castle, Delaware, with 
Capt. Robert Greenway in com- 
mand and William Penn as one 
Penn's Ship "Welcome" of her 70 passengers. 

High-sterned, and perilously low at the stem, the vessel was 
crowded with men, women, and children. Cows, pigs, and sheep took 
up much of her deck space ; her alleyways were glutted with masses 
of baggage, household utensils, and boxes of provisions. Her 'tween- 
decks exuded the miasma of contagion ; and from everywhere came 
the stench of crowded humans and penned-up livestock. 

For eight weeks the Welcome, pushing her slender bow through 
the North Atlantic seas, had battled gales and the scourge of small- 
pox. On September 1, she had raised anchor and stood down the 
English Channel with 100 passengers, among them one who had come 
aboard at Deal bearing the deadly germs. Within a few weeks nearly 
half the crew and passengers were down with the plague. The 
bodies of 30 victims had been committed to the sea before land was 

Under such discouraging circumstances did William Penn first look 
upon American soil, and to the travail of storm and death there was 



now to be added the opposition of wind and tide. Though within the 
capes, the Welcome had to struggle against headwinds for three days 
before reaching New Castle. 

On the morning of the 28th (the Welcome actually had arrived the 
evening before) Penn landed in New Castle, there to be greeted by 
his cousin, Capt. William Markham, resplendent in naval uniform, 
and by a gathering of Dutch, Welsh and English settlers. Tall, hand- 
some, and still of slender figure, Penn made an impressive appearance 
on that autumn Saturday as he formally took possession of the Dela- 
ware territory by receiving the "turf, twig and water" symbols of 
ownership, and renewed the commissions of incumbent magistrates. 

Impatient to see his Province of Pennsylvania, he proceeded that 
afternoon to Upland (now Chester) settled by the Swedes about 40 
years before and landed at the mouth of Chester Creek, named by 
the Indians Mee-chop-penack-han, or "the stream where large pota- 
toes grow." Here he was entertained over the weekend at Essex 
House, home of Robert Wade, a Friend whom Penn had known in 

Sometime during the first week in November, Penn and a party of 
friends rowed up river to the tongue of land formed by the converg- 
ing Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers, where the town of Philadelphia 
was being laid out. They continued past the Schuylkill's mouth, pro- 
ceeding up the Delaware to where Dock Creek led into a large green 
clearing on the west bank of the river. The place was called Coaquan- 
nock by the Indians because of its tall pines. In the vicinity such 
small Swedish settlements as Wicaco and Tacony had been estab- 

Some of the land desired by Penn was owned by these early 
Swedes, and still more belonged to the original owners the Indians, 
particularly the Unamis of the Lenni-Lenape nation. Adjustments 
were made later with the Swedes ; but since Penn's agents already 
had acquired considerable acreage from the Indians, the clearing on 
the Delaware was even now taking on the semblance of a real estate 

Under the supervision of Capt. Thomas Holme, the surveyor gen- 
eral whom Penn had sent to America with the advance guard of 
settlers, trees were being felled and cut into logs, plots were being 
leveled, streets graded, houses built, and the city was being laid out 
in accordance with Penn's plan. 

During the next few weeks Penn was busy. He visited New York to 
pay his respects to representatives of the Duke of York (from whom 
he had received the Lower Counties), made frequent 'trips to Phila- 
delphia to observe the growth of his "greene countrie towne," and in 
Chester worked on the plan of government for his Province. Mean- 
while he kept in contact with his agents in London, circularizing 



Europe with pamphlets in English, German, and other languages 
which pictured the beauties of America and outlined the ad- 
vantages to he gained by coming to the new land. 

As a result of this promotion campaign, immigrants poured into 
Pennsylvania during the ensuing years. Among them were so many 
Germans that James Logan, Penn's secretary, expressed a fear that it 
would become a German colony. One of the features attracting 
Europeans was Penn's Great Law and Frame of Government, which 
made provisions for free education, promotion of the arts and 
sciences, religious toleration, freely elected representatives, and trial 
by jury in open court. 

Many of the earliest settlers in Philadelphia found existence far 
from comfortable. Great numbers of them had to live for a time in 
dug-outs gouged from the Delaware's banks. There was no let-up in 
building ; during the first year after Penn's arrival more than 100 
dwellings of brick, logs, and wide clapboards were constructed, among 
them homes with balconies as well as porches. Brick houses were few 
at first, but the number increased rapidly as soon as bricks could be 
manufactured locally, making importation of that material unneces- 

Within a year of Penn's landing the growing town boasted 600 
houses. The Blue Anchor Inn, built in 1682 on the bank at the mouth 
of Dock Creek, and serving as Philadelphia's tavern, trade head- 
quarters, and community center, was no longer the most substantial 
building in town. Some of the homes were becoming almost pre- 
tentious, wharves were growing in size and number along the Dela- 
ware, and surrounding farms by the hundreds were being cleared 
and tilled. Penn, with pardonable pride, was able to write to his 
friends in England : "I have led the greatest colony into America 
that ever man did upon a private credit. I will show a province in 
seven years equal to her neighbors of forty years' planting." 

Thus was founded the City of Brotherly Love not only a haven 
for the persecuted, but also a sound business venture promoted by 
one who had a clearer understanding of human nature than most 
men of his time. This latter trait was especially made manifest in 
his dealings with the Indians. "Be grave," he had importuned his 
commissioners before coming himself to America, "they (the Indians) 
like not to be smiled upon." 



BORN October 14, 1644, the son of Admiral Sir William Perm, 
Pennsylvania's founder received his early education at a small 
free school at Chigwell, near Wanstead, England. A brooding 
lad, with a leaning toward spiritual thoughts, his behavior frequently 
exasperated his energetic sire. On October 26, 1660, after being tu- 
tored at home, young Penn was sent to Christ Church College, Ox- 
ford. Here he associated with members of a growing sect known as 
Friends, or Quakers, and became a convert. In this environment he 
heard Quaker leaders discussing plans for a colony across the sea. 
Members of the established Anglican Church already had such a 
settlement in Virginia ; the Puritans had a refuge in New England ; 
and the Quakers now dreamed of escaping persecution by establish- 
ing a colony in America. 

At first intimation of his son's interest in the Quaker faith, Sir Wil- 
liam became greatly perturbed. Then, when young Penn was expelled 
for refusing to wear a surplice in chapel, he ordered his son home 
and attempted to break the boy's will by physical discipline. In ref- 
erence to the incident, Pennsylvania's founder later spoke bitterly 
of the "Usage I underwent when I returned to my father ; whipping, 
beating, and turning out of doors in 1662." 

But punishment proved useless, so young Penn was sent on a tour 
of France. At Saumur he spent a year and a half studying in the 
Huguenot College under Moses Amyraut. Upon his return to England 
he studied law for a while, then accompanied his father to sea with 
the British fleet. Naval life did not appeal to him, however, and in 
1666 (the year of the great London fire) he was sent to Ireland to 
manage his father's Shannigary estate. Once again Penn came under 
Quaker influence, and this time he was committed irrevocably to the 

In 1668, at the age of 24, he began to preach and write, producing 
the pamphlet The Sandy Foundation Shaken, which offended the 
Anglican clergy. That same year he was confined in the Tower of 
London for nine months because of his religious activities. A few 
years later he was a prisoner in Newgate. "My prison shall be my 
grave before I will budge a jot," he declared stubbornly. After his 
release he continued to campaign, winning a wide reputation as a 
Quaker leader and as author of No Cross, No Crown and Innocency 



With Her Open Face. His father at last in 1670 was forced to recon- 
cile himself to the son's work, but that reconciliation did not come 
until the elder Penn lay upon his deathbed. 

On April 4, 1672, Penn married Gulielma Maria Springett. There 
followed an idyllic interlude, marred only by repeated persecution 
of the Quakers. In, 1680 more than 10,000 were thrown into prison, 
243 dying in loathsome cells. On others exorbitant fines were imposed, 
or their estates confiscated. By this time Penn's wife had given birth 
to seven children, three of whom, including twins, died in infancy. 

In 1681, as payment for a debt of 16,000 owed by Charles II to his 
father "for money advanced and services rendered," Penn received 
the grant of a vast territory in the New World. Thus his role in 
history entered a newer, brighter, and more glorious period. 

In signing the patent, the King stipulated that "two beaver skins 
be delivered at our castle of Windsor on the first day of January in 
every year, and also the fifth part of all gold and silver ore found." 

The patent was signed March 4, 1681, and on April 2 Charles issued 
a public proclamation to the inhabitants of the Province, enjoining 
them to yield obedience to Penn and his deputies. At the same time 
Penn addressed a message to the colonists, expressing the hope that 
he would be able to join them without delay, and urging them to 
pay their dues to his deputy governor, Captain Markham, who left 
for America that summer. 

On April 25, 1682, he completed his famous "Frame of Govern- 
ment." He called the document The Frame of Government of the 
Province of Pennsylvania in America., together with certain laws 
agreed upon in England by the Governor and divers Freemen of the 
aforesaid Province to be further explained by the First Provincial 
Council that shall be held if they see fit. In the constitution he de- 
clared the divine right of government was twofold, to "terrify evil- 
doers and to cherish those that do well." He also pointed out thai 
"any government is free to the people under it, whatever be the frame, 
where the laws rule and the people are a party to those laws." 

Meanwhile the Free Society of Traders was incorporated, with a 
capital stock of 10,000 for the purpose of developing the Province. 
Penn sold the society 20,000 acres in a single tract. The company did 
not prosper, but the generous terms under which the land was offered 
resulted in many purchases in London, Bristol, and even in Dutch 
and German cities. 

On May 5, 1682, Penn's Code of Laws was passed in England to be 
altered or amended in Pennsylvania. In this historic document, 40 
statements were promulgated which, in large measure, became the 
fundamental law of the Province. Among the provisions were that 
elections should be voluntary ; taxes were to be levied by law for 
purposes specified ; complaints were to be received upon oath or af- 



firmation ; trials were to be by a jury of twelve men, peers of good 
character and of the neighborhood. If the crime carried the death 
penalty, the sheriff was to summon a grand inquest of twenty-four 
men ; fees were to be moderate ; each county was to have a prison 
that would serve also as a workhouse for felons, vagrants, and idle 
persons ; and public officers and legislators were to take oath to speak 
the truth and profess belief in Jesus Christ. 

Penn was now ready to turn his back upon England and start a new 
chapter in the wilderness of America. So, winding up the last of his 
affairs, he boarded the Welcome at Deal on September 1, 1682, and 
set sail for Pennsylvania. For three quarters of a century Europe had 
looked with covetous eyes upon that virgin wilderness, and for about 
40 years there had been attempts to colonize it. Now it was to become 
the scene of action of one of history's most colorful characters the 
testing ground for his "holy experiment." 

The Years of Discovery 

A MAJESTIC river skirted one boundary of the wilderness com- 
^*- monwealth in which Penn was to make his great experiment. Im- 
portant to the Indians before the arrival of the whites, the Delaware 
River later played an important part in the development of town and 
Province, city and State. 

The first European known to have viewed the stream was Henry 
Hudson, who on August 28, 1609, sailed his Half Moon up the bay 
while seeking a northwest passage to China. The second recorded 
voyage to Delaware Bay was made in July 1610, by Capt. Samuel 
Argall, English navigator. Argall named the bay Delaware, in honor 
of Thomas West Lord de La Warr who but recently had arrived 
in Jamestown as Governor of Virginia. 

In 1614 the Dutch States General passed an ordinance claiming ex- 
clusive trade privileges to all America. That same year Capt. Corne- 
lis Jacobson Mey, representing the United New Netherland Company, 
explored Delaware Bay, giving to the east cape the name of Cape Mey 
(May) , and to the west cape the name of Cornelis, which he after- 
wards changed to Hindlopen later corrupted to Henlopen. When 
Mey returned to Europe, Capt. Cornelis Hendricksen, an associate of 
Mey, determined to explore the Zuydt, or South (now Delaware) 
River more fully. He went as far north as the mouth of the Schuyl- 
kill, and in his report to the States General declared he had dis- 
covered a bay and three rivers. 

In 1621 the States General chartered the Dutch West India Com- 
pany with sovereign powers, giving it a trade monopoly and rights 
to colonize on the coast of Africa from the Tropic of Cancer to the 
Cape of Good Hope, and on the American coast from the Straits of 



Magellan to Newfoundland. The territory claimed by the company in 
North America was called the Province of New Netherland. Thus 
culminated a long-drawn fight by the Amsterdam merchant, William 
Usselincx, for a powerful colonizing, navigation, and trading organi- 
zation. The company did not prove successful. Usselincx was later 
appointed Swedish agent in Holland. 

The company sent its first ship to America in March 1623, under 
command of Captain Mey. The latter erected Fort Nassau on the New 
Jersey side of the Delaware at Timber (now Sassackon) Creek, op- 
posite what is now League Island. Here trade with the Indians was 
carried on for a time, the site being alternately abandoned and re- 
occupied by the Dutch until 1651, when they moved to Fort Casimir 
at New Castle, Del. This was the first European attempt at permanent 
settlement on the Delaware. 

Some time after the formation of the Dutch West India Company, 
the disappointed Usselincx persuaded Gustavus Adolphus, King 
of Sweden, to grant him a commission to form a Swedish West India 
Company. Letters patent were issued July 2, 1626, and the project 
was recommended to the people of Sweden and Germany. Gustavus 
himself pledging the Royal Treasury up to 450,000 riksdalers. The 
Diet confirmed the measure in 1627, but the German war delayed 
organization. Gustavus was killed in battle, in 1632, and the plan was 
dropped temporarily. Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, regent and guard- 
ian for the little Queen Christina, soon renewed the patent of the 
company, with Usselincx as director. Pamphlets and circulars outlin- 
ing the project were distributed throughout Europe. Several wealthy 
Dutchmen became interested in the enterprise, and by 1637 actual 
preparations were under way to found a Swedish colony on the Dela- 

Meanwhile, in America, the Dutch West India Company had per- 
mitted a landed aristocracy to develop. Wealthy Dutchmen, acquir- 
ing large grants from the company, set themselves up as patroons or 
feudal chiefs of extensive territories. Among those interested in colon- 
izing the Delaware was David Pieterszen (or Pieterszoon) De Vries. 
The site of Philadelphia, however, lay untouched by white coloniza- 
tion, in fact, unseen until on January 10, 1633, De Vries sailed his 
ship up the river beyond the Schuylkill's mouth, anchoring off what 
is now Camden, N. J. The Indians were then at war with one another, 
and De Vries, afraid to trust them, did not go ashore, but dropped 
down the river to Chester Creek, where his vessel was ice-bound for 
two weeks. He then sailed down the Delaware and went on to Vir- 
ginia. Returning to the river in March, he captured a few whales, but 
because of their small yield in oil he decided to return to Holland. 

That same year Arent Corssen, commissary at Fort Nassau, was 
commissioned by the Dutch governor at New Amsterdam to buy from 


Workmarfs Place 
'A Bit of Stockholm' 


the Indians a tract of land on the Schuylkill. Upon this land, about 
a half mile north of the present Penrose Ferry Bridge, Fort Beversrede 
later was erected. In the meantime, difficulties sprang up between the 
patroons of New Netherland and the Dutch West India Company. It 
finally was agreed that the company would purchase the property 
and rights of the patroons, and on November 27, 1634, all the claims 
to the land on both sides of the Delaware passed to the West India 

The influence of the Swedes on the Delaware was now to be felt. 
The New Sweden Company, a hybrid organization financed equally 
by Dutch and Swedes, founded its first colony in 1638, on the present 
site of Wilmington, Del. The first governor, Peter Minuit, had been 
the Dutch governor at New Amsterdam for six years, until replaced 
by Wouter Van Twiller. As governor of New Sweden, Minuit erected 
Fort Christiana and purchased from the Indians all the land on the 
west bank of the Delaware as far north as the Schuylkill. Pursuing a 
policy of fair dealing with the Indians, Minuit gained their good will 
and succeeded in obtaining almost all the fur trade. 

Settlement of the Swedes upon the Delaware was sharply resented 
by the Dutch at New Amsterdam, who declared the Zuydt River of 
New Netherland had long been in their possession. Minuit was suc- 
ceeded in 1640 by Peter Hollandaer (or Hollander) , who purchased 
the land extending from the Schuylkill north to Falls of the Delaware, 
at what is now Trenton. 

Then came John Printz, a huge man of 400 pounds. Printz was to 
become the greatest of New Sweden's governors. After a career in five 
universities and meritorious service in the Baltic wars, he had been 
knighted and sent to America. In 1643 he built New Gotheberg (or 
Gottenburg) a log fort, and a cluster of rude shelters for the im- 
migrants on Tinicum Island, now part of Tinicum Township, Dela- 
ware County. For himself he erected a fine brick house called "Printz 
Hall," which stood as a landmark for a century and a half. The fort 
was soon destroyed by an accidental fire. 

Printz, known among the Indians as the "Big Tub," ruled Tinicum 
for ten years. He liked neither the Indians nor the Dutch, and his 
hatred of the latter was intensified when in 1645 the New Amsterdam 
governor sent Andreas Hudde to erect Fort Beversrede. Despite his 
grievances, Printz developed a brisk trade in pelts and tobacco, and 
made plans for the building of mills and forts. He married off his 
daughter, Armegat, to the valiant Johan Papegoja, vice governor of 
the Swedes on the Delaware. This was the first marriage ceremony 
between white persons within the present limits of Pennsylvania. 
Printz then returned to Sweden, leaving affairs in the hands of his 
new son-in-law. Papegoja was soon relieved by John Classon Rysingh. 

At last the friction between Dutch and Swedes resulted in open 



violence. A new governor, "Headstrong" Peter Stuyvesant, had come 
to New Amsterdam. Passionate, honest, and blunt, Stuyvesant stumped 
through the affairs of the New World on his wooden leg, hating the 
Swedes with characteristic intensity. He removed the Fort Nassau gar- 
rison to Fort Casimir, and when told of the fall of his new fort, he 
gave way to a mighty rage. In the autumn of 1655, with an expedition 
of seven vessels and 600 men, he entered the Delaware, lowered the 
Swedish flag everywhere and hoisted the Dutch in its place, reestab- 
lishing the mastery of Holland throughout the lower valley. 

Rysingh returned to Sweden and died in poverty. The leading Swed- 
ish settlers followed him home, while others surrendered their fur 
trade and moved upstream ahead of the conquering Dutch. Thus the 
wavelets of Swedish migration beat upon the shores of the Delaware, 
to leave the church, Gloria Dei, as a monument to their courage and 
their faith. 

But there was never any extensive settlement by either Swedes or 
Dutch. In the entire section of Tacony, as the Swedes called what is 
now Philadelphia, court records in 1677 showed 65 males between the 
ages of 16 and 60. The Dutch as well as the Swedes were destined to 
lose their hold in this part of the New World, and at last evil days 
fell upon "Old Wooden Leg" Stuyvesant. Geographically, the English 
had him bottled up and were pressing their advantage. "Alas," he 
wrote in despair to the West India Company, "the English are ten to 
one in number to us, and are able to deprive us of the country when 
they please." 

English Encroachment 

4 S early as 1634, two Englishmen, Thomas Young and Robert 
-^*- Evelyn, journeyed as far north on the Delaware as the present 
site of Philadelphia. They built a small fort at the mouth of the 
Schuylkill River, but remained there only five days. The next year, 
by order of the Governor of Virginia, an expedition under Capt. 
George Holmes attempted to seize Fort Nassau on the New Jersey 
side. The attempt was frustrated by the Dutch, who captured Holmes 
and sent him to New Amsterdam in chains. In 1641, sixty Puritans 
from New Haven went up the Delaware with the intention of settling 
permanently at the Schuylkill's mouth. (All Delaware River way- 
farers recognized the value of that particular spot, the embryonic 
Philadelphia) . The Puritans erected a blockhouse, but before long 
it was burned to the ground by raiders in the Dutch service, and the 
Connecticut colonizers were sent to New Amsterdam. 

At last, after the long years of claims and counter-claims, of voyages 
of exploration and attempts at colonization, came the Treaty of Breda 
in 1667, whereby England gained possession of the territory now con- 



tained in the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and New 
York. Vital changes in affairs of the New World were linked inti- 
mately with developments in the Old. On March 20, 1664, Charles II 
presented to his brother James, Duke of York and Albany, the lands 
between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. James gave to Sir 
George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley, courtiers and favorites, 
possession of the territory between the Hudson and the Delaware. 
Carteret had held the Island of Jersey for the Cavaliers against the 
might of Cromwell, and so the new province, at first named Nova 
Caesarea, was then called New Jersey. 

The fortunes of Col. Richard Nicolls, a follower of the Duke of 
York, also entered a period of brightness under the favor of the royal 
brothers. Nicolls dispossessed Stuyvesant in 1664 but he treated the 
Dutch and Swedes on the Delaware with consideration. He established 
the Duke of York's system of laws, which provided for trial by jury, 
religious freedom, and equality of taxation. 

After Nicolls, Col. Francis Lovelace governed on the Delaware 
(1667-1673), and then, the Dutch gained ascendancy in 1673, follow- 
ing the fortunes of a fresh war overseas. They maintained this posi- 
tion for only a year, during which time Peter Alrichs was deputy 
governor of the Colonies on the west side of the Delaware. With the 
Treaty of Westminster, in 1674, the English again were masters on 
this side of the Atlantic. 

Four years later, in 1678, the English ship Shield sailed up the 
Delaware, passing the Indian place, Coaquannock, which lay under 
a thin mantle of snow on the river's western bank. The site of Phila- 
delphia was then an almost unbroken wilderness, save for a few 
scattered clearings and an occasional log cabin sending its wreaths of 
smoke upward through the trees. 

The Shield, bound up-river for the new settlement of Burlington 
(N. J.), tacked close in to shore so close that some of the rigging 
scraped against branches of trees lining the water's edge. One of the 
crew gazed in awe at the broad flat forests stretching away from the 
placid Delaware, then turned to a shipmate and exclaimed : "Here 
is a fine place for a town !" 



ON April 23, 1682, Captain Holme set sail from London 
on the Amity., having been commissioned by William Penn as 
surveyor general of Pennsylvania. Holme arrived on the site of 
Philadelphia late in June, and immediately began the task of laying 
out the city on the elevated ground between the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill Rivers. 

The starting point of the city rose from tide level to an altitude of 
no more than 50 feet, its forest-covered surface drained by a half 
dozen creeks. Most of the area, except for early Swedish clearings 
along rivers and creeks, was primitive wilderness ; Indian encamp- 
ments had encroached very little upon the tall pines. 

Several plots had already been surveyed before the arrival of 
Holme, and a small number of buildings had been erected, princi- 
pally along Dock Creek. Choice sections of water-front land were ob- 
tained from the Swedes, who were given other tracts in exchange, 
and during midsummer a large area in what is now Bucks County 
was purchased from the Indians. 

The acreage obtained from the Swedes included frontage on both 
rivers. In plan at least, the city was extended westward to the Schuyl- 
kill River and from Vine Street to South two miles east to west, 
and one mile north to south. In the shadow of the Coaquannock 
woods Philadelphia thus slowly began to rise, while in England Wil- 
liam Penn was busily engaged in preaching the gospel of emigra- 
tion and making last-minute preparations for departure. 

Among his many schemes for development of the city and Province, 
Penn set great store on the Free Society of Traders, a land and com- 
mercial company chartered in London. Its president was Nicholas 
Moore, a London doctor, who came to Philadelphia shortly after 
Penn's arrival and later became speaker of the assembly and chief 
justice. The treasurer was James Claypoole, an able and energetic 
man who also made his home in the New World. 

One of the plans of the society was to erect an autonomous "Manor 
of Frank, which should hold its court-baron, court-leet and view of 
frankpledge." For this purpose to the society was granted a tract of 
20,000 acres about 20 miles northwest of the city. By June 1682, the 
total stock subscribed to the company had reached 10,000, but the 
undertaking later collapsed for a reason still undetermined. Possibly 



the society had made plans on too vast a scale. At any rate, manorial 
reservations and courts were not adaptable to democratic society. 

In order to attract wealthy individuals, Penn offered parcels of 
5,000 acres for 100, with 50 acres additional for every indentured 
servant brought to Pennsylvania. An opportunity was given entire 
families to purchase tracts of 500 acres, to be paid for in annual in- 
stallments over a period of years. Moreover, Philadelphia was to be 
built up "after the proportion of 10 acres for each 500 acres pur- 
chased, if the place would allow it." (Instead of becoming a colony 
of landed gentry, Philadelphia became a center for tradesmen, labor- 
ers, and seekers after homesteads.) 

Penn had been expected in Philadelphia for a long time before 
he arrived. The reason for his delay was that he was busy on his 
Frame of Government constitution. He consulted many persons, 
notably Algernon Sidney, who wished England to become a republic 
and who finally gave. his life for his liberal principles. Sidney did 
not approve some of Penn's ideas, although both were Whigs, and 
each was in his own way eager to help mankind. Penn made as many 
as 20 drafts of his constitution, each a considerable advance over the 
first, which would have created a landed aristocracy. 

Under Penn's rule there was to be a governor, a provincial council, 
and an assembly. The council" was to be composed of 72 freemen, who 
were to serve for three years, one-third being replaced each year. The 
governor was to have three votes in the council, but no power of veto. 
The council alone had the right to originate bills. The governor and 
council together constituted the executive power, and by division into 
committees were to manage the affairs of the Province. The assembly 
was to consist, for the first year, of all the freemen of the Province, 
and after that of 200 persons to be elected each year. 

It soon became evident that changes were necessary. Under the 
existing arrangement, the governor was impotent, and therefore the 
right of veto was granted him in 1696. Penn also modernized the 
method of impeachment, and was the first person to lay down the 
principle that any law which violated the constitution should be void. 
The final draft was completed April 25, 1682. 

When Penn and his contingent of settlers finally arrived, they 
found the season well advanced and the problem of shelter for their 
first winter in the new land a grave one. Of the situation Pastorius 
wrote: "The caves of that time were only holes digged in the ground, 
covered with earth, a matter of 5 or 6 feet deep, 10 or 12 feet wide 
and about 20 feet long. Whereof neither the sides or the floors have 
been planked. Herein we lived more contentedly than many nowa- 
days in their painted and wainscoted palaces, as I, without the least 
hyperbole, may call them in comparison of the aforesaid subter- 
raneous catacombs or dens." 



Building construction was carried on with renewed vigor in the 
spring. For himself Penn had ordered a house commanding a view 
of the Delaware, but it was not until March 10, 1683, that he took 
up residence in Philadelphia. By this time the Province had been 
divided into Philadelphia, Chester and Bucks counties, and both the 
Great Law and the Frame of Government had been adopted by 
the assembly, which had its first session in Chester, December 4, 1682. 
During 1683 a number of settlers made their way into the wilder- 
ness. More than 20 vessels loaded with immigrants arrived in Phila- 
delphia before the end of the year. Penn's great plan apparently was 
moving toward the success for which he had prayed and labored. 
His gratification at the progress of his Province found expression in 
many letters. "Colonies," he wrote, "are the seeds of the Nation." He 
called the Delaware a "glorious river," and declared that the Schuyl- 
kill being "boatable 100 miles above the falls and opening the way 
to the heart of the Province, is likely to attract settlers in that di- 

In sending back to England a copy of the city plan, he wrote: 

This I will say for the good Providence of God, that of all the many 
places I have seen in the world, I remember not one better seated, 
so that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town, whether 
we regard the rivers or the conveniency of the coves, docks, springs, 
the loftiness and soundness of the land and the air held by the people 
of these parts to be very good. It is advanced within less than a year 
to about fourscore houses and cottages, such as they are, where mer- 
chants and handicrafts are following their vocations as fast as they 
can, while the countrymen are close at their farms. 

Thomas Paschall, a pewterer, may be taken as a typical colonist. 
He came from Bristol, and with his family of seven children set- 
tled on a 500-acre tract between what are now Angora and Mount 
Moriah Cemetery. Paschallville was named for him. "Here is a place 
called Philadelphia where is a market kept as also at Upland," he 
wrote in 1683. Attending a fair at Burlington, N. J., he saw "most 
sorts of goods to be sold and a great resort of people. The country 
is full of goods." He declared that within a year 24 ships had sailed 
up the Delaware, which he termed "a brave, pleasant river as can be 
desired." The same year saw the arrival of at least 50 ships, bringing 
hundreds of Welsh settlers and the first of the German immigrants. 

From the very beginning the Welsh seemed to prefer the Schuyl- 
kill. In a short time other Quaker colonists arrived from Wales, pur- 
chasing 5,000 acres of unsurveyed land, a part of a larger tract set 
aside by Penn for the exclusive use of the Welsh. Penn's charter per- 
mitted him to erect manors, and perhaps the Welsh expected to have 
"manorial jurisdiction." However, only for a time did they enjoy 
special privileges of local self-government. The tract of 40,000 acres 
which they ultimately obtained was often called the Welsh Barony. 



Here were founded the townships of Merion, Radnor, and Haverford, 
west of the Schuylkill. Many notable Philadelphians trace their an- 
cestry to the first settlers of the Welsh tract. 

Gwynne Friends canie later than the Quakers who settled on the 
Welsh tract. Hugh Roberts, "a man of much enthusiasm," went to 
Wales and stirred up the ancient Britons to a realization of the ad- 
vantages of the new Province. As a result a new group arrived and 
purchased from Robert Turner a tract 18 miles from the heart of 

Not all the Welsh immigrants were Quakers, however. A large num- 
ber of Welsh churchmen from Radnorshire settled at Radnor, some- 
times called Welshtown, and built the famous St. David's Protestant 
Episcopal Church. Here the old Tory, Judge Moore, of Moore Hall, 
and the patriot, Gen. Anthony Wayne, worshiped and were buried. 

Pastorius and the Founding of Germantown 

N JUNE 10, 1683, the ship America, with Capt. Joseph Wasey in 
command, sailed from Deal, England, with a scholarly gentleman 
aboard a man who was to play an important role in the history of 
Philadelphia. He was Francis Daniel Pastorius, founder of German- 
town and forerunner of a great wave of immigration. Pastorius and 
his party of nine arrived in Philadelphia on August 20, six weeks 
earlier than the main body of the first Germantown colonists, the so- 
called Mennonite weavers. These, coming from Crefeld, arrived on 
the Concord, commanded by Capt. William Jefferies, on October 6, 
1683. They were not of German origin, as is commonly supposed, but 
were Dutch Quaker descendants of Mennonites who had taken up 
residence in the Rhine country after being driven from the Nether- 

The Krisheimers (or Cresheimers) likewise had their origin in the 
Netherlands, afterwards migrating to Switzerland and then to Ger- 
many before coming to America. Preceding the bulk of German mi- 
gration to Germantown and its environs, the Krisheimers and Cre- 
f elders did much to industrialize the Wissahickon region and develop 
agriculture along Cresheim Creek before the turn of the eighteenth 

Pastorius was born at Sommerhausen on the Main, Franconia, Sept. 
26, 1651, three years after the close of the Thirty Years War. His 
name in Low German was Scepers, but was Latinized into Pastorius. 

He attended four universities and spent years in study, travel, and 
association with cultured persons, becoming one of the great scholars 
of his time. One of the Frankfort Pietists, he was an important in- 
fluence in the great religious awakening that took place in the second 
half of the seventeenth century. 



Pastorius had as a fellow-passenger on the trip from Deal, Thomas 
Lloyd, who was accompanied by his wife and nine children. The 
weather was foul, whales struck the ship, and sailors went crazy ; hut 
Pastorius and Lloyd paced the deck, conversing in Latin and discuss- 
ing their hopes for the new colony. 

The America brought over 80 persons, among them Catholics, 
Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, Episcopalians, and one Quaker. 
Pastorius at first lived in a cave dwelling, but soon built a "little house 
in Philadelphia 30 feet long and 15 feet wide." Further describing 
his home, he wrote : "Because of the scarcity of glass, the windows 
were of oiled paper. Over the house door I had written : 'Parva 
domus, sed arnica bonis, procul este prophani' (A little house, but a 
friend of the good ; remain at a distance, ye profane) ." 

Six days after his arrival, Pastorius obtained from Penn a warrant 
for approximately 6,000 acres on the east side of the Schuylkill. The 
tract was divided between the German Company or Society (the so- 
called Frankfurters) and the Cref elders. German Town settlement 
was laid out with a main street 60 feet wide, and cross streets 40 feet 
wide. For each house a lot of three acres was provided. Pastorius 
doubling the acreage for his own dwelling. The little settlement 
grew, and in 1685, Pastorius reported that 12 families, numbering 41 
persons, were living in the colony. 

Germantown was incorporated as a borough in 1689, by a patent 
William Penn had issued in England. Pastorius acted as the bor- 
ough's first bailiff. Two members of the Op de Graeff family, and 
Jacob Fellner, were selected to serve as magistrates. These, together 
with eight yeomen, formed a general court which sat once a month, 
making laws and levying taxes. 

In August 1700, Pastorius turned over to the agents of the reorgan- 
ized German Company all the property in his charge. Then he be- 
came lawgiver, schoolmaster, burgher, scrivener, and writer of prose 
and verse. He served as schoolmaster of the Friends School from 
1698 to 1700. He was the prototype of the titular character in Whit- 
tier's Pennsylvania Pilgrim. 

Perm's Policy of Good Will 

TN LONDON on March 4, 1681, Penn had written triumphantly to 
-*- Robert Turner : "This day my country was confirmed to me under 
the great seal of England." On April 8 he sent a letter to America, 
assuring the Swedes on the Delaware and all other settlers in his 
Province that "You shall be governed by laws of your own making, 
and live a free, and if you will, a sober and industrious people." 

Under the Duke of York, the Swedes had obtained title to large 
tracts of fine land. Penn either purchased their properties or gave 



better lands in exchange for them. One instance of this policy is 
furnished in his treatment of the Svenssons or Swansons. These were 
Sven, Olave, and Andrew, the sons of Sven Gunnasson, all of whom, 
including the father, had settled at Wicaco, in the vicinity of what 
is now Front Street and Washington Avenue. Penn gave the Swansons 
good land on the Schuylkill, and they surrendered the Wicaco title. 
On April 10, 1681, Penn sent his cousin, William Markham, as 
deputy governor, to take possession of the Province. Markham was 
to read the King's proclamation and the proprietor's letter to the 
inhabitants, call a council, settle boundary disputes, erect courts, and 
preserve order. Markham was bold, resolute, and devoted to the 
proprietor. He is believed to have landed at Boston. By June 26 he 
was in New York, where Lieut. Anthony Brockholls, president of 
the council, governing in the absence of Sir Edmund Andros, yielded 
his authority on the Delaware in the name of the Duke of York 

At Upland (or Mecopanoca, as the Indians called it) , nine men, 
selected by Markham, met in council on August 3. A court was set 
up, and government was established. Thomas Revail was chosen clerk 
of the court, and John Test named sheriff. The court took the place 
of the Kingsesse or Kingsessing Court on the West Bank of the Schuyl- 
kill Philadelphia's Blockley Township. There were two Swedes in 
Penn's first council : Justice Otto Ernest Cock, an old Tinicum man, 
and Capt. Lasse Cock of Passyunk. Among the English members was 
Robert Wade, of Upland, first Quaker west of the Delaware. His 
place, Essex House, was a popular resort for Friends. 

Others in the Council were the Burlington settlers : Morgan 
Drewet, of Marcus Hook ; William Warner, William Clayton, William 
Woodmanson, Friends of the Upland section ; and Thomas Fairman, 
surveyor, who had built a house in the projected town of Shacka- 
maxon on a 300-acre tract. Fairman had boats and horses, and was 
of great service in the founding of Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia is a name taken out of ancient history (from Lydia, 
in Asia Minor) and means "brotherly love," a term that expresses 
the very essence of Penn's philosophy. Another ancient city also was 
said to have been in Penn's mind, not for its name, but for its plan 
Babylon, with its miracles in masonry. 

At any rate, Penn did astonish the world by the Babylonian big- 
ness of his plans. He told Markham to allocate 10,000 acres as a site 
for the new city. Holme's assistant, Henry Hollingsworth, is said to 
have left a journal, believed destroyed by the British at Elkton in 
1777, in which he declared that notwithstanding the manifest advan- 
tages of the Philadelphia site, Penn would have located his capital 
at Upland if he had not feared that place was too close to the 
northern boundary of Lord Baltimore's grant. 

According to Watson, Penn said : "Let the rivers and creeks be 



sounded on my side of the Delaware River, especially Upland, in 
order to settle a great towne." Watson also mentions the once pro- 
jected site of "Old Philadelphia" near the "Bakehouse," on the south 
side of Poquessing Creek in Byberry, which was abandoned, it is 
said, because of sunken rocks known as "the hen and chickens." 

"Pennsbury (in Bucks County) was rejected after survey," says 
Westcott, "probably because the water was insufficient." Other sites 
were considered, but all were rejected for Coaquannock, the grove of 
tall pines between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. 

Boundaries and Treaties 

A LTHOUGH the infant colony continued to make steady progress, 
-^*- Penn soon became troubled by boundary disputes. In June. 
1683, the year after his arrival, Maryland commissioners crossed from 
Chesapeake Bay to the Delaware on a grand hunt for the fortieth de- 
gree of latitude, which had been fixed by Charles I as the northern 
boundary of the Maryland grant. 

At New Castle the Marylanders borrowed a ship sextant. To their 
intense joy they found, according to their calculations, that they were 
far below the fortieth degree. With Lord Baltimore and 40 armed 
men, they proceeded to Upland that autumn, telling Markham that 
Upland, and probably Philadelphia itself, was in Maryland territory, 
and the Quakers would have to vacate. The Marylanders charged 
Penn's London lawyers with trickery in an effort to obtain a water 
exit at the mouth of the Susquehanna. 

Markham pointed out that Penn had no seacoast, and all he wanted 
was an outlet to the Atlantic. Penn, Markham informed them, had 
an instrument with which to lay out the bounds, but the instrument 
was out of order. The Marylanders laughed at this, and told Markham 
they already had determined the latitude at Upland by means of the 
borrowed sextant, and that it was 39 47' 5". 

Markham reminded them that whatever Charles I might have 
granted to Cecil Calvert, Charles II had granted to William Penn 
the land "from 12 miles distance northward of New Castle Towne." 
The Marylanders replied that "His Majesty must have long com- 
passes." Markham refused permission for the expedition to proceed 
farther up the Delaware, and Lord Baltimore demanded and re- 
ceived the refusal in writing. As the Chesapeake party journeyed 
homeward, they stopped at Marcus Hook to warn the residents 
against paying quit-rent to Penn. 

The dispute in the London courts over Penn's southern boundary 
lasted as long as did the proprietorships of the contending families. 
A compromise in 1760 fixed the line at 39 43' 26.3", and in 1767 
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon ran the line that exists as the 
boundary today. 



Concerning this trouble with Lord Baltimore, Penn wrote to Lord 
Halifax in England : 

The only interruption I meet with is from the unkindness of 
my neighbour proprietor, who not only refuseth compliance to the 
King's commands, and the grant he and the duke have gratuitously 
made me, but as impatient of the decision of our joynt sovereign, 
would anticipate that by indirect ways of his own. He taketh himself 
to be a prince, that, even to his fellow subject and brother proprietor, 
can by right determine difference by force, and we have been 
threatened with troops of horse. 

Penn's relations with the Indians, however, were always amicable. 
Before his arrival in America, he had entrusted to Markham the task 
of making several land treaties with the red men, and also had sent 
letters addressed to them to be read at treaty conferences, When he 
came to Pennsylvania he visited the various tribes, cultivating their 
good will and establishing friendships that were to last throughout 
his lifetime. 

He sat with them at feasts, watched their games, took part in their 
sports, and smoked (though he detested smoking) the pipe of peace 
with them. To white audiences Penn may often have seemed verbose, 
pompous, and somewhat of a bore, but the Indians received him as 
a man without guile, a man in whom dwelt a passion for fair play. 

Among relics preserved by The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
in Philadelphia is a wampum belt of white and purple shells. This 
commemorates the treaty "not sworn to and never broken." The 
Indians gave it to Penn in token of their love and friendship, to 
last "as long as the sun and moon shall endure." The emblem tradi- 
tionally has been identified with the celebrated Elm Treaty of 
Shackamaxon, which treaty may have been negotiated in the autumn 
of 1682 or the summer of 1683, on the site marked by a srigantic elm 
until 1810, and now by a marble obelisk. This meeting with the Dela- 
wares, Susquehannocks, and possibly the Shawnees has been incor- 
rectly portrayed on canvas by Benjamin West, and embroidered with 
fiction by careless writers. Some of the most dependable historians 
are prone to regard the Great Elm Treaty as a beautiful legend rather 
than as a historic fact, because the time and place of the meeting 
have been a source of so much dispute. No written record was pre- 
served ; Penn never specifically mentioned it in anv of his numerous 
letters ; and repeated searches disclosed no land deeds associating 
Shackamaxon with Penn and the Indians. 

These arguments, however, do not have sufficient force to dislodge 
the monument of marble from the site of Shackamaxon's famous elm. 
And this is as it should be. In time's inexorable perspective, Penn 
has to some extent lost fame as a colonizer, as an administrator, and 
as a true leader in the cause for which, earlier in life, he braved 



the wrath of kings and suffered the ignominy of prison. However, 
no historian can annul the covenants of amity written by Penn 
under countless unmarked trees. Whether or not he held a treaty 
conference with the Indians at Shackamaxon is immaterial ; he 
treated with them often, and in various places. The monument should 
be regarded not as a memorial to a single historic episode, but as a 
symbol of that quality in Penn which alone would give him im- 
mortality the quality that made him the beloved Miquon of Indian 
council fires long after land-hungry heirs had succeeded him. 

Later Years of Proprietorship 

T N 1684, Penn sailed for Europe, to remain there 15 years. During 
--this protracted sojourn in England and on the Continent, he ex- 
perienced many important changes in his private and public life. 
Becoming involved in royal intrigue, he was arrested on several oc- 
casions and had to submit to humiliating investigations. He was 
ousted from the proprietorship of Pennsylvania on March 10, 1692 ; 
not until August 9, 1694, was the Province restored to him. 

On February 23 of the latter year his wife died, and was buried 
beside four of their children. A fifth child died in 1696. In February, 
1696, Penn married Hannah Callowhill, daughter of a Bristol linen 
dealer, a woman of character and determination. Of his second union 
there were six children : John, born in the slate-roofed house in 
Philadelphia ; Thomas, Hannah, Margaret, Richard, and Dennis. He 
was 64 when his youngest child was born. 

Eager now to return to Pennsylvania, the Founder set about 
winding up his affairs in England. He made a preaching tour through 
Ireland, stayed for a while at the Shannigarry estate, and then sailed 
for America with his wife and daughter, Letitia. They took passage 
on the Canterbury, which left Cowes Road, Isle of Wight, on Sep- 
tember 9, 1699. The passage was long and tedious, and by the time 
they arrived in Philadelphia winter had set in. It was not a pleasant 
home-coming, though Penn's heart must have thrilled at sight of the 
busy water front, the long rows of red-brick houses, and the tidy 
little farms girdling his compact town. 

At Chester he had found yellow fever epidemic, and in Phila- 
delphia he was to find the assembly a difficult body of men with 
which to deal. This latter fact was not long in making itself ap- 
parent. Two bills presented by Penn one to prohibit the sale of 
rum to Indians, the other to provide for the decent marriage of 
Negroes were rejected with humiliating bluntness. The council 
was even more hostile. Penn soon realized he was proprietor in 
name only. To the Indians he was still the great sachem, the King 
of Men, but to the settlers in Philadelphia and the growing Province 
he was an over-scrupulous old man obstructing progress. 



For a while the Founder lived in the slate-roofed house at Second 
Street and Norris Alley (now Sansom Street) , afterward moving to his 
Pennsbury estate along the Delaware River in Bucks County. Here he 
lived in more or less political seclusion, though his restless nature 
took him abroad throughout the Province on visits to Indian villages 
and to outlying settlements. He maintained a six-oared barge on the 
river ; he kept blooded horses, a well-stocked pantry and cellar. 
Always a lover of good victuals, he now began to take on consider- 
able weight. 

This bucolic existence was rudely interrupted in 1701 by news 
that the English Parliament was attempting to bring Pennsylvania 
under direct royal control. Though keenly desirous that Penn should 
hurry to England and thwart the bill, the assembly appropriated 
money for the purpose only after repeated and maddening delays. 
By that time Penn's finances were in a deplorable condition, and even 
the large acreage of his Pennsbury estate had dwindled. 

Word of the Founder's imminent departure was treated with in- 
difference by Philadelphians, but Indians by the score came into 
the little city to say farewell to their Onas. Penn appointed Col. 
Andrew Hamilton, the former Governor of East and West Jersey, 
as deputy governor of Pennsylvania, and James Logan as Colonial 
secretary. Then, in October, 1701, he set sail for Portsmouth, England, 
with his wife and family. 

Penn intended to remain abroad only long enough to straighten 
out the affairs of the Province. However, forces which had no con- 
nection with problems of state kept him from ever returning to 
America. By 1705 he had obtained unquestioned autonomy for Penn- 
sylvania, through a grant obtained from Queen Anne, despite the 
Crown's growing tendency to check proprietary power in the New 
World. His private affairs, however, became so involved in claims 
and counter-claims that eventually he became a voluntary inmate 
of a debtor's prison. 

The autumn of 1708 found him living quietly with his wife and 
some of their children at Brentford, England. Penn was now in his 
middle sixties, extremely corpulent, and constantly ailing. His health 
declined rapidly and his mind became affected. In spite of this mental 
and physical decay, there persisted a stubborn spark of that energy 
which in middle age had driven him to wild frontiers, and now in 
the twilight of life guided his tottering footsteps in restless walks 
through the garden. 

In the spring of 1712 he suffered a paralytic stroke while on a 
visit in London. He had a second stroke in Bristol that autumn, and 
a third at Ruscombe in January 1713. During 1715 he suffered several 
minor strokes ; his memory for long periods at a time thereafter 
was a complete blank. He died July 30, 1718, at the age of 74, and 



was buried August 5 at Jordan's Cemetery near Chalfont St. Giles, 

Ben Franklin Appears 

r T ! HE next score of years saw the waning of Penn's empire in Penn- 
*- sylvania, and the gradual decline of Quaker dominance in the 
political affairs of Philadelphia. These years also witnessed civic im- 
provement, expansion of foreign industry, and periodic epidemics 
of malignant diseases. While Philadelphia itself was engaged in pav- 
ing streets, organizing fire companies, and developing industries, 
pioneers on the remote frontiers were struggling with a stubborn 

Probably the greatest public figure to make an impression upon 
Philadelphia's consciousness during this era was Benjamin Franklin. 
His influence began to be felt shortly after his arrival from Boston 
in the summer of 1723, but it was not until after his two-year so- 
journ in England that he became a really important factor in Phila- 
delphia affairs. 

Franklin had little sympathy with the pacific leanings of the 
Quakers, and less with their stern sectarian morality. He badgered 
them and ridiculed them. Though he earned the lifelong enmity of 
many, he managed to win over others, together with the Germans 
and the Irish, in his relentless campaign against British pretensions. 

He entertained a lasting dislike for Thomas Penn, who took over 
the proprietorship of Pennsylvania after the death of his mother, 
Hannah. Of the Founder's son, Franklin in 1758 wrote : "I conceive 
a more cordial and thorough contempt for him than I ever felt for 
any man living, a contempt that I cannot express in words." Ten 
years before, Thomas Penn had written of Franklin : "Mr. Franklin's 
doctrine that obedience to governors is no more due them than pro- 
tection to the people is not fit to be in the heads of the unthinking 
multitude. He is a dangerous man and I should be glad if he in- 
habited any other country. However, as he is a sort of tribune of the 
people, he must be treated with regard." 

Printer, scientist, journalist, lawmaker, business man, and philoso- 
pher, Franklin was concerned with every trend and every movement 
affecting Philadelphia from long before the Revolutionary War until 
his death in 1790. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, 
he went to the frontiers to superintend personally the building of 
forts, and through his untiring efforts among Pennsylvania farmers 
General Braddock was supplied with wagons for the march upon 
Fort Duquesne. 

After the French and Indian War he was conspicuous in the con- 
troversy with the proprietary government, meanwhile receiving a 
membership in the Royal Society for his contributions to science. 



For some years he represented the Colony in England, and upon 
his return in 1762 was considered the foremost personage in America. 

Franklin hardly had become settled at home when the Paxton 
Massacre occurred at Lancaster. A band of enraged Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers in Lancaster County, aroused by an Indian uprising on the 
frontier, had slaughtered an unresisting group of Conestoga (Susque- 
hannock) Indians who had sought refuge in the Lancaster jail. As a 
result of this atrocity, about 150 peaceful Indians from nearby regions 
fled in terror to Philadelphia. The Lancaster men, known as the 
Paxton Boys, from the township of that name, recruited a large force 
and began to march on Philadelphia, determined to slay these ref- 

Franklin quickly organized a force of 1,000 armed citizens to pro- 
tect the Indians. Even the peace-loving Quakers declared their will- 
ingness to aid in the defense. There was no bloodshed, however. The 
Paxton Boys reached Germantown, and there Franklin and three 
others conferred with their leaders and persuaded them to return 

In the autumn of 1763, John Penn, last of the proprietaries, arrived 
in Philadelphia to assume his duties as governor. He was followed in 
a few days by Mason and Dixon, who immediately undertook their 
boundary line survey. 

Meanwhile, most Philadelphia merchants, like those of other lead- 
ing ports, were engaged in a brisk smuggling business. England had 
attempted to obtain a monopoly of Colonial trade by means of the 
Navigation Act, but this measure was flagrantly evaded. Shipping 
men in Philadelphia we^-e building up fortunes by trading with 
countries other than Britain, in violation of the law. As long as King 
and Parliament were occupied in warfare, no serious attempt was 
made to enforce the act. 

Not long after the French and Indian War, however, Great Britain 
began to tighten her reins of government in the Colonies in order to 
bring them under direct control, and at the same time enjoy increased 
revenue by taxation. Although some members of parliament saw 
danger in this step, the King and landed interests did not. On this 
side of the Atlantic, men of vision read clearly the handwriting upon 
the wall, and prepared to resist usurpation. 

In 1765 the Stamp Act was passed by Parliament. This measure 
stipulated that certain types of legal, commercial, religious, and 
academic papers could not be used in the Colonies unless stamped 
by the British Government. As soon as word reached Philadelphia 
that the bill had become law, a wave of indignation spread through- 
out the city. Merchants assembled at the courthouse to adopt non- 
importation resolutions; and on the day the law went into effect, 
law offices, newspapers, and other publishing houses closed their 



doors, while the populace refrained from eating imported foods or 
wearing imported clothes. Stamps were destroyed whenever they were 
found, and ship captains carrying them were burned in effigy and at 
times threatened with bodily harm. 

King and Parliament soon came to realize they had stirred up a 
gigantic hornet's nest. To pass a law was one thing ; to enforce it was 
another. Strong opposition to the Stamp Act rose belatedly among 
several of the ministry, and its days thereafter were numbered. 

. ,*.<*? *w 

Friends' Meeting House 
"Gray-clad they came to worship" 



Portrait of Benjamin Franklin (by Joseph Wright) 
"Statesman, Scientist and Philosopher" 



ON March 18, 1766, the hated Stamp Act was repealed by Parlia- 
ment. The joyous tidings were brought to Philadelphia on May 
20 by the brig Minerva, commanded by Captain Wise. Im- 
mediately there was public rejoicing. The people gave Wise an ef- 
fusive reception, and huge bonfires blazed throughout the night as 
the town celebrated the great event. The following day toasts of al- 
legiance were drunk to the King at a public dinner held in the 
State House, and on June 4 the King's birthday was loyally com- 
memorated with a great open-air feast on the banks of the Schuylkill. 

The general feeling of amity toward the mother country turned 
to indignation, however, when it became apparent that the Crown 
had no intention of abandoning the rich revenues to be derived from 
the Colonies. The repeal of the Stamp Act had a string attached to 
it in the way of an accompanying Declaratory Act, which reiterated 
the right of Parliament to tax the Colonies in any way it deemed 
fit. Those colonists who were disposed to minimize the significance of 
this proviso were disillusioned when the Townshend Acts, levying 
heavy duties on paper, glass, tea and lead, were passed by Parliament, 
June 29, 1767. 

The reaction of the colonists to this new imposition manifested it- 
self in a boycott of all British goods. The trenchant arguments of 
John Dickinson's famous Farmer's Letters, a series of articles, of 
which the first appeared on December 2, 1767, and the last on Febru- 
ary 15, 1768, in William Goddard's Pennsylvania Chronicle, helped 
to stiffen the determination of the colonists to resist taxation 
without representation. Philadelphia, as the metropolis of the Colo- 
nies, fittingly assumed the lead in the movement of resistance, which 
grew in intensity during the following six years. 

The situation became increasingly ominous when Goddard's 
Chronicle on September 27, 1773, reported that a shipload of British 
tea was on the way to Philadelphia. Successive amendments had 
modified the acts of 1767 to a tax on tea only, importation of which 
now had become the main issue. By permitting the financially em- 
barrassed East India Company to ship untaxed tea to American con- 
signees, the British government was forcing the issue, in that a three- 
penny Colonial tax was to be imposed upon the commodity. The 
Colonies retaliated by refusing to permit the landing of the tea. In 



Boston citizens disguised as Indians boarded a newly arrived tea ship 
one night and dumped the cargo into the harbor. In Philadelphia 
the resistance, though less destructive, was no less determined. 

News of the Boston Tea Party reached Philadelphia on December 
24. On the following day word was received that the Polly, a ship 
from London, commanded by Captain Ayres and carrying a consign- 
ment of tea to Philadelphia from the East India Company, was ly- 
ing off Chester. This fanned the flames of resentment into brighter 
glow. A committee of action was organized, and threats were openly 
made that any pilot who dared to bring a British tea ship to Phila- 
delphia would be hanged. Promises to reject the consignment were 
obtained from the two Philadelphia tea firms involved. 

Meanwhile the Polly continued her course up the Delaware to 
Gloucester, N. J., where Captain Ayres was told politely but firmly 
that he would not be permitted to land his cargo. After conferring 
with the committee, he agreed to leave the ship and go over to Phila- 
delphia to determine more fully the popular feeling. On the next 
day, December 27, a large public meeting was held in the State House, 
and it was unanimously resolved that the tea should be rejected and 
returned at once to England, and that Ayres should be allowed one 
day in which to provision his ship for the return voyage. After mak- 
ing a formal protest, Ayres agreed to comply with the demands of 
the committee, and on December 28 boarded the Polly at Reedy 
Island, whence he set sail for London with the cargo of rejected tea. 

This incident, together with the Tea Party at Boston, constituted 
acts of defiance which the London government could no longer afford 
to ignore. As a consequence, Parliament enacted a bill to close the 
port of Boston to all shipping. This act was put into effect in June 
1774, by the arrival of royal troops under General Gage and the com- 
ing of British men-of-war to the New England port. Paul Revere had 
reached Philadelphia in May, bringing a letter concerning the King's 
threat to close the Port of Boston, and earnest requests from the 
Boston leaders for support. 

In Philadelphia public excitement increased daily. At a meeting 
of leading citizens held in the City Tavern, a resolution favoring 
support of Boston was adopted. Letters were dispatched to the 
Southern Colonies to enlist their support, and the Governor was asked 
to convoke the assembly. On June 1 a popular demonstration against 
the Boston Port Bill was staged. Stores were closed, the chimes in 
Christ Church were muffled, and flags were hung at half-staff. Neces- 
sity for drastic action was fast becoming acute. 


State House, in 1776 
'Where freedom was fledged" 

State House in 1876 


The First Continental Congress 

T A MEETING held June 18, 1774, at the State House, the calling 
of a general congress for all the Colonies was decided upon. A 
committee of correspondence for the city and county was formed, 
with John Dickinson as chairman. The counties were urged to send 
delegates to a preliminary state conference to be held at Carpenters' 
Hall on July 15. 

This conference, attended by 77 delegates from 11 counties, was 
presided over by Thomas Willing, as chairman ; Charles Thomson 
served as secretary. The meeting asserted the right of the Colonies 
to resist the unjust measures of Parliament and requested the Provin- 
cial Assembly to appoint delegates to the forthcoming Continental 
Congress. Meeting July 21, the Provincial Assembly named the fol- 
lowing as delegates to the Continental Congress : Joseph Galloway, 
Samuel Rhoades, Charles Humphreys, Edward Biddle, George Ross, 
and Thomas Mifflin. 

Since the Provincial Assembly was holding sessions in the State 
House, the First Continental Congress was perforce obliged to con- 
vene in Carpenters' Hall. The opening session was held on Septem- 
ber 4, 1774, with 44 delegates first assembled and within a few weeks 
the number increased to 52, who represented eleven of the Thirteen 
Colonies. Peyton Randolph of Virginia was chosen president, and 
Charles Thomson secretary. Other prominent delegates were John 
Adams, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, John Jay, Patrick 
Henry, and Samuel Adams. 

In keeping with the gravity of the situation, deliberations of the 
Congress were held behind closed doors, and continued through a 
period of six weeks. When the body finally adjourned on October 
26, resolutions foreshadowing the movement for independence had 
been adopted. The most important of these were the Declaration of 
Rights and the Articles of Association. The latter may be regarded 
as the forerunner of the Articles of Confederation. 

At the close of the Congress, the Provincial Assembly entertained 
the delegates at a banquet in the City Tavern, at which time hopes 
of reconciliation with the Crown were still expressed. The proceed- 
ings of the Congress, which had been submitted to the assembly for 
approval, were unanimously ratified December 10, 1774. 

By the opening months of 1775, tension between the mother 
country and the Colonies had increased. The Articles of Association 
adopted by the Continental Congress especially aroused the ire of 
King George, who saw in this covenant an overt act of treason against 
the Crown. On April 19 the long-brewing storm broke at last when 
the King's troops clashed with the Minute Men at Lexington and 
Concord. The War for Independence had begun ! 



News of the hostilities in Massachusetts reached Philadelphia on 
April 24, and the machinery of war was immediately set in, motion. 
Military committees were organized for the enlisting and drilling 
of soldiers. The Second Continental Congress convened May 10 in the 
State House, in a session which lasted until December 30. As the 
delegates arrived in town they were greeted by officers of the mili- 
tary companies with their bands. In addition to the delegates who 
had figured prominently in the first Congress, there were present 
John Hancock, who subsequently replaced Peyton Randolph as presi- 
dent of the body, and Benjamin Franklin, who had lately returned 
from London. Seventy-eight delegates representing the Thirteen 
Colonies attended the Congress, which adjourned August 1, reas- 
sembled September 5, and finally adjourned December 30. Through- 
out its sessions in 1775, the Congress assumed to a great extent the 
responsibility of government, and appointed George Washington 
commander-in-chief of the army of the United Colonies. 

Receiving his commission on June 17, Washington left for Cam- 
bridge, Mass., to take command of the Continental Army. He was ac- 
companied by Thomas Mifflin, Joseph Reed, and Philip John Schuy- 
ler. The light-horse troop, since known as the First City Troop, and 
all the officers of the city militia served as Washington's escort as far 
as Kingsbridge, N. Y. 

Beginning with the Second Continental Congress, Philadelphia be- 
came the center of the movement for independence. There was no 
longer any hesitation among local patriots in regard to the course 
to be taken. Young and old alike were eager to offer their services to 
the cause of freedom. A Committee of Safety was formed, consist- 
ing of 25 members, with Franklin at its head. The committee was 
organized May 11, 1775, and was empowered to call out troops and 
provide for the defense of the Province. 

Except for brief intervals of disturbance occasioned by the prog- 
ress of the war, the Congress sat in Philadelphia from 1774 to 1783. 
Military, financial, and legislative affairs of the Colonies were ad- 
ministered here; Philadelphia's geographical position, midway be- 
tween the North and the South, made it the logical choice as the war- 
time capital. 

The Declaration of Independence 

T7HILE the Congress was in session, the question of independence 
assumed greater importance in public debates. Although 
many of the more conservative leaders held that the time was not 
yet ripe for so drastic a step, public opinion was veering steadily to- 
ward action. Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, 
and others succeeded in convincing the majority of the people that 


Declaration Table iri Independence Hall 
'. . .we mutually pledge to each other our Lives . . .' 


the time was past for any conciliation with Britain and that complete 
independence was the only worthwhile goal. It was this growing con- 
viction which led delegates in the Second Continental Congress to 
sign the death warrant of British authority in the Thirteen Colonies. 

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, acting on instructions from 
the Virginia Convention, offered to Congress the resolution that 
"these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and in- 
dependent States, and that they are absolved from all allegiance 
to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them 
and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 
The resolution was debated in the Congress for three days, and then 
held over until July 1 in order to allow the Colonies sufficient time 
in which to instruct their delegates. Meanwhile two committees 
were appointed by the Congress : one to prepare a declaration of 
independence, the other to draw up a plan of confederation for the 

The committee appointed to draw up a declaration consisted of 
Thomas Jefferson (who had replaced Richard Henry Lee of Vir- 
ginia), John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and 
Roger Sherman. As head of the committee, Jefferson prepared the 
draft at his lodgings in a house which stood on the southwest corner 
of Seventh and High (now Market) Streets. 

The draft of the Declaration had been reported to the Congress by 
the committee, but was held over pending the vote on Lee's resolu- 
tion. After nine hours of debate on July 1, there were still four 
Colonies not in favor of the resolution. Pennsylvania and South Caro- 
lina voted against it, Delaware was divided, and the New York dele- 
gates were unable to vote pending instructions from home. It was 
decided to postpone the final vote until the next day. 

By the evening of July 2, however, Delaware and South Carolina 
had voted in the affirmative. Pennsylvania had reconsidered its ac- 
tion and had voted in favor of the motion by a slim margin. New 
York alone of all the Colonies failed to participate in the voting. 
Two days later, on July 4, the Declaration of Independence was for- 
mally adopted, after some alterations had been made in Jefferson's 
original draft. John Hancock, as presiding officer, and Charles Thom- 
son, as secretary, signed the document. On the morning of July 8, 
John Nixon read it in public in the State House yard. The crowd 
responded with enthusiastic cheers, the militia fired their guns in 
salute, and the Liberty Bell in the State House clanged lustily. Bells 
were rung all that day and night as the city gave itself up to celebrat- 
ing the birth of the Nation. The royal coat-of-arms, which had hung 
on the wall of the State House, was torn down and burned in a great 
bonfire in the State House yard. Thus ended, in an uproar of rebel 
lious jubilation, British rule in the Colonies. 


The Wartime City 

T^kESPITE Philadelphia's preoccupation with political matters, the 
-Asocial and economic growth of the city had steadily increased in 
the decade since 1768. Civic improvements in the way of additional 
fire companies, newspapers, shops, and theatres continued to be made. 
Ships loaded with immigrants from the British Isles sailed up the 
Delaware. In the years just prior to the Revolution, several thousand 
Irish immigrants arrived in the city. Several enterprising merchants 
were making Philadelphia an ever more important center of com- 
merce and finance. Improvements had been made along the Delaware 
for the protection of shipping. 

With the war under way, civic activities moved into the back- 
ground. Every effort was made to strengthen the city's defenses and to 
speed the enlistment of troops. The old British barracks in the 
vicinity of what is today Third and Green Streets had been evacuated 
by the royal troops in 1775, and were now used as a training camp 
for local recruits of the Continental Army. In July 1776, five Phila- 
delphia battalions were sent to support Washington's forces around 
New York, and saw service there for several weeks. River defenses 
below the city were constructed, and a fleet of boats was armed to 
patrol the Delaware. 

The general optimism that had prevailed in Philadelphia during 
the early months of the war began to fade as succeeding weeks 
brought news of defeat in the north. The theatre of war was moving 
nearer. Sick and wounded troops were being brought in greater 
numbers to the city. Smallpox and camp fever broke out among the 
soldiers and the civilian populace, causing many deaths. Trenches 
were hastily dug in Washington Square to bury the bodies. 

On November 19, 1776, the city was thrown into a state of alarm 
by news that General Howe had driven back the Continentals in New 
York and had captured Fort Washington on the Hudson. A month 
later the British were at New Brunswick in New Jersey, and this 
news caused a veritable panic in Philadelphia. Fear that the city 
would be captured led many families to load their belongings on 
wagons and leave for safer places. The Congress hastily departed for 
Baltimore, leaving a committee in charge. All able-bodied men were 
ordered to muster for the militia, as martial law was declared. 

Fortunately, Washington's bold tactics at Trenton and Princeton 
in the last weeks of 1776 relieved the situation, and for a time the 
city was safe from capture. During the middle months of 1777, ani- 
mosity against the activities of local Tories was manifested by the 
arrest of about 40 pro-British citizens, many of whom, such as 
John Penn, Jared Ingersoll, and Benjamin Chew, were men of promi- 
nence in the city. Some Tories were jailed, others were banished. 


(Above) Betsy Ross House Today 

(Left) Before Its Restoration 
"Here linger rich traditions of the nation's early days.' 

On June 14, 1777, the Congress decreed that the first American 
flag should have 13 stripes, alternately red and white, with a circle 
of 13 white stars on a field of blue. The first Fourth of July anniver- 
sary was celebrated with enthusiasm. A salute of 13 guns was fired in 
the afternoon, and a great dinner was given for the Congress and 
the leading military and civil leaders. Music was furnished by a band 
of captured Hessians. In the evening the Congress reviewed a parade 
of troops and observed a display of fireworks. 

Meanwhile, Howe's army, which had been moved south to Chesa- 
peake Bay, had landed near the head of the Elk River in Maryland 
and was advancing northward. The city was again in danger. 


The Philadelphia Campaign 

T EARNING on August 22 of Howe's advance, Washington prepared 
--'to meet the British. His troops, concentrated north of Phila- 
delphia, were marched into the town on August 24, prior to meeting 
the enemy at the Brandywine Creek. The army made an imposing 
sight as it marched through the city, with Washington riding at the 
head and Lafayette at his side. The troops crossed the Schuylkill 
and moved south toward Wilmington. 

By constant pressure against Washington's right flank, Howe forced 
the Americans to fall back. On September 11 the artillery duel across 
the Brandywine at Chadd's Ford could be heard in Philadelphia. 
By more skillful maneuvering, Howe had succeeded in placing his 
forces between Washington's positions and Philadelphia. As the battle 
progressed, fears increased in the city. After the fierce night attack 
of the British at Paoli on September 20, little hope was held for 
success. The Congress had fled to Lancaster on September 27, 1777, 
and to York on September 30. The battle of the Brandywine was a 
distinct defeat for the Americans, and enabled the British to occupy 

By September 25 Howe's army had reached Germantown, and the 
next day Cornwallis's division marched into Philadelphia. Local 
Tories emerged from hiding to welcome the British. On October 4, 
eight days after Howe's occupation of Philadelphia, Washington 
launched a surprise attack on British positions around Germantown 
and Mount Airy. After three hours of fierce combat, the American 
attack was repulsed. Washington withdrew his men to the upper 
Perkiomen, while Howe strengthened his position north of Phila- 

Towards the end of October 1777, Washington aa;ain advanced 
nearer to the city, concentrating his troops around Whitemarsh. On 
December 3 Howe moved a large body of troops out of Philadelphia, 
intending to take the Americans by surprise at Whitemarsh. Warned 
beforehand, Washington was prepared for the attack. After several 
sharp skirmishes, Howe abandoned his offensive and marched his 
men back to Philadelphia on December 8, while Washington moved 
his troops across the Schuylkill and lay at Gulph Mills until Decem- 
ber 19, when he marched to Valley Forge. 

The hills at Valley Forge, overlooking all the approaches from 
Philadelphia, constituted a vantage point that precluded any success- 
ful surprise attack by the British, and there Washington established 
his winter quarters, remaining until evacuation of Philadelphia by 
the enemy the following summer. 

A tragicomic incident occurring on the Delaware River off Phila- 
delphia during this period has gained immortality by reason of 



Yankee cunning arid Colonial wit. The affair took place while Wash- 
ington was bivouacked at Valley Forge and the British were billeted 
in Philadelphia. 

Some "rebels" on the Delaware north of the city conceived the 
idea of sending down on the ebb tide a number of kegs loaded with 
gunpowder and so arranged that any impact would cause them to 
explode. The purpose was to sink or damage British ships then lying 
at anchor in the river off Philadelphia. 

A heavy frost came the night the kegs were put into the water 
upstream, and the ships in the meantime were hauled into the docks 
unwittingly removed out of harm's way. One of the first kegs to 
come down the river, however, was observed by an inquisitive barge- 
man, who attempted to lift it aboard. The innocent-appearing object 
exploded, killing the man and several of his companions. The noise 
and confusion caused considerable alarm throughout the city ; British 
troops massed at the water front, firing at every obstacle they saw 
floating by. 

Rumors flew thick and fast. It was asserted that the wily Conti- 
nentals were drifting down the river doubled up in kegs, determined 
to retake Philadelphia somewhat as the ancient Greeks in the 
wooden horse took Troy. While squads of British soldiers on the 
bank were keeping up an incessant fire at the kegs, others went out 
on the river in vessels, bent upon checking the "invasion" at close 
quarters. It is related that just about the time the furor began to die 
down, an old marketwoman dropped a keg of cheese into the water ; 
and the strange "battle" was renewed with vigor. 

The incident is commonly referred to as the "Battle of the Kegs," 
after Francis Hopkinson's doggerel of that title. The Philadelphia 
poet's version puts these words in the mouth of a terrified redcoat : 

"These kegs I'm told, the rebels hold, 
Packed up like pickled herring ; 
And they've come down to attack the town, 
In this new way of ferrying." 

Of General Howe, Hopkinson gleefully relates : 

Now in a fright he starts upright, 
Awak'ed by such a clatter ; 
He rubbed both eyes and boldly cries ; 
"For God's sake, what's the matter?" 

At his bedside he espied 
Sir Erskine, at command, sir ; 
Upon one foot he had one boot, 
The other in his hand, sir. 

"Arise, arise!" Sir Erskine cries, 
"The rebels more's the pity 
Without a boat are all afloat 
And ranged before the city. ..." 


Save for minor skirmishes and forays, military operations around 
Philadelphia were suspended during the winter and spring of 1778. 
While the American troops were enduring cold and hunger in the 
snow at Valley Forge, the British were snugly billeted in Philadelphia 
during the long winter months. Howe's officers whiled away the time 
pleasantly. Balls, theatre-going, and gambling were the chief diver- 
sions. The troops were quartered in the old British barracks, in pub- 
lic buildings, and in private homes. The artillery was parked on 
Chestnut Street from Third to Sixth Streets, and in the yard of the 
State House. Until British transports arrived in the Delaware with 
provisions, conditions in the city were straitened. Food and other 
commodities were scarce, and there was much privation among the 
poor. Pillaging of private homes was a common occurrence. 

The crowning social event of the British occupation was the Mis- 
chianza pageant, held May 18, 1778, as a farewell to General Howe, 
who was returning to England after relinquishing his command to 
Sir Henry Clinton. Lasting throughout the day and evening, the Mis- 
chianza was a combination of regatta, military parade and tourna- 
ment, ball and banquet, attended by Tory belles and British officers. 

When Howe departed for England on May 24, preparations had 
already been made to abandon the city. Clinton called a council of 
war, and by June 18 had moved his army across the Delaware to 
New Jersey and was marching to New York. News of the British 
evacuation reached Washington at Valley Forge within a few hours ; 
and before the last of the enemy had left, the American advance 
guard had entered the city and was picking up British stragglers in 
the streets. The general aspect of the town was one of disorder, 
squalor, and desolation after the nine months of British occupation. 
Many houses had been plundered and burned. 

The Congress returned to the city on June 25 and convened in In- 
dependence Hall. Benedict Arnold, who later was to become in- 
famous for his treacherous conduct at West Point, was appointed 
military commander of the city by General Washington. The follow- 
ing months were marked by extreme bitterness against the Tories, by 
treason trials, law suits, and heated controversies. 

French support of the American cause changed the tide of war and 
led to the final capitulation of the British at Yorktown. On April 16, 
1783, the conclusion of peace and Britain's acknowledgment of Ameri- 
can independence were officially proclaimed in Philadelphia amid 
great public rejoicing. 

With the return of peace, industry and commerce soon revived. 
Despite high prices, money became more abundant, and the general 
prosperity of the city increased. By the middle of June, 1783, 200 
vessels had sailed up the Delaware River. While many fortunes had 
been lost by the Revolution, many others had been acquired. The 


Shippen-Wistar House 
"they spoke of ships and sealing wax and cabbages and kings" 

old Tory families for the most part had lost their affluence and social 
standing, and were now supplanted by a new aristocracy composed 
mainly of Whigs. 

The Bank of North America, first to be chartered by the Congress, 
was opened on January 17, 1782, on Chestnut Street near Third. Two 
years earlier, Robert Morris and others had founded the Bank of 
Pennsylvania. In 1786 the first medical dispensary in America was 
opened in the city by Dr. Benjamin Rush. In the following year, the 
archetype of present-day chambers of commerce was established as 
the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures 
and Useful Arts. Mail and stagecoach service to Reading and Pitts- 
burgh was inaugurated. 

During this period, the population of the city had grown from 
about 30,000 in 1778, during the British occupation, to about 42,000. 
New houses and shops were built to replace those destroyed during 
the war, and it was not long before the city had all the aspects of a 
thriving center of trade, with clean and neatly ordered streets and 
substantial homes. 


The Constitutional Convention 

VjfTITH political activity centering on problems of internal organi- 
zation, a growing need for a framework of stable government 
began to be felt. The earlier Articles of Confederation had proved 
inadequate for an integrated national government. Men of promi- 
nence were urging that a convention be called to consider a new sys- 
tem of unification. Finally, by a resolution of the Congress, the Con- 
stitutional Convention was called to meet on May 14, 1787, for the 
ostensible purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. 

Presided over by Washington, the Convention met (behind closed 
doors) in Independence Hall. Delegates from half of the States 
did not arrive in the city until ten days after the opening. Soon after 
the proceedings began, the sentiment increased for discarding alto- 
gether the obsolescent Articles of Confederation, and the drafting of 
a new constitution was urged. 

This new measure engendered considerable excitement among the 
delegates. Heated debates continued for many weeks, feeling ran high. 
Franklin, now grown old and garrulous, had to be accompanied con- 
stantly by a delegate, whose duty it was to keep him from talking too 
freely about the secret sessions. 

Supporters of the doctrine of State sovereignty violently assailed 
the new Constitution, the provisions and amendments of which finally 
were adopted by the Convention. A committee, consisting of James 
Madison, Alexander Hamilton, William Samuel Johnson, Rufus King, 
and Gouverneur Morris, was appointed to arrange and draft the docu- 
ment, which was ready for signing on September 17. The Convention 
recommended to the Congress that the new instrument be submitted 
to the sovereign people for ratification. This was accordingly done 
and the Constitution became the basic law of the United States when 
it was ratified by the ninth State on June 21, 1788. 

In connection with the Pennsylvania State convention, called 
on November 21 to ratify the Constitution, considerable disorder 
occurred. Two of the State delegates, Jacob Miley of Dauphin County 
and James McCalmont of Franklin County, incurred the displeasure 
of the people by deliberately absenting themselves from the conven- 
tion hall in order to prevent a quorum. Rioters did considerable 
damage to their property, and the authorities, including Benjamin 
Franklin, made no real effort to find and punish the guilty parties. 

The following Fourth of July, ratification of the new Constitution 
was celebrated with fitting enthusiasm. Ships decorated to represent 
the ratifying States were anchored in the Delaware River from Cal- 
lowhill to South Streets. General Mifflin led 5,000 soldiers and civilians 
in a parade through the streets. One of the features of the parade was 
a float with a great dome supported by 13 columns. 



The new city charter, superseding the old charter of 1701, became 
operative in March, 1789. It inaugurated a system of popular self- 
government, establishing the electoral offices of mayor, aldermen, 
and members of a common council. 

During the last decade of the century, Philadelphia was the seat 
of National Government. However, with the removal of the Federal 
Capital to Washington in 1800, and the State Capital to Lancaster 
in 1799, Philadelphia ceased to be the center of National and State 

James Wilson's Grave at Christ Church 
"they sleep among the immortals" 


c of- ( c*~ >vir * ' r < ,. r> r><- ^^ 


THE first decade of the nineteenth century was marked by grad- 
ual expansion of the city, with emphasis upon municipal affairs, 
industry, and commerce. Hunting Park was laid out, and what is 
now Nicetown became a pleasure resort known as Bellevue, where 
sports events and picnics were held. The tongue of land between the 
rivers was now fairly well developed, and much of the city's activity 
was spreading westward beyond the Schuylkill. Traffic across the 
stream had been handled adequately by ferries until the Revolution- 
ary War, when a temporary bridge on floating barges was constructed 
at Market Street late in August 1776. It was used by the Continental 
Army when enroute to the Brandywine in 1777. 

This bridge was removed at the approach of the British ; replaced 
when the enemy evacuated the city ; and then washed away by a 
freshet in 1780. It was replaced by a wooden bridge completed in 
1805 and covered the year following. This served for a half century, 
when it was reconstructed to bear the increased weight of railroad 
traffic. Fire destroyed it in 1875, and for several years traffic was 
served by a temporary bridge. Then, in 1881 the City Council passed 
an ordinance for the construction of a wrought-iron cantilever span. 
In the meantime bridges had been built at Gray's Ferry, at Callowhill 
Street and at Chestnut Street. 

Impetus was given civic improvements as early as 1800 by the in- 
stallation of water mains under the city's streets. During that year 
the Schuylkill Arsenal was built, and in 1809 the South Street ferry 
across the Delaware to connect Philadelphia with Kaighn's Point, 
Camden, was opened. Within the decade came the Navy Yard, the 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Pennsylvania Company for Insur- 
ances on Lives and Granting Annuities. Meanwhile, Stephen Girard 
was making his influence felt in banking circles. He purchased the 
building of the United States Bank, Third Street below Chestnut, and 
converted it into the Girard Bank, with a capital of $1,200,000. 

In cultural activities the city made headway. Literary clubs, 
theatres, and dancing schools, flourished. The Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts was founded, together with the Wistar Museum and the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. 

The War of 1812, between Great Britain and the United States, was 
supported enthusiastically in Philadelphia, where volunteers were 



recruited without difficulty. Among the Philadelphians to distin- 
guish themselves in the war were Maj. Gen. Jacob Brown, who cap- 
tured Fort Erie, and Capt. Thomas Biddle, commander of artillery at 
Lundy's Lane. While some of the Philadelphia troops were serving 
on the Canadian border, others under Col. Lewis Rush served on the 
Delaware peninsula. In 1815, there were 21 companies on duty there 
under Gen. Thomas Cadwalader. When news was received of the 
capture of Bladensburg by the British in 1814, entrenchments were 
thrown up by civilian volunteers on the outskirts of the city. Militia 
was held in readiness at Kennett Square and at Gray's Ferry. Numer- 
ous engagements with British men-of-war were fought in Delaware 
Bay by Philadelphia naval officers commanding Philadelphia ships. 
These were the days when Decatur, Bainbridge, Stewart, Porter, 
James Biddle, and others won renown for themselves and the Navy. 

When news of the Treaty of Ghent reached Philadelphia in 1815, 
the city returned to peacetime pursuits. During the next 20 years 
roads, canals, and railroads opened new avenues of trade with the 
West. The first railroad in Philadelphia was constructed in 1832 
connecting the city with Germantown, six miles away. A few years 
later the Camden and Amboy Railroad to New York was completed, 
as was the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore line. The Schuyl- 
kill Canal was opened to traffic in 1825. 

New banks were organized, among them the Philadelphia Savings 
Fund Society. Jefferson Medical College, the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy and Science, the Franklin Institute, and the Apprentices' 
Library were founded. In September 1822 the visit of Lafayette as 
"guest of the Nation" was the occasion of a gala celebration. 

The third decade saw the first public school for Negroes opened 
(1820), the Historical Society of Pennsylvania was organized (1824), 
the first locomotive came from the Baldwin Locomotive plant (1831), 
the greatest parade thus far held in the city to celebrate the cen- 
tennial anniversary of Washington's Birthday February 22, 1832, 
and the manufacture of the first illuminating gas for general consump- 
tion (by a private company in 1836) . The concern was soon bought 
up by the city, which began operating other gas-works set up in 
various districts. 

An epidemic of cholera marked 1832. Hundreds died before 
the scourge could be checked. Fifty inmates of the Arch Street 
Prison alone died of the disease within a few days. Religious and 
race riots also, prevalent throughout the country in 1834, had their 
repercussions in Philadelphia, where a Negro meeting-house was torn 
down by rioters in August of that year. 

The disturbances were caused by growing agitation for the abolition 
of slavery, with sporadic outbreaks of violence occurring almost every 
year until the Civil War. In 1838 a mob destroyed Pennsylvania Hall, 



a large edifice used for public meetings by the Pennsylvania Society 
for the Abolition of Slavery. Meanwhile, stations on the "Under- 
ground Railroad" for the assistance of runaway slaves were main- 
tained in the Philadelphia area, especially after adoption of the 
Fugitive Slave Law. 

Riots again broke out in 1840, when the Philadelphia and Trenton 
Railroad Company attempted to lay tracks on Front Street in Ken- 
sington, a populous section of the city. Opposition manifested itself 
in the tearing up of rails, burning of houses, and general rioting, in 
which many persons w T ere injured. 

Despite prevailing disorders during the 1840's, social reforms and 
civic improvement continued. These included abolition of imprison- 
ment for debt, and granting of property rights to married women. 
It was during this period also that Port Richmond was incorporated, 
the School of Design for Women founded (1844) and Girard College 
for orphan boys established (1848). A year prior to the latter date, 
in 1847, the American Medical Association was formed. 

The Native American or "Know-Nothing" movement, directed 
mainly against foreign-born of the Roman Catholic faith, resulted in 
the bloodiest riots in the city's history. Kensington, with its large 
Irish population, was the starting point of the disorders. The Irish 
resented the insulting implications of the Native Americans ; conse- 
quently, when the latter held an open-air meeting on May 3, 1844, 
at Second and Master Streets, the Irish broke up the gathering. Three 
days later, another meeting at American and Master Streets ended in 
a pitched battle, during which a member of the Native Americans 
was fatally wounded ; by the end of the day three deaths had resulted. 

The next day fighting was continued with renewed fury. Six of 
the Native Americans were killed. At Nanny Goat Market, near 
American and Master Streets, the Hibernia Hose House and a num- 
ber of dwellings were burned by the Native Americans in reprisal. 
The Catholic Church of St. Michael, Second and Jefferson Streets, 
was burned to the ground, as was the adjoining girls' school con- 
ducted by Catholic nuns. Although troops under Gen. George Cad- 
walader attempted to quell the rioters, another mob that same even- 
ing attacked the Catholic Church of St. Augustine, Fourth Street be- 
low Vine, setting fire to the church building and adjoining rectory. 

On July 4 there was a recrudescence of rioting. Although the Native 
Americans held a big parade without any disturbance arising, a 
rumor reached their ears that the Catholics had concealed firearms 
in the Church of St. Philip de Neri, on Queen Street in Southwark. 
This news so intensified the feeling that, on July 5, enormous crowds 
gathered near the church, which was heavily guarded by troops. 

Tension still ran high in the neighborhood of the church two days 
later. The troops were ordered to disperse the assembled crowds. Re- 



sistance was shown and the troops opened fire. Some of the rioters 
returned the fire. Two soldiers and seven civilians were killed, and 
many others were wounded. The Southwark commissioners decided 
that withdrawal of troops would ease the situation. The soldiers were 
withdrawn, and hostilities gradually ceased. 

During the Mexican War, Philadelphia supplied several regiments 
of volunteers, who saw service in Texas and Mexico. Gens. George 
Cadwalader, Robert Patterson, and Persifor Smith participated in 
the war, as did many other Philadelphia officers who later distin- 
guished themselves in the Civil War. 

The year 1848 was marked by the first visit of Abraham Lincoln to 
the city, and by the Whig National Convention at which Zachary 
Taylor was nominated for the Presidency. In 1849 the Philadelphia 
County Medical Society was founded. The next year saw the begin- 
ning of Philadelphia's police force, with the appointment of two 
assistants to the constable. In 1851 the Spring Garden Institute and 
the Shakespeare Society were founded. 

Consolidation of the City 

VI^TTTH the growth of the city and its adjoining districts, each of 
which had separate municipal powers, a situation arose that 
necessitated the annulment of authority of the petty district govern- 
ments, and their consolidation with the city. Southwark, Spring 
Garden, Moyamensing, Northern Liberties, Richmond, Kensington, 
West Philadelphia, Belmont, Germantown, Roxborough, Frankford, 
Manayunk, Bridesburg, Kingsessing all of these and other districts 
and boroughs formed a congeries of independent and conflicting 
municipalities. These overlapping governments and jurisdictions gave 
rise to many abuses and costly inefficiencies that hampered develop- 
ment. The old charter restricted the city to conditions no longer con- 
sistent with the times. In 1850 the city and suburban population was 
more than 360,000. But the city proper, as delimited by the charter 
of 1789, had a population of only 121,000. Thus, while the city was 
steadily growing, its governmental structure was lagging behind. 

Convincing proof of the evils arising from this disjointed local 
government was given in connection with the riots of 1844. Because 
of the absence of unified authority the rioters in Southwark were 
immune to interference from the rest of the city's governing bodies, 
as none of the latter had jurisdiction outside its own separate baili- 
wick. Under such a system a criminal could commit a felony in one 
district and evade arrest by crossing the street into the adjoining dis- 
trict. These evils accumulated to such an extent that, despite com- 
munity opposition, measures were finally taken to consolidate the 
adjacent districts with the city. 

The Act of Consolidation was passed January 30, 1854, and was 



signed on February 2 by Governor Bigler. Boundaries of the city were 
extended to include the entire county, and the new City of Philadel- 
phia took over all the property and debts of the incorporated dis- 
tricts. Twenty-four wards were established with a select councilman 
for each, and a common councilman for every 1,200 taxable inhabi- 
tants. The mayor was elected for a term of two years. Executive 
duties were transferred from the councils to the various city depart- 
ments. The first mayor to head the consolidated city was Robert T. 
Conrad, Whig. 

With consolidation, the city entered upon a new era of progress. 
Save for several financial panics and business depressions, it enjoyed 
an interrupted development. On July 24, 1844, Lemon Hill, com- 
prising a tract of 45 acres, was bought by the city and later dedicated 
as an addition to Fairmount Park. On April 28, 1857, the city pur- 
chased the Sedgeley Park estate, and in 1866 the Lansdowne estate, 
adding these to the park also. In 1856 the first Republican National 
Convention was held at Musical Fund Hall, when John C. Fremont 
was nominated for the Presidency. The Academy of Music was opened 
in 1857. It was also in 1857 that Mayor Richard Vaux organized the 
fire and police systems. This same year the Schuylkill Navy was 
organized, and two years later the Zoological Society. In 1860 Cole- 
man Sellers made the first photographic motion pictures. 

During this period the city's developments suffered a temporary 
setback because of a serious economic depression. The first symptoms 
appeared when the Bank of Pennsylvania closed its doors in Sep- 
tember, 1857. Within a few hours several other banks suspended 
specie payments. Excitement ran high, and police were called out to 
protect the banks from depositors clamoring for their money. Rival 
mass meetings were held in Independence Square either to protest 
against or to urge laws to suspend specie payments. George M. Whar- 
ton, John Cadwalader, and other leading citizens were opposed to 
legalization. The legislature, however, passed the bill. 

The financial panic threw the city into such confusion that many 
business houses closed their doors, and thousands of unemployed 
soon were walking the streets. A general shut-down of mills and 
factories augmented the number of idle workers and increased the 
general unrest. A mass meeting of 10,000 workmen was held in In- 
dependence Square to demand action from State and municipal au- 
thorities toward remedying conditions. In view of the gravity of the 
situation and the pressure from the unemployed, Mayor Vaux insti- 
tuted a program of public works and municipal improvements, al- 
though the council had favored a drastic reduction of municipal ex- 
penditures on the ground of economy. Mayor Vaux contended that 
the city's funds should be spent freely in order to relieve distress 
and allay the discontent then arising among the workers, some of 



whom already were shouting their slogan : "Bread or fight !" The 
sane liberalism of the mayor and other responsible citizens did much 
to relieve the suffering of the people and bring about a restoration of 
normal conditions. 

While the depression that followed the panic of 1857 caused a gen- 
eral stagnation of business during the following year, railway con- 
struction in the city was continued on an increasing scale. No fewer 
than 14 charters were granted for the construction of railways, and 
workmen were kept busy tearing up streets and laying tracks. The 
West Philadelphia line on Market Street was put into operation. 
Shortly afterwards the Tenth and Eleventh Streets route was com- 
pleted, as were the lines on Spruce and Pine Street's, and Chestnut 
and Walnut Streets. Considerable opposition was manifested for a 
time to the running of street cars on Sundays, but this difficulty sub- 
sequently was overcome. 

John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry caused intense and high ex- 
citement in the city. When he was hanged, December 2, 1859, local 
abolitionists gave vent to bitter indignation at the "murder." Feeling 
ran so high that Mayor Alexander Henry refused the abolitionists per- 
mission to bring Brown's body into the city. Prominent business men 
viewed with misgivings the predominance of anti-Southern sentiment, 
convinced that much of their business with the South would be se- 
riously curtailed by such hostility. A number of young Southerners 
studying at local medical schools withdrew and returned home as a 

protest against the furor raised 
by the abolitionists. It was only 
by the strength and vigilance of 
the police force that serious riot- 
ing was prevented. 

Musical Fund Hall 

"memories of Jenny Lind 

and Adelina Patti" 


Philadelphia and the Civil War 

abolitionist movement, the birth of the Republican party, 
John Brown's raid these and other events that had occupied 
the attention of Philadelphians during the years preceding the Civil 
War slipped into the background as war clouds gathered over the 
Nation. By 1860 relations with the South were approaching a crisis. 
The threat of war, present so long that people had come to regard it 
as nothing more than a remote possibility, now grew serious. 

The general sentiment in Philadelphia was one of conciliation, a 
feeling inspired mainly by the desire of financial and industrial 
leaders to maintain their lucrative trade with the South. Because of 
its proximity to the Mason-Dixon line, Philadelphia received the bulk 
of Southern business. There were more than 25 millionaires in the 
city, many of whom owed their wealth to this trade. Baldwin loco- 
motives were used on all railroads below the Mason-Dixon line, and 
Southern belles showed a preference for shoes and wearing apparel 
made in Philadelphia. The city gave the South most of its manu- 
factured products, and took in return such raw materials as cotton, 
turpentine, and lumber. In the latter part of 1860, however, there 
was a considerable falling off in this trade. 

Despite the efforts of prominent business men to maintain a posi- 
tion of neutrality, public sentiment in the city began to veer definitely 
away from the South. This was due in large part to the Quakers, who 
from Colonial times had bitterly opposed slavery. With others it was 
a question of preserving the Union, even at the cost of armed conflict. 

As the war fever increased, social distress added itself to com- 
mercial dislocation. Southerners and their sympathizers formed a 
considerable part of the population. Many of the city's prominent 
families had intermixtures of Southern blood, and with the mounting 
agitation these families were rent asunder. It was brother against 
brother, and friend against friend. 

Abraham Lincoln's appearance in the city as President-elect, his 
raising of the Stars and Stripes on Independence Hall, February 22, 
1861, and the pomp and circumstance attendant upon the event 
earned him his first real popularity in Philadelphia. Until then he 
had been considered merely a crude Illinois lawyer. So far as this 
city was concerned, his inauguration started a chain of events that 
overshadowed everything previous to it. The firing on Fort Sumter 
April 12, 1861, and Lincoln's call for volunteers two days later, set 
the city ablaze with enthusiasm. 

Philadelphia became a veritable armed camp, with the arsenals 
working overtime to supply material and munitions. Every section of 
the city was filled with cantonments of soldiers. The Navy Yard 
seethed with the activity of -^quipping men-of-war for active sea serv- 



ice. Every member of the old military units in the city became a hero 
overnight. The armories were overtaxed with men and munitions. A 
bill appropriating $500,000 for the militia was passed by the legis- 
lature. The city council appropriated large sums for the care of 
soldiers' families. The city at last had determined upon one goal 
defense of the Union. 

Among those taking a prominent part in the drive for volunteers 
were Commodore Charles Stewart, hero of the War of 1812, and Maj. 
Gen. Robert Patterson. Although 70 years of age, Patterson entered 
active service and commanded troops on the Potomac above Harper's 
Ferry. The Scott Legion, named for Gen. Winfield Scott, and the 
Buena Vista Guards tasted some of the bitterest fighting of the war. 

Monument to 

Negro Soldiers 

"from cotton fields 

to Flartders fields" 


The First City Troop also played a leading part, many of its members 
becoming officers in the Union Army. The State Fencibles, the Na- 
tional Guards, Washington Grays, and other units saw active service. 

During this period Philadelphia was one of the principal concen- 
tration points for New England troops. The Girard House was com- 
mandeered temporarily by the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, which 
joined the Buena Vista Guards and the Scott Legion at the front. 
One regiment would hardly leave Philadelphia for the scene of hos- 
tilities before another arrived in the city to take its place. Late in 
April 1861, General Patterson led his First Division, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, to Washington the first Philadelphia unit to arrive in 
the Capital. 

About the same time, business in Philadelphia entered a period of 
wartime boom. Trade with the South which had been lost was more 
than offset by the inrush of war orders. Baldwin's, hitting a peak of 
production, turned out 456 locomotives during the war. The South- 
wark Navy Yard, employing more than 1,700 mechanics, hummed 
with activity. Other shipyards worked at top speed, as did the Schuyl- 
kill and Frankford Arsenals, the textile mills, and the armament 
factories. Emergency arsenals and storehouses were established in 
various parts of the city. 

Meanwhile, the steady trek to the battle front was under way. 
Among the first troops to reach Fort McHenry were three Philadel- 
phia regiments under command of Gen. George Cadwalader. The 
units were composed of volunteers who had enlisted for three months. 
The First City Troop saw service under General Patterson on the 
Potomac and elsewhere. In all, about 5,700 short-enlistment soldiers 
from such organizations as the Philadelphia Grays, Cadwalader Grays, 
Washington Grays, Independent Grays, State Fencibles. and Mc- 
Mullin's Independent Rangers were under fire. 

When the Confederate Congress voted an appropriation of $50,- 
000,000 and called for 100,000 men, President Lincoln sounded a 
counter call to arms for enlistments of three years, or for duration 
of the war. The early Philadelphia regiments were mustered out and 
reorganized. The honor roll of the Union Army was to be studded 
with names of Philadelphia men, including nearly 400 officers who 
fell in action during the war. Alumni and students of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Central High School, and Girard College distin- 
guished themselves on the fields of battle. 

Although the city was preoccupied with war activities during the 
four years of conflict, events of local importance continued to fill the 
calendar. Religious services in the Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul 
were held for the first time on April 20, 1862. League Island was 
purchased by the city this same year, and an epidemic of scarlet fever 
swept the city in 1863. 



After a year and a half of war, the cause of the Union still seemed 
to be hanging in the balance. Prominent citizens felt that a more 
concerted effort was needed to strengthen the forces of the Govern- 
ment. It was decided to form a patriotic organization whose members 
would pool their resources for raising and equipping additional regi- 
ments for the Union Army. A meeting was called at the residence of 
Benjamin Gerhard, 226 South Fourth Street, on November 15, 1862, 
when measures were adopted for the formation of a Union club. The 
original founders were Gerhard, George Boker, Morton McMichael, 
Judge J. Clarke Hare, Horace Binney, Jr., and Charles Gibbons. The 
present title, Union League, was adopted on December 27, 1862. 

The league made its headquarters at 1118 Chestnut Street, the site 
now occupied by Keith's Theatre. The first president was William 
Morris Meredith, Attorney General of the State. By February 1863, 
the membership had grown to more than 500. A fund was subscribed 
by members to form and equip regiments for the Union, and the 
League became a potent factor in the city's contribution to the defeat 
of the Confederacy. It published thousands of copies of patriotic cir- 
culars and pamphlets, and in other ways maintained the city's war- 
time morale. In May 1865, the league moved into its present quarters 
at Broad and Sansom Streets. 

One of the outstanding figures of Civil War days in Philadelphia 
was Jay Cooke, banker. Formerly with E. W. Clark & Co., Cooke 
established his own banking house of Jay Cooke & Co. in January 
1861. Until news of the defeat of the Union Army at Bull Run 
reached the city on July 22, 1861, Cooke's company had been allotted 
only a small part of the Government bond issues, New York and 
Boston bankers having received the greater part of the allotments. 
During the excitment that followed upon the Union defeat, Cooke on 
his own initiative canvassed every financial institution in the city, 
and in a few days had obtained pledges to a loan to the Government 
of $1,737.500. Cooke became subscription agent for the national loan 
on March 7, 1862, and in 1863 he was appointed fiscal agent for the 
Government by Secretary of the Treasury Chase. 

Cooke organized a small army of agents to cover the country, and 
began a national advertising: campaign remarkable for its scope and 
originality. It is estimated that he raised from a billion and a half 
to two billion dollars during the four years of war. Total profits of 
Jay Cooke & Co. on bond issues f^om July 17, 1861, to March 3, 1865 
(according to official statement of Secretary of the Treasury Hugh 
McCulloch April 23, 1868) were $6,873,934.96. Commission on gold 
sales amounted to $293,782. 


Defense of the City 

T> Y 1863 Philadelphia had settled down to a routine varied only 
-"-^ by newspaper reports of casualties and losses and gains of the 
Federal armies. All the glamor and excitement of the early days had 
been replaced by the prosaic day-to-day business of seeing the war 
through to the end. Factories still worked to capacity on war orders, 
but it was generally believed that the conflict was nearing its con- 
clusion. The Union League and other organizations began to make 
preparations for a gala Fourth of July celebration. 

Then came rumors that all was not well with the armies of the 
Union. News dispatches began to hint that the Confederate forces 
were advancing farther north each day. Confederate cavalry was 
thrusting nearer to the lower reaches of the Susquehanna River. Con- 
sternation mounted in the city at the imminence of danger. When 
word first arrived that Lee's army was marching through Maryland, 
Philadelphia was thrown into a turmoil. Business was disrupted, shops 
were closed, and people gathered in groups, fearing the worst. 

On June 15 President Lincoln issued a new call for 100,000 militia 
to be enlisted for six months. Governor Curtin and Mayor Henry also 
issued calls for volunteers. The mayor ordered all business suspended, 
and urged every able-bodied man to volunteer for emergency service 
in preparing the city against attack. Breastworks were thrown up at 
strategic points in the outskirts. As fast as volunteers were forthcom- 
ing, they were equipped and sent to Harrisburg, where other Union 
forces were assembling. 

Meade's smashing repulse of Lee at Gettysburg occurred on July 
1-3, but it was not until the 7th that accurate reports of the battle 
reached Philadelphia. Gettysburg proved costly to the city of Penn. 
Thousands of its citizens fell, killed or wounded, during the three 
days. Although won at high cost, the victory saved Philadelphia and 
determined the outcome of the war. 

Upon the battlefields of Bull Run, Antietam, and Ball's Bluff many 
Philadelphians laid down their lives. At Ball's Bluff the Philadelphia 
Brigade experienced its first fire, to begin a period of meritorious 
service that was to end in glory at Petersburg. Except for three up- 
State companies, the brigade was composed of local volunteers. It also 
saw service at Gettysburg, turning back a Confederate charge. Sur- 
vivors fought with other regiments until the final victory at Ap- 
pomattox. When the brigade was disbanded on June 28, 1864, its 
battle-flag bore 39 shot-holes. 

An equally gallant combat unit was the Pennsylvania Reserves, to 
which Philadelphia contributed 20 companies of infantry and four 
batteries of artillery, numbering in all 3,000 men. Gen. George A. 
McCall succeeded Gen. George B. McClellan as its commander. Later, 



Gen. Samuel Wylie Crawford, a surgeon in the Regular Army, led the 
remnants of the force down from Little Round Top into the "wheat- 
field" on the bloody second day at Gettysburg. Regiments of Phila- 
delphia Negroes won honor and glory for themselves during the war, 
displaying great courage on the fields of battle. 

The two most conspicuous military figures of Philadelphia during 
the war were Maj. Gen. George Brinton McClellan, commander of the 
Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1862, and Maj. Gen. George Gor- 
don Meade, who commanded the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg 
and during the remainder of the war. Among the Philadelphians who 
figured prominently in naval activities were Rear Admirals Charles 
Stewart, John A. Dahlgren, David D. Porter, and George Campbell 
Read ; Commodores Joseph Beale, William McKean, William Trux- 
tun, Garrett Pendergrast, and John C. Febiger ; and Commander 
Abner Reed. 

Military hospitals were maintained in the city and suburbs for the 
care of the sick and wounded. Local women displayed great ability 
and devotion in volunteer relief work. The Christian Commission, 
organized by George H. Stuart, John Wanamaker, and others con- 
nected with the Philadelphia Young Men's Christian Association also 
did valuable relief work. 

Philadelphia, during these dark days, was the scene of America's 
first important fair the Council Fair of the Sanitary Commissions 
from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. It was held in Logan 
Square, and began June 7, 1864. President Lincoln was unable to at- 
tend the opening ceremonies, but he and Mrs. Lincoln visited the 
fair on June 16, together with Governor Packer of New Jersey, Gov- 
ernor Cannon of Delaware, and Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania. 

On the morning of April 3. 1865, the Philadelphia Inquirer issued 
a bulletin announcing the fall of Richmond. Later dispatches con- 
firmed the occupation of the Southern capital by Grant's troops. This 
event was the signal for spontaneous demonstrations on the part of 
Philadelphia's war-weary citizens. The bell in Independence Hall 
pealed forth the message of jubilation, as thousands formed im- 
promptu victory processions. School children marched through the 
streets, waving flags and singing songs. Steam whistles shrieked 
throughout the city, adding their strident tones to the tumult. A 
cannon was placed on the top of the Evenmg Bulletin building and 
fired incessantly all afternoon. Business was at a standstill, and at 
night the city was ablaze with lights and the <rlare of countless bon- 
fires. The Union was saved, and war was about to end. What more 
fitting cause for jubilation ! On April 10, news of Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox threw the city into another riot of celebration. The 
names of Grant and Meade were cheered, while guns thundered all 
through the day. 



Gaiety and rejoicing changed to sorrow, however, when news of 
President Lincoln's assassination arrived on April 15. From a city be- 
decked with gay colors, Philadelphia was transformed overnight into 
a place of mourning. Office buildings, shops, and dwellings were 
draped with black. Requiem services were held in all churches. On 
Saturday, April 22, when the President's body arrived from Washing- 
ton, the many bells of the city were tolled. The hearse was escorted 
by a vast procession to Independence Hall, and the body lay in state 
in the room where the Declaration had been signed. 

Early the following morning the hall was opened to the public. By 
midnight more than 85,000 persons had viewed Lincoln's remains. 
Multitudes paid their last respects to the great man in prayer and 
fasting. The next afternoon the casket was borne to the Kensington 
Depot, and placed on a train to resume its journey through sorrowing 
throngs to its last resting place in Springfield, 111., Lincoln's home 
town. * i 

The Post-War Years 

A MID the turbulence of national and local politics, returning 
-^*- soldiers, loyalist demonstrations, financial panics, and a mush- 
room growth of saloons, Philadelphia entered upon a post-war era 
of expansion. Rise of the saloons was probably one of the most sig- 
nificant features of the immediate post-war period. Owned for the 
most part by Germans and Irish, the saloons at first served only the 
finest brews, aged until wholesome and then drawn from the keg at 
spring-water temperature. Later, as competition became keen, iced 
beer was served almost as soon as brewed. In 1887, when the Brooks 
High License Law was passed, there were nearly 6,000 saloons in the 
city. A power in politics ever since the days of the first tavern, the 
saloon was now a force to be reckoned with in every local political 

The Democrats and the Andrew Johnson Republicans set the city 
aflame with political controversy when they held their famous "arm- 
in-arm" convention on August 14, 1866. The picturesque name sprang 
from an incident at the gathering in which two convention delegates, 
one a Unionist and the other a former Confederate, marched down 
the aisle of the Convention Hall arm-in-arm. 

Johnson's appearance in the citv with Grant and Seward was the 
signal for a series of disorders. Although John W. Geary, Republican 
candidate for Governor, carried the city in the following October by 
a plurality of 5,000, Col. Peter Lyle, a staunch Democrat, was elected 
Sheriff. In November 1868, Grant's presidential plurality in the city 
was 5,818, notwithstanding that Daniel Fox, Democratic candidate, 
had been elected mayor the preceding month. 



With the opening of the Chestnut Street bridge on June 23, 1866, 
the city's westward expansion began. An increase in population from 
562,529 in 1860 to 673,726 in 1870 necessitated the development of 
outlying districts across the Schuylkill. Factories, homes, churches, 
and schools sprang up. The central city section had already begun to 
take on the appearance of a metropolis. The main streets, such as 
Market, Chestnut, and Broad, were crowded with buildings and shops 
of substantial size. 

Many large industries were making Philadelphia one of the most 
important centers of trade in the country. Firms such as the Cramp's 
Shipbuilding Company, the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and others 
had placed the city in the vanguard of industry and commerce. Dur- 
ing this period, George W. Childs, who had acquired the Public Ledger 
from William M. Swain^ built the new home of the newspaper at Sixth 
and Chestnut Streets. This building was one of the largest newspaper 
plants of the time. 

In 1870 the Germans in Philadelphia evinced great interest in the 
Franco-Prussian War. A mass meeting of Negro citizens celebrated 
the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution. In the 
same year the city fire department was organized, and the Philadel- 
phia Record first appeared. 

Numerous public disturbances occurred in 1871. Much animosity 
was aroused in certain sections by the enfranchisement of the Negroes. 
Riots broke out in the Fourth and Fifth Wards, during which two 
prominent Negroes, Isaiah Chase and Prof. Octavius Catto, were 
slain. Racial bitterness was so intense that the militia was called out 
to restore order. 

The death of General Meade on November 6, 1872, threw the city 
into mourning. His funeral was held with impressive ceremony, and 
notables from the entire country, including President Grant, attended. 

The failure of the banking houses of E. W. Clarke & Co. and Jay 
Cooke & Co., on September 18, 1873, precipitated a financial panic 
that resulted in the closing of a number of large banks in the 
city and throughout the country. Another local bank, the Franklin 
Savings Fund, in which many of the poorer citizens had placed their 
meagre savings, went into bankruptcy on February 6, 1874. The pre- 
vailing financial disorders and the accompanying depression of in- 
dustry and commerce produced much labor unrest. Strikes occurred 
frequently during this period, and labor agitation for an eight-hour 
working day was carried on with vehemence. 

The new Masonic Temple, at Broad and Filbert Streets, was dedi- 
cated in the presence of a large gathering on September 26, 1873. 
Three events marked July 4, 1874. These were the laying of the cor- 
nerstone of the new City Hall in Penn Square, the breaking of ground 
in West Fail-mount Park for the Centennial Exhibition, and the open- 



ing of the Girard Avenue bridge over the Schuylkill. Built at a cost 
of nearly a million and a half dollars, this bridge was probably the 
widest in the world at the time. 

The Centennial 

AS the year 1875 drew to a close, preparations were made to wel- 
come the advent of the Nation's centennial year. On New Year's 
Eve the city was ablaze with lights. Particularly resplendent was 
Carpenters' Hall, which displayed in a sign lighted by candles the 
words : "The Nation's Birthplace." A brilliant display of fireworks 
was set off at Southwark. Festivities were centered in the area from 
South Street to Girard Avenue, and westward to the Schuylkill. 

As midnight approached, Independence Hall was surrounded by 
dense crowds. At 11:45 Mayor William Stokeley addressed the as- 
semblage ; and after a prayer by the Rev. Walter Scott and a speech 
on the Centennial Exhibition by Benjamin Harris Brewster, the bell 
in Independence Hall tolled for the departing year. As the last note 
died away, Mayor Stokeley raised a Colonial flag aloft, while a band 
played The Star Spangled Banner and the Second Regiment fired 
salute after salute. 

The Centennial Exhibition, commemorating 100 years of American 
Independence, opened on May 10, 1876, in Fairmount Park. President 
and Mrs. Grant, with Dom Pedro de Alcantara, Emperor of Brazil, 
and his wife as guests of honor, presided at the opening, which was 
attended by notables from all over the world and a crowd of 100,000. 
The dedication ceremonies were held in the space between the Main 
Building and Memorial Hall, two of the 180 buildings erected on the 
grounds. A 200-piece orchestra and a chorus of 900 voices accom- 
panied the action of the President as he unfurled the flag. After the 
unfurling a 100-gun salute was fired and chimes were rung. The 
President and Dom Pedro started the mammoth Corliss engine in 
Machinery Hall, and then a reception was held for them in the 
Judges' Pavilion. 

Thirty-eight foreign nations and 39 States and Territories were 
represented. Of these Massachusetts led with an appropriation of 
$50,000 ; New Jersey voted $10,000, and Delaware $10,000. The 250 
judges of the exposition, of whom 125 were foreigners, were divided 
into 28 groups. All through the summer months the city was thronged 
with visitors. Record attendance for a single day was reached on 
Pennsylvania Day, September 28, when 275.000 persons passed through 
the turnstiles. Governor Tilden of New York attracted a crowd of 
134,588 on Empire State Day; while his rival for the Presidency, 
Rutherford B. Hayes, drew an equally large crowd on Ohio Day, 
October 26. Hundreds of special events, such as the first public dem- 
onstration of the telephone, were held during the six months of the 



exhibition. The German population dedicated a monument to Hum- 
holdt, the West Point cadets visited the fair in a body, and a number 
of regattas were held on the Schuylkill. On November 10, 1876, the 
Exhibition was officially closed by President Grant. 

The year 1876 marked the beginning of a new period of archi- 
tectural expression. Not only to Philadelphia, but to the Nation at 
large, the Exhibition had given impetus to the Ecole des Beaux Arts 
influence, together with other styles tending toward eclecticism in 
building design. The period was marked also by business expansion 
and labor troubles. 

In July 1877 the great railroad strike that had spread over the 
country broke out in Philadelphia. Employees of the Reading and 
Pennsylvania Railroads, organized in the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, struck for better wages and improved working conditions, 
such as full crews on all trains, and abolishment of the double train. 
There was little rioting, however, as major disorders were prevented 
by police and the National Guard. 

In Pennsylvania the strike ended July 27, after freight and pas- 
senger service had for a short time been suspended. The men went 
back to work with an understanding that the issues would be settled 
by arbitration. Both sides claimed a victory. 

Electric lighting came into use in stores and offices in the later 
seventies and early eighties. The city council opposed the use of 
electricity for municipal lighting, maintaining that its cost would be 
too great. The Brush Electric Light Company, however, offered in 
1882 to light Chestnut Street for one year without charge. The offices 
of the Public Ledger, at Sixth and Chestnut Streets, and those of the 
Record, on Chestnut Street near Ninth, were equipped with electric 
lights in that year. Within a brief period nearly all the central city 
section adopted the new method of lighting. About the same time 
came the telephone. The Bell company established its first central 
office in the city at 400 Chestnut Street in 1878. In 1884 two other 
companies, the Baxter Overland Telephone Companv and the Clay 
Commercial Telephone Company, opened offices on Chestnut Street. 
As with the telegraph, which had come into use more than 30 years 
earlier, the electric light and telephone soon became indispensable 
adjuncts to city life. During the next two decades the city, despite 
political bossism, enjoyed uninterrupted development. 

The Bullitt Act, giving the city a new charter, was passed by the 
legislature in 1885. This reduced the number of city departments 
from 28 to eight, and placed them under the direct supervision of 
the mayor, who was empowered to appoint the department directors. 

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century such figures as 
Matthew S. Quay, Boies Penrose, Alexander McClure, David and 
Peter Lane, William R. Leeds, and Israel Durham occupied the 



political limelight. Graft and corruption were rife in connection 
with traction franchises and the administration of the city gas works. 
Many large fortunes were made during this period by clever manipu- 
lators working in connivance with the political bosses. John Wana- 
maker, always on the side of civic virtue, attempted to overthrow the 
Quay machine in 1898-99, but was unsuccessful. The machine was 
too well organized. Would-be reformers were told bluntly by the 
"bosses" to stop wasting their breath. 

In 1892 the first trolley car was operated on Catharine and Bain- 
bridge Streets. The Reading Terminal at Twelfth and Market Streets 
was opened the following year. In 1894 Broad Street became the first 
thoroughfare in the city to be paved with asphalt. In 1897 the Com- 
mercial Museum was officially opened by President McKinley. The 
next year came the Spanish-American War, in which many Phila- 
delphians and organizations, including the First City Troop, saw 
service. The first motor car to appear in the city was brought from 
France in 1899 by Jules Junker, a local merchant. 

Smith Memorial 
"We are engaged in a great civil war' 9 


MANY innovations marked the transition from the old city of 
the nineteenth century to the high-tensioned metropolis of to- 
day. By 1900 the population exceeded one and a quarter mil- 
lions, of which native Americans constituted 75 percent. The influx 
of immigrants from Europe and of Negroes from the South, together 
with the steadily increasing birthrate, had transformed the city proper 
into a hive of human beings living in congested streets. The wealthier 
families began their exodus to the outlying districts of the city and 
to the suburbs along the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

With the advent of the automobile, the city's roughly paved streets, 
intended for horse-drawn vehicles, were replaced gradually by thor- 
oughfares of asphalt. 

During the first decade of the twentieth century a new crop of 
skyscrapers added height to Philadelphia's skyline. Among the tallest 
of these were the Land Title Building and the Real Estate Trust 
Building at Broad and Chestnut Streets ; the North American Build- 
ing, Broad and Sansom Streets ; the Pennsylvania Building, Fifteenth 
and Chestnut Streets ; the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, Broad and Wal- 
nut Streets ; Wanamaker's, Thirteenth and Market Streets, and the 
Morris Building, Chestnut Street west of Broad. Row upon row of 
brick dwellings were being constructed. The Market Street subway- 
elevated (opened in 1907) and additional trolley lines were built to 
link the new sections with the city center. 

Events of importance during this period were the Republican Na- 
tional Convention in June, 1900, at which President William Mc- 
Kinley was renominated and Governor Theodore Roosevelt of New 
York designated as Vice-Presidential nominee ; the purchase by 
Gimbel Brothers of the Girard House, at Ninth and Chestnut Streets 
(May, 1900), as a site for an addition to their department store ; the 
first Mummers' Parade (January 1, 1901) to welcome the twentieth 
century ; the opening (March 1901) of a new Gray's Ferry Bridge 
over the Schuylkill ; the first official message sent (January 1902) 
over the Keystone telephone system ; and purchase (March 1902) 
of the site of Lit Brothers' store. Also in 1902, the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company was chartered ; the new Central High School at 
Broad and Green Streets was dedicated by Theodore Roosevelt, who 



had succeeded to the Presidency after McKinley's assassination ; and 
Keith's Chestnut Street Theatre was opened. 

The Poor Richard Club was organized July 23, 1907 ; and on July 
1, 1907, the first contract between the city and the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company was executed. In April 1908 Shibe Park, 
home of the Philadelphia American League baseball club, was 
opened. The same year saw the establishment of Oscar Hammerstein's 
Philadelphia Opera House, which opened with a presentation of 
Bizet's Carmen, and the dedication of the Y. M. C. A. Building on 
Arch Street. In 1909 regular passenger service over the new elevated 
tracks of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad was begun from the 
Reading Terminal. 

Motormen and conductors of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany declared a strike for higher wages in May 1909. Another fol- 
lowed in February 1910, the men receiving instructions not to return 
to work until their union was recognized by the company and the 
hourly wage-rate increased from 20 to 25 cents. During the strike, 
which lasted about five months before an agreement was reached, 
there was much rioting and disorder. Hundreds of cars were dam- 
aged, many persons were injured, and numerous arrests of strikers 
and union officials were made. 

In the same year, the first airplane flight from New York to Phila- 
delphia was made by Charles K. Hamilton, under the auspices of the 
New York Times and the Philadelphia Public Ledger ; the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania opened its new building at Thirteenth and 
Locust Streets ; the Aquarium in Fairmount Park was completed ; and 
the census of 1910 showed an increase of population to 1,549,008. 

During this period and up to the third decade of the century, local 
political affairs were controlled by dynasties of boss-rule, in which 
such figures as Boies Penrose, James P. McNichol, and the Vare 
brothers, George, Edwin, and William, were predominant. Headed 
by these bosses, the Republican organization enjoyed uninterrupted 
control of Philadelphia politics, save for a temporary setback when 
Rudolph Blankenburg, independent reform candidate, won the mayor- 
alty election in 1911 against the Republican machine controlled by 
Penrose, in alliance with McNichol. The tie-up between the political 
bosses and the utilities had been scandalously close ; both had waxed 
rich at the expense of the citizenry. But under Blankenburg's admin- 
istration many of these abuses were discontinued. In their stead, there 
was maintained a steady campaign of municipal development carried 
on in such a forthright manner that even the political machine could 
not criticize it. 

The great fortunes founded in the previous century by such finar 



cial, industrial, and commercial pioneers as Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Francis 
and Anthony Drexel, John Wanamaker, Edward T. Stotesbury, Justin 
Strawbridge, Isaac Clothier, William L. Elkins, and Peter A. B. 
Widener had by now become consolidated, and formed an integral 
part of the city's growth. Newcomers were carving their fortunes in 
banking, real estate, motion picture theatres, oil, and other fields. 

In 1913, militant women suffragists crusaded in the city to win for 
their sex the right to vote and participate in the direction of public 
affairs. Prominent in the movement was Mrs. Lucretia Blankenburg, 
wife of Mayor Blankenburg. President Taft and his Cabinet attended 
the Union League's fiftieth anniversary banquet in February of that 
year, and in October President Woodrow Wilson dedicated the re- 
stored Congress Hall. 

Philadelphia During the World War 

A SLIGHT earthquake shook the city in February 1914. A few 
^*- months later, in midsummer, a far greater earthquake, non- 
seismic in origin, rocked the entire continent of Europe and the 
whole world, with repercussions of gradually heightening intensity in 
Philadelphia during the following four years. 

The war seemed very remote from the city until the steamship 
Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. Then 
public sentiment, which had been rather divided in its sympathies 
for the belligerents, began to swing towards the side of the Allies. 
Meanwhile, Philadelphia industries were obtaining lucrative contracts 
for munitions and war material from the Allied powers. Wages 
mounted as factories operated day and night to turn out their mer- 
chandise of death. 

A phenomenon of the times was the sudden swarm of "jitney" 
busses which appeared on Broad Street and other main thorough- 
fares in 1915. Indifferent street-car service and the novelty of riding 
in automobiles, which at that time were still luxuries out of reach 
of many citizens, accounted for the popularity of the "jitney" (the 
name sprang from a slang term meaning five cents, the amount of 
fare charged by the new conveyances). Eventually, opposition insti- 
tuted by the traction company, under Thomas E. Mitten, forced the 
"jitneys" out of business. 

On January 22, 1917, the last contingent of Philadelphia troops 
which had been sent to the Mexican border the previous July in the 
campaign against Villa was ordered home. As if in preparation for 
the inevitable, many civilians were joining the National Guard units, 
which were conducting sham battles and drills. Army and Navy re- 
cruiting stations were opened, and the Philadelphia Navy Yard was 
closed to the public. Expectation that America would enter the war 
grew stronger. 



Prices began to soar as commodities became more scarce and prof- 
iteering grew rampant. Potatoes sold at $3.60 per bushel. Crowds 
kept vigil before bulletin boards of the large newspaper offices, await- 
ing developments. A mass meeting was held in Independence Square, 
where citizens pledged themselves to uphold the national honor 
against German aggression. The city adhered to its pledge when Con- 
gress declared war on the Central Powers on April 6. The machinery 
of mobilizing the city for war was set in motion immediately. Within 
two months the First Liberty Loan campaign was in full swing, the 
Red Cross drive for funds and volunteers had started, and local draft 
boards were already conscripting civilians for the Army. In the first 
local draft quota, 161,245 Philadelphians were sent to training camps. 

On April 10, 1917, a terrific explosion occurred at the Eddystone 
Ammunition Works, between Philadelphia and Chester. More than 
100 men and women workers, many of them Philadelphians, were 
killed in the blast, and more than 300 maimed and injured. So ter- 
rific was the concussion that the small town of Eddystone was all bat 
demolished, and thousands of homes in Chester and Philadelphia 
were shaken. 

During the primary election on September 19, 1917, bitter factional 
strife broke out in the Fifth Ward. Patrolman George Eppley was 
shot and killed at Sixth and Delancey Street while protecting two 
citizens from imported gunmen. The murder resulted in the indict- 
ment of several public officials on conspiracy charges, though the 
most prominent among them were acquitted. Feeling against the gun- 
men implicated in the murder ran so high that a change of venue was 
necessary. Several of the defendants were convicted of second-degree 
murder and imprisoned. 

The city entered upon its war work with feverish activity. Great 
industries, such as the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the Midvale 
Steel Company, were transformed into arsenals of the Army and 
Navy, turning out war materials. The largest ship construction plant 
in the world was established at Hog Island, on the southeastern fringe 
o the city. The first keel was laid on February 12, 1918 ; and the 
first ship, a cargo vessel of 7,500 tons, slid down the ways on August 
5, as Mrs. Woodrow Wilson, accompanied by the President, christened 
it the Quistconk. 

High wages were paid to both men and women workers in industry. 
This tended to some extent to offset the rising cost of living caused by 
the scarcity of commodities and the rationing of fuel and foodstuffs. 
As intensive drives for recruits and money were carried on, exhorta- 
tions such as "Give Till It Hurts !" and "Your Country Needs You !" 
became the slogans of the time. 

One of the most notorious figures in wartime Philadelphia was 



Grover C. Bergdoll, scion of a wealthy family of brewers. Bergdoll's 
refusal to be drafted into the infantry created a cause celebre which 
even today remains unsettled. Prominent as a daring aviator and au- 
tomobile racer, Bergdoll demanded to be assigned to the aviation 
corps. Placed under arrest, he escaped from the custody of Federal 
agents and fled to Germany. 

The city had just reached the height of its production of men, 
money, and material for war, when news of the Armistice arrived on 
November 11, 1918. All activity was suspended immediately, as the 
entire population gave vent to unbounded joy. The months im- 
mediately following were occupied with celebrations of victory and 
the welcoming home of soldiers and sailors. The prevalent elation was 
dampened, however, by an epidemic of influenza which caused 
thousands of deaths in the city. 

The Boom Years 

A NEW city charter went into effect on January 5, 1920. By its 
-^~* terms the two city councils, select and common, were merged into 
one, and, instead of each ward having its councilman, the city was 
divided into councilmanic districts, each comprising several wards. 

By 1922 Philadelphia had resumed its normal momentum of civic 
activity. The deafening obbligato of riveting-machines and roaring 
motor-trucks introduced the Golden Age of Prosperity. New resi- 
dential communities sprang up in the outlying districts of Frankford. 
Olney, Logan, and elsewhere. A branch of the Market Street subway- 
elevated extending to Frankford Avenue and Bridge Street began 
operation November 5, 1922, linking the new residential sections to 
the central city. Tall office buildings and apartment houses appeared 
with each succeeding year. On Market and Chestnut Streets, palatial 
movie theaters were constructed to keep pace with the ever-growing 
population, which had increased to nearly 2,000,000. 

The streets became congested with automobiles and motor-trucks. 
With the advent of prohibition, bootleggers, speakeasies, and gang- 
sters sprouted like fungi. Vice, racketeering, and official corruption 
increased to such an extent that in January 1924, at the request of 
Mayor W. Freeland Kendrick, Maj. Gen. Smedley D. Butler obtained 
a leave of absence from the Marine Corps to accept the post of 
Director of Public Safety. For more than a year General Butler led 
an intensive drive against organized crime, whipping into greater 
efficiency the police department and its personnel. 

Construction of the Delaware River Bridge began in 1922, and 
it was opened July 1, 1926. Work on the North Broad Street Subway 
started in August 1924. "The City Beautiful" as exemplified in the 
Parkway the city's most ornate thoroughfare became a reality, 


Dewey's Flagship "Olympia" at the Philadelphia Navy Yard 
"o'er shadowed by the Maine" 

thanks to the talents of Jacques Greber and Paul Philippe Cret, its 

Culturally, too, the city was expanding. Under the direction of 
Leopold Stokowski, the Philadelphia Orchestra had developed into 
one of the world's outstanding symphonic organizations. The Curtis 
Institute, the Art Alliance, the Academy of the Fine Arts, the Free 
Library, the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, and 
other institutions were increasing Philadelphia's prestige as a center 
of culture and learning. 

A stimulus to civic betterment was the founding of the Phila- 
delphia Award in 1921 by Edward W. Bok, editor of the Ladies 9 
Home Journal. A trust fund of $200,000, established by Mr. Bok, pro- 
vides the $10,000 award that annually goes to the man or woman 
living in Philadelphia or its vicinity who has performed the service, 
or brought to culmination the achievement considered most con- 
ducive to the advancement of the city's best interests. 

The Sesqui-Centennial Exposition 

T>LANS for celebrating the 150th anniversary of American inde- 
*- pendence with a great international exposition were first formu- 
lated in 1920, during the first administration of Mayor J. Hampton 



Moore. In April 1921 Mayor Moore requested an appropriation of 
$50,000 for furtherance of the plans. The public remained apathetic 
until the inauguration of Mayor W. Freeland Kendrick, in 1924, and 
his election to the presidency of the Sesqui-Centennial Exhibition 
Association. Sufficient funds to begin work on the undertaking were 
raised by public subscriptions and through appropriations by the 
city council. The site chosen for the exposition was a section of 1,000 
acres in the southern part of the city, adjacent to the Navy Yard. 

From the outset, administration of the exposition was strongly 
criticized because of the political graft involved. William S. Vare, 
construction contractor and political boss, along with his coterie 
of real estate speculators, had convinced the officials that the best 
site for the exposition was on their marshlands, upon which it was 
almost impossible to build. There resulted a paradoxical situation 
in which owners of the swamp were paid by the association not only 
for the right to fill it in, but also a rental for using it as a site for the 

By the time this location finally was chosen, many speculators had 
learned the value of caution. Several artifically stimulated real estate 
booms had taken place in various parts of the city, after erroneous 
information had been given out. Those who bought up tracts near 
rumored sites of the fair found themselves in possession of land miles 
from where it eventually was held. 

The exposition opened on May 31, 1926, although work on some 
of the buildings and exhibits was not completed until July 15. A 
host of visitors was attracted to Philadelphia during the six months 
of the exposition. Hundreds of displays, pageants, special exhibitions, 
and sporting events provided endless attractions and interests. (The 
Municipal Stadium, erected for the exposition, was the scene of the 
famous championship boxing match between Jack Dempsey and 
Gene Tunney on September 23, 1926, and the Army-Navy foot- 
ball game in 1936.) Almost every State in the Union and many foreign 
nations were represented at the exposition, either with special pavil- 
ions and exhibits or with temporary displays. Notables from many 
countries attended, among them Queen Marie and the Princess Ileana 
of Rumania, Crown Prince Gustavus Adolphus and the Princess 
Louise of Sweden, and President Calvin Coolidge and Mrs. Coolidge. 

Innovations in architectural design and building illumination, as 
well as the latest inventions of applied science, were features of 
the exposition. Such new devices as electric refrigerators, audible 
motion pictures, radios, and sound amplifiers marked the progress 
achieved in invention during the 50 years since the Centennial Ex- 
hibition of 1876. The national air races and aviation exhibits also 
were outstanding features. 

When the exposition closed on November 30, the city had expended 



a total of $9,667,896.83 on the enterprise. Owing to the vastness of 
the undertaking, financial difficulties were encountered, but a fairly 
satisfactory settlement of all expenses and liabilities was eventually 

The fact that a once-proposed subway-elevated line to Roxborough 
is still in the category of "plans" is traced to the Sesqui-Centennial. 
A large sum of money had been set aside by the city council for 
use in constructing the subway-elevated line. A referendum, taken 
among the citizens of Roxborough, turned the money over to the 
exposition as an investment, although it is now generally considered 
as having been a gift. 

The first commercial transatlantic telephone call between Phila- 
delphia and London was made on January 29, 1927, when Josiah 
H. Penniman, provost of the University of Pennsylvania, spoke to 
Lord Dawson of Penn at the other end of the wire. The Free Library 
on the Parkway was opened June 2, 1927. On March 26, 1928, the 
Art Museum at the head of the Parkway was opened, and the ne^v 
Broad Street Subway was placed in operation on September 1 of that 
year. On August 14, 1929, the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge was opened, 
and the North Philadelphia Station of the Reading Railroad Com- 
pany was dedicated on September 28. The Rodin Museum on the 
Parkway, gift of the late Jules E. Mastbaum, was dedicated on Novem- 
ber 29, 1929, and the Martin Maloney Memorial Clinic at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania on September 20, 1929. 

Philadelphia and the Great Depression 

TT^EW Philadelphians who awoke on a crisp autumn morning in 
^- late October, 1929, suspected that by the afternoon of that day 
the great American dream of unlimited and uninterrupted prosperity 
would be rudely dispelled by the crash of the stock market and the 
plunge of the entire Nation into the lowest depths of misery, priva- 
tion, and despair. Not many could have foreseen that the next four 
years would be among the darkest in the city's history, and that hun- 
dreds of thousands of unemployed would walk the streets. 

Despite rosy assurances which had been freely broadcast for more 
than three years that "recovery was just around the corner" and 
"the worst was over," banks continued to close, bankruptcies in- 
creased, financiers and business men committed suicide, bread lines 
in Philadelphia grew longer as unemployment increased, and the 
future appeared to be ever more hopeless. There seemed to be no 
remedy for the situation. Each day that passed saw conditions grow 
worse instead of better, until even the most optimistic became even- 
tually the most rabid of pessimists. 

Meanwhile, numbers of desperate workers were being converted to 



radicalism. In 1931, a large May Day demonstration of radical labor 
organizations was broken up by the police ; many arrests were made. 

Probably the most impressive result of the depression in Philadel- 
phia, politically, was the change in party sentiment from Republican 
to Democratic and the conviction among die-hard conservatives that 
the time had come for property rights and interests to give way to 
human rights. The election of November 1932 recorded an amazing 
Democratic vote, although the city had been regarded as the strong- 
hold of entrenched Republicanism since the Civil War, and among 
the adherents of the new administration were those who had been 
pillars of the old. Meanwhile, greater numbers of desperate workers 
were being converted to radicalism. In 1931 a large May Day demon- 
stration of radical labor organizations was broken up by the police 
and many arrests were made. 

The election of November 1932 recorded an amazing Democratic 
vote, although the city had been regarded as the stronghold of en- 
trenched Republicanism since the Civil War. 

Upon assuming office in March 1933, President Roosevelt adopted 
measures to "fight the depression as we fought the war." Federal 
funds were appropriated for the relief of the destitute in Phila- 
delphia, and later for the employment of the jobless. Through the 
efforts of the Civil Works Administration and later the Works Prog- 
gress Administration, thousands of Philadelphians caught in the mael- 
strom of the depression were enabled to earn a livelihood for the 
first time since the depression. Local business was greatly stimulated 
through the increased purchasing power of thousands of WPA em- 

With the repeal of prohibition, State liquor stores were opened in 
Philadelphia in 1934, giving employment to many persons and in- 
creasing the revenue of the State. With repeal of some of the "Blue 
Laws" a year later, Sunday baseball games became legalized, while 
movie houses and other amusements were permitted to operate on 
the Sabbath. 

Tacony-Palmyra Bridge 
'a tie that binds the states' 


SZum Scene 
"the place of abandoned hope' 


In spite of hard times, a number of new and imposing buildings 
were erected, such as the new Pennsylvania Station, Thirtieth and 
Market Streets ; the new Post Office, directly opposite ; the Franklin 
Institute, with the Fels Planetarium, on the Parkway ; the new 
Custom House, Second and Chestnut Streets ; the Lincoln-Liberty 
Building, Broad and Chestnut Streets; the Philadelphia Saving Fund 
Society Building, Twelfth and Market Streets ; and the Administra- 
tion Building of the Board of Education, Twenty-first Street and 
the Parkway. 

One of the highlights of 1936 in Philadelphia was the Democratic 
National Convention, held in the Municipal Auditorium during the 
week of June 23. Democratic delegations from all the States and 
Territories thronged the once mighty stronghold of Republicanism 
during the week of the convention. President Roosevelt was renom!- 
nated by tumultuous acclamation ; and on Saturday evening, June 
27, the President made his acceptance speech before a huge crowd in 
Franklin Field. Of the throng of nearly 200,000 persons, only 105,000 
could be crammed into the stadium, the rest packing the streets out- 

Local Republicanism received its worst defeat on November 3, 
1936, when President Roosevelt and the Democratic ticket swept the 
city with a plurality of more than 200,000. As the election returns 
began to come in that night, crowds of gleeful Democrats paraded 
through the musty courtyards and arcades of City Hall, north and 
south on Broad Street, and east and west on Market, Chestnut, and 
Walnut Streets. Traffic was at a standstill as one of the most spectacu- 
lar and uproarious political demonstrations ever held in Philadelphia 
rocked the central section. 

Some progress in slum clearance was made during the first six 
months of 1937. As a result of the collapse of two slum dwellings 
in late December 1936 when 7 occupants were killed, a systematic 
program for clearing substandard areas of the city was started. More 
than 1,200 dwellings and buildings unfit for habitation were con- 
demned and demolished by order of the municipal authorities. How- 
ever, no provisions were made for rehousing the tenants. 

Celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Constitution of the 
United States was officially inaugurated May 14, 1937, with opening 
ceremonies in Independence Hall, during which the original draft 
of the Constitution was exhibited, and the Liberty Bell was rung 
by Mayor S. Davis Wilson, who used a gavel made of wood from old 
trees at Valley Forge. 



MANY nationalities and religions have contributed over a period 
of more than 250 years to the traditions, social customs, habits 
of dress, entertainment, and folklore of Philadelphia some 
elements of which still stand out like broken strands of silk in an old 

Although the Swedes were the earliest colonists in Philadelphia, 
the Quakers, who followed soon afterwards, were most instrumental 
in giving direction to the trend of daily life. They brought to the 
New World a philosophy of simplicity and conservatism. Their rather 
drab style of dress and staid deportment soon were to be influenced, 
however, by the influx of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Welsh. By 1712 
the note of rigid simplicity, at least in its superficial aspect, had 
begun to change. Human vanity, rather than religious restraint, be- 
came the dictator of fashion. 

The well-dressed Philadelphia belle of that era wore a silk petti- 
coat, distended by hoops, and a tightly laced stomacher ornamented 
with gold braid. The sleeves were short and edged with wide point 
lace. Curls fell at her neck, and her head was protected by a light 
silk hood. On her feet were satin slippers. Her escort wore a silk 
coat, its skirts stiffened with wire and buckram. His waistcoat was 
long-flapped, with wide pockets, and short sleeves terminating in 
large, rounded cuffs. A point-lace cravat protected his throat. His 
shoes were square-toed, with small silver buckles ; his silk stockings 
reached above his knees to meet his silk breeches. On his tie-wig 
perched a small cocked hat trimmed with lace. 

Tradesmen dressed simply. Their garb was generally of stout gray 
cloth, trimmed in black, with worsted stockings, and leather breeches 
and shoes. 

Colonial days in Philadelphia witnessed rapid changes in styles 
and fashions. While pro-French feeling was at its height, the styles 
of France came into vogue. With the elaboration and brightening 
of fashions, the Quakers became so alarmed that at a Yearly Meet- 
ing of Friends they rigidly enforced their rules regulating dress. 

Today the gray garb of the Quaker founders has disappeared al- 
most entirely, except in some nearby rural sections. In the city, some 
elderly ladies still cling to a modified form of the prescribed apparel, 
while others dress in real Quaker style. 



Colonial Philadelphia did not remain a citadel of conservative life 
for long, however. Even in pre-Revolutionary days the city became 
famous for its entertainment, good food, rare wines, and fine clothes. 
Many well-to-do Quakers were not averse to tasting these worldly 

The city became noted for its sumptuous dinners, which were in 
sharp contrast to the formerly frugal pioneer repast. John Adams, 
describing one of these feasts, said : "It was a Quaker hostess who 
pressed upon me at a single meal : duck, ham, chicken, beef, pig, 
tarts, creams, jellies, truffles, floating island, beer, porter, punch, and 

Tea drinking likewise marked social life, and dancing occupied 
the attention of the younger set. In 1740 several young men, members 
of families living near Christ Church, established a dancing assembly, 
which met every Tuesday during the winter. Concerts were given 
from time to time. 

In 1748 a group representing the more aristocratic families founded 
the Philadelphia Assembly. Subscriptions sold for 40 shillings per 
year. The assembly's social affairs usually lasted from 6 p. m. to mid- 
night, with card tables provided for those who did not dance. Refresh- 
ments consisted of punch and "milk bisket." The present day As- 
sembly Ball, held annually in the second week of December, is a 
development of the original Philadelphia Assembly. 

During the British occupation of Philadelphia in 1777-8, there 
was a continuous round of suppers, dances, gay theatre parties, and 
entertainments of all kinds. The most notable was the Mischianza, 
an elaborate pageant in which British officers and Tory civilians 
participated. Much of the gaiety, as far as the patriotic Philadel- 
phians were concerned, was undoubtedly simulated. 

After the war, Philadelphia returned to a comparative sobriety. 
Isaac Weld, a French writer, commenting on the citizenry in general, 
said in 1795 : "There is a coldness and reserve, as if they were sus- 
picious of some designs against them. This chills the very heart of 
those who come to visit them." Other foreigners and visitors from 
other States likewise criticised the Philadelphia attitude toward 

Sports and Amusements 

WVTITH the diminishing of the Quaker influence, sports and arnuse- 
ments increased in scope and variety. From the earliest days, 
however, such sports as riding, swimming, fishing, and skating were 
countenanced even by the sedate Quaker founders. Many leaders in 
the life of the growing city could be seen in those days skating; on 
the Delaware River. 



Sleighing, a sport that found favor with the early Colonials, has 
survived. The Wissahickon Valley in winter still resounds to the 
jingle of sleighbells ; while in summer the creek, once the haunt 
of Indians and pioneer fishermen, is popular with anglers. 

Horse racing in Philadelphia made its appearance in Colonial 
times, and soon became general on the city's streets. Finally it was* 
stopped by law. Race Street was so named because it led directly 
to the race grounds. Cockfighting was popular with the more aristo- 
cratic families, while bull baiting and bear baiting were patronized 
by the working population. 

Boxing, a sport later to hold the attention and interest of thou- 
sands of Philadelphians, at first was inhospitably received. A prize 
fight advertised in 1812 was stopped by constables and aldermen, but 
12 years later an English pugilist was able to interest many Phila- 
delphians in the "manly science whereby gentlemen after a few 
lessons will be enabled to chastise those who may offer violence and 
protect themselves from attacks of ruffians." 

Thus, as Philadelphia acquired a more cosmopolitan population 
and became correspondingly more liberal in its customs, there came 
into popular favor many of today's amusements. Billiards, originally 
denounced as a means of gambling, became a favorite pastime, along 
with bowls, ten-pins, quoits, bullets or lawn-bowls, and shuffleboard. 
Even the time-honored English game of cricket had its enthusiasts, 
though they were not many. Baseball, the national game, made its 
bow in Philadelphia in 1860. 

A favorite game of the younger boys, still indulged in to a certain 
extent, was "pecking eggs," an amusement popular at Easter time. 
Any youngster's challenge, "Upper ! Upper ! Who's got an egg ?" 
yelled at the top of his lungs, would be promptly answered by a con- 
tender. Then would ensue a session in which the boys tested the 
strength of their eggs by striking them together, point to point, but 
not before a careful examination of the opponent's ammunition, to 
make sure that no china or guinea egg or perhaps an egg shell 
cleverly filled with plaster had been surreptitiously introduced. 
Whichever egg was cracked by the impact became the property of 
the boy who owned the uncracked one. 

Another interesting game was "plugging tops." The tops were made 
of lignum vitae and fitted with long and sharp steel points. The 
object of the game was to split the opponent's top while it was spin- 
ning on the ground by spearing it with another top. 

"Shinny" or "bandy," a rudimentary form of hockey, was a sport 
for the hardy. "Duck on Davy" was a game in which the players at- 
tempted from a distance to knock a small stone off a larger one. 


Annual Celebrations 

of a maze of recreational pursuits and customs, one has be- 
a tradition not only to Philadelphians but to the entire 

Nation. This is the Mummers' Parade, first held on January 1, 1901. 

to celebrate the arrival of the new century. It has become as integral 

a part of Philadelphia's lighter life as the Mardi Gras has of that of 

New Orleans. 

The Mummers' Parade is the outgrowth 
of a custom imported from England in the 
early nineteenth century. At that time, 
during Christmas week and on Christmas 
Eve, the streets of Philadelphia were alive 
with brightly costumed groups of "mum- 
mers." They went from door to door, ex- 
plaining in rhyme the meaning of their 
strange garb, and requesting donations. 
The ancestor of the mummers' celebration 
was apparently the English saturnalia 
celebration, under the direction of the 
Lord of Misrule, a fantastic personage 
known to the Scotch as the Abbot of Un- 



The Mummers' tradition has been perpetuated by numerous clubs 
organized exclusively for the New Year's Day affair. Prizes are offered 
by the city and by various civic and business associations. Through- 
out the year the clubs work diligently upon their costumes in pre- 
paration for the clebration. Then, on New Years Day, the city's long, 
straight thoroughfare, Broad Street, becomes a pattern of moving 
color. Groups in fancy dress, with elaborate headgear and huge capes, 
march over miles of paved roadway. 

String bands, comic divisions, and groups which burlesque current 
figures and events weave in gay abandon along the Mummers' right- 
of-way. At varying intervals in the procession are elaborately deco- 
rated floats. Along the sidewalk throng hundreds of thousands of 
spectators. On New Year's Day Philadelphia's spirit is truly festive. 

In recent years many Mummers have been stricken with pneumonia 
because of exposure to the cold in their flimsy costumes. As a result, 
a movement was started to change the time of the celebration to 
spring or summer, in order to insure the comfort of spectators and 
participants alike. However, the tradition of holding the parade on 
New Year's Day was too strong. An exception was made during the 
Democratic National Convention in 1936, when the Mummers paraded 
on a hot night in June before more than 1,000,000 persons. 

As the "Cradle of Liberty," Philadelphia has long cherished the 



Fourth of July as a day of celebration. One feature is a speech by 
the mayor delivered at Independence Hall. There was a time when 
Independence Day was marked by the incessant noise of exploding 
firecrackers, with an attendant loss of life and limb. A present-day 
ordinance bars this method of celebrating, except for controlled pyro- 
technic displays in parks and recreational centers. Philadelphians on 
Independence Day now go to the banks of the Schuylkill to watch 
the regatta, spend the day picnicking in the country, or motor to 
resorts along New Jersey's seashore. 

On July 14, the "Independence Day" of the French Republic, mem- 
bers of the city's French societies march to the statue of Joan of Arc 
at the eastern end of Girard Avenue Bridge. Here a speech is de- 
livered and a wreath placed upon the statue. 

May Day in Philadelphia is greeted by the usual terpsichorean dis- 
plays at various colleges. In bygone years it was claimed unofficially 
by fish hucksters and shad fishermen as their particular holiday. 
Maypoles were placed outside the taverns along the water front, and 
the day was given over to dancing, drinking, and feasting. Labor's 
traditional May Day celebration is observed in a mild manner by 
Philadelphia workingmen, who prefer picnics and shore trips to 
the standardized oratory frequently offered by old-line labor leaders. 
The left-wing groups, however, assemble annually on Reyburn Plaza 
in a demonstration of their strength and unity. 

Fire Companies 

TJHILADELPHIA'S earliest fire insurance companies, (the first one 
-*- was established in 1752) formed as protecting associations for the 
benefit of subscribers, offered generous rewards to encourage volunteer 
fire brigades. An alarm was the signal for a race between two or 
more brigades, the winner earning the right to save the building and 
collect the reward. The losers waited on the sidelines, no doubt 
hopeful that the flames would get beyond control, in which event 
they would be called into service and share in the reward. Frequently 
there were scrimmages between the companies on the way to a fire, 
while in the interval, the blaze continued unchecked. 

Each insurance company, using its individual device, marked the 
houses under its protection with plaques placed high on an outside 
wall, so that the fire brigades knew bv whom they would be rewarded. 
The unfortunate householder who had neglected to subscribe might 
see the apparatus race to his burning home, and then turn back when 
the volunteers failed to espy a plaque. 

With the formation of the city's paid fire department in 1871 these 
"fire marks" no longer served any purpose, but many of them may 
still be seen on the older houses, especially in the central part of 



the city. These plaques depict a hydrant, a hose, or some other form 
of early fire-fighting equipment. 

Legends and Superstitions 

PHILADELPHIA'S rich heritage of folklore, the legends inherited 
-*- from the many races settling in the tongue of land between the 
Schuylkill and Delaware, today is preserved largely in historical an- 
nals. Some of the quaint beliefs, superstitions, and mythology of 
the early and later settlers are still retained, but the majority have 
passed like the Indian legends that preceded them. 

To understand the legendary background of Philadelphia, a glance 
at the racial and religious ancestry of the city is necessary. The 
Quakers generally were free from superstitions, yet a few odd beliefs 
that arrived with the rather somber followers of Penn are still cher- 
ished by their descendants. Although Philadelphia's Quaker popula- 

Fire Plaques 
. . arid rang the 
midnight fire 
alarm . 


tion is now comparatively small, some Friends still consider it a bad 
omen to move into a new house on "Sixth Day" (Friday) . 

The early Swedes who preceded the English Quakers in the Phila- 
delphia section had various legends and superstitions that were looked 
upon with disfavor by later settlers. Descendants of the first Scandi- 
navians still repeat tales of phantom ships and of sailors carried away 
in the night by winged devils. 

Welsh Quakers who followed William Penn in his search for 
religious freedom early acquired a 40,000-acre tract of land to the 
west of Philadelphia. This area became known as the Welsh Barony. 
Despite the fusion of other nationalities, it still retains a strong 
Welsh influence. One of the richest residential sections in the United 
States, this suburban territory lends a credulous ear to tales of 
haunted houses, lonely roads infested with ghosts, and spirits rising 
from dark graveyards. 

The Welsh settlers were endowed with the native imagination of 
the Celt. Descendants of those in the remoter farmlands have retained 
a belief in the supernatural. Charms are supposed to provide im- 
munity from disease, and are sought as a means to reconcile estranged 

One of the early Welsh beliefs was that if a person suffering from 
a disease were to pass between the forks of a split tree, his malady 
would disappear in transit. This superstition is now in the limbo of 
forgotten things. Until about 1850, settlers of Welsh ancestry also 
believed that horned cattle uttered prayers upon their knees at mid- 
night on Christmas Eve. 

Several interesting legends have clung to the city and the memories 
of its inhabitants, and in a measure have become sectional traditions. 
One of these centers about the old Chalkley House, or Chalkley Hall 
as it is more popularly known, the residence of an old Quaker family 
in what is now Frankford. The legend described a tempestuous 
romance, disavowed by the Chalkley family, between one of the 
Chalkley girls and a suitor who failed to win the family's approval. 
The affair culminated in the suicide of the girl, who had been dis- 
traught over her misfortune. For many years, residents of the dis- 
trict declared, the wraith of the unhappy young woman hovered 
about the old mansion. Even with the advent of modern skepticism 
and the apparent disappearance of many ghostly traditions of the 
past, there are those who believe the girl's ghost still walks in 
Chalkley Hall. A local historian who had been chatting with the 
watchman of a factory nearby, was whimsically assured by the latter : 
"That Chalkley ghost comes around once in a while at night." 

Unlike most other cities in its treatment of so-called "witches" in 
the seventeenth century, Philadelphia was not inclined to place 
much credence in the stories of witchcraft that were prevalent. 



In 1683 Margaret Mattson and Yeshro Hendrickson were brought 
before the Provincial Council, in session at Philadelphia, on charges 
of witchcraft. William Penn presided at the trial. Lasse Cook, or 
Cock, an early Swedish settler in the Philadelphia area, acted 
as interpreter. Among the witnesses questioned was Henry Drystreet, 
who swore that he had been told, twenty years before, that Margaret 
Mattson was a witch and had cast spells upon several cows. A woman, 
Amnaky Coolin, told of an occasion when she and her husband were 
at home boiling the heart of a calf that had died. The Mattson woman 
came to the house and asked what they were doing. When they told 
her they were boiling flesh, she said, "You had better boil the bones." 
The verdict returned was : "Guilty of the common fame of being a 
witch, but not guilty in manner and form as indicated." 

Since that day no official cognizance has 'been taken of witchcraft. 
The belief may still persist that hags ride through the air on broom- 
sticks in Pennsylvania, but the police and courts do not interfere 
unless the broomstick falls upon someone's head. 


LIQUID notes of the Negro oysterman's cry once trembled upon 
the chill air of old Philadelphia during the "R" months. Then, 
before the echoes of his voice had died away, there came in a differ- 
ent key the rousing tones of a lusty Negro, calling: "Here comes de 
hominy man f'um wa-ay daown blow de Navy Yahd, a-comin' wid 
he's hom-min-ee !" 

During the hot summer, as though to compensate for the absence 
of these hucksters and their wares, came the ice cream man, with 
his "Tr-r-r-r-rah, Ia 9 la, la ! Here's lemon ice cream and vanilla, too !'* 
And as the trundlebarrow with its cargo of delights appeared, dozens 
of children ran to meet it, equipped with cup and spoon. Welcome 
also were the cantaloupe man and the strawberry woman, who sang 
their songs of luscious fruits to receptive ears. 

Still to be heard on the streets on a frosty morning is the 
rasping cry of "Horseradish, Hor-r-r-se-radish /" accompanied by a 
loud whirr, as the aged vendor grinds his condiment fresh for each 
customer on a portable machine operated by a foot pedal. 

Philadelphians of earlier years waited anxiously for all the deli- 
cacies that add the festive touch to an ordinary meal ; but in recent 
years restaurants and well-stocked stores have made it easy for con- 
noisseurs to obtain the food specialties that "tickle their palates." 
And there are many dishes of local origin or preparation for which 
Philadelphia has gained wide renown. 

During the "R" months, from September to April, restaurants 
specializing in sea foods enjoy great popularity, and Philadelphia al- 



ways has had many such eating places. Lack of adequate transporta- 
tion facilities in the old days prevented the transport of oysters and 
other sea foods inland, thus limiting the fisherman's market to sea- 
ports and to river towns near the sea. Philadelphia thus became an 
important sea-food market, and Philadelphians during the years have 
retained their fondness for bivalves and shad. 

Of the latter species of sea food, the Delaware shad is fast dwind- 
ling, and within a few years will have disappeared entirely from 
the market. The first shad of the season in early spring come 
from southern waters, but they do not compare in flavor with those 
caught later in the Delaware. 

To many there is nothing that delights the taste more than a 
fine, fresh Delaware shad, nicely broiled over the coals, or planked, 
properly seasoned with salt, pepper, a piece of fresh butter, a dash of 
lemon juice, ornamented with sprigs of parsley, and flanked on either 
side by roe broiled a delicate brown. The shad is perhaps the only 
fish that has given its name to the cut of a garment the shad-belly 
coat of the Quaker. 

A dish long associated with Philadelphia is pepper pot, a Colonial 
soup which has become so popular that large canning factories now 
prepare it for export. The pepper pot of Colonial Philadelphia 
originally was made in such large quantities that the community 
kettle of tradition was employed. Whether or not the amount had 
anything to do with the quality is a moot question, but the fact re- 
mains that the soup became identified exclusively with the Quaker 
City. Women trundled their carts through the streets, crying, "Pepper 
pot ! Old time pepper pot !" selling the product of their kitchens 
from door to door. 

The recipe for this spicy dish was evolved in the early days to 
utilize beef tripe. It may well be imagined how stintingly the first 
colonists prepared every edible part of the imported beef. Finely cut 
cubes of tripe were used as the basis for this soup, with red peppers 
(possibly to "cover" the flavor of the meat), onions, potatoes, and 
carrots to give it body and variety. The broth was thickened with 
flour and small egg-dumplings, the whole being well seasoned and 
served piping hot. 

The early Dutch and Swedes along the Delaware also contributed 
a prominent item to the list of dishes of Philadelphia fame. These 
settlers accepted many of the savory foods of the Indians as sub- 
stitutes for those they had left at home, and concocted many dishes 
popular today. One of these delicious early foods was scrapple, which 
was called pon-haus. 

Scrapple is made from the liquid of boiled pig's-head mixed with 
corn meal and highly seasoned, then recooked until it has acquired 
the proper consistency to be sliced when cold. This is a favorite 



local breakfast dish. It is fried to a crisp brown, and served with 
fried or poached eggs and fried potatoes. Philadelphia leads in its 
production. Though its manufacture has spread to other parts of 
the country, the early Colonial recipe alone has the zest really identi- 
fied with scrapple. There are several meat-packing houses in the 
city, specializing in pork products, which prepare great quantities 
of scrapple every year. Many farmers in the eastern part of the State 
make their own. 

And sticky cinnamon buns! Where can they be found better, in 
all their sweet "gooey" tastiness, than in Philadelphia, the city of 
their origin ? Made of sweet dough, the buns are generously sprinkled 
with cinnamon, currants or raisins, and sugar. The dough is spread 
out upon the baking board, rolled tight, and cut into sections from 
two to three inches long. The buns are baked slowly, so that the syrup 
formed by the heated filling will be absorbed by the dough, while a 
thin coating will be left on the outside. 

Mince pie, which has become a popular dessert in many parts of 
the country, is another product that early found favor in Penn's 
city ; it is said that a Quaker family from England popularized mince- 
meat in Philadelphia in 1830. 

In Philadelphia ice cream first made its appearance about 1782. 
More than a half century later an ingenious Philadelphian, Eben C. 
Seaman, invented an ice cream freezer operated by steam power, and 
this refreshing dessert became popular the country over. Philadel- 
phia is now the home of the largest ice cream manufactory in 
the world, and its product is widely distributed. One feature that 
distinguishes the local product is the use of the powdered vanilla 
bean, rather than the extract. 

From the beginning, Philadelphia has cherished a full pantry 
and a substantial table. That fondness for good food, and plenty of 
it, has not diminished with the years. 



(Population figures based on 1930 Census) 

THE varied characteristics of a majority of the nationalities of 
the world have blended with and balanced one another to form 
the personality of Philadelphia. Although many of them have 
settled in compact national communities established by compatriots 
who preceded them, yet the leaven of their customs and culture has 
permeated the life of the whole city. 

Settlers of Colonial and Revolutionary times, emigrating chiefly 
from northern and western Europe and bound in many cases by a 
similarity in tongue and customs, found few obstacles to intermar- 
riage ; thus they merged the characteristics of their respective nations 
into a homogeneous whole. Ceasing to think of themselves as Ber- 
liners, Londoners, or Amsterdammers, they became Philadelphians. 

The Swedes, Dutch, English, and Germans were followed by im- 
migrants from virtually all parts of Europe and Asia. Numerically 
strongest w r ere the Irish, Russians, Jews, and Italians. From China, 
and in smaller numbers from Japan, came immigrants who are vir- 
tually unassimilable. Through the years there was a steady influx of 
Jews, reaching its peak during the early part of the twentieth century, 
many coming from Russia and Eastern Europe. A few Jews from 
other regions are believed to have preceded William Penn to Phila- 

The formation of special quarters by peoples not easily assimilated 
the Italians, the Jews, and the Greeks gives the city a certain 
cosmopolitan air. Sights and sounds of the Old World characterize 
these localities. European peasant customs and folkways, surviving 
the pressure or compensating for the meagerness of the new environ- 
ment, frequently have left an imprint on the American-born children 
of immigrants. 

The population of Philadelphia, according to the 1930 census, is 
composed of 69 percent native white, totaling 1,359,833 ; about 19 
percent foreign-born white, totaling 368,624; and 11 percent Negro, 
totaling 219,599. The other groups comprise the remainder. 

Closest knit of all the various nationalities and races are the 
Chinese. This is due, no doubt, to the disinclination of the whites to 
accept them socially, as well as to an innate desire on their part to 



be left strictly alone. There are approximately 1,500 Chinese in Phila- 
delphia, of whom about three-fourths reside on Race Street, between 
Eighth and Eleventh Streets. 

Although small racial groups usually scatter over the city, the 
Greeks are an exception. Numbering only 3,415, they live for the most 
part in the vicinity of Tenth and Locust Streets. 

Early settlers came principally to escape religious persecution. 
Hence, religion occupied much of their time and thoughts. Life was 
slow, earnest, and conservative ; and Philadelphia came to embody 
these characteristics. Not until the later groups arrived did the tempo 
of existence become accelerated. 

The primary motive for later immigration was a desire for economic 
betterment. To that end the later contingents directed their talents 
and energies, and to them must go much of the credit for building 
industrial and commercial Philadelphia. With their Continental 
habits of life and un-Puritanical conception of morality, they did 
much to liberalize the outmoded Blue Laws which had made the 
Quaker City unique among great metropolitan centers. 

Numbering 270,000 according to the 1930 American Jewish Year 
Book, the Jews represent a potent force in Philadelphia life. Rep- 
resenting, as they do, many nations, they can hardly be regarded as 
a distinct race. The fact remains, however, that though they differ 

Old Market on Second 
Street at Pine 


from one another in physical characteristics, background, and home- 
land, they are united by the common bond of their religion. 

Jews are found in the most densely settled sections of Philadelphia, 
largely in Strawberry Mansion, Logan, Wynnefield, and the area be- 
tween Oregon Avenue and South Street from Third Street to Eighth 
Street. Other localities with a considerable Jewish population are 
the section bounded by Sixth and Eighth Streets, Poplar Street and 
Susquehanna Avenue ; the area around Fifty-eighth Street and Osage 
Avenue ; and the neighborhood of Fortieth Street and Girard Avenue. 

Little is known of the Jews in Philadelphia prior to the Revolution, 
although the first Hebrew congregation, Mikveh Israel (Hope of 
Israel), was established here in 1747. Many prominent Philadelphia 
citizens and American patriots have been members of Mikveh Israel. 
Among them were Simon Gratz, merchant prince and philanthropist ; 
Isaac Moses, who subscribed three thousand pounds to the Bank of 
Pennsylvania so that the Continental Army might be provisioned for 
two months ; and Haym Solomon, banker and broker, who came to 
the Colonies from Poland and negotiated all Revolutionary War se- 
curities from France and Holland on his own personal security with- 
out loss of a cent to America. When Solomon died in 1784, the United 
States was indebted to him to the extent of $300,000. This debt, al- 
though acknowledged by the Federal Government, has never been 

Because the laws of many European countries forbade Jews to own 
land, the early Jewish immigrants had little agricultural knowledge. 
In 1726 a special act was passed in Pennsylvania permitting Jews 
to own land and engage in trade and commerce. This act was in- 
directly responsible for much of Philadelphia's industrial and com- 
mercial growth. 

Numerous European countries had also denied cultural and edu- 
cational advantages to the Jews, and, because of this, their apprecia- 
tion of both became more acute. Since such restrictions were not 
maintained by William Penn, the Jews emigrated hopefully to the 
New World colony he founded. 

Without the Jews, Philadelphia would still have an orchestra and 
an Academy of Music, but the impetus given to the musical move- 
ment in this city by members of the Jewish race cannot be denied. 
The Italians, too, with their passion for all forms of music, especially 
the opera, share in the credit for its local development. In the ticket 
lines at the Academy of Music there are always large numbers of 
Italians, their faces alight with anticipation. 

The Italian population in Philadelphia numbers 182,368, of which 
nearly 70,000 are foreign-born. Apparently preferring the foods and 
customs of their homeland, these people do not assimilate as easily 
as some of the other groups, and are inclined to settle in sharply de- 



fined districts notably South Philadelphia and, to a lesser degree, 
in sections of Chestnut Hill, Mount Airy, Germantown, and West 

Like the Irish, they are much interested in politics, and they 
formed an integral part of the huge Vare machine which dominated 
Philadelphia for a number of years. As has been the case with other 
large immigrant groups, they have been imposed upon by "ward- 
heelers," who attach themselves to the bewildered newcomers almost 
as soon as they arrive. These small-fry politicans help them to obtain 
naturalization papers, and as a result the vote of the immigrant 
usually goes to his "benefactor." Naturally light-hearted, and fond of 
good music, spicy food, and sour wine, this group has done much to 
soften the sterner ways of earlier Quaker and German settlers. 

At the top of the Italian social scale are musicians, artists, phy- 
sicians, jurists, and writers. Others work as barbers, vendors, and 
laborers. The restaurant business has attracted them, and Philadel- 
phia contains a number of establishments specializing in the foods 
and wines of Italy. 

The vast majority being of Catholic faith, they lend color to the 
city with religious festivals. Street parades in which sacred statues 
are carried frequently wind through the Italian quarter. Even in 
sports the Italian clings to the games of his fatherland. Bocce, a 
game related to bowling, is played extensively enough to warrant 
space on the sport pages of large daily newspapers, as well as in 
the Italian press. 

Districts densely settled by Italians are those areas between Snyder 
Avenue and Bainbridge Street from Twenty-third to Seventh Streets, 
and the neighborhoods near Sixty-fourth and Carleton Streets and 
Fiftieth and Thompson Streets. 

The German-born population in Philadelphia, numbering 37,923 
in 1930, appears to assimilate easily. Intermarriage is common, and 
the average German is quick to adopt many American customs and 
to acquire a facile knowledge of English. The large numbers of 
"German- American" clubs and organizations in the Quaker City, 
however, indicate a strong attachment to the Fatherland. 

The Germans flock to their 200 singing societies in the city, and 
seem glad to drop American ways for an evening devoted to songs of 
the Rhine country. This Teutonic love for community singing, in- 
deed, has done much toward the development of music, especially 
of choral work, in this city. That the German in Philadelphia is 
reluctant to break away completely from the Old Country, its lan- 
guage, customs, and viewpoint, is further evidenced by the fact that 
there are two daily and two weekly newspapers printed in German. 

Rigidly trained in his homeland to respect all forms of con- 
stituted authority, and imbued with the Teutonic ideal of "Church, 



Home, and Children," the transplanted German makes a good citi- 
zen. Unspectacular by nature, he goes ahead with his plans in a 
determined manner which makes not for brilliant but for lasting 

Philadelphia crime-news seldom features German names. Home- 
loving as it is, the German population has played a considerable part 
in gaining for Philadelphia its reputation as a "city of homes." 

A large percentage of the German-born came to this city in the 
years following the Great War, when economic conditions abroad had 
become intolerable. Another wave of immigration from Germany fol- 
lowed the advent of Adolf Hitler as Reichsfuehrer. These immigrants 
included many of the Jewish faith who sought relief from laws de- 
priving them of citizenship and (in many instances) property rights. 
This latter group contained a number of educators and scholars seek- 
ing a land where free expression of ideas would be tolerated. They 
have added in large measure to the cultural development of Phila- 

Strangely enough, the principal causes of the latest German immi- 
gration to Philadelphia were identical with those of the first reli- 
gious persecution and poverty. Warfare had torn Germany in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; and from the Palatinate, bor- 
dering the Rhine, came these first immigrants. Most important among 
the early Teutonic settlers was Francis Daniel Pastorius, who came to 
Philadelphia in 1683 as a, representative of the Frankfort Land Com- 
pany. With him came a group which settled that section of Philadel- 
phia now known as Germantown. The Teutonic love of home life is 
reflected today by this part of the city, Germantown, which is noted 
as one of the finer residential sections. Other German neighborhoods 
are in the vicinities of Fifth Street and Girard Avenue, Eighth Street 
and Lehigh Avenue, Twenty-ninth Street and Girard Avenue, and 

Spicing the melting pot with Celtic aggressiveness are the Irish, 
to the number of 51,941 foreign born who keep in close contact with 
the hundreds of thousands of Irish descent among the city's popu- 
lation. Prime factors in the military and civil work of forming the 
new Nation, they are attracted by the hurly-burly of politics per- 
haps because the element of competition in a political fight appeals 
to their traditional pugnacity, or perhaps because a successful poli- 
tican must be a successful "mixer," a type to which the Gaelic sense 
of humor and love of conversation are peculiarly adapted. At any 
rate, the Irish have made themselves a power in shaping the political 
destinies of the Quaker City. Many societies named after Ireland's 
counties help immigrants to establish themselves and to keep in con- 
tact with friends from their native soil. 

Although the majority of Irish came to Philadelphia after the great 



potato famine in Ireland in the middle of the nineteenth century, 
and during the early days of the twentieth century, a number resided 
here at the time of the Revolutionary War. 

The city's Polish population, totaling 30,582 foreign born, is a stabi- 
lizing influence. Home-loving, hard working, and unobtrusive, they 
maintain in large measure the customs and language of their native 
country. Nevertheless, Poles prize American citizenship, and the 
great majority are either citizens or have applied for citizen's papers. 
Polish immigration on a large scale began in 1870, the main reason 
for its growth being political persecution in the homeland. Most 
Poles are members of the Catholic Church, and in Philadelphia their 
children are educated in parochial schools situated in the Polish 
districts. The Polish National Church, of recent origin in Pennsyl- 
vania, has grown steadily as a result of the large Polish immigration 
of late years. 

Impetus was given to Philadelphia shipping, and to the textile and 
lace industries by immigrants from England, Scotland, and Wales, 
who were among the earliest groups to settle in the city. Bound close 
to one another and to America by a similarity of tongue and custom, 
they assimilate readily. Like the Germans, however, the English are 
intensely devoted to their homeland. The Empire and the things 
which it connotes seem to be forever in the foreground of their in- 

Of these foreign-born groups in Philadelphia, the English number 
24,415, the Scots 11,313, and the Welsh 865. These groups, for the 
most part scattered throughout the city, are slightly predominant in 
the vicinity of Kensington. 

Old Philadelphia the Quaker City of Colonial, Revolutionary, 
and Civil War days was much more influenced by the habits and 
viewpoint of the English than is the case today. In the early days, 
those of English birth or descent were in the majority, and the names 
of most of Philadelphia's leaders in the commercial and professional 
fields were of Anglo-Saxon derivation. Today, although not so im- 
portant in industry and commerce as formerly, those of British de- 
scent still guard the forbidding portals of the city's "400." In the 
Quaker City Social Register, admittedly one of the most select in the 
country, the names are preponderantly of English origin. 

Canadians, exclusive of the 636 French-Canadians living in the city, 
total 3,593. So similar a^e they to Philadelphians in thought, lan- 
guage, and custom that they can hardly be regarded as a foreign 
group. They do not reside in any particular section, nor do they flock 
into particular industries or professions. 

Only 2,245 Swedes live in the city. They do not support a foreign- 
language paper, and are well assimilated. Descendants of the early 
Swedish settlers have lost their identity in the melting pot. Little re- 



mains today of Swedish influence save ancient churches, and grave- 
stones bearing the names of men* who lived, loved, fought, and died 
in another and different Philadelphia. 

. The 970 Danes living here are almost lost in the city's swirl of 
humanity. Arriving in Philadelphia around 1890, most of them now 
have become an integral part of the American scene. Virtually the 
only remaining vestige of their homeland lies in their cookery, al- 
though there are no Danish restaurants in Philadelphia. The same is 
generally true of the city's 1,309 Norwegians. 

The Russian population of Philadelphia, totaling 80,959, exclusive 
of Russian Jews, is a closerknit group that rarely mingles in a social 
way with other groups. Most of its members today work in oil re- 
fineries, leather plants, cigar factories, textile mills, and steel found- 
ries, but rarely in executive positions. 

Mass immigration from Russia did not begin until 1905. Almost all 
the newcomers sought the New World to escape poverty, compulsory 
military service, and religious persecution aimed mainly at Russian 
Jews. Locomotive works, foundries, and shipyards provided employ- 
ment for most of them. For convenience sake they settled near their 
workshops, first in the area between Tenth Street and the Delaware 
River from Spring Garden Street to Girard Avenue. Later they in- 
habited the section between Point Breeze and Snyder Avenues, from 
Twenty-second to Thirtieth Street. 

The peak in Russian immigration was reached in 1915-17. In 1921 
the vanguard of "White Russians," those loyal to the Tsarist regime, 
reached Philadelphia from New York. Approximately 50 White Rus- 
sians are living here today, and (in contrast with the major Russian 
group) virtually all are engaged in either the arts or the professions. 
Because of their disinclination to mingle outside their own circles, 
Russians have not become prominent in civic affairs. However, they 
have aided the artistic development of Philadelphia by their patron- 
age of dance and music recitals, 

Coming to Philadelphia in great numbers during the latter part of 
the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, Philadel- 
phia's 7,639 Rumanians plunged into the active life of the city and 
were soon assimilated. They readily adopted American ways and the 
English language, and chose to live in widely separated sections of 
the city rather than segregate themselves. This Americanization has 
become complete in all phases except that of cuisine, for they still 
prefer the foods of their mother country. Several restaurants cater 
to the Rumanian palate. 

The Rumanian population tends toward the "white-collar" occu- 
pations, music, and the arts in general. A lesser number are laborers. 
Aside from their cooking, the one link Philadelphia Rumanians 
maintain with their homeland is the celebration of May 10 in com- 



memoration of Rumania's independence. On this occasion folk 
dances are featured and native dress lends color to the affair. 

Although Austrians arrived in Philadelphia as early as 1712, they 
were but a handful in number and scarcely influenced the city's 
thought. The majority came during the latter nineteenth and early 
twentieth centuries. At present, 10,707 live in Philadelphia. They are 
closely allied by tongue and customs to the Germans. No definite sec- 
tions are inhabited by them, although the early settlers lived in the 
neighborhood between Fourth and Eighth Streets from Girard Ave- 
nue to Norris Street. Many now live in the section between Twenty- 
fifth and Twenty-eighth Streets from Spring Garden to Oxford Street. 

Another group which had but little effect in shaping the city's life 
and traditions is the Yugoslavs, of whom there are approximately 
1,394. Most of these are factory workers or, in the case of young 
womein^ domestics. Yugoslavs are concentrated in numbers in the 
vicinity of Twenty-fourth and Wolf Streets. 

Czechoslovaks number 3,868. Many of these are Bohemians, gener- 
ally of fair education. Many find employment in "white-collar" posi- 
tions. They live mainly in the section between Spring Garden Street 
and Columbia Avenue from Front to Sixth Street. 

Curb Market at Ninth and Christian Streets 
"The Piazza del Mercato of Philadelphia" 


Philadelphia's 7,102 Hungarians are scattered throughout the var- 
ious trades and professions. They mix easily, and are readily assimi- 
lated. Hungarian and German are spoken by them, in addition to 
English. Those coming from a section near the Polish border also 
speak Polish. One Hungarian newspaper is printed in Philadelphia, 
with a two-page English supplement for American-born readers. 

Many of Philadelphia's 3,415 Greeks seem attracted to the restau- 
rant business above other commercial ventures. Greek domination is 
especially true of the smaller quick-lunch establishments, as devoid 
of elaborate cuisine as they are of tablecloths. The bulk of the 
Greeks came here between 1900 and 1910. They settled in the Rich- 
mond section, along Gaskill Street between South and Lombard 
Streets, and in the area between Eighth and Twelfth Streets from 
Locust Street to Spruce Street. 

Philadelphia contains many other racial and national groups, but 
these are so few in number that their effect in molding the city's 
appearance, customs, and institutions have been negligible. Outstand- 
ing among these minority groups are the Armenians, who are de- 
voted mostly to the rug business, and the Belgians, who engage 
mainly in the textile industry. 

Negro Progress 

r T 1 HE story of the Negro in Philadelphia is a repetition of the saga 
-*- of struggle marking his progress elsewhere. Here, however, he 
found the advantages of what in early days was a comparatively sym- 
pathetic environment. 

A few Negro slaves were owned by the earliest Dutch and Swedes ; 
but when the Quakers came to found Penn's city, they looked with 
disfavor upon slaveholding, and many began almost immediately to 
agitate for its abolition. A State law providing for gradual emancipa- 
tion was enacted in 1780, just 81 years before the outbreak of the 
Civil War. Those who could afford it purchased slaves for the purpose 
of freeing them, and then assisted the freedmen in adjusting them- 
selves to their new life. Others participated in the operation of the 
Underground Railroad, a system which assisted escaping slaves to 
reach the North and the Canadian border. 

Work of the first freedmen was limited to the domestic field, but 
by 1800 they were finding employment as seamen, mechanics, car- 
penters, wagonsmiths, and as skilled workers of other types. Despite 
racial oppression, they became home-owners, supported their own 
schools, contributed to beneficial societies, and financed their own 
business enterprises. A group duplicated in no other city was the 
guild of caterers, which had a monopoly on the catering business and 



was so successful that some of its members reached affluence. The 
business, carried on from generation to generation, deteriorated only 
after modern youth became attracted to new fields. 

In 1780 Philadelphia's Negro population of about 3,000 was con- 
centrated in the area between Fifth and Ninth Streets from Pine to 
Lombard Street. The population doubled in the next 10 years, spread- 
ing westward across Broad Street to form a center of Negro business 
activity at Sixteenth and Seventeenth Streets, and a residential dis- 
trict in southwest Philadelphia. The spread took a northward trend 
in 1793, when about one-fourth of the Negro population was living 
between Market and Vine Streets. The trend continued northward, 
until now the north central section rivals South Philadelphia as a 
Negro residential center. 

Today about 2,500 Negroes are employed in the government of the 
city and county, drawing annual salaries totaling approximately $2,- 
000,000. They include policemen, detectives, school teachers, clerks, 
inspectors, chemists, draftsmen, and janitors. 

The mayoralty campaign of 1880 evoked the first sign of concerted 
action on the part of the city's Negro voters. Led by William Still, 
Robert Purvis, and James Forten, they revolted against the Republi- 
can Party. The Democrats rewarded them with appointments to the 
city police force. Negroes became increasingly political-minded there- 
after, and today their vote is recognized as! an important factor. Al- 
though members of the race served on the Common Council as early 
as 1893, James H. Irvin, elected councilman in 1935, has been the 
only Negro to sit in the new City Council. 

A writer on Negro society of the nineteenth century cites the 
graciousness of manner and success in entertaining of the Negro 
matrons in Philadelphia. A knowledge of music was general. Musical 
instruments were found in every home and an interest and appre- 
ciation for melody and rhythm was cultivated. Often the first music 
lessons were given in a church. Still the canter of social activity, the 
churches have taught the fundamentals of music to talented youth. 
In this manner the voice of Marian Anderson, now a marvel to music 
lovers the world over, was discovered. 

As early as 1820 the African Methodist Episcopal Church in this 
city founded a publishing company, which still operates under the 
original charter. This institution, the A.M.E. Book Concern, is situ- 
ated at 716 South Nineteenth Street. Near its former site on South 
College Avenue stands another important Negro institution, the 
Berean Church, built in the nineteenth century. The Bethel 
Methodist Episcopal Church, at Sixth and Lombard Streets, was built 
by Bishop Richard Allen in 1794 ; first of its denomination in the 
country, the church still stands on the original site. In 1791, St. 
Thomas' Church, first African Protestant Episcopal Church in 



America, was founded by Absalom Jones. Originally on Second Street 
below Walnut, the church is now on Twelfth Street below Walnut. 
Both these men were responsible, in the main, for the formation of 
the first Negro religious groups in the country operating alone and 
independent of the white sects. 

During the decade of 1860-70, there was a decrease of 17 percent 
in the Negro population of Philadelphia. Following the Civil War 
and emancipation, great hopes were entertained by Negroes for the 
rapid cultural and social advancement of their race. Nowhere was 
there a more fertile field than Philadelphia, seat of Quakerism in 
the United States. A growing spirit of liberalism toward the Negro 
was manifested here, many being disposed to grant him a chance to 
make his way in the world. Slowly but surely, petty hindrances were 
brushed away and the shackles of racial prejudice loosened. The 
Negro population increased by degrees, starting in 1870. In the fol- 
lowing decade the increase amounted to 43.13 percent. 

When the influx began, "old Philadelphians" Negroes that had 
been serving aristocratic Philadelphia families for years regarded 
the newcomers with disfavor, partly because Northern Negroes were 
better educated and their standard of living was much higher. This 
created among Negroes a class-consciousness that still exists. 

Poor housing facilities and the rigorous Northern climate took its 
toll of these migrants. Census returns in 1880, erroneous in 
figures, seemed to indicate the race was dying out. But such was not 
the case. The death rate, 32.5 per 1,000 for the period from 1830 to 
1840, remained at approximately the same level, 31.25 per 1,000 for 
the years 1884-90. Strong constitutions, improved living conditions, 
and better educational and medical facilities reduced the death rate 
to 24.42 per 1,000 by 1937. 

Negro workers were hard hit during the depression that followed 
the Wall Street crash in 1929, and the businests and professional men 
depending upon them for success suffered in their turn. Those in the 
medical field were affected with especial severity. Negro doctors, de- 
pendent almost entirely upon their own people for patronage, found 
thousands of these patrons unemployed and without funds. Both 
white and Negro workers discovered during this period the common 
bond of their economic status, and Negroes now form part of the 
membership of labor unions, in addition to their own many fraternal 
and social organizations. 

Numerous social agencies are devoted to the interests of the race 
in the city, the principal one being the Armstrong Association, a 
member of the Welfare Federation. The city's Negro mewspapers are 
the Tribune, established in 1884, and the Independent, founded in 



FAR exceeding even the optimistic hopes of William Penn, Phila- 
delphia grew in area and governmental jurisdiction until the 
boundaries of the city coincided with those of Philadelphia 
County. This was accomplished by the absorption of many small 
towns that even as late as the middle of the nineteenth century were 
suburbs of the city. 

Francisville, Belmont, Kensington, Northern Liberties, Richmond, 
Southwark, Penn, Manayunk, Bridesburg, Roxborough, Lower Dub- 
lin, Crescentville, Fish Town, Morrisville, Holmesburg, Haddington, 
Spring Garden, Blockley, Byberry, Delaware, Fox Chase, German- 
towln, Frankford, White Hall, Mount Airy, Franklinville, Mechanics- 
ville, Hestonville, Kingsessing, Moreland, Moyamensing, Oxford, 
Tacony, Aramingo, Coopersville, Feltonville, Hollinsville, Chestnut 
Hill, Eastwick, Overbrook, Wynnewood, Oak Lane, Ogontz and Har- 
rowgate all of these villages and towns, together with Penn's origi- 
nal Philadelphia, compose the city of today. 

Nevertheless, a legal fiction persists in treating county and city as 
separate entities, causing a somewhat complicated dual legislative 
and executive machine. For several years action has been proposed 
to consolidate the two coextensive governments, in order to simplify 
the set-up and to cut down expenditures. 

Prior to February 2, 1854, when the Act of Consolidation went into 
effect, Philadelphia proper was bounded by South Street, Vine Street, 
the Schuylkill, and the Delaware. With the passage of the act, the 
boundaries of Philadelphia were fixed virtually as they are today. 
A part of Cheltenham Township, in Montgomery County, however, 
was annexed in 1916. 

The principal law uinder which the present city government oper- 
ates is the act of June 25, 1919, with a number of amendments, 
popularly known as the City Charter. Philadelphia has the "mayor 
and council" form of government. The Mayor, who is one of 73 
officials elected by the voters of the city at large, is the chief execu- 
tive, chosen for a term of four years. It is his duty to enforce the 
ordinances enacted by the 22 members of the City Council, elected 
by voters in the eight Councilmanic Districts (coinciding with State 
Senatorial Districts) into which Philadelphia is divided. In all, some 
6,400 officials are elected in the various districts and wards. 


City Hall Tower 

"where Penrt stands watchfi 

guard o'er his city" 


Under the Mayor are his thirteen assisting executive departments : 
Public Safety; Public Works; Public Welfare; Public Health; 
Wharves, Docks and Ferries; City Transit; City Treasurer; City Con- 
troller; Law (City Solicitor) ; Civil Service Commission; Receiver of 
Taxes; Supplies and Purchases; and City Architecture. The City 
Treasurer, City Controller, and Receiver of Taxes are elected for 
terms of four years. 

The Director of Public Safety is the central head of the Police, 
Fire, Electrical, Maintenance and Repairs, Building Inspection, Ele- 
vator Inspection, and Steam Engine and Boiler Inspection Bureaus. 
Bureaus under the Department of Public Works include : City 
Property, Lighting and Gas, Water, Highways, Street Cleaning, and 
the combined department of Engineering, Zoning, and Surveys. The 
Department of Public Welfare directs the Bureaus of Charities and 
Correction, Personal Assistance, and Recreation. 

Several other agencies function along specialized lines. They are 
the Sinking Fund Commission, Registration Commission, Gas Com- 
mission, Board of Pensions, Art Jury, Zoning Commission, and the 
Commission on City Planning. 

The Commissioners of Fairmount Park, appointed by the Court of 
Common Pleas, have charge not only of Fairmount Park, but also of 
25 small parks and squares, the Parkway, and Roosevelt Boule- 
vard. This branch of the city government is virtually autonomous. 
It maintains the park guards a special police force which is en- 
tirely independent of the Municipal Bureau of Police. 

The Free Library system and the museums of the city are con- 
trolled by special boards of trustees. 

In addition to the Magistrates' Courts, which are not tribunals of 
record, there are four trial courts : Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions 
of the Peace, Orphan's Court, and the Municipal Court. The Court of 
Oyer and Terminer and General Jail Delivery hears only murder 

The division of governmental authority between city and county 
is not distinct, some of the principal officers receiving dual salaries 
for similar duties in city and county governments. The City Treasurer 
is the County Treasurer ; the City Controller is County Controller ; 
the City Commissioners serve also as County Commissioners. This 
quality exists likewise with the Corner, District Attorney, Clerk of 
Quarter Sessions, Prothonotary, Register of Wills, and Recorder of 

Public education in Philadelphia is conducted under supervision 
of the Board of Public Education, the 15 members of which are ap- 
pointed by a board of judges of the Common Pleas Court for over- 
lapping terms of six years. 



PHILADELPHIA was born into a world still in the handicraft 
stage of economic development ; the home was no less the pro- 
ducing than the consuming center of economic life in that slow- 
moving, candle-lit period when the prime motive force was the energy 
of man and beast. For many the basis of living was a subsistence 
standard in the narrowest meaning of the term; for a few there were 
some luxuries, but such luxuries as today's Philadelphia worker would 
deem commonplace. 

The early settlement was on the fringe of the frontier. Its economy 
was a pioneer economy in large part, a basic struggle for the bare 
necessities of existence. With the passing years, Philadelphia has at- 
tained maturity in a world where the economics of plentitude have re- 
placed the pioneer economy a machine world in which the stand- 
ard of living of the prosperous is so high that it would have astonished 
the founding fathers. Despite the productivity of the machine, how- 
ever, many Philadelphians today live under conditions which are only 
a slight improvement over those existing in the days of the pioneers. 
In Penn's time industry in the town was centered mainly in the 
home. Women and children carded, spun, and wove wool for cloth- 
ing ; they also produced knitted wear and made articles of leather 
and fur. Iron was melted and wrought, bricks were pressed in hand- 
operated molds, and stone was quarried by the men according to 
their individual needs. 

Today Philadelphia is an industrial city. Thousands of factories 
meet the diversified needs of a technological civilization, and a 
modern transportation system distributes to every quarter of the world 
the commodities made here. It is a great and growing port through 
which flow the products and resources of a teeming hinterland : 
bituminous coal and anthracite, irons steel, and other mineral prod- 
ucts, together with the harvests of forest and farm the diversified 
output of a giant and highly creative national industry. Great munic- 
ipal piers for coastwise and transocean shipping, belt line and ele- 
vated-subway transportation systems, spacious manufacturing and 
storage plants, and a river alive with traffic attest the city's share in 
the forward thrust of America. 

The city's economic destiny was determined by its location and by 
the industrious character of its people. It possessed the potentialities 



of a manufacturing center and a port easily accessible from the sea, 
with harborage on a deep and wide river. The neighboring region 
was rich in timber, minerals, water power, and arable land. Being 
close to the sea, it had the assurance of a constant labor supply in 
the steady stream of immigration from the Old World. These natural 
advantages are today supplemented by the presence in the city of a 
large supply of skilled labor, and the fact that the city itself furnishes 
an excellent home market for the products of the industrial plants, 
more than 2 billion dollars being expended annually in the whole- 
sale and retail marts of business. 

Philadelphia's first important industry, the manufacture of textiles, 
has remained its greatest. Its mills, the majority of which are in the 
Kensington and Frankford sections, produce 5 percent of the Nation's 
output in textiles. This industry originated with the German settlers, 
whose families produced woolen hose on home-made wooden frames, 
the product being sold for the equivalent of a dollar a pair. In 
another phase of textile manufacture, the making of rugs and car- 
pets, the city was a pioneer. The first woven carpet produced 
in the New World was made in Philadelphia in 1775, and by 1845 
the industry had attained considerable magnitude and prosperity. 
The manufacture of knitted and hooked rugs, from strips of cloth 
torn off wornout garments, began with the city's founding. 

The textile industry's 92,573 workers now maintain an average an- 
nual production with a value exceeding a quarter billion dollars. 
A great diversity of items is represented, such as clothing, lace, blan- 
kets and robes, flags and banners, print goods, tents and awnings, 
cordage, burlap and jute bagging, knitted goods, hats, uniforms, 
braids, tapes, and bindings. 

The manufacture of hats, a specialized branch of textile making, 
had Colonial roots in Germantown. The high-crowned Germantown 
beaver hat, hand-felted and hand-blocked, adorned the head of many 
a Colonial aristocrat and was worn and admired even beyond the 
Alleghenies. Today another Philadelphia-made hat, the Stetson, 

is so widely known that it 
trade name has become a 
vernacular synonym for a 
man's headgear. The fac- 
tory in which it is made, 
in normal times, provides 
employment for 5,460 men 
and women and occupies 
a floor area of 25 acres. 
Multifold are the beavers, 
otters, muskrats, Belgian 

Hosiery Worker 
"a maker of silken sheaths* 



hares, Scottish rabbits, and South American nutria whose fur conies 
to commercial use in this establishment. 

Closely related to textile manufactures is the leather industry. Its 
expansion in Philadelphia has been stimulated by a plentiful supply 
of water soft enough to be used in tanning and a climate favorable 
to the proper processing of leather. Philadelphia-made shoes are in 
many places deemed a superior product, owing doubtless to local 
manufacturers' concentration on a higher quality of footwear. 

In the preparation of glazed kid the city excels. It was a Phila- 
delphian, Robert H. Foerderer, who perfected the first American 
process for making that type of leather which previously had been 
imported. As a consequence of its predominance in the leather in- 
dustry, the city has become one of the Nation's leading markets for 
hides and peltries. 

Although the city takes a large proportion of the country's pro- 
duction of hides, few of them are from animals slaughtered in Phila- 
delphia. Its supply of meat and other products comes mainly from 
the packing houses of the Middle West and the Southwest. There was 
a time when the central city was dotted with abattoirs. Now, however, 
excepting two large slaughterhouses on Gray's Ferry Avenue, and one 
at Third Street and Girard Avenue, all are far from the city center. 

The production of other articles of food is a highly diversified and 
widely scattered industry. Eight hundred and seventy-six firms are 
engaged in it, with an average annual production exceeding $200,- 
000,000 in value. Philadelphia scrapple and Philadelphia-made ice 
cream are two specialties that have a wide sale within the radius fixed 
by their perishable nature. 

In the refining of sugar Philadelphia is second in the world. The 
first sugar refinery in the United States, established on Vine Street 
above Third in 1783, functioned for more than a century. Today 
there are three great refineries in the city, giving employment to about 
2,477 persons. 

From its earliest days, Philadelphia has produced liquors and malt 
beverages. The early colonists made sassafras beer, persimmon brandy, 
and small beer from Indian maize. As the city expanded, brewhouses 
and distilleries were established. Like the public houses, they were 
confined to the water front, but their products had a wide distribu- 
tion. The early brewhouses and distilleries were the beginning of an 
important industry, and although the largest distillery is near the 
Delaware in South Philadelphia, many large plants have located on 
the outskirts or in the suburbs. After the period of "hibernation" 
enforced by the Eighteenth Amendment, the industry here prospered 

The tobacco trade is also important on Philadelphia's commercial 
horizon. Cigars are the chief output of the city's 59 tobacco factories. 



Snuff manufacture, of major importance in the nineteenth century, 
has declined in recent years. 

A once important Philadelphia industry, the manufacture of cook- 
ing and heating stoves, has been curtailed. These stoves were turned 
out in great 'number's for two centuries. In Colonial days the stoves 
were small "foot" models, taken along to the unheated churches of 
the time. Later, the Franklin and the so-called "cannon" types were 
Philadelphia specialties. The market was greatly reduced by the rise 
of oil and gas stoves for cooking, and of hot-air furnaces, hot water, 
steam, and vapor boilers, and oil-burning devices for heating. The 
former importance of this industry may readily be judged by the 
fact, that, even under these conditions, the city still produces more 
than $3,000,000 worth of stoves and furnaces annually. 

Another Philadelphia industry that has languished is the carriage- 
building trade. It began humbly in a wheelwright's shop on Market 
Street near the water front, a few years before the Revolution. By 
the middle of the following century it had progressed to such extent 
that the local carriage makers and coach builders were capable of 
competing with and in some instances surpassing the craftsmen of 
Europe. In an age when the world of fashion drove behind spanking 
teams to its gaslit soirees, a barouche or a landau was the moving 
symbol of sound social position, and the task of supplying the ve- 
hicles was one of no little importance. 

Carriages gave way before the relentless advance of the internal 
combustion engine, and the carriage builders turned to other pursuits. 
One branch of the industry still remains in the city, the manufacture 
of baby carriages a vehicle conceived in the fertile mind of a 
Philadelphia carriage maker in 1831. They were first produced as 
miniature coaches for the children of the wealthy, but time has so 
democratized them that they have become an embarrassment to male 
parents the country over. 

The city shares also in the automotive industry. The J. G. Brill 
Company, the world's largest maker of city transit equipment, and 
pioneer in the development of traction equipment from early horse- 
car days, is situated here. Another Philadelphia concern, the Budd 
Company, has built many of the modern light-weight streamlined 
trains which are revitalizing American railroad transport. It was 
here that the Burlington Zephyr, among the first of the streamlined 
trains, was designed and constructed. 

An outstanding achievement of the Budd Company in 1937 was 
the completion of the first "desert dreadnought," a huge, light-weight, 
stainless steel bus trailer designed especially for passenger service in 
the Syrian desert. Styled for speed and built on principles similar to 


Midvale Steel Workers 
"Breaking up the Final" 


those employed in the stainless steel streamlined railroad coaches 
produced by the same company, the bus has succeeded in cutting ex- 
isting schedules more than a third. 

It was built for the Nairn Transport Company, Ltd., and delivered 
to that company at Beirut. Because the length of the vehicle 57 
feet, 6 inches was too great to permit turning of ordinary corners, 
it was necessary for the company to make advance studies of the road 
to New York and lay out special routes to get it through city streets. 
The trailer, drawn by a 150-horsepower Diesel tractor, is an air- 
conditioned sleeper with upper and lower berths. It was designed to 
make the 600-mile run between Damascus and Baghdad in 15 hours. 

Philadelphia has also made an important contribution to steam rail 
transport through the Baldwin Locomotive Works which operated 
for many years on Broad Street at Spring Garden, but was later re- 
moved to Eddystone, south of the city in Delaware County. The first 
Baldwin locomotive, Old Ironsides, was built in Philadelphia in 
1832, in the shops of Matthias Baldwin and David H. Mason, at 
Fourth and Walnut Streets. It was dubbed the "fair weather engine," 
because its weight of only five tons was not sufficient to give it trac- 
tion on rails made slippery by rain. It puffed along valiantly on fair 
days, but during bad weather horses replaced it. From that uncer- 
tain beginning the Baldwin production has grown, until today its 
locomotives traverse the rails of almost every nation. 

In shipbuilding, likewise, Philadelphia has figured largely. The vast 
Cramps' shipyard on the Delaware, until its closing in recent years, 
was the birthplace of fine vessels from the days of the sail to those 
of the turbine. Many of the country's war-craft were built in that 
yard, and some of the world's renowned pleasure craft took shape 
upon its way among them Jay Gould's famed yacht Atalanta. Phila- 
delphia was also the home of the first propeller steamer built in the 
United States. This steamer, the Princeton, was constructed at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1843. Two years earlier, the Mississippi, 
in which Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry sailed to Japan where 
he negotiated a treaty opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate 
to United States commerce, was built here. 

As it has contributed to speedier transportation, so has the city 
had a part in improving the world's means of communication. Two 
of its prominent manufacturing plants were pioneers in the radio in- 
dustry, and some of the improvements which have given the air a 
voice had their origin in Philadelphia laboratories. In the related 
field of electrical equipment, the city has shared honors with Pitts- 
burgh and Schenectady. 

The manufacture of iron and its alloys is now concentrated around 
the sources of raw materials the coal and iron mines west of the 



Alleghenies. In. Colonial days, however, Philadelphia was the leading 
iron producer of the Nation, and today it maintains a prominent 
position in the manufacture of light steel and non-ferrous products. 
Especially is the city a factor in the production of edged tools es- 
sential to high-speed machine manufacturing. Toolmaking in the 
city had an early beginning, the first saw in America having been 
forged in Philadelphia before the Revolution. Today the variety of 
tools produced is limited only by the requirements of the market. 
From the molten metal there eventually emerge machetes to cut the 
cane of Cuba, knives to behead the pineapple plants of Hawaii, and 
a great variety of cutting tools for the lathes, shapers, and planers 
of American industry. 

In two other industries that are factors in modern life, the pro- 
duction of paper and printing, Philadelphia ranks among the first 
flight cities. Its 45 paper factories turn out products ranging from 
paper towels and railroad ticket stock to the finest bond and linen 
papers. The city's first paper mill was erected about 1693. Its nat- 
ural corollary, the printing press, soon followed. In the United 
States today, only New York exceeds Philadelphia in the volume and 
variety of periodicals and commercial matter produced by its publish- 
ing houses and printing shops. In the allied fields of bookbinding, 
engraving, and lithography the city has many establishments. 

In still another modern industry, the making of chemicals, Phila- 
delphia claims a "first." From the Colonial retorts of Christopher 
and Charles Marshall emerged in 1793 probably the first American- 
made sulphuric acid. John Harrison, a pioneer in the manufacture 
of nitric acid, is also credited with having produced sulphuric acid 
at that time. 

In 1789 Samuel Wetherill and his son Samuel, Jr., began the pro- 
duction of white lead, the first to be manufactured in the United 
States. In 1804 they erected a white lead factory. Prior to the death 
of Christopher Marshall, in 1797, the Marshall laboratory also was 
producing white lead regularly. Some years later this firm was making 
ether in commercial quantities; in the 1830's it added quinine and 
strychnine to its catalog. The Marshall laboratory is dwarfed in 
size now by many Philadelphia chemical plants, in which are pro- 
duced a diversity of reagents and pharmaceuticals. 

In 1839 a Philadelphian discovered that by using superheated 
sulphur instead of nitric acid, he could harden India rubber and 
still preserve its pliancy. The experimenter was Charles Goodyear. 
Aided by his brother-in-law, William De Forrest, and exhausting the 
financial resources of his entire family over a period of five years, 
Goodyear in 1844 perfected a vulcanizing process that is now fol- 
lowed in the rubber industry throughout the world, but he lost his 
patents for France and England. 



In 1844 Samuel S. White, then only 22 years of age, embarked in 
the artificial-tooth manufacturing business at what was then 116 North 
Seventh Street, using his attic for a "factory" and a downstairs room 
for a "store." Up to that time, dentists carved crude teeth from blocks 
of porcelain wretched imitations of nature's handiwork. Young 
White strove to make his dental work resemble the original as nearly 
as possible. His success was accelerated by the accidental discovery 
of feldspar as a base for porcelain, and within a short time he and 
two assistants were forced to seek larger quarters. Today there are a 
half hundred dentistry laboratories in Philadelphia, turning out ap- 
proximately 83,000,000 artificial teeth every year. 

An interesting sidelight on the history of Philadelphia's industrial 
development is afforded by the "Keely Motor Hoax," perpetrated by 
John W. Keely on credulous investors during the latter part of the 
nineteenth century. About 1872, Keely, who had a laboratory at 1422 
North Twentieth Street, invited scientists to watch him demonstrate a 
machine which he asserted was motivated by a new and hitherto un- 
known force. By using a system of concealed rubber bulbs and tubes 
and employing compressed air as his power, Keely set a water motor 
in operation, the trick being executed so cleverly that it defied even 
the scientific scrutiny of the day. 

Public interest and excitement was aroused, and before long a 
corporation \vas formed with $5,000,000 capital. The "invention" 
failed to show practical results during ensuing years, and interest in 
it died out. Meanwhile Keely had spent his money lavishly ; he was 
at the end of his resources when a rich Philadelphia widow came 
to his assistance with $100,000. 

In 1895, suspecting that she had been swindled, the widow ap- 
pealed to Addison B. Burk, president of the Spring Garden Institute, 
and E. Alexander Scott, of the Engineers Club. These two investigated 
and found there W T HS not the slightest evidence that Keely had dis- 
covered or developed a riew r force. Other investigators, searching the 
laboratory at a later date, unearthed the hidden attachments of 
Keely's "force-producing" machine. By that time, however, Keely was 
in his grave. 

Imports and Exports 

AS DEFINED for customs purposes, the port of Philadelphia is 
88 nautical miles (about 101 statute miles) from the sea. The 
total water frontage is 37 miles, of which 20 are along the Delaware 
and 17 on the Schuylkill. Main activities are centered on approxi- 
mately six miles of the Delaware, extending from Greenwich piers, 
three miles south of Market Street, to Port Richmond, about the same 
distance north of Market. There are 267 wharves of various sizes, in- 



eluding 84 individual sections of improved bulk-head. Rail service 
extending along Delaware Avenue, which parallels the river, has 
direct touch with all piers. 

The port of Philadelphia had a shipping business of 32,378,567 
tons in 1935, with an aggregate value of $958,491,268. All previous 
high records in tonnage and value were shattered by those totals. 
The principal raw and manufactured materials handled at the piers 
were anthracite, bituminous coal, sugar, chemicals, fruits, molasses, 
crude drugs, textiles, lumber, iron and steel, automobile parts, general 
merchandise, and petroleum and its products. Among these classifica- 
tions, crude petroleum and petroleum products led by a wide margin. 

By 1936 shippers in the foreign and domestic trades were showing 
even greater interest in the Philadelphia port. During that year cus- 
tom receipts increased more than $4,000,000, the total estimated 
receipts amounting to $24,105,718 as compared with $28,574,914 for 

Traffic on the Schuylkill, an important arm of the Philadelphia 
harbor, increased from 9,268,828 tons, with a value of $103,396,308, 
in 1934, to 10,066,667 tons, with a value of $116,047,297, in 1935. The 
bulk of the Schuylkill commerce is coastwise, and consequently does 
not come under either the export or import classification. 

Since the first ships began plying between the Old World and the 
New, Philadelphia has been a center of maritime activity. The early 
colonization days saw Philadelphia elevated to a leading role in com- 
merce and trade. Since then the city has kept well up among the 
shipping ports of the United States. In his charter, William Penn 
designated Philadelphia as the port and harbor of Pennsylvania, em- 
powering the mayor, aldermen, and councilmen to erect quays and 
wharves to accommodate trade. 

During the period preceding the Revolution, English statesmen saw 
in the Colonies an opportunity to expand the manufacturing and 
commercial marts of the King. In attempting to create a huge nation 
of agriculturists, Parliament offered bounties to the colonists for the 
exportation of agricultural products. What little was manufactured 
was shipped to England in English ships as raw material, to be re- 
turned to the Colonies in the form of finished products. 

Thus the colonists were forced to till the soil for their livelihood. 
Their products were used first for their own maintenance, and second 
as a means of procuring money with which to meet their needs. As 
a last resort, to break the English stranglehold on American com- 
merce, the Colonies banded together and refused either to purchase 
British goods or to export tobacco to the British Isles. 

At the close of the Revolution, Philadelphia was far from pros- 
perous. Its commerce was virtually ruined, and its manufacturers were 
forced to encounter disastrous competition from! imported goods. 



The collection of debts, suspended during the war, was again taken 
up. Court dockets were filled with suits, while goods flooded the 
market because of greatly reduced buying power. 

When the Constitution went into effect, however, provisions were 
made for a custom house, commercial treaties, and duties on imports. 
With the revival of commerce it became necessary to increase the 
facilities of the port. Stephen Girard led the drive for much-needed 
improvements. Until his death Girard was a leading figure in the 
advancement of the port, and his will set aside a large sum of money 
to continue the work. 

In the early years foodstuffs, as well as manufactured goods, were 
imported by the Colony. When European crops became acclimated 
and native crops developed, imports of foodstuffs grew smaller. Im- 
plements and tools as well as various manufactured articles, however, 
were regularly purchased abroad during the entire Colonial period. 

The greater part of the imports from the mother country in 1721 
was woolen manufactures, with wrought iron and nails next in im- 
portance. The others, in the order of their importance, were silk, 
leather goods, linen and sailcloths, cordage, pewter, lead and shot, 
brass and wrought copper, gunpowder, iron, hemp, and wrought silk. 

The colonists early discovered that they could produce more than 
they could sell to England. Therefore they engaged in a surreptitious 
commerce, chiefly with the West Indies, exporting lumber of all sorts, 
fish, beef, pork, butter, horses, cattle, poultry, tobacco, corn, flour, 
cider, and even small vessels. This trade, however, was almost entirely 
ruined through the rigorous enforcement by Britain of the laws 
against smuggling, and the collection of duties in hard money. 

The value of foreign trade, which was not quite $4,000,000 in 1791, 
had risen to more than $17,000,000 in 1796. The chief factor in this 
large increase was the life-and-death struggle between France and 
England, which began in 1793 and continued with few intermissions 
until Napoleon's fall in 1815. The superior naval forces of England 
gave her control of the seas, so that her enemies were compelled to 
depend upon neutrals to handle their trade. Because the United 
States was well situated in relation to the West Indies, and because 
it had long before established connection with them, it naturally had 
a large part of trade. Philadelphia's trade, however., was not confined 
to the West Indies, but extended to the Orient and to a majority of 
the ports of the world. 

There was a general decline in American commerce during the 
War of 1812, and Philadelphia particularly was affected by the de- 
creased tonnage. With the end of the war, and the realignment of 
national interests throughout the world, new commercial and ship- 
ping trends developed. European nations, their energy no longer 
dissipated by war, tunned their attention to the protection of their 



Old Ships and New 
"the derelicts of seven seas' 

manufacturing interests and the development of their commerce. 
With the general increase in European sailings, Philadelphia's ship- 
ping virtually came to an end. Some exports continued, however, 
and records indicate that grain, flour, iron utensils, flaxseed, soap 
and candles, lumber, pork, and beef left the port in Philadelphia 

By 1854 the exports had risen to a little more than $10,000,000, 
with imports close to $22,000,000. At this time preparations for the 
Crimean War occupied the attention of England, France, Italy, and 
Russia ; consequently, the United States, and Philadelphia in par- 
ticular, obtained an increased share of the carrying trade, which ac- 
counts for the sudden rise in the value of exports. 

Exports and imports increased through many fluctuations from 



1861 to 1900, the former increasing to $81,145,966. The imports 
doubled, climbing to a total of $49,191,003. From 1860 to 1875 there 
were only three years in which the balance of trade was unfavorable. 

The year 1900 was notable in two respects. First, it set a new high 
mark for total exports ; and second, it established a new top not only 
in the exportation of manufactured goods but also in the importation 
of raw materials. 

From 1860 to 1900 the outstanding developments of the export 
trade centered in the increasing importance of agriculture, the grow- 
ing value of minerals, and the rise in volume of manufactured goods. 
Of the chief agricultural exports, only cotton showed a decrease in 
relative importance. Among the breadstuff's exported, wheat was first. 
The substitution of rollers for millstones in flour-making resulted in 
a sizable gain in the export of wheat. Also, instead of most of the 
wheat going out in the form of grain, as in 1860, more than half 
the export wheat, by value, in 1900, left the port as flour. Toward 
the close of the period, exports of livestock, mainly beef cattle, were 
valued at nearly $3,000,000. 

The chief change in the import trade during the period from 1860 
to 1900 was a decline in volume of manufactured goods. In 1860, 
these articles made up almost half the total value, but by 1900 thev 
had declined to slightly more than one third. Wool and cotton ex- 
ports made little advance over 1860, but silk showed a decided in- 

In 1915 the total of the foreign trade combined exports and im- 
portsat the port of Philadelphia reached $201,911,539. The total 
steadily increased until 1920, when the impressive figures of $733,- 
201,047 were achieved. The sharp upturn was due to the abnormal 
activity induced by the World War. 

For the period of 1901-17 inclusive, exports reached a yearly 
average of $119,924,514 ; while from 1918 to 1924, the average was 
$181,817,267, despite the fact that a slowing down in the demand for 
our products followed in the wake of the war. This latter tendency 
continued until 1932, when bottom was touched at $42,461,145. The 
demand improved in 1933 and increased further in 1934, the exports 
for these two years being valued at $48,742,253 and $57,774,738. 

The important exports in the year 1919 were food products, non- 
metallic minerals, metals, and manufactures. Probably the outstand- 
ing feature in the heavy outgo was the remarkable increase shown 
in the value of manufactured goods, which had a combined worth 
in excess of $80,000,000. During the war, and for about a year after, 
the exportation of foodstuffs was heavy. There was a sharp drop in 
this classification in 1920. 

While a marked increase was shown in 1933 and 1934 in Phila- 



delphia's exports to South America, Canada, Asia, Union of South 
Africa, and New Zealand, the bulk went to Europe. Generally, the 
best customers were France, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, Belgium, 
the Netherlands, and Brazil. 

Among the ports of the country, Philadelphia ranked fifth in 
exports in 1910, with 4.2 percent. In 1914 it was fifth with 2.7 percent. 
It became fourth in 1920, with 5.3 percent, dropping to eighth place 
in 1933, with 2.9 per cent. In 1934 it was still eighth, with 2.6 percent. 

There was a notable increase in the import trade in the 1901-1934 
period, with the yearly average from 1901 to 1917, inclusive, reach- 
ing $76,125,989. A much larger increase was reported for the years 
from 1918 to 1924, when the average jumped to $171,351,091. The 
peak year was 1920, with a total of $282,157,831. "But from that time 
there was a decline to a low level of $89,780,480 in 1932, undoubtedly 
traceable to the depression which followed the Wall Street crash of 

There were upturns in the dollar value of imports in both 1953 
and 1934, the aggregate climbing to $103,468,886 in the former year 
and $111,056,443 in 1934. In the present century up to 1934, the port 
of Philadelphia ranked third in imports in 1910, 1914, 1920, 1933 
and second in 1934, with the percentages, respectively, of 2.6, 5.9, 5.3, 
6.2, and 6.0. 

The port's foreign shipping, impressive as it is, represents only 
about one sixth of the tonnage carried by the ships which ply the 
river, the rest of the river traffic being devoted to coastwise, inter- 
coastal and local shipping. 


DESPITE real estate development, Philadelphia has approximately 
13,889 acres of farmland within the city limits. The majority 
of these farms (the 1935 farm census listed 286) are devoted to the 
cultivation of truck crops. Many are owned by institutions; other 
represent country estates and private greenhouses. Some livestock 
is raised. The size of the farm holdings is not large enough to make 
power farming economical. 



ON A WARM spring day in 1754, four men sat around a table 
in William Bradford's Coffee House, sometimes called the Old 
London Coffee House, at the southwest corner of Front and 
High (now Market) Streets, Philadelphia. They were Robert Morris, 
Thomas Willing, Tench Francis, and Archibald McCall. 

This was the opening day of Bradford's tavern and merchants' ex- 
change. As the four drank their ale and occasionally glanced out the 
window at the craft upon the Delaware River, they were figuratively 
rocking the cradle of a giant the cradle of American finance. They 
were launching a fiscal system that was destined not only to finance 
America's first four wars, but to rear the foundation for that colossal 
structure which is American finance today. 

Second only to that of gunpowder was the part played by finance 
in molding the American Colonies into a Nation. Philadelphia, in 
the lean days when independence was at stake, had the only fiscal 
structure that was equal to the need. For the existence of this struc- 
ture, the city and the Nation were indebted to a man who was to 
climax a glamorous financial and political career in a debtors' prison. 
That man was Robert Morris. 

Born in Liverpool, England, Morris came to America at an early 
age. He was in his teens when he entered the counting house of 
Charles Willing (a name perpetuated in Willing's Alley, the city's old 
financial district) , and only 21 when he helped found Philadelphia's 
first stock exchange in 1754. Immortalized as the father of American 
banking, Morris not only was the foremost financier of the Revolu- 
tion, but helped to establish a mint and to found America's first 
banks the Bank of Pennsylvania and the Bank of North America 
in Philadelphia. Thomas Willing became the first president of the 
latter institution, serving for 10 years. He also headed the first Bank 
of the United States for the first 17 of its 20 years' existence. 

It was largely through the leadership of a handful of its citizens 
that Philadelphia became the Nation's principal money center. As 
early as 1752 it had become the home of the first insurance company, 
although a limited amount of underwriting had been done even 
earlier. It maintained that leadership through succeeding decades, 
by the establishment of the first bank, the first United States Mint, 
the first saving fund society, the first building and loan society, and 
one of the first trust companies. 



On such firm ground were they built that many of these original 
companies are still functioning, among them the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany for Insurances on Lives and Granting Annuities, the Philadel- 
phia Saving Fund Society, and the Philadelphia Contributionship for 
Insuring Houses from Loss by Fire. 

More institutions of a fiduciary character were established within 
Philadelphia's borders in its early history than in any other American 
city. The scope and ramifications of many of the financial projects 
begun in this city more than a century ago have reached world wide 
proportions. Philadelphia today has more century-old companies than 
any other American municipality. 

The record of the first century of America's financial development 
may be traced in the careers of three Philadelphia bankers and be- 
hind that record lie the triumphs and the tragedies of their lives. 
Financial giants and chief supporters of the American wars of their 
times, Robert Morris, Stephen Girard, and Jay Cooke all knew not 
only the pinnacles of success but also the depths of sorrow and defeat. 

Girard's sufferings were personal. His business life unmarred, he 
nevertheless knew the handicap of semi-blindness, suffered the loss of 
his only child, and saw his wife committed to a hospital for the in- 
sane. Morris and Cooke found their sorrows in financial failure. De- 
serted by many of those whose admiration they had won while 
scaling the heights, one Morris, went to debtors' prison with obliga- 
tions estimated at $3,000,000, and the other, Cooke, saw the collapse 
of his financial empire precipitate the panic of 1873. 

The seed from which the stock exchange movement grew was sown 
by Mayor James Hamilton on October 17, 1746, when he proposed 
that 150 be used to erect an exchange or public building for the 
purpose of barter. Willing, Morris, Francis, and McCall undertook 
its active promotion in 1753. The London Coffee House was opened 
in the following year by William Bradford, the printer, as "a licensed 
place to which will come and be centered the news from all parts of 
the world, an exchange upon which our merchants may walk, and a 
place of resort where our chief citizens of every department of life 
can meet and converse upon subjects which concern City and State." 
A considerable traffic gradually grew in bills of exchange, promissory 
notes, and early forms of negotiable capital. Members of the exchange 
were known as merchants and traders. 

During the Revolution the coffeehouse was closed, and a rival in- 
stitution known as the City Tavern, later called the Merchants' Coffee 
House* at Second Street near Walnut, took its place. From that time 
the Merchants' Coffee House was the favored gathering place for the 
traders. As stock brokerage developed into a separate business, the 
brokers finally obtained private quarters in the same establishment 
and formed an association. 



This group, organized in 1790 and then known as the Philadelphia 
Board of Brokers, met regularly in the coffeehouse until 1834, when 
it moved into the newly completed Merchants' Exchange Building at 
Third and Walnut Streets. There it remained until July 1876, when 
it moved to Third Street below Chestnut. From 1888 to 1902 the ex- 
change was in the Drexel Building, at Fifth and Chestnut Streets ; 
and then it returned to the Merchants' Exchange Building. On March 
1, 1913, it moved to its present quarters, at 1411 Walnut Street. 

The membership fee was raised at various times from $30, in 1790, 
to $50, $250, $300, $400, $500, $1,000, $2,000. In November 1868, it was 
increased to $5,000, and in 1881 to $10,000. By 1886 the income from 
operation of the exchange was sufficient to make it self-supporting. 
On December 8, 1875, its name was changed from the Board of Brokers 
to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. In 1902 the membership was 
fixed at 225 ; in February 1923, it was reduced to its present num- 
ber, 206. 

In 1780 and 1781, more than a quarter century after the opening of 
Bradford's combined exchange and coffeehouse, Philadelphia estab- 
lished the first American banks. While the needs of peaceful trade 
dictated the founding of the stock exchange, it was war that sired 
these first two banks; both were established to finance the needs of 
America's armed forces in time of conflict. 

The credit of Robert Morris was better than that of the entire 
country at the outbreak of the Revolution, and it was said that he gave 
his personal notes for $1,400,000 to finance Washington's army in its 
Yorktown campaign. This sum was later repaid by the Government. 
He was appointed Superintendent of Finance, on February 20, 1781, 
and retained office until 1784. Later reelected to the State assem- 
bly, he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and be- 
came one of the first United States Senators to be elected from Penn- 

Through the efforts of Morris and his associates, the Bank of 
Pennsylvania was opened in July 1780, on Front Street north of 
Walnut. Its purpose was to borrow money to purchase rum, pro- 
visions, and transportation for the Continental Army. The two di- 
rectors chosen to conduct that business were authorized to borrow 
on the credit of the bank for six months or less, and to issue to the 
lenders special notes bearing interest at 6 percent. Congress wafe to 
reimburse the bank from time to time for sums advanced, and all 
moneys borrowed or received from Congress were to be used to sup- 
ply the needs of the Army and to discharge notes and expenses of 
the bank. 

To start the bank, 10 percent in cash was required from the 
lenders. If money did not come in fast enough, the bond issuers were 
to lend a proportionate sum of their subscriptions in cash. Notes 



were to be taken by the creditors. They were to be paid off and 
cancelled, accounts settled, and the bank discontinued when Congress 
should complete its reimbursements. That was done, and the in- 
stitution concluded its operations towards the end of 1784. 

Morris' detailed plan for the Bank of North America was pre- 
sented to the Continental Congress on May 18, 1781. Nine days later, 
Congress reported in favor of its adoption, and the charter was 
granted. The bank was organized on November 1 of that year, and 
began active operation on January 7, 1782. 

Through the services of this bank, supplies were furnished to tho 
Army, and the expenses of various branches of the Government were 
defrayed. Some of the most prominent financiers of the Revolu- 
tionary period were among its directors and supporters. When the so- 
called Whiskey Insurrection reached its climax in the western part 
of Pennsylvania in 1794, with an army of 19,500 men engaged in 
quelling the disturbance, the bank not only laid aside or renewed 
the notes of all persons in military service but also contributed cash 
to the expedition. 

The Bank of North America was brought into being through the 
sale of stock, the first offering being 1,000 shares, tendered at $400 
a share. The offering was well received, and was followed in a short 
time by another 1,000 shares, this time at $500 each. (This bank, on 
March 1, 1923, was merged with the Commercial Trust Company 
under the title of the Bank of North America and Trust Company, 
and on June 1, 1929, the new company was merged with the Penn- 
sylvania Company.) 

The institution was opened on the north side of Chestnut Street 
west of Third, where it remained for 65 years. Subsequently, as busi- 
ness expanded, it moved several times to other locations. The bank 
was brought under the National Bank Act in November 1864, thus 
becoming one of the few national banks that did not have the word 
"national" in its title. 

Before retiring from public life at the expiration of his six-year 
term in the United States Senate, Morris became one of the largest 
real estate investors in the land. Envisioning a great country, ex- 
panding rapidly and attracting thousands of immigrant settlers. 
Morris in partnership with John Nicholson and James Greenleaf 
purchased thousands of lots in the new Federal City, then unnamed 
and existing on paper only, and took title to more than 15.000.000 
acres in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and elsewhere. 

He was the nabob of Philadelphia, with a mansion at 526-530 
Market Street and a fine estate in "The Hills," later called Lemon 
Hill, and Fairmount Park. With the removal of the seat of National 
Government from New York to this city, he placed the Market 
Street residence at the disposal of President Washington, and took 



up quarters at the southeast corner of Sixth and Market Streets. 

Then came the crash ! Although the sound of crumbling timbers 
did not press upon his ears until three years later, it was in 1794 that 
he made the flourish which at once crowned and destroyed his 
achievements. Selecting a lot on the south side of Chestnut Street, 
between Seventh and Eighth, for the site of an ornate palace, he 
enlisted Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfant, engineer-architect who planned 
the city of Washington, to design it. 

Three years later, he went to live in a mansion on the north side 
of Chestnut Street, at Eighth, a building which stood until 1934 and 
was known in its last half century as Green's Hotel. About this time, 
his creditors began action. Morris retired to his suburban estate, but 
finally was arrested under the Insolvent Debtors' Act, and confined 
in the debtors' prison, at Sixth and Locust Streets. Committed on 
February 16, 1798, he remained in prison until August 26, 1801 ; 
then, less than five years before his death, his release was obtained 
under provisions of the United States Bankruptcy Act of 1800. 

"Morris's Folly," as the great palace upon which he had spent 
a considerable sum of money came to be known, was never completed. 
Upon his release from prison, Morris went to live with his family 
in the house then numbered 2 South Twelfth Street. Here he died 
on May 8, 1806. He was buried in the family vault of his wife's 
brother, Bishop William White, in the churchyard of Christ Church. 

The first Bank of the United States had meantime become a 
factor in the city's banking activity. It was the materialization of 
Alexander Hamilton's idea, conceived in 1779, of a Government- 
organized and Government-controlled bank, based on landed security. 
The institution was chartered by Congress on February 14, 1791, and 
President Washington signed the bill on, February 25. It was the 
limitation of the Bank of North America by its acceptance of a State 
charter narrowing its scope and reducing its capital from $10,000.000 
to $2,000,000 that finally brought action on the plan for a Federal 

Two days after subscription books for the new bank were closed, 
a premium was being offered for the shares. A general meeting of 
stockholders was held in Philadelphia's City Hall on October 21. 
1791, and four days later the directors selected Thomas Willing, presi- 
dent of the Bank of North America and former business partner of 
Robert Morris, as president. 

By its liberal policy, the Bank of the United States stemmed a 
tide of loss and embarrassment resulting from the Coinage Act of 
1793. This act decreed that all foreign silver coins, except Spanish 
milled dollars and parts of such dollars, should cease to be legal 
tender after October 15, 1797. Such foreign coins constituted a con- 
siderable part of the silver in circulation. The Federal bank, how- 


Statute of Robert Morris at the Old Custom House 
"Financiej and Patriot" 


ever, showed a willingness to receive French crowns and other silver 
coins at current rates of exchange, and it was not until 1857 that 
foreign gold and silver coins ceased to be respected as a medium of 
exchange. Despite a three-year controversy involving John Jacob 
Astor, Albert Gallatin, and many of the Nation's other financial 
leaders, Congress failed to renew the charter of the bank when it 
expired in 1811, and the institution was dissolved. 

The prologue to the next test of American banking the financ- 
ing of the War of 1812 had its setting on the deck of a fog-bound 
sloop at the mouth of Delaware Bay in June, 1776. On its voyage from 
the West Indies to New York, the La Jeune Babe had lost its bear- 
ings ; and when its 26-year-old French master leaned over the rail 
to ask directions from a passing vessel, he was told that British men- 
of-war were hovering nearby. The young 'captain, instead of pro- 
ceeding to New York, brought his sloop up the river to Philadel- 
phia. Here he sold his interest in the vessel and opened a small 
store on Water Street. Thus the career of Stephen Girard as a 
sailor ended, and his career as a Philadelphia merchant began. In 
1777 he married Mary Lum, daughter of a Kensington shipbuilder; 
and during the time the British occupied Philadelphia he ran a 
humble store in Mount Holly, N. J. 

During the yellow-fever epidemics of 1793 and 1798, Girard first 
earned his reputation as a philanthropist. He contributed substantial 
sums of money, served as a manager of the Municipal Hospital, and 
performed the duties of a nurse when the plagues were at their worst. 

The Revolution had turned the French mariner's course up the 
Delaware to Philadelphia, and the threat of a second war with Eng- 
land turned Girard's career into the banking field. Surveying the 
gathering war clouds, and foreseeing more of the depredations on 
neutral commerce which already had inflicted severe losses on him, 
Girard began recalling his ships and converting his property in 
foreign lands into American securities. In this manner he became 
the owner of a controlling interest in the first Bank of the United 
States. In the spring of 1812, when Congress failed to renew the 
charter of the Bank of the United States, Girard purchased the 
buildings and other assets and embarked on his career as a private 
banker, starting the Bank of Stephen Girard. During the struggle 
between Great Britain and the United States, the latter having failed 
utterly in its efforts to raise funds, Girard risked his entire fortune 
for the benefit of his adopted country. (Girard was born in Bordeaux, 
France.) With David Parrish and John Jacob Astor of New York, 
he took over the unsubscribed portion of the war bonds authorized 
by Congress. 

Resuming his maritime ventures at the close of the war, and still 
actively engaging in banking, Girard accumulated a fortune then 



unequalled in America. He died on December 26, 1831, and his will 
became one of the most discussed instruments of its kind. More than 
$6,000,000 in cash and real estate represented the residue of his 
estate, after provision had been made for improving the entire 
eastern front of Philadelphia and for paying bequests to the State 
of Pennsylvania and the city of New Orleans for public uses. This 
residue was devoted to the founding of Girard College, "for poor 
white male orphans." The advancing value of central Philadelphia 
real estate, in which $3,000,000 of the total was invested, had in- 
creased the endowment in 1936 to more than $86,000,000. 

In 1816, four years after Girard's debut as a banker and nearly a 
half century after the founding of the first American banks, the next 
major development in banking appeared in Philadelphia and in 
America the founding of the first saving fund society by Col. Condy 
Raguet. Although Colonel Raguet turned his talents at various times 
to the callings of lawyer, merchant, volunteer soldier, writer on 
economic and financial subjects and, in 1822, United States consul 
at Rio de Janeiro, his most enduring claim to fame lies in his un- 
tiring efforts to spread the gospel of thrift. 

In witness to the soundness of his principles stands the institution 
he founded in 1816 the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society. With 
steady, measured strides, romantic in their very consistency and con- 
tempt of circumstance, the society rose to its present position of 
leadership among institutions of its kind in Philadelphia, and to 
favorable comparison with leading saving fund societies of the Na- 
tion. As early as October 1869, when it first occupied its present main 
office at Seventh and Walnut Streets, the society boasted 29,000 ac- 
counts, with deposits totaling approximately $6,380,000. Symbolic of 
its progress and growth is the architecturally renowned ultra-modern 
skyscraper built by Howe and Lescaze in 1932 at Market and Twelfth 
Streets, to house the society's mid-city branch. 

The second Bank of the United States, which was destined to be- 
come a political football and parent of the Bank of the United States 
of Pennsylvania, was chartered in 1816. The ultimate collapse of the 
latter precipitated the panic of 1841. 

Plans for the institution were submitted to Congress by Secretary 
of the Treasury Dallas in September 1814. The bank was to have had 
a capital of $50,000,000, three fifths to be subscribed by individuals 
and corporations and two fifths by the United States. The capital 
requirements later were reduced to $35,000,000. Unavailing efforts 
to modify the plan were instituted by John C. Calhoun and Daniel 
Webster. The bill was passed and approved by President Madison 
on April 10, 1816, and the bank was chartered to continue until 
March 3, 1836. 



When, because of financial conditions following the War of 1812, 
the bank found no buyers for $3,038,300 worth of its stock, Stephen 
Girard subscribed the entire amount. Operations began on January 
7, 1817. Nicholas Biddle became a director of the bank in 1819. In 
the same year, Langdon Cheves became its president. The bank, al- 
though virtually bankrupt, engaged in a vigorous effort to fulfill its 
obligations. Its efforts toward recovery, however, even at a time when 
the depreciation of paper money all over Europe had created a 
favorable financial condition in America through increased com- 
mercial exchange, prostrated the whole industry of the country. 

Nicholas Biddle became president of the bank in 1823. Andrew 
Jackson, who assumed office as President of the United States in 
1829, was hostile to the bank and to Biddle. Open conflict flared in 
the summer of 1829, with the refusal of Biddle to remove Jeremiah 
Mason, a friend of Webster, from the presidency of the Portsmouth 
branch, and with President Jackson's intimations that the charter 
of the bank was unconstitutional. 

A new charter, applied for in 1832, four years before the ex- 
piration of the old one, was denied. Upon the expiration of the old 
charter in 1836, the institution became the Bank of the United States 
of Pennsylvania, under a State charter. The change was made without 
loss to either the Government or stockholders. A period of general 
expansion and over-trading, led to the failure of the State bank 
on September 4, 1841, and the crash spread disaster to business and 
trade throughout the Union. 

Although the companv that was to conduct it had been formed in 
1812, it was not until 1836, two decades after the introduction of the 
saving fund idea, that Philadelphia's first trust business came into 
being. The Pennsylvania Company for Insurances on Lives and 
Granting Annuities was organized for the purpose indicated by its 
title. It carried on this business for a number of years, but in 1836 
was authorized to accept trusts. Its development from that year 
forward was almost entirely along trust lines. The company's powers 
were further enlarged in 1853 to permit it to act as executor and 
administrator, and in 1872 it discontinued its original activities in 
the life insurance field. 

The company's first dividend of 4 percent on the amount of capital 
then paid in was declared in July 1815. Thus was started a dividend 
record that today ranks among the best in American corporation his- 
tory; beginning with that year, the Pennsylvania Company has made 
uninterrupted dividend payments for 122 years. The main office of 
the institution is at Fifteenth and Chestnut Streets. 

Completing the local banking structure, the Philadelphia Clearing 
House Association came into being in 1858 as a voluntary, unincor- 
porated organization enabling member banks to adjust their daily 



balances without the necessity and accompanying risk of transferring 
large sums of money through the streets. Its office is at 311 Chestnut 
Street, and it includes trust companies as well as National and State 
banks in its membership. 

Third and last of the great Philadelphia bankers to uphold the 
city's position as the financial center of America was Jay Cooke. Son 
of Eleutheros Cooke, lawyer and member of Congress from 1831 
to 1833, Jay Cooke left his home in Sandusky, Ohio, at 18, and found 
a clerk's job in the Philadelphia office of a packet line. A little later 
he entered the employ of the private banking house of E. W. Clark 
& Co., and in 1842, at 21, was admitted as a partner. 

Hostilities in the Mexican War began three years later, and Cooke's 
firm negotiated a large part of the Government loans required to 
finance the conflict. He retired from the banking business for a time 
to specialize in negotiating railroad securities. His deals included the 
sale of the Pennsylvania State canals, but the peak of his career was 
to be reached some years later, with the outbreak of the Civil "War. 

The beginning of the war found the Government in great need 
of money. Prospects for preservation of the Union were dark when, 
in July, following the Battle of Bull Run, Cooke started to interest 
other Philadelphia bankers in the problem of a Government loan. 
Cooke had made the acquaintance of Salmon P. Chase, then Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, and after raising $2,000,000 in his first effort 
here, he went with Chase to New York. Bankers of that city were 
persuaded to lend an initial sum of $50,000,000. Jay Cooke & Co., with 
branch offices in New York, Washington, and later in London, then 
advertised and sold the bonds, from the proceeds of which the 
bankers were to be repaid. 

The next big venture to which Cooke turned, the disposal of securi- 
ties of the Northern Pacific Railroad, was his last. His firm was com- 
pelled to close its doors on September 18, 1873, and panic gripped 
the country. His failure was the more sensational because of wide- 
spread belief that the house was of great financial strength. Cooke 
turned over all assets to his creditors, and eventually succeeded in 
paying off all obligations. Indeed, by 1880 he had regained con- 
siderable wealth through fortunate investments in the Horn Silver 
Mine, Utah. He died on February 16, 1905. 

Philadelphia's outstanding financier in the first part of the 
twentieth century has been Edward T. Stotesbury, manager and 
virtual head of Drexel & Co. since the death of Anthony J. Drexel, 
and a partner in the firm since its reorganization on January 1, 
1882. Like his predecessors in the field, he lost no time in starting 
his business career. When he entered the employ of Drexel & Co. 
at the age of 17, he had already been employed in turn by Rutter 
& Patterson, wholesale grocers, and by his father's sugar refining 


Girard Bank 
"the hub of early commerce" 

firm, Harris & Stotesbury. He was quick to master banking details. 

Among the various affiliates of finance which had their American 
beginnings in Philadelphia, the first was fire insurance, which ante- 
dated even the formation of the stock exchange. This business, whose 
almost uninterrupted growth has placed it among the Nation's great- 
est enterprises, was begun by a group of men who met April 13, 1752, 
and organized the Philadelphia Contributionship for Insuring Houses 
from Loss by Fire. The first insurance issued by the company covered 
two houses on King Street, later renamed Water Street. The first 
directors were Benjamin Franklin, William Coleman, Philip Syng, 
Samuel Rhoads, Hugh Roberts, Israel Pemberton, Jr., John Mifflin, 
Joseph Norris, Joseph Fox. Jonathan Lane, William Griffiths, and 
Amos Strettell. The plan was that of mutual insurance, and the mem- 
bers were called "contributors." Policies were issued for a term of 
seven years, upon the payment of a deposit, the interest on which, 
during the continuance of the policy, belonged to the company. The 
"Hand in Hand" seal was adopted / the company in 1768, 

Still leading the way, Philadelphia came forward just seven years 
later with the first scheme of life insurance established in the Colo- 



nies. On petition of the Synod of Philadelphia, a charter was granted 
by the Proprietary government in 1759 to the "Corporation for the 
Relief of Poor and Distressed Presbyterian Ministers, and of the Poor 
and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers." 

^he first United States Mint was established here in 1792, through 
the efforts of Robert Morris, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamil- 
ton. Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, prepared the plan in 
1790 and presented it at the next session of Congress. The act received 
President Washington's approval on April 2, 1792. Ground was pur- 
chased on the east side of Seventh Street, below Arch, and an old 
still-house that stood on the lot was demolished. An entry in the 
mint's account book of that time, dated July 31, 1792, shows that 
the materials of the demolished still-house sold for seven shillings 
and six pence. The structure that replaced it and housed the mint 
was the first building erected for public use under authority of the 
Federal Government. The mint later occupied a structure at the 
northwest corner of Chestnut and Juniper Streets, where the Widener 
Building now stands. Its present home is on Spring Garden Street, 
from Sixteenth to Seventeenth Streets. 

The first coinage of the United States was silver half dimes, minted 
in October 1792. The use of four different rates of exchange at first 
caused much perplexity. In Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Kentucky the dollar was 
reckoned at six shillings ; in New York and North Carolina at eight 
shillings ; in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland at seven shil- 
lings and sixpence ; and in South Carolina and Georgia at four 
shillings and eightpence. These differences were corrected by the 
Federal Government's passage of a law regulating the exchange rates. 

The building and loan movement was largely an importation from 
England. It had its local origin in a tavern at what is now 4219 Frank- 
ford Avenue, where in 1831 leaders of the community formed the 
Oxford Provident Beneficial Association, the first organization of its 
kind in the United States. The par value of shares was set at $500 
each, with no member holding more than five. Money received as 
dues was offered as loans to the highest bidder among the stock- 
holders, who were entitled to borrow $500 for everv share held. The 
first loan was made to Comly Rich, who borrowed $500 at a premium 
of $10. In 1854 the association brought its business to an end, some 
of its membership merging with a newer organization. 

Although many of Philadelphia's ancient financial landmarks have 
been razed to make room for modern structures, the imposing edifice 
of the old United States Bank, on the south side of Chestnut Street 
west of Fourth, still stands. For niany years it was used as the Custom 
House and by the Assistant United States Treasurer an office 
abolished with the advent of the Federal Reserve System. 



AUTOMOBILES today traverse well-paved Philadelphia streets 
which conceal uncounted pipes and conduits supplying homes 
with water, gas, electricity, and telephone communication. An 
intricate yet carefully planned network provides conveniences now 
considered indispensable. When Philadelphia began to take on the 
aspect of a growing urban community, necessary improvements fol- 
lowed in due course; but development of public utilities to their 
present smoothly functioning status required many years of trial and 


r I^HE problem of a water supply was the first to occupy the early 
-^- settlers. Individuals dug wells and pumped water for their own 
use, charging small sums for supplying their neighbors. In 1713 the 
Common Council drafted regulations authorizing owners of pumps 
to charge water rent. Not until 1756 did the city actually gain con- 
trol of the water supply by buying up most of the private pumps 
in front of houses. 

Philadelphians were forced to depend upon this means of water 
supply until 1800. A proposal to bring water from Spring Mill Creek 
had been rejected, but the movement for a central supply resulted in 
the city's commissioning Benjamin H. Latrobe, architect and engi- 
neer, to plan a water distributing system. 

The result was a waterworks on the east bank of the Schuylkill 
River, at about Twenty-second and Chestnut Streets. Here water 
was raised from the river and sent by gravity through a six-foot aque- 
duct under Chestnut Street to a central enginehouse built on the spot 
where City Hall now stands. There the water flow was raised by 
means of a steam pump to an upper floor to gain pressure, and then 
distributed through wooden mains to the consumers. 

The system was woefully inadequate. The reservoirs at Broad and 
Market Streets stored only a half hour's supply, and repairs were 
needed continually. In 1801 only 63 dwellings, four breweries, a 
sugar refinery, and 87 hydrants were using the system. The service 
was abandoned in 1815 when a new waterworks was constructed at 
Fairmount. This plant was constantly improved ; and, with the con- 
solidation of the city in 1854, the plants of the various districts be- 
came parts of one large municipal system. 

Purification of the water was still inadequate, however. Epidemics 



of typhoid fever broke out frequently. In 1899 three experts were 
commissioned to plan an improved and extended water system. Their 
report led to the development of the present plan. By 1909 the 
entire city was supplied with filtered water, and the ravages of disease 
were lessened greatly. 

Today there are 11 pumping stations, eight fresh-water reservoirs, 
and four raw-water reservoirs. The average daily supply of 325,- 
500,000 gallons comes from both the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers, 
and the water is subjected to constant chemical and bacteriological 


R several years after its introduction, gas as an illuminarit was 
considered not only a novelty but a menace. The first hotels to 
employ it displayed large signs near every gas jet, warning their 
guests : "Don't blow out the gas." Many leading citizens doubted the 
feasibility of its successful use. Even Sir Walter Scott, from his home 
across the Atlantic, issued a diatribe against its employment. His 
castle at Abbottsford, however, was one of the first buildings to be 
piped for illuminating gas. 

Agitation for city manufacture of gas for street lighting started 
early in the nineteenth century. There was opposition from many 
quarters; but in 1835 the city government authorized erection of the 
Philadelphia Gas Works as a municipally controlled project. An 
area of 7 l / 2 acres was set aside near Twenty-second and Market 
Streets, and a plant established there. By 1852 the total extent of 
pipes had reached 115 miles, and the plant had attained a maximum 
production of 962.000 cubic feet of gas in 24 hours. 

About that time, it was found necessary to remove the gas works 
to larger quarters. The site selected was on the banks of the Schuyl- 
kill at Point Breeze. Meanwhile, constant improvements in the gas 
production process were being made. 

The Northern Liberties Gas Company was chartered in 1838, 
supplying illumination to the Northern Liberties and Kensington 
districts. Gas works were also built in Manayunk, Frankford, Ger- 
mantown, and Kensington. 

In 1887 Philadelphia's new city charter eliminated the Gas Trust, 
as the city gas works under the trustee system was called. Duties of 
supervision devolved upon a Bureau of Gas, a division of the Depart- 
ment of Public Works.^A decade later, after much wrangling on the 
part of the public both in and out of the courts, the United Gas Im- 
provement Company, an interstate utility corporation, obtained a 
lease on the municipal gas works. 

The lease covered a period of 30 years. Before its expiration an- 



other lease was signed by the city in 1926 for an undetermined period, 
but either party could terminate the lease on December 31, 1937, 
or at expiration of any 10-year period thereafter, by giving to the 
other 18 months' notice of such intention. Under the terms of the 
lease, the Philadelphia Gas Works Company is designated as the 
operating concern. Supervision of the lease was placed in charge of 
a gas commission of three members. The city receives an annual 
rental of $4,200,000; the U. G. I. is paid an operating fee of $600,000 
annually, plus an amount ranging from $200,000 to $500,000 for 
efficiency of management, the extra payment varying directly with 
the quantity of gas sold and inversely with the cost per 1,000 cubic 
feet. The prevailing rate to consumers is 90 cents per thousand cubic 
feet for the first 2,000 cubic feet, with relative reductions for quan- 
tities used in excess of this amount. All gas used by the city is paid 
for at wholesale rates. 


ELECTRIC service for the city of Philadelphia and adjacent terri- 
tories Delaware County and substantial parts of Bucks, Chester, 
and Montgomery Counties is supplied by the Philadelphia Electric 
Company, which furnishes electric current to homes, factories, and 
industrial plants, and supplies street lighting to a majority of the 
cities, towns, and boroughs in this area. All electrical energy provided 
by the company is of the alternating current type, which can be 
transmitted much farther than the direct current type formerly sup- 
plied to central Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Electric Company 
also furnishes gas service to suburban sections near the city. 

An area of approximately 1,547 square miles is served by the 
company. The population in this territory is 2,757,000, with slightly 
more than two million of those served residing in Philadelphia. 
Electricity is generated in the company's plants in Philadelphia and 
in its hydro-electric plant on the Susquehanna River at Conowingo. 
The latter is the second largest hydro-electric plant in the United 
States. Its location is four miles above tide water ; the lake is a 
mile wide at the dam and extends eighteen miles up the river. Thi? 
gigantic plant, opened in 1928, is connected with Philadelphia steam 
plants by means of 220,000-volt transmission lines, and its present 
capacity is 1,046,015 kilowatts. At its Plymouth Meeting substation, 
the largest outdoor substation in the world, the plant's 220,000-volt 
transmission lines inter-connect the Philadelphia Electric Company 
with two other companies the Pennsylvania Power and Light Com- 
pany and the Public Service Electric and Gas Company of New Jer- 
sey the whole forming a pool which distributes more than two mil- 
lion horsepower in electrical energy. 



The company furnishes energy for the operation of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad's electrified lines running between Perryville, Mary- 
land, and the State line at Trenton, New Jersey; the line between 
the State Line and New York City ; the Chestnut Hill branch, and 
the Main Line as far as Paoli. All the electrified lines of the Reading 
Railroad running in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company, operators of the city's street car 
system, receive their electrical energy from the Philadelphia Electric 

Philadelphia's first electric service was supplied by the Brush 
Electric Light Co., which in 1881 installed street arc lights in the 
section of Chestnut Street between the Delaware and the Schuylkill 
Rivers. Then 26 neighborhood electric companies, all of them gen- 
erating direct current, opened within the span of 18 years. In 1899 
these plants were consolidated to form the Philadelphia Electric Com- 
pany, the nucleus of the present company. In 1928 the Philadelphia 
Electric Company became an affiliate of the United Gas Improve- 
ment Company. A year later the Philadelphia Electric Company, 
which still operates independently, acquired the Philadelphia Sub- 
urban Counties Gas and Electric Company. 


ABOUT a quarter-century after the adoption of telegraphy for rail- 
road communications, the world's first public telephone "system" 
was successfully demonstrated in Philadelphia at the Centennial 
Exhibition of 1876. The device, consisting of two instruments con- 
nected by 500 feet of wire, was installed in the Exhibition's main 
building, where it lay neglected for six weeks until an inquisitive 
visitor discovered its amazing potentialities. 

The telephone, which has revolutionized transportation and com- 
munications the w T orld over, was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, 
Boston elocution teacher, and sent to Philadelphia at the opening 
of the Exhibition. Bell himself was not urged to attend in person, and 
only by the promptings of a last-minute impulse did he board a train 
to bring him here. Neither he nor his contrivance provoked any at- 
tention until Dom Pedro de Alcantara, Emperor of Brazil, picked up 
the receiver and heard a human voice come from the transmitter at 
the other end of the 500-foot wire. "My God !" he exclaimed as- 
toundedly to a crowd which included Sir William Thomson, then the 
foremost electrical scientist in the world. "It talks!" 

Soon thereafter Bell's invention was first applied commercially in 
Philadelphia by an organization known as "The Telephone Company 
of Philadelphia." Later Bell's name was added. The first practical 
switchboard was housed in the second floor of 1111 Chestnut Street. 



The first directory, which appeared in 1878, contained only 25 sub- 
scribers. Another, issued later during the same year, had 85 ; the 
third, put out the following year, contained the names of 420 sub- 

Today the Bell Telephone Company has 42 central offices in the 
city handling 1,377,927 local and 79,362 toll calls daily. In 1937 there 
were more than 155,000 business telephones and approximately 191,- 
000 residence telephones in operation. The directory has grown to an 
issue of 400,000 copies. 

The Keystone Telephone Company of Philadelphia came into exist- 
ence Nov. 12, 1902. Five years later it absorbed the property of the 
Keystone State Telephone & Telegraph Company, extending its serv- 
ice to cities and towns in south New Jersey. Later it acquired the en- 
tire capital stock of the Eastern Telephone & Telegraph Company, 
and a majority of the stock of the Camden & Atlantic Telephone 
Company. The United Telephone Company, likewise, was absorbed 
in 1923. 

The Keystone system operates six exchanges in Philadelphia, and 
18 in nearby cities and towns. The company holds a perpetual charter 
from the State of Pennsylvania, and a perpetual franchise from the 
city of Philadelphia. It cooperates with the Bell system on telephone 
service outside the city. 



PHILADELPHIA'S development from a compact little city to a 
sprawling metropolis made public transportation facilities im- 
perative at an early date. Prior to the establishment of urban 
transportation facilities, however, there were only certain ancient dirt 
roads to depend on, such as Darby Road, Old York Road, and an- 
other that went north by way of Second Street. A Federal road was 
laid out in 1788 from Gray's Ferry to Southwark. Within city limits, 
the so-called streets were not much more than dirt roads either. Ac- 
cording to the presentment of the Grand Jury in 1738, the streets 
were impassable. This was the beginning of a crusade to compel the 
paving of certain thoroughfares, notably Front, Sassafras, and High. 

The first adequate public means of urban travel was supplied in 
1831 by Joseph Boxall, who established a stagecoach line on lower 
Chestnut Street with an hourly schedule. "Boxall's Accommodation," 
as the line was called, was the only satisfactory public conveyance 
until July 1833, when an additional line was started by Edward Des- 
champs, to provide service between the Navy Yard and Kensing- 
ton, via Second Street and Beach Street. This also proved successful, 
and within a short time lines were running on nearly every important 
street in the city. 

The need of some better mode of transportation to outlying sec- 
tions became pressing. The first locomotive made at the Baldwin 
Works in Philadelphia was "Old Ironsides," which had been placed 
on the Philadelphia & Germantown Railroad on November 23, 1832. 
Steam transportation had come to stay. There was a project to con- 
nect the Columbia Railroad and the Philadelphia, Wilmington & 
Baltimore Railroad, which led to the passage of the Act of April 
15, 1845, by which the Schuylkill Railroad was incorporated. 

In 1854 the Philadelphia & Delaware Railroad Company took out 
a charter to operate a steam railroad from Kensington to Easton. 
Failing to realize their ambition, the promoters envisioned the possi- 
bility of running a horse-car line from what is now Sixth Street and 
Montgomery Avenue, in Kensington, to the village of Southwark. 

In 1856 preparations were made by the North Pennsylvania Rail- 
way Company to establish a line of passenger cars drawn by horses. 
On January 3 the company put such a line in operation on a route 



about a mile and a half in length, extending from Willow Street along 
Front to Germantown Road, thence to Second Street, to Cadwalader, 
to Washington, to Cherry, connecting with what was known as the 
Cohocksink depot. These vehicles were 14 feet long, and seated 24 

In April 1858, by Act of Assembly, the Philadelphia & Delaware 
Railroad Company became the Frankford & Southwark Philadelphia 
City Passenger Railroad Company, forerunner of the many traction 
and motor companies that have been incorporated to serve Phila- 
delphia. Shortly before reorganization, the Philadelphia & Delaware 
Railroad Company, on January 21, 1858, ran its first horsecars from 
Kensington to Southwark, carrying 10,000 persons on 15 cars during 
the year. Such was the beginning of what long was known as "the 
Fifth and Sixth Street line." 

For a time the cars were banned from operation on Sundays. Minis- 
ters complained that the noise interrupted Sunday worship ; but a 
Supreme Court decision held that operation On the Sabbath was not 
a breach of the peace, and thereafter the cars ran seven days a week. 
In 1857 the City Councils passed an ordinance permitting the car 
lines to operate sleighs in winter. 

Strong opposition to street railways flared up and was slow in 
subsiding. Nevertheless, capitalists were stimulated by the success of 
the Fifth and Sixth Street line, and immediately began to project 
similar railways on Spruce and Pine Streets, Ridge Avenue, Second 
and Third, and other thoroughfares. Although the depression that 
followed the 1857 panic served to make the year 1858 a dull one 
generally in Philadelphia, the stagnation was not evident in railway 
circles. The West Philadelphia road, on Market Street, was the 
second to go into operation and was closely followed by the Tenth 
and Eleventh Street line on July 29. At that time, the Spruce and 
Pine, Second and Third, Green and Coates, and Race and Vine Street 
lines were in course of construction, and the Chestnut and Walnut 
Street Company was still engaged in beating down a bitter opposition. 
The fourth road to go into operation was the Spruce and Pine, on 
November 2. Among other events of this period was the opening on 
March 14, 1859, of the Girard College (Ridge Avenue) Railway. 

In 1863, the Frankford & Southwark Company received authority 
to operate steam-driven cars over its route from Berks Street to 
Frankford. Their noisy engines, usually called "dummies," proved 
quite satisfactory. They ran for the first time on November 7, 1863, 
and survived about 30 years. Other attempts to use steam power were 
made by the West Philadelphia Passenger Railway Company and by 
the Haddington Line. 

About this time the cable-car system began to be used successfully 
in some cities, and Philadelphia decided to experiment with it. The 


Old Schuylkill Navigation Canal Lock in Fairmount Park 
"Along its path the straining tow mules plodded" 

Assembly passed an act permitting use of the cable, and in April 
1883 a line was opened along Columbia Avenue from Twenty-third 
Street to Fairmount Park. This proved successful, and two years later 
the Philadelphia Traction Company opened a cable line along Mar- 
ket Street from Front Street to Forty-first Street. The system was 
used for 10 years, then was replaced by the electric trolley system. 

In 1888 Frank J. Sprague developed in Richmond, Va., a success- 
ful electric street-car system, and again Philadelphia was eager to try 
an innovation. The Philadelphia Traction Company stepped to the 
fore and made practical use of the new method, operating in 1892 
the first of such railways in Philadelphia. The route ran eastward 
from the Schuylkill River, with tracks on Catharine and Bain- 
bridge Streets. During the next four years the 400 miles of horse 
and steam car lines in Philadelphia, with the exception of the Cal- 
lowhill Street line, were electrified ; and on January 15, 1897, the 
last horse car was driven over the latter line, marking the end of this 
antiquated system in Philadelphia. 

The rapid growth of the city made it necessary to evolve a speedier 
means of transportation. In 1901 the State Legislature enacted the 
legislation necessary to establish such a system (subway-elevated) 



along Market Street, and six years later the first high-speed line 
began operation. In 1902 the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 
was incorporated, taking over all the transit companies in Philadel- 
phia, with the absorbed companies acting as "underliers," a name 
by which they have since been known. They hold the leases of the 
systems and collect rent from the P.R.T. 

With formation of the P.R.T. the transportation history of Phila- 
delphia becomes the story of a single large system. The Market Street 
Subway-Elevated was opened in March 1907, from Sixty-ninth Street 
(Delaware County) to Fifteenth Street. In October 1908 the line was 
extended eastward to Delaware Avenue, and thence south to South 
Street. In November 1922 another branch extending north to Frank- 
ford was built by the city and the three branches became a con- 
tinuous system. 

In 1923 the first P.R.T. double-decked bus began operation, run- 
ning from Broad Street and Erie Avenue to Frankford Avenue and 
Arrott Street. Trackless trolley coaches began operation in 1923 from 
Twenty-second Street and Passyunk Avenue to Delaware and Oregon 

The Broad Street subway, built by the city and leased to the 
P.R.T., began operation in 1928 under Broad Street from Olney 
Avenue to Market Street. Two years later it was extended to South 
Street. In 1932 the Ridge Avenue and Eighth Street spur was opened; 
and on June 7, 1936, the high-speed line over the Delaware River 
Bridge, linking Philadelphia and Camden, began operation. The latter 
line was built by the city under the direction of the Delaware River 
Joint Commission, and was turned over to the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company for operation. It connects the Camden downtown 
section with the Eighth and Market Street subway station in Phila- 

Figures for 1937 showed the P.R.T. operating 2,150 trolley cars, 
303 busses, 465 subway and elevated cars, and 8 trackless trolley 
coaches. In 1936 the system had a gross operating revenue of $34,- 
732,768. It 'also operated about 930 taxicabs until February 1936, 
when the cab holdings were sold to another company. 

The necessity for some form of transportation of supplies and com- 
modities across the Delaware River was realized as early as 1695, 
when the court at Gloucester, N. J., authorized establishment of a 
ferry from the New Jersey shore to Pennsylvania. As traffic grew 
through the years, Philadelphia became more and more dependent 
upon these ferries. Until 1926, when the Delaware River Bridge was 
opened to traffic, ferries were the only means of direct public trans- 
river travel. 

Besides the horsecars that were used during the early days of the 
city's public transportation, steam railroads played an important 



part. The Philadelphia & Germantowii Company as early as 1832 
operated a steam railroad from Germantown to the Philadelphia 
depot at Green and Ninth Streets. The steam trains ran only in fair 
weather, the more reliable horse-drawn trains being depended upon 
to maintain the schedule in bad weather. 

In 1834 the Philadelphia & West Chester Railroad was begun, pro- 
viding steam-hauled transportation between the city and West Ches- 
ter. Many companies were soon in operation, running trains within 
Philadelphia, and from Philadelphia to suburban points. Gradually 
a strong central company was formed, absorbing the smaller lines 
and providing a few great systems, thus increasing efficiency in both 
passenger and freight carriage. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad began operation in 1842, 
running trains between Philadelphia and Pottsville. The purpose of 
the new line was to provide some means of shipping from the coal 
regions to the industrial center of Philadelphia. The company devel- 
oped swiftly and in a short time was one of the largest systems in 
this section. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, begun as the Columbia Railroad, was 
started in 1832. Its development also was swift. It branched into the 
western part of the State, carrying freight by means of a gigantic 
network of lines to Philadelphia. The Broad Street Station was 
erected in 1881, and the Suburban Station in 1930. A short time 
later, the Thirtieth Street Station a huge and imposing structure 
was opened to traffic. 

The third great railroad system serving Philadelphia, the Balti- 
more & Ohio, was started in Baltimore. It was the first railroad in 
the United States to transport both passengers and freight. The com- 
pany was incorporated in 1827, and started business in 1830. Begin- 
ning on a small scale, the railroad gradually developed a large inter- 
state business, fulfilling its purpose of competing with the Erie Canal, 
New York's commercial route to Ohio's rich territory. 

Philadelphia is without an airport for commercial flying. However, 
a WPA project started at Hog Island in 1935 will, when completed, 
provide the city with a municipal airport within 20 minutes' travel of 
Broad and Market Streets. The land for this airport was purchased by 
the city from the United States, after its usefulness as a wartime ship- 
yard had ended. The Central Airport near Camden has served as 
Philadelphia's airport since September 1929. When the new post 
office was built at Thirtieth and Market Streets, a large flat roof was 
laid out upon it to provide a landing place for autogyros. It is 
planned eventually to have the autogyros carry mail to the airport, 
where it will be transferred to waiting planes for delivery to other 



A LARGE part of labor in early Philadelphia was furnished by 
semi-servile whites, imported under bond for a term of years, 
and by Negroes sold into chattel slavery. Although Penn's city 
can claim a certain amount of credit for frowning upon the practice 
of bartering in human beings, that odious practice went on un- 
checked for years at the Delaware River wharf. 

William Penn's ingenious advertising in England and on the 
European continent brought hundreds of artisans and mechanics to 
the new Province, where they hoped to find escape from economic 
and religious oppression. Indentured servants, redemptioners, and 
debtors swelled the ranks of those who came. 

Indentured servants were those men, women, even children 
who, unable to pay their passage, signed a contract called an in- 
denture before leaving the Old World. This contract bound the 
owner of the ship to transport such a person to America, and bound 
the emigrant to serve the owner or his assigns for a specified number 
of years after arrival in this country. Often the owner, upon reaching 
port, sold his rights in the contract to the highest bidder, or for 
whatever he could get as payment for passage. The redemptioner, on 
the other hand, signed no contract before embarking, but agreed 
with the shipping merchant to allow himself to be sold to the highest 
bidder if, at the expiration of a month, he failed to find someone to 
redeem him by paying the passage money. Others were debtors sold 
for a fixed time to cancel their obligations, criminals unable to pay 
their fines or willing to accept exile instead of prison or death, and 
inmates of poorhouses bound out for periods of servitude to defray 
the expense of their keeping. 

The custom of selling criminals and indigents was brought about 
by the inadequate facilities of jails and poorhouses. Directors of the 
poor were empowered to bind men and women from the institutions 
for periods not exceeding three years, but terms of indenture for 
criminals varied. On one occasion a man who had stolen 14 was 
sold for 16, his punishment being 21 lashes and six years of bond- 
age. Immigrant ships came regularly to Philadelphia from European 
ports, bearing paupers and criminals whose arrival the newspapers 
would announce somewhat like this : "Just arrived in the ship Sallie, 
from Amsterdam, a number of men, women, and children redemp- 



tioners. Their times will be disposed of on reasonable terms by the 
captain on board." Parents sometimes sold their children in order 
to cover their own passage. Husbands and wives became separated, 
never again to meet. Sometimes the dreadful ships came up the 
Delaware with their human cargo depleted by disease, exposure, 
hunger, and ill treatment. 

This traffic in humanity was carried on upon a vast scale. Agencies 
in European cities set up branches in Philadelphia. Scores of dealers, 
known as "newlanders" or "soul-drivers," invaded Germany and 
Switzerland, inveigling thousands into leaving their homes for a life 
of unsuspected slavery abroad. This continued until 1764, when a 
German society in Philadelphia was founded especially for the pro- 
tection of redemptioners. Organized resistance also militated against 
the practice of bringing into Pennsylvania captured Tuscarora 
Indians from South Carolina, and selling them as bondmen. 

In its more agreeable aspect, the term "indenture" was associated 
with apprenticeship. A boy, in order to learn a trade, was bound to 
his employer by an agreement known as an indenture. He usually 
was taken into the employer's family and treated kindly. After serv- 
ing his apprenticeship, he often chose to remain with his employer 
as a journeyman. 

The earliest artisan in Philadelphia commonly started with little 
more than tools. At first he went about from house to house, doing 
his work with raw materials provided by the householder. Afterward, 
it became more convenient for him to establish a shop in the town. 
As his business grew, he employed two or three jpurneymen, in addi- 
tion to two or three apprentices. He also began to stock up with 
finished products made by the journeymen, and to sell them to cus- 
tomers. The position of the journeyman became changed. He held 
on to his tools, but lost ownership of the shops and the raw materials. 
He was therefore dependent upon wages for his living, while the re- 
tail merchant-employer looked to his investment and his managerial 
ability for remuneration. 

The journeyman sought to protect the value of his .skill by trying 
to prevent others from entering his trade, knowing his wages would 
be higher if there were fewer men with whom he had to compete. 
On the other hand, the demand for his work was greater than he 
himself could supply, and he was forced to train the unskilled worker 
in his trade. But he saw to it that the term of apprenticeship was as 
long as possible, thus delaying the apprentice in becoming his 
competitor. In spite of limitations and restrictions, the number of 
journeymen continued to grow. Immigration brought many recruits, 
and industry began to replace skilled workers with unskilled workers. 
Then the former started to organize into societies or trade unions, 
to protect themselves against the unskilled. 



The first trade associations were organized as price-fixing groups 
which regulated particular trades. They guaranteed to the public 
products of high quality and fought against inferior ones. They were 
benevolent groups, which not only had a form of "insurance" for 
members, but also sought to educate apprentices. These associations 
sometimes included both masters and journeymen, for some of the 
mechanics believed their interests identical with those of their em- 
ployers. For example, they believed that if prices of goods were high, 
wages would also be high. But mostly, the journeymen established 
separate mutual-aid societies the division being on social, rather 
than economic, lines. 

The Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia was founded in 1724 
purely as a price-fixing association, so that the workman should have 
a fair recompense for his labor and the owner the worth of his 
money. It is probable that this company was composed solely of 
master builders. 

The first authentic record of the organization of a single trade and 
the first strike of wage-earners in Philadelphia occurred in 1786. In 
that year the Philadelphia printers went on strike for a minimum 
wage of $6 a week. They won their demands, and the organization 
disappeared. In May 1791 the Journeymen Carpenters of the City and 
Liberties of Philadelphia struck against the master carpenters. This 
was the first strike for a 10-hour working day in this country, but 
the strikers lost. 

The first continuous organization of wage-earners for the purpose 
of maintaining or advancing wages was that of the shoemakers of 
Philadelphia. The organization, instituted in 1792, existed less than 
a year. The shoemakers again organized in 1794 under the name of 
the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, and continued in 
existence until 1806. In that year, and twice in 1809, the shoemakers 
were indicted on charges of conspiracy. They were accused of un- 
lawfully assembling to "unjustly and corruptly conspire, combine, 
confederate and agree together that none of them would work for 
any master who would thereafter infringe or break the unlawful 
rules of the boot and shoemakers." The judge, in instructing the 
jury, declared : "A combination of workmen to raise their wages 
may be considered in a twofold view : one is to benefit themselves ; 
the other to injure those who do not join the society. The rule of 
the law condemns both." The jury found the defendants guilty of a 
conspiracy to raise wages. 

The American labor movement first manifested itself in Philadel- 
phia in 1827, through a trade union demanding shorter hours of 
work. This was soon converted into a political party, primarily urg- 
ing public education. This movement had for its keynote the desire 
for equal citizenship the essentials of which were believed to be 



leisure and education. The American wage-earners joined together 
for the first time as a class, regardless of trade lines, in a struggle 
against employers. All previous labor agitation had been confined to 
the limits of a single trade. In June 1827, 600 journeymen carpenters 
went on strike for a 10-hour day. Other trade societies became in- 
terested, and a general movement began for the shorter work day. 

Out of this movement grew the first union of all organized work- 
men in any American city. The Mechanics Union of Trade Associa- 
tions was formed in the latter part of 1827. All trade societiefe were 
invited to join, and those not yet organized were urged to do so. 
Its purpose was to establish a just balance of power mental, moral, 
political, and scientific among the various classes. 

In May of the following year the union resolved to submit to con- 
stituent societies a proposal for the nomination of persons who would 
represent the working classes in the City Council and State Legis- 
lature. Political action was immediately endorsed by the various 
trade unions. From this date, though the political movement ad- 
vanced, the Mechanics Union declined, and some time after November 
1829 it went out of existence. 

The Working Men's Party was formed in July 1828. From the start 
the new movement was obliged to fight for its existence against the 
machinations of professional politicians, who tried either to obtain 
control of the meetings or to break them up. As a result of the first 
campaign, eight candidates who were exclusively on the Working 
Men's Party ticket received from 229 to 539 votes each in the city, 
and about 425 votes in the county. All were defeated, but 21 candi- 
dates on the Jackson ticket endorsed by the Working Men's Party 
were elected. The mere number of votes polled did not by any 
means measure the influence of the first campaign. Indirectly, it 
brought from the candidates for Congress of both the older parties 
in the city an open acknowledgment of the justice of the working 
people's attempts to lessen the established hours of daily labor. 

The paramount emphasis laid upon education shows that the work- 
in gmen's movement was a revolt primarily directed against social 
and political, rather than economic, inequalities. The workingman 
had achieved suffrage and believed that he should have leisure in 
which to educate himself for proper use of his franchise. An early 
report of the Philadelphia workingmen to the Legislature foreshad- 
owed the general public school system, the manual training schools, 
the junior republics, and probably the kindergartens. This report 
was accompanied by two bills for the establishment of a public 
school system, and a combination of agricultural, mechanical, literary, 
and scientific instruction. A tax on "dealers in ardent spirits" was 
proposed as a means of raising the necessary money. 

Before establishment of the Working Men's Party, there had been 



a movement to create public charity schools for the poor. But after 
the report of the party was published, the plan for charity schools 
was abandoned in favor of one for schools where children of rich 
and poor might be educated side by side. The public school system 
of today owes a large, if unrecognized, debt of gratitude to this effort 
of the working classes to exercise independently their citizenship. 
The abolition of imprisonment for debt was undoubtedly hastened 
by the strong and general support it received from the Working 
Men's Party. In Pennsylvania, as a result of attention directed to the 
evils of child labor in factories, legislative consideration was given 
the subject in 1832, and again in 1837. 

Economic changes were causing the shift from mutual insurance 
to trade protection. The merchant-capitalist had gained control of 
the market and the productive process. Hand tools continued to be 
used, yet orders had become wholesale. Competition between masters 
in different communities became acute. The merchant-capitalist even 
resorted to the use of prison labor. This competitive pressure on the 
masters was passed on to the journeymen. Apprentice labor was then 
done by children and unskilled workers, and a great number of wo- 
men entered industrial employment. In 1830 it was said that many 
journeymen printers of Philadelphia were out of work because of 
the employment of boys. In 1836, 24 of 58 societies of Philadelphia 
were seriously affected by female labor, to the impoverishment of 
whole families and the benefit chiefly of the employers. The Female 
Improvement Society including tailoresses, seamstresses, binders, 
folders, stock makers, milliners, corset makers, and mantua makers 
had been organized June 20, 1835. This was probably the first 
federation of women workers in the country. 

During the 1830's the city central union form of organization ap- 
peared, two separate trades unions in Philadelphia springing up in 
close succession. The Trades Union of Pennsylvania, composed of 
delegates from the factory districts surrounding Philadelphia, was 
organized in August 1833, but disappeared four months later. The 
Trades Union of the City and County of Philadelphia was organized 
the same year and lasted only until 1838. It was composed of mech- 
anics of the city, although later it was opened to factory workers and 
day laborers. 

The 10-hour day movement, begun in June 1834, took on the aspect 
of a crusade in Philadelphia. Coalheavers and common laborers on 
the Schuylkill docks started it. Then followed a strike of 14 other 
unions. The excitement was intense ; organized processions marched 
through the streets to the tune of fife and roll of drum. The general 
strike ended in a victory for the trade unionists, a victory so over- 
whelming that its influence extended to many other towns. 

In 1834 there were 6,000 trade unionists in Philadelphia. Delegates 


Midvale Steel Works 
"Melted Steel' 1 

attended a national convention in New York in August 1834, when 
the National Trades Union was formed. The third annual convention 
of that organization was held at Military Hall in Philadelphia from 
October 24 to 28, 1836. No later meeting was recorded. Education, 
speculation in public lands, prison labor, the 10-hour day, and female 
and child labor were the problems which concerned the organization 
during its existence. 



The labor movement in Philadelphia was virtually wiped out after 
the panic of 1837, workers turning to politics and cooperation for 
relief. Exponents of Fourierism, based on the socialistic philosophy 
of Francois Marie Charles Fourier, succeeded in organizing a few 
isolated cooperative and social reform organizations during the forties 
and fifties. This movement failed to obtain the sympathy and support 
of the workers generally, because people were not inclined to live in 
communal colonies, sharing a common kitchen, common living quar- 
ters, and cooperative cuisine. 

Local impetus was given to the formation of national unions dur- 
ing the industrial depression after the panic of 1857. The Machinists' 
and Blacksmiths' Union was formed the following year, the local 
taking the initiative in forming a national organization, as did the 
Philadelphia Moulders' Union in 1859. 

In March 1860 the Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union called a 
strike in the Baldwin Locomotive Works against a reduction in wages 
and payment of arrear wages in company stock. Although the strike 
was lost, the workers received nation-wide attention for battling 
against the then greatest shop in the country. 

The first effects of the Civil War were a paralysis of business and 
the increase of unemployment. Prosperity returned after the passage 
of the legal tender act in 1862, but wage earners did not benefit by 
prosperity, because of low wages and the high cost of living. The 
most influential labor paper of that period, and one of the best ever 
published in the United States, was Fincher's Trades 9 Review, printed 
in Philadelphia from 1863 to 1866. The paper was a true mirror of 
the national labor movement. 

During the war the local trades' assembly was the common unit of 
organization. The Philadelphia Trades' Assembly was organized in 
1863 at the instigation of the Philadelphia Journeymen House Paint- 
ers' Association. Within a year 28 local unions were affiliated. 

With the upward sweep of prices in 1862, cooperatives were estab- 
lished by workingmen. The first substantial effort in this direction 
was that of the Union Cooperative Association of Philadelphia, the 
first to be formed, in December 1862. It expanded, and eventually 
established several branches in various parts of the city. In the field 
of trade unionism, the nationalization of markets gave birth to the 
national trade union. During the Civil War and Reconstruction period, 
the American labor movement developed its characteristic national 

Four sets of causes operated during the sixties to bring about this 
nationalization : competition of products of different localities in 
the same market ; competition for employment between migratory 
out-of-town journeymen and locally organized mechanics ; organi- 
zation of employers ; and application of machinery, which introduced 



a division of labor, splitting old established trades and laying them 
open to invasion of "green hands." 

The most significant event in the local labor movement for many 
years was the organization of the Knights of Labor in 1869. Nine 
members of the old Philadelphia Garment Cutters' Association were 
among those who joined. It was a secret society, with an elaborate 
ritual. By 1873 more than 80 locals had been organized in or near 
Philadelphia, and the organization had become nation-wide in its 
scope. This rapid growth was due to several factors. In the seventies, 
trade unions were declining or disbanding because of the warfare 
which employers were conducting against them. As a result, work- 
ingmen were attracted to a society such as the Knights because of 
its secrecy, which was maintained until 1878. In addition, industrial 
unionism, as opposed to the craft distinctions of the older unions, 
was favored by the new organization, thus making eligible for mem- 
bership all working people regardless of sex, race, or skill. 

The membership was grouped in local assemblies on the basis of 
residence rather than of occupation or craft. Borrowing from the 
First International of Karl Marx the technique of centralized control 
and common action, the Knights developed their organization into a 
potent instrument for fighting labor's battles. Their chief weaknesses, 
however, were their refusal to enter the political field as a labor party, 
and a lack of aggressiveness in leadership. The society was brought 
into conflict with the craft unions of skilled workers, and this led to 
its ultimate submergence under the rising tide of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor during the nineties. 

In July 1877 members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 
employed by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railroads joined the great railroad strike which had broken out over 
the country. The strike, directed against a wage reduction and the 
open-shop policies of the railroads, was broken by the State militia 
and the police. 

The internecine war between the Knights of Labor and the craft 
unions during the eighties was manifested locally in 1888, when 
locomotive engineers and firemen enrolled in the brotherhood broke 
a strike of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad employees, which 
had been called by the Knights of Labor. Refusal of the Knights to 
join the eight-hour day movement widened the rift with the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor and allied unions, so that by 1890 the for- 
mer's membership and prestige had dwindled to almost nothing. 

During the nineties and the first decade of the twentieth century 
the local labor movement was marked by the increasing strength of 
the federated unions, particularly those in the textile industry. 
Socialists had entered some of the unions. The Industrial Workers 
of the World emerged locally in this period, but made only small 



gains. The activity of the textile unions of Philadelphia since the 
eighties had paved the way for one of the most important textile 
strikes in the history of the city the strike for a 55-hour work 
week in 1903. The city's entire textile industry was forced to close 
down when 75,000 workers went out. The strike lasted several 
months. In all but a few plants the workers lost the strike. 

After the depression of 1907, business conditions improved slowly, 
and labor began to press the fight for improved standards of living. 
In 1909 the streetcar workers of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Co., dissatisfied with their wage of 20 cents an hour, went on strike 
for a four-cent increase. The strike was defeated by the company's 
use of strikebreakers. A year later the P.R.T. employees struck again, 
with instructions from their leaders not to return to work until their 
union was recognized by the company and the wage rate increased 
from 20 to 25 cents per hour. Strikebreakers were brought in to run 
the trolleys and break up the strike. Virtual warfare ensued, much 
property being destroyed and many persons injured. The strike 
ended in defeat for the workers. A sympathy strike of 15,000 textile 
workers, called by the textile unions when the street-car men went 
out, gave considerable unity and impetus to the local labor move- 
ment for the next decade. 

To meet the high cost of living that prevailed during the World 
War period, wages for labor generally were raised. Consequently, 
there was little unrest in local industry throughout the war years. 
In 1919 the textile workers won the 48-hour week. Collective bargain- 
ing helped to preserve stability in industrial relations until the de- 
pression of 1921, when the open-shop drive of certain manufacturers 
started a wave of strikes that has continued unabated up to 1937. 
The introduction of labor spies, "yellow-dog" contracts, and strike- 
breaking tactics has served to sharpen the struggle with each succeed- 
ing year. 

On June 13, 1933, Congress passed the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act to speed recovery, to foster fair competition, and to pro- 
vide for construction of certain useful public works. Section 7a of 
the act provided that labor should have the right to organize and 
bargain collectively through representatives of its own choosing, and 
section 7b directed that the President should, as far as practicable, 
afford every opportunity for employers and employees to establish by 
mutual agreement standard maximum hours of labor and minimum 
rates of pay. In order to speed up achievement of the objectives of 
the NIRA, a blanket code was presented June 19. This code set maxi- 
mum hours and minimum wages for labor. 

Section 7a was hailed as a sort of Magna Charta for the working- 
man. Immediately, thousands of workers began drives for the or- 
ganization of trade unions, for better wages and shorter hours. Thou- 



sands of Philadelphia workers pocketbook makers, textile workers, 
painters, decorators and paperhangers, cab drivers, necktie workers, 
and actors went on strike. 

But Section 7a did not always prove a boon to the workers. Em- 
ployers were glad to seize upon the minimum wage and maximum 
hours set by the blanket code, and thereby lower wages to a mini- 
mum (if they had previously been higher) or increase the number 
of hours to maximum. Or they chose to interpret "organization of 
own choosing" as referring to the company type of union and to 
refuse to recognize bona fide unions. And a labor board often spent 
its efforts persuading workers to return to shops without having their 
demands met. 

An outstanding example of defiance of the NIRA was the case of 
the E. G. Budd Manufacturing Co. of Philadelphia. On November 
14, 1933, 2,000 workers in this plant struck for a wage increase, union 
recognition, and a 35-hour week. The regional labor board reviewed 
the case and ordered an election to determine which organization 
should be the collective bargaining agency. The company defied the 
ruling, held a company union election, and hired outsiders to re- 
place strikers. Feeling was so intense that Gen. Hugh Johnson, 
then National Recovery Administrator, gave personal attention to 
the case. Finally an election was arranged in which strikebreakers 
were permitted to vote as well as strikers. Vigorous protest arose from 
labor leaders in Philadelphia. The liberal press of the Nation con- 
demned the company. However, a total of 5,762 votes were cast, the 
strike eventually ending in March 1934, with a defeat for the workers. 

One factor which helped mitigate the industrial unrest in which 
Philadelphia, a "workshop city," naturally shared, was the Regional 
Labor Board, one of the 17 erected in 1933 as an adjunct to the 

Under the chairmanship of Jacob Billikopf, who organized and 
directed the handling of the many cases brought before it, this board 
served for 19 months without compensation, adjudicating nearly a 
thousand disputes affecting more than 1,250,000 workers. Its novel 
technique, a panel system, was among the factors which contributed 
to the board's success and won it high praise, this system being later 
followed in many places. Representatives of industry, and an equal 
number of labor leaders were drawn upon in pairs to confer with 
disputants and arrange amicable settlements of the points at issue. 
Full sessions of the board were held weekly. Its effectiveness is shown 
by the fact that less than 10 per cent of the cases brought before it 
for settlement were forwarded to the national body in Washington 
for review. 

Violence sometimes accompanied enforcement of the provisions 
of the NIRA. Two hosiery workers were killed during a hosiery 



strike, and many arrests were made. In May 1935 the NIRA was 
declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States, 
but the National Labor Relations Act which set up a National Labor 
Relations Board became a law in July of that year. This act guarantees 
to employees the right to organize and to bargain collectively, and has 
aided in bringing about a better mutual understanding between 
capital and labor. Major Stanley W. Root, who had served as director 
of the Regional Labor Board, was named regional director of this new 

The city body of American Federation of Labor trade unions in 
present-day Philadelphia is the Central Labor Union. In its 1935 
directory that organization lists 187 locals of international unions 
and 20 Federal unions as affiliates. Thirty-four other unions, mostly 
in the railroad trades, are listed as unaffiliated. The secretary of the 
local American Federation of Labor estimated that some 225,000 
workers were organized in A. F. of L. unions and probably about 
15,000 in independent unions. Twenty unions received Federal char- 
ters during 1936. 

The two best organized trade unions in Philadelphia at present 
are those of the clothing and the textile workers. Most of the original 
textile workers came to Philadelphia from England and Germany, 
with long traditions of unionism behind them. Until the period from 
1921 to 1931, the textile industry was able to maintain strong unions. 
But like many other unions, they were unable to survive the depres- 
sion of 1931. Some passed out of existence. Since the National Re- 
covery Administration, some of the groups especially the hosiery 
workers have been able to strengthen their organizations greatly. 

In September 1934, 28,000 Philadelphia textile workers from 200 
mills joined in a nation-wide textile strike. The strikers' demands in- 
cluded a 30-hour week, pay increases, a closed shop, elimination of 
the "stretch-out" system, better working conditions and union recog- 
nition. By the end of the month, peace had been restored in all but 
20 mills, where "lock-outs" affected 2,000 workers. It was at the re- 
quest of President Roosevelt that the textile employees had gone back 
to their jobs. Arbitration followed, in which their demands were 
lost ; but at least one outcome of the struggle was the President's 
creation of the Textile Relations Board, which focused attention in 
particular upon the "stretch-out" system denounced by labor. 

The Philadelphia department stores were the next to feel the 
effects, two years later, of a serious labor dispute. The trouble began 
in November 1936, with a walkout of warehouse drivers and other 
warehouse employees. The demand was for increased wages, better 
working conditions, and union recognition. The warehouse men soon 
were joined by clerks, stockkeepers and the sales force in a sym- 



pathy walkout. A temporary truce was agreed upon until after 
Christmas, when representatives of labor and the stores met with 
Mayor S. Davis Wilson's Labor Arbitration Board. Settlement of the 
dispute was finally arrived at in May 1937. This was one of 104 
strikes settled by the board during the 16 months of its existence. 

While settlement of the department store strike was pending, Phila- 
delphia became the objective of a drive made by the Committee for 
Industrial Organization, or CIO, opposed by the American Feder- 
ation of Labor because it sponsored industrial organization in op- 
position to craft unionism. It first appeared in the city on January 
4, 1937, when it sponsored a strike of 1,800 employees of the Electric 
Storage Battery Company. 

This strike was Philadelphia's first experience with the new "sit- 
down" technique. All the company's plants were effectually closed 
until February 24, when an agreement providing for a five-cents-an- 
hour wage increase and one week's vacation with pay was signed in 
Mayor Wilson's office. 

The CIO thus came out the winner in this first tilt, and the result 
was the organization of the Philadelphia CIO Council in March 1937. 
Craft members and unorganized workers were now recruited at top 
speed, and within 60 days the CIO membership had shot up to 10,000. 

A truck drivers' strike began July 24 following, in which the CIO 
and A. F. of L. affiliates clashed. A reign of terror in which a driver 
was dragged from his truck and stabbed, cabs and trucks were over- 
turned and set afire, and much property damaged or destroyed, finally 
caused the Mayor after mobilizing additional police force to quell 
the violence, to declare a "state of emergency." 

Settlement of the general strike was effected on August 4 through 
an exchange of letters between the Mayor and an attorney for the 
A. F. of L. union, despite which, violence and disorder ruled the city 
that evening and the following day. When the strike was called off, 
no contract had been drawn up with the employer with regard to con- 
tract haulers. 



BEGINNING as a wilderness sanctuary for a persecuted religious 
sect, Philadelphia today is marked by hundreds of church 
steeples pointing high above surrounding rooftops. The grave- 
yards in the shadow of these churches hold the mortal remains of 
Quaker, Dunkard, Catholic, Lutheran, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, 
Baptist, Jew representatives of the many faiths to find refuge in 
Penn's city. 

Many of the churches had their origin in meetings held outdoors, 
in tiny dwellings, in barns, fortresses or even, across the Atlantic, 
in places as inaccessible as the catacombs themselves. But in Phila- 
delphia there was no need to hide, so the spires of many religious 
edifices now write upon the sky America's guarantee of religious 


LUTHERAN Church was established in the Philadelphia 
area before William Penn arrived in 1682. The early Swedish 
colonists on the Delaware were Lutherans. Some of these organized 
a congregation at Wicaco (now part of South Philadelphia) in 1638 ; 
at Tinicum in 1677 ; and in the Old Swedes' Church (Gloria Dei) in 
1700. By the end of the eighteenth century, the descendants of the 
original colonists had become thoroughly Anglicized, and the Swedish 
Lutheran Church, Gloria Dei, became Episcopalian. 

New groups of Lutheran immigrants began to come from Germany, 
some settling in and about Philadelphia, especially in Germantown, 
before the turn of the century. After 1710 the influx of German 
immigrants, half of them Lutherans, assumed larger proportions. 
Some of them gathered for worship in Germantown as early as 1726, 
and in 1730 they had erected St. Michael's. By 1733 another group 
was worshiping in a barn on Arch Street below Fifth. In 1742, with 
the arrival of the noted Dr. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, German 
Lutheranism was definitely organized and assumed its place in the 
religious life of Philadelphia. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania, or- 
ganized by Muhlenberg and others, is the oldest ecclesiastical organi- 
zation of its kind in America, dating from 1747. 

Since the close of the eighteenth century the Lutheran churches in 
Philadelphia have multiplied rapidly. There are now 155 in this 



area. Most of them are affiliated with the Ministerium of Pennsyl- 
vania and the East Pennsylvania Synod. 

Friends Hicksites^and^Orthodox 

r I^HE Society of Friends, or Quakers, was founded in England in 

-*- the seventeenth century by George Fox. One of his followers, 

William Penn, obtained in 1681 the grant of Pennsylvania, and for 

70 years the influence of the Friends predominated in Philadelphia. 

The essential Christian doctrines of the Friends were in accord 
with those of their fellow Christians. Their distinctive doctrine was 
that the Holy Spirit spoke immediately to the individual, a precept 
often called the "Inner Light." The meetings were marked by silence, 
unless some individual was moved by the Spirit to speak. As a sect, 
Quakers emphasized spiritual baptism and communion rather than 
the outward rites, and maintained that war and oaths were incon- 
sistent with Christianity. 

In 1827 a controversy developed between two groups in the society. 
The Orthodox faction contended that the unsound doctrines of the 
Hicksites caused the difference ; the Hicksites charged that the 
Orthodox were arbitrary in authority. The Hicksites apparently 
questioned the divinity of Jesus Christ, the doctrine of atonement, 
and the inspiration and authority of the Bible. 

The Orthodox Friends' school in Philadelphia is Friends' Select 
School ; the Hicksite Friends are represented by Friends' Central 
School. There are at present in the city 3,000 Orthodox Friends, with 
six meetinghouses, and more than 2,000 Hicksites, with four meeting- 

On March 30, 1937, the two groups met in joint session for the first 
time since the schism of 1827, when they gathered at the Hicksite 
Meeting House to plan for the Friends' World Conference. 

Protestant Episcopal 

PHE first Church of England congregation in Pennsylvania was 
-*- organized at the instance of Henry Compton, Bishop of London. 
Penn's charter specifically empowered the bishop to establish it. As 
early as 1695 a small group of churchmen of that denomination pur- 
chased a plot of ground on Second Street and erected Christ Church. 
Rev. Thomas Clayton, appointed by Bishop Compton, came from 
England to take charge, and within two years, under his active leader- 
ship the congregation had increased from 50 persons to 700. 

After the death of Rev. Mr. Clayton, Rev. Evan Evans arrived in 
1700 to take his place. Evans proved eminently fitted for advancing the 
cause of religion in the growing town. He organized many congre- 



gallons and visited them frequently. His flock in Philadelphia in- 
creased rapidly. Four additional churches had been erected in the 
surrounding settlements by 1704. Rapid growth marked the Protes- 
tant Episcopal faitk until the Revolution, at which time congrega- 
tions were split by Whig and Tory sympathies. 

At the close of the Revolutionary War the church was bereft of its 
clergy. Its ministers had been popularly suspected of being represen- 
tatives of the British Government. The one minister remaining in 
Pennsylvania, one who had been a confidant of Washington and the 
trusted friend of patriot leaders, was the youthful William White. 
He dedicated all his energies to reconstruction of the religious heri- 
tage, exerting strong influence upon the work of reestablishing the 
spiritual and material forces of the Episcopal Church. His immediate 
task was to enlist and train native-born ministers. In 1783 he submitted 
to his vestry a proposal to form a representative body of the Epis- 
copal churches in the State. This body met on May 24, 1784, and 
three years later White was elected to the episcopate. 

In Colonial times most of the prominent non-Quaker Philadel- 
phians were members of this church. At present, the Protestant 
Episcopal Church has many imposing edifices in Philadelphia. Christ 
Church and Gloria Dei are the oldest of this list, each having a long 
and rich historical tradition. The city's total number of communi- 
cants is 75,159. 


A LTHOUGH Philadelphia was destined to become an important 
^~*- center of Presbyterian influence, Presbyterianism in America 
antedates its first congregation in Philadelphia by more than half 
a century. A congregation existed in Virginia as early as 1614, and 
another was organized in New England August 6, 1629. But these 
were antedated by a church in the Bermudas founded in 1612. 

In 1692 groups of Baptists and Presbyterians met in the old Bar- 
bados storehouse, Second and Chestnut Streets, to lay the foundation 
for both denominations. One group held morning services and the 
other met in the afternoon. This association continued for three years, 
until the arrival from New England of Jedediah Andrews. The con- 
gregation in the Barbados storehouse became strictly Presbyterian 
under his pastoral guidance, the Baptists withdrawing. The year 1698 
is generally accepted as the date of the organization of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. 

By 1704 the congregation had so increased as to be able to erect a 
building of its own on High (now Market) Street between Second 
and Third. Two years later the first presbytery met there. The num- 
ber of Presbyterians had increased to such an extent by 1716 that the 



presbytery felt justified in constituting the Synod of Philadelphia. 
The meeting for organization was held in First Presbyterian Church. 
It was here also, that the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America was organized. 

First Church continued as the sole Presbyterian church in the city 
until, in 1743, the Second Presbyterian Church was organized, with 
Gilbert Tennent as pastor. The formation of this church came as a 
direct result of the preaching activities of Tennent and George White- 
field at the time of the "Great Awakening." In 1762 Third Presby- 
terian Church was founded. Construction of the church building on 
Pine Street near Fourth was not begun, however, until 1766. When 
the present structure was erected in 1857, a section of the wall of the 
original building was retained. The fourth Presbyterian society to be 
organized was the Church of the Northern Liberties, established in 

The close of the Colonial period, therefore, found Philadelphia 
Presbyterians with four distinct societies in four houses of worship. 
At present there are 108 Presbyterian churches and a Presbyterian 
population of 61,000 in the city. 


THE first permanent Baptist church established in Philadelphia 
and still existing is that known as the Lower Dublin or the Old 
Pennepek (Pennypack) Church. Organized in January 1688 by Rev. 
Elias Keach, it is termed "Mother of All Baptist Churches in Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, and Maryland," although 
a Baptist congregation existed as early as 1684 at Cold Spring, near 
Bristol. Services of the present congregation are held in an edifice 
on Krewstown Road, near Welsh Road, in the Bustleton section. 

The present First Baptist Church of Penn's city was founded in 
1698 as a branch of that at Lower Dublin, and was not formally con- 
stituted until 1746. (Until 1698 services were held in the Barbados 
storehouse). The present house of worship is at Sansom and Seven- 
teenth Streets. 

The number of Baptists grew rapidly, and the city became the 
center of Baptist activities. Perhaps the most noted leader in the 
city was Rev. Dr. Russell H. Conwell, who became pastor of Grace 
Baptist Church in 1881. Largely by lecturing, Dr. Conwell raised 
more than $8,000,000, with which sum he founded Temple University 
and three great hospitals : Samaritan (now Temple University Hos- 
pital), Garretson, and Greatheart. From a little, debt-ridden mission, 
Grace Church became the Grace Baptist Temple at Broad and 
Berks Streets, with a seating capacity of 3,500. Out of a class of two 
or three young men meeting in the pastor's study grew the great 



Temple University from which, at the time of Dr. Conwell's death 
in 1925, approximately 125,000 students had been graduated. 

Among the larger Baptist churches, in addition to those mentioned, 
are : Alpha, York and Hancock Streets ; Chestnut Street, Chestnut 
Street west of Fortieth ; and Second, Second Street near Girard 
Avenue. The Baptist membership in the metropolitan area of Phila- 
delphia numbers 46,162 white and approximately 50,000 Negro wor- 


A GROUP of a dozen small bodies of Mennonites regard Menno 
Simons, a Dutch Anabaptist, as their founder. Most of them 
came to America from Holland, Germany, Switzerland, or Russia. 

The first Mennonite colony was formed in Germantown in 1683 
by some of the 13 original settlers. By 1708 they had built a little 
log meetinghouse on Main Street (now Germantown Avenue) above 
Herman Street. William Rittenhouse was the first pastor of the con- 
gregation. He is buried in the adjoining graveyard. In 1770 the 
present Mennonite Meetinghouse replaced the log structure. 

Members of the sect believe in adult baptism, non-resistance, and 
practical piety, and are opposed to the judicial oath. The Mennonites 
(General Conference) have 800 members and three churches in 
Philadelphia ; and the Mennonite Brethren in Christ, with 400 mem- 
bers, also have three churches. 


I. Brethren Church (Progressive Dunkards) . 
II. Church of the Brethren (Conservative Dunkards). 
Y I ^HIS religious group represents the Pietists who came from Cre- 
-*- feld, Germany, under the leadership of Peter Becker, and settled 
in Germantown in 1719. At 6611 Germantown Avenue is the meeting- 
house which sheltered the mother congregation of the sect in America. 
The front section of the building was erected in 1770. The first Bible 
printed in this country in German came from the press of Christopher 
Saur, or Sauer, a member of this congregation. 

These Germans were called Dunkers (baptizers), because of their 
belief in immersionism. Their communion was held in the evening, 
preceded by the rite of foot washing and the love feast. Simple, plain- 
living, devout Christians of the evangelical type, they are conserva- 
tive regarding attire ; they are opposed to taking oaths ; and they 
advocate non-resistance and temperance. 

The Progressives, who are more liberal in their customs and man- 
ners, and who believe that all ecclesiastical power should be lodged 



in the local church, withdrew from the main body in 1882. They 
have 300 members and two churches here. The Conservatives have 
1,500 members and five churches. 


THE Reformed Church in the United States, until 1869 known as 
the German Reformed Church, developed as a result of religious 
persecution in Germany and Switzerland. Many did not subscribe to 
the doctrines of Luther, finding the teachings of Zwingli and Calvin 
more -acceptable. 

When, in 1684, the first of these refugees came to America, the Re- 
formed Church had its inception in the New World, although it did 
not become fully organized until 1725. The vast majority of the new 
settlers flocked to Pennsylvania, most of them proceeding inland be- 
yond Philadelphia to what is now Montgomery County. The first 
German Reformed minister to arrive was Samuel Guldin, who 
preached in Germantown in 1718. 

The First Reformed Church of Philadelphia, founded in 1727, 
was the first of this denomination in the city. Now at Fiftieth and 
Locust Streets, it is one of 27 Reformed churches in the Philadelphia 
area. Heidelberg, Broad and Grange Streets ; Trinity, Broad and 
Venango Streets ; and Grace, Eleventh and Huntingdon Streets, have 
the largest congregations. 

Evangelical and Reformed 

HPHE Evangelical and Reformed Church was formed in 1934 by a 
- union of the Evangelical Synod of North America and the Re- 
formed Church in the United States (German Reformed) . 

The Evangelical Synod traces its origin from missionaries of the 
Evangelical Church of Germany and Switzerland, who organized a 
synod in 1840 at Gravois, Mo. The first recorded communion service 
of the Reformed Church in the United States was held in 1725. The 
original German Reformed Church building was erected in German- 
town in 1733, on the site now occupied by the Market Square Presby- 
terian Church. In 1747 a church was built in Philadelphia proper, on 
Race Street near Fourth. Members of both churches numbered 15,800 
in 1937. 

Roman Catholic 

OF ALL who sought friendly shelter in Penn's Province, to none 
was it a more welcome haven than to the Catholics. Subjected to 
the lash of persecution elsewhere, they found a true refuge in Phila- 
delphia. Here they could worship openly. 


St. Paul's Protestant 

Episcopal Church 

"Here Stephen Giran 

was married; here Edwii 

Forrest lies" 

tenton House 
"Home of 

illiam Penns 


A chapel was established about 1729 in a private house next to 
the southeast corner of Second and Chestnut Streets. Although prior 
to this period Mass was celebrated in private homes by visiting Jesuits, 
this chapel marked the beginning of the Roman Catholic Church 

Father Joseph Greaton, a Jesuit who arrived in Philadelphia in 
1729, was the first to exercise his ministry in this humble place. Later, 
in the years between 1731 and 1733, the exact time not being clear, 
he built the tiny chapel of St. Joseph, oldest Catholic church in Phila- 
delphia. The present building, which was erected in 1838, is the 
fourth structure on that site. Standing in Willing's Alley, between 
Third and Fourth Streets, and surrounded by the offices of large in- 
surance companies, it is of lasting interest because of its association 
with Colonial and Revolutionary times. 

Father Greaton's two successors were responsible for new edifices. 
St. Mary's, on Fourth Street north of Spruce, was erected in 1763 
through the work of Father Harding. Father Molyneux opened a 
parish school there in 1782. Father Steinmeyer, a German Jesuit, who 
assisted Father Harding and Father Molyneux, was instrumental in 
settling difficulties between Catholics of German origin and those of 
Irish origin. In addition to his activities among the Germans in Phila- 
delphia, he journeyed as a missionary through Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, and New York. The colonists knew him as "Father Farmer." 

After "Father Farmer's" death, the German Catholics felt the need 
of a church of their own, and in 1788 built Holy Trinity Church at 
Sixth and Spruce Streets. Of red and black glazed brick, this edifice 
appears now substantially as it did when first built. 

In 1793 there arose a demand for a church in the northern section 
of the city. Opportunely, the Augustinians were seeking to establish 
their order in the United States, and to them was entrusted the pro- 
ject of erecting a new church. St. Augustine's was dedicated in 1801. 
The present structure, rebuilt in 1847, stands on the original site, on 
Fourth Street between Race and Vine. 

Until 1808 the Catholic Church in Philadelphia had been under 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Baltimore. In that year, however, 
the city was proclaimed a separate diocese, and two years later Bishop 
Egan was installed as the first Bishop of Philadelphia. 

In 1832 Bishop Francis P. Kenrick established, in an upstairs room 
of St. Mary's rectory on Fourth Street, what eventually became the 
diocesan seminary of St. Charles Borromeo. The first class consisted 
of five students. In 1871 the seminary was transferred to its present 
site in Overbrook. Toward the latter part of his 21-vear administra- 
tion Bishop Kenrick chose a site at Eighteenth and Race Streets for 
a cathedral. The first Mass was sung in the Cathedral of SS. Peter 
and Paul on Easter Sunday, 1862. 



John Nepomucene Neumann, a Redemptorist, was made bishop of 
the diocese in March 1852. One of his first acts was to provide Catholic 
schools. At his death eight years later, they numbered nearly 100. 
Bishop Neumann has been proclaimed "Blessed" by the Church. 
This is a step preliminary to placing him on the calendar of saints. 

In 1868, the Holy See divided the diocese of Philadelphia, establish- 
ing a new diocese at Scranton and another at Harrisburg. Philadel- 
phia was elevated to the rank of a Metropolitan See in 1875. 

His Eminence, Cardinal Dougherty, has been Archbishop of Phila- 
delphia since July 1918. In 1921 he was created cardinal. The Catholic 
population of the archdiocese is estimated at 837,000. 


IHOLLOWERS of the pre-Reformation faith of Johann Huss, the 
-*- Moravian immigrants first settled in Georgia in 1735. They moved 
to Pennsylvania in 1740, built the towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth, 
and for some time adopted a form of communism to help them in 
their efforts to conquer the wilderness. Under Count Zinzendorf they 
cultivated a closely supervised spiritual discipline and endeavored to 
separate themselves from the world. The Moravian Church is broadly 
evangelical, and has a liturgy and an episcopal form of government. 
The first Moravian church was built in Philadelphia in 1742, at 
Race and Broad Streets, through the efforts and ministry of Count 
Zinzendorf. The Moravians have 1,000 members in Philadelphia, with 
three churches. 


Tj 1 ROM a few scattered pioneers in 1720 to a total of 247,000 in 
-*- 1936 such is the growth of Judaism and the Jewish population 
in Philadelphia. 

In 1747 the first congregation in the city was begun, later acquir- 
ing the name of Kahal Kadosh Mikveh Israel. It is believed to have 
held services in a small house in Sterling Alley, which ran from 
Cherry Street to Race, just below Front. The first synagogue was 
erected on Cherry Street between Third and Fourth and dedicated 
in 1782, with Rabbi Gershon Mendes Israel Seixas as first minister. 

The services of Mikveh Israel closely resembled the Orthodox 
ritual of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Many of the early mem- 
bers were refugees from the Spanish Inquisition. The first Hebrew 
Sunday School in America opened in Philadelphia on March 4, 1838, 
as an adjunct to Mikveh Israel Congregation. Chief organizer of the 
school was Rebecca Gratz, noted for her talent and beauty, as well as 
for her strict adherence to the tenets of Judaism. 



Mikveh Israel has had many noted members during its long history. 
Among them were Isaac Leeser, first American to translate the Old 
Testament into English, and editor of an important Jewish magazine, 
The Occident ; Rabbi Sabato Morais, founder of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of New York, a profound scholar and a doctor of 
laws of the University of Pennsylvania ; Marcus Jastrow, author of 
the only Talmudic dictionary in English ; Joseph Krauskopf, founder 
of the National Farm School, in Doylestown ; Samuel Hirsch, na- 
tionally known religious orator ; and Henry Berkowitz, founder of 
the Jewish Chautauqua Society. In 1860 Mikveh Israel was removed 
to Seventh Street above Arch. It is now located at Broad and York 

The first synagogue of the German Jews was Rodeph Shalom, 
chartered in 1802. First worship was held in a building on Pear Street, 
later on Margaretta Street, then, in 1846, on Juliana (now Randolph) 
Street, which lies between and parallel to Fifth and Sixth. In 1870 
the congregation dedicated a new synagogue at Broad and Mt. Vernon 
Streets. The present imposing synagogue was erected in 1927. 

For some time this congregation was strictly Orthodox, but in 1866. 
under the direction of Dr. Jastrow, many innovations of the liberal 
wing of Judaism were adopted. With the coming of Rabbi Henry 
Berkowitz in 1892, the congregation definitely allied itself with Re- 
formed Judaism, and is today one of the outstanding Reformed Con- 
gregations of America. In 1887 Rodeph Shalom built a school at 956 
North Eighth Street. The Jewish Cultural Association also developed 
from this congregation. 

The third synagogue in Philadelphia was known as Beth Israel, 
and held its first services in a rented hall near Fifth and Walnut 
Streets in December 1840. The synagogue is now at Thirty-second 
Street and Montgomery Avenue. 

The Reformed Congregation, Keneseth Israel, largest in the city, 
was organized in 1847. Services were held in a hall at 528 North 
Second Street. At present the synagogue is on Broad Street above 
Columbia Avenue. The congregation supports a free library and read- 
ing room. There were about 10 synagogues in Philadelphia in 1875. 
At the end of 1935 there were 119. 

Methodist Episcopal 

1%/| ETHODISM was introduced into Philadelphia in 1769 by Dr. 
-^-Joseph Pilmoor, who preached his first sermon from the steps 
of the State House. His teachings, however, were not entirely new, 
for a year earlier Thomas Webb, a captain in the British army, had 
conducted services. Later, sermons were delivered by Dr. Pilmoor in 
open fields around the city. Dr. Pilmoor was assisted by Captain 



Webb. Many were impressed by the latter's stern mien. The first 
regular meetings were held in a pothouse in Loxley's Court, between 
Arch and Cherry Streets. 

The first Methodist Episcopal church in America actually was the 
present St. George's, Fourth Street north of Race. It was an un- 
finished building when purchased from the Dutch settlers in 1769, 
and remained floorless even up to Revolutionary times. During the 
British occupation the building was used as headquarters for cavalry. 

Outstanding among Methodist Episcopal churches in this city are 
the Arch Street at Broad and Arch Streets ; Calvary at Forty-eighth 
Street and Baltimore Avenue ; and the First Methodist Episcopal of 
Germantown at 6023 Germantown Avenue. The church population of 
the Philadelphia Conference is more than 100,000. The Philadelphia 
membership ranges from 40,000 to 65,000 with 132 churches, 20 of 
which are for Negroes. 


l^kRGANIZATION of the Universalists in this city into a separate 
^^ church came about as a result of a dispute arising in the First 
Baptist Church of Philadelphia. Its pastor privately upheld the doc- 
trine of universal salvation. His views, becoming a subject of con- 
troversy, led to excommunication of himself and his followers. This 
ousted group called themselves Universal Baptists. 

In 1770 a group gathered by the Rev. John Murry absorbed the 
greater part of the Universal Baptists, and the First Universalist 
Church of Philadelphia was formed. This body erected a church 
building on Lombard Street west of Fourth in 1793. 

Today the principal Universalist Church in Philadelphia is the 
Church of the Messiah, at Broad Street and Montgomery Avenue. 


HE First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia, first of all existing 
churches in America to take the Unitarian name, was organized 
in 1796 under Dr. Joseph Priestley, eminent scientist. Dr. Priestley 
came to Philadelphia in 1794 from Birmingham, England, and began 
preaching in this city. 

John Adams, the Nation's second President, was a member of the 
Unitarian Church of Quincy, Mass. While he was President, he 
attended services at the First Unitarian Church in Philadelphia. 

The present parish house of the First Unitarian Church, on Chest- 
nut Street east of Twenty-second, was built in 1886. There is only 
one other church of this denomination in Philadelphia, the German- 
town Unitarian Church at 6511 Lincoln Drive, 


United Brethren in Christ 

DURING the last half of the eighteenth century Philip William Ot- 
terbein, a missionary of the German Reformed Church, and 
Martin Boehm, of the Mennonite communion, feeling the need of a 
deeper spiritual life, conducted evangelistic services throughout Penn- 
sylvania and the neighboring States. They gained converts rapidly, 
and in 1800 there was formed a distinct ecclesiastical body the 
United Brethren in Christ. The church was a natural development 
of the spiritual needs of many German-Americans. Philadelphia to- 
day has 700 members of this faith, with four churches. 

Christian Science 

HPHE advent of Christian Science into Philadelphia was not a 
*- heralded event. The seedling was planted in the later years of 
the nineteenth century, and in 1906 work was begun on the erection 
of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, on Walnut Street west of 
Fortieth. The building was completed in 1910. From that date until 
its dedication in 1911 sufficient subscriptions were received to com- 
plete payment on its construction and to form the nucleus of a fund 
for the building of the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, at 5443 
Greene Street, Germantown. There are four other churches, each 
with its own reading room. Jointly they maintain a city reading room 
in the Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Building at Broad and Sansom 


SPIRITUALISM had its origin in the alleged spirit tappings heard 
^by the Fox sisters of Hydesville, N. Y., in 1848. Through the work 
of the elder sister the sect spread rapidly. 

There are five churches in Philadelphia: First Association of 
Spiritualists at Carlisle and Master Streets ; Third Spiritualist Church 
at 1421 North Sixteenth Street ; Universal Spiritualist Brotherhood 
Church at 3012 West Girard Avenue ; All Saints Spiritual Church 
at 2026 Glenwood Avenue ; and St. John's Spiritual Alliance Church 
at 805 West Lehigh Avenue. 

Seamen's Church Institute 

A LMOST a century ago a barge which had been converted into a 
-^~*- floating church was towed down the Delaware River, moored to 
a wharf at Dock Street, and opened as a seamen's church. Arrival of 
the "floating church" aroused a great deal of interest, and throngs 
of visitors inspected this unusual structure. 


Gateway of Old Christ Church 
'Come to me, all ye who labor . . 


After sufficient money was subscribed the church was consecrated 
by Rt. Rev. Alonzo Potter, and regular Sunday services were begun. 
This was the origin of what is now the Seamen's Church Institute. 
Work of the mission was transferred later to quarters at Catharine 
and Swanson Streets, and in 1878 to the Church of the Redeemer, 
Front and Queen Streets. 

In 1920 the institute was incorporated as an independent inter- 
denominational society for rendering every service possible to sea- 
men, and was moved to its present location, Second and Walnut 
Streets. Within a year adjoining properties were acquired. In 1927 
the M. Clark Mariner Home for Aged and Disabled Mariners was 
merged with the institute. More recently the Pennsylvania Seamen's 
Friend, which had operated a sailors' home at 422 South Front Street, 
transferred its work to the institute. 


OTHER churches represented in Philadelphia are : Latter Day 
Saints, one church, 400 members ; Catholic Apostolic, one church 
300 members ; Church of God in North America (General Elder- 
ship) , one church, 116 members ; Congregational and Christian, eight 
churches, 1,800 members ; Christian Church Disciples of Christ, 
four churches, 1,900 members ; Dutch Reformed, four churches, 1,200 
members ; Church of God, three churches, 150 members ; Seventh 
Day Adventists, seven churches, 2,500 members ; Evangelical Con- 
gregational, two churches, 389 members ; Reformed Episcopal, ten 
churches, 2,677 members. 

Among the denominations represented in the Philadelphia Federa- 
tion of Churches and not previously mentioned are : United Brethren, 
Christian Missionary Alliance, Covenanters, Methodist Free, Methodist 
Protestant, Pentecostal, Primitive Methodist, Reformed Presbyterian, 
Undenominational, and United Presbyterian. 

Of the Orthodox (Eastern) Churches, the Greek Hellenic has one 
church and 3,000 members in Philadelphia ; the Russian (under 
the Patriarch of Moscow) has three churches and 2,266 members ; 
the Rumanian (under the Patriarch of Bucharest) has one church 
and 400 members ; the Independent Russian and the Albanian Ortho- 
dox have each one church and 500 members. 

The Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) has two 
churches in Philadelphia ; the Schwenkfelders, one. The Ethical Cul- 
ture Society, with local headquarters at 1906 Rittenhouse Square, has 
a membership of 800. The organization known as Jehovah's Witnesses 
has headquarters at 1620 North Broad Street ; this group has no 
membership rolls, and meetings are held in private homes. 



THE Dutch and Swedes, Perm's predecessors in the "Grove of 
Tall Pines," laid the foundations for public instruction. Men 
who had to rely for survival almost entirely upon the strength 
of their backs and the brawn of their arms realized that continued 
progress and development depended upon how well the minds of 
their children were sharpened upon the whetstone of knowledge. 

Accordingly, a school was established on Tinicum Island in 1642, 
with Christopher Taylor at its head. In 1657 Evert Pietersen con- 
ducted a school for Dutch children of new villages near Tinicum. 

Penn thus found education established, in a small way, when he 
arrived here. One of his first acts was to direct the Pennsylvania 
Council to begin a school wherein the youth might be trained. Several 
enterprising tutors managed to obtain a few pupils from the wealthier 
immigrants. Enoch Flower, a teacher for 20 years, was summoned 
from England in 1683 to take charge of a school established by the 
council. Charges per quarter were four shillings to read English, six 
shillings for reading and writing, and eight shillings for reading and 
writing and "casting accounts." Flower also took pupils to board with 
him at 10 a year. 

Founding of the Friends' Public School, now William Penn Char- 
ter School, was one of the important early steps leading to establish- 
ment of the public school system. The school was opened in 1689 on 
Fourth Street below Chestnut, and was chartered in 1697. Conducted 
by Quakers, it admitted pupils of every creed and gave instruction 
free to indigent children. George Keith was headmaster. 

The University of Pennsylvania was founded in 1749 by Benjamin 
Franklin and a group of citizens interested in the "establishment of 
educational facilities for the youth of the Pennsylvania colony." 
Classes began in 1751 in a two-story brick building which had been 
erected for religious services at Fourth and Arch Streets. Franklin 
was the first president of the board of trustees. 

The first charter was granted in 1753, and a second charter grant- 
ing the right to confer degrees was issued in 1755. Later, the first 
medical school in America was established. In 1779 the charter be- 
came vested in "The Trustees of the University of the State of Penn- 
sylvania," and professional schools, distinct from the college, were 


Board of Education Administration Building 

Penn Charter School 
"The first established school of Philadelphia' 


The first law school in the Nation was established in 1789 and 
three years later the college and the university were merged and 
incorporated under the title of "The University of Pennsylvania." 

In 1829 the institution moved to Ninth and Chestnut Streets and 
thence to its present site at Thirty-fourth Street and Woodland Ave- 
nue, in 1872. The following year the college buildings, Logan Hall, 
Hare Laboratory and the main building of University Hospital were 
constructed. From this time forward, the institution expanded rapidly, 
adding new buildings and increasing the courses to such extent 
that the university today has a faculty numbering 1,333 and a student 
enrollment of about 15,000. The campus covers 106 acres and con- 
tains a total of 164 buildings. The total property value is about 
$35,000,000, and the endowment funds amount to $19,000,000. 

Temple University was founded in 1884 by Dr. Russell H. Conwell, 
pastor of Grace Baptist Temple, Broad and Berks Streets. The in- 
stitution began when Dr. Conwell started evening classes in his 
church for a small group of young men who desired to study for the 
ministry. From this modest beginning, the idea expanded so that op- 
portunity for study was made available to poor students seeking 
higher education. 

Today the university has more than 12,000 students enrolled. 
Its buildings occupy an entire block on the east side of Broad Street, 
from Montgomery Avenue to Berks Street. Other buildings include 
Temple University Medical College and Hospital at Broad and On- 
tario Streets ; the former Oak Lane Country Day School in Oak Lane; 
and the School of Art in Elkins Park. The university is maintained 
by two funds, one being obtained from student tuition, the other 
from periodic appropriations made by the State. 

In 1761 the Germantown Academy was established in BenselFs 
(now School House) Lane, Germantown. It was sponsored by Ger- 
man settlers and English Quakers. It is the oldest school in the United 
States having a continuous existence in the same building. Twenty- 
three years after its founding the school obtained a charter as the 
Public School of Germantown, but an advertisement in the Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette of 1794 listed it as Germantown Academy, and that 
name has been retained. 

These new schools did not, however, alleviate the sore need for 
educational facilities for poor children. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, written and signed in this city, proclaimed that all men 
were created equal and entitled to "life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness." Nevertheless, the problem of free education in Phila- 
delphia received no adequate local attention until 1818. That year 
the Legislature passed an act setting up the city of Philadelphia as 
the first school district of Pennsylvania. New schools were opened, 
and a board of control was established to supervise them. Among the 



institutions started then was the "Model School," which opened 
December 21, 1818. 

This type school, originated in England by Joseph Lancaster, was 
used there to some extent. It provided for a headmaster and a group 
of monitors to act as teachers, each monitor handling 15 or 20 pupils. 
Under this arrangement it was possible to educate more children at 
smaller cost than under previous systems. A special committee which 
had been named to study this Lancaster plan reported upon it favor- 
ably ; 10 such schools were opened and a special building set aside 
for the eleventh. 

Thus, the "Model School" was established and placed under the 
direct supervision of Lancaster, who crossed the Atlantic to take 
charge of it. It trained young men and women in the teaching pro- 
fession, and its graduates received posts in the new school districts 
set up in the State by the law of 1834, which levied a tax to provide 
necessary revenue. 

The advances made in the Legislature's act of 1834 were seriously 
threatened the following year when members of the Assembly were 
yielding to the pressure of those opposed to the new taxes. A masterly 
address by Thaddeus Stevens, "Father of the Pennsylvania Free 
Schools," completely turned the tide of sentiment. 

In 1836 another law was passed, providing for the education of 
all children more than four years old. This was the first step toward 
compulsory education and one of the greatest strides in free public 
instruction. The new law also carried a provision for establishment of 
a high school in Philadelphia. 

Accordingly, the board of control began erection of Central High 
School, on the east side of Juniper Street below Market, facing 
what was then Center Square. The school embodied all the dreams 
and ideals of the pioneers of free public education. It was a fine 
building, well staffed, and was surmounted by an astronomical ob- 
servatory not surpassed anywhere in the country. Alexander Dallas 
Bache, great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, was appointed first 
principal of the school in 1839. Franklin had not lived to see the 
fruit of his earlier campaigns for public education, but with Bache's 
appointment the tradition was carried on. During his three years at 
the school Bache organized a smoothly functioning unit and estab- 
lished a fine curriculum. The school's fame spread. 

By 1853 business had moved westward from the Delaware until 
the school was almost surrounded by commercial establishments. The 
building was sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad, and in September 
1854 Central High School moved to the southeast corner of Broad 
and Green Streets. In 1894 another building was erected on the south- 
west corner of the same intersection. Both buildings still stand but 
the earlier, which served as an annex, was condemned in 1937. 



With the establishment of Central High School the board of con- 
trol increased its activity and in 1848 opened a school of practice 
in conjunction with the Girls' Normal School in the old Model School 
building on Chester (Darien) Street north of Race. The popularity 
of this school of higher education for girls grew at such an amaz- 
ing rate that by 1853 it became necessary to open a similar school to 
accommodate the overflow. 

In 1859 the Normal School was closed and replaced by the Girls' 
High School, which in the second and third terms of its curriculum 
gave special instruction to those intending to become teachers. Stu- 
dents in the senior classes obtained practice by teaching the lower 
classes. The school was reorganized in 1861 and renamed Girls' High 
School and Normal School. Seven years later the word "high" was 
dropped, and it was renamed Girls' Normal School. It is now the 
Philadelphia Normal School. 

Increasing registration and new requirements necessitated larger 
quarters, and in 1876 the school was moved to Seventeenth and Spring 
Garden Streets. Here it operated in conjunction with the Philadel- 
phia High School for Girls until 1893, when its professional course 
having been extended from one to two years, and the Girls' High 
School course to four years, new facilities were required. The Normal 
School moved to Spring Garden and Thirteenth Streets, its present 
site, and the high school remained at Seventeenth Street. 

Meanwhile, the school system improved steadily. The number of 
schools increased and teachers' salaries advanced. Then a campaign 
to simplify textbooks, courses, and methods of administration was 

By an act of Legislature in 1870, the name of the control board 
was changed to the Board of Public Education. Three years later the 
City Councils passed an ordinance creating a loan of $1,000,000 for 
the erection of additional school buildings. That same year, a clause 
in the new State constitution made provisions for education of chil- 
dren more than six years old, with $1,000,000 to be set aside yearly 
for that purpose. In 1895 the education of children became com- 
pulsory by legislative enactment. 

In 1874 Quakers reorganized the William Penn Charter School, 
Fourth Street below Chestnut, and moved it to No. 8 South Twelfth 
Street. It occupied this latter site until 1925, when it was removed to 
School House Lane, Germantown, not far from Germantown Acad- 
emy. This school claims direct descent from the old school of the 
same name. The Friends' Select School, Seventeenth Street and the 
Parkway, still under the direction of Friends' Meeting, also traces its 
origin to the old William Penn Charter School. 

The mere enumeration of dates on which changes in the school 
system occurred can give little comprehension of the gradual rise of 



the educational idea to a broad and higher plane. Such factors as the 
consolidation of the city, in 1854, and the subsequent creation of 
separate school districts for each ward were quickly reflected in the 
viewpoint and morale of the administrative and teaching staffs. 
Similarly, creation of the office of Superintendent of Schools, about 
1883, helped toward the establishment of a more professional standard 
throughout the city for all wards. 

Such changes, however, were utterly inadequate to correct the 
abuses which had grown with the system itself, abuses due largely to 
the narrow selfishness of politicians. Ward leaders, members of City 
Councils, and even the small fry of the political world saw in the 
system a mere "grab bag." Teaching jobs were for sale at the political 
pay window, provided the applicant had a mere certificate showing 
qualifications for the work. There was no such thing as a list of 
eligibles to be drawn from in order, so political patronage far out- 
weighed any excellence in the candidate for the schoolroom work, or 
the interests of the children themselves. 

Real transformation of the educational picture began with the Act 
of 1905, by which the State reorganized the public school system and 
established the Board of Education for Philadelphia. This board was 
given the power of disposal of the money which Council was au- 
thorized to collect through a limited tax on real estate. 

In Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, this limited power of taxation was 
transferred from Council to the Board itself by an act passed in 
1911, which established a school code for the entire State. 

The Philadelphia public school system today has an enrollment 
of about 272,000 day pupils. Adding to this the number attending 
evening schools, citizenship classes for mothers, and other extension 
activities, the total is about 300,000. The system requires the services 
of nearly 10,000 persons in the professional field. At present there 
are 4 practice, 14 senior high, 23 junior high, 3 vocational, 201 ele- 
mentary schools and one industrial art school, one residential school, 
one demonstration school, and one normal school. 

Negro Education 

Tj^DUCATION of the Negro in early days of the Colony was advo- 
--^cated by three groups masters who sought to increase the effi- 
ciency of their slaves, sympathetic groups interested in the better- 
ment of the race, and zealous Christian missionaries. 

Of these three groups, the first was by far the most effective. Al- 
though it was undoubtedly selfishness that prompted the slave owners 
to pursue their policy of education, their efforts proved far more 
productive than those of the other groups. Their methods were based 
upon two forms formal education in reading and writing, and 



industrial education to further the efficiency of the slave in his work. 

The Quakers, however, strove not only to educate the Negro, but 
actually to free him from the bonds of slavery. They believed educa- 
tion would mean little to the Negro until he was free. Among the 
first Quaker leaders interested in emancipation were George Fox 
and William Penn. A definite scheme was advanced in 1713 whereby 
the slaves would be freed, educated, and returned to Africa in the 
capacity of missionaries among their own people. 

In 1750 Anthony Benezet established a night school for Negroes 
in Philadelphia, and 20 years later he took the leading part in estab- 
lishing a systematic method of education for the Negro. The Monthly 
Meeting of Friends in 1770 approved a proposal to establish a school 
for Negro and mulatto children. These were to be instructed in read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic, and other useful subjects. This school was 
continued for 16 years. Tuition was free, the school being maintained 
by subscriptions. 

The first attempt of an organized body to educate the Negro was 
made by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, organized in London in 1701. Assisted by a private endowment, 
known as the Dr. Bray Fund, this society opened two schools in 
Philadelphia in 1760, and its educational work continued for nearly 
a cenlury. 

The period between 1830 and 1860 saw the greatest strides in the 
field of Negro education. Until 1830 only two schools for Negro 
children were supported by public funds, but in that year the board 
of control established another such school in Northern Liberties. In 
1844 two more were opened, and others followed thereafter with in- 
creased frequency. 

Meanwhile, the Negroes had begun a campaign of their own to 
educate members of their race. Societies were formed for that pur- 
pose, and libraries were opened. The close of the Civil War and the 
emancipation of slaves caused a veritable boom in Negro education. 
Previously Negroes had been refused admission to both Central High 
School and the Philadelphia Normal School, as well as to the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. When the bars were lowered, a large number 
of Negroes quickly took advantage of the opportunity to gain a 
higher education. 

Parochial School System 

TN THE parish of St. Joseph's, probably as early as the 1730's, was 
*- established the first parochial school in the city. In 1767 James 
White, a merchant, bequeathed 50 "toward a school house" the 
first known bequest made to aid Catholic education in Philadelphia. 
In 1781 St. Mary's Church took steps to pay off the old school debt 



arid to buy new ground, presumably for another school building. St. 
Joseph's Society for the Education of Poor Orphan Children next 
entered the field, obtaining incorporation papers in 1808. 

Later, the Germans of St. Mary's parish formed a church of their 
own, and immediately opened a school. This new church wag known 
as Holy Trinity Church. The parish of St. Augustine was founded 
in 1796, and almost immediately began to provide facilities for the 
education of the parish children. 

Parochial schools continued to be opened as the number of Catho- 
lics in the city increased and made new parishes necessary. Catholic 
education was accelerated in 1878, when the will of Thomas E. Cahill 
bequeathed almost $1,000,000 for the establishment of a Catholic 
high school. In 1890 the Roman Catholic High School was opened 
at Broad and Vine Streets. Today the school maintains an athletic 
field (Cahill Field) as a memorial to the founder. 

At present there are seven Catholic High Schools and 127 parish 
elementary schools in Philadelphia. These are augmented by 10 
schools conducted by Catholic charitable institutions. 

Special Schools 

T^HILADELPHIA has a large number of special schools where 
- trades, the arts, and various specialized vocations are taught. These 
include many preparatory schools, business schools, and schools of 

The Spring Garden Institute, Broad and Spring Garden Streets, 
was opened in 1851 to further educational facilities for young men 
and women. Reading rooms, night schools, and other features were 
included. Today the institute has a large number of students in the 
industrial crafts, manual training, and many fields of art. 

Gratz College, Broad and York Streets, is the oldest school in the 
United States for the training of Jewish religious teachers. It was 
established in 1856 with a large bequest made by Hyman Gratz. Next 
door is Dropsie College, where Hebrew and cognate languages are 
taught to Jewish students and to any others interested. 

The Mastbaum Vocational School, Frankford Avenue and Clemen- 
tine Street, is conducted along the lines of the Smith-Hughes plan 
for vocational training. The two-year term provides vocational and 
academic training. Students enter directly from both junior high and 
senior high schools. Half the school day is spent in practical shop 
work, the other half in classroom study. Automobile mechanics, wood- 
work, textiles, electrical construction, stenography, bookkeeping, 
drafting, machine construction, vocational music, and vocational art 
are taught. A junior employment service is maintained for students. 

In keeping with this progressive policy of making the schools fit 



the actual needs of the pupils, several other special-purpose schools 
have been gradually integrated into the system. These include the 
Orthopedic School, the Shallcross School for Truants, and the Flei- 
sher Vocational School. 

Night schools have also proved an extensive and valuable addition 
to the board's ordinary activities, thousands of pupils, young and old, 
taking advantage of the opportunity thus offered them to pursue 
courses of commercial and cultural advantage. 

Included among art schools are the Pennsylvania Museum School 
of Industrial Art, Broad and Pine Streets, opened in 1877 ; the 
Academy of Fine Arts, Broad and Cherry Streets, founded in 1805 
and the oldest art institution in the United States ; and the Philadel- 
phia School of Design for Women, Broad and Master Streets, founded 
in 1844 and incorporated in 1853. 

Prominent among several theological seminaries in the city is the 
Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1814 South Rittenhouse 
Square, which trains men as missionaries, preachers, and teachers. 
It is divided into three schools : theology, religious education, and 
sacred music. There are accommodations for married men and their 
families, as well as for single persons. 

St. Vincent's Theological Seminary is conducted by the Vincentian 
Order, at Chelten and Magnolia Avenues, Germantown. This seminary 
educates young men as priests for Catholic missions. The Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, 7301 Germantown Avenue, was founded in 
1864 to train ministers for the Lutheran Church. The seminary is 
augmented by a graduate school. The Reformed Episcopal Church 
conducts a seminary at 25 South Forty- third Street. Westminster 
Theological Seminary, Church Road and Willow Grove Avenue, 
Chestnut Hill, was formed as a result of a reorganization in modern- 
istic direction of Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J. in 
1929. The course of study includes religious history, Bible study, and 
allied subjects. The Divinity School of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Forty-second and Locust Streets, was chartered in 1862. 
This institution maintains a graduate school. 

Several private schools in the city, including Germantown Acad- 
emy, Penn Charter, and many Friends' schools offer courses of study 
ranging from the early grades through college preparatory work. In 
any of these, pupils may enter at kindergarten age and continue 
through elementarv grades, high school, and preparatory courses for 
college entrance. Thus the pupil's school life is continuous in the 
same surroundings and under the same system of education. 

Most of the city's hospitals conduct nursing schools. High school 
graduates are accepted for a course of training which is augmented 
by actual hospital work. Thousands of young women yearly take ad- 
vantage of these opportunities. 



Many business schools are scattered throughout the city, where 
training is given in typewriting, stenography, bookkeeping, and gen- 
eral office practice. There are also a number of college preparatory 
schools such as Brown Preparatory School, Fifteenth and Race Streets. 

Girard College, a school for the care and education of white, male 
orphans between the ages of six and eighteen, was founded in 1848 
under the terms of the will of Stephen Girard. 

The entrance to the institution's 42-acre plot of ground is at Corin- 
thian and Girard Avenues. The present site and group of school build- 
ings and dormitories are valued at more than $6,000,000. Control of 
the school is vested in a board of trustees of 12 members appointed by 
the judges of the Courts of Common Pleas of Philadelphia, and the 
Mayor and president of City Council. 

Conditions for admission give preference (1) to boys born in the 
bounds of the old city of Philadelphia ; (2) to boys born elsewhere 
in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ; (3) to those born in INew 
York City ; (4) to boys born in New Orleans. 

Founder's Hall, located just within the main gate, is regarded as 
a beautiful specimen of Grecian artchitecture. A sarcophagus just in- 
side the door contains the remains of Girard. 

The curriculum includes elementary, grammar, and high school 
courses as well as trade school and commercial courses. 

Two schools in Philadelphia devoted to the teaching of the blind 
and deaf are the Pennsylvania School for the Blind, in Overbrook, 
and the Pennsylvania School for the Instruction of the Deaf, in Mount 
Airy. At the latter institution, deaf and dumb boys and girls are 
taught sign language and lip reading. 

Universities and Colleges 

T N ADDITION to the University of Pennsylvania and Temple Uni- 
-'-versity, there are several smaller colleges which are important 
factors in making Philadelphia an educational center. 

La Salle College, in charge of the Catholic Christian Brothers, 
stands on an eminence at Twentieth Street and Olney Avenue. It was 
chartered in 1863 as an outgrowth of the old Christian Brothers 
Academy, founded in 1862 at 1419 North Second Street. In 1867 the 
college war> moved to Juniper and Filbert Streets, and in 1886 to the 
old Bouvier mansion at Broad and Stiles Streets. Since 1930 it has 
occupied its present quarters, in more spacious surroundings, with 
fine new buildings and a large campus. The La Salle College High 
School, housed on the campus, offers a complete course in college 

St. Joseph's College, Fifty-fourth Street and City Line Avenue, 
had its inception in the parish house of St. Joseph's Church, Willing's 



Alley, in 1851. Classes were transferred to a building at Filbert and 
Juniper Streets in 1855, these quarters being used until 1860, when 
the college returned to old St. Joseph's. In 1876 the school was moved 
to new buildings at Seventeenth and Stiles Streets, and in 1927 to 
its present site. The old buildings at Seventeenth and Stiles Streets 
now house St. Joseph's College High School. 

The Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry was founded in 
1891 by Anthony J. Drexel, who desired to open a new field of 
specific and fundamental education for young men and women. The 
school which is at Thirty-second and Chestnut Streets, maintains a 
cooperative course in engineering and business administration which 
allows its students periods of actual work in Philadelphia industrial 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, the first of its 
kind to be established in this country, was founded in historic Car- 
penters' Hall in 1821 as the College of Apothecaries. With the 
development of more scientific methods of compounding prescrip- 
tions, the school added courses in science and more advanced forms 
of pharmacy. In 1921 it received the right to confer the degree of 
bachelor of science, and in 1928 moved to its present building at 
Forty-third Street and Kingsessing Avenue. It was one of the first 
schools in the country to admit women students, this step being taken 
in 1876. 

The Philadelphia College of Osteopathy, Forty-eighth and Spruce 
Streets, was incorporated in 1899. It offers a comprehensive course in 
osteopathy, augmenting its regular work with a hospital and a gradu- 
ate school. 

Regular medical colleges, notably Jefferson, Hahnemann, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and Temple, have long served the medical world 
ably, by producing thoroughly trained graduates. 



PHILADELPHIA'S literary history dates from the earliest 
Colonial times. Was not William Penn himself in the way of 
being an author, with such expository-polemical works to his 
credit as No Cross No Crown, Treatise on Oaths, and The Great Law 
or Frame of Government? It was, however, during the second half of 
what is commonly distinguished as the Colonial period in the history 
of American literature that Philadelphia stepped into the foreground 
and became for a term of years the publishing and, to a large extent, 
the writing capital of the United States. This was the "Age of Frank- 
lin," as it is termed by literary historians, an epoch extending from 
1727 to 1765 or thereabouts. It followed the darkly brooding era of 
Puritan witchcraft and theological writing, as exemplified in New 
England by such figures as Cotton and Increase Mather and by 
Jonathan Edwards in New Jersey. 

If the age of witchcraft held much of the environing darkness of 
the primeval forest, the age of Franklin, on the other hand, was an 
increasingly practical one, foreshadowing and leading up to the 
American Revolution. It is an era instinctively associated with such 
productions as Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac and the same 
author's Autobiography (although the latter was not published in 
its complete form until 1868) . 

With the dawn of the Revolution, there appeared the truly great 
personality for he was a personality rather than a writer in the 
narrower acceptance of the term of Thomas Paine, a humanitarian 
of world stature and a pioneer battler for the rights of man, who 
was to have his influence upon British thought and upon the course 
of the French Revolution of 1789. Such works as Paine's Crisis, Com- 
mon Sense, and Age of Reason, pamphlets though they may be in 
essential nature, stand out here. 

It is, in all likelihood, Franklin and Paine who first come to mind 
when one thinks back upon Philadelphia's literary past. If one skips 
from the Revolution to the mid-nineteenth century, Walt Whitman, 
poet of American democracy, and the tragic figure of Edgar Allan 
Poe loom large. Did not Whitman, in the declining years of his life, 
live in Camden, N. J., just across the river ? And were not the poet's 
"good gray" beard and tossing mane a familiar sight in Philadelphia 
streets ? And was it not, probably, in a house at 530 North Seventh 



Street, that Poe sat in solitary contemplation of the bust of Pallas 
Athene above his chamber door to pen the lines that were to make 
him immortal? 

To this day Philadelphia continues to produce its due quota of 
writers novelists, essayists, poets, historians, and scientific, travel 
and adventure writers. Such names as those of James Gibbons Hun- 
eker, Richard Harding Davis, Frank R. Stockton, Bayard Taylor, S. 
Weir Mitchell, Owen Wister, Christopher Morley, Agnes Repplier, 
Horace Howard Furness and his son, Horace Howard Furness, Jr., and 
John Bach McMaster are enough to lend luster to any city. 

In addition to writers, Philadelphia has upon occasion provided 
literary material, as it did in the case of Theodore Dreiser's The 
Financier, based upon the career of a local capitalist, Charles T. Yerkes. 

A S HAS been stated, literature, of a sort at least, began early in 
^*- Pennsylvania ; and Pennsylvania meant Philadelphia, where the 
printing shops were situated. The printers themselves frequently were 
men of letters. Samuel Keimer, who set up a shop in 1723, is looked 
upon by many as the first Philadelphia publisher. 

Scholarship rather than creation marked the Colonial literary out- 
put. This, perhaps, was not unnatural ; the colonists with their wives 
and children in "Penn's City" desired above all else not to lose con- 
tact with the Old World culture and civilization which they had left 
behind. And so we find, in the first days of the Commonwealth, 
Francis Daniel Pastorius, founder of Germantown, giving the public 
his encyclopedic Beehive. 

That social questions, even at the outset, were not without their 
influence upon Pennsylvania writers, is shown by Pastorius' interest 
in the antislavery cause ; his efforts are said to have led to the 
founding of the first American abolitionist society. 

Translations of classics also occupied a prominent place in the 
picture. William Penn's secretary, James Logan, of Scotch-Irish an- 
cestry, made a rendering of Cato's Moral Distichs (1735) and one of 
Cicero's Cato Major or Discourse on Old Age (1744) . The former was 
probably the first translation of its kind in America. Logan's manu- 
scripts, copied by his wife, Deborah Norris, are now preserved in the 
Ridgway Branch of the Library Company of Philadelphia. 

Philosophical, theological, and moral-didactic literature also 
flourished at this period, although not to the same degree as in New 
England ; the prevailing Quaker atmosphere appears to have exerted 
a mellowing influence, and the witch hunting, witch baiting of the 
Mathers, for instance, is gratifyingly absent for the most part. Never- 
theless, the temper and cast of mind of the northern colonists were 
rather heavily theological, and it is not surprising if we find sermons 



to have been a staple article of intellectual diet. Among the clerics 
whose pulpit exhortations were popular were the Muhlenberg broth- 
ers, Henry Melchior and Frederick Augustus Conrad ; William Ten- 
nent and his three sons ; George Whitefield, and Dr. William Smith. 

In addition to the sermon writers of this time, there were a number 
of mystics, among them Johann Kelpius, Heinrich Bernard Koster, 
Dr. Christopher Witt, and Daniel Faulkner. 

Yet another early Philadelphia clergyman deserving of notice is 
Rev. Jacob Duche, who gained notoriety by a letter which he wrote 
to General Washington in 1777, urging the Commander-in-Chief of 
the Continental Army to seek a reconciliation with the British. He 
was also the author (and publisher) of Caspipina's Letters, later re- 
printed in England. 

John Woolman's journal of his own life and travels, which saw 
the light at this period, likewise won notice abroad. 

Education vied with religion in the interest of the colonists ; the 
first American treatise on school management is said to have been 
Christopher Dock's Schulordnung. 

Though Colonial life may have been hard in many respects, and 
though it may still have worn a certain coating of theological gloom, 
it was by no means utterly joyless or lacking in humor, as may be 
seen from the satires and comedies of the Quaker, Gabriel Thomas. 
His writings were, it is true, rather looked down upon ; but they 
were passed from hand to hand and read with glee when no austere 
member of the congregation chanced to be looking. 

A LL of this, as may be seen, does not weigh very heavily in the 
^*- literary scales. What we have so far is not so much a literature 
as the crude beginnings of one or, it might be more accurate to 
say, the vestigial reflections of an older literature from beyond the 
seas. The appearance of Franklin's Poor Richard, destined to be 
America's household companion for more than a score of years, really 
marked the inception of a Philadelphia literature in the stricter sense 
of the word ; and even that is not pure literature, or literature of a 
high order. 

The fact that the name of Franklin has been given to an entire 
period of our writing annals, means that he must have been an out- 
standing figure in more ways than one ; and it further implies that 
Franklin's home city, where his manifold activities were carried on, 
and where the greater part of his works were written and published, 
must have occupied the center of the literary stage for that period. 

Franklin was indeed a personality that was to become familiar to 
two continents. His fat, round, beaming, bespectacled countenance was 
to mingle in the popular imagination of Europe and America with a 
mental picture of the "good doctor" with his kite, engaged in drawing 


The Poe House 

"The House of 


Poe House Interior 
". . . rapping at 
rav chamber door" 


the lightning from the heavens. For Franklin's scientific experiments 
and inventions, his skill as a diplomatic bargainer, his social successes 
in pre-revolutionary France and elsewhere, and his correspondence 
with the great of the world the whole offset by a personal character 
which was at bottom a shrewd and calculating one were to a large 
degree to overshadow his forays into the field of literature, and were 
to confer upon these sallies their quintessential flavor. 

It is doubtful if Franklin ever took himself very seriously as a 
litterateur. The Autobiography., his most important work from a 
literary standpoint, appears to have been rather carelessly tossed off. 
While parts of it were published in France during 1791-98, it was 
not until 1868, from a manuscript obtained in France, that the first 
complete text was printed, under the editorship of John Bigelow. 
The Autobiography is a work which has been extravagantly praised 
and vigorously condemned. Charles Angoff, for example, author of 
A Literary History of the American People., considers Franklin a 
"two-penny philosopher," the first great exponent of the u lowbrow ' 
point of view in American letters and precursor of the Rotarians and 
Kiwanians of today ; he sees in the creator of Poor Richard a thor- 
oughgoing vulgarian, lacking in all literary grace. 

It was in 1732 that Poor Richard made its bow, continuing to ap- 
pear regularly thereafter (to the delectation of readers) for a quar- 
ter of a century. Here, in a way, was true American folk literature, 
an embodiment of that spirit of an almost fanatical, at times miserly, 
practicality which was so characteristic of the Pennsylvania colonist 
and, in a large degree, of the American colonist. "Early to bed and 
early to rise." "Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care 
of themselves." This is unquestionably Colonial American to the 
bone ; and it is small wonder, then, that Franklin's name, despite 
a somewhat scant performance in the realm of literature proper, has 
fastened itself upon a literary era. His almanac sold three editions 
the first three months it was printed, and 10,000 copies annually 
during its quarter century publication. 

It was one of Franklin's proteges, a young Scotch tutor named Wil- 
liam Smith, who was responsible for publishing some of the earliest 
American poetry in a magazine which he founded at Philadelphia, 
and which was known as the American, Magazine and Monthly 
Chronicle for the British Colonies. Among the poets to whom this 
publication afforded a hearing were Thomas Godfrey, Jr., Nathaniel 
Evans, and Elizabeth Graeme Ferguson. 

4 MONG Philadelphia writers of the Revolutionary period, Thomas 
^*- Paine, "penman of the Revolution," is far and away the most 
important. It is true that most of Paine's life was spent under a cloud 
of deep opprobrium, in which slander of him as a man mingled 



with condemnations of his religious beliefs. The truth is, Paine's 
religious views have caused his greater claim to fame to be more or 
less overlooked. His real importance lies in the fact that he was the 
first modern internationalist ; his social views in general were far in 
advance of his time. He was one of the first, possibly the first, to 
advocate a system of governmental social security. 

As for posterity's winnowed opinion of Paine, it appears to have 
been well summed up by Angoff, who says that Paine "probably did 
more to spread religious and theological enlightenment than any 
other one man who ever lived." 

The Rights of Man, The Age of Reason, Common Sense, and The 
Crisis, as well as Agrarian Justice, a work in which Paine dealt with 
the problem of poverty somewhat in the manner of a Henry George 
all of these are works of which Philadelphia well may be proud. 
The Rights of Man, though loathed by the Federalists, was a kind 
of Bible to Jefferson, Madison, and other forward-looking spirits. 
Written in answer to Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution, 
it had its repercussions in England and, especially in revolutionary 
France. The publication of Common Sense had made Paine the most 
influential political writer in America ; yet to many he still remained 
the "atheist ' and "jailbird." A Trenton stagecoach driver declined 
to carry him, declaring that he, the driver, had already had one 
team of horses struck by lightning and did not care to take another 

Tom Paine, the Philadelphian whose unhallowed bones were carried 
to England by William Cobbett, has his revenge today, when from 
5,000 to 10,000 copies of his works are printed annually in New 
York City alone. 

There are a number of other men of this time of the "Founding 
Fathers" whose names have come down to us as associated in one 
way or another with literature. Most, if not all, of them were active 
in other walks of life, especially politics, and writing with them was 

by way of being an expression 
of interests not essentially lit- 
erary. John Dickinson, leader 
in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, was one of these. Francis 

^=maniii-/ \w^5K&an Hopkinson, chairman of the 

Navy Board which designed 

Thomas Paine 
Precursor of Social Security. 



the American flag, was another. Bishop Samuel Seabury was a leader 
of the church ; John Bartram was a botanist. Ralph Saundiford, 
Benjamin Lay, Anthony Benezet, Robert Proud, Morgan Edwards, 
Joseph Galloway, Thomas Coombe these are no more than names 
(or not even so much as names) to the Philadelphian of today ; 
yet each in his own day was a distinguished citizen and contributor 
to the cultural life of the city, the Commonwealth, and the country. 
There are, however, two names which emerge prominently from 
this obscurity of the past. One is that of Hugh H. Brackenridge, who 
shares with Charles Brockden Brown the honor of creating the novel 
in America. He, like Brown, was the author of a number of hair-rais- 
ing, terror-inspiring tales, of the imported "Gothic Romance" school. 
Then, there was James Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, author of an 
early romantically exaggerated account of America, which was greatly 
to influence the French and other Continentals in their conception 
of the transoceanic scene. 

r I ^HE close of the Revolution found Philadelphia still the literary 
^- capital. Magazines, springing up, began to publish works of some 
of the foremost contemporary writers, not merely of Philadelphia but 
of the Nation. From about 1792 to 1812, Joseph Dennie and his 
circle were to confer upon the city a distinct literary aspect. Political 
pamphleteering, a carry-over from Revolutionary days, also con- 
tinued and was sometimes of a violent character indeed. 

Among the most colorful of the post-Revolutionary pamphleteers 
was William Cobbett, who is regarded by certain historians as one 
of the founders of American party journalism. A political refugee 
from the French Revolution, who had settled in Philadelphia as a 
teacher of English to his exiled fellow countrymen, Cobbett was ex- 
tremely violent in his anti-republican prejudices, and was further 
possessed of a rare gift of vituperation. Advocating an alliance with 
England for a war against republican France, Cobbett braved the 
threat of tar and feathers and' launched a publication known as 
Porcupine's Gazette. He finally became so obstreperous that President 
Adams thought seriously of deporting him ; but in 1800, he of his 
own accord left America for England. 

Samples of the "incomparable Billingsgate" of this "Peter Porcu- 
pine," as he called himself, will be found in a number of old pam- 
phlets, published in 1795 and later, such as A Bone to Gnaw for the 
Democrats, A Kick for a Bite, A Little Plain English Addressed to 
the People of the United States, and A New Year's Gift for the Demo- 

Among the magazines launched at this period was the American 
Museum, founded by Matthew Carey, in 1787. It numbered among 
its contributors such men as Franklin, Dr. Benjamin Rush, Jacob 



Duche, and Philip Freneau, best of the American poets before Bry- 
ant and a pioneer exploiter of American Indian material. 

The first American literary magazine really worthy of the name 
was The Port Folio, founded by Joseph Dennie in 1806. It ran until 
1827, Dennie, under the name of Oliver Oldschool, Esq., being the 
editor until the time of his death in 1812. Begun as a weekly pub- 
lication devoted to literature and politics, the new journal of "polite 
letters" had such contributors as John Quincy Adams, Charles Brock- 
den Brown, and Dennie himself. A study of the influence exerted by 
Dennie and his followers has been made by H. M. Ellis, in Joseph 
Dennie and His Circle. 

That Philadelphia, as well as America in general, was becoming less 
provincial and more cosmopolitan, is indicated by the space accorded 
in Dennie's Port Folio to reviews of foreign books. Indeed, beginning 
with Dennie, a line of cleavage may be recognized between the Revo- 
lutionary epoch and the one immediately following, which was 
marked by the establishment of the American Nation and the begin- 
nings of a national literature. The period from 1750 or 1765 (au- 
thorities differ in their chronology, and there is no hard and fast 
demarcation) down to 1789-1792 was what might be described as the 
coffee-house era, marked by prolonged and impassioned discussion 
and debate on political and religious, but above all political, themes. 
With the adoption of the Federal Constitution and inauguration of 
the processes of orderly government, life tended to become more 
settled. There was a greater margin of leisure free from ideological 
preoccupations ; life became more refined, and there was room for a 
greater interest in pure literature and for culture in its broader 

The first distinct movement to manifest itself in our national liter- 
ature was romanticism, of which the first great exponent was to be 
James Fenimore Cooper, with Washington Irving as forerunner and 
pathbreaker. It is worthy of note that American romanticism, in a 
way, had its origins in Philadelphia, in the writings of Charles Brock- 
den Brown, whose Arthur Mervyn is based upon the Philadelphia 
yellow-fever epidemic of 1793. The account which the author here 
gives us is unusually vivid, inspiring, at once, feelings of fear and 
of pity ; it is, moreover, essentially romantic in spirit and techni- 
que. Brown antedates Cooper by a score or more of years. He is 
further remembered, by students of literature at any rate, for his 
Wieland (1798) and his Edgar Huntley, or Memoirs of a Sleep-walker 
(1799). The degree of romanticism in his work is evidenced by the 
fact that in his Wieland, for instance, the author makes use of such 
plot elements as spontaneous combustion, ventriloquism, and reli- 
gious mania. Brown was under the influence of the English horror 
school ; while his heroines, in their excessive lachrymose sentiment- 



ality, are modeled after those of Richardson. He has been called the 
first professional man of letters in America. 

If Philadelphia was for a time the literary capital of America, hav- 
ing taken this preeminence from Boston, it was, in the long run, to 
lose this title to New York City. Not, however, until Philadelphia had 
had the honor of publishing or being host to a Walt Whitman and an 
Edgar Allan Poe. 

Prior to Poe and Whitman, Philadelphia had a number of writers 
who, while they could by no means lay claim to so stellar a place as 
the two great mid-century luminaries, had a certain importance of 
their own. One of these was John Fanning Watson, to whose Annals, 
published in 1830, Philadelphians are indebted for much fascinating 
and valuable information concerning their city, which would other- 
wise have been lost. It has become a standard work. 

The proletarian-socialistic-humanitarian impulse was also coming 
to the fore. The most prominent representative here is George Lip- 
pard, journalist, author, reformer, lecturer, and a "Marxist before 
Marx," as someone has termed him. He is known today in fraternal 
circles as the founder of the Brotherhood of America (originally the 
Brotherhood of the Union). As a journalist he was a predecessor of 
the modern columnist, and his Our Talisman sketches have been com- 
pared to Dickens' Boz. In his Bread Crust Papers he coined the 
name, Thomas Dove Brown, which Poe was to revive. Lippard con- 
tributed a number of stories to the Saturday Evening Post and other 
magazines of the period; and wrote a best-selling expose of Phila- 
delphia vice, under the title of Quaker City ; <ind produced a number 
of books, including The Nazarene and Blanche of Brandywine, The 
Pilgrim of Eternity, The Man with the Mask, etc., while his prole- 
tarian sympathies come out in such a work as New York, Its Upper 
Ten and Lower Million. He has been described as "the poet of the 

Antislavery agitation, for one thing, played no small part in the 
published writings of the decades preceding the Civil War. This was 
especially true so far as newspapers were concerned ; the reflection 
in other fields was less noticeable. 

During the conflict, and immediately before and after the Civil 
War, we find such writers of lesser note as Louisa M. Alcott (who 
left Philadelphia while a child), author of the perennially popular 
Little Women and Little Men ; Sarah Josepha Buell Hale, editor of 
Godey's Lady's Book and reputed author of the famous schoolroom 
classic of the nineteenth century, Mary Had a Little Lamb ; and T. 
S. Arthur (Timothy Shay in private life), author of the exceedingly 
bibulous play, Ten Nights in a Barroom, which was to the American 
temperance movement what Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tonis 
Cabin was to the abolitionist cause. 



The period from 1815 on was marked by the rapid rise and 
development of an American periodic literature, in which Philadel- 
phia had its full share. Worthy of note among local publications of 
the era are the famous Godey's Lady's Book, the colored fashion 
prints which are still sought after; the Casket, which later merged 
with the Gentleman's Magazine and was subsequently continued as 
Graham's Magazine ; the Salmugundi ; Sartain's Union Magazine ; 
and, finally, the Saturday Evening Post, known the world over, 
which led to the formation of a distinctive school of professional 
writing in America. 

It was the presence in the city of such magazines as the Gentle- 
man's and Graham's that prompted Edgar Allan Poe to come here 
and settle with his frail little 16-year-old wife, Virginia Clem. The 
poet's ambition was to become a magazine editor. As to just where 
Poe made his home or rather, as to all the places where he re- 
sided while in Philadelphia, there is considerable controversy. 
More than a dozen houses have been identified as his place of resi- 
dence. According to John Sartain's Reminiscences, the Poes first 
boarded at Fourth and Arch Streets. They also lived for a time in 
Sixteenth Street near Locust. Later, they had a little home in Coates 
Street (Fairmount Avenue) near Twenty-fifth, on the border of 
Fairmount Park. This at the time was an isolated spot, far from the 
city's center. From this dwelling they moved to the little "rose- 
covered cottage" set up against a large four-story brick house, which 
was occupied by a wealthy Quaker, Poe's landlord. If all reports are 
true, the Quaker was not overly fond, or overly proud, of his tenant. 
The cottage is now identified as the back-building of a house stand- 
ing at 530 North Seventh Street. Poe left Philadelphia for New York 
in 1844, five years before his death. 

While here, Poe contributed some of his best work to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine and Graham's, and his poem, The Bells, famed for 
its tinkling, onomatopoetic melody, first appeared in Sartain's Maga- 

Just how much of the poet's work was actually first published, or 
wholly written, in Philadelphia is a matter of question. For example, 
while the first draft of The Raven was done in North Seventh Street, 
the piece was later rewritten and brought out in the Evening Mirror 
of New York, in 1845 (published in book form some months follow- 
ing) . On the other hand, it was in Philadelphia that Poe put the 
finishing touches to certain manuscripts which he had begun else- 
where. It was in the Seventh Street house that The Purloined Letter 
was written, and several others of his works. The period of his Phila- 
delphia residence, in short, would appear to have been the most 
prolific and the happiest in the poet's tragic life. 

It has been remarked by critics that Poe shows no traces of any 



influence from the antislavery agitation of his time, although Phila- 
delphia was something of a hotbed of abolitionist feeling, with the 
historic "Underground Railroad" functioning almost daily as a means 
of escape for the black fugitive. This, though, is not surprising, since 
throughout his work Poe manifests a complete unawareness of social 
problems of any kind. 

As for Whitman, it was some eight years after the Civil War, in 
May 1873, that he came to Philadelphia. The "good gray poet" was 
fortunate enough to find those in Camden who were willing to care 
for him ; go he settled in Camden, where he made his home until his 
death on March 26, 1892. 

The poet's distinguished visage was a familiar sight to Philadel- 
phians of the 1870's and 1880's. Whitman would have his "Howdy" 
for all sorts of persons, deckhands, vagrants, those of either sex, of 
any color, age, or nationality. On the Philadelphia side, the author 
of Leaves of Grass would seat himself upon a chair provided by an 
Italian street vendor, and there he would munch peanuts and strike 
up friendships with horsecar drivers at the foot of Market Street. 
Often he would mount the stool on the front platform of a Market 
Street car and thus journey the entire length of the thoroughfare. 

It was in Philadelphia that Whitman, in association with his friend 
and editor, Horace Traubel, was to find a publisher in David McKay, 
whose imprint appeared for years on the title page of Leaves of Grass. 

Poe died in 1849, or more than a decade before the Civil War, 
while Whitman's life and work spanned the Civil War period. In the 
years following the struggle, Bayard Taylor, Frank R. Stockton, 
Henry George, Richard Harding Davis, and others continued to keep 
Philadelphia upon the literary map. 

Taylor lived at West Chester, and it was Rufus Wilmot Griswold, 
editor of Grahams Magazine, who encouraged him to publish his 
first book of verse, Ximena. Taylor's significance in American litera- 
ture may be said to be twofold. On the one hand, he was a good deal 
of a cosmopolitan. He traveled widely, and his travel letters ap- 
peared in two Philadelphia publications, the Saturday Evening Post 
and United States Gazette. He was the author of a translation of 
Goethe's Faust that ranks with Longfellow's Divine Comedy and 
Bryant's Homer as a standard rendering of a classic. His Rhymes of 
Travel and his Eldorado won for him a large circle of readers. On the 
other hand, particularly in such a work as his Eldorado, Taylor gave 
a definite impulsion to American regional literature. 

Frank R. Stockton, born in Philadelphia in 1834, is proudly 
claimed by Central High School as its most distinguished literary 
graduate. Stockton's first book, Ting-a-Ling, was published in 1870 ; 
but it was with Rudder Grange, appearing in 1879, that his fame 



began. A long list of novels and short stories, including the enigmatic 
The Lady or the Tiger., followed. 

Owen Wister, author of The Virginian and Lin McLean, is eminent 
among Philadelphia's novelists of the last years of the nineteenth 
and the early years of the twentieth century. A lawyer by profession, 
Wister found time to travel widely in various sections of the United 
States to gather material for his stories. 

In the field of the essay, Agnes Repplier has for decades delighted 
readers of the Atlantic Monthly in particular, with her graceful 
eighteenth century flavored essays. The representative of an older and 
dignified literary tradition, she has had a faithful following ever since 
the publication of her first collection of essays, Books and Men, in 
1888. Miss Repplier was born in Philadelphia of French parentage 
in 1858. She began by writing poetry, then turned to the essay form. 
She is today regarded by many as America's foremost contemporary 
essayist, and is the holder of honorary degrees from the universities 
of Pennsylvania, Yale, and Columbia. 

As for the Quaker City poets of this period, they displayed an in- 
clination for the purely esthetic as opposed to the controversial 
theme. Thomas Buchanan Read and George H. Boker exhibit this 

Not to be forgotten among the figures of the late century era is 
Charles Godfrey Leland, an editor of distinction who at the same 
time was widely known as scholar and educator. Leland's editorial 
posts included the New York Times, the Philadelphia Evening Bul- 
letin, and Vanity Fair. A wide traveler, he was the discoverer of the 
famous "lost language," the "Shelta" tongue. As an educator, he was 
responsible for the establishment of industrial training, based on the 
minor arts, as a branch of public school teaching. Among his works 
are Hans Breitmanns Ballads, a Life of Abraham Lincoln, Algon- 
quin Legends, and several treatises on education. 

A contemporary of Leland was Charles Leonard Moore, poet and 
essayist as well as business man, who devoted a score of years out of 
his life to literary work. He was a constant contributor to the original 
Dial magazine. Among his published works were Atlas, Pocius, and 
Book of My Day Dreams. 

The closing year of the nineteenth century brought to Philadelphia's 
literary world a new figure who was to put a new life in the Saturday 
Evening Post, making it into the leading weekly, with the largest cir- 
culation of any magazine in the world. For 38 years George Horace 
Lorimer's name appeared at the masthead of this publication, and he 
became one of the most influential and best-known editors of his time. 
Lorimer was the author of Letters From a Self-Made Merchant to 
His Son, which became a classic of its kind. He published a number of 
other books. 



By all odds the most important Philadelphia writer of the pre- 
war decade is James Gibbons Huneker, who as far back as 1900 was 
publishing Chopin ; The Man and His Music, followed by Overtones 
(1904), Iconoclasts and A Book of Dramatists (1905) . His vogue with 
the American intelligentsia continued after the war, with the pub- 
lication of such brilliant books as Steeplejack, Bedouins, Painted 
Veils, and Variations. 

Huneker's importance lies in the fact that he is America's foremost 
representative of the impressionist school of criticism, a school rep- 
resented in England by Arthur Symons, and which may be said to 
have had its last journalistic flare with H. L. Mencken. It was as a 
Philadelphia music critic and a critic of a kind the country had not 
seen before that Huneker first brought himself into prominence. 
A commuter, as others have been, between Philadelphia and Man- 
hattan, he was soon possessed of a reputation that was not bounded 
by the national frontiers ; for he was giving the world the most dis- 
tinguished American criticism since Poe. His sparkling, studded, 
highly impressionistic style, his wealth of anecdote and epigram, his 
broad and genial erudition, his sensitiveness to the esthetic currents 
of his age, above all his cosmopolitanism these were new to his 
countrymen. He brought to the latter, among other things, a "lust for 
life" as well as for literature, by introducing certain aspects of life 
which a hastily growing and democratic America had overlooked 
the pleasures of the gourmet, for instance, the esoteric refinements 
of wining and dining. 

Philadelphia newspapers in more instances than one have been a 
training school for literature. One case is that of Christopher Morley, 
noted essayist and novelist, who won his spurs on the staff of the 
Philadelphia Evenitig Ledger. Another example is Thomas A. Daly, 
who in addition to column-conducting in Philadelphia, has found 
time to publish such collections of whimsical verse as Canzoni, Mad- 
rigali, and Songs of Wedlock, written for the most part in the English 
of the Italian immigrant. 

Something has been said previously of Philadelphia magazines. 
Their influence upon the literary life, not alone of Philadelphia but 
of the Nation, has from the start been notable. Just as a periodical 
like Graham s, back in the years preceding the Civil War, had at- 
tracted such contributors as Poe, Hawthorne, Bryant, and Longfel- 
low, so the Saturday Evening Post and the Ladies Home Journal in 
the past half century have definitely shaped certain types of Ameri- 
can writing, have served as a lure for many a budding talent, and 
therefore have had their not-to-be-doubted effect upon the national 

And so it is not unfitting that one Philadelphia magazine editor, 
Edward Bok of the Ladies Home Journal, should in a manner bring 



an era to a close, in 1920, with his autobiography, The Americaniza- 
tion of Edward Bok, which received the Pulitzer award for that year. 
What, it may be asked, has this era so terminated ? Perhaps no bet- 
ter answer could be found than in Theodore Roosevelt's phrase, 
"the strenuous life," which, backed by "Teddy's" toothful grin, once 
echoed from coast to coast. This, it will be remembered, was the age 
of Orison Swett Harden and the gospel of "Success," of the Oliver 
Optic myth, perpetuating the nineteenth century canal-boy-to-presi- 
dent legend. The respected formula was : begin at the bottom and 
work up ; and this was the formula which Edward Bok carried out. 
The tradition is one which may be looked upon as having ended with 
or shortly after the World War. A new age was now in sight, with 
new problems to be faced, new adjustments to be made. It is there- 
fore not inappropriate that Bok's book should have come within a 
year or so after the signing of the Armistice. 

True to the traditions of the man who has fought for and won suc- 
cess, Bok upon his death 10 years later left funds for the establish- 
ment of a number of awards for meritorious services, including the 
Philadelphia Award of $10,000 to the Philadelphian or person living 
nearby who each year does most to bring honor to his city. 

TF WE LOOK at Philadelphia writing since the war, particularly at 
-^- that which has been done since 1929, or the beginning of the "De- 
pression," and which is being done today, the outstanding aspects 
that we notice are a certain deepening introspection with regard to 
the native scene, on the one hand, and on the other, a certain broad- 
ening of social-literary interest, to include the problems of America 
and of the age. 

Philadelphia has long been noted for its "first families," but that 
the members of these "first families" are capable at times of an ob- 
jective view of themselves is indicated by Francis Biddle's The Llan- 
fear Pattern, which is by way of being an unsparing expose of local 
insularity and the intellectual impotence of a new-rich type such as 
the novel places in the Chestnut Hill and Main Line regions. There 
is also Granville Toogood, whose first novel, Huntsman in the Sky, 
breathes a spirit of revolt. 

There is an even more unlovely side of life, in Philadelphia as 
elsewhere, a side that is commonly cloaked by the euphemism of 
"underworld." It is this side of life that John T. Mclntyre deals with, 
in his Steps Going Down, published in 1936. 

Among other recent Philadelphia writers, novelists, and poets are 
Shirley Watkins, author of This Poor Player (1929) and The Island 
of Green Myrtles (1937) ; Roy Addison Helton, Edward Shenton, 
Mary Dixon Thayer, author of a number Q f well-known volumes of 



Catholic verse, and the essayist Benjamin de Casseres. Shenton is an 
illustrator and editor as well as writer. 

Like De Casseres, who left the city in his youth, others born or 
educated in Philadelphia have achieved reputations. This list would 
include such writers as H. D. (Helen Doolittle), John Cournos, Ezra 
Pound, Alexander Woollcott, and Gilbert Seldes. 

There is a sense in which Philadelphia has been the "City of 
Scholars," and two of its leading representatives in this respect have 
been the Furnesses Horace Howard Furness and his son, Horace 
Howard Furness, Jr. editors of the famous "Variorum" edition of 
Shakespeare, which is considered the standard by authorities. In 
compiling this edition, the elder Furness gathered the largest Shake- 
spearean library in the world. When he died in 1912, his work was 
carried on by his son, although the latter had prepared himself for 
a career as physicist and astronomer. Horace Howard Furness, Jr., 
died in Philadelphia in 1930. In his will, he left his father's and his 
own library to the University of Pennsylvania, with a fund of $100,- 
000 for its maintenance. 

Another contributor to the field of literary scholarship was S. 
Austin Allibone, compiler of a critical Dictionary of English Litera- 
ture. Not to be overlooked, either, is the somewhat fantastic Ignatius 
Donnelly (another graduate of Central High School, by the way), 
who spent the greater part of his life in trying to prove that Francis 
Bacon, and not one William Shakespeare, was in reality the author 
of Shakespeare's plays. He was the originator of the "great Baconian 
cryptogram," which in its day provoked a storm of discussion. 

A Philadelphia critic, biographer and man of letters most of whose 
work has been done since the War is Albert Mordell, who first attracted 
wide attention with his treatise, The Erotic Motive in Literature (1919) , 
pointing the application of psychoanalysis to creative writing. His 
biography, Quaker Militant: John Greenleaf Whittier (1933) was 
much discussed. Mordell has edited many books, but is perhaps best 
known by the articles and translations of Lafcadio Hearn, filling a 
dozen volumes, which he exhumed from newspaper files. His essay, 
The Literature of Ecstasy (1921) offered a new theory of poetry. His 
first work was a pamphlet, The Shifting of Literary Values, printed 
in Philadelphia in 1912. 

In the modern age, one of the best-known native Philadelphia 
representatives of bookish lore is A. Edward Newton, whom the 
New York Times has termed "the world's most popular book col- 
lector." He is owner of a library, housed in his "Oak Knoll" home at 
Daylesford, Pennsylvania, consisting of more than 10,000 rare vol- 
umes. Hundreds of college students and other visitors come yearly to 
view this collection, which is especially noted for its completeness 
where the works of Dr. Samuel Johnson are concerned. Dr. Newton 



(he is the holder of numerous honorary degrees) is author of such 
well known works as The Amenities of Book Collecting, Dr. Johnson 
(a play), The Greatest Book in the World, A Magnificent Farce, This 
Book Collecting Game, A Tourist in Spite of Himself, and End 
Papers. He is also known as a contributor to the Atlantic Monthly. 
In 1935, he was elected president of the Friends of the University of 
Pennsylvania Library, and was Rosenbach lecturer in bibliography 
at the University for the year 1935-36. 

Known all over the world and from post-Revolutionary times for 
its surgeons, medical schools, and hospitals, Philadelphia, as might 
be expected, occupies a prominent place in the field of medical liter- 
ature. One need but mention such writers as Jacob M. Da Costa, 
Samuel D. Gross, D. Hayes Agnew, George B. Wood, and William 
Pepper. In the allied province of the natural sciences, the names of 
Isaac Lea, Joseph Leidy, Edward D. Cope, and others are remem- 

Occasionally, as in the case of Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, we find science 
and literature joining hands. Dr. Mitchell was at one and the same 
time an eminent nerve specialist and a novelist of repute. In addi- 
tion to his treatises on neurology, comparative psychology, and the 
like, Dr. Mitchell found leisure to write such tales as The Red City ; 
Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker; Adventures of Francois, and A Diplomatic 
Adventure. They found a wide audience an audience which came 
to make almost as many demands upon him as did his medical 

In connection with medical writers, Dr. George Milbry Gould 
naturally comes to mind. In addition to editing medical, surgical, and 
biological dictionaries, medical encyclopedias, the Medical News, the 
Philadelphia Medical Journal, American Medicine, and the like, he 
published a number of purely literary works, such as the poetical 
volume, Autumn Singer, and two semi-philosophic works, The Mean- 
ing of Life and The Infinite Presence. He also helped prepare the 
Life and Letters of Edmund Clarence Stedman. 

In legal writing, Eli Kirk Price and George Sharswood, who re- 
established the University of Pennsylvania Law School, have won 
distinction. In theology, the reputations of Phillips Brooks and Albert 
Barnes are but two of a number that have survived the past. 

In connection with historical writing, the names of John Bach 
McMaster, Henry Charles Lea, and Ellis P. Oberholtzer stand out. 

McMaster's best known work is his 8-volume History of the 
United States, which required many years of scholarly labor, and 
most of which was written while the author was professor of history 
at the University of Pennsylvania. McMaster introduced a new 
method into the study of American history, in accordance with which 
society is interpreted genetically, from the economic point of view. 



He also wrote Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters, The Life of 
Stephen Girard, and The United States in the World War. 

Henry Charles Lea, in addition to being a historian, was a publicist 
and man of affairs. He was, among other things, an early member 
and pamphleteer of the Union League Club of Philadelphia. As a 
leader in public life, he was the organizer and first president of the 
Municipal Reform Association, resigning from the Union League be- 
cause he felt that the latter body failed to throw its influence on the 
side of better government. It was during the last 25 years of 
his life that he returned to historical scholarship and penned his 
3-volume History of the Inquisition, published in 1888. This was 
followed by a number of other works dealing with the same or re- 
lated periods of Spanish history. 

Oberholtzer was the author of a History of the United States Since 
the Civil War, which entailed twenty years of work. He also produced 
a Literary History of Philadelphia ; A History of Philadelphia and 
its People ; Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier ; Jay Cooke, Fin- 
ancier of the Civil War ; Abraham Lincoln ; Henry Clay ; and Memoir 
of John Bach McMaster. He collapsed suddenly in the rooms of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society in 1936 and died shortly after. 

Special attention has been paid by many Philadelphia writers to 
local and State history. Joseph Jackson has written on Early Phila- 
delphia Architects and Engineers and American Colonial Architec- 
ture, and is the author of an Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, as well 
as of treatises on Market Street: America's Most Historic Highway 
and Dickens in Philadelphia. 

Possibly the most prolific of Philadelphia and State historians is 
Albert Cook Myers, who has written or edited a long list of works, 
including Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania, Nar- 
ratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware, and 
The Boy George Washington. 

American Indian lore, travel, adventure, exploration all these 
have been favored delving grounds. Among the travel and adventure 
writers, Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic explorer, and Dr. Israel Haynes 
may lay claim to prominence. 

Innumerable literary contributions have come from the pens of 
Negro authors who have added histories, novels, poems, essays, short 
stories, biographies, dramas in short, all types of writings to the 
literary output of the city. Many of these works are valuable merely 
from a historical standpoint, while others are of meritorious literary 

The first recorded literary work of this group was an account of the 
work of Richard Allen and Absalom Jones in saving lives and reliev- 
ing the suffering of those afflicted with yellow fever in the epidemic 
of 1793. This first piece of literature (1794) was the joint production 



of Allen and Jones. From then until now there has been a steady 
stream of literature of various types. 

One particularly interesting piece of work is The Underground 
Railroad, a history published by William Still in 1872. It is one of 
the most remarkable records in existence concerning the history of 
slavery. It is composed chiefly of letters written by fugitive slaves, 
sometimes while en route to Canada, sometimes after reaching their 
destination, and of letters written by different agents of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" to the secretary of the Vigilance Committee. These 
letters tell in the words of the fugitives themselves of the difficulties, 
sufferings, and fears of the runaway slaves, and of the many and 
varied devices employed by them to escape. 

Prominent among present day writers are Henry B. Jones, Arthur 
Huff Fauset, his sister Jessie Fauset (Mrs. Herbert Harris), and Alain 
Leroy Locke. Jones is a writer of short stories, one of which, Drums, 
appeared in an issue of Liberty during November 1935. Under another 
name others of his stories appear frequently in pulp magazines. Far 
Freedom, a biography of outstanding Negroes written by Arthur Huff 
Fauset, has been placed in the libraries of the public school system 
of the city. There is Confusion, Plum Bun, Chinaberry Tree, and 
Comedy American Style are four novels written by Jessie Fauset, first 
Negro woman to win the Phi Beta Kappa key at Cornell. 

Locke's entire life has been associated with letters. After a brilliant 
record at Central High School he was graduated at 15, and in 1908 
graduated "magna cum laude" from Harvard with membership in 
the Phi Beta Kappa. The only Negro thus far to win the Rhodes 
scholarship, he received the degree Litt. D. from Oxford University 
in 1911. He has devoted a great deal of time to magazine work, and 
his articles appear regularly in the best American periodicals. 

One of the most interesting of literary clubs in Philadelphia is the 
Penn Club, organized in 1875 as an outgrowth of the Penn Monthly, 
a magazine published from 1870 to 1880. Headquarters of the maga- 
zine served as a meeting place for the Penn Monthly Association. 

Another well-known literary group, the Franklin Inn Club, main- 
tains a clubhouse at Camac and St. James Streets. It was organized 
in 1902, with Dr. S. Weir Mitchell as first president. Membership is 
limited to 100. Since its founding the club has beeri the gathering 
place of literary men of distinction visiting Philadelphia. Of about 
the same age is the Hathaway Shakespeare Club, a women's literary 
group which meets in various large hotels. 

The Dickens Fellowship, similarly, is devoted to the works of 
Charles Dickens. This club holds meetings in rooms of the Musical 
Art Club, Seventeenth and Walnut Streets. Membership is approx- 
imately 800. The American Fiction Guild, a national association of 
professional writers has a local chapter in Philadelphia. 



PHILADELPHIA'S newspaper tradition may be said to have be- 
gun in 1685, when William Bradford brought from England 
the first printing press used in the Colonies south of New Eng- 
land. Bradford became involved in political and social disputes in 
Pennsylvania, and in 1693 moved to New York. His business was re- 
vived in 1712 by his son Andrew, who in company with John 
Copson began publication in 1719 of the American Weekly Mercury. 
The Mercury was the first newspaper in the Middle Colonies and the 
third in the New World. The Universal Instructor in All the Arts 
and Sciences and Pennsylvania Gazette was the second newspaper 
established in Penn's city. It was first issued December 24, 1728, by 
Samuel Keimer, who had come to Philadelphia six years previously. 
The most important actor in the early drama of printers' ink, 
Benjamin Franklin, came to Philadelphia in 1723 and applied to 
Andrew Bradford for work. The latter had nothing for him to do ; 
but William Bradford, happening to be in Philadelphia at the time, 
took Franklin to Samuel Keimer, who became Franklin's employer. 
(Franklin's unfavorable opinion of Keimer is aired in his autobio- 
graphy.) In 1725 Keimer started publication of Taylor's Almanac. 
Almost immediately an advertisement in the Mercury characterized 
it as "a lying Almanac." 

Soon after 1725 Andrew Bradford, who had dominated the print- 
ing business of the Province, began to face steadier opposition. 
Keimer still kept up his printing office and managed to do a little 
business, although he eked out an existence by some methods not 
strictly ethical. After publishing the weekly Universal Instructor for 
nine months, during which time it had only 90 subscribers, he be- 
came involved in debt. Unable to continue the paper, he sold it to 
Franklin and Hugh Meredith, who expunged the first part of the 
title, calling it the Pennsylvania Gazette. For a while it appeared 
twice a week, at 10 shillings per annum, and then was changed back 
to a weekly because of distribution difficulties. The energy and in- 
dustry of Franklin and the improvement in the character of the 
paper created public interest. 

In 1732 the partnership was dissolved, and Franklin continued the 
business on his own account. After his appointment as postmaster, 
the circulation of his paper increased ; the Gazette became very 



profitable. In 1748, engaged in public affairs, Franklin formed a con- 
nection with David Hall, under the firm name of B. Franklin & D. 
Hall. He sold his interest to Hall in 1765. The next year the paper 
was printed by Hall and William Sellers, and was issued regularly, 
although it suspended publication during the British occupation of 

Hall and Sellers dissolved partnership about 1805, and the new 
firm of Hall & Pierie was established. About 1815 or 1816 this latter 
partnership was dissolved, and Hall continued in operation with 
Samuel C. Atkinson as partner. David Hall died on May 27, 1821, 
and Atkinson took into partnership Charles Alexander, who at once 
determined upon a revolution in the character of the venerable 
paper. Proposals for the publication of a new weekly journal, to 
which they gave the name of Saturday Evening Post, were issued. 
The first number appeared on August 4, 1821. The proprietors, 
young and ambitious, endeavored to make the paper interesting to 
all classes. They encouraged rising talent by means of a "poet's 
corner," and gave attention to both foreign and domestic news. 
There was also a sufficient variety of news of general interest to at- 
tract persons outside of Philadelphia. The Atkinsons attended to 
business, and the paper gained in popularity and circulation. Its 
editor was Thomas Cottrell Clarke. 

The Hoch Deutsch Pensylvanische Geschict Shreiber, oder Samm- 
lung Wichtiger Nachrichten aus dem Natur und Kirchen Reich 
(translated literally, the "High German Pennsylvania Historiog- 
rapher, or Collection of Important Intelligence from the Kingdom 
of Nature and the Church") was issued on August 20, 1739, by 
Christopher Saur, of Germantown, as a quarterly journal. Saur cast 
his own type and made his own ink. 

The name of the publication was changed several times, becoming 
meanwhile a monthly publication, until, around 1766, the current 
name of Berichte was changed to Germantauner Zeitung, and it was 
issued weekly. It wielded much influence for a time and was removed 
to Philadelphia in 1777, where it continued until the following spring 
under a new name. 

The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle for all British 
Plantations in America was begun by Franklin in January 1741. It 
lasted only six months. The American Magazine or a Monthly View 
of the British Colonies also appeared that year, published by John 
Webbe, who had engaged Bradford to print the work. Only two or 
three numbers were published. 

The Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, third Philadel- 
phia newspaper in the English language, was established in 1742. 
William Bradford, grandson of the first William and nephew of 
Andrew Bradford of the American Weekly Mercury, began its pub- 



lication after he returned from England in 1742. The first issue was 
dated December 2. In 1766 his son Thomas became a partner in the 

After Bradford's establishment of the London Coffee House in 
1754 at what is now Front and Market Streets, the Journal office 
was removed to that building. No attempt was made to publish the 
Journal during the British occupation, but it was revived at the be- 
ginning of December 1778, and it appeared regularly until about 
1793, two years after the death of Col. William Bradford. The Mer- 
chant's Daily Advertiser., founded in 1797, was succeeded by the True 
American, which began publication the following year. In November 
1813 James Elliott and Thomas T. Stiles bought the paper. The latter 
became sole owner in 1815 ; Charles Miner became his partner in 
1817 ; and then the paper purchased by Thomas Smith and Ebenezer 
Cummins, who five years later merged with the 17. S. Gazette under 
the title The Union United States Gazette and True American. 

The Pennsylvania Evening Post was the first evening paper in 
Philadelphia. It appeared just before the Revolution, and was issued 
three times a week on a half sheet of crown paper. This was the 
third evening paper in the Colonies. Its editor and publisher was 
Benjamin Towne. To follow the fortunes of Towne is to wade 
through some of the muddiest waters of early Philadelphia journal- 
ism. For business reasons Towne became a "patriot," but after 
Washington's defeat at Brandywine he began to curry favor with 
the British by printing long, almost jubilant, accounts of British 
successes. When Howe's army took possession of Philadelphia he 
went out of his way to praise the good manners of the invaders. 
Neither he nor his newspaper was molested. 

When the British troops evacuated the city, Towne turned Whig 
again, and the Evening Post carried an equally fulsome account of 
the evacuation. Gen. Benedict Arnold, who became military gov- 
ernor of the city, made no movement against the printer, and the 
Evening Post continued, despite the indignation its owner had stirred 
up by his duplicity. Eventually, Towne was ordered to surrender to 
the authorities, but apparently was never tried. 

In his efforts to recapture favor with the Whigs, Towne promised 
to publish a recantation written for him by Dr. John Witherspoon, 
member of the Continental Congress and a former subscriber. After 
reading Witherspoon's article, however, the publisher refused to 
make good his promise, but the "Towne Recantation" found a read- 
ing public through numerous other journals in the Colonies. Pre- 
sented in the first person, the recantation read in part : 

... I am not only proscribed by the President and Supreme execu- 
tive council of Pennsylvania, but that several other persons are for 
reprobating my paper, and allege that instead of being suffered to 
print, I ought to be hanged as a traitor to my country. 



. . . I never was, nor ever pretended to be a man of character, 
repute or dignity. I was originally an understrapper to the famous 
Galloway in his infamous squabble with Goddard, and did in that 
service contract such a habit of meanness in thinking and scurrility 
in writing that nothing exalted . . . could ever be expected from 
me . . . 

. . .Finally, I do hereby recant, draw back, eat in and swallow down, 
every word that I have ever spoken, written or printed to the prej- 
udice of the United States of America, hoping it will not only satisfy 
the good people in general, but also all those scatterbrained fellows, 
who call one another out to shoot pistols in the air, while they 
tremble so much that they cannot hit the mark. 

Towne died on July 8, 1793, having published for a time before 
his death a paper, All the News for Two Coppers, which he carried 
about the streets himself. 

The Pennsylvania Evening Post started as a tri-weekly on January 
24, 1775, being published on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays 
until January 7, 1779, when it became a semi- weekly. On August 3, 
1781, its title was changed to the Pennsylvania Evening Post and 
Public Advertiser, and two years later it became a daily under the 
title the Pennsylvania Post and Daily Advertiser. It continued as a 
daily for six years, until 1789, under this latter name and still under 
Towne's proprietorship. It was the first paper to print the Declaration 
of Independence. 

The Pennsylvania Chronicle and Universal Advertiser first ap- 
peared on January 26, 1767. It was published by William Goddard. 
The Pennsylvania Packet or General Advertiser was first issued on 
October 28, 1771, by John Dunlap. This latter journal warmly sup- 
ported the cause of the Colonists against Great Britain in 1775-6; at 
this time it was published semi-weekly with postscripts similar to the 
"extras" of today being issued whenever important news was received 
from abroad or from the other Colonies. While the British occupied 
Philadelphia, the Packet was printed at Lancaster, but resumed print- 
ing in Philadelphia on July 4, 1778. That day John Dunlap published 
an editorial very rare in those days on the evacuation of the city 
by the British troops. On September 21, 1784, the Packet, which had 
theretofore been issued three times weekly, was converted into a 
daily. Shortly afterward the title was changed to the American Daily 
Advertiser, and then to Dunlap & Clay poolers American Daily Adver- 
tiser this when David C. Claypoole, Dunlap's apprentice and later 
, partner, became sole owner. Dunlap died on November 27, 1812, and 
was buried with military honors in Christ Church graveyard, Fifth 
<and. Arch Streets. 

1 .:, The. excellent work of J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, 
constantly referred to by students of Philadelphia's history, contains 
an erroneous statement regarding Claypoole' 's Daily Advertiser. Scharf 
and Westcott confounded this publication with Towne's Pennsylvania 



Evening Post. Historical research by the American Antiquarian 
Society proves that the Pennsylvania Evening Post, not the Daily 
Advertiser, was the first daily newspaper published in America. 

The Daily Advertiser was continued by David C. Claypoole until 
September 30, 1800, when he sold it to Zachariah Poulson, Jr., for 
$10,000. Under Poulson the Advertiser prospered for 30 years, al- 
though it never attained a large circulation. Always respectable, never 
brilliant, and strictly Whig, Poulson was 78 years old and in feeble 
health when, on December 28, 1839, he bade farewell to journalism. 

The North American and the United States Gazette, the outgrowth 
of a number of journals of various degrees of importance, was first 
issued under that name on March 26, 1839, at 63 Dock Street. Its 
first publishers, S. C. Brace and T. R. Newbold, soon gave way to 
William Welsh, last survivor of a group that had acquired the paper 
in an effort to elevate newspaper morality. Before the end of 1839 
it absorbed Poulson's Daily Advertiser, and in 1840 it acquired the 
Commercial Herald. Welsh also purchased the Philadelphia Gazette, 
an afternoon paper. 

On October 1, 1845, Welsh sold the North American to George R. 
Graham and Alexander Cummings. It joined with the New York 
Tribune in revolutionary efforts to obtain fresh news. In 1846 the 
two newspapers hired the pilot boat Romer and beat the regular 

C 517 ) 



Price only Two Copper:. Publi/hcd every Tuejday, Thurjday, and Saturday Evenings. 

Vol. II. j 

TUESDAY, JULY 2, 1776. 

iiocEf DINGS of ibc PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE of tion divers matters relatingto the prefentflate of thif provJnc* 
COMMITTEES, of the province of P i n N s v t v>JU^^ Ordered to lie on the j^bjr fnr ihr ncuiXL ^ 'JL C 
held at Carpenters Hall. [Continue ~^ "" 

FRIDAY, June, 
N addrefs and_ 

JUAEL, twenty-five years of age, above fix feet high, 

rong made, his colour Between a Mulatto and a Black, 
rocks in hu walk, or rather fomewhat lame, occahoncd by his 

^ having his thigh bone broke when a boy. Had on when he 

1TAM GOVETT Secretary went away a fmall brimmed, a brown cloth j.icket without 
fleevcs, let out in the back, new tow fliirt and trOufers, old Ihoes. 
This day the CONTINENTAL CONGRESS declared Whoever takes up and fecures laid Negro ID any ja.lfo as his 
the UNITED COLONIES FREE and INDEPENDENT mafter may have h,m again, fhall have the above reward and rev 

fonable cnarges, paid by the luburibcr living in Second llrect, 
oppofitc the Swede's chuich in the diftridt of Southwaik. 

O be SOLD, the brigantinc TWO FRIENDS. Sh c N B- A]I maflcr$ of vefl - ds and Olne;s ar( l f or b,d to car'ry, 
b&* *" th -QU, id carrier Jakfj or narbo ur him at their peril. ' ' 

QL'AN'ITl Y of white and brown BUCKRAM to be 
foid by Mar) Flanagan, the corner of Front and Spruce 

The Front Page News in The Pennsylvania Evening Post 


packet with foreign news by several days the first stirrings of the 
modern attitude towards news gathering. 

At the beginning of 1847 the North American and the United 
States Gazette were prosperous Whig papers of similar character 
and standing. Neither could hope for any material increase in pros- 
perity while the other existed. Morton McMichael conceived the idea 
of consolidating the two rivals, and this was accomplished on July 1, 
1847, when they combined under the name of the North American 
and United States Gazette. Born in Burlington County, N. J., Mc- 
Michael was to write his name in bold letters across the early history 
of Philadelphia journalism. Educated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, he became editor of the Saturday Evening Post in 1826. In 
1831 he was editor-in-chief of the Saturday Courier, a new enterprise, 
and with Louis A. Godey and Joseph C. Neal he began publication in 
1836 of the Saturday News. In 1844 the Saturday Gazette was pub- 
lished, McMichael and Neal being associate editors. The weeklies 
have long since ceased to exist, but the North American (it resumed 
this name in May 1876) survived until 1925 the oldest daily news- 
paper in America. 

The Inquirer, the first number of which bore the name Pennsyl- 
vania Inquirer, made its appearance on June 29, 1829, at 5 Bank 
Alley, near the Merchants' Coffee House. It came at an auspicious 
time, since Duane's Aurora, the principal Democratic newspaper, was 
then in a weakened state and had vainly sought to sustain itself by 
absorbing the Franklin Gazette. One of the editors of the merged 
Aurora and Gazette, John Norvell, was dissatisfied with his prospects 
for the future, and induced John R. Walker, a young printer, to join 
him in the publication of the Pennsylvania Inquirer. 

In November of that year, 1829, the new journal passed into the 
hands of Jesper Harding and was merged with the Democratic Press. 
Harding changed the Pennsylvania Inquirer from a morning to an 
evening journal, featuring editorials chiefly political didactic ar- 
ticles, literary reviews, dramatic criticisms, poetry, and fiction. It con- 
tained little news, as news is known today, and its advertisements 
were displayed blatantly. 

Upon their amalgamation on July 1, 1930, the Morning Journal 
and the Inquirer became known as the Pennsylvania Inquirer and 
Morning Journal, retaining this name until June 2, 1834, when it 
absorbed the Daily Courier and changed its title to the Pennsylvania 
Inquirer and Daily Courier. Under this caption it soon took its place 
in the Whig party as rival and opponent of the United States Gazette, 
so that upon absorption of the latter on January 1, 1842 it again 
changed its title, this time to the Pennsylvania Inquirer and National 
Gazette. In October 1859 the paper was acquired by William W. 
Harding, son of Jesper Harding, and on April 2, 1860 its name was 



changed to the Philadelphia Inquirer. The old custom of seeking 
yearly subscribers was abandoned, and the price was reduced to 
two cents a copy. A large increase of circulation was obtained through 
the establishment of the carrier system and street sales. Its eyewitness 
reporting of Civil War battles added greatly to its prestige. It was 
among the first newspapers to introduce the stereotyping process. 

In 1889 the Inquirer became the property of the late James Elver- 
son, Sr., upon whose death in 1911 it passed to his son, the late Col. 
James Elverson, Jr., who made it one of the most successful morn- 
ing newspapers in the country. After the colonel's death in 1929, it 
became conservative in tone, under Elverson's sister, Mrs. Eleanor 
Patenotre, widow of a French citizen. It was sold in 1930 to the 
Curtis-Martin Newspapers, Inc., but was returned to the Patenotre 
interests a few years later. In 1936 it was acquired by Moses L. Annen- 
berg, former circulation manager for William Randolph Hearst and 
publisher of the New York Morning Telegraph. Under Annenberg 
its style of news reporting was recast into the "human interest" mold. 

Among Philadelphia's oldest and largest newspapers (until 1934) 
was the Public Ledger, born March 25, 1836. Its publishers declared 
at the outset that they could keep on printing at a continued loss 
for "one whole year." A half century later the fact had become estab- 
lished that no one could tell whether a new journal would succeed 
or fail in less than two years of experimentation. A. H. Simmons, one 
of the Ledger publishers, gathered around him a staff of enthusiastic 
men. The new paper announced : "We shall give place to no religious 
discussions, nor to political discussions involving questions of merely 
partisan character. The Ledger will worship no men, and be de- 
voted to no parties." 

The firm of Swain & Abell published the Ledger until December 
3, 1864, when it was sold to George W. Childs, who followed the 
course laid out by its founders. He devised new features, introduced 
new machinery, and moved the paper to better quarters at Sixth and 
Chestnut Streets. It was next acquired by the Adolph S. Ochs in- 
terests, and finally by Cyrus H. K. Curtis, who afterwards formed 
the Curtis-Martin Newspapers, Inc. When the morning Ledger merged 
with the Inquirer in 1933, the newer Evening Public Ledger (estab- 
lished in 1914) was continued under the direction of John C. Martin, 
the step-son-in-law of Curtis, who died before the merger. 

The Evening Bulletin first saw the light of day on April 12, 1847, 
with the resounding title of Cummings' Evening Telegraphic Bulletin. 
Its publisher was Alexander Cummings, who also published Neal's 
Saturday Gazette. In 1856 the name was changed to Daily Evening 
Bulletin, and in 1870 to Evening Bulletm. Acquired in 1895 by the 
late William L. McLean, the Evening Bulletin is still in the hands 
of the McLean family. 



Weekly newspapers published on Sunday gradually disappeared, 
as each of the morning dailies began to blossom forth with an ambi- 
tious Sunday edition. One of the most prominent of the early weeklies 
was Taggart's Sunday Times, published on Walnut Street near Eighth. 
Others were the Mercury, Sunday World, Republic, Transcript, and 

One of the first Philadelphia dailies to issue a Sunday edition was 
the Press, edited by Charles Emory Smith, onetime Postmaster Gen- 
eral and United States Ambassador to Russia. It was a propaganda 
sheet, financed by steel interests in western Pennsylvania. The Press 
was subsequently absorbed by the Curtis-Martin publications. This 
firm also bought and scrapped the Evening Telegraph and the North 

The Philadelphia Record, bulwark of the liberal element in Penn- 
sylvania, is a descendant of the Public Record, which first appeared 
in 1870 as a humble imitator of the Public Ledger. In 1877 William 
M. Singerly took hold of the paper and made it a phenomenal suc- 
cess, both financially and editorially. Its name was changed to the 
Philadelphia Record in 1877. It attained a large circulation, and the 
price was lowered to one cent in the face of dire predictions. A strong 
supporter of the Democratic Party, the Record was particularly 
popular with workingmen. 

Success of the Sunday Press opened the eyes of other publishers 
to the possibilities of a Sunday issue. The Record therefore issued an 
eight page Sunday edition so simple were the journalistic demands 
of that period and for years it was sold at three cents a copy, while 
other Sunday papers were selling at five cents. Singerly was a ver- 
satile promoter, but apparently he overreached himself, for his 
various properties eventually went into receivership. The paper was 
then acquired by the John Wanamaker interests. In 1928 J. David 
Stern, publisher of the Evening Courier, of Camden, N. J., gained 
control of the Record. Under him the circulation and advertising in- 
creased and the paper developed into an influential organ of liberal- 

The Times was a prominent Philadelphia morning newspaper from 
1875 until it was merged with the Public Ledger on August 16, 1902. 
Until its purchase in 1901 by Adolph S. Ochs, then owner of the 
Ledger, it had been published by Col. A. K. McClure, a prominent 
figure in Philadelphia civil and political life. The Times was Demo- 
cratic in its editorial policies. It was a penny paper, with a Sunday 
edition that sold at five cents. During most of its existence it was pub- 
lished in its own building at the southwest corner of Eighth and 
Chestnut Streets. 

The Evening Telegraph was first issued on January 4, 1864, at 108 
South Third Street. It was a four-page paper, seven columns to the 



page, and was sold at two cents a copy. At the close of the first year 
it was enlarged to eight pages of six columns each, and the price was 
increased to three cents. The original proprietors were J. Barclay 
Harding and Charles E. Warburton, the former a son of Jesper 
Harding, whose name has figured conspicuously in the history of 
Philadelphia journalism. After Harding's death, in 1865, the paper 
passed to the sole control of Warburton, Harding's brother-in-law, 
and later to Warburtons son, Barclay H. The Telegraph, Republican 
in policy, was absorbed by the Evening Public Ledger in 1918. 

The Evening Times first appeared in 1908, being published by 
Frank A. Munsey, millionaire magazine owner. It went out of exist- 
ence June 16, 1914. Another now defunct evening newspaper, the 
Daily Evening Item, was an outgrowth of the Sunday Item., founded 
in 1847 by Thomas Fitzgerald. The Item, which continued to issue a 
Sunday edition after becoming a daily, ceased publication in 1913. 

On May 18, 1925, the Public Ledger Company began the publica- 
tion of a tabloid newspaper called the Sun. It was issued each week- 
day morning, and was profusely illustrated with news pictures. The 
Sun ceased publication on February 4, 1928. 

Another tabloid, the Daily News, which had been established about 
the same time (March 31, 1925) as the Sun, continued in existence, 
and survives today. First proprietor of the Daily News was the late 
William Scott Vare, long a dominant factor in Pennsylvania politics. 

Vare entered the newspaper publishing business in order to ad- 
vance his prospects as U. S. Senatorial candidate in the 1926 cam- 
paign. Following his election to the Senate, and his subsequent re- 
pudiation by that body, he sold a half interest in the News to Bernarr 
MacFadden. Vare died in 1934, and the newspaper finally was taken 
over by Lee Ellmaker. 

The list of foreign-language newspapers in Philadelphia comprises 
publications in Spanish, Italian, Hurigarian, German, Armenian, 
Yiddish, Russian, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian. There are two week- 
lies, now issued by and for Negroes the Philadelphia Tribune and 
the Philadelphia Independent, but at the end of the first decade of the 
nineteenth century the Caret, the Chat, the Citizen, and the Pilot were 
among the several newspapers being published by this group. 

The city has a long tradition of journalistic attainment. In its news- 
rooms have been trained such prominent writers as Christopher 
Morley, poet, essayist, and novelist ; James Gibbons Huneker, critic 
and molder of many a budding genius ; and Richard Harding Davis, 
novelist and war correspondent. Benjamin Franklin, with his Poor 
Richard's Almanac, early wielded wide journalistic influence. Thomas 
Paine, Revolutionary pamphleteer, issued from Philadelphia presses 
an appeal for liberty of thought and action which resounds even in 
modern times. 



MORE quickly than it had ever hefore taken up a new activity, 
Philadelphia seized radio in the latter's babyhood and did 
much to bring it to its present stage of perfection. Almost immedi- 
ately after the first broadcasting stations began operating, the roofs 
of the city became a wire entaglement reminiscent of No Man's Land. 
Newspapers issued weekly supplements full of instructions for build- 
ing receiving sets, and almost every boy with the least mechanical 
bent was soon tinkering with the necessary apparatus. 

Families gathered around crystal sets while the young "operator" 
manipulated a "cat's whisker," extracting sounds approaching that 
of the human voice of phonographic music. "Keep the young folks 
at home," advertised the early manufacturers of radio receivers, and 
for a long time that is what radio did. 

As the manufacture of high grade receiving sets grew apace, Phila- 
delphia became the home of two of the largest producers, with 
another just across the Delaware River in Camden. 

M l\ 


Station" of WCAU 

"And the night 

shall be filled with 



Department stores took the lead in setting up broadcasting stations. 
In the early twenties every large department store was advertising 
over the air. When the large national networks were formed, Phila- 
delphia stations were connected with each chain. Individuals entered 
the field, and it was not long before radio had proved its value as 
an advertising medium. Newspapers began to regret the publicity they 
had given to what turned out to be their greatest competitor, but 
public interest made it necessary for them to run a daily time table 
of broadcasts. Experiments were being carried on all over the country, 
and novelties were being presented every day. In Philadelphia began 
many practices that are now universal. The first radio record of a 
football game, Penn-Cornell ; the first children's program, Uncle 
Wip ; the first remote dance-music program, by Charlie Kerr's 
Orchestra ; the first street interviews these and many other radio 
"firsts" were born in the much cudgelled brains of the city's program 
directors and publicity men. 

Today there are nine broadcasting stations in Philadelphia: WCAU, 
with a power of 50,000 watts, is the Columbia outlet ; WFIL and 
KYW are connected respectively with the Red and Blue networks 
of the National Broadcasting Company ; WIP represents an inter- 
city network; and WDAS, WPEN, WRAX, WHAT, and WTEL are 
independent stations. 



THE muse of the stage descended upon Philadelphia under a 
cloud of suspicion. Her doubtful reputation had preceded her. 
To the Quaker mind, moved by religion to the practice of aus- 
terity and fixed in it by necessity, she was a hussy to be guarded 
against. Her allurements were suspected as an evil likely to ruin the 
weak and turn the virtuous from thrift and hard work. It was an 
attitude fostered by the spirit of pioneer economy that left no surplus 
for the luxury of art. 

But charity, another Quaker trait, required that the lady be given 
the benefit of the doubt ; her presence was tolerated until it at- 
tracted a meager success, and then she was outlawed. In time a rising 
prosperity brought with it the sparse beginnings of a leisure class, 
and the muse was readmitted to the city's precincts. There she 
flourished, to the glory of the American theatre and the delight of 
her admirers. 

A slight adversity made a good beginning. Philadelphia and the 
drama have been long boon companions ; only a few other American 
cities ranked higher as theatrical centers. It outranked New York 
during the early part of the nineteenth century, and could with reason 
dispute Boston's claim to the title of "Athens of the New World," 
at least as far as the drama was concerned. The greater physical 
growth of New York and the free expression permitted by its civil au- 
thorities have since raised the New York stage to preeminence, but 
that city's theatre has drawn heavily upon Philadelphia for acting 
talent and authorship. This city has given to the stage such notable 
actors as the Drews and the Barrymores, Edwin Forrest, James E. 
Murdoch, and Joseph Jefferson ; among the playwrights and critics it 
has nurtured are John Luther Long, Richard Harding Davis, George 
Kelly, Clifford Odets, and George Jean Nathan. 

In talent and appreciation the city has contributed heavily to the 
motion picture industry, whose rise in Philadelphia, as elsewhere, 
curtailed the legitimate theatre. Some of the earliest moving pictures 
ever exhibited were projected in Philadelphia from a machine in- 
vented by a Philadelphian. The Lubin Studio, pioneer in this field, 
was a Philadelphia enterprise. 

In recent years the city has sought a new dramatic importance 
through the rise of a little theatre movement aiming to correct what 



its leaders deem the failure of the commercial theatre to interpret 
the American spirit. The groups are free to experiment with new 
forms and new material, their receipts being secondary to artistic 
integrity. Their stages have been the proving grounds for some suc- 
cesses of the commercial theatre, whose producers take over the ex- 
perimental drama which has demonstrated its box-office appeal. 
However, in practice, most of these groups have confined themselves 
to presentation of plays already given by professional players. 

Within the little theatre movement there is a distinct group which 
employs the stage as a forum for the expression of a revolutionary 
economic philosophy rather than as an artistic medium a group of 
pioneers in workers' theatres. In Philadelphia its audience has been 
meager and its resources slender throughout a brief but exciting 

The early difficulties under which the theater labored in Philadel- 
phia have not wholly disappeared. The urge to censorship is still 
extant, often prevails, and usually adds to the trivial and salacious 
the allure of forbidden fruit. Such cases are exceptions, however. On 
the whole, Philadelphia and the theatre get on well together. 

History of The Theatre 

"TkESPITE opposition of the Quakers, attempts to establish theatres 
*-* were made persistently during the earliest years of the eighteenth 
century. On three different occasions between 1700 and 1713, laws 
were passed by the Provincial Assembly prohibiting "stage plays, 
masks and revels," and each time the laws were repealed by popular 

There is no record as to when the first local theatrical performance 
was held, but in the American Weekly Mercury of 1724, mention 
was made of a "Roap Dancing" at the "New Booth on Society Hill," 
and in the Pennsylvania Archives of the previous year there is men- 
tion of "comedians in town." In a letter dated 1723, James Logan, 
then mayor of Philadelphia, stated with distress that a company of 
itinerant players had "set up stage just without the verge of the 
town" and that "the sober people of the city" wanted him to sup- 
press the plays, a situation embarrassing for him because Governor 
Keith of Pennsylvania Province was in the habit of attending them. 

The city apparently was without any form of theatrical entertain- 
ment until 1743, when Punch and Joan, a puppet show, was presented 
"At the Sign of the Coach and Horses," on Chestnut Street against the 
State House. In 1742 the first picture show was given in the city when 
a "Magick Lanthorn" was exhibited at Joseph Barber's Temple Bar 
on Second Street. 

The first actors' performance recorded in Philadelphia's history 



took place in August 1749, when a company of players enacted Ad- 
dison's Cato in William Plumstead's warehouse on Water Street. The 
building has been razed, but evidence of the distaste with which the 
performance was regarded exists in the journal of one John Smith, 
which is now in the Ridgway Library. Smith sets forth : "John Morris 
and I happened in at Peacock Bigger's and drank tea there, and his 
daughter being one of the company going to hear the tragedy of 
Cato acted, it occasioned some conversation, in which I expressed my 
sorrow that anything of the kind was encouraged." 

Smith's sorrow was assuaged on December 30 of that year, when 
the Common Council took steps against this invasion of frivolity. Its 
minutes for that date include this paragraph : 

The Recorder then acquainted the board that certain persons had 
taken it upon themselves to act plays in this city, and, as he was in- 
formed, intended to make a frequent practice thereof; which, it was 
to be feared, would be attended with very mischievous effects, such 
as the encouraging of idleness and drawing great sums of money 
from weak and inconsiderate people, who are apt to be fond of such 
entertainment, though the performance be ever so mean and con- 
temptible. Whereupon the board unanimously requested the magis- 
trates to take the most effectual measures of suppressing the disorder, 
by sending for the actors and binding them to their good behavior, 
or by such other means as they should judge most proper. 

Thus bound, the luckless actors departed for New York. In the 
company was Nancy George, the first Philadelphia girl to desert the 
respectability of home for the glamour of the stage. In his Annals 
of Philadelphia, John F. Watson quotes an aged Negro, Robert 
Venable, as saying that "many persons fell out with Nancy George 
because she went there to play." What the players performed, other 
than Cato, is unknown ; the newspapers of the time took note only 
of their departure. 

Five years later another company, led by Lewis Hallam, was for- 
tunate enough to attract the favor of Mayor Plumstead, and under 
his protection they enacted Rowe's tragedy, The Fair Penitent. For 
five more years the drama languished ; then David Douglass re- 
organized Hallam's company and won the good will of Governor 
Denny by promising to perform a benefit for the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital. Douglass could not obtain a building in the city for a theatre, 
and had one constructed secretly outside the city limits, at what 
is now Hancock and South Streets. Opened June 25, 1759, and known 
as the Society Hill Theatre, this playhouse was the first to be built 
in Philadelphia. 

On the opening of the new theatre, aroused church leaders ap- 
pealed to the Assembly, which passed an act proscribing the drama 
in and near Philadelphia. Governor Denny delayed the enforcement 



of the act, and the Society Hill Theatre was kept open until Decem- 
ber 1759. Its players performed Tamerlane^ King Lear, Romeo and 
Juliet, Richard III, Lord Chalkstone, George Barnwell, and Lethe. 
Meanwhile, Douglass kept his promise to Governor Denny : Hamlet 
was enacted for the benefit of the Pennsylvania Hospital on Feb- 
ruary 27. This was Philadelphia's first Hamlet and its first benefit 

The liberal element in the city gained strength as commerce ex- 
panded and external influences modified the townsmen's severe tastes. 
By 1766 it was possible for Douglass to build another theatre, this 
time nearer the city, on South Street west of Fourth. The Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette and the Pennsylvania Chronicle now deigned to ac- 
cept his advertisements. In the new playhouse, which became known 
as the Southwark Theatre, the first American tragedy, The Prince 
of Parthia, by Thomas Godfrey, Jr., was performed April 24,1767. 

Douglass' company had a varied repertory, and the Southwark was 
a flourishing playhouse until the Revolution forced it to close. The 
theatre was reopened during the British occupation, and Tory ladies 
united their talents with those of Lord Howe's officers in perform- 
ances for the benefit of the widows and orphans of soldiers. 

After independence had been attained, the society of the new 
Republic's capital took up the theatre in earnest, and when George 
Washington himself attended a performance at the Southwark, the 
poor muse was at least draped with the mantle of respectability. Even 
so, many a good Philadelphian believed the mantle cloaked a lady 
who still was no better than she should be. 

Approval of the polite world resulted in a project for a new 
theatre large enough and fine enough to be a fitting playhouse for 
the country's capital. The project was realized in the Chestnut Street 
Theatre, opened at Sixth and Chestnut Streets in 1794. Here, in the 
flickering candlelight from a "profusion of chandeliers," as many as 
2,000 persons attended some performances. 

In this age of political ferment the muse grew topical. The Slaves 
of Algeria was a trenchant prelude to the skirmishes with the Bar- 
bary corsairs, and the President was mildly rebuked for his shilly- 
shallying with England by the authors of Embargo, or Every Man 
Has His Own Opinion. 

By 1809 the drama had so far outgrown its humble beginnings that 
a second playhouse became a profitable possibility, and the Walnut 
Street Theatre was built. This theatre is the oldest existing playhouse 
in the United States. Its interior has been refashioned to fit modern 
tastes and supply modern conveniences. In its old age change has as- 
sailed it ; burlesque queens have trod the boards where once walked 
such great artists as Edwin Forrest and Mrs. John Drew, Edmund 



Kean, Edwin Booth, Francis Wemyss, Fanny Kemble, Charlotte Gush- 
man, and George Arliss. It has housed vaudeville and a group of 
Yiddish players. 

The first Chestnut (Chesnut) Street Theatre was destroyed by fire 
in 1820. A second, which replaced it, was built in 1822 and lives in 
theatrical history as "Old Drury." It opened with The School for Scan- 
dal and had a brilliant career. There Barnum, wedding ballyhoo to 
art, presented Jenny Lind, "the Swedish Nightingale ;" Laura Keene, 
Forrest, Booth, and Jefferson also played there. The theatre was razed 
in 1855, in the belief that the new Academy of Music would absorb 
its patronage ; but the Academy proved too large it engulfed the 
average play in deadening space. A third theatre was therefore 
erected, on Chestnut Street west of Twelfth. 

Its opening on January 26, 1863, was marked by the first instance 
of ticket "scalping" in Philadelphia. Seats were sold at auction for 
Virginius, starring Edwin Forrest. One "scalper" purchased 500 
tickets. When the box office opened, it was surrounded by a milling 
crowd of disappointed playgoers for whom there were no seats. The 
police barely averted a riot over a practice which the public has 
since come to tolerate. There Joseph Jefferson presented his Rip Van 
Winkle to a delighted public ; Daly's stock company and E. L. Daven- 
port, tragedian, frequently occupied its stage. The last performance 
was given on October 18, 1910. A few years later the theatre was 
razed and an office building erected on the site. 

One of the older of the Philadelphia theatres, the Arch Street, has 
passed into oblivion. It was opened October 1, 1828, with a comedy 
The Honeymoon ; a farce, Three and the Deuce ; and the reading of a 
prize address by "a gentleman of the city." This auspicious begin- 
ning was of no avail ; the salaries paid to actors were extraordinarily 
high for that time, and the playhouse closed December 24 for lack 
of funds. A series of sporadic openings and premature closings marked 
its history until Mrs. John Drew took it over in Civil War times. Her 
genius kept it open until 1892. Within the next 10 years it was a 
German theatre, and then a Jewish theatre ; and from 1902 to 1907 
was known as Blaney's Theatre. It became a Jewish theatre again 
in 1915 and so remained until 1934, when it closed for the last time. 
In 1935 the building was razed. 

The Garrick, at Chestnut and Juniper Streets, which opened in 
1901 with Richard Mansfield playing the lead in Monsieur Beaucaire, 
was razed in 1937. The playhouse was identified with many famous 
stars and attractions. Among the former were Mrs. Patrick Campbell, 
John Drew, Ethel Barrymore, Walter Hampden, George M. Cohan, 
Otis Skinner, Jane Cowl, Jeanne Eagels, Fred Stone, David Warfield, 
Alia Nazimova, and Helen Hayes. 


Walnut Street Theatre 
"Ghosts of Kean, Booth, Bernhardt 
and Drew haunt the Green Room" 

The First Chestnut Street Theatre 

"Amid a 'profusion of chandeliers' 

Thesnis reiened in 1794" 


Personalities of the Stage 

TJHILADELPHIA has made an important contribution to the drama 
-*- in actors and actresses horn or reared in the city : Edwin Forrest, 
James E. Murdoch, the Jefferson, Davenport, Drew, and Barrymore 
families, Rose Eytinge, Francis Wilson, Ed Wynn, Frank Tinney, 
Janet Gaynor, Jeannette MacDonald, George Bancroft, Vivienne Se- 
gal, Constance Binney, W. C. Fields, Walter C. Kelly, Eddie Quillen, 
Eleanor Boardman, to name some of the better known. 

Edwin Forrest (1806-1872) was born at 51 George (now South 
American) Street. One of Philadelphia's most famous actors, he first 
appeared in juvenile roles for a Thespian society. His first appearance 
on a regular stage was made at the Walnut Street Theatre, and his 
last appearance as an actor was in the role of "Richelieu" at the 
Globe Theatre, Boston, April 2, 1872. 

He made his debut as a star at the Chestnut Street Theatre on 
July 5, 1826, in Othello, and was one of the first American actors 
to invade the English stage. Forrest made two tours in England, the 
first in the Spring of 1836, the second in 1845. Criticism of his per- 
formances abroad created resentment on this side of the Atlantic. 
This feeling persisted, and a few years later it resulted in one of the 
most remarkable tragedies connected with the stage. William 
Macready, an English actor, came to this country with an English 
company to present Shakespearean plays. Macready arrived in the 
spring of 1849. In May of that year he opened as Macbeth, at the 
Astor Place Theatre, New York. In revenge for the treatment accorded 
Forrest in London, the gallery audience hissed Macready and his 
company. A tumult followed, and was continued in the street, where 
fighting broke out and soon assumed the proportions of a riot. 
Twenty-two men were killed and several hundred injured. 

In 1822 at the age of 16, and for many years thereafter Forrest 
toured the country. After Forrest's return to his home he bought a 
brownstone mansion on Broad Street and retired. In 1860 he was 
persuaded to return to the stage, but failing health marred his last 
appearance. He died December 12, 1872, broken and unhappy, his 
sensitive nature shattered by the tumult which had resulted from his 
trip to England. 

His will provided for the establishment and maintenance of a home 
for aged actors. The Edwin Forrest Home, at Forty-ninth Street and 
Parkside Avenue, is comparatively new, but from 1876 until a few 
years ago the home was maintained on the actor's estate in Holmes- 
burg. The institution is a sanctuary for actors and actresses more 
than 60 years old, or those unable to continue their profession be- 
cause of infirmities. 

Another organization for stage folk, the Charlotte Cushman Club, 



formerly had a clubhouse at 1010 Spruce Street and now maintains 
a room at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, where actresses who are taken 
ill while in the city are cared for. 

James Edward Murdoch was born January 25, 1811. Before his 
death at 82 he had played at the Haymarket in London for 110 
nights, devoted himself to a prolonged study of Shakespeare, and 
published a monograph on the cultivation of the voice. He had also 
studied voice culture in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. His great- 
est roles were those of Young Mirable in The Inconstant, Charles 
Surface in The School for Scandal., Rover in Wild Oats, and Don 
Felix in The Wonder. 

Joseph Jefferson, born at Spruce and Fifth Streets, February 20, 
1829, grew up in the atmosphere of the theatre. His mother, father, 
and grandfather were stage folk, and he appeared on the stage as a 
baby. He played many comedy parts in Philadelphia as a youth, but 
his outstanding success was the title role in Rip Van Winkle, which 
he played for years. In 1849 he toured the South. In 1861 he made 
a tour of Australia, and four years later appeared at the Adelphi in 
London. The noted dramatic critic, William Winter, rated him among 
the greatest actors of all time. 

Long in the annals of the Philadelphia theatre is the name of 
Davenport, nine generations of whom have appeared before theatrical 
audiences in England and America. At one time 10 members of the 
family were on the stage simultaneously. Fanny Davenport, sister of 
E. L. Davenport, played many of "the divine" Sarah Bernhardt's roles 
in America, and her niece of the same name appeared in Topaze a 
few years ago. Harry, son of the illustrious E. L. and now in Holly- 
wood, is perhaps the most unusual of this family, because of his long 
career behind the footlights which began in Philadelphia in 1871 
when he was just five years of age. He still treasures the first money 
he earned on the stage in Philadelphia. 

Mrs. John Drew was the matriarch of Philadelphia's second great 
theatrical family and one of the greatest of American actresses. Born 
January 10, 1820, in London, she came to America at the age of 
seven, and as a young girl played at the Walnut Street Theatre in 
support of Booth. She married John Drew, her third husband, in 1850. 
After his death she managed the Arch Street Theatre for 30 years and 
then moved to New York, appearing there in a few all-star revivals. 
Finally she returned to Philadelphia to live with her son. She died in 
Larchmont, N. Y., August 31, 1897. 

John Drew, the younger, was born in Philadelphia November 13, 
1853, and made his first appearance at the Arch Street Theatre in 
1873 in Cool as a Cucumber. He joined Augustin Daly's company 
in New York, and remained with it for years. He played 70 parts 
with Daly and in support of Booth, Fanny Davenport, and other 



stage notables. Later Drew joined Charles Frohman. He died in 
1927 while touring the West with the comedy revival, Trelawney of 
the Wells. Petruchio, in The Taming of the Shrew, was his favorite 

Of all the stars Philadelphia has given to the theatre, none have 
shone more brightly than the members of the Barrymore constella- 
tion Ethel, Lionel, and John, children of Georgiana Drew and 
Maurice Barrymore. John was born in Philadelphia February 15, 
1882. In his youth he studied art, and professed a distaste for the 
theatre ; but he had appeared in Camille with Ethel and Lionel while 
the three still were children. By 1903 he was playing the male lead 
in Richard Harding Davis' The Dictator a role which took him to 
London in 1905. 

For 10 years his star rose steadily. His portrayal of the title role 
in Peter Ibbetson sent critics into superlatives, and when he returned 
to the higher realm of Shakespearean repertory their praise con- 
tinued. In 1921 his Hamlet was a sensation in America, and in London 
a critic said Barrymore seemed to have "gathered in himself all the 
Hamlets of his generation." He has also portrayed on the screen 
leading roles in such successes as Don Juan, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, 
Moby Dick, Manon Lescaut, General Crack, Svengali, Grand Hotel, 
and Rasputin. 

Ethel was born in Philadelphia on August 15, 1879. Her success 
has been, if less spectacular, more solid than her younger brother's, 
and the range of her acting has been limited only by the vehicles 
available. Her portrayals of Lady Teazle in School for Scandal and 
the leading roles in Captain Jinks, Mid-Channel, Our Miss McChesney, 
Declasse, and The Constant Wife have left an indelible impression 
upon the theatre in America and England. She was somewhat less 
successful on the screen in The Nightingale, The White Raven, and 

Eldest of the Barrymore trinity is Lionel, born in Philadelphia 
April 29, 1878. At 15 he was playing small parts in a company with 
his uncle, Sidney Drew, and later appeared in The Rivals. His first 
real success was in support of his uncle, John Drew, in The Mummy 
and the Humming Bird. After years of trouping he renounced the 
stage and turned to painting. In 1918 he returned to the stage and 
achieved great success in The Copperhead, a play of Civil War time. 
His screen career began with D. W. Griffith in the old Biograph studio 
in New York. Recognition as a screen actor was slow in coming, but 
in a long string of films The Mysterious Island, The Lion and the 
Mouse, Body and Soul, A Free Soul, The Man I Killed, Grand Hotel, 
Arsene Lupin, The Yellow Ticket, and others his fame has grown 
with every role. 

Francis Wilson, born in 1854 of Quaker parents in Philadelphia, 



is best remembered as a comedian in many comic operas. But he 
also achieved success several times in his own plays. He died in New 
York on October 7, 1935. Ed Wynn, popular comedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1886. He made his first appearance in vaudeville as 
a lad of 15. Later he played in such Broadway successes as The Per- 
fect Fool, Simple Simon, The Laugh Parade, and The Grab Bag. 

W. C. Fields was born in Philadelphia in 1879. As an actor and 
juggler he appeared in England, France, and Germany, and from 
1915 to 1921 was in each successive edition of Ziegfeld's Follies. His 
film career began with D. W. Griffith in 1925. He proved a great 
screen comedian and has scored increasing success in Sally of the Saw- 
dust, It's the Old Army Game, Ttvo Flaming Youths, Mrs. Wiggs of 
the Cabbage Patch, David Copperfield, Poppy, The Man on the Fly- 
ing Trapeze, and others. 

Charlotte Greenwood's career has also been divided between the 
stage and the newer medium of the films. Born in Philadelphia in 
1893, she first attracted attention in the Winter Garden production, 
The Passing Show, and has appeared in many popular films. 

Other native Philadelphians to acquire prominence in the dramatic 
field were August, Charlotte, and Charles Durang, Eph Horn, McKean 
Buchanan, Robert Butler, Harry A. Perry, Eliza Logan, Celia Logan, 
Herman Vezin, Henry Langdon, Mrs. Oscar Beringer, Minnie Palmer, 
Hugh J. Ward, George Frederick Nash, Jack Norworth, Margaret Dale, 
Charles Hopkins, Ethelin Terry, Margaret Lawrence, Evelyn Herbert, 
George Gaul, Frances Carson, and Emma Haig. 


PHILADELPHIA'S writers for the stage have done their share 
-^- in the advancement of the theatre. The real beginning of Ameri- 
can dramatic literature was made with Edwin Forrest's offer of prizes 
for original plays. In 1759 Thomas Godfrey, Jr., wrote America's 
first play, The Prince of Parthia ; and 1801 had seen the per- 
formance of Charles Jared Ingersoll's verse tragedy, Edwy and 
Elgwia, based on English history ; Mordecai Noah, David Paul 
Brown, and James Nelson Barker were early Philadelphia play- 
wrights. Forrest's contest brought out John Augustus Stone, whose 
Metamora, Forrest's greatest vehicle, still survives ; and Robert 
Montgomery Bird, three of whose plays, Oraloosa, The Gladiator, 
and The Broker of Bogota^ were among those awarded Forrest prizes. 
George Henry Boker once called the handsomest man in America 
one of the founders of the Union League and sometime minister 
to Turkey and Russia, wrote Calaynos, Anne Boleyn, and The Be- 
trothal. His masterpiece, Francesco da Rimini, in which Lawrence 
Barrett first made his mark, was successfully revived by Otis Skinner 
in 1901. 



John Luther Long, born in Hanover, Pa., In 1861, wrote the short 
story, Madame Butterfly, in 1900. David Belasco sensed its dramatic 
possibilities, and collaborated with Long in writing the play of the 
same name. Later the play was used as a basis for the Puccini opera, 
Madama Butterfly. The Darling of the Gods followed, with Blanche 
Bates and George Arliss costarring. The Belasco-Long collaboration 
ended in 1904 with Andrea. Other Long plays were The Dragon Fly, 
Dolce, Kassa, and Crowns. 

Ernest Lucy, who made Philadelphia his home, wrote Chatterton, 
in which Julia Marlowe starred. 

John T. Mclntyre's imaginative comedy of a dream world, A Young 
Mans Fancy, was produced in 1919 and was praised in some quarters 
for its poetic charm. 

That there can be depth and interest in common things was the 
conviction of Edward Childs Carpenter, another Philadelphia drama- 
tist, born in 1872. He submitted his Barber of New Orleans in a prize 
contest conducted by the New York Globe, and the play was pro- 
duced by William Faversham in 1908. He wrote a half dozen plays, 
his most successful being The Bachelor Father, produced by Belasco 
in 1928. 

Elliot Lester, born in Philadelphia in 1894, deserted the profession 
of teaching at Temple University when his first play, The Mud Turtle, 
achieved success, and he followed this with Take My Advice, a 
criticism of contemporary life. 

George Kelly has established himself in the vanguard of American 
dramatists whose plays demand serious consideration. Born in Phila- 
delphia in 1887, he played for five years in vaudeville, where his 
brother Walter, "The Virginia Judge," had long been popular. His 
first plays were sketches, and his most successful three-act play, The 
Show-off, was an amplification of one of these with its plot laid in 
Philadelphia. It was produced in 1924. His satire of the little theatres, 
The Torch Bearers, was a success ; and in 1926 he turned to serious 
drama, writing Craig's Wife, winner of a Pulitzer Prize. Behold, The 
Bridegroom in 1928, and Philip Goes Forth in 1930, were less popular. 
His comedy, Reflected Glory, was produced in Philadelphia in Jan- 
uary 1937. 

Langdon Elwyn Mitchell, son of the author-physician, Dr. S. Weir 
Mitchell, was born in Philadelphia in 1862, and became well known 
as a playwright. He wrote In the Season, produced at St. James 
Theatre, London, in 1893, and dramatized Thackeray's Vanity Fair 
under the title Becky Sharp, a play produced by Mrs. Fiske in 1899 
and later put on the screen in colors. His Pendennis was produced by 
John Drew in 1916, and The New York Idea, his most successful 
dramatic offering, in 1906. 



Other Philadelphia playwrights were Richard Harding Davis and 
Thomas Fitzgerald, the latter known for many satisfactory plays dur- 
ing the closing years of the nineteenth century. 

The city's latest claimant to dramatic fame is Clifford Odets, who 
rose from the obscurity of a stock player with the Group Theater 
in New York. In three days he wrote Waiting for Lefty, a one-act 
play that met with tremendous success. He followed in rapid succes- 
sion with Awake and Sing, Till the Day I Die, Paradise Lost, and 
Golden Boy. His plays, anti-Fascist in content, in instances reflect the 
alleged degeneracy of middle-class society in the changing social order. 

Existing Theatres 

HPHE city's modern legitimate theatres have housed a full share of 
- the outstanding dramatic performances of the present century. 

The Walnut Street Theatre, Ninth and Walnut Streets, (see Tour, 
Where the City Fathers Walked) believed to be the oldest existing 
playhouse in America, still follows its ancient traditions though with 
lagging footsteps. Those who have appeared on its stage run the 
gamut from circus performers to the greatest names in the history 
of the American theatre. Remodeled many times since its erection in 
1808, an aura of its former greatness still lingers round it. 

The Forrest, on Walnut Street at Quince, named for Edwin Forrest, 
was opened May 1, 1928, with Under the Red Robe, a light opera. 
Designed for spectacular musical and dramatic productions, the 
theatre has a large and excellently equipped stage. The building is 
fireproof, and has a seating capacity of approximately 2,000. 

Keith's, on Chestnut Street between Eleventh and Twelfth, was 
built under the personal direction of B. F. Keith, and was opened 
November 2, 1902. By the will of Andrew Keith, son of the founder, 
the theater was bequeathed in equal shares to William Cardinal 
O'Connell, of Boston, and the president and fellows of Harvard 
College. It was a vaudeville house until September 1928, when the 
Shuberts made it a home for drama and musical comedy. Later it 
became a motion-picture house. It was the first so-called "million- 
dollar theatre" in the country ; on its stage have appeared Sarah 
Bernhardt, Lillian Russell, Maggie Cline, Will Rogers, Sophie Tucker, 
Belle Baker, Chic Sale, the Dooleys, and Charlie Chaplin. 

The Chestnut Street Opera House at 1021 Chestnut Street, is one 
of the oldest playhouses in America still in operation. It was opened 
in 1865, and during its career has been the scene of hundreds of 
dramatic and musical successes. Today the theatre is equipped to 
show motion pictures as well as to present stage attractions. It is the 
home of the American Theatre Society, an organization which has 
been very successful in presenting plays under a subscription plan. 



The Broad Street Theatre, at 261 South Broad Street, for upwards 
of a half century one of Philadelphia's most noted theatres, dates 
back to 1876. It has changed ownership many times. The Kiralfy 
Brothers, who built this playhouse of Moorish design, called it the 
Alhambra Palace. For a time it was the home of the McCaull Opera 
Company, and its stage was the scene of several of the earlier Gilbert 
and Sullivan successes. It was in this theatre, in 1888, that Julia Mar- 
lowe made her debut. In 1895, the Nixon-Zimmerman interests gained 
control of the Broad, and under their management many of the 
great stars of Broadway, including John Drew, Viola Allen, Alia 
Nazimova, Maude Adams, Sarah Bernhardt, and Mrs. Patrick Camp- 
bell played here. With the depression and the inroads made by the 
motion-picture theatres, the Broad lost a prestige it was never to 
regain. It closed after the 1935-36 season, was razed in the fall of 
1937, and its site is a parking lot. 

The Erlanger Theatre, built by the Erlanger interests at Twenty- 
first and Market Streets in 1927, was devoted largely to musical 
comedy, and presented some of the front-rank stars of the day, among 
them Fred Stone, Will Rogers, Helen Morgan, Fred Allen, and W. C. 
Fields. Occasionally motion pictures have been shown there. 

The Locust Street Theatre, on Locust Street near Broad, was opened 
in March, 1927, as a motion-picture house. Not until 1931 did it 
change to legitimate drama, the first play being The Greeks Had a 
Word for It. The theatre is of Gothic design. 

The Shubert, on Broad Street below Locust, was built in 1917-18, 
and for a time was the leading house of the Shubert interests in 
Philadelphia. Among the many productions presented here were 
The Student Prince, Sinbad (with Al Jolson in the starring role), 
and The Vagabond King. The house is now devoted to burlesque. 

The first Negro theatre in the city was the Standard, South Street 
east of Twelfth, which opened September 8, 1888. It remained a legiti- 
mate theatre until 1934 when it became, as it is now, a motion-picture 
theatre. In 1912 the first Negro moving picture theatre, the Key- 
stone, was opened at 937-41 South Street, but it closed in 1934. In 
1919 the Dunbar Theatre, now the Lincoln, opened at Broad and 
Lombard Streets, with an all-Negro cast in the play Within the Law. 
For several seasons this theatre which was named for Paul Laurence 
Dunbar, a famed Negro poet, ran only legitimate dramas. Later, 
however, it was taken over by other interests, and it became a moving- 
picture house. It was opened in September, 1937 as a Jewish Theatre. 

The Bijou, on Eighth Street above Race, opened November 4, 1899, 
was the first Philadelphia theatre with a continuous vaudeville bill. 
Upon the opening of the Keith Theatre on Chestnut Street in 1902, 
a stock company occupied the Bijou. In 1907 vaudeville was resumed, 
giving way to burlesque in 1910. 



The Trocadero, at Tenth and Arch Streets, has been a burlesque 
house for about 30 years. The theatre occupies a site originally used 
by a playhouse devoted to the presentation of Negro minstrels. 

The Little Theatres 

HPHE American theatre, moved by the demand for profits, has de- 
*- rived new energy from the little theatre movement, the success 
of which is twofold : it provides a medium of self-expression for 
thousands of talented players, and serves as a testing ground for 
playwrights who might be denied a hearing by professional pro- 

In uncounted barns, dwellings, warehouses! wherever a stage may 
be erected earnest members of little theatre groups nowadays are 
busy experimenting with new dramatic forms and new material. 
From the obscurity of these groups emerge some of the curreat 
drama's first playwrights and some worthwhile plays. Philadelphia 
has not been laggard in the movement. In the city and its environs 
are more than 200 little theatre groups, many independent, others 
associated with some school, college, church, or other institution. 

Foremost among them is the Hedgerow Theatre, in Rose Valley 
not within the city limits, but within its cultural orbit. It began in 
1923, with no assets other than a decrepit gristmill and the enthu- 
siasm of its director, Jasper Deeter, who had abandoned a successful 
career on the professional stage to found the Hedgerow. The com- 
pany lives a communal life. The work of the group, even the menial 
domestic work, is performed by the members, and the profits are 
shared equally. The actresses of an evening may on the morrow be 
found in the garden hoeing peas ; the actors may combine a talent 
for acting and for stage carpentry. 

The group remodeled the building which houses the theatre. It 
seats 168 and is open 50 weeks each year, six nights a week from 
April to October, and three times a week during the winter. The 
company has a wide and increasing repertory. Plays which have had 
their premieres at Hedgerow include Cherokee Night, by Lynn 
Riggs ; The D. A., by Bayard Veiller ; Plum Hollow, by Alvin Kerr ; 
Wolves, by Romain Rolland ; King Hunger, by Andreyev ; and 
Winesburg, Ohio, based on the collection of short stories of the same 
name by Sherwood Anderson. In 1934-35 the group toured the coun- 
try, and gave 76 plays before an aggregate audience of 120,000. 

Another group, the Stagecrafters, began in 1929 with 17 members. 
It now has 350, all residents of Germantown or Chestnut Hill. After 
four years in a remodeled blacksmith shop at 8132 Germantown 
Avenue, the group erected a new building at the same location. This 
playhouse was opened October 12, 1936, with the production of 



Robert Sherwood's The Petrified Forest. Plays are presented on the 
second Thursday and Friday of each month, from November through 

The Alden Park Players are an organization of residents of the 
Alden Park Apartments, a group of apartment buildings in German- 
town, adjoining Fairmount Park. It was organized in 1930 and has 
had the enthusiastic support of other residents of the apartments. 
The group has produced many Broadway successes, often under pro- 
fessional direction, in a theatre which is set up each winter over 
the apartment swimming pool. 

The Chestnut Hill Players perform in a renovated barn at Allen's 
Lane and McCallum Street. Subscribers to the number of 150 make 
this playhouse self-sustaining. Its repertory has included plays by 
Molnar, Ibsen, Shaw and Barrie. 

A converted barn at 4821 Germantown Avenue houses the German- 
town Theatre Guild, which in its three years of life up to 1936 had 
produced 170 plays, many of them experimental or with a limited 
audience appeal. 

One of the city's older and more successful theatrical groups is 
Plays and Players, organized in 1911 by Mrs. Otis Skinner. The com- 
pany produces dramas, operas, and ballets in its own well-equipped 
theatre at Seventeenth and Delancey Streets. A self-sustaining or- 
ganization, it maintains club rooms and a theatrical library. 

The Showcrafters, organized in 1934, utilize a small second-floor 
dance hall at Bridge Street and Frankford Avenue. Their theatre, 
triangular in shape, seats few spectators, but its members have done 
well with some of the lighter Broadway successes. 

An organization which has had the inspiring assistance of Jasper 
Deeter is the Theatre League, a group of young people producing 
some of the advanced plays in an old garage at 2034 Chancellor 
Street. Its equipment is improvised, but it has had considerable suc- 
cess with some important plays, among them The Sisters' Tragedy, 
It's the Poor that Helps the Poor, Cradle Song, Marriage Contract, 
and Pillars of Society. 

The city's youngest little theatre group, the Quince Street Players, 
is another which emulates Hedgerow. Its resources are communalized, 
and the members share the meager profits of their productions. Their 
theatre, at 204 South Quince Street, is an unadorned second-floor loft 
accommodating few spectators. 

The most successful, financially, of all the little theatre groups in 
or near Philadelphia is the Players Club of Swarthmore, the majority 
of whose members are employed in the city. The club, which grew 
out of a benefit minstrel show presented in 1911, has its own club- 
house and theatre, with a large and well-equipped stage and a com- 
modious auditorium. 



The Mask and Wig Club of the University of Pennsylvania has at- 
tained a high reputation throughout the eastern United States for 
its musical plays, written and acted by members. At Temple Univer- 
sity a similar organization, the Templayers, produces plays written 
by its own members or by accepted dramatists. 

It is impossible to distinguish strictly between the little theatre 
groups and those which might be more properly classified as ama- 
teurs. The little theatre stages are not always occupied by experi- 
mental or significant drama, and on occasion the amateur groups 
make a genuine contribution to the theatre. Some of the more im- 
portant of these borderline groups are : The Lincoln Drive Players, 
performing at the Unitarian Church, Germantown ; Neighborhood 
Center Players, 428 Bainbridge Street; Torresdale Dramatic Club, 
parish house of All Saints Church ; Old Academy Players, 3544 In- 
dian Queen Lane ; and Three Oaks Dramatic Club, Germantown 
Women's Club building on Washington Lane. The Neighborhood 
Center Players are especially noteworthy for the inspiration given to 
playwriting by the yearly contests they foster. They are one of the 
few little theatres which frequently include new and untried plays 
in their productions. 

The Workers' Theatre 

A KIN to the little theatre groups in facilities, but distinct in em- 
^*- phasis and direction, the Workers' Theatre has attempted to 
present plays which would arouse class consciousness. For ten years, 
after the World War, a number of groups presented such drama in 
Philadelphia, but their productions generally died aborning because 
of a lack either of funds or experience. 

In 1926 a group led by Alfred Sobel organized the Workers' Theatre 
Alliance, and the movement began to assume some consciousness of 
its direction. In the face of the same disheartening difficulties which 
had dampened the ardor of its predecessors, the Workers' Theatre 
Alliance succeeded in presenting several provocative one-act plays: 
The Sisters 1 Tragedy, by Richard Hughes ; Victory, by John Laessen 
and Simon Felshin ; The Second Story Man, by Upton Sinclair ; and 
Mr. God Is Not In, by Harbor Allen. The last named play was an 
acid satire on organized religion. 

The Vanguard Group of players took up the laborers' torch in 
1928 at the point where the Workers' Theatre Alliance had met de- 
feat. Jasper Deeter was the Vanguard's first director. Only one play, 
The Miners, was presented before dissension between the players 
and their director caused production to be suspended. The Vanguard 
Group was reorganized under Harry Bellaver, also of Hedgerow, and 



such plays as What Price Coal?; Last Days of the Paris Commune; 
Bound East for Cardiff; The Big Stiff; and The Unemployed were 

Another group, organized in 1926, is the Labor Institute Drama 
Guild, a part of the educational and cultural program of the Labor 
Education Center (formerly the Labor Institute) , at 415 South Nine- 
teenth Street. Among its early presentations, given in Yiddish as well 
as in English, were The Clock That Struck Thirteen, adapted from 
a story by Sholem Aleichem ; and Bebele, by Perez Hirshbein ; also 
such dramatizations as Money, by Michael Gold ; and The Everlasting 
Song, by Mark Arnstein. 

Theatre Crafts, a group of 40 semi-professional actors, was or- 
ganized in 1932. Its membership included Clifford Odets ; Abner 
Biberman, who afterwards joined the Theatre Union in New York ; 
and Ted Burke, director of the group. 

In presenting plays of social protest, Theatre Crafts was unique 
among little theatre groups. Its repertory consisted of only two 
plays : Precedent, which dealt with the imprisonment of Tom Mooney 
in San Francisco, and John Golden's Gods of Lightning, a dramatiza- 
tion of the Sacco and Vanzetti case. 

To foster greater cooperation between the little groups, the New 
Theatre (organized in 1934) sponsored a theatre festival in 1936. 
This marked the third conference of the New Theatre League, ,at 
which the Philadelphia center acted as host to more than 100 dele- 
gates from similar organizations throughout the country. 

With the broadcast of a scene from Albert Bein's Let Freedom 
Ring, in March 1936, the New. Theatre made its radio debut. In 
addition to their dramatic activities, these players also maintain a 
Film Section, which from time to time has made available to its 
audiences, at low prices, such screen plays as Ten Days that Shook 
the World, Broken Shoes, Poll de Carotte, and Thunder Over Mexico. 
Outstanding achievements in the dramatic field were the presenta- 
tion of Black Pit at the Erlanger Theatre, Too Late to Die at the 
Locust, and the only Philadelphia performance of Let Freedom Ring, 
at their own theatre on North Sixteenth Street. 

Puppet Shows and Marionettes 

O UPPET shows in Philadelphia date back to 1742. In 1781 Charles 
* Willson Peale, the famous painter, exhibited at his home (Third 
and Lombard Streets) a series of transparent scenes showing events 
which occurred during the War for Independence. 

In the winter of 1786, puppet shows were given on the third floor 
of a house near Second and Pine Streets, and were directed by Charles 
Dusselot, a young ex-officer in the French Guards of Louis XVI. A 



skilled mechanic, Dusselot introduced variety in his shows and suc- 
ceeded in representing sea fights, a water mill, and various mobile 
figures. The puppet plays included Poor Soldier, in which the songs 
of Norah and Darby were sung behind the scenes by Mrs. Dusselot 
and others. 

Today, 1937, Philadelphia has revived the ancient and piquant art 
of puppetry and in cooperation with the Board of Education is dem- 
onstrating its ingenuity to various trade unions, settlement houses, 
schools, hospitals, and other institutions without facilities for the 
production of the legitimate drama. On the eighth floor of the 
Y.W.C.A. building, at Eighteenth and Arch Streets, such ancient favor- 
ites as Punch and Judy, Dr. Faustus, Little Black Sambo, and the more 
modern Marx Brothers have their headquarters. These puppet shows 
were begun in January 1936, with plays written by the staff, and 
figures and costumes created in the workshop. This is a WPA pro- 
ject, part of the Federal Theatre program. 


THREE generations of Philadelphia theatregoers have enjoyed 
the songs and comedy of what is known as Negro minstrelsy. 
The claim that this form of entertainment had its inception in this 
city in 1842 is based upon the statement of William Whitlock, who 
that year appeared in the Walnut Street Theatre with Master John 

Buckley's Serenaders are known to have given a minstrel show in 
Musical Fund Hall in 1849, and four years later a member of the 
troupe, known as Sam Sanford though his name was Lindsay, opened 
his "Opera House" on Twelfth Street below Chestnut. He moved 
his entertainers to Cartee's Museum, Eleventh Street and Marble 
Alley, in 1854, and this new "opera house" was a home of minstrelsy, 
under successive managers, for 55 years. Manager Robert F. Simpson 
changed the name of the house to Carncross and Dixey's in 1862, in 
honor of two of the most popular minstrels in the troupe. 

Lew Simmons and E. N. Slocum opened the "Arch Street Opera 
House," on Arch Street west of Tenth, in 1870, and that same year 
Carncross, together with Dixey and Simmons, opened the American 
Museum, Menagerie and Theatre, on the northwest Corner of Ninth 
and Arch Streets. Three homes of minstrelsy were thus operating 
successfully for some time, an indication of the popularity of the 
song and laugh brand of stagecraft in Philadelphia. Stage stars such 
as Raymond Hitchcock and Eddie Foy had their start on the Quaker 
City's minstrel stages. 

Frank Dumont succeeded Carncross upon the latter's retirement 
from the theatre in 1895, managing the Eleventh Street house until 



1909, when he took over the theatre at 10th and Arch, which he 
operated until his death in 1919. Emmet J. Welch, ballad writer and 
singer, was his successor, Welch's Minstrels carrying on the old tradi- 
tions. A fire in 1929 damaged the playhouse, and in 1931 the onetime 
old home of sentimental ballads gave way to the raucous automobile, 
being demolished to provide a parking lot. 

Hedgerow Theatre 
Where stars are born 

The Cinema in Philadelphia 

HILADELPHIA was a pioneer city in moving pictures. In 1860 
Dr. Coleman Sellers made the first photographs of motion, and 
the machine which he devised for showing them was patented in 1861 
as "a new and useful improvement in the mode of exhibiting stereo- 
scopic pictures of moving objects." The apparatus was looked upon 
as merely an interesting toy. It was, however, the first step in motion 
pictures, and 25 years later its principles were employed by Edison. 

On February 5, 1870, Henry R. Heyl displayed at the Academy 
of Music an invention which he called the "phasmatrope," described 
as "a recent scientific invention designed to give to various objects 
and figures upon the screen the most graceful and lifelike move- 
ments." His machine was a converted projecting lantern, in front of 
which was a large revolving disk containing 16 openings near thr 
edge, into which lantern slides were arranged. A disk is still useJ 
on motion-picture projectors and in recent television apparatus. 

The first motion pictures from flexible films were cast upon a 
screen at Franklin Institute by C. Francis Jenkins in 1894 ; the first 
in a Philadelphia theatre were exhibited at Keith's Bijou in 1896. 
Two years later a Philadelphia optician, Sigmund Lubin, opened a 
studio for making motion pictures on the roof of a building on Arch 
Street near Ninth. In the following year these and others were shown 
at Betzwood, and in 1899 Lubin opened at Seventh and Market 
Streets a motion-picture theatre probably the first in the United 
States. For 15 years Lubin continued as a producer, with studios at 
Nineteenth Street and Indiana Avenue. 

Jeanette MacDonald, the movie star, was born in Philadelphia 
the early part of the twentieth century, and attended West Philadel- 
phia Girls' High School. Her first job was in the chorus of a Ned 
Wayburn show in 1920, and success in other musical comedies fol- 
lowed. Her film career began in 1929 in The Love Parade, with 
Maurice Chevalier. 

Another Philadelphia screen actress is Janet Gaynor, born here on 
October 6. 1907. Seventh Heaven, in which she appeared in 1926, 
brought her fame ; and she was subsequently starred in Sunny Side 
Up (the first musical comedy written expressly for films), The Man 
Who Came Back, Daddy Long Legs, and The Farmer Takes a Wife. 

Constance Binney, born in Philadelphia in 1900, made her first 
stage appearance 17 years later in New York's Bijou Theatre, in 
Saturday to Monday. In 1920 she made her first appearance on the 

Vivienne Segal, born in Philadelphia in 1897, began her film career 
in 1929, after some experience on the stage. She has appeared in 



many films, including Song of the West., The Bride of the Regiment, 
and Viennese Nights. 

Other Philadelphia-born cinema players include Eleanor Board- 
man, star of The Auction Block, and George Bancroft, typifier of 
rugged force in numerous screen roles. 

With more than 150 moving-picture theatres in the city, Phila- 
delphians have no lack of facilities for viewing the latest products of 
the film industry. Eleven of these theatres, situated in the downtown 
section of the city, are "first run" houses : Aldine, Arcadia, Boyd, 
Earle, Erlanger, Fox, Karlton, Stanley, Stanton, and Trans-Lux. In 
addition, the Europa shows the best of the Continental films, and for 
several years the Mastbaum, at Twentieth and Market Streets, largest 
house in the city, displayed "first run" pictures of exceptional merit. 

The interest in current news was the inspiration for the Trans-Lux 
Theatre, which opened on January 1, 1935. The exterior of the build- 
ing superimposes cubic masses of blue upon silver in a distinctive 
design. The News Theatre, 1230 Market Street, was opened in 1937. 

Memorial Arch at Valley Forge 
Dedicated to the thirteen original colonies. 



MUSICAL progress and appreciation in Philadelphia have kept 
faith with the long-haired Hermits of the Wissahickon who, 
at the city's first concert in 1703, wrung somher strains from the 
viol, the oboe, and the trumpet. It is not difficult to resurrect that 
scene of long ago the music-starved Colonials tapping their feet 
in tempo with the kettledrum; the half-austere, half-exalted ex- 
pression upon the faces of the musicians ; the lack of symphonic 
richness. From this early recital at the ordination of Justus Falkner 
in Old Swedes Church, musical endeavor in Philadelphia has marched 
down an ever-widening path, emerging finally into the broad highway 
of accomplishment. 

Music in modern Philadelphia is symbolized by the renowned 
Philadelphia Orchestra and the Curtis Institute of Music. Under the 
driving force of Leopold Stokowski's genius, the former has come to 
be recognized as one of the great symphonic organizations of the 
world. Philadelphia's musical tradition, however, does not entirely 
center about the orchestra and the Academy of Music in which it 
plays. Numerous singing societies, choral groups, orchestral clubs, 
and organization of various kinds reflect the musical tendencies of 
its people. 

That Philadelphia was a musical center as early as Colonial times 
was due partly to its geographical location midway between Boston 
and the capital of southern secular music, Charleston. This fortunate 
circumstance helped it to absorb musical influences from each, while 
developing its own appreciation. 

The city's next modest step in music, following the Hermits' con- 
cert in 1703, was the purchase and installation in Christ Church, in 
1728, of its first organ. In 1743 Gustavus Hesselius was manufacturing 
spinets and organs in the city, and this date marks the beginning of 
the history of the American pianoforte. 

The American Company opened the Southwark Theatre on Novem- 
ber 14, 1766, giving as its first performance Thomas and Sally., or, 
The Sailor's Return. Philadelphia was in the forefront operatically 
when other cities were experimenting with crude band concerts, and 
was also the first city in the country to present a really ambitious 
concert, which took place May 4, 1786. A "grand concert" with 230 



vocal and 50 instrumental performers was given on that date at the 
German Reformed Church in Race Street. 

Choral and secular music, meanwhile, had been developing at a 
rapid pace. By the latter part of the eighteenth century, and in the 
early years of the nineteenth, many Philadelphia musicians were 
devoting a major part of their time to the advancement of choral 
music in churches and independent societies. Publication of books 
dealing with hymn singing and choral selections increased. 

In 1852 a drive was organized to obtain money for construction of 
the Philadelphia Academy of Music. The sum of $400,000 was raised, 
and five years later the Academy was formally opened. In February 
1857 the building saw its first opera, 77 Trovatore. This presentation 
conclusively demonstrated the Academy's worth to Philadelphia 
music lovers. The acoustics was declared the finest in the United 
States, and even today the Academy is distinguished for its acoustic 

Another event of importance was the arrival, in 1907, of Oscar 
Hammerstein. He built, at Broad and Poplar Streets, the gigantic 
opera house known as the Metropolitan. Hammerstein scoffed at 

The Academy of Music 
"Where rich memories are born 9 



warnings that the venture would fail because the building was too 
far from the center of the city. Whether or not the location was a 
vital factor, the house, despite its spacious stage and elaborate ap- 
pointments, was not successful. To the bitter disappointment of him- 
self and local music lovers, Hammerstein was able to present opera 
for only two years. Later, however, the Metropolitan was the scene 
of intermittent operatic productions. 

The twentieth century ushered in a new era in Philadelphia music. 
In the years to follow, the city surged forward in a magnificent musi- 
cal advance that ultimately placed it among the leaders as a world 
musical center. 

Philadelphia Orchestra 

HPHE Philadelphia Orchestra was organized in 1900, as an out- 
*- growth of the defunct Philadelphia Symphonic Society, which had 
been founded in 1893, with William Wallace Gilchrist as its leader. 
The orchestra's first concert was held November 16 under the baton 
of Fritz Scheel. During the winter of 1900-01 a series of six concerts 
was given in the Academy of Music, and in the spring of 1901 the 
orchestra, still under Scheel's direction, gave a concert for the benefit 
of the soldiers and sailors of the Philippine campaign. 

These concerts were received with so much favor that a movement 
was set afoot to establish the orchestra on a permanent basis. 

Up to that time, Philadelphia music lovers had to get along with a 
few concerts given each year by touring symphony orchestras, or else 
go to New York. Finally, through the efforts of Alexander Van Rens- 
selaer and a committee composed of John H. Ingham, Oliver Boyce 
Judson, Edward S. McCollin, John C. Sims, Henry Wheelen, Jr., Oscar 
A. Knipe, and Dr. Edward I. Keffer, the Philadelphia Orchestra 
Association was formed. Scheel was engaged as the regular conductor ; 
and although the early years of the orchestra's existence were marked 
by financial difficulties, public-spirited citizens from time to time 
aided with generous contributions. 

Scheel died in 1907. After an exhaustive search throughout Europe, 
Carl Polhig, Royal Court Conductor of the King of Wurttemburg, 
was engaged as conductor. Polhig's leadership over a period of five 
years, however, was not especially impressive. 

The year 1912 was important in the development of the orchestra. 
Leopold Stokowski, who had been conducting the Cincinnati Orches- 
tra, was engaged to lead the Philadelphia organization. A man of 
artistic temperament and spectacular methods, the maestro began 
a long series of experiments with new symphonic works, new methods 
of instrument arrangement, and new styles of presentation. In the 20 
succeeding years the fame of Stokowski spread throughout the world. 



Among his innovations was the arrangement of the orchestra per- 
sonnel on a level platform instead of in the conventional amphi- 
theatre. He became noted, also, for his rebukes to noisy and to 
late-arriving patrons. On one occasion, during the season of 1926, he 
chided tardy arrivals by opening the concert with an "orchestra" 
composed of a cellist and a violinist, permitting the other orchestra 
members to straggle in two or three at a time. In 1929 he rebuked 
patrons who had hissed a Schonberg number by suggesting they sur- 
render their seats to others who would appreciate good music. 

A few years later, when orchestra patrons criticized the appear- 
ance of modern compositions on the programs, the blond conductor 
arranged a program with a division between "regular" and "modern" 
numbers, virtually inviting those who disliked the new music to 
leave. On still another occasion he interrupted a concert to upbraid 
a few members of the audience, maintaining that their applause of 
a Bach transcription disturbed the delicate mood inspired by the 

Stokowski's conductorship ended with the close of the 1935-36 
season. He had decided to devote more time to musical research and 
to experimentation in connection with motion pictures. In the spring 
of 1936 the orchestra made a nation-wide tour. Stokowski was the 
chief conductor, while Saul Cohen Caston and Charles O'Connell al- 
ternated on the podium as associate conductors. However, the 1936-37 
season saw a new conductor, Eugene Ormandy, with Stokowski acting 
as musical director and conducting a limited number of concerts. 

Closely affiliated with the orchestra is the Youth Movement in 
Music, instituted by Stokowski with two concerts for youths, which 
he directed, in 1933. In response to his appeal for some sort of or- 
ganization among the younger music lovers, clubs were formed and 
placed under the guidance of orchestra members. Their purpose was 
a discussion and exchange of ideas on singing, drama, and orchestra- 

The Concerts for Youth Committee, of which C. David Hocker is 
chairman, acts in an advisory capacity to the movement. The com- 
mittee arranges auditions for unusually talented youngsters. One of 
those selected at an audition was Eugene List, who later obtained a 
position with the Philharmonic Society of New York, and was en- 
gaged for an extensive tour of Europe. The youth concerts are well 
attended, and the 100 youth clubs had a membership of more than 
1,000 in 1937. 


Curtis Institute of Music 

FOUNDED in 1924 by Mary Louise Curtis Bok, the Curtis Institute 
"endeavors, through contemporary masters, to inculcate into stu- 
dents of today the great traditions of the past." It provides free tuition, 
individual instruction by world-famous artists, financial assistance, 
and also arranges preparatory stage and radio performances for stu- 
dents of merit. 

Student soloists, ensemble groups, and the Curtis Orchestra par- 
ticipate in approximately 25 programs each season. They are broad- 
cast from the institute auditorium and from Philadelphia's radio 
studios over a national network. Students also appear before edu- 
cational and civic organizations within a hundred-mile radius of the 
city. Some of them are permitted, at the discretion of the school, to 
accept professional engagements. 

Admission to the institute, which is situated on Rittenhouse Square, 
is limited to those whose inherent musical gift shows promise of 
development to a point of professional quality. Auditions are held 
within a month after application for enrollment, the final decision 
as to the suitability of the applicant resting upon talent shown in 
the examination. 

Since Curtis Institute was founded, 246 students have been grad- 
uated. Among these were Helen Jepson, Rose Bampton, Conrad Thi- 
bault, Charlotte Symons, Samuel Barber, Wilbur Evans, Benjamin 
de Loache, Boris Goldovsky, Edwina Eustis, Edna Phillips, Shura 
Cherkassky, Sylvan Levin, Eugene Lowenthal, Agnes Davis, and Ira 

Other Musical Groups 

FOR a number of years orchestral concerts were given in an open- 
air pavilion on Lemon Hill in Fairmount Park. The orchestra 
consisted of about 50 musicians, many of them members of the Phila- 
delphia Orchestra. The programs were made up generally of semi- 
popular works of great composers, arranged to appeal to different 
gradations of understanding and appreciation. These concerts were 
popular and well attended, a gathering of more than 10,000 having 
been estimated on one Sunday. Since the auditorium could accom- 
modate only a fraction of this number, thousands were forced to 
find seats on the surrounding lawns. 

Among the conductors who appeared at Lemon Hill from 1922 to 
1925 were Thaddeus Rich, Richard Hageman, Willem Van Hoog- 
straten,- Henry Hadley, Alexander Smallens, Nahan Franko, and 
Victor Kolar. Other musical celebrities to appear at the Lemon Hill 
concerts included Olga Samaroff, Elsa Alsen, Elly Ney, and Rence 



Thornton. The concert season at Lemon Hill lasted for seven weeks 
during July and August. These concerts were supplanted by the 
Robin Hood Dell programs, begun in 1930. 

During the seventh (1936) season at the Dell, operas and ballets 
were presented in addition to "straight" concerts, with Jose Iturbi as 
musical director of these concerts which are a cooperative venture on 
the part of members of the Philadelphia Orchestra. The Dell, a 
natural amphitheater which accommodates 6,000, is also in Fairmount 
Park, and most of the musicians are members of the Philadelphia 
Orchestra. Concerts are scheduled for six nights each week during the 
season. If inclement weather interrupts the schedule, performances 
are held over until weather permits. 

The Philadelphia Grand Opera Company, organized in 1926, affi- 
liated itself two years later with the Curtis Institute of Music, pro- 
viding graduates of the institute with an opportunity to appear in 
grand opera. The late William C. Hammer, a trumpeter, was one of 
the founders ; Artur Rodzinski was its first conductor. No perform- 
ances have been given by this group in recent years. 

The Savoy Opera Company, founded in 1901 by the late Dr. 
Reginald Aliens, presents Gilbert and Sullivan operas exclusively. 
The group is sponsored by the School of Music of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and the proceeds of its performances go to the school. 
The operas are usually given with a cast and chorus of 100 or more. 

Philadelphia's keen appreciation of music also reveals itself in the 
existence of many other groups. The Stringart Quartet, a well-known 
chamber music ensemble organized in 1933, seeks to advance the 
more obscure classical music. This group is composed of Leon Lawisza 
and Arthur Cohn, violinists ; Gabriel Braverman, violist ; and 
Maurice Stad, violoncellist. The quartet annually presents a number 
of subscription concerts in Philadelphia and vicinity. 

The Strawbridge & Clothier Company Chorus was founded in 1885 
by a group of employees. Since 1905 Dr. Herbert J. Tily, who was 
made president of Strawbridge & Clothier in 1927, has directed the 
chorus. Dr. Tily has written much of the music sung by the group, 
including a number of well-known cantatas. The chorus gives an an- 
nual concert at Robin Hood Dell, as well as performances in the 
Strawbridge & Clothier store during the Christmas and Easter seasons. 

Victor Herbert, renowned composer of light operas, wrote many 
numbers especially for this group. Long identified with Philadelphia 
music, Herbert is best remembered for his annual engagements at 
Willow Grove Park, just north of the city. These extended over a 
period of 20 years. His first contact with the Philadelphia public dates 
back to the time when he gave concerts in Washington Park on 
the Delaware. He also appeared here in the old days as conductor 



of the Philadelphia Operatic Society. In 1916, at the request of Dr. 
Tily, he came to the city and gave at the Metropolitan Opera House 
a concert which included only his works. Many of his compositions 
were presented for the first time in Willow Grove Park ; others were 
started or completed during his stay there. 

The Keystone Quartet, whose personnel has remained unchanged 
since its formation in 1918, is composed of employees of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. This group has been heard in all parts of the world, 
both on the radio and in personal appearances. The quartet has broad- 
cast frequently on short wave transmission to Europe, and in 1930 
took part in the first television broadcasting of this kind. 

The Orpheus Club of Philadelphia, one of the oldest singing 
societies in the city, was organized in 1872. Composed of professional 
and business men, the chorus numbers about 70 voices. Concerts are 
given three times a year at the Academy of Music. The American 
Opera Guild, organized in 1935, promotes musical appreciation 
among American singers of talent and provides training facilities for 
them. The guild plans to present operas in English, with local 
singers. Operas will be staged and rehearsed in Philadelphia before 
the company goes on tour. 

Philadelphia is the home of the oldest German singing organiza- 
tion in the United States the Maennerchor Society, founded in 
1835. The Mendelssohn Club, founded in 1874 by Dr. William Wal- 
lace Gilchrist, gives a number of special performances each year in 
conjunction with the Philadelphia Orchestra. The Canzonetta 
Chorus, organized in 1920, gives two performances yearly in the 
ballroom of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. During the Lenten season 
it offers a number of concerts in which sacred music is featured. Lit 
Brothers' department store maintains a chorus of employees, giving 
annual concerts for charity at the Bellevue-Stratford. 

Valuable training in music and drama is also offered by the Settle- 
ment Music School, 416 Queen Street, which was founded in 1908 and 
incorporated in 1914. The present school was erected in 1917 from 
funds donated by Mrs. Edward W. Bok. Each student is required to 
pay a reasonable tuition fee, but only a few are able to pay for the 
full cost of instruction. 


r l~^O THE concert artist and musician, Philadelphia offers a life 
-*- ideally adapted to study. The traditions of the city are inspiring, 
and Philadelphians are especially sympathetic to the musical student. 
Many world-renowned artists were born and educated, or have lived 



Josef Hofmann, celebrated pianist and dean of the Curtis Institute 
of Music, resides in Merion Penna. Born in Poland in 1876, Hofmann 
at an early age attracted the attention of the composer Rubinstein. 
When only 10 years old, Hofmann toured the United States and 
was acclaimed a child prodigy. Today he is recognized as one of the 
greatest living pianists. Hofmann, now an American citizen, has been 
associated with the Curtis Institute since its inception in 1924. 

Mme. Olga Samaroff, at one time the wife of Leopold Stokowski, 
was born in San Antonio, Texas, in 1882, and made her American 
debut as a pianist at Carnegie Hall in 1905, with the New York 
Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Walter Damrosch. Since 
then she has given many concerts either alone or with such artists as 
Kreisler and Zimbalist, and with the Kreisler Quartet. At present, 
Madam SamarofF is associated with the Philadelphia Conservatory. 

Harl MacDonald, one of the most promising of modern composers, 
is professor of music in the University of Pennsylvania's Department 
of Music. Born in Boulder, Colorado, in 1899, MacDonald has com- 
posed many symphonies, modern in treatment and often dissonant 
and barbaric in style and rhythm. 

One of the outstanding opera singers of today, Dusolina Giannini, 
was born in Philadelphia in 1902, of Italian parents. For years her 
father conducted a small opera house known as Verdi Hall, in South 
Philadelphia, where she and her sister Euphemia learned to sing 
the songs of Italy under the tutelage of their parents. Ferruccio 
Giannini himself had been an opera singer, and he soon recognized 
the great possibilities in Dusolina's voice. He took his daughter to 
Mme. Marcella Sembrich, under whom she was trained for an 
operatic career. She made her debut at Berlin in 1925 in Aida, and in 
1936 she created a sensation in New York. Later in 1936 she toured 
Europe, her star gaining brilliance with every appearance. 

The baritone, Nelson Eddy, rose to national prominence from the 
newsroom of a Philadelphia newspaper. In 1933 Eddy sang in Parsi- 
fal with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Eddy was born in Providence, 
Rhode Island, in 1901, and came to Philadephia fourteen years later. 
While working as a newspaper reporter, he studied singing under 
the late David Bispham, making his first theatrical appearance as a 
minor character in The Marriage Tax in 1922. Success followed on 
the concert stage, in grand opera, in the motion pictures, and on the 
radio. Among films in which he has appeared are Dancing Lady, 
Naughty Marietta, Rose Marie, and Maytime. 

David S. Bispham himself was one of the greatest operatic baritones 
this country ever produced. For years he sang many of the leading 
baritone roles with the Metropolitan Opera Company, creating a 
number of notable parts. After his retirement from the operatic 



stage he devoted himself to vocal teaching, a field in which he also 
won signal success. Bispham, whose parents were Quakers, was born 
in Philadelphia January 5, 1857. 

Another of the city's noted contemporary singers is Marian Ander- 
son, a Negro, whose success began with her first professional appear- 
ance as contralto soloist with the Philadelphia Philharmonic Sym- 
phony Society. A recital in New York followed. Competing against 300 
singers, she won the New York Philharmonic contest and later went 
abroad to begin a series of tours and courses of study. Of the same 
age as Dusolina Giannini, Miss Anderson is hailed as having one of 
the rarest contralto voices in modern times. 

The music critic who possibly did more than any other man in 
America to "discover" such musical geniuses as Strindberg and 
Stravinsky was the Philadelphian, James G. Huneker. Born here Jan- 
uary 31, 1860, Huneker studied music in New York and Paris, and 
then became assistant to Rafael Joseffy, teaching at the then newly 
founded National Conservatory. Afterwards, becoming a "steeplejack 
of the seven arts," as he whimsically termed it, he wrote for the 
New York Morning Recorder and Advertiser, and then joined the staff 
of the Sun as dramatic critic, art editor, and special writer. Following 
an extended tour of Europe, Huneker in 1918 became connected with 
the New York Times as music critic. When death ended his brilliant 
career in 1921, he was with the New York World. During a part of 
this time he traveled weekly to Philadelphia to conduct a column in 
the Philadelphia Press. His published volumes of epigrammatic ap- 
preciation of art and letters included Mezzotints in Modern Music, 
Melomaniacs, Overtones, Iconoclasts, Book of Dramatics, and others. 

Among other Philadelphians prominent in the music world are 
Josephine Lucchese, soprano ; Wilbur Evans, baritone ; Henri Scott, 
basso ; Nicholas Douty, tenor ; Edward Ellsworth Hipsher and Guy 
Vincent Rice Marririer, directors; Alexander McCurdy, Jr., Russell 
King Miller, and Norris Lindsay Norden, organists ; Samuel L. Laciar, 
music critic ; and Dr. James Francis Cooke, composer. 



ALTHOUGH Philadelphia's early days were notable for utilita- 
rian rather than artistic achievement, this city long has oc- 
cupied an enviable position as a shrine of the arts. During the 
city's early settlement there was neither the money, time, nor incli- 
nation for anything but practical accomplishment. Then, gradually, 
with the growth of trade, there emerged a class with the necessary 
time and money to indulge in cultural pursuits. Those who ap- 
preciated "the true and beautiful" found expression for their ap- 
preciation in the collecting of rare treasures and in patronizing paint- 
ing and sculpture. The more utilitarian crafts such as the making of 
silverware, pewterware, and furniture also were encouraged. 

In the field of furniture-making particularly, Philadelphia ac- 
chieved real distinction. Its late eighteenth century cabinetmakers 
evolved an ornate style known as "Philadelphia Chippendale" for 
the reason that it was derived in part from the engravings published 
by Thomas Chippendale in his Cabinet Maker's Directory of 1754- 
1755 and 1761. The market provided by a large and increasingly 
prosperous merchant class, and the unofficial boycott on foreign 
goods which existed in the American colonies as early as 1761 in 
protest against the odious import taxes on British wares, combined 
to place domestic goods at a premium and to develop a pride in 
fine local workmanship. On the other hand, loss of contact with the 
center of current taste was evident in a continued vogue of the florid 
Chippendale style until well after the close of the Revolution, 
whereas in England the classic Adam style had been launched some 
years earlier. 

The work of four early cabinetmakers, represented at the Penn- 
sylvania Museum of Art Benjamin Randolph, Jonathan Goste- 
lowe, Thomas Tufft, and Edward James exemplifies the unique 
features of early Philadelphia furniture craft. 

Such painting as was done, particularly at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, was practiced by men who had little if any pre- 
liminary training. Spoken of as limners (a corruption of the old 
English term "illuminer," or decorator of manuscripts) , they traveled 
from town to town with a stock collection of portraits complete ex- 
cept for the faces. It usually required but one sitting to fill in the 
individual likeness. 



The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has in its possession what 
are probably among the earliest paintings done in Philadelphia. They 
are three portraits (of Robert Morris and of the artist and his wife) 
by Gustavus Hesselius, who came to Philadelphia from Sweden in 
1711. Hesselius, the first organ-builder in the Colonies, executed a 
number of portraits and designs for churches. 

Other early painters included John Meng ; William Williams, 
Benjamin West's first instructor ; Matthew Pratt, who worked as 
West's assistant for a time ; and James Claypoole, a miniature painter 
who also served as Sheriff of Philadelphia for several years. Pierre 
Eugene du Simitiere, artist and naturalist, became one of the curators 
of the American Philosophical Society ; and Joseph Wright, who 
modeled miniature heads in wax, was appointed by President Wash- 
ington as first draughtsman and die-sinker in the United States Mint. 
Among their contemporaries were Henry Bembridge, John Wesley 
Jarvis (one of the first American artists to study art anatomy) , Robert 
E. Pine, and Jean Pierre Henri-Louis. 

The first painter of consequence born on American soil was Phila- 
delphia's celebrated Benjamin West (1738-1820). A Quaker, whose 
sect tolerated no pictures save family portraits, West spent most of 
his life in England. 

The reasons which took West to London also actuated many other 
American artists. New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, in West's day, 
offered little encouragement to any sort of artist other than the itiner- 
ant portrait painter. The lack of art museums, of artistic companion- 
ship, and of any real interest in the arts drove Americans to seek 
fame and fortune abroad. London at that time was the hub of the 
civilized world, with Hogarth, Reynolds, and Gainsborough at the 
height of their fame. And an abundance of art lovers and patrons 
contrived to give the town an atmosphere particularly stimulating 
to aspiring artists. 

Ultimately, West acquired an eminent position in London as a 
painter and teacher. He was favored with the royal patronage, and 
became a founding member, and later president, of the Royal Acad- 
emy. He was always ready to assist young American artists, financially 
as well as didactically. Among his students or proteges were Gilbert 
Stuart, Copley, Malbone, C. W. Peale, Matthew Pratt, and Thomas 

West's chief claim to interest today probably lies in his canvas, 
The Death of (General) Wolfe, in which the figures are clad in 
clothes of the period, instead of the classical robes with which 
painters at the time commonly arrayed their historical subjects. 

Of the famous Peale family, which includes several painters, 
Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) is probably most outstanding. His 
studies of Revolutionary patriots are on permanent exhibition at the 



Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, which he helped to found. 
His son Rembrandt (1778-1860) at the age of 17 executed a portrait 
of Washington, from whom he obtained three sittings. Another son, 
Raphael (1774-1825) devoted his energies principally to still-life 
subjects. Still another, Titian (1800-1885), occupied himself with the 
delineation of animal life. He executed most of the plates in the first 
and fourth volumes of Charles Lucien Bonaparte's American Orni- 
thology. James Peale, brother of Charles, is known for his many 
miniatures and portraits in oil. He served during the Revolution as 
an officer in the Continental line. 

Patriotism and painting marched hand in hand during the Revo- 
lution, when the artist packed his palette and brushes in his camp 
baggage and started off to war. One of Charles Willson Peale's best 
known portraits of Washington was painted when the artist was a 
captain with the general. The canvas was begun at Valley Forge, 
continued at New Brunswick a day or two after the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and finished later in Philadelphia. 

Because portrait painting was at the height of its popularity in 
England during the eighteenth century, American painters, whose 
viewpoints were derived from the mother country, likewise devoted 
themselves to this branch of art. After the Revolution, a number of 
artists from various parts of the world were attracted to the young 
republic. All were eager to attempt likenesses of George Washing- 
ton, who perhaps served as the subject of more paintings, etch- 
ings, and lithographs than any other man of his time. A ship dock- 
ing at the port of Philadelphia from Canton, China, during this 
period, brought paintings of Washington done on glass by an emi- 
nent Chinese artist. 

The most distinguished delineator of President Washington was 
Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828), who is credited with 124 studies of his 
subject and who probably worked on about 1,000 different canvases. 
A colleague of West's, and a student of anatomy under Dr. William 
C. Cruikshank, Stuart never acquired the power of handling large 
canvases with the fluency and grace of Reynolds and Gainsborough ; 
but within the compass of a single portrait he was distinctly success- 

Stuart, who was born in Rhode Island, set up a studio in Philadel- 
phia late in 1794, soon after his return to America from a long 
period of study abroad. His sojourn in this city is memorable by 
reason of the brilliant series of women's portraits he completed here, 
and for the three famous studies of Washington done during the 
latter's old age all executed either in Philadelphia or in nearby 
Germantown. For the first, a bust portrait identified as the Vaughan 
Type, Washington sat during the winter of 1795. The second, a life 



size standing portrait known as the Lansdowne Type, was completed 
in the spring of 1796. 

A short time later, Stuart moved his studio to Germantown, where 
in the autumn of 1796 Washington sat for the now familiar "Athe- 
naeum Head," which is unfinished as to the stock and coat, but is a 
highly idealized representation of the first President's features dur- 
ing his declining years. Stuart took the painting with him to Boston 
when he moved there in the summer of 1805. He died in Boston 23 
years later. 

Stuart's color is still alive and fresh. His portraits reveal a feeling 
for form, as expressed in the modulation of values, and a notable 
capacity for character analysis. It is probable that he will always 
rank among America's finest portrait painters. 

The era of the new republic also produced William Birch, minia- 
ture painter and engraver, who is known for the development of a 
red-brown enamel which he used as background in his miniatures ; 
Bass Otis, the first American lithographer, whose work was prophetic 
of the multitude of colored pictures which were to come tumbling 
from the presses of Currier & Ives ; and James Sharpies, painter of 
the French-influenced pastels which hang in Independence Hall. Some 
time during the years between 1801 and 1807, the city also served as 
host to Edward Green Malbone, as skilled a painter of miniatures as 
Stuart was of portraits. 

William Birch's son, Thomas (1779-1851), also achieved distinction 
as an engraver, producing jointly with his father the much-prized 
Views of Philadelphia. His most important work, however, was done 
in landscapes and marine subjects. 

Washington Crossing the Delaware, the study of Lafayette in In- 
dependence Hall, and a full-length portrait of Queen Victoria which 
the artist was commissioned to paint for the Sons of St. George of 
Philadelphia, are among the most important works of Thomas Sully 
(1783-1872). Born in England, Sully came to America at the age of 
nine and in 1808 settled in Philadelphia, where he remained for the 
rest of his life. His painting technique was largely self-taught, al- 
though he was undoubtedly influenced by Stuart and Lawrence. He 
was a prolific portraitist; and was onetime president of the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, which possesses today a number 
of fine specimens of his work. 

Among the minor painters of post-Revolutionary Philadelphia 
were John Neagle, whose series of American theatrical portraits now 
line the walls of the Players Club in New York City ; Robert Fulton, 
known as the designer of the first successful steamboat ; Benjamin 
Trott, the miniature painter ; Samuel Jennings, whose canvas, The 
Genius of America, hangs in the main room of the Free Library ; John 
Joseph Holland, landscape and scene painter ; John James Barralett, 



engraver, and John Lewis Krimmel, whose work anticipated the Diis- 
seldorf School. Adolph Ulric Wertmuller, a Swedish painter who 
settled in Philadelphia in 1794, is celebrated chiefly for his canvas 
Danae, which he was forbidden to exhibit publicly because it was a 
nude. Private exhibitions of the painting, however, netted the artist a 
handsome income. 

Philadelphia was the birthplace of the pioneer American sculptor, 
William Rush (1756-1833). A wood carver by profession, Rush 
developed great skill in designing figureheads for ships. His River 
God for the ship Ganges is said to have been revered by the Hindus 
who came in boatloads to see it. The Pennsylvania Academy, which 
he helped to establish, possesses an interesting memento of Rush in 
the plaster cast made from the original portrait of himself which he 
carved in a pine knot. 

Had time permitted, Rush would doubtless have attempted marble 
instead of confining his efforts to wood and clay. However, he was 
rather indifferent to the material used. Of more significance, he in- 
sisted, was the artist's ability to visualize the figure in the block. 
Removal of the surface he regarded as merely mechanical ; often 
when time was lacking he would hire a wood chopper and stand by 
giving directions where to cut. Rush had ideas in abundance, a sense 
of grace, and much facility. 

Another early Philadelphia marine painter was James Hamilton. 
Like his predecessor, Thomas Birch, Hamilton also painted land- 
scapes that are much prized today. 

With the interest in the mezzotint stimulated by the work of John 
Sartain, who became associated with Graham's Magazine in 1841, 
the use of illustrations grew in vogue as a distinctive feature of 
American periodicals. Other engravers of this early period were 
Cephas Grier Childs, Daniel Claypoole Johnson (the "American 
Cruikshank") , James Barton Longacre, and William Mason. Felix 
Darley's pen and ink sketches were in the manner of the best English 
illustrations of the time. 

Painting in Philadelphia continued to reflect Continental ten- 
dencies. The assault on the stilted classicism of West and David, which 
led to French Romanticism and indirectly stimulated the rise of the 
anecdotal schools of Diisseldorf and Munich, deluged the United 
States with an avalanche of story-telling pictures soaked in German 
sentimentality. This type of painting, exploited by a number of 
Philadelphia artists whose names are now forgotten, was enormously 
popular, for it was intelligible even to those who knew little about 
art. During this period, an extraordinarily rapid increase in the 
fortunes of persons of little culture led to the foundation of many 
private collections by ambitious owners for whom the anecdotal 
picture held greatest appeal. 



Another Continental movement, the landscape painting school of 
Corot and Turner, helped shape one of the first native developments 
in American art. Applying the style of their European masters, 
American landscape painters turned to the scenic loveliness of 
America for their subject matter. 

Foremost among the city's scenic painters of this period were Wil- 
liam Trost Richards (1833-1905) noted for his marine paintings; and 
the Moran brothers, Thomas, Edward, and Peter. A member of the 
Pennsylvania Academy, Thomas Moran was the first important artist 
to paint scenes of what are now our national parks, such as the 

Outstanding for their historical paintings were Emmanuel Leutze, 
a native of Germany, who spent many years in Philadelphia, and who 
executed the well-known painting, Washington Crossing the Dela- 
ware ; Peter F. Rothermel, painter of the colossal Battle of Gettys- 
burg ; and James R. Lambdin, known for his portraits of the Civil 
War period. 

With the renascence of Romanticism, France became increasingly 
dominant in shaping the artistic ideals of Europe, and, in turn, of 
the United States. Particularly profound in their influence on 
American painters, because of their preoccupation with outdoor 
phenomena, was that group of independents known as the Impres- 
sionists. Their movement gave impetus to a trend among American 
artists which was apparent from the second half of the nineteenth 
century the great trek to Paris. 

The realistic approach began with Courbet, but with increasing in- 
sistence made itself felt in art toward the end of the last century ; it 
is manifested in the straightforward works of Thomas Eakins (1844- 
1916) . Although he was in the vanguard of the American movement 
to Paris, where he studied under Bonn at and Gerome, Eakins re- 
turned to America to paint the subjects of his native land in a style 
peculiarly his own. Possibly because he had grown up amid the 
prevailing red brick row houses of Philadelphia and its tree-shaded 
streets, in a period when houses and clothes were sombre and oil or 
gas afforded a meager illumination, Eakins painted his canvasses in 
colors that were dark and warm. Moreover, most of the paintings he 
had seen in his youth had been in that tradition, and when he went 
abroad impressionism had barely begun. 

Indeed, not only impressionism but most of the leading tendencies 
of French art passed him by completely the cult of the exotic and 
the Oriental, the return to the primitive, the increasing subjectivism, 
the decorative bent, the trend toward abstraction, the restless search 
for new forms and colors. Unlike many of his contemporaries who 
either became expatriates or drew a veil of pretty sentiment over 
America's crudities, Eakins, while revolting against its puritanism, 



accepted his environment with the same robust affirmation as did 
Walt Whitman. 

Eakins' influence would be difficult to trace. His work had few ele- 
ments to make it popular ; it called for too fundamental a knowledge 
to attract imitators. However, he exercised an unmistakable power 
over his students at the Pennsylvania Academy, from which his ex- 
pulsion, because of prudish objections to his insistence on reality in 
the life class, provoked a student parade of protest on Chestnut 

Eakins' early pre-occupation with science his chief interest next 
to painting was demonstrated again and again in his work. He 
encouraged a study of anatomy before drawing the human figure, and 
emphasized that space and form relationships should be determined 
by perspective. Even his color was rationalized. To learn the funda- 
mentals of the human figure, Eakins studied at Jefferson Medical 
College, and probably knew more about the structure of the body 
than any other artist of his time. His medical studies inspired the 
sensational Gross Clinic hanging in Jefferson College ; also, the Agnew 
Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania, which when first exhibited 
aroused a storm of protest and indignation. 

There is evidence that Eakins' name will also be remembered for 
his success with the camera. Like Eadweard Muybridge, he experi- 
mented with motion ; but where Muybridge studied movements from 
different positions at the same time, Eakins concentrated on pro- 
gressive action seen from one position. In 1884 he conducted experi- 
ments at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrating the muscular 
action of horses and athletes. His viewpoint was that of the motion 
picture ; and his lecture, using the zoetrope, at the academy in 1885. 
was possibly the first exhibition in the United States of motion 
pictures taken from a single angle. 

Mary Cassatt (1845-1926), among the most distinguished Americans 
to follow the leadership of Degas, Manet, Cezanne, Monet, Renoir, 
Morisot, and Pissarro, spent most of her life in France. Born in Pitts- 
burgh, the daughter of a well-to-do banker, she was taken to Paris at 
the age of five. Upon returning to the United States five years later, 
the family settled in Philadelphia, where Mary studied at the 
Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1868 she went to Europe, where she 
found study more profitable in the galleries than in the academies. 
So captivated was she by Correggio that she remained in Parma eight 
months. She admired the discriminating firmness of Holbein, the in- 
sistent purity of Ingres, she copied Parmigiano ; her own color prints 
benefited by her response to the compositional novelties of the Japan- 
ese wood-block printers that took Paris by storm in the early seven- 

However, the work of Degas had the greatest influence on her. His 



manner can be traced throughout all her work. Regarded primarily 
as a painter of mother and child subjects, Mary Cassatt was actually 
an artist of considerable versatility. The color etchings which supple- 
ment her paintings testify to the scope of her inventiveness. 

Daniel Ridgway Knight, a Philadelphia painter who won inter- 
national distinction with his large and typical French Salon picture 
exhibited at the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876, likewise passed the 
greater part of his life abroad. The Philadelphians, Earl Stetson 
Crawford and Elisha Kent Wetherill, whose work shows a decided 
Whistler influence, were also Paris-trained. 

Like other artists of the period, the Negro painter, Henry Ossawa 
Tanner (1859-1937) spent much of his life in Europe. Coming to 
Philadelphia from Pittsburgh in 1870, he later studied under Thomas 
Eakins at the Academy of the Fine Arts. His Biblical paintings at- 
tracted attention immediately, and the late John Wanamaker pur- 
chased several, one of which, Christ Learning to Read., hangs in the 
Philadelphia store. Two of his paintings were purchased by the 
French Government and hung in the world-famed Luxembourg Gal- 
leries in Paris. Others of his works hang in the Metropolitan Museum 
in New York (Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah) ; Memorial Hall 
in Fairmount Park (The Madonna Annunciation) ; the Carnegie 
Institute ; the Wilstach collection ; the Chicago Art Institute ; the 
Los Angeles Art Gallery ; and many other places. About 1899 Tanner 
left Philadelphia for Paris where he accomplished much of the work 
which achieved for him universal fame as a painter of Biblical scenes. 

Cecilia Beaux, one of the academy's most successful students, 
painted chiefly in France. Characterized by forthright brushwork and 
feeling for audacious design, her canvases suggest a kinship with 
Sargent's. Her work has a masculine power and vigor, without any 
suggestion of stylistic imitation or technical affectation. 

The sculptors for whom nineteenth century Philadelphia is note- 
worthy similarly made their pilgrimage to Paris. Howard Roberts, 
whose first important work, La Premiere Pose, was shown at the 
Centennial Exhibition, pioneered in promoting the ideals of the 
modern French school in this country. The American Indian was first 
utilized as a sculptural subject by John J. Boyle, a native of New 
York, who is represented by The Stone Age in Fairmount Park ; he 
also modeled the heroic-size statue of Franklin which stands along- 
side the old post-office building on Chestnut Street near Ninth. Joseph 
A. Bailly, a native of Paris who opened a violin studio in Philadel- 
phia at the age of 25, is known for his figure of Washington and for 
other works. 

Alexander Milne Calder is best known for his gigantic bronze of 
William Penn atop City Hall. His son, Alexander Stirling Calder, 
has executed some of the Parkway's most important sculpture. A 



statue of Dr. Samuel Gross, now in Washington, D. C., and the six 
heroic figures adorning the Witherspoon Building at Juniper and 
Walnut Streets are among his outstanding studies. 

Edmund Austin Stewardson was a sculptor of great promise whose 
career was terminated by his death at 32. He lived to complete only 
one work, The Bather, but this is accounted a fine specimen of Ameri- 
can art. The highly acclaimed Fountain of Man was produced by the 
academy's long-time teacher, Charles Grafly, also esteemed for his 
portrait busts and bronze groups. The Meade Memorial in Washing- 
ton, D. C., The Symbol of Life, Pioneer Mother, and In Much Wisdom 
are among his most important works. 

The turn of the century ushered into prominence such artists as 
Edwin Austin Abbey, Violet Oakley, Maxfield Parrish, Joseph Pen- 
nell, Howard Pyle and George Walter Dawson. 

Abbey, who spejit the last years of his life doing murals for the 
State Capitol at Harrisburg, attracted international attention in 1882 
through his illustrations for Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer. 
Violet Oakley, who began her professional career with illustrations 
for books and magazines, is noted for her murals and for her por- 
traits and designs for stained glass. Maxfield Parrish, whose work is 
a familiar decoration in countless homes, is noted for his delicacy of 
line combined with individuality of color effects. Pennell and Pyle 
were writers as well as illustrators. The former achieved distinction 
as etcher and lithographer, the latter for his drawings of American 
Colonial life. Dawson has attracted much attention by his landscape 
and botanical water colors. 

With the onset of the movements ushered in by the New York 
Armory show of independent artists in 1913, several factors combined 
to decrease Philadelphia's importance as an art center. The academy, 
which had driven out Eakins and which had earlier set aside sepa- 
rate visiting days for ladies when the nude statues on view were 
swathed from head to foot in all-concealing draperies, refused to 
recognize post-impressionism except in pained surprise. The insti- 
tution accordingly came to be looked upon with more and more 

On the other hand, the work which this institution, the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts, has accomplished is by no means to be 
underestimated. Not only has it performed well its task of teaching 
art students the technical essentials of their craft those things 
which can be taught ; but it has also furthered artistic endeavor by 
giving European scholarships, and is, moreover, the home of a num- 
ber of valuable painting and print collections, such as the Henry C. 
Gibson and Edward H. Coates collections. 

For more than 40 years Hugh Breckenridge (1870-1937) exerted 
tremendous influence upon the pupils who studied under him at this 


Rodin's "The Kiss" 
'The warm breath of life in cold marble' 



institution. Some of the most widely recognized artists of modern 
American art studied under this instructor, who was one of the first 
American artists to introduce the methods of the modern French 
school. Included in the list of artists who have been trained at the 
academy are such reputable figures as Robert Henri, George Luks, 
John Sloan, and Edward W. Redfield. Redfield's landscapes and snow 
scenes are found in important collections throughout the country. 

However, with the rise of New York City as an art market, the 
more enterprising inhabitants of Philadelphia's Bohemia deserted 
Camac Street and moved on to Greenwich Village. Other painters for- 
sook Philadelphia to develop the landscape possibilities of New 
Hope, Pennsylvania, and of Arden, Delaware. 

A number of Philadelphia painters and sculptors, however, have 
continued to work in an older tradition, and have found the placid 
cultural atmosphere of the city congenial. Daniel Garber teaches at 
the Academy of the Fine Arts, and paints decorative canvases of the 
scenes around New Hope ; largely American trained, he owes much, 
however, to the French Impressionists. Albert Rosenthal, painter and 
etcher, who studied under his father Max Rosenthal, noted litho- 
grapher, has made copies of historic portraits for the city's collection 
in Independence Hall and for the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Some of the country's most distinguished men have sat for por- 
traits by Lazar Raditz, Robert Susan, and Cesare Ricciardi, whose 
work is well represented at the Graphic Sketch Club. Robert W. 
Vonnoh, Birge Harrison, his brother Thomas Alexander Harrison, 
W. Elmer Schofield, Maurice Molarsky, and the late Adolphe Borie 
are others whose works are included in important collections. Birge 
Harrison and Schofield in particular have won considerable reputa- 
tion as landscapists. Like Redfield, both have exhibited widely, and 
are holders of numerous distinguished prize awards. 

Philadelphia's sculptors, generally, have carried on well. The 
modern athlete not unnaturally has inspired much of the work of 
Dr. R. Tail McKenzie, who in addition to being a sculptor is re- 
search professor of physical education at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Two of his compositions are on the University campus : a 
heroic statue of the youthful Franklin, and a figure, likewise heroic 
in size, of Rev. George Whitefield. Among his other works are the 
Dr. White Memorial, in Rittenhouse Square, which has been praised 
for the strength and originality of its composition ; and the Alma 
Mater figure at Girard College. 

Albert Laessle and Samuel Murray have also distinguished them- 
selves in sculpture. Laessle, who teaches at the Academy of the Fine 
Arts, executed the Pennypacker Memorial. His Billy in Rittenhouse 
Square and his Penguins in Fairmount Park are examples of his 
humor and skill in the treatment of animal subjects. 



Murray is represented by statues of Commodore Barry and Joseph 
Leidy on the Parkway. The Prophets, over the entrance to the With- 
erspoon Building, is another of his creations. 

In connection with sculpture, the presence in the city of the Rodin 
Museum is evidence of Philadelphia's artistic consciousness and taste. 
It is one of the few great Rodin Museums in the world, the original 
being in Paris. On the Parkway and in Fairmount Park are such 
works as the equestrian statue of Washington by Rudolph Siemering, 
Fremiet's Jeanne cFArc, Frederic Remington's Cowboy, The Pilgrim 
by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Duck Girl by Paul Manship, and sculp- 
tures by Daniel Chester French, Einar Jonsson, Charles Grafly, Bea- 
trice Fenton, and others. In addition, there are the Paul Bartlett 
statues of Robert Morris and McClellan; Karl Bitter's statue of Dr. 
William Pepper; and, in Rittenhouse Square, a copy of what is pos- 
sibly Barye's best work, The Lion and the Serpent. 

New tendencies and interests current in American art are reflected 
locally in Julius Bloch's proletarian themes, Benton Spruance's scenes 
of the city, Earl Horter's etchings, Franklin C. Watkins' striking 
canvases, and the sculptures of Boris Blai and Wallace Kelly. 

Outstanding artists in their respective fields are Nicola D'Ascenzo, 
noted for his stained glass work and murals, and Samuel Yellin, 
master metal craftsman. Yellin received the Bok Award in 1925 for 
his distinguished work in decorative iron. 

Straws in the wind seem to indicate that a more vigorous art atmos- 
phere is emerging in Philadelphia. A small but flourishing group of 
art clubs is fostering local talent by affording to members facilities 
for exhibition. Opportunity is .being given students to observe the 
fresh currents in contemporary art through exhibits staged by several 
enterprising modern galleries. 

It is significant that Philadelphia's great museum on the Parkway 
is supplementing its rich historical treasures, such as the Elkins and 
the John G. Johnson collections, with frequently varied shows which 
present a cross section of the latest modes in painting and sculpture. 
The Pennsylvania Museum of Art, as this institution is now known, 
was founded in 1876. It has a total collection of nearly 60,000 paint- 
ings, sculptures and art objects. Operated in connection with the 
museum is the School of Industrial Art, occupying a spacious location 
at Broad and Pine Streets. And at Merion, just outside of Philadel- 
phia, is the Albert Barnes private collection of modern paintings, the 
finest in the country, in connection with which courses of art in- 
struction are regularly given. 

Memorial Hall in Fairmount Park houses the extensive Wilstach 
collection of paintings, which contains fine specimens of the various 
schools and periods. Independence Hall, the Historical Society of 



Pennsylvania, and the Union League contain valuable collections of 
portraits by early American masters. 

In the field of art instruction Philadelphia has the long-established 
school of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts ; the Moore 
Institute of Art, Science, and Industry ; the School of Fine Arts at the 
University of Pennsylvania; and the Stella Elkins Tyler School of 
Fine Arts at Temple University. The Graphic Sketch Club's evening 
classes, under the patronage of Samuel Fleisher, provide free compe- 
tent training in art for those who are employed during the day, and 
afford an outlet for the creative energy of numerous others to whom 
art is only an avocation. The interesting recent development, the 
Cultural Olympics, organized for school children in Philadelphia and 
suburbs, seeks to center upon the arts something of the enthusiasm 
that is bestowed upon athletics. 

Artists who find difficulty in disposing of their works may now have 
recourse to the annual spring "Clothes Line Show" in Rittenhouse 
Square, where paintings, drawings, etchings, and water colors are 
strung between the trees, while attending painters in their bright- 
hued smocks provide a touch of Parisian atmosphere. This unusual 
exhibit, held in May, is attended by many visitors, the prices paid for 
pictures ranging from $1 to $15. 

Perhaps the most vital recent agency in developing popular es- 
thetic appreciation has been the WPA Federal Art Project in Phila- 
delphia. In utilizing the ability of unemployed painters and sculptors 
to produce mural and easel paintings for schools, recreation centers, 
and other public buildings, the WPA has provided sustenance, pre- 
served morale, and conserved valuable skill. Hardly less significant, 
it has also encouraged a lively curiosity concerning the fine arts among 
thousand to whom this field has hitherto meant little or nothing. 

Mosaic in lobby of Curtis Publishing Company Building 
"The Dream Garden" after Maxfield Parrish 



FOUR towers tell the story of Philadelphia. As architecturally 
different from one another as the ages which fashioned them, 
they and their contemporary structures indicate the local physical 
conditions, the economic and cultural progress of their time, and the 
changes in the art and science of building design. The first tower, 
that of the State House or Independence Hall, almost an exact restora- 
tion of the original tower which was built in 1750, is of brick 
with a wooden belfry. Fashioned after the Georgian style of 
England but adapted to the needs of the early Colony, it reflects the 
city's early growth and its part in the struggle for independence. The 
tower of the old Merchants' or Stock Exchange Building, completed 
in 1834, a stone lantern in the style of a Greek temple, tells of the 
days of the new Republic. The third tower, that of City Hall, 1894, 
of massive masonry, solid and tall, portrays the city's growth to a 
metropolis of world importance. The Philadelphia Saving Fund 
Society building, completed in 1932, is a tower of steel, concrete, 
chromium and glass modern materials for a modern age. It tells 
of today an age of search, of challenge, of the testing of new ideas. 
Independence Hall was erected embodying architectural features 
contributed by Andrew Hamilton, a famous lawyer and holder of 
various offices in the Province. Dominated by its handsome bell 
tower, a masterpiece of Colonial architecture and craftsmanship, it 
is a symbol of early Philadelphia. Unlike the situation in other early 
American Colonies, the settlers of Philadelphia did not experience a 
great struggle against hardships. Relations with the Indians were 
amicable, and commerce flourished. True, some of the colonists spent 
the first winter in caves on the banks of the Delaware River, but as 
clay was locally abundant and brick had been favored for city 
residences in the homeland, houses were built of brick almost from 
the beginning. It is to this material that Independence Hall owes 
much of its charm. 

From the earliest days, men of means, including many personal 
friends of William Penn, as well as skilled workers and craftsmen, 
came here to live. Capital of one of the last of the major Colonies 
to be settled, Philadelphia grew rapidly, soon taking its place as a 
leading city of the New World, both in wealth and culture. This late 
start is amply expressed in its architecture. Whereas the buildings 



of the older Colonies reflected an early English Renaissance style 
some of it going back to the Tudor period the State House tower 
and most of Philadelphia's building designs were inspired by the later 
Georgian style. 

However, early Philadelphia felt architectural influences other than 
the English Georgian. There still remain a few structures having their 
roots in the early Swedish settlement of the mid-seventeenth century. 
These, the relics of a colony settled in lower Philadelphia before the 
coming of William Penn, are Bellaire, or the Singley house; the Can- 
nonball, or Bleakly house; and the Schetzline, or Swedish Glebe 
house. Old Swedes' Church, or Gloria Dei, built about 1700 on Swan- 
son Street south of Christian Street, has only a slight Swedish flavor, 
evident in the rake of its eaves and the simplicity of its tower. The 
chief contribution of the Swedes to Philadelphia's architecture was 
log construction. It was natural that they should build of logs, as 
their native country used this type of construction extensively, where- 
as England, with limited forests, used wood sparingly. The Dutch 
supremacy on the lower Delaware, which superseded that of the 
Swedes, was but short-lived, and today there is no remaining^ archi- 
tectural evidence of their influence, unless we accept the Dutch stoep 
and double door. 

Just as the influence of the Swedes upon the life of the colony was 
overshadowed by that of the English, so were Swedish architectural 
influences soon eclipsed by the Georgian. While the State House 
tower is indicative of the important part England played in the shap- 
ing of the early colony, the Georgian style of architecture was adapted 
to suit local conditions. Its design, however, is rooted in the Italian 
Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the superb Pal- 
ladian window in the tower being traceable to the Renaissance build- 
ings of Palladio in Vicenza. The Renaissance style, spreading over 
Europe like a slow wave, reached England about two centuries later, 
where its highest development was called Georgian. England altered 
the Italian Renaissance style to suit its needs, and it is the Georgian 
style modified in the Thirteen Colonies which popularly is called 
Colonial architecture. Stone, much in favor in England, was here 
generally supplanted by brick, with white-painted wood, soapstone, 
and marble for decorative trim, especially for buildings within the 

Colonials who gazed upon Philadelphia from the belfry of the 
State House beheld a neat, compact, and orderly scene. The city, 
stretching north and south along the Delaware and westward for 
about a mile, presented a pattern of red brick pierced by the white 
spires and cupolas of Christ Church, Old Swedes' Church, St. Peter's 
Church, and the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

Nearby a diagonal highway extended toward Germantown. Here 



Francis Daniel Pastorius and his German colonists had built their 
homes, structures which retain Germanic traits such as the German- 
town hood or pent roof, which extended from the face of the dwell- 
ing to protect the first story from sun and rain. 

Along the streets of Philadelphia, surrounded by gardens and fine 
shade trees, were neat shops and dwellings, of red brick with white 
trim, often of wood painted white. The street pattern designed by 
William Penn consisted of large rectangular blocks cut through by 
alleys. Only a small section of the Penn plan had been developed. 
The heart of the "towne" extended from the busy port on the Dela- 
ware but a short distance along High Street, now called Market Street. 
Here stood Philadelphia's quaint first buildings, mostly of brick, but 
occasionally frame, stone or log construction. 

At Second Street, in the center of High stood the Town Hall, of 
brick and wood, with small dormer windows in the steep roof. Just 
in front was a small prison. Behind were the market stalls. In 
those early days when William Penn, James Logan, Edward Shippen 
and, soon after, young Benjamin Franklin, frequented the neighbor- 
hood, there stood here all the important buildings. Besides the Town 
Hall, there were the old London Coffee House, at Front and Market 
Streets; the Masters' Mansion, built in 1704, also at Front and Market 
Streets; the Friends' Meeting House, at Second and Market Streets; 
and the Royal Standard Tavern close by. Such was the picture of 
Philadelphia as a new merchant town. 

The State House was started in 1731 and first occupied in October 
1735. Its fine tower was built in 1750 ; the bell, how known as the 
Liberty Bell, hung in 1753 ; and the upper part rebuilt by William 
Strickland in 1828. Built of bricks of clay from the nearby riverbanks, 
wood from Penn's forests, and marble from nearby quarries, the 
structure portrays the spirit of the days during which the idea of 
independence was growing. The State House has changed only in 
name. Today, Independence Hall and its tower still reflect the dignity, 
wealth, and cultural life of the early community. 

Several local factors influenced Philadelphia's early building. The 
abundance of forests and the arrival of competent carpenters with 
the first group of settlers made for elegant wood craftsmanship with 
its fine detail. The severity of Quakerism, with its abhorrence of friv- 
olous embellishments, was an influence for simplicity and vigor. 
Even the homes of the well-to-do showed a fine sense of fitness and 
restraint. As the American historians Charles and Mary Beard point 

There were riches in Colonial America, but few fortunes were great 
enough to allow that lavish display which separates the arts from 
the business of working and living. For such reasons as these the 
noblest examples of Colonial architecture revealed the power of re- 



straint and simple beauty, commanding the admiration of succeed- 
ing generations and attracting servile copyists long after the con- 
ditions which nourished the models had passed away forever. 

The towers of the Colonial public buildings and churches, such 
as Independence Hall and Christ Church (built between 1727-47 ; Dr. 
John Kearsley, architect), are successful adaptations in brick and 
wood of their predecessors the stone towers of Sir Christopher 
Wren, James Gibbs and Nicholas Hawksmoore in England. The more 
severe economic conditions in the Colonies made advisable a reduced 
scale in their buildings and a strengthening of the horizontal lines. 
The broad lines of the Morris house, at 225 South Eighth Street, 
erected in 1786 by John Reynolds, and the north facade of the State 
House are outstanding examples. 

Modern Philadelphia contains fine examples of Georgian Colonial 
architecture other than those in the shadow of the Independence 
Hall tower. Germantown, Frankford, and Kingsessing, originally sepa- 
rate towns, are sections of present-day Philadelphia, where fine early 
domestic architecture may be seen. The Stenton and Chew houses are 
notable examples. Following the English custom of wealthy men hav- 
ing country homes, Philadelphia's men of means built mansions along 
the beautiful Schuylkill River. Of these, Mount Pleasant, Lemon Hill, 
Woodford, Woodlands, Solitude, and others are still standing. The 
houses were erected as completed structures, and the resultant shape 
was simple and rather boxlike. Even the poorer country homes in 
and near Philadelphia were built in this form. Indeed, when an 
owner prospered and made additions to his house, each unit retained 
the boxlike pattern, and the final result was a succession of increas- 
ingly larger but similar sections. The Livezey house in upper Wissa- 
hickon Valley is an excellent illustration. 

Mount Pleasant, one of the most pretentious country homes of the 
period, was begun in 1761 by John MacPherson, a sea captain from 
Scotland, who amassed a fortune in the practice of privateering. 
He lived in manorial splendor, entertaining the most eminent per- 
sonages of the day with munificent hospitality. The central feature 
of a group of surrounding, dependent buildings, Mount Pleasant is 
situated in Fairmount Park, on the east bank of the Schuylkill 
River, a slight distance north of the Girard Avenue Bridge. The 
exterior of this two-and-a-half-story Georgian mansion is of massive 
rubblestone masonry covered with reddish buff rough-cast plaster, 
above a high foundation of hewn stone. The principal feature of the 
river facade is a slightly projecting central portion with quoined cor- 
ners, corniced pediment above the Palladian window of the second 
story, and a superb pedimented doorway in harmony with the pedi- 
mented motive above. The interior wood finish is very fine ; grace- 
fully tooled cornices, and pilasters, and heavy pedimented door- 


Four Architectural Milestones of 
Philadelphia's Progress 

Old Stock Exchange 

Independence Hall 

Vivid Living Symbols of the 

Changing Eras Which Gave 

Them Being 

City Hall 


Philadelphia Saving Fund 
Society Building 


heads are of excellent design. Two small outbuildings, and two barns 
complete the group, making the house the central feature of a pic- 
turesque group of buildings possessing the manorial effect of the old 
Virginia mansions along the James River. 

Pennsylvania, so named because of its abundance of forests, con- 
taining principally pine, oak, hickory, and chestnut trees, built its 
rural structures of stone and brick, whereas New England, having 
large areas strewn with stone left behind by the great glaciers, built 
almost exclusively of white pine. The reasons for these apparently 
inconsistent courses were twofold. The glacial deposits of the north 
were mostly a granitelike stone too difficult to be handled easily. 
Furthermore, lime for cement was very scarce in the New England 
Colonies. White pine was not only plentiful, but it weathered well 
and was readily adaptable to building purposes. 

In Pennsylvania, particularly near Philadelphia, there was, and still 
is, an abundance of excellent field stone a gneiss-mica schist, usual- 
ly very durable. This stone weathers well, is easy to cut, and although 
predominantly gray, has a variety of hues. It is quarried along a line 
running, roughly, northeast from Media to Trenton. The Philadelphia 
area is plentifully supplied with lime. There was also a local supply 
of fairly good light gray marble which was used for trim. Besides the 
abundance of lime and building stone, the stone tradition for the 
better-class English home was strong with the early colonists. 

If the quaint old houses of Elfreth's Alley the eastern end of 
Cherry Street may serve as a criterion, the workers' dwellings, 
while smaller and less pretentious, were very much like the city 
homes of the well-to-do. For both rich and poor, fireplaces served 
as the only means of providing heat; outside pumps supplied water. 
In these modest dwellings, but two rooms deep, every room received 
ample daylight and ventilation an advantage to which modern 
housing projects are now returning. It was well into the nineteenth 
century before speculative builders began their rows of long narrow 
houses whose gloomy inner rooms were poorly served by narrow 
courts or skylights. 

A discussion of Colonial architecture must include mention of the 
Carpenters' Company and historic Carpenters' Hall, its headquarters. 
Begun 20 years after the State House tower, but not completed until 
1792, its design is somewhat more sophisticated. It was in 1724, how- 
ever, less than a half century after the coming of William Penn, that 
the master carpenters of Philadelphia formed the Carpenters' Com- 
pany, a guild or society somewhat like the Worshipful Company of 
Carpenters in London. The Philadelphia company, extant today, is 
important for the influence it exerted upon fine architecture and 
workmanship not in Philadelphia alone but throughout the Colo- 



nies. James Porteus, an early member, established the nucleus for 
a valuable builders' library. Professional architects did not exist in 
Philadelphia in those days; gentlemen architects men whose cul- 
tural attainments included some knowledge of architecture collab- 
orated with the master builders in designing their structures. 

Robert Smith (1722-1777), Philadelphia's foremost builder-archi- 
tect of Colonial times, was born in Scotland and came to this city 
at an early age. His first recorded projects were Nassau Hall and the 
president's house at Princeton University. In Philadelphia, his St. 
Peter's Church, completed in 1761, still stands little changed 
except for the addition of the spire. It is noted for its fenestra- 
tion and the beauty of its interior appointments. Smith submitted 
designs for Carpenters' Hall and later headed its building committee. 
About 1771 he made extensive repairs on the spire of old Christ 
Church. Old Pine Street Presbyterian Church, now virtually rebuilt, 
and Old Zion Lutheran Church were designed by him, as was the 
Walnut Street Prison. (The original Zion Lutheran Church and Wal- 
nut Street Prison are no longer standing.) 

The Colonial Georgian style continued for a period after the Revo- 
lution, when the forces that engendered this style had ceased to 
exert their influence. Many fine dwellings, such as the Sellers-Hoff- 
man house in West Philadelphia; the Upsala, Loudoun, and Wister 
houses in Germantown ; and the Morris and Wharton houses in 
central Philadelphia were built soon after the Revolutionary War, 
evidencing the prosperity of that period. 

Another example of post-Revolutionary Georgian architecture is 
the group of buildings at Fort Mifflin, projected by the British shortly 
before the Revolution. These buildings rank with Independence Hall 
and the Pennsylvania Hospital in interest and charm of grouping. 
The fort, at the southwestern extremity of Philadelphia, just above 
Hog Island, was laid out in 1771 by Capt. John Montressor, an en- 
gineer. Work was finally started in 1773 but proceeded slowly. Un- 
finished at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, it was hastily 
completed in 1777 by the Committee of Safety. In 1793 Maj. Pierre 
Charles L'Enfant, who later laid out the city of Washington, planned 
the fine buildings within its moat and walls and the repairs on the fort. 
Progress was slow, but in 1798 the fortifications were finally rebuilt 
in stone under the direction of the French military engineer, Col. 
Louis de Toussard, along the plans prepared by L'Enfant. In 1904 
the fort was dismantled and allowed to fall into decay, but in 1915 it 
was declared a national monument, and finally, in 1930, it was re- 
stored according to the original plans of L'Enfant. 

During the early nineteenth century the Georgian Colonial style 
gradually declined. But even while the cannon of the Revolution were 
resounding around Philadelphia, the seeds of a new architectural 



style were being sown. The new nation, strongly in sympathy with 
the Greek War for Independence, 1821-29, developed a strong in- 
terest in the civilization of ancient Greece. Many towns were given 
Greek names, and Greek structures sprang up all over the country. 
As' Howard Major, in The Domestic Architecture of the Early 
American Republic; The Greek Revival, says: 

After the separation from England, America naturally turned more 
to the Continent than heretofore and particularly to the ancient re- 
publics of Greece and Rome for inspiration in architecture as in 
government, and so became the inheritor of their free institutions and 
traditions and more eagerly assimilated the results of archaeological 

The so-called Greek Revival was a spontaneous return to Classic 
influence throughout the Western World. The subsequent widespread 
interest in classicism had its greatest influence in America. Thomas 
Jefferson, leader of the new democracy and a "gentleman architect" 
of no small ability, was a dominant influence in the development of 
the Classic Revival, although his designs were of Roman rather than 
Greek inspiration. He confined his efforts largely to his native State 
of Virginia ; the buildings for the University of Virginia, the State 
Capitol at Richmond, and his home, "Monticello," offer ample 
evidence of his skill. 

The Greek Revival did not assert itself until after 1800 and did 
not cease its manifestations until just before the Civil War. The old 
Merchants' or Stock Exchange Building, as it is now known, at Third 
and Walnut Streets, crowned by the second of the four towers a cir- 
cular templelike superstructure of six columns is symbolic of this 
period the era of national emergence. The semicircular facade of 
the building itself, with its tall, fluted Corinthian columns, is truly im- 
posing. (William Strickland was the designer.) Today, unfortunately, 
market sheds crowd its base. The opening of this building was a great 
event, and at the time of its dedication in 1834 parties were given 
continuously for a week. 

Unlike the red brick of Colonial Independence Hall, the old Stock 
Exchange is constructed of marble. Marble and stone were thought 
more appropriate for the new monumental structures. However, 
brick continued in use for houses, with marble porches and details 
of classic design. Houses, churches, and public buildings of this age 
took on the form, or at least the details, of Greek temples. Four, six, 
or eight columns, usually Doric or Ionic, formed the portico; these, 
topped with an entablature and wide pediment, composed the usual 
Greek Revival facade. In one respect, the Greek architecture of the 
early Republic is not so divorced from that of the Georgian period: 
both styles are classic, but the Revival goes directly back to Greece 
for inspiration. 

Often the exterior result was remarkably fine, as in Thomas U. 



Walter's Girard College (1833-1848) with its huge, peripteral Corin- 
thian colonnade; the old Custom House (1819-1824), designed by 
Latrobe and completed by Strickland, with its heavy north and south 
facades in the Greek Doric style; and the First Bank of the United 
States (1797), designed by Samuel Blodget, the oldest bank building 
in America and said to have the first marble facade in this country. 
Numerous churches with typical colonnaded facades, such as that of 
the First Presbyterian Church (1820), John Haviland, architect, were 
erected. Indeed, Philadelphia has many of the oldest public and ec- 
clesiastical buildings of Greek design in the country. 

In domestic architecture, it was to country living that this style 
most readily lent itself. In Philadelphia the Greek influence on houses 
was superficial, being confined mostly to exterior details of marble 
and interior details of wood. With the rapid growth of the city, the 
row house came into favor, the better rows having such names as 
Carlton, Franklin, Washington, and Rittenhouse. On the south side 
of Spruce Street, between Ninth and Tenth Streets, is a row of red 
brick dwellings, each two having a common marble portico of three 
Greek Ionic columns. No. 715 Spruce Street, built about 1820, has 
an entrance in the style of the Greek Revival period, and the Phila- 
delphia Contributionship, at 214 South Fourth Street, offers another 
interesting example - domestic in spirit but built for commercial 

An interesting characteristic of the Greek Revival period is the 
change in construction of pitched roofs. Whereas in Colonial times 
the roof overhung the end walls to form the eaves, later the walls 
rose higher than the roof to form a parapet, the chimneys being built 
as part of the wall. This feature may be seen in the old Custom 
House, old Wills Eye Hospital (1832), the Aquarium (1815), and 
in other public buildings and dwellings. 

Hundreds of commercial buildings supplanted the Colonial struc- 
tures in the neighborhood of the Stock Exchange. These simple busi- 
ness structures, usually three, four, or five stories high, were char- 
acterized by sturdy, square, classic piers of stone on the first floor, 
with the upper stories of traditional plain red brick and little or no 
adornment. An exception is the 138 South Front Street structure, 
the Egyptian design of the first story being due to the influence of 
Thomas U. Walter's design for the debtors' gaol, now a part of 
Moyamensing Prison. During this period Nicholas Biddle was waging 
an unsuccessful fight with Andrew Jackson for the survival of his 
Second United States Bank. Stephen Girard was sending ships from 
the nearby docks to the world's corners. The city was a hive of in- 
dustry and commerce. These many similar structures, esthetically 
unassuming, befitted the commercially expanding Philadelphia. 

The Stock Exchange tower marks the period in which America 



began developing its own architects professionally trained men. 
The important architects of the Greek Revival and the years im- 
mediately thereafter were Benjamin Henry Latrobe, William Strick- 
land, Robert Mills, John Haviland, and Thomas U. Walter. Of the 
work of Latrobe and Mills, little remains in Philadelphia. Latrobe, 
born in England in 1764, arrived in Philadelphia in 1798. Soon after 
his arrival, he designed the Bank of Pennsylvania, which stood on 
Second Street just above Walnut. This building, inspired by the 
Temple of the Muses near the Ilissus, outside Athens, is considered, 
generally, the first structure of Greek design in America. Another 
important work of Latrobe during his six years in Philadelphia was 
the domed Waterworks Building (1799-1801) on the present site of 
City Hall. One of the architects of the Capitol at Washington and 
designer of the Baltimore cathedral, Latrobe was also an engineer. 

Latrobe is credited with introducing the Gothic style to America, 
a tendency that asserted itself some years later and then degenerated 
in the Victorian era. His Bank of Philadelphia, executed under the 
supervision of his pupil, Robert Mills, in 1807, was a Gothic structure 
of brick and marble. It stood on the southwest corner of Fourth and 
Chestnut Streets, with a wide, high entrance arch on Fourth Street. 

The previously mentioned Custom House, on Chestnut Street be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth Streets, built for the Bank of the United 
States and so used until 1844, while generally accredited to Strick- 
land, was designed by Latrobe. Although Strickland supervised the 
construction of this building, Latrobe prepared the plans. He and 
Mills were among the competitors who submitted designs, which had 
to conform to the Government's requirements. Mills submitted a 
design fronted by six Greek Doric columns ; Latrobe went further 
and proposed an imitation of the octastyle front of the Parthenon. 
His plan seemed to meet with the approval of the directors, but due 
to financial difficulties at the time, work was delayed. In the mean- 
time, Latrobe left for New Orleans, and the undertaking was resumed 
under the direction of Strickland. Although the principal room is 
a departure from Latrobe's plan, the rest of the design follows his 
original drawings. Latrobe died in New Orleans in 1820 while super- 
vising the construction there of the waterworks. 

While Latrobe lived in Philadelphia he had as his pupils Strick- 
land and Mills. Mills (1781-1855), a native of Charleston, S. C., 
designed the connecting wings of the State House group in Philadel- 
phia in 1813. He was appointed architect of public buildings in 
Washington in 1836, supervised the erection of several major build- 
ings, and was the architect for the Washington Monuments in Wash- 
ington and Baltimore. 

William Strickland (1787-1854), born in Philadelphia, recognized 
as a leading architect, was also an engineer, landscape painter, author, 


and engraver. His first building, the Gothic Masonic Hall the 
"Pride of Philadelphia" dedicated in 1811, showed a lack of under- 
standing of Gothic as a system of construction. This structure was 
outstanding as an example of the Gothic Revival which, while less 
extensive, was virtually contemporaneous with the Classic period. 
In 1819 the building was destroyed by fire. An interesting print, a 
copy of which may be seen at the Philadelphia Library Company, 
on Locust Street west of Thirteenth, shows the structure in flames. 
The temple had only a veneer of Gothic details: crenelation, small 
turrets, and lancet windows. The high and square wooden tower, 
with its cornices and spire, was more Georgian than Gothic. There is 
still standing on the road between Reading and Pottsville a quaint 
little red and white church that presents an excellent example of 
this nai've fusing of the Colonial and Gothic modes. Another example 
less far afield is St. Mary's Church (erected 1763, enlarged 1810, re- 
modeled 1886), on South Fourth Street in Philadelphia. 

Strickland's many works included the first Custom House (1818), 
situated on Second Street below Dock, a simple, three-story brick and 
marble building (now demolished) ; the United States Mint (1833), 
also demolished; Merchants' or Stock Exchange Building; United 
States Naval Asylum (1827-1848); Arch Street Theatre (1822), de- 
molished in 1936; Blockley Almshouse (1834) ; and several churches. 
In 1828 he undertook major restorations of the State House. His 
final and most important work was outside Philadelphia the Ten- 
nessee State House at Nashville, where he lies buried. Its tower, or 
lantern, is similar to that of the old Philadelphia Stock Exchange. 

John Haviland. born in England in 1792, is noted chiefly for his 
prisons in Philadelphia, the Eastern State Penitentiary (1829). 
His first important work, however, was the First Presbyterian Church 
(1820), on South Washington Square, designed in the Greek manner. 
He was also the architect responsible for the design of the old 
Franklin Institute, erected in 1826 on Seventh Street south of Market, 
and the much altered Walnut Street Theatre (1809), northeast corner 
of Walnut and Ninth Streets. Upon his death in 1852, he was buried 
in a crypt in St. George's Greek Catholic Church (1822), on Eighth 
Street above Spruce, also his design. 

Thomas Ustick Walter (1804-1887), a native of Philadelphia, 
received his early knowledge of building from his father, mason 
contractor under Strickland for Latrobe's Bank of the United States. 
The son studied architecture at the Franklin Institute under Strick- 
land, with whom he was employed for about two years. His major 
work one of the noblest examples of the Greek Revival is his 
Girard College building, begun in 1833, which utilizes the Corinthian 
order. Others are Moyamensing Prison (1831) , old Wills Eye Hospital 
(1832), Preston Retreat (1837), and the Nicholas Biddle mansion, 



in Andalusia, Bucks County, erected in 1794 and remodeled by 
Walter in 1835. As United States Architect succeeding Robert Mills, 
he designed the present dome and the extension of the wings of the 
Capitol at Washington. He was professor of architecture at Franklin 
Institute and later a lecturer at Columbia University. Walter prepared 
many of the detail designs for the present City Hall and until his 
death worked on them as assistant to John Me Arthur, the architect 
of City Hall. 

Toward the end of the 1830's there was a general lull in building, 
and by 1850 a reaction had set in from the chaste influence of the 
Greek Revival. As the Civil War approached, the Greek flame had 
entirely burned out, and from this point on taste in architecture 
declined considerably. 

Influencing factors in the third architectural period were national 
in scope. The country was rapidly expanding, frontiers were being 
pushed forward, and commerce and industry had developed to the 
point where huge fortunes were being made. This was the age of 
industrial expansion an age which wrought havoc with the arts. 
Its architectural manifestations extend roughly from the end of the 
Greek Revival period to about the close of the nineteenth century. 

The architectural profession was not equipped to express the 
problem of an expanding commerce, nor were the industrial captains 
particularly concerned with esthetic values. The spirit of the age 
was not one to evolve a fine architectural expression. It may well 
be said that the low estate to which building design fell was entirely 
in keeping with architecture's function of expressing the spirit of 
the age. As in other cities, land and building speculators added to 
the confusion of the rapidly growing metropolis. The lust for wealth 
and the resultant neglect of human values brought squalid, unsanitary 
living conditions for those who toiled. Rows of drab dwellings sprang 
up. With the development of machinery there came a rush of "jig- 
saw" embellishments completely lacking in taste and restraint. Build- 
ings that pretended to architectural ostentation aped the current 
fashions of Europe. 

The somber picture of Philadelphia's architectural "Dark Age" 
has, however, a few bright spots. The middle of the century saw the 
development of interest in the Gothic. A spirit of romanticism, 
already evident in England, which was exhibiting a renewed interest 
in Gothic architecture, assumed here various forms, some of which 
were admirable, others very poor. Two fine churches of this period 
still exist in Philadelphia : the Church of St. James the Less (1846), 
at Falls of Schuylkill, a fine reproduction of St. Michael's Church, at 
Long Staunton, England a small thirteenth century English village 
church and St. Mark's Church (1847) on Locust Street west of 
Sixteenth, both by John Notman, St. Clement's Church (1859) at 



Twentieth and Cherry Streets, likewise by Notman (1810-1865). and 
the Academy of Music (1857), Broad and Locust Streets, designed 
by Napoleon LeBrun, are also among the better structures erected 
during this period. 

LeBrun (1821-1901), of the firm of LeBrun & Runge, was a pupil 
of Thomas U. Walter. He designed, in addition to the Academy of 
Music, such Philadelphia churches as the Cathedral of SS. Peter 
and Paul (1846), on Eighteenth Street north of the Parkway, and 
St. Augustine's Church (1847), Fourth Street below Vine. 

For the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, Memorial Hall, of Renais- 
sance design ; nearby Horticultural Hall, built of glass and steel 
with Moorish embellishments ; and many Victorian buildings were 
erected. These presented an assortment of building styles, exhibiting 
the diversified eclecticism of the age. 

The Victorian era introduced buildings of brown and green stone, 
square turreted, with mansard roofs of slate. Their vertical lines con- 
trast sharply with the horizontal lines of Colonial times. The mansard 
roof, actually a top story with slightly sloping walls, was introduced 
from France. This was a period of high ceilings, tall, narrow windows, 
and poor taste in detail. Structures of this type include the Union 
League building (1865), College Hall (1871) of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and the many gaunt, turreted mansions in and around 
the city. Dark woodwork, overcarved and overstuffed furniture, long, 
gilt mirrors, and gloomy hangings gave to. the interiors of the homes 
an effect at once opulent and dismal. 

The French Renaissance style, notable for its many columns and 
profuse ornamentation, was used in Philadelphia construction for 
several large buildings. City Hall (1871-1901) ; the old Post Office 
building (1873-1884), on Ninth Street from Chestnut to Market ; and 
the Victory Building (1873), Tenth and Chestnut Streets, are ex- 
amples of this style. 

Buildings combining designs of many periods were erected, with 
startling results. They were usually of heavy masonry, although the 
red brick tradition of Philadelphia continued to assert itself. Besides 
the heavy Victorian Gothic and the French Renaissance, there were 
Romanesque interpretations and suggestions of Moorish mosques and 
Venetian palaces, garnished with a profusion of ornate details of cast 
iron and wood. Frequently, buildings expressed no style or function 
whatsoever, or else they exhibited a strange mixture of several styles. 
Broad Street Theatre (1876), of Moorish effect, and the many 
buildings of the old banking district, particularly Chestnut Street 
between Third and Fourth Streets (a museum of architectural oddi- 
ties) are typical. The extravagant buildings designed by Furness & 
Evans are highly individualistic structures touched with Gothic. 
Broad Street Station (1880-1894), the Academy of the Fine Arts 



(1876), and the library of the University of Pennsylvania (1891) are 
their better known works. 

Considered one of the great architects of his age, Henry Hobson 
Richardson (1838-1886) designed truly fine buildings in the Roman- 
esque style. While none of his structures were erected in Philadel- 
phia, his followers built here the Central High School (1902), on 
Broad Street at Green; the Market Square Presbyterian Church 
(1886), in Germantown; and other structures. None of these is com- 
parable, however, to the work of Richardson. 

City Hall tower, completed in 1894, marks the close of the city's 
third architectural period an era fraught with national conflicts 
and marked by rapid industrial development. Rising 547 feet, it was 
at the time of its completion the tallest tower in the country with the 
exception of the Washington Monument (Washington, D. C.), which 
is about eight feet taller, 

It is surmounted by a huge, bronze statue of William Penn con- 
templating from on high the cold gray of his once quaint and 
charming red brick "towne." The tower itself is an epitaph to the 
age of masonry. Even while it was being erected, advances in the 
technique of steel and concrete construction were pointing the way 
to a new architecture. 

The modern period of American architecture dates historically 
from the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. The great "White 
City," as the fair was called, gave impetus to a revival of the broad, 
classic facade and to "grand" concepts of planning. Louis Sullivan's 
individualistic Transportation Building, however, was the rebel of the 
fair. It pointed away from classic eclecticism toward a fresh interpre- 
tation of design. Two schools of architecture received impetus from 
the Chicago fair : the traditionalists, who adapt to present-day needs 
the designs of an older civilization, and the modernists, who seek 
a new expression for the materials and techniques of today. 

Rising above the central city skyline, the Philadelphia Saving 
Fund Society building its huge, neon letters "PSFS" visible for 
miles around casts its shadow over the classic Wanamaker Store. 
Last of the four towers which express the city's architectural ages, 
it is truly a challenge to Philadelphia's traditionalism. Designed by 
Howe & Lescaze and completed in 1932, it is one of America's out- 
standing examples of the so-called International style a style whose 
exterior architecture frankly expresses its construction and use. As 
an intellectual concept it represents the courage of the modern age. 

Another example of functional architecture is the Carl Mackley 
housing group in Frankford (1934), designed for the Philadelphia 
hosiery workers by Kastner & Stonorov and William Pope Barney. 
The four long units, planned as a complete residential community, 
are extremely simple in detail. The steel and glass foundries of the 



Philadelphia Navy Yard are still further examples of functional 

Nationally known architects other than Philadelphians have 
erected buildings here. Foremost among those of the traditional 
school was the New York firm of McKim, Mead & White. In Phila- 
delphia, this firm designed the bank and office building of the Girard 
Trust Company (1908) and the clubhouse of the Germantown Cricket 
Club (1891) . These and the John Wanamaker Store (1910) , designed 
by Daniel H. Burnham, of Chicago, architect of the Union Station in 
Washington, are representative of the best buildings erected in Phila- 
delphia at the turn of the century. 

The Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company building (1928), 
by Cram & Ferguson, of Boston, and the new Pennsylvania Station 
(1933), by Burnham's successors Graham, Anderson, Probst & 
White follow in this tradition. The Parkway, with its fountains 
and monumental edifices, most notable of which is the Pennsylvania 
Art Museum (started in 1918 and officially opened in March 1928), 
by Philadelphia's Zantzinger & Borie and Horace Trumbauer, is a 
direct outgrowth of the broad planning of the Chicago World's Fair. 

Today there is a tendency in buildings of classic inspiration toward 
simplification of details, particularly in the elimination of heavy, 
overhanging cornices which, as in the case of the Manufacturers Club 
(1914), at Broad and Walnut Streets, tend to cut off daylight from 
the too narrow streets. The Federal Reserve building (1935) , designed 
by Paul Philippe Cret ; the Central Penn National Bank (1928), at 
Fifteenth and Sansom Streets, by Davis, Dunlap & Barney ; Girard 
College Chapel (1933) by Thomas & Martin ; and the new Post Office 
(1935), by the firms of Rankin & Kellog, and Tilden, Register & 
Pepper, are fine classic structures notable for their exterior simplicity. 

Among the city's finest modern buildings, but following neither 
the "imperial" design nor the functional style of the Philadelphia 
Saving Fund Society building, are the University of Pennsylvania 
dormitories (1895) of English Jacobean architecture by Cope & 
Stewardson ; the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, started in 
1896 a beautiful, low, broad building in the Romanesque style of San 
Stefano at Bologna designed by Charles Z. Klauder, Stewardson & 
Page, and Wilson Eyre & Mcllvaine ; the Church of St. Andrew 
(1936), a Gothic design by Zantzinger, Borie & Medary ; the Church 
of the Holy Child (1930) , in Romanesque design, by George I. Lovatt ; 
and Rodeph Shalom Synagogue (1928), of Moorish architecture, de- 
signed by Simon & Simon. 

Lewis Mumford, referring in his Sticks and Stones to America's 
grand classic facades, says: 

Our imperial architecture is an architecture of compensation; it 
provides grandiloquent stones for people who have been deprived of 



bread and sunlight and all that keeps man from becoming vile. Be- 
hind the monumental faces of our metropolises trudges a landless pro- 
letariat, doomed to the servile routine of the factory system. 
This statement is in accord with architecture's reflection of con- 
temporary society and is applicable to Philadelphia. We still live 
in an age where the extremes of wealth and poverty are reflected in 
grandiose architecture on the one hand and slums on the other. 

The blighted areas of Philadelphia, the worst of which extend north 
and south of the central city zone and west from the Delaware River, 
consist mainly of small, overcrowded, and insanitary "bandbox" 
houses, many on the verge of collapse. Indeed, several dwellings have 
fallen down in recent years, indicating the acuteness of the hous- 

Home of Robert Morris 
"Whose strong box financed the Revolution' 


ing problem in Philadelphia. The worst conditions exist in the sections 
where the Negro population of the city is housed. The thousands 
of depressing rows of attached houses for which Philadelphia is 
notorious are largely the work of unenlightened land subdividers and 
speculative builders. Built in long, narrow plots, only the front and 
back rooms receive ample daylight and ventilation, the middle rooms 
being served by air shafts or skylights. While the Carl Mackley 
Houses and other projects erected by the Public Works Administra- 
tion point the way to what can be done, the housing solution awaits 
local initiative. 

It has been said that "The most beautiful part of Philadelphia is 
outside of Philadelphia." The city's suburbs have a charm of archi- 
tecture that is mellowed by tradition. While the forces of the Greek 
Revival, Middle, and Modern periods have left their imprint upon 
suburban structures, as upon those of the metropolis, the strain of 
early simplicity and charm has never been broken. There are several 
factors which account for the existence of an indigenous architecture 
in the Philadelphia area : strength of tradition ; the abundance of ex- 
cellent local field stone which is used for homes, churches, public 
buildings, barns, and mills ; the fact that early buildings were so 
firmly constructed as to continue to assert themselves through the 
succeeding generations, and possibly the fact that the men of wealth 
who own the great estates around Philadelphia have a true appreci- 
ation of the fitness of the early stone houses for country living. 

The low lines of these homes, suggesting comfort, utility, and dur- 
ability, combine with the local material of which they are built to 
portray graciousness of living. Contrasts of gray stone and white- 
painted wood, of fine touches of detail against simple surfaces, the 
use of whitewash over stone, and the accent of horizontal lines are 
the major characteristics of the suburban house, both large and small. 
Simple doorways, low roofs from which rows of small dormer windows 
and heavy stone chimneys project, fine interior paneling, low fire- 
places, and beautiful stairways are of refined and traditional taste, 
indicating a deeply rooted conservatism. 

At almost any point where the main pikes leading toward Phila- 
delphia dip to cross the many creeks, the simply built stone houses 
of the worker, and sometimes the mills of former days may be seen. 
The interesting little town of Glen Riddle, in Delaware County three 
miles southwest of Media, still retains the atmosphere and charm of 
an early mill village. 

There are other interesting old towns in the four counties sur- 
rounding Philadelphia which have preserved much of their atmos- 
phere : King of Prussia, near Valley Forge ; Newtown, Buckingham 
Valley, Spring Valley, and Doylestown, in the rich farm country of 
Bucks County ; and West Chester, with its old, red brick dwellings. 





i ii 

Swimming Pool at the Carl Mackley House 

Carl Mackley House 
'Labor's answer to the Housing Probh 



Founder's Hall, Girard College 
Dedicated to the education: of Philadelphia orphans 

Federal Reserve 
Bank Building 


Among the fine old structures are many stone barns and houses, 
particularly in Bucks County and the Whitemarsh Valley ; Washing- 
ton's Headquarters at Valley Forge (1742-1752) ; the charming old 
Pennsylvania German church at Trappe (1743) ; St. David's Epis- 
copal Church (1715) at Radnor, influenced by an earlier architecture 
than the Georgian ; and the Town Hall at Chester, built in 1724 and 
restored in 1920. Notable in the period of the Greek Revival is the 
Biddle home, "Andalusia," built in 1794 and rebuilt in 1835, in Bucks 
County, and the Wetherill house, "Locust Grove," near Protectory 
Station, built by James Vaux in 1776 and rebuilt in 1845 by Dr. 
William Wetherill. 

In the present period suburban Philadelphia has witnessed the 
erection of many fine structures for Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr, Haver- 
ford, and other nearby colleges. Fine churches, too, have been con- 
structed. Outstanding among these is the imposing two-towered 
Church of the New Jerusalem at Bryn Athyn ; the older Gothic section 
was designed by Cram & Ferguson and completed in 1919, and the 
later, but still incompleted, Romanesque additions are Raymond 
Pitcairn's work. Others are Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Churh (1928), 
by Walter T. Karcher and Livingston Smith ; the Gothic Valley 
Forge Chapel (1903-1932), by Zantzinger, Borie & Medary ; and 
Brazer, Frohman & Robb's classic First Presbyterian Church (1921) 
at Chester. The new Delaware County Courthouse (1932), the work 
of Clarence Brazer, is a classic marble structure. 

As the architectural profession matured, organizations were formed 
to broaden its influence. In 1869 the Philadelphia Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects was founded, and the T Square Club 
in 1883. Both of these institutions have been a major cultural force 
in the architectural development of the city. In 1890 under Theophilus 
P. Chandler the University of Pennsylvania organized a department 
of architecture. It is now one of the leading architectural schools in 

A picture of architecture in Philadelphia would be incomplete 
without mention of the influence of Paul Philippe Cret. Born (1876) 
and educated in France, he came to Philadelphia in 1903 to teach 
at the University of Pennsylvania. His knowledge of design and his 
ability to convey his ideas to his students brought to Pennsylvania 
its reputation as one of the foremost schools of architecture in the 
country. He collaborated with Jacques Greber of Paris on the design 
of the Philadelphia Parkway and helped to plan the city's parks and 
to design numerous bridges and buildings. The architecture of the 
Philadelphia-Camden bridge (1926), Ralph Modjeski, engineer, was 
designed by Cret. In 1931 he received the "Philadelphia Award." 
Favoring although not confining himself to classic interpretations, he 
has brought freshness of design to defy the critics of classicism, as 



seen in his Rodin Museum and Federal Reserve Bank in Philadelphia 
and his many other important structures in this country and abroad. 

Philadelphia is a vast and spreading city from whose central sky- 
scraper region extend areas of drab homes and factories, interspersed 
with the spires of the many hundreds of churches. Numerous green 
parks and tree-shaded streets lend softness to this harsh pattern. 
Fairmount Park, covering 3,845 acres, is the largest park within any 
American municipality. The city's two rivers and several creeks are 
spanned by scores of fine bridges, and beyond the periphery of 
the city are the beautiful suburban homes of traditional Colonial stone 
architecture for which this region is justly noted. This is Phila- 
delphia today. 

In buildings of poor as well as of good design are traced the phases 
of Philadelphia's life : the peaceful colony under Quaker dominance; 
the proud new Nation whose finest city was Philadelphia ; the age of 
expansion ; and the present period all have left their imprint upon 
the city's face. That much of the city is ugly cannot be denied. 
No architect is to be exonerated for erecting monstrosities, but society 
itself must bear the blame for an era of ugly edifices. The best of 
Philadelphia's structures were erected in its youth ; the present 
shows signs indeed definite proof of an awakening. 



PHILADELPHIA is one of the few large cities of the world that 
was systematically planned before it was born. Today its central 
section retains the geometrical arrangement of straight streets 
laid out by Thomas Holme in 1682. 

Holme, who had served in Cromwell's army, later became a Quaker 
and was chosen by Penn as his surveyor-general. He arrived in the 
Province four months before the founder. On the site selected by 
Penn's commissioners early in 1682, Holme immediately began to 
lay out the town on broad and adequate lines, guided by the plan 
Penn had submitted to him. After clearing enough land for his pur- 
pose, he divided it into rectangular blocks extending west from the 
Delaware River and north from Cedar (now South) Street to Valley 
Street (now Vine). 

The plan fixed Cedar Street as the southern and Valley Street as 
the northern boundary of the town ; High Street (now Market) ran 
from river to river, with Broad Street bisecting it. Now between 
Thirteenth and Fifteenth Streets, Broad Street originally was situated 
more nearly at Twelfth Street, having been relocated in 1733. Penn 
named most of the east-west thoroughfares after trees Pine, Locust, 
Walnut, Chestnut, and Sassafras ; most of the north-south streets 
were numbered. 

At several points in the plan on lower High Street, on Second 
Street south of Pine and at other points as new streets were laid out 
as the city grew the roadways were widened to provide space for 
open market places. The market at Second and Pine Streets, with its 
quaint "headhouse," still stands. Wide and winding Dock Creek, 
flowing from Third Street into the Delaware River, and breaking the 
rectangular regularity of the town, was spanned in early days by a 
drawbridge. Later the creek bed was filled in, and Dock Creek be- 
came Dock Street. 

The Penn plan is probably based upon that of ancient Babylon, 
with its system of rectangular blocks. From the outset the character- 
istics of a great city were apparent. The two main streets, intersect- 
ing each other at the town's heart, formed a gigantic cross that 
divided Philadelphia into four quarters. Where the two streets came 
together, a 10-acre plot was reserved for Center Square, also relocated 
in 1733 and now the site of City Hall. Here, from 1799 to 1829, stood 
the old Philadelphia Water Works, surrounded by a fine park, with its 



interesting pump house designed in the Greek Revival style by Henry 
Latrobe. (A painting of it by John Kremmell, as it appeared in 1812, 
is in the Academy of Fine Arts.) Old wooden pipes from this water 
system have been unearthed in the course of excavation work for the 
Philadelphia subway system. 

Four parks, of about eight acres each, were included in the plan, 
one in the center of each quarter of the city. These are Franklin 
Square, at the approach to the Delaware River Bridge ; Washington 
Square and Rittenhouse Square, the latter relandscaped in 1913 by 
Paul Philippe Cret ; and beautiful Logan Circle, on the Parkway. As 
a precaution against such a conflagration as had almost destroyed 
London in 1666, Penn's plan also provided for large city blocks, so 
that houses, although built in even rows, would have ample space 
at the back and sides. 

Bordering the northern edge of Penn's new city were large tracts 
of land known as the "Liberties." These areas were reserved for the 
use of the people who settled in Philadelphia. Surrounding Phila- 
delphia and the "Liberties" were the grants of land sold to individuals 
and to land companies, such as the large estates along the Schuylkill 
River and the grants of Germantown, Passyunk, Blockley, Kingsess- 
ing, and Frankford. The grants sold to companies developed into 
communities. These and other neighboring towns, such as Southwark 
and Moyamensing, numbering 24 altogether, were gradually incor- 
porated into Philadelphia until the city's boundaries became coter- 
minous with those of Philadelphia County- 

These former towns still maintain in some degree their original 
identity, even though the gridiron system of intersecting streets has 
been extended like a huge network over virtually the entire city. 
In the light of present planning knowledge, it would have been well 
to preserve these early communities by maintaining parks or "green 
belts" between them, thereby breaking up the monotony of Phila- 
delphia's pattern and providing parks and open spaces accessible 
to all. 

Several such dividing parks do exist. Cobbs Creek Park, along the 
western boundary of Philadelphia, and Tacony and Pennypack Parks, 
in the northeastern part of the city, are each several miles long. 
Fairmount Park divides West Philadelphia from North Philadelphia 
and Germantown, and the Wissahickon separates Roxborough from 

Philadelphia planning owes much to the far-sighted Stephen 
Girard, whose will, dated February 16, 1830, set aside $500,000 for 
the following purposes : 

1. To lay out, regulate, curb, light and pave a passage or street, on 
the east part of the city of Philadelphia, fronting the river Delaware, 
not less than twenty-one feet wide, and to be called Delaware Avenue, 



extending from South or Cedar Street, all along the east part of Water 
Street squares, and the west side of the logs, which form the heads of 
the docks or thereabouts ... to completely clean and keep clean all 
the docks within the limits of the city, fronting on the Delaware: and 
to pull down all platforms carried out from the east part of the city over 
the river Delaware on piles or pillars. 

2. To pull down and remove all wooden buildings . . . that are 
erected within the limits of the city of Philadelphia and also to pro- 
hibit the erection of any such buildings within the said city's limits at 
any future time. 

3. To regulate, widen, pave and curb Water Street, and to distribute 
the Schuylkill water [system] therein. 

A further provision of $300,000 to the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania "for the purposes of internal improvement by canal naviga- 
tion," to become effective only after the passage of legislation en- 
abling the city of Philadelphia to proceed with the Delaware River 
front improvements, is evidence of Girard's shrewdness. Penn's plan 
provided for a grand boulevard along the Delaware River, but it was 
not until Girard's will set aside a fund for developing Delaware 
Avenue that this plan began to take shape. 

As Philadelphia grew beyond the limits of Penn's plan, diagonal 
roads such as Gray's Ferry Road, Moyamensing, Woodland, Baltimore, 
Lancaster, Ridge, and Germantown Avenues, Roosevelt Boulevard 
and, finally, the Parkway, were included within the system of rec- 
tangles. These are the main highways leading from the city, and, 
since they converge toward the center of Philadelphia, they provide 
ready ingress and egress. They do, however, make for ever-increasing 
congestion as they approach the central city. The recently completed 
ring road or bypass, as it is popularly called, connecting these high- 
ways at the points where they pass out of Philadelphia, has eased 
this congestion. 

The Parkway serves not only as one of the most important high- 
ways leading into the heart of the town, but also as a magnificent 
setting for many of the city's monumental buildings. The Fairmount 
Park Art Association commissioned Paul P. Cret, Horace Trum- 
bauer, and C. C. Zantzinger to prepare its plan. Some years later 
Jacques Greber of Paris enlarged upon this plan, and its realization 
was effected by Mayor John E. Reyburn. 

The Parkway starts at City Hall and continues to the Art Museum 
on the hill above the Schuylkill, where once stood the reservoir 
for Philadelphia. About midway is Logan Circle. Since little control 
has been exercised over the shapes and sizes of buildings along the 
Parkway, there is little harmony of style in the structures that line it. 

Location of the buildings, likewise, has become indiscriminate. 
Franklin Institute, the Board of Education's administrative building, 



and the comparatively small Boy Scout building stand in a row which 
runs off at a tangent to the Parkway. Across the Parkway and parallel 
to it is the beautiful Rodin Museum. Skyscrapers crowding its south- 
eastern extremity destroy the effectiveness of the boulevard's majestic 
sweep. While the Parkway does expedite the flow of traffic, it also 
creates three-street intersections an unfortunate circumstance 
caused by superimposing a diagonal street upon a system of rectangles. 

Although convenient for the center of the city, except that most 
of the streets are now too narrow, the prevailing gridiron pattern 
has not been entirely satisfactory for the outlying sections. Continuous 
straight streets are not only monotonous ; they are needlessly waste- 
ful, expensive, and dangerous. City planners agree that the concentra- 
tion of the main flow of traffic in a few very wide streets would be 

The blocks which Holme laid out would be somewhat too large 
for present-day use. They have been divided by narrow streets and 
byways which, in the more congested parts of the town, have for the 
most part become noisy and dirty service alleys. Some, however, have 
developed into quaint and beautiful little thoroughfares. Among these 
are the quiet tree-lined Clinton Street between Ninth and Eleventh 
Streets ; sections of Delancey, Panama, and Camac Streets ; Elfreth's 
Alley and other small streets near the city's center. In North, South, 
and West Philadelphia these smaller thoroughfares serve merely 
as an added convenience to the real estate subdividers, who have given 
to the city its long, monotonous rows of houses. 

City planning is more than the laying out of streets. The relation 
of industrial to residential areas ; the location of public buildings, 
bridges, and tunnels ; the proper design of parks and recreational 
areas ; the flow of traffic by road, rail, air, and water ; housing and 
the migration of population all these are phases of city planning. 
The Philadelphia City Planning Commission is engaged in studying 
these problems, giving to the city much valuable guidance and advice. 

Among the improvements contemplated are removal of the 
"Chinese Wall" of the Pennsylvania Railroad along Market Street 
from Fifteenth Street to the Schuylkill River ; beautification of the 
Schuylkill below the Fairmount dam, with broad drives along both 
shores ; continuation of the Locust Street subway through southwest 
Philadelphia ; removal of the Market Street Elevated railway, a tun- 
nel having already been constructed beneath the Schuylkill River and 
as far west as Thirty-second Street; construction of a subway to serve 
Germantown, and extension of the South Broad Street subway. An 
alternate plan for extension of Philadelphia's high-speed railway 
system provides for connections with the suburban svstems of the 
Pennsylvania, the Reading, and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroads. 



A "ring" subway connecting South, West, North Philadelphia and 
the Northeast, cutting across existing and proposed lines might be 
suggested. This would relieve congestion at the center of the city, 
where all high-speed lines now converge. It would give better access 
to the University of Pennsylvania, to the University and Commercial 
Museums, Convention Hall, the Arena, and to points in Fairmount 

Another contemplated improvement is the eventual elimination 
of slums, especially those south of Pine Street and east of Broad. 
Plans made by the Tri-State Regional Planning Board, covering sec- 
tions of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey, have also been of 
value in planning for the future. The Philadelphia Housing Associa- 
tion, a research body founded in 1909, submits valuable findings 
which point the way to better housing conditions. 

While the Parkway, Fairmount Park, and many outlying sections 
of Philadelphia are truly beautiful, and many of the central streets 
are very fine, little can be done about the present cramped condition 
of the street system. The expense involved in making radical changes 
would be prohibitive. In a few cases, as at City Hall Annex and 
the Commercial Trust Company building at Fifteenth and Market 
Streets, sidewalk arcades have permitted the widening of streets. 

The lower Schuylkill River and the city's 20 miles of Delaware 
River frontage are a disgrace. The two rivers, once beautiful streams 
but now little more than open sewers, can be cleaned up. Slums can be 
cleared, better housing can be provided as cheaply or even more 
cheaply than at present, and factories and "nuisance buildings" can 
be zoned out of residential neighborhoods. Possibilities for improve- 
ment of the city are almost illimitable. It can be made a safer and 
more healthful city, so that commerce may be widely benefited and 
the citizens themselves may enjoy more beauty and comfort. 



The Pioneers 

THE building of homes in the virgin wilderness occupied much 
of the attention of American colonists until the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. Then a few individuals turned to more 
intellectual pursuits to problems of science and philosophy. As 
early as 1690 William Rittenhouse (1644-1708), great-grandfather of 
the illustrious David Rittenhouse, built America's first paper mill on 
the banks of the Wissahickon, near Germantown, and within a few 
score of years such figures as James Logan, David Rittenhouse, John 
Bar tram, and Benjamin Franklin were to achieve distinction in va- 
rious branches of science ; they were to help establish Philadelphia 
as one of the chief centers of learning and culture in the American 

Although James Logan was noted as a man of public affairs, serving 
as Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania for nearly two years, 
he was also the first American investigator of physiological botany. 
Born in Ireland in 1674, Logan became a member of the Society of 
Friends, and in 1699 in the capacity of secretary he accompanied 
William Penn to America. A man of broad culture, his translation 
of Cicero's De Senectute was published by Benjamin Franklin in 
1744. The results of his botanical studies were made public at Leyden, 
Germany, in an essay entitled Experimenta et Melitemato de Plan- 
tar um Generatione (1739) . This essay, which dealt with the fructifica- 
tion of Indian corn, constituted a valuable contribution to the science 
of botany. 

More prominent in the annals of botany is the name of John Bart- 
ram. Although he followed Kelpius in the science, Bartram is gen- 
erally considered the first great American botanist. That his fame 
overshadows that of his contemporaries, may be due to the fact that 
he left a lasting memorial to his name in Bartram's Gardens in West 

Bartram's people came from England in 1682 and thus were 
identified with the early settlement of Philadelphia. He himself was 
born in 1699 on a homestead in Chester County, and from boyhood 
manifested a keen interest in botany and tree surgery. In September 



1728 he purchased a small tract of land on the west side of the 
Schuylkill River, on the road to Darby, where he built a stone house 
and laid out his gardens. 

In the autumn of each year he traveled widely throughout North 
America, carrying on research and field work in the wilderness, and 
bringing back enormous collections of rare and valuable plants. Some 
he kept for his own gardens, others he gave to his friends. 

Upon his death, in 1777, his work was taken over by his son, Wil- 
liam, who had inherited many of his father's tastes. 

Preeminent among American pioneers in astronomy was David 
Rittenhouse (1732-96). Setting up as a clockmaker in Norristown, 
young Rittenhouse diligently studied the sciences, with particular 
attention to astronomy. He discovered independently the method of 
fluxions or the rate of conduction of energy by radiation ; and in his 
ignorance of what Leibnitz and Newton had done in this field, he 
believed himself to be the original discoverer. In 1763 he was ap- 
pointed to determine the position of the Pennsylvania-Maryland 
border. This task, arduous and involving numerous intricate calcula- 
tions, was performed mainly with instruments made by Rittenhouse ; 
and later his findings were accepted substantially by Mason and 
Dixon. His construction of an orrery and his brilliant part in the 
observation of the transit of Venus, in 1769, greatly enhanced his 
reputation at home and abroad. The observations were important, in 
that they supplied a basis for computing the earth's distance from 
the sun. He observed the transit of Mercury in the same year. Many 
other contributions to astronomy followed. 

Rittenhouse was prominent also as a man of public affairs, serving 
as a member of the General Assembly and of the first State Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1776. He was the first State Treasurer (1777- 
89), first director of the United States Mint (1792-5), and professor 
of astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania (1779-82). He be- 
came secretary of the American Philosophical Society in 1771, a 
vice-president of that body in 1786, and on January 7, 1791, was 
elected its president, continuing in that capacity through consecutive 
re-elections until his death. He contributed many papers to the 
American Philosophical Society on astronomy, optics, magnetism, 
and other subjects, and in 1795 was selected as a foreign member 
of the Royal Society of London. 

One of the outstanding figures of Colonial times was Benjamin 
Franklin (1706-90), who achieved eminence as a scientist, statesman, 
author, publisher, inventor, and linguist. It was as a pioneer in the 
field of electricity that Franklin accomplished his work most use- 
ful to science. When not occupied with his business and public affairs, 
he carried on extensive experiments and research in electricity. He 
published the results of these experiments in 1749 in an essay entitled 



Observations and Suppositions Towards Forming a New Hypothesis 
for Explaining the Several Phenomena of Thunder-Gusts. 

In 1751 he published a paper on Experiments and Observations on 
Electricity, Made at Philadelphia in America. This treatise created 
a sensation in Europe, and was praised by the Comte de Buffon and 
by Sir William Watson of the Royal Society. In the face of much 
incredulity, Franklin's work demonstrated conclusively that lightning 
and electricity were manifestations of the same force. Not long after 
the appearance of his paper, Franklin conducted the famous kite 
experiment, which confirmed his hypothesis. Meanwhile, the Royal 
Society, which had previously ridiculed his theory, elected him a 
member. In the following year, the society honored him with the 
Copley medal. 

At Franklin's suggestion the American Philosophical Society was 
formed in 1743. In 1769 he became president of the organization, 
holding this post until his death. He continued to occupy himself 
with scientific problems, invented a new stove, perfected Philadel- 
phia's street-lighting system, and was a potent influence in the found- 
ing of the noted Union Fire Company. His scientific writings included 
63 papers on electricity and many others on varied subjects. Franklin 
was so universally esteemed that honors were accorded him in Europe 
as well as at home. He was made a foreign associate of the French 
Academy of Sciences in 1772, and was elected a member of the 
Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences in 1784. 

Other Philadelphia pioneers in science were John Fitch, among the 
early experimenters with steamboats ; Thomas Say, entomologist, 
one of the founders of the Academy of Natural Sciences ; James Pol- 
lard Espy, father of meteorology ; Dr. Robert Hare, chemist ; Alex- 
ander Wilson, ornithologist ; Charles Willson Peale, naturalist and 
founder of one of the first museums in America ; Thomas Nuttall, 
botanist ; Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, naturalist ; Gerard Troost, 
mineralogist and one of the founders of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences ; Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, naturalist ; and Joseph 
Priestley, who had discovered oxygen while still living in England. 

Industrial Science 

T1TITH the opening of the nineteenth century, Philadelphia gave 
** impetus to the expansion of industry through numerous inven- 
tions in the field of applied science. Manufacturing had grown rapidly 
in proportion to the development of new machines and new technique. 
Oliver Evans (1755-1819), inventor of what may be regarded as 
the first automobile, a steam-driven amphibian dredging machine, 
had begun the manufacture of steam engines. He had also taken out 
patents for cotton and wool carding machines. 



Patents for grain-threshing machines were granted to Samuel 
Mullikens, of Philadelphia, as early as 1791. Dr. Robert Hare in- 
vented the first electric furnace in 1816 ; and in the same year Dr. 
Charles Kugler exhibited his new gas lamp. In 1824 William Horst- 
mann adapted the Jacquard loom for American industry ; and in 1832 
the first successful American locomotive, "Old Ironsides," was built 
by Matthias Baldwin. 

Foremost among Philadelphia inventors and scientists of the last 
50 years were Dr. Elihu Thomson, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Cole- 
man Sellers, Herman Haupt. 

Born in 1853 at Manchester, England, Elihu Thomson at the age 
of five came with his parents to Philadelphia. Here he later taught 
in the high schools. Dr. Thomson, a pioneer in electrical science, is 
credited with the invention of the resistance method of electric weld- 
ing and the three-phase armature winding of dynamos, besides mak- 
ing important discoveries in the field of electrical production and 
distribution. In the winter of 1876-77 he constructed the first electric 
dynamo made in Philadelphia at the Franklin Institute while a 
lecturer at old Central High School, Broad and Green Streets. Twelve 
years later he received the Grand Prix in Paris for his inventions. He 
died March 13, 1937, at his home in Swampscott, Mass. 

Probably one of the most significant figures in the history of in- 
dustrial science and invention of modern times was Frederick Wins- 
low Taylor (1856-1915), the father of scientific management in in- 
dustry and business. Taylor's name is synonymous with modern 
methods of mass production. When the Soviet Government recently 
inaugurated the Stakhanovite movement for greater efficiency in in- 
dustrial production and business management, it was merely apply- 
ing the principles formulated by Taylor in the latter part of the 
nineteenth century and used since then in all large-scale industries 
and business organizations in America and abroad. 

Born in Germantown, Taylor was educated at Phillips Exeter 
Academy, Harvard University, and Stevens Institute of Technology. 
He received his M. E. from Stevens in 1883 and received his degree of 
Doctor of Science at the University of Pennsylvania in 1906. Enter- 
ing the employ of the Midvale Steel Company in Philadelphia, he 
held jobs ranging from laborer to chief engineer. In 1889 he began 
his work of organizing on a basis of efficiency the management of 
various kinds of manufacturing establishments, among them the 
Midvale Steel Company, Cramp's Shipbuilding Company, and the 
Bethlehem Steel Company. Using the exact methods of science, Tay- 
lor computed just how many operations were required to perform a 
given job with a minimum of wasted time and motion. He invented 
the Taylor-White process of treating modern high-speed tools, for 
which he received a gold medal at the Paris Exposition of 1900 and 



the Elliott-Cresson gold medal of the Franklin Institute. He obtained 
patents on about 100 inventions. Taylor was president of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1905. 

Coleman Sellers (1827-1907) is best known for his invention of the 
first kinetoscope and photographic motion pictures. Sellers patented 
his invention in 1861. Improvements made later by Thomas A. Edison 
on Sellers' invention opened the way for development of the motion- 
picture industry. Dr. Sellers also invented a machine for rifling gun 
barrels, an automatic stop for bolt cutters, and improvements in 
presses for putting railway wheels on their axles. 

Herman Haupt (1817-1905), an American engineer, was director 
and chief engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1847 to 1861, 
during which time he superintended the construction of the Hoosac 
Tunnel, almost five miles long, under the Hoosac Mountains at Hoosac, 
Mass. During the Civil War he was superintendent of military rail- 
roads for the Federal Government, and afterwards became general 
manager of the Northern Pacific Railroad. He was the inventor of a 
drilling machine and of a method for the transportation of oil from 
the well. 

Prominent among contemporary Philadelphia inventors was Fred- 
erick Eugene Ives, experimenter in television, who has made impor- 
tant contributions in this new field. On April 7, 1927, Ives conducted 
the first practical demonstration of television, by transmitting the 
image of President Hoover from Washington to New York over facili- 
ties provided by the American Telephone & Telegraph Company. He 
died May 28, 1937, in Philadelphia. 

Scientific Institutions 

T^OREMOST among local scientific societies, and first of its kind 
* in America, is the American Philosophical Society, which has 
occupied its present home in Independence Square since 1789. The 
Society was founded in Philadelphia in 1743, with Thomas Hopkin- 
son as president. An outgrowth of Franklin's Junto, the society might 
well claim 1727 as its natal year. The original Junto was reorganized 
in 1766 as "The American Society Held at Philadelphia for Promot- 
ing Useful Knowledge." In 1769 this society was merged with the 
earlier American Philosophical Society. 

Franklin, who served as president until his death, was succeeded 
by David Rittenhouse. Other incumbents were Thomas Jefferson, Dr. 
Caspar Wistar, Peter Du Ponceau, Dr. Nathaniel Chapman, Dr. 
Franklin Bache, Frederick Fraley, Alexander Dallas Bache, Gen. 
Isaac Wistar, Dr. Edgar F. Smith, Dr. Robert Patterson, Chief Justice 
Tilghman, Judge John K. Kane, Robert M. Patterson, Dr. George B. 
Wood, Dr. W. W. Keen, Prof. William B. Scott, Charles D. Walcott, 



Dr. Henry Norris Russell, Roland S. Morris, and Dr. Francis X. Der- 
cum. The society's library is rich in Frankliniana and early scientific 
lore, as well as in other historical and scientific treasures. The pro- 
ceedings of its meetings are published. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, with the American 
Philosophical Society enjoying a position of eminence throughout 
the world, and Philadelphia recognized as the seat of scientific culture 
in America, there could be found only a scant handful of men who 
thought that the field of natural science offered any opportunity for 
intellectual endeavor. 

The Botanical Society, founded in 1806, was doomed to a brief and, 
but for one exception, an unproductive existence. The exception was 
the publication of a work by Benjamin Smith Barton entitled Dis- 
course on Some Principal Desiderata in Natural History. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences, conceived during informal dis- 
cussions among such ardent naturalists as John Speakman and Dr. 
Jacob Gilliams as early as 1809, was fully organized under its present 
name in 1812. In addition to Speakman, Dr. Joseph Leidy and Gil- 
liams, to whom is due much of the credit for the forming of the or- 
ganization, Nicholas B. Parmentier, John Shinn, Jr., Dr. Gerard 
Troost, Dr. Camillus MacMahon Mann, and Thomas Say were co- 
founders of the institution, which was to become one of the most 
active influences in the world of natural science. 

Members of the academy have acquitted themselves with honor and 
gallantry in many far-flung expeditions ever since the time when 
Thomas Say accompanied Long to the Rockies in 1819-20. Two mem- 
bers participated in Wilkes' Antarctic expedition of 1838, and the 
academy outfitted the Arctic expeditions of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane in 
1853 and Dr. Isaac Hayes in 1860. Most outstanding of the many 
explorations sponsored by the academy, however, was that of Rear 
Admiral Robert E. Peary to the North Pole. 

The academy's collections are counted among the finest in the 
world. The conchoiogical collection, started by Thomas Say, numbers 
more than a million specimens. Botanical research has resulted in 
the accumulation of another million specimens in that field.' Its col- 
lections of birds, minerals, and European neolithic fossils are world- 

Franklin Institute, founded in 1824 at a meeting of citizens in 
Congress Hall, is the oldest organization in the United States de- 
voted to the promotion of applied sciences and mechanical arts. 
Prominent in and primarily responsible for the founding of the in- 
stitution were Samuel Vaughan Merrick, later head of the South- 
wark Iron Works, and Dr. William Hypolitus Keating, son of a 
French baron and prominently associated with the University of 



In 1825 the cornerstone of the institute building, which was on the 
east side of Seventh Street below Market, was laid, and in 1826 the 
structure was completed. Classes were started immediately after 
the founding, William Strickland teaching architecture and Dr. 
Keating, chemistry. The classes were continued until 1924. The insti- 
tute was the precursor of the first city high school. 

For many years the institute held exhibits of American manu- 
factures. It still conducts considerable scientific research through its 
various committees and through the Bartol Research Foundation at 
Swarthmore, founded in 1921 by Henry W. Bartol, life member of 
the institute. 

The new home of the institute on the Parkway was completed in 
1933. Dedicated as a memorial to Benjamin Franklin, this building 
contains the offices, library, and auditorium of the institute, as well 
as a scientific and technological museum. It also houses the Fels 
Planetarium. The museum has many exhibits and collections show- 
ing development in the various fields of applied science. 

In the field of archeological exploration and preservation the 
University of Pennsylvania Museum is predominant. Founded as the 
Archaeological Association in 1888, it was given its present name 
in 1892. Among the best known of this museum's ventures was the 
so-called Babylonian Expedition of 1888. Failing to make arrange- 
ments in London to prevent illicit excavations in Babylonia and 
Assyria, the committee in charge of this expedition determined to 
use its efforts to divert antiquities to the United States. After much 
haggling, the collection of Joseph Shemtob was purchased for much 
less than it would have cost to obtain a similar one by excavation. 
The collection, now housed in the museum, together with another 
purchased by Dr. Harper, consisted of several hundred pieces, and 
constituted what was then the greatest gathering of Babylonian and 
Assyrian relics in the United States. 

In 1895 the museum sponsored an exhaustive ethnological survey 
of Borneo conducted by William H. Furness, 3d, and H. M. Miller. 
Its recent activities have included the search for evidences of early 
man in the southwestern United States ; a study of the old Mayan 
empire at Piedras Negras, Guatemala ; explorations in Tell Billa 
and Tepe Gawra in Mesopotamia, Ravy in Persia, and Cyprus. 

Lectures, classroom instruction, visual education by means of 
museum specimens, and a complete reference library are provided 
by the Wagner Free Institute of Science, at Seventeenth Street and 
Montgomery Avenue. The institute conducts free lecture courses, sup- 
plemented by class work in engineering, organic and inorganic 
chemistry, botany, zoology, physics, and geology. Certificates are 
awarded to students who complete a four-year course in any of these 


Natural Habitat Exhibits in the Academy of Natural Sciences 

The Aerie 



subjects. The institute has a museum of 25,000 specimens in min- 
eralogy, palaeontology, petrology, corals, birds, and mammals. 

The American Entomological Society was founded in 1859 to in- 
vestigate the habits of insects. It publishes the monthly Entomological 

The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, oldest in the country, was 
organized November 24, 1827, with Horace Binney as first president. 
The latter has been active in promoting and encouraging the study 
of flowers, vegetables, fruits, plants, and trees. Its 3,600-volume li- 
brary and its offices are at No. 1600 Arch Street. Supported mainly 
by the endowment of a former president, William L. Schaffer, the 
society has a nominal dues-paying membership of 3,700. It aids 
greatly in the forming of garden clubs. 

The Penrose Research Laboratories, as a subsidiary of the Zoolog- 
ical Gardens, conduct studies in comparative pathology and nu- 
tritive values. The laboratories were established in 1901. 

The Morris Arboretum and the Botanic Garden, both maintained 
by the University of Pennsylvania, are engaged in plant study. The 
arboretum, bequeathed to the university by the late Miss Lydia 
Thompson Morris, occupies a 170-acre estate in Chestnut Hill, and 
is one of the beauty spots in the United States. Lying between Hamil- 
ton Walk and the grounds of the Philadelphia Hospital is the Botanic 
Garden, comprising nearly four acres of trees and flowers. Six green- 
houses shelter a collection of orchids, palms, aroids, ferns, and suc- 
culents, which have proved of value in the teaching and research 
work of the University of Pennsylvania's botany department. 


Fitch's Steamboat "Perseverance" 
The progenitor of the S. S. Queen Mary 


MEDICAL practice in Perm's city had its beginning with Jan 
Peterson, Swedish barber-surgeon, who administered to the 
ills of the early Dutch and Swedish settlers long before the 
city was laid out. John Goodson, a chirurgeon to the Society of Free 
Traders, came from London to Chester (then Upland) early in 
Pennsylvania history. He was practicing in Upland in 1682, and 
moved to Philadelphia after the coming of William Penn. 

Struggling in a fog of uncertainty and ignorance, Philadelphia's 
earnest medical pioneers laid the foundation for future greatness in 
the field of medicine. Hardy warriors, they fought valiantly against 
the epidemics and plagues which swept the young city every few 
years. Included in this advance guard were John Kearsley, Thomas 
Graeme, Lloyd Zachary, John Morgan, William Shippen, Jr., Thomas 
Bond, Benjamin Rush, Phineas Bond, Adam Kuhn, and Thomas 
Cadwalader. Dr. Cadwalader was one of the early physicians to apply 
modern scientific methods to an autopsy, and the first to employ 
electricity in the treatment of disease, especially paralysis. 

Among first practitioners were Thomas Wynne, Thomas Lloyd, and 
Griffith Owen, all three of whom arrived from Wales in 1682 and 
held the first consultation in Philadelphia shortly thereafter. Dr. 
Owen performed the first professional operation amputation of a 
gunner's arm shattered by a cannon ball fired as a salute on the oc- 
casion of William Penn's second coming to Philadelphia in 1699. 

The earliest physicians provided the impetus to medical advance- 
ment which led to the establishment in 1732 of a hospital department 
in the Philadelphia Almshouse. Twenty years later the Pennsylvania 
Hospital was founded. Benjamin Franklin, man of marvelous ver- 
satility, aided in the fight for its establishment with his inimitable 
flair for publicity. 

During the city's formative years there was no institution offering 
instruction in the medical arts and sciences until the founding of the 
Medical School of the College of Philadelphia in 1765. The first 
medical degree of Colonial days, Bachelor in Physic, was conferred 
upon graduates of this school in 1768. The degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine did not come into existence until 1789. 

The first half of the nineteenth century witnessed a quickened in- 
terest and a practical growth in medical education facilities. In 1820 



Dr. Jason Lawrence founded the Philadelphia Anatomical Rooms, 
later known as the Philadelphia School of Anatomy. Jefferson Medi- 
cal College was founded in 1825, Pennsylvania Medical College in 
1840. The founding of these schools broke the ice of uncertainty sur- 
rounding the medical profession, and many more schools sprang up 
throughout the city. Franklin Medical College and the Philadelphia 
College of Medicine had their inception in 1846. By this time Phila- 
delphia had gained a reputation as the medical center of the United 
States, and the city's renown in this field has continued to grow with 
the years. 

Advocates of the homeopathic doctrine aided in the founding of the 
Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. Untiring efforts on the 
part of supporters of women who clamored for admission to medical 
schools resulted in the founding, in 1850, of the Female Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, later known as the Women's Medical College 
of Pennsylvania. 

To meet the need of the growing demand for specialization, the 
Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates in Medicine was 
established in 1889. The school proved highly successful, and Temple 
University followed with the opening of a department of medicine. 
Medical science was at last leaving its swaddling clothes and abandon- 
ing its ancient superstitions to become more nearly a science. 

The profession of dentistry arrived as an offspring of medicine. 
The Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery was founded in 1852. 
Upon recognizing the demand for study in this field, the Philadelphia 
Dental College, now a part of Temple University, was founded. This 
was in 1863, preceding by 15 years the opening of the University of 
Pennsylvania's dental department. 

Pharmacy had made but a timid appearance in Philadelphia be- 
fore the Revolution, and for some time afterward only a few apothe- 
caries were available. One of the first apothecaries in America was 
David Leighton, whom Dr. John Morgan brought to Philadelphia 
after the latter's sojourn abroad. However, many years elapsed be- 
fore Philadelphia won distinction by founding the first American 
institution of that science, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
in 1821. 

Colonial Medical Practice 

A N INCIDENT in the life of Dr. William Shippen, Jr., shows to 
-^*- what extent medical research in early Philadelphia was hamp- 
ered by the ignorance and superstition of both layman and physician. 
When, in his search for knowledge to aid in alleviating suffering, he 
dissected a human body in 1762, a storm of protest broke through- 
out the city. He was threatened with physical violence, and an at- 



tempt was made to destroy his home. Nevertheless, the intrepid phy- 
sician continued his efforts to probe the unknown. Dr. Shippen was in 
advance of all his contemporaries in the study and knowledge of 
obstetrics, and in 1762 he established the city's first private maternity 

A close associate and friend of his, Dr. John Morgan, has been 
called the "founder of American medicine" as a result of extensive 
research work. To Dr. Morgan goes the credit for effecting a division 
between medicine and surgery, realizing, as he did, that each 
specialty required its own type of practitioner. When he returned 
from his studies abroad, he founded, in 1765, America's first school of 
medicine. (Dr. Shippen was professor of surgery and anatomy in 
this school, which later became part of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania.) Dr. Morgan made invaluable contributions to the study of the 
origin and formation of pus, and his views on scientific surgery are 
approved even today by medical men everywhere. 

Early Philadelphians were the originators of many valuable meth- 
ods of treatment, especially in the field of surgery. Dr. Thomas Bond 
created a flurry of speculation in medical circles in 1756 when he 
performed the city's first recorded lithotomy (bladder operation) at 
the Pennsylvania Hospital. It can well be imagined what pain was 
suffered by the patient, without benefit of anesthesia ; but the 
operation was successful, and medical science thus moved another 
step forward. Dr. Bond also perfected a splint for fractures of the 
lower end of the radius. He discovered the medicinal value of mer- 
cury, and was the first in the Colonies to advocate the use of hot 
and cold baths in medical treatment. 

Another prominent practitioner in early Philadelphia was Dr. 
Philip Syng Physick, "the father of American surgery" and inventor 
of a number of surgical appliances and instruments. Among his 
creations were the urethrotome, the seton for ununified fractures, 
ligatures for vessels, and the tonsillotome. Dr. Hugh L. Hodge in- 
vented a pessary and obstetrical forceps ; Dr. S. D. Gross a trans- 
fusion apparatus, foreign body extractor, bullet probe, artery forceps, 
tourniquet, and splints. Dr. Gross conducted the first systematic 
course of lectures on morbid anatomy given in the United States. 

Dr. Benjamin Rush, also a Philadelphian, is conceded to have been 
one of the greatest clinicians that this country has ever produced. 
Besides being an acknowledged leader in the field of medicine, he 
was an essayist, orator, philosopher, and statesman, and a highly 
successful teacher. 

The first medical textbook in America was published in 1811 by a 
Philadelphian, Dr. Caspar Wistar, whose anatomical specimens form 
the nucleus of the present Wistar Museum. William P. C. Barton^ 
nephew of Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton and successor to the latter 



Laboratory Sharp & Dohme, Inc. 
Man versus disease 


as professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania, wrote the 
first American Materia Medica, Florae Philadelphicae Prodromus 
(1815), containing a botanical, general, and medical history of the 
medicinal plants indigenous to the United States. 

Philadelphia has suffered its share of major epidemics. The first 
recorded plague occurred in 1699, when yellow fever exacted a toll 
of 220 lives. In the early days vaccination was little known and less 
used, but an epidemic of smallpox in 1730 induced Philadelphia 
medical men to experiment in the field of prevention. When another 
epidemic broke out, six years later, there was vociferous objection 
to vaccination, although by this time it had been successfully used in 
England. However, the value of inoculation was demonstrated by 
the fact that only one of 129 persons submitting to the treatment 
succumbed to the malady. Another invasion of the dread disease in 
1756 further tended to fortify the arguments of those in favor of 
preventive measures. Finally, in 1773, an inoculation hospital was 
opened in Philadelphia. 

During the terrible yellow-fever scourge of 1793, of the Philadel- 
phia physicians who fought the epidemic heroically one stood out 
conspicuously Dr. Benjamin Rush. Fighting blindly, he finally 
evolved a treatment which, though in no sense a cure, nevertheless 
did much to ease the suffering. Each day he treated an average of 
125 persons stricken by the deadly "Yellow Jack." The epidemic 
spread rapidly from Water and Front Streets to surrounding areas 
and raged for six long weeks. Thousands fled the city. Those who 
remained wandered through streets heavy with the acrid smoke of 
burning wood and gunpowder, used in an effort to halt the scourge. 
With the coming of cold weather the plague subsided, but only after 
4,000 deaths had been recorded. 

Later Efforts 

A MONG those Philadelphians who helped make medical history 
^*- during the latter part of the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries were John K. Mitchell (1798-1858), first to describe neuro- 
tic spinal-joint diseases and their treatment ; Dr. George Bacon 
Wood (1797-1879), and Dr. Franklin Bache (1792-1864), collabora- 
tors on the United States Dispensatory; Nathaniel Chapman (1780- 
1853) and Matthew Carey (1760-1839), founders of the Philadelphia 
Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences, later called American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences ; Dr. Samuel George Morton (1799- 
1851), author of valuable papers on craniology, palaeontology, and 
phthisisography ; William Wood Gerhard (1809-72), specialist in 
pulmonary diseases ; and Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57), physician and 
arctic explorer. 



Dr. Crawford Williamson Long (1815-78) was a pioneer in the use 
of ether; Dr. Joseph Pancoast (1805-82), Dr. Joseph Leidy (1823- 
1891), Dr. James Tyson (1841-1919), Dr. William Pepper (1843-98), 
and Dr. Jacob M. DaCosta (1833-1900) contributed much to the steady 
march of medical progress. Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), 
termed the "father of American neurology," was almost equally well 
known as a novelist and poet. 

Outstanding physicians of a later day include Dr. John B. Deaver 
(1855-1931), a surgeon noted for his success in appendectomy; Dr. 
George Edmund de Schweinitz, recognized as one of the country's 
outstanding eye specialists ; Dr. Solomon Solis-Cohen, professor 
emeritus of clinical medicine at Jefferson College, who delivered the 
first systematic course of lectures on Therapeutic Measures Other than 
Drugs in an American school ; and Dr. Chevalier Jackson, developer 
of the world-famous bronchoscope and now occupying the chair of 
bronchoscopy at Temple University. Dr. Jackson is also inventor of 
the esophogoscope. 

The crippling scourge of infantile paralysis is now somewhat less 
dreaded as a result of the efforts of Dr. John A. Kolmer, head of the 
Temple University medical staff. Dr. Kolmer experimented with 
monkeys for three years before perfecting a treatment at the Re- 
search Institute of Cutaneous Medicine. His studies and persistent 
work in immunization and vaccine therapy stand today as the most 
important achievements toward prevention and cure of infantile 

Dr. William B. Van Lennep (1853-1919), one of the founders of 
the American College of Surgeons, was acknowledged by his contem- 
poraries as being among the greatest American teachers of surgery. 
Another noted surgeon, Dr. William W. Keen (1837-1932), achieved 
his greatest fame through his work in the treatment of war wounds. 

Dr. Rufus B. Weaver (1841-1936), famous throughout the country, 
performed one of the greatest anatomical feats the world has known. 
Within a period of seven months he dissected and mounted a com- 
plete human cerebro-nervous system from the remains of Harriet 
Cole, a colored scrub woman at Hahnemann Hospital. The students 
to this day refer to it as Harriet. The white nerves are suspended on 
the heads of protruding pins ; the eyes fixed to meet the gaze of the 
many visitors. This work, the only one of its kind in the history of 
medicine, is preserved in a fireproof vault in the Rufus B. Weaver 
Museum of Hahnemann Medical College. Early in his career Dr. 
Weaver astounded the medical profession by identifying, from their 
buried remains, the bodies of 3,000 Confederate soldiers who had 
been killed at Gettysburg. 

Dr. Louis A. Duhring (1845-1913) was an outstanding skin spe- 
cialist. An ailing Philadelphian once traveled to Vienna for treat- 



ment by a noted Austrian dermatologist. The Vienna doctor told him 
he had gone to much unnecessary trouble since Philadelphia had in 
Dr. Duhring one of the world's best skin specialists. 

Pediatrics has been greatly advanced through the efforts of two 
notable Philadelphians, Dr. John P. Crozer Griffith and Dr. Charles 
Sigmund Raue. Dr. Raue is chief of the department of pediatrics at 
Hahnemann, and St. Luke's and Children's Hospitals. Dr. George W. 
MacKenzie, highly revered by members of his profession, is noted 
for his work as an ear, nose, and throat specialist. To Dr. MacKenzie, 
who teaches not only students but also physicians, was awarded the 
gold honor medal by the University of Vienna for his contributions 
to medical science. 

Dr. Francis Colgate Benson, Jr., a pioneer in the adaptation of 
radium to medical purposes, organized this country's first separate 
department for the use of radium in medicine and surgery. 

The progress of health among the school children of Philadelphia 
has been greatly furthered by the work of Dr. Walter S. Cornell, 
head of the medical inspection department of the Philadelphia Board 
of Education. His department's yearly reports serve as models for 
public school systems throughout the Nation. 

Although Negroes did not become active in the medical field until 
late in the nineteenth century, members of the race have made many 
valuable contributions to medical knowledge. The first accredited 
doctor to appear upon the scene was Dr. Nathan F. Mossell, the 
first Negro student to enter and graduate from the University of 
Pennsylvania's medical school. Graduating from that institution in 
1882, he began practicing that same year and is now (1937) rounding 
out 55 continuous years of medical service to his people. The follow- 
ing year Dr. James Potter finished his medical course in the same 
university and began a practice which lasted until his death in 1929. 
During the last decade of the century Drs. A. E. White, Thomas J. 
Stanford, George R. Hilton, and Wilbert D. Postels began their work. 
Early in the new century (1906) Dr. Henry M. Minton, now (1937) 
superintendent of Mercy Hospital, started his practice. He has given 
a great deal of time towards the cure of tuberculosis, and is dispens- 
ing physician to the Henry Phipps Institute, an agency for the pre- 
vention and treatment of this disease. Among well-known, present-day 
doctors are Drs. J. Q. McDougald, successful surgeon ; John P. Turner, 
police surgeon and first Negro member of the Board of Education ; 
and Virginia M. Alexander, who in connection with her practice, 
maintains a private hospital. 


Hygiene and Hygiene Legislation 

OVERNMENTAL action in the field of health preservation came 
when laymen and medical men alike sought to devise some means 
of preventing the recurrence of conditions similar to those prevail- 
ing at the time of the yellow-fever epidemic in 1793. Agitation along 
this line culminated in the 1794 Act of Assembly which created a 
Board of Health. Full authority was given the board to make and 
enforce all rules and regulations deemed necessary for conducting 
effective quarantines. 

Health authorities received wider powers from the State Legisla- 
ture in 1895. An act of that year required the prompt reporting of 
contagious diseases, the isolation of patients, and the quarantining 
of houses where contagious cases existed. It regulated the school at- 
tendance of children living in such houses, required the disinfection 
of persons and clothing, and instituted compulsory vaccination to 
prevent smallpox. The law provided heavy penalties for violations. 

Philadelphia's first water works was begun in 1799, with the 
erection of a powerhouse and a receiving fountain along the Schuyl- 
kill River, south of Market Street. In 1818 the first pumps were in- 
stalled in the section then known as "Faire Mount" along the Schuyl- 
kill, north of Market Street. 

Until 1884 Philadelphia's sewer system consisted of less than 30 
miles of sewers. The first intercepting sewer was constructed in 1884, 
its purpose being to prevent pollution of that part, of the Schuylkill 
River within the city limits. Eighteen hundred miles of sewers drain 
the city today. 

Steps toward systematic control of the city's milk supply were 
taken in 1888, when the city made an appropriation for the employ- 
ment of a milk inspector. Today it maintains a special division of 
milk inspection, with a chief inspector and a large staff of assistants. 
Food inspection has been handled with much greater efficiency since 
the division of bacteriology, pathology, and disinfection was estab- 
lished in 1895. This division performs an invaluable service by con- 
fiscating impure and tainted foodstuffs. 

As for hospitalization, there is no resemblance at all between the 
insanitary and miasmic pesthouse of Colonial Philadelphia and the 
74 spotless and scientifically equipped institutions of today. 

Overcrowded conditions in the city's first hospital resulted in the 
establishment of the Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751. This institu- 
tion's department for the sick and injured has remained at Eighth 
and Spruce Streets ever since completion of the hospital, construction 
of which was begun in 1755. The department for mental and nervous 
diseases, commonly known as Kirkbride's, is in West Philadelphia. 
The various buildings are scattered over an immense plot of ground 





Men iw ^/iite 
Operating room in Hahnemanri Hospital 


bounded approximately by Market Street, Powelton Avenue, Forty- 
second Street, Haverford Avenue, and Forty-ninth Street. Construc- 
tion of the buildings to house the mental and nervous department 
was begun in 1836. Kirkbride's was for many years a model for 
mental institutions all over the world. Pennsylvania Hospital was the 
first in America to establish a department of psychiatry. In 1928 
ground was broken at Forty-ninth and Market Streets for the erection 
of a modern psychiatric institute. 

Philadelphia General Hospital, an outgrowth of the city's early 
almshouse, is admittedly one of the finest and largest institutions of 
its kind in the United States. The hospital was separated from the 
almshouse by a legislative act in 1919. A group of old buildings, 
which for half a century housed the indigent insane, and physically 
ill, was metamorphosed into the gigantic General Hospital at Thirty- 
fourth and Pine Streets. The main buildings were completed and first 
occupied in 1928. Additional buildings were added in 1929, 1930, and 
1933, in which last named year the cost of buildings and equipment 
approximated $8,000,000. The hospital is modern in every detail and 
has 2,500 beds. 

The School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, founded 
in 1765, was the first American medical school connected with a 
university. Headquarters are in the Medical Laboratory Building at 
Thirty-sixth Street and Hamilton Walk, and the various department 
buildings radiate from that point. From the small Surgeon's Hall, 
open in 1765 at Fifth Street near Walnut, the school has grown 
to vast proportions. Since its founding more than 16,000 students 
have received medical degrees from the school, and approximately 
500 students are currently enrolled. The courses of instruction include 
every branch of the medical profession. 

The Graduate Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, at Nine- 
teenth and Lombard Streets, provides post-graduate courses in all 
branches of medicine. The Medico-Chirurgical (Medico-Chi) College 
and Hospital merged with the University of Pennsylvania in 1916. The 
Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for graduates in medicine and 
the Diagnostic Hospital merged with the university in 1918 and 1926, 

Jefferson Medical College, at Tenth and Walnut Streets, has been 
noted since its inception for its distinguished clinicians and the in- 
clusiveness of its clinical teaching. The college and clinical buildings, 
recently constructed, house one of the most modern medical colleges 
in the United States. 

There are two hospitals operated by and chiefly for Negroes. Doug- 
lass Hospital, Lombard Street near Sixteenth, was established in 1895, 
the first of its kind in Pennsylvania. In addition to ward, private, and 
semiprivate facilities the hospital maintains a special X-ray room for 



diagnosis with modernly equipped pathological and histological labor- 
atories. It has a bed capacity of approximately 100. Mercy Hospital, 
Fiftieth and Woodland Avenue, opened on February 12, 1907, receiv- 
ing its charter the following March. It maintains a 110-bed capacity 
and is supported by State aid and through the community fund. Both 
institutions maintain a training school for nurses. 

The Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania was consoli- 
dated with the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1869, 
under the latter name. The college, on Broad Street north of Race, is 
the oldest homeopathic medical school in existence. The Hospital of 
Philadelphia merged with Hahnemann in 1885. Completely reorgan- 
ized in 1916, many new and desirable educational improvements were 
effected. The present 20-story structure was completed in 1928. Every 
available aid for the diagnosis and treatment of disease is found in 
this modern college and hospital. 

The Jewish Hospital Association, at York and Tabor Roads, was 
founded in 1865. This institution has from the beginning been "dedi- 
cated to the relief work of the sick and wounded without regard to 
creed, color, or nationality." 

An unusual medical institution is the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons now located at 15 South Twenty-second Street. A prototype 
of the Royal College of Physicians of London, it was instituted in 
Philadelphia in September 1787. In its earlier years this scientific 
body was active in the maintenance of public health and morals. In 
recent years, however, its largest measures have been devoted to the 
discussion of scientific matters. Its valuable library occupies a promi- 
nent position among medical libraries of the world. 

A noteworthy forward step in medical progress was taken with the 
establishment of the Philadelphia School of Occupational Therapy in 
1918. Under the auspices of the National League for Woman's Serv- 
ice, the school aims to develop the formula of "occupation under 
medical prescription" as treatment for both mental and physical ail- 



'Do good with what thou hast, or it will do thee no good* 

SOCIAL service has by no means been laggard in its contribution 
to the picture of general achievement in Philadelphia. Despite 
its widely flung area and density of population, the city manages 
to take reasonably good care of its destitute. 

Even the wealthy, golfing or riding to hounds in the sun-drenched 
suburbs far from the city's slums, regard their charities seriously. 
The annual Charity Ball of the socialites is as much a part of Phila- 
delphia tradition as is the thrift of Benjamin Franklin or the prodi- 
gality of Robert Morris. 

The family relief situation in Philadelphia was probably at its 
worst during the early days of the Colony, when members of needy 
families were forced to beg upon the streets. There was no differen- 
tiation between those who could not work and those who would not 
work. Charitable organizations, such as they were, carried on their 
work independently of one another, so that confusion and inefficiency 
resulted. Pauper laws, brought from England by the Quakers, were 
invoked in the cases of individuals seeking aid. A trace of these laws 
remains today in those Philadelphia hospitals which require an oath 
of poverty from a charity patient. 

The first almshouse in Philadelphia was established in 1713, by the 
Society of Friends, on the south side of Walnut Street between Third 
and Fourth. It was devoted exclusively to the care of indigent mem- 
bers of the Quaker faith. 

The first municipal almshouse was completed in 1732, and was 
operated under supervision of the city government. Known as the 
Philadelphia Almshouse, it maintained a hospital department and 
accommodated the sick and insane as well as the poor. It was situated 
in a green meadow at Third and Spruce Streets. Its hospital depart- 
ment developed into what is today the Philadelphia General Hospital. 
In 1767 a new almshouse with larger accommodations was opened 
at Eleventh and Pine Streets. 

With the passing of the years, and the steady growth of the city's 
population, a corresponding increase in the number of dependents 
necessitated a larger institution. On March 5, 1828, an act was passed 
providing for an almshouse, hospital, and other buildings "on a site 
not exceeding two miles from Broad & Market Sts." In the vicinity 



of what is now Thirty-fourth and Spruce Streets a large tract of land 
was purchased, and on it were erected the buildings of the Blockley 
Almshouse. Completed in 1834, the institution was operated by the 
city for many years. 

The oldest prison organization in America, the Pennsylvania 
Prison Society, was established in 1787. This society aids and advises 
prisoners in the problems facing them during their confinement and 
after their release. 

The first private charitable institution in the city was the Mag- 
dalen Society, founded in 1799 for the reformation of fallen women. 
Bishop William White, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, was its 
first president. 

Through the efforts of Ann Parrish, a member of the Society of 
Friends, the first organization for temporary assistance of the dis- 
tressed was formed in 1793, following the epidemic of yellow fever, 
which had caused great suffering and privation among the poor. 
Assistance was given to the sick, and in the winter wood and food 
were distributed to the needy. 

In 1815 the Second Presbyterian Church erected a two-story build- 
ing at Eighteenth and Cherry Streets, dedicating it to the care of 
orphans. Thus the Orphans' Society of Philadelphia was formed. The 
society carried on its work at the original address until 1872, when 
the encroachment of business houses and the corresponding rise in 
real estate values forced its removal to Sixty-fourth Street and Haver- 
ford Avenue. 

One of the pioneer organizations for poor relief was the Union 
Benevolent Association, founded in 1831 by David Nasmith and Rev. 
Thomas G. Allen, an Episcopal clergyman. In 1868 the Orphans 
Guardian was established under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Hirsch, 
rabbi of the Congregation Keneseth Israel. It was restricted to a 
policy of aiding only the needy in its own congregation until 1891. 
Then its scope was enlarged to noncongregational activities. Under 
the Guardian plan, one family became a "big brother" to a poorer 
family, aiding it financially, spiritually, and educationally. 

The Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity and Repressing 
Mendicancy was formed in 1879. Third of its kind in the country, 
its name was shortened later to Philadelphia Society for Organizing 
Charity. A central office was established, with trained workers devot- 
ing all their labors to the alleviation of poverty and sickness. This 
idea of centralization and unification has been developed with the 
years, until at present most of the funds for relief purposes in Phila- 
delphia are collected in one large drive conducted annually by the 
United Campaign of the Welfare Federation. 

Today the poor and feeble of Philadelphia are far less unfortunate 
than those of 1700, who dared not go to bed sick, for fear of being 



removed to prison once they had become well. Now they can obtain 
medical treatment in charity wards in the city's hospitals or in 
hospital clinics. In addition to the hospital clinics, special health 
clinics are maintained for low-income and needy families. 

There is also an organization known as the Marriage Counsel, with 
offices at 253 South Fifteenth Street, which helps young married 
couples, or those contemplating marriage, to a better understanding 
of what companionship in married life involves. Counsel, in terms of 
the individual's needs, is given at one or more personal interviews. 
The Maternal Health Centers and the Pennsylvania Birth Control 
Federation have offices at the same address. 

A committee of the latter organization operates the National Health 
centers with four clinics in the city. Since the first of these clinics was 
opened in Philadelphia in 1929, nearly 20,000 women seeking reliable 
medical information on marital problems have been instructed by 
these clinic physicians. The aim of the organization is to make 
medically directed birth control information available to under- 
privileged mothers who have no reliable means of limiting their 
families. Social agencies of all kinds cooperate in referring patients 
to the clinics. 

Philadelphia has also helped lead the way toward socialized 
medicine in the State through the C. Dudley Saul Medical Service, 
organized in June 1935, which provides low-cost medical treatment 
to a large number of subscribers. This service was started in conjunc- 
tion with the Newspaper Guild of Philadelphia and Camden. Mem- 
bers of the service pay a monthly fee of $2, for which they receive 
necessary medical attention and are entitled to three months' hos- 
pitalization a year. Dependents are also served at a rate less than 
half the ordinary fees. Many minor ailments that might develop into 
serious illnesses are cared for under the monthly payment plan with- 
out additional expense. 

The Philadelphia Department of Public Health conducts 12 tuber- 
culosis clinics. This department also provides eye dispensaries for 
those otherwise unable to procure treatment. Many neighborhood 
organizations, such as the Big Brother Association and the German- 
town Community Center, conduct clinics on a free or nominal fee 
basis. The Visiting Nurses Association has skilled nurses traveling 
through the poorer districts, ministering to those in need of bedside 

Foremost among the community service ventures is the United 
Campaign, a joint drive held by the Welfare Federation and the 
Federation of Jewish Charities each spring to obtain funds for the 
maintenance of the city's social agencies. Altogether, 141 charitable 
institutions are supported by this United Campaign. 

The Federation of Jewish Charities, organized in 1901, which sup- 



ports 53 Jewish charitable institutions in Philadelphia, was established 
in order to eliminate the many benefits, ticket sellings, bazaars, fairs, 
and other methods of collection. Among the institutions aided by the 
federation are Mount Sinai Hospital, Bureau for Jewish Children, 
Jewish Hospital Association, National Farm School at Doylestown, 
Jewish Seaside Home for Invalids at Ventnor, N. J., Young Men's and 
Young Women's Hebrew Associations and the Jewish Sheltering 
Home for the Homeless and Aged. 

The Welfare Federation of Philadelphia performs a similar clear- 
ing house function for other social agencies in the city. Operating in 
much the same manner as the Federation of Jewish Charities, its 
purpose is to eliminate the waste of a number of solicitation drives 
by combining them and by setting up a single unit for collecting 
and allocating funds and interpreting agency programs to the public. 

Numerous groups are devoted to the welfare of the city's youth. 
The Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire Girls, Catholic Young Men's 
Association, Boy Council of Philadelphia, and other youth organiza- 
tions aid the young to obtain healthful recreation and social develop- 

The Bureau of Recreation of the Department of Public Welfare, 
in City Hall, sets up and manages neighborhood playgrounds, rec- 
reation centers, and swimming pools. Forty-one playgrounds and 38 
swimming pools are maintained by the municipal bureau. Also in- 
cluded in the municipal Department of Public Welfare are the 
Bureau of Charities and Correction and the Bureau of Personal As- 
sistance. There are many city-wide organizations engaged in better- 
ing community life and establishing a friendly attitude among the 
various peoples of Philadelphia. 

The Philadelphia Conference on Social Work holds an annual 
meeting at which representatives of social organizations discuss ways 
and means of improving the latter's activities. 

Constant coordination in social service is achieved through the 
Social Service Exchange to which virtually all public and private 
agencies engaged in welfare and relief work subscribe. In the central 
index maintained by the Exchange are listed the names and addresses 
of all persons known to any of the social agencies of the city, there- 
by permitting each agency to avoid duplicating relief or service and 
at the same time to coordinate its activity on behalf of a particular 
family with that of other agencies concerned. 

The Bureau of Municipal Research is a civic agency designed to 
collect and classify facts regarding the powers and duties of municipal 
departments, and to seek ways and means of coordinating and ex- 
pediting the functions of government. There are also within Phila- 
delphia various agencies whose functions include the sponsoring of 



legislation designed to increase the effectiveness of child education 
and to eliminate child labor. 

Agencies such as the Armstrong Association and the Whittier 
Center strive to better the conditions and culture of the Negro, 
through education and other channels. 

The American Penal Labor Association, the County Prison Officials 
Association of Pennsylvania, and the Philadelphia Criminal Justice 
Association seek to curb crime, to alleviate suffering among the 
families of imprisoned criminals, and to return discharged prisoners 
to normal occupations. 

The Philadelphia Zoning Commission, Better Homes in America 
Association, Philadelphia Housing Association, and other organiza- 
tions seek to produce a model residential, commercial, and industrial 
community. Marking the city off into zones of residential, business, 
and factory sections is the duty of the Zoning Commission. Through 
this method, an apportionment of sections is sought to facilitate busi- 
ness and restrict certain residential sections, for the protection of real 
estate investments and municipal improvement areas. 

In 1927 Charles Edwin Fox, then District Attorney, ordered an 
investigation into the background of four young bandits responsible 
for the Olney Bank robbery, in which a policeman was shot and 
killed. County Detective Merryweather, assigned to the case, turned 
in a startling analysis of the factors contributing to the excessive 
criminal delinquency among youths between the ages of 16 and 21. 

The lack of recreational facilities and of parental education, com- 
bined with bad housing and the use of political "pull," was given as 
a cause tending to sidetrack these youths into a life of crime. With 
this information before him, Fox took steps to alleviate this shock- 
ing condition. The Crime Prevention Association was formed, with 
Detective Merryweather as executive director. It began operating 
June 1, 1932. Simultaneously a police department crime prevention 
bureau was set up. 

Merryweather obtained the second floor of a South Broad Street 
building. He installed pool tables, games, and other forms of recrea- 
tion, and within a few days the street corners of the neighborhood 
were virtually clear of youthful loungers. An "unofficial parole" sys- 
tem and card index file were put into effect, with first offenders and 
repeaters segregated. Thus a close contact was maintained with youths 
of criminal tendencies. In order to remove the implied stigma the 
name was later changed from Crime Prevention Association to the 
Philadelphia Council of Older Boys' Clubs. 

Numerous clubhouses have been established throughout the city. 
That their work has proved beneficial is indicated by recent figures 


Preston Retreat 
'A child was born . 


showing an 11 percent decrease in crime among the older boys in 
the city. Among the organizations which strive to keep youths off 
street corners and provide them recreational facilities are the Big 
Brother Association, Bethany Brotherhood Club, Board of Education 
Physical and Health Education Division, and the boys' clubs in most 
communities. The Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., Y. M. C. A., and neighbor- 
hood settlement houses, as well as playgrounds, swimming pools, and 
other facilities, help to swell the total of recreational, educational, 
and character-building agencies in Philadelphia. 

Community service is materially aided by the great number of 
settlement houses, where social problems are discussed, community 
group meetings held, and a social life provided for young and old. 
Not only do these settlement houses aid in the social scheme of the 
community, but during periods of suffering and want they strive 
to alleviate cold and hunger by means of soup kitchens and other 
forms of relief. 

Many of these houses have combined all the phases of worthy 
charities heretofore carried on under separate roofs, and today pro- 
vide reading and recreational rooms, day nurseries, and health clinics. 
Some conduct classes where persons may learn trades, or increase 
their material education in ar.t or commerce. 

The Association of Philadelphia Settlements promotes efficiency 
among settlement houses throughout the city, unifying them in a 
common purpose. Through mutual exchange of experiences and 
through discussion groups, it helps solve their problems. 

The Board of Education supervises more than 500 special classes 
for cardiac sufferers, deaf, tubercular, and feeble-minded children, 
and for those who have defective vision or impediments in their 

For adults whose physical handicaps bar them from regular posi- 
tions, agencies in the city provide training in the vocations adapted 
to their limited capabilities. These agencies also furnish such aids 
as braces and artificial limbs, either free or at a nominal charge. 
The Shut-In Society provides reading matter and arranges for visitors, 
or correspondents for those confined to their homes. 

The Red Cross maintains a library of Braille books for the blind. 
The Philadelphia Free Library on the Parkway also has a large col- 
lection of such volumes, which it mails, postage-free, to any part of 
the State. The Blind Relief Fund of Philadelphia is an agency for 
collecting money to aid the poor and aged blind. 

The Philadelphia League for the Hard of Hearing provides a com- 
munity center to promote sociability and recreation and to main- 
tain an employment service for the deaf. This society also conducts a 
school of lip reading. 

For 15 years Philadelphia has had a Junior Employment Service 



for persons who are more than 18 and who have completed high 
school. The service is operated in conjunction with the Board of 
Education, and school records of applicants are transferred to the 
service. Classes are formed for the unemployed, and medical and 
psychological examinations are facilitated. During 1936 registrations 
numbered 57,256, with 2,757 placements. 

The Catholic Women's Alliance founded in 1916, and the Friendly 
Sons of St. Patrick instruct immigrants in American principles and 
aid them to obtain work. 

For men and boys interested in recreation, or seeking living quar- 
ters, the Y. M. C. A. offers a friendly atmosphere at comparatively 
low rates. The central building, at 1421 Arch Street, accommodates 
about 1,283 single persons and 55 married couples. There are seven 
Philadelphia branches of the "Y" - at Fifty-second and Sansom 
Streets, 1007 West Lehigh Avenue, 1724 Christian Street, 117 North 
Fifteenth Street, Forty-first Street and Westminster Avenue, Lehigh 
and Kensington Avenues and Ninth and Spring Garden Streets. 

The Catholic Y. M. A., at 1819 Arch Street, conducts a dormitory, 
where Catholic men may board at moderate rates. This association 
was formed during the World War to provide accommodations for 
service men. It was continued after the Armistice as a society to care 
for homeless men and boys. Its purpose is to furnish education, rec- 
reation, food, shelter, and clothing. 

The Luther Hospice, at 157 North Twentieth Street, is a Christian 
boarding home for students and business men of all denominations. 
The Salvation Army Men's Hotel and the United Service Club main- 
tain sleeping quarters for workingmen and enlisted men, respectively. 

The Salvation Army also has one of the most diversified forms of 
relief of any organization. The Philadelphia headquarters is at 701 
North Broad Street, in a building provided by the will of John 
Wanamaker. This property is to be the Salvation Army's so long 
as that organization occupies it. If the Salvation Army vacates the 
property, it will go to the Y. M. C. A. 

From its headquarters the army distributes family relief in the 
form of food, clothing, shoes, and other necessities. It also main- 
tain a transient bureau at 705 North Broad Street, where free 
lodging and food are provided. At 1224 Parrish Street is its social 
service department, where cast-off clothing and shoes, and second- 
hand furniture are reclaimed and sold at nominal prices. Here ap- 
proximately 125 men, remaining permanently or until they can 
better themselves, receive room and board, with a small salary. 

The Salvation Army also maintains a children's home at 5441 Lans- 
downe Avenue and a day nursery at 224 South Third Street, where 
children are cared for during the day while their mothers work. The 
army also distributes fuel to the needy during winter months, and 



in the summer provides a camp vacation for underprivileged children 
and their mothers. 

Philadelphia offers many residences for women and girls, especially 
for those who have to support themselves. The Catholic Women's 
Club, at 306 South Thirteenth Street, maintains quarters for Catholic 
business and professional women ; the Coles House, at 915 Clinton 
Street, cares for Protestant women. 

The Dominican House of Retreats, at 1812 Green Street, also main- 
tains a boarding house for women. For the Protestant girl who is 
homeless, or dependent upon a low-paying job, Esther Hall, at 2021 
Mt. Vernon Street, provides shelter. The Friendship Home, at 1939 
North Twenty-second Street, is for Negro girls ; the Rebecca Gratz 
Club, 532 Spruce Street, is for Jewish women ; and St. Isaac's House, 
at 3311 Haverford Avenue, a non-sectarian institution, furnishes liv- 
ing quarters for working girls and women. 

The Y. W. C. A. of Philadelphia also provides living quarters in 
its large central club residence, at Eighteenth and Arch Streets, and 
its eight branches throughout the city. The accommodations and rates 
are much the same as those of the Y. M. C. A. 

The Girls' Friendly Society, organized in England in 1875 and 
introduced into this country in 1886, is an organization designed to 
aid young women who are earning their way in the world, offering 
them recreational advantages and instructing them in general sub- 
jects. The society is operated under the auspices of the Episcopal 
Church. There are at present 47 branches of the Girls' Friendly 
Society in Philadelphia, with a total membership of 2,500. Central 
headquarters is at 202 South Nineteenth Street. 

For the aid of seamen there are a number of agencies. Foremost 
among these is the Seamen's Institute at 211 Walnut Street, with a 
branch in Port Richmond at 2815 East Cambria Street. Originally 
begun as a "floating church," the institute was moved ashore and 
gradually enlarged, absorbing many other similar institutions. The 
institute can accommodate 327 men. In addition to sleeping quarters, 
it has a restaurant and reading, recreation, and work rooms. Classes 
in seamanship are also conducted. 

The Lutheran Seamen's Home, at 1402 East Moyamensing Avenue, 
and the Lutheran Seamen's Mission, 1226 Spruce Street, care for sea- 
men, regardless of nationality, creed, or color. Other organizations 
are the Pennsylvania Seamen's Friend Society at 201 Walnut Street ; 
the Seamen's and Landsmen's Aid Society at 332 South Front Street ; 
and the Norwegian Seamen's Church of Philadelphia at 22 South 
Third Street. 

Many of Philadelphia's less fortunate children are helped by 
numerous civic, charitable, or welfare organizations throughout the 
year. In summer great numbers of those living in congested or slum 



areas are removed from the heat of the city to healthful camps in 
the country, where they enjoy from one to three weeks reveling in 
health-giving air and sunshine. Others go to camps at the seashore or 

Many of these associations in Philadelphia conduct one or more 
such camps. The number is swelled by those of the Boy Scouts, Girl 
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, religious societies, universities, Y. M. C. A., 
large industrial organizations, boys' clubs, and settlement houses. 

Philadelphia likewise has numerous orphan homes supported by 
religious institutions, private agencies, foundations, and popular 
subscription. They care for children of any race or creed. For physi- 
cally handicapped children, who cannot attend school as normal 
children do, there are special classes and schools. 

Outstanding among local welfare institutions is Girard College at 
Corinthian and South College Avenues. Founded under the will 
of Stephen Girard, the college was first opened in January 1848. It 
provides a home and precollege education for the normal white 
boy who is either totally orphaned or whose father is dead. Boys are 
admitted to the college between the ages of 6 and 10, and discharged 
between the ages of 14 and 18. 

The Catholic Children's Bureau, at 1706 Summer Street, is the 
central office of the diocesan institutions caring for needy children. 
All applications for admission and discharge are made at this office. 
Children are accepted by court commitment or on private applica- 
tion. Besides placing children in institutions, the bureau also places 
them in private boarding homes. 

The Mothers' Assistance Fund, at 260 South Broad Street, is the 
administrative agency which provides public aid to dependent 
children in their own homes from funds derived equally (until 
January 1, 1938) from municipal, State, and Federal sources. Aid to 
dependent children (formerly known as Mothers' Assistance) is given 
in the form of monthly cash payments to mothers with young 
children, after a careful investigation of eligibility and need. Under 
the State Public Assistance Law children must be under 16 and must 
have been deprived of paternal support through the death, absence 
from home, or disability of their fathers. The Federal Social Security 
Board participates in one-third of all payments not exceeding $18 
monthly for the first child and $12 monthly for each additional child. 
(The law provided that after January 1, 1938, the program of aid 
to dependent children, as well as all other forms of public aid to 
persons in their own homes, should be the responsibility of a County 
Board of Public Assistance, to be financed entirely by State appro- 
priations, supplemented by special Federal grants-in-aid.) Since 1934 
the activities of the Mothers' Assistance Fund have included the 
administration of State pensions for the blind and State old-age 



assistance, which is granted to needy persons 70 or more years of age. 

The Bureau for Colored Children, at 712 North Forty-third Street, 
places dependent and neglected Negro boys and girls under 16 years 
of age in homes. 

During the darkest days of the depression of the early 1930's, Phila- 
delphia awoke to the realization that her charitable and welfare 
groups, largely of a privately endowed nature, were unable to cope 
with the problem of relief and unemployment. In a desperate effort 
to meet the situation, a group known as the "Lloyd Committee," 
and headed by the late Horatio Gates Lloyd, was formed. Funds were 
raised by popular subscription, and relief was temporarily broadened. 

In 1932 the General Assembly of Pennsylvania passed three meas- 
ures the Woodward act, the second Talbot act, and the Emer- 
gency Relief Sales Tax act, these becoming the cornerstone of relief 
in the days to follow. The Woodward act created the State Emer- 
gency Relief Board, and authorized the setting up of county boards 
to administer aid locally. The Philadelphia County Relief Board was 
thus instituted, and the first appointments were made in August 1932. 

From September 1, 1932, to February 28, 1933, emergency relief 
was financed by State revenue derived from a one percent tax on 
gross income from sales. Further support for Philadelphia's needy 
families was given in May 1933, by creation of the Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration. This State and Federal cooperation continued 
until December 1935, when Federal funds were discontinued and 
emergency relief became solely the responsibility of the State. 

The emergency relief program was financed for ,a time by the sale 
of tax anticipation notes, secured by revenue from several levies im- 
posed at a special session of the Legislature. Three levies included 
allowance for an increase in the State tax on property from one to 
four mills, an increase in the tax on corporate loans, extension of the 
inheritance tax to cover joint transfer, and a 10 percent tax on liquor 
sales at State stores. 

From September 1932 to May 1936, the Philadelphia County Re- 
lief Board disbursed funds totaling $101,000,000, the average grant 
per case for the latter part of 1936 amounting to $7.47 per week, the 
average family being three persons. 

At a special session in the spring of 1936 the Legislature provided 
$45,000,000 for emergency relief in Pennsylvania for the period be- 
tween May 1936 and January 1937. In Philadelphia approximately 
161,000 persons were on direct relief at the beginning of 1937. When 
on July 1, 1937, the Philadelphia County Relief Board went out of 
existence, more than 205,000 families had been assisted at one time 
or another. This work is now carried on by the Philadelphia County 
Board of Assistance. 

In determining individual or family eligibility for relief, a thorough 



investigation is made of financial status, including income, if any, 
family resources, and the ability of relatives to aid. One of the basic 
requirements of eligibility for employment relief is the registration 
of all employable members of the family at the State Employment 
Office. The method of making investigations and determining needs 
stresses the responsibility of the applicant to assist in establishing his 
own eligibility by furnishing documentary and other information. 
Relief grants, limited to maximum amounts based on family size and 
the essential budget items allowed, are issued weekly in cash. Infor- 
mation obtained through periodic reinvestigations or reported 
voluntarily by relief families makes possible the adjustment of grants 
in accordance with changing needs and the prompt discontinuance 
of relief to persons no longer eligible. 

Through the instrumentality of the Works Progress Administration 
program, inaugurated under the Federal Emergency Relief Ap- 
propriation Act of 1935, employable persons on the Philadelphia re- 
lief rolls were enabled to earn their livelihood and to so regain self- 
respect. The WPA program was designed to replace the less adequate 
machinery of work relief previously set up under the Civil Works 
Administration in 1933 and the Local Works Division in 1934. The 
many useful public works and cultural projects of the WPA have pro- 
vided gainful and salutary occupation for thousands of Philadel- 
phians who otherwise would have lost both skill and morale through 
living in enforced idleness on the dole. 

Among the long established organizations to shoulder greatly in- 
creased responsibility during the depression was the Family Society, 
which provided food, clothing, and shelter for more than 15,000 
families. Founded in 1878 for the purpose of maintaining needy 
families as units, the society throughout the years has fought con- 
stantly for the alleviation of want. Another group to stand the test 
of time is the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, established here in 1851. 
Neglected children in various Catholic parishes are placed in suit- 
able homes, and each summer the society conducts a fresh-air camp 
in Chester County for children in the poorer sections. 

Philadelphia has more than 60 homes for the aged, conducted by 
many organizations and churches. They are within the city as well 
as in surounding suburbs. Retired and needy actors are cared for 
at the Edwin Forrest Home for Actors, at Forty-ninth Street 
and Parkside Avenue. Mechanics also conduct a home, as do many 
veterans' organizations. 

The Bureau of Legal Aid, maintained by the municipal government 
until 1933, has been superseded by an organization known as the 
Legal Aid Society of Philadelphia. Its offices are at 4 South Fifteenth 
Street, and it is supported by the Community Fund. The Philadelphia 
Voluntary Defender Association, at the same address, provides similar 



free legal service, except that its interests are restricted to criminal 
cases only. The association, organized in 1933, with Maurice B. Saul 
as president, Francis Fisher Kane as secretary, and Thomas E. Cogan 
as defender began operating April 14, 1934. This association is like- 
wise maintained by the Community Fund. 

Philadelphia Skylirte As Seen from the Art Museum 



to the 


Old Gate at Independence Square 


Independence Hall, Congress Hall, Old City 
Hall, American Philosophical Society Build- 
ing. Bounded by 5th, 6th, Chestnut and 
Walnut Sts. 


WITHIN the confines of a comparatively small plot of ground 
known as Independence Square stands a group of red brick 
buildings enshrined in the hearts of patriotic Americans. 
Revered by liberty-loving people the world over,, these structures, 
their beauty and simplicity undisturbed by modern progress, are 
mute reminders of heroic times and intrepid men. 

Long before the Revolution the old square was the meeting place 
of Philadelphia's citizenry. To this outdoor rendezvous they came in 
hundreds and thousands whenever trouble threatened. Here, both 
indoors and outdoors, many of the events that culminated in American 
independence took place events now regarded as having led to one 
of the greatest contributions ever made toward establishing an ideal 
of free government. 

From a small wooden astronomical observatory in the rear of 
Independence Hall, John Nixon, a member of the Revolutionary 
Committee of Safety, made the first public announcement of the 
Declaration of Independence. He read the immortal document in 
full to a tense throng of citizens on July 8, 1776. More than a decade 
earlier, on October 25, 1765, Philadelphia merchants had met in the 
square and adopted a resolution to boycott British merchandise a 
stern retaliation against the obnoxious Stamp Act. On October 16, 
1773, several weeks prior to the Boston Tea Party, Philadelphia pa- 
triots gathered here to devise measures for turning back the tea ship 

Its early name of State House Yard was given the plot of ground 
at the time when it was purchased (in 1730) as the site for a state 
house. The yard, near the then western limits of the city, at first ex- 
tended from Chestnut Street halfway to Walnut ; the remaining lots 
on Fifth, Sixth, and Walnut Streets were acquired at various times 
prior to the Revolution. Successive acts, the first in 1736, ordered the 
ground south of the State House to be retained as a public green for- 
ever ; but the American Philosophical Society building, which still 
stands, encroached upon it, as did the Quarter Sessions Courthouse, 
which was removed in 1902. 



The square was entirely restored in 1875. In 1915-16 it was again 
reconstructed, and 56 gas lamps of antique pattern, one for each 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, were installed. The four- 
acre rectangular tract measures 396 by 510 feet. 

In Colonial times the square was surrounded by a brick wall seven 
or eight feet high, with an immense central gateway and wooden 
door on the Walnut Street side. Prior to 1812, the city of Philadelphia 
reduced the height of the wall to three feet along Fifth and Sixth 
Streets and placed upon it an iron railing fixed into stone coping. 
The wall paralleling Walnut Street, however, was not reduced to a 
corresponding height until 1813. At that time an iron gateway, flanked 
by marble posts surmounted by lamps, replaced the large double 
wooden doors which opened inwardly. These gates were removed in 
1876 and have been replaced by a low brick wall. 

In the center of the square stands a bronze statue of Commodoie 
John Barry. The work of Samuel Murray, this statue is a gift to the 
city from the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, of which organization 
Barry was a member. It was erected in 1907 at a cost of $10,000. An 
iron chain which once surrounded the statue was stolen one night 
in 1910 and has never been replaced. 

Among the trees in the square are 13 red oaks, one for each 
of the original Colonies, planted by the National Association of 
Gardeners on October 11, 1926. The roots of each tree are nurtured in 
soil brought from the State the tree represents. The Independence 
Square fountain, with separate drinking outlets for humans, birds, 
and dogs, originally stood in the Centennial Exhibition grounds in 
Fairmount Park. It is maintained by the Sons of Temperance Society, 
and a special guard keeps it supplied with ice during the summer 

Measures to protect the buildings in the square against fire have 
been taken in response to public insistence. The present dry-head 
sprinkler system consists of a network of pipes extending to all the 
buildings. In the event of fire, the pipes release a downpour that 
covers the exteriors with water deemed sufficient to check the blaze 
until firemen arrive. The system is tested in semiannual drills. Two 
truck companies, five engine companies, one pipe-line squad, and a 
rescue squad take part in these drills. Employees participate in 
weekly fire drills. 

The city of Philadelphia acquired the entire property of the 
Independence Square group in 1816, receiving a formally executed 
deed from the State upon the payment of $70,000. More than 500,000 
persons annually visit the National Museum housed in the buildings 
of the group. 



Independence Hall 

On Chestnut St. midway betweert 5th and 
6th. Open daily 8:45 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Ad- 
mission free. Visitors and teachers can ob- 
tain the services of a guide upon application 
to the curator. 

MANY episodes entitle Independence Hall to lasting fame. Within 
its walls, on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence re- 
ceived the signatures which made it official. Here, on June 16, 1775, 
the Congress had given Washington command of the undisciplined, 
inadequately armed Continental Army which later became the 
weapon that defeated England. Here, on July 9, 1778, the Articles of 
Confederation were ratified, welding the Thirteen Colonies into one 
union. And here, on September 17, 1787, the Constitution was drawn 
up as the Nation's basic law, superseding the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, which the swift march of events had outmoded. 

The convention at which the Constitution was framed had been 
called ostensibly to revise the Articles of Confederation and was held 
behind closed doors. This subterfuge was necessitated by reluctance 
of the various States to place governmental authority in the hands of 
a central body. The secrecy had the effect of forestalling any vigorous 
action on the part of the general public toward inserting provisions 
that would be inimical to the interests of the leaders. 

Construction of Independence Hall was begun in 1732, and in 1736, 
while still in an unfinished condition, it was occupied by the Provin- 
cial Assembly, which used it continuously until May 10, 1775, when 
the Second Continental Congress took possession. It was before the 
latter body, on June 7, 1776, that Richard Henry Lee, obeying the 
instructions of the Virginia Assembly, moved the resolution : 

That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, 
free and independent States; that they are absolved from 
all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political 
connection between them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. 

At that same moment, Britain's German mercenaries were riding 
the high seas towards the seething Colonies, and fortifications were 
sprouting along Boston harbor (Charlestown) . The pressing need of 
organizing military forces took several of the delegates away from 
their legislative duties. 

Lee's first speech on the resolution reveals some idea of the high 
purpose that actuated the Congress. Said Lee : 


Barry Statue and Independence Hall 
"Father of the American Navy" 


Let this happy day give birth to an American republic. 
The eyes of Europe are fixed upon us; she demands of 
us a living example of freedom . . . If we are not this 
day wanting in our duty to our country, the names of the 
American Legislators of '76 will be placed by posterity 
at the side of these- . . . whose memory . . . forever 
will be dear. 

The absolutely secret debate and the meager records kept by the 
beleaguered delegates account in part for conflicting versions of the 
exciting events. Three days of deliberation upon the resolution ended 
with its postponement until July 1, to allow various Provincial con- 
ventions time to meet and adopt an authoritative stand. Meanwhile, 
a committee headed by Thomas Jefferson was chosen to draw up the 
Declaration of Independence "in case the Congress agree thereto." 

July 1 was a hot, sultry day. Through open windows of the old 
State House came a plague of flies to harass the assembled delegates, 
and the air outside pulsated with heat waves and the emotions of an 
aroused populace. 

Towards the close of the first day the vote showed nine Colonies 
favoring the resolution. The final vote, postponed to the next day, 
was unanimous, due partly to the spectacular efforts of several dele- 
gates. Memorable among these was Caesar Rodney, who, suffering 
from a life-long affliction, rode 80 miles on horseback from Dover, 
Del. He arrived, half-dead from pain and fatigue, in time to break 
the deadlock in the Delaware delegation. 

This was on July 2. July 4 is celebrated as Independence Day be- 
cause on that day Jefferson's draft of the Declaration was made 
official by the signatures of John Hancock, the Speaker, and Charles 
Thompson, the Secretary. However, this was not before Jefferson had 
watched in misery while Franklin and Adams performed forensic 
surgery upon his brain child, deleting, as a concession to the southern 
Colonies, the section on slavery, and curbing his rhetorical flights. 

Most historians agree that the delegates did not immediately affix 
their signatures. Considerable confusion, resulting from divergent 
accounts by Jefferson and Thomas McKean, both present at the time, 
later arose on this point. Historical evidence, in contradiction of 
Jefferson's letters, points to the fact that the delegates' signatures 
were not affixed to the Declaration until August 2, when a copy had 
been engrossed on parchment. At that time Franklin, in the midst 
of the solemn hush that followed the signing, remarked dryly : 
"Gentlemen, we must now all hang together, or we shall most as- 
suredly hang separately." 

On July 8, after the Declaration had been printed on broadsides 
for distribution among the Colonies, public announcement of the 
document was made ; the great bell in the State House tower rang 
in a new era of history. 



The LIBERTY BELL, in the rear of the first floor corridor, is 
identified in popular imagination with the ideal of freedom. The 
great and famous of all lands have paid it homage. But it was not 
always thus. This now priceless symbol of liberty was regarded as a 
worthless nuisance by the early authorities- It was originally cast in 
1751, at the cost of 60, 14 shillings, and five pence, by Thomas 
Lister, in London's Whitechapel. The bell, weighing 2,080 pounds, 
arrived in Philadelphia late in August 1752. While being tested, it 
cracked under the impact of the clapper. Two ambitious men, Pass 
and Stow, undertook to recast it. The town wags derided the morti- 
fied workmen when the new bell, rung in April 1753, complained in 
a sour, discordant voice of the presence of too much copper. However, 
its tone was such as to satisfy the most exacting critics when, in June 
of the same year, it had been again recast and hung in the State House 

Then followed a virtual epidemic of bell ringing. The huge clapper, 
like a termagant's tongue, was rarely still. It rang for state purposes ; 
it rang to summon congregations and to announce meetings ; it some- 
times rang for no good reason at all. Residents in the vicinity of the 
State House became irritated at its perpetual clangor. In a petition to 
the authorities they begged to be saved from what they described 
as a "lethal weapon," declaring : "From its uncommon size and un- 
usual sound, it is extremely dangerous and may prove fatal to those 
afflicted with sickness." 

The Liberty Bell acquired its name in 1776, when it pealed forth 
its triumphant notes. One year later, as evidence of the strong senti- 
ment then attached to it, the bell was removed when British troops 
approached the city. It was carted to Allentown under military escort 
and hidden under the floor of the Zion Reformed Church. 

Following British evacuation, the bell was brought back and sus- 
pended from its beam. The windows of the belfry were covered with 
sounding boards to achieve a better tonal effect. For many years it 
did yeoman service. In 1824 it pealed a welcome to Lafayette, when 
a gala reception for him enlivened Independence Hall. Its voice died 
when the metal cracked during a somber accompaniment to the 
funeral procession of Chief Justice John Marshall on July 8, 1835. 

Years of inglorious neglect followed. Its thunderous voice muted 
and its heroic labors forgotten by fickle humanity, the bell was 
offered in part payment for a new one ordered by the city fathers 
from John Wilbank, a Germantown bell founder. Wilbank cast and 
delivered the new bell, but found prohibitive the cost of hauling the 
Liberty Bell from the State House. 

"Drayage costs more than the bell's worth," he finally declared, and 
he left it there. 



The incensed city fathers haled Wilbank before a magistrate for 
failing to remove the old bell. The magistrate decreed that Wilbank 
should pay the costs of the suit, but suggested that if the bell maker 
offered the burdensome relic to the city authorities as a gift, they 
might accept. They accepted, but with little enthusiasm. 

The old bell's peal for freedom, however, had penetrated to the 
ears of the oppressed peoples of the world imperceptible waves of 
sound and meaning that found an echo. These peoples came in multi- 
tudes, touched the bell with trembling hands and wept tears of 
mingled joy and sorrow at sight of the cold, dark metal whose mighty 
tongue had given forth peals of defiance to oppressors. Simultane- 
ously, the city fathers and the local populace awoke to a shamed 
realization of their callousness. Today the Liberty Bell's value cannot 
be measured. 

The bell was shipped around the country for many years, but its 
trip in 1915 to the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco 
aroused so many misgivings that descendants of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence demanded that it never again be moved 
from Independence Hall. However, another trip was made in 1917, 
when the bell was removed for the Philadelphia Liberty Loan street 
parade. It has come now to its final resting place, in the building 
where its voice rang loudest. 

Special precautions have been taken to safeguard the bell. In 1929, 
its supporting yoke having been dangerously weakened by dry rot, 
one-inch steel bars were inserted to strengthen it. The bell is mounted 
upon a truck encased in a removable pedestal, and in the event of 
fire it can be towed out of the building by one man in less than two 

Encircling the crown of the bell is the prophetic lettering from 

The surface of the bell, which is larger than is generally supposed, 
is pitted and uneven on the outer walls as well as in the barrel, 
evidence of the inexperience of Messrs. Pass and Stow. The gaping 
crack zigzags from lip to lettering. The parted edges are held in place 
by large round bolts. The chipped and ragged lip discloses the van- 
dalism of souvenir collectors and the inescapable misadventures at- 
tendant upon longevity. 

The first real attempt to assemble a historical art collection for 
Independence Hall was made in 1854 when, at the sale of Charles 
Willson Peale's effects, the city acquired more than 100 of his oil 
portraits. Peale, whose museum occupied the second-floor chambers 
of Independence Hall from 1802 to 1826, studied art under Hesselius, 
Copley, and West, masters of that day. Possessing talent as a portrait 



painter, he set for himself the patriotic task of preserving the like- 
nesses of the heroes of the day. These formed the nucleus of the 
present National Portrait Gallery. 

In 1873 this collection, together with numerous relics and curios 
that had been accumulating for years, was taken over by the city as 
the National Museum. Credit for this is due mainly to Frank M. 
Etting, who was most active in urging the restoration of Independence 
Hall, and who became chairman of its board of managers when res- 
toration was accomplished. The museum has grown to occupy ap- 
proximately two acres of floor space in the several buildings con- 
stituting the group. Tasteful arrangement has enhanced the attrac- 
tiveness which patriotic feelings lend to the exhibits 

To the right as the building is entered from Chestnut Street is the 
room where the Pennsylvania State Constitution was framed and 
adopted. It was also used as a JUDICIAL CHAMBER of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania from 1743 to 1776. 

Left 011 the first floor is the DECLARATION CHAMBER. A fine 
pedimented panel framing a facsimile of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence is set between the fireplaces that flank the small platform 
at the end of the room. The crystal chandelier in this room, brought 
from Waterford, Ireland, in 1745, is the only one of the original 
chandeliers remaining. Lining the walls of the chamber are several 
pieces of furniture once used by the signers of the Declaration. The 
portrait of Washington by James Peale hangs over the chamber en- 
trance and is surrounded by facsimiles of flags carried by Continental 
troops. The room contains the SILVER INKSTAND SET made by 
the famous Philip Syng, goldsmith, and used by the signers of the 

The Liberty Bell is near the rear door on this floor. Second in 
interest to the bell are the paintings in the National Portrait Gallery. 
The major portion of the celebrated collection, is on the second 
floor of Independence Hall. Conspicuous in the collection is the 
painting, Perm's Treaty with the Indians, by Benjamin West, and 
three portraits of Washington by his contemporaries, Robert Edge 
Pine, Rembrandt Peale, and James Peale. 

The second floor contains three rooms : the CHAMBER OF THE 
ROOM, and the COUNCIL CHAMBER, where the Provincial Gov- 
ernors of Pennsylvania and their councils sat from 1748 to the time of 
the Revolution. 

The West Wing of Independence Hall is known as the COLONIAL 
MUSEUM and contains collections relating to the periods of discovery, 
permanent settlement, and activities of the Colonies up to the out- 
break of the Revolutionary War. This wing was built in 1735, and its 



first floor was used as an office by the Secretary of the Province until 

On the first floor of the West Wing is the COSTUME COLLEC- 
TION. Here are a brocaded dress worn during Revolutionary War 
times, a suit of boy's clothes of the period of 1750, a fashion doll of 
the eighteenth century, and many other articles of clothing worn 
during that era. On one side of the room is a collection of old spin- 
ning wheels. The second floor of the west wing was occupied as a 
committee room until 1783. Then it was fitted up for the Supreme 
Court of the State of Pennsylvania. The building is a restoration 
erected in 1897. 

The East Wing is used as a museum. It was built in 1735. The first 
floor, which is now one large room with a small hallway, was formerly 
divided into two rooms, assigned respectively to the Registrar General 
and the Recorder of Deeds of the Province. Examples of military 
equipment, including a service sword owned by Gen. Anthony Wayne 
and a drum carried in the Revolution, are on exhibition. There is a 
fine collection of eighteenth century firearms, among which is the 
George Washington rifle and the musket which belonged to General 
Wayne. In the center of the room is a small Spanish cannon, some- 
times called a falconet, used in Europe in the sixteenth century. 

An exhibit of china, porcelain, pottery, and glassware is on the 
second floor of the West Wing. Included in the collection are a cup, 
saucer, and soup plate used at the wedding of George and Martha 
Washington, and a platter used by the Washington family at Mount 
Vernon. Here also is a sixteenth century brewing jar brought to 
America by William Penn ; a pitcher used by Washington ; a jar 
which belonged to Mrs. John Adams ; glassware used by Patrick 
Henry ; an early butter crock ; and pitchers used by Washington and 
Lafayette. This room was occupied by the Philadelphia Library 
Company as a place of deposit for its books from 1739 to 1773. 

Congress Hall 

S.E. corner 6th and Chestnut Sts. Open 
weekdays 8:45 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Admission 

T N CONGRESS HALL, during the turbulent decade between Decem- 
- her 6, 1790, and May 4, 1800, some of the early scenes in the 
pageant of America's national history were enacted. Here Washington 
delivered his second inaugural address ; the Army and Navy assumed 
a creditable footing ; the Mint was born ; the first Bank of the United 
States was instituted ; Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee were 
admitted to statehood ; and the celebrated Jay Treaty of Commerce 
with England was promulgated. Here John Adams was inaugurated 



as the second President of the United States, and Washington de- 
livered his famous Farewell Address to the American people. 

Congress Hall stands on ground purchased in 1736 as a site for a 
Philadelphia County building. Construction began in 1787, two years 
after the Pennsylvania Assembly had appropriated $3,000 for that 
purpose, and in 1789 the hall was ready for use. 

The first session of Congress had been held in New York City, but 
most of the Colonies regarded the arrangement as temporary, and 
sought for themselves the commercial advantage and the prestige at- 
tendant upon a capital city. Considerable acrimonious debate was 
indulged in, especially in the Senate. 

Stealing a march, the Pennsylvania Assembly, on March 4, 1789 
(the same day the new Government met in New York for its first 
session), instructed the State's Congressional representatives to exert 
themselves to obtain for Philadelphia the seat of the National Gov- 
ernment, offering for that purpose any of Philadelphia's public 
buildings, particularly the newly erected county building. 

The House of Representatives passed a resolution favoring Penn- 
sylvania, but Robert Morris' activities in the Senate met with abuse 
and ridicule. The bill finally passed was a compromise measure 
designed to smooth ruffled feelings. The land along both banks of 
the Potomac, "neutral territory" later to be known as the District 
of Columbia, was designated as the National Capital, beginning with 
the year 1800. Meanwhile, Philadelphia became the temporary 

The newly woven fabric of government was subjected to severe 
tests, but its essential strength, based upon enthusiastic popular sup- 
port, was sufficient to withstand them. Gravest of all was the diplo- 
matic joust with France, when her privateers strained friendly rela- 
tions by practicing hostilities upon American commerce. As a result 
of these clashes President John Adams issued a proclamation, dated 
July 13, 1798, depriving French consular officials of their right to 
function. The new Government displayed similar resolution in deal- 
ing with the Whiskey Insurrection and in conducting the Indian cam- 
paign, made famous by St. Clair's defeat and Wayne's success. 

The exterior and interior of Congress Hall, restored in 1913 by a 
committee of architects appointed by the city and rededicated on 
October 25 of that year in the presence of President Wilson, are 
substantially as they were during the occupancy by Congress. Numer- 
ous exhibits are on display. 

The first floor consists of a single chamber, with a vestibule running 
along the front and a double staircase leading to the gallery. Here 
the House of Representatives met. On view in this chamber is Joshua 
Humphreys' model of what is thought to be the ship Americana, de- 



signed in 1777 and presented to John Paul Jones. Here, too, is a 
plaster model of Thomas Jefferson, cast more than 100 years ago. 
Also on view is a statuette in terra cotta of Lafayette, cast in America 
from a Staffordshire, England, pottery figure, at the time of Lafay- 
ette's last visit to America in 1824. Two of the original fireplaces 
still remain, also some eighteenth century implements, such as a foot 
stove, candle mold, hearth shovel, and fire tongs. 

In the vestibule is the regimental flag carried by troops under Gen. 
Philip John Schuyler during the Revolutionary War, also a flag be- 
lieved to have been carried during the Battle of the Brandy wine. 

The SENATE CHAMBER is in the rear of the second floor. The 
President of the Senate occupied a platform on the south side of the 
room. At first this room had no gallery, but at the suggestion of James 
Monroe, one suitable for the use of the public, running along the 
north side of the chamber, was constructed in 1795. In the center of 
the room in front of the speaker's rostrum is a life-size wood carving 
of Washington by William Rush. Among the personal effects is one 
of Washington's Masonic aprons. There is also the original commission 
making George Washington Commander in Chief of the Continental 
Army, and the muster roll of Washington's bodyguard. Other exhibits 
include original letters written by men of the Revolutionary period 
and a Washington life mask, cast from the original owned by J. 
Pierpont Morgan. 

In the hallway of the second floor is an exhibition of early Ameri- 
can pewter. Conspicuous in this collection is a molasses jug used by 
Washington and Lafayette while in (Widow Ford's) winter headquar- 
ters. Also on view are plates, an inkstand, and a chocolate pot. 

In the first room to the right is a collection of furniture and silver- 
ware of the Revolutionary period, including the chair used by Lafay- 
ette when he was the city's guest in 1824 ; the sofa used by Washing- 
ton's family in the Executive Mansion on High (now Market) Street ; 
the drop-leaf table which Washington used while living at the Fred- 
erick Wampole farmhouse at Tawamencin, Pa., during the winter 
sojourn at Valley Forge ; Jefferson's card table ; a collection of eigh- 
teenth century spoons ; an eighteenth century sperm oil lamp ; and 
a teapot used by Daniel Webster. Other objects of interest are Thomas 
Jefferson's cane ; numerous watches of the Revolutionary period ; and 
a collection of spectacles, including the silver-rimmed pair worn by 
George Washington. 

In the second room to the right, UNITED STATES COIN ROOM, 
is a collection of American coins found during the demolition of the 
first United States Mint building on North Seventh Street. They are 
the only specimens in existence of planchets and slugs in gold, silver, 
and copper from which our first coins were made. There also is a boot 


Congress Hall 
"The place of Washington's Farewell Address' 

Old City Hall 

Where the city's statutes artd ordinances were 
first passed" 


scraper and other items from the old Mint building. A collection of 
early bank notes and a Presidential series of bronze medals from 
Washington to Theodore Roosevelt are also on exhibition. 

In the first room to the left is a collection of early surgical in- 
struments, including a number of eighteenth century lancets. Also on 
view is an early American jewel box ; a silver loving cup which be- 
longed to Caesar Augustus Rodney, nephew of the Delaware delegate 
to the Continental Congress whose ride is one of the dramatic episodes 
in America's history ; a fruit basket made in London in 1763 ; a coffee 
pot used by Robert Morris ; George Washington's pocket compass ; 
Martha Washington's toasting fork ; a powder horn and bag used in 
the Battle of Kings Mountain ; and the ale mug of Admiral John 
Paul Jones. 

Old City Hall 

S.W. corner 5th and Chestnut Sts. Open 
weekdays 8:45 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Admission 

PHILADELPHIA'S Old City Hall was built at Fifth and Chestnut 
* Streets in 1791, in architectural harmony with the earlier struc- 
tures of the Independence Square group. Intended as the seat of the 
municipality, the Supreme Court of the United States met here during 
the last decade of the eighteenth century. The judicial branch of the 
Federal Government, after assembling in New York City in 1789 and 
framing a simple code of rules, began sessions for the first time in 
Philadelphia's Old City Hall. 

The first Chief Justice of the United States was Washington's ap- 
pointee, John Jay, who later arranged with England the important 
commercial treaty which bears his name. The first case of note to 
come before the Court was the "State of Georgia v. Brailsford and 
others," concerning a bond, given by persons alleged to be aliens, 
which was sequestered by the State of Georgia. 

Virtually all the cases to come before the Court during its occu- 
pancy of Old City Hall were of a type that distinguished the rights of 
the citizens from those of the States. At this period the Justices served 
also as circuit judges whenever the Supreme Court was not in session. 

City Council met in the building until 1854, although the Mayor's 
office was moved in 1816 to Independence Hall, purchased that year by 
the city. After 1800, with the removal of the State capital to Lancaster 
and transfer of the Federal Government to Washington, Philadelphia 
became less prominent in the affairs of Pennsylvania and the Nation. 


. 3 .:,,.. 





Doorway of the American Philosophical Society Building 
Portal of Savants. 


Old City Hall, like Congress Hall, is in scale with the central 
unit, their similar crowning cupolas balancing the central tower. The 
identical theme of their architecture makes these two almost twin 

To the left as one enters Old City Hall is the OFFICE OF THE 
MAYOR. The only article left in this room from the time the first 
mayor occupied the building Matthew Clarkson. who served dur- 
ing the yellow-fever epidemic of 1793 is a built-in wall clock im- 
ported from England in 1789. It has remained in its original position 
since the day of installation. A collection of Indian objects including 
arrowheads, tomahawks, wooden and stone implements used in the 
preparation of food, blankets, ornamental decorations of beads, and 
musical instruments are on display. 

In the MAYOR'S COURT ROOM on the first floor are several 
articles of antique furniture and a large collection of ancient fire- 
fighting equipment used by Philadelphia's early firemen ; also a sec- 
tion of an old water main excavated at Ninth and Market Streets, and 
Franklin's perpetual calendar which was presented to him in 1774 by 
James Moody of London. 

In the vestibule on the side of the stairs leading up to the second 
floor is a large piece of the elm tree under which William Penn is be- 
lieved to have negotiated a treaty with the Indians. Here also is a 
miniature model of the old battleship Pennsylvania constructed at 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Several relics reminiscent of the days 
when the Indians were on the warpath include an Indian scalp, a 
scalp lock, a scalping knife, and a tomahawk. There are also some 
pieces of ancient fire-fighting apparatus. 

On the second floor is the SUPREME COURT CHAMBER. There 
are four other rooms which were occupied by the Common Council 
and Select Council and by various departments of the city govern- 

Throughout these rooms on the second floor are interesting ex- 
hibits of scientific instruments. Of especial attraction is the transit, 
one of the three with which astronomical observation in the New 
World was made in 1768. Other exhibits include ancient locks and 
keys, scales, iron chests, a cradle, a model of Christ Church, and part 
of the original pew used by George Washington in Christ Church. 

The second floor also has a room devoted to old-time Quaker relics 
and costumes, a rather rare and unusual exhibit which satisfies the 
keen curiosity shown by many visitors in anything pertaining to the 
early Quakers. 


American Philosophical Society 

On the 5th St. side of Independertce Square, 
just south of Chestnut St. Open weekdays 
9:30 a. m. to 4:30 p. m. ; Saturdays 9:30 
a. m. to 12 noon. Closed Saturdays from 
June to September. Admission by appoint- 

1%/T ELLOWED by a Colonial charm of architecture and setting 
-'-'--which belies its eminent rank in the realm of learning, the 
century-and-a-half-old home of the American Philosophical Society 
stands on the east side of the square, symbolizing a scientific tradition 
interlocking Colonial and modern times. 

It was built on a lot in Independence Square and presented to the 
society in 1785 by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Funds for the 
building were raised by Benjamin Franklin and his associates. The 
society shelters a group founded by Franklin in 1727, and its mem- 
bership rolls list 12 Presidents of the United States. 

The first of these was George Washington ; the most recent, Her- 
bert Hoover. The others were John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James 
Madison, John Quincy Adams, James Buchanan, Ulysses S. Grant, 
Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and 
Woodrow Wilson. Cleveland, Roosevelt, and Taft became members 
while in office. 

Fifteen of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; 18 
signers of the Constitution of the United States ; 12 Associate Justices 
of the Supreme Court of the United States ; and five Chief Justices of 
the United States were or are members of the society. Of 23 Ameri- 
can winners of Nobel Prizes, 11 are on the membership rolls. 

The society's collection includes a copy of the original draft of the 
Declaration of Independence, in Jefferson's handwriting ; Jefferson's 
desk chair ; portraits and busts of a number of distinguished Ameri- 
cans, including a Stuart portrait of Washington ordered in 1799 ; a 
clock made by David Rittenhouse ; and the instruments he and his 
associates used in recording the transit of Venus across the sun on 
June 3, 1769. Among nearly 15,000 pieces of Frankliniana are Frank- 
lin's first battery and his ingenious "stepladder library chair." One 
of the finest of scientific library collections was maintained in this 
building until it outgrew the original structure's facilities. It is now 
in the Drexel Building just opposite, in room 222. Manuscripts, paint- 
ings, and other treasures exhibited by the society are valued at mil- 
lions of dollars. 


Interior of Independence Hall 

Architecture of the Group 

ANDREW HAMILTON, recognized as the original designer of 
old Independence Hall, is believed to have drawn his inspira- 
tion for the hall from James Gibbs' Book of Architecture, which was 
published in 1728. At least, there is a striking resemblance between 
a drawing in Gibbs' book and the historic shrine. Independence Hall, 
however, represents a more elaborate design than Gibbs' drawing. 
The idea of grouping the State House with the other two buildings 
into a harmonious unit is similar to the scheme used in the construc- 
tion of the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

The warmth of the red brick used in their construction effectively 
contrasts with well-studied marble and white-painted wooden details. 
The dominant feature of the group is the former State House, occupied 
in 1735, though work on the interiors lasted for several more years. 
The fine tower was built in 1750 ; a steeple was added in 1753 
but removed in 1781. In 1828 William Strickland completed the pres- 
ent bell tower and steeple, a close copy of the original. By that time 
the old structure had long been known as Independence Hall. 

The handsome Chestnut Street facade attains its dignity by the 
stress of horizontal lines and repetition of finely proportioned windows 
and blue soapstone panels. Soapstone belt courses connect the key- 
stones of the first-floor windows and the second-floor sills. The en- 
trance, approached by four steps, contains a high, simple door- 
way, which is deeply recessed. Where the pitch of the roof breaks 
into a flat gambrel, a balustrade connecting the quadruple end 
chimneys repeats the line of the beautiful cornice. Four drain spouts 
and the quoined corners are the only vertical accents. At each end of 
Independence Hall are unusual triple-arched chimneys, each with a 
small bull's-eye window beneath. These circular windows were origi- 
nally used for the State House clock dials. The clockworks were in the 
center of the attic with connecting rods to each dial. Details of orna- 
ment that usually pass unnoticed are the grotesque keystones with 
carved heads, over the windows on three sides of the top story of the 
brick tower. 

The tower gives access to Independence Hall from the square. Its 
exceptionally beautiful Palladian window above the Doric tower en- 
trance 5 the setbacks of the upper wooden sections, the small domed 
cupola set upon a larger one, and the slim steeple and weather- 
vane make this old bell tower one of outstanding beauty. 

Connected with Independence Hall by covered arcades are two hip- 
roofed wings. The original East Wing, completed in 1735, and the 
West Wing, in 1739, had no provision for reaching the upper stories 
by an interior stairway, the only access to the second floor being by 
the tower staircase. Both were altered in 1813. The two arcades and 



the outside stairways of the wings were removed at that time, and 
two-story buildings, designed by Robert Mills, were erected in their 
places. In 1896 the wings were razed, and new structures the size of 
the originals but with interior stairways were erected, with arched 
arcades again joining them with the main building. Their two stories 
rise to the height of but one story of the State House. 

The American Philosophical Society Building, erected in 1789, is 
the only private building on Independence Square. Standing as it 
does in its position so close to Old City Hall, its exterior is in keeping 
with the rest of the group. 

The most outstanding interiors architecturally are those of Inde- 
pendence Hall the entire ground floor, the bell tower, and the long 
banquet hall on the second floor. The chief features of the central hall 
are the engaged fluted Roman Doric columns supporting the mutulary 
entablature which surrounds the hall, the pedimented wall tablets 
and the entrance to the Declaration Chamber on the east side, the 
triple archway to the Judicial Chamber to the west, and the fine pedi- 
mented main entrance with its heavy wrought-iron hardware. The 
pediments above the main door and the entrance to the Declaration 
Chamber are unusual. Between the curved scrolls at the top are heads 
with leaf crowns and beards. A fine arched opening leads to the tower 
that once housed the Liberty Bell. This bell tower is the most beauti- 
ful interior of the entire group. Its open staircase and Palladian 
window are masterpieces of Georgian Colonial design and craftsman- 

The west room is the Judicial or State Constitution Chamber. Here 
are Doric pilasters of design similar to the columns of the central 
hall. The speaker's platform, extending across the west wall, some- 
what larger than that in the Declaration Chamber, has been com- 
pletely restored. Six small steps at each end approach the large, white, 
paneled desk which serves as the rail of the platform. 

To the east of the central hall is the Independence Assembly Hall, 
now known as the Declaration Chamber. It is similar in architectural 
treatment to the entrance hall, but has piers and pilasters in place of 
columns. At the far end of the room is a small platform two steps 
above the floor upon which rests the speaker's desk. Behind the desk 
within a large monumental pedimented panel is set a facsimile of the 
Declaration of Independence. On either side of the platform is a 
broad fireplace. The heavy mantels are supported at the ends by 
scroll brackets decorated with acanthus leaves. 

The most interesting room on the second floor is the Banquet 
Chamber or Long Room, notable mainly for its proportions, its long 
row of nine windows, its fine doorways, and its simple end fireplaces. 

Congress Hall, completed in 1789, was found to be too small, so in 



1793 it was lengthened by about 27 feet. The entrance doorway, ap- 
proached by five steps, is framed within an arch supported by Doric 
pilasters of rough gray marble. The double wooden doors in four 
narrow sections are painted white. Above the arch is carved a coat 
of arms of Pennsylvania, and above this on the second story level is a 
fine wrought-iron balcony. The main feature of the ground floor is 
the room containing the speaker's rostrum and the small circular 
raised platform which seated the first House of Representatives, both 
of which have been restored. Aside from the copy of the original glass 
chandelier, the interior is simple in detail. The arched windows, 
chaste entablature, and simple gallery are the chief features. The 
smaller Senate room above, only slightly richer in detail, has an 
ornamental plaster ceiling of Adam design. 

Old City Hall, or Towne Hall, Fifth and Chestnut Streets, is a two- 
story structure similar in design to Congress Hall, but smaller. On 
the first floor is the Mayor's Court Room, which is entered through 
paneled double doors, having a large single fan light above. The 
atmosphere of the room is restrained and dignified. The long axis of 
the chamber runs at right angles to the entrance. Opposite the doors 
and beneath a broad arch is the speaker's rostrum set within a bay 
and guarded by a delicate railing. Three handsome, rounded, headed 
windows form a backdrop. On the opposite side of the platform and 
above the entrance is a balcony, running the length of the chamber. 
A delicate, old pewter chandelier, now wired for electricity, depends 
from the ceiling. Doors in either side of the speaker's platform lead 
to the courtyard. The witnesses of the walls, ceiling, and wood trim 
is relieved by the mahogany-stained floor and the handsome hand 
rail of the rostrum. 

On the second floor are several rooms. In these the old fireplaces 
have been replaced by mantelpieces over a modern heating system. 
It was in the south room of this floor that the Supreme Court met. 

Bertjamin Franklin's Chair 
Presto! It Became a Library Stepladder. 



In Carpenters' Court, extending south from 
Chestnut St., between 3d and 4th. Open 
weekdays 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. Admission free. 

AS INDEPENDENCE HALL was the forge on which the sword 
of liberty was shaped, so Carpenters' Hall two squares east, 
and home of one of the Colonies' first crafts guilds was the 
foundry in which the chains of British oppression were converted into 
the steel weapons of resistance. 

It was here, in 1774 and by a singular coincidence, on July 4 
that the Committee of the City and County of Philadelphia appointed 
a subcommittee to prepare plans for a Provincial conference. 

It was here, in spite of hints by the Royalist press that the necks 
of both participants and abettors "might be inconveniently length- 
ened," that the First Continental Congress assembled on September 
5, 1774. 

The Society of Carpenters was organized in 1724 by master car- 
penters of Colonial Philadelphia for the dissemination of architec- 
tural instruction, and assistance of needy members of the craft. The 
craftsmen's guild was incorporated in 1790 as the Carpenters' Com- 
pany of Philadelphia. Members began construction of the hall in 
1770, and although the guild held its first meeting there the follow- 
ing January, the structure remained unfinished throughout the tur- 
bulent Revolutionary period. It was not completed until 1792. 

Meantime, years of suffering under the heel of oppression had been 
capped by numerous outrages against Colonials on the part of British 
Regulars. Finally the advent of arbitrary taxation fanned the smolder- 
ing flame of protest so that it spread to local legislative assemblies. 

Convinced that the time was ripe for action, leading patriots urged 
that the Colonies call a convention and voice their united protests. 
The meeting was called for September 5, and its sponsors, in order to 
avoid interference with the session of the State Assembly in the State 
House, chose Carpenters' Hall as their meeting place. 

Three years later, when British troops occupied the city, the hall 
was converted into a barracks. Grimly reminiscent of that chapter in 
its history is the bullet-riddled metal ball, now displayed in the hall- 
way. Once a part of the weather vane atop the cupola of the building, 
this ball was used as a target by Redcoats intent on improving their 
marksmanship. In 1787 the building was occupied by the Commissary 
General of Military Stores of the Continental Army. 

The communal value of the building was by no means limited to 
its wartime service, however, for it served with nearly equal promi- 
nence in the advancement of trade, finance, and culture. Subsequent 
to its evacuation by the British, it quartered a meeting called to for- 


Carpenter's Hall 


mulate plans for encouraging American manufacture of linens, 
woolens, and other textiles. That meeting laid the groundwork of 
the great textile industry in Philadelphia today. 

In the field of letters, it is a matter of record that the great collec- 
tion of the present Free Library of Philadelphia had its nucleus in 
the volumes that lined the bookshelves of Carpenters' Hall between 
1773 and 1790. 

It was in Carpenters' Hall that the first Bank of the United States 
set up its headquarters in 1791. In addition, this historical old 
meeting hall has sheltered at various times the Bank of the State 
of Pennsylvania, the United States Law Office, United States Custom 
House, Apprentices' Free Library, Franklin Institute, and the Society 
of Friends. 

The high character of the Carpenters' Company explains in large 
degree the excellence of the architecture of this section, of which the 
company's own hall, as well as the old State House, built by Edmond 
Woolley, a member of the company, are distinguished examples. 

The structure is built in the form of a Greek cross, with four pro- 
jecting gable ends and a central cupola. It is constructed of brick, laid 
in Flemish bond, with glazed headers. The main entrance is ap- 
proached by five steps leading to the pedimented doorway with a 
fanlight. Three fine arched windows, with stone balustrades below, 
rest on a horizontal belt course of white woodwork at the second-floor 

The front part of the building contains a vestibule and stairs lead- 
ing to the second floor, which is not open to the public. The rest of 
the first floor is one large room, in the rear of which is a huge door- 
way. This door, the finest architectural detail of the interior, was 
originally the front entrance. The original floor lies under the 
present floor, and the fireplaces have been removed. 

In the southwest corner of the room are eight of the Windsor chairs 
occupied by members of the First Continental Congress. Arms of the 
Carpenters' Company, with the inscription, "Instituted 1724," are 
woven into two silk banners hanging on the east and west walls. 

Also on view are the original minutes of the First Continental Con- 
gress, portraits of members, original manuscripts and important let- 
ters relating to the Revolutionary struggle, Stuart's painting of Wash- 
ington, and the original painting of Patrick Henry addressing the first 
Congress. Among the unusual exhibits is the waistcoat worn by 
Robert Morris. 

The historic events which took place within its walls rather than 
the somewhat meager furnishings which remain as mementos of those 
stirring days provide the real interest in this storied old structure. 



With a fine reverence for their old hall, the Carpenters' Company 
in 1857 withdrew permission to use it for trade and commercial pur- 
poses, restricting usage almost wholly to the needs of its own or- 
ganization, but permitting inspection by visitors during fixed hours. 
For nearly 170 years the company has maintained the hall at its own 


239 Arch St. Open weekdays 9 a. m. to 5 
p. m., Sundays 11 a. m. to 5 p. m. Admission 

THE flourishing but highly controversial legend of Betsy Ross 
and the first American flag makes up in sentiment what it lacks 
in proof. The first public intimation of the Betsy Ross story came 
from William J. Canby, a grandson of the seamstress, in an address 
before the Historical Society of Pennsylvania on March 14, 1870. Affi- 
davits signed at the time by members of the Ross family state that 
this story had been long familiar to, them. They are presumed to have 
delayed its public announcement because of its conflict with their 
antimilitaristic Quaker principles. Nearly all the affidavits stated 
that their ancestress lived in the house which is now 239 Arch Street. 
No other number was mentioned by them. 

George Canby, after the death of his brother, William, sought 
among Government archives for evidence to convince skeptics, but 
without result. 

Unverified statements, attributed to Betsy Ross by her descendants, 
avow that George Washington, in company with Robert Morris and 
Col. George Ross, went to the home of Betsy Ross on a morning in 
June 1776. The story dwells minutely upon the feelings of awe, 
reverence, and patriotic excitement that filled her when Washington 
produced a rough design for a flag sketched on paper, with the design 
showing six-pointed stars, and asked if she could piece it together out 
of bunting. She replied that she could, but indicated that a five- 
pointed star could be made with a single snip of the scissors. When 
she had demonstrated this, Washington and his companions approved 
its use. By the next day, having sacrificed a good deal of her sleep to 
work at her task, Betsy finished the first American flag. 

This version is upheld in a volume entitled Betsy Ross, Quaker 
Rebel, by Edwin S. Parry, descendant of Betsy Ross. The book's 
jacket calls it "The final answer to the controversial question, 'Who 
made the flag?'" 

An opposite stand is taken by Joseph Jackson, author of the Ency- 
clopedia of Philadelphia and other historical works ; Albert Cook 
Myers, historian ; Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, officially identified with 



the Historical Society of Pennsylvania ; and other authorities. They 
maintain that no one knows just where the first American flag was 
made, or who made it. Jackson declares that the story of Washington's 
visit to Betsy Ross is "pure imagination, uncorroborated by the 
slightest evidence." 

He further insists that 239 Arch Street was not the dwelling place 
of Betsy Ross, but that her house stood at 233 Arch Street. He bases 
his belief partly upon the listings in two city directories issued in 
1785 the first to be published of Philadelphia but does not im- 
pugn the good faith of those who hold the opposite view. Diligent 
search has failed to produce incontrovertible proof of where Betsy 
Ross lived in 1776. 

In Macpherson's Directory of 1785 John Claypoole, third husband 
of Betsy Ross, was listed as occupying 335 Arch Street. The dwelling 
was on the north side of the street, and house numbers then in- 
creased consecutively east. All numbers in subsequent directories 
increased west. The next city directory issued was Biddle's, in 1791, 
which listed the Claypoole house as 91. It retained that number 
until 1858, when it was changed to the present number 241, an ad- 
dress one lot removed from what is generally considered the onetime 
abode of Betsy Ross. 

So far as the purported "Home of Old Glory" is concerned, Mac- 
pherson's Directory listed a Widow Ford as occupying 336 in 1785. 
The number was changed to 89 in 1791, and in 1858 to the present 
239 Arch Street. After this dwelling was selected as the Flag House, 
241 was torn down to lessen the hazards of fire, perhaps adding a 
touch of irony to what may well have been an error in research. The 
house at 239 Arch Street was selected, as Jackson says, "in some man- 
ner not now easily learned." 

Even Jackson, while pointing out the error, makes a mistake in 
fixing the Betsy Ross address as 233. He identifies the 83 of 1785 with 
the 233 of today, though Macpherson's Directory lists a certain Sellers 
as living at 339, and it is that number which in 1791 became 83, and 
finally 233. Jackson selected the name and address of Alexander Wil- 
cocks as his "key to the situation." Wilcocks lived at 325 Arch, 
between Third and Fourth Streets, while the Claypooles resided 
between Second and Third. Obviously, Sellers is the logical key man, 
as he lived four doors east of Betsy Ross Claypoole in 1785, occupy- 
ing the address for more than a quarter century. 

Meanwhile, because it filled a genuine patriotic need, the story that 
the first American flag had been stitched together at 239 Arch Street 
by Betsy Ross became part of the legendary history of the United 
States, in defiance of all the acid tests of historical research. 

The house was built about 1700. It has two stories, an attic, and an 
additional two rooms in the basement. Extending across the front is 



a large coved hood, and above it are two second-story windows 
topped with a heavy cornice. A single dormer window extends from 
the third-story attic. The exterior is of stone faced with brick, of 
Flemish bond construction, set with black headers typical of the 
masonry walls of the eighteenth century. Part of the rear is con- 
structed of field stone, apparently because its use was more econom- 
ical than brick. 

The most interesting architectural features of this patriotic shrine 
are its small windows and its doors. It also has an attractive, blue- 
tiled fireplace which, except for a few broken tiles now replaced, is 
just as it was when imported from Holland. Cupboards in the central 
passage are interesting chiefly for the HL hinges. 

In the basement, floored with brick, are the original kitchen and 
dining room. The kitchen, in the rear, has a huge elliptical arched 
fireplace of brick, containing a hanger for open-fire cooking. Leading 
from this room to the rear yard is a short flight of steps. At the front 
a steep, brick-arched opening leads to the street pavement. 

The back room on the first floor is the reputed scene of the dis- 
cussion with Washington regarding the design of the flag. And it was 
in this room that the industrious Betsy, with nimble fingers, is 
alleged to have sewed the first flag of the United States. The front 
room is used as a novelty shop and contains a small, simple fireplace, 
with wood paneling above and to the left. Winding stairways lead 
to the basement and to the upper floors ; large double doors lead into 
a court. 

The rooms on the second floor are three in number: fair sized 
rooms in the front and rear, and a small room off the central hall. 
The front room is fitted with a fireplace and paneled closets ; at the 
rear is the children's room, furnished with antiques reminiscent of 
the days of Betsy Ross. The front stairs leading to the third floor 
have the original handrail, with fine, carved spindles. The third 
floor contains one large room with a very small fireplace, and a small 
plain room opening off the hall. 

Neglected for many years, the Flag House became a center of re- 
newed interest only within comparatively recent times. A group of 
New Englanders interested prominent men in becoming directors of 
a movement which raised more than $100,000 through the sale of 
more than a million memberships, to buy and restore the shrine. In 
December 1936 A. Atwater Kent, socially prominent Philadelphia 
manufacturer, offered to spend at least $25,000 for the restoration 
of the house. His offer was accepted by City Council, and the property 
was rehabilitated under the architectural direction of Brognard Okie. 

In the task of renewing the "Birthplace of Old Glory," old floors, 
old boards, and old nails were saved wherever possible ; three fire- 
places, long hidden, were revealed. A stairway in the front of the 


house, long since removed, was replaced, and a door leading from 
the yard into the basement kitchen was restored. Where replacements 
were necessary, material was obtained from old homes in the neighbor- 
hood those corresponding with the period of the shrine. A mantel 
was brought from one old house then being demolished ; bricks and 
window glass were obtained from other Colonial homes. The first 
floor front was rebuilt, a doorway was transferred from the western 
to the eastern corner of the building, and a new window was installed. 

In addition to the rejuvenation of the shrine, the work of rehabili- 
tation included the addition, in the rear, of the heating plant and 
a ladies' rest room, at a cost of $7,000. For construction of this, brick 
of the Revolutionary period was used. 

For many years only two rooms were open to the public, but 
visitors now are permitted to explore all eight rooms in the house. 
In some can be viewed the actual belongings of Betsy Ross. All the 
furniture is of the Revolutionary period, or good reproductions. Bunt- 
ing, said to be similar to that used in making the first flag, is pre- 
served in a glass case. 

The Flag House is maintained with funds raised by the sale to the 
general public of souvenirs of all kinds, such as postcards, Liberty 
Bells and other mementos. These may be purchased on the premises. 


244 S. 3d St. Eastbound trolley on Chestnut 
St. to 3d. 

THE POWEL HOUSE, which was occupied by Philadelphia's 
last pre-Revolutionary mayor, still presents much the same out- 
ward appearance as when its distinguished owner lavishly enter- 
tained notables of this country and eminent guests from abroad. 

A three-story structure of red brick, it is flanked on the south 
side by a garden recently restored in part. Low, broad steps with 
a wrought-iron railing lead to a wide Colonial doorway. 

The building dates from about 1765, at which time it was regarded 
as pretentious. The street door opens into a wide reception hall, 
where the noble arch is a dominant feature. A rich wainscoting of 
solid mahogany and mahogany spindles on the banisters embellish the 
staircase. Every room is of proportions unusually large for a town 

The reception room, first floor front, has been restored as a 
memorial to Mrs. Cyrus H. K. Curtis, through whose generosity the 
original "Survey of the Old City" was made. The dining room is also 
completed. The drawing room, the original of which is in the Penn- 
sylvania Museum, is being restored by carefully copying details of 
the original woodwork. 



Originally the Powel House was surrounded by extensive grounds 
magnificently landscaped, with rare fruit trees and shrubbery in pro- 
fusion, and costly statuary lining the walks and paths. When Powel 
was elected mayor of the city in 1775, the house and garden became 
the scene of numerous meetings of men high in public life. Members 
of the American Philosophical Society, to which Samuel Powel be- 
longed, sometimes came there. 

Washington was a frequent guest ; there are constant records in 
his diary of his taking both dinner and tea with the mayor and 
Mrs. Powell in their Third Street home. Lafayette and many foreign 
diplomats and personages of importance also were entertained there. 
When the British forces occupied the city during the winter of 1777- 
78, the Earl of Carlisle, British High Commissioner, was quartered 
in the Powel house. The nobleman wrote home in laudatory terms 
of his stay here. 

Often called the "Patriotic Mayor," Powel headed Philadelphia's 
government until 1789. The last mayor under British rule, he was 
also the first under a free government. His father had been one of 
the richest members of the Carpenters' Company and the first opera- 
tive builder in Philadelphia. His wife was the former Elizabeth Wil- 
ling, who did as much as her husband to make the Powel home 
famous for its hospitality. 

In those days the neighborhood was considered the most fashion- 
able in the city, and originally there were only three dwellings in 
the square between Spruce Street and Willing's Alley. Charles Wil- 
ling, former mayor and father of Mrs. Powel, lived at the corner of 
Willing's Alley. With the passage of time, however, a number of 
dwellings replaced the Powel gardens, until finally only the back- 
yard remained. 

In 1931 the Philadelphia Society for the Preservation of Land- 
marks purchased the Powel House and the house next door. The 
second was demolished, and the garden now occupies its site. This 
change has done much to restore the appearance of the old dwelling 
to its original beauty. 

The Powel House is important not only because it was one of the 
most beautiful dwellings of the pre-Revolutionary period, but be- 
cause it is considered the last dwelling in Colonial Philadelphia where 
Washington was a frequent guest. 


The Powel House 


Broad and Locust Sts., three blocks south of 
City Hall. 

FEW American buildings hold richer echoes of the past than 
does Philadelphia's venerable Academy of Music. Across its 
spacious stage has passed a pageant of the Nation's history 
political as well as musical. 

For generations it has been the focal point of the city's cultural 
life, and the auditorium has resounded to the music of great orches- 
tras, the elopuence of Presidents and poets, the lyric ardor of the 
world's finest voices, and once, in a strange metamorphosis, to the 
clamor of a circus menagerie. 

King Edward VII of England visited the academy when he was 
Prince of Wales, and the memory of that brillant occasion is kept 
alive by the "Prince of Wales Box," on the balcony floor to the 
right. Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, was a visitor here on several 
occasions while attending the Centennial Exhibition in this city. 

The vaulted ceiling has resounded to cheers for Clay and Webster 
and Blaine ; it has echoed the impassioned voices of William Lloyd 
Garrison denouncing the iniquity of slavery, and of Robert G. Inger- 
soll demanding freedom for the human mind ; it has echoed, too, the 
oratory of scholarly Edward Everett and John B. Gough. 

Many Presidents of the United States, from James Buchanan to 
Herbert Hoover, have spoken from its stage. Grover Cleveland and 
his bride were feted in the auditorium by an assemblage whose bril- 
liance dazzled even the participants; there were 1,500 persons pres- 
ent, including foreign ambassadors, at a dinner costing $25 a plate, 
an enormous sum in those days. 

On the academy's boards Edwin Booth and Tomasso Salvini acted. 
Gallery gods thrilled to the incomparable tones of Adelina Patti ; to 
the voices of Albani, Campanini, and Caruso ; to the magnetic charm 
of Christine Nilsson. The gilded caryatids have looked down upon 
the writhing grace of La Argentina; and they have preserved their 
immobility in the face of the astonishing sight of an indoor football 
game. There in the very citadel of culture ! 

To list the actors on the world's stage who have passed through its 
entrance would be almost to call the roll of modern history. The 
academy has seen them all : personages and near-personages, politi- 
cal pygmies strutting their little hours, and the authentic great 
Lloyd George and Clemenceau, Charles Evans Hughes, the Earl of 
Birkenhead, Prince William of Sweden, Galli-Curci, Paderewski, 
Josef Hofmann, Roald Amundsen, Jane Addams, John McCormack, 
Dr. Charles H. Mayo, Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, Elman, 



Heifetz, Kreisler, Ole Bull, Rubenstein, Chaliapin, Viscount Cecil 
the list is well nigh inexhaustible. 

Versatility has been the ruling note in the academy's long life. The 
first motion pictures ever thrown upon a screen were exhibited 
there. Not long after the World War the Hagenbeck-Wallace circus 
filled the auditorium briefly. Dances, debutantes' teas, lectures, card 
parties, musicales, and even boxing and wrestling matches have 
occupied the auditorium or the second-floor foyer ; and in that foyer 
many aspiring young musicians have made their first public appear- 

The splendors of its past are veiled behind a drab exterior. The 
building, designed by Napoleon Le Brun, was completed in 1857 and 
was opened with a grand ball which eclipsed in size and brilliance 
any event held up to that time in Philadelphia. It had been five 
years building, and there had been many periods of delay while 
funds were being collected to finance the $400,000 project. The first 
opera offered there, // Trovatore, was presented on February 25, 
1857, with Gazzaniga, Aldini, Brignoli, and Amodio in the cast. To 
this day, opera and concert music have remained the mainstays of 
the academy's varied repertoire. In the Philadelphia Orchestra sea- 
son, music lovers with more devotion than worldly goods form block- 
long queues in Locust Street, often standing in line for hours to obtain 
low-priced gallery tickets. 

Solidly constructed of brownstone and red brick, the sullen ex- 
terior is unmitigated by the large, arched windows on the Broad 
Street and Locust Street facades. 

The huge Corinthian columns of the auditorium were designed in 
elliptical sections, to provide as unobstructed a view of the stage as 
possible. The four steep balconies ; the huge crystal chandelier (orig- 
inally in the old Crystal Palace in New York) ; the painted ceiling ; 
the use of baroque ornamentation ; the caryatids ; and the lavish use 
of gold, cream, and red plush coloring all blend to create a gay and 
intimate atmosphere. 

An interesting feature is the acoustical pit under the floor of the 
auditorium, built in the shape of an inverted elliptical dome. The pit 
and the domed ceiling of the auditorium were designed to obtain 
acoustical excellence. Today, however, engineers doubt that the acad- 
emy's marvelous acoustics is attributable to this construction. 

Extraordinary precautions have been taken to prevent the huge 
chandelier from falling. It hangs from a separate iron structure above 
the ceiling, and is suspended by several cables, so that if one should 
break there still would be no danger. 

Olive gray walls adorned with Ionic pilasters and columns ; numer- 
ous mirrored doors ; window openings delicately paneled in the 



manner of the eighteenth century ; and brilliant crystal chandeliers 
form the decorative scheme of the fayer. 


Logan Square and the Parkway (Vine St. 
between 19th and 20th). Bus "A" from Key- 
burn Plaza ; Routes 21 an'd 33. Open daily, 
9 a. m. to 10 p. m.; Sundays, 2 p. m. to 10 
p. m., except during June, July, August, and 
September. Closed on legal holidays, except 
Election and Armistice Days. 
Outstanding features: rare an'd original 
editions, collections, and treatises ; docu- 
ments, newspaper and magazine files ; col' 
lections of music ; cuneiform tablets ; and 
books for the blind. 

THE FREE LIBRARY, one of the most imposing buildings along 
the Parkway, was erected at a cost of $6,300,000. It is constructed 
of Indiana limestone with a granite base and is of the French 
Renaissance style. The design of the facade follows closely that of the 
Ministry of Marine building in Paris, and is distinguished by a long 
row of Corinthian columns above the first floor. 

Within the building are a number of spacious rooms well ap- 
pointed for their particular purposes. The entrance hall and great 
stairway are of marble and impressive both in size and dignity. 

The library contains a large lending department and a compre- 
hensive reference department. It also possesses many rare books, 
some of them long out of print, and many priceless original editions. 
There are also special departments arranged to facilitate study and 

Shelf space has been provided for 2,000,000 volumes. The cir- 
culating department contains 110,000 books, about 30,000 being avail- 
able on open shelves. In Pepper Hall alone, there are 36,000 refer- 
ence books dealing with a wide variety of subjects and including 
a splendid collection of Judaics and Hebraics. There is also a novel 
"circulating library" in the form of a collection of more than 2,000 
cuneiform tablets which scholars are permitted to examine in the 
privacy of their own homes. The reference department conducts a 
business and statistical service, and it has a collection of Philadelphia 
directories dating from 1785, as well as telephone directories of every 
city in the United States of more than 100,000 population. 

Another interesting feature is the library for the blind, which con- 
tains 21,000 volumes of embossed type. These volumes were pro- 
vided by the Pennsylvania Home Teaching Society for the Blind, 



the Library of Congress, and the Southeastern Pennsylvania Chapter, 
American Red Cross. This department also maintains a collection 
of 9,319 "talking book" records which combine the features of a 
portable radio and a phonograph. The records are reproductions, 
in the speaking voice, of entire volumes. Books and records, with 
return postage, are mailed free to blind persons living in eastern 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. 

Collections of connoisseurs and bibliophiles have been added to 
the library from time to time. Examination of these volumes is per- 
mitted, but the rarer books may not be removed from the building. 

Among the departments of special interest are those devoted to 
law, music, children and public documents. 

The law department contains the Hampton L. Carson collection 
illustrating the growth of the common law. It consists of 8,000 books 
and includes more than 100 manuscripts and 8,000 prints. Another 
collection is that donated by Henry R. Edmunds which deals with 
admiralty law. Simon Gratz presented a number of volumes devoted 
to State trials, while a collection covering early American law was 
received from William Brook Rawle. 

In the music department more than 52,000 items are cata- 
logued, including 12,597 bound biographies and opera, orchestral, and 
organ scores, all of which are available for home use. In addition, 
there are 1,389 books of biography, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and 
textbooks, and 39 current musical periodicals for reference use, to- 
gether with thousands of unbound pianoforte numbers, numerous 
phonograph records, and several hundred player piano rolls. Here 
also is the Edward A. Fleisher collection of chamber music consist- 
ing of more than 4,100 items. Mr. Fleisher also presented to the Free 
Library one of the world's largest collections of orchestral music, 
of more than 2,522 numbers for full orchestra, 1,700 numbers for 
string orchestra, and 1,686 concertos, each of which is complete with 
conductor's score and all necessary parts for its performance. 

The following outstanding collections are also of major interest: 
David Nunes Carvalho, collection of manuscripts and documents 
relative to handwriting ; John Frederick Lewis collection of Oriental 
manuscripts, medieval manuscripts, books on engraving, early print- 
ing and manuscripts ; John Frederick Lewis collection of portraits, 
containing some 88,000 portraits arranged under the names of the 

A department devoted to children contains on open shelves more 
than 8,000 books available for home use, 700 reference books, and 
2,500 books devoted to work with children. There are also many 
picture books and a number of volumes printed in large type for 
children with defective vision. 

The public documents department is for reference use only. It 



contains all documents distributed to public libraries by the Federal 
Government and the various States and the more important docu- 
ments issued by foreign countries, as well as publications of organi- 
zations such as the League of Nations. It also contains a number of 
film-volumes issued by the National Recovery Administration and 
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration publicizing the activities 
of both these organizations, and accounts of hearings on the codes 
of fair competition. A municipal reference division contains docu- 
ments dealing with municipal affairs in this and other nations, and 
much unofficial material relating to civic affairs. 

The periodical department receives currently 3,223 publications 
of general or specialized interest. It has 47,600 bound volumes and 
an extensive index and check list. The newspaper files embrace 235 

An extension department provides library service at seven hos- 
pitals and three prisons and also conducts traveling libraries and 
neighborhood service through 102 local agencies, such as community 
centers, fire stations, industrial plants, schools, and summer camps. 

Outstanding among the diversified collections and exhibits are the 
John Ashhurst collection of title pages and printers' marks, and a 
treasured group of old Bibles, pamphlets, manuscripts and what 
is said to be the world's largest book: Investigations and Studies in 
Jade. This book, which required 20 years to complete, is illustrated 
in colors, the work of many famous Chinese artists. 

The Rosenwald collection, 3,000 books on printing, engraving, 
book collecting, portraiture, and book plates, is available for refer- 
ence under certain restrictions. The collection was lent by Lessing 
J. Rosenwald. The extensive Isaac Norris medical library is also 
available for reference use under certain restrictions. 

There are also exhibition galleries for paintings and prints, a 
catalogue department, a binding department, a shipping department, 
and a photostat room where the public may have photostats made at 
cost. There is also a large reading room and additional reading 
facilities on the roof, where an enclosed portion offers protection 
against the vagaries of the weather. 

The free library system in Philadelphia was established under 
a charter granted in 1891, with a board of trustees as the governing 
body. Operating expenses are provided by appropriations made by 
City Council and by income from such funds as have been donated. 

The free library in this city was opened in three rooms in 
City Hall on March 12, 1894. A year later it was moved to 1217-21 
Chestnut Street, and on December 1, 1910, it was removed to the 
northeast corner of Thirteenth and Locust Streets. The present 
library on the Parkway was opened on June 2, 1927. The city's free 
library system embraces 31 branches, three deposit stations, and 112 



other agencies, included in which is the H. Josephine Widener 
Memorial Branch (open daily, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sundays and legal 
holidays excepted). The Widener Memorial Branch is situated at 
the northwest corner of Broad Street and Girard Avenue and con- 
tains more than 500 works of incunabula representing more than 
300 different presses in Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy 
and Switzerland. It also possesses many lantern slides comprising 
biography, history, literature, travel, and other educational subjects. 


Winter St., at 20th St. and Parkway. Limited 
parking permitted at all times on Winter St. 
and 20th St. sides of building. 
MUSEUM Open Wed., Thur., Fri., Surt. 2 
p. m. to 10 p. m. Sat. and holidays, 10 a. m. 
to 10 p. m. Adm. 25 cents. Closed Mon., 
Tues., Christmas and Independence Days. 
PELS PLANETARIUM Winter Street en- 
trance facing the Parkway. Demonstrations 
accompanied by 45 - minute explanatory 
talks : weekdays at 3, 4 and 8:30 p. m. Sat., 
12 noon, 3 p. m. and 8:30 p. m. Sun., 3, 4 
and 8:30 p. m. Closed Christmas and Inde- 
pendence Days. Adm. 25 cents. 

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, which includes the Fels Plane- 
tarium, houses a diversity of exhibits such as has seldom been 
seen under one roof. The contents of this imposing building 
represent man's persistent efforts to wrest from nature an ever-in- 
creasing knowledge and use of her laws. The exhibits illustrate his 
cautious groping for scientific truth and his efforts at practical 

The Franklin Institute, named to honor Benjamin Franklin, is the 
oldest organization in the United States devoted to the study and 
promotion of mechanical arts and applied sciences. It was founded 
in 1824 by Samuel Vaughan Merrick, who later headed the South- 
wark Foundry, and Dr. William H. Keating, one of the leading 
scientists at the University of Pennsylvania. The institute held its 
first exhibition in the fall of the same year at Carpenters' Hall. It 
met with immediate success, and the following year the association 
erected a building on the east side of Seventh Street, below Market, 
where it remained for more than a century. 

During the ensuing upsurge of scientific accomplishment, the in- 
stitute's hall became a recognized assembly place for scholars from 
all over the world. 

The present building, begun in 1930 and opened in 1934, repre- 
sents the culmination of the combined efforts of the institute itself 


Franklin Institute by Night 
"The Layman's Temple of Science' 

League Island Navy Yard Crane 
"A Seadog Home for Repairs" 


and the Benjamin Franklin Memorial. Inc., an organization spon- 
sored by interested citizens. The museum, the first of its type in 
this country, is modeled after the Deutsches Museum of Munich, 
Germany. John T. Windrim was the architect of the building. It is 
of classic design ; having two symmetrical and almost identical 
facades, the principal one on the Twentieth Street side facing 
Logan Circle. The central portico consists of six massive Corinthian 
columns supporting a heavy entablature. The exterior is of light 
buff limestone with a granite base. The structure is not yet com- 
pleted (1937). 

The museum of the institute has the following departments : 
astronomy, marine engineering, graphic arts, electrical communica- 
tions, physics, chemistry, aviation, railroad engineering, medicine, a 
miscellany of manufacturing exhibits, and the Fels Planetarium. 

Exhibits are housed in spacious chambers. It is virtually impos- 
sible to give a comprehensive representation of all the exhibits, 
since even a casual survey would consume about 15 hours. Every 
item has been chosen carefully, arranged attractively, and con- 
structed simply and ingeniously. Particularly fascinating are the 
numerous experimental exhibits which may be operated by the 
visitor or the guide, thus serving to fix in the mind the scientific 
principles involved. 

Immediately within the heavy bronze doorway of the Twentieth 
Street entrance is a large hall. The painted canvas ceiling of Renais- 
sance design, profusely decorated in colors of red, blue, and gold, 
was imported from England. Four steps lead from this hall to the 
outstanding architectural feature of the building the octagonal 
Benjamin Franklin Memorial Chamber. The quiet dignity of this 
large hall, its design inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, is a suit- 
able setting for the heroic statue of Franklin which is to be placed 
here. Foreshortening of the setbacks within the large coffers of the 
dome creates an illusion of height greater than actually exists. The 
following representative list of exhibits, a small part of the total, 
is arranged in the order suggested by the institute for visitors. 

An official greeter, a six-foot mechanical man, was installed in 
1934. Nattily dressed in a brass-buttoned blue uniform trimmed with 
gold braid, the robot salutes each visitor passing through the Twen- 
tieth Street entrance. "Egbert," so named at the time of his arrival, 
also bows, and in the manner of the perfect host, says, "How do you 
do ? I am very glad to see you. I hope you enjoy your visit." 

"Egbert" is set in motion by the interruption of two invisible rays 
focused on photoelectric cells. Visiting patrons unknowingly pass 
through the beams, and the robot's seeming independent action 
makes it appear to be a living being. "Egbert" was designed by 



F. R. Marion, a New York engineer, and it is Marion's voice that 
issues from a phonograph concealed in the mechanism. 

give a comprehensive history of electricity and its practical applica- 
tion, from the first experiments to modern times. The nature of 
frictional electricity is shown with various types of friction machines, 
among them one used by Benjamin Franklin. 

The properties and effects of electromagnetism are shown with 
various types of apparatus. The action of a simple transformer is 
demonstrated, showing the mechanical force due to currents in an ad- 
joining coil and the attraction of an iron rod to a magnetic field. 

The telegraphy group contains one of the earliest forms of tele- 
graphic recorders. A complete portrayal of telephonic communication 
includes a machine which records the "looks" of the voice. Radio 
transmission and reception are demonstrated with exhibits includ- 
ing the early "rock crusher" spark transmitter, the latest receiving 
sets, and loud speaker comparisons. 

HALL OF MECHANISMS: Here is vividly portrayed the develop- 
ment of many modern mechanical devices vacuum cleaners, sewing 
machines, locks, air brakes, reapers, plows, cash registers, and numer- 
ous others. In almost every case the new is contrasted with the old. 
An especially effective exhibit in this room is a modern bank vault 
entrance weighing 35,000 pounds, contrasted with the small hand- 
made type of safe of 100 years ago. 

A sectional view of a modern adding machine shows the intricate 
maze of levers between the operator's button and the adding and 
printing devices. An automatic mechanical woman, constructed by 
Maelzel more than a hundred years ago, writes three verses and 
draws four pictures. 

A five-ton cross section exhibit of the cables used to support the 
Philadelphia-Camden bridge reveals the myriad of fine wires that 
compose the finished cable. The first steam coining press, used in 
the United States Mint in 1836, is shown in operation stamping out 
souvenir coins. 

HALL OF PRIME MOVERS: Exhibited here are numerous mecha- 
nisms which utilize nature's power sources to do the work of man- 
kind. Various types of steam engines and turbines are on display: a 
quarter-size scale model of the Newcomen steam engine, the world's 
first successful piston engine ; a half-size model of the Watt steam 
engine (1782), the first to use the principle of steam expansion ; the 
walking-beam engine built by the Franklin Iron Works in 1847. 

Typical of early devices using animal power as a prime mover is 
the dog treadmill exhibit. Nearby is a complete hydraulic power 
plant with many accessories. So-called "perpetual motion" machines 



are represented with a model of the machine of the notorious Red- 
hefer and one of the more notorious Keely. 

PAPER MAKING AND GRAPHIC ARTS: Exhibits in this sec- 
tion are among the most extensive in the museum. They present a 
visual history of the arts of papor making and printing from their 
inception up to the present day. Upon entering the room, one sees 
displayed at the right and left the most up-to-date typesetting ma- 
chines used for the printing of books and newspapers. The monotype 
which casts single types in justified lines, and the intertype. a line- 
casting machine of the latest design, are shown. 

One exhibit, entitled "How a Newspaper is Printed," gives a thor- 
ough visual explanation of the processes used. A press built by Cot- 
trell shows the mechanics of four-color printing. 

Various old hand presses show by comparison the tremendous 
advance made in the printing field. A unique exhibit of engraving 
and matrix making is that showing the Lord's Prayer, containing 253 
characters and spaces, engraved in a space one-sixth of an inch 

The paper-making display includes an exhibit showing how pulp 
is made. A working scale model of a Fourdrinier paper-making 
machine shows the complete process. 

TION: The generation of electrical energy and its uses are portrayed 
here. A number of early dynamos include Joseph Saxton's magneto- 
electric machine and Edison's original bipolar direct current gen- 
erators for three-wire distribution driven by a steam engine. 

A large collection of direct and alternating current motors give 
an insight into the principles of operation and development. Among 
other exhibits in this room are experimental generators, transformers, 
and arc lamps used by Elihu Thomson in his experimental work; 
a collection showing the development of the watt-hour electric 
meter ; a group of recording and indicating instruments ; and 25 
types of relays. 

Especially interesting and revealing are the exhibits devoted to 
the development of illumination, tracing its history from the primi- 
tive pine-knot torch to modern lighting units. A series of striking 
settings compare the halting progress of early lighting with the rapid 
advances of recent years. Exhibits are arranged successively, show- 
ing first the "rush lights" and "Betty lamps" used by this country's 
early settlers in their log cabins ; then the whale-oil lamps of 
Colonial times; then the candle fixtures of the Louis XV period; 
then the open-flame kerosene lamps and gas lights of the early 
Victorian era ; then the incandescent carbon filament lamp of today ; 
and finally a glimpse into the future, when artificial illumina- 
tion may supplant sunlight entirely in all new buildings. 



Exhibits seeking to convey the value of proper lighting as an aid 
to good sight include the "sight-light" demonstrator which proves 
the importance of sufficient light ; a display treating with the prob- 
lem of "white" light and "artificial sunlight" in relation to color 
discrimination and matching ; and a number of instruments designed 
to record the physical characteristics of various light sources. 

LOCOMOTIVE ROOM: Exhibits include a number of early loco- 
motive models, steam and electric. Comparison of the old with the 
new reveals the great strides made in locomotive development. The 
"Rocket," built in England in 1837 and weighing slightly more than 
eight tons, has run 310,164 miles. Nearby is the "60,000," a modern 
3-cylinder compound heavy duty engine built in 1926 by the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works. It weighs 350 tons. This exhibit has been 
arranged to move a short distance on a real railroad bridge in re- 
sponse to manipulation of the controls. Degrees of ensuing stress 
and strain on the bridge are recorded on instruments in the hall be- 
low the engine. 

HALL OF AVIATION : Dominating this room is the Lockheed- 
Vega airplane in which Amelia Earhart spanned the North Atlantic. 
(She was lost in the Pacific in July 1937 on a round-the-world flight.) 
A number of exhibits review the history of airplane development, be- 
ginning with Orville Wright's trial flight in 1903 when he rose a 
few feet above the ground at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, and lead- 
ing up to the round-the-world flights of today. A mural by William 
Heaslip accurately depicts Wright's first successful flight. Among the 
actual aircraft on exhibit is the only existing Wright Brothers V plane 
still capable of flying. It was first flown in 1912. Also on view is a 
faithful reproduction on a 1 to 15 scale of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh's 
famous Spirit of St. Louis. 

The fundamental principles of flight are demonstrated with the 
aid of several wind tunnels. A model of an airplane engine runs 
under its own power and turns a 14-inch propeller 6,000 revolutions 
a minute. 

many exhibits, all designed to show the contributions made by chem- 
istry, physics, and mechanics to the development of medical science. 

An early model of the Drinker respirator, designed to furnish 
artificial respiration over long periods of time, can be operated so 
that a doll within the machine seems to breathe. This exhibit is 
supplemented by a rubber model of human lungs illustrating the 
principles of breathing. 

The principles of the electrocardiograph are shown in an exhibit 
in which the observer serves as subject. Other exhibits show the value 
of X-rays and other scientific phenomena as applied to the problems 
of human health. 



Numerous medical and surgical instruments are displayed in a 
glass case. This collection, changed from time to time, includes re- 
productions of instruments found in the ruins of Pompeii ; a series 
showing the development of the stethoscope ; surgical instruments 
used during the Civil War ; and devices for the hard-of -hearing. A 
dentist's office of 1860, as well as one of today, is shown. 

HALL OF ASTRONOMY : The astronomy room is equipped with 
two telescopes, a 10-inch refractor, and a 24-inch reflector. Shown also 
is a scale model of the 200-inch telescope which will go into operation 
on a western mountain peak in 1940, and a sample of the glass of 
which the mirror is made. An old 8-inch telescope, installed in Central 
High School in 1839 and a source of education for many generations 
of Philadelphia students until 1900, has been added to the collection. 

Other exhibits, too numerous to mention, are displayed in the 
SHOP (an authentic reconstruction of a printing shop of Franklin's 
time, with printing presses used by Franklin). 

The institute has a scientific library known as PEPPER HALL, which 
houses more than 100,000 volumes. The library's wall and Corinthian 
pilasters are painted yellow, with details in buff ; the door, windows, 
and bookcases are of walnut. A nicely executed cornice completely 
surrounds the base of the institute's acoustically treated BOARD 
ROOM, a simple and dignified circular chamber in light buff shades. 

Its research department includes two laboratories ; a periodical 
devoted to the discussion of scientific questions has been published 
monthly since 1826. 

The board room, lecture room, and library are reached by means 
of a stairway of monumental proportions at the right of MEMORIAL 
HALL. This, the lecture hall, designed along the lines of the old 
Franklin Institute, is a dignified room in the Doric order, tinted 
gray, buff, and green. Its walls have been treated with a special 
plaster which makes it doubly soundproof. All the walls throughout 
the building are padded or insulated with punctured steel sheets 
backed by rock wool. 

Pels Planetarium 

HE FELS PLANETARIUM, gift of Samuel S. Fels, a Philadel- 
phian, was the second of its kind in the United States. Its vivid 
demonstration of the motion of the heavenly bodies has made it of 
outstanding interest among the institute's exhibits. The apparatus con- 
sists of a hemispherical metal dome 68 feet in diameter, and a pro- 
jector shaped like a huge dumbbell, composed of thousands of small 
devices lights, shutters, gears, and lenses all precisely timed and 
spaced. The planetarium, entered through a semi-circular entrance 



hall of travertine walls and red marble trim, consists of the dome of 
the heavens rising above a silhouette of the Philadelphia skyline. 
Echoes usually occurring in circular auditoriums have been elimin- 
ated by using a dome of perforated sheets of stainless steel and pad- 
ding the walls with mineral wool. 

Lights are extinguished, and the dome becomes the dark blue 
eky of a moonless night. The demonstration of the planetary system 
the phases of the moon and the positions of the stars and constella- 
tions during the annual journey of the earth proceeds with con- 
vincing verisimilitude. Phenomena that require years to complete are 
condensed into a brief hour. 

The heavens can be depicted as they appear from anv pa*-t of the 
earth, at any time in the past or future. So many phenomena can be 
demonstrated that the topic of the demonstration is changed monthly. 


Parkway at 25th St. "A" bus at Reyburn 
Plaza. (Onen free, daily and S-inday: 10:30 
a. m. to 5 p. mj. 

Imnortant exhibits: Period rooms of the 
English, French, and American schools; art 
of the Middle Ages; cloisters, furniture col- 
lections and contemporary exhibitions of 

imposing buildings in the city, is situated at the extreme upper 
end of the Parkway, near the east bank of the Schuylkill River 
and at the southernmost end of Fairmount Park. 

This museum, th chief repository of art in Philadelphia, is the 
architectural product of Zantzinger & Borie and Ho"ace Trumbauer. 
Its exhibits present a comprehensive view of the history of art from 
ancient times to the present day. 

Originally conceived a^ a $5,000,000 project, the museum repre- 
sented a cost of $25,000,000 when it was opened in 1928. Although 
not entirely completed up to 1937. it reflects as fine an interpretatioii 
of Grecian architecture as any structural effort of modern times. 

On the summit of a rock-terraced hill known ai Olde Faire Mount, 
the building is constructed of Minnesota, Mankato, and Kosota stone 
stories of similar tvpe, having a wa~m. frolden hue. ^he roof, cover- 
ing an expanse of about four acres, is of blue tile with gilded orna- 
ments at the corners and ed^es 

From its high place on the hill fhe structure affords a beautiful 
view of the Parkway and overlooks the imposing Washington monu- 
ment on the Parkway Plasa, in the immediate foreground. 

The approach to the museum, across the Plaza circle, is up a 


Zeiss Planatarium Instrument in the Pels Planetarium 
"... the stars in their courses proclaim ..." 


series of 68 broad stone steps which rise in five levels to an expan- 
sive forecourt paved with flagstone, that leads to another flight of 26 
steps to the main entrance. 

On either side of the five series of steps, cascades of water descend 
with a rush that suggests unending motion. And in the forecourt a 
great fountain lends color and charm. This fountain was erected in 
1932 with funds bequeathed by Henry M. Phillips, an original mem- 
ber of the Fairmount Park Commission and its president from 1881 
to 1884. 

The museum is built in three great wings : the main or west wing, 
along the western edge of the courtyard ; the north and south wings 
extending east, bordering either side of the court. 

Maintaining a fidelity to classic precedent, the design of the 
museum facade incorporates a certain subtlety of construction such 
as was practiced by the ancient Greeks for the purpose of creat- 
ing optical illusions and to soften the starkness of absolutely straight 
lines. The walls were built slightly convex, and other lines were 
made to appear straight to the eye by curving them rows of 
columns follow an imperceptibly curved line ; the roof peaks and 
the steps of the main approach are convex. 

Within the pediment surmounting the northeast facade are 13 
freestanding, life-size figures designed by C. Paul Jennewein and 
John Gregory. They were executed in chrome and gold glazes and 
occupy a tympanum 70 feet wide at the base and ranging to 12 feet 
in height. They are considered an outstanding example of the cera- 
mic art in colors. The mythological figures, according to the sculp- 
tors, signify sacred and profane love, the two underlying forces 
which are basic in the development of art and civilization in every 
age. Among the figures represented are Jupiter, Venus, Aurora, 
Cupid and Adonis. They, together with the figures of a lion, a mighty 
serpent and an owl, all made from polychrome terra cotta, symbolize 
the influences which produced western culture. 

The massive main entrance of the building represents a com- 
promise between modern exigency and adherence to Greek art. 
Ancient Greek temples were built without windows or doors, en- 
trance being through a large central opening. The Pennsylvania 
Museum of Art was built with this in mind the unadorned, severe 
looking opening of great breadth rising to the heights of the portico 
pillars. This opening, however, has been enclosed with many panels 
of glass which admit light to the interior court. This glass primarily 
serves the purpose of excluding the wintry winds and the summer 

Just within the glass-enclosed entrance is the Great Hall. Within 


the hall the polychrome decorations of the columns and entablature 
correspond with the external treatment, where gilded ornamenta- 
tion and scarlet, yellow, blue, and green colors are used so effec- 
tively, following the precedent of ancient Greece. The imposing 
grand staircase, which faces the entrance and dominates the hall, 
leads to a colonnaded gallery on the second floor. 

As one enters the Great Hall, one of the first things to greet the 
eye is Augustus Saint-Gaudens' Diana, a splendid example of Ameri- 
can sculpture. This statue once graced the pedestal atop the old 
Madison Square Garden, in New York. It was presented to the 
museum in 1932. 

Adorning the walls of the Great Hall and the adjoining rooms, as 
well as throughout the building, are a number of beautiful and price- 
less examples of the age-old art of tapestry. Tapestries of the finest 
weave, some dating back to the fifteenth century and many of 
modern design, are contained in this extensive collection. 

Among those to be seen in the Great Hall is an exquisite piece of 
modern work showing American troops, on the way to France, pass- 
ing Indepenence Hall. It is a Gobelin made in France and was de- 
signed by G. L. Jaulmes. It was presented to the museum by the 
French Government in recognition of the welcome extended to 
French artists by the city of Philadelphia. 

Included among the more valuable tapestries on view are an 
Arras tapestry from France, made in 1400 and showing a boar hunt ; 
a Coptic tapestry, from Tournai, Belgium, about 1600 ; an Esperance, 
from Tournai, 1475 ; Scene of Courtly Life in France, 1490 ; Deposi- 
tion of Christ, Brussels, 1510 ; Beauvais tapestry showing Italian 
village feasts, 1736. 

The Arras tapestry, sometimes called the "tapestry of 1,000 
flowers," hangs in the medieval section of the Romanesque Court ; 
the Coptic is in the same section. Gothic Hall, in the medieval sec- 
tion, has the "Courtly Life" and the Esperance tapestries. 

Although the Philadelphia Art Museum is not mellowed with age 
so far as its physical aspects are concerned, it has achieved eminence 
as a repository of priceless art and rare treasures that date back 
hundreds of years, some to the eleventh century. Masterpieces from 
the hands of the great artists of the ages and of virtually every recog- 
nized school may be seen ; handiwork of some of the foremost crafts- 
men in furniture may be viewed ; superb tapestries, fine marbles, 
great clocks, prized doors, specimens of architectural art of every 
race and clime are exhibited. And all of these treasures are laid out 
in chronological order, thereby revealing the evolution of the broad 
field of art in simple fashion. 

On the first floor is exhibited the John G. Johnson collection of 
art which comprises masterpieces representing the most important 




East Wing of Art Museum 
'The grandeur that was Greece, the glory 


phases in the history of painting. It is the largest 'single collection 
in the world that is chronologically listed, except that in the British 

Johnson, a noted lawyer as well as a distinguished art collector, 
left his collection of 1,280 pictures to the city when he died in 
1917. The collection has been kept intact, in accordance with the 
provisions of his will, and was on exhibition at the Johnson home, 
510 South Broad Street, until several years agp, when the house was 
abandoned temporarily. The collection was moved to the museum, 
where it is rotated, only 300 pictures being on view at any one time. 

Included in this collection are representative works of the Italian, 
Flemish, Dutch, Spanish, German, French, and English schools, 
executed by the skilled hands of the world's great masters. 

Johnson began his collection in 1881 and during the ensuing years 
acquired works by such famous painters as Jan Van Eyck, founder 
of the Flemish fifteenth century school ; Rogier van der Weyden, 
founder of the Brussels school ; and Hieronymous Bosch, whose 
satirical art forms a connecting link between the Flemish and Dutch 
schools. In fact, the collection comprises paintings of distinction done 
by such famous artists as Pieter Bruegel, the elder ; Rembrandt, 
Rubens, Aelbert Cuyp, Pieter de Hooch, and Adriaen Brouwer. 
Works of Botticelli, the Florentine master ; Fra Angelico, Francesco 
Pesellino, Pietro Lorenzetti, Luca Signorelli, Carlo Crevelli, Anton- 
ella Da Messina, Giovanni Bellini, Titian, Tiepolo, Cosimo Tura, 
Canaletto, Marieschi, and Francesco Guardi, of the Italian schools, 
are also in this collection. 

The German primitives are represented by Lucas Granach, Master 
Wilhelm, and Bartholomaeus Bruyn, the elder ; while the French 
school is represented in primitive and modern work by Simon 
Marimon, master of Moulins ; Francois Clouet, Corneille de Lyon, 
Poussin, Chardin, Gericault, Delacroix, Manet, Monet, Corot, Millet, 
and others, with the English school having Hogarth, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Turner, Constable, and Crome. 
The Spanish painters are well represented in a group which in- 
cludes three very fine panels by El Greco. 

Among the better known works are St. Francis Receiving the 
Stigmata, by Van Eyck ; two panels showing Christ on the Cross 
with the Virgin and St. John, by Van der Weyden ; The Shepherd 
Fleeing from the Wolf, by the elder Bruegel ; Saint Francis, by 
Fra Angelico ; four exquisite predelle panels and some other fine 
work by Botticelli, including : Portrait of Lorenzo Lorejizano, Last 
Moments of the Magdalene, Noli Me Tangere, Feast in the House of 
Levi, and Christ Preaching; The Virgin and Child with Saints, by 
Pesellino ; Pieta, by Crevelli ; Madonna and Child, by Bellini. 

On the second floor, the central section contains the Joseph Lees 



Williams collection of Persian rugs, and collections of china and 
bric-a-brac, and jasper medallions of Wedgewood. 

In the south wing is part of a Romanesque cloister of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries and a Catalan cloister from Saint Genis des 
Fontaines, construction of which started in 1086. About one third 
of the original structure was brought here, together with stones taken 
from adjacent territory, sufficient to complete the erection. Beyond 
the cloister is the medieval art gallery devoted mainly to early German 
and Spanish art. Next to this gallery are numerous Gothic-Roman- 
esque details, such as fine stained-glass windows, including the Cru- 
saders' windows (roundels) which are gem-lined and made of full- 
blown glass, with polychrome mother-and-child theme. In the ad- 
joining room is a Gothic chapel, interesting in that it has a vaulted 
roof and buttresses at each end. The chapel wall is about 40 inches 
thick, and the exterior stone is laid in pleasing pattern, while the 
interior is of rough gray stone. 

In this section there are numerous examples of Romanesque sculp- 
ture the triple-arched portal from Saint Laurent les Augustins, a 
Burgundian abbey of the twelfth century, and a traceried doorway 
of about 100 years later ; a wainscoted French room of the sixteenth 
century French Renaissance period, which is hung with interesting 
paintings and tapestries ; two Italian Gothic rooms from Florence 
and Venice and various specimens of Gothic art. Here, too, one finds 
an interesting reminder of the romance of old in the figure of The 
Knight on Horseback, who eternally rides in the Romanesque Court. 
This "knight" is merely a suit of tournament armor bearing the mark 
of Lorenz Colman, armorer to Emperor Maximilian. It was brought 
from the imperial collection at Vienna and dates back to 1500. The 
horse, festooned with armorial trappings for tournament use, bears 
the arms of Freiherr Behaim von Schwarzenbach, a German or Aus- 
trian of the seventeenth century. In addition to the trappings, the 
"knight" is armed with a lance, fully prepared for the joust. 

A number of exhibits of secular rooms are to be found in the west 
wing, including a French-Gothic room that is wood-paneled with 
linen fold motif on the walls and a polychrome floor of fleur-de-lys 
pattern ; a Florentine-Gothic gallery with flagstone floor and paint- 
ings in the Giotto tradition by Giovanni di Paolo ; a room from a 
Venice house, completely furnished and including a fireplace, a 
Savonarola bed or tea chair, and a floor with crushed stone imbedded 
in cement, dating back to 1493. 

In this west wing there are five galleries devoted to an exhibition 
of American art which iocludes works by Sully, Peale, Sargent, 
Eicholtz, Stuart, Thomas Eakins, Mary Cassatt, Charles Rosen, Arthur 
B. Charles, Daniel Garber, and other representative artists of the 



seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. This ex- 
hibit also contains a number of miniatures, a group of eye miniatures, 
a large statue of Washington, busts by Charles Grafly, Serge Yourie- 
vitch, and Alexander Portnoff, as well as such furniture as a Queen 
Anne chair, a splat-back chair, a Chippendale lowboy, and an Empire 
style sideboard. 

The north wing has two Italian Renaissance galleries of the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. The former contains paintings by 
Antonello Da Messina, Lorenzo Lotto, and Jacopo di Barbari, and 
sculpture by Bertolodo as well as terra cottas ,; furniture, and tapes- 
try ; the latter has a stone chimney piece in the style of Sansovino ; 
chairs, paintings, tables, large wrought-iron candleholders, and paint- 
ings by Cariani Guardi, and others. Immediately adjoining is another 
Italian fifteenth century Renaissance room, with doorways and ceil- 
ings from Rome, Venice, and Pesaro ; a fireplace of carved wood and 
a flagstone floor. A beautiful plaque, The Virgin Worshippifig the 
Child., by Delia Robbia, is set in the wall. Two large altarpieces are 
the work of Masolina da Panicale, and the several paintings by Botti- 
celli and Fra Angelico. One of the masterpieces in this room is the 
low-relief Madonna and Child by Desiderio da Settignano. 

The German (Austrian) Renaissance period is represented by a 
sixteenth century exhibit from Stiegerhof (Nagerschigg) in Carinthia, 
Austria, which includes a white marble fountain, a French table of 
the same period, templated ceiling, an interesting tile stove and case- 
ment windows, as well as a painting by Hans Maler. 

The French Renaissance room of the fifteenth century is still in- 
complete, but it has some fine examples of wood carving, a draw- 
bridge table, a child's high chair and a high-backed chair from the 
Chateau de Cussac. Although the French gallery is not yet perman- 
ently placed, it has some good eighteenth and nineteenth century re- 
presentation in paintings by Delacroix, Courbet, Chasserian, Corot, 
Jongkind, Millet, and Gericault. It also has some bronze animals by 
Barye and several pieces of furniture typical of the period, as well as 
an attractive Louis XVI interior from the Hotel Letellier, Paris 
(1789), showing parquetry floors, paneled and mirrored walls, over- 
door bas-relief, heavy Empire .ornamental furniture, bric-a-brac, and 
china of the luxuriant period of Louis XVI. 

More humble and homelike is the Dutch room with wooden floors, 
walls, and ceilings ; casement windows of stained glass design, tiled 
fireplace, alcove bed, and a painting by Jerborch. This room was 
taken from a house called "Het Scheepje" (the little boat), in Haar- 
lem, Netherlands, which was built by Dirk Dirick. Paintings in the 
Dutch gallery of the seventeenth century are by Jacob Ruysdael, 
De Hooch, Steen, and Hobbema. 

A Tudor room from Red Lodge, West Wickham, Kent, England, 



dates from 1529 and contains elaborately carved, oak paneled walls, 
brick and stone fireplace, large windows, velvet drapes, period furni- 
ture, and a painting by Antonio Moro. The small English gallery in- 
cludes several pictures by George Moreland, such as Old Coaching 
Days, Fruits of Early Industry and Economy, and The Happy Cottag- 
ers. There is also a painting by Richard Wilson of Westminster Bridge. 
This gallery also shows a London interior of 1760, with plastered, 
painted walls, period furniture, and a fireplace of marble and metal. 
In this wing there are five galleries for current exhibitions of art. 

Close by is an exhibit of three beautifully paneled old rooms 
brought complete from the Sutton Scarsdale House, Derbyshire, 
England, and dating back to 1724. The bedroom, in the style of Chris- 
topher Wren, contains a gilt marble table of Georgian style, porcelain 
vases, damask drapes, brass candelabra, and a side chair of the 
William and Mary period. Another room, in the style of William 
Kent, has a mahogany console dating from 1745; English pottery, 
and a vase from Delft, Holland ; and the third room, at one time a 
dining room and done in the style of Wren, contains numerous pieces 
of furniture that have no logical connection with the period, but 
are noteworthy because of other details. In this room is a grand- 
father clock made in London in 1700 which still keeps excellent time 
and chimes the hours. All these rooms have original fireplaces, pan- 
eled oak walls, ceilings, cornices, floors, door frames, knobs, and locks 
brought from England direct to the museum. Paintings in the rooms 
include Gainsborough's A Classical Landscape, Reynolds' Edmund 
Burke, Raeburn's Portrait of a Gentleman, Constable's The Locke, 
Crome's Blacksmith's Shop, near Hingham, Norfolk, and portraits by 
Romney. Here, too, may be seen Hogarth's Assembly at Wanstead 
House ; Going to the Hay field, by David Cox ; The Storm, by John 
Linnell ; Burning of the Houses of Parliament, by Joseph M. W. 
Turner ; Sir Walter Scott, a portrait, by Sir John Watson. 

In this same wing there is an interior of the Derby House (1799), 
Salem, Mass., with a secretary-bookcase of the Sheraton style, a 
Hepplewhite side chair, a tall clock, a mahogany sofa, and a painting 
by Francis Wheatley. There is also a room from Wrightington Hall, 
Lancashire, England (1748), with a 'Carlton House desk, Sheffield 
candlesticks, silver inkstand, Chippendale chair, an elaborately carved 
fireplace with Chelsea porcelain figures on the mantelpiece, a curtain 
cornice, and carved wood covered with old damask. 

Next comes the German-Dutch kitchen a room from the Muller 
House (1752), at Millbach, Lebanon County, Pa. The furnishings 
were given by J. Stogdell Stokes. It has wooden beamed ceilings ; 
plain plastered walls ; a picture of A Mennonite Woman, by Jacob 
Eicholtz ; pewter plates ; slip and Sgraffito ware ; large, stone fireplace 
fully equipped with large iron kettle and other cooking utensils ; a 



wooden stairway ; a long, crude wooden table ; long, narrow benches 
about six inches wide ; an iron candelabrum and an old musket 
over the fireplace. 

From the same house is the adjoining bedroom exhibit with its rare 
wood trimmings, small pane windows, wicker basket, wooden cradle, 
small bed, crude wooden table, plain straight-backed chairs, cross- 
stitch mottoes, painted wooden chests with primitive decorative 
motifs, a triangular cupboard, and quaint pictures on the walls. 

Still another old Pennsylvania room in this section is that from the 
Powel House, Philadelphia (about 1765) . It has paneled, painted pine 
walls ; a bas-relief ceiling, and a white marble fireplace. It contains 
two wing chairs, two tables, a secretary, sofa, and candlestick, all 
Chippendale style ; two silver coffee pots, four wall mirrors, and a 
great clock. 

For a time, with the help of Works Progress Administration funds, 
work was in progress which would have greatly increased the present 
exhibition facilities of the museum. In the autumn of 1937, it was 
announced that the WPA phase of the work would be gradually 

Art Museum and Old Water Works 
Gazing Placidly Across the Schuylkill River 


''ill 1 ! 

~~- *P*i*J!! 

ir;i*-i! I 


Corinthian and Girard Aves. Broad St. Sub- 
way northbound to Girard Ave.; westbound 
Route 15 trolley to college. 
Important exhibits: Murals by George 
Gibbs ; Girard statue by Gevelot ; sarcoph- 
agus containing Girard's remains ; Girard"s 
furniture and other relics. 

THE COLLEGE, enclosed within a 10-foot stone wall and pleas- 
antly situated in a park-like setting in the midst of a populous 
residential section, is outstanding among institutions of its kind. 

"To rest is to rust," was the motto of Girard. And that is the key- 
note of the institution which carries on progressively the work of its 
taciturn founder. 

Established under the will of Stephen Girard, mariner merchant, 
banker, and philanthropist, the college received a legacy conserva- 
tively estimated at about $6,000,000. Farsighted real estate investments 
made by Girard, and careful management by the trustees, have in- 
creased the value of the estate far beyond expectations. The trust fund 
today amounts to approximately $87,000,000. 

The curriculum includes a comprehensive manual training course, 
grammar, and high school courses. The senior high school offers 
a full college preparatory school course, and one to two years junior 
college work is provided, at the discretion of the college authorities, 
to a limited number after graduation. The college is a home as well 
as a school to the students, whose entire maintenance and care are 
assumed by the trustees. 

Construction of the first five buildings of the college was begun in 
1833. On January 1, 1848, the school was opened on its present site, 
then known as Peel Hall Farm, with 100 boys. By 1936 the student 
body numbered 1,730, and the college group embraced 29 buildings, 
including Founder's Hall, an armory, containing also music and 
recreation facilities, library, a high school, an infirmary, a mechanical 
school, dormitories, and officials' residences. Light, heat, and 
power are furnished by a central plant at the western end of the 
grounds. The college staff exceeds 600. During the 90 years of its 
existence more than 12,000 youths have gone forth from its guarded 
portals, many to occupy places of importance in the world. 

The college campus embraces 42 acres of land extending south- 
west along South College Avenue from Nineteenth Street and Ridge 
Avenue to Twenty-fifth and Poplar Streets, north to North College 
Avenue, east to Ridge Avenue at Twentieth Street, and southeast to 
Nineteenth Street. 

Entrance to the college is at Corinthian and Girard Avenues. This 



entrance, just east of the middle of the campus, is attended by gate- 
men who admit visitors through a small lodge east of the gate. 

Within the walls and directly ahead from the gate is the main 
building, known as Founder's Hall. The structure was designed by 
Thomas U. Walter and is recognized as being an excellent reproduc- 
tion of a Greek temple. Supporting the structure, and surround- 
ing it, are 34 fluted Corinthian columns rising from a broad-stepped 
base. At the ends are wide and simple pediments. The building 
is roofed with marble tiles. Just inside the main entrance to 
Founder's Hall is a life-size statue of Stephen Girard sculptured 
by Francois Victor Gevelot. A sarcophagus, close by the statue, holds 
the remains of the founder. Opening from the vestibule are the direc- 
tors' rooms and the Girard Museum wherein are housed the founder's 
furniture and many other relics. 

While Founder's Hall, set in the framework of a broad expanse of 
beautiful lawn decorated with flowers and shrubs, is the most monu- 
mental building on the campus, the new chapel, located west of the 
main gate, is equally impressive, presenting as it does a dignified 
exterior with an interior of rare beauty. The chapel, dedicated in 
1933, was designed by Thomas, Martin & Kirkpatrick. Bearing in 
mind the ban imposed by Girard against sectarian training, the archi- 
tects departed from all known orthodox ecclesiastical styles of archi- 
tecture, yet retained sufficient spiritual beauty to make it "a joy 
forever." The chapel is of classical design, wedge-shaped, and built 
after the Doric style. Within recesses on each of the exterior side 
walls are 10 massive columns. At the choir end of the building and 
at the opposite or gallery end, four and six additional columns, 
respectively, are similarly recessed. The leaded windows are so deli- 
cately colored as to be effective from both the exterior and the 
interior; the great main doors are of cast aluminum. 

Inside, the dominant feature is a carved ebony desk surmounting 
a rostrum of black Belgian marble with lighter marble forming a 
mosaic. A great organ and an echo organ are placed above the ceiling. 
A novel mechanism broadcasts quarter-hour chimes across the ex- 
pansive campus. The chapel Jhas a seating capacity of 2,400. 

Parallel with the chapel, but located immediately east of the main 
gate, is the college library. This structure, which was built with funds 
remaining from the allotment that had been provided for the 
erection of the chapel, is a square two-story building of white 
Vermont marble. It is modern Greek in style, and presents an unusu- 
ally dignified appearance. The building was dedicated in the spring 
of 1933 ; it contains more than 30,000 books. 

The high school building, west of the front entrance near the 
south wall, was begun in 1914 and completed in 1916. Farther west, 
beyond the chapel, is a modern armory which contains a drill hall 


Founder's Hall at Girard College 
'Portico and Stately Corinthian Columns" 

Stephen Girard Sarcophagus at Girard College 
"Doth the tomb pen up the spirit?" 



110 by 220 feet, classrooms, company rooms, and supply rooms for a 
cadet battalion of four companies. The instrumental music activities 
also center in this building, with facilities for band and orchestra 
group and individual instruction. 

At the southwest corner of the grounds are the dormitories for the 
youngest boys, a group of six houses accommodating 25 each. A 
governess presides over each of these houses. To the east of this 
house group is the mechanical school, which includes departments 
for instruction in carpentry, printing, drafting, forge and sheet metal 
practice, machine shop practice, pattern making, electrical construc- 
tion, painting and auto mechanics. 

Along the north wall, about the middle of the grounds, are the 
laundry, bakery and shoe repair shop. Just beyond to the east is a 
commodious dining and service building wherein is housed the de- 
partment of domestic economy. It also includes a series of dining 
rooms for the five houses of the oldest boys, all of which are sertved 
from a central kitchen. 

Comparatively new homes (with garages) for the president, the 
vice-president and the superintendent of household occupy a wedge- 
shaped tract of land at the easternmost end of the grounds. 

In addition to the many buildings within the college area, there 
are three playgrounds in the armory, five outdoor playgrounds, a drill 
field and a playing field, two swimming pools, and two gymnasiums. 

The subtle eccentricities of the great philanthropist whose heart 
and mind provided this unique institution for the protection and 
education of orphan boys boys whose fathers alone have died were 
born in a philosophy of good that, despite much adverse criticism, 
has accomplished the fruitful results for which Girard hoped. He 
wanted his wards to be educated and guided in inclination and habit 
in order to assume their rightful places in the world ; he intended 
that they be taught the purest principles of morality in an atmosphere 
of tenderness such as other boys might expect at home. And to assure 
the carrying out of the broad, general purposes of his program, he 
stipulated in his will that no denominational or sectarian doctrines 
might be taught to the students. He further stipulated that no person 
must influence the boys in this respect, and he specifically barred 
clergymen of all denominations from the college. 

There was, however, no lack of reverence intended in these regula- 
tions, since Girard, himself, was a courageous, God-fearing man. The 
Bible, indeed, was the first book carried into the college. Girard's 
insistence on strict adherence to his wishes in respect to moral train- 
ing was due solely to his peculiar love for humanity, which endowed 
him with unusual consideration for all, regardless of creed. Neither 
denominationalism nor sectarianism has a place in the college, and 
neither must there be any influence exercised against his religious be- 



liefs while in school, nor hinder a student, upon the attainment of 
mature reasoning, from holding such religious tenets as he may prefer. 

At the age of 14 Girard ran away from his home in France because 
of ill-treatment by his stepmother. He obtained work as a ship's cabin 
boy. By the time he was 23 he had won a master's license. His ship 
plied between New York, New Orleans, and the West Indies. In 1776, 
after narrowly escaping capture by British frigates patrolling the 
American shores, he took refuge in Philadelphia where he later 
opened a small store. Rising successively through the states of mer- 
chant, shipowner, and banker, he acquired a large merchant fleet and 
established trade with all the leading ports of the world. 

Girard's preeminence as a great humanitarian began with the 
yellow-fever epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793. He contributed lib- 
erally of his material wealth and risked his own life by working 
among the victims of the pestilence. He frequently carried out and 
helped bury the dead, and labored many long nights in the over- 
crowded hospitals. 

During the second war with England, Girard helped the Federal 
Government finance the national defense with ships and money. 

Although born a Roman Catholic, Girard developed a peculiar 
philosophy from his study of Voltaire and other French writers. 
Always a contributor to the Catholic Church, he nevertheless joined 
the Masonic fraternity. He believed in a Supreme Being, but insisted 
upon the right of a man to follow the dictates of his own conscience. 

He died in Philadelphia in 1831 and was buried in the cemetery 
of Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church, Sixth and Spruce Streets. 
His remains eventually were disinterred and removed with much 
ceremony to the sarcophagus in Founder's Hall, where they were 
laid at final rest with full Masonic rites. 


United States Mint 

Where silver and copper become 'the 

coin of the realm'" 


Spring Garden St., from 16th to 17th 
Sts. Northbound trolley 16th St. (Open 
weekdays from 10:00 a. m. to 12 m.; Sat- 
urdays 9:30 to 11 a. m.; admission free). 

THE PHILADELPHIA MINT is the oldest and largest of the 
three United States mints. Here it is possible to observe the 
process of minting, from metal in a molten state to the finished 
product coins ready for circulation. 

The mint coins 65 percent of the specie used in this country, as 
well as a large amount of coins for South and Central American 
nations. It also makes Army and Navy medals and "proof" coins, 
which may be purchased. The Bureau of the Mint not only coins 
money for the Government, but also assays precious metals for private 
owners at fixed rates and collects statistics on the production of these 
metals in the United States. The mint can turn out 1,250,000 coins in 
an 8-hour workday. 

The first mint in the country was established in Philadelphia in 
1792, after agitation on the part of Thomas Jefferson, Alexander 
Hamilton, and Robert Morris had influenced Congress to pass an 
enabling act. The flag raised over the mint was the first displayed on 
a Government-owned building. 

First set up at 37 North Seventh Street, the mint was moved to 
Jumper and Chestnut Streets in 1833, and to its present quarters in 
1901. It has been operated as a bureau of the Treasury Department 
since 1873, when passage of the Coinage Act made its operations sub- 
ject to conditions imposed by Congress. Prior to 1873 it was under 
the supervision of the Director of the Mint at Philadelphia. 

As the mint service grew in its operations and other mints and as- 
say offices were opened, the supervisory heads of these institutions 
were called superintendents, all under the supervision of the Director 
of the Mint, whose office is in Washington. 

Every process in the mint is attended with safeguards to ensure the 
least possible loss in precious metals. The are weighed at the 
beginning and end of each operation. Steel-grated floors scrape valu- 
able dust from workmen's feet. Gloves, machine wipers, and hand 
towels are gathered up and burned, and the ashes are washed in a 
special bath that separates metal from waste. 

The metals gold, silver, copper, nickel, tin, and zinc received 
at the mint are cast into ingots. The content of the ingots depends 
upon the type of coin to be cast. Silver coins are made of silver 
alloyed with copper in the ratio of one part copper to nine parts 
silver bullion ; nickel coins of 75 percent copper and 25 percent 



nickel ; bronze coins of 95 percent copper and 5 percent tin and zinc. 

The ingots are run through rolling mills until they have been 
reduced to the required thickness. The sheets pass through a cutting 
press, where blank discs are stamped out. They are then passed 
through an annealing furnace to anneal, or soften, them before they 
go to the coining presses. The discs are revolved in barrels filled with 
a burnishing solution and then dried in centrifugal drying machines. 

After each of these steps the coins are weighed. If found too heavy, 
they are shaved to the proper weight ; if too light, they are rejected. 

Next, the blank discs are put through machines, which mill the 
edges, then stamp the designs and the lettering in one operation. 
Finished coins pass on belts before inspectors, whose task it is to 
detect any flaw. Those which survive the rigid tests are placed in bags 
and held in the mint vaults awaiting distribution to the various 
Federal Reserve Banks, which order them through the Treasury De- 
partment in Washington. Rejected coins are returned to the refinery 
to be melted for recasting into ingots. All silver coins, with the excep- 
tion of dimes, are weighed separately. If the coins are found to be 
outside the legal weight, they are condemned. The weight of the 
dimes is verified by frequent test weights, but not all pieces are 
weighed separately. In addition, all silver coins are weighed in $1,000 
lots before being bagged for circulation. 

All these operations may be observed from glass-enclosed galleries 
along the sides of the various rooms. 

The mint building is of solid granite, rectangular in shape, and 
designed in the Italian Renaissance style. A loggia with four Ionic 
columns supporting the entablature is directly above the triple-arched 
entrance. The first story is horizontally rusticated, the upper two 
smooth-surfaced. The entrance hall with six vaulted bays is finished 
in white marble with ceilings enriched by gold mosaics. Piers and 
pilasters are of the Doric order. Seven circular mosaic murals within 
the arches of the walls depict the early development of coinage. 
They were designed by Tiffany & Co. A monumental staircase rises 
opposite the entrance. On the second-floor landing is a striking pedi- 
mented doorway leading into a large, high, octagonal exhibit room 
with a domical ceiling, from the center of which hangs a magnificent 
crystal chandelier. The walls are faced with red Virginia marble. 

Relics preserved in the mint include record books dating from 
1792 ; the original of a letter from President Buchanan to the Director 
of the Mint ; the first hand press and scales ; facsimiles of Presi- 
dential medals and of medals presented to Col. Charles A. Lindbergh 
and Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd ; and specimens of service 


ROADS and 

in and around 


City Tours 

Philadelphia's City Hall is the starting point for all city tours. The courtyard 
at the intersection of the two axial streets, Broad and Market, is the heart of 
the city. 

All traffic passing City Hall swings a half circle around the building. Pedes- 
trians, however, may walk through archways built into the four sides of the struc- 
ture. The archways lead north and south on Broad Street and east and west on 
Market Street. A large compass dial is cemented in the center of the courtyard. 
The cardinal points are plainly marked, and broad arrows point to the corre- 
sponding axial streets. Thus, west on the compass dial may be used as a guide 
to the West Market entrance, which is marked by a red-and-gold sign on the 
west arch. The East Market, South Broad, and North Broad Street arches are 
similarly designated. 

City Hall and Skyline 
'The Heart of the City' 



PHILADELPHIA'S CITY HALL (1) (open weekdays, 9:30 to 5 ; 
9 to 11 ; closed Sun. ; adm. free), and the buildings in its 
proximity are, in some measure, symbolic of the metropolis as a 
whole. A walk around City Hall brings into view many types of 
structures, each representing a definite phase of the city's varied ac- 

The granite mass of City Hall, one of the largest municipal build- 
ings in the world, rises from Penn Square, which covers an entire 
city block in the crowded heart of the metropolis. The courtyard of 
the mid- Victorian structure encloses the actual intersection of Broad 
and Market Streets, main axes of the city as planned by William 
Penn, and still the chief north-south and east-west thoroughfares. 

Rising 510 feet above the street and topped by a 37-foot statue 
of Penn, its hand outstretched in benediction over the city he 
founded more than 250 years ago, City Hall tower is the highest 
building point in Philadelphia. 

This temple of local politics represents an outlay of $26,000,000, 
and its construction, attended by much bitter criticism and more 
than a hint of bribery and corruption, dragged on for almost a third 
of a century. Some parts of the building still lack finishing touches. 

Thomas U. Walter, architect of Girard College and of the United 
States Capitol extensions, prepared plans for City Hall in 1842. Noth- 
ing further was done until December 1868, when City Council passed 
an ordinance providing for the erection of municipal buildings in 
Independence Square. However, in a referendum on August 5, 1870, 
the citizenry defeated this proposal. In its stead the voters chose 
the present site, then known as Center Square, at one time the site 
of the municipal waterworks. A commission created by the Legislature 
to handle construction of all municipally owned edifices took charge 
of the City Hall project on August 27 of the same year. The body 
continued functioning for 30 years. It was dissolved on July 1, 1901, 
and city authorities took command in the final weary drive for com- 
pletion of the building. 

John J. Me Arthur, Jr., the chief architect, gave nearly 20 years of 
personal service to construction of City Hall. His bust rests in a 
niche high up on the grand stairway on the south side of the build- 
ing. Alexander Milne Calder spent 15 years on the sculptural and 



statuary work. His huge statue of Penn was hoisted to the top of the 
tower in 1894. 

The immense masonry structure is treated in a debased French 
Renaissance style. Columns, pedimented windows and a variety 
of sculpture embellish the four similar facades of white granite and 
marble. The total effect is gray, heavy, and somber. Accent was 
placed on the four main entrances centering on the facades and on 
the four corner entrances by extending them from the main wall. 
The corner stairways extend through five stories in octagonal spirals, 
their huge granite blocks cantilevered from the wall. 

Interiors of interest are the mayor's suite, with its gilded ceiling 
and great chandelier ; the finance committee room, with its matched 
panels of Circassian walnut ; Council Chamber, Conversation Hall, 
and the Supreme Courtroom, which, like the mayor's office, are 
decorated in the heavy, classic style with columns, pilasters, and 
paneling of colored marble and granite. 

The four-faced tower clock, a colossal mechanism with illuminated 
dials which are visible for a great distance, has been Philadelphia's 
official timepiece since 1899. Shortly after the clock was installed 
the city inaugurated a custom which still continues. Every evening 
at three minutes of nine the tower lights are turned off, and then 
turned on again on the hour. This enables those within observation 
distance, though unable to see the hands, to set their timepieces. 

In early days City Hall had a private water supply. A pipe line 
more than five miles long connected the water system to the Belmont 
reservoir in Fairmount Park. Before filtration of the city's supply 
became general, persons who worked in the building were permitted 
to carry home bottles of reservoir water filtered by a special plant 
in the building. When the building was electrified, considerable drill- 
ing was necessary to run wires through the granite walls and the 
three miles of corridors. 

One of the greatest feats of underpinning ever attempted was 
accomplished in 1934 when the weight of the mammoth structure was 
shifted to new foundations thus permitting the Market-Frankford 
Subway-Elevated to run in a straight line underneath the building 
instead of circuitously a hazardous task, as some of the basement 
walls are 22 feet thick, with single blocks weighing from two to 
five tons. Huge steel "needle" beams were threaded through the old 
masonry, and the final transfer of weight was effected by an in- 
tricate arrangement of steel wedges. The new foundations are 20 
feet below the old. 

The task of beautifying the City Hall area began in 1931, and 
work was completed July 1935. Bare plots in the corners of the 
courtyard were gradually given the appearance of heavily wooded 



miniature parks. The two largest plots are in the northeast and 
northwest corners, with a slightly smaller patch in the southwest 
corner. In the southeast corner are two relatively small patches. 

All the beds are bordered by dwarf barberry, a compact form 
of Japanese hedge which presents an attractive foliage. Privet honey- 
suckle occupies the beds bordering the east-to-west walks. Other 
plants growing here include azalea, dwarf box ilex, the spreading 
English yew, Japanese holly, and sumach. A compass in the center of 
the courtyard acts as a guide to pedestrians emerging from the sub- 

Beautification of City Hall itself was begun in the autumn of 
1936, when a large crew of WPA workers started the gigantic task 
of cleaning the million square feet of stone composing the build- 
ing's exterior. Twenty tons of pipe and 25,000 feet of lumber were 
used in the scaffolding, erected to a height of 150 feet. Fifty thousand 
gallons of specially prepared paste were used in one of the largest 
cleaning jobs ever attempted. 

Despite its size, City Hall is too small to accommodate all munici- 
pal offices. CITY HALL ANNEX (la), standing at Juniper and 
Filbert Streets, was completed in 1927. The structure is 15 stories 
high, of Italian Renaissance design, with a light gray limestone veneer 
covering the steel and concrete. The first three stories of this building 
are in Doric style, and the last two in the Ionic style. The middle 10 
stories are without embellishment. The building was designed by 
Philip H. Johnson. A vaulted open arcade with 11 arches runs along 
Filbert and Thirteenth Street sides of the building. 

At the northeast corner of Juniper and Market Streets, facing 
City Hall, is the 24-story salmon-colored MARKET STREET NA- 
TIONAL BANK BUILDING (Ib), a modern office building. 

Opposite City Hall (to the southeast), covering an entire city 
block on the site formerly occupied by the old Pennsylvania Rail- 
road warehouse, stands the main store of Philadelphia's merchant 
prince, the late John Wanamaker. 

guished example of the trend toward cultural and civic enterprise 
as an adjunct of commercial activity. Designed by Daniel Burnham, 
its broad surfaces are unusually well treated in Italian Renaissance 
style with huge Doric pilasters and columns at the base. 

Rising 12 stories above the street, with three more floors below, 
the store has spacious aisles and attractive displays. The whole struc- 
ture is built around a Grand Court, six stories high. Concealed in 
the court's walls are the 30,000 pipes of one of the world's largest 
organs. Hundreds of persons throng the court to listen to the 15- 
minute recitals given hourly. During the Christmas season, carols 
are sung. 



Also sheltered within the court is the gigantic "Wanamaker Eagle" 
of shining metal, a popular meeting place for Philadelphians. "Meet 
me at the Eagle" has become a common phrase to many residents. 
Ionic and Corinthian architectural details suggest a palatial atmos- 
phere. A dome rises 150 feet above the main floor and is supported 
by a series of Italian and Greek marble arches. At the south end of 
the court is a gallery holding the console of the organ and space 
for the seating of bands and orchestras. 

The policy of the store is to promote originality in decorative de- 
signs each year. The Grand Court is decorated seasonally in recogni- 
tion of Christmas and Easter. The Easter decoration exhibits two 
great canvases by Michael de Munkacsy Christ Before Pilate and 
The Crucifixion and through the year calendared events are recog- 
nized with suitable decorations. 

Rich paintings, tapestries, and fabrics, furniture, and rare objects 
brought from the far corners of the earth abound in the store. In 
Egyptian Hall on the second floor is the superb painting, The Con- 
querors, by Pierre Fritel. Greek Hall, on the same floor, in pure Greek 
style, is paneled in mahogany inlaid with satinwood. 

On the fifth floor is the Eighteenth Century House, its rooms 
furnished and decorated with authentic pieces of that period. 

Several rooms of a Virginia mansion designed by Thomas Jefferson 
are faithfully reproduced in the Old Colony House on the sixth floor. 

On the seventh floor on the Chestnut Street side, entered through 
an imposing iron grille, is the Wanamaker Art Gallery. It houses 
representative art works of five schools English, French, Flemish, 
Italian, and Dutch. Included are canvases from the Salon des 
Artistes Francais and the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts, and some 
excellent pieces of statuary. 

Adjacent is the Wanamaker Men's Store, occupying seven floors 
of the LINCOLN-LIBERTY BUILDING (3) on the east side of 
Broad Street between Chestnut Street and South Penn Square. The 
Men's Store was opened in 1932. The 26-story structure is a modern 
office building, surmounted by a tower from which a deep-voiced 
bell booms the hours. 

Across Broad Street is a low-domed structure built in 1908 for 
the century-old GIRARD TRUST COMPANY (4). It was designed 
by the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White, and inspired by 
the Pantheon in Rome. Several additions were necessitated by the 
company's growth. Its latest acquisition, erected in 1930, is the ad- 
joining 30-story Girard Trust Company Building, on the south- 
west corner of Broad Street and South Penn Square. Designed by the 
same architects, it is faced with white marble and is of a dignified, 
classic design. 



On the southwest corner of West Penn Square and Market Street, 
directly facing the western facade of City Hall, is a squat structure 
housing the MITTEN BANK (5). Directly in back of it looms the 
22-story Commercial Trust Building, another bank and office building. 

Across Market Street and extending to Filbert is the BROAD 
STREET STATION (6), of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Erected by 
the railroad in 1880, it was at that time one of the largest railroad 
stations in the United States. Built of brick, terra cotta and granite, 
it is a highly individualistic interpretation of Gothic architecture, 
designed by the firm of Furness & Evans. 

Additions have been made to this old five-story landmark, but 
the northern part of the building is still in its original condition. 
In 1892 foundations were laid for elaborate additions including a 
10-story office building. The improved building was opened in 1894 
and remains unchanged, with the exception of the train shed, which 
was destroyed by fire in 1923. Railroad officials are contemplating 
demolition of the building and train shed. 

Beyond the northwest corner of City Hall, at Broad and Filbert 
Streets, lies the open sweep of REYBURN PLAZA (7), an area 
acquired by the city under ordinances between 1909 and 1934. From 
time to time, by special permit, various public functions are held 
here addressees, concerts, mass meetings, and ceremonials. The 
band shell was erected with private funds. 

Stretching northwestward from the plaza, the wide smooth Park- 
way leads directly to the Pennsylvania Museum of Art (see Points 
of Interest). 

On the east side of Broad Street at Filbert, facing the plaza, is 
the MASONIC TEMPLE (8), headquarters of the Pennsylvania 
Masonic order (see City Tour 5). 

The BULLETIN BUILDING (9), home of the Evening Bulletin, 
is at Juniper and Filbert Streets. The Bulletin, established in 1847 as 
the Cummings Telegraphic Evening Bulletin, has grown to be the 
largest daily newspaper in Pennsylvania. 














Street f 





P. & R. R. R. 


1 T'l 








5th A 

Dn HII i i i i i f" 1 1 i 


1. City Hall 

2. Wanamaker's 

3. Philadelphia 
Saving Fund 
Society Build- 

4. Department 
Store of N. 
Snellenburg & 

5. Reading Ter- 

6. Reading Ter- 
minal Market 

7. The Federal 

8. Chinatown 

9. Franklin Sq. 

10. Zion Lutheran 

11. Edgar Allan 
Poe House 

12. St. George's 
Methodist Epis- 
copal Church 

13. St. Augustine's 
Roman Catho- 
lic Church 

14. The Friends 
Meeting House 

15. The Christ 
Church Burial 

16. The Arch 
Street Friends 
Meeting House 

18. Elfreth's Alley 

17. The Betsy Ross 

19. Christ Church 


City Tour 1 
North of Market (Old High Street) East of Broad 

FROM the heavy Victorian mass of CITY HALL (1) (see Heart 
of the City) the tour proceeds east on Market Street. 
On the southeast corner of Market, and Juniper Streets stands 

At Twelfth Street, on the southwest corner, is the PHILADELPHIA 
SAVING FUND SOCIETY BUILDING (3) (glass-inclosed observa- 
tory., 35th floor, open weekdays, 9:30 to 4:30 ; adm. 25$, children 
under 12 years of age accompanied by an adult, free ; additional fee 
of 10^ for use of telescope). 

Rearing its black and chromium-ribbed bulk above the lesser 
structures of Philadelphia's varied skyline, this pillar of stone, glass, 
and chromium stands forth as a monument to modern architectural 

New as it is, it has become generally known as "12 South 12th 
Street," the address of the office building entrance. The Market Street 
entrance is for the bank only. 

The PSFS building is one of the best examples in America of 
the so-called modern International style of architecture. The aim 
of the architects, Howe & Lescaze, was so to construct the interior 
as to offer ideal working conditions. Broad surfaces of glass admit 
sunlight ; restful colors reduce eye strain ; and wide escalators and 
fast elevators speed communication between floors. It was the second 
office building in America to be air-conditioned. Of particular in- 
terest is the fact that the vertical structural members of the exterior 
have been built on the outside of the walls to eliminate interior sur- 
face obstructions. 

The architecture expresses its commercial purpose. Horizontal 
courses of windows and stone are cut by light accents, stone covering 
the vertical structural members. Highly polished gray and black 
granite on the lower stories contrasts with the light-colored limestone 
of the rest of the building. 

An enormous window composed of 25 huge panes of glass encloses 
the 52-foot high entrance hall on the Market Street side. The lofty 
lobby of gray and black Belgian marble contains a modern double 
escalator of chromium giving access to the second-floor banking room. 

Near the banking room is a course of black marble under a high 



window of heavy plate glass, which runs along two sides of the build- 
ing. The only warm note in this room of glass walls and large sur- 
faces of light gray and black Belgian marble is given by the large 
light-reflecting panels of the acoustically treated ceiling. Business in 
the banking room is transacted over open counters, the customary 
glass partitions being absent. 

The entire building is conspicuously free of ornamentation. All 
metal fixtures and the sign and the doors are of stainless steel ; the 
window frames are of aluminum. 

Built in 1932 on the early site of the William Penn Charter School, 
this skyscraper contrasts strangely with the old Quaker meetinghouse 
next door ; typifying Philadelphia's past and present. 

occupies the entire frontage on the right side of Market Street from 
Twelfth to Eleventh. . 

On the northeast corner of Twelfth Street is the READING TERMI- 
NAL (5), principal station of the Reading Company and terminal 
for a number of bus lines. 

The building, erected in 1893, is an eight-story structure of brick 
and cream terra cotta, designed in heavy Italian Renaissance style. 
A broad shed protects the main entrance. The top story forms the 
architrave of the broad, rich entablature, and a balustrade crowns the 

In the rear of the station, at Twelfth and Filbert Streets, is the 
READING TERMINAL MARKET (6), largest indoor market in 
the city and a center for the sale of farm products, rare edibles, and 
sea foods. 

The FEDERAL BUILDING (7), on the southwest corner at Ninth 
Street, is one of the centers of United States governmental activities 
in Philadelphia (1937). It was formerly the city's main post office 
and is now a branch post office, and the home of the Federal Court 
and several governmental departments. 

The building, erected in 1872, occupies the site of the old University 
of Pennsylvania buildings, one of which was the so-called "Presi- 
dential mansion" built by the State of Pennsylvania for the use of 
Washington, but never occupied by him. 

Constructed of limestone and granite, the design of the Federal 
Building was influenced by the Louvre in Paris. Each story is 
divided by a heavy entablature supported by Ionic pilasters and 
columns. Above the center of the Ninth Street facade is a huge 
mansard dome, a large slated superstructure with tall flanking chim- 

The Market and Chestnut Street sides are similar in design to the 
Ninth Street facade. On the Chestnut Street sidewalk stands a statue 
by Boyle commemorating Franklin as Postmaster General. 



It was from this site, then an open field, that Benjamin Franklin 
flew his famous kite into a thunderstorm, and touching a knuckle to 
the brass key at the end of the hempen line, demonstrated the ac- 
curacy of his belief that lightning and electricity were the same. 

The low coping that surrounds three sides of the Post Office is the 
meeting place of the life-weary of Philadelphia, who bask in, and 
follow, lizard-like, the moving sun, feeding their companions, the 

Plans were announced in 1937 for the demolition of this building 
and the erection of a new structure to house the Federal Courts in 
the city. 

L. from Market St. on 9th to Race ; R. on Race. 

Along Race Street, between Ninth and Tenth, is Philadelphia's 
CHINATOWN (8) , a block of three- and four-story buildings, erected 
more than a hundred years ago as dwellings. The dormer windows 
of the attics, the swing signs, and skeletal fire escapes, intertwining 
the decorative iron balconies, give the street a bizzarre effect. 

The Far East Restaurant is one building in the block that gives 
an Oriental flavor to the row of ramshackle and neglected stores and 
restaurants. The recessed balcony with Chinese inscriptions painted 
on plaques between the windows, the curved roof, with upturned 
scrolls and reclining dolphins and dragons, add the only touch of 
the Orient to the drab street. 

Placid Chinese, the younger in western dress, tend novelty store, 
and serve in restaurants. The older generation, clinging to the robes 
of the East, lounge about the sidewalk, smoking, their long silver- 
bowled pipes. 

Retrace on Race St. to Franklin. 

The tour passes FRANKLIN SQUARE (9), which occupies the 
block between Race and Vine, Sixth and Franklin Streets, and faces 
on the wide approach to the Delaware River Bridge. 

The park, one of five originally outlined by William Penn in his 
city plan, was at one time the center of a fashionable residential 
section. With the expansion of the city, however, the wealthier citi- 
zens moved out to leave the neighborhood to decay and disrepute. 
Some of the brown stone houses along Franklin Street still retain 
traces of the austere respectability that once permeated the area. 

On the left side of the square, between Race and Vine Streets, is 
the ZION LUTHERAN CHURCH (10). It is constructed of brown 
sandstone in Gothic style, with a slate steeple and six buttresses on 
each side. The congregation of this church was organized in 1742 by 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the patriarch of the Lutheran Church 
in America. In its first church building at Fifth and Appletree 
Streets, the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania was 
organized on August 14, 1748. In Old Zion, the second church, at 



Fourth and Cherry Streets, Congress met on October 24, 1781, for a 
thanksgiving service after the victory at Yorktown. The national 
funeral services for George Washington were held in Old Zion on 
December 26, 1799. It was at these services that Gen. "Light Horse" 
Harry Lee pronounced his famous tribute : "First in war, first in 
peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." Memorial services for 
Gen. Lafayette were held in Zion Church in 1834. The present edifice 
was erected in 1870 upon the site of the former burial ground. 

R. from Franklin St. on Vine ; L. on 7th. 

At 530 North Seventh Street (beyond Spring Garden Street) is a 
small cottage haunted by the ghost of a genius who lived there and 
knew tragedy during his stay. This is the EDGAR ALLAN POE 
HOUSE (11) (open daily 9 to 5 ; adm. 25$), where from June 1842 
to May 1844, the "Prince of Melancholy" lived and worked on some 
of his best-known stories. 

With Poe during this time was his tragic child-wife, Virginia, who 
inspired much of his darkly romantic poetry. During the time he oc- 
cupied this cottage Poe was dependent upon his meager earnings as 
a free-lance writer, and he and Virginia often endured acute priva- 
tion. Here one evening while singing for Poe, Virginia suffered the 
rupture of a blood vessel in her throat. That accident was partly 
responsible for her death three years later. 

The building is a single three-story structure of red brick with 
a steep roof slanting toward the front. It is devoid of ornamentation. 
An interesting feature is the squareness of the four windows in the 
front of the top story. The cottage was without fitting designation 
until 1927, when, through the philanthropy of Richard Gimbel, it 
was restored to its former appearance, and a museum of Poe's works 
installed. Here, in "The Rose-Covered Cottage," Poe wrote The Raven, 
The Gold Bug, The Black Cat, Masque of the Red Death, The Pit and 
the Pendulum, and other celebrated works. Many important manu- 
scripts and all first editions are on display. Use of the library on the 
premises is restricted to research students, who must make special 
arrangements through the caretaker. 

Retrace on 7th St.; L. on Noble; R. on 4th. 

Just north of the Delaware River Bridge approach on the left at 

Old St. George's Church is American Methodism's oldest and most 
historic edifice. Its style of architecture is American Georgian. The 
cornerstone was laid in 1763, and the edifice was dedicated and oc- 
cupied in 1769. It is a square structure, with two square doorways 
separated by a stone memorial. The huge pediment above the third 
floor formed by the gable is pierced by a semi-circular window. 

The deep affection in which it is held today was well illustrated 


St. George's Methodist Church 
"In the shadow of modernity ..." 

when its demolition was threatened by the original plans for the 
Delaware River Bridge. Protests raised by Methodists throughout 
the country, accompanied by a barrage of petitions and letters, caused 
a change in the plans. Now the church stands in the shadow of the 
great bridge that once threatened its existence. 

The walls and roof were built by seceding members of the Dutch 
Reformed Church, who, not being able to finish or meet the obliga- 
tions of their enterprise, were jailed for debt, and the edifice was 
offered at public auction. Among the bidders was a young man 
of feeble intellect but wealthy parentage, and his bid of 700 was 
accepted. The young man's father, unwilling to admit that his son 
was mentally infirm, paid the money. 

He immediately sold the church to Miles Pennington, agent for 
the Methodist Society, and Capt. Thomas Webb, famous in Colonial 
times as a Methodist evangelist. Captain Webb preached there very 
frequently. He delivered his sermons attired in the full regimentals 
of a British officer, with a patch over his eye and his sword laid 
across the pulpit. Throngs were attracted by his powerful personality. 

Old St. George's Church, one of the evangelical outposts of Metho- 
dism in America, contributed to the fusing of the newly developed 
country with its new religious doctrine. It was in this house of prayer 
that Bishop Francis Asbury, the Methodist apostle to America, de- 



livered on October 28, 1771, his first sermon on this side of the At- 
lantic. At this church the first conference of American Methodism, 
held on July 14, 1773, was attended by 10 ministers, six of whom took 

Under the direction of a committee of parishioners, in 1837 a 
basement was dug to provide adequate space for Sunday School 

Today, in a small room are still to be seen the desk and chairs used 
by Bishop Asbury. Much Revolutionary tradition is associated with 
the old church. 

On the walls of the church are three marble memorial tablets, one 
on each side of the pulpit platform and one on the south side under 
the gallery. Upon these tablets are chiseled the names of all the 
pastors who served at St. George's since 1769. Among them are four 
bishops of the Methodist. Episcopal Church : Francis Asbury, Richard 
Whatcoat, Robert R. Roberts, and Levi Scott. Rev. John Dickins, 
an early pastor of St. George's, founded the Methodist Book Con- 
cern of the United States. 

On the right, near Race Street, is ST. AUGUSTINE'S ROMAN 
CATHOLIC CHURCH (13), which was erected on the site of the 
original edifice, built in 1796 by the Hermits of St. Augustine. The 
building was destroyed by fire in 1844 and rebuilt in 1847. 

The present building was designed after the manner of the churches 
of Sir Christopher Wren. Constructed of red brick with limestone 
doorway and trim, the building shows strength of character in the 
tall tower with its heavy white quoins centering oh the facade. The 
interior, heavily ornamented, is Corinthian in design. 

R. from 4th St. on Arch. 

The FREE QUAKER BUILDING (14) is on the southwest corner 
at Fifth Street. It was erected in 1783 by those Friends who defied 
the principles of the sect and took up arms in the Revolution. 

This two-story building is enriched by the delicacy of the pediment 
above the main doorway and flat stone arches above the windows. 
Flemish bond brickwork with black headers adds color to the build- 

The CHRIST CHURCH BURIAL GROUND (15), on the south- 
east corner of Fifth Street, contains Benjamin Franklin's grave. 

The burial ground was established in 1719 in what was then the 
outskirts of the city. The tomb of Franklin and his wife is situated at 
the cemetery's northwest corner, and is marked by a flat stone with 
the simple inscription : "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin," and the 
date, 1790. In the same lot lie the remains of Franklin's son, Francis 
F. ; his daughter, Sarah Bache ; Sarah's husband, Richard Bache ; 
and John Read, Franklin's father-in-law. 



Elfreth's Alley 
'Candlelight and cobblestones" 

Benjamin Franklin's Grave 
"Like the cover of an old book, its 
contents torn . 


Near Franklin's grave the brick wall was removed in 1858 and an 
iron railing substituted, so that the hallowed spot might be viewed 
readily from Arch Street. In 1911 bronze tablets recording Franklin's 
achievements were attached to the wall. These were gifts of the late 
Cyrus H. K. Curtis. 

Other graves within this two-acre enclosure hold the remains of 
many men and women who devoted their lives to the cause of civil 
and religious liberty, among them four signers of the Declaration of 
Independence : Benjamin Rush, distinguished physician who founded 
Dickinson College and the Philadelphia Dispensary ; Francis Hopkin- 
son, noted composer ; Joseph Hewes ; and George Ross. Also buried 
here are three commodores of the United States Navy Thomas Trux- 
ton, Richard Dale, and William Bainbridge and the first Treasurer 
of the United States, Michael Hillegas. 

Christ Church Burial Ground, in the business section of modern 
Philadelphia, was purchased by the vestry of Christ Church for the 
modest sum of 72. When the original wooden fence around the 
grounds began to fall apart in 1772, a brick wall was constructed. 
More than a century and a half later the wall was rebuilt, much of 
the old material being used again. A Bible, a prayer book for soldiers 
and sailors, and other items of historic interest were sealed in a cop- 
per container in the rebuilt wall, dedicated in 1927. 

Retrace on Arch St. 

On the right, midway between Fourth and Third Streets, is the 
was erected in 1804 on ground granted by William Penn and origi- 
nally used as a cemetery. The house has served continuously for 
the Yearly Meeting of (Orthodox) Friends. The grounds constitute a 
colorful garden of trees and flowers. 

For about 70 years no one has been interred there, but within the 
century preceding that more than 20,000 persons were buried in the 
grounds many of them victims of the yellow-fever epidemic of 1793. 

The first person buried there was the wife of David Lloyd, one of 
the early Governors of the Province of Pennsylvania. William Penn 
stood at her grave and spoke in appreciation of her character and 
piety. In the yard also rest the remains of James Logan, Penn's dis- 
tinguished secretary, who later became Governor of the Province, and 
Lydia Darrah, heroine of the Revolution. 

The broad, low, red brick building, devoid of all ornamentation, is 
typical of the Quaker architecture of the times. The simple facade is 
relieved only by a large central pediment and the three small en- 
trance porticos. Behind the building is an old Colonial watch box. 

A big room in this old Meeting House was the scene of many early 
Quaker gatherings. The original key is still used, and the original 
deed from Penn is preserved by the Meeting. 



The ground floor contains three large meeting rooms, and end 
rooms with galleries on three sides. Benches are made of wood from 
trees cut down to clear the site. On the second floor, in the center, 
roof beams are made of hand-hewn timbers. 

Today the Arch Street Meeting House is one of the most frequently 
used in the Philadelphia area, many of the Society's social functions 
being held there. 

On the left side of Arch Street between Second and Third is the 
BETSY ROSS HOUSE (17), where the first flag is said to have been 
made (see Points of Interest). 

L. from Arch St. on 2d. 

ELFRETH'S ALLEY (18) is that portion of Cherry Street between 
Second and Front. 

Another remnant of Colonial days, only lightly touched by Time's 
effacing hands, is Elfreth's Alley. To the alley it is an alley in name 
only now, and the name is but little known there still clings the 
aura of the candlelit eighteenth century and the whisper of great 

The alley is an echo of yesteryear. Within sound and sight of the 
commercial bustle of Delaware Avenue and the humming traffic of 
Delaware River Bridge, its houses are still the prim, brass-knockered, 
white-doored brick dwellings of Colonial Philadelphia. 

Tradition has it that Benjamin Franklin and Talleyrand both re- 
sided in houses in the alley. If either did, it was for such a brief 
period that history failed to record the stay. That Stephen Girard 
lived there is certain. Detained in Philadelphia when the British 
blockade prevented departure of his merchantmen, Girard took lodg- 
ings in the house at 111 Elfreth's Alley. 

Talleyrand resided in Philadelphia for two years, and there is 
evidence that a group of French emigres lived in the alley for a time, 
but whether or not the astute diplomat was among them is uncertain. 
These emigres were from San Domingo, whence a scourge of yellow 
fever had routed them. 

For age alone, the houses of the alley would be notable. Three 
standing there, among the oldest in the country, were saved from 
demolition in 1933 through intervention of the Philadelphia Society 
for the Preservation of Landmarks, acting upon the plea of Mrs. D. 
W. Ottey, a resident of the alley. In Mrs. Ottey's house, at 115, may 
be seen a fine Colonial mantelpiece, constructed when the house was 
erected in 1720. Many of the present-day dwellers in the alley retain 
and treasure the fine woodwork and handmade glass installed by the 
Colonial builders. 

The exteriors of the houses are typical of the Philadelphia Colonial 
type. Two stories in height, their red-brick fronts line both sides of 
the little street uninterrupted by any discordant newer buildings. 



The windows are wood-shuttered ; the entrances are arched white 
doorways, approached by two or three stone steps. Of special note 
are several simple but well executed pedimented doorways. In better 
repair, this street could be one of the show places representative of 
the old Philadelphia. 

The alley takes its name from the Elfreth family, whose name in 
old documents is variously spelled Elfreth, Elfrith, Elfrey, and even 
Elfrit. The first of the name to come to Philadelphia was Jeremiah, a 
blacksmith, who arrived from England in 1690. He wished to estab- 
lish a wharfage and shipbuilding business and acquired land for the 
purpose. Public clamor thwarted him, however, when it was learned 
that his land had previously been reserved for a public dock by the 
Penns. His nephew, Henry, bought property for a wharfage business 
on what is now Cherry Street, near Front, and prospered. He married 
Sara, daughter of John Gilbert, merchant, and came into possession 
of his father-in-law's property, known as Gilbert's Alley. He renamed 
it Elfreth's Alley. 

To stimulate an appreciation of the alley's historic associations, the 
people residing on it have formed the Elfreth Alley Association and 
hold open house at their dwellings each year on the first Saturday 
in June. 

Retrace on 2d St. 

On the right, south of Arch Street, is old CHRIST CHURCH (19), 
first Protestant Episcopal church in the Province. Here Washington, 
Franklin, and other leaders sought spiritual guidance for their service 
in the cause of freedom and democracy. John Penn, last male of his 
line, is buried near the steps of the pulpit. 

Still preserved, and marked by bronze tablets, are the pews oc- 
cupied by the Penn family, by Washington, Adams, Franklin, La- 
fayette, Robert Morris, Hopkinson, Rush, and Betsy Ross. Washing- 
ton worshiped here regularly during the seven years of his residence 
in Philadelphia, and the door to the southeast of the nave, through 
which he was accustomed to enter, is known as the Washington Door. 
The Washington pew is number 58, and that of Franklin, number 70. 
Members of the Continental Congress attended a service of fasting 
and prayer in Christ Church, shortly after the Battle of Lexington. 

Still to be seen are the eight bells that added their volume to that 
of the Liberty Bell on July 8, 1776, when the Declaration of In- 
dependence was first read to the public. These same bells were 
removed to Allentown along with the Liberty Bell when Howe's army 
advanced upon Philadelphia. They were brought back after the 
British had evacuated the city. 

In addition to their primary function of calling worshippers to 
service and their jubilant announcement of the Nation's birth, the 
Christ Church bells were sounded on the eve of marketing days. On 



such occasions residents of outlying villages would journey part way 
to the city to listen to their silver-voiced symphony. These bells are 
referred to in Longfellow's Evangeline. The bells were purchased in 
England for about 560 through a committee, of which Franklin was 
a member. 

The church was established by a group of 36 English churchmen 
under a provision inserted in King Charles' charter to Penn at the 
instance of Rt. Rev. Henry Compton, Bishop of London. The first 
structure was erected in 1695 and was succeeded by the present build- 
ing, begun about 1727 and completed in 1754. St. Peter's Church was 
erected at Third and Pine Streets in 1761, as a chapel of ease of Christ 
Church, and St. James's Church was built in 1809. The three were 
known as the United Churches. Later, however, each became a sepa- 
rate corporation. 

The red brick edifice is a Colonial adaptation of Georgian archi- 
tecture in the general style of Sir Christopher Wren's churches in 
London. It is generally agreed that the structure was built under the 
direction of Dr. John Kearsley, one of the vestrymen. Though all but 
lost among the drab buildings that surround it, the church cuts a 
salient contour in Philadelphia's skyline as seen from the Delaware 

The profusion of decoration, which renders the church almost 
baroque in its architectural design, is unusual for old Philadelphia. 
A feature of the east facade is a large Palladian window in which is 
a memorial to Bishop White. Over the window is a heavy entablature 
with a rounded frieze. Rows of fine arched windows in both the first 
and second stories, separated by brick pilasters and enriched by 
delicately patterned keystones, ornament the sides of the church. 
The baroque effect is due largely to the detail of the entablature and 
balustrades, which are surmounted by flaming colored urns. Much 
of the detail work, especially the cornices, arches, and pilasters, is of 
beautifully molded brick. 

In sharp contrast with the ornateness of the main structure, rises 
the massive and severe stone tower, its walls four feet thick and faced 
with Flemish bond brick. The tower, adjoining the western end of 
the church, supports a wooden belfry, incongruously light for the 
mass of the tower. Above this is the steeple. The tower was completed 
with proceeds from the Philadelphia Steeple Lottery and other lot- 
teries, which in the early days of the city were an accepted means of 
financing public improvements. 

The crown which originally capped the spire was replaced by a 
mitre, after the Rt. Rev. William White became Bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1787. This was in line with previous action of church officials, 
immediately following the signing of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, in authorizing their ministers to abandon the prayer for the 



King of England, and to phrase in its stead a prayer for the new 

Prayer hooks that have been preserved show the erasure of the 
reference to "our most gracious sovereign Lord, King George," and 
the substitution of the words: "all in authority, legislative and judi- 
cial, in these United States." Like wise, 'the vestry took down several 
coats of arms of English kings that had adorned the walls of the 
church. Some of these have been replaced recently. 

Within the church are the communion silver presented by Queen 
Anne in 1708 ; the Kearsley Cup, made in Cologne not later than 1610 
and presented to the church by Dr. John Kearsley ; and numerous 
other mementos of the institution's early history. The central chande- 
lier dates from 1749. The original organ, recently supplanted by 
the Curtis memorial organ, was installed in 1728. The organ stands in 
the curved back portion of a balcony that runs along three walls. The 
cream and gold pulpit was erected in 1769. The Lord's Table, built 
by Jonathan Gostelowe, a vestryman, after the Revolution, now is en- 
closed beneath a new altar installed as a memorial to Rev. Dr. 
Edward Y. Buchanan, brother of President Buchanan. The octagonal 
baptismal font, constructed in 1795, is five feet in height, composed 
of black walnut, and resembles in style the old-fashioned wooden pep- 
per box with revolving top, used to grind peppers. A plain iron ring 
encircles it. 

The interior was altered in 1834 under the direction of Thomas U. 
Walter, architect of the United States Capitol dome. In 1881 it was 
restored to an approximation of the original arrangement. Although 
the baroque note is less in evidence, the opulence of the exterior is 
sustained within the church. Large fluted Doric columns with en- 
tablature "impost caps" support the arches and separate the nave 
from the side aisles. The Palladian window above the altar was the 
first stained glass window in Philadelphia. Another interesting feature 
is the wineglass pulpit which stands near Washington's pew. It is a 
sexagonal goblet-shaped pulpit in rich cream color with gilt deco- 
ration. The front face is decorated with a sunburst. White wooden 
paneling with brown trim adds a note of richness to the enclosed 

The remains of several illustrious early Americans repose in family 
vaults in the churchyard. The family vault of Robert Morris, patriot- 
financier of the Revolution, stands at the head of the new Morris 
Garden of Remembrance. Near the southwest door is the grave of 
Gen. Charles Lee, of the Continental Army, and close by, until 1840, 
was that of Gen. Hugh Mercer, who fell in the Battle of Princeton in 
1777. The churchyard also contains the graves of Peyton Randolph, 
President of the First Continental Congress ; Commodore Nicholas 
Biddle; and James Wilson, a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 


Christ Church Doorway 

"Here Seven Signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence Sleep Serenely" 




Q a DID DID i ni 


D EH O I ' < 

1. Adelphia Hotel 

2. The New Century Club 

3. Jefferson Medical College and 

4. The Mercantile Library 

5. The Federal Reserve Bank of 

6. The Federal Building 

7. Leary's Book Store 

8. Gimbel Brothers Department 

9. Benjamin Franklin Hotel 
9a. Site of Green's Hotel 

10. Old Franklin Institute 

11. Ledger Building 

12. Independence Hall 

13. The Philadelphia Bourse 

14. The Old Custom House 

15. Carpenters' Hall 

16. The First National Bank of Phila- 

17. The Bank of North America 

18. Custom House 

19. Krider Gun Shop (Drinker 

20. Dock Street 

21. Stock Exchange Building 

22. The Girard National Bank 

23. St. Joseph's Church 

24. S't. Paul's Protestant Episcopal 

25. The Powel House 

26. Second Street Market 

27. St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal 

28. Old Pine Street Presbyterian 

29. St. Mary's Church 

30. Shippen Wistar Residence 

31. Philadelphia Contributionship 

32. Penn Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany Building 

33. Holy Trinity Roman Catholic 

34. The First Presbyterian Church 

35. Washington Square 

36. Curtis Publishing Company 

37. Residence of Robert Morris 

38. Walnut Street Theatre 

39. Bonaparte House 

40. Musical Fund Hall 

41. S't. George's Greek Catholic 

42. The Cemetery of Mikveh Israel 

43. Pennsylvania Hospital 

44. Clinton Street 

45. Camac Street 

46. The Artists Union 

47. The Historical Society of Penn- 

48. Library Company of Philadelphia 

49. Rosenbach Galleries 


ence. Bishop White, first bishop of Pennsylvania and long presiding 
bishop of the United States, is buried in front of the chancel rail. 
His episcopal chair stands beside the altar. 

R. from 2d St. on Church ; L. on Philip. 

On the right side of Philip Street, known in Colonial days as 
Grindstone Alley, is a plaque, attached, to the side of the Philadel- 
phia branch building of the First Camden National Bank and Trust 
Company, which marks the site of the old headquarters of the Union 
Fire Company. 

L. from Philip St. on Market. 

At Front Street, on the southwest corner, is the site of the Old 
London Coffee House, where the first stock exchange in America 
originated. Attempts to organize an exchange were made in Philadel- 
phia as early as 1746. 

Retrace to 2d St. 

Take Market Street subway westbound at the Second Street station, 
leaving the train at either the Thirteenth or Fifteenth Street station. 
Signs in the underground concourse direct the traveler to stairways 
leading to City Hall. 

City Tour 2 

From Market Street (Old High Street) To Society 
Hill, East of Broad 

S. on Broad St. from City Hall ; L. on Chestnut St. 

AMID the specialty shops and department stores which line Chest- 
nut Street, one of Philadelphia's busiest shopping thorough- 
fares, a shining copper marquee sets apart the ADELPHIA 
HOTEL (1), just beyond Thirteenth Street on the left. The building 
was erected in 1914 from the plans prepared by Horace Trumbauer. 
It is 21 stories in height and contains 400 guest rooms. It is con- 
structed of brown brick with cream terra cotta on the upper and 
lower stories, in French Renaissance design. 

R. from Chestnut St. on 12th. 

The NEW CENTURY CLUB (2), 124 South Twelfth Street, or- 
ganized on February 8, 1877, and chartered in the following month, 
is the oldest women's club in Philadelphia and the third oldest in 
the United States. 

In 1877 married women were not allowed to hold property in their 
own name, and therefore the application for a charter was signed by 
single women only. 

Great as have been the advances in according privileges to women 
in the lifetime of the New Century Club, the marked growth of 



women's club movements has been greater. This pioneer club of its 
kind has namesakes throughout the country, while the membership 
in the general club movement now exceeds 3,000,000 women. 

The New Century Club is the outgrowth of the Women's Committee 
of the Centennial, which issued a small paper, the New Century, in 
honor of the dawning new century of American independence. The 
Centennial over and the committee desiring to continue its work, it 
hit upon the idea of forming a women's club, an almost unheard of 
and not at all popular venture at that time. The first president was 
Mrs. S. C. Hallowell, and the first meeting place was in a hall on 
Girard Street east of Twelfth. The members furnished the rooms 
with articles from their own homes. From this modest beginning 
the club has grown into a membership exceeding 600. 

The first cooking class in Philadelphia was established by the club 
in its headquarters. 

The State Federation of Pennsylvania Women was organized at the 
New Century Club in 1895. 

Retrace on 12th St. ; R. on Chestnut ; R. on 10th. 
right side of Tenth Street from Sansom to Walnut, was organized in 
1825 as the medical department of Jefferson College, then at Canons- 
burg, Pa. In 1838 by a special act of the Legislature it became a 
separate institution. Today it is one of the most highly rated medical 
schools in the United States. 

Retrace on 10th St. ; cross Chestnut. 

The MERCANTILE LIBRARY (4), 14 South Tenth Street (open 
weekdays 9 to 9, except July and August, when closing hour is 6, and 
legal holidays, 5), is preeminent in the scope of its collection of 
more than 300,000 volumes. Light novels and abstruse treatises, books 
long out of print, and books and periodicals fresh from the press 
crowd its shelves. 

Among its treasures are special collections of Civil War history, 
Irish history and Irish literature ; old almanacs, newspapers, and 
records ; a pastel of Walt Whitman, done from life by J. P. Silver ; 
and a portrait of Washington by Rembrandt Peale. 

The building, erected in 1859, originally designed by John Mc- 
Arthur to house the Franklin Market, was purchased from the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company in 1867. Although never used as a market 
house and since altered to meet the requirements of the library, 
which took possession of it in 1869, the structure has served as a 
model for several other market buildings. The classic red brick facade 
with its large and decorative arch above the triple-arched windows of 
the second floor has at least the merit of expressing on the exterior 
the curve of the vaulting of the interior stack room. 

An unusual air of freedom prevails ; congeniality replaces the 



restraint called for in most libraries. In addition to a chess room, 
which has gained a wide reputation as a meeting place of chess en- 
thusiasts, there are a smoking room and a conversation room. Cur- 
rent newspapers and periodicals from cities and towns throughout 
the country are on file. 

Owned and maintained by the Mercantile Library Association and 
conducted without State aid, the institution is supported by endow- 
ments and the membership dues of its 2,600 members who pay an 
annual fee of $5 each. Library services are free to members and non- 
members alike, but borrowing privileges are extended to members 

The library had its origin in the zeal for intellectual improvement 
that made itself felt after the War of 1812. The city's cultural leaders 
wanted a new circulating library, but the necessary public funds 
were lacking. So, on November 10, a meeting was held in Masonic 
Hall on Chestnut Street to consider the establishment of a Mercantile 
Library Association. The meeting was called and attended by the 
city's leading business men, and they issued a public notice inviting 
merchants and merchants' clerks to meet at the Mayor's office on 
November 17 to discuss the subject. At this meeting a committee was 
appointed to draft a constitution. Robert Wain, whose shipping busi- 
ness had been established in this country by his father early in the 
eighteenth century, was chairman of the committee. 

The constitution was adopted at a meeting held on December 1, 
and a committee of 15 was appointed to secure subscribers to it, with 
instructions to give public notice of an election of directors when 
100 were obtained. 

The new library was warmly welcomed, for 300 members enrolled 
themselves, and on January 10, 1822, they met in the Merchants' 
Coffee House, formally organized the Mercantile Library Association 
and elected the first board of directors. 

The aim of the group was to serve its members not only with the 
average reader's selection, but also with records, almanacs, and books 
helpful in their businesses. The library formally opened in a second- 
story room at 100 Chestnut Street, on March 5, 1821, with less than 
1,000 books and pamphlets. The collection at first was marked by 
quantity rather than quality, but the passing years have brought the 
library to eminence in both respects. 

Retrace on 10th St. ; L. on Chestnut. 

On the northeast corner at Tenth Street is the FEDERAL RE- 
SERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA (5). As the seat of the Third 
Federal Reserve District, the bank serves a territory embracing 48 
counties of Pennsylvania, nine counties of New Jersey, and the entire 
State of Delaware. 

The great volume of banking transactions originating in this highly 



industrialized region has made the bank a correspondingly large insti- 
tution. This marble building, where about one thousand are employed, 
houses an organization that began business in a suite of two rooms at 
408 Chestnut Street on November 16, 1914. Since before the World 
War, the bank has served as the fiscal agent of the Government. 

The building, designed by Paul Philippe Cret, rises six stories in 
height. It has a frontage of 170 feet on Chestnut Street, 144 feet on 
Tenth. Ramps to the basement loading platforms lead in from the 
Tenth Street side. 

The design of the building, which is a free adaptation from Grecian 
forms, is admirably subordinated to function. The result is both har- 
monious and individual. 

The entire facade is of Vermont blue-white marble. The lower 
half, with its 14 square piers, supports an unusual entablature, there 
being no architrave. The frieze is wide and unornamented, except at 
the corners. The massive upper stories are set back several feet. 
Sculptured reliefs flanking the simple entrance and the heavy eagle 
above the cornice are the chief decorations. 

The main entrance, on Chestnut Street, leads to a vestibule with 
bronze doors and side grilles which embody the symbolic griffon, 
guardian of treasuries ; the two-faced Janus, looking to the past and 
to the future; and the seal of the Third Federal Reserve District. 
From the vestibule, revolving doors give access to an inner lobby, 
whence the main banking room is reached through bronze and glass 
bays. The end wall of this lobby bears the coats of arms of the States 
composing the banking district New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and 

The main banking room is a well-lighted, high-ceilinged room, 
divided into offices by bronze and glass partitions. The ceiling of 
white plaster is supported by a number of colored marble pillars of 
severely plain design. 

In the lofty executive room on the left of the entrance hall are 16 
huge piers of dark Levanto marble and delicate rails and partitions, 
also of imported marbles. The simple classic ceiling is decorated with 
a cornice border in delicate colors and the silver-colored official coat 
of arms of the United States in the center. 

The building has an air-conditioning system. The lighting system is 
of the indirect type, with fixtures in bronze which carry out the sym- 
bolism found in the entrance. 

Its grimy next-door neighbor is the FEDERAL BUILDING (6) 
(see City Tour 1). 

L. from Chestnut St. on 9th. 

LEARY'S BOOK STORE (7), 9 South Ninth Street, was founded 
in 1836, at Second and New Streets, and is the oldest book store of 
its kind in the United States. Here bookworm, casual reader, and 



student browse undisturbed through rows and stacks of books and 
pamphlets books of every size and color, some fresh, some dog- 
eared and worn, some bearing on their flyleaves the pen-and-ink senti- 
ments of those who owned them in an earlier day. A wide range of 
subjects is covered and a score of languages represented. 

The store, regarded as a landmark for many years, occupies the 
only space in the Ninth Street facade of the GIMBEL BROTHERS 
DEPARTMENT STORE (8), used for purposes other than those of 
Gimbel Brothers. In 1925 the book store was moved from the site, 
which it had occupied since 1877, for about a year during enlarge- 
ment of the Gimbel store, which now occupies almost the entire 
block, Market to Chestnut Streets and Eighth to Ninth Streets. 
Retrace on 9th St. ; L. on Chestnut. 

On the southeast corner is the BENJAMIN FRANKLIN HOTEL 
(9). The "Ben Franklin" occupies the site of the old Continental 
Hotel, the scene of many historic and colorful episodes. Edward VII, 
then Prince of Wales, and Charles Dickens, who found Philadelphia 
"a handsome city but distractingly regular," were guests at the Con- 
tinental. In one of its rooms Thomas Buchanan Read wrote his 
dramatic Sheridan's Ride. 

On the northeast corner at Eighth Street is the SITE OF GREEN'S 
HOTEL (9a), now an open-air parking lot. Gathering place of poli- 
ticians, sportsmen, artists, and writers from the time of the Centennial 
year, 1876, until the advent of prohibition, Green's Hotel represented 
an era in the life of Philadelphia an era of good living and easy 
spending that reached its height in the "gay nineties." Famous for its 
bar and barroom, the hotel was highly esteemed also for the quality 
and diversity of its food with emphasis on the sea food. 

When the hotel was first opened in 1866 by Thomas Green, the 
former home of Edward Shippen, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania in 
Colonial times, was made part of it. The room in which Peggy Ship- 
pen and Benedict Arnold were married was preserved intact by 

After several changes in management, the trustees of the Green 
estate transferred the property to a